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Full text of "Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution"

THIRTY-NINTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



1917-1918 







:iNiGT< 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1925 



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f. S. SWPr»?IVTF»inFNT OF OOCDMENTS 



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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



Smithsonian Institution, 
Bureau of American Ethnology, 

Washington, D. C, November 7, 1922. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the Thirty- 
ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918. 

With appreciation of your aid in the work under my 
charge, I am 

Very respectfully, yours, 

J. Walter Fewkes, 

Chi^. 
Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

3 



CONTENTS. 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF. 

Page 

Systematic researches 9 

Special researches 21 

Manuscripts 23 

Editorial work and publications 23 

Illustrations 25 

Library 25 

Collections 27 

Property 27 

Miscellaneous * 27 

ACCOMPANYING PAPER. 

The Osage Tribe : Rite of Vigil, by Francis La Flesche (pis. 17; figs. 4).. 31 

Index 631 

5 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF BUREAU 



THIRTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 



J. Walter Fewkes, Chief. 



The operations of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918, were conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress approved June 12, 

1917, making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of 
the Government, which act contains the following item : 

American etlmology: For continuing ethnological researches ajnong 
the American Indians and the natives of Hawaii, includmg the 
excavation and preservation of archeologic remains, under the 
direction of the Smithsonian Institution, including necessary em- 
ployees and the purchase of necessary books and periodicals, $42,000. 

The administrative affairs of the bureau prior to March 1, 

1918, were conducted by Mr. F. W. Hodge, ethnologist in 
charge, when he resigned to accept a position in the Museiun 
of the American Indian (Heye Foundation). On that date 
Dr. J. Walter Fewkes was appointed chief and continued the 
administrative duties of the office to the close of the year. 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES. 

As the American Indian is rapidly losing many of his 
instructive characteristics in his amalgamation into Ameri- 
can citizenship, new features of the future work of the 
bureau stand out prominently pleading for investigation. 
Among these is the urgent necessity to rescue linguistic, 
sociological, and mythological data of aboriginal Indian life 
before its final extinction. 'When data now available dis- 
appear, unless recorded, they are lost forever. 

9 



10 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

The excavation and repair for preservation of archeologic 
remains, by no means a new activity of l^ureau work, is in 
the same condition. Both anthropology and popular ap- 
proval call for the advancement and diffusion of knowledge 
by the bureau along this hne. 

In addition to their duties in " continuing ethnological 
researches" among the American Indians, the members of 
the staff have devoted much time to matters germane to 
their work. Answers to many letters received b)' the l)ureau 
can not be written offhand but demand investigation and 
often considerable consultation of authorities in the library. 
Their requests are not confined to Indian ethnology but 
inchide a wide variety of questions on race mixture in the 
United States, Old World anthropology, and the like. 
Although the staff is made up of experts in the study of the 
American Indians and the appropriation is limited to the 
study of our aborigines, the chief has not shrunk from the 
necessity of contributing what information he could on these 
related subjects, recognizing the need in the near future of a 
Bureau of Ethnology. 

The "ethnological researches" of individual raeml^ers of 
the staff the past year are outlined in the following pages. 

At the close of the last fiscal year Mr. F. W. Hodge had 
begun excavations at Hawikuh, one of the "Seven Cities of 
Cibola," situated near the present pueblo of Zuni, N. Mex. 
This work was continued in the summer months and yielded 
a large and varied collection of artifacts, which are now in 
the Museum of the American Indian (Heye Foundation). 

The excavations were confined to the great refuse heaps 
that cover the western side of the elevation on which the 
ruins are situated, the maximum height of the hillock being 
60 feet above the eastern valley. It was believed that this 
refuse would be found to follow the configuration of a gradual 
slope, but this proved not to be the case, for the farther the 
excavation was carried toward the ruined walls on the 
summit the deeper the refuse was found to l^e, and continu- 
ous work for nearly three months in this direction failed to 
reach a natural slope or escarpment. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 11 

The removal of the refuse, which had reached a depth of 15 
feet when the work was suspended for the season, brought to 
light many features of interest, for, as was expected from the 
character of the surface soil, this great deposit of debris, con- 
sisting largely of ash and other refuse from the dwellings, 
interspersed with quantities of broken pottery and other 
artifacts, strata of drift sand, building refuse, etc., formed 
one of the cemeteries of the pueblo, or, one might say, the 
western area of a single great cemetery that surrounded the 
pueblo which, with its appurtenances, covers an area of 
approximately 756 by 850 feet, or nearly 15 acres. Excava- 
tion of perhaps a fifth of the cemetery area resulted in uncov- 
ering 237 graves. 

Excavation had not proceeded very far Ijefore remains of 
walls of dwellings much older than those of historic Hawikuh 
were encountered on the floor of the original surface, 15 feet 
below the maximum deposit of refuse ; yet, as the work pro- 
gressed, it was found that these walls had t)een built over 
and across the walls of other and more ancient houses that 
had been erected, occupied, abandoned, and filled in to afford 
space for the construction of the dwellings which in turn 
preceded Hawikuh pro]:)a])ly by many generations. The 
masonry of these earlier structures, on the whole, was much 
cruder than that of Hawikuh proper; but if allowance be 
made for disturbance caused by the burial of the dead 
through several generations, which included more or less 
comparatively recent pottery in the lower levels, the earth- 
enware of the earliest inhabitants of the site is of finer quality 
and of finer decoration than that manufactured by the his- 
toric Hawikuh people not long heiore the abandonment of 
their settlement. 

Although the study of the archeology of Hawikuh has 
been barely commenced, the results of last season's work 
give promise of a material addition to our knowledge of an 
important phase of Pueblo culture and it is hoped will ulti- 
mately open the way to the solution of related problems in 
southwestern archeology. 



12 BUBEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

Besides the routine work of his desk Mr. Hodge gave 
what spare time he could while in Washington to continuing 
his work on the bibliography of the Pueblo Indians. 

Diu'ing July and August Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, ethnologist, 
completed his report on the Heye collection of West Indian 
antiquities and in the autumn made a brief archeological 
reconnaissance in southwestern Colorado, returning to Wash- 
ington the middle of November. His plan of operations was 
to visit the ruins in the McElmo district and determine their 
architectural features in order to define with greater exact- 
ness the characteristics they share with the cliff dwellings 
and pueblos of the Mesa Verde National Park. The object 
was to gather material that would enable him to construct 
a classification of the prehistoric buildings of the Southwest 
from structural data. The Mesa Verde cliff dwellings and 
pueblos belong to a type or group of ruins distinguished by 
the structure of the roof and other features .of the cere- 
monial room or kiva. The aim of the field work in 1917 
was to investigate the distribution of this form of kiva and 
to discover other peculiarities of the Mesa Verde type or 
group at points remote from the plateau and thus enlarge 
our knowledge of the geographical distrilxition of the types. 

It was found that the ruins in Montezuma Valley and the 
McElmo and its tributaries show extensions westward of the 
Mesa Verde type, and as the field work progressed much was 
added to our knowledge of the characteristics of great houses 
and towers, the examples of which on the Mesa Verde have 
been little investigated. 

The most noteworthy group of the ancient ruins visited in 
the course of his field work were three clusters of great 
houses, castles, and towers situated a short distance over 
the State line on the northern tributaries of the canyons of 
the McElmo. 

The most important result of the field work in 1917 is the 
conclusion that the ruins of the McElmo region indicate a 
people allied to those of Mesa Verde, who reached a high 
degree of architectural technique, surpassing any in America 
north of Mexico. Evidence was gathered that it was pre- 
ceded by a stage indicated by one-house construction, and 



ADMINISTRATIVE EEPORT. 13 

the suggestion is made that it antedated pueblos, on which 
account it has been designated a middle phase in the South- 
west. A considerable niunber of small ruins of the same 
structural type but with only one room were discovered in 
the tributaries of the McEkno and Dolores. Rivers. 

As a sequel to the exploration of the great houses, towers, 
and pueblos of Scjuare Tower, Holly, and Hackbeny Canyons, 
at the suggestion of Doctor Fewkes, the Director of the Public 
Park Service, Department of the Interior, has taken steps to 
have the ruins on these and adjacent canyons set aside from 
the public domain as a reserve, to be called the Hovenweep 
National ^Monument. 

During the year Mr. James Mooney, ethnologist, remained 
in the office, engaged, as impaired health permitted, in the 
elaboration of his Cherokee sacred formulas. Tln-oughout 
the winter and spring months much of his time was given to 
assisting the various delegations from the tribes of his work- 
ing acquaintance, in the West, in their efforts before Congress, 
particularly in regard to their native Peyote religion, of which 
he has made a special study. The proof of friendship in the 
assistance thus given has completely won the hearts of the 
tribes concerned, and has opened the door to successful 
investigation along every line of inquiry. 

On Jime 28 he left Washington for an extended stay with 
the Kiowa and associated tribes, among whom he is now at 
work. 

During the past year Dr. John R. Swanton, ethnologist, 
has devoted the greater part of his time to a stud}'- of three 
languages formerly spoken on and near the lower course of 
the Mississippi River — the Tunica, Chitimacha, and Atakapa 
(or Attacapa) . The results of this study have been embodied 
in four papers — sketches of the grammars of the three lan- 
guages in question, and a comparative study. A sketch of the 
Tunica language, covering about 70 typewTitten pages, has 
been accepted for publication in the International Journal of 
American Linguistics. The sketch of Atakapa, of 40 or 50 
pages, is practically complete and is designed for publication 
in the same journal; that of Chitimacha covers about 100 
pages. The latter is withheld from publication for the 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

present so that more material may be added. Finally, the 
paper in which the three languages are compared and the 
conclusion drawn that they belong in reality to but one lin- 
guistic stock, is to be published as a bulletin by this bureau. 
This covers about 70 typewritten pages. 

During the latter half of April and all of May Doctor 
Swanton was engaged in field work in Louisiana, Mississippi, 
and South Carolina. In the first-mentioned State he con- 
tinued his investigation of the Chitimacha language. His 
visit to Mississippi was principally for the purpose of inquiring 
into the social organization of the Choctaw still living there. 
In South Carolina he began a study of the Catawba language, 
with the help of manuscript material left by Doctor Gatschet, 
and he plans to continue this study during the coming year. 
It is important as the only well-preserved dialect of any of the 
eastern Siouan peoples and that upon which must be based 
most of the relationship of the eastern Siouans to the other 
divisions of the stock. A small amount of ethnological 
material along other lines was also collected from the Chiti- 
macha and the Catawba. 

Doctor Swanton has also added some material to his 
history of the Creek Indians. 

In July, 1917, Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnologist, began a 
critical and comparative study of the Cayuga texts relating 
to the Iroquois Federation, which he had recorded during 
the two previous field trips. This manuscript matter aggre- 
gates more than 500 pages and treats of more than 40 topics 
or features of the Federation of the Iroquois, dealing with 
the principles and structure of this institution of the Five 
^'Nations" or tribes. 

This comparative study was carried to tentative comple- 
tion and involved not only the critical reading of the 500 
pages of Cayuga text but also an equal number of pages of 
Mohawk and Onondaga texts. 

Mr. Hewitt also read 200 galleys of proofs of the Seneca 
myths and tales of the Thirth-second Annual Report of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, of which 20 were of native 
texts with interlinear translations; he added to them nearly 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 15 

200 numbered explanatory notes and read also 632 pages of 
the first and second revises for this same report, of which 
100 pages are in native text with interlinear translations. 

During May and June, 1918, Mr. Hewitt was engaged in 
field work in Ontario, Canada, among the Indians of the Six 
Nations of Iroquois. He took up the work in textual and 
literaiy criticism of the many texts he has recorded relating 
directly to the institution of the federation or league of 
the five tribes or nations in earlier field operations. 

By far the largest, and also the most trustworthy, part of 
these texts was recorded from the dictation of one of the 
best-informed ritualists and expounders of the league, but 
much additional and supplementary matter in the form of 
texts was recorded from the dictation of other informants 
who had the reputation in the community of being authori- 
ties in regard to the motives and plans of the founders of 
the federation or league and the decrees and ordinances pro- 
mulgated by them; but as these texts were given from 
memory it was inevitable that some of the most important 
details of the structure and working apparatus of the league 
have not been remembered with the same fidelity by different 
persons, and so various views and statements concerning 
the same subject matter are found. The problem for the 
student, then, is to ascertain by an adequate investigation 
upon what facts these conflicting views and statements were 
originally based. The vocabulary of the national terms 
employed is that of statecraft and ritualism — the utterances 
of the statesmen and stateswomen of that earlier time, who 
had clear visions of institutions which are to-day being for- 
mulated and written into the statutes of our great republic. 
Among these may be mentioned the recall, the initiative, 
the referendum, a full-fledged colonial policy, and woman 
suffrage (limited to mothers), men having no voice in the 
body which nominates their chiefs. 

It is well-nigh impossible to find an interpreter among the 
Iroquois who is such a master of both the English and the 
native Iroquoian languages as to be able to translate cor- 
rectly a large number of the most important native terms into 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

the English tongue. The following may be taken as a typical 
example. Dekanawida, in detailing the work of the founders 
in his "farewell address," used the following term frequently 
and it also occurs elsewhere. This word is "We'dwehna'- 
kera'da/nyoh'." The literal meaning is "We have made 
types or symbols of things." This is the only rendering 
known to most native interpreters. But its technical signi- 
fication is "We have made ordinances, or laws, or regu- 
lations." 

Another form of criticism is the discovery of the reasons 
which led to the variation of the ritual as used by the father 
and mother sides of the league. As an example the following 
may be cited. One or the other of these sides is the mourning 
side in the council of condolence and installation. The side 
which is not the mourning side employs all fourteen of the 
sections of the " requickening address." But it is custom- 
ary for the mourning side, in replying, to employ only thir- 
teen, omitting the ninth, which refers to the caring for the 
grave of the dead chieftain. This omission may seem to be 
a small matter to solve, but it is one which brings out the 
intense esoterism and metaphoric use of terms that charac- 
terize terminology of the institutions of the federation or 
league of the five nations or tribes of the Iroquois. 

This definition or meaning shows that the rules of procedure 
among the Iroquois Five Tribes were not the commands of an 
autocrat or tyrant, but rather the formulated wisdom of a 
body of peers, who owed their position to the suffrages of 
those who owned the titles to them, and that the form of 
government was a limited democracy, or, strictly speaking, 
a limited gynecocracy. 

At the iDeginning of the year Mr. Francis La Flesche^ 
ethnologist, took up the task of putting together his notes on 
the "Wa-sha-be A-thi"," a composite and intricate war 
ceremony of the Osage tribe. The name signifies the deter- 
mination of the warrior who becomes a member of the cere- 
monially organized war party to show no mercy to the enemy 
and that he shall be even as the fire — a power that consumes 
all things that happen to be in its destructive course. 



.IDMINISTRATrV'E EEPOET. 17 

The literal translation of the name, Wa-sha-be Athi°, is 
Wa-sha-be, a dark object ; A-thi'', to have in one's possession, 
to carry. The word "Wa-sha-be" is here used as a trope 
for the charcoal that symbolizes the merciless fire. The 
making of the symbolic charcoal forms an important part 
of the great ceremony and each warrior is required to cany 
with him a piece of this charcoal tied up in a little buckskin 
pouch. When he is about to attack the enemy he must 
blacken his face mth this charcoal. If he happens to 
neglect this, he will not be permitted to recount the strokes 
he may deliver the enemy in the attack and to count his war 
honors. 

Originally there was only one "Wa-sha-be A-thi"" cere- 
mony, and this ceremony pertained strictly to defensive 
and aggressive warfare. Later this ceremony was employed 
for organizing a war party to be sent out to slay some mem- 
ber of an enemy tribe in order to send the spirit of the slain 
man to overtake and accompany the spirit of the deceased 
member of the tril^e and to be his companion to the realm 
of spirits. 

The original ceremony was described by Wa^xthi-zhi, who 
belongs to the great division of the tribe which represents 
the earth and is called Ho°-ga. The ceremony, when it is 
used as a mom-ning rite, was described by Xu-tha-wa-to°-i°, 
a member of the great division representing the sky, and 
called Tsi-zhu. 

The account of these two ceremonies, the text, the songs, 
with their music, the recited parts of the ritual, and the 
illustrations and diagrams cover 253 pages. 

It required much time as well as the exercise of patience 
to secure the details of these war ceremonies. Particularly 
was this true of the wi-gi-es (the recited parts), which relate 
to the traditions of the people, on account of their religious 
character and the superstitious awe with which the men and 
women of the tribe regarded them. Deaths have occurred 
during the study of these rites, and these deaths have been 
by the people attributed to the reciting of the rituals without 
regard to the traditional and prescribed rules. 

3594°— 25f 2 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

In May, 1918, Mr. La Flesche visited the Osage Reserva- 
tion for the purpose of completing his investigations of the 
tattooing rite, which he had started some time ago, and 
succeeded in securing 22 of the wi-gi-es (the recited parts) 
from one man at a continuous sitting of two days — a remark- 
able feat of memorizing. Each of these wi-gi-es Ijelongs to 
a gens of the tribe, the male members of which recite it at 
an initiation into the mysteries of the rite or at the ceremony 
of the actual tattooing. All of these wi-gi-es are recited 
simultaneously by their owners, and the volume of sound 
is like that of a responsive reading in a church, with the 
difference that the reciting is not in unison, as each man 
recites for himself independently of the others. Fourteen 
of these wi-gi-es have been transcribed and translated, and 
they cover about 100 pages of hand-\vritten manuscript. 

Besides these 22 wf-gi-es, Mr. La Flesche secured the pen- 
alty wi-gi-es owned exclusively by the Thunder gens. He 
also obtained the penalty wj-gi-e owned in common by the 
various gentes of the Tsi-zhu division and the one owned by 
gentes of the Wa-zha-zhe and Ho"'-ga subdivisions of the 
Ho°'-ga great division. These penalty wi-gi-es are recited 
by their owners to the man who offers himself as a candidate 
for initiation into the mysteries of either the fasting or the 
shrine degree of the tribal rites. Like the "sword of Dam- 
ocles," the penalty hangs over the head of the candidate and 
drops upon him the moment he violates his initiation obli- 
gations, and punishment comes to him by supernatural 
means. These two wi-gi-es have been transcribed, but are 
yet to be translated. 

While in the office Dr. Truman Michelson, ethnologist, was 
engaged in correlating the Indian texts of the White Buffalo 
Dance with the English translation, and revising the latter. 
He left Washington near the middle of July and, arriving at 
Tama, Iowa, resumed his field work among the Sauk and 
Fox. His attention was mainly directed to the esoteric 
meaning of the songs of the White Buffalo Dance, and to 
verifying sociological work of the previous season. He 
obtained the names of nine-tenths of the Fox Indians and 
obtained information regarding the gens and dual divisions 



ADMINISTRATIVE BEPORT. 19 

to which theh- owners belong. A number of ceremonies of 
these Indians were witnessed and he also learned some facts 
on Fox eschatology. Dm-ing his work he purchased a num- 
ber of sacred packs for the Museum of the American Indian 
(Heye Foundation), receiving the right to publish by the 
bureau the information pertaining to them. On leaving 
Tama, Doctor Michelson proceeded to Mayetta, Kans., to 
conduct a preliminaiy survey of the Potawatomi, as it was 
very clear that the dual divisions of the Sauk and Fox could 
only be thoroughly understood after that of the Potawatomi 
was unravieled. Although unable to completely work out 
the regulations governing membership in the Potawatomi 
dual divisions, he determined definitely that this division was 
for ceremonial as well as athletic purposes, as among the 
Sauk and Fox. He successfully studied the gentile organi- 
zation of the Potawatomi and ol^tained a number of folk 
tales in English which show very clearly that a large body of 
European (French) element have been absorbed by the 
Potawatomi and that certain elements of the Plains Indians 
are present. To account for the distribution of the surviving 
tales we must assume an early association with the Ojibwa 
and a later one with the Sauk and Fox group, which is quite 
in line with what would be expected on linguistic and his- 
toric grounds. Doctor Michelson returned to Washington 
in October and prepared manuscript on a number of miscel- 
laneous topics appertaining to the Fox Indians, to serve as 
an introduction to the proposed memoir on the White Buffalo 
Dance, which, M'ith the exception of type^vTiting the Indian 
texts and the addition of a vocabulary, is now ready to 
submit for publication. During the winter Edward Daven- 
port, a Fox pupil of the United States Indian School at 
Carlisle, spent a week in Washington, assisting in a number 
of points regarding the memoir. 

In the spring Doctor Michelson made a preliminary trans- 
lation of a Fox text of the "owl sacred pack." In June he 
went to Carlisle and worked out the dubious points in the 
translation with this informant, who dictated the Indian 
text twice from that in the current syllabary, so that the 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

entire text is phonetically restored. The punctuation (with 
a few exceptions, added later at Tama) of the Indian text 
and English translation was harmonized. 

Doctor Michelson edited Part I of Jones's Ojibwa Texts, 
containing about 50 pages, which were published by the 
American Ethnological Society, and collected the author's 
proofs of Part II, numbering 750, for a sketch of an Ojibwa 
grammar which will be offered for publication by the bureau. 

Doctor Michelson has now in press an article in the 
Journal of Linguistics showing that the Pequot-]\Iohegan 
belong to the Natick group of the central division of the 
Algonquian language. 

The beginning of the fiscal year found Mr. J. P. Harring- 
ton, ethnologist, in the field engaged in linguistic studies 
among the Mission Indians of Ventura County, Calif. At 
the close of this work, near the end of September, Mr. Har- 
rington returned to Washington and spent the following 
months in the elaboration of recently collected material and 
his Tanoan and Kiowa notes. 

Mr. Harrington has discovered a genetic relationship 
between the Uto-Aztecan, Tanoan, and Kiowa languages. 
The last two are so closely related that if the Kiowa had 
been spoken in New Mexico it would have been classed 
without hesitation by early ^ATiters as a Tanoan language. 
The Uto-Aztecan is more remotely but not less definitely 
related to the Kiowa genetically. The Kiowa sketch, 
amounting to 850 type\\Titten pages, now includes a com- 
plete analysis of all the important features of the language. 

On June 9, 1918, Mr. Harrington proceeded to Anadarko, 
Okla., where he remained until June 26 revising for publi- 
cation his entire sketch of the Kiowa language, after which 
he proceeded to Taos, N. Mex. 

From July to August 15, 1917, Dr. Leo J. Frachtenberg 
was engaged in confidential war work for the Department of 
Justice (Bureau of Investigation). On his return to the 
bureau he continued his preliminary work on the grammar 
and mythology of the Kalapuya Indians of central Oregon 
begim during the previous fiscal year. He also continued 
his work of extracting, typewriting, and editing all Kalapuya 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 21 

texts collected by Doctor Gatschet. The mythology of these 
Indians, who are almost extinct, constitutes a connecting 
link between the tribes of the coast and those east of the 
Rocky ^Mountains. While we possess numerous works deal- 
ing with the mythology of the Indians of the northwest 
coast and of the Great Plains, nothing has yet been pub- 
lished on the folklore of the tribes that inhabit the area 
between the Coast Range and the Rocky Mountains. Hence 
a volume on the mythology of the Kalapuya (and also 
Molala) Indians will be a welcome contribution to our 
knowledge of the folklore of the North American Indians. 

SPECIAL EESEARCHES. 

Dr. Franz Boas, honorary philologist, has been engaged in 
the correction of the proof of part 1 of his volume on the 
Kwakiutl-English, which has been assigned to the Thirty- 
fifth Annual Report. 

For various reasons part 2 of the Handbook of American 
Indian Languages has been delayed. 

Good progress has been made by Doctor Boas on the 
dialects and distribution of the Salish tribe, much work 
having been done on the maps. This work, which is based 
on field work supported by Mr. Homer E. Sargent, was 
almost completed by Doctor Haeberlin, whose mifortunate 
death has somewhat curtailed the work on these tribes. A 
very important work on the basketry of the Salish tribes, 
funds for which were also provided through the generosity 
of ^Ir. Sargent, has made good progress. 

Prof. W. H. Holmes, of the National IMuseum, accomp'anied 
by Mr. DeLancey Gill, of the bureau, made a brief visit to the 
Aberdeen Proving Station, Md., where Indian remains had 
been reported in excavations for Government buildings. He 
also continued the preparation of the Handbook of American 
Antiquities, part 1 of which will soon be published as Bulletin 
60 of the bureau. 

Provision was made out of the appropriations of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology for a brief archeological 
reconnaissance in the Walhalla Plateau overlooking the 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

Grand Canyon, from the last of April to the end of the fiscal 
year. Mr. Neil M. Judd, of the United States National 
Museum, was detailed for this work. He found remains of 
prehistoric buildings plentiful along the route of Kanab, 
Utah, southeastward, in the northern portion of the Kanab 
forest, at House Rock Valley, and in North, South, and Sad- 
dle Canyons. These remains consist usually of one, two, and 
three room structures constructed of unworked stone blocks. 
In many instances the foundations of the walls were stones 
placed on edge, their tops separating the masonry of the roof. 
Clusters of circular rooms, measuring from 4 to 10 feet in 
diameter, also occur. The floors of these rooms are generally 
covered Avith burnt earth or ashes, mingled with clay that 
bears impressions of %\'illows and grass, as if parts of roofs 
similar to those of prehistoric rooms observed along the 
Colorado River in the San Juan drainage. 

Cliff houses also exist in the breaks bordering the Walhalla 
Plateau, Ijut these are as a rule small single rooms, appar- 
ently cists for storage like those built by the people who 
inhabited the single-room houses in the open, somewhat back 
from the rim of the canyon. Many small artifacts were 
found on the cliffs, but few fragments of pottery were 
reported. 

Dr. Walter Hough was detailed from the National Museum 
to liegin a study of the ruins in the Tonto Basin, a country 
of great archeological possibilities, situated between the 
valleys of the Little Colorado and the Gila. The result of a 
brief examination of the northern part of this region was 
encouraging, showing the existence of large ruins in the open 
as well as cliff houses of considerable size. Doctor Hough 
also made an examination of several important collections 
of artifacts, some of which are unique, and enumeration of 
the ruins visited by him indicates a promising field for future 
research, which it is the intention of the bureau to prosecute 
in coming seasons. 

Mr. D. I. Bushnell, jr., continued the preparation of the 
manuscript for the Handbook of Aboriginal Remains East 
of the Mississippi. The introduction, containing much 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 23 

matter treating of sites, has been completed and will be 
published in advance of the handbook. It contains a 
valuable discussion of village sites and cemeteries, treated in 
a historical manner, with reproductions of old prints and 
maps. 

Dr. A. L. Kroeber has elaborated certain portions of the 
Handbook of the Indians of California and little remains to 
be done before it is ready for publication. 

The study of Indian music was continued by Miss Frances 
Densmore throughout the year. She has completed a report 
on the Ute music, consisting of about 375 pages, and has 
submitted new material on Ute, Mandan, and Chippewa 
music. Heraccoimt of the INIandan and Hidatsa songs con- 
tains 400 pages. A new feature has been introduced in the 
study of the Ute melodies, where she has debased diagrams 
consisting of curves on a background of coordinate lines. 
Miss Densmore's main studies have been on ethnobotany of 
the Chippewa and include plants used in treatment of the 
sick and other subjects. The general economic life and 
the industries of the people were also studied and an exten- 
sive collection made, which she has photographed for use in 
her publications. She has like\Aase adopted the method of 
tone photographs designed by Dr. Dayton C. Miller, of the 
Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, Ohio. 

MANUSCRIPTS. 

The following manuscripts, exclusive of those submitted 
for publication by the bureau, were purchased : 

Unique copy of the Journal of Frederick Kurz's Travels 
through the Western States (in German) . In addition to the 
text (in German) there are two jackets of photographs of 
original drawings of great historical value. 

Six letters on British Guiana written by J. Henry Holmes 
to his wife, Mary Jane Holmes. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS. 

On June 30, 1917, Mr. J. G. Gurley resigned his position as 
editor and Mr. Stanley Searles was appointed to the vacancy 
Julv 1. Both editors were assisted by Mrs. Frances S. 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

Nichols. A report of the pubUcation work of the bureau 
during the fiscal year follows : 

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED. 

Bulletin 63. — Analytical and Critical Bibliography of the Tribes of 

Tierra del Fuego and Adjacent Territory, by John M. Cooper. 

233 p., 1 pi. 
Hawaiian Romance of Laieikawai. — By Martha Warren Beckwith. 

An advance separate from the Thirty-third Annual Report. 384 p., 

5 pi. 

PUBLICATIONS IN PKESS. 

Thirty-second Annual Report. — Accompanying paper: Seneca Fiction, 

Legends, and Myths (Hewitt and Ciirtin). 
Thirty-third Annual Report. — Accompanying papers: (1) Uses of 

Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region (GUmore) ; 

(2) Preliminary Account of the Antiquities of the Region Between 
the Mancos and La Plata Rivers in Southwestern Colorado (Morris) ; 

(3) Designs on Prehistoric Hopi Pottery (Fewkes) ; (4) The 
Hawaiian Romance of Laieikawai fBeckwith). 

Thirty-fourth Annual Report. — Accompanying paper: West Indian 
Antiquities in the Museum of the American Indian (Heye Foun- 
dation) (Fewkes). 

Thirty-fifth Annual Report. — ^Accompanying paper: Etlmology of the 
Kwakiutl (Boas). 

Bulletin 59. — Kutenai Tales (Boas). 

Btdletin 60. — Handbook of Aboriginal American Antiquities — Part 1 
(Holmes) . 

Bulletin 61. — Teton Sioux Music (Densmore). 

Bulletin 6.^. — The Maya Indians of vSouthern Yucatan and Northern 
British Honduras (Gann). 

Bulletin 6'>. — Ai'cheological Explorations in Northeastern Arizona 
(Kidder and Guernse}^) . 

Bulletin 66. — Recent Discoveries of Remains Attributed to. Early 
Man in America (Hrdlicka). 

Bulletin 67. — Alsea Texts and Myths (Frachtenberg) . 

DISTRIBUTIOX OF PUBLICATIONS. 

The distribution of the publications has been continued 
under the immediate charge of Miss Helen ]\Iunroe, assisted 
in the opening months of the year by Miss Ora A. Sowersby, 
stenographer and typewriter, and later by Miss Emma B. 
Powers, Miss Sowersby having been transferred to the 
Bureau of American Ethnology. 



ADMINISTRATIVE KEPOBT, 25 

Publications were distributed as follows: 

Copies. 

Annual reports and separates 1, 766 

Bulletins and separates 5, 460 

Contributions to North American Ethnology (volmnes and 

separates) . 7 

Introductions I.'.. ...'.■•.'...'. L . 5 

Miscellaneous publications 106 

Total 7,344 

As compared with the fiscal year 1917, there was a decrease 

of 4,640 in the total number of publications distributed. 

This was due to the fact that during the fiscal year 1917 

four publications were sent out to the mailing list, whereas 

in the fiscal year 1918 only Bulletin 63 was distributed to 

the list. Twenty addresses have been added to the mailing 

list during the year and 15 dropped, making a net increase 

of 5. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Mr. De Lancey Gill, with the assistance of Mr. Albert E. 
Sweeney, continued the preparation of the illustrations 
required for the publications of the bureau and devoted the 
usual attention to photographing visiting Indians. A sum- 
mary of this work is as follows : 

Negatives of ethnologic and archeologic subjects 271 

Photographic prints for distribution and office use 525 

Photostat prints from books and manuscripts .300 

Mounts used 800 

Drawings and photographs prepared for publication as illustra- 
tions 517 

Illustration proofs read i- 400 

Portrait negatives of visiting Indians 15 

LIBRARY. 

The reference library of the bureau continued in the imme- 
diate care of Miss Ella Leary, assisted by Mr. Charles B. 
Newman. 

There was presented to the library by Dr. J. Walter 
Fewkes the Codex Hopiensis, consisting of three bound 
volumes of colored pictures of Hopi Katcinas made by a 
Hopi Indian in 1900. This is the material on which was 



26 BUREAU OF AMEBICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

based the article "Hopi Katcinas" in the Twenty-first 
Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

During the year 430 books were accessioned, of which 148 
were acquired by purchase, 84 by binding periodicals, and 
198 by gifts and exchanges. The periodicals currently 
received number about 760, of which 16 were received by 
subscription and 744 by gifts and exchange. We have also 
received 200 pamphlets, giving us at the close of the year a 
working library of 22,180 volumes, about 14,048 pamphlets, 
and several thousand periodicals. 

During the year there were sent to the bindery 142 volumes, 
and 84 bound volumes were received. 

In continuance of the policy of increasing the library by 
exchange and filling in incomplete sets, letters were written 
for new exchanges and for completing series already in the 
library. We have been able to secure by this means many 
valuable and important acquisitions. 

In addition to the regular routine of cataloguing, classi- 
fication, ordering from book dealers, making up for binding, 
and keeping the serial and accession records, the efforts of the 
librarian were devoted to making a subject, author, and 
analytical catalogue of books that are represented in the old 
catalogue under the author only. 

During the year there was an increasing number of students 
not connected with the Smithsonian Institution who found 
the library of service in seeking volumes not obtainable in 
other libraries of the city. The library was used also by the 
Librar}^ of Congress and officers of the executive depart- 
ments, and out-of-town students have called upon the library 
for loans during the year. 

In addition to the use of its own library it was found neces- 
sary to draw on the Library of Congress from time to time for 
loan of about 450 volumes. Numerous type-wTitten biblio- 
graphic lists have been made for correspondents of the bureau 
and the Smithsonian Institution. 

The Monthly Bulletin for the use of the bureau staff has 
been continued throughout the year. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 27 

COLLECTIONS. 

The following collections acquired by members of the staff 
of the bureau, or by those detailed in connection with its 
researches, have been transferred to the United States 
National Museum : 

Seven baskets made by the Koasati Indians of Louisiana, collected 
by Dr. Jolm R. Swanton. (61315.) 

A rougUy chipped implement of gray limestone from British 
Guiana, presented by Dr. Walter E. Roth. (61325.) 

Six etlmological specimens of the Mandan, Ute, and Chippewa 
Indians, purchased from Miss Frances Densmore. (61573.) 

A loom of the Osage Indians, collected by Mr. Francis La Flesche. 
(62013.) 

Twelve specimens of plants from Minnesota, collected by Miss 
Frances Densmore. (62190.) 

Twenty-five stone objects from the Huastec region, Mexico, pre- 
sented to the bureau by Mr. John M. Muir, Tampico, Mexico. (62253.) 

Arrow points, spearheads (IS) collected by Dr. John R. Swanton 
in the vicinity of Rock Hill, S. C. (62577.) " 

PROPERTY. , 

Furniture was purchased to the amount of $107.02; the 
cost of type\\Titing machines was $175, making a total 
of $282.02. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Quarters. — Two rooms on the third floor of the north tower 
of the Smithsonian Building, occupied by the bureau, were 
painted; also the office of the chief. A glass partition was 
erected on the south front of the space occupied by the 
librarian as an office, in order to render the office more 
comfortable during the winter months. Three enlarged 
photographs of Spruce-tree House, Mesa Verde National 
Park, before and after repair, were painted and hung in the 
office of the chief. 

Personnel. — Changes in the personnel of the bureau during 
the last fiscal year were as follows : 

Mr. F. W. Hodge, ethnologist in charge, resigned Feb- 
ruary 28, 1918, and Dr. J. Walter Fewkes succeeded him, 
with the title of chief, March 1, 1918. Dr. Leo J. Frachten- 



28 BUEEATJ OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

berg's official connection with the bureau terminated October 
30, 1917. Mr. Stanley Searles was appointed editor July 1, 
1917. Miss Florence M. Poast, clerk to Mr. Hodge, resigned 
October 15j 1917; Miss Ora A. Sowersb}', a stenographer and 
typewriter in the service of the bureau, was assigned to that 
position November 1, 1918. The vacancy created by this 
change was filled by the appointment of Miss E. B. Powers, 
November 5, 1917. 

Clerical. — The correspondence and other clerical work of 
the office, including the copying of manviscripts, has been 
conducted with the aid of Miss Florence M. Poast and 
Miss Ora A. Sowersby, clerks to the ethnologist in charge, 
and later by Miss M. S. Clark, serving as private secretary 
to the chief. Mrs. Frances S. Nichols assisted the editor. 
Respectfully, yours, 

J. Walter Fewkes, 

Chief. 
Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



ACCOMPANYING PAPER 



29 



THE OSAGE TRIBE 
THE RITE OF VIGIL 



By FRANCIS LA FLESCHE 

C 



31 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introduction 37 

Part I. Free translation 39 

Xo^'-ZHi^-ZHo'' Wa-tho^', Songs of the Rite of Vigil. 

The seven songs 41 

Initiation into the No°'-zhi°-zho° 42 

Wi'-gi-e of the guardians of the penalties 44 

Penalty wi'-gi-e used bj- aU the gentes 47 

Penalty wi'-gi-e of Ni'-ka-wa-ko^-da-gi gens 51 

Notice of initiation ceremonj' 52 

Carr3ing pipe and wailing by candidate 53 

The first smoking wi'-gi-e — the taking of the seven animals 54 

The second smoking wi'-gi-e — the taking of the six animals 59 

The Ho°-be'-fu ceremony 61 

Wi'-gi-e of the symboHc moccasins 63 

The Wa'-do°-be 67 

The night singing 68 

Title of the candidate 69 

The Ki'-uo" 69 

Ki'-no" song and wi'-gi-e 70 

Painting of the Xo'-ka 72 

Putting symbolic articles on the Xo'-ka 73 

Wi'-gi-e of the symbolic painting 74 

The Nc-zhi"' Wa-tho" (rising song) 76 

Zho°'-xa Wa-zhu (consecrated tally sticks) 77 

Sacred order of the songs used by the Wa-ga'-be and I''-gtho°'-ga 

gentes 78 

Song of processional approach to the house 79 

The song of walking upon the sacred animal skins 83 

Songs of untying the shrine 88 

Preparing to enter the house of mystery 99 

Legend of the haw'k wa-xo'-be i 100 

The symbolic man 101 

Spirit songs ^ 103 

Songs of the vigils 106 

Supplication songs 111 

Songs of taking up the symbolic rattle 114 

Sun or pipe offering songs 120 

Wolf songs 124 

Crow^ songs 127 

Deer songs 129 

Songs of the act of weeping 137 

Wi'-gi-e of the dreams 138 

Duties of the Do-do°'-ho°-ga 144 

Songs of seizing the Wa'-do°-be 147 

Wi'-gi-e of the Black Bear and the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no° gentes 154 

3594°— 25t 3 33 



34 CONTENTS. 

Initiation into the No°'-zhi"'-zho° — Continued. Page. 

Sun ray wi'-gi-e of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" 170 

Songs of counting the o-do°' by the Wa'-do°-be 172 

O-do"' count of Sho^'-ge-moM" 179 

The seven o-do"' 179 

The six o-do°' 181 

Fees given the Wa'-do^-be 181 

Crow songs 182 

Black Bear songs 185 

Buffalo songs 192 

Instructions to the wife of the singer 192 

Painting to send courage 192 

Vigil to send courage 193 

Symbolic painting of robe 194 

Symbolic planting of the field 194 

Ceremonial gathering of food , 195 

Corn planting songs 196 

The six songs 205 

Songs of the rising of the buffalo bull men 206 

Songs of the fight for the charcoal 213 

Wi'-gi-e of the rush for the charcoal 214 

Songs of the crossing a river 218 

Songs of the mystic house 218 

Blue-jay songs 220 

Supplication or little evening songs 220 

Songs of gathering wood 220 

Wi'-gi-e of the symbolic firewood 223 

The fire-drill song 224 

Fire-making song 225 

Songs of the ceremonial feast 226 

Songs of the gray owl 227 

Songs of triumph 229 

Songs of the symbols on the war club 230 

Rain songs 230 

Songs of the striking of the earth 230 

Songs of striking one against the other 230 

Songs of triumph, or the return of the bird 232 

Song of thfe rising to depart 236 

Wi'-gi-e used at the installation of a widow 238 

Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge version of the No°'-zhi''-zho° rite 242 

The seven songs 242 

Opening ceremony — smoke offering to the sacred animal skins 243 

The wailing ceremony 244 

The moccasin ceremony 248 

Ceremony of painting and decorating the Xo'-lja 251 

Wi'-gi-e of the mussel 252 

Ceremonial approach to the house of mystery 257 

Song of approach to the house 258 

Songs of opening the shrine 260 

Songs of taking up the rattle 264 

Songs of the symbolic man 267 

Bow-making songs 271 

Songs of the rite of vigil 275 

Little songs of the sun 280 



CONTENTS. 35 

Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge version of the No^'-zhi^-zho" rite — Continued. 7>age. 

Buffalo songs 283 

Wolf songs 290 

Songs pertaining to the attack 294 

Songs of triumph 301 

Songs of the water 312 

Crow songs 316 

Mid-day songs 318 

Deer songs 322 

The six songs 327 

Songs of the fight for the charcoal 327 

Elk songs 338 

Black Bear songs 344 

Songs of the osprey 347 

Song of the high hills 349 

Songs of the clouds 351 

Songs of decorating the club 355 

Songs of striking the earth 358 

Songs of walking over the earth 362 

Songs of drawing the arrows .. 364 

Songs of laying down the wa-xo'-be 369 

Part II. Osage version 371 

Part III. Literal translation 515 

Index . 631 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PLATES. 

Page. 

1. Portrait of Wa-xthi'-zhi (Puma gens) 36 

2. Counting sticks for songs: A, Front; B, back; C, consecrated tally 

sticks 72 

3. Deer's tail headdress 72 

4. Painting of Xo'-ka 72 

5. Portable shrine, unfolded 72 

6. Wa-xo'-be and pouch 94 

7. A, Wa-tse'-nw-i"; B, Ku'-zhi-wa-tse, member of the Po°'-lja Wa- 

shta'-ge gens 94 

8. Stones for vapor bath and frame for the house 158 

9. A, Ni'-ka-wa-zhi°-to''-ga, Po'''-ka Wa-shta'-ge gens; B, Sho^'-ge- 

mo"-!" 158 

10. Sho'"'-ge-mo"-i'' counting his war honors 178 

11. Xo'-ka with war club and hawk 178 

12. Method of painting face 242 

13. Sacred hawks belted with scalp locks 242 

14. Standards 336 

15. Symbolic club 336 

16. Xo'-ka setting to flight the magic arrows 366 

17. Xo'-ka dropping hawk 366 

TEXT FIG0RES. 

1. Diagram of cutting of buffalo skin for symbolic moccasins 62 

2. Ground plan of place of initiation 84 

3. Portable shrine, folded 88 

4. Bow and arrows 365 

36 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



THIRTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 1 




PORTRAIT OF WA-XTHI'-ZHI (PUMA GENS) 

(Died November, l'J23) 



THE OSAGE TRIBE: THE RITE OF VIGIL. 



By Francis La Flesche. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The first volxime of the work on the Osage tribe appeared in the 
Thirty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Etlinology, 
pubHshed in 1922. In that volume is given '" The Rite of the Chiefs." 
It is first presented because in it is preserved the story of the organi- 
zation of the Osage tribe. Beginning in allegory, the story follows 
the career of the people through a long period of military control 
to the establislmient of a civil form of government, with heretlitary 
chiefs, whose duty, among other tilings, was to preserve peace and 
order ^vithin the tribe. Throughout this long passage of time re- 
ligious rites were formulated and given expression in the two great 
symbolic divisions of the tribe, each having its various gentes with 
their gentile life symbols. The accoimt closes with a description of 
the annual ceremony of thanks to the life-giving power that resides 
in the four winds for the gift of peace and prosperity to the people. 
The religious conceptions of the No°'-ho"-zhi°-ga and the tribal 
organization based upon those conceptions were essential!}' a part of 
the life of the people down to historic times. 

The second rite given in the first volume belongs to the "seven 
ceremonial divisions" of the tribal war rites that partake of degrees. 
The rite is called "Ni'-ki No"-k'o"" (Hearing of the Sayings of the 
Ancient Men), and "deals with life in the abstract.'' There is no 
single fixed order of these seven degrees, as each gens has its own 
arrangement, yet all agree in placing this rite, the Ni'-ki No^-k'o", 
Hearing of the Sayings of the Ancient Men, as the last or '' seventh 
degree." The songs interspersed in the rite and its wi'-gi-es, the 
principal one of which has 1,542 lines, all bear testimony to the 
antiquity of this rite that deals not only with the religious concep- 
tions of the people but designates their food and records their secular 
and ceremonial life. 

A few sentences are Cfuoted from the close of the first volume : 
" What has been gathered and here presented of the Rite of the Chiefs 
and the Ni'-ki-e rites is but a small portion of the Osage tribal rites as 
a whole. Were the 21 versions of these two rites to be recorded and 

37 



38 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. an.n. 39 

presented, years of labor would be required and many volumes 
filled. . . . the rituals ... as here recorded . . . give 
a fair idea of what the other versions would be like." "The ancient 
No'''-ho°-zhi"-ga in their years of pondering over life attempted to 
embrace in their mental vision not only the visible part of Nature, but 
even Wa-ko°'-da, whom no man can see, but whom they came to 
conceive of as a creative Power, a power that abides in and moves 
among the great cosmic bodies, as well as the various forms of life in 
and upon the earth." 

In this, the second volume, are presented two versions of one 
ritual, entitled "No^'-zhi-'-zho" Wa-tho"," Songs of the Kite of Vigil. 
This degree is the fourth in the order observed by the Tho'-xe gens 
of the Tsi'-zhu great division, and second in the order followed by 
the I°-gtho°'-ga gens of the Ho°'-ga great division. (See 36th Ann. 
Kept. B. A. E., pp. 152-153.) The first version is that of the 
I°-gtho'''-ga (Puma) gens and the second is that of the Tsi'-zhu 
Wa-shta'-ge (Peace) gens. 

The No°'-zhi''-zho", or the Eite of Vigil, is a degree that is held as 
next in importance to the Ni'-ki-e, not only because the rite for 
wliich it is named brings the people in close touch with the Super- 
natural Power to which they appeal in times of distress but because it 
also contains nearly all the symbols and ceremonial forms essential 
to the other degrees. 

In the first volume the rituals are presented in three forms, and the 
same plan is followed in this, the second volmne. The first presenta- 
tion is a free English translation; the second is as transcribed from 
the dictaphone records made by the Osage Indians; the third is a 
literal translation, as close as could be made under difficulties that 
exist between the English and the Osage languages, difficulties which 
are enhanced by the liberal use in their rituals of metaphors, figures 
of speech, modes of expression, and the disguising of words in the 
songs. 

The music ot all the songs given by Wa-xthi'-zhi and Sho^'-ge- 
mo°-i" and recorded in this volume was faithfulh' and accm-ately 
transcribed by Miss Alice C. Fletcher, author of a number of books 
on Indian rites. 



PART I.— FREE TRANSLATION 



39 



NO^'-ZHI-'-ZHO^ WA-THO^ SONGS OF THE RITE OF 

VIGIL. 

THE SEVEN SONGS. 

The title of this ritual, No^'-zhi^-zho" Wa-tho", freely translated 
into English, is Songs of the Rite of Vigil. The word no"'-zhi°-zho° 
may be analyzed as follows: No^-zhi", to stand; zho°, to sleep. 
This composite word, no^'-zhi^-zho", is understood as referring -to 
the rule which requires the man chosen to act as a mediator between 
Wa-ko°'-da and the tribe to stand or to sit in an upright position 
while performing this sacred dut}^. The man is strictly enjoined to 
be wakeful and watcMul wliile he is actually offering his supplica- 
tions to Wa-ko^'-da, lest by inadvertence he might lose the sign of 
approval that may be given him by that Divine Power. Wa-tho° 
means songs. 

The people of the Omaha, a cognate tribe, use the same title, 
No°'-zhi"-zlio", for the Rite of Vigil as observed by them. The cry 
that is taught the child, and that is also used by a grown person 
when addressing Wa-ko'^'-da, is put in musical form and is called 
Wa-ko"'-da Gi-ko", The Cry to Wa-ko"'-da. (See 27th Ann. Rept. 
B. A. E., pp. 12S-129.) 

The No"'-zhi°-zho'' Wa-tho" is counted as second in the sacred 
order of the seven tribal war rites as observed by the I"-gtho"'-ga or 
Puma gens of the Ho"'-ga subdivision; and the people of the Tho'-xe 
gens of the Tsi'-zhu great tribal division place this degree as the 
fourth in the order followed by them. (See 36th Ann. Rept. B. A. E., 
pp. 152-153.) 

The No°'-zhi°-zho" is a supplicatory rite which was observed by 
the Osage in the following manner: 

First: Collectively, as when all the people cried to Wa-ko°'-da at 
dawn, at midday, and at sunset. (See 36th Ann. Rept. B. A. E., 
pp. 49-50.) 

Second: As when the tribe determines upon going to war a man is 
chosen to perform the rite for the people as the introductory part of 
the ceremonies that attend the organization of a war party. The 
rite is continued by the man thus chosen, not only during the cere- 
monies, but tliroughout the entire expedition, both when going and 
returning. 

Third : Individually, as when a man, having lost by death his wife, 
son, daughter, brother, or sister, takes the rite for a period of four 

41 



42 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

days only, or he may continue it for a few months or even as long 
as two years. ,\mong the Omaha the No°'-zhi''-zho° was observed 
by a youth who, voluntarily or at the behest of his parents, seeks 
the aid of Wa-ko°'-da for strength to meet the hardships and the 
dangers that beset his life's pathway. The time for the youth to 
take upon himself this prayerful rite is when winter has passed, when 
the thunder heralds the arrival of spring, when the earth awakes 
and begins her life activities. It is then that the youth, standing 
amidst the blossoming flowers, lifts his voice in prayer to Wa-ko"'-da 
for pity. At any time during the summer season the man who is 
stricken with sorrow by the loss of some beloved relative may take 
upbn himself this rite and seek consolation from the Mysterious 
Power whose presence fills all space in the heavens and all things 
upon the earth. The man serving sentence of banishment for putting 
to death a fellow-tribesman may take the rite in seeking pity from 
the Mysterious Power, and as evidence of his contrition for having 
violated the tribal law. This he must do while all nature is fully 
awake and active. 

Fom-th: The rite is observed by a man when being initiated into 
the mysteries of the ^'a' Tha-dse Ga-xe, Weaving of the Portable 
Slirine, one of the seven degrees of the tribal war rites. The shrine 
symbolizes the earth, with its myriad forms of life, the arch of the 
heavens within which the single stars, the constellations, and the 
galaxy eternally move, for the No° '-ho°-zlii°-ga in their searchings 
had arrived at the belief that all the great cosmic bodies are the out- 
ward manifestations of that Mysterious Power which moves among 
and within them. Therefore the act of making the symbolic shrine 
must be performed with all due reverence and in a worshipful manner. 
The shrine is woven of rush by a woman ceremonially appointed to do 
the work, and the candidate taking the degree is required to observe 
the rite of No^'-zhi^-zho" during the time the task of weaving is being 
performed. 

Fifth: The woman appointed to weave the shrine is also required 
to take the rite of No^'-zhi^-zho", and thus to appeal to the Mysterious 
Power on behalf of the warrior who must at all times be ready to 
risk his life in order that the lives within the tribe may be protected 
against external dangers. This rite she must continue until she has 
fulfilled her task of weaving, which requires about four days of con- 
tinuous work. 

INITIATION INTO THE NO'"-ZHP-ZHO''. 

A man who makes up his mind to take the No"'-zhi°-zho" degree 
may send his wife or some friend, informally, for a Sho'-ka. A 
Sho'-ka must be chosen from a gens or subgens whose established 
office is to act as Sho'-ka (Ceremonial Messenger) for a gens or a 



LAFLESCHE] EITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 43 

group of gentes in the ceremonies of the tribal rites. (See 36th Ann. 
Kept. B. A, E., pp. 52-53.) From the moment the man chosen to act 
as Sho'-ka responds to the call and appears before the candidate for 
the degree the relation between the two becomes formal and cere- 
monial. The candidate addresses the Sho'-ka, saying: ''My 
nephew," or whatever the kinship term may be that he ordinarily 
uses in speaking to him, " I have sent for you so that you may call for 
me my elder brother," giving the name of a member of his own gens. 
The term ''my elder brother'' used by the candidate is not the ordi- 
nary kinship term but a ceremonial one. Having thus made his for- 
mal request, the candidate places in the hand of his Sho'-ka a filled 
pipe to carry as his badge of office and to show that the message he 
bears is of a ceremonial character. 

The Sho'-ka having delivered his message, and the elder brother 
having arrived and taken the seat assigned him in the house, the can- 
didate addresses hun, saying: ''My elder brother, I have called j^ou 
because I want to ask you to act as Xo'-ka for me." The office of 
Xo'-ka is teacher or initiator. 

The elder brother asks, in reply: "'In what rite do you wish me to 
act as Xo'-ka for you, my yoimger brother ? " The elder brother asks 
this question because if he had not taken the degree desired by the 
candidate he could not properly act as Xo'-ka for him. 

The candidate replies: "My elder brother, I wish to have you act 
as my Xo'-ka in the No"'zhi"-zho'' rite." 

Then the elder brother, without any doubt or hesitancy, replies: 
'' It is well, my yomiger brother. I have myself sung the songs (taken 
the degi'ee) of that rite and can, therefore, act as Xo'-ka for you." 

The two men having thus come to a definite imderstanding, the 
elder brother proceeds at once to enter upon his duties as Xo'-ka. 
He commands the Sho'-ka to smnmon the heads of two of the princi- 
pal war gentes to appear at the house of the candidate, namely: the 
fsi'-zhu Wa-no"*. of the Tsi'-zhu division, and the Wa-zha'-zhe 
Wa-no", of the Ho°'-ga division. The Xo'-ka also commands the 
messenger to call an A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka, an additional Xo'-ka. This 
assistant is chosen bj^ the Xo'-ka himself from the gens of which both 
he and his candidate are members, knowing him to be a man well 
versed in this rite and competent to conduct the ceremony in all the 
details. The call of the heads of the two gentes, the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" 
and the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no", to witness the preliminary ceremony 
serves as notice to all the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga that a member of one of 
the gentes of the Ho°'-ga division has offered himself as a candidate 
for initiation into the mysteries of the No^'-zhi^-zho" degree of the 
war rites. 

The two men who represent the 'Tsi'-zhu Wa-no'' and the Wa-zha'- 
zhe Wa-no" gentes prompth' arrive and are assigned seats appropriate 



44 THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



to their dignity. Almost at the same time the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-i^a 
enters and is motioned to his place. After the ordinary greetings are 
exchanged between the men, the Xo'-ka in a formal address announces 
to the two representatives of the principal war gentes the application 
of the candidate for initiation into the mysteries of the No"'-zhi"-zho'' 
rite ami at the same time expresses his willingness to act as his Xo'-ka 
during the ceremony. The two representatives give their approval 
and consent with expressions of pleasure at the coming initiation. 

The Xo'-ka then asks the A'-ivi-ho" Xo'-ka to i-ecite for the benefit 
of the candidate the Wa'-xpe-gthe A-do°-be Wi'-gi-e, which may be 
freely translated as the Wi'-gi-e of the Guardians of the Suspended 
Penalties. The meaning of this wi'-gi-e may be explained as fol- 
lows: When the candidate has chosen his Xo'-ka and through him 
summoned to his house the representatives of two of the principal 
war gentes in order to obtain their consent to the initiation into the 
mysteries of the No^'-zhi^-zho" rite, the candidate had by these acts 
taken upon himself the vom^ that he will without fail be initiated into 
the rite and will perform all the acts necessary to be done in the 
initiatory ceremonies. The moment that the two representatives 
give their consent to the conferring of the No°'-zhi"-zho" degree the 
penalties attached to the vow become effective and hang suspended 
over the head of the candiclate, to drop upon him as soon as he 
violates any of the obligations put upon him as a candidate. For 
instance: He may lay aside some articles of value with the thought, 
I will use these for fees in my initiation, or he may gather stores of 
food for entertaining the No'''-ho°-zhi"-ga when they assemble to 
witness or to take an active part in his initiation. Sliouhl the can- 
didate in the stress of adverse circumstances use for his personal 
comfort or that of his family any of these provisions, although his 
acts may be known only to himself, the penalties will fall upon him. 
The ever watchful guardians are the spirits of four animals, namely, 
the mottled lynx, the male puma, the black bear, and the elk, within 
each one of whom is reposed the supernatural power as well as the 
duty of inflicting these penalties. 

Wi'-Gi-E OF THE Guardians of the Penalties. 

(Osage version, p. 375; litoral translation, p. 517.) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Verily, a people among whom there are none that are craven, 

4. Spake to one another, saying: Look you, my younger brothers, 

5. Let the little ones ' choose for themselves an avenger. 

' The term 'little ones" frequently used in these rites always refers to "the people," but it also conveys 
their belief in the continuity of their life as a tribe. 



LAKLEKCHE] KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 45 

6. Thereupon they took to themselves an animal, 

7. To be their avenger, 

S. Even the little mottled lynx, 

9. They took to be their avenger. 

10. When tliey had made their choice, 

11. They fm-ther said to one another: It shall be for the little ones, 

12. An avenging guar(Uan of the overhanging penalties, as they travel 

the path of life, 0, my younger brothers, 

13. Behold the door that stands near by, 

14. Even the doors of their houses shall be guarded with watchful 

care, as they travel the path of life, 

15. Behold the fire that stands near by, 

16. Even their fireplaces shall be guarded with watchful care, as they 

travel the path of life, O, my younger brothers, 

17. The choice of an avenger thus made shall stand forever. 

18. The male puma that lies outstretched, 

19. They also made to be their avenger. 

20. When thej' had made the pun^a to be an avenger, they said to 

one another, 

21. It shall l)e for the little ones an avenging guardian of the over- 

hanging penalties, as they travel the path of life, my yoimger 
brothers. 

22. Behold the door that stands near by, 

23. Even the doors of their houses shall be guarded with watchful 

care, as they travel the j)ath of life, 0, my younger brothers, 

24. Behold the fireplace that stands near by, 

25. Even their fireplaces shall be guarded with watchful care, as they 

travel the path of life, 0, my younger brothers, 
2G. The choice of an avenger thus made shall forever stand. 

27. The unblemished black bear that lies outstretched, 

28. That animal also, 

29. We shall make to be our avenger. 

30. When they had made this choice they said to one another: 

31. The bear shall be for the little ones an avenging guardian of the 

overhanging penalties, as they travel the path of life, my 
yoimger brothers, 

32. Behold the door that stands near by, 

33. Even the doors of their houses shall be guarded with watchful 

care, as they travel the path of life, 0, my younger brothers, 

34. Behold the fireplace that stands near by, 

35. Even their firej)laces shall be guarded with watchful care, as they 

travel the path of life, O, my younger brothers, 

36. The choice of an avenger thus made shall forever stand. 



46 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. anx. 39 

37. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

38. The tall animal (elk) that lies outstretched, 

39. That animal also, 

40. We shall make to be our avenger, 

41. To avenge offenses committed, 

42. To inflict the overhanging penalties upon all offenders, 

43. It shall be for the little ones an avenging guardian of the over- 

hanging penalties, as they travel the path of life, my younger 
brothers, 

44. Behold the door that stands near by, 

45. Even the doors of their houses shall be guarded with watchful 

care, as they travel the path of life, O, my younger brothers, 

46. Behold the fireplace that stands near by, 

47. Even their fireplaces shall be guarded with watchful care, as they 

travel the path of life, O, my j^ounger brothers, 

48. The choice of an avenger thus made shall forever stand. 

This wi'-gi-e belongs exclusively to the I°-gtho"'-ga and the 
Wa-ca'-be gentes and, according to Wa-xthi'-zhi (Pi. 1), only a few 
No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga members of those two gentes have succeeded in 
learning it. Those who know it will not teach it thoroughly except- 
ing to persons with whom they have friendly relations or to those 
who are very liberal with their fees. To one who is not particularly 
liked or is not generous with his fees the learned No°'-ho''-zhi"-ga 
will recite the wi'-gi-e but once and then, gathering up his fees, he 
will hurriedly depart. The slightest inattention on the part of the 
learner is always seizetl upon by the teacher as an excuse to abandon 
his work. 

After the recitation of the wi'-gi-e the Xo'-ka and liis assistant, the 
A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka, fold up their fees preparatory to going to their 
homes, but befoi'e leaving they inform their candidate that he is 
allowed, by custcmi, seven years in which to prepare for the initiation. 
Within this time he must lay aside various articles of value to use as 
fees to be given to the officers who are to take an active part in the 
initiatory ceremony. He must also store away food supplies to be 
used in entertaining the No"'-ho°-zhi°-ga order whom he will have to 
invite to the initiation. For ceremonial and symbolic use he must 
collect the skins of seven animals, namely: (1) the skin of a mottled 
lynx; (2) the skin of a .gray wolf; (3) the skin of a male pmna; 
(4) the skin of a male black bear; (5) the skin of a male buffalo; 
(6) the skin of an elk; (7) the skin of a deer. Having given these 
instructions to their candidate as to his duties, the Xo'-ka and the 
A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka depart for their respective homes. 

In the early days when the arrow with its bow was the only weapon 
possessed by the Osage that was effective at a distance, it was diffi- 



IJ.FLESCHE] EITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATIOX. 47 

cult for a candidate, even with the generous assistance of liis friends 
and relatives, to procure so great a supply of goods, provisions, and 
animal skins as were required for use in the initiation. Taking this 
difficulty into account, the No°'-ho°-zhi"-ga allowed a candidate 
seven years in wliich to prepare himself to take the degree. In later 
days when the Osage came into contact with the traders who supplied 
the people with flintlock muskets, powder and balls, as well as other 
commodities, the task of the candidate was not as great, and with the 
help of his friends he could prepare himself for the initiation in a 
shorter time. 

There is a penalty wi'-gi-e which is used in common by all the 
various gentes of the tribe in which the penalties to be inflicted are 
definitely prescribed. For a long time Wa-xthi'-zhi hesitated to 
recite tliis wi'-gi-e, but finally, in the spring of 1918, after much per- 
suasion he consented to give it. It is as follows: 

Penalty Wi'-gi-e Used by All the Gentes. 

(Osage version, p. 376; literal translation, p. 518.) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. In the midst of the winds that precede the approaching storm, 

3. Move the Wa'-f a-ki-the of the little ones. 

4. My grandfather (referring to a great butterfly, one of the Wa'-pa- 

ki-the). 

5. Is, verih', a being from whom nothing is hidden, 

6. He is the Great Butterfly (Dsi°-tba' to°-ga), 

7. Who moves amidst the winds that precede the storm, 

8. My grandfather, it is said, 

9. Ever moves amidst those advancing winds, 

10. From him nothing can be hidden, as he moves onward amidst 

the ■winds, 

11. Guarding the acts over which hang the penalties. 

12. In the very depths of secret places these acts may be performed, 

13. Yet he watches over them as he moves in the midst of the winds. 

14. The guilty ones travel along life's pathway, 

15. My grandfather, 

16. Overtakes them and makes them to become languid, to seek 

solitude and to sit in wretchedness, 

17. Verily, he makes their skin to become sallow and of sickly hue; 

18. He makes them to become restless and to lie here and there in 

distress. 

19. My grandfather, 

20. Causes them to fail to reach the four divisions of the da}'s (four 

stages of life) , 

21. My grandfather, 



48 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 30 

22. Even causes them to lose consciousness and never to recover, 

23. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

24. He even takes from the guilty their spirit (sanity) when bidden 

to do so. 

25. The Great Butterfly stands as a Wa'-pa-ki-the of the little ones, 

it has been said, in this house. 

26. And the Swallow (Ki-gthu'-ni-ka) , 

27. Amidst the winds that precede the storm, 

28. Moves always, it is said, 

29. Verily, nothing is hidden from him as he moves in the winds, 

30. Guarding the acts over which hang the penalties. 

31. My grandfather (the Swallow), 

32. Overtakes the guilty persons, 

33. And verily makes them to become languid, 

34. He makes them to lose flesh which they never regain, 

35.. Verily, he makes their faces to become sallow and of sickly hue, 

36. Makes them to lay their heads here and there in distress, 

37. My grandfather, 

38. Takes from the guilty, even their spirit (sanity) when asked to 

to do so, 

39. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

40. The swallow stands as a Wa'-^a-ki-the of the little ones. 

41. The mottled eagle also (A'-liiu-ta-ta), 

42. Moves amidst the winds that precede the storm, 

43. Guarding the acts over which hang the penalties, 

44. My grandfather (the Eagle), 

45. Overtakes the guilty persons, 

46. And verily makes them to become languid, 

47. Makes their skin to become sallow and of sicklj^ hue, 

48. And to lay their heads here and there in restlessness, in distress, 

49. My grandfather, 

50. Takes from the guilty, even their spirit when asked to do so, 

51. The mottled eagle stands as a Wa'-pa-ki-the of the little ones. 

52. And there is a little pipe (Nc-ni'-o^-ba zhi"-ga), 

53. That moves amidst the advance winds of the storm, 

54. Guarding the acts over which hang the penalties. 

55. My grandfather, 

56. Overtakes the guilty and verily makes their skin to become 

sallow, and of sickly hue, 

57. Makes them to become languid, 

58. To lie here and there in restlessness, in distress, 

59. My grandfather. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 49 

60. Takes from the guilty, even their spirit when asked to do so. 

61. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

62. The nighthawk that lies outstretched (Tse-slii°'-shi°-e), 

63. Moves amidst the winds that precede the storm, 

64. Verily there is nothing hidden to my grandfather, 

65. He overtakes the guilty persons, 

66. And verily makes them to become languid, 

67. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

68. He makes their skin to become sallow and of sickly hue, 

69. To lie here and there in restlessness, in distress, 

70. Verily at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

71. My grandfather, 

72. Takes from the guilty, even their spirit when asked to do so. 

73. Amidst the winds that precede the storm, 

74. The gi-eat dragon fly (Tse'-pi-tha to°-ga), 

75. Moves always. 

76. To my grandfather nothing is hidden as he moves forth in the 

winds, 

77. Guarding the acts over which hang the penalties, 

78. My grandfather overtakes the guilty, 

79. And verily makes them to become languid, 

80. Makes their skin to become sallow and of sickly hue, 

81. He makes them to lie here and there in restlessness, in distress, 

82. My grandfather, 

83. Takes from the guilty even their spirit when asked to do so. 

84. What is the Wa'-pa-ki-the of the little ones, they said to one 

another, 

85. My grandfather, 

86. The swallow that lies outstretched (Ni-shku'-shku), 

87. Amidst the winds that precede the storm, 

88. Moves always, 

89. Guarding the acts over which hang the penalties. 

90. M}^ grandfather, 

91. Overtakes the guilty persons, 

92. And verily makes them to become languid, 

93. Verily, he makes their flesh to wither, 

94. He makes them to lie here and there in restlessness, in distress, 

95. My grandfather, 

96. Takes from the guilty even their spirit when asked to do so. 

3594°— 25t i 



50 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. anx. 39 

The symbols mentioned in this wi'-gi-e belong to seven different 
gentes. They are as follows: 

1. The great butterfly belongs to the Ho^'-ga U-ta-no'^-dsi. The 
name used in the wi'-gi-e, Dsi°-tha' to°-ga, is an archaic name and 
not that in ordinary use. The common name is Dsi-o°'-dsi-o°. 

2. The swallow belongs to the Wa-^a'-be and the I^-gtho^'-ga 
gentes. The identity of the bird seems to be in doubt among the 
No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of to-day. Ki-gthu'-ni-ka, the name used in the 
■v^ri'-gi-e, is archaic and its meaning has become obscure. Wa-xthi'- 
zhi, who recited the wi'-gi-e, believes that the buzzard is referred to 
in the archaic name, but Wa'-thu-xa-ge of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge 
gens is certain that the name refers to the swallow. In the free 
translation, however, the swallow is used. 

3. The mottled eagle, the immature golden eagle of the dark 
plumage, belongs to the Ho°'-ga A-hiu-to° gens. The name, A'-hiu- 
ta-ta, used in the wi'-gi-e, is archaic but it is still known to what 
bird the name refers. The name in common use for this bird is 
Ho°'-ga gthe-zhe, the mottled eagle, from the mottled marks on its 
tail feathers. 

4. The little pipe, No°-ni'-o°-ba zhi°-ga, belongs to the Wa-zha'-zhe 
Wa-no° of the Ho°'-ga division. Tliis pipe was used in the suppli- 
catory ceremonies of the people, and it is probably for this reason 
that it was included in this \\'i'-gi-e. It may be safe to presiune that 
this symbolic pipe was used in the rite calling for the punishment, 
by supernatural means, of persons treating with contempt the sacred 
rites. 

5. The nighthawk belongs to the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" and the Tse- 
do'-ga I"-dse gentes. The name, Tse-shi°'-shi°-e, used in the wi'-gi-e, 
is archaic ; that commonly used is Pshu'-shka. 

6. The great dragon fly belongs to the Mi'k'i'^ Wa-no° gens. The 
ordinary name for the insect, fse'-pi-tha to°-ga, is used in the wi'-gi-e. 

7. The bank-swallow belongs to the Ni'-ka-wa-ko°-da-gi and the 
Tho'-xe gentes. The common name of the bird, Ni-shku'-shku, is 
used in the wi'-gi-e. 

When Wa-xthi'-zhi gave the penalty wi'-gi-e used in common by 
all the gentes he also recited one that belonged exclusively to the 
Ni'-ka-wa-ko°-da-gi gens. The wi'-gi-e of this gens, like the penalty 
wi'-gi-e of the I^-gtho^'-ga gens, prescribes no definite penalty to fall 
upon those guilty of performing acts of irreverence, but this would 
not be necessary in any case, because if the word wa'-xpe-gthe alone 
should appear in a wi'-gi-e it would be respected by the people. 



laflesche] kite of vigil fbee translation. 51 

Pexalty Wi'-gi-e of the Ni'-ica-\va-k:o'*-da-gi Gens. 

(Osage version, p. 379; literal translation, p. 520.) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. Amidst the winds that precede the stonn, 

3. A Wa'-fa-ki-the of the little ones always moves. 

4. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

5. The red-breasted swallow that lies outstretched, 

6. Amidst the winds that precede the storm, 

7. Moves always, 

8. Guarding the acts over which hang the penalties. 

9. To my grandfather, 

10. Nothing is hidden as he moves amidst the winds, 

11. Verilj', throughout the divisions of the days (the seasons), 

12. Nothing is forgotten by him, nor is there anything hidden from 

my grandfather. 

13. What is the Wa'-fa-ki-the of the little ones, they said to one 

another, 

14. The black-breasted swallow that lies outstretched. 

15. My grandfather, they said, 

16. Amidst the wintls that precede the storm, 

17. Moves always, 

18. My grandfather, 

19. Guards the acts over which hang the penalties, as he moves 

amidst the winds. 

20. My grandfather, 

21. Even though the divisions of the days have passed, 

22. Forgets not the acts that have been performed, he is a pei'son who 

forgets not. 

23. Verily, notliing is hidden to my grandfather. 

24. What is the Wa'-fa-ki-the of the little ones, they said to one 

another, 

25. The white-breasted swallow that lies outstretched, 

26. My grandfather, 

27. Amidst the winds that precede the' storm, 

28. Moves always, they said, 

29. Guarding the acts over which hang the penalties. 

30. Verily, nothing is hidden to my grandfather, 

31. Even though the divisions of the days have passed, 

32. He forgets not the acts that have been performed, he is a person 

who forgets not. 

33. What is the Wa'-pa-ki-the of the little ones, they said to one 

another, 

34. The yellow-breasted swallow that lies outstretched, 



52 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. axn. 39 

35. My grandfather, 

36. Amidst the winds that precede the storm, 

37. Moves always, they said, 

38. Guarding the acts over which hang the penalties. 

39. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in tliis house, 

40. My grantlfather, 

41. Even though the divisions of the days have passed, 

42. Forgets not the acts that have been performed, he is a person 

who forgets not. 

43. Verily, he is a person to whom nothing is liidden, 

44. As he moves amidst the winds, guarding the acts over which 

hang the j^enalties. 

XoTicE OF Initiation Ceremony. 

After a lapse of time, when the candidate has fully prepared him- 
self for the degree, he calls his Sho'-ka whom he sends to the Xo'-ka 
and his assistant to give them notice that he is readj' to proceed 
■with the initiatory ceremony. The two men go to the candidate's 
house to examine the amount of food supplies he had provided as 
well as the quality and the nmuber of goods he had collected to be 
used as fees. When the Xo'-ka anil his assistant have satisfied 
themselves that there is an adequate amount of provisions to be 
distributed to the No"'-ho"-zhi"-ga during the ceremony, and that 
there is a sufficient amount of goods to be given to the heads of the 
gentes who will take part, they set a day for the initiatory ceremony. 
The Sho'-ka is then sent to give formal notice to the No" '-ho^-zhi^-ga 
to attend the initiation. This notice is called the U'-thu-fe U-tha-ge, 
Notice to Come and Participate. As on every ceremonial occasion, 
the .Sho'-ka thus sent goes from house to house to deliver his message, 
carrying in his hand a little pipe as the credential of his office. Only 
those of the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga who have taken this or the Ni'-ki-e 
degree of the tribal rites respond to the call. This formal notice is 
equivalent to a command that cannot be ignored when given to 
members of a gens having a passive or an active part in the ceremony. 
A good representation of such gentes is always desired because of 
the symbolic character of the group. 

At the appointed time for the initiation the No^'-ho^-zlii^-ga gather 
at the village of the candidate where some of them camp and others 
are entertained at the homes of relatives or friends. Before the 
ceremonies begin, which occupy from three to four days, as well as 
at the intermissions, there is much feasting and visiting between the 
inhabitants of the candidate's village and the families who have 
come from a distance to attend the ceremonies. 



U4FLESCHB] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATIOIs. 53 

N 



W 



Tsi'-zhu Great Division 
Sky 



Ho°'-ga Great Division 
Wa-zha'-zhe Subdivision Ho'''-ga Subdivision 
Water Eartli 



S 

Early in the morning of the day set for the beginning of the initia- 
tory ceremonies the Xo'''-ho"-zhi°-ga go to the house of the candidate 
to perform a ceremony called No''-ni' A-tha-sho-dse, which, freely 
translated, is, " The Smoking." This title means that tobacco smoke 
is ceremonially blown by the No"'-ho°-zhi"-ga upon the seven animal 
skins procured by the candidate to be used as sjTiibols (see p. 46). 
While the house in which the ceremony is to take place may not 
have been built with reference to the cardinal points it was, for cere- 
monial purposes, treated as though it had been oriented. The end 
of the long house at the left of its entrance is regarded as the east 
and the opposite end as the west. The initiating gens enter the 
house first, the members taking their places at the east end of the 
lodge. The candidate, his Xo'-ka, the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka, and the 
chosen singers occupy the middle space and all sit facing the west. 
Then follow the other No°'-ho"-zhi"-ga by divisions and gentes, 
those of the Ho°'-ga (earth) division taking their prescribed places 
at the south side of the lodge, and those of the Tsi'-zhu (sky) division, 
the north side (see diagram). Thus the house, together with the No°'- 
ho''-zhi°-ga, seated in groups according to divisions and gentes, 
becomes symbolic of the visible universe, for the ceremony to be 
performed is largely a dramatization of the movements of the great 
life-giving power, the Sun, through the heavens and over the earth. 
The initiating gens personate the sim, the Tsi'-zhu division, the sky, 
with its celestial bodies, and the Ho^'-ga division, the earth, with its 
water and all terrestrial life. 

Carrying Pipe axd Wailing by Candidate. 

When the No'''-ho''-zhi"-ga have taken their places in the order 
above^described, and ordinary conversation among the members has 
ceased, the candidate rises in response to a signal given by the 
A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka, who now conducts the ceremonies, and receives 
from him a little pipe. This marks the beginning of the initiatory 
ceremonies. 

The first act is in three parts, wliich are performed simultaneously. 
This act is called "Wa'-i" Xa-ge," wliich, freely translated, means 



54 THE OSAGE TRIBE. rKTH, ann.38 

"Carrying (a pipe) and Wailing." The candidate carries in his right 
hand the pipe he received from the A'-ki-ho° X(i'-ka, his left hand is 
outspread, and in this attitude he passes along the lines of No°'- 
ho"-zhi°-ga' sitting on either side of the lodge, places his hands upon 
the heads of two men at a time, and wails. The pipe carried by the 
candidate is a symbol of supplication to Wa-ko"'-da and the wailing 
is in appeal to the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga to recite the sacred wi'-gi-e in full 
and not to hold any of it back. The second part is the reciting of the 
sacred wi'-gi-e b}^ the No"'-ho"-zhi"-ga. As the candidate passes 
along, carrying the emblem of supplication, and as he touches each 
couple the No"'-ho°-zhi"-ga M'ho have memorized the wi'-gi-e at once 
begin its recitation, simultaneously, but not in concert. This recital 
is an expression of the wish that the candidate shall succeed in all his 
enterprises as a warrior, and in all his other acts that pertain to the 
maintenance of life. The third part is performed by the women, who 
wail in sympathy with the candidate as an appeal to the No°'-ho°- 
zhi"-ga that they will perform their part without reserve or prejudice. 
Widows of deceased members of the degree take their husbands' place 
at the ceremony and are honorary members. 

When the candidate begins this act, "Carrying (the pipe) and 
Wailing," he observes the courtesy due from an initiating division 
(in this instance the Ho°'-ga), to the opposite division. The candi- 
date therefore approaches the two men sitting at the east end of the 
line of No"'-ho"-zhi"-ga of the fsi'-zhu division and places his hands 
upon their heads. The moment the candidate touches the heads of 
these two men he and the women begin to wail ami all the No^'-ho"- 
zhi"-ga begin to recite the Smoking Wi'-gi-e. The candidate passes 
from couple to couple imtil he has reached the west end of the lodge. 
He then crosses over to the .Ho"'-ga side and continues wailing and 
touching the heads of the No"'-ho°-zhi"-ga until he comes to the east 
end of the lodge. If the reciting of the wi'-gi-e goes on when he 
reaches the east he stands waiting until the recitation ceases, when he 
and the women stop wailing. 

In the No'''-zhi°-zho° degree of the tribal rites there are two vSmok- 
ing Wi'-gi-es; the first is called Wa-k'o'^'-piThu-fe Pe-thon-ba tse, 
"The Taking of Seven Animals." The second, Wa-k'o"'-?! Thu-fe 
Sha'-Re tse, "The Taking of Six Animals." 

The First Smoking Wi'-gi-e — The Taking of the Seven Animals. 

(Osage version, p . 380; literal translation, p. 321 .) 

1. What shall the little ones make to be a symbol of courage as they 

travel the path of lile? they said to one another. 

2. The little mottled lynx that lies outstretched, they said, 

3. Our grandfather, whose courage is great, we shall make to be a 

symbol of courage. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FEEE TRAXSLATIOlSr. 55 

4. It was he who, at the beginning of the day, 

5. Rushed forth in attack, 

6. Upon the young male deer, with curved horns, 

7. And tlu-ew him to the earth where he lay in death. 

8. My grandfather returned to the deer, 

9. After he had made the attack. 

10. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

11. He uttered a loud cry of triumph, 

12. Then spake, saying: When the little ones go toward the setting 

sun, 

13. To strike and overthrow their foes, 

14. They shall always fall upon them in this very manner, 

1,5. And their hands shall always be upon the fallen foe, as they 
travel the path of life, 

16. And as the mottled lynx stood there he made the first cut.= it has 

been said, in this house. 

17. What shall the little ones make to be a symbol of courage? they 

said to one another, 

15. The dark gray wolf that lies outstretched, they said; 

19. Our grandfather, whose courage is great, we shall make to be a 

symbol of courage. 

20. It was he who, at the beginning of the day, 

21. Rushed forth in attack, 

22. Upon the young male deer with gray horns, 

23. Verily, it was within the bend of a river, 

24. Our grandfather overtook the deer and made it to lie upon the 

earth in death, 

25. Our grandfather uttered a loud cry of triumph, 

26. Then spake, saying: When the little ones go forth to strike their 

foes 

27. They shall always strike them in this manner, as they travel the 

path of life, 

28. When they make my hands to be their hands, 

29. Then shall their hands always be upon the foe, as they travel the 

path of life. 

30. And as the gray wolf stood there he made the second cut, it has 

been said, in this house. 

31. What shall the little ones make to be a symbol of courage \ they 

said to one another, 

32. The male pvmia that lies outstretched, they said, 

a No explanation coiild be obtained from either Wa-xthi'-zhi or Tse-zhiz'-ga-wa-da-in-ga as to the meaning 
of this line and the elosing line of each of the three following sections. The lines probably refer to the custom 
of cutting the scalp taken from the foe by a war party into four parts before cutting it into smaller pieces f«r 
distribution among the sacred hawks — the wa-xo'-be. 



56 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [bth. Ann. 33 

33. Our grandfather, who is of .great courage, 

34. We shall make to be a symbol of courage. 

35. It was at the beginning of the day, 

36. That our grandfather rushed forth in attack, 

37. Upon the full-grown male deer with dark horns, 

38. Verily, it was within the bend of a river, 

39. That our grandfather struck the deer to the earth and made it 

to lie in death. 

40. Then our grandfather uttered a loud cry of triumph, 

41. And spake, saying: When the little ones go forth to strike their 

foes, 

42. They shall always strike them in this manner, as they travel the 

path of life, 

43. Their hands shall always be upon the foe, as they travel the path 

of life. 

44. And as the puma stood there he made the third cut, it has been 

said, in this house. 

4.5. What shall the little ones make to be a symbol of courage? they 
said to one another, 

46. The male black bear that lies outstretched, they said, 

47. Our grandfather we shall make to be a symbol of courage. 

48. It was at the beginning of the day, 

49. That our grandfather rushed forth in attack, 
60. Upon a hummock, 

51. Which he tore apart with his hands, 

52. Exposing the little bugs that dwelt therein. 

53. He attacked them and crunched them between his teeth, 

54. And out of the corner of his mouth, on the right side, 

55. Blood began to trickle down. 

56. Then, at that very time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

57. He uttered a loud cry of triumph. 

58. And spake, saying: When the little ones go forth to strike their 

foes. 

59. They shall always strike them in this manner, as they travel the 

path of life, 

60. Their hands shall always be upon the foe, as they travel the path 

of life. 

61. And as the male black bear stood there he made the fourth cut, 

it has been said, in this house. 

62. What shall the little ones make to be a symbol of courage, as 

they travel the path of life ? they said to one another. 

63. The great animal (buffalo bull) who stands firmly upon the earth, 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 57 

64. Our grandfather who is of great courage, we shall make to be a 

symbol of courage. 

65. It was at the beginning of the day, 

66. That our grandfather rushed forth in attack, 

67. Upon a high bank, 

68. And in his anger tore it down with his horns, 

69. Then he uttered a loud cry of triumjjh, 

70. And spake, saying: When the little ones go forth to strike their 

foes, 

71. They shall always strike them in this manner, as they travel the 

path of life, 

72. Their hands shall always be upon the foe, as they travel the path 

of life. 

73. What shall the little ones make to be a symbol of courage? they 

said to one another. 

74. The tall animal (the elk) who stands firmly upon the earth, 

75. Our grandfather, we shall make to be a symbol of courage, 

76. Verily, in the midst of an ojien j)rairie, 

77. There stood a plant whose blossoms always look up to the sun 

{Silphium laciniatum) , 

78. The stalks of this ]ilant he angrily attacked with his horns and 

reduced them to a twistetl knot, 

79. Then he uttered a loud cry of triumph, 

80. And spake, saying: When the little ones go forth to strike their 

foes, 

81. They shall always strike them in this manner, as they travel the 

path of life. 

82. Their hands shall always be upon the foe, as they travel the path 

of life. 

83. What shall the little ones make to be a symbol of courage? they 

said to one another. 

84. The little animal (the deer) that lies outstretched, they said, 

85. Although not possessed with the gall ^ that excites anger, 

86. We shall make to be a symbol of courage. 

87. Four villages lay side by side, 

88. Along the outskirts of these villages the deer ran swiftly and 

escaped his pursuers, 

89. Although the deer runs along the edges of the village in his flight, 

90. The arrows of his pursuers flying about him in forked lines, 

91. He escapes all dangers. 

92. When the little ones make of the deer a symbol of courage, 

> There are many references in literature to the absenee of the gall bladder in the deer family, but a refer- 
CBce to one authority will suffice. See Flower and Lydekker, "Mammals, Living and Extinct," p. 313. 



58 THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[BTH. ANX. 39 



93. They shall enable themselves to escape all dangers, as they travel 

the path of life, 

94. Thus it shall be with the little ones, 

95. Their hands shall always be upon their foes, as they travel the 

path of life. 

At the close of the recitation of the wi'-gi-e by the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga 
and when the wailing has ceased, the candidate returns to his seat by 
the side of his Xo'-ka. The A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka then gives to the 
Sho'-ka the skin of the little mottled lynx, the animal first mentioned 
in the wi'-gi-e, and also a little pipe wliich he has filleil with tobacco. 
As the Sho'-ka takes the pipe he WTaps around the stem the head of 
the lynx skin, letting the body hang down loosely, and having thus 
arranged the two sacred articles he carries them to the man sitting at 
the east end of the line of No°'-ho"-zhi''-ga of the Tsi'-zhu division. 
He spreads the lynx skin upon the groimd before the man and then 
presents to him the little pipe and touches the tobacco within the 
bowl with a small firebrand. The No"'-ho°-zhi"-ga draws at the 
stem of the pipe and when the smoke passes freely he blows four 
whift's upon the skin of the animal chosen to be a symbol of courage. 
In this way the Sho'-ka passes the pipe and the lynx skin from man 
to man until all the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Tsi'-zhu division have 
blown tobacco smoke upon the sacred emblem. When the Sho'-ka 
reaches the west end of the lodge and all the members of the Tsi'-zhu 
division have blown smoke upon the lynx skin he crosses over to the 
Ho"'-ga division and moves eastward, presenting each member of 
that division with the pipe and lynx skin until he reaches the east end 
of the lodge. All the No°'-ho''-zhi"'-ga of both divisions having per- 
formed the ceremony of smoking upon the little mottled lynx, the 
other animal skins, the symbols of courage, are smoked in the same 
manner and in the order in which they are mentioned in the wi'-gi-e. 

This ceremony belongs to the Ho°'-ga division. It was performed 
when a war party composed of men belonging to both the Ho°'-ga 
and the Tsi'-zhu divisions was preparing to go against the e;nemy. 
Such a war party was called Do-do°'-hi°-to°-ga, War Party in Great 
Numbers. (See 36th Ann. Kept. B. A. E., pp. 60-62.) The animals 
mentioned in the wi'-gi-e were those ceremonially appealed to by the 
warriors. 

The meaning of the title of the second Smoking ceremony is not 
strictly literal. In the title of the first Smoking ceremony all of the 
seven symbols are, in reality, " Wa-k'o"'-?,!" or animals. In the 
title of the second Smoking ceremony two of the symbols are not 
animals, as the terjn " Wa-k'o^'-^i" would imply, one of them being 
'■the little pipe" through which the supplications of the people are 
vicariouslv offered to Wa-ko^'-da and the other the buffalo hair out 



LAFLESCHE] EITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 59 

of which cords were made for oinding the captives to be taken by a 
war party. 

The Second Smoking Wi'-gi-e — The T.4king of the Si.x Animals. 

(Osage version, p. 382; literal translation, p. 524.) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. They spake to one another, saying: What shall they make to be 

a symbol of courage, as they travel the path of life ? 

3. It was a little pipe, 

4. They made to be a symbol of courage. 

5. They made the little pipe to be a symbol of courage, 

6. So that when they go toward the setting sun against their enemies, 

7. They may overcome the foe with ease and make them to lie low 

in death, as they travel the path of life. 

8. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

9. They made this sjniibol of com'age to stand forever, it has been 

said, in this house. 

10. The shell of the mussel, they said to one another, 

11. We shall make to be a symbol of courage. 

12. When we make the shell of the mussel to be a symbol of courage. 

13. And go toward the setting sun against our enemies. 

14. We shall always go forth with courage, as we travel the path of 

life. 

15. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

16. They made this symbol of coiu-age to stand forever, it has been 

said, in tlus house. 

17. This buffalo hair, they said to one another, 

18. We shall make to be a symbol of courage. 

19. When we make the buffalo hair to be a svmbol of courage, 

20. And go toward the setting sun against our enemies, 

21. We shall always go forth with courage, as we travel the path of 

life. 

22. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

23. They made this symbol of courage to stand forever, it has been 

said, in this house. 

24. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

25. They said to one another: The bird that is without stain (golden 

eagle) 

26. We shall make to be a symbol of courage. 

27. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

28. The bird, at the beginning of day, 

29. Suddenly rushed forth in attack. 



60 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. anx. 39 

30. Verily, in the midst of a lowland forest, 

31. Upon the great turkey that sat therein, 

32. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

33. He struck the turkey to the earth where it lay in death, as its 

feathers floated away in the wind. 

34. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

35. Off in the distance the eagle was heard to say, 

36. When they (the little ones) go in small bodies to strike the foe, 

37. They shall strike them in tliis manner, as they travel the path of 

life. 

38. Behold my hands, 

39. When the little ones make these hands to be their hands, 

40. And go toward the setting sun against their foes, 

41. Their hands shall always be upon the foe, as they travel the path 

of life. 

42. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

43. They made the eagle as a symbol of courage to stand forever, it 

has been said, in this house. 

44. The great horned owl, it has been said, in this house, 

45. At the beginning of the day, 

46. Suddenly rushetl forth in attack. 

47. Verily, in the midst of a lowland forest, 

48. Upon the male I'accoon that sat therein, 

49. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

50. And thi-ew him to the earth, where he lay doubled up in death. 

51. Quickly he (the owl) uttered a loud cry of triumph, 

52. Then spake, saying: When they (the little ones) go forth in small 

bodies to strike the foe, 

53. Verily, in this manner they shall always strike them. 

54. Behold my hands, 

55. When they make these hands to be their hands, as they travel the 

path of life, 

56. And go toward the setting sun against their enemies, 

57. Their hands shall always be upon the foe, as they travel the path 

of life. 

58. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house. 

59. They made (the horneil owl) this symbol of courage to stand 

forever, it has been said, in this house. 

60. The great gray owl, they said to one another, 

61. We shall also make to be a symbol of courage. 

62. The great gray owl they made to be a symbol of courage. 

63. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

64. At the beginning of the day. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VrGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 61 

65. The gray owl suddenly rushed forth in attack, 

66. Verily, among the groves that were strung along a little stream, 

67. Upon the j'oung male raccoon, 

68. And threw him to the earth where he lay doubled up in death. 

69. Then, far away in the distance, he was heard to say: 

70. When the little ones go forth in small bodies to strike the foe, 

71. Verily, in this manner they shall always strike them, as they 

travel the path of life. 

72. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

73. He was heard <io say: Behold my hands, 

74. When they make these hands to be their hands, 

75. And go toward the setting sun against their enemies, 

76. Their hands shall always be upon the foe, as thev travel the path 

of life. 

77. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

78. They made (the gray owl) this symbol to stand forever, it has 

been said, in this house. 

In the second Smoking ceremony the wailing of the candidate and 
the women is omitted and only the wi'-gi-e is recited by the No"'-ho°- 
zhi°-ga. The symbolic articles, however, are passed around by the 
Sho'-ka and smoke is blown upon them by the No"'-ho"-zhi"-ga in 
the same manner as in the lirst Smoking ceremonj'. The second 
Smoking ceremony was performed when a small war party composed 
of warriors of a few of the gontcs of each division were about to go 
against the enemy. A war party of this class was calletl Tsi'-ga-xa 
Do-clo°, the meaning of which term has become obscm-e. (See 36th 
Ann. Kept. B. A. E., pp. 60-66.) 

At the close of these two ceremonies food was distributed among 
the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga from the stores of the candidate. In the early 
days the food consisted of jerked buffalo and deer meat, and corn; in 
modern times the food is beef, Hour, coffee, sugar, etc. .Ifter tliis 
distribution of provisions the No°'-ho°-zlii''-ga adjourn imtil the 
next daj'. 

The Ho^-be'-^u Ceremony. 

At simrise on the following day the No°'-ho"-zhi°-ga again assemble 
at the house of the candidate for the ceremony next in order, called 
Ho°-be'-9u, the literal translation of which is, Ho°-be, moccasins; 
fu, to cut. Tills title means to the Osage the cutting of the material 
from which to make the symbolic moccasins to be worn by the Xo'-ka 
and the Sho'-ka during the entire ceremony as a part of their sacer- 
dotal attire. 

When the No°'-ho''-zhi''-ga had entered the house and taken their 
places in the gentile order as described on page 46, the A'-ki-ho" 



62 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



Xo'-ka dii'ects the Sho'-ka to take to the head man of the Tse-do'-ga 
I°-dse (Buffalo-bull-face) gens a piece of buffalo skin (Fig. 1) and to 
spread it before him. The Sho'-ka performs this duty and also presents 
to the head man of the gens a blanket as a fee for the reciting; of the Moc- 
casin Wi'-gi-e. Having performed this act, theSho'-ka takes up a knife 
and holds it in readiness to perform his part of the ceremony. The 






Fig. 1.— Diagram of cutting of buffalo skin for symbolic moccasins. 

head man then begins to recite the wi'-gi-e relating to the cutting of 
the material for the symbolic moccasins. When he comes to the 
fourth line of the fourth section the Sho'-ka cuts, in pantomime, the 
skin, beginning at the center and ending at the edge on the right side. 
In like manner he cuts the skin from the center to the edge nearest to 
himself. This ceremonial act has a triple meaning: (1) The act of 



L.VFLE.SCHE] KITE OF VIGIL FKEE TRAKSLATION. 63 

cutting implies a wish that wlien the Osage warriors go against the 
enemy they shall always 'succeed in destroying the warrior of the 
enemy who is honored for his military prowess. (2) The cut toward 
the right indicates the east. (3) The cut toward the Sho'-ka in- 
dicates the south. 

Without pause the recitation continues, and when the fourth line 
of the eighth section is reached the Sho'-ka cuts again, in pantomime, 
beginning at the center of the skin and ending at the edge at his left; 
then beginning; again at the center he cuts to the edge farthest from 
himseli. This act also has a triple meaning: (1) There is implied in 
the act of cutting that the Osage warriors who go against the enemy 
shall always succeed in slaying the woman of the enemy who has 
given birth to her first child. (2) The cut running from the center 
to the left indicates the west. (3) The cut running from the center 
to the edge farthest away from the Sho'-ka indicates the north. 

When these ceremonial acts have been performed the Sho'-ka lays 
aside the knife and takes up an awl, which he holds in readiness for 
the acts that are to follow. 

The recitation continues, and when the fourth line of the ninth 
section is reached the Sho'-ka gives an imaginary tlu-ust with the awl 
into one corner of the skin. This thrust implies a determination to 
destroy the adolescent youth of the enemy. 

The recitation goes on without pause, and when the fourth line of 
the tenth section is reached the Sho'-ka gives a thrust to the second 
corner of the skin. This second thrust is for the destruction of the 
adolescent maiden of the enemy. 

The recitation moves on, and at the fourth line of the eleventh 
section the Sho'-ka gives a thrust to the third corner of the skin. 
This thrust is for the destruction of the warrior of the enemy distin- 
guished for his military honors. 

Wlien the fourth line of the twelfth section is reached the Sho'-ka 
gives a thrust to the fourth corner of the skin. This thrust is for the 
destruction of the woman of the enemy who has given birth to her 
first child. 

Wi'-Gi-E OF THE Symbolic Moccasins. 

(Osage version, p. 384; literal translation, f. 526.) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, they said, it has been said, in this 

house, 

2. Tlie turtle that has a tail with seven scrratures, 

3. We shall make to be the symbol of our foot, O, younger brothers. 

4. When we make this turtle to be the symbol of our foot, 

5. And go forth against our enemies who dwell toward the setting 

sun, 



64 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. anx. 39 

6. We shall enable ourselves to tread down the harmful grasses, as 

we travel the path of life. 

7. Wliat shall we make to be a symbol of our moccasin string? they 

said, it has been said, in this house. 

8. The garter snake that lies outstretched 

9. Shall be a symbol of our moccasin string, as we travel the path 

of life. 

10. Wlien we make this snake to be our moccasin string, 

11. Tlie harmful grasses that lie in our course, as we travel the path 

of life, 

12. Shall not cut or break our moccasin string, O, younger brothers, 

they said to one another. 

13. "Wliat shall we make to be a symbol of our knife? they said, it 

has been said, in this house. 

14. There is the young buffalo bull, 

15. It is his right horn, 

16. That shall be a symbol of our knife. 

17. When we make the right horn of the young bull to be a symbol 

of our knife, 

18. And go against our enemies who dwell toward the setting sun, 

19. Our knife shall always be sharp and ready for use, as we travel 

the path of life, O, younger brothers, it has been said, in this 
house. 

20. Upon what shall we cut this skin? they said, it has been said, in 

this house. 

21. Toward the setting of the sun, 

22. There is a man of our enemies who is honored for his valor. 

23. It is upon him that we shall cut this skin. 

24. Wlien we do our cutting upon that valorous man, 

25. It shall be easy for us to do our cutting, as we travel the path of 

life, O, younger brothers, they said to one another. 

26. Verily, at that time and place, they said, it has been said, in this 

house, 

27. The turtle that has a tail with six serratures, 

28. We shall make to be a symbol of our foot, O, younger brothers. 

29. Wlien we make that turtle to be our foot, 

30. And go forth against our enemies who dwell toward the setting 

sun, 

31. We shall enable ourselves to tread down the harmful grasses, as 

we travel the path of life. 

32. What shall we make to be a symbol of our moccasin string? they 

said, it has been said, in this house. 



LAFLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL — FREE TRANSLATION. 65 

33. The garter snake that lies outstretched, 

34. Shall be a symbol of our moccasin string, as we travel the path 

of life. 

35. When we make this snake to be our moccasin string, 

36. The harmful grasses that lie in our course 

37. Shall not cut or break our moccasin string, as we travel the path 

of life, O, younger brothers, they said to one another. 

38. What shall we make to be a symbol of our knife? they said, it 

has been said, in this house. 

39. There is the young buffalo bull, 

40. It is his right horn 

41. That shall be a symbol of our knife. 

42. Wlien we make the right horn of the young bull to be a symbol 

of our knife, 

43. And go against our enemies who dwell toward the setting sun, 

44. Our knife shall always be sharp and ready for use, as we travel 

the path of life, O, younger brothers, it has been said, in this 
house. 

45. Verily, at that time and place, they said, it has been said, in this 

house, 

46. Upon what shall we cut this skin ? they said, it has been said, in 

this house. 

47. Toward the setting of the sun 

48. There is a woman of our enemies who has given birth to her 

first child. 

49. It is upon her that we shall cut this skin. 

50. Wlien we do our cutting upon that woman, 

51. It shall be easy for us to do our cutting, as we travel the path of 

life, O, younger brothers, they said to one another. 

52. Upon what shall we perforate this skin? they said, it has been 

said, in this house. 

53. Toward the setting of the sun 

54. There is an adolescent youth of our enemies. 

55. It is upon that youth we shall perforate this skin. 

56. Wlien we perforate this skin upon that youth, 

57. It shall be easy for us to do our perforating, as we travel the 

path of life, O, younger brothers, they said to one another. 

58. Upon what shall we perforate this skin? they said, it has been 

said, in this house. 

59. It is the adolescent maiden 

60. Upon whom we shall perforate this skin. 

3594°— 25t 5 



66 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. Ann. 39 

61. Wlien we perforate this skin upon that maiden, 

62. It shall be easy for us to do our perforating, as we travel the 

path of life, O, younger brothers,- they said to one another. 

63. Verily, at that time and place, they said, it has been said, in this 

house, 

64. Upon what shall we perforate this skin? they said, it has been 

said, in this house. 

65. It is the man of our enemies who is honored for his valor 

66. Upon whom we shall perforate this skin. 

67. When we perforate this skin upon the valorous man, 

68. It shall be easy for us to do our perforating, as we travel the 

path of life, O, younger brothers, they said to one another. 

69. Upon what shall we perforate this skin ? they said, it has been 

said, in this house. 

70. It is the woman of our enemies who has given birth to her first 

child 

71. Upon whom we shall perforate this skin. 

72. When we perforate this skin upon that woman, 

73. It shall be easy for us to do our perforating, as we travel the 

path of life, O, younger brothers, they said to one another. 

After the recital of the wi'-gi-e the Sho'-ka, without any further 
ceremony, fashions the moccasins (Fig. 1 ) and roughly sews together 
the edges of the skin. Three pairs of moccasins are made, two pairs 
for the Xo'-ka and one pair for the Sho'-ka. One of the pairs to be 
worn by the Xo'-ka when he ceremonially approaches the place where 
the ceremony is to be given represents the approach of the dawn. This 
pair he slips off when about to enter the House of Mystery and slips 
on the other pair which represents the newly risen sun that is to go 
forth as the day in its full strength and maturity. This pair he wears 
throughout the rest of the ceremony. (Fig. 1.) 

The dual form of the tribal organization, one part representing the 
sky and the other the earth, is not only expressive of the duality of 
nature as observed by the ancient No"'-ho"-zlii°-ga, but it is also 
expressive of their faith that the Life-giving Power which abides 
within these two great cosmic bodies and gives form and life to all 
things therein will also give to the peoples of the two symbolic divi- 
sions the natural increase necessary for the continuity of the tribal 
life. While the No"'-ho°-zlii"-ga continued to give much thought to 
the mysteries of life and to the dependence of the people upon Wa- 
ko"'-da for their existence, they also dwelt upon the efforts that must 
be made by the people themselves in order to fully attain the desired 
end, that is, the continuity of the tribal life. The belief became 



LAFLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 67 

firmly fixed in the minds of the people that Wa-ko"'-da wotdd give 
the desired natural increase, and also that the defense of the life thus 
granted must be made by the people themselves. In order to meet 
and successfully overcome the enemies that beset life's pathway 
there must be a complete unity of purpose and of action between the 
men of the two great tribal divisions, and all the people must share 
alike in the fortunes and misfortunes of the common defense. 

Having thus determined upon a principle by which the people iriust 
govern themselves in order to guard and protect their tribal life by the 
strong arm of valor, the No"'-ho''-zhi''-ga, to give vital force to that 
principle, added n symbolic figure to the complex life symbol for 
which the two tribal divisions stand. The symbol was the figure of a 
man perfect in all his physical structure, well prepared to take life's 
long journej^, and confident in his ability to combat the perils that 
might arise to impede his progress. 

It is this figure or principle that the Xo'-ka is to impersonate in the 
initiatory rite which is tlramatic in form. Symbolically the two j:)airs 
of moccasins ceremonially prepared for him as a part of his sacerilotal 
attire represent the long and hazardous journey contemplated; the 
nights and days that mark the division of time; the strength, the 
courage, and the ability of the people as an organized body to crush 
the "harmful grasses" (figuratively, enemies), as they step forth 
upon life's perilous journey. 

When the symbolic moccasins have been finished another distri- 
bution of provisions is made to the No"'-ho"-zhi°-ga from the stores 
of the candidate. 

The Wa'-do*'-be. 

At the close of the ceremonies relating to the making of the sym- 
bolic moccasins for the Xo'-ka and the Sho'-ka, the No"'-ho"-zhi"-ga 
await with interest the choice to be made by the candidate of a man 
to act as Wa'-do"-be. The literal translation of the title of this 
office is, Wa, over; do^-be, to see or to guard. When used in connec- 
tion with the tribal war rites the word is understood to mean, a 
protector of the tribal life. 

If the candidate happens to be a young man who is not familiar 
with the details of the ceremony he may be prompted by the Xo'-ka 
or by the A'-ki-ho" Xo'ka as to the })roper man to nominate for the 
office of Wa'-do"-be. The man to be nominated must be one who 
has won certain prescribed military honors. He must have won 
thu-teen military honors, seven to be counted for the Ho^'-ga division 
and six for the Tsi'-zhu. 

One of the thirteen military honors to be counted must be of those 
classed as U-pko^'-pka I Ga-fa-gi, a term which, freely translated, 
means a blow given to the enemy who comes witliin the limits of the 



68 THE OSAGE TRIBE. tKTH.ANN.39 

land actually occupied by the tribe. The particular act of this class 
of military honors may be either a blow given with some weapon or 
the cutting of the head of an enemy, but this act must be one that 
had not been put into doubt by controversy. The honors of this 
class are ranked as higher than the others because the acts were 
performed when defending the village or the women who were work- 
ing in the cornfields, for it is at such times that the courage of the 
warrior was often put to the severest test. 

The chances of winning military honors of the class above referred 
to were very rare, not only because the village and the fields were 
always well guarded but also because the ticcasion for the defense of 
the village and the fields must arise within a year of a decree issued 
by the No"'-ho"-zhi°-ga of the Wa-fa'-be (Black Bear) gens. The 
decree was issued when a member of that gens was initiated into 
the No"'-zhi"-zho" or the Wa-xo'-be degree of the war rites. At the 
close of the initiation the head of the gens would say: "If the village 
or the fields are invaxled and attacked ^\^thin a year from this time, 
the honors won in the defense shall be counted as U-fko^'-fka I 
Ga-fa-gi." In the early days initiations into the war rites were 
infrequent, therefore the chances were rare for a warrit)r to win an 
honor of this class. 

0-do"' is the name of all classes of the prescribed military honors 
which can be counted by a warrior chosen for the office of Wa'-tlo"-be 
at the initiatory ceremonies of the tribal war rites. The name may 
be freely translated as: a valorous act by which a warrior can win 
rank and become honored by the people. 

If the candidate belongs to the Ho°'-ga division he must nominate 
for the office of Wa'-do°-be a warrior of the Tsi-'zhu division, but if 
to the Tsi'-zhu division he must name for the office a warrior of the 
Ho°'-ga division. 

When the candidate has chosen his Wa'-do^-be the No"'-ho''- 
zhi"-ga atljourn to meet again at sundown for the Ho° Wa-tho", or 
Night-singing. 

The Night-singing. 

At sunset the No'''-ho°-zhi"-ga who are members of the gens to 
which the cantlidate belongs gather, informally, at his house, where 
the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka, assisted by the Xo'-ka, and together with 
certain chosen singers, rehearse the songs of the ceremony which 
actually begins on the following morning. The No"'-ho"-zhi"-ga 
members occupy the back part of the eastern end of the house while, 
in a row in front of them, sit the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka, the Xo'-ka, the 
candidate, and the chosen singers. Members of other gentes also 
attend, but more as a matter of courtesy to the initiating gens and 
for social pleasure than to form a formal assemblage. The A'-ki-ho° 
Xo'-ka has at liis side a bundle of consecrated tally sticks (PI. 2, 0) 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 69 

for keeping a correct count of the songs as he sings them. The 

A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka and his three assistant singers each has at liis side 

a gourd rattle to be ceremonially taken up and used to accentuate 

the rhytlun of the music of the Rattle-songs antl those to be sung 

throughout the rest of the ceremony. This rehearsal lasts until 

about 2 or 3 o'clock in the morning. The members of the candidate's 

gens are obliged to sit through the entire rehearsal, but the members 

of the other gentes are allowed to go to their homes when they 

become tired. 

Title of the Candidate. 

Up to this stage of the ceremony the candidate has no definite 

title, but when he takes his seat at the eastern end of the lodge 

together with his Xo'-ka, A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka, and the members of his 

gens for the Night-singing, he thenceforth is spoken of as Wa-tho° 

A-ka, the Singer. He may not know any of the songs to be sung, 

may not even know how to sing, but he thus becomes the Singer, 

and bears that title throughout the ceremony. At the close of the 

ceremony, when the Wa-xo'-be of his gens is given over to him, he 

will then have the right to say: "I sang the songs of the No'''-zhi"- 

zho"," and be entitled to act as Xo'-ka at the initiation of a candidate 

for the degree. 

The Ki'-non. 

The ceremonies next in order are called Ki'-no", Painting, and 
relate to the sj^mbolic painting of the Sho'-ka and the Xo'-ka, as well 
as to the putting upon them of their sacerdotal attire, preparatory to 
the processional approach to the place prepared for the ceremony. 

Before sunrise on the morning following the Night-singing the 
A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka, the Sho'-ka, the Singer, antl the No"'-ho"-zlu"-ga 
members of their gens assemble for the Ki'-no" ceremony at the house 
of the Singer. At this time each man puts upon his forehead moist- 
ened earth as a token that he is now a suj)plicant in the presence of 
the Life-giving Power. When the gathering has placed upon them- 
selves this sacred sign the Singer, following the instructions of the 
A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka. blackens with charcoal the face of the Sho'-ka, 
fastens to the base of the braided lock on the crown of his head a 
deer-tail headdress (PI. .3), puts upon his feet the symbolic moc- 
casins ceremonially prepared for him, and ties to each of his arms, 
just above the elbow, a yard or two of calico. The moccasins are 
symbolic of life's long and perilous journey and the strips of calico 
represent the thongs to be used by the warrior in tying such captives 
as he may take on his journey. In early days skins of snakes were 
used as symbols for the captive thongs. The Sho'-ka wraps around 
his body a buffalo robe which is fastened at the waist with a girdle. 

Having thus painted his Sho'-ka, the Singer places in his hand a 
pipe filled with tobacco, to be taken by him as a supplicatory offering 



70 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



CbTH. ANN. 39 



to the Xo'-ka, who is to impersonate throughout the ceremony not 
only the symbolic man, but also the sun. Foui' times the Sho'-ka 
must proceed to the house of the Xo'-ka and quietly present to him 
the filled pipe, touching the tobacco with a live brand taken from the 
fireplace as the Xo'-ka smokes. At the fourth time the Singer, the 
A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka, and the No"'-ho"-zhi"-ga members of their gens 
follow the Sho'-ka to the house of the Xo'-ka, where the Sho'-ka carries 
the spnbolic articles to be worn by the Xo'-ka as his sacerdotal attire. 
When all four men have entered and taken their seats at the eastern 
end of the house, and the Xo'-ka has concluded his fourth ceremonial 
smoke, the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka sings the following song. Each one of 
the four stanzas is followed by a section of a wi'-gi-e. Both the song 
and the wi'-gi-e refer to the story of the descent of the people from 
the sky to the earth, as given in the genesis wi'-gi-e of the Puma gens; 
to their dismay at finding the earth covered with water, and to their 
appeals to the water-spider, to the water-beetle, to the white leech, 
and to the black leech. (See lines 204 to 273, 36th Ann. Kept. 
B. A. E., pp. 163-165.) In the free translation no attempt is made to 
give the words of the song the metrical form used in the original. 



.M.J_- 



Ki'-NO" Song and Wi'-gie. 

(Osage version, p. 387; literal translation, p. 527.) 

Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



/.M.M. •Irl04 __, „_ I 

if '> u- n n n 

•Time beats \ ' ' 



^^ 



Jdlld. 



r 



r 



r 



r 



beats r 

Mon.thin-ka gi a bi the, Mo"-thi"-ka gi a bi the 




r r r r r 

he the he the, Tse 



r r r r 

xo-be 'go" e-wo" thi" a-do", 




' ' r I r r r 

Wi-tsi-gogiabithe he the, Mon.thin.ka gi a bi the he the. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



The earth shall appear, it was said, 

The earth shall appear, it was said, 

Through the powers of the spider-like (water-spider) , 

My grandfather, it shall appear, it was said, 

The earth shall appear, it was said. 



LAFLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL FREE TKANSLATION. 71 



1. Ha! it was to the spider-like, 

2. They spake, saying: The little ones have nothing of which to 

make their bodies, O, my grandfather. 

3. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

4. The spider-like rephed: The little ones shall make of me their 

bodies. 

5. Behold the parting of the waters as I push forth, 

6. Verily, it is the movement of the gods to make a way for me as 

I go forth. 

7. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

8. The gods shall make way for them also, as they go forth upon 

life's journey. 

2. 

The earth shall appear, it was said, 

The earth shall appear, it was said, 

Through the powers of the black-bean-like (water-beetle), 

My grandfather, it shall appear, it was said, 

The earth shall appear, it was said. 

Wl'-GI-E. 

9. Ha ! it was to the one that is like a black bean, 

10. They spake, saying: The little ones have nothing of which to 

make their bodies, O, my grandfather. 

11. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

12. The black-bean-like replied: The little ones have nothing of 

which to make their bodies, you say. 

13. The little ones shall make of me their bodies. 

14. Behold the parting of the waters as I push forth, 

15. Verily it is the movement of the gods to make way for me as I 

go forth. 

16. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

17. The gods shall make way for them also as they go forth upon 

life's journey. 



The earth shall appear, it was said. 

The earth shall appear, it was said. 

Through the powers of the whitleather-like (white leech), 

My grandfather, it shall appear, it was said. 

The earth shall appear, it was said. 



72 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. S9 

Wl'-GI-E. 

18. Ha ! it was to the one that is like whitleather, 

19. They spake, saying: The Httle ones have nothing of which to 

make their bodies, O, my grandfather. 

20. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

21. The whitleather-like replied: The little ones have nothing of 

which to make their bodies, you say. 

22. The little ones shall make of me their bodies. 

23. Behold the parting of the waters as I push forth, 

24. Verily it is the movement of the gods to make way for me as I 

go forth. 

25. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

26. The gods shall make way for them also, as they go forth upon 

life's journey. 

4. 

The earth shall appear, it was said, 
The earth shall appear, it was said. 
Through the powers of the leech (black leech), 
My grandfather, it shall appear, it was said, 
The earth shall appear, it was said. 

Wl'-GI-E. 

27. Ha ! it was to the black leech 

28. They spake, saying: The little ones have nothing of which to 

make their bodies, 0, my grandfather. 

29. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this liouse, 

30. The black leech replied : The little ones have nothing of which to 

make their bodies, you say. 

31. The little ones shall make of me their bodies. 

32. Behold the parting of the waters as I push forth. 

33. Verily, it is the movement of the gods to make way for me as I 

go forth. 

34. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

35. The gods shall make way for them also, as they go forth upon 

life's journey. 

Painting of the Xo'-ka. 

At the close of the recital of the wi'-gi-e relating to the four water 
insects, the Singer, prompted by the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka, rubs red paint 
upon the palms of his hands in readiness to put the symbolic color 
upon the face of the Xo'-ka. As the approaching sun reddens the 
eastern horizon the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka begins to recite the first section 
of the wa'-gi-e relating to the painting and the dressing of the Xo'-ka, 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY THIRTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 2 




COUNTING STICKS FOR SONGS 

j1, Front; B.back; C. consecrated tally sticts 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



THIRTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 3 




DEER'S TAIL HEADDRESS 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



THIRTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 4 




PAINTING OF XO'-KA 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



THIRTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 5 




PORTABLE SHRINE. UNFOLDED 



LAFLESCHC] KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 73 

and the Singer lifts Ms outspread hands toward the sun, as though to 
receive from the God of Day the sacred color and its life-giving power. 
At the end of the last (seventh) line the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka pauses and 
the Singer passes his hands over the face and body of the Xo'-ka, 
who sits partly nude awaiting the painting, without toucliing liim. 
This done, the Singer paints the face and body of his Xo'-ka with the 
sacred red paint. This ceremonial act is supplicatory. By it the 
Singer expresses his craving that through the sun his life may be made 
fruitful and that he may be blessed with a long line of descendants. 
The putting of the symbolic paint upon the face and body of the Xo'-ka 
is like putting it upon himself, for the Xo'-ka represents, among other 
things, the Singer. When all of the body of the Xo'-ka has been 
painted red, a dark line is drawn on his face rimning upward from one 
cheek to the forehead, then across to the opposite side and downward 
to the middle of the other cheek. This line represents the dark 
horizon line of the earth smd is called ho'-e-ga, a snare, or an inclosure 
into which all life is drawn and held captive. From the line as it runs 
across the forehead, four black lines are drawn downward to the eye-' 
brows. These four lines represent the four \vintls that symbolize the 
breath of life. Upon the right side of the Xo'-ka the Singer makes 
the pictm-e of a man, that represents liis soul or spirit. When a man 
who has taken the No^'-zhi^-zho" or the Wa-xo'-be degree of the 
tribal rites dies his face and boih* are painted in tliis manner in prepa- 
ration for burial (.PI. 4). 

Putting Symbolic Articles on the Xo'-ka. 

The A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka proceeds to the next section of the wi'-gi-e 
while the Singer picks up from the pile of sacred articles a white, 
downy plume taken from under the wing of an eagle and holds it in 
his hand as the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka recites. The downy feather repre- 
sents one of the two shafts of light that are sometimes seen on either 
side of the sun as it rises above the eastern horizon. In this instance 
the shaft of light at the right of the sun is mentioned in the wi'-gi-e 
for the reason that the ceremony is being performed by a gens belong- 
ing to the Ho"'-ga division. If the ceremony was given by a gens of 
the "Tsi'-zhu division the shaft of light on the left side of the sun 
would be mentioned. The shaft represented by the downy plume 
symbolizes the strong active life of a warrior. At the end of line 14 
the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka pauses while the Singer fastens to the base 
of the braided lock of the Xo'-ka that hangs from the crown of his 
head, the downy plimae, wliichis so adjusted that it stands in its place 
upright and firm. 

The Singer next picks up from the sacred articles a shell gorget 
which is fastened to the ends of a woven neckbantl and as the A'-ki-ho" 
Xo'-ka goes on with the third section of the wi'-gi-e, holds it in readi- 



74 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

ness. At the end of line 21 the Singer sHps the neckband over the 
head and around the neck of the Xo'-ka so that the gorget hangs at 
his chest. The gorget typifies the God of Day, the sxui. Tliis act of 
the Singer is also supplicatory and expressive of a desire for a long and 
fruitful life, not only for himself but for all his descendants. 

As the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka begins to recite the fourth section of the 
wi'-gi-e the Singer takes up two narrow woven bands and holds them 
in readiness. At the end of line 29 he quickly ties on the Xo'-ka's 
wrists the woven bands. In early times these woven bands were made 
of buffalo hair, but in modern daj^s various colored yarn is used. Lines 
24 and 25 of this section declare that the bonds to be put upon the 
wrists of the Xo'-ka are captive bonds, but lines 26 to 29 say that in 
truth it is not the bond of a captive that is tied to each wrist of the 
Xo'-ka, but a spirit. It would appear that these lines refer to the 
likening of the earth to a snare into which all life is drawn and held 
captive, not only in body but also in spirit.' 

The symbolic gorget having been put upon the chest of the Xo'-ka 
the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka continues to the fifth section and the Singer 
takes up a woven girdle, in early days of bufi'alo hair but now of .yarn, 
which he holds in readiness. In the wi'-gi-e the girdle is spoken of 
as a captive's girdle and as a spirit. At the close of the section the 
Singer wraps around the body of his Xo'-ka a pmna skin robe and fas- 
tens it at the waist with the woven girdle. (For symbolism of puma 
skin robe see lines 31 to 44 of the First Smoking Wi'-gi-e, pp. 55-56.) 

The A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka continues to the sixth section and the Singer 
picks up a pair of the symbolic moccasins ceremonially made for the 
Xo'-ka and holds them in readiness. (See Ho°-be'-9u Wi'-gi-e, p. 
63, and lines 1 to 52 of the wi'-gi-e.) In this section the Xo'-ka is 
referred to as a captive (line 38) and as a spirit (line 41) upon whose 
feet will be put the sacred moccasins. 

Wi'-Gi-E OF THE Symbolic Painting. 

(Osage version, p. 388: literal translation, p. 529.) 

1. With what shall they (the little ones) adorn their bodies, as they 

tread the path of life ? it has been said, in this house. 

2. The crimson color of the God of Day who sitteth in the heavens, 

3. They shall make to be their sacred color, as they go forth upon 

life's journey. 

4. Verily, the God who reddens the heavens as he approaches, 

5. They shall make to be their sacred color, as they go forth upon 

life's journey. 

6. When they adorn their bodies with the crimson hue shed by that 

God of Day, 



t^FLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 75 

7. Then shall the little ones make themselves to be free from all 
causes of death, as they go forth upon life's journey. 

S. What shall the people use for a symbolic plume ? they said to one 

another, it has been said, in this house. 
9. Verily, the God who always comes out at the beginning of day, 

10. Has at his right side 

11. A beam of light that stands upright like a plmne. 

12. That beam of light shall the people make to be their sacred 

plume. 

13. When they make of that beam of light their sacred plume, 

14. Then their sacred plume shall never droop for want of strength, 

as they go forth upon life's journey. 

15. What shall they place as a pendant upon his (the Xo'-ka's) 

breast '( they said to one another. 

16. The shell of the mussel who sitteth upon the earth, 

17. They shall place as a pendant upon his breast. 

18. It is as the God of Day who sitteth in the heavens, 

19. Close to his breast they shall verily press this god, 

20. As a pentlant upon his breast they shall place this god, 

21. Then shall the little ones become free from all causes of death, as 

they go forth upon life's journey. 

22. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

23. They said to one another: What shall the people place upon his 

wrists ? 

24. It is a bond spoken of as the captive's bond, 

25. That they shall place upon his wrists. 

26. Verily, it is not a captive's bond. 

27. That is spoken of, 

28. But, it is a soul, 

29. That they shall place upon his wTists. 

30. Veril}-, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

31. They said to one another: What is he upon whom a girdle is to 

be placed ? 

32. It is a captive, they said, 

33. Upon whom a girtUe is to be placed. 

34. Verily, it is not a captive that is spoken of, 

35. It is a spirit upon whom they will place a girdle, they said, it has 

been said, in this house. 

36. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

37. They said to one another: What is he upon whose feet these 

moccasins are to be placed ? 



76 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



38. It is a captive, 

39. Upou whose feet tliese moccasins are to be placed. 

40. Verily, it is not a captive that is spoken of, 

41. It is a spirit, 

42. Upon whose feet these moccasins are to be placed, they said, it 

has been said, in this house. 

The Nqn-zhin' Wa-tho" (Rising Song). 

When the symbolic moccasins have been securely fastened to his 
feet the Xo'-ka sings the first stanza of the No"-zhi''' Wa-tho", the 
Rising Song. At the close of this stanza the Sho'-ka takes the Xo'-ka 
by the right arm and assists him to rise. When he has risen to his 
feet the Xo'-ka sings the second stanza. At its close the A'-ki-ho" 
Xo'-ka, the Xo'-ka, the Singer, and the Sho'-ka walk out of the 
house, the Singer carrying in his arms the Wa-xo'-be (Fig. 3) to be 
used in the ceremony. 

THE rising song. 




M.M 



(Osage version, p. 389; literal translation, p. 530.) 
J ^_ Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



80 



^^^ 



^ 



^ 



£ 



r 



r 



Time beats ' F 

Ha, Sho - ka a - noi-zhi" tse the, 



r 



Ha - 






r r r - f 

Sho-ka, a - no^-zhintse the. 



r r ' 

noi^-zhin tse the, Ha, 



hi^^^^'t iii'itfj-jn^^ 



Sho-ka a-non-zhintse the. Ha, Sho-ka a-no°.zhi"tse the. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



Ha ! Sho'-ka, let us now arise, 
Ha! Sho'-ta, let us now arise, 
Let us now arise. 
Ha! Sho'-lja, let us now arise, 
Ha! Sho'-ka, let us now arise. 



LAFLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 77 



Ha! Sho'-ka, let us now go forth, 
Ha! Sho'-ka, let us now go forth, 
Let us now go forth, 
Ha! Sho'-ka, let us now go forth. 
Ha! Sho'-ka, let us now go forth. 

The preliminary ceremonies of tliis degree, as given by the 
I°-gtho'''-ga and Wa-pa'-be gentes, which include the smoking of the 
sacred animal skins, the making of the symbolic moccasins, and the 
painting and dressing of the Sho'-ka and the Xo'-ka, are closed with 
the singing of the No°-zhi°' Wa-tho", Rising Song. 

The Zhqn'-xa Wa-zhu (Consecrated Tally Sticks). 

The principal part of the ceremony, which is spoken of by the 
No"'-ho"-zhi°-ga as Zho"'-xa Wa-zhu, begins with the Tsi Ta'-pe 
Wa-tho°, which, freely translated, means Song of the Processional 
Approach to the House, that is, the house or place prepared for the 
ceremony. The songs and wi'-gi-es of the rite without any dis- 
tinction bear the title of ''songs." From this point the counting 
begins. These songs are divided into two classes: the first is called 
Wa-tho"' Pe-tho"-ba tse, The Seven Songs, and the second class is 
called Wa-tho"' Sha-pe tse. The Six Songs. The Seven Songs belong 
to the Ho°'-ga tribal division and the Six Songs to the Tsi'-zhu tribal 
division. 

The songs of the ceremony proper, as stated above, are called 
Zho"'-xa Wa-zhu, which, freely translated, means the Songs upon 
wliich Sticks are Placed, a title that takes its name from the custom 
of the No"'-ho"-zlii"-ga or the novitiates using tally sticks for keeping 
a correct count when memorizing the titles and the number of the 
songs coming under each group (PI. 2, B, C) . The tally sticks may be 
used at a ceremony by a No'''-ho°-zlii°-ga while acting as A'-ki-ho" 
Xo'-ka or when instructing a novitiate, but the counting stick 
(PI. 2, A, B) he invariably uses at a ceremony is the one always kept 
with a wa-xo'-be. This stick is about 1 inch wide and as long as the 
lower arm of a man. Across the width of the stick are cut small 
grooves in groups to represent the number of songs in a class. These 
groups of marks cover both sides of the stick and a man in keeping 
count as he sings begins to count from the lower end of the stick and 
proceeds upward toward the top. When he reaches the top he turns 
the stick over endwise and continues his upward count from the end 
nearest to him. The bundle of tally sticks and the marked counting 
stick are both called Zho"'-xa Wa-zhu, antl as both are used in con- 
nection with the ceremonies they are regarded as sacred. 



78 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [kih. Ann. 39 

Sacred Order of the Songs Used by the Wa-^a'-be and the 
In-gthon'-ga Gentes. 

the seven songs. 

1. Tsi Ta'-pe Wa-tho", Song of the Procession to the Sacred House. 

One song and \vi'-gi-e. 

2. Wa-k'o"'-9i-ha Op-she Wa-tho", The Walk on the Animal Skins. 

One song. 

3. Wa-xo'-be Thu-shke Wa-tho", Opening the Wa-xo'-be. Seven 

songs. 

4. Wa-no^'-xe Wa-tho", Spirit Songs. Four songs. 

5. No"'-zlii"-zho" Wa-tho", vSongs of the Rite of Vigil. Two songs. 

6. Wa-da' Wa-tho°, Supplication Songs. Four songs. 

7. Pe'-xe Thu-?a-bi Wa-tho'', Songs of Taking up the Rattle. Two 

songs and wi'-gi-e. 

8. Mi Wa-tho" or No"-ni'-o"-ba Ba-ha Wa-tho", Songs to the Sim or 

Songs of Pipe Offering to the Sun. Three songs. 

9. Sho"'-ge Wa-tho", Wolf Songs. Tliree songs, 

10. Ka'-xe Wa-tho", Crow Songs. Two songs. 

11. Ta Wa'-tho", Deer Songs. Six songs. 

12. Wa'-i" Xa-ge Wa-tho", Weeping Songs. Three songs. 

13. Wa-thu'-9e Wa-tho", Songs of Taking the Wa'-d(>"-]ie. Six songs. 

14. Ka'-xe Wa-tho" or Ni'-ka Xo-be Ni Tha-to"-l)i, Crow Songs or 

Drinking of Water by the Holy Men. Two songs. 

15. Wa-(?a'-be Wa-tho", Black Bear Songs. Four songs. 

16. Tse Wa-tho", Buffalo vSongs. Six songs. 

THE SIX SONGS. 

17. Tse-do'-a Ni-ka I-no"-zhi" Wa-tho", vSongs of the Rising of the 

Buffalo Bull Men. Five songs. 

18. No"-xthe' I-ki"-dse Wa-tho", Songs of the Rush for the Charcoal. 

One song with wi'-gi-e. 

19. Ni-i'-tse Wa-tho", Songs for the Crossing of a River. Wa-xthi'- 

zhi could not remember these. Wa-tse'-mo"-i" gives the 
number as seven. 

20. Tsi Gi'-ka-xe Wa-tho", Songs of Erecting the Sacred House. 

Three songs. 

21. Ki-ta'-ni-ga Wa-tho", Jay-bird Songs. Wa-xthi'-zlii could not 

remember these. Wa-tse'-mo"-i" gives the number as two. 

22. Wa-da' Wa-tho", or Pa'-pe Wa-tho" Zhi"-ga, Supplication Songs 

or Little Evening Songs. Wa-xthi'-zhi could not remember 
these. Wa-tse'-mo°-i'' gives the number as four. 

23. Zho" Tlii'-xo" Wa-tho", Songs of Gathering Wood. Two songs 

with wi'-gi-e. 



uiFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 79 

24. Zho° Thi'-mo° Wa-tho", Song of the Twdrling of Sticks to make 

Fire. One song. 

25. Dse'-the Wa-tho", Song of Kindling the Fire. One song. 

26. Wa-ba'-(;'no" Ba-pe Wa-tho°, Songs of the Ceremonial Feast of 

Carving the Roast. Wa-xthi'-zhi could not remember these. 
Wa-tse'-nio"-i° gives the nmnber as two. 

27. Wa-po'-ga Wa-tho", Songs of the Gray Owl. Three songs. 

28. Wa-tsi' A-dsi Wa-tho". Wa-xthi'-zhi could not remember these. 

Wa-tse'-mo^-i" gives the nmiiber as four. 

29. I'-tsi" Ba-xo" Wa-tho", Songs of Painting the War-club. Wa- 

xthi'-zhi could not remember these. Wa-tse'-mo"-i" gives the 
number as two. 

30. Ni-zhiu' Wa-tho°, Rain Songs. Wa-xthi'-zhi could not remem- 

ber these. Wa-tse'-mo"-i° gives the number as three with 
wi'-gi-e. 

31. Mo°-i"'-ka I-ga-xthi Wa-tho°, Songs of the Striking of the Earth. 

Wa-xthi'-zhi could not remember these. Wa-tse'-mC-i" gives 
the number as two. 

32. Ki-ka'-xe I-ki-tsi" Wa-tho°, Songs of the Hawk and the War- 

club. Three songs. 

33. Wa-tse' Wa-tho", Victory Songs. One song. 

34. U'-thu-fe I-no"-zhi" Wa-tho^, Song of the Rising of the Assem- 

blage to Depart. One song. 

Song of Processional Approach to the House. 

When the Xo'-ka, the Singer, the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka, and the Sho'-ka 
come out of the house of the Xo'-ka the Sho'-ka leads the way toward 
the Sacred House and the three men follow. After taking a few paces 
from the house all four stop, the Xo'-ka huuself (if he has memorized 
them) sings the Song of Processional Approach to the House and 
recites the fii'st section of the wi'-gi-e, called Wa'-pi-thu-^e Wi'-gi-e 
or Footsteps Wi'-gi-e. At the close of the last line of the wi'-gi-e 
he takes from the bowl of a little pipe he carries a pinch of tobacco 
and drops it upon his right foot, which he is to put forward first as 
the procession moves. He also tosses a pinch over his right shoulder 
and one over his left shoukler. Then the procession moves forward. 
At the second stop he repeats the song, recites the second section of 
the wi'-gi-e, drops a pinch of tobacco on his left foot, which he first 
puts forward as the procession again moves. These ceremonial acts 
are repeated for the third and fourth stops. The fourth movement 
brings the men to the entrance of the Sacred House. Throughout this 
processional approach to the Sacred House the Singer carries in his 
arms his wa-xo'-be and it is to this act of the Singer that the last line 
in each section of the wi'-gi-e refers. 



80 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



It appears that the Footsteps Wi'-gi-e is an epitome of the story of 
the finding of the foe, given in Hnes 1447 to 1542 of the Ni'-ki Wi'-gi-e 
of the I"-gtho°'-ga gens. (See 36th Ann. Rept. B. A. E., p. 208.) 
The No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga of tliis gens leave the story unfinished because 
the right to recite it with all its details belongs to another gens. The 
Wi'-gi-e of the Finding of the Foe is given in full in the Thirty-sixth 
Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, pages 212 to 
219. The Footsteps Wi'-gi-e as given by the various gentes is sub- 
stantially the same, but some refer to four bends of a river as the 
objects of approach while others refer to four valleys as well as four 
bends of a river. All, however, refer to the 'Little House" as the 
real object of approach, the place where all must go to make their 
warlike movements authoritative. 

SONG OF APPROACH TO THE HOUSE. 

(Osage version, p. 390; literal translation, p. 561.) 

M.M. J r 72 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



OJ~lj 



ifr: 



r^ i Lj 



Time beats ' ' < I '■ \ 

Tsiwi" e-dsi tse do" dsi the hi" da - - fti I'siwine- 




*^ r r r r r r • • r r T r r r 

dsi tse do" dsi the hi" da - a Tsiwi"edsitsedo"&sithehi"da, Dsi 



•J r p r r r ^ r r r r r 



r r r r r t r r r r f ^ ^ 

thehi"da' - a.Hon-gatsiwi" e-dsi aka do" dsi the hi" da - a, 'Tsiwi" 




^m 



I" I" r r r r " " r r 'ff r 

edsi aka do" dsi the hi" da - a, Tsiwi" edsi aka do" dsi the hi" da.' 



FREE TRANSLATION. 

It is to a Sacred House that I am going, 

It is to a Sacred House that I am going. 

It is to a Sacred House that I am going, 

It is there that I am going. 

It is to the House of the Ho"'-ga that I am going, 

To the House where they dwell I am going. 

To the House where they dwell I am going. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 81 

Wl'-GI-E. 

Osage version, p. 390: literal translation, ]). 531.) 
1. 

1. Toward what shall they direct their footsteps, they said to one 

another, it has Jaeen said, in this house. 

2. Towartl the setting of the sun, 

3. There is a bend in a river, 

4. Toward which they shall direct their footsteps, 

5. Verily, it is not the bend of a river that is meant. 

6. It is a Little House, 

7. Toward which they shall always direct their footsteps. 

8. When they direct their footsteps toward that Little House, 

9. Then shall they take their footsteps with ease, 

10. When they direct their footsteps toward that Little House 

11. Then shall you all come there, carrying your little wa-xo'-be, it 

has been said, in this house. 

SONG. 

• It is to a Sacred House that I aiu going, etc. 

Wl'-Gl-E. 
2. 

12. Towaril what shall they direct their footsteps, they said to one 

another, it has been said, in this house. 

13. Toward the setting of the sun, 

14. There is a second bend of the river, toward which they shall direct 

their footsteps, 

15. Verily, it is not two bends of a river that is meant, 

16. There is a second Little House toward which they shall direct 

their footsteps. 

17. When they direct their footsteps toward that Little House, 

18. Then shall the little ones always take -with ease their footsteps. 

19. When they direct their footsteps toward that Little House, 

20. Then shall you all come there, carrying your little wa-xo'-be, it 

has been said, in this house. 

SONG. 

It is to a Sacred House that I am going, etc. 



3. 

21. Toward what shall they direct their footsteps, they said to one 

another, it has been said, in this house. 

22. Toward the setting of the sun, 

3594°— 25t 6 



82 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [BTH. ANN. 39 

23. There is a third bend of the river, 

24. Toward which they shall direct their footsteps. 

2.5. Veril;/, it is not three bends of a river that is meant, 

26. There is a tliird Little House toward which they shall direct their 

footsteps. 

27. When they direct their footsteps toward that Little House, 

28. Then shall the little ones always take with ease their footsteps. 

29. When they direct their footsteps toward that Little House, 

30. Then shall you all come there, carrying your little wa-xo'-be, it 

has been said, in this house. 

SONG. 

It is to the Sacred House that I am going, etc. 



4. 

31. Toward what shall they direct their footsteps, they said to one 

another, it has been said, in this house. 

32. Toward the setting of the sun, 

33. There is a fourth bend of the river, toward which they skall 

direct their footsteps. 

34. Verily, it is not four bends of a river that is meant, 

35. There is a fourth Little House toward which they shall direct 

their footsteps. 

36. When the}^ direct their footsteps toward that Little House, 

37. Then shall the little ones always take with ease their footsteps. 

38. When they direct their footsteps towartl that Little House, 

39. Then shall you all come there, carrying your little wa-xo'-be, it 

has been said, in this house. 

The division of the wi'-gi-e into four sections, each of which men- 
tions a '"little house" as the real object of the processional approach, 
has reference to the original organization of the four great tribal 
divisions established for the government of war movements. To 
each one of these great divisions was given an eagle symbol. Wliile 
four "little houses" are severally mentioned in the wi'-gi-e, there is 
but one house that must be ceremonially approached when about to 
organize a war party or at an initiation of a member into the mys- 
teries of the war rites, that of the Ho^'-ga U-ta-no^-dsi. 

In the year 1898 Miss Alice C. Fletcher, who had begun a study 
of the Osage tribe, obtained from To°-wo°'-i-hi, of the Tsi'-zhu 
Wa-shta'-ge gens, the names of these four tribal divisions as follows: 

1. Wa-zha'-zhe, 

2. Ho°'-ga Wa'-tse-ga-wa. 

3. ^'in'-dse-a-gthe. 

4. Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi. 



LAPLBSCHB] BITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 83 

About fourteen years later the names were obtainetl by the writer 
from Wa-xthi'-zhi and Tse-zhi°'-ga-wa-da-i"-ga, severally. The 
names as given by these two men agree in every respect excepting 
in their sequential order. The order as given by Wa-xthi'-zhi will 
be given here: 

1. Wa-va'-be. 

2. Wa-zha'-zhe. 

3. Tsi'-zhu. 

4. Ho"'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi. 

The name W-a'-tse-ga-wa (Star Radiant), No. 2 in the order given 
by To°-wo"'-i-hi, is the ancient name of the Wa-^a'-be, No. 1 in the 
order given by Wa-xtlii'-zhi. Both the names (,'i"'-dse-a-gthe, No. 3 
in the first order, and Tsi'-zhu, No. 3 in the second, refer to the 
principal war gentes of the Tsi'-zhu division. According to tradi- 
tion, it would appear that the order given by fo^-wo^'-i-hi is the 
correct one. (See 36th Ann. Kept. B. A. E., p. 61.) 

The initial line in each section of the wi'-gi-e: "Toward what shall 
they direct their footsteps, they said to one another," refers to the 
discussions of the ancient No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga when formulating the war 
rites. 

The second line of each section: "Toward the setting sun," is a 
cryptic reference to the life journey of the people as an organized 
body, a journey wliich is likened to that of the sun (the great life 
symbol), taken daily and always westward. 

The line: "Then shall the little ones always take with ease their 
footsteps," means that only ])y following the established rules oan 
a war leader conscientiously jjroceed, without fear of giving offense 
to any of the gentes composing the tribe or to any individual member 
of a gens. Whatever steps he may contemplate taking toward the 
attacking of another tribe, either as an individual enterprise or on 
behalf of all the people, he must first approach the "little house" 
and obtain therein the sanction of the people. 

The last line in each section was always recited by the Xo'-ka in 
a low tone close to the ear of the initiate and to impress upon his 
mind that the warrior, in order to "take with ease his footsteps," 
must always make the tribe a party to liis enterprise. 

The Song of Walking Upon the Sacred Animal Skins. 

The fourth movement of the fsi Ta'-pe brings the men to the 
southwest end of the ground chosen for the ceremony, which is out 
of floors, in the open air, but is referred to in the Song of Approach 
as the "House of the Ho°'-ga" (see p. 80). Arrived at tliis point, 
the solemn procession of the four men pauses. The Xo'-ka stands 
directly behind the second pair of the symbolic moccasins (Fig. 2, G) 
which had been placed in readiness for him and so arranged that the toes 



84 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 



pointed eastward, for he is to wear them in place of the first pair at the 
next movement and throughout the principal part of the ceremony 
that follows. The Xo'-ka at once begins to recite a Mi'-gi-e 
having two titles: Wa'-no^-sdo-dse and Wa'-no"-shki-ge Wi'-gi-e. 
Freely translated, the words of the first title signify The Act of 
Slipping off (the first pair of moccasins) ; the second title. The Tread- 
ing Upon Certain Objects (so that they shall be crushed into the 

NORTH 





TSI-ZHU DIVISION 








A 






• 


TSIZHU SEVEN HREPLACES 

• • • • 
lO ir> <!• CO 


• 


• 


j5__ 




>£.\ 




t^''' ®o 




' " 'f 




\\ 




+0 



WEST 







+0. 



-"• 03*- +0 



EAST 



I 
( 

/ 



-P 



• •••••• 

> ^ WA-ZHA-ZHE SEVEN nREPLACES 

HONGA 



r^ (D IT) st f^ *^ — 

• •••••• 

HO''GA SEVEN F/REPLACES ^ 

DIVISION 



SOUTH 

Fig. 2.— Ground plan of place of initiation. A, Wa-xo'-be, shrine. B, Pe'-xc, rattle. C, Ho'-e-ga, house 
of the beaver. D, Wa-^a'-be ha, black bear skin. E, We'-tha-wa, willow saplings for counting war 
honors. F, Mi'-to"-a or Ha-xi"', buffalo robe or blanket. G, Ceremonial moccasins. H, Horse, fee 
forthe Wa'-dc-be. K, Lightningstrokes,sjTnbolsoflifeand death. L, Smoldering fire. O, Wa-thon'. 
P, Xo'-ka. Q, A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka. R, Man chosen by the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka to assist in the singing. 
T, Wa'-do"-be. The three lines in center of figure represent racks on which gifts and sacred skins are 
hung. Tsi'-zhu Seven Fireplaces. 1, Tsi'-zhu Wa-no°, or Wa-ko^'-da No"-pa-bi. 2, Tse-do'-ga-i"-dse. 

3, Mi-k'i" Wa-no°. 4, Tsi'-zhu \Va-shta'-ge. 5, Ho°' I-ni-ka-shi-ga. 6, Ni'-ka Wa-kon-da-gi or Tsi 
Ha-shi. 7, Tho'-xe, sometimes spoken of as Tho'-xe Pa Thi-ho". Ho"'-ga Seven Fireplaces. 1, Ho"'ga 
A-hiu-to". 2, Wa-5a'-be. 3, I°-gtho»'-ga. 4, O'-pxo". 5, Moo'-shkb", or Hon'-ga Zhin-ga. 6. 1'-ba-tse. 
7, Hon'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi. Wa-zha'-zhe Seven Fireplaces. 1, ^^e'-k'i". 2, Wa'-tse-tsi. 3, No"'-po"-da. 

4, E-no°' Min-dse-to"!. 5, Ho' I-ni-ka-shi-ga. 0, T^' I-ni-ka-shi-ga. 7, Ba'-tsu. 

earth). The objects to be trodden upon and crushed (figuratively) 
are certain classes of persons upon whom an enemy tribe depends 
for its potential power. 

THE Wl'-GI-E. 



(Osage version, p. 391; literal translation, p. 532.) 

1. Upon what shall we slip off our moccasins? they said to one 

another, it has been said, in this house. 

2. Toward the setting of the sun, 



I-iFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 85 

3. There is an adolescent youth, 

4. Upon whom we shall always slip off our moccasins, they said to 

one another, it has been said, in this house. 

5. When we slip off our moccasins upon the adolescent youth, 

6. We shall make it possible to slip off with ease our moccasins, my 

younger brothers, they said to one another. 

7. Upon what shall we slip off our moccasins? they said to one 

another, it has been saiil, in this house. 

8. Toward the setting of the sun, 

9. There is an adolescent maiden, 

10. Upon whom we shall always slip off our moccasins, they said to 

one another, it has been said, in tliis house. 

11. When we slip off our moccasins upon the adolescent maiden, 

12. We shall make it possible to slip off with ease our moccasins, my 

younger brothers, they said to one another. 

13. Upon what shall we slip off our moccasins? they said to one 

another, it has been said, in tliis house. 

14. Toward the setting of the sun, 

15. There is a man who is honored for liis military prowess, 

16. Upon whom we shall always slip off our moccasins, they said to 

one another, it has been said, in this house. 

17. When we slip off our moccasins upon the man honored for liis 

military prowess, 
IS. We shall make it possible to slip off with ease our nK)ccasins, my 
younger brothers, they said to one another. 

19. Upon what shall we slip off our moccasins ? they said to one 

another, it has been said, in tliis house. 

20. Towartl the setting of the sun, 

21. There is a woman who has given birth to her first child, 

22. Upon whom we shall always slip off our moccasins, they said to 

one another, it has been said, in this house. 

23. When we slip off our moccasins upon the woman who has given 

birth to her first child, 

24. We shall make it possible to slip off with ease our moccasins, 

my younger brothers, they said to one another. 

At the close of the wi'-gi-e the Sho'-ka removes from the head of 
the Xo'-ka the white downy plume he had been wearing and replaces 
it with a red one which he takes from within the right foot of the 
second pair of symbolic moccasins. When the red plimie has been 
fastened to the base of the braided lock on the crown of his head, 
the Xo'-ka, with a backward sliding movement of liis right foot, 
slips off the moccasin, and in the same manner removes the moccasin 



86 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



from the left foot. He then shps on the second pair, beginning with 
the right foot, and the Sho'-ka fastens them at the ankles. The 
Sho'-ka then places the white plume in the right foot of the pair of 
moccasins that had been slipped off by the Xo'-ka and leaves it in 
that spot, where it remains throughout the rest of the ceremony. 

When the white sjmibolic plmne of the Xo'-ka has been exchanged 
for the red one, and the first pair of moccasins for the second pair, 
the Xo'-ka sings the first stanza of the Song of the Walking Upon the 
Animal Skins, which is more like a call than a song. The title of 
this song should not be taken literally, for the procession does not 
walk upon the skins, but only passes by the symbolic articles which 
are hung upon racks about the middle of the ground (Fig. 2). The 
open space rimning from the east to the west on the ground arranged 
for the ceremony symbolizes the earth, and the animal skins hung 
upon racks along a part of this open space represent all living crea- 
tures of the earth. The sun, in passing over the earth, touches with 
its light all these creatures and gives them life. It is, therefore, the 
sun which is represented b}' the Xo'-ka, who travels (figuratively) 
upon or over the symbolic animal skins. 

The words of the song picture the Xo'-ka and his attendants as 
approacliing and entering the village and finally the House of Mys- 
tery, by a succession of pauses, at each of wliich the Xo'-ka sings a 
stanza descriptive of some conspicuous object along the line of march 
to the eastern end of the "House of Mystery.'' 

This song, the music of wliich is of the nature of a call, has twelve 
stanzas. The same processional form is used, with some modifica- 
tions, by a successful war leader as he triumphantly marches with his 
warriors into the village, and into the ''House of Mystery.' 

SONG. 

(Osage version, p. 392; literal translation, p. 533.) 
Call Transcribed by A I ioe C. Fletcher 



i 



^ 



^ 



TT- 



T.*i u - ho" - ge dsi a-tsi-e tha, 



^ 



m m 



P 



Tsi u-hon-ge dsi a-tsi-e tha, 'Tsi u-hon-ge dsi a-tsi-e tha. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

To the borders of the village I have come. 

2. 
To the footworn grounds of the village I have come. 



lAFLDSCHB] KITE OF VlblL FREE TRANSLATIOK. 87 

3. 

To the frequented parts of ihe village I have come. 

4. 
To the back side of the House of Mj'stery I have come. 

5. 
To the door of the House of Mystery I have come. 

6. 
To the whitened skins of the sacred animals I have come. 

7. 
To the sacred animal skins, swaying in the winds, I have come. 

8. 
To the inner side of the House of Mystery I have come. 

9. 
To the middle of the east end of the House I have come. 

10. 
To the sacred fireplace of the House I have come. 

11. 
Beneath the smoke vent of the House I have come. 

12. 
Into the light of the days I have come. 

The expression used in the final stanza of this song, " Into the light 
of the days I have come," and expressions of like import used in other 
songs of these symbolic rites, appear to be employed to mark the 
completion of important ceremonial acts. For instance, the acts of 
the Xo'-ka. in this ritual, from the time of his symbolic painting and 
dressing to tliis stage of the ceremony, is a dramatization of the com- 
ing of the God of Day (the Sun). As the God of Day emerges from 
the darkness of night to take his journey he first heralds his coming by 
the pale dawn that stretches along the eastern horizon. Then, as he 
comes near, the pale light fades away and he casts upon the eastern 
edge of the earth a crimson color that takes the place of the white 
dawn. It is this crimson color, the color of day, that is put upon the 
face and body of the Xo'-ka. As the Xo'-ka and his attendants take 
their places at the eastern end of the House of Mystery the act of the 
coming of the God of Day is completed, as the sun is about to piu-sue 
his westward journey over the earth and across the sky. The final 
stanzas of the maize planting and harvesting songs may also be 



88 



THE OSAGE TKIBE. 



[ETU. ANN.. 38 



referred to as examples of the manner in wliich some ceremonial acts 
are closed (see pp. 198, 199, 201, 203), as well as the songs of the 
triumphal entry of a victorious war leader into the village and the 
House of Mystery, that close with these words : 

"Into the light of the days I have come home, 
I have come home." 

The songs of triumph will appear in a later volume. 

The Singer, the Xo'-ka, and the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka stand at the 
eastern end of the house, facing the west, as the Xo'-ka sings the 
ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth stanzas of the song, "Walking 
Upon the Animal Skins" (Fig. 2). At the close of the last stanza the 
three men sit down upon blankets or rolies that have heen spread on 




Fig. 3.— Portable shrine, fuldtd 

the ground for their comfort. The Sho'-ka, who is still standing, 
takes the wa-xo'-be, portable shrine (PI. 5; Fig. 3), and places it on 
the ground in front of the Xo'-ka, being careful to see that the sacred 
hawk, enshrined therein, lies with its head toward the Tsi'-zhu side of 
the house. He at the same time places in front of the A'-ki-ho" 
Xo'-ka a gourd rattle (Fig. 2, B). Having performed this duty, the 
Sho'-ka takes liis seat at the left, toward the Ho^'-ga side of the house 
(Fig. 2). 

Songs of Untying the Shrine. 

The next movement, which is the actual opening of the ceremony 
proper, begins %vith the singing of a series of eight songs having in 
common the title, Wa-xo'-be Thu-shke Wa-tho", Songs of Untying 



LAFLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 89 

the Shrine. These songs ar^ accompanied by certain ceremonial acts 
which must be performed by the Xo'-ka himself. 

The title of the first of these songs is Wa-xo'-be Ga-xi Wa-tho", 
Songs of Awakening the Wa-xo'-be. The name Wa-xo'-be in the 
title of this song refers directly to the Sacred Hawk kept within the 
portable slirine. All the words of the six stanzas of this song, being 
archaic, are untranslatable except one word, wliich occurs in the 
third line of each stanza. These words are as follows: first stanza, 
f-i, feet; second stanza, lii, legs; tliird stanza, zhu, body; fourth 
stanza, a, arms; fifth stanza, jia, head; sixth stanza, i, mouth. These 
words refer to the parts of the body of a man, a man perfect in his 
physical structure, and in complete control of all its various parts. 
Tliis imaginary symbolic man not only personifies the military organ- 
ization of the people for defensive or offensive warfare, but he rep- 
resents the warrior of the tribe, strongly endowed physically, gifted 
with courage and power of decisive action, qualities necessary for 
the valiant man who must be ever ready to meet the foe. To the 
Hawk, the emblem of these qualities, is given the name Wa-xo'-be, 
A Thing Sacred, now to be awakened with song and ceremonial acts 
and to be brought forth from the recesses of its inner shrine, that 
symbolizes the starry heavens and the verdant earth. 

As the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka begins to sing the song the Xo'-ka places 
his hands upon the shrine, one hand at each end, and in this attitude 
he waits. At the closing line of the first stanza he raises lus right 
hand and lets it fall gently on the shi-ine. The singing continues 
without pause and at the last line of the second stanza the Xo'-ka 
raises liis left hand and lets it drop on the shrine. This alternate 
lifting of the hands by the Xo'-lia and letting them fall softly upon 
the shrine to awaken the Wa-xo'-be continues to the close of the song. 



90 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[BTH. ANN. 39 



.M.Jl: 



M.M.J': 



168 



Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 393; literal translation, p. 534.) 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



r r r r r t^- f t 



Time beats 



Wfji^ m 



r r --f r r r r 

9a thi-ko we he, 



Wa 



r ^" r r r r 

ki-ta ha we he 



-yr p ~ppP g . i ir^^^^n P ^ ^ T^ ^ 



r r ' r r r 

Wa - 9a thi-ko we, 



^m 



n t 7 



r r r r r r r 

wa - 9a thi-ko we he. 



^ If P P P ^ 



r 



r r r r r r 



Ki-ta ha - we he, 



91 



i r 

hi" da. 



M^3. ^^ J^ J> > B 



^i'^p^JPFP 



* * 



r .r 

Wa 



L ^ r r r 

a •thi-ko we he, 



r r r r r 

ki-ta ha-we he. 

*No tie for the other stanzas 



The title of the second song is Ki-thi'-to° Wa-tho", The Song of 
Reversal. The song is sung four times, at each of which the position 
of the shrine is reversed so that the head of the sacred hawk within 
the shi'ine may point toward the Tsi'-zhu or toward the Ho"'-ga side 
of the house. These ceremonial acts of the Xo'-ka emphasize the 
idea of the ancient No"'-ho"-zhi"-ga who formulated the rites, that 
in all war movements there must be unity of purpose and of action 
by the people of the two great tribal divisions, and that all must 
share alike in the fortunes and misfortunes of the tribal enterprises. 

The close of song 1 is followed by a slight pause, after which the 
A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka begins to sing song 2. At the fourth line the 
Xo'-ka, who has kept his hands quietly on the shrine, at once reverses 
the position of the shrine so that the head of the Sacred Bird is 
turned from the Tsi'-zhu toward the Ho°'-ga side of the house. 
This act of reversing is done four times. 

The word Ki-thi'-to", meaning reverse, is the only wonl that can 
be interpreted. All the others are untranslatable, being archaic and 
obsolete. 



I.A FLB.SCHE] 



KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



91 



Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 3S3; literal translation, p. 534.) 

J Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



^ M. M.«i : 116 • 



Time beats t f f t ^ t f^ f ^ ^ 

A he 9i-kon-da ha he, a he he, ^i-ko"-da ha ha we, A 






r r 

he 9i-kon-da ha ha we A he ki-thi-to" tse he, a he 



^'^^?'^VJ.Jl^ 



^ 



a 



he, — ^i-kon.da ha ha we, A he 9i-ko"-da ha ha we. 

From all that has been gathered during several years of close 
study of the religious conceptions of the Osage people there is reason 
for the belief that the ancient No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga who formulated these 
intricate rites, and many of the men of the succeeding generations 
through whom these rites were transmitted, knew that the various 
articles dedicated for ceremonial use, together with their prescribed 
forms, were intended to be employed as aids in conveying certain 
fundamental ideas that could not be adequately expressed by words 
alone. They also knew that there resided in the articles thus dedi- 
cated no mystical power to excite fear or to be adored. There were, 
however, men and women, initiated as well as iminitiated, who 
drifted hopelessly into a literal belief that articles declared by the 
" Holy Men " to be sacred and to be treated with reverent regard had 
thereby become possessed of a mystical power which the articles 
themselves could exercise for good or for evil. 

The Song of Reversal, vrith its prescribed ceremonial acts, is an 
' example of the foregoing. It was learned from some of the No^'-ho"- 
zhi°-ga themselves that the men who were mentally alert when 
receiving their initiatory instructions thoughtfully discerned that this 
song with its Sttendant ceremonies teaches that in all important 
tribal matters the two great tribal divisions must act as a single body 
and be animated by one mind. On the other hand, there were men 
of the tribe less gifted mentally, to whom the sjTnbolic movements 
that accompany the song meant sunply that the dead bird within the 
shrine had actually been awakened and had of its own volition 
inclined its head with favor toward one division and then toward the 
other. 



92 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. an-x.39 

In former days wlien the Osage people were often forced to retaliate 
upon their enemies to insure self-protection, a war leader, at a critical 
moment, as when about to order his men to attack a village, would, 
among other songs, sing the Song of Reversal. On such an occasion 
six stanzas were given to the song, and the words of the fourth line of 
each stanza were modified so as to give the song a supplicatory char- 
acter. Freely translated, these words were as follows: 

1. Make their feet to be cramped. 

2. Make their legs to be cramped. 

3. Make their bodies to be cramped. 

4. Make tlieir arms to be cramped. 

5. Make their heads to be cramped. 

6. Make their mouths to be cramped. 

The third song has five stanzas. The singing of the song is accom- 
panied with a series of ceremonial acts performed by the Xo'-ka. He 
unties the hanging strap of the shrine and unfolds one by one the suc- 
cession of symbolic cases in order to remove therefrom the sacred 
hawk for use in the ceremonies to follow. 

In order that the meaning of the song with its accompanying cere- 
monial acts may be better understood, it may be well, before proceed- 
ing with the song, to give a brief description of the various articles 
that compose the portable slirine (Fig. 3) and their symbolic signifi- 
cance, and also to indicate the gentes whose office it is to furnish 
these articles as well as to recite the wi'-gi-es relating to them. 

1. The wide strap woimd around the middle of the shiine (PI. 5, A), 
and by which it is hung in its place, either at the right or at the left of 
the door of the house of the owner, is made of buffalo skin. The office 
of f lu-nishing the skinf or tliis strap when renewing an old shrine or mak- 
ing a new one, as well as the reciting of the wi'-gi-e relating to the 
strap, belongs to the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" and the f i'''-dse-a-gthe, two 
gentes of the Tsi'-zhu great division. (For origin of the sacred 
straps, see Ni'-ki Ritual of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" gens, 36th Ann. Rept. 
B. A. E., pp. 262-208.) 

2. A scalp is attached to the hanging strap of the slirine (PI. 5, ^). 
The office of contributing this scalp belongs to the Wa-pa'-be and I"- 
gtho"'-ga gentes of the Ho"'-ga subdivision of the Ho^'-ga great 
division. (The mythical story of the contribution of the scalp by 
these two gentes is to be found in lines 98 to 103 of tli* Wi'-gi-e of the 
Birth of the Bird, to be given in a later volume.) 

3. The leg of an eagle is also attached to the hanging strap of the 
shrine (PI. 5, A). The office of furnishing the eagle's leg belongs to 
the Ho"'-ga A-hiu-to°, Winged Ho^'-ga (eagle) gens of the Ho"'-ga 
subdivision of the Ho"'-ga great division. (The story of the act which 
the eagle's leg commemorates is recorded in the wi'-gi-e belonging to 
this gens, 36th Ann. Rept. B. A. E., pp. 212-219.) 



I^FLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 93 

4. A case naade of woven buffalo hair (PI. 5, B) forms the outer cov- 
ering of the shrine. The office of furnisliing the material for the weav- 
ing of the case belongs to the Tho'-xe (Buffalo Bull) gens of the Tsi'^zhu 
great division. In the manner of procuring this requisite material 
the people are again reminded of the importance of a unity of pur- 
pose and of action by the people of the two great divisions in all 
tribal matters, for when performing the duty of gathering the mate- 
rial the hair must be plucked from the right shoulder of the buffalo 
when the shrine is to be made for a gens of the Ho°'-ga great division 
and from the left shoulder when the shrine is to be made for a gens 
of the Tsi'-zhu great division. This prescribed rule for gathering the 
material for the case also teaches that when hunting the buffalo, a 
food animal, the people must arrive at their decisions as with one 
mind and act as with a single body in order that each member of 
the tribe may have a chance of securing his share in the common herd. 

5. A bag made of deer skin (PI. 5, C). The office of fiu-nishing the 
material for this bag belongs to the Ta' I-ni-ka-shi-ga, Deer People, 
gens of the Wa-zha'-zhe subtlivision of the Ho"'-ga great division. 

6. A buffalo skin rope is wound around the woven rush case within 
which lies the sacred hawk (PI. 5, D). Ropes and straps consecrated 
for ceremonial use are said to be types of those the warriors carry with 
them when going on the warpath to be used in tying captives. The 
office of furnishing the material for this article belongs to the Tse- 
do'-ga I"-dse (Buffalo Face) gens of the Tsi'-zhu great division. 

7. The inner shrine, within which lies the sacred hawk, is made of 
woven rush (PI. 5, D)\ ^'a zlii"-ga, little rush (Eleocharis interstincta), 
for the woof, and the Ha'-tlo-ga, nettle weed ( Urtica gracilis) , for the 
warp. These two plants are regarded as sacred and are gathered cere- 
monially when required for use in making the inner shrine. The 
office of furnishing these materials and of reciting the wi'-gi-es 
relating to them belongs to two gentes of the Wa-zha'-zhe sub- 
division of the Ho"'-ga great division, namely, the Ke'-k'i°, Turtle 
Carrier, and the Wa-ke'-the-stse-dse, Cat-tail gentes. 

As the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka sings the first stanza of the third song the 
Xo'-ka places the tips of his fingers upon the knot which holds 
together the ends of the wide strap that forms a loop by which the 
shrine is himg in its prescribed place in the house of the owner. 
While the second stanza is being sung he hurriedly removes from the 
shrine the hanging strap, the buffalo hair case, the deerskin case, and 
the long buffalo-skin rope wound aroimd the woven rush case and 
lays them aside. At the third stanza he unfolds the flap of the 
woven rush case. As the fourth stanza is sung he opens wide the 
mouth of the case, and at the fifth stanza he removes from the rush 
case the hawk, still in its deerskin pouch. 



94 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



The word tsi-the', in the fifth stanza, wliicli is descriptive of the 
act of the Xo'-ka in bringing the sacred hawk out of the symbolic 
rush case, is the same word as that used when speaking of the birth 
of a chikl. 

All the words of this song, excepting the first word of every line 
of each stanza, are archaic or obsolete and cannot be translated. 
The five translatable words that are descriptive of the acts of the 
Xo'-ka and that belong to each of the five stanzas are as follows: 

1. Thi-to"', he touches (the knot of the hanging strap). 

2. Thu-shke', he unties (the knot). 

3. Gtha-tha', he unfolds (the flap of the rush case). 

4. Ga-wa', he opens wide (the mouth of the rush case). 

5. Tsi-the', it passes (the bird passes as in birth). 

Song 3. , 

(Osage version, p. -394; literal translation, p. 534.) 




104 



Trangcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



^ ^n. 



^ 



^ 



^=?= 



Thne beats f f III [ 

Thi-to" mon-ki she the - the wa ha, 




•^ r r 

Thi-ton mon-ki sho the - the wa ha 




T r 

Thi-toi> mon-ki 



rr 



she 



the - tho wa ha, 




r r rr r r r r r r r r 

Thi-to" moi'-ki shothe-thowaha, Thi-ton molki sho the-thowaha. 

The Wa-xo'-be, the Sacred Hawk (PI. 6), symbol of the courage of 
the warrior, is kept in a deerskin pouch (PL 6) made to fit closely to 
the body of the bird. This pouch is open at both ends, but to the end 
at which the head of the bird lies there is attached a gathering thong 
in order to close that opening. A carrying strap is tied to the 
middle of the pouch. This strap is made just long enough to go 
around the neck of the commander, who must carry the bird on his 
back as he goes forth to make an attack. The lower end of the pouch 
is always left open and cut into slits, in the midst of which can be seen 
the hair of the bits of scalp attached to the base of the bird's tail. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY THIRTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 6 




WA-XO'-BE AND POUCH 



a. 
O 

Q. 



o 
o 

_J 

o 

z 
I 




LJI FLESCHE] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



95 



During a short pause, after singing the last stanza of the thinl song, 
the Xo'-ka removes from the pouch its carrpng strap. Then as the 
A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka sings the first stanza of the fourth song the Xo'-ka 
places his fingers upon the knot of the thong tliat gathers together 
and closes the top or mouth of the pouch. During the singing of the 
second stanza he unties the knot. At the tliird stanza he loosens the 
fastening. The fourth stanza is simg while he opens wide the mouth 
of the pouch. As the fifth stanza is being sung he grasps with his left 
hand the body of the pouch and with a forward movement of the right 
hand gently draws from the mouth of the pouch the bird by its head. 

The use of archaic words in the song makes it difficult to give a free 
translation, but it may suffice to give the interpretation of the words 
descriptive of the acts of the Xo'-ka throughout the song. These 
words are as follows: 

1. Thi-to"', he touches (the knot of the thong holding closed the mouth of the 

pouch). 

2. Thu-shke', he unties (the knot of the thong). 

3. Gtha-tha', it loosens (the mouth of the pouch, as though of its own volition). 

4. Ga-wa', it opens wide (the mouth of the pouch, as though of its own accord). 

5. Tsi-the', it passes (the hawk, as in the act of birth). 



Song 4. 
(Osage version, p. 395; literal translation, p. 534.) 



M.M 



.J-i 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher . 




•J r r r r 

Time beats ' ' ' ' 

Thi-fo" mo"-ki -sho ho 



tsi-the ta-ko" fha. 




r r r r 

Thi-to" mon-ki - she ho 



r r r 

tsi-the ta-kon tha ha. 



r r r r r r r ^ r ^ r 



Ki-a ha wa ha tsi-the ta-ko" tha, Ki-a ha wa ha 




r r r r r r ^ r r 

tsi-the ta-ko" tha ha, Thi-to° mon-ki-sho ho 



y'«Aa^- 



r r r r r r r r r r 

tsi-the ta-ko" tha, Thi-to" mo°-ki-sho ho tsi-the ta-ko" tha. 



96 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

In response to a remark relating to the perfunctory manner in 
wliich the Xo'-iva removed the buffalo hair case and the deerskin case 
from the slirine, Wa-xthi'-zhi said: " O'-ga-xe thi°-ge," they are of no 
account. From a conversation that followed it was gathered that 
he did not intend the wonls to be accepted in their ordinary sense, 
but what he meant to convey was, that the two symbolic articles had 
no special part to play in this particular ceremony as had the other 
articles of the slu-ine. The upper part of the rush case with its woven 
conventional designs symbolically represented the sky, the father; 
the under part, the earth, the mother of all life. The ceremonial acts 
of the Xo'-ka accompanying the final stanza of the third song referred 
to the birth of all living forms. 

The words of the third and fourth songs are alike, but the meaning 
of the two songs is not the same. The third song refers to the birth 
of all forms of life from the power which abides in the sky and the 
.earth. The fourth song relates to the birth of the Sacred Hawk, 
which symbolizes the warrior, the man himself, who is endowed with 
the attribute of courage. 

The mythical story of the Hawk, the child of the Sun and the Moon, 
will appear in its wi'-gi-e form in a later volume. 

In the ceremonial acts of the Xo'-ka when taking the Hawk, still 
within its pouch, from the woven rush case, and when removing the 
Hawk from its deerskin pouch, particular care must be observed by 
him to make liis movements forward, that is, the motion must be 
away from and not toward himself, for the reason that each of these 
movements of the Xo'-ka refers to birth into life. 

After the Sacred Hawk has thus been brought forth from its shrine 
the Xo'-ka blesses hinaself with it. This he does by touching with it 
the crown of his head, his arms, body, and legs. 

The fifth song has but one stanza. In it the Hawk is addressed as 
a man and given the greeting of welcome. He wears the insignia of a 
warrior and bears to the people the attribute of courage. 

As the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka sings the song the Xo'-ka, grasping with 
both hands the body, dances the bird to the rhythm of the music. 



I.A. FLBSCHB] 



BITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



97 



M 



M. J 



Song 5. 
(Osage version, p. 396; literal traDslation, p. 535.) 

Transcribed bv Alice C. Fletcher 



153 



# 



Ea 



- f^ u F u^ wsm 



Time beats f T f ft'' ^ 

Ni-kaetho,shonnida,ha-we, Ni-kae tho.shonni da,ha-we, 



f^ 1^ Ji J J J J^ 



m 



m 



^p^^ 



*r~f 



r ^ r r r - r r r. 

Ni - ka e tho, sho" ni da, ha-we, Ni - ka wa ha, kc-ha tha-tsi" da, ha- 



V r •' f f r ' f r 



we, Ni-kaetho,wihin da 



r ^ r r 

da, Ki-no" tho-ton tha, tho-to"-a. 




Ki-nontho-toi tha,tho-to''-aha,Ki-no"tho wi hi" da da. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 

Thou man, who art perfect, Ha-we ! (a greeting of welcome). 

Thou man, who art perfect, Ha-we ! 

Thou man, who art perfect, Ha-we ! 

Thou man, near to us hast thou come, Ha-we ! 

(Behold, here is a man.) 

(Behold, the straight line 6f adornment.) 

(Behold, the straight line of adornment.) 

(It is the straight line of adornment.) 

In the sixth song the Sacred Hawk is spoken of as "Grandfather." 
This kinship term is not employed in its ordinary meaning but as 
denoting reverence. The term is applied to tilings mysterious, or of 
a mysterious nature, such as the smi, the moon, to single stars or 
groups of stars that are particularly conspicuous, and to certain 
forms of animal or plant life. 

While the term "Grandfather," as used in this song, appears to 
refer directly to the Hawk, the symbol of the valiant warrior, yet 
in reality the term reflects back to the ancient No"'-ho°-zhi''-ga who, 
long ago, sat around the fireplace of their House of Mystery pondering 
over the means by which the life of their people as an organized 
body might best be prolonged. Reverence was therefore due to 
these men of the olden times, for the thought they put into the rites 
3594°— 25t 7 



98 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

by which the people could in an orderly manner organize their 
military forces for defensive or offensive warfare. Their gatherings, 
their coimcils religiously held, partook of a mysterious nature and 
were therefore regarded by the people as sometliing higher than the 
ordinary practices of life, consequently the term '"Grandfather" 
could fittingly be applied. 

As the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka sings the sixth song the following cere- 
monial movements are performed by the Xo'-ka, who sits facing the 
west. With his right hand he grasps the bird around its body and 
makes it dance to the rhythm of the music. At the fourth line of 
the first stanza the' Xo'-ka lifts aloft the bird to the full length of 
his arm and then with a quick downward stroke describes an undu- 
lating line. This undulating line from the zenith to the earth is for 
the winds that come from the north with violence and destructive 
force. The singing and the dancing of the bird continues without 
pause until the fourth line of the second stanza, when the Xo'-ka 
again lifts aloft the bird to the full length of his arm and with a 
cjuick movement from the zenith to the earth makes a straight line. 
This straight line is for the winds that come from the east, following 
the straight path of the sun to the zenith with gentleness and life- 
giving influence. The song and the dancing of the bird go on until 
the fourth line of the tliird stanza, when the Xo'-ka again lifts the 
bird to the zenith and brings it down to the earth with an umlulating 
line. This movement is for the south, whence come the hot winds 
that are destructive to plants. The dancing and the singing con- 
tinue without pause until the fom-th line of the last stanza, when the 
Xo'-ka once more lifts the bird to the zenith and brings it down in 
a straight line. This movement is the straight path from the zenith 
to the west whence come the refresliing winds and rain. 

This song with its ceremonial acts also indicates that the symbolic 
bird stands at the middle of the earth over wliich the sun passes on 
its westward journey, shedding as it goes its life-giving influence 
toward the north and toward the south. 

It is not possible to give a full translation of the words of the 
song, for the reason that all but a few of them are archaic or obso- 
lete. The words that are translatable are as follows: Tsi-go tsi, 
my grandfather has come; in the first and third stanza, Ba-xo° tse, 
the undulating; in the second and fourth stanzas, Tho-to° tse, the 
straight. 



LA PLDSCHE] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



99 



- 96 



Song 6. 
(Osage version, p. 396; literal translation, p. 635.) 

Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



Time beats r T , T f f f f ' ^ f f 

Tsi-go tsi he ko i thanonte, Tsi-gotsihe ko i tha no" te, 




Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha, no" te, Ba-xo°tsehe ko i thano"te. 



^m 







Cj- r I g J r-^-^ ^ 



f r r r r r f rrf r r 

Tsi-go tsi he ko i thano" te, Tsi-go tsi he ko i thanonte. 

Preparing to Enter the House of Mystery. 

At the beginning of the singing of the series of songs during which 
the shrine is ceremonially opened by the Xo'-ka, the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga 
of the Ho°'-ga great division assemble at the house of a prominent 
man belonging to that division and the No'''-ho"-zhi"-ga of the 
Tsi'-zhu great division gather at the house of a man of that division 
for the purpose of dressing and symbolically painting their faces, 
preparatory to their ceremonial a|)pr<ntch and entrance into the House 
of Mystery where sit the Xo'-ka, the Singer, and the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka. 

As the sixth song is being sung the No'''-ho°-zhi°-ga of the two great 
divisions come out of their respective houses and stand outside to 
wait for the close of the song, which will be the signal for them to 
approach in a prescribed order the place of the ceremony. While 
thus waiting, the men of the two great tribal divisions take part in a 
drama that commemorates the introduction by the two gentes, the 
Ni'-ka Wa-ko°-da-gi and the Tho'-xe, of the Hawk to be used as an 
emblem of courage in the war rite by which war parties were to be 
organized in smaller bodies than by the hundreds, and also to indicate 
the great lapse of time before the rite belonging to this modified form 
was formulated and perfected. (See 36th Ann. Rept. B. A. E., 
pp. 64-65.) In preparation for their part in this drama the two 
gentes, the Ni'-ka Wa-ko°-da-gi and the Tho'-xe, occupy a separate 
house wherein to make their preparation for the ceremonial approach 
to the House of Mystery. Sutldenly the No°'-ho°-zhi''-ga of the two 
great divisions, as they stand waiting, exhibit, by their manner and 
speech, impatience at the delay of the two gentes in coming out of 



100 THi- OSAGE TKIBE. [kth. ann. 39 

their house. After many calls a Sho'-ka is sent by the impatient men 
to urge the tardy ones to make haste. Finally the two gentes come 
out of their house, only to stop in front of the door and engage in a 
noisy debate over some question. The men of the two great divisions 
continue to call to the tarrying gentes who, after a wliile, come slowly 
forward to join the waiting men. 

The singing of the sixth song conies to a close and the procession 
moves toward the place of ceremony in the following order: The 
Wa-zha'-zhe subdivision of the great Ho^'-ga tribal division leading, 
followed by the Ho^'-ga subdivision; next come the men of the 
Tsi'-zhu division, and then the two tard^- gentes, the Tho'-xe first 
and the Ni'-ka Wa-ko°-da-gi last of all. In this order all the No"'- 
ho°-zhi''-ga approach the place of the ceremony. 

The drama enacted before this processional approach to the House 
began, refers to the mythical story of the order in which the people 
marched over the earth when they first descended from above until 
they came to the village of a strange people (now represented by the 
Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi gens in the gentile organization), whom they 
persuaded to become a part of the tribe. (See 36th Ann. Rept. 
B. A. E., pp. 59-61.) 

When the two divisions have entered the House and it becomes the 
turn of the two gentes to enter, the Tho'-xe who are in advance and 
close to the door stand still and permit the Ni'-ka Wa-ko°-da-gi to 
pass into the House first, then the Tho'-xe follow and so become the 
last to enter. 

No definite explanation could be obtained as to the meaning of this 
final act of the two gentes, the Ni'-ka Wa-ko"-da-gi and Tho'-xe, but 
from certain intimations in the tribal rituals it would seem that the 
exchange of positions between the two related gentes has reference to 
a question of official precedence which the ancient No°'-ho"-zhi''-ga 
appear to have had some difficulty in settling definitely. The 
mytlucal story of the coming of these two gentes from above to join 
the people bears directly upon this point. The following is a para- 
phi-ase of the story: 

Legend of the Hawk Wa-xo'-be. 

The No'''-ho"-zhi"-ga, having determined upon the Hawk as suitable 
for use in the new war ritual as an emblem of courage, proceeded to 
make a Hawk emblem (called AVa-xo'-be) for each of the Seven Fire- 
places of the Ho^'-ga, the Wa-zha'-zhe and the fsi'-zhu. As they 
sat busily at work within their House of Mystery they were suddenly 
startleti by a loud clap of thunder. The Sho'-ka was quickly sent out 
to see who it was that made such a startling noise. He soon returned 
and reported that it was Ni'-ka Wa-ko"-da-gi who made the noise. 
The No°'-ho°-zhi"-ga all agreed that he was a desirable person to have 



LAPLBSCHE] KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 101 

and upon their invitation, together with a promise that all the 
Wa-xo'-be would be given to him, that person descended. Almost 
as soon as he descentled and alighted upon the ridgepole of the House 
another terrifying noise was heard just outside of the door. The 
Sho'-ka was again sent to see what person it was who could make 
such a terrible noise. As the Sho'-ka threw aside the doorflap there 
stood a huge buffalo bull who, as he pawed the earth, angrily bel- 
lowed forth: "I am Tho'-xe, Lift ye your heads!" Struck with 
terror, the No°'-ho°-zhi''-ga hastily gathered up the sacred emblems 
and threw them toward the angry bull, whereupon he became quiet 
and friendly. 

From this story it would appear that originally the Ni'-ka Wa-ko"- 
da-gi was given the custody of the sacred emblems, but to settle a 
dispute that arose between the two gentes concerning the office the 
No°'-ho°-zhi"-ga made the two gentes joint custodians of the Wa- 
xo'-be. The matter of precedence, however, remained vague and 
undetermined. At an initiatory ceremony the Ni'-ka Wa-ko°-da-gi 
must perform the service of renewing the decoration of the Hawk, 
but if he happens to be absent then the Tho'-xe must act in his 
place. The permanent office of the Tho'-xe was to officiate at the 
ceremonial planting of the maize and also to furnish the material for 
making the outside covering of the portable shrine. 

The Symbolic ALvn. 

The seventh of this series of songs has a subtitle, Ni'-ka Xo-be 
U-gthi° U-tha-ge, freely translated, Assigning the Holy Men Their 
Seats. It is said that only a few of the No'''-ho°-zhi"-ga really know 
to whom the greeting expressed in this song is addressed. Those 
who have persistently striven to learn the meaning of this song have 
found out that the greeting is addressed to the Symbolic Man, who 
stands as a sjonbol of the miity of the people of the two great tribal 
divisions, the Ho°'-ga and the fsi'-zhu. In their conception of the 
unity of life the ancient Xo^'-ho^-zhi^-ga included not only human 
life but also all forms of life that issue from the combined influences 
of the celestial and terrestrial worlds. 

The Symbolic Man is reverently addressed as Tsi-go, Grandfather 
because he is of a mysterious nature and also stands for the con- 
tinuity of the tribal life. The song is an expression of gladness at 
the coming of this mysterious person into existence as a man com- 
plete in bodily form. To each part of his body that empowers him 
to move and act is given a stanza in the song : (1) fi, his feet by which 
he has the power of standing: (2) lii, liis legs by which he moves 
from place to place; (3) zhu, his body which contains his vital parts; 
(4) a, his arms by which he defends himself and procures the means 



102 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[BTH. ANN. 39 



of living; (5j pa, his head which empowers him to formulate his 
thoughts; (6) i, his mouth which enables him to give expression to 
his thoughts. All these powers in turn were greeted with gladness. 

The words that are translatable are: Tsi-go, Grandfather; tha-tsi e, 
O, you have come; Ha-we, a word of greeting, also the names for 
the various parts of the body mentioned above. Ta-ko'i°da is an 
archaic expression which could not be interpreted by the men 
consulted. 

When the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka starts to sing the seventh song the 
No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga of the two great divisions and the two gentes, the 
Ni'-ka Wa-ko°-da-gi and Tho'-xe, enter the House of Mystery in the 
order as given on page 100. 

Song 7. 

(Osage version, p. 397; literal translation, p. 5.35.) 
jj jf J - iQo Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 




Ti^e beats' T T f T f f T 

Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, Ta-ko i" da, ha-we, ha-we he, 




r r r r 

Ci non tha, ^i no" tha-tsi'-e, Ta-ko i" da, ha-we, ha-we he, 




Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, Ta-ko i" da, ha-we, ha-we he, 




r r r r r r r ^ 

Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, Ta-ko i" da, ha-we, ha-we he. 

The words of the eighth song are practically the same as those of 
the seventh, but the intent of the two songs is different. It is said 
that in the eighth song the greeting of welcome is extended to each 
No°'-ho''-zhi"-ga in person and the No^'-ho^-zlii^-ga collectively in 
their priestly capacity in which they are designated as Ni'-ka Xo-be, 
Holy Men. 

During the singing of the eighth song the No°'-ho"-zlii°-ga take 
their seats, those of the Wa-zha'-zhe and the Ho°'-ga subdivisions of 
the Ho"'-ga great division at the south side of the House and those 
of the Tsi'-zhu great division at the north side, each gens of both 
di\dsions having its own permanent place in the House. 



LA FLESCHE] 



EITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



103 



At the close of the last stanza the Xo'-ka puts dowa in front of 
him the Wa-xo'-be. 

Song 8. 

(Osage version, p. 398; literal translation, p. 536.) 

»•••.» n „„ Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher . 

MM. Jl- "" 




Time beats ' * T I* 

Tsi-go thatsi-esho^nidawe, Tsi -go thatsi-e sho"nida we, Ci 



r r r r pr^ ^ " r r r r^ 

non tha tsi-e shon ni da we, Tsi - go thatsi-e sho" nida we, Tsi - 



^^^^^te 



r r r r r r r r r r r 

go tha tsi-e 8ho°ni da we, Tsi - go tha tsi-e sho" n: da we. 

Spirit Songs. 

At the close of the series of songs relating to the opening of the 
shiine, the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka, after a short pause, begins to sing the 
first of the group of Wa-no^'-xe Wa-tho", Spirit Songs, next in order. 
These songs teach the initiate that even as he lives and moves about 
in the midst of earthly life he also lives in the midst of the realm of 
death; that there is continuity- of life not only in this workl but in 
the spirit world as well. 

These songs refer to the spirits of his ancestors, of the men who 
have fallen in battle, who belonged to his own tribe, and also to the 
spirits of the men of the foe, for all travel upon the same well-trodden 
path to the spirit land. 



104 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[BTH. ANN. ! 



Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 399; litera Jtranslation, p. 537.) 

Music of ist and 3rd Stanzas 
M.M. • r 104 Transcribed by Alice C Fletcher 



^'1^ \ vl^ r ^=^F^r^ nj J m 



r 



r r r r r 



r 



r 



Time beats ' i i i i | { • 

Wa-no" - xe i a - do" a-no^-lt'on mi" - kshe no", Wa-no"- 



i 



Ets 



^ 



r^^^t-r^ 



^ 



r r r 



r r 



r r r 



xe i a - do" a-no"-k'o" mi" - kshe the ho. 



Wa -no" - 



$ 



I' I n n-j 



^ 



m 



^ 



r r r r r r r ' f r r 

xe tsi-ho-ko" dsi i a - do" a-iio"-k'o" mi" kshe, Wa-no". 




r r ' r r r r r f f ^ 

xei a-do"a-no"-k'o"mi"-k9he tho,Wa-no"- xei a-do"a-nonk'o"mi"- 



^\!'i\' w Wir r r ^ n \iU m i 



r -r r 



r r r r r 



r r 



kshe, Wa-no" - xe i a - do" a-noo-ko"^ mi" - kshe. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

I hear the coming of spirits, 

I hear the coming of spirits, 

To the smolie-vent I hear the spirits come. 

I hear the coming of spirits, 

I hear the coming of spirits, 

I hear the coming of spirits. 

2. 

To the rear of the house I hear the spirits come. 

3. 
To the ends of the house I hear the spirits come. 

4. 
Within the house I hear the spirits come. 



LA. FLESCHB] 



EITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



105 



Song 2. 
(Osage version, p 400; literal translation, p. 537.) 

vj « J _ jQg Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




H-j n i ijj ^ 



Tin,ebeats ^ T T T T T ' f T f T 

Wa-no"-xea-dsibthe tato" he the, E wi-tsi-go 



S 



SJ3^^v=?ar^h-i ^ 



# 1 * 



^ 



r r ' f r r r r r r r 

bthe ta to" he the Wii-jio"-xe dsi bthe ta ton he the, 



^ T'ii f mni^^^uu ij" 



r r r r r r r r - r - r r 

Wi- tsi-gobthe ta ton he the Wa-non-xe dsibthe tato" 




j ll lj J j_^ ll .-^^ ^ 



i 



^ 



r r r r r r 

he the, Wi tsi-go bthe 



r r r 

ta to" he the. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

For my journey to the spirit land I stand ready, 

To the land where my fathers have gone. 

For my journey to the spirit land I stand ready. 

To the land where my fathers have gone. 

For my journey to the spirit land I stand ready. 

To the land where my fathers have gone. 



106 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[EWH. ANN. 39 



M.M. d = 133 



Song 3. 

(Osage version, p. 400; literal translation, p. 538.) 

First Stanza 



Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 




Time beats 



Wa - no" - xe a-tha hi the the, U - zho" - 




^ r r r r ' - r 

ge a-tha bi the the, U-zho"- ge u-wa-pathi" he, Wa-no". 




r f r r r 

xe a-tha bi the, U-zho"- ge u-wa-pa thi" he, 



r 

Wa-no" - 



^ 



r 



^ 



^ 



T r 



^ 



-rj^ ^ 



r r 



r 



»e a-tha bi the, U-zho"- ge u-wa - pa thi" he, 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

All have gone to the land of spirits, 
Leaving a well-trodden path, 
Already upon that path I am traveling. 
All have gone to the land of spirits, 
Upon their path I am traveling. 
All have gone to the land of spirits, 
Upon their path I am traveling. 



All have gone to the land of spirits. 

Leaving a well-trodden path. 

Already upon that path I am traveling. 

My grandfathers liave gone to the land of spirits, 

Upon their path I am traveling. 

All have gone to the land of spirits, 

Leaving a well-trodden path. 

Songs of the Vigils. 

Following the Spirit Songs is a group of two songs called No°'- 
zhi°-zho" Wa-tho". The title of this group of songs may be literally 
translated as follows: No^-zhi", stand; zho", asleep; Wa-tho", songs. 



LAFLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL FREE TBANSLATION. 107 

These songs refer to the vigils of a man who is chosen for the office 
of leader of a war party. His office is one of great hardship, because 
he must act as intermediary between the people and Wa-ko"'-da and 
offer to that power the prayers of the people for aid in an enterprise 
that is serious and uncertain in its futui-e consequences. The chosen 
leader is required, for the time, to abandon all thoughts of human 
affairs, even to disregard his physical comforts or discomforts, to 
keep his mind fixed only upon the supplications of the people and 
upon the divine power to whom he offers them. He must keep 
awake while he offers the prayers so as not to lose any sign of approval 
that might be' revealed to him in answer to the prayers. To insure 
wakefulness the supplicant must staml or he must move about, or if 
forced by exhaustion to rest he must sit in an upright ])osition, 
although he may lean against a rock or against the trunk of a tree. 
He must, however, remain awake whether he stands or sits and keep 
his mind fixed upon the divine power to whom he must cry con- 
tinually for a period of four days, or seven if his strength holds out 
for that length of time. Thus it will be imderstood that the title 
of this group of songs is figurative and means that when the chosen 
war leader takes this rite he is to be as it were asleep to all human 
affairs but stand awake as he offers the appeals of his people to 
Wa-ko^'-da. 

In his seven days vigil this chosen leader represents all of the 
people, and at the end of the four or seven days his duty as repre- 
sentative of all the people has been performed. When he returns to 
his home then begin the rites pertaining to the organization of the 
war party and the leader's responsibility as intermediary shifts from 
the people to the warriors who are to risk their lives for the tribe. 
Throughout the expedition the leader must maintain his vigil and 
his appeals to the divine power for aid to the warriors. During the 
march he must walk apart and at night must camp alone with no 
one for companion, for he must be alone when in the presence of 
Wa-ko"'-da. When he lies down for required sleep he must always 
lie on his side, never on liis back, in order that the vigil might remain 
unbroken, in spirit at least, until the expedition comes to an end. 
This is what No°'-zhi"-zho", the native title of the Rite of Vigil, 
means. By some authors on Indian customs the term "fast" is 
applied to this rite; while the term is correctly used it, nevertheless, 
is very partial, as it covers only one phase of this complex rite. 

A man may take the rite of No^'-zhi^-zho" on his own behalf when 
overcome with grief at the loss of wife, child, or some close relative, 
by death, or when he desires to appeal to Wa-ko^'-da for aid in his 
struggles for life. 



108 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



t KTH. ANN. 



Two songs belong to this section of the rite. The first song has 
seven stanzas and it may suffice to translate one line of each stanza, 
as that gives the theme of the stanza, all the rest of the lines being 
repetitions. 

Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 400; literal translation, p. 538.) 
M. M. • r 100 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



4 



^ 



^^ 



^ 



^^ 



r 



r 



Time beats ' ' ' III 

Ha - zho" a-ki - the, ha - zho" a-ki - the tha, 



^'1' J- = J J r^^TJT^ffi^^^j:^^ 



r r r i*r f r -r- r 

Ha-zho" a-ki-thetha ha,ha-zhoi> a-ki4he, Ha- zho" a-ki the tha, 






ha-zho° a-ki-thetha ha, Ha-zho" a-ki -the, ha-zho" a-ki-thetha, 



^^^^^^^^^ 



^fe 



I 



^i' J^J}.J)J} '^ 



i 



r r r r^r r r t- f 

Ha-zho" a-ki-thetha ha, ha-zohna-ki the, Ha- zho" a-ki-thetha. 



^ 



KP p TTT'^ l ' 






f ^ r r r^r^^p=* r r r 

ha-zhon a-ki-thetha ha, Ha-zhona-ki-the, ha-zho" a-ki-thetha, 



^^^m 



g P r J 



^^ 



F" ft- ff 



=F 



^ 



r ■ f ^ f rr 

Ha-zhoi^a-ki-the tha ha, ha - zhon a-ki -the 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

I cause myself to sleep. I cause myself to sleep. 

2. 
I cause myself tf) dream. I cause myself to dream. 

3. 
Come hither ye dreams. Come hither ve dreams. 



r 

tha. 



LAFLBSCHB] RITE OF VIGIL- — FREE TRANSLATION. 109 

4. 

Teach me ye dreams. Teach me ye dreams. 

5. 

In the light of the house I stand with browned hands. 

(Browned with the soil of the earth, the symbol of No°'-zhi°-zho"'.) 

6. 

In the light of the house I stand with darkened face. 
(Darkened with the sacred soil of the earth.) 



In the light of the house I see the down of the eagle. 

The first four stanzas of the song picture the leader as causing 
himself, in his vigil, to sleep — that is, to forget all human affairs while 
he seeks for dreams that will give the signs by which he can read 
the future. In the fifth, sixth, and seventh stanzas he beholds him- 
seK as in a vision standing amidst the evening firelight within the 
House of Mystery, his hands browned with the soil of the earth, the 
sacred sign of this rite, and as looking upon the assembled No°'- 
ho^-zhi^-ga, within the Sacred House in priestly attire, the crown of 
their heads covered with the white down of the eagle. 

In the first four stanzas of the second song the supplicant speaks 
of his hands and face as browned and blackened by the sacred soil 
of the earth, a symbol of one of the abiding places of Wa-ko°'-da, to 
whom the Do-do°'-ho°-ga had offered the supplications of the people. 
In referring to this ancient prescribed manner of approaching the 
divine power with supplications, the leader uses the expression, 
"u-wa-ni-ka-e," which, freely translated, means, I abide in it as a 
person. The expression applies not only to the representative of the 
people but also to the people themselves who make as a part of their 
daily life this prescribed manner of appealing to Wa-ko°'-da. It has 
been stated elsewhere ,36th Ann. Rept. B. A. E., pp. 49-50) that 
from ancient time it was the custom of the people to cry to Wa-ko°'-da 
morning, noon, and night. When about to make their cry they 
toucheil the earth with their fingers and the soil that clung to them 
they placed upon their foreheads, then standing in the open air, in 
front of the doors of their houses, they made their daily appeals to 
Wa-ko°'-da. 

The song, in the last stanza, closes with the mention of the light 
of day touching the face of the supplicant. This has reference to 
the close of the seven days' No° '-zhi^-zho" (vigil) and the awakening 
from that supplicatory sleep into the ordinary day of life. Many of 
the sacred songs close with a reference to the return to the light of 
day which marks the conclusion of some particular ceremonial act. 



110 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANX. 39 



Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 402; literal translation, p. 539.) 
1^ « J J. ,,„ Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



W--^ it. m w m M . M M \ M d » • d J ' 

Piitie beats J , ' . -J '„ * i -n I i. 

Non.be o" -xo-dse u-wa-m - ke non ta - koi" daha, 




No^-lieo'i- xo-dse u-wa - ni - ke non ta - ko i" da ha, 



^ 



fe 



n 



r^^^ 



^^ 



r r f^ 



r r r 

E the Ava- da - da 



e tho wa na. 



f f f r '^ r r r '^^ f 



r r r 

E tho wa-da - da 



e tho wa na the, 



^ i i>r L.C^r r ir c j' p /l H I 



r r r r r r r r 

No^-he o" - xo-dse u-wa-ni - ke no° to-ko i" da ha. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



Sacred is the act by which my hands are browned, 
It is the act by which I ofifer my prayer. 



Sacred is the act by which my hands are blackened, 
It is the act by wliich I offer my prayer. 



Sacred is the act by wliich my face is browned, 
It is the act by which I offer my prayer. 



Sacred is the act by which my face is blackened. 
It is the act by which I offer my prayer. 



Sacred is the light of day that falls upon my face, 
The day on which mv prayers are finished. 



LA FLBSCHB] 



BITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



Ill 



Supplication Songs. 

The next group of songs, four in niunber, bears the common title, 
,Wa-tla Wa-tho", which, freely translated, means Supplication Songs. 
These songs refer to the continuance of the supplicatory rite in which 
the chosen Do-do" '-ho°-ga mediates between his warriors and Wa- 
ko°'-da. This mediation continues duiing the ceremonies attenchng 
the organization of the war party which take place soon after the 
return of the Do-do°'-ho"-ga from liis seven days' vigil. 

While on the journey, and throughout the entire expedition, the 
Do-do" '-ho°-ga walks and camps alone, quite apart frt)m liis men, in 
order that his metlitations may not be disturbed by the activities in 
the camps of liis warriors. Only at dusk, when the evening meal has 
been prepared, is he conducted into camp by one of liis men for the 
necessary length of time in which to refresh himself with a little water 
and a bit of food. 

The song has but one stanza and only two translatable words: 

Wa-da, e-tha. My petitions, these are. The song is sung four times 

in succession. 

Song 1.' 

(Osage version, p. 403; literal translation, p. 540.) 

\f M J - 49ift Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




v^^ r^ j^ 



5 



Time beats 



r r r r r r 

Wa da da, wa da - da, e tha, Wa da 




r 7' r r ^ r r 

da, e thAjWa da da, Wa da da e tha,wa da da, Wa da 



r 

da 



tha. 



A free translation is not necessary, the purport of the song being 
given above. 

The second song refers to the leave taking of relatives by the 
Do-do" '-ho"-ga and his men when they start on their perilous journey. 
The song has one stanza and but two words: Bthe hi" da, I go, or I 
am going. The relatives to whom these words are addressed give to 
them a meaning more significant than that which they ordinarily 
convey. To the relatives the words mean: I am going, perhaps 
never to return, send to me your will power while I am gone. (The 
transference of \vill power resorted to by the Osage in times of danger 
was also practiced by the Omaha, a cognate tribe. See 27th Ann. 
Kept. B. A. E., p. 583.) 



112 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[BTH. ANN. 



Beginning with the morning following the departure of the warriors, 
the relatives take upon themselves the rite of No^'-zhi^-zho" for a 
period of four successive days. As the dawn begins to redden the 
eastern horizon the relative takes a bit of the sacred soil of the earth, 
puts it upon his forehead, and going to a secluded spot cries to Wa- 
ko°'-da imploring that power to bring home the warrior in safety. 

Song 2. 

(Osage version, p. 403; literal translation, p. 540.) 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




Time beats ' 'if FT' ' f 

Bthe hi" da ha da, bthe hi" da da, Bthe hi" da ha da, 




r r 

bthe hi" da 



A free translation is not necessary, the purport of the song being 
given above. 

The third song refers to the leave taking by the Do-do" '-ho^-ga of 
the No"'-ho"-zhi°-ga. In speaking to the No°'-ho"-zlii"-ga the 
Do-do" '-ho"-ga addresses them as Tsi'-go, Grandfather, using the 
term ceremonially and as one of veneration. The song has one 
stanza of eight lines. The translation of one line will suffice, as the 
other seven are repetitions 

Tsi'-go, Grandfather; k'o", to perform an important act; bthe hi^da, 
I go. 

In this song there is an implied entreaty made by the Do-do" '-ho°-ga 
to the No"'-ho"-zhi"-ga that they give their aid by making appeals to 
Wa-ko"'-da for the success of the expedition and for the safe return 
of all the warriors. 



LA FLESCHE] 



BITE OF VIGIL 



-FKEE TRANSLATION. 



113 



Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 403; literal translation, p. 540.) 
V, w J _ ,„~ Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



^t'l\5Jfi"j J a J J i?.Mi i Sl-i ^m 



r r r r r"f ' f r f f~}^ 

Tsi - go k'o" bthe hi" da da, Tsi-go k'o" bthe hi" da da, Tsi- 



Time beats 



^fe 



1 



s 



^F=T 



r r r r 

K'onbthehin da da, 



r r r r r 

go k'o" bthe hi" da da. 




^ 



^ 



^ r r 



r r 



r r 



-#— ^ 



r 



Tsi-go k'onbthe hi" da da, K'o" bthe hi" da da, 




r r r r r r ^ r r r r r 

Tsi-go k'onbthe hi" da da, Tsi • go k'o" bthehi''da da. 

A free translation is not necessarj^, the purport of the song being 
given above. 

The fourth song refers to the final act of the Do-do" '-ho"-ga before 
going forth with his warriors when he formally tells the No^'-ho"- 
zlii°-ga that all the preparations for the expedition have been com- 
pleted. These preparations he speaks of as " things gathered." The 
word "things" not only includes the rite of the seven- days' vigil and 
the vigil during the ceremonies connected with the organization of the 
war party, but the bringing together of symbolic objects; the stand- 
ards, the sacred thongs for the tying of captives, the sacred charcoal, 
symbol of merciless fire, the paint for the warriors when about to make 
an attack, and the assembling of the armed men with their command- 
ers. He has gathered all these " things" necessary for the success of 
the expedition, he reports to the No"'-ho"-zhi"-ga, whom he continues 
to address as Tsi'-go, and now is ready to go forth and to perform the 
important act to which he has been consecrated. 
3594°— 25t 8 



114 



THE OSAGE TKIBE. 



[ETH. AN.X. 39 



Song 4. 
(Osage version, p. 403: literal translation, p. 540.) 



M 




.M. -Mr 153 



Transcribed bv Aliee C. Fletcher 



Viii' J' J^ J' 'i^ 



5^5^ 



.Tin.e beats ^ ^ 11 f j' ^ T . f T f 

Btho a-gi-5to i° da ha, btno a-gi-9to i" da da. 



^^ 



^5 



J' ' 1^ ^' J' J^ f 



P 



r ^ ^ r r r 

Btho a-gi - 5to i° da na, btho a-gi - qto i" da ha, 



r r r r 




^± — _L *' — 4 — « — •" — ^ — —7 7 r r j: 

7 ^ r r r r r ^ ; r f 

Tsi-go k'o" bthe hi" da da, btho a-gi 9toi'>da ha, 




r r r r r 

Btho a-gi-^to i° da ha 



r r f f " ^ 

da, btho i hi" da 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

I have gathered all, I have gathered all, 

I have gathered all. All the things I have gathered. 

It is all, It is all. 

Grandfather, I now go to perform an act. 

I have gathered all. I have gathered all. 

Songs of Taking up the Symbolic Rattle. 

The group next in unler is composed of one \vi'-gi-e with two songs, 
and called Pe'-xe Thu-^a bi Wa-tho", freely translated, Songs of 
Taking up the Rattle. From the beginning of the ceremony the 
A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka had been accentuating the time of the songs by 
striking his thigh with his hand, but he now takes up the rattle cere- 
monially and uses it throughout the rest of the ceremony for beating 
the time of the songs that are to follow. 

The office of custodian of the Pe'-xe, the rattle consecrated for use 
in the ceremonies of the tribal rites, belongs to the Ho"'-ga U-ta-no"- 
dsi gens. The use of a rattle in the tribal rites evidently dates back 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 115 

to the time when these rites were imder the control of the Ho°'-ga 
U-ta-no°-dsi gens, before the reorganization naentioned in the first 
volume of the Osage work took place. (See 36th Ann. Rept. B. A. E., 
pp. 59-61. 66.) 

When used at the initiation of a candidate belonging to the Ho^'-ga 
great division in the No°'-zhi°-zho" ilegree of the rites, the rattle sym- 
bolizes the head of the male puma. The " seeds " (or sound-producing 
gravel placed within the gourd) symbolize the teeth of the right jaws 
of the animal, but when the initiation into tliis degree is given to a 
member of the Tsi'-zhu great division the " seeds " symbolize the teeth 
of the left jaws of the puma, thus indicating that the right to use the 
symbolic rattle belongs in common to the great tribal divisions. The 
handle of the rattle symbolizes the lower right front leg of the animal 
when the initiate belongs to the Ho"'-ga division and the lower left 
front leg when the man belongs to the Tsi'-zhu division. 

Thus the quality and the unity of the two great divisions of the 
tribe might be symbolizetl as a man or an animal, but the Ho^'-ga 
great division must always represent the right side of the man or 
animal and the Tsi'-zhu great division the left. This idea of the 
duality and unity of nature was not only reflected in the tribal organi- 
zation but, in former times, instilled in the minds of the people by 
certain personal habits, as for instance, members of the Ho°'-ga great 
division when putting on their moccasins put the moccasin on the 
right foot first, while members of the Tsi'-zhu great division put the 
moccasin on the left foot first. 

RATTLE Wl'-GI-E. 

(Osage version, p. 103; literal translation, p. 541.) 

1. What shall they use for a rattle, the\' said, it has been said, in 

this house. 

2. It is a head that they shall use as a rattle. 

3. Verily, it is not a head that is spoken of. 

4. The male puma that lies outstretched upon the earth, 

5. It is his head 

6. That they shall use as a rattle. 

7. When they use the head of the male puma as a rattle, as they 

travel the path of life, 

8. And go toward the setting sun, against their enemies, 

9. They shall, by its use, easily overcome their foes, O, younger 

brothers, they said to one another. 

10. What shall they use for seeds (gravel put into the gourd) for the 

rattle, as they travel the path of life. 

11. The male puma that lies outstretched upon the earth, 



116 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. Ann. S9 

12. It is the teeth of his right jaws, they said, it has been said, in 

this house, 

13. That they shall use as seeds for their rattle. 

14. When they use the teeth of the male puma as seeds for their rattle, 

15. Then, indeed, the sound of their rattle shall be clear, O, younger 

brothers, they said to one another. 

16. What shall they use as a handle for their rattle, they said, it has 

been said, in this house. 

17. The male puma that lies outstretched upon the earth, 

18. It is his lower right foreleg 

19. That they shall use as a handle for their rattle. 

20. Wlien they use the lower right leg of the male puma as a handle 

for their rattle, 

21. They shall make themselves to be free from all causes of death, 

O, younger brothers, they said to one another. 

22. Behold the fine dust within the rattle, 

23. That fine dust also 

24. Is not without a purpose. 

25. Toward the setting of the sun, 

26. There are people who possess things that are numerous, 

27. Verily I have made this dust to represent all those things, they 

said, it has been said, in this house. 

28. Behold the opening at the top of the rattle, they said, it has been 

said, in this house. 

29. That opening also 

30. Is not made without a purpose, 

31. The little insects (all living creatures), 

32. It matters not whose little ones they may be, 

33. We shall cause them to fall into this opening, as though into a 

snare, O, younger brothers, they said to one another. 

34. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

35. They gave a menacing stroke with the rattle. 

36. Toward the setting of the sun, 

37. Toward the adolescent youth who dwells in that direction, 

38. They gave a menacing stroke, 

39. And said: When they give a menacing stroke such as this, 

40. They shall strike with ease their enemies, O, younger brothers, 

they said to one another. 

41. When thej' conjure their enemies with the rattle, as they travel 

the path of life, 

42. They shall conjure them with ease, O, younger brothers, they 

said to one another. 



LAFLESCHE] EITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 117 

43. For a second time they gave a menacing stroke with the rattle. 

44. Toward the setting of the sun, 

45. Toward the adolescent maiden who dwells in that direction, 

46. They gave a menacing stroke, 

47. And said: Wlien they give a menacing stroke such as this, 

48. They shall strike with ease their enemies, as they travel the path 

of life, 0, younger brothers, they said to one another, 

49. When they conjure their enemies with tlie rattle, as they travel 

the path of life, 

50. They shall conjure them with ease, O, younger brothers, they 

said to one another. 

51. For the third time they gave a menacing stroke with the rattle. 

52. Toward the setting of the svm, 

53. Toward the man who is honored for liis military prowess, who 

dwells in that direction, 

54. They gave a menacing stroke, 

55. And said : When they give a menacing stroke such as this, 

56. They shall strike with ease their enemies, O, yoimger brothers, 

they said to one another, 

57. When they conjure their enemies with the rattle, as they travel 

the path of life, 

58. They shall conjure them ^vith ease, O, younger brothers, they said 

to one another. 

59. For the fourth time they gave a menacing stroke with the rattle. 

60. Toward the setting of the sun, 

61. Toward the woman who has given birth to her first child, who 

dwells in tliat cUrection, 

62. They gave a menacing stroke, 

63. And said: When they give a menacing stroke such as this, 

64. They shall strike with ease their enemies, O, j-ounger brothers, 

they said to one another, 

65. When they conjure their enemies with tlie rattle, as they travel 

the path of life, 

66. They shall conjure them with ease, O, yoimger brothers, they said 

to one another. 

The first song of this series refers to the actual going forth of the 
Do-do°'-ho°-ga with his warriors. The song has one stanza which is 
simg four times bj- the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka. The translation of the first 
line will suffice, as all the others are repetitions. 



118 



THE OSAGE TKIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 405; Uteraltranslation, p. 543.) 

M.M. • = 144 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




r 



r 



r 



r 



K'on bthei"^ da he. kV bthe i" da he. 



S^^ 






^ 



K'o" bthe i" da he,k o" h the i" da he, K'o" bthe i" da ha we he, 



r r r r r — r r 

K'onbthei»dahe,kVhtheindahe,Konbtheindahe,k'onbtheindahe. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



I go to perform an important act, I go to perform an important act. 

The theme of the second song is the Symbolic Man which personifies 
the unity of the tribe, both in purpose and in action. In the song this 
Symbohc Man is represented as speaking of the value of his gifts 
which enable him to act : Of his feet ; of his legs by which he can move 
freely and swiftly from place to place; of his body, within which is 
maintained the vigor of his physical structure; of his arms, by wliich 
he defends himself; of his head, that contains his mental powers; of 
his mouth, through which he expresses his thoughts. 



LAFLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRAIfSLATION. 



119 



Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 406; literal translation, p. W3.) 



M.M. J 



152 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



J J J J i f^wTTT ^ 



Time beats 



T r 



Da - do" wi - la e tho 

3 



r r r 

k'p" no'* wi - ta do° ha. 



J J.J J 



^m 



r 



r r r 



r 



Da - do" wi - ta e tio ko° no" wi - ta dtf" ha. 




r 'r* r 

Da - do" wi ta e tho 



r 



r 7 r 



k'o" no" wi - ta do" ha, 




r r r ; ' r^ r r 

Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha, 

3 



Da-do" wi-ta e tho 



r r r r r r? r r 

Wo"no" wi-ta do" ha, Da -do" wi-ta e tho k'o"no" wi-ta do"ha. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



Of all my gifts I value most my power to act, 
My feet, upon wiiich I go forth, I value. 



My legs, b}- which I move swiftly, I value. 

3. 
My Ijody, that sustains my strength, I value. 

4. 
My arms, with which I defend myself, I value. 



120 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[BTH. ANN. 39 



My head, that contains my thoughts, I value. 

0. 

My mouth, by which I express my thoughts, I value. 

Sun or Pipe Offering Songs. 

The group of three songs next in order is entitled Mi Wa-tho°, Sun 
Songs, or No^-ni'-o^-ba Ba-ha Wa-tho°, Pipe Offering Songs. The 
songs refer to the supplications of the Do-do" '-ho°-ga to the God of 
Day, the Sun. The first song of the group pictures the Do-do" '-ho"-ga 
standing alone in the darkness of early dawn in silent contemplation 
upon the approach of the sun, to whom he is to make his appeal with 
the hope that the power abiding therein will look with favor upon the 
little pipe with which he is to offer his petition ; upon the weapons of 
the warrior, the knife, the war club, the bow, and the arrow with 
which he hopes to destroy his enemies; upon the trophies, the spoils 
which he wishes to gain without loss to himself, and finally upon the 
time when he shall return successfullj- to his people as from the dark- 
ness of uncertainty into the reality of the day of life and joy. 

There are eight stanzas of six lines each to this song. It will be 
sufficient to translate the first, third, and fourth lines of each stanza, 
as the second, fifth, and sixth are repetitions of the first line. 

Song 1. 

(Osage version, p. 407; literal translation, p. .'>44.) 
M.M.J r 160 Transorihed by Alice C.Fletcher 



m 



^ 



r>tnrif~~- 



E 



Time beats 



r r 



Wa 



dsi hi -the" 



r r r 

be he tha, Wa 



r r 

dsi hi-tho"- 



riTanT'--- 



ri/a rd~~ 



I'ftnj j ^ y i'lh^j ;"j i ii^j j^ ^ 



r r 



r 



r r 



r r r 



be he tha, The - the hi-tho" - be he tha, I - 




ba hi-tho" - be . he tha, Wa 



ritard 



rilard~^ 



■yiV|HF r MF ii ^r ^ i inr ^ 



r r r r r r f ' r 

be he tha, Wa - dsi hi-tho" - be he tha. 



LAFLESCHB] KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 121 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Whither shall he (the God of Day) appear, 
Here, at this place, he shall appear, 
Unto the sacred pipe he shall appear. 

2. 

Whither shall he appear. 

Here, at this place, he shall appear, 

Unto the sacred knife he shall appear. 



Whither shall he appear. 

Here, at this place, he shall appear. 

Unto the sacred war club he shall appear. 



Whither shall he appear, 

Here, at this place, he shall appear, 

Unto the bow he shall appear. 



Whither shall he appear. 

Here, at this place, he shall appear, 

Unto the arrow he shall appear. 

6. 

Whither shall he appear, 

Here, at this place, he shall appear. 

Unto the scalp (to be taken) he shall appear. 



Whither shall he appear. 

Here, at this place, he shall appear. 

Unto the spoils (to be taken) he shall appear. 



Whither shall he appear, 

Here, at this place, he shall appear, 

Unto the day (of my return) he shall appear. 

The second song pictures the Do-do" '-ho°-ga still standing with 
eyes intently fixed upon the sun as it slowly rises from behind the 
eastern horizon. When the sun has fully risen he sees witliin it, one 
after the other, his little pipe and all the things that had been con- 
stantly upon his mind. This vision he takes as an answer to his 
petitions. 

This song has eight stanzas each with seven lines. The translation 
of the first and third lines of each stanza will be sufficient for the 
understanding of the song, as the other lines are repetitions of those 
given. 



122 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 






Song 2. 

(Osage version, p. 408; literal translation, p. 543.) 
M M J - l<lfl Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



n n 



n n J J -^ 



Time beats 



r r r r r r 



r 



r r r 



Tsi-go hi-tho"-be tha, Tsi-go hi-tho".be tha, 



^s 



^^ 



-k-*- 



r T r r r r 

I-bathina-donhi-tho".lDe tha, 



# 



-r^ 



r ' r r r r 

Tsi-go hi-thonJie tha, 



mt T [.r r c i 



ii= 



^f J J 



^— ♦- 



r ' r " r r r r 

I-ba thin a-dohi-tho"-be tha, 



r r r r r 

Tsi-go hi-thon.be tha, 



i 



1 1 ): fi P 



J r_r r ^^ 



fc^ 



r 



r 



r r 

ba thi" a-do" hi - the" - be tha. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

My grandfather appears, 

Lo! he appears, holding in his liand a pipe. 

2. 
My grandfather appears, 
Lo ! he appears, liolding in his hand a knife. 

3. 

My grandfather appears, 

Lo ! he appears, holding in his hand a club. 

4. 
My grandfather appears, 
Lo! he appears, holding in his hand a bow. 

.5. 
My grandfather appears, 
Lo ! he appears, holding in his hand an arrow. 

6. 
My grandfather appears, 
Lo! he appears, holding in his hand a scalp. 



My grandfather appears, 

Lo ! he appears, holding in his hands spoils. 

8. 
My grandfather appears, 
Lo! he appears, holding in his hand the day. 



laflesche] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



123 



The third of the series of Sun Songs has two stanzas of six lines each. 
The war party having been on the march is now near its destination, 
and the Do-do°'-ho°-ga is pictured as standing alone in the darkness 
of eai-ly dawn silently contemplating the attack to be made upon the 
enemy that morning. The first stanza speaks of his determination to 
make the attack at sunrise. The second dwells upon the appeal of the 
Do-do" '-ho°-ga to Wa-ko"'-da for pity in the moment of attack. The 
cry is for liimseK and for his men whoni he desires to lead home 
without hurt or loss. 

The first and third lines of each stanza are translated in full; all the 
others are repetitions of those given. 

Song 3. 

(Osage version, p. 409; literal translation, p. 545.) 

MM J - 160 TranscribedYiy Alice C.Fletcher 




Time beats 



Mi 'tho" - be do" ha - wa - tse a-to" - he, 




r r r r r r r 

Mi 'tho"-l)e do" ha-wa-tse a-ton he no", Ga xtsi to" wa-ki-tha. 




^ r f 

ga xtsi to" wa- ki-tha. 



^ r T 

Mi 'thon-be do" ha - wa ■ 



^ 



a 



-»-=- 



^ 



P 



^ 



^ 



£ 



r r r r r r r ^ r 

tsea-ton he. Mi 'tho"-be doi ha-wa- tsea-to" he no", Ga 




xtsi to" wa - ki-tha, ga xtsi to" wa - ki - tha. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

I stand ready to strike at rise of sun, 

At that moment we figlit the foe. At tliat moment we figlit the foe. 

2. 

I stand ready to striice at rise of sun, 

At that moment pity thou me. At tliat moment pity thou me. 



124 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ANN. 39 

Wolf Songs. 

The next group of three songs is called Sho^'-ge Wa-tho°, Wolf 
Songs. These songs not only refer to but they belong to the Xthe'- 
ts'a-ge, the commanding officers chosen at the ceremonial organiza- 
tion of a war party. These commanding officers are always eiglit in 
number, four chosen from the no°'-ga division and four from the 
Tsi'-zhu. The word Sho"'-ge includes the gray wolf, the coyote, and 
the domestic dog, but the gray wolf is particularly referred to in 
these songs. The distinctive quality of the animal so aptly chosen 
to be the symbol of these officers is alertness which partakes of a 
divining nature, a quality that has for its aid an extraordinary sense 
of hearing and of smell. As an example of this peculiarity the 
following story is often told among the Omaha, a cognate tribe: 

About the middle of the last century a large war party of Pawnee 
Indians raided the Cheyennes who happened to be camped upon one 
of the branches of the Arkansas River toward its head. In the flight 
and pursuit that followed the ca]>tm-e of Cheyenne horses an Omaha 
warrior who had joined the Pawnees became sick from an old wound 
in his leg and was obliged to steal away from his fleeing companions 
and take another route toward his home. One morning as the 
Omaha whs riding along at a slow pace he noticed a coyote trotting 
ahead of him, looking back now and then to see if he was still moving. 
At night when the man hobbled his horse and camped the coyote sat 
near by watching every movement of the sick warrior. When in 
the morning the Omaha continued his travel the coyote trotted 
ahead as before. Suddenly, in the afternoon, the coyote drew his 
tail between liis legs and fled mto a deep ravine. The man hur- 
riedly looked around but saw nothing. However, he also fled to 
the ravine, hid his horse, and then from a safe vantage point he 
carefully scanned the coimtry and saw in the distance a large war 
party going by on a steady lope. Three times the coyote who con- 
tinued to accompany the Omaha on his homeward journey gave like 
warning of danger and in each instance the warning proved timely. 

The wolf is also esteemed by warriors for his power of endurance; 
he can travel long distances and resist hunger for many days. When 
a buffalo is taken sick or is woimded, the wolf will wait a long time 
without feeding for the animal to die in order to feast upon him. 
This was the case of the coyote in the Omaha story, only the sick 
animal happened to be a wounded warrior instead of a bufl^alo. 

The wolf is envied by the warrior for another quality, that is, his 
contentment to be alone and far away from his native habitat for 
long periods of time. A Do-do" '-ho''-ga of a war party often had 
difficulty in keeping his men from deserting when suffering from 
attacks of homesickness. In some of the war songs of the Siouau 



LA FDESCHE] 



BITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



125 



groups this quality of the wolf is referred to by expressions such as 
this, "Like the wolf I fear not to venture into strange lands." (27th 
Ann. Rept. B. A. E., pp. 417, 419.) 

The first of the Sho°'-ge Wa-tho" has two stanzas. In this song 
the Xthe'-ts'a-ge are likened, as they go forth over the land, to noisy 
wolves, because their scouts as they come and go call to each other 
by imitating the cries of the wolf in order to avoid detection by the 
enemy. 

Only the first and second lines of each stanza will be translated, 
as all the other lines are repetitions of these. 



M.M 



Song 1. 

(Osage version, p. 410; literil translation, p. 546.) 
J _ .^0 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



"m^ 



=^ 



Time beats 



r 



r 



^ 



Shon-ge hi" to ho 



r r r 

ho a-tsi a-tha be. 



Ho- ho a-tsi a-tha he, ho - ho a-tsi a-tha be 



^M 



^ 



3j, r r r r r r r r r 

he, Sho^-ge hi" to ho - ho a-tsi a-tha be, Ho-ho a-tsi a-tha 



^te 



^^ 



• » • 



' r r r r 

he, ho-ho a-tsi a-tha be. 



^ 



r r r 

Shon-ge hi" to ho 



g^ 



p- P 



^M r-H J J l ie 



rf r r f ^-J r r r r' ' r 

ho a-tsi a-tha be, Ho-ho a-tsi a-tha be, ho-ho a-tsi a-thabe. 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1 

The gray wolf passes by with noisy cries, 

Passes by with noisy cries, passes by with noisy cries. 



I am the gray wolf who passes by with noisy cries. 

Who passes by with noisy cries, who passes by with noisy cries. 



126 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



The second song has one stanza of eight hnes. The song refers to 
the eight commanders of a ceremonially organized war party. Al- 
though each commander has a voice in the coimcil as to the route to 
be taken, yet when the decision is made it is spoken as though with 
one voice. 

Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 410; literal translation, p. 546.) 



M.M.Jr 



mM.sz 160 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



^ 



m 



n r 



•—73 



^ ^ • ^ ^ ^ r> 

Time beats „, ' '.'„.,./ '„ »» / .„ xi_ " T 

Shon - ge ■wino"a-thin he no", Mo"-zho" tno-e 




^Tf^' i '^J>^VJ ' jJ. ^^^ 



^rr r r f -, -^ ^ -, ^7 

a-thi" he, Sho" - ge wiiio"a-thi"he no", Mon-zho°tho-e 



r r r r ' ' ' r 

a-thi" he, Shon-ge hi" to.Mon.zho" tho-e a-thi"heno",Shon. 




I 



"m^ij^nr^^^u 



^ ^ r f r r r r r 

ge , wi no" a-thi" he no", Mo".zho" tho-e 



a-tmnhe. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



1. 



I, the wolf, alone mu.st give command, 
Upon what land the warriors shall pass, 
I, the wolf, alone must give command, 
Upon what land the warriors shall pass, 
I, the gray-haired wolf, 
Upon what land the warriors shall pass, 
I, the wolf, alone, must give command. 
Upon what land the warriors shall pass. 

The third song refers to the success of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge in over- 
coming the enemy and to the feasting of the wolves upon the fallen 
foe. This song has but one stanza of seven lines. The translation of 
the first and second lines is given, all the other lines being repetitions 
of the two lines. 



LA FLESCHE] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



127 



Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 410; literal translation, p. 546.) 

MM J r 168 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



V\ /r r r r r r r f r 



Time beats 



Sholge wa-tha - pa a-thi" he, 



e, Sho"-ge hi" to 



-» TrT* f r r r r f'^-j^ 



•wa-tha-pa a-thi" he, Sho°-ge wa-tha-pa a-thi" he. 



i 



&: 



^ in. ^ 



fr 



■ * 



r 



r 



r 



r 



r 



r r 



he Sho"-ge hi" to wa-tha-pa a-thi" he, 




r r r 

Sho'i-ge wa-tha-pa 



a-thi" he, Sho"-ge wa-tha-pa 



^nhTf-r itiL Lf- iiicrr rT ^^ i 



r r r rr 



r r r r rr 



a-thi'' he, e, Shon-ge hi° to wa-tha-pa a-thi" he. 



FKEE TRANSLATION. 



1. 



It is I, the wolf, who feasts upon the fallen foe, 

It is I, the gray wolf, who feasts upon the fallen foe. 

Crow Songs. 

The group next in order is the Ka'-xe Wa-tho°, Crow Songs. This 
group of two songs pictures the crow as flying by couples toward the 
battle field to feast upon the bodies of the slain warriors. The crow 
songs fittingly follow the wolf songs, as both refer to the same rapa- 
cious acts that take place soon after a battle has been fought. 

At the dances of the He-thu'-shka societies among the Omaha, the 
Sioux, and the Osage, some of the warriors, upon whom the honor and 
the right had been ceremonially conferred, wear upon their hips a 
decorative badge called Ka'-xe, Crow. To this badge are attached 
the skin of a crow and the tail of a wolf, as well as two long pendants 
covered with eagle feathers. (See 27th Ann. Kept. B. A. E., p. 441.) 
The badge symbolizes the battle scenes of which these wolf and crow 



128 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. ! 



songs are descriptive. The signification of the crow skin and the 
wolf tail is easily understood and the pendants covered with eagle 
plumage picture the fluttering feathers of the birds as they tear at 
each other in the air when fighting over the dead bodies. 

The first song has one stanza with six lines. The first and second 
lines only are translated, as all the other lines are repetitions. In the 
first and second of these songs the crows are made to speak of them- 
selves as "men." 

Song 1. 

(Osage version, p. 411; literal translation, p. 546.) 
M M J - 168 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



i^h^^iU^^r^ n\} } m ^ 



•^ r r r r 

Time beats ' . , ' , ' 

Ni-kathoi-ba 



r r r r r r 

a bthea-dawa he, Wa-tha-pa 






pa ha-dsi bthe hi no", Ni - ka tho^.ba bthe a-da wa 



#'•'% ' ' ;^ l' %l .^,-^J.i l; l >aJ I' 



r r r - r r r -^f r T*T r 

he, Wa-tha-pa - pa ha-dsibthe hi no", Ni-katho"-ba 



^ r r /^ r r r r f^ r 



r 

a bthea-dawa - he, Wa-tha-pa - pa ha-dsibthe hi non. 

FREE TRANSL.iTION. 
1. 

Side by side two men go forth 

To feast voraciously upon the slain. 

The second song is the same as the first in words and purport, but 
the two songs are not alike in music or in rhytlmi. In the first 
song the time is slow; in the second the time is faster and the music 
gleeful in expression. No translation of the words is necessarj^. 



Ul FU9SCHD] 



EITE OF VIGIL FBEE TRANSLATION. 



129 



Song 2. 

(Osage version, p. 411; literal translation, p. 547.) 
M. M . • = ns Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 

•J r r ^r rr r r r r 



Ti^ebeats ^ T ^f f T T T T T 

Ni - ka thoi-ba bthe a-do" he no", A he the ni-ka tho"- 



§^^^^ '-lK:ul -^"^ U'-ir^r^ ^ 



r r r 



M 



r ^r "^"T T r rr r r r 

ba bthe a-do" he no", A he bthea-do" he ro" 



h ii h 



^ 



^S 



r r r r 



r r 



r r 



^ 



O: 



A he the ni - ka tho" - ba bthe a-do° he no", 



a 



j-i i 



s ' # 



S 



SE 



r r r r 

A he the wa -tha-pa 



r ^r r r 

pa bthe a -do" he no", 



^ 



r p F F' 



7 f r r f 'T^ r r 

A he. the ni-katho" - ba bthea-do" he no". 




A he the wa-tha-pa - pa bthe a-do" he no". 

Deer Songs. 

Following the Crow Songs are the Ta Wa-tho°, Deer Songs, which 
are sometimes spoken of as Ta Gi'-bo" Wa-tho", Songs of Calling the 
Deer. These Deer Songs are saitl to be the first of all the songs 
composed for the war rites, as their place in the Ni'-ki Wi'-gi-e is 
next to the sections relating to the search for and the finding of the 
roots of four plants which were consecrated for the use of the people 
as sacred foods. (See 36th Ann. Rept. B. A. E., pp. 182-185.) 
These four plants, namely, Nelumho lutea, Apios apios, Sagittaria 
latifolia, and Falcata comosa, as well as the deer, afforded the people 
a steady supply of food and were, for that reason, particularly men- 
tioned in the rituals of the great war rites. The people regarded 
these food plants and the deer not merely as natural food products 
but also as necessary to the very existence of the tribe itself, there- 
3594°— 25t 9 



130 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 38 



fore the warriors were depended upon to hold with all their strength 
and valor against invasion by unfriendly tribes the land that yields 
such products. 

The Deer Songs are six in number. The first song has two stanzas. 
Only the first and third lines are translated, as all the other lines are 
repetitions. 

Song 1. 

(Osage version, p. 411: literal translation, p. 547.) 
M M J r 153 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




Time beats 



Wi-tsi"-donon she-tho to° no","Wi-tsi"-do no" she-tho to" no", 




Dsi n6"-no''-ge he, dsi no"-no"-e, Dsi non.no"^e he.Wi-t.si". 




do no" she-tho to" no", Wi-tsin-do no" she-tho to" no". 




Dsi no"-no" - ge he. 



Dsi no"-no"-e 



rf^ i Tj M M \ r\y^/'^_r 



r r r 

Dsi no"-no"-ge he. 



r r r r 

Wi-tsi"-do no" she-tho to" no". 



FREE TRA.VSLATION. 



My elder brother stands in yonder place, 

Upon thy feet run thou there, upon thy feet run thou. 



2. 



My elder brother stands in yonder place, 

Run thou there with thy horns, with thy horns run thou. 

In the second song the sister continues to call to the male deer 
with white horns. In a sense these calls to the deer are supposed 
to be magical, but in reality they are supplicatory and ask for the 



LA FLESCHE] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



131 



continuity of that form of animal life upon which the people are 
dependent for their existence. 

The legs, body, and forelegs of the deer should be mentioned in 
these two songs, as well as the feet and head, but Wa-xthi'-zlii 
availed himself of the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka's standing privilege of 
omitting the stanzas between the initial and closing stanzas where 
the songs enumerate the various vital parts of a body. 

The first and tliird lines of each stanza only are translated, as the 
other lines are repetitions. 

Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 412; literal translation, p. 547.) 
M.M.J = 153 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 




Time beats ' I ' ' 1^1 

Tsi^-do he ^ka 'gthe he, Tsi"-do he (jka 'gthe-he. 



^^m 



n^ /] 



w 



r 



r r 



r r ■ f r r 

(Ji iion-no"-e, (ji no"-iio"-e-ge he, Tsi"-do he 9ka gthe he, 



i 



=^i^;=f 



teis 



J J7. -1 



r 



r 



r 



r r 



r 



r 



r 



r 



Tsi"-do he (jka 'gthe he, (Ji no"-no"-e, qi non-no"- ge he. 



>Hi'i.^-r' Lr- r r" c-/' r-j- [_;• " 



r r r r r ,r 

Tsi"- do he ^ka 'gthe he, Tsi"-do he ^ka gthe he. 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

To my elder brother, thou with wliite horns, 

Go running upon thy feet, running upon thy feet. 



To my elder brother, thou with white horns, 

Go running with thy white horns, running with thy white horns. 

Among the Omaha, a cognate tribe, there is a hi '-go" (myth) that 
tells of a sister who had the power of calling the animals to her 
brothers who shot them with their arrows as they ran past. This 
hi'-go", it is probable, is the vestige of a rite similar to that of the 
Osage in practice to-day. 



132 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. A\->J. 39 



The following is the song with which she called the animals : 

Song. 
MM J - 66 TranscriBed by Alice C.Fletcher 




r r r r r r r r r r r r r r 

Wi-ti-nu thi-ki-de ta ye, Du-da i ba. 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Come ye hither, come ye hither, 

That my elder brothers may slioot you. 

Come ye hither. 

In the third Deer Song belonging to the ritual the sister continues 
her calling, but in this song the calling is with a divining spirit by 
which she sees her elder brother in the act of shooting as he stands in 
wait amidst the haunts of the deer. His shot wounds the animal, 
which flees for its life. 

The song has but one stanza. The translation of the first and 
third lines give the miport of the song. 



lae-lbschb] rite of VIGIL PEEE TRANSLATION. 133 

Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 412; literal translation, p. 548.) 
M.M. J r 152 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



JiKjr-}. J J. J J, 



Time beats 

Wi 



tsi" - do no" 



ku - dse to" no" 



fi'^)' n n. n f¥ ^ 



SI 



1^ 



^ 



r r r r r r r r r 

Wi-tsi''-dono"ku-dseto"no", 0-e no"-no"-ge he, 0-e no"-no"-e, 



fe 



]. Win- J J 



=»=» 



■f r r r 

0-e no"-no" - ge he, Wi-tsi" 



r 



r 



r 



do no" ku-dse to" no". 



^'ufl-jj.- TJ./i. i i f^ n-n. wij:^ ^ 



r r r r f r r r r 

Wi-tsi"-dono"ku-dseto"iion, 0-e non-no"-gehe, 0-e no"-no"-e, 



4M i n.n. rm ^^'lrw^ 



r r r 

0-e no"-iio"-ge he. 



r r r r 

Wi-tsi" -do no" ku-dse to" no". 



PHEB TRANSLATION. 
1. 

My elder brother shoots where he stands in wait, 

He wounds the deer, it runs, he wounds the deer, it runs ! 

In the fourth song the scene shifts from the rush-covered house 
vrherein sits the sister to the woods where the brother swiftly follows 
the fleeing deer he has wounded. 

The song has two stanzas. The brother is represented as speaking. 
The first and third lines of each stanza are translated, as ail the other 
lines are repetitions. 



134 THE OSAGE TRIBE. tBTn. axn. 39 

Song 4. 

(Osage version, p. 412; literal translation, p. M8.) 
M. M. • = 160 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



ih:P ,0v J J J ii^ i j J jjj .r^ ^ 



Time beats I I . ' 

da the, o da ni wa, da the ha, o da ni wa. 



r r * r r 



^ r r r r r^r r 



Wa-dsithatheho-wa-dse, Wa-dsithathe ho -wa-dse wa to, 



^yt 1. r Lr H ^-f^^fH"^ 



r r r r 



r r r r 



da thu, o da ni va, U da the ha daniwa to. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



It is stricken, still lives and flees, 

I shall pursue and find it, wherever it goes. 



It is stricken, still lives and flees, 
Though it has gone far I have found it. 

The fifth song has the subtitle Wa-jja'-dse Wa-tho", Butchering 
Song. This song represents the brother as having found the wounded 
deer, which he proceeds to butcher. The song relates particularly to 
the form in which the skin must be cut so that there may be no waste 
in preparing it for use. The duty of the warrior to protect the deer 
from destruction by unfriendly tribes is clearly set forth in the cere- 
mony called Wa-do'-ka We-ko, Scalp Ceremony, in which tliis song is 
used. In that rite the man conducting the ceremony of cutting the 
scalp, for distribution, of a slain enemy, simulates the cutting of the 
deer skin by the hunter. The Scalp Ceremony will be described in 
a later volume. 

This song has four stanzas. The first and third lines of each 
stanza only are translated, as all the other lines are repetitions. 



LA FLBSCHD] 



KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



135 



#fef ^ 



Song 5. 
(Osage version, p. 413; literal translation, p. 548.) 

M M. J - 160 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



^ 



^ 



^ 



^m 



^ 



Time beats 



r r r r r r r r 

E - gi-o" ba ha 9U wa, E-gi-o" ba ha 9a wa, Zhe- 

(#'»^»i n- j'j> i' l j p. i^j. m 



f r 7 T r r r r 

ga ba ha 9u wa, E - gi-o" ba ha ^u wa, E 



*r / ' ' ' ' ' ^ r r r ' 



f r r r 

gi-o" ba ha 9uwa a, E 



gi-o" ba ha <;u wa, E - 



^ fli't J ^- P r P^ ^' P r F n j- trttiM i 



r r f ■ ■ r r r ' ' '' r r r 

gi-o" ba ha 9uwa,Zhe-ga ba ha <;uwa, E - gi-o" baha^uwa a. 

FREE TRANSLATION. 



I cut the skin by the rule, 

That of the leg I cut by the rule. 



I cut the skin by the rule, 

That of the breast I cut by the rule. 

3. 

I cut the skin by the rule, 

That of the arms (forelegs) I cut by the rule. 



I cut the skin by the rule. 

That of the head I cut by the rule. 

The sixth song also has a subtitle, Wa-k'i"' Wa-tho", Carrying 
Song. The song is descriptive of the various scenes in which the 
successful hunter finds the fallen deer, of his throwing the animal 
upon his back and carrying it joyfully homeward to the wife and 
the little ones dependent upon him for food and clothing. The song 
also closes the little drama of the sister, the brother, and the deer. 



136 



THE OSAGE TEIBE. 



tUTH. ANN. 39 



Wa-xthi'-zhi gave nine stanzas to the song and then said with a 
smile that there is no end to the stanzas that could be given to this 
song, for a wounded deer might fall close to a thorn-apple tree, 
amidst the hazel brushes, or amiilst the rushes of the marsh, as well 
as close to an oak or amidst the bimch grasses. 

Knowing that the deer songs are of a supplicatory character, a 
hunter who desires success tlirough the hunting season would take a 
deer to a No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga, who alone has authority to sing them, 
and present it to him ceremonially. In response to this recognition 
of his office, for which he feels honored, the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga invites 
some of his intimate No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga friends to feast with him upon 
the deer and in their presence sings for the hunter the deer songs 
that will insm-e his further success. When singing the closing song 
the oki man adds to it an extra stanza descriptive of the scene where 
the deer presented to him had fallen. At such times the old No"'- 
ho^-zhi^-ga would confer upon the hunter the right to wear a wreath 
made of the vines of the wild bean, as he goes to stalk the deer. 

Song 6. 
(Osage version, p. 413; literal translation, p. 549.) 
M.M. • = 160 Transcribedby Alice C. Fletcher 



pU ¥k J 



jn. n. n 



Time beats 



Ta 



r . r r r r r 

xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e wa-dsu - ta zhi" - 



^ 



m=m 



in^z 



r r ' r - r r r 

ga, I-wi - the tho'^ - dse, ta 



r ^ r r 

xtsi-e, _ ta-xtsi'e, 



ht^n- n. p. i i» J n. n. ^^ ^ 



r r r 

Ta-xtsi-e,wa-dsu ta zhi" 



r ■_ _ I _ 

ga, Pi -9! ^-a-be hi dsi 



fli-IJ n n. I J Ml 



^ 



r r r 



r r r 



to", I-wi-thethon dse, 



r r r r. 

ta - xtsi-a,_ ta-xfsi-e. 



Note. — Iiisingiiig the fourth line of the second and third stanzas the fourth and fifth notesin the seventh 

4 . 3. 



4 3 
bar are omitted, thus changing the time from -j to 



LAFDDSCHB] KITE OF \^GIL FREE TRANSLATION. 137 

FREE THANSLATION. 
I. 

Ta-xtsi-e,* ta-xtsi-e, O, little creature, 

I have found thee, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 

Ta-xtsi-e, O, little creature, 

Close to a black oak, 

I have found thee, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 



Close to a red oak, 

I have found thee, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 



Between two trees, 

I have found thee, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 



Close to a dark oak, 

I have found thee, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 



Close to a gray oak, 

I have found thee, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 

6. 

Amidst the stunted oaks, 

I have found thee, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 



Amidst the bunch grasses, 

I have found thee, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 

8. 

Close to the little brook, 

I have found thee, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 



Upon the summit of a hill, 

I have found thee, ta-xtsi-e, ta-xtsi-e. 

Songs of the Act of Weeping. 

The group following the Deer Songs is called Wa'-i" Xa-ge Wa-tho°, 
which, freely translated, means Songs of the Act of Weeping. A 
similar act took place at the ceremony of smoking the sacred animal 

* Ta'-xtsi is the archaic name for the deer. It appears only in these ceremonials. The modem name 
is Ta. The Omaha, a closely related tribe, still use the old name Ta'-rtsi. The words for brook, wa-tsi'- 
shka,in the eighth stanza, and pa-he', hill, in the ninth stanza, are archaic words in the Osage language 
but are yet used among the Omaha. 



138 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [dth. ANN. 39 

skins which has been described in detail (see pp. 53-54). In the 
present instance the Singer not only carries the symbolic pipe but also 
the sacred hawk, emblem of the warriors' courage, as he passes along 
the line of No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga, toucliing the head of each person with 
t hese two sacred articles. The wailing of the Singer has reference to the 
wailing of the man chosen to be Do-do" '-ho"-ga for a war party to be 
ceremonially organized. At such a time the Do-do"'-ho°-ga chosen is 
required to take the rite of No'''-zlii°-zho'', during which, pipe in hand, 
he wails as he makes his appeals to Wa-ko°'-da. In the little pipe 
which he carries tliroughout his vigils are placed, figuratively, the 
supplications of all the people for the safety and success of the war- 
riors who are to go against the enemies of the tribe. 

This group of three songs also includes a wi'-gi-e entitled A'-ho°- 
btha-bi Wi'-gi-e, freely translated, Wi'-gi-e of the Dreams. The 
A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka and his assistants sing the songs and the No^'-ho"- 
zhi"-ga recite the wi'-gi-e, all at the same time as the Singer goes 
wailing along the line of No°'-ho"-zlii°-ga, touching their heads, two 
at a time, with the little pipe and the sacred hawk. The women, 
honorary members, join the Singer in his wailing. 

Wi'-Gi-E OF THE Dreams. 

No explanation could be obtained as to whether the story of the 
dream was from the actual experience of a man who had taken the 
rite of No°'-zhi°-zho° (vigil) when chosen for the office of Do-do°'- 
ho°-ga, or whether it is an allegorical myth designed to aid the man 
taking the rite to limit the range of his thoughts only to objects of a 
sacred character. It is clear from the wi'-gi-e, however, that the man 
chosen to perform the rite is required, when in his vigils, to fix his 
thoughts only upon the objects that are sacred to the people and used 
by them as symbols when appealing for divine aid. It also follows 
that any vision that may come to him from the suggestion of these 
objects may be taken by him as a sign that his appeal has been heard 
and accepted by Wa-ko°'-da. 

The sacred objects specially mentioned in the wi'-gi-e are as follows: 
Wa-ko^'-da and his abiding places, the waters, trees, and hills; the 
observance of certain sacred ceremonies, as when each morning a bit 
of the soil, a sacred symbol, must be put on the forehead, and while 
this sign is upon the suppliant's face he must utter his cry of prayer. 
At night this sjmibol may be removed, and when he takes his rest he 
must lie with his face to the earth, never on his back. If he belongs 
to the Ho°'-ga tribal division he must lie with his head to the right 
side, if to the Tsi'-zhu his head must be toward the left. The " willow 
that never dies" is a symbol of old age or of the long continued life 
craved for the people as a tribe; the battles in which men have 
risked their lives for the continued existence of the tribe ; the earth in 



LAFLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 139 

which Wa-ko°'-da abides; the red dawn, a sacred symbol of life; the 
httle pipe that bears the messages of the people to Wa-ko°'-da; the 
shrine containing the sacred hawk, symbol of the courage of the war- 
rior; the seven sacred animal skins ; the face of the old man roughened 
and wrinkled by time ; the aged man who in the councils sits clothed 
in ceremonial attire, his head covered with eagle down, a sacerdotal 
insignia; the four seasons of life through which all persons must 
strive to pass ; finally the calm and peaceful days to which the tribe 
will at last arrive. 

THE Wl'-GI-E. 

(Osage version, p. 415; literal translation, p. 650.) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The youngest of the brothers, 

3. Arose and stood in silent contemplation. 

4. Verily, it was at the time when the earth sat glorified amid her 

blossoms and ripening fruit, 

5. That the young brother stood in silent contemplation. 

6. It was in the evening of the day, 

7. When he stood at one end of the house, 

8. With his head inclined to tlie right, 

9. He fell prone to the earth, where he lay outstretched. 

10. Night passed. The god of day struck the heavens witli a pale 

light, 

11. Then the young brother arose, took that wliich was made 

sacred (the soil of the earth), 

12. Put it upon his brow and stood motionless. 

13. The god of day ascendetl to a point midway between the eastern 

horizon and the zenith; 

14. The god of day moved on to the middle of heaven; 

15. The god of day descended to a point midway between the zenith 

and the western horizon; 

16. Then, in the evening of the day, 

17. While yet the sacred soil remained upon the young brother's 

brow, 

18. He shed tears while he slowly moved 

19. To the borders of the village where, 

20. With head inclined to the right, 

21. He fell prone to the earth and lay outstretched, 

22. And Wa-ko^'-da made the eyes of the youth to close in sleep. 

23. Night passed. The god of day struck the heavens with a pale 

light, 

24. Then the young brother arose, took that which was made sacred, 



140 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

25. Put it upon his brow and stood upright. 

26. He wandered from place to place as the god of day ascended to 

a point between the eastern horizon and the zenith; 

27. He wandered from place to place as the god of day ascended to 

the middle of heaven ; 

28. Still he wandered from place to place as the god of day descended 

to a point midway between the zenith and the western 
horizon. 

29. Then, in the evening of the day, 

30. He came to a great spring where he paused and spake, saying : 

31. Even in this spot, witliin this spring itself, may be an abiding 

place of the god of mysteries. 

32. He removed from his brow the sign of vigil, the consecrated 

soil of the earth. 

33. Then, with head inchned to the right, 

34. He fell prone to the earth, where he lay outstretched, 

35. And Wa-ko^'-da made the eyes of the youth to close in sleep. 

36. Night passed. The god of day struck the heavens with a pale 

light, 

37. The yoimg brother arose and took that which was made sacred, 

38. Put it upon his brow and stood upright. 

39. He wandered from place to place as the god of day ascended to 

a point midway between the eastern horizon and the zenith; 

40. He wandered frona place to place as the god of day ascendetl to 

the middle of heaven ; 

41. Still he wandered from place to place as the god of day descended 

to a point midway between the zenith and the western 
horizon ; 

42. Then, in the evening of the day, 

43. He came to a great elm tree where he paused and spake, saying: 

44. Even in this spot, within this tree itself, may be an abiding 

place of the god of mysteries. 

45. He removed from his brow the sign of vigil, the sacred soil of 

the earth. 

46. Then, with head inclined to the right, 

47. He fell prone to the earth where he lay outstretched, 

48. And Wa-ko"'-da made the eyes of the youth to close in sleep. 

49. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

50. At the beginning of the day, 

51. The yoimg brother arose and took that which was made sacred, 

52. Put it upon his brow and stood upright. 

53. He wanderetl from place to place as the god of day ascended to 

a point midway between the eastern horizon and the zenith; 



LAFLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 141 

54. He wandered from place to place as the god of day ascended to 

the middle of heaven; 

55. Still he wandered from place to place as the god of day descended 

to a point midway between the zenith and the western 
horizon ; 

56. Then, in the evening of the day, 

57. He came to a low hill that resembled the breast of a turkey. 

58. Close to the liill the yoimg brother stood and spake, saying: 

59. Even in this spot, witliin this hill itself, may be an abiding 

place of the god of mysteries. 

60. Upon this very hill I shall recline and sleep, 

61. Lo, I am weary in body and mind, 

62. I feel ready to depart for the spirit land. 

63. My elder brothers 

64. May never find my body in this lonely spot. 

65. After a pause he said: Toward the places where men 

66. Are wont to pass to and fro I must arise and go; 

67. He arose and wearily strode forth. 

68. In time he came to a little brook, 

69. Whose banks were covered here and there with groves of trees. 

70. Close to the brook he paused to rest. 

71. Near by stood a willow, a tree that never dies. 

72. To that tree he slowly moved and sat down, 

73. Then, clinging to the trunk of the tree, he tried to rise for a 

further effort. 

74. He spake as to a responsive being, saying to the willow: 

75. Ha ! my grandfather, 

76. It seems impossible for me to go on, O, grandfather. 

77. The tree replied, saying: O, little one! . 

78. The little ones shall always cling to me for support, as they 

travel the path of life. 

79. Behold the base of my trunk which sends forth its supporting 

roots. 

80. I have made them to be the sign of old age, O, little one. 

81. When the little ones make of me their symbol of olil age, 

82. They shall not fail to live to see old age, as they travel the path 

of life. 

83. Behold my bark that is roughened with age, 

84. That also, 

85. I have made to be the sign of old age. 

86. When the little ones make of me their symbol of old age, 

87. They shall not fail to live to see their faces roughened with age, 

as they travel the path of life. 



142 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. a-nn. 3» 

88. These lower outspreading limbs, 

89. I have made to be my arms, as I stand here. 

90. When the little ones make of my lower limbs the symbols of their 

arms, 

91. They shall not fail to live to see their arms strengthened with age, 

as they travel the path of life. 

92. These cm^vetl limbs, bent with their weight, 

93. I have made to be the sign of old age. 

94. When the little ones make of me their symbol of old age, 

95. They shall not fail to live to see old age, as they travel the path 

of life. 

96. The white blossoms upon my topmost branches, 

97. I have made to be the sign of old age. 

98. Aged men 

99. Are spoken of as having scant, yellowish hair. 

100. The little ones shall not fail to live to see their hair grown scant 

anil yellowish with age, as they travel the path of life. 

101. The yoimg brother wearily strode homeward, and in time 

102. Came to the borders of the village, 

103. Where he paused to rest. 

104. Then, as in a passing vision, he saw men, 

105. In deadly strife, their war clubs rising and falling in blows and 

parries. 

106. The vision passed; the young brother thought: Lo, I suffer in 

body and mind, 

107. Is it ti'ue, as has been said, that Wa-ko^'-da holds in favor young 

men of my age ? 

108. Even in this spot, • 

109. Within this spot itself may be an abiding place of Wa-ko"'-da. 

110. Then, with head inclined to the right, 

111. He fell prone upon the earth, where he lay outstretched. 

112. Suddenly a man 

113. He heard approaching, treading softly upon the earth as he came. 

114. The yoimg brother lifted his head to see, 

115. But, verily, there came to him as he lay waiting no sign of a man. 

116. After a moment's pause, a man 

117. He again heard approaching, the grass i-ustling at his every step. 

118. The young brother lifted his head to see, 

119. But, verily, there came to him no sign of a person as he lay 

waiting. 

120. After a moment's pause, 

121. The right foot of the yoimg brother was touched 

122. By the man with his foot, 



LAFLESCHB] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 143 

123. And the stranger spake, saying: 

124. It is said that a man is wandering over the earth, suffering in 

body and mind. 

125. Is it you who is thus spoken of. my younger brother, the stranger 

asked. 

126. Yes, my grandfather, it is I, 

127. I who sit here, the young brother repUed. 

128. The stranger spake, saying: Ha! my yovmger brother, 

129. Then it is you whose mind is steadfastly fixed upon the whole 

earth, with a longing desire. 

130. Look upon me ! 

131. The yoimg man replied: O, my grandfather, 

132. I look upon you 

133. And see every part of your body covered with red (the red 

dawni) . 

134. The stranger spake: Your mind is steadfastly fixed upon the 

god whose every part is stained with red. 

135. Look upon me again ! 

136. The young man replied: Little pipes (pipes used in ceremonies), 

137. Seven in number, I see you holding in yoiu- hands, as you stand, 

138. The odd one in number 

139. Profusely adorned with the scalps of men, O, my grandfather. 

140. The stranger spake: Even upon the sacred pipes your mind is 

steadfastly fixed, my yoimger brother. 

141. Look upon me again! 

142. The yoimg man replied: I look upon you, O, my grandfather, 

143. A little (portable) shi-ine, 

144. Most pleasing to look upon, 

145. You hold under your arm, as you stand there, O, my grand- 

father. 

146. The stranger spake: Ha! my younger brother, 

147. Even upon the sacred shrines your mind is steadfastly fixed, 

my younger brother, 

148. Look upon me again. 

149. The young man replied : I look upon you, O, my grandfather, 

150. Animal skins (the seven symbolic animal skins used in cere- 

monies) , 

151. Lie spread beneath your feet, 

152. Upon them you stand as they yield softly to the weight of your 

feet. 

153. The stranger spake : Ha! j-ounger brother, 

154. Even upon the sacred animal skins your mind is steadfastly 

fixed. 

155. Look upon me again ! 

156. The young man replied: As an aged man. 



144 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [hth. ann. 39 

157. Yoiir face roughened with the ^v^inkles of age, I see you, O, my 

grandfather. 

158. The stranger spake: Even upon the appearance of an aged man 

yoiir mind is steadfastly fixed, my younger brother. 

159. Look upon me again! 

160. The yoimg man replied: As an aged man (in sacerdotal attire), 

161. With fluttering down of the eagle, 

162. Adorning his head, I see you, O, my grandfather; 

163. As an aged man, 

164. With the stem of a pipe between liis lips, I see you, O, my 

grandfather. 

165. Again, I see you as amidst the four great divisions of the days, 

166. Standing there as though in your personal abode, O, my grand- 

father. 

167. The stranger spake: Ha! my young brother, 

168. Even upon the fom- great divisions of the days your mind is 

steadfastly fixed, my yoimger brother. 

169. The young man replied: Verily, amidst the days that are 

beautiful and peaceful, 

170. I see you standing as though in your personal abode, O, my 

grandfather. 

171. The stranger spake: Even upon the days that are beautiful and 

peaceful, your mind is steadfastly fixed, my younger brother. 

Duties of the Do-don'-hon-ga. 

The first song of this group refers to the honor conferred upon the 
man who is chosen as Do-do" '-ho^-ga for a ceremonially organized 
war party, and also to the difiiculty of the task required of him, that of 
taking of the rite of No^'-zhi^-zho", the ceremonial appeal to Wa- 
ko^'-da on behalf of all the people for success in the common enter- 
prise. The words of the song, which has one stanza, are few, but to 
the Osage who knows the war rites they tell the story of the choice of 
the Do-do" '-ho°-ga whose responsibility is placed even liigher than 
that of an actual commander. A free translation of only the first two 
lines of the song are given, as the other lines are repetitions. 



la. FI/BSCHG] 



BITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



145 



Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 419; literal translation, p. 556.) 



M.M. J = 168 



Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 




.Time beats ' T T [ [ I I p p 

Thewi-ta ha, the wi-ta, Wa-tse-xi-e tha,thowi-ni da, 
A 



f'^'^'J^^J'W^-f'^ri'ii-i"V\- 



B» 



E he, the wi-taha, thewi-ta, Wa-fse-xi-etha,thowi-iii da, E he, 

# #-• A A 



^ 



r PEj-ii^Eir r^r ^^^-^ i i 



^ 



^ 



T ^ ^r r r r r r 

thewi-ta ha, thewi-ta, Wa-tse-xi-e tha, tho wi-ni, da. 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

This is what I have, what I have to give. 

A task most difficult to perform I give to thee. 

The second song refers to the call to the No°'-ho''-zhi"-ga to assem- 
ble. In this call the Men of Mystery are bidden to bring with them 
the pipe, the knife, and the war club, articles consecrated for use as 
symbols in the war ceremonies ; the bows and arrows (metaphorically, 
warriors); wishes for success in the capture of trophies and spoils; 
and finally, the retm-n of the war party from the night of imcertainty 
to the day of life and reality. 

Two lines only of each stanza, the first and fourth, are translated 
as the others are repetitions. 
3594°— 25t 10 



146 



THE OSAGE TEIBB. 



[ ETH. AXX. 39 



i 



M. M. J = 93 
A 



Song 2. 

(Osage version, p. 420; literal translation, p. 656.) 

Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



!^ 



r. r 



r r r r r 



Time beats j^j_j^^ xo-be ko wi tha ha, Ni-ka xo-be 



J J I J 



1 



fTWP 



i 



r r 

ko wi 
\ 



r r 



tha ha, Ni-ka xo-be ko wi 



r r 

tha ha, 



n I J J 






abz^ 



r r •• r r 

I - ba 'thi"a-do", I - ba 'thi" a-do", Ni-ka xo-be 



W 



S 



^ 



^ 



^ 



7^ T r r r r r r 

ko wi tha ha, Ni-ka xo-be ko wi 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Come hither, ye Men of Mystery, 
Bring ye the pipe, bring ye the pipe. 

2. 

Come hither, ye Men of Mystery, 
Bring ye the knife, bring ye the knife. 



Come hither, ye Men of Mystery, 
Bring ye the club, bring ye the club. 



Come hither, ye Men of Mystery, 
Bring ye bows, bring ye bows. 



r 

tha ha. 



Come hither, ye Men of Mystery, 
Bring ye arrows, bring ye arrows. 



6. 



Come hither, ye Men of Mystery, 
Bring ye scalps, bring ye scalps. 



Ui. ri..I!SCHB] 



EITE OF VIGII 



-FREE TRANSLATION. 



147 



Come hither, ye Men of Mystery, 
Bring ye spoils, bring ye spoils. 



Come hither, ye Men of Mystery, 
Bring ye the day, bring ye the day. 

The third song, of but one stanza, is composed wholly of vocables 
that are iniitative of the cry of the Do-do" '-ho°-ga during his vigils. 

Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 421; literal translation, p. 557. 




M.M. J r 168 

A \ 



A 



Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 
A A 



ViP-jmimn-inj^^ 



Time beats 



T^r r r r 

I tha ha ha he he tha, I 
A A 



r r r r 

tha ha ha he he tha ha^ 



^ r r r r r r r 



r r 

I tha ha, 



r r 

tha ha ha 



r r 

he he tha. 



Songs of Seizing the Wa'-do^-be. 



The next group, composed of six songs and three wi'-gi-es, bears 
the title Wa-thu'-fe Wa-tho", which freely translated is Songs of 
Seizing the Wa'-do°-be. The Wa'-do^-be is the old warrior chosen 
by the Singer to recount the thirteen prescribed military honors won 
by him and called o-do"' (see p. 67). The three wi'-gi-es relate to the 
military honor sjTiibols of the Tsi'-zhu division and the Ho°'-ga and 
Wa-zha'-zhe subdivisions of the great Ho^'-ga division. The sym- 
bols of the Tsi'-zhu are thirteen of the sun's rays; those of the Ho^'-ga 
subdivision thirteen footprints of the black bear; those of the Wa- 
zha'-zhe subdivision thirteen mllow trees that grow hear the water's 
edge. 

When the reciting of the Wi'-gi-e of the Dream has come to a close 
and the wailing of the Singer and the women has ceased, the Singer 
puts back the pipe and the hawk in their places near the shrine and 
goes to his place by the side of the Xo'-ka. As soon as the Singer 
is seated the Sho'-ka rises, takes the ceremonial pipe, and again 
places it in the hands of the Singer. Then in low tones the Sho'-ka 
and the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka prompt the Singer in his part of the next 
act. Following the instructions given him, the Singer, if he is a 
Ho°'-ga, approaches a man on the fsi'-zhu side of the lodge and, 



148 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

grasping a corner of his blanket, leads him to a seat prepared for hina 
back of the black bear skin spread upon the ground for symbolic 
purposes at the west end (fig. 2). There the Singer takes away 
from the man, who is the chosen Wa'-do"-be, his blanket and puts 
upon liim a new one ornamented -v^ath a broad beaded blanket band 
and bids him sit down on the robes spread upon the ground for his 
comfort. When the Wa'-do°-be is seated the Singer fastens to his 
scalp lock a scarlet deer's tail headdress badge wliich only a Avarrior 
who has won military honors is privileged to wear, and he also places 
upon the back of the Wa'-do°-be a rawhide shield painted with 
symbolic designs and ornamented with eagle feathers. 

Having performed this duty, the Singer returns to his seat, when 
the Sho'-ka brings to the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka thirteen willow saplings. 
These the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka divides into two bunches, one having 
seven saplings and the other six. He grasps the two bimches about 
a span's length from the butt ends, holding the bunch containing 
seven saplings in his left hand and the bunch having six in his right. 
He crosses the lower ends of the two bunches at right angles, the 
bunch containing seven saplings being uppermost, and, holding them 
in this manner he gives them to the Sho'-ka, who carries them to 
the Singer and places them in his hands \\dthout disturbing their 
order. The Singer then carries the two bimches of saplings to the 
Wa'-do°-be and places them before him on the ground exactly as 
they had been arranged by the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka, so that the bunch 
containing the seven saplings lies toward the Ho°'-ga side of the 
house and that containing the six saplings toward the Tsi-zhu side 
(fig. 2). 

When the .Singer returns to his seat, after placing before the 
Wa'-do"-be the tliirteen willow saplings, the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka and his 
assistants begin to sing the songs, at the same time the No"'-ho°-zhi°-ga 
of the Ho°'-ga and the fsi'-zhu divisions begin the recitation of 
their Avi'-gi-es. The singing of the songs and the reciting of the 
wi'-gi-es continue together to the end of the fourth song. The 
Wa'-do°-be then rises and begins to recount his o-do"', liis sonorous 
voice mingling with the din but rising above the confusion of soimds. 

The wi'-gi-es will be given first, as they refer directly to the pre- 
scribed nimiber of o-do°' to be won and ceremonially recoimted by 
the successful warrior. 

THE Wl'-GI-E. 

(Osage version, ]>. 421; literal translation, p. 557-) 
Unmodified Form as Recited by the I'*-qtho'''-ga (Puma) Gens. 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The black bear that is without a blemish 

3. Fell suddenly to meditating upon himself; 



UVKLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 149 

4. Verily, at a time when the moon of the rutting of the deer was 

still young, 

5. He fell to meditating upon himself, 

6. Upon the period of time when he must rest his haunches (hiber- 

nate) . 

7. Verily, he was seized with the longing desire, and he stood 

bewildered, motionless. 

8. Then, suddenly, he rushed hither and thither, always returning 

to the spot from which he started. 

9. At last he took his footsteps 

10. To the top of a hill, 

11. Where he stood motionless. 

12. Then again he rushed hither and tliither, but always returned to 

the spot from which he started. 

13. Then, as before, he took his footsteps 

14. To the side of a hill, 

1.5. To a patch of bunch grass. 

16. Close to the patch of grass he came and stood, motionless. 

17. Then the patch of bunch grass 

18. He tore up and gathered in a pile, 

19. Nevertheless he did not rest his haunches, it has been said, in this 

house. 

20. As before, he then took his footsteps, it has been said, in this 

house, 

21. Verily, to the side of a liill, 

22. To a bush of stunted oaks. 

23. Close to the bush he came and stood, motionless, 

24. Then he tore up the bush and gathered it into a pile, 

25. Nevertheless he did not rest his haunches, it has been said, in this 

house. 

26. Then, as before, he took his footsteps, it has been said, in this 

house, 

27. Verily, to a brook whose banks were studded here and there with 

forests, 

28. To a bush of redbud trees. 

29. Verily, at that time and place, 

30. He tore up the redbud trees and gathered them into a pile, 

31. Nevertheless he did not rest his haunches, it has been said, in this 

house. 

32. Again, as before, he took his footsteps, it has been said, in this 

house, 

33. Verily, to a brook whose banks were studded here and there with 

forests, 



150 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

34. To a biinch of grapevines the roots of which 

35. He tore up and gathered into a twisted pile, 

36. Nevertheless he did not rest his haunches, it has been said, in this 

house. 

37. Then, as before, he took his footsteps, it has been said, in this 

house, 

38. To a young cedar tree, 

39. That stood on the side of a hill, 

40. Then to a crevice in a rock, 

41. Where, pressed with the desire to rest liis haunches, 

42. He came and stood, motionless, 

43. Nevertheless he did not rest his haunches, it has been said, in this 

house. 

44. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

45. He came to a young cedar tree. 

46. Close to it he sat, 

47. Where, within his reach lay some stones, 

48. Which he gathered around him. 

49. Verily, at that time and place, 

50. He turned over the stones and arranged them about himself, 

51. So that in their shelter he might rest his haunches. 

52. One of these stones 

53. He placed over his head, then he sat in the shelter, 

54. To rest for a period of seven moons. 

55. The close of the season drew near as he sat. 

56. Verily, at that time and place 

57. He awoke and thought: "I have, indeed, come to a division of 

time." 

58. The small insects swarmed about his hiding place. 

59. He heard their humming as he sat in silent contemplation. 

60. Again he thought: '' I have now come to a division of time." 

61. Verih', it has been said, in tliis house, 

62. He suddenly heard the calls and the songs of birds around his 

hiding place, 

63. And as he sat he thought: '" I have, indeed, come to a division of 

time," it has been said, in this house. 

64. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

65. As the god of day approached, 

66. The black bear came to the door of his house, 

67. Rubbing together the palms of Ms hands as though in gladness. 

68. Then he lifted them to the sun in greeting. 

69. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 



LAFLBSCHB] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 151 

70. He addressed the sun, saying: "Ha! my grandfather," 

71. Then, as though to himself, he spake, saying: "Verily, my flesh 

has become shrunken as I lay asleep." 

72. The sun spake, saying: "Ha! thou person, 

73. Thou hast indeed caused thyself to find the means by which to 

reach old age," it has been said, in this house. 

74. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house 

75. At the right side of the door of his house 

76. He placed on the groimd the impress of a foot, 

77. And spake, saying: " This footprint 

78. I have not made without a purpose. 

79. The warriors of the Wa-zha'-zhe, 

80. Together with those of the Tsi'-zhu, 

81. Shall use this footprint, in their life's journey, for coimting their 

o-do°'. 

82. When they use this footprint for counting their o-do"', 

83. They shall always count with accuracy their counting rods." 

84. At the left of the door 

85. He placed upon the ground the impress of a foot, 

86. And spake, saying: "The warriors of the Wa-zha'-zhe, 

87. Together with those of the Tsi'-zhu, 

88. Shall use this footprint, in their life's journey, for counting their 

o-do"'. 

89. When they use this footprint for counting their o-do°', 

90. They shall always coimt with accuracy their counting rods," it 

has been said, in this house. 

■wi '-GI-E — continued . 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

2. There dwelt upon the> earth the Wa-zha'-zhe, a people having 

seven sacred fireplaces. 

3. Verily, there were none among the people who were tmiid and 

craven. 

4. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

5. One of the Wa-zha'-zhe (gens) 

6. Had made of a mysterious animal 

7. His body and stood as a person. 

8. Verily, of the male beaver 

9. He had made his body, and stood as a person. 

10. Verily, at that time and place, it ha§ been said, in this house, 

11. The beaver went forth, even against the current of the river, 

12. Rippling the surface of the water as he lay outstretched, 

13. And he spake, saying: "Behold the ripples of the water, 



152 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. sa 

14. It is the parting of the gods of waters, as they make way for me. 

15. When the Httle ones make of me their body, 

16. The gods of the waters shall make way for them also, as they 

travel the path of life. 

17. Behold the left side of the river. 

18. The left side of the river 

19. I have made to be the left side of my own body. 

20. When the little ones also make of it the left side of their body, 

21. That side of their body shall be free from all causes of death. 

22. Behold the strong current of the river. 

23. The strong current also 

24. I have made to be the cavity of my body. 

25. When the little ones also make it to be the cavity of their own 

body, 

26. The cavity of their body shall be free from all causes of death. 

27. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

28. He came to a bend of the river. 

29. Close to the bend he lay outstretched, 

30. The soft earth along the edges of the water he gathered together, 

31. Into a pile and daubed it over the walls of his house, 

32. And thus he became possessed of a dwelling. 

33. The beaver spake, saying: " When the little ones also cause them- 

selves to become possessed of dwellings, 

34. They shall make themselves to be free from all causes of death," 

it has been said, in this house. 

35. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in tliis house, 

36. The beaver came to a bend of the river. 

37. Close to the bend he lay outstretched. 

38. Upon the bank stood a willow sapling. 

39. He cut the willow to the ground, 

40. And spake, saying: "There are peoples who dwell toward the 

setting of the sun, 

41. It is upon those peoples I have made this tree to fall." 

42. To the right side of the door of his house, 

43. He dragged the willow sapling, 

44. And spake, saying: "This willow sapling, 

45. I have not brought to the door of my house without a purpose. 

46. When the little ones go against their enemies, toward the setting 

of the sun, 

47. They shall use this sapling to count those they slay. 

48. Then shall the little ones count with accuracy their o-do°', as 

they travel the path of life," it has been said, in this house. 



LAFU3SCHE] RITE OF VIGIL— FREE TRANSLATION. 153 

49. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

50. The beaver came to the seventh bend of the river. 

51. Close to the bend he lay outstretched. 

52. Upon the bank stood the seventh willow sapling. 

53. He cut the sapling to the ground, 

54. And spake, saying: "This sapling also, 

55. I have not cut down without a purpose. 

56. There are peoples who dwell toward the setting of the sun. 

57. It is upon those peoples I make this tree to fall. 

58. To the right side of the door of his house 

59. He dragged the willow sapling, 

60. And spake, saying: "Tliis willow sapling, 

61. I have not brought to the door of my house without a purpose. 

62. The warriors of the Tsi'-zhu, 

63. And those of the Ho°'-ga, 

64. Shall use these willow saplings for counting their o-do°', 

65. When they use these saplings for coimting their o-do"', as they 

travel the path of life, 

66. The little ones shall always covmt with accuracy their o-do"'," 

it has been said, in this house. 

67. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

68. The beaver came to a bend of the river. 

69. Close to the bend he lay outstretched. 

70. Upon the bank stood a willow sapling. 

71. He cut the sapling to the ground, 

72. And spake, saying: "There are peoples who dwell toward the 

setting of the sun. 

73. It is upon those peoples I have made this tree to fall." 

74. To the left side of the door of his house, 

75. He dragged the sapling, 

76. And spake, saying: "This willow sapling, 

77. I have not brought to the door of my house without a purpose. 

78. When the little ones go toward the setting of the sun against their 

enemies, 

79. They shall use this sapling to count those they slay, 

80. Then shall the little ones count with accuracy their o-do°', as 

they travel the path of life," it has been said, in this house. 

81. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

82. He came to the sixth bend of the river. 

83. Close to the bend he lay outstretched. 

84. Upon the bank stood the sixth willow sapling. 

85. He cut the sapling to the ground, 



154 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. ss 

86. And spake, saying: "This sapling 

87. I have not cut down without a purpose. 

88. There are peoples who dwell toward the setting of the sun. 

89. It is upon those peoples I have made this tree to fall." 

90. To the left side of the door of his house 

91. He dragged the willow sapling, 

92. And spake, saying: ''This sapling also 

93. I have not brought to the door of my house without a piu-pose. 

94. The warriors of the Tsi'-zhu, 

95. And those of the Ho^'-ga, 

96. Shall use these saplings for coimting their o-do°'. 

97. When they use these saplings for counting their o-do°', 

98. They shall count with accuracy their o-do"', as they travel the 

path of life," it has been said, in this house. 

The wi'-gi-e relating to the military honor symbols, namely, the 
seven and six imprints of the Black Bear's feet, belongs to the 
Wa-Qa'-be (Black Bear) gens. The members of tliis gens alone can 
recite it without modification. The other gentes belonging to the 
Ho°'-ga subdivision of the Ho'''-ga great division are privileged to 
recite the wi'-gi-e, but in modified form. The preceding wi'-gi-e 
recited by Wa-xthi'-zhi is the modified form used by his gens, the 
I^-gtho^'-ga (Puma). Wa-xtlii'-zhi was taught this wi'-gi-e by his 
father, Wa-thu'-ts'a-ga-zhi. With some hesitation Wa-xthi'-zhi also 
gave the Beaver and the Willow Wi'-gi-e of the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no° 
gens. The members of the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no° gens alone could 
recite the wi'-gi-e in full. Those of the other gentes composing the 
Wa-zha'-zhe subdivision of the Ho"'-ga great division are privileged 
to recite it, but in modified form. 

Wa-tse'-mo^-i", of the Black Bear gens (PI. 7, ^4), who received his 
instructions from an older relative of the same name who was also a 
memher of the Black Bear gens, said that the wi'-gi-e of the Black 
Bear and that of the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no° gentes should both be 
recited as one wi'-gi-e; therefore Wa-tse'-mo"-!" gave them both as 
one continuous wi'-gi-e. 

The Black Bear and the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no" are the principal war 
gentes of the Ho^'-ga tribal division. 

Wi'-Gi-E OF THE Black Bear and Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no" Gentes. 

By Wa-tse'-mo''-i''. 
(Osage version, p. 426; literal translation, p. 562.) 

1. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The male black bear, he that is without blemish, 

3. Fell to meditating upon himself. 



LAFLBSCHB] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 155 

4. Verily, when the moon of the rutting of the deer was waning, 

5. He fell to meditating upon himself. 

6. Verily, it was at the time of the year when the earth was great 

in the ripeness of her fruits, 

7. He fell to meditating upon himself. 

8. To the four \vinds, 

9. Even to each one of the winds, 

10. He rushed and stood perplexed, with paws uplifted and claws 

outspread. 

1 1 . Moved suddenly by the desire to rest his haunches, 

12. He stood perplexed, it has been said, in tliis house. 

13. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

14. The black bear went on with quickened footsteps, 

15. To a patch of bunch grass, 

16. Where he paused and stood, 

17. Then suddenly he plucked ami gathered the bunches of grass 

into a pile, 

18. Nevertheless he did not put down his haimches to rest. 

19. Even as he moved about, 

20. He spake, saying: "I have not gathered these grasses together 

without a purpose. 

21. When the little ones go toward the setting of the sun against 

their enemies, 

22. They shall make use of this act when they go forth to make 

their enemies to fall. 

23. When they use this act as they go forth to make their enemies 

to fall, " 

24. It shall be easy for them to make their enemies to fall. 

25. When they use this act in their supplications for success, 

26. They shall never fail to win success, as they travel the path of 

life," it has been said, in this house. 

27. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

28. The black bear went on with quickened footsteps, 

29. Verily, to the edge of a forest within the bend of a river where 

he paused and stood, 

30. In silent meditation upon himself. 

31. To this time he had not rested his haunches. 

32. Seven moons he must sit and rest, he knew, 

33. But stood perplexed, bewildered. 

34. Near by there stood a bush, of redbud trees. 

35. He tore down the bush and crushed to pieces the trees, 

36. The pieces he gathered into a pile. 

37. That he might rest his haunches thereon, 



156 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

38. He gathered the pieces into a pile. 

39. Nevertheless he rested not his haunches, 

40. And he spake, saying: "I have not performed this act without 

a purpose. 

41. When the little ones go toward the setting of the sun against 

their enemies, 

42. They shall use this act in their appeals for aid to overcome their 

enemies. 

43. When they use this act in their appeals for aid to overcome 

their enemies, 

44. They shall enable themselves to win with ease the divine favor, 

as they travel the path of life. 

45. When they use tliis act in their supplications for aid to overcome 

their enemies, 

46. They shall enable themselves to win with ease the divine favor, 

as they travel the path of life." 

47. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

48. The bear went on with quickened footsteps 

49. To the opposite edge of the forest, 

50. Where he paused and stood. 

51. Close to a gray arrow-shaft tree, 

52. He paused and stood. 

53. Verily, in silent meditation upon himself, 

54. Upon the resting of his haunches, 

55. He contemplated as he moved about, 

56. And upon the period of seven moons in which he must rest. 

57. He tore down the arrow-shaft tree, broke trunk and limbs to 

pieces, 

58. And gathered the pieces together into a pile. 

59. Nevertheless he rested not his haimches. 

60. Even as he went about, 

61. He spake, saying: "I have not performed this act without a 

purpose. 

62. When the little ones go toward the setting of the sun against 

their enemies, 

63. They shall use this act in their appeals for aid to overcome their 

enemies. 

64. When they use this act in their appeals for aid to overcome 

their enemies, 

65. They shall enable themselves to win with ease the divine favor, 

as they travel the path of life. 

66. When they use this act in their supplications for aid to over- 

come their enemies. 



LAFLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL- — FBEE TRANSLATION. 157 

67. They shall enable themselves to overcome their enemies with 

ease, as they travel the path of life," it has been said, in this 
house. 

68. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

69. The bear went on with quickened footsteps, 

70. To a brook, the banks of which were bare of trees, 

71. Where stood a single never-dying willow. 

72. Close to the willow he paused and stood, 

73. Even as the male black bear, 

74. Paused to meditate upon himself, 

75. Upon the period of seven moons in which he must sit, 

76. And quietly rest his haunches. 

77. Verily, he gave much thought to himself. 

78. Then he suddenly seized the never-dying willow, 

79. And broke into pieces its trunk and limbs, 

80. Gathered the pieces into a pile. 

81. That he might rest his haunches thereon, 

82. He gathered the pieces together and arranged them in a pile. 

83. Nevertheless he rested not his haunches. 

84. Then, even as he moved away, 

85. He spake, saying: ''This act also, 

86. I have not performed without a purpose. 

87. When the little ones go toward the setting sun against their 

enemies, 

88. They shall use this act in their appeals for aid to overcome their 

enemies. 

89. When they use this act in their appeals for aid to overcome their 

enemies, 

90. They shall enable themselves to win with ease the divine favor, 

as they travel the path of life. 

91. They shall also use this act in their supplications to overcome 

their enemies with ease. 

92. When they use this act in their supplications to overcome their 

enemies with ease, 

93. They shall enable themselves to overcome their enemies with 

ease, as they travel the path of life," it has been said, in this 
house. 

94. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

95. The bear moved on with quickened footsteps, 

96. To a hummock, 

97. Where he paused and stood. 

98. Verily, in meditation upon himself, 

99. He looked about him over the land, 

100. In search for a place wherein to rest his haunches, 



158 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth.ann. 39 

101. And stood perplexed and bewildered. 

102. For a period of seven moons he must rest, he knew, 

103. But he stood perplexed and bewildered. 

104. He quickly tore open the hummock 

105. To rest his haunches therein. 

106. Nevertheless he rested not his haunches. 

107. Then he spake, saying: ''This act also, 

108. I have not performed without a purpose. 

109. When the little ones go toward the setting sun against their 

enemies, 

110. They shall use this act in their appeals for aid to overcome their 

enemies. 

111. When they use this act in their appeals for aid to overcome their 

enemies, 

112. They shall enable themselves to win with ease the divine favor, 

as they travel the path of life. 

113. They shall also use this act in their supplications for aid to over- 

come their enemies with ease. 

114. When they use this act in their supplications for aid to over- 

come their enemies with ease, 

115. The}^ shall enable themselves to overcome their enemies with 

ease, as they travel the path of life," it has been said, in this 
house. 

116. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

117. The bear moved on with quickened footsteps, 

118. To a valley where he paused and stood. 

119. To this time he had not found a place wherein to rest his 

haunches. 

120. He longed to sit down to rest, 

121. But moved about perplexed and bewildered. 

122. He knew he must rest for a period of seven moons, 

123. But knew not where or how and was perplexed. 

124. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

125. He gathered together some small stones, 

126. And arranged them in a pile. 

127. Seven in number were the stones, 

128. He had gathered tt)gether, 

129. And arranged in a pile, 

130. Whereon to rest. 

131. Nevertheless he rested not his haunches. 

132. Then, even as he moved away, 

133. He spake, saying: "This act also, 

134. I have not performed without a purpose. 



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LAFLBSCHE] BITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 159 

135. When the little ones go toward the setting sun against their 

enemies, 

136. They shall make use of these stones, as they travel the path of 

life. 

137. The little ones of the Tsi'-zhu, 

138. And the little ones of the Wa-zha'-zhe, 

139. Shall use these stones to purify their bodies by heating them 

Uhe ceremonial vapor bath) (PI. 8). 

140. When they use these stones for piu-ifying their bodies, 

141. They shall be free from all causes of death, as they travel the 

path of life. 

142. When they use them in their supplications for aid to overcome 

their enemies, 

143. They shall enable themselves to overcome their enemies with 

ease, as they travel the path of life," it has been said, in this 
house. 

144. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

145. The bear moved on with quickened footsteps, 

146. To the top of a rocky cliff, 

147. To the entrance of a cave where he paused and stood. 

148. To this time he had not found a place wherein to rest. 

149. He knew that he must rest his haunches, 

150. But he moved about in perplexity. 

151. For a period of seven moons he must rest, 

152. But was perplexed, for he knew not where or how. 

153. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

154. He moved close to the house (the cave) and paused. 

155. Then, into the door, at the right side, 

156. He partly entered and paused. 

157. Verily, at that time and place, it lias been said, in this house, 

158. He beheld the interior of a house, mysterious in all its aspects. 

159. He moved farther into the house and sat down. 

160. When he had entered the house and sat dowTi, 

161. He became conscious of having found for himself a house with. 

a room most pleasing and satisfying, 

162. Of having come to a house that was mysterious in all its aspects, 

163. Verily, a house that excluded the light of day, he had foimd. 

164. He thought: "Lo. even the door of my dwelling 

165. Is mysterious. 

166. No one can look in and intrude upon me." 

167. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

168. He put down his haunches, 

169. To rest for a period of seven moons. 

170. He put down his haunches, 



160 THE OSAGE TKIBE, [eth.ann.39 

171. And sat undisturbed, 

172. Until six moons had passed, 

173. Then, following this lapse of time, 

174. He made a close examination of his body, 

175. Looking carefully over all its parts. 

176. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

177. He thought: "Lo, my flesh has slirunken to nothing, in the 

time I have here sat." 

178. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

179. He thought: "Verily, I am a person of whom the little ones 

should make their bodies, 

180. They should make of me an emblem of old age," it has been 

said, in this house. 

181. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

182. Wliile he was yet in this contemplative mood, 

183. He thought: " The little ones shall make of me their bodies. 

184. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

185. These my toes that are folded together, 

186. I have made to be the sign of old age. 

187. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

188. Thej' shall live to see their toes folded together with age, as they 

travel the path of life. 

189. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

190. They shall be free from all causes of death, as they travel the 

path of life. 

191. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

192. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by 

death," it has been said, in this house. 

193. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

194. That he spake again, saving: "These words shall forever stand, 

195. Behold the wrinkles of my ankles, 

196. I have made them to be the sign of old age. 

197. When the little ones reach old age, 

198. They shall see their ankles wrinkled with age, as they travel the 

path of life, 

199. When the little ones make of me their bodies," it has been said, 

in this house. 

200. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

201. That he spake again, saying: "Behold the muscles of my thigh, 

loosened with age. 

202. Those loosened muscles also, 

203. I have made to be the sign of old age. 

204. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 



I^PLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 161 

205. They shall live to see the muscles of their thighs become loosened 

with age. 

206. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

207. They shall be free from all causes of death, as they travel the 

path of life. 

208. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

209. They shall cause themselves to be difhcult to overcome by 

death," it has been said, in this house. 

210. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

211. That he spake again, saying: "Behold the muscles of my 

abdomen, loosened with age. 

212. Those loosened muscles also, 

213. I have made to be the sign of old age. 

214. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

215. They shall live to see the muscles of their abdomen become 

loosened with age, as they travel the path of life. 

216. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

217. They shall be free from all causes of death, as they travel the 

path of life. 

218. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

219. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome bj' 

death," it has been said, in this house. 

220. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

221. "Behold my ribs that lie in ridges along my side. 

222. The ridges of my ribs also, 

223. I have made to be the signs of old age. 

224. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

225. They shall live to see the ridges of their ribs on their bodies, as 

they travel the path of life. 

226. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

227. They shall be free from all causes of death, as they travel the 

path of life. 

228. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

229. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by 

death," it has been said, in this house. 

230. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

231. "Behold the loosened muscles of my arms. 

232. I have made them also to be the signs of old age. 

233. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

234. They shall live to see the muscles of their arms become loosened 

with age, as they travel the path of life. 

235. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 
3594°— 25t 11 



162 THE OSAGE TRIBE. Tbth. Ann. S9 

236. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by 

death," it has been said, in this house. 

237. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

238. "Behold the loosened muscles of my chin. 

239. Those loosened muscles also, 

240. I have made to be the sign of old age. 

241. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

242. They shall live to see the muscles of their chins become loosened 

\nth age, as they travel the path of life. ■ 

243. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

244. They shall be free from all causes of death, as they travel the 

path of life. 

245. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

246. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by 

death," it has been said, in this house. 

247. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

248. That he spake again, saying: "Behold the wTinkles in the cor- 

ners of my mouth. 

249. Those wrinkles also, 

250. I have made to be the sign of old age. 

251. When the little ones reach old age, 

252. They shall see the corners of their mouths wrinkled with age, 

as they travel the path of life," it has been said, in tliis house. 

253. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

254. "Behold the wrinkles in the comers of ray eyelids. 

255. Those wrinkles also, 

256. I have made to be the signs of old age. 

257. When the little ones reach old age, 

258. They shall see the corners of their eyelids wrinkled with age, as 

they travel the path of life," it has been said, in this house. 

259. "Behold the bareness of my forehead. 

260. Also, 

261. When the little ones reach old age, 

262. They shall see their foreheads grown bare with age," it has been 

said, in this house. 

263. "Behold the hair on the crown of my head grown scant with age. 

264. The scantiness of my hair also, 

265. I have made to be the sign of old age. 

266. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

267. They shall live to see the hair on the crown of their heads grown 

scant with age. 

268. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 



LAFLBSCHE] KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 163 

269. They shall be free from all causes of death, as they travel the 

path of life, it has been said, in this house. 

270. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

271. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by 

death, as they travel the path of life, it has been said, in this 
house. 

272. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

273. When they reach old age, 

274. They shall see the hairs of their heads whitened with age," it 

has been said, in this house. 

275. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

270. That he spake again, saying: "The little ones shall reach old age. 

277. The days that are calm and peaceful, 

278. And the four successive seasons of life, 

279. The little ones shall bring themselves to see, as they travel the 

path of life," it has been said, in this house. 

280. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

281. Again the bear examined himself. 

282. Then to the right side of the door of his house, 

283. He moved and he paused. 

284. He stood gazing upon the land before him. 

285. Verily, he saw the land overspread with a smoke-like mist. 

286. He heard the sighing of the winds among the tops of the trees. 

287. He moved farther out, where he paused and stood, 

288. And the birds 

289. All around him sang, 

290. And he stood listening to the noise of their songs. 

291. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

292. The bear moved forward and placed upon the groimd six im- 

prints of his feet, 

293. As symbols of certain deeds most difficult to accomplish. 

294. He did not place the six footprints upon the ground without a 

purpose. 

295. He spake, sapng: "Behold I have placed upon the ground six 

footprints. 

296. Toward the setting of the sun, 

297. The little ones shall win o-do°' (mihtary honors). 

298. Verily, I have made these footprints to represent those deeds." 

299. VerUy, at that time and place, it has been said, in tliis house, 

300. He took one step forward, 

301. Then from there he placed seven footprints upon the ground, 

302. ,\nd he spoke, saying: "These footprints also, 

303. I have not placed upon the groimd without a purpose. 

304. They are the footprints spoken of as the Seven Footprints. 



164 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

305. Verily, I have placed them here to remain for all time to come. 

306. They are the valorous deeds spoken of as o-do°'. 

307. Verily, I have placed them here to remain for all time to come, 

308. The valorous deeds spoken of as the Seven 0-do°', 

309. I have verily placed here to remain for all time," it has been 

said, in this house. 

310. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

311. The bear went forth with quickened footsteps, 

312. And came to a land upon which the air quivered with the warmth 

of the sun. 

313. The grass rustled to the tread of his feet as he paused and stood. 

314. He went forth with quickened footsteps, 

315. And came to a little house (the beaver's house) , where he paused 

and stood. 

316. He went forth with quickened footsteps, 

317. And came to the edge of a river where he paused and stood. 

THE PART BELONGINO TO THE WA-ZHA'-ZHE WA-XO'" GENS. 

318. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

319. There stood the male beaver, 

320. Gathering with his tail the soft mud, 

321. Which he placed in a pile, 

322. And spake, saying: "I have gathered this pile of mud not with- 

out a purpose. 

323. When the little ones go toward the setting sun against their 

enemies, 

324. They shall use the soft earth ^ in their appeals for aid to over- 

come their enemies with ease. 

325. When they use the soft earth in their appeals for aid to over- 

come their enemies with ease, 

326. They shall enable themselves to overcome their enemies with 

ease, as they travel the path of life," it has been said, in this 
house. 

327. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

328. The beaver moved to the strong current of the stream, 

329. Slapping the water with his tail. 

330. Verily, he went up the river against its current, 

'■• The mud of the bottom of the lakes or running streams is the supplicatory symbol of the gentes of the 
Wa-zha'-zhe subdivision that represents the water portion of the earth in the tribal organization. The 
members of this subdivision may use the soil of the dry land in their supphcatory rites, but such soil repre- 
sents the original type, i.e., the soft mud of the lakes or running waters. InUnes319 to326of this wi'-gl^e, 
the ancient Nof'-ho^-zhin-ga have expressed, in mythic form, their conception that the great life-giving 
power resides within the waters as well as in the sky and the dry land. In accordance with this conception 
the supplications of the people are directed to the waters as well as to the sky and to the dry land. 



LAFLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 165 

331. Rippling the surface as he pushed forward, 

332. To the fost bend of the river. 

333. Upon the water's edge stood a young willow, 

334. Which he quickly cut to the ground, 

335. And hastily dragged it toward his home. 

336. Within the right side of the door of his house 

337. He dragged the young willow, then laid it down, 

338. And he spake, saying: " It is not without a purpose that I have 

brought home this young willow. 

339. When the little ones go toward the setting sun against their 

enemies, 

340. They shall use this young willow for counting their o-do"' 

(military honors). 

341. When the little ones use the young willow for counting their 

o-do"', as they travel the path of life, 

342. Then shall they count their o-do°' with ease (accuracy),' ' it has 

been said, in this house. 

343. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

344. The male beaver, 

345. Moved to the strong current of the stream, 

346. Verily, against its current, 

347. Rippling the surface of the water as he pushed forward, 

348. To the second bend of the river, 

349. Close to which he paused and stood. 

350. Upon the water's edge stood a young willow, 

351. Which he quickly cut to the ground, 

352. And hastily dragged it toward his home. 

353. Witliin the right side of the door of his house, 

354. He dragged the young willow, then laid it down, 

355. Ami he spake, saying: " It is not without a purpose that I have 

brought home this young willow. 

356. I have brought it home for the little ones to use in counting 

their o-do"'. 

357. When the little ones use the j^oung willow for counting their 

o-do"', as they travel the path of life, 

358. They shall be free from all cause of death, as they travel the 

path of life," it has been said, in this house. 

359. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

360. The male beaver 

361. Moved to the strong current of the stream. 

362. Verily, he went up the river against its current, 

363. Rippling the surface of the water as he pushed forward, 

364. To the third bend of the river. 



e> 



166 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ax.n. 39 

365. Upon the water's edge stood a young willow, 

366. Which he quickly cut to the ground, 

367. And hastily dragged toward his home. 

368. Within the right side of the door of his house 

369. He dragged the young willow, then laid it down, 

370. And he spake, saying: "It is not without a purpose that I have 

brought home this young willow, 

371. I have brought it home for the little ones to use in counting 

their o-do"', as they travel the path of life," it has been said 
in this house. 

372. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

373. The male beaver 

374. Moved up the strong current of the stream, 

375. To the fom-th bend of the river, 

376. Where, by the water's edge, stood a young willow, 

377. Which he quickly cut to the ground, 

378. And hastily dragged it toward his home. 

379. Within the right side of the door of his house 

380. He dragged the young willow, then laid it down, 

381. And he spake, saying: "It is not without a purpose that I have 

brought home this young willow. 

382. When the little ones go toward the setting sun against their 

enemies, 

383. They shall use the young willow to count their o-do"', as they 

travel the path of life," it has been said, in this house. 

384. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

385. The male beaver 

386. Moved to the strong current of the stream. 

387. Verily, he went up the river against its cm-rent, 

388. Rippling the surface of the water as he pushed forward, 

389. To the fifth bend of the river, 

390. Where he lay close to the edge of the water. 

391. Upon the water's edge stood a young willow, 

392. Wliich he quickly cut to the ground, 

393. And hastily dragged it toward his home. 

394. Witliin the right side of the door of his house 

395. He dragged the yoimg willow, then laid it down, 

396. And he spake, saying: " It is not without a purpose that I have 

brought home this young willow. 

397. I have brought it home for the little ones to use in counting 

their o-do"', as they travel the path of life," it has been said, 
in this house. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 167 

398. They said, it has been said, in tliis house, 

399. The male beaver 

400. Moved to the strong current of the streana. 

401. Verily, he went up the river against its current, 

402. Rippling the surface of the water as he pusheil forward, 

403. To the sixth bend of the river, 

404. Where, by the water's edge stood a young willow, 

405. Which he cjuickly cut to the ground, 

406. And hastily dragged toward his home. 

407. Within the right side of the door of his house 

408. He dragged the young willow, then laid it down, 

409. iVnd he spake, saying: ''It is not without a purpose that I have 

brought home this young willow. 

410. I have brought it home for the little ones to use in counting their 

o-do"', as they travel the path of life," it has been said, in this 
house. 

411. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

412. The male beaver 

413. Moved up the strong current of the stream, 

414. To the seventh bend of the river, 

415. Where he lay close to the edge of the water. 

416. Upon the water's edge stood a yomig willow, 

417. Which he quickly cut to the ground, 

418. And hastily dragged toward his home. 

419. Within the right side of the door of his house 

420. He dragged the young willow, then laid it down, 

421. And he spake, saying: '' It is not without a ])urposp that I have 

brought home this young willow. 

422. I have brought it home for the little ones to use in counting 

their o-do"', as they travel the path of life," it has been said, 
in this house. 

423. They saiil, it has been said, in this house, 

424. The beaver moved to the strong cm-rent of the stream, 

425. Slapping the water with his tail. 

426. Verily, he went up the river against its current, 

427. Rippling the surface of the water as he pushed forward, 

428. To the first bend of the river, 

429. Where, by the water's edge stood a young willow, 

430. Which he quickly cut to the ground, 

431. And hastily dragged it toward liis home. 

432. WitMn the left side of the door of his house 

433. He dragged the yoimg willow, then laid it doAvn, 

434. And he spake, saying: " It is not without a purpose that I have 

brought home this young willow. 



168 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. axn. 39 

435. When tha little ones go toward the setting sun against their 

enemies, 

436. They shall use this young willow for counting their o-do°'. 

437. When they use the young willow for coimting their o-do"', as 

they travel the path of life, 

438. Then shall they count their o-do"' with ease (accuracy)," it has 

been said, in this house. 

439. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

440. The male beaver 

441. Moved to the strong current of the stream. 

442. Verily, he' went up the river against its current, 

443. Rippling the sm-face of the M'ater as he pushed forward, 

444. To the second bend of the river, 

445. Where he paused and stood. 

446. By the water's edge there stood a young willow, 

447. Which he quickly cut to the ground, 

448. And hastily dragged it toward his home. 

449. Within the left side of the door of his house 

450. He dragged the young willow, then laiil it down, 

451. And he spake, saying: " It is not without a purpose that I have 

brought home this young willow. 

452. I have brought it home for the little ones to use in counting 

their o-do°'. 

453. Wlien the little ones use the young willow for counting their 

o-do°', as they travel the path of life, 

454. They shall be free from all causes of death," it has been said, in 

this house. 

455. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

456. The male beaver 

457. Moved to the strong current of the stream. 

458. Verily, he went up the river against its current, 

459. Eipphng the surface of the water as he pushed forward, 

460. To the third bend of the river, 

461. Where, by the water's edge stood a young willow, 

462. Which he quickly cut to the groimd, 

463. And hastily dragged it toward his home. 

464. Within the left side of the door of his house 

465. He dragged the yoimg willow, then laid it down, 

466. And he spake, saying: "It is not without a purpose that I have 

brought home this young willow. 

467. I have brought it home for the little ones to use in counting 

their o-do°', as they travel the path of life," it has been said, 
in this house. 



TJ.FLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 169 

468. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

469. The naale beaver 

470. Moved up the strong current of the stream, 

471. To the fourth bend of the river, 

472. Where, by the water's edge stood a young willow, 

473. Which he quickly cut to the ground, 

474. And hastily dragged it toward his home. 

475. Within the left side of the door of his house 

476. He dragged the young willow, then laid it down. 

477. ^\nd he spake, saying: "It is not without a purpose that I have 

brought home this yoimg willow. 

478. When the little ones go toward the setting sun against their 

enemies, 

479. They shall use the yoimg willow to count their o-do"', as they 

travel the path of life," it has been said, in this house. 

480. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

481. The male beavej- 

482. Moved to the strong current of the stream. 

483. Verily, he went up the river against the current, 

484. Rippling the surface of the water as he pushed forward, 

485. To the fifth bend of the river, 

486. Where he lay close to the edge of the water. 

487. Upon the water's edge there stood a yotmg willow, 

488. Which he quickly cut to the groimd, 

489. And hastily dragged it toward his home. 

490. Within the left side of the door of his house 

491. He dragged the young willow, then laid it down, 

492. And he spake, saying: " It is not without a purpose that I have 

brought home tliis young willow. 

493. I have brought it home for the little ones to use in coimting 

their o-do°', as they travel the path of life," it has been said, 
in this house. 

494. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

495. The male beaver 

496. Moved to the strong current of the stream. 

497. Verily, he went up the river against the current, 

498. Rippling the surface of the water as he pushed forward, 

499. To the sixth bend of the river, 

500. Where, by the water's edge stood a young willow, 

501. Which he quickly cut to the ground, 

502. And hastily dragged it toward his home. 

503. Witliin the left side of the door of his house 

504. He dragged the young willow. 



170 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann.39 

505. And he spake, saying: " It is not without a purpose that I have 

brought home this young w-illow. 

506. I have brought it laome for the little ones to use in counting their 

o-do°', as they travel the path of life," it has been said, in 
this house. 

Xu-tha'-wa-to°-i", from whom a nmnber of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no^ 
wi'-gi-es were obtained, died before he could be cjuestioned concerning 
the sun-ray (crepuscular rays) count-symbols, and upon his death it 
became doubtful as to whether any of the wi'-gi-es of his gens could 
be secured from another member. A member of his gens, in speaking 
of the death of Xu-tha'-wa-to"-i°, said: "All our rituals are now lost; 
this man was the only one who knew them." It would have been 
preferable to secure from a member of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" himself the 
wi'-gi-e of the sun-ray count symbols, but the death of Xu-tha'- 
wa-to'-i" made its possibility questionable. 

In May, 1918, since the death of Xu-tha'-wa-to^-i", Wa-xthi'-zhi, 
who is versed in the rites, gave with some reluctance the wi'-gi-es of 
the sun-ray count symbols of both the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" and the 
Mi-k'i"' Wa-no" gentes. These two wi'-gi-es, as given by Wa-xthi'- 
zhi, are substantially the same. A paraphrase of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" 
wi'-gi-e is here given. At the ceremony of the counting of o-do"' the 
members of these two Tsi'-zhu gentes recite, simultaneously, the 
wi'-gi-es of their gentes relating to the sun-ray comit symbols. 

SUN-KAY Wl'-GI-E OF THE Tsi'-ZHU Wa-XO". 

1. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in tliis house, 

2. The god that never fails to appear at the beginning of day 

3. Has upon its left side 

4. Six rays that are like stripes in appearance. 

5. These six rays 

6. I have made to be symbols, 

7. Symbols of the valorous deeds spoken of as o-do°'. 

8. When the little ones make of these six rays the symbols of their 

o-do"', 

9. They shall enable themselves to count with accuracy their o-do"'. 

10. Upon the right side of that god there are seven rays that are in 

appearance like stripes. 

11. These seven rays also, 

12. I have made to be symbols, 

13. Symbols of the valorous deeds spoken of as o-do"'. 

14. I have made all of these six and seven rays to be symbols of the 

valorous deeds spoken of as o-do"'. 



niFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 171 

15. When the little ones use these rays for counting their o-do"*', as 

they travel the path of life, 

16. They shall enable themselves to count with accuracy their o-do°'. 

17. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in this house, 

18. The people asked: '"Of what shall the little ones make their 

bodies?" 

19. Verily, at that time and place, it has been said, in tliis house, 

20. The Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" 

21. Spake, saying: "There is in existence a long-billed bird (pileated 

woodpecker) . 

22. Of that bird also, 

23. I have verily made my body. 

24. The god of day that sitteth in the heavens, 

25. I have verily employed this bird to bring liither (symbolize)) 

26. The god of night that sitteth in the heavens, 

27. I have verily employed this bird to bring hither. 

28. The male star (morning star) that sitteth in the heavens, 

29. I have verily emploj^ed this bird to bring hither. 

30. When the little ones make of that star their bodies, 

31. They shall enable themselves to find spoils in profusion, as they 

travel the path of Ufe. 

32. When they go toward the setting sun against their enemies, 

33. And use tliis bird in their appeals for aid, 

34. They shall never fail to succeed in their imdertakings, as they 

travel the path of life. 

35. The female star (evening star) that sitteth in the heavens, 

36. I have verily employed this bird to bring hither. 

37. When the little ones go toward the setting sun against their 

enemies, 

38. And use this bird in their appeals for aid, 

39. They shall never fail to succeed in their undertakings, as they 

travel the path of life. 

40. Verily, they shall enable themselves to find spoUs in profusion. 

41. When the little ones make of that star their bodies, 

42. They shall always live to see old age. 

43. The four successive days (four stages of life), 

44. They shall enable themselves to reach with success. 

45. When the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe, 

46. And those of the Ho'^'-ga, 

47. Make of me their symbol, as they travel the path of life, 

48. They shall never fail to succeed in their undertakings, as they 

travel the path of life." 



172 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[EIH. AXX. 39 



Songs of Counting the 0-do^' by the Wa'-don-be. 

The first of this group of songs refers to the act of the Singer who 

conducts to his seat the Wa'-do°-be, the vaUant man, who is to 

recount liis o-do"' (valorous deeds), seven for the Ho"'-ga tribal 

division and six for the Tsi'-zhu. The number of o-do°' to be 

coimted by the \Va'-do°-be is definitely fixed by the preceding three 

wi'-gi-es, namely, the wi'-gi-e referring to the tliirteen footprints of the 

black bear; the wi'-gi-e referring to the young willows cut by the 

beaver; and the wi'-gi-e referring to the thirteen sun-rays. A free 

translation is given in full of the three stanzas wliich the song 

contains. 

Song 1. 

(Osage version, p. 439; literal translation, p. 571.) 

.-- Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 

loo 






.M.J 



E* 



i 



S 



^ 



Time beats T ' ' 

.Ni-ka wi" 



r r r r 



r r r 



e_'thi" a-gi bi no", 'Thi" a-gi bi no", 




^ 



i n.i "^4 



• * 



r r r r r r 

'tbi" a-gi bi no" ho, 



r r r 

Wa-ho-shi-ge do" 




^ 



^ ■ r f f^^fT r 

'thi" a-gi bi no", 'Thi" a-gi bi no", 'thi" a-gi bi no". 



r 



m 



^s 



^ 



i 



^ 



1^ 



=£U3 



r r r 

Ni - ka wi" 



r r r r 

e 'thi" a-gi bi no". 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



A man he is liringing, 
He is bringing, lie is bringing, 
A valorous man he is bringing. 
He is bringing, he is bringuig, 
A man he is bringing. 



A man he is bringing, 

He is bringing, he is bringing, 

A man who will speak he is bringing. 

He is bringing, he is bringing, 

A man he is bringing. 



LA. FL£SCHE] 



BITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION, 



173 



A man he is bringing, 
He is bringing, he is bringing. 
One who is to speak great words, 
He is bringing, he is bringing, 
A man he is Ijringing. 

The second song of this group refers to the Wa'-do-'-be as being a 
gift of the No'''-ho"-zhi"-ga orfler to the people, as a man whose 
valorous deeds are worthv of emulation. .Ul of the lines excepting 
the sixth are the same, therefore a free translation of the fifth and 
sixth lines of the two stanzas will suffice to give the meaning of the 
song. 

Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 440; literal translation, p. 572.) 
M M J - 17<? Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



0m 



i 



Time; beatB i 

The thin - kshe i-ta wi kshi - the, 




%- 



^^ 



^ 



4' d 



d - 4 d d ' • 



r r r r- r r r r 

The thin-kshe i-ta wi-kshi the, Thftthi^-kshe i-tawi-k?shi the. 



i 



rt 



m 



r r ^ r r p ^ r 

The thi".kshe i-ta wi-kshi the, Thethi".kshe i-tawi kshi the 



m 



^^ 



•T j — T 



^ 



-^" J^J j^';-^ ^^^ 



^j=^ 



r r 

r r r 

the the he the, Wa-ho - shi-ge do" i-ta wi-kshi-the, 



m 



^J- J- J J J- J I n. r 3 J J- J 

r r r r f ^ f * r r 

Thethi".kshe i-tawi kshi-the, The thin.kshe i-ta wi kshi-the, 




r r r r r r^r r 

Thethi"-kshe i-tawi kshi the, The thin.kshe i-tawi kshi-the. 



174 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[BTH. ANN. i 



FREE TEANSLATION. 
1. 

The man who sits here I give to you, 
A valorous man I give to you. 



The man who sits here I give to you, 

A man who can speak great words I give to you. 

The third song refers to two scenes that are enacted in the cere- 
mony of the leading of the Wa'-do^-be to the seat prepared for him 
at the west end of the lodge, one of which is the instructions received 
by the Singer to lead the Wa'-do°-be to his seat and to his carrying 
out those instructions; the other is the remarks made by individuals 
of the assembly to one another that the warrior who is to coimt his 
o-do"' is being led to his ceremonial seat. A free translation of two 
of the lines in each stanza descriptive of these two scenes will suffice 
to give the meaning of the song, as all the other lines are iterative 
of one or the other of the two lines. 

Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 440; literal translation, p. 672.) 

MM J -168 Transcribed by Alice C. FKtrhiT 



M.r n..\ I J ri =T^TFq 



m 



Time beats ^ ' ^ '\ \ i Tf ' 

Dsi tsi-tha thi", dsi tsi-tha thin he, I-e do" a-thi" she-thu 



m^^m 



Pip^ 



^^^ 



« T r r r " f f 

a-thina-gi bi no", Dsi tsi-tha thin, dsi 



r r 

tsi-tha thin. 



0m 



F m m ' 



i 'i ni 



^1— * 



-r T -r - ^ ^- ^ r r r 

Dsi tsi-tha thi", dsi tsi-tha thin, Dsi tsi-tha thin he. 



^ 



^m 



^m 



ffp^ 



r r r r r •■ r . 

I-e don a-thinshe-thu a-thina-gi bino", Dsi tsi-tha thin. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



Go and lead him thither, lead him thither. 

Look you, he who has good words is being led to his seat. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL — FREE TRANSLATION. 175 



Go and lead him thither, lead him thither. 

Look you, he who is to speak is being led to his seat. 

The fourth song belongs to the final act of the great war ceremony 
called Wa-sha'-be A-thi", performed when a war party is being cere- 
monially organized. It is here used in this group of the No°'-zhi°-zho° 
songs for the purpose of teacliing that all the men of a war party thus 
ceremonially organized, including the privates, the commanders, and 
the Do-do°'-ho°-ga, have an equal chance to win o-do"' and be chosen 
to act as Wa'-do^-be in the initiatory rites. The final act of the 
Wa-sha'-be A-thi° from which this song is borrowed was performed on 
the open prairie, a mile or so outside of the village. At this ceremony 
of the final act which is entitled Tsiu'-i-btho-thi-sho°, Procession 
Around the Village, the warriors sit in two great divisions facing the 
west, those of the Ho°'-ga at the right and those of the Tsi'-zhu at 
the left. A space running' from east to west forms the dividing line. 
The No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga stand around the two divisions of sitting war- 
riors in two great semicircles, those of the Ho^'-ga at the right and 
those of the Tsi'-zhu at the left. At the close of a certain ceremony 
the Xo'-ka sings this borrowed song that belongs to the final act of 
the Wa-sha'-be A-thi" when the No'''-lio°-zhi"-ga march in solemn 
procession around the warriors, the Ho^'-ga making a sinistral circuit 
and the fsi'-zhu a dextral circuit. 

There are sixteen stanzas to this song, fiffeen of which are in three 
groups. The first group of stanzas refers to the simultaneous and 
collective movements of both the Ho'''-ga and the Tsi'-zhu No"'-ho°- 
zhi°-ga in a procession aroimd the two divisions of the sitting war- 
riors. The second group of stanzas refer to the simultaneous proces- 
sional movement of the Hi)"'-ga and the 'Tsi'-zhu severally, the 
Ho^'-ga passing from their side to the fsi'-zhu sitle as they march 
and the Tsi'-zhu passing from their side to the Ho°'-ga side as they 
march. The tliird group of stanzas refers to the conclusion of the 
ceremony and to the readiness of the warriors to go forth and strike 
the enemy. The sixteenth stanza relates to the actual departure of 
the war party. 

In the first two lines of all the sixteen stanzas is mentioned the 
mystic clay used as a symbol by the Do-do" '-ho"-ga in his vigils. In 
the closing lines of the stanzas composing the three groups, the five 
symbolic articles used in the war ceremony are mentioned in the fol- 
lowing order: The pipe, the knife, the club, the charcoal, and the 
standards. In the last line of the sixteenth stanza is mentioned '' the 
moccasins." These refer to the four ceremonial steps each warrior is 
required to take as he goes forth. These steps refer to the readiness 
of the symbolic man (typical of the unity of the tribe) to strike the 
enemy. 



176 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. a.x.n. 38 

Song 4. 
(Osage version, p. 441; literal translation, p. 572. 

,, I Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 

.M. • r 84 



t 



i 



M 



i 



^ 



E-f- : F F 



^ 



Time beats f ' T I ' f ( 

Mon-thi" - ka u-thi - shon a-gtha-bthi" e he. 




Mon-thi"-ka u-thi- sho" a-gtha-bthi° e he. 



r r 



I - ba thi" a-donu-thi-sho^bthehi" 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



r r r rr r 

do, a he he. 



Lo, around tlieni I tread, bearing the mystic clay, 
Around them I tread, liearing the mystic clay, 
Around them I tread, bearing the mystic pipe. 



Around them I tread, bearing the sacred knife. 

3. 
Around them I tread, bearing the sacred club. 

4. 
Around them I tread, bearing the sacred paint. 

5- 
Around them I tread, bearing the sacred standard. 

6. 

Lo, I pass from group to group, bearing the mystic clay, 
I pass from group to group, bearing tlie mystic clay, 
I pass from group to group, bearing the mystic pipe. 



I pass from group to group, bearing the sacred knife. 

8. 
I pass from group to group, bearing the sacred club. 



i^FLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL — FREE TRANSLATION. 177 

9. 

I pass from group to group, bearing the sacred paint. , 

' 10. 

I pass from group to group, bearing the sacred standard. 

11. 

Lo, I go to strike, bearing the mystic clay, 
I go to strike, bearing the mystic clay, 
I go to strike, bearing the mystic pipe. 

12. 
I go to strike, bearing the sacred knife. 

13. 
I go to strike, bearing the sacred club. 

14. 
I go to strike, bearing the sacred paint. 

15. 
I go to strike, bearing the sacred standard. 

16. 

Lo, I go to strike, bearing the mystic clay, 
I go to strike, bearing the mystic clay, 
I go to strike, bearing the moccasins. 

The fifth song is a call to the Wa'-do^-be to begin to count his o-do°'. 
The seven stanzas of the song as here given are intended to include 
both the seven and six o-do"', the prescribed nimiber that must have 
been won by a warrior in order to entitle him to be chosen to act as 
Wa'-do°-be. The seven is for the Ho°'-ga great tribal division and 
the six for the Tsi'-zhu tribal division. 

In former times when an initiation ceremony was given by a gens 
of the Ho^'-ga subdivision the Singer (initiate) chose his AYa'-do^-be 
from the Mi-k'i"' (Sun - carrier) gens of the Tsi'-zhu great tribal 
division, but since the death of all the warriors eligible for this office 
in both the Mi-k'i"' ami the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° gentes there remained 
only one man in all the Tsi'-zhu division who could count the fidl 
tliirteen o-do"'. Sho°'-ge-mo"-i'' (PI. 9, B), although the office of his 
gens (Peace-maker) would, in the ancient days, have precluded his 
appointment, yet at the present time he was called upon by both the 
Ho°'-ga and the Wa-zha'-zhe subdivisions to act as Wa'-do°-be when 
an initiation took place in either of these subdivisions. Sho^'-ge- 
mo°-i'' died in 1919. 

There now remain living in the entire tribe only two old warriors, 
Ni'-ka-wa-zhi"-to°-ga (PI. 9,^) and Ku'-zhi-wa-tse (PI. 7, B), both over 
3594°— 25t 12 



178 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



IETH. ANN, 39 



90 years old, who can count the full thirteen o-do"'. Both of these 
men belong to the Po°'-ka Wa-shta'-ge gens of the Wa-zha'-zhe sub- 
division. 

The narrator, Wa-xthi'-zhi, when singing the fifth song used the 
name of the Mi-k'i°' gens from which the Ho°'-ga subdivision was 
accustomed to choose the Wa'-do°-be. instead of the gens of Sho°'- 
ge-mo°-i°, who actually did the counting. 

In the song the word "o-do"'" does not occur. The word "wa'- 
tse " (a stroke) is used, which is another form for indicating a mihtary 
honor. 

Song 5. 

(Osage version, p. 442; literal translation, p. 574.) 

,- I Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 

.M. # r 80 



^ M.M.Jrf 



m 



^ r 

Time beats ' 

Tha. 



r 

tse the he, 



r 



r 



tha-wa tse the he, 



"^^ 



i'^'i-' ii.'r;' F 



1 



r 



Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, Wa - tse the he 




f j. r i i fj 



s 



* — w 



r 

Mi-k'i 



i 



h 



r r r ' ■ . r - r 

wi -xtsi tha-wa tse the he, Tha-wa tse the he, 

2 



jr^-^-H l 



r 

tse the he, 



^ 



r 

tha-wa 



r r r 

Wa - tse the he tha. 



r 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Now let him count, let him count, 
Now let him count, let him count, 
Let the Mi-k'i"' count the first wa'-tse, 
Now let him count, let him count. 
The wa'-tse. 

2. 

Let the Mi-lj'i"' count the second wa'-tse. 

3. 

Let the Mi-k'i"' count the third wa'-tse. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



THIRTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 10 




SHC'-GE-MO"-!" COUNTING HIS WAR HONORS 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



THIRTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 11 




XO'-KA WITH WAR CLUB AND HAWK 



LAFLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 179 

4. 

Let the Mi-lf'i°' count the fourth wa'-tse. 

5. 
Let the Mi-lf 'i"' count the fifth wa'-tse. 

6. 
Let the Mi-t 'i°' count the sixth wa'-tse. 

7. 
Let the Mi-lf'i°' count the final wa'-tse. 

When the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka begins to sing the song calling for the 
counting of the o-do°' the Wa'-do^-be promptly rises, puts upon his 
left arm the bunch of seven willow saplings and, taking one from 
the bmicli, he proceeds to comit, his voice mingling with those of 
the No'''-ho°-zhi°-ga as they recite their wi'-gi-es, and the voices of 
the singers as they sing the seven stanzas of the song. The 
Wa'-do"-be, as he holds aloft the willow sapling, gives a brief accoimt 
of his winning the o-do°' which it represents. When he closes he 
drops the sapling to the gi'ound, saying he places it upon the 
Wa-xo'-be, although that sacred object lies in its place at the eastern 
end of the lodge. He then takes another sapling from his left arm 
and gives a brief account of the second o-do"' and in like manner he 
continues counting until he has counted the seven o-do"' for the 
Ho"'-ga great tribal division. 

The Wa'-do''-be then proceeds to count the six o-do"' for the Tsi'- 
zhu great tribal division, using the second bunch containing six sap- 
hngs which he picks u]) from the ground and holds upon his left arm. 

The O-do"' Count of Sho'"-ge-mo''-i''. 

In May, 1916, Sho"'-gc-mo"-i" (PI. 10) very obligingly consented to 
count into the dictaphone his o-do"' in the same manner as when he 
counted them at an initiatory ceremony. The translation is here 
given. 

" I rise to count my o-do"'. It is at yom- request, O, Wa-zha'-zhe, 
Ho°'-ga, and Ni'-ka Wa-ko"-da-gi, that I rise to recount my o-do"'. 
You well know that the o-do"' that have been awarded me are not 
altogether clear of doubt [a conventional plea of modesty], but it is 
your wish that I recount them on this occasion, and I cannot but 
give consent to yoiu* request." 

THE SEVEN O-DO"'. 

(1) "This (willow sapling) represents the o-do"' known as O-^ko"'- 
pka dsi Ga-fa-gi, Striking the Enemy within the Camp Limits. A 
Pawnee warrior was slain within the camp limits on Salt Creek. 



180 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ann. 39 

Do-do" '-i-no°-lii° was first to strike the warrior, and being next to 
him in the attack I gave the enemy the second stroke, which entitles 
me to a like o-do°'. 0, thou Wa-xo'-be that lies before me, I place 
this upon thee." 

(2) "This (willow sapling) represents the o-do°' called Wa'-thu- 
xpe.° I won it in a fight by a great war party, composed of both 
the great divisions of the tribe. The sacred charcoal was still upon 
my body and face when I performed this act and there exists no 
doubt of my title to count this o-do"'. O, thou Wa-xo'-be that lies 
before me, I place this upon thee." 

(3) "This (willow sapling) represents the o-do°' known as Do-do°'- 
bin.^Qn.ga^ Wa-tse'-gthi. Trimnph of a Do-do°'-ho"-ga of a Great War 
Party. Ni'-ka-ga-xthi came to me in his bereavement and, weeping, 
asked me to go forth to slay an enemy because of his loss. I went 
forth and came back in triumph. O, thou Wa-xo'-be that lies before 
me, I place this upon thee." 

(4) "This (willow sapling) represents the o-do°' called Wa-tse', 
Victory. I won the o-do°' when, as the officer carrying one of the 
standards of a war party, I struck an enemy. O, thou Wa-xo'-be 
that lies before me, I place this upon thee." 

(5) "This (willow sapling) represents the o-do"' called Do-do°'- 
}iin_to°-ga Wa-ga'-xthi, Striking of an Enemy in an Attack by a 
Great War Party. I won this o-do°' when, under the leadership of 
Mi-ka'-zhi"-ga, a war party attacked and slew a number of the 
enemy. O, thou Wa-xo'-be that lies before me, I place this upon 
thee." 

(6) " This (willow sapling) represents the o-do"' called Mo^-zho" '-dsi 
Ga-xthi, The Striking of an Enemy in the Open Country. I won this 
o-do°' by striking a single enemy attacked at break of day by a war 
party of which I was a member. 0, thou Wa-xo'-be that lies before 
me, I place this upon thee." 

(7) "This (willow sapling) represents the o-do°' called Tsi'-ga- 
xa-to°-ga Pa' Wa-thu-^e, Taking a Head in an Attack by a War Party 
Composed of Warriors of Only One of the Two Great Divisions. I 
won this o-do°' in an attack made by a war party led by Wa-ko°'- 
da-u-ki-e. O, thou Wa-xo'-be that lies before me, I place this upon 
thee." 

8 The term "wa'-thu-xpe" remains unexplained, although diligent inquiry has been made concerning 
its meaning. The word analytically translated is: Wa, an act and upon; thu-xpe, from the word u-thi'- 
xpa-the, to drop. It is probable that the word reters to the custom of the warriors of dropping upon the 
body of a slain enemy the sacred captive thong which each warrior is given to carry for the purpose of tying 
a captive should one be taken. As there is no use for the thong, no captive having been taken, the thong 
is left upon the body of the slain man. The warrior who has thus dropped his thong upon the dead body 
of an enemy is permitted to count the act as " o-doo'." 



LiFLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL FEEE TBANSLATIOK. 181 



(1) "This (willow sapling) represents the o-do°' called Wa-xo'-be 
U-ko°-dsi Wa-thu-xpe, The Wa'-thu-xpe 0-do°' Awarded to a Mem- 
ber of a War Party Carrying Only One Wa-xo'-be. I won this o-do"' 
in an attack made upon the enemy by a war party led by Ku'-zhi- 
wa-tse. O, thou Wa-xo'-be that lies before me, I place this upon 
thee." 

(2) "This (willow sapling) represents the o-do"' called Wa-xo'-be 
U-ko°-dsi Wa-tse'-gthi, 0-do°' Awarded to a Successful Leader of a 
War Party Carrying Only One Wa-xo'-be. I won this o-do"' as 
leader of a war party carrying a single Wa-xo'-be. O, thou Wa-xo'-be 
that lies before me, I place tliis upon thee." 

(3) "This (willow sapling) represents the o-do°' called Wa-xo'-be 
U-ko''-dsi Wa-ga'-xthi, Striking of an Enemy in an Attack made by a 
War Party Carrying Only One Wa-xo'-be. I won this o-do"' in an 
attack made by a war party led by Gthe-mo°'-zhi°-ga. O, thou 
Wa-xo'-be that lies before me, I place this upon thee." 

(4) " This (mllow sapling) represents the o-do"' called Mo^-zho^'-dsi 
U-tsi", Striking of an Enemy in an Attack in the Open Country. I 
won this o-do"' in an attack made by a war party led by fse-do'-a- 
mo°-i°. 0, thou Wa-xo'-be that lies before me, I place this uppn 
thee." 

(5) "This (willow sapling) represents the o-do"' called Tsi'-ga-xa 
Wa-tse'-gthi, O-do"' Awarded to a Successful Do-do" '-ho"-ga of a War 
Party Composed of Warriors of Only One of the Two Great Divisions. 
I won this o-do"' as the successful Do-do" '-ho°-ga of a war party. 
O, thou Wa-xo'-be that lies before me, I place this upon thee." 

(6) "This (willow sapling) represents the o-do"' called Wa-xo'-be 
U-ko°-dsi Pa' Wa-thu-^e, Taking the Head of an Enemy in an Attack 
made by a War Party Carrying a Single Wa-xo'-be. I won this o-do"' 
in an attack made by a war party carrying but one Wa-xo'-be. O, 
thou Wa-xo'-be that lies before me, I place this upon thee." 

Fees Given the Wa'-do^-be. 

At the close of the song calling for the counting of the o-do"', the 
A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka lays down his gourd rattle and fills his own pipe to 
enjoy a smoke before proceeding with the final song of tlus group. 
The Wa'-do"-be returns to his seat among the members of his own 
sens and the No"'-ho°-zhi"-ga seek relaxation from their mental 
strain in social conversation. Meanwhile the Sho'-ka and two assist- 
ants busy themselves with apportioning, by families, the meat and 
other provisions supplied by the Singer for the entertainment of his 
numerous guests. When this task is finished the Sho'-ka calls the 
Wa'-do"-be's wife, who promptly comes forward with her daughters. 



182 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



The Sho'-ka places before her a portion of the choicest parts of the 
meat and a liberal allowance of the other supplies. The wife of the 
Wa'-do^-be and her assistants carry away these provisions, taking 
with them also the horse, robes, and other fees earned by the Wa'- 
do°-be for his services. It was a marked honor for the Wa'-do°-be to 
be thus served first, as it was not only a recognition of the services he 
had just given at the ceremony but also for the part he had taken in 
the past to insure the protection of the people and their homes. 

While the wife of the Wa'-do"-be and her assistants are carrying 
away their portion of the supplies the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka takes up his 
rattle and sings the final song of the Wa-thu'-f-e Wa-tho", wliich has 
only one stanza, but that is repeated four times. A free translation 
of the first line will suffice to give the meaning of the song. 




.M. J 



Song 6. 
(Osage version, p. 443; literal translation, p. 575.) 



176 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



^ 



^ 



1 



^ 



• m 



Time beats rfi I 111 ' 

E he ha he - he ni" ha - thi" a-gtha-gthahe, He 



J J. J I J J ^ 



•n 



r r r r r r r r 

he ni" ha-thi" a-gtha-gthahe, E he ha he - he ni" 



I'yJ ^ hP r . 



r r r r 

ha - thi" a-gtha-gtha be, 



r r r r" 

E he ha he -he ni" 



^f^^=^ 



S 



^ 



m 



p p 



^m 



fe 



r r r r r r r r 

ha- thi" a-gtha-gtha be, He - he ni" ha-thi"a-gtha-gthabe. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Lo, they carry honievvanl a, great portion! 

Ckow Songs. 

The crow is a bird that figures prominently in rites not only of the 
Osage but also in those of the Omaha and other Siouan tribes. The 
men of ancient days who formulated the tribal rites observed that 
nature had endowed this bird with faculties that served him well. 
His strong sense of sight enabled him to follow the movements of a 
war party and when foe met foe and the hills were strewn with the 



U.PLESCHE] BITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 183 

slain the bird feasted upon the remains of the fallen waiTiors. Should 
it happen that he was not present to witness the deadly strife the 
winds carried to liim the message that a feast awaited him beyond 
the hills — a message received through his keen sense of smell. The 
wi'-gi-es of the Wa-thu'-^e Wa-tho° (Seizing the Wa'-do°-be), the 
ceremonial movements, and the Crow Songs all dramatize the rally- 
ings of the people to go and chastise their foes. The warriors who 
march to the country of their enemies leave the hills strewn with the 
dead, upon wliich the black birds of mystery feast. Thus the war- 
riors return triumphant to their village, where the o-do°' won by 
them are ceremonially confirmed. 

In the Omaha tribal buffalo hunt the runners who are sent out to 
seek for a large herd are often guided by the actions of tliis black 
bird of mystery, for when the runner sees flocks of crows hovering 
over a certain spot, or soaring 'widely, he knows that a herd is to be 
foimd at that place. Tliis characteristic action of the crow prompted 
the priests to give this bird a place in the buffalo himting rite. The 
Omaha Crow Song occurs in the group of songs relating to the runner 
(27th Ann. Kept. B. A. E., pp. 300, 303). The words of the song, 
freely translated, are: 

Yonder soars the black bird in wide circles, 
Soars widely upon his wings as he makes search. 

When the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka is about to sing the Ci'ow Songs he 
addresses the No°'-ho°-zhi"-ga in a voice that all can hear: "O, 
No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga, I have now come to the Crow Songs. It is the 
custom of the Men of Mystery at this stage of the ceremony to refresh 
themselves with water." 

The A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka and liis assistants begin to sing the songs 
while women bring water for their husbands and brothers to drink 
and to wash from their faces the sign of vigil. The Sho'-ka and his 
assistants at this time give to each matron of a family her portion 
of the provisions bountifully supplied by the Singer. 

The No^'-ho^-zlii^-ga of all the gentes, excepting those of the 
initiating gens, adjourn for a recess and go to their homes to enjoy 
the meals prepared for them, leaving the presiding gens to continue 
the ceremony. 

The two songs composing this group are addressed to the crows 
by the symbolic man who spnbolically acts as the protector of the 
tribal life. 

It was explained by Wa'-thu-xa-ge, a member of the Tsi'-zhu 
Wa-shta'-ge gens (see 36th Ann. Rept. B. A. E., p. 300), that when 
one of this class of songs occurs in a ceremony it is called "I'-ki 
Wa-tho°," Singing of Himself, that is, the symbolic man sings of 
himself. 



184 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



w 



Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 443; literal translation, p. 575.) 

„„ I Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



184 



r«aj 1 n m 



Time beats 



r 



r 



Ka - xe a-tsi" da ha 



ni - wa - the, 




t 



'J.i"VNJjjn.jj i 



^^ 



S S 4 f 



r r r r 



r r r r 



Ka-xe atsindaha ni-wa-the, (yi ta'tsi" da ha ni-wa-the he, 



S^te 



^ 



r r^ r 

Ka - xe a-tsin da ha 



r ^ r 

ni - wa - the. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

O, ye cro\v.s, I, the jjrotector of life, have come. 
O, ye crows, I, the protector of life, have come. 
Upon my feet, I, the protector of life, have come. 
O, ye crows, I, the protector of life, have come. 

2. 
Upon my legs, I, the protector of life, have come. 

3. 
In my body, I, the protector of life, have come. 

4. 
With my arms, I, the protector of life, have come. 

With my head, I, the protector of life, have come. 

6. 

With mj' mouth, I, the protector of life, have come. 

Song 2. 

The translation of the first two lines and tlie tliird line of each 
stanza of this song will suffice. In this, as in the preceding song, the 
same order is observed in mentioning the parts of the body of the crow. 



LA. FL£SCHE] 



KITE OF VIGII 



-FREE TRANSLATION. 



185 



M 



(Osage version, p. 444; literaltransiation, p. 576.) 
M M J - ifiO Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher ! 



g^ 



J'J'.jj.j i j ; 



* 



t mt ti 



^t=d: 



Time beats 



r 



r r -T r r r r 



r 



i 



U 



Ka-xea-tsi"da ha sho" ni da we, ^i-ahiwa ta ha sho"nidawe. 



s 



;1. J j'i'j'J'J 






*-# 



r r r ^r r f r r 

Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha sho" ni da we, (yi-a hi wa ta ha ' sho" hi da we. 



m^ 



g 



m 



t 



^ ^^ ^ ^' ^ 



r 



r 



r 



Ka - xe a-tsi" da 



U ^ . ^- H 

ha sho" ni da 



we. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



I have come, O, ye crows, it is well. 
Upon my feet I have come, it is well. 



I have come, O, ye crows, it is well. 
Upon my legs I have come, it is well. 



I have come, O, ye crows, it is well. 
In my body I have come, it is well. 

4. 

I have come, O, ye crows, it is well. 
With my arms I have come, it is well. 

5. 

I have come, O, ye crows, it is well. 
With my head I have come, it is well. " 

6. 

I have come, O, ye crows, it is well. 
With my mouth I have come, it is well. 

Black Bear Songs. 

The next group of four songs is called Wa-fa'-be Wa-tho°, Black 
Bear Songs. The songs relate to the soil of the earth given by the 
black bear to the people to be used by them as a sign of vigil when they 



186 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. Ann-. 39 

appeal to the divine power for aid in overcoming their enemies. This 
purpose is clearly set forth in lines 94 to 1 15 in the Black Bear Wi'-gi-e 
given by Wa-tse'-mo''-i" (pp. 157-158). Lines 107 to 115 refer particu- 
larly to the symbol and its significance. As described in the wi'-gi-e, 
the bear tore open with his claws a hmiimock and disclosed the sacred 
soil of the earth that is to be used as a sign of vigil. This act of the 
bear in disclosing the sacred soil is a sacred and mysterious act, there- 
fore he who is to open the earth in order to take from it with his hands 
the soil to be used in his vigil must simulate in detail the actions of the 
bear. 

In the first song of tliis group occurs the wor<l " ta-ko," a word that 
has become archaic, having long been out of use in the language as 
commonly spoken. It is never heard except in tliis and in other 
ancient songs of the rites where it has remained fixed and is still 
carried along by the sacred rites. The people of this generation do 
not tmderstand the word and it is doubtful if there remain any of the 
older people who can explain its meaning. 

The word ''ta-ko" is not used by the Omaha and the Ponca, who 
are closely related, linguistically, to the Osage, but it is found in the 
dialects of the Dakota group that departed from the original tribe at 
a remote period. Dr. Stephen R. Riggs, a well-known authority on 
the San tee dialect of the Dakota, says, on page 56 of his book, entitled 
"Tah'-koo Wah-kan," or Gospel Among the Dakotas: "The great 
object of all their worship, whatever its chosen mediuni, is the Ta-koo 
Wa-kan', which is the svpernatural and mysterious. No one term can 
express the full meaning of the Dakota's wakan' . It comprehends all 
mystery, secret power, and divinity. Awe and reverence are its due. 
And it is as unlimited in manifestation as it is in idea. All life is 
wal-an'. So also is everything which exhibits power, whether in 
action, as the winds and drifting clouds, or in passive endurance, as 
the boulder by the wayside. For even the commonest sticks and 
stones have a spiritual essence which must be reverenced as a mani- 
festation of the all-pervading mysterious power that fills the miiverse." 

The word ta-koo is compounded with the word wa-kan, which is 
akin to the term Wa-ko"'-da used by the Osage. Doctor Riggs also 
gives ta-koo in another compound form, on page 64 of the same 
volume, "Ta'-koo-shkan-shkan'," which he translates as "the moving 
god," adding: "This god is too subtle in essence to be perceived by 
the senses, and is as subtle in disposition." The Dakota word ta-koo, 
which is imquestionably the same as the word ta-ko used in the Osage 
Ritual, Doctor Riggs interprets as "god:" and the last part of the 
compound word "shkan-shkun" he interprets as "moving." The 
word " shkan-shkan " is used by the Osage, the Omaha, and the 
Ponca tribes for expressing the same idea, that is. a continuous 



IiAPLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATIOX. 187 

moving, like that of the waters and the clouds, wliich are never still 
but continually move, as do all other living things. 

The archaic Osage wonl ''ta-ko," wliich appears in this group of 
songs, having thus Vjeen found in use in the dialects of the Dakotas 
and with a definite meaning, there should be no hesitancy in trans- 
lating the word "ta-ko" in the Osage Ritual as "divine;" as all the 
sj/mbols, the songs, and the wi'-gi-es used in the rites are regarded 
as of a mysterious, divine nature, and are reverenced as such. 

Other words of the songs and the wi'-gi-es that have become 
obscure to the Osage are to be found in the Omaha and Ponca dialects 
with a definite meaning. " Wa-tsi'-shka," an archaic word used in 
the Osage Ni'-ki Wi'-gi-e of the P-gtho^'-ga gens, is found in daily use 
among the Omaha as meaning a small creek. An Osage of to-day if 
spoken to of a " wa-tsi'-shka " would not understand the word, for his 
ancestors had long ago abandoned it, using in its stead the word 
"ga-xa," branch, for creek. In the Hawk Songs of the Tho'-xe gens, 
given by Tse-zhi°'-ga-wa-da-in-ga, appears the archaic word "pa-he'," 
which conveys no meaning to the modern Osage, for they have been 
using for an indefinite time the word "pa-(;'i," a peak, for hill. 
Whereas among the Omaha, and also the Ponca, the word used for 
hill is "pa-he'," a word given in the Hawk Song, two lines of which 
are here given : 

Over the earth I spread my wings, 

Lo, the hills (pa-he') over which I am ever flying. 



188 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[BTH. ANN. 39 



Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 445; literal translation, p. 577.) 
MM J - po Transeribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



M.M. «l = 88 



^3 



S 



- ^ 1 : II - : 

<i s ^ . s s 



Timebeats jjp„ . thi- to" ge he ta-koi" da ha • we, 



^P 



s; 



J' i' ir i'i ^ 



r r f ' r ' r • f * r- - ^ r 

Mo" - thi - to" ge he ta-koi" da ha - wa he, 



i 



\ii J J J'j J'li 



^ 



JJ 'J.J.i^iii'J 



T^nr 



r r f r r 



r r ' r r r 

Mo^.thi-tonge he ta-koinda ha-we, Wi a-tsi i" da ha-we he, 



I . hT r r =f 



i 



^ 



SEEft 



^ 



E 



^^ 



r r r r r ■ r r ■ r 

Mo° - thi - to" ge he ta-ko i" da ha- we. 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

The touching of the earth is an act divine — Greetings, 
The touching of the earth is an act divine — Greetings, 
The touching of the earth is an act divine — Greetings, 
I have come — Greetings, 
The touching of the earth is an act divine — Greetings. 



The digging into the earth is an act divine — Greetings, 
The digging into the earth is an act divine — Greetings, 
The digging into the earth is an act divine — Greetings, 
I have come — Greetings, 
The digging into the earth is an act divine — Greetings. 

The bui-den of song 2 of this group is the sanctity of the act by 
which a person taking the rite of vigil puts upon liis face the sacred 
soil of the earth as a supplicatory symbol. It also refers to the act 
as being a part of the daily life of the people, for they never let a 
day pass without coming close to Wa-ko-'-da with their prayers. 
The song is also used in the grouj) entitled No°'-zhi°-zho" Wa-tho", 
Songs of the Vigils (p. 110). 

The translation of two lines of each stanza will suffice to give the 
meaning, as the other lines are repetitions. 



LA. FLaSCHB] 



BITE OF VIGIL FREE TEAKSLATIOK. 



189 



Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 415; literal translation, p. 577.) 
M M J - 112 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 




No" - be o^-xo-dse u-wa-ni - ke no" ta - ko i"da ha. 




r r r r 

No" -be on-xo-dse u-wa- ni 



r 



r 



r r 



- ke no" ta - ko i" da ha. 



i 



fe 



m 



^ 



m 



w^. 



w^ 



r r r 

E tho wa - da da 



r r 



e tho wa na. 




r r r 

E tho wa -da da 



n& r r f r 



/^-r n 



^ 



« * 



r r r r r r r _ r 

No" - be o"-xo-dse u-wa - ni - ke no" ta-koi"daha. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



Sacred is the act by which my hands are browned, 
It is the act by which I offer my prayer. 



Sacred is the act by which my hands are blackened, 
It is the act by which I offer my prayer. 



Sacred is the act by which my face is browned. 
It is the act by which I offer my prayer. 

4. 

Sacred is the act by which my face is blackened. 
It is the act by which I offer my prayer. 



Sacred is the light of day that falls upon my face, 
The day on which my prayers are finished. 



190 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



IETII. ANN. 39 



The third song relates to the Do-do" '-ho°-ga, who goes to a place 
not frequented by men, where he can perform the rite of vigil undis- 
turbed by human activities. In digging into the earth with his bare 
hands to take from it the sacred soil to put upon his face as the 
sign of liis vigil, his actions are like those of the black bear who 
seeks for food within the recesses of the earth. The cry of the 
Do-do°'-ho°-ga, while in his vigils, is to the unseen Power which 
crave to both the black bear and ti) man life and form. Both are 
dependent upon that Power for their continued existence, and so 
the man, in the moment of stress, utters a cry of appeal to that 
Power. 

The sequential arrangement of the first thr«e stanzas implies that 
in the cry of the Do-do" '-ho°-ga is included the cry of the fathers, 
the mothers and the little ones of the people. 

Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 446; literal translation, p. 578.) 
j^ ]yj # - 88 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 




S 



S 



^=^ 



XE 



Time beats T [• I f '['' 

Tsi-go nio"-thi - k o go^-tha bthe he, 



# 



Vii n. n. 



^m 



* ' d, 



' ' \ ^ r r r r r r r r 

Tsi-go nio"-thi -k'o go"-thabthe he, a he, 




Do-ga ino"-thi -k'o go^-tha ha bthe hi" do ho. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



O, grandfather, I go forth longing to dig into the earth, 

0, grandfather, I go forth longing to dig into the earth, 

1, the male, go forth longing to dig into the earth. 



O, grandfather, I go forth longing to dig into tlie earth, 

0, grandfather, I go forth longing to dig into the earth, 

1, the female, go forth longing to dig into the earth. 



O, grandfather, I go forth longing to dig into the earth, 

0, grandfather, I go forth longing to dig into tlie earth, 

1, the little one, go forth longing to dig into the earth. 



LA FLESCHE] 



EITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



191 



4. 

O, grandfather, I go forth longing to dig into the earth, 
O, grandfather, I go forth longing to dig into the earth, 
Longing for the final day of my digging into the earth. 

In the fourth song the singer in his vigil recalls the former suc- 
cesses of those Do-do°'-ho°-gas who had faithfully performed all the 
acts required by the Rite of Vigil. The song represents liim as 
forecasting his ovra acts. 

A free translation of the first three lines of each stanza will suffice 
to give the meaning, as all the other lines are repetitions. 

Song 4. 
(Osage version, p. 447; literaltranslation, p. 578.) 

Transcribed by Aliee C.Fletcher 



M.M. 



93 






Timebeal9 T f f f f T T f f T p 

Tsi - go, tsi'S" ^°» T^i " go ■**'!" 'tha-the do", 



t 




ii== 



r i r r I ' r r r r 

Da - ^e a-the a-thi" heno", Tsi - go, tsi-go, tsi-go 

r r ^ ' ^ r r r ^ f 

ho, Tsi - go wi" 'tha-the don, Da- qe a-the a-thi" he no",Tsi- 



i 



^ 



^ 



J- . J' J- . J' 4 



=1^ 

ho. 



r 

go 



tsi- go, 



r ^ . r 

tsi -go 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



Grandfathei', O, grandfather. 
When I find the enemy, 
I fall upon him unawares. 

2. 

Grandfather, O, grandfather, 

When I find the enemy, 

I make him fall to the earth in death. 



192 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [ETH. ANN. 39 



Grandfather, O, grandfather, 

When I find the enemy, 

I reduce his houses to white smoke. 



Grandfather, O, grandfather, 

When I find the enemy, 

I reduce his houses to gray ashes. 

5. 

Grandfather, O, grandfather, 

When I find the enemy, 

His bones lie whitened and scattered. 

Buffalo Songs. 

When the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka reaches the Tse Wa-tho°, Buffalo 
Songs, he raises his voice and speaks to the No'''-ho"-zhi°-ga, saying: 
"Ha! Xo°'-ho''-zhi"-ga. Tse Wa-tho" a-tsi'i" do. The ga Ki'-no" tsi 
ga-xa hi a. Xo°-ho"-zhi°-e'," a free translation of which is; "Ho! 
No'''-ho°-zhi"-ga. I have now come to the Buffalo Songs. It is the 
custona, at this point, to bring in those who are to be instructed in 
the use and meaning of the symbolic face paintings."" 

The Sho'-ka then goes out and in a short time returns, followed 
by the wife of the Singer and a number of her female relatives and 
immediate friends, all of whom must belong to the wife's gens. 
These women, dressed in their gayest attire, arrange themselves in a 
row in front of the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka, the Xo'-ka and the Singer 
who sit just back of the Wa-xo'-be (Fig. 2). When the women have 
taken their places, the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka begins his instructions, a 
free translation of which is given. He begins by addressing the wife 
of the Singer by the term of relationsliip that he is accustomed to 
use when speaking to her. 

IXSTRUCTIOXS TO THE WlFE OF THE SiNGEE. 
PAIXTIXG TO SEND COURAGE. 

'•My granddaughter, this Wa-xo'-be is now 3-ours. to take care of 
imtil there comes a time when it will be passed on to some one else. 
There may come a time when a warrior will wish to use this par- 
ticular Wa-xo'-be in a war expedition. If ever that happens the 
warrior will come to your house in an appeal to you, not only for 
its use but also for your good wishes for success dm-ing the time that 
he is gone on the expedition. When you hear that a warrior is 
about to come to you, then you shall prepare yourself to receive 
him ceremonially. Should you happen to have a robe of black bear- 



lAPLBSCHB] EITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 193 

skin you will be fortunate, for the black bear is a symbol of strength 
and courage. Tliis robe you will spread upon the ground at your 
accustomed place in the house ready for you to sit upon wliile j'ou 
wait for the coming of the warrior. Dress yourself in any garment 
that you think will be most becoming to you, but do not fail to 
remember to paint the parting of your hair red. The red line sym- 
bolizes the path of the god of day and also represents the path of 
hfe. When you have put upon your head tliis symbol then you 
will take your seat upon the bearskin robe and put this Wa-xo'-be 
in your lap. When the warrior enters the house and approaches 
you, do not touch the Wa-xo'-be, but let him take it himself from 
your lap. Upon the departure of the warrior from the house with 
the Wa-xo'-be you will remove the symbol from your head and say, 
while doing so: ''My grandfather bade me to say, when I do this 
act, 'I remove this symbol from my head and ^\•ipe my hands upon 
the bodies of the enemy.' 

'"In time you will hear that the warrior has started on his journey. 
Then 3^ou are to remember him. On the following morning, as the 
sun begins to rise, paint the parting of yom* hair red, put a narrow 
blue line upright on your right cheek, one horizontally on your fore- 
head, and one on your left cheek like that on the right. This is the 
Wa-zhi"' The-the Ki'-no", the symbolic painting by which you send 
to the wan'ior sympathy and courage, and your wish for his success. 
You must remove these symbols from your head and face before the 
sun reaches the zenith and say, whUe you do so: 'My grandfather 
bade me to say, when I do this, "I remove these sjTubols from my 
head and face and wipe my hands upon the body of the cliief of the 
enemy.'" On the next day, as the sun rises, you will again paint 
yourself in the same manner, but add a red line to each of the blue 
ones on your face. Before the sun reaches the zenith you must 
remove the symbols, and as you do so repeat the words I have just 
given you. On the third morning you will repeat this ceremony, 
this time adding a blue line to the red and blue lines, and later remove 
them as you did the others. On the fourth morning you must per- 
form the same ceremon}-, adchng to the three lines on your face a 
red line, and later remove them in the same manner as before." 

The A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka continues his instructions as to the woman's 
next act. 

VIGIL TO SEND COURAGE. 

"Before the sun rises on the fifth morning you must arise and go 

out of your house and take from the earth a bit of soil and put it on 

your head. This is the Rite of the Wa-zhi°' The-the No^'-zhi^-zho" 

(the Rite of Vigil and the Sending of Courage). You must give all 

3594°— 25t 13 



194 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. an-n. 39 

your thoughts to the warrior who has gone against the enemy car- 
rying your Wa-xo'-be. In this way you will give him aid. Refrain 
from sleeping, eating, or drinking water tlirough the day. When the 
shadow of evening comes, making indistinguishable the faces of men, 
then remove from your head the soil of the earth. In doing so 
remember to repeat these words: "My grandfather bade me to say, 
when doing this, "I remove from my head the soil of the earth and 
wipe my hands upon the body of the chief of our enemies, that he 
may come to his death at the hands of our warriors."' You will 
repeat this rite for a period of four days, when your duty to youi 
Wa-xo'-be and to the warrior will be fulfilled.'' 

The A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka next proceeds to instruct the woman as to 
her duties as a mother. 

SYMBOLIC PAINTING OF ROBE. 

" You have a child. Other cliildren are yet to be born to you. 
There is in you the same desire that there is in all good mothers to 
bring your cliildren successfully to maturity. In this you need the 
aid of a power that is greater than that of the hvmian being. There 
is a rite by which an appeal can be made to this power. It is this: 
Let the father of your child secure the skin of an old male buffalo. 
You will dress and soften the skin with your own hands. When you 
have made it soft and pliable take some red paint and with it draw 
a straight, narrow line from the heatl, through the length of the body 
of the skin, to the tip of the tail. This straight line represents the 
path of the god of day that liveth forever. You will paint all four 
legs of the robe red, to represent the dawn, the coming of the god of 
day and of life. Let each child to whom you have given birth sleep 
in the consecrated robe and you will have aid in bringing to maturity 
your children." 

The A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka continues his instructions to the woman as 
to the ceremonial planting of the corn. 

SYMBOLIC PLANTING OF THE FIELD. 

"The planting of the field is also a responsibility that has been 
bestowed upon you and has to do with the feeding of your cliildren. 
In this duty also you need aid such as no human effort can give you. 
There is a way by which you can appeal for aid in performing this 
duty and reach the power that controls all things. When the time 
for planting has come, aim to rise with the sun so that your task will 
begin at the same time the sun begins to take its com-se. The parting 
of your hair must be painted red for this work. The red line will 
represent the path of the god of day and will make the paths of all the 
animals converge toward you, for upon them you and your children 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 195 

must depend for food. When you reach your field you must, first of 
all, prepare seven hills which you shall regard as the Mo°'-gtho°-ge 
Wii-ko"-da-gi. the Mysterious Hills. Open the first hill w-ith your 
planting i^ole an<l put into it one grain of corn, after wliich 3-ou will 
cover up the opening and tamp it with your foot; in the second hill 
you will put two grains in the same manner; three in the third hill; 
four in the fourth; five in the fifth; six in the sixth; and seven in the 
seventh. This ceremony is a supplication for three things: First, 
the growing of the corn to maturity; second, the success of the 
hunter; third, the success of the warrior who protects the home and 
the field. When j'ou have finished planting the seven sacred hills 
you may proceed to plant the rest of your field without further 
ceremony.' ' 

The woman is next instructed how to gather ceremonially the roots 
of the water cliinquapin {Nelumho lutea) for food for her little ones. 

CERE.MOXIAL GATHERING OF FOOD. 

"The Tse'-wa-the (water chinquapin) with which you feed your 
children is also a sacred food and should be gathered with proper cere- 
mony. It is a symbol of life. When you set a da}^ to go and gather 
this food aim to rise with the sun and paint the parting of your hair 
red. The red line represents the path of the god of day and the paths 
of all living things which converge toward you and give to you and 
your children both food and clothing. WTien you come to the lake 
where you are to gather the tse'-wa-the cut a willow pole. The 
willow is a tree that never dies and is a symbol of life. Wlien you 
have cut the pole remember to say: 'My grandfather bade me to 
say: "This is to be my staff."' Upon entering the water to begin 
your work take from the bottom of the lake a bit of the mud and 
touch your head and body with it. This act is your prayer to the 
earth. Then proceed to dig. When you have secured the first root 
rub your arms and body with it, that you may receive the blessing of 
life, and then throw it back into the water and remember to say: 
'My grandfather bade me to do this act.' This is all of my instruc- 
tions, my granddaughter." 

If the singer has no children the instructions relating to the rites 
of the buffalo robe and to the gathering of the water chinquapin roots 
may be omitted. 

^Both Tse-zhin'-ga-\va-da-i"-ga and "Wa'-thu-xa-ge, in speaking of this ceremony, said that with the first 
grain ofcom is planted a bit of scalp of the enemy. .Vlso that when the com ripened, the woman who had 
ceremonially planted her field gathered the com from the seven sacred hills, pulling the stalks from these 
hills and carn;-ing them home. Then she prepares a feast for the Non'-ho"-zhin-ga who had instmcted her 
in the rite and ceremonially presents the sacred com to him. The NoD'-ho"-zhin-ga invites other members 
of the organization to the feast and shares with them the sacred com. This ceremony is never again per- 
formed by the same woman as it is believed to be efBcacious for all her future pi. ^tings. 



196 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [ith. ANN. 39 

At the conclusion of these instructions the wife of the Singer and 
her companions take off their gahi dresses, having put them on over 
other garments before entering, and leave them as they go out. The 
various articles of clothing worn hj the wife of the Singer are intended 
as a part of the fee given to the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka. A horse is the' 
usual fee to wliich the clothing is added. The garments left b^' the 
other women are offered piece by piece by the Sho'-ka for compe- 
tition among the women who are honorary- members of the organi- 
zation, in the following manner: The Sho'-ka holds up the first 
article on which he lays his hands and says: ''If any woman ever 
came four times to the ceremony of instructions, bringing at each 
time an article of value like this, she may take this garment." The 
women then begin to count and the one who can coimt four is given 
the article. Each article is disposed of in like manner. In former 
times the clothing consisted of deerskin dresses, leggings, moccasins, 
and buffalo robes. In recent times the dresses are made of broad- 
cloth, silk jackets, short leggings embroidered with ribbon, woven 
belts, moccasins and blankets. 

CoRX-PL.\NTING SoNGS. 

The songs of tliis group belong to the gens called Tho'-xe, the 
archaic name for buffalo biill, and are distributed among the rites of 
the various gentes. Some of the rites are said to include as many 
as thirteen or more of these songs, wliile others have only from six 
to twelve. Many of the songs of this group are corn-planting songs. 
These are classed as buffalo songs because the buffalo is said to have 
given corn to the people. The Tho'-xe gens can use all or only a 
part of these songs in their ceremonies, while each of the other gentes 
can use only those songs that have been given to them to include in 
their rites. 

In the lists of the groups of songs belonging to the Black Bear 
and the Puma related gentes, which were given separately by 
Wa-tse'-mo"-i° and Wa-xthi'-zhi, both men gave six as the number 
of buffalo songs given to those two gentes in common. Wa-xthi'-zhi 
of the Pmna gens, who sang these songs, gave but five, four being corn- 
planting songs and one buffalo. 

The word '"footprints" that occurs with insistent frequency in the 
corn-planting songs refers to the imprint of the foot of the planter 
on the prepared hill as she tamps do^Aii the earth after planting the 
grains and covering the opening. This act of the woman who plants 
the corn is regartled as sacred and mysteiious, for through her foot- 
prints the plants rise and flourish in abundance. 

The first song of this group relates to the planting, the growth of 
the corn, and the joy resulting from the harvesting. A free trans- 



laflesche] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRAN6LATI0]Sr. 



197 



lation of only one line of each stanza will suffice to give the meaning, 
as all the other lines are repetitions and vocables. 

Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 448; literal translation, p. 579.) 
,, ,_ I Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 




Time beat 



i 



^ 



A - 9i-gthe no" 



^ r r r 

wa - k'o"iio", A- 9i-gthe no" 



^ 



^ J J. j:i n "M n 

■ r r r r r 




r r r ' f ' r r ^ ^""r r 

wa-k o"no", A-^i-gtheno" wa-k'onno" a he he. 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Footprints I have made; a sacred act. 

2. 
Footprints I liave made; to lie in even lines. 

3. 
Footprints I have made; they are broken. 

4. 
Footprints I have made; in which stand leafy stalks. 

6. 
Footprints I have made; the leaves wave in the wind. 



Footprints I have made; the ears cross each other in profusion. 

7. 
Footprints I have made; I pluck the ears. 

8. 
Footprints I have made; I break down the stalks. 

9. 
Footprints I have made; gray blossoms cover the field. 



198 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. ! 



10. 

Footprints I have made; smoke arises from my house. 

11. 
Footprints I have made; there is joy in my house. 

12. 

Footprints I have made; the day (life) has come. 

The second song of this group relates to the completion of the cere- 
monial planting of the corn. A free translation of only one line of 
each stanza will suffice to give the meaning, as all the other lines are 
repetitions. 

Song 2. 

(Osage version, p. 449; literal translation, p. 580.) 
MM Jrl04 Transcribed by Alice CFletiht-r 



M)^- J' J J 



^ 



J r n r r r r r ^r^ f 

(J!i-gthewi-ta ■wa-k'o" no" ho", ^i-gthe wi - ta wa-k'on no" 



Time beats 



i 



^m 



r r '^r r r r ^ r r r 

Qi-gthewi-ta wa - k'o" no", ^i-g^^^^ ^i " t* wa-k' o" no", 




(yi-gthewi-ta wa-k'o" no" ho", ^i-gthewi-ta wa-k'o" no" ho". 

FREE TR.\NSLATION. 
1. 

My footprints! they are sacred and mysterious. 

2. 
My footprints I they lie in even lines. 

3. 
My footprints! they are broken. 



My footprints ! therein stand leafy stalks. 

5. 
My footprints ! the leaves wave in the wind. 



t^FLBSCHB] BITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 199 

6. 

My footprints! the Cars cross each other in profusion. 

7. 
My footprints ! I pluck the ears. 

8. 
My footprints ! I break down the stalks. 

9. 
My footprints ! gray blossoms cover the field. 

10. 
My footprints ! smoke arises from my house. 

11. 
My footprints ! there is joy in my house. 

12. 
My footprints! the day (life) has come. 

The third song bears the subtitle U'-we Gi-do^-be Wa-tho°, Song 
of Viewing the Field. In the title is implied the arrival of the time 
when the grains of corn ceremonially planted by the woman should 
be matured. The woman is represented as getting ready to go and 
see the field whereon she had made the mysterious footprints that in 
time were broken through by the growing plants which now cover the 
field with their gray blossoms. She stands looking forward with faith 
and hope toward the day of the fulfillment of her duty, the day of 
fruition, and the day of harvest. 

A free translation of two lines of each stanza will suffice to give the 
meaning of the song. 



200 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[eTH. ANN. 39 



Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 451; literal translation, p. 381.) 



M.M. 



96 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



*j p r r r^ ^r r ^r 



Time beats 



Do"-l)e the-tse the 



•J r r r r ? 



r r r r 

he, do" - be the tse the, 



m 



= — ^ — \ — i 



^ r r r ' r r r 

doi-he the tse the he, Do"-hethetse the he, 



r r r 

A- 9i-gthe no" he- 



i 



w 



^s^^ 



m 



"m. 



r ' r r r ' r r ^ ^ ^ 

do"-be the tse the the the he the, A- ei- gtheno" ho" 







^ 



5 



— p — • • — d-i — d * — • . _ - - 

^ r r r ^ r r r 

do"-l)e the tse the he. Do"- be the tse the he. 



g^ 



d 4. f d d d 



r r r r 

do"-be the tse the he, 



r r r r 

Do"-be the tse the he, 



i£Mrr rjr I P v PiTt \ r.j 



^^ 



r F ^ f n r n r r 

don-be the tsethe, A- 9i-gtheno"ho" don-be the tse the. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



I shall go to see, I shall go to see, 

The footprints I have made 1 shall go to see. 



I shall go to see, I shall go to see. 
The footprints that lie in even rows. 



I shall go to see, I shall go to see, 
The soil broken through the footprints. 



I shall go to see, I shall go to see, 

The stalks that stand with spreading leaves. 



LAFLBSCHE] EITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 201 

5. 

I shall go to see, I ghall go to see, 
The broad leaves waving in the winds. 

6. 

I shall go to see, I shall go to see, 

The ears that overhang and cross each other. 



I shall go to see, I shall go to see, 

The ears that are ripe and ready to pluck. 

8. 

I shall go to see, I shall go to see. 

The tall stalks to be broken to reach the ears. 

9. 

I shall go to see, I shall go to see, 
The blossoms that make gray the field. 

10. 

I shall go to see, I shall go to see, 

The ears that will cause smoke to rise from my house. 

11. 

I shall go to see, I shall go to see. 

The ears that will bring joy to my house. 

12. 

I shall go to see, I shall go to see, 

The day of fruition, the day of harvest. 

The fourth and last of the corn songs given in tliis group repre- 
sents the woman as hastening to the field, at the bonier of which she 
pauses and views the ground where she made footprints, sacred and 
mysterious, then being seized with joy as she beholds the result of her 
labor and sees the ears of ripening corn that cross each other in pro- 
fusion, promising a rich harvest for her people. She is also repre- 
sented as delighting in the beauty of the broad field, gray with 
blossoms that lie before her. 

A free translation of two lines from each stanza will suffice to give 
the meaning, as all the other lines are repetitions and vocables. 



202 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. Ann. 39 

Song 4. 
(Osage version, p. 453; literal translation, p. 582.) 
M M J - 69 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



^ 



^ ^- J ^ 



Time beats 



r 



r 



r 



r 



r 



A - no" - zhi"-e the he, a - no" - zhi"-e the, 



jS^ ^ ^-"J J- 3 J~n 1 1 ^ ^ J J J I I 
^ r r r r j. w— ^ - j j - 

Gthe-qe ge no° ho" a-no^-zhP-e the he, A-non-zhi".e the 



i 



^ 



S 



^ 



_ «i — j-i * j-i — 

r r r r r 

he, a - no°-zhi"-e the the the he the. 



(Xi ^ ^ J J J- 3 



1 iia ■ 
II 4 ^ 



* «r 



r 



r 



r 



r 



Gthe-9e ge no" ho", a-no"-zhi"-e the he, A- no"-zhi"-e the 




r r r r r r ^ ^ . 

he, a- no" zhi"-e the the the he the, Gthe- 9e ge no" ho", a-no"-zhi"- e 



4 



r ^ r r r . r r 

the he, A-no"-zhi".e the he, a-no"-zhi".e the thethe he. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



Here I pause and stand, here I pause and stand, 

And view the footprints I had made to lie in even lines. 



Here I pause and stand, here I pause and stand, 
And view the soil broken through my footprints. 



Here I pause and stand, here I pause and stand, 
And view the stalks that stand with spreading leaves. 



Here I pause and stand, here I pause and stand, 
And view the broad leaves that wave in the wind. 



LAFLESCHE] BITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 203 

5. 

Here I pause and stand, here I pause and stand, 
And view the ears that cross each other in profusion. 



Here I pause and stand, here I pause and stand, 
And view the ears now ready to be plucked. 



Here I pai^e and stand, here I pause and stand. 
And view the tall stalks waiting to be broken down. 

8. 

Here I pause and stand, here I pause and stand, 

And view the blossoms that color the broad field with gray. 

9. 

Here I pause and stand, here I pause and stand. 

And view the ears soon to cause smoke to rise from my house. 

10. 

Here I pause and stand, here I pause and stand, 
And view the corn that will fill my house with joy. 

11. 

Here I pause and stand, here I pause and stand. 

And view the day of fulfillment, the day of harvest and happiness. 

The fifth song of this group, a buffalo song, could not be recalled to 
memory hj Wa-xthi'-zhi and had, therefore, to be omitted. 

The sixth song refers to the hujiters who hasten homeward from the 
chase in order to be among the first to reach their houses. As they 
come within sight of the camp they see that other himters have out- 
stripped them and are nearing their homes, laden with the products 
of the chase, and point to them with exclamations of surprise. The 
following is a free translation. 



204 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 30 



Song 6. 
(Osage version, p. 453; literal translation, p. 5S4.) 
M. M. • r 160 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



^^^ 



£ 



d d. 



Time beats 



r 



r 



r 



r 



r 



i 



Tsi go - da ba don-baon-ga tha be, 



^ ^- • d ' d d. - ' \ h -^ -trt i J II 

f T r r • f^ r r 

Tsi go - da ba don-ba o".ga-tha be, E - dsi 



^g 



r — I r — I 



I ^ j) ^ 4H ^ 



r • r ,' r _ 

she a-ba wa - k i" a-kshi bi 



r 

no" 



r 

dsi 




1 



r — I i — I 
-I — I — J 



^ 



s^ 



iz^ 



,^ J J 



-* — y ■ 

r ^ r 



-»^ — ^ 

r r 

a a ho. 



r 



r 



she a-ba wa- k'i" a-kshi bi no" 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



1. 



Look you, to yonder houses we are going, 
Look you, to yonder houses we are going, 
Already some are home with their burdens, 
Already some are home with tlieir burdens. 



Second stanza. 



M 



.M. Jr 



160 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



w 



n. n. 



•Tiz 



1 #■ 



m 



Time beats 



Tsi go - da ba do"-bao"-ga tha be, 






r r r r r 

Tsi go - da ba don-ba o"-ga-tha be, 



r r 

E - dsi 



3 



r3 j ^ J' ^ " 



r ^ r ^ r • r r 

ga-tho she a-ba wa-k'i" a-kshi bi no", 



r 

E 



r 

dsi 



$ 



^ 



J ^ J 



r • r • r • r r 

ga-tho she a-ba wa-k'i" a-kshi bi no", 



a a ho. 



LAFLESCHE] EITE OF VIGIL FKEE TKANSLATION. 205 



Look you, to yonder houses we are going, 
Look you, to yonder houses we are going. 
At yonder place some are home with their loads. 
At yonder place some are home with their loads. 

The Tse Wa-tho°, or Buffalo Songs, that include the Corn Songs 
given in the preceding pages, mark the close of that part of the 
No°'-zhi°-zho'' Ritual (Hearing the Songs of the Rite of Vigil) belong- 
ing to the Ho^'-ga great tribal division. This part of the ritual is 
called Wa-tho"' Pe-tho"-ba Tse, The Seven Songs. 

THE SIX SONGS. 

Wa-tho-' Sha-pe Tse, The Six Songs, is the title of that part of 
the tribal war rite that belongs to the Tsi'-zhu great tribal division. 
The origin of this second part of the tribal war rite is accredited 
jointly to the Ni'-ka Wa-ko°-da-gi (Men of Mystery) gens and the 
Tho'-xe (Buffalo Bull) gens. (See 36th Ann. Kept. B. A. E., pp. 
64-65.) 

The mytliical story of the origin of this part of the tribal war rite, 
briefly told, is as follows: 

The first war organization of the tribe was composed of four 
tribal divisions, bearing the names: the Wa-fa'-be. the Wa-zha'-zhe, 
the Tsi'-zhu, and the Ho"'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi. The war emblems of 
these four divisions were four golden eagles, varying in plumage 
according to the different stages of the bird's maturity. For pur- 
poses of initiation into the mysteries of this organization the No"'- 
ho°-zhi°-ga formulated a ritual wliich they called "Wa-tho° 
Pe-tho°-ba Tse," The Seven Songs. The rites by which this organi- 
zation was governed permitted but one kind of ceremonially organized 
war party, wliich bore the name Do-do" '-lii°-to"-ga, Great War 
Party. Consequently one division could not act independently of 
the other three and muster warriors to go on the warpath, since all 
of the four divisions must act as one body in order to make a war 
movement authoritative. This arrangement served, in a way, the 
military activities of the people, but because of its intricate cere- 
monials that took several days to perform during the assembling of 
the warriors it lacked mobility and so did not admit of prompt 
action in an emergency. 

After a long period of varied experiences the No°'-ho"-zhi"-ga at 
last determined not to upset the old organization but to supply its 
defect by formulating a supplementary rite which permitted: (1) the 
assembling of a war party composed of the warriors from the gentes 
of one of the two great tribal divisions; (2) a war party made up of 
two or more of the gentes of one of the two great divisions; (3) a war 



206 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. Ann. 39 

party organized by one gens that belonged to only one of either of 
the two great divisions. These tliree classes of war parties could be 
organized, under the new arrangement, independently of the four 
divisions and regardless of ceremonies. These classes of war party 
were called Tsi'-ga-xa Do-do", which probably means war party 
organized outside of the House of Mystery. In formulating tliis 
supplementary rite the No°'-ho"-zhi°-ga, in order to give their action 
a mystic effect, resorted to a mythical story in which the Xi'-ka 
Wa-ko^-da-gi, Men of Mystery, and the Tho'-xe, Buffalo Bull, gentes 
figured prominently as the givers of a hawk as a war emblem to each 
of the Seven Fireplaces of the Ho"'-ga sul)division: to each of the 
Seven Fireplaces of the Wa-zha'-zhe subdivision; and to each of the 
Seven Fireplaces of the Tsi'-zhu great tribal division. These hawks 
were called Wa-xo'-bc zlii"-ga. Little Wa-xo'-be, and symbolizetl the 
courage of the warrior. There seems to be no trachtion as to whethe'r 
the four eagles above mentioned were enshrined or not, but if they 
were the}- appear to have been supplanted liy the sacred hawks that 
were enshrined (figuratively) in the space between the arch of the 
sky and the earth beneath wliich are symbolically represented by the 
woven rush case within which lies the hawk. The hawk symbols 
were used in two ways: (1) when a war party is about to attack the 
enemy the commander of a group is ceremonially given the hawk 
belonging to his gens to carry so that liis men may charge upon the 
enemy as swiftly and as courageously as the hawk that falls upon 
its prey; (2) at an initiation by a gens of one of its members into 
the mysteries of the tribal war rites the hawk occupies a sacreil place 
and becomes the central figure in the initiatory ceremonies. To the 
Ni'-ka Wa-ko"-da-gi gens was given the office of reconsecrating the 
symbolic hawk at an initiation, an office that ranks high in honor. 
To the Tho'-xe, the companion gens of the Ni'-ka Wa-ko°-da-gi, 
was given the office of awarding to the warriors the prescribed 
military honors won by them, honors wliich are termed o-do°', acts 
for which one is honored. To this supplementary rite the No"'-ho"- 
zhi°-ga gave the title Wa-tho" Sha-pe Tse, The Six Songs, and 
dedicated it to the gentes of the Tsi'-zhu great tribal division. When 
a, No"'-ho°-zhi°-ga speaks of this dual war rite as a whole he says: 
Wa-tho" Pe-tho°-ba Sha'-pe Zhu-gthe Tse, The Seven and Six Songs. 

Songs of the Rising of the Buffalo Bull Men. 

The "Six Songs" begins with a group of four songs that bear the 
title Tse-do'-a Ni-ka I-no"-zhi" Wa-tho", Songs of the Rising of the 
Buffalo Bull Men. 

When the man acting as A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka at this initiation by the 
Puma gens reaches this point of the ritual he makes the following 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 207 

announcement to the Holy Men before he proceeds to sing: "Ho, 
No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga, I have now come to the Six Songs." This brief 
form of the notice is used by most of the gentes. But Tse-zhi°'-ga-wa- 
da-i°-ga of the Tho'-xe gens when acting as A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka at an 
initiation by his own gens used the following, which is probably the 
original form: "Ho, No'''-ho''-zhi°-ga, these are all of the buffalo 
songs that belong to and close the Seven Songs. I have now come to 
the Six Songs. From now on there will be dramatic acts to which I 
ask you to give particular attention." The dramatic acts to which 
the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka asks attention are called "We'-ga-xe," a term 
which may be freely translated as meaning acts performed for the 
purpose of making clear certain thoughts which words can not ade- 
quately express, as, for example, at the singing of the Songs of the 
Symbolic Arrows, the Xo'-ka who dances to the music sets in flight 
(figuratively) two arrows toward the setting of the sun. One of these 
arrows is painted red to represent day and the other black to repre- 
sent night. The acts of setting the arrows in flight denote Time, 
measured by the ever-recurrent day and night (see p. 233). The bow 
used for sending forth the arrows is also 'a symbol of day and night, its 
breast being painted red and its back black. 

These two groups of buffalo songs, one of which closes the first 
part of the ritual and the other which opens the second part, are 
regarded as one group and as supplicatory in character. They relate 
to the buffalo, a food animal, and to the corn, a food plant. Both of 
these forms of life are held sacred because they are believed to be 
chrect gifts to the people from the Mysterious Power, whence comes 
life in all its multifarious forms, the ability to move, to reproduce its 
kind, in order that each one may bear its particular part in the great 
drama of life. 

The No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga who arranged the songs and the wi'-gi-es to 
be used in the tribal rites as expressions of the desire for divine aid 
did not employ terms that could be taken as direct appeals to the 
Mysterious Power, but cryptic forms were used, the real meaning of 
which could be understood only by the initiated. For instance, the 
ancient men did not say in these songs and wi'-gi-es: "O, Wa-ko^'-da, 
give us continually the buffalo in order that we may live;" nor did they 
ask, "Wa-ko^'-da, give us ever the harvests of corn that we may con- 
tinue to have food." These supplications are implied by the language 
used in the songs and wi'-gi-es as well as by the general acceptance of 
the tribal rites as expressive of appeals for divine aid. 

The buffalo and corn songs in their entirety belong to the Tho'-xe 
gens who gave permission to each of the other gentes to use a desig- 
nated number in their versions of the tribal rites. 

The buffalo and corn songs here given by Wa-xthi'-zhi of the Puma 
gens, and by Sho^'-ge-mo^-i" of the fsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gens are 



208 



THE OSAGE TEIBE. 



[KTH. ANN. 39 



therefore fragmentary. In a later volume the complete number of 
these songs will be given as a part of the ritual of the Tho'-xe gens 
when their supplicatory significance will become clear. 

Personal names were taken from the first song of tliis group as 
follows : 

1. Mo°-no°'-ti-de, He-whose-tread-makes-the-earth-rmnble, a name 
descriptive of the noise made by a running herd of bulls. 

2. Hiu'-gthe-to°-ga, Great-thighs, a name referring to the great 
strength in the thighs of a bull. 

3. fi"'-dse-xa-tha, TaU-curved-back, the name indicates the man- 
ner in which an angry bull holds his tail over his back. 

4. A'-ba-t'u-xa, Humped-shoulder, a name depicting the shape of 
the buU's shoulder wliich gives the animal a formidable aspect. 

5. Pa-hi'-ga-zho°, Shakes-his-mane, the name refers to a wounded 
bull that shakes his mane in rage when brought to bay. 

6. He-thi'-sdu-zha, Curved-horns, a name referring to the hook- 
shaped horns of the yoimg bull and to its power to infhct wounds 
upon his enemy like knife-cuts. The right horn of the young bull 
symbolizes the knife of the Ho"'-ga warrior, and the left the knife 
of the Tsi'-zhu warrior, when used as a weapon against the foe (see 
pp. 64-249). 

The A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka, his assistant singers, and the Xo'-ka, with 
his initiate, rise when the buffalo bull songs are about to be simg, 
and remain standing throughout the singing of this group. 

A free translation of the first two lines of each stanza will suffice 
to give its meaning, the other two lines being repetitions. 

Song 1. 

(Osage version, p. 455; literaltranslation, p. 684.) 

J Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 
=12 



i 




Time beats 



Wi 



r r 

tha - noi.zhi" no", wi - tha - non-zhin, 



rn— 7 



Wi - 




r r ' 



r r r 

tha.iio".zhi".e,Mo"-iio"-ti-de, Wi - tha-non-zM" non wi 



tha-no^-zhi" Wi - tha-no''-zhi"-e,wi 



^^^^^m 




tha-iio°.zhi" no°. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 209 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

I rise, I rise, 

I, whose tread makes the earth to rumble. 

2. 
I rise, I rise, 
I, in whose thighs there is strength. 

3. 
I rise, I rise, 
I, who whips his back with liis tail when in rage. 

i. 
I rise, I rise, 
I, in whose humped shoulder there is power. 

5. 
I rise, I rise, 
I, who shakes his mane when angered. 

6. 
I rise, I rise, 
I, whose horns are sharp and curved. 

In the second song of this group the six bulls are represented as 
speaking to one another of a mysterious command directing them to 
proceed from the unseen to the visible world. The No'''-ho''-zhi''-ga, 
by these songs, made known their desire for the continuity of the 
life of the animal that afforded the people food by which to live, but 
these ancient men also sought to express, in the songs, their recogni- 
tion that the command given to the bulls was from the Mysterious 
Power whence proceeds all life and movement. 
3594°— 25t 14 



210 



THE OSAGE TKIBE. 



[KTH. ANN. 39 



SONQ 2. 

(Osage version, p. 456; literaltranslation, p. 585.) 
M M • - 184 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



i ^^'ij'i i in j~3. J Win- J ^^i^ 



*^ r r r 

Time beats ' ' I 

E - tho"-l)e on-ga-the tse 



r r r r 

he tho"-ka-e no" hd", E 



4 



fe 



I 



t J ,< 



i- J "^ /!■ J ^^ 



r f r -^ 

he tho'i-ka-e no" ho" E 



-#— ^ 



r 



r 



r 



tho^-be on-ga-the tse 



^iLS Lr- r lli^' r 



ut 



p^ 



r 



r r 



r r r r* 



thoi-be on-ga-the tse he tho"-ka e no" ho", 



Mo". 



^ 



t 



jn J Q. J ii-hi>tJ' r p r ^ 



r r r r 

no".ti-de oil-ga-the tse 



r r r . r 

hetho"-ka-e no" ho", E - 



r r r 

thon-he on-ga-the tse 



r r r r . 

he tho"-ka-e no" ho", E 



T r^ r 

tho"-be on-ga-the tse 



r r r r 

he tho"-ka-e no" ho". 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

We are commanded to go into the visible world, 
Mo°-no°'-ti-de, we are bidden to go forth. 

2. 

We are commanded to go into the visible world, 
Hiu'-gthe-to°-ga, we are bidden to go forth. 



We are commanded to go into the visible world, 
Qi°'-dse-xa-tha, we are bidden to go forth. 



We are commanded to go into the visible worlti, 
A'-ba-t'u-xa, we are commanded to go forth. 



LA. PLBSCHB] 



BITE OF VIGrL FREE TEANSLATION. 



211 



We are commanded to go into the visible world, 
He-thi'-sdu-zha, we are commanded to go forth. 

The theme of the third song is the abiding faith of the No°'-ho"- 
zhi°-ga that the Mysterious Power will for all time continue the gift 
of the buffalo which supplied the people plentifully with food, shelter, 
and clothing. "Wi-tsi-go," my grandfather, is repeatedly used in 
this song, not as a term of relationsliip, but as an expression of rev- 
erence and wonder at the mystery that involved the coming of this 
form of life from the unseen to the visible world. 

The arrangement of the words and the stanzas implies an order in 
which this animal proceeds from its mystic somxe: First, the male; 
second, the female; third, the little one; then the beginning of their 
increase in nimiber; and, finally, their spreading over the earth in 
seven directions. 

This song corresponds in meaning to the second, the third, and the 
fourth of the Omaha buffalo songs (27th Ann. Kept. B. A. E., pp. 
291-295). 

Only two lines of each stanza are translated. 



Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 457; literal translation, p. 586.) 



M.M 



.J: 



168 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



%i' i .n.n.J. JM/i n i f' j 



T,..>.... ^ ' TT r f ' f r 

Wi - tsi-go a-gi bi" da, wi - tsi-go a-gibi° da, Wi 




tsi-go a-gi bi" da, wi 



tsi-go a-gi bi" da, 



^ 



4 



m 



V-^4— 



r r r r 



r r r r 



ha 



do-ga non a-gi bi" da, Do-ganon»- 




gi bi" da, Wi - tsi-go a- gi bi" d 



212 THE OSAGE TRIBE. Ieth. ann. 39 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

My grandfather is coming, 
Behold, the male is coming. 

2. 

My grandfather is coming. 
Behold, the female is coming. 



My grandfather is coming. 
Behold, the little one is coming. 



My grandfather is coming, 

Behold, a part of the herds have come. 

5. 

My grandfather is coming. 

Behold, the herds come in seven directions. 

The fourth song is descriptive of the actions of the young bull when 
attacking liis enemy. He first goes forward in boumling leaps, then 
turns from side to side, and at last rushes forth in a straight line. As 
the bull is a sjmibol of courage the song refers to the valor of the 
warriors when defending their fields and their homes. 

When this song is about to be sung the wife of the vSinger and her 
companions enter the house, having in their hands their planting and 
loom poles and their carrying bags. The women stand in a row in 
front of the Xo'-ka, the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka, and their assistants, and 
there dance to the rhytlmi of the song, beating time by thrusting the 
earth with their poles. At the close of the song the women push their 
poles down westward, an act expressive of the wish that the warriors 
who go to attack their enemies toward the setting sun shall always 
return victorious. 

A free translation of one line of each stanza will suffice to give the 
meaning, as the other lines are repetitions. 



laflesche] 



RITE OF VIGII 



-FREE TRANSLATION 



213 



Song 4. 

(Osage version, p. 458; literal translation, p. 586.) 

. I Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 

M.M.J r 176 



^m 



I % J J jrir^ 



f ^' A J'. J. ^ ^ 



Time beats 



r r 



r 



^ r r 

E the he ki-a-hi tha tha, bthe da hi" da, 




Ki-a-hitha tha.btheda hi" da, Ki-a-hi tha tha,bthe da hi" da, 




£ 



r 

the he 



r ^r " r 

ki-a-hi tha tha, bthe da 



hin da. 



PHEE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Behold, I go forth with bounding leaps. 

2. 
Behold, I go forth, turning from side to side. 



Behold, I rush forth in a straight line. 
Songs of the Fight for the Charcoal. 

The group following the BufTalo Bull Songs is called No°-xthe' 
I-ki°-dse Wa-tho", freely translated, Songs of the Fight for the Char- 
coal. A wi'-gi-e precedes the song. Wa-xthi'-zhi gave only one 
song to this group, wliile Wa-tse'-mo°-i", in a list of the songs belong- 
ing to this ritual, made some time before this work was begun, men- 
tioned seven songs as belonging to this ceremony. The two gentes to 
wliich these men belong, the I"-gtho"'-ga and the Wa-fa'-be, are 
related and said to use the same rituals in common. No explanation 
was offered by Wa-xthi'-zhi as to why he gave but one song to this 
ceremony, although he was aware that Wa-tse'-mo°-i" had given 
seven in his list. Both of these men, as well as Tse-zhi°'-ga-wa-da- 
i°-ga and Pe'-dse-mo°-i'', stated that the P-gtho^'-ga is subordinate 
to the Wa-f a'-be gens and it may be that the I°-gtho°'-ga gens is not 
privileged to use all of the songs. 

The wi'-gi-e ami song here given by Wa-xthi'-zlii are used by his 
gens at the ceremonial fight by the warriors for brands of the sacred 
fires kindled at one of the ceremonies of the Wa-sha'-be A-thi", a rite 



214 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. Ann. 38 

performed during the organization of a war party. A detailed descrip- 
tion of the Wa-sha'-be A-thi" will be given in a later volume. 

The wi'-gi-e serves to direct attention to three animals and two 
birds that were chosen by the ancient No"'-ho''-zhi"-ga to be used in 
the war rites as symbols of fire and charcoal, namely, the puma, black 
bear, wliite swan, golden eagle, and the young deer. The sections 
relating to the puma, the black bear, and the swan are paraphrases 
of lines 984 to 1062 of the Ni'-ki Wi'-gi-e of the Puma gens, which 
relate to those two animals and the swan. (See 36th Ann. Kept. 
B. A. E., pp. 389-391.) The section relating to the golden eagle 
(lines 28 to 40) is a paraphrase from the Ni'-ki Wi'-gi-e of the Ho"'-ga 
A-hiu-to" gens. The section relating to the young deer is a para- 
phrase from the Ni'-ki Wi'-gi-e of the Ta' I-ni-ka-shi-ga (Deer) gens. 

From the burning brand snatched out of the symbolic fire the war- 
rior scrapes ofT the charcoal and puts it into a small deerskin pouch' 
which he carries upon some part of liis clothing as he marches against 
the enemy. When tlie foe is discovered and an attack is to be made, 
the warrior paints his face with this charcoal, an act by which he 
expresses his determination to show no mercy to the enemy and to 
expect none toward himself. 

When the two sacred fires are kindled and are burning, at the 
Wa-sha'-be A-thi" ceremony, one on the Ho"'-ga side and one on the 
Tsi'-zhu side, the warriors gather around their fires stripped of nearly 
all clotliing and wait for the fray. The officer belonging to the 
Ho"'-ga side stands by the fire holding in his hand one of the stand- 
ards, while the officer on the Tsi'-zhu side stands before his fire also 
holding in his hand one of the standards (PI. 14). Both officers begin 
at the same time to recite the fire wi'-gi-e, each using his own version. 

Wl'-GI-E OF THE RUSH FOR THE CHARCOAL (ho'"-GA). 

(Osage version, p. 458; literaltranslation, p. 586.) 

1. What shall they use for their charcoal symbol? it has been said, 

in this house. 

2. The male puma that lies outstretched, 

3. Shall be their charcoal symbol, as they travel the path of life, it 

has been said, in this house. 

4. When they make the pmna to be their charcoal syiubol, 

5. And when they go against their enemies toward the setting sim, 

6. Black, indeed, shall be their charcoal. 

7. When they make the puma to be their charcoal symbol, 

8. They shall overcome their enemies with ease, O, younger brothers, 

they said to one another, it has been said, in this house. 

9. What shall they use for their charcoal symbol ? it has been said, 

in this house. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 215 

10. The bear that is without a blemish 

11. Shall be their charcoal symbol, as they travel the path of life, it 

has been said, in this house. 

12. When they make the black bear to be their charcoal symbol, 

13. And when they go against their enemies toward the setting sun, 

14. Black, indeed, shall be their charcoal, 

15. And when they go against their enemies toward the setting sun, 

16. They shall overcome their enemies with ease, O, 3'ounger brothers, 

they said to one another, it has been said, in this house. 

17. What shall the}- use for their charcoal sjTnboH it has been said, 

in this house. 

18. The great white swan 

19. Shall be their charcoal symbol, as they travel the path of life, it 

has been said, in this house. 

20. It was he who said : '' Behold, the black skin of my feet, 

21. The black tip of my nose, 

22. Which I have made to be as my charcoal," it has been said, in this 

house. 

23. When the little ones also make of these their charcoal, 

24. Black, indeed, shall be their charcoal, O, younger brothers, they 

said to one another, it has been said, in this house. 

25. When they go against their enemies toward the setting sim, 

26. When they make of these their charcoal, 

27. Black, indeed, shall be their charcoal, O, yoimger brothers, it has 

been said, in this house. 

28. What shall they use for their charcoal symbol ? it has been said, 

in this house. 

29. The stainless bird (golden eagle), it has been said, in this house. 

30. That bird also, 

31. Has said: "Behold, the black skin of my feet, 

32. Which I have made to be as my charcoal, 

33. Behold, the black tips of my tail feathers, 

34. The black tip of my nose, 

35. Which I have made to be as my charcoal." 

36. Wlien the little ones also make these to be as their charcoal, 

37. Black, indeed, shsill be their charcoal, O, younger brothers, it has 

been said, in this house. 

38. When they go against their enemies toward the setting sun, 

39. When they make of these their charcoal, 

40. Black, indeed, shall be their charcoal, O, younger brothers, they 

said to one another, it has been said, in this house. 

41. What shall they use for their charcoal sj'mbol ? they said to one 

another, it has been said, in this house. 



216 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [kth. Ann. 39 

42. The young deer 

43. Shall also 

44. Be their charcoal symbol, it has been said, in this house. 

45. It was he who said: ''Behold, my black hoofs, 

46. Wliich I have made to be as my charcoal, 

47. The black tip of my nose also, 

48. Wliich I have made to be as my charcoal." 

49. Wlien the little ones also make of these theii- charcoal symbol, 

50. And when they go against their enemies toward the setting sun, 

51. Black, indeed, shall be their charcoal. 

52. It was he who said: "I escape many dangers, 

53. Even when I make my fhght in the very midst of my enemies, 

54. And arrows aimed at me fly around me in forked lines, 

55. I make my escape." 

56. Wlien the little ones make of the young deer their bodies, 

57. They shall also have the power to escape dangers, as they travel 

the path of life, O, j-ounger brothers, they said to one another. 

The song of tliis group relates to the gathering of the men of the 
tribe for the purpose of organizing a war party in the ceremonial order 
prescribed by the ancient No'''-ho''-zhi°-ga and is in the nature of a 
challenge to those individuals who may be inclined to shirk their 
responsibility as warriors. The word ni'-ka, men, that frequently 
occurs in the song, is used in a figurative rather than in its ordinary 
sense and refers to the warlike spirit of the men who gather to prepare 
for a conflict with their enemies. 

The song specifically refers to the warriors and to the gentes officiat- 
ing tliroughout the ceremonies. Some of the words have been pur- 
posely corrupted to disguise their meaning, but from those that are 
clearly spoken a free translation is given. 

Two lines of each stanza will suffice to give the meaning, the other 
lines being repetitions. 



LAFLESCHE] EITE OF \aGrL— FREE TKANSLATION. 



217 



Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 460; literal translation, p. 588.) 

vr vr J _ 4 JO Transcribedby Alice C.Fletcher 



Time beats ' ' ill 

Ni - ka 9to bi ni wa-tha te ha tho, 



^ 

m 



11^^ 



W 




ft 



^ ^ 1 1^ J ^ 



r r 



r r ' r TT 



^ r 

ha tho, Ni-ka ni do" e the he ha tho, 



fc 



r r I r r r r *T^- r r 



r r ^ r r r r '^f^r ^ f^ 

Ni-ka ni do'' ha-we ha tho, Ni-ka ni do" e the he, 



'^^r : r^ i i i r- 1 r ^ ^ J ^ 



r r 

Ni - ka 9to bi 



r r r r 

ni wa-tha te ha tho. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



Men are gathering to sing tlie songs. 
If thou art a man, go thither. 



2. 



The eagle men are gathering to sing, 

K thou art a man, go thither. 



The standard men are gathering to sing, 
If thou art a man, go thither. 



4. 



The eagle-feather men are gathering to sing. 
If thou art a man, go thither. 



5. 



The deerskin men are gathering to sing, 
If thou art a man, go thither. 



218 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[KTH. ANN. 39 



The men of the fires are gathering to sing, 
If thou art a man, go thither. 



The men of the charcoal are gathering to sing, 
If thou art a man, go thither. 

Songs of the Crossing of a River. 

The group of songs next in order is called Ni Thi'-tse Wa-tho", 
Songs of the Crossing of a River. These songs are of a supplicatory 
character and are sung when a war party is about to cross a danger- 
ous river. Wa-xthi'-zhi could not remember the songs, therefore 
they had to be omitted. 

Songs of the Mystic House. 

The next group of songs is called Tsi Gi'-ka-xe Wa-tho°, Songs of 
Making the Mystic House. This house was symbolic in character 
and called Tsi Wa-ko°-da-gi, House Mysterious. The ancient No"'- 
ho°-zhi°-ga placed this symbolic house in the keeping of the Wa-pa'-be 
gens. At a certain stage of the great war ceremony called Wa-sha'-be 
A-thi", this symbolic house was made and witliin it were performed 
ceremonial acts that were regarded as the Mystery of Mysteries. The 
Wa-sha'-be A-thi'' will be described in a later volume. 

In tliis group of songs the Wa-f a'-be gens, the keepers of the house, 
are represented as speaking. 

Song 1. 

(Osage version, p. 401; literal translation, p. 588.) 
MM J - 116 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



ffl^ 



^s^ 



S 



3E 



i 



Time beats 



r r r 



r r 




Wi-e tsi win ga-xa thi"-e e, 



r r r 

Wi-e tsiwi" ga-xa 



FS 



^ 



W^ 



r r 



r r r r 



r r r r r r 



r 



# 



thi"-e e he the, Ga-xa thi"-e e tsiwi-tano" ga-xa thi"-e, 



JJ4ll''''^M 'rll 



i 



■0 •— • 



r r r - f » r r r r r 

Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi"-e e, Wi-e tsi wi"ga - xa thi"-e. 



LJ. FLESCHE] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



219 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



Make ye the house for me, 
Make ye the house for me, 
Make ye the house that is mine, 
Make ye the house for me, 
Make ye the house for me. 



4 



M.M, 



J = 



Make ye the house for me, 
Make ye the house for me, 
Make ye the Mystic House, 
Make ye the house for me. 
Make j'e the house for me. 

Song 2. 

(Osage version , p. 461 : literal translation, p. 589.) 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



ii = lie 



s 



Time beats f [ ^ \ 11''' 

Tsi wi" ga - xa thi",ga-xa thi°-e he the, Tsi wi" 




r r r r ' ^ ^ 



ga - xathi", ga-xa thi"-e he the, Ga - xa thi", ga-xa 




r r r r r r r 

he the, Tsi-wi-ta no" ga - xa thi°, ga-xa 




I r J. . 

thii-e, Tsi wii 



r r r"^ r r 

ga - xa thi", ga - xa thi"-e 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Make ye the house, make ye, 
Make ye the house, make ye, 
Make ye, make ye. 
The house that is mine, 
Make ye the house, make ye. 



r r 

he the. 



220 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [eth.-ann. 39 



Make ye the house, make ye, 

Make ye the house, make ye, 

Make ye, make ye. 

The Mystic House, 

Make ye the house, make ye. 



Make ye the house, make ye, 
Make ye the house, make ye, 
Make ye, make ye, 
The frame of my house. 
Make ye the house, make ye. 

Blue Jay Songs. 

The group of songs next in order is called Ki-ta'-ni-ga Wa-tho". 
An uncertainty exists as to the bird referred to, for the blue jay and 
the kingfisher are both known by the name ki-ta'-ni-ga. Wa-xthi'-zhi 
could not recall these songs at the time and they had, therefore, to 
be omitted. 

Supplication or Little Evening Songs. 

The next group of songs has two titles, Wa-da' Wa-tho°, Suppli- 
cation Songs, and Pa'-fe Wa-tho" Zlii"-ga, Little Evening Songs. 
These songs had escaped the memory of Wa-xthi'-zhi, so he could 
not give them. 

Songs of Gatheking Wood. 

The next group, which is composed of two songs and a wi'-gi-e, 
bears the title Zho" Thi'-xo" Wa-tho", Songs of Gathering Wood. 
The words of the two songs imply that the gatherers of the wood go 
to the forest for their material, but their going is figurative rather 
than a statement of fact. The songs really refer to a ceremonial act 
performed by four men chosen to collect four pieces of wood from 
the house of each head of four gentes of the tribe. These four pieces 
of wood are collected to be used for the ceremonial kindling of the 
sacred fire witliin the "Mystic House" when it has been set up at 
the great Wa-sha'-be A-thi° ceremony. 

A free translation of one line of each stanza will suffice to give 
the meaning as all the other lines are repetitions. 



Li FLESCHE] 



BITE OF VIGIL- — FREE TKANSLATION. 



221 



Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 462; literal translation, p. 5S9.) 



M.M.J 



113 



Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



Time beats I ' 



1 r--q _ 



^+J J J 



r r r r r 

Cto the, 9to the, 9to the tha ni da, Qto 




r • •■ r r r r r r r 

the, 9to the, (jto the tha ni da, Qto the, 9to the, ^to the tha 




r r r r - f' ^ ^ r ^ 

ni da, (}to the, 9to the, <;to the tha ni da, ^to 




T rr Tr r r ^ r r 

the, 9to the, qto the tha ni da, Qto the, (;to the, (,-to the tha 



r r r r r r r_ ^ 

ni da, (Jto the, 9to the qto the tha ni da. 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Gathering, gathering, ye gathering, the wood, ye are, 



Noisily, noisily, noisily ye move about. 

In the first stanza of the second song the wood gatherers are rep- 
resented as still in the forest where they naake a rattling noise as 
they tie in bundles the gathered firewood for convenience of carrying. 
In the second stanza they have brought the wood into the Mystic 
House and throw it doAvn with a clattering noise. 



222 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[BTH. ANN. 39 



Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 462; literal translation, p. 589.) 
M M. • - 184 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



# 



i^l l lj /I.I I 'IJ^J ^ 



!> •} n ^- 



i4 



]CIK 



Time beats ' III 

To-xe the, to - xi ni da. 



r r 7 r r 

to-xi ni da ha, To-xe the. 



r f^-f f f r r r r r r 



to - xi ni da. 



fo-xi ni da ha, To-xe the, to-xi ni da. 



>^J Jl.KJ'J i 



loM-J-aJ 



if 

to- xi ni 



r r r r r r ••"' 

to-xi ni da ha, To-xe the, to-xi ni da. 



# 



^ 



m 



fl> i nr F r- ii 



# — (» 



* ■ 



r ^ 



r r 



da ha, To-xe the. 



r r 



r 



r r 



to - xi ni da. 



to - xi ni 



'h'ltr sfr r n-i'-riir rhnTH 



r r - r r r r r r 

da ha, To-xe the, to - xi ni da, to - xi ni da ha. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



1. 



Crashing, crashing you are, crashing you are. 

2. 
Down you throw them, with a crash, with a crash. 

The wi'-gi-e which follows the second firewood song is explanatory 
of the symbolic significance of the first four pieces of wood gathered 
for the kindling of the sacred fire. 

The wi'-gi-e is recited as a part of the ritual relating to the cere- 
monial acts performed in the Mystic House at the organization of a 
war party and is addressed to the warriors. 

Each line of the wi'-gi-e ends with the refrain "ni-ka wa-^a-e," a 
term used by the officers of a war party when addressing their men. 
The term may be interpreted as follows: Ni'-ka, men; wa-f.a-e, the 
original meaning of this word has become obscured but it is under- 
stood to signify valiant. The wi'-gi-e is recited for the Do-do" '- 
ho°-ga by the man acting as his Xo'-ka throughout the Wa-sha'-be 
A-thi" ceremony. 



LiFLESCHB] KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 223 

Wl'-GI-E OF THE SYMBOLIC FIKEWOOD. 

(Osage version, p. 462; literal translation, p. SgO.) 

1. Ho ! my valiant men, 

2. The first piece of wood that is thus brought home, 

3. Is not brought home without some significance, my valiant men. 

4. Toward the setting smi there dwell people (enemies). 

5. It is one of those people this piece of wood represents. 

6. When they (the little ones) bring home this piece of wood, as 

they travel tlie path of life, 

7. They shall cause themselves to overcome their enemies with ease, 

as they travel the path of life, my valiant men. 

8. The second piece of wood that is thus brought home, my valiant 

men, 

9. Is not brought home without some significance. 

10. This piece of wood means the bringing home of two of the people 

who dwell toward the setting sim, my valiant men. 

11. When they (the little ones) bring home this piece of wooil, as they 

travel the path of life, 

12. They shall cause themselves to overcome their enemies with ease, 

as they travel the path of life, my valiant men. 

13. The third piece of wood that is thus brought home, my valiant 

men, 

14. Is not brought home without some significance. 

15. Toward the setting sun there dwell people, my valiant men. 

16. With this piece of wood are brought home three of those people. 

17. When they (the little ones) thus bring home this piece of wood, as 

they travel the path of life, 
IS. It is said that verily I shall cause you to overcome your enemies 
with ease, my valiant men. 

19. The fourth piece of wood that is thus brought home, my valiant 

men, 

20. Is not brought home without some significance. 

21. Toward the setting sun there dwell peoples. 

22. With tliis piece of wood are brought home four of those people. 

23. When they (the little ones) thus bring home this piece of wood, as 

they travel the path of life, 

24. It is said that verily I shall cause you to overcome your enemies 

with ease, my valiant men. 



224 



THE OSAGE TEIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



The Fire Drill Song. 



The song immediately followHing the Songs of Gathering Wood is 
called Zho° Thi'-mo" Wa-tho", Fire Drill Song. In kindling the 
sacred fire the Osage used the old method, that is, by the use of two 
slender sticks, one of which has two or tlu'ee holes partly drilled 
thi'ough it in the nuddle. Tliis stick is held firmly on the ground in 
a horizontal position and into one of its drill holes is inserted one 
end of the other stick which the firemaker twirls rapidly between 
the palms of liis hands. 

In the Fire Drill Song of the Osage the word " thi'-mo° " is used for 
the manipulating of the drill. In the Omaha buffalo hunting rite is 
a song descriptive of the kindling of iii'e by some belated hunters 
who were obliged to camp out. The word "bi-mo°" is used in the 
Omaha song for the manipulating of the fire drill. Both words have 
the same meaning, the first syllable "bi" of the Omaha word meaning 
action by pressure, and the first part of the Osage word, "tlii," 
meaning action by grasping with the hands. (For the Omaha song 
see 27th Ann. Rept. B. A. E., pp. 308-309.) 

Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 4G3; literal translation, p. 590.) 

M.M. J z 193 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




B-j r^ 



i 



m 



± 



Time beats ' , , , , ' 'I" 

Tse - the tse-the thi-ho" thi - mo" tha, Tse 




^ 



m 



m - — • 



* * 



r "^f r r r r r r r 

the tse-the thi-ho" thi -mo'i tha, Zho" thi-mo" tha ha thi-ho"- 




r 



r r r *r r 



r r 



r 



ho" i-non tha, Tse - the tse-the thi-ho" -ho" i-no" tha, Tse 



^ 




the tse 



r 

the 



r r 

thi - ho" - ho" i-no" tha. 



LAFLBSCHB] KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 225 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Kindle ye, kindle ye the fire, twirl and grind, 
Twirl and twirl ye the fire drill. 

2. 

Kindle ye, kindle ye the fire, twirl and grind, 
Twirl, twirl the fire sticks till the\' sing. 

3. 

Kindle j'e, kindle ye the fire, twirl and grind. 
Twirl the fire drill till the sparks appear. 



Kindle ye, kindle ye the fire, twirl and grind, 
Twirl the fire drill till the smoke comes. 

5. 

Kindle ye, kindle ye the fire, twirl and grind. 
Twirl the fire drill till the flames arise. 

Fire-making Song. 

The last of the series of songs relating to the kindling of the sacred 
fire within the Mystic House is called Tse'-the Wa-tho", Fire-making 
Song. The song which precedes this one at its close refers to the 
flames produced from the friction of two pieces of wood, for the 
burden of the series of fire-making songs is the producing of the 
glow from wliich the flame is urged into life and the sacred fire 
kindled and held by the application of dry twigs until fire is secured 
and made ready for service. 

The series of songs that are simg, the wi'-gi-es that are recited, 
the ceremonial acts that are performed within the Mystic House, all 
point clearly and logically to the duties that devolve upon the 
warrior who in order to keep the fire of his house continually burning, 
liis home well supplied with the necessaries of life, must at all times 
be ready to meet and overcome those enemies who may threaten 
not only to extinguish the home fires but the very existence of the 
tribe itself. Wliile the words of the song, the metaphors, and the 
figures of speech employed in the wi'-gi-es may be confusing and the 
ceremonial acts mystical, yet, as the warrior marches forth, when 
the songs have been sung, the words of the wi'-gi-es spoken and the 
mystical acts performed, he understands that he goes to risk his life 
in order that the fire of his home and those of liis tribe may not be 
extinguished. 

Two lines of each stanza freely translated will suffice to give the 
meaning, as the other lines are repetitions. 
3594°— 25t 15 



226 



the osage tribe. 

Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 464; literal translation, p. 591.) 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



I.M. J = 160 



Transcribed hy Alice C. Fletcher 
.7 




# 



r r * r r ' r 

The he da - we - the tse he, Po - e da - we - the, 
.7 



^ 



rC 



f 



^ 



r 



r 



da -we -the tse he. 



r r • r 

The he da- we- the tse he, 




r r 

The he da - we - the 



r ^ r 

da - we - the tse he. 



FREE TRA.NSLATION. 



Look you, I make the fire, I make the fire, 
I make the fire, the flame begins to rise. 



Look you, I make the tire, I make the fire, 
I make the fire, the flame stand.s upright. 

3. 

Look you, I make the fire, I make the fire, 
I make the fire, I drop upon it the sticks. 

Songs of the Ceremonial Feast. 

The songs next in order are called Wa-ba'-no" Ba-?e Wa-tho", 
freely translated, Carving the Roast. These songs refer to a cere- 
monial feast at which the warriors of the two great tribal divisions are 
brought together in order that the traditions of the tribal unity may 
not be forgotten. This ceremonial feast was always held on the 
evening of the first day's journey of the war party. A detailed 
description given by Xu-tha'-wa-to°-i'' will appear in the Wa-sha'-be 
A-thi° rite. Wa-xthi'-zlii could not recall these songs and they were 
therefore omitted. 



LA FLESCHE] 



EITE OF VIGIL FREE TKANSLATION. 



227 



Songs of the Gray Owl. 

Wa-Ro'-ga Wa-tho°, Songs of the Gray Owl, is the title of the next 
group of songs. These songs disclose to the minds of the No°'-ho''- 
zhi^-ga a scene having for its central figiu-e the Do-do°'-ho°-ga of a 
war party who stands alone keeping his nightly vigil. Out of the 
darkness, out of the silence of the night, he may hear the mournful 
voice of the great gray owl, or the horned owl, or the splash of a 
snake in the water, or the cry of some nocturnal animal, any one of 
wliich comes to him first he may take as a favorable response to his 
supplications. 

In the two stanzas of the first song Wa-po'-ga, the gray owl, and 
I'-to°, the horned owl, are mentioned and personified. 

A free translation of two lines from each stanza will suffice to give 
the meaning, as the other lines are repetitions. 

Song 1. 

(Osage version, p. 465; literal translation, p. 592.) 
v» « J _ ._, Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



^ 



^ 



m 



^ 



Time beats 



r 



r r 



r 



r r 



r 



Ni-ka wi" hon da dsi 



i-e hi -the to°-e. 



' I r r r r r r 



Ni-ka wi" ho" da dsi 



r r r r r r 

i-e hi -the to"-e the he the. 




^ 



r r r f 

Wa-po- ga wi" ho" -, da dsi 



r r r 

I-e hi - the to"-e. 



tv^'ir zi-r ii if rrr f r i i itr ^-^ ii 



r r r r r r r r r r 

i-e hi-the to°-e, Ni-ka wi"ho" da dsi i-e hi-the to"-e. 



FREE TRANSL.4.TION. 
1. 



Hark! out of the silence of the niglit there comes the voice of a man, 

It is the voice of the VVa-po'-ga who speaks to me in the stillness of the night. 



Hark ! out of the silence of the night there comes the voice of a man, 
It is the voice of I'-to° who speaks to me in the stillness of the night. 



228 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[KTH. ANN. 39 



In the second song the No-'-ho^-zhi^-ga picture the Do-do°'-ho°-ga 
as pausing in his "evening" walk when he hears the voice of Wa- 
Ro'-ga, the great gray owl, and speaks in response to the mysterious 
voice that comes to him out of the darkness. In the first stanza the 
great gray owl is mentioned and in the second the I'-to", the great 
horned owl. 

A free translation of two lines from each of the stanzas will suffice 
to give the meaning, as all the other lines are repetitions. 

Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 465; literal translation, p. 592.) 
vf M J_oo Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




Time beats ' i ' [ f 

Pa-<;eu-mon-bthi" tha-tsi-e i" da, 



r ' r 

Pa-(;e u-mo"-bthi" tha • 




r r 7 r ^ r 



r r 

tha-tsi-e tho, Pa-(;e u - mo"-bthi" tha - tsi-e i" do, 



wm 



m — r — 1 1 



it: 



r r r 

Pa - 96 u - mo" bthi" tha 



r r 

tsi-e i" do. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



Lo, in my evening walk thou comest to me, 
Thou, Wa-po'-ga, comest to me. 



Lo, in my evening walk tliuu comest to me. 
Thou, I'-to", comest to me. 

In the thinl song the evening scene is continued. The Do-do"'- 
ho"-ga is represented as standing and speaking to the beings who 
approach him. Three stanzas arc given to this song. In the first 
the great gray owl, in the second the great horned owl, and in the 
third the We'-ts'a, the snake, are addressed. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 229 

A free translation of two lines from each stanza will suffice to 
give the meaning, as all the other lines are repetitions. 

SONQ 3. 
(Osage version, p. 465: literal translation, p. 692.1 

M.M. J r 84 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



te gt Va-^^^=j^- ^fe ^j=^=ib=^- ^:^^^P ^ji 



Time beats ll 1^111 fT [• 

Pa- 96 thea-to" dse hi" do. Pa - 96 the a-to" 



m^4 ( ^ifWCT^ 



^ 



m 



r r " - ' ' ^ ^ r ^ ^ r 
^ r rrrr ' ' 

dse hi" do ho, Wa-po-gowi" tha-tsi-e tho, Pa-^e thea-to" 



^K i^ r p r I r r r i 



r r r 

dse hi" do, 



r r 



r 



r r r 



Pa-9e the a-to" dse hi" do. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



1. 



As in the darkness of evening I stand thou comest to me, 
Thou, Wa-po'-ga, comest to me. 



As in the darkness of evening I stand thou comest to me, 
Thou, I'-to°, comest to me. 

3. 

As in the darkness of evening I stand thou comest to me, 
Thou, We'-ts'a, comest to me. 

SoxGS OF Triumph. 

The next group of songs hears the title Wa-tsi'-a-dsi Wa-tho». 
No direct information could be obtained as to the meaning of this 
title, which seems to have become obscure, but from an analysis of 
the compound word Wa-tsi', a corruption of the word wa-tse', 
triumph; a-dsi, there; and from the words used in the songs of other 
versions that will appear later, in this and other volumes, it would 
seem proper to interpret the name as Songs of Triumph. Wa-tse'- 
mo^-i" and other men versed in the rites said that when these songs 
are sung at the ceremony the Singer's wife and her women com- 
panions dance before the Xo'-ka and his A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka, each 
woman carrying a burden strap, a digging pole, or a loom pole. 



230 THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[eth. Ann. 39 



Wa-xthi'-zhi could not recall the songs of this group, which had, 
therefore, to be omitted. 

Songs of the Symbols ox the War Club. 

The songs next in order are called I'-tsi° Ba-xo° Wa-tho", liter- 
ally, War Club Waving Lines Songs. At the singing of these songs 
the Xo'-ka rises and dances, holding in his hands the symbolic war 
club used in the ceremony. (PI. 15.) One of the songs refers di- 
rectly to the symbolic marks on the four sides of the club, when the 
A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka comes to the line containing the word ba-xo", wav- 
ing, the Xo'-ka draws with his index finger an imaginary waving line 
down the full length of the club to symbolize the north or the north 
winds; when the line is simg containing the word tho-to°, straight, he 
draws a straight line down the full length of the club to symbolize 
the east winds or the straight westward path of the sim. The next 
waving line, the third to be drawn, is for the south, and the fourth 
or final straight line is to symbolize the west winds or the straight 
path of the sun from east to west. 

Wa-xthi'-zhi could not recall the war-club songs of his gens, and 
they had, therefore, to be omitted. 

Rain Songs. 

The next group of songs is called Ni-zhiu' Wa-tho°, Rain Songs. 
A wi'-gi-e precedes the rain songs, but as Wa-xthi'-zhi could not 
recall either the wi'-gi-e or the songs they both had to be omitted from 
his recital. 

Songs of the Striking of the Earth. 

The songs following the Rain Songs are called Songs of the Striking 
of the Earth. These songs are accompanied by certain ceremonial 
acts performed by the Xo'-ka and the Singer. Unfortunately 
W"a-xtlii'-zhi could not recall these songs, and they had, therefore, to 
be omitted. However, similar groups of songs belonging to other 
gentes, together with a detailed description of the ceremonial acts, 
will be given later. 

Songs of Striking One Against the Other. 

The next group of songs that follow is called Ki-ka'-xe I-ki-tsi° 
Wa-tho°, freely translated, Songs of Striking One Against the Other. 

When the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka is about to sing this group of songs the 
Sho'-ka removes the scalp that is fastened to the hanging strap of the 
Wa-xo'-be and wraps the scalp around the middle of the war club 
which he puts into the left hand of the Xo'-ka. The Sho'-ka then 
takes up the Wa-xo'-be (sacred hawk) anil puts it into the right hand 
of the Xo'-ka. (PI. 11.) When that official has been thus equipped 



LA FLESCHE] 



BITE OF ^^GIL — FREE TBANSLATION. 



231 



for ceremonial acts that accompany the songs the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka 
takes up his rattle and begins to sing and the Xo'-ka rises to dance. 
The Xo'-ka dances in one place until the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka comes to 
the third line in each stanza, when the Xo'-ka takes two steps for- 
ward, holds the war club aloft, and strikes the scalp wound around 
the club with the Wa-xo'-be (sacred hawk), uttering as he does so the 
magic cry: 



Magic Cry 



fJ± 



i 



^ ^\ ^=^ 



Transcribed by Alic«f C. Fletcher 



-t- 



1 



a 



~o~ 



He 



hi hi 



hi hi 



Then he steps back to his place where he continues to dance. This 
symbolic act repeated at each stanza forms a little drama of the war- 
riors going forth to strike and overcome the enemy. 

Wa-xthi'-zhi said this group was composed of three songs, but as 
he could recall only ont the other two had to be omitted. 

A free translation of two lines from each stanza of the song given 
will suffice to make known the meaning, as the other lines are repe- 
titions. 

Song 1. 

(Osage version, p. 466; literal translation, p. 593.) 

Mir J ._« Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 

.M. #=100 •' 



t A^j^-f=g^t£i^ rj l ist J jwr j % 



Time beats ' I ' I 11 [11 



r 

Tsi-go a - he the tse the, the the, he the, Tsi-go 



~tT i f r r r r i*" 



•' r f f f r r r f ' f - 

a - he the tse the Wa-zhi^-^a- be a - he the tse 




S 



i=M^^=m^ 



r .r r - r r . r 



r r r r r - I r r r r r 

the,thethe, he the, Tsi-go a-hethetse the,the thehe. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Let my grandfather go forth against the enemy, 
Let the Black Bird go forth against the enemy. 

2. 

Let my grandfather go forth against the enemy, 
Let the Gray Hawk go forth against the enemy. 



232 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ANN. 39 

3. 

Let my grandfather go forth against the enemy, 
Let the Little Hawk go forth against the enemy. 



Let my grandfather go forth against the enemy, 
Let the Consecrated One go forth against the enemy. 

Songs of Triumph, or The Return of the Bird. 

The next group of tliree songs has two titles, Wa-tse' Wa-tho°, 
Songs of Triumph, and Gthi' I-he-the Wa-tho°, Songs of the Bring- 
ing Home anil the Laying Down of the Bird. 

The preceding song, with its accompanying ceremonial acts, pre- 
sents a dramatization of the going forth of the warriors against the 
enemy. In the following Song of Triumph or the Return of the Bird, 
three kinds of hawk, each one a sjmibol of the courage of the warriors, 
are mentioned, also the Do-do" '-ho°-ga who is called "The Conse- 
crated One," and the entire war party are spoken of as going home in 
triumph to the tribe when the sacred birds are returned to their 
respective places among the various gentes. 

After a short pause the Sho'-ka rises, takes the sacred hawk from 
its place to which it had been returned after the ceremonial acts, and 
places it in the hands of the Xo'-ka. The A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka takes up 
his rattle and begins to sing the Song of Triumph. At once the 
Xo'-ka rises and holding the sacred bird in the hollowed palms of 
his hands dances to the rhythm of the song, facing the Singer as he 
does so (PI. 17). At the close of the fourth stanza the Xo'-ka, \vnth a 
flourish of his arms, lets the hawk drop to the ground and takes his 
seat. 

The No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga who sits toward the other end of the lodge 
and can not see the bird ask, "In what position does it lie?" The 
Shg'-ka examines the position of the hawk. If he reports that it lies 
breast upward, the position of a man who dies a natural death, having 
had liis full length of life, all present cry: "Ho! it is well." This 
position of the bird is taken as an omen that the Singer will be success- 
ful as a warrior. If the vSho'-ka reports that the bird lies breast 
downward, the position of a man suddenly slain in battle, the report 
is received by the assembly in silence. 

A free translation of two lines from each stanza will suffice to give 
the meaning of the song, as the other lines are repetitions. 



iaflbschb] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



233 



Song 1. 

(Osage version, p_. 446; literal translation, p. 593.) 



M.J 



M. M. J T 176 



Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



ii^n n \ n n,\n n-\ 



Time beats 



r 



r 



r 



r 



r 



r 



Wa-zhi" qa -be wa tha tse no° e - e the he, 



^'m n ,\-n^r^^fMr] ]^ , n 



r 



r 



r 



r 



r r 



r 



Wa-tha-tse no°, wa tha tse no" 



e - e the he tho. 




7 I f J EJ 



r 



r 



Wa-zhi" <;a - be wa tha tse no" e - e the he, 




r 



r 



r r 



Wa-tha-tseno", wa tha tse no" 



rr r 

e - e the ho tho. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



1. 



O, Black Bird, tliou hast triumphed, 
Hast triumphed, hast triumphed. 



O, Gray Bird, thou hast triumphed. 
Hast triumphed, hast triumphed. 

3. 

O, Little Hawk, thou hast triumphed. 
Hast triumphed, hast triumphed. 



O, Consecrated One, thou hast triumphed, 
Hast triumphed, hast triumphed. 

The next two songs of this group bear in common a subtitle, Mo"'- 
gthu-stse-dse Wa-tho°, freely translated. Songs of Drawing His 
Arrows. These songs are supplicatory in character, as are, indeed, 
all the songs, wi'-gi-es, and ceremonial acts of the tribal rites. There 
are none that have not some recognition of the power that abides 
witliin and controls all living forms. The Songs of Drawing His 
Arrows and the ceremonial acts accompanying them express a desire 
that the initiate shall not only have a successful military career but 



234 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [bth. a.nn. 39 

that he shall also have an endless line of descendants, a lineage that 
shall continue as long as day and night continue. 

The little bow and the two arrows used in the acts accompanying the 
songs are made in accordance with a ritual formulated by the ancient 
No°'-ho'>-zhi°-ga and presented for an initiation ceremony by the 
gens called Sole Owners of the Bow who hold the ofRce of making 
these ceremonial articles. The breast of the bow is painted red as 
a symbol of the recurrent day and the back is painted black, a symbol 
of the night that ever follows the day. One of the arrows is painted 
red and the other black, so that both together symbolize day and 
night. 

When the Songs of the Arrows are about to be sung the people 
whose houses happen to be in the line over which the arrows are to 
be set in flight move out, even the horses that happen to stand in 
the way are driven aside, for there are many persons who believe 
that any man or beast over which the magic arrows make their 
flight wall die within the year. 

While the people are scurrying out of the way the Sho'-ka picks 
up the sacred hawk and places it upon the back of the Xo'-ka, 
where it hangs suspended from a cord that goes around his neck. 
The Sho'-ka then puts in the hands of the Xo'-ka the symbolic bow 
and the two arrows. (PI. 16.) The A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka takes up his 
rattle and begins to sing the second song. The Xo'-ka cjuickly rises 
and dances to the rhythm of the music. When the third line of the 
first stanza is reached the Xo'-ka takes two or three steps forward, 
fits the black arrow to the cord of the bow, and as he pulls the cord 
he utters the magic cry : 

Magic Cry Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



m 



n J J^ 



::je 



He hi hi hi hi e e. 

But he does not release the arrow. Before turning around to come 
back to his place the Xo'-ka takes pains to remove from the cord 
the arrow, in order to avoid bringing its point into line with the 
No'''-ho°-zhi"-ga sitting on both sides of the lodge. At the third 
line of the second stanza the Xo'-ka repeats the magic cry and simu- 
lates the act of releasing the red arrow. At the third line of the 
third stanza the same magic cry and the same act of simulation is 
repeated, but the black arrow is now drawn. When the A'-ki-ho° 
Xo'-ka sings the third line of the fourth stanza the Xo'-ka again 
gives the magic cry as he goes through the act of drawing and 
releasing the red arrow. 



LA FLESCHEl 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



235 



By these symbolic acts the initiate is not only assured that he 
will be protected by the Black Hawk, the Gray Hawk, the Little 
Hawk, and the Consecrated One, as all of these represent the warriors 
of the tribe, but that he will have a line of descendants that will con- 
tinue through all time. 

A free translation of two lines from each stanza will suffice to give 
the meaning, as the other lines are repetitions. 

Song 2. 

(Osage version, p.'467; literal translation, p. 694.) 
M. M. J - 168 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



fe P-^>^iFF^^^-^J^i^^J^ 



r 



f r 



r 



r 



Time beat^ ' ' 

Tsi-go mo"-thi-do" a-do^-e, Tsi-go mo"-thi - do" a-do"-e,mon. 



^ 



- n. i j>-^ 



r r 

thi - do" a- do"-e, 




r r 

Wa - zhi" 9a - be mo" 



m 



J J J j~^ 



Tsi - go mo" - thi - do" a-do"-e, 



r r 

thi - do" a-do"-e, 



r 



r 



l^%f-f-^M 



V lLJ' p Ml 



r 



fir r r 

Tsi- go mo"- thi- do" a-do"-e, mo" - thi ■ do" a-do"-e. 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Look you, my grandfather draws the arrow, 
The Black Hawk draws tlie arrow. 

2. 

Look you, my grandfather draws the arrow, 
The Gray Hawk draws the arrow. 

3. 

Look you, my grandfather draws the arrow, 
The Little Hawk draws the arrow. 



Look you, my grandfather draws the arrow, 
The Consecrated One draws the arrow. 



236 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 



Without a moment's pause the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka goes on to the 
next song and the Xo'-ka dances to the rhythm of the music with the 
hawk still on his back and the bow and arrows in his hands. 

Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 467; literal translation, p. 594.) 
M. M. • z 16fe Transcribed by Alice C.Tletcher 






m 



m 



■ v S- 



Time beats ' f ' I f T T 

Tsi-go mon-thi-do" a-gthi no"-zhi''-e,Tsi-go moi-thi-do" a-gthi no"- 



^ 



Kzxwin. hi ^ 



r 



r 



r 



r 



r 



r r 



i 



zhi"-e,Mo"-thi-do" a-gthi non-zhi"-e, Wa-zhi'^ ?a-be mo"- 



1 



-r^-j 



.^ J i^ i J' 



3= 



r 



r 



r 



r ' r ' r ^- 

thi-do"! a-gthi no"- zhi°-e, Tsi-go mo°-thi-don a-gthi non - 



.mrj / 



I 



LJ' r- 



r 



r 



r 



r 



zhi°-e, Mo" - thi - do" a - gthi no"^ ihi°-e. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

My grandfather return.?, he who has drawn the arrows, 
Tke Black Hawk returns, he who has drawn the arrows. 

2. 

My grandfather returns, he who has drawn the arrows, 
The Gray Hawk returns, he who has drawn the arrows. 



My grandfather returns, he who has drawn the arrows. 
The Little Hawk returns, he who has drawn the arrows. 



My grandfather returns, he who has drawn the arrows. 
The Consecrated One returns, he who has drawn the arrows. 

.Song of the Rising to Depart. 

The final song of the No^'-zhi^-zho" Ritual of the I°-gtho°'-ga and 
the Wa-fa'-be gentes is called U'-thu-dse I-no^-zhi" Wa-tho°, freely 
translated, Song of the Rising of Those Who Participate, meaning 



LA FLESCHEJ 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



237 



that the No'''-ho°-zhi°-ga arise to depart, having performed the duties 
required of them. 

When the Xo'-ka has taken his seat at the close of the Songs of 
Triumph, the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka begins to sing the Song of the Rising 
to Depart. The No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga promptly rise, those of the Ho°'-ga 
division passing in single file between the fireplace and the Xo'-ka, 
the initiate, and the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka and go out of the lodge on the 
Tsi'-zhu side. Those of the Tsi'-zhu division march in the same man- 
ner ami go out on the Ho^'-ga side of the lodge. Each head of the 
various gentes on both sides of the two great tribal divisions greets 
the initiate with the words, "Many animals shall appear for you," 
meaning, abundant shall be your food and many shall be }'oxir 
descendants. Some whose relationship to the initiate permits of it 
make a jesting remark to which the initiate responds seriously, with- 
out the slightest sign of a smile, with the greeting, "How!" 

A free translation of one line from each stanza will suffice to give 
the meaning of the song, as the other lines are repetitions. 

So.NG 1. 
(Osage version, p. 468; literal translation, p. 595.) 







Transcribed by Alice C. Fletc'her 



< * d d d i 



Time beats 




A. - ki - pa wi" da do 



^^ 



ho pe - dse to" tha, 



^ d 



r r " r 

A - ki - pa wi° da do ho 



r 

pe - dse to" tha, 




r T 

A - ki - pa wi" da do 



l>)t|.i,,t r ^ r _ ^ 



r r 

ho pe - dse to" tha. 



m 



p 



r r 

A - ki - pa wi" da do 



^ 



r r 

ho pe - dse to" tha. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



1. 



Meet ye all as one, at the tireplace. 
2. 

Meet ye all as one, with friendly touch. 



238 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ANN. 39 

Wi'-Gi-E Used at the Installation of a Widow. 

When the widow of a No" '-ho^-zhi^-ga wishes to take her husband's 
place in the organization slie makes to the leading member of her 
husband's gens a formal application for installment into liis vacant 
place, accompanying her request with a suitable fee. At an initia- 
tion ceremony, following her application, the man to whom the 
request has been made by the widow waits for a pause in the cere- 
monies, when, in a formal address, he presents to the No^'-ho"- 
zhi°-ga the request of the widow. If the No"'-ho"-zlii''-ga express 
their approval of the application the man who represents the widow 
then recites the wi'-gi-e used by her husband's gens at the installation 
of a widow into the place made vacant by her husband's death. 

The following is the wi'-gi-e recited by a member of the Wa-9a'-be 
or the I^-gtho^'-ga gens when installing a widow into her husband's 
place in the organization. This wi'-gi-e is divided into three sec- 
tions. In the first section the black bear is represented as speaking, 
offering long life to the "little ones " who make of him " their bodies," 
that is to those who accept and make of him their life symbol. In 
the second section the cedar is represented as speaking and offering 
to the little ones long life and medicines to cure them of the diseases 
that may attack them. The cedar is used by many of the Siouan 
tribes as a symbol of long life. In the third section the water of a 
river is represented as speaking and offering long life to the little 
ones. Water is of universal use and a symbol of health as well as 
long life. The first section of the wi'-gi-e belongs to the I"-gtho"'-ga 
and Wa-^a'-be gentes of the Ho°'-ga subdivision; the second to the 
Wa'-tse-tsi gens of the Wa-zha'-zhe subdivision; the tliird to the 
E-no"' Mi"-dse-to" gens of the Wa-zha'-zhe subdivision. 

In this wi'-gi-e all references to the destruction of life are care- 
fully avoided, because the woman is the channel through whom all 
human life must proceed and continue. She it is who prepares food 
for the "little ones" to strengthen them for their life's journey; she 
it is who seeks for them the remedies for the restoration of their 
health when they sicken; and she it is who brings water for them 
"when they are tliirsty. 

THE Wl'-GI-E. 

(Osage version, p. 468; literal translation, p. 595.) 

1. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

2. The black bear that is without a blemish, that lies outstretched, 

3. Spake, saying: The little ones shall make of me their bodies. 

4. Behold my toes that are gathered together in folds, 

5. Which I have made to be the signs of my old age. 

6. When the little ones come to old age. 



LAPLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL — FREE TRANSLATION. 239 

7. They shall see, their toes gathered together in folds with age, as 

they travel the path of life. 

8. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

9. They shall live to see old age, as they travel the path of life. 

10. Behold the wrinkles upon my ankles, 

11. Which I have made to be the signs of my old age. 

12. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

13. They shall live to see their ankles wrinkled with age, as they 

travel the path of life. 

14. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

15. They shall be free from all causes of death, as they travel the 

path of life. 

16. Behold the inner muscles of my thighs, loosened with age, 

17. Which I have made to be the signs of my old age. 

18. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

19. They shall live to see the inner muscles of their thighs loosened 

with age. 

20. \Vlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

21. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by death, 

as they travel the path of life. 

22. Behold the outlines of my ribs that show through my skin. 

23. Those also are the signs of my old age. 

24. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

25. They shall live to see the outlines of their ribs showing tlirough 

their skin. 

26. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

27. They shall be free from all causes of death, 

28. The little ones shall live to see old age, as they travel the path 

of life. 

29. Behold the muscles of my arms, loosened with age, 

30. Wliich I have made to be the signs of my old age. 

31. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

32. Thev shall live to see the muscles of their arms loosened with age. 

33. The little ones shall live to see old age, as they travel the path 

of life. 

34. Behold the muscles of my throat, loosened with age, 

35. Which I have made to be the signs of my old age. 

36. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

37. They shall live to see the muscles of their throats loosened 

with age. 



240 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

38. The little ones shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome 

by death, 

39. They shall live to see old age, as they travel the path of life. 

40. Behold the muscles of my chin, loosened Avith age, 

41. Wliich I have made to be signs of my old age. 

42. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

43. They shall live to see the muscles of their chins loosened with age, 

44. They shall cause themselves to be difficult to overcome by death. 

45. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

46. They shall live to see old age, as they travel the path of life. 

47. Behold my overhanging cheeks, 

48. Which I have made to be the signs of my old age. 

49. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

50. They shall live to see in their overhanging cheeks the signs of old 

age, as they travel the path of life. 

51. Behold the folds in the corners of my mouth, 

52. Wliich I have made to be the signs of my old age. 

53. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

54. They shall live to see in the folds of the corners of their mouths 

the signs of old age, as they travel the path of life. 

55. Behold the folds in the corners of my eyes, 

56. Which I have made to be the signs of my old age. 

57. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

58. They shall live to see in the folds of the corners of their eyes the 

signs of old age, as they travel the path of life. 

59. Behold the wrinkles upon my forehead, 

60. Which I have made to be the signs of my old age. 

61. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

62. They shall live to see upon their foreheads the wTinkles of old age. 

63. Behokl the hair upon the cro^\^l of my head, thinned with age, 

64. Wliich I have made to be the sign of my old age. 

65. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

66. They shall live to see the hair upon the crown of their heads 

thinned with age. 

67. Behold the hairs of my head, whitened with age. 

68. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

69. They shall live to see the hairs of their heads whitened with age. 

70. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

71. The little ones shall live to see old age, as they travel the path 

of life. 



LAFLESCHE] EIT3 OF VIGIL FREE TBANSLATION. 241 

72. Verily, the days that are calm and peaceful, 

73. The little ones shall finally reach, as they travel the path of life. 

74. The words here spoken shall stand for all time, it has been said, 

in this house. 

75. The little ones have nothing to use for medicine, they said to 

one another, it has been said, in this house. 

76. They said, it has been said, in this house, 

77. That, verily, on the brink of a precipice, 

78. There stood the cedar, 

79. Sighing where he stands in his chosen place, 

80. He spake, saving: Here, upon the brink of this precipice, I 

stand, in order that the little ones may make of me their 
medicine. 

81. He stood sighing in his chosen place, 

82. In the midst of all the four winds. 

83. Whichever way the winds blew, 

84. He sent forth with them a pleasing fragrance. 

85. He spake, it has been said, in this house, 

86. Saying: Behold the base of my trunk (the roots), 

87. Which I have made to be the sign of my old age. 

88. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

89. They shall live to see the toes of their feet gnarled with age, as 

they travel the path of life. 

90. Behold the wrinkles of my ankle, 

91. Which I have made to be the sign of my old age. 

92. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

93. They shall live to see the wrinkles of old age upon their ankles, 

as they travel the path of life. 

94. Behold my outspreading branches, 

95. Which I have made to be the signs of my old age. 

96. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

97. In the limbs of the little ones there shall be no causes of death, 

as they travel the path of life. 

98. Behold the downward bend of the tops of my branches, 

99. Which I have made to be the sign of my old age. 

100. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

101. They shall live to see their shoulders bent with age, as they 

travel the path of life. 

102. Behold the feathery tops of my branches, 

103. Which I have made to be the sign of my old age. 

104. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 
3594°— 25t 16 



242 - THE OSAGE TRIBE. [etii. anx. 39 

105. They shall live to see their hair whitened and feathery with age, 

as they travel the path of life. 

106. So stands the cedar to be used as medicine by the little ones. 

107. They (the little ones") took footsteps and moved on, it has been 

said, in this house. 

108. Verily, to the edge of a river where they paused and stood, 

109. And the river spake, saying: Behold the right side of my body, 

110. Which I have made to be the sign of my old age. 

111. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

112. There shall be no causes of death on the right side of their 

bodies. 

113. Behold the current and bed of my waters, 

114. Within the hollow of my body. 

115. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

116. Within the hollow of their bodies there shall be no causes of 

death, as they travel the path of life. 

117. The wavelets upon my surface 

118. I have made to be the sign of my old age. 

119. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

120. They shall not fail to live to see old age, as they travel the path 

of life. 

121. The strong current that lies here, 

122. Is the windpipe through which I breathe. 

123. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

124. Within their windpipes there shall be no causes of death, as 

they travel the path of life. 

TSI'-ZHU WA-SHTA'-GE VERSION OF THE NO^'-ZHL^-ZHO" 

RITE. 

The Seven Songs. 

By Sho'''-ge-mo''-i''. 

During the month of May, 1916, Sho^'-ge-mo^-i" (PI. 9, B) gave the 
Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge version of the No°'-zhi''-zho" ritual. This old 
man, who died in October, 1919, belonged to the Ba'-po subgens of 
the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge (Peace) gens of the Tsi'-zhu tribal division. 
When this aged member of the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga order made up his 
mind to recite the ritual he asked for a week's time to refresh his 
memory and to put into their established sequence the six wi'-gi-es and 
96 songs of which the ritual is composed. When the old man had 
thus recalled to mind the ritual he recited the wi'-gi-es and sang the 
songs without any hesitancy. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



THIRTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 12 




:uii^T 



METHOD OF PAINTING FACE 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



THIRTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 13 




SACRED HAWKS BELTED WITH SCALP LOCKS 



laflbsche] bite of vigil free translation. 243 

Opening Ceremony — Smoke Offering to the Sacred Animal 

Skins. 

The ceremony of sending the Sho'-ka to summon the No^'-ho"- 
zhi"-ga whose duty it is to take part in the No"-ni' A-tha-shu-dse 
ceremony, the bkiwing of smoke on the skins of animals that symbo- 
lize courage and strength, occurs in the evening. The Tsi'-zhu cere- 
mony is about the same as that described by Wa-xthi'-zhi when giving 
the No°'-zhi"-zho" ritual of his own gens (see pp. 53-58). To the 
ceremony are smnmoned only the No°'-ho°-zhi"-ga belonging to the 
gentes having the title of Wa-no°, Elders, all of which are war gentes, 
and are: the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no" belonging to the Ho°'-ga tribal 
division, the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" and the Mi-k'i°' Wa-no° of the Tsi'-zhu 
division. 

About sunrise the next morning the members summoned prepare 
themselves to go to the house of the candidate, the place of meeting, 
by putting upon themselves the signs of the earth and of the sky. 
For the sign of the earth they blacken the upper portion of the face 
with moistened black soil, and for the sign of the sky they spread the 
white down of the eagle upon the crown of the head. At the outer 
corner of one eye a figure is ilrawn resembling an ovate leaf, from the 
pointed end of which a short line is drawn rimning slantwise toward 
the ear. No satisfactory explanation could be obtained as to the 
signification of tliis figure, but it is said to belong to the Men of Mys- 
tery. From the inner corner of the eye a line is drawn toward the 
corner of the mouth. The meaning of this line is explained as repre- 
senting the tears shed during the rite of vigil. These figures are made 
by removing from the skin, with the nail of the index finger, the mois- 
tened black soil. The men belonging to the Ho°'-ga tribal division 
put these figm-es on the right side of the face and those belonging to 
the Tsi'-zhu division on the left side. The men of both divisions paint 
upon the middle of the forehead a roimd red spot to represent the sun 
which travels over the earth and across the sky (PI. 12). Each mem- 
ber wears his buffalo robe with the hair outside and that, with the 
symbolic painting and decoration, completes his sacerdotal attire. 
In recent times, owing to the extinction of the buffalo herds, the 
woolen blanket which had no symbolic significance supplanted the 
ancient buffalo robe. 

When the No°'-ho°-zhi''-ga have finished painting and dressing 
they form a procession and solemnly march to the house of the candi- 
date and enter. Those coming from the Ho"'-ga division take their 
places at the south side of the house and those from the fsi'-zhu 
division at the north side. The candidate, his Xo'-ka, and the 
A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka, with the members of their own gens, occupy the 
east end of the house. 



244 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [eth.ann. 39 

The Wailing Ceremony. 

When all the No"'-h(i''-zlii"-ga have taken their places the Sho'-ka, 
in obedience to the instructions from the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka, places in 
the hands of the candidate a pipe, at the same time giving him 
directions as to the ceremony he is to perform. This done, the 
candidate goes to the eastern end of the line of No'''-ho"-zhi''-ga on 
the Ho"'-ga side and, placing the sacred pipe upon the head of the 
first man, begins to wail at the top of his voice, and every No"'- 
ho°-zhi"-ga on both siiles of the house begins to recite the wi'-gi-e 
of his gens relating to the animal skins that symbolize courage and 
strength. The candidate passes from one member to the other 
placing the pipe upon the head of each one, while the women mem- 
bers of the order join him in the wailing. When the candidate 
reaches the western end of the line he crosses over to the north side 
and continues his wailing and the placing of the pipe on the head of 
each member on that side. If he reaches the end of the line before 
the closing of the recitation of the wi'-gi-e he must continue to wail 
as he stands there until the last man has finished liis recital. This 
act of the candidate is an appeal to the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga for sym- 
pathy and for the faithful performance of their part of the ceremony 
in order that he may become possessed of the same courage and 
strength bestowed upon the animals, sacred to the ceremony. 

The No°-ni' A-tha-shu-dse ceremony of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge 
gens differs from that of the In-gtho^'-ga and the Tho'-xe gentes in 
the number of the animals used as symbols of courage and strength. 
The I^-gtho^'-ga and the Tho'-xe use seven (see p. 46): 

1. I°-gtho°'-gthe-zhc, the mottled lynx. 

2. Sho'^'-ge hi" to, the gray wolf. 

3. I°-gtho"'-ga do-ga, the male puma. 

4. Wa-f a'-be do-ga, the male black bear. 

5. Wa-dsu'-ta to°-ga, the buffalo bull. 

6. Wa-dsu'-ta stse-dse, the elk. 

7. Wa-dsu'-ta zhi"-ga, the deer. 

The Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gens use but fom- of the above, namely: 

1. I°-gtho"'-gthe-zhe, the mottled lynx. 

2. Sho'''-ge hi° to, the gray wolf. 

3. Wa-fa'-be do-ga, the male black bear. 

4. I°-gtho"'-ga do-ga, the male puma. 

No explanation could be obtained as to why the fsi'-zhu 
Wa-shta'-ge omit from their ritual the last three of the group of 
seven animals used to symbolize com-age. Sho"'-ge-mo°-i° and other 
members of the gens, when questioned about this omission, gave the 
vague and imsatisfactory reply that their gens had no war ritual, 
but it used that belonging to the other gentes in a modified form. 



LiFLESCHE] RITE OF \T[GIL FREE TRANSLATION. 245 

In the No°-ni' A-tha-shu-dse wi'-gi-e used by the I°-gtho°'-ga and 
the Tho'-xe gentes the buffalo bull is called Wa-dsu'-ta to"-ga, great 
animal; the elk, Wa-dsu'-ta stse-dse, tall animal; and the deer, 
Wa-dsu'-ta zhi"-ga, small animal. None of the men who are versed 
in the rites could tell whether these are archaic names of the animals, 
but it is evident that they are ceremonial names, as the names com- 
monly used for these animals are: tse-do'-a, for the buffalo bull; 
o'-pxo", for the elk; and ta or ta-fi^'-dse-fka, for the deer. 

Wl'-GI-E OF THE FOUR SYMBOLIC AXIJLALS. 

(Osage version, p. 473; literal translation, p. 600.) 

1. Ho! What shall they use as a symbol of their courage, it has 

been said, in this house. 

2. The little mottled Ij-nx, 

3. Wliich they knew to be great in courage they chose to use as a 

symbol, 

4. Saying that if they use the lynx as a symbol of courage, 

5. They shall become known for their valor, as the\' travel the path 

of life. 

6. Then the Ijnix spake, saying: "Behold my hands in which there 

is strength. 

7. When they use these hands as symbols of strength, 

8. Their hands shall ever be upon the foe." 

9. At break of day, it has been said, ui this house, 

10. Within the bend of a river, 

11. The lynx suddenly rushed forth to an attack, 

12. Upon a young deer, 

13. Which he threw to the ground, where it lay lifeless and bent, 

14. Whereupon he uttered a cry of triumph, 

15. And spake, saying: ''Thus shall the little ones utter a cr}' of 

triumph over the fallen foe, as they travel the path of life." 

16. Thus he made four cuts to stand for all time. 

17. Ho ! Wliat shall they use as a symbol of their courage, it has been 

said, in this house. 

18. The gray wolf, 

19. Wliioh they knew to be great in courage, they chose to use as a 

symbol, it has been said, in this house, 

20. Saying that if they use the gray wolf as a symbol of courage, 

21. They shall become known for their valor, as they travel the path 

of life. 

22. Then the gray wolf spake, saying: ''Behold my hands in which 

there is strength. 

23. When they use these hands as symbols of strength, 



246 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ANN. 39 

24. Their hands shall ever be upon the foe." 

25. At break of day, it has been said, in this house, 

26. Within the bend of a river, 

27. The gray wolf suddenly rushed forth to an attack, 

28. Upon a deer with spiked horns, 

29. Which he threw to the ground, where it lay bent and lifeless, 

30. Whereupon he uttered a cry of triumph, 

31. And spake, saying: "Thus shall the little ones utter a cry of 

triumph over the fallen foe, as they travel the path of life." 

32. Thus he made four cuts to stand for all time to come. 

33. Ho! What shall they use as a symbol of their courage, it has been 

said, in this house. 

34. The male puma, 

35. Which they knew to be great in courage, they chose to use as a 

symbol, 

36. Saying that if they use the puma as a symbol of courage, 

37. They shall become known for their valor, as they travel the path 

of life. 

38. Then the puma spake, saying: "Behold these hands in which 

there is strength. 

39. When they use these hands as symbols of strength, 

40. Their hands shall ever be upon the foe." 

41. At break of day, it has been said, in this house, 

42. The puma rushed forth to an attack, 

43. Within the bend of a river, 

44. Upon a deer with dark horns, 

45. Which he threw to the ground, where it hu' bent and lifeless, 

46. Wliereupon he uttered a cry of triumph, 

47. And spake, saying: "Thus shall the little ones utter a cry of 

triumph over the fallen foe, as they travel the path of life." 

48. Thus he made four cuts to stand for all time. 

49. What shall they use as a symbol of their courage, they said, it 

has been said, in this house. 

50. The male black bear that is without a blemish, 

51. Wliich they knew to be great in courage, they chose to use as a 

symbol, 

52. Saying that if they use the black bear as a symbol of courage, 

53. They shall become known for their valor, as they travel the path 

of life. 

54. The black bear spake, saying: "Behold my hands in which there 

is strength. 

55. When they use these hands as symbols of strength, 

56. Their hands shall ever be upon the foe." 

57. The black bear rushed to the forest, 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 247 

58. Where stood a hummock of some size, 

59. Which he tore apart, 

60. And all the insects dwelling therein 

61. He crushed between his teeth, 

62. Whereup(in he uttered a cry of triiuiiph, 

63. And spake, saying: "Thus shall the little ones utter a cry of 

trimnph over the fallen foe, as they travel the path of life." 

64. Thus he made four cuts to stand for all time. 

Although no positive information could be obtained as to the 
meaning of the closing line of each section of tliis wi'-gi-e, it is prob- 
able that lines Nos. 16, 32, 48, and 64 refer to the four initial cuts 
made on a scalp secured by a war party from a slain enemy, before 
the scalp was cut into smaller pieces for distribution among the 
various gentes to be used in decorating the symbolic hawks (see 
note, p. 5.5). A detailed description of the ceremonies connected with 
the cutting of a scalp in small pieces will be given in a later volume 
under a ritual entitled Wa-do'-ka We-ko, or scalp ceremony. 

It would seem, from the form used in this wi'-gi-e as well as the 
similar wi'-gi-e given by AVa-xthi'-zhi, that the ancient No°'-ho"- 
zhi"-ga who formulated the Osage war rites designed the rites to be 
both dramatic and responsive in character. It is to be observed 
that the people speak among themselves asking questions that are 
answered by the four symbolic animals which, being personified, 
hold converse with the people. These four animals are regarded as 
sacred by certain gentes which belong t(j the Ho°'-ga and to the 
fsi'-zhu great tribal divisions, so that these animals may be said to 
symbolically preside over and to lend their courage and strength to 
the warriors of the entire tribe. 

At the close of the recital of the wi'-gi-e the candidate ceases his 
wailing and resmues his seat. The Sho'-ka goes to him and takes 
from him the ceremonial pipe. The A'-ki-ho° Xo'ka then hands 
the Sho'-ka the lynx skin. The Sho'-ka fills the ceremonial pipe 
with tobacco and takes it, together with the lynx skin, to the man 
sitting at the eastern end of the line of No°'-ho"-zhi°-ga on the 
Ho^'-ga side. The Sho'-ka then spreads before this man the skin 
and offers him the pipe. As the man puts the stem of the pipe to 
his lips the Sho'-ka touches the tobacco in the bowl with a live brand 
taken from the fireplace. When the pipe is lit the man blows four 
whiffs of smoke upon the lynx skin. The Sho'-ka then passes both 
the pipe and the skin to the next man, who repeats the act, blowing 
four whiffs of smoke on the skin, until all the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga on 
both sides of the lodge have blown smoke on the skin. In like 
manner the Sho'-ka passes on the pipe, and the skin of each of the 
other animals is smoked in like manner by all the No°'-ho''-zhi''-ga. 



248 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. Ann. 39 

This "smoking" ceremony takes the greater part of the day. At 
its conchision provisions are distributed among the assembly, after 
which the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga disperse to their homes. 

The Moccasin Ceremony. 

In the afternoon of the following day all the No'''-ho°-zhi°-ga again 
assemble at the house of the candidate to perform a ceremony called 
Ho"-be'-9u; ho°-be, moccasins; fu, to cut. At this ceremony four 
square pieces are ceremonially cut from the buffalo skin (Fig. 1) 
furnished by the Buffalo-hull-face gens of the Tsi'-zhu great tribal 
division to be used for making two pairs of moccasins, one to be 
worn by the Xo'-ka and the other by the Sho'-ka during all of the 
ceremonies to follow. Sho°'-ge-mo"-i", in his account, mentions only 
two pairs of moccasins while Wa-xthi'-zhi in his description of the 
moccasin ceremony speaks of tlu-ee pairs, two to be used by the 
Xo'-ka and one pair by the Sho'-ka. 

On pages 62-6.3 Wa-xthi'-zhi gave full details of the ceremonial 
movements of the cutting of the buffalo skin and the sewing of the 
symbolic moccasins. 

THE MOCCASIN Wl'-GI-E. 

(Osage version, p. 474; literal translation, p. 601.) 

1. What shall the little ones make to be their foot, they said, it has 

been said, in this house. 

2. The turtle having a tail with seven serratures, 

3. They shall always make to be their foot. 

4. When they make this turtle to be their foot, 

5. They shall always be free from all causes of death, they said, it 

has been said, in this house. 

6. What shall the little ones make to be their moccasin string, they 

said, it has been said, in this house. 

7. The garter snake 

8. They shall always make to be the moccasin string. 

9. When they make the garter snake to be the moccasin string, 

10. They shall always be free from all causes of death, they said, it 

has been said, in this house. 

11. What shall the little ones make to be their foot, they said, it has 

been said, in this house. 

12. The turtle having a tail with six serratures, 

13. They shall always make to be their foot. 

14. When they make this turtle to be their foot. 

15. They shall always be free from all causes of death, they said, it has 

been said, in this house. 



LAPLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL FREE TEAXSLATION. 249 

16. What shall the little ones make to be the moccasin string, they 

said, it has been said, in this house. 

17. The snake with a red and yellow breast, • * 

18. They shall always make to be the moccasin string. 

19. When they make this snake to be the moccasin string, 

20. They shall always be free from all causes of death, they said, it 

has been said, in this house. 

21. What shall the little ones make to be their foot, they said, it has 

been said, in this house. 

22. The turtle with a red breast 

23. They shall always make to be their foot. 

24. When they make this turtle to be their foot, 

25. They shall always be free from all causes of death, they said, it 

has been said, in this house. 

26. What shall the little ones make to be the moccasin string, they 

said, it has been said, in this house. 

27. The snake with spotted breast 

28. They shall always make to be the moccasin string. 

29. When they make this snake to be the moccasin string, 

30. They shall always be free from all causes of death, they said, it 

has been said, in this house. 

31. What shall the little ones make to be their foot, they said, it has 

been said, in this house. 

32. The turtle with red and white breast 

33. They shall always make to be their foot. 

34. When they make this turtle to be their foot, 

35. They shall always be free from all causes of death, they said, it 

has been said, in this house. 

36. What shall the little ones make to be the moccasin string, they 

said, it has been said, in this house. 

37. The blacksnake with white breast 

38. They shall always make to be the moccasin string. 

39. When they make this snake to be the moccasin string, 

40. They shall always be free from all causes of death, they said, it 

has been said, in this house. 

41. What shall the little ones use for their knife, they said, it has been 

said, in this house. 

42. The young buffalo bull, 

43. His sharp left horn, 

44. They shall always use for a knife. 



250 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ann. 39 

45. When they use that horn for their knife, 

4G. They shall have a knife that will always be sharp, they said, it 
lias been said, in this house. 

47. Upon what shall the little ones cut and shape their moccasin, 

they said, it has been said, in this house. 

48. Toward the setting of the sun there are peoples, 

49. Among whom there is a youth in his adolescence. 

50. It is upon that youth the moccasin shall always be cut and 

shaped. 

51. Wlien they cut and shape the moccasin upon that youth, 

52. They shall always cut and shape their moccasin with ease, they 

saiil, it has been said, in this house. 

53. Upon what shall the little ones cut and shape their moccasin, 

they said, it has been said, in this house. 

54. Toward the setting of the sim there are peoples, 

55. Among whom there is a maiden in her adolescence. 

56. It is upon that maiden the moccasin shall always be cut and 

shaped. 

57. When they cut and shape the moccasin upon that maiden, 

58. They shall always cut and shape their moccasin with ease, they 

said, it has been said, in this house. 

59. Upon what shall the little ones cut and shape their moccasin, 

they said, it has been said, in this house. 

60. Toward the setting of the sun there are peoples, 

61. Among whom there is a man who is honored for his valor. 

62. It is upon that valorous man that the moccasin shall always be 

cut and shaped. 

63. Wlien they cut and shape the moccasin upon that man of valor, 

64. They shall always cut and shape the moccasin with ease, they 

said, it has been said, in this house. 

65. Upon what shall the little ones cut and shape their moccasin, 

they said, it has been said, in this house. 

66. Toward the setting of the sun there are peoples, 

67. Among whom there is a woman who has given birth to her first 

child. 

68. It is upon that woman the moccasin shall always be cut and 

shaped. 

69. When they cut and shape the moccasin upon that woman, 

70. They shall always cut and shape their moccasin with ease, they 

said, it has been said, in this house. 

At the close of the moccasin-cutting ceremony a distribution of 
provisions is made to the No'''-ho"-zhi"-ga, after wliich they atljourn 



I^FLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 251 

to meet again in the evening at the house of the candidate for the 
Night Singing. 

Ceremony of Painting and Decorating the Xo'-ka. 

Before sunrise on the morning of the following day the candidate, 
the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka, and the Sho'-ka go to the house of the Xo'-ka. 
The Sho'-ka carries the following articles wliich comprise the cere- 
monial attire of the Xo'-ka: Red paint, a downy feather taken from 
the undertail covert of the eagle, a gorget made from the shell of 
the fresh-water mussel anil attached to a woven neckband with 
fringes, a pair of woven wristlets with fringes, a woven girdle, a 
pimia skin, and one pair of the symbolic moccasins. 

In this version of the wi'-gi-e which Vielongs to the Tsi'-zhu great 
tribal division the left side is always the side mentioned, as will be 
noted in line 4, while in the version that belongs to the Ho^'-ga great 
tribal division the right side is the side always indicated. It will be 
recalled that the left and the right side both refer to the symbolic 
man, who in turn symbolizes the unity of the tribe and also the 
blending of the dual forces throughout all nature. 

When the three men have entered the house of the Xo'-ka and 
taken their appointed places, the Xo'-ka, preparatory for the cere- 
mony wliich is to follow, removes and lays aside his moccasins, leggings, 
and jacket. The cantlidate puts some of the red paint upon the 
palms of his hantls and holds them outspread toward the rising sun 
while the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka begins to recite the Ki'-no" Wi'-gi-e. At 
the sixth line the candidate makes a pass over the face and nude 
body of the Xo'-ka without touching him; at the seventh and eighth 
lines the candidate paints the face and body of the Xo'-ka red, a 
symbol of the fiery glow, as a sign of the never-ending life of the sun. 

The candidate next takes up the do\vny eagle feather while the 
A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka continues to recite the wi'-gi-e. At the fourteenth 
line the candidate makes a movement with the downy feather toward 
the head of the Xo'-ka. At the fifteenth and sixteenth lines the can- 
didate ties to the scalp lock of the Xo'-ka the downy eagle feather so 
that it shall stand upright and firmly. This downy feather repre- 
sents the left shaft of light, for two shafts of light are sometimes seen, 
one on either side of the rising sun, and are regarded as significant of 
never-ending life. 

The shell gorget is then taken up by the candidate and held in 
readiness as the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka continues to recite the wi'-gi-e. 
The shell gorget in this wi'-gi-e has a dual symbolism: (1) the never- 
ending life of the sun (see section 3 of the Ki'-no° Wi'-gi-e recited by 
Wa-xthi'-zhi, p. 75) ; (2) the life of the mussel itself, which, though 
well protected by a hard shell, reaches its destination at the seventh 



252 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [etu. an-n. 3» 

bend of the river of life. At the last line of the wi'-gi-e the candidate 
puts around the neck of the Xo'-ka the woven band so that the 
gorget hangs on the Xo'-ka's breast just under his throat, the fringes 
of the band appearing below the shell gorget. 

Wl'-GI-E OF THE MUSSEL. 
(Osage Tersion, p. 476; literal traDSlation, p. 603.) 

1. Ho! With what shall they (the little ones) adorn their bodies, 

as they travel the path of life, it has been said, in this house. 

2. The god of day who sitteth in the heavens, 

3. Who never fails to appear at the beginning of day, 

4. Puts forth from the left side of his body 

5. A fiery, crimson glow. 

6. That fiery glow they chose for a symbol, it has been said, in this 

house. 

7. When they make of this fiery glow their life symbol, 

8. They shall be free from all causes of death, as they travel the 

path of life, it has been said, in this house. 

9. What shall they use for a plume, as they travel the path of life, 

it has been said, in this house. 

10. The god of day who sitteth in the heavens, 

11. Who never fails to appear at the beginning of day, 

12. Hath at his left side 

13. A shaft of light resembling a plmne. 

14. That shaft of light they chose to be their plume. 

15. When they make that shaft of light to be their plmne, 

16. They shall be free from all causes of death, as they travel the 

path of life, it has been said, in this house. 

17. To the mussel from whom they made their gorget, it has been 

said, in this house, 

18. They spake, saying: "0, my grandfather, 

19. The little ones have nothing, my grandfather, of wluch to make 

their bodies," they said to him. 

20. The mussel replied : " I am a person of whom the little ones may 

well make their bodies. 

21. I am a god who is difficult to overcome by death. 

22. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

23. They also shall become difiicult to overcome by death, as they 

travel the path of life. 

24. Even the gods themselves 

25. Have not the power to see the path I make. 

26. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 



lAFLESCHE] EITE OF VIGIL FREE TKANSLATION. 253 

27. The gods themselves 

28. Shall not be able to see the path the little ones make, as they 

travel the path of life. 

29. Of all the mysterious creatures, 

30. I alone possess a skin that is hard and impenetrable. 

31. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

32. They also shall be protected as am I, 

33. They shall be free from all causes of death, as they travel the 

path of life." 

34. The mussel went forth to the first bend of the river, it has been 

said, in this house, 

35. And spake, saying: "Even the gods themselves 

36. Have not the power to see the path I make. 

37. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

38. Even the gods themselves 

39. Shall not be able to see the path the little ones make, as they 

travel the path of life. 

40. Verily, all the mysterious creatures 

41. Flee in masses at my approach. 

42. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

43. Verily, all the mysterious creatures 

44. Shall flee in masses at the approach of the little ones, as they 

travel the path of hfe. 

45. Even the gods themselves 

46. Make way for me as I approach. 

47. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 
4S. Even the gods themselves 

49. Shall make way for the little ones, as they travel the path of life. 

50. I am able to reach the days that are calm and peaceful. 

51. When the little ones make of me their boilies, 

52. They also shall be able to reach the days that are calm and 

peaceful, as they travel the path of Hfe." 

53. The mussel went forth to the second bend of the river, it has 

been said, in this house, 

54. And spake, saying: "Even the gods themselves 

55. Have not the power to see the path I make. 

56. Wlien the little ones make of me their bodies, 

57. Even the gods themselves 

58. Shall not be able to see the path the little ones make, as they 

travel the path of life. 

59. Verily, aU the mysterious creatures 

60. Flee in masses at my approach. 

61. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

62. Verily, all the mysterious creatures 



254 THE OSAGE TRIBE. (eth. ANN. 39 

63. Shall flee in masses at the approach of the little ones, as they 

travel the path of life. 

64. Even the gods themselves 

65. Make way for me as I approach. 

66. When the httle ones make of me their bodies, 

67. Even the gods themselves 

68. Shall make way for the little ones, as they travel the path of life. 

69. I am able to reach the days that are calm and peaceful. 

70. When the little ones make of me their boflies, 

71. They also shaU be able to reach the days that are calm and 

peaceful, as they travel the path of life." 

72. The mussel went forth to the third bend of the river, it has been 

said, in this house, 

73. And spake, saying: "Even the gods themselves 

74. Have not the power to see the path I make. 

75. When the httle ones make of me their bodies, 

76. Even the gods themselves 

77. ShaU not be able to see the path the little ones make, as they 

travel the path of hfe. 

78. Verily, all the mysterious creatures 

79. Flee in masses at my approach. 

80. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

81. Veiily, all the mysterious creatures 

82. ShaU flee in masses at the approach of the httle ones, as they 

travel the path of life. 

83. Even the gods themselves 

84. Make way for me as I approach. 

85. When the httle ones make of me their bodies, 

86. Even the gods themselves 

87. Shall make way for the httle ones, as they travel the path of hfe. 

88. I am able to reach the days that are calm and peaceful. 

89. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

90. They also shaU be able to reach the days that are calm and 

peaceful, as they travel the path of hfe." 

91. The mussel went forth to the fourth bend of the river, it has been 

said, in this house, 

92. And spake, saying: "Even the gods themselves 

93. Have not the power to see the path I make. 

94. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

95. Even the gods themselves 

96. Shall not be able to see the path the little ones make, as they 

travel the path of life. 

97. Verily, all the mysterious creatures 

98. Flee in masses at my approach. 



IM^FLBSCHE] EITE OF VIGIL FBEE TRANSLATION. 255 

99. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

100. Verily, all the mysterious creatures 

101. Shall flee in masses at the approach of the little ones, as they 

travel the path of life. 

102. Even the gods themselves 

103. Make way for me as I approach. 

104. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

105. Even the gods themselves 

106. Shall make way for the little ones, as they travel the path of life. 

107. I am able to reach the days that are calm and peaceful. 

108. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

109. They also shall be able to reach the days that are calm and peace- 

ful, as they travel the path of life." 

110. The mui^sel went forth to the fifth bend of the river, it has been 

said, in this house, 

111. And spake, saying: "Even the gods themselves 

112. Have not the power to see the path I make. 

113. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

114. Even the gods themselves 

115. Shall not be able to see the path the little ones make, as they 

travel the path of life. 

116. Verily, all the mysterious creatures 

117. Flee in masses at my approach. 

118. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

119. Verily, all the mysterious creatures 

120. Shall flee in masses at the approach of the little ones, as they 

travel the path of life. 

121. Even the gods themselves 

122. Make way for me as I approach. 

123. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

124. Even the gods themselves 

125. Shall make way for the little ones, as they travel the path of life. 

126. I am able to reach the days that are calm and peaceful. 

127. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

128. They also shall be able to reach the days that are calm and 

peaceful, as they travel the path of life." 

129. The gorget mussel who sitteth in the water, it has been said, in 

this house, 

130. Went forth to the sixth bend of the river, 

131. And spake, saying: "Even the gods themselves 

132. Have not the power to see the path I make. 

133. When the little ones make of me their bodies 

134. Even the gods themselves 



256 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ANN..39 

135. Shall not be able to see the path the little ones make, as they 

travel the path of life. 

136. Verily, all the mysterious creatures 

137. Flee in masses at my approach. 

138. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

139. Verily, all the mysterious creatures 

140. Shall flee in masses at the approach of the little ones, as they 

travel the path of life. 

141. Even the gods themselves 

142. Make way for me as I approach. 

143. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

144. Even the gods themselves 

145. Shall make way for the little ones, as they travel the path of life. 

146. I am able to reach the days that are calm and peaceful. 

147. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

148. They also shall be able to reach the days that are calm and 

peaceful, as they travel the path of life." 

149. The gorget mussel who sitteth in the water, it has been said, in 

this house, 

150. Went forth to the seventh bend of the river, 

151. And spake, saying: "Even the gods themselves 

152. Have not the power to see the path I make. 

153. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

154. Even the gods themselves 

155. Shall not be able to see the path the little ones make, as they 

travel the path of life. 

156. Verily, all the mysterious creatures 

157. Flee in masses at my approach. 

158. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

159. Verily, all the mysterious creatures 

160. Shall flee in masses at the approach of the little ones, as they 

travel the path of life. 

161. Even the gods themselves 

162. Make way for me as I approach. 

163. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

164. Even the gods themselves 

165. Shall make way for the little ones, as they travel the path of life. 

166. I am able to reach the days that are calm and peaceful. 

167. When the little ones make of me their bodies, 

168. They also shall be able to reach the days that are calm and 

peaceful, as they travel the path of life." 

Down to line 168 the Ki'-no° Wi'-gi-e is rhythmically intoned. 
The remaining sections are given colloquially with the following 
ceremonial acts. When asked for the reason of this change Sho"'- 



LAFMISCHE] RITE OF VIGIL— FKEE TRANSLATION. 257 

ge-mo"-!" replied that no explanation was ever given as to why it is 
done but the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge always gave the wi'-gi-e in this 
manner. 

When the shell gorget had been put upon the Xo'-ka the candidate 
takes up the wristbands and holds them in readiness. Then the 
A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka says: '"Here sits a captive upon whom are to be 
put these bonds, it has been said." The candidate then ties- each 
wrist of the Xo'-ka with one of the woven bands. 

The candidate takes up the woven girdle and holds that in readi- 
ness and the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka says: " Here sits a captive upon whom 
is to be put this girdle. It is a captive's girdle that they shall put 
upon him, it has been said." 

The candidate then puts the puma skin aroimd the body of the 
Xo'-ka so that the head is at his shoulder and the tail at his ankles 
as the girdle is put over the pmna skin and tied around his waist. 

The symbolic moccasins (Fig. 1) are then taken up by the candidate 
and held in readiness and the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka says: "Here sits a 
captive upon whose feet shall be put the moccasins, it has been 
said." (For explanation as to the meaning of the term captive see 
pages 74-75 given by Wa-xthi'-zhi in his description of the Ho^'-ga 
version of this ceremony.) 

Ceremonial Approach to the House of Mystery. 

When the Xo'-ka has been thus decorated (PI. 4) with the life sym- 
bols and clothed in his sacerdotal attire the Sho'-ka places in the left 
hand of the Xo'-ka the ceremonial pipe filled with tobacco, then, 
grasping him by the arm, helps him to rise and conducts him out of 
the house, the candidate walking by the side of the Xo'-ka. When 
the three men, the candidate, the Xo'-ka, and the Sho'-ka, have 
gone several paces from the door they stop and the Sho'-ka passes 
on to a short distance ahead, where he stops. The A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka 
advances, carrying the Wa-xo'-be and a gourd rattle and takes his 
place at the side of the Xo'-ka. This is the first of four stops that 
are to be made when approaching the place chosen for the final 
ceremonies which represent the House of Mystery. At each one of 
the stops the Xo'-ka sings the following song and recites that section 
of the wi'-gi-e which tells of the House of Mystery which is being 
approached. The song with the section of the wi'-gi-e are called 
'"Tsi fa'-pe Wa-tho°," Song of Approach to the House. After each 
song and recital the Xo'-ka takes from the bowl of the ceremonial 
pipe a pinch of tobacco and drops it upon his feet, he then takes a 
second pinch which he throws backward over his right shoulder, 
after which he takes a third pinch and throws it backward over his 
3594°— 25 1 17 



258 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[BTn. ANN.. 39 



left shoulder. After these ceremonial acts the four men move 
forward. A free translation of one line of the song will suffice to 
give its meaning. 

Song of Approach to the House. 

Song 1. 
(Osage -version, p. 481; literaltranslation, p. 605.) 

Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 




Time beats 



r r 

Ga-go" ha nio°-bthi°-e, Ga-go" ha nio"-bthi''.e 




r r 

the he the, 



r - ' r ■ r r 

Ga-go" ha mo^-bthii-e the he the, 



r " r 



m 







r 

6a-go° ha mo" - bthp-e, Ga-go" ha mo" - bthi"-e 



s 



'f' m 



^ 



^ 



r r 

the. he the, 



r 



r 



r 



Ga-go" ha mo"-bthi".e the he. 

FREE TRANSL.\TION. 

Thus do I go upon my journey, etc. 

Wl'-GI-E. 

(Osage version, p. 481; literaltranslation, p. 605.) 

1. Ho! Toward what shall they (the little ones) direct their foot- 

steps, it has been said, in this house. 

2. It is toward a little valley they shall direct their footsteps. 

3. Verily, it is not a little valley that is spoken of, 

4. It is toward the bend of a river they shall direct their footsteps. 

5. Verily, it is not the bend of a river that is spoken of, 

6. It is toward a little House that they shall direct their footsteps. 

7. Toward a House you shall ever be traveling ^vith your little 

wa-xo'-be. 

(Song repeated.) 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 259 

8. Ho! Toward what shall they (the little ones) direct their foot- 

steps, it has been said, in this house. 

9. It is toward a second valley they shall direct their footsteps. 

10. Verily, it is not a little valley that is spoken of, 

11. It is toward the second bend of a river they shall direct their 

footsteps. 

12. Veril}^, it is not the bend of a river that is spoken of, 

13. It is toward a little House that they shall direct their footsteps. 

14. Toward a House you shall ever be traveling with your little 

wa-xo'-be. 

(SoQg repeated.) 

15. Ho! Toward what shall they (the little ones) direct their foot- 

steps, it has been said, in this house. 

16. It is toward a third valley they shall direct their footsteps. 

17. Verily, it is not a little valley that is spoken of, 

18. It is toward the third bend of a river they shall direct their foot- 

steps. 

19. Verily, it is not the bend of a river that is spoken of, 

20. It is toward a little House that they shall direct their footsteps. 

21. Toward a House you shall ever be traveling with your little 

wa-xo'-be. 

(Song repeated.) 

22. Ho! Toward what shall they (the little ones) direct their foot^ 

steps, it has been said, in this house. 

23. It is toward a fourth valley they shall direct their footsteps. 

24. Verily, it is not a little valley that is spoken of, 

25. It is toward the f oui'th bend of a river they shall direct their foot- 

steps. 

26. Verily, it is not the bend of a river that is spoken of, 

27. It is toward a little House that they shall direct their footsteps. 

28. Toward a House you shall ever be traveling with your little 

wa-xo'-be. 

The path of life, in the Osage rituals, is pictured as crossing four 
valleys or as following the course of a river having four bends. In the 
Omaha rituals the path of life is represented as stretching over four 
hills. (See 27th .inn. Kept. B. A. E., p. 116.) 

In the Ho°'-ga version of the Ceremonial Approach to the House of 
Mystery the Xo'-ka, when about to enter, removes from his feet the 
first pair of symbolic moccasins and puts on the second pair that 
awaits him at the entrance. The acts of slipping off the first pair and 
slipping on the second pair are accompanied by a wi'-gi-e which sets 
forth, in cryj^tic form, the obligation of the warrior to spare neither 
the adolescent youth, the adolescent maiden, the valorous man, nor 
the woman who has given birth to her first child, when battling with 



260 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ANN. 39 

the enemy in order that his tribe may travel the path of life unim- 
peded (see p. 84). The manner in which the Xo'-ka and his candi- 
date move toward their seats at the east end of the House points to 
the triumphant return and entrance of the warriors into their village, 
having valiantly fulfilled their obligations as defenders of the tribe. 
These two concluding movements of the Ceremony of Approach to the 
House of Mystery have to do with deeds of violence and with the 
destruction of life. The Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge omit from their version 
of this ritual these two movements for the reason that the teachings 
they embrace are repugnant to the duties imposed upon that gens as 
peacemaker and conserver of the life, not only of the member of the 
tribe but that of the stranger who may seek refuge in the house of a 
member of the gens. 

Both Sho°'-ge-mo°-i° and Wa'-thu-xa-ge emphasized the fact that 
their gens, the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge, has no proprietary right in any 
of the war rituals, to initiate any war movement or to teach any of the 
rites pertaining to war, but the use of the war rituals is permitted in 
order to show the inherent right of the gens to participate in the 
government of the tribe as a whole. The office of their gens, they 
said, was to initiate the infant into life and to ceremonially bestow 
the gentile name. 

After the singing of the song and the recital of the wi'-gi-e, at the 
fourth stop in the ceremonial approach to the lodge, the Xo'-ka, his 
candidate, the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka, and the Sho'-ka enter the lodge 
and take their places at the eastern end (Fig. 2). The ceremonial 
putting down of the shrine and of opening it begins. 

Songs of Opening the Shrine. 

The songs accompanied by the ceremonial movements of opening 
the shrine are called Wa-xo'-be Thu-shke Wa-tho°, Songs of Untying 
the Wa-xo'-be. There are four of these songs, the first three of 
which have but one stanza each and the fourth has four stanzas. 

(1) The first song is simg three times. The first singing is accom- 
panied by the laying down of the shrine so that the head of the 
sacred hawk is pointed toward the fsi'-zhu side of the house. 

(2) At the second singing of the song the Xo'-ka turns the shrine 
end to end so that the head of the bird points toward the Ho°'-ga 
side of the house. 

(3) At the third singing the shrine is again turned and the head of 
the bird is pointed toward the fsi'-zhu side. 

All the lines of this song are the same and all the words but one 
are either corrupted or are archaic, therefore they are unintelligible. 
The exception is the first word, Kia'-ha, which means downward. 



LA FLESCHE] 



KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



261 



M. M. J r 



104 



Song 1. 

(Osage version, p. 482; literal translation, p. 606.) 

Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 




Kia ha ha no" ni wa ha, Kia ha no° ni wa-ta ha. 



r r r r 

Kia ha no" ni wa ha, 



r r 



Kia ha no" ni wa-ta. 



The second song is also sung three times. At each singing cere- 
monial acts are performed as follows: 

(1) The untying and the removing of the symbolic strap tied 
around the middle of the slu-ine and by which it is hung in its pre- 
scribed place in the house of the last initiate. 

(2) The untying and the removing of the thongs tied around each 
end of the shrine. 

(3) The removal of the deerskin bag with its contents from the ' 
woven buffalo hair bag which forms the outer covering of the shrine. 

The words of the song are sufficiently clear in meaning to aihiiit of 
the following free translation: 

Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 4S2; literaltranslation, p. 606.) 

Transcribed ty Alice C. Fletcher 
M.M.J r 112 '"■^ 




Time beats III [ ^ • 

Kia ha thawi-tha tse 
~3~ 



r r r r 

Kia ha tha wi - tha ha. 



m 



rrrriiirrr pr rr JJ j i i 



r" r r '^ r 

Kia ha thawi-tha ha 



r r r rr^ rr r 

shke he the, Kia ha thawi-tha tse. 



262 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[bTH. ANN. S3 



FREE TRANSLATION. 

Downward I shall send you, 
Downward I send you, 
Downward, to be untied, I send you, 
Downward I sliall send you. 

The third song is sung three times, each singing accompanied by- 
certain ceremonial acts: 

(1) The im tying of the thongs tied around the middle and emls of 
the deerskin bag and removing therefrom the woven rush case. 

(2) The untying and removing of the symbolic rope wound around 
the woven rush case. 

(3) The unfolding of the woven rush case and removing therefrom 
the deerskin pouch containing the sacred hawk. 

The simple designs woven into the rush case represent night and 
day. The flap and upper side of the woven rush case symbolizes the 
sky, the under side the earth, and the inner part the space between the 
earth and sky into which all living things come and make their home. 

The first word in each line, Sho°-ni-pa, is archaic and has lost its 
meaning. It is probably the old ceremonial name of the woven rush 
case. The third line refers to the unfolding of the symbolic case and 
the removing therefrom of the hawlc enslu-ined therein. 

Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 4S2; literal translation, p. 607.) 

J Transcribed by Alice C Fletcher 

= 113 




Time beats 



^ f n r f 

She" ni pa wi" tha wi - tha tse. 



r r 



Sho" ni pa wi" 
- — 7"^ 



^i-TTTT \r r rj \rrr^ 



r r 

tha wi -tha ha, 



r r 

She" ni pa wi" 



r 

tha wi -tha ha 



^ 



r T T 



^m 



m 



-»■ c # 



r r 

shke he 



the, 



r ' r~ r f r r 

Sho" ni pa wi" tha wi - tha tse 



The fourth song is for the drawing out of its deerskin pouch the 
sacred hawk, the central figure of the ceremony. The song has four 
stanzas, one for each of the ceremonial movements, wliich are as 
follows : 



LA FLESCHE] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



263 



(1) The untying of the carrying strap tied around the middle of the 
pouch and the thong that draws and holds together the mouth of the 
pouch in which is kept the sacred hawk. 

(2) The unfolding of the mouth of the pouch in readiness for the 
next movement. 

(3) The stretching of the mouth of the pouch to its full width so 
that the bird may pass readily through it. 

(4) The drawing of the sacred hawk from the pouch. This is done 
by grasping the pouch with the left hand and with the right gently 
drawing out the bird from the mouth of the pouch. In performing 
this act the bird must be drawn away from the body of the Xo'-ka. 

The ceremonial acts are ])erformed by the Xo'-ka while the A'-ki- 
ho° Xo'-ka does the singing. All of these movements are symbolic of 
the birth of a child. When the bird is taken out of the pouch the 
Xo'-ka passes it over his head, anns, and body, because the birth 
represents life and the ceremony of wliich it is the central figure is a 
supplication for a full, imobstructed life. 

The first of lines 1, 2, and 5 of each stanza is archaic and its meaning 
lost, but the other words arc intelligible and make possible a free 
translation. 

Song 4. 

(Osage version, p. 482; literal translation, p. 607.) 
J ^^^ Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



M.M. J r 138 



*^7 . r 



i^i'^ 'ja.i 



r r r 



Time beats ' I i i ' p f p p 

I"-da-ko a - ha shka ho" <Jse, P-da-ko 



aJjr rr lUIr nfrr uTTU , 



r r r r r r r r ' t r r 

a-ha shkaho"dse Sho-the he shkaho°dse, Sho-the the the 




r r r 

e - he shka ho" dse, 



r 

l"-da 



r 

ko 



r r r 

a f ha ehka hon dse. 



FREE^ TAN8LATI0N. 
1. 

Let the knot become untied, 
Let the cords become loosened, 
Then shall the bird come. 
Then shall the bird come forth, 
Let the cords become loosened. 



264 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [bth. ann.39 



Let the mouth of the pouch unfold, 
Let the mouth of the pouch unfold, 
Then shall the bird come, 
Then shall the bird come forth. 
Let the mouth of the pouch unfold. 

3. 

Let the mouth of the pouch widen, 
Let the mouth of the pouch widen, 
Then shall the bird come, 
Then shall the bird come forth. 
Let the mouth of the pouch widen. 



By this way he shall go forth. 
By this way he shall go forth, 
The bird shall go forth, 
The bird shall go forth by this way, 
By this way he shall go forth. 

Songs of Taking up the Rattle. 

The Pe'-xe Thu-^e Wa-tho", Songs of Taking up the Rattle, follow 
those of the ceremonial opening of the shrine. Up to this time the 
songs have been silng without the accompaniment of the rattle. 

A wi'-gi-e precedes the four songs of this group. In giving the 
wi'-gi-e the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gens make 
the following changes in the manner of reciting it : 

(1) The wi'-gi-e is not intoned but is spoken and in a tone so low 
that only the Xo'-ka, his candidate, and the A'-ivi-ho° Xo'-ka can 
hear it. The reciting of the wi'-gi-e in this manner is regarded as 
less formal and authoritative than when intoned. The other gentes 
must intone the wd'-gi-e because it refers to the authority given to 
them to initiate war movements. The Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge, as a 
gens, has no authority to start a war movement, as its office is solely 
to maintain peace within the tribe, to take part in the conduct of 
the tribal hunt, and to preside at the ceremonies relating to the 
naming of newly born children. The use of the war rituals by the 
Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gens is purely a matter of form. 

(2) When the No°'-ho°-zhi''-ga of the other gentes recite this 
wi'-gi-e they must use the refrain, A bi" da, tsi ga. It has been said, 
in tliis house, because it was in the war house that the war rituals 
and ceremonies were originated. Members of the fsi'-zhu 
Wa-shta'-ge gens, when reciting this wi'-gi-e, omit the refrain and 
substitute in its place the words, A bi a. They have said, referring 
to the other gentes who have the full authority to organize war 
parties. In the sacred house of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gens the 



LAFLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 265 

mysteries of the war rites are not taught but its aim is to lead the 
people in the paths of peace. 

This wi'-gi-e expresses the purpose of the war gentes to destroy 
the tribal organizations of their enemies and all possible means by 
which they could perpetuate their tribal existence. It means the 
taking of hmiian life, which the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gens is bound 
by its sacred rites to protect and to preserve. The recital of this 
wi'-gi-e by members of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gens in the manner 
above described is an implied disavowal of the teachings which it sets 
forth. 

At lines 25, 32, 41, and 50 the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka, when reciting the 
wi'-gi-e, gives a stroke of the rattle toward the ''setting sun." 

THE WX'-GI-E. 
(Osage version, p. 4S3; llteraltranslation, p. 607.) 

1. What shall they (the little ones) use for a rattle, they said. 

2. Toward the setting of the sun there are seven villages. 

3. The head of the seventh village, the odd one in number, 

4. They shall use for a rattle, as they travel the path of life. 

5. Wlien they use the head of the seventh village for a rattle, 

6. By means of that rattle they shall be free from all causes of 

death, they said. 

7. When they take lip this rattle against their enemies, 

8. They shall make it possible, at all times, to overcome them with 

ease, they said. 

9. What shall they use for the handle of their rattle. 

10. Toward the setting of the sun there are seven villages, they said. 

11. The left forearm of the seventh village, the odd one in number, 

12. They shall use for the handle of the rattle, as they travel the path 

of life. 

13. When they use the left forearm of the seventh village for the 

handle of the rattle, 

14. By means of that handle they shall be free from all causes of 

death. 

15. When they use the handle against their enemies, 

16. They shall make it possible, at all times, to overcome them with 

ease, they said. 

17. What shall they use for seeds (rattlers) for their rattle. 

18. Toward the setting of the sun there are seven villages. 

19. The teeth of the left jaw of the seventh village, the odd one in 

number, 

20. They shall use for seeds for the rattle, as they travel the path of 

life. 



266 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [eth.ann.39 

21. When they use the teeth of the left jaw of the seventh village, 

22. By means of those seeds they shall be free from all causes of 

death, they said. 

23. When they take up the rattle against their enemies, 

24. They shall make it possible, at all times, to overcome them with 

ease, they said. 

25. Behold the first stroke of the rattle. 

26. Toward the setting of the sun there dwell many peoples. 

27. It is at the ruler of these villages that the stroke is aimed, they 

said. 

28. When they aim their stroke at this ruler, 

29. Their strokes shall always be effective, they said. 

30. When they take up the rattle against those peoples, 

31. They shall make it possible, at all times, to overcome them with 

ease, they said. 

32. Behold the second stroke of the rattle, 

33. Which is not given without a purpose, they said. 

34. Toward the setting of the sun 

35. There dwell many peoples among whom there is a maiden in her 

adolescence. 

36. It is at that maiden this stroke is aimed, they said. 

37. When they aim the stroke of the rattle at this maiden, they said, 

38. Their strokes shall always be effective. 

39. When they take up the rattle against those peoples, 

40. They shall make it possible, at all times, to overcome them with 

ease, they said. 

41. Behold, also, the third stroke of the rattle, 

42. Which is not given without a purpose, they said. 

43. There are peoples who dwell toward the setting of the sim, 

44. Among whom there is a man who is honored for his valor. 

45. It is at the man of valor the stroke is aimed, they said. 

46. When they aim the stroke at the valorous man, 

47. Their strokes shall always be effective. 

48. When they take up the rattle against those peoples, 

49. They shall make it possible, at all times, to overcome them with 

ease, they said. 

50. Behold the fourth stroke of the rattle, 

51. Which is not given without a purpose, they said. 

52. Toward the setting sun there dwell many peoples, 

53. Among whom there is a woman who has given birth to her first 

child. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TKANSLATION. 267 

54. It is at that woman the stroke is aimed, they said. 

55. When they aim their strokes at that woman, 

56. Their strokes shall always be effective. 

57. When they take up the rattle against those peoples, 

58. They shall make it possible, at all times, to overcome them with 

ease, they said. 

Songs of the Symbolic Man. 

Four songs follow the wi'-gi-e. The first three are said to belong to 
the symbolic man, in which he extols the perfection of liis physical 
structure. In other W(U-ds, these three songs are expressive of the 
satisfaction felt bj^ the ancient Nc'-ho^-zhi^-ga at the completeness 
of their war organization, which they likened to a man whose body is 
perfect in all its parts and is able to respond to liis courage by the per- 
formance of valorous deeils. 

The theme of the first, second, and third song of this group relates 
to the power of the war organization symbolized by a man. The 
various parts of the body of the ideal or symbolic man are mentioned 
in the following order: (1) Qi, his feet, by which he is able to move 
from place to place; (2) Hi, his legs, which o;ive speed to liis move- 
ments; (3) Zho, his body, which maintains liis life; (4) A, his arms, 
the means by which l^e supplies himseK with food; (5) Pa, his head, 
in which he formulates his thought and directs his action; (6) I, his 
mouth, by which he gives utterance or expression to his thoughts. 

The fourth song refers to the tribes hostile to the Osage. The same 
power is attributed to the enemy which the Osage assume for them- 
^Ives and the same sequence is observed in mentioning the various 
parts of the body of the ideal or syiubolic man that gives to the enemy 
tribes the power of action, thought, and expression. In the song, 
however, the hope is expressed that when the Osage attacks the enemy 
tribe its personified power will be so stricken with fear that the 
various parts of his body will become cramped and made to be 
incapable of action. 

A free translation of one line of each stanza of the first song will 
suffice to give the meaning of the song, as all the other lines in each 
stanza are repetitions. 



268 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[BTH. ANN. 39 



M.M. J r 84 



Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 484; literal translation, p. 609.) 

Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 






Qi no" do" wa - V'o" ha, Qi no" do" 



r fy* 

wa ha k'o" ha 



Time beats 



KiLii'p p' i r Lr" | F f r w^r r lt^jj 



f r 7 r r r 



r r r 



^i no" do" wa - k'o" ha, Qi no" do" wa ha k'o" ha, 



"y-fV"? 7' \ T tf i PTp' 1 1 ^ r r ^ 



f r r r r r 



r r r 



^i no" do" wa - k'o" ha, (Ji no" do" wa ha k'o" ha. 



'rir-pff-if iJ-f^^' \ vi^^lI"M! s^ 



r r r r r r r r r rr 

^i n.o"do" wa-k'o" ha, ^i DO" do" wa ha k'o" ha, (Jino"do", 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Verily, by his feet he has the power of action. 

2. 
VerUy, by his legs he has the power of action. 

3. 
Verily, by his body he has the power of action. 

4. 
Verily, by his arms he has the power of action. 

5. 
Verily, by his head he has the power of action. 

6. 

Verily, by his mouth he has the power of action. 

The use of an archaic word in the first and the sixth lines of the 
second song makes translation difhcult. However, it is clear that 
the song has reference to the power of the tribe and its perfection as 
an organized body. 



Li FLESCHE] 



KITE OF VIGIL FREE TBANSLATION. 



269 



M 



M.J 



Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 485; literal translation, p. 609.) 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



84 



Jl.l-h. h 



r F «• i f r 



^^ 



-* — *- 



Time beats' I I ' 

Wa-k'o" wi tse sho" ni-pa 



r r r r 

dse no" do", Wa ha 



r r r r r r r r r r 



k'oiha 9i no"don, Wa-kV ^i no" do", Wa-ha k'o" ha 



i.y.r 7T- | f t/- i f f ff- if r n 



r r 



r r 



r r 



r r 



91 no 



" do", Wa - k'o" ha 9! no" do", Wa ha 



i^ P » 



n- r p- pT i r | f ^ r I I 






r 



r r 



r r 



r r 



k'o" ha 91 no" do", Wa - k'o" ha qi no" do", 



r^J ^ ^^" ii ^r r [ j- ii iip- i'^ ^ 



r r'f r ^ f r r 

Wa-ha k'o" ha, Wa-k' o^i wi tse sho" ni-pa- dse. 

The same difficulty of translation is met with m the tliird song, 
but it also refers to the power acquired by the tribe through the 
completeness of its organization. 



270 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[KTH. AXX. 39 



.J 



M.M. J = 73 



Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 4SS; literal translation, p. 609.) 

Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



S 



w 



r r r t ' -J- ^ 

The -a qi the k'o" no° no" hi wa ta, 



Time beat; 




r r r r . r r 

The-a gi the k'o" no° no" hi wa ta , 



r r r r r 



E thek'o"no"no" hiwa ta, 

A 



i ^^):of r tJtr'rj'P^r rr^rj^M 



r r r .r r r r r r , r r"T 

The-a 9i thek'o"no"nonhiwa ta, The-a ^i thek'o°no"no"hiwa ta. 

A free translation of the first line of each stanza of the fourth 
song will suffice to give the meaning. 

Song 4. 
(Osage version, p. 4S5; literal translation, p. 610.) 

J Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 

_ =72 




Time beats 



r r ^ r 

Qi-a wa thi-ko ta we, (yi-a thi-ko ta wi the. 



"r r r r 




r r. r . r 



^i-awa thi-ko ta we, (Ji-a thi-ko ta wi the, 



^ 



f,-4-> n n. i m 



f f r r ' f ^ f 

^i-awa thi-ko ta we, ^i-a thi-ko ta wi the., 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

The feet of tlie enemy shall become cramped. 

2. 
The legs of the enemy Khali become cramped. 



LAPLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL — FREE TRANSLATION. 271 

3. 
The body of the enemy shall become cramped. 

4. 
The arms of the enemy shall become cramped. 

5. 
The head of the enemy shall become cramped. 

6. 

The mouth of the enemy shall become cramped. 

These songs can not be translated because of the incomplete sen- 
tences used in them, but the words suggest the meaning above given. 

Bow-making Songs. 

The songs next in order are those entitled Mi°'-dse Ga-xe Wa-tho", 
Bow-making Songs. la none of the five songs that compose this 
group are found words that suggest the making of a bow. (In the 
three Bow-makiug vSongs of the Tho'-xe gens, which will appear in a 
later volume, the bow and the arrow are mentioned.) 

Each of the three stanzas of the first song has five lines, all of which 
are ahke, e.xcepting the first word in the third line. The words of 
each line are: Tsi-go, my grandfather; wa-fi^-da, a word of uncer- 
tain meaning; ko"-to°, to tie; ga-xa, make ye. The last two words 
are the only ones that might suggest the making of a bow. The first 
word in the third line of the first stanza is Mi, sun; in that of the 
second, Gthe-do°, hawk; in that of the third, Ka-xe, crow. What 
these objects have to do with the bow is not clear. 



272 



THE OSAGE TKIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 



M.M 



.J 



84 



Song 1. 

(Osage version, p. 486; literal translation, p. "610.) 

Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



^ 



tTfirf 






Time be 



Tsi-go wa-9i" - da ko"-to" ga-xa, 



Tsi-go wa-qi"' 




da ko"-to" ga-xa, Mi •wa-9i" 



da ko°-ton the the 



^ 



^^ 



I 



^ 



P 



^W=if 



m m 



w 



r r r r 

he the the, Tsi-go wa-qi" 



da ko"-to° ga-xa, 



^JurrTF wif^ ^ 



^m 



i 







r r 

Tsi-go wa-ci" 



r r r 

da ko°-to" the the 



r r 

he the hg. 



The words of the second song are unintelligible. They were evi- 
dently given by the ancient No°'-ho°-zlii"-ga in a manner to obscure 
their meaning from the uninitiated. Such treatment of the words of 
the songs is frequent among both the Osage and the Omaha. 
Wa'-wa° songs of the Omaha are examples. It is probable that in 
this way the meaning of some of the songs of these tribes has become 
lost. 

Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 4S6; literal translation, p. 610.) 



M.M. J - 



Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 




Hi-a wi tha tha ka-wa ha 



no" no" thi ki-kon-^a, 

A 



r r r r r r r f 



E theko"-(;aha da ha, Hi-a wi tha tha ka-wa ha 



r r r r r r r r : r 



no 



"no^tsehethe, Hi-aw-itha tha kawa ha no"nonthiki.ko"-9a. 



U FLESCHE] 



BITE or VIGIL FREE TKANSLATION. 



273 



The words of the third song are, in general, treated in the same 
manner. Those of the first line, Hi-a wi tha dse, I go forth; wa-tlo ha 
tha, to offer supphcations; and those of the second line, Mi wa-da 
hi°-da, supplications to the sun, make it clear that the song refers to 
the vigils of the leader of a war party. 



[.M. Jr 



r 80 



Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 486; literal translation, p. 610.) 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




Time beats ' ' I I f 

Hi-a wi -tha dse wa do ha 



r 

tha, 



r r 



E 



r 



tha he 




r r r r r r 

he ha-tho ha mi wa - da hi" da, 



r 

the 




tha wi tha dse wa-do ha tha. 



tha he 



r r r r i^r r r r r r r 

he ha-tho ha mi wa-da hi" da, E tha he hi-a wi thadse. 

The meaning of the fourth song is suggested by the word ki°-da, 
to fight. When the leader of a war party has taken the rite of vigil 
he goes forth with his men and when he finds the enemy a fight takes, 
place. It is these circumstances to which the song refers. 

Song 4. 
(Osage version, p. 487; literal translation, p. 610.) 

« „ J Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 

M.M. • = 80 




•J f 

Time beats 

E the 



ki".da hi tha, 
A 



r r r 

the ki".da hi" da ha. 




E the he the ki^-da hi" da, E the ki"-da hi" .da. 
3594°— 25 1— 18 



274 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. AMN. 39 



The fifth s(ing is also clear as to its meaning. It is the same as that 
of the fourth song, with the addition of the word meaning victory, 
ki°-da, to fight; wa-tse, victory. This song refers to the return of a 
war party in triumph, having defeated the enemy. 



M.M. 



80 



Song 5. 
( Osage version, p. 487; literal translation, p. 610.) 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



#1 ^ 



^ 



^ 



Z^=±l 



d d mT^ S 



Time beats 



r r r r r - r 

Ki" - da hi" da, ki" - da hi" da ha, Hi-ako - tha 
3 




r r r^r' r r 

wa-tse the the ki" da hi" - da, Ki" - da hi" da ha, 




^ 



r 



r 



r 



r 



Hi-a ko - tha 



tse the the ki" - da hi" 



r 



da. 



During the singing of the songs of Taking up the Symbolic Rattle 
the candidate, following the instructions of the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka, goes 
to the man of the Ni'-ka Wa-ko"-da-gi gens who holds the office of 
ceremonially painting the sacred hawk and conducts him to a place 
in front of the Xo'-ka. The Sho'-ka then sets before the man a 
brass kettle in which are placed the bird-hawk and a blanket. By 
this act the Ni'-ka Wa-ko°-da-gi man understands that he is required 
to perform a ceremonial duty, that of reconsecrating the symbolic 
bird. The kettle is to hold the water to be used in moistening the 
blue clay when painting the bird. The man also understands that 
the valuable vessel and the blanket are offered to him as fees for his 
official services. When the Sho'-ka places the kettle before the man 
of mystery he says: "Have compassion upon us;" whereupon the 
official rises and returns to his seat, taking with him the kettle and 
its contents. 

The candidate then goes to the Ho^'-ga side of the lodge to the 
warrior whom he has chosen to act as Wa'-do^-be, to recount the 
thirteen military honors that made him eligible for the office. The 
candidate grasps the Wa'-do^-be by the arm and conducts him to a 
seat prepared for him at the west end of the lodge (Fig. 2). The 
Wa'-do°-be is then given a new blanket to wear, a sliield to hang 
upon his back, and a deer's tail headdress to fasten upon liis head. 



UA. FLBSCHE] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



275 



All of these articles, together with a valuable horse, were fees for the 
chosen Wa'-do°-be. 

The Wa'-do^-be having been ceremonially dressed and taken his 
seat, the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka proceeds to sing the songs next in order 
called : 

Songs of the Rite of Vigil. 

The No^'-zhi^-zho" Wa-tho", or the Songs of the Rite of Vigil, 
relate to the acts of the man who is chosen by the people to take 
the rite of vigil and to carry their supplications to Wa-ko^'-da in 
which they appeal to that power, in this vicarious manner, to give 
success to the warriors who are to go against the troublesome enemies 
of the tribe. 

The first song expresses the wailing cry of the supplicant who by 
tears and bodily suffering seeks to arouse the compassion and help 
of Wa-ko"'-da. There are no words, to the song ; vocables only are used. 
Dming the singing of this song the candidate performs the ceremony 
called Wa'-i" Xa-ge. This he does by touching the head of each 
No"'-ho°-zhi"-ga with the sacred pipe and the sacred hawk, wailing 
as he passes from one to the other. 

The ritual here described being that of a gens on the Tsi'-zhu side, 
the candidate begins this ceremony at the east on the Ho"'-ga side 
of the line of No"'-ho"-zhi°-ga. The women members of the order 
join in the wailing of the candidate wliile male members recite the 
Wa-thu'-fe and the A'-ho°-btha-bi wi'-gi-es (see pp. 139, 148). The 
song is simg four times. 

Song 1. 

(Osage version, p. 487; literal translation, p. 610.) 
MM J - 84 Transcribed by Alice C. Flfti'hiT 



i 



:i? 



Time beats 



r r 

E tha ha ha 



1 J i iMn i ^ ^jjhs^ 



he he tha, E tha ha ha 




r r 

he he tha ha 



The second song relates to the manner in wliich the supplicant puts 
upon liimself the sign of No"'-zhi°-zho°. The fii'st stanza depicts him 
as gathering into his hands loose soil of the earth; the second stanza 
as rubbing the soil in the palms of his hands to make it finer; the 
tliird as moistening it in the palm of his hand; the fourth as putting 
the moistened symbol of the earth upon his face; the fifth as brushing 



276 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ANN. 39 

back his hair with the palms of his hands to which still cling particles 
of the moistened soil. 

Each line of the stanzas begins with the word Tsi-go, grandfather. 
The word as here used is not a kinship term but is employed to 
express reverence. The moistened soil is thus reverently addressed 
as it symbolizes the earth, one of Wa-ko°'-da's abiding places, and 
is therefore regarded as sacred. 

At the singing of this song the Wa'-tlo°-be rises and begins to 
recoimt his o-do°', using thirteen of the rods permanently kept for 
ceremonial counting pm-poses. The candidate had presented these 
rods to the Wa'-do°-be immediately after he had conducted him to 
his place, after first dividing the rods into two bundles, one containing 
seven and the other six. 

The other gentes of the tribe when performing this ceremony use 
thirteen fresh willow saplings for recounting o-do"', but the Tsi'-zhu 
Wa-shta'-ge avoid the use of these because they were originally dedi- 
cated to represent acts of violence and the destruction of human life 
(see Wa-thu'-fe Wi'-gi-e, p. 148). Sho°'-ge-mo°-i°, who is a member 
of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gens, explained that when he was chosen 
to act as Wa'-do°-be by any of the gentes on the Ho°'-ga side he was 
obliged to use the willow saplings to recount his o-do"' because the 
rituals of all the gentes except the two Peacemaker gentes recjuire 
the use of the willow sapling in this part of the ceremony. 

The counting of the o-do°', the reciting of the wi'-gi-es, the wailing 
during the singing of the song, are all going on at the same time. 
When the candidate, having passed along the Ho"'-ga side, arrives at 
the end of the line of No°'-ho"-zhi"-ga, on the Tsi'-zhu side, he stops 
and remains standing but continues his wailing until the reciting of 
the wi'-gi-es comes to a close, when he takes his seat at the side of the 
Xo'-ka. 

The words of the five lines of the five stanzas of this song are practi- 
cally the same. They refer to the act of gathering of the clay, moist- 
ening it, and putting it upon the face and head during the rite of 
vigil. 



LA FLBSCHB] 



M.M. 



RITE OF VIGIL FBEE TRANSLATION. 

Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. -IS?: literal translation, p. 610.) 



277 



^m 



- 80 



Transcribed by Alice C. Flctihfr 



^ 



^^ 



T!i.Kea,s ^ r r r r r r ^ p p - 7 - r 

Tsi-go-e hu-thi-k'u mo" a, Tsi- go-e hu-thi-k u mon a, Tsi- 



^ 



■J. O 1 :> 11 ^ 



^1 



r r r f [ ' ^ f r r f 

go-e hu - thi - k'u mo" a, Tsi - go-e hu - thi 




k'u mo" ge he the, Tsi 



go-e hu- thi -k'u mo" a. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



1. 



My grandfather, I draw thee into my hand. 

2. 
My grandfather, I crumble thee in my hand. 



My grandfather, I moisten thy body in my hand. 

4. 
My grandfather, I color my face blue with thy body. 

5. 
My grandfather, I touch my head with thy body. 

The third s<jng is a greeting to the No°'-ho''-zlii''-ga by the gens 
giving the ceremony. The word of greeting is Ha-we', but in the 
song it is pronounced Ha-wi'. The words of the first stanza may be 
freely translated as Ha-we', ye who are to act; the second, Ha-we', ye 
men of mystery; the third, Enter, ye men of mystery, with swinging 
motion. The word "smnging" refers to the rhythmic motion of the 
men as they enter in single file to take their seats in the lodge. 

The purport of the six lines is the same in each of the three stanzas 
of the third song, wliich is sung as the men of mystery enter the 
lodge, therefore a free translation of one line from each stanza will 
suffice to give the burden of the song. 



278 



. M. J = 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ANN. 39 

Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 488; literal translation, p. 611.) 

Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



M. M. J = 76 Tri 

•J r r r r~ r P r^ 



Time beats ' ' riir 1 f \ \ ^^ ^ 

Wa-kV ta bi Ha - wi tha ha, Wa-k'o"ta bi Ha-wi tha ha, 



4\uft.n n^HiH i^r 



Ha-ni da ha, Ha -wi tha ha, Ha-ni da ha, Ha - wi tha ha. 




r r 

Ha-ni da ha. Ha 



■wi tha ha, 



r - r 

Wa-k'on ta bi, Ha ■ 



r 

Wl 



p 

tha 



r 

ha. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Greetings to you, ye who are to act. 

2. 
Greetings to you, ye men of mystery. 

3. 
Enter ye with rhythmic steps. 

No satisfactory information could be drawn from Sho°'-ge-mo°-i° 
as to the full meaning of the fourth song of this group, aside from the 
statement that it had a subtitle or titles, namely : U-dse'-the Wa-tho°, 
Fireplace Song, or U-dse'-the U-gi-no^-zhi" Wa-tho°, Song of Stand- 
ing Before the Fireplace. These titles, he said, refer to the' trail of 
camp fires left by the warriors as they march toward the land of the 
enemy. Wliile these subtitles may indicate scenes and movements, 
the real meaning of the song may be gathered from two of the pre- 
ceding songs: (1) Which pertains to the supplicatory cry of the man 
to whom has been assigned the duty of acting as intermediary 
between the people and Wa-ko^'-da; (2) the symbol he puts upon his 
face when observing the rite of vigil, the moistened soil that repre- 
sents the earth, one of the permanent abodes of Wa-ko^'-da, the power 
to whom he offers the supplications of the people; and also from the 
incomplete sentences and fragmentary words employed in the fourth 
song itself. These latter may be interpreted as follows : 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 279 

The words of lines 1, 3, and 5 of all the five stanzas of the song 
are: She, those, the things in thy possession, the clay and the little 
pipe in which are placed the prayers of the people for the success of 
their warriors; wi-ta ha, are mine; She, those; wi-ta, are mine. 

The words of lines 2 and 4 of the first stanza are unintelligible. 

The words of lines 2 and 4 of the second stanza are: Things of 
value; spoils to be taken from the enemy; to seek; go thou. 

The words of lines 2 and 4 of the third stanza are: Ever ready to 
do thy sacred duty; thou shalt stand; go thou. 

The words of lines 2 and 4 of the fourth stanza are: Traveling with 
an up-and-down motion of the body, referring to the manner of 
walking; carrying the sacred articles, the clay and the pipe; go thou. 

The words of lines 2 and 4 of the fifth stanza are: The final day, 
the day of fulfillment; thou shalt have; go thou. 

From the words of the song it may be understood that its theme 
is the supplicatory duty imposed upon the Do-do" '-ho°-ga, the man 
chosen to act as the head of the forces sent against the enemies of 
the tribe. His sacred duty continues from the time he goes out 
from the House of Mystery to take his seven days' vigil, even to the 
end of the war expedition. Upon this officer is conferred the liighest 
of the honors attending the success of the enterprise. His authority 
is greater than that of the actual commanders, for at the close of 
the conflict there are placed before liim all the spoils to be divided 
among the warriors, and the captives to be presented to the tribal 
authorities. 

Tliis song is also used in the Ho"'-ga version of the No°'-zlii°-zho'' 
ritual and entitled Wa'-i" Xa-ge Wa-tho°, or The Act of Weeping 
(spe p. 145). One stanza only is there used and the words are different, 
but the burden of the song is the same as that given above. Both 
songs, that used by the Tsi'-zhu and that used by' the Ho°'-ga, dwell 
with insistence upon the importance of invoking aid from the divine 
power that is recognized as being far greater than any force that man 
could put forth. 



280 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. aun. 39 

Song 4. 
(Osage versicn, p. 488; Uteral translation, p. 611.) 
M.M.J- 73 Tranecribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



P 




Time beats ' ' If 

She wi - ta ha, she wi-ta, Go-da 



r 



ha ha wi 



4 



^ 



T r tr 1 1,.]; n 



WW 

ni-tse tha thi", 



r r r 



r 



E he shewi - ta ha, she 



m 



»e r- c f i fi r e i r 



r u ^ \\ 



r 



r 



r 



r 



r 



r 



wi-ta, Go -da ha ha wi - ni-tse tha thi". 



sa^^ 



^^ 



^g^ 



ta ha, she wi - ta. 



r 

E 



r 

he 



she wi 



Little Songs of the Suj 



The next group of thi-ee songs is called Mi Wa'-o° Zlii°-ga, Little 
Songs of the Sun, and are appeals f(ir aid from that heavenly body for 
success in defeating the enemies of the tribe. 

The first song has four stanzas, in each of which the sun is spoken 
of as Tsi-go, Granctfather. Four degrees of the sun's rising are men- 
tioned as marking a time when supplications shall be offered : First, 
when outspreading rays shoot upward above the horizon; second, 
when the sun itself becomes visible; third, when the plumelike shafts 
which at times come with it appear at its sides; and fourth, when the 
sun has fully risen and it is eagerly scanned for some sign that may 
mark its approval. 

Lines 1, 2, and 4 in all the four stanzas are the same in meaning, 
therefore one line only is translated ; the third line in each stanza, 
being different from the others, is translated in its sequence. 



LA FLtSCHE] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



281 



M 



Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 488; literal translation, p. 611.) 
^ J_ Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



Time beats I I I I ' I I | . . 




Tsi-go he - tlio°-l)e sho" ni wa-ta wa-k'onhe tse he, 



II 



m 



r*pr^ 



Wi 

r r 

Tsi-go he 



■ I d. S 



■^. 



r r r f r ^ r f f 

she sho" ni-wa-ta wa-k'on he tse he, 



r r r r r r r iff 

Ba-hthi he - tho"-he sho" ni wa-t*-wa-k on he tse he, 



i ^-hhrW r u^f k r p ^ =*=ll 



r r 

Tsi-go he 



r r 



- tho"-be she" ni wa-ta. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



As my grandfather comes we sliall offer to him our prayers, 
As his outspreading raj's appear we sliall offer our prayers. 



As the sun himself appears we shall offer our prayers. 

3. 
As the plumelike shafts of light appear we shall offer our prayers. 

4. 

As he is fully risen we shall offer to him our prayers. 

The theme of the second song, which has only one stanza, is the 
mysterious nature of the act of looking to the sun for supernatural aid. 
It also refers to all the established ceremonial forms and acts by which 
the people express their craving for divine aid and guidance in times 
of general distress. These appeals are directed not only to the sun 
Vjut also to the sky with its celestial bodies, to the four winds, to the 
night and day, to all the places wherein Wa-ko^'-da is believed to 
make liis abode. The cry of appeal is regarded as equal in its myste- 



282 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. AXN., 38 



rious character to the mystery w'itliin these places addressed which 
ever excites the wonder and reverence of the people. 

Song 2. 

(Osage version, p. 189; literal translation, p. 612.) 

M. M. J z 80 

1^ 



Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher . 




*^fe^ 



^^ 



=S= 



Time beats 



r 

Wa-kV 



r 



f r 



r 



wi-tse sho",wa- ko° 



r 



wi-tse sho°, 



# 



itit >■ I 



a 



j-ii «"'.if r;ni 



f r 

tho, w» - k'o" 



r 



r 



E-no" he-no", wa-ko°-da-gi-e 




T^ r 



F rr^ f r 



wi-tse sho°. Wa-ko° wi-tse 8ho",wa-k'o" wi-tse sho°. 



FREE TR.\NSLATION. 
1. 

All my ceremonial acts, all my ceremonial acts, 
They alone, they alone, are sacred and mysterious. 

The theme of the third song is the same as that of the second. In 
each of the foixr stanzas is extolled the sanctity of the established 
tribal ceremonials by wliich the people invoke the aid of Wa-ko°'-da. 

A free translation of the first two lines of each stanza will suffice to 
give the meaning of the song. 



i^FLESCHB] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 283 

Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 489; literal translation, p. 612.) 

M. M. J r 76 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



# 



^ 



E 



E 



^^ 



r • f •'' ' 



Time betts 



E-noi 



r 

he 



r r 

tha ha wa - k'o° wi - tse 



r 

E - no" 




r 

he 



tha ha 



,r r r r ■ 

ko" wi - tse sho", E - no" 



^ 

W 



m 



w 



£ 



^p" 



i 



^^ 



r r ^ 



r ' ' ; r ' 

he tha ha wa - k'o" wi -tse E-no" he tha ha wa 




^m 



§ 



; r r r r ^ ^ , 

k'o"wi-tse she". E-no" he tha ha wa - k'o" wi - tse. 



r r 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



My ceremonial acts, they alone are holy, 
All m_v ceremonial acts, they alone are holy. 

2. 

My ceremonial acts, thej- alone are mysterious, 
All my ceremonial acts, they alone are mysterious. 

3. 

My ceremonial acts, they alone I hold as sacred, 
All my ceremonial acts, they alone I hold as sacred. 

4. 

My ceremonial acts, they alone I hold as of value. 
All my ceremonial acts, they alone I hold as of value. 

Buffalo Songs. 

The group of songs next in order is called Tse Wa-tho", Buffalo 
Songs. Before the singing begins the wife of the initiate and other 
women desiring to do so come in and sit before the Xo'-ka and the 
A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka to be instructetl as to the ceremonies to be per- 
formed by them on certain occasions. These instructions given by 



284 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [eth. an-n. 39 

the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka are called Ki'-no" U-tha-ge, Telling of the 
Symbolic Face Painting. Sho°'-ge-mo°-i° was able to recall frag- 
ments only of two sections of these instructions because he had 
forgotten most of the fixetl form in which they are usually recited. 
The sections given by Sho'''-ge-mo°-i° are as follows: 



The first section is called Wa-thi'-xa Ki'-no°, Symbolic Painting 
for the Raking, literally, Wa-thi'-xa, Raking; Ki'-no°, Painting. 
The term Wa-thi'-xa, as used here, means the raking up of the tlead 
weeds and grasses from the cornfield in preparing for the work of 
putting the ground in readiness for planting. The ceremony bearing 
this title is supplicatory. It is an appeal for supernatural aid for 
success in the struggles of the woman to procure food for the mainte- 
nance of those dependent upon her for support. By performing this 
ceremony, the woman also asks for strength and health to do her 
part toward the maintenance of the tribal life by natural increase. 

The A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka says; 

"Before the rising of the sun, on the day you have appointed to 
go to your field to prepare the ground for planting, you shall paint 
red the parting of your hair, and wliile doing so you shall repeat 
these words: 'My grandfather tells me that this is the path of the 
god of day, that if I also travel this path, said my grandfather, in 
the course of my life I shall be difficult to be overcome by death.' 
You shall repeat this ceremony for four successive days, and when 
night comes be sure to remove the symbol you have put upon 
yourself." 

2. WA-Zm*" THE-THE Kl'-NO". 

The second section of the instructions given to the women relates 
to war and is called Wa-zhi"' The-the Ki'-no", vSymbol of the Sending 
of the Will, literally, Wa-zhi°', Will; The-the, Sending of; Ki'-no°, 
Painting. This ceremony of the sending of the will is to be performed 
when the brothers of the woman have gone to war, in order to insure 
to them that her courage shall be added to that of the warriors 
when they battle with the enemy. This ceremony also is supplica- 
tory. By its performance the woman invokes supernatural aid that 
success may attend the warriors, as upon their courage and valor 
depends the safety of the women and their little ones during their 
journey upon life's pathway. 

The A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka directs the women as follows: 

"Before the rising of the sun, following the day of the departure 

of the warriors, you shall paint red the parting of your hair. It is 

the jiath of the god of day. While performing tliis act you shall 

repeat these words: 'My grandfather tells me that this is the path 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 285 

of the god of day. If I also make it to be my path I shall cause 
myself to be difficult to be overcome by death, for even the other 
gods shall fear to stand in that path and to obstruct my way, in the 
course of my life.' You shall also paint a short blue upright line 
upon your cheek. Then you shall put the interior of your house in 
order, so that it may be pleasing to look upon, and as the sun rises 
and reaches a point midway between the horizon and midheaven you 
shall remove from your head and face these signs, saying, as you do 
so: 'My grandfather bids me to say that the act I now perform is 
not without a purpose, that it means the destruction of the young 
man who dwells toward the setting sun, the youth whose voice has 
become broken.' ■ "i 

"On the following morning you shall repeat the ceremony and shall 
paint beside the blue upright line a red line. Then as the sim again 
reaches a point midway between the horizon and midheaven you 
shall remove these mystic symbols and say, as you do so: -'My 
grandfather bids me say that the act I now perform is not without a 
purpose, that it means the destruction of the maiden who dwells 
toward the setting sun, the maiden whose voice has become broken.' 

"Four successive days you shall repeat tliis ceremony until there 
shall appear on your left cheek four short upright lines, two blue and 
two red, and you shall have performed your ceremonial duty of helping 
the warriors." 

Sho"'-ge-mo°-i" was inclined to avoid the mention of this part of the 
Tse Wa-tho° for the reason, perhaps, that there is in it too direct a 
reference to the destruction of human life, as the office of his gens is 
that of the protection of life and the maintenance of peace with all 
peoples. 

Wa-xthi'-zlii gives in full the form used by his gens, the Puma of 
the Ho°'-ga division, when instructing the initiate's wife as to her 
ceremonial duties in the No" '-zlii"-zho" degree. The form given by 
him contains five sections, namely: (1) Painting for the Sending of 
Courage ; (2) The Vigil by which the Woman Sends Courage ; (3) Sym- 
bolic Face Painting, and the Robe; (4) Symbolic Painting, and the 
Field; (5) Ceremonial Face Painting, and the Water Chinquapin (see 
pp. 192-195). 

Xu-tha-wa-to''-i° gave in iletail the form used by his gens, the "Tsi'- 
zhu Wa-no°, in the Ni'-ki degree of the seven tribal rites. (See 36th 
Ann. Kept. B. A. E., pp. 270-272.) 

'rse-zhi°-ga-wa-da-i°-ga, of the Tho'-xe gens, who was recognized 
as one of the men well versed in the tribal rites, said that the buffalo 
songs are calls to the animals which are still in the unseen world and 
are yet to appear on the earth in visible, bodily form. Indeed, some 
of the buffalo songs given by this man in the Shrine Degree of the tribal 



286 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



rites (to be published in a later volume) are entitled Wa-dsu'-ta 
Gi-bo° Wa-tlio°. Songs of Calling the Animals. 

The words of the first of the two buffalo songs given by Sho^'-ge- 
moM" imply a response to the call of the people to the animals to 
come forth from the imseen to the visible world, in bodily form. In 
the first and second stanzas the female and the male who possess the 
power of reproduction are first made to speak. All the animals men- 
tioned in the four stanzas are personified and they speak for them- 
selves. In the tliird stanza the little one to be born of the female and 
the male gives promise to come forth. In the fourth stanza the male 
who is to live to a great age is made to speak. 

A free translation of the first two lines of each stanza will suffice to 
give the meaning. 

Song 1. 
( Osage version, p. 489; literal translation, p. 612.)_ * 

M.M. J r 84 



Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



4 



kfe 



n ;^ I J J I I 



s 



-)&- 



Ti.e beats ^ T FT f ^-^f f T f 

Mi - ga do° ho" mo°-ho''-bthi" da he, 



fe 



s 



i 



m 



m 



i J "^jjj^.^' 



» — * — m 



^ r r r r r f^ f ^r 

B he mo" ho"-l)thi"da he the he-tho"-he the. Mo"- 



^ 



i 



r r r r r r r r r r 

ho"-lt)thi" da he he-tho°-he the,Mo''-ho"-bthi"da a he the he. 



FREE TR.\NSLATION. 
1. 

I, being tlie female, now go forth, 

Lo, I go forth to appear in bodily form. 



I, being tne male, now go forth, 

Lo, I go forth to appear in bodily form. 



I, being the little one, now go forth, 
Lo, I go forth to appear in bodily form. 



I, being the aged one, now go forth, 
Lo, I go forth to appear in bodily form. 



UA FLESCHE] 



ETTE OF VIGIL- — FREE TRANSLATION. 



287 



In the second song the people are represented as speaking. They 
exclaim joyfully at the response of the buffalo to their call; to the 
coming of the female and the male upon whom depend the increase of 
their kind ; to the coming of the little one who stands as a representa- 
tive of the reproduction ; to the coming of the agetl one who is made 
to prefigure the existence of his kind through the future ages. 

These two buffalo songs are expressions of the abiding faith of the 
people in the benevolence of the divine power to whom they cry 
continually for aid in their struggles for existence. 

A free translation of two lines from each of the four stanzas will 
suffice to give the meaning. 

Song 2. 



(Osage version, p. 490; literal translation, p. 613.) 



$m 



M.M. • = 88 



TraiiBcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



^ * J ^ \ » • ^ 



^ 



Timebeats f T T f f T T f 

Mi-ga tha ha mo° - ho" - thi° be, E he the 



4*»J. J n 



r r r r r r r r ^ 

he mi - ga tha ha mo" ho° thi° be Mi 




^^ 



s 



r r r r r r r r r r r ^ ^ 

ga a ha mo° - ho"-thi" be, E he the he mi-ga tha 



i 



^B 



^ 



f r r r r r 

ha mo" ho° thi" be, A he 



r r r 

the the the he. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

The female is coming to us, 
Lo, the female is coming to us. 



The male is coming to us, 
Lo, the male is coming to us. 

3. 

The little one is coming to us, 
Lo, the little one is coming to us. 



288 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ann. 39 

4. 

The aged one is coming to us, 
Lo, the aged one is coming to us. 

The third song relates to the corn, which, with the buffalo, was 
given an important place in the ancient tribal rites. How long ago 
the buffalo and the corn became a necessary part of the life of the 
Osage people may never be known, but the origin of the two was 
placed, mythically, by the ancient No"'-ho"-zhi°-ga, at the beginning 
of the earthly career of the tribe. (See Ni'-ki Wi'-gi-e of the Tsi'-zhu 
Wa-shta-ge gens, 36th Ann. Rept. B. A. E., p. 279, lines 54 to 110.) 
The two, the animal and the plant, thus became objects of the con- 
tinual supplications of the people to that mysterious power whence 
flows life into all material forms. 

The duty of prociu-ing the buffalo for food, shelter, and clothing 
devolved upon the man, while that of planting, cultivating, and har- 
vesting the corn fell to the woman. She religiously performed this 
duty, always being mindful of its mysterious character and of its 
mysterious source. The ancient No°'-ho"-zlii°-ga dwelt reverently 
upon the duty of the woman when they performed the tribal rites, 
giving emphasis to the mystic powers bestowed upon her as repre- 
sentative of life in the hmnan form, and the corn as typifying in plant 
form that same mystic gift of life. Every act of the woman per- 
fonned with reference to her duty of cultivating the corn is given a 
sacred and mysterious significance, from the time of her going forth 
from her house to the field to clear the ground for her sacred "foot- 
print," to the making of the little hills, in which the grains are to be 
planted, with their flattened faces turned expectantly toward the sun. 
The men of the ancient days gave thought even to the strivings of the 
mysterious little seed when it awakens to active life, forces its way 
upward through the sacred "footprint" on the soil, into the life- 
giving sunlight, where it sends forth its stalk and the broad leaves that 
play in the wind. Then follow the blossoms and the ears, each in 
season, to the time when the woman hastens to the field, pausing at 
its edge to take a broad view of its beauty wMle her heart is glad- 
dened at the thought of a rich harvest that will bring joy in her house. 

A translation of one line only of each stanza will suffice to give the 
meaning. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 289 

Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 490: literal translation, p. 613.) 

M. M. • = 88 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



^ 



r r 

A - <;i-gthe no" 



Time beats ' ' ' ' 

A- 9i-gthe no" do" ho" no", 



fe 



^ 



"* — * — * — ""■' "^ I. 

r r r r r r 



r r 

do" ho" no", A-qi-gtheno" do" ho", A-9i-gtheno" 



^ 



m 



s 



*i J j 



^ 



r r r r r r r r 

do" ho" no", A-9i-gthenon do" ho" no", A-cji-gtheno" 



m 



^^ 



^ 



! r'- 4J J J ^ J^ lU j J 



r r • r 

do" ho" no", A 



r r r r 

he the the the he. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Footprints I shall make; good and mysterious. 

2. 
Footprints I shall make; I clear the ground. 

3. 
Footprints I shall make; to lie in even rows. 

4. 
Footprints I shall make; that are sacred. 

5. 
Footprints I shall make; the seed pushes open the earth. 

6. 
Footprints I shall make; the leaves wave in the wind. 

7. 
Footprints I shall make; the stalks stand firm. 



Footprints I shall make; the sacred act is done. 
3594°— 25t 19 



290 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ANN. 39 

9. 
Footprints I shall make; I pluck the ripened ears. 

10. 
Footprints I shall make; the blossoms fall. 

11. 
Footprints I shall make; the ears cross each otlier in profusion. 

12. 
Footprints I shall make: I break down the stalks. 

13. 
Footprints I shall make; there's joy in my house. 

Wolf Soxgs. 

The remarks concerning the Wolf Songs of the Puma gens of the 
Ho°'-ga division (p. 124) apply also to the following Wolf Songs of 
the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gens of the Tsi'-zhu diyision. 

The Wolf Songs of the various gentes of both the Tsi'-zhu and 
Ho"'-ga divisions are dedicated to the eight commanders chosen 
from the two great tribal divisions, four from one and four from the 
other, for a great war party. The Wolf Songs of the Puma gens and 
also those of the Tho'-xe gens (to be published later) dwell upon the 
authority of the eight commanders and upon the mystic traits of 
the wolf, such as watchfulness, physical endurance, and the abUity 
to resist the longing for home, traits necessary to the officers respon- 
sible for the lives of their men. The Wolf Songs belonging to the 
Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge are supplicatory in character — an appeal to 
the supernatural to grant to the commanders the same powers 
bestowed upon thewolf to aid them in overcoming their enemies. 

Songs 1 and 2 are nearly alike. One stanza from each of these 
songs will suffice to give their meaning. 



LAFLESCHE] BITE OF VIGIL FHEE TEAXSLATION. 291 

Song 1. 

(Osage version, p. 491: literal translation, p. 614.) 
M. M . • r 84 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



r r r F Tf'J-f' f 



d 



Time beats T I I [ I [" |* f 

(yi-a wa-thi-ko - ge he, 9i-awa-tlii-ko - ge he, 



'iMm^' t 



P- I F 



rrrr-if r 



^^ 



r r r r r r r r 

Qi-a wa-thi-ko - ge he, ^i-awa-thi-ko - ge, Ni-wa - 




ta ha, 



thi-ko-ge he, 9i-awa-thi-ko 



■>V</ ^ i ^r-E_r- i r r \ ^'U 



r r r r r r r r 

ge he, <;i-awa-thi-ko - ge he, ^i-a wa - thi-ko 



fe ^>.it^ tj-' ir r ir f r f ir r i i 



r r r r r r r r 

ge, ni wa ta ha, 9i-a wa- thi-ko - ge he. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



May their feet be cramijed, may their feet be cramped, 
We a.sk, may they be cramped. 



May tlieir legs be cramped, may their legs be cramped. 

3. 
May their bodies be cramped, may their bodies be cramped. 

4. 
May their arms be cramped, may their arms be cramped. 

5. 
May their heads be cramped, may their heads be cramped. 



May their mouths be cramped, may their mouths be cramped. 



292 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 491; Literal traaslation, p. 614. 
M. M. J = 84 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




r p r^ r ^r r ^ ^ 



Time beats 



r r 



(Ji-a wa-thi-lco - ge he, ka-wa 



r r 

ho" - da ha we. 




MJ' l' ^n-^^-^^?P 



r r r ^ r ^ r r f " f 

9i-ava-thi-ko-ge,ho"-won - da ha we, (Ji-awa-thi-ko- 




ge,hon-wo"-da ha we, Qi-awa-thi-ko-ge,ho"-wo"-da ha we, 



m?i^u 



^W^^^ H i 



r r r r ^ r r r 

Qi-a wa-thi-ko - ge he, ka-wa ho" - da ha we. 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

May their feet be cramped, is what we ask. 

2. 
May their legs be cramped, is what we ask. 

3. 
May their Ijodies be cramped, is what we ask. 

4. 
May their arms be cramped, is what we ask. 

5. 
May their heads be cramped, is what we ask. 



May their mouths be cramped, is what we ask. 

The third song, as the words imply, and as exphained by the Singer 
is an appeal of the warriors for success. In the first stanza the sup- 
plication as made to the supernatural is for success in the war enter- 
prise; in the second stanza the warriors ask for aid in taking a village. 

A translation of two lines from each stanza will suffice to give the 
meaning. 



LA FLESCHE] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



293 



M.M. J 



Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 492; literal translation, p. 615.) 

Transcribed by Alice C.Pletcher 



^^''5! J'J I litlJ. K'l^ l liji. J ^^T3 



Timebeats ^ ^ ^ T T ^ ^ ^ 

Ho"-wo" - da ha we, ho°-wo" - da ha we, Hon-wo° . 




I ' r r r ' ' 

ia ha we, ho". wo" . da ha thi he no",Ho"-wo" 



^ 



^ 



^ 



f P 



r 

da ha 



r r 

we, ho"- wo" 



r r 

da ha. we. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



We make bur appeal, we make our appeal, 

We make our appeal, we make our appeal as we go forth. 



We ask for a village, we ask for a village, 

We ask for a village, we ask for a village, as we go forth. 

The fourth song is a special appeal to the god of night and an appeal 
to the god of day. In the song tlie supplicants are nuule to refer to 
the night and to the day as being the only supernatural powers who 
could give to the warriors effective aid. The first stanza refers to the 
god of night and the second stanza to the god of day. 

A translation of two lines from each stanza will suifice. 



294 



M. M 



.J 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. [kth. ann.39 

Song 4. 
(Osage version, p. 492; Uteraltranslation, p. 615.) 

' Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher. 



84 



4 F1 



^ 



4- * W. 



Time beats .' ' ' ' T * 

Tsi-go gthinonhe no"no" no", Tsi-go gthi no" he no" no" no". 




r ' r r - , , 

Tsi-go gthi no" he no" no" no", He the tlie the. 




Ho" do" gthi no" he no" no" no". Ho" do" gthi no" he no" no" no". 




r r ' r r r r 

He the the the, Tsi-go gthi no" he no" no" no". 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

My grandfather, he who never fails to return, is all in all. 
He who never fails to return as night, is all in all. 

2. 

My grandfather, he who never fails to return, is all in all, 
He who never fails to return as day, is all in all. 

Songs Pertaining to the Attack. 

The group of songs next in order bears the title Wa-no°'-9e A-ba-?u 
Wa-tho°, Songs Pertaining to the Attack; literally, Wa-no"'-9e, 
Attack; A-ba-fu, Pointing out the direction for the; Wa-tho°, Songs. 
This name took its origin from the final ceremonial act of the Do-do""'- 
ho°-ga (Cliief Commander) of a war party composed of men from the 
two great tribal divisions, the Ho"'-ga and the Tsi'-zhu. Such a war 
party was organized with elaborate ceremonials (to be described in a 
later volume) in which the people of both the great tribal divisions 
participate. The rite occupied a period of four days for its com- 
pletion. 

On the morning of the fourth day the No"'-ho"-zhi°-ga, the Do-do°'- 
ho^-ga, and the warriors depart from the village, going in a westerly 
direction. When they have gone beyond the places frequented by 



L.iFLESCHEl KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 295 

the inhabitants of the village they halt in order to perform the final 
ceremonies. 

The warriors sit on the ground, facing westward, those of the 
Ho°'-ga division at the right and those of the Tsi'-zhu at the left. 
The sacred pipe is smoked by the leading No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga of the two 
great divisions, an act by which these divisions pledge loyalty to one 
another. At the close of the smoking ceremony the Do-do" '-ho°-ga 
picks up a hamlful of grass from a pile placed before him, lifts it 
toward the setting sun, or in a line of the Ho'^'-ga warriors, and, with- 
out turning, tells his men that by tliis act he asks the mysterious 
power that success be granted the warriors of the Ho°'-ga division. 
Then he drops the handful of grass to the ground. He picks up a 
second handful and holds it up toward the setting sun on the Tsi'-zhu 
side. By this act he asks for the success of the Tsi'-zhu warriors and 
drops the bunch of grass beyond the first bunch. He picks up a third 
bunch of grass and holds it high in a direct line from himself. By 
this act he appeals for his own success and then drops this tliird 
bunch beyond the first two. Holding the remainder of the grass 
aloft toward the sky, he says that he asks the mysterious power that 
all the warriors be given success, that they shall capture spoils as 
numerous as the blades of grass which he drops at his feet . These acts 
are given the common title of Wa-no^'-fe A-ba-fu and form the title 
of the songs of this group. 

During this final su])plicatory ceremony, wnich is performed by 
the Do-do" '-ho^-ga himself, he recites four wi'-gi-es, including the 
one by which he points out the direction of the attack. 

The first two songs of tliis group refer to two birds possessing 
mystic powers, mentioned in the tliird wi'-gi-e, and to whom the 
Do-do"'-ho"-ga appeals for supernatural aid in making the arrows of 
his warriors effective. 

The following is a paraphrase of the two sections of the wi'-gi-e 
wherein these two birds, the hawk and the crow, are spoken of: 

1. 

O, ye valiant men. 

There is a person whom they made to be their weapon. 

He is tlie great hawk, they said, O, ye valiant men. 

My grandfather (the hawk) is a fear inspiring weapon, they said. 

Even with a slight stroke of his wing he will disable his prey, 

So that it can not escape beyond the brow of the nearest hill. 

4. 

« 

There is another person whom they made to be their weapon. 

He is the great crow. 

My grandfather (the crow) , O, ye valiant men, 



296 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. anx, 30 

Is a person to whom notliing is beyond understanding. 
He flies swiftly through and through the dense forests, 
And as smftly he makes liis way through the carrion upon wliich 

he feeds. 
When, befoi-e the break of day, 0, ye vaUant men, 
I make him to be a weapon for you, 
Your weapons shall not be ineffective. 
Or, when in the evening of the day, 
I make him to be a weapon for you, 
Yom' weapons shall not be ineffective, 0, ye valiant men. 

The hawk is given a prominent place in the tribal war rites as a 
symbol of courage and aggressiveness. He is gifted with swiftness 
of wing and makes his attack with unerring precision, striking his 
prey so that it is unable to flee ''beyond the brow of the nearest 
hill." The hawk is spoken of in the wi'-gi-e as '"My grandfather," 
a term by which the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga expressed their reverence for 
the power of undaunted courage which has been bestowed upon the 
bird. By the recitation of the wi'-gi-e the Do-do" '-ho"-ga asks that 
the arrows of his warriors be given the same accm-acy and precision 
that has been bestowed upon the hawk when he attacks his enemy. 

The crow figures prominently in the ancient rites, not because the 
bird is gifted with a warlike natm-e, but because of its divining 
instincts. When a host of men go forth that mystic bird knows 
that a feast .will be provided for him between foe and foe. It is that 
instinct of the crow to which the No°'-ho"-zhi°-ga refer when they 
say, "My grandfather is a person to whom nothing is beyond under- 
standing," meaning that to him notliing is hidden. The term "My 
grandfather" used in speaking of the crow refers to the gift from the 
mysterious power bestowed upon the hawk, a warlike spirit, and 
upon the crow, a mystic instinct that directs it to the fields of combat 
or the chase. 

The meaning of the word wa-f i"-da, used in both stanzas of Song 1 , 
could not be explained, but it is thought to be the archaic name for 
bird. 

The translati(3n of a lino or two from each stanza of the first two 
songs will explain their meaning. 



LAFLBSCHE] KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 297 

Song 1. 
(Osage ^'ersion. p. 492: literal translation, p. 615.)^ 
IW M J - an Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



t 



r^n.n- \ i J i ri , \ n. m 



Time beats 



r r 



T [ ^ f ^ r 



Tsi-go wa-9i" - da ha ni-wa-ta, Tsi-go wa-gi"- 



-n-n-v^ , 



^ 



•--t 



r r f~r~~ ^ ^ r f 

da ha ni-wa-ta, Ka-xe mo" the tha ha 



JJ. I j J I 



¥ 



^ 



:i=*= 



ni-wa-ta, Ka-xe monthe tha ha ni-wa - ta. 



^^h F . r F 



p^ 



r r r r 

Tsi-go wa-ci" - da ha 



r r 

ni - wa - ta. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

To my grandfatlier, the bird, ask ye for aid, ask for aid, 
To the crow, the arrow, ask ye for aid, ask for aid. 



To my grandfatlier, the bird, ask ye for aid, ask for aid, 
To the hawk, the arrow, ask ye for aid, ask for aid. 



298 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ANN. 39 

Song 2. 

(Osage version, p. 493: literal translation, p. 615.) 
M M. • r 16 Transcribed by Alice C. PletcheF 



w 



^g 



^ 



^ 



rn — r 



r=:i 



^ 



• • 



* • • * 



r r 



Time beats I ' 111 If I (* 

Ho ni wa - ta, ho niwa-ta-e, Ka-xe mo" the tha 



m 



m 



s 



tI-V 



^ 



r r r r r 



r 



ha ni wa-ta ha ni wa - ta, 



r 

Ka-xe moi the tha 




r 

ha 


r 

ni 


r r 

wa - ta, ha 


r 

ni 


wa • 


r 

ta. 

• 






FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 





Ho! ask ye for aid, ask for aid, 

To the crow, the arrow, ask ye for aid, ask for aid. 

2. 

To the hawk, the arrow, ask ye for aid, ask for aid. 

3. 
To the arrow itself ask ye for aid, ask for aid. 

4. 
To the arrow I send forth ask ye for aid, ask for aid, 

5. 
To my grandfather, the mysterious, ask ye for aid, ask for aid. 

In Songs 3 and 4 there is not a single word that suggests its mean- 
ing, but the old men versed in the rite say that these songs refer to 
the close of the ceremonial acts performed by the Do-do" '-ho"-ga 
when the warriors of the two great tribal divisions are required, as 
a last act, to walk, one by one, upon the four bunches of grass he 
had arranged in a line toward the setting sim. 



LA FLESCHE] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



299 



Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 493: literal translation, p. 616.) 



M.M. 



80 



i 



,? 



S 



Transcribed by' Alice C. Fletcher 
3 



S 



ha ni da ha, 
3 



*^ r 

Time beats ' 

Kia 



r r f 

ha ni da ha, kia 



i 



^ 



^ 



TT'^ 



f 



d d s 



-r 

f I if' ' r ' r 

Kia ha ni da ha, kia ha ni da ha, Kia ha ni da ha, 



r 



r 



r 



r 



^ 



m 



i 



Kia ha ni da ha. 



r 

kia ha ni da wethakia he, 



Song 4. 
(Osage version, p. 493; literal translation, p. 616.) 
M. M. • z 80 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



* 



^ 



i 



Time beats 



Kia 



^ ^ r . r 

ha - we tha ho she" ni da. 



'iij-n.Ji.n^ I I r,i ^^ 



Kia ha-we tha ho shon ni da, Kia ha-we tha sho" ni da 



pi 



yy-hir ^r^j-n ^ 



1 



*-# 



r r r 

Kia ha-we tha shoi ni da. 



T 



r r r r r 

Kia ha-we tha ha sho° ni da. 



Song 5 refers to the act of the warriors iu marching one by one 
over the four bunches of grass which the Do-do°'-ho°-ga used as 
symbols when making his appeal for divine aid. If the warriors of 
the Tsi'-zhu great division are the first to pass over the symbolic 
bunches of grass, each man, as he advances, uses his left foot first; 
but if the warriors of the Ho"'-ga great division are the first to move, 
each man begins by putting forth his right foot first. By this sym- 
bolic act the warriors theniselves ask for supernatural aid; they ask 



300 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[Ern. AXX. 39 



that the enemy he struck with fear so that their feet, legs, bodies, 
anus, heads, or mouths will be seized with cramps and may become 
incapable of fighting. 

SoxG 5. 

(Osage version, p. 493: literal translation, p. 616.) 
M.M. J r 80 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




-+- 



^ 



q 



Time beats 



Kia 



ha - we tha ho sho", ^ia thi 



i 



E 



^ 



i' J J Ji ^ I I 



r r r r r ^- ' r . r r r 

ko - ge no" ha-we tha ho, ^ia thi-ko - ge tha, 



•^ r r r r r r r r r^ 



d 



Kia we tha ho sho",(yia thi - ko - ge no" ha-we tha ho. 



$ 



ma^ r r r j ^ 



SSE 



1^ 

r 



^ 



r 



r 



r r 



^ia thi-ko-ge kia 



r r r 

ha we tha ho sho". 



The music of Songs 5 and 6 is the same but the words are different 
in meaning. In Song 6 the act of the warriors of stepping upon 
or marcliing over the four bunches of grass is again referred to. 
The act, however, is not individual but representative of unity in 
thought, purpose, and action by the people in all tribal military 
affairs; it is the act of the symbolic man who ever personates the 
organic principle of the tribe. In other words, the warriors of the 
two great tribal divisions, as they take the four sacred steps, 
acknowledge their obligation to act as one man — one in thought, one 
in purpose, and one in action. In accordance with tribal symbolic 
conception of unity they take thus the four steps and go forth to 
engage in conflict ^vith the enemy. 

The use of archaic words in Songs •") and fi makes it difficult to 
give a full and free translation in a few words. 

Song 0. 

(Osage version, p. 494: literal translation, p. 616.) 

(For music see Song 5.) 

In Song 7 the use of archaic words makes it difficult to give a full 
translation, but the song refers to the final appeal by the Do-do°'- 
ho"-ga for supernatural aid. 



LAFLBSCHE] BITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 301 

Song 7. 

(Osage version, p. 494; literal translation, p. 616.) 
M. M. J - 76 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



^1 h 



^ 



m -J 



E 



Time beats 



Tsi 



r r r 

go ha - We tha to 



r- r 

ki ni da, 



#"J JJ.J'J 



1 



#^ 



^^ 



r r r ^r r r ^ r. r 

to ki ni da ha, Tsi-go ha-we tha to ki ni da. 




r f r ^r r r r r r 

to ki ni da ha, Tsi-go_ha-we tha to ki ni da. 



$ 



k 



n\^ F TTv 



i 



f 



E 



m 



r r 



T r 



to ki ni da ha, Tsi-go ha-we tha 



r r r 

to ki ni da, 



\^y4j ffCJ^p r r r r ir "^^ ^ 

" "r r r "r ' r f^ "r r T 



I 



to ki ni da ha, Tsi-go ha-we tha to ki ni da. 

Songs of Triujiph. 

Wa-tsi'-a-(lsi Wa-tho"" is the title of the ten Songs of Triumph. 
Literally translated the words are as follows: Wa-tsi, Triumph; 
a-dsi, at the; Wa-tho"*, Songs. 

As the first song of this group is about to be sung the wife of the 
Initiate, followed by several of her female relatives and friends, enter 
the lodge and stand abreast facing the Xo'-ka, the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka, 
and the Initiate, before whom lie scattered the various articles tliat 
compose the shi-ine. When the singing is about to begin the wife of 
the Initiate picks up the sacred hawk and liangs it upon her back as it 
is worn by the commander of a group of warriors about to attack the 
enemy. The other women distribute among themselves the various 
sacred articles: the buffalo hair bag; the deerskin bag, and the inner 
case woven of a particular rush (Eleocharis interstinda) (PI. 5, D). 

This woven rush case, the shrine proper, which is ceremonially 
made, symbolizes the sky, the earth, and the space between. The 
space between is where life is said to be conceived through the com- 



302 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



bined influences of the sky and the earth, whence it descends to take 
material form. The dual function that lies within and back of all the 
manifestation of life was recognized by the ancient No'''-ho''-zhi°-ga 
who formulated the tribal rites. The part they gave the woman to per- 
form at this particular stage of the ceremony has reference, not only 
to her sacerdotal office as weaver of the shrine proper that symbolizes 
life in all its forms,' celestial and terrestrial, but to the reverent care 
she bestows upon the shrine when it passes into her keeping because of 
the initiation of her husband into the mysteries of the tribal war rites. 
The part also has reference to woman's position as representative of 
the potential power of the tribe through its warriors who are born of 
woman, therefore, in the warlike achievements of the tribe her part is 
regarded as no less important than that of the men who face death 
upon the fields of conflict. 

While the first song is being sung the women stand motionless in 
their places. The translation of a single line will make clear the 
meaning of the song. 

Song 1. 

(Osage version, p. 496; literal translation, p. 616.) 
M. M. J = 80 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



^npn^iii, 



p 



» > M I 



Timebeats ' T f ' ' f f f f ' ' T 

He-wa-to,he-wa-to he tha, He-wa-to,he-wa-to he tha, 




He-wa-to,he-wa-to he tha, He-wa-to,he-wa-to a, 



«f 



4 Y i' J m 



<Sr 



^ 



S 



r r r 

He - wa - to, he - wa - to 



r r r 

.he tha. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

A triumph I have won, a triumph I have won. 

At the singing of the second song the women dance, and those who 
brought with them their loom poles strike the ground with the blunt 
end of the poles when beating time to the rhythm of the music. 

The song has two stanzas. In the first stanza are recoimted the 
praises of the Sho'-ka, the ceremonial messenger employed in the 
organization of a war party. To him is due the gratitude of the people 



UA. FLBSCHE] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



303 



because of liis efforts in assembling the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga and the war- 
riors that they may imite in performing the ceremonies required for 
the authoritative organization of a war party that has come home 
triumphant from the land of the enemy. , 

In the second stanza the Xo'-ka is given praise. He it was who, as 
Master of Ceremonies, conducted the rites for the Do-do°'-ho°-ga so 
that all the forms were observed in their proper sequence exactly as 
arranged by the ancient No°'-ho"-zhi''-ga. The successful issue of the 
war party was due not only to the efforts of these two officers in get- 
ting the peojjle to work together in rallying the warriors, but they 
were regarded as specially favored by the Mysterious Power to whom 
all the people appealed for sympathy for the Do-do°'-ho°-ga and lus 
men. 

At the close of the singing of this song, as the women start to leave 
the lodge, they push to the ground their loom poles so that they lay 
pointing to the setting sim. Tliis act is in itself an appeal for the 
destruction of all the enemies of the tribe in order that the tribal life 
might peacefully proceed upon the path of life. 

The translation of the words of one line from each stanza will make 
clear the meaning of the song. 

Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 495; literal translation, p. 616.) 
M. M. J = 80 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



,rTi„ u...., r r r r r r r r * * 



Time beatTT T f f T ' f T ^ f 

He -wa- to, he - wa-to a ha, Sho-ka he-wa he 



4 



k 



H-J-^H^ 



S 



f 



^ 



, ^ r ^ r r r r *• p 

r ■i" I 

the, He - wa - to, he- wa-to a ha, Sho-ka he-wa he 



J'" j,J,JJJ,jJJj ll "'i lf>^; II 



r 

the, He-wa-to, he- wa-to a ha, 



Sho-ka he-wa he tte. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

A triumph I have won, I have won, by my Sho'-ka. 



A triumpit I have won, I have won, by my Xo'-ka. 



304 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ann. 39 

In the third song the war organization of the tribe is extolled. 
The ancient No°'-ho"-zhi"-ga made the organization to be composed 
of all the warriors of the two great tribal divisions, the Ho"'-ga and 
the ysi'-zhu, and the unity to be typified by the vSymbolic Man, who 
represented the tribe as a vital being, having in charge the protection 
and the welfare of the people. 

The war organization as typified by the Symbolic Man is looked 
upon by the No"'-ho°-zhi"-ga as having feet and legs by wliich he 
can move from place to place ; arms to serve liis body so that he can 
maintain life anil protect it against all dangers; a head in which he 
can fornmlate his actions; and a mouth through which he can express 
his thoughts. All these specified parts of the body necessary to the 
vital activity of a natural man are attributed to the personified 
principle of unity, that is, unity of thought and action that gives 
effective force to an organized body. In a number of the songs 
belonging to the war rites these parts that are essential to the activities 
of a body are mentioned in sec^uence, beginning with the feet. Thus 
the peculiar war organization that has served the Osage people for 
a long period of time has been personified, symbolized, and preserved. 

The songs which refer to the SymVjolic Man are sometimes spoken 
of as "I'-ki Wa-tho°." The words, literally translated, are: Of 
Himself He Sings. 

In the first two songs of this group the word "wa-to" is used for 
triumph. Wa-to is archaic and probably a modification of wa-tse', 
the word conimonly irsed for triumph. In the third song the word 
"wa-k'o"" is employed, which has a broader significance than 
wa-tse', inasmuch as it was through the active power of the person 
spoken of that the triumph was acliieved. 

In the third song the word '' Wa-9i°'-da," an archaic and imtrans- 
latable word, occupies a pronunent place. The word is said to refer 
directly to the Symbolic Man. 

A free translation of one line from each stanza will reveal the 
meaning. 



LA FLESCHE] 



KITE OF VIGIL FKEE TEANSLATION. 



305 



u. 



Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 495; literal translation, p. 616.) 
tlt vf J _ gA Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



it'»kn^.iaj±^ 



SSS 



il 



^ ^ * ~*~*^? 



Time beats 



r r r r r 



r r r 



A ha wa-9i"-da ha wa-koDe-tha, e the<;i"-daha we, 




^ r -. r ' f ', r 

A ha ■wa-9i"-(la ha wa-koie-tha. 



r f r^f 

e theqi^-daha we, 




A ha ■wa-9i"-da ha wa-k'o" e-tha, e the(;i°-daha we, 



#^iJ:.j:.ji.j^i'^iiJJ:i i ' 



r r^ T" r7 r r r r r 

A ha wa-9i"-daha wa-ko"e-tha, e the^i^-daha we, 



g^ 



m m ' 



^^ 



»# • #• • 



r r r r r 

A ha wa - ^i" . da ha wa k'o" e-tha. 

TREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

A ha! Wa-9i°'-da has triumphed, because he has feet. 

2. 
A ha! Wa-fio'-da has triumphed, because he has legs. 

3. 
A ha! Wa-?i"'-da has triumphed, because he has a body. 

4. 
A ha! \Va-i-i'''-da has triumphed, because he has arms. 

5. 
A ha! Wa-gi"'-da has triumphed, because he has a head. 

6. 
A ha! Wa-9i"'-da has triumphed, because he has a mouth. 

Upon the triumphant return of a war party ceremonially organized , 
the No°'-ho°-zhi''-ga assemble for the purpose of performing the cere- 
3594°— 25t 20 



306 



THE OSAGE TKIBE. 



[kTH. ANN. 



monies pertaining to the cutting into small strips the scalps brought 
home by the Do-do°'-ho°-ga for distribution as trophies among the 
sacred hawks belonging to the warriors of the various gentes who 
took part in the fight. The bits of scalp are cut with solemn cere- 
monies, durmg which is used a peculiar and typical knife that has 
been consecrated for this purpose. The strips of scalp are added to 
the fringe-like belt of the sacred hawks that symbolize the courage 
of the warriors of the tribe (PI. 13). 

The fourth song of this group refers to this cereniony, the details of 
which ^viIl be given in a later volmne, together with a ritual called 
WA-do'-ka We-ko. In this fourth song the scalp to be cut into strips 
and (Ustributed is spoken of as Tsi-go, my grandfather, for the reason 
that it is to become attached to the sacred bird. The name Wa- 
ko-^'-da occm-s in this song in connection with four different colored 
clays wliich the ancient No"'-ho°-zhi°-ga consecrated to represent the 
earth. The song refers to the first act of tliis peculiar rite when the 
scalp is spread and bits of it are offered to the four sacred and sym- 
bolic clays, in gratitude for the victory Wa-ko" '-da granted the 
warriors of the tribe. 

A free translation of the first line of the one stanza, together with 
the above explanation, will give the meaning of the song. 

Song 4. 
(Osage version, p. 495; literal translation, p. BI7.) 

M.M J = 93 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 

-K- 



li^' 1 jm n 



+ 



^SE 



^ 



s^ 



^ 



^ j> 1 



Time beats i I 11 

Tsi-go wa-ko" da ta ha 



r 



we ha thi-o ka 




J' ' JJ i ' /'^ M 



r7 



r 



r 



wetsei"da, Ha thi-o- ka wetsei"do, 



r ■ r 

tha-ho - ka- 




wetseindo, Tha-ho - ka - we tse i" do 




r r 

we tae i^ da> 



r r r r r 

Tsi-go wa - kon dft ta ha we. 



LA FLESCHE] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



307 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Toward the Wa-ko°'-da let my grandfather be spread. 
The fifth song adverts to the actual cutting of the scalp for distri- 
bution and its significance. The sacred war trophy to be distributed 
and attached to the sacred hawk is spoken of as wa-no"'-xe, meaning a 
spirit, and is also characterized as wa-ko"'-da, mysterious. In this 
song the Spnbolic Man is again brought forwartl and represented as 
asking that the ceremony of distributing the spirit of the slain man 
be performed. In the third line the Symbolic Man speaks of his going 
forth to secm-e the mysterious spirit, and in the fourth line of his going 
to the No°'-ho°-zhi"-ga and asking that the ceremony of distribution 
be perfonned. In the song the physical structure of the Symbolic 
Man is again emphasized, lie is made to speak as going forth, being 
possessed of feet, legs, body, arms, head, and mouth. 



M.M. Jr 100 



Song 5. 
(Osage version, p. 496; literal translation, p. 617.) 



Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 




' 4 * - 




^ sl d 



Time beats 



r r 



r r 



r 



E no" wa-non-xe he wa-ko"-da wa 




E no" wa-non-xe he wa - kon-da wa-ha <;u wi-shi, 




r 

Ci 



T r r 

bthe do" he 



^ r r : r, 

wa - ko"-da wa-ha ^u wi-shi, 




FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Lo, it is a spirit, mysterious, I ask you to distribute, 

Lo, it is a spirit, mysterious, I ask you to distribute. 

On my feet I set forth; this mystic spirit I ask you to distribute, 

I come desiring you to distribute this mystic spirit. 



308 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [eth. Ann. 3S> 

2. 

On my legs I set forth; this mystic spirit I ask you to distribute. 

3. 
In my body I set forth; this mystic spirit I asli you to distribute. 

4. 
With my arms I set fortli; this mystic spirit I asli you to distribute. 

5. 
With my head I set forth; this mystic spirit I ask you to distribute. 

(5. 
With my mouth I set forth; this mystic spirit I ask you to distribute. 

The theme of the sixth song is the acts by wliich the spirit symbol 
the scalp taken from the enemy, is prepared for distribution. 

In the series of ceremonial acts to which tliis song adverts the 
persons officiating simulate the acts of the hunter who pei-forms 
these in a regular and established order when making the incisions 
to remove the skin from a deer he has killed. This particular cei'e- 
mony, referred to in the sixth song, may have a cryptic reference to 
a deer ceremony. Be that as it may, it is clear that the two cere- 
monies have a common piu'pose. The deer was slain in order that 
the slayer might live, and the enemy was slain in order that the 
slayer might live: thus the two ceremonies are brought into close 
association with each other in the tribal rites that have for their 
theme tliroughout the preservation of the life of the people. 

According to this song the order observed by the hunter in making 
the incisions to remove the skin of a slain animal is as follows: (1) the 
cut is first made down the length of the breast; (2) down the inner 
sides of the hind legs; (3) down the inner sides of the "arms" or 
front legs; (4) the under part of the head ; (.5) around the mouth. In 
two songs used in this ceremony by the Puma gens tlie sequence of 
the incisions is slightly different. 

A free translation of the first line of each stanza will give the 
meaning of the song. 

Song 6. 

(Osage version, r- 196; literal translation, ij. 617.) 
(The music of this song is the same as that of Song 4.) 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Unfold ye, my grandfather; let the breast be cut. 

2. 
Unfold ye, my grandfather; let the hind legs be cut. 



IiAFLESCHE] 



KITE OF VIGIL FREE TBANSLATIOK. 



309 



3. 
Unfold ye, my grandfather; let the front legs be cut. 

-1. 
Unfold ye, my grandfather; let the head be cut. 

5. 
Unfold ye, my grandfather; let the mouth be cut. 

The only intelligible words in the two stanzas of Song 7 are 
"Hi-tho-to" no"." These words mean the straight or tlie straight 
line. The words refer to the acts of the two men officiating in the 
ceremony of the Wa-do'-ka We-ko who are required to cut the skin 
with tlie Mystic Knife, placing the tip of the knife at a given point 
and drawing therefrom four straight lines. These indicate the four 
winds, or the four cardinal points, a symbol that figures prominently 
in the religious rites of many of the .Siouan tribes. 

The words of the two stanzas are the same -with the exception of 
one word in the third line of the second stanza, "ni-ku," which is 
archaic and has lost its meaning. 



Song 7. 
f Osage version, p. 496; literal translation, p. 617.) 



4 



fefc 



.J.- 



M. M. J = 88 



Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



^ 



r^.^ I i^^ ^^ 



Time beats ' T I 

Hi tho- to" no" no" 



r. r r 

hi tho- to" no" no", 




f * r ' r r ^ ^ f " r " r 

Hi tho-tonno"non, hi tho-tonno"iion, Hi tho-lo"no"no", 




hi tho- to" no" no", 



Hi tho- to" no" no". 



The eighth song also refers to the movements of the two officiating 
men. The sentences are broken and the words fragmentary, but 
from two words in the second line of the first stanza, " wa-ha ko"-ha," 
edges of the skin, the two stanzas may be understood to mean the 
trimming of the edges to straighten them. 

The ceremonial acts referred to by Songs 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 are 
elaborate and complex in meaning. These will be described in detail 
in the Wa-do'-ka We-ko ritual to l)e published in a later voltune. 



310 



THE OSAGE TEIBE. 



[ETH, ANN. 39 



Song 8. 
(Osage version, p. 497; literal translation, p. 617.) 

Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 




Time beats '[[ ff !*[[ 

I - tho-to" ho" thi hi hi tha no" , Sho^-toi" wa-ha ko"-ha 




r r--f r r r 

thi hi hi tha no", I - the -to" ho" thi hi 



r — ^ r r 



r r* 

hi tha no", 



1 



I - the - to" ho" thi hi 



r 



hi tha no". 



The words of Song 9 are not translatable; they were purposely dis- 
guised by the ancient No"'-ho'»-zhi°-ga in order that their meaning 
might not be profaned by common use. As explained by old Sho"''- 
ge-mo°-i°, the song points to that part of the Wa-do'-ka We-ko cere- 
mony where bits of the flesh of the slain enemy were offered to the 
four winds, the fom- clays which symbolize abiding places of the Mys- 
terious Being known to the Osage and other Siouan tribes as Wa- 
ko°'-da, a Power that controls the destiny of all living things. 

The offerings made in the Wa-do'-ka We-ko ceremony, to wliich the 
song points, are in recognition of the response given to the appeals of 
the people and of the aid granted to the attacking warriors. By this 
act also the spirit of the slain enemy is released, which, it is beheved, 
Avill at once take the path that leads to the Osage spirit land. 

As the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka comes to the third line of the song he 
pauses at the fifth syllable, when the Xo'-ka, the initiator, gives a 
series of mystic cries that are supposed to be potent in m-ging onward 
the departing spmt <>f the slain enemy. 



LA FLESCHE] 



KITE OF VIGIL FREE TEANSLATION. 



311 



Song 9. 
(Osage version, J). 497; literal translation, p. 617.) 

M. M. • = 84 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



tf-^ p r ^r r 



^ 



W 

r 

ha, 



* ' S 



Time beats 



r r 



r r r 



Sho-ne the da 



a 



'i.N J n \ i 



we ni sho-the the da we ni da 

P»-i = r— 1— 1 — i»**i ■ — - 



^ 



w 

r 

ha. 



=^^=i= 



r 



r r 

Sho-ne the da 



r 



^ r r ' r 

we ni sho-the the da we ni da 
Magic cr^ given by the Xo-ka 



i ^^j nn^j\~=^ n} n^ ^ m 



r r r 



rrrrr r r r r r r rrrrrrr 



He the da we ni. He, hi hi, hi hi, e, e, 

%^\ ■ I f— I II » fr"n ^:z^ — 1^ -1 I — ^ 



^ 



^m. 



5^ 



W I 



:^3 



m 



_i 1 i_ 



^^77 



* • d 4- d 



r r r r T ^ 

Sho-ne the da we ni sho-the the da we ni da ha, 




r r r r r 

Sho-ne the da we ni sho-the the d» we ni da ha. 



^ r r 



g^ 



I 



r 



r 



Sho-ne the da 



r r r 

we ni sho - the the. 



The words of Song 10, which closes this group, are also unintel- 
igible, but the song i-efers to the successes achieved by the warriors 
through the Symbolic ^lan. In this song the Symbolic Man himseK 
speaks of his feet, legs, body, arms, head, and mouth. These words 
are spoken clearly and are understood to mean the strength of the 
people as attained by the tribal organization which at all times is 
represented by the Spnbolic Man. 



312 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 



Song 10. 
(Osage version, p. 497; literaltranslation, p. 617.) 
M. M. J = 93 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



Ik'i n n. n. p, 



m 



^ ^^ 



w 



* m ' 



r 



Time beats 



r r 



r 




Ha-ge ke-no" ke-non 



9i wi - ta ha ka wa ha 



r r 



^ 



-F"T 



m 



^^s 



?! wi - ta ha ka wa 



Ha-ge ke-no" ke-no" 




m 



^ ^\d'4 



^ 



WW 



t 



wm 



^ r r r r 

^iwi-ta ha ka wa ha, 



r r r r f 

Ha-ge If e-no" ke-no" 9! wi - ta 



SOXGS OF THE WaTER. 

The next in order is the group of songs called Ni'-dsi Wa-tho" 
Songs of the Water. By some No"'-ho°-zhi"-ga this group is spoken 
of as the Ni-thi'-tse Wa-tho°, Songs of Crossing a Kiver, for the reason 
that when the men of a war party must cross a large river they sing 
these songs as an appeal to the vSupernatm-al for aid that they may 
reach the other side in safety. 

During the initiatory ceremony, while this group is being sung, the 
Sho'-ka brings water for the No°'-ho°-zhi"-ga to use when washing 
from their faces the symbol of No'''-zhi°-zho'', ^'igil, because before 
going to the House of Mystery they had put moistened earth upon 
their foreheads as the sign of vigil. 

The words of Songs 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 of this group can not be trans- 
lated for the reason that the meaning is obscured by the use of 
archaic terms and corrupted words. The only word, frequently used 
in these songs, that is intelligible is, ki'-no°, which means the sym- 
bolic painting of the face or body by the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga when 
attending ceremonies of the tribal rites. 



LA FLB8CHB] 



EIXE OF VIGIL- — FREE TBAXSLATION. 



313 



M 



Song 1. 

(Osage version, p- 49S; literal translatioD, p. 617.) 

{Sung twice) 

-, I _ Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 

M. W r 93 




itif 1." -i Ji 



^i ^' J J' J 



Time beats 



r r r r 

Ha ki-no" tsi - go ni da ha he tha ha, 



^^m^^^ 



^^ 



• ' * 



?^=T^ 



r^^rr 



r 



r r 



^ 



Ga wa - to" the the e 



tha ha e 



r r 

tha ha, 



W WW 



^ 



^ 



J I 



r 


r r 


r 


f 


r 


r 


Ga 


■wa - to" the 


he 


tha he 


tha 


ha 



M 



.M. J 



Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 498; literaltranslation, p. 617.) 
(Sung twice) 



84 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletch«r 



Time beatsi ' ' f a, ' i v. 



Ha ki-no" to to ni da. 



To-mo" ka she 



# 



m 



1 T 



I 



r r 

hi - no" - the tha, 



r :?• 



^ ^ r - r 

To - mo" ka she 




r r 

hi- no"- the tha, 



r r r r 

Ha ki-no" to to ni da. 



314 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[BTn. AXN. 39 




Song 3. 
( Osage version, p. 49S; literal translation, p. 617.) 

{Sung twice) 

Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



M.M.J r 80 



Time beats 



r 



r 



^^^ 



To moi-ksho" - dse 



he, To 




mon.kshon.dse hi-non.thetha, Tomon.kshon.dse hi-nC-thetha 



^ ^-^-^— ^^ ^ 



^ 



-K ^ 



r 



r 



^=^ 



r^=^=^^=l l 



M. M. J = 93 



r r 

Ha ki • no" to mo°-k.shon - dse. 

Song 4. 
(Osage version, p. 49S; literal translation, p. 617.) 
J ^^ Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




^ r r 

tha ha wa - to" the he tha, 



Ni-o" sho" shki wa 




to" the he tha, 



3: - . 

r ' r r 

Ni-o" she" shki wa- to" the he tha. 




i=ii^j=? ^E^^=^^ 



E 



f 



^ 



^-T-^ 



r r 

E hi tha hi tha, 



r r r 

Ha ki - no" wa - to" the. 



Song 5. 
(Osage version, p. 198; literal translation, p. 017.) 
(The music of this song is the same as that of Song 2.) 



liA FLESCHB] 



KITE OF VIGII 



-FREE TBANSLATION. 



315 



In Song 6 the black bear, the otter, the puma, and the beaver are 
appealed to for supernatural aid for the reason that the Mysterious 
Power had made it possible for these animals to be equally at home 
in the water or on land. It is said that when the warriors are about 
to cross a stream that is too deep or too mde to be forded they cere- 
monially make out of the skins of these mystic animals little boats 
in which to carry over the portable shi'ines and other ceremonial 
articles to be used during the journey. On such occasions the skins 
of these animals were brought forth with songs and ceremonj^ from 
the cases in wliich they were carried. 

The words of this song are intelligible and clearly expressed, 
therefore they can be given a free translation. Two lines of each 
stanza will suffice to give the meaning of the song. In stanzas 1 
and 3 Wa-^a'-be, the name of the black bear, and I°-gtlio"'-to''-ga, 
the name of the puma, are abbreviated in order that the syllables of 
the words may conform to the rhythna of the music. 



r.M.J 



SoNO 6. 
COsage version, p. 499; literal translation, p. 61?.) 
gg Transcribed by Alice C.Fletoher 




*^ r 

Time beats ' 

He-tho^-be tho 
A r\ 



i 



r ^ r 

ha he-tho" -be tha, 



rsi 



SEit 



^ 



^ 



r 



r 



He - tho" - be tho 



r - r r 

ha he - tho" - be tha, 




r ^ r r * f * r 

Qa - be he tho" be the no" ho" he - tho" - be, 




(Ja - be he - tho" ---be the no" ho" he - tho" - be, 



^ 



:^ 



1 r 



i n. i 



r r r r - r - r 

Qa - be he - tho" - be the no" ho" he - tho" - be, 




r 

(ya - be 



r r 

he - tho"- be 



r 

the no" ho" 



r 

he 



tho" 



r 

be. 



316 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. Ax.v. 39^ 

FREE TRANSLATION. 



1. 



Lo, he appears, he appears, 

The black bear appears, he appears. 

Lo, he appears, he appears. 
The otter appears, he appears. 

3. 

Lo, he appears, he appears, 
The ijuma appears, he appears. 

4. 

Lo, he appears, he appears, 
The beaver appears, he appears. 

Crow Songs. 

The next group of songs is the Ka-xe Wa-tho", Crow Songs. At 
the singing of these songs the Sho'-ka, assisted by some of the 
younger members of the No°'-ho"-zhi''-ga, proceeds to distribute the 
provisions furnished by the candi(hite for the use of the Order during 
the initiation ceremonies. Water is also brought by the servers that 
the members may refresh themselves. 

It is said that all the various gentes of the tribe use the Grow 
Songs in the initiatory rituals. In the ceremonies belonging to the 
Pmna and the Black Bear gentes are two groups of Crow Songs. It 
is only at the singing of the last group (see p. 18.3) that the No"'-ho°- 
zhi^-ga are permitted to refresh themselves with water. 

In the sacred order of the ritual songs of the Black Bear gens, 
given by Wa-tse'-mo°-i", this group of Crow Songs bears two titles. 
The first is called Ni'-ka Xo-be Ni' Tha-to" bi Wa-tho", Songs of the 
Drinking of Water by the Holy Men; and the second is named Ka'-xe 
Wa-tho" T()"-ga, Great Crow Songs. 

The Tho'-xe gens of the Tsi'-zhu great division has but one group 
composed of two Crow Songs. When speaking of this group of songs, 
Tse-zlii°'-ga-wa-da-i''-ga said that when he was acting as A'-ki-ho" 
Xo'-ka, he gave notice to the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga as follows: "0, 
No"'-ho°-zhi°-ga, I have now come to the Crow Songs. It is the 
custom of the Holy Men at this point to refresh themselves with 
water." A detailed account of the Wa-xo'-be degree of the Tho'-.xe 
gens will be given in a later volume. 

At the close of the Crow Songs all the No"'-ho"-zhi"-ga, excepting 
those belonging to the gens that is conducting the initiation, go out 
for a recess, during which they give themselves up to social pleasures 
and enjoy the food furnished by the candidate. After a rest of about 



LA FLESCHE] 



RITE OF VIGIL FBEE TBAXSL.VTION. 



317 



two hours the No"'-ho''-zhi''-ga return to the lodge and take their 
places without foruiality. 

Archaic words are employe^l in the first song and they are, there- 
fore, untranslatable. 

Song 1. 

( Osage version, p. 499; literal translation, p. 61S.) 



Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 
3 




He ke 



da we the e he 



da we ni da ha, 
3 



ro^i^ 



| 4|: » f • =?z 



U^ L-J 



9 P ^ 



z^zh 



^ 



r r r 

He ke 



r r 

da we the he 



r r 

da We ni da ha. 



(Sung twice.) 

Most of the words of Song 2 are not translatable, as only two 
complete and intelligible sentences occur in the two stanzas of the 
song: Ka-xe a-tsi i" da, The crows have come; and Tsi-go tsi i" da, 
My grandfathers have come. 

Song 2. 
(Osage ve rsion, p. 499; literal translation, p. 618.) 

M.M. J r 80 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 




f7 
Time beats 



r r r r r r r r r V 'f r 

Ka-xe a-tsi i" da ha he ko-wi-tha,Thi.a hi wa ka-xe he ko-wi-tha, 




I r r r r 



Ka-xe a-tsii" da ha he ko-wi-tha, Thi-ahi wa ka-xe he ko-wi-tha, 



318 



THE OSAGE TEIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. i 



Song 3 is an old song and it has lost its meaning, the words being 

imtranslatahle. 

Song 3. 

(Osage version, p. 499; literal translation, p. 61S.1 
MM J - ftO Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 




-iu J' ji. r-}. ^ 



ne 



zn 



Time beats 



r 



r 



r 



r 



Hi -a wi - tha no" zhi" <;o" 



r ' r 

da hi tha, 



•Jf r r r f-^f f--^r r r r - 



Hi-awi-thaiio"-zhi" qo" da hi" da, She xa-tha no"-zhi" 90" da hi" da, 



r r r r ^ V-J- f^p f-^ r b-J L 



T r r "" "rp^f r f r r ^ ^ 

She xa-thano"-zhi"90"dahi"da, She xa-tha no"-zhi" 90" dahi" da. 

(Sung twice.) 
Mid-day Songs. 

The title of the next group of songs is Mi Tho'-to" Wa-tho", which, 
freely translated, means Mid-day Songs. 

Long before any contact occurred with the white race it was the 
custom of the Osage people to offer their daily supplications at dawii, 
mid-day, and simset, for the sun and its pathway were regarded as 
one of the abiding places of Wa-ko"'-da; therefore, in accordance with 
this belief, the people offered their prayers at these three periods of 
the day. The title of this group of songs and the words of the first 
song imply that at a mid-day cry the sun held out to the people as 
gifts the red eagle, the white eagle, and the bald eagle. Old Sho"'- 
ge-mC-i" was not explicit as to the purpose of these gifts, but left it 
to be inferred that the tliree birds specified in the song were given to 
the people to use as symbols of the tlu'ce periods of the day mentioned 
above. The red eagle is held by the Osage as the most sacred and it 
was from the Red Eagle gens that the principal hereditary chief was 
chosen. It was the office of this gens to exert its influence for the 
preservation of peace, not only within the tribe but also with all other 
outside tribes. 

A free translation is given of the words of Song 1. 



LA FLESCHE] 



KITE OF VIGIL FREE TBANSLATION. 



319 



Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 500; literal translation, p. 618.) 
« vj J - go Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



\ ii J J J J I lk 



yKi J J J I I 



I J J J 

fTrr 

Mi sho" she the 



Time beats 



r r r r 

Mi sho" she the 



r r r 

o"-ba-he the, 



4 



I I ii I I 



^ 



^£ 



^^ 



r r 

o"- ba-he 



r 

the. 



r r 

Xi- tha sha 



r r r 

ho" -'k i-e tha 



# 



^ 



5: 



^ 



r r 

Xi-tha sha 



^^ 



r 

the 



r 



r 



o"- ba-he 



r r r 

ho" - k'i-e tha 



fnj J i i'>'if f f r i i ^cj.^ f 



r r r 

o"-ba-he no" 



Mi sho" she the 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



r r r 

on-ba-he the. 



Yonder moving sun offers to me a gift, 
Yonder moving sun offers to me a gift, 
The red eagle he holds out as a gift to me. 
The red eagle he holds out as a gift to me. 
Yonder moving sun offers to me a gift. 



Yonder moving sun offers to me a gift, 
Yonder moving sun offers to me a gift. 
The white eagle he holds out as a gift to me, 
The white eagle he holds out as a gift to me. 
Yonder moving sun offers to me a gift. 



Yonder moving sun offers to me a gift, 
Yonder moving sun offers to me a gift, 
The bald eagle he holds out as a gift to me. 
The bald eagle he holds out as a gift to me. 
Yonder moving sun offers to me a gift. 

A free translation of the first three lines of the one stanza of Song 2 
will suffice to give the meaning of the song. In line 3 the sentence is 
not complete. The words that are lacking are left to be implied. 
The song itself relates to the smi, who is spoken of as Father. 



320 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. AXX. 39 



Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 500; literal translation, p. 619.) 
M M J - 84 ' Transcribed by Alice C- Fletcher 



tHtH 



J _n nViT^. 



■t=g= 



r^jsT 



"f — r r^f 

Time beats ' I 

Hi"-da-'dsi he-tho"-tho"-l)e, 



r r 



r f 

I-a be tho-to" ga-xa, 



#^ « ' 



^J J J t 



Ka-wa no" da ha we the the, Hi"-da,-dsi he-tho"-thon-be, 




r r 

Hi" - da - dsi 



tho" 
(Sung twice.) 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



My father will appear, 

When he comes to the point straight above, 

Then and there (shall we oflfer our prayers to him). 



LiFLBSCHB] RITE OF VIGIL FKEE TRANSLATION. 321 

The words of Song 3 and Song 4 are not clear in their meaning. 

Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 500: literal translation, p. 619.) 
-J ^^ Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




M.M. J = 88 



^^^-3—^ 



^m 



r 



r 



Time beats ' I 

Kit - wa noi da ha, 



i 



r 

no'i da. He 



S 



J-i- Ji J 'J f f 



ka - wa no" da he, He 



' ^ r. 

ka- wa no" ho" 9i, 




r r r r ^ r r 

ka-wa no" ha ka-wano", Ka-wa no" da ha. 

(Sung twice.) 
Song 4. 

(Osage version, p. 500; literal translation, p. 619.) 



'. M. J = 



M. M. J = 88 iran^crxoeu 

.„..„ I r r r f^* r 



Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



-i-^ 



Time beats ' ' ' ' f ' ' T" 

He no" qi-a wa - thi-ko" da we e he, Qi-a 



^^^^^^m 



r r 



wa - thi-ko" 



r r r 

da we the, 



r r 

He no" ^i-a wa - thi-ko" 



* 



>y« r r [ r- ii k r i 



i 



i i i 

da we e, 



r r r 



r r 



^i-a wa - thi-ko" da we. 



':yi-i r r r ^ 



^ 



r r 

He no" 9i-a 



r 

thi - ko" 



r 

da. 



3594°— 25t 21 



322 



THE OSAGE TEIBE. 



[BTa. ANN. 89 



Deer Songs. 

Two titles were given by the No°'-ho"-zhi°-ga to the next group 
of songs: Ta Wa-tho", Deer Songs, and Ta Gi'-bo" Wa-tho", Songs 
for Calling the Deer. These titles indicate the significance of this 
little animal to the Osage, for it gave them food and clothing and 
the sinew which the women used for sewing and the men for fastening 
the feathers to their arrows. The deer occupies an important place 
in the tribal industries as well as in the sacred rites that deal with 
the mysteries of life. The season for hunting the deer was opened 
with solemn ceremonies, supplicatory in character, by which the 
No'''-ho°-zhi"-ga call the deer that have already come into bodily 
existence, as well as those that are yet to be born. It is this sacred 
rite to which the Deer Songs refer particularly. 

A free translation of one line only of each stanza of Song 1 will 
suffice to give its meaning. 

Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 500; literal translation, p. 619.) 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




Timebeats f F T f ' ' ^ ^ ^ ^' ' " ** f f 

Hon-daliaini''-dsehe, Ho° -da ha mi"-(ise he, Ho"-dahaini"-(isehe, 




r r ^ f 7 

Hon . da ha mP-dse he 



r r r 



Ho"- da ha nii"-dse he. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

We ask for a bow. V/e ask for a bow, etc. 

2. 
We ask for an arrow. We ask for an arrow, etc. 

3. 
We ask for it (the deer) to come. We ask for it to come, etc. 

4. 

Then we ask to go forth. Then we ask to go forth, etc. 

In Song 2 the word Ha-we frequently occurs. It is an exclama- 
tion, an expression of grateful pleasure, for which no English equiva- 



I«l flesche] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



323 



lent can he found. Therefore in the free translation the native word 
will be used where the expression occurs. 

A translation of three lines from each stanza will serve to make 
clear the meaning of the song. 



M.M.J 



84 



Song 2. 
COsagc version, p. 501; literal translation, p. 619.) 

Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher. 



J- .n. n 



m m 



—0 

r 

he the, 



Time beats 



r 



r 



r 



r 



Ha - we tha-we tha - we tha - ke 




Ha - we tha -iwe 



r r 

tha - we tha - ke 




tha - we, tha - we 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



1. 



Ha-we, tha-we, tha-we, it's given me, 
The bow, Ha-we, the bow, the bow, 
A ha, the bow, Ha-we, the bow, etc. 



Ha-we tha-we, tha-we, it's given me. 
The arrow, Ha-we, the arrow, the arrow, 
A ha, the arrow, Ha-we, the arrow, etc. 



Ha-we tha-we, tha-we, it's given me, 

The coming (of the deer), Ha-we, it's given me, 

A ha, the coming, Ha-we, the coming, etc. 



324 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



IeTH. ANN. 39 



4. 

Ha-we, tha-we, tha-we, it's given me, 

That I shall go, Ha-we, that I shall go, 

A ha, that I shall go, Ha-we, that I shall go, etc. 

Song 3 has a similar meaning to that of Song 2. Kia, an archaic 
word, is frequently used in this song, followed by Ha-we. The words 
Kia and Ha-we are practically untranslatable. The two words will 
be used in the free translation wherever they occur in the original. 

A translation of two lines from each stanza will suffice to give the 
meaning of the song. 

Song 3. 
(Osago version, p. 501: literal translation, p. 620.} 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fletch'" 



M.M. 



J 



80 



Time beats III j" [• f f * 



Ki-a ha-we iiii"-dse he tha. 



Ha -we mi" dse he, 



^m 



J-' Ti. -i- 



^ 



^ 



^ 



d S 



r 



r 



r 



^-^ 



r r ' r ' ' ' r , 

A ha mi"-dse he tha, Ha-we mi" dse he tha. 




S 



^^^ 



r 



r 



Ha - we mi" dse he. 



A ha 



i" - dse he 



i^ 



1 




r 

Ki-a 



ha - we 



dse 



r 

he 



r 

tha. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

!l^ia, Ha-we, it is the bow, 

Ha-we, the bow, A ha, the bow, etc. 

2. 

ilK^ia, Ha-we, it is the arrow, 

Ha-we, the arrow, A-ha, the arrow, etc. 



Kia, Ha-we, it (the deer) is coming, 
Ha-we, it is coming, A ha, it is coming. 

4. 

Kia, Ha-we, tlieii shall I go forth, 

Ha-we, then shall I go forth, A ha, I shall go forth, etc. 



IiAFLESCHE] 



RITE OF VIGIL— FREE TRANSLATION. 



325 



Songs 4, 5, 6, and 7 are not translatable on account of the employ- 
ment of archaic and corrupted words. 



Song 4. 
(Osage version, p. 501; literal translation, p. 620.) 



I 
M.M. • r 76 



Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



S 



f^^^=^ 



T2. J> jv.ii 



5^ 



Time beats 



r r 



Hi-o" - ki 



pa ha no" ni wa, Hi-o" - ki 




pa ha no" ni wa, I-wa thi-wa-zho"hi-o"-zho" ni ke,Hi-(/'ki - 




pa ha no" ni wa, Hi-o" - ki 



^ 
^ 



Song 5. 
(Osage version, p. 502; literal translation, p. 620.) 
MM J - 76 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



Ur. n 



:^= 



^^S 



-^ d. d W- 



^ d S ^ JMJ-^ 



^"W^ 



Time beats ' ''I I' ' Tf^ji-j. 

Hi-tho-ka wi-tha do-da ha,Hi-tho-ka wi-tha do-da ha, 



' ! ! r r r r r rr 



r 

Hi-tho-ka wi-tha do-da ha, Hi-tho-ka wi-tha do-da ha. 



326 



THE OSAGE TKIBE. 



tarn. ann. 39 



Song 6. 
(Osage version, p. 502; literal translation, p. 620.) 



I, M. J = 80 



Transcribed hy Al^ce C. Fletcher 




Time beats 



Ha - ki - no" 



r r f ^' r r 

tse ci no" no"-e, Ko-e no" no" 




r r r • - r 

tse he da da, Ha-ki-no"- 



r r 

tse qi no" no"-e. 




r r r 

Ko-e no" no" tse, Ha-ki -no" tse 9! no" no"-e. 



[.M. J = 



Song 7. 
(Osage version, p. 502; literal translation, p. 620.) 

Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



Time beats 



' r r r r r r 

Ko - sha no" ko-sha ni wa ta.Ko - shano" )co-sha ni wa, 




Tse o - she the ho ho ni wa ta, 




^^m 



r f 



^ 



r 



r r r ^^'" ^ 

ho ho ni wa ta, Ko - sha no" ko-sha ni wa ta. 

The Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge gens brings the Seven Songs of their 
No'''-zhi"-zho° Ritual to a close with the group of Deer Songs, whereas 
the Punia gens of the Ho°'-ga great tribal division closed the Seven 
Songs of their No^'-zhi^-zho" Ritual with the Buffalo Songs, a change 
which may have a historic significance. 



LAFLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL FREE TBANSLATION. 327 

THE SIX SONGS. 
Songs of the Fight for the Charcoal. 

The second part of this ritual is called Wa-tho° Sha-pe Tse, The 
Six Songs, and belongs to the Tsi'-zhu great division of the tribe. 

This part of the ritual begins -wath a group of songs having the title 
No°-xthe' I-ki°-dse Wa-tho", Songs of the Fight for the Symbolic Char- 
coal. A wi'-gi-e is recited before the songs are sung and both the songs 
and the wi'-gi-e refer to a ceremony which has an important place in 
the Wa-sha'-be A-thi°', an elaborate ritualistic ceremony used when a 
war party composed of men from the two great tribal divisions, the 
Ho^'-ga and the Tsi'-zhu, is organized. The word Wa-sha'-be used 
in the title of the ritual may be freely translated as, a dark object, 
and refers to the sacred symbolic powdered charcoal prepared for the 
warriors; A-thi"' means to have, or to carry about the person as a 
treasured object. In such an organized war party both the officers 
and their men when about to charge upon the enemy must blacken 
their faces with the "dark object," the charcoal, which is an emblem 
of fire, a merciless power when it goes forth upon its destructive 
course. The powdered charcoal is carried by a warrior in a small 
deerskin pouch, usually attached to his neck ornament or to his belt. 
The man who neglects to blacken his face with the sacred charcoal 
when an attack is to be made is not permitted to recount the acts he 
performs in the fight, acts that would otherwise entitle him to a war 
honor, nor is he permitted to share in any honors won by the war party 
as a whole. 

The "theme of the wi'-gi-e which precedes the songs is the courage 
of three animals designated by the ancient No"'-ho''-zlii''-ga and cer- 
tain qualities of a given bird. All these are to be used as emblems 
and to typify the angry fire which destroys all things that happen to 
be in its pathway. The animals are the black bear, the puma, the 
white swan, and the deer with the spiked horns. All of these crea- 
tures are personified and made to speak as benefactors of the people. 
While the swan is not a warlike bird yet it is endowed with physical 
strength and power of endm-ance, qualities the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga 
desired for the warrior. The deer is not, orcUnarily speaking, a fight- 
ing animal, for it has no "liver-gall," which was commonly believed 
to be the place whence anger arises or is kindled; nevertheless the 
deer was chosen to be one of the animals to typify anger and courage 
in the tribal war rites. Its fleetness and quickness of movement, 
however, seem to have been the qualities the No°'-ho''-zhi''-ga desired 
to be bestowed upon the warrior. 

The following is a free translation of the wi'-gi-e: 



328 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

THE Wl'-GI-E. 

(Osage version, p. 502; literal translation, p. 620.) 

1. Ho! What shall they make to be a symbol of their valor, as they 

travel the path of life ? it has been said, in this house. 

2. The black bear that is without a blemish, that lies outstretched, 

3. That is of great courage, they shall make to be a symbol of their 

valor. 

4. When they make the black bear to be a symbol of their valor, 

5. They shall cause their fame for valor to roll onward, as they 

travel the path of life. 

6. The black bear spake: Behold my hands; 

7. When the little ones make my hands to be their hands, 

8. Their hands shall never be absent where deeds of valor are per- 

formed, as they travel the path of life. 

9. Behold the edges of my feet, that are black in color, 

10. Which I have made to be as my charcoal. 

11. When the little ones make of them the symbol of their charcoal, 

12. Black indeed shall be their charcoal, as they travel the path of 

life. 

13. Behold the tip of my tail, that is dark in color, 

14. Which I have made to be as my charcoal. 

15. When the little ones also make of it the symbol of their charcoal, 

16. Black indeed shall be their charcoal, as they travel the path of 

life. 

• 

17. Behold the tips of my ears, that are black in color, 

18. Which I have made to be as my charcoal. 

19. When the little ones also make of them the symbol of their 

charcoal, 

20. Black indeed shall be their charcoal, as they travel the path of 

life. 

21. Behold my eyelids, that are dark in color, 

22. Which I have made to be as my charcoal. 

23. When the little ones also make of them the symbol of their 

charcoal, 

24. Black indeed shall be their charcoal, as they travel the path of 

life. 

25. Behold the tip of my nose, that is black in color, 

26. Which I have made to be as my charcoal. 

27. When the little ones also make of it the symbol of their charcoal, 

28. Black indeed shall be their charcoal, as they travel the path of 

life. 



LAFLBSCHE] KITE OF VIGIL — FEEE TBANSLATION. 329 

29. What shall the little ones make to be a symbol of their valor, as 

they travel the path of life? it has been said, in this house. 

30. The male puma, that lies outstretched, 

31. That is great in courage, they shall make to be a symbol of their 

valor. 

32. When the little ones make the male puma to be a symbol of their 

valor, 

33. They shall cause their fame for valor to roll onward, as they 

travel the path of life. 

34. The puma spake: Behold my hands, 

35. When the little ones make my hands to be their hands, 

36. Their hands shall never be absent where deeds of valor are per- 

formed, as they travel the path of life. 

37. The great white swan that is without a stain, 

38. That is great in courage, the little ones shall make to be a symbol 

of their valor. 

39. AVhen -they make the white swan to be a symbol of their valor, 

40. They shall cause their fame for valor to roll onward, as they 

travel the path of life. 

41. The white swan spake: Behold my feet, 

42. And the tip of my nose, that are black in color, 

43. "VMiich I have made to be as my charcoal. 

44. When the little ones make my feet and the tip of my nose to be 

symbols of their charcoal, 

45. Black indeed shall be their charcoal, as they travel the path of 

life. 

46. The deer with spiked horns, that lies outstretched, 

47. That is great in courage, the little ones shall make to be a symbol 

of their valor. 

48. The deer has no liver-gall, nevertheless, 

49. He shall be to them a symbol of their valor. 

50. When they make this deer to be a symbol of their valor, 

51. They shall cause their fame for valor to roll onward, as they 

travel the path of life. 

52. The deer spake: Behold my feet, 

53. And the tip of my nose, that are black in color, 

54. I have made to be as my charcoal. 

55. When the little ones make my feet and the tip of my nose to be 

symbols of their charcoal, 

56. Black indeed shall be their charcoal, as they travel the path of 

life. 



330 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[BTH. ANN. 39 



Song 1 of this group has four stanzas. The first refers to the 
caUing of all the men to assemble for the ceremonies pertaining to 
the Wa-sha'-be A-thi°'; the second stanza, to the calling of those 
warriors belonging to the gentes having the black hawk as their 
sacred symbol; the third, to those warriors of the gens having for its 
sacred symbol the deerskin; the fourth, to the calling of those men 
of the gens having for its sacred symbol the mottled eagle. 

A free translation of two lines from each stanza will suffice to make 
clear the meaning of the song. 

Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 504; literaltranslation, p. 622. 

Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 




I'ime beats ' [ f 

Ni - ka (jto be he 



r r ' r 

wa-tho" te he no". 




Ha - ni da we he, ha-ni da ha we, ha - ni da, 




Ha-ni da ha we, ha - ni da we he, ha-ni da ha 






n 



^ii,^tr-tr- || 4t^r J'Hj I I 



r r r 

we, Ha - ni da 



r _ r " r r r r 

ha-ni da ha we Ni - ka qto be he 



m-^- n.} I > J J' /]. I J 



^ 



»• » ■ 



T r r r r r r r^^ r 

wa-theo te he no", Ha-ni da we he, ha-ni da ha we. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



Let all the men assemble, to sing the mystic songs. 
They alone, they alone, Ha-we, they alone, etc. 



Men who have the black bird, to sing the mystic songs, 
They alone, they alone, Ha-we, they alone, etc. 



LA FLESCHE] 



KITE OF VIGIL FREE TBANSLATION. 



331 



Men who have the deerskin, to sing the mystic songs, 
They alone, they alone, Ha-we, they alone, etc. 



Men who have the sacred eagle, to sing the mystic songs, 
They alone, they alone, Ha-we, they alone, etc. 

Song 2 has but one stanza, which refers to the prompt response of 
the men as individuals, who are called, not only to sing the mystic 
songs, but also to offer their services as warriors to march forth to 
defend the honor and dignity of the tribe. 

Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 504; literal translation, p. 622.) 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fit-tciier 




Ni-ka qto 1)6 no° dsi the tse, 



Ko-tha he no", ko-tha he, 

7 




r r r r r r r r , 

Ko-tha he no", ko-tha he he, Ni-ka 910 beno"(lsithe tse. 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Men are moving to assemble, there let me go, 
Men are moving to assemble, there let me go, 
All are my friends. All are my friends, 
All are my friei.Qs, All are my friends. 
Men are moving to assemble, there let me go. 

Song 3 has four stanzas. The first refers to the part to be takenby 
the men of the gentes having the office of making the standards to be 
carried by the commanders of the war party; the second stanza 
speaks of the part to be taken by those of the gens whose office it is to 
fm-nish the deerskins that are to be attached to the standards; the 
third stanza refers to the part taken by those of the gens whose office 
it is to furnish the feathers of the mottled eagle which are to decorate 
the standards; the fourth stanza is addressed to all who are to take 



332 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[eth. ANX. i 



part in the expedition and who successfully return from the darkness 
of uncertainty into the light of day. The word Ho°'-ba (Day) is 
used in this stanza as a trope that implies the completion of all the 
war movement, from the beginning to the end. 

Song 3. 

(Osage version, p. 504; literal translation, p. 622.) 

MM J - 88 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



^ 



^ 



3E 



W 



i i i 



Time beats 



Ha- ni 



r 

da. 



ha - ni 



r 

da 



r 

he 



r 

he 



r 

the. 



a 



^ijl SUsi^ 



^ 



iiMM "^^Tr^Vj.f^-iJJ 



r-r r r 

"Ha-ni da, ha-ni da 



r r r r ^ r 

he he. the, Wa-xthato'ibithe wa-tho° 



S 



JF ^ i i "^7IY ^'- i J r J' " 



r ' r FT r 

tse the he the, Wa-xtha ton hi the wa thtfi 



M^ f.r r r \\m'^t=H^Hti=i=m 



r r r 



r 



r r r 



r r r 



tse the hi tha, Ha-ni da, ha • ni da he he the. 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

They alone, they alone, he he the, 
They alone, they alone, he he the. 
Owners of the standards shall sing, 
Owners of the standards shall sing. 
They alone, thej' alone, he he the. 



Owners of the deerskin shall sing, etc. 

3. 
Owners of the sacred eagle shall sing, etc. 

4. 

Owners of the sacred day shall sing, etc. 

Song 4 has five stanzas. The song is descriptive of the cries of 
the warriors who, at break of day, with bodies almost nude, plunge 
into the two great sacred fires and fight with one another for the 



LA FLESCHE] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



333 



possession of the burning brand from which to procure the emblematic 
charcoal. In a cryptic fashion the song also indicates the significance 
of the charcoal thus dramatically procured by the men who are to 
go forth against the foe determined to be like the fire that knows no 
mercy when it breaks out. 

The first stanza represents the warrior, declaring, as he seizes the 
burning brand as his to use as a ki'-no", an emblem, when the war- 
riors gather to attack the foe; the second stanza makes known his 
purpose to take the sacred emblem to the gathering antl to put it 
upon himself, thus accepting all that it implies; the third stanza makes 
claim to a share in the honors to be won by the warriors who wear 
the emblem when struggling with the foe; the fourth stanza speaks 
of the act of the warrior pouring into his hand the powdered charcoal 
for its sacred use; the fifth stanza indicates the warrior as rubbing 
into the skin of his face the black charcoal, an act by which he 
obligates himself not to yield to any feeling of mercy when he falls 
upon the enemy. 

Song 4. 

(Osage version, p. 505; literal translation, p. 623.) - 

MM J - Oft Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



i 



te 



^ J-i I '-'i J 



^t—d- 



W 



Time beats ' ' I [* f 

Pe - dse, pe . dse hi - tha wi - ta-e tha, 




^ 



r r r ' f ' r ' r r ' r 

Pe-dse,pe-dsehi-tha wi-ta-etha ha, Wa-to^thaha ki-no" 



1 



r r r r r r r r 

dsi a-thi"tse, Wa-to°thaha ki-no" dsi a-thi" tse. 



m nn i m 



W P -0- 



r r r r r 

Pe - dse, pe - dse hi - tha wi - ta-e tha. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Fire ! fire ! give it me, it is mine, 

Fire! fire! give it me, it is mine, 

Mine to use as an emblem at the gathering, 

Mine to use as an emblem at the gathering, 

Fire! fire! give it me, it is mine. 



334 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

2. 
Mine to bring as an eiablem to the gathering, etc. 

3. 
Mine to share in what the emblem brings, etc. 

4. 
Mine to pour into mj' hands the sacred emblem, etc. 

5. 
Mine to put upon my face the emblem, at the gathering, etc. 

Song 5 has five stanzas. The theme of the song is the unity of the 
two fires which, at a certain part of the Wa-sha'-be A-thi°' ceremony, 
are kindled at break of day. One fire is made on the south side of 
the avenue that runs east and west tlrrough the camp. This fire is 
for the Ho°'-ga great tribal division. A fire is also buUt on the north 
side of the avenue which is for the Tsi'-zhu great tribal division. 
The warriors belonging to the gentes that compose the Ho°'-ga great 
tribal division gather about the Ho°'-ga fire as it is kindled and the 
warriors belonging to the gentes that compose the Tsi'-zhu great 
tribal division gather about the Tsi'-zhu fire, while an officer of the 
No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga stands at the east of each fire and tlien recites the 
wi'-gi-e and sings the songs belonging to this particular ceremony 
and at a certain stanza of one of the songs gives a signal with the 
feathered standard he holds in his hand, whereupon the warriors 
rush upon the fires, whose flames leap into the air with a roaring 
sound wlhle each warrior, with loud cries, strives to seize a burning 
brand from wliich he can gather the No°-xthe' Wa-ko°-da-gi, 
mysterious charcoal. 

The two fires, although built separately, are regarded as one fire, 
representing as they do the unity of the tribe and the determination 
of each man to accept the responsibility involved in the possession 
of the sacred emblem. 

A free translation of a line from each stanza will suffice to convey 
the meaning of the song. 



lafle^che] 



RITE OF VIGIL FEEE TEANSLATION. 



335 



Song 5. 
(Osage version, p. 505; literal translation, p. 623.) 



M 



.M.J-- 



84 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



^^r 



Time beats 



r 



r 



d • • 



r 



^ 



=iF=F 



r 



r 



m 



r 1 



Dse wi"-xtsi,dse win-xtsi ha ha, Pse wi"-xtsi,dse wi"-xtsi ha ha, 



1 



m 



ff 



r 



r 



r 



r 



Dsewi"-xtsi ha ha, Dse wi" - xtsi.dse wi"- xtsi ha ha, 






^ 



r 



r 



r 



DsewP-xtsi ha ha, Dse win-xtsi, dse wi^-xtsi ba ha. 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

As from a single fire, as from a single fire, etc. 

2. 
As from a single fire I take this to the gathering, etc. 

3. 

« 

As from a single fire I share in the honors won, etc. 

4. 
As from a single fire I pour the charcoal into my hand, etc. 

5. 
As from a single fire I put on my face the sacred emblem, etc. 

Song 6 has four stanzas and directs the attention of the Initiate to 
the four symbols mentioned in the stanzas: The deerskin, two stand- 
ards, and the Day. 

The first stanza speaks of the mystic character of the deerskin. A 
skin of the deer is attached to the lower part of each of the standards 
to be carried by the chosen commanders of a war party. 

In the second stanza the standard spoken of is composed of parts 
of two birds, both representing fire, namely, tha white swan and the 
adult golden eagle. The skin of the wlute swan is plucked of all coarse 
feathers, leaving only the do\\Ti, and is then cut into strips which are 
pieced together to make one long strip. This strip is then wound 



336 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ANN. 39 

closely around a pole with a crook at the top. To this pole, encased 
in the swan skin, is attached, as pendants, the black-tipped tail 
feathers of the adult golden eagle. (See PI. 14,^4: also 36th Ann. Rep t. 
B. A. E., pp. 230-231.) 

In the third stanza a standard is spoken of which is known as 
Ho°'-ga (PI. 14, B). This standard is similar to the one referred to in 
the second stanza, except that the feathers used as pendants for this 
standard are taken from the tail of the immature golden eagle, wliich 
are dark in color and mottled in appearance. The golden eagle at this 
stage of its growth is called by the Osage and other cognate tribes 
"Ho"'-ga," a word meaning first, that is, first of all sacred tilings. 

The fourth stanza has for its theme the Day, that is, the Day 
which marks the time when all the war movements and the cere- 
monials pertaining thereto are brought to a close. 

This song is sung twice. The first singing is in slow time, and 
during this singing the Sho'-ka puts into the hands of the Xo'-ka a 
small standard made specially for tliis initiatory ceremony. When 
the song is about to be repeated in faster time the Xo'-ka rises with 
a spring and dances to the song. His face and body are painted red, 
symbolic of the dawn. The skin of a puma is fastened to his shoul- 
ders, while the feather pendants of the uplifted standard gaily flutter 
to the rhythm of the music, making a striking picture. 

When the song and dance come to a close the Xo'-ka tosses the 
standard toward the members of the Deer gens, calling loudly as he 
does so, "Ho! ye Ta-tha'-xi of the Wa-zha'-zhe, why sit ye silent? 
Behold your standard." Quickly the principal officer of that gens 
catches the mystic standard, and accepting the challenge, at once 
begins the recitation of the wi'-gi-e relating to the deer. Those of 
that gens who have memorized the lines join in the intoning recital, 
which is never in unison. 

A free translation of one line from each stanza will suffice to make 
clear the meaning of the song. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY THIRTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE U 





STANDARDS 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



THIRTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 15 




Ni.'JLLFTT- 



SYMBOLIC CLUB 



I^FLESCHE] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



337 



Song 6. 
(Osage version, p. 506; literal traDslation, p. 624.) 
MM J - 100 Transcribed by Alice C. Fleti-her 




Time beats 



He 



ta-ha kshe 



r . 

shki he-ni da 



r r 

ha, Ta-ha 



i 



F=^^ 



t^-r^ 



rr 

kshe shki he 



^ 



r 

ni da ha, 



I 
Ta-ha kshe 



r r 

shki he - ni da 



# 



f^ -a 



^ 



r r 



± 



^^ 



ha, 



Ta - ha 



f I 

kshe shki he 



r r 

ni da ha, 



4 1: P P 



i 



r r 

Ta • ha kshe 



r 

shki 



he - ni 



da 



r 

ha. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



1. 



Ho ! the deerskin that alone has mystic power, etc. 

2. 
Ho ! the white standard that alone has mystic power, etc. 

3. 
Ho! the Ho°'-ga standard that alone has mystic power, etc. 

4. 
Ho! the Day that alone has mystic power, etc. 

Song 7 has one stanza that is sung four times. The words, being 
disguised, are not intelligible. However, it was explained that the 
song refers to the violence of the struggles of the warriors as they 
push and fight with one another in their efforts to secure a burning 
brand; also to the self-control exercised by the participants in the 
conflict, and to the good nature with which the accidents are endured 
that sometimes occur. 

This ceremony will be given in full in the Wa-sha'-be A-thi°', to 
be published in a later volimie. 
3594°— 25t 22 



338 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [kth. an.n.,39 

Song 7. 
(Osage version, p. 506; literal translation, p. 624.) 
MM J - Qfi Transcribed by Aliee C. Fletcher 




€r^ f r • r r r P -^ ^ — *~ 

Time beats ' i ' ' ' T f f 

He-thawi-tha ha ha, he - tha wi- tha ha ha, 




^ 



r r f r 



r r 



He-thawi-tha ha ha, he-thawi-tha ha ha, 



i-^ I ^ I 1 J- ii . ' >' r. r n I J =^=i 

r r ' r r ' ^ ' ^ 



r 

He-thawi-tha ha ha. 



he-thawi-tha ha. ha. 



Elk Songs. 

The next group of six songs is called 0'-pxo° Wa-tho°, Elk Songs, 
0'-pxo°, Elk; Wa-tho", Songs. 

The first song points back to the mythic story of the descent of 
all forms of life from the sky to the earth, which was found to be 
covered with water. The words of the song imply an expectation of 
the subsidence of the water and the earth to become beautified with 
an adornment of hair (verdiu-e). (See Ni'-ki Wi'-gi-e, 36th Ann. 
Kept. B. A. E., pp. 165-169, lines 284 to 433.) 

In Songs 1 and 2 the Elk is represented as speaking as though for 
the earth, which is iminhabitable as yet, being incomplete in form. 

A free translation of two lines will make clear the meaning of the 
song. 



I^FLBSCHEj BITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION, 339 

Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 506; literal translation, p. 624.) 
M M J - 100 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



^•i J' n-hn 



^ 



3^ 



r " r 

Ki - no" do" wa hi" a - 



0—d- 



r 



r 



Time beats ' ' T f 

Hi"a-to"no" ki-no" do" wa ha, 



* 



m 



i^^^ 



^ 







r r V r r r 



r r 



r 



to"-a a, Hi"a-to°no" ki-no" do"wa ha, Ki-no" do" wa hi" a- 



m 



t^^J C=f-^ 



^^ 



r 



r 



r 



r 



to"-a, a Hi" a-to" no" 



ki - no" d«" wa ha , 



?m 



g^ 



^^ 



r r r r r ' ~ r r r 

Ki -no" do" wa hi" a - to"-a a, Hi"a-to"no" ki-no" do" wa ha 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

When I have hair, then shall I be adorned in beauty, 
Adorned in beauty when I have hair. 

The words of Song 2 inaply a contemplation of the sending down 
to the earth of all forms of life when she becomes beautified with 
the adornment of hair (verdure) . 

A free translation of one line will sufRce to give the meaning of 
the song. 



340 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANX. 39 



Song 2. 
(Osage version, p. 506: literal translation, p. 625.) 

yi jj_ J - 80 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




Time beats 



r r r 



r r r r r r r r 



E hi"a-to"-athiiha ki-a ha thawi-the, Ki-a ha thawi-the. 




g^g 



'■ ' r ' f r r " r r r I r 

E hi"a-to"-athaha ki-a ha tha, wi-the, Ki-a ha thawi-the, 

H* ^ 



[ ' K 'r ^ [ ' 



T=T 



r r 



r 



E hi" a-to"-a tha ha ki-a ha 



tha wi - the. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



When she is adorned with hair, then downward I send you. 

The theme of the third song is the gift made by the Elk of the 
brow-tines of his antlers, to be used ceremonially by the people 
when they bring together their warrior forces to go against their 
enemies. These ceremonial weapons, the brow-tines, are symbolized 
by the standards to be carried by each of the chosen commanders of 
a war party. (See Ni'-ki Wi'-gi-e, 36th Ann. Rept. B. A. E., p. 169, 
lines 427 to 433.) 

The words of the song are disguised, therefore they can not be 
translated. Sho°'-ge-mo°-i° was asked what was the subject of the 
song and he replied, "the Wa-xthe'," the standards. 



LAPLDSCHB] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 

Song 3. 

(Osage version, p. 507; literal translation, p. 625.) 

M.Af. J - 80 



341 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




Si 



l^/J.J I IUJ.^ ^ 



ife 



r r 

wi-ni da, 



Time brats 



r r 



r 



He k:i wa-xtha da 



r r T 

He ka wa-xtha da 



m 



p lU J. J n l li-j j.^^ 



1 I 



r 



r 



wi-ni da a, 



r r 

The e i" da 



r r- r 

wi-ni da a da. 



# 



^SB 



g 



^ 



:^Ei 



Se 



r r 

wi-ni da, 



Heka wa-xtha da 



r r 

wi-ni da. 



The fourth song refers to the various symbolic articles and cere- 
monial forms given by the Elk to the people to be used when the 
earth has adorned herself with verdure. 

Some of the words of this song are so disguised that a free transla- 
tion can not be made. 



342 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETII. ANN. 39 



Song 4. 

(Osage version, p. 507; literal translation, p. 625.; 

•«» tr J „. Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 

M. M. • : 84 •' 



^ i~3 n. II 



^ 



3E 



i 



Time beats 



r 

"Wa k'o" wi - tse 



r r r 

she - tho ni wa - in, 




r 

Wa-k'o" wi-tse she-tho ni wa - ta, 



r _ r 

Wa-k'o" wi-tse 




^ f^'f:*-f r r r r r r 

she-tho ni wa -ta, E hi" a-to"-a tha ha she-tho ni wa- ta 



n i i f^ 



i 



's'^^-^ii I'^^n nJ 



« 0- 



r r 

Wa-k'o" wi-tse 



r r 

Wa-k'o" wi-tse 



r r r 

she-tho ni wa - ta, 




r r- r- ^ f ^ ' 

she-tho ni wa-ta, E hi" a-to"-a thaha she-tho ni wa-ta. 

Song 5 relates to the man who has won all of the tliirteen pre- 
scribed war honors, seven of which are dedicated to the Ho°'-ga 
great tribal division and six to the Tsi'-zhu great tribal division. 
Only the warrior who has succeeded in winning all of the tliirteen 
honors can be chosen to take the principal part in the war ceremony 
that requires the recounting of these war honors. 

A free translation of two lines from each of the two stanzas of the 



U.FLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL FREE TEANSLATION. 343 

Song 5. 
(Osage version, p. 507; literal translation, p. 625.) 
M IVT J - RO Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




It 



n m 



j"' J. L J . A i 



Time beats 



r 



r 



E-iio° he ta tse i" da 



r r T7 r r 

ha do we, E tse he do 




^ 



n rn J i^^ 



«' ^- 



r f r r r r 

wi-ni-da, E-no" he tatsei°da 



r r r 

ha do we. 




•^ r r r 

E tse he do 



r. r 

wi-ni-da, 



r 



E- no" he ta tse i" Ai 



^^-^11^ p r- ir p r F ur^ ^m 



r r r r r 



r 



r 



ha do we, 



E tse he da 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



He alone shall come to this place, 
It is he whom I have chosen for you. 



wi - ni - da. 



He shall come to this place to count, 
It is he whom I have chosen for you. 

The words of Song 6 are so disguised that it is scarcely possible to 
make an intelligible translation. Sho'''-ge-mo''-i'' made no reply to 
the question as to what the song refers to. However, some of the 
words that are clear indicate that the song is an expression of approval 
by the two great divisions of the recount made by the warrior. 



344 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [bth. ann. 39 

Song 6. 

(Osage version, p. 507; literal translation, p. 625.) 
M. M. J =73 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



i 



h 4 n- J 



^m 



^ 



s 



^ 



??^ 



Time beats 



r 



r r 



r 



Ki-tha we sho" ni wa 



r r r T 

Ki-tha we sho" ni wa. 




r r 1 

Tha wi-tha tse sho" ni wa, 



Ki-tha we sho" ni wa, 



'>''h L_r 



i 



^ 



r 

Ki - tha 



r 

we 



r 

sho" 



m 



wa. 



Black Bear Songs. 

The next group of songs is entitled Wa-pa'-be Wa-tho", Black Bear 
Songs; Wa-fa'-be, Black Bear; Wa-tho°, Songs. 

The meaning of Song 1 of this group is obscure, the words being 
either archaic or piu-posely corrupted to disguise them. The Osage, 
like their cousins, the Omaha, treasure the mystic songs that have 
lost their meaning as well as those that are clear to the initiated, for 
all ritual songs that have been handed down from the ancient 
Non'-ho^-zhi^-ga are held sacred as being the utterances of holy men. 

Song 1. 

(Osage version, p. 508; literal translation, p. 625.) 
M.M. J - 84 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



^■j J ||iS.^l=^ 



s 



-Time beats 



no" ge ge ta 



r 



r 



ta tha no", E 



i 



^ 



J^. J JM ^ 



*^ r r 

no" ge ge ta 



i 



r r 

ta tha E 

P m 



r r 

no", ge ge ta 



^^ 



m 



^ 



WW 



i 



?^ 



— • — »-* — w^ -t*- 

rrr^ 

ta tha no", E 



r r 

no" ge ge ta 



r r r 

ta tha no". 



LA FLESCHE] 



EITE OF. VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



345 



Song 2 clearly refers to the act of the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no° gens of 
the Wa-zha'-zhe subdivision, in conferring upon the Ho°'-ga gens of 
the Ho'^'-ga subdivision the power and authority to organize war 
parties. The story of the creation of this war office has been given 
(36th Ann. Kept. B. A. E., 218-219, Hi'-^a-daWi'-gi-e, lines 227-257), 
wherein it is told that it was a subgens of the Ho°'-ga gens that 
found the foe, when the tribe as a whole began its warlike career, 
and at that time the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no" offered to the Ho°'-2a 
gens the use of their seven mystic arrows with which to "lay low" 
the fOe. These mystic arrows were pointed with the tips of the horns 
of seven deer. The language employed by the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no° 
gens when making the offer is figurative and refers to the authority 
given the Ho"'-ga gens to organize, when necessary, a force sufficient 
in strength to successfully combat the enemy, to make him "lie low." 
It is this incident that forms the theme of the song. 

A free translation of one line of the song wdll suffice to make clear 
its meaning. 

SONQ 2. 

(Osage version, p. 508; literal translation, p. 626.) 
M.M.J - 113 Transcribed by A lice C. Fletcher 



i 



± 



^ 



--=\ 



-^' — t- 



*^ r 

Time beat> 



r r r 

Wa-pa-hi u-ki - sha-no" he 



r r ^ ^ 

^ ^ r r 

shke wa-ni i" do, 



i 



-j~3 rj J 



r 



r 



r r 



Wa- pa -hi u-ki - sha-no" he 



shke wa-ri i" do, 




r r r r 

Wa - pa -hi u-ki - sha-no" he 



' ^ r r 

shke wa-ni i" do. 




r r r 

Wa - pa-hi u-ki- sha-no" he 



shke wa-ni i" do. 



346 



THE OSAGE TKIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



TREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Many are the mystic arrows you possess. 

Song 3 refers to the office of the Black Bear gens as custodian of 
the four symbolic flint knives. The names of these sjnnbolic knives 
are: Mo°'-lii°-9i i-ba btho-ga, Round-handled knife; Mo'''-lii"-9a-be, 
Black knife; Mo^'-hi^-ho^-ga, Sacred knife; and Mo'''-hi°-zhu-dse, Red 
knife. 

The first two knives were reserved for the Ho°'-ga subdivision. 
The other two knives were dedicated to the Wa-zha'-zhe subdivision 
and the Tsi'-zhu great tribal division, to be used b}' them in common. 
(For the mythic story of the finding of these knives see 36th Ann. 
Rept. B. A. E., pp. 206-208, Ni'-ki Wi'-gi-e of the Puma gens, lines 
1391 to 1446.) 

The knife used by a warrior who may succeed in beheading an 
enemy is considered as being mystically one of these symbolic 
knives, therefore the warrior is entitled to count the act as an o-do°', 
war honor. 

In the song these knives are designated as Wa-pa'-hi, pointed or 
sharp weapons. A free translation of one line will suffice to give the 
meaning of the song. 

Song 3. 



M. M. J 



(Osage version, p. SOS; literal translation, p. 626.) 
-rt Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



n fi- yi \ r 



^ 



Its I 



Time beats ' ' I i IT 

Wa-pa- hi shki we - ni i" da ha, Wa-pa - hi shki 




f f ' f " r - r - r 

we-nii"da ha, Wa-pa-hi shki we-nii"da ha, Wa-pa-hi shki 




r r- r r 

Wa-pa-hi shki we-ni i" da ha. 



we-ni i" da ha, 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Sharp weapons ye have for the foe. 



iaflesche] 



EITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



347 



Song 4 has only one stanza. The words of this stanza are clear but 
their purport is vague and uncertain, nor could any explanation of it 
be obtained. One line will serve for all the stanza freely translated. 

Song 4. 

(Osage version, p. 508: literal translation, p. 626.) 

J Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 
- 92 

D.C. .? V 




Time beats ^^ _ ta theshki'tho- the tha, Ga - ta the shkitho- thetha. 




^^^^^ 



r r 



r^ 




r r r r ' ' ' r 

Ga - ta the shki tho-the tha, Ga - ta the shki tho - the tha, 



^^^^ 



, ^ r r 

Ga - ta the shkitho- the tha, Ga - ta the shki tho-the tha. 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

The yonder one, also, is ever present. 
Songs of the Ospeey. 

The next group of tliree songs is called Sho'-sho-ka Wa-tho", Songs 
of the Osprey. The sentences employed in these songs are frag- 
mentary and many of the words are arcliaic, so that little can be 
gathered from the words themselves as to the meaning of this group 
of songs. The group, however, refers to a part that the osprey, a 
mystic bird, plays when the warriors are hotly pursued by the enemy. 
At such a time, if it happens to be in tlie autumn, the warriors stop 
in their flight to set fire to the dead prairie grass. This act is done 
ceremonially and is an appeal to the rain to come and make their 
tracks invisible to the enemy. As the fire is kindled the flames leap 
upward and clouds of smoke rise heavenward while the mystic osprey 
woukl come and play amidst the flames and smoke with shrill cries. 
The Do-do°'-ho"-ga of the war party would regard tliis action of the 
bird as a sign that Wa-ko°'-da has heard their prayer and will send 
the rain to give the warriors the aid asked. 

In the Wa-do'-ka We-ko ceremony, wliich is performed soon after 
the retm-n of a successful war party, there is a group of songs called 
O-gtha'-ge Wa-tho°. Fire Songs. The second song in this group 



348 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



speaks of the osprey and of the bird's mysterious actions when the 
smoke of the fire started by the warriors carries heavenwartl their 
petition. (The Wa-do'-ka We-ko ceremony will form a part of a 
voliune to be published later.) 

Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 50a; literal translation, p. 626.) 

]yj_ j^ J - 80 Transcribed ty Alice C. Fletcher 

A 



tr^ r r r ^r r r 



^ 



Time beats 



r r r 



Ta ha thano" 



r r r r r 

ge he, Ta ha ha tha no" 



J \\ i ^ ' J ' * J. 



i 



s 



r r - f -• 

Ta ha a ha tha no" 



r r 

ge he the 



r r 

ge he, 



fifPt'^'tJ-wr r l l ilPPPr-rf l ia^ J II 



Tahaaha tha no" . ge he, Ta ha a ha tha no" - ge he. 



M.M, J =80 
D.C. 



Song 2. 

(Osage version, p. 509; literal translation, p. 626.) 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




Time beats ' I ' 

Ta - wa-tha-ke 



r r ' r 

ke he no" ha, Ki" 



c 



''^r^'/j-'^f 



ETJ J J^^4H1 



r 

da hi" 



r ■ r 

da ha he ni i" 



r r 

da. 



r r r 



^^ =^ 



^^-^ 



-f-^ 



^^^ 



Ta- ha wa tha-ke 

D.C. 



r- r r* 



^^ 



r r .1 , ■ r - r r 

ke he no" ha, Ki" - da hi" da ha he ni i" ia. 



I^ flbsche] 



RITE OF VlGIl 



-FREE TRANSLATION. 



349 



Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 509; literal translation, p. 626.) 
\T vr 2 - an Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



^i J P p] ^ 



— ~ 

Time beats ' ' ' . , , . X J • [ 

Ta wa-tse-xi he he tha ha, He ha- ni - da, 




he ni 



Ta-ha wa-tse-xi he he tha ha. 



i 



E 



^ 



[ jjrri i 



He ha-ni-da, he ni da, 



T f f r 

Ta-ha ■wa-tse-xi he he tha ha, 



m 



^ 



^ 



£ 



^ 



? 



^?i=+ 



r 

He 



ha - ni 



da. 



7 ^r 

he ni 



da. 



Songs of the High Hills. 



The next gi-oup of songs bears the title Pa-?i' Stse-dse Wa-tho°. 
Pa-pi', Hills; Stse-dse, High; Wa-tho", Songs, Songs of the High 
Hills. It is not clear as to what particular part of the great war rite 
these songs refer to. "Tall Hills" have not been mentioned either 
in the wi'-gi-es or the songs of the rites thus far obtained. 

The title of this group of songs is metaphorical and refers to the 
clouds that appear along the horizon like lofty hills. Metaphor is 
often employed, not only in rituals but also in the Indian ordinary 
speech. 

The first song is a call to these hills to come and give aid, to advance 
abreast, as in a fixed order. In the second stanza the call is to the 
advancing clouds to come, but to move apart from each other as 
they come. 

In the first stanza the phrase "Ko°'-9a-ha" indicates the manner 
in which the objects called are asked to move. The phrase that fol- 
lows, "ko-i-tha," is the direct appeal or call. All the other words in 
the stanza except these two phrases given are modified syllables of 
the final part of the call phrslse. The music reveals the echoing 
quality of the call, as though the appeal was retreating farther and 
farther into the distance, to become indistinct and finally die away. 
The second stanza follows the same plan as the first stanza. 



350 



THE OSAGE TBIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. 3B 



A free translation of two lines from each of the stanzas will make 
clear the meaning of the song. 

Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 509; literal translation, p. 626.) 

J Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 
r84 ^ , ' 



I p r r r r P r r 



Time beats 



r r r r 

Ko"-t;a ha ko-i - tha - a, 

A 



JJ j^ 



r r r r 

a - tha, a - tha 

A 



^ 



^^ 



r 

A- tha ha, tha ha ko-i 



r r r 



r r r r 

tha - a, Ko"-9a ha ko-i 



^ 



j'r i ijj J-]. a 



? 



T r r r "r r r r 

tha - a, a - tha, A - tha ha, tha ha ko-i - 



-^ 



m 



^ 



£ 



f T* r f - 

ha - a, Kon-^a ha ko-i 



r r r r 

tha tha, Tha ha ko-i 



^--%if Lr u-imr f vir i ^ m 



r r r r 

tha - a, Ko^-fa ha ko-i 



r r 

tha 



^%i=r r r' w 



r r 

a - tha. 



^-^T-ri 



'f r~ r — r r 

A - tha ha, tha ha ko-i - tha 



a. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



Side by side come ye, come ye, come ye, 
Come ye, come ye, come ye hither. 



In scattered groups come ye, come ye, come ye, 
Come ye, come ye, come ye hither. 

The words of Song 2 are not clear, therefore they can not be trans- 
lated. Sho^'-ge-mo^-i" himself could not tell what the words signify. 



laflbsche] 



EITE OF VIGIL' FREE TEANSLATION. 



351 



[.M. J r 



Song 2. 

(Osage version, p. 510; literal translation, p. 626.) 

Transcribe* by Alice C. Fletclier 




Time beats 



I" - to"-to" wa-thi" da, i" to"-e wa-thi" da, P 



' ' ^ ^ r r r r r r r 



ton-to" wa-thi" da, i" to°-e wa-thi°da, P-to^-e wa-thi°da, 




Da-we he tha, da-we he tha, da-we he tha. 

Songs of the Clouds. 

The title of the next group of four songs is Ni-zhiu' Wa-tho". 
Ni-zhiu', Rain; Wa-tho°, Songs, Rain Songs. 

The theme of the first two songs is the mystery of the clouds that 
rise from the horizon and stand upright. Four of these standing 
clouds are spoken of as being the greatest in mystery. In these 
two songs the word for the standing position, "Mo°'-gthe," is used 
for the clouds rather than the ordinary name, "mo^-xpi'." 

These two songs are identical in words and meaning, therefore a 
free translation of two lines of the fii'st song will serve for the two. 



352 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[BTH. ANN. 39 



M. M. J = 66 



Song 1. 

(Osage version, p. 510; literal translation, p. 627.) 

Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



tr^-J-J^ttn 



i 



T,m,b,... r r r r r r i" r rr 

Mo"-gthe ho"-ge he ta - ko i'^ da ha - we he, 



i 



1 ^ ! J list 



i^: 



U J i 



f-r 



f * r * r ^' 



r 



r r 



$ 



Ta-ko i'^ da ha- we, Mo"-gthe ho"-ge he ta 



l a J J i ist-^ 



ko i" da ha-we, Mo"-gthe ho"-ge he ta - ko i" da ha- 



^nr r [T f iii-p r r Pii^r t-ma-m 



r r r r r r r 



r r r r 



we he, Mo"-gthe ho"-ge he ta - ko i" da ha - we he, 



^ f f I tLf ' p I p r p I r r i f:^^ 



r r r r r r r r r r 

B da do - ba ha ta-ko i" da ha we he, Ta-ko i" da 



JL'rrr i r r i i itpr r n i siP r f?ir r ii 



r r r"" r " r r r r r r r 

ha-we he Mo^-gthe ho"-ge he ta - ko i" da ha - we he. 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Mysterious are those that stand upright, 
Four among them are greatest in mystery. 



LAFLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 353 

Song 2. 

(Osage version, p. 510; literal translation, p. 637.) 
■««■ »» J .»• Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 

M.M. J r 104 ' 




*^ r r 

Time beats ' ' 

Mo" - gthe ho" - ge, ho" - ge 



da ha 




r r I ' r 

we the, Mo"- gthe ho°-ge,ho"-ge 



r r r 

ta-ko i" da ha 




f r ^ ^ ^ r f r r 

we the, E-da do-ba ha ta-ko i° da ha-we he. 



"Mii*ti' r r iisip r p > i i ffe^ 



r 

Ta-ko i" da 



r 

ha - we the. 



T r 

Mo" - gthe 



^ 



m 



^ 



i 



r r 



r r r 



r r 



hon-ge,ho"-ge ta-ko i" da ha - we the 



r r 

he the. 



The theme of Song 3 is the beauty of the clouds that vary in their 
color. The song is expressive of the exclamations of the people as 
they behold the colors of the approaching clouds. In this song the 
word "Mo°'-xe," Sky, is used as a trope for clouds. 

A free translation of one line from each stanza will give the meaning. 
3594°— 25t 23 



354 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[BTH. ANN., 



Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 511; literal translation, p. 627.) 
-, .,, I Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



4l /^•IlijAj. ;. J J l UjJ. J- J. I I 



Time beats 



Mo"-xe 



r / r 

she tKe do", mo"-xe 



r " r 

9a - be, Mo° -xe 



O. ;■;, M I k J j. J j. m-nrTTXTn 



r r 



she the do", mo"-xe 



r r 

9 a -he. Mo" -xe 



she the do", mo"-xe 



i 



^J J. J J. ll 'iJ. J J hi 11^ 



r r 

ca • be, Mo"-xe 



she the do", mo^-xe 



r 

ca-be. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Behold the beauty of yonder moving black sky. 

2. 
Behold the beauty of yonder moving gray sky. 

3. 
Behold the beauty of yonder moving white sky. 

4. 
Behold the beauty of yonder moving blue sky. 

Song 4 is expressive of the awe that arises in the mind of the 
warrior as these colored clouds gather together and in angry turmoil 
approach, sweeping through tlie sky in a swift, imdulating movement. 

A free translation of two lines from each of the four stanzas will 
give the meaning of the song. 



LA FLESCHE] 



M 



M. J r 80 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TEANSLATION. 355 

Song 4. 

(Osage version, p. 511,') 

Transcribed by Alice C Fletcher 



i n. iirJ^;=±=f^ ^ 



Time beats 



. r 



r r' r 



r r r r 



Mo"-xe she the do" mo"-xe, (;a-be kia hi tha th:i,Mo"-xe 



« 



S 



.J', n. ' Ji- ri- n- ' 



r 

she the do" mon-xe 



r r r 

qa - be kia hi tha fha, 



-j^ n. ij~j. ^ 



^^ 



-• ^nr- 



She the do" mo" - xe 



r r r 

(ja be kia hi tha tha, 




She the do" mo" - xe 



tha tha. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Behold the black clouds rolling through the sky, 
The black clouds rolling through the sky. 



Behold the gray clouds rolling through the sky, 
The gray clouds roUng through the sky. 



Behold the white cloud.'* rolling through the sky, 
The white clouds rolling through the sky. 



Behold the blue clouds rolling through the sky, 
The blue clouds rolling through the sky. 

Songs of Decorating the Club. 

Immediately after the singing of tiie Rain Songs the A'-ki-ho° 
Xo'-ka makes the following announcement: 

"Ha! Ni-ka Xo-be, wa-ga-xe a-tsi" do." "Ho! ye Holy Men, I 
have now come to the dramatic songs." 



356 THE OSAGE TRIBE. Feth. anx. 39 

This statement is made to call attention to certain dramatic acts 
that are performed by the Xo'-ka and his initiate during the singing 
of the songs that follow. 

The group of five songs which follow the Rain Songs bear in com- 
mon the title I'-tsi° Ki-no° Kshi-the, which freely translated means 
The Decorating of the Club. To each wa-xo'-be (portable shi-ine) 
belonging to certain gentes is attached a symbolic club, typical of the 
one originally made by the people of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" gens, to 
symbolize indestructible life, or the never-ending life craved by the 
people for their tribal existence (see 36th Ann. Rept. B. A. E., p. 261, 
lines 255-291) and which is the theme of these elaborate supplicatory 
rites. If the wa-xo'-be used at an initiation into the mysteries of the 
No°'-zlii°-zho° degree happens to be one that has attached to it a 
symbolic club, the Xo'-ka will use the mystic club when performing 
the dramatic acts that accompany the songs. But should the 
wa-xo'-be have no club the Sho'-ka will provide a stick of some kind 
that will be used as a substitute. 

The first two songs of this group have in common the subtitle- 
I'-tsi° Ki-k'o", The Act of Decorating the Club. 

The first of the two songs has but one stanza, which is sung four 
times. As the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka begins to sing this song the Xo'-ka 
rises and dances to the rhythm of the music while he lightly grasps in 
his right hand the symbolic weapon. At the close of the stanza he 
makes the hand that encircles the club pass along the entire length of 
the club from the lower end to the top. The rhythmic movements of 
the Xo'-ka's body and of his right hand are repeated with each singing 
of the song as acts which symbolize the mystic power come from the 
sky upon the weapon. 

A free translation of only one line is given, as the others are repe- 
titions. 



LAFLESCHE] 



KITE OF VIGIL FREE TKANSLATION. 



357 



Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 511; literal translation) p. 628.) 
M M J T> Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



■ r r ^ r 



Time beats 



r r 

We-tsi" ki-k'o" tse he tha, We-tsi" ki-kVtse he thii. 




$ 



Ki-ko" tse he tha, 



We-tsi" ki-k'oi tse he tha. 




r r 

We-tsi" ki-k'o" tse he tha, We-tsi" ki-k> tse he tha, 



^ 



m 



r r 

Ki-k'o" tse he 



r 



tha. 



r 



r 



We-tsi" ki-k'o" tse he tha. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Now let the mystic club be decorated. 

The theme of the second song, which has four stanzas, is the sacred 
emblems put upon the mystic weapon. Wliilc the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka 
sings the hrst stanza, the Xo'-ka, without pausing in liis dance, goes 
tlu'ough the motion of describing with the tip of his index finger a 
waving hue from the top of the club down its entire length (PI. 15). 
This waving line typifies that the God of Day bestows touches upon 
that region of the earth that lies at the right of the path of the God 
of Day {IS it passes through the heavens on its westward journey. 
At the singing of the second stanza the Xo'-ka turns the club a little, 
and with his index finger draws a straight line. This straight line 
typifies that part of the path of the God of Day that extends from the 
eastern horizon to the zenith. At the third stanza the Xo'-ka again 
turns the clul) a little and makes a waving line from the top of the 
club do-v\ni the entire length. This waving line typifies that ])art oi 
the earth lying at the left of the path of the God of Day and the life- 
giving touches the God bestows upon that region while passing 
through the heavens on its westward j<iurney. At the singing of the 
fom'th stanza the Xo'-ka again turns the club and makes from the 



358 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETrl. AXN. 39 



top of the club a straight Hue down its entire length. This straight 
line typifies that part of the path of the God of Day that extends 
froni the zenith to the western horizon (PI. 15). 

Thus in this dramatic and picturesque way the Xo'-ka directs the 
attention of his initiate to the fixed path of the God of Day that 
extends from the eastern horizon to a central point in the sky and 
from that point to the western horizon. He also designates those 
parts of the earth that lie to the right and to the left of the sun's 
mystic path and to the life-giving touches the God of Day bestows 
upon these lower regions as it daily takes its westward journey. 

A free translation of two lines from the first and second stanzas will 
give the meaning of the words. 

Song 2. 

(Osage version, p. 512; literal translation, p. 628.) 
MM J - 84 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 



*j f p r r 



Time beats i F I ' f T f T 

We - tsi" ki - no" wi" to" he tha, We- tsi" 



I r r r r r 



a 



WW 
r T 

he tha. 



r ^ r 

ki-no" ba-xo" he tha, 



Ki no" ba-xo" 



^^^ 



p p 



i 



i 



m 



r 

We 



r 

tsi" 



ki - no" wi" 



to" 



r 

he 



r 

tha. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 



1. 



Behold the weapon adorned with its mystic emblem, 
Lo! the waving line is its mystic emblem. 

2. 

Behold the weapon adorned with its mystic emblem, 
Lo! the straight line is its mystic emblem. 

Songs of Striking the Earth. 

Songs 3 and 4 have in common the subtitle Mo"-i"'-ka I-ga-xthi 
Wa-tho°, Songs of Striking the Earth. At the close of Song 2 the 
Sho'-ka conducts the initiate to a spot toward the north side of the 
fireplace and then puts into his hands the mystic weapon, at the 



LA. FLESCHE] 



KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



359 



same time instructing him as to the details of the acts he is to per- 
foi-m. When this is done the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka picks up the rattle 
and begins to sing the first of the Songs of Striking the Earth. 

At the third line of the first stanza the initiate, as instructed, 
makes a motion with the weapon as if to give the earth a blow. 

At the third line of the second stanza he makes a siniilar motion 
with the sjTnbolic weapon. 

On the repetition of the first stanza the initiate, at the third line, 
again makes a like motion. 

On the repetition of the second stanza the initiate, at the third 
line, actually strikes the earth with the sacred weapon, making a 
small dent on the surface. 

The mark made upon the ground by the initiate with the mystic 
weapon is, figuratively, that point of the earth which is directly 
underneath the zenith. The connecting line between these two 
points is spoken of in the song as "Mo"'-gthe tse, " the vertical. 
When the initiate has made this mark, wliich represents the center 
of the sky and the center of the earth, he drops the symbolic weapon 
upon the spot and returns to his seat. 

A translation of two lines from the first and secoml stanzas will 
give the meaning of the words. 

Song 3. 
COsage version, p.512-, literaltranslation, p. 628.) 

-, I Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 

.M. • - "" 




r r r r 



r r 



r r 



mo" gthe tse ga - tho bthe da hi" do ho, 



$ 



f^ 



i f i — ^ — * — *- 

r r r r 

E tse he tai - go 



r r r f 

ba-xo° the a -the no", Wa-dsi 



m 



r r — ^ T 



i 



r r f r 

mo" gthe tse ga 



tho bthe dit hi"^ do. 



360 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [etii. ann. j 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 



At what place the Vertical may be, there I am going. 
Thence to put upon my grandfather the waving line. 



At what place the Vertical may be, there I am going, 
Thence to put upon my grandfather the straight line. 

When the initiate has given the stroke that marks the center of 
the earth directly underneath the center of the sky, and has returned 
to his seat, the Xo'-ka rises, approaches the spot struck by the 
initiate, takes up the mystic weapon and stands in readiness to 
complete the symbolic figure. 

The A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka sings the first stanza of the ftiurth song and 
as he reaches the third line the Xo'-ka lifts high above his head the 
symbolic weapon, then brings it down with a thud upon the earth 
at the spot struck by his initiate and, with a sweeping motion, 
describes from the zenith to the setting sun a straight line. 

Without a pause the A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka continues to the second 
stanza and at the tliird line the Xo'-ka again strikes the earth on 
the central spot. This time he describes from the center of the 
earth, away from the path of the God of Day, a waving line to mark 
that part of the earth which lies to the right of that mystic path. 

The A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka sings on and when he reaches the third line 
of the third stanza the Xo'-ka gives the central spot on the earth 
another vigorous stroke and describes a straight line from the zenith 
to the eastern horizon. 

The singer continues to the fourth stanza and at the third line 
the Xo'-ka gives the final stroke upon the earth and from the central 
spot on the earth he describes a waving line to indicate that part of 
the earth which lies at the left of the path of the God of Day. Thus 
the Xo'-ka completes the symbolic figure that is not only emblem- 
atic of the path upon which the God of Day forever travels but 
of those parts of the earth to the right and to the left of the path to 
which is bestowed by that god while on its westward journey its 
life-giving touches. (See pp. 357-358.) 

In this dramatic fashion the ancient No°'-ho''-zhi"-ga have given 
expression to their conception of the inseparable unity of the Sky and 
the Earth out of whose combined mystic power the great pageant of 
life goes forth on its endless journey. Tliis conception is the culmi- 
nation of a long period of close religious study of nature by those men 
of the ancient days, and the echoes of the expression of this conception 
are still heanl b}- the generation living to-day. 

The conception of the unity of the Sky and the Earth is given 
prominence and iterative symbolic expression: In the dual organiza- 



LAFLESCHB] RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. ' 361 

tion of the tribe, one part of which represents the Sky and the other the 
Earth; in the camp of the people when arranged in ceremonial order, 
at which time the dwellings of the Tsi'-zhu tribal division and those 
of the Ho°'-ga are separated by an avenue extending from east to 
west which represents the division of the sky and the earth as made by 
the path of the God of Day (see 36th Ann. Rept. B. A. E., fig. 3, p. 69) ; 
in the sanctuary that is dedicated to the keeping of the Tsi'-zhu 
Wa-shta'-ge. the Peace gens, a dwelling that has two doors, one at the 
east and the other at the west, through which the God of Day travels 
on his westward life-giving journey (see 36th Ann. Rept. B. A. E., 
pp. "68-69) ; in the ceremony that follows the bringing forth of the 
Sacred Hawk from its shrine into the light of day at an initiation of a 
candidate into the mysteries of the war rites. During the singing of 
the songs that accompany this ceremony the officiating No°'-ho°- 
zhi"-ga lifts high above his head the bird and then with its body makes 
a downward stroke, giving in pantomime the straight lines that sym- 
bolize the path of the Goti of Day, and the waving lines that are 
emblematic of those parts of the earth that lie to the right and to the 
left of the path of the God of Day but are touched by that god as he 
takes his daily westward journey (p. 98) ; in the straight and the wav- 
ing lines put by the Xo'-ka upon the mystic weapon; in the lines 
roughly described upon the earth by the Xo'-ka at the singing of the 
fourth song of this group. (See Fig. 2, K.) 

The use of archaic words has partly obscured the sense of the lines 
of Song 4. It is clear, however, that the intent antl purj)ose of 
Songs 3 and 4, with the dramatic acts, is to unite the emblems put 
upon the mystic club and those to be put upon the earth, in connec- 
tion wath the position of the "Vertical" as indicated by the initiate, 
with the emblematic weapon, at the singing of the third song. In 
this complex sjTubolism the No"'-ho"-zhi"-ga have endeavored to 
express three fundamental conceptions, namely: There resides within 
the sky a mysterious creative power; this mysterious power abides 
also within the earth, and by the mystic union of the sky and the 
earth, life is brought forth in all its variety of material forms. 

From the words that are clear and intelligible a free translation of 
the first and secoml stanzas may be made. The other two stanzas 
are repetitions. 



362 



THE OSAGE TEIBE, 



[ETH. ANX. 39 



Song 4. 
(Osage version, p. 512; literal translation, p. 628.) 

M M J - 100 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




Time beats 



Wa-dsi mo"-gthe tse, wa-dsi mo"-gthe tse 



r^J J J 



^ 



S #-! 



r _ r 

hia wi-tha ho, 



r '" r 

Hia ko the no" 
3 



r " r 

no" ge we-tsi" 




wa-k'on tho-lo" zho-gthe, The he tse hia wi-tha ho, 
T"^v ■^ 3 



:«=^ 






^ 



p 



p p p 



• b^ ^ 



r 



r 



r 



3= 



r 



r 



>Wa-dsi mo"-gthe tse, wa-dsi nio"-gthe tse hia wi-tha ho. 



FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Wheresoever the Vertical may be, 
Wheresoever the Vertical may be, there I go, 
The weapon with its straight line, 
To send forth, I go, 
Wheresoever the Vertical may be. 
Wheresoever the Vertical may be, there I go. 

2. 

Wheresoever the Vertical may be, 
Wheresoever the Vertical may be, there I go, 
The weapon with its waving line, 
To send forth, I go. 
Wheresoever the Vertical may be. 
Wheresoever the Vertical may be, there I go. 

Songs of Walking Over the Earth. 

The title of Song 5 of this group is Ho'-e-ga Gi'-pshe Wa-tho°, 
Song of Walking Over the Earth. 

Ho'-e-ga is the ceremonial name for the earth. It is explained 
that the word means a snare-like enclosure into which falls life in 
all its variety of forms never to depart therefrom except by death. 
Ho'-e-ga corresponds to the Omaha name Hu'-thu-ga (see 27th Ann. 



Li FLESCHE] 



RITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



363 



Rept. B. A. E., pp. 139, 141, 196, 198) which is applied to the tribal 
camp when pitched for ceremonial purposes. Both terms refer to 
the primal ceremonial organization of the Osage and the Omaha, 
which is based upon the conception that all material forms of life 
proceed from the combined power of two cosmic forces, the skj^ and 
the earth. Gi'-pshe means the going forth as to travel over the earth 
as upon one's own property or possession. Wa-tho", a Song. 

The words of the song impl}- that they proceeded from a person 
who had just accomplished a difficult task, and are addressed to one 
for whom the great act was performed. 

A translation of two lines from the first stanza and one from each 
of the other five stanzas will make clear the meaning of the song. 



I. J 



M.M. J = 92 



So.vG 5. 
(Osage version, p. 513; literal translation, p. 629.) 

Trangcribed by Alice C.Pletcher 



^ 



r r r r r r r *i 



Time beats \ \ \ \ , I f I 

Ha-zho°ni-ka-e, ha-zho" ni-ka-e, Qi the he he thawi-tha. 



$ 



^^ 



^ 



r r 

Ha-zho° ni ka-e, 



r 



r 



r 



^i the he he tha wi-tha, 



ji^n i'jimf . 




r r 

Ha-zho"iii-ka-e, 



r r 

(ji the he he thawi-tha, Ha-zho" ni-ka-e. 



r r r 




9i the he he tha wi-tha, Ha-zho° ni ka-e. 



FREE TR.\NSLATION. 
1. 



It is done, thou man. It is done, thou man, 
I send thee forth upon thy feet. 



I send thee forth upon thy legs. 



364 THE OSAGE TRIBE. Ieth. axx. 38 

3. 

I send thee forth with thy body. 

4. 
I send thee forth with tliy arms. 

5. 
1 send thee forth with thy head. 

6. 
I send thee forth with thy mouth. 

Songs of Drawing the Arrows. 

The next group of four songs is called Mo°' Gthu-stse-dse Wa-tho", 
which, freely translated, is Songs of Drawing the Arrows. 

A literal translation of the title reveals the complex meaning of 
this group of songs. Mo°, arrows; Gthu, a possessive pronoun. As 
there is no masculine or feminine gender in the language the English 
use of the comprehensive term "his" will not give the true meaning 
of "Gthu"; stse-dse, draw. In the preceding song the tribe is per- 
sonified as a being, a man, who is bidden to go forth upon the earth 
as upon his own possession. It is he, the Symbolic Man, who rep- 
resents the tribe as an organized body, who is inspired to draw the 
mystic arrows by the courage Wa-ko"'-da has given to the hawk. 
Gthu, therefore, implies the complex symbolism involved in the act 
of drawing the arrows. 

The songs of the preceding group imply that man was brought into 
existence, endowed with physical strength, power of reason and of 
speech, and, thus fitted to cope with the exigencies of life, he was 
sent forth to travel the earth as though it were his own to occupy. 

But the bringing forth of man to earth did not complete the mystic 
act. It was necessary that the life put into his being should be given 
perpetuity by a never-ending line of descendants. This could not 
be attained except by divine favor, a favor to be sought by sup- 
plication in a ceremonial form, to consist in the sending forth of 
two mystic arrows (Fig. 4), one to overtake the Day and the other 
the Night, in both of which forever moves the power to be appealed 
to for the favor desired. The arrows to be sent forth are ceremo- 
nially made and consecrated by the priests of the gens called E-no"' 
Mi^-dse to°, Sole owners of the Bow. The breast of the bow (Fig. 4) 
is painted red for the Day and the back is painted black for the 
Night; one arrow is painted red to symbolize the Day and the other 
arrow is painted black to symbolize the Night, two mystic powers 
that forever follow each other. 



LA FLGSCHE] 



BITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 



365 



In formulating this supplicatory ceremony the No°'-ho''-zhi''-ga 
became conscious of the part man hunself must take toward the per- 
petuity of his progeny, so the ancient men gave him a place in this 
rite but not in his own person. The No"'-ho"-zhi"-ga realized that 
even in the duty of self-preservation which naturally fell to man he 
was dependent, for its effective performance, upon the mysterious 
power to whom he always looked for help. The quality most essential 
to the man, the warrior, for the performance of his duty was courage. 
For this gift he looked to Wa-ko°'-da. The kind of corn-age that 
appealed the most to him was that with which the hawk was gifted, 
and so the No"'-ho"-zhi"-ga gave a place in the supplicatory rites to 
that bird, the symbol of comage. As the title of this group of songs 
sets forth, it was the spirit of this courageous V)ird that was made to 
pull the cord of the bow that sent forth the mystic arrows to overtake 
the Day and the Night. 

In the version of this rite as practiced by the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge, 
in the songs of the Drawing of the Arrows, two hawks are mentioned. 



Fig. 4. —Bow and arrowy. 

The Black Bird (Black Hawk) sets in flight the black arrow to over- 
take the Night and the Little Hawk the red arrow to overtake the 
Day. In the version of this ceremony used by the I°-gtho°'-ga gens 
mention is made of three hawks, and the Do-do"'-ho"-ga, the man 
chosen by the people to act as their messenger to Wa-ko°'-da when 
they organize their warriors to go against the foe. The Wa-zhi"'- 
fa-be, the Black Bird, draws the black arrow; Gthe-do"'-xo-dse, Gray 
Hawk, draws the red arrow; Gthe-do'''-zhi"-ga, Little Hawk, draws 
the black arrow; Wa-k'o"'-ho''-ga, the Consecrated One, draws the red 
arrow (see pp. 233-235). The Tho'-xe gens mention but two hawks, 
Gthe-do"'-zhu-dse, Red Hawk, draws the red arrow; Wa-zhi"'- 
fa-be. Black Hawk, draws the black arrow. 

The first song of this group has two stanzas. Each stanza is sung 
twice and has three lines. The Xo'-ka, who during the singing of 
the song remains seated, at the third line of each utters a cry which 
denotes that he is in the presence of beings possessed with mystical 
powers. This song prefigures the acts which take place during the 
singing of the second song. 



366 



THE OSAGE TEIBE. 



[BTH. AXN.. 39 



Song 1. 
(Osage version, p. 513; literal translation, p. 629.) 
MM J - «o Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



ii J J J. ^m 



*^ r r r r 

Time beats 'ill 



r r 



r 



r 



i 



The- a ha tse tsi - go thi-thi"-ge the a-the i"da, 



m 



^m 



m 



r r r r 

The-aha dse, 
Magic Cry 



r r r 



r 



r r r 



Wa-zhi° 9a-be thi-thi"-ge the a-the i" da,The-a ha,. 




B,. 



hi hi, hi hi. 



FREE TKANSLATION. 



1 and 3. 

Lo, I send one to overtake thy grandfather, 

I send the Black Bird to overtake thy grandfather, 

Lo E , hi-hi, hi-hi, e, e. 

2 and 4. 

Lo, I send one to overtake thy grandfather, 

I send the Little Hawk to overtake thy grandfather. 

At the close of Song 1 the Sho'-ka goes to the place where lies the 
sacred Hawk, picks it up, puts around the neck of the Xo'-ka the 
carrying cord attached to the bird so that it hangs on the back of the 
man between his shoulders (PL 16), then places in his hands the 
symbolic bow (Fig. 4) and the two mystic arrows (Fig. 4) to be sent 
in flight toward the setting sun. 

When the Xo'-ka has been thus prepared the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka at 
once begins to sing the second song. The Xo'-ka immediately rises 
and dances to the rhythm of the music. When the fom-th line is 
reached he takes two or three quick steps toward the fireplace, fixes 
the red arrow to the bow and cord and speeds (figuratively) the mystic 
arrow on its course to pursue forever the Day. With the release of 

the arrow the Xo'-ka utters the sacred cry, E , hi-'hi, hi-hi, e, e. 

He then returns to his starting point and continues to dance while the 
A'-ki-ho° Xo'-ka, without pause, proceeds to the second stanza. 
Wlien the fourth line is reached the Xo'-ka fixes the black arrow to 
the bow and cord and steps forward as he sets in flight the black 
arrow of the Night and utters the mystic cry, and for a moment, with 
his mind's vision, he follows the arrow in its fhght. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



THIRTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 15 




XO'-KA SETTING TO FLIGHT THE MAGIC ARROWS 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



THIRTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 17 




XO'-KA DROPPING HAWK 



LX FLESCHE] 



KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION, 



367 



There is some ambiguity in the words of the lines of Song 2, " the 
blue-backed one sends forth the arrow." As the back of the sacred 
hawk is painted blue it may be that reference is here made' to that 
fact an<l it is he who speeds the arrows. . It is clear, however, that in 
both stanzas of the song the red and the black arrows are being sent 
in pursuit of the Day and the Night. 

A translation of two lines from each of the two stanzas is given. 



.M.J 



Song 2. 
COsage version, p. 514: literal translation, p. 630.) 

Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



MM J - S4 iranscrioea oy Alice i;.Meicner 

?TZ r r r r r r 



Time beats 



i 



Ha.monkshe the a-the tse 



r r r 

no^-ka to -ho the no" 



1 1 :'■ ;i } n 



r ^ r -r 

no", Ha,mo"kshe the a-the tse 



r r r 

no^-ka to- ho the no" 



rf^JliJ JQTiJ JiJ \ \l^ 



m 



J -r-—- r r— r r r r . 

no". Ho no" no", ho no" no", no"-ka to-ho the no'' 

Magic Cry 






f r r -r" « 

no", Zhu-dse kshe the a-the tse, E 



hi hi, hi hi, e, e, 



$ 



P 



^ 



J. "^n n J^ 



¥ 



r r " 

Ha, mo" kshe the a- the tse 



r f r 

no"-ka to-ho the no". 




no", Ho no" no", ho no" no", 



r r r 

no"-ka to-ho the no'' 



fe 



g'i-r P r I f' [!r- ll ^[j-Lrc_,p- ii^ 



-r r r r r r r r 

no". Ha, mo" kshe the a-the tse no"-ka to-ho the no" no". 



368 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[ETH. ANN. S» 



FREE TRANSLATION. 

1 and 3. 

Ho! I send the arrow by the blue-backed one, 

The red arrow I now send E , hi-hi, hi-hi, e, e. 

2 and 4. 

Ho! I send forth the arrow by the blue-backed one, 

The black arrow I now send E , hi-hi, hi-hi, e, e. 

Without pause the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka continues and sings Song 3, 
while the Xo'-ka, taking a position before him, dances to the rhythm 
of the music. 

In this song, with its accompanying dance, the Xo'-ka imperso- 
nates the successful Do-do" '-ho"-ga who comes home to his village in 
triumph with his commanders and warriors, having battled with the 
enemies of the tribe and overcome them. 

Thus the Xo'-ka in this little drama directs the attention of his 
initiate to the pathway of the tribal life, which the warrior must at 
all tunes strive to protect, with liis courage and valor, against all 
dangers. 

A translation of two lines of each stanza of the song is given. 

Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 514; literal translation, p. 630.) 
MM J - 80 Transcribed by Alice C.Fletcher 



i 



^ 



^J'r^'-'^rJ- i^-j m 



Time beats I'll \ j* • - » 

E he he, taea-wa- the no" gthiu-wa he he no", 



i 



^ 



t^rtf^JO^ 



i / i i Jl 



• r • • • — •* — 4 — d' d • 

^ r \ : 



r r f ' r r ' r ' r r r r ' r 

E he he, zhu-dse a-wa-the gthiu-wa he he no", E he he, zhu-dse a- 



fc 



^^ 



w. 



r 



d'f> d' 



r r 



^ ' r ' r ' 'V r 

Wii-the ffthiu-wa he he no", E he he, zhu-dse a- 



P 



? 



^ 



i^ 



d — •-; — d d • 



r 



r 



r 



r 



r r 



wa-the gthiu-wa he he no", 



he 



r 



r* 



he, zhu-dse a ' 



# 



n=*i 



s 



^ 

=(2^ 



d d . 



-d—d 

r 



r 



r 



r 



r r 



wa-the gthiu-wa he he no". 



E 



r 

he. 



LAFLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL FREE TRANSLATION. 369 

FREE TRANSLATION. 
1. 

Lo, I come home, having slain the enemy, 
Causing their bodies to redden the earth. 

2. 

Lo, I come home, having slain the enemy, 
Their bodies lie scattered and gray on the earth. 

3. 

Lo, I come home, having slain the enemy. 
Their bodies turn vellow as thev lie on the earth. 



Lo, I come home, having slain the enemy, 
Their whitened bones lie scattered on the earth. 

Songs of L.\yixg Down the W.\-xo'-be. 

The Ancient No"'-ho"-zhi"-ga gave to the fifth stanza of Song 3 a 
distinctive subtitle, and in the table of contents of the ritual, which 
they memorized with the aid of counting sticks, they fixed a place 
for it as a song separate from the Arrow Songs. The first word of 
the title, Gthi, means The Return, that is, the triumphant return of 
a successful Do-do" '-ho^-ga to his home. The second woni, I-he-the, 
means The Putting Down, that is, the putting down of his Wa-xo'-be 
in its ceremonial place in the house; Wa-tho°, Song. The added 
dignity of a song was thus given to the stanza because of the por- 
tentous significance of the dramatic movements that accompany it. 

At the close of the fourth stanza of Song 3, the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka 
pauses in his singing, during which the Sho'-ka takes the symbolic 
bow and the arrows from the Xo'-ka, removes from his back the 
Wa-xo'-be and places on the upturned palms of the Xo'-ka the 
sacred bird (PI. 17). When the change in the attire of the Xo'-ka 
is completed the A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka begins to sing the song of the 
Laying Down of the Wa-xo'-be. 

Song. 

Lo, I come home, having slain the enemy, 

I have made them to fall, to lie low on the earth. 

The Xo'-ka, still holding the bird, renews his dance, keeping step 
to the music as he rhythmically moves from side to side. At the 
final note of the song the Xo'-ka, \\ath a dramatic movement of his 
arms, drops to earth the Wa-xo'-be, the tribal emblem of the courage 
of the warrior. At that instant the Sho'-ka hastens to the spot 
where the bird fell, while from every side of the lodge arises the 
3594°— 25t 24 



370 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [eth. axn. 39 

eager question, "How does it lie?" If the Sho'-ka answers, ''With 
his breast upward," an exclamation of relief comes from all the 
No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga, for it is a sign that at the next conflict with the 
enemy the warriors of the tribe will triumph, and the initiate \vill 
prosper and enjoy the full length of his life. If, however, the Sho'-ka 
replies, "He lies face downward," the words are heard in silence, for 
they indicate death. 

The Xo'-ka, who has rem'ained standing, with hands uplifted, from 
which the bird was dropped, listens to the report of the Sho'-ka. 
When that is made the Xo'-ka returns to his seat beside the initiate. 

The A'-ki-ho" Xo'-ka now lifts high his gourd rattle, and with a 
wliirling motion brings it slowly down to earth, where he places it 
to rest, an act wliich is a signal that the cereiuony is ended. 

The No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Ho°'-ga great division rise first, then 
those of the Tsi'-zhu division. Each group in leaving the lodge 
passes in ceremonial order in front of the initiating gens and the 
initiate, to whom they offer greetings, and then go out of the lodge 
at the opposite entrance. 



Part II.— OSAGE VERSION 



371 



KEY TO PRONUNCIATION. 

a as in father. 

a exploded a. 

5 as in bad. 

g as in thin, thong. 

d as in dog. 

g as in prey. 

'e exploded e. 

g as in go. 

jj as in he. 

\ as in pierce. 

exploded i. 

nasalized i. 

nasalized exploded i. 

l£ , as in kin, kind. 

If a medial k (between k and g). 

jjj as in man, mine. 

n as in no, nap. 

s nasalized n. 

o as in note. 

'o exploded o. 

Qo nasalized o. 

p as in pipe. 

J. as in road, rope. 

g as in sit, sing. 

gl, as in shun. 

t as in ten. 

th as in then, thoa 

u as in rule. 

'y exploded u. 

Yv as in wet, win. 

X rough German ch. 

jli as in azure. 



373 



Wa'-xpe-gthe A-do'^-be Wi'-gi-e. 

(Free translation, p. 44: literal translation, p. 517.) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Ho°'-ga U-dse-the Pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

3. Xtha'-xtha thi°-ge xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. No"', wi-9-o°-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

.5. Zhi"'-ga wa-zhi" gi-the ta bi a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Wa'-dsu-ta wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. Wa'-zki" gi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. I"'-gtlio" gthe-zhe zhi"-ga e-de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Wa'-zhi" gi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Wa'-zhi" gi-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Zhi"'-ga, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Wa'-xpe-gthe a-do°-be a-ki-gtha-thi° mo"-thi" ta bi a', wn-co^-ga, 

a bi" da. tsi ga, 

13. Tsi'-zhe-be the tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Tsi'-zhe-be a-do°-be a-ki-gtha-thi" mo°-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

15. U'-zhe-tsi tlie tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. U'-zhe-tsi a-do^-be a-ki-gtha-thi" mo"-thi" ta bi a', w-i-fo"-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

17. Wa'-zhi" gi-tha bi ga no"-zhi" tUi', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

IS. I"'-gtho"-ga do-ga kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Wa'-zhi" gi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Wa'-zhi" gi-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. AYa'-xpe-gthe a-do"-be a-ki-gtha-thi" mo°-thi" ta bi a', wi-9o"-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Tsi'-zhc-be the-tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Tsi'-zhe-be a-do°-be a-ki-gtha-thi" ino"-thi" ta bi a', wi-9o"-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. U'-zhe-tsi the tse a', a bi" da. tsi ga, 

25. U'-zhe-tsi a-do"-be a-ki-gtha-tlii" mo"-thi" ta bi a, wi-9o"-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

26. Wa'-zhi" gi-tha bi ga no"-zhi" thi', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

27. Wa'-^;a-be u-pa-ka thi" ge kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. E'sliki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Wa'-zhi" o"-gi-the ta bi a-tha', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

30. Wa'-zhi" o"-gi-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Wa'-xpe-gthe a-do"-be a-ki-gtha-thi" mo°-thi" ta bi a' 

•wn-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

375 



376 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [ETn. ANN. 39 

32. Tsi'-zhe-be the tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

33. Tsi'-zhe-be a-do^-be a-ki-gtha-thi° mo°-thi" ta bi a', wi-QO^-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. U'-zhe-tsi the tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35.' U'-zhe-tsi a-do°-be a-ki-gtha-thi° mo°-thi° ta bi a', wi-po°-ga, 
e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

36. Wa'-zhi" gi-tha bi ga no^-zhi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

37. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Wa'-dsu-ta stse-dse kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. E'shki do" a', a bi" da. tsi ga. 

40. Wa'-zhi" o°-gi-the ta bi a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Wa'-zhi" o"-gi-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Wa'-xpe-gthe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. Wa'-xpe-gthe a-do°-be a-ki-gtha-thi" mo°-thi° ta bi a', wi-(?o"-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. Tsi'-zhe-be the tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Tsi'-zhe-be a-do"-be a-ki-gtha-thi" nio"-thi" ta bi a', wi-Qo"-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. U'-zhe-tsi the tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. U'-zhe-tsi a ilo"-be a-ki-gtha-thi" mo°-thi° ta bi a', wi-90"-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

48. Wa'-zhi" gi-tha bi ga no"-zhi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

Wa'-xpe-gthe A-do"-be Wi'-gi-e. 

(used by all the gentes.) 
(Free translation, p. 47; literal translation, p. 518.) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Ta'-dse pa-ho"-gthe thi" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Wa'-(?a-ki-the zhi"-ga i-ta wi" u-mo°-thi" thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

5. Da'-do" no"-thi" a-zhi xtsi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Dsi"'-tha to"-ga do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. fa'-dsc pa-ho"-gthe thi" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, ■ 

9. U'-mo"-thi" thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Da'-do" no"-thi" a-zhi xtsi u-mo"-thi" the no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Wa'-xpe-gthe a-gi-do"-be thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Wa'-xpe-gthe mo°-tse xtsi thi"-kshe shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Wa'-xpe-gthe a-gi-do"-be thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Sho"' tha i do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. Be'-ni-ha hi gthi" thi"-kshe wa-ga-xe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. (^i'-hi xtsi hi no" wa-the thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 377 

18. Ha'-shki pa-gthe i-zho°-zh<>" the wa-ga-xe thi°-kshe no" a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

19. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Ho^'-ba u-fa-ki-ba do-ba shki u-hi-zhi wa-ga-xe the no° a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

21. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. No°'-xe gi-to" a-zhi xtsi wa-ga-xe the no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. No'''-xe no" shki do" wa-thu-^e tse a i tho" shki e'-gi wa-o"-t,he 

no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Wa'-fa-ki-the zhi"-ga i-ta ga no"-zhi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

26. Ki'-gthiu-ni-ka thi°-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Ta'-dse pa-ho°-gthe thi" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. U'-mo"-thi° the no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Da'-do" no°-thi" a-zhi xtsi u-mo"-thi" the no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Wa'-xpe-gtho a-gi-do"-be thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Ni'-ka-shi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Be'-ni-ha xtsi wa-thi" hi-thc no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Zhu'-i-ga gi-to" a-zhi xtsi wa-thi" hi the no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. I"'-dse u-ga-vi-fi-hi tlic xtsi wa-thi" hi the no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Ha'-shki pa-gthe i-zho"-zh(y' the wa-ga-xe the no" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

37. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. No"'-xe no" shki do". wa-thu-(?e tse a i tho" shki e'-gi M-a-o" the 

no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Wa'-fa-ki-the zhi°-ga i-ta ga no"-zhi"-da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

41. A'-liiu-ta-ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Ta'-dse pa-ho°-gthe thi" dsi u-mo"-thi" the no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. Wa'-xpe-gthe a-gi-do°-be thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Ni'-ka-shi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. Be'-ni-ha xtsi wa-ga-xe tlie no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. ^'i'-hi xtsi wa-ga-xe the no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Ha'-shki pa-gthe i-zho"-zho" the wa-ga-xe thi" a', a bi" da, tsiga, 

49. AVi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. No"'-xe no" shki wa-thu-fe tse a i tho" shki e-gi wa-o"-the no" a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Wa'-fa-ki-the zhi"-ga i-ta ga no"-zlii" (hi', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

52. No°'-ni-ba zhi"-ga tlo" a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

53. Ta'-dse pa-ho"-gthe thi" tlsi ii-nio"-thi" the thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. Wa'-xpe-gthe a-gi-do"-be thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



378 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. iNU. 39 

55. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

56. f i'-hi xtsi wa-thi" hi the no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Be'-ni-ha xtsi wa-thi" hi the no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

58. Ha'-shki pa-gthe i-zho"-zho" the wa-ga-xe the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

59. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. No°'-xe no" shki do" wa-thu-^e tse a i tho" shki e-gi wa-o°-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

61. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

62. Tse'-shi"-shi°-e kshe no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. fa'-dse pa-ho"-gthe gthi thi° dsi u-mo"-thi" thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. Wi'-tsi-go da-do° no^-thi" a-zhi xtsi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. Ni'-ka-shi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. Be'-ni-ha xtsi wa-thi" hi the no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. fi'-hi xtsi wa-thi" hi the no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. Ha'-shki pa-gthe i-zho"-zho" the wa-ga-xe thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. No"'-xe no" shki do" wa-thu-^e tse a' i tho" shki e'-gi wa-o" the 

no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

73. Ta'-dse pa-ho°-gthe thi" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. 'rse'-pi-tha-to°-ga do" a', a bi" (hx, tsi ga. 

75. U'-mo"-thi" the no" a', a bi" tla, tsi ga, 

76. Wi'-tsi-go da-do" no"-thi" a-zhi xtsi thi" a'- ^ ^i° tla, tsi ga 

77. Wa'-xpe-gthe a-gi-do"-be thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

78. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. Be'-ni-ha xtsi wa-ga-xe thi" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. Ci'-hi xtsi wa-ga-xe thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

81. Ha'-shki pa-gthe i-zho"-zho"-the wa-ga-xe thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

82. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

83. No"'-xe no" shki do" wa-thu-fc tse a' i tho°-shki e'-gi wa-o" the 

no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

84. Ho"-a'-do" wa-f a-ki-the zhi"-ga i-ta ga no" shki a, hi" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

85. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

86. Ni'-shku-shku kshe no" a', a bi" <hi, tsi ga, 

87. fa'-dse pa-ho°-gthe thi" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga; 

88. U'-rao"-thi" thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

89. Wa'-xpe-gthe a-gi-do"-be thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

90. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

91. Ni'-ka-shi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

92. Be'-ni-ha xtsi wa-thi" hi the no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

93. A'-da-ts'e-ga xtsi wa-thi" hi the no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



L.1FLESCHE] BITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 379 

94. Ha'-sliki pa-gthe i-zho"-zho° the wa-ga-xe thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

95. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" d&, tsi ga, 

96. No°'-xe no" shki do° wa-thu-fe tse a' i tho" shki e'-gi wa-o°-the 

no° a, a bi° da, tsi ga. 

Wa'-xpe-gthe A-do^-be, Ni'-ka Wa-ko^-da-gi. 

(Free translation, p. 51: literal translation, p. 520.) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Ta-dse pa-ho°-gthe thi" dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. Wft'-fa-ki-the zhi°-ga i-ta wi" u-mo^-thi" thi" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. Ni'-shku-shku mo"-ge zhu-dse kshe a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

6. Ta-dse ]7a-ho"-gthe thi" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. U'-mo°-thi° thi" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Wa'-xpe-gthe a-gi-do"-be thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Da'-do" no"-thi" a-zhi xtsi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Ho"'-ba u-^a-ki-ba ge' e-to" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Wi'-tsi-go da-do" no°-thi" a-zhi xtsi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi gar. 

13. Ho"' a-do° wa-fa-ki-the zlii"-ga i-ta ga no" shki a, hi" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

14. Ni'-shku-shku ino"-ge (?a-be kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Wi'-tsi-go a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

16. fa'-dse pa-ho"-gthe thi" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. U'-nio"-thi" thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Wa'-xpe-gthe a-gi-do"-be thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Ho"'-ba u-9a-ki-y)a ge' e-to° xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Gi'-no"-thi" a-zlii xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Wi'-tsi-go da-do" no"-thi" a-zhi xtsi thi" a', a hi"' da, tsi ga, 

24. Ho"' a-do" wa-fa-ki-tlie zhi"-ga i-ta ga no" sliki a, hi" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

25. Ni'-shku-shku mo"-ge pka kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Ta'-dse pa-ho"-gthe thi" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. U'-mo"-thi" thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Wa'-xpe-gthe a-gi-do"-be thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Wi'-tsi-go da-do" no"-thi" a-zhi xtsi thi" a', a bi" chi, tsi ga, 

31. Ho"'-ba ge' e-to" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Gi'-no°-thi" a-zhi xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

53. Ho"' a-do° wa-fa-ki-the 2hi°-ga i-ta ga no^-shki a, hi" a, a bi" da, 
tsi ga, 



380 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 3» 

34. Ni'-shku-shku mo°-ge ^i kslie a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Ta'-dse pa-ho^-gthe thi" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. U'-nio"-thi" thi° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Wa'-xpe-gthe a-gi-do"-be tlii" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

40. Wi'-tsi-go a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Ho"'-ba u-9a-ki-ba ge' e-to" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Gi'-no"-thi" a-zhi xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. Da'-do" no"-thi" a-zlii xtsi iii-ka-slii-ga tlii" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. Wa'-xpe-gthe a-gi-do"-be thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

No'^-Nl' A-THA-SHO-DSE Wl'-GT-E. 1. 

(Free translation, p. M; literal translation, p. 521.) 

1. Da'-do" zhi"-ga wa-zlii" gi-the iuo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

2. I"'-gtho" gthe-zlie zhi"-ga kslie no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Wi'-tsi-go wa-zhi°-to"-ga do" wa-zhi" gi-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga,. 

4. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Wi'-tsi-go wa-ko"-tha tsi the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Ta' he ba-shi-zhe kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. Wi'-tsi-go ts'e the i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Wi'-tsi-go e-dsi the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Wa'-ko"-tha tsi the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

10. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Wa'-tse bo" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Zhi"'-ga nai hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Wa'-tse tha bi tho" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Ga'-xto" mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. No"'-be e-dsi wa-thi"-ga zhi ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

16. U'-ba-xo" wi" ga-xe no"-zhi" a', a bin da, tsi ga. 

17. Da'-ilo" zhi"-ga wa-zhi" gi-tlia bi go" no" shki a, hi" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

18. Sho"'-ge hi" tu kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Wi'tsi-go wa-zhi" to"-ga do" wa-zhi" gi-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsiga, 

20. On'-ba i-t^-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Wi'-tsi-go wa-ko"-tha tsi the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Ta' tse-he-xo-dse kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Ni u'-ga-xthi xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Wi'-tsi-go ts'e the i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

25. Wi'-tsi-go wa-tse niu to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Zhi"'-ga wa-tse tha bi tho" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Wa'-tse ga-xto° ino"-thi" ta i tsi" thx', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. No"'-be-hi wi-ta no°-be-hi tha bi tho" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] EITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 381 

29. No°'-be e-dsi wa-thi°-ga zhi ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

30. U'-ba-xo" tho"-ba ga-xe no°-zhi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

31. Da'-do° zhi°-ga wa-zhi" gi-tha bi go° no" shki a, hi" a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

32. l"'-gtlio"-ga do-ga kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Wi'-tsi-go wa-zhi" to"-ga do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Ga' wa-zhi" gi-the ta a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Wi'-tsi-go wa-ko"-tha tsi the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Ta' he sha-be kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Ni u'-ga-xthi xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Wi'-tsi-go ts'e the i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Wi'-tsi-go wa-tse bo" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Zhi"'-ga wa-tse tha bi tho" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Wa'-tse ga-xto° mo"-thi° ta i tsi" chi', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. No°'-be e-dsi wa-thi"-ga zhi'ki-the nio"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

44. U'-ba-.xo" tha-bthi" ga-xe no"-zhi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

45. Da'-do" wa-zhi" gi-tha bi go" no" shki a, hi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. Wa'-pa-be do-ga kslie a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. Wi'-tsi-go wa-zhi" gi-the ta a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tlio" dsi a', a l)i" da, tsi ga, 

49. Wi'-tsi-go wa-ko"-tha tsi tlie to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Mo"'-ba-tsi-he lio"-(?ka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Tlii'-ta-the gthi n40°-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

52. Wa'-gthu-shiva zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. I u'-tha-btho"-xe tsi the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. I'-the-dse i-sdu-ge te a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Wa'-bi" a-ba-sho"-tha tsi the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Wa'-tse bo" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Zhi"'-ga wa-tse tlia bi tho" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. Wa'-tse ga-xto" mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. No" '-be e-dsi wa-thi"-ga zlii ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

61. U'-ba-xo"-do-ba ga-xe no"-zlii" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. Da'-do" zhi"-ga wa-zhi" gi-the nio"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

63. Wa'-dsu-ta to"-ga to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. Wi'-tsi-go wa-zlii" to"-ga do" wa-zlii" gi-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. Wi'-tsi-go wa-ko°-tha tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



382 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. an.\. 39 

67. Mo^'-ha pa-pi ho°-Qka do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

68. Tlii'-pi-tha ga-xe to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. Wi'-tsi-go wa-tse niu to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

70. Zhi°'-ga wa-tse tha bi tho° shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. Wa-tse ga-xto" mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. No°'-be e-dsi wa-tlii"-ga zhi ki-the nio°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

73. Da'-do" wa-zhi° gi-tha bi go" no" shki a, hi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. Wa'-dsu-ta stse-dse to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

75. Wi'-tsi-go wa-zlii" gi-the ta a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. Tse'-xe xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

77. Mi'-ta-o-ga-xthe lii to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

78. Thi'-btlii"-btlii"-tha i-no"-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. Wi'-tsi-go wa-tse niu to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. Zhi"'-ga wa-tse tha bi tho" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

81. Wa'-tse ga-xto" mo"-tlii" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

82. No" '-be e-dsi wa-thi"-ga zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" ila', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

83. Da'-do" zhi"-ga wa-zhi° gi-tha bi go" no" shki a, hi" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

84. Wa'-dsu-ta-zhi"-ga kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

85. Wi'-tsi-go pi-fi tlii"-ge tho"-zha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

86. Ga' wa-zlii" gi-the ta a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

87. 'ron'-wo"-gtho° do-ba e-dsi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

88. 'ro"'-wo" ko"-ha no"-ge ke a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

89. 'To^'wo" ko"-ha i-tlii-sho" ha shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

90. Wa'-pa-hi a-bu-zha-zha-ta bi shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

91. "Tse'-xi ga-shi-be no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

92. Zlii"'-ga wa-zhi" o"-gi-tha bi tho" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

93. Tse'-xi ga-shi-be ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

94. Zlh"'-ga wo" shki do" a', a bi" da. tsi ga, 

95. No°'-be e-dsi wa-tlii"-ga zlh ki-the mo"-tlu" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

No^"-Nl' A-THA-SHO-DSE Wl'-GI-E. II. 

(Free translation, p. 59; literal translation, p. 524.) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Da'-do" wa-zhi" gi-the nio"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. No°'-ni-ba zhi"-ga do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Wa'-zhi" gi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Wa'-zhi" gi-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 383 

7. We'-ki-i-he-the gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi° da', a bi'' da, 

tsi ga, 

8. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. Wa'-zhi" gi-tha bi ga no°-zhi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

10. Tsiu'-ge thi°-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Wa'-zhi" o"-gi-the ta bi a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Wa'-zhi" o°-gi-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Wa'-zlii" gi-tha bi gi-wa-t.s'e-ga o"-ivi-the o°-mo"-thi" ta bi" da', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. Wa'-zhi" gi-tha bi ga no"-zhi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

17. Tse' hi" ga thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Wa'-zhi" o"-gi-the ta bi a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Wa'-zhi" o"-gi-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Wa'-zhi" gi-tha bi gi-wa-ts'e-ga o"-ki-the o°-mo°-thi° ta bi" da', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

23. Wa-zhi" gi-tha bi ga no"-zhi" da, a bi" da, tsi ga. 

24. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Wa'-zhi" -ga wa-tha-xthi thi"-ge thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Wa'-zhi" o"-gi-the ta bi a-tha', a In" da, tsi ga, 

27. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tlio" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Thu-e'xtsi wa-ko"-tha tlie do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. 0'-?u u-gtho" xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. fiu'-ka to"-ga thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Hi"' ga-mo"-thi" kshe ga-xe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da. tsi ga, 

35. Hu' wa-to"-i" tsi-gthe thi" a' a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. fsi'-ga-xa wa-tse a-tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Ga'-xto" mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

38. No°'-be-hi wi-ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. No"'-be-hi gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da. tsi ga, 

40. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. No"'-be e-dsi wa-thi"-ga zlii ki-the mo"-tlii" ta bi" da', a bi" da, 

tsiga, 

42. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" (hx, tsi ga, 

43. Wa'-zhi" gi-tha bi ga no°-zhi" ila', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



384 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [ETH. ANN. 39 

44. I'-to° to"-ga thi"-kslie no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tho"-ilsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. Thu-e' xtsi wa-ko°-tha the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. O'-fu u-gtho" xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Mi'-ka do-ga tlii"-kshe no" a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

49. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Bi'-shu-ka i-he-the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. He'-dsi xtsi wa-tse niu ga-xe to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. Tsi'-ga-xa wa-tse a-tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Ga'-xto" mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. No"'-be-lii wi-ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. No°'-be-hi gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. No"'-be e-dsi wa-thi"-ga zlii ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

58. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. Wa'-zhi" gi-tha bi ga no"-zhi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

60. Wa'-po-ga to"-ga thi°-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. E' shki wa-zhi" o"-gi-the ta bi a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. Wa'-zhi" gi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. Ho°'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. Thu-e' xtsi wa-ko"-tha the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. Ga'-xa zhi"-ga fe-gtlia-gtlia xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. Mi'-ka tse-he-xo-dse e-de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. He'-dsi xtsi bi-shu-ka i-he-the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. He'-dsi xtsi hu wa-to"-i" tsi-gthe thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Tsi'-ga-xa wa-tse a-tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. Ga'-xto" mo"-thi" ta i tsi"-(hi', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. No"'-be-hi wi-ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. No"'-be-hi the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

75. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. No"'-be e-dsi wa-thi"-ga zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

77. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

78. Wa-zhi" gi-tha bi ga no"-zhi" da, a bi" da, tsi ga. 

Ho^-be'-^u Wi'-gi-e. 

(Freetranslation, p. 63: literal translation, p. 525.) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Ke' pi"-dse ga-tse pe-tho"-ba thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Ga' fu-e o"-ki-the o"-mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-9o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a' 

a hi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] EITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 385 

4. fu'-e o°-ki-the o°-mo°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. Sli' hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. Xa'-dse gi-Qta'-ge o°-ki-the o^-mo"-!!!!" ta bi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

7. Da'-do" ho°-be-ko° the mo^-tlii" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. We'-ts'a ni-dse-wa-the kshe no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Ga' ho°-be-ko° the mo°-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Ho^'-be-ko" the mo°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Xa'-dse e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Ho"'-be-ko° gi-ba-xa zhi ki-the rao°-tlii" ta bi a', wi-Qo''-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a, a bi" da, tsi ga. 

13. Da'-do° mo°-hi° gi-the mo°-tlii" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Wa'-dsu-ta shi"-to-zhi°-ga kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. He' i-shdo-ge tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. Ga' mo" -hi" gi-the mo"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Mo"'-hi" gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Mi' M-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Mo"-hi"' gi-pa-hi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-^on-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

20. Da'-do" wa-ba-to-be nio"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Ni'-ka wa-k'o" o-tha'-ha kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Ga' wa-ba-to-b*e mo°-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Wa'-ba-to-b% mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Wa'-ba-to-be gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-po°-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

26. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Ke (;'.i"-dse ga-tse sha-pe thi"-kshe a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Ga' cu-e o"-ki-the o"-mo°-thi" ta bi a', wi-90°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. ^'u'-e o"-ki-the o"-mo°-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Xa'-dse gi-?ta-ge.o"-ki-the o"-mo"-thi° ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

32. Da'-do" ho°-be-ko" the mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. We'-ts'a ni-dse-wa-the kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Ga' ho°-be-ko° the mo°-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Ho"'-be-ko" the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Xa'-dse e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Ho"'-be-ko" gi-ba-xa zlii ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi a', wi-90°-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a, a bi" da, tsi ga. 
3594°— 25t 25 



386 THE OSAGE TRIBE. Teth. an.n. 39 

38. Da'-do° mo°-hi° gi-the mo^-thi" ta ba do'' a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Wa'-dsu-ta shi''-to-zhi''-ga kshe no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

40. He' i-shdo-ge tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

41. Ga' mo°-hi° gi-the mo"-tlii" bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

42. Mo°'-hi° gi-the mo^-thi" bi do° shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. Mo°'-hi° gi-pa-hi ki-the mo^-thi" ta bi a', wi-9o°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

43. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. Da'-do" wa-ba-to-be mo''-thi° ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Wa'-k'o wo" we-da-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. Ga' wa-ba-to-be mo"-thi° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Wa'-ba-to-be mo"-tlii" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Wa'-ba-to-be gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-90°-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

52. Da'-do" wa-ba-xtho-ge mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. Shi"'-to ho btho"-xe do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Ga' wa-ba-xtho-ge mo"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. Wa'-ba-xtho-ge mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Wa'-ba-xtho-ge gi-o-ts'e-ga o"-ki-the o°-mg"-thi" ta bi a', 

wi-fo"-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

58. Da'-do" wa-ba-xtho-ge ino"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. Shi'-mi ho-btho"-xe do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. Ga' wa-ba-xtho-ge mo"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Wa'-ba-xtho-ge mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. Wa'-ba-xtho-ge gi-o-ts'e-ga o"-ki-the o"-mo"-thi" ta bi a', 

wi-9o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

63. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. Da'-do" wa-ba-xtho-ge mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. Ni'-ka wa-k'o" o-tha'-ha kshe no" a', a bi" (la, tsi ga, 

66. Ga' wa-ba-xtho-ge ino"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. Wa'-ba-xtlio-ge mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. Wa'-ba-xtho-ge gi-o-ts'e-ga o°-ki-the o"-nio"-thi" ta bi a', 

wi-fo"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

69. Da'-do" wa-ba-xtho-ge mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Wa'-k'o wo" we-da-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. Ga' wa-ba-xtho-ge mo°-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. Wa'-ba-xtho-ge mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. Wa'-ba-xtho-ge gi-o-ts'e-ga o"-ki-the o"-mo"-thi" ta bi a', 

wi-po"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



i^FLESCHE] BITE OF VIGIL — OSAGE LANGUAGE. 387 

Kl'-NO" Wa-tho". 

(Free translation, p. 70; literal translation, p. 527.) 

I. 

Mo''-thi°-ka gi a bi the, 
Mo°-thi"-ka gi a bi the he the, he the, 
'J'se-xo-be e-go° e-wo° thi" a-do", 
Wi-tsi-go gi a bi the he the, 
Mo°-thi°-ka gi a bi the he the. 

Wl'-GI-E. 

1. Ha'! tse-xo-be e-go° e-de a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi thi°-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. He'-dsi xtsi a', bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha ba tho"-ta mi"-kshe i" da', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Ni' a-ki-tha-zha-ta ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Wa'-ko"-da o°-ki-tha-zha-ta hi a-thi"-he i" da', a bi" da, t.si ^a, 

7. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Wa'-ko°-da a-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-the iiio"-thi" ta bi a, zhi°-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. 

Mo°-thi''-lfa gi a bi the, 
Mo''-thi°-ka gi a bi the he the, he the, 
Ho^-bthin-sha-be e-go" e-wo° thi" a-do", 
Wi-tsi-go gi a bi the he the, 
MoMhio-ka gi a bi the he the. 

Wl'-GI-E. 

9. Ha'! ho"-bthi"-sha-be e-go" e-de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi thi^-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" chi, tsi ga, 

12. Zlii"'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi thi°-ge e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha ba tho" ta mi"-kshe i" da', a bi"-da, tsi ga, 

14. Ni' a-ki-tlia-zha-ta ga kshe a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

15. Wa'-ko°-da o"-ki-tha-zha-ta bi a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Wa'-ko"-da a-ki-tha-zha ta bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

3. 

Mo°-thi''-ka gi a bi the, 
Moo-thio-ka gi a bi the he tlie, he the, 
Ta-biu-gka e-go° e-\vo° thi" a do", 
Wi-tsi-go gi a bi the he the, 
Mo°-thi°-ka gi a bi the he the. 



388 THE OSAGE TBIBE. [eth. axn. 39 

Wl'-GI-E. 

18. Ha'! ta-biu-fka e-go" e-de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi tlii"-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi thi°-ge e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha ba tho" ta mi"-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Ni' a-ki-tha-zha-ta ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Wa'-ko"-da o"-ki-tha-zha-ta bi a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Wa'-ko"-da a-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a, zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

4. 

Mo°-thi"-ka gi a bi the, 
Mo°-thi°-ka gi a bi the he the, he the, 
Ki-gda e-de e-wo° thi" a-do", 
Wi-tsi-go gi a bi the he the, 
Mo''-thi''-ka gi a bi the he the. 

Wl'-GI-E. 

27. Ha'! ki-pda e-de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go e e-gi-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

29. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi thi"-ge e-she do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha ba tho" ta mi°-kshe i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Ni' a-ki-tha-zha-ta ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Wa'-ko"-da o"-ki-tha-zha-ta bi a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Wa'-ko"-da a-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga, 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

Kl'-NO" Wl'-GI-E. 

(Free translation, p. 74: literal translation, p. 529.) 

1. Da'-do" ki-no" gi-the ino°-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi g£, 

2. Wa'-ko"-da ho"-ba do" thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Ga' ki-no" gi-the mo"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Wa'-ko"-da tse-ga xtsi u-ga-zhu-dse hi no" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Ga' ki-no" gi-the mo"-thi° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Ki'-no" gi-the iuo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. Ki'-no" i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

8. Da'-do" wa-gthe gi-the mo"-thi'' ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Wa'-ko"-da tse-ga xtsi e-tho"-be hi no" no" a', a bi" da. tsi ga, 
10. I'-sdu-ga dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHE] EITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 389 

11. Wa'-gthe to" e-go" to" no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. Ga' wa-gthe gi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Wa'-gthe gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Wa'-gthe gi-sho°-tha zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

15. Da'-do" wa-no"-p'i" to" kshi-tlie mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

16. Tsiu'-ge thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Ga' uo"-p'i" kshi-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Wa'-ko°-da ho"-ba do" thi"-kshe a', a bi" dn, tsi ga, 

19. I'-bi-9o"-dse xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. No"'-p'i" kshi-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. I'-ts'a thi"-ge nio"-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

22. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Da'-do" a-ko"-ta kshi-the nio"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Da'-gthe a-ko°-ta e-slmo" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. A'-ko"-ta kshi-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Da'-gthe a-ko°-ta wi° e-cka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. E'-wa-ka zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Wa'-no"-xe e-de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. A'-ko°-ta kshi-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

30. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Da'-do" pi-tha to" kshi-the ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Da'-gthe e-de a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Pi'-tha to" kshi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Da'-gthe e-de e-fka e-wa-ka ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Wa'-no"-xe e-de pi-tha to" kshi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

36. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Da'-do" ho"-be to" kshi-the ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

38. Da'-gthe wi° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Ho"'-be to" kshi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Da'-gthe wi" e-<?ka e-wa-ka ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Wa'-no°-xe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Ho°-be to" kshi-tha bi a, a bi" da, tsi ga. 

No^-ZHi"' Wa-tho". 

(Free translation, p. 76; literal translation, p. 530.) 

1. 

Ha, Sho-ka a-no°-zhi'' tse the, 
Ha, Sho-ka a-no''-zhi'' tse the, 
A-nc-zhi" tse-the, 
Ha, Sho-ka a-noo-zhi" tse-the, 
Ha, Sho-^a a-nc-zhi" tse the. 



390 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [etii. ANN. 39 

2. 

Ha, Sho-lfa a-mo°-thi" tse the, 
Ha, Sho-ka a-mo''-thi'' tse the, 
A-moMhi" tse the. 
Ha, Sho-ka a-mo"-thi'' tse the, 
Ha, Sho-ka a-mc-thi" tse the. 

Tsi Ta'-pe Wa-tho". 

(Free translation, p. 80; literaltranslation, p. 531.) 

Tsi wi" e-dsi tse do" dsi the hi" da a, 

Tsi wi" e-dsi tse do" dsi the lii" da a, 

Tsi wi" e-dsi tse do" dsi the hi" da, 

Dsi the hi" da a, 

Ho"-ga tsi wi" e-dsi a-ka do" dsi the hi" da a, 

Tsi wi" e-dsi a-ka do" dsi tlie hi" da a, 

Tsi wi" e-dsi a-ka do" dsi the hi" da. 

Wa'-^'i-thu-^e Wi'-gi-e. 

(Free translation, ]i. 81; literaltranslation, p. 531.) 

1. Da'-do° wa-pi-thu-pe mC-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga,. 

2. Mi hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Ni u'-ga-xtlii wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Ga' a-pi-thu-pe mo°-thi" bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. Ni u'-ga-xthi wi° e-pka e-wa-ka ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Tsi' zlii"-ga wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. Ga' a-pi-thu-pe mo"-thi° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. A'-pi-thu-pe mo°-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. A'-pi-thu-pe gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the m()"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

10. A'-pi-thu-pe mo°-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Wa-xo-be zlii"-ga ha-gtha-thi" e-dsi ba she tse. 

(Song repeated.) 

12. Da'-do° wa-pi-thu-pe nao"-thi° ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Ni u'-ga-xthi tho"-ba wa-pi-thu-pe mo"-thi° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Ni u'-ga-xthi tho^-ba e-pka e-wa-ka ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. Tsi' zhi"-ga tho"-ba wa-pi-thu-pe mo"-tlii" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Wa'-pi-thu-pe ino°-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Wa'-pi-thu-pe gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-tlii" ta bi a', zhi"-ga', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

19. Wa'-pi-thu-pe mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Wa'-xo-be zhi"-ga ha-gtha-thi" e-dsi ba she tse. 



LAFLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 391 

(Song repeated.) 

21. Da'-do° wa-pi-thu-pe mo^-thi" ta ba do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

23. Ni u'-ga-xthi tha-bthi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Ga' wa-fi-thu-fe mo°-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

25. Ni u'-ga-xthi tha-btlii" e-fka e-wa-ka ba zhi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

26. Tsi' zhi"-ga tha-bthi" wa-fi-thu-fe mo°-thi" bi a', a bi" da. tsi ga, 

27. Wa'-fi-thu-(?e mo"-tlii" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Wa'-^i-thu-fe gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the ino"-thi° ta bi a', zlii"-ga', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

29. Wa'-fi-thu-fe mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Wa-xo-be zhi°-ga ha-gtha-thi" e-dsi ba she tse. 

(Song repeated.) 

31. Da'-do" wa-fi-thu-fe mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

33. Ni u'-ga-xthi do-ba a-fi-thu-^e mo"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Ni u'-ga-xtlii do-ba e-fka e-wa-ka ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 
3.5. Tsi' zlii"-ga do-ba wa-^i-thu-ce mo"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Wa'-fi-thu-^e mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Wa'-9i-thu-(?e gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi a', zhi"-ga, a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

38. Wa'-fi-thu-fe mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Wa-xo-be zhi"-ga ha-gtha-thi" e-dsi i ba she tse. 

Wa'-no'^'-shki-ge Wi'-gi-e. 

(Free translation, p. 84; literal translation, p. S32.) 

1. Da'-do" wa-no"-sdu-dse o"-mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Shi"'-to ho btho"-xe do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

4. Ga' wa-no"-sdu-dse nia"-thi" bi a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

5. Wa'-no"-sdu-dse mo"-tlii" bi do" shki a',. a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Wa'-no"-sdu-dse gi-wa-ts'e-ga o"-ki-the o"-mo"-thi" ta bi a', 

wi-fo"-ga, e-ki-a bi a, a bi" da, tsi ga. 

7. Da'-do" -w-a-no"-sdu-dse ga no" sliki a. hi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Slii'-mi ho btho"-xe do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Ga' wa-no"-sdu-dse mo"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Wa'-no"-sdu-dse mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ^a, 

12. Wa'-no"-sdu-dse gi-wa-ts'e-ga o"-ki-the o"-mo"-thi" ta bi a', 

wi-?o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Da'-do" wa-no"-sdu-dse ga no" shki a. hi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Mi' lii-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



392 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ANN. 39 

15. Ni'-ka wa-k'o° u-tha-ha kshe no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

16. Ga' wa-no"-sdu-dse rao°-tlii" bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. Wa'-no^-sdu-dse mo^-thi" bi do° shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Wa'-no"-sdu-dse gi-wa-ts'e-ga o"-i\i-the o°-mo"-thi° ta bi a', 

wi-(;o°-ga, e'-ki-a, bi a, a bi° ila, tsi ga. 

19. Da'-do" wa-no°-sdu-dse ga no" shki a, hi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Wa'-k'o wo" we-da-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Ga' wa-no"-sdu-dse mo"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Wa'-no^-sdu-dse mo°-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Wa'-no"-shki-ge gi-wa-ts'e-ga o"-ki-the o"-mo"-thi° ta bi a', 

wi-po°-ga, e-ki-a, bia', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

WA-n'o^'-yi-HA Op-she Wa-tho". 

(Free translation, p. 86; literal translation, p. 533.) 
1. 

Tsi u-ho°-ge dsi a-tsi-e tho, 
Tsi u-ho°-ge dsi a-tsi-e tho, 
Tsi u-hc-ga dsi a-tsi-e tho. 



Tsi u-sda ge dsi a-tsi-e tho. 
(Repeated three times.) 

.3. 

0-shljo° bi ge a-tsi-e tho. 
(Repeated three times.) 

4. 

Tsi-da-ge dsi a-tsi-e tho. 
(Repeated three times.) 



Tsi-zhe-be dsi a-tsi-e tho. 
(Repeated three times.) 



Coii-ho" ge dsi a-tsi-e tho. 
(Repeated three times.) 

7. 

Bo-bthi ge dsi a-tsi-e tho. 
(Repeated three times.) 

8. 

Thi u-ba-he dsi a-tsi-e tho. 
(Repeated three times.) 



LAFLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL OSAGK LANGUAGE. 393 

9. 

0-ko°-?ka dsi a-tsi-e tho. 
(Repeated three times.) 

10. 

0-zhe-tsi a-dsi a-tsi-e tho. 
(Repeated three times.) 

11. 

Tsi-ho-Ijo" dsi a-tsi-e tho. 
(Repeated three times.) 

12. 

Ho°-ba ge dsi a-tsi-e tho. 
(Repeated three times.) 

Wa-xo'-be Ga-.\i Wa-tho". 

(Free translation, p. W; literal translation, p. 534.) 
1. 

Wa-^a-thi-ko we he, ki-ta ha-we he, 
Wa-ga-thi-ko we, wa-?a-thi-ko we he, 
Ki-ta ha-we he, gi u-wi-hi i» da, 
Wa-^a-thi-ko we he, ki-ta ha-we he. 

2. 

Ki-ta ha-we he, hi ga-thi-ko we. 

3. 

Ki-ta ha-we he, zhii ga-thi-lfo we. 

4. 
Ki-ta ha-we he, a ga-thi-ko we. 

5. 
Ki-ta ha-we he, pa fa-thi-feo we. 

6. 
Ki-ta ha-we he, i ga-thi-ko we. 

Kl-THl'-TO" Wa-THO". 

(Free translation, p. 91; literal translation, p. 534.) 

A he 5i-ko°-da ha he, a he he, 

Ci-kc-da ha ha we, 

A he gi-kC'-da ha ha we, 

A he ki-thi-to° tse he, a he he, 

5i-ko"-da ha ha we, 

A he ci-ko"-da lia ha we. 

(Sung four times.) 



394 THE OSAGE TBIBE. [bth. Ann. 39 

Six stanzas are given to this song when sung during a war expe- 
dition, the fourth line of each stanza being modified as follows: 

1. 
A he fi-a thi-ko ga-xa e he he. 

2. 
A he hi thi-ko ga-xa e he he. 

3. 
A he zhu tlii-ko ga-xa e he he. 

4. 
. A he a thi-ko ga-xa e he he. 

S. 
A he pa thi-ljo ga-xa e he he. 

6. 
A he i thi-ko ga-.\a e he he. 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 94: literal translation, p. 534.) 

1. 

Thi-to" mo"-ki slio the-tho wa ha, 
Thi-to" nio°-ki .sho the-tho wa ha, dse he, 
Thi-to" mo"-ki .sho the-tho wa ha, 
Thi-to" nw-lji sho the-tho wa ha. 

2. 

Thu-shke mc-ki sho the-tho wa ha, 
Thu-shke nio°-ki sho the-tho wa ha dse he, 
Thu-shke mo"-ki sho the-tho wa ha, 
Thu-shke mo''-ki sho the-tho wa ha. 



Gtha-tha nio°-ki sho the-tho wa ha, 
Gtha-tha mo"-ki sho the-tho wa ha dse he, 
Gtha-tha mo''-lji slio tlie-tlio wa ha, 
Gtha-tha mo°-ki sho the-tho wa ha. 



Ga-wa mo°-lji sho the-tho wa ha, 
Ga-wa rao''-lfi sho the-tho wa ha dse he, 
Ga-wa rao"-ki sho the-tho wa ha, 
Ga-wa mo^-ki sho the-tho wa ha. 



LiFLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL — OSAGE LANGUAGE. 395 

5. 

Tsi-the mo°-ki sho the-tho wa ha, 
Tsi-the mc-ki sho the-tho na ha dse he, 
Tsi-the ino''-ki sho the-tho wa ha, 
Tsi-the mc-ki sho the-tho wa ha. 

Song 4. 

(Free translation, p. 95; literal translation, p. .^34.) 

1, 

Thi-to° ino"-lji sho ho tsi-the ta Ijo° tha, 
Thi-to"> ino°-lfi sho ho tsi-the ta Ifo" tha ha, 
Kia ha wa ha tsi-the ta Ifo" tha, 
Kia ha wa ha tsi-the ta ko" tha ha, 
Thi-to" mo"-lji sho ho tsi-the ta ljo° tha, 
Thi-to" mo''-lfi sho ho tsi-the ta lfo° tha. 



Thu-shke nio"-ki sho ho tsi-the ta Ico" tha, 
Thu-shke moo-ki sho lio tsi-tlie ta Ijo" tha ha, 
^^ia ha wa ha tsi-the fa ko" tha, 
Kia ha wa ha tsi-the ta ko" tlia ha, 
Thu-shke mo"-ki sho ho tsi-the ta Ifo" tha, 
Thu-shke mc-ki sho ho tsi-the fa ko" tha. 

3. 

Gtha-tha mo°-ki sho ho tsi-the ta Ifo" tha, 
Gtlia-tha mo°-ki sho ho tsi-the ta Ifo" tha ha, 
Kia ha wa ha tsi-the ta ko" tha, 
Kia ha wa ha tsi-the ta ko" tha ha, 
Gtha-tha mo°-lfi sho ho tsi-tlie ta ko" tha, 
Gtha-tha mo"-!;;! sho ho tsi-the ta ko" tha. 



Ga-wa mo°-lji sho Iio tsi-the ta Ijo" tha, 
Ga-wa mo°-lji sho ho tsi-the ta Ifo" tha ha, 
Kia ha wa ha tsi-the ta ko° tha, 
Kia ha wa ha tsi-the ta ko" tha ha, 
Ga-wa mo"-lfi sho ho tsi-the ta ko° tha, 
Ga-wa mo°-ki sho ho tsi-the ta ko" tha. 



Tsi-the mo°-lfi sho ho tsi-the ta Ifo" tha, 
Tsi-the mo"-ki sho ho tsi-the ta Ico" tha ha, 
Kia ha wa ha tsi-the ta ko" tha, 
Kia ha wa ha tsi-the ta ko" tha ha, 
Tsi-the mo"-ki sho ho tsi-the ta ko" tha, 
Tsi-the mo°-ki sho ho tsi-the ta ko" tlia. 



396 THE OSAGE TEIBE. [bth. ann. 39 

Song 5. 

(Free translation, p. 97; literal translation, p. 535.) 
1. 

Ni-lfa e tho sho° ni da, ha-we, 

Ni-ka e tho sho° ni da, ha-we, 

Ni-ka e tho sho° ni da, ha-we, 

Ni-ka wa ha ko"-ha tha-tsi i° da, ha-we, 

Ni-ka e tho wi hi" da da, 

Ki-no° tho-to" tha, tho-to° a, 

Ki-no° tho- to" tha, tho- to" a ha, 

Ki-no° tho wi hi° da da. 

(Sung four times.) 

Song 6. 

(Free translation, p. 99; literal translation, p. 636.) 

1. 

Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-noo-te, 
Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-no"-te, 
Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-nc-te, 
Ba-.xo" tse he ko i tha-no''-te, 
Tsi-go tsi he ^o i tha-noo-te, 
Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-noo-te. 

2. 

Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-no°-te, 
Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-no°-te, 
Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-nc-te, 
Tho-to° te he ko i tha-no''-te, 
Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-no''-te, 
Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-no°-te. 

3. 

Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-noii-te, 
Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-no''-te, 
Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-no°-te, 
Ba-.xo" tse he ko i tha-noo-te, 
Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-no"-te, 
Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-noo-te. 



Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-no°-te, 
Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-no°-te, 
Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-no°-te, 
Tho-to" te he ko i tha-no"-te, 
Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-no°-te, 
Tsi-go tsi he ko i tha-no^-te. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 397 

Song 7. 

(Freetranslation, p. 102; literal translation, p. 535.) 

1. 

Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ljo i° da, ha-\ve, ha-we he, 
Qi no" tha, ?i no" tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ko i" da ha-we, ha-we he, 
Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ko i" da, ha-we, ha-we he, 
Tsi-go tlia, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ljo i° da, ha-we, ha-we he. 



Tsi-go tlia, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ko i" da, ha-we, ha-we he, . 
Hi no" tha, hi no" tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ko i" da, ha-we, ha-we he, 
Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ko i" da, ha-we, ha-we he, 
Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, 
fa-ko i" da, ha-we, ha-we he. 

3. 

Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ko i" da, ha-we, ha-we he, 
Zhu-no" tha, zhu no" tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ko i" da, ha-we, lia-we he, 
Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ko i° da, ha-we, ha-we he, 
Tsi-go tlia, tsi-ge tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ko i" da, ha-we, lia-we he. 



Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ko i° da, ha-we, ha-we he, 
A no° tha, a no" tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ko i" da, ha-we, ha-we he, 
Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-c, 
Ta-ko i" da, ha-we, ha-we he, 
Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ko i° da, ha-we, ha-we he. 



Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ko i" da, ha-we, ha-we he, 
Pa-no" tha, pa no" tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ko i" da, ha-we, ha-we he, 
Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ko i" da, ha-we, ha-we he, 
Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ljo i" da, ha-we, ha-we he. 



398 THE OSAGE TKIBE, [eth. ann.39 

6. 

Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ko i" da, ha-vve, ha-we he, 
I no" tha, i no" tha-tsi-c, 
Ta-ko i" da ha-we, ha-we he, 
Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ko i" da, ha-we, ha-we he, 
Tsi-go tha, tsi-go tha-tsi-e, 
Ta-ljo 1° da, ha-we, ha-we he. 

Song 8. 

(Free translation, p. 103; literal translation, p. 536.) 

1. 

Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho° ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 
Qi no" tha-tsi-e sho" nl da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we. 



fsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 
Hi no° tha-tsi-e she ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da "we, 
fsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho° ni da we. 

3. 

Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 
Zhii no° tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho° ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 

4. 

Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho° ni da we, 
A no" tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we. 

5. 

Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho° ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we. 
Pa no" tha-tsi-e sho° ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho° ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e she" ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho° ni da we. 



LAFLBSCHD] KITE OF VIGIL — OSAGE LANGUAGE. 399 

6. 

fsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 
I no° tha-tsi-e sho° ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho° ni da we, 
Tsi-go tha-tsi-e sho" ni da we, 
fsi-go tha-tsi-e slio" ni da we. 

Wa-ng^'-xe Wa-tho". 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 104: literal translation, p. 537.) 

1. 

Wa-nC-xe i a-do" a-no''-lj'o'' mi°-kshe no°, 
Wa-no''-.xe i a-dc a-no°-^'o° mi°-kshe tho ho, 
Wa-no°-xe tsi-ho-lio" dsi i a-do° a-no''-lf'o" mi''-kshe, 
Wa-no°-xe i a-do" a-no°-lf'o'' mi"-kshe tho, 
Wa-no°-xe i a-do" a-no'i-lf'o'' mi°-kshe, 
Wa-no°-xe i a-do" a-no^'-^'o" mi°-kshe. 



Wa-no°-xe i a-dc a-no''-lf'o° mi''-kshe no°, 
Wa-no°-xe i a-do" a-no°-lf'o'' mi''-kshe tho ho, 
Wa-no°-xe tsi-da-^e dsi i a-do° a-no°-lj:'o'' mi^-kshe, 
Wa-no''-xe i a-do" a-no'-k'o" mi°-kshe tho, 
Wa-no'i-xe i a-do° a-no''-k'o"' mi°-kshe, 
Wa-noo-xe i a-do" a-no^-lt'o" mi''-kshe. 



Wa-no°-xe i a-do" a-no°-li;'o'' mi''-kshe no", 
Wa-no''-xe i a-do" a-no^-lf'o'' mi^-kshe tho ho, 
Wa-no°-xe tsiu-ho°-ge dsi i a-do° a-no''-k'o'' mi°-kshe, 
Wa-no°-xe i a-do" a-no°-lf'o° mi°-kshe tho, 
Wa-no''-xe i a-do° a-no°-k'o° nii°-kshe, 
Wa-no'i-xe i a-do° a-no°-liL'o° mi''-kshe. 



Wa-no°-xe i a-do° a-nc-lf'o'' mi°-kshe no°, 
Wa-nc-xe i a-do° a-no''-lj'o° mi'-kshe tho ho, 
Wa-no^-xe tsi-hiu-gthe dsi i a-do° a-no°-k'o° mi°-kshe, 
Wa-no''-xe i a-do" a-no''-k'o" mi''-kshe tho, 
Wa-no"-xe i a-do" a-no°-k'o" nii°-kshe, 
Wa-no''-xe i a-do" a-no°-k'o° mi°-kshe. 



400 THE OSAGE TEIBE, [eth. ann.39 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 105; literaj translation, p. 537.) 

1. 

Wa-no''-xe dsi bthe ta to° he the, 
E wi-tsi-go bthe ta to° he the, 
Wa-nc-xe dsi bthe ta to" he the, 
Wi-tsi-go bthe ta to" he the, 
Wa-no°-xe dsi bthe ta to° he the, 
Wi-tsi-go bthe ta to° he the. 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 106; literal translation, p. 638.) 

1. 

Wa-no°-xe a-tha bi the the, 
U-zho°-ge a-tha bi the the, 
U-zho''-ge u-wa-pa tlii° he, 
Wa-no°-xe a-tha bi the, 
U-2ho''-ge u-wa-pa thi° he, 
Wa-no°-xe a-tha bi the, 
U-zho'-ge u-wa-pa thi° he. 



Wa-nc-xe a-tha bi the the, 
U-zho^-ge a-tlia bi the the, 
U-zho''-ge u-wa-pa tlii° he, 
Wi-tsi-go a-tha bi the, 
U-zho°-ge u-wa-pa thi" he, 
Wa-no"-xe a-tha bi the, 
U-zho"-ge u-wa pa thi° lie. 

No'"-ZHi''-zHo'' Wa-tho'*. 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 108; literal translation, p, 538.) 

1. 

Ha-zho° a-ki-the, ha-zho" a-ki-tlie tha, 
Ha-zho° a-ki-the tha ha, ha-zho° a-ki-the, 
Ha-zho° a-ki-the tha, Iia-zho" a-ki-the tha ha, 
Ha-zho" a-ki-the, ha-zho° a-ki-the tha, 
Ha-zho° a-lfi-the tha ha, ha-zho° a-ki-the, 
Ha-zho° a-ki-the tha, lia-zho" a-ki-the tha ha, 
Ha-zho° a-ki-the, ha-zho" a-ki-the tha, 
Ha-zho° a-ki-the tha ha, ha-zho° a-lji-the tha. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 401 

2. 

Hon-bthe a-ki-the, hc-bthe a-ki-the tha, 
Ho^-bthe a-ki-the tha ha, ho°-bthe a-ki-the, 
Ho'-bthe a-ki-the tha, ho°-bthe a-ki-the tha ha, 
Ho''-bthe a-ki-the, hc-bthe a-)ii-the tha, 
Hc-bthe a-ki-the tha ha, ho^-bthe a-ki-the, 
Ho°-bthe a-lji-the tha, ho''-bthe a-ki-the tha ha, 
Ho^-bthe a-lfi-the, ho°-bthe a-ki-the tha, 
Hc-bthe a-ti-the tha ha, ho^-bthe a-ki-the tha. 

3. 

Ho°-bthe gi the, ho^-bthe gi the tha, 
Hc-bthe gi the tha ha, hc-bthe gi the, 
Hoo-bthe gi the tha, hc-bthe gi the tha ha, 
Ho°-bthe gi the, hoo-bthe gi the tha, 
Ho°-bthe gi the tha ha, ho°-bthe gi the, 
Ho°-bthe gi the tha, hc-bthe gi the tha ha, 
Ho°-bthe gi the, ho°-bthe gi the tha, 
Ho''-bthe gi the tha ha, ho°-bthe gi the tha. 



Hc-bthe go°-5e, ho°-bthe go°-5e tha, 
Ho°-bthe go°-5e i" da ha, ho'-bthe go^-ge, 
Ho'-bthe gc-^e i" da, ho°-bthe go^-ge i" d 
Ho''-bthe go^-ge, ho''-bthe go''-ge i" da, 
Ho°-bthe go°-5e i" da ha, ho^-bthe go"-9e, 
Ho-i-bthe go"-ge i° da, ho°-bthe go°-fe i° da . 
Hc-bthe go"-ge i° da, ho''-bthe go''-ge i" da, 
Ho"-bthe gQii-ge i° da ha, hc-bthe goo-ge i" < 



i° da ha, 
ia, 
i" da. 



Tsi u-da-lfo", noo-be c-xo-dse tha, 
No'-be c-xo-dse tha ha, tsi u-da-lj:o°, 
No^-be o°-xo-dse tha, iio"-be o°-xo-dse tha ha, 
Tsi u-da-ljo°, nc-be c-xo-dse tha, 
Noo-be Qi-xo-dse tha ha, tsi u-da-ljo", 
No°-be oii-xo-dse tha, no°-be o°-xo-dse tha ha, 
Tsi u-da-ljo°, no°-be o°-xo-dse tha, 
No°-be o°-xo-dse tha ha, tsi u-da-lfo°. 

6. 

Tsi u-da-ko°, i-'dse oo-ga-be tha, 
I°-dse o°-sa-be tha ha, tsi u-da-ko°, 
I'l-dse o''-ga-be tha, i°-dse o°-ga-be tha ha, 
Tsi u-da-ko", i°-dse c-ga-be tha, 
I°-dse o°-ga-be tha ha, tsi u-da-ko", 
I''-dse o°-ga-be tha, i°-dse o^-ga-be tha ha, 
Tsi u-da-ko", i°-dse o"-ga-be tha, 
I°-dse o"-ga-be tha ha, tsi u-da-kc. 
3594°— 25t 26 



402 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ANN. 



Tsi u-da-ljo°, ga-mo" a-to°-be tha, 
Ga-mo° a-to°-be tha ha, tsi u-da-i:o°, 
Ga-mo° a-to°-be tha, ga-mo" a-to° be tha ha, 
Tsi u-da-ko", ga-mo° a-to"-be tha, 
Ga-mo" a-to"-be tha ha, tsi ii-da-ko", 
Ga-mo" a-to"-be tha, ga-mo" a-to°-be tha ha, 
Tsi u-da-lco", ga-mo" a-to°-be tha, 
Ga-mo" a-to''-be tha ha, tsi u-da-ko". 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. IIO; literal traaslation, p. 539.) 

1. 

No "-be o°-.\o-dse u-wa-ni-lje no" ta-ko i" da ha, 

No"-be o°-xo-dse u-wa-ni-lje no" ta-lfo i° da ha, 

E the wa-da-da e tho wa na, 

E tho wa-da-da e tho wa na the, 

No"-be o°-xo-dse u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-^o i" da ha. 



No "-be o"-5a-be u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha, 

No"-be o"-5a-be u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha, 

E tho wa-da-da e tho wa na, 

E tho wa-da-da e tho wa na the. 

No "-be o°-5a-be u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha. 



I"-dse o°-xo-dse u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha, 

I°-dse o°-xo-dse u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha, 

E tho wa-da-da e tho wa na, 

E tho wa-da-da e tho wa na the, 

I°-dse o"-xo-dse u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha. 



I"-dse o°-5a-be u-wa-ni-lje no" ta-ko i° da ha, 

I"-dse o°-ga-be u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha, 

E tho wa-da-da e tho wa na, 

E tho wa-da-da e tho wa na the, 

I°-dse o"-5a-be u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha. 



I"-dse o°-lio"-ba u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha, 

I"-dse o"-ho°-ba u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha, 

E tho wa-da-da e tho wa na, 

E tho wa-da-da e tho wa na the, 

I"-dse o°-ho»-ba u-wa-ni-lje no" ta-ko i" da ha. 



laflesche] kite of vigil osage language. 403 

Wa-da' Wa-tho"*. 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. Ill; literal translation, p. 540.) 

Wa da da, vva da da, e tha, 
Wa da da e tha, wa da da, 
Wa da da e tha wa da da, 
Wa da da e tha. 

(Sung four times.) 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 112: literaltranslation, p. 540.) 

Bthe hi" da ha da, bthe hi° da da, 

Bthe hi- da ha da, bthe hi" da da, 

Bthe hi° da ha da, bthe hi" da da. 

(Sung four times.) 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 113; literaltranslation, p. 540.) 

fsi-go k'C bthe hi" da da, 
Tsi-go k'o" bthe hi" da da, 
Tsi-go Ic'e" bthe hi" da da, 
K'o" bthe hi" da da, 
Tsi-go If'o" bthe hi" da da, 
K'o" bthe hi" da da, 
Tsi-go Ij'o" bthe hi" da da, 
Tsi-go If'o" bthe hi" da da. 

Song 4. 

(Free translation, p. 114; literaltranslation, p. 540.) 

Btho a-gi-gto i° da ha, btho a-gi-^to i° da ha, 
Btho a-gi-fto i" da ha, btho a-gi-fto i° da ha, 
Btho i hi" da da, btho i hi" da da, 
Tsi-go k'o" btlie hi" da da, btho a-gi-5to i" da ha, 
Btho a-gi-5to i" da ha da, btho i hi" da. 

Pe'-xe Thu-^e Wi'-gi-e. 

(Free translation, p. 115; literaltranslation, p. 541. 

1. Da'-do"^ pe-xe gi-the mo^-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Pa' no" e-de pe-xe gi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Pa' no° e-de e-fka e-wa-ka ba zhi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. I^'-gtho^-ga do-ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Wa'-pa i-ta thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Ga' pe-xe gi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. Pe'-xe gi-the m<)"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. We'-thi-hi-dse gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi a', wi-?o°-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



404 THE OSAGE TRIBE. rETii. ANN. 39 

10. Da'-do° pe-xe-fu the. mo"-thi° ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. I°'-gtho"-ga do-ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Hi'-k'e i-sdu-ge kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. Ga' pe-xe-fu the mo^-thi" bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. Pe'-xe-9U the nio''-thi" bi do" a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Pe'-xe gi-pa-thu ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-fo''-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga. 

16. Da'-do" pe-xe i-ba the mo^-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. I"'-gtho"-ga do-ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. A'-xi-be i-sdu-ge kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Ga' pe-xe i-ba the mo"-tlu" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Pe'-xe i-ba the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Pe'-xe i-ba i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-po"-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

22. Ga'-mo°-dse ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. E' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Wa'-thi"-e-pka zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Wa'-shi-siii-to" bi e no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

27. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

28. Mo"'-shi-ta u-thi-k'u-dse ga tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. E' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Wa'-thi"-e-9ka she-mo" mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Wa'-gthu-shka-zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Be' zhi"-ga i-ta'i shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. U'-ki-o"-the o"-ga-xe o"-mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-(;'o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

34. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Ga'-pu-the the-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Shi"'-to ho btho"-xe do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. A'-ga-(?u-the the-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Wa'-ga-?u-the mo"-tlii" l)i do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Wa'-ga-fu-the gi-wa-ts'c-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', ■wi-fo"-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. I'-gthi-hi-dse mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. I'-gthi-hi-dse gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-po"-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

43. I'-tho"-bi-o" xtsi ga-pu-the the-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. Mi' hi-c ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Shi'-mi ho btho"-xe do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



lAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 405 

46. A'-ga-?u-the the-tha hi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

47. Wa'-ga-fu-the naC-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Wa'-ga-9u-the gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-tlii" ta bi a', wi-fo^-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. I'-gtlii-hi-dse mo°-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

50. We'-gthi-hi-dse gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo^-thi" ta bi a', \vi-9o°-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

51. I'-tha-bthi"-o° xtsi ga-fu-the the-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Ni'-ka wa-k'o" o-tha-ha do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. A'-ga-fu-the the-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Wa'-ga-fu-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. Wa'-ga-fu-the gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi a'. wi-fo°-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. I-gtlii-hi-dse mo"-thi" bi do" shki a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. I'-gthi-hi-dse gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', wi-90°-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

59. I'-do-bi-o" xtsi ga-pu-the the-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Wa'-k'o wo" we-da-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. A'-ga-fU-the the-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. Wa'-ga-fu-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. Wa'-ga-QU-the gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-fo^-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. I'-gthi-lii-dse mo"-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. We'-gthi-hi-dse gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the ino"-thi" ta bi a', wi-9o°-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 118; literaltranslation, p. 543.) 

1. 

K'o° bthe i° da he, lf'o° bthe i" da he, 
K'o" bthe i" da he, k'o° bthe i" da he, 
K'o" bthe i" da ha we he, 
K'o" bthe i" da he, Ij'o" bthe i" da he, 
^'o" bthe i" da he, lf'o° bthe i" da he. 
(Sung four times.) 



406 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ANN. 39 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 119; literal translation, p. 543.) 

1. 

Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha, 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha, 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha, 
Qi wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tlio k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o° no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 

2. 

Da-do" wi-tft e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha, 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha, 
Hi wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 

3. 

Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha, 
Zhu wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho If'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 

4. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha, 
A wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha, 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha, 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 

5. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Pa wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha, 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha, 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 

6. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha, 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho If'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha, 
I wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha, 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 
Da-do" wi-ta e tho Ij'o" no" wi-ta do" ha, 
, Da-do" wi-ta e tho k'o" no" wi-ta do" ha. 



UAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 407 

Ml Wa-tho'*. 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 120; literal translation, p. 544.) 

1. 

Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho"-l)e he tha, 
The-tho hi-tho°-be he tha, 
I-ba hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha. 



Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha, 
The-tho hi-thc-be he tha, 
Moo-hi" hi-thc-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho^-be he tha. 



Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha, 
The-tho hi-tho°-be he tha, 
We-tsi° hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi lii-tho°-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho'-be he tha. 



Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha, 
The-tho hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Mi"-dse hi-thc-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-thc-be he tha. 



Wa-dsi hi-tho''-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-thc-be he tha, 
The-tho hi-thc-be he tha, 
Mo° hi-tho"-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-thc-be he tha. 



Wa-dsi hi-tho''-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha, 
The-tho hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Do-ka hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-thoo-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-thc-be he tha. 



408 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ank. 39 

7. 

Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha, 
The-tho hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Ga-mo" hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho"-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha. 

8. 

Wa-dsi hi-tho''-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho''-be he tha, 
The-tho hi-thoo-be he tha, 
Ho°-ba hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha, 
Wa-dsi hi-tho°-be he tha. 

SOMG 2. 

(Free translation, p. 122; literal translation, p. 546.) 

1. 

Tsi-go hi-tho°-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho°-be tha, 

I-ba thi° a-do" hi-tho°-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho'-be tha, 

I-ba thi° a-do" hi-tho''-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho°-be tha, 

I-ba thi" a-do° hi-thc-be tha. 



Tsi-go hi-tho°-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-thc-be tha, 

Mo°-hi'' a-thi» a-do" hi-tho°-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho°-be tha, 

Mo°-hi° a-thi" a-do" hi-tho°-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho''-be tha, 

I-ba thi" a-do° hi-tho°-be tha. 

3. 

fsi-go hi-tho°-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho"-be tha, 

We-tsi" a-tlii" a-do° hi-tho°-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho°-be tha, 

We-tsi" a-thi" a-do" hi-tho°-be tha, 

TTsi-go hi-tho°-be tha, 

We-tsi° a-thi° a-do" hi-thc-be tha. 

4. 

Tsi-go hi-tho''-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho°-be tha, 

Mi°-dse a-thi" a-do" hi-tho°-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho°-be tha, 

Mi''-dse a-thi° a-do" hi-tho°-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho''-be tha, 

Mi°-dse a-thi ° a-do° hi-tho^i-be tha. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 409 



Tsi-go hi-tho^-be tha, 

Tsi-go lii-tho^-be tha, 

Mo° a-thi" a-do" hi-tho°-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho°-be tha, 

Mo° a-thi° a-do° hi-tho°-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-thc-be tha, 

Mo°-a-thi'' a-dc hi-tho°-be tha. 



Tsi-go hi-tho°-be tlia, 

Tsi-go hi-tho"-be tlia, 

Do-ka thi" a-do" hi-thc-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho°-be tha, 

Do-ka thi° a-do° hi-tho^-be tlia, 

Tsi-go hi-thoo-be tha, 

Do-ka thi" a-do" hi-tho''-be tha. 

7. 

Tsi-go hi-tho°-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho°-be tha, 

Ga-mo" a-thi° a-do° hi-thc-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho^-be tlia, 

Ga-njo" a-tlii" a-do° hi-tho°-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho^-be tha, 

Ga-mc a-thi° a-do" hi-tho°-be tha. 

8. 

Tsi-go hi-thc-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho°-be tha, 

Ho°-ba thi" a-do" hi-tho°-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho°-be tha, 

Ho''-ba thi" a-do" hi-tho'-be tha, 

Tsi-go hi-tho"-be tha, 

Ho°-ba thi" a-do" hi-tho°-be tha. 

Song 3. 

(FreetransIatioD, p. 123; literal translation, p. 545.) 

1. 

Mi i-thc-be do" ha-wa-tse a-to" he. 
Mi i-tho°-be do" ha-wa-tse a-to" he no", 
Ga xtsi to" wa-kl-tha, ga xtsi to" wa-ki-tha. 
Mi i-tho"-be do" ha-wa-tse a-to" he. 
Mi i-tho"-be do" ha-wa-tse a-to" he no", 
Ga xtsi to" wa-ki-tha, ga xtsi to" wa-lji-tha. 

2. 

Mi i-tho"-be do" ha-wa-tse a-to" he, 

Mi i-tho"-be do" ha-wa-tse a-to" he no", 

Ga xtsi to" tha-k'e-o"-tha, ga xtsi to" tha-lf's-C-tha, 

Mi i-tho"-be do" ha-wa-tse a-to" he. 

Mi i-tho"-be do" ha-wa-tse a-to° he no", 

Ga xtsi to" tha-k'e-o"-tha, ga xtsi to" tha-k'e-o°-tha. 



410 THE OSAGE TEIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

Sho^-ge Wa-tho". 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 125; literal translation, p. 546.) 

1. 

Sho°-ge hi" to ho-ho a-tsia-tha be, 
Ho-ho a-tsia-tha be, lio-ho a-tsia-tha be, 
Sho°-ge hi" to ho-lio a-tsia-tha be, 
Ho-ho a-tsia-tha be, ho-lio a-tsia-tha be, 
Sho°-ge hi" to ho-ho a-tsia-tha be, 
Ho-ho a-tsia-tha be, lio-ho a-tsia-tha be. 



Sho°-ge hi" to ho-ho a-thi" he no", 
Ho-ho a-thi" he no", ho-ho a-thi" he no", 
Sho"-ge hi" to ho-ho a-thi" he no", 
Ho-ho a-tlii" he no", ho-ho a-thi" he no", 
Sho"-ge hi" to ho-ho a-thi" he no", 
Ho-ho a-thi" he no", ho-ho a-thi" he no". 

Song 2. 

(Freetranslation, p. 126; literal translation, p. 546.) 

1. 

Sho°-ge wi-no" a-thi" he no°, 
Mo"-zho" thu-we a-thi" he, 
Sho"-ge wi-no" a-tlii" he no", 
Mo"-zho" tho-we a-thi" he, 
Sho°-ge hi" to, 

Mo"-zho° tho-we a-thi° he no", 
Sho°-ge wi-no" a-thi" he no", 
Mc-zho" tho-we a-thi" he. 

Song 3. 

(Freetranslation, p. 127; literal translation, p. 546.) 

1. 

Sho"-ge wa-tha-pa a-thi" he e, 
Sho"-ge hi" to wa-tha-pa a-thi" he, 
Sho°-ge w'a-tha-pa a-thi" he, 
Sho"-ge hi" to wa-tha-pa a-thi° he, 
Sho"-ge wa-tha-pa a-thi" he, 
Sho"-ge wa-tha-pa a-thi" he, 
Sho"-ge hi" to wa-tha-pa a-thi" he. 



(Sung four times.) 



laflesche] kite of vigil — osage language. 411 

Ka'-xe Wa-tho". 
Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 128; literal translation, p. 546.) 

1. 

Ni-ka tho"-ba a bthe a-da wa he, 
Wa-tha-pa-pa ha-dsi bthe hi no", 
Ni-ka tho°-l)a bthe a-da wa he, 
Wa-tha-pa-pa ha-dsi bthe hi no", 
Ni-ka tho°-ba a bthe a-da wa he, 
Wa-tha-pa-pa ha-dsi bthe hi no". 

(Sung four times.) 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 129; literal translation, p. 647.) 

1. 

Ni-ka tho°-ba bthe a-do° he no", 

A he the ni-ka tha°-ba bthe a-dc he no", 

A he the bthe a-do° he no", 

A he the ni-ka tho"-ba bthe a-do° he no°, 

A he the wa-tha-pa-pa bthe a-do" he no°, 

A he the ni-ka tho°-ba bthe a-do° he no°, 

A he the wa-tha-pa-pa bthe a-do" he no". 

(Sung four times.) 

Ta Wa-tho". 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 130: literal translation, p. 547.) 

1. 

Wi-tsi°-do no° she-tho to" no", 
Wi-tsi°-do no" she-tho to" no°, 
Qi no°-no°-ge he, gi no°-no° e, 
Qi no°-no"-ge lie, 
Wi-tsi°-do no" she-tho to" no", 
Wi-tsi°-do no" she-tho to" no", 
Qi no"-no"-ge he, <;i no°-no° e, 
Qi no°-no"-ge he, 
Wi-tsi"-do no" she-tho to" no". 



Wi-tsi°-do no" she-tho to" no", 
Wi-tsi"-do no" she-tho to" no", 
He no"-no"-ge he, he no°-no" e, 
He-no "-no °-ge he, 
Wi-tsi°-do no" she-tho to" no", 
Wi-tsi"-do no" she-tho to" no". 
He no"-no"-ge he, he no "-no" e. 
He-no "-no °-ge he, 
Wi-tsi°-do no" she-tho to" no". 



412 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [etii. a.nn. 39 

Song 2. 
(Freetranslation, p.l31; literal translation, p. 547.) 

1. 

Tsi'i-do he gka gthe he, 

Tsi"-do he gka gthe he, 

Qi no°-no° e, ?i no°-no°-ge he, 

Tsi°-do he gka gthe he, 

Tsi"-do he gka gthe he, 

Qi no°-no'' e, gi iio"-no''-ge he, 

Tsi°-do he gka gthe he, 

Tsi°-do he gka gthe he. 



Tsi''-do he gka gthe he, 

Tsi''-do he gka gthe he. 

He no°-no" e, he no''-no°-ge he, 

Tsi''-do he gka gthe he, 

Tsi^-do he gka gthe he. 

He no°-no° e, he nc-nc-ge he, 

Tsi°-do he gka gthe he, 

fsi'-do he gka gthe he. 

Song 3. 

(Freetranslation, p. 133; literaltranslation, p. 648.) 

1. 

Wi-tsi°-do no" ku-dse to" no", 
Wi-tsi"-do no" lfii-d.se to" no". 
0-e no"-no°-ge he, o-e no°-no'' e, 
0-e no°-no"-ge he, 
Wi-tsi°-do no" ku-dse to" no", 
Wi-tsi"-do no" ku-dse to" no", 
0-e no"-no°-ge he, o-e no°-no° e, 
0-e no°-no"-ge he, 
Wi-tsi"-do no" ku-dse to" no". 

Song 4. 

(Freetranslation, p. 134; literaltranslation, p. 54S.) 

1. 

O da the, o da ni wa, 

O da the ha o da ni wa, 

Wa-dsi tha the ho-wa-dse, 

Wa-dsi tha the ho-wa-dse wa to, 

O da the, o da ni wa, 

O da the ha o da ni wa to. 

2. 

O da the, o da ni wa, 

O da the ha o da ni wa, 

Wa-dsi tha the hi tha the, 

Wa-dsi tha the hi-tha-the wa to, 

O da the, o da ni wa, 

O da the ha o da ni wa to. 



tapleschb] rite of vigil — osage language. 413 

Wa'-pa-dse Wa-tho''. 

Song 5. 

(Freetranslation, p. 135; literal translation, p. 548.) 

1. 

E-gi-o" ba ha ?u wa, e-gi-o° ba ha gu wa, 
Zhe-ga ba ha ?u wa, e-gi-o" ba ha gu wa, 
E-gi-o° ba ha ?u wa a, 
E-gi-o° ba ha gu wa, e-gi-o° ba ha ?u wa, 
Zhe-ga ha gu-wa, e-gi-o° ba ha cu-wa. 



E-gi-o° ba ha <;n wa, e-gi-o" ba ha gu wa, 
Mo"-ge ba ha gu wa, e-gi-o" ba ha gu wa, 
E-gi-o" ba ha gu wa a, 
E-gi-o" ba ha gu wa, e-gi-o° ba ha gu wa, 
Mo''-ge ba ha 911 wa, e-gi-o" ba ha gu wa. 



E-gi-o° ba ha gii wa, e-gi-o° ba ha gu wa, 
A no" ba ha gu wa, e-gi-o° ba ha gu wa, 
E-gi-o" l)a ha gu wa a, 
E-gi-o° ba ha gu wa, e-gi-o" ba ha gu wa, 
A no" ba ha gu wa, e-gi-o" ba ha gu wa. 

4. 

E-gi-o° ba ha gu wa, e-gi-o" ba ha gu w-a, 
Pa no" ba ha gu wa, e-gi-o" ba ha gu wa, 
E-gi-o" ba ha gu wa a, 
E-gi-o" ba ha gu wa. e-gi-o" ba ha gu wa. 
Pa no" ba ha gu wa, e-gi-o" ba ha gu wa. 

Wa-k'i'" Wa-tho". 

Song 6. 

(Freetranslation, p. 136; literal translation, p. 649.) 
1. 

Ta-xtsi e. ta-.xtsi e, wa-dsu-ta zhi°-ga, 

I-wi-the tho°-dse, ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e, 

Ta-xtsi e wa-dsu-ta zhi"-ga, 

Pi-gi ga-be hi dsi to", 

I-wi-the thc-dse, ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e. 

2. 

fa-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e wa-dsu-ta zhi"-ga, 
I-wi-the tho"-dse, ta-xtsi e. ta-xtsi e, 
Ta-xtsi e wa-dsu-ta zhi"-ga, 
Zhu-dse hi dsi to", 
I-wi-the tho"-dse, ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e. 



414 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ANN. 39 



Ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e wa-dsu-ta zhio-ga, 
I-wi-the tho°-dse ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e, 
Ta-xtsi e wa-dsii-ta zhi"-ga, 
Zho" u-ga-ki ba lic-dsi to", 
I-wi-the tho°-dse, ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e. 



Ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e wa-dsu-ta zhi^-ga, 

I-wi-the tho"-dse, ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e, 

Ta-xtsi e wa-dsu-ta zhi''-ga, 

Pi-gi sha-be hi dsi-to", 

I-wi-the tho''-dse, ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e. 



Ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e wa-dsu-ta zhi»-ga, 

I-wi-the thc-dse, ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e, 

Ta-xtsi e wa-dsu-ta zhi^-ga, 

Pi-oi xo-dse hi dsi to", 

I-wi-the tho°-dse, ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e. 

6. 

Ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e wa-dsu-ta zhi'-ga, 
I-wi-the. tho°-dse, ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e, 
Ta-xtsi e wa-dsu-ta zlii'-ga, 
Ba-xpe hi dsi to", 
I-wi-the tho°-dse, ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e. 

7. 

Ta-xtsi 8, ta-xtsi e wa-dsu-ta zlii°-ga, 
I-wi-the tho°-dse, ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e, 
Ta-xtsi e wa-dsu-ta zhi°-ga, 
Xa-dse ba-tse he-dsi to", 
I-wi-the thc-dse, ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e. 



Ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e wa-dsu-ta zhi°-ga, 
I-wi-the tho°-dse, ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi-e, 
Ta-xtsi e wa-dsu-ta zhin-ga, 
Wa-tsi-shka zhi^-ga dsi to", 
I-wi-the tho°-dse, ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e. 



Ta-xtsi e ta-xt.si e wa-dsu-ta zhi^-ga, 
I-wi-the tho°-dse, ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e, 
Ta-xtsi e wa-dsu-ta zhi"-ga. 
Pa-he pa-gi he dsi to°, 
I-wi-the tho°-dse, ta-xtsi e, ta-xtsi e. 



laflbsche] rite of vigil osage language. 415 

Wa'-i^' Xa-ge Wa-tho''. 
a'-ho^'-btha bi wi'-gi-e. 

(Free translation, p. 139; literal translation, p. 550.) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Ka' ge wa-ha-ge do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. Wa'-ki-gthi-gtho° tsi-the to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Mo"'-zho" u-to°-ga xtsi tlii"-lvshe dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Wa'-ki-gthi-gtho" tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. U'-pa-fe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. Tsi'-xi"-dse dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. I'-sdu-ge pa-gthe xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Ba'-mo"-xe. hi the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

10. Wa'-ko"-da u-ga-9o"-h()" do" a', a bi" da, tei ga, 

11. Ho"'-ga wa-ga-xa bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. I"'-dse-ha ga-xe to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Wa'-ko"-(hx ga-ho" a-thi"' hi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Wa'-ko"-da tho-to" a-thi" hi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Wa'-ko°-da a-po-ga a-thi" hi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. U'-pa-fe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Ho"'-ga wa-ga-xa bi a', a bi" thi, tsi ga, 

18. I"'-shta-bthi a-ga-xto" thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Tsi' u-ho"-ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. I'-sdu-ge pa-gthe xtsi a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

21. Ba'-mo"-xe hi the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

. 22. Wa'-ko"-da i"-shta a-ga-pta ga-xe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

23. Wa'-ko"-da ho"-ba u-ga-9G"-ho" do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Ho"'-ga wa-ga-xa bi a', a bi" ila, tsi ga, 

25. I°'-dse-ha ga-xe to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Wa'-ko"-da ga-ho" a-thi" hi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Wa'-ko"-da tho-to" a-thi" hi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Wa'-ko"-da a-po-ga a-thi" hi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. U'-pa-fe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Ni'-hni to"-ga wi" e7dsi tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. The' shki wa-ko"-da-gi e-dsi a ba tho" ta sho" e'-the to" a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

32. Gi'-bi-shu-dse tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. I'-sdu-ge pa-gthe xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Ba'-nao"-xe hi the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

35. Wa'-ko"-da i"-shta a-ga-rta ga-xe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

36. Wa'-ko°-da ho"-ba u-ga-f,o"-ho" do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Ho°'-ga wa-ga-xa bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



416 THE OSAGE TBIBE. [Era. ANN". 39 

_ 38. I°'-dse-ha ga-xe to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Wa'-ko"-da ga-ho° a-thi" hi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Wa'-ko^-da tho-to" a-thi" hi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Wa'-ko^-da a-po-ga a- thi" hi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. U'-pa-fe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. E'-hiu to°-ga wi" e-dsi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. The'-shki wa-ko"-da-gi e-dsi a ba tho" ta sho" e'-the to" a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

45. Gi'-bi-shu-dse tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. I'-sdu-ge pa-gthe xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. Ba'-mo"-xe hi the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Wa'-ko"-da i"-shta a-ga-(;'ta ga-xe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

49. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Ho"'-ga wa-ga-xa bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. I"'-dse-ha ga-xa to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Wa'-ko"-da ga-ho" a-thi" lii kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. Wa'-ko"-da tho-to" a-thi" hi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Wa'-ko°-da a-po-ga a-thi" hi a-thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. U'-pa-fe tho" dsi a', a bi" dn, tsi ga, 

57. f iu'-ka mo"-hi" zhu e-go" wi" e-dsi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. He'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. The' shki wa-ko"-da-gi e-dsi a ba tho" ta sho" e'-the to" a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

60. The ga' xtsi a-zho" ta e-ki-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. No"' wa-xpa-thi" a-thi" he no" e-ki-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. Wa'-no"-xe dsi bthe ta mi"-kshe sho" e'-ki-the to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

63. Wi'-zhi"-the a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

64. 0"'-tho°-gi-tha ba tho" ta zhi sho" e'-ki-the thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

65. Ni'-ka-shi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. U'-shko" bi ge dsi e-ta-ha a-gthe tse e'-ki-the to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

67. Thu-e' xtsi pi-thu-ce the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. Ga'-xa zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. ^e' gtha-gtha the xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. E'-dsi kshi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. Tliiu'-xe ts'a-zlii to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. E'-dsi xtsi kshi gthi" thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. I'-ki-pa-no"-zhi"-zhin tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 
' 74. Thiu'-xe ts'a-zhi to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

75. Ha'! wi-tsi-go-e a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

76. E'-go" tho" ta zhi a', wi-tsi-go-e', e-gi-e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 417 

77. Z!ii°'-ga', a bi'' da, tsi ga, 

78. 0'''-tho''-ki-pa-no''-zhi°-zhi'' nio''-thi° ta i tse a', zhi-'-ga, e'-gi-a 

bi a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

79. Ko"' thi-xtbe-ge ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. U'-no° a-gi-the a-thi° he a', zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

81. Zhi'i'-ga u-no" o^-tha bi do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

82. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi'' ta i tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

83. Xi°'-ha ba-^'i^-tha ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

84. E' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

85. U'-no" a-gi-the mi-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

86. U'-no" o"-tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

87. Xi°'-ha ba-f 'i"-tha a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

88. Ga'-xa a-ki-gthe ga tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

89. A'-hiu-ha a-gi-the a-to° he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

90. Zhi"'-ga a-liiu-ha o"-gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

91. A'-liiu-ha a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

92. Ga'-xa shdo-zha ga ge shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

93. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

94. U'-no" o°-tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

95. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

96. Zho"'-i-ta-xe (?ka ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

97. U'-no" pa-xe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

98. Ni'-ka, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

99. Pa'-hi" fa-dse 91 e-go" e no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

100. Pa'-hi" fa-dse fi e-go° a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

101. Thu-e' xtsi fi thu-fe the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

102. Tsi u'-ho"-ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

103. He'-dsi xtsi ki-no"-zhi° to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

104. Ni'-ka-shi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

105. I'-tsi° ki-pa-no°-no"-the xtsi wa-do"-be to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

106. No"' wa-xpa-thi" a-thi" he no" sho" e'-ki-the to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

107. Wi'-tho"-9ka ho" ba Wa-ko"-da tha-k'e-tha bi a ba do", e'-ki-the 

to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

108. The' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

109. Wa'-ko"-da e-dsi a ba tho" ta sho" e-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

110. I'-sdu-ge pa-gthe xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 
3594°— 25t 27 



418 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ANN. 39 

111. Ba'-mo°-xe hi the to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

112. Ni'-ka-shi-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

113. Mo"'-i°-ka n()"-ni-ni-tha xtsi \va-n()"-k'o" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

114. Pa' tlii-ho" tsi-the. to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

115. Gi-ha-go" a-zlii xtsi thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

116. Ni'-ka-shi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

117. Mo"'-hi'' ga-pu-fu-e xtsi wa-no"-k'o" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

118. Pa' thi-ho" tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

119. Gi'-ha-go" a-zlii xtsi thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

120. Ni'-ka-shi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

121. fi' pa i-sdu-ge tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

122. ^'i' pa i-ga-sho" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

123. Ni'-ka-shi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

124. Ni'-ka wi" wa-xpa-thi" thi" a' bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

125. Tlii-e' ni-kshe a, hi", ka-ge', e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

126. Ho'-we, wi-tsi-go e, e tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

127. Wi-e' mi°-kshe o, wi-tsi-go-e', e tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

128. Ha' ! ka-ge a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

129. Mo"'-zho" sho"-e-go" xtsi wa-zhi" a-tha-gthe a, ka-ge', e tsi-the 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

130. Ho"'-do"-ba thi" ha, e'tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

131. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

132. Wi'-to"-be a, wi-tsi-go e', e tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

133. U'-fa-ka thi"-ge tha to" she wi-to"-be a', wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a, 

bi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

134. U'-fa-ka tlii"-ge e-to" xtsi wa-zhi" a-tha-gthe a', ka-ge, e-gi-a, 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

135. Shi' o°-do"-ba thi" ha, e' tsi-the a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

136. No"'-ni-o"-ba zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

137. Pe'-tho°-ba a-ni tha-to" she wi-to"-be a', wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a, 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

138. I'-tlii-slino" kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

139. Wa'-do-ka i-thi-sh'e-do" xtsi a-ni' tha-to" slie wi-to"-be a', 

wi-tsi-go e', e tsi-the a', a bi" <hv, tsi ga, 

140. No"'-ni-o"-ba ge e-to" xtsi wa-zhi" a-tha-gthe a, ka-ge', e-gi-a 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

141. Shi' o"-do°-ba thi" ha, ka-ge', e tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

142. Wi'-to"-be a. wi-tsi-go e', e tsi-tlie a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

143. Wa'-ba-xtse zhi"-ga wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

144. U'-do"-be tha-gthi" xtsi wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

145. Thu'-fi u-tha-k'o" he tha to" she wi-to" be a', wi-tsi-go e', e 

tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

146. Ha' ! ka-ge a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] EITE OF VIGIL — OSAGE LANGUAGE. 419 

147. Wa'-ba-xtse zhi°-ga ge' e-to" xtsi wa-zhi" a-tha-gthe a', ka-ge', 

c-gi-a hi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

148. Shi' o°-do"-ba thi" ha, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

149. Wi'-to°-be a, wi-tsi-go e', e tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

150. Wa'-k'o"-?i ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

151. U'-fi-gthe tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

152. No°'-i7U-gthe tha-to" she wi-to"-be a', wi-tsi-go e', e tsi-the a', 

a bi" tla, tsi ga, 

153. Ha'! ka-ge a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

154. Wa'-k'o"-fi ha ge e-to" xtsi wa-zhi" a-tha-gthe a', ka-ge', e-gi-a, 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

155. Shi' o"-do"-ba thi" ha, e' tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

156. Ni'-ka ts'a-ge a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

157. I"'-dse wa-tlii-ge-ge-be wi-to"-be a', wi-tsi-go e' a, a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

158. Ni'-ka ts"a-ge ge e'-to" xtsi wa-zhi" a-tha-gthe a', ka-ge a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

159. Shi' o°-do°-ba thi" ha, e'tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

160. Ni'-ka ts'a-ge a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

161. ^'ka' ga-mo° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

162. Ta'-xpi ge u-thi-ho" ho" e-go" wi-to"-be a', wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

163. Ni'-ka ts'a-ge a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

164. No"'-ni-o"-ba i tse u-gtha-gtha e-go° wi-to"-be a', wi-tsi-go e', 

e-gi-a, bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

165. Ho"'ba u-fa-ki-ba do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

166. U'-tha-ni-ka-shi ga tha-to" she wi-to"-be a', wi-tsi-go e', e-gi-a, 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

167. Ha' ! ka-ge a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

168. Ho"'-ba u-^a-ki-ba ge e-to" wa-zhi" a-tha-gthe a', ka-ge', e-gi-a, 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

169. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

170. U'-tha-ni-ka-slii-ga tha-to" she wi-to"-be a', wi-tsi-go e', e tsi- 

the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

171. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" xtsi u-hi tha-ki-the te wa-zhi" a-tha-gthe a', 

ka-ge, e tsi-the a, a bi" da, tsi ga. 

Song 1. 

(Freetranslation.p. 145; literal translation, p. 556.) 

The wi-ta ha, the wi-ta, 
Wa-tse-xi e tha tho wi-ni da, 
E he the wi-ta ha, the wi-ta, 
Wa-tse-xi e tha tho wi-ni da, 
E he the wi-ta ha, the wi-ta, 
Wa-tse-xi e tha tho wi-iii-da. 

(Sung four times.) 



420 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [ain. Ann. 39 

Song 2. 

(Freetranslation, p. 146; literal translation, p. 556.) 

1. 

Ni-ka-xo-be Ico-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-.xo-be, 
Ko-wi-tha ha, ni-lja-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha, 
I-ba a-thi° a-do", 
I-ba a-thi° a-do° ni-ka-xo-be, 
Ko-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha. 



Ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be 
!Ko-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha, 
Mo"-hi'' a-thi° a-do°, 
Moo-hi" a-thi" a-do" ni-ka-xo-be 
Ko-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha. 



Ni-ka-xo-be ko-w i-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be 
Ko-wi-tha-ha, ni-lja-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha, 
We-tsi° a-thi" a-do", 
We-tsi° a-thi° a-do" ni-ka-xo-be 
Ko-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha. 



Ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-bs 
]^o-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha, 
Mi"-dse a-thi" a-do", 
Mi"-dse a-thi" a-do" ni-ka-xo-be 
!]Ko-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha. 



Ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be 
Ko-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha. 
Mo" a-thi" a-do", 
Mo" a-thi" a-do" ni-ka-xo-be 
Ko-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha. 

6. 

Ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be 
!]Ko-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha, 
Do-ka a-thi" a-do", 
Do-ka a-thi" a-do" ni-lfa-xo-be 
Ko-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha. 



Ni-lfa-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be 
Ko-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha, 
Ga-mo" a-thi" a-do", 
Ga-mo" a-thi" a-do" ni-ka-xo-be 
Ko-wi-tha lia, ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha. 



LAFLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 421 

8. 

Ni-ka-xo-be Ijo-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be 
Ko-\vi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha, 
Ho°-ba a-thi° a-do°, 
Ho°-ba a-thi" a-do" nl-ka-xo-be 
!Ko-wi-tha ha, ni-ka-xo-be ko-wi-tha ha. 

Song 3. 

(Literal translation, p. 557.) 

1. 

I tha ha lia he lie tha. 
I tha ha ha he he tha ha, 
I tha ha, 
I tha ha ha he he tha. 

2. 

Tsi-go ho ho he he tha, 
Tsi-go ho ho he he tha ha, 
I tha lia, 
Tsi-go ho ho he he tha. 

Wa-thu'-^e Wa-tho". 

WA-THU'-fE Wl'-GI-E (THE BLACK BEAR). 
By Wa-xthi'-zhi. 



(Free translation, p. 148; literal translation, p. 557.) 



1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa'-cj'a-be u-fa-ka thi°-ge kshe no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Wa'-ki-gthi-gtho° tsi-the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Ta' ki-thi-xa bi u-zlii"-ga xtsi thi°-kslie dsi a', a bi" da tsi ga, 

5. Wa'-ki-gthi-gtho" tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Ni'-dse ki i-no°-the ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. 0'-k'o° wa-no^-tha zhi xtsi to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. E'-ki-pa a-gthi no"-zhi"-zhi" the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-fe the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. A'-ba-do a-ga-ha dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. E'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Ha'-shki pa-gthe no"-zlii"-zlii" tlie to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-pe the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. A'-ba-do a-tlia-k'a-be dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Xa'-dse ba-tse thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. He'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Xa'-dse ba-tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Thi'-thi-fki gthi no"-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Ni-dse ki i-rio"-tha zhi to" a, a bi" da, tsi ga. 



422 THE OSAGE TBIBE. [eth. Axx. 39 

20. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-fe the do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

21. A'-ba-do a-tha-k'a-be dsi xtsi a', bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Ba'-xpe thi^-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. E'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Tlii'-tlii-fki gthi no"-the thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 
2.5. Ni-dse ki i-no°-tha zhi to" a, a bi" da, tsi ga. 

26. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-^e the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Ga-xa zhi"-ga ce gtha-gtha-the xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Zho"'-sha-be-the hi ba-tse thi°-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Thi'-thi-fki gtlii no"-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-tha zhi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

32. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-fe the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Ga'-xa zhi°-ga (je gtha-gtha-the xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Ha'-ci-hi ko" tlii"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Thi'-be-bthi" gthi i-no"-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-tha zhi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

37. Thu-e' xtsi fi-thu-ce the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Ba'-9o"-zhi"-ga do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. A'-tha-k'a-be dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. I'° u'-fa-ki-ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-the ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. E'-dsi xtsi hi no°-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-tha zhi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

44. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Ba'-pi zhi"-ga do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. He'-dsi xtsi hi gthi" thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. I'"' zhi"-ga do-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Thi'-ta-the gthi i-no"-the to" a', a bi" d&, tsi ga, 

49. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Thi'-9o"-tha tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-the ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. I'"' zhi"-ga wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Ta'-xpi a-gtho" xtsi hi gthi" thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. Mi' pe-tho"-ba gtiii" ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. E'-dsi xtsi hi gthi" thi°-kshe a', a l)i" da, tsi ga, 

56. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Ho°'-ba u-^a-ivi-ba wi" o-pslii slio" e'-ki-the thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

58. Wa'-gthu-shka-zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. Ho'-to" wa-no"-k'o" thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



I^FLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 423 

60. Ho^'-ba u-fa-ki-ba wi" o-pshi sho° e'-ki-the thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

61. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. Wa'-zhi"-ga ho-to" wa-no"-iv'o" thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. Ho'''-ba u-fa-ki-ba wi" o-pshi sho" e'-ki-tlie thi"-kshe a, a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

64. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga 

65. Wa'-ivo"-da tse-ga xtsi e-tho°-be hi no" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. Tsi'-zhe-be u-lii-gtlii" thi"-kslie a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. No"'-be mi ba-mo"-da-da xtsi thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. Mi' sha-ge gi-ba-ha xtsi thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Ha' ! wi-tsi-go e a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. Zhu'-i-ga a-tha-xi" xtsi a-zho" mi"-kshe sho" e'-i\i-the thi"-kshe 

a', a bi" ila, tsi ga, 

72. Ha'! ni-ka-slii-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. U'-no" tha bi i-the tha-ki-the a-tha, ni-iva-shi-ga, e'-gi-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga. 

74. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" tla, tsi ga, 

75. fsi'-zhe-be i-sdu-ga dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. U'-fi-gthe wi" hi-tse-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

77. Ga' tse sliki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

78. Wa'-tlii"-e-9ka she mo" mo"-zhi i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. Tsi'-zhu e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

81. We'-tha-wa mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

82. We'-tha-wa mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

83. Zho"'-xa gi-tsi-fa ki-tlie mo"-tlu" ta bi" tla', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

84. fsi'-zhe-be tha-ta dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

85. U'-^i-gthe wi" lii-tse-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

86. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

87. Tsi'-zhu e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

88. We'-tha-wa mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

89. We'-tha-wa mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

90. Zho"-xa gi-tsi-fa ivi-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da, a l)i" da, tsi ga. 

WA-THU'-^E Wl'-GI-E (THE BEAVER). 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

2. Wa'-zha-zhe u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga tho"-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

3. Xtha'-xtha tHi"-ge xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



424 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [kth. amn. 39 

4. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. Wa'-zha-zhe wi° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Wa'-dsu-ta pi-zhi wi" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. Zha'-be do-ga to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. Ni' ki-mo°-ho° dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Ba'-btha-btha-xe zho" a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Ni' ba-btha-xe ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Wa'-ko°-da o"-ki-tha-zha-ta bi a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Zlii"'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. Wa'-ko"-da a-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

17. Ni' thi-u-ba-he tha-ta ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. E' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Thi'-u-ba-he a-gi-the a-tlii" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Zhi"'-ga thi-u-ba-he gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Thi'-u-ba-he i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

22. Ni' u-fa-gi ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. E shki do" a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Thi'-u-thi-xthu-k'a a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Zhi"'-ga thi-u-thi-xthuk'a gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

26. Tlii'-u-thi-xthu-k'a i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" 

da, tsi ga. 

27. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" chi, tsi ga, 

28. Ni' u-ba-sho" wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. E'-dsi xtsi hi zho" kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Mo"'-9to-pto-be ho°-pka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Ha'-bi-ta-thc gthi no"-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Tsi' to" ki-the to" a, a bi" da', tsi ga, 

33. Zhi"'-ga tsi to" ki-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. fsi to" ki-the i-ts'a thi"-ge i<i-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

35. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Ni' u-ba-sho" wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. He'-dsi xtsi hi zho" kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Thiu'-xe zhi"-ga ho"-fka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Tha'-xia-tha gtlii i-lic-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Mi' hi-e ge ta ni-ka-shi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Wa'-btha-xia-tha gthi i-lie-a-the i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LAXGUAGE. 425 

42. Tsi'-zhe-be i-sdu-ga dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. Tha'-xu-e gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. Ga' tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Wa'-thi°-e-fka btha-xu-e gtlii i-he-a-tha mo"-zhi i" da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

46. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

47. We'-tha-wa mo"-thi° bi do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

48. O'-do" gi-tsi-fa ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

49. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Ni' u-ga-xthi we-pe-tho"-ba thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. He'-dsi xtsi hi sho"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. Thiu'-xe zhi"-ga we-iie-tho°-ba to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Tha'-xia-tha gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. Ga' tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Wa'-thi"-e-fka btha-xia-tha gthi i-he a-tha mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" 

ila, tsi ga, 

56. Mi' hi-e ge ta ni-ka-slii-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Wa'-btha-xia-tha gthi i-lie a-the i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. 'Tsi'-zhe-be i-sdu-ga dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. Tha'-xu-e gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. Ga' tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Wa'-thi°-e-Qka she mo" mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. 'Tsi'-zhu a, a bi" da', tsi ga, 

63. Ho"'-ga e-tho°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. We'-tha-wa mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. We'-tha-wa ino"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. O'-do" gi-tsi-fa ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

67. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. Ni' u-ga-xthi wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. He'-dsi xtsi hi zho" kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Tliiu'-xe zhi"-ga ho"-fka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. Tha'-xia-tha gtiii i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. Mi' hi-e ge ta ni-ka-slii-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. Wa'-btha-xia-tha gthi i-he-a-the i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. Tsi'-zhe-be tha-ta dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

75. Tha'-xu-e gtlii i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. Ga' tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

77. Wa'-tlii-e-fka btha-xu-e gthi i-he-a-tha mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

78. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. We'-tha-wa mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. O'-do" gi-tsi-fa ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



426 THE OSAGE TRIBE. rETii, ann. 39 

81. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

82. Ni' u-ga-xthi we-sha-pe thi^-kshe dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 
S3. E'-dsi xtsi hi zlio" kslie a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

84. Thiu'-xe zhi"-ga ho^-fka do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

85. Tha'-xia-tha gthi i-he-the to" a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

86. Ga' tse shki a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

87. Wa'-thi^-e-pka btha-xia-tha gthi i-he-a-tha nio"-zhi i"-da', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

88. Mi' hi-e ge ta ni-ka-shi-ga', a hi" da, tsi ga 

89. Wa '-btha-xia-tha gthi i-he-a-the i" da', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

90. Tsi'-zhe-be tha-ta dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

91. Tha'-xu-e gthi i-lie-the to" a', a bi" dsi, tsi ga, 

92. Ga' tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

93. Wa'-thi-e-fka she-mo" mo"-shi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

94. Tsi'-zhu a', a bi" tUi, tsi ga, 

95. Ho"'-ga e-tho°-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

96. We'-tha-wa nio°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

97. We'-tha-wa mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da. tsi ga, 

98. 0-do" gi-tsi-f a ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi" da, a bi" da, tsi ga. 

WA-THU'-^E W'i'-GI-E. 

By Wa-tse'-mo^"-!". 

(Free translation, p. 154; literal translation, p. .562.) 

1. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa'-fa-be u-^a-ka thi"-ge kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Wa'-ki-gthi-gtho" tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Ta' ki-tlii-xa bi u-zhi"-ga .xtsi thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Wa'-ki-gthi-gtho" tsi-the to" a', a bi" da. tsi ga. 

6. M()"'-zho" u-to"-ga xtsi thi"-kshe a', a bi" ihi, tsi ga, 

7. Wa'-iii-gthi-gtho" tsi-the to" a', a bi" ihx, tsi ga, 

8. Ta'-de ha-no"-ha te a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. He'-no"-he a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

10. A' xa-ga hi-no"-zhi"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-the ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. O'-k'o" wa-no"-tha zhi to" a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga. 

13. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. f i' thu-fe tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Xa'-dse ba-tse he-dse tho" a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. He'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Thi'-sda tsi-the to" a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Ni'-dse ki i-no^-tha zhi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. She' sho" thi" do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Wa'-tlii-e-fka she-mo" mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHE] EITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 427 

21. Zhi"'-o:a mi hi-e ge ta, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. We'-ki-i-he-the mo'^'-thi" ta ba do" she a-wa-kshi-mo° i" da', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

23. We'-ki-i-he-the nio"-thi° bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

24. We'-ki-i-hc-the gi-wa-ts'e-ga i\i-the nio"-thi" ta ba do" she a-wa- 

kshi-mo° i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. We'-go"-tha a-thi" mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Da'-do" thu-ts'a-ga zhi ki-the mo"-thi° ta ba do" she a-wa- 

kshi-mo" i" chi', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

27. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. ^i' thu-fe tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. O'-fu ko"-ha xtsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Wa'-ki-gtlii-gtho" tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-tha zhi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Mi' pe-tho"-ba gthi" ta tk)" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. O'-k'o" wa-no"-tha zlii tlii" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Zlio°'-sha-be-the hi to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Tlii'-do-do-xe tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. A'-ki-zhi i-tse-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-the ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. A'-ki-zlii i-tse-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Ni'-dse ki i-no''-tha zhi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Wa'-thi"-e-(;'ka she-mo" mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Zlii"'-ga mi hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. We'-go"-tha a-thi" m(>"-thi" ta ba do" she a-wa-kshi-mo" i" da', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. We'-go"-tha a tlii" mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. We'-go°-tha gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

45. We'-mo"-ka the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. We'-mo"-ka the gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-tlii" ta ba do" she 

a-wa-kshi-mo° i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

47. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. f i' thu-pe tsi-the to" a', a bi" tla, tsi ga, 

49. O'-pu go-da ko°-ha dsi xtsi a', a In" da, tsi ga, 

50. Hi' no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Mo"'-9a xo-dse hi to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. He'-dsi xtsi hi iio"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Wa'-ki-gthi-gtho" xtsi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-the ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Wa'-ivi-gthi-gtho" tsi-the thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. Mi' i7e-tho"-ba gtlii" ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Thi'-do-do-xe tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



428 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

58. A'-ki-zhi i-tse-the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

59. Ni'-dse ki i-no°-tha zhi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. She' sho" thi° do'> a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Wa'-thi°-e-?ka she-mo° mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, ts ga, 

62. Zhi°'-ga mi hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

63. We'-go°-tha a-thi° mo^-tlii" ta ba do" she a-wa-kshi-mo° i" da', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

64. We'-go^-tha a-thi° mo-'thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. We'-go"-tha gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-tlii" ta ba do" she a-wa- 

kshi-mo" i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. We'-mo"-ka the mo"-thi" ta ba ilo" she-a-wa-kshi-mo" i" da', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. We'-mo"-ka-the gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-thi° ta ba do" she 

a-wa-ksi-mo" i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

68. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. f i' thu-9e tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Ni' u-sda xtsi ge dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. Thiu'-xe ts'a-zhi to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. He'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zlii" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. Wa'-fa-be do-ga to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. Wa'-ki-gthi-gtho" xtsi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

75. Mi' pe-tho"-ba gthi" ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. Ni'-dse ki i-jio°-the ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

77. Wa'-ki-gthi-gtho" xtsi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

78. Thiu'-xe ts'a-zhi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. Thi'-do-do-xe tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. A'-ki-zhi i-tse-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

81. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-the ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

82. A'-ki-zhi i-tse-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

83. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-tha zhi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

84. She' sho" thi" do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

85. Ga' tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

86. Wa'-thi"-e-(;'ka she-mo" mo"-zhi i" dw'. a bi" da, tsi ga, 

87. Zhi"'-ga mi hi-e ge ta', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

88. We'-go"-tha a-thi" mo"-thi" ta ba do" she a-wa-kshi-mo" i" da', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

89. We'-go"-tha a-thi" mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

90. We'-go"-tha gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta ba do" she a-wa- 

kshi-mo" i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

91. We'-mo"-ka the mo"-thi" ta ba do" she a-wa-kshi-mo" i" da', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

92. We'-mo"-ka the mo"-thi° bi ilo" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

93. We'-mo"-ka the gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-thi" ta ba do" she 

a-wa-kshi-mo" i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] EITE OF VIGIL — OSAGE LANGUAGE. 429 

94. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

95. f i' thu-9e tsi-the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

96. Mo°'-tu-tu-be ha thi°-kshe dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

97. He'-dsi xtsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

98. Wa'-ki-gthi-gtho" xtsi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

99. Mo"'-zho° do"-do"-be xtsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

100. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-the ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

101. O'-iv'o" wa-no"-tha hi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

102. Mi' pe-tho"-ba gthi" ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

103. 0'-k'o° wa-no"-tha zhi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

104. Thi'-ta-the gthi i-no"-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

105. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-the ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

106. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-tha zhi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

107. Ga' tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

108. Wa'-thi"-e-9ka she-mo" mo"-zhi i" da', a ])i" da, tsi ga, 

109. Zhi"'-ga mi hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

110. We'-go"-tha a-thi" mo"-thi" ta ba do" she a-wa-kshi-mo" i" da', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

111. We'-go"-tha a-thi" mo"-tlii" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

112. We'-go"-tha gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta ba do" she a-wa- 

kshi-mo" i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga 

113. We'-mo"-ka the mo"-thi" ta ba do" she a-wa-kshi-mo" i" da', 

a hi" da, tsi ga 

114. We'-mo"-iva the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

115. We'-mo°-ka the gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta ba do" she a-wa- 

kshi mo" i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

116. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

117. pi' thu-fe tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

118. U'-k'u-be wi" hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

119. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-tha zhi the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

120. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-the ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

121. U'-k'o" wa-no"-tha zhi tlii" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

122. Mi' pe-tho"-ba gthi" ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

123. O'-k'o" wa-no"-tha zhi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

124. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

125. I'"' zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

126. A'-ki-zhi i-tse-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

127. I'"' zhi"-ga pe-tho"-ba', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

128. Thi'-ta-the gthi i-tse-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

129. A'-ki-zhi i-tse-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

130. Ni'-dse ivi i-no"-the ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

131. Ni'-dse ki i-no°-tha zhi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

132. She' sho" tlii" do", a bi" da, tsi ga. 



430 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ANN. 39 

133. Ga' tse shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

134. Wa'-thi°-e-pka she mo" mo"-zhi i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

135. Zhi"'-ga mi hi-e ge-ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

136. We'-ki-k'o" the mo°-thi" ta ba do" she a-wa-kshi-mo° i° da', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

137. Tsi'-zhu zhi°-ga i-ta'-i, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

138. Wa'-zha-zlie shi°-ga i-ta e-tlio"-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

139. I'-da-fi-lii ki-the iuo"-tlai" shki o" ta ba do° she a-wa-kshi-mo° 

i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

140. I'-da-fi-hi ki-the mo^-thi" bi di>" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

141. I'-ts'a thi°-ge mo"-thi" ta ba do" she a-wa-kshi-mo" i" da, a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

142. We'-go"-tha a-thi" mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

143. We'-mo"-ka the gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta ba do" she 

a-wa-kshi-mo" i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

144. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

145. ^i' thu-ge tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

146.. I'"' pa-?i wi° hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

147. Mo"'-sho"-dse wi" hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

148. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-tha zhi the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

149. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-the ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

150. O'-lt'o" wa-no"-tha zhi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

151. Mi' pe-tho"-ba gtlii" ta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

152. O'-k'o" wa-no"-tlia zhi thi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

153. He'-dsi xtsi a',- a bi" da, tsi ga, 

154. Tsi' e-ta-thi-slio" xtsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

155. Tsi'-zhe-be i-sdu-ga dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

156. U'-ba-mo"-xe hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

157. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

158. Tsi' u-xta xtsi i-tlie ki-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

159. Gu'-dsi i-gthi"-ge no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

160. Gu'-dsi i-gthi"-ge do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

161. Tsi'-u-thu-ga tha-gthi" xtsi sho" i-ki-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

162. "Tsi' u-xta xtsi i-the ki-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

163. Tsi' u-ho"-ba thi"-ge xtsi sho" i-ki-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

164. Tsi'-zhe-be wi-ta a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

165. Wa'-ko°-da i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

166. Be' o"-wo"-ga-t'i" ba tho" ta zhi sho" e-ki-the to" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

167. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

168. Ni'-dse lii i-no"-the thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

169. Mi' pe-tho"-ba gthi" ta do" a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

170. Ni'-dse ki i-no"-the thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

171. Slio"' thi"-ke i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 431 

172. Mi' o°-ba sha-pe hi thi^-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

173. Ga' sho° xtsi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

174. U'-thu-ha we-to^-i" ki-the thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

175. Zhu'-i-ga ivi-to°-be thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

176. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

177. Zhu'-i-ga thi"-ge xtsi pshi mi"-kshe sho" e-ki-tlie tlii"-kshe a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

178. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

179. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha ba tho"-ta xtsi mi"-kshe sho" e'-ki-the 

thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

180. Zlii"'-ga u-no" o"-tha ba tho"-ta xtsi nu"-kshe sho" e-ki-the thi°- 

kshe a', a bi" da, tsi-ga. 

181. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

182. She' sho" thi" do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

183. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-the ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

184. Zlii"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

185. pi'-pa-hi tlii-ftu-the ga te a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

186. U'-no" a-gi-the mi"-kshi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

187. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

188. f i'-pa-hi thi-(;tu-the a ]>i i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a, zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

189. Zlii°'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi gu, 

190. I'-ts'a thi"-ge mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

191. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi (kv a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

192. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a, zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsiga. 

193. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

194. Ga' no"-zhi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

195. Hi'-ko" ba-f'i"-tha ga tse shki a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

196. Hi'-ko" u-no" a-gi-the mi°-kshi" da', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

197. Zhi"'-ga no" hi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

198. Hi'-ko" ba-?'i"-tha a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

199. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

200. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

201. Tse'-wa-tse u-ga-wa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

202. E' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

203. U'-no" a-gi-the rai"-kshi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

204. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

205. fse-wa-tse u-ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

206. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

207. I'-ts'a thi"-ge mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

208. Zhi"'-ga, zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

209. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a'. zhi"-ga'- a bi" da, tsi ga. 



432 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [eth. ax.v. 39 

210. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

211. U'-mu-ta ga-wa ga tlii°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

212. E' shki do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

213. U'-no" a-gi-the mi-'-kshi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

214. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

215. U'-mu-ta ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tse a', zhi°-ga', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

216. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga ()"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

217. I'-ts'a thi"-ge mo"-tlii" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

218. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

219. Ts'e wa-tse-xi ki-the rao"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

220. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

221. Thiu'-e ga-gthe-fe ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

222. E' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

223. U'-no" a-gi-the mi"-kshi" da', a bin da tsi ga, 

224. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

225. Thiu'-e ga-gthe-^e a bi i-the ki-the nio°-thi" ta bi tsi" da', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

226. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-fha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

227. I'-ts'a thi"-ge mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

228. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

229. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ivi-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

230. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

231. A'-zhu ga-wa ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

232. E' shki u-no" a-gi-the mi°-kshi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

233. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

234. A'-zhu ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the nio"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da. 

tsi ga, 

235. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tlia bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

236. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

237. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

238. Hi'-zhu ga-wa ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

239. E' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

240. U'-no" a-gi-the mi"-kshi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

241. Zlii"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

242. Hi'-zhu ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

243. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

244. I'-ts'a thi"ge mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

245. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

246. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a, zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLESCHE] EITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 433 

247. Da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

248. I-the-dse bi-xo" ga tse shki a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

249. E' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

250. U'-no° a-gi-the mi"-kshi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

251. Zhi^'-ga no" lii do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

252. I'-the-dse bi-xo" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

253. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

254. I°'-shta-ha bi-xo" ga kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

255. E' sliki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

256. U'-no" a-gi-the mi"-kshi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

257. Zhi"'-ga no" hi do" a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

258. I°'-shta-ha bi-xo" a bi i-the ki-tlie mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', 

a Vji" da, tsi ga. 

259. We'-tlii-xtlu u-sda ga tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

260. E' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

261. Zhi"'-ga no" hi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

262. We'-tlii-xthi u-sda a bi i-the ki-the mo"-tlu" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

263. Ta'-xpi hi" ga-^a-dse ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

264. E shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

265. U'-no" a-gi-the mi"-kshi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

266. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

267. 'Ta'-xpi hi" ga-(?a-dse a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

268. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha 1)1 do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

269. I'-ts'a thi"-ge mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', abi" da, tsi ga, 

270. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

271. fs'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

272. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

273. Zhi"'-ga no" lii do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

274. Pa'-hi" pka shki i-the ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tse a, zhi°-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

275. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

276. Zhi"'-ga no" hi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

277. Ho°'-ba tha-gthi" xtsi tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

278. Ho"'-ba u-fa-ki-ba do-ba shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

279. U'-hi ki-the mo"-thi°- ta i tse a, zlii"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

280. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

281. U'-thu-ha we-to"-i" ki-the tsi-the thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

282. fsi'-zhe-be i-sdu-ge tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 
3594°— 25t 28 



434 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ann.39 

283. Hi' nC-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

284. Mo^'-zho" do^-be noo-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

285. Mo^'-zho" sho-dse xtsi do"-be hi n()"-zhi" to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

286. Zho° i-ta-xe ga-xu-xu-e kshe a-no"-k'o" hi Do^-zhi" to" a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga 

287. Gu'-dsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a hi" (hi, tsi ga, 

288. Wa'-zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

289. Ho'-to° wa-no"-k'o" hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

290. f i-e' xtsi wa-no"-k'o" to" a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

291. He-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

292. U'-fi-gthe sha-pe i-tse-the to" a', a l>i" da, tsi ga, 

293. U'-tse-xi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

294. Wa'-thi"-e-9ka i-tse-tha zhi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

295. U'-^'i-gthe sha-pe i-tse-a-the i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

296. Zhi"'-ga mi hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

297. 0'-do° e no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

298. Sho"' xtsi i-tse-a-the i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

299. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

300. f i' thu-fe wi" i-tse-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

301. U'-fi-gthe pe-tho"-ba i-tse-the to" a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

302. Ga' tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

303. Wa'-tlii"-e-9ka i-tse-a-tha mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

304. U'-fi-gthe pe-tho"-ba e no" bi no" a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

305. Sho"' xtsi i-tse-a-the i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

306. O'-do" e no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

307. Sho"' xtsi i-tse-a-the i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

308. O'-do" pe-tlio"-be e no" bi no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

309. Sho"' xtsi i-tse-a-the i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

310. Da', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

311. Ci' thu-9e tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

312. Mo"'-zho° u-da-bthu-bthu-e xtsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

313. Mo"'-hi" no"-(;'a-thu xtsi hi no"-zhi° to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

314. Ci' thu-re tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

315. Tsi' zhi"-ga wi" hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

316. Ci' thu-fe tsi-the to" a', a hi" (hi, tsi ga, 

317. Ni' ko"-ha xtsi hi no"-zhi" to" a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

318. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

319. Zha'-be do-ga to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

320. f'i"-dse mo"-sho-sho-dse i-he-the to" a',, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

321. A'-kia-(;'ta i-no"-the to" a', a bi" (La, tsi ga, 

322. The' shki \va-thi"-e-pka she-nio" mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

323. Zhi"'-ga mi lii-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 435 

324. We'-mo"-ka the mo^-thi" ta ha do" she a-wa-kshi-mo° i° da', a 

hi" da, tsi ga, 

325. We'-mo"-ka the mo^-thi" hi do° shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

326. We'-mo"-ka the gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the ino"-thi° ta ba do" she 

a-wa-kshi-mo" i" da, a bi" da, tsi ga. 

327. Da'; a hi" da, tsi ga, 

328. Ni' u-fa-gi xtsi dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

329. fi^'-dse ni i-ga-pu-ki the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

330. Ni' ki-mo"-ho° xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

331. Ba'-btha-btha-xe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 
..332. Ni' u-ba-sho" wi" hi kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

333. Thiu'-xe zhi"-ga to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

334. Tha'-xia-tha gtlii i-lie-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

335. He'-dsi xtsi tha-xu-e gi-gthe do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

336. Tsi'-zhe-be i-sdu-ga dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

337. U'-tha-xu-e gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

338. Wa'-thi"-e-9ka btha-xu-e a-gthi nao"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

339. Zhi"'-ga mi lii-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

340. We'-tha-wa nio"-thi" ta ba do" btha-xu-e a-gthi i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

341. Zhi"'-ga we-tha-wa mo°-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

342. We'-tha-wa gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the nio"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

343. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

344. Zha'-be do-ga kshe a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

345. Ni' u-fa-gi xtsi dsi hi the kshe a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

346. Ni' ki-mo"-ho" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

347. Ba'-btha-btha-xe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

348. Ni' u-ba-sho" we-tho°-ba thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

349. He'-dsi xtsi hi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

350. Thiu'-xe zhi"-ga to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

351. Tha'-xia-tha gtlii i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

352. He'-dsi xtsi tha-xu-e gi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

353. Tsi'-zhe-be i-sdu-ge tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

354. U'-tha-xu-e gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

355. Wa'-thi°-e-<;ka btha-xu-e a-gthi mo°-zhi i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

356. Zhi"'-ga we-tha-wa mo"-thi" ta ba do" btha-xu-e a-gthi i" da', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

357. Zlii"'-ga we-tha-wa mo"-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

358. I'-ts'a thi°-ge mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

359. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

360. Zha'-be do-ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

361. Ni' u-fa-gi xtsi dsi hi tlie kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



436 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. Ann. 39 

362. Ni' ki-mo°-ho'' xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

363. Ba'-btha-btha-xe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

364. Ni' u-ba-sho° tha-bthi" hi kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

365. Tliiu'-xe zhi°-ga to" no° a', a bi" da. tsi ga, 

366. Tha'-xia-tha gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

367. He'-dsi xtsi tha-xu-e gi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 
36S. Tsi'-zhe-be i-sdu-ge tse a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

369. U'-tha-xu-e gthi i-he-thc to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

370. Wa'-thi"-e-pka btha-xu-e a-gthi mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

371. Zhi"'-ga we-tha-wa mo"-thi" ta ba do" btha-xu-e a-gthi i" da', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

372. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

373. Zha'-be do-ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

374. Ni' u-f.a-gi xtsi dsi hi the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

375. Ni' u-ba-sho" we-do-ba thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

376. Thiu'-xe zhi°-ga to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

377. Tha'-xia-tha gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

378. He'-dsi xtsi tha-xu-e gi-gthe do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

379. Tsi'-zhe-be i-sdu-ge tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

380. U'-tha-xu-e gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

381. Wa'-thi"-e-gka btha-xu-e a-gthi mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

382. Zhi"'-ga mi hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

383. We'-tha-wa mo"-thi" ta ba do" btha-xu-e a-gthi i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

384. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38.5. Zha'-be do-ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

386. Ni' u-fa-gi xtsi dsi hi the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

387. Ni' ki-mo"-ho" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

388. Ba'-btha-btha-xe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

389. Ni' u-ba-sho° we-fa-to" thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

390. E'-dsi xtsi hi kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

391. Thiu'-xe zhi"-ga to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

392. Tha'-xia-tha gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

393. He'-dsi xtsi tha-xu-e gi-gthe tlo" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

394. Tsi'-zhe-be i-sdu-ge tse a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

395. U'-tha-xu-e gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

396. Wa'-thi"-e-9ka btha-xu-e a-gthi nio"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

397. Zhi°-ga we-tha-wa nio"-thi° ta ba do" btha-xu-e a-gthi i" da, 

e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

398. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

399. Zha'-be do-ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

400. Ni' u-(;'a-gi xtsi dsi hi the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

401. Ni' ki-nio"-ho" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



lAFLBSCHD] KITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 437 

402. Ba'-btha-btha-xe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

403. Ni' u-ba-sho° sha-jje lii kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

404. Thiu'-xe zhi°-ga to" no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 
40.5. Tha'-xia-tha gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

406. E'-dsi xtsi tha-xu-e gi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

407. Tsi'-zhe-be i-sdu-ge tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

408. U'-tha-xu-e gtlii i-he-the to" a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

409. Wa'-thi"-e-pka btha-xu-e a-gthi nao°-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

410. Zhi°'-ga we-tha-wa mo"-thi" ta ba do" btha-xu-e a-gthi i" da', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

411. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

412. Zha'-be do-ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

413. Ni' u-pa-gi xtsi dsi hi the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

414. Ni' u-ba-sho" we-pe-tho"-ba tlii"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

415. He'-dsi xtsi hi kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

416. Thiu'-xe zhi"-ga to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

417. Tha'-xia-tha gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

418. E'-dsi xtsi tha-xu-e gi a', a bi" ihi, tsi ga, 

419. Tsi'-zhe-be i-sdu-ge tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

420. U'-tha-xu-e gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

421. Wa'-thi"-e-pka btha-xu-e a-gthi mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

422. Zhi"'-ga we-tha-wa mo"-thi" ta ba do" btha-xu-e a-gthi i" da', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

423. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

424. Ni' u-fa-gi xtsi dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

425. 5i°'-dse ni i-ga-pu-ki the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

426. Ni' ki-mo"-ho" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

427. Ba'-btha-btha-xe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

428. Ni' u-ba-sho" wi" hi kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 
^29. Thiu'-xe zlii"-ga to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

430. Tha'-xia-tha gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

431. He'-dsi xtsi tha-xu-e gi-gthe do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

432. Tsi'-zhe-be tha-ta tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

433. U'-tha-xu-e gtlii i-he-tlie to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

434. Wa'-thi"-e-(;'ka btha-xu-e a-gthi mo"-zhi i" da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

435. Zhi"'-ga mi hi-e ge ta', a bi" da. tsi ga, 

436. We'-tha-wa mo"-thi" ta ba do" btha-xu-e a-gthi i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

437. Zhi"'-ga we-tha-wa mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

438. We-tha-wa gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da, a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

439. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

440. Zha'-be do-ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



438 THE OSAGE TBIBE. [etii. ANN. 39 

441. Ni' u-fa-gi xtsi dsi hi the kshc a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

442. Ni' ki-mo^-ho" xtsi a', a bi" (hi, tsi ga, 

443. Ba'-btha-btha-xe kshe a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

444. Ni' u-ba-sho" we-tho"-ba thi"-kshe a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

445. He'-dsi xtsi hi to" a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

446. Tliiu'-xe zhi"-ga to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

447. Tha'-xia-tha gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da. tsi ga, 

448. He'-dsi xtsi tha-xu-e gi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

449. fsi'-zhe-he tha-ta tse a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

450. U'-tha-xu-e gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

451. Wa'-thi-e-^ka htha-xu-e a-gthi mo°-zhi i" da', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

452. Zlii"'-ga we-tha-wa mo°-tiii" ta ha do" htha-xu-e a-gthi i° da', 

a hi" da, tsi ga, 

453. Zhi"'-ga we-tha-wa mo"-thi" hi do" a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

454. T'-ts'a thi°-ge mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a hi" da, tsi ga. 

455. Da', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

456. Zha'-be do-ga kshe a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

457. Ni' u-fa-gi xtsi dsi hi the kshe a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

458. Ki'-mo"-ho" xtsi a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

459. Ba'-btha-btha-xe kshe a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

460. Ni' u-ha-sho" tha-bthi" hi kshe a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

461. Tliiu'-xe zlii"-ga to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

462. Tha'-xia-tha gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

463. He'-dsi xtsi tha-xu-e gi a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

464. "Tsi'-zhe-be tha-ta tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

465. U'-tha-xu-e gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

466. Wa'-thi"-e-fka htha-xu-e a-gthi nio"-zhi i" da', a hi" da. tsi ga, 

467. Zhi"'-ga we-tlia-wa mo"-thi" ta ha do" htha-xu-e a-gthi i" da', 

a hi" da, tsi ga. 

408. Da', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

469. Zha'-be do-ga kshe a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

470. Ni'-u-?a-gi xtsi dsi hi the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

471. Ni' u-ba-sho" we-do-ha thi"-kshe a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

472. Thiu'-xe zhi"-ga to" no" a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

473. Tha'-xia-tha gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

474. He'-dsi xtsi tha-xu-e gi-gthe do" a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

475. fsi'-zhe-be tha-ta tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

476. U'-tha-xu-e gthi i-he-the to" a', a l)i" da, tsi ga, 

477. Wa'-thi"-e-9ka htha-xu-e a-gthi mon-zhi i" da', a hi" da. tsi ga, 

478. Zhi°'-ga mi iii-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

479. We'-tha-wa mo"-thi" ta ha do" htha-xu-e a-gthi i" da', a hi" da, 

tsi ga. 



UA FLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 439 

480. Da', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

481. Zha'-bc do-ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

482. Ni' u-fa-gi xtsi dsi hi the kshe a', a bi" ila, tsi ga, 

483. Ni' ki-mo"-ho" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

484. Ni' ba-btha-xe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

485. Ni' u-ba-sho" we-pa-to" thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

486. E'-dsi xtsi lii kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

487. Tliiu'-xe zhi"-ga to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

488. Tha'-xia-tha gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

489. He'-dsi xtsi tha-xu-e gi-gthe do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

490. fsi'-zhe-be tha-ta tse a', a bi" da. tsi ga, 

491. U'-tha-xu-e gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

492. Wa'-thi"-e-9ka btha-xu-e a-gthi ino"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

493. Zhi"'-ga we-tiia-wa nio"-thi" ta ba do" btha-xu-e a-gthi i" da, 

e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

494. Da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

495. Zha'-be do-ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

496. Ni' u-?a-gi xtsi dsi hi the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

497. Ni' ki-mo"-ho" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

498. Ba'-btha-btha-xe kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

499. Ni' u-ba-sho" sha-pe hi kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

500. Thiu'-xe zhi"-ga to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

501. Tha'-xia-tha gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

502. E'-dsi xtsi tha-xu-e gi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

503. fsi'-zhe-be tha-ta tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

504. U'-tha-xu-e gthi i-he-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

505. Wa'-tlii"-e-Qka btha-xu-e a-gthi mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

506. Zhi"-ga we-tha-wa mo"-thi" ta ba do" btha-.xu-e a-gthi i" da, 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 172; literal translation, p. 571.) 

1. 

Ni-ka wi» e thi° a-gi bi no°, 
Thi" a-gi-bi no°, thi° a-gi bi no" ho, 
Wa-ho-shi-ge do° thi° a-gi bi no", 
Thi" a-gi bi no", thi" a-gi bi no", 
Ni-ka wi" e thi" a-gi bi no". 



Ni-ka wi° e thi" a-gi bi no", 
Thi" a-gi bi no", thi° a-gi bi no" ho, 
I-e do" a-thi" a-do° thi" a-gi bi no", 
Thi" a-gi bi no", thi" a-gi bi no", 
Ni-ka wi" e thi" a-gi bi no". 



440 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [etu. ann. 39 



Ni-ka wi° e thi" a-gi bi no°, 
Thi" a-gi bi no", thi" a-gi bi no" ho, 
I-e gtho"-the a-do° tlii" a-gi l)i no", 
Thi" a-gi bi no", thi" a-gi bi no", 
Ni-ka wi" e thi" a-gi bi no". 

Song 2. 
(Freetraaslation.p. 173; literaltranslation, p. 572.) 
1. 

The thi°-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-the, 

The thi"-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-the, 

The-thi°-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-the, 

The-thi°-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-the. 

The thi"-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-the the the he the, 

Wa-ho-shi-ge do" i-ta wi-kshi-the, 

The-thi°-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-the, 

The thi°-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-the, 

The-thi°-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-the, 

The thi"-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-the. 



The thi°-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-the. 

The thi"-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-the, 

The thi°-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-the. 

The thi°-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-the, 

The thi^-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-the the the he the, 

I-e do" a-thi" i-ta wi-kshi-the, 

The thi"-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-the. 

The thi°-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-tlie, 

The thi°-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-the. 

The thi"-kshe i-ta wi-kshi-the. 

Song 3. 

(Freetranslation, p. 174; literal translation, p. 572.) 

1. 

Dsi tsi-tha thi", dsi tsi-tha thi" he, 

I-e do"', a-thi" she-thn a-thi" a-gi bi no", 

Dsi tsi-tha thi", dsi tsi-tha thi", 

Dsi tsi-tha thi", dsi tsi-tha thi", 

Dsi tsi-tha thi" he. 

I-e ta thi" she-thu a-thi" a-gi bi qo", 

Dsi tsi-tha thi". 

2. 

Dsi tsi-tha tlii", dsi tsi-tha thi" he, 

I-e tse she-thu a-thi" a-gi bi no", 

Dsi tsi-tha thi", dsi tsi-tha thi", 

Dsi tsi-tha thi", dsi tsi-tha thi", 

Dsi tsi-tha thi" he, 

I-e do" a-thi" she-thu a-thi" a-gi l)i no", 

Dsi tsi-tha thi". 



I^FLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 441 

Song 4. 

(Free translation, p. 176; Uteraltranslation, p. 572.) 

1. 

MoMhi'-ka ii-thi-sho" a-gtha-bthi" e he, 
Mo°-thi''-ka u-thi-sho" a-gtha-bthi° e he, a he, 
I-ba 'thi" a-do" u-thi-sho" bthe hi" do a he he. 



Mo°-thi°-ka u-thi-sho° a-gtha-bthi° e he, 
Mo°-thi''-ka u-thi-sho° a-gtha-bthi° e he, a he, 
Mo°-hi'' a-thi" a-do° u-thi-sho° bthe hi° do a he he. 

3. 

Moo-thio-ka u-thi-sho° a-gtha-bthi" e he, 
Mo''-thi°-ka u-thl-sho° a-gtha-bthi° e he a he, 
We-tsi° a-thi° a-do° u-thi-sho" bthe hi" do a he he. 



Mo"-thi"-ka u-thi-sho° a-gtha-bthi° e he, 
Mo°-thi°-ka u-thi-sho" a-gtha-bthi" a he a he, 
I\i-no° a-thi° a-do° u-thi-sho" bthe hi" do a he he. 

5. 

'Mo"-thi°-ka u-thi-sho" a-gtha-bthi" e he, 
Mo°-thi°-ka u-thi-sho" a-gtha-bthi° e he a he, 
Wa-xthe u-thi-sho" a-tha-ha bthe hi" do a he he. 

6. 

Mo"-thi"-ka op-she a-gtha-bthi" e he, 
Mo°-thi°-ka op-she a-gtha-bthi" e he a he, 
I-ba 'thi° a-do" op-she bthe hi" do a he he. 

7. 

Mo"-thi°-ka op-she a-gtha-bthi" e he, 
Mo"-thi°-ka op-she a-gtha-bthi" e he a he, 
Mo°-hi° a-thi° a-do" op-she bthe hi" do a he he. 

S. 

Mo"-thi"-ka op-she a-gtha-bthi" e he, 
Mo"-thi°-ka op-she a-gtha-bthi" e he a he, 
We-tsi" a-thi" a-do" op-she bthe hi" do a he he. 

9. 

Mo"-thi°-ka op-she a-gtha-bthi" e he, 
Mo°-thi"-ka op-she a-gtha-bthi" e he a he, 
Ki-no" a-thi" a-do" op-she bthe hi" do a he he. 

10. 

Mo"-thi"-ka op-she a-gtha-bthi" e he, 
Mo"-thi°-ka op-she a-gtha-bthi" e he a he, 
Wa-xthe a-thi" a-do" op-she bthe hi" do a he he. 



442 THE OSAGE TRIBE, [eth. ann. 39 

11. 

Mo°-thi°-lja ga-gi-xe a-gtha-bthi° e he, 
Mo"-thi°ika ga-gi-xe a-gtha-bthi° e he a he, 
I-ba 'thi" a-do" ga-gi-xe bthe hi" do a he he. 

12. 

Mo°-thi''-lja ga-gi-xe a-gtha-bthi° e he, 
Mo''-thi"-lja ga-gi-xe a-gtha-bthi° e he a he, 
Mo°-hi'' a-thi" a-do" ga-gi-xe bthe hi" do a he he. 

13. 

Mc-thin-ka ga-gi-xe a-gtha-bthi" e he, 
Mo"-thi°-ka ga-gi-xe a-gtha-b;hi° e he a he, 
We-tsi" a-thi° a-do" ga-gi-xe bthe hi" do a he he. 

14. 

Mo°-thi°-ka ga-gi-xe a-gtha-bthi" e he, 
Mo°-thi°-ka ga-gi-xe a-gtha-bthi" e lie a he, 
Ki-no° a-thi ° a-do" ga-gi-xe bthe hi" do a he he. 

15. 

Mo°-thi°-lca ga-gi-xe a-gtha-bthi" e he, 
Mo°-thi°-ka ga-gi-xe a-gtha-bthi" e he a he, 
Wa-xthe a-thi" a-do" ga-gi-xe bthe hi" do a he he. 

16. 

Mo°-thi°-ka ga-gi-xe a-gtha-bthi" e he, 
Mo"-thi°-ka ga-gi-xe a-gtha-bthi" e he a he, 
Ho°-be a-thi" a-do" ga-gi-xe bthe hi" do a he he. 

SoNO 5. 
(Free translation, x'- 1"8: literal translation, p. 574.) 

1. 

Tha-wa tse the he, thp-wa tse the he, 

Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 

Wa-tse the he Mi-k'i" wi"-xtsi tha-wa tse the he, 

Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 

Wa-tse the he. 

2. 

Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 

Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 

Wa-tse the he Mi-lf'i° tho°-ba tha-wa tse the he, 

Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 

Wa-tse the he. 

3. 

Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 

Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 

Wa-tse the he Mi-k'i" tha-bthi" tha-wa tse the he, 

Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 

Wa-tse the he. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL— OSAGE LANGUAGE. 443 

4. 

Tha-wa jse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 
Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 
Wa-tse the he Mi-k'i" do-ba tha-wa tse the he, 
Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 
Wa-tse the he. 

5. 

Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 
Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 
Wa-tse the he Mi-l^'i" ga-to" tha-wa tse the he, 
Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 
Wa-tse the he. 

6. 

Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 
Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 
Wa-tse the he Mi-H'i" sha-pe tha-wa tse the he, 
Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 
Wa-tse the he. 

7. 

Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 

Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 

Wa-tse the he Mi-lj'i" she-no° tha-wa tse the he, 

Tha-wa tse the he, tha-wa tse the he, 

Wa-tse the he. 

Song 6. 
(Free translation, p. 182; literal translation, p. 675.) 



E he ha he-be ni ha-thi° a-gtha-gtha be, 
He-be ni ha-thi" a-gtha-gtha be, 
E he ha he-be ni ha-thi" a-gtha-gtha be, 
E he ha he-be ni ha-thi" a-gtha-gtha be. 
He-be ni ha-thi° a-gtha-gtha be. 
He-be ni ha-thi" a-gtha-gtha be. 

Ka'-xe Wa-tho'*. 

Song 1. 
(Free translation, p. 184: literal translation, p. 575.) 

1. 

Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha ni wa-the, 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha ni wa-the, 
Qi ta 'tsi° da ha ni wa-the, 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha ni wa-the. 

2. 

Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha ni wa-the, 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da lia ni wa-the, 
Hi ta 'tsi° da ha ni wa-tlie, 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha ni wa-the. 



444 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth.ann.3D 

3. 

^a-xe a-tsi° da ha ni wa-the, 
]^a-xe a-tsi" da ha ni wa-the, 
Zhu ta 'tsi° da ha ni wa-the, 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da lia ni wa-the. 



Ka-xe a-tsi° da ha ni wa-the, 
Ka-xe a-tsi° da ha ni wa-the, 
A ta 'tsi" da ha ni wa-the, 
Ka-xe a-tsi° da ha ni wa-the. 

5. 

Ka-xe a-tsi° da lia ni wa-the, 
Ka-xe a-tsi° da ha ni wa-the. 
Pa ta 'tsi° da ha ni wa-the, 
IJa-xe a-tsi° da ha ni wa-the. 

6. 

Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha ni wa-the, 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha ni wa-the, 
I ta 'tsi° da lia ni wa-the, 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha ni wa-the. 

Song 2. 
(Free translation, p. 185; literal translation, p. 576.) 



Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha sho" ni da we, 
Ci-a hi wa ta ha sho" ni da we, 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha sho" ni da we, 
Qi-a hi wa ta ha sho" ni da we, 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha sho" ni da we. 



Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha slio" ni da we, 
Hi-a hi wa ta ha sho" ni da we, 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha sho" ni da we, 
Hi-a hi wa ta ha sho" ni da we, 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha sho" ni da we. 

• 3. 

!Ka-xe a-tsi° da ha sho" ni da we, 
Zhu-a hi wa ta ha sho" ni da we, 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha sho" ni da we, 
Zhu-a hi wa ta ha sho" ni.da we, 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha sho" ni da we. 

4. 

Ka-xe a-tsi" da lia sho" ni da we, 
A hi wa ta ha sho" ni da we, 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha sho" ni da we, 
A hi wa ta ha sho" ni da we, 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha sho" ni da we. 



LAFLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE, 445 



Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha sho" ni da we, 
Pa hi wa ta ha sho" ni da we, 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha sho" ni da we 
Pa hi wa ta ha sho" ni da we 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha sho° ni da we. 



Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha sho" ni da we 
I-a hi wa ta ha sho" ni da we 
Ka-xe a-tsi" da ha sho" ni da we 
I-a hi wa ta ha sho" ni da we 
Ua-xe a-tsi" da ha sho" ni da we. 

Wa-^a'-be Wa-tho''. 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 188; literal tranclation, p. 577. 

1. 

Mo" thi-to° ge he ta-ko i° da ha-we. 
Mo" thi-to" ge he ta-ko i° da ha-we he, 
Mo" thi-to" ge he ta-ko i° da ha-we, 
Wi a-tsi i" da ha-we he, 
Mo" thi-to" ge he ta-ko i" da ha-we. 

2. 

Mo" thi-k'o ge he ta-ko i" da ha-we. 
Mo" thi-k'o ge he ta-ko i° da lia-we he, 
Mo" thi-k'o ge he ta-ko i" da ha-we, 
Wi a-tsi i" da ha-we he. 
Mo" thi-k'o ge he ta-ko i" da ha-we. 

SoNfG 2. 

(Free translation, p. 189; literal translation, p. 577.) 

1. 

No "-be o"-xo-dse u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha, 

No°-be o"-xo-dse u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i° da ha, 

E tho wa da da e tho wa na, 

E tho wa da da e tho wa na the. 

No "-be o"-xo-dse u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha, 

2. 

No°-be C-ja-be u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha, 

No "-be o°-?a-be u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha, 

E tho wa da da e tho wa na, 

E tho wa da da e tho wa na the. 

No "-be o°-sa-be u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha. 



446 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. a:c.n-. 39 

3. 

I^-dse o''-xo-dse u-wa-ni-ke no° ta-ljo i" da ha, 

I^i-dse o°-xo-dse u-wa-ni-lje no" ta-ko i° da ha. 

E tho wa da da e tho wa na, 

E tho wa da da e tho wa na the, 

I^-dse o°-xo-dse u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i° da ha. 



I°-dse o°-fa-be u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha, 

I°-dse o°-5a-be u-wa-ni-ke no° ta-ko i" da ha, 

E tho wa da da e tho wa na, 

E tho wa da da e tho wa na the, 

Jii-dse o''-5a-be u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha. 

5. 

I°-dse o''-ho°-ba u-wa-ni-ke no° ta-ko i" da ha, 

I°-dse o''-ho°-ba u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha, 

E tho wa da da e tho wa na, 

E tho wa da da e tho wa na the, 

I°-dse o°-ho°-ba u-wa-ni-ke no" ta-ko i" da ha. 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 190; literal translation, p. 578.) 

1. 

Tsi-go mo°-thi-k'o go°-tha bthe he, 
Tsi-go mo°-thi-k'o go^-tha bthe he a he, 
Do-ga mo°-thi-k'o go"-tha ha bthe hi" do ho. 

2. 

Tsi-go mo°-thi k'o go°-tha bthe he, 
Tsi-go mo"-thi k'o go°-tha bthe he a he, 
Mi-ga mo"-thi-k'o go°-tha ha bthe hi° do ho. 

3. 

T.'ii-go mo°-thi-k'o go°-tha bthe he, 
Tsi-go mo"-thi-k'o go°-tha bthe he a he, 
Zhi"-ga mo"-thi-k'o go°-tha ha bthe hi" do ho. 

4. 

Tsi-go mo°-thi-k'o go°-tha bthe he, 
Tsi-go mo°-thi-k'o go°-tha bthe he a he, 
Ho°-ba mo"-thi-k'o go°-tha ha bthe hi" do ho. 



LA FLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 447 

Song 4. 
(Free translation, p. 191; literal translation, p. 578.) 

1. 

Tsi-go, tsi-go ho, 
Tsi-go wi" 'tha-the do", 
Da-fe a-the a-thi° he no" 
Tsi-go, tsi-go. tsi-go ho, 
Tsi-go wi° 'tha-the do", 
Da-5e a-the a-thi" he no°, 
Tsi-go, tsi-go, tsi-go ho. 

2. 

Tsi-go, tsi-go ho, 
Tsi-go wi° 'tha-the do°, 
Ts'e i-he a-the a-thi° he, no", 
Tsi-go, tsi-go, tsi-go ho, 
Tsi-go wi" 'tha-the do", 
Ts'e i-he a-the a-thi" he no", 
Tsi-go, tsi-go, tsi-go ho. 

3. 

Tsi-go, tsi-go ho, 

Tsi-go wi° 'tha-the do°, 

Sho-dse no" 5o°-ho° pa-xe a-thi" he no", 

Tsi-go, tsi-go, tsi-go ho, 

Tsi-go wi" 'tha-the do", 

Sho-dse no° 5o°-ho° pa-xe a-th!° he no°, 

Tsi-go, tsi-go, tsi-go ho. 

4. 
Tsi-go, tsi-go ho, 
Tsi-go wi" 'tha-the do°, 
Ni-xo-dse ?o°-ho" pa-xe a-thi° he no", 
Tsi-go, tsi-go, tsi-go ho, 
Tsi-go wi° 'tha-the do°, 
Ni-xo-dse ^o^'-ho" pa-xe a-thi ■■ he no", 
Tsi-go, tsi-go, tsi-go ho. 

5. 
Tsi-go, tsi-go ho, 
Tsi-go wi° 'tha-the do°, 
Wa-hi ge 9o"-ho'' pa-xe a-thi" he no", 
Tsi-go, tsi-go, tsi-go ho, 
Tsi-go wi° 'tha-the do", 
Wa-hi ge fo^-ho" pa-xe a-thi ° he no", 
Tsi-go, tsi-go, tsi-go ho. 



448 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

TsE Wa-tho". 

Song 1. 

Free translation, p. 197; literal translation, p. 579.) 

1. 

A-5i-gthe no" wa-k'o" no", 
A-5i-gthe no" wa k'o° no", 
A-gi-gthe no" wa-k'o° no°, wa-lc'c" no", 
A-ji-gthe no" wa-k'o° no" a he he. 



A-5i-gthe no° gthe-ge no", 
A-fi-gthe no" gthe-fe no", 
A-5i-gthe no" gthe-ge no", gthe-je no", 
A-gi-gthe no" gthe-fe no" a he he. 

3. 

A-gi-gthe no" ba-bthi no", 
A-fi-gthe no" ba-bthi no", 
A-fi-gthe no" ba-bthi no", ba-bthi no°, 
A-gi-gthe no" ba-bthi no" a he he. 



A-gi-gthe no" bo-xa no", 
A-ji-gthe no" bo-xa no", 
A-gi-gthe no" bo-xa no", bo-xa no", 
A-ji-gthe no" bo-xa no" a he he. 

5. 

A-gi-gthe no" ga-mi no", 
A-gi-gthe no" ga-mi no", 
A-gi-gthe no" ga mi no", ga-mi no", 
A-gi-gthe no" ga mi no" a he he. 

6. 

A-gi-gthe no" ga-dsi" no", 
A-gi-gthe no" ga-dsi" no", 
A-gi-gthe no" ga-dsi" no", ga-dsi" no", 
A-gi-gthe no" ga-dsi" no" a he he. 



A-gi-gthe no" xa-pe no", 
A-gi-gthe no" xa-pe no", 
A-gi-gthe no" xa-pe no", xa-pe no°, 
A-gi-gthe no" xa-pe no" a he he. 



A-gi-gthe no" bi-xtho" no", 

A-gi-gthe no" bi-.\tho" no", 

A-gi-gthe no" bi-xtho" no", bi-xtho" no", 

A-gi-gthe no" bi-xtho" no" a he he. 



I^ FLEiSCHB] 



RITE or VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 



449 



3594°— 25t- 



9. 

A-gi-gthe no" xo-da no°, 
A-gi-gthe no" xo-da-no", 
A-?i-gthe no° xo-da no", xo-da no°, 
A-gi-gthe no" xo-da no" a he he. 

10. 

A-gi-gthe no° sho-da no°, 
A-?i-gthe no" sho-da no", 
A-^i-gthe no" sho-da no", sho-da no", 
A-gi-gthe no" sho-da no" a he he. 

11. 

A-gi-gthe no" zha-wa no", 
A-gi-gthe no" zha-wa no", 
A-gi-gthe no" zha-wa no", zha-wa no", 
A-gi-gthe no" zha-wa no" a he he. 

12. 

A-gi-gthe no" ho°-ba no", 
.^-?i-gthe no" ho"-ba no", 
A-fi-gthe no" ho"-ba no", ho"-ba no", 
A-fi-gthe no" ho"-ba no" a he he. 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 19S; literal translation, p. 580.) 
1. 

Ci-gthe wi-ta wa-lj'o" no", ho", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta wa-lf'o" no", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta wa-t'o" no", 
Qi-gthe wi-ta wa-fo" no", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta wa-k'o" no" ho", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta wa-lj'o" no" ho". 

2. 

Ci-gthe wi-ta gthe-?e no" ho", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta gthe-ge no", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta gthe-ge no", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta gthe-ge no", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta gthe-ge no" ho", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta gthe-ge no" ho". 

3. 

Ci-gthe wi-ta ba-bthi no" ho", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta ba-bthi no", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta ba-bthi no", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta ba-bthi no", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta ba-bthi no" ho", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta ba-bthi no" ho". 
—29 



450 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ann. 39 

4. 

Ci-gthe wi-ta bo-xa no" ho°, 
Ci-gthe wi-ta bo-xa no", 
Qi-gthe wi-ta bo-xa no", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta bo-xa no°, 
Qi-gthe wi-ta bo-xa no" ho°, 
5i-gthe wi-ta bo-xa no° ho°. 

5. 

Qi-gthe wi-ta ga-mi no° ho", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta ga-mi no°, 
5i-gthe wi-ta ga-mi no", 
Ci-gtbe wi-ta ga mi no", 
Ci-gtiie wi-ta ga-mi no" ho", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta ga-mi no" ho°. 

6. 

^i-gthe wi-ta ga-dsi" no" ho", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta ga-dsi° no", 
Qi-gthe wi-ta ga-dsi" no", 
Qi-gthe wi-ta ga-dsi° no°, 
Qi-gthe wi-ta ga-dsi" no° ho", 
Qi-gthe wi-ta ga-dsi° no° ho°. 

7. 

Qi-gthe wi-ta xa-pe no° ho", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta xa-pe no", 
C!i-gthe wi-ta xa-pe no°, 
Qi-gthe wi-ta xa-pe no", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta xa-pe no" ho°, 
Qi-gthe wi-ta xa-pe no° ho". 



Ci-gthe wi-ta bi-xtho° no° ho", 
Qi-gthe wi-ta bi-xtho° no", 
Ci-gtlie wi-ta bi-xtho° no°, 
Qi-gthe wi-ta bi-xtho° no", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta bi-xtho" no" ho", 
Qi-gthe wi-ta bi-xtho" no" ho". 

9. 

Ci-gthe wi-ta xo-da no" ho", 
Cli-gthe wi-ta xo-da no". 
Ci-gthc wi-ta xo-da no", 
Qi-gthe wi-ta xo-da no" ho", 
Qi-gthe wi-ta xo-da no" ho". 

10. 

C^i-gthe wi-ta sho-da no" ho", 
Ci-gthe wi-ta sho-da no", 
Qi-gthe wi-ta sho-da no", 
5i-gthe wi-ta sho-da no", 
Qi-gthe wi-ta sho-da no" ho", 
Qi-gthe wi-ta sho-da no" ho". 



LA FLBSCHE] 



EITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 



451 



11. 

Qi-gthe wi-ta zha-wa no" ho", 
Ci-gtiie wi-ta zha-wa iio°, 
Qi-gthe wi-ta zha-wa no°, 
Qi-gthe wi-ta zha-wa no°, 
Ci-gthe wi-ta zha-wa no" ho". 
Qi-gthe wi-ta zha-wa no" ho". 

12. 



Ci-gthe wi-ta ho°-ba no° ho°, 



Ci-gthe w: 
gi-gthe w: 
5i-gthe w 
Qi-gthe w: 



-ta hoo-ba no", 
-ta ho"-ba no°, 
-ta ho°-ba no°, 
-ta ho"-l)a lie ho° 



Ci-gthe wi-ta ho°-ba no" ho". 

U'-WE Gl-DO^-BE Wa-THO". 
Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 200; literal translation, p. 581.) 

1. 

Do°-be the tse the he, do''-be the tse the, 

A-fi-gthe no" ho" do°-be the tse the he, 

Do''-be the tse the he, do°-be the tse the the the he the, 

A-gi-gthe no" ho" do°-be the tse the lie, 

Do°-be the tse the he, dc-be the tse the he, 

Do°-be the tse the he, dc-be the tse the, 

A-gi-gthe no° ho" do°-be the tse the. 

2. 

Do°-be the tse the he, do^-be the tse the, 

Gthe-?e ge no" ho" do°-be the tse the he, 

Do"-be the tse the he, do"-be the tse the the the he the, 

Gthe-ge ge no" ho" do"-be the tse the he, 

Do"-be tlie tse the he, do°-be the tse the he, 

Do°-be the tse the he, do°-be the tse the, 

Gthe-5e ge no" ho" do°-be the tse the. 

3. 

Do°-be the tse the he, do°-be the tse the, 

Ba-bthi ge no" ho" do"-be the tse the he, 

Do"-t>e the tse the he, do"-be the tse the the the he the, 

Ba-bthi ge no" ho" do°-be the tse the he, 

Do"-be the tse the he, do"-be the tse the he, 

Do"-be the tse the he, do"-be the tse the, 

Ba-bthi ge no" ho" do°-be the tse the. 



452 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [btu. ANN. 39 



Do°-be the tse the he, dC-be the tse the, 

Bo-xa ge no" ho" do°-be the tse the he, 

Do "-be the tse the he, do°-be the tse the the the he the, 

Bo-xa ge no" ho° do°-be the tse the he, 

Do°-be the tse the he, do''-be the tse the he, 

Do°-be the tse the he, do''-be the tse the, 

Bo-xa ge no" ho° do "-be the tse the. 

5. 

Do°-be the tse the he, do°-be the tse the, 

Ga-mi ge no" ho» do°-be the tse the he, 

Do°-be the tse the he, dc-be the tse the the the he the, 

Ga-mi ge no" ho" do°-be the tse the he, 

Do°-be the tse the he, do"-be the tse the he, 

Do°-be the tse the he, do"-be the tse the, 

Ga-mi ge no" ho" do"-be the tse the. 

6. 

Do°-be the tse the he, do "-be the tse the, 

Ga-dsi" ge no" ho" do°-be the tse the he, 

Do"-be the tse the he, do"-be the tse the the the he the, 

Ga-dsi" ge no" ho" do°-be the tse the he, 

Do°-be the tse the he, do"-be the tse the he, 

Do"-be the tse the he, do°-be the tse the, 

Ga-dsi" ge no" ho" do"-be the tse the. 



Do"-be the tse the he, do "-be the tse the, 

Xa-pe ge no" ho" do°-be the tse the he, 

Do°-be the tse the he, do"-be the tse the the the he the, 

Xa-pe ge no" ho" do "-be the tse the he, 

Do°-be the tse the he, do"-be the tse the he, 

Do°-be the tse the he, do°-be the tse the, 

Xa-pe ge nti" ho" do"-be the tse the. 

8. 

Dc-be the tse the he, do°-be the tse the, 

Bi-xtho° ge no" ho" do°-be the tse the he. 

Do "-be the tse the he, do "-be the tse the the the he the, 

Bi-xtho" ge no" ho" do"-be the tse the he, 

Do"-be the tse the he, do"-be the tse the he, 

Do"-be the tse the he, do°-be the tse the, 

Bi-xtho" ge no" ho" do°-be the tse the. 



Do°-be the tse the he, do"-be the tse the, 

Xo-da ge no" ho" do"-be the tse the he, 

Do°-be the tse the he, do"-be the tse the the the he the, 

Xo-da ge no" ho" do"-be the tse the he, 

Do°-be the tse the he, do"-be the tse the he, 

Do"-be the tse the he, do"-be the tse the, 

Xo-da ge no" ho" do°-be the tse the. 



LAFLESCHE] BITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 453 

10. 

Do°-be the tse the he, dc-be the tse the, 

Sho-da ge no° ho" do"-be the tse the he, 

Do "-be the tse the he, do°-be the tse the the the he the, 

Slio-da ge no° ho" do "-be the tse the he, 

Do°-be the tse the he, do°-be the tse the he, 

Dc-be the tse the he, do°-be the tse the, 

Sho-da ge no° ho° do°-be the tse the. 

11. 

Do''-be the tse the he, do'-be the tse the, 

Zha-wa ge no" ho" dn°-be the tse the he, 

Dc-be the tse the he, do "-be the tse the the the he the, 

Zha-wa ge no" ho° do°-be the tse the he, 

Do''-be the tse the he, do°-be the tse the he, 

Do°-be the tse the he, do°-be the tse the, 

Zha-wa ge no° ho" do°-be the tse the. 

12. 

Do°-be the tse the he, do°-be the tse the, 

Ho^-ba ge no° ho" do°-be the tse the he, 

Do^-be the tse the he, do°-be the tse the the the he the, 

Ho''-ba ge no" ho" do"-be the tse the he, 

Do°-be the tse the he, do"-be the tse the he, 

Do"-be the tse the he, do°-be the tse the, 

Ho°-ba ge no" ho" do°-be the tse the. 

Song 4. 

(Free translation, p. 202; literal translation, p. 582.) 

1. 

A-no°-zhi"-e the he, a-uo°-zhi"-e the, 
Gthe-ge ge no" ho" a-no"-zhi°-e the he 
A-no"-zhi"-e the he, a-no"-zhi"-e the the the he the, 
Gthe-fe ge no" ho" a-no"-zhi"-e the he, 
.\-no°-zhi»-e the he, a-no°-zhi°-e the the the he the, 
Gthe-?e ge no" ho" a-no°-zhi"-e the he, 
A-no°-zhi"-e the he, a-no°-zhi°-e the the the he. 



A-no°-zhi°-e the he, a-no°-zhi"-e the, 
Ba-bthi ge no" ho" a-no°-zhi"-e the he, 
A-no°-zhi"-e the he, a-no"-zhi°-e the the the he the, 
Ba-bthi ge no" ho" a-no°-zhi°-e the he, 
A-no"-zhi"-e the he, a-no"-zhi"-e the the the he the, 
Ba-bthi ge no" ho" a-no"-zhi''-e the he, 
A-no"-zhi"-e the he, a-no°-zhi"-e the the the he. 



454 THE OSAGE TEIBE. [eth. Ann. 39 

3. 

A-nc-zhio-e the he, a-no°-zhi"-e the, 

Bo-xa ge no° ho° a-no°-zhi°-e the he, 

A-no°-zhi°-e the he, a-nC-zhin-e the the the he the, 

Bo-xa ge no" ho" a-no''-zhi°-e the he, 

A-no"-zhi"-e the he, a-no°-zhi"-e the the the he the, 

Bo-xa ge no" ho" a-no"-zhi°-e the he, 

A-no"-zhi''-e the he, a-no°-zhi"-e the the the he. 



A-no°-zhi°-e the he, a-no"-zhi"-e the, 

Ga-mi ge no" ho" a-no"-zhi"-e the he, 

A-no"-zhi"-e the he, a-no°-zhi"-e the the the he the, 

Ga-mi ge no" ho" a-no"-zhi°-e the he, 

A-no"-zhi"-e the he, a no°-zhi"-e the the the he the, 

Ga-mi ge no" ho" a-no"-zhi"-e the he, 

A-no"-zhi"-e the he, a-no°-zhi"-e the the the he. 

5. 

A-no"-zhi"-e the he, a-no"-zhi"-e the. 
Ga-dsi" ge no" ho" a-no"-zhi"-e the he, 
A-no"-zhi"-e the he, a-no"-zhi"-e the the the he the, 
Ga-dsi" ge no" ho" a no°-zhi"-e the he, 
A-no"-zhi"-e the he, a-no"-zhi"-e the the the he the, 
Ga-dsi" ge no" ho" a-no°-zhi"-e the he, 
A-no"-zhi°-e the he, a-no"-zhi"-e the the the he. 



A-no°-zhi"-e the he, a-no"-zhi"-e the, 

Xa-pe ge no" ho" a-no"-zhi"-e the he, 

A-no°-zhi°-e the he, a-no°-zhi°-e the the the he the, 

Xa-pe ge no" ho" a-no"-zhi"-e the he, 

A-no°-zhi°-e the he, a-no"-zhi''-e the the the he the. 

Xa-pe ge no" ho" a-no"-zhi°-e the he, 

A-no"-zhi°-e the he, a-no°-zhi°-e the the the he. 

7. 

A-no"-zhi°-e the he, a-no"-zhi"-e the, 
Bi-xtho° ge no" ho" a-no"-zhi"-e the he, 
A-no°-zhi°-e the he, a-no"-zhi"-e the the the he the, 
Bi-xtho° ge no" ho" a-no"-zhi°-e the he, 
A-no°-zhi"-e the he, a-no"-zhi°-e the the the he the, 
Bi-xtho° ge no" ho° a-no°-zhi°-e the he, 
A-no°-zhi"-e the he, a-no°-zhi"-e the the the he. 

8. 

A-no°-zhi°-e the he, a-no''-zhi"-e the, 
Xo-da ge no" ho" a-no"-zhi"-e the he, 
A-no°-zhi°-e the he, a-no°-zhi"-e the the the he the, 
Xo-da ge no" ho" a-no°-zhi"-e the he, 
A-no"-zhi°-e the he, a-no°-zhi°-e the the the he the, 
Xo-da ge no" ho" a-no"-zhi°-e the he, 
A-no"-zhi"-e the he a-no"-zhi'-e the the the he. 



UA.FLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 455 



A-no°-2hi°-e the he, a-no''-zhi°-e the, 
Sho-da ge no° ho° a-no''-zhi°-e the he, 
A-no°-zhi''-e the he, a-no°-2hi°-e the the the he the, 
Sho-da ge no° ho" a-no°-zhi''-e the he, 
A-no°-zhi°-e the he, a-no°-zhi°-e the the the he the, 
Sho-da ge no" ho» a-no''-zhi°-e the he, 
A-no''-zhi''-e the he a-no°-zhi''-e the the the he. 

10. 

A-no°-zhi°-e the he, a-no°-zhi°-e the, 
Zha-wa ge no° ho" a-no°-zhi°-e the he, 
A-no°-zhi°-e the he, a-no"'-zhi°-e the the the he the, 
Zha-wa ge no° ho" a-no°-zhi°-e the he, 
A-no''-zhi°-e the he, a-no°-zhi''-e the the the he the, 
Zha-wa ge no" ho° a-no"-zhi"-e the he, 
A-no''-zhi°-e the he, a-nc-zhio-e the the the he. 

11. 

A-no''-zhi''-e the he, a-no°-zhi°-e the, 
Ho°-ba ge no" ho» a-no°-zhi''-e the he, 
A-no°-zhi°-e the he, a-no°-zhi''-e the the the he the, 
Ho''-ba ge no" ho" a-no"'-zhi''-e the he, 
A-no'-zhJo-e the he, a-no°-zhi"-e the the the he the, 
Ho''-ba ge no" ho" a-no°-zhi"-e the he, 
A-no°-zhi°-e the he, a-no°-zhi°-e the the the he. 

So.vG 6. 
(Free translation, p. 204; literal tran.slation. p. 5S4. 

1. 

Tsi go-da ba do''-ba o°-ga-tha be, 
Tsi go-da ba do''-ba o"-ga-tha be, 
E-dsi she a-ba wa-lc'i" a-kshi bi no", 
E-dsi sha a-ba wa-k'i" a-kshi bi no". 



Xsi go-da ba do°-ba o°-ga-tha be, 

Tsi go-da ba do°-ba o''-ga-tha be, 

E-dsi ga-tho she a-ba wa-lf'i" a-kshi bi no", 

E-dsi ga-tho she a-ba wa-fi" a-kshi bi no°. 

Wa-tho" Sha-pe Tse. 

tse-do-a ni-ka i-no^'-ziu" wa-tho''. 

Song 1. 
(Free translation, p. 208; literal translation, p. 584.) 

1. 
Wi-tha-no°-zhi"' no", wi tha nc°-zhi'', 
Wi-tha-no''-zhi''-e, Mo°-no''-ti-de, 
Wi-tha-no"-zhi° no°, wi tha no''-zhi°, 
Wi-tha-no°-zhi''-e: wi tha no°-zhi° 



456 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. Ann. 39 



Wi-tha-no''-zhi° no", wi tha no°-zlii°, 
Wi-tha-no"-zhi''-e, Hiu-gthe-to"-ga, 
Vri-tha-no'-zlii" no", wi tha iio°-zhi°, 
Wi-tha-no°-zhi''-e, wi tha noo-zhi" no°. 



Wi-tha-no''-zhi° no°, wi tha no°-zhi°, 
Wi-tha-no "-zhi "-e, C' °-clse-xa-tha, 
Wi-tha-no"-zhi'' no", wi tha nC-zhi", 
Wi-tha-no°-zhi''-e, wi tha no°-zhi'' no°. 

4. 

Wi-tha-no''-zhi"' no", wi-tha no^-zhi", 
Wi-tha-no°-zhi''-e, A-ba-t'u-xa, 
Wi-tha-no°-zhi'' no", wi-tha-no°-zhi", 
Wi-tha-no"-zhi"-e, wi-tha-no"-zhi" no". 



Wi-tha-no"-zhi" no", wi-tha-no"-zhi°, 
Wi-tha-no"-zhi"-e, Pa-hi-ga-zho", 
Wi-tha-no"-zhi° no", wi-tha-no"-zhi°, 
Wi-tha-no"-zhi°-e. wi-tha-no°-zhi" no". 

6. 

Wi-tha-no"-zhi" no", wi-tha-no"-zhi°, 
Wi-tha-no°-zhi"-e, He-thi-sdu-zha, 
Wi-tha-no"-2hi" no", wi-tha-no"-zhi°, 
Wi-tha-no"-zhi°-e, wi-tha-no"-zhi° no". 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 210; literal translation, p. 585.) 

1. 

E-tho°-be o°-ga-the tse he tho°-ka-e no" ho", 
E-tho°-be o°-ga-the tse he tho"-ka-e no" ho", 
E-tho"-be o°-ga-the tse he tho"-ka-e no" ho", 
Mo°-no"-ti-de o"-ga-the tse he tho°-ka-e no" ho", 
E-tho"-be o°-ga-the tse he tho"-ka-e no" ho", 
E-tho"-be o"-ga-the tse he tho"-ka-e no" ho". 



E-tho°-be o"-ga-the tse he tho"-ka-e no" ho", 
E-tho"-be o°-ga-the tse lie tho"-ka-e no" ho", 
E-tho°-be o"-ga-the tse he tho"-ka-e no" ho", 
Hiu-gthe-to°-ga o"-ga-the tse he tho"-ka-e no" ho", 
E-tho°-be o"-ga-the tse he tho"-ka-e no" ho", 
E-tho"-be o"-ga-the tse he tho"-ka-e no" ho". 



LiFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 457 



E-thc-be o°-ga-the tse he thoo-ka-e no° ho", 
E-tho''-be o°-ga-the tse he tho"-ka-e no''-ho'', 
E-thc-be c-ga-the tse he thoo-ka-e no" ho°, 
Ci"-dse-xa-tha oo-ga-the tse he tho°-ka-e no° ho", 
E-tho°-be o°-ga-the tse he tho°-ka-e no" ho", 
E-tho°-be o°-ga-the tse he tho'i-ka-e no" ho°. 



E-thoo-be o°-ga-the tse he tho°-ka-e no" ho°, 
E-tho°-be c-ga-the tse he tho°-ka-e no" ho°, 
E-tho°-be o°-ga-the tse he tho°-ka-e no" ho°, 
He-thi-sdu-zha o°-ga-the tse he tho^-ka-e no° ho°, 
E-tho°-be o°-ga-the tse he tho"-ka-e no" ho°, 
E-tho°-be c-ga-the tse he tho^-ka-e no° ho°. 

Song 3. 
(Free translation, p. 211; literal translation, p. 586.) 



Wi-tsi-go a-gi bi° da, wi-tsi-go a-gi bi° da, 
Wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da, wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da, 
A ha, do-ga no° a-gi bi° da, 
Wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da, wi-tsi-go a-gi bi° da ha. 

2. 

Wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da, wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da, 
Wi-tsi-go a-gi bi° da, wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da, 
A ha, mi-ga no° a-gi bi" da, 
Wi-tsi-go a-gi bi° da, wi-tsi-go a-gi bi° da. 

3. 

Wi-tsi-go a-gi bi° da, wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da, 
Wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da, wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da, 
A ha, zhi°-ga no" a-gi bi" da, 
Wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da, wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da. 

4. 

Wi-tsi-go a-gi bi° da, wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da, 
Wi-tsi-go a-gi bi° da, wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da, 
A ha, ki-5o°-e no" a-gi bi" da, 
Wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da, wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da. 

5. 

Wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da, wi-tsi-go a-gi bi° da, 
Wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da, wi-tsi-go a-gi bi" da, 
A ha, pe-tho"-ba a-gi bi" da, 
Wi-tsi-go a-gi bi no", wi-tsi-go a-gi bi no". 



458 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ann. 39 

Song 4. 

(Free translation, p. 213; literal translation, p. 586.) 

1. 

E the he, ki-a-lii tha tha, bthe da hi" da, 
Ki-a-hi tha tha, bthe da hi" da, 
Ki-a-hi tha tha, bthe da hi° da, 
E the he, ki-a-hi tha tha, bthe da hi" da. 



E the he, ba-sho" i tha tha, bthe da hi" da, 
Ba-sho° i tha tha, bthe da hi° da, 
Ba-sho° i tha tha, bthe da hi" da, 
E the he, ba-sho" i tha tha, bthe da hi" da. 

3. 

E the he, ga-^u i tha tha, bthe da hi" da, 
Ga-5U i tha tha, bthe da hi" da, 
Ga-gu i tha tha, bthe da hi" da, 
E the he, ga-gu i tha tha, bthe da hi" da. 

No^-xthe' I-ki^-dse Wa-tho'*. 



(Free translation, p. 214; literal translation, p. 586.) 

1. Da'-do° no°-xthe gi-the mo^-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. I°'-gtho°-ga do-ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. Ga' no^-xthe gi-the mo"-thi° bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. No°'-xthe gi the mo°-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. No°'-xthe gi-fa-be ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. No°'-xthe gi the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. We'-ki-i-he-the gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-fo^-ga, 

e-ki-a, bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

9. Da'-do" no"-xthe gi the mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Wa'-fa-be u-pa-ka thi"-ge kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Ga' no"-xthe gi the mo"-tlii" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. No°'-xthe gi the mo"-tlti" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. No°'-xthe gi-fa-be ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. We'-ki-i-he the gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-tlii° ta bi a', wi-Q0°-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



I^FLESCHE] BITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 459 

17. Da'-do° no°-xthe gi the mo^-thi" ta ba do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Mi'-xa-fka To^-ga thi°-kshe no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Ga' no^-xthe gi the mo°-thi" hi a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

20. f i'-ha u-sha-be ga thi°-kslie sliki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

21. Pa'-zhu-zhe i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Xo°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi° hi" da', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Zhi°'-ga no°-xthe gi the mo"-tlii° bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Xo°'-xthe gi-pa-be ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi a', wi-fo^-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

26. No°'-xthe gi tha bi do° shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. No°'-xthe gi-^a-be ki-the mo^-thi" ta bi a', wi-fo^-ga, e'-ki-a bi 

a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

28. Da'-do" no"-xthe gi the mo°-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Wa'-zhi"-ga Wa-tha-xthi Thi"-ge thi°-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. E' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. fi'-ha u-sha-be ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" hi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. I"'-be i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Pa'-zhu-zhe i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi"-kslie shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" hi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Zhi°'-ga iio"-xthe gi tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. No"'-xtlie gi-f a-be ki-the nu)"-thi" ta bi-a', wi-f o°-ga, e'-ki-a bi-a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

38. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. No"'-xtlie gi the mo°-tlii" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. No°'-xthe gi-pa-be ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', -wi-fo^-ga, e'-ki-a bi 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

41. Da'-do" no"-xthe gi-the mo°-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. fa tse-he-xo-dse do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. E' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. No°'-xthe gi the mo"-tlii" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. fi'-ha u-sha-be ga tlii"-kshe sliki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi° hi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. Pa'-zhu-zhe i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" hi" da', a'bi" ihi, tsi ga, 

49. Zhi°'-ga no"-xthe gi the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. No"'-xtlie gi-pa-be ki-tlie ino"-thi'' ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. Tse'-xi a-shi-be a thi"-he no" i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Xthi' bi u-thi-fo"-ha a-thi"-he sliki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. Wa'-pa-iii a-bu-zlia-zha-ta bi a-thi" he shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. fse'-xi a-shi-be a-thi"-he no" i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



460 THK OSAGE TEIBE. [eth. A--JN. 39 

56. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

57. Tse'-xi ga-shi-be ki-the mo^-thi" ta bi a', wi-9o°-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga. 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 217; literal translation, p. 588.) 

1. 

Ni-lfa gto bi ni wa tha te ha tho ha tho, 

Ni-lja ni do" e the he ha tho, 

Ni-lja ni do° ha we ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do" e the he, 

Ni-ka gto bi ni wa tha te ha tho. 

2. 

Ho''-ga to" bi ni wa tha te ha tho ha tho, 

Ni-lja ni do° e the he ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do" ha we ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do" e the he, 

Hc-ga to" bi ni wa tha te ha tho. 

3. 

Wa-xtha to" bi ni wa tha te ha tho ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do" e the he ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do" ha we ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do" e the he, 

Wa-xtha to° bi ni wa tha te, ha tho. 

4. 

Mo'-sho" to° bi ni wa tha te ha tho ha tho, 
Ni-ka ni do" e the he ha tho, 
Ni-ka ni do" ha we ha tho, 
Mo"-sho" to" bi ni wa tha te ha tho. 



Ta-ha to" bi ni wa tha te ha tho ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do" e the he ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do" ha we ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do" e the he, 

Ta-ha to" bi ni wa tha te ha tho. 

6. 

Pe-dse to" bi ni wa tha te ha tho ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do" e the he ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do" ha we ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do" e the he, 

Pe-dse to" bi ni wa tha te ha tho. 

7. 

No"-xthe to" bi ni wa tha te ha tho ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do" e the he ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do" ha we ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do" e the he, 

No"-xthe to" bi ni wa tha te ha tho. 



LAFLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE, 461 

Ni Thi'-tse Wa-tho". 

(Not given.) 

TSI Gl'-KA-XE Wa-tho". 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 218; literal translation, p. 588.) 

]. 

Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi°-e e, 

Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi''-e he the, 

Ga-xa thi°-e e tsi wi-ta no° ga-xa thi^-e. 

Wi-e tsi wi° ga-xa thi"-e e, 

Wi-e tsi wi° ga-xa thi°-e. 

2. 

Wi-e tsi \vi° ga-xa thi°-e e, 

Wi-e tsi wi° ga-xa thi"-e he the, 

Ga-xa thi"-e e wa-ko^-da tsi ga-xa thi''-e, 

Wi-e tsi wi" ga-xa thi"-e e, 

Wi-e tsi wi° ga-xa thi°-e. 

SONQ 2. 

(Free translation, p. 219; literal translation, p. 589.) 

1. 

Tsi wi° ga-xa thi°, ga-xa thio-e he the, 
Tsi wi" ga-xa thi°, ga-xa thi°-e he the, 
Ga-xa thi°, ga-xa thi°-e he the, 
Tsi wi-ta no° ga-xa thi°, ga-xa thi^-e 
Tsi wi° ga-xa thi°, ga-xa thi°-e he the. 

2. 

Tsi-wi° ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi"-e he the, 
Tsi wi" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi^-e he the, 
Ga-xa thi°, ga-xa thio-e he the, 
Wa-ko°-da tsi ga-xa thi°, ga-xa thio-e, 
Tsi wi" ga-xa thi°, ga-xa thi°-e he the. 

3. 

Tsi wi" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi^-e he the, 
Tsi wi- ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi-i-e he the, 
Ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi°-e he the, 
Tsi-hiu-gthe wi-ta no" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi°-e. 
Tsi wi" ga-xa thi", ga-xa thi"-e he the. 



462 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 

Zho'' Tin'-xo" Wa-tho" 

SONO 1. 

(Free translation, p. 221; literal translation, p. 589.) 

1. 

Qto the, 5to the, fto the tha ni da, 
Qto the, gto the, ?to the tha ni da, 
Qto the, gto the, gto the tha ni da, 
Cto the, (jto the, gto the tha ni da, 
Qto the, ?to the, gto the tha ni da, 
Qto the, gto the, gto the tha ni da, 
Qto the, gto the, gto the tha ni da. 



[ETH. ANN. 39 



Tsi-zhe, tsi-zhe, tsi-zhe tha ni da, 
■ Tsi-zhe, tsi-zhe, tsi-zhe tha ni da, 
Tsi-zhe, t.si-zhe, tsi-zhe tha ni da, 
Tsi-zhe, tsi-zhe. tsi-zhe tha ni da, 
Tsi-zhe, tsi-zhe, tsi-zhe tha ni da, 
Tsi-zhe, tsi-zhe, tsi-zhe tha nl da. 

SoNO 2. 
(Free translation, p. 222; literal translation, p. 589.) 



To-xe tlie, to-xi ni da, to-xi ni da, 
To-xe the, to-xi ni da, to xi ni da, 
To-xe the, to-xi ni da, to-xi ni da, 
fo-xe the, to-xi ni da, to-xi ni da, 
To-xe the, to-xi ni da, to-xi ni da, 
To-xe the, to-xi ni da, to-xi ni da, 
To-xe the, to-xi ni da, to-xi ni da. 

2. 

Gthi he the, to-xi ni da, to-xi ni da, 
Gthi he the, to-xi ni da, to-xi ni da, 
Gthi he the, to-xi ni da, to-xi ni da, 
Gthi he the, to-xi ni da, to-xi ni da, 
Gthi he the, to-xi ni da, to-xi ni da, 
Gthi lie the, to-xi ni da, to-xi ni da, 
Gthi he the, to-xi ni da, to-xi ni da. 

Zho" Wi'-gi-e. 

(Free translation, p. 223; literal translation, p. 590.) 

1. A, ni-ka wa-^a-e, 

2. A, zho" im-ho"-gthe gthi he tha bi kshe, ni-ka wa-pa-e, 

3. A, wa-thi°-e-Qka gthi he tha ba zhi a, ni-ka wa-pa-e, 

4. A, mi hi-e ta ni-ka-shi-ga bi a, ni-ka wa-pa-e, 

5. A, gthi he tha bi a, ni-ka wa-pa-e, 

6. A, wa-gthi-he-the mo^-thi" bi do" shki, ni-ka wa-pa-e, 



LAFLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 463 

7. A, wa-gtlii-he-the gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi'' ta bi a, ni-ka 

wa-^a-e. 

8. A, zlio" we-tho°-ba gthi he-tha bi kshe, ni-ka wa-pa-e, 

9. A, wa-thi^-e-pka gthi he-tha ba zhi a, ni-ka wa-^a-e, 

10. A, mi hi-e ge ta ni-ka-shi-ga e-ki-tho°-ba xtsi gthi ha-tha bi a, 

ni-ka wa-^a-e, 

11. A, wa-gtlii-he-the mo^-tlii" bi do" shki, ni-ka wa-fa-e, 

12. A, wa-gthi-he-the gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi a, ni-ka 

wa-^a-e. 

13. A, zho" we-tha-bthi" gtlii he tha bi kshe, ni-ka wa-^a-e, 

14. A, wa-thi^-e-fka gtlii he-tha ba zhi a, ni-ka wa-pa-e, 

15. A, mi hi-e ge ta ni-ka-shi-ga bi a, ni-ka wa-(?a-e, 

16. A, e-ki-tha-btlii" xtsi gthi lie tlia bi a, l)i a, ni-ka wa-^a-e, 

17. A, wa-gthi-he-the mC-thi" bi do" shki, ni-iia wa-^.a-e, 

18. A, wa-gthi-he-the gi-wa-ts'e-ga xtsi wi-gi-tha bi a-thi° he ta tse a, 

bi a, ni-ka wa-fa-e. 

19. A, zho° we-do-ba gthi he-tha bi kshe, ni-ka wa-^a-e, 

20. A, wa-thi^-e-fka gthi he-tha ba zhi a, ni-ka wa-pa-e, 

21. A, mi hi-e ge ta ni-ka-shi-ga bi a, ni-ka wa-fa-e, 

22. A, e-ki-do-ba xtsi gtlii he-tha bi a, ])i a, ni-ka wa-pa-e, 

23. A, wa-gthi-he-the mo°-thi° bi tlo" shki, ni-ka wa-f a-e, 

24. A, wa-gthi-he-the gi-wa-ts'e-ga xtsi wi-gi-tha bi a-thi" he ta tse a, 

bi a, ni-ka wa-^a-e. 

Zho" Thi'-mo'' Wa-tho". 

Song 1. 

Free translation, p. 224; literal translation, p. 590.) 

1. 

Tse-the tse the thi-ho" thi-mo" tha, 
Tse-the tse the thi-ho" thi-mo° tha, 
Zho" thi-mo" tha ha thi-ho°-ho° i-no° tha, 
Tse-the tse the thi-ho°-ho'' i-no" tha, 
Tse-the tse the thi-ho''-ho'' i-no°-tha, 

2. 

Tse-the tse the thi-ho° thi-mo ° tha, 
Tse-the tse the thi-ho" thi-mo" tha, 
Zho" thi-mo" tha ha thi-ho" thi-gi-da, 
Tse-the tse the thi-ho" thi-gi-da, 
Tse-the tse the thi-ho" thi-gi-da. 



464 THE OSAGE TEIBE. [bth. ANN. 39 



Tse-the tse the thi-ho° thi-mo° tha, 
Tse-the tse the thi-ho" thi-mo" tha, 
Zho" thi-mo° tha ha thi-ho" xthi°-zhi tha, 
Tse-the tse tlie thi-ho" xthi-zlii" tha, 
Tse-the tse the thi-ho" xthi-zhi" tha. 

4. 

fse-the tse the thi-ho° thi-mo" tha, 
Tse-the tse the thi-ho" thi-mo° tha, 
Zho° thi-mo° tha ha thi-ho" sho-dse tha, 
Tse-the tse the thi-ho" sho-dse tha, 
Tse-the tse the thi-ho" sho-dse tha. 



Tse-the tse the thi-ho° thi-mo" tha, 
Tse-the tse the thi-ho" thi-mo° tha, 
Zho" thi-mo" tha ha thi-ho" po-e tha, 
Tse-the tse the thi-ho" po-e tha, 
Tse-the tse the tlii-ho" po-e tha. 

Tse '-THE Wa-tho''. 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 228; literal translation, p. 59L 

1. 

The he da-we-the, da-we-the tse he, 

The he da-we-the tse he, 

Po-e da-we-the, da-we-the tse he, 

The he da-we-the tse he. 

The he da-we-the, da-we-the tse he. 



The he da-we-the, da-we-the tse he. 

The he da-we-the tse he, 

Mo°-gthe da-we-the, da-we-the tse he, 

The he da-we-the tse he, 

The he da-we-the, da-we-the tse he. 

3. 

The he da-we-the, da-we-the tse he, 

The he da-we-the tse he, 

A-thi-xi-tha da-we-the, da-we-the tse he, 

The he da-we-the tse he, 

The he da-we-tlie, da-we-the tse he. 



i^flesche] kite of vigil osage language. 465 

Wa-po'-ga Wa-tho*'. 

Song I. 

(Free translation, p. 227; literal translation, p. 592.) 

I. 

Ni-ka wi" ho" da dsi i-e hi-the to° e, 

Ni-ka \vi° ho" da dsi i-e hi-the to^-e the he the, 

I-e hi-the to° e, 

Wa-po-ga wi" ho" da dsi i-e hi-the to" e, 

Ni-lja wi" ho° da dsi i-e hi-the to" e. 

2. 

Ni-ka wi" ho" da dsi i-e hi-the to° e, 

Ni-ka wi" ho" da dsi i-e hi-the to''-e the he the, 

I-e hi-the to" e, 

I-to''-gi-o° wi° ho" da dsi i-e hi-the to" e, 

Ni-ka wi° ho° da dsi i-e hi-the to" e. 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 228; literal translation, p. 592.1 

1. 

Pa-ge u-mc-bthi" tha-tsi-e i" do, 
Pa-ge ii-mo°-bthi» tha-tsi-e i° do o ho, 
Wa-po-ga wi" tha-tsi-e tho, 
Pa-ge u-mc-bthi" tha-tsi-e i" do, 
Pa-fe u-mo''-bthi'' tha-tsi-e i" do. 

2. 

Pa-?e u-mo°-bthi'' tha-tsi-e i° do, 
Pa-?e u-mo°-bthi'' tha-tsi-e i° do o ho, 
I-to°-gi-o" wi° tha-tsi-e tho, 
Pa-ge u-mc-bthi" tha-tsi-e i" do, 
Pa-fe u-mo°-bthi'' tha-tsi-e i" do. 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 229; literal translation, p. 592. : 

1. 

Pa-fe the a-to" dse hi" do, 
Pa-ge the a-to° dse hi" do ho, 
Wa-po-ga wi" tha-tsi-e tho, 
Pa-fe the a-to" dse hi° do, 
Pa-5e the a-to° dse hi° do. 

2. 



3594°— 25 1- 



Pa-ge the a-to" dse hi" do, 
Pa-?e the a-to" dse hi° do ho, 
I-to"-gi-o" wi" tha-tsi-e tho, 
Pa-?e the a-to° dse hi" do, 
Pa-ge the a-to" dse hi" do. 



466 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. Ann. 39 



Pa-?e the a-to" dse hi" do, 
Pa-^e the a-to" dse hi° do ho, 
We-ts'a-gi-o" wi" tha-tsi-e tho, 
Pa-fe the a-to" dse hi" do, 
Pa-(;e the a-to" dse hi° do. 

Kl-KA-XE I-KI-TSl" Wa-THO". 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 23 1; literal translation, p. 593.) 

1. 

Xsi-go a-he the tse the, the the, he the, 
Xsi-go a-he the tse the, 

Wa-zhi" Qa-be a-he the tse the, the the, he the, 
Tsi-go a-he the tse the, the the, he. 



fsi-go a-he the tse the, the the, he the, 
Tsi-go a-he the tse the, 

Wa-zhi" Xo-dse a-he the tse the, the the, he the, 
fsi-go a-he the tse the, the the, he. 



Tsi-go a-he the tse the, the the, he the, 

Tsi-go a-he the tse the, 

Gthe-do" Zhi°-ga a-he the tse the, the the, he the, 

Tsi-go a-he the tse the, the the, he. 



Tsi-go a-he the tse the, the the, he the, 
Tsi-go a-he the tse the, 

Wa-k'o" Ho"-ga a-he the tse the, the the, he the, 
Tsi-go a-he the tse the, the the, he. 

Gthi' I-he-the Wa-tho". 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 233; literal translation, p. 593.) 

1. 

Wa-zhi° 5a-be wa-tha-tse no" e the he, 
Wa-tha-tse no", wa-tha-tse no" e the he tho, 
Wa-zhi° 5a-be wa-tha-tse no" e the he, 
Wa-tha-tse no", wa-tha-tse no" e the he tho. 

2. 

Wa-zhi "-xo-dse wa-tha-tse no" e the he, 
Wa-tha-tse no°, wa-tha-tse no" e the he tho, 
Wa-zhi°-xo-dse wa-tha-tse no° e the he, 
Wa-tha-tse no°, wa-tha-tse no" e the he tho. 



L4FLBSCHB] KITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 467 

3. 

Gthe-do°-zhi''-ga wa-tha-tse no° e the he, 
Wa-tha-tse no", wa-tha-tse no° e the he tho, 
Gthe-do'-zhio-ga wa-tha-tse no" e the he, 
Wa-tha-tse no", wa-tha-tse no° e the he tho. 



Wa-k'o"'-ho°-ga wa-tha-tse no° e the he, 
Wa-tha-tse no", wa-tha-tse no" e the he tho, 
Wa-kc-ho^-ga wa-tha-tse no° e the he, 
Wa-tha-tse no°, wa-tha-tse no" e the he tho. 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 235: literal translation, p. 594.) 
1. 

Tsi-go mo°-thi-do'' a-do''-e, 

Tsi-go mo°-thi-do'' a-dc-e, mo'-thi-do" a-do"-e, 

Wa-zhi^-cja-be mo'-thi-do" a-dc-e, 

Tsi-go mc-thi-do" a-do''-e, mo°-thi-do'' a-do^-e. 

2. 

Tsi-go mo°-thi-do° a-do°-e, 

Tsi-go moo-thi-do" a-do°-e, mo°-thi-do° a-do°-e, 

Wa-zhi°-xo-dse wi" mo°-thi-do'' a-doo-e, 

Tsi-go mo°-thi-do'' a-do°-e, mC-thi-do" a-do°-e. 

3. 

Tsi-go mo°-thi-do'' a-doo-e, 

Tsi-go inC-thi-do" a-do^-e, moMhi-do" a-do°-e, 
Gthe-do°-zhi°-ga wi" mo^-thi-do" a-do°-e, 
Tsi-go moo-thi-do" a-doo-e, mo°-thi-do'' a-do'-e, 

4. 

Tsi-go mo^'-thi-do" a-do"-*, 

Tsi-go mo"-thi-do° a-do°-e, ino°-thi-do'' a-do°-e, 

Wa-lf'o°-ho°-ga mc-thi-do" a-doo-e, 

Tsi-go mo''-thi-do° a-dc-e, mo°-thi-do° a, do''-e. 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 236: literal translation, p. 594.) 
1. 

Tsi-go mo''-thi-do"' a-gthi no°-zhi"'-e. 
Tsi-go mo°-thi-do° a-gthi no°-zhi°-e, 
Mo°-thi-do° a-gthi no''-zhi°-e, 
Wa-zhi "-fa-be mo°-thi-do" a-gthi no°-zhi°-e, 
Tsi-go mo"-thi-do'' a-gthi no°-zhi°-e, 
Mo°-thi-do° a-gthi-no'-zhio-e. 



468 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. axn. 39 



Tsi-go mc-thi-do" a-gthi nc-zhi^-e, 
Tsi-go mo°-thi-do" a-gthi no°-zhi°-e, 
Mo''-thi-cio° a-gthi no°-zhi°-e, 
Wa-zhi°-xo-dse mo"-thi-do'' a-gthi no''-zhi°-e, 
Tsi-go mo°-thi-do° a-gthi nc-zhi'-e. 
Mo^-thi-do" a-gthi no°-zhi°-e. 



Xsi-go mo°-thi-do" a-gthi no°-zhi"'-e, 
Tsi-go mo'-thi-dc a-gthi no°-zhi°-e, 
Mo°-thi-do° a-gthi nc-zhi^-e, 
Gthe-do''-zhi°-ga mo°-thi-do'' a-gthi iio°-zlii°-e, 
Tsi-go mC-thi-do" a-gthi no °-zhi "-e, 
Mo°-thi-do° a-gthi no°-zhi°-e. 



Tsi-go mo''-thi-do'' a-gthi no°-zhi°-e, 
Tsi-go mo°-thi-do" a-gthi no''-zhi''-e, 
Mo''-thi-do° a-gthi no°-zhi''-e, 
Wa-k'o''-ho''-ga mo°-thi-do° a-gthi noo-zhi"-©, 
Tsi-go mo"-thi-do'' a-gthi no°-zhi°-e, 
Mo''-thi-do° a-gthi no°-zhi''-e. 

U'-THU-DSE I-NO^-zm" Wa-tho". 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 237; literal translation, p. 595.) 

1. 

A-^-pa wi° da do ho pe-dse to° tha, 
A-ki-pa wi" da do ho pe-dse to" tha, 
A-ki-pa wi° da do ho pe-dse to" tha, 
A-ti-pa wi° da do ho pe-dse to" tha. 



A-ki-pa wi" da do ho i-hi-k'u tha, 
A-ki-pa wi° da do ho i-bi k'u tha, 
A-ki-pa wi" da do ho i-bi-k'u tha, 
A-ki-pa wi" da do ho i-bi-k'u tha. 

Nl'-DSE Wa-^pe Wi'-gi-e. 

(Free translation, p. 23.S: literal translation, p. 595.) 

1. A', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa'-Qa-be u-?a-ka thi^-ge kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga t)"-the ta bi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. ^'i-pa-hi thi-(?tu-the ga tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. U'-no" a-gi-the ini"-kshe i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. Zhi°'-ga no" hi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 469 

7. fi'-pa-hi thi-gtu-the a bi i-the ki-thc mo"-thi° ta i tse a', 

zhi^-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o^-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the nio^-thi" ta i tse a', zhi°-ga', a bi° da, 

tsi ga. 

10. Hi'-ko° ba-^'i^-tha ga ge shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. U'-no" a-gi-the lui^-kshe i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Hi'-ko" ba-p'i"-tha a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. I'-ts'a thi°-ge mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

IG. Tse'-\va-tse u-ga-wa ga thi"-kshc shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. E'-shki u-no° a-gi-the nii°-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. fse'-wa-tse u-ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tse a, zlii"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

22. Tliiu'-we ga-gthe-?e ga ge shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. E' shki u-no" a-gi-the mi"-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Tliiu'-we ga-gthe-^e a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. I'-ts'a tlii"-ge mo"-tlii" ta i tse a, zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the ni<)"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

29. A'-zhu ga-wa ga tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. U'-no" a-gi-the mi"-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. A'-zhu-ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

34. Do'-dse u-ga-wa ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. U'-no" a-gi-the mi"-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Do'-dse u-ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 



470 THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[KTH. ANN. 39 



38. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-tlie mo°-thi" ta i tse a', zhi°-ga', a hi" da, 

tsi ga, 

39. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo''-thi° ta i tse a', zhi^-ga', a hi" da, 

tsi ga. 

40. Hi'-k'e u-ga-wa ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

41. U'-no° a-gi-the mi"-kshe i" da', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. Hi'-k'e u-ga-wa a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi°-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. Ts'e' wa-tse-xi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Zlii°'-ga zhu-i-ga ()"-tha bi do" a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

46. U'-no" a hi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', ziii"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

47. I"'-dse-no"-he a-ga-stse-dse ga tse a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

48. U'-no" a-gi-the mi"-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. I"'-dse-no"-he a-ga-stse-dse a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', 

zhi"'-ga', a hi" da, tsi ga. 

51. I'-the-dse bi-xo° ga tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. U'-no" a-gi-the mi"-kshe i" da', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha hi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. I'-the-dse bi-xo" a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', 

a hi" da, tsi ga. 

55. I"'-shta-the-dse bi-xo" ga tse shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. U'-no" a-gi-the mi"-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. I"'-shta-the-dse bi-xo" a hi i-the ki-the ni()"-thi" ta i tse a', 

zhi"-ga, a hi" da, tsi ga. 

59. Pe' ga-gthe-pe ga ge shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. U'-no" a-gi-the mi"-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. Pe' ga-gthe-fe a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

63. fa'-xpi hi" ga-(?a-dse ga thi°-kshe shki a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

64. U'-no" a-gi-the mi"-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha hi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. Ta'-xpi hi" ga-fa-dse a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', 

zhi"-ga', a hi" da, tsi ga. 



LAFLBSCHB] KITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 471 

67. Pa'-hi 9o°-po° ga ge shki a', a bi" da. tsi ga, 

68. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. Pa'-hi po^-fo" a bi i-the ki-the mo''-thi° ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. U'-no° a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

72. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" xtsi shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. U'-hi ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tse a',-zhi"-ga', bi" da, tsi ga. 

74. Ga no°-zhi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

75. Zhi"'-ga rao"-ko" tha bi thi°-ge a-tha, e'-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

76. A', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

77. Mo"'-tse-dse ko"-ha dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

78. Xo"'-dse to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. Xo'-e to" hi no°-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. Zhi"'-ga mo°-ko" tha ba tho" ta the ga' a-to"-he i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

81. Xo'-e to" hi no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

82. fa'-dse u-the the he-no°-ha te a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

83. E-no" ha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

84. Ga'-btho" the-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

85. A', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

86. Ko"'-gthe hi-da ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

87. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

88. Zhi"-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

89. ^i'-jm-hi u-thi-btha a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

90. Hi'-ko" ba-k'i"-tha ga tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

91. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

92. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

93. Hi'-k'o" ba-k'i"-tha a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi"-ga', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

94. Ga'-xa a-gthe ga ge shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

95. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to"-he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

96. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

97. A'-dsu-ta i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zhi°-ga', a bi" 

da, tsi ga. , 



472 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ANN. 39 

98. I'-ta-xe a-ba-dsu-ge ga ge shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

99. U'-no° a-gi-the a-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

100. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

101. A'-ba-ku thi-xo" e-go° a bi i-the ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tse a', 

zhi°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

102. I'-ta-xe ga-mo" ga ge shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

103. U'-no° a-gi-the a-to° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

104. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

105. Pa'-hi 9o"-fo" u-gtlio" e-go" a bi i-tlie ki-the iuo"-thi" ta i tse a', 

zhi"-ga, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

106. Zhi"'-ga mo"-ko" tha bi ga no"-zlii" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

107. ^'i'-tlm-f-e a-tsia-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

108. Ni'-ko"-ha xtsi hi no"-zhi" a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

109. Thi'-u-ba-he i-sdu-ge ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

110. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

111. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tlia bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

112. Thi'-u-ba-he i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

113. Ni'-u-thu-ga ga kshe a', a bi" da', tsi ga, 

114. Thi'-u-tlii-xthu-k'a a-gi-the a-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

115. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

116. Thi'-u-thi-xthu-k'a a bi i-ts'a tlii"-ge ki-the mo"-tlii" ta i tse a', 

zhi"-ga, a bi" da, tsi ga. 

117. Ni' ba-btha-xe ga ge shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

118. U'-no" a-gi-the a-to" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

119. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

120. U'-no" a bi i-the ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tse a', zlu"-ga', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

121. Ni' u-pa-gi ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

122. Ni'-a-ko° a-gi-the a-to" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

123. Zhi"'-ga zhu-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

124. Ni'-a-ko" i-ts'a tlii"-ge ki-the mo"-tlu" ta i tse a', zlii"-ga, a bi" 

da, tsi ga. 



LAKLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 473 

TSI'-ZHU WA-SHTA'-GE VERSION OF THE NO'"-ZHI'>- 

ZHO'' EITE. 

No^-Nl' A-THA-SHO-DSE Wl'-Gl-E. 

(Free translation, p. 245: literal translation, p. 600.) 

1. Ha' ! da-do" wa-zhi" gi-the mo°-tlii° ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. I°'-gtho''-gthe-zhe zhi''-ga kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Wa'-zhi" to"-ga do" wa-zhi" gi tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Wa'-zhi" gi tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Wa'-zhi" u-ta-thi" bi ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

6. No"'-be-hi wi-ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. No"'-be-hi tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. No"'-be e-dsi wa-thi"-ga zhi ki-the ino"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

9. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Ni' u-ga-xthi wi" e-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Wa'-ko"-tha tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Ta' tse-he-xo-dse kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Bi'-shu-ka xtsi a-thi" hi the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Wa'-tse niu ga-xe to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Wa'-tse niu bi do" ga' xto" mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. O'-ba-xo" do-ba ga-xe no"-zhi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

17. Ha' ! da-do" wa-zhi" gi-the mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Sho"'-ge hi" to to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Wa'-zhi" to"-ga do" wa-zhi" gi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Wa'-zhi" gi-tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Wa'-zhi" u-ta-thi" bi ki-tlie mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

22. No"'-be-hi wi-ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. No"'-be-hi tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. No"'-be e-dsi wa-thi"-ga zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

25. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Ni' u-ga-xthi wi" e-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Wa'-ij;o"-tha tsi-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. fa' he-ba-(?i-ge kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Bi'-shu-ka xtsi a-thi" hi-the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Wa'-tse niu ga-xe to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Wa'-tse niu bi do" ga-xto" mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. O'-ba-xo" do-ba ga-xe no"-zhi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

33. Ha' ! da-do" wa-zhi" gi-the mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. I"'-gtho"-ga do-ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Wa'-zhi" to"-ga do" wa-zhi" gi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

36. Wa'-zhi" gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



474 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. Ann. 39 

37. Wa'-zhi" u-ta-thi° bi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

38. No°'-be-hi Mi-ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

39. No°'-be-lu tha bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

40. No°'-be e-dsi wa-thi^-ga zhi ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi'' da, 

tsi ga. 

41. Ho^'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Wa'-ko°-tha tsi-the to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. Ni' u-ga-xthi wi° e-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. Ta' he sha-be kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Bi'-shu-ka xtsi a-thi° hi-the kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. Wa'-tse niu ga-xe to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. Wa'-tse niu bi do° ga-xto" rao"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. O'-ba-xo" do-ba ga-xe no"-zhi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

49. Da'-do" wa-zhi" gi-the nio"-tlii" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Wa'-fa-be do-ga u-fa-ka tlii"-ge kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Wa'-zhi" to"-ga do" wa-zhi" gi tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. Wa'-zhi" gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Wa'-zhi" u-ta-tlii° bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

54. No"'-be-hi wi-ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. No°'-be-hi tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. No"-be e-dsi wa-thi"-ga zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da, a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

57. 5o"'-dse ko"-ha dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Mo"'-ba-tsi-he ho" fka do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. Thi'-ta-the gthi no"-the to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. Wa'-gthu-shka zhi"-ga sho"-e-go" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. I'-u-wa-tha-btho"-9e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. Wa'-tse niu ga-xe to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. Wa-tse niu bi do" ga-xto" m(^"-thi" ta i tsi" da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. O'-ba-xo" do-ba ga-xe no"-zhi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

Ho''-be'-^u Wi'-gi-e. 

(Free translation, p. 248; literal t,-anslation, p. 6111.) 

1. Da'-do" zhi"-ga fiu-e ki-the mo"-thi° ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Ke' 9i"-dse ga-tse pe-tho"-ba thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Ga' 9iu-e ki-the mo"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. f iu'-e ki-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. g'm'-e ki i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

6. Da'-do" ho"-be-ko" the mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. We'-ts'a ni-dsi-wa kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Ga' ho"-be-ko" the mo"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Ho"'-be-ko° the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Ho"'-be-ko" i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 
tsi ga. 



CAPLESCHE] BITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 475 

11. Da'-do" piu-e ki-the mo°-tlii° ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Ke' fi°-dse ga-tse sha-pe thi^-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Ga' fiu-e ki-the mo"-tlu° bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. ^'iu'-e ki-tlie uio°-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. f iu'-e ki i-ts'a thi^-ge ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

16. Da'-do° ho"-be-ko" the mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. We'-ts"a mo"-ge gi shu-dse e-go" kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Ga' ho"-be-ko" the ino"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Ho"'-be-ko" the mo°-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Ho"'-be-ko" i-ts"a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

21. Da'-do" ^;iu-e ki-the iuo"-tlii° ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Ke' mo"-ge shu-dse thi°-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Ga' fiu-e ki-the mo"-tlii° bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. fiu'-e ki-the mo"-tlu" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. f iu'-e ki i-ts'a thi°-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

26. Da'-do" ho"-be-ivo" the mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. We'-ts'a mo"-ge gthe-zhe thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Ho"'-be-ko" the mo"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Ho°'-be-ko" the mo°-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Ho°'-be-ko" i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

31. Da'-do" fiu-e ki-the mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Ke' mo"-ge fka thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Ga' fiu-e ki-the mo"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. ^'iu'-e ki-the nio"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. ^"iu'-e ki i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-tlie mo°-tlii° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

36. Da'-do" ho"-be-ko" the mo"-thi° ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. We'-ts'a fa-be mo"-ge fka kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Ga' ho"-be-ko° the mo"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Ga' ho"-be-ko" the mo"-tlii" l)i do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Ho"'-be-ko" i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

41. Da'-do" mo°-hi" gi-the mo°-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Wa'-dsu-ta shi°-to-zhi°-ga kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. He' tha-ta tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. Ga' mo"-hi" gi the mo"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Mo"'-hi" gi the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. 1^10°-^"' gi-pa-lii ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

47. Da'-do" wa-ba-to-be mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Mi' hi-e ge ta ni-ka-shi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



476 THE OS-AGE TRIBE. [eth. Ann. 39 

49. Shi^'-to ho btho"-xe kshe no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

50. A'-ba-to-be mo"-thi° bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

51. Wa'-ba-to-be mo^-thi" bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

52. Wa'-ba-to-be gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga. 

53. Da'-do" wa-ba-to-be mo"-thi" ta ba do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. Mi' hi-e ge ta ni-ka-shi-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

55. Shi'-mi ho btho°-xe kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

56. A'-ba-to-be nio"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Wa'-ba-to-be mo^-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Wa'-ba-to-be gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

59. Da'-do" wa-ba-to-be mo"-thi° ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. Mi' hi-e ge ta ni-ka-slii-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Ni'-ka wa-k'o" o-tha'-ha kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, - 

62. A'-ba-to-be mo"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. Wa'-ba-to-be mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. Wa'-ba-to-be gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

65. Da'-do" wa-ba-to-be mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

66. Mi' hi-e ge ta ni-ka-shi-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. Wa'-k'o wo" we-da-the thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. A'-ba-to-be mo°-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. Wa'-be-to-be mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Wa'-ba-to-be gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

Kl'-NO** Wl'-GI-E. 

(Free translation, p. 252; literal translation, p. G03.) 

1. Ha'! da-do° ki-no° gi-the mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa'-ko"-da ho"-ba do" thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Tse'-ga xtsi hi no" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Thi'-u-ba-he tha-ta dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Da'-zhu-dse tlii"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Ga' ki-no" gi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi-ga, 

7. Ga' ki-no" gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. I'-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

9. Da'-do" wa-gthe gi-the mo"-tlii" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Wa'-ko"-da ho"-ba do" thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Tse'-ga xtsi hi no" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Thi'-u-ba-he tha-ta dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Wa'-gthe to" e-go" to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LiFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 477 

14. Ga' wa-gthe gi-the ino"-thi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Ga' wa-gthe gi-the mo°-thi° bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. Wa'-gthe i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi'' ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

17. Tsiu'-ge wa-gtho" thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Wi'-tsi-go-e c-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga the thi°-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go-e', e-gi-e a-ka', a 

bi" da. tsi ga, 

20. Ziii"'-ga zho-i-ga tha ba tho"-ta ni-ka-shi-ga ini°-kshe i" da', a bi" 

<la, tsi ga, 

21. Wa'-ko"-da ts'e wa-tse-xi bthi" i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. Zlii"'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. fs'e' -wa-tse-xi ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. U'-zho"-ge be o°-tho"-kshi-tha mo"-zhi a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

26. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. U'-zho"-ge be i-kshi-tha ba zhi mo°-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

29. Wa'-gthu-shka sho"-e-go° xtsi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Xi°'-ha fa-gi wi-no" bthi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Zlu"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Xi"'-ha ^.a-gi ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. I'-ts'a thi"-ge mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a l)i" da, tsi ga. 

34. Ni' u-ba-sho" wi" the e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. U'-zho"-ge be o"-tho°-kshi-tha mo"-zhi a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

37. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. U'-zho"-ge be i-kshi-tha ba-zhi mo"-thi" ta i tsi" ila', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

40. Wa'-gthu-shka sho"-e-go" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. A'-ki-dsi-fe i-he a-wa-the a-thi" -he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. Wa'-gthu-shka sho"-e-go" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. A'-ki-dsi-fe i-he-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. 0"'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi mi"-kslie i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. A'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi nio"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



478 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. Ann. 39 

50. Ho°'-ba tha-gtlii° shki u-hi a-ki-the a-thi° he i° da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

51. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o^-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

52. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" shki u-hi-ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

53. Ni' u-ba-sho" tho"-ba the e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

55. U'-zho"-ge be o"-tho"-kshi-tha mo"-zhi a-thi" he i" da', a hi" da, 

tsi ga, 

56. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. U'-zho"-ge be i-kshi-tha ba zhi nio"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

59. Wa'-gthu-shka sho"-e-go" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. A'-ki-dsi-fe i-he a-wa-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. Wa'-gthu-shka sho"-e-go" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. A'-ki-dsi-pe i-he- the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. 0"'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi nii"-kshe i" da, a bi" da', tsi ga, 

66. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. A'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" shki u-hi a-ki-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

70. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" shki u-hi-ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

72. Ni' u-ba-sho" tha-bthi" the e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. U'-zho"-ge be o"-tho"-kshi-tha ino"-zhi a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

75. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

77. U'-zho"-ge be i-kshi-tha ba zhi mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

78. Wa'-gthu-shka sho"-e-go" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. A'-ki-dsi-fe wa-bthi" a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

81. Wa'-gthu-shka sho"-e-go" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

82. A'-ki-dsi-?e i-he-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

83. Wa'-ko"-da c-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

84. 0"'-i>i-tha-zha-ta bi ini"-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



LAPLESCHB] EITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 479 

85. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

86. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

87. A'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

88. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" shki u-hi a-ki-the a-thi" he i'' da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

89. Zlii"'-ga zho-i-ga o°-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

90. Ho^'-ba tha-gthi° shki u-hi ki-the mo''-thi'' ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga. 

91. Ni' u-ba-sho° do-ba the e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

92. Wa'-ko°-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

93. U'-zho"-ge be o"-tho"-kshi-tha nio"-zhi a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

94. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tlia bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

95. Wa'-ko"-da e-sliki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

96. U'-zho"-ge be i-kshi-tha ba zhi nio"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

97. Wa'-gthu-shka sho°-e-go" xtsi a', a bi" ila, tsi ga, 

98. A'-ki-dsi-fe i-he a-wa-the a-thi" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

99. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

100. Wa'-gthu-shka sho"-e-go" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

101. A'-ki-dsi-Qe i-he-tlie mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

102. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

103. 0"'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi mi"-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

104. Zlii"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 
lOo. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

106. A'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi ]no"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

107. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" shki u-hi a-ki-the a-tlii" he i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

108. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

109. Ho°'-ba tha-gthi" shki u-hi ki-the ino"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

110. Ni' u-ba-sho" ga-to" the e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

111. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

112. U'-zho"-ge be o"-tho"-kshi-tha mo"-zhi a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

113. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

114. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

115. U'-zho"-ge be i-kshi-tha ba zhi mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

116. Wa'-gthu-shka sho" e-go" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

117. A'-ki-dsi-pe i-he a-wa-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

118. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

119. Wa'-gthu-shka sho" e-go" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



480 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth.ann.39 

120. A'-ki-dsi-fe i-he-the mo"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

121. Wa'-ko°-da e-shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

122. 0°'-ki-tha-zha-ta hi mi"-kshe i" da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

123. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do° a', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

124. Wa'-ko^-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

125. A'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi m()"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

126. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" shki u-hi a-ki-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

127. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha' bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

128. Ho°'-ba tha-gthi" shki u-lii-ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

129. Tsiu'-ge wa-gtho° tlii"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

130. Ni' u-ba-sho" sha-pe the e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

131. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

132. U'-zho"-ge be o"-tho°-kshi-tha mo°-zhi a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

133. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

134. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

135. U'-zho"-ge be i-kshi-tha ba zhi nio"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

136. Wa'-gthu-shka sho" e-go" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

137. A'-ki-dsi-fe i-he a-wa-tlie a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

138. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

139. Wa'-gthu-slika sho" e-go" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

140. A'-ki-dsi-9e i-he-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

141. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

142. 0"'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi nii"-kshe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

143. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

144. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

145. A'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

146. Ho°'-ba tha-gthi" shki u-hi a-ki-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

147. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha i)i do" a', a bi" da. tsi ga, 

148. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" shki u-hi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

149. 'Tsiu'-ge wa-gtho" thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

150. Ni' u-ba-sho° pe-tho"-ba the e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

151. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

152. U'-zho"-ge be o"-tho"-kshi-tha mo°-zhi a-tlii" he i" da', a bi" da, 

■^si ga, 

153. Zhi"'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

154. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

155. U'-zlio"-ge be i-kshi-tha ba zhi mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 



LAFLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 481 

156. Wa'-gthu-shka sho" e-go° xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

157. A'-ki-dsi-^e i-he a-wa-the a-thi° he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

158. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tlia bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

159. Wa'-gthu-shka sho° e-go° xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

160. A'-ki-dsi-fc i-he-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

161. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

162. 0"'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi mi"-kshe i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

163. Zhi°'-ga zho-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

164. Wa'-ko°-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

165. A'-ki-tha-zlia-ta bi iuo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, t.si ga, 

166. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" shki u-hi a-ki-the a-thi" lie i" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

167. Zlii"'-ga zlio-i-ga o"-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

168. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" shki u-hi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

fsi Ta'-pe Wa-tho^'. 

■WA-tHO^'- 

(Free translation, p. 258; literal translation, p. 605.) 

Ga-go" ha mo''-bthi°-c, 
Ga-go"-ha mo"-bthi°-e, the he the 
Ga-go° ha mo°-bthi"-e the he the, 
Ga-go" ha mo°-bthi"-e, 
Ga-go'-ha mo"-bthi"-e the he the, 
Ga-go° ha mo''-bthi°-e the he. 

Wl'-GI-E. 

(Free translation, p. 258; literal translation, p. 605.) 

1. Ha' ! da-do" wa-^i-thu-fe mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. O'-k'o-be zhi"-ga wi" a-^i-thu-(;'a l)i a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. O'-k'o-be zhi"-ga wi" e-^ka e-wa-ka ba-zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Ni' u-ga-xthi wi" a-fi-thu-?a bi a-tlia', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Ni' u-ga-xthi wi" e-^ka e-wa-ka ba zlii a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. 'rsi'-zhi"-ga wi" a-^i-thu-ea bi a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. Wa'-xo-be zhi°-ga ha-gtha-thi" ino"-thi" e-dsi' ba she tse. 

(Wa-thon.) 

8. Ha' ! da-do" wa-fi-thu-fe mo"-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. O'-k'o-be tho"-ba a-(?i-thu-(;a bi a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. O'-k'o-be tlio"-ba e-fka e-wa-ka ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. Ni' u-ga-xthi tho"-ba a-fi-thu-fa bi a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Ni' u-ga-xthi tho"-ba e-fka e-wa-ka ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. 'rsi'-zlii"-ga wi" a-?i-thu-fa bi a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. Wa'-xo-be zlii"-ga ha-gtha-tlii" mo"-tlii" e-dsi' ba she tse. 

3594°— 25t 31 



482 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [eth. ann.39 

(Wa-tho-.) 

15. Da'-do° wa-fi-thu-fe mo"-thi" ta ba do° a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

16. O'-k'o-be tha-btlii" a-fi-thu-pa bi a-tha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. O'-k'o-be tha-bthi" c-^-ka o-wa-ka ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Ni' u-ga-xthi tha-bthi° a-ci-thu-(?a bi a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Ni' u-ga-xthi tha-bthi" e-^ka e-wa-ka ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Xsi'-zhi^-ga wi" a-fi-thu-cja bi a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Wa'-xo-be zhi"-ga ha-gtlaa-thi" e-dsi' ba she tse. 

(Wa-tho".) 

22. Ha' ! da-do" wa-(?i-thu-Qe rao°-thi° ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. O'-k'o-be do-ba a-fi-thu-^a bi a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. O'-k'o-be do-ba e-fka e-wa-ka ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Ni' u-ga-xthi ilo-ba a-pi-thu-pa bi a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Ni' u-ga-xthi do-ba e-(^ka e-wa-ka ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Tsi' zhi"-ga wi" a-fi-thu-fa bi a-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Wa'-xo-be zhi"-ga ha-gtha-thi" mo"-thi" e-dsi' ba she tse. 

Wa-xo'-be Thu-shke Wa-tho". 

Song 1. 
(Frpe translation, p. 261; literal translation, p. 606.) 

Kia ha no° ni wa-ta ha, 
Kia ha ha no° ni wa ha, 
Kia ha no" ni wa ta ha, 
Kia ha no" ni wa ha, 
Kia lia no" ni wa ta. 

Song 2. 
(Free translation, p. 261; literal translation, p. 606.) 

Kia ha tha wi tha tse, 

Kia ha tlia wi tha ha, 

Kia lia tha wi-tha ha shke he, the, 

Kia ha tha wi tha tse. 

Song 3. 
(Free translation, p. 262; literal translation, p. 607.) 

Sho°-ni-pa wi" tha wi tlia tse, 
Shc-ni-pa wi° tha wi tha ha, 
Sho°-ni pa wi" tha wi tha ha shke he the, 
Sho''-ni-pa wi" tha wi tha tse. 

Song 4. 

(Free translation, p. 263' literal translation, p. 607.) 

1. 

I°-da-ko a-ha shka ho° dse, 
I"-da-ko a-ha shka ho° dse, 
Sho-the he shka ho" dse, ■ 
Sho-the the e-he shka ho" dse, 
I°-da-ko a-ha shka ho" dse. 



LAFLESCHE] EITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 483 



I°-da-ko a-ha gtha ho° dse, 
I°-da-ko a-ha gtha ho° dse, 
Sho-the he gtha ho" dse, 
Sho-the the e-he gtha ho" dse, 
I°-da-ko a-ha gtha ho" dse. 

3. 

I°-da-ko a-ha ga-wa ho" dse, 
I''-da-ko a-ha ga-wa ho" dse, 
Sho-the he ga-wa ho° dse, 
Sho-the the e-he ga-wa he dse, 
I''-da-ko a-ha ga-wa ho" dse. 



I"-da-ko a-ha ga i-hi tha, 
I^-da-ko a-ha ga i-hi tha, 
Sho-the he ga i-hi tha. 
Sho-the the e-he ga i-hi tha, 
I''-da-ko a-ha ga i-hi-tha. 

Pe'-xe Thu-^e Wi'-gi-e. 

(Free translation, p. 265; literal translation, p. 6OT.) 

1. Da'-do° pe-xe gi-the mo^-thi" ta ba do", a' bia, 

2. Mi' hi-e ge ta to°-wo''-gtho" pe-th()"-ba ha bi, a' bi a, 

3. I'-thi-shno" thi°-kshe wa-pa i-ta thi"-kshe, 

4. Ga' pe-xe gi-the mo"-thi" bi, a' bi a, 

5. Pe'-xe gi-the mo"-thi'> bi do", 

6. Pe'-xe i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tse, a' bi a, 

7. I'-thi-hi-dse mo"-thi° bi do" shki, 

.8. I'-thi-hi-dse gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tse, a' bi a. 

9. Da'-do" pe-.xe i-ba the mo"-thi" ta ba do", a' bi a, 

10. Mi' hi-e ge ta to"-wo"-gtho" pe-tho"-ba ha, bi, a' bi a, 

11. I-thi-shno" thi°-kshe a-xi-be tha-ta kshe, 

12. Pe'-xe i-ba the mo"-thi" bi, a' bi a, 

13. Pe'-xe i-ba the mo°-thi" bi do", 

14. Pe'-xe i-ba i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the ino"-thi" ta i tse, a' bi a, 

15. I'-tlii-hi-dse mo"-thi" bi do" shki, 

16. I'-thi-hi-dse gi-o-ts'e-ga mo"-thi° ta ba she" a-ka, a' bi a. 

17. Da'-do" pe-.xe <;u tlie mo"-tlii" ta ba do", a' bi a, 

18. Mi' hi-e ge ta to°-wo"-gtho" pe-th()"-ha ha ba do", 

19. I'-thi-shno" thi"-kshe hi-k'e tha-ta kshe, 

20. Pe'-xe-9U the mo"-thi" bi, a' bi a, 

21. Pe-xe-9u the mo"-thi" bi do", 

22. Pe'-xe-Qu i-ts'a thi"-ge mo°-thi" ta i tse, a' bi a, 

23. I-thi-hi-dse mo"-thi" bi do", 

24. I-thi-hi-dse gi-o-ts'e-ga rao"-thi" ta i tse, a bi a. 



484 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. Axx. 39 

25. Pa'-ho°-gthe ga-pa-thu ga tse, 

26. Mi' hi-e ge ta ni-ka-shi-ga bi, a' bi a, 

27. I'-to°-wo°-gtho" bi tlu°-kshe a-ga-pa-thu the-the a-ka', bi a, 

28. A'-ga-fa-thu mo°-thi° bi do°, 

29. A'-ga-fa-thu gi-o-ts'e-ga mo"-thi° ta i tse, a' bi a, 

30. I'-gthi-hi-dse mo-'-thi" bi do° shki, 

31. I-gthi-hi-dse gi-o-ts'e-ga mn"-thi'' ta i tse, a bi a. 

32. I'-tho^-bi-o" ga-fa-thu ga tse, 

33. Wa-thi°'-e-?ka sho" ba zhi, a' bi a, 

34. Mi' hi-e ge ta, 

35. Shi'-mi ho btho"-xe, a bi a, 

36. A'-ga-fa-thu the-tha bi, a' bi a, 

37. A'-ga-fa-thu mi)"-thi" bi do°, 

38. Wa'-ga-^a-thu gi-o-ts'e-ga mo°-thi°.ta i tse, a' bi a, 

39. I'-gthi-lii-dse nW-thi" bi do° shki, 

40. I'-gtlii-hi-dse gi-o-ts'e-ga mo"-thi'' ta i tse, a' bi a. 

41. We'-tha-btlii°-o" ga-(;'a-thu ga tse shki, 

42. Wa-tl-ii°'-e-9ka sho" ba zhi, a'-bi a, 

43. Mi' lii-e ge ta ni-ka-shi-ga, 

44. Ni'-ka \va-k'o° u-tha-ha kshe, 

45. A'-ga-(?a-thu the-the a-ka', bi a, 

46. A'-ga-fa-thu mo°-thi"' bi do°, 

47. Wa'-ga-fa-thu gi-o-ts'e-ga ino"-tlii° ta i tse, a' bi a, 

48. I'-gthi-lii-dse mo°-thi° bi do" shki, 

49. I-gtlh-hi-dse gi-o-ts'e-ga mo"-thi° ta i tse, a bi a. 

50. We-do-bi o° ga-f.a-thu ga tse, 

51. Wa-tlu"'-e-9ka sho" ba zlii a-ka', bi a, 

52. Mi' hi-e ge ta ni-ka-shi-ga, 

53. Wa-k'o' wo" we-da-the kshe, 

54. A'-ga-fa-thu the-the a-ka', bi a, 

55. A'-ga-9a-thu mo°-thi" bi do", 

56. Wa'-ga-fa-thu gi-o-ts'e-ga mo"-thi'' ta i tse, a' bi a, 

57. I'-gthi-lii-dse mo"-thi" bi do" shki, 

58. I'-gthi-hi-dse gi-o-ts'e-ga mo"-thi° ta i tse, a' bi a. 

Song 1. 
(Free translation, p. 268; literal translation, p. 609) 

1. 

Qi no° do° wa-k'o" ha, 
Ci no° do" wa ha If'o" ha, 
Qi no" do" wa-k'o" ha, 
Ci no" do" wa ha k'o" ha, 
Qi no" do" wa-k'o" ha, 
Qi no" do" wa ha If'o" ha, 



LAFLESCHE] BITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE, 485 

^i no° do° wa-k'o" ha, 
Qi no° do" wa-ha k'o" ha, 
Qi no" do°. 

2. 

Hi no" do° wa-l^'o" ha, 

Hi no° do" wa ha k'o" ha, etc. 



Zhu no° do" wa-k'o" ha, 

Zhu no" do" wa ha \'o° ha, etc. 



A no" do° wa-k'o" ha, 

A no i" do" wa ha k'o° ha, etc. 



Pa no" do" wa-k'o° ha, 

Pa no" do" wa ha k'o° ha, etc. 



I no" do" wa-k'o° ha, 

I no° do" wa-ha k'o" ha, etc. 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 269; literal translation, p. 009-) 

Wa-lc'o° wi-tse sho° ni-pa-dse no" do°, 

Wa ha It'o" ha ^i no" do", Wa-k'o" ha 51 no" do", 

Wa-ha k'o" ha gi no" do", Wa-k'o" ha fi no" do", 

Wa ha k'o" ha 91 nO" do", 

Wa-k'o" ha 51 no" do", Wa-ha k'o" ha, 

Wa-k'o" wi-tse she" ni-pa dse. 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 270; literaltranslation, p. 609 ) 

The-a qi the k'o" no" no" hi wa ta, 
The-a ?i the k'o" no" no" hi wa ta, 
E the k'o" no" no" hi wa ta, 
The-a 51 the k'o" no" no" hi wa ta, 
The-a gi the k'o" no" no" hi wa ta. 

Song 4. 

(Free translation, p. 270; literaltranslation, p. 610.) 

1. 

5i-a wa thi-ko ta we, 
Qi-a thi-ko ta wi the, 
Qi-a, wa thi-ko ta we, 
Ci-a thi-ko ta wi the, 
Qi-a. wa thi-ko ta we, 
Ci-a thi-ko ta wi-the. 



486 THE OSAGE TRIBE. tsTH. AXN. 39 

2. 
Hi-a wa thi-ko ta we, etc. 

3. 
Zhu wa-thi-lfo ta we, etc, 

4. 
A wa-thi-ko ta we, etc. 

5. 
Pa wa-thi-ko ta we, etc. 

6. 
I-a wa-thi-ko ta we, etc. 

Mi'^'-DSE Ga-xe Wa-tho'"'. 

SONO 1. 

(Free translation, p. 272: literal translation, p. 610.) 

1. 

Tsi-go wa-5i°-da ko"-to° ga-xa, 

Tsi-go wa-9i''-da IcC-to" ga-xa, 

Mi wa-<;i°-da ko°-to'' the the he the the, 

Tsi-go wa-9i''-da ko'-to" ga xa, 

Xsi-go wa-^iii-da Ifo°-to° the the he the the. 

2. 

Gthe-do" wa-gi'i-da ko^'-to" the the he the the. 

3. 

J^-xe wa-ri°-da ko"-to" the the he the the. 

SoNO 2. 

(Free translation, p. 272; literal translation, p. 610-) 

1. 

Hi-a wi tha tha ka-wa ha no° no" thi ki-ko'-^a, 
E the ko°-ga ha da ha, 

Hi-a wi-tha tha ka-wa ha no" no° tse he the, 
Hi-a wi tha tha ka-wa ha no" no" thi ki-ko°-5a. 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 273; literal translation, p. 610.) 

1. 

Hi-a wi-tha dse wa-do ha tha, 

E tha he he ha-tho ha mi wa-da hi" da, 

E the tha wi tha dse wa-do ha tha, 

E tha he he ha-tho ha mi wa-da hi" da, 

E tha he hi-a wi tha dse. 



LAFLBSCHE] KITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 487 

Song 4. 

(Free translation, p. 273; literal translation, p. 610.) 

1. 

E the ki''-da hi tha, . 
E the lei "-da hi° da ha, 
E the he the Ifi'-da hi° da, 
E the lfi°-da hi" da. 

Song 5. 

(Free transLition, p. 274: literal translation, p. 610.) 

1. 

]p''-da hi"" da, lji°-da hi" da ha, 

Hi-a ko-tha wa-tse the the ki°-da hi" da, 

Ki-i-da hi" da ha, 

Hi-a Ifo-tha wa-tse the the lfi°-da hi" da. 

No^'-ZHi^-ZHo" Wa-tho". 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 275: literal translation, p. 610.) 

1. 

E tha ha ha lie he tha, 
E tha ha ha he he tha ha, 
E tha ha, 
E tha ha ha he he tha. 

SoNO 2. 

(Free translation, p. 277: literal translation, p. 610.) 

1. 

Tsi-go-e ho-thi-k'u mo" a, 
Tsi-go-e hu-thi-k'ii nio" a, 
Tsi-go-e hu-thi-k'u mo°-ge he the, 
Tsi-go-e hu-thi k'u nio" a. 

2. 

fsi-go-e hii-bi-ka mo" a, etc. 

3. 
Tsi-go-e hu-thi-xthi mo" a, etc. 

4. 
Tsi-go-e i°-dse to tha, etc. 

5. 
Tsi-go-e i-bi-k'u tha, etc. 



488 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ann. 39 

SoxG 3. 

(Free translation, p. 278; literal translation, p. 611) 
1. 

Wa-^'o° ta bi Ha-wi tha ha, 
Wa-k'o° ta bi Ha-wi tha ha, 
Ha-ni da ha, Ha-wi tha ha, 
Ha-ni da ha, Ha-wi tha ha, 
Ha-ni da ha, Ha-wi-tha ha, 
Wa-lf'o" ta bi Ha-wi tha ha. 

2. 
Ni-ka so-be Ha-wi tha ha, etc. 

3. 

Jsi-ka xo-be ga-wi°-€ tha ha, etc. 

Song 4. 

(Free translation, p. 280; literal translation, p. 611.) 

1. 

She wi-ta ha, she wi-ta, 
Go-da ha ha wi ni-tse tha thi°, 
E he she wi-ta ha, she wi-ta 
Go-da ha ha wi ni-tse tha thi", 
E he she wi-ta ha, she wi-ta. 

2. 

She wi-ta ha, she wi-ta 

No" ha da-do" ho-tha-ne tse tha thi", etc. 

3. 

She wi-ta ha, she wi-ta 

No" ha ha wa tha-no°-zhi° tse tha thi", etc. 

4. 

She wi-ta ha, she wi-ta 

Ga ha ha wa tha ni tse tha thi°, etc. 

5. 

She wi-ta ha, she wi-ta 

Nc-ha hc-ba tha ni tse tha thi°, etc. 

Ml Wa'-o^-zhi^-ga. 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 281: literal translation, p. 611.) 

1. 

Tsi-go he tho°-be sho° ni-wa-ta wa-k'o" he tse he, 
Xsi-go he she sho° ni wa-ta wa-k'o° he tse he, 
Ba-bthi he-tho°-be sho° ni wa-ta wa-k'o" he tse he, 
Tsi-go he-tho°-be she ni wa-ta wa-k'o" he tse he. 



LAFLBSCHE] BITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 489 

2. 

Mo°-gthe he-tho''-be sho° ni wa-ta wa-k'o° he tse he. 

3. 
Wa-gthe he-tho°-be sho" ni wa-ta wa-k'o» he tse he. 

4. 
Da-do° he-tho°-be sho° ni wa-ta wa-k;'o° he tse he. 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 282; literal translation, p. 612.) 

1. 

Wa-k'o" wi-tse sho°, wa-k'o° wi-tse sho", 

E-no° he-no" wa-l!:o°-da-gi-e tho, wa-k;'o° wi-tse sho", 

Wa-k'o° wi-tse sho°, wa-k'o" wi-tse she. 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 283; literal translation, p. 612.) 
1. 

E-nc he tha ha wa-k'o" wi-tse, 
E-no" he tha ha wa-k'o° wi-tse sho", 
E-no" he tha ha wa-k'o" wi-tse, 
E-no" he tha ha wa-k'c wi-tse she, 
E-no° he tha ha wa-k'o° wi-tse. 



E-no" wa-k'o°-e tha ha wa-k'o° wi-tse, 

E-no° wa-t'on-e tha ha wa-k'o° wi-tse sho°, etc. 

3. 

E-no" ho°-ga-e tha ha wa-k'o° wi-tse, 

E-no° ho°-ga-e tha ha wa-k'o° wi-tse sho" etc. 



E-no° wi-ta-e tlia ha wa-k'o° wi-tse, 

E-no° wi-ta-e tha ha wa-k'o" wi-tse she, etc. 

Tse Wa-tho''. 

(Free translation, p. 286; literal translation, p. 612.) 

Song 1. 
1. 

Mi-ga do° ho" mo°-ho°-bthi'' da he, 
E he mo°-ho° bthi" da he the he-tho''-be the, 
Mo°-ho"-bthi° da he he-the-be the, 
Mo''-ho''-bthi'' da a he the he. 

2. 
Do-ga do- ho° me-ho'-bthi- da he, etc. 



490 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ann. 39 

3. 

Zhi°-ga do" ho° moMio^-hthi" da he, etc. 

4. 
Ts'a-ge do" ho" rao"-ho°-l)tln° da he, etc. 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 287; literal translation, p. 613.) 

1. 

Mi-ga tha ha mo°-ho"-thi" be, 

E he the he mi-ga tha ha mo°-ho"-thi'' be, 

Mi-ga a ha mo"-ho"-thi" be, 

E-he the he nii-ga tha ha mo°-ho°-thi° be, 

A lie the the the he. 

2. 
Do-ga tha ha mo°-ho"-thi° be, etc. 

3. 
Zhi'-ga tha ha mo''-ho"-thi" be, etc. 

4. 
Ts'a-ge tha ha mo°-ho°-thi° be, etc. 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 289; literal translation, p. 613-) 

1. 

A-gi-gtlie no" do°-ho° no", 
A-fi-gthe no" do°-ho° no", 
A-^i-gthe no" do°-ho", 
.\-?i-gthe no" do°-ho" no", 
.\-?i-gthe no" do°-ho" no", 
A-cl-gthe no" do°-ho" no", 
A he the the the he. 

2. 

A-gi-gthe no" gi-xa no", etc. 

3. 
A-gi-gthe no" gthe-oa no", etc. 

4. 
A-yi-gthe no" Ho"-ga no", etc. 

5. 
A-gi-gthe no" tja-bthi no", etc. 

6. 
A-gi-gthe no" ga-mi no", etc. 

7. 
A-gi-gthe no" mo°-gthe no", etc. 



LAPLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 491 

8. 
A-gi-gthe no" wa-^'o° no", etc. 

9. 
A-5i-gthe no" Xa-pe no», etc. 

10. 
A-fi-gthe no" xtha zho° no", etc. 

11. 
A-gi-gthe no" ga-dsi" no", etc. 

12. 

.4-5i-gthe no° bi-xtho" no", etc. 

13. 
A-fi-gthe no" ztia-wa no", etc. 

Sho^-ge Wa-tho". 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 291; literal translation, p. 614-) 

1. 

Qi-a, wa-thi-ljo-ge he, ^i-a wa-thi-ljo-ge he, 

Qi-a wa-thi-ko-ge he, ?i-a wa-thi-ljo-ge, he 

Ni wa-ta ha, thi-ko-ge he, 

Ci-a wa-thi-ko-ge he, ?i-a wa-thi-ljo-ge he, 

Qi-n wa-thi-ko-ge, ni-wa-ta ha, gi-a wa-thi-ko-ge he. 

2. 
Hi-a wa-thi-ko-ge he, hi-a wa-thi-ko-ge he. 

.3. 
Zho wa-thi-ko-ge he, zho wa-thi-ko-ge he. 

4. 
A wa-thi-ko-ge he, a wa-thi-ko-ge he. 

5. 
Pa wa-thi-ko-ge, pa wa-thi-ko-ge he. 

6. 
I-a wa-thi-lfo-ge he, i-a wa-tlii-ko-ge he. 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 292; literal translation, p. 614.) 

1. 

Qi-a wa-tlii-ljo-ge lie, Ija-wa lio"-da ha we, 
Qi-a, wa-thi-ko-ge, ho°-wo"-da ha we, 
Ci-a wa-thi-lfo-ge, ho°-wo°-da lia we, 
Qi-a wa-thi-ko-ge, ho''-wo''-tla ha we, 
Qi-a wa-thi-ko-ge he, ka-wa ho°-da ha we. 



492 THE OSAGE TRIBE. . [eth. a.n.n. 39 

2. 
Hi-a wa-thi-lfo-ge he, ka-\va ho "-da ha we. 

3. 
Zho wa-thi-Ijo-ge he, ka-wa ho^-da ha we. 

4. 
A wa-thi-feo-ge he, Ija-wa ho "-da ha we. 

5. 
Pa wa-thi-ko-ge he, ka-wa hoo-da ha we. 

6. 
I-a wa-thi-lfo-ge he, Ija-wa ho "-da ha we. 

Song 3. 
(Free translation, p. 293; 'iteral transl'\tion, p. 615.) 
1. 
'■ Ho°-wo°-da ha we, ho°-wo°-da ha we, 

Ho°-wo°-da ha we, ho''-wo°-da ha thi" he no°, 
Ho°-wo°-da ha we, ho°-wo''-da ha we. 

2. 

To°-wo° da ha we, to°-wo° da da ha we. 
Xo°-wo'' da ha we, to°-wo'' da ha thi" he no°, 
'ro°-wo° da ha we, to°-wo'' da ha we. 

Song 4. 

<Free translation, p. 294; literal translation, p. 615.) 
1. 
Tsi-go gthi no" he no° no" no°, 
fsi-go gthi no" he no° no° no", 
Tsi-go gthi no" he no" no° no". 
He the the the. 

Ho" do" gthi 110° he no° no° no", 
Ho" do° gthi no" he no" 110° no°. 
He the the the, 
Tsi go gthi no° he no° no" no°. 

2. 

Ho°-ba gthi no" he no" no" no", 
Ho°-ba gthi no" he no" no" no", etc. 

Wa-no^'-^e A-ba-^u Wa-tho". 

Song 1. 

<Free translation, p. 297; literal translation, p. 615.) 
1. 
Tsi-go wa-?i"-da ha ni wa-ta, 
fsi-go wa-5i"-da ha ni wa-ta, 
Ka-xe mo" the tha ha ni wa-ta, 
• . Ka-xe mo" the tha ha ni wa-ta, 

Tsi-go wa-gi°-da ha ni wa-ta. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 493 

2. 

Tsi-go wa-gi°-da ha ni wa-ta, 
Tsi-go \va-9i''-da ha ni wa-ta, 
Gthe-do" 1)10° the tha ha ni wa-ta, 
Gthe-do° nio° the tha ha ni wa-ta, 
Tsi-go wa-fi" da ha ni wa-ta. 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 298; literal translation, p. 615.) 

1. 

Ho ni wa-ta, ho ni wa-ta-e, 

Ka-se mo° the tha ha ni wa-ta, ha ni wa-ta, 

Ka-xe mo" the tha ha ni wa-ta, ha ni wa-ta. 

2. 
Gthe-do° mo" the tha ha ni wa-ta, ha ni wa-ta. 

3. 
Mo° the tha ha ni wa-ta, ha ni wa-ta. 

4. 
Mo" the a-the tha ha ni wa-ta, ha ni wa-ta. 

5. 
Tsi-go the tha ha ni wa-ta, ha ni wa-ta. 
Song 3. 
(Free translation, p. 299; literal translation, p. 616.) 

1. 

Kia ha ni da lia, kia ha ni da ha, 

Kia ha ni da ha, kia ha ni da ha, 

Kia ha ni da ha, kia ha ni da we tha kia he 

I<ia ha ni da ha. 

Song 4. 

(Free translation, p. 299; literal translation, p. 616.) 

1. 

Kia ha-we tha ho sho" ni da, 
Kia ha-we tha ho she ni da, 
Kia ha-we tha sho° ni da, 
Kia ha-we tha sho° ni da, 
, Kia ha-we tha sho" ni da. 

Song 5. 
(Free translation, p. 300; literal translation, p. 616.) 
1. 
Kia ha-we tha ho sho", 
Qisi thi-ko-ge no° ha-we tha ho, 
C'a- thi-ko-ge tha, 
Kia we tha ho sho°, 
^ia thi-ko-ge no° ha-we tha ho, 
Qia thi-ko-ge kia ha-we tha ho. 



494 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [eth. ann. 

2. 
Hi-a thi-ko-ge no° ha-wc tha ho. 

3. 
Zhu thi-ko-ge no" ha--.ve tha ho. 

4. 
A thi-ko-ge no" ha-we tlia ho. 

5. 
Pa thi-ljo-ge no" ha-vve tha ho. 

6. 
I-a thi-ko-ge no" ha-we tha-ho. 

Song 6. 

(Free translation, p. 300; literal translation, p. 616-) 

(Music same as that of Song 5.) 

1. 

Kia ha-we tha ho sho", 

Qi the tse gi tha ha-we tha ho, 

Qi the tse gi tha, 

Kia we tha ho sho", 

Qi the tse gi no" ha-we tha ho, 

Qi the tse fi kia ha-we tha ho. 

2. 
Hi the tse hi tha ha-we tha ho. 

.3. 
Zhu the tse zhu tha ha-we tlia ho. 

4. 
A the tse a tlia ha-we tha ho. 

5. 
Pa the tse pa tha ha-we tlia ho. 

6. 

I the tse i tha ha-we tha ho. 

Song 7. 
(Free translation, p. 301; literal translation, p. 616-) 

1. 
fsi-go ha-we tha to ki iii da, to ki ni da, 
Tsi-go ha-we tha to ki ni da, to ki ni da, 
Tsi-go ha-we tha to ki ni da, to ki ni da, 
fsi-go ha-we tha to ki ni da, to ki ni da, 
Tsi-go ha-we tha to ki ni da. 



laflbschb] kite of vigil osage language. 495 

Wa-tsi'-a-dsi Wa-tho'*. 

Song 1. 
(Free translation, p. 302; literal translation, p. 6tl6.) 
1. 
He-wa-to, he-wa-to he tha, 
He-wa-to, he-wa-to he tha, 
He-wa-to, he-wa-to he tha, 
He-wa-to, he-wa-to a, 
He-wa-to, he-wa-to he tha. 

Song 2. 

(Free tran-slation, p. 303; literal translation, p. 616.) 

1. 

He-wa-to, he-wa-to a ha, Sho-ka he-wa he the, 

He-wa-to, he-wa-to a ha, Sho-ka he-wa he the, 

He-wa-to, he-wa-to a ha, Sho-ka he-wa he the. 

2. 
He-wa-to, he-wa-to a ha, Xo-ka he-wa he the. 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 305; literal translation, p. 616.) 

1. 

A ha wa-?i"-da ha wa-k'o" e-tha, e the ?i° da ha we, 
A ha wa-<^i°-da ha wa-k'o° e-tha, e the fi° da ha we, 
A ha wa-gi° da ha wa-k'o" e tha, e the gi" da ha we, 
A ha wa-?i° da ha wa-k'o" e tha, e the ji" da ha we, 
A ha wa-gi" da ha wa-k'o" e tha. 

2. 
A ha wa-fi'-da ha wa-k'o" e tha, e the hi" da ha we. 

3. 
A ha wa-5i"-da ha wa-k'o" e tha, e the zhu i° da ha we. 

4. 
A ha wa-fi"-da ha wa-k'o" e tha, e the a i" da ha we. 

5. 
A ha wa-gi°-da ha wa-k'o" e tha, e the pa i" da ha we. 

6. 
A ha wa-gi°-da ha wa-k'o" e tha, e the i" da ha we. 

Song 4. 
(Free translation, p. 306; literal translation, p. 617. ) 
1. 
Tsi-go wa-ko"-da ta ha we ha thi-o-ka-we tse i" da. 
Ha thi-o-ka-we tse i" do, tha-ho-ka-we tse i° do 
Tha-ho-ka-we tse i" do ha, thi-o-ka-we tse i" da, 
Tsi-go wa-ko°-da ta ha we. 



496 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. anx. i 

Song 5. 

(Free translation, p. 307: literal translation, p. 617.) 
1. 

E no" wa-no°-xe he wa-ko°-da wa-ha ?u wi-shi, 
E no° wa-no''-xe he wa-ljc-da wa-ha ?u wi-shi, 
Qi bthe do° he wa-ko''-da wa-ha 511 wi-shi, 
Sho-bthe do" he \va-ko°-da wa-ha 511 wi-shi. 

2. 
Hi bthe do° he wa-lco''-da wa-ha ?u wi-shi. 

3. 
Zhu bthe do° he wa-lfo"-da wa-ha 911 wi shi. 

4. 
A bthe do° he wa-lfo°-da wa-ha 511 wi-shi. 

5. 
Pa bthe do" he wa-ko''-da wa-ha fu wi-shi. 

6. 
I bthe do" he wa-ko°-da wa-ha gu wi-shi. 
Song 6. 
(Free translation, p. 308; literal translation, p. 617.) 

1. 

Tsi-go ino'-ge ?ii ta ha we ha thi-o-ka-we tse j° da, 
Ha thi-o-lja-we tse i" da, tha-ho-lja-we tse i" do, 
Tha-ho-ka-we tse i" do ha thi-o-lca-we tse i° do, 
Tsi-go mo''-ge fii ta ha we. 

2. 
Tsi-go hi gi-qu ta ha we ha thi-o-lja-we tse i° do. 

3. 
Tsi-go a-gi-fvi ta ha we ha thi-o-ka-we tse i° do. 

4. 
Tsi-go pa gi-5u ta ha we ha thi-o-lja-we tse i" do. 

5. 
Tsi-go i gi-?u ta ha we ha thi-o-lja-we tse i" do. 

Song 7. 

(Free translation, p. 309; literal translation, p. 617.) 

1. 

Hi tho-to° no° no°, hi tho-to" no" no". 
Hi tho-to" no° no", hi tho-to° no° no", 
Hi-tho-to° no" no°, hi tho-to° no" no°, 
Hi tho-to" no" no". 

2. 

Hi tho-to° no" no", ni-lfu to" no" no". 



i^FLESCHE] BITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 497 

Song 8. 

(Free translation, p. 310; literal translation, p. 617.) 

1. 

I-tho-to" ho" thi hi hi tha no», 
Sho^-to" wa-ha ko"-ha thi hi hi tha no", 
I-tho-to" ho" thi hi hi tha no", 
I-tho-to° ho" thi hi hi tha no". 



I-tho-to" ho" thi hi lii tha no", 
I-tho-to° ho" thi hi hi tha no", 
I-tho-to" ho" thi hi hi tha no", 
I-tho-to" ho" thi hi hi tha no". 

Song 9. 

(Free translation, p. 311: literal translation, p. 617.) 

1. 

Sho-ne the da we ni sho the the da we ni da ha, 
Sho-ne the da we ni sho-the the da we ni da ha, 

He the da we ni, He , hi hi , hi hi , e , e ■ 

Sho ne the da we ni sho the the da we ni da ha, 
Sho ne the da we ni slio the the da we ni da ha, 
Sho ne the da we ni slio the tlie. 

SONO 10. 
(Free translation, p. 312; literal translation, p. 617.) 

Ha-ge ke-no° Ije-no" fi wi-ta lia ka wa ha, 
Ha ge ke-no" ke-no" yi wi-ta ha ka wa, 
Qi wi-ta lia ka wa lia, 
Ha-ge ke-no" ke-no" fi wi-ta. 

2. 
Ha-ge ke-no" ke-no" hi wi-ta ha ka wa ha. 

.3. 
Ha ge ke-no" ke-no" zho wi-ta ha ka wa ha. 

4. 
Ha ge ke-no" ke-no" a wi-ta lia ka wa ha. 

5. 
Ha ge ke-no" ke-no" pa wi-ta ha ka wa ha. 



Ha ge ke-no" ke-no" i wi-ta ha ka wa ha. 
3594°— 25t 32 



498 THE OSAGE TRIBE. 

Ni'-Dsi Wa-tho". 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 313: literal translation, p. 617.) 

1. 

Ha Iji-no" tsi-go ni da ha he tha ha, 
Ga wa to" the the e tha ha e tha ha, 
Ga wa to" the he tha he tha ha. 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 313; literal translation, p. 617.) 

1. 

Ha ki-no° to to ni da, 
To-mo" ka she hi-no''-the tha, 
To-mo° ka she hi no°-the tha, 
Ha ki-no° to to ni da. 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 314; literal translation, p. 617. ) 

1. 

To mo°-ksho°-dse he 
To mo''-ksho°-dse hi-no°-the tha. 
To mo°-ksho°-dse hi-no''-the tha. 
Ha ki-no" to-mo''-ksho"-dse. 

Song 4. 

(Free translation, p. 314: literal translation, p. G17.) 

1. 

Ha ki-no° wa-to° the e, 

Hi tha ha wa-to° the he tha, 

Ni-o" sho° shki wa-to° the he tha, 

Ni-o" sho° shki wa-to° the he tha, 

E hi tha hi tha, 

Ha ki-no° wa-to° the. 

Song 5. 

(Free translation, p. 314; literal translation, p. 617.) 

(Music same as that of song 2.) 

1. 

Ha ki-no" to to ni da, 
To mo°-ksho"-dse hi-no''-the tha, 
To-mo''-ksho°-dse hi no "-the tha. 
Ha ki-no° to to ni da. 



[btu. ASN. 39 



t.AFLBsCHE] BITE OF VIGIL — OSAGE LANGUAGE. 499 

Song 6. 

(Free translation, p. 315; literal translation, p. 618.) 

1. 

He-tho''-be tho ha he-tho°-be tha, 
He-tho°-be tho ha he-tho^-be tha, 
Qa-be he-tho°-be the no" ho° he-thc-be, 
C^a-be he-tho°-be the no° ho" he-tho''-be, 
Qa-be he-tho°-be the no° ho° he-tho°-be, 
Qa-be he-tho°-be the no° ho" he-tho°-be. 
2. 

Xo-hno° he-tho^-be the no" ho° he-thc-be, etc. 

3. 
I^-gtho" he-tho°-be the no° ho° he-tho°-be, etc. 

4. 
Zha-be he-tho"-be the no" ho" he-tho"-be, etc. 

Iva'-xe Wa-tho'*. 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 317; literal translation, p. 61S.) 

1. 

He ke da we the he da we iii da ha, 
He ke da we the e he da we ni da ha. 
He ke da we the he. 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 317; literal translation, p. 61S.) 

1. 

Ka-xe a-tsi i° da ha he ko-wi-tha, 
Thi-a hi-wa ka-xe he ko-wi-tha, 
Ka-xe a-tsi i° da ha he ko-wi-tha, 
Thi-a hi-wa ka-xe he ko-wi-tha, 
!^a-xe a-tsi i° da ha he ko-wi-tha. 

2. 

fsi-go tsi i° da ha he ko-wi-tha. 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 31S; literal translation, p. 61S.) 

1. 

Hi-a wi-tha no°-zhi'' go" da hi tha, 
Hi-a wi-tha no"-zhi° <;o" da hi" da, 
She xa-tha no°-zhi" go" da hi" da, 
She xa-tha no"-zhi" go" da hi" da, 
She xa tha no°-zhi" go" da hi" da. 



500 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [exh. ax.n. 39 

Ml Tho'-to" Wa-tho". 
Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 319: literal translation, p. 61S.) 
1. 
Mi sho" she the o°-ba-he the, 
Mi sho° she the o"-ba-he the, 
Xi-tha sha ho°-k'i-e tha o°-ba-he the 
Xi-tha sha ho°-k'i-e tha o°-ba-he no", 
Mi sho° she the C-ba-he the. 

2. 
Xi-tha gka ho^-k'i-e tha c-ba-he the. 

3. 
Xi-tha pa ho°-k'i-e tha o°-ba-he the. 

Song 2. 
(Free translation, p. 320; literal traiL<;lation, p. 619.) 
1. 
Hi"-da-dsi he-tho''-tho°-be 
I-a be tho-to° ga-xa, 
Ka-wa no" da ha v.-e the the, 
Hi°-da-dsi he-thoi'-thc-be the tBe, 
I-a be tho-to° ga-xa, 
Ka-wa no" da ha we, 
Hio-da-dsi he-thoo-tho'-be. 

Song 3. 
(Free translation, p. 321; literal translation, p. 619.) 

1. 
Ka-wa no° da ha, no" da. 
He ka-wa no" ho° (;i ka-wa no" da he, 
He ka-wa no" ha ka-wa no", 
Ka-wa no" da ha. 

Song 4. 
(Free translation, p. 321; literal translation, p. 619.) 
1. 
* He-no" gi-a vva-thi-ko° da we he, 

Ci-a wa-thi-ko" da we the, 
He-no" 5i-a wa-thi-ko° da we e, 
Qi-a, wa-thi-ko° da we, 
He-no" gi-a wa-thi-ko°-da. 

Ta Wa-tho". 

Song 1. 
(Free translation, p. 322; literal translation, p. 619.) 
1. 
, Ho" da ha mi"-dse he, ho" da lia ini°-dse he, 
Ho" da ha nii°-dse he, ho" da ha mi" dse he, 
Ho" da ha mi"-dse he. 



LAFLBSCHB] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 601 

2. 

Ho" da ha mo° the he, ho" da ha mo° the he, etc. 

3. 
Ho" da ha tho-the he, ho" da ha tho-the he, etc. 

4. 
Ho" da ha n>i the he, ho° da ha mi the he, etc. 

Song 2. 
(Free translation, p. 323; literal translation, p. 619.) 

1. 

Ha-we tha we, tha-we tha-ke he the, 
Ha-we tha-we, tha-we tha-lje he, 
Mi^-dse he, ha-we ini°-dse he, 
A ha mi''-dse he, ha-we mi''-dse he, 
Ha-we tha-we, tha-we tha-ke he. 

2. 
Mo" the he, ha-we mo" the he, etc 

3. 
Tho-the he, ha-we tho-the he, etc. 

4. 
Mi the he, ha-we mi the he, etc. 

SoNO 3. 

(Free translation, p. 324; literal translation, p. 620.) 

1. 

Ki-a ha-we mio-dse he tha, 

Ha-we mi°-dse he, A ha mi°-dst' he tha, 

Ha-we mi"-dse he tha, 

Ha-we miii-dse he, A ha min-dse he, 

Ki-a ha-we mi°-dse he. 

2. 
Ki-a ha-we mo° the he tha, etc. 

3. 
Ki-a ha-we tho-the he tha, etc. 

4. 
Ki-a ha-we mi the he tha, etc. 

Song 4. 

(Free translation, p. 325; literal translation, p. 620.) 

1. 

• Hi-o" ki-pa ha no° ni wa, 
Hi-o°-lji-pa ha no° ni wa, 
I-wa thi-wa-zho° hi-c-zho" ni ke, 
Hi-o'i-ki-pa ha no" ni wa. 



502 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

Song 5. 

(Free translation, p. 32.5; literal translation, p. 620.) 

1. 

Hi-tho-ka wi tha do-da ha, 
Hi-tho-ka wi-tha do-da ha, 
Hi-tho-ka wi-tha do-da ha, 
Hi-tho-ka wi-tha do-da ha. 

Song 6. 

(Free translation, p. 326; literal translation, p. 620.) 

1. 

Ha-ki-no" tse gi no° no°-e, 
Ko-e no" no° tse he da da, 
Ha Iji-no" tse gi no" no°-e, 
Ko-e no" no° tse, 
Ha-lfi-no" tse ?i no" no°-e. 

Song 7. 

(Free translation, p. 326; literal translation, p. 620.) 

1. 

Ko-sha 110° ko-sha ni \va ta, 

IKo-sha no° ko-sha ni wa, 

Tse o-she the ho ho ni wa ta, 

O-she the ho ho ni wa ta, 

Ko-sha no° ko-sha ni wa ta. ' 

WA-THC SHA-PE TSE. 

NO^-XTHE I-Kl^-DSE Wa-THO". 

Wl'-GI-E. 

(Free translation, p. 32S; literal translation, p. 620.) 

1. Ha! da-do° wa-zhi" gi-the mo^-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa'-fa-be u-pa-ka thi"-ge kshe no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Wa'-zhi" to"-ga do" wa-zhi° gi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Wa'-zhi" gi-the mo"-thi" bi do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Wa'-zhi" u-ta-thi° bi ki-the nio"-thi° ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. No°'-be-hi -vvi-ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. No"'-be-hi the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. No"'-be e-dsi wa-thi"-ga zhi ki-thc mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

9. (,!' ko"-ha sha-be ga thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. No"'-xthe gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. No"'-xthe gi-fa-be ki-the nio"-thi° ta i tsi" df^', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



UAFLESCHE] EITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 503 

13. fi"'-dse i-ta-xe sha-bega thi°-kshe a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

14. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-tbLi° he i" da', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Zhi°'-ga no"-xthe gi-tha hi do" shki a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

16. No°'-xthe gi-^a-be ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

17. No°'-ta i-ta-xe fa-be ga thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. No"'-xthe gi-the ino^-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. No°'-xthe gi-fa-be ki-tlie mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

21. I"'-shta-ha sha-be ga kshe a, a bi" da', tsi ga, 

22. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. No"-xthe gi-tha bi do" shki a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. No"'-xthe gi-ca-be ki-tlie nio"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

25. Pa'-zhu-zhe fa-be ga thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. No"'-xthe gi-the mo°-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. No"'-xthe gi-fa-be ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

29. Da'-do" wa-zhi" gi-the mo°-thi" ta ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. I"'-gtho"-ga do-ga kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Wa'-zhi" to"-ga do" wa-zhi" gi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Wa'-zlii" gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Wa'-zhi" u-ta-thi" bi ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. No"'-be-lii wi-ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. No°'-be-hi the mo"-tlii" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. No"'-be e-dsi wa-thi"-ga zhi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 

37. Mi'-xa-fka to"-ga wa-tha-xthi thi"-ge tlii"-kslie no" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

38. Wa'-zhi" to"-ga do" wa-zhi" gi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Wa'-zhi" gi-the mo"-tlii" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Wa'-zhi" u-ta-thi" bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

41. fi'-ha sha-be ga thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Pa'-zhu-zhe fa-be ga thi"-kshe e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-tlii" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. No"'-xthe gi-the rao"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. No"'-xthe gi-fa-be ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

46. Ta' he ba-fi-ge kslie no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. Wa'-zlii" to"-ga do" wa-zhi" gi-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Pi'-fi thi"-ge tho"-zha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. W^a-zhi" gi-tha bi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

. 50. Wa'-zhi" gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. Wa'-zhi" u-ta-thi" bi ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



504 



THE OSAGE TRIBE. 



[BTH. ANN. 39 



52. f i'-pa ha sha-be ga thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

53. Pa'-zhu-zhe fa-be ga thi"-kshe e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

54. No^'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

55. No^'-xthe gi-the mo^-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. No^'-xthe gi-pa-be ki-the mo^-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

Song 1. 
(Free translation, p. 330; literal translation, p. 622.) 

1. 

Ni-ka gto be he wa-tho" te he no", 

Ha-ni da we he, ha-ni-da ha we, ha ni da, 

Ha-ni-da ha we, ha-ni da we he, ha-ni da ha we, 

Ha-ni da, ha-ni da ha we, 

Ni-ka ?to be he wa-tho° te he no°, 

Ha-ni da we he, ha-ni da ha we. 

2. 

Wa-zhi" ga-be he wa-tho" te he no", etc. 

3. 
Xa-ha to° be he wa-tho" te he no", etc. 

4. 
Hc-ga to° be he wa-tho" te he no°, etc. 

Song 2. 
(Free translation, p. 331; literal translation, p. 622.) 

1. 

Ni-ka 5to be no° dsi the tse, 
Ni-ka Qto he no" dsi the tse, 
Ko-tha he no°, ko-tha he, 
Ko-tha he no°, ko-tha he he, 
Ni-ka ?to be no° dsi the tse. 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 332; literal translation, p. 622.) 
1. 

Ha-ni da, ha-ni da he he the, 

Ha-ni da, ha-ni da he he the, 

Wa-xtha to" bi the wa-tho° tse the he the, 

Wa-.\tha to" bi the wa-tho" tse tlie hi tha, 

Ha-ni da, ha-ni da he he the. 

2. 
Ta-ha to" bi the wa-tho° tse the he the, etc. 

3. 
Hc-ga to° bi the wa-tho° tse the he the, etc. 

4. 
Hc-ba to" bi the wa-tho" tse the he the, etc. 



LAFLESCHE] EIIE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 505 

Song 4. 

(Free translation, p. 333; literal translation, p. 623.) 

1. 

Pe-dse, pe-dse hi-tha wi-ta-e tha, 
Pe-dse, pe-dse hi-tha \\a-ta-e tha ha, 
Wa-to" tha ha lci-no° dsi a-thi° tse, 
Wa-to" tha ha Ifi-no" dsi a-thi" tse, 
Pe-dse, pe-dse hi-tha wi-ta-e tha. 

2. 

Wa-to° tha ha ki-no" dsi a-thi° bthe, etc. 

3. 
Wa-to" thsi ha lci-no° dsi u-thi-^e, etc. 

4. 
Wa-to° tha ha ki-no° dsi u-thi-bthi, etc. 

5. 
Wa-to° tha ha ki-no° dsi u-thi-xthi, etc. 

Song 5. 

(Free translation, p. 335; literal translation, p. 623.) 

1. 

Dse wi''-xtsi, dse wi" xtsi, ha ha, 

Dse win-.xtsi, dse wi°-xtsi, ha ha, 

Dse wi°-xtsi ha ha, 

Dse wi°-xtsi, dse wi°-xtsi ha ha, 

Dse wi°-xtsi ha ha, 

Dse wi°-xtsi, dse wio-xtsi ha ha. 

2. 
Dse wi°-xtsi, dsi a-thi° bthe ha ha, etc. 

3. 
Dse wi°-xtsi, dsi u-thi-je ha ha, etc. 

4. 
Dse wi°-xtsi, dsi u-thi-bthi ha ha, etc. 

5. 
Dse wi°-xtsi, dsi u-thi-xthi ha ha, etc. 



506 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ann. 39 

Song 6. 

(Free translation, p. 337: literal translation, p. 624.) 

1. 

He ta-ha kshe shki he-ni da ha, 
Ta-ha kshe shki he-ni da ha, 
Ta-ha kshe shki he-ni da ha, 
Ta-ha kshe shki he-ni da ha, 
Ta-ha kshe shki he-ni da ha. 

2. 

He wa-.\tha kshe shki he-ni da ha, etc. 

3. 
He Ho''-ga kshe shki he-ni da ha, etc. 

4. 
He Ho''-ba kshe shki he-ni da ha, etc. 

Song 7. 
(Free translation, p. 33S: literal translation, p. 624.) 

1. 

He-tha wi-tha ha ha, he-tha wi-tha ha ha, 
He-tha wi-tha ha ha, he-tha wi-tha ha ha, 
He-tha wi-tha ha ha, he-tha wi-tha ha ha 

Wa-zha-zhe, Ta-tha-xi", ha-ta-ha ni kshe do" ga kshe gi-do"-be 

tsi-gtha thi° ho ! 

O'-Pxo" Wa-tho". 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 330; literal translation, p. 624.) 

1. 

Hi" a-to" no° ki-no° do° wa ha, 
Ki-nc do° wa hi" a-to" a a, 
Hi° a-to° no" ki-no" do" wa ha, 
Ki-no° do° wa hi" a-to° a a. 
Hi" a-to" no" ki-nC do° wa-ha, 
Ki-no" do" wa hi" a-to" a a, 
Hi° a-to" no" ki-no" do° wa ha. 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 340; literal translation, p. 625.) 

1. 

E hi° a-tc-a tlia ha ki-a ha tha wi-the, 

Ki-a ha tha wi-the, 

E hi" a-tc-a tha ha ki-a ha tha wi-the, 

Ki-a ha tha wi-the, 

E hi" a-tc-a tha ha ki-a ha tha wi-the. 



LAfLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 507 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 341; literal traoslatioD, p. 625.) 

1. 

He ka wa-xtha da wi-ni-da, 
He ka-wa-xtha da wi-ni-da a, 
The e i" da wi-ni-da, da wi-ni-da 
He ka wa-xtha da wi-ni-da. 



He ka wa-xtha da wi-ni-da, 

He ka wa-xtha da wi-ni da a, 

Da we-e the da wi-ni-da, da wi-ni-da, 

He ka wa-xtha da wi-ni-da. 

Song 4. 

■ Free translation, p. 342; literal translation, p. 625.) 

1. 

Wa-k'o° wi-tse she-tho ni wa-ta, 

Wa-k'o° wi-tse she-tho ni wa-ta, 

Wa-k'o° wi-tse she-tho ni wa-ta, 

E hi° a-to° a tha ha she-tho ni wa-ta, 

Wa-k'o° wi-tse she-tho ni wa-ta, 

Wa-k'o" wi-tse she-tho ni wa-ta, 

E hi° a-to''-a tha ha she-tho ni wa-ta. 

Song 5. 

(Free translation, p. 343; literal translation, p. 625.) 

1. 

E-no" he ta tse i° da ha da we, 

E tse he do wi-ni-da, 

E-no° he ta tse i° da ha do we, 

E tse he do wi-ni-da, 

E-no" he ta tse i° da ha do we, 

E tse he da wi-ni-da. 

2. 

Tha-wa he ta tse i" da ha do we, 

E tse he do wi-ni-da, 

Tha-wa he ta tse i" da ha do we, 

E tse he do wi-ni-da, 

Tha-wa he ta tse i° da ha do we, 

E tse he do wi-ni-da. 



508 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. anx. 39 

Song 6. 

(Free translation, p. 344; literal translation, p. 625.) 

1. 

Ki-tha-we sho° ni wa, 
Ki-tha-we sho" ni wa, 
Tha wi-tha tse sho° ni wa, 
Ki-tha-we sho" ni wa, 
Ki-tlia-we slio" ni wa. 

2. 

Ki-tlia lia slio" ni wa, etc. 

W^t^a'-be Wa-tho". 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 344; literal translation, p. 625.) 

1. 

E-no° ge ge ta ta tha no°, 
E-nc ge ge ta ta tha, 
E-no° ge ge ta ta tha no", 
E-no° ge ge ta ta tha no°. 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 345; literal translation, p. 626.) 

1. 

Wa-pa-hi u-lfi-sha no" he shite wa-ni i" do, 
Wa-pa-hi u ki-sha no° he shlie vva-ni-i" do, 
Wa-pa-hi ii-lji-.sha no" he shke wa-ni i" do, 
Wa-pa-hi u-ki-sha no" he shke wa-ni i" do. 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 345; literal translation, p. 626.) 

1. 

Wa-pa-hi shki we-ni i° da ha, 
Wa-pa-hi shki we-ni i° da ha, 
Wa-pa-hi shki we-ni i" da ha, 
Wa-pa-hi shki we-ni i° da ha. 

Song 4. 

(Free translation, p. 347; literal translation, p. 626.) 

1. 

Ga-ta the shki tho-the tha, 
Ga-ta the shki tho-the tha, 
Ga-ta the shki tho-the tha, 
Ga-ta the shki tho-the tha, 
Ga-ta the shki tho-the tha, 
Ga-ta the shki tho-the tha. 



UiPLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL— OSAGE LANGUAGE. 509 

Sho'-sho-ka Wa-tho". 
Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 34S; literal translation, p. 626.) 

1. 

Ja. ha ha tha no°-ge he, 
Ta ha ha tha no° ge he the, 
Ta a ha tha no"» ge he, 
Ta ha a ha tha no" ge he 
Ta ha a ha tha no" ge he. 

Song 2. 

( Free translation, p. 348; literal translation, p. 626.) 

1. 

Xa wa-tha-lje Ice he no" ha, 
Ki'-da hi° da ha he ni i" da, 
Ta-ha wa-tha-ke ke he no- ha, 
Ki°-da hi° da ha he ni i" da, 
Ta wa-tha-ke ke he no- ha, 
Ki°-da hi- da ha he ni i° da, 
Ta-ha wa-tha-ke ke he no- ha, 
Ki°-da hi- da ha he ni i° da. 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 349: literal translation, p. 626.) 

1. 

Ta wa-tse-xi he he tha ha, 
He ha-ni-da, he ni da, 
Ta-ha wa-tse-xi he he tha ha, 
He ha-ni-da, he ni da, 
Ta-ha wa-tse-xi he he tha ha. 
He ha-ni-da, he ni da. 

Pa-ci' Stse-dse Wa-tho''. 
Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 350: literal translation, p. 626.) 

1. 

5o°-5a ha ko-i-tha-a, a-tha, a-tha, 
A-tha ha, tha ha, ko-i-tha-a 
Ko--ga ha ko-i-tha-a, a-tha, 
• A-tha ha, tha ha, ko-i-tha-a, 
IJo°-ga ha ko-i-tha tha, 
Tha ha ko-i-tha-a, 
Ko°-sa ha ko-i-tha-a, a-tha, 
A-tha-ha, tha ha ko-i-tha-a. 



510 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. i 



Ki-tha ha Ifo-i-tha-a, a-tha, a-tha, 
A-tha ha, tha ha, ko-i-tha-a, 
Ki-tha ha ko-i-tha-a, a-tha, 
A-tha ha, tha ha, ko-i-tha-a, 
Ki-tha ha ko-i-tha-a, 
Tha ha ko-i-tha-a, 
Ki-tha ha ko-i-tha-a, a-tha, 
A-tha ha, tha ha, ko-i-tha-a. 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 351: literal translation, p. 626.) 

1. 

lo-too-to" wa-thi° da, i°-to°-e wa-thi° da, 
I°-to°-to'' wa-thi" da, i°-to°-e wa-thi" da, 
lo-ton-to" wa-thi° da, 
Da-we he tha, da-we he tha, da-we he tha. 

2. 

Pe-to°-to° wa-thi° da, pe-to°-e wa-thi° da, 
Pe-to°-to'' wa-thi" da, pe-to°-e wa-thi" da, 
Pe-to° wa-thi" da, 
Da-we he tha, da-we he tha, da-we he tha. 

Ni-ZHiu' Wa-tho". 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 352; literal translation, p. 627.) 

1. 

Mc-gthe hc-ge he ta-ko i" da ha-we he, 

Ta-ko i° da ha-we, 

Mo°-gthe ho^-ge he ta-ko i° da ha-we, 

Mo''-gthe ho°-ge he ta-lco i° da ha-we he, 

Mo'i-gthe ho''-ge he ta-ko i° da ha-we he, 

E-da do-ba ha ta-ko i° da ha-we he, 

fa-ko i° da ha-we he, 

Mc-gthe hc-ge he ta-ko i° da ha-we he. 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 353; literal translation, p. 627.) 

1. 

Mo°-gthe ho"-ge, ho^-ge ta-ko i° da ha-we the, 

Mc-gthe ho"-gc, ho''-ge ta-ko i° da ha-we the, 

E-da do-ba ha ta-ko i° da ha-we he, 

Ta-ko i" da ha-we the, 

Mo^-gthe ho°-ge, ho°-ge ta-ko i° da ha-we the he the. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 511 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 3oi; literal translation, p. 627.) , 

1. 

Mo°-xe she the do°, mo°-xe ?a-be 
Mo°-xe she the do", mo"-xe ?a-be, 
Mc-xe she the do", mo°-xe ?a-be, 
Mo°-xe she the do", mo°-xe fa-be. 

2. 

Mo°-xe she the do", mo"-xe xo-dse, etc. 

3. 

Mo°-xe she the do", mo"-xe go"-ho°, etc. 

4. 

Mo°-xe she the do", mo"-xe to-ho, etc. 

Song 4. 

(Free translation, p. 355.) 

1. 

Mo"-xe she the do" mo"-xe ga-be ^Lia-hi tha tha, 
Mo"-xe she the do" mo°-xe ga-be kia-hi tha tha 
She the do" ino"-xe ga-be kia-hi tha tha. 
She the do" mo°-xe ga-be kia-hi tha tha. 

2. 
Mo°-xe she the do" mo°-xe xo-dse kia-hi tha tha, etc. 

3. 
Mo"-xe she the do" mo°-.\e 5o°-ho" kia-hi tha tha, etc. 

4. 
Mo"-xe she the do" mo°-xe to-ho kia-hi tha tha, etc. 

I-TSI" Ki'-xo" Wa-tho"'. 
Song I. 

(Free translation, p. 357; literal translation, p. 628.) 

1. 

We-tsi° ki-k'o" tse he tha, 
We-tsi° ki-k'o" tse he tha, 
Ki-k'o" tse he tha, 
We-tsi° ki-k'o" tse he tha, 
We-tsi° ki-k'o" tse he tha, 
We-tsi" ki-k'o" tse he tha, 
Ki-k'o" tse he tha, 
We-tsi" ki-k'o" tse he tha. 



512 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth.ann. 39 

Song 2. 

(Free traaslatioQ, p. 358; literal translation, p. 628.) 

1. 

We-tsi° ki-no" wi" to" he tha, 
We-tsi" ki-no" ba-xo° he tha, 
Ki-no° ba-xo° he tha, 
We-tsi° ki-no" wi° to° he tha. 

2. 

We-tsi" ki-no" tho-to° he tha. 

3. 
We-tsi" ki-no° ba-xo" he tha. 

4. 

We-tsi° ki-no" tho-to° he tha. 

Mo^-l'^-KA I-GA-XTHI Wa-THO". 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 359; literal translation, p. 628.) 

1. 

Wa-dsi mo°-gthe tse ga-tho bthe da hi" do ho, 
Wa-dsi mo^-gthe tse ga-tho bthe da hi" do ho, 
E tse he tsi-go ba-xo" the a-the no", 
Wa-dsi mo''-gthe tse ga-tho bthe da hi" do. 

2. 

E tse he tsi-go tho-to" the a-the no°. 

3. 
E tse he tsi-go ba-xo" the a-the no". 

4. 
E tse he tsi-go tho-to" the a-the no". 

Song 4. 

(Free translation, p. 362; literal translation, p. 628.) 

1. 

Wa-dsi mo^-gthe tse, wa-dsi mo^i-gthe tse, hia wi-tha ho, 
Hia ko the no" no" ge we-tsi" wa-k'o" tho-to° zho-gthe, 
The he tse liia wi tha ho, 
Wa-dsi mo''-gthe tse, wa-dsi mo°-gthe tse, hia wi tha lio, 

2. 
Hia ko the no" no° ge we-tsi" wa-k'o° ba-xo" zho-gthe, etc. 

3. 
Hia ko the no° no" ge we-tsi° wa-k'o" tho-to" zho-gthe, etc. 

4. 
Hia ko the no" no° ge we-tsi" wa-k'o° ba-xo° zho-gthe, etc. 



LAFLESCHEj BITE OF VIGIL OSAGE LANGUAGE. 513 

Ho'-E-GA Gl-PSHE Wa-THO". 

Song 5. 

(Free translation, p. 363; literal translation, p. 629.) 

1. 

Ha zho" ni-ka-e, Ha-zho" ni-lfa-e, 

Qi the he he tha wi-tha, 

Ha-zho° ni-ka-e §1 the he he tha wi-tha, 

Ha-zho" ni-lfa-e gl the he he tha wi-tha, 

Ha-zho° ni-ka-e gi the he he tha wi-tha, 

Ha-zho° ni-lja-e. 

2. 
Hi the he he tha wi-tha. 

3. 
Zhu the he he tha wi-tha. 

4. 
A the he he tha wi-tha. 

5. 
Pa the he he tha wi-tha. 

6. 
I the he he tha wi-tha. 

Mo'* Gthu-stse-dse Wa-tho". 

So.VG 1. 

(Free translation, p. 366; literal translation, p. 629.) 

1. 

The-a ha tse tsi-go thi thi°-ge the a-the i" da, 

The-a ha dse, Wa-zhi°-5a-be thi thi°-ge the a-the i° da, 

The-a ha, E , hi-hi, hi-hi, e, e. 

2. 
The-a ha dse, Gthe-do''-zhi°-ga thi thi'-ge tlie a-the i" da. 

3. 
The-a ha dse, Wa-zhi°-sa-be thi thio-ge the-a-the i° da. 

4. 

The-a ha dse, Gthe-do'-zhio-ga thi thi°-ge the-a the i" da. 
3594°— 25t 33 



514 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ann. 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 367; literal translation, p. 630-) 
1. 

Ha, mo° kshe the-a-the tse no''-ka to-ho the no° no", 
Ha, mo° kshe the a-the tse nc-ka to-ho the no" no", 
Ho no" no°, ho no" no", no°-ka to-ho the no° no", 

Zhu-dse kshe the a-the tse, E , hi-hi, hi-hi, e, e. 

Ha, mo" kshe the a-the tse no°-ka to-ho the no" no°, 
Ho no" no°, ho no" no", no°-lfa to-ho the no° no". 
Ha, mo" kshe the a-the tse nc-lja to-ho the no" no". 

2. 
5a-be kshe the a-the tse, E , hi-hi, hi-hi, e, e. 

3. 
Zhu-dse kshe the a-the tse, E , hi-hi, hi-hi, e, e. 

4. 

Qa-be kshe the a-the tse, E , hi-hi, hi-hi, e, e. 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 368: literal translation, p. 630.) 

1. 

E he he, ts'e a-wa-the no" gthiu-wa he he no° 
E he he, zhu-dse a-wa-the gthiu-wa he he no", 
E he he zhu-dse a-wa-the gthiu-wa he he no", 
E he he, zhu-dse a-wa-the gthiu-wa he he no°, 
E he he, zhu-dse a-wa-the gthiu-wa he he no°, 
E he he. 

2. 
E he he, xo-dse a-wa-the gthiu-wa he he no". 

3. 
E he he, ji-hi a-wa-the gthiu-wa he he non". 

4. 
E he he, jc-ho" a-wa-the gthiu-wa lie he no°. 

Gthi' I-he-the Wa-tho". 
5. 

E he he, ts'e a-wa-the no° gthiu-wa he he no°, 
E he he, ki i-he a-wa-the gthiu-wa he he non" 
E he he, Ifi i-he a-wa-the gthiu-wa he he no", 
E he he, Ifi i-he a-wa-the gthiu-wa he he no", 
E he he, Ifi i-he a-wa-the gthiu-wa he he no", 
E he he. 



PART III.— LITERAL TRANSLATION 



515 



Wa'-xpe-gthe A-do^-be Wi'-gi-e. 

Penalty guardian of ritual. 

(Free translation, p. 44; Osage version, p. 375.) 

1. He-dsi, at that time and place; xtsi, verily; a, they said; a bi° da, 

it has been said; tsi, house; ga, in this. 37. 

2. Ho''-ga, the Ho^-ga subdivision; u-dse-the, fii-eplaces; Pe-tho''-ba, 

seven; ni-ka-sbi-ga, people; ba do°, there were. 

3. Xtha-xtha, timid, craven; thi^-ge, none; xtsi, verily; ni-ka-shi-ga, 

people; bi, they were; a, they said. 

4. No", look you; wi-fo^-ga, my younger brothers; e-ki-a, said to 

one another; bi, they; a, they said. 

5. Zhi°-ga, the little ones; \va-zhi°, courage, anger; gi-the, make to 

be; ta, shall; bi, they; a-tha, let them. 

6. Wa-dsu-ta, animal; wi", a; a, they said. 

7. Wa-zhi°, courage, anger; gi-tha, made to be; bi, they; a, they 

said. 9, 19. 

8. I^-gtho" gthe-zhe, mottled cat; zhi°-ga, little; e-de, one that is; 

a, they said. 

10. Wa-zhi°, courage, anger; gi-the, make to be their; bi, they; do", 

when; a, they said. 20. 

11. Zhi"-ga, the little ones. 

12. Wa-xpe-gthe, penalty suspended in the air ready to drop; 

a-do^-be, guardian of; a-ki-gtha-thi°, keep for themselves; 
mo^-thi", as they travel the path of life; ta, shall; bi a, they; 
wi-fo^-ga, my younger brothers. 21, 31, 43. 

13. Tsi-zhe-be, door; the, this; tse, standing; a, they said. 22, 32, 44. 

14. Tsi-zhe-be, door; a-do°-be, guardian of; a-ki-gtha-thi", keep -for 

themselves; mo°-thi", as they travel the path of life; ta, shall; 
bi" da, they. 

15. U-zhe-tsi, fireplace; the, tliis; tse, standing; a, they said. 15, 

34, 46. 

16. U-zhe-tsi, fireplace; a-do°-be, guardian of; a-ki-gtha-thi", keep 

for themselves; mo"-thi°, as they travel the path of life; ta, 
shall; bi a, they; wi-po"-ga, my younger brothers; e-ki-a, said 
to one another; bi, they; a, they said. 25, 35, 47. 

17. Wa-zhi°, courage, anger; gi-tha bi, make to be their; ga, this; 

no"-zhi" in da, stands, shall stand. 26, 36, 48. 

18. I"-gtho"-ga, puma; do-ga, male; kshe no", that lies outstretched; 

a, they said. 

517 



518 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. Ann. 39 

23. Tsi-zhe-be, door; a-do°-be, guardian of; a-ki-gtha-thi", keep for 
themselves; mo°-thi°, as they travel the path of life; ta, shall; 
bi a, they; wi-^o^-ga, my younger brothers; e-ki-a, said to one 
another; bi, they; a, they said. 33, 4.5. 

27. Wa-fa-be, black bear; u-pa-ka, blemish, spots; thi^-ge, none; 

kshe no°, that lies outstretched; a, they said. 

28. E, that; shki do°, also; a, they said. 39. 

29. Wa-zhi", courage, anger: o"-gi-the, make to be our; ta bi a-tha, 

let us. 40. 

30. Wa-zhi", courage, anger; o°-gi-tha, we make to be our; bi, we; 

do", when; a, they said. 41. 
38. Wa-dsu-ta, animal; stse-dse, tall; kshe no°, that lies outstretched; 

a, they said. 
42. Wa-xpe-gthe, penalty suspended in the air ready to drop; a, 

they said. 

Wa'-xpe-gthe A-do^'-be Wi'-gi-e. 

(Used bj- all the gentes.) 
(Free translation, p- 47: Osage version, p. 376.) 

1. He-dsi, at that time and place; xtsi, verily; a, they said; a bi° da, 

it has been said; tsi, house; ga, in this. 23, 39, 61, 67, 70. 

2. Ta-dse, winds; pa-ho°-gthe, in advance of the storm; thi", that 

moves; dsi, there; a, they said. 7, 27, 73, 87. 

3. Wa-fa-ki-the, archaic, probably brother; zhi^-ga, the little ones; 

i-ta, of theirs; wi", one; u-mo^-thi", in the midst of; thi", 
moves; a, they said. 

4. Wi-tsi-go, my grandfather; a, they said. 8,15,19,21,31,37,44, 

49, 55, 59, 71, 78, 82, 85, 90, 95. 

5. Da-do", tilings or acts of any kind; no"-thi", obscure to him or 

beyond his understanding; a-zhi, is not; xtsi, verily; thi", as 
he moves; a, they said. 

6. Dsi"-tha-to"-ga, there seems to be a doubt as to whether tliis 

name means great butterfly or the aged butterfly, however, it 
is a symbol of the Ho"-ga U-ta-no°-dsi gens; do", a; a, they 
said. 
9. U-mo°-thi", moves therein; thi", as he moves; a, they said. 28, 
75, 88. 

10. Da-do", things or acts; no"-thi°, obscure or beyond understand- 

ing; a-zhi, to him not; xtsi, verily; u-mo"-thi", moves therein; 
the no", as he moves; a, they said. 29. 

11. Wa-xpe-gthe, penalties suspended overhead; a-gi-do"-be, watches 

over; thi", as he moves; a, they said. 13, 30, 43, 54, 77, 89. 

12. Wa-xpe-gthe, acts secretly performed; mo"-tse, in the deepest of 

secret places; xtsi, verily; tlii"-kshe, the place sitting; sliki do", 
even then ; a, they said. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TRANSLATION. 519 

14. Sho", even as; tha, they go forth, upon life's journey; i, they; 
do°, when; a, they said. 

16. Be-ni-ha, languid, wretchedness; hi gthi", to sit in lonely places; 

thi°-kshe, to sit; wa-ga-xe, makes them to; no", does; a, they 
said. 33. 

17. (^i-id, yellow, sallow, of sickly hue; xtsi, verily: hi no", come to; 

wa-the, cause them to; thi^-kshe, as he sits; a, they said. 

18. Ha-shki, in any place; pa-gthe, to lay the head; i-zho°-zho°, to 

change the place of rest repeatedly; the, they; wa-ga-xe, makes 

them to; thi°-kshe no°, he does as he sits; a, they said. 36, 48, 

58, 69, 81, 94. 
20. Ho°-ba, days: u-^a-ki-ba, the divisions of; do-ba, the four; shki, 

and. 
22. No°-xe, spirit, sanity; gi-to°, regain; a-zhi, not; xtsi, verily; the, 

he, the sufferer; no", always; a, they said. 

24. No"-xe, spirit, sanity; no° shki do", even that alone; wa-thu-pe, 

take from them; tse a, when asked to; i, they; tho", when; 
shki, and; e-gi wa-o°, he does so to them; the no°, he always; 
a, they said. 38, 50, 60, 72, 83, 96. 

25. Wa-fa-ki-the, archaic, probably brother; zhi''-ga, the little ones; 

i-ta, of theirs; ga, this; no^-zhi" i° da, shall stand. 51. 

26. Ki-gthiu-ni-ka, there seems to be some doubt as to whether this 

name refers to a swallow or to the black bear, however, it is a 
symbol belonging to the Wa-^a-be gens; thi°-kshe, the. sitting; 
a, they said. 
32. Ni-ka-shi-ga, person or persons. 45, 65, 91. 

34. Zhu-i-ga, flesh; gi-to°, regain; a-zhi, not; xtsi, verily; wa-thi°, 

brings them; hi, to; the, he; no", always; a, they said. 

35. In-dse, faces; u-ga-fi-fi-hi, yellowish, sallow, sickly hue; the, as 

they continue in life; xtsi, verily; wa-thi°, brings them; hi, to; 
the, he; no", always; a, they said. 

41. A-liiu-ta-ta, the mottled eagle, the sacred symbol of the Ho°-ga 

gens; do", a; a, they said. 

42. Ta-dse, winds; pa-ho^-gthe, in advance of the storm; thi°, the 

moving; dsi, there; u-mo°-thi", moves therein; the, he; no°, 
always; a, they said. 53, 63. 

46. Be-ni-ha, languid, wretchedness; xtsi, verily; wa-ga-xe, makes 

them to become; the, he; no°, always; a, they said. 79. 

47. ^'i-hi, yellow, sallow, of a sickly hue; xtsi, verily; wa-ga-xe, makes 

them to become; the, he; no°, always; a, they said. 80. 
52. No°-ni-ba zlii°-ga, a little pipe, of the Wa-zha-zhe subdivision, 

used in supplicatory rites; do°, a; a, they said. 
66. fi-hi, yellow, of a sickly hue; xtsi, verily; ^va-thi", brings them; 

hi, to; the, he; no", always; a, they said. 68. 



520 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

57. Be-ni-ha, languid, wretchedness; xtsi, verily; wa-thi", brings 
them; hi, to; the, he; no", always; a, they said. 66, 92. 

62. Tse-shi"-shi"-e, there is a doubt as to whether this name means the 
nighthawk or the symbolic buffalo of the Tsi-zhu Wa-no" and 
the Tse-do-ga I°-dse gentes; it is certain, however, that it is a 
symbol of these two gentes; kshe, that lies outstretched; a, 
they said. 

64. Wi-tsi-go, my grandfather; da-do", things or acts; no"-thi°, ob- 
scure, beyond understanding; a-zhi, to him not; xtsi, verily; 
thi", as he moves; a, they said. 7.5. 

74. Tse-pi-tha-to''-ga, the tlragonfly; do", a: a, they said. 

84. Ho" a-do", what; wa-^a-ki-the, archaic, probably brother; zhi"- 
ga, the little ones; i-ta, theirs: ga no", is; shki, and; a hi" a, 
interrogative particles. 

86. Ni-shku-shku, swallow, symbol of the Ni-ka Wa-ko"-da-gi gens; 
kshe, that lies outstretched; no", that; a, they said. 

93. A-da-ts'e-ga, to wither in flesh as by the heat of the sun; xtsi, 
verily; wa-thi", brings them; hi, to; the, he; no", always; a, 
they said. 

Wa-xpe-gthe A-do''-be Wi'-gi-e of the Ni-ka Wa-ko^-da-gi Gens. 

(Free translation, p. 51 ; Osage version, p. 379.) 

1. He-dsi, at that time and place; xtsi, verily; a, they said. 4, 39. 

2. Ta-dse, winds; pa-ho"-gtlie, in advance of the storm; thi", mov- 

ing; dsi, there; a, they said. 6, 16, 27, 36. 

3. Wa-f-a-ki-the, archaic, probably brother; zhi"-ga, little ones; i-ta, 

theirs; Avi", a; u-mo"-thi", moves therein; tlii", moves; a, they 
said. 
5. Ni-shku-shku, swallow; mo"-ge, breast; zhu-dse, red; kshe, that 
lies outstretched; a, they said. 

7. U-mo"-tlii", moves therein; thi", moves; a, they said. 17,28,37. 

8. Wa-xpe-gthe, penalties hanging overhead; a-gi-do"-be, guarding 

his; thi", as he moves forth; a, they said. 19, 29, 38, 44. 

9. Wi-tsi-go, my grandfather; a, they said. 1.5, 18, 20, 26, 35, 40. 

10. Da-do", things or acts; no"-thi", obscure or beyond understand- 

ing; a-zhi, to him not; xtsi, verily; thi", as he moves forth; 
a, they said. 

11. Ho"-ba, days; u-^a-ki-ba, the divisions of; ge, the; e-to", even to 

them; xtsi, verily; a, they said. 21, 31, 41. 

12. Wi-tsi-go, my grandfather; da-do", things or acts; no"-thi", 

obscure; a-zhi, to him not; xtsi, verily; thi", as he moves forth; 
a, they said. 23, 30. 

13. Ho" a-do", what; wa-fa-ki-the, probably brother; zhi°-ga, the 

httleones; i-ta, theirs; gano", is; shki, and; a hi" a, interroga- 
tive particles. 24, 33. 



LAFLBSCHE] RITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TRANSLATION, 521 

14. Xi-shku-shku, swallow; mo^-ge, breast; fa-be, black; kshe, that 
lies outstretched; a, they said. 

22. Gi-no°-thi°, forgets; a-zhi, not; xtsi, verily; ni-ka-slii-ga, a per- 
son; thi°, he is; a, they said. 32, 42. 

25. Ni-shku-shku, swallow; mo^-ge, breast; fka, white; kshe, that 
lies outstretched; a, they said. 

34. Ni-shku-shku, swallow; mo^-ge, breast; gi, yellow; kshe, that lies 
outstretched; a, they said. 

43. Da-do", things or acts; no°-thi°, obscure or beyond understand- 
ing; a-zhi, not; xtsi, verily; ni-ka-shi-ga, a person; thi°, he is; 
a, they said. 

No^-NI A-THA-SHO-DSE Wl'-GI-E. 

Tobacco smoke upon ritual. 

I. 

(Free translation, p. 54: Osage version, p. 380.) 

1. Da-do°, what; zhi^-ga, the little ones; wa-zhi°, coiu-age, anger; 

gi-the, make to be their; mo°-thi°, as they travel the path of 
life; ta, shall; ba, they; do°, interrogative particle; a, they 
said. 62. 

2. I°-gtho°-gthe-zhe, mottled cat; zhi^-ga, the little; kshe, that lies 

outstretched; no", the; a, they said. 

3. Wi-tsi-go, my grandfather; wa-zhi^-to^-ga, great in courage; do"', 

being; wa-zhi", courage; gi-tha, make him to be; a-ka, they. 
19, 64. 

4. Ho"-ba i-ta-xe, at the beginning of day; tho" dsi, at that time; 

a, they said. 20, 35, 48, 65. 

5. Wi-tsi-go, my grandfather: wa-ko°-tha, attack; tsi-the, went 

forth; do", when; a, they said. 21, 36, 49, 66. 

6. Ta, deer; he, horns; ba-shi-zhe, curved; kshe no°, that lies out- 

stretched. 

7. Wi-tsi-go, my grandfather; ts'e-the, killed; i-he-the, made to lay 

in death; to", he stood; a, they said. 24, 39. 

8. Wi-tsi-go, my grandfather; e-dsi, there, to the spot; the, went; 

a, they said. 

9. Wa-ko°-tha, attack; tsi-the, went forth; do", when; a, they said. 

10. He-dsi, at that time and place; xtsi, verily; a, they said. 56. 

11. Wa-tse, triumph; bo", a call or cry; to", stood; a, they said. 57. 

12. Zhi"-ga, the little ones; mi, sun; hi-e ge, the setting of; ta, there 

in the direction of. 

13. Wa-tse, to attack, to touch; tha, go; bi, they; tho", when; shlci, 

and; a, they said. 

14. Ga xto", acquit themselves in this very manner; mo"-thi", as 

they travel the path of life; ta, shall; i, they; tsi" da, they 
shall. 



522 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

15. No^-be, hands; e-dsi, at the slaying of the enemy; wa-thi°-ga, 

absent: zhi, not; ki-the, cause themselves to; mo^-thi", as they 
travel the path of life; ta, shall; i, they; tsi° da, they shall. 
29, 43, 60, 72, 82, 95. 

16. U-ba-xo°, a cut to be followed; wi", one; ga-xe, made: no^-zhi", 

stood; a, they said. 

17. Da-do", what; zhi^-ga, the little ones; wa-zlii", courage; gi-tha, 

make to be theirs; ga no", shall; shki, and; a hi° a, interrogative 
particles. 31, 45, 73, S3. 

18. Sho°-ge, wolf; hi", hair: tu, gray; kshe no°, that lies outstretched; 

a, they said. 
23. Ni, river; u-ga-xthi, in which there is a bend; xtsi, verily; ge dsi, 
there, in such a place; a, they said. 38. 

25. Wi-tsi-go, my grandfather; wa-tse, triumph; niu, uttered a cry 

of; to", as he stood; a, they said. 69, 79. 

26. Zhi''-ga, the little ones; wa-tse, to attack; tha, go forth; hi, they; 

tho°, when; shki, and; a, they said. 41, 58, 70, 80. 

27. Wa-tse, triumph over the enemy; ga xto", in this very manner; 

mo"-thi°, as they travel the path of life; ta, shall; i, they; tsi" 
da, they shall. 42, 59, 71, 81. 

28. No°-be-hi, hands; wi-ta, mine; no"-be-hi, hands; tha, make use 

of; bi, they; tho", when; shki, and; a, they said. 
30. U-ba-xo", a cut to be followed; tho^-ba, two; ga-xe, made; no"- 
zhi°, stood; a, they said. 

32. I"-gtho"-ga, pmiaa; do-ga, male; kshe no°, that lies outstretched; 

a, they said. 

33. Wi-tsi-go, my grandfather; wa-zlii"-to"-ga, great in courage; do°, 

being; a, they said. 

34. Ga, him; wa-zhi", courage; gi-the, make to be theirs; ta, shall; 

a-ka, they. 86. 
37. Ta, deer; he, horns; sha-be, dark; kshe no", that lies outstretched; 

a, they said. 
40. Wi-tsi-go, my grandfather; wa-tse, triimiph; bo", call or cry; to", 

as he stood; a, they said. 
44. U-ba-xo", a cut to be followed: tha-bthi", three; ga-xe, made; 

no"-zhi", as he stood; a, they said. 

46. Wa-fa-be, black bear; do-ga, the male; kshe, that lies out- 

stretched; a, they said. 

47. Wi-tsi-go, my grandfather; wa-zhi", courage; gi-tha, make to be 

their; ta, shall; a-ka, they. 75. 

50. Mo"-ba-tsi-he, a hummock; ho"-9ka do", one of no particular size; 

a, they said. 

51. Thi-ta-the, tore apart; gthi, pulling it toward himself; no"-the, 

placed; to", as he stood; a, they said. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TRANSLATION. 523 

52. Wa-gthu-shka, insects; zhi°-ga. small. 

53. I, mouth; u-tha-btho"-xe, crunched witliin; tsi-the, quickly; to°, 

as he stood ; a, they said. 

54. I-the-dse, corner of his mouth; i-sdu-ge, the right side; tse, the; 

a, they said. 

55. Wa-bi", blood; a-ba-sho^-tha, trickled do^Ti; tsi-the, quickly; to°, 

as he stood; a, they said. 
61. U-ba-xo". a cut to be followed; do-ba, four; ga-xe, made; no"- 

zhi°. as he stood; a, they said. 
63. Wa-dsu-ta to"-ga, the great animal, the bull; to" no", that stands; 

a, they said. 

67. Mo"-ha, a bank or cliff; pa-fi, the to]); ho^-^ka do", of no par- 

ticular size; a, they said. 

68. Thi-pi-tha, tore down; ga-xe, made it to fall; to", as he stood. 
74. Wa-dsu-ta stse-dse, tall animal, the elk; to" no", that stands; 

a, they said. 

76. Tse-xe, open prairie; xtsi, verily; ge dsi, there, in such a place; 

a, they said. 

77. Mi-ta o-ga-xthe, a sun gazer plant; hi, the stalks; to" no", that 

stand; a, they said. 

78. Thi-bthi"-bthi"-tha, in a twisted shape; i-no"-the, he placed; 

to", as he stood; a, they said. 

84. Wa-dsu-ta zhi"-ga, the small animal, the deer; kshe no", that lies 

outstretched; a, they said. 

85. Wi-tsi-go, my grandfather; pi-fi, gall; thi"-ge, has none; tho°- 

zha, nevertheless; a, they said. 

87. To"-wo"-gtho", villages; do-ba, four; e-dsi a-ka, there were. 

88. To"-wo", villages; ko°-ha, along the borders of; no"-ge kshe, he 

ran; a, they said. 

89. To°-wo", villages; ko"-ha, the borders of; i-thi-sho°-ha, ran 

around; shki do", even then; a, they said. 

90. Wa-pa-lii, deadly weapons; a-bu-zha-zha-ta, fly over him in 

forked lines; bi, they said; shki do", even then; a, they said. 

91. Tse-xi, danger; ga-shi-be, escape; no", always; a, they said. 

92. Zhi"-ga, the little ones; wa-zhi", courage; o"-gi-tha, make of me; 

bi, they; tho", when; shki, and; a, they said. 

93. Tse-xi, dangers; ga-shi-be, escape; ki-the, cause themselves to; 

mo°-thi°, as they travel the path of life; ta, shall; i, they; tsi'^ 
da, they shall. 

94. Zhi"-ga, the little ones; wo", one; shki do", even; a, they said. 



524 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ann. 39 

II. 

(Free translation, p. 59; Osage version, ji. 382.) 

1. He-dsi, at that time and place ; xtsi, verily; a, they said; abi°da, 

it has been said; tsi, house; ga, in this. 8,15,22,24,27,32,34, 
42, 49, 58, 63, 72, 77. 

2. Da-do°, what; wa-zhi°, courage; gi-the, make to be their; mo"- 

thi°, as they travel the path of life; ta, shall; ba, they; do", 
interrogative particle ; a, they said. 

3. No^-ni-o^-ba, pipe; zhi°-ga, little; do°, a; a, they said. 

4. Wa-zhi°, coiu-age, anger; gi-tha, make to be their; hi, they; a, 

they said. 62. 

5. Wa-zhi", courage; gi-tia, make to be their; bi, they; do°, when; 

a, they said. 

6. Mi, sun; hi-e ge, the setting of; ta, there, in that direction. 13, 

20, 40, 56, 75. 

7. We ki i-he-the, use as a means by which to make fall the enemy; 

gi-wa-ts'e-ga, make easy; ki-the, for themselves; mo"-thi°, as 
they travel the path of life; ta, shall; bi" da, they shall. 
9. Wa-zhi°, courage; gi-tha, make to be their; ga, this; no°-zhi° i° 
da, shall stand. 16, 23, 43, 59, 78. 

10. Tsiu-ge, mussel; thi°-kshe, the sitting; no°, the; a, they said. 

11. Wa-zhi", courage; o°-gi-the, make to be our; ta, shall; bi, we; 

a-tha, we shall. 11, 18, 26, 61. 

12. Wa-zhi", courage; o"-gi-tha, we make to be our; bi, we; do", 

when; a, they said. 12. 

14. Wa-zhi", courage; gi-tha, make to be their; bi, they; gi-wa- 
ts'e-ga, make easy; o"-ki-the, make for ourselves; o"-mo°-thi", 
as we travel the path of life; ta bi" da, we shall. 21. 

17. Tse-hi", buffalo hair, a narrow woven band; ga, this; thi"-kshe, 
the sitting; no", the; a, they said. 

25. Wa-zhi"-ga, bird, the eagle; wa-tha-xtlii, evil, cruel disposition; 
thi°-ge, that has none; thi°-kshe no", that sitteth; a, they 
said. 

28. Ho°-ba, day; i-ta-xe, beginning of; tho" dsi, at the; a, they said. 

45, 64. 

29. Thu-e, suddenly; xtsi, verily; wa-ko°-tha, attack; the, went forth; 

do", when; a, they said. 46, 65. 

30. 0-(,u, lowland forest; u-gtho°, within the bend of a river; xtsi, 

verily; ge dsi, there, in such a place; a, they said. 47. 

31. (^'iu-ka to"-ga, the great turkey; thi"-kshe no", that sitteth; a, 

they said. 
33. Hi", feathers; ga-mo"-thi", afloat in the air; kshe, lay; ga-xe, 
matle it to; a, they said. 



LiFLESCHB] RITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TRANSLATION. 525 

35. Hu, voice; wa-to"-!", arose; tsi-gthe, suddenly in the distance; 

thi°, as he moved forth; a, they said. 69. 

36. Tsi-ga-xa, a small war party; wa-tse, to attack; a-tha, they go 

forth; bi, they; do", when; shki, and; a, they said. 52, 70. 

37. Gaxto°, acquit themselves in this very manner; mo"-thi°, as they 

travel the path of life; ta bi° da, they shall. 53, 71. 

38. No^-be-hi, hands; wi-ta, mine; a, they said. 54, 73. 

39. No°-be-lii, hands; gi-the, make to be their; mo°-thi°, as they 

travel the path of life; bi, they; do", when; a, they said. 

55, 74. 
41. No^-be, hands; e-dsi, there, at the slajring of the enemy; wa- 

thi°-ga, absent; zhi, not; ki-the, cause themselves to be; mo°- 

thi°, as they travel the path of life ; ta bi° da, they shall. 57, 76. 
44. I-to" to°-ga, the great horned owl; thi°-kshe no°, that sitteth; a, 

they said. 
48. Mi-ka, raccoon; do-ga, male; thi^-kshe no°, that sitteth; a, they 

said. 

50. Bi-shu-ka, curled or doubled up; i-he-the, made to lie in death; 

kshe, lie; a, they said. 68. 

51. He-dsi, at that time and place; xtsi, verily; wa-tse, triumph; 

niu, to cry, to utter; ga-xe, made ; to°, as he stood; a, they said. 
60. Wa-po-ga to^-ga, the great gray owl; thi^-kshe no", that sitteth; 
a, they said. 

66. Ga-xa, branch, stream: zhi°-ga, small; pe-gtha-gtha, wooded 

brokenly along its course; xtsi, verily; ge dsi, there, at such a 
place; a, they said. 

67. Mi-ka, raccoon; tse-he-xo-dse, young; e-de, a; a, they said. 

Ho'*-be'(7u Ritual. 

Moccasin cutting wi'-gi-e. 

(Free translation, p. 63; Osage version, p. 384.) 

1. He-dsi, at that time and place; xtsi, verily; a, they said; a bi" da, 

it has been said; tsi, house; ga, in this. 26, 45, 63. 

2. Ke, turtle; fi°-dse, tail; ga-tse, serratures; pe-tho°-ba, seven; 

thi"-kshe, that sits having; a, they said. 

3. Ga, that (turtle); fu-e, foot; o°-ki-the, we make to be for our- 

selves; o^-mC-thi", as we travel the path of life; ta bi a, we 
shall; Avi-po^-ga, my younger brothers; e-ki-a, said to one 
another; bi, they; a, they said. 28. 

4. fu-e, foot; o"-ki-the, we make to be for ourselves; o^-mo^-thi", 

as we travel the path of life: bi, we; do", when: shki, and; 
a, they said. 29. 

5. Mi, sun; hi-e, sets; ge, the places where; ta, toward, in the direc- 

tion of. 18, 21, 30, 43, 47, 53. 



526 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ann.39 

6. Xa-dse, grasses; gi-^ta-ge, to lie flattened upon the ground for 

us; o^-ki-the, we cause to be for oiu-selves; o''-mo°-thi°, as we 
travel the path of life; ta bi° da, we shall. 31. 

7. Da-do°, what: ho"-be-ko°, moccasin string; the, make to be, or 

make a symbol of; mo^-thi", as we travel the path of life; ta, 
shall; ba, they; do", interrogative particle; a, they said. 32. 

8. We-ts'a, snake; ni-dse-wa-the, that is of the water, garter snake; 

kshe, that lies outstretched ; no", the; a, they said. 33. 

9. Ga, that (snake); ho°-be-ko°, moccasin string; the, make to be, 

as a symbol of; mo^-thi", as they travel the path of life; bi, 
they; a, they said. 34. 

10. Ho°-be-ko°, moccasin string; the, make to be as a symbol; mo"^- 

thi°, as they travel the path of life; bi, they; do°, when; shki, 
and; a, they said. 35. 

11. Xa-dse, grasses; e-shki-do", even the; a, they said. 36. 

12. Ho^-be-ko", moccasin string; gi-ba-xa, cut or break their; zhi, 

not; ki-the, cause to be for themselves; mo^-thi", as they travel 
the path of life; ta bi a, they shall; wi-^C-ga, my younger 
brothers; e-ki-a, said to one another; bi, they; a, they said. 37. 

13. Da-do°, what; mo°-hi'', knife; gi-the, make to be for themselves 

as a symbol; mo°-thi°, as they travel the path of life; ta, 
shall; ba, they; do°. interrogative particle; a, they said. 38. 

14. Wa-dsu-ta, animal (trope for buffalo) ; shi''-to-zhi'"-ga, yoimg 

man, male; kshe, that lies outstretched; no", the; a, they 
said. 39. 

15. He, horn; i-shdo-ge, right; tse, the, that stands; a, they said. 40. 

16. Ga, that horn; mo°-hi°, knife; gi-the, make to be for themselves 

as a spnbol of; mo°-thi", as they travel the path of lifei; bi, 
they; a, they said. 41. 

17. Mo^-hi", knife; gi-the, make to be as a symbol for themselves; 

mo°-thi", as they travel the path of life; bi, they; do°, when; 
shki, and; a, they said. 42. 

19. Mo°-hi°, knife; gi-pa-hi, their knife to be sharp; ki-the, they 

shall cause for themselves; mo"-thi", as they travel the path 
of life; ta bi a, they shall; wi-5o°-ga, my younger brothers; 
e-ki-a, said to one another; bi, they; a, they said. 44. 

20. Da-do", what; wa-ba-to-be, upon shall they cut in parts; mo°- 

thi", as they travel the path of life; ta, shall; ba, they; do", 
interrogative particle; a, they said. 46. 

22. Ni-ka, a man; wa-k'o", military honors; o-tha-ha, upon whom 

are attached; kshe, all such men; no", the; a, they said. 65. 

23. Ga, him;, wa-ba-to-be, upon they shall cut the skin in parts; 

mo"-thi°, as they travel the path of life; bi, they; a, they 
said. 49. 



LAFLESCHE] EITE OF VIGIL LITEBAL TRANSLATION. 527 

24. Wa-ba-to-be, upon him they cut in parts the skin; mo°-thi°, 

as they travel the path of life; bi, they; do°, when; shki, and; 
a, they said. 50. 

25. Wa-ba-to-be, the act of cutting in parts the skin; gi-o-ts'e-ga, 

shall be easy for them; ki-the, cause to be for themselves; 

mo^-thi", as they travel the path of life; ta bi a, they shall; 

wi-fo^-ga, my yoimger brothers; e-ki-a, said to one another; 

bi, they; a, they said. 51. 
27. Ke, turtle; 9i°-dse, tail; ga-tse, serratures; sha-pe, six; thi°-kshe, 

having as he sits upon the earth; a, they said. 
48. Wa-k'o, a woman; wo", who for the first time; we-da-the, has 

given birth; do", a; a, they said. 70. 
52. Da-do°, what; wa-ba-xtho-ge, upon shall they perforate the skin; 

mo^-thi", as they travel the path of life; ta, shall; ba, they; 

do°, interrogative particle; a, they said. 5S, 64, 69. 

54. Shi°-to, abbreviation of the word shi"-to-zhi°-ga, youth; ho, 

voice ; btho^-xe, cracked, referring to the changing of the voice 
of a youth approacliing manhood; do", a; a, they said. 

55. Ga, him; wa-ba-xtho-ge, upon they shall perforate the skin; mo"- 

thi", as they travel the path of life; bi, they; a, they said. 
60, 66, 71. 

50. Wa-ba-xtho-ge, upon liim they perforate the skin; mo"-thi", as 
they travel the path of life; bi, they; do°, when; shki, and; a, 
they said. 61,67,72. 

57. Wa-ba-xtho-ge, the act of perforating; gi-o-ts'e-ga, easy for our- 
selves; o"-ki-the, we cause to be; o°-mo°-thi°, as we travel the 
path of life; ta bi a, we shall; wi-fC-ga, my yomiger brothers; 
e-ki-a, said to one another; bi, they; a, they said. 62, 68, 73. 

59. Shi-mi, abbreviation of the word shi-mi-zhi''-ga, maiden; ho, 
voice; btho^-xe, cracked, referring to the changing of the voice 
of a maiden apfiroaching womanhood; do°, a; a, they said. 

Kl'-NO'' Wa-tho". 

Painting song. 

(Free translation, p. 70; Osage version, p. 387.) 
1. 

Mo°-thi"-ka, earth; gi, appear; a bi the, they said. 

Mo''-thi"-ka, earth; gi, appear; a bi tha, they said; he the, he the, 

vocables. 
Tse-xo-be e-go'', spider-like; e-wo° tlii", he who caused; a do", and so. 
Wi-tsi-go, my grandfather; gi, appears; a bi the, they said; he the, 

vocables. 
Mo°-thi°-ka, earth; gi, appears; a bi the, they said; he the, vocables. 



528 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [etii. Ann. 39 

2. 

Ho°-bthi°-sha-be e-go°, black bean-like; e-wo° thi", he who caused; 
a do", and so. 

3. 

Ta-biu-gka e-go", whitleather-like ; e-wo° thi°, he who caused; a do°, 
and so. 

4. 

Ki-fda, leech; e-de, a; e-wo" thi", he who caused; a-do", and sOo 

Wl'-GI-E. 

1. Ha, Ho; tse-xo-be, spider; e-go",like; e-de, a; a, they said. 

2. Zhi°-ga, the little ones; zhu-i-ga, bodies; tha, of which to make; 

bi, they; thi^-ge a-tha, there is nothing; wi-tsi-go e, my grand- 
father; e-gi-a, said to him; bi, they; a, they said. 10, 19, 28. 

3. He-dsi, at tliat time and place; xtsi, verUy; a, they said. 11, 

20, 29. 

4. Zhi°-ga, the little ones; zhu-i-ga, bodies; o°-tha, make of me; ba, 

they; tho°-ta, fitting; mi"-kshe i" da, I am, I who sit here. 13, 
22, 31. 

5. Ni, waters; a-ki-tha-zha-ta, parting of in forked lines; ga, these; 

kshe, that lie. 14, 23, 32. 

6. Wa-ko°-da, god of waters ; o°-ki-tha-zha-ta, parting to make way 

for me: bi, they; a-thi" he i" da, in my life's journey. 15, 
24, 33. 

7. Zhi°-ga, the little ones; zhu-i-ga, bodies; o^-tha, make of me; bi, 

they; do°, when; a, they said. 16, 25, 34. 

8. Wa-ko°-da, god of waters; a-ki-tha-zha-ta, make way for them 

in forked lines; bi, they; ki-the, cause themselves to be; mo"- 
thi", as they travel the path of life; ta bi'a, they shall; zhi°-ga, 
the little ones. 17, 26, 35. 

9. Ha, Ho; ho°-bthi° sha-be e-go", black bean-like; e-de, a; a, they 

said. 
12. Zhi"-ga, the little ones; zhu-i-ga, bodies; tha, of which to make; 

bi, they; thi°-ge, have nothing; e-she do", you have said; a, 

they said. 21,30. 
18. Ha, Ho; ta-biu-fka e-go", whitleather-like, leech; e-de, a; a, they 

said. 
27. Ha, Ho; ki-fda, leech; e-de, a; a, they said. 



LA.PLBSCHB] KITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TEANSLATION. 529 

Kl'-NO'' Wl'-GI-E. 

Symbolic painting ritual. 

(Free translation, p. 74; Osage version, p. 388.) 

1. Da-do°, what; ki-no°, symbolic painting; gi-the, make to be or 

to use; nio''-thi°, as they travel the path of life; ta, shall; ba, 
they; do", interrogative particle; a, they said. 

2. Wa-ko'i-da, god; ho°-ba do°, of day; thi°-kshe, that sitteth; a, 

they said. 18. 

3. Ga, him; ki-no°, symbolic painting; gi-the, make to be or to use; 

nW-thi", as they travel the path of life; bi, they; a, they 
said. 5. 

4. Wa-ko°-da, god; tse-ga, early; xtsi, verily; u-ga-zhu-dse, as 

though stricken with crimson; hi no° no", comes habitually; 
a, they said. 

6. Ki-no", symbolic painting; gi-the, make to be; mo°-thi°, as they 

travel the path of life; bi, they; do", when; a, they said. 

7. Ki-no°, when they use that symbol; i-ts'a, causes of death; 

thi°-ge, having none; ki-the, cause themselves to be; mo°- 
thi°, as they travel the path of life; ta, shall; bi a, they; zhi^-ga, 
the little ones. 

8. Da-do", what; wa-gthe, as a symbolic plume; gi-the, make to 

be or to use; mo'^-thi", as they travel the path of life; ta, shall; 
ba, they; do", interrogative particle; a, they said. 

9. Wa-ko^-da, god; tse-ga, early; xtsi, verily; e-tho"-be, appears; 

hi no" no", comes habitually; a, they said. 

10. I-sdu-ge, his right side; dsi, there, on that side; a, they said. 

11. Wa-gthe to", a plume-hke shaft; e-go", resembling; to" no", that 

stands; a, they said. 

12. Ga, that shaft; wa-gthe, symbolic plume; gi-tha, make to be; 

bi, they; a, they said. 

13. Wa-gthe, plmne; gi-the, make to be; mo"-thi", as they travel the 

path of life; bi, they; do", when; a, they said. 

14. Wa-gthe, plume; gi-sho"-tha, droop or fall; zhi, not; ki-the, 

cause it to; mo"-thi", as they travel the path of life; ta, shall; 
i, they; tsi" da, they shall. 

15. Da-do", what; wa-no"-p'i° to", as a symbolic gorget; kshi-the, 

put upon him; mo"-thi", as they travel the path of life; ta, 
shall; ba, they; do", interrogative particle; a, they said. 

16. Tsiu-ge, mussel; thi"-kshe no", that sitteth; a, they said. 

17. Ga, that; no"-p'i", as a gorget; kshi-the, put upon him; a-ka, 

they. 

19. I-bi-9o"-dse, close upon his body; xtsi, verily; a, they said. 

20. No°-p'i'', as a gorget; kshi-the, put upon liim; a-ka, they. 

3594°— 25 1 34 



530 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [kth. ann. 39 

21. I-ts'a, causes of death; thi"-ge, having none; mo^-thi", as they 

travel the path of life; ta, shall; bi a, they; zhi°-ga, the littlie 
ones. 

22. He-dsi, at that time and place; xtsi, verily; a, they said. 30, 36. 

23. Da-do", what; a-ko°-ta, as a wristband; kshi-the, put upon him; 

mo"-tlii", as they travel the path of life; ta, shall; ba, they; 
do", interrogative particle; a, they said. 

24. Da-gthe, captive; a-ko°-ta, wristband; e shno° bi no", that which 

is spoken of as; a, they said. 

25. A-ko''-ta, as a wristband ; kshi-the, put upon him ; a-ka, they. 29. 

26. Da-gthe, captive; a-ko''-ta, wTistband; wi°, a; e-^ka, in truth. 

27. E-wa-ka, mean; zhi, not; a-ka, they. 

28. Wa-no°-xe, spirit; e-de, a; a, they said. 

31. Da-do", what; pi-tha to", as a girdle; kshi-the, put upon him; 

ta, shall; ba, they; do", interrogative particle; a, they said. 

32. Da-gthe, captive; e-de, a; a, they said. 

33. Pi-tha to", as a girdle; kshi-the, put upon him; bi, they; a, they 

said. 

34. Da-gthe, captive; e-de, a; e-9ka, in truth; e-wa-ka, mean; ba, 

they: zlii, not; a, they said. 

35. Wa-no°-xe, spirit; e-de, a; pi-tha to", as a girdle; ksi-tha, put 

upon him; bi, they; a, they said. 

37. Da-do", what; ho"-be to", as moccasins; kshi-the, put upon him; 

ta, shall; ba, they; do", interrogative particle; a, they said. 

38. Da-gthe, captive; wi", a; a, they said. 

39. Ho"-be to", as moccasins; kshi-tha, put upon him; bi, they; a, 

they said. 42. 

40. Da-gthe, captive; wi", a; e-?ka, in truth; e-wa-ka, mean; ba, 

they; zhi, not; a, they said. 

41. Wa-no"-xe, spirit; a, they said. 

No^-zm^ Wa-tho''. 

Rising song. 

(Free translation, p. 76: Osage version, p. 389.) 

1. 

Ha, O; Sho-ka, ceremonial messenger; a-no°-zhi" tse the, let us now 

arise. (Lines 1, 2, 4, and 5.) 
A-no"-zhi" tse the, let us now arise. (Line 3.) 



Ha, O; Sho-ka, ceremonial messenger; a-mo"-thi" tse the, let us now 

go forth. (Lines 1, 2, 4, and 5.) 
A-mo"-thi" tse the, let us now go forth. (Line 3.) 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TRANSLATION. 531 

Tsi Ta'-pe Wa-tho''. 

House approach song. 

(Free translation, p. 80; Osage version, p. 390.) 

Tsi, house; wi°, a; e-dsi, there; tse do", stands; dsi, there; thehi°da, 

I go. (Lines 1, 2, and 3.) 
Dsi, there; the hi" da, go I. (Line 5.) 
Ho°-ga, the Ho°-ga subdivision ; tsi, house; wi°. a; e-dsi, there; a-ka 

do", they dwell; dsi, there; the hi"' da, go L (Line 5.) 
Tsi, house; wi°, a; e-dsi, there; a-ka do", dwell there; dsi, there; the 

hi" da, go L (Lines 6 and 7.) 

Wa'-ci-thu-9e Wi'-gi-e. 

Taking footsteps ritual. 

(Free translation, p. 81; Osage version, p. 390.) 

1. Da-do°, what; wa-(;i-thu-fe, take footsteps toward; mo"-tlu", as 

they travel the path of life; ta, shall; ba, they; do°, interroga- 
tive particle; a', they said. 12, 21, 31. 

2. Mi, sun; hi-e, setting; ge, of the; ta, in the direction of. 13, 

22, 32. 

3. Ni, river: u-ga-xthi. bend; wi", a; a, they said. 

4. Ga, that; a-fi-thu-fe, take footsteps toward; mo"-thi", as they 

travel the path of life: bi, they; a, they said. 7, 24. 

5. Ni, river; u-ga-xthi. bend; wi", a; e-fka, in truth; e-wa-ka, mean; 

ba, they; zhi, not; a, they said. 

6. Tsi, house; zhi"-ga, little; wi", a; a, they said. 

8. A-fi-thu-^e, take footsteps toward; mon"-thi", as they travel the 

path of life; bi, they; do", when; a, they said. 10, 17, 19, 
27, 29, 36, 38. 

9. A-fi-thu-fe, take footsteps toward; gi-o-ts'e-ga, easy for them- 

selves; ki-the, cause to be; mo°-thi", as the}' travel the path of 
life; ta, shall; i, they; tsi" da, they shall. 
11. Wa-xo-be, shi'ine: zhi"-ga, little; ha-gtha-thi, carrying with them; 
e-dsi, coming there; ba she tse, j'ou shall. 20, 30, 39. 

14. Ni, river; u-ga-xthi, bend; tho"-ba, two; wa-^i-thu-fe, take foot- 

steps toward : mo°-thi", as they travel the path of life ; bi, they; 
a, they said. 

15. Ni, river; u-ga-xthi, bend; tho"-ba, two; e-fka, in truth; e-wa-ka, 

mean; ba, they; zhi, not; a, they said. 

16. Tsi, house; zlii"-ga, little; tho°-ba, two; wa-^i-thu-ge, take foot- 

steps toward ; mo'-thi", as they travel the path of life; bi, they; 
a, they said. 
18. Wa-fi-thu-fe, take footsteps toward; gi-o-ts'e-ga, easy for them- 
selves; ki-the, cause to be; mo"-thi", as they travel the path of 
life; ta, shall; bi a, they; zhi"-ga, the little ones. 28, 37. 



532 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [etii. anx. 3» 

23. Ni, river; u-ga-xthi, bend; tha-bthi", thi-ee; a, they said. 

25. Ni, river; u-ga-xthi, bend; tha-bthi", three; e-?ka, in truth; 

e-wa-ka, mean; ba, they: zhi, not; a, they said 

26. Tsi, house; zhi°-ga, little; tha-bthi°, three; wa-(;'i-thu-?e, take 

footsteps toward; mo"-thi°, as they travel the path of life; bi, 
they; a, they said. 

33. Ni, river; u-ga-xthi, bend; do-ba, fom-; a-fi-thu-ce, take foot- 

steps toward ; mo°-thi", as they travel the ])ath of life; bi, they; 
a, they said. 

34. Ni, river; u-ga-xthi, bend; do-ba, four; e-pka, in truth; e-wa-ka, 

mean; ba, they; zhi, not; a, they said. 

35. Tsi, house; zhi"-ga, little; do-ba, four; wa-fi-thu-^e, take foot 

steps toward ; mo'^-thi", as they travel the path of life ; bi, they; 
a, they said. 

Wa-no'^-siiki-ge Wi'-gi-e. 

slip otT the moccasins ritual. 

(Free translation, p. 84; Osage version, p. 391.) 

1. Da-do", what; wa-no"-sdu-dse, slip off upon; o°-mo°-thi°, as we 

travel the path of life; ta, shall; ba, we; do", interrogative 
particle; a, they said. 

2. Mi, sun; lii-e, setting; ge, of; ta, in the direction of. 8, 14, 20. 

3. Shi"-to, youth; ho, voice; btho°-xe, broken; do", a; a, they said. 

4. Ga, him; wa-no"-sdu-dse, slip off upon; mo"-thi", as they travel 

the path of life; bi, they; a, they said. 10, 16, 22. 

5. Wa-no"-sdu-dse, slip off upon him; mo''-thi", as they travel the 

path of life; bi, they; do", when; shki, and; a, they said. 
11, 17, 23. 

6. Wa-no"-sdu-dse, slip off upon; gi-o-ts'e-ga, easy for ourselves; 

o"-mo"-thi°, as we travel the path of life; ta, shall; bi a, we; 
wi-po°-ga, my younger brothers; e-ki-a, said to one another; 
bi, they; a, they said. 12, IS, 24. 

7. Da-do", what; wa-no"-sdu-dse, slip off upon; ga no", shall; shki, 

and; a hi", interrogative particles; a, they said. 13, 19. 
9. Shi-mi, maiden; ho, voice; btho"-xe, broken; do", a; a, they 

said. 
10. Ni-ka, man; wa-k'o", military honors; u-tha-ha, to whom are 

attached; kshe, that lies; a, they said. 
21. Wa-k'o, woman; wo", for the first time; we-da-the, gav-e birth to 

a cliild; do", a; a, they said. 



laflesche] kite of vigil liiekal tkanslation. 533 

Wa-k'on-c;i-ha Op-she Wa-thon. 

Animal skins walk upon song. 

(Free translation, p. 86; Osage version, p. 392. 

1. 

Tsi, village; u-ho"-ge, the border of; dsi, there; a-tsi-e the, I have 
come. (Repeated three times.) 



Tsi, village; u-sda, places where the ground is trodden bare; ge, 
where; tlsi, there; a-tsi-e tho, I have come. (Repeated three 
times.) 

3. 

O-shko" bi, the frequented places; ge, the; dsi, there; a-tsi-e tho, I 
have come. (Repeated three times.) 

4. 

Tsi-da-Qe, back of the house; dsi, there; a-tsi-e tho, I have come. 
(Repeated three times.) 

5. 

Tsi-zhe-be, door; dsi, there; a-tsi-e tho, I have come. (Repeated 
three times.) 

6. 

fo^-ho", the whitened animal skins: ge, the; dsi, there; a-tsi-e tho, 
I have come. (Repeated three times.) 



Bo-bthi, skins that sway in the wind; ge, the; dsi, there; a-tsi-e tho, 
I have come. (Repeated three times.) 

8. 

Thi u-ba-he, side of the house; dsi. there; a-tsi-e tho, I have come. 
(Repeated three times.) 

9. 

O-ko^-pka, the middle part of the house; dsi, there; a-tsi-e tho, I 
have come. (Repeated three times.) 

10. 

O-zhe-tsi, the fireplace; a-dsi, there; a-tsi-e tho, I have come. 
(Repeated tlircc times.) 



534 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [eth. ann, 39 

11. 

Tsi-ho-ko°, the smoke veut at the roof; tlsi, there; a-tsi-e tho, I have 
come. (Repeated three times.) 

12. 

Ho°-ba', into the da^'s; ge, the; dsi, there; a-tsi-e tho, I have come. 
(Repeated tlrree times.) 

Wa-xo-be Ga-xi Wa-thon. 

The sacred hawk awaken by striking song. 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 90; Osage version, p. 393) 

Only one word in each of the six stanzas of this song can be trans- 
lated. These six words are as follows: (1) fi, feet; (2) lii, legs; (3) 
zhu, body; (4) a, arms; (5) pn, head; (6) i, mouth. All the other 
words, having long become obsolete, are not translatable. 

Kl-THl-TON Wa-tho.^ 

Reversing song. 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 91: Osage version, p. 393.) 

Only one word of this song is translatable; that is, ki-thi-to", to 

tm-n over so as to reverse the position of the object. All the other 

words are either purposely corrupted or have lost their meaning 

from long disuse. 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 94; Osage version, p. 394.) 

Only the first word at the beginning of each line is translatable; 
the other words which compose the four lines of the five stanzas 
are either purposely corrupted or have lost their meaning because of 
disuse. First stanza, thi-to", to touch; second stanza, thu-shke, to 
imtie; third stanza, gtha-tha, to loosen; fourth stanza, ga-wa, to open 
wide; fifth stanza, tsi-the, to pass forth as in birth. 

Song 4. 
(Free translation, p. 95; Osage version, p. 395) 

1. 

Thi-to°, to touch; mo"-!!! sho ho, archaic words; tsi-the, to pass as 
in birth; ta ko" tha, archaic words. (Lines 1, 2, 5, and 6.) 

Kia ha, downward; wa ha, vocables; tsi-the, to pass as in birth; 
ta ko° tha, archaic words. (Lines 3 and 4 in all the stanzas.) 



LAFLESCHB] KITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TRANSLATION. 535 

2. 



Thu-shke, to untie; mo° ki sho ho, archaic words; tsi-the, to pass as 
in birth; ta ko" tha, archaic words. 

3. 

Gtha-tha, to loosen; mo^-ki sho ho, archaic words; tsi-the, to pass as 
in birth; ta ko° tha, archaic words. 



Ga-wa, to open wide; mo" ki sho ho, archaic words; tsi-the, to pass 
as in birth; ta ko" tha, archaic words. 



Tsi-the, to pass as in birth; mo" ki sho ho, archaic words; tsi-the, 
to pass as in birth; ta ko° tha, archaic words. 

Song *5. 
(Free translation, p. 97; Osage version, p. 396.) 

Ni-ka, man; e-tho, thou; sho°, complete, perfect: ni da, thou art; 

Ha-we, a word of greeting. (Lines 1, 2, and 3.) 
Ni-ka, man; wa ha, vocables; ko°-ha, near to us; tha tsi i" da, thou 

hast come; Ha-we. 
Ni-ka, man; e, a; tho wi hi" da, is here present. 
Ki-no°, insignia; tho-to° tha, ' straight, correct; tho-to° a, correct. 

(Lines 6 and 7.) 
Ki-no", insignia; tho wi hi" da, is here present; da, vocable. 

Song 6. 

(Free translation, p. 99; Osage version, p. 396.) 

Tsi-go, grandfather; tsi, has come; he koi, archaic words; tha-no°-te, 
you dance. (Lines 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 in all the stanzas.) 

Ba-xo°, waving or undulating line; tse, the; he ko i, archaic words; 
tha-no"-te, you dance. (Line 4 in the first and tliu'd stanzas.) 

Tho-to°, straight line; tse, the; he ko i, archaic words; tha-no°-te, 
you dance. (Line 4 in the second and fourth stanzas.) 

Song 7. 

(Free translation, p. 102; Osage version, p. 397.) 

1. 

Tsi-go, grandfather; tha, abbreviation of tha-tsi e, you have come; 

tsi-go, grandfather; tha-tsi e, you have come. (Lines 1, 5, and 7 

in all the six stanzas.) 
Ta-ko i" da, mysterious it is; ha-we, ha-we, greetings; he, vocable. 

(Lines 2, 4, 6, and 8 in all the stanzas.) 



536 THE OSAGE TRIBE. Feth. ann. 39 

fi no", your feet; tha, abbreviation of tha-tsi e, you have come; 
fi no", your feet; tha-tsi e, you have come. (Line 3 in the first 
stanza.) 

2. 

Hi no", your legs; tha, abbreviation of tha-tsi e, you have come; 
hi no", }'our legs; tha-tsi e, you have come. (Line 3 in second 
stanza.) 

3. 

Zhu no", your body: tha, abbreviation of tha-tsi e, you have come; 
zhu no", your body; tha-tsi e, you have come. (Line 3 in third 
stanza.) 

4. 

A no", arms; tha, abbreviation of tha-tsi e, you have come; a no", 
your arms; tha-tsi c, you have come. (Line 3 in fourth stanza.) 

.5. 

Pa no", your head; tha, abbreviation of tha-tsi e, you have come; 
Ija no", your head; tha-tsi e, you have come. (Line 3 in fifth 

stanza.) 

6. 

I no", your mouth; tha, abbreviation of tha-tsi e, you have come; 
I no", your mouth; tha-tsi e, you have come. (Line 3 in sixth 

stanza.) 

Song 8. 

(Free translation, i). 103; Osage version, p. 398.) 
1. 

Tsi-go, grandfather; tha-tsi e, you have come; sho" ni da, perfect 
thou art; we, vocable. (Lines 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 in all the six stanzas.) 

^i no", your feet; tha-tsi e, you have come; sho" ni <hi, perfect thou 
art; we, vocable. (Line 3 in the first stanza.) 



Hi no", your legs; tha-tsi e, you have come; sho" ni da, perfect thou 
art; wc, vocable. (Line 3 in the second stanza.) 



Zliu no", your body; tha-tsi e, you have come; sho" ni da, perfect thou 
art; we, vocable. (Line 3 in the third stanza.) 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TRANSLATION. 537 



4. 



A no", arms; tha-tsi e, you have come; sho° ni da, perfect thou art; 
we, vocable. (Line 3 in the fourth stanza.) 



Pa no", your head; tha-tsi e, you have come; sho° ni da, perfect thou 
art; we, vocable. (Line 3 in the fifth stanza.) 

6. 

I no", your mouth; tha-tsi e, you have come; sho° ni da, perfect thou 
art; we, vocable. (Line 3 in the sixth stanza.) 

Wa-no''-xe Wa-tho" 

Spirit songs. 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 104; Osage version, p. 399.) 

1. 

Wa-no''-xe, spirits; i a-do°, coming; a-no^-k'o", I hear; mi"-kshe no", 
as I sit. (Lines 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 in all the four stanzas.) 

Wa-no^-xe, spirits; tsi-ho-ko", smoke vent; dsi, to the; i a-do", com- 
ing; a-no°-k'o°, I hear; mi°-kshe no", as I sit. (Line 3 in the first 

stanza.) 

2. 

Wa-no^-xe, spirits; tsi-da-pe, back of the house; dsi, to the; i a-do", 
coming; a-no"-k'o°, I hear; nii°-kshe no", as I sit. (Line 3 in the 
second stanza.) 

3. 

Wa-no"-xe, spirits; tsiu-ho"-ge, ends of the house; dsi, to the; i a-do°, 
coming; a-no°-k'o", I hear; mi°-kshe, as I sit. (Line 3 in the third 
stanza.) 

4. 

Wa-no"-xe, spirits; tsi-hiu-gthe, frame of the house, within; dsi, to 
the; i a-do", coming; a-no"-k'o°, I hear; mi"-kshe, as I sit. 
(Line 3 in the fourth stanza.) 

Song 2. 

( Free transliition, p. 105; Osage version, p. WO.) 

Wa-no"-xe, spirits; dsi, where they dwell; bthe, I go; ta, ready; to* 

he, I stand; the, vocable. (Lines 1, 3, and 5.) 
E, vocable; Wi-tsi-go, to my grandfathers; bthe, I go; ta, reaiiy; to" 

he, I stand; the, vocable. (Lines 2, 4, and 6.) 



538 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [kth. Ann. 39 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 106; Osage version, p. 400.) 
1. 

Wa-no^-xe, to the spirit land; a-tha, gone; bi the, they have; the, 

vocable. (Lines 1, 4, and 6 in the first stanza.) 
U-zho°-ge, a trail, path; a-tha, gone, having made; bi the, they have; 

the, vocable. (Line 2 in the first stanza.) 
U-zho''-ge, a trail, path; u-wa-pa, I travel upon; tlii" he, as I move, 

even now. (Lines 3, 5, and 7 in the first stanza.) 



Wa-no°-xe, to the spirit land; a-tha, gone; bi the, they have; the, 

vocable. (Lines 1 and 6 in the second stanza.) 
U-zho^-ge, a trail, path; a-tha, gone, having made; bi the, they have; 

the, vocable. (Line 2 in the second stanza.) 
U-zho^-ge, trail, path; u-\va-pa, I travel upon; thi" he, as I move, 

even now. (Lines 3, 5, and 7 in the second stanza.) 
Wi-tsi-go, my grandfathers; a-tha, following them; bi the, where they 

have gone. (Line 4 in the second stanza.) 

No'"-ZHi''-ZHo'' Wa-tho". 

The rite of ^^gil. 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 108; Osage version, p. 400.) 
1. 

Ha-zho°, to sleep; a ki-the, I cause myself to. 

2. 
Ho°-bthe, to dream; a ki-the, I cause myself to. 

3. 
Ho^-bthe, ye dreams; gi-the, come ye hither. 

4. 
Ho°-bthe, ye dreams; go^-fe, tell me of the future. 

5. 

Tsi, house; u-da-ko", lignted by fire within; no"-be, my hands; 
o^-xo-dse tha, are browned. 



UIFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TRANSLATION. 539 

6. 

Tsi, house; u-da-ko°, lighted by fire within; i°-dse, my face; o°-fa-be 
tha, is blackened. 

7. 

Tsi, house; u-da-ko", lighted by fire within; ga-mo", downy feathers 

(upon the heads of the assembled No''-ho''-zhi°-ga) ; a-to"-be tha, 

I see. 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 110; Osage version, p. 402.) 
1. 

No°-be, my hands; o"-xo-dse, the browning of; u-wa-ni-ke no", an 
act which I make to be a part of my being; ta-ko i" da, is sacred. 
(Lines 1, 2, and 5 in the first stanza.) 

E tho, it is the act; wa-da-da, of supplication; e tho wa-na, it is 
indeed. (Lines 3 ami 4 in all the five stanzas.) 



No^-be, my hands; o"-pa-be, the blackening of; u-wa-ni-ke no", an 
act which I make to be a part of my being; ta-ko i" da, is sacred. 
(Lines 1, 2, and 5 in the second stanza.) 

3. 

I''-dse, my face; o^-xo dse, the browning of; u-wa-ni-ke no", an act 
wliich I make to be a part of my being; ta-ko i" da ha, is sacred. 
(Lines 1, 2, and 5 in the third stanza.) 



I°-dse, my face; o"-(;'a-be, the blackening of; u-wa-ni-ke no", an act 
which I make to be a part of my being; ta-ko i" da ha, is sacred. 
(Lines 1, 2, and 5 in the fourth stanza.) 



I"-dse, my face; o"-ho"-ba, brightened by the light of day; u-wa-ni-ke 
no", an act which I make to be a part of my being; ta-ko in da ha, 
is sacred. (Lines 1, 2, and 5 in the fifth stanza.) 



540 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. Ann. 39 

Wa-da Wa-tho'*. 

Prayer songs. 

Song 1. 

(!Free translation, p. Ill; Osage version, p. 403.) 
1. 

Wa-da, my prayer; da, vocable; wa-da, my prayer; da, vocable; 

e-tha, this is. 
Wa-da, my prayer; da, vocable; e-tha, this is; wa-da, my prayer; da, 

vocable. (Lines 2 and 3 of the song.) 
Wa-da, my prayer; da, vocable; e-tha, this is. 

Song 2. 
(Free translation, p. 112; Osage version, p. 403.) 

1. 

Bthe 111" da, I am going; ha da, vocables; bthe hi" da, I am going; 
da, vocable. (Lines 1,2, and 3 of the song.) 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 113; Osage version, p. 403.) 
1. 

Tsi-go, grandfather; k'o°, to perform a great act; bthe hi° da, I am 
going; da, vocable. (Lines 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 8 of the song.) 

K'o°, to perform a great act; bthe hi° da, I am going; da, vocable. 
(Lines 4 and 6 of the song.) 

Song 4. 
(Free translation, p. 114; Osage version, p. 403.) 

1. 

Btho, all; a-gi-pto i" da, I have assembled; ha, vocable; btho, all; 

a-gi-fto i" da, I have assembled; da, vocable. (Lines 1 and 2.) 
Btho i hi" da, all that there is; da, vocable; btho i hi" da, all that 

there is; da, vocable. (Line 3.) 
Tsi-go, grandfather; k'o", to perform a great act; bthe hi" da, I am 

going; da, vocable; btho, all; a-gi-pto i" da, I have assembled; ha, 

vocable. (Line 4.) 
Btho, all; a-gi-cj-to i" da, I have assembled; ha da, vocables; btho i hi" 

da, all that there is. (Line 5.) 



laflesche] kite of vigil literal tkanslation. 541 

Pe-xe Thu-^e Wi'-gi-e. 

Rattle take up ritual. 

(Free translation, p. 115; Osage version, p. 403.) 

1. Da-do°, what; pe-xe, rattle; gi-the, make to be their; mo°-thi", 

as they travel the path of life; ta. shall; ha, they; do", inter- 
rog.itive particle; a, they said. 

2. Pa, head; no" e-de, a; pe-xe, rattle; gi-tha, they make to be 

their; hi, they; a, they said. 

3. Pa, head; no" e-de, a; e-fka, in truth; e-wa-ka, mean; ba. they; 

zhi, not; a, they said. 

4. I"-gtho"-ga, puma; do-ga, male; kshe, that lies outstretched; a, 

they said. 11, 17. 

5. Wa-pa, head; i-ta, his; thi"-kshe, that sitteth; a, they said. 

6. Ga, that; pe-xe, rattle; gi-tha, make to be their; hi, they; a, 

they said. 

7. Pe-xe, rattle; gi-the, make to be their; mo"-thi", as they travel 

the path of life; bi, they; do", when; shki, and; a, they said. 

8. Mi, sun; lii-e, setting; ge, of; ta, in the direction of. 25, 36, 

44, 52, 60. 

9. We-thi-hi-dse, use against the enemy ceremonially; gi-wa-ts'e-ga, 

easy for themselves; ki-the, cause to be; mo°-thi°, as they 
travel the path of life; ta, shall; bi a, they; wi-(;'o°-ga, my 
younger brothers; e-ki-a, said to one another; bi, they; a, they 
said. 42, 50, 58, 66. 
10. Da-do", what; pe-xe fu, rattle seeds; the, use; mo"-tlu°, as they 
travel the path of life; ta, shall; ba, they: do", interrogative 
particle; a, they said. 

12. Ili-k'e, teeth; i-sdu-ge, of the right jaw; kshe, that lies; a, they 

said. 

13. Ga, those; pe-xe (j-u, rattle seeds; the, use; mo°-thi", as they 

travel the path of life; bi, they; a, they said. 

14. Pe-xe fu, rattle seeds; the, use; mo"-thi", as they travel the path 

of life; bi, they; do", when; a, they said. 

15. Pe-xe, rattle; gi-^a-thu, clear in sound; ki-the, cause to be; mo°- 

thi", as they travel the path of life; ta, shall; bi a, they; wi- 
9o°-ga, my younger brothers; e-ki-a, said to one another; bi, 
they; a, they said. 

16. Da-do", what; pe-xe i-ba, rattle handle; the, use; mo"-thi", as 

they travel the path of life; ta, shall; ba, they; do", interroga- 
tive particle; a, they said. 

18. A-xi-be, lower arm, foreleg; i-sdu-ge, the right; kshe, that lies; 

a, they said. 

19. Ga, that; pe-xe i-ba, rattle handle; the, use; mo"-thi°, as they 

travel the path of life; bi, they; a, they said. 



542 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ANN. 39 

20. Pe-xe i-ba, rattle handle; the, use; mo^-thi", as they travel the 

path of life; hi, they; do", when; shki, and; a, they said. 

21. Pe-xe i-ba, rattle handle; i-ts'a, causes of death; thi°-ge, having 

none; ki-the, cause themselves to; mo°-thi°, as they travel the 
path of life; ta, shall; hi a, they; wi-fo^-ga, my younger broth- 
ers; e-ki-a, said to one another; hi, they; a, they said. 

22. Ga-mo"-dse, the dust -witliin the rattle; ga, this; thi^-kshe, sit- 

ting; shki, and; a, they said. 

23. E-shki do°, that also; a, they said. 29. 

24. Wa-thi°-e-9ka, without a purpose; zlii i" da, it is not. 

26. Wa-shi-shi to", possessions; bi, they, or of the enemy; e no° bi 

no", spoken of as; a, they said. 

27. Sho°, of every kind; xtsi, verily: pa-xe i" da, I have made them 

to be. 

28. Mo^-shi ta, at the upper part; u-thi-k'u-dse, where a hole is 

drilled; ga, this; tse, that stands; shki, also; a, they said. 

30. Wa-tlii°-e-9ka, without a purpose; she-mo°, I have acted, made; 

mo^-zhi i° da, I have not. 

31. Wa-gthi-shka zlu°-ga, insects, living creatures. 

32. Be, whoever; zhin-ga, little ones, offspring; i-ta i, theirs; shki 

do°, they may be; a, they said. 

33. U-ki-o°-the, throw themselves into, as into a snare; o"-ga-xe, we 

make them to; o^-mo^-thi", as we travel the path of life; ta, 
shall; bi a, we; wi-po°-ga, my younger brothers; e-ki-a, said 
to one another; bi, they; a, they said. 

34. He-dsi, at that time and place; xtsi, verily; a, they said; a bi° 

da, it has been said; tsi, house; ga, in this. 

35. Ga-fu-the, soxmded the rattle with a stroke; the-tha, toward a 

certain point; bi, they; do°, when; a, they said. 

37. Shi"-to, youth; ho, voice; btho°-xe, broken; do", a; a, they said. 

38. A-ga-pa-thu, upon him they sounded the rattle; the-tha, delivered 

the stroke; bi, they; a, they said. 46, 54, 62. 

39. Wa-ga-fa-thu, the act of soimding the rattle and delivering the 

stroke; mo°-thi", as they travel the path of life; bi, they; do°, 
when; shki, and; a, they said. 47, 55, 63. 

40. Wa-ga-fa-thu, the act of sounding the rattle and delivering the 

stroke; gi-wa-ts'e-ga, easy for themselves; ki-the, cause to be 
mo"-thi", as they travel the path of life; ta, shall; bi a, they 
wi-9o"-ga, my younger brothers; e-ki-a, said to one -another 
bi, they; a, they said. 48, 56, 64. 

41. I-gthi-hi-dse, use against the enemy, ceremonially; mo^-thi", as 

they travel the path of life; bi, they; do°, when; shki, and; 
a, they said. 49, 57, 65. 



LAFLESCHB] RITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TRANSLATION. 543 

43. I-tho°-bi-o", a second time; xtsi, verily; ga-pa-thu, sounded the 

rattle and delivered the stroke: thc-tha, toward a certain 

point; hi, they; do", when; a, thej- said. 
45. Shi-mi, maiden; ho, voice; btho°-xe, broken; do", a; a, they said. 
53. Ni-ka, man; wa-k'o°, military honors; o-tha-ha. to whom are 

attached; do", a; a, they said. 
61. Wa-k'o, woman; wo", for the first time; we-da-the, gave birth to 

a child; do", a; a, they said. 

Song 1. 

(Free translation,]). 118; Osage version, p. -105.) 

1. 

K'o°, to perform a great act; bthe i" da, I go forth; he, vocable. 
(Lines 1, 2, 4, and 5 of the song.) 

K'o", to perform a great act; bthe i° da, I go forth; ha we he, voca- 
bles. (Line 3 in the song.) 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 119; Osage version, p. 406.) 



Da-do", of the things; wi-ta, that are mine; e tho, behold; k'o" no", 

the power to act; wi-ta, that is mine; do" ha, is best of all. (Lines 

1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 in all the six stanzas.) 
fi, feet; wi-ta, mine: e tho, behold; k'o" no", the power to act with 

them; wi-ta, that is mine; do" ha, is best of all. (Line 4 in the 

first stanza.) 

2. 

Hi, legs; wi-ta, mine; e tho, behold; k"o" no", the power to act with 
them; wi-ta, that is mine; do" ha. is best of all. (Line 4 in the 
second stanza.) 

3. 

Zhu, body; wi-ta, mine: e tho, behold; k'o" no", the power to act 
with it; wi-ta, that is mine: do" ha, is best of all. (Line 4 in the 
third stanza.) 

4. 

A, arms; wi-ta, mine; e tho, behold; k'o" no", the power to act with 
them; Avi-ta, that is mine; do" ha, is best of all. (Line 4 in the 
fom-th stanza.) 

5. 

Pa, head; wi-ta, mine; e tho, behold: k'o" no", the power to act with 
it; wi-ta, that is mine; do" ha, is best of all. (Line 4 in the fifth 
stanza.) 



544 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

6. 

I, mouth; wi-ta, luino; e tho, behold; k'o" no°, the power to act with 
it; wi-ta, that is mine; do" ha, is best of all. (Line 4 in the sixth 
stanza.) 

Mi Wa-tho". 

Sua songs. 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 120; Osage version, p. 407.) 
1. 

Wa-dsi, whither; hi-tho°-be, shall he appear; he tha, vocables. 
(Lines 1, 2, 5, and 6 in all the stanzas.) 

The tho, here, at this place; hi-tho"-be, he shall appear; he tha, 
vocables. (Line 3 in all the eight stanzas.) 

I-ba, pipe, unto the pipe; hi-tho°-be, he shall appear: he tha, voca- 
bles. (Line 4 in the first stanza.) 



Mo^-hi", knife, unto the knife; hi-tho"-be, he shall appear; he tha, 
vocables. (Line 4 in the second stanza.) 



We-tsi", war club, unto the war club; hi-tho^-be, he shall appear; he 
tha, vocables. (Line 4 in the third stanza.) 

4. 

Mi°-dse, bow, unto the bow; hi-tho"-be, he shall appear; he tha, 
vocables. (Line 4 in the fourth stanza.) 



Mo°, arrow, unto the arrow; hi-tho"-be, he shall appear; he tha, 
vocables. (Line 4 in the fifth stanza.) 



Do-ka, scalp, unto the scalp; hi-tho''-be, he shall appear; he tha, 
vocables. (Line 4 in the sixth stanza.) 

•mI; 

7. 

Ga-mo°, spoils; hi-tho°-be, he shall appear; he tha, vocables. (Line 
4 in the seventh stanza.) 

8. 

Ho°-ba, day, unto the day; hi-tho°-be, he shall appear; he tha, voca- 
bles. (Line 4 in the eighth stanza.) 



IJ.PLESCHB] RITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TRANSLATION. 545 

SoNQ 2. 
(Free translation, p. 122; Osage version, p. 40S. 

1. 

Tsi-go, my grandfather; hi-tho°-be tha, appears. (Lines 1, 2, 4, and 6 

in all the eight stanzas.) 
I-ba, a pipe; thi" a-do°, holding in his hands; hi-tho^-be tha, he 

appears. (Lines 3, 5, and 7 in the first stanza.) 

2. 

Mo°-hi°, a knife; a-thi" a-do", holding in his hands; hi-tho°-be tha, 
he appears. (Lines 3, 5, and 7 in the second stanza.) 

3. 

We-tsi°, a war club; a-thi° a-do", holding in his hands; hi-tho°-be tha, 
he appears. (Lines 3, 5, and 7 in the third stanza.) 



Mi°-dse, a bow; a-thi" a-do°, holding in his hands; hi-tho^-be tha, he 
appears. (Lines 3, 5, and 7 in the fourth stanza.) 

5. 

Mo°, an arrow; a-thi" a-do°, holding in his hands; hi-tho°-be tha, he 
appears. (Lines 3, 5, and 7 in the fifth stanza.) 

6. 

Do-ka, a scalp; thi° a-do°, holding in his hands; hi-tho^-be tha, he 
appears. (Lines 3, 5, and 7 in the sixth stanza.) 

7. 

Ga-mo°, spoils; a-thi° a-do", holding in his hands; hi-tho°-be tha, he 
appears. (Lines 3, 5, and 7 in the seventh stanza.) 

8. 

Ho°-ba, the day; thi" a-do°, holding in his hands; hi-tho°-be tha, he 
appears. (Lines 3, 5, and 7 in the eighth stanza.) 

Song 3. 
(Free translation, p. 123; Osage version, p. 409.) 

1. 

Mi, sun; i-tho°-be, appears; do", when; ha-wa-tse, I to strike; a-to"- 
he, I stand ready. (Lines 1, 2, 4, and 5 in both stanzas.) 

Ga xtsi to", in that very moment; wa-ki-tha, we fight the foe (repeat) . 
(Lines 3 and 6 in the first stanza.) 
3594°— 25t 35 



546 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ann. 89 

2. 

Ga xtsi to°, in that very moment; tha-k's-o^-tha, pity thou me 
(repeat). (Lines 3 and 6 in the second stanza.) 

Sho'^'-ge Wa-tho''. 

Wolf songs. 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 125; Osageversion, p. 410.) 
1. 

Sho°-ge, wolf; hi" to, gray; ho-ho, with noisy cries; a-tsia-tha be, 
passes by. (Lines 1, 3, and 5 in the first stanza.) 

Ho-ho, with noisy cries; a-tsia-tha, passes by (repeat). (Lines 2, 4, 
and 6 in the first stanza.) 

2. 

Sho^-ge, wolf; hi° to, gray; ho-ho, that goes noisily by; a-thi° he no*, 
I am he. (Lines 1, 3, and 5 in the second stanza.) 

Ho-ho, that goes noisily by; a-thi° he no", I am he (repeat). (Lines 
2, 4, and 6 in the second stanza.) 

Song 2, 

(Free translation, p. 126: Osage version, p. 410.) 
1. 

Sho°-ge, wolf; wi-no°, I alone; a-thi^-he no", I am he. (Lines 1, 3, 

and 7 in the first stanza.) 
Mo^-zho", land, route to be taken; thu-we, to determine; a-thi^-he, 

I am he. (Lines 2, 4, 6, and 8 in the first stanza.) 
Sho°-ge, wolf; hi" to, the gray. (Line 5 in the first stanza.) 

Song 3. 

(Free translation, p. 127; Osage version, p. 410.) 

!.• 

Sho°-ge, wolf; wa-tha-pa, that feasts ravenously; a-thi°-he, I am he. 

(Lines 1, 3, 5, and 6 in the first stanza.) 
Sho°-ge, wolf; hi" to, gray; wa-tha-pa, that feasts ravenously; a-thi° 

he, I am he. (Lines 2, 4, and 7 in the first stanza.) 

Ka'-xe Wa-tho". 

Crow songs. 

Song 1. 

(Free translation, p. 128; Osage version, p. 411.) 

Ni-ka, men; tho°-ba, two; a, vocable; bthe a da wa he, we go forth. 
(Lines 1, 3, and 5 in the first stanza.) 



LJLFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TRANSLATION. 547 

Wa-tha-pa-pa, to feast voraciously; ha-dsi, there, to the battle field; 
bthe hi no", we go forth. (Lines 2, 4, and 6 in the first stanza.) 

Song 2. 
(Free translation, p. 129; Osage version, p. 411.) 

1. 

Ni-ka, men; tho"-ba, as two; bthe a-do" he no", we are going. (Line 

1 in the first stanza.) 
A he the, vocables; ni-ka, men; tho"-ba, as two; bthe a-do" he no°, 

we are going. (Lines 2, 4, and 6 in the first stanza.) 
A he the, vocables; bthe a-do" he no", we are going. (Line 3 in the 

first stanza.) 
A he the, vocables; wa-tha-pa-pa, to feast voraciously; bthe a-do° 

he no", we are going. (Lines 5 and 7 in the first stanza.) 

Ta Wa-tho''. 

Deer songs. 

Song 1. 
(Free translation, p. 130; Osage version, p. 411.) 

1. 

Wi-tsi"-do no", my elder brother; she-tho, there, at that place; to" 
no", stands. (Lines 1, 2, 5, 6, and 9 in the first stanza.) 

fi, feet; no"-no"-ge he, running; fi, feet; no" no" e, running. (Lines 
3 and 7 in the first stanza.) 

pi, feet; no"-no"-ge he, running. (Lines 4 and 8 in the first stanza.) 



He, horns; no"-no"-ge he, runnitig; he, horns; no" no" e, running. 

(Lines 3 and 7 in the second stanza.) 

He, horns: no"-no"-ge he, running. (Lines 4 and 8 in the second 

stanza.) 

Song 2. 

(Free translation, p. 131; Osage version, i>. 412.) 
1. 

Tsi"-do, to my brother; he pka gthe he, thou with wliite horns. 

(Lines 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and S in the first stanza.) 
^i, feet; no°-no" e, running go thou; ^i, feet; no"-no"-ge he, running 

go thou. (Lines 3 and 6 in the first stanza.) 



He, horns; no"-no" e, running gt) thou; he, horns; no°-no"-ge he, 
running go thou. (Lines 3 and 6 in the second stanza.) 



548 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

Song 3. 
(Free translation, p. 133; Osage version, p. 412.) 

Wi-tsi°-do no", my elder brother; ku-dse, shoots: to" no", where he 
stands. (Lines 1, 2, 5, 6, and 9 in the first stanza.) 

0-e, he wounds the deer; no°-no°-ge he, it runs; o-e, he wounds the 
deer; no^-no" e, it runs. (Lines 3 and 7 in the first stanza.) 

0-e, he woxmds the deer; no''-no°-ge he, it runs. (Lines 4 and 8 in 

the first stanza.) 

Song 4. 

(Free translation, p. 134; Osage version, p. 412.) 

Most of the words of this song being fragmentary and discon- 
nected, as well as archaic, can not be literally translated. The 
meaning, however, was given by the narrator. 

Wa-pa-dse Wa-tho". 

Butchering song. 

Song 5. 
(Free translation, p. 135; Osage version, p. 413.) 

1. 

E-gi-o", in the mode set; ba, by them, the ancient men; ha, the skin; 

^u wa, I cut (repeat) . (Lines 1 and 2 in all the four stanzas.) 
Zhe-ga, the leg, in the mode set; ba, by them; ha, the skin; 9u wa, 

I cut; e-gi-o", in the mode set; ba, by them; ha, the skin; ^u wa, 

I cut. (Lines 2 and 5 in the first stanza.) 
E-gi-o", in the mode set; ba, by them; ha, the skin; fu wa, I cut. 

(Line 3 in all the foiu" stanzas.) 



Mo^-ge, breast, in the mode set; ba, by them; ha, the skin; fu wa, 
I cut; e-gi-o", in the mode set; ba, by them; ha, the skin; ^u wa, 
I cut. (Lines 2 and 5 in the second stanza.) 

3. 

A no", the fore leg, in the mode set; ba, by them ; ha, the skin ; f u wa, 
I cut; e-gi-o"^, in the mode set; ba, by them; ha, the skin; fu wa, 
I cut. (Lines 2 and 5 in the third stanza.) 



Pa no", head, in the mode set; ba, by them; ha, the skin; (;u wa, I 
cut; e-gi-o", in the mode set; ba, by them; ha, the skin; fu wa, 
I cut. (Lines 2 and 5 in the fourth stanza.) 



laflbschb] rite of vigil literal translation. 549 

.Wa-k'i" Wa-thqN. 

Carrying song. 

Song 6. 

(Free translation, p. 136: Osage version, p. 413.) 

1. 

Ta-xtsi e, thou deer; ta-xtsi e, thou deer; wa-dsu-ta zlii''-ga, O little 

anmial. (Line 1 in all of the nine stanzas.) 
I-wi- the, I found thee; tho"-dse, when; ta-xtsi e, thou deer; ta-xtsi e, 

thou deer. (Lines 2 and 5 in all of the nine stanzas.) 
Ta-xtsi e, thou deer; wa-dsu-ta zhi''-ga, O little animal. (Line 3 in 

all of the nine stanzas.) 

Pi-fi fa-be hi, l)lack oak tree; dsi, close to a; to", standing. (Line 4 

in the first stanza.) 

2. 

Zhu-dse hi, red oak tree; dsi, close to a; to", standing. (Line 4 in 
the second stanza.) 

3. 

Zho", trees; u-^a-ki-ba, close together; he-dsi, there, between them; 
to", standing. (Line 4 in the tliird stanza.) 

4. 

Pi-fisha-belii, dark acorn tree; dsi, close to a; to", standing. (Line 4 
in the fourth stanza.) 

5. 

Pi-fi xo-dse lii, gray acorn tree ; dsi, close to a ; to", standing. (Line 4 
in the fifth stanza.) 

6. 

Ba-xpe hi, stunted oaks; dsi, amidst; to", standing. (Line 4 in the 
sixth stanza.) 

7. 

Xa-dse, grasses; ba-tse, bunches; he-dsi, amidst; to", standing. 
(Line 4 in the seventh stanza.) 

8. 

Wa-tsi-3hka. brook; zlu"-ga, little; dsi, close to a; to", standing. 
(Line 4 in the eighth stanza.) 

9. 

Pa-he, hill; pa-fi, the smnmit of; he-dsi, at the; to", standing. 
(Line 4 in the ninth stanza.) 



550 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [kiH. Ann. 39 

Wa-i^ Xa-ge Wa-tho". 

Placing upon cryinp song;s. 

a-ho''-btha hi \vi'-gi-e. 

Things to be dreamed about ritual. 
(Free tran.slation. p. 139: Osage version, p. 415.) 

1. He-dsi, at that time and place; xtsi, verily; a, thev said; a bi" 

da, it has beeti said; tsi, hmise; ga, in this. 49. 

2. Ka-ge, younger brother; wa-ha-ge, the last born; do", a; a, they 

said. 

3. Wa-ki-gthi-gtho", to contemplate, naeditate; tsi-the, he began; 

to", he stood; a, they said. 5. 

4. Mo°-zho", earth, season; u-to^-ga, when great in its fruitfulness; 

xtsi, verily; thi"-kshe, sat; dsi, at a time; a, they said. 

6. U-pa-fe, in the evening of the day; tho" dsi, then and there; a, 

they said. 16, 29, 42, 56. 

7. Tsi-xi"-dse, the space at either end of the house; dsi, there; 

xtsi, verily; a, they said. 

8. I-sdu-ge, toward the right; pa-gthc, head inclined; xtsi, verily; 

a, they said. 20, 33, 46, 110. 

9. Ba-mo"-xe, bent low; hi the, fallen; kshe, he lay; a, they said. 

21, 34, 47, 111. 

10. Wa-ko"-da, god of day; u-ga-fo"-ho", struck the heavens with a 

pale light; do", at' the time; a, they said. 23, 36. 

11. Ho°-ga, sacred ; wa-ga-xa, that which was made; bi, by the peo- 

ple; a, they said. 17, 24, 37, 51. 

12. I"-dse-ha, upon the skin of his face; ga-xe, he placed it; to", as 

he stood; a, they said. 25, 38, 52. 

13. Wa-ko"-da, god of day, the sun; ga-ho", rose to a point midway 

between the eastern horizon and the zenith; a-thi", brought it 
to, followed it to; hi, arrived there; to", stood; a, they 
said. 39. 

14. Wa-ko"-da, god of day; tho-to", straight, to the zenith; a-thi", 

following him to ; hi, arriving there ; thi", as he moved about ; 
a, they said. 27, 40, 54. 

15. Wa-ko"-da, god of day; a-po-ga, to a point between the zenith 

and the western horizon; a-thi", followed him; thi", as he 
moved about; a, they said. 28, 41, 55. 

18. I"-shta-bthi, tears; a-ga-xto", shed upon it; thi", as he moved 

about ; a, they said. 

19. Tsi, village; u-ho°-ge, the borders of; dsi, there; a, they said. 

102. 
22. Wa-ko"-da, god; i"-shta, eyes; a-ga-pta, closing of the lids; 
ga-xe, made; kshe, as the young man lay; a, they said. 35, 48. 



LAFLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TBANSLATION. 551 

26. Wa-ko°-da, god of day; ga-ho°, risen to a point midway between 
the eastern horizon and the zenith; a-thi", brought to, fol- 
lowed to; hi, arrived there; thi", as he moved about; a, they 
said. 

30. Ni-hni, a spring: to"-ga, great, large; wi", a; e-dsi, there was; 

tse, standing; a, they said. 

31. The, here, in this spot; shki, also; wa-ko^-da-gi, god of mys- 

teries; e-dsi, within; a ba, they; tho" ta, possible; sho", even; 
c-the, he thought; to", as he stood; a, they said. 44, 59. 

32. Gi-bi-shu-dse, rubbed away the sacred soil from liis brow; 

tsi-the, he proceeded; to", as he stood; a, they said. 45. 
43. E-hiu, elm tree; to"-ga, great, large; wi", a; e-dsi, there; do", 

stood; a, they said. 
50. Ho"-ba, day; i-ta-xe, beginning of; tho" dsi, at the; a, they said. 
53. Wa-ko"-da, god of day; ga-ho", risen to a point between the 

eastern horizon and the zenith; a tlii", brought to or followed 

to; kshe, as he lay; long continued action; a, they said. 

57. fiu-ka, turkey; mo"-hi"-zhu, the breast of; e-go", a low liill 

resembling; wi", a; e-dsi, there; do", stood; a, they said. 

58. He-dsi, there; xtsi, close to; hi, arriving there; no"-zhi", paused; 

to", stood; a, they said. 

60. The, here; ga, in tlais spot; xtsi, verily; a-zho", I recline and 

sleep; ta, shall; e-ki-the, he thought; to", as he stood; a, they 
said. 

61. No", lo; wa-xpa-thi", poor in body and spirit; a-thi" he no", I 

am as I move about from place to place; e-ki-the, he thought; 
to", as he stood; a, they said. 106. 

62. Wa-no"-xe, spirits; dsi, there, to their land; bthe, I go; ta, 

shall; mi"-kshe, I sit; sho", even as; e-ki-the, he thought; to", 
stood; a, they said. 

63. Wi-zhi"-the, my elder brothers; a, they said. 

64. 0"-tho"-gi-tha, find me, my body; ba, they; tho"-ta, possible; 

zlii, not; sho", in any event; e-ki-the, he thought; thi"-kshe, 
as he sat; a, they said. 

65. Ni-ka-shi-ga, persons or men. 104, 112, 116, 120, 123. 

66. U-shko"-bi, places frecjuented by them; ge, the; dsi, there; 

e-ta-ha, toward; a-gthe, I go home; tse, shall; e-ki-the, he 
thought; to", as he stood; a, they said, 

67. Thu-e, at once; xtsi, verily; 9i-thu-(;e, took footsteps; the, and 

went forth; do", when; a, they said, 101. 

68. Ga-xa, branch of a stream; zhi°-ga, a small, 

69. ^e-gtha-gtha-the, brokenly wooded along its course; xtsi. 



verily; ge, the; dsi, there; a, they sai 



70. E-dsi, there; kshi, having returned to; no"-zhi", paused; to", he 
stood; a, they said. 103. 



552 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. an-n. 39 

71. Thiu-xe, willow tree; ts'a zlii, that dies not; to°, the standing; 

no°, a; a, they said. 74. 

72. E-dsi, there; xtsi, close to; kshi, having returned to; gthi°, 

sitting position; thi°-kshe, he sat; a, they said. 

73. I-ki-pa-no°-zhi°-zhi", clinging to its trunk; tsi-the, as he pro- 

ceeded to rise: to°, he stood. 

75. Ha, O; wi-tsi-go e, my grandfather; a, they said. 

76. E-go", that I shall succeed; tho"-ta, possible; zhi a, it seems 

not; wi-tsi-go e, my grandfather; e-gi-a, said to him; to", as 
he stood; a, they said. 

77. Zhi^-ga, O little one. 

78. 0°-tho''-ki-pa-no"-zhi°-zhi", cling to me for support in their 

efforts to stand; mo°-thi°, as they travel the path of life; ta i 
tse a, they shall; zhi^-ga, the little ones; e-gi-a, said to him; 
bi a, they said. 

79. Ko"-tlii-xthe-ga, the base of my trunk that sends forth roots; 

ga, this; thi°-kshe, that sitteth; shki, also; a, they said. 

80. U-no°, sign of old age; a-gi-the, I have made it to be; a-thi° he a, 

in my life's journey; zhi^-ga, little one. 

81. Zhi^-ga, the little ones; u-no°, sign of old age; o°-tha, make of 

me; bi, they; do", when; shki, and; a, they said. 86, 94. 

82. U-no", old age; a bi, that which is spoken of as; i-the, live to 

see; ki-the, cause themselves to; mo°-thi'', as they travel the 
path of life; ta i tse a, they shall. 95. 

83. Xi°-ha, bark; ba-f'i^-tha, roughened with age; ga, these; kshe, 

that lie ; a, they said. 

84. E shki do°, those also; a, they said. 

85. U-no°, sign of old age; a-gi-the, I have made to be; mi°-kshe 

i" da, I who sit here. 

87. Xi°-ha, skin; ba-9'i"-tha, roughened with age; a bi, that which 

is spoken of as; i-the, live to see; ki-the, cause themselves to; 
mo°-thi'', as they travel the path of life; ta i tse a, they shall; 
zhi°-ga, the little ones. 

88. Ga-xa, lower limbs; a-ki-gthe, branching out from the trimk; 

ga, this; tse, standing; a, they said. 

89. A-hiu-ha, arms; a-gi-the, I have made them to be; a-to" he i" 

da, I who stand here. 

90. Zhi"-ga, the little ones; a-hiu-ha, arms; o^-gi-the, make of me; 

mo"-thi", as they travel the path of life; bi, they; do° when; 
shki, and; a, they said. 

91. A-hiu-ha, arms; a bi, that which is spoken of as; i-the, live to 

sec; ki-the, cause themselves to; mo°-thi°, as they travel the 
path of life; ta bi" da, they shall. 

92. Ga-xa, limbs; shdo-zha, bent downward; ga ge, these; shki, 

also; a, thev said. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TRANSLATION. 553 

93. U-no°, sign of old age; a-gi-the, I have made to be; a-to° he 
i° da, I who stand here. 

96. Zho"-i-ta-xe, tree top; fka, white with blossoms; ga, this; 

thi"-kshe, that sitteth; shki, also; a, they said. 

97. U-no°, sign of old age; pa-xe i° da, I have made to be. 

98. Ni-ka, aged men. 

99. Pa-hi", hairs; ^a-dse, scant; pi e-go'', yellowish with age; e no" 

hi no", spoken of as; a, they said. 
100. Pa-hi", hairs; (?a-dse, scant; pi e-go", yellowish with age; a bi, 

spoken of as; i-the, live to see; ki-the, cause themselves to; 

mo°-thi", as they travel the path of life; ta bi" da, they shall. 
105. I-tsi", war clubs; ki-pa-no"-no"-the, rising up and down in a 

tangled mass; xtsi, verily; wa-do"-be, he saw; to", as he 

stood ; a, they said. 

107. Wi-tho"-f.ka, men who are of my age; ho", why; a, say; ba, 

they; Wa-ko"-tla, god; tha-k'e-tha, holds them in favor; bi, 
they; a, say; ba, they; do", interrogative particle; e-ki-the, 
he thought; to", as he stood; a, they said. 

108. The, in this place; shki do", also; a, they said. 

109. Wa-ko"-da, god; e-dsi a ba, therein reside; tho" ta, possible; 

sho", in any event; e-the, he thought; to", as he stood; a, they 
said. 

113. Mo"-i"-ka, earth; no°-ni-ni-tha, treading upon softly, stealthily; 

xtsi, verily; wa-no"-k'o", he heard; to", as he stood; a, they 
said. 

114. Pa, his head; thi-ho°, lifted; tsi-the, quickly; to", as he stood; 

a, they said. 118. 
11.5. Gi-ha-go°, to him there appeared; a-zhi, nothing; xtsi, verily; 

thi"-kshe, as he sat; a, they said. 119. 
117. Mo"-hi", grass; ga-pu-fu-e, rustling as by approacliing footsteps; 

xtsi, verily; wa-no"-k'o'\ he heard; to", as he stood; a, they 

said. 

121. Ci"P^» foot; i-sdu-ge, the right: tse, the; a, they said. 

122. ^'i-pa, foot; i-ga-sho"-ha, touched with some force. 

124. Ni-ka, man; wi", a; wa-xpa-thi", poor in body and mind; thi", 

moving about; a, they said. 
12.5. Thi-e, you; ni-kshe, who sit here; a hi", interrogative particles; 

ka-ge, my younger brother; e-gi-a, said to him; bi a, they 

said. 

126. Ho-we, yes; wi-tsi-go e, O my grandfather; e, to say; tsi-the, he 

hastened; a, they said. 

127. Wi-e, itisi; mi°-kshe o, I who sit here; wi-tsi-go e, O my grand- 

father; e, to say; tsi-the, he hastened; a, they saiil. 

128. Ha, O; ka-ge, my yoimger brother ; a, they said. 146, 153, 167. 



554 THE OSAGE TRIBE. Tibth. Ann. 39 

129. Mo^-zho", the earth; sho° e-go°, in every part, the whole; xtsi, 

verily; wa-zhi", mind; a-tha-gthe a, you have steadfastly 
fixed upon with a longing desire to possess; ka-ge, my younger 
brother; e, to say; tsi-the, he hastened to say; a, they said. 

130. Ho°-do"-ba thi° ha, look upon me; e, to say; tsi-the, he has- 

tened; a, they said. 

131. Ha, O; %\'i-tsi-go e, my grandfather: a, they said. 

132. Wi-to°-be a, I look upon you; wi-tsi-go e, my grandfather; e, to 

say; tsi-the, he hastened; a, they said. 142, 149. 

133. U-fa-ka, defects, in the uniformity of color, referring to the 

• dawn; tlii^-ge, having none ; tha to" she, you stand; A\a-to"-be, 
I look upon you; wi-tsi-go e, niy grandfather; e-gi-a, said to 
him; bi a, they said. 

134. U-fa-ka, defects in the uniformity of color; thi"-ge, the state of 

having none; e-to°, even to the; xtsi, verily; wa-zhi", mind; 
a-tha-gthe a, you have steadfastly fixed upon with longing 
desire; ka-ge, my younger brother; e-gi-a, said to him; bi a, 
they said. 

135. Shi, again; o°-do°-ba thi" ha, look upon me; e, to say; tsi-the, 

he hastened; a, they said. 141, 148, 155, 159. 

136. No''-ni-o°-ba, pipe; zhi°-ga, little. 

137. Pe-tho°-ba, seven; a-ni, having in your hands; tha to" she, as 

you stand; wi-to°-be a, I look upon you; wi-tsi-go e, my 
grandfather; e-gi-a, said to liim; bi a, they said. 

138. I-thi-slmo", odd one in number; kshe, the; a, they said. 

139. Wa-do-ka, scalps of men; i-tlii-sh'e-do", profusely adorned with; 

xtsi, verily; a-ni, having in your hands; tha to" she, as you 
stand; \vi-to"-be a, 1 look upon you; ^vi-tsi-go e, my grand- 
father; e, to say; tsi-the, he hastened; a, they said. 

140. No"-ni-o"-ba, pipes; ge, the; e-to", even upon the; xtsi, verily; 

wa-zhi", mind; a-tha-gthe a, you steadily fLx upon ^vith long- 
ing desire; ka-ge, my younger brother; e-gi-a, said to him; bi 
a, they said. 

143. Wa-ba-xtse, tilings tied together, shrine; zhi"-ga, little; wi", a; 

a, they said. 

144. U-do"-be, to look upon; tha-gthi", good, pleasing; xtsi, verily; 

wi", a; a, they said. 

145. Thu-pi. the pit of the arm; u-tha-k'o"-he, holding therein; tha 

to" she, as you stand; .wi-to°-be a, I look upon you; wi-tsi- 
go e, my grandfather; e, to say; tsi-the, he hastened; a, they 
said. 

147. Wa-ba-xtse, shrines; zhi"-ga, little; ge, the; e-to", even upon 
the; xtsi, verily; wa-zhi", mind; a-tha-gthe a, you steadily fix 
upon with longing desire; e-gi-a, said to him; bi a, they said. 

150. Wa-k'o"-9i, animal; ha, skins. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TRANSLATION". 555 

151. U-?i-gthe, beneath your feet; tse, the; a, they said. 

152. No°-pu-gthe, soft to the tread; tha-to" she, as you stand; wi- 

to°-be a, I look upon you; wi-tsi-go e, my grandfather; e, to 
say; tsi-the, he hasteneil; a, they said. 
154. Wa-k'o°-9i, animal; ha, skins; ge, the; e-to", even upon the; 
xtsi, verily; wa-zhi", mind ; a-tha-gthe a, you have steadfastly 
fixed upon \vith longing desire; ka-ge, my j^ounger brother; 
e-gi-a, said to him; bi a, they said. 

156. Ni-ka, man; ts'a-ge, aged; a, they said. 160, 163. 

157. I°-dse, face; wa-thi-ge-ge-be, roughened and wrinkled with age; 

wi-to°-be a, I look upon you; wi-tsi-go e, my grandfather; 
a, they said. 

158. Ni-ka, man; ts'a-ge, aged; ge, the; e-to°, even upon the; xtsi, 

verily; wa-zhi", mind; a-tha-gthe a, you have steadfastly 
fixed upon ^vith longing desire; ka-ge, my younger brother; 
a, they said. 

161. fka, white; ga-mo°, downy feathers; a, they said. 

162. Ta-xpi, crown of the head; ge, the; u-tlii-ho°-ho", fluttering 

upon; e-go°, as though; wi-to^-be a, I look upon you; wi-tsi- 
go e, my grandfather; e-gi-a, said to him; bi a, they said. 

164. No"-ni-o"-ba, pipe; i tse, the mouth; u-gtha-gtha, put into fre- 

quently; e-go°, as though; wi-to"-be a, I look upon you; 
wi-tsi-go e, my grandfather; e-gi-a, said to him; bi a, they said. 

165. Ho"-ba, days; u-^a-ki-ba, the divisions of; do-ba, the four. 

166. U-tha-ni-ka-shi-ga, dwelling therein as though in your personal 

abode; tha to° she, standing there; wi-to°-be a, I look upon 
you; wi-tsi-go e, my grandfather; e-gi-a, said to him; bi a, 
they said. 170. 

168. Ho°-ba, days; u-^a-ki-ba, divisions of; ge, the; e-to", even upon 

the; wa-zhi", mind; a-tha-gthe a, you have steadfastly fixed 
upon with longing desire; ka-ge, my younger brother; e-gi-a, 
said to him; bi a, they said. 

169. Ho"-ba, days; tha-gthi", beautiful and peaceful: xtsi, verily; a, 

they said. 
171. Ho"-ba, days; tha-gthi", beautiful and peaceful; xtsi, verily; 
u-hi, to enter; tha-ki-the, cause yourself to; te, that you may; 
wa-zhi", mind; a-tha-gthe a, you have steadfastly fixed upon 
•mth longing desire; ka-ge, my younger brother; e, to say; 
tsi-the, he hastened; a, they said. 



556 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [Bin. ANN. 39 

Song 1. 
(Free translation, p. 145; Osage version, p. 419.) 

1. 

The, this; wi-ta ha, is mine: the, this: wi-ta, mine. (Line 1 in the 

single stanza of the song.) 
Wa-tse-xi e tha, a task most difficult to perform; tho \vi ni da, I give 

to you. (Lines 2, 4, and 6 of the song.) 
E he, vocables; the, this; wi-ta ha, is mine: the, this; wi-ta, mine. 

(Lines 3 and 5 in the song.) 

Song 2. 
(Free translation, p. 146; Osage version, p. 420.) 

1. 

Ni-ka xo-be, men of mystery; ko-wi-tha ha, come ye hither: ni-ka 
xo-be, men of mystery. (Line 1 in all the eight stanzas.) 

Ko-wi tha ha, come ye hither; ni-ka xo-be, men of mystery; ko-wi-tha 
ha, come ye hither. (Lines 2 and 5 in all the eight stanzas.) 

I-ba, the pipe: a-thi" a-do", bringing. (Line 3 in the first stanza.) 

I-ba, the pipe: a-thi" a-do", bringing; ni-ka xo-be, men of mystery; 
ko-wi-tha ha, come ye hither. (Line 4 in the first stanza.) 



Mo°-lii", the knife; a-thi" a-do°, bringing. (Line 3 in the second 

stanza.) 
Mo"-hi", the knife; a-thi" a-do", bringing; ni-ka xo-be, men of 

mystery; ko-wi-tha ha, come ye hither. (Line 4 in the second 

stanza.) 

3. 

We-tsi", war club ; a-thi" a-do", bringing. (Line 3 in the third stanza.) 
We-tsi", war club; a-thi" a-do", bringing; ni-ka xo-be, men of mystery; 
ko-wi-tha ha, come ye hither. (Line 4 in the third stanza.) 

4. 

Mi"-dse, the bow: a-thi" a-do", bringing. (Line 3 in the fourth 

stanza.) 
Mi"-dse, the bow; a-tlii" a-do", bringing; ni-ka xo-be, men of mystery; 

ko-wi-tha ha, come ye hither. (Line 4 in the fourth stanza.) 



Mo", the arrow: a-thi" a-do", bringing. (Line 3 in the fifth stanza.) 
Mo", the arrow: a-thi" a-do", bringing: ni-ka xo-be, men of mystery; 
ko-wi-tha ha, come ye hither. (Line 4 in the fifth stanza.) 



I^FLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TRANSLATION. 557 

6. 

Do-ka, scalps; a-thi° a-do°, bringing. (Line 3 in the sixth stanza.) 
Do-ka, scalps; a-thi° a-do°, bringing; ni-ka xo-be, men of mystery; 
ko-wi-tha ha, come ye hither. (Line 4 in the sixth stanza.) 

7. 

Ga-mo", spoils; a-thi° a-do°, bringing. (Line 3 in the seventh stanza.) 
Ga-mo°, spoils; a-thi" a-do", bringing; ni-ka xo-be, men of mystery; 
ko-wi-tha ha, come ye hither. (Line 4 in the seventh stanza.) 



Ho^-ba, the day; a-thi" a-do", bringing. (Line 3 in the eighth stanza.) 
Ho"-ba, the day; a-thi° a-do", bringing; ni-ka xo-be, men of mystery; 
ko-wi-tha ha, come ye hither. (Line 4 in the eighth stanza.) 

Song 3. 
(Osage version, p. 421.) 

The first stanza of tliis song is made up entirely of vocables that 
are imitations of the cry of the chosen Do-do°-ho°-ga as he appeals 
to Wa-ko°-da during his vigil. In the second stanza appears three 
times the word Tsi-go, grandfather, uttered with vocables that 
imitate the cry. The term Tsi-go is addressed to the god of mystery. 

Wa-thu'-^'e Wi'-gi-e. 

The seizing ritual. 

By Wa-xthi'-zhi. 

(Free translation, p. 148; Osage version. i>, 421.) 

L He-dsi, at that time and place; xtsi, verily; a, they said; a bi" da, 
it has been seid; tsi, house; ga, in this. 29, 44, 49, 56, 61, 64, 
69, 74. 

2. Wa-(;a-be, black bear; u-^a-ka, blemish, in color: thi"-ge, that has 

none; kshe, that lies outstretched; no°, the; a, they said. 

3. Wa-ki-gthi-gtho°, to meditate, serious contemplation: tsi-the, pro- 

ceeded to; to", as he stood: a, they said. 5. 

4. Ta, deer; ki-thi-xa l)i, in the month when they rut; u-zhin-ga 

was still young; xtsi, verily: thi"-kshe, sitting: dsi, at that 
time; a, they said. 

6. Ni-dse, haunches; ki i-no"-the, to put down to rest; ta do", that 

he might; a, they said. 41, 51. 

7. 0-k'o" wa-no°-tha zhi, bewildered; xtsi, verily; to", he stood; a, 

they said. 

8. E-ki-pa, to the same place; a-gthi, returning; no°-zhi"-zhi" the, 

repeatedly; to", he stood; a, they said. 



558 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. Ann. 39 

9. Thu-e, at last; xtsi, verily; fi-tliu-^e, took footsteps: the do", and 
went forth; a, they said. 13, 20, 26, 32, 37. 

10. A-ba-do, a hill; a-ga-ha, upon the top of; dsi, there; xtsi, verily; 

a, they said. 

11. E-dsi, there; xtsi, at that very spot; hi, having arrived there; 

no°-zlii", paused; to°, and stood; a, they said. 23, 42. 

12. Ha shki, in every direction; pa-gthe, turned his head; no°-zhi°- 

zhi° the, standing repeatedly; to°, he stood; a, they said. 

14. A-ba-do, a hill; a-tha-k'a-be, on the sloping side; dsi, there; 

xtsi, verily; a, they said. 21. 

15. Xa-dse, grass: ba-tse, a patch of, bunch; thi^-kshe, the sitting; 

no", the; a, they said. 

16. He-dsi, there; xtsi, at that very spot; hi, having arrived there; 

no^-zhi", paused; to", stood; a, they said. 

17. Xa-dse, grass; ba-tse, the patch of; a, they said. 

18. Thi-thi-?ki, gathered compactly together; gthi no"-the, and 

placed close to where he; to", stood; a, they said. 30. 

19. Ni-dse, his haunches; ki i-no°-the, he placed down; zhi, not; to", 

as he stood; a, they said. 25, 31, 36, 43. 
22. Pa-xpe, a bush of stunted oaks; thi"-kshe, the sitting; no", the; 

a, they said. 
24. Thi-thi-fki, gathered compactly together; gthi no"-the, and 

placed close to where he; thi°-kshe, he sat; a, they said. 

27. Ga-xa, branch, brook; fe-gtha-gtha the, brokenly timbered along 

its com-se; xtsi, verily; ge, the; dsi, there; a, they said. 33. 

28. Zho° sha-be the hi, redbud trees; ba-tse, bush; tlii"-kshe, the 

sitting; no", the; a, they said. 

34. Ha-fi hi, grapevine; ko°, the roots of; tlii"-kshe, the sitting; no", 

the; a, they said. 

35. Thi-be-bthi", in a twisted pile; gthi no°-the, placed down close 

to where; to", he stood; a, they said. 

38. Ba-fo", cedar tree; zhi°-ga, a little; do", a; a, they said. 45. 

39. A-tha-k'a-be, sloping side of a hill; dsi, there; a, they said. 

40. I'", stones; u-pa-ki-ba, between; do", such a place; a, they said. 

46. He-dsi, there; xtsi, very close to it; hi, having arrived there; 

gthi", paused; thi"-kshe, and sat; a, they said. 55. 

47. I'°, stones; zhi°-ga, small; do-ba, some. 

48. Thi-ta-the, rolled together; gthi no"-the, placed in a pile; to", 

where he stood; a, they said. 
50. Thi-9o"-tha, turned them over about himself; tsi-the, he pro- 
ceeded to; to", as he stood; a, they said. 

52. I'", stone; zhi°-ga, small; wi", a; a, they said. 

53. Ta-xpi, crown of his head; a-gtho", he placed upon; xtsi, verily; 

hi gthi", he sat; tlii"-kshe, sitting; a, they said. 



i^FLESCRE] KITE OF \aGIL LITERAL TRANSLATION. 559 

54. Mi, moons, months; pe-tho°-ba, seven; gthi°, to sit; ta do°, that 
he may; a, they said. 

57. Ho°-ba, days; u-fa-ki-ba, divisions of; wi", a; o-pshi, I have 

come to; sho", even as I sat; e-ki-the, he thought; thi^-kshe, 
as he sat; a, they said. 60, 63. 

58. Wa-gthu-shlva, bugs, insects; zhi°-ga, small. 

59. Ho-to", calling: \va-no°-k'o°, he heard; thi°-kshe, as he sat; a, 

they said. 
62. Wa-zhi"-ga, birds; ho-to°, calling; wa-no^-k'o", he heard; thi°- 
kshe, as he sat; a, they said. 

65. Wa-ko^-da, god; tse-ga, early; xtsi, verily; e-tho°-be, appears; 

hi no" bi, comes habitually; a, they said. 

66. Tsi-zhe-be, to the door of his house; u-hi-gthi", he came to and 

sat; thi°-kshe, sitting; a, they said. 

67. No"-be, liis hands; mi, at sight of the sun; ba-mo"-da-da, with 

joy he rubbed; xtsi, verily; thi°-kshe, as he sat; a, they said. 

68. Mi, the sun; sha-ge, his hands; gi-ba-ha, exhibited to him, lifted 

to him in gladness; xtsi, veril}^; thi°-kshe, as he sat; a, they said. 

70. Ha, O; wi-tsi-go e, my grandfather, he said; a, they said. 

71. Zhu-i-ga, my flesh; a-tha-xi°, has shrunken; xtsi, verily; a-zho", 

I slept; mi°-kshe, as I sat; sho°, even as I; e-ki-the, he thought; 
thi°-kshe, as he sat; a, they said. 

72. Ha, O; ni-ka-shi-ga, thou person. 

73. U-no° tha bi, that wliich is the means of reaching old age; i-the, 

to see; tha-ki-the a-tha, you have caused yourself to; ni-ka- 
shi-ga, thou person; e-gi-a, said to him; bi a, they said. 

75. Tsi-zhe-be, the door; i-sdu-ge, at the right side; dsi, there; a, 

they said. 

76. U-fi-gthe, footprint; wi°, a; hi-tse-the, he placed upon the 

ground; to°, as he stood; a, they said. 85. 

77. Ga tse, this; shki, also; a, they said. 

78. Wa-thi^-e-fka, without a purpose; she-mo", I have done; mo"- 

zhi i" da, I have not. 

79. Wa-zha-zhe, the people of the Wa-zha-zhe subdivision; a, they 

said. 86. 

80. Tsi-zhu, the Tsi-zhu great division; e-tho^-ba, they also. 87. 

81. We- tha-wa, use it to count with; mo^-thi", as they travel the path 

of life; ta i tsi" da, they shall. 88. 

82. We-tha-wa, use it to count with; mo^-thi", as they travel the path 

of life; bi, they; do", when; shki, and; a, they said. 89. 

83. Zho^-xa, tally sticks: gi-tsi-f a, rim everdy, accurately; ki-the, for 

them; mo°-thi°, as they travel the path of life; ta bi° da, they 
shall. 90. 

84. Tsi-zhe-be, the door; tha-ta, at the left side; dsi, there; a, they 

said. 



560 THE OSAGE TKIBE. [bth. ann. 39 

II. 

1. He-dsi, at that time and place; xtsi, verily; a, they said; abi^da, 

it has been said; tsi, house; ga, in this. 4,10,27,35,49,67,81. 

2. Wa-zha-zhe, the Wa-zha-zhe subdivision; u-dse-the, fireplaces; 

pe-tho°-ba, seven; ni-ka-slii-ga, people; tho°-ka, they were. 

3. Xtha-xtha, timid, craven; thi°-ge, none there were among them; 

xtsi, verily; ni-ka-shi-ga, a people; tho°-ka, they were. 

5. Wa-zha-zhe, of the Wa-zha-zhe subdivision; wi°, there was one; 

a, they said. 

6. Wa-dsu-ta, animal; pi-zhi, a mysterious; wi°, a; a, they said. 

7. Zhu-i-ga the, of it made his body; xtsi, verily; ni-ka-shi-ga, a per- 

son; to", he stood; a, they said. 9. 

8. Zha-be, beaver; do-ga, the male; to", that stands; a, they said. 

11. Ni, river; ki-mo°-ho°, against its current; d si, there; xtsi, verily; 

a, they said. 

12. Ba-btha-btha-xe, rippling the surface as he pushed his way 

against it; zho", he lay; a, they said. 

13. Ni, water; ba-btha-xe, ripples; ga, these; kshe, that lie before 

me ; a, they said. 

14. Wa-ko^-da, gods; o°-ki-tha-zha-ta hi, make way for me in forked 

lines; a-thi'' he i° da, as I push forth, in life's pathway. 

15. Zhi°-ga, the little ones; zhu-i-ga, their bodies; o°-tha, make of 

me; bi, they; do", when; a, they said. 

16. Wa-ko°-da, the gods; a-ki-tha-zha-ta, shall make way for them 

in forked lines; bi, they; ki-the, cause themselves to be; mo°- 
thi", as they travel the path of life; ta bi" da, they shall. 

17. Ni, river; thi-u-ba-he, the side of ; tha-ta, the left; ga, this; kshe, 

that lies; a, they said. 

18. E, that; shki do°, also; a, they said. 23. 

19. Thi-u-ba-he, side of my body; a-gi-the, I have made it to be; 

a-thi° he i" da, I, in the course of my life. 

20. Zhi°-ga, the little ones; thi-u-ba-he, side of their body; gi-the, 

make of it; mo''-thi°, as they travel the path of life; bi, they; 
do°, when; shki, and; a, they said. 

21. Thi-u-ba-he, side of their bodies; i-ts'a, causes of death; thi°-ge, 

to have none; ki-the, cause themselves to; mo°-thi°, as they 
travel the path of life; ta bi° da, they shall. 

22. Ni, river; u-pa-gi, the strong current; ga, this; kshe, that lies; 

a, they said. 

24. Thi-u-thi-xthu-k'a, the hollow of my body; a-gi-the, I have made 

it to be; a-thi° he i" da, in the course of my life. 

25. Zhi"-ga, the little ones; thi-u-thi-xthu-k'a, the hollow of their 

bodies; gi-the, they make of it; mo"-thi°, as they travel the 
path of life; bi, they; do°, when; shki, and; a, they said. 



L.1FLESCHE] RITE OF \qGIL LITERAL TRANSLATION. 561 

26. Thi-u-thi-xthu-k'a, in the hollow of their bodies; i-ts'a, causes of 
death; thi°-ge, to have none; ki-the, cause themselves to; 
mo°-thi", as they travel the path of life: ta hi" da, they shall. 

28. Ni, river; u-ba-sho", bend; wi", a; a, they said. 36. 

29. E-dsi, there; xtsi, very close to; hi, having arrived there; zho" 

kshe, he lay; a, they said. 37, 51, 69, 83. 

30. Mo°-9to-pto-be, the soft earth in the water; ho^-fka, of no par- 

ticular kind; do", the; a, they said. 

31. Ha-bi-ta-the, he gathered together in a pile; gthi no"-the, he 

placed the pile near where; to°, he stood; a, they said. 

32. Tsi, house; to", to possess; ki-the, he caused himself to; to", as 

he stood; a, they said. 

33. Zlii"-ga, the little ones; tsi, house; to", to possess; ki-the, cause 

themselves to; hi, they; do", when; shki, and; a, they said. 

34. Tsi, in the house; to", to possess; ki-the, which they caused them- 

selves to; i-ts'a, causes of death; tlii"-ge, to have none therein; 
ki-the, they shall cause themselves to; mo"-thi", as they travel 
the path of life; ta bi" da, they shall. 

38. Thiu-xe, willow; zhi"-ga, young sapling; ho"-?ka, of any kind; 

do", a; a, they said. 70, 84. 

39. Tha-xia-tha, cut it down \\Tth his teeth: gthi i-he-the, made it to 

fall near where; to", he stood; a, they said. 53, 71, 85. 

40. Mi, sun; hi-e, setting of; ge, the; ta, in the direction of; ni-ka- 

shi-ga, peoples. 46, 56, 72, 78, 88. 

41. Wa-b tha-xia-tha, upon them I cut down the tree; gthi i-he-a-the 

i" da, I made it here to fall. 57, 73, 89. 

42. Tsi-zhe-be, the door; i-sdu-ge, at the right side; dsi, there; a, 

they said. 58. 

43. Tha-xu-e, dragged with his teeth; gthi i-he-the, brought and 

placed it down; to", as he stood; a, they said. 59, 75, 91. 

44. Ga tse, these; shki, also: a, they said. 54, 60, 76, 86, 92. 

45. Wa-thi°-e-9ka, without a purpose; btha-xu-e, dragged with my 

teeth; gthi i-he-a-tha, and here laid it down; mo"-zhi i" da, 1 
have not. 77. 

47. We-tha-wa, use it to count with; mo"-thi", as they travel the path 

of life; bi, they; do", when: shki, and; a, they said. 65, 79, 97. 

48. 0-do°, military honors; gi-tsi-pa, evenly or correctly counted; 

ki-the, cause themselves to; mo"-thi", as they travel the path 

of life; ta bi" da, they shall. 66, 80, 98. 
50. Ni, river; u-ga-xthi, bend; we-pe-tho"-ba, the seventh; thi"- 

kshe, the sitting; a, they said. 
52. Thiu-xe, willow: zhi"-ga, young, sapling; we-pe-tho"-ba, the 

seventh; to", the standing; a, they said. 
3594°— 25 1 36 



562 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ANN. 39 

55. Wa-thi°-e-9ka, without a purpose; btha-xia-tha, I cut down 
with my teeth; gthi i-hc-a-tha, brought here and placed it 
down; mo°-zhi i" da, I have not. 87. 

61. Wa-thi''-e-pka, without a purpose; she-mo°, I have done so; 

mo°-zhi i" da, I have not. 93. 

62. Tsi-zhu, the people of the Tsi-zhu great division ; a, they said. 94. 

63. Ho°-ga, the people of the Ho°-ga subdivision; e-tho°-ba, they 

also. 95. 

64. We-tha-wa, use it to count with; mo°-thi", as they travel the 

path of life; ta i tsi° da, they shall. 96. 
68. Ni, river; u-ga-xthi, bend; wi°, one; a, they said. 
74. Tsi-zhe-be, the door; tha-ta, at the left side; dsi, there; a, they 

said. 90. 
82. Ni, river; u-ga-xthi, the bend of; we-sha-pe, the sixth; thi°- 

kshe, the sitting; dsi, there; a, they said. 

Wa-thu-^e Wi'-gi-e or the Black Bear Gens. 

By Wa-tse'-moN-iN. 

(Free translation, p. 154: Osage version, p. 426.) 

1. Da, what, said they; a bi° da, it has been said; tsi, house; ga, 

in this. 13, 27, 47, 68, 94, 116, 144, 181, 193, 200, 210, 220, 
230, 237, 247, 253, 275, 280, 310, 327, 343, 359, 372, 384, 398, 
411, 423, 439, 455, 468, 480, 494. 

2. Wa-^a-be, the black bear; u-^a-ka, blenaish, in color; thi°-ge, 

that has none; kshe, that lies outstretched; a, they said. 

3. Wa-ki-gtM-gtho°, meditate upon himself; tsi-the proceeded to; 

to", he stood; a, they said. 5, 7, 30. 

4. Ta, deer; ki-thi-xa-bi, (the moon) in which they rut; u-zhi"-ga, 

while young; xtsi, verily; thi"-kshe, the sitting; a, they said. 
6. Mo"-zho", earth or season; u-to"-ga, great, in the ripeness of hei 
fruits; thi°-kshe, as she sat; a, they said. 

8. Ta-dse, the winds; ha-no°-ha, all the paths of the winds; te, the 

standing; a, they said. 

9. He-no° he, to each one; a, they said. 

10. A, arms; xa-ga, bristling, paws uplifted, claws outspread; hi 

no°-zlii°-zhi", he stood repeatedly; to", he stood; a, they said. 

11. Ni-dse, his haunches; ki i-no^-the, put down to rest; ta do", 

intending to. 37, 54, 76, 81, 100, 105, 120, 130, 149. 

12. 0-k'o" wa-no^-tha zhi, perplexed, bewildered; to", he stood; a, 

they said. 
14. (^i-thu-pe, took footsteps, to go forth; tsi-the, he proceeded to; 
to", he standing; a, they said. 28, 48, 69, 95, 117, 145, 311, 
314, 316. 



L.\.FLE.SCHE] RITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TRANSLATION. 563 

15. Xa-dse, grass; ba-tse, a patch; he-dsi tho°, there was; a, they 

said. 

16. He-dsi, there; xtsi, close to; hi, he arrived; no^-zhi", paused; 

to°, he stood; a, they said. 52, 72, 97. 

17. Tlii-sda, to pull up the grass; tsi-the, he proceeded; to°, he 

stood; a, they said. 

18. Ni-dse, haunches; ki i-no"-tha, put down to rest; zhi, not; to", 

he stood; a, they said. 39, 59, 83, 106, 131. 

19. She sho° thi" do°, even while he moved about; a, they said. 

60, 84, 132, 182. 

20. Wa-thi"-e-pka, without a purpose; she-mo°, I have performed 

this act; mo°-zhi i" da, I have not. 61, S6, 108, 134. 

21. Zhi"-ga, the little ones; lui. sun; lii-e, the setting of; gc, the; 

ta, in the direction of. 41, 62, 87, 109, 135, 296, 323, 339, 382, 
435, 478. 

22. We-ki i-he-the, use as a means to make fall the enemy; mo°- 

thi", as they travel the path of life; ta ba do", that they may; 
she a-wa-kslii-mo° i° da, I have performed this act for them. 

23. We-ki i-he-the, use as a means to make fall the enemy; nio"- 

thi", as they travel the path of life; bi, they; do", when; 
a, they said. 

24. We-ki i-he-the, make fall the enemy; gi-wa-ts'e-ga, easy for 

themselves; ki-the, cause to be; mo"-thi", as they travel the 
path of life; ta ba do", that they may; she-a-wa-kshi-mo" i° 
da, 1 have performed this act for them. 

25. We-go°-tha, as an act of supplication; a-thi,°, they keep it; 

mo"-thi", as they travel the path of life; bi, they; do", when; 
shki, and; a, they said. 43, 64, 89, 111, 142. 

26. Da-do", acts or things; thu-ts'a-ga, fail to perform or obtain; 

zhi, not; ki-the, cause themselves to; mo"-tlii", as they travel 
the path of life; ta ba tlo", that they may; she-a-wa-kshi-mo° 
i° da, I have performed this act for them. 
29. O-fu, a lowland forest; ko"-ha, the edge of; xtsi, close to; hi, 
having arrived at; no°-zhi", paused; to", he stood; a, they said. 

31. Ni-dse, his haunches; ki i-no"-tha, placed down to rest; zhi, not; 

thi", he, as he moved about; a, they said. 119, 148. 

32. Mi, moons, months; pe-tho"-ba, seven; gthi", sit to rest; ta do", 

that he may. 56, 75, 102, 122, 151, 169. 

33. 0-k'o" wa-no"-tha zhi, perplexed, bewildered; tlii", he, as he 

moved about; a, they said. 101, 103, 121, 123, 150, 152. 

34. Zho"-sha-be-the hi, dark wood, redbud; hi, tree; to", standing; 

no", the; a, they said. 

35. Thi-do-do-xe, crushed with his hands; tsi-the, proceeded to; 

to", he stood; a, they said. 57, 79. 



564 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [bth. ANN. 39 

36. A-ki-zhi, one piece of the tree upon the other, in' a pile; i-tse- 
the, he placed upon the ground; to°, he stood; a, they said. 
38, 58, 80, 82, 126, 129. 

42. We-go°-tha, an act for use in their supplications: a-tlii", to keep; 
mo^-thi", as they travel the path of life; ta ba do", that they 
may; she-a-wa-kshi-mo" i° da, I have performed this act for 
them. 63, S8, 110. 

44. We-go"-tha, the favors they ask; gi-wa-ts'e-ga, win -with ease; 

ki-the, enable themselves to; mo^-thi", as they travel the path 
of life; ta i tsi" da, they shall. 

45. We-mo°-ka, as a means to overcome the enemy with ease ; the, 

use, the act; mo°-thi°, as they travel the path of life; bi, they; 
do°, when: shki, and; a, they said. 92, 114, 325. 

46. We-mo"-ka the, use, to overcome the enemy; gi-wa-ts'e-ga, win 

with ease ; ki-the, enable themselves to ; mo^-thi", as they travel 
the path of life; ta ba do°, that they may; she-a-wa-kshi-mo" 
i" da, I have performed this act for them. 67, 93, 115, 143, 
326. 

49. 0-QU, lowland forest; go-da, on the farther side; k<)°-ha, edge of ; 

dsi, there; xtsi, close to; a, they said. 

50. Hi, having arrived there; no^-zhi", paused; to", he standing; a, 

they said. 283. 

51. Mo" -fa xo-dse, gray arrowshaft; hi, tree; to", standing; no°, 

the; a, they said. 

53. Wa-ki-gthi-gtho", meditating upon himself; xtsi, verily; tlii", as 
he moved about; a, they said. 74, 77, 98. 

55. Wa-ki-gthi-gtho", to meditate upon himself; tsi-the, he pro- 
ceeded; thi", as he moved about; a, they said. 

65. We-go°-tha, what favors they ask; gi-wa-ts'e-ga, win with ease; 

ki-the, enable themselves to; mo^-thi", as they travel the path 
of life; ta ba do", that they may; she-a-wa-kshi-mo" i" da, I 
have performed tliis act for them. 90, 112. 

66. We-mo"-ka the, use as a means to overcome the enemy with ease; 

mo"-thi'', as they travel the path of life; ta ba do", that they 
may; she-a-wa-kshi-mo" i" da, I have performed this act for 
them. 91, 113, 324. 

70. Ni, stream, brook; u-sda, bare of trees; xtsi, verily; ge, where; 

dsi, there; a, they said. 

71. Thiu-xe, willow; ts'a-zhi, that never dies; to", standing; no", 

the; a, they said. 78. 
73. Wa-fa-be, black bear; do-ga, male; to", the standing; a, they 

said. 
85. Ga tse, this act; shki, also; a, they said. 107, 133, 302. 
96. Mo"-tu-tu-be, a hummock; thi"-kshe, the sitting; dsi, there; a, 

they said. 



LAFLESCHE] KITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TEANSLATION. 565 

99. Mo^-zho", the land; do"-do°-be, looked over on all sides; xtsi, 

verily; hi, having arrived there; no^-zhi", paused; to°, he 

stood; a, they said. 
104. Thi-ta-the, tore it up; gthi, pulling it toward himself; i-no°-the, 

placed the parts in a pile; to°, he stood; a, they said. 
118. U-k'u-be, a valley; wi°, a; hi, having arrived at; no°-zhi°, 

paused; to°, he stood. 

124. He-dsi, at that time and place; xtsi, verily; a, they said; a bi° 

da, it has been said; tsi, house; ga, in this. 153, 157, 167, 
176, 178, 291, 299, 318. 

125. I'°, stones; zhi^-ga, small. 

127. I'°, stones; zlii"-ga, small; pe-tho"-ba, seven; 

128. Thi-ta-the, pulled up and gathered together; gthi, toward liim- 

self ; i-tse-the, he placed them; to°, he stootl; a, they saitl. 

136. We-ki-k'o°, ceremonial and symbolic articles; the, make use of 

them as; mo°-thi°, as they travel the path of life; ta ba do°, 
that they may; she a-wa-kshi-mo° i" da, I have performed this 
act for them. 

137. Tsi-zhu, the people of the Tsi-zhu division; zhi°-ga, little ones; 

i-ta-i, theirs. 

138. Wa-zha-zhc, the people of the Wa-zha-zhe subdivision; zhi"-ga, 

little ones; i-ta-i, theirs; e-tho"-ba, also. 

139. I-da-fi-hi, cleansed with the heat of the stones: ki-the, cause 

themselves to be; mo"-thi°, as they travel the path of life; 
shki o", also; ta ba do°, that they may; she a-wa-kshi-mo" i" 
da, I have performed this act for them. 

140. I-da-fi-hi, cleansed with the heat of the stones; ki-the, cause 

themselves to be; mo^-thi", as they travel the path of life: bi, 
they; do", when; shki, and; a, they said. 

141. I-ts'a, causes of death; tlu°-ge, having none; mo"-thi", as they 

travel the path of life; ta ba do", that they may; she a-wa- 
kshi-mo" i" da, I have performed this act for them. 

146. I'°, rocky clifl'; pa-(,'i, to the top of; wi", a; hi, having arrived 

there; no"-zhi", paused; to°, he stood; a, they said. 

147. Mo"-sho°-dse, a cave; wi", a; hi, having arrived there; no"-zhi", 

paused; to", he stood; a, they said. 

154. Tsi, house, the cave ; e-ta-thi-sho", in the direction of; xtsi, close 

to; hi, having arrived there; no"-zlii", paused; to", he stood; 
a, they said. 

155. Tsi-zhe-be, the door; i-sdu-ge, at the right side; dsi, there; xtsi, 

close to; a, they said. 

156. U-ba-mo"-xe, he crouched and went therein ; hi, having arrived 

there; no"-zhi", paused; to", he stood; a, they said. 



566 THE OSAGE TRIBE. [eth. ann. 39 

158. Tsi, house; u-xta, mysterious and pleasing; xtsi, verily; i-the, 

liave found; ki-the, thought himself to; to", he stood; a, they 
said. 162. 

159. Gu-dsi, farther, into the house; i-gthi^-ge no°, he went and sat 

down; a, they said. 

160. Gu-dsi, farther, into the house; i-gthi^-ge, he went and sat 

do^vn; do", when; a, they said. 

161. Tsi-u-thu-ga, house space, room; tha-gthi", beautiful and pleas- 

ing; xtsi, very; sho°, in every respect; i-ki-the, found for 
himself; to", he stood; a, they said. 

163. Tsi, a house; u-ho°-ba, in which the light of day: tlii°-ge, is 

absent; xtsi, verily; sho°, everywhere; i-ki-the, found for 
himself; to°, he stood; a, they said. 

164. Tsi-zhe-be, door; wi-ta, mine. 

165. Wa-ko"-da i" da, is god, godlike, mysterious. 

166. Be, any person; o°-wo°-ga-?'i", look in upon me, stealthily; ba, 

they; tho°-ta, possible; zhi, not; sho", in any event; e-ki-the, 
he thought; to", he stood; a, they said. 
168. Ni-dse, his haimches; ki, down; i-no"-the, he placed; thi"-kshe, 
as he sat; a, they said. 170. 

171. Sho", even as he, while yet: thi"-kshe, he sat. 

172. Mi-o"-ba, moons; sha-pe, six; hi, arrived there (six months 

passed) ; thi"-kshe, as he sat; a, they said. 

173. Ga, this, lapse of time; sho", had passed: xtsi, verily; do", when; 

a, they said. 

174. U-thu-ha, following; we-to°-i". examined; ki-the, himself; thi°- 

kshe, as he sat; a, they said. 281. 

175. Zhu-i-ga, his body; ki-to°-be, he looked over; thi"-kshe, as he 

sat; a, they said. 
177. Zhu-i-ga, flesh; thi"-ge, having none; xtsi, verily: pshi, I have 
reached; mi"-kshe, as I sat; sho", all in all; e-ki-the, he 
thought: thi"-kshe, as he sat; a, they said. 

179. Zhi"-ga, the little ones; zhu-i-ga, their bodies: o"-tha, make of 

me; ba, they; tho"-ta, should; xtsi, verily; sho", by all means; 
e-ki-the, he thought; thi°-kshe, as he sat; a, they said. 

180. Zhi"-ga, the little ones; u-no", means of reaching old age: sym- 

bol of old age; o"-tha, make of me; ba, they; tho"-ta, should; 
xtsi, verily; sho", by all means; e-ki-the, he thought; thi"- 
kshe, as he sat; a, they said. 

183. Zhi"-ga, the little ones; zhu-i-ga, their bodies; o"-the, make of 

me; ta i tsi" da, they shall. 

184. Zhi"-ga, the little ones; zhu-i-ga, their bodies; o"-tha, make of 

me; bi, they; do", when; a, they said. 187, 189, 191, 199, 204, 
206, 208, 214, 216, 218, 224, 226, 228, 233, 235, 241, 243, 245, 
266, 268, 270, 272. 



LAFLESCHE] RITE OF VIGIL LITERAL TKANSLATION. 567 

185. fi-pa-hi, toes; thi-ftu-the, gathered in folds: ga te, these; a, 

they said. 

186. U-no°, means of reaching old age, symbol of old age; a-gi-the, 

I have made to be; mi^-kshi" da, I who sit here. 203, 213, 

223, 232, 240, 250, 256, 265. 
188. fi-pa-hi, toes; thi-^tu-the, gathered in folds, with age; a hi, 

spoken of as; i-the, live to see; ki-the, cause themselves to; 

mo°-thi°, as they travel the path of life; ta i tse a, they shall; 

zlii°-ga, the little ones. 
190. I-ts'a, causes of death; thi°-ge, having none; mo''-thi°, as they 

travel the path of life: ta i tsi"' da, they shall. 207, 217, 227, 

244, 269, 358, 454. 
192. Ts'e, to die; wa-tse-xi, difficult to; ki-the, cause themselves to 

be; mo^-thi", as they travel the path of life; ta i tse a, they 

shall; zhi-'-ga, the little ones. 209, 219, 229, 236, 246, 271. 

194. Ga, these, words; no''-zhi'' da, stand, shall stand for all time. 

195. Hi-ko°, my ankles; ba-g'i°-tha, the ■WTinkles of; ga tse, these; 

sliki, also; a, they said. 

196. Hi-ko°, my ankles; u-no°, a means of reaching old age, symbol 

of old age; a-gi-the, I have made to be: mi^-kshi" da, I 
who sit here. 

197. Zhi^-ga, the little ones; no°, old age; hi, they arrive at; do", 

when; a, they said. 251, 257, 261, 273, 276. 

198. Hi-ko", ankles; ba-^'i^-tha, wrinkles of; a bi, spoken of as; 

i-the, live to see; ki-the, cause themselves to; mo^-thi", as 
they travel the path of life; ta i tse a, they shall; zhi°-ga, the 
little ones. 

201. Tse-wa-tse, inner muscles of the thigh; u-ga-wa, loosened with 

age: ga, this; thi°-kshe, the sitting; shki, also: a, they said. 

202. E, that; shki do", also: a, they said. 212, 222, 239, 249, 255, 260, 

264. 
211. U-mu-ta, mu