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Full text of "Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution"

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FORTIETH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



1918-1919 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1925 



U-lJ-Cf^ .0{ 



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ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THIS PUBUCATION MAT BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

$2.75 PER COPY (Cloth) 



\li li lUPeniNrtNOLNr Of documents 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



Smithsonian Institution, 
Bureau of American Ethnology, 

Washington, D. C, August 4, 1919. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the Fortieth 
Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology for 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1919. 

With appreciation of your aid in the work under my 
charge, I am 

Very respectfully, yours, 

J. Walter Fewkes, 

Chief. 
Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. '■ 

in j 



CONTENTS. 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF. 

Page. 

Sj'stematic researches 2 

Special researches 11 

Manuscripts 17 

Editorial work and publications 17 

Illustrations 18 

Library 19 

Collections 20 

Property 20 

Miscellaneous 21 

ACCOMPANYING PAPERS. 

The mythical origin of the White Buffalo Dance of the Fox Indians, by 

Truman Michelson 23 

The autobiography of a Fox Indian woman, by Truman Michelson 291 

Notes on Fox mortuary customs and beliefs, by Truman Michelson 351 

Notes on the Fox society known as "Those who worship the Little Spotted 

Buffalo," by Truman Michelson 497 

The traditional origin of the Fox society known as "The singing around 

rite," by Truman Michelson 541 

V 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF 



Vll 



FORTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 



J. Walter Fewkes, Chief. 



The operations of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1919, were conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress approved July 1, 1918, 
making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of the 
Government, which act contains the f ollo\\dng item : 

American ethnology : For continuing ethnological researches among 
the American Indians and the natives of Hawaii, including the exca- 
vation and preservation of axchaeologic remains, under the direction 
of the Smithsonian Institution, including necessary employees and 
the purchase of necessary books and periodicals, $42,000. 

The ethnological and archeological researches of the staff 
which are considered in the following report being by law 
restricted to the American Indians thus from necessity are 
more or less hmited in scope, but notwithstanding this limi- 
tation and the intensive work that has been done in the past 
there is no indication that this field has been sufficiently 
cultivated or is approaching exhaustion. It is evident that 
aboriginal manners and customs are rapidly disappearing, but 
notwithstanding that disappearance much remains unknown, 
and there has come a more urgent necessity to preserve for 
posterity b}^ adequate record the many survivals before they 
disappear forever. 

The remnants of languages once spoken by large populations 
have dwindled to survivals spoken by one or more centena- 
rians, and when they die these tongues, if not recorded, will 
be lost forever. Such a fate nearly happened with an Indian 
tongue in CaUfornia last j^ear on account of a contagious dis- 
ease, but fortunately, through the field work of one of our 

staff, it was rescued before its extinction. 

1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN" ETHNOLOGY. 

The continued study of the material culture of the Indians 
has a practical economic value. Certain food plants, like 
maize, and fibers, like henequen, have already been adopted 
from our aborigines, and there are others of vast economic 
value which await investigation. Ethnological studies of our 
Indians along these lines are being made by the members of 
the staff. 

Another instructive line of work the past year relates to 
the history of the Indians l^oth before and after the advent 
of the Europeans. Such studies tend to a broader appre- 
ciation of racial character and have special value when we 
reflect how rapidly the Indian population is merging into 
American life. The excavation and repair of prehistoric 
monuments in our Southwest is enlarging our knowledge of 
history as well as attracting more and more tourists and 
replacing threadbare prejudices with saner ideas of Indian 
possibilities in many lines. 

The logical results of the events of the last years appear 
in the calls for information made on the staff for accurate 
knowledge of other races besides the American Indian. It 
needs no prophet to predict that the future will demand an 
extension of the bureau work to other races. The calls for 
ethnological information on the Indian during the past year 
have been many and varied and considerable time of the 
ethnologists has been taken up in answering the many 
requests of this nature that are made. The chief has given 
much time to administration and routine work. 

SYSTEMATIC KESEARCHES. 

In addition to administrative duties the chief has been 
able to devote considerable time to research work in the 
field and has prepared for publication several scientific 
articles, the largest of which will soon be published as 
Bulletin No. 70. These field researches are in accordance 
with the above-mentioned act of Congress, which includes 
the excavation and preservation of archeological remains. 
In September he took the field, continuing his exploration 
of the castles and towers of the McElmo and tributary can- 



ADMINISTRATIVE KEPOET. 3 

yons in southwestern Colorado, extending his studies west- 
ward into southeastern Utah as far as Montezuma Canyon. 
The object was to determine the western horizon of the 
area of the pure type of pueblos and cliff dwellings, and to 
investigate the remains of antecedent peoples from which it 
sprung in order to obtain data bearing on the question of 
the origin of the San Juan drainage culture. The country 
traveled through is especially rich in prehistoric towers and 
castellated buildings, but contains also many clusters of 
mounds formed by fallen walls of large communal buildings, 
many of which were wholly or partially unknown to science. 
The work was largely a reconnoissance and no extensive 
excavations or repair work was attempted. Special atten- 
tion was paid to the structure and probable use of towers 
which are combined with cliff houses like Cliff Palace, or 
great villages like those of the Mummy Lake and upper San 
Juan and its tributaries. Among the most significant new 
towers discovered were two found in McLean Basin, near 
the old Bluff City trail not far from the State line of Utah 
and Colorado. The McLean Basin ruin has a rectangular 
shape, with a round tower on one corner and one of semi- 
circular form on the diagonally opposite angle, each 15 feet 
high. The building on which these towers stand must have 
presented a very exceptional appearance in prehistoric 
times before its walls had fallen. Another ruin found in a 
cave in Sand Canyon is instructive on account of its being 
the only one yet found with a single kiva of the unit type. 
It was probably a ceremonial cave, the room showing scanty 
evidence of having been inhabited. 

One of the discoveries made was the recognition that the 
buildings on McElmo Bluff had a crude masonry character- 
ized by stones set on edge, the walls being made of adobe and 
logs. The stones of one or more rooms on this site were large, 
indicating megalithic stone houses. All the data assembled 
indicate that they antedated the fine horizontal masonry of 
the pueblos and cliff dwellings. 

While in the field the chief carried on a correspondence 
with Mr. Van Kleeck, of Denver, owner of the Aztec Spring 
Ruin, which led to that ruin being presented to the National 



4 BUREAU OP AMERICAN" ETHNOLOGY. 

Park Service and later accepted by the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior. The presentation of this interesting ruin to the Go\'- 
ernment is important and it is to be hoped that it will later 
be excavated and repaired and thus present an additional 
attraction to tourists and an important aid to the archeologist 
in the interpretation of this type of southwestern ruin. 

In May the chief visited Austin, Tex., and inaugurated 
work on the antiqjjities of that State, the archeology of which 
has been neglected. This work is now being prosecuted hy 
Prof. J. E. Pearce, of the University of Texas, and bids fair 
to open up a most instructive chapter in a field of which we 
know comparatively little. Important discoveries have been 
made in the aboriginal workshops and village sites at Round 
Rock and near Austin, where fine flint implements are very 
abundant. The work will be continued into the timbered 
region of eastern Texas, where we find pottery related to 
that of Louisiana and Arkansas and evidences of a radically 
different prehistoric culture from that of central Texas. 

Mr. James Mooney, ethnologist, at the beginning of the 
fiscal year was at his former field of labor among the Kiowa 
and associated tribes of western Oklahoma, where several 
months were devoted to the collection and revision of 
material and observations of ceremonies among the Kiowa, 
Comanche, Kiowa Apache, Cheyenne, Arapaho. Caddo, and 
Wichita in continuation of studies of their aboriginal her- 
aldry, social and military organization, and religion. 

Since his return to Washington in November he has been 
employed chiefly in the coordination of material obtained in 
the field and in the compiling of data for reply to current 
letters of ethnologic inquiry. 

Dr. John R. Swanton, ethnologist, devoted a considerable 
part of his time during the past year to the collection of 
material from pubhshed sources for a study of the economic 
background of the Hfe of the American Indians north of 
Mexico. Tills involves an examination of the sources, loca- 
tion, and quantity of food supphes and of new materials 
used in the industrial hfe of the various tribes — materials of 
wood, stone, bone, shell, etc. In this way it is hoped that 
a more complete understanding of the density and distribu- 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPOBT. 5 

tion of the prehistoric population may be reached, and the 
location and sij2:nificance of trade routes estabhshed. A 
clearer idea is also sought of the shifts in population un- 
doubtedly brought about by the introduction of com. 
Without some study of the kind no proper estimate of the 
social and rehgious institutions of the people of prehistoric 
America is possible. 

His work on the languages of the Indfans of the lower 
Mississippi Valley has been continued, and at the end of the 
year it was directed particularly to the preparation of a 
grammatical sketch of the Natchez language from materials 
collected by him during the last 10 years from one of the 
three surviving speakers of that tongue. 

In April Doctor Swanton visited Oklahoma in order to 
collect additional information regarding the httle understood 
and now almost forgotten social systems of the Choctaw 
and Chickasaw Indians. Although small in bulk, the mate- 
rial obtained in the course of the investigation is valuable. 
It has already been incorporated into a manuscript paper on 
the social organization and social customs of the Indians of 
the IMuskhogean stock. During the trip he also secured the 
services of an educated Chickasaw in writing texts in his 
native tongue, and one of these has already been received. 

Before his return to Washington, Doctor Swanton visited 
Anadarko, where he learned that the language of the Kichai 
Indians is on the point of extinction, and began the collec- 
tion of a vocabulary. He has made arrangements for more 
extended work upon this language in the fall. 

He has submitted two papers for publication during the 
year, first a philological paper entitled " A Structural and 
Lexical Comparison of the Tunica, Chitimacha, and Atakapa 
Languages," which is being published as Bulletin 68, in which 
he believes he has shown the relationship of what had hitherto 
been classed as three independent stocks; and, second, an 
extended liistorical study of the Creek Indians and their 
neighbors. 

Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnologist, on his return from field 
work, July 5, 1918, took up the final reading of the proofs of 
his report in the Thirty-second Annual Report of the Bureau 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

of American Ethnology. These proofs were sent to the 
Printing Office November 9, 1918, and the printed report 
was ready for distribution May 12, 1919. 

At this time he also took up the work of preparing for the 
press the texts, with free and interlinear translations, of an 
Onondaga version of the Myth of the Beginnings, the Genesis 
Myth of the Iroquoian peoples, as the second part of Iro- 
quoian Cosmology, the first part having been printed in the 
Twenty-first Annual Report of the bureau. The copying 
of the pencil text was completed, aggregating 316 type- 
written pages. This includes the supplementary myth of 
much later date than the accompanying version of the 
Myth of the Beginnings. The most interesting feature of 
the supplementary myth is the naive description of one of 
the most remarkable figures developed by the cosmic think- 
ing of Iroquoian poets. This potent figure, in whose keep- 
ing are life and the endless interchange of the seasons, is most 
striking in his externaj aspect — one side of his body being 
composed of living flesh and the other of crystal ice. In the 
longer preceding myth, to which this is supplemental, the 
Master of Life is an independent personage, and so also is his 
noted brother, the Master of Winter, the Winter God, whose 
body is composed of crystal ice. The Life God, or Master 
of Life, controlled the summer, and. his brother, the Winter 
God, controlled the winter. So in this peculiar figure there 
appears the inceptive fusing together of two hitherto inde- 
pendent gods who were brothers because they dwelt together 
in space and time. 

This remarkable figure is, in fact, the symbol of the 
absorption of the personality — the functions and activities^ 
of the Master of Winter (the Winter God) by the Master of 
Life and his powerful aids, manifested in the power of the 
Master of Life (the Life God) to save and to protect from 
dissolution and death his many wards, all living things that 
comprise faunal and floral life. This fact emerges from the 
experience of the human race from year to year. This sub- 
mergence of one divine personality in that of another is a 
process of cosmic thinking encountered in the mythic phi- 
losophy of other races. This figure, as described in this text, 



ADMINISTRATIVE EEPOET. 



is worthy of intensive study by the student of comparative 
mythology and religion. The pencil texts of these myths 
aggregate 1,057 pages and the typewritten 316 pages. The 
tentative draft of the free translations of these texts aggre- 
gates 250 pages of typewritmg. Some work was also done 
in supplying the first text with a literal interlinear transla- 
tion. This will be ready for the press at an early date. 

Mr. Hewitt also continued work on his league material, 
in which he completed the copying of the corrected and 
amended native text of the tradition of the founding of the 
Iroquois League or Confederation by Deganawida, making 
189 typewritten pages, and also the amended and corrected 
text of the Chant of the Condoling and Installation Council, 
detailing some of the fundamental laws of the league; this 
occupies 13 pages. 

Upon request, Mr. Hewitt also submitted an article on 
the League of the Iroquois and Its Constitution for the 
Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution; it occupies 
30 typewritten pages. 

Mr. Hewitt has also attended the meetings of the United 
States Geographic Board, on which he represents the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

As custodian of manuscripts, Mr. Hewitt has charged out 
and received back such items as were required by collabo- 
rators. 

Mr. Hewitt also spent much time and study m the prepa- 
ration of matter for official replies to letters of correspon- 
dents of the bureau or to those which have been referred to 
the bureau from other departments of the Government. 

On May 12, 1919, Mr. Hewitt left Washington on field 
duty. His first stop was on the Onondaga Reservation, 
situated about 8 miles south of S}Tacuse, N. Y. There he 
was able to record in native text all of the doctrines of the 
great Seneca religious reformer, Skanyodaiyo (" Handsome 
Lake"). This is an important text, as it will serve to show 
just how much was original native belief and how much was 
added by the reformer from his impressions formed from 
observing the results of European intrusion. This text con- 
tains about 14,000 native terms. He also recorded the 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

several remnant league rituals and chants which are still 
available on this reservation. But they are so much abbrevi- 
ated and their several parts so confused and intermixed one 
with another that with these remains alone it would be 
absolutely impossible to olitain even an approximate view of 
their original forms and settings — a most disappointing situa- 
tion for the recorder. Only the most elementary and super- 
ficial knowledge of the structure and constitution of the 
Iroquois League survives here. 

Having completed his projected work at this reservation, 
Mr. Hewitt went, May 31, to the Six Nations Reservation 
on Grand River, Ontario, Canada. Here he resumed the 
analysis, correction, amendation, and translation of the 
league texts which he had recorded in pre\'ious years. Satis- 
factory progress was made in this work up to the time of the 
close of his field assignment. 

During the year Mr. Francis La Flesche, ethnologist, de- 
voted a part of his time to the task of assembling his notes 
taken at the time of his visit among the Osage people in the 
month of May, 1918. These notes relate to the trilxil rite 
entitled Ga-hi'-ge 0-k'o°, The Rite of the Chiefs. The ritual 
contains 27 wi'-gi-es (recited parts), 20 of which belong to 
individual gentes and 7 of which are tribal. 

In this ritual is embodied the story of the four stages of 
the development of the tribal government, including both 
the military and the civil forms, beginning with the chaotic 
state of the tribal existence. 

The securing of the information relating to this rite 
required considerable tact, patience, and time, because the 
men familiar with all the details still regard the ancient rites 
with reverence and superstitious awe. The transcribing of 
the wi'-gi-es from the dictaphone records and the translation 
of the words from the Osage into the English language were 
laborious and tedious tasks. This rite will soon be entirely 
forgotten, as it has been abandoned now for a number of 
years, and the rescuing of it for preservation has been timely. 

This rite, which Mall make the first part of the volume 
now being completed for publication, covers 182 typewritten 
pages without the illustrations, maps, and diagrams. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPOET. 9 

The office of hereditary chief has been abandoned and since 
1881 has been elective. 

Upon the completion of The Rite of the Chiefs, the work 
of arranging for publication the ritual entitled Ni'-ki 
Wa-tho", Song of the Sayings of the Ancient Men, was taken 
up. This ritual tells of the origin of the people of the 
Ho"'-ga subdivision of the Ho"'-ga great tribal dual division. 
The story of their descent from the sky to the earth and of 
their subsequent movements is put into wi'-gi-e form and 
recited at the initiatory ceremonies. Each gens has its owoi 
version of the stor}^ and has in it a proprietary right, a right 
that in olden times was not infringed upon by the others. 

Mr. La Flesche was fortunate in becoming acquainted with 
an Osage l^y the name of Xu-tha'-wa-to"-i" and of winning 
his friendship. This man belonged to the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" 
gens of the Tsi'-zhu great tribal dual division. Without the 
slightest hesitation he recited for ]\Ir. La Flesche the Ni'-ki 
Wi'-gi-e of his own gens, and he also gave with it some of 
the shorter wi'-gi-es that accompany certain ceremonial acts 
of the ritual. 

These origin rituals when completed will cover more than 
220 typewritten pages, to which two short wi'-gi-es of a like 
character, nearly ready, will he added. These pages added 
to those of The Rite of the Chiefs will bring the number of 
typewritten pages, without the illustrations, close to 430. 

The Fasting Ritual, which was completed some time ago, 
and covers 492 pages, exclusive of the illustrations, and the 
two rituals above referred to, will make the first volume of 
a projected work on the Osage tribe. 

On July 1 Dr. Truman Michelson, ethnologist, visited 
Tama, Iowa, and completed his field work on the gram- 
matical analysis of the text of " The Owl Sacred Pack of the 
Fox Lidians." On his return to Washington he worked out 
a practically exhaustive list of verbal stems and submitted 
a manuscript for pulilication. He also observed mortuary 
customs under peculiarly fortimate conditions and obtained 
a numljer of texts WTitten in the current syllabary- on mor- 
tuary customs, eschatology, etc. He restored phonetically 

3599°— 2.5t 2 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

and translated, with a few exceptions, 310 personal names. 
He verified a previous discovery that certain gentes liave 
their own peculiar names for dogs and horses, and trans- 
lated 127 of these names for a forthcoming paper on Fox 
sociology. Doctor Michelson finished the correction of 
Jones's Ojibwa Texts, part 2, which with part 1, previously 
corrected by him, will form the basis of a proposed sketch 
of Ojibwa grammar. During the fiscal year he also from 
time to time furnished data to answer official correspondence. 

The beginning of the fiscal year found Mr. J. P. Harring- 
ton, ethnologist, at Taos, N. Mex., engaged in the correction 
and completion of his manuscript on the Tiwa language. 
The Taos material of the late Mrs. M. C. Stevenson, which 
is of considerable bulk and great value, was also checked 
up and made more complete, especially in its linguistic 
aspects. The close genetic relationship of the Tanoan dia- 
lects of New Mexico with Kiowa is remarkable, a very large 
number of stems and affixes having practically the same 
sound, while the grammar runs parallel throughout. Certain 
subtle and unusual phonetic hardenings occurring in these 
languages make it impossible to assume anything but common 
descent from a not very remote ancestral tongue. These 
discoveries open up far-reaching speculations and problems 
with regard to the origin of the Pueblo Indians. 

In August Mr. Harrington proceeded to southern Cali- 
fornia, where he continued his studies of the Chumashan 
Indians, most of the time being devoted to the Ventureno, 
which was also the dialect most successfully studied. Dur- 
ing the course of the work the last good informant on the 
language of La Purisima died. Important information was 
recorded on the ancient customs attending birth, marriage, 
and death, and some idea was gleaned of the manner of 
conducting primitive pre-Spanish fiestas. Data on native 
foods was also obtained, including detailed descriptions of 
the preparation of acorn and other vegetal foods in this 
region, information on these processes having never before 
been recorded. For example, in the preparation of acorns 
various species were employed, and also certain individual 
trees were noted for their preferable fruit, l^ut the final 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. H 

palatableness of the acorn mush depended largely on the 
patience and skill of the woman who prepared it. A kind 
of acorn bread was also prepared by cooling the mush in 
small molds which were placed in running water. Certain 
other vegetal foods, as the pit of the islay or California wild 
cherry, required long and complicated preparation. As 
primitive beverages may be mentioned toasted chia or 
similar seeds stirred up with the fingers in cold water; a 
satisfying drink made by soaking the bark of the ash in 
water; blackberries crushed in water; and a drink prepared 
from the fruit of the manzanita. A delicious sugar was 
obtained from a species of reed, and the fruit of the juniper 
was ground into a sweet, yellowish food. Interesting 
snatches of information reveal the former plenitude of fish 
and game. Fishing paraphernalia was evidently quite 
highly developed, both nets and harpoons having been in 
use, but the whale was not hunted, although the flesh of 
stranded whales was eagerly made use of. 

Mr. Harrington returned to Washington at the close of 
May and spent the following month in the preparation of 
manuscript material. 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES. 

Dr. Franz Boas, honorary philologist, has been engaged in 
the correction of the proof of the Thirty-fifth Aimual Report. 
Continued correspondence with Mr. George Himt, of Fort 
Rupert, Vancouver Island, has added a considerable amount 
of new material to the original report. 

Preparatory work for the discussion of the ethnology of 
the Kwakiutl Indians was also continued durmg the present 
year. A chapter on place names and another one on per- 
sonal names and material for maps accompanj^mg the 
chapters on place names has been submitted. Thanks are 
due to Dr. Edward Sapir, of the Geological Survey of Canada, 
through whose kindness the detailed surveys of the land office 
of British Columbia have been utilized. Other detailed 
maps showing the distribution of garden beds and charts 
illustrating the genealogies of a number of families have been 
prepared. 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

After the unfortunate death of Mr. Haeberlin, the work 
on the Salish material was transferred to Miss Helen H. 
Roberts, who, in the course of the year, completed the study 
of the basketry of the Salish Indians. A considerable -i 

amoimt of additional information, the need for which devel- 
oped during the work, was supplied by Mr. James Teit, who, ^ 
at Doctor Boas's request, and following detailed questions, I 
reported on special aspects of the decorative art of the I 
Thompson Indians. This work has been carried on with 
the continued financial support of Mr. Homer E. Sargent, 
whose interest in ethnological work in the Northwest has 
already furnished most important material. During the i 
year the work on the map accompanying the discussion of 
the distribution of the Salish tribes was also completed. 

Work on the second part of the Handbook of American j 

Indian Languages also progresses. The completed sketches 
of the Alsea language, by Dr. Leo J. Frachtenberg, and that 
of the Paiute, by Dr. Edward Sapir, were received ])y the 
end of the preceding fiscal year, and the editorial work on ; 

these sketches has nearly been completed. These two '> 

sketches and that of the Kutenai, which has partly l^een 
written, will complete the second volume of the Handbook. 

Dr. Walter Hough, curator of ethnology, was detailed to ' 

continue archeological work in the White Mountain Apache j 

Reserve, Arizona, on ruins reconnoitered in 1918. Doctor 
Hough was aided in his field work by Mr. and Mrs. S. W. i 

Jacques, of Lakeside, by whom his work was much facili- 
tated. Field work was especially deA'oted to the ruins 
called by the Apaches Nustegge Toega, " Grasshopper 
Spring," and clusters of sites in the near vicinity which \ 

form a very large group, indicating extensive intermingling 
of cultures. The main cluster stands in the open green 
valley and consists of two great heaps of stones covered with 
squaw bush, walnut, juniper, and pine, with occasional frag- 
ments of projecting walls, evidences of two large compact 
pueblos separated by Salt River draw. The west village 
(four or five stories high) has a court near the south end, 
90 by 140 feet, connected with a small plaza, and covers 
more than an acre. The east village is more than half an J 



ADMINISTRATIVE EEPOE.T. 13 

acre in area. North of the west village is a plaza 300 feet 
long, flanked in part on the west by an isolated clan house 
of 18 rooms. The six ruins in the cluster that may be 
regarded as clan houses differ in size and arrangement of 
rooms and in general show considerable skill in construc- 
tion. A third form of building west of the large village is 
i-ndicated by large rec^tangular areas outlined with building 
stones scattered over the level ground. The foundations are 
of four or five courses, but never were buried more than 18 
inches, indicating that they did not support a heavy super- 
structure. Tm^o lenticular rubbish heaps, measuring 60 by 
72 feet and 4 feet high, lie on the meadow 100 yards south 
of the walls of the large village. A feature of Pueblo masonry 
discovered here was retaining walls of quite large stone set 
on bedrock, apparently intended to counter lateral thrust of 
heavy walls. Several rooms were cleared out by Apache 
laborers under Doctor Hough's direction and many artifacts 
and some human skeletal material were obtained. 

Mr. Neil M. Judd, curator of American archeology, prose- 
cuted archeological field work in certain caves in Cottonwood 
Canyon which he had visited in 1915. He successfully 
investigated five prehistoric ruins in Cottonwood Canyon 
caves during the two weeks in which work was possible. 
Walls of houses were found to be built entirely of adobe, as 
well as the customary structures made of stone bound with 
clay mortar. Associated with these dwellings were rooms 
of still another type — houses whose walls consisted of ver- 
tical posts set at intervals and joined by masses of adobe. 
It will be noted that all three types closely resemble those 
structures exposed during the excavation of mounds in 
central Utah and previously reported.' 

The dwellings in " Kiva Cave" form the best preserved 
cliff village yet visited by Mr. Judd north and west of the 
Rio Colorado. Two of the four houses visited are prac- 
tically intact, the ceremonial chamber, from which the ruin 
takes its name, being in excellent condition, although con- 
stantly exposed to the snow and summer rains. After 

1 Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 66, No. 3, pp. 64-69; No. 17, pp. 103-108; vol. 6S,No. 12, p. 83. 



14 BUREAU OF AMEEICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

excavating this cave considerable restoration was attempted 
in order that walls weakened by action of the elements and 
by thoughtless visitors might be preserved for years to 
come. At the suggestion of Mr. B. A. Riggs a fence was 
constructed around the house to keep cattle from that 
portion of the cave. 

Buildings with masonry walls were also found in "Ruin 
Cave," but in this case were built directly upon remains of 
other structures of an entirely different character. The 
latter are usually circular and their walls were formed of 
posts to which horizontal willows were bound at intervals of 
7 or 8 inches; adobe mud was pressed between these posts 
and over the willows, but additional and larger supports 
were required to take the great weight of the roof. Although 
these structures lie generally beneath the stone houses, it is 
evident that both types were built by the same people and 
the occupancy of the cave was at no time long interrupted. 

Prehistoric house remains were also found in each of the 
other three caves excavated, but they consisted chiefly of 
small rooms with walls constructed entirely of adobe. Still 
other ruins were discovered high up under the ledges that 
lie on either side of Cottonwood Canyon, but unusual con- 
ditions prevented examination of these. 

Upright sandstone slaljs invariably form the inner base of 
the walls in ruins throughout the region under consideration, 
a fact which connects them with the so-called "slab-house" 
people of the San Juan drainage. Whether there is, in fact, 
any justification for this term remains yet to be proven, 
but the cultural relationship of the prehistoric peoples in 
southwestern Utah with those south of the Rio Colorado is 
at last definitely established. 

The bureau purchased from Miss Frances Densmore papers 
on "Chippewa Remedies and General Customs" and "Chip- 
pewa Art." The latter article has 164 pages, with 42 pages 
of old Chippewa designs and numerous photographs per- 
taining to industries, medicinal plants, customs, and toys 
of children, games, processes of weaving, tanning, and other 
industries. The lists of plants were identified by Mr. Paul 
C. Standley. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 15 

Miss Densmore likewise submitted much new manuscript 
material on the music of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Pawnee. 
With this addition her account of the Mandan-Hidatsa music 
contains 340 pages, more than 40 illustrations, and two new 
forms of graphic representation of their progression. This 
article is now ready for publication. 

An important field of aboriginal music thus far not suffi- 
ciently investigated is among the Pawnee. While engaged 
in the study of the music of this tribe at Pawnee, Okla., 
Miss Densmore witnessed a Hand Game, the Buffalo, Lance, 
and two Victory dances, and later recorded on the phono- 
graph the numerous songs sung at the three first gatherings. 
This material, with musical transcription tabulated and 
descriptive analyses, has been purchased by the bureau. 

Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, curator of physical anthropology, was 
detailed to make an examination of the archeological remains 
of southwestern Florida, especially of the shell heaps along 
the coast south of Key Marco, a region very little explored 
by archeologists and one of the least-known sections of that 
State. In spite of difficulties, Doctor Hrdlicka's field work 
was successful. He visited several groups of shell heaps of 
large size as yet unrecorded and opened up a most instruc- 
tive field for future exploration in a report which has been 
presented for publication. He also made highly important 
observations on physical features of the remnants of Indians 
that still inhabit the little-known regions of Florida. 

Mr. David I. Bushnell, jr., continued the preparation of 
manuscript for the Handbook of Aboriginal Remains East of 
the Mississippi, adding various notes to the manuscript. 
He likewise added about 30 pages to the manuscript entitled 
"Native Villages and Village Sites East of the Mississippi," 
now being printed as Bulletin 69. During the same period 
he completed a manuscript bearing the title " Native Ceme- 
teries and Forms of Burial East of the Mississippi," which is 
to appear as Bulletin 71 of the bureau series. 

With an allotment from the bureau Mr. Gerard Fowke has 
been engaged in special archeological investigations in the 
Ozark region of central Missouri. His careful detailed studies 
have been confined to the numerous caves in that region. 



16 BUREAU OF AMEEICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

If "cave men," usin^ this term to designate the predeces- 
sors of any race or tribe known to history, ever existed in 
the Mississippi Valley, we would find in no part of it natural 
featiu-es better adapted for his requirements than the Ozark 
Hills, but so far not the slightest trace of his presence has 
been revealed. Products of human industry have been 
reported as occurring under other conditions at great depths, 
even at the bottom of the loess, though in all such cases 
there is some uncertainty as to the correctness of the obser- 
vations. On the contrary, whatever may be the depth of the 
deposit containing them, the artificial objects exhumed are 
uniform in character from top to bottom. The specimens 
foimd on the clay or solid rock floor are of the same class as 
those barely covered by the surface earth. Moreover, when 
they cease to appear they cease absolutely. 

By careful search in the caves and rock shelters of which 
the Indian knowai to history availed himself, extensive and 
interesting museum collections can be made. To find an 
earlier man, it will be necessary to investigate caverns 
which he found suitable for occupancy and in which the 
accumulation of detritus, from whatever source, has been 
sufficient to cover his remains so deeply that they can not 
be confused with those of a later period, and it may be 
necessary to discover with them bones of extinct animals. 
No examination of a cavern is complete unless a depth is 
reached where glacial deposits are undeniably of such age as 
to antedate the possible appearance of man upon the scene. 
The Ozark region promises important revelations in the study 
of prehistoric man in America. 

Mr. Fowke has thoroughly investigated one of the caves 
in this region and has prepared an important report on his 
work which will later be published by the bureau. He has 
also transmitted to the National Museum a collection which 
is the largest yet obtained from this locality. The results 
of the work thus far are technical and can not be adequately 
stated in this place, but are not only very important addi- 
tions to the archeology of the region investigated but also 
highly significant in comparative studies of ancient man in 
North America. 



ADMINISTRATIVE EEPOKT. 17 

MANUSCRIPTS. 

In addition to the manuscripts submitted for publication 
by the bureau there was also obtamed by pm-chase an article 
by Mr. C. S. Simmons dealing with the Peyote religion. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS. 

The editing of the publications of the biu-eau was con- 
tinued through the year by Mr. Stanley Searles, editor, 
assisted by Mrs. Frances S. Nichols. The status of the 
publications is presented in the f oUowmg summary • 

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED. 

Thirty-second Annual Report. — Accompanying paper: Seneca Fic- 
tion, Legends, and Myths (Hewitt and Cui'tin). 

Bulletin 59. — Kutenai Tales (Boas) . 

Bulletin 61 . — Teton Sioux Music (Densmore) . 

Bulletin 64- — ^The Maya Indians of Southern Yucatan and Northern 
British Honduras (Gann). 

Bulletin 65. — Archeological Explorations in Northeastern Arizona 
(Kidder and Guernsey). 

Bulletin 66. — Recent Discoveries of Remains Attributed to Early 
Man in America (Hrdlicka). 

List of fublications of the iureau. 

Introduction to Seneca Fiction, Legends, and Myths {Hemtt). — From 
Thirty-second Annual Report (Hewitt and Curtin). 

PUBLICATIONS IN PRESS OR IN PREPARATION. 

Thirty-third Annual Report. — Accompanying papers: (1) Uses of 
Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region (Gihnore) ; (2) 
Preliminary Account of the Anticiuities of the Region between the 
Mancos and La Phxta Rivers in Southwestern Colorado (Morris) ; 
(3) Designs on Prehistoric Hopi Pottery (Fewkes) ; (4) The Hawaiian 
Romance of Laieikawai (Beckwith). 

Thirty-fourth Annual Report. — Accompanying paper: Prehistoric 
Island Culture Areas of America (Fewkes). 

Thirty-fftJi Annual Report. — ^Accompanying paper: Ethnology of 
the Kwakiutl (Boas) . 

Thirty-sixth Annual Report. — Accompanying paper: Early History 
of the Creek Indians and their Neighbors (Swanton) . 

Bulletin 40. — Part 2: Handbook of American Indian Languages 
(Boas). 

Bulletin 60. — Handbook of Aboriginal American Antiquities: 
Part 1, Introduction; The Lithic Industries (Holmes). 

Bulletin 67. — ^Alsea Texts and Myths (Frachtenberg) . 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

Bulletin 68. — Structural and Lexical Comparison of the Tunica, 
Chitimacha, and Atakapa Languages (vSwanton). 

Bvlletin 69. — Native Villages and Village Sites East of the Missis- 
sippi (Bushnell). 

Bulletin 70. — Prehistoric Villages, Castles, and Towers (Fewkes). 

Bulletin 71. — Native Cemeteries and Forms of Burial East of the 
Mississippi (Bushnell). ■ 

DISTRIBUTION OF PtTBLICATIONS, 

The distribution of the pubUcations has been continued 
under the immediate charge of Miss Helen Munroe, assisted 
by Miss Emma B. Powers. 

Publications were distributed as follows: 

Reports and separates _ 2, 742 

Bulletins and separates 8, 440 

Contributions to North American Ethnology 10 

Introductions 10 

Miscellaneous 281 

11,483 
As compared with the fiscal year 1918, there was an in- 
crease of 4,139 publications distributed. This was doubtless 
due to the fact that whereas in the fiscal year 1918 only 
Bulletin 63 was distributed to the mailing list, during the 
fiscal year 1919 there wei'e distributed to the list Bulletins 
59, 61, 64, and 66, and the Thirty-second Aimual Report. 
Fourteen addresses have been added to the mailing list 
during the year and 36 dropped, makmg a net decrease of 22. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Mr. DeLancey Gill, with the assistance of Mr. Albert E. 
Sweeney, continued the preparation of the illustrations of 
the bureau and gave the usual time to photography of 
visiting Indians. A summary of this work follows: 

Negatives for publication work __ 138 

Negative films exposed in field 228 

Photographic prints 603 

Photostat copies 128 

Drawings for publication 200 

Illustrations made ready for engraving 2, 000 

Engraved proofs edited 310 

Colored illustrations inspected at Government Printing Office. 10, 000 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 19 

LIBRARY. 

The reference library continued in the immediate charge 
of Miss Ella Leary, assisted by Mr. Charles B. Newman, 
who was absent a short time in the military service. 

During the year 380 books were accessioned, of which 90 
were acquired by purchase, 160 by gifts and exchange, and 130 
by the entry of newly bound volumes of periodicals previously 
received. The periodicals currently received number about 
760, of which 25 were received by subscription and 735 through 
exchange. In addition, the bureau acquired 210 pamphlets. 
The aggregate number of books m the library at the close of 
the year was 22,560; of pamphlets, about 14,248. In addi- 
tion, there were many volumes of unbound periodicals. The 
publication of various European periodicals devoted to an- 
thropology has either been suspended or has ceased. 

The number of books bound during the year was 350. It 
has been almost exclusively work upon the current material — 
serials grouped into volumes and new accessions in paper 
covers. 

Correspondence relative to new exchanges and missing 
parts of serial publications already in the library was caiTied 
on as in previous years. Considerable time was given to 
research work, which frequently calls for the preparation 
of bibliographic lists for correspondents. 

In addition to the use of its own library, it was found 
necessary to draw on the Library of Congress from time to 
time for the loan of about 400 volumes. The Library of Con- 
gress, officers of the executive departments, and out-of- 
town students have made use of the library through frequent 
loans during the course of the year. 

The need by the library of additional shelf room is becom- 
ing more and more acute. Each day the congestion in- 
creases. We have filled almost every available foot of shelf 
space and we are sorely in need of more room. 

The recataloguing of books from the old author (card) 
catalogue to a new subject catalogue has continued, and as a 
result the year shows a marked increase in the total of cards 
filed in the catalogue records. 

The Monthly Bulletin for the use of the bureau has been 
continued throughout the year. 



20 BUREAU OP AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

COLLECTIONS. 

The following collections acquired by members of the staff of 
the bureau, or by those detailed in connection with its researches, 
have been transferred to the United States National Museum : 

Two skeletons with skulls, found on the property of the Roxana 
Petroleum Co. of Oklahoma, South Wood River, 111., and presented 
by it to this bureau. (62630.) 

Twelve prehistoric pottery heads found in Huaxtec mounds and 
presented to Dr. J. Walter Fewkes by Mr. John M. Muir, of Tampico, 
Mexico. (6293 L) 

Thirty-one archeological specimens obtained by Mr. F. W. Hodge 
at Hawikuh, N. Mex., in 1917, as part of the cooperative work of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology and the Museum of the American 
Indian (Heye Foundation). (63154.) 

Forty archeological specimens and an Indian skull, from different 
localities in Arizona; collected for the bureau by Dr. Walter Hough 
in 1918. (63156.) 

Two hundred and eighty-eight archeological specimens and two 
lots of skeletal material, from Gourd Creek, Mo.; collected by Gerard 
Fowke in 1918. (63157.) 

A specimen of slag with embedded charred corn; collected by 
Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, from a ruin in Mancos Valley, 3 miles west of 
the bridge on the Cortez-Ship Rock Road, Colorado. (63174.) 

Sandstone pipe found on Black Warrior River, Tuscaloosa County, 
Ala., and presented to the bureau by Mr. F. H. Davis, United States 
Engineer's Office, Little Rock, Ark. (63509.) 

Pillar stone found at Cerro Cebadilla, Vera Cruz; gift of Dr. H. 
Adrian, Tampico, Mexico. (63523.) 

Three well-made clay heads from the neighborhood of Panuco, 
Mexico; gift of Mr. John M. Muir. (63524.) 

PROPERTY. 

Furniture was purchased to the amount of $128.76. The 

cost of typewriting machines was $143.40, making a total of 

$272 16 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Clerical. — The correspondence and other clerical work of 
the office, including the copying of manuscripts, has been 
conducted by Miss May S. Clark, clerk to the chief. 
Mrs. Frances S. Nichols assisted the editor. 

There has been no change in the scientific or clerical force. 

Respectfully submitted. J. Walter Fewkes, 

Dr. Charles D. Walcott, thicj. 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 



21 



THE MYTHICAL ORIGIN OF THE 
WHITE BUFFALO DANCE OF THE FOX INDIANS 

TOGETHER WITH TEXTS ON FOUR MINOR SACRED 
PACKS APPERTAINING TO THIS CEREMONY 

BY 

TRUMAN MICHELSON 

s 

23 



'\ 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Preface 27 

Select P^ox bibliography 30 

Utilization of old mjthological material in these texts 37 

Ethnological importance of these texts 37 

Fox phonetics 44 

The mythical origin of the White Buffalo Dance 46 

The sacred pack called the White Buffalo's left-hoof sacred pack 208 

The white tiny-hoof sacred pack 228 

The sacred pack which belongs on the right front hoof of the White Buffalo. 248 
The sacred pack that is spoken of as being on the right side of the White 

Buffalo; on the south and west side of him 266 

Some linguistic notes on these texts 282 

List of stems 616 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Plate 1. Building in which the White Buffalo dance of the Fox Indians 

is held 46 

Figure 1. Diagram of the White Buffalo dance 42 

3599°— 25t 3 25 



PREFACE. 

Tlie Indian texts were written by Alfred Kiyana in the current 
syllabary' and subsequently phonetically restored. Kiyana him- 
self plays the flute when the ceremony is performed, and is a half 
brother of Kapayou, the speaker in the rite and owner of the sacred 
pack.^ Consequently he is in a position to give full information on 
the subject. Moreover, the genuineness of the legends in the present 
volume are vouched for by the fact that other myths and tales written 
by him have checked up extremely well with both published and 
impublished material collected by others and myself. Such myths 
and tales are those of the Culture Hero (Wi'sA'ka'^"), Lodge Boy and 
Thro-«Ti Away (Apaiya'd'Ag""''), WS,pA"saiy*", Origin of the Months, 
The One Whose Father was the Sun, the Bear and the Wife, the Youth 
that fasted too long and turned into a fish, When Wl'sA"ka"*"s Little 
Brother was slain, the Little John (Pl^'tci'ca'*') cycle, the cycle of Fox 
and Wolf. Similarly ethnological data given by him compares very 
favorably with that given by other informants on the same topics. 
Hence the authenticity of the legend in this volume can not be 
questioned. 

The translation of the principal text is based upon one ^\Titten by 
Horace Poweshiek, corrected and supplemented by a grammatical 
analysis by myself. Similarly that of the minor texts is based upon 
one written by Thomas Brown.^ I have endeavored to make the 
rendition of the principal text as literal as possible; while I have al- 
lowed myselfmore latitude in that of the minor texts. The fundamental 
plan has been to make the material presented in this volume available 
not only for ethnological but also linguistic students. Hence I have 
not striven for literary excellence in English. The translations of 
William Jones are in a class by themselves, owing to his unique 
mastery of both languages.* At the same time the linguistic student 
who begins his study of Fox with Jones's Fox Texts will not have an 
altogether easy task. 

The list of verbal stems at the end (see p. 616) is nearly, though not 
absolutely, exhaustive; but as the translations are literal it is hoped 
that it will be a sufTicient help to the linguistic student. 

1 The general principles of the syllabary have been e.'tplained in the Boas Anniversary Volume, pp. 8S-93. 

2 Both died in the epidemic of influenza during the fall of 191S. 

3 But aU the songs in the texts are rendered in accordance with the informant's opinion. Edward Daven- 
port served as interpreter for this part of the work. I was materially aided in the grammatical analj^is of 
the texts by the intelligent assistance of Harry Lincoln. 

* CompareBoas, Handbook of American Indian Languages, Bull. 40, part 1, Bur. Amer. Ethn., pp. 61, 62. 

27 



28 PREFACE. 

Tlie works of Lacombe, Cuoq, and Baraga on Cree, Algonkin, and 
Chippewa, respectively, have more than once been of great service 
in both translation and vocabulary, as have the translations of 
Doctor Jones. 

The punctuation of the Indian text and the English translation 
has been made to correspond as closely as possible. The only 
essential point to note is that it has not always been feasible to make 
the commas correspond. 

The paragraphing (which is the same in both) has largely been 
done with a view to the English idiom. However, it has been pos- 
sible often to take advantage of the well-known feature of Algonquian 
languages that identity and difference in third persons are carefully 
distinguished by grammatical devices. Thus the lack of an obviative 
in the first sentence of paragraphs 3, 13, and 16 of the principal text 
shows that from the Indian point of view new paragraphs begin. 
Similarly, with regard to paragraph 12 of the same text. However, 
there is at times a conflict of the point of view: from the native point 
of view, as shown by the grammatical construction, the second para- 
graph should begin with the second sentence; whereas English idio- 
matic usage demands that the paragraph begin with the first sentence. 

The texts, as stated above, were written by Alfred Kiyana. They 
were subsequently dictated twice by Harry Lincoln, and thus pho- 
netically restored by me.^ The second dictation was in order to 
detect spelling-pronunciations. As Fox Indians almost never read 
aloud letters, etc., written in the current syllabary, when they 
attempt to do so, at first they are not very successful, and pronounce 
the syllables with conventionalized sounds, e, g., la, le, li, lo as pa, 
pe, pi, po, respectively, whether or not these sounds are proper in 
any given case. In this way I think the texts presented here are 
practically free from such blemishes. A few visual errors which 
were patently such were subseciuently corrected by me. In this 
connection it should be mentioned that owing to the deficient pho- 
netic character of the syllabary, texts written in the syllabary may 
contain homographs, that is, words spelled alike but pronounced 
difi'erently. An example is ma ne to wa which can stand equally 
well for manetow"*" "manitou" or mana'tow''*" "he, she has manj 
(inanimate)." Happily, homographs are not frequent. A second 
dictation will not invariably remove blemishes arising in this manner. 
For example, e ne se tti was twice pronounced a'ne'se'^tc'' "then he 
was slain" when a'na'saHc" "then he was healed" was plainly 
demanded. The error was discovered by me while working out the 
grammatical analysis of the sentence, and I found Horace Poweshiek 
had taken the word in the sense required. The context and gram- 



' But all the songs are as dictated by Alfred Kiyana. Several of the phonograph records were broken 
in transit and others were indistinct; hence no musical records are given. 



PREFACE. 29 

matical analysis are probably the only safe guides in such cases. 
I have had to delete one or two sentences which were faultily written 
in the syllabary; otherwise the texts are the same as written by 
Alfred Ki3"ana. 

The possible sources of error have been set forth in the restoration 
of texts in the manner outlined above because of their importance. 
(See also Bull. 72, B. A. E., p. 10.) At the same time I am convinced 
that texts far more idiomatic in language and in better literary form 
may be obtained by having texts written by Indians and then 
dictated than those secured by dictation alone. 



SELECT FOX BIBLIOGRAPHY.^ 

HISTORY. 

Beckwith, H. W. The Illinois and Indiana Indians. Chicago, 1884. 
See pp. 146-162. 

Cha ka ta kg si. a collection of Meskwaki Manuscripts. State Hist. Soc. 
Iowa. Iowa City, 1907. 

Contains a number of facts worth knowing, but as no English translation accompanies the text, 
use of it is conflued to a few specialists or Meskwalti Indians. 

Davidson, J. N. In Unnamed Wisconsin. Milwaukee, 1895. 
Ferris, Ida M. The Sauks and Foxes in Franklin and Osage Counties, Kansas. 
Kans. State Hist. Colls., vol. 11, pp. 333-395. 1910. 

Fulton, A. R. The Red Men of Iowa. Des Moines, 1882. 
A popular book, but nevertheless contains items to be noted. 

Green, Orville J. The Mesquaki Indians. The Red Man, vol. 5, pp. 47-52, 
104-109. 1912. 
The original has a rather cumbersome alternate title. 

Hebberd, S. S. History of Wisconsin under the dominion of France. Madison, 
1890. 

Hewitt, J. N. B. [Article] Sauk. Handbook of American Indians. Bur. Amer. 
Ethn., Bull. 30, pt. 2, pp. 471-4S0. 1910. 

Kellog, Louise P. The Fox Indians during the French regime. Wis. State 
Hist. Soc. Proc. 1907, pp. 142-188. 1908. 

Michelson, Truman. Some general notes on the Fox Indians. Part 1, His- 
torical. Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 9, pp. 483-494. 1919. 

Mooney, James, and Thomas, Cyrus. [Article] Foxes. Handbook of American 
Indians. Bur. Amer. Ethn., Bull. 30, pt. 1, pp. 472-474. 1907. 

Parkman, Francis. A half century of conflict. 2 vols. Boston, 1892. 
See chapters xii and xiv. 

QuAiFE, M. M. Chicago and the old Northwest. Chicago, 1913. 

Re(o)bok, Horace M. The last of the Mus-qua-kies. Dayton, Ohio, 1900. 

Reprinted in Iowa Hist. Record, vol. 17, pp. 305-335. 1901. 
Steward, J. F. Lost Maramech and earliest Chicago. New York, 1903. 
Thomas, Cyrus. See Mooney, James, and Thomas, Cyrus. 
Turner, F. J. The character and influence of the Indian trade in Wisconsin. 

Johns Hopkins University Studiesin Hist, and Pol. Sci., 9th ser., xi-.xii. 1891. 
Ward, Duren J. H. Meskwakia. Iowa Journ. Hist, and Polit., vol. 4, pp. 

179-189. 1906. 

The Meskwaki people of to-day. Ibid., pp. 190-219. 

linguistics.' 

Bloomfield, Leonard. [Review of] The owl sacred pack of the Fox Indians, 
by Truman Michelson. Amer. Journ. Philol., vol. xliii, no. 3, pp. 276-281. 
1922. 

Discusses appropriate phonetic symbols; points out some errors in translation; sliows the table 
of instrumentals is faulty in one or two cases; notes that many of the Fox phonetic shifts also apply 
to other Central Algonquian languages. 

* No attempt has been made to compile an exhaustive Fox bibliography because it would be dispro- 
portionately long to its value. It is believed that nothing essential is omitted in the lists given here. 

? The vocabularies, etc., contained in the works of early writers, such as Marston, Forsyth, Galland, 
Fulton, and Busby, are passed over, for the words are so badly recorded as to bo utterly useless. 

30 



MiCHixsoN.] BIBLIOGRAPHY. 31 

Boas, Franz. The Indian languages of Canada. Annual Archaeological Re- 
port, 1905, pp. 88-106. Toronto, 1906. 
Thedescrijjtion of Algonquin (9-1,95) is based essentially on Jones's first paper. 

Flom, George T. Syllabus of vowel and consonantal sounds, in Meskwaki 
Indian. Published by the State Historical Society of Iowa. 1906. 

Known to me only by the remarks on p. vi of A eollection of Meskwaki Manuscripts and in the 
list of names of Meskwaki Indians in the Iowa Journal of History and Politics, April, 1906. The 
title may therefore not be absolutely accurate. To judge from the orthography of the Indian 
names, the phonetic scheme is deficient. Apparently the author was unacquainted with the work 
of William Jones. 

JoNE.s, William. Some principles of Algonquian word-formation. Amer. An- 
throp., n. ser. vol. 6, pp. 369-411. 1904. 
The first scientific paper on the Fox language. 

An Algonquin syllabary, /re Boas Anniversary Volume, pp. 88-93. New 

York, 1906. ' 

Explains the principles of a number of Fox syllabaries. Only the first one described is in current 
use. At least two others not described by Jones exist; however, their mechanism is on the same 
lines. 

Fox texts. Pub!. Amer. Ethnol. Soc, vol. 1. Leyden, 1907. 

Gives a description of Fox phonetics as he conceives them, and numerous texts. 

Algonquian (Fox) (revised by Truman Michelson). Handbook American 

Indian Languages. Bur. Amer. Ethnol., Bull. 40, Part 1, pp. 735-873. 1911. 

M1CHEL.S0N, Truman. On the future of the independent mode in Fox. Amer. 

Anthrop., n. ser. vol. 13, pp. 171-172. 1911. 
Preliminary report on the linguistic classification of Algonquian tribes. 

Twenty-eighth Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethnol., pp. 221-290b. 1912. 
Note on the Fox negative particle of the conjunctive mode in Fox. 

Amer. Anthrop., n. ser. vol. 15, p. 364. 1913. 

Contributions to Algonquian grammar. Ibid., pp. 470-476. 

Algonquian linguistic miscellan_v. Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 4, pp. 

402-409. 1914. 

The so-called stems of Algonquian verbal complexes. Proc. Nineteenth 

Internat. Cong. Americanists, 1915, pp. 541-544. Washington, 1917. 

Notes on Algonquian languages. Intern. Journ. Amer. Ling., vol. 1, pp. 

50-57. 1917. 

Two proto-Algonquian phonetic shifts. Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 9, 



pp. 333-334. 1919. 

Some general notes on the Fox Indians. Part II: Phonetics, folklore, 

and mythology. Ibid., pp. 521-528. 1919. 

See pp. 521-525. There are some unfortunate misprints, which are nearly all corrected in an 
errata sheet preceding the index. 

Vocalic harmony in Fox. Amer. Journ. PhiloL, vol. XLi, no. 2, pp. 

181-183. 1920. 

See the corrigenda, ibidem, p. 308. 

The owl sacred pack of the Fox Indians. Bur. Amer. Ethn. Bull. 72. 

1921. 

Fox text and English translation, pp. I4-fi7; sources of errors in restoring Fox texts from those writ- 
ten in the current syllabary, p. 10; Fox phonetics, pp. 12-1.3; grammatical notes, pp. 68-71; Fox 
phonetic shifts, p. 72; Fox instrumental particles, p. 72 (contains a few errors); list of stems, p. 73 
et seq. (some errors, but unimportant). 

Rejoinder. Amer. Journ. PhiloL, vol. XLiv, no. 3, pp. 285-286. 1923. 

A reply to L. Bloomfield's review of Michelson's The owl sacred pack of the Fox Indians. A few 

phonetic matters and the instrumental particles are considered. 



32 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

Sapir, Edward. [Review of] The owl sacred pack of the Fox Indians, by 
Truman Michelson. Int. Journ. Amer. Ling., vol. ii, nos. 3-4, pp. 182-184. 
1923. 
Contains a discussion of first-position and second-position verbal stems. 

Ward, Duren J. H. The Meskwaki people of to-day. Iowa Journ. Hist, 
and Polit., vol. 4, pp. 190-219. 1906. 

Gives tile more current syllabary; also the phonetic elements of the Fox language as he conceives 
it. The priority of this paper or Jones's second oneis unknown. The phonetic scheme is better 
regarding vowels than consonants. It is deficient in important respects. The philosophic tendencies 
are those of Gobineau, on which see Boas, Mind of Primitive Man, Chap. V (1911), and Michelson, 
Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 7, p. 234, 1917. 

Weld, Laenas G.; Rich, Joseph W.; Flom, George T. Prefatory note. In 
Cha ka ta ko si. Collection of Me.skwaki Manuscripts, pp. [v]-vii, Iowa City, 
1907. Publ. State Hist. Soc. Iowa. 

Remarks on the alphabet employed by Cha kii ta ko si (ordinarily known as "Chuck") in volume: 
various remarks on the phonetic elements of Fox. Not of much value. The fact that j is used for 
the ch sound docs not point to French inlluence as is stated : j in French has the value of z in azure; 
while j in the "Manuscripts" certainly for the most part has the phonetic value of Jtc. It is more 
likely that the j is a reflection of English j, heard in a slightly faulty manner. The alphabet is certainly 
not in common use among the Foxes; and I suspect Chuck invented it. The Indian texts contained 
in the volume can be used by the specialist. 

POLKLOEB AND MYTHOLOGY. 

Blair, Emma Helen. Indian tribes of the Upper Mississippi Valley and region 
of the Great Lakes. Vol. 2, pp. 142-145. Cleveland, 1912. 

The volume contains Marston's letter to Rev. Dr. Jedidiah Korse, dated November, 1820; originally 
printed in thelatter'sreport to the Secretary of War, dated November, 1821, printed at New Haven, 
1822. The supposed historic statement that the Shawnecs were descended from the Sauk nation by 
a (Sauk or Fox?) chief, is nothing more than a (.Sauk or Fox?) variant of the ''Bear-foot Sulkers,"on 
which see Jones, Fox texts, 30, 31 . To-day the Shawnee tell it of the Ivickapoo and vice versa. 

Busby, Allie B. Two summers among the Musquakies. Vinton, Iowa, 1886. 
Contains extract from Isaac Galland's Chronicles, etc. See below. 

Fulton, A. R. The Red Men of Iowa. Des Moines, 1882. 
Contains extract from Isaac Galland's Chronicles, etc. See below. 

Galland, Isaac. Chronicles of Northamerican savages. 1835. 

Complete copies are apparently impossible to obtain. Has important information on the gentes 
and tribal dual division. Part of this can not be substantiated to-day. Portions reprinted in Annals 
of Iowa, 1869, under the title of Indian Trines of the West (especially 347-368); also in Fulton's The 
Red Men of Iowa, 1882 (131-134), and Busby's Two summers among the Musquakies, 1886 (52-63). 

Jones, William. Episodes in the culture-hero myth of the Sauks and Foxes. 
Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, vol. xv, pp. 225-239. 1901. 

Fox texts. Publ. Amer. Ethn. Soc, vol. i. Leyden, 1907. 

Most important of all publications on the subject. 

Notes on the Fox Indians. Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, vol. xxiv, pp. 209- 

237. 1911. 

Contains much matter supplementary to his Fox texts- 

and Michelson, Truman. Kickapoo tales. Publ. Amer. Ethn. Soc, 

vol. IX, Leyden and New York, 1915. 

An abstract of three Fox versions of the Lodge Boy and Thrown Away Cycle is given by Michel- 
son; and there are some other incidental Fox references given by him. (See pp. 134-140.) 

Marsh, Cutting. Letter to Rev. David Greene, dated March 25, 1835. Wis. 
Hist. Soc. Colls., vol. XV, pp. 104-155. 1900. 

Traditions regarding the Me-shaimi (phonetically mi'cam"^'*), We-sah-kah (Wi'sA'kii'A', the 
culture-hero), the death of his brother, the flood, etc. See pp. 130-134. Most of the information 
given can be substantiated to-day. The parts of the letter appurtenant to Fox ethnology, folklore 
and mythology have been reprinted in the appendix to M. E. Harrington's Sacred bundles of the 
Sac and Fox Indians (1914). 



MiCHELSON.] BIBLIOGRAPHY. 33 

Marston, Major M. Letter to Rev. Dr. Morse. 1820. In Morse, Jedidiah, 
Report to the Secretary of War, New Haven, 1822. 

Sec p. 122 for a supposed historic statement which is nothing more than legendary: vide supra under 
Blair. 
MiCHELSON, Trum.in. Notes on the folklore and mythology of the Fo.\ Indians. 
Amcr. Anthrop., n. ser. vol. 15, pp. 099-700. 1913. 

Points out that Fox folklore and mythology consists of native woodland and plains as well as 
European elements. 

Ritualistic origin myths of the Fox Indians. Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 

vol. 6, pp. 209-211. 1916. 

Some general notes on the Fox Indians. Part II: Phonetics, folklore, 



and mythology. Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 9, pp. 521-528. 1919. 
General discussion of Fox folklore and mythology. 

Owen, Mary Alicia. Folklore of the Musquakie Indians of North America. 
London, 1904. 
See the review by Michelson in Curr. Anthrop. Lit., vol. 2, pp. 233-237. 1913. 

Steward, John Fletcher. Lost Maramech and earliest Chicago. New York, 
190.3. 

A number of stories are scattered throughout the text. 57-59: Bull Head and Elk; Wa-sa-ri mis- 
print for Wa-sa-si, or a corruption of some sort; phonetically wA'sc'si'-^' . Michelson has a variant of 
this in his unpublished collection. 59-(i2: Wi-sa-ka and the Dancing Ducks; variant to Jones's Fox 
Texts, 278-289; a Sauk version collected by Michelson agrees in part quite closely with tale collected 
by Steward. 62-G5: They who went in pursuit of tho Bear; variant to Jones's Fox Texts, 70-75. 
345-351: Wa-pa-sai-ya; variant to Jones's Fox Texts, 8-31, and his Notes on the Fox Indians, 
231-233; two unpublished versions collected by Michelson agree more closely with those of Jones than 
with that of Steward. 

ETHNOLOGY. 

Armstrong, Perry A. The Sauks and the Black Hawk War. Springfield, 1887. 
t^iitea bit of Sauk ethnology may be gleaned from this. Marred by tho statement (13) that with 
the " Sauks, like all other Indi:in nations, the gens ran in the female line" — which is an absurdity, 
and is not only 0[)posed to the information given by the Sauk Indians of to-day, but is in direct 
contradiction to the testimony of Morgan ClS77)and Forsyth (1S27; see Blair, i«/ra). Evidently the 
author was imder the influence of Morgan's general theories as was McGee ( Amer. Anthrop. 1898: 89). 

Atwater, Caleb. The Indians of the northwest. Columbus, 1850. 

See especially pp. 72, 76, 81, 87, 93, 104, 105, lOti, 107, 115, 123, 129, 130, 132, 175. The time referred 
to is 1829. 

Beltrami, Giacomo C. A pilgrimage, etc. Vols. i-ii. London, 1828. 
See his letter dated May 24, 1823, in vol. 2. 

Blair, Emma Helen. The Indian tribes of the Upper Mississippi Valley and 
region of the Great Lakes. Vols. i-ii. Cleveland, 1911-1912. 

Vol. 2 contains Major Marston's letter to Jedidiah Morse, dated November, 1820; originally printed 
in the latter's report to the Secretary of War, dated 1S21, printed 1S23; and Thomas Forsyth's 
" .\ccount of the Manners and Customs of the Sauk and Fox nations of Indian Traditions," a report 
to General Clark dated St. Lo;us, January 15, 1.827. These two are the best accounts of Fox ethnology. 
Forsyth's " .\ccotmt" is printed here for the first time. 

Busby, Allie B. Two summers among the Musquakies. Vinton, Iowa. 1886. 
Besides containing extract from Galland (see infra), also gives lists of gentes, dances, marriage 
ceremonies, description of some ceremonials, burial customs, clothing, etc. These are the obser- 
vations of a former school teacher and are interspersed w"ith more or less interesting gossip. The 
ethnological observations for the most part can be substantiated; on some matters (e. g., the "Mule 
Dance") the author is hopelessly in the dark as to the real import. 

Carver, Jonathan. Three years' travels, etc. Philadelphia, 1796. 

Though published in 179ti, refers to thirty years previously, in roimd numbers. See pp. 30, 31, 145, 
170, 219, 230. 

Catlin, George. Illustrations of the manners, customs, and condition of the 
North American Indians. Vols. i-ii. London, 1841. 

See vol. 2, pp. 207-217. There are other editions. Important. Good for certain dances, clotliing, 
and ethnological facts. 



34 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

Chamberlain, Lucia Sarah. Plants used by the Indians of eastern North 
America. Amer. Naturahst, vol. xxxv, pp. 1-10. 1901. 
See p. 5. 

CouES, Elliott, ed. The expeditions of Zebulon Montgomery Pike. Vols, 
i-iii. New York, 1895. 

Fulton, A. R. The Red Men of Iowa. Des Moines, 1S82. 

See Chapters VIII and XXIII especially. Contains an extract from Galland, historical and ethno- 
logical notes. Needless to s-iy, the translation of Mus-qua-kie "the man with the yellow badge 
or emblem " and of Sau-kie " the man with the red badge or emblem" should be reversed, and even 
then the renditions are not accurate; Mus-qua-kie means " Red-Earths;*' and .Sau-kie is often taken 
(though mistakenly) to mean "Yellow- Earth." [The last may mean "They who came forth." 
Once given "Red-Earths," "Yellow- Earths" would be a popular etymology, though not correct- 
witness medial -g-, not -'k-, in the native designation.] 

Galland, Isaac. Chronicles of the Northamerican savages. 1835. 

Contains an account of the gentes, but it is not stated whether the list is for the Sauks or Foxes: 
it is presumably for the Sauks. The dual division is based on some misimderstanding. Complete 
copies are apparently not now to be had. Portions reprinted in Annals of Iowa, 1S69: 194 et seq.; 
.see especially 347-366; also in the popular books of Busby and Fulton. 

Harrington, M. R. Sacred bundles of the Sac and Fox Indians. Univ. Pa., 
' Univ. Mus. Anthrop. Publ., vol. 4, no. 2. 1914. 

See review by Michelson, Am. Anthrop., n. ser. 17: 570-577, by Skiimer, ibidem, 577-579. Gives 
a sketch of .Sac and Fox culture; detailed description of sacred packs; exquisite photogravures. 
Besides the references to sacred packs given by Michelson, loc. cit., the following are in order; Arm- 
strong: 37; Beltrami, 2: 159; Keating (see infra), 2: 229; Rep. Comm. Ind. .-Vflairs, 1S51; 66. As long 
as Skinner gives a reference to a presmnably Ottawa pack, attention may be called to Ann. Prop. 
Foi, 4: 481. The Potaw^atomi term for sacred pack is the phonetic correspondent to the Ottawa 
pindikossan of Pcrrot, as is evidently the Ojibwa pindjigossan (taken from Baraga); Cree kaskipit- 
agan (from Laeombe) stands by itself; Sauk, Kickapoo, Shawnee, all have phonetic equivalents to 
Foxmi'cam™'". 

Hewitt, J. N. B. [.Article] Sauk. Hiindbook of American Indians. Bur. 
Amer. EthnoL, Bull. 30, pt. 2, pp. 471-480. 1910. 
BibUography at end. 

Indian Affairs (U. S.). Reports of the Commissioner. 

For facts beyond population and statistics see reps, for 1851:66; 1896:162; 1897: 148; 1898: 161,166, 
171; 1901: 240. As a whole reUable. 

Jones, William. The ."Vlgonkin Manitou. Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, vol. 18, pp. 
183-190. 1905. 
Best expo.sition of the fimdamentals of Fox religion. 

Fox texts. Publ. Am. Ethn. Soc, vol. i. Leyden, 1907. 

Contains incidental ethnological notes. 

Mortuary observances and the adoption rites of the Algonquin Foxes of 

Iowa. Congres International des AmSricanistes, XV sess., vol. i, pp. 

263-277. 1907. 
Notes on the Fox Indians. Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, vol. 24, pp. 209 

et seq. 1911. 
Various etlmological notes interspersed with folk tales. Rules governing membership in tribal 

dual division wrongly given. 

Keating, William H. Nairative of an expedition to the source of St. Peter'a 
River. Vols. i-ii. Philadelphia, 1824. 
See vol. I. Though primarily concerned with Sauk ethnology, nevertheless should be consulted. 
Lahontan, Armand L. de. New voyages to North .America. Vols. i-ii. 
London, 1703. 
See 2: 85. 

Long, John. Voyages and travels of an Indian interpreter and trader. 
London, 1791. 
See p. 151. 



MicunLsoN.] BIBLIOGRAPHY. 35 

McKenney and Hall. History of the Indian tribes of North America. Vols. 
i-iii. Philadelphia, 1854. 
Especially good for Fox costumes; contains other valuable facts. 

Marsh, Cutting. Letter to Rev. David Greene, dated March 25, 1835. Wis. 
Hist. Soc. Colls., vol. XV, pp. 104-155. 1900. 

Reprinted as far as concerns Fox ethnology, etc., in Harrington's Sacred bundles. Information 
on the whole, good. 

MiCHELSON, Truman. Notes on the social organization of the Fox Indians. 
Amer. Anthrop., ii. s. 15, pp. 691-693. 1913. 

It is possible that the information given may have to be modified in some details, but not the rules 
given governing membership in the tribal dual division; and the general proposition that the dual 
division is for ceremonial as well as for athletic piuposes stands. 

• Terms of relationship and social organization. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 

vol. 2, pp. 297-300. 1916. 

General discussion of terms of relationship; and Algonquian ones in particular. Di.scussion of the 
Fox system is incidental. 

The owl .sacred ]jack of the Fox Indians. Bull. 72, Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 

1921. 

An account of the ceremonies (Indian text and English translation) connected with a certain sacred 
pack of the Fox Indians; also the traditional origin of the pack . 

How Meskwaki children should be brought up. In American Indian 

Life, Dr. E. C. Parsons, ed., pp. 81-86. New York, 1922. 

-•V free translation of a Fox text written in the current syllabary. It is a brief summary of Fox 
ideals. On pp. 386-387 of the same volume there is a condensed statement of Fox ethnology and a 
short bibliography. 

■ On the origin uf the so-called Dream dance of the Central Algonkians. 

Amer. Anthrop., n. ser. vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 277-278. 1923. 
Points out that supposed origin myth can be substantiated as history. 

Further remarks on the origin of the so-called Dream dance of the 

Central Algonkians. Ibid., n. ser. vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 293-294. 1924. 

Shows that Skinner is wholly mistaken in his statements as to when and under what circumst ances 
the Dream dance arose. 

[Review of] Observations on the ethnology of the Sauk Indians, by 

Alanson Skinner. Ibid., no. 1, pp. 93-100. 1924. 

Points out that although Sauk and Fox data are often confused by older writers and some modern 
ones, still at times they are kept apart; shows that the lists of gentes given by both Morgan and 
Galland are presumably Sauk and not Fox; notes that certain data given as Sauk by older writers 
in reality is Fox so far as they can be sustained at all. 

• Ethnological Researches among the Fox Indians, Iowa. In Explora- 
tions and Field Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1924. Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 133-136. 1925. 
Gives data on Fox social organization, etc., pointing out especially that some gentes have distinct 
subdivisions, and that in such cases one subdivision is considered as of higher rank than the other 
or others (e. g., the "Black Bears" higher than the "Brown Bears" in the case of the Bear gens). 

MooNET, James, and Thomas, Cyrus. [Article] Foxes. Handbook of American 
Indians, Bur. Amer. Ethnol., Bull. 30, pt. 1, pp. 472-474. 1907. 

Morgan, Lewis H. Systems of consanguinity, etc. Smithson. Cont. to Knowl- 
edge, vol. xvn. 1871. 

The "Sauk and Fox" system is from Sauk informants; some schedules are faulty; the Sauk and 
the Fox systems are identical. 

Ancient society. New York, 1877. 

Gives list of gentes, but whether Sauk or Fox is not stated, but probably is Sauk. The two 
tribes, though legally consolidated, are distinct ethnologically and linguistically. 

Owen, IvIahy Alicia. Folk-lore of the Musquakie Indians of North America. 
London, 1904. 

The ethnological data are untrustworthy: see the review by Michclson, Curr. Anthrop- Lit. 2: 
233-237; that of "A. F. C. and I. C. C." in Journ. Amer. Folk-lore IS; 144-146, is a bare enumera- 
tion of the contents of the volume without any attempt at criticism. 



36 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [ETir. anx. 40. 

Pattehson, J. B. Autobiography of Black Hawk. Oquawka, 111., 1882. 
Has data on Sauk ethnology and so is of value. 

Pike, Zebulon Montgomery. See Cones, Elliott, erf. 

See 33S, 339. 

Reports op the Commissioneh op Indian Afpairs. 

For facts beyond population and statistics see reps, tor 18.51: 66; 1896; 162; 1897: 148; 1898: 161, 166, 
171; 1901: 240. -\s a whole reliable. 

Rideout, H. M. William Jones. New York, 1912. 

This sketch of William Jones's life contains some incidental observations on Fox ethnology. Notes 
on social organization valuable. See pp. 10, 73, 86, 88. The statement by Rideout (p. 11) that tlie 
Eagle is the highest Fox clan (gens) is wrong and is contradicted by the data given by Jones in the 
same volume. 

Skinner, Ai.an.son. A further note on the origin of the Dream dance of the 
Central Algonkian and Southern Siouan Indians. Amer. Anthrop., n. ser. 
vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 427-428. 1923. 

Attempts to show that Michelson is in error regarding the time and circumstances under which 
the Dream dance arose. 

institutions at which there are fox ethnological collections. 

American Museum of Natural History. Collector: William Jones. 
Cambridge University Museum of Archeology and Ethnology. Collector: Miss 

O.WEN. 

Chicago Historical Society. Collector: M. Chandler. 

Davenport Academj- of Sciences. Collector: Truman Michelson. 

Field Museum of Natural History. Collectors: W^illiam Jones, Truman 

Michelson, and one or two others. 
Historical Department of Iowa. Collector: Edgar R. Harlan. Has motion 

pictures of several Fox dances. 
Museum fiir Volkerkunde (Berlin). Collectors: Truman Michelson et al. 
Museum of the American Indian. Collectors: M. R. Harrington, Truman 

Michelson. 
Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee. Collector: Huron Smith. Ethno- 

botanical collection. 
State Historical Society of Iowa. Collector: J. H. Duren Ward. Besides a few 

specimens, there are excellent photographs of Fox Indians, their dwellings, etc. 
United States National Museum. Collector: Truman Michelson. 
Sacred packs only. 



UTILIZATION OF OLD MYTHOLOGICAL MATERIAL IN 

THESE TEXTS. 

That the myth contained in the principal text is a systematic 
account and has incorporated old material torn from its original set- 
ting is made abundantly clear by the episode (p. 59) of the manitou 
who upsets the canoe as he objects to talking occurring while going by. 
Tlie same incident (and in connection with the same culture hero, 
Wi'sA'ka'*') occurs in a totally different setting among the Pota- 
watomi (Michelson, unpublished Potawatomi myths and folk-tales). 
Accordingly, page 210 of the Journal of the Washington Academy of 
Sciences, volume vi, should be corrected. To this extent also (aside 
from innate improbabilities) we can definitely say that this myth in 
its present form is not a true historic record. Tliis problem was 
broached in the said Journal, ibidem, page 211. 

ETHNOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF THESE TEXTS. 

In discussing ritualistic origin myths of the Fox Indians I have 
said, "In so far as the actual ceremonies can rarely, if ever, be wit- 
nessed in their entirety, owing to the conservative character of Fox 
Indians, these myths are extremely valuable for strictly ethnological 
studies" (Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, vi, 209). 
The myth contained in the principal text is not as typical as some 
others in that the information to bo gleaned is not as great as in the 
case of certain others. Nevertheless the information which it con- 
tains is very valuable. It is patent that we have reflections of what 
obtains to-day, or very recently. The extraordinary powers attrib- 
uted to the hero of this myth, such as his success in doctoring (pp. 53, 
157, 205), his restoration of the dead (pp. 163, 207), the efliect of his 
curse (p. 142), his dispelling a storm (p. 189), and his victory over the 
tribal enemy (p. 155), show us what qualities are expected of a man 
who introduces ceremonials. The hero's transformation into a 
buflalo who then attacks the Sioux (p. 63) is a religious conception 
based on the belief that the buffaloes killed the Sioux (p. 49). The 
expression "he must have turned into a buffalo" shows the mental 
attitude of the Fox Indians. The fastings and visions of the hero 
undoubtedly conform to normal religious experiences among the 
Foxes. Incidentally the Fox scheme of orientation comes out (pp, 
67, 71, 73, 75, 77, 133) . We learn that fasting with the face blackened 
with charcoal is a prerequisite to obtaining supernatural power 
(pp. 49, 65). Fasting after the death of a relative and friend is 

37 



38 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. lo. 

brought out in pages 117 and 173. To-day fasting to obtain super- 
natural aid has either completely disappeared or is but rarely prac- 
ticed, though memory of this is very clear. On the other hand, fasting 
with blackened cheeks after the deatli of a close relative is still prac- 
ticed, though not absolutely universally. A good idea of the medical 
practices and exorcisms formerly prevalent among the Foxes, infre- 
quent to-day, though not entirely absent, can be gained from pages 
53, 157, 159, 199, 201, 203, 205, 207. The belief in the efficacy of 
sacred packs, still very prevalent, and their uses, is shown on pages 
115, 155, 157, 181, and 189. The mystic power of the hero's father 
in slaying fellow Indians (p. 85) is quite in consonance with the ideas 
of Fox Indians of to-day. The association of the bad smell where 
he had been sitting with evil medicine (p. 85) is "reasoning by 
analogy," and is an example of primitive psychology. The state- 
ment that the white buffalo had red eyes and red horns (p. 51) is to 
make it clear that it is no ordinary buffalo who gives the blessing. 
The "finding" of the flute, the catlinitc pipe with the stem decorated 
with feathers, the sacred pack, all of which had been used in the gens 
festival of the manitous (pp. 119, 121), and similarly the four gourds 
(p. 123), is in accordance with Fox religious ideas; and it should be 
noted that the one blessed does not merely make them. The concep- 
tion that the furs in the sacred pack are alive (p. 195) is another 
religious idea to be gained from a studv of the principal text. 

From the more or less detailed descriptions of the gens festival of 
the White Buffalo Ceremony as well as other minor allusions (see 
pp. 83, 87, 89, 91, 95, 97 ff., 123, 125, 127, 129, 131 et seq., 145, 147, 
163, 167), we obtain a satisfactory knowledge of the general way the 
existing ceremony is carried on, and the songs. The incorporation 
of the songs is most fortunate, as it would be impossible to jot them 
down in a notebook while they were actually being sung, owing to 
the conservative character of the Fox Indians. Moreover, in spite 
of the warnings not to change the songs or their order (pp. 91, 125), 
I have been informed that the order of the songs to-day is not the 
ancient one. The order given in the text accordingly represents the 
theoretical arrangement. It should be noted that the information 
given in different passages is supplementary and confirmatory, not 
contradictory: therefore the presumption of the genuineness thereof 
is heightened. The existing interspersed speeches naturally are not 
the same as in the text, but are presumably of a similar tenor. The 
mystic word noHd'' and variations of this occurs in all the set speeches 
of all festivals of the gentes that I have heard. There is an epilogue 
in existing festivals of the gentes, in which a brief history of the 
sacred pack of the ceremony is given, thus resembling the one in the 
text. Tlie following is a summary of the performance as given in 
the text: The flute is soimded four times, the drum having been 



MtcHELSoN.] INTRODUCTION. 39 

previously filled (with water) by two members of each tribal division. 
Then four songs without the accompaniment of a drum occur, fol- 
lowed by four with the accompaniment of a drum. Five songs with 
dancing now follow. The flutes are put away after the dance. A 
feast now begins. jVfter the eating there are four songs without the 
drum. Five songs with the accompaniment of the drmn follow. 
Next come four songs with dancing. Another feast now takes place, 
and there are four songs from the very start of this and the drum is 
used in connection with the songs. Now follow four songs with 
dancing. At this point the chief feast occurs. There are six eating 
songs. Whereupon the last dance begins. There are seven songs. 
Tlie dancing starts in at the beginning. Next follows the epilogue. 

[The Wliite Buffalo dance was held June 13, 1924. Harry Lincoln 
served as a ceremonial attendant during the evening of June 12 
and the morning of June 13. Wliile the events that took place 
were still fresh in his mind he wrote out an account of them, together 
with some additional matter, in the current syllabary; he also 
supplemented tliis vrith some notes dictated in English. I give 
below a translation (based on one dictated by him) of the Fox text 
combined with the supplementary matter dictated in English (with 
some corrections in grammar): This is what they do. In the 
evenings there are as many ceremonial attendants as there are dogs. 
Each one takes one dog around the wickiup on the outside four 
times. And the first (dog) clubbed to death is made to stand 
facing the east, and the next the south, and (the next) the west, 
and the fourth the north. That is how it is. This is how the 
first four (dogs) are treated. And then they are brought inside 
and placed carefully (in their proper places). This is how they 
are placed, and this is how the others are.' The others are strewn 
on the high scaffolding at the west end of the summer house. Harry 
Lincoln killed the dogs. As the proper person failed to appear, 
Harry Lincoln was appointed by the leader. The first dog faced 
the east and Harry Lincoln faced the north. He used a special 
club made for this purpose. As this was Harry Lincoln's first 
experience in killing dogs ceremonially, he was given three trials 
to dispatch the first dog. The dog yelped in agony, which was 
against their religion, but as Harry Lincoln was admittedh' a novice 
in killing dogs ceremonially he was excused. The second time he 
faced the east as before with his right foot forward and his left 
foot in the rear. The club was in his left hand near the top and 
back part of his head. He then drew the club straight on his 
shoulder, and his right hand grasped the club close to his left hand. 
He then raised the club, holding it in both hands, watching the 

1 The diagram is not reproduced. See below for their location. At this point the portion dictated in 
English begins. 



40 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

dog, for it is against Fox religious ideas for the dog to see the one 
who Mils him. At the behest of the leader, Harry Lincoln then 
brought doAvn the club with full force. As a matter of fact this 
description apphes to the first four dogs alike. The fifth dog may 
face any direction, but he must not see the slayer. Harry Lincoln 
then was asked to appoint a certain person to take care of the first 
dog Ivilled. This fellow was supposed to take care of this dog from 
then on to the end of the performance. The persons who singe 
the hair off the other three dogs take care of them. But the first 
four dogs must be taken care of and kept track of until the end of 
the performance. This applies to the dogs wliich are eaten. After 
the hair was singed off, the dogs were dressed. After the first dog 
was done it was taken to the summer house. The first four are taken 
care of together. They are placed on the scaffold at the west end 
of the summer house. The first dog faces the east, the second the 
south, the tlurd the west, the fourth the north. The other dogs 
are west of the first four, and they are strung south to west. After 
this is all done two men are appointed, one a Ki'cko''^" and the 
other a To'kan"^", to go all over the village inviting the people. 
This was the way done formerly, but to-day they ask a group of 
ceremonial attendants to go around where they came from and 
invite their neighbors. Time is saved in this way.- The first 
dog (killed) is cut up in twelve pieces, the next in ten, the next in 
eight, the next in six, and this is a little dog. And the livers are not 
thrown away. The head ceremonial attendant takes them away. 
That is what they do. (Any one not a member of the War gens 
may eat them. — A remark added in English.) And there is sugar 
in a wooden bowl where the singers are seated. It is given to one 
ceremonial attendant. Then they eat it. And as soon as they have 
eaten it all, they turn over the bowl with their heads. They must 
surely use their heads; they must not use their hands.^ And when 
this is done they make four holes in the ground, and Indian tobacco 
is placed in them. And they do this: They take a slice of meat 
and rub it on the drum first, and then on the rattles. And it is 
put on the sacred pack. That is another thing they do regarding 
the White Buffalo Sacred Pack. And then the bones are taken 
ninetjr-nine steps from where the ceremony is held, and thrown 
away; this always when they have eaten the third time.' That is 
what these (people) do in respect to the White Buffalo (Sacred 
Pack). They must do that. And the drmn is painted in the early 
spring. This is how it is painted.^ As many crosses as are drawn 

' End of portion dictated in English. 

" Cf. the Winnebago practice mentioned by Paul Radin, 37th .\nn. Hept. Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 340. 
* Translated rather freelj' . 

» A heart with a double curve in it with a cross below it exactly at the center, and a cross over each cm've, 
both crosses slightly inclined toward each other. 



MICHELSON.] INTRODUCTION. 41 

signify so many scalps." ,\nd tiiey hang one squirrel in the smoke 
hole with its head up when they celebrate the gens festival. As 
soon as all the children are asleep, in the nighttime, they take (the 
squirrel) down and go and deposit it properly in the forest. That 
is one thing they are very particular about doing. And they take 
tlie holy hide four times around the fire. And this is how the 
office of ceremonial attendant is. The head ceremonial attendant 
is appointed. He is told to ask his fellow ceremonial attendants 
to accompany him. And he asks them to accompany him. And 
those asked to accompany him get ready and singe (the dogs) . Now 
one dog is killed first, the one to be singed first. And also the head 
ceremonial attendant goes about telling those belonging to the 
White Buffalo rite to hunt. He tells them the number of days they 
should continue to hunt. And he tells them to bring tobacco. 
That, it appears, is how he instructs them. At the (proper) time 
they go and bring these dogs (and) begin to tell the names of (these 
dogs) one after the other. Then, it seems, the dogs are clubbed to 
death. And one person is appointed. Not merely any one is 
appointed. Only a certain person knows how to strike down (the 
dogs). He does it. Not everyone knows how to strike down these 
dogs. Some make them cry out when they strike them down. It 
is against their religion for them to do that. That is why they are 
afraid. That they would make (the dogs) cry out is why they fear 
them. And one is told, "Well, begin to club them to death." And 
he begins to club (the dogs) to death. And as soon as he has 
clubbed them to death they begin singeing (the dogs) . They have 
also taken (those dogs) four times around (the summer house). 
That is what they do. And they cook them by boiling. After they 
are cooked by boiling then singing begins. And puppies are also 
killed. Then tobacco is tied on their legs and necks. And these 
puppies are placed where the sacred pack is. This is how they 
are laid. Two are on the north and two on the south side of the 
sacred pack. They lie in straight lines, west to east, their heads 
facing the east. And (these puppies) are fumigated early in the 
morning. And then they begin to make the drum. And this is 
how the men who make the drum are made to sit.' And this cere- 
monial attendant is also told to fetch oak leaves.* He is told (to 
get them) across the river.' Then he departs and crosses the river, 
it is said. "You must fetch these leaves seven hundred feet from 
here," this ceremonial attendant is told. And the head singer is 
cut (with a razor) .'" That is how it is with regard to the head singer. 

8 Not quite true; there are six scalps in the pack, and each cross represents two 

' It is not possible to reproduce the diagram. 

8 The leaves of white and black oak trees. 

* On this particular occasion he did so. This applies also to the next statement 

JO On the upper parts of the right and left arms, facing outward. 

3599°— 25t i 



42 



ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 



[ETH. ANN. ^0. 



And one woman is supposed to hold one dog in, say, the middle (of 
the place). Then the head singer speaks at length. He gives 
instructions and asks life for her.] 

Tliough we are given some information on localizations, etc., the 
diagram (Fig. 1), drawn by Alfred Kiyana, and the accompanying 
explanations will elucidate the general arrangement far better, and 
the ceremonial character of the tribal dual division is brought out. 



f/OHTU 
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■SOUTH 

Fig. 1. — Diagram of the White Buffalo Dance. 

1. The White Buffalo (sacred pack). 2. The sacred pack on his right side (minor pack No. 4). 3. The 
sacred pack on his right hoof (minor pack No. 3). 4. The sacred pack on his left hoof (minor pack No. 2). 
5. The sacred pack on the right side of his thigh (minor pack No. 1) . 6. Indian tobacco. 7. Earth made 
into a mound (four feathers are in it). 8. Little puppies. 9. The Kj'cko'A* speaker. 10. The drummer. 
11. The Tc'kan"*' speaker. 12. Women who are To'kanAgi'''. 13. Women who are Ki'cko'Ag''''. 14. 
Fire. 15. The principal Ki'cko'*' ceremonial attendant. 16. The principal T6'kan°*' ceremonial attend- 
ant. 17. The chief. 18. Fire. 19. Indian sugar. 20. The drum. 

The localization of minor packs Nos. 2 and 4 in the diagram does not seem to entirely agree with the 
information in the texts. The diagram brings out clearly that the tribal dual division is for ceremonial as 
well as athletic purposes, as long maintained by Michelson. A To'kann'^' speaker is not in the list of actual 
participants; probably theoretically there should be one. The ceremonial attendants to the War gens 
must be of the Wolf gens, according to another te.xt written by the same informant; also according toother 
informants. The diagram of the pack is an idealistic representation of the White Buffalo; actually it is 
not realistic. 

The existing organization according to Alfred Kiyana is as follows : 



Ta'tapAgo"*' (T) drummer. 

Mena'w"*' (K) singer. 

CawAtii"*' (K) singer. 

Kepa'j'ii (K) speaker. 

Pe'cl'w"*" (K) singer. 

'ApAta'o'n"*' (T) singer. 

Kyana'w*' (T) player of flute. 

Wa'so'sa"*' (T) [a wo- 
man] hummer. 

Ml'cA'ka""" (T) singer. 

Pemina"*' (T) singer. 



Wrco'gi'kwaw"*' (T) 

[a woman] 

Nana'apAme"kw-^' (K) 

woman] 

Kl'ckAtApI'w'W'^' (T) 

Ci'cI'gwAne's*" (K) 

Ci'cl'no'kwa'*" (K) [a wo 

man] 

Kawe'sl"*' (K) 

Mi'ca'itcineiil"*' (K) 

WigAma"*" (T) 

Wagima"*' (T) 



[a 



hummer. 

hummer. 

singer. 

singer. 

hummer. 

singer. 

singer. 

singer. 

singer. 



MICHELSON.] INTRODUCTION. 43 

Edward Davenport [a great-great-grandson of Colonel Davenport, 
the well-known trader at Kock Island], whose Indian name is 'Ano't^', 
and a member of the War gens, says that the personnel of the list is 
correct, save the last two names, which, he says, do not belong there. 
In this last there may be a desire to separate all descendants of 
Colonel Davenport from Indian ceremonials. The (K) or (T) after 
the names shows to which of the tribal dual divisions the person 
belongs, whether he or she is a Ki'cko'"-^' or a To'ka'n°^'. Edward 
Davenport supplied the (K) after Ci'ci'no'kwa'-*'; and the names are 
restored from the syllabary according to his phonetics. The general 
accuracy of Kiyana's list speaks well for the genuineness of the texts 
presented in this volume. Edward Davenport adds that Harrison 
Kapayou (T) and BiUy Chuck (K, deceased) are singers; and that 
Henry Shawata (K, deceased) formerly was a singer and the most im- 
portant member next to Kepa'yu. Kiyana adds that the followmg 
merely are seated during the ceremony as they do not know the 
songs and sit where the children do: 

No'kawa't^' (K). 

Witaga (K). 

'Ani'kawa' (K). 

"A'sawe'sAmo' (T) ta woman]. 

Wi'cigA'kya'ckAg* (T). 

'A'gwaml't^' (T) [a woman]. 

NJiwAgigl'''^' (K) [a woman]. 

The list of actual participants in the ceremony shows clearly that 
the tribal dual division is not only for athletic purposes but also for 
ceremonial ones. Note that of the number of singers half belong to 
one division, half to the other; and the hummers (women) are 
similarly divided. 

The injunctions and prohibitions contained in the minor texts are 
clearly a reflection of the way one is supposed to conduct himself in 
the existing ceremony. They are also valuable in showing that until 
recently the Foxes kept up their pagan worship in a humble and 
reverential spirit; compare also pages 69 and 77 of the translation 
of the principal text. These minor texts also indicate an indiiference 
to the old religion among the young people. As a matter of fact it 
may be in general said that this is true. To-day the young people 
attend the festivals of the gentes primarily for social purposes and to 
get abundant food. The old people cling with sincerity to the beliefs 
of their forefathers; and when the older generation shall have passed 
away the various festivals of the gentes of the Foxes will be a thing of 
the past. Finally, it may be said that in broad outlines the general 
scheme of the ceremony described in these texts is the same as those 
of at least certain other festivals of gentes. 



44 



OEIGIN OP THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 



[ETH. AXN. 40. 



It may he noted that almost all the material contained in this 
paper was gathered nearly 12 years ago. Unforeseen circumstances, 
over which the writer had no control, have delayed its publication 
until the present time. Where possible, such additional information 
as has been gained in the interval has been inserted. 

FOX PHONETICS. 

I have discussed the phonetic elements of Fox in the International 
Journal of American Linguistics, i, 54, and the Journal of the Wash- 
ington Academy of Sciences, 9, 521-525. 

The following is a tabular view of the phonetic elements as I con- 
ceive them: 

Vowels and diphthongs. 



-sounding: 






a A e 1 





u 


a a a e 


i 






ai au 
Voiceless and aspirated (terminal only); 



Consonants. 





Stops. 


Spirants. 


Affricatives. 


Nasals. 


Semi-vowpls. 


Glottal 


£ 

k 'k g g'^ 

t 't d 
P "P b 


c 'c 

s 's 


to "to "itc 


m™ 




Palatal 


y'' 


Alveolar 

Dental _ 


Labial . _ _ _ 


w" 







Following the recommendations of the committee of the American 
Anthropological Association (see p. 1 of Phonetic transcription of 
Indian Languages, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 66, 
No. 6) , I have employed the symbols and general scheme of Doctor 
Jones save M'here, in my judgment, they are inadeciuate. 

Owing to the fact that the Fox language has "sentence-phonetics," 
and that the number of words I could record at a time depended 
on the length of the words, the resulting text, of course, contained 
mixed phonetics. It has on the whole seemed best to normalize 
the sentence-phonetics so as to give a truer picture of the language. 
In this normalization I have substituted full-sounding vowels for 
the voiceless aspirated ones before initial consonants, save whei'e 
the sense indicates a pause; before initial vowels and ai- the preced- 
ing terminal vowels are eliminated. In this way complicated sym- 
bols such as -m™*', -g^'^"' have for the most part been eliminated in 
favor of -ra.\, -gwA, respectively. Of course this normalization has 



MiCHELsoN.] INTRODUCTION. 45 

not been rigidly adhered to, for the Foxes themselves are not entirely 
consistent in it, being guided to some extent by the tempo. Final 
vowels are aspirated before initial sibilants. On the other hand, 
it was not possible to normalize the sentence and word accent; so 
that the texts in this volume are "mixed" to this extent. I have 
followed the dictators. It should be noted that the stress-accent at 
times is very weak, and this accounts for the large number of appar- 
ently accentless words in the Indian texts. 

Another point may be brought up here, namely, the treatment 
of final i of one morphological unit before another such unit begin- 
ning with a vowel or diphthong. The elision of this varies among 
different speakers, and is also dependent on the tempo. I have 
followed the usage of the dictator in this respect. The glottal stop 
is merely rhetorical. 

In conclusion it may be noted that aspirations before initial vowels 
and ai are not pronounced, save rhetorically. It may be noted that 
terminally when w is followed by a voiceless vowel, I have heard 
some speakers pronounce a sonant w with a surd glide, and others 
pronounce without (apparently) the sonant w. In such cases I have 
followed the dictator of any given text. 



THE MYTHICAL ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 

(Plate 1.) 

A"cawi''tci wapiku'pi'^tci'nenu'sSni katemi'nagut*". 

0"sAni ke'kaneme'gwA wrugwi'se'megu''tc'". Oni'pinA nenl'w 

u'wiwAn a'a'^tci'mo'a'^tc'': "Kwlye'sa"'^ krugwi"sa'"ipcn"'^'. Inigii'- 

'mcgu wri'cinegu'tiyAg''"''', a'gwi ni'cwi''Agwin'''', ki'neguti''apen"'^' ; 

5cewa'nA kago''megu wi'ina'^tcime'gu'slw 5' me'cega"ikago"megu 

wi'ki'"ci't6w'^'. 

'rnipi'n i''kwawA kAbo'tw a'A'''tci'kwi''tc''. Miino'kA'minig 
a"no"ca''tc''. Kwiye'sa''a'Ani ke''ten°*'. 

A'A'ckigiwa'^tci yugii' I'nig uwiwe'ti'Ag'''' ; cewii'n Inipi'megu 
lOi'cinegute'nwi no''ca''tc I'n i''kwaw'^\ O'nip a'pwawi'megu kilgo'i- 
'ci'a'kwA'mAtAg''''. A'krcagu''tci'megumenwiperaa'te'si''tc.'". 

O'nipi kiki'cinegutipep6nwa"ini'^tc a'ki'y6ma''tc'', po'iiiwa'^tc. 
A"ki'wani''tc I'n i'kwiiw*'. A'pwawi'meguke'kii'netAgi wa'^'tci- 
gwan"''. NAn6'ckwa''megu a'kwagokwag6''otAg''''. 

15 Pe'ku'tanigi me'cemego'na'i mA'ckuta'g a'nAna'i'ci'no'i'^tc''. 
A'tA'ci'maiyo'^tc a'tA"ci'n6ta''tc u'gwi'sAn"'". Ki'cino'neni'^tc ii'ke'- 
'tcinepa"'tc'". 

Krcike'''tcini''tci kT''ce's6n a"t6'ki''tc''. KAbS'twe nawi'megu 
ncnu'swa''kiw a'u'''tcit6ki'*tc''. A'ma'nani'^tci ku'pi''tcinenu's5''''. 

20 A'pemipA''segwi''tc a'sa'ge'si'^tc'". NAtawa'''tcimegu a'pemiwa'- 
pu'sa'^tc''. KAbo'twe a'wapipA'segwmi''tc''. Me'to"'tcimegumA- 
'sa''tc a'ku'nAgwI'^tc a'ci'ta'a^'tc''. 

Klki'ciku'nAgwI''tc a"na'sawi'ta'a''tc''. 

Iniga'i'plnini ugwi'"sa'Ani na'kA'^'tc a"wapimai'yoni''tc'". KAb5'- 

25 twipi na'kA''tc a'wa'pinota''tc''. 

Maiya'wimAgwA''kiw a'A'pi'A'pi'^tci pen6'''tci ta'tAgi wi'a'- 
"kwapi''tci, a'ku''ta'^tci''tci wi"pwawine"segu''tc A'ca''a'''. IvAbo'- 
twe mana'napi'*tc a'pya''tcika'wini''tci nAno'pe'"kA me'to'sane'- 
niwa''". A'co'w a'i'cipa'na'^tci'^tc a'krcigil"meguna'wugu''tc''. 

30MAni'megu a'ci'ne'ki''tc a"pemi'penu''tc inA'kwiiw unI''tcane''sa'Aii 
a'keg6mya'pa"u''tc''. 'O'ni me'ce ne'gutenw a'ke''^tci'sa''tc'', 

nenu'so" a'cegicegi"cini<'tc'". Iniga"ipimegvi a'A'kwi'ma''tcI''tc 
i'kwa'w""^'. InA'megu a"tA'"ci"ana'wi'to''tci wrke'tci'penu''tc'", 
'a'wa'pa'cka'^tc'". 

35 A'po'nimeguke'ka'netAgi no'mAg a'ca'wigwan"''. A'ckA'^tc' 
megi" a ke'kii'netAg'''', a ki'cagu'^tci'^tci'megu na'"kA nawi'megu 
nenu'swA'klwe' cegi'ci'g''''. Wa'wi'taw a'ce'gi'cig a"cegi''cini''tci 
memya"cine'nu's6''\ Na'kA'^'tc ii'tA'ci'ga'i'^tci na'kjv"^tc a'tAne'- 
'kwa'i^'tc'', 'o'ni WAnina"*'''. Ka'sipi'megu a'cegi'ci'nowa''tc 

40a'tawa'"inig''''. Pe'kima'ipi'megu a'sAgwagWA''soni''tc''. 
46 



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THE MYTHICAL ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 

This was what happened to the person who was blessed by the 
White Buffalo. 

His father knew, it is said, that he would have a son. And the 
man, it is said, told his wife: "We shall have a little boy for our son. 
Now, he indeed will be the only one we will have, not two, only one; 
but something will be told about him or he will make something." 

Soon, it is said, the woman conceived. The following spring she 
was delivered. To be sure, it was a little boy. 

Tills married couple were young, but this, it is said, was indeed the 
only time that woman ever was delivered. Now, it is said, she was 
not sick in any way. She was indeed as well as possible. 

Now, it is said, after he was one year old, when she took him out, 
carrying him on her back, they camped. Then the woman was lost. 
She did not at all know whence she had come. As she wandered 
aimlessly she kept on crying out at the top of her voice. 

That night she lay down somewhere in the prairie. She was crying 
there as she was suckling her little son. After he had suckled then 
she slept very soundly. 

She woke up after the sun was up. She woke up suddenly amidst a 
herd of buffaloes. There were many buffaloes. She got up and was 
frightened. She just began to walk away. Soon they started to get 
up. That it was the same as if she barely got through, was what she 
thought. 

After getting through, she felt safe. 

Then, it is said, her little son began crying again. Soon, it is said, 
she again began to suckle the child. 

She sat down for a long time on top of a hill, likely enough so 
she could see far away, for she was afraid that she might be slain by 
the Sioux. Soon, as she looked, she saw a large number of people 
marching toward her. As she walked down on the other side of the 
hill, she had already been seen. Just as soon as the woman was out 
of sight, she ran, carrying her little child on her back. And when she 
once came running fast, there were some buffaloes lying. And at this 
time, it is said, the Avoman was exhausted from running. She was 
unable to run at full speed, so she fell down. 

She ceased knowing what she did for a little while. Some time 
later when she regained her senses, lo! she was again lying in the very 
center of a buffalo herd. Huge buffaloes were lying on each side of 
her as she lay. Likewise one toward her feet, also another toward 
her head, and in all directions. Where they were lying was only in a 
little space. They surely were lying about very thickly, it is said. 

47 



48 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

Manega'ipi'megu ne"seg6g iniyii'gA pamine'ka'wa''tcig A"ca'Ag 
i''k\v'awAn°''. Ina'ipi'megu u^'tciki'wawAg''''. 

InAgii' i"kwaw a'me''tcima'nemu''tci wi'pemipA"segwi''tc'. Ca'- 
'ckipi a'\vIga''tcimAtAg6''kwa'cig a"tA'cino'ta''tc ugwi"sa'An"''. 
5 KAbo'twe na"k a'ne'pate''^'. O'nipi mamaiyA'megu a'to'kl'^tc''. 
Ne'ci'kA'megu winwa'w a'cegi'cino''iwa''tc''. A''nagwa''tci nAno- 
'ckwe'megu. O'nip a'akwAma^tc''. Na'maya'kwe'mcgu il'pe'- 
mi'a<'tc a'wa sa'yanig'"'. 

Wa''tciga' a'ke'tcinAtu'na'u'^tc''. Una'piimAn ApinA'megu 
10a'mA'kata'wini''tc''. O'nipi wawiwi't"^' : "Na'i' wa'pAge kl'nawa'wA 
ki'"^','' a''ine''tc''. "Cewa'nA na"ina''megu ato'ki'wAniin i'ni 
wi'na'gwaiyAiii tepina'tca''mcgu wif'tcina'wA'kwagi ki"'^'. A'tA'ci'- 
me2unawA''kwagwan i'ni wT'nawA'^tc''. Cewa'nA wi"mi''tci''tci 
kl'awA'tawaw"*', wi'ca'penawA pe''ki," a"ine''tc a'ina'"pA"wa''tc''. 

15 Mamai3^A'megu a''penu'*tci klkl'cipe'kwA'pitS'^tc u'wiya's''. 
'O'nip a'prtu'sa''tci'megu, kAbo'twe kAtawina\VA''kwanig a''natAgi' 
slpu'ii'w a'pema'kwa'winig''''. Ite'pa'a'^tc o'nipi kwIyenA'megu 
nawA''kwanig iya' a"pya'^tc''. !MA'nimegu a'cipita'ya'kwa'^tc 
a"nawa'^tc a'A'pi'A'pini^'tc'', a'pwawiga'ina'wugu''tc'". 

20 "IvA'cina'gWA, i'kwii'wc, a'nie"k6nan°'V' a"ina^tc''. A'mi'cata'- 
nemu''tc i'kwii'"*'. 'O'nin a'awA'tawa"^tc a'A''cAma'^tci wInA'ga' 
a' ki ' wimegumA" kA ' tawi '' t c ' ' . 

Kikrciwi'se'nini''tc a'na'gwawa'^tc''. A'Anemoma''tc ugwi'sa'- 
wawAn"''. A'A'nema''tcimu''tc a''cawi''tc i'kwii'w a'cikctemagi'- 

25 ta'a'^tc''. 'O'nipi, "MA'nima' kl'nA ya'tuge wa'^tcipwawine''senAgwe 
niA'nA kegwi"senanA, a'('ima'netowi''tci me'to'^'tci, wraiya'aiya'^tci'- 
moyAni I'ni wa'^'tc i'ca'wiyiigwetug'"''," a''ina'*tc u'wiWAn"''. 

O'ni no'mAge pe'ku'tanig iya" a''pyawa''tci wigiya'pe'klgi watA'- 
gi'su'^tc''. A'pwawiga'mega'''tcimu''tc''. 
30 Wa'pAnig a'na'wawa'^tci wa'se'mitcig'''". Na'kA''^tci wa'pAnig 
a'ke''tcimai'y6wa''tci watane"sitcig''''. A'a'^tci'mo'e'^tci mawi: 
"Ki'cima'kinApyiina'p agwi'ga'i kago'i'ca'wi'^tcin''''," a''ine'^tc''. 
'Ini'megu a"ki'ciponwawage"siwa''tc''. Watane''sitcig ii'mi'catane'- 
mowa"^tc'". 

35 O'nip a'wapi'a^tci'a''tci'mo"e''tci me'ce'megona' a"cawi<'tc'' wa- 

''tcina'sa''tci'ga' a'a"'tcimu<*tci'megu. 
O'ninin ugwi'sii'wawAn a'na'u'sa''ini''tc'', a'na'otani'^tciyuga"''. 

i\."pe'cegwane'mawa''tci me'to'sane'niwAg''''. N^'kA'^'tc il'wi'cige- 

'sini'^tcimeg uwT'*tcikwiye''sa'a'ipi, 'a'gwi na'imyanawi'e'gutcin°''. 
40Na'Ana's5wA'pinA k\vi}'e"sa' agwiga'wi'nApi na'imiga'ti''tcini; 

ca'cki'megu 'a'a'nA'su'^tc a'cimAtagwa'netAg''''; na'kA'pi 'agwine- 



MiciiELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 49 

Many of those Sioux, they say, who were chasing the woman were 
killed (by these buffaloes) . They (the Sioux) , it is said, returned from 
there. 

The woman vacillated in getting up. Tliey say she only covered 
her face while she was suckling her little son. 

Soon she fell asleep again. Now it is said she woke up early in the 
morning. They (the woman and child) were lying there all alone. 
Then she started out cjuite aimlessly. Then she watched closely. 
She went through the forest in the day time. 

She was being diligently searched from where she came. Her 
husband fasted. And it is said he who had her for wife was told: 
"Well, you will see your wife to-morrow," so he was told. "But just 
as soon as you wake up you must go toward the place of the noonday 
sky (i. e., south). Wherever you are at noon is where you will see 
her. But you must take (some food) for her to eat, for she is very 
hungry," he was told in a dream. 

He started out very early in the morning after bundling up some 
meat. Now it is said while he was walking along, when it was almost 
noon, he saw a creek by a forest. He went over to it and, it is said, 
reached it just at noon time. Just as he entered the forest he saw 
her sitting there, but he was not seen. 

"Well, old woman, I have found you," he said to her. The woman 
felt very happy. Then he gave her the food which he took to her to 
eat. He himself was yet fasting during this time. 

After she ate, then they started out. She carried their little son on 
her back. On the way the woman told what had happened to her 
and how sad she felt. Then it is said, "Well, this probably was the 
reason why they did not slay you and this son of ours, because he is 
the same as a manitou, and so that you might often relate the story; 
that is why that happened to you," he said to his wife. 

Early in the evening they arrived at the wickiups, from where she 
was lost. She did not relate her narrative. 

The next day they whose daughter-in-law she was saw her. Like- 
wise the next day the parents of the daughter wept very hard. 
Some person went over to tell them: "She has been brought and 
nothing is the matter with her," they were told. They stopped 
crying at once. The parents of the daughter were very happy 
over it. 

Then it is she began to tell all that had happened to her, and she 
narrated why she was saved. 

At this time their little son had learned to walk, and had learned 
to crawl. The people were very fond of him. Moreover, though his 
fellow-boys were very strong, he was never overpowered. This boy, 
it is said, was very fond of wrestling, but never would fight; he was 
only fond of wrestling; and he never went away. He staid at home 



50 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

guta"i na'i"a''tcin°''. Aiyanlwe'megu a'kakl'wita''tc a'uwl'- 
giwa'^tc''. Mi'ckutA' 'a'nawanik\vlye"sa"a.'i'*tc''. 'A'a'pe'^tcima'- 
nani^'tci kwiye''sa'a"i wi''tcano'megu''tc'. "O'nip ayi'g i'cksv'a''sa'a 
'a'wawI^tcano'megu''tc''. A'mamenwI'*tcanotA'maga'*tc Ape'iio' 
5a'pwawina'imai}'6"taga'*tc''. Negu'tipi pe'ki'megu a'uwl"kani- 
''tci kwIye'^sa'An"'", neguti'na' i'ckwa'sa'An a'uwl''kani''tc''. 

I'nipi pe''k a'cim"cwi'a''tc uwi"kana"i, me'so'tiiwe wlnApi'mcg 

Ane"ka'''tci'a'^*\ Cewa'n i'nip i'cinrcwipe'kinenepa'wuti''tc''. 

Na."kA wi'n a'tepa'negu'^tc''. A'A'sipi'megutcawA'pi'tcigi<'tci'i 

10 tepil'negu''tc'', wI'nA na''kA''tc a"te'pana"^tc''. MA'kwa''tci'megu 

a'witcano'megu'^tc''. 

'O'nipi kAbo'tw a'a'kwAmAtA'mini''tc I'nin i'ck\va"sa'Ani 
pe'ki'megu 'a'ke'tci'a'kwAmAtA'mini'^tc''. "Mama'^tcigi'megu 

wl'ne'po'P"^'," 'a'cita"awa'^tci watane''sitcig'''". WinAga''InA, 

15"Agwini'kA'niegu ma'pya'^tcini nI"kAn'"''," 'a"ina<*tc ugya'n"''. 
"Na'i', 'Ana"e, ma'wiwapAmi ni''kan°''',"' 'a''ina''tc ugyii'n"''. 
"Na'i', 'Ana''e, ma'wiwapAmi nl'" kan"*",'' 'a'"ina<*tc ugya'n"''. 
I'tep a'a"'tc i'kwa'"*'. 

Ci'! Pe'ki''tca''megu winAga''ayI'gi I'n i'ckAva''sa''^'. "Ana"e, ma- 

20wa'*tcimo''i mka'n^". Nl'ke'ka'nemegwA, a'kAtawinepo'iyan"'". 

Ca"cki kAna'"i nl'ke'ka'nemcgw a'ca'wiyan"'"," a"ina'*tc ug.ya'n"'". 

Ite'pa'a''tc''. KwiyeiiA'mogu tca'wina' a'mawi'Ano'kane'gowa''tc 

uni''tcane''swawa'''. Kwiye'sa''A ki'cino'mAgena'gwani''tc ugya'- 

n"'', 'a'pya''tcipIti'gani'^tcuwI''kanAnugya'na'a''tci'moni'^tc'": "Pe'- 

25 'ki wInA'meg5ni'yA ki'ka'nA kenAtawa'nemeg^\'A, Ini'megu a'kAta- 

wine'po'i"*tc". Kara wl'ke'ka'nemi'^tc'', 'kete'gwA'^tca" " a"ini'^tc'". 

InagA'na'ka<'tc'', "Ya' wa'na'i, a'kwAmAtAmo'wAnan"'' ! Kekwi- 

nome'gwaiyowe ki'ka'nA," a''ine''tc i'ckwa'sa''^'. 

Oni'pinA kw-iye'sa"A" sa'sa'si'megu ugya'n a'^pyani'^tc''. "Cina'- 

30gwA, negwl''i, ki'ka'nA pe'ki'megon a'kAtawine'po'i'^tc''. Magwii'- 

'megu a'gwi wi'wapAne'mi'^tcini kl'kanA, negvvi"''. I'ni wa'^tci 

wltA'monan"'', magwa''e wi''nawu'k'' 'i'ci'ta'a"^'," a''ina'^tc u'gwi- 

sAn°'". 

OnlnA kwI'ye'sa'A, "Mrke'^tci'A'ge ni'kA "ami'eina'sa"a'wAgan°'"," 

35a'"ina'*te ugya'n"'". 

O'n o"sAn'"', "Ku''tcimeguml'ke<'tci'i," a"igu<'tc'". ""Au'," a'i'- 
ciwa"'tc''. 

Inip a"nategi nata'winon"''. A'krmA"e>^tci wape'ckikupi^tcine'- 
nu'son a"tA"cikAkAn6'netI<'tc''. Ke'tcine'e'megu 'a'wa'pAme'^tc''. 
40A'me"ckwini'g\vani'^tc a'me'ckwiwl'niini'^tc''. 

Mama'^tcigi'megu 'a''nawu''tci a'mi'negu''tciga'i nata'winon"''. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 51 

all the time. He was a very good looking boy. There was a great 
crowd of boys there all the time, who were playing with him. And 
also the girls would play with him. He would always play with the 
children nicely and never make them cry. He was a very close 
friend to one boy, it is said, and to one girl. 

It is said that these were the only two close friends he had, although 
he associated with all. But these two were the only ones with whom 
he slept in turns. And he was loved by them. He was loved by 
all those the same age as himself, and he loved them. They would 
plrty with him c[uietly. 

And then soon, that girl was taken very sick. "She surely will 
die," thought they whose daughter she was. And as for that boy, 
"Why, my friend has not come yet," he said to his mother. "Now, 
mother, go over and see my friend," he said to his mother. 



The woman went over there. 

Behold ! The girl was very anxious for him. "Mother, go over and 
tell my friend. I wish him to know that I am almost dead. Only 
let him know how I am," she said to her mother. So she went over 
there. They were both ordered by their children at the saane time. 
After the boy's mother had gone for a short time, his friend's mother 
came and reported: "Your friend wants to see you very badly, for 
she is almost dead. She truly said of you, 'so he'll only know how I 
am,' " she said. 

And j^onder (girl was told), "Oh my, you have been sick! Your 
friend has been longing to see you," the girl was told. 

And the boy's mother at once returned. "Well, my son, your 
friend is almost dead. Your friend will probably not live till morn- 
ing, my son. This is the reason why I tell you, she may want to see 
you," she said to her son. 

Then that boy (said), "If I were to doctor her, I wonder if I could 
cure her," is what he said to his mother. 

And he was told by his father, "Do try to doctor her." "All 
right," he answered. 

Then he went away to get some medicine. And he was secretly 
seen talking with a white buffalo. He was seen only a little ways 
off. It had red eyes and red horns. 

Surely he was seen when he was given some medicine. 



52 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

I'nip InA kwi'ye'sa" ite'p a'a''tci kwiyenA'megu a'pAnate''sini''tc 
uwi''kanAn''''. SA'sAgagi'megu a'na'moni''tc''. "A'ki'cimegumai'- 
yowa^'tci wanl''tcane''sitcig''''. O'n I'nA kwi'ye'sa'A nepi'g a'Aga'- 
witCApo'genAgi nata'winon"''. Ki'citcApo'genAgi mi'gunAn ii'tcApS'- 
5gena''tc''. A'napA'no'wa^'tci me'cena'meg''"'. A'ne'kenA'mawa- 
''tc'". Ki'cipA'kunA'mawa''tc'', tcA'tcAtApi 'a'na'moni''tc''. O'nip 
Ane'ki" a'me'na'a'^tc''. KAbotwe'megu naya'p a'inanAglgwa'- 
ckani^'tc''. KAbo'tw anii'gwinig a'ke'kanetA'mini''tc''. " Inigu'- 
megu wi"na"sa'^tc'V' a'i"ciwa'^tci kwI'ye'sa"'*^". 

10 A"menwina'wa'a''tci wani'^tcane'si'ni'^tci''" "MAni'megu wi'me'- 

nAme'na'iig'''''''. NyiiVuguni' ca"cki krme'na'ap"^**^'. Cewii'n 

aiyane'ki'i'megu ki'i'cime'na'apwA, ka'tA ma'ne. Wi'na'sa'wA ku- 

■^tc'", In a'ine'nAgowe," a'i'ciwa'^tci kwi'ye'sa"^". 

Onipi'megu 'a'wapine'nawu'^tc I'nin a'kAkAn6'netI''tci wape'ckiku- 

IS'pi^'tcine'nu'son'''". Ke'tcinegii'ipimega'pe' a'na'wawa''tc ancminii'- 
watcig'''". Kago"megu a'ina'neme'^tc''. 

On' inigi wate'ckwa'sa'e'mitcig I'nin a'wA'^tca'"awa''tc I'nini kwlye'- 
'sii'An"''. "Uwlya''si mA'ni wi'ml'^tciyAn"'','' a'i'nawa''tc'". O'ni, 
"Agwi'kAnagwA; peniiwAgi'mAtA," a'i'gowa'^tc''. 

20 Oni''tca"ipi na"kA a"cl'ca'*tci nenl'w a'pe'na'ka^'tc''. Mane'megu 
a''ne'sa''tci pena'wa'"'. A'wA''tca"awa''tc'". 

Inip I'nA kwi'ye'sa'A kA'nakA'nawi'^tc''. "Na'i', nl'ka'nA nl'wi'- 
'pumawA katemi'nawitA wape'cke'si'tA ku'pi'^tci'nenu's^-''. I'nA- 
■^tca'i wrwi'pumAga," a'i'cikA'nawi'^tc''. Ni'kanAgi''tca''i nl'wi- 

25 'pu'megog''''," a'i''*tc''. O'nipi kvva'ye'sa'a" Ini'meg a'kiwinAto'- 
meme'^tc''; o'sAniga'"megu 'a'An5''kana'*tci wrkIwinAto'mani''tc''. 
Cewa'n a'gwipi, "Wl'seninu," i'na'-tcin o'sA'n"''. Ca''ck a'A'pi'A'- 
pini'^tc''. 

Krciwrse'ni\va''tci na'kA'megu 'I'nA kna'ye'sa' a'a'''tcimu''tc'': — 

30"Na"I' m'ka'netig'"'', niA'nA kl'ka'nenanA newA'^tca'egwA. 
A'ketemi'nawAg I'ni wa'*tciwA'<*tca"i'^tc''. Ke'tenA'^tca'i ta'pi'awA 
nene'kanemi'ni'^tcinimane'towAnugimawine'nuson'"''," a'"ciwa''tc''. 
" "I'ni''tca' niA'ni wi'u''tcimenwinavva'cka'gw'iyAgwe mA'ni wl'se'- 
niweni, wuiA ma'netowA ke'tcinawi'megu a'wI''pumAgwe nane- 

35 'ka'nemit*'. Ma'A'ni na''kA''tci wa''tca'i'ni'*tcin I'n a'cimemvinawa'- 
'egu^'tc'', a'kwane'ma''tcin a'A"cAme'*tc''. Wl'naiyo I'ni' a'kwit'- 
nemawA pena'wa''". Tani''tca"i wri'cipwawinene'kinawa''egu''tci 
wa''tca'i'ni''tcini ? Wl'nene'kinawa'egwA'megu wl'manirnawinawa- 
'egwA'^tca"''. Kina'nA na'kA^'tc Ini'megu wI'i'cina'wa'Agwe wi'nA 

40ina'neto^^'." " I'ni ''tea' i wI'pe'nope'noyAg'""'', 'a'neni'wiyAne," 
a'i'tlwa''tci kwi'ye'sa' Ag""''. 'A'pe'nope'nowa''tc''. 

A'mrcata'nemu"'tei wa'gwi'sit*'. A'na'gwawa"*tc a'Anemi- 
wl'tama'^tc u'gwi'sAn"''. O'nipi, "'An6"se," 'a'"igu''tc'', "neme'- 
'ta'A^'tcai krA"ci'tawi, pe'ki'megu kl'wawe'ni'tawi wl'ume'ta'- 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 53 

Then that boy, it is said, went there just when his friend became 
unconscious. She was just barely breathing. And they, whose 
daughter she was, had already wept. Then the boy barely dipped 
the medicine into some water. After dipping it in, then he dipped 
a feather in it. Then he pushed the feather into her mouth. He 
pushed the whole length of it in. After pulling it out, then she 
breathed regularly. Then he made her drink a little of it. Soon her 
eyes turned to their natural shape. Soon in the evening she came to 
her consciousness. "She will immediately be well," the boy said. 

He gladdened them whose daughter she was. "You give her this 
to drink constantly. Only four days shall you. give her (this) to 
drink. But give her only a little at a time, don't give her much. 
She will be cured, is what I say to you," the boy said. 

From that time on, it is said, they recognized that he was always 
talking with that white buffalo. Those who continued to see him 
always saw him very close by. He was suspected in some way. 

Now the parents of the gu-1 cooked a meal for the boy. "We have 
some meat here for you to eat," they told him. "Notatall; I would 
prefer turkey," they were told. 

And then, it is said, the man again went out hunting for turkey. 
He killed many turkeys. Then they cooked a meal for him. 

Then it is said that boy gave a speech. " Now, I shall eat with my 
friend, the white l)uffalo, who blessed me. It is he with whom I shall 
eat," he said in his speech. "My friends shall eat with me," he said. 
Then boys were being called to come ; and he ordered his own father 
to call them to come. But it is said he did not say to his father 
"Eat." He merely kept sitting there. 

After they had eaten the boy gave another speech: "Now, my 
friends, our friend here has cooked this feast for me. Because I have 
blessed her is the reason why she has cooked for me. To be sui-e, she 
has pleased the manitou who thinks of me, the Buffalo chief," he 
said to them. " So that is why this food will have a good effect on us, 
because we are feasting personally with the manitou who thinks of me. 
Moreover, this is the way he has been gladdened by one who cooked 
for me, namely, by feeding the one he thinks most of. For he thinks 
a great deal of those turkeys. Verily how shall he not be made 
mindful by the one who cooked for me ? He will be made mindful and 
he will be made to realize thereby. Moreover, we shall make the 
manitou feel the same way." " Verily now we must go to our respec- 
tive homes, you who are men folks," the boys said to each other. 
Then they went to their homes. 

The father was very proud of his son. When they went home he 
went along with liis son. And then, "Father," he was told, "make 
me a bow, and make a very fancy bow for me to have," he said to his 



54 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. axn. 40. 

'ADiAgA," "a''ina''tc 5"sAn°''. "Na'kA'''tc A'ca'tfAiii, nliiA'megu 
wl'nanini ni'nA'tuna'A wi'utA'cati'emetA'manin"''. KrwItAmo'nogu- 
''tci wrA'ci'ta'wivAn i'nin A'ca'ti'Ani wi"aiyo'aiyo'yanin°''," a''ina"^tc 
o"sAn°''. "'Au'," "a'ine^tciga"meg''"'. 
5 Oni'p IDA kwi'ye'sa'A ki'ci"tawu''tc ume''ta'An°'', "Nya'wugiini 
ni'"A"cen''"V' a''ina''tc o''sAn°''. "Nyawugu'nagA'ke, 'I'ni 
■V7i''pyaiyan'''"," a'ina'*tc''. "'Au'/' a''igu'*tc''. 

O'nip a"nawu''tci'megu a'ki'okape'kjv'tenigi wil/'^tci keta''ckanigi 
ne'p a'Anemi'cipi'tiga''tc'". A'plti'gawa<*tci mane'towAn I'na'i 

10a"awi'ni<*tcin°''. Ke'tenA'megu nyawugunagA'tenig a"pyani'*tc'". 
A'kT'cagu'^tf'iwawene'tenig A'ca'tl'Ani nya'wi "a'pya'toni''tc''. 
A'a'''tcimu''tc'': "MAnA''kApi Pi'gi'tAnwi, 'a'matai'yagwani 
Miisi'sipo'gipi wrma'wi'otawe'niyAg'^"^'. "I'nipi wi'tA'cimenwipe- 
ma'te'siyAgwe," a"ini''tc''. "'Tnigii/'ipi wi'tA'ciketeketcminawe'- 

15"siyAgwe. Aiyo'' a'gwi ke'kiinetAma'nini wf ke'tciketeketemino'- 
nAgwe wi'nA ma'netoW*". I'ni wI'nA lya" pyai'yAgw ina"megu 
wI''awiwA tca'gi kjigo"' wI'Anemiml'nenAgwA ma'netow"'^'. 
Agwiga''neguti wi'mi'na''tcin°'', me'sotawe'meg'*'''. WrAnemiml'- 
nawA me'to'sa'neniwa''". Ninaiyo' aiyo'"mAni ninA'megu neta'pinat 

20AVa'ti"An°'', ke'nemap u'wiya' ami'cinatati"sugwan°''. Miigwa'- 
'megu wi'n awi't*', A'sa'mimAgimI''ckawinagwA'tw A'ckwata'm'"''. 
I'ni wi'nA me'ce'megu wI"nategA wi'na'twA kiigo"'". I'n ana^tci'- 
mo'lg"*''. I'ni me"teno' a'tA'ciwa'saya'piyan"''," a"ina'*tci 
me'to'siine'niwa''". 

25 O'n Inigi me'to'sane'niwAg a'pwawike'kanetA'mowa'^tc I'nini "I'ni 
ji'cite'kataiii'gwa'ini Pi'gi'tAnwi na"kA^tci Ma'si"sIpo"'''; a'pwawi'- 
meguke'kanetA'mowa''tc''. O'nipi mecla''sugunagA'tenig'''', "Ci! 
tani'yatug a'cipwawike'kanetAma'gwe," a"ina''tc'". "Winwa'wA 
ma'netowAg I'n a"cike'kanetA'mowa<'tc a'cite'ka'tilnig''''. Ke'tenA'- 

30ma''". I'ni'^tca'i na'kA'''tc I'tepi wl''aiyani ma'netonag'''', I'ni 
wi"mmawe"siyan I'nin I'ni a'cite'kata'gwa'ini ni'mamlnawinA'na- 
tu'c^". Cewa'n Ini'megu ne''ki wrina'teyan"''; nl'nyawuguna't®"," 
a'i'^tc inA kwl'ye'sa"'^". 

I'nimegu "a'i'cawi''tc''. A'nagwa'^tci nayapi'megu a'mawi'u- 

35 ^tcipi'tiga''tc'". O'nipi pya'ya''tc'', a''p3^ato"'tc a'Xnemipyii'a'tanig 
ame'ckupya'a'tiinig 5'ni ne'gut a'A'ckipAgipyii'a'tanig''''. Ma'A'n 
a'inepya'a'tagini," a"ina'*tc o'"sAn°''. "KrwapAto'nawAg'"'"." 

O'nip a'mawA''*tciwa'^tci m5'cAgi'megu'u ne'niwAg''''. 'A'a'- 
"^tcimu''tci kwi'ye'sii"^", "Na'i, i'n a'kl'cimamlnawe"siyan°''. 

40 Ma" A 'ni ''tea" anepya'a'tagini; mA'ni Pi'gi'tAn"'", mA'ni Ma"si'"slp5w 
A"ckipAgipya'"atag'"'. Ke"tcinawi'megu niA'ni keniita'pwA wlnwa'- 
WA mane'towAgi ki'cipya'A'mowa''tc''. A'gwi ni'nA mA'ni kl'cipya- 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 55 

father. ''And the arrowheads, I'll seek them so I may have arrow- 
heads. I'll tell you just how you should make the arrowheads for me, 
which I shall use," he said to his father. ''All right," he was 
answered willingly. 

And after the bow was made for the boy, '' I shall be gone for four 
days," he said to his father. '' In four days I will come back," he said 
to him. ''All right," he was answered. 

And then he was actually seen going into a cliff from whence water 
was shooting out. He went in to visit a manitou who was there. To 
be sure he came back after four days. He brought four very fine 
arrowheads. Then he narrated: ''It is said, we must go yonder, 
wherever Missouri joins the Mississippi, to make our town. It is said 
at that place is where we shall live healthily," he said. "It is said 
at that place is where we will be blessed. At this place, I do not 
know that the manitou will bless us very much. But when we come 
to that place, there will be a manitou who will give us everything. 
He shall not only give it to one person, but (shall give it to) all. He 
will continue to give it to the people. Now right here I have been 
over personally to get these arrowheads, although I do not know if 
there is any person who could get them for himself. Very probably 
he could not, for the door looks too strong. But at that place, any- 
one at all could get something. That has been told to me. And at 
that place alone is where I can see a light," he told the people. 

And the people did not know what things were called Missouri and 
Mississippi River; they did not know what they were. And then it is 
said in ten days, " I declare! how can it be that you don't know them," 
he said to them. "The manitous themselves know them to be called 
by those names. It is surely so. Well, I'll go again to the place of 
the manitous, and I will be diligent to inquire very closelj^ what things 
are called that. But I will be gone again the same length of time; I 
will be gone four days," said that boy. 

He did just so. He went away, going into the same place. Then, 
it is said, when he came back, he brought with him a diagram painted 
in red and one painted in green. " Here are these diagrams," he said 
to his father. "You show them to them." 

Then, it is said, only the men gathered. The boy spoke, '"Now, I 
have been diligent in this. Here they are written out; here is the 
Missouri, and here is the Mississippi River drawn in green. You 
personally see these which the manitous themselves di-ew. I did not 
draw this. 



56 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

"Winwa'wA mane'towAgi namA''kAmig ana'pitcigi mA'ni 'a'cike- 
'kanetA'mowa''tc a'cite'ka'tanig'''". Winwa'wA mA'ni 'a'cite'katA'- 
mowa'^tc'". Aiyo'tca" mA'n a'ma'taiyag'''', a'tA'cimenwipeniate'- 
'siyAgwe iietA'cike'ka'netA ni'n"^'. Winwa'w aiyo'"a'nemi'Apitcigi 
5wa''tcike'ka'netAman°''. Tcagipi'megu wi'A'nemi'aiyoyAgwe tcagi'- 
megu wi'Anemi'ciga'imi'''tciyAgwe; nete'cike'ka'netA," a"ina''tci 
me'to'siine'niwa'". 

Ane't a'tapwa"tagu''tc''; ane't a"anwa''tagu''tc''. AtietApi 

'i'nimegu 'a"wi'ca"ckawa'*tc ite'pi wi'inu'tawa''tc''. AnetAga"i, " "O, 

lOnagwago'megu tA'swi wi'vvAnimeno'wagvvan"''. 'Ite'p i'a'gu 

ki'mawimenwimenwime' to'saneniwi'pwA ; iiina'nAku'wInA "aiie- 

'ane'tA nekwaiya'ci'megu'i'cime'to'saneni'wipenA," a'i'yowa''tc''. 

A'ami'e'tiwa^tc''; tcawitA'swi'megu a'A''ckwiwa'^tc''. "O'n 
A'ckA"*tc a''ckwltcigi Wi"sA''ka"An a"pyani'*tc''. "KA'ci'^tca" 

15kete"cawi'pwA ne"ci"sa''etig a'pwavvi'Itepi"aiyagw'e ? Itepi' 'i'a'go; 
''aiyo''ka"i ni'a'wipenA,' i'cita''ayagwe, 'aiyo''megu ki'awi''awi'pwA, 
aiyo"megu kl'tA'citcagi'ego'wawAg A"ca'Ag''''. Agwimo'tci'neguti 
wrA'ckwi'e'nagwin"'". I'ni 'aiy6''megu wi'a'wi'a'wiyagvve ? A'gwi 
neguta''i wi'ai'yiigwini ? NinAga''megu i'ni "Itepi"aiyan°'V' a'i'- 

20gowa'*tci Wi"sA''ka'An'''', a na'gvvani''tc''. 

A'wlta'mawa'^tc''; a'raa'nawa'^tc'', 'agwipu'wiyii' a'Ackwi^'tcin"'". 
Kegime'si'megu a'awAne'gowa'^tci Wi'sA''ka'An°''. 

"A'gwi wi'n I'nA kwI'ye'sa'A wawAnaneme'nagwini wl'i'ca'wi- 
y^gkwe'. j'jjj wa''tcipwawikag6"megu'i'cikrki'ki'menAg'"''"''. Kin- 

25 wawA'megu niA'ni ketemagi't6''kago'A kl'yawa"''. Mo'tci'megu 
iya'i"pyaiyagwe wi'sA'nAgAt'''". Me'nwi kegime'siwlta'mago''^". 
Pe'ki'megu wiiwe'nete'sA ki'yawawi pwawi'anwa'ta'wago'-^'. Inugi 
yo' Winwa'wA ki'cimeguwiipina'natogi wi'uta'ine'miwa'^tc': ki'natA'- 
mawapw Tya''i pyaiya'g'""'^'. 'Wa'nA, niA'ni!' ki'i'ci'ta'ap"*'. 

30 "I'niyow a'wItA'moiiAgwe menwi; ini'megu a'cikegime'sinag- 
wai'yago'A pe'ki'megu keteketemi'nonwa'sA ma'netowAg""". I'nugi 
wi'nA kewitAma'guwawA wi'i'ci''tca'iketeketeminawe"siyag'''''''. "O 
me'ceg a'gwi, pe'ki winA'megu niAnetowi'**'. Mo'tci'megu ni'nA 
iya'"i wi'pyane'nAgow awi'tA wawAna'nemi's*'; neki'ci'meguke- 

35kaneme'gotug''^'. AwitA'megu wawAna'nemi's*",'' a'"ina''tc''. 

'O'n i'uA kwi'ye'sa" a'a''*tcimu''tc'': "Wi'"pyawAg i'niyag a"ckwi- 

tcig'''"; Wi"sA''ka"Ani wi'pya'^tciwita'megog'''', cewa'n i'ni wI'sa'- 

uAgA'k aiyo" a'aiyAgwe ma'netow a''awi'^tc''. Agwi' ca''cki wi'mine'- 

nagwin"''. Maui' wi'i"cawi''tc''. Uwiya''a'aiyiki'mi'napen ini'megu 

40wi'i"cawi^tc'', Aine"kwaiya''', 'a'sepA'naiya''', cawemego'na'i wiiwi- 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 57 

''They, the manitous, who look into the underworld, know them to 
be called by these names. That is the way they call them. Wliere 
this river forlcs here is the place where I know we would live healthily. 
They (the manitous) who are here, are how I came to know this. It 
is said we will be able to fjet everything from there that we shall use 
and eat; such is my knowledge thereof," he said to the people. 

By some he was believed in; and by some he was not believed in. 
Some, it is said, were very anxious to move there at once. Some 
said, "Oh, go on, as many of you, that want him to fool you. Go 
there to be always good people; some of us happen to have lived 
too long as we have been living (to be changed)," they said among 
themselves. 

Then they moved; half of them stayed. After a while Wl'sA'ka"*^' 
came to those who stayed. "What is the matter, my uncles,* that 
you did not go there ? Go there; and if you think ' we will stay here,' 
you may always stay here, and the Sioux will kill you all. Not a 
single one shall be saved (from the slaughter) . Are you now always 
going to stay here? Are you not going anywhere? I am going 
straight there now myself," they were told by Wi'sA'ka"*', and he 
started out. 

Then they went with him ; there was a large number of them, for 
it is said no one stayed. All were taken by Wi'sA'ka'*'. 

"The boy was not ignorant of what would happen to you; that 
was the reason why he did not at all insist on you (going). You 
indeed would have made your lives wretched. It will even be hard 
when you get there. It would have been good if you had all gone 
with him. Yom- lives would be beautiful if you had not disbelieved 
him. To-day they have already begun to get things to wear: you 
will see them have them when we get there. You will think, 'Oh, 
this is the place.'" 

"Tliat was the good message he delivered to you; if you had all 
gone, the manitous would have greatly blessed each one of you. 
As it is now he will instruct you how each one of you will be greatly 
blessed. Or perhaps he will not do it himself, although he is a power- 
ful manitou. Tliat I am bringing you there, he can not but know; 
no doubt he knows it already. He can not but know about me," he 
told them. 

And the boy related (to the others): "The people who remained 
are coming; Wi'sA'kii''^" is bringing them, but then it will be difficult 
now for us to go where the manitou lives. He will not give us 
freely. This is what he will do. We shall have to give him some 
kind of skins so he will do it, such as beaver skins, raccoon skins, or 

1 Mother's brothers. Similarly among the Prairie Potawatomi mortals are related to the culture hero as 
mother's brothers and sisters. 
3599°— 25t 5 



58 ORIGIN or THE WHIT£ BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. Axx. 40. 

'saiyiwa''inig''''. Cewa'n i'ni wi'sAiiAge' 'siwa''tc''. A'gwi wi'wa'^tci- 
nowi'"Ag^vin i'nig A'me'kwAg'''', lya" ma'ne ku''tc''. Wi'sA'nAgAtwi 
wawi'saiyi'wa'ig'''". Na'kA'^tci wi'mrnenAgwe •wi'sA'nAgAt''''. 
A'gwi wil'ne'pe'ci wi'ute'tcnA'mAgwin"''. Na'kA''*tci kago''mogu wi- 
5'i"ci'i''cigen\vi wi'Ane'Anemi''aiyAg'''"''. Kago'tca''megu wi'i'ci- 
'sA'nAgAf''. 'Inigigifi wi'kepa'ku'ckAmo'nAgwigi, pwawika'kAmi- 
tapwa'ta'witcig''''. Ka'kAmi'ga'i tapwa'tawrwate'e, pe'ki'megu 
wawe'nete'sA; a^v^tA'kag6''megu wi'pe'tA'sA'gige's^','' a"ina''tci 
me'to'sane'niwa' I'nA kwi'ye'sa*"'. 

10 Ke'te'nApi kAbo'tw a'po'nini''tc uwl''kanwawa'''. Wi'sA'kii'A'- 
ga'ineguta" a'uwi'ge'i^'tc a'wa'wAna'^tc''. WA'*tca'c'tIwa'^tc''. Wi- 
'sA'ka'A'ga' a'kl\vawi'"seni'*tc a'kiwa\vi'puma''tc u"ci''sa'a''". 

'O'nipi kAbo'tw i'tep a''awa'^tci neno'tawAg''''. Pema'owA'giyopi 
itep a'"awa'*tc''. Iya"megu A'ci''tcipya'yawa''tc a'ko'ka'wawa''tc'". 

15Negu't a'pya'''tci"a'''tcirau''tc a'ko'ka'sa'e'gowa''tci ma'nptowAn 
a"oagwane'mowa''tc a'pemctuna'mowa''tc'' ; wi'pwawi''tca'ipimegu- 
kA'nawi''tc u'wiya''*'. "I'na'i pema'o'wa'*tcin, " I'n a'cinAtawane'- 
meiiAgwe," a'i''ciwa''tc I'liA pa"ci"A"ckepyat*'. Witama''tci'i wInA 
kegitci'mane'megu a'A'cke'pyani'^tc'' ; wlnA'megu ne'ci''k a''na'sa''tc 

20i'nA neni''"*". 'O'nip i'tep a'yawa''tcin I'na'i tepina''i pema'o'- 
wa^'tcin"'', a'pwawimegukag5'ikAnA'wiwa<'tc''. MA'kwa'''tc a'pema'- 
'owa'^tc''. Kl'cikunAgvvI'wa''tcini me'ce'na' a"wapikAna'wiwa''tc''. 

O'nip A'ckA'<'tci Wi'sA'kii'' a''ne'sa''tci negut a'se'pAnAii"''. O'n 
a'mawA"cit5ni'gawa''tc''. WinA'ga'i Wi'sA'kii" a'wi''^tcawa'^tc''. 

25 Iniga'"megu i'ci'negut a''ne'sa''tc a"sepa'"a"An°''. O'nipi neno'- 
tawa''', "KA'ciy5' kl'nA ki'inAgitA'nagdp'V a'i'negu<'tc''. "Ka- 
'cina'gwA, inAni'*tca''megu wi'inA'ginau''tci tA'se'nwi ketAga'- 
nowa^'tc ini'megu tA"swi wi''mT"cigi tA'se'nwi ketAga'nowa''tc'V' 
a'i'^'tc'''. A"na'gwawa''tc'', a'wapa''owa''tc'"; kwI'ye'sa'A na''i. 

30 O'nip a''pyawa''tc a'tA"ci'sA'sa"kwawe''tci w"i'kAna'wiwe"'tc'". 
Inipi'megu kAbo'twe Wi'sA'ka''A, "KA"cina'g\vA, tatepiwana'ana'- 
oyAg'''"'','' a'i''^tc''. Iniga'ipi'megu a'p6nike'kanetA'mowa''tc''. 
Ke'kanetA'mowa'^tci piti'ge, a'Api'A'piwa''tc a'kegonAgA'piwa'^tc 
utci'manwag''''. Iniya'A'ga' utA'sa'wawa' a'kwapagwA''soni''tc'". 

35Wl"sA'ka' a''a'kwa''tc''. "Wa'nA niA'nA mA'^tca'wa'im a'tAci- 
"Anemiko'kako'ka"sa'atA me'to'sa'neniwa'"'." Iniyanega'i tcl'- 
manAn a'pemitepiki'ckagWA'tanigi 'a'Aneine'kwi''sanig'^''. O'ni 
tcipaiyo'wi'cAn aylgi'megua'pemiki'ckagwA'tiinig''''. 'A'peminawA'- 
tenAg A'ckwane'ketiiwi wa'sikine'ke'tanigi Wi'sA'ka"*'. A'pe'- 

40mamu''tc I'nA ma'neto"^", a'nagAt6ne'"kawu'*tci Pi'gi'tAn"''. 
Wi'"sA'ka'A me"tawAg a'Anemi'pa'u''tc''. O'ni ma'netowA nepl'g 
a'Anemi"ci'sa''tc'". A'kwa'pyanigi Pi'gi'tAnw a'tA'ci'sAganowa'- 
'so'a<»tci Wi"sA"ka''''. 



MicHELsoN.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 59 

any kind of furs. But then those beavers will be hard (for us to 
kill). We shall not easily kill those beavers though there are many 
there. Fur will be difficult (to obtain). And the fur which will be 
given to us will be hard to get. We shall hardly have a chance to 
get them. And always something will happen in the way we shall 
always travel. There truly will be something difTicult about it. 
Those are the ones who will cause this for us, those who did not 
straiglitway agree with me to come. If they had straightway agreed 
with me (to come), it would have been very fine; then there would 
not have been any trouble at all," that boy said to the people. 

To be sure their friends camped soon. Wl'sA'ka'*' also had his 
wickiup- someplace there. They cooked for each other. Wi'sA'ka'*' 
also went around where they were feasting, eating with his uncles. 

And then soon the Indians went there. It is said that they paddled 
when they went there. When they were near, they upset. One 
person came and told that they were upset by a manitou because 
they were not desired to be talking as they were going along; verily 
no one was to say a word, it is said. When they were paddling by 
there, that was the way they were desired to do. "Tliat is the way 
he wants us to do," the person who had almost drowned said. All 
whom he accompanied were drowned with the canoe; that man alone 
was saved. Then it is said whenever they went there, they wouldn't 
say a word when they paddled by there. They would paddle by 
there quietly. After going through there, they would begin to talk. 

And then later on Wl'sA'ka'"^' killed one raccoon. Then they went 
off to trade it off. Wi'sA'ka'-*' himself went along. Tliat was the 
only raccoon he killed. And then, it is said, "What price will they 
give you for it?" he was asked by the Indians. "Well, the price will 
be according to the number of stripes it has on its tail ; I will be given 
the number of stripes it has on its tail," he said. And they started 
out, they began to paddle away; the boy went along also. 

Then they came to the place where it was forbidden to talk. Pretty 
soon Wi'sA'ka''^' said, "Well, whither are we paddling?" said he. 
Then, it is said, at once they became unconscious. When they came 
to their senses, they were sitting inside, in their canoe. Their furs 
were lying around. Wi'sA'ka'"' became angry. "0, it's only this 
foolish fellow, who has been upsetting the people." The other 
canoes were lying in a straight line upside down. And skulls were 
also lying cut off in a row. Then Wl'sA'kii'*' picked up a firestick 
which had been made sharp at the point by burning. The manitou 
fled, and he was chased along the Missouri River. Wi'sA'ka'*" was 
running on the bare ground. And the manitou ran under the water. 
Wi'sA'kii'*' seized his tail (when they came) as far as the Missouri 
extends. 

' The vernacular (taken from the Indian) for "wigwam" at Tama. 



60 ORIGIM OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DAKCE. [ETH. ANN. 40. 

"Agwi'^tca" nakA^tc i'ni wi'i'cawi'yanin"'",'' a''ciwa'^tci ma'- 
netowA. A'wIyA'cka'po'ckAgi ne'pi ma'nctow"'*^', ini'pini Pi'gi- 
'tAnwi ■wa^'tcipwawime'nwi'tAg''''; ■wa'^tcimam6"cki'tAg i'n a'pe- 
mi'cine''kaga<'tci Wi''sA'ka''^'. 
5 O'nip i'niyA kvvI'ye'sa'A ma'netowit a'nowi'wena<'tc i'ni'i 
witama'wa''tci'''. 

Ki'cinowl'wena'^tc agw Iniy a'ci'tAnige''epi 'i'ci'tA'nigini Pi'gi- 
'tAxi*''. Ke'teiiA pe'ki'megu a,'ne'ciwi''tAnig''''. 

A'A'pi"A'piwa'*tc'', A"ckA"*tc a"pyani''tci Wi'sA"ka'Ani tclgepyagi'- 
lOmegu a"pya''tci"ani''tci kiigo'e'riigwani'megu a'pya'^tci'sogenA'- 
mini'^tc''. Keya'A'pAga'wi'nApinA ma'netowAn a'pya'^tci'sAga- 
nowa'nani'^tc'". Ki'ci'pyani<'tc a a'^tci'moni'^tc": "MAna'nanA" sa''sa- 
'kwat aiy6"i m'tA'cik.\na'wiwe''tc''. Inugi''tca''i pA''kowawA wl'pO- 
ni"sA'sa'"kwa,'*tc''. Me'cena''megu wi'pemikAkAno'netlyAgwe pcma- 
15'o'i'yAgwin°'". I'ni 'ana'''tcimu'*tci mA'nA'A. Ki'pene'^tca" I'ni 
pwawi'ca'wigwani, a'gwi aiyo''i kenwa''ci wI'a'wi''tcin°'V' a''ina''tci 
Wi''sA'ka"'*^". "Ini'mcgu wi'i''ca\vi''tc''," a''ina'^tc''. 

O'nip a'mawA'citoni'gawa'^tc utA'sa'mwawa"''. Ke'tenA'megu 

Wi"sA''ka'An a'cike'ka'i'gani''tc a'i'cimi'neme''tc''. Klmo'^'tc 

20 a'anigane'mawa''tc''. Manctowi'Atawane'niwAniga'i'pinini namawA- 

'citonigawa'wa'^tcini kiigo'a'"''. A'Anemimine'gowa'^tci me'cemego'- 

na"i toa'gimegu'kago" a'A''toni'*tc''. 

'O'nip si'poni'ini'i'cinA'sAtawi'genig'''', me'ce'megu 'i'tep a''a- 
wa''tc''. 
25 Me'ce"megu a'A"t6ni'^tc'', pi'wa'Aniga'''. Inini''tca'"i mi'Vamcg 
a'to'wa'^tcin"'' ; canawa"a'Aniga' inime'gupi watenA'mowa'^tc'"* 
Wa'^tcimece'na' umr'camwag A"towa''tc''. 

O'n iniyA kwi'ye'sa" Wi'sA''ka'An ii'me'^tci'^tci'megu'^tc'". "Na'i' 
ki'menwimegu'AnemiwitAma'wawAgi ma'A'gi ki'^tcime'to'sane'- 

SOniw'Ag'''". Ka'tA kag6''i wrkyatA'mawA'^tci 'i'cita''a'kAn°''; 
ketemage'siwAgiku' a'pwawikag6'ike'kiinetAmati''sowa''tc nlga'n°'". 
Ka'sipi'megu" c'a"ck a'nAtawa'piwa''tc i'n a'ci'mine''tc'". Inugi- 
''tca'" ki'nA ki'aiya'aiya'^tcimo"awAg'''"," ii'lgu'^'tc inA Wi'sA''ka- 
'An"*". 

35 O'nip wa'bAnig ii'me'sotawi'meguwitAma'wani'^tci me'"to'sane'- 
niwa'*': "Na"i' me'to'sane'nitig''^", mA'nA kwi'yc'sa'A katA' 
na'k.'V'tc anwa'tawl'yagago. A"pcna''tci'megu 'ano'wa''tcin 

ini'megu wi'Anemi'ca'wiyag'^'^'''. I'nug a'anwa"tawagwe, na'tA- 
'swi'niyagA kl'ka'nwawAg A'ce'nowAg'^''. Inugi''tca"i ka'tA 

40i'ni'cita"a''kag'"''. Aiyo" u'''tciwapi niAnA'megu ki'nene'ka'nemapw 
A"pena'''tc ku'^'tci kwi'ye'sa'A* cewa'nA ke'kaneta'gu'siwA mane'- 
tonagi. Wi'nA ma'netowa'i kc'ka'nemegwA," a'i'gowa'^tci Wi'sA'- 
'ka'An"'". O'n ini'megu 'u'^'tciwap a'i'ca'wiwa'^tc''. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 61 

"I shall never do that again," the manitou said. The manitou 
made the water muddy when he fled, so that is the reason that the 
Missouri River does not flow nicely; the reason it flows in bubbles is 
because Wi'sA'ka"'^' had pursued through there. 

And then it is said that boy who had the nature of a manitou took 
those out who had accompanied him. 

After he got them out the Missouri River did not there flow as they 
say it formerly flowed. Surely it was flowing dangerously. 

After they were sitting there a long time, Wl'sA'ka''^' came, coming 
along on the edge of the water. And he was coming along holding 
something in his hand. It is a fact that it was that manitou which 
he was holding by its tail as he came. After he came he narrated: 
"This is he who forbids any talking here. Now he has declared that 
he will cease to forbid (talking) . So we can talk to each other when 
we are paddling along. That was what this one said. If ever he 
does not do that, he shall not remain here very long," Wi'sA'ka'"^' 
said to them. "He must do that," he said to them. 

Tlien, it is said, they went off to trade their hides. To be sure 
Wi'sA'ka"*' was given the price he had stated before. They laughed 
at him secretly. This was a manitou trader with whom they traded 
any little thing. They kept on being given everything whatsoever 
he had. 

Then, it is said, there was no more a fierce thing, and they would go 
there any time. 

He had everything, even some beads. This was the place where 
they got the beads which they placed in the sacred pack; and they 
also got little tiny bells from there. That was the reason why they 
put them in their sacred pack. 

And then Wi'sA'ka"^' sent a message by that boy. " Now you are 
to continue to instruct these our fellow people very well. Do not 
think to keep anything secret from them; surely they are certainly 
poor because they know nothing of themselves in the future. Tliey 
were only given (a power) to desire to see. So now you must instruct 
them," he was told by Wi'sA'ka'*'. 

The following day he gave a speech to all the people: "Now people, 
do not ever doubt this boy's words again. Always continue to do 
what he says. At this time when you did not believe what he says, 
several of your friends are gone. To-day verily do not feel that way. 
From now on you are to try to think of this boy always, for he is 
known in the manitous land. He is known by the manitous," they 
were told by Wi'sA'ka"-^". So from that time on they did that way. 



62 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

O'n InA kwi'ye'sa'A kageya''megu a'ponikA'ki''soni''tci wape- 
'ckiku'pi''tcine'nu'son°''. Iniga''ipi pepe'tci'mil'megu ii'klwi'uwi'- 
gi'e'^tc'". Ina'ipi'megu pepyii'niwAn a'u'wlgi'^tc a'pepya'^tci'a- 
''tciino"egu^tci wrAnemi'ca'wini'^tc'". 

5 O'nipi me'ce'na'i ne'gutenw ii'nAtupAni'kAta'gowa'^tc A'"ca'a'''. 
A'tnanani'^tci'megu A'ca''a'''. Ini'pin u'ckinawa'a" a'a''*tcimu- 
''tc'': "Na'I', i'niyap a'pya''tcipe'nowa''tci ki'^td'ckwe'e'- 
nanAg a'nAtupAni'kA'tonAg'""''. Aiylgwa'mlgu'^tca''i wi'A'kawa'- 
piyiigwe," a"ina''tc''. "Kl'ci'megupya''tcipe'nowAg'''', aiyS'kii'- 

10 'mcgu wi'pyawAg''''. Agwi wIha' magwii'e wi'kA'ckine'se'nAgwin"'' ; 
magwa" kInwa'wA krHc'sa'p"*'. MA'ni wi'u''tci"t6nAg''*^'. 
Ini'^tca,'' A''pena''tc ami'A'kawapA't-Ainagwe wi'pwawiklma'- 
'enAg'""''. M6"tci"cega' a'miyAgwe mamA"ka''tci'megu pyanuto'- 
nAgu's a'awi'wAgwah"'". Ini' "ami'ca'wiyAg'^"'''. Na'kA'"^tci 

15ne'se'nAgu'sA 'ini' wi'i'ca'wiyAg'""'', pema'moyAg''"''". I'nugi 

wi'nA' ca'cki'megu wine'sagwe'megu ki'inii'nemap''*'. NinAga''i 

"i'ni wi"iciwawi'*tcita'eme'nAg6we wi'"ne'sag''"'*''. NinAga''i 

agwikAna'gsvA wi'raiga'ti'Ag'''". I'ni 'ii'ine'nAgo''®'," a"ina''tc'". 

O'ni ke'tenA'megu 'i'na'ina'i a'ke"kA'A'mowa''tc a'u^'tcima'- 

20winAne'gowa''tc''. Ke'tenA'megu a'me''tcimi"awa'^tc'', mane'megu 
"a'A'ckwi''awa'^tc''. O'nipin u'ckinawa'a" a: "MA'ni "ami'ca'- 
wiyilg''"''', 'Ni'tcagi''awAg'''',' inii'nemag''™'''. Ni'naiyo ni'tcagi'- 
'awAg''"'," a"ina''tc'". 'A'mawi'nAna''tc ii'ne'nu'swi'^tc a'wape'- 
cke'si'^tc'. Ku''tcl"ip A"ca'Agi pipemo'wiiwAg'''", cewa'nA ki'ki- 

25'ki'megu a'mawiuAne'^tc''. A'tcagi'a''tci'megu i'ni' A'ca'a'''. 
WaDAto''kA "a'pya''tci"anigigwa'wu'sa"^tc''. "Ini' 'ami'cawi'- 
yago'*', ka'kAmimawinA'nago''*^'," ii'ina'^tc''. 

O'nipi me'ce ne'gutenwi wa'bAnig a'menwiki'cegA'tenig'^'', 
a'pwawi'megunegutogo'tanig'"', negwanA'kwA'tenig''''. "Na'i', Ata- 

30wa'neniwA ki'nawi''apen'"^'," a'i''^tc''. "A'tA'swigAmige'siyAgwe'- 
megu na'neguti ki'u'''tcipen'"*^", cewa'nA ki'mi'cate"sipen''*". 
MA'ni wi'n a'cimenwa'netAg a'inauA'kwA'tenig Atawa'neni''*". 
Agwiga"inA me'to'saneni'wi''tcin°'', ma'neto"*'. MAni^tca''iyo'w 
ami'i''ca'i'cawi'yago'A pwawipA"cipA"citowawane'niige'*'' . A'ce- 

35 'itca''i magwa''e nepA''cipA''citowawane'megog''''," a''ina''tci 
me'to'sano'niwa'''. 

O'nip a'ke'tci'Ane'nwiwa''tc a'koga'ku'nowa'^tc''. Ki'ci'Ane'Ane'- 
nwiwa'^tc a"na'gwawa''tc ite'p a'awa''tc''. Kegime'si'megu kegye- 
'tci'cii'cke'to'a' a"mine'*tc a'A''kwa'A''kwawi''senigi kago" 

40aiyo'wenAni, ma'te'sAn"''. A'a<'tcimo'e'gowa*'tc'' : "Ki'tepatapwA'- 
mcgu mA'ni mine'nAgowe, a'penegii'megu kete'cimi'nenep'"^'. Agu'- 
wiya' awA'si'i'cimi'nAgin"''. 'A'penemegu ketcawi'ci"megumi'- 
nenepw*."," a'i'gowa^'tc''. "Na''kA<'tca'i nyawugunagA'tenigi 



MICHELSON.] OKIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 63 

And then finally the boy's white buffalo no longer concealed itself. 
Tlien (the boy) was made to live from spot to spot away from the 
others. Then it is said he (the buffalo) would repeatedly come right 
where he (the boy) lived to give him instructions in the manner they 
(the people) should do in the future. 

And then it is said one time they were sought and made war on by 
the Sioux. ITie Sioux were in large number. And then it is said the 
young man narrated: "Well, now at last our enemy are starting here 
on a warpath against us. So do your best to guard (against them)," 
he told them. "They have already started on the way here, and they 
will surely get here. But perhaps they will not succeed in killing us; 
but perhaps you will kill them. This direction is whence they will 
attack us. So you ought to watch that way all the time, so they will 
not surprise us. Even if you moved away, they would surely come 
to us where we were. Anyway, that is what would happen to us. 
And besides they would kill us if we did that, namely, flee. Now you 
must only think of killing them. My thought will be with yours to 
kill them. I myself can not engage in the battle against them. 
Tliat is all I say to you," he told them. 

To be sure they were attacked from the direction they were told; 
surely they slaughtered a great number, but many were saved. 
And then it is said the j^oung man (said) : "This is what you ought to 
do if 3'ou think, 'I shall kill them all.' I am going to kill them all 
myself," he said to them. As he attacked them he became a white 
buffalo. Although, it is said, the Siou.x were shooting lively, in spite 
of it they were attacked. He killed all of those Sioux. He came 
walking back smiling unconcernedly. "Tliat was what you should 
have contrived to do, if 3'ou had attacked them in the first place," 
he said to them. 

And then, it is said, one morning it was a very fine day, not even a 
single cloud was hanging in the sk3^ "Well, let us visit the trader," 
he said. "One from as many dwellings as we have shall go, but we 
must put on our fine clothes. This kind of a firmament is what the 
trader likes. He is not a himian being, he is a manitou. This is the 
way we should have been doing had I not been thought a liar. For 
no reason I am thought perhaps to be a liar," he said to the people. 



Then they swam scrupulously when washing themselves. After 
bathing they started, going to that place. All of them were each 
given a very large kettle filled with something, such as tools, knives. 
They were told: "You must love these things I give you, and I have 
given you equally alike. I give no one more. I give you equally 
alike," they were told. "And, furthermore, in four days let every old 



64 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

kcgime'si'megu ka'tciki'"cigit i'kwa'wA wi"pya"^", cewa'nA 
kl'wawAgi ka't-A kago''i totawi'yagagu," a''ine''tc''. O'nip a'pe'- 
nowa'^tc"'. A'cimine'^tci'ga'i" ca'cke'to'a'"', 'Ago^tci'gAnAni, ma'te- 
sAni, pApA'gya'Aiii, cago''kanAni, A"ckuta''kanAni, A'pwa'gAna'i, 
5kwapA"i'gAUAiii, Ana'gAiiAni, ame"kwa'Ani, cAma'gAnAni, A"ca'- 
ti'An"'". I'nip a'ci'mine'^tc''. 

O'nipi nyawugunagA'tenig o'n i"kwawAgi mo'cAgi'megu ka'tci'- 
gitcig''''. O'nipi wa'samA''ka'koni mamye'ca'nigin"'', 6'ni pApiwi- 
'ca'cketo''a'a''', ta'tAg"', 5'ni mA"'tca'in a''mine''tci wi'i'ciwiwe'- 

lOnowa'^tc''. A'a'^tcimo'e'gowa'^tci wi"i"ci''towa''tc'". Pena'a'gAnAn- 
igii' 5'ni pi'wA'An"''. "Ma'A'ni me'cena''megu mi"camegi 
ki'mi'ca'^tci''tci'gawap''*'," a''ine"*tc'". 

Canawa"a'Ani papiwa'eno'i'nigin a'pe"ciganetA'mowa''tc'". A^'tci- 
pAnAgi''tciwa'"megu a'ci'genigi mi'cate''siwa' a''mme''tc''. "MAni'- 

15 nA kl'awA'tawawA," a'"ine''tci wa'ca'cke'si'e'mitcig''''. A"ke- 
'ke'kanemego\va''tci'megu wa'cii'cke'si'e'mitcig''''. Agwiga'"ipi wl- 
'nAtotri''sawa'^tc'', pine'ci'mcgu a'mlne'gowa'^tc''. A'Anemini- 
'ckinrcke'"si\va'*tc i'"k\vawAg''''. A'na'nAgi'"ckawu''tc a'ml'catane'- 
movva'^tc''. 

20 "Ni'nAkii' neke'ka'nemegwA ma'neto"*"," ane't a'i'yowa'^tc''. 
"I'ni wa''*tci mA'ni na'tAmag''^^'," a"i'nawa''tc utApeno'e'- 
mwawa'"'. 

O'nip i"lvwawAg a'nanAtuna'Vawa'^tc''. I'nin a'wTgupi'kawa- 
•'tcip a'ina<'tci'mowa''tc''; ku''tciga'kwiga"wI'nApi ini'megu natiina- 

25'A'mowa'^tc'". O'n I'n ano'watcig'''', "Ncke'ka'nemegwA ma'- 
neto"''^",'' atcigi mamaiyA'megu a'A'ko'ckana'wawa'^tc'". A'pwa- 
wiga'"niegunAna'cinie"ka'wawa''tc Iniya'n Atawane'niwAn"''. 

O'nip I'n u'ckinawa'a" a'mawA'''tcima'*tci me'to'sane'niwa"'': 
"MA'ni wa''tcimawA''tcime'nAgo'*'''V' a"ina''tc''. "Agwi'megu 

30 "u\viya"Ama' ke'ka'nemAgin"'', 'mA'n a'"cawi''tc'V wi"ine''tc'". 
MahI' a'kwAmAtAmo'i'yagwini' ca'cki'megu "a'ce'gi'cegi'cig''''. 
A'gwi ke'kanetA'magwini wa'wene'ki nata'winon"''. Wa'wene'ki 
nata'winoni ke'kane'tAmagvve, Anemimeguna"sa'eti''kago''^'. Ni'- 
naiyo keke'ka'nemipwA; a'kwlye"sa'"iyani ni''kan a'na"sa'Agi; 

35kawAgi'^tca''inA kenawa'pwA ni"kan'"'". I'ni "ami"cikegi wa'- 
wene'ki ke'ka'netAmagwe nata'winon"''. MA'ni wi'nA* ca'"cki 
mA'ni tA'ci'A'pane'moyagwe ni'ya"^'", agwi' wi'menwi'tciga'- 
yagwin°'". MAni'^tca" ami'cimenwa'wiyagwe, mA'ni, A'ckuta'- 
wi'ci'gutagi wa"ci''oyagw a'tA'swiw&'pAgin aya'pwawimeguwi'se'- 

40 niyag ''""". I'ni 'ami'cimenwa'wiyag'''"''". Kageya''megu ma'netow 
anaweniwitA ketemi'nonwa's'^'. Ki'pene''tca" u'wIya'A ketemi'- 
naguf*', ke'tenA'megu manetowatA'ge'si'sA, i'ni "ami"cawi'^tc'". 
UwIya'A'ga'i ka'ka'netAgA wi"na'imi'ke'*tci'"iwa''tci, cime'cana- 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE AVHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 65 

woman come, but do not do anything to your wives," they were told. 
And then it is said they started for home. The things which were 
given them were kettles, hangers, knives, axes, flint rocks, matches, 
pipes, dippers, dishes, spoons, spears, and arrowheads. That was 
what they were given. 



Then in four days only the older women (came). Large tin buck- 
ets, small kettles, and some tine dry goods were given them to cover 
themselves. They were told just how to make them. The other 
things were combs, beads. "You are to use these things in the 
sacred pack as ornaments," they were told. 

They thought the tiny bells were very cunning. In fact they were 
given all kinds of finery. "You take this to her," they who had 
young maidens were told. Those who had young maidens were 
known. They did not beg him, they were given freely. The women 
continued to carry great loads. When they met again and again 
they were very glad. 

"The manitou knows me," some of them said, among themselves. 
"That is the reason you see this," they said to their children. 

Then women began searching for him (the trader). It is said they 
would say that they were going for things to make strips of bark- 
strings; they would be looking for that same thing. And the women 
who said, "The manitou knows me" — those who said that wore out 
their clothes in a short time. They never succeeded in finding 
their trader. 

Then that young man called all the people together : ' ' This is tlie 
object of me calling you together," he said to them. "I have never 
known anyone to be spoken of, ' this is what happened to liim.' When 
you are sick you merely keep lying down.^ You do not know good 
medicine. If you had known good medicine, you could be curing 
and making each other well. You know me; when I was a boy I 
cured my friend ; you now still see my f I'iend. That is how it would 
be if you had known good medicine. Now if you just depend upon 
me, you will not do well. This verily is the way you could do 
rightly, by blacking your faces with charcoal every day before you 
eat. That is the way you could do good. Finally the being called 
a manitou would take pity on you. Verily, if anyone is blessed, 
surely he would have the power of a manitou, that would happen to 
him. If anyone gets a knowledge to be a successful doctor, why he 

3 A trifle free. 



66 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

'ku"megu Aneminana''sa'a's uwi<'tcime'to'sane'niwAn°''. Me'ce'- 
megu a'ci'meguke'kanetA'mugwan"'', ini'megu ami'"cawi''tc''. 
AwitAga" I'ni pwawi'i''cawi"s'*^". I'ni''tca' I'nini menwipemate'- 
"siwen i'nin a'itAmo'nAgo"®". MA'niyu keki'cimlne'guwawA 
Swi'nA ma'neto'"*^', ke'tcinawe'megu ke'nawapw a'cina'gu'si^tc'', 
keke'ka'nemiipw ii'mi'iicnagw"'. A'pene"^tca"megu kete'cimlne'- 
guwa"^-^'. Ka''kAmi pwawipA'cipA"citowawanemi'3'ago'-^', "awA"s 
ami'cimamine'nago"'*^". M6''tci mA'n a'ne'cki'nawag''^^'^', ki'ki'ki'- 
megu ketapi'e'guwa"'^'. Ini'^tca'' ii'ca'wiyagwe pe'ki'megu kl- 

lOketeketeminagu'wawAgi ma'netowAg''''. Iniku'yatug a'cimlne'- 
iiago'A wi'i'ca'wiyag'""''," 'a"ina'*tci me'to'sa ne'niwa'''. Ninaiyo'- 
ni wI'wapimA'kAta'wIyan"''," a"ina''tc''. 

Po'simegu'pepe'tc a'uwi'ge'i'^tc'". WAninawepi'megon a'uwi'- 
giwa'^tci ma'kAta'witcig u'ckina'wa'Ag''''. Na'kA'''tci' ca'cke'- 

15 "si'Agi WAninawe"megu a'tA'cimA'kA'ta'\vIwa''tc''. 

Niine'cwa'cigAtA'swa'wa'ime ki'ci'ciinamA"kAta'wiwa''tc''. I 'nip 
a'wapiketemina'gowa''tc'' mane'towAn ane'ine'^tcin"'". Kegime'si'- 
megu 'a'ketemina'gowa''tcima'netowa"''. Ananeme'gowa''tc a'netA 
mr'caniAni wi'i'ci"towa''tc'". Ininime'gopi 'awA"sa'ciketeminago'- 

20w^a^tcini mi"camAni wi"A'ci"t6wa'^tc''. O'ni neguti meta'wiweni, 
6'ni negu'ti wl'na'iinrke''tci'"iwa''tc'', o'ni negu'ti wabAno'- 
wiwcn"''. O'ni negu'ti tcaginA'ckwi 'a'i"ciketemi'nagu''tc''. 
Na'tA'swi'megu nenu"swimi'camAn a'inaneme'gowa''tc'". 

O'ni wi'n u'cki'nawii' a'ketemi'nagu''tci ne'nu'soni wape'cke'si'- 

25ni''tcin°''. A"kiwiwe'negu''tc''. Mene'tA'megu'u wata'pAnig a"i- 
'ciwe'negu'^tc''. A'ci'megu''tc'', "Na'i, no'ci"i, mA'ni "a'ketemi'- 
nonan""', a'ke'tciwawi'capena''toyAni klya'"''. I'ni wa/'^tci, 
'no'ci'se'mA m'ketemi'nawa''*",' i'ni wa'''tc inane'menan"''. Ini- 
''tca'"megu ketena'nemene wl'i'nenan"''. Ke'tenA''tca''megu ii'ci'- 

SOmenani i'ni wi'ica'wiyan"^''. A'gwi, 'a'cg nl'i'cima''-^',' inaneme'- 
nanin"''. A'cawaiye'megu aya'pwawimegu"Apeno'"iyAni, . ki'nA 
keke'kix'nemene wi'ketemi'nonani; keya'ApA''tca"kinA, no'ci"''. 
MAni''tca''i keme'to'saneni'wiwcni, kenan6''tci'megutapA'ku'ck 
a'kwapyayagi'megu; ki'A'kwime'to'sa'nenlwi; agvvi no'tA wi'A- 

35 'kwime'to'saneniwi'yAnin"''. Ini'megu ji'i'nenani wi'i'cinie'to- 
'siineni'wiyAn"''. Cewii'nA mA'n aniine'menani ki'ki'cagu''tcime- 
gutepaf^'. Kiyawi'megu "a'pi'tcitepa'tAmAn i'ni wi'A'pi'tiine'- 
tAmAni mi'ca'm™''; ki'i'ci'te'katAga," i'ni wi'wi''tci'"toyAn°'". 
Ki'wi'^tci''tuyu. Ape'ta'wApA'kwe na"ina'i A'pena^'tci wi'Ago'- 

40toyAn°''. Cewa'n A'pena'^tci'megu ki'AnemimAma'tot"". Ne'ki'- 
megu wi'me'to'saneni'wAnan i'ni ne'"ki wi'AnemimAmato'tAmAn"'". 
MAni'^tca"i me''ten6'i wi'menwatotAma'tiyAn i'ca'wiwen"'". Ki'n 
a'me'to'saneni'wiyAni, mA'ni wiVa'wenetw anane'menan"'". 
MA'ni wi'mi'"ckawa'wi 'anane'menani, wiga''siyAn'''". NinA'megu 



MiCHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 67 

would be curing each one of his fellow people. Any knowledge he 
may have, he can simply practice it. He could not but do that. 
That is what I call a good life for you. Now the manitou has given 
you this, you personally saw how he looked, and you know that he 
gave it to you. He has given you things equally ahke. If you had 
not thought me a liar in the first place, he woidd have contrived to 
have given you more. Even now, when you hate him, nevertheless 
he has satisfied you. So if you do that, the manitous will continually 
bless each and every one of you. That probably was what he has 
given you to do," he told the people. "I am going to commence 
fasting myself," he told them. 



He was made to hve in a very lonely place. The young men who 
were fasting were living everywhere. And it is said the young girls 
were fasting evory^vhcre. 

After they both had been fasting eight years, then it is said they be- 
gan to be blessed by the one called a manitou. All of them were 
blessed by the manitous. Some were empowered to make sacred 
packs. And it is said more were blessed in this manner, namely, to 
make sacred packs. And one was blessed with the mystic rite, and 
one was blessed to be a successful doctor, and one to be a prophet, 
and one with the wizard rite. And one was blessed with all kinds of 
herbs and weeds. Several were thought of in regard to buffalo sacred 
packs. 

And that young man was blessed by a white buffalo. He was led 
around. First he was led east. Then he was told : " Now, my grand- 
child, I now bless you, because you have greatly starved yourself. 
That is wh}" I thought of you, 'I shall bless my grandchild.' I think 
of you just what I shall say to you. And surely I shall do just as I 
say to you. I do not think this of you: (Just for fun) I shall fool 
him by what I saj^. Long ago, before you were a child, I knew that 
I would bless you; verily that has come to pass to you, my grand- 
child. So as regards this life of yours, you shall reach just as far as 
it goes ; you shall live that long ; your life shall not end any sooner. 
As I say to you is how you shall live. But you must very much 
love the way I think of you. You must love this sacred pack just 
as much as you love your life; you are to call by that name, that with 
which you shall live. For you shall live with it. And you must 
hang it half the height of the wickiup. But always you must con- 
tinue to worship it. You must continue to worship it just as long 
as you continue to live. This kind of ceremony only is what you 
must talk well of to each other. This will be good to you, a mortal, 
what I think of you. If you are careful, the way I think of you will 



68 OBIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann.40. 

nekAiia'wIn aiyo"ke'tciniiwe netA''t"". Ini<'tca'i'nini wI'kiwAgo'- 
tdjAn a'pemi'uwIgi'yAnin"''. A'pe'nayaw aiyo''i me'to'saneni'- 
wiwen"'V' a''igu'^tc a'AckikAn6'negu''tc'". "MA'ni wi'nA kutA'- 
gi pe'tA'sAgigeno'iwi'megu, mAni'^tca" co'ckwawi'megu 'a'wa'- 
Swene'ki pematA "siwen"''. Mag\va''megu wi'nA 'a'gwi 'ane'tA 
wrAnemime'to'sane'niwitA wI'tapwa'"tAgin°''. Iya'ina"ma' A''ckA- 
''tc*', iiiugi wInA kinwa'wA ke'tenA'megu kl'ina'netap"'^"," 
a'"igu''tc a'AckikAno'negu'^tc'". 

O'ni na'kA'^tc a'kAno'negu''tci ni'co'nAmeg'''' : "Ka'tA niml'- 

lOyAnini wawAne'cka'ini'mi'kAii"''. MA'kwa'''tci kr'nim"'', ka'tA 
na'kA'^tci kAga''tcimi'yagAni kiigo" i'ci'u'wiya'*". MA'kwa''tci'- 
megu kl'mAma'tom™"'. Mamatomo'yAnima' I'nini Ma'i'ca'wiyAni' 
cega"megu;_ki'tA'ciketema'gita"'''; ka'tA wa'wutAmi mi'ketlwitii'- 
'a'kAn°''. A'gwi ku^'tc a'cimya'neteg inane'menan"''. I'n aminlga- 

15nimIgi''tonani inrke'tlweni, me'to"'tc A'cAmoto'iiAga' i'kwil'''*". 
I'nugi Wi'nA mA'ni nie'to''tci'megu nawikiwa'^tcawi kete'cika/'tci'- 
"sa'en"**"; a'gwiga'VinA; Inigii'Vin a'cime'nwikeg anane'menan"''/' 
a"ine'*tc'". 

O'ni ne'so'nAmeg a'kAno'negu''tc'': "Na'i', a'pene'megu 'ina'- 

20nemi me'to'sa'neniwA, Apeno''A, i'kwii'wA, mete'mo'a'A, nenl'wA, 
pA'ci'to'a'A. A'pene'megu kl'inane'mawAg''''. 'Tani'na'i men- 
wime'to'sane'niwite,' kfinane'inawAg''''. Ini'megu ca"cki wl'ina'- 
nemA^tc''. Ka'tA, 'ta'ninA niA'nA ne'po'it"',' ka'tA "inanemi'- 
yagA"''. A'pencgu''megu ketenaneme'guwawA ma'neto"'''. Agu- 

25wi'ya'Ani 'A"tenawi 'inane'ma''tcin°''; 'ini'megu 'a"pen a'ina'ne- 
ma'^tc''. Me'to'<'tci keni"ci ncgu'ti neni'wA negu'ti'kwa™*'. Ini'- 
megu 'a''pen a'pi'tcigigi ki'yawa"''. Agu'wiya'a kl'ki'kigenigin 
u'wiya^''. "Ini'megu a'cipemate"siyag'""''. Agu'wiya'Ake'kane'tA- 
gin na'ina"i wi'ne'po'i''tc''. 

30 " A'pe,ne"megu kete'eipema'te'sip^*'. I'ni wrmenwi''tca''megu- 
me'to'saneni'wiyiigwe ke'gime's A'semi'e'tlyiig''^'''. I'ni 'ami'ci'- 
megutiipi'e'tiyag''''*'. Iniga''i wi'u^'tciketeketemi'nonagwe ma'- 
net5"*", wi'tAtAgwi'megu'A'semi'e'tiyagwe me'to'saneni'wiwen"''. 
Ini'^tca'i ki"i''cawip"*; ki'A'se'mi"etipwA tcagi'megu ki'i'cite'ka'- 

35netip^-*'. A"pena''tci''tca''megu ki'Anwa'^tcin6''kAtatip'''^'. Ini'- 
megu wi'i'ca'wiyagwe ne"ki wi'Anemime'to'saneniwa'kyanl'- 
wigwan"''. Agwiga''aiyo'"nina 'A'kw'iineme'nanini mA'ni 'A''ki 
'a'ne'ciwAna'''tcagwan°''. 

'"I'ni niA'ni wI'mawikiwa'gwAtiig'''",' ii'inane'menan"''. Inina'- 

40 'tea' wi'nii'wiyage tA'swiketemi'nonag'"''. A'gw aiyo'ni'na'i 
me'ce'na'i wi'inaneme'nagin"''," a''igu''tc''. 

O'ni nyawo'nAmeg ii'kAn6'negu''tc'': " Ini''tca"no'ei''i, wi'na'- 
gwaiyAg''"^', wi'kiwipiti'giiyAgw a'pemi'Api'wa<'tcini keme'come'- 
'swawAg''*'. Iniga'megu wi'pemiiia''tci'moyAni mamatomo'yAnin"''; 

45no"ci"i, pyano'," a"ine''tc'". 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 69 

be powerful. I place my own word in here. Accordingly you shall 
hang those (objects) wherever you live. Life is here on one side," 
he was told wliere he was first addressed. "This other way is rather 
risky, but this way is a smooth way to good life. Perhaps some who 
shall live will not beheve in it. That will be a long time from now, 
but at present you will think it to be true," he was told when he 
first was addressed. 

And then again he was addressed the second time: ''Do not dance 
evilly when you are dancing. Dance quietly, and do not in any way 
jest with anyone. Worship quietly. Wlien you are worshipping, do 
that only; think humblj^; do not uselessly think of flirting with each 
other. For I did not think of you in a wicked way. (If I had 
thought of you in a wicked way), then I would have given you this 
flirting the first thing, just as if I used a woman to bait you. (It will 
be) just as if I had pushed you into a lonely place; but it is not 
really so; the way I think of you is good," he was told. 

Then he was addressed the third time: ''Now, think^of the people 
all alike, children, women, old women, men, and old men.'' You are 
to think of them all alike. ' I wish he (or she) would live righteous,' 
is what you must think of them. Think of them only that way. Do 
not think of them, 'I wish this one would die.' The manitou thinks 
of you all alike. He thinks of no one less; he thinks of them all 
alike. (It is) just as if you two were only one man and only one 
woman. Your lives are all of the same extent. No person's life is 
more than another's. You all have the same lives. No one knows 
when he will die. 

"You are all to live the same. Now you will truly have good lives 
if you help each other. That is the way you could make each other 
happy. That is why the manitou will bless each one of j^ou, so you 
could collectively help each others' lives. So you must do that way; 
you are to help each other and to call each other in all kinds of ways. 
Verily always feel willing to do for each other. This you are to do as 
long as the people's earth remains. I do not think of you here a short 
time only, but I think of you to the destruction of this earth. 

"'That is where this will lie,' ^ is the thought I have for you. At 
that time you shall see us, as many as we are who have blessed you. 
For we do not think of you only for a short time," he was told. 

And then he was addressed the fourth time. "Now, my grand- 
child, we must depart, and go and enter (the dwelling places) of your 
grandfathers. You must make your speeches in worship in suc- 
cession; my grandchild, come," he was told. 

* SinguJars grammatically. 

6 A literal rendition of the Indian; I do not understand what is Intended. 



70 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

A'pe'nowa''tc'". A'a"pA"wa<'tciga'wIn°*'. A'wapiwe'negu''tc'"; 
mene'tA'megu wata'pAnig i"ci'wene''tc'', a'inane'ti"su''tc''. lya" 
a'pya''^tci namA''kAmig''''. 

"Ma'ha, ko'ci'se'menaiiA neketemi'nawa"'*'. MA'ni wa"'tci 
Sketemi'nawAg'"'", a'klwipapAgi'sApe'na'to''tc uwi'ya'"''. I'ni 
wa''^tciketemino"tawAg'''". 'Na'i', Ni'ketemi'nawa^*",' 'I'ni 
'a'cita''ayan°'V' a"ini''tc''. "Neki'ci<'tca'a''tci'mo'a\v a'ina'- 
nemAg'''". Neki'citapitA'senwikA'nona^'^". 'Inugi'megu mA'n 
a'pya'''tcipe'noyage, nysiwe'nwi ki'cikA'nonAg''''. KlnA'^'tca'i 

10 ketA'ckimegupiti'gAtone mA'nA ko'ci'se'menan"'*. Ini'megu 
a'kiwipIti'gADAg a'pemi'uwigl'yagini, cewa'nA mAni'megu wl- 
'pemina'^'tcimu^tci klga'nu'*tcin°''. MAni'megu wi'pcmina"ckanig 
ukA'nawin"''. Ini'^tca' a'inii'nemAg a'kl'ciwitA'monani ko'ci'se'- 
menanA," a''ini'^tci kiwiwene'gu'^tcin°'". O'nip a'pemitcitA'pini'^tc'' 

15"i'nini krcikAn6'neme''tc'". 

"Aiyo" a'ina'sAmA'piyani pya"*tcinAna"Apin''"'," a''igu'^tc''. 
I'nip ite'p a'mawinAna"Api''tc''. Negute'nw a'na"citepa'negu'*tc''. 
Krcina'citepa'negu'^tc'', "Na'r,no'ci"i,i'ni mA'na'kl'ciketemi'nonag 
a'manetd'wiyag''®'; 'a'ki'cimegukege"ckAmAni nekAnawi'nenan"''. 

20Ki'pe'seta'wi''tca''', ni'nAna'i ki'kete'minon"®'. MA'ni kerne' to- 
siineni'wiwen i'niwi"i"cigen''''. MAnA'megu a'ina'neme'k'', Ini'megu 
na"nmA wi'inane'menan'"'. MA'ni 'a'wawi'tAmo'ki mAma'tom6n°'", 
mi''tca''megu wl'u'^tcita'pwayani' segi'kane'tAmAni niA'ni mAma'- 
tomon°'". I'niwi'u'^tcipwawina'i'a'kwAmAtA'mowa''tcime'to'sane'ni- 

25wAg''''. Agwiga'klnAkii'sipi neguti'megu, a'ci''soyagw i'n aniineme'- 
nAg5we wi'u''tciwi'"cigyagi kl'yawa'^''. Cewa'nA mA'nA'A "A'ckuta'- 
nii'siw A'pena''tci'megu kra''tci'mo'apw a'ci'ga'inAtawanetAmo'- 
wiigwan"''. 'I'nA wI''pe'cig\viwitA'mawag''""^'. I'nA wl'pwawiwa- 
wAnata'wAget^'. A'pena^'tci'meg i'ni wi'u''tcike"kanetA'monag ana- 

30 ''tcimo'wagwan"'", a'ciga'inAtotAmawI'wagwan"''. O' kwIye'nA 
menwa'wiyagw a'mAmato'moyag'"'''''', 'ke''tenA,' nri'cita''apen°'^'. 
Tani'*tca"i na" nina'nA wl'r'ca'wiyag"^"', 'agwi,' wl' inane 'menagwe? 
A'gwi. 'Ke"tenA wI'nA'^tca' netapwa'ta'gunanAg'^''. Pe'cig^vi'tci - 
gawAg"""'. A'inAge'^tci'megu na'nagA''tc i'ca'wiwAg'''',' kl'inaneme'- 

35nepen°*'. Ini''tca"i wru'*tcina''nInanA tapwa"tonag''®". 'Agwi- 
l^na'gwA,' a'gwi wi'iniineme'nepenA'megu na"nlnan'''^'. 'O' niA'ni 
wI'nA pwawi'-a'ci'menag-i'ca'wiyagwe, i'ni wi'n a'gwi. Me'ce'- 
megu'u ki'tA''cime"to'''tcime'ckwime"ckwigIta'wowap"'^'. MAniga'- 



MiciiELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 71 

They started forth. He was only dreaming this. The other began 
to lead him; that he was first led east, he thought of himself. Yonder 
he was come to the underworld. 

"I have blessed this, our grandchild. This was why I blessed him, 
because he made himself stumble around from hunger. That was 
why I pitied him from his cries. So I thought, 'Now I am going to 
bless him,'" he said. ''Verily I have told him what I think of him. 
I have spoken to him the correct number of times. I have just now 
spoken to him four times, when we started to come here. I have first 
brought our grandchild in for you. Just now I am taking him in 
your (pi.) places in order, but he must make his speeches in the 
festivals of his gens." His word shall be just like this.' Now I 
have told you what I think of our grandchild," said the one by whom 
he was taken around. And then he sat down after he was addressed. 

"Come here and sit down in front of me," he was told. Then he 
went there and sat down. He was stroked on his head once. After 
he had been stroked on the head, "Now, my grandchild, we the 
manitous have now blessed you; you have now in you our word. 
You must truly listen to me, for I will bless you also. Your life will 
be just like this. Just what this one thinks of you, the same will I 
thmk of you too. As he instructs you in this religion, just so I will 
tell the truth if you really believe in this religion. And from that 
(your fellow) people ^vill never be sick. We think of not only j^ourself , 
but all of you in the gens so that your lives will be strong. But you 
must always tell this Spirit of Fire whatever you want. He is the 
one to whom you shall tell the truth. He is the one whom we shall 
not deceive. We shall always know from him whatever you say, 
and whatever you ask us. And if you have done exactly right in 
your worship, then we shall think 'that's right.' How pray could 
we think 'no' ? No. 'To be sure, they believed us. They did the 
right thing. They did just exactly as we instructed them,' that is 
what we will think of you. So that is why we will believe j-ou. 
We can't possibly feel 'no' toward you. Of course if you do not do 
as we tell you, that wouldn't do. Then you would be practically 

6 The festivals of the gentes are the most important existing ceremonies of the Fox Indians. Wilham 
Jones renders '' gens festivals" by "feast of theclan(s) " in his Fox Texts, and his Notes on the Fox Indians 
(J. A. F., xxiv: 220) and by " feast ceremony of (his) clan" in his ICickapoo Tales. The objection to these 
renditions is that they suggest that the Foxes and Ivickapoos are organized in clans, whereas they are 
organized in gentes. The translation "feast dance of the clans" (article Kickapoo in the Handbook of 
American Indians) is open to the same objection, and also to another in that it assumes that dancing is an 
integral and essential part of the ceremony , whereas in winters the festivals occur, but there is no dancing. 
"Feast festival" (article i^ox in the Handbook) is a clumsy alliterative translation. The term " gens festi- 
val" (article Sauk in the Handbook) is the most satisfactory one. In previous publications I have used 
"clan feast," which is based on Jones's " feast of the clan," 

I Free translation: "shall go through" literally. 



72 ORIGIIJ OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

'ninanA wrwito''kAmag ana'nemenag'^''', I'n a'ci'menan"'". Cawa- 
wlna'mA'n Inugi niA'n a'cini'cl''iyage mA'nA keme'co'me's*', a'gwi 
m5'"tci negu'tetune wi'tapwa'yagin"''. MAnA"kA'*tca"i wa'^tcina'- 
wA'kvv'agi wawigi'tA namA"kAmig'''", I'nA'^tca'i wi'tA'ci'a'^tciino'e'- 
5negi wi'me'nogan"'". I'm wi'ta'pwayag''<'V' "a'i'neme''tci wita'- 
ma''tcin°'". "I'ni, no'cI"i, a'ci'menani 'I'n a'cikA'cki''t6yAni wi'i'- 
nemin""'. Krtape"si"*tca" I'nug a'ketemi'nonag'"'"," a'i'negu'^tci 
nenota"^". 

A'pe'nowa''tc ite'p a"awaHc'". 

10 'O'n lya" a"pyawa''tci wa'^tcmawA''kwanig a'piti'gawa'^tc''. 
A'a**tci'moni''tci katemina'gu''tcin°'': "Na'i', mA'nA kepyii'tone 
katemi'nawAg''*". Ma'di wii'^tciketemi'nawAg'^'', a'kiwipapAgi- 
'sApe'na'to'^tc u'wiya'^''. I'ni wa'^tci ketemi'nawAg""'". A'ci^tca'- 
'megumenwi'genig i'n a'ina'nemAg""''. MAnA"kA''tca'"i wata'- 

15pAnig api'm'^tcin Ane'ki''i ki'cikAno'neg''"'*'. A'cimegumenwi'- 
genig i'n a'cikAno'.negu''tc''. Ai'yo'tca'"na'kA''tci ke'kA'A'mawapi 
wi"pyanAg''''. I'ni wa'^tci'pyanAg''''. Iniga/'megu wi'pemi'cikc- 
'ka'unAgwe na"ina'i wapimAmAma'tomuf'. KinA'na'i ki"tape'si 
wapimAma'tomug'^'V' a''i'neme'^tc''. I'nip'', "Anc'kl''iyatuge 

20^vi'kA'nonAgi na''nin°*". Mame'ci"kA ku''tci keki'cimegutcagikAno- 
'kyamu'pwAtuge ketenanetcigA'nenan"'". Na'i', aiyo'i pya'^tci- 
nAna'Apin""', no'ci"'', a''ina'sAmA'piyan'''"" a''igu'^tc''. lya" 
a'mawinAna"Api''tc''. Na'kA'megu ne'gutenw a'na'citepa'negu- 
''tc'". "Na'i', no'ci'"'", mA'ni wi'i'nenan a'inenani'megu, ki"i'cawi. 

25Ki'pe"seta\vi. KA'ciwa'wi'towi tA'cina'yana'yapi'menan"'". Na'i', 
mAni''tca''i wi'i'nenan"'': mA'nA ke'me'co" a'A'ckimegukete'mino'k 
iina'nene'ki, i'n anane'menan"''. 'O'ni na''kA''*tci wata'pAnig 
apit*', iina'neme'k'', I'nimcgu na'ni'n ayl'g anane'menan'"''. 
Icewa'wInA mA'n a'gw AtotA'mo'kmi pepigwa"ck'^''. Ini''tca''i 

30wi'ai'yoyAni mamatomo'yAnin"''. Ni'a'ku'tapenA'ga'i, ninA'ca'- 
winA ni''a'ku"t^'. Cewa'nA me'teno''megu mamatomo'yAnin I'nini 
wi'Anwawa''tAmAn°''. Agwi<'tca''i wi'wawAnaneme'nfmini klga'- 
noyAnin"''. I'ni nina'nA ma'netowA tA"sw a'cI'nAmeg a'ku'- 
'tAmag'"'". A'gw A'ce'megu a'ku'tA'magin"'', ncmawA<*tci'megu- 

35"ume'numenu''tapen°*'. I'ni," a''ina''tc'', "wa^'tcitAgwi'Inike- 
'kA'A'monani pepigwa"ck''''. A'pena''tci'*tca"megii ki'nigani'Anwa'- 
wji'tapw i'ni mamatomo'yagwin"''. Mo"tci ke'tcine pyaiyag''^', 
ni'to'klme'gwipen'"^'. lO'pe'seto'nepe'nA'^tca" a'cimAmatomi'ya- 
giin"''. Ini''tca"megu ii'i'nenan"''. TA'swi' cewa'win"*', no'ci"i, 

40 mA'n i'cine'si''iyag'"'', a'gwi wi'tapwa'yagin°''. MA'ni 'a'i'nenag 
ini'mcgu ni'n a'cikA"cki''toyani pcpigwa"ckw a'AtotA'monan"''. 
Ma'tca"i wa'^tcipAgi'ci'monigi wa'wigit I'nA wi'mawiwa'pAmeg"''''^",'' 
a'i'gowa''tc''. 



MiCHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 73 

wasting your time in your words. We shall take part in what we 
think of you, that is what I say to you. But if now I and this your 
grandfather are the only two, why not even a mouthful of our words 
would be true. There is one who lives yonder South under the earth, 
that is where you will be told whatever you will be told. Then what 
we say will be true," -the one who accompanied him was told. " That 
is all I have to say to you, my grandchild, that is all I am able to 
tell you. You must feel glad now that we have blessed you," the 
Indian was told. 

Then (the Indian and the other) went away, going to that place. 

Now, when they reached the place at South, they entered. The 
one by whom he had been blessed related: "Now, I have brought 
you this person, whom I have blessed. The reason I blessed him 
was because he made himself hungry and stumbled around from 
hunger. That is why I blessed him. I thought of him only in a 
good way. He has been spoken to a little b}^ the one who is in the 
East. Only that which is good has been spoken to him. He was 
told that I would bring him here. That was why I brought him. 
And so he will name us all in succession when he begins to worship. 
You will also be glad when he worships you," he was told. Then, it 
is said, " I suppose I'll have to speak to him a little myself. Probably 
you have all given out our instructions and thoughts. Now, my 
grandchild, come here and sit down in front of me," he (the one 
blessed) was told. Then he went there and sat down. Again he 
was stroked on the head once. "Now my grandchild, what I am 
going to say to you, whatever I may say to you, do that. You will 
listen to me. It makes no difference if I am repeating the words 
again. Now this, verily, is what I am going to say to you: in what- 
ever way this your grandfather thought of you when he first blessed 
you, the same I think of you. And again the one who is East, what 
he thinks of you, I also will think the same of you. But he has not 
given you a flute to possess. That truly is what you must use when 
you are worshipping. We shall hear it plainly, at least I shall hear 
it plainly myself. But you must only sound it when you are wor- 
shipping. Not at all shall I be deceived in my mind when you hold 
a gens festival. All of us who are called manitous are very sensitive 
in hearing it. We are not just merely sensitive in hearing it, but we 
always love especially to hear it. That," he said to him, "is why I 
mention the flute also to you. Always sound it first when you are 
worshipping. Even if we are sleeping very hard, it will awake us. 
Verily we shall listen to you when you pray to us. That is all I 
have to say to you. But, my grandchild, if there are only three of 
us, what we say to you will not prove to be true. That is all that I 
am able to tell in giving you the flute to own. You must go over 
to see the one who lives in the West," they were told. 
3500°— 25t 6 



74 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. to. 

A"pe'nowa''tc'". lya' na'kA'^tc a''pyawa''tc a'nAna''Api''tc''. 
A'a'^tci'moni'^tci katemina'gu''tcin°'': "Na'i', niA'nA neketemi'- 
nawawA ko'ci'se'menan"^'. MA'ni wa'''tci ketemi'nawAg'''', 'a'ki- 
wipapAgi'sApe'na'to'^tc u'-wTya""'". I'ni wa''^tci ketemi'nawAg''''. 
5MAnA''kA'^tca" witta'pAnig api'ni''tcini ki'cikAkA'noneg'"'*'. O'ni 
na'kA'''tci wa''tcinawA''kwanig api'ni'^tcini ■ ki'cikAkA'noneg'"'^'. 
O'n aiyo" na"k a"pyanAg'''','' a"ini''tc''. "Aiyo''megu 'ayl'gi 
wi'sA'"kowa**tci mamato'mu''tcm°'', i'ni wa'^tc aiyo"i pya'^toipiti'- 
gAnAg''''," a"ina''tc''. "'O'Va'na'ini," a"mi''tc'". "Na'i', no"ci"i, 

10aiy6"i pya''tcinAna'"Apm°"'," a"ina'^tc'', "ana'sAmA'piyan"'','' 
a"mi''tc'". "Ki'wi'tAm6n''^V' a"igu'*tc''. A'na'citepa'negu'^tci 
ne'guten"'". Ea'ci'na'kA''tcina'citepa'negu'*tc'', "Na'i', no'ci'"i, 
wi'cigi'megu'u ke'ki'no'sunu wi'i'nenan"''. Kii''tci''i me'to'''tci' 
cigwA"ckwi'egi ni'tAne'tunamu wi'"ineno'wanan'''', 'ini'megu 

15a"cimigi iya"ma'i,' ka'tA 'i"cita"a'kAn''''. Ci' nepe'ki ku^tci'megu 
m'n"^', 'A''tca"megumegu ke'nawun°®'. Na'i', no'ci"i, mA'nA 
keme'c5" a'A'ckikete'mino'k'', ketatotAmagStu'ge me'to'sjineni'- 
wiwen"'', wi'tapA'ku"ckAmAn a'lcwa'ku'natagi keme'to'saneni'- 
wiwen°'", wi'pwawinotAkiwag\vA''soyAn°'' ; mamA'ka'^tci'megu 

20a''kwagi kepemate''siwen i'ni wi'A'kwime'to'saneni'wiyAn"''. 
I'nij'iitug a'cime'ki mii'me'ci'k ii'ckikete'mino'k*". Ini'^tca'nii- 
"ninA ketena'nemen jineme'k''. Ini'megu iinane'menan"''. 'O' niA'n 
na''kA! 'MA'kwa'^'tci ki'me'to'sa'neniwi,' mame'ci'kA'megu kete'- 
gotug''®'. Ini'megu ketena'nemen""'. O'ni mAma'tomon"'". 'Ma'- 

25"kwa''^tci ki'mAma'tom""'. MA'kwa'''tci mAmato'moyAn'"'", i'n 
a'cinAtota'so'wAnan i'ni wi'i"cikeg'''',' mame'ci'k^v'megu kete'- 
gotug'^". Ini'^tca" ketena'nemen""'. Mamatomo'yAnini ki'Ana'- 
"onawA tawa''igAn°*'. I'ua wi'n^no'ta'wAget*'. ' "A'ko'k''-^',' 
ki'i'cite'"kana''*\ TA'se'nwi pyii'^tci'i'ciine'ki ma'A'gi pya^'tci- 

■SOpitiga'wagwig'^'', — I'ni ketenanemene ni'n"'^'. Agwiga" ini'gi 
negu'ta' a'cimyane'tenig inane'me'kin"'' ; a'ci'megumenwigenig in 
ana'neme'ki na"winwawA; wi'i'cimenwime'to'saneni'wiyAn"'', i'n 
a'"cime"k''. Kewiga''tci^tca'"megupe'setawa'petug''"'. 'Ki"\viga''tci- 
pe''setawi,' ketegotuga'i'giyo""'. Ini''tca''megu wi'i'ca'wiyan 

35a'ine'nugwan°'". Ni'naiyo mA'n a'inenani'megu i'ni wi'i'ca'- 
wiyan"''. Agwinegu'ta'i wi'ina"ckagini nekA'nawin"''. Tcagenwi'- 
megu'u neta'pwapen a'ci'cikA.nd'nenag''"". Kegime'siku'^tci'mAni 
nemanetowite'ka"sopen"*'. Waguna'^'tca'i na'i' wi'u'^tcipA'cito'- 
wayag''"' ? Agwiga''i wi'wawAnaneminA'megini kago" i'ciwAni'- 

40menag''"'. Ni'ke'kanemegunanA'megu nagAtawaneml'yAmetA na- 
'nina'n"-*^"," a''igu'*tc''. "Ciiwa'winA, no'ci''i, mA'ni tA'ci''iyag'"'", 
a'gwi wi'tapwa'yaginima"tca'''. Wa''tcike"siyagi wawigi't i'na' 
wi'mawiwa'pAmag" 
a"ini<*tc'". 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 75 

And they started out. When they likewise came there he sat 
down. The one by whom he had been blessed related: " Now, I have 
blessed this our grandchild. This was why I blessed him, because 
he made himself so hungry that he stumbled around from hunger, 
that was why I blessed him. The one who is in the East has spoken 
to him also. And the one who is in the South has also spoken to 
him. And then I brought hun here," he said. "He will also make 
his words reach here when he worships, that was why I brought him 
in here," he said to him. "O yes," the other answered. "Now, my 
grandchild come and sit down," he said to him, "in front of me," he 
said. "I will give you instructions," he was told. He was stroked 
once on the head. After he had been stroked on the head again, 
"Now, my grandchild, bear in mind well what I am to say to you. 
Although whatever I say to you is second-handed, do not think, 
'that is just what I was told j'onder.' Lo! I am another being and 
this is the first time I ever saw you. Now, my grandchild, when 
your grandfather here first blessed you, he probably instructed you 
about life, so that you might reach the end of your life as long as it 
has been set; so you would not be lying around in a pile (i. e., dead) 
before that time; surely the length of your life is how long you shall 
live. That very likely was what he promised you who first blessed 
you. Now I also think of you as he thought of you. Precisely so 
do I think of you. And this too! Probably he told you, 'lead a 
quiet life.' I think of you the same way. And then in regard to 
religion. 'Worship quietly. If you worship quietly, then what- 
soever you pray for will be so,' I suppose he said to you. I 
think of 3'ou the same way. When you worship, fill up a di'um. 
That is what we will hear. You will call it a 'kettle.' In as many 
ways as they (to whose dwellings) you have come and entered 
have instructed you, in so many I think of you. None of them 
think of you in an evil way; they think of you in a good way; that 
you would have a good life, thus did they instruct you. Probably 
you will listen very carefully to them. ' You are to listen very care- 
fully to me,' they probably told you. I shall do just the same as 
they told you. This which I say to you is what I shall do. Not a 
word of mine will in any way be useless.* We shall tell the truth in 
every way we have spoken to you. For all of us are called manitous. 
Why then should we lie? We shall not fail to be known if we lie 
to you in any way. The one who watches us will know about us," 
he was told. "But my grandchild if we are this many, our sayings 
will not be true. So you must go to see the one who lives in the 
North," he said. "That is all I can speak to you," he said. 

9 Literally "will not tall nny indefinite spot." 



76 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

A'nfi'gwawa'^tc Ite'pi wa^'tcike'sl'yanig''''. lya'' a''pyawa'*tc 
a'pemipiti'gawa^tc''. A'A'pi'A'pini''tci ne'niwAn°''. A'IvAiio'- 
"kyani'^tc ume'co'me'sAn"''. "Na'I', niA'nA'A ko'ci'se'menanA 
neketemi'nawawA. Ma'di wa'^tciketcmi'nawAg'''', a'kiwipapAgi- 
5 "sApe'na" 10*^10 u'wiyawi, i'ni wa''*tci kAbo'twe ketemi'nawAg''''. 
Wata'pAiiigi'^tca" api'ni<*tcmi ki'dkAkA'Doneg"™*'. O'n au'Hcino'- 
wiyag 6'ni wa'*tcinawA''kwanig api'Di^tcin a'kAn5'negu''tc'". 
O'ni na'kA'^tci wa'^tcipAgi'ci'monig api'ni''tcin ii'kl'cikAkAno'- 
negu''tc''. 'OniHca'' aiyo'' a'pya'tonan"''." 

10 "'0' wa'na'Ini. A'ce'megu. Na'i', no'cI'"i, aiyo" ana'sAmA'- 
piyani pya'^tcinAna"Apin°"V' a''ine''tc'". A"na'citepa'negu''tc'". 
Ki'ciiiito'tagu<'tc'', "Na'i', no"cI"i, mA'ni keke'ka'netA pya^'tci- 
'cimagAni'wiyAni mAiiAga" a"cime"k'", a'ckimegukAkA'none'k*". 
AwitA'mAiii, 'a'cikrcagu''tcimya'netcgi ketena'nemen''«V awitA' 

15'inene's'^'. Na'i' niA'ni kiwutA'pena''toyAni kiya'w a'ketemagane'- 
tAinan"''. I'ni'^tca na"ninA ketena'nemene \\'i'tapA'ku''clvAmAni'- 
mcgu keme'to'saneni'wiwen"'". I'ni ki"i"caw a'Anemime'to'sane'- 
niwi^'tci me'to'sa'neni'w'"'". KinAna''i 'ini'megu wi'Anemi'cime'to- 
'saneni'wiyAn"'', wi'cegane'tAmAne mA'ni niA'n if cime'nugwan"'". 

20Kago''iy6winA'megu kekiwi'u''tcipemiwe'negop''. A'gwi tcAga'"egin 
iinane'menag'"''. Pe'ki'mcgu me'ca'w anane'naenag'"''. NakA'^'tci 
nina'n a'gwi po'sipApiwimaneto'a'i'yagin"'", tA'swi'mAni pemipitiga'- 
wiyag''*''. Ke'tcinawe'megu netAno'kane'gunanA wi'nA mawA'^tci 
niga'nike.'tcima'neto'"'^'. Neki'ci''tca''mAni'atotAma'gopenA wi'inii- 

25'inanc'mcnag''®'. I'ni'^tca ketena'nemene mA'n anil'neme'ki 
niganikA'none'k'^'. Ta"sw a''cime'ki, ini'megu ketena'nemene 
na"nin"*'. Na'kA' ma'Agi pya"^tcipitiga'wAtcigi tA''swi_pya'^tci'i'- 
'ci"i"cime"k'', ini'megu na''ninA ketena'nemen°«". 'O'ni ni'nA 
wi'liAiio'nenan"''. MAmatomi'yagini mA'n a'gvvi' ca''cki wi'ne'to'- 

30ne'to'mApi'yAnin°''. Ki'nAgAinu'meg''"'. Wi'neno''tonag i'ni wi'u- 
''tcinAgA'moyAn"''. MA'ni ki'ke'ka'net^', tA'se'nwi pya'^tcipiti'- 
gayAn"'': i'ni \\'i'pemi'cikAna'\viyAn°''. A'pena''*tc a'cipiti'giiyAni 
ma'A'ni nige'e'nanAn ini'megu vvi'i'citetepike'ka'i'gayAn"''. 
Agwiga" niigAmo'yAnin A'ce'megu wi'tA'cimi"cami''ca^tcinaga'- 

35yAnin°'', me'to''*tci ki"mai''"". Ki"mawit o'tawen°'', ketotii'- 
wenwa'''". Me's5tawe'megu ki'^tcime'to'sane'niwaw ina" wi'mawi- 
jj^j^gkwA<_ Agwi' kinwawA ne'ci''kA wi'mawiti'so'yagwin"''. Ki'witA'- 
magdpi nAgA'monAn"''. Ininiga''megu kc'gime'si nina'nA nenAgA- 
mone'nanAn"''. 

40 "Ke''tenA''tca" neta'pi'egwA niA'nA mene'tA'megu kii'none'k 
a'kete'mino'k''. Ini''tca''megu na"nin a'cikA''ckikAn6'nenan°''. 
Agwi' kutAgi pai'ya'ki'^tc a'gwi wi'inaneme'nanin"''. MAni'megu 
na''ninA me'to'saneni'wiwen"''. Cawa'winA mA'ni tA"ciyag'"'", 
a'gwi wi'tapwa'yagin"''. I'm^'tca' A"pemeg a'pit*", mame'^'tcina' 

45i'n a"Api''tci wi'kA'none'k''. Ki'cinAkAno'ne'k i'ni wi'ta'pwayag'"'" 
Ma'u ini wi'i'ca'wiyAn"'', tA"swaiyAg a'ci'menan"" 
wi'wapI'wenA"*tci ko'ci'se'menan itep''," a"ini''tc''. 



MiciiELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 77 

They started out, going North. When they arrived there they 
started to walk in. A man was sitting there all the time. Then his 
grandfather spoke. ''Now, I have blessed this our grandcliild. 
Tills is why I blessed him, because he made hmiself so hungry that he 
was stumlaling around from hunger, that was the reason I soon 
blessed him. He has been spoken to by the one who sits in the East. 
Then when we came out from there ho was spoken to by the one who 
sits in the South. And then also he has been spoken to by the one 
who sits in the West. Then verily I brought him here to you." 

"O, yes. Well, I'll try. Now, my grandchild, come here and sit 
down in front of me," he was told. Then he was stroked on the head. 
After he had been thus treated, "Now, my grandchild, you know 
what all you have been told before, what he said to you, who first 
spoke to you. They would not ever say to you, 'I think of you in 
the wickedest way.' Now this was the reason, by going around hungry 
you have made your body wretched. So I also think that you will 
reach your span of life. You are to do exactly as the people who are 
to live on. You also will live on the same way, if you tliink strongly 
of whatever this one Biay say to you. Because there is some reason 
for your being taken around. What we thought of you is no small 
tiling. It is a big thing which we think of you. And besides we are 
no small manitous, as many of us as you have visited in turn. The 
leading and the great manitou has personally hired us. We have 
already been instructed the way each one of us must bless you. So I 
bless you the same way as he blessed you who first spoke to you. 
As much as lie said to you, the same way I also think of you. And 
what as many of them whom you have visited on the way said to you, 
I bless you the same way. And now I shall speak to you myself. 
When you are worshipping us, you must not only be sitting there 
solemnly. You must sing. We shall be able to hear you from where 
you will sing. You know the number of times you have gone to and 
entered (dwellings) ; in your speech you must refer to them in order. 
^Vlways when you go in, you must name these our wickiups in a circle. 
And when you are singing, you are not to be singing sportively; you 
must be same as wailing. You will be wailing over the town, your 
town. All your fellow people are they over whom you will be wailing 
there. You must not be wailing over yourselves alone. You will 
be instructed in the songs. Antl the songs are all ours. 

"To be sure this first one who spoke to you and blessed you has 
pleased me. That is all I am able to speak to you myself. I can not 
bless you any other way. My (blessing) will be also in regard to life. 
But if we are this many, what we say will not be true. So, he who is 
above, is the last one to speak to you as he is seated there. After he 
speaks to you then wo shall all tell the truth. Then you must do this 
way, as many things as I have told you; and now you may go and 
take our grandchild there," he said. 



78 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. j-nn. 40. 

O'ni na"kA'''tc a"a'wAne''tc A"pemeg'''". Iya"megu a"pyanc'^tci 
kl"cegugi wawene'tenig a''natAg''''. O'n a'a'wini''tci nigane'si'- 
ni'^tcin a'piti'gAne''tc''. O'ni katemina'gu''tcin a"kAn5''kyani''tc'', 
a'nemA''sowa''tciga''". 
5 "Na'I', mAHA'ku'i neketemi'nawfi"'^'. MAnigii"! wa^'tciketemi'- 
nawAg'''', a'kiwipapAgi'sApe'na't6''tc u'wiyawi. Wa'''tci ketemi'- 
nawAg''''. Ki'ci''tca''ikAkA'noncgwA wata'pAnig api'ni''tcin°'". 
Anane'megu''tci witAinag''"'''. O'ni wa''tcinawA''k\vanigi te'pina'i 
namA''kAmig api'ni'^tci ayi'gi ki'cikAkA'noneg'"'*' : anane'megu''tci 

lOkrciwI'tAmag''"''^', wratotA'magu''tci pe'pigwii'ck"''. O'ni na'kA'- 
''tci wii/'tcipAgi'ci'monig api'ni''tcin ayigi'megu kl'ci'a'^tci'mo'egw 
anane'megu'*tc'', wT'i"ci"atotA'magu''tc anwawa"so'An'''', mamato'- 
mu'^tcini wi'Ana''ona''tc'". O'ni wa'*tcike'"siyag api'ni'^tcin ayi'gi 
wi'tAniagwA wi'unAgA'inoni''tc anane'megu'^tc''. Na'i', "Ini''tca'- 

15'na'kA''tc aiyo'' a'pya'tonani mA'nA ko'ci'se'menan"*^'. 

"O' 'I'nip a'kAno'negu<'tc", "Na'i', pltiga'g'^"'. Po"k aiy6"i 
nl'wItA'mawa"*'/' a"ini'^tc''. "Na'i', 'aiy6''megu 'ano'sAmA'piyani 
pya''tcinAna'"Apin°"'," a"ine'*tc"''. Ne'notaw Ite'p ii'mawinAna'- 
'Api^'tc''. A'se'kwatA'mini^tc u'ne'kAn"''. Ki'ci'se'kAvatA'mini''tc'', 

20" Na'I', no'ci"'', negAvi"'"," ^a"igu"tc'". "'Neme'co'''^', n6"s*',' 
iniine'min""'," a''igu'*tc''. Ini'megu a'ci'ta'a''tc'', "Neme'co', 
Ano"''so," 'a'ci'ta'a^'tc''. 

"Aiy6''Inugi ke'tA'tone nekA'nawini niA'ni nena'mowcn"'', 
mAni'megu na"kInA kenii'mowen"''. Ini'megu 'a'tcawI'cAvina'- 

25 inoyAg''™''' ; keketemino'ne<*tca" na''nin'"^'. Ini'megu 'ji"pen 
iinane'menani mA'ni tA''swi me'to'saneni'wiyAn"^'', A'cewii'nA ki'uA 
kemawA'^tci'megu 'Ane'kl''''; cewa'nA wi''me'cawi mawA'^tc 
anane'menan"''," a'"igu''tc''. 

"Me'ce'megu ki'tA'cime'tome'to'saneniwi'te'ka'su niA'ni ma'ne- 

.30'seg a'a'wiyan"'', cewii'nA kAbo'twe wi'pyawA wi'wA'niwA'- 
nime'k*", 'ninAga''megu 'ayi'gi ni'wawiteg'''"'',' wi'i'ci'ta'il""''. 
Ina"A'sami'megu WAniwA'nime'k"', i'ni wi'ki'ckA'tA'wAgi ninA'- 
meg""''. Ke"tcinawc ni'kl'ckA'tA'wa""'. Ini'^tca'^i wi'wi'cega'nctA- 
man A'sa'me'sif'. MA'ni ketA'ki'mi ki'\vAni'g\vaneg''"'''. Ki'ci<'tca'- 

SS'megupS'nika'go'a'neme'k"', i'ni ni'nA wi'wawi"ciyAn"'', a'gwi wi- 
"wAni'kii'yanini mA'ni ni'nA nAna''c a'ci'menan"''. MA'nige wi'i'- 
'cawi^'tc''. Wi'neno''tagwiwA tca'gi kiigo'''". A'gwi wi'ku'- 
'tAgin"''. Cewa'nA ni'nA mA'ni a'gwi nAna"c aiyo" a'a'wiyani 
wi''pya"'tcin°''. I'ni wi'i''cawi''tc''. Iya''megu _ wi'tAne'nego"'*'. 

40Negute'nwi ki'ckA'tA'wAg i'ni wi'sa'gi'Ag''''." I'nip a''igu<»tc''. 
"I'ni negute'nw anane'menan"''. O'ni na'kA''*tci mAmatomo'- 
}^\nini mA'kAva'<'tci wi'mAma'toniA'^tci katemin6"kig'''', ninAgti'- 
'meg iiyi'g''''. A'gwi ni'nA kiigo" i'cimAtagwineniwI'yanin aiyo" 



MICHF.LSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 79 

Then also he was taken above. When he was brought yonder to 
the firmament, he saw a beautiful sight. Then he was taken in to 
where the leading one was. Then the one by whom he had been 
blessed spoke, and they were stantling. 

''Now I have blessed this being. This is why I blessed him, 
because he made himself so hungry that he would stumble around 
from hunger. So I took pity on him. He has been spoken to by the 
one who is in East. He has been told by him how he is thought of. 
And then the one who is directly below in the South has spoken to 
him; he has been instructed how he was thought of, that he would 
be instructed about the flute. And then again the one who is in 
West has also told him how he is blessed, how he would be instructed 
about the drum, and to 1111 the drmn when he is worshiping. And 
he has also been told by the one who is in the North how he was blessed 
to possess songs. So now I have brought this our grandchild here 
to you." 

Then, it is said, he was addressed, "Come in. I shall instruct him 
fully here," he said, "Now come over and sit down right in front of 
me," he was told. Then the Indian went over there and sat down. 
Then the other spat on his hands. After spitting on them, " Now, my 
grandcliild, my son," he was told, "Think of me as 'my grandfather, 
my father,' " he was told. And he thought that way, " O my grand- 
father! my father!" he thought. 

" At this place I now place my word and my breath in you, and this 
is your breath also. We both breathe alike; so I bless you myself. 
I have the same thought alike toward all of you who are mortal, but 
toward you a little more; but my thought toward you will be the 
largest," he was told. 

"You shall continually be called mortal on this island ° where you 
are, but some time soon some one will come who Avili fool you, and 
' he even will mention me,' so he will think. If he fools you too much, 
then you must think of me, and I shall whip him myself. I shall 
personally whip him. Then you must think of it stronglj^ if he gets 
too bad. He will take your land away from you secretly. If he has 
ceased to care anything for you, then you must call me, for I will 
never forget this myself, what I have promised you. This is what he 
will do. Everything will be able to understand- him. He will not 
fear it. But he will never be able to come where I am. That is 
what will happen to him. He will be fooling over there. When I 
whip him once then I will frighten him." It is said that was what he 
was told. "That is one way I bless you. And then when j^ou wor- 
ship you are to worship cjuietly the beings who have blessed you, 
including myself. I am in no way a sportive person here where I am. 

' That is, this earth. A common Algonquin and Siouan conception. 



80 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [etu. ann. 40. 

a'a'wiyan"''. Me'to'^tci'megu a'pe'^tciki'wa'^tca™'', 'i'ni ni'n a"ca'- 
wiyan"'', no'ci'"'', negwi'"'",'' a'"igu'^tc''. "Me'cemego'na' u'wiya'A 
nenl'w 6'n i'kwa'wA neni'wA pwawike'ka'nemat i''kwawAn a'cigi'- 
nigwan°'', I'nA wfnene'ka'ne.mAg''^'. I'kwa'wA na"kA'''tci pwawike- 
5'ka'nematA ne'niwAn a'cigi'nigwan"'', i'nA wi'nene'ka'ncmAg''*'. 
'Agwiga'ma'mA'ka''tci wi"na'imA'kA'tawi''tc''. Ini'megu i'ni wi'i'- 
'cigcnwi me'to'sane'niwi^tc u'wiya" i'"cawit"''. I'ni ncgu't a'cike- 
'kanctAmwi''enan''''. O'ni na''kA''tci ki'giinoni ke''tcn iina'- 
netAg"^*', wigate'tAgA'megu, pwawi'megu kago'"i na'i''ciwapA'- 

lO'cotAg"''', I'ni na'lvA'^tc''. 

"NinA'ku^'tci ke'"tenA neki'ci'a'*tcimo"awAgi ni'*tcimane'towAgi 
wf inii' inane 'menag'™*^', a'A'sami'megukwa'"kwatcatcA'kwa'kunAm5'- 
iiAgowc kerne' to'saneniwi'wenwa''''', cewa'n I'ni wI'u'^tci'AtA'mawa- 
''tc''. M6''tci ni'n agwi'negut Ane'ckenA'^tci'gawen A'ckunAinati'- 

15so'yanin A'sama'"*^". Ketcagimegukln\vawAkegApi''cnepw a'mc'to- 
"saneni\vite"ka"soyag'''^'''. Iniga''i wii'^tcikcgApi'e'nAgo^™', a'cIwV- 
''tci'k.v'mawate maniA'ka'^tci'megu ki'ciketemi'nonage, i'ni wi'wiipi- 
'AtA'ma'tig'''^''', agwipi'ne'c''. 'Agwiga''ayigi ■wi'kemoteme'na- 
gwin"''. A'taniwi'megu wi'i"cawi''tci kemote'menag''"'''. Mo''tci 

20ni'nA kemoteme'nAgow A'ta'sAku"megu ami'ca'wiyan"''. "I'ni 
na'kA^'tc a'ci'menan"''. Ki'wi'cigi''tca''megunene'ka'net anii'- 
ncme'ki niA'nA'A keme'co'me's"^', a'cki'megu'ukete'mino'k*'. 
'A^ine'ld'Hca'' ki'cikAno'ne'kig ini'megu wi'i'ca'wiyAn"'". Wi'tii'- 
pwawAg''"', agu'wiya'A nAna'w iniine'me'kin"''. A'ci'megumen- 

25wigenig i'n iina'neme'k''. A'ciga'imyane'tenig in ana'neme'k"', 
mame'ci''k awi't aiyo'"i pyiinene'na'^', i'n ami'ca'wiyAn"''. 

"I'nugi wi'nA mA'n aiyo"mAni Ivena'w a'a'wiyan"'', 'ii'cinagu'- 
"siyani keke'kii'nem"''. Na'kA'mAni' sAnAgi'nagwAtw aiyo" 
u'wiyii'A wi'"pya''tc''. Aiy6'tca''mAni me'cena" kenat a'kete'- 

SOinino'ki inaA'gi mane'tovvAg''''. I'ni wa'^tcina'tAmAn aiy5"mAn 
a'a'wiyan"'". Me'ten6"megu anemiketemi'nagut ano'kane'mAgi' 
i'n wi'Anemi'natAg aiyo'"i mA'n a'cinagwA'tenig''''. Kegyii'ki'- 
nawa^'tc'": kimo"'tci katemi'nagutA wawAne'cka'imane'towAn"'', 
ina'megu'u wi'tA'ciki'co'wanegw a'gw aiyo''''. 

35 "Kinaiyo'mAn ini'megu 'ii'ki'co'wane'ki ma'A'gi kiitemi'no- 
'kig''"'. I'n a"ki'ca'wiwa''tc''. A'gwi na'nagA'^tci kago''i wi'i'ne- 
"kin u'wiyii''^', i'ni mA'n a'ki'citepikA'none'ki mane'towAg'''". 
Ketetepu'sa''egop i'na'i ketA''kimwa'"'. Aiyo'" ini mawA''tcA'kow 
ini'megu mame'^tcina'' a'a'pe^'tciki'cowa'neneg'''". Ini'*tca'"i wi'wi- 

40"ciginene"kane'tAmAn a'i'neneg'''', ininayapi wi''aiyAn''''. Ku'^tca- 
winu'megu mA'kwa'''tci wi'me'to'sancni'wiyAn"''; a'pene'megu 
"ina'netin""", iya'"'"; wi'^tci'so'mAtcig i'n anegi'kwi'menan"'". 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 81 

It is just as if it were lonely all the time, that is how I am, my grand- 
child, my son," he was told. "Any man or woman, a man who 
knows nothing of the nature of a woman, he is the one I shall think of. 
And a woman who knows nothing of the nature of a man, she is the 
one I shall think of. Truly the person does not have to fast. If any 
one does so, in that way he (or she) will have a long life. That is one 
tiling I let you know. And then also the one who believes the gens 
festival to be true, one who listens to it carefully, one who never talks 
foolishly against it, that is another thing. 

"It is true that I have instructed my fellow manitous how they 
shall bless you, because I have set j'our lives entirely too short, but 
that is how they will get smoke. Even myself, I have not even 
saved one pipe full of tobacco for myself. I have placed it all for 
you who are called mortals. That is why I set it with you, so that 
later on if they want to smoke, after tlie}^ have truly blessed you, 
then you are to begin to let them smoke — and not without reason. 
And also they will not steal it from you. There is something which 
will happen to any who steals it from you. Even if I should steal it 
from you there would be something that would happen to me. This 
also I promise you. So you must remember very firmly the way 
this your grandfather has blessed you, the one who first blessed you. 
Wliatever those who have spoken to you say to you, do that. They 
will tell the truth, no one thinks of you as being in a distant lonely 
spot. They think of you only the way it is go(jd. If they thought 
of you in a wicked way, probably you would not have been brought 
here, that is what would have happened to you. 

"To-day you now see mo here where I am, you loiow how I look. 
And it looks difficult for anyone to come here. It is possible for you 
to see this place because these manitous have blessed j^ou. That is 
why you see this place where I am. Only the one who in the future 
is blessed by those whom I have hired will see what this place, here, 
looks like. You may know it by this sign; if any one is secretly 
blessed by an evil manitou, he will be decided upon right there, not 
here. 

"Just so those who have blessed you, have decided upon you. 
Now they are done. No one will say anytliing (more) to you, 
because the required number of manitous have spoken to you. 
You have been made to walk around your earth (down there) . Right 
here is the last time thay have decided upon you. So now you 
think very hard of what they have told you, for now you must go. 
Try to lead a quiet life; think of each other equally alike, yonder; I 
speak to the people of your gens in common. 



82 OEIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. jo. 

"I'nugi mA'n a'kAno'nenan inigifi wrA'ci''toyAni mi'ca'm™'', 
ini'megu wi'inegi'"kwitepane'tA niAn"'"; a'gwi ki'nA ne"ci"kA 
wrtepanetA'mAn"''. A'pene'megu ki'ina'net i'ni mi"cam"''. 
Me'ce'megu wi'^tci'so'mAt'^', 'ni'ki'giinu,' ine''k''', 'kAkAta'ni'iyu,' 
5ki''ina''*'. A'gwi ma'mA'ka'^tci kinA'megu ne"ci"kA wi'tA'ciklkl- 
gano'yAnin"'', me'ce'megu 'i'n a'ciwI'^tci'"s6mAt I'nanA tapa'- 
netAg'"^'; mo'tci'megii 'Ape'no'a'A na'ina" a'ki"eiwi'"swi'e'^tc 
Ini'meg a'ki'citepa'netAg''''. I'n a"cikeg'''". I'ni na'kA'^'tc a'gwi 
wi'tA'ci'u'pwi'u'pwi'eti'yAnin"'', kA"ci kl'nAtAwa'netAmawa'wAku- 

lO'^tci kl'^tcime'to'sa'neniwA wi'menwime'to'sane'niwi'^tc''; i'ni wl'u- 
■^tci'i'ci'tci'gayAn"''. Ini'*tca''i tA'"sutun a'i'nenan"'"," a'"igu''tc''. 

A'ni'si'wene''tc''. Aiya'pAmi pya'ya'^te. a''to'kl''tc''. A tAgwagi'- 
nigiga"ip a'"nepa^tc'' kwiyenA'megu men5'kA'minig a"t6'kl<'tc''. 
Me'ce'megu a'inepA'ckA'tenig a'pc'ckunawA'kAmigA'tenigi pe'ckuna'- 

15wi'An°''. Me'tego'n n^'kiv'^'tc ii'wa'pAtAg'''", a'tcagimeguki'cipya'- 
yanig''''. 

A"Api"Api''tc''. Keya'ApAga''i ne'kA'nipeponw i'na'i nepanepa'- 
te'^'. A'ke'gi'cigi kenwa''c''. A'Api'"Api<'tc'', "Citcltcii' wii'na'i! 
Ne'kA'nipeponw aiyo''i ne'cegi'cine'petug'"''," a'i'ci'ta'a'^tc''. 

20A'aiya'ci'megmvi'gowi''tc''. A'pemipA''scgwi'*tc a'kiwi'megu'aiya- 
"c6'ga'sa''tc a'nenya"pi"cig''''. A''nagwa''tc a'uwl'ge'i'^tc''. Ca"cki 
mAte'pw a'A"tanig''''. O'ni a''penu'*tci wigiya'pi'klg'^''. 'lya" 
a''pya''tc ume'so'tana' ii'uwi'gini'^tc a'wi''seni''tc''. A"nepa'^tc''. 

Inipi na'kA'''tc iniyane'meg a'pytinu'tagu'^tc'". "Keke'kiineta'- 

25petuge wi'unAgAmonl'yAnini uAgA'monAni na'kA'''tci kAnakAna'- 
wlnAn"''," a''igu'*tc''. "Kraiya''tcimo'e'ne'^tca" upya'ni wi'un- 
AgAmoni'yAnin"''. Ma'naton"'' : i'niwa''*tcupyani'nenan'''". Upyani'- 
megu ki'a''tci'mo'ene m6"tci mA'ni mi'cam™''. Upyani'megona'i 
ki'a'*tci'mo'ene na'kA''^tci wi'i''cawi'*tci nimi't*'. MAmatomowikA'- 

SOnawin upyani'megu kl'wI'tAmon"'''. I'ni pya'^tci'ina'^tcimo'- 
'enan°''. 'A'te'tcima"tca'i wawite'pi na'kA'<'tci ki'mawi'uwi'g''''. 
"A'gwi wi'nA kemA'tepug'^'', A'te'tcima''megu. I'ni pe"ki wi'witA'- 
monan""'. I'ni' ca"cki pya''tcina''tcimo''enan°''," a''igu'^tc''. 
"Ini'megu 'i''cawin a'i'nenan"'','' a''igu'*tc'". "'Au'," "a"ina''tc'". 

35 0'nip a'na'gwani'^tc''. 

Keya'ApAga''ipi nya'wuguni nepa'te'"^'. Ini ne''ki pemipi'anwi'- 
'kagu"*tc ume'so'tana'i wi't6"ki"egu''tc''. Ca'cki'meg a"namu'*tc 
a'tA'cina'sawa'neme''tc''. 

Ki'ci'to'kldtc'', "Keke'ka'net'''?" a'"ine''tc''. "A'a^'e," a"ina<^tc 

40ugyan''''. A'A'eA'megu<'tc'", 'a'a<'tci'mo'a''t,c 6"sAn'''' : "Na'i', 
'Ano''s''', kra'mlwe'ci mame''^tcina''"; A'te"tci ni'mawi'uwi'g"'," 
a'"ina'*tc''. 

"'Au'," a'^gu'itc'". 



MICUELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DAXCE. 83 

" When I speak to you now, then you must make the sacred pack, 
and you will own it in common; you shall not possess it alone. All 
of you must think of this sacred pack alike. If any one of the con- 
freres of yom- gens should say to you, ' I am goiaig to hold a gens 
festival,' you are to tell him, 'it will be very good if you do.' You 
should certaijdy not hold all the gens festivals yourseh, for anyone 
who is a fellow-member of j^our gens is an owner of it; even a little 
baby after it is named has then an ownership in it. That is how it is. 
And you must not make merry over it with each other, because you 
will deshe your fellow people to have healthj- lives; that is the object 
of you doing thus. That is the mouthful I say to you," he was told. 

Then he was taken down. Wlien he returned, then he woke up. 
It was in the fall when he went to sleep, and it was precisely in spring 
when he woke up. The grass was up quite a bit, and the flowers 
were in bloom and in abundance. When he looked at the trees, they 
all had already leaved out. 

He was sitting there all the time. It is a fact that he had been 
asleep all whiter long. For a long time the mark showed where he 
had lain. As he was sitting there, ''O, how strange! I must have 
been lying here all winter long," he thought. He was yet sleepy. 
When he got up, he staggered aroiuid as he was weak from lying 
down. Ho went away to his little home. Oidy the frame of a 
wickiup was there. Then he went to the village. When he got to 
his parents' home he ate a meal. Ho went to sleep. 

And then it is said again the same one came to him. ''I suppose 
you know what songs you are to have, and the speeches," he was 
told. '■ I shall instruct you slowly what songs you are to have. 
They are many; that is wh}' I tell you slowly. Besides I shall 
instruct you very slowly even in regard to this sacred pack. Very 
slowly shall I likewise instruct you on what a dancer is to do. The 
speech of worship I shall instruct you slowly. That is what I came 
to tell you. So you go and live in a far off and lonely place again 
for a while. Not at the frame of your wicldup, at some other far 
away lonel_y place. Then I shall instruct you fully. That is all I 
came to tell you," he was told. '' Do just as I tell you," he was told. 
"All right," he said to him. Then (the visitor) went away. 

It is a fact, it is said, that he had slept for four days. That length 
of time had his parents failed to waken him. He was only known 
to be alive by breathing. 

After he woke up, '"Ai-e you conscious?" he was told. '"Yes," he 
said to his mother. He was fed, and he told his father: "Now, 
father, move me away for the last time; I shall live in some far away 
lonely place," he said to him. 

"All right," he was told. 



84 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [ETH. ANN. 40. 

"O'nip A'te'tcimii" a'mawitA"cA'"ciga''tci neni'^'*^'. Ki"ciga''tc 
a'na'gwani''tc ugwi''swawAn°''. 'O'ni neni'w a'nawA'^tci'Ane'A'- 
nemvi'^tc''. Krki"ci'A'ne'A'nenwI"*tc ite'p a'"a''tc ugwi'sA'n a'uwl'- 
gini'^tc''. "lya" a''pya<'tc. Aga'mete a'nAna"Api''tc''. "Waguna''''," 
5'a''igu<'tc ugwi'sA'n"''. "Na'i', negwa"i, kepya'*tci'ku"inAtawike- 
'ka'nemen a"cike"tenAketemino'nugwani mane'towAg'''", "o' wi'pwa- 
wigii'ikete'mino'ki tanA'ka"ka'i krci'meguketemino'nAgi'^tc*'. 
Pwawiki'ciketemino'nug^\'ani ni'nA ki'mi'nen'"'', negwi'''", nema'- 
netom"''. Ke'tenAga"megu "I'n i''cigen™'Y' a''igu''tc''. 

10 "0' wa'na'i'ni, 'An6"s^', krci'a''tcimo''iyAni ni'ke'ka'net a'cike'- 
nugwan"'". A'wIga'^tci'awi'wAnani nl'"a™''. MaxiI' ku''tca'cige'no"igi 
nlya""'"; me"t6''tca'pe'e kago" a'A'"ci'tog'''', ke''ki'top'', ini'^tca' 
a'ca'wiyan"''," a"ina''tc o'sA'n"''. 

'O'nip'", "Na'i' ponilnetA'nu wT'ina'neme'k a'cita'a'gwa'igi 

ISmane'towAg'^''," a"igu''tc'". "MAni''tca"i mA'nA kl'^tci'megu- 
'Aneno'tanaiiA wi'na'ne'sAg''"''' ; agwiga" u'wiya'A wi'kA'ckike- 
"kaneme'nAgwin"''. Ini^'tca" anane'menani wi'i'ca'wiyAii"'". 'Mc- 
'ceti'g''''' ! Negwi"sA tA'ciku'tAgu'tAgA'pena"t5'iw u'wiya"^'',' 
ketena'nemen""'. Ma'dI wi'nA ni'n ananeta'gu'siyan"'', i'ca'- 

20wiyAn°'', a'gwi ma'mA'ka'^tc I'tA'ciku'tAkutAgA'pena'to'yAnini 
kl'ya'''". Cii'cki'megu, 'inA'ni pa'mAnA wri''cawi'^*V ina/ncmAf^', 
mi'megu 'ami"cawi''tc''. 'Maii i'nina'i wi'ponina'tAmAni \va'- 
'sayawi,' ina'nemAt ini'megu "ami'"cikeg''''. Ninaiyu'ga'i ketugwi'- 
'semen"^'," a'"ina'*tc. u'gwi'sAii"'". 

25 'O'ni ki'cmi'igu''tc 6'sA'n"'', "NaT', Ano's"", a'gwi me'ce'na'i 
wI'nA'kume'nanin ananetagu"siyAn°''. Ni'nA, 'An6"s''', inugi'- 
megu ponimi'n""'. KinA'mcgu kotA'ci'aiylgwam I'ni wi'i'ca'- 
wiyAn"''. Ni'nAga"'', An6"se, kutA'gi netena'nemeg^\'A ma'- 
neto"^^", agwiga''ninA wru''tcikago'i"i'cimyanane'menan°''. MA'ni 

SOwI'n ana'nemi''tc'', mI"camAni wrA'ci'"toyan°'', I'n ana'nemi'^tc''. 
MAnigii" inane'mite''^', ''Au',' i'ci'yiiga'A'megu wl'n"*'. MA'ni 
wI'nA ni'nA kutAgi'megu ayl'gi netenaneta'gu's'*. MAniga"megu 
ayi'gi netenaneta'gu'si wi'witA'mawig''''. Neki'ciwinA'megu- 
"cigA'A'magop'', 'A'gwi,' ne'tcgop''. AwitAga''mAni na''ina'i 

35'a''tcimo"enegi mA'ni niganiki''ci'totA niiwi'yagAp*'," a"ina''tc 
o'sA'n"''. "MA'nima" A''k I'nA menwi'genigi niine'ka'netAg''*"; 
'agwi'kilgo' i'cimamya''ckanig ano'i'nowa''tc'". I'n a'i'nenan"''," 
a'"ina''tc''. 

A'po'nimegu''tc a'pemino'winidtc''. 

40 Pe'ku'tanig 6'n a'pyanu'tagu'^tc ume'c6'me"sAn°'". 'O'n a'ku- 
"•tciya'ta'e'^tc a'Api'Api'nite""'. A'ki'cagu''tci'megumya'ciyagwA'- 
tenig'"''. "I'n a'pi'tcine'ckinagAnI'wini''tci katemina'gu''tcini 
k6"s*', agwi'nAmAni kag6''megu i'cimenwiya'gWA'kin"''. 'Kemya'- 
'ciyat*" 'I'll a'ciya'gu'si''tci na"ina'ini ki"ce''ckAgin°''. Menwato'- 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 85 

Then it is said the man went to a lonel_v far off place to build. 
After he was done then their son went away. Then the man stopped 
to bathe for a long time. After he bathed for a long time he went 
over to where their son lived. When he came there, he sat do-«Ti 
opposite him. "What is it," he was told by his son. "Now my 
son, I came to find out, to know, if you have really been blessed by 
the manitous, or if they had not blessed you, or if they had already 
blessed you. If they have not already blessed you, I shall give you, 
my son, my mystic power. Surely indeed it is that way," he was 
told. 

"O, yes, father, after you have told me, I will know how it is. 
Whatever you have carefully used, I shall use. This is the way of my 
life; just as when we make some thing, we must start it, that is the 
way I am," he told his father. 

And then, it is said, "Now cease to think of in whatever way the 
manitous planned to bless you," he was told. ''This is it; that we 
should kill our own fellow-Indians; and no one will ever be able to 
find us out. That verily is what I want j'ou to do. 'Well, I declare! 
My son is making himself suffer hunger all the time,' I think of you. 
But if you do the way I have been blessed, you would not have to 
make yourself suffer frightfully l)y hunger all the time. If you only 
think of anyone, 'let this happen to him,' the same would happen to 
him. 'You will cease to see daylight at this time,' if you think of 
(anyone), that surely would happen. Besides, you are my son," he 
said to his son. 

And then after he had been told that by his father, "Now father, I 
must not agree with you in the way you arc blessed. Father, say no 
more to me. You can merely go your own best way to practice that. 
And me, father, the manitou has blessed me another way, not that I 
shall hate you in any way from it. This is what he planned for me, 
to make sacred packs, that is the way he has planned for me. If he 
had planned for me this way, I would say to him willingly 'AJl right.' 
As it is now, I have been thought of entirely another way. I have 
also been blessed to be told of this. Although I have been warned of 
it, 'No,' I was told. You would not, when you were first instructed 
in this, see the being who first made this," he said to his father. 
"The being who thinks about this earth, is what is good; there is 
not anything disturbing in whatever he says. That is what I say to 
you," he said to him. 

His father said no more to him and started to go out. 

It was night; then his grandfather came to him. Then he (his 
grandfather) let him smell where (his father) had been sitting. It 
smelled very bad indeed. "That is just how hateful the being is by 
whom your father was blessed, and it does not smell good in any way. 
'You smell evilly,' is the way he smells, after he has that (evil medicine) 



86 ORIGIN OP THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. tBTH. ANN. 40. 

tAmo'k''. Agwi kago'"megu menwige'nigin°'". MAiiimA'tA me'- 
nwigenw anane'menag'"^' ; ■agwiga''megu kiigo'' i'cimyane'tegin"'". 
'A'penawe'megu na''igen"''. Na'I', mA'ni wrAne'minA^tci wi'wi- 
'^tci'"somAtA krcimawAtagwApI'yagwin"'". 'I'ni mA'ni wi'atotA'- 
5mawA<'tc'', agwi' klmo'^tcagi'iii mA'n"'', 'anane'menag'"''. 

"'O'ni wf pe'seta'wiyan"'', wi'i'ci'i'cikAnA'wiyAni mamatomi'- 
yagin°'". 'Na'e'', A'ckutana'sl''^', nr'ka, 'AtAma'n°"', ini^'tca'- 
'yatug a"ciki'"ciine"ki ki'^tcima'netowAg'''', wi'pwawi''tca"ikago- 
'i'cikiwiwawAnetowa'tawA'^tc i'cime'nugwan"'', na'mA"ka''kin 

10aiy5"i ke'kA'Am5''ki wi'a'wiyAn"''. Ki'pe'cigwi'^tca''megu'a''tci- 
mwi'ta'wipen a'cimAmato'moyag''^". MA'ai'^tca"! nAtota''soyage 
neme'to'saneniwiwe'nenan"''. Kenwa"ci wi'me'to'saneni'wiyag''''', 
i'n a'cinAtawanetAma'wAge''tc''. Wi'nA<'tca'i wata'pAiiig iipi'tA 
maya'wimamato'mAget^'. O'ni na'kA'''tci wa''tcinawA''kwanig 

15api't i'nA na'kA'"'tci mamato'mAget iiyanlwe'megu me'to'sanenrwi- 
weni ■wi'inanemi'yAme<'tc''. Na'kA''*tci wa''tcipAgi'"cimug api'tA 
miiyawi'mAgetA mA'n a'mAmato'mAge'^tci me'to'saneni'wiwen 
a'i'cinAtawanetAma'wAge''tc''. O'ni na'kA"^tci wa'*tcike"siyag Ini'- 
megu a'cimAmato'mAge''tc api't ayaniwe'megu pemate''siweni 

20wrinanemi'yAme''tc'", a'cinAtawanetAma'wAge'^tc''; na''kA wl'n 
A'pe'niiweni wi'mamTwanetAmawryAme''tc I'n a"cinAtota''sAge''tc'". 
O'ni mA'ni ketogima'menan uto'tiiwen i'n aiyaniga''ma' a'cinAto- 
ta'"sAge''tc'', wi'menwime'to'saneni'wiiii''tc'', wI'pwawi'uwiya'Ani- 
'a'kwAmAtA'mini^'tc''. I'ni wa'*tcimAmato'mAge''tci wmwii'wA 

25namA'"kAmig iinA'pitcigi ma'netowAg'''". Na'kA'''tc Ina'g A''pemeg 
api'f^', ini'megu a'cimAmato'mAge'^tc'', ke'gime's a'me'ckine- 
'^tca'ta'wAge'^tci mA'ni negu't a'ci'"soyag'"'". Ke'gime'si wl'me- 
nwime'to'siinenr'-wiyag I'n a'cinAtota'"sAge'*tc'', wi'inanetAmawi'- 
yAme'*tci mamato'mAge'^tc'". 

30 " 'Na'kA"*tci winwa'w a'maneto'wiwa'^tc a'gwi m6"tci neguto'- 
'pwagAn A'ckunAmati'so'wa''tcin°'", in ana'^tci'mowa'^tc''. I'nugi- 
''tca'"i nene'sama'nanAn ini'megu wi' inane tAmawi'yAme''tc i'n 
a'ciwi'ca'mAge'^tc''. Wi'inanemi'yAme''tci wa'^tcinomAga'Api'- 
'inag'"'', ineniti'ge na"kA"'tci kinwa'w i"kwatig''®".' 

35 "I'ni wi'i'cikAna'wiyAni mamatomo'yAnin"''. Me'"s6tawe wi'nA 

mA'nA me'to'siine'niw Aga'watAmwA kenwa"ci wi'me'to'sane'- 

niwi<*tc''. Ke'ka'netAgi wi'A'kwime'to'saneniwi'^tc''. 'Tani'na'i 

kA'cki'awA'si'ma'i'A'kwime'to'saneni'wiyan°'V i'cita'a"sAku'"meg''"". 

"MAni''tca''megu me'teno'"amikikiwe'negwi''tc'', cewa'n a'gwi, 

40'Na'i', ni'nA kekiki'wetone kepemate''siwen"'V 'a'gwi wi"i'- 
gwi'^tcin"''. I'ni mA'n a''cikegi nina'n anane'menag''®". 



MICIIELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 87 

on (himself) . He speaks very well of it to you. There isn't anything 
good about it. But this is good, the way we bless you; it isn't evil in 
any way. It works well equally with all. Now, this is what you 
must continue to tell your fellow-clansmen '" after you are all seated 
together. Then you must explain this to them, for there isn't any 
secret about this, namely, the way we thought of you. 

"Then 3'ou must listen to me, as to how you will always make your 
speeches when you worship us. 'Now, Spirit of the Fire, take a 
smoke, for very probably that has been settled for you by your 
fellow-manitous, that you would in no way misinterpret to them 
whatever some may have told you, when they appointed you to be 
here. So you are to relate truthfully for us how we worship.- This 
verily is what we pray for, ftu- our lives. That we may live a long 
time, is what we desire from them. The one who is in the East is he 
whom we worship mainly. And then the one who is in the South is 
one we also worship that he will think of us onlj^ in regard to life. 
And the one who is in the West, is the one we mainly call, praying to 
him for life, which we desire from him. Then also we worship in the 
same way the one who is in the North to think of us only in regard to 
life, that is what we desire from him; and also, to drive away disease 
from us is what we pray to him for. And then, this town of our chief 
is what we pray mostly for, that (his people) may have good lives, 
that no one might get sick. That is the object of us worshipping the 
manitous who are seated under the earth. And that one who is up 
above, we also pray the same way to him, all of us of this one gens, 
holding our hands open to him. That all of us may have good lives 
is what we pray of them, that they may think in that way of us who 
worship them. 



" 'And the manitous themselves did not even save one pipe-full (of 
tobacco) for themselves, so they said. So at this time let them think 
the same way of our tobacco in the same way as we implore them. 
To think of us that way is why we make you sit down for a little while, 
O, ye men and ye women.' 

''That is the way you will make your speeches when you worship. 
People all over want to live a long time. They know how long they 
shall live. 'I wish I could live longer,' they would surely think. 

"This [religion] is the only thing that would guide him, but it will 
not say to him, 'I am guiding your life.' That is the way it is that 
we bless you. 

i» This translation is one of convenience, not accuracy; for tlie Fox are organized in gentes, not clans. 



88 ORIGIN or THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. leth. an.n. 40. 

"Mo'tci'megu pwawina'imA'kA'tawitA mA'n Aniwi"kAge mAma'- 
tomoiii me'cena''megu \vi'u''tcitapA'"ku'ckAmwA me'to'saneni'- 
wiwen°'". 'Wa'na'i,' i'n i'cita'a'wA ku'^tci wi'Anemimaminawi'- 
ta'al*'. O'ni kutA'g''''. MA'ni kinwa'w a"ci"soyagw a'netA 
5wrwIga''tcimAma'tomow^'^", inA'^tca" inaiiA ke'te'iiA wi'nene- 
'kane'meg^vit*'. 

"O'ni pwawi'megunene'kii'netAg''*', wi'nene'kanemegwi'iwA 
winA'megu, a'gw A'tenawi wrinaneme'gwi''tciii'^'', cewii'nA 
\vi'n5"ki'na'Iw"^*". O'ni niA'ni ke''ton a'nanetAgA wi'ci'pinaw''*". 
lOKago'' i'ci'A'pe'niiwen a'gwi wrna'iinaiya'cka'g\vi''tcin°''. Mo'- 
'tci tca'g A'peniiwe'ne'kanite me'to'sane'niwa''", wanAto'kA'megu 
wrkl'witaw™*'. "I'nanA kii'kane'megwitA mA'ni niAma'tomon"'". 
O'ni wi'nA mamato'mu''tcin"'", wi'menwiki'ci'ka'tilnlw™''; I'nanA 
wi'ka'kiine'megwit*". O'ni wapA'sa'netAg''*', mamato'mu''tcin°'", 
15 a'gw a'cimenwikrci'ka'tanig i wri'cimen\vikrcrk{lta'nigin°''. 

"Ini'megu tca'gi wi'i'ciminawa'nemA''tci kI''*tcime'to'sa'neniw''*". 

"O'ni mA'ni nmiiwA'A'mAnin"'', wrke'tcinimi'^tci'megu wi'ni'mT- 
"ko'k*'. Nyiiwe'nwi ki'ni'miwA'A'mawaw"*^". NimiwA'Ama'wA''tcini 
negu'ti w^"sayaw ini'megu i'ci'nyawen™'', "i'cinyawi'ku''tc aiyo"i 
20tA'cimanetowi-\vTgryapyaniga" pi'tig''*'. Ini'^tca'i tA'se'nwi me- 
nwinawji'mene'gi kerne' to'saneni'wiwen"'"; I'n i'ci nyawe'nwi pemi- 
tAnatotA'moneg'"'. Ini''tca''i wiu''tcinyawenwinImiwA''AmAn''''. 

" Ini'meg i'ci'nyawenwi nlmiwA'A'mawA'^tc''. Me'cemegu'wiya'A 
wi"pemi'A'pi'tega"ugwan°'', I'ni wi'pemi'A'pI'te'ga'u'^tci m5'"_tci 

25pemiwawawA'negat'='. Aguwi'yii'Ani wrmane'cime'gu''tcin°''. I'n 
6' mane'cimegu'tega'*', naiyanenwi'megu mane'ci'gamut uwiya'wi 
■wrtA'cimane"cotAm'"^', agwiga'i'nini kag6"i wi'i'cimane'ci'ma- 
■^tcin"''. 'Ite'pi wl'ine"ckanlwi wi'n upemate"siwen'''', awA^si'- 
ma'tca'i wi'A'kwipemate'si'niwAn i'nini mane'ci'ma'*tcin°'". I'ni 

30wi']''cawi''tc'". 

O'ni mA'ni mamato'miyage ■wi'pwawi'megukwa'ckwA'tAmag'"^"''. 
Wi'wigatAtAmagwe'megu kl'i"citlp^'^'. A'gwi me'ce'megu wi'wapA- 
'sAtA'miigwin"'', wi'i'cita'a'yagwin"''. Wi"wiga_'^tci'megmnl"'tci- 
yagwe wrpwawimegukwa'ckwAtAnia'gayag'''"''. Iniga''inini ma'- 

35netow a'awAtenA'mawu'^tc'', cewe'kinwaw^"^' ki'"mi''tcip''*', 
A'g^vi wI'nA Idnwa'w*"^", ki'ka'nwawAgi wfrni'^tcitcig'''". Ini'*tca''i 
wi'i'ciwItA'mawagwe wi'inAtA'mowa'^tc''. Ini'ku' i'ni wi'i'cina'wa- 
'agwe ma'nctow''*'. 

"Kwa"ck\va'ckwAtAmagwe'ga''', iya''i pyamigA'tenigi wi'wi'- 

40nyaniw"''; agwi"^tca''i wi'mi^'tci'^tcin"''. Wi'wina'netAmw"*'. I'ni 
wa'^tci 'wIgatAtAmu'g''"',' "ine'nAgow"'''. A'pena'^'tc i'n i'ca'- 
wiyag"""*', ki'tapi"apwAgu''megu. ma'net5w'^*'. A"pena"'tc i'n 
i'ca'wiyiigw i'ni wi'ketemagina'wii'ag''""'. Ki"penega"megu kete- 
magina'wa'agwe ma'netow anawe'niwif, 'ini'megu a'ckAini'megu 

45wi'Anemi'ciwi''cigyawi ki'yawaW''. Kageya''megu awA'si'mii'i^ 
ki'AnemitA'swipe'ponwap"'^" ; 'ini'nini wi'nene'kina'wa'ag'^^'''. 



SiiciiELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 89 

"If the person who does not even fast, would attend to this rehgion 
all the time, he could be able to reach (his span of) life. '0 yes, that 
is the way,' is what he will think, who will realize things. And then 
another thing. Of you who are of this gens, some will worship care- 
fully, it is they, of whom it will think. 

"And the one who does not think of it, still it will think of him too, 
it will not think less of him, but then he will die very easily. And 
the one who thinks it true will not die easily. Disease will never 
affect him. Even if all the people are stricken with disease, he will 
live there without trouble. He is the person, whom this religion 
knows. And then when he worships, it will be finished nicely; it will 
be he whom it knows. And as for the one who thinks foolishly of it, 
when he worships, it will not be finished nicely in the manner it 
should, to be finished nicely. 

"Just so you must think seriously of all yoiu- fellow-people. 

"And then when you sing for dances, they must dance very heartily, 
who are to dance for you. Sing four dancing songs for them. When 
you sing for them to dance in one day it will be only four times, 
because there were four manitou-wickiups here wliich you entered. 
Just so many times you have been pleased in regard to your hfe; 
likewise four times you were spoken to about it. That truly is why 
you are to give four dances. 

"You must only give them dances only four times. Any one 
may dance as long as he hkes, he may dance even if he does not 
know how to dance. No one will make fun of liim. If he is made 
fun of, the one who makes fun of him, instead will be making fun of 
himself, and he will not be making fun of that person in any way. 
His life wiU be transferred to him, so that person will live that much 
longer of whom he was making fun. That is what wiU happen to 
him. 

"And when you worship us, you are not to drop a bit (of the food). 
Instruct each other to eat it carefully. You are not to think of 
eating carelessly. You are to eat it up carefidly that you may not 
drop a bit. That is the thing which is handed to the manitou, but 
you shall eat it. Of course not you yourselves, but your friends are 
they who will eat it. That is the way you must tell them how to 
eat it. That is the way you will make the manitou feel (happy). 

"If you drop it when eating, when it gets there it wOl be dirty; 
verUy he will not eat it. He will think it dirty. That is why I say 
to you, 'eat it carefully.' If you always do that, you will always 
please the manitou. If you always do that you will make him feel 
sad. If, however, you make the manitou who has been named sad, 
then your lives will continually become stronger. Finally your age 
will be more ; that is when you are touching his f eehng. 
3099°— 2ot 7 



90 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. Teth. A.vN. 40. 

"Ma'netow I'n ananc'menagw i'ca'wiyag'^''*'. 'Ci', ke'tenA'^tca'- 
"megu ma'A'g Agawa'tAindgi \vrme'to'sanenI'wiwa''tc'V i'ni 
wl' inane 'menag'"'*''. MA'ni wl'n I'ni pwawi'ca'wiyag'''^''", 'Wa'na'i, 
ma'A'g A'ce'megu "ino'inowa'A'pAnig a'nene'kiinetA'mowa'^tc ume- 
S'to'sanenlwenwaw^"'";' I'ni wfi'ci'ta'a'^tci wI'nA ma'netoW'^', 
me"to'"*tci''tca" ag^vi wi'neno'to'nagwin"'', a'gwi me'to'^'tci wl'ke- 
"kanetAm6'nag\vini kcmAmato'monwaw'"''"; 'I'ni wl'i''cikeg Anenii- 
mAmAmato'moyag'^"'''. O'n i'n i'ca'wiyagw a'cimenani'meg''"', 
i'ni wi'i'cikeg''''. O'ni wI'unAgAmoni'yagwini ma'A'n°''. Ma- 

10'Aniga''megu wi'Anemi'ai}'6''aiyo'yagwini ne'ki'megu ■wi'Anemi'A- 
'ki'wigwani ma'Animc'gonin"''. Agwigii/'i kago''i wi'i'cipe'klni- 
'seto'yagwin anA'Amowanani'meg''"'. Ini'megu wi'i'cina'gayag''™'^", 
Ini'megu 'aiyani'we. Agwi'kago'i wi'i'cipe'kinin;iga'yagwin°'". 
Ai3'anlwe'megu ki'i'ci'nagap""^'. 'O' mAniga''i mi'ca'in™'', ki'no- 

15'sAno'sa'p^*'. Awa'i'mA ki'awapwA no"sAmagwe pApA'gatAg''''^'. 
I'nA wl"awag'""''. Ini'ni mawA'''tci menM'iyaina'wa''tcini ma'- 
netowAg''''. Ki'A'kA'swa'p^'^', o'ni pege''ce'ig ite'pi wi'inena'- 
'Ainiigwe wi''noteg''''. Negutiwa"sayawi' cwa"cigenwi ki"no- 
"sap"'*', 'a'gwi wi'nA klnwa'w"'^', mami'cAmo'nagwig i'nig wi'no- 

20'sAmo'nagwig'''". Wl'inagwA'piyagwe na'kA'''tci kigii'noyag'*''''', 
mawA''tci'megu tca'wine'ki wI"Apiw anwawa''igat'''. O'ni kanAkA'- 
nawit A'ckwa'yawi wi'tci'tApi^'tci wI'k^vkA'notAgA niAma'tomon"'', 
me'sota'wi wi'nA'totAgA me'to'saneni'wiweni taya'tAgwi'mcgu'u 
kepematesi'wenwawi mA'ni, na'kA'''tci wi'Anemipyato'ni''tcini 

25mAmatom6n"''. I'ni wi'atotA'mawagwe ma'netow"*", pemate'- 
'siwen°''; i'ni wi"i'ei'aiya''tci'twayag''""''. 

""O'ni nAgA'monAni wI'atotA'monan"'', cewa'nA ki'nawA'- 
''tca'^tcig'''''," a'"igu''tc''. "Pemi''tcina'wama"i kfi'ci'kl'kig'"''," 
a'"igu''tc''. 

30 A'na'gwani'^tc a't6"ki"sa''te''. Uwi'g a'tcage'cka'nigc''"'. A'pwa- 
wiga'me'gupi'uwi'ya'AnikA"ckipyaniitA'mini''tc'', ina''ipi tA'ca'kwa'- 
niwAni ne'nu'soni ku'pi''tcine'nu's6n"''. UwIya'Aga"ipi pe'mwa- 
''tcin"'', mamA'ka<'tci'megu kago" inA'tA'ug''""^'. Ku'tAmogi''tca'- 
'ip i'na' A''ci''tci wl''awa**tc''. 

35 Agwipi'megu ke'kanema'wa'^tcin a'cawi'nigwan"''. "Magwa"e 
nep6''itug'''''," a'l'yowa'^tc''; o'nipi 'ane't*', "Nenu''switug''^'," 
a'i'yowa''tc''. 

Ne'kiga"meguwi'nApipemi'a"pA'wa''tci'ninc''kipemi'A'kaw^pA'- 
megu'^tc'', I'na'i wi'n.\ pi'tig a'ta'itAne'gwameg''''. 

40 'O'nipi ki'ci'to'ki'*tc'', a'pwawimeguwi'ca'pena''tc''. 'Inaga''pin 
a'pemi'penu''tci nenu''s^*". Pe'ki''tcl'megu 'uwl'g ilAne'tenig''''. 
A''nagwa'^tc'', a'cA'kii'gwameg''''. 'Iya''pyaya''tc a'uwi'gini'^tc 
umesotana''", a'mane'cl''tagu''tc 6"sA'n"'". 



MICHELSON.] OEIGIlSr OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 91 

" That is what the manitou wants you to do. ' Well, these (people) 
really wish to live;' that is the way he will think of you. But if 
you do not do that, 'Oh well, they are merely lying when they think 
of their life;' that is what the manitou will think, just as if he shall 
never hear you, just as if he shall never know about your religion; 
that is the way it will be if you go on with your worship. And if 
you do just what I tell you, it will be thus. And then you will have 
these songs. These are the ones j^ou shall continually use just as 
long as this earth shall endure. And you are not to sing them 
differently than whatever way I sing. That is the way you must 
sing, just like that always. You are not to sing them at all differ- 
ently. Sing the same way always. And this sacred pack, you must 
always smoke it. When smoking it use those cedar leaves. That is 
what you are to use. That is the tiling the manitous love most to 
smell. Burn it, then fan the wind toward it. In one day smoke it 
eight times, not yourselves, but they who are acting as ceremonial 
attendants for you are they who will smoke it for you. And as for 
the order you shall sit in the gens festival, the drummer must sit in 
the center. And then the spokesman will sit at the end who will 
speak for things sacrificed, who shall pray for life for every one, 
your lives in general and for those who shall conduct the service. 
That is what you will speak about to him, and that is what you shall 
ask the manitou for, namely, life; that is what you will insist upon 
asking: for. 



"And I shall explain the songs to you, but you must first build 
another dwelling," he was told. "Rebuild aside from here a little 
way," he was told by him. 

Then the other went away as he suddenly awoke. His wickiup 
was all worn out. And it is said no person could ever reach it, for 
it is said at that place there was an angry buffalo. It is said that 
when anyone shot at it, he surely would be struck in some way. 
So it is said they were afraid to go near there. 

They had no idea it is said of what had become of him. "He may 
probably have died," they said among themselves; and some, "He 
must have turned into a buffalo," they said among themselves. 

It is said that just as long as he was dreaming he was guarded, 
and while he was sleeping inside there. 

And then it is said, after he woke up, he was not a bit hungry. 
The buffalo, it is said, then ran away. He found that his wickiup 
had rotted very badly. He went away, for he was weak from sleep- 
ing. When he reached where liis parents lived, his father was 
ashamed of himself toward him. 



92 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

A'a'*tci'mo'a''tc'': "Cl', pe"ki ni'kA'megu ki'cagu''*tci ke'tcinepa'- 
wanan"'','' a''ina''tc''. 

"'0' pe'ki'megu ke"tenA keke'tcinep"^'. Nina'nA wl'n a'gwi 
ke'kanemo'nagin a'nepaiyAne'e'yatug I'nip'','' a'"igu''tc''. A'pwa- 
5 wimegu'ukwlyena'"ini'*tc o'sA'n"'' . 

'O'n ugya'n"'': "'Ana''e, kInA''tca''i ki'mawi'A"cigawi pemi- 
''tcinawa'ma''','' a''ina'*tc ugya'n"'". "'Au'," a''igu''tc'". A'mawi- 
"A'ci'giini'^tc''. Ki'ci'gani''tc a''pyani''tc''. 

Ca'cki'megu nya'wugun I'nina' a''awi''tc'': 'a'"penu'^tc u'wigig''''. 
lOO'n ugya'n"'", " Iya''i ki'^py-^'," a''ina<*tc'', "Ki'cino'mAgawina'- 
gvvaiyiin i'n iya"i wI"pyaiyAn '"''," a"ina'*tc''. 

Ini'megu a'ca'wini'^tc ugya'n"''; lya" a"pyani''tc''. 
A'nAnatu"tawa''tc'' "'Ana''e," a"ina''tc'', "ruA'nA no"sA kemi'- 
negw unata'wmon"'" ?" a"ina''tc''. 
15 "A'g''"'",'' a"ini'*tc''. "Ke'te'iiA pwawimine'nugwani kl"me- 
nwaw™''. MA'^tcinata'winoni yo' wI'nA n5''sA ke'kanetA'nio'Ap'^". 
Ne'cagwanemu''tca" i'ni wi'tA'ciwI'cega'netAg''''. Pwawi'megunA- 
'kunA'mawAte kl''menwaw'''''; kl'tapi'tu' kiya'W''. O' nA- 
'kunAuiawAtega'wi'n a'cawi'^tci'megu i'ni ■wi'i'ca'wiyAn"''. 

20 "Wi'naiyo n6'"s a'gwi pe'"ki mane'towAni ke'kaneme'gu- 
^tcin"''. Ma'Ani'megu kateminfigu'gW'a'in ini'megu me''teno''i 
ke'kaneme'gu'^tcin"''. '0' ni'n""*', mo'tci'megu 'A"pemeg a'pitA 
neke'ka'nemcgwA ma'netOw™*", ta'n a'cimegii'mAni mcnwi'genigi 
netenane'megSgi manetowA'g''''. MawA^tci'megu wjiwene'teniw 

25 anane'miwa''tci keme'come'sena'nAg''''. 

"WinAga"inA n6''s a'ma'nani'^tc awi'tA kA'ckitAna'totA's 
uketeminawe"siwen°''. Ni'nA wi'n"*', me'sota'we ni'ke'ka'- 
nemegwA mA'nA me'to'sa'neniw"'^", me'sotawe'megu ni'pe'- 
'setag''''^*'. Na"kA"*tci wi'Ancmi'i'ci'i'cina'gayani ni'nanAgA'inuyu 

SOayi'g'''': ni'pe"sepe"setag'"'*'. 

"Wi'iiA wi'n awi'tA kA'ckiwapa'totA's i'n uketeminawe"siwen°''. 
Ini'^tca" a'ci'cagwiineme'nAgowe tcawi''cw i'ni wi'i'ca'wiyag''"''". 
'Tani'na'i ne'gyA pwawinA'kunA'mawaf',' ketenaneme'nc''tca''", 
Ana'"e," a"ina''tc ugya'n"''. " Ini'*tca'"megu i"cawin''"". Ka'tA 

35nA"kunAmawi'yagAni no'"s*^'. Ki'wii'pAmaw a'pi'tcinina'wime'to- 

'sa'neniwi''tc'', agwiga'ina'"ini wi'A'semi'e'gwi<'tcin unata'winon"''. 

"Ni'nA ni'kA'nonaw aiyo"u''tc''. 'Agwi na'kA'^'tci wi'na'wi''tcini 

pyai'yan°«'. Na'kaiyo' ni"pyA wi"ki"ci''tca'"i"A"cen6'w^*'. I'n 

a''inAgi no"s'^', Ana''""." 

40 O'ni ke'tenAme'gup a"tapwa''tawa''tc i'kwa'w u'gwi'sAn"''. 
Kiki'cikAno'negu''tc'', a'a'^tci'mo'adtc'", "Na'i', ke'tenA'ku'i, 
negwi"'', niA'nin a'ke'ka'neniAg a"no'sa'^tci ki'^tcime'to'sancni'- 
nana'''. Agwi'kago' u''tci''a''tcin°''; 'ane'tA* ca'cki'megu a'ne- 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 93 

He told (Ills father): "Well, I must have slept very soundly," he 
said to him. 

"O, yes, you have certainly slept very soundly. But we did not 
know that you were perhaps sleeping," he was told. His father did 
not act rightly. 

And then (he said) to his mother: "Mother, you go and make a 
wickiup for me, apart from (the other)," he said to his mother. 
"AH right," he was told. She went to make it. After making it, 
she came back. 

He only staid home four days: then he went away to his wickiup. 
And then, "You are to come over there," he said to his mother, 
"you come over there after I have gone a httle while," he said to her. 

His mother did that; she came over there. 

He asked her, "Mother," he said to her, "did this father of mine 
give you his medicine?" he said to her. 

"No," she said. "If it is true that he has not given it to you, 
you are all right. For it is an evil medicine which my father had 
been given knowledge of. I am unwilling for him to think strongly 
of it. You will do well if you refuse to take it from him; you will 
make yourself happy. Or if you accept it from him then what shall 
happen to him will happen to you. 

"My father is not known by the true manitous. This being by 
whomever he was blessed is the only one by whom he is known. 
And as for me, even the manitou who is above knows me, because 
the manitous have thought of me only in a righteous way. Our 
grandfathers have blessed me the very finest way. 

"My father could not talk about his blessing where there is a great 
crowd. As for me myself, all these people all over will know about 
me, all will listen to me. And I shall continually use the songs; I 
will always sing them also : they will listen to me. 

" He could not begin to tell about his blessing. That is just what 
I am imwilling for you both to do. ' I wish my mother would not 
accept it from him,' is what I think of you, mother," he said to his 
mother. "So please do that. Do not accept it from my father. 
You will see how weak his life is, and then his medicine will not help 
him. 

"I shall speak to him from here. He will never see me again 
when I come. I shall come again, but he will have gone. That is 
what I say of my father, mother." 

And then truly the woman did believe her son. After she had 
been addressed, she told him, "Now it is true, my son, I have known 
(your father) to kill many of our fellow-people. He had no reason 
to kill them; some he attacked in revenge merely because he had 



94 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

'ckina\va"egu''tc mi'megu wata'pe'nana''tc''; "anetAga'' a'kegya- 
'ckAtaM^a'nema''tci kago''"', Ini'mcgu'u wa"^tci'a''tc''. I'ni nina'n 
ii'cike'ka'nemAgi ko"s*'. Kwa'tcipAgii'Tn a'ku'*tci''kawi''tci wl'- 
"mi'ci''tc''; wi'tepane'tAmani'megu, ne'te'ci'i'cimeg'''^*". 'A'gwi,' 
SnetenawA'^tca'mega'pe"*'. Wawo'sAmega'pe'e netu'*tci'a"kwatagw 
a'a'nomi''tc''. I'ni pya''tci'cl'"kawi''tc'"." 

"I'ni''tca'wa'*tci'iya''i ki''pyA wa'^tci'i'nenan"'', 'Ana''"'. Ini- 
•'tca" ix'kwikAno'nenan"'', katAga''i kwino'mi'kAn"'', kAkanwa'ci'- 
ku'i nene'p'^'. Agwigii" A'ce'meg''"', kag6"niegu ne'te'cawi 
lOnepai'yanin"''. I'ni," a"ina''tc''. 

'A'na'gwani'^tc''. A'wago'moni''tc''. "Tcaganago'mAgig'^'', neme- 
'co'me'sAg''''," a"ini''tc ugya'n°''. 

"Au'," a"ina'itc'". 

A'menwinawa'meme''tci katemina'gu^tci"''. 
15 Ki'cinomAga'wina'gwani''tc a'wi'gowi''tc''. Pe'ki'meg a'me'- 
nwi'cig''''. Ki'ci'niegume'nwi'cig a''nepa'*tc'". A'ki'cagute'gwameg 
mi'megu 'Iniya'n a"pyani''tc''. "Na'i', ma'A'n Ini nAgA'monAni 
wi'atotA'monan ayawi'cinAgAmo'niwig''''. Nimiwa'i'gAnAni' sa'- 
'sAnAgw-i kr'aiyo. O'ni wrca'ckina'gayAni'sa'sAnAg'"^''. O'ni 
20wrse'niwat i'ni wi'nAgA'moyAn"'". Ne'se'nwi pone'gawat I'ni 
■wi'wi"se'niwa''tc''. O'ni ki"ciwi'senl'wa''tcini, ■vvI'nI'mi"A''tc''. I'ni 
ki'cinimi''A''tcin°'', 'Na'i', nAtawina'nagwag a'uwigi'yagwin"'',' 
i'ni wi"i'cikA'n6nA''tc''. I'ni wi'penope'nowa''tc''. 



"Cewa'n A'pena'^tci'megu'u 'aya'iki'ce''sowigi ki'poniki'giin""'. 

25Ka'tA nAna"ci pe'kutane'mi'kAn i'ni wi'i'ci'sa'sa''kwayAn''''. 
'Wi'pwawi'megu'upe'kutane'miyan°'',' ki'i''cita''''. Ki'kegeni'- 
meguki'giin""'. MamaiyA'megu 'A''pena''tci ki'poniki'gan""'. 
Na'kA'''tci niAni'megu: a'cike'^'tci^'tcini ki'ce''sw i'ni wi'wapina'- 
gayAn"'', i'ni wi'i'ca'wiyAn"''. 

30 "Agwi'ni kenwa''ci wi'peminene'kane'niA'^tcini ma'netow''-^'. 
Ini<'tca" wi'wiga"siwa^tci wi'u''tci'i"cimA'*tci wi^'tci'soma'i'yAnig'"''. 
Ki'pe'cigwiwitA'mawawAgi'megu a'kwane'menage wi'A'kwiwe'- 
towa^'tc''; wi'ina'nemA'^tci mA'kwa''tciga''megu ki'kAno'nawAgi 
nAgAmonAnigii '■''." 'O'nip'', "I'ni wi'mawike'kinawa'piyAni 

35wi'i'ca'i'ca'wiyAn°''," a"igu''tc''. 

A'kiga'nowa''tci mane'towAg''''. " Iniga"na"ki'nA wi'i'ca'i'ca'- 
wiyAn"'', kl'ke'kino'su'megu nAgA'monAni," a"ine''tc'". 

A"na'gwawa''tc''. Aiyo'tci''i! o'tawen"''. A'na'se'kA'mowa''tci 

kenota'"''. A"pyawa''tcine'ci'kA'megui'na' a awi'a'wiwa^'tc''. O'nip 

40a'Anemi'Anagwi"inig a'wapipya't6ni"*tci tcagi kago"''; ane't 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 95 

been made angry; some, because he was jealous toward them over 
something, he killed them for that reason. That is what I know 
about your father. Several times he had tried to give it to me; 
that I should be the sole owner of it, he always said 'No,' I would 
tell him. And he would even get angry at me because he failed 
to persuade me. That was what he has been trying to get me to do" 
(she said). 

''That was the reason, I told you to come up there, mother. That 
is all I have to say to you, and do not be longing for me, for I always 
sleep a long time. It is not just for fun; something happens to me 
when I am sleeping. That is all," he said to her. 

She went away. She gave thanks. "All of my different rela- 
tives, my grandfathci-s," his mother said. 

"All right," he answered her. 

Those by whom he had been blessed were gladdened thereby. 

After she had gone a little while, he began to get sleepy. He lay 
down very comfortably. After lying down comfortably he fell asleep. 
When he was sleeping very heavily at once the one who had been 
there previously came. ''Now, I shall explain these songs to you 
according to the order the songs are. You are to use the dancing 
songs in between. And you A\all merely sing in between times. 
And when they are feasting, then you are to sing. After they have 
ceased dancing tliree times, then they are to feast. Then after they 
have eaten, then you are to have them dance. Then after you have 
made them dance, 'Now, you each may go to your respective homes,' 
is the way you must speak to them. Then they will go (to their 
respective homes). 

"But you must always end your gens festival while the sun is up. 
Do not ever let the night come on you, that is what is against your 
ways. 'The night shall never come on me,' you are to think. 
You are to complete your gens festival in haste. And end your gens 
festival early. And (observe) this also: As soon as the sun comes 
up you shall begin singing, that is what you are to do. 

"You do not have to be thinking of the manitous very long. So 
that they will be careful is why you are to tell the fellow members of 
3'our gens. You will tell them truthfidly how much wc think of 
you, so that they will carry it to the end; you are to think of them 
and tell them kindly about the songs." And then it is said (he con- 
tinued), "Now you are going to see and learn of what you ar.> going 
to do always," he was told. 

Then the manitous held a gens festival. "That is what you wiU 
always do, so you will remember the songs," he was told. 

They started out. Lo! here was a town. They went straight to a 
long lodge. When they came, they staid there all alone for some 
time. Toward evening they began to bring all kinds of things; they 



96 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO CANCE. Teth. ann. 40. 

i'kwawa'*', ane't ape'no'a"'', ne'niwa''". Ini'ni a'Anemi'awAte- 
nAmo'me'^tci wita'ma'^tcin°'". O'nip a"AnemimegiikAno'"kyani''tc'". 
"Mil'maiyapi kfwapikiga'nopenA wa'pAg*"^'. MamaiyA'*tca"megu 
ki'pya'^tci'penup'^'^'," a'Anemi"ci'wam'*tc''. KlAbo'twe na'kA"^tci 
SmAml'd'a' si'wapi'pyani'^tc''. A'wapiwiga<'tci'se'toni''tc I'n anemi- 
pyii'towe'^tc''. Pa'ci'megunomAga'tepe''k\v ina" a'kiwl'tani'^tci 
inamrcAmaga'ni"^tci''', "a'manani''tciga"meg''"". 'O'nipi" ca'cke'- 
to'a'i ma'maiy a"kiwi"awi'I'wani<'tc'". O'nipi wa'pAnigi mamaiyA'- 
meg a'wapi'pyani''tci miimi'ci'i'ni'^tci'''. Inigii'ipi'megu wl'klgano'- 
lOni'^tci' a'wapi'pyani''tc'', na'kA'''tci klwiwi'kuwawu'sa'ni''tcini 
ni"cwi ne'niwa"''. 

O'nip a'kA'none'^tc'' : "Pe'ki'megu wr'cigin a'ke'kinawa'piyAn"'",'' 
a''igu'*tc i'ni'i ne'niwa'"'. A'minawa'pAma'^tc'', miya'C'tci"'' 
kateminagu"^tci' '' . 
15 A'AnA'6'nemc'^tci tawa'i'gAnAni nl''cwi kl''cko'a' I'ni m"cwi 
to'ka'na'''. 'O'nipi wrwapina'gawa''tc'', a'nawA''tci'Anwawa'tA'- 
mini'^tci pepigwa"ckwi nyawe'n""'. Ki'ci'Anwawa'tA'mini''tc'', 
a'wapina'gani'^tc''. MA'nip a'cina'gani''tc'': 

Me'tegwI+neni'AglH neniwAgiH wlnaH " 

20 Me'tegwI+neni'AgiH neniwAglH winaH 

KrcIga+pawi'iwa+''tcIH nina-| a3'0 — 

Me'tegwI+neni'AgiH neniwAgiH wina — 

Me'tegwI4-neni'AgI+neniwAgi+ 

Me'tegwI+neni'AgI+neniwAgi+ 
25 NeniwAgI+neniwAgI+. 

'O'ni ni'co'nAmegi nA'gAmon"'': 

No'sa^*+, nina+, no+'sa, no+'sa, nina' + , no'sa', 
No'sa', ni'nA, no+'sa, no+sa, ni'riA, no + 'sa; 
"Ayaniwe gi'ciga'pawi'iwa''^tcl yo' ma'netowAgi 'aiyo'i; 
30 No's,V+, nlna+, no+'sa, no+'sa, nina' + , no'sa', 

No'sa', ni'nA, no+'sa, 
No'sa^*+, nlna+, no+'sa, no+'sa', nina+, no'sa'. 

Wa+pI+ko'pI+''tcme+no"sogI' nikl+;" 

TcagI yo ne'no'sogi niki+; 
35 Wd+pI+ko'pi+''tcine+no'sogi nikl+; 

Tcagi j-o ne'no'sogi nikl+ ; 

W5,+pi+ko'pI+'^tcIne+no'sogI nikl+; 

Tcagi yo ko'pi<'tci+neno'so'gi+niki'; 

Wd+pI+ko'pi+''tcIne+no'sogi nikl+; 
40 Tcagi yo ko'pi'^tclneno'so+gl niki'; 

Wa+pi+k6'pI+<'tcme+no'sogi nikl+. 

11 In songs the sign + signifies a vowel which is very protracted; § is long open e as opposed to e which 
Is close, and wiiich never occurs save terminally as a rhetorical lengthening; lis dental 1; the figure 4 
after vowels indicates a vowel of four mone; superior » is not *. 

" Niki+is for inig"'. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 97 

were some women, some children, and some men. The things were 
handed over to the one whom he accompanied. He would always 
speak to them. "It is said that we shall begin our gens festival early 
to-morrow. So start to come early," he said continually. Soon 
likewise the ceremonial attendants began to come. They began to 
carefully place what was brought. Late in the night the ceremonial 
attendants for that feast were there, and there were many of them. 
Then it is said early in the morning they went around borrowing 
kettles. And early on the morrow, it is said, the attendants began 
to come. And those who were going to give the gens festival also 
began to come, and also the two men who walked around to give 
invitations. 

Then it is said he was addressed: "Try very hard to learn by see- 
ing," he was told by the men. He noticed them, and lo, they were 
the beings by whom he had been blessed. 

The drum was being filled by two KJ'skos and two To'kans. Then 
it is said when singing was to commence, the flute was first sounded 
four times. After sounding it, then they began to sing. This was 
the way they sang : 

The wood-men — men — it is he — • 
The wood-men — men — it is he — 
They have stood — I — here — 
The wood-men — men — it is he — 
The wood-men — men — 
The wood-men — men — 
The men — the men. '^ 

And then the second song: 

My father, mine, my father, my father, mine, my father,'* 

My father, mine, my father, my father, mine, my father; 

The manitous have stood here in one place; 

My father, mine, my father, my father, mine, my father, 

My father, mine, my father, 

My father, mine, my father, my father, mine, my father. 

Those white buffaloes; 
All those buffaloes here; 
Those white buffaloes; 
All those buffaloes here; 
Those white buffaloes; 
All those buffaloes here; 
Those white buffaloes; 
All those buffaloes here; 
Those white buffaloes. 

13 The esoteric meaning of t his song (and similarly of other songs) was obtained from theinformant. They 
are not merely my own interpretations. 

The troos will keep on growing as long as the world lasts. The manitou has done this. Ki'ciga+ 
pawi'iwa+'itci+ is for -gapawa-^tc''. The form in the song approximates those of a number of other 
Algonquian languages, e. g., Cree. Ojibwa, Algonkin. Shawnee. Accordingly, we either have an ancient 
survivalor the song may be borrowed. The protraction of vowels and ' for w in noni'Agi+ hardly call 
for comment. I do not understand to whom "I" refers. 

•*The one blessed is supposed to say this: " My father'* means his father. Besides ordinary pro- 
tractions, no'sa^-^ is the only deviation worth noting (no's^'l. 



98 OEIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [EIH. ANN. 40. 

Ma+ni niyawl neke'ka'na'nemego+gi; 
MAnI + ' niyawi neke'ka'nanemegOgI + ; 
MaiiI nlyawl neke'ka'na'nemegogi; 
MAiietowAgi' tcagi manetowAgi; 
5 Ma'iiI nl'yawi neke'ka'na'nemegogi; 

Ma'hI ni'yawl ne+ke+kananemegogi; 
Neke'ka'nenemegogi. 

"O'n a'Anwawa'i'gawe'^tc'", ma'A'nip ayo'we'^tcini nAgA'monAn"'' : 

WApAta+mawigo wi'i'eiga+pawi'Agl y6+neme'to'sa+nem+ma + ; 
10 WApAta'mawigo wri'ciga+pa+wI'Agi+ yo+ neme'to'sa+nenl+ma 

nma + ; 
WApAta'mawigo wi'i"ciga+pawi"Agi yo+ neme'to'sa+nenima. 

MAnI+ nemi"caml', ne'si'i' + , nina; 
Nina+ neml"cami', ne'si + 'I' + , nlna + ; 
15 MahI' neinl"caml, ne'si'r + , nIna; 

MahI' neml"cami', ne'si'I'+, nlna4-; 
MAni' nemi"cami', ne'sri'+, mna+. 

WApine'+no'"swA yo nenatawanemawA; 
WApine'+no"swA yo nenatawanemawA; 
20 WApine'no"swA yo+ nenatawanemawA nina; 

WApine'no'swaiyo nena'tawanemawA; 
WApine'no'"swaiyo nena'tawanemawA nina yo+. 

Kiyo'sa'igi manetowagi 'ayo' a'kigi; 
Kiyo'sa'igi mAiie+towagi 'ayo' a'kigi; 
25 Kiyo'sa'igi manetowAgi "aiyo"A'ki'gi; 

Ni'na, ni'nA; 

Kiyo'sa'igi manetowagi 'ayo' a'kigi; 
Kiyo'sa'igi mAne+towagi 'ayo' a'kigi; 
Ni'na, ni'na. 

30 'O'n a ni'miwa'^tci ni'mitcig''''. I'kwawA'"ip a"nawa''tc a'nemA'- 
"soni^'tci neniwa'i'ga'''. A'gwip uwi'ya'An Api'Api'iii''tc.m°''. 
Ca''cki kegime'si'meg a'ni'sina'wini'^tci wi'm'mmi''tc'". Ma'Ani- 
''tca''ip a'yowe'^tci nAgA'moiiAn"'": 

N6tano"saya+ni, notano'saya+ni; 
35 Notano'saya+ni, notano'saya+ni; 

Notano'saya+ni, notano'saya+ni; 

Notano'saya+ni, notano'saya+ni; 

Notano'saya+ni; 

"Ayo mAni' mA'neto'nagi; 
40 Notano'saya+ni, notano'saya+ni; 

Notano'saya+ni, notano'saya+ni; 

Notano'saya+ni. 

Nenono"sogi nina yo, nenono"sogi nina yo, 
Nenono"s6gi kiwiklwikA'Agi nina nenono''sogi, 
45 Nina yo neneno''sogI nenono"s6gi. 

ifi " The manitous will know me as long as I live " is the esoteric meaning of thesong. Neke'kd'ndnemegogi, 
etc., are for neke'kdnemegog'^'' . Evidently supposed to be said by the one blessed. 

isThe manitous are addressed. Evidently supposed to "be said by the one blessed. 

1" The one blessed desires enemies for the white buHalo so that the latter may destroy them. The Eng- 
lish translation, of course, can not bring out the force of nlnd. It should be noted that yo may be mere 
padding, or a form otaiyo''' in songs. 



MicHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 99 

This is my body, they know me;" 
This is my body, they know me; 
This is my body, they know me; 
All the manitous, the manitous; 
This is my body, they know me; 
This is my body, they know me; 
They know me. 

And when the drum was beaten these songs were used: 

Look how my people will stand here; " 
Look how my people will stand here; 
Look how my people will stand here. 

This is my sacred pack, my younger brother, it is mine; 
It is my sacred pack, my younger brother, it is mine; 
This is my sacred pack, my younger brother, it is mine; 
This is my sacred pack, my younger brother, it is mine; 
This is my sacred pack, my younger brother, it is mine. 

I desire for the white buffalo, yo; " 
I desire for the white buffalo, yo; 
I desire for the white buffalo, yo; 
I desire for the white buffalo, yo; 
I desire for the white buffalo, yo. 

The manitous walk about here on the earth; 
The manitous walk about here on the earth; 
The manitous walk about here on the earth; 

1,1; 

The manitous walk about here on the earth; 
The manitous walk about here on the earth; 
I, I. '» 

And then the dancers danced. It is said that he saw women 
standing and men also. No one remained seated (idly). All of 
those who were to dance got dowm (from the bench). It is said that 
these songs were used: 

I am walking on a windy day, I am walking on a windy day; 
I am walking on a windy day, I am walking on a windy day; 
I am walking on a windy day, I am walking on a windy day; 
I am walking on a windy day, I am walking on a windy day; 
I am walking on a windy day; 
Here in the manitou-land; 

I am walking on a windy day, I am walking on a windy day; 
I am walking on a windy day, I am walking on a windy day; 
I am walking on a windy day. '° 

The buffaloes I, the buffaloes I, 

I make the buffaloes march around; 

I [am related to] the buffaloes, the buffaloes. '" 

" A singular verb, nekiyuMyu' sf , is to be supplied with mm, " I wall£ about." The ordinary word for 
fcryo'saTj^f is kiyukiyu'sdwAg'"' ; 'dyo is for aiyo'^'. 

" Supposed to be said by the one blessed. After a fight, if there was snow or rain, the tracks could 
not be followed. 

2" Supposed to be said by the one blessed. Nenono'sogi for nenu'sog'^'' is nearly on a par with nete'lto'- 
nantmegogi (above) for neke'kdJiemegog^''. 



100 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [ETH. ANN. 40. 

"Agwi'^tci neno'sogi' yo 'owanataga'nwAgi; 
TA'ci+'agwi+neno"sogani na; 
■Agwi+''tcine'no'sogi 3-o o'wanataga'nwagi; 
TA'ci+"agwI''tcI neno'so'gininA; 
5 'Agwi'^tci neno'sogi' yo 'owanataga'nwAgi; 

TA'ci+'agwi+neno"sogani nA. 

WApAta'pi+ne'sowanowi ve+ninA; 
Wapatapl+ne'sowanowi ye+ninA; 
WapAta'pi+ne'sowanowi ye+; 
10 WapAta'pi+ne'sowanowi ye+ninA; 

Wapata'pi+ne'sowanowi ye + ninA; 
W&pAta'pi+ne'sowanowi ye+ninA. 

Kiwineno'swanawi ; 

Kiwineno'swanawi; 
15 Kiwineno'swanawi; 

Yo man! y5 'a'kiyanawi 

Kiwineno'swanawi; 

Kiwineno'swanawi; 

Kiwineno'swanawi; 
20 Kiwineno'swanawi; 

Kiwineno'swanawi; 

Kiwineno'swanawi; 

Kiwineno'swanawi; 

Kiwineno'swanawi. 

25 A'ponini'mini''tc a'na'i'se'towe''tci kegc'gani''tci pepigwa'cko'n°'". 
O'nip Aiie'kl" a'wi'se'nini'^tc'"; srsepa''kw a'mi''^tcini''tc'", o'ni 
me'siwa'ya'An"'', 'o'ni wapi'giuiAn"''. Ki"ci'megiiml''*tcini''tc'', 
a'wapina'gani''tci nagAm6'ni''tci'''. Negute'nwi tatA'g a'kl'cini'- 
mini''tc''. 

3Q Na'imata+ nina+ tcagi+ neno'sogi nina+; 

Na'imata+ tcagi+ neno'sogi nina+; 

Na'imata+ tcagi+ neno'sogi; 

Na'i'i'mata tcagl+ neno'sogi; 

Na'imata tcagi+ neno'sogi; 
35 Na'i'i'mata tcagl+ neno'sogi. 

Yo+ nii+wa"ci+o+lemi nina+; 
Yo BQAli lewa'cl'o+lemi linA; 
Yo lawa'ci'o+lemi ninA; 
Yo lewii'ci'olemi; 
40 MA'ni mall yo+ "A'kl; 

Lewa'ci'olemi ni+; 
Y6+ newa'ci'o'lemi ninA; 
Yo' mA'ni lewa'ci'o'lemi ni'nA. 



" The ordinary word for 'agmiMct is atyA'^wt'lc'' . The word is cut in half once. "In their holes," 
grammatically a singular, is the place which the buffaloes have dug up with their horns. The above 
translation is based on the informant's paraptoase. Grammatical anomalies are present that defy analysis. 

" Supposed to be said by the white buffalo. The white buffalo came to the camps, lilted his tail, and 
said, " Loolc at my tail." The syllable ye is the buffalo's bellowing. 

" The above translation is in accordance with the explanation given by the informant. The forms in 
■ndwi are grammatical anomalies. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 101 

The buffaloes are standing so much there, in their holes; 

The buffaloes are standing there so much; 

The buffaloes are standing so much there, in their holes; 

The buffaloes are standing there so much; 

The buffaloes are standing so much there, in their holes; 

The buffaloes are standing so much there. ^' 

My tail is looked at, mine, ye; 
My tail is looked at, mine, ye; 
My tail is looked at, mine, ye; 
My tail is looked at, mine, ye; 
My tail is looked at, mine, ye; 
My tail is looked at, mine, ye. ^^ 

The buffalo keeps on walking; 
The buffalo keeps on walking; 
The buffalo keeps on walking 
Here on this earth; 
The buffalo keeps on walking; 
The buffalo keeps on walking; 
The buffalo keeps on walking; 
The buffalo keeps on walking; 
The buffalo keeps on walking; 
The buffalo keeps on walking; 
The buffalo keeps on walking; 
The buffalo keeps on walking. " 

When they finished dancing, they put away the flutes with which 
they were dancing. Then it is said they ate a little; sugar was what 
they ate, and maple-sugar cakes, and scjuashes. Immediately after 
they had eaten, the singers commenced singing. (This was) of course 
after they had danced once. 

The one who advises all the buffaloes is I; 
The one who advises all the buffaloes is I; 
The one who advises all the buffaloes; 
The one who advises all the buffaloes; 
The one who advises all the buffaloes; 
The one who advises all the buffaloes." 

Here is my paint, mine; 
This is my paint, mine; 
Here is my paint, mine; 
Here is mj' paint; 
On this earth; 
My paint; 

Here is my paint, mine; 
This is my paint, mine.^* 

" The white buffalo is supposed to say this. The ordinary word for nd'imatd is ndnd'imdt^*. Another 
variation of the same word in this sonj;: is passed over. 

2s The one blessed is supposed to say this after he was given paint by the white buffalo. The above 
translation is based on the informant's explanation; but it should be noted that 'a'ki as a locative is an 
anomaly: it is grammatically better to translate (with change of punctuation) "My paint is this earth." 
Note that I for n is quite frequent in this song. The syllable nils mere padding. The ordinary lengthening 
of vowels may be passed over. 



102 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [ETH. ANN. io. 

Y6+ na'ega wapo'sa"igI; 
Yo+ na'ega wapo'sa"igI'; 
Kl'yoki'yo'sa"igi; 
MA'netowAgI' kiyo'sa"iwa<'tci'; 
• Yo+ na"ega wapo'sa"i'gi; 

Yo+ na''ega wapo'sa"i'gI'; 
Yo na'ega wapo'sa"igi'; 
Y6+ na'ega wapo'sa"igi. 



10 



'Awlyani, 'awlyani, 'awlyani, 'awiyani'; 
"Awiyanl', "awiyani, "awiyani', "awiyani'; 
"Awiyani', 'awij'ani', "awiyani', "awiyani'; 
'Awiyani', 'awiyani', 'awiyani', 'awiyani. 

Na"k a,'Anwawa'i'gawa'*tc''. MA'ni nA'gAmon"'": 

Kiyo4kiyo4'sa'agi4 nina yo4; 
15 Kiyo4kiy64'sa'agi4 nina yo4; 

Kiyo4kiyo4'sa'agi4 nina yo4; 

"A'kwita'kA'migi; 

Kiyo4kiyo4'sa'agi4 nina yo4; 

Kiyo4kiyo4'sa'gi4 nina yo4; 
20 "A"kwita'kA'migl4 nina yo4; 

Kiyo4ki}'o4'sa'agi4 nina yo4; 

Kiyo4kiyo4'sa'agi4 nina y64. 

KiwikAnawawa 'ineno'swA; 
KiwikAnawiiwa 'ineno'swA; 
25 KiwikAnawawa 'ineno'swA; 

KiwikAnawawa 'ineno'swA; 
KiwikAnawawa 'ineno'swA; 
KiwikAnawawa "ineno'swA; 
KiwikAnawawa 'ineno'swA. 

30 Tepe"kwi+kA'nawiweni'+ tepwa'kA'ni win5; 

Tepe'kwi+kA'nawiweni'+ tepwa'kA'ni wino; 

Tepe'kwi+kA'nawiweni'+ tepwa'kA'ni wino; 

Tepe'kwi+kA'nawiweni'+ neno'so' + gi'+ 'okAnawiwenwa'wI'+; 
* Tepe'kwi+kA'nawiweni'4- tepwa'kA'ni wino; 

35 Tepe'kwi+kA'nawiweni'+ tepwa'kA'ni wino. 



40 



Mi'i'i'guniwi'i'i'ya'a'ani ne'e'eno'6'o'swi'i'i ml 
Mi'i'i'guniwi'i'i'ya'a'anI ne'e'eno'o'6'swi'i'i mi 
Mi'i'i'guniwi'i'i'ya'a'ani ne'c'eno'o'o'swl'l'i mi 



iguniwi 
i'guniwi 
i'guniwi 
i'guniwi 
i'guniwi 



i ya a am; 
i'ya'a'ani; 
i'ya'a'ani; 
i'ya'a'ani; 
ya'a'ani. 



28 The real significance of the song is, the one blessed is told to go, slowly; after he has reached home, 
he may go any place he pleases. The word wdpo'sa'f^iimplies one may go where one pleases after reaching 
home. The translation implies it is the first person singular of the independent passive, which it might 
be as far as the form is concerned; the analogy of kiyo'sa'igi (above) would rather make us take the form 
as a third person plural of an intransitive verb, which would be entirely out of place i n t he pre sent i nstance. 

" The real sense is: "I am here where I live." The one blessed is supposed to say this. 

" The one blessed is supposed to say this. He went to walk, and the people kept following. They 
expect war. 

" .\ccording to the informant the initial i of 'ineno'^wa is a shortening of marietowi-; therefore "mystic 
buflalo" would be a more accurate rendering. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 103 

Yo, I am walked slowly; 

Yo,. I am walked slowly; 

I am walked about; 

The manit-ous walked me around; 

Yo, I am walked about slowly; 

Yo, I am walked about slowly; 

Yo, I am walked slowly; 

Yo, I am walked slowly .2" 

Where I am, where I am, where I am, where I am; 
Where I am, where I am, where I am, where I am; 
Where I am, where I am, where I am, where I am; 
Where I am, where I am, where I am, where I am. 2' 

Then (the dnun) was beaten again. This was the song: 

I make them walk about; 
I make them walk about; 
I make them walk about 
On the earth; 
I make them walk about; 
I make them walk about 
On the earth, I (do) ; 
I make them walk about; 
I make them walk about.''* 

The buffalo goes about speaking; 
The buffalo goes about speaking; 
The buffalo goes about speaking; 
The buffalo goes about speaking; 
The buffalo goes about speaking; 
The buffalo goes about speaking; 
The buffalo goes about speaking." 

Truly believe what is told in the night-speech;'" 
Truly beheve what is told in the night-speech; 
Truly beheve what is told in the night-speech; 
The night-speech, the buffaloes' speech, 
Truly believe what is told in the night-speech; 
Truly believe what is told in the night-speech. 

I have feathers, I have buffalo-feathers; 
I have feathers, I have buffalo-feathers; 
I have feathers, I have buffalo-feathers; 
I have feathers, I have buffalo-feathers; 
I have feathers, I have buffalo-feathers.^' 

80 The buffalo came and spoke to the one blessed while the latter was asleep: "At night there are always 
words of truth; the words of buffaloes are always true at night." That is, the words heard in dreams 
are true. 

3' This song is supposed to be said by the white buffalo. When he is dressed in his finery he uses the 
feathers. The buffalo-feathers are simply eagle-feathers. They are so called because the buffaloes are 
supposed to have used them. These feathers are the four feathers on the earth, No. 7 in the diagram. 
Observe that an initial 'u- in the verbal forms is lacking. Note that several vowels are broken up by 
extremely lene glottal stops which are entirely distinct from ordinary ones. 



104 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [EIH. ANN. 40. 

'O'kuna'moyanI neno'swl; 
"O'kuna'moyani nenos'wi; 
"O'kuna'moyani neno'swl; 
Ma'netowagi 'o'kuna+iwa"'tcI nina neno'swl; 
5 "O'kuna'moyani neno'swl; 

'O'kuna'moyani neno'swl; 
"O'kuna'moyani neno'swl. 

O'ni na'kA'meg a'nl'mini''tc'". MA'nip a"cina'ga-wa'*tc*': 

Kiwa'kiwa'ka'o"iyanI, kIwa'kiwaka'o"iyanI; 
10 Klwa'kIwa'ka'o"iyani, ki\vii'kiwa'ko'o"iyani; 

Manako'cl kIwa'kIwa'ka'o"iyan5; 
Manako'cl kIwa'kiwa'ka'o''iyani; 
Kiwa'kiwa'ka'o"iyam. 

Wi'iwagI', wriwa'iwAgI; 
J5 Wriwagi', wi'iwaga'iwAgi; 

Wi'iwaga'I; 

Ne+noyo'sogI 

Wl'iwa'IwAga'iwAge, wi+iwATwAge; 

Wi'iwAge iwAge; 
20 Wi'iwaga'iwA'I'wAge; 

Wl'iwAge, W'i'iw'Aga'iwAge; 

Wina; 

Wi'iwaga'iwAga'IwAge; 

"IwA. 

25 Wina na'to"kwani+ini+teyana+nIna+; 

Wina na'to"kwani+inI+teyana; 

Wina na'to"kwani+ini+teyana-|-nina.+ ; 

Wina na't6"kwani+ini+teyana+nina+; 

Wina na'to"kwani+ini+te.yana+nina+; ' 
30 Wina na'to"kwani+ini+teyana+nina+. 

Winwawa neno'sogi kiwekiwe'pAwa'wAgI'; 
Winwawa neno'sogi kiwekiwe'cAwa'wAgi'; 
Winwawa neno'sogi kiwekiwe'cAwa'wAgi'; 
Winwawa neno'sogi kiwekiwe'cAwa'wAgi'; 
35 Na'e'ga'si'si'se'ca'cawawAgi; 

Na'e'ga'si'si'se'ca'cawawAgi; 
Winwawa neno'sogi kiwekiwe'cAwa'wAgi'; 
Na'a'ga^. 

O'nip a'krcini'mini''tci na'"k-^', 5'ni, "Mene''tA ki'ce'tagwan°'', 

40i'ni wi'mr''tcij'ag''"''', mAmi'ci''etig''^','' "a'meme''tci mAmi''ci'a'''. 

A'slga"i'gani<'tc''. Ki"ci"siga'i'gani''tci', "I'ni," a"ini''tc''. O'nip 

32 While fasting, the one blessed went far off; he was wearing a buffalo-hide; then he cried out, " 1 have 
a blanliet," etc. This is the hidden reference. 

33 The one blessed is supposed to narrate this. The sense is; ".\-fter I was blessed, I danced around." 
The ordinary word for kiii:d'klwd'ka'o"iyani is d'ta'itAnegd''i!jdn'^'' . Why some form of the combined 
stems khti and rgd (which ic the basis for the word in the song) is not in ordinary use, I do not know; pre- 
sumably we have the old question of analysis and synthesis (Michelson, Contributions to .\lgonquian 
Grammar, Amer. Anthropologist, n. s. 1.5, 476). 

3* The translation and esoteric meaning of this song are entirely unsatisfactory. According to the 
informant the idea is: The one who is to be blessed has now been blessed and says " The ones who blessed 
me say." The same authority says the last word, "I'wA, is spoken by the white buffalo, which does not 
appear to make sense. The difficulty with the translation is that we clearly have variations of wi'iwAgi=*- 
for the most part; but it is not impossible that variations of 'UrAg'--^' also are found. The reiteration of 
syllables that approximate each other makes a decision impractical. The metrical structure of the song 
is open to doubt for these reasons. Yet it is clear that lines 5, 7, and 10 partially correspond. The normal 
word for ne-^-noydsdgiis nenu'sog^^'; and, fm-thermore, in current Fox would be preceded by ku'pi'^tci-. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 105 

I have a buffalo-blanket; 

I have a buffalo-blanket; 

I have a buffalo-blanket; 

The manitous have given me a buffalo-blanket; 

I have a buffalo-blanket; 

I have a buffalo-blanket; 

I have a buffalo-blanket.'^ 

Tlien they danced again. This is how they sang: 

I am dancing myself around, I am dancing myself around; 
I am dancing myself around, I am dancing myself around; 
It is when I am dancing myself around; 
It is when I am dancing myself around; 
I am dancing myself around. '' 

They will say, they will say; 

They will say, they will say; 

They will say; 

The buffaloes 

Will say, they will say; 

They will say; 

The}' will say; 

The}- will say, they will say; 

It is he; 

They will say; 

He said.'* 

Whatever he has done, I shall do the same; 
Whatever he has done, I shall do the same; 
Whatever he has done, I shall do the same; 
Whatever he has done, I shall do the same; 
Whatever he has done, I shall do the same; 
Whatever he has done, I shall do the same.'' 

They, the buffaloes, are going about with light; 
They, the buffaloes, are going about with light; 
They, the buffaloes, are going about with light; 
They, the buffaloes, are going about with light; 
They go about slowly with dim light; 
They go about slowly with dim light; 
They, the buffaloes, are going about with light; 
Slowly."^ 

Then it is said after they had danced again, then, "What ever is 
first cooked, is what we shall eat, ceremonial attendants," the cere- 
monial attendants were told. He dished out (the food). After 

"Supposed to be said by the one blessed. "He" means the white buffalo. N ote -'kwdni for -gw an'"'. 
The common words for ini+ -teyana which is for InV'tiySn'', are "fni viVVcawiyan«<\ Observe that 
nlnd-^ is lacking in line 2. The translation can not bring this out. 

30 According to the informant, a long time ago when a herd of buffaloes were standing together at night- 
time, there was a flashing of light; in the morning there was just dim light. The song has reference to this. 

3599°— 25t 8 



106 ORIGIN' OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

a'a'^tci'moni'^tc Ane'ki'"'": Na'i' manetowA'ku'i mA'ni netawAtenA- 
ma'wapen'"^', mA'ni pota''kwayag''<''. MAni'*tca''wa''tc awate- 
nAma'wAge''tc'", kenwa''ci wi'AnemiwI'^tciine'to'sanenl'gayag''^'; 
wi'inanemi'yAme'^tc'', I'ni wa'''tci mA'ni mAmato'mAge'^tci wi'se'- 
5 niweni tca'g a'cinagwA'tenig''''. Ini''tca"i wi'u'^tciwrse'niyag''''^"; 
i''kwatig'"'', na'kA'^'tci kinwa'wA ne'nitig'"'', wi'senigo'!" a'i'ne- 
me'*tc me'to'sane'niwa"'". Iniga'ipi'meg a'wapina'gani'^tc'', ka'kA- 
mi'meg a'Anwawa'i'gani'^tc''. 

Tcagaplyani nino, tcagapiyani nino; 
10 Tcagapiyani nino, tcagaplyani nino; 

Tcagapiyani nin5; 

Yo+ma+ni+ yo+ y6+ma+ni4- yo+ ma'netowagi 'ayo+ta+"kimwagi 
Tcagapiyani nino, tcagapiyani nino; 
Tcagapiyani nino, tcagapiyani nino. 

15 Wl'aiya+'kwi'yani 'aiya'kwi'yani; 

Wl'aiya+'kwi'yani 'aiya'kwi'yani; 

Wi'aiya+'kwi'yani 'aiya'kwi'yani; 

Wi'aiya+ 'kwi'yani; 

MAni'i'i ki'cegwi mA'ni manetowi; 
20 Wi'aiya+'kwi'yani 'aiya'kwi'yani; 

Wi'aiya+'kwi'yani 'aiya'kwi'yani; 

Wi'aiya+'kwi'yani "aiya'kwi'yani. 

Maiyomaiyowi+mAni ■A'kiye' + ; 
Maiyomaiyowino; 
25 Maiyomaiyowi mAni' ■A'kiye+; 

Ma+yomaiyowino; 

Ma+nl ma+ni ma'netowi' ko+'ci"semena+ni; 
Maiyomaiyowi niAni 'A'kiye' + ; 
Maiyomaiyowi mAni 'A'kiye' + . 

30 Waguna'i wa<itci'cikanawayani? 

Waguna'i wa"'tci'cikanawayani? 

Waguna'i wa'^tci'cikanawayani? 

Waguna'i? 

Wina yo yo wapineno'swa 'o'ma'neto'mi 
35 Wa'^tci'cikAnawaj'ani. 

Waguna'i wa'^tci'cikanawayani? 

Waguna'i wa<'tci'cikanawayam? 

Ne's6'nAmegiwi'ni'mini<'tc''," Na'i', I'nugi mA'ni ki'cini'miyag'''"'', 
i'ni wi'wi'se'niyagwe pe''k''," a'i'neme'^tc''. 'A'nImiwA'A'mini''tc''. 

40 Wawapa+ne"kwawo'sa"Agwe mAna+ ke"tciko'pidtcineno'swa+; 

Wawapa+ne'kwawo'sa''Agwe mAna+ ke'tciko'pi<'tcineno'swa+; 
Wawapa+ne'kwawo'sa''Agwe mAna+ ke'tciko'pi*toineno"swa+; 
Yo mAni' ketA'kimenani 
Wawapa+ne'kwawo'sa"Agwe mAna+ ke'tciko'pi''tcineno'swa+. 

" Apparently supposed to be said by the one blessed. The ordinary word for tcagaplyani is S'tcagilciU- 
piydn"^'. Ordinary protractions of vowels are passed over. 

>* The one blessed was standing; he was as tall as the sky of the manitous. The song refers to this. 

'• The sense is: "This earth is weeping, the earth, our grandchild, is weeping." The ordinary word for 
ma'netowi' is manetoioimi'n"'. The one blessed when fasting dreamed the earth was weeping. There are 
grammatical anomalies present which I have treated as explained by the informant. 



MiCHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 107 

dishing it out, "There," he said. And then it is said he gave a short 
talk: " Now, we have handed this to the manitou, this which we have 
placed in kettles. This verily is why we have handed it to him, that 
we may be able to live a long time in the future with the people; to 
plan for us that way, that is why we worship him with this food of all 
kinds. That verily is why you are to eat; women and you men, 
eat ! " the people were told. Then he began singing, beating the drum 
from the beginning. 

I sit down everywhere, I sit down everywhere; 

I sit down everywhere, I sit down everywhere; 

I sit down everywhere; 

Here on the manitous' earth 

I sit down everywhere, I sit down everywhere; 

I sit down everywhere, I sit down everywhere.'' 

As far as I shall reach, as far as I reach; 
As far as I shall reach, as far as I reach; 
As far as I shall reach, as far as I reach; 
As far as I shall reach 
(Is) this firmament of the manitous; 
As far as I shall reach, as far as I reach; 
As far as I shall reach, as far as I reach; 
As far as I shall reach, as far as I reach." 

This earth is weeping, weeping; 

Is weeping, weeping; 

This earth is weeping, weeping; 

Is weeping, weeping; 

This earth, our grandchild; 

This earth is weeping, weeping; 

This earth is weeping, weeping.'' 

Why is it that I speak thus? 

Why is it that I speak thus? 

Why is it that I speak thus? 

Why? 

The conversation of the white buflfalo himself 

Is why I speak thus. 

Why is it that I speak thus? 

Why is it that I speak thus? " 

The third time they were to dance, "Now after we dance this time, 
then we shall eat heartily," they were told. They gave the dance 
songs. 

We shake the mane of this huge buffalo; 
We shake the mane of this huge buffalo; 
We shake the mane of this huge buffalo; 
Here, on this earth of ours 
We shake the mane of this huge buffalo." 

<o The sense is: "Why is it that I speak? It is because the white buffalo blessed me." The word 'oma'- 
jK^o'mi stands for umaiieto'mi, an old-fashioned word for ukA' nau-ln'^'' in this sense. Ordinarily it would 
mean "his mystic power." Of course anal>"tically umaneto' mi means "his mystic power." 

*i When the white buffalo was about to bestow his blessing, his mane was shaking. 



108 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [ETH. ANN. 40. 

MA'niya' 'a'ciga'sai'yani+, mA'niya' 'a'ciga'sai'yani; 
MA'niya' "a'ciga'sai'yani, mA'niya' 'a'ciga'sai'yani; 
MA'niya' 'a'ciga'sai'yani, mA'niya' "a'ciga'sai'yani; 
MA'niya' 'a'ciga'sai'yani, mA'niya' 'a"ciga"sai'yani. 

5 Pyawa' ne'"liumagA, pyawa' ne'"kumagA; 

Pyawa' ne'"liumagA, pyawa' ne"liumagA; 

Ke''tcik6'pi<'tci wapineno'swa; 

Pyawa' ne"liumagA, pyawa'ne"kumagA; 

Pyawa' ne"kumagA, pyawa' ne"kumagA; 
10 Pyawa' ne"kumagA, pyawa' ne''kumagA. 

Ina4- wina+ neno+"swa+ wi+na;*^ 

Ina+ win a' neno"swa wina; 

Ina winA neno"swa wi'na; 

Ina WinA neno' 'swa wi+na; 
15 Ina+ wina+ neno+'swa+ wi+na; 

W4pi'neno"swa wina; 

W3.pi'ko'pi<'tcineno'+'swa; 

Ina+ wina+ nen5+'swa4- wi+na; 

Ina wina+ neno"swa+ wi+na; 
20 Ina wina+ neno + "swa+ wi+na. 

I'ni ne'se'nw a'kl'cmi'mini'^tc'". O'nip'', "Na"i', mAmi'ci"etig''^', 
nawA<'tciwI"senig5'. Me'ce'megu ki'wawa'pAtapwA wi'ml^'tciyag''''''", 
me'ce'meg'"'','' 'a"uie''tci mAmI''ci'Ag'''". A'wi'se'niwa'^tc''. O'ni 
ki'ci-wl"se'niwa''tc'', "Na'i', wapina'i'siga"igag''"','' a'i'neme'^tc''. 

25 Ki'ci'megutcagi'siga'i'giiwe'^tc'' : "Na'i', ma'netowA nemAmato'ma- 
pen°'^'. MA'ni''tca" a'cinAtotAma'wAge''tc'', kenwa''ci wi'me'to- 
'saneni'wiyag'"'', I'n a'i'nAge^'tc''. MAiiA"'tca' A'ckuta'na'siwA 
nA'cawai'ye kf ciwapa^'tci'motug a'cinAtota"sAge''tc'". Wi'nA nekl- 
"ci'a''tcimo''apenA wI'a''tcimwi'tawi'yAme''tc''. Ini'^tca''! wi'u'^tciwi- 

30 'se'niyag"'"''" ; wi'seni'g''"'!" a"ini''tc''. Inipi'meg'^"', "Wi'se'niwi- 
nAgA'monAni m'ai'yoyAg'"'"'",'' a"mi''tc'". A'wapina'gani''tc'': 

WApAtamami'gu wi"i'"cina'gwi"a'ge nino neno'so'gi wi'i'cinagwi'a'ge; 
WApAtamawi'gu wi'i"cina'gwi'a'ge nino neno'so'gi wi'i'cinagwi'a'ge; 
WApAtamawi'gu wi'i''cina'gwi'a'ge neno'so'gi; 
35 WApAtamawi'gu wi'i"cina'gwi'a'ge neno'so'gi; 

WApAtamawi'gu wi'i''cina'gwi'a'ge neno'so'gi. 

WApine'no'swi' 'o'sowanowi nina; 
WApine'no'swi' "o'sowanowi nina; 
WApine'no'swi' "o'sowanowi nina; 
40 WApine'no'swi' "o'sowanowi nina; 

WApine'no'swi' "o'sowanowi nina; 
WApine'no'swi' 'o'sowanowi nina; 
WApine'no'swi' 'o'sowanowi nina. 

Kiwinana"inago"siyani ni'na wi'se'niyani; 
45 Kiwinana"inago"siyani ni'na wi'se'niyani; 

Nina kiwi'seniyanini kiwinana"inago"siyani nina; 
Kiwinana"inago"siyanini. 

'! The fifthline is taken from line 1. 

" The white buffalo when oq his way to bestow his blessing saj's, "This is the way I malse my feet go." 
MA'niya' is foT mA^n'^rt i' . 
*^ Said by the one blessed. 
*> "It is the white buffalo who has blessed me" is the meaning. 



MICUELSON.I ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 109 

This is the way I make my feet go, tliis is the way I make my feet go; 
This is the way I make my feet go, this is tlie way I make m}- feet go ; 
This is the way I make my feet go, this is the way I make my feet go; 
This is tlie way I make my feet go, this is the way I make my feet go.*' 

He came whom I answered, he came whom I answered; 

He came whom I answered, he came whom I answered (namely;, 

The huge wliite buffalo; 

He came whom I answered, he came whom I answered; 

He came whom I answered, he came whom I answered; 

He came whom I answered, he came whom I answered." 

It is he, the buffalo, it is he; 
It is he, the buffalo, it is he; 
It is he, the buft'alo, it is he; 
It is he, the buffalo, it is he; 
It is he, the buffalo, it is he; 
The wliite buffalo, it is he; 
The white buffalo, it is he; 
It is he, the buffalo, it is he; 
It is he, the buffalo, it is he; 
It is he, the buffalo, it is he.*^ 

Then they had danced three times. And then it is said, ''Now, 
ceremonial attendants, stop and eat. You will each see just what 
you want to eat, anything," the ceremonial attendants were told. 
They ate. Then after eating, "Now, commence serving (the food)," 
they were told. After all was served (he said) : "Now, we are wor- 
shipping the manitou. This is what we pray to him for, that we may 
live a long time, that is what we say to him. The Spirit of the Fire 
must have long before commenced speaking of what we pray to him 
for. We have told him to explain it for us. That is why you are to 
eat; eat!" he said. Then at once, it is said, "We shall use the 
eating-songs," he said to them. He began singing: 

Look at the way I shall make them look, how I shall make the buffaloes 

look; 
Look at the way I shall make them look, how I shall make the buffaloes 

look; 
Look at the way I shall make the buffaloes look; 
Look at the way I shall make them look, 
Look at the way I shall make them look.*" 

I am the white buffalo's tail; 
I am the white buffalo's tail; 
I am the white buffalo's tail; 
I am the white buffalo's tail; 
I am the white buffalo's tail; 
I am the white buffalo's tail; 
I am the white buffalo's tail.'" 

I go about looking well when I eat; 

I go about looking well when I eat; 

When I (graze) around and eat, I go aoout looking well; 

When I eat, I go about looking well.'" 

<« The white huHalo is telling the Indian, " Looli and see how I shall diess them." The Indian thenlooks 
at the different buffaloes. 
*^ The tail is in the sacred pack. 
<8 The one blessed prepared a meal for the white buffalo, the latter is saying this song. 



110 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

WAni<'tcI+kAni+ neno'swe + ; 

WAni''tci+kAm+ neno'swe + ; 

WAni''t-cI+kAnI+ neno'swe + ; 

WAni''tcIkAneni'i + na; 
5 WAni''tcI + kAni+ neno'swe + ; 

WAni''tei + kAni+ neno'swe + J 

WAni<'tcIkAneni'i + na; 

Maiyo + 'iwa'wl neno'swe + ; 

Maij'6+ 'Iwa'wl neno'swe + ; 
10 WAni''tci+kAnI+ neno'swe + ! 

WAni<'tcikAneni'I +na; 

WAni''tci + kAnr+ neno'swe + ; 

WAni"'tcI+kAni+ neno'swe + ; 

WAni<'tei+kAm+ neno'swe + ; 
15 WAni<'tcikAneni'i+na. 

Krci"senya"ena'ni ni'no, ki'ci'senya"ena'ni ni'no; ™ 
Ki'ci'senya"ena'ni ni'no, ki'ci'senya"ena'ni ni'no; 
MAni+ manota+negl 'a'tA'ci + ki'cI + 'senyanena'ni mn6 + ; 
Krci'senya"ena'ni ni'no, krei'senya"ena'ni ni'no; 
20 Ki'ci'senya'enanini, ki'ci'senya'enanini. 

Maneto'wiwi nlyawl, maneto'wiwi nlyawl; 
Maneto'wiwi nlyawl, maneto'wiwi niyawi; 
Maneto'wiwi niyawi; 

Y6+ in All' 'a'kiye+ wi'seni+ta'wAgi nino + ; 
25 Maneto'wiwi niyawi, maneto'wiwi niyawi; 

Maneto'wiwi niyawi, maneto'wiwi niyawi; 
Maneto'wiwi niyawi. 

"Oni, "Mame''tcina'"i wi'ni'miyag'"''*''; ka'kAmi''tca"megu ni'- 
mig''"",'' a'i'neme'^tci wi'nimi'ni'^tci'''. "Ki'ke'tcinimrka'wipen"^",'' 
30a'i'neme<'tc''. 

Wi'I+wdge; 

Wl'I+wage i'wage wi + na', wi'i+wage, wi'i+wage I'wdge; 

Wl'i+wage i'wage; 

Wi'i+wage i'wage i'wage I'wage i'w&ge; 
35 Wi'i+wage wi'i+wige i'wdge; 

Wi'i+wage i'wage; 

WApi'nano'sogi; 

Wi'i+wage I'wage wi+na^, wi'i + w.age, wi'i+wage i'wdge; 

Wi'i+wage i'wage; 
40 Wl'I+wage I'wage i'wage i'wage I'wage; 

Wi'i+wage wi'i+wage i'w&ge; 

Wi'i+wage i'wage; 

Wi'i+wage I'wage i'wage i'wige i'wage. 

*^ It was impossible to obtain the entire esoteric meaning of this song. "Weeping, weeping" refers to 
the enemy; they will be fought and then will wail. Maiyo+'iwd'wi is a grammatical anomaly: wAni- 
<'tcikAnini'i+na is for wAnVkakATt"'' . Other variations require no remarks. 

^'^ The last line is restored from the song as written in the syllabajy. 

SI The one blessed has killed many enemies, and is addressing the white buffalo. " I have killed many 
enemies for you" is the hidden meaning of " I have given you a feast." 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. HI 

You should forget, buffalo; 

You should forget, buffalo; 

You should forget, buffalo; 

You should forget; 

You should forget, buffalo; 

You should forget, buffalo; 

You should forget; 

Weeping buffalo; 

Weeping buffalo; 

You should forget, buffalo; 

You should forget; 

You should forget, buffalo; 

You should forget, buffalo; 

You should forget, buffalo; 

You should forget." 

I have given j'ou a feast, I have given you a feast; 
I have given j'ou a feast, I have given you a feast; 
Here is the mouth is where I fed you; 
I have given you a feast, I have given you a feast; 
I have given j'ou a feast, I have given you a feast.*' 

My body has the nature of a manitou, my body has the nature of a 

manitou ; 
M}' body has the nature of a manitou, my body has the nature of a 

manitou; 
My body has the nature of a manitou; 
Here on this earth, I make a feast for him; 
My body has the nature of a manitou, my body has the nature of a 

manitou; 
My body has the nature of a manitou, my body has the nature of a 

manitou; 
My body has the nature of a manitou.*^ 

Then, "We shall dance for the last time; so dance from the start," 
those who were to dance were told. "You are to dance heartily for 
us," they were told. 

They will say; 

They will say, thej' will saj-, they will say; 

They will sa\'; 

They will say; 

They will say, they will say; 

They will say; 

The white buffaloes; 

They will say, they will say, they wiU say; 

They will say; 

They will say; 

They will say, they will say; 

They will say; 

They will say.*^ 

^2 The one blessed tells the slain enemy that killing the foe is the same as feeding the white buffalo. It 
may be remarked that grammatically line 4 is a puzzle. Nino for nfrt"-*' is not as common as nind. 

^3 One of the herd to which the white buffalo belongs says this. Th3 meaning is that the Indians will 
derive benefit from the sacred pack. The words of the song remind us of those of song 3, page 104. W'e 
have variations of icViwAg^^' and possibly 'iwAg'^<'. Disregarding the first line, and the line "The white 
boffaloes," the metrical scheme is -abcde-abcdec. It is impossible to bring this out in a translation. 



112 ORIGIlSr OF THE WHITE BUFFAliO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

MAni wato'wa'yani; 
Maih wato'wa'yani; 
MaiiI wato'wa'yani nina; 
MAni wato'wa'j'iini; 
5 MAni wato'wa'yani nIna; 

Ma'ni'I neno'so' +gi "uta'klmwawl; 
MAni wato'wa'3'ani; 
Mahi wato'wa'yani nina; 
MAni wato'wa'yani nina; 
10 MAni wato'wa'yani; 

MAni wato'wa'yani nino. 

Kitciganowatanawl, 

WApin6"ina'wi; 

Kitciganowatanawl; 
15 Wapineno'so"a+nawi kitciganowatanawl; 

Wapineno'so''a +nawi kitciganowatanawl; 

Wapineno'so"a+nawi kitciganowatanawl; 

Kitciganowatanawl; 

Wapineno'so"a+nawi kitciganowatanawl; 
20 Wapineno'so"a+nawi kitciganowatanawl. 

Nina ke'ke'kenii'mene; 
Nina ke'ke'kenii'mene; 
Nlna+ wa'pineno'so'a+ 'a'i'clgi ninA; 
Nina ke'ke'kena'mene; 
25 Nina ke'ke'kena'mene; 

Nlna+ wa'pineno'so'a+ 'a'i'clgi ninA; 
Nina ke'ke'kena'mene; 
Nina ke'ke'kena'mene; 
Nina. 

30 A'ki nina' ni'ke'tcinimita 'inA; 

A'ki nina' ni'ke'tcinimita 'i'nA; 

A'ki nina' ni'ke'tcinimita 'i'nA; 

A'ki nina' ni'ke'tcinimita 'i'nA; 

"A'cki nina+ ni'ke'tcinimita' "inA; 
35 'A'cki nina+ ni'ke'tcinim,ita' 'inA; 

'A'cki mna+ ni'ke'tcinimita' "InA. 

Ko'kwanepapemigo'o ni'kanetl'; 
Ko'kwanepapemigu ni'kaneti; 
Ko'kwanepapemigu ni'kaneti'; 
40 Ko'kwanepapemigu ni'kaneti'; 

Ko'kwanepapemigu ni'kaneti'; 
Ko'kwanepapemigu ni'kaneti'; 
Ko'kwanepapemigu ni'kaneti' ; 
Ko'kwanepapemigu ni'kanetige' +. 

'* The meaning of the song is: "I talce this land where the buffaloes are so that the enemy can not get 
them." The song is by the one blessed. 

^^ The one blessed is told in a dream to look for the one who is to bless him. The above translation 
assmnes that -ndwiis merely for padding, as -ndwi in another song. The interpreter takes it as a verb, 
''see him," which it might be, though not plausibly. In any case the metrical scheme is 1X1222122. 



MiCHELsnN.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 113 

I take this; 

I take this; 

I take this, I do; 

I take this; 

I take this, I do; 

Tliis land of the buffaloes; ' 

I take this; 

I take this, I do; 

I take this, I do; 

I take tliis; 

I take this, I do.*' 

The one Iiolding his tail up, 

Look at Iiim; 

The one holding his tail up; 

The little white buffalo holding its tail up; 

The little white buffalo holding its tail up; 

The little white buffalo holding its tail up; 

The one holding his tail up; 

The little white buffalo holding its tail up; 

The little white buffalo holding its tail up.^ 

I know you; 

I know you; 

I am called "the little white buffalo"; 

I know you; 

I know you; 

I am called "the little white buffalo"; 

I know you; 

I know you; 

J 56 

I shall dance vigorously on the earth, there; 
I shall dance vigorously on the earth, there; 
I shall dance vigorously on the earth, there; 
I shall dance vigorously on the earth, there; 
I shall dance vigorously for the first time there; 
I shall dance vigorously for the first time there; 
I shall dance vigorously for the first time there." 

Look at me all around, m3' friends; 
Look at me all around, my friends; 
Look at me all around, mj- friends; 
Look at me all arovuid, my friends; 
Look at me all around, my friends; 
Look at me all around, my friends; 
Look at me all around, my friends; 
Look at me all around, my friends.*' 

88 The white buffalo is speaking to the Indian. 

8^ Said by the Indian after being blessed. "This is the first time I shall dance vigorously after being 
blessed" is the meaning. He points to the earth and says, " There." The above translation is based on 
the paraphrase of the informant, but if correct, grammatical anomalies are present. 

8s The one blessed is saying this to the people; nt'kdneti' is for ni'Mnetig'"'. 



114 OEIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [ETH. ANN. 40. 

Nenowi' +ka'wra'wagi, nenowl' +ka'wra'wagl; 
Nenowl' +ka'wl'a'wagi, nenowi' +ka'wra'wagi; 
Nenowi' +ka'wl'a'wagi, nenowi' +ka'wl'a'wagi; 
Nenowi' +ka'\vl'a'wagi, nenowi' +ka'wi'a'wagi; 
Nenowi' +ka'wi'a'wagi, nenowi' +ka.'wi'a'wagi; 
Nenowi' +ka'wi'a'wagi. 

Ini' nyawenw a"ki'cini'mini<'tc'". O'nip a'a'^tci'moe''tc'': "Ma'dI 
mi"cami ki'ke"kin6's a'ci'nagwA'k''. Kegime''s ini'megu wi'i'ci'- 
nagwA'k'". O'ni ma'A'ni nAgAmo'na'Ani kekrci'meguke"kino"s 

10a''ci'seg'''". Ka'tA WAni''ka'kAn Iiii'meg a'kl'ci'megu'uke'ki'nawapi- 
'eneg''''. A"ce ki'nA keke"kinawapi'"eg6pi wi'i'ci'i'ci'tci'gayAn"''. 
Keml'negop'". Ini''tca"megu wrAnemi"i"ci"ci"tci'gayAn°'". A'gwi 
negu'ta'i wI'pe'kini'i'ci'tciga'yAnin"''. A'penii'^tci'megu niA'ni 
wi'Anemi'i"ci'tci'gayAn°''. Iniga"megu 'i'ci'nyawenwi wi'nimi'wA'- 

15'AmAni negu'ti wa''sayaw""', a'gwi 'awA'sI'ma''', ini'megu'u. 
MAni'megu' ana'piyAn ini'meg a'wi'i'ca'wiyAn"''. 

"Me'cena'iyo winA'meg awA'si'ma'i wi'A'pi'tcike'kanetAmowi'- 
ta'awu'wlya''^'. A'g'"^'', kl'nAku'^tc aiyo" niAiii ketA'cike'kinawripi'- 
'egogi katemi'no'kig'^''. MlnawapiyA'nega''', agu'wiya'A wi'nii'wA- 

20''tcin°'". A'ce'megu wI'wI'cigike"kino'"soyAn ana'neme'k i'ni wa'''tc 
ina'pi'e'k''. Ne'ci'kAga'"megu wI'nA kinwa'w aiy6"i ke'tawip'^'^'. 
Agwiga'"i ke'te'n u'wiyii' aiyo'' a'wi'^tcin"''. IniyagA'megu me'teno" 
Apikiwipitiga'wAgwig ini'gi ka'kino"A'm5'kig''''. A'ce'megu wi'ke- 
'ka'nemA'^tc a'cita"awa''tc I'ni wil'^tcimama'^tcigi'megu wi'tAmo'ki 

25 me' to "'tc''. I'ni wa''^tcika'cke"tawA''tc a'cina'gawa''tci ke'tciniiwe'- 
megu, nianetowinAgA'monAn a/'mlne'k''. KatA'^tca''i wAnT'ka'"so- 
'kAn"''. Wrwi'cigi'megunene'kina'wa'A''teikI'i''cit'a'e wi'^tci'soma'i'- 
yAnig"'". 

"Na'kA''^tci maiyawi"soyAn°'', I'ni wrno'tAniAni niA'n"''. 
SOCewa'n a'gw A''pena''tc'' : me'ten6''mogu krci'a'^tcimo'e'nagin'''', I'ni 

wi'na'gwaiyAn"''. Ka'tA nAn6''ckwe na'gwa'kAn"''. O'ni wi''tci- 

'so'mAtcigi me'teno"megu m6'ci"towat''', i'ni wfawA'towa'^tc''. 

MA'ni'i kcml"camwaw I'ni wi'i'ca'wiyag'''^'''," a"ine'*tc a'ina"pA- 

'wa'^tc'". 
35 O'nip a"to'ki'^tc''. Kenil'^tci'megu 'a''t6'kl''tc''. A'na'gwani'^tc''. 

A'tA'ci'a'kwa'ni^'tcini wape'ckikAka'nwigA'cawA'nip''. I'na'i 
tA'ci'a'kwa'niwAni yo'w^". Uwl'g ii'wa'pAtAg A'cA'cAwii'^tci'megu 
'a'cinagw^A'tenig'^''. Uto'ckutami'ga' a'A'tii'nige'e wanAto'kA'meg 
a'mA'ci'cki'ki'winig''''. A'pe'kwa'i'^tcini'ga' a'tcagAne'tenig''''. 
40A'cA'kugwameg''''. A'kl'cagu''tci'megu kAka'n6'kwa''tc''. Uke'tcl'- 
pi'eg A'ki'gima' a'aiyA''k6'kwa''tc''. Cewa'n utS'ckl'tagAn 
a'pwawi'megu kago''i 'i'ci'genigi mAni'meg''"". 'A'ci'nowi''tc 
a'wapa''ckanig uwl'g''''. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 115 

I am marching them out, I am marching them out; 
I am marching them out, I am marching them out; 
I am marching them out, I am marching them out; 
I am marching them out, I am marching them out; 
I am marching them out, I am marching them out; 
I am marching tliem out. *' 

Tliey then had danced four times. And it is said he was told: 
"You learn how this sacred pack looks. All of them will look just 
like that. And you have learned how these songs are sung. Uo not 
forget them as you have indeed been made to learn by observation. 
You alone have been made to learn by observation how to carry it on. 
You are given it. Verily now you must continue to practice this. 
You shall not do it differently in any part. You must always 
continue to do this way. That is, you shall have them dance four 
times in one day, not any more than this, this is all. What you have 
seen is what you will do. 

"No doubt that some one will think that he knows more about it. 
No, for you were made to learn by observation here by the beings 
who blessed you. If you look closely, you will not see anyone. 
Because they want you to remember very securely how you have 
been thought of is why they made you see this. You are the only 
ones here. It is true that no one else is here. The beings whom we 
have visited in going around are the ones who have been teaching it 
to you. Because they simply want you to know them is why they 
have truly instructed you. That is why you heard in person how 
they sang, and why they have given you the manitou-songs. So do 
not pretend to forget them. You are to think how you may make 
an impression on those named after (the same animal) as you [i. e., 
those of your gens]. 

"Moreover, when you lead a war party, then you must carry this 
on your back. But not all the time: only after they have told you, 
you can go. Do not go aimlessly. And your fellow-clansmen °" may 
carry it only when they have a vision of it. This is the way you 
must do with your sacred pack here," he was told in his dream. 

Then it is said he woke up. He woke up slowly. Tlien the other 
departed. 

It is said at this place a white grizzly bear was very furious. For- 
merly it had been furious there. He looked at his dwelling and it 
looked as if it had been a long time ago. There was grass growing 
nonchalantly where his fire had been. And his pillows had all rotted 
out. He felt weak from sleeping. He had very long hair. His hair 
was as long as just below his waist. But his clothing was not in any 
way like this. Just as he went out his dwelling crumbled down. 

'• This is the last song. The white buSalo says this to the other buffaloes, and the one blessed says 
the same, 
c" A convenient translation, even if not strictly accurate. The Foxes are organized in gentes, not clans. 



116 OEIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [ETH. ANN. 40. 

A"nagwa''tc a'uwi'giwa'^tc'". A'pe'kinma^'A'tenigi'megu ki'- 

'cagu''tc''. Agwi'meg I'niy a'cinagwAteni'ge''''. "A'pwawi'megu- 

pepya'wi'cinagwA'tenig'^''. AVa'pu'siftc''. lya'i pya'ya''tc 

a'uwi'giwa'^tc'", WAni'naw a"A'"tanigi wigi'yapyan"''. A'gwip 

Sa'ci'se'nige' i'ci'se'nigin"''. 

O'nipi negu't a'pi'tiga'^tc a'pya**tcipe'kwAna'pmi''tc i'"kwawAn°''. 
A'ck^V^tci'megu "awapA'megu'^tc'". A"ke'tciwapA'megu''tci me'^tci'- 
meg''"'. Ugi'g a'ina'nemii'^tc''. 

O'nip a'kAno'negu'^tc'': "Me'to'''tci'ckwe! niA'nA negwi"s*V' 
10a"ini''tc'', "'ugwi'semenA'gaiyo," a"igu''tc''. 

"Ke'nemap'V' a''ina''tc''. "Ni'nani ne'gyA kiitawi'i'cma'gu'si- 
''tci kek.vtawi'i'cina'gu's'V' a"ma''tc''. 
A'mamA'kAtawAnowa'pini''tc'', a'mA'kAta'wini'^tc'". 
O'nip'", "MA'ni pya'^tci'ca'wiyan"''. Wi^'tca'wiwAg A'cawaiye'- 
15megu ne'po'Iw"*^', inA<'tci'kago" a'ke'ka'netAg*"'', I'ni wa^'tcine'- 
'segwi^'tc A'pe'nawen"''. Iniga'"ma'A'ni wa'^tci'ina'gwAteg otawe- 
niwlgi'yapyan"'', ma'n a'tcagi'nawa''tci me'to'sane'niwAg'''"." 

"O' wa'na'ini, 'o' nl'nAga'i mA'n a'ca'wiyan"''. I'da no"s 

a'nAt*'. NinA'^tca" a'nepo''ite'e wa"'tci tape''siyani n5''sA 

20mA''tci"kago' a'ke'kii'netAg''''. 'Ka'tA nA"kniiAmawi'yagAn°''/ 

kete'ne yo'w"''='. Nemi'catanemu"'tca' i'n a'cawi'wAnan"'', 

pwawiki'cinA'kunAinawa'wAtan°''." 

"Ya', 'wii'nA! Negwi''s I'n a"pya''tc'". Agwi'*tca'"megu nAna"ci 

nA'kunAma'wAgini yo'w"''''. A'cimiyAni'meg''"', negwi'"'', i'n 

25a'ca'wiyan'''". A'cega'wi'nA wa'^tcimA'kata'wIyan'^'", a'uwi'giyAn 

a"tA"ca'kwa^tci kAka'nwikA'caw''*". 'Ne"se'g5tuge negwi''s*",' 

a'cita'"ayan''''. I'ni wa/^tcimA'kAta'wiyan"''. Mane'nwi ku''*tc 

ite'p i''a\VAgi ne'niwAg''''. Agwi'megu wata'wi ■wrpyanu'tAmo'ki 

ki'g""'". A'pe'poniga'pe'e wanAt'o'kA'meg A'kwi'tAgone' cegi'ce'- 

SOgi'cin™'^'. Mo'tci'meg a'sl'sl'sike'si'yanig'^'', wanAto'kA'megu'u 

'Api'Apiwa'pe'e' sa'gi''tc''. Na'kA'^^tc a'pena'winig a'ke'tciwi'cA'- 

tanig'''', wanAto'kA'megape' Api'Api'w'*'^'. Keki'cime'guyowenepo- 

waneme'nepen"'*^'. Cl! Wa'nA'^tci"i! Aiyo"i ketu'^tcina'wun""". 

CepawI''tA na''i "a'gwi yatu'ge nawA'te'^V' a'"ina''tc u'gwi'sAn"'". 

35 "Agwi'^tca"meg u'wiyii'A na'wAgin"''. MAniga"meg a'cino'- 

wiyan i'n a'wapa'cka'g i'niye ni'g'''". WanAto'kAga'"mcgu mA'ci- 

"cki"kiwlwi ni'g''''. Neto'ckuta'migii' a" a" tag agwi'megu pA'ci 

wi'a'wagig'''', iiyigi'megu mA'ci''cki''kiwiw"'". I'n a"cikeg''''. 

"Iniku''^tci wa^'tcinepowane'menage na"kA''*tc ane't a'ino'- 

40wawa''tc'': ' InAma'i'nanA kegwi"saiy6w"''", a'ku''kigi"'tc'',' i'n 

a'Anemi'ci'sa'gimig''''. Ne'sa'sagimego'pi y5. Mi''ckutAge mA'n 

a"wa'ci'"oyan°'', agwi'megu kago" i'cimo'ci'e'naniniga'i. A'tA- 

'swiki'ci'cino'i'yanin"'', 'A'cawigwa'ni'ckwe negwi''s*V a'cita- 

'ayana'pe'"", iniga'"megu mo'tca'pe' a'mai'ySyani nene'kaneme'- 

45nanui'''". IniyA'ga'i ko''sA na"ina''i, 'kAkanwigA'ca'wApi nawap'",' 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BLTFFALO DANCE. 117 

He went away to where they lived. It looked very differently. 
The previous (dwelling) did not look so. It did not look the least bit 
as before. He walked on. When he arrived yonder where they 
lived, the wickiups were everywhere. It is said they were not set 
as they were before. 

Tlicn it is said he entered one: a woman was sitting with her back 
toward him. Later on indeed she looked at him. She looked at 
him very hard. It seemed to him as if it was his mother. 

Tlicn it is said he was addressed: "'Wliy! this looks just like my 
son," she said. "You might be my son," he was told. 

"I don't know," he told her. "You look almost the way my 
mother looks," he said to her. 

She sat there with blackened cheeks, for she was fasting. 

Then it is said, "This is what happened to me in the past. The 
one I was living with, died long time ago, because he had a knowledge 
of some evil thing, that was why a disease killed him. That is why 
these town-lodges look so, because many people died," (she said). 

"O, yes, and this is what happened to me. It is my father to 
whom 3'ou refer. I am glad that he died, because my father had 
knowledge of an evil thing. 'Do not accept it from him,' I formerly 
told you. So I am very proud of whatever you may have done, 
(provided) you have not taken it from him," (he said). 

"O, gracious! My son has now come. I did not ever accept it 
from him. Just what you told me, my son, was what I did. The 
reason I am fasting is because the grizzly bear is furious where you 
live. 'My son must have been killed' is what I thought. That is 
why I am fasting. Many times men went over there. But they were 
far from reaching your dwelling. In winter time, it would be lying 
unconcernedly on the snow. Even when it was extremely cold, it 
would be sitting outside imconcernedly all the time. And in summer 
time when it was very hot, it sat unconcernedly all the time. We had 
already thought you dead. I declare! Behold! I saw you right 
here. It is a good thing that you chanced not to see it (the bear)," 
she said to her son. 

"I did not see anyone. Just as I went out, that wickiup of mine 
crmnbled over. And there was grass all about my dwelling. Where 
my fu'e was, there was no sign of it, there was also grass in it. That's 
how it is." 

"That was the reason we thought you were dead and why some 
said: 'That was your son formerly, he has changed to it (the grizzly 
bear) ,' that is how I have been continually frightened by their words. 
For I have been constantly frightened by their words. Unfortu- 
nately, when I painted myself (i. e., blackened my face), I in no way 
had a vision of you. Every time I lay down, ' I wonder how my son 
is,' I would think, and I would even weep when I thought of you. 



118 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

"a'i'yowe'^tc'', ini'megu, 'Na"i', nrnAtawina'g\vA me'ce'megu 
'a'tA'pena,"i'wanan°'', I'ni w'i'kiwagwA''soyan°'V i'wape'^". 'Mo'- 
'tci 'wii'nA nrna"s^', mama'*tcigiku''tci'meg i'ni nIna'nA wi"ne- 
'ci'^tc'',' i'wS-pe'"". "O'ni na"ina' a'kwAmA'tAg'^'', 'Neini'cata'nemu 
5'ini,' S'l'^'tc''. 'Mama'^tcigi'meg i'ni wi'nepo''iyan°'',' i'n a"i- 
"ci'^tc'', 'wi'pwawine'ci'^tci negwi"s*',' iwA""*^'. 'Wi'nA negwi''s*', 
'a'gwi ne'ckina'wAgin"'' ; wi'nA nene"ckinag\vA negwi'"s'*"; ki'ki- 
"ki'^tca"megu ni'nA nete'panaw"^-*". Mo'tci'mcgu negwi''s'*', 'I'ni 
TO'papAgA'menan"'',' "i"cit^", "Au',' 'i'ciyaga'A'meg''"'. Mo'ki'- 

lO'tawite na'kA'^'tc'", awi'tA wi'ne'sAg inanemi'yaga''^'. Netepana'- 
WA^'tca",' 'iwa'pe'e yo'w'^'''. I'ni," "^'i'^'tc'". 

"'O' 'wa'nA'ini. Ini'^tca" a'ki'cimenwino'tonan°'','Ana'"^", cewa'n 
i'ni wi'A'ci'gayAg'''"*'; ku'''tci wi'kenotawa''toyAgwe ki'genan"'', 
pepe'tci'ma'''. Aiy6''win a'gwi wi'napiga'yAgwin"''," a'"ina''tc 

ISugya'n"'". 

O'n a'wapi'A"ciga''tc''. Ugya'n a'A'semi''egu''tc''. 
A'wawene'si''tci'ga" a'nawanineni''a'i'^tc'", a'ki'cagu^'tci'megu- 
wawe'ne'si'^tc''. 

"O'n a"nagwa'^tci ki'ci'gawa'^tc''; A'cega'"meg ii'kiwi'ci'ca'- 

20wu"sa''tc''. KAbo'tw a'Api''Api''tc'", me'ckwa'wa'kwan a"nawa'*tc'". 
A"minawa'pAma''tci' ci'! pepigwa'ck^vi^tca'"''. A'Ata'^penAg''''. 
"Ci', mA'ni na'tAman a'Anwawa'"tAmeg'''V' a'i'ci'ta'a'^tc''. O'nip 
a''nagwa''tc'', a'a'wAt5"^tciga''in"''. "Aiyo'tci! na'kA"'tci me'cku- 
"pwa'gAnAn A'kwi'itc A'se'ny a'A'pini'^tc''. AtAma'gAna'kw a'miguni'- 

25winig''''. 'A'wa'pAma'^tc a'ne'nawa'^tc''. 

"'Wa'nA, mA'nA wi'wi''^tci'Ag''*'," a'ci'ta'a'^tc'', a'wawene'ini- 
•■tci'ga'''. A"Ata'"pena''tc''. Ki"ki'cAta'pena''tc a''nagwa''tc''. 

O'nip a"ke'^tci''tc a'ki'cka'ki'winig'''", a''kwapi''tc'', 'a'tA- 
'ciwawa'se'tanig''''. "Ci! 'waguna'"i ni'kai'yatug A'nigan"'"," 

30'a"ci'ta'a'^tc'". A''nag\va'*tc ite'p ii'kegeni'i'^tci'meg''"', a'nAtawi'- 

' megunatAg''''. Aiyaniwega'"meg a'A'pi'tciwawa'se'tanig'^'". Ke- 
'tcine' pyaya^tc aiyaniwe'megu 'a'A'pI'tapAta'ninig'''"; po'si'megu 
ke''tcin a''pya''tc a'poniwawa'se'tanig''''. "Ci'! "waguna''i ni'kai'- 
yatug''"'?" a'ci'ta'a<'tc''. Ca''ck a'mA'kAtawapAta'ninig''''. 'O'nip 

35a"nenAg A'ci'*tcima''i pya'ya''tc''. A'seni'''tci'i! a"ki'cagu**tci- 
megumA'kAtawapAta'ninig''''. Iya"ip a'"pya''tc''. A'kwi'^tc ii'nene- 
'cki''senigi ml''cam"''. Me'cena"ina a'nAgi'gapa''tc'". A'nawA- 
''tci'meguminawa'pAtAg''''. "Ci, mAniwa'yatuge mo'ci''toyan°''," 
a'ci'ta'a'^tc''. Ke'"tcin ii'mawi'u'sa'pAtAg'^''. Ini'meg ini'ga' 

40a'A'pi'tcimA'kAta'wanig A'se'n"''. A'A'kwita'si'yota''tc''. "O'n 
a'mAtAgwA'pit5''tc'". AnapAtAgi'megu "a'm6"ci"t6'*tc a"i"pit6''tc''. 
Ki'cA'pito''tc ini'megu a'cinagwA'tenig'''". "Ci' "wa'nA, mA'nini 



MiciiELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE, 119 

Wlien it was said, 'A grizzly bear has been seen,' that father of yours 
used to say ' Now, I had desire to go somewhere and fall down where I 
may perish miserably. Because there is no chance for me to live, 
surely it is going to kill me,' he used to say. Tlien he took sick, ' I am 
very happy,' he said. 'Sm-ely now I am going to die,' he said to me, 
'so that m}^ son will not kill me,' he said. 'As for my son, I do not 
hate him; he, my son, hates me; but in spite of it, I love him myself. 
Even if my son (said), "I shall now club you to death," even if he 
said that to me, "iVll right," I would tell him willingly. Again, if he 
sprang out from ambush at me, I should not think of killing him. I 
truly love him,' he used to say. That is all," she said. 

"O, yes. It is very good what I have heard from you, mother, but 
we must now build (a wickiup) ; we must have a long lodge for our 
dwelling, and it must be away from here. We must not build it here 
in the same spot," he said to his mother. 

Then he began building. He was helped by his mother. 

He was very handsome, a nice-looking man, in fact he was exceed- 
ingly beautiful. 

After they had completed (the building), he went away; he just 
walked around hunting. Soon while he was sitting down for some 
time, he saw a cedar. "When he looked closely at it, lo! it was a flute. 
He picked it up. "Well, I saw this when it was being soimded," he 
thought. Then he went away, taking it along. Lo ! here also was a 
red stone pipe on top of a rock. The pipestem was decorated with 
feathers. He looked at and he recognized it. 

"Well, this is with what I am to live," he thought, for it was very 
pretty. He picked it up. After picking it up he went away. 

"Wlien he came to a high steep hill where there was a view, as far 
as he could see, (he saw) something sparkling there. "I declare! 
what, pray, is that yonder," he thought. Soon, "Now, I shall just 
go over and look at it," he thought. He went over there rapidly, for 
he desired to see it. All the while it sparkled just the same. Wlien 
he came close, it looked the same (as before) ; when he came much 
closer it stopped sparkling. "My! pray what is it? " he thought. It 
only looked dark. Tlien it is said when he came close he recognized 
it. Lo! it was a stone which looked very dark. He came up to it. 
On top of it a sacred pack was spread out. He halted and stood a 
little way from it. He first looked at it very closely. "Well, this 
must be what I dreamed of," he thought. He went close to examine 
it. It was the same thing. The rock was all the while black as 
charcoal. He climbed up on top by crawling. Then he started to 
fasten it together. He tied it up just as he saw it when he had a 
vision of it. After he tied it up it looked exactly like that. "Well, 
this is the sacred pack," he thought. 



120 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

O'n a'Api"Api''tci'. KAbotwe'meg a"tA'cLmaminawi'ta"a''tc''. 
PyiitanemA'tenig a'ka'cke'"tawa''tci niigAmo'ni'^tci''". A'tA'swi'- 
megupyataneniAte'nigin a'ka'cke'tawa'^tci'megu. A'pwawiga'wlnai- 
yoweno'tenig"^''. Cewii'nApi kAbotwe'meg a'pyatApyatanemA'- 
5tenig''''. A'ci'senigi'niegu negu'ti nA'gAinon a'i'ne'ca'*tc''. "Cl! 
'wii'nA niA'ni nemrca'm"'"," a'ci'ta'ii'^tc'". "A'a'"e," a"igwi"'tci 
note'n"''. 

A'i'ne'ca'^tciga'i mA'ni mene''t*': 

" Me'tegwI+neniwAglH — nenivvAgI + ." 
10 'O'lii nfco'iiAmeg'"': 

No',sa^*+, nma + , no + 'sa, nina'+, no'sa'." 
"O'ni ne'so'riAineg'''": 

"WS.+pi+ko'pi + ''tcine+no"sogI'." 
'O'ni na'kA'dtc": 
15 "Ma+ni iilyawi neke'ka'nemego+gi." 

'O'ni nalcA'-itc'' : 

" WApAta' +mawlg6 wl'i"ciga +pawrAgi." 
•O'ni na'kA''*tc'': 

"MAni+ nemi'"cainl', ne'si'i'+, nina." 
20 'O'ni na'kA'-^tc'': 

" WApine' +no"swA nenatawanemawA." 
"O'ni na'kA'^tc'": 

" Klyo'sa'igl manetowagi." 
'0'nina'kA''*tc'": 
25 " Notano'saya+ni, notano'saya+ni." 

"O'ni na'kA'<^tc'': 

" Nenono"sogI nina yo." 
'O'ni n^'kA'^^tc": 

'"Agwi'^tci neno'sogi'." 
30 Na'kA'^tc'": 

" W&pAta'pi+ ne'sowanowl yS+." 
Na"kA'<itc'': 

" Kiwineno'swanawi." 
Na"kA'<^tc'": 
35 "Na'imata+ nma+ tcagi4- neno'sogi." 

Na'kA'<itc*' : 

"Y6+ na+wa"cI+o+lemi mna+." 
Na'kA'<itc'": 

" Y6+ na'ega wapo"sa"igI." 
40 Na"kA"Jtc'" : 

"'Awlyani, 'awlyani, "awiyanl." 

Na'kA^itc'' : 

"Kiyo4kiyo4'sa'igl4 nina yo4." 

Na"kA'<itc'": 
45 " KiwikAnawawa "ineno'swA." 

" Tepe'kwi + kA'nawiwenI' +." 



MiCHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 121 

Then he sat there along time. Soon he was thinking seriously there. 
Wlien the wind blew toward him, he heard singers. Every time the 
wind blew he heard them. Before there was no wind. But it is said 
soon the wind would blow toward him. It was as if he heard one 
song. "Gracious! this is my sacred pack," he thought. "Yes," he 
was told by the wind. 

This was what he first heard: 

' ' The wood-men — men . ' ' 
Then the second time: 

" IMy father, mine, mj* father, mine, my father." 
Then the third time: 

"The white buffaloes." 
Then the fourth time: 
> "This is my body, they know me." 

Then again: 

"Look how they will stand." 
Then again: 

"This is my sacred pack, my younger brother, it is mine." 
Then again: 

"I desire for the white buffalo." 
Then again: 

" The manitous walk about." 
Then again: 

"I am walking on a windy daj', I am walking on a windy day." 
Then again: 

"The buffaloes I." 
Then again: 

"The buffaloes so much." 
Again : 

"My tail is looked at." 
Again : 

"The buffalo keeps on walking." 
Again : 

"The one who advises all the buffaloes is I." 
Again : 

"Here is my paint, mine." 
Again : 

"Yo, I am walked slowly." 
Again : 

"Where I am, where I am, where I am." 
Again : 

"I make them walk about." 
Again : 

"The buffalo goes about speaking." 
Again : 

"The night-speech." "' 

" Note that some songs are not cited absolutely accurately. The English translations of course follovT 
the citations and not the original songs. 

3599°— 25t 9 



122 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

A'ponanemA'tenigipi nl'cwapitAge'nwi ki'cipyiitanemA'tenig''''. 

A'Api"Api'*tc''. "Cl"'tcrtca'! Pe''ki nI''kA neme'nanawi niA'n 

a'ca'wiyan"'"," a'ci'ta'a'^tc''. O'nip a'me"kwi'ta'a''tc inimego'n 

a'"pApi''tc'". "Ini'ku'i," a''igwi''tc'". A'nrsi"sa"u''tc a'"nagwa''tc''. 

5 Iniga'ipl'n a'wi'wA'u''tc u'mrcam a'awA'totAg'''". O'nip ii'pe'ku'- 

tanemi''tci me'cemeguna"ina"i wawAninA'meg''"'. KAbo'tw a'Ane'- 

me'ka<'tc a'wa'sa'yanig'''". "Ci', kA'cini"kA mA'n i'"cigen'"' ?" 

a'ci'ta'a'^tc'". A'nAgi'gapa'^tc''. Wi'Anemi'a''tci'megu kwi'yen a'tA- 

ciwa'sa'yanig''''. "Na'i' "Iniye'megu ni'Ane'mi'a," 'a"ci'ta'a''tc'". 

10''"Wi'i"cawi'wanani me'ca''ki ku'^tci'mAiii ne'pemut'*^','' a'ci'ta- 

aitc'". 

Iya"i pya'ya'*tc a'tA'ciwsVsa'yanig'^'', ini'^tci'! na'"k a'"natAgi' 
ci'ci'gwAnAn"''; a'nyawApi'tanig''''. A"ta"penAg''''. A'cki'meg 
a"Anemini'"cke'si''tc''. A'po'sime'nu'tAgi' ci'cI'gw^AnAn a'Anemwa- 

15wa''ckanig''''. Iya''i kata'wipya''tc, a'uvvi'giwa^'tc'', kena^'tci'megu 
a'Ane'me'ka''tc''. MAni'megu 'a'cipi'tiga''tc uwi'gewag'''', ii'me- 
'ka'wi'cig''''. A'wi'ckwawa"senig u'd'ci'gwAnAn"''. A'ki"cagu''tci'- 
megumenu'tA'mowa'^tci tA"swika'cke'tA'raowa''tc'". "Ci', "wiigu- 
nani''kA ke"tcigwetAnimenu'"tAman''''?" a"cita''awa''tc''. 

20 O'nipi wa'pAnig a'Ano"kani''tci neguti'megu neni'w''^". "Na'i', 
mA'n a'ci''sutcig a''tcimo"a'kAn aiy6"i wi'mawA'^tciwe'towAgi 
kag6"imi''*tciwen°'". Ni'kiga'nopen"*', nrnimi'tci'gapen"'^','' a'ina- 

'O'nip a'kiwa'*tcrmo'a''tc''. Ka'kA"Amawu''tci'i'megu a'klwiwItA'- 
25niawa'^tc''. I'nina'iwini'gip a'mawA''tciwe'toni'*tc''. "MamaiyA'- 
megu ki'pepya''tcipenu'p'^'''," a''ina''tci kigano'ni"*tci'''. 'O'nipi 
wa'pAnig aiya"nieg a'ki'cipe'pyani'Hc''. 'O'ni wi'kume'ine''tci'i 
mAmi'cI'Agi'ga' aiya'"meg a'ki'cimeg\vetAne'gowa''tc''. A'pi'nAp 
ane't a'pwawinawA'*tciwA''tca'"owa''tci' ca'cki'megu 'ite'p a'"awa'^tc''. 



30 Iniye'meg a'napi^tc ana"pA"wa^tc a'i"cawi''tc''. A'tA'cikAnakA'- 
nawi'^tc''. Iniye'meg ano'wani'^tei mo'ci"a''tcin a'tA'cino'wani''tc'". 
A'po'si'meguminawipe'se'tagu'^tc uwi^'tcime'to'sane'niwa'''. A'me- 
nu'tagu'^tciga"megu "ane't'''. 'O'nipi kiki'cikA'nakA'nawi'^tc'", 
"Na'i', mAmi''c'', nr'senAnu na'i' mA'ni 'a'gotag''''," a'^ini'^tc''. 

35Mami'cA'magat a'ni"senAgini ml''cam™''. "'O'ni' ci'ci'gWAnAn"''," 
a"ine''tc''. 

A'pwawineno''tAgi 'ci'ci'gwAnAn"'',' atAmo'watan"''. Ki'cipwa- 
wine'no'tAg'''', "Ma'Anima" ag6'tagin°''," a"ine'^tc''. 



MiciiELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 123 

Then the ^^^nd stopped hlowing, after the wind blew twenty times 
toward him. He was sitting there all the while. ''O, how strange! 
It is an unusual experience which I just had," he thought. Then he 
realized on what he had been sitting. ''That is right," it said to 
him. He jumped down and went away. He then placed his sacred 
pack on his back, carrying it on his back. Then, it is said, night 
came upon him, while he was yet some ways off. Soon, while he 
was walking along, it became daylight. ''Well, I wonder what is 
this for?" he thought. He stopped and stood there. Just the way 
he was going, there was the light. "Now, I am going over that way," 
he thought. " Whatever may happen to me, anyhow, I am carrying 
along this big thing on my back," he thought. 

When he came to where light was, lo ! there also he saw gourds ; four 
were tied together. He picked them up. Then he continued on 
with a heavier load on his back. He liked to hear the gourds as 
they were rattling along. When he almost arrived where they lived 
he continued on his way slowly. Just as he stepped into their 
dwelling, he stumbled and fell down. His gourds made a great 
racket. As many as heard them liked to hear them very much. 
" Well, what pray is it, that I like to hear so very well ? " they thought. 

Then it is said the next day he hired one man. ''Now, tell those 
of tliis name, to bring together some food here. We are going to 
hold a gens festival, we are going to give a dance," he said to him. 

Then it is said he went about informing them. He went around 
notifying only those whom he was instructed to tell. At the given 
date they brought together the things. "Each and every one of 
you are to come early," he told those giving the gens festival. Then 
it is said early the next day they had all come. Both the invited 
people and the ceremonial attendants were far advanced in their 
work. Some (of the people) did not stop to cook but went right 
over there. 

The vision he had in his dream was just what he did. He was 
making a speech. He was speaking just like the one spoke of whom 
he had dreamed. He was listened to very closely by his fellow- 
people. By some he was heard with pleasure. Then it is said after 
he had completed his speech, "Now, ceremonial attendant, take this 
down which is hanging up," he said. The one acting as ceremonial 
attendant took the sacred pack down. "Now the gourds," he was 
told. 

He did not understand what were called the "gourds." As he 
had not imderstood, "Here these are hanging," he was told. 



124 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

A'nyawAgo'tanig''''. MA'n a'ci'AnwawanA'mowa''tc a'ki'cagu- 
'^tci'megumenu'tA'mowa'^tci neno'tawAg I'na' a'pitcig'^''. Na'kA'''tc 
a'Ana'o'towa'^tc Anwiiwa'a'so'ni'^tcin"''. O'n a'wapina'gawa''tc'". 
Mene"tA' C!i"cki' d'crgwAnAn a'ai'yowa''tc''. A'menu'ta'wawa''tc''. 
5A'ki'cagu''tcimegunienu'ta'wawa'^tc''. AnetAga''ip a'klwa'^tcina'- 
wame'^tci neno'tawAg''''. 

O'ni kl'cina'gawa''tc a'Anwawa''iga,''tc''. Ini'^tca''ipi pe''k ii'kl- 
"cagu'*tci'megumenu"ta'wawa''tci nagAmo'ni'^tci' A'ku'koni'ga'i' 
ci'ci'g\\^AnAni'ga' a"tAgwawage'"sini'*tc''. A'menu'tagu''sini''tc''. 

10 O'nipi na'ina'i nuniwA'A'niowe'^tc'', a'ana'anawi'towa''tci'megu 
■wi'pwawini'niiwadtc''; wi'nrmitcig a'menwapAtiwa'^tci'ga'''. Na- 
'kA'''tc! na''ina'i kl'cini'miwa''tc a'inl''tciwa''tci wi'ckupiwi'se'- 
niwa'"'. Aylgi'meg a'po'si'megu'AgawatA'mowa''tci wI'ckupAno'- 
'inig''''. O'nipi na'kA'megu wapi'gunAn a'mi'''tciwa''tc'', ayigi'- 

15 meg a'po'si'megu'uwigipe'tA'mowa'^tc''. A'pemega''mAn a'tA'ci'- 
megumenu'ta'wawa''tci nagAmo'ni'^tci'''. Winwa'wA na'kA'^'tci 
nagA'mutcig aylgi'meg a'menu'tati''sowa''tc''. Wi'niAgi'ci'movva- 
''tci'megu 'a"cita"awa''tc''. A'aiyAni"utiwa''tci'meg awA'"si wi'ine- 
gi'kwi'ci'mugwan"*'. "Kug\va''tci'megu'uka''tci'pitog''"',''' a'igowa'- 

20 ''tcip''. "Agwiga''ipi'megu watawi't6'wa''tciiii wi'na'ina'gawa''tc''. 

'O'nip a'wapikAnakAna'wini''tc''. Ci', pe'kime'gup a'kiwa- 

<'tcinawame'gowa''tc'". Wi'nene'kanemawa'^tci'meguma'netowAn°'', 

a'i'"cime''tc''. " Ini'megu \vi'i'cinene'kita"ayag'"'''''. AgW'iku"mAiii 

tA'ciini'camrca''tciiiaga'yagin°'', nemaiyo'kAtapenA'megu taya- 

25'tAgwi'ga' kiyana'n'^''. 'Tani'na'i neno'tawi'yAmete ma'netow^'^' !' 
nete'cita''apen°''^. Neno'tawi'yAmete menwawi''kAgo''^", ku'^tci" 
ini'meg a'ckimAniato'mAge''tc''. Kenamapi''tca''i kAbo'twe 
wi'neno'tawi'yAme''tc'". 

"MAniga''megu wi'Anemi'cimAmAmato'mAge''tc''. "Inu'gi niA'n 

30 anapA'miyag''*' ; 'Ini'megu wI'Anemi'ina'inapA'miyag'^®'. Agwi'- 
mcgu negu'ta'i wi'pe'kmwapAnl'yagin"''; mAni'megu 'a'pe'n"'''. 
MiiA'ni na'kA''^tci nAgA'inonAni maAnimego'nini niAnA'kA wl- 
"AneminAgAinoni'wigin'"'. A'gw aiyonl'na'i wi'A'kwinAgAnAgA- 
monl'wigin"''. In ananemi''tci nia'netSw^'^', kenata'pwA niA'n"''. 

35 "'O' mame'ci'kAga''meg''"', u'wlyil'*' 'wInAga"wIn i'ni Id'ci'- 
'totug'"'"/ netenaneme'gotug'"''. A'gwi nl'nA kl'ci'to'yanin"'". Ke- 
"tcinawe'megu wI'nA ma'netowA niA'ni ml"ci''tc' niA'ni nii'- 
tAmag'''''". A'gwi nl'nA kl'ci'to'yanin"''. '0' ma'A'ni n^'kA'^'tci 
nAgA'm5nAn°''. A'gwi ni'n i'cita'a'yanini wi'i'ci'se'toyAg''^'''. 

40 Ini'meg iinane'menAgwe wi'nA ma'netowA wri'ci''senig'^''. MAni- 
''tca''meg ai'yanlwe wrAnemina'inA'AniAg''"'''. Ki'wl'cigi'megu- 
nene'ka'netapwA ma'A'ni nAgA'monAn"''. KatA wi'ku'ki'se'toyagw 
i"cita''a'kag''"'. MAni'meg inu'g ane'ta'wiyag''''"', Ini'megu 
wI'Anemi'i'ci'i'cina'gayag''^'''. A'ckA''tcima "iyu kl'me'sotiiwina- 

45'inaga'p"*'. Agwigii" inugi mA'ni wI'i'ciwawAninaga'yagwin'". 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 125 

Four were hangin<j together. TMien they were rattled, it sounded 
very good to the Inchans who were sitting there. And then a drum 
was being filled up for him. Then they began singing. First they 
used only the gourds. They loved to hear them. They loved to 
hear them verj' much. Some of the Indians were made to feel sad. 

Then after they had simg he beat a drum. And they loved very 
much more to hear the singers when the drum and gourds were the 
accompaniments. They sounded very nicely. 

And then it is said when the dance was given them, they could not 
keep themselves from dancing; and those who were to dance liked to 
see each other. Moreover, after they had danced they ate some sweet 
foods. And they craved very much for the sweet things. And it is 
said they likewise ate scjuashes, and also they liked the taste exceed- 
inglj'. Besides that, during this time they heard with pleasure those 
who were singing. The singers themselves also loved to hear them- 
selves. Theu" desire was to have a big bass voice. The}' were having 
a contest as to which one could reach the lowest bass voice. " Try to 
lead a song," it is said they were told. And it is said they were far 
from knowing how to sing correctly. 

Then it is said he began a speech. He made them feel very sadly 
by what he said. They were told to be thinking about the manitou. 
"That is the way you must think. For we are not singing sportively 
here, we are wailing together over our lives. ' O, that the manitou 
would hear us!' is what we are thinking. If he hears us, it would be 
well with us, although this is the first time we worship him. "\'erily, 
I do not know if he will hear us soon. 

"This is the way we shall continue to worship him in the future. 
As you see us now, just so you will see us in the future. You will not 
see us doing anything different; this will always be the same way. 
And these songs shall be the same ones which will continually be the 
songs far off in future. Not only within a short time will they be 
sung. That is the way the manitou thought of me, 3'ou can see this. 

"Or probably someone thinks of me, ' I suppose he made that him- 
self.' I did not make it myself. The manitou himself pereonally 
gave this to me, which you now see. I did not make it myself. Oh, 
also in regard to these songs. I did not think the way we are to 
arrange them. That was the way the manitou planned for us that it 
should be arranged. So we must always continue to arrange them 
well just like this. You are to think very carefully of these songs. 
Do not think of changing their arrangement. The way you hear me 
now, is the way you will continue to sing. For later, all of you will 
know how to sing. You will not be ignorant in singing them as you 



126 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

Na'kA'^'tci ma'A'n aiyane'kotl'migAtoni nAgA'monAn"'". A'gwi me- 
'ce'megona''", nipena''senon''''. Ma'A'ni yo' nenipena'A'nieg 
a'cinlpe'na'seg''''. Agwigii"! ni'nA kag6'"i wi'i'ciwAnime'nAgowe. 
Kago''ka' i'ciwAnime'nAgowe wi'i'cawi'megu'u'anwanetagu'si'kil''^'. 
5 1'nugi wi'n a'g""^''. Mo'"tc a'gwi 'Ci, metwipwa'wi nI"kA 
ke'kanetA'mowag''^''',' a'gwi nAna'"ci wi'ine'nAgow^^'. MA'kwa- 
''tci'megu tan'ina'i kegenike'kiine'tAmag'''"'','' a'ina'^tc''. 

'O'nip na'kA''^tc ii'wapina'gawa'^tc''. I'nip a'me'sotawinene'kina'- 
wame^'tci me'to'sane'niwAg''''. 'A'ketemagita''awa''tci'. Agwina'- 

lO'ipi tA'fimenumenu'tAmo'wa''tcin''''. Ki'cagu'^tci'i'megi 'a'mina- 
wita/'jiwa'^tc''. "Wa'na, aiyiitu'ganA ma'nctow''-*' ?" a'cita'- 
'awa^'tc''. 'O'n I"niyagA . nagA'mutcigi kena^'tci'megu a'nAgA'- 
mowa'^tc'". Agwma"ipi tA'cina'kA'"*tci'Ani'Aniwi'cimo'wa'*tciii°''. 
Kl'cina'gawa''tc inipi'megu nu,''k a'Anwawa'"ome''tc anwawa'a'- 

15 'so' An"''. I.'nipi pe"k a'cA'ku''siwa''tci me"to"'tc''. A'ketema- 
ganeti''sowa''tc''. 

Na'kA wi'ku'metcig A'pena'^'tc ana'piwate''*". A'gwip u'wiya'A 
tA'ciwigawA'pi^'tcin"''. MA'kwa'^tci'megu' ca'cki'meg A''ckutaw 
a"ke"tapAtA'mowa''tc''. KAbotwe'megu na'kjv'''tca'nimiwA'A'mo- 

20we''tc''. I'nip a'ni'miwa''tc i''kwawAgi pe'ki'megu 'a'ni'miwa''tc'". 
NeniwAgi'na'kA'^tci pe'ki'megu mA'kwa''*tc a'nl'miwa'^tc''. Kikl- 
'cini'miwa'^tc a'ApT'wa''tcin a'mAmawinAna'A'piwa''tc''. Agwiga- 
'ina''ipi wrtA'cilviVkAnome'tiwa'^tc'". Mo'tci'meg a'uwl'kaneti'wa- 
■^tein a'ku'seta'tiwa''tc''. 

25 'O'nip a'a'^tci'a''tci'mo'a''tci na'kA'''tci wi''tci'so'ma''tci'*', 
"Ma'A'ni nAgA'monAn u'wiya'A kwiyeuA'megu ke'ka'netAg''®', 
wi'ke'kanemegwA'megu ma'netow^^'. Na'kA''^tci wl'u'^tci'megu- 
tapA'kwime'to'sane'niwi<'tc''. WmA'megu'u ka"sipi wl'ta'pi'tow 
u'wiyaw"'''. Cewa'n"'^', 'Na'i', wI'mawinAgA'moyAn^'',' a'i'ne- 

30 ^^tcin"'', agwinAna''c'', ''O' ne'cagwix'nem™"',' \vi''i''tcin°''. A'pena- 
we'megu ''Au',' 'i't""', i'ni wi'menwina'wa'a''tci mamatome'- 
me'^tcin"''; a'gwi wi'ne'ckinawa''a''tcin°''. 

'O'nip'", "Na'i', mene"tA kl'ce'tagwani' siga'"igag''"', niAmrci'- 
'etig''^'," a''ina''tc umAmi'cI"ema'''. Kl'ci'slga'i'gani'^tcl', "I'ni," 

35a"ine^tc''. "'Au'," i^'i'^tc''. "Wl'nA<'tca''mA'n A'ckuta'na'siwA 
neki'cikAkAn6neti"sopen°*', a'inenAma'gayage nemAmatomo'- 
nenani na''k a'cinAtuta"soyag''*'. WinA'^tca" ai3^5"i ke'kA'Ama'- 
gugwiin uwi'^tciina'netowa'''. 'Ko'ci'seme'nanAg ana'sAmA'piwa''tci 
kl'mawitA'cimAma'^tcinawi'ta'wawAg'''',' 'i'gugwan uwi''tcima'ne- 

40towa'''. ' Agwi'^tca''i ncgu'ta'i ma'netow a'i'nenegi wi'tA'ciwawa- 
wAniitowa'tawI'yagini' ccwawInai'yapAni ki'pe'cigwii''tcimwi'ta'wa- 
WAgi ko'ci'seme'nanAg'''',' wl'n i'gugwani niA'nA keme'co'me'senan 
uwi'^tcima'ne netowa"''. A'cewa''tca"yatuge ki"ci'a^tci'mo'a''tc uwi- 
''tcima'netowa'''. Ini"'tca''i wi'u'^tciwi'se'niyag''''®'," a"ine''tc''. 



sncHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 127 

arc now. And these songs are in order. They are not just any way, 
but they come in order. Now, I sang these (songs) just in tlae oi'der 
they come. I am in no wa}' fooling you. If I did fool you in any 
way, I should be thought of as a failure. As it is now I am not. Not 
even, 'Say, it is now time for them to know,' I shall never say that to 
you. I only wish you to learn them quietly and rapidly," he said to 
them. 

And it is said they began singing again. Then it is said all the 
people were thereby made to think seriously. They felt humble. It 
is said they no longer liked to hear the songs. They were thinking 
very intently. "Who, pray, may the manitou be?" they thought. 
Then the singers sang very softly. It is said they were no longer 
singing loudly. After they sang it is said at once the drum was 
sounded again. Then it seemed as if they were very weak. They 
felt themselves wretched. 

And those who were invited all the time were looking the same 
direction. No one was moving around during this time. They were 
just quietly looking steadily at the fire. Soon again the dance was 
given. Then it is said when they danced, the women danced their 
best. And the men danced their best and quietly*. After dancing 
each one went and sat down where they had been sitting. They did 
not talk -Hath each other at the time. Even the friends were afraid 
(to speak to) each other. 

Then it is said he again was instructing his fellow-clansmen. "If 
anyone knows these songs correctly, he will he known by the manitou. 
And he will reach the limit of his life. He will make his o\m self 
happy. But when he is requested, 'Now you are to go and sing,' he 
must never saj', 'O, I do not want to.' If he always answers 'all 
right,' then he mil thereby please the one who is being worshipped; 
he will not make him hate him." 

Then it is said, "Now, pour out whatever is cooked first, you cere- 
monial attendants," he commanded his ceremonial attendants. 
After they had poured it out, "There," he was told. "All right," 
he said. "He, the Spirit of the Fire, and I have talked to each 
other, as to the way we hand out our sacrifices and for what we 
pray. He must have been appointed to be in this place by hisfellow- 
manitous. 'You go in front of where our grandchildren are sitting 
and move back and forth,' is what he must have been told by his 
fellow-manitous. 'Nowhere will you be unable to speak to us as you 
are taken to be a manitou, but you must tell it trutlifully to our 
grandchildren,' this our grandfather must have been told by his 
fellow-manitous. Long ago he probably told his fellow-manitous. 
That is the reason why you are to eat," they were told. 



128 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

Wfwl'se'nitcig a'wapi"se'nyawa''tc''. A'^tca/'megu a'mlnawita'- 
'awa'^tci na'kA''^tc'". "Ci'nA, 'wa'nA, newi'*tci''apen a'pene'megu 
ma'netowA nie"sotaw''^V' a'cita'"awa^tci neno'tawAg''''. I'nipi 
pe'ki'meg a'ku'tA'mowa''tci kago''i wi'i"cita''awa''tc''. A'penawa'- 
5"megu mA'kwa"'tc a'cita'"agAn a'nene'kanetA'mowa''tc''. Mo'tci'- 
megu a'ku'tA'mowa'^tci ■wi'kwa'ckwA''tci'gawa''tc'"; kl'giinoni wl- 
"kwa'ckwAtA'mowa''tc''. A'wigatAtAmowa'^tci'meg''"'. A'Aiiwawa- 
'igawe''tciyu'ga'''. 

Ea'cina'gani'^tc a'nImiwA'A'mini''tc''. A"keteinagita'"awa''tci'- 
lOmegu ni'mitcig''''. A'wi'cigi'megunene'kina'wa'e''tc'". 'O'ni ki- 
"cini'miwa''tci ne'se'n^'', "Na'i', i'niyapi wi'DawA'^tciwi'se'- 
niyag'''"'', mAmi"ci"etig''^'. Me'ce'megu krwawapA'''tcigapwA 
wi'tA'ciwa'senl'wagwan"''. Ki'cimeguwi'se'niyagw I'ni wfwapi- 
'sigA'A'mawagwe ki'ka'nenaiiAg''''. 'O'n A'ckwi"saiyag'"^^", wi'wi- 
15'ku'wayag'"'^"," a''ina'*tc umAmi'cI'"ema"'". 

NoniAgii/'megu mAmI''ci'Ag a'wi'se'niwa'^tc''. Ki'ciwi'se'niwa''tc 
ii'wapi'siga'i'gawa'^tc'", ninii'ni''tci' a'slga'iga'wawa'^tc'". MA'kwa- 
''tci'megu a'siga'i'gawa''tc''. KikJ'cimegu'siga"i'gawa''tc'', "I'ni, 
mami'cA'monag''®'," 'a'"iiia''tci negu'ti inAim'"ci''^'. 

20 A"wapikAnakA'nawi''tc'', kenwa"cipTn°''. Me'ceme'gupin a'Api- 
'A'piwa^'tci wrwi'se'iiitcig"^'". Awa^'tci'megu wi'se"kwi\va''tc a'tA- 
'ciku'setA'mo\va''tc''. A'ckA^'tci'meg''"', "Wi'senigo' na'i' 'ine'- 
nitig''®', kinwawAga'' i"kwatig'"'"," 'a'ina^'tc''; a'wiipi'se'nyani'^tc*". 
"A'ki'cagu'^tci'megumenwinawa'cka'gwiwa'^tci kl'ganon°'"; ke'tenA'- 

25 meg''"". 

Iniga'"ipi pe'"k a'nAgA'moni'^tc i'nini nagAmo'ni''tcin°'". A'po'si'- 
megiina'inawame'gwiwa''tci nAgA'monAn"''. 

Ki'ci'naga'^tc a'a''tci'a"^tci'mo'a''tci na'ku'Amagu''i''tci"'': "Ma- 
'A'n"'' 'wi'seniwi"segin°'"' wI'i'cite'katA'magwin"'', i'ni ma'A'gi 

.SOki'kanena'nAg a'wi'se'niwa'^tc''. Iniga"megu ma'A'ni na"ina'i 
wi'Anemi'ci'aiyo'ai'yotag''''. Ma'A'ni nAgA'monAn"'', cina'g''''*' 
wi'cigi'meguke'ki'no'sug''"'. MA'ni na"kA'''tc'": nlmiwa'i'gAnAni 
mamo''tcina''ini wi'ai'yoyAg'''^^'. Ini'megu i'ci'A"pena'''tci nyawe'- 
nwi wi'nA wi'nimiwA''Amag'''"'''. Ini'megu wi'Anemi'i'ca'wiyagwe 

35na"ina ni'nA wi'ponime'to'sanenl'wanan"''. Kl'ci'megu'uke'te'si'- 
'iyAgw i'ni pe''ki wi'aiya''tci''tciwi'ci'gimAgwe kekwIye'sa'ena'nAgi 
■wi"wi'cigi'megunene'kanetA'mowa''tc'". I'ni wri"cunAg'"'"='. A'- 
gkwi'^ 'me'ce'meg a'ca'wigwan"'',' wi'iniine'mAgwin"'". MAni'- 
megu me''teno"i na"ikeg''''," a''ina''tc'". 

40 "I'ni ''tea' wI'nimiwA''AmAg'''"''; na'i' nenlgani'menat"'," a''ina- 
"tci nigani'm'^tci"''. O'nip a"nAna'iga'pani''te''. A''nimI'wA'Ag''''. 
Me'sotiiwepi'megon a'nl'mini''tc''. A'tcagimegunl'mini'^tc". Ane'tA 
kl'cini'miwa''tc a'pwawiki'pu''*tcawa''tc''. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 129 

The eaters began eating. Again they thought intentlj'. " Why, 
we are all living with the manitou all the time," the Indians thought. 
Then it is said they feared very much to be thinking about some 
thing. They were thinking nothing but good righteous thoughts. 
They were even afraid to drop (any crumbs) while eating; they were 
afraid to drop (any crmnbs of the food which was given in) the gens 
festival. They ate it up very carefully. The drum was beaten 
during this time. 

After singing he gave a dance. The dancers felt very hxunble. 
They were thereby made to think very seriously. Then after they 
had danced three times, "Now you must stop to eat, ceremonial 
attendants. Whatever you each shall choose you shall eat, wherever 
you please. As soon as you have eaten you will begin serving (food) 
to our friends. And then if you have (any food) left, you must give 
out invitations," he told his ceremonial attendants. 

The ceremonial attendants ate only a short time. After eating 
they began dishing out (food), serving it to the dancers. They 
dished it out cjuietly. After they had served it, "That is all, you 
for whom we are acting as ceremonial attendants," said one of the 
attendants to him. 

He began making a speech, and it is said it lasted a long while. 
Those who were to eat were sitting there for a long time. They 
even feared to spit then. Later on, indeed, "Now, eat! men and you 
women," he said to them; and they began eating. The gens festival 
had a very good effect on them; this is a fact. 

Then it is said the singers sang more lively. The songs had a good 
effect on them. 

After singing he told those who were aiding him in singing: "These 
songs you are to call 'the eating songs,' for then our friends are 
eating. These must always be used at this time. These songs, well- 
a-day, remember them carefullj". iVnd also this : these dance-songs we 
will use for the last time. You must give dances always only four 
times. You must always continue doing this even whenever I shall 
cease to live as a mortal. After we are old then we must m-ge our 
sons very strongly to think very seriously of them. So we are to 
tell them. We must not think of them 'let it happen to him, what- 
ever it may be.' This is the only way," he told them. 



"Now, we shall give a dance; come now, our leader," he told the 
leaders. Then it is said they began to form in line. He gave a 
dancing song. It is said everybody danced. All of them danced. 
The bellies of some after they danced were not filled. 



130 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

A'inlnawita"awa^tc''; me'sotawegu'winApi'megu 'i'n a'ca'wiwa- 
■^tc!'; A'ce''tca"ip anetA'megu minawane'tAmog a"ca'wiwa''tc'". 
Ki'kAtawipenope'nowa''tc'', "Mo'tci'meg inu'gi niA'ni mlnawita'- 
'iiyiig''"''", WAni't6''kago' I'niy a'ki'pu'''tcayag''"'''. Mama''tcigi'- 
5megu keponiki'pu'^tca'pwAtug'"''. A'cega'"meg a'manetowiwa'se'- 
ftyayagw I'n amu^'tc i'n i'ca'wiyag''^'''. A'ce'mAni wi'se'niyag^'"^', 
mamii'^tcigi'mcgu 'A'sA"A'same'kuno''kago''^'. Inugi wl'n a'g"^"'". 
Mlnawita'ayiigwe/ga"'" mAmane'megu ketcagi''senyap"''^'; kete'ci'- 
ta'ap'^*^','' 'a''ina''tc''. A'*tca''megu ke'gime's a"minawita'"awa*tc''. 

10 Ke'tenA'^tci'" ane't ApinA'meg a'cawe/'siwa'^tc''. A'cikenugwa'- 
nitig I'niye ml'^ciyan"'' ?" a'i'cita'iiwa'^tc''. 

O'nipi krcimAtAgwApi'toni'^tci mamrcAmaga'ni<'tcin i'ni ml'- 
"cam"'', "Na'i'j nAtawina.'nag\vag''"', 'Ini^'tca'" a'ki'cimenwitcagA- 
tAma'wiyage ma'netow a"awAtenAma'wAge''tc'V' a"ina''tci me'to- 

15'sane'niwa''', a'nia'nani''tciyu'ga"''. Iniga' ipi'megu 'a'Anemi'Ana- 
gwi''inig''''. 

O'ni wi^'tci'so'ma'^tci"'", "Ka'tA wi'nA kinwa'wA ma"si nana'- 
gwa'kiig''"'; me'cewamcg5'na''', 'ni'pe''se'c'^",' "a'ci'ta'at"', aiyo'' 
wi'awi'w""'', i'kwawA'gii'i na'kA'<'tci nenl'w""^'. I'ni ni'nA nlya'- 

20 wi wi'ato'tAman A'ne'ki'''," a"ina''tc''. 

Mane'meg a'A''ckwiwa'*tci wi"pe"se"catcig'''". Krciwl'se'niwa''tc 
a'wapi'a<*tci'a''^tcimu''tc''. Mene'tA'megu, "Na'i', pe'seta'wiyage 
ki'wi'cigi'meguna'kinwa'wApe'seta'wipen'"^". Kl'ta'pi'ipwA wi'pe- 
"seta'wiyagw a'cita"ayag''"'''. Kewi''tci''tca"megutape"si'nienep"'^'. 

25Wl'nA mA'ni kl'ci'to't A"ki wa'^tcitape'sI'yAgw Inu'g''''. Tni'^tca' 
miinwina'wa'Ag'^"'-^','' a''ina'^tc'". "Ma'Agi'gix' a''tcimo"Agigi wi'^tci- 
'soma'i'yanig'''', cewii'iiA wA'nimo'^tci pwawineno'tawi"iwat®', 
'mAni'yow a'na"ina'^tcimo''enAg'"^''V wi'inag'''"'". I'ni wa^'tcime- 
''tcime'nAgow^^'," a"ina''tc''. 

30 "'Au'," 'a'"ine'*tc'", "a'nA'ku'megu''tc''. 

O'nip a'wapi'a'''tciinu'*tc'". "Ma'ioa ne'gyA kenawa'pw it'cinagu'- 
'sini^tc''; in a'A'cki'Apeno'a'i'yanini kl'wanit'^', a'ki'y6mi''tc'', 
o'n a'klwi'megupepyanowi"egu''tc A"ca''a'''. Mame'ci'kA'megu 
wi'nani kenanotawa'pwAtug i'n"''," a"ina<*tc''. "M5''tci me'cegit'- 

35'awi'tA na" I'n a'''tciinu's^". Ma'Agi''tca''i kl'cimAniatomA'ge- 
''tcig'''", i'ni'i wa<'tcipwawi'ne'se''tc'', 'a'kA'ki'negu'^tc''; i'ni wa- 
''tcipwawimAtA'negu'^tc Aca'"a'''. Krciga"ipimeguy5wepemi'ne- 
"kag'"^'^', ni'nA niya'w a'kegomya'pa'u'^tc'', a'Apeno'a''iyan'''', 
ne'g'^j'*'. 

40 ""O'ni no's ini'i'meg a<'tcimo"egu^tci'i nenu'so"'', ''iya"ma"i 
kl''nawaw'"*^V a''ine''tc u'wiwAn"''. Iniga''ipi mA'nA''tcil ne'gy 
a'wi'ca'pena''tc''. O'ni no"s a"a'wAto''tci wi'se'niwa'i wi'mi''*tcini- 
''tci negya'n"''. Ke'tenA'megu na''ina'i ke'kA'A'mawu^tc a'"nawa<*tc 
a'Api'A'pini'^tc''. O'ni n6'"s a'Anemonii'''tcip''. 'O'ni nina'nA 

45no'"s*", — ka'kAmi'megu ke'kane'migwani wi'ugwi"semi'^tc''. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 131 

They thought attentively; in fact, it is said all of them wore like 
that; yet only some realized what they did. Wlien it was almost 
tune for them to go to their respective homes, "If you even thought 
attentively now, you would forget all about your stomachs being 
satisfied. No doubt your stomachs are no longer satisfied. The 
reason this could happen to you is because you have eaten spiritually. 
If you had eaten commonly, no doubt you all would have over- 
eaten. Now it is not so. If you think carefully, you have eaten a 
large ciuantity; at least you think so," he told them. Then indeed 
all the people thought intently. 

To be sure some of them were hungry. "I wonder how the food 
which I have eaten is?" they thought. 

Then it is said, after the one acting as ceremonial attendant had 
bundled up the sacred pack, "Now, you may each depart, for you 
have eaten up nicely for us that which we have handed to the mani- 
tou," he said to the people, for tliez'e were many of them. At this 
tinae it was toward evening. 

Then to the confreres of his gens, "Do not go j'ct; or any one who 
thinks, ' I shall listen,' may remain here, a woman or a man. Now I 
shall relate a little about my life," he said to them. 

Many remained who were going to listen. After they ate then he 
began to narrate. First of all he said, "Now, you (who are here) to 
listen to us must also listen very intently to us. You have gladdened 
me in that you thought of listening to me. I am very happy with 
you. The one who created this earth is why we are happy now. It 
is he whom we have pleased," he said to them. "Those of my gens 
are the ones I am telling, but in case they do not understand me, 
'This is what he used to tell us,' you are to tell them. That is why 
I ask you to spread the news," he said to them. 

"All right," he was answered favorably. 

Then it is said he began narrating. "You see how my mother 
looks; she is the one who was lost, when carrying me around on her 
back when I was just a baby, she had many narrow escapes from the 
Sioux. No doubt you have often heard her tell about it," he saitl to 
them. "Or perhaps she may never have told about it. Those who 
we have just worshipped were the reason why she was not killed; 
she was hidden; that was why she was not overtaken by the Sioux. 
My mother had already been chased, running with me on her back, 
when I was a baby. 

"Then my father was told by those same buffaloes, 'You will see 
her over there,' ho was told, meaning his wife. Then by that time, it 
is said, my mother was hungry. Then my father took some food for 
my mother to eat. To be sm-e he saw her sitting the time he was 
told. Then my father carried me on his back. And as for us, I and 
my father, my father must have known beforehand that he would 
have me for his son. 



132 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann.40. 

"Wl'nA no''s aya'megupi'nime'to'sane'niwi<*tc a'mA"kwa''tcime'to- 
'saneni'wite'"', i'niyatuge wiftci'ineguke'kane'mite'"". 'O'ni kAbo'- 
twe kiwa''^tcanig a'mlne'gute'e mA'^tcimane'to'An"''. Ketemage'- 
'siwen ini'^tca" une'ciwAnate''siweni no'saiyow""". Aiy6''megu 
5me'to'sanc'niwa'i nane''sagwan"''. Mame'ci'kA''tca'"mcg uwi'ya'Ani 
ki'ciml'natug i'n"''. Pe'ki'^tca''megu ki"cagu''tci'mcgu ketema'- 
gi'iiw i'nini niina'gwii'in"''. 'O' mame'ci'kA'gii'i mano'megu 
kl'ciinl'natug''''". 'Ini'megu wi'tA''ciwa''tci tA''swi mlna'gwii'i'''. 
Cewa'n aiyo" kina'nA pe'ki'megu maneto'wiwAg''''. Cewa'n 

10A''tanIwi wi'i'ciketemage''siwa''tc''. A'gwi wl'wii'^tcinowi'i'cawl'- 
wa''tcin"''. Me'to''tci niA'ni: sAgi'pu'nAgow'"'', awitA'megu 
kA'ckiketc'ckAnwi"sa'i''kago''-^', pe'ki'megu wi'cigAmenA'gawa'''. 
I'n a'prtciwreigi'ci'nowa''tc a'ci'megupwawikete'"ckiwa''tc''. 

"MamA'ka''tci'meg ananeme'gowa''tc i'ni wi'ina'penAne'gowa''tci 

15kateminago'wa''tcin"''. I'ni ne'guti me'ca'gi kctcmage"siwen°''. 
Kina'naiyo kl'ketemagi'egu'nanAg'''', ki'utaiyemegunanAgi'megu 
me'to'''tc'". Cewa'wInA kina'nA krcine'se'nAgwin agwi'megu 
kago"''. 'I'ni ke"tenA wrpitA'uti''iyAg''"''''. O'ni wi'nA na"ina'i 
pya"se''kanig i'ni wi'i''ca\vi''tc'", 'Ini'megu wiu^'tci'megupwawi- 

20nienwi'ciwa'pe'si''tc''. Ne'ki'megu wi'AnemA'kiwi'nigw'ani nii'sawa- 
'^tci'i'gii" i'niyii'e A\a'men\viklwlta'niwa'''. O'ni wInwa'wA wI'tA- 
'ciki'cagu''tciketemage''si\va'^tc''. I'ni negu'ti wi'pwawinene'ka'- 
netAmiigw Jinaneme'nAgow^^'. 

"I'nugi netAna'^tcim™"', 'no''s*',' 'a''iyan ayamenwime'to'siine'- 

25niwi''tc a'"iyan°''. Ke'kanemegugwanime'guyowe mane'towAn"''. 
Inu'gi kl'ci'meguke'kanetA'motug miga''inini katemina'gu''tcin"'', 
wl'tA'ci'megunAn6''tci'ce'cegwinAne'gu''tcin°''. I'n a'"cikegin°'". 
Na'kA''tciga"mo'tci'meg klmo'''tci ke'kA'Ama'tlwAg'''". "I'ni. 

"Ma'A'ni wI'nA mI''camAn ii'itA'megini me'ce'megu niA'n a'ina'- 

30gwApig i'n a'tA'ci'a''tcimo"etIg''''. 

" Ni'naiyo ma'A'g i'n wI'aiyfitotA'mawAgi nemi'ca'menan"'". A'a- 
'cki'meguketeminawe''siyan"'', newiipiwe'negop''. Netena''pA"w'^'^'. 
MAnA'kA'*tca''i wa'tapAgi namA''kAmig ananetAin6''iyani niya'- 
w"''. KateminawitA'ga'i wape'ckiku'pi''tcinenu"swA ki'cagu'^tci'- 

35megu. ApinA'megu mame'ckwi'nigwaw"'^', mame'ckwi'gA'ciiw"'^', 
mame'ckwl'winaw'^'^'. I'n iya" it'tAci'atotA'mawigi wi'i'cime'to- 
'saneni'wiyan"'". Ki'ci'atotA'mawig'''', 'o'ni wa^'tcina'wA'kwagi 
na'kA'^'tc a'inaneti"soyrin"''. Inimegu'nayap ifcimig''''. 'O'ni 
na'kA"'tci wa''tcipAgi''cimug a'inaneti'"soyan°''. Ini'megu niiya'pi 

40me'to'saneniwiweni'megu 'a'tAniitotA'mawig''''. O'ni wa''tcike'- 
'siyag"^"'. I'ni po'si kenwii/'cima' a'atotA'mawigi niya'wi wi- 
'Anemi'cime'to'saneni'wiyan"''. Wi"tapi'megu'Anemiwi''tcime'to'sa- 
neni'giiyan"'', wi'ke'kyaiyani'meg i'ni ni'n a"cimig''''. O'n 
A''pemeg a'inaneti''soyani niAnA'kA'meg ifawi'^tci Ke'cema'netowA 

45niga'ne'sit'^'. I'n iya" i'ni pe''ki kiwi'taniAg''^', ii'wi'cigi'megu- 
'ukA'nawi''tc'', a'a''*tcimi''tc a'ciketemi'nawi'^tc''; na"kA''^tci pemi- 
"ci'we'ci''tc''. Ki'cina"'tcimu''tci pemi'ci'we'ci'^tc''. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 133 

"He, my father, was yet living cleanly, he was leading a quiet life; 
that probably was the reason he knew about me. Then soon, he was 
given a sad thing by a little evil manitou. It was the ^^Tetchedness 
that caused my father's destruction. He had been killing the peo- 
ple all the time here. He probably had given it to some one. He 
certainly must have made the person miserable to whom ever he gave 
it. Or perhaps he has given it to many already. Just exactly so 
many will there be, as he gave it to. But here are ours, the genuine 
manitous. But something will happen to them so that they shall be 
wretched. That which will happen to them will not be easy. It is 
just like this: if I should bite you, you could not pull me off, for I 
would bite you very hard. That is how firmly they are placed, so 
they can not possibly get away. 

"As surely as they have been thought of by the one who blessed 
them, so will it be done for them by him. That is one hmnbleness 
which is great. Now as for us, they will make us -svTetchetl, just as if 
they owned us as slaves. But there is nothing after they have killed 
us. Then sm-ely we shall bury each other. And then when time 
comes for this to happen to him, he will not be in peace. Just as 
long as this earth lasts, those whom they have killed will be living 
nicely. And they themselves will be living as miserably as possible. 
That is one thing I wish you not to tliink about. 

"When saying 'my father' I am now telling of him while he still 
was leading a good life. The manitou must have known him. I 
suppose he has now found out that the one by whom he was blessed 
is the one by whom he will be miseralily crushed to pieces. That is 
the way it is. And the}' instructed each other secretly. So it was. 

"As for these things which are called the sacred packs, when we 
are sitting as we are now, is where instructions are given. 

"Now myself, I am going to talk to these people about our sacred 
pack. Wlien I was first blessed, I was taken away. I dreamed. 
And I imagined myself going yonder in East in under earth. The one 
who blessed me was the pure white buffalo. It even had red eyes and 
red hoofs, that was how it was, it also had red horns. Over there I 
was instructed how to live. After I was told, then I also imagined 
myself going South. I was told the same thing there. Then again I 
imagined myself going to West. There again I was told the same 
thing about life. Then to the North. It wtls a much longer time 
that I was instructed how to live my life. That I would be able to 
live with the people, that I would reach an old age, I was told. Then 
I imagined myself going up above where dwells the Gentle Manitou, 
the leading one. There the one I accompanied spoke very strongly, 
explaining about me, the way he had blessed me ; also the way he had 
taken me. After he told that, he took me along. 



134 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. .'XN. 40. 

" Ini'^tca" A^tca"megu 'a'wiipi'a'^tci'mo'i'^tc''. Na"kan I'ni 
kenwa'"c a'a^tci'mo'ig''''. Iniga'me't6''*tc a'pa'kanAge"canig''''. 
Me'to'^tci'megu kAbo'twe pa'ke"ckawAni ne'tawA'gaiyAn"'', Ini'- 
meg a'pwawiwAni'"kayan a''cimig'''', I'ni pe'"ki kena''tciga''meg 
Sa'a^'tci'mo'ig'''". Na'kA'^'tci wI'ina'nemAgi me'to'sii'nenlw''*', 
newItA'magop'', ino"tciku''megu A'peno'A wi'ina'nemAg'"", wl- 
"pwawi'megunA'sAtawikA'nonAg'''', I'n a'"ciinig'''". 

" A'pcne'megu wi'inane'tiyage negu'ti mi''son anegiku''ckAmag''®', 
ini'meg a'ciwi'ci'gimig''''. Ini'^tca" ma'A'g a'ci'meguna"mnA- 

lOke'tcinAtawa'neniAgi wi'i'ca'wiwa'^tc'". MA'krwa'^tci'megu wi'kAno'- 
nawa''tc uwi'^tcime'to'sane'niwa''", i'n a'ci'Aga'wanAg'"'. 

"O'ni ki'ci'aiya'^tci'mo'ig'''', 'I'n a'pya'^tcinfsane'tAmani nlya'w'^'". 
Aiyo"meg a'pyatewane'tAxnan"''. Kenwa'cima"ka"megu nenepa'- 
petuge wawa'sawa''*tca"i nepo"i'ka'-^'. 

15 "O'ni na"kA'''tc I'ni mA'ni''tca" ml" cam a'aiyatotA'mawig i'n 
a''"cimoni na'kA'^^tc''. Agwi'yagani mAni'meg i'cino'mAgaw a'^tci- 
"a'^tcimo'igin"'', na'tA'swawa'ime'megu na'i'ni nepemi'a''tcimo'ego'- 
petug''^', a'gwi no'mAgaw^®". Cewa'nA me'to'^tci'megu no'mAgawe 
ni'nA ncte'cita'a'pe'"". 

20 "O'ni no'mAgiiw a"to''kiyan''''. Na'kA'meg a'ki'ki'gawi^tci 
ne'gi'y*". O'ni ki'ci'gawi'^tc a'a'^tci'mo'Agi no'sA'n"''. Wl'pwawi'- 
megunA'kunA'mawa''tci mA'^tcinata'winon"'', a'i"cim.A.g'''". 'KatA'- 
megu nAna''ci nA'kunAmawi'yiigA"''/ ne'tenawA ne'g'''"^'. 'I'ni'^tca 
a'"cawi''tc a'inAgi'meg i'n a"cawi''tc''. '0'n°'', 'a,gwiga'"i 

25wi"tapina'wi'*tcin'''",' a''inAg''''. Ke"ten i'n a'"cawi'^tc''. 

" Ini'gii'i pe'ki' kenwa'c a'nepai'yane''''. I'ni mA'n a'ina'pAmAgi 
ma'netowAg Inugi'^tca''mAni ki'ci'inAno''kyayAg''"*''. Kenwa'ci'- 
meg a'nAgA'mowa''tc''. Na'kA'^'tci ma'Iyane'megu ki'ci'aiyo'- 
yAgwini nAgA'mdnAn ayo'wa^'tcin"''. Ini'meg a'cina'giiwa''tc''.'' 

30Na"kA"'tc a'a'*tci'mo'a''tc'', "Ana''tciino'iyani'megu 'i'n ana- 
'ina''tci'mowa'^tc''. NinAga''in a'me'tcimegu'a'^tci'mo'igi wi'inA- 
'injvno"kyayAg''''*'', i'ni \va''tcinawo'wayan''''. Mo'cAgi'megu 
mane'towAg i'nigi na'wAgig''''. MA'ni na"kA"*tci kemi'ca'menan 
a'na'tAman a'ci"setog a'ki'ganug''''. Ini'megu 'anAno"kyayAgw 

35 5niku"megu ana'piyan"''. Na'kA''^tc anagWA'piyAgw ini'megu 
anagwA'piwa'^tci winwa'wA mane'towAg''''. Ane'tagu''siyAgw 
ini'megu 'ane'tagu''siwa''tc a'nAgA'mowa'^tc''. Mo'tciku''megu 
ma'A'ni' ci'ci'gwAnAn a'A"cki'meguka'cke"tAmani neki'cagu''tci'- 
megumenu''t*^'. N^'kA'^'tci wapinagiiwa'^tci nemenu'ta'wawAg''''. 

40KAbot\ve'megu nemaminawinawii'megog''''. A'ckAmi'megu nene- 
'kii'netA neme'to'saneni'wiwen a'cikete'magj'ag'''". Neketemaga- 
netA'megu niya'w*''. 'A'ckami'megu nemya'cinawii'megog''''. 
'Wagunif'i na'i' I'niy a'cimenu'ca'yane'"' ? A'gwi mi'ca''tcina'- 
giigin""', ketemagi'nagap"'. Iniga'"ma'A'ni wa''tci'i'ci'i"ci"segi 

45iiAgA'm6nAn°''. O'ni kl'ciklgiinowa'nemAg''''. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DAKCE. 135 

" Then for the first time he (the Gentle Manitou) began instructing 
me. And then I was instructed a long tune. Then it seemed as if 
my ears were opened. It seemed soon my ears opened, and so I do 
not forget what I was told, because I was told slowly. And I was 
instructed just how I should think of the people, even what to think 
of a cliild, never to speak to it crossly, was what I was told. 

"That we should think equally alike of each other who belong to 
one name, that was impressed upon me very strongly. That is just 
what I very much desire these (persons) to do. That they should 
speak kindly to their fellow-people, is what I desire of them. 

''Then after I was instructed, I imagined myself coming down. I 
imagineil I came right down here. I must have been sleeping a long 
time, because I could not possibly have died. 

''Then also I was insti'ucted about this sacred pack and the speech. 
That also was not told me in a little wliile, but I was probably being 
instructed for several years, not within a short time. But it was just 
the same as a short time, I thought. 

''Then I was awake for a little wliile. Then again my mother 
moved my wickiup. Then after making it for me I told her about my 
father. That she should not accept the evil medicine from him, was 
what I told her. ' Do not ever accept it from him,' I told my mother. 
So she did just what I said to her. Then, ' he will not live to see me,' 
I told her. To be sm-e it was so with him. 

"Then I must have slept a much longer time. Then I saw the 
manitous (doing) just as we have been doing now. They sang for a 
long time. They used the same songs we have just used. They 
sang exactly like that." And he told them, "What I said is exactly 
what they said. I was instructed plainly how we should carry on 
the ceremonies, that was the reason why I saw them. The manitous 
were the only ones I saw. And our sacred pack here, I saw how it 
was fixed and placed at the gens festival. How we have performed 
the ceremony was just the way I had seen. And the way we were 
seated was the same way they, the manitous, were seated. The way 
we have been singing is just the way they sang. Even when I first 
heard these gom-ds I liked their sound very much indeed. And when 
they began singing I loved to hear them. Soon they thereby made 
me consider very carefully. I gradually thought seriously of ruy 
life and how wretched it was. I knew my body was wretched. 
Gradually they made me feel very sad. What was it I had heard 
with pleasure ? They were not sung sportively, but humbly. That 
is the reason these songs are sung the way they are. Then I imagined 
they were through with the gens festival. 



136 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [ETn. ANN. 40. 

"O'ni mAni''tca" a'a'^tci'mo'ig'''' : ' I'ni me'ce'na'i wi'wapiwitA- 
witA'inawA''tc'',' i'n a"cig'''". Ini'^tca" wa'''tci me'cenA'megu a'^tci- 
'a^'tcimo'e'iiAgow"'^". Wi'nA ma'netow a"cimi'^tc ini'megu ni'n 
a'ci'i'cime'nAgow'^''". Agwiga''nrnA ne'ci''kA ketemina'wi'^tcin°''. 
5 Wi'nA ma'netowA ki'nene'kanetAma'gunanA ki'sona''enan°''. 
Cewa'nA nInA neme'tcimcguwI'tAmag''"*', a'gvvi kinwa'w''*'. 
Ni'nA wi'a''tci'a'^tcimo'e'nAgo\s^e netena'nemeg''''''''. Nepe'cegwa- 
neme'gotugega'"', i'ni wa''*tci me'kwa'nemig'''". Kepe'cigwi'^tca'- 
'naeguniA'niwitA'monep^'^", me'to'^tci'megu kepe'se'tawapwA kate- 

lOmina'witcig''''. Na'i', ma'A'gi ketApeno'e'mwfiwAgi niA'kwa'^tci'- 
meg AnemikA'none'k"'. A'ci'megumenwi'genig i''cime"k"'. 

"Ma'iiI wInA'megu negu'ti na"ikegi kiga'nowen"''. Aiyo'"meg 
ami'ine''kwamag'''^'='. MA'n agvvi'kago' i'cikImo'''tcagin°''. Ni'- 
naiyo" mA'ni kemanapwA'megu mA'n a'pe'seta'wiyag''*'''. Agwiga"i 

15 kag5" i'cika'ckAnA''tci'to'nAgow'^^'. Keme'tci'meguwitA'moncp'"^'. 

"O'ni na'kA'^'tci na''ina'i i6''kiyani niAni'meg ii'cipeno'wiyan 

i'n a'wa'pa'ckagi nl'g''''. I'n a'na'gwaiya a'uwi'giyag'^"''. Keya- 

'ApAga"i ki'ci'a'kwAinAtA'mowate'e me'to'sane'niwAg'''". Nc'gyA 

kwiye'n uwi'g a'maiya'ckjvmo'i'yane'^". A'tA'ci'^tca'ipwawiwawa- 

20 ''tcinena'tiyag''^'. A'ckA"'tci nenena'tipen"'^". O'ni no'sA'n a'a'- 
''tciina'^tc a"ca'wini''tc''. Agwi'tatAgi kago" i'ciuene'ka'nemAgin 
n6''s'^'. WiiiA'mcgu i'ni nene'ka'netAg''''. A'cki'^tca'ga'i pe'cigwi'- 
megume'to'saneni'wigwiin"''. I'niyatug i'n a'nene'kiineme'gute'e 
ma'nctowa'''. Wa'^tci'megu ke'kiine'mite'e wi'uni''tcane"semi''tc''. 

25 KAbotwii'na' a'cine'ciwAna'''tcanig a'cawi'te''''. 

O'ni mA'n a'i'cawiyage inA'iiA ne'g''''*': a'A'ci'gayage mA'ni 
ki'genan"''. Ki'ci'gayag'"'", a'kiwi'ci'cawu"sayan°''. Neguta" iya"i 
netA'pi'Ap'". Aiyo'tci'! me'te'gw A'ta'w"^''. KAbotwemcgo'n a'mi- 
naw£LpA'tAman°''. Ci! me'^tci ni''kA nekAtawimegune'n"'^'. A'Ata- 

SO'pe'nAman"''. Ci! Me'ckwawA'kwA'tci'"''. A'minawapA'tAman"''. 
I'ni'^tci'i! pepig\va"ck'^'\ Ini'megu a'kiwi'soge'nAman"''. A'ciwa- 
pe'si'wanani nepemiwa'pu's"'. 

"O'ni na"kA''*tc'', a''nawAgi me'cku''pwagAn A'kwi'^'tc A'se'ny 
a"Api'^tc''. AtAma'gAna'kw na'i' migo'niwig''''. O'n a'Ata'penAgi 

35mama''tcigi'megu nene'nawaw'''^ '. 

"O'n a'ke'^'tciyan a'kwa'piyani ki'cagu''tci'megu wawa"setawi 
kiigo''''. 0'n°'', 'Na'i', ni'mawiwa'pAt'^',' i'n a.'cita"ayan°''. 
A'mawiwapA'tAman ayaniwe'meg A'pi'ta'pAta'niw a'wa\v^'"setag'''". 
'Ci', 'waguna"i ni'kai'yiitug'"'' ?' nete'ci'ta'"'. Ke'tcin a'Anemi'- 

40pyaiyani me'tci'megu a'ckAmi'Anemip6ni-wawa"setaw"''. Po'si'- 
megu ke'"tciii a'Anemi'pyaiyan""', ini'meg a'poni\vawa"setag''''. 
KAbo'twe ne'pyanut^'. Iya''i pya'yaiyani ki'cagu''tci'megu mA- 
"kAtawa-'pe'kAtw A'se'ni ke'ke'cagi'meg A'pi'tciniA'kA'tawaw"'''. 
Oni'na' A'kw'i'^'tci mA'n a'nene''cki'segi mAni''tca''i kemi'ca'me- 



MICIIEI.SON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 137 

''Then I was instructed in this: 'Now you may commence telling 
each and every one of them,' thfi.t was what I was told. That is 
why I freeh' have been instructing you. As the manitou told me is 
the way I told you. He did not bless me alone. The manitou 
himself is constantly thinking about our name (i. e., our gens). But 
he has personally instructed me, not you, of course. That I should 
instruct you, he desires of me. He must have thought that I am 
upright, that is why I was recollected. I have told you this in an 
upright manner, just as if you were listening to the ones who blessed 
me. Now, speak Cjuietly to these, yom* children, in the future. 
Speak to them only in a right way. 

"This is practically the one thing which is good, the gens festival. 
You should attract their heads °- here. There is not any secret 
about it. Now you are many listening to me. I do not in any way 
whisper to you. I plauily tell you about it. 

"And then when I woke up, just as I started out, my dwelling 
began to crumble down. Then I went to where we had been dwelling. 
It was a fact that the people had just gotten over their sickness. 
I came exactly straight to my mother's dwelling. Then we did not 
know each other. Later on we recognized each other. Then she 
told what happened to my father. I was not thinking very much 
about my father. It was he who was thinking about it. At first 
he must have been a good upright person. At that time probably 
he was thought of by the manitous. That was the reason he knew 
that I would be his child. Soon he took up a wicked thing to jiractice. 

"And tlien this was what I and this my mother did: we built 
this wickiup of ours. After we had built it, then I walked about 
hunting. Somewhere over there I was sitting for a long time. Lo! 
here was a stick of wood. Soon I noticed it. Well ! I almost recog;- 
nized it. I picked it up. Goodness! It was a cedar stick. I 
looked at it closely. Lo! it was that flute. Then I went about 
holding it in my hand. I walked away, I do not know why. 

"Then again, I saw a red stone pipe on top of a rock. The pipe- 
stem was feathered. Then I took it and I certaiidy recognized it. 

" Then when I came where there was a view, as far as I could see, 
something was shining as bright as possible. Then, ' Now I am going 
over to see that,' I thought. I went over to see it and it looked 
just as sparkling as before. ' Well, what, pray, may it be T I thought. 
When I continued to come close to it it gradually ceased sparkling. 
When I continued going much closer, it ceased sparkling. Soon 
I came to it. Wlien I arrived there I saw that the rock was black 
as iron, very black, black as ashes. Then, there on it, was our 
sacred pack spread out. After looking at it very closely, I bundled 

02 The children's. 

-10 



138 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth.axn.io. 

nan°''. Krcimammaw^pA'tAman I'n a"mAtAgwApi't6yan°'". Kl- 
'ci'Api'toyan Ini'meg ii/'pitiig iin^pA'tAmani mAnA"kA manetonag 
Inimego'nin"''. 
"'0'na"Api'A'piyaninetA'cimaniina'wita'*',a'gwinegu'ta'u'tegin"'', 
5m6'tci'meg a'gwi tAga'wi noteno''igin°'". KAbo'tw a'pyata'nemA'k''. 
I'lii nagA'mutcig a"ka'cke''tawAg''''. A'ci'megunipenlpena'- 
"AmAgwe nAgA'monAn"', ini'meg anemi'cika"cke"tawAg''''. Mene- 
'tA'megu ayo'yAgwe mene''tA ka'cke'tAman"''. 'O'n a'ne'k6''tc 
ayo'yAgw ini'megu 'a"cikeg'''". A"tA'segi kenAgAmone'nanAn 

lOi'ni tA''swipyata'nemA'k'\ Ca'ckiga"inini nAgA'monAii a'pyanuta'- 
g\viyan°'", 'ini wa'''tclni'ca'wiyt\n°''; wa''*tci ne'ci"kA ka'cke'- 
"tAman"''. Agu'wiyii'A wi'nAgA'mu'^tcini pine'ci'megu""'. Ki- 
'citca'gi'sag i'n A'^tca''megu mame'kwdta'"ayan°'". 'Ci! 'Wa'nA 
I'ni wa"'tc i'ca'wiyiln'''',' i'n a'cita"ayan'''". I'n a'me'kwita'- 

15"ayan°''. Iniga''me'to'''tc iniya'ne mo'clcAgwi"sagin'''', a'inane'- 
tAman"''. Me'to"'tci mego'ni ma'netonag a'a'wiyan a'cita"ayan''''. 
O'ni kI'cimeguma'ma''tcigipwawiwAni'ka''soyan a'pya^'tciwapo'- 
tAman"'". 

"O'ni ki'cipe"kutane'miyan°'", kwiyenA'megu wi'Anemi"aiyani 

20wS,''sayaw^^''. Iniga''megu ni'A'nemi'^'. AgwikAna'gwA wi'pwawi- 
"iniye'Anemi''aiyan°''. Ini'megu ma'mA'ka'^tc anemi'cina''ikegi 
wi'Anemi'" aiyan°'" . 

"Ke"tcinepya'yaiyan°'', 'kago''megu ni'"i'cawi ma'ma''tcig'''V 
nete'ci'ta'"'. O'ni mAni'megu' ca"ckln a'A'panemonu'tAintln"'' 

25me'to''*tci ku^tci'megu mA'ni manetowuiie'"ta'Ani ne'pemut^', 
nete'ci'ta'"^'. Me'ce'megu na"ina'i pyit'yaiyan i'n a'na'tAmani 
ma'A'ni'^tca'i' ci'ci'gWAnAn"''. Nyawupi'tawAn"''. MA'n a'ci'Ata- 
'pe'nAman a'Anwa'wa'ckag'''". Ne'menu't-*^'. KwiyenA'megu 
'i'niyan ii'tA'ci'ai'yogin anapA'tAman"'', 'i'n anapA'tAmani ma'A'ni' 

SOci'ci'g^vAJiAn"''. MAui'meg a'cAta'pe'nAman a'pe'ku'ta'sag''''. 
'A'pya'^tciwiipiwe'toyan aiyo"i'ci wigi'yapeg''''. Aiyo'tca''megu 
ke'pi'cksvate pyii'yaiyan i'n a"me"kawi"cinan ayii'ci'megupya- 
''tcikimotu''sayan°''. Ki'cagu'^tci'megu 'Aniwawa'"senoni" ci'ci'- 
gwAnAn"'' . Nepya''tc.iga''iyowekena'^tci'tu wi'pwawi'Anwa'wa- 

35'seg'''." 0'n°'', "I'ni wii'witep'", mawi'nawA<'tciwA'''tca'ug''"V' 
a'"ina''tc''. 

A''tca''megu "a'ke'kanet'mowa'*tc aV^'pAnig""''. Keya'ApAga'- 
"ipi ne'kAnitepe'kwe'meg a'^tcimo'a'te'"'. A'penope'nowa'^tc'", 
'a"uwigi'wa''tcin a''awa''tc''. 

40 A'wiipikemi'yanig''''. Me'cena'megu nyawiki'ce'"sw a'pemikemi'- 
yanig a'mo'ckA"Anigiga"meg''"". A'pema'mowa'^tc''. O'n inin 
A'ckA'^tci'meg a'me'k^\'ane'mawa''tc'', a'nAtuna'Amowa''tci'ga'i 
wi"tA'cipwawikemiya'nig^\'an''''. Cewa'nApi me'teno''meg anemina- 
"ki'winig u'Anomi"awa'^tci mAgwA"kiwAn"''. A'ki'ci'megu'aiya'- 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 139 

it up. After tying it up, it looked just as it was when I saw it yonder 
in tlie manitou land. 

"Then I thought seriously when I was sitting down all the time, 
and it was stUl, wind was not blowing from any dii'ection, not even 
a little breeze. Pretty soon a gust of wind came. Then I heard 
singers. Just as we have sung the songs one after the other was the 
wa.y I heard them (sing) . The first one we used was the first one I 
heard. And the order we used was the same. The number of our 
songs was as many times as a gust of wind came. Only because the 
songs came to me, was the reason why I did this; was the reason 
why I heard them myself alone. It was not that some one was 
singing, but it just came that way. After they were all gone then 
I remembered. 'Well! that is why this has happened to me,' that 
was what I thought. Then I remembered. It was j ust as if they came 
up from the water, so I thought of them. I imagined I was in the 
manitou-land. Then after I waited and knew that I would not 
forget them, then I placed our sacred pack on my back and started 
here carrying it along. 

"Then after the darkness came upon me, exactly as I was con- 
tinuing to go, there was a light. I surely had to go there. I could 
not but continue to go there. It was without doubt the only way 
I could go. 

"When I came close, I thought 'something will surely happen to 
me.' Then I depended entirely upon this, because it was as if I 
were carrying manitou-arrows, I thought. At the time when I 
came, then to my amazement I saw these gourds. Four were tied 
together. Just as I picked them up they made noises. I liked to 
hear them. Exactly as the ones which were used they looked to 
me, just so did these gourds look to me. Just as I took them dark- 
ness suddenly appeared. Then I started toward this wickiup here, 
bringing them along. Then just as I arrived here by the doorway, 
I stumbled, while I was coming stealthily on a walk. The gourds 
had already made a great racket. I was coming along very slowly 
with them so that they would not rattle." Then, "Now I shall stop 
for a while, you may go and cook," he told them. 

For the first time they knew it was morning. It is a fact, it is said, 
he had been instructing them all night long. Then they went to their 
respective homes. . 

Then it is said it began to rain. It kept on raining for four months 
and there was an inundation. They then fled. Then after some time 
they remembered him, for they were seeking for a place where it did 
not rain. But it is said the only way they could go was by going on 
top of the hills. The water had already come up half way (up the 



140 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. iNN. 40. 

pe'taw A'ku'pyanig'''". A'kutAganetA'mowa'*tci me'to'sane'- 
niwAg''''. Me'ce'meg a'wawiyagi'niegu kiwi'tawa'^tci mi'^tci'pa'a'i 
tca'g a'cigi'ni'^tci"''. A'pwawiku'se'gowa'*tc''. Me'cemego'na" 
a'cigi'ni^tcin a"ma'nani''tc'". 
5 KAbotwep i'ni klyotane'niwa" a"ma'nani''tc'' O'nip unigani'- 
mwawAn a'nA'gini'^tc''. "I'ni ya'tuge mA'ni pete'gi wi'ai'- 
y^gkwe' " a''ini'^tc'". Nepiga"meg a'natA'mowa**tc a'kwapiwa^tci'- 
meg''"'. Nepi'meg a'Aniwi'tAnigi'ga'i ne'p''. WinA'gii' a'me- 
'kwane'megu'^tc ane'tA me'to'sane'niwa'''. A'ponotA'mowa'^tc 

10uwiwA"ciwe'wawAn°''. Inime'gup a'krci'cegi'cegi"cini'*tci mane'- 
towa'i kiyota'ni'^tci'''. I'nip ii'kTwik:\vInAtawi'ciga'pawa''tc''. 

O'ni wi'n a'kA'none'^tc''. "Na'i', nene'ka'nemi wi'u^'tci'na'ime- 
to'saneniwi'gwa'igi ma'A'gi me'to'sane'niwAg'^'V' a"me''tc'". 
"Wi'me'to'saneni'wiwa''tci'*tca'i ki'inane'mawAg'''". Ki'tapi'awAgi'- 

15 ku'''," a'i'negu'^tci kegya'tcine'ni'a'''. "'O "wa'na'i'ni, A'ce'megu 
nrku''*tcaW'" ; keke'kaneta'pwAku''tc a"pi'tcimAnikI"cagu''tci- 
'sAnAgi'nagWA'k''. SAnAgi'nagwAtwi mA'n"''. Ne/"chvawi niA'ni 
ne'p''. A'ce''tca"megu nl"ku''tcawi wrna"sa'Ag'''','' a'i'''tc''. 
"KfnagA'cipwA'meg''"', katAga"mAni ne'pi kago" i'ciku"tAgag''"'. 

20Ki'pyapwA'mcgu me'simii''meg''"'; ka't u'wiya' aiy5" A"ck\vi'ki- 
■^tc"'," a"ina''tc''. "Ke'tenA'megu mane'towAgi neke'ka'neme- 
gog""", a'gw A"ce "inowa'yanin"''. I'ni''tca' wi'u^tci'megu'aiyo'- 
"i"Anemi''aiyagw A'kwitepyiigi'meg''"'. Ki'Anc'mi'apen"-^', cewa'nA 
mA'kwa''tci'megu kl'Aneme'ka'p'"^'," a"ina''tci me'to'sane'niwa"''. 

25"A"pemiwa'pu"sa''tc A'kwi'tcpyag''''. A'ane'mi'a''tc''. 'A'nagA'- 
negu''tci kcgime'si me'to'sane'niwa'''. 

O'nip I'niyA nl'ganlt'^', "MAni'mcgu na"nln ami'cawiya'ne'e 
pwawikago'i'inowa'te'e nl'nani wi'wapetunamoya'ne'"'. A'eega'- 
'mcg i'na'i kepyii'nenepw a'ma'nani''tci mane'towAg'''"." 



30 A"pyawa''tc a'sagA''Anig'''', a'ma'nani'Hci pena'wa'''. "Na'i', 
nawA''tciwi'se'nitaw""='. Nyii'wiigun aiy6''i kl'awi'a'wipen"*'. 
Nya'wugiinagA'k i'ni wrna'gwaivAg'''"''. I'ni wrkT'cikaki'pu'''tca- 
yj^gkwe"^ Apeno'Agi'ga' i'ni wi'menwime'to'saneni'wiwa'^tc'V' a'ina- 

35 ''tc''. "PenawAgi'''tca mo'cA'gi ki'wA''tcawA''tca"open'^^'," a''ina- 
''tci me'to'sane'niwa'''. A"tape''siwa''tc''. 

'O'n iniyA niganitAma''mcgu, "Na''ni'n amitA'ci'senya'e'- 
nAgow^"^', cawawi'nA ni'nA mA'kwA'g aiyo"i tAnAmiya'gago'-^'," 
'a"ina<'tc'". 

'O'ni nyiiwugunAgA'tenig a'a'''tfimu''tc'': "Na'i', Tnu'gi mA'n 

40 aiy6"ninA kepya'nenepw i'nina' ni'nAga'i nepyaneti''s'''," a'i'''tci 
klmo'''tc''. "Aiy6''tca'i wi'A'ckwi'wA na/'ni'nA nana'ku'migwan'"^'; 
a'gw anemi'ai'j^Agwe wi'Anemi''a''tcin''''," a''ini''tc''. " Iniga'- 
'mcgu wi'na'gwaiyAg'"'^'. Aniga'ne ma'kAtawapA'tanig'''', wi'ma- 
witA'ciwA''tca"oyag'^'^''"," a''ini''tc''. 'I'kwawA'g ii'pe'nowa'^tc''. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 141 

slopes). The people suffered dreadfully. They were among game 
animals of all kinds. The latter were not afraid of them. There 
were a great number of every kind. 

Pretty soon there were a lot of reptiles. Then it is said their 
leader stepped. " Very likely we must now go back," he said. They 
could see water as far as they could see. The water was flowing very 
swiftly He (the one blessed) was remembered by some people. 
They ceased carrying their packs on their backs. At once, it is said, 
the manitous, the reptiles, were lying on their packs. Then they 
stood about not knowing what to do. 

Then he was spoken to. "Now, just think a way in which these 
people might live," he was told. ''Verily, you are to think of them 
so that they will live. You will of a surety satisfy them," he was told 
by the larger men. "O, yes, I will just try; though you well know 
how very difficult this looks. This looks difficult. This water is 
dangerous. I shall merely try to save them," he said. "You are to 
simply follow me, do not fear this water in any way. You are to 
come along, all of you; let no one remain here," he said to them. 
"Truly the manitous know me, I am not merel}' saying it. That is 
why we shall be able to walk along here on the surface of the water. 
We shall surely walk along (on the surface of the water), but you 
must walk along quietly," he said to the people. He began walking 
away on the surface of the water. He went on his way. He was 
followed by all the people. 

Then it is said the former leader (said), "This is exactly what I 
would have done, if he had not said anything, I would have then 
commenced talking. I just brought you for fun where there were 
many snakes." 

When they came to a place where (land) was exposed (out of the 
water), there were many turkeys. "Now let us stop here to eat. 
We shall \)e here four days. On the fomlh day we shall depart. 
Then our belhes will be thoroughly filled, and the children will then 
have health}^ lives," he told them. "Verily we shall cook turkeys 
only," he told the people. They felt happy over it. 

Then that leader again told them, "Yonder was where I would 
have let you feast too; but for my part, you would have eaten bears 
here." 

Then he (the one blessed) related after four days: "Now I have 
brought you to this place, and at that time I brought myself here," 
he said secretly. "Wlaosoever talks contrary to me shall remain 
here; he shall not go the way we shall go," he said. "We shall start 
out at once. Yonder at that black object, is where you shall cook 
your meals," he said. The women went. 



142 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. Tetu. aNN. 40. 

IniyAga" ineni'wA pemimanemaneto\va''^tcimut a'pemiwa'pu'sa- 
''tci pemiwapika'wini''tc''. "MAniku''megu na''nin amipemi'aiya'- 
ne'^V' a''pemi'*tc'". 

"Aiyo" aiyo'"'", wI"A'ckwa''tc amvane'mig%van'"^', kago" a'ci'i'- 
5"cigwan°*'. Ka'tA'^tca'i keteminawryagagu mo'"tc u'wiya" 6'sA'n 
i'n i'ca'winit^", ka't''". I'n a'ine'nAgow'^^'." 

A'Anemika'wiwa'^tc''. "'O' ni'nA nete'gwA neni'w'"*', a'ke'ka'- 
nemi''tc a'maneto'wiwAgi wa"'tci'nowa''tc''. Ni'peme''kA''tca 
mo'tci'megu nl'n"*",'' "a'i''^tc''. Aya'nu'sa'^tci kAbo'tw a'Anemine'- 

10'ka'cka''tc''. Ku'^tci''a"mo"kl<'tc A'nemyag a'wi'ckwawa'ge'si'^tc''. 
"NAna"i'kati''sunu wrAnemA''kiwiwi wi'Anemi"aiyan°'V' a''ine- 
^tc''. A'penowa'^tci'meg''"'. Wayo'"sitcig a'ku"tA'mowa''tc Ite'pi 
wl"a\va'^tc''. 

"O'ni kwiyeiiA'megu nawA'"kwanig lya" a"pyawa''tc i'niye ma- 

15'kAtawapAta'ninig'"". '0'n°'', "Nl'ciigu'n in aiyo"i wi'awi'a'- 
wiyAg'''""'," a"mi'^tc'". "Uwiya"si ki'A'ci"t6pen Ape'no'Agi 
wi'Anemi"A'cA"A"cAniag''"«'. I'ni T\-i'peno"^tca'igi wfai'yAg'^''''', 
cewa'n I'ni wi'mAgi'megu'u'sa'gA'Ag'"', wrpo'niyAg'^'''''," a"ina- 
•^tc'". O'nip a'A'ci"towa'*tc i''kwaw.\g u'wiya's'", a'ApwA'ApwatA'- 

20mowa^tci nakA^'tc a'nA"sarLA'sa'ko'i'gawa''tc''. 

"MamemvitA'"s''''," a''ine''tc''. "Wi'pwawi'ano'ano'tAmag''''^', 
ku'^'tci kegime'si'megu kfuwi'wA'cip^^'," a"ina<'tc''. "Cewa'nA 
ni'nani wrAnemiwI'tamAg Ape'no'Agi na"u''satcig'''', 'i'ckwa'sa- 
'Agi'ga''"; a'prtu'sa'gw-a'ig i'ni wi'A'pi'tu'"sayag''«". A'gwi wi'nA 

25po"si pApiwe'ci''itcig'''", na'ipa'utcigi'mcg''"'," a'i"'tc''. '0'n°'', 

"Me'ce'megu wi'AnemitAnene'gowAgi vvi'kiwine'ka'tiwAg'''V' 'a'i'- 

^tci". "'O'ni, kinwa'wA pya^'tci'aiyani'megu me"ten5''i wi'pya- 

^tci'ai'yag''™'," a"ina''tc''. 

A'na'gn'awa''tc'". KAbotwe'meg a'wapi'Ana''soni''tc''. KAbotwe- 

SOpi'meg a'wapine"ka'tini<'tci'. Kageya''megu kegime''s a'kwapine- 
'ka'tini''tc''. Wam<^tcane"sitcig ag\vi'k.\nag\vA wi'ne'cki'mawa- 
•^tc''. A'Anemi'A'ckita"awa''tc''. A'A'ckane'mawa''tc uni'^tcane's- 
"wawa'*'. O'nipi kAb5'twe negu't a"aiyi"kwi'e^tc'\ Inipi'megu 
a'agsvA'piwa'^tc A"kwitepyagiga''in a'Api'A'piwa'^tc'''. Wa'nAto'k 

35a'tA'ci'se'nya\va''tc'". "O'nip a'pag\vita''awa''tc Ape'no'ag''''. 
"Ke'tci"cinu ''"'," a'"ine''tc''. A'ke'tci"ci'nowa<'tc'". 

AckA'^tci'meg a''pyawa<'tci wi'tA'ci'agAVA'piwa<'tc''. A'ke'tci'- 

megu'A'ki'winigi peno^'tci'meg a'agwi'agwi'ckA'ki'winig'"'". "MAni- 

"^tca"megu mA'n i'n a'A"cki'sag''''," a"ina'^tc'". A'kwita'ki'g 

40a''awa''tc''. 'Iya"megu maiya'wi mAgwA"kiw'^'^', a'pagwawA'- 

ginig'''", iya" a'ne'pawa'^tc*'. 

O'nipi mamaiyA'meg a'pe'nowa''tc''. Ana'gwinig a"pyawa''tc 
a'ku'pyanig''''; 5'nip ,a'po'mwa''tc''. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 143 

That man who had hccn talking like a manitou began to'walk off 
when others began marching away. "This is exactly the way I too 
would have gone," he said as he went along. 

"Here, here, is where he shall remain who begrudges me, and thus 
says anj'thing to me. Do not pit}" him, even if it is someone's father 
who does it. That is all I say to you." 

They were marching on. ''O, the man means me, because he 
knows that 1 am of the nature of a manitou, that is why he said that. 
But I am going to walk any way," he said. While he was walking 
along soon he disappeared downward. Although he came forth into 
view down below he cried out terribly. "Support yourself, let it be 
the earth upon which you will continue to go," he Avas told. They 
went right along. They, whose father he was, Avere afraid to go there. 

Then they- reached that black object just at noon time. Then, 
"We shall stay here two days," he said. "We shall make some 
cm'ed meat so that you may give each of the children (something) to 
eat on the way. Now it shall be far where we shall go, but a large 
piece of land will be out of the water, where we shall camp," he said 
to them. Then the women were busy making the meat, broiling it 
and roasting it on the spits. 

"Just a sufficient number," they were told. "So you will not be 
overloaded, though all of you will have loads on your backs," he said 
to them. "But then, I am now going along with children who can 
walk, also the girls; wherever they walk we shall walk and sit clown. 
Of course not those who are too small, just those who can run," he 
said. "They may just play along the way, they may just chase 
each other aromid," he said. "And the rest of you must come along 
only the way I go," he said to them. 

Then they started out. Soon they (the children) began wrestling. 
Soon, it is said, they began to chase each other. Finally they were 
all chasing each other around. They whose children they were 
could not scold them. They went along feeling worried. They were 
worried at their children. Then, it is said, pretty soon one of them 
was made tired. Then they stopped to rest, sitting on top of the 
water. They ate a meal there unconcernedly. Then it is said, the 
children got thirsty. "Lie down fiat," they were told. They lay 
down flat. 

After a long time they arrived at the place where they were to rest. 
There was a large piece of land, which was covered with mud for a 
long distance. "Much of this water has gone down," he told them. 
Then they went up the hill. On the top of the hill, where the earth 
was dry, was where they slept. 

Then they started out early. In the evening they came to the place 
where the water had come up; then they camped. 



144 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 10. 

"Na'i'*, i'niyapi wi'Ano'kane'iiAgow™^','' a''ina''tci neno'tawa"'". 
"Mo'cAgi'megu penawA'gi ki'ne'sa'p''^V' a''ina''tc''. 

A"po'si'Anwa'''tciwa''tc''. Mo'cAgi'megu pe'nawa' a'ne'"sawa''tc'". 
Mane'meg a'ne"sawa'*tci'. O'n iya" a"pya'nawa'*tc ini'n a'a'wini- . 
5 ''tci ne'niwAn"''. 

"Na'i', inugi'megu wi'wapimoni'sa'wayag''""'', kago''i ku'^tci'- 
megu nI"i'caW''," a"ina'*tc''. 

O'nipi, "1 nu'gi mA'ni ni'kiga'nopeiiA ma'A'gi pe'nawAg'''",'' 
a"ina''tc''. 
10 "Ci'j wI'tAne'swawAgete'nina'i?" a'cita'"awa''tci mAmi'"ci"Ag'''". 

'O'nip a'wapikAnakA'nawi^tc I'nA nenl'w^*": "Na'i', mA'ni 
wi'i'ca'wiyAg''''"^'. Ketcagimegu'Agi''topenA keta'ine'menan"'', ke- 
'ca'cketo'wawAg'''', kegime'si\va''megu keta'I'nemwawi ketA'gi- 
'top''*'. Inugi'^tca" I'ni kegime'si'megu ki"natapwA tA"sw agi'- 

15" toy ag '''"*'," a"ina<*tci me'to'sane'niwa'''. "Cewii'nA ki'wiga''tci'- 
megu'aiy6'ino'kame'kwi''setop''''^'. MAgiga"megu kl'no'kame'kwi'- 
'setop"^'. Ki'kegene'sipwAga"meg''"'. Mo'tci'meg i'niy a'cke'- 
pyatot u'wiyaw aiyo''i ■w-i'pemite''*tca'cin"-^'. I'ni wato'wayan"'', 
'ka'tA wIg^va'ci'yagago■^',' a'ine'uAgoW®'. Cewa'n a'g^vi wi'na'- 

20 "sa'^tcin"'' ; I'ni wi'i"cikeg''''," a'i'^'tc''. 

Krca"'tcimu'*tc a'ma'nawa''tci no'kame'kuni'gatcig'''". NomAga'- 
'megu a'ki'ca'wiwa'^tc''. 

"Na'i', aiyo" i'na'i Ana''kA"Am6gu \vi'A'pe"kwa"cigin''''; i'na'i 
ki'A'tawap™*'," a i"^tc''. . 

25 Wa'pAnigi mamaiyA'meg a'to''kiwa''tci mamrci''itcig''''. I'na- 
"tci', w-inwa'w a'c5'ckapya''cini''tci tci'paiyAni na"kA''^tc i'niy 
uta'Ine'mwawa' i'na' a'A"tanig''''. Ayawi'ci'meg uta'inemetA'- 
mowa'^tc i'na" a'A"tanig''''. A'pwa\vi'megu'wiya'Akago''i'A'gi- 
"to'^tc'". Mo'tci'meg i'niyA iiAna'w a'tA'cine'po'it ina''meg a'co- 

30'cka'pya"cig'''". 

Iniga'ipi'meg a"wapiki'ganu''tc'". Na'kA'^'tc i'nin ane't a'pitA"- 
wawa'^tc i'nini ne'niwAn°''. Pe'ki'megu 'a'wawi"se'niwa<*tc'", 
agwiga'wi'nApi nimi'eti'wa'^tcin"''. Ca'cki'meg a'ke'tcikigii'noni- 
•'tc''; i'ni mi"cam a'pwawi'meguni'senA'mowa''tc''. Ina''meg 

35a''Ago'tanig''''. A'pwawiga''inimiwA'A'mini<*tc''. Ca'cki'meg ii'wi- 
'se'niwa''tci nyawenwipi'megu wi'se'niwAgi me'to"sane'niwAg'''". 

O'nipi ki'ciwi'se'niwa''tc'', a'a^'tci'mo'a'^tci me'to'sane'niwa'^': 
"Na'i', ni^'tcime'to'sane'nitig'"'', ke'tenA'megu, 'neke'ka'nemegwA 
ma'netow^'',' netena'neti's"'. MA'ni wa'^'tc i'cime'nAgow"*", 

40 sAiiAgi'nagwAtwi pya'^tci'ciwe'nAgow"'^'. A'ci-na''kA-mA'ni-"Agi'- 
"toyagw aiyo'"meg inu'gi. mA'ni kenata'p^'''. Kegeme'si'megu 
ma A'ni kenata'p^^". Agwi'kiigo'i wi'Agi'to'yagwin"''. Aiy5"megu 
ki''natap\v i'niyan iya" a'tAnAgi'to'yagwin"*'. KinwawA'ga*'" 
'netAgi'topenA'megu,' kete'cita'a'pwAtug'"'". A'g""'", ma"Ani'megu 



MiCHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 145 

"Now, I will hire you," he told the Indians. "You will kill nothing 
but the turkeys," he said to them. 

They were very willing. They killed nothing hut the turkeys. 
They killed many. Then they brought them to the place where that 
man was. 

"Now you must begin at once to pick the feathers, for I am going 
to do something," he told them. 

Then it is said, "Now we are going to give a gens festival with 
these turkeys," he told them. 

"Well, pray, in what are we going to cook them?" the ceremonial 
attendants thought. 

Then it is said that man began a speech: "Now this is what will 
happen to us. We have lost all our possessions, yom* kettles, in fact 
you have lost all your possessions. Verily, at this time you shall 
see all that you have lost," he told the people. "But you must first 
place new dirt here very carefully. You will place new dirt covering 
a large space. You must do this in haste. Even the body of the 
one who was drowned will be lying here on his belly. That is why 
I say, 'do not bother with him;' thus I say to you. But he shall not 
be alive; that is the way it shall be," he said. 

After he spoke, there were many people digging to put on new 
dirt. In a short time they were finished. 

"Now then, spread some things here for him to lay his head on; 
you mil do it for him," he said. 

Early the next morning those who were the ceremonial attendants 
woke up. Lo, there they saw a corpse stretched out and then- things 
were there. Each of their belongings were there. No one lost a 
thing. Even the person who had died at some lonely place was 
lying there stretched out. 

Then it is said he at once commenced his gens festival. And some 
of them buried that man. They had some great feasts, though it is 
said they did not dance together. He just gave a big gens festival; 
the sacred pack was not taken down. It was just there hanging. 
No dancing songs were sung. They only feasted. The people had 
four feasts, it is said. 

Then it is said, after they ate, he spoke to the people: "Now, my 
fellow people, truly I think of myself, 'the manitou knows me.' 
This is why I mention this to you, because the way I have brought 
you through looks very difficult. And this which you have lost, 
you are able to see it here right now. You see them all. You will 
lose nothing. You will see those things exactly where you lost them 
over there. You must have thought 'we have lost them.' No, here 
they are, all of them. Some one will just say it, if he says, 'I lost 



146 OEIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eith. axn. 40. 

ke'gime's'". A'ce'megu wi'i'nowaw u'wiya"^", 'newAni'tu' inAn 
a"'"cikeg'''V i't"'. Mo'tcima''megu nAnakawe''siweni ka'kane'- 
tAgig'''', A'ce'noniwi yo'w'"''. Cewa'n aiy6"megu wAni'naw 
A'tii'niw'''"; pyamigAteniwi'megu. Ni'nA wa"'tci natA'mowa''tc 
5i'n unatawino'nwaW"'"," a'i'''tc''. 

AnetA'p ini'megu i'ciwi"cA'"sowAg'^'', a'sa'gime'^tc''; mamii'^tci'- 
megu'u \vi"pemike'ta'''tcimoW*", a'cita'"awa''tc'', a'A'ta'nigin"''. 

O'nip'', "Na'i', nawA'kvviig I'ni wrnAna'teyiig ''"''','' a''ine''tci 
wata'tae'initcig"^''. NawA''kwanigi wa'pAnig a'nAna'towa''tc uta- 
lO'ine'mwawAn"''. "Ni'nAga' ag\vi'kago' A'ce'nugin"'','' a'l'yowa- 
■^tc''. Kegime'si'megu i'n a'i'yowa''tc'', kegime'si'megu a'pwa- 
wikago"i'A'ce'nonig a'tcagi'megu I'na' A"tanig'''". Ane't ii'mane- 
'cita"awa''tc uta'i'nemwaw a'na'towa''tc''. 

O'ni wa'pAiiigi ncguti'gAmig I'nin a'wA'*tca"awa''tc''. Oni nawA- 
15'kwa'nigini na''kA ncguti'gAmig''''. O'n ana'gwinigi na'kA"'tci 
neguti'gAmig''''. Ini'meg a'i'ca'wiwa'^tc''. KwIyenA'megu nawipe'- 
ponig a'tcagiwA''tca"awa''tc I'nin u'ckina'wa'An"''. 

O'nipi me'ce'megu kenwa'"c i'na' a.'uwi'uwi'giwa''tc''. A'gwip 
u'wiya'A nep6"i'*tcini me'teno"megu i'niyA neni'w""^"; inipi'meg 
20 a'cineguti'nepeg''''. 

O'nip utogima'mwawAn a'kAn6ne'gowa''tc''. "Na'i', 'I'niyapi 
wI'atA'piyAg'''''"''', kl'pinane'tapen A'ckipo'niyAgwe negu'ta"'". 
A'mcnwA''kiwigi ki'mawi'uwl'gipen°'^'. I'n aiy6''nInA mA'n a'pi- 
"ckane'tAman a'a'wiyAg"""*"," a''ini''tc''. "Inugi'megu na"ina' 

25a'ki"citAg\va'ga"ig'''', i'n A'cki'megu tAgwa'gaigi wi'a'miyAg'^^®'. 
Ki"Anemiraenamena'ck6'nopen°'^'," a''ini''tc''. A'cki'megumen- 
wane'tAgig a'ma'nawa'^'tc'". O'ni wi'n°-^', "'Ana'"e, 'iniyatu'ge 
wi'wi''tca'\vayAg'''^''', cewa'n a'kowi'megu ki'Anemi'uwI'uwIge.'- 
"ipen°*". AwitA'ku'i yo'we ne"k aiyo'' a'awi'wAgwiin"'', u'wiya'A 

30ne'p6"i's*'," 'a''ina''tc''. "Ne'ki'meg aiyo' a'awi'wAgwan"'', i'ni 
ne''k amipwawinep6'"ite'^'," a"ina''tc'". 

Me'ce'meg a'Anemi'uwi'uwI'giwa''tc''. Ayanutawa''tci'meg I'nin 
utogima'mwawAn a"nepo"kani''tc a'ki'cagu'^tci'megu'i'cita"ani''tc''. 
O'nip a'mAmato'megu''tci wI'nA wi'na'sani^tci'meg a"i'ci'megu''tc 

35a'ki'ciga'Inininepo''ini''tc''. "Mame^tcina"megu 'i'nug aiyo'"i 
kl'mAma'tomen""', a'gwi na'kA'^'tci kago"i wi'i'ciki'sa''tcime'- 
nanin."''. Ni'nA niA'ni nenAna''anetA mA'n otawe'ni netcagi'- 
megutepa'nemawA mA'nanA me'to'sane'niw'^'*^". AgAvi'kiigo' ine''ke * 
wi"ta'pwa''tcin°''. NinA'megu ni'kA'nSnaw u'wiya'A niAma'- 

40tome'k«". Na'kA'^'tci ki'ki''kime'k''", 'Po'nimi. Neki'cima'ininA- 
'a<'tci'mo'aw^*V ni"inaw^'''," 'a"igu''tc''. 



MiCHELso.N.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 147 

this kind of a thing.' Even those who know witchcraft, it (their 
medicine) was gone also. But it is all around here; it came also. 
I am the reason why they see their medicine," he said. 



Some of them, it is said, began to sweat at once, for they were 
frightened by what they had been told; because surely he would 
start to tell outright, they thought, where it was. 

Then it is said, "Now you may get it at noon," the owners were 
told. They went to get their belongings ne.xt day at noon. ''Noth- 
ing of mme is missing," they said among themselves. All of them 
said the same among themselves, that nothing was missing, that all 
was there. Some of them were bashful when seeking their things. 

Then the next day one household prepared a feast for him. Then 
at noon another household. Then in the evening another household. 
They kept this up. Just at midwinter all then had cooked feasts for 
that young man. 

Then it is said they remamed abiding here for a long time. They 
remained living there for many years. It is said no one died during 
that time except that man (mentioned above) ; that was the only 
death, it is said. 

Then it is said they were addressed by their chief. "Now, eventu- 
ally we must move to a new location, we shall think it clean when 
we first camp somewhere. We shall go to live in some good land. 
I am getting tired of this place where we are now," he said. "This 
coming fall, early in the fall then we shall move immediatelj*. We 
shall oat meat all the time on the way," he said. Behold, they were 
many people who favored it at first. Then he (the hero), "Mother, 
probably we had better go along (with the people), but we must 
always live behind. No one would ever have died if we remained 
here all the time," he said to her. " Just as long as we remained here 
no one would ever have died," he said to her. 

They went along living anjnvhere. Wliile they were moving the 
chief's family had a death, and he felt very badly. Then it is said 
he (the hero) was besought by the chief and asked that the person 
who had already died should come back to life. "I shall pray to 
you for the last time, I shall never again trouble you in anything. 
I have the control over this town, which you see, I have control over 
all these people. If any one speaks to you, he will in no respect 
speak truthfully. I shall speak to the person myself if any one 
prays to you. And if he nevertheless speaks to you, 'Stop talking 
to him. I have already told him,' I shall say to him," he was told. 



148 OEIGIX OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

A"a''tci'mo'a''tc'': "Na'i', mA'n a'peta'pyii'senwi mame''tcina'- 
'iwen°''. U'wIya'A ma'A'gi me'cemego'na'i mAma'tomAte me'to- 
'sane'niwAg ayana"sani'^tc'', ''au',' i'nene's*'. Ke'tenA'megu 
'u'wTya'A kl'gi'a's*'. I'niigi nii'k a'ki'cinep6''ini''tci me'cemego'- 
5 na'i niAina'tomAt"', 'agwi'kAiiag'v i'ni,' na''kan i'yowen"'". 
Cagwanemowi'nagwAt''''. Agu'wiya'A na'"sa'awA ki'cinepo'i'ni- 
'"tcin"'', agwima'' ine'taga'yanin"''. Ni'n inugi'^tca''ninA ni'tcagi'- 
inegunAto'mawAgi me'to'sane'iaiwAg*''','' ■ 'a'"ina''tc''. 

A'An6''ka'kya<'tci wi'mawA''tci'meme''tc''. A'mawA'^tci'meme^tci 

lOkegeni'meg''"'. O'n a'me'sotawiwitA'mawa''tci me'to'sane'niwa'"'. 
"Na'i', niA'nA ketogima'menanA ne'po'kaw"^*'. Wl'petegi''tca'- 
'nawa'^tc'", i'ci'ta'aw"'^', u'gwi'sAn"''. Na'sa'agwa'nA'^tca'i nl'tii'- 
pi'egwA na"nm'"^". A'g^vi ■v\'i'mya'cinawa''i''tcin°''; pe'ki'megu 
ni'ta'pi'eg""^^". Me'sotawi'mcgu kl'tapi'e'gunan i'li a'ca'wig- 

15wan°*'," a"ina'*tci me'to'sane'niwa"'". O'n a'pwawi'uwl'ya- 

'Anikago"megu'i'cikAna'wini'*tc''. " I'nl, ii'pwawimagwa'e'uwiya- 

'Akago'i'cikA'nawi'^tc'', inAmcgO'ni wl'k^vna'wiyan"','' a"ciwa''tc'". 

"Ni'na'sa'awA''tca''megu ni'n"*'," a''ina''tc i'ni'i me'to'sane'niwa'''. 

O'n a"nagwa''tc ite'p a"a<'tc''. "Kl'cimena'gu'slw'"^'," a''ine'*tc''. 

20 "Ci', ke'te'n"*^'," a'i'ciwa''tci'meg''"'. Klki'ki'meg a'pemi'Ata- 
"pinc''kana<'tc a'wAna'gena'^tc''. A'peraipA'se'gwini'^tc'". 

"A'ce'megu wl'ke'kane'menan a'pi'tcita'a'wAnan"'', wa''^tc'' ''au" 

i'nenan"''," 'a"ina''tc''. "Iniyu'niAni wi'poni'megu'u'wiya- 

'AniAma'tomi'^tc''. Nl'nAga' ini'mcgu wl'i'cita"ayan°''," a"ine^tc 

25iigima'w''-^'. A'krci'megu'ininipwrnvikag5'i'ci'a'kwAmAtA'mini''tc''. 

A'a'miwa''tc''. O'ni wimva'w u'cki'nawa' ugya'n a'kowi'meg 
a'Anemi'uwI'uwI'giwa'^tc''. O'nip ugya'n a'a'kwAmAtA'mini''tc'', 
a'pwawi'niegupA'ci'a'pwi'e''tc'" ; a'nAgAne^'tci'meg'"''. A'nagwani- 
'^tci'megu ami'ni'^tci''', me'ten6''megu wi''tci'so'ma''tci' a'A'- 
30 'ckwini''tc'\ Iniyane'ga' utogima'mwawAn a'pwawi'megupa'ci- 
'Apwi'e'gowa'^tc''. A'penoni<^tci'megu '6'nipi wi^tci'so'mawa'^tci''', 
"Me'cena"megu 'ami'g''"'," a''ina"tc''. A'anoma''tci'meg''"', a'ca- 
gwanemoni''tci'meg''"'. A'niinawa'nema''tci negutigAmigi'''tci'''. 
'UmAmi'ci'emAni'megu a'Apwi''egu<^tc''. 
35 O'nip A'ckA''^tc a'na"sani'^tc ugya'n a'a'miwa'^tc a'Anemipa- 
p6nTnutA'mowa''tci niA'tepon"''. 

O'n a'a<^tcimu'*tci negu'ti neni'w'^'*^' ; "Ki'nAgi'cka'wapen""^', 
ka'tA'^tca'i kag5"i totawl'yagag""'," a"ina^tc''. "'Au'," .^"ini-^tc''. 

O'nipi ke'tenA'megu ku'pi'^tcine'nu'son a'pya'pa''oni"*tc a'pi'ta- 
40 'ckani^'tci'meg''"'. Umaiya'wmwag u'''tcinaw a'pemi'i'ci"sani'^tc''. 

IniyAga" u'gimaw a'pwawi'niegupA'cinene'ka'nema''tc u'gwi- 
'sAni na'sata'gu'^tcin"''. KAb5twe'megu na'kA"*tc aya'ci'meguke'- 
"cigi''tc'', a'a'kwAmAtA'mini<^tc u'gwi'sAn"''. O'nip a"nAgI''tc''. 
A'ackAme'sini'^tci'meg u'gwi'sAU"''. 'O'nipi a''nAgi''tc'". 



MiCHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 149 

He said to him (the chief), "This last of our life continues forever. 
If you were to pray to any one of these people here while that person 
was alive they would say to you, 'All right.' Surely some one might 
make him feel well. Now since he is dead, if you pray to any one, 
'it is impossible,' is another answer. It looks as if they were unwill- 
ing. No one ever came to life who was already dead, I have not 
heard of such a case. I shall now call all the people together, myself," 
he told (the chief). 

He ordered them to be called together. They were hastily called 
together. Then he explained it to all the people: "Now this, our 
chief, has had a death (in his family). He wants to see his son truly 
back again. Wlioever brings him back to life will please me also. 
He will not thereby make me sad; he will please me very much. 
Whoever does that will please us all," he said to the people. Then 
no one said a word. "Now, as maybe no one has anything to say, 
I shall speak myself," so he said. "I shall trul}^ bring him back to 
life myseK," he told the people. 

Then he started out going to that place. "He already smells 
badly," he was told. "Well, that is so," he answered. Nevertheless 
he took hold of him by the hand and raised him up. He began to 
get up. 

"I just simply wanted to know what kind of a heart you have, 
that was why I said 'all right' to you," he told him. "From now, 
everyone shall cease praying to me. I shall thuik the same way 
myseK," the chief was told. Then that person was no longer sick in 
any way. 

Then they moved. And they, that young man and his mother, 
were living right behind (the main party) all the while. Then it is 
said his mother was taken sick, but the others Avould not wait for 
them; they were left. When those who moved departed, only those 
of his gens remained. That chief of theirs did not wait for them. 
When he (the chief) was gone, then it is said, he said to those of his 
gens, " You niay go on and move." He was unable to persuade them, 
for they were unwillmg. He noticed that they were those of a single 
dwelling. It was his ceremonial attendant who waited for him. 

Then it is said, later on his mother was well. They moved and 
made long stops on their way at the frames of the wicldups. 

Then one man related: "Pray let us meet them, but do not do 
anj^thing to them," he told them. "All right," they said. 

Then surely a buffalo came rmming toward them at full speed. 
On top of the hill was the direction toward which he ran. 

That chief never even thought of the person by whom his son was 
made well. Soon while he was traveling, his son became sick again. 
Then it is said he stopped. His son became more and more (sick). 
Then it is said he stopped. 



150 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. axn. 40. 

Na'kA'megu wi'n ugya'n"'', "Aiyo''i"ckw uwT'uwI'gitaw^""," 
a"igu''tc''. "'Au','' "a'"ina''tc''. A'uwi'uwi'giwa'^tc'". A'A'ci'towa- 
''tci'meg utotaweniga'nwawAn"''. 
O'nipi pete'g a'i'ci'an6''kane'*tci negu't ani'wi'sat*'. A'kiwa'- 
5pa'u''tc''. A'ckA^tci'meg lya" a'pAgAini'pa'u^tc''. lya'i pya'- 
'pa'u'^tc'', "Ki'ami'pwAp'V' a'"ina''tc''. "I'n ana'''tcimu''tci 
ketogima'menan"'^'. 'Wl'kegeni'megupya''tciwapu'tawAg'''',' kete'- 
guwaw"'^'." O'nip"', "Nekrcikwaiya'cikfci'gapenA nlge'nanAn"'','' 
a''ina''tc''. "Me'ce'meg aya'wagwan i'a'g''"'. 'A'gw A'cita"i 

10 wi'ami'yagini negu'ta''',' 'i'"c'"." O'nip'", "MAni'megu a'i'nenani 
wrina''tci'mo'A'*tci ketogima'menan"*'," a''ina^tc''. "Me'cena'tca" 
kAbo'twe me'kwane'miyag'"'', ki"pya''tciwapA'mipen°*', aiy6"niegu 
wi'na'wiyag'"''," a"Lna''tc''. 

A'kiwa'pa'u''tcina''kan°*'. A'A"cki'megunAgi'"ckawu'*tc'', "Tani- 

15 ''tca'i'kwiyen ii'po'niwa'^tc''?" a"ciwa''tc'". "O' mAnA'kA'megu 
peno''^tc''. WanAto'kA'meg utotawe'niwAg'''". 'Aiy5''megu nIna'nA 
ni'uwl'uwl'gipen"*',' 'I'wAg'''". 'Nekwaiya'ci'meguki'ci'gapen"*',' 
'i'wAg''''. 'Me'cena''tca'i na'"ina'i me'kwaneml'yagan"'', aiyo'"i 
ki"pya''tciwapA'mipen°*", aiyo"megu wi"uwi'uwi'giyag''''V i'wAg'''', 

20 a'"ine'^tc'". 

A''tca"megu a'minawina'wa'e'^tc''. "KA'ciku'ni"kA ne'te'caw 
a'pwawi'megupA'ci'A'pwi'Ag'''" ? WanAto'kA'megu nepyii'^tciwa'- 
put^'. Ag\vi'megu kag6"i pA'cinene'kanetAma'nin"''; agv\^iga'"megu 
pA'cinene'kane'mAgin"''. Neki'ciga'wi'naiyoweta'pi'eg''^*','' a'i'ci'- 

25 ta'a'^tc''. A'maiyo'^tci'megu. 

"Na'i', ki'pene'megu kA''ckimAge ni'uwT'kani'megu," a'ci'ta'a- 
''tc''. "Na'i', neme'to'saneni'metig'"'", nAtawa'^tci'megu 'aiya'pAmi 
kl'"apen°-^". Negu'ta' I'niyag utotaweniwa"'tcimap''. 'I'ni''tca'i 
wi"aiyAg'"''^', a'utotaweni'gwa'ig''''. Cewa'nA nya'wi ni'AnS'ka'- 

SOnawAg u'ckina'wa'Agi wi"a''tcimo"awa''tc I'niyane mi''cami ki'ci- 
't6'ni''tcin°''. MA'ni wi'i'nawa'^tc'", 'KemAina'tomeg''''*', a'kwA- 
mAtA'mo'kaw*-^',' wi'i'nawAg''''; I'ni wi'i'nawa'^tc''. I'n iya' u'- 
'*tcipya''tci wi'ke'ci'giwa''tc''. 'Wi'pyanapip'',' m'i'nawAg'''"," 
a'i"ciwa''tc''. 

35 A'Ano''kane''tci nya'w u'ckina'wa'Ag ite'pi wl''awa'*tc''. lya'- 
'meg a"pyawa''tc'', ke'tenA'^'tci" a'u\\a'gini''tc''. O'nip a'kAno'- 
nawa'^tc''. "Na'i', mA'ni wa'^tci'pyaiyag'^''': kemAmato'megopi 
wi'mi'ke''tci'ta'gayAn a'kwA'mAtAg'''^"," a'i'nawa'^tc''. "Ketogima'- 
menan u'gwi'sAn a'kwAmAtAmi'niwAn°'', wi'pyanapiga"ip''. 

40 KT'ci'megupya^'tciwapiwena'petug'"''," a'i'nawa'^tc''. 

O'n ugya'n a'kAna'wini'^tc''. "I'ni me''teno' negwi"s a'cinene- 
'ka'neme''tc a'kwAmAtAmi'ni''tcin uwI'ya'An"''. MA'ni wi'nA ni'n 
a"a'kwAmA'tAman°'', me'ce'megu nepemiwapi"kAneg6"ipen''^'. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 151 

Then again, " Pray let us always live here I'ight," he (the hero) was 
told hy his mother. ''All right," he said to her. Then they kept on 
living there. They made their town-buildings. 

And it is said, one fast runner was ordered back. Then he ran back. 
Later on he arrived nmning there. When he came running there, 
"You are requested to move, it is said," he told them. "That is 
what our chief declares 'They are to go there in haste,' he says of 
you." Then it is said, "We have already taken the trouble to com- 
plete ])uilding our homes," he told him. "You may go wherever 
you please. 'We shall not move to anyw'here for a long time,' teU 
him." Then it is said, "You tell our chief just exactly what I have 
told you," he told him. "Some time soon, when you remember us, 
you come over to see us, you will see us right here," he said to him. 

He ran back again. As soon as he was first met he (the chief) 
asked "At what place are they camping?" "O, yonder far away. 
They even have a tovm there. 'We shall remain living right here,' 
they said. 'We have taken so much trouble to build,' they said, 
' ^Tienever you remember us, you may come here to see us, we shall 
be living right here' they said," he (the chief) was told. 

(For the first time) he (the chief) came to a realization. "What, 
pray, is the matter with me, that I did not wait for them ? I luicon- 
cemedly came right on, moving. I did not even think of anything; I 
was not even thinking of them. And he surely had made me happy 
in the past by what he did for me," he thought. He was indeed 
weeping. 

" Now, if I ever persuade him I shall be a friend of his," he thought. 
"Now my people, we might as well move back. They have a towm 
somewhere, so it is said of them. That is where we shall go, wherever 
they have their town. But I shall make use of four young men to 
mform the person who made that sacred pack. This is what they 
shall tell him, 'He prays to you, for his family has a sickness,' they 
will say to him; that is what they will tell him. Tlien from there 
they must come back without delay. ' He will be brought here,' they 
will tell him," thus he said. 

Four young men were ordered to go there. Wlien they reached 
the place, sure enough to their astonishment they were living there. 
Then it is said they spoke to him. "Now this is why we have 
come: you have been prayed to doctor the one who is sick," they 
told him. ''Our chief's son is sick, it is said that he will be brought 
here. Probably they have already begun to bring him hither," they 
said to him. 

Then his mother spoke up. "That is the only time my son is 
thought of, when anyone is sick. When I was sick, why, we were 
simply straightway abandoned. No one then was worried over us. 



152 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

Agwigii" ina' u'wiya'A wi'u'te'tanemi'I'YAme<*tc''. O'ni ma'A'gi 
wate'tanemiyA'metcig'''', aiyo" ma'Agi niiwiigwig'''', mamicAma'- 
gatcigi ma'Agi'megu neguti'gAmig'''". Inigi'yatuge ma'A'ni wiini- 
megutcig''''. Magwa"e yo "A'ce'ino'i'nowaw^^', inanema'petuge 
5negwi"s*", wa'^tci'megu pwawikag6'a'neme"*tc''. I'mnug a'me- 
"kwii'neme'^tc''," a"i''^tci me'^tcemo'g''*'. 

O'ni Ini'g a'pe'nowa''tc''. Ini'gii' a"pwawi'niegukag6"i"i'cinA- 
"kumegowa'^tci'ga'''. Iya"i negu'ta'i a'nAgi'cka'wawa'^tc a'a<*tci'- 
mowa'^tc a'ciine'gowa''tc i'nini metem5''a'An°''. "Cawawlna'n 

lOagwi'megu kago'"i 'i'cIyA'me<'tcin°''. Agwi'ga' agwikAna'gw a'gw 
i'ciyA'me''tcin°''. "O', na'kA'^'tc a'gwi wI'nA kago''inegu i'cimya- 
"cikAn6"cIyA'me'^tcin°'". A'cawi<^tci'megu 'Ini'megu a''cawi'^tc'". 
rnini''tca''megu ugyii'ni myana''ckaniw ukA'nawin"'". Inima'- 
'megu' ca''ck a'i'Hc'". A'pwawi'A'pwi'Agw I'ni nene'"kutAg I'nA 

ISmete'mo'a'^'". 

A'na'inawamegu'^tci'megu ini' u'ckinawa"a'''. 
O'nipi na'kA'''tc a'kige'si'ini'^tci'megu "u'gwn'sAn"''. A'kl'wawa- 
''tc'". A'mi"catane'moni<'tci'megu a'ki'ci'meguna'sawita'"ani"*tc 
u'gwi'sAn"''. O'nip a'kAno'negu'^tc u'gwi'sAn"'': "Na'i', 'An6'"s®', 

20ki'pene'megu na'"sayan iya''pyaiyAg''^''', a'uwigigwa'igi'megu ni'nA 
ni'a pe'^teiklwit'^'. Agwi'megu nAna"ci wi'A'ceno'yanin"'', na'kA'- 
"*tci ki'menwitotawawAgi'meg''"'. Ma'Iya'yu wInA me'^tci'megu 
kago" i'cinene'kane'niA'^tcin''''. Magwa"megu na'"ina"i ki'cina'- 
'sa'ig ini'meg a'poni'megukago'i'i'cinene'ka'nemA''tc'', ku'^tciga'- 

25 'kwiga'winA keki'cagu'^tci'megutapi'eguna'naiyow'"''. Me'cena'- 
"megu yiitu'g a"na'sa"ite"^'," a"ina''tc o"sAn'''". "O'n inugi 
na'ma"meg a'kl'wayAgw a'menwipemate"siyan°''. Ite'p uta'"kw 
a'"aiyAgwe ne'tAnwa'^tc''." 

O'nip iya"megu "A'ci''*tci katawi'pyawa''tc a'a'ckAme'sini'^tci'- 

30 meg''"". O'nipi ne'niwAg a'AneminImA"wawa"^tc'". Iya'"megu 
negute'nwi wl'a'miwa''tc a'A''tanig a'nep5"ini'*tc''. Wa'pAnig 
a'ke'tciwi'cA'tanig'''', a'awAnawa'^tci'meg I'nini nape'ni'^tcin"''. 
Iya'"megu 'A'ci'^'tci pya'yawa'^tc a'kl"cagu''tcimenagu"sini''tc'', 
'a'awAnawa'^tci'meg''"". Iya''megu pya'yawa'^tc'', ite'p a'cike'- 

35cigi''tc ugima'w i'nini wamrcami'ni''tcin a'uwi'gini''tc''. Ina'- 
'megu 'a'a'wini'^tc'". A'pl'^teike'ca''tcine'niwi''tc''. "Na'i', ni'ka'- 
n°®', neme'"c"', kepya'*tcina'kA''tcimAma'tomen''«''. 'IniyA'megu 
negwi'sAma"megu pya''tcitA'"penaW*'. Wl'u'^tcimegutapi'pyaiyag 
i'n a"tA'cine'p5"i'^tc'". Wi'na'sa'A''tci'''tca" i'n a'ciniAmato'- 

40menan''''. Wl'tapwa'tawiyAni'meg''"', nete'ci'ta'^'. Ki'nA me'- 
teno' i'ni kete'cike'ka'nemene wi"na"sa"A''tc'". I'n a'cimAinato'- 



MiCHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 153 

Those who worried over us are these you see here, the ones serving 
as ceremonial attendants of this househokl. So they must be the 
ones who are fooled by him. Because it may be that he is merely 
alwaj-s talking, is what my son is thought of, and is why he is thought 
nothing of. Now he is remembered," the old woman said. 

Then it is said they went home They were not given a favorable 
reply of any kind by him. Somewhere yonder they met the party 
and they narrated to them what they had been told by the old 
woman. "But he did not say anything to us. He did not talk at 
all to us. Oh, moreover, he did not speak evilly at all to us. As he 
always did was what he did. It was only his mother whose word 
fell badly. That was all she said. That we did not wait for them 
was what the old woman mentioned." 

He was cheered by those young men. 

Then, it is said, again his son was stronger They turned back. 
He was proud and already thought his son was well. Then (the 
chief) was addressed by his son: "Now, father, if I ever get well 
going yonder, I shall always stay wherever they live. I shall never 
be gone from there, and you must treat them well. Now, just 
lately, perhaps really you have not thought of them in any way. 
May be as soon as I was made well, you ceased thinking anything 
more of them, though he made us extremely happy. It was prob- 
ably only he that made me well," he said to his father. " Now when 
we are returning, I feel well. I am willing to go in the direction we 
are going." 

Then it is said when they had nearly come close to that place, he 
became more (sick). Then it is said the men carried him along on 
a litter Yonder it was when they had one more move to make 
that he died. The next day was very hot, yet they took the one 
who died. When they came close to the place he smelt very badly, 
yet they carried him. Wlien they arrived there, the chief went 
rapidly, straight to where the one who had the sacred pack lived. 
He was there. The former went in very good-naturedly. "Now, 
my friend, my grandfather, I have come again to beseech you. The 
same one, my son, died coming hither. At a place from whence 
we could reach here easily, was where he died. I pray you to bring 
him back to life. That you would believe me, I thought. You are 
the only person I know that could bring him back to life. So I thus 
beseech you," he said to him. 
3599°— 25t 11 



154 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. axn. in. 

"Na'i', mA'n iyo'w a'i"ciyAn°'', 'I'ni'cinegute'n'^'V kete'ci'- 
yow"^^". 'Ke'tenai'yatug'"'",' ketenanemene''^tca'''. I'ni wa''^tci 
pwawiwAni'ka'nenan"'" ; wa'^'tci ke'tcinene'kane'menan"''. MA'ni 
ni'n a'kwAmAtAmo''kayan a'penoyAni'meg''"". A'pwawi'megu- 
5'Apwi''iyAn°'', kAnA' noniAgaw™'-'",'' a''ine''tc ugima'w"'^". A'nA- 
gApe"kwa'sa''tc''. "Me'ce ka'tA na'kA'^^tc aiy6'u"*tciwapi nene- 
'kane'mi'kAii"''. Inu'gi ki'ta'p"""," a'"ina''tc''. A'tcige"ckwaneg''''. 

A"na'gwani''tc''. A'menagu'sini'^tci'ga"'", 'a'na'sa"tawu''tc''. 

Ke'tcikenwa"cipi" CA'kwikAna'niwAiii ki'cma"sa"eme'^tc''. A'kA'- 

lOnawi'^tc a'tapi'"egu''tc'': "Ma'da nenl'wA nl'uto'n"'','' "a''ciwa- 
^tc''. "Iniga" anane'megu'^tci mane'towAn"'". Inugi^'tca" a'gwi 
nl'nA wl'u'^tcipemiketota'yanini wri'cita'3^anin°''. MAiiA'megu 
wi'tepAto"A''tci'gayanA neni'w"*". A'inowagwani'megu wi'Anemi- 
'cime'tosanenrwiyan"'"," 'a'i"ciwa'*tc'". 

15 Iniga''ip I'nin u'gwi'sAn"'": " A'pena'^tci'megu kl'iiA'tomawA 
menwiwi'seni'i'yAgwin"'', pena'wa" amu'mAgwi''". I'ni' aniwane'- 
ma'^tci'i pena'wa'''. A'pena"^tci^tca"megu ki'nAlawanetA'mawawA 
wi'i'cimenwiwrse'ni'A''tc'". Ki'nA wa'nA 'wii'guna'i wl'i'citapi'a'- 
wAtan°'', wI'nA wi'nanA ni'ce'nw a'tapi'e'nAg'"^'*' ? Pe'kiga'- 

20 'megu ketapi'e'gunan"'^'; me'ce'na" mA'n Ini ni'ce'nw a'a"^tcina'- 
wiyag''''''', I'ni'^tca' ami'ci'megu 'A"pena''tci nene'kita''ayAn°''. 
Ugyani'ga'i wI'tapi'tawA'^tci'meg ami'inanetAma'wA'^tcin''''. I'ni 
ni'n aniine'inenan"''. Agwi''tca''magwa''mcgu i'ni pA'cinene- 
'kanetAniAnin"''. 'Pnugi^'tca" A'pcna'^tci'megu ki'nene'kii'nemaw 

25a'cita'pi'i''tc''," a"ina''tc o"sAn°''. _ 

O'nip a'niminimi"tciga''tc''. O'ni kAbo'tw a'maiyawu'sa'*tc 
a'nAtu'pAni'^tc''. Ugyii'n a'a'^tci'mo'a'^tc''. "Ciniyapi ki'nA wl- 
'nAtawine'tAma'gayAni kwiye''sa'Ag''''," a''igu''tc''. A'mya'ci'- 
megune'cki'megu^'tc'". O'nipi ki'ki'ki'meg a"nag%va''tc''. Mane'- 

30 meg a'wita'megu''tc. u'cldna'wa'a'''. Me'ce'meg a'Ane'Anemu'- 
tawa'^tc''. KAbo'twe, "MA'ni ke"'tciyAgw i'ni wi'na'tAmAgw 
a'a'wiwa'^tci ki^'tci'ckwe'e'nanAg''''. Pe'ki''tca''megu kl'mami'- 
gwa'supwA wi'miga'tiyag'"''^'," a"ina'itci'. "'Au'," 'a'ini'^tci'- 
meg''"'. A"ke'''tci\va''tc a'cki'^tci'meg a'manwigAmige''sini''tc''. 

35Ane'tAp ini'meg i'ciwapinepA''*tciwAg''''. 

A'miga'tiwa''tc''. Kenwa"cipi miga'tiwAg'''". Mo'cAgiga''megu 
manetowatAge'si'i'ni'^tci' a"ne'se^tc'', a'gwip Ane'cine'ni'Ag'''', 
kago"megu a'cimaneto'witicig''''. A"ca'Ag umi"camwaw a'mA'- 
ni'e'^tc"'. Ki'cimAni'e"'tcipi me'sotawe'mogu 'a'mai'y5wa''tc''. 

40 Iniga'i'pin a'tAgwA'pitogi mi''cameg''''. Cewii'nApi pi'tawApi'ta- 
'iwi na'meg'"'. U'''tc i'nipi pe"k a'me''tcimA'tA'u<'tc A''ca'Ag''''. 



MiciiELSON.] ORICxIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 155 

"Now, this was what you told me before, 'For this once only,' you 
told me. 'Probably it is true,' I thought of you. That is why I did 
not forget you ; that was why I thought of you very much. Wlien 
there was one sick (in my family) you went right on. You did not 
wait for me, not even a little while," the chief was told. He dropped 
his head downward. '' From now on do not ever again think of me. 
To-day you will speak truthfully," he was told. Then he lifted his 
head up. 

Then the other started out. (The corpse) smelt badly, yet he was 
made come back to life for them. 

It is said a long time after he was made well, he was M-eak. (The 
chief) spoke because he had been made happy: "This man shall be 
my mouth," so he said. ''That is the way the manitou wants him 
to do. Now I shall not think of crawling out, myself."'' This is the 
man upon whom I shall depend entirely. Whatever he says is the 
way I shall lead my life," so he said. 

Then it is said that son of his (said to him) : " You must always 
invite him over when we have good meals, when we have turkeys 
for our meals. For they, turkeys, are the things of which he thinks 
very much. Verily you must always think of how to feast him well. 
What, pray, is it that you have ever done to please him, while he 
has pleased us twice ? He has made us very happy ; for he made it 
possible for you to see me twice, that is what you should always 
realize. And you ought to think always how to make his mother 
happy. That is what I think (you ought to do). But maybe you 
think, nothing of it. So now, you must always think of how happy 
he has made me," he said to his father. 

Then it is said (that young man) gave many dances. Then, some 
time soon, he led a war party. He told his mother about it. "Well, 
you eventually might cause the boys to be slain," she said to him. 
He was indeed severely scolded. Then it is said, nevertheless, he 
started out. He was accompanied by many young men. They 
were moving on for some time. Pretty soon, "When we come to a 
view here, then we shall see where our foes are. So you must fight 
with all your might," he said to them. "All right," they indeed 
said. Wlien they came to a view, behold (the enemy) had many 
dwellings. Some, it is said, at once began to become chilled. 

Then they fought against each other. It is said they fought 
against each other for a long time. They killed only those who were 
of mysterious power. Many Sioux were slain, not the common 
people, but those who were in some way of the nature of manitous. 
The Sioux were deprived of their sacred pack. After it was taken 
away all of them wept. Then that thing was tied up with the sacred 
pack.** But it is said that it was tied up with an extra one inside of it. 

83 An old fashioned way of saying the youth is to be supreme in all things, 
s* That is, the pacli of the one blessed. 



156 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN". 40. 

Utogima'mwawa" a'tcagi"tawu'*tc''. AwA'siga'wi'iiAp aiyanegi- 
kwa,pe\ve''siwAg A"ca'Ag'''', cewa'nApi kegi'megu ke'tci'nc'sapi 
mane'megu 'a"ne'se''tc''. A'tcagi'meguna'kAte'citA'mowa'^tc uwige'- 
wawAn"''. 

5 Ea'citcagiiiAgAtA'mowa'^tc'", pe'k ii'wawi'se'niwa'^tci neno'- 
tawAg'''". Kl'ciwi'se'niwa'^tc a'na'gwawa''tc'". "Ka'tA' sA'kA'sA- 
'kA'AmawI'yilgag uwIge'wawAii"''," a'i'gowa^'tci mayawu'sa'ni- 
•^tcin"''. O'nip a'pe'nowa'^tci wa'''tciwa''tc a"awa''tc''. Me'cena'- 
'ina' aneme''kawa''tc a'sa'sage'tagu''sini'*tci may6'ni''tci''". A'maiyo'- 

10 'awa^'tc A''ca'a''". WinwawA'ga' a'pwawi'megune'se'gowa''tc''. 

'O'nip iya'"i pya'yawa'^tc a'ke'tcinanlmiwa^tci'meg'"''. Umi'ca'm 
a'a'totAg'^'': "MA'ni ne'mi'cami wa^tcipwawikA"cki'ne'se''tc''; 
a'piwA'ne'kag''"",'' a'i''ciwa''tc''. "Ke'tenA''tca'megu ke'kane'- 
tagwAtwi ne'mi'cam™''. Ke'kane'tAmogi ma'netowAg'''', i'ni<'tca'i 

15pe''k a'krcagu''tci'megutepa'tAman°''. Me'ce'megu wi^'tci'some'- 
iiAgowe tepa'tAmugu kemi'"camwaw"''', kinwawA'ku' na'iiii kemi'- 
'camwaw"''. Agwiga"ninA ne'ci''k umi'camemetA'manin"''. Ma'iii 
kemrca'menan"''. Inu'g a'apiwi'senimigi"t6yan"'', pe'ki'megu 
menwiwi'seni'migAt^''. Agwi'megu kago" i"cipe'te'sAgike'gin°''. 

20 Pe'ki'megu neniwi'e'gwiwAgi mA'n u'ckinii'wa'Ag''''. Magwa'"megu 
wi'me'nwigenwi ki'yanani mA'n a'cimegwI'yAgwin Anemi'ca'- 
wiyAg'''^'''. Kenwa"ci magwa"e me'to'saneniwi''kAgo"-^'. Me'to- 
<*tci'meg nene'kane'tAmAgwe kemi'ca'menan"'', agwi'ga'i nina'nA 
ne'ci''k'^', wI'A'kawapAmegwI'yagini me'sotilwi'megu ki'A'ka- 

25wapAme'gwipen°-^". Anegi'kwi'megu\vi''tciga'mAgw ini'meg anegi'- 
'kwi'A'kawapAme'gwiyAgwekctogima'menan anegi'ksvi''cinienAg'^''^'. 
Mama'^tcigi'megu pwawiki'ci'umi'camryage" i'nig amine'se'nAgwig 
A''ca'Ag''''. Inigiga''megu wfpwawiponl'ko'nAgwig'^''. A'pena'^tci'- 
megu wi'wi'cigi'megmie'ckaneti'yAgwig''''. A'gwi \vi'p5naneme'- 

SQnAgvvini winwa'w''-^', nakA'^'tc ag\vi nAna"ci wi'ponane'mAgin"''. 
Ne'ki'megu wi'AnemA'ki'wigwan i'ni ne"ki wI'nene'ka'nemAg''''." 

O'nipi kAhS'twe na'kA''^tc a'a'kw'AinAtA'mowa''tc'; a'A'penii- 
wene"kawfi'Hci neno'tawAg'''". Mane'megu a'ci'sutAmo'wa^tcin 
a'a'pe'se"kawa''tc''. Mane'meg a'ne'powa'^tc''. A'kutAga'nema- 

35 ''tc'". O'nip a'Ana'po'sAgi mane'megu nata'winon"''. Me'cena'ipi'- 
megu nl'cwi'ca/'eketo'e ki'ca'posAg'"". A'a^'tci'mo'a'^tci wi'me'- 
noni'^tc''. A'menome'noni''tc aiya'ne'ki'i kegime'si'meg"^"'. 

'■ Iniku''megu, a'g\vina kago''i wi'i'cawi'yagwin""'," a"ina''tci'. 
Mane'meg a'ki'cikwaiya"cinep6"ini''tci me'to'sane'niwa"'. O'nip 

40a a''tci'mo'a<'tc'". "MA'ni wa<'tci"ca'wiyag'^"«'. MA^'tcima'neto'a'A 
pe'me'kiiW''^'. Ini'<'tca'i wa'''tcike'tcinepo"iyagw' a'pe'me'ka''tc''. 
"O' pwawiga'ipeme'ka'te" awi't I'n ite"kago''''. Kemenata'pwA- 
••tca'i pe'mi"a''tc''; Iniga''ini kepAnamS'cka'gwiyag'''""'. Agwi'ga' 
i'n inJineme'nAgwini \vrnepo''iyAg'''^'''. A'cemeguna"winA pe'me- 

45'kaw"'*^", cewa'nA mya'ci'ya'gu'siW^". Agwiga"ayi'gi ke'kaneme'- 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 157 

Hence it was, it is said, that then the Sioux were badly beaten. All 
their chiefs had been slain. Although the Sioux were larger built 
men, yet just the same they were badly beaten, and many indeed 
were slain. Tliey all fled, leaving their homes. 

It is said after all had deserted them the Indians had great feasts. 
After having great feasts then they left. "Do not burn up their 
homes," they were told by the leader. Then it is said they went 
away, going back whence they came. When they were but a little 
way those wailing were heard by them. They mada the Sioux cry. 
They themselves were not killed by them. 

Then it is said when they got home they had great dances. Then 
he gave a speech about his sacred pack: "This, my sacred pack, is 
reason why they could not be slain, untie it," so he said. "Truly my 
sacred pack is known. The manitous know it; so now I love it very 
much. Each and every one of you, to whose gens I belong, love your 
sacred pack, for it is your sacred pack too. It is not my sacred pack 
alone. This is our sacred pack. I have been to feed it, it had a very 
fine meal. There was not a bit of trouble. It has made the young 
men very brave indeed. May be our life will be good, if we continue 
to do as this tells us. May be we might live a long time. In the 
same way if we think of our sacred pack, it will not only watch us but 
it will watch us all in general. Just as many as there are with whom 
we live, so many of us will it watch, as many of us as our chief con- 
trols. No doubt if we had not had this sacred pack, those Sioux are 
the ones who would have contrived to Idll us. They are the people 
who will never leave us alone. We shall always hate each other 
strongly. They will never stop thinking of us, and I shall never stop 
thinking of them. Just as long as this earth remains, I shall think 
of them." 



Then it is said some time soon they were again sick; the Indians 
were stricken with disease. Many had coughing spells and strangled 
to death by coughing. Many of them died. He realized that they 
were suffering. Then it is said he boiled a large cjuantity of medicine. 
It is said he even boiled two kettles full. He told them to drink. So 
they drank, all of them, each taking a little. 

"That is all, now nothing will happen to you," he told them. 
Many people had already died. Then it is said he told them, "This 
is why it happened to us. A little evil manitou has traveled by. 
That is why many of us died, because he traveled by. And if he had 
not gone by here, that would not have happened to you. You have 
smelled the way he went by; that was what smothered you. He 
really does not want us to die. He was simply going "by, but he 
smells badly. And he does not know that he has killed many of us. 



158 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [ETH. ANN. ^o. 

nAgwini ma'n a'ne''senAg''''®'. I'ni wa'^'tc i'ca'wiyAg''"''','' a"ina- 
''tci me'to'sa ne'niwa'''. "I'n a'pl'tcimi'cka'we'si'^tc''. Mo'"tcin 
a'menama''iyAgwe kina'nA kenepo'ipenA'meg''"'; kA'noma me'tci'- 
nawAgwe mAni'megu i'ci'nawAgwe wapa'cka"kAgo'*' ; ini'megu 
5 "ami'ca'wiyAg''"''V' 'a"iiia''te''. 

I'nipi ne"k a'pItApi'tA'u'^tci naponapo''itcig''''. Iniga'i'pini 
nata'winoni wape'ckiku'pi''tcmu'swimi''cameg a'tAgwi'"seto''tci 
kwaiya"c''. "Wl'Anemime'to'saneniwi'tA mA'n i"cawit''', mA'ni 
wi'nawA'tenAmwA wi'Ana'po'sAin"'^'. Wi'na'sa'egwiwA''tca'''', agwi'- 

lOkago'i wi"i'cawi'wa''tcin°''. I'ni wi'i'cime'sanetA'mowa'^tci mA'ni 
kAbo'twe mA'ni mi'ca'm"''. Wi'AnemiwinA'megu'umame'sane'- 
tAmogi wi'Anemime'to'saneni'witcig''''; agwiga''i wi'pwawime- 
sanetAmo'wa''tcin°''; wi'me'sanetAmogi'meg''"'. Kinwa'waiyo mAni 
manenwimego'n a'me'sane'tAmtig'''^'''. MAniga'i'nini na'sana'sa'e'- 

ISgwiyitg'"*"''', 'a'gwi nl'n"'^'. Inugiyu'niAni'megu nii'sa'e'gwiyag'''^^'. 
I'ni wa'^tcimAgi ma'A'gi wI'^tci'so'niAgigi wi'wi'cigi'meguke'kino- 
's5'"iwa''tc a''cimAg''''. I'ni wa''^tcimAg'''', kl'ciwinA'meguke'ka'- 
netAmSgi nAgA'm5nAni ke'gime's''," a''ina''tc''. 

"Nemenwinawa'egogi''tca''meg I'n a"ca'wiwa*^tc'', " 'a"ina'*tc'". 

20"Iniga'" a'A'cki'megu'aiy6"itAgwi'se'toyani nata'winon"'". Ini'- 
megu a'mene'tAmit-A'gwi'seg'^''. Wawene'tw I'n aiyo" a'A"toyan 
a'gwi myane'tegin"'". 'O' myanetege'ga'i kago"megu 'i'ca'wi'ka' 
ai3'o"i tAgwi'se'toyan"""','' a''ina''tci me'to'sane'niwa'"'. "Me'ce- 
''tca'mego'na'i nlna'n a'i'ci'"soyag a'gwi wI'wawAnanetA'magini 

25mA'n'''', nl'ke'ka'AmawawAgi'megu ma'A'gi wi'^tci'soma'I'yanigi 
mA'ni nenatawino'nenan°''," a'"ina''tc''. 

Me'ce'na' ne'gntenwi krci'aiya"'tcimu''tc''', a'pyanu'tagu'^tc 
utogima'mwawAn"''. "Ni'nA na'l kwiye'"s''', kl'wI'tAmaw i'ni 
nata'winon"''," a'i''ciwa'*tc u'gimaw'^*'. 

30 ""Au'," a"ine^tc''. "Ca'ckima/'megu yatu'ge wrke'kane'- 
tAman°'". Kl'n a'gwi wI'nA wi''tci'somI'yagin°''. M6'"tci kl'nA 
natawi'"oyAn'"'', a'gw I'ni wi'i'ci'kegin"''. Me'teno"megu wl^'tci- 
's5'mAgig Ini'gini wl'i'ci'kenig'"'','' a"ine''tc u'gimaW*'. "Ca- 
'cki'ku^'tci wi"ke'kanetAmo"iyani wa'^tci'i'nenan"'', kwaiya''ci 

35wAni''kawat I'ni ni'nA wI'wItA'mawAg''''," a'i"ciwa''tc''. 

A'a'wAne''tc a'mawike'kA'A'mawu^'tc ii'ci'genig''''. Kl'ca'^tci'- 
mo'e'^tc a'wa'gotAg''''. "'0' tcag anago'niAgig''''; wtinatawinone'- 
me'kig'^'V' a''itAg I'ni nata'winon""'. 

'O'nip a'ko'w a'mawike"kA'A'mowa''tci wI'*tci'so'ma''tci' I'ni 

40nata'winon'''', a'tcagiwa''tci'meg I'n a'ma''tcl'wene''tci nata'- 
winon"''. Mo'tci'neg Ape'no'Ag a'a'wAne''tc'". Kegime'si'megu 
a'"mine''tci pe'kwApi'^tci'gAnAn"''. Nata'winon a'pe'kwApi'tanig'''". 



MiciiELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 159 

That was why this happened to us," he told the people. "That is 
how powerful he is. Even when we only smell him, we die; if wo 
saw him very plainly we would fall right down as soon as we saw him ; 
that would surely happen to us," he told them. 

Then it is said those who died were buried one by one. Then he 
placed in readiness the medicine in the white buffalo sacred pack. 
'"The people who shall live in the future, if something happens to 
them, shall take this and boil it. It will truly cure them, and nothing 
will happen to them. That is the benefit they will soon derive from 
this sacred pack. Surely the people who are to live shall continually 
derive benefit from it ; they will not fail to be benefited by it, they will 
derive benefit from it. You, of course, have already derived benefit 
from it many times. This is the thing which always cures you, not 
myself. At this time this is the thing that made you well. That is 
why I tell these fellow-clansmen " of mine to remember very firmly 
what I say to them. That is why I tell them so, though they all have 
learned the songs," he said to them. 

"They have indeed pleased me by doing that," he told them. 
"This is the first time I put the medicine in here with it. Now indeed 
for the first time it is placed with it. It is good which I have here, 
it is not bad. If it was bad something would happen to me, by 
putting it in here," he said to the people. "So any one of our gens 
will not be ignorant of it, I shall instruct these, who are of mj^ gens, 
in this our medicine," he said to them. 

When once he stopped speaking, their chief approached him. 
"Boy, tell me about that medicine," so the chief said. 

"All right," he was told. "Very likely you merely want to know 
about it. You are not of our gens. Even if you doctor yourself with 
it, it will have no results. Only my fellow-clansmen '* are they for 
whom it will be efficacious," the chief was told. " I just only want to 
know about it, is why I ask you, that I might be ready to tell them, 
should they forget," so he said. 

Then he was taken aside to be instructed how it was. After he was 
told, he gave thanks. "All my different relatives; whose medicine 
you are," he said to that medicine. 

Then it is said he went in the rear to give instructions about that 
medicine to his fellow-clansmen.*"* All of them went along to be 
shown that medicine. Even the children were taken along. All of 
them were given bundles of it. The medicine was in little bundles. 

6s A convenient if not strictly accurate translation. 



160 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. fETH. AX\, 40. 

"Pe'kimegu'mAni krwi'cigipe'meniip"'^'; kago" i'ci'ane'me'site 
EQA'nA me'to'sa'neniw i'ni mA'ni wi'Anapo'"sAmag''^'''; kinwawA'- 
megu I'ni wrme'noyag'''^'''. Ini'megu" ca"cki me'ce winA''tca- 
'mego'na' i'ci'ane'mc'sit"'. Mo'tci'megu ne'pi pya'^tcitetepe'^tca'- 
5'ck.vg'"'', mAni'^tca" tapime'noyag''^''", a'gwi wi'nepo'i'yagwin"''.- 
Mame'ci'kA'megu "A'kwi'tepyiigi ki'krwltap'^'^'. I'ni na"kA ki^'tcl- 
'ckwe'wawAgi migatl''enag'''''"', negu'ti'iya'g'"''''', a'gwi wi'ne'se'- 
nagwini kA"ck''. Pwawiponi"konagwe ketcagi'apwA'megu. 

"Me'ce'mcgu kago" i'ci'aneme"siyag''"*'', krkuiiAgwiwenegwipwA'- 

10 meg''"'. MA'ni maniA'ka'^tci'megu ki'me'sa'netap'^'*^", cewii'iiA 
kinwawA'megu me''ten6'''. Mo'tci'megu pwawike'ka'netagwA'ke 
wi'u'^tcina"sagan°'', klnwawA'megu ne'ci'"kA tapima''mAni me'- 
noyag\\'e Ici'na'sapwA'ineg''"'. I'ni mA'ni a''cikegi kenatawino'- 
nenan°''. 

15 " Kegime'siga"mAni kmanA'megu kenatawino'nenan"'', cewil'nA 
kinanA'megu me"teno''', a'gwi pe'la'ni'sut'^ MAiai'megu a''cisut 
i'nA mA'ni wl'tapwa"tagwit^". I'n a"cikeg''''. Cewa'n"'^", 
i"k:\vatig'"^', mo'tci'megu pe'ki'ni'sowate keni^tca'ne'swawAg'''", 
a'gwi wrna"sa''agwin°''. Ini'megu 'a'cike'e'gwiyag''"''': kinauA'- 

20megu me"teno"''. Cewa'nA me'cena"meg u'wiya'A ki'ci'nepege 
mAni'^tca'' me'ku^'tcanA'mawut''', me'cketu'nanete me'na'ef', wi- 
'na'siiwA'meg''"'. MamA'ka'^tci'megu wi'pemipA''segwiw'''^"; wi'- 
'na'sa'^tc''. I'ni wa'^tcimamine'nAgow a'wa'wene'k'', wawenetwi- 
yu'mAni nata'winon"''. Ag^vi negu'ti mA'ni ke'kA"Ama'wAgin°'". 

25 Kerne' sStawi'meguke'lva'A'monep''^'. Ma'A'gi na'kA'''tci ketApeno- 
'eme'nauAg iiylgi'megu nepe'kwApita'wawAg""'," a''ina'*tc''. 

" I'ni ki'wi'cigi'megupemenA'mawap'"-*', na'k\'<'tci kinwa'wA mA'ni 
kenata'winonwawi kewi'cigi'meguwigii'^tci'seto'p''*', cewa'n a'gwi 
myano ta 'ganegi wi' pItigAto 'yagwin ° ' ' . 

30 "Ki'sA'sagi'topwA'megu wri'ci'megumenwinawa"toyag'"'"'', i'ni 
wi'i'ci'se'toyiig''"''", ke'kanetAmomigAtwi yo' wln"*^". Cewa'nA kigiino- 
'I'yAgwini kegime'simego'ni wi'awA'toyag'^™'. Kemaiya'winwagi'- 
^tca'i ki'so'gi't5pwA ketcl'wawag'^'", 'i'ni wa'i'pi'tSyagwe mA'n°''. 
I'ni wi'mi'catanemwi''toyag\v i'ni to'tAmiig''"'''. O'n i'nina" 

35 i"kwatig'"^',pe'nawAga'i neguti'ga'i pyii'nag'"'®', mA'nini wi'mAmato'- 
tAmag''"'^', ini'meg a'ca'wiyiig''^'''. Ma'A'gi na'kA'^^tci ne'niwAgi 
naneguti'megu wi'pj'-a'nawAg pena'wa''', o'n u'wiya' ana'wi'at 
agwimegu'kago'"' : na'lvA''*tc i'kwiiw a'nomat unapii'ma'Ani 
agwimegu'kago''', wi'ke'kanemegwiwA'ku'^tc a'pi'tcite'patAg i'n 

40 unata'winon"''. 

"'Meta"inata'winon°'',' i'cite'katawiga''mAn°''. In a'cite'- 
katiig''''. Ke'tcinawe'megu wapi'nenu'swimeta''i niA'n"''. A'ce- 
'*tca"megu "i"cawiw^^'. A'mA'cki'cki'wito'^tc'". A'gwi ke"lenA 
mA'ni mA'cki'ki'u''tcapi"ki'wigin°''. Ini'megu 'ii'ine'nAgow 

4Sa''cikeg''''. Iya'tca''megu 'ii'uwigi'yagwini pe'pyaiyag"*""', ki'wa- 
wiga''tci'seto'p"'^' ; kI'menwi'setopwA'meg''"'." 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 161 

"You must care for this very carefully; when this people is in any 
danger then you must boil this ; you are to drink it yourselves. That 
is all, only indeed if they are in danger. Even if water should come 
a-rolling, if you drink this straightway, you will not die. Probably 
you will be on the surface of the water. And if your enemy are 
fighting you, even if you are but one, they will not be able to slay you. 
If they do not leave }^ou alone, you will indeed kill them all. 

"No matter in which way you ai-e in danger, it will pull you 
through. You will surely derive benefit from it, but this will be only 
you, yourselves. Even when it is not known how life will be saved, 
you alone will be surely saved, if you drink this. That is the way 
of this om* medicine. 

"This medicine is ours in general, but ours only, no other gens. 
Only who is of tliis gens is whom this (medicine) will relieve. That 
is the way it is. But, women, if even your children are of another 
gens, you can not cm-e them. That is the way you will fail : us only 
(will it cure). But after anyone dies, if this is found on his person, 
if his mouth is opened, and he is given this to drink, he will surely 
come to life. He will certainly begin to rise to his feet; he will be 
saved. That is why I give you this because it is good, for this 
medicine is good. I do not instruct one person in this. I give a 
general instruction to j^ou all. And also I have made bundles of it 
for these our children," he said to them. 

"You must take good care of it for them, and this yom- medicine, 
you m.ust place away very carefully in good condition, but you must 
never take it inside a menstruation-lodge. 

"You must be very clean Avith it, so that you will please it; that 
is the way you must lay it awa}^, for it has consciousness. But when 
we hold gens festivals you all must take it along. Tie it on your 
right arm on your muscle, that is the way you must tie this. Then 
you will make it proud, if you treat it like that. Then at that time, 
women, if you bring even one turkey, then you will worship this, if 
you do that. And these men must also bri^ig turkeys, one apiece, 
and if any one is imable to get one, it is nothing at all; and if a woman 
is imable to persuade her little husband, it is nothing at all, for his 
(her) medicine will know how much he (she) loves it. 

"This is called the 'Heart-Medicine.' It is so named. This is 
the genuine heart of the White Buffalo. He did that purposely. 
He made it of weeds. This is not really a weed-root. What I have 
said to you is just how it is. So when you each get to where you 
live, you are to jilace it carefully; you are to place it in good con- 
dition." 



162 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

A'penope'nowa'^tc''. WAninawe'meg a'Anemiwe'towa''tci nata'- 
•win5n"''. A'wiga<*tci"set5wa<'tci'megu I'ni nata'winon"''. Ane't 
unapa'mwawa''': "NemgA"apGnA'ku''tci nata'winon"''," a'i'nawa- 
''tc''. " Nemine/gunanA wr'tci'so'iiiAget*",'' a i'yowa'^tc''. 

5 A'me'sotawi'meguke'ka'neme'^tc a"mine'gowa**tci nata'winon I'nini 
ne'niwAn"''. 

O'ni kIga'nowa''tc'', a'ke'tci'ci'ca\va''tci ne'niwAg''''. Na'kA'''tc 
i"k\vawAg a"ci'canutAma'gowa'*tc unapa'mwawa"''. Iniya'g 
aniwetuna'mu''tcig a'mane'cita'awa''tci'meg''"', a"An6'kanawa''tci 

lOwInA'megu 'unapa'mwawa"! wi'pena'ka'gowa'^tc'". O'n a"pena'- 
"kani'^tc'", winA'meg a'ne'"sani''tc'". Nfi'lcA'^^tc a'Ano"kanawa''tci'- 
meo-u wf awA'nani'^tc'". Ini'meg a"cawini''tc'". A'awAnani'^tci'- 
meg"*"'. , 

O'nipi na'"ina"i kiga'nowa''tci mA'kwa<^tci'meg a"a'*tcimo"e'- 

1.5gowa^tc'", "MA'k\va"'tc''," a'i'gowa'^tc'". "A'gwi nl'nA kag5'"i 
mA'n"'', na"kA''*tci keml'negopenA nata'winon"''"; wi'nA ke- 
'tcinawe'megu wapinenu''sw uta"i kemlne'gunan"'^". iLv'ni mi'- 
'cami minenAgw im\.meg6'nan°^', na'kA'mAni nata'winon"'"," 
a'"ina'*tc'". 

20 O'nipi me"ce'na'i ki"cikiga'nowa''tci negu'ti wi''tci"s6ma'wa''tcin°'' 
kAbotwe'meg a"wapa''ckilni''tc a"nepo''ini<'tc'". Mama'^tcigi'meg 
a"nep6'"ini''tc'". O'n i'niyo nepi'g a'Agwita'wawa''tc'". A"me'- 
na"e''tc I'nA na'po'it-^". KAbStwcpi'megu niiya'pi a'inanAgi'gwa- 
"cka^tc'". A'"na"sa^tci ke'tenA'meg'"'; milma^'tcigi'meg a''na"sa- 

25 ''tc'". I'nipi ke"tenA'meg a'LnanetA'mowa''tc'". 

O'nip'", "MA'ni wri"cite'ka'tAmAg'''^^" : 'Pemate'"siwen°'",' ki'cite- 
'ka'tapeuA mA'n°''," a"'"ciwa''tci negu't'". ""Au'," it'i'^tci'meg 
T'n i'ni mInetA nata'winon"''. "Cewii'nA iua'ua wi"swi't5t''', 
nyawe'nwi ki'wA''tca"e'gunan°'^". MA'ni na"kA nyawuguni'mcgu 

30wi"wl'''tci"t6w'^*". Kegime'si'me i'na"i lvi"A'"t6pen'"^"," a'"ine<'tci 
wiinatawino'nitcig"'. "Wi'nA wi"a'<'tcimowA na'"ina"i wi'wiipi- 
mAmatotA'mug\van"'', mAniyu' wi'mAina'totAg'''", nya'wuguni 
wi"pemiwA''tca'n6ta''tc''. Cewa'nA kinanA'megu ki"wawi'se'- 
nipen"*"; a'gwi kutA'gA wi"pe''ki<'tcin"''. Md'cAgi'mcgu kina'n 

35a"ciwi''tci'so'tIyAgwe ki"wawi"seni"e'gunanA mA'uA wi''tci"so'- 
raAgwA," a'"ina'*tc uwi'"kana"''. 

O'nip'", "'O' niAm'nina'i wapAge'megu na'wA"kwage ki'cimawA- 
^tciwe'toyag''"^'," a'"ina'^tc'". "Wa'nA "ini," a'"igu'*tc'". 

Wa'pAnig Ji'mawA^'tciwe'towa^tc''. O'ni wa.'pAnigi nawA'"kwanig 

40 a'peminA'tome'^tci wi'wi'se'niwa''tc''. O'nip'", "Na'i', mAni'meg 

ami'ca'wiwa^'tc ayi'gi wi''tci"s6'mAgwig aiya'pi'"tcina' A'cema'- 

'megu WA<'tca'eti''kago'*". Agwiga'"i kago" A'ce'megu wi"tepa'- 



MICIIELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 163 

Then they all went away. They took along that medicine in 
different directions. They placed the medicine away very carefully. 
Some (said) to their husbands: ''We have divided up the medicine," 
was what they told them. " Our fellow-clansmen ^ gave it to us," 
they said among themselves. 

It was known all over that they had been given medicine by that 
man. 

Then when they were to hold a gens festival the men went on a big 
hunt. And the women's husbands went out hunting game for them. 
Those who talked much were ashamed, but they ordered their husbands 
to hunt turkeys for them. They hunted ttirkeys and killed them too. 
And they (the women) also ortlered them to take it over to that 
place. And they did so. They took them over there. 

Then, it is said, when they had their gens festival they were told 
quietly by him, "Be quiet," they were told. ''It is nothing to me, 
and this medicine has been given us; the White Buffalo gave us his 
o-wn heart. He is the same one who gave us this sacred pack and 
likewise the medicine," he told them. 

Then it is said after they had the gens festival one of his gens fell 
down dead. Sm'ely he was dead. Then they let that thing soak in 
water for him. That dead person was made to drink it. Soon, it is 
said, liis eyes eventually became natural. That he was bi-ought to 
life, is a fact; he surely was alive. Then, it is said, they actually 
believed it to be true. 

Then, it is said, "Tliis is what we shall call it: 'Life,' we shall call 
this," so one said. "All right," said the one who gave them the 
medicine. "But this person who named it must give us four feasts. 
And he shall live with this four days. We must all put it there," 
those who had medicine were told. "He will tell when he shall 
begin to worsliip it, for this is how he shall have to worship, by 
giving feasts for four days. But we shall feast ourselves; there will 
be no outsider. We of tliis gens only will be given feasts by our 
fellow-clansman," he told his friends. 
/ 

Then, it is said, "Well, at this time, to-morrow at noon, after you 
have brought it in all together," he told them. "All right," he was 
told by them. 

The next day they brought it in together. Then the following day 
at noon they were invited to feast. Then, it is said, "Now, this is 
the way our fellow-clansmen ought to do also once in a wliile, and 
then you might cook for each other. Of course it is nothing but 

" A convenient if not strictly accurate translation. 



164 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

tAmagwe ki"sonwaw amu'^tci'ca'wiyag'"'®". Agwiga" A"pena'^tc'', 
me'cena'"megu kAbo'twe wA''tca'eti'"kago''^". I'n a'cine'gutenwi- 
witAino'nAgow'^®'. Ma'ii amu''tci'ca'wiyag'''''''. Negu'ti ma'netowA 
nAna'a'netAmwA mi"sonAn°''; amita'pi'agw i'n a'ca'wiyag'''''''. 

5 "A'pena'^'tc u'wlyii' i'n inA'no'kyat''', i'nini tata'pi'at"', me'ceme- 
guna''ini tA'cime'tome'tosiine'niwi's'^'. Iniga'' amu^'tcime'to'sane'- 
niwi^tc'': i'nini mi"sonAni niina'anetAmi'ni'^tcini kenwa"ci wi'me'to- 
'sane'niwiw inane 'megut<''. 'Agwiga'"'', 'ini i'ca'i"cawig''"'!' ine'- 
nAgow"'*'. 

10 "A'ce'megu kewitA'monep^''', na''ikegi wi'i'cime'to'sane'niwig'''', 
me'sotawega'winA'megu ki'a''tcimo"enepw A'ckA'^'tcima''"," a''ina- 
"tc''. 

O'nipi w^pAJiigi'megu na'kA'^'tc a"wA''tca"e'gowa''tc'". Nyawii- 
gunagA'tenig i'ni na"k a'awA'awA'towa'^tc unatawi'nonwaw"''. 

15 Kemige'si'meg a'awA'towa'^tc''. Ini'nip a'cite'katA'mowa''tc 
a'ciwi'swi'to'<'tc in""^"; 'pemate"siwen°'"' 'a'cite'katA'niowa''tc''. 

O'nip'', kAbo'tw a'mawA'''tcima''tci me'to'siine'niwa'''. Me'sota- 
we'meg a'a'^tci'mo'a'^tc'': "Na'i', mA'ni negu'ti na"ikeg'''"; niA'n 
i'ca'wiyagw ami'cita'pi'agwe negu'ti ma'netow'^'^', a'gwi m"cwi 

oornane'towAg"^'', ca'cki'megu negu't'", nana'a'netAgA mA'n a'cite- 
'ka'netiyAgwe ki'so'nenanAnima''''. Neguti'megu nana'a'netAm"-^'. 
TnA^'tca' amitapita'pi'agw aiya'pi'tcina'i wA^'tca'e'tiyag'''''''. 
Ag^^aga''ninA wi'wA'^tca/'iyag''''^', na''k a'gw A'pena"'tc''; me'cena'- 
'megu kAbo'tw i'n iuA'no'kya's^' ; 'PenA'nin i'ni ni''i'caw'''',' 

25ina'netAg u'wiyaW''. AwitA''tca"i ke'kA'wasA manetowA'n"''; 
ca'cki'megu 'wi'seni'g''"",' i'n ami'nowa''tc''. Ini'mcgu' ca'"cki 
ki'ci'se'ninit a'mi'ta''', 'Na'i' nAtawina'nagwagu tcag anagonie'- 
nAgow^®',' i'n a'mina''tc''. Ca"ck ini'meg a'cim'c6"igini kAna'- 
^vinAn"'". 

30 " Ina'mi'ta'i wi'nA ta'pe'si'^tci mi"sonAni nana'a'netAg''*^', agwiku'- 
^tci ma'A'ni kina'nA ketepanetA'mAgwini ki'so'nenanAn"''. Neguti'- 
megu ma'netowA nana'a'netAm"'"^'. Me'to'^'tci wi'AnemA''kunig''''. 
'MA'ni niA'ni wi"A'kug''V 'a'cita"a''tcin°'', ini'megu'u 'a'A"kunig 
a'gwi na'nagA'^tc AnemiwawitegWAte'nigin"''. Aiya'inina"meg 

35a'poni'ai'yotag i'ni mi"son°''. Inina"megu nep6"iyAg'='"''._ A'gw 
awA'si'mii' a'gwi me'to'saneniwa'i'yAgwin inina"meg''"'. Ini'^tca- 
'wa'^'tci me'sota'w aiya'^tcimo'e'nAgow'^^', mA'ni me"ten6'i na"keg 
a'ine'nAgowe me"sotawiwA<'tca'e'tiwen°''. 'O', niA'ni nane- 
'kanetA'mugwan ina'nauA wi'ta'pi'tot u'wiyaw"'". Aguwi'yii'Ani 

40wi'tapi"a''tcini winA'megu ka"sipi wi'tiipi'to'i'w u'wiyaw^''. 
Ini'megu' ca''ck ana'^tcime'nAgowe wi'me'sotawi'megu'uke'ka'ne- 
tAmag''^^'." 



HicHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 165 

merely to show that you love your gens name." You should not do 
it all the time, but just sometimes, you should cook for each other. 
That is one tiling I tell you. This is why you ought to do tliis. 
One manitou has the control over the names; verily it is he whom 
you should worship, it is he whom you would please by doing that. 
"If anyone does that all the time, if he pleases him, he might 
simply live on and on. That is why he would live long: he would 
be blessed by that one who has control over the names to live a long 
time. I do not tell you, 'Do that!' 

'■ I am simply telling you this, the only way to live, although I shaE 
inform you all later on," he told them. 

Then, it is said, again the next day he cooked for them. After four 
days were up, they each took away their medicine. All of them took 
it away. So they called it the way that person named it; "life" was 
what they called it. 

Then, it is said, soon he called the people together. He related to 
them all: "Now, this is one, the only way; if you do that, you could 
please one manitou, not two manitous, but only one manitou, the one 
who has control of what we call each other — that is, our names. 
One being has control over them; it is he whom you could please if 
you cook for each other once in a while. You are not to cook for me, 
and not (for each other) all the time; just sometimes some one might 
do that; whoever thinks of his life, 'I will just do that.' He would 
not have to name the manitou; only ' eat,' is all he has to say. Then 
the only thing he should say after the people have eaten, 'Now, you 
may each go home, all of you who are my different relatives.' Those 
are the only two speeches. 

" Then the one who has the control over the names would be pleased, 
for we do not own these, our names. One manitou has control over 
them. It is just the same as how long they will continue to be. 
'This one shall be so long,' when he thmks thus, it is that long and 
will not be mentioned any longer. That name is no longer used at 
that time. At that particular time is when we die. We shall not 
live any longer. That is why I tell this to you all, that this is the 
only way, the general cooking for each other. Whoever thmks of 
this is the person who will make his life happy. He will not make 
anybody else happy but himself only. That is all I have to tell you. 
The reason why I have called you together is so you all coidd know 
about it." 

" A trifle free. 



166 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. axn. «. 

' 'O', ni'nA nemi'cata'nem a"a'<*tcimu'*tci ki'ka'nenan a'me'sotawi'- 
meguwItAmd'nAg'''"'', a'cimegumenwi'genig a'inaneme'nAg''''^'," 
a"i'tiwa''tci ne'niwAg''''. 

WmA''tca''ipi klga'nu^'tcini pe'ki'meg a'tcagi'megupyanu'tagu- 
5 ''tc''. Me'to'sane'nhva'i kegime'sipimega'pe'e niminiwa''". Me'to- 
'sane'niwa'i neguta'ka'"i2J a'i'ci"Ana'wini''tci me'to'sane'niwa'i 
na'ina"megu ke'kaneme'gu''tcini wi'ki'ganu''tc inina'ipi'megu p.yii'- 
yani^'tc''. Ca''ckiga" winA me'gupiwrni'mini''tc'',inime'gupi" ca'"cki 
wa''tci'pyani''tc''. I'kwawa'iga''ipi tcatcagimegunlmi'niwa''". Na- 

10'ina'tca'"ipi wi'mmi'tci'ga''tcin a'ane'ko'Agi'meg uwl'gewaw''"''. 
'A'mawA''tciga"megu wI'nApi kenii'tanig'''', cewa'nApi kl'ki'ki'meg 
awA's a'A"kota'wa'to''tc'". Pe'ki'meg a'mi'catane'moni''tci na"ina' 
wi'kiga'nu''tcini me'to'sane'niwa'''. 

Ugyaniga''ipi pe'ki'meg a'metemo'a''ini''tc''. 'A'krcagu''tci'megu- 

15 wape''ckyiliiig uwi'ne'sAn I'nA mete'mo'a''^'. O'nip ugwi'sAn"'', 
"Ci', neg\vi"i, awi'tA wa'yatuge kA'cki'u'wIya'A'uwI'wi'kAp*', 
a'pwawi'uwiwa'"iyAn°''?" a"ina'^tc u'gwi'sAn"'*. Ca'cki'meg 
a'anige''tagu''tc u'gwi'sAn°''. PapegwAmegu' na'kA'^tci me'cena'- 
'ina'iwini'g i'n a''igu''tc''. Nayapi'meg a'cimegu'te" a'i'ci'megu- 

20 <*tc''. Na'kA'megu' ca'"ck a'ApAiia'nema"^tc ugya'n"'". O'nip inina- 
'i'winigi na'kA'^'tc ini'meg a'i'ci'megu'^tc'', ca'cki'pin a'wa'pAma'^tc 
ugya'n"''. O'nipi po'si'megu mamaiyii'wima' i'n a''igu'*tc''. 
"Na'i', 'Ana""', mA'n a'tA'cI'ka'wiyAni wi'uwl'wiyan"''. Nema'ne- 
'ci'tA ni'nA wi'uwi'wiyan"''. MA'ni wi'nA a'pwiiwi'mvi'wiyan 

25agwi'mego kago''i mane'cI'tA'manin"''. MA'ni wi'n uwi'wiyan 
A"ta"sAgu''meg ami"cimane'ci''tAman°'', — ni'nAma"megu ka'si'p 
i'ni nete''cita"^'. MA'n a"ni"coga"iyAgwe me'ce'megu ketA- 
'cikAkAkAno'netipen"*'. I'ni wi'n uwi'wiyan"''', me'teno'ku''meg 
aiy5" a'a'wi'^teim lu'w""*', a'mi'ta'i kA'ckiga'kina'nAkAkAno'- 

SOnetiyAg'""'". Agwiga"mAn i'ni ke'kiine'tAgini me'to'sane'niw"^*'; 
i'ni wa'^'tci pwawimane'ci'tAg"^''. Ke"kanetAgega"mAnA mane"ci- 
'tAs'^'. Kinaiyu"mAni wanAto'kA'megu ta'ci'ka'tigini wi'uwi'- 
wiyani kete'ne'tone ta'tAg''''," a''ina''tc ugya'n°''. "Na'i', 
negwi"i, agwiku' i'ni kago" i'cima'ne'cagin uwiwe'tiwen°'". 

35Kinaiyu"mAn uwi'wiyAn"'*', awitAga''ina' u'wIya'A mane'ci'- 
mene's*^'. I'n°''," a"uia''tc u'gwi'sAn"'". 

"Ana"e pe'ki'megu keme'tciwi'tAmon"^". A'gwi wi'kyatAmo'- 
nanini wii'^'tci" cagwane'moyan"''. A'i'kwawiyag^ve ne'ca'gwanemu 
wi'wi^tci'e'nAgow"^'"'. Me''ce wi'nA ki'cinepo"iyAn'''', ina'mi'ta'i 

40 wi'uwiwi'wAnan uwi'wiyan"'". MA'ni wi'n i'nug a'gw a'pi'tcina'- 
'sayAni wi'uwiwi'yanin"''. Inina"megu wi'uwi'wiyani ki'cA'ce'- 
noyAn""'," a"ina''tc ugya'n"''. I'nip a'poni'megu'^tc'". 

O'nipi' ca"ck a'A'sipiwi''tci''egu''tc I'nA wi'^tci'so'ma'^tci'''. 
Ca'cke"si'a'i neni'w a'liAna'i'kA 'miniate i'ni wi'giyapi'. Metemo" 

45a"A'kawS,'pAma'^tc'". A'mi'cata'nemu'^tci mete'mo'a"*'. A'pena- 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 167 

"Oh, I am very glad that our friend has told it and told us all in 
general, and that he thinks of us in a good way," the men said to 
eacli other. 

It is said whenever he gave a gens festival all the people came to 
him. All the people would dance. When the people went out on a 
himt, when they knew he was to hokl a gens festival, they woidd 
surely come at that time. They merely wanted to dance, that was 
all they came for. All the women danced. So when he was to give 
a dance he would put an addition to his wickiup. His was the 
longest there was, but nevertheless he made it still longer. The 
people were very glad whenever he was to hold a gens festival. 



His mother was a very old woman. The old woman's hair was 
very white. Now it is said she said to her son, "Well, my son, is it 
because you could not marry any one that you do not marry?" she 
said to her son. Her son only laughed at her. A little later again he 
was told the same thing. Just as he had been told, he was then told. 
Again he only laughed at his mother. And it is said tliat again at 
the same time (of day) he was told the same thing, and he only looked 
at his mother. Then it is said he was told again much earlier. 
"Now, mother, you are trying to get me married. I am ashamed to 
get married. When I am not married I am not ashamed of anything. 
Now if I got married there would bo that of which I would be 
ashamed — that is, I myself only think that way. \Mien we are 
hving together, the two of us, we can be talking with each other 
freely. And if I were married the only time we could talk with each 
other would be when my wife was here. These people do not know 
that; that is why they are not ashamed of it. If they knew about it, 
they would be ashamed of it. Now I imderstand you to micon- 
cernedly persuade me to get married," he said to his mother. " Now, 
my son, marriage is not at all shameful. Now if you were to marry, 
why, no one would make you ashamed by what he said. That is all," 
she said to her son. 



"Mother, I shall tell it plainly to you. I will not keep secret from 
you why I am miwilling. I do not want to be with jou women. Of 
course after you are dead, then I might get married if I am going to 
marry at all. But now while you are alive I shall not get married. 
After you are gone is the time I shall marry," he said to his mother. 
Then, it is said, he was bothered no more. 

Then, it is said, all those of his gens lived with him. The maidens 
took care of that wickiup of the man. The old woman watched them. 
The old woman was very glad. Always she was instructing them how 



168 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. axn. 40. 

•^tci'meg a'kegye''kima'*tc unapa'miwen a'ci'genig'^'", na'kA'<'tci 
wi'inane'mani''tci wl'unapamemanigwa'in"'' ; wi"tepanani''tci'megu 
\vi'wiga<*tci'mcgupeme'nani''tc''. "Keme'sanemapenA'ku'i ne'ni- 
wAg""'," a'i'nani''tc''. "Ninaiyo I'n a'ca'wiyani na''ina'i wanapa'- 
5miyan°''; na'kA''*tci na'ina"meg a"cenu''tci ne'napam™-^', a'gwi 
nAna''kA kutA'gA wi'wi''t:ca'\viwAg i'cita'a'yanin"''. I'n ami'ca'- 
wiyiig'^'"'', i'ckwa"se"itig''<''," a"ina''tc''. 

O'n i'nin u'gwi'sAii"'", "Ka'tA wi'nA ma'A'gi ko'ci'"semAgi 
wI'ke'tcinane''ckimA''tc inanemi'yagAn"'". I'ni wfi'ci'A'ne'ko'k'', 

10pwawimcgukiig6"i'i"cinane"ckimAt'''. "O' ne'ckimA^'tciniga'''', niA- 
'kwa^'tci'megu kiV'noiiAt*''. U'wIya'A na'kA'''tci ke'ka'nemAte 
ne'niwAni k-xkAno'ttetlf', pwawi'inegiikago'"inAt'''; pwawiga''ina- 
'i'cigA'A'mawAte ne'niwa'"'. Pe'kiyuwInAmega'pe'e ketaiylgwama- 
''tci'megopw a'metemo'a"iyagw a'nAnAna"imagwe mA'n a'prtcigi'- 

IS'Itcig"^'', Iniga'"i pya'^tci''aiyag'''"'". I'nugi^tca' mA'n A"pi'te"siwen 
i"kvvawi''tca"i'i'cita''agAni keke'ka'netap"^*'. O'ni mA'n ii'ci'gitcig 
ane'tA kcwAniwA'nimapwA 'MAni ni'n a'cimA'kwate"siyan°''',"' 
a'"ina''tc ugya'n"'". 

A'p5nikag6'i'ina'^tci me'temo''^'. Ke'tenAme'gup a'Ane"kagu''tc 

20a'wA"s i'c''. ApinApi'meg iine't a'gwi na"inagwa'wa''tcin°''. 

O'ni wI'nA neni'w a"a'*tci'mo"a''tc ugya'n"'', "Nrnya'wugunaf'; 
A'ce'megu ni'kiyuki3'u's''"," a"ina'^tc''. 
""Au'," a'"igu^'tc ugyii'n"'". 

W5.'pAnigi ma'maiy a'"nagwa''tc'". Aiye'meg a'kfciki'ci'ta'wute' 
25uma'ke"sa'An°''; WAninawe'meg a'u<'tcipyata'"kA'wu''tc''. "Ma- 
'Aniga"i wi'pe'se'k.\.'mAnin"''," a'i'negu''tc i'ni'i wi'^tci'a'wa''tci"''. 
A'"nagwa''tc''. 

O'ninig a'mo'cAgi'k\vawiwa''tci'meg i''kwawAg'''". A'wis:a''tci- 
nagwi'"towa''tc i'ni wl'giyap''. Metemo"a'Aga''ipi'ca'cki'mcg a'Api'- 
30'Api'^tc''; a'poni'megukag6'i'"crta''tc''. Ca'ckipi'meg a'tA"ci"a'*tci"a'- 
''tcimu'^tc a"mamAtagwa''^tcimu''tc''. A'pwawiga/'mogukago'ka'i'i'ci- 
'ano'ano'"kani'Hc''. O'nipi lv\vlyen.\'mcg a'krcimenwinagwi"towa- 
''tc i'ni Wl'giyap'', a''pyani^tci tepe''ki nAnope'kjv'megu kago" 
a'wawi'lcwapi'tiinig'''". MAni'megu me'cena''megu natA'swimiwA- 
35"ci'wenAn I'na' a"A'"tanig''''. 

Wa'pAnigi nawA'"kwanig a"t6''kini"'tc'". Nyawini'siwega'i'pini' 
ca'cke"sl"a'a'i wi''tci'e'gowa''tc''. Inigiga'ipime'gdnin a''tA'scgi 
miwA'ci'wenAn"'"; nyawini'siwa'tA'seg''''. O'ni negu'ti metemo- 
a'A'meg a"Api''tc a'"A'tag''''. 
40 T5'ki''tcipm°'", "I'cka"sa''etig'"'', aiyo" mawA'<'tcIg''"'," 'a'"ina- 
"tc''. A'mawA'''tcini''tc a''Api<*tc''. "Ma'Ani'ku'i ke'gimc'si na'- 
neguti wi'nawA'^tci'awA'toyagw a'uwTgl'yiigwan"''; wa''tcinAtome'- 
nAgow"'^'. A'pene'meg i"ci"senwi kago"''," a"ina'^tc''. "Ketcawi'- 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 169 

marrietl life was, and how they would think of whom they were to 
marry; that they should love him, and take good care of him. "We 
are benefited by men," she told them. "That is what I did when I 
got married; and soon as my husband was gone, I never thought of 
living with another again. That is what you ought to do, girls," she 
told them. 

Then her son said, "Do not ever think of scolding these, your 
grandchildren, very badly. That is the way they will become 
attached to you, if you do not scold them at all. If you do scold 
them, speak to them quietly. And if you know of any one talking 
with a man, you must not say anything to her; and do not ever speak 
badly(?) about men to them. You old women have certainly the 
reputation of instructing (girls) who come to this age, for you have 
passed that. So you know at this age women's thoughts. And 
some of you who are of this age often fool them, telling them, ' This is 
how quiet a person I was,'" he told his mother. 

Then the old woman said nothuig more to them. To bo sure, then 
she was better liked by them. Some of them never departed at any 
time. 

Then the man told his mother, " I shall be gone four days; I shall 
merely be walking around," he said to her. 

"All right," his mother said to him. 

The next day early in the morning he went away. His moccasins 
had already been made for him; they were brought to him from 
everjnvhere. "These are what you are to put on," he was told by 
those who lived with him. Then he started out. 

Then those women were women alone. They fixed up that wickiup 
to look better. The old woman only sat down; she ceased doing 
anything any more. It is said that she merely told stories. She 
told some very interesting stories. She never ordered them to do 
any work. Then, it is said, just at the time they had made that 
wickiup look nicely, he returned that night with many bundles of 
things. It consisted of several bundles which were there. 

The next day at noon he woke up. There were fom-teen young 
girls living with them. That, it is said, was the number of those 
bundles; there were fourteen of them. And one (of tlie bundles) 
was where the old woman was sitting. 

It is said when he woke up, " Girls, come together here," he said to 

them. Then they came together where he was seated. "Each one of 

you is to take one to where you live before (you go) ; that is why I 

summoned you. Each thing is alike in them," he said to them. "I 

3599°— 25t 12 



170 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

megi'ciml'nenepwA mA'ni kl'genan a'menwi"kAmag'"^''". I'ni 
wa'^tcitapi'e'nAgowe na"nin°*"; a'tapi"iyagwe inA'nA ne'gy 
a'A'se'mi'ag''""'','' a''ina''tc'. 

A'awA'awAtotA'mowa'^tci wAni'naw a'Aneme"kawa''tci' cii'cke'- 
5'si'Ag''''. Iya''i pyaya'wa'^tcin a'uwl'giwa'^tc a'w&pAtA'mowa''tc'". 
Mi'c'ate'siweni'^tci"ip'\ Ki'cina'i'seto'wa'^tciii a'na'gwawa''tc ite'p''. 
Kegimc'siga"meg a'mA'kwa'te'siwa''tc''. 

Metemo'a'A'ga' a'na'i'se'to'i'^tc''. "Uwiya'A'^tca" pya'^tcma'kA'- 
•*tciwi<'tci"e'nAg''™^', mA'ni mawAto'ta'aw"*','' a'cikA'na\vi''tci 
10na''ina'i na'i"seto''tc uwi'kwapi'''tcigAn°''. 

O'nipi kAbo'twe na'kA''*tc i'na' a'pya"*tcikiwi'tani''tci negu'ti" 

ca'cke'sI"a"An°''. Ini'pin a'"mlna'*tc i'nini' ca'cke'"srAn°'". JJ'gwi- 

'sAn"'', "Kemi'cata'neniwi' a''minA'^tci kete'ckwa'se'e'menan"*". 

Kemenwito'tawaw"^*'. Kemen\vinawa''awAgi watane"sitcig''''. Ini'- 

ISku'i nete'ci'ta'e na"nin'"^V' a'"ina''tc ugya'n"''. 

KimlwAga' wInApin Ite'p a'mawiwi''tci"iwa''tc'". KAbo'twe 
winwa'w a'pyatAtA'u'guni'^tci watane"sitcig''''. O'n ugya'n I'n 
i'kwitw a'a'^tci'mo'a'^tc'': " Ite'piyn neta"pi'A neml'ca'menan a"A'- 
gotag''''. Iya"tca' newi'<*tci'iw"'''," a"ina^tcugya'n°i^'. "O'n"'", "Ko"s 
20a'ine'nug\van i'ni wi'i'ca'wiyAn"'','' a"iiie'*tc''. 'O'ni pya'yani''tc 
o"sAn a'a'*tcimo"eme''tc''. "Ci', ni'nA wii'nA k;igo''i m''inaw^'^'. 
KAkAta'ni'iyo nete"ci'ta'e"^tca" m'n°*". Napiwa'nA mA'kwa"^tci- 
"ca"cki," a"ini''tc'". 

I'nip a''nagwa<^tc'". O'n iya"i pyiiya'^'tci kwIyenA'megu, "Na'i', 
25no'ci'semeti'g'"'", pya'g aiy6'"i mawAta'gwApigu krwitA'monep"*"^",'' 
a'i'neme''tc'". WinAga" iya/' a'mawinAna''Api''tc''. "Na'i', 
nomAga'wa'"megu ki'a'^tcinio'"enep"*'. Iniga"megu wri'"cigenw 
a'ine'nAgowe niA'n inu'g'^''. Kike'ki'no'sup"'''," a''ina''tc''. 
"MA'ni ku'^'tc'', na"ina'i wapi"unaunapa'miyag\v i'ni wi'AnA'AnA- 
30 'pi'nenag''''''' ; kl'AiiA'pi'supwA'meg''"','' a'"ini''tci metemo''a"An°''. 
"NAna'wIn a'gw ini ke'kanetA'magin"'','' a''ina''tc''. "Ca'cki'megu 
meta''kwi netunapa'mipen"*', inu'gi wi'n ini'megu wi'i'ca'wi- 
yjigkwe'" a"ina''tc''. " Iniku" win A 'meg ''"'," a"ina''tc''. 'A'ApA- 
'ApAna'nini'^tc''. "Wa'nA niA'nA," a'"igu''tc i'ni'i' ca"cke'"si"a'''. 



35 O'ninini ne'niwAn a'pya^tcipiti'gani'^tc''. "A'tA'megu kemAta- 
g\VApA'ApAna'nip''-'^' ?" a'i'gowa''tc''. Onipi'nA neni'w i'nin 
ugyii'n'''', "Ana""','' a"ina''tc'', "pe'ki'megu menwito'tawi ko'ci'- 
'semAg''''. Kag6"ka' i'cimamya'cikAno'nAte kinA'megu niA'ni 
ki''totAgi kij-a'W'', kep6niyu''mAni kago'' i'ci''t'^', ca'cki'megon 

40a'awi'a'wiyAn''''. Ma'Agi'meg i'ckwa''sa'Agi wi'i'ci"taiyAne'e niy 
a'ci"tatcig'""," a'^ina'^tc ugya'n"'". ""Ini'^tca"ninA wa"^tc'', 'Ma- 
'kwa'^tci k^m6"c'',' 'i'nenan"'', Ana""','' a''ina'itc''. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 171 

have given you equally alike, because you have taken good care of 
this our dwelling. This is why I make you happy; because you have 
also made me happy by helping my mother," he said to them. 

Then, it is said, the maidens each carried them away on their 
backs, going to the different directions. When they arrived at 
where they lived they looked at it. Lo, it is said that it was finery. 
After putting it away they departed thither. All of them were quiet. 

The old woman also put hers away. "If anyone comes to live 
with us again, I will let her take this away," she said in her talk 
when she was putting her bundle away. 

Pretty soon again, another young girl came there to stay. Then 
she gave it to that little maiden. Then her son (said) : "You have 
made me happy by giving it to our girl. You treat her very nicely. 
You have gratified them whose daughter she is. That surely is what 
I thought," he said to his mother. 

It is said that she (the girl) had ran away secretly to go there to 
five with them. Pretty soon they whose daughter she was (saw her) 
coming with a load on her back. Then that woman related to her 
mother: "I have been over there, where our sacred pack hangs. 
I am going to live with them there," she said to her mother. Then, 
"Do whatever j^our father says to you," she was told. Then when 
her father came he was told the story. " Well, I will say something 
to her. I think that would bo a good thing. Surely she ^^^ll probably 
be quiet staying there. Only be good," he said. 

Then she started out. Now just at the time when she arrived 
there, "Now, my grandchildren, come here and sit together. I am 
going to make (something) knowTi to you," they were told. She 
also went there and sat down. "Now, I shall give you instructions 
for a little while. What I am about to say to you this day will 
happen so. You will recognize it that way," she told them. "This 
is it, when you each begin to take husbands unto yourselves they 
will dress each one of you in finery; you will be dressed up in finery," 
the old woman said. "Of course v,-e know nothing about it," she 
said to them. " We just simply each take a husband unto ourselves, 
but at this time that is what you are to do," she said to them. " That 
is all I have to tell you," she said to them. They were all laughing. 
"O, that is her, eh," she was told by those young maidens. 

Then that man came in. "What makes you laugh so gaily?" he 
said to them. Then, it is said, that man said to that mother of his, 
"Mother," he said to her, "you treat your grandchildren very nicely. 
If you say anything bad to them you will indeed treat this your 
body (evilly), for you no longer do anything; you are just simply 
staying here. These little girls are they who do all the work you 
had been doing," he said to his mother. "That is why I say to 
you, 'Speak quietly to them,' mother," he said to her. 



172 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BITFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

WinAga'na"ip a'ki'cagu''tci'megu'Ane''kagu''tc-'. " Ko'sena'n"*-^'," 
a'"igu<*tc i'ni'i" ca"cke"sl'a'''; ke'tenA'megu a'tepa'negu'^tc'". 

O'nipi kAbo'tw a'kl'ganu'^tc''. Ke'te'n a'pwawitawe'niga'*tci 
mete'mo'ii'*'. Ca'cke'sI'"a'Agi'meg a'taweni'giiwa'^tc''. Ca'cki'- 
5 megu me"ta"kw a'pemi'nowT''tci mete'mo'a'^'. O'nipi mAmI''ci"a' 
a'anawi'to'^tci'megu \vI'pwawiwa'pAma''tc'", ugwi'sAni'ga' a'tA'ci'A- 
'ckina'wa'a'^tc I'n a'i''cawi<*tc'". Pe"kiga"winApimega'pe' a'ke'ca- 
■*tci'"kwawi''tc'". O'n i'nina' a"kiki'ci'u'ca'cke'si"emi'*tc a'p5nike- 
'ca'^tcimete'mo'i'^tc''. 

10 I'nip a'wiipiki'ganu'^tc I'nA nenl'w'^'^'. A'mane'cita'a''tci'megu 
ta'tAgi wI'nA ki'ganut*', a"A'sami'A'kaw^'pini''tc ugya'n"''. "Pe'- 
'ki m"ka! negy A'sami'megu k:n'a'kwawi'i"cawiw'^^','' a'ci'ta'a- 
''tc''. "'0' me'cega'' negy a'A'sami'megumetemo"a'i''tci wa'^tci'- 
megupwaw'incno''tawi''tc'V' a'ina'nema<^tc ugya'n°"'. 

15 O'nipi pe'ku'tanig ugya'ii a'A'samine'pani''tc''. A'nepo'inite'e'- 
megu aya'cine'pani''tc''. O'n a'wa'pAma'^tc a'tcagi'mcgopime- 
gunAnani'ckwipIga'cka'nite' ugya'n""'. " 'O' pe'ki'megu ne'gyA 
nei36"iw'^'^','' a"ina'^tci wi''tci'ego'wa''tci"''. A"tcagi'megumai'y6ni''tc 
i'ni'i wi'^tci'a'wa'^tci''". 

20 "O'nip a'an6"ka'kya"^tc ugya'ni \vi'pitA"ome'*tc''. 'O'n i'na' 
a'Api'A'piwa'^tc'', a'wapipya'toni'^tci wi'i'cikegi''cini'^tci me'to- 
"sane'niwa"''. KAtawi'meguke'gime's a"pyani''tci me'to'sii ne'niwa" 
a'pya'^tcimama^tcina"ike'kane'mani"^tc a'cinagu''sini'*tc"'. 

A'wapinAna'i'ta'a'nite' an6'ka'ni''tci' iniga'wi'nApin a'kl'ci'A'seni- 

25wi'nite"*''. "A'seniwigwa'ni ma"mAnA!" a"ini'^tc''. "A'minawapA'- 
mawa'^tc'', A'*tca''megu pe'ki'^tcl'meg a'kfci'megutcagiku'ku'seni'- 
wini^'tc'". 

0'n°'', "Na'i', me'ce'na'i ka'tA kiigo" i'cimi'ca'^tci'ryagag''"'," 
a'i'''tci wagi't'^". 

30 Ki'cane''kawa"*tci wane"katcig ii'na'nawa'^tc''. O'nip a'tcago'- 
nawa'^tc''. SA'sagipi'megu Iya"i pya'nawAgi \vT'tA'cipitA"wawa'^tc'". 

O'ni' ca"cka'wiwe'nawa'*tc A'sa'g'''". Ea'ci\«we'nawa''tc'', "Na'i', 
pa'klgwa'cime"ku na'i'," a'i'yowa''tc''. Ka'_te"sitcigi mA'n 
a'cipa kig\va'ci'niawa'*tc a"A'ce'noni^tci'''tci'i! "Agvviyapi mA'ni," 

35'u'waya' a'i"ciwa'^tci pa"kl'gwanat>'. 

A'wapA'miiwa''tc'', ke'tenA'meg aki'ci'A'ce'nonite''". I'nipini 
wanA'gw a"nayapimAtAgvvame'k\v'A'"tog''''. Ki'cimAtAgwame'kwA'- 
'towa'^tc A''tca"megu iniya'gA' ca'cke'si''a'Ag a'mai'y5wa<*tci pe'ki'- 
meg''"'. A'anawi'"t6wa''tci wi'pwawiniai'yowa''tc''. O'ni kegime- 

40 "si'megu nanya'wogun a"pwawiwi'se'niwa''tc''. . 

Ki'cinanya'wugmiipwawiwi'se'niwa'^tc a"ne"ckinae'gowa''tc i'nini 
ne'niw.m""'. "Na'i', netane''setig'"'', A'ce ku''meg I'n a'kwi'genig 
nme'to'saneni'wiwen"''. A'gwi k^vnagwA'megu, plga'-wike'kyii'- 
w^"', p6ni''tca"megumA'kA'tawig''"'," a''ina''tc''. A'ponimA'kAta'- 

45wini''tc''. O'ni -vvi'n a'ne'cine'mwi''tc I'na"'', m6'cAgiga"megu' 
ca'cke'si'a'a''', keginie'siga''meg a'mA'k\vate"sini''tc''. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 173 

It is said he was also very mudi liked by them. "Our father," 
was what those 3"oung girls said of him; they really loved him. 

Soon, it is said, he gave a gens festival. Sure enough the old 
woman did not have to clear the things away. The young gii-ls did 
all the clearing. The old woman just simply started to go out. 
Then she was unable not to look at the ceremonial attendants, thus 
making her son weary ])y acting so. She used to be a very kind- 
hearted woman, it is said. Then after having the maidens slie no 
longer was a kind-hearted old woman. 

Then that man commenced his gens festival. That man who held 
the gens festival was rather ashamed, because liis mother was watch- 
ing very closely. "Gracious! my mother is behaving too badly," he 
thought. ''It may be because my mother is too old a woman, is 
wlw she does not mind me." he thought of liis mother. 

Then it is said that night his mother slept too much. She had 
died while sleeping. Then he looked at his mother and found that 
all her ribs had shpped out of joint. " O, my mother is really dead," 
he told those who lived with them. All of those -n-ith whom they 
were living wept. 

Then it is said he hired (persons) to bury his mother. Then they 
remained sitting there, wlule the people brought the things with 
which she was to lie. Nearly all the people came to know how she 
looked for the last time. 

When those whom he hired began to dress her suitably, it is said 
she had already turned into stone. '"She has turned into stone!" 
they said. Wlien they looked at her closely, behold, she had certainly 
completely turned into a granite rock. 

Then, "Now do not dress her up in finery in any way," said he 
whose mother she was. 

After they had dug the grave, the diggers went over to get her. 
Then, it is said, all of them carried her. It is said that they brought 
her with difficulty yonder where they were to bury her. 

Then they only WTapped her up in buckskin. After wrapping her 
up, "Now imcover her face," they said among themselves. When 
the older people uncovered her face, lo! she was gone. "She is not 
here," said some one who uncovered her face. 

Then they looked at her; truly she had already disappeared. Then, 
it is said, they refilled that hole. After it was filled up, then the 
young maidens wept bitterly. They were unable to refrain from 
crying. Then all of them did not eat a thing for four days. 

After they had not eaten in four days, they were reproved by that 
man. "My daughters, that is just the end of her life. It can not 
be helped, she died of old age, so stop fasting," he told them. So 
they fasted no more. Then he was the only man there, for they 
were all young maidens, and all of them were ciuiet. 



174 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

O'ni kAbo'tw I'niy utogima'mwawAn°'' : "Na'i', i'niyapi nl'n 
a'me 'tcipi'ckane'tAman aiyo" ayiinl'w ii'awi'a'wiyan"'', kcgyiipi'- 
gwiigin ii'tA'ci'i'ca'wiyAgwe mA'n"''. Agwiga"win ii'wiya'A wiiwa- 
nane'mi'^tcini mnA'megu newawanii'netA niA'ni kl'yanan"''. 
5 Ini''tca"i tA"sw a'cita'a"gwa'igi nl'wlta'megdg'''', nI''atAp aiyo'- 
'i me'ce'megu me'nwina'''," a"ina''tci me'to'sane'niwa'''. Ane'- 
tAp a'Anwa''tcina'wama'^tc''. AnetAga'"'', "Agwi'mcgu k^na'g''"*','' 
a''ini''tc'". "Aiy6"megu ni'nA nl'tA'ciwI'^tcikctema'ge'sig'"''," 
a''ini'^tc''. O'nip awA'si'megu na"kA''^tci tA"s^'", "O' ninAga'"i 
lOki'wI'tamen'"''," a"igu''tci me'to'sane'niwa''". A'ke''ka"Agi na'- 
"ina'i wl''aml''tc''. " Inina"megu," a'"ina"*tc''. 

O'n u'gwi'sAn a'ke'kane'megu''tc i'n a"ci"tciga''tc'", — agwi'yupi 
wi''tci'e'gu''tcin°'", — A'te''tcip awi'niwAn"''. "Cina'gw Ano"s*', 
Inimeguyatu'g a"krciwAni'ka"ciyAn''''," a'"igu''tc''. "Nene'kiine'- 

ISmiyAne niA'n a'gwi niAni'na' a'kw'Am.4.tA'inanin°''. Nene'kiine- 
miyAne"'tca" awi'tA mA'ni wi'a'miyAni nene'kane'tAgAp*'," 
a''igu^tc'". 

"Ci'! me'^tciwa'nA na'kA''^tci kiigo'"! kri'ci'a''kwAmAtA! 
"Ini'ku''tci mA'tt-'''," o'sA'n°'". 

20 "Na'i', katA'megu na"kA'''tci wi'nene'ka'nemA''tc i'cita''a'kAn''''," 
a"ina''tc''. "MamA'ka''*tci yu' wi'n aiyo'i ki'pya'te'kwilmu kiigo" 
i'ci'aneme''siyAn°'''. Agwiga"Ina'i kinA'megu wI'nAna'i'ka'wA- 
■'tcini tA"swi wrwltame'nugwan"''. I'n a'cipya'^tcike'kane'- 
menan a'i'ca'wiyAn"'". Ni'naiyo wl'n aiyo"megu ni'A''ck''''," 

25a''ini'^tc u'gwi'sAn"''. 

"Awa''s'", negwl''i, wIta'miyAn°"'". Klwinanawiiti''kAgo"-^' ; pina'- 
pi'kApA na"k'^'; mA'ni wi'n aiyo" agwimcgu'kago'''." 

"Agwi'^tca"megu kAna'g''"'^'," a'ini''tci'meg u"gwi'sAn'^''. 

"'O, 'o'! ke''ten I'ni ki'i'caw™'"," a''ina'*tc''. 
30 'O'nip i'nina' a'a'mlwa'^tci me'to'sane'niwAg''''. 'O'nip Ane'ki'i'- 
megu a'A'ckwa"iwa''tc''; iniye'e'megu klwi'ute'taneme'gu''tci' a'A'- 
'ckwini'^tc''. 

Ki'cinyawuguna'teni'^tc'' : " Na'i', ki'nawAnuna'"wapenA ketogima'- 
menan""^'," a"ini''tc''. A'yagwani ^''^pen"*'," a"ina''tci me'to- 
35 'sane'niwa'''. 

""Au'," a"ini'»tc'". 

"MAn i'nina'tca'i wra'miyAgwe nyawugunAgA'k"' ; Inina''megu," 
a"ina''tc''. 

'O'n inina'I'winig a'a'mlwa'^tc''. A'nawAnuna'wawa'^tc aml'- 

40ni'*tci''', ki'ci'cwa'ci'gA tA'suguna'teni'^tc'". A'AneminAna'piponlwa- 

^tci'meg a'pemiponi'ni'^tcin"'". KAbo'tw ii'wapi'a'kwA'a'kwAtA'- 

mowa'^tci niga'nitcig''''. KAtawi'megu ke'gime's a'a'kwAmAtA'- 

mowa"*tc''. Naneguti'megu a'pino'so'wiwa'^tc'". A'nAgi'ci'nowa'^tc 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 175 

Pretty soon their chief (said) : " Eventually, I am getting tired of 
this place, always staying at the same place. We are acting like 
blind people now. Of course no one has any control of me, I myself 
have the control over our lives. And so as many of those who also 
think that way, may go with me, for I am going to move to a new 
pleasant location, not very far away from here," he told the people. 
It is said he made some of them willing by his words. "It can not 
be," said some. '' I shall indeed remain here and live humbly with 
them," they said. Now it is said again he was told by the greater 
number of people, "O, I am going with you." He stated the time 
when he was going to move. "It will be at that time," he said to 
them. 

Then his son found out that he was doing that, for it is said he 
was not living with him, it is said he was at a distance. "Well, 
father, I suppose you have already forgotten me," he said to him. 
" If you think of me now, I am not sick yet. If you thought of me, 
you would not have been thinking of moving," he was told. 

"Gracious! as if you would get sick in any way again! It is all 
right now," his father (said). 

"Now, do not ever again wish to think of him," he said to (his 
father). "You will surely have to bring your head here to pray to 
him if you are in any way in danger. You will not take care of as 
many as shall go with you. That is what I have knowm you to do 
in the past. For myself I shall remain right here," his son said. 

"It would be better for you to go with me, my son. We then 
might always see each other about; and you might see fresh things; 
right here there is nothing." 

'I can not possibly do it," his son said. 

"O, ho! Surely you will do that," he said to (his son) 

Then it is said the people moved. And it is said a few of them 
remained; those same people who had worried over (the one blessed) 
remained. 

After they had been gone four days: "Now we shall follow our 
chief," he said. "We shall go wherever he goes," he told the people. 

"All right," they said. 

"We shall move at this time, in four days; sureiy at that time," 
he said to them. 

Ji-t that time they moved. They followed those who moved, after 
they had gone eight days. They camped on their way in the same 
places the (others) had camped in succession. Pretty soon, those in 
the lead began, each and all of them, to get sick. Nearly all of them 
became sick. One out of so many was well. They stopped, for they 



176 OEIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

a'pwawi'megukA'cki'a'miwa'^tc''. 'O'nip a'a'ckAmi'megu'a'kwAmA- 
tA'mowa''tc''. Iya''ma'Agi'ga' a'amlwa'^tci'meg ite'p''. O'n 
a'ckAmi'megu 'a'a'Ane'ki''iwa<'tci pwawi'a'kwAmA'tAgig''''. O'nip 
utogima'mwawAn a'Ano'kane'gowa'^tci pete'gi'c'". "MA'ni wi'- 
5 'inag''''®" : 'Kenatawino'nipi kenAtawanetA'magopiV ki"inapwA 
nanimi'ena'g''"'^'. Wi'nA'*tca'i wfugimawi'w'^*','' a'i"ciwa''tc 
u'gimaw"'^'. 

O'nipi pete/g a'i"pa''owa'^tc ano'ka'netcig'''". Ca'wine'ki ne'- 
pawa'^tc''. Wa'pAnig a'nAgi'cka'wawa''tc I'ni' ami'ni''tci"''. Inini'- 

lOmegu a"ma-wina,'wawa"^tc''. "Na'i', kerne' k^viinetA'magopi kenata'- 
winon"''. Tcagi'meg a'kwAmA'tAmog i'Diyag"^*^". Ini^tea'' a'cipya- 
*'tci"Ano'ka'ci'yAme''tci ketogima'menan"'^". ''I'ni wl"inag''^^",' 
netc'gunan""^'. 'Wi'nA''tca"i ki'utogimame'mapen'"^',' ketegwA'- 
••tca''," a'i'nawa<'tc''. 

15 O'n i'nini wayo'si'ni'^tcin a"pyani''tc''. "KA'ci'^tca" ina'^tci'- 
mowAg''''?" a"ini''tc''. A'a''tcimo''eme''tc''. "'O'; wii'nA'ini. 
Na'i', ka'tA wi'na'"sa'A''tc inanemi'yagAni no''s'^", agwiku"megu 
kago"i pA'ci'megu ke'ka'netAgin"'". I'ni yu ''Au',' inA'f", 
na'sa'Ate'^tca"'', me'ce wI'nA no'niAgawe tiipi'i'yagAp'*' ; ini'mcg 

20a'mi'ta'i poninene'ka'netAg'''', m6"tci mA'ni na'tA'se'nw ii'tii'- 
pi'A^'tc'". Agwi'megu kAna'g''"'^'; kepenii'meguwapi''kAneg''''-*"; 
i'n a''cawi'*tc''," a''ina''tc'". 

O'nip a'a'^tci'mo'a'^tc i'ni'i me'to'sane'niwa''', "Na'i', a'gwi 
kina'nA kago"i wi'i'ci'A'penawene'kai'yAgwin"''. A'penawene'ka'- 

25gwa'ig a'gwi wI'me'ci'e'nAgwin"'', — cewii'n aiyo''megu kl'tA'cikfca'- 
wlpen"'^". U'wiya'A wi'wA'^tca'notaw'''^'. Ki'tAtAgwi'^tca"nieguwi- 
se'nipen"*'," a''ina''tci wltame'gu''tci"''. 

0'n°'', "Ni'n"*'," a'i''ciwa'*tci negu'f. Sasa'si'meg a'wA'^tca'- 
nota'^tc'". O'nipi kegime'si'megu a'wi'se'niwa'^tc'". Inigi'gii' ano- 

30 'kana"igig a'wi"pu'gawa''tc''. O'ni ki'ciwrse'niwa''tc'", "Ma'dI 
wi"inegwA no''s'^': 'KinA'megu kegwi"sA ka"sipi ne'cki'gamowA 
wi'mi'ke''tci"eneg''''; winA'megu kegwi"s'^', a'gwi kutA'g""^". Agu'- 
wiya'^V ki"inapwA n5"s'^", ninA'ku''tci ne'cagwa'nemu wi'mi'ke'- 
•'tci'e'^tc'". Fni^'tca" ni''nA wI'u''teike'kA''wiyag''"'=V' a"ina''tc'". 

35 I'nipi wi'nanig a'pe'nowa''tc''. A'piti'gawa"^tc a"tcitApi'"ini''tc'". 

"Cina'g''^'''!" a"im'itc''. 

"MAni'^tca" a'i"ciwa'^tci kegwi''s*": kinA'megu kegwi'sA ne'cki'- 

giimowA wi"na'sa"eneg'''', kinAma''megu ka''sip'', agwiga''i kutA'- 

ga"''. KinA''tca'"megu kene'ckinawa'ix'petug''^'. 'MA'n a"i''^tci 

40 kinA'megu kcgwi"s*", ki"inap''^',' "iVa''^'. 'Wi'pwawikago'i'ina'- 

nema'^tci ma'A'n"'',' "i'wa'*", 'mnA'^tca''megu ni'ne'cka'nemeg'''''^",' 

"i'WA"^'." 

""O', wa'na'i'ni!" 

"Wi'pyiiwAgiga'winA'meg''"', cewa'n"*' 'a'gwi kina'nA wi'a- 
45kwAinAtA'mAgwin'''",' i'niwAn i'nini ki'kane'nanAn"'"." 



Miciir.LsoN.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 177 

were unable to move on. Then they became sicker. The others 
were moving right along toward them. Those who were not sick 
grew less in number. Then it is said they were ordered by their chief. 
"Tliis is what you must tell hmi: 'It is said your medicine is desired 
of you,' you are to tell the one who used to make us dance. He will 
be the chief," so said the chief. 

Then, it is said, those who were employed ran back. They slept at 
half way there. The next day they met those who were moving. 
They went straight to him. "Now, your medicine is being thought 
of. Those people all are sick. That is why our chief has sent us 
hither. 'You shall tell him that,' he told us. 'Verily we shall have 
him for our chief,' ho truly said of you," they told him. 

Then he whose father (the chief) was, came. "What have they 
said ?" he said. Then he was told. "O, yes. Now, do not think of 
saving my father, for he does not know a single thing. For if you say, 
'All right' to him, even if you make him well, of course for a short 
time you might please him; then he would no longer think about it, 
even when you have pleased him several times. It cannot be helped; 
he just goes ahead and leaves you; that is what he does," he said 
to hun. 

Then, it is said, he told the people, "Now, we shall not be affected 
in any way by disease. We shall not catch it from those who have 
the disease, but we must settle the matter right here. Some one is to 
give a feast. All of us indeed are to eat together," he said to those 
by whom he was accompanied. 

"O, I (will do it)," said one. He prepared a feast m haste. Then, 
it is said, all of them feasted. Those who had been sent also ate with 
(the rest). Then after they ate, "You must tell my father this: 
' Your own son has forbidden you alone to be doctored; it is your own 
son, no other person. No other person,' you are to tell my father, for 
I am unwillmg that my father should be doctored. That is why you 
should name me," he told them. 

Then it is said they started out. They entered where (the chief) 
was sitting. 

"Well!" he said. 

"This is what your son says: your own son has forbidden that you 
be made well, that is, you yourself alone, not others. You must have 
made him angry. 'This is what your own son said, you tell him,' 
he said, 'So he would not have anything against this person,' he said. 
'He may hate me,' he said." 

"Oh, that is it!" 

"However, they will come, but 'we shall not get sick,' said that 
friend of ours." 



178 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. Ann. 40. 

O'ni wa'pAnig a"ponI'e'tIiii''tc''. Ite'p a'anu'tawa'^tc 6''sAn°''. 

"Cina'gwA, 'Ano'"s®', a'gw ina' mA'ni tA'cimenwimenwipemate'si'- 

yiigo' i'ni yo'w^^'; wa'''tci pe'^tcimena'niyow'^''', 'aiio"s''". Na'i', 

ninA''tca'"megu nene''ckigamu wi'na"sa"eneg''''. Ma'A'gi wi'n a'gw 

5i'nAgmi kutAgA'g'''"; kinA'^tca"megu ka''sip''," a'"ma'^tc 6"sAn°''. 

"'0', negwi''i, nepIgi'ckanetAku" mo'tc'', negwl"i, a'me'to- 
'saneni'wiyAn"'", negwi"'". Ketapi'i^tca"meg i'n a"tota'wiyAn°'', 
negwl'"''. AwA'si'megu pe'gi'ckyilw a'me'to'sa'neni'wiyan"'', inugi- 
'^tca''mAn aiyo"megu ni'tA'ciponime'to'sa'neniw'"''. Ki'cetu- 

10 namoyanemegon'i wi'nep5'"iyan'''V' a''ina''tc u'gwi'sAn"''. 
"Ciiwa' negwi"'", menwi'megume'to'sane'iiiwin"""; A'pena^'tci'megu 
ki'nene'ka'nemawA me'to'sane'nlw'^*', i'niyu wI'ugima'wiyAn'''". 
Ki'n ini'megu mama'^tcigi wfinane'ineneg'*'". Ki'peiie"^tca" ugi- 
mawi'"eneg'''", A'pena^'tci'mogi ki'nene'ka'nemawA keme'to'sa'- 

ISnenim""^", i'nina" i'cime'kwane'meneg''''. 'O pwawiga'"ime'kwane- 
meneg'"'", awA'si'megu ki'menwiki'wit'^'. 'I'li"'', negwl'''', ca"ck 
a'i'nenan inu'g''''. Ini'meg acikA"cki''toyani wi'i'nenan"'', 
negwi'"''," a"igu'^tc''. A'ne'peni'^tc'". 

"Sa'sii'si'megu pItA'u''k"V' a'i'ncme''tc''. Kegeni'meg a'pita'- 

20"ome<'tc''. Ki'cipita"ome"^tc'', A'ckutii'w a tAiie''ca.nig I'na'i 
tepe''k'''. Me'cena"megu nya'wugun I'na' a'tAne'"caiiigi pe'kuta'- 
nigin"*', a'A'pini^tc o"sAn°''. 

0'nipa'a'^tci'mo'a'^tciway6'si'ni''tcini'niyAneni'w'^^": "A'ckutii'w 
in A"penaweniga"m°''; a'mi'catanemo'migA'k a'ugiinawine'tawa'- 

25migA'k'', i'nini wa"'tc. i"cikeg''''. Na'i', mAni'^tca'' ami'ca'- 
wiyAg''""'. Aiy6''i pepe'tci'ma" i'ciki'kigata'we kegime'si'meg''"'. 
Nyawuguni^'tca" a'gsvi wi'pitigatl'yAgwin"''. O'ni nyawugu'- 
nagA'ke wl'tAtAgsviwi'se'niyAg''""''. Napi'meg i'ni wi"nene''kimAgwe 

30wI'utogimami'wAgwan°^". ''O' inA'nA wi'utogima'memAg'"'^"'',' 
wi'"inAg''"®'," a'"ina''tc i'nin ugiinawi'u'ckina'wa"An°''. 

O'nip i'n ugimawi'u'cki'nawa' a'negu'ti'a''tc ute''kAvamAn°''. 

A"mawA''tci'meguwawene"sini<'tc''. 

O'nip a'a'*tcimu''tc i'nA neni'w"''', "Me'sota'wi ki'a'mipen aiyo'- 

'mcgu ke"tcin°''', cewa'n iya'"i ki'cipo'niyAgwe nya'wugun a'gwi 
SSwi'pitigati'yAgwin"'". O'ni ki'cinyawugunagA''k i'ni me'ce'na'i 

wi'pitipitiga'tiyAg''™'," ^''^na'^tc''. ""Inina'ka"i wi'utogima'- 

meniAgwA wi'wa'pAmAg'^'^'''. 'Ma'ua magwa"''',' a^ianema'- 

WAgwan"*', I'nananA wi'utogima'mAg'''"*^'," 'a"ina''tci me'to'siine'- 

niwa'''. A'mi'catane'moni''tc''. 
40 "O'nip a'ki'ki'gawa''tc''. Nya'wugun a'pwawipitiga'tiwa'^tc'". 

NyawugunagA'tenig a'pwawi'u'wIya'A'aiya''ci'a"kwA'mAtAg'"'. 

A'tcagi'meguki"cina"sawa''tc'". A'tAtAgwiwi'se'nyawa'^tc''. 



MICIIELSON.] ORIGIN or THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 179 

Tlien the next day they camped with each other. He (the chief's 
son) went over to his father. ''Well, father, you are not now con- 
tinuing to live as healthy lives as you did there; that was why for- 
merly I forbade you, father. Now I myself have forbidden that 
you be made well. I do not say it to these others; it is you your- 
self alone," he said to his father. 

"Well, my son, I am discouraged about my life anyway, my son. 
You have pleased me by treating me like that, my son. There is 
more trouble in my living, so now I shall cease living right here. As 
soon as I am finished talking, then I shall die," he said to his son. 
"But, my son, lead a good, righteous life; you are always to think of 
the people, for now you shall become the chief. Certainly they will 
think that of you. If you are made a chief, think always of your 
people, that is, if you are remembered that way. And if you are not 
thought of that way, yoti will live a better life. That is the only 
thing I say to j^ou, my son, at this time. That is all I am able to tell 
you, my son," he was told. Then (his father) died. 



"Bury him, right away," they were told. He was buried in a 
hurry. After he was buried, a fire was burning there that night. It 
kept burning there for four days during the nights, where his father 
was laid. 

Then that man (who was blessed) told the person whose father 
(the dead) was: "The fire is that disease; it is happy because it has 
slain a chief, that is why it is like that. Well, this is what we ought 
to do. Let us move yonder in a distant place, aU of us. Then we 
must not visit each other for four days. Then when the four days are 
up, we shall have a feast together. Thus we can deliberate better as 
to whoever shall be our chief. ' O, this person whom we shall have for 
our chief,' is what we will say to him," he said to that chief's young 
man. °* 

Now it is said that chief's young man hail only one sister. She was 
the prettiest of them all. 

Then it is said that man said, "We are all to move away, 
near here, but after we have camped there we must not visit each 
other for four days. Then after four days we can visit each 
other," he told them. "At that time we shall see whom we shall 
have for our chief. Wliomever we think ' this person perhaps,' is he 
whom we shall have for chief," he told the people. They were very 
happy over it. 

Then they moved to a new location. For four days they did 
not visit each other. At the fourth day no one remained sick. 
They had all become well. Then it is said they feasted together. 

w Idiomatic for chief's son. 



180 



ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 



[ETII. ANN. 40. 



'O'nipi ki'ci\vi'se'niwa''tc'', "Na'i', kegime'simego'ni wfmi'cate'- 
'siyAg''""'. I'ni wi'utogima'miyAg''''®". M5'tciyu"megu ni'nA 
ne'mrcami nr'no'tA". Wrtape"siyAgwe wi'u'^tci'i'ca'wiyAg''''^'. 
Pe'ki''tca''megu kwIyenA'meg anancma'wAgwan i'nanA wi'uto- 
5 gima'memAg'''^'^'. A'gvvi wi'nAno"ckwa'i'yAgwin'''V' a"ina'^tci me'to- 
"sane'niwa'''. A"mT'catane'moni''tc''. I'nip a'ml'cate''siwa''tc''. 
WAninawe'meg a'tA'cita"awa''tci wi'ugima'miwa'^tc''. Ne'niwAg 
a"ke'tcimi'cate'"siwa''tc a'AgawatA'mowa''tci wi'ke"kA'u''tc''. O'ni 
krcinawA'"lcwanig a'mawa''ckawa''tc''. "Na'i', i'niyapi wi'wripA'- 

lOtiyAgwe wi'ugima'wigwan"*','' a"iiii''tci ne'niwAn"''. "Upyani- 
'^tca'"megu," a"iniHc''. 

Ane't a'kiwime"tciwapA'mawa''tc I'nini ne'niwAn"''. "Cina'g''"'^', 
ma'A'gi wi"wapAma''sutcigi pA"cit5''a'Agi mene'"t'^'; wi'ne'to'- 
piwAg''''," a"me'^tc''. A'cki'meg a"klwike"tcawa"i'minagu"siwa- 

15 ''tc''. Ane'tA ne'p a'Ano'ka''kvawa'*tc'i wi'lcv\'apA'A'mawu''tc'". 
"'Au'/' a'ine''tci'meg''"'. A'wa'pAmc''tc''. 'O'ni negu't alvAna'- 
wini^tc'': "A'sa'mipA'cit6'"iwAg'"'," a'"inc''tc'' 



'O'nip a'a''tci'moni''tci wami"camit*^": "Na'i', niA'ni ne'mrcami 
ka"cki'a'cowAne''kIgwan°'^', i'nanA wi'utogima'memAg'^'^^','' a"ina- 

20 ^tc''. "Kegime'si^tca''megu ki'liu'^'tcawip"'^'," a"ina''tc''. O'nipi, 
"Ke'ki'nawa''tci ma'netowAni lia'kancme'gugwan"'*^", i'nanA wi'kA- 
'cki'a'cowA'ne'kif^'," a''ina''tc''. 

O'nip a"wapikii''tca'\v'iwa''tc'', a'pwawi'megukA'cki'a'cowAne'- 
'klwa^'tc''. KAbotwe'mcg I'niyA nit'pS'it n'gwi'sAn a'ku''tca'wini- 

25 <'tc'". A"kA'cki'a'cowAnc"kini''tc''. A'wI'ckwa'wiigA'ki wawagA'- 
'Agig a'mi'catane'mowa/'tc a'ki'ci'utogima'miwa'^tc''. 'Onijii'meg 
a'lu'ganu''tc a'nlmi''tciga''tc''. I'nin a"k.\nakAna'wiiii''tc''. "'0' 
neme'co'me'sAg'^'', ni"kanAg'"', mamato'mutcig'''', 'o' no'^'tc'" 
mane'towAn"'', no'^'tc'', a"mAmato'maw5''tc'', no'<^tc'", wmwii'w'^'^" 

30no''*tc'', a'ketemina'gowa"^tc'". No"itc'', negu't'", n6''itc'', '6' no'^'tc'' 
mi"son°'', no'^'tc'', anegi"ku'ckAmowa''tc'', no'^'tc'', i'ni no'^'tc'' 
anegi'kwaneme'gowa''tc'", no''^tc''. Ini'megu, no'^'tc'', wi'i'ca'wi- 



yan°'', no'^tc''. "0' na'lcA no"'tc'', 'o' no'^'tc'', a'cowi 
"tAnoni wa'wu'^tc"', no"*tc'", mya'cikAnone'nugwan"*", no 
'o 



menu 



"*", no'^'tc'', 



35nano'ta, n6"*tc', 'o' wi'Anemi'A'kwi'ta'aw""*'. No''^tc'', 'c 
no'^'tc'", me'^'tc'', no''^tc'", po'sipwawiponimenugwan"'', n5'''tc' 
'5' wi'nA no'^'tc'', naiya'nen"^'' 
'6' no'<*tc'', wi'a'wotAm''^", no"* 



no 

to' 



'Hc'\ utS'tawen"'", no'^tc'" 
'0' 'iniyatu'g ii'igu'te'^" 



no'^tc 



.1' 



J 



no'''tc'', na"ina''', no'^'tc'', ii'kAno'neoru^tc'', no''^tc 



40 'o' ma'netowAn"'', n6"'tc'', 'ane'me''tcin"''. No'^'tci 'o' na''kA 



no'^tc'', '6' mA'ni na'"k'', no'^tc'', 'o' 
n6"'tc''. "0' nAna'W'', no'^tc'', '5' 



no'''tc'", 'anane'menan"'' 
kiyu'sa't*^', n6''^tc'', ci 



MiciiELSuN.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 181 

Then it is said after they had feasted, "Well, we must all dress up 
in our best. Now we shall have a chief. I shall even carry my 
sacred pack on my back. That we shall be happy, is the reason 
why we shall do this. The one of whom we think the most is the 
one we shall have for our chief. We shall not do this aimlessly," he 
said to the people. They were very happy. Then it is said they 
dressed up in fine clothes. Men all over were wishing to be the chief. 
The men dressed up in their very finest as they desired to be named. 
Then they all gathered in the afternoon. "Well, now we are to look 
at each other (to see) who will bo the chief," said the man. " Slowly," 
he said. 

Some of them were looking closely at that man. "Well, these old 
men are the ones who will be looked at first; they will sit together," 
they were told. Behold as they went about they looked more and 
more like persons of advanced years. Some ordered water to be 
dipped for them. "All right," they were told willingly. Then they 
were being looked at. Then one spoke out: "They- are entirely too 
old men," they were told. 

Then it is said the owTier of the sacred pack spoke: "Now, who 
ever can step over this, my sacred pack, is the one whom wo shall 
have for chief," he said to them. " Verilj', all of jou try it," he told 
them. Then it is said, "It will show who is known by the manitou, 
he is the one who will be able to step over," he told them. 

Then it is said they began to try, but they could not step over. 
Pretty soon the son of the man who died tried it. He was able to 
step over. There was a great noise of people whooping, as they 
were glad that they had a chief. Then at once it is said ho (the one 
blessed) gave a gens festival and a dance. That person (who was 
the new chief) gave a speech. "Oh, my grandfathers, my friends, 
who are worshipping, so be it,"" the manitou, so be it, they worship, 
so be it, by whom they were blessed. So be it, of one, so be it, gens, 
so be it, as many as belong to it, so bo it, so many were blessed by 
him, so be it. That is just what will happen to me, so be it. And 
the lands across,™ so be it, the side of whosoever has spoken meanly 
to you, so be it, shall continue to end with their desire unfulfilled. So 
be it, so be it, so be it, if he does not stop annoying you with his talk, so 
be it, so belt, heshall instead becursing his own town, so belt. So be it, 
that was what, so be it, he probably had been told, so be it, when he was 
spoken to, so be it, by the manitou, so be it, who is so called. And, 
so be it, this is another way, so bo it, that I bless you, so be it. Lo, 
the person who walks about in lonely places, so be it, succeeds in 

"i" '"So be it " is a rendition of the mystic word no^lc^'. see Jones's Fox Texts, p. 336, footnote 1. 
'" That is, another set of Indians, The word is archaic. 



182 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. Ann. 40. 

natA'gi negutwapya'g'"'", n6''*tc'', 'I'n°'', n6'<'tc'', ayl'g'''', no''^tc'", 
no'''tc'', "o' "anane'menan°'', no''*tc''. Iniyatu'g''''", no''*tc'", 'o' 
no'^^tc'", "anane'megute'"'', no'''tc''. 'O' na''k'^", n5'''tc'", mA'ni, 
no'^'tc'", a"Anemiwiga'*tcine''tcatAma'wigwan°'", n6''*tc'', '6' no'- 
5<itc'', a'awAtenAma'wiyAn"'", n6'''tc'", ayl'gi ■wi'n'^-'^' , no'''tc'", '5' 
pemate'"siwen°'", n6'''tc'', '6' nrina'Demaw^"^', no"'tc''. 'O' 
na''k*", n6''*tc'", a'awAtenAma'wiyAn"'", no'^'tc'', na'kw^apetAma'- 
wigwan"*', no'^'tc'' wiga'tAtAgA'^tca", n5"'tc'', iiiA na'ini'meg'^"', no'- 
"tc'", wi'ina'nemAg'^'', no'^tc''. 'I'ni n5'<*tc'', yiitu'g''''', n6"*tc'' 

10 "o' a'igu'te'*'', no''*tc'', 'o' na'"ina' no^tc'', kanonegute'"", no'^^tc'' 
mane'towAn°'", no"'tc'', na'ina" no'^tc'", myana''6na''tc'', no''*tc'" 
"i'nin'^'", no'''tc'". MA'niyatu'gega' no"'tc'', a'wawitAmagu'te'"' 
n6''*tc'", "5' no'^'tc'', niA'ni mrca'm""", n6'<*tc''. Ke'teiiA'^tca'' 
n6'''tc'', 'o'na'tA'senW^'', no'^'tc'', a'me'sane'tAmAg''"''", no'<*tc''. 

15 'O' no''^tc'", mA'ni, no'<'tc'", ml'ca'm"''", no"'tc'', "o', 'A'penii^'tci'^- 
tca", n6"'tc'", 'o' no"^tc'', kemenwin6''*tc'' "o' n6'''tc'' me'to'siincni- 
wi'e'gwipen"*', no"*tc'". 'O' no"'tc'', mA'iiA, no'^'tc'", 'o', keme- 
"come"senan'''^', n6'''tc'', "o' no'^'tc'", uketeminawe''siwen°'", 
no'<'tc'". Ini'^tca no'^'tc'", nl'nA wa"*tc'", no^^tc", nAno"ck"<'", no"*tc'', 

20ine'inetuna'moyan°'', n5"'tc''. Wa'<'tc'", no"'tc'', na'p'', n6'<'tc'', 
witAino'nAgow'^®', no'^'tc'', wi'u''tcino'''tciwi"ciginawa'cka'gwi- 
yj^gkwe'^ n5''*tc'' '5' n5''*tc'', wi'se'niwen"'", n6''^tc'", ma'ncto- 
WAg'''', no'^'tc"' '5' no'^'tc'', a'awAtenA'mawu''tc'', no"'tc''. 'O 
i'niku' wi'i'cin6''*tcimenwina'\va"Ag'''"'', no"*tc'" 'o' no"'tc'', ma'- 

25net6w"*", "o' no'^'tc'', i'niku', no'''tc'', 'a'"inAg'''', ina'ina'no'^'tc'', 
kA'nonAg'''', no"'tc'", mA'nA, n6"'tc'', ko'ci'se'menan"'^", no'^'tc'". 
I'ni'itca", n6''*tc'', 'o' no"'tc'', wi'i'tini'^tc'", no'''tc'', "o', ma'neto- 
wa"'", n5'''tc''. 'O' i'ni''tca'n6"*tc'" wi'i'ci, no"*tc'", ml'kwina- 
wata'gayAg'''"'', no'''tc'', katemina'gatcig'''', no''*tc'", wiga'- 

SO'siyAg""'™", n6''^tc''. rni'*tca'no''*tc'', ne''k'', no'''tc'", peinetuna- 
mono'kA'tawAg'''', no'''tc'", "6' n6"'tc'", ma'netowAn°'', no'''tc'", 
mii'kw'a'nematcig'^'", no'^tc'", ii'neni'wiyAn"'' '6' na'kA"'tci kinwa'w 
i''kwatig'"'V' a'i'^'tc A'cki'u'gimaw a"ckigit''". 

'O'nip a'menwinawa'megu''tc i'ni wami'camit*'. "Ini'ku"''," 

35'a"ci'ta'a'*tc'', a"kAkAnotA'mawu"'tc'. O'ni ki'fiklga'nowa''tc'', ite'p 
a'a'^tci ne'ci'kA'meg i'na' a'a'wini'^tc a'tcagi'megumawi'Anenwi'- 
nite'®". I'kwa'wa'i' sipo'g i'"c'". 



'O'nip a"wapikAn6'neti''tc'''. "Cina'g'^^''", ni'ka'n""'", pe'ki'megu 
kemenwa"'tciin ana^'tci'moyAn a'kAkAnotAma'wiyAni neki'gan5n°''. 
40Nemi'cata'nein""'. 'Ini'ku'i,' nete'ci'ta''''. _Ini''tca"meg A"pena- 
''tc i'ca'wi'k.\n°'', ni'ka'n°<^'," a''ina<'tc''. 'O'nip'", "Pe'kiga/'mcg 
a'menwanet-Aino'wAgwan ami'ci'atA'piyAgw _a'wi'kenwa''cawi'- 
wAgwan"''," a''ina''tc utogima'mwawAn"''. "I'n ami'cimenwa'- 
wiyAg'='"="," a"ina<'tc'". 



MK-HELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 183 

getting one slice," so be it, that is (a way) I bless also you, so be it. 
That was probably, so be it, how he had been blessed, so be it. And 
again, so be it, the person who continues to handle carefully for me, 
so be it, the things you hand over to me, so be it, him also, so be it, 
I shall, so be it, bless him with life, so be it. Moreover, so be it, the 
person, so be it, whoever receives and eats for me what you have 
handed me, so be it, who eats it up carefully, so be it, I shall, so be it, 
bless him the same way, so be it. That was what, so be it, he was 
probably told by him, so be it, when he was, so be it, spoken to, so 
be it, by the manitou, so be it, when he obtained mercy from him, 
so be it. Then, so be it, this probably was mentioned to him, so be it, 
this sacred pack, so be it. Truly for several times, so be it, we have 
received benefit from it, so be it. And, so be it, this, so be it, sacred 
pack, so be it, has, so be it, always, so be it, given us, so be it, healthy 
lives, so be it. And, so be it, it is our grandfather's, so be it, blessing, 
so be it. That verily, so be it, is the reason, so be it, I speak aim- 
lessly, so be it. This is why, so be it, I relate it to you, so be it, 
so it (the food) shall also, so be it, have a strong effect on our bodies, 
so be it, the food, so be it,, which is, so be it, offered to the manitous, 
so be it. In this way we shall, so be it, please, so be it, the manitou, 
so be it, and that was, so be it, what I said to him, so be it, 
when, so be it, I spoke to, so be it, this, our grandchild, so be it. 
So that is, so be it, what the manitous, so be it, will say to each 
other, so be it. Then that is the way, so be it, we shall make them, 
so be it, mindful, so be it, give the blessing, so be it, if we are careful, 
so be it. That is as long, so be it, as I shall, so be it, speak for them 
who thought of the manitou, so be it, you men and you women," 
said the new and the young chief. 



Then it is said the person was very much gladdened who owned the 
sacred pack by the way (the other) spoke. "That is very good," 
he thought, because it was being spoken for him. Then after they 
finished the gens festival, he went over there and he was all alone, all 
the rest who lived there had gone s^\^mming. The Avomen (had 
gone) toward the river. 

Then, it is said, he (and the other) began a conversation together. 
"Well, my friend, what you said is very good indeed, in the speech 
YQVL made for me in my gens festival. I am proud. 'That is very 
good,' I thought. So you should do this always, my friend," he said 
to him. Then, "We could move to a new location wherever we like 
the best, wherever we could be a long time," he told their chief. 
"That is the way we could do the best," he said to him. 

'1 The hidden meaning is, that he will kill enemies, obtain victory. 



184 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

O'nip a'a'^tci'mo'a''tc ume'to'saneni'ma''': "Na'i', ki'atA'pipen""^"; 
a'gw aiyo''i wi'awi'yAgwin"''," a''ma''tc''. "'Iniga"megu ki'i'ca'- 
wipen°*V' a"iiia''tci". 

Wa'pAnig a'a'miwii'^tc''. 'Upyani'meg a'Anemu'tawa''tc''. Me- 

5'ce'megu nAno'"ckw a'"awa'^tc'". Wa''^tcipi pAgi'ci'monig i''awAg''''. 

KAbo't^™', "'Aiyo'"''," a'i'yowa''tc''. A'wiiwene'tenig''''. Pl'tawa- 

'kl'gip i'n a'p6'niwa''tc''. A'ke''tci"tAnigi tA''kep ape'ta'wa'kiw 

A'pena'^tcipi'megon"'". A'a'pe"^tcikiwi'tawa''tc u'ckina'wa'Ag'^'". 

Oni'p in u'gimaw ute"kwamAn a"kA'nona''tc''. "Na'i', ne'sl"'', 

lOniA'iiA ni'ka'nA ni'minawA kiya'w''''. Ki"wi<'tca'wiwaw I'ni mA'n 

a'krci'giyAn"''. InA'megu me"teno'i manwii'nemAgA wi'uwi'ta'- 

wiyan"''. Wa'^tci''tca'ini"i'nenani ne'si"''," a"ma''tc ute'"kwamAn°'". 

Kenwa'ci'meg a"pwawikAna'wini''tc'". Ca"ck a'tA'ci'umAmagina'- 
moni^'tc'". A'ckA'^tci'raeg'^"', "Me^'td'yatuge nina'nA' cA'capwa'ci 
ISwI'menwa'nemi'^tc'". Menwa'nemit^', yo', Anwa"'tci'ka'-^V' a"ina<^tc 
u"se'"sa'Aii''''. 

"O'nip'', "Na'i', wa'nA mrca'te'sin""'," a''iiia<'tc''. A'kl'cagu- 

•'tcina'gu'si'^tci' ca"cke'si' a'mi'ca'te'si'^tc''. Iniga'i'p in ite'p 

^''^''tc u'gimaw i'nin a'a'wini'^tc''. A'menwiwA'^tca'owa'^tci'ga'''. 

20 'O'nip'', "Na'i', ni'ka'n'"'', mawinAtawiwi'se'nitag ii'uwi'giyag""^'," 

a"iiia''tc''. 

"'All'," a"ini'>tc''. 

A'na'gwawa'^tc''. Ke'tci'ne pya'yawa"*tc'', a'Api'''tci'kw^aw a'ma- 
winAna"Api''tc''. "Cina'g'''^'^', ni'ka'n"*'', aiy5" nAna"Apin°"", 

25ki'u\vi'wi ne'si'ma'*'," a''ine''tci neni'w^"^'. Ma'h a"i'ciwa'pAma''tc 
a"ki'cagu'*tcinagu"sini'^tc a'tA'ci'ApAna'ni'^tc''. O'ni pemi"^tcina'w 
a'mawinAna"Api'*tc''. "Na'i', ni'ka'n"'*', ki'wi'tAmon""'," a"ina''tc 
u\vi"kanAn"'', "na'i', ketuwi'kani'tipen"'^". MA'ni me't6''tci''tca" 
'megu na"nin ute'kwamagomi'yagix'A jo'w"''"'' ; i'n anjina'gomAg'''','- 

30a"ina''tc''. "Cina'g"'"*', mA'ni ku''*tci me'cena''mAni ni'ce'mv 
a'ki'citapi'"iyag''''". Wi'nA na''k ayigi'megu, 'neta'pi'eg''"^',' 
nete'cino'tawaw"^*'. Ini''tca"niegu ni'ka'n""', wi'u^'tci'uwi'- 

wiyAn°'', ki'uwiwi'megu'"', ninA'ku'i kemenwa'nemene wi'uwi- 
'tawe'mcnan°''. Ki'uwiwi''tca''megu ni'ka'n"<"'. A'pe'^tcimawin- 

35Ana"Apinu ketA'pinag''''," a'ine'^tci'megu'u neni'w""^'. Kenwa'ci'- 
meg a'Api"Api''tc''. KAbotweme'gup A'neniig a'u'^tcikAno'negu'^tc 
ugya'n iniya'ne me'sotawe'mcg a'ka'cke'ta'wome''tc'', "liA'cina'- 
gkwA<^ mA'ni yo'w a"iyAn°'': 'Kl'ci'A'ce'noyAn°®', 'i'ni wi'nAtawi- 
wi'^tca'wiwAg i'kwii'w"*',' kete"ciyow^^'. KA'ci'^tca' ke'te'caw 

40a'tA'ci'cagwane'moyAn aiyo'ma"meg'^"' ? Me'cena''ina'i keklwi'u- 
'sa'pAmen°«'. lnugi''tca" uwi'wi'liAn"''," a"igu''tc''. "A'pena'- 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 185 

Then it is said he told his people: "Now, we are to move to a new 
location; wo shall not remain here," he told them. "Surely we must 
do tliis right now; to-morrow we shall move," he said to them. 

The next day they moved. They traveled on slowly. They went 
quite aimlessly. Toward the west was the direction they went. 
Pretty soon, "Here," they said among themselves. It was a nice 
spot. They camped on a flat between hills, it is said. Halfway up 
the hill was a rimning spring. The young men frequented that place 
all the time. 

Then, it is said, that chief spoke to his sister. " Now, my younger 
sister, let me give you away to this friend of mine. You will live 
with him, for 3-ou are now grown up. He is the only fellow whom 
I desire to be my brother-in-law. That is why I say this to you, my 
younger sister," he said to his sister. 

For a long wiiile she did not say a word. She was only breathing 
very heavily. Later on, " Well, I do not suppose he would admire 
anything like me. Of course if he admires me, I would be willing," 
she said to her older brother. 

Then, it is said, "Well, dress up in your finery," he said to her. 
The maiden looked very beautiful when she was dressed up in finery. 
Then, it is said, that cliief went over there where that fellow was. 
They cooked a fine meal. Then, according to the story, "Now, my 
friend, let us go over to see if we could eat where she and I live," he 
said to him. 

"All right," he said. 

Then they started out. When they came near where the woman 
was sitting, he went over and sat down comfortably there. "Well, 
my friend, sit down here comfortably. You will marry my young 
sister," the man was told. WTien he looked up at her, she looked 
very beautiful as she was laughing there. Then he went and sat 
down on a different place. " Now, my friend, I shall explain to you," 
he said to his friend, "now we are friends together. So, in the same 
way, I should have her as my sister; that is the way I ought to be 
related to her," he said to him. "Well, tliis is t-wice that you have 
made us happy. And also I heard her say, 'he has made me happy.' 
So that is why you are to marry her, my friend, you must marry her, 
for I want to have j'ou for my brother-in law. So marry her, my 
friend. Go ahead and sit down in your place," the man was told 
anyway. He sat there for a long time. Prettj^ soon from the smoke- 
hole, his mother spoke to liim, and she could be hoard all over, " Well, 
this was what you said before: '^Vfter jou are gone, then I shall live 
with a woman,' you told me before. So what is the matter with you 
that you are unwilling here? For I am always looldng at you from 
a little ways. So you should get married now," she told Mm. "I 
3599°— 25t 13 



186 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. ^^^ ^j^.^, ^^ 

''tci mA'ni kemenwato'tAm5n uwiwe'tiwen"'",'' a''igu''tc''. A'pwa- 
wiga'"meguna'\vawa'^tc''. Ininiga'niegu wi'nAp ugyani'meg a'ci- 
"ci'moni'^tc'". A'pemipA"segwi''tc ite'p a"mawinAna"Api'*tc''. 
Iya"i inawinAna''Api''tc a'tcagino'wini''tc''. Inipi'nin i"kwa- 
5wAn°'', "MA"sa''tci'megu kepA''kita' aiyo"i wfpya'^tcinAna'A'piyAn 
a'A'piyan°'V' a''igu''tc i'nini" ca'cke"si"An''''. "A'cema"i keke'tci'- 
megukAno'nawe's'V' a''igu'^tc'". 

O'nipi pe'ku'tanig a'na'gwawa**tc'", a'uwi'giwa'^tc a'clVena'^tc 

I'nin i''k\vawAn''''. Wa'pAiiigi wInwa'wA' cii'cke'si'Ag I'na" 
10 a'u'*tcit6''kini'^tci wawene'si'ni''tciii a'ki'ci'uwiwi^'tc''. Cewa'nAp 

agw uni''tcane"si''tcin°'". I'nA neni'wA mA'kwa^tci'meg a'uwiwe'- 

tiwa''tc''. 

Ini'g uwiwe'ti'Agi neni'w a'ke'twa'we'si'^tc i'kwii'wA tcagi'meg 

a"i'ciiia"i'ta'*tc'', 5'n i'ni" i"kwawa" a"tepa'negu"^tci me'to'^tci'meg 
15 a'ke'tci''kwawi''tc'\ A'mawA'^tcimI'negu''tci mi'cate"siwen°''. 

Ki"cmiawA''tcimrnegu"*tc'', a"a'wAt6''tc uwi'gewag'''". O'n utawa'- 

mawAn a"mlna''tc''. 

Oni'p inA neni'w A'pena'^tci'megu miimenwina" a'Anemi'a'^tci'a- 

''tci'mo'a''tci wI'^tci'so'ma''tci'''. " KlAnakAiia'wiyagw iniga' mA'n"'' 
20'no'''tci 'o' no'^'tc'" i'n amipwawi'A'cenowi"toyag''''^'. Ino'wagAn 

A'pena^'tci'meg i'n ami'aiyo'tatag i'ni ma'netowikA'nawin""'. 

Ini'megu wi'ino'ino'wayag''"'"'. Me"t5'^tciga''inAni wii'^tci'nowAtw 

a'cikAna'wiyAgwe mamatomo'yAgwin"''. 

"'0' mii'A'ni nAgA'monAn ami'mcguwi'ciginene'kanetA'magwan"''. 
25 'Keki'ciga''ma'A'nike"kaneta'pwAtug'"'V agwi'ma'ine'nAgow'"'". 

'A'gwi nAna"ci wi'ne'ckikAnone'nAgow^"'. I'n a'ca'wiyan"''. 

Wi"tcawA'pi'tciga''meguke'kane'tAmag\v i'ni ni'n a'pe'kinAtawii- 

neme'nAgow*"', wi'pwawi'uwiyii'AkutA'gi'i'cike'ka'netAg''''. Wi'nA 

neguti'^tca''megu ke'kane'tAmagw i'ni ni'n a'cimegunAtawaneme'- 
SOnAgow"'^'. U'wiya'A wi'pwawiwAni'menag i'n ii'ci'Agawane'- 



^b'- 



pa'tAmag'"'^', i'ni na"kA''*tc a'ciwi'cigi'Agawane'nAgow""^','' a'ina- 

"ina'^tcipa'pe"'''. 

'O'ni kAbotwe'meg a'minawane'mawa'^tc ane't"^'. "A'gwi ni'kai- 
35yowa'pe" i'n i'cawi'te"''". "Inugi'megu kiki'ci"u'wiwi''tc'', pe"k 

A'pena'^tci'megii keta'^tci'a''tcimo'e'gunan°*V ii'i'yowa'^tc''. Ke- 

"tenAga"megu wi'n a'ke'kanetAmowa''tci'megu nAgA'monAn"''. 
O'nipi me'ce' negutenw ii'pena'winigi negu't a'saga''^tcimu'*tc''': 

"Neta'"pA"wA, ni''kA newiyA'ta'egwi note'g'"". A'Aniwa'neniA'ki 
40 wAninawe'megu ketena'ci'nepen'"*^", netena"pA'wA," a'i''^tc'". 

O'nip a'wapA"cime''tci'ineg''"", winA'ga' a'a''tcimu''tci'meg ana'pA- 

"wa''tc'". O'nip'", "NyawugunagA''k i'nini wi'i'cike'gip''," a'i'ciwa- 

•^tci'meg""'. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 187 

hare always spoken well about married life to you," he was told. 
They could not see her at all. Surely his mother's voice spoke thus 
when (some one) spoke thus. He got up and went over there and 
sat down. Wlien he went there to sit down all came outside. Then 
it is said that woman said to him, " You barely made up your mind to 
come and sit down where I am sitting," he was told by that young 
maiden. "It is because they had to talk to you a long time (to 
persuade you)," he was told. 

Then, it is said, that night they started out, and he took that 
woman to where they lived. The next morning the young girls (saw) 
a very beautiful (girl) woke up from there and that he had married. 
But it is said that he had no cMldren. That man and she were 
married very quietly. 

Of that married couple the man was a successful hunter and the 
woman knew how to do all kinds of work, and she was loved by those 
women just as if she were a growm woman. They collected and gave 
her presents of finery. After she had been given presents collectively, 
then she took the things home. Then she gave them to her brother. 

Then, it is said, that man alwaj^s every once in a while, continued to 
give instructions to his fellow clansmen. ''Whenever you are giving 
a speech, contrive not to let this be absent, 'so be it, oh, so be it.' 
That sa}-ing should always be used, that is a manitou-word. So 
that is what you must always say. It seems as if this is easy, namely, 
the way we speak in our worship. 

"And you ought to think seriously to remember these songs. 
'Probably you have learned these (songs),' I have never said that to 
you. I shall never speak unkindly to you. That is the way I do. 
What I very much desire of you is that you know them equally alike 
that no one shall know them another way. That you know them in 
one way is what I desire of you. That no one will fool you, is what I 
want of you," he told them. "And that you would love them very 
strongly is another tiling I desire very much of you," was what he 
usually told them. 

Then pretty soon some people noticed him. " He has never before 
done tliis. Now since he has been married, he has been always 
instructing us," they said among themselves. Truly indeed they 
knew the songs. 

Then, it is said, one time in summer, one person reported a terri- 
fying story: " I had a dream, a Mnnd worried me terribly. There was 
Mind which blew very hard, and we were blown in all directions, I 
dreamed," he said. Then, it is said, he was made fun of, but he told 
what he had dreamed. Then, it is said, "In four days, it is said, 
that will happen," so he said. 



188 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

A'kwiya"megu wa'ci"sa'amag5'ma*tci' a'wapA'ci'megu''tc''. 
'O'nipi ne'sugunagA'tenig'''', "Onl'yatuge wapA'ge wAni'nawe 
kiw-itAna'"cinAg'"'<'V' a''igu'^tc''. "'0' m'nA wi'nA me'ce'meg 
a'ina'cino'wanan°'V' a''ini''tc''. 'O'nipi wa'pAnigi nawA"kwanig 
5a'pya'*tciwiyA'ckinagwA'tenigi negvva'nA'kwA'k''. A'ki'meg a'sii- 
'ge''siwa'^tc''. KAbo'tw a'natA'mowa"*tci mamye'cime''tegon 
a'pema"senig''''. A'nipyan a'pApAgw^A'*tciwaya''senig'''". I'nip 
a'sage"siwa'*tc'' , mAgwA''ki\VAn a'pegepege'^tcaya''senig'''". 
Inipi'ni mi'ca'ni a'mAmatotA'mowa''tc''. 

10 "'O' kenA''kumen'"'V' a'i'gowa''tc''. "MA'ni nemi'ca'menanima'i 
ki'mawitA'ci'a'pi'apW^V a"ina''tci mami"cAma'gu''tci'''. "Kegeni'- 
megu," 'a"ina''tc''. Kegeni'meg a'api'ckwi'sA"towa''tc''. Inigii- 
'me'gupi ke''tcin a'pyamigA'tenig''''. Ini'pin I'ni waml'ca'mitAg 
ite'p a'ina'sAmi'gapa^tc''. A'kA'nakA'nawi'^tc'': "Neme'co'me- 

15'setig'^''', no"*tc'', "o', "aiyo', ii6"'tc'", mA'kwa'^tc'', no'^tc'', 'o' 
ki'pe'me'kap"*", no'^'tc'", '6', sagi'I'yagag'"'', no"'tc'', 'o', keme'to- 
'siineni'mwawAg'''', no"'tc'". MA'kwa'''tci''tca no'^tc'', wi'peme'- 
"kaiyiig'^'^"'', I'ni no'''tc'", a"c'' no''*tc'' nAtawane'menag'"^', no"'tc''. 
'O' no"^tc'', mA'ni, no'Hc'' '6' n6'''tc'', nemfcam'"'', no''*tc'", 

20 i'ni no'''tc'', wa'''tc'', no'"*tc'', 'o' me'cki'seto'nAgow"'''", "6' 
no''*tc'', wrnawu'gwiyag""^*', no"*tc'', a'peme''kaiyag''"®', no'^tc''. 
I'ni no'''tc'', wa''^tc'', n6'''tc'', a'ci'seto'nAgow""', n6'"'tc'', neme- 
'co'me'setig'"'', no''^tc''. "0' no'''tc'', tapwawiketemino''tawig'"'', 
no'''tc'', kinwawA'ku'i no'^^tc'', kemanetowi'p""*^", n5"^tc''. I'ni- 

25 "^tca' n6'''tc'', wa''*tc'", no''^tc'', me'cena' no''^tc'', mAmatome'- 
iiAgdw™''', no'^^tc'". rni''tca' no"'tc'' 'o', i'cita'a'g''"', no'''tc"', 
'a"ci no''^tc'' '5' mAinatome'nAgow'"'', no'''tc"'. Ini'megu no''*tc'', 
"i"cawig'^"', no"'tc''; wi'pwawiku'winA'sagi'sa'gi'iig'""'', no'''tc'', 
'o' kete'ci'megop""^', no''^tc''. I'ni no'''tc'', "a'ciki'cowa'nenagwe 

■30 'o' kl"'tci no''^tc'' maneto'wiiwAg'''', 'o' no'''tc'', na''ina" aiyo''i 

pAgi'sa'kwi'menagwe ki'^tcimaneto'wawAg''''. Ini'^tca'ka' ni'nA wa'- 

■^tci me'ce'na'i mAmatome'nAgowe, neme'co'nie'setig''^V' a'"ina''tc''. 

Ke'tenA'meg a'nigaw a'inanemA'tenig''''. A'nenya"ckwa"senig 

I'niy a'AniwaneniA'tenig'"'. 

35 'O'nipi mami'cAma'gu''tcin°'', "Na'i', ki'peme'cka'wawAgi mami- 
■cAnia'wA''tcig''''," a"ina''tc''. "Me'ce'megu tA"sw a'A'to'gn^a'ig 
aiyo'"i wi'pya'towAgi kag5''''; nl'klga'nopen"'^'. 'Ki'klga'nupwAp'"/ 
T'ni ■wi'pemina'*tci'mo'A''tci me'ce'meg''''", 'aiy5"meg a'uwlgc'- 
'iyan"'',' a'i'^tc*'. 

40 Inipi'meg a'wapitaweni'gani''tci' ca"cke''si'a''". NomAgepi'mcg 
a'krcinawA'*tciwetowe''tci wi'se'niwen"''. "O'nip a'wapikiga'nowa''tc'" 
a'nlmi'i'wawa''tc'". A'ma'nani'^tci me'to'sane'niwa' a'ta'pi'a''tc''. 
'O'nip a'wiipikA'nakA'nawi'^tc'': "'O mA'ni, no'''tc'', '6' n6''^tc'', 
no'''tc'', a'me'sane'tAniAg''"''', no'''tc'", wi'nA 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 189 

He was made fun of more than ever by those in the relation of 
uncles (mother's brothers) to him. Then, it is said at the third daj', 
"Now probably to-morrow we shall be blown all over," he was told. 
"O, I don't care where I shall be blown," they said. Then, it is said, 
the next day at noon time dreadful-looking clouds were approaching. 
They were very much frightened. Pretty soon they saw large trees 
blown by. The elms were blo^vn out by the roots. Then, it is said 
they were frightened, for the hills were blown all to pieces. 

Then, it is said, they prayed to that sacred pack. 

"O, I shall answer j'ou favorably," they were told. "This, our 
sacred pack, is yonder, you go and untie it," he told those who were 
ceremonial attendants for him. "Hurry up," he told them. They 
untied it in a hurry. At that time, it is said, it was coming close. 
Then, it is said, that person who owned that sacred pack stood up 
facing it. Then he made a speech: "My grandfathers, so be it, go 
by here, so be it, quietly, so be it; you might frighten, so be it, your 
people, so be it. So we want you, so be it, to go by quietl}*, so be it. 
So be it, that is why, so be it, I spread, so be it, this, so be it, my 
sacred pack, so be it, for you, so it will see you, so be it, when you 
are going by, so be it. That is the reason why, so be it, I set it out 
like that for you, so be it, my grandfathers, so be it. So be it, 
believe and bless me, so be it, for you are the manitous, so be it. 
So be it, that is why, so be it, I freely, so be it, pray to you, so be it. 
So feel and think as, so be it, I pray to you, so be it. So do that, 
so be it; you have been instructed, so be it, never to, so be it, frighten 
them, so be it. That is what has been planned for you, so be it, by 
your fellow-manitou, so be it, when you were declared to be free 
here," so be it, by j^our fellow manitous. That is why I freely pray 
to you, my grandfathers," he told them. 



Truly the wind blew to opposite directions. The storm which 
blew hard was blowing to different directions. 

Then it is said, to his ceremonial attendant, "Now 3'ou go around 
to the places of those whom you attend ceremonially," he told him. 
"They are to bring here whatever they have; we are to hold a gens 
festival. 'You are said to hold a gens festival,' is what you must 
tell any of them as you go by, 'right here where I live,' " he said. 

Then it is said at once the young girls began to clear things away. 
In a short time the food had been brought together. Then they 
commenced their gens festival, and they gave a dance. There were 
many people, for he had made them happy. Then, it is said, he 
began speaking: "O, this, so be it, our sacred pack, so be it, we have 

" That is, on this earth. 



190 ORIGIN" OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. an.n. 40. 

no'^^tc''; '6' ma'netow'''^', no''itc'", '6' I'ni no'''tc'', ■a"i'ci<'tci 
wI'nA no''*tc'', '6', no'^'tc"', na"ina' n6'''tc'', 'o' wltAmawi'i^tc'", 
no'^'tc'", na''ina" nS'^'tc'', 'o' ketemino'ta'wite'"'", no'^'tc''. "O' 
no''*tc'", ke'tenA'^tca' no''*tc'', mA'ni, no'^'tc'', "o' mane'n^'', no'^'tc'', 
5 i'ni mA'ni no'''tc'', 'a'pemi no'^'tc*' me'sanetA'mAg''''^', no''*tc''. 
I'nugi no'''tc'', ni'nAga' nd'^'lc'', a'pl'tci no'''tc'' wa'wAna'*tc'' no'^^tc'" 
tapi'e'gwiyan"'", no''^tc'', wa'^'tc'', n6'''tc'', iQAn6''kyayani no'''tc'', 
a'me'sanet.Ama'giiyAk'''"''', no'^^tc'', 'o' mA'ni no'''tc'', mni'ca'm™'', 
n5''^tc'" 'o' ke'tenA''tca" no"'tc'', '5' no''*tc'', neke'ka'nemeg'"'*", 

10n6'''tc'', "o' ma'netow"*^", no''^tc''. 

"'O' i'ni'itca'n6"'tc'', '6' a'ci-n6"'tc''-'o'-na'pi-n5'<'tc'-'6'-wItA- 
mo'nAg5w^'=', no'^tc''. 'O' wi'nA''tca' no''^tc'', '6' mA'netow'"^" 
'6', wiita'pAnig'''', no'''tc'", api't^', no'''tc'", I'nA no'''tc'', mamato'- 
mAgef^', no'''tc''. 'O' ua''kA no'''tc'', cawAno'g api't*', no'^^tc'', 

loapi't*^', no'^tc'', 'o' ayi'g'"'', no'^tc'', 'o' no'^^tc'', mamato'- 
niAget*'. 'O' aiya'niwe''tca' no'''tc'", '6' pemate''siwen°'', '6' netA'- 
'ci-no'<*tc''-kAno'negog''''. 'O'n a''kA, no'''tc'', 'o' no'''tc'', wa'^tci, 
no'<*tc''-pAgi'ci'monig'''', n6''*tc'', api't^', no'^tc'', ayl'g'''', n6''^tc'', 
mamato'niAget'^'. '0' na''kA, no'''tc'', wa''*tc'', no"'tc'', ke'sl'- 

20yanig'''', no'''tc'', mamato'mAget'^". Aiya'niw'"^", no''*tc'', "6', 
n6'''tc'', pemate/'siwen"'', n6'''tc'', 'o', nAtota'"sAge''tc'', no'^^tc'" 
wi' inane tAmo 'nAg ''*''". 

"'O'ni ki'cetama''enani no''*tc'', 'o' no'^^tc'', pemino'wa'cigiwii'- 
'megu, no'''tc''. Ini'megu peminenAma'gayage mA'ni neki'ceta'- 

25menan'''". 

"Na''k'^', no'''tc>', wi'pwawi-no"*tc''-tA'crkagwi''iyAg'="'«', no'<'tc'', 
A'pe'nawen'''', n6'''tc'', i'ni n6'''tc'', a'ci-no''^tc''-nAtota''sAge'*tc'', 
no'''tc'', '5' ma'netowAg'''', n6"*tc''. Ini'^tca''megu wi'inanetAma- 
wi'yAme'^tc'', 'i'n a'i'nAge^'tc''. "O' ma'A'gipya'totciguwi'senl'wen- 

SOwaw'''', inu'g'''', n6"'tc'', niga'ni, no'''tc'', 'o' me'ckine'^tca'ta'wut- 
cig"''. 

"'O' na'kA'^'tc'', n6''^tc'', '5' mame'^tcine'meg'"'', no'^^tc'', wi'nA 
niga'ni nia'netowA kan5'nAget*^', no'^^tc'', agwi'^tca' wina'nA kago'' 
i'cinA'sAtawinAtota'sA'ge'^tcin''''. Ca'cki'meg sx''penawe menwitne- 

35 'to'saneni'wiwen i'n a'cuiAtotAma'wAge''tc'', menwinAtawa'piwen 
o'n°'", no"'tc''. Na"k'', n5"'tc'', mA'n"'', no'^tc'', utA*ki'm°"', 
n6''^tc'', a'Anemiku'kwa'kapAta'ni't5''tc i'ni no'''tc'', a'ciwinAnAto- 
tAma'^wAge^^tci mA'kwa/'^tc'', no'''tc'', wi'inanemi'yAme'^tc'', n6''^tc''. 
WinaiyS no''^tc'', "o' ma'nctow a'neme''tc'', no'''tc'', mawA'''tci-n5'- 

40 ''tci-niga'niw'"^'. WinA''tC!l'na''i neki'ca'wemeg''"'*^', i'ni'*tca' wa'''tci 
kina'gwi niAmato'mAge'^tc i'ni wi'ina'netAgi mA'ni ketotawe'ne- 
nan°''; i'ni, n6"*tc'", a'cike'ca''tcinAtota'"sAge'*tc''. 



MICHEI.SON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 191 

received benefit from it, so be it; he the manitou, so be it, when he 
spoke to me, so be it, when he instructed me, so be it, he took pity 
on (my prayers) , so be it, and blessed me, so be it. Truly, so be it, 
we have, so be it, many times, so be it, gotten good from it, so be it. 
Because, so be it, at this time, so be it, it has made me happily 
excited, so be it, is the reason why I am performing this ceremony, 
so be it, because we have, so be it, gotten good from this, so be it, 
his sacred pack, so be it. Truly, so be it, the manitou, so be it, 
knows me, so be it. 

"That is the way, so be it, I am relating, so be it, this to you. 
He, the manitou, so be it, who is in the East, so be it, is the one we 
are worshipping, so be it. And, so be it, the one who is in the South, 
so be it, is one whom we also worship, so be it. And, so be it, life 
is what they alike spoke to me about, so be it. And, so be it, the 
one, so be it, who is m the West, so be it, is one, so be it, we also 
worship, so be it. And, so be it, the one, so be it, who is in the 
North, is one we also worship, so be it. We j^ray to them alike for 
life, so be it, to bless us that way. 



"Our cooked food, so be it, so be it, has blown out,'^ so be it. 
That is the way we hand out, so be it, this our cooked food, so be it. 

"And so be it, that disease, so be it, will not affhct us, so bo it, is 
what we pray, so be it, to the manitous, so be it. To bless us m 
that way is what we say to them. Those who have brought in their 
eatables, so be it, are they, so be it, to whom you first, so be it, hold 
your hand open, so be it. 

"And the last time, so be it, it is the head manitou to whom we 
speak, so be it, but we do not pray to him in any way startling. 
It is always merely for healthy life, that is what we pray to him for 
and good vision, so be it. And, so be it, as he continues to change 
the appearance, so be it, of this earth of his, so be it, we ask him, 
so be it, to think quietly, so be it, of us, so be it. For he, so be it. 
Is the leading one, so be it, of those who are called, so be it, the 
manitous. He has also made a promise to me, so be it; that is why 
we freely worship him, that he might think that way of our to^vn; 
that is the way, so be it, we ask him kindly. 

73 Meaning unknown. 



192 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

"'0 wi'nA n6'''tc'', nekAno'negwA wi"pwawm6te'ku''tawi'*tc'', 
no'''tc''. 'Me'ce'megu, n6'<*tc'', nAna'wa'kAm""'", no"*tc'', ki'tA- 
'cimAma'tom'^'V i'ni, no"*tc'', a"i'ci<'tc'', no''*tc'". I'm'^tca' no'<*tc'', 
me'"cena'no'''tc'", wa'^'tci nAto'ta'sAgi mA'kwa'<'tci-no'''tci-me'to- 
5'saneni'wiwen°'', no'''tc'', wi'nA n6'''tc'', a'nlganima'netowi^tc'", 
iio'''tc'". WinA'^tca' no''*tc'', kAno'nagwiini wape'ckiku'pi'^tcine'nu- 
'soni wi'Anemiketeminaga'ni''tcin°''. I'ni'*tca"i wa'^'tci kinagwd 
kjvno'nAge'^tc'', wi'nA na''i ukA'nawIn"'', no'^'tc'', 'a"tAgwi'"set6''tc'', 
no''*tc'", neketeminawe'sl'weneg'^'', no"'tc'", I'ni wa''^tc'', no'^'tc'", 

lOnii'wI'nA no'^'tc"', tA'g\vi-no'''tc''-mAmato'mAge'*tc'". Ini''tca"wInA 
ca'"ck a'cmAtota''sAge''tci inA"kwa'''tc Anemiku'kwa'ka'piwen"'', 
no'^tc'". 

"Wi'pwawi'^tca-n6''*tc''-nAna"ci-no'''tc''-maiya"cka'gwiyAgwe na'- 
'ciwag'''', I'n a'cinAtota"sAge''tc''. Inu'g a'sagi'e'gwwa^'tci ketApeno- 

15 "eme'nanAg''''; i'ni'^tca'' a'cikeginAtotA'mawAgi wi'pwawi'megumai- 
ya'cka'gwiyAg'"'®'; 'I'ni pe'"ki nAtotA'mawAg'*'". Ta'ni'^tca''i wi'i'- 
'cikcgi wrAno"tawi'^tc'' ? A'cimAgi'megu wi'i'"c.awiw'''^', ii'ciku'^tci- 
menwi'genigi wi'n ana'nemi'^tc''. Ini''tca''megu' ca"ck a'ci'nA'iig 
a'ci'genigi nAtotA'mawAg''''. WlnA'megu na"m ute'cita"agAni 

20 wi'pwawinAtotA'mawu''tci myane'tenig'''' ; i'cikAna'wigwan°'', 
"A'penawe'megu, no'^tc'", menwi'genig'''', n6''*tc'", wi'Anemi-no'''tc''-, 
nAtota''sAge''tc''. 

"I'ni no"^tc'', wi'i'ci-no"'tc''-nAtota"ciyag''"''', no"^tc''. Me'- 
"teno"'', no'^'tc'', iniyatu'g'^^', no''^tc'', a"ci-no"'tc'"- kAnawi'te'*', no'- 

25 "^tc'". Ini<itca"iwa'<'tci'ni"ci-n6'<^tc''-nAto'ta'sAg''«',n6"'tc''. Wi'nA 
no'''tc'', pe"k inA no'''tc'', mawA'''tc'', n6'''tc'', ko'tcinAtota"sAge- 
''tc'", n6"'tc''," a'kA'nawi'^tci kanakA'nawif^'. 

O'nip a'wapikiga'nowa'*tc''. Me'ce'mcg a'pemi'nagwa''tc''. "Ma- 
me'ci'kA'meg awi'tA kiigo" i'"ci ni'nA nene'kiine'mina,''^",'' 'a'ci'ta'a- 

30 ''tc' mAmi'ci"'^'. Wa'^tcipi'nagwa''tc''. Oni'pinA ki'cetii'namu'^tc'': 
"ELA"ci nemAmi''ci'em™'^'," a''ina''tci kutA'ga'a'''. "Ci! nagwa'- 
waiya'piyow'"'','' a"ini''tc''. "'O' kag5'ku"megu i'cike'tcimya- 
'cipemate'situg'"^"," a'i"ciwa''tci wa'nAto'k*'. 

O'nipi ki'cimegu'uklga'nowa''tc a'A'cenoni'^tci'meg'^"'. "KA'ci- 
35 "'tea" i'ca'witug'"''," a'i'ci'ta'a'^tc'". 

O'nipi kAbo'twe nAnawi'megu 'a'nawu'tiwa''tc umAmi'ci"emAn°''. 
"Cina'g''"'^', kA'ci'^tca'iyo'we ke'te'caw a'pwawi'I'na'i'aiyapAmi'- 
pyaiyAn"''," a''ina''tc''. 

""O' mA'ni'iku'iyo'w a"cita'"ayan°'', 'ci me"ce ni''k aiya'niwe 
40 netA'cikiwikiwi't'^" ? Agwiga'wi'nA mA'ni kag6''megu i'cikAnotAma'- 
wigin°'V neto"cita'e''tca"i yo'w""*'. I'ni kAbo'twe pemino'wiyan"''. 
A"kAtawimegii'sagi'''tciyan ini'meg a'me'^teimowi'nieguno'wiyan''''. 
Ca'"ck'", 'Ni'kti'n"*',' nete'ei'tit""'. I'ni. 'O' mA'ni wi'nA kemi'ca'mi 
wi'n agwi'megu kago''i wi"i'ci"akwa'tA'manin°'', a'citii'a'yanin"''. 
45 I'n a'cita'tayan"'', ni'ka'n"®'. Ini'meg a'me'*tcunane'moyan°'", 
inugi wi'n a'gwi wi'me''teimanemo'yanin°'Y' a'ki"cowa''tci'meg''"'. 



MICHELSON.] • ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DAKCE. 193 

"He has spoken to me, so be it, that ho would not fail to hear me, 
so be it. 'You may worship me in the most lonely place,' so be it, 
that is, so be it, what he said to me, so be it. That is why I, so be it, 
pray to him for quiet, so be it, life, so be it, because he is the head 
manitou, so be it. He must have, so be it, spoken to, so be it, the 
White Buffalo to continue to give us blessings. That is why we 
freely speak to him, because that was his promise, so be it, which he 
placed in my blessing, so be it; that is why, so be it, we are also 
praying to him, so be it. That is merely what we pray to him for 
quiet changes of the seasons in the future, so be it. 



''That what is a dangerous thing, so be it, may never come to us, 
so be it, is what we pray to him for. At this time our children have 
been frightened; so I ask Mm that that kind of a tiling shall never 
strike us; that is what I maijily ask him for. How verily will he 
lie to me in the way it will be ? He will do just as 1 tell him, for he 
tliinks of me in a righteous way. That truly is the only way I ask 
of him. It is his owai thought that he be not asked an evil thing; 
thus he must have spoken, that we continue to pray for, so be it, 
so be it, the righteous things always, so be it. 

'■ That, so be it, is the way, so be it, you must pray to me, so be it. 
Only, so be it, was that, so be it, the way he spoke, so be it. That is 
why I pray to him that way, so be it. Him, so be it, we pray to, 
so be it, most of all, so be it," was the way the spokesman said in his 
speech. 

Then they began their gens festival. He (the attendant) went 
away and left. "Probably I am not thought of m any way," thought 
the ceremonial attendant. That, it is said, was why he left. Then, 
it is said, when (the speaker) stopped speaking: '"Well, what about 
my ceremonial attendant," he said to the others. "Gracious! he has 
gone," they said. "O he probably may be feeling badly in some 
way," ho said unconcernedly. 

Then, it is said, when they were finished with their gens festival 
he was still gone. '' Pray, what is the matter with him," he thought. 

Then, it is said, pretty soon he and his attendant saw each other 
in some lonely place. ''Well, what was the matter with you, that 
you did not come back over there ?" he said to him. 

"Well, this was what I thought, 'Well, why am I just staying 
around all the time? I have in no way boon spoken to,' I thought 
formerly. That was why I soon went out. I did not go out angry. 
When I was really obliged to attend to nature, then I went for good. 
I only thought, '[He isj my friend.' That is all. I do not desire that 
I shall in any way be angry at your sacred pack here. That is what 
I thought, my friend. Then I hated to do so, but now I shall not 
hate to do so," he promised. 



194 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. axn. jo. 

I'nipi kl'ci'megukl'giinu'^tc u'wiwAn""'': "Awitai'yatuge kA'ckima- 
wapAtA'gAgo'A pemina'nemA'ke'''," a''igu'^tc''. "Ci', me'cena''megu 
mawiwapAtA'gAgo'-^V' a'"ma''tc u'wIwAn''''. O'nip Ite'p a'i'cinl'- 
'ciwa"^tc me'cena"megu mAmAga''kwA'kin a'kiwakiwa'gwAtag''''; 
Sane'tApi pApa'siga'senugwan°'". A'ki'ga'i niAmAWAge'se'nwi pe'ki'- 
mecfku"_ Wa''tci'cagwane'moni''tc"'. "'Ini'^tca'"ka' ni'nA wa'^tcin- 
Ana'wikiwita"iyan'''', a'cagwane'moyani wi'tA'citepAto'A''tcigAni'- 
wiyag'"''. A'pegi'ckane'tAmani wa"'tci nAnawi'megu kiwi'taiyag'"^','' 
a''ina'*tc''. 



10 O'nipi wInA'megu neni'wA pine''c a'nene'ka'nema''tci me'to'sane'- 
niwa'''. A'gwiga' "NinA'na'''," wi'inane'megu''tc umi'"cameg api'- 
ni''tci"''. O'nip A'ckA'^tci'meg a'ke'ka'nema'^tc anane'megu'^tc umi- 
'camegi na'meg api'iii^'tci'''. Ke'tenAme'gup a'mane'cita"ani'^tc'", 
mamA'ka'*tci'megu wi'mAmato'meme''tc a'cmAtawanetA'mini''tc i'na" 

15api'ni''tci' unii''cameg''''. O'nipi kegime'si'meg a'nowl'wena'^tc''. 
A'kwinAtawi'i'cigwa'"ckani''tc i'na' api'ni<'tci' umi'"cameg api'ni- 

Oni'meg a''pyani'*tci wapine'nu'son"''. O'n I'ni' ii'pA'sepA'segwI- 
<'tci'sa''eme''tc''. "Magwa''megu 'aiyapotanAge'ca'wagwan°''; a'gw 

20 a'ine'nAgowe watawi'i'cawi'yagwin"'','' 'a'i'neme<'tc''. O'nip'', 
"Ni'nAma'i kewawiinane'menepw aiyo'' tA'sw a'piyiig'''''''," a'i^neme- 
■^tc''. 'Agwiga'i'plna'i kago"megu wi'i'cikAna'wini"^tc'"." Iniga'- 
"wlnA mA'n ana'nema''tc uwi^'tciine'to'sane'niwa'''. O'ni kinwa'wA 
mamA'ka'^tci'megu wI'mAmato'menag'"^''', 'a'i'cita"ayag'''"<''. I'ni 

25ni'n a'ci'anwaneme'nAgow™"'. Agwiga''wInA winwa'wA pine- 
'saneti'so'wa''tcin''''. Iya"i wi'mawitA'ci\vi''tcime'to'saneni'gawa- 
''tci nInanA'meg i'n anenA'mAge''tc''. Nete'cita'e'go''', wa'^tci'megu 
pya'*tcipe'noyan°''. Pwawiga''initoto'nAgow^"'', kageya"mcg i'ci'- 
megumya'neteg inanemiya'gago'A ma'A'gi kerne' to'sanenime'- 

SOnanAg""'. WiiiA'megu mA'nA pame'nenagw inA'megu tepane'- 
menag''''*''," a'i'neme''tc''. " Ini''tca''i na''k a'ca'wiyag''**'', ki'poni'- 
meguwi<'tca'wiwap'"^'. Na"ina''meg a'aiyapAmu'tagwan"^'', I'na'i 
wi'pAgi'nenag'''^*'". Cewii'n Ini'megu wrkiwAkiwagwA"soyag''''^' 
agwiga''ma'i wI'kA'cki'aiyapAmi'ai'yagwin"''. Ini'megu vn'i'ca,'- 

SSwiyag"""'. 

"Kago'" i'ciwawAne"cka'ita"ayag'''"'''. A'cima'imenwi'genigi wi'i- 
'ci'A'se'mi'agwe ma'A'gi keme'to'sanenimo'nanAg''''. Agwiga"i 
wi'kegya'ckAtawa'nemag\v u"^tcina'i A'se'nagwin"''. Ke'tcinawe'- 
megu ma'netowAgi mAmagegin6"itcig aiyo'"i ketA'se'guwawAg""'/' 

40 a'i'neme^tc i'na" api'ni'^tci'i mi''cameg''''. 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 195 

Then, it is said, as soon as ho was finished with his gens festival, 
his wife said: ''Might we not perhaps be able to go over and see 
where the storm went by?" he was told. "Well, we might go over 
and see it," he said to his wife. Then, it is said, they went over 
there together and there were even very large trees lying around; 
some, it is said, were lying with great fissures in them. The earth 
had large holes in it (caused by the wind). That was why he was 
unwilling. "That is why I am staying around in a lonely place, 
because I am unwilling that we should be depended upon. I thought 
it too much trouble, that is why we are staying around the lonely 
place," he said to her. 

Then, it is said, that man began to think about the people. He 
was not to be thought of as "I too," by the beings who were in his 
sacred pack.'^ Then after a while he knew what the beings who 
were inside of his sacred pack thought of him. Truly they were 
ashamed of themselves, because those who were in his sacred pack 
wanted to be surety worshipped. Then, it is said, he took them all out. 
Those who were there in his sacred pack did not know what 
expressions to make on their faces. 

Then at once a white bufl^alo arrived. Then they were each one 
jerked up. "You must have crooked ears; you have never done 
what I told you as you should," they were told. Then, it is said, 
" I have control over you, as many of you as are in here," they were 
told. They said nothing. "That is just exactly what tliis person 
thinks of his fellow-people. And that you are to be worshipped 
truly, is what you want. That is what I reprimand you for. Why 
they do not think themselves clean. That they may go there to 
live with the people is what we want them to do. I truly thought 
so, and that is the reason I started over here. If I did not do this 
to j^ou, finally you would think in an evil way toward these our people. 
He, this person who takes care of you, is he who owns you," they 
were told. "Now truly if you ever do so again, you will discontinue 
being with him. Whenever he moves back, he wall cast you away 
at that place. But you shall remain lying there, and you will not 
be able to go back. That will sm'oly happen to you. 



"That is, if you in any way think wickedly. You are to help 
these our people in a righteous way. You are not placed there to 
be stingy toward them. The large manitous themselves, personally, 
have placed you here," the beings who were in his sacred pack were 
told. 

7* A literal translation; real significance unknown. 



196 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

"Agwi''tca'' aiyo'u''^tciwapi na'kA'"'tci wi'nene'kanetAma'wagwani 
mya'neteg''''. Menwi'genigi ku'^'tc. ina'netit ini'megu pe''ki wl'i- 
"ci'A'se'mi'A'^tc''; iniga'nina'nA wi'menwinawa''iyag'"''. ' Ini'ku' 
anane'mAge'^tc'',' i'ni wri'cita''ayjig'"''. I'ni wi'nA pwawi'Ini'i- 
5 'ciwito''kawag\v agwi'megu ■wi'i'cimenwinawa'i'wagan"'"," a'i'- 
neme^'tc''. 

Ini''tca''ipi ke'tenA'meg a'wit6"kagu'*tc'"; a'ponikago'i'i'ci'a'- 
nome'^tc''. Iniga'wi'nApi wa'''tc ano'a'nome''tc'", keya'A'p i'ni' 
a'cagwane'moni'^tci keya'A'p umi''camwag api'iii<'tci' uwiya'a- 
lO'ai'ya"''. 

I'nip A'pena'^tci'meg a'nene'ka'nema''tc uwi'^tcime'to'sane'- 
niwa"'', a'ci'megumenwi'genig a'ci'a'pe''tcinene'ka'nema''tci wl'i- 
'ca'wini"*tc''. 

O'nipi kAbo'twe na'kA'^'tc a'ke'ka'nema'^tci wi'i'ca'wini''tc'', 
15 wi'A'pena\vene''kani''tc''. A'a"*tcimo'a''tci'meg''"'. "MAni'yapAni 
wi'i'ca'wiyag'''^''', ki'A'peniiwe'ne'kap^'*'," a''iBa'*tc''. "Cewa'nA 
mai'ye wi'Anemina'moyag'"'^"," a"ina"^tc'', "a'a'*tci'a''tcimo"a'*tci'- 
meg""''. Ini'meg a'i'ca'wini'^tc''. A'pema'mowa''tc'', a'cigwi'cigwT- 
'kAtA'mo\va''tc uwige'wawAn"''. A'ckA'^'tc a'pyanutA'mowa'^tc'', 
20 'awiyatuge'meg a"i'ci'"senig uta'ine'mwawA"''. "Me'cena''megu 
niiya'p uta'ine'mig''"', kekIciku''tci'Apipema'mopen°'^'; inugi''tca''i 
ki'nayapi'megu'u'uta'ine'metap''^V' a''ina''tc''. 

O'nip i'ci'megu'u menwiklwi'tawa''tc'', kAbotwe'meg a'pAgA- 
mipa''oni'^tci wapine'nu'son a'uwigiwa<'tci'meg''"'. "Na'inugi'megu 

25ki''amip"*'; aiyo''megu pya'migAtwi na'kA'^'tc A'pe'nawen"'", 
cewa'nA ki'a'cowIpwA'megu' ca''cki mA'ni' si'pow'''', Aga'ma'egi 
me'ce'na'i wi'po'niyag''"'""'. KatAga' u'wIya'A mena'cku'no'ki<'tce 
nya'wugun"''. Tapi'wa'nani no'iiiAgaw'^'''. Ca'cki'meg A'pe'ni'Ag 
ami'Amwii'Amwagwigi na'kA'^'tc A'cki'pwa'Ag'''', i'n i'cini"cwaiyAg 

30amimami"'tciyag''"'''. Ma'dI wi'n a'gwi wi'menwawl'yagwini 
pwawitapwa'ta'wiyag'"^''' . Krki''cagu''tcitopwA'megu ki'yawaw 
a'cine'ckime'nAgSw i'ca'wiyag''"''''. MAni na''k ii'cimenAgowe'- 
megu 'i'ca'wiyilg'""*^', pe'ki'megu ki'tapitopwA'niegu ki'yawaw"'". 
Cina'g'"'-*', ki'Anemi'megune''ckitip''^'. A'cimeguna'ike'no'ig I'ni 

33wi'Anemi'si''tcimo'e'tiyag''"-V' a''igu''tci wapine'nu'son"''. Inipi'- 
meg a'a'''tcimu'^tc''. 

Me'to'sane'niwAg a'sage"siwa'^tc'', Ini winA'meg a'ca'wiwa'^tc''. 
O'nip a'pwawikA'cki'a"kwAmAtA'mowa''tc''. 

'O'ni negu'ti neni'w ifd'ca'^tc''. Kl'ci'A'ckA'^tci'winig a'mAta- 

40 'kwi'ne'sa'^tci me'ckwipe'nawAn"''. A'me'ckwipl'wani'^te''. A'ma- 
wi'meguwA"'tca'u^tc''. A'AnA'g\vini''tciyu'ga''". Kl'ciwA'''tca'u- 
•"tc'', a'wapi'senya"iwa'*tc a'tA'so'gawa''tc''. 



IIKHKLSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 197 

"Never again from now on think in an evil way toward them. If 
they think righteously toward each other, then you must help them 
very much in that way; then you will please us also. 'That is the 
way wo bless them,' we shall think. And if you do not aid them in. 
that way you will not in the least please us," they were told. 

Then, it is said, they really aided them; then the}' were never 
again refused anything. This was why they had been refused, 
because those kinds of fiu's who were in their saci'ed pack were 
unwilling. 

Then he constantly was thinking of his fellow-people, thinking all 
the time of a good way for them to do. 

Then, it is said, soon he again knew what was going to happen to 
them, namely, that they would be stricken with disease. He informed 
them without reservation. "This is what is going to happen to you; 
you will be stricken with disease," he told them. "But we shall flee 
in that direction," he told them, informing them each one of them 
without reservation. That very thing happened to them. They 
fled, deserting their dwellings. Later on, when they came back, their 
things were just as they had been. " You may at last simply have 
them back, for we have already fled; now, verily, 3'ou may at last 
re-own them," he told them. 

Then, it is said, after they were staying there pleasantly, pretty 
soon a white buffalo came running to where they lived. "Now 
to-day you must move right now; again the disease is coming, but 
you must onh^ cross this river, on the other shore you may camp. 
And let no one eat meat for four days. For that is a short time. 
You can just be eating the potatoes and sweet potatoes, these two 
things you maj^ eat. If you do not believe me, you will not be doing 
right. You will cause an a\vful fate on yourselves if you do what I 
forbid you. And if you do this as I tell you, you will do a great good 
for yourselves. Well, you can continue to scold each other. Y^ou 
can continue to direct each other a way which is good," he (the one 
blessed) was told by the white buffalo. Then, it is said, he at once 
told it. 

The people were frightened, but they did so. Then, it is said, they 
could not be sick. 

Then one man went out hunting. Later on he killed a red turkey 
without arms. It had red feathers. He went on to cook it. It was 
quite fat. After he had cooked it, then those who were living 
together began eating. 



198 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

O'n ina'gA wami"cainit ii'kiwimegumA'sAgo'^tci'ta'a'^tc''. A'ci- 
wape'sigwa'nip a'sagi'ta"a''tc'". U'wiwAn a'a'^tci'mo'a'^tc'". KAbo'- 
twep a''pyani''tci negu'ti ne'niwAn"''. "Ki'ka'nenanAgi kiigo'ipi'- 
megu 'i'ca'wiwAg a'tA'sogiiwa'^tci'meg'"''," 'a''ini''tc''. "Ka'cI- 
5 •'tea" i'cawitu'ga'ig'''V' a'i'''tc''. A'po'siga'"megu'sagi'megu''tc''. 
Ite'p a'awa'^tc''. "Cina'g'"''*'," a'i'nawa''tc''. A'pwawi'uwi'ya- 
'AnikAna'wini'^tc a'pemimegupiti'gawa''tc''. Regime" si 'meg ii'ki- 
'cinep5'ini'te"*". O'nip Ape'no'Ani me'ce'meg iinegino'i'ni'^tcini 
kawAg a"na'sa'"ini'*tc''. A'mawi'nana'^tc'', a'kA'ckiwinA'meguna'- 

lO'sa'a'^tc'". 

A'a'^tci'moni'^tc'" : "Me'ckwipenawA''ku'i nepAna'^tci'e'gunan''*"." 
a"ini''tc''. "I'n a'A'mwAge'^tc''. Ki'ci'megu'A'mwAge''tc ini'meg 
aVapAmA'tAmag""^'. I'nA na'ci'yAmet''','' a"ini''tc''. A'na'gwawa- 
''tc'", a'awA'nawa'^tc I'nini kwiye'sa'A'nip'". 

15 'O' 'i'n Tyri"megu pyii'yawa'^te uwi'gewag'''", i'nipi WAninawe'- 
meg a'tA'cinepo''ini'*tc''. Pe'ki'meg il'ki'cagu'^tci'megukegeni'- 
nawa'^tci me'to'sane'niwAg''''. WinAga" a'pi'te'si'^tci'meg a'mane- 
to'"ka'su''tci mane'meg a'kl'cinepo''ini<^tc''. 

A"Anwa'wa'wa''tc A''ku'kon''''. MAiii'meg a'ci'Anwawa'"iga^tc 

20a'poninepo"ini''tc'". Mane'meg a'nepo''ini''tc''. Ane'tA ni''cw 
a"A"ckwi'nawa''tci neguli'gAmig'^'', ane'tA kegime'si'meg a'nepo'- 
'iwa'^tc''. 'O' ane'tA na'tA'swi'gAmig a'pwawi'megu'Aniwawime'ce'- 
'siwa'^tc'". UtdgimamwawAni'na" a'uwrgini''tci pwawime'ce'si'ni- 
otcin"'". "Ci"ci'"wl'!" a i'yowa''tc''. 

25 A"mawA"^tciwa''tc a'ckwina''itcig'''". O'n a"A'ci'gawu''tci wl'a'- 
wiwa'^tc'". "Nya'wugun aiyo''i kru'wigipw^','' a'"ine''tc''. "Ki- 
'cinyawugunagA'"k i'ni wi'niAtote'cai'yag'''"'",'' a''ine'*tc''. O'nip"', 
"Ma'Agi'gii'i nanep6''itcigi katA'megu mateni'yagag''"'; 'inana'- 
"megu me''teno"i wi'kA'ckikiwiwi'pAmagwe tcinawa'mAgwig''''," 

30 a"ina''tci me'to'sane'niwa'''. 

O'nipi nya'wugunagA'tenig'''', a'mawi'A'ci"towa'*tci mAtote'ca'- 
wigan a'me"canig'''". O'ni' cwa'ci'g A"senyani memya'ca'nigin a'me- 
'ckwAno'sA'mowa'^tc''. Ki'ci'megimie'ckwAno'tanig'''', a'wapiplti'- 
gani'^tc''. "Ea'ApApi'pwA keto''ce'ki'tagAn\vaW''," 'a''ina''tc''. 

35"KatA'ga' u'wiya'A notA no'wi'ki''tc^'; mamA'ka'^tei'megu nyiiwe'- 
nwi ki'cl'sigena"omAg'"'', 'i'ni wi'no'wiyag'''"''," a''ina'^tc''. 
"NotA'ga' u'wiya'A nowi't"', mAni'meg i'ci'nowit i'ni wi'ne'po'i- 
•^tc''," a"ina''tc''. 

O'nip a'wapikAkAno'na'^tc i'nin A"senyan"'': "'O' neme'come- 

40 'sena'f', n6'<*tc''. I'nug'''', no"'tc'" 'o' n6"^tc'', ki'miwe'ckAma'- 
wawAg'''', no'''tc'', ma'A'g'''", no'<*tc'', ko'ci"semAg'''', n6'''tc'', 
A'pe'nawen"'', n6''^tc''," a''ina''tc'". A'sIge'nA'Ag A'se'n"''. 'ApinAp 
ane'tA wi'mamenAtA'megin ino'wiiwAg'''', a'ne'ciwimenagwA'- 
tenig''''. A'ciyagwA'tenig utA'pena'wenwaw"''. Pe'kipi'meg 

45a'saginuta'wawa'^tc''. I'na' a'witcig a'^tcipAnAgi'^tci'meg a'ino'- 



UICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 199 

Then again the one who owned the sacred pack was suspicious in 
his thought. It is said he became frightened in his heart though he 
knew not why. He told his wife a])out it. Pretty soon, it is said, 
one man came. "It is said, our friends, something has happened to 
those who were together in one wickiup," the man said. " Pray what 
may be the matter with them ? " he said. He was very much fright- 
ened by wlmt had been said. They went over there. "Well," they 
said to them. As no one spoke they started to enter. They had all 
died. And it is said a good-sized child was yet alive. He ran to take 
it, and was able to make it well. 

Then it related: "A red turkey verily caused our death," it said. 
"We ate it. As soon as we had eaten it, we began to suffer pain. 
He was the one that killed us," it said. They went away (and), it is 
said, took that little boy along. 

Then just as they arrived yonder at their home, then it is said, 
people were dying everj-where. The people were dying very rapidly. 
While he was busy conjuring for a miracle, many had died. 

Then he beat on a drum. Just as soon as he beat it the people 
ceased dying. Many were dead. Of some households two were 
saved, in others all died. And in several wickiups none were affected. 
Where their chief dwelt they were not affected. "O, O my!" they 
said among themselves. 

Those who were left from death gathered together. Then a place 
was built for them to stay. "You live here for four days," they 
were told. "After four days, then you are to take a sweat bath," 
they were told. Then, it is said, " Do not move those who have died; 
only at that time we can go around to see those to whom we are 
related," he said to the people. 

Then, it is said, after four days was up, they went out to make a 
sweat wickiup, which was a large one. Then they heated eight large 
stones red-hot. After the stones had been heated red-hot, they began 
to go in. "You are to sit on your clothes," he told them. "Let no 
one go out before time; it will have to be after I have poured water on 
them four times, then you may go out," he said to them. "If any 
one goes out before time, just as soon as he goes out, he will die," he 
said to them. 

Then he began speaking to the stones: "O, our grandfather, so 
be it. Now, so be it, you will kick the disease, so be it, out, so be it, 
of your grand children, so be it," he said to them. Then he poured 
water on the stone. Some of them even made noises as if to vomit 
for it smelt terribly. That was how their disease smelt. It is said 
that they were very frightened over them. They who were there 
made all kinds of talks. Some, it is said, asked for water, and some 



200 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. axn. 40. 

wawa^'tc'". Ane'tApi ne'pi nanAtu'tAmog'''', anetAga"ip'', "Newi'- 
'capen^^V' i'wAg'''', anetAga''ip'', "NenepA'^tc'V TwAg""", 'ane- 
tAga"ip'", "Newi"cA"s""," 'i'wAg"^''. O'nipi nyawo'iiAmegi' 
sigenA'A'mawu"^tc a'p6ni'u'wiya'Akago"niegu'i'cipAgA'namu''tc''. 
51\lA'kwa'^tci'meg''"'. 'O'n"'', "Nowi'gu na'i," a''ine'*tc''. A'nowl- 
no'wiwa"^tc''. A'po'si'niegupinaneti'"sowa'*tc''. Onipi'megu na'kA'- 
''tci kutAgA'g a'pito'tawa'^tc''. KwiyenA'meg a'menwitcagipiti'- 
giiwa'^tci ne'nhvAg''''. 

O'nipi na'kA'''tc a'wapi'a'*tci'mo'e''tc'': "Ka'tA 'u'wiyii'A notA no'- 

lOwi'ki'^tc'''. N6tAga'"nowite wi'ne'po'iw'"*'. 'Agwiga'kenwa'c'', 
n6mAga"wa''ineg''"V' a"ine'^tc''. "Nyawenwi'ga'i ni'sIge'nA- 
'waw^^^Y' a''ine''tc'". "'Au'," a'i'yowa''tc'". 'A'wapikAkAnot.\'- 
mawu'^tc'': "'O, neme'come'sena't"'', no''*tc''. I'nug'''', n6"'tc'" 
'o' n6'''tc'', '5' kl'miwe'ckAma'wawAg'''', no"'tc'', nia'A'g'''", 

15n6'<'tc'', '6' k6'ci''semAg'"', no"'tc'", "A'pe'nawen"'', no'^tc''," 
a"i'neme''tc'". 'InigJi'ipi'meg a'sIgenA'A'mawu'^tc''. Inipi'meg 
a'wapwawage"siwa''tc''. I'nipi pe''k ane't a"kwago'otA'mowa''tc'', 
a'^tcipAnAgi'^tc ano'watcig''''. Ea'cinyawen\vi'sIgena'"ome''tc'', 

a'p5nipAgAna'mowa''tc''. "Na'i', nowinowl'g''"','' a"ine'*tc''. 

20 A'now-ino'wiwa''tc'". 'Ini'megu na''inig a'ca'wiwa'^tc''. A'pina- 
neti''sowa'*tc a'p5'si'megumenwipemate"siwa''tc''. 

O'liip i"kwawAg'''', "Na'i'ni na'kA'"^tci kinwa'w"^'," 'a"ine'^tc'". 
"'All'," 'a'i'yowa'^tc''. Ite'p a"awaHc''. O'nip'', "Ki'me'sotawi'- 
ga'ime'tcinAme"ckapip^'^"," 'a'"ine'^tc'". "Mo'tci'megu kckota'- 

25'wawAn iya"i ki'tA'ciketenap''*"," a''ine'*tc'". 'A'ki'cagu"*tci_yuga- 
"iki'ckApe'kutii'yanig''''. Ki'citcagi'ini'ca'wiwa'^tc'', "Kl'A'pApi'- 
pwA keta'ine'mwawAn"'', a'"ine''tc''. "'xiu'," a'i'yowa'^tc''. O'nip 
a'a'^tci'mo'a'^tc'', "Na'i', i'kwati'g''^', ka'tA no'tA no'wi'kag''"'. 
Ki'ketema'gi'topwA ki'yawawi no'tA no'wlyag'^'"''. Kl'ne'pS'ip"'*'," 

30a''ina'^tc''. " Ag\viga''mAni kenwa"c''; ca'cki'megu niA'ni n5'- 
mAgaw^®". Nyawe'nwi nl'sigenA'wawA niA'n A'se'n''*'. Na'kA'^tc 
a'gwi wi'pltiga'yanin"''. Ca"cki nrpl'<*tcine'k'*'," a"ina''tc'". 
"'Au'," a'i'yowa'^tc i''k\vawAg'''*. 

A'wapikAkAnotA'mawu''tc'': "'O neme'come'sena't^', no'^'tc'", 

SS'i'nug"^'', no'^tc'' '6' no'<*tc'', ki'miwe'ckA'mawawAg'''', n6'<*tc'', 
ma'A'g'''', "o' ko'ci''semAg'''', n5''^tc'", '6 A'pe'na\ven°'', no''^tc''," 
'ina'cikAnotA'mawu^tc''. Inipi'meg a'sIgenA'A'ma-nna''tc''. Ini- 
''tca''ipi pe"k a'wi'cfcwit'wagA'k i"k\vawAg'^''. A'*tcipAnAgi''tci'- 
meg a'ino'wawa''tc''. Iniya'e'meg a'inowii'nite'e ne'niwa' a'ino'- 

40 wawa^'tc''. Cewa'nAp'', pe'ki'megu ki'cagu'^tci'meg a'pi'tciwa- 
••tci'meg a'i'ciwi'cigo'wawa'^tc i''kwawAg''''. ApinA'meg ane't a 
mai'yowAg''''. 'O'nipi nyawe'nwi ki'ci'sIgenA'A'mawu''tc a'poni- 
pAgAna 'mowa '' to'' . 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 201 

said, ''I am hungry," and some said, "I am cold," and some said, 
"I am hot." And, it is said, when they were poured the fourth time 
on it for them, each one ceased uttering any sound. It was indeed 
quiet. Then, ''You may go out," they were told. Then they went 
out one by one. They felt very clean. Then, it is said, likewise 
others crawled in. There was just enough room for all the men to 
enter. 

Then, it is said, again they began to be told: "Let not anyone go 
out before time. If anyone goes out he wUl die. It will not be long, 
only a little while," they were told. " I am going to pour water on it 
four times," they were told. "AU right," they said among them- 
selves. Then a talk was begun to be made for them: "O, our grand- 
father, so be it. Now, so be it, you will kick out, so be it, of these 
your grandchildren, so be it, the disease, so be it," it was told. Then, 
it is said, at once water was poured on it for them. Then they began 
to wail. Then, it is said, some shouted, saying all kinds of things. 
After (the water) had been poured on it the fourth time, they no 
longer uttered a sound. ''Now, you all may go out," they were told. 
Then they went out one by one. The same happened to these 
fellows. They felt very clean, and they were in very good health. 

Then, it is said, the women were told, "Now also it is j'our turn." 
"All right," they said among themselves. They went over there. 
Then, it is said, " You will all sit there entirely naked," they were told. 
" You must even take off your skirts in there," they were told. It was 
suddenly very dark in there. After they had all done that, " You ^^^U 
sit on your clothes," they were told. "All right," they answered. 
Then he told them, "Now, women, do not go out prematurely. You 
wiU make your lives wretched if you go out before time. You will 
die," he said to them. "This will not be long; this wiU be only a 
little while. I shall pour water on this stone four times. And I am 
not going in. I shall merely put my hand in," he told them. "All 
right," the women said among themselves. 

Then a talk was begun to be made for them. " O our grandfather, 
so be it, now, so be it, you will kick out of these, so be it, your grand- 
children, so be it, the disease, so be it," that was the way the talk was 
made for them. Then, it is said, at once (water) was poured on it for 
them. Then verily, it is said, the women made a great noise. They 
said all kinds of tilings. Just exactly what the men had said was 
what they said. But, it is said, the women screamed just as loud as 
they could. Some of them even wept. Then, it is said, after (water) 
was poured on it four times for them, then they no longer uttered a 
noise. 

3599°— 25t 14 



202 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. »0. 

"Na'i', nowi'g''"",'' a'ine'^tc''. "Iya"winA tA'cinAiia'A'pi'sugu 
nawA'^'tci kekota'wawAn"''," a''me'^tc''. Ma'ii a'cipeminowi'v/a- 
''tcin"'", ini'meg a'i'ca'wiwa''tc''; a'pInaneti'"sowa"^tci kl'cagu''tci'- 
meg'^"". 
5 "O'ni mame''^tcinaV' a'i"'tc'\ "Iniga"pe'k I'nigiyu kwa''tAgigi- 
■wa''tcipwawi'aiy6"ika'kAmipiti'gawa^tc'V' a"ini''tc''. 

'O'n inigi'megu a'Ano''kane''tc''. 

"Na'i', 'i''k^vatig'"'', 'A'ce'megu aiyo'"i kl''awip''*'; ki'kegya'- 

nenapwA wrnowa"ckawa''tc'', a'wiwat"'/' a'"ine'*tc'", "ki''tci"i- 

10'k%va'wawAg'''"." ""Au'," ii'I'yowa'^tc''. 'O'nip ina''meg ii'a'' 

wiwa^tc''. "Kfciku^'tciplto'tawat i'n aiyo"i wi'tetepagwA'iiiyagwe. 

sagi''*tc'V' a''ina'^tc i''kwawa'''. 

'O'nipi ki'cipito'tani''tci kl'citcagipcmina'\vini''tc'', 'ii'wapikAkA'- 
n6na"^tc'". "Na'i', i'nugi mA'ni wi'nowi'migA'k A'pe'nawen I'ni 
15wa'''tci mA'ni toto'iiAgow^"'. Ka'tA'^tca' u'wiya'A wi"nowi'^tc 
i'cita''a'ki''tc'^". Aiy6''mcgu ki"a\vip'"^". Ki'penega"i nowl'te 
wi'nepo'iwA'meg'^"'. Agwigii'i kenwa''c aiyo'i wi'awi'yagwin"'' 
Ca'cki'megu nyawe'nwi ni'sige'nA'wawA hia'da'a 'A'se'ny*'. 
Wi'ke'kino''soyagAV i'ni \va'''tci witAmo'nAgow^'^'. I'n agwiga"i 
20wi'pitiga'yanin"''. Ca'cki'megu ni"pi"'tcine'ke wI'sigenA'Amo'- 
nAgow'"^'," a"ina''t.c i'ni' i'"kwawa"''. 

Ane'tAp a'kiwi'sage''siwa'*tc'". " Wi'i'ci'cawi'wagan i'nA mA'n"''," 
a"cita"awa''tc''. 

"O'nip a'wapikjvkA'nona'^tc i'nin A"senyan°''. "'O neme'come- 
2o"sena't"*', n5'''tc'', i'nug'''', no'^'tc'", ki'miwe'ckAma'wawAg'''', 
no''*tc'', ma'A'g'''', no''*tc'', 'o' k6'ci''semAg'''', no'^'tc'", '6' A'pe'- 
nawen"'", no"'tc''," a'cikAnotA'wa"*tc'". 

Ki'cipikAn5tA'mawa''tc ii'sige'nA'wa'^tc i'nin A''senyan°''. 

Inipi'mcg a'wawAnate"sowa'^tc i''kwawAg''''. Kiwi'sage"sitcig 
SOi'niyag a'kiwiwi'kwawi'kwa''sawa''tc'". I'nip a'kegyiine'nawa'^tc 
i''kwawAg'''". "KetA'kyiine'ku'megu 'aiyiiniwe tA"c'"," a''ine'^tc''. 
A'ketA'kya'nawa''tc''. "O'nipi mfi'A'g ane't a'sAgi'sAgi'pu'gowa'^tc 
i''kwawa'''. Nyawo'nAmegi ki'ci'sigena''ome''tc a'poni'uwi'ya- 
' AnipAgAna 'moni ''tc' " . 

35 T'nip'", "Na'i', wapinAna'A'pi'sug''"', na'i', kekota'e'wawAn"'"," 
a''ina''tc i''kwiiwa'''. A'nowawAnane'tiwa'^tc i"kwawAg'''". 

I'nip'", 'i'ni"'', "MA'ni ma'A'gi wawu'tAmag""'''," a'i'neme''tc'". 
A."mane"cita'"awa''tc i'"kwawAg'"'. 

"O'nip'', "Ni'nA'^tca'i ni"na"sa''awAg'''', ni'nA ku'<'tci netAno'ka'- 
40nawAgi wi'kegyiine'nenag''™'''," a"ina''tc'". A'no'ckwa'tA'mawa- 
■^tc'". Inipi'meg agAvigii'ipi'na' aiya''ci wi'a"kwAmAtA'mowa''tc 
i'"kwawAg''''. Awa'^'tci niiyapi'meg a'i'ca'wiwa''tc'". 



MICHELSON.] ORIGI>r OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 203 

"Now you may go out," they were told. "You had better stop to 
put on your skirts in there," they were told. Just as they went out, 
the same thing happened to them; they felt as clean as possible. 

"Now for the last time," he said. "That will be the worst one, 
because those who were afraid of it, did not go in here straight away," 
he said. 

Then the same ones were ordered. 

"Now, women, you just stay here; you hold them if they fall out," 
they were told, "if your fellow women stay." "/Ul right," they said 
among themselves. And, it is said, they remained there. "After 
they have crawled in, then you must sit here crowded in a circle 
outside," he said to the women. 

Then, it is said, after they had crawled in and they all had taken 
their clothes off, he began talking to them. "Now, the reason why I 
am now doing this to you, so that the disease will go out. Let no one 
desire to go out. You are to stay right here. If, however, any one 
should go out, she will siu-ely die. You do not have to stay here 
very long. I shall pom- (water) on this stone only four times. That 
you will remember it thereby, is why I tell you. I am not going in. 
I shall only put my hand in to pour (water) on it for you," he said to 
the women. 

Some, it is said, were frightened. " I wonder what will happen to 
us now," they thought. 

Then he began speaking at length to that stone. "O, our grand- 
father, so be it, now, so be it, you will kick out, so be it, for these, 
so be it, your grandchildren, so be it, the disease, so be it," was the 
way he spoke for them. 

After speaking for them, he poured (water) on that stone. 

Then, it is said, the women were excited from the heat. Those 
who were in constant fear, were bumping around (the sides of sweat- 
lodge). Then, it is said, the women held them. "Just hold them 
steadily in one place," they were told. They held them steadily. 
Then, it is said, these were bitten again and again by some women. 
After (water) had been poured on it the fourth time, each one ceased 
uttering a sound. 

Then, it is said, "You begin to put on your skirts," he told the 
women. Then the women went out excited at each other. 

Then, it is said, "This is where you have been biting them," those 
(women) were told. The women were ashamed. 

Then, it is said, "I shall surely cure them, because I have hired 
them to hold you," he said to them. Then he licked the places for 
the women. It is said that at once they no longer had sores. '^ They 
were same as before. 

" Free translation. 



204 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

O'nip ii'pe'nowa'^tc''. AnagwT'inigi'meg lya'' a"pyawa''tc a'uwi'- 
giv;a"*tc'". 

O'nipi Wil'pAnig'''", "Na'i', I'ni wi'klwiwa'pAmAgwe tcinawa- 
mii'i'yAgwigi yo'w^"'," a''ina'^tc me'to'sane'niwa''. 
5 A'pe'nowa''tc a'kiwi'megu'A'si'piwa'^tc a'kiwiwapA'mawa''tc''. 
Ane'tAp a'aiya"ci"cin6'"ini'^tc'', magwa'epi'meg a'nepa'nite' a'ci'- 
'cini''tc'". Iya"ipi negu'ta"'', waiiAto'kA'mcg Apeno''a'An a'nii'- 
wawa'^tc a'tA'cinona'kAta'wani''tc ugya'n"''. A'nepeni''tciga'winA'- 
pini pwawiga'i'p iii a'kwA'mAtAgA kA"ck Ape'no'a'A nii'otatA'mcgu 

lOke'tci'megu na'a''k\vapit*'. WanAt6'kjVga''meg a'pwawipA'ciwapA- 
me'gowa''tc a'ke'tcin6'neni''tc''. Pya'^tcipe'kwAnapiniwA'nip a'wa- 
pA'mawa''tc'". 

'O'n'"', "Na'i', Ata"pena<'tce ketogima'menan"*'," "a'i"*tc''. 
'O'nip a'Ata'pe'nani''tc''. Um''tawAn a'awA'nawa^tc"'. 

15 A'A'kAni'ini''tci'meg a'«anepinenya''pwani''tc ugyji'n"''. A'pego- 
wa'kwi"toni''tciga"ini wl'giyapi napo'i'ni'*tci' a'pegopcgomgwa'- 
'cini^'tc''. Na'kA^'tc i'nin Ape'no'Ani pegu'g a'kiwike'kike'kine'^tca'- 
pini^'tc'". 

"O'nipi na-'kA'^'tc a'na'gwani'^tc''. A"kiwiwapA'mawa''tc'". 

20Me't5''^tcipi napa'ni<*tci' a'Ina'inagwA''soni'*tc''. Neguta"megu 
n^'kA'^'tc a'nii'wawa'^tci' ca"cke"si''a"An a'tA'ci'a'kwAmAtA'mini- 
''tc''. Ini'pinin a'awA'nawa''tc''. A'wi'kwa'nawa^tc''. "O' inini'- 
meg'^"', "A'uwi'giyani nAnAguta'gi kl'*A'sap''*'. Neta'ne'sAgi- 
''tca'"i wi'pAgo'ci'megutaweni'giiwAg''''," a''ina''tc''. 0'nii3 i'na' 

25a"a'wAne'*tc ite'pi'c'". 

WinwawAgii" a'nagwawa'^tci'meg''"'. 'Iya"ipi neguta''na'i 
wanAto'kA'megu 'a'tAne"canig A''ckutaW"'. Me't6''tci'megu kayii- 
''tci" a'kl'cipe'ta'wawe'*tc a'ine"canig''''. lniga''ip ina" awi'ni- 
''tci'i kegime'si'meg a'Ape"soni''tc''. 

30 "KA'ci'cawitu'ga'ig''''," a'i'yowa'^tci me'to'stine'niwAg'''". 

O'nip a'a'wAto''tc A'ckwane'"ketawi I'nA neni'w A'te"tc a"A- 
'to'^tc''. "Ni'ke'kii'netA niA'ni wa'pAg ii'ciwapike'nugwan"''," 
a'i''ciwa''tc''. 'O'n a'ki'ganu''tci no'inAgiiw''^'; 'Inita'tAg a'na'- 
'sa'''lc'". Ke'tenA'meg a''na'sa''tc I'nA' ca'cke"si'a'^'". 'O'ni na"k 
35Ape'no'a' aylgi'meg a'kl'ge'si''tc''. 'O'nipi wa'pAnig a'a^'tci'mo'a- 
''tci me'to'sane'niwa"'": "MA'ni wi"i'ci"Ano"kane'nAgowe wiga'^tci'- 
megu: wawi'yilyag A"se'n a'ckipAga'pe'kA'ki ki'nAtu'na'apwA men- 
wine'gi'kwag''''. Me'sotawe'megu ketAno'ka'nenep"*'," a''ina'*tc''. 

'O'n a'nAtuna"A'mowa''tc''. Mete'mo'a' a"me'kAg Ini'meg a'ci'- 
40genig A"se'n°'". A'A'kA'sA'mowa'^tci' sa'sa'si'megu. A'kegeni'- 
megume'ckwAno'tanig''''. 

Na'kA''^tci mAtota'cawiwi'giyap a'kegeni'ineguki'ci''towa''tc''. 
Ki'ci'towa'^tcip a'no'kame'ki'se'towa'^tc''. 

'O'nip inigi tci'paiyAg i'na" a'piti'gAne''tc'", a'sIge'nA'u'^tc 
45A"se'ny^' 



MiCHELSON.l ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 205 

Then, it is said, they went away. They arrived where they lived 
early in the evening. 

Then, it is said, the next day, "Now we may go around and see 
those whose relatives we had been," he said to the people. 

They started out, all going around in a body to see them. Some of 
them, it is said, were still lying there, as if they had been asleep, was 
how they lay. Yonder, it is said, at some spot, they saw a child 
unconcernedly sucking its mother. She was dead, and yet, it is said, 
that babj^ itself, who could crawl and sit up very well, was one that 
did not become sick. (The baby) , unconcernedly, did not even look 
at them as it was suckling mightily. It was sitting there with its 
back toward them when they looked at it. 

Then, "Now, let om* chief take it up," he said. Then, it is said, 
the latter took it up. He and his brother-in-law took it along. 

(The baby) was skinny, and had made the breasts of its mother 
filthy by its mouth. It had made the wickiup dustj^ and the corpses 
lay there with dusty faces. And that baby had made its finger- 
prints on the dust where had been sitting around. 

Then, it is said, they again departed. They went around to look 
at them. They were lying around as if asleep, it is said. At some 
spot they likewise saw a young girl who was sick there. Then, it is 
said, they took her away. They carried her in a blanket. Then the 
same fellow, "You will place her in the center of my home. I shall 
have my daughters clear the things away properly," he said to them. 
Then, it is said, she was taken over there. 

They themselves departed. Yonder, it is said, at some place, 
there was a fire burning unconcernedly. It was blazing as if it had 
just been kindled. Those, it is said, who were there, all were warm. 

"What, pray, is the matter with them?" the people said among 
themselves. 

Then, it is said, that man took a billet burning with fire at one 
end and set it down in a lonely far off spot. " I shall know to-morrow 
how this is," so he said to them. Then he held a gens festival for a 
short time; and presumably made them well. Truly that young girl 
became well. That baby also was better. Then, it is said, the next 
day he told the people: "This is what I shall hire you to do care- 
fully: you are to seek a round stone which is green, a good size one. 
I hue you all," he said to them. 

Then they sought it. An old woman found a stone just like that. 
Then they burned it right' away. It heated up red-hot very quickly. 

And they made a sweat wickiup very rapidly. After they had 
made it, they put new earth in it. 

Then, it is said, those dead bodies were taken in there, and water 
was poured on the stone. 



206 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

Ne'gutenwi kf ci'sige'na'u'^tc'', a"a"^tci'mo'a''tc A'senya'n I'nA 
nenl'w^*': "Na'i', neme'come'sena't®", no"'tc'", Inu'gi ma'A'g 
a"cinata"kwa'ci'nowa<*tci k5'ci''semAg'''", no'"*tc*', '6' ki'yaW'" 
n6''^tc'', "5' wi'ape"sIwA'na'pwA''tci''tca'n6'<'tc'". I'ni nd'^'tc'' 
5a"ci-no''*tc''-nAtawa'neme'k'", no'^'tc'', neme'come'sena't"', no"*tc'' 
Ini<*tca"n6"''tc'', krinane'mawAg'''', no"*tc'". Ini''tca"no'<*tc'' 
a'cina'i'genig'''", no'''tc-", wru''tci-n6"*tc'"-ina'nemA''tci no"'tc'' 
ko"ci"semAg'''', no''*tc'V' 'a''ina''tc'". 

A'senya'n a'sIge'nA"wa''tci ni'ce'n"''. O'ni ne'so'nAmegi" sige'- 

10 nA'wa''tc'", a'pwawi'megu'uwI'ya"Anikago''i'ino'wani'^tc''. Nyawo'- 
nAmegi' sIge'nA'wa''tc'', a'pa''kena''tc'", a'na"sani'*tci<^tci'''". 
A'ml'catane'mowa'^tc i'nigi ne'niwAg i'kwawAgi'ga'"'. 

I'niga'ipl'niye pe'ki'megu a"Aniwe"canig'^''; mo'tci'megup i'niy 
A'ckwane"ketaw a'pe'cku'nanigi pe"ki ki'cina"sawa''tc i'na'i 

15wawl'gitcig''''. 

'O'nip a'a'^tci'mo'a'^tci me'to'sane'niwa'"': " 'Na'i', me'to'sane'- 
nitig"^"', wa'witepi kl'poninene'kane'mapenA tcinawii'mAgwigi 
napo''itcig''''; kutAgi'meguku" i'cinene'ki'tag''"', wapAgeyu'mAni 
ki'a'mipen"*^', Ini'megu ina'A'gi wI'inagwA''sowAgi tclnawama'l'- 

20yAgwig''''," a''ina''tci me'to'sane'niwa'"'. 'O'nipi winA'megu 
"'O'ni nInA'megu ni'yawi wi'atotAmo'nAgow"'''," a"ina'^tc'". 
"MA'ni''tca"i wi'i'ca'wiyiig'^'"''," a''ina''tc'". "I'ni ma'A'g a'cinA- 
tawa'nemAg a'cike'kanetA'mowa'^tci mA'ni nemi'ca'menan"''," 
a"ina''tc''. 

25 "NinA'*tca"i keme'sotiiwi'megutepa'nenepw^'; agu'wiya' Atena- 
wane'mAgin°''. K['ku'*tcimega'pe'ekago''i'i'ci'kegini ki'yanani 
kekunAgwIwe'nenepwAmega'pe'*"'. I'n a'tA'cine'ckina'wii'Agi ma'A'g 
a^'tcipA'nAgi'^tc i'cimanet6"a'Ag''''. Ini''tca"i wi'na'gwaiyan"'', wi- 
"mawi'a"'tcimAg ananeme'nAg'''^'^'. Wi'poni'megumc'to'saneni'- 

30wiyag''"<^', a'inaneme'nAg''""''. Ni nagwA^tca'i mAnA''kA ke'tcima'- 
netow a"awi'*tc'', cewa'n agwi'megu ke'kanetA'manin aiy5" 
aiya'pAmi wi'i'cipya'wanan"''," 'a'"ina''tc uwi'^tcime'to'sane'niwa''", 
WinA'megu 'u'wiyaw ii'a'totAg''''. 

Ki'ci'megu'a^'tci'a'^tci'mo'a'^tc'', o'n u'wiwAn a'a'^tci'mo'a'^tci 

35wi'i'ca'wini''tci; wi"nAno''tci'megu ke"kyani'*tc''. Ki'ci'a'^tci'mo- 
'a'^tc o'ni wi^tci'a'''tci'i' ca'cke'"si'a"i wruna'unapamini''tci'megu 
'a"i"cima''tc''. Krcini"cima''tc'', o'ni wl'pwawimawi'megu''tc'', 
a'i''cima'*tc''. 'Iniga'ipi'megu 'a'ponina'wawa'^tc''. O'n i'ni mi- 
'ca'mi ka'kii'netAgA nAgA'monAn a'mawiwi''^tci't5''tc''. Ke'te'iiAp 

40a'poni'megu"A'penawene''kawa''tc''. Me'ce'meg a'menwime' to- 
'saneni'wiwa'^tci me'to'sane'niwAg'''', Ini'megu' ca"cki mi'ca'm 
a'A'piine'mowa'^te'". I'n a'kwi'^'tci wapinenu'swimi"cam'"'". I'ni 
ni'ka'netig''^', a'kwa'^tci'moyiln"'". 



MICHELSON.] ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. 207 

After pouring water on it once, that man spoke to the stone: "Now, 
our grandfather, so be it, now as these your grandchildren, so be it, 
are dependent, oh, your life, so be it, oh, pray, breathe on them that 
they may come to life, so be it. That is what, so be it, they desire 
of you, so be it, our grandfather, so be it. Therefore, so be it, you 
will bless them that way, so be it. Therefore, so be it, you will bless 
your grandchildren, so be it, from now on, so be it, in the only good 
way, so be it," he said to it. 

He poured (water) on the stone twice. Then he poured (water) 
on it the thhd time; no one said a word. When he poured (water) 
on it the fom-th time, he opened it, and behold, they were alive. 
Those men and women were very glad. 

Then that (fire) was blazing very greatly; even that billet with 
fire on one end burst into great flames when those who lived there 
became alive. 

Then, according to the story, he told the people: "Now, people, 
for a while cease to think of those to whom we are related, who are 
dead; think of something else, for to-morrow we are going to move, 
and these, our relatives, will remain lying here just as tiMj' are," he 
told the people. Then he himself, it is said, " Now I shall tell you 
about my own self," he said to them. "Now this is what you are 
to do," he said to them. "Now what I desire of these people is that 
they know the way of oui" sacred pack," he said to them. 

" I truly love you all ; I think less of no one. I have always tried 
to pull you tlirough when something happened to our lives. That was 
when I made these different kinds of minor manitous angry. Now 
verily I am going to leave, to go and report what they think of us. 
They want you no longer to be people. I shall truly depart in the 
direction where the great manitou is, but I do not know if I shall ever 
come back here," he said to his fellow people, telling about himself. 



As soon as he had told them, then he told his wife, what would 
happen to her; that she would reach an old age. After he had told 
her, then he told the young girls with whom he was living to each take 
a husband unto herself. After he told them that, then he told them 
not to wail overliim. Then it is said they saw him no more. Then 
the person who knew the songs went over and lived with that sacred 
pack. Truly, it is said, they had disease no more. The people 
were simply living healthy lives. They depended merely on that 
sacred pack. That is the end of the White Buffalo Sacred Pack. 
That is all, my friends, I have to say. 



WlPE'CKIKUTPTCINENU"SWA 'UNEMA'^TClNEG 
U^TCIGA'TE MI'CA'M A'CITE"KATAG^'. 

Ni'mitcigi nene"kaneme'gwiwa''tc''. Mo'cAgi'megu ni'mitcig i'ni 
nene'kaneme'gwiwa^tci w!'pwawiwawAne'cka"ita''awa''tci ni'miwat®' ; 
wrpwawimi'ke'tiwenmene'kanetA'mowa''tc'' ; niA'kwa'^tci'megu wi- 
'i'cita'e'gawa'^tc'' ; wI'pwawikago''i'inane'tiwa''tc'' ; ca'cki'megu 
5wrmAmatoinowi'ita"awa''tc''; A'penawe'megu mane'towAni wl- 
"nene'kane'mawa''tci ne'ki'megu peminlmi'gwa'ig''''. 

Na'kA''^tci wi'pwawi'megupone'gawa''tci ne'"ki peminimiwA'A'- 
mowe'^tc''. Pe'ki'megu ke'tenA'megu wl'iii'miwa'^tc'', agwiga''i 
mamye'"tci ka'tci'gitcigi me'cemego'na' Ape'no'*'. Me'ce'meg 
lOu'wiyii' ii'pi'tci'gigwan"''. 

Cewa'n Apeno''Ap a'gwi ka'tcigi'ni''tci' a'pi'tcinagAtawane'me- 
tcig''''. A'Ape'no'i'^tci wa'^tcipwawimaminawi'anemi'cinagAtawa'ne- 
me'*tc'". 

Ka'tcitawe'sitAmA'tApi pe'ki'megu nagAtawa'nemap''. Iniga'- 

15 "inagAtawaneme'gwiwa''tci wapine'nu's6'imi"cania'''. Mo'tci'- 

megu wi'pwawipemi'ApA'ApAnaniwa^tci ni'mitcig''". Na"kA wl'p- 

wawi"A'samike'tcinrmiwa''tc''. Kena'^tci'megu wrpemini'miwa^'tc''. 

Na'kA'^'tc'', ne'niwAgi wi'pwawi'AtA'mawa''tc a'pi'tcini'miwa^'tc''. 

Mo'tci'megu ne'pi wrpwawime'nowa''tc a'pi'tcini'miwa^'tc''. 

20Ca'ckiku'"megu wruene'kanetA'mowa'^tci kenwa''ci wl'me'to'saneni'- 

wiwa^'tc''. 

O'n i"kwawAgi ine"ten6"megu 'a'cipa"ki'se'tawu''tci wi'i'ca'wi 
wa'^tc'''. 

Ni'mitcigi wI'nA'ku'gawa'^tc''. Me'ce'na'winA^tca'"m.eg a'pi'tciwa- 
25 "^tci wi'wi'cigo'wawa''tci nA'ku'gawat^'; me'cega'mego'na"'', agwiga"i 
ma'mA'ka^'tci kl'ganuf^', me'ce'mego'na"''. 

I'cimienwinawa"towa''tci wapinenu'swi'unemA'^tcinu'ka'^tcimi'ca'- 
m"''. KwIyenA'^tca" a''cawit a'"nimi''tc Ini'megu wa'^tcike'kane'- 
megu^'tci mane'towa'i kateminaga'ni'^tci'''. 
30 NeniwAgi'ga' a'cipa"ki'se'tawu''tci wi'waw&gA'A'mbwa'^tc''. Cewa'- 
nA wi'pwawA"samitA"senwiwawagA'A'mowa''tc''. Me'teno"megunagA- 
mo'ni'^tci' atawinaga'ni''tci''', i'n a'wawagA'A'mowa'^tc''. I'n a'ci- 
pa"ki'segi ne'niwAg a'ca'wiwa'^tc''. 

Ni'mitcigi na'"kA tepina'"megu wi'ina'piwa'^tci. Wi'pwawime'ce- 
35 go'na'ina'piwa'^tc''. 
208 



THE SACRED PACK CALLED THE WHITE BUFFALO'S 
LEFT-HOOF SACRED PACK. 

It thinks over the dancers. That one thinks only of tlie dancers 
that they may not feel wickedly in their hearts while dancing; that 
they may not think of courting in their hearts; that they think 
rightly in then' hearts while dancing; that they may not think (evil) 
of one another; that they only think of worship in their hearts; that 
as long as they are dancing they must think all the time about the 
manitou. 

Again, they must not stop dancing as long as the dancing songs are 
being sung. They must surely dance heartily, not only those who 
are old but any one of the children. It is the same with regard to 
anyone (no matter) what age. 

Still, it is said that a child is not watched over as much as the older 
ones are. Because of being a child it is not continually watched 
closely. 

It is said, though, that an old person is watched closely. That 
Wliite Buffalo Sacred Pack watches over them. Even the dancers 
must not laugh as they dance along. Moreover, they must not dance 
too violently. They must dance along quietly. 

Again, the men must not smoke while dancing. They must not 
even drink any water while dancing. Indeed they must only think 
of existing as mortals a long time. 

And the women are only to do that which is open for them. 

The dancers must join in the songs. They can sing as loud as they 
wish if tliey join the songs; anyone, and not only the one giving the 
gens festival. It is just anyone. 

In that way they please the White Buffalo's Left-foot Sacred Pack. 
That is the reason why the one who does just right while dancing is 
known by the manitous who give blessings. 

The thing open for men is whooping. Still they must not whoop 
too many times. Only when the singers are re-singing a verse, then 
they are to whoop. That is open for the men to do. 

Again, the dancers must look straight ahead. They must not look 
just any place. 

209 



210 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

Wi"pwawiinane'cita'"awa'*tc''. Ini'megu wiTcaViwa'^tc a'tA'swi- 
niml'\va<^tcin°'". UwIya'A'gii'i mane'ci'ta'at"', a'gwi menwige'- 
nigin u'wlyaw""'', wi'nAku'^tci ki'ci"enAgw a'gw A'"t6'*tcini mane- 
'cita"agAn'''\ "Ini'^tca" \vi'u'^tcipwawiinane'cita"ayag'''"®'." I'n 
5a'"iiie<^tc''. Uwiya'A''*tca' mane'ci'tii'at^', winA'megu wi'ki"ci"6wA 
me'to'^'tc'". Agwiga''Ini mi'ca'ml'ni wi'iiianeme'gwi''tcin a'pena- 
we''tca"meg''"'. 

MA'kwa'''tc anemina'nimit I'nananA wI'wapA'megutA mane'to- 
WAii°''. Wi'ke'kane'megutA mA'kwa'''tc a'me'to'sane'niwi'^tc''. 

10 A'gwi wi'wawAne'cka'aneme'gu'*tcini wI'nA mA'k\va'''tc anemi'- 
nimitA maneto'wa'''. 

Iniga''i mi'ca'mi wl'u^tcike'kane'megwi''tc'". Wi'a'^tcmiegwIwA- 
''tca"! ma'netonag''''. "iLv'ni inA'nA ne'"ki pemimA'kwa'^tci'- 
nimi''tc'','' i'ni wi'i'gwi'^tcini mi'ca'm™''. Na''k'^', wawawAne'cka'- 
15"awit ini'meg''"', "MA'ni niA'nA ne''ki pemiwawAne'cka'i'nimi'^tc''. 
A'gwi negute'nwi mA'kwa'''tci ni'mid'^tcin"'"," I'ni na"kanA wi'i'- 
gwi^'tclni mi'ca'm™''. 

O'n a'Ape'no'i'^tc u'^tcipya'^tci mA'kwa'''tci peminTminT'mitA pA- 
"ci'meg a'a'pe'tawime'to'saneniwi'^tci mA"kwa''tci'meg awi'yatuge 
20pamiJiiinim'mit^", na''ina'i wi'nep6''ite"e", a'gwi nepo''i'*tcin°''. 
Ki'kiwA'megu na"ina'iwI"nepo"ite"e'. Mamye'tci'megu wi'iiAno'^tci'- 
meguponine'nwapi'^tc awlyatuge'meg a'pemine'to'sane'niwi'^tc''. 
Kageya'"megu' ca"ck a'cegi'ce'gi'cig''''; a"ke'kya''tc''. Ma- 
'kwa'^tciga'' I'nA pamina'nimit-*^'. Kageya"meg a'ce'gi'cig a'tA- 
25 'cip6ni'namu''tc''. 

Ini'pini mi'ca'mi na"ina'i nepo''i''tcin a'nAna'iwe'negwi''tc''. 
Wiiwene'tenigi wfpya'nutAg''''. 

Na'kA'^^tci pi"ci"t6wet A''k'', wl'nawawa'^tci'mcgu kateminagu'- 
ni''tcin°''. Wape'cldku'pi'^tcine'nu'soni wi'a''tcimo''eme''tc'', "Ma- 
30'A'gi ke'te'n ananetA'mo'kigi keketeminawe''siwen°''." I'n ini'- 
nipi wl'i'neme'^tci iiA'cawai'ye yo'we kiiteminawe'si'ni'^tcin"''. 

I'ni na"k'^', mi''cameg api'ni'^tci'i wi'nawawa'^tci'megu'"". 
Cewa'nA wi'me"to'saneniwapA'mawa''tc'', ne"ki me'to'sancni'- 
wiwa'^tci mA'kwa''tci'megu paminani'mitcig anota'tanig a'ca'- 
35witcig"'. 

I'ni wi'i'ca"i'ca'wiwa'*tci wiga'"sitcigi mamatomeme''tci'nima'i 
wape'ckiku'pi'^tcine'nu'son"''. 

Na'"k'^', ni'mitcigi wrpwawi'megmi6no''owa'^tc''. I'n a'cine'- 

'ckime'^tc''. Kl'ciwi'nAnimi'wa'^tcini ki"ci'megunAna'Api'wa''tcin°'', 

40 I'n A'*tca''meg a'wapinono''owa'^tc''. Me'ce'na" winA'megu 'a'kege'- 

gawa'^tc miowa'o'nwawAn"''. Cewa'nA nie"ten6'"megu keti'wi'u'- 

''tcityan"''. I'nini me"ten6'i kagega'wa''tcin''''. 



MICHELSON.] WHITE BUFi^ALO's LEFT-HOOF SACRED PACK. 211 

They must not be ashamed. Indeed they must do that every time 
they dance. One's life is not right when he becomes ashamed, for 
the one who made us has no shame in his heart. "That, verily, is 
the reason why you must not get ashamed." That is what they were 
told. If some one becomes ashamed, he has that experience, as it 
seems.' That sacred pack will not think the same of him (as it does 
of the others) . 

Indeed the one who dances quietly and earnestly is the one who will 
be looked upon by the manitou. (The manitou) will know that he 
is living quietly. 

The one who dances quietly will not be considered wicked by 
the manitous. 

That sacred pack will thereby know about him. It will tell the 
manitou about him. That sacred pack will say this of him, "This 
is how long he has been dancing quietly." Again, in the same way 
this sacred pack will say this of the one who acts wickedly, "This is 
how this one has been dancing wickedly. He has never once danced 
quietly." 

And the one who always danced quietly from the time he was a 
baby up to the middle of his life and who yet danced quietly, does 
not die when the time has come for him to die. Indeed he goes on 
fm'ther when the time has come for him to die. Indeed he will 
finally have lost his sight while he is still living for a long time. 
Finally, indeed, he can only lie down; he becomes very aged. He is 
the one who has danced quietly and in earnest. Finally indeed 
while he is lying down he stops breathing there. 

It is said then that sacred pack will guide hun along when he is 
dead. He will come to a beautiful place. 

Again, when this earth is renewed, they will see the one who has 
blessed them. The White Buffalo will be told, "These are the ones 
who think earnestly of yom* blessing." It is said this will be what 
the one will be told who was blessed long ago. 

Again, they are to see tho5e indeed who are in that sacred pack. 
Yet they are to see them as humans, those that have danced in 
earnest as long as they lived and who do the things that have been 
planned. 

Those that are careful will always do that whenever the White 
Buffalo is being worshipped. 

Again, the dancers are not to fan themselves. They are for])idden 
to do this. After they have danced and after being seated, then 
they (may) begin to fan themselves. Indeed, they could only dance 
with their fans. Yet these must lie only eagles' wings, also eagles' 
tails. Those are the only things with which they dance. 

' That is, he will always be bashful. 



212 OKIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. a.vn. 40. 

O'ni me'teno''megu ketlwimi'gona'i wi'nIniA'ckA"wawa''tc'", 
'a'cimenwapAme'gowa''tci wapiku'pi'^tcine'nu'soni nl'mitcigi ne'ni- 
WAg''''. I'nipi klgiino'we'^tcin I'ni' a'ke'tcinimA'ckA'wawa''tc''. 

O'n i''kwawAg a'wa'cl"owa''tci me'cku'si'ni'^tcm Ane'monAn"''. 
5 1'nip a'i'ci''tawa''tc''. Na"ina''megu i'"kwawAgi kl'ciwa'cfo'wa- 
•"tcini mA'k\va'''tc a'cita'"awa''tc''. 

WinAga"mA w^piku"pi''tci'nenu'sw i'ni mi'cl'wa''tcini ml'ca'- 
ma'An A"samitA'"s\vi wi'pwawi'ci'A'ka'w&pi'^tc''. O'nini m5'cAgi'- 
megu nimi't a'A'kawapA'megwi'^tc''. Wi'n i'n a'cina'a'netAgi 

10 wapiku'pi'^tci'nenu's''^'. 

Negu'ti'it awi'tApi menwi'A'kaw^'pAma'sA me'to'sane'niwa'''. 
Manwawi'ni<^tci" awi'tA ke'kii'nema's'^'. Na'kA'^'tc'', wawAne- 
cka'i'cawi'ni'^tci" awi'tA ke'ka'nema's*". Ini^tca'i'pini wa''*tc 
u'ka'''tc unemA''^tcinegi mrcil'mi'to'^tc'". WinA'megu 'u'wiyawi 

lijwapiku'pi tci'nenu's'"^'. 

O'n ane't a"Ata''pena''tci manetowa'i pa'cigwi'megume'to'sane- 
wi'ni'^tci''', pwawi'megukag6''ina'i'ci'awA'sa'^tcimo'ni"'tci''', pwawi'- 
meffukimo"'tci'i'cita'a'ni'^tci'i maneto'wa"'". Ina'i'ni' I'na' mJ'- 
'cameg api'ni^'tci'''. Wi'nagAtawanetciga'ni'^tci'''. Cewa'na'i me- 

20 "ten5''mogu neguta"megu ■wi'i'cina[rckawe"sini''tci nagAtawanega'- 
monif'. 

'A'a'^tci'mo'a'^tci winA'megu wapiku'pi''tci'nenu"swA mA'kwa''^tci 
wi'ina'inane'mani''tc'". "Katemina'wagwig a'gw a'cimyane'tenigi 
wi'inanc'miigwin"''. A'ci'megukrcagu''tcimenwi'genig i'ni wi'ina'- 

25neinag''''''''. Kinwawaiyu'mAni: 'Ga'cki'megu mo'cA'gi na'ta'wi 
ni'mitcigi wa'nene'ka'nemag'""®',' ke'tenep"''^", 'ne"ki wi'Anemina- 
nimi'eti'gwa'ig''''.' Ni'nAma'i me"teno'i mamato'migin i'nini 
wi'i'ca'wiyagw a'cime'nAgow'^'''. Cewa'nA pe'ki'megu ki'wi'cigi'- 
megu'A'se'mi'ip^*'. KatAga'"i wi'wAni'miyagw iname'mi'kiig'^"'. 

30NinAga''i' ca'cki'meg i'na" ni"awi wI'nene'kanetA'mawAg ume'to- 
'saneniwi'wenwaw'^'V' a''ina''tc''. '^MAni tA'se'nwi pe'kini'- 
gayan"'", ini'megu wi'Anemi'ci'A'kawapi'e'nAgow^^'," a'"ina''tc'". 

Ini'pin a'ki'ci'ate'sA'pitagi mi'cama"i wapiku'pi^'tci'nenu'sw 
ute'ka'wapi''". 

35 Ini'megu ke'te'n a'cike'kanetA'mowa'^tci nA'cawai'ye me'to- 
'sane'niwAg''''. Ke'tenA'megu "i'n a"ci'genig'''", a"cike'kanetA'- 
mowa'^tc'". Pe'ki'meg a"ki"cagu''tcitepatA'mowa^tc'". 

Me"cemego'na"i na'"ina"i nimi'wa'^tcin"'', ina'"megu mane'towAn 
a"tAnane'mawa'*tci piti'g''^". Pe"ki'meg ii'nagAtA'mowa'^tc i'n 

40i'ca'wiweni mAma'tomoni me"to"sane'niwAg''''. 'Wapiku'pi^'tci- 
nenu'"swApi wi'mAma'tomap'",' ayo'we''tcin°'", kcgime'si'meg 
a'a'miwa'^tc'". Aiye'megu mamai'y ite'p a"ki'citcagipiti'gawa''tci 
wi'tA"cikigano'we''tcin°'". 



MICHELSON.] WHITE buffalo's LEFT-HOOF SACRED PACK. 213 

And they are only to wear eagle-feathers in their hair, (as) that is 
the way the men dancers please the sight of theWliite Buffalo. It 
is said that they would especially wear these in their hair during gens 
festivals. 

And the women would paint their faces with paint that was red. 
It is said such was their guise. Whenever women have painted their 
faces, they would think of that which is right. 

That White Buffalo is the one who gave those little sacred packs 
so that he might not look after too many things. And those watch 
over a dancer alone. That is the wish of the White Buffalo. 

It is said that if he were alone he would not properly look after 
the people. He would not know those who were doing right. Again, 
he would not know those who were doing wicked things. It is said 
this was the reason why he made a sacred pack of his left hoof. 
Indeed the White Buffalo (had given) himself. 

And he appointed some manitous, those indeed who lived up- 
rightly, those indeed who did not exaggerate their speech in any- 
thing, manitous who did not (hide) anything in their hearts secretly. 
Those are the ones who are in that sacred pack. They are the ones 
to watch over things. Still they were to be a power only in one way, 
e. g. , when they were truly watching. 

The White Buffalo himself told them how they must think quietly of 
them. " You will not think evil of those you bless. Indeed you must 
think of them in a way that is exceedingly right. I say this to you: 
'The dancers are they whom you are to think about only as long 
as they continue to dance vigorously together.' You are to do what 
I have said to you, only when I am being worshipped. Still, indeed 
you must try hard to help me. Do not think of fooling me. As for 
me, I shall only be there to think about their lives," he said to them. 
"As many ways as I am different here, indeed just so will I make 
you watch (for me)," he said to them. 

It is said that the little sacred pack, the White Buffalo's watcher, 
was tied up separately. 

Indeed the people of long ago knew it to be truly so. They found 
out that it was so, true enough. They loved it very much. 

At any time they had a dance, they believed that there was a mani- 
tou within. Indeed, the people strongly followed that kind of wor- 
ship. Whenever they would say " It is said the Wliite Buffalo is to 
be worshipped," every one of them would move. The (people) 
would have already gone early into the place where they were going 
to have the gens festival. 



214 OKIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

Nimi-wA'Amo'we''tcin°'', ane'tAp a"cita''awa''tc'', "Tanma''i 
kenwa"ci me'to'sancni'wiyan'"^', ' i'cita'iiwA'gip''. AnetAga''ip'", 
"Keteminawi'n°"', wape'ckiku'pi''tcmenu"s''®'," i'cita"awAgi niml'- 
wa''tcin°'". 
5 Ma'kwa^'tcime'gupi nl'miwAg'"". Agwiga''ip u'wiya'A pemike- 
'tcin]'mi'^tcm°''. Kena^'tci'meg a'ni'miwa''tc''. 

A'kwiyAme'gupi nigane'gatcigi pe''ki ke'tcinene'kiinetagu'- 
sit-ig'''' I'kwaV*. negu't'', 6'ni ni"ci ne'niwAgi pepigwa'cko'n 
a(iwawa'"tAgig'''\ ini'gipi pe'ki'megu inamA'k\va'*tcini'mitcig'''". 
■•' Wi'pwawiineguno'wiwa''tc i'cigeni'wip''. Nlmi'wa''tcini tepina'- 
'meg a'ina'piwa''tci' ca'"ck''. 

i'kwa'wA na''k*", pe'ki'meg a''nimi'*tc''; na'kA'^^tci me'cena"megu 
Aa'iiA''kuga'^tci wI'nA niga'negat i'kwa'w^"*^'. 
O'n Ini'gi ini"cameg a'pitcigi ke'tenA'megu 'a'Anemiketeketemina'- 
15 wawa'^tc''. Me'cemego'na' a'ke'kanetAmowa'^tci'mcg ane'tA mi- 
ca'm a'ketemina'gwiwa'^tc''. Na"kA mA'kwa'^tci'mcgu 'a'nani'- 
miwa'^tc'". A'u'^tci'*tca'"iketemma'gwiwa''tc a'Anemi'megu'a'^tcimo'- 
'awa''tci me'cemego'na'''. Ke'tenA'meg I'n ii'ci'genig''''. 

Ini'pini wa''*tci mama'^tcigi'megu ke'te'nA ke'kiineta'gwA'ke 
20mane'towAg a'A'kawapA'mawa^tci nimi'ni'*tci'''. Ini'*tca''wmA 
me'to'sa'nenlwA wa'''tci mA'kwa'^'tc Anemina'nlmi''te'. I'nipi 
■wa'''tci ki''cagu'^tci ku'tA'gi wI'pemiwawawAne'cka''ega''tc-', na'- 
'kA wi'pwawi'megu"ApAna'nema''tc uwi'ya'An""'. Mo'tci'meg uwl- 
''tcineni'wawa' a'pwawi'anigigwa'ta'wawa''tc''. I''kwawAgi na'- 
25 'k^', ini'megu "a'ca'wiwa''tc''. Mo'tei'megu 'a'pwawi'ApAnane'- 
tiwa'^tc i"kwawAg'^''. 

I'nip a'caViwa'^tc A"cki'''tca'''. Pe'ki'meg a'ki'cagu^tciwiga- 
•^tcinagAtA'mowa''tc''. Ana''tciinowe''tci'megu 'aya" i'n a'ca'wiwa- 
<'tci me'to'sane'niwAg'^''. 
30 Na'kA'^tc'', HAgA'monAni nya'W'': wi'nene'kanemawa'^tci'megu 
negu'ti mane'towAn i'cige'niwAn ayo'we''tcin°''. KutAgi wi'nA 
wi'pwawi'ci'i"cita'"awa'^tc''. Kateminagani^'temi'megu wl'wi- 

'ciginene'kiine'mawa^tc''. Wi'mAmato'mawa''tci wi'menwime'to- 
'saneni'wiwa''tc''. 
35 Agwiga'' ai'yAgwAmi wi'miAmato'mawa'^tc''. Negute'nw a'pena'- 
winigi ni'ce'nwi wi'mAmato'mawa''tc''. 

Cewa'nApi' sAnAgA'tenlw i'nina'i mAmato'mowen aya''iwiga'- 
siwa'^tci me'to'sane'niwAg'^''. Api'nAp ane'tA mai'yowAgi na"ma' 
iiyo'we'^tcini mAma't'omowinAgA'monAn"''. AnetAga"ipi nAno- 
40 'ckwe''meg a'kAno'nawa'^tci mane'towAn ayo'we'^tcini iiAgA'- 
m5nAn°''. Me'ce'ma'mego'na''', ag\viga''i mamAka'^tci klga'- 
nutcig''''. Me'ce'megu nAtawane'tAgigi kenwa''ci wi'me'to'saneni'- 
wiwa''tc''. I'nigini'gip i'n a'ca'witcig'''', me'cemego'na''", i'kwa'- 
wA*', neni'w"'''. 



MICHELSON.] WHITE buffalo's LEFT-HOOF SACRED PACK. 215 

When the dancing songs were begun, some thought in their hearts, 
"I wish I wouki live a long time," they thought, it is said. Some, 
it is said, thought in their hearts while dancing, "Bless me, White 
Buffalo." 

It is said that they danced quietly. It is said that no one danced 
violently. Indeed they danced slowly. 

It is said that the leaders of the dance were the ones who were 
thought about the most. There was one woman, and two men who 
blew the flutes ; those were the ones who indeed danced quietly. 

It is said that it was fixed so they could not go out. While 
dancing they would only look straight ahead. 

Again, the woman would indeed dance in earnest; also the woman 
who was leading the dance could join in the singing any time. 

And those who were in that sacred pack continued to bless each of 
them, true enough. Indeed some did know that the sacred pack was 
blessing them. And they would dance quietly. They continued to 
tell any one why they were being blessed by it. Indeed it was 
surely so. 

It is said that this was the reason why it was known with certainty 
that the manitous looked after the dancers. That is the reason why 
the people continued to dance quietly. That was the reason, it 
is said, why (anyone) was indeed afraid to dance wickedl}^, and why 
no (one) would laugh at anyone. They would not even smile at their 
fellow-men. The women, too, did this same thing. Indeed the 
women did not even laugh at each other. 

It is said that was what they did at first. Indeed, they followed 
it very closely and carefully. That was when the people still did 
that which was told to them. 

Again, there are four songs: when they are sung there is a rule that 
they must indeed think of one manitou. They must not think of 
any other thing in their hearts. They must think intensely of the 
one who gave blessings. They must pray to him for righteous lives. 

They were not to worship bim every little while. They were to 
worship him twice in one summer. 

Still, it is said that worship was very difficult when the people were 
still careful. It is said that some even wept when the worshipping- 
songs were used. Then some, it is said, spoke out blindly to the 
manitou when the songs were used. It was any one of them, not 
only those who were giving the gens festival. It was any one of thoso 
who wanted to live long. Those were the ones, it is said, that did 
that, any one of them, woman or man. 



216 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

MAniga''i nA'gAmon a'"ci'segi negu't'": 

No'sa kanawTyanIni; 

No'sa kiinawi^'anini; 

No'sa kiinawlyanlni; 
5 No'sa kanawiyanlui; 

No'sa kanawlyanini; 

No'sa kanawlyanini; 

No'sa kanawlyanini; 

No'sa kanawlyanini; 
10 No'sa kanawlyanini; 

Natawata kaniiwiyanini; 

NanawA'kwi kanawiyanini; 

No'sa kanawiyanini; 

No'sa kanawiyanini; 
15 No'sa kanawiyanini; 

No'sa kanawiyanini; 

No'sa kanawiyanini; 

No'sa kanawiyanini. 

Ne'sowanowi ni'n""^"; 
20 Ne'sowanowi ni'n"*'; 

Ne'sowanowi ni'n"*'; 

Ne'sowanowi ni'n""^"; 

'A' 'a' ne'sowanowi ni'n"'; 

Ne'sowanowi ni'n°*'; 
25 Ne'sowanowi ni'xi"""; 

'A 'a' maiyo +iwa'wi m'n""'; 

Maiyo+iwa'wi ni'n"*'; 

Ne'sowanowi ni'n"*"; 

Ne'sowanowi ni'n"*'; 
30 "A' 'a' ne'sowanowi ni'n"*'; 

Ne'sowanowi ni'n"*'; 

Ne'sowanowi ni'n"*'; 

Ne'sowanowi ni'n"*' 

"A 'a' ne'sowanowi ni'n"-*". 

35 Yo niiwI'tApige; 

Nawi't.\pige; 

Niiwi'tApige; 

Niiwi'tApige; 

Yo niiwi'tApige; 
40 Nawi'tApige ni"kil nina ni"ka; 

Nawi't.'Vpige; 

Niiwi'tApige nina nina ni"ka; 

Niiwi'tApige; 

Niiwi'tApige; 
45 Niiwi'tApige; 

Me'to'siineni'.-v 'ii'nAna' +ime<*tc'' 'a'wi'nepeg'''', 

Nawi'tApige; 

2 The real meaning of the song has not been obtained in its entirety. "You go after it for him" signi- 
fies " when you go after the enemy for the White Buflalo; " " this earth " means " where the enemy are 
located." 



MICHELSON.] WHITE buffalo's LEFT-HOOF SACKED PACK. 217 

This is the way one song goes: 

Father, when you speak; 

Father, when you speak; 

Father, when you speak; 

Father, when you speak; 

Father, when you speak; 

Father, when j'ou speak; 

Father, when you speak; 

Father, when you speak; 

Father, when you speak; 

You go after it for him, when you speak; 

Wlien you speak from this earth; 

Father, when you speak; 

Father, when you speak; 

Father, when you speak; 

Father, when you speak; 

Father, when you speak; 

Father, when you speak. * 

My tail, mine; 

My tail, mine; 

My tail, mine; 

My tail, mine; 

My tail, mine; 

My tail, mine; 

My tail, mine; 

Mine, makes them weep; 

Mine, makes them weep; 

My tail, mine; 

My tail, mine; 

My tail, mine; 

My tail, mine; 

My tail, mine; 

My tail, mine; 

My tail, mine. ' 

Here, I sit with them; 

I sit with them; 

I sit with them; 

I sit with them; 
Here, I sit with them; 
Why, I sit with them, I do; 

I sit with them; 
Why, I sit with them, I do, I do; 

I sit with them; 

I sit with them; 

I sit with them; 
When the person was told he was to die, 

I sat with them; 

8**Mytair'is the White Bullaio's tail. The inner significance of "makes them weep" is "when the 
enemy are killed, their relatives will weep.** It goes without saying that maiyd+iiod'wi is a grammatical 
monstrosity. Observe that lines .5, 12, and 16 correspond, though this is not easily brought out in a 
translation; the lines "Mine makes them weep," "Mine makes them weep" occupy the exact middle of 
the song. 

3599°— 25t 15 



218 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

Yo nawI'tApIge; 
Nawi'tApIge nina nlua nl''ka; 
Niiwi'tApige; 

NawI'tApige m"ka iilna ni"ka; 
5 Nawi'tApIge; 

Nawi'tApIge. 

"A'pwe 'a'pwe "a'nemenani nlnA; 

'A'pwe 'a'pwe 'a'nemenani nlnA; 

'A'pwe "a'pwe 'a'nemenani nlnA 'i'i'ye+na, 
XO Mane' +towag'''' yo ota'kimwag''''; 

'A'pwe 'a'pwe 'a'nemenani ninA; 

'A'pwe 'a'pwe 'a'nemenani nlnA; 

'A'pwe 'a'pwe 'a'nemenani nlnA "i'i'ye+na; 

'A'pwe 'a'pwe 'a'nemenani nina; 
15 'A'pwe 'a'pwe "a"nemenani nuiA; 

"A'pwe "a'pwe 'anemenani nina "i'iye 'i'iye. 

Ni'ce'nwi kl'cinimi'wa''tcin I'ni ma'A'ni iiAgA'monAn a"aiyog''''. 
NawA^tcipi'megu ke'gime'si pi''tcine'"kawapi' sagi"*tc api'A'- 
pitcig''''. 
20 A'nawA"^tci'a'^tci'mo'a''tci mAmfcf'^': "Wi'ku'menAgwe wi'ni'- 
miya''''*''. Inu'g ini wi'ai'yotagi ma'netow uiiA'gAmonAn"'". Ma'ii 
a'ni'miyAgw a'A'kawapAme'iiAgwig''''. Ini''tca"i wi'nene'ka'- 
nemAgwe tA''swi piti'g a'piyAg''"*''. Wi'ketemaginene'kane'- 
tAinAgwe ki'yanan"''. Ini''tca"megu ki'i"cawip''*V' 'a''ina''tci 
25mAmrci'*'. 

"Ma'A'gi iia''kA kiga'nutcig I'ni wi'wi'cigiiiAgA'mowa''tc'". Ini'- 
megu nii'VlnwawA wf i'cita"awa''tc'','' a"ine''tc'". 

O'nipi mawA^'tci'megu ka''te'sit a'i'ci"sowa''tc a'nlgani'nagii'^tc'". 

Ma'Aiii'p in a'ai'yotagi nAgA'inonAn"''. A"wlga''tcinagawa''tci'- 

SOmeg''"'. A'wi'cigowaAva''tciga''megu kiga'nutcig a'nAgA'mowa'^tc'". 

O'ni na'lvA''^tc i"kwawAgi kiga'nutcig a'wi'cigi'megunA'ku'gawa- 

•"tci pwawimai'yotcig'''". Manega' wi'nApi'megumai'yowAgi me'to- 

"siine'niwAg''''. 

A'cawai'y aya''i pe'cigw aya'iwIga''tcipe'cigwinagAtA'mowa''tci 
35 mAma'tomon"'". 

O'ni kAbo'tw ini'i'meg a'kawapAme'gowa''tci'i ml''cameg iipi'ni- 

''tci'i kutA'g a'i'ciketemina'gowa''tc''. WrAniwe'gawa''tc a'init- 

"inaneme'gowa'^tc''. I'na'i'cike'kiinetA'mowa'^tc''; ane'f", "Aniwe'- 

gaiyAn""', kenwa"ci ki'Aneminie'to'sa'neniw'''V' a'i'cike'kanetA'- 

40niowa'^tc uwi'yawaw"'". 

A'lvImo''tciga''wInA'ini'iketemina'gowa''tci ml''cameg api'ni'^tci'''. 
A'kc'kaneme'gowa'^tc a"AgawatA'mowa''tci wi'ke'tcini'miwa'^tc''. 
Ini''tca"i'plni wa'^tci'ciketemina'gowa'^tc i'ni'i inl"cameg api'ni- 
^tci"''. Ane't i"kwawAg'''', ane'tA ne'niwAg''*", me'cewa'mego'na'''. 

*"}Iere I sit with them" means "I am sitting with those giving the gens festival." "Why," etc.. 
refers to people who are not of my gens. "When the person was told," etc., refers to a prisoner who is 
told that he is to be killed. The singer will decide whpn the prisoner is to be killed. The sineer in the 
song says he sat with the prisoner. The metrical scheme is abbbacbdbbbebadbcbb. Note the reverse 
order cbd — dbc. The English translation fails to bring this out. 



MICHELSON.] WHITE buffalo's LEFT-HOOF SACRED PACK. 219 

Here, I sit with them; 

Why, I sit with them, I do, I do; 

I sit with them; 
Why, I sit with them, I do; 

I sit with them; 

I sit with them. ■• 

I think of you fervently; 

I think of you fervently; 

I think of you ferventh-, yonder, 

On the earth of the manitous; 

I think of you fervently; 

I think of you fervently; 

I think of you fervently, yonder; 

I think of you fervently; 

I think of you fervently; 

I think of you fervently, yonder. ^ 

These songs are used after they have danced twice. It is said that 
they waited until those that were sitting outside were run inside. 

The ceremonial attendant would stop to say to them: "He invites 
us to dance. The manitou's songs are now to be used. They (the 
manitous) are the ones who watch over us as we dance. vSo as many 
of us as are now sitting inside here, must now think about them. We 
are to think about our lives in humbleness. You must indeed do 
that," the ceremonial attendant said to them. 

"These who are giving this gens festival must now sing loudly also. 
Indeed, they too must think the same in their hearts," they were told. 

Then, it is said, the eldest of the gens took the lead in singing. It 
is said the sesongs were then used. Indeed they sung them carefully. 
Those giving the gens festival would indeed sing loudly. 

Then, again, the women of the gens who did not weep would join 
in and sing loudly. Indeed, it is said, many of the people wept. 

That was long ago when the people still followed the worship care- 
fully and uprightly. 

Then some time later those that watched over them from within 
that sacred pack blessed them in another way. They wished that 
the (people) would become good dancers. They (the people) knew 
it to be that way; some would know about themselves: "If you are 
a good dancer, you will continue to live a long time." 

Those in that sacred pack would bless them in that way secretly. 
They (the manitous) knew that they wanted to dance vigorously. 
That was the reason why, it is said, they were thus blessed by those 
in the sacred pack. Some of them were women, some of them were 
men, indeed, it was simply anyone. 

' " I think of you " refers to the White Buffalo. The earth of the manitous is located in the East. 



220 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BI^FFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. «. 

Mo"tci wigl'yapegi kl'cagu'''tci pA'kigwA'"tanig''*'', wl'nimiwa''tci'- 
meg*"". PA'kig\vA''sowat*'', kl'ki'ki'megu ■wi'ni'miwa''tc'', sAnAgA- 
twi'ku''tciwi'me'to"sane'niwig''''; mi"*tca'"iniwa''tci'ci'"tciga''tci%si'nA 
ma'netowA wape'ckiku'pi'^tci'nenu's^*'. Wi'nanA ke'tcinaweme'- 
Sgupi ke'cemane'towAn a'Ano'ka'negu'^tc'". Wi'nA na''kaii a'Ano'- 
"kana'^tci wi'A'semi'e'gu'^tci'i wi'manemawa''tci'ga.'i ma'a''i Me- 
'ckwA"kl'a'''. 

MA'ni mrca'm Apimiga'titcigi pyaya'wa'^tci i'ni mA'n a'nigani'- 
migA'k''. I'ni mA'n a"n6tAg Apimaiya'wu'satA neni'w"*'. A'cki- 

lO'ckiwa'kuno'wAp a"nlmi<'tc'', o'ni ketiwi'gunAni wawene'sini^'tci'- 
meg a'nImA"ckA"wa'*tc''. I'nipi kegime'si'mcg a'ni'miwa''tci 
nimi'ni'^tcin ini'ni mi'ca'mi notAmi'ni'^tcin"''. Ni'ce'nwiga"ipi ni'- 
miW-^'. O'ni nl"cwi tepe'"k«'e nfcwiwif'sayaw a''nimi'^tc'". Ina' 
Apimaiya 'wu' sa t"" . 

15 Ki'cini'mi''tcini mAini"ci'Ana'A'goto''tcimi'ca'm™''. O'ni mame'- 
''tcina'i niini'''tc'', mo'cAgime'gup in i'"k\vawa' a'witega'megu''tc''i 

Ki'ci'meguni'mi'^tcin i'ni mi'ca'm a'a'wAto'^tci mA'mi'ci'-^'. lya'" 
ki'cAgo'to'^tcLn a'Ago'tanig'''', a'kwago'"otAg''"'. MAniga"ip a'i''^tc'': 
wa'wo wa'wo. Ini'meg a"penope'nowa''tc''. A'poninanlmi'e'tiwa- 
20 ''tc''. A'kl'cipyanepyanetiwe'gawa''tc''. 



Iniga'i'pinA notAga'niy i'ni mi'ca'mi wapiku"pi''tcine"nu"swaiyi 
'a'mawi"sA'kA'"wa't6''tci kigano'we'^tcin"'". 

Na"k^', a'kAnakA'nawi'^tci tAga'w'^''. Nimi'ni<'tci'iga"ipi'meg 

A"pena''tc a"ina'^tci wi'A'pi'tcini'mini'^tc'', wi'i'cita'e'gani^'tc'', wi- 

25 'nene'kane'mani^tci ma'netow anaweniwi'ni''tcin°'". Ini'pin 

a'cimame'kwina'wama'^tci nimi'ni'*tci'''. Ke'tenApi'meg a'me- 

'kwina'wame''tci ni'mitcig''''. 

Inipi'meg a'ca'wiwa^tc inipya''tci"ca'witcig''''. A'penii'^tci'megu 
nimi'ni'^tci' a''tcimo"awa''tc'', pe'ki'megu wi'ni'miwa'^tc'', wi- 
30pwawi'a'ciwa''tcLnowA'tenigi'ine'gani'^tc''; i''k\vawa'i na'kA wi'wi- 
'cigi'megiikegye"tenamita'"ani'*tc'"; "W'i'pwawi"A'ce'megu'i'cita"ani- 
''tc''; ke'tenA'megu "ni'nene'kane'mani'^tci wapiku'pi'^tcLne'nu- 
"son°''. I'nip a'i'nawa"^tc i'ni ki'cipya'^tcikegomya'gatcigi mi'ca'm™''. 



Kiga'nutcigi na'kA''^tci ma'A'ni nAgA'monAni nya''wi 'iiyo'we- 
35 "^tcin"'', a'^^'cigipAgA'mawa''tci tawa'i'gAnAn"''. O'ni" ci'ci'gwAnAn 
a"wi'ciga'kawa''tci'meg''"'. 

Na''kA pwawimai'yotcig a'wi'ciginagawa''tci'meg''"'. Wi'neno- 
'ta'govra^tci mane'towAn i'nipi ■n'a''^tc i'n i'ca'wiwa^'tc*'. Agwi'- 
kena'^tci nAgAmo'wa'^tctni nagA'mutcigi ma'A'ni nya'wi nAgA'- 
40momvn°''. KiiwAgi'meg i'nug i'n a"ca'wiwa''tc''. 



MKHELSON.] WHITE BUFFALO 's LEFT-HOOF SACRED PACK. 221 

Even if the house was exceedingly smoky they had to dance. If 
the smoke was (hurting their eyes) they would have to dance, never- 
theless, for life is hard; that is the reason why the manitou, the White 
Buffalo, acts that way. He has been personally appointed, it is said, 
by the Gentle Manitou. Then he appointed those who were to help 
him in thinking out blessings for these Mesquakies. 

When fighters returned, then this sacred pack was the leading one. 
It was then packed on the back of the man who led the war-party. 
It is said that he painted his body with mud and then danced, and 
he wore a verj^ pretty eagle feather in his hair. When the one who 
carried the sacred pack on his back danced, it is said, all danced. 
It is said that he would dance twice. Then he danced two nights 
and two days. This was the leader of the war-party. 

Mtev dancing, the ceremonial attendant would hang that sacred 
pack up. When he was to dance for the final time, then it is said 
the women only would dance with him. 

After he was finished dancing, then that sacred pack was taken 
away by the attendant. After hanging it up yonder where it had 
himg, he would call out. This is the way he would call : wa'wo wa'wo. 
They then started to return to their respective homes. They had 
ceased theu- dancing. They were now through with their dance of 
the captives. 

It is said the one who had that Wliite Buffalo Hide pack on his 
back went to bum tobacco for it whenever there was a gens festival. 

Again, he gave short talks. Indeed he woidd always speak to the 
dancers as to how long they were to dance, what to think in their 
hearts as they danced, how they were to think about the one who is 
called a manitou. It is said that this was the way he thereby reminded 
the dancers. Surely indeed the dancers would be reminded of those 
things. 

It is said that those who had done this would always do that. It 
was always the dancers they would talk to, how they must indeed 
dance in earnest, how they were not to dance in an easy way (i. e., 
not to think it too lighth') ; also that the women must think of this 
very seriously in their hearts; that they might not think of it as 
naught; surely indeed they were to think about the White Buffalo. 
It is said that this was what those who danced with the sacred 
bundle on their backs would say to the (dancers) . 

^Vnd when these four songs were simg those giving the gens festival 
would pound their drum hard. Then they would rattle their gourds 
hard indeed. 

Again, those that did not weep sang loudly. It is said that they 
did this so the manitou would hear them. Those singing these four 
songs did not sing them softly. Indeed they still do that at present. 



222 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

Ca''cki wi'cigina'gawAg ini'n a'aiyo'wa'^tcini nAgA'mSnAn"'". 
NawA''tci'megu'a"'tcimupi na"ina'i pya'^tci''sagin°''. "Kl'wl- 
'ciginagapwA'megu wi'neno'"tonagwe wI'nA ma'netow^*"," ina'pi 
nagA'mutcig''''. 
5 O'ni ni'mitcigi kAna''"', "Ea'ke'tcinimi'pw^'." I'ni na"kanig 
a'"ine''tci ni'mitcig inu'g''''. "Pemate'siwe'niku'i kenAnatu'^tca- 
'ckAinati"sopen°'^' mA'n a'cime'kwane'magwani mane'towAgi 
ninanAga"''. A'gwi ne'ci''kA wi'mi'ci'nAineg i'cita'a'yagin"''. 
TA'swi'meg aiyo''i piti'g a'A'piyAg''^^'. I'n a'cinAtuta'"sAge<*tci 
10wape"ckiku'pi'*tci'nenu'swA me'to'saneni'wiwen"''." 

Tni^'tca, "Nimigo', ke'tcinimigo'," i'n a'"ine'*tc'". 

Inu'gi ni'mitcig i'niy a'prtci"sA'sa'"kwawa''tci poni'A'pi'tci'sA'sa'- 
"kwawAg''''. Me'ce'megu ni'mitcigi pone'gawAg ayl'kwl'wtl'*tcin°'". 
Na"k^', me'ce'na'i kAkAnone'tiwAg'"'. 

15 NeniwAgi'ga'i nimi'kAma'gawAgi me'ce'na''". A'gwi wI'nA wa'- 
wu'sa'i mi'ketl'wikA'nawin aiyoti'wa'^tcin"''. Na''kA ne'niwAg 
a'gwi wa'wu'sa" amA"amAnowa''tcimo'wa''tcin°''. Inu'g i'n a'ca'- 
wiwa'^tc'". A'gwi mamye''tci kiwinAto'me''tcini wi'ni'mitcig^''. 
Me'cemeg5'na' a'ci'ta'atA mawini'mlw"^". 

20 PonikiwinAtowawe'niwiwA wi"nimit*'. Me'teno"megonu'gi wl'ni'- 
ganlt i'kwii'wA mawi'a'^tci'mo'et'''. MAmi"ci"Ani mawi'a''tcimo'- 
'egut^'. Ini'meg i'ci'neguf; a'gwi ku'tAga' a<*tcimo'e'gu''tcin''''. 
NiganimAml'ci'Ani'meg a''tcimo'e'gu''tcin°'". "WapA'gepi mamai'- 
yA kl'mawini'm"'','' inawe'niwiw""^'. 'Ini'meg a'ki'cike'ka'netAgi 

25 wi'niga'nega'^tc''. 

I'n a'ca'wiwa''tc Inu'gi wapiku"pi"^tcine'nu'son ii'mAmato'- 
mawa''tc''. Inu'gi me'ce'megu wrA'pi'tcini'migwan A'pI'tcinI'miw 
u'wlya'-^'. 

Kiganowi'i'cawiwe'ni wl'n Ini'meg Inimeg5'nin A'cawai'ye 

SOpya^tci'cawiwa'te' Ini'megu m'nan a'ca'wiwa^'tei kawA'g''*". 
Agwi'kiigo" i"cipe'kini'ci'tciga'wa''tcini kiga'nutcig Inu'g''''. 

WlnwawA<^tca'nI'mitcigi po'n a'cike'nige' i'ca'wiwAg''''. Meteno'- 
'megu ka'tci'gitcigi mA'kwa^'tcinl'mitcig Inu'g''''. KiiwA'gi nagA'- 
tAgig'''", 6'n a'cki'gi'Ag ane'tA tAga'wi nagA'tAmog''''. Ane't 

35agwi'megu pa'ci nagAtAmo'wa'^tcin'^''. Ca'cki'megu nAno"ckwe 
ke'tcini'miwAg''''. I'kwawAgi'ga' ini'meg ii'ca'wiwa^tc''. Ne'niwAg 
a'cki'gitcig a'gwi mana'wa^'tcini iiAno'ckwe ka'tcike'tcini'- 
mitcig''''. I''kwawAg a'cki'gi'Agi kawA'gi ma'nawAgi mA'kwa'^tci'- 
megu nani'mitcig''''. AwA''si winwa'w i''kwawAg i'citapwa'- 

40"tAmogi kawA'g''''. Ne'niwAg a'cki'gi'Ag Ane'ki"iwAg'''". 



MICHELSON.] WHITE buffalo's LEFT-HOOF SACRED PACK. 223 

When they use those songs they are only sung loudly. When the 
time comes for them, they wait to tell them of it. The singers are 
told: "You must indeed sing loud so the manitou may hear you." 

Then the dancers are also told, ''You must at least dance hard." 
That is what the dancers are told now. "We are seeking for life 
with our feet for ourselves when we think about the manitous in this 
way. We do wish in our hearts that it be given us alone. It is for 
every one of us who is sitting down in here. Life is what we ask for 
from the White Buffalo." 

That is the reason why (the dancers) are told, "Dance, dance 
hard." 

To-day the dancers have ceased to be so religiously restricted as 
those formerlj" were religiously restricted. The dancers (now) cease 
to dance whenever they are tired. Again, they now even talk to 
each other. 

The men, too, smoke while dancing just as well (as at other times). 
They do not, however, use words as in courting. Also the men did 
not, however, talk about carnal love. They do that now. They do 
not now go around inviting them to dance. Indeed just anyone who 
wishes to goes over to dance. 

The one who is to dance is not now called in. The one that is 
informed now is the woman who is to take the lead. She is the one 
whom the ceremonial attendant goes to tell. He is the onh^ one; 
no one else tells her of it. The leading ceremonial attendant is the 
one that informs her. "It is said that to-morrow, earh^, you are to 
go and dance,',' she is told. She then knows that she is to be the 
leader of the dance. 

This is the way they do now when they worship the White Buffalo. 
Now just anyone dances as long as he wants to dance. 

The performance of the gens festival, though, is yet done in the 
same way it was done long ago. Those giving the gens festival to-day 
do not change (the rule) in any way. 

The dancers themselves have ceased to do as was done. The 
older ones are the only ones who dance quietly now. They are the 
ones who still follow it, and some young (people) still follow it a 
little. Some do not follow it at all. They just dance violently 
unknowangly. The women do that indeed. There are not many 
men who are young and who dance violently but imknowingly. 
There are yet many young women who dance quietly. The women 
yet believe in it more than (men). There are few young men 
(who do). 



224 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. .'xx. 40. 

Na"k a'gwi mamye"tci nimi't A'cawai'ye wl'krcagu''tcimi'ca'- 
te'si''tc'". Cii'cki'megu ketiwi'gunAni wi'nImA''ckA'\va''tc''. O'ni 
to'ka'nA ■wi'inA"kAtawa''kunu'^tc'". Ki'cko'A'ga'i wrwape'cka'- 
'kunu'^tc''. Ini'megu ke'tcime'nwa''". Wrpe'se'kA'mowa''tci wiiiA- 
5 ''tca''meg'^"'. A'gwi wi'me'tAnA'site'gawa''tc''. Me'tcno'megu 
Ape'no'Agi me'tA'nA'sitanimini'mitcig''''. Ke'tcita'wi wl'ii a'g''"''. 
SA"sa''kwawAg''''. 

Ape'no'Ag a'gwima" krcigrwa''tcin°''. Na"k*', A'^tca''megu 
wapine''kAm6gi wi'me'to'saneni'wiwa'*tcin°''. Na'kA''^tc'', a'Ape'- 

lOno'ig a'gwi ka'kA'mi ke''tcitawi "i'cita''agin°''. I'n Ini'gi wii'^'tci 
me'ce'meg i'ca'wiwa'^tci winwa'w''*', Ape'ttD'Ag""'', i'ckwa''sa'Ag'''', 
kwiye''sa'Ag''''. TcI'gA'ckutawa'nA'c a"ta"itAne'gawa''tc''. A'gwi 
tetepega'wa''tcin°''. Me'teno'megu ki"ca'cke'si'"iwit I'nanA tetc'- 
pegat a''nlrai'^tc''. Na'kA"'tci krci'u'ckinawa''iwitA me''teno"i 

15 tete'pegat a''nimi''tc''. 

Negutipi'megu mAmi"ci'An Ape'no'Ag a'A'kawapAiQe'gowa''tc 
a'ni'iniwa''tci wi'pwawi'A''ckutagi"i'cisa"e'tiwa'^tc''. Na'kjV wl- 
'pwawimlga'tiwa''tci wata''sawAn°''; na"kA'''tci wI'pwawi'A'sami- 
wawAne'cka''iwa''tc''. Ayanlwe'megu "a'ta"itAne'gawa''tc''. O'n 

20inug Apeno''a'Agi tetepegawAgi'raegu a'nl'miwa''tc''. A'gw ai'y 
a'ci'genig a'cawi'wix''tcin Ape'no'Ag''''. Na''k a'gw a'ni'miwa'^tci 
inAmi"ci'An A'kawapAmego'wa'^tcin"''. WinwawA'niegu wiiwana- 
neti"sowAg Ape'no'Ag a'ni'miwa''tc''. 

SA"sa''kwawAg Ape'no'a'i piti'ge wi'tA'cimIga'tIni''tc a'm'niini- 

25 ''tc''. Ini''tca"ipi wa''*tc A'kawapAmawenI'wiwa''tci wi'migati'e'- 
tlwii'^tc'". Piti'ge tA'cimiga'tiwate kiigo'me'gup i'"^cawi'sA ka'tci- 
'cigi't*', '6' me'eega" utogima'mwawAni kegeni'megu nep6''ini's^^'. 
Kago"meg i'ci'geni's*". 

I'nipi wa'''tc A'kawa'pAme^'tc Ape'no'Ag''''. Ca'ckima'meg a'pi- 

30 'tcinl'miwa'^tci ne'ki peini"A'kawapAme'gowa''tci nlga'nimAmi'- 
'ci'An"''; a'gwi kutAga"''; miimye'tci'megu nIga'nimAmi"cI'An 
a"tA'ci"A'kawapAniego'wa''tcin"''. 

Inipina''kan a'ca'wiwa''tc A''cawai'''''. Inu'g Ape'no'Agi nimi'- 
wa'^tcini tetepegawAgi'meg'"''. 

35 Na'kA'''tc A'peno' a'gwi na'ine'ciwrse'ni''tcini nimi't*^". Ugya'ni 
wi'tamat I'nA nimi'tA wi'senitA'ga'''. Me'cemego'na'i tclnawiima'- 
wa'^tcin a'wita'inawa''tc i'n a'ni'niiwa''tc''. Na''winwaw a'wl'pu'- 
niawa''tc'". Inugi wi'nA me'cena''inegu nane'ci'"kA mawini'miwAg 
Ape'no'Ag''''. 

40 Na'kA"'tci nane'ci'kA'megu wl'se'niwAg inug Ape'no'Agi nl'- 
mitcig''''. WinwawAgii'' ayl'gi nagAtawane'megogi mane'towAni 
nimi'ni'^tci" a'kawapA'ma''tcin"''. Ini'meg a'cina''wInwawAnene- 
'kaneme'gowa'^tc a'ni'miwa^tci mi"cameg api'ni'^tci"''. Cewa'nA 
winwa'w Ape'no'Ag a'mml"iwa''tci ka'ka'ke'sowA'gii)'". "A'a- 

45 'ckuta'winig i'nip a'ka'ka'ke'"sowa''tc''. 



MICIIELSON.] WHITE buffalo's LEFT-HOOF SACRED PACK. 225 

Also, the ones who danced long ago did not have to bo gorgeously 
dressed. He only had to wear an eagle feather in his hair. Then 
the To'kan"'^" was to pamt his body black. The Krcko*'^" was to 
paint his body white. Indeed that was entirely sufRcient. They 
indeed had, to wear moccasins, though. They could not dance bare- 
footed. The children were the only ones who always danced bare- 
footed. The older ones did not. Their religion restricted them. 

The children are not grown yet. Again, they just have commenced 
the chase so they may live. Again, when in childhood thoughts are 
not direct like those of the older ones. That is the reason why these 
children, girls and boys, do as they wish to do. Yet they had to 
dance near the fire. They did not dance in a circle. The only one 
who danced around in a circle when she danced was she who had 
passed mto young maidenlaood. Also only the one who had become 
a young man was the one who danced around in the circle when he 
danced. 

It is said that the children were watched by one ceremonial attend- 
ant as they danced so that they might not push each other in the 
fire. Also that they might not fight a brave; also that they might 
not get too mischievous. They always danced in one certain place. 
Now the little children dance around in the circle when they dance. 
The children have ceased to do the things they used to do. Also 
they are not watched by the ceremonial attendant while dancing. 
The children themselves do as they please when they dance. 

Religion demanded that the children should not fight inside while 
dancing. That is the reason, it is said, that they were guarded 
against fighting. If they fought inside, it is said that something 
would happen to a prominent member, or it might be that their 
chief would indeed die c[uickly. Something indeed would happen. 

That, it is said, was why the children were watched. It was only 
while they danced that they were watched by the leading ceremonial 
attendant; it was by no others; it was certainly the leading cere- 
monial attendant who watched them. 

It is said that was another thing they did long ago. Now when the 
children dance, they indeed dance around in the circle. 

Again, the child who danced did not eat alone. The one who 
danced or ate was the one who M'ent along with its mother. If they 
went along with any relative, they then danced just as well. They 
too ate with them. Now the children just go in to dance each by 
themselves. 

Again, the children who dance now, eat by themselves. They too 
are watched by the manitou who watches over the dancers. They 
too are thought of in the same way when they dance by those who 
are in that sacred pack. Still, it is said that the children get scorched 
while they are dancing. It is said that they get scorched as there is 
a fire. 



226 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. inn. 40. 

AwA'sipi' wInwawA" sAnAgi'"towAg a'ni'miwa'^tc''. I'nipi wa''*tci 
kekegeniketcketeminawe''si\va''tci ki'cigl'wa''tcin''''. Pyii'^tcini- 
minl'mitcig a'Apeno''iwa''tc Inigl'nigi kagenimyji'cinawa'"atcigi 
ma'netowa'i ki"ci'awA'si'ma"i'inegino'wa''tcin"''. Agwiga''i me'- 
S'teno" i'na' api'ni'^tci'i mi'Vamegi me'cemego'na'i ma'netowa"''. 
I'ni wa'<'tc ane'tA no'mAgilwe mA'kAta'wiwa'^tc''. 

"O' na'kA''^tc'', i'nipi vv'a'''tci kAkanwa'"cime'to"saneni'wiwa"^tc''; 
a'Apeno'iwa''tci'megu ■u'''tcipya''tci mA'kwa'''tc a'nanl'miwa'^tc''. 

Pa'ci'megu 'a"ke'"kyawa''tci mA'kwa'''tc a"nani'miwa<*tc'". 'O'n 
10a''mlne''tci wawene'tenigi me'to'saneni'wiwen"''. Na'"k A'ci'e'- 
mete me'to'sanenl'wiwa'i wi'me'to'saneniwa'^tci'mcg''"'. Me- 
'cemego'na'i me'to'sane'niwA wa"*tci mA'kwa'^tci nimini'mi'^tc''. 
I'n a'lcwi"*tci wii'^'tci pAgi''cimugi wa'*tcike"siyag u'^'tcipya'^tci 
mlnawane'tagwA'ki wape"ckiku'pi''tci'nenu'sw unemA'^'tcineg u'^tci- 
ISka'te mrca'm"'''. 
I'n a'k\vi"^tc''. 



MICHELSON.] WHITE buffalo's LEFT-HOOF SACRED PACK. 227 

It is said that they have a harder time while they dance. That is 
the reason, it is said, why they each are blessed quickly after they 
have grown up. Those that began to dance from their childhood up 
are the ones who quickly make the manitous sorrowful after they 
have grown up bigger. It is not only the ones who are in that 
sacred pack, it is any of the manitous. That is why some fast for 
a short tune. 

Then again, that is the reason, it is said, why they live very long; 
because they danced from their childhood up in an earnest and quiet 
way. 

Even when they were old they still danced quietly and earnestly. 
They were then given life that was beautiful. Indeed when they 
again make the people, they too will live. That is w|iy just any of 
the people go and dance along quietly. 

This is the end of this, which is supposed to be from the North- 
west, the White Buffalo's Left-hoof Sacred Pack. 

This is the end. 



WlPIPAPI'SIGA'CA'WIMI'CA'M"''. 

WiitapA'gi wif'tcike'siya'g u^'tci'nawe wapiku'pi'^tci'nenu'swA "uni- 
ganine'ka'gAneg iinemA'''tcineg u'^tci'naw'"'". Ml'ca'mi wapipapl'- 
'slgA'cawi 'i'cite"kataw'"'". Ma'ii a'ciwa'pikegi mA'ni nii'ca'm™''. 

Mo'cAgi'megu neni'w 'o'ni kii/'tcigit i'kwa'wA, poni'megumya'- 

Snotat*'; o'n i''ckwa'sa"A pwawiwapimj'a'notaf^'; kwiye'sa"^', 

niA'n a'kawtxpA'megwit*'. Me't6''^tci me'ce'meg''"'. Na'i'kT'cima- 

mya'notat a'gw i'ni nene'kaneme'gwi''tcini niA'ni mamatotAmo'- 

we''tcini wape'ckiku'pi'^tcinenu'swimi'ca'm™''. 

I'ni na'ina'i neni'wA p\vawi'megukago''i'i'ci\vawawAne'cka"i'ta- 

10'a''tc''. MA.'kwa'^tci'megu wi'i'ci'ta'a''tc"". Wi'pwawiga'i'i"kwa- 

WAniini'ketIwa'nema''tc'". Wi'pwawimi'keti'wi'ApAna'nema'^tc''. 

Wi'nA na"kA neni'wA wi'pwawi'megukago''i'i'cinene"kima'^tc 

i'"kwawAn a'pI"tcikiga'nowe^tc''. Na''kA nowi'te nawa'te mo'- 

'tci ini'ke'ma''tcin°'', wrpwawi'megunaWA''tcikAkAnone'ti"a''tc''. 

ISCii'cki'megu wl'"nawa''tc i"kwawAn''''. A'ci'megumenwi'genigi 

wrina'nema''tci' ca"ck i"kwawa" a'pi"tcikiga'nowe''tc''. O'n 

a'ciwawAne'cka'i'genig ina'nemate nAnawi'megu wl'inaneta'gu'si- 

''tci ma'aetonag"^'". 

Wi"wlga'si'^tci''tca''megu wi'n u'wiyawi wi'A'kawa'pAtAgi me'to'- 

20 ''tci neni'w'"*'. MA'kwa^'tci'megu M'i'i"cawi'^tc''. 

I'kwawAni'ga'i kAno'negute niA"kwa''tci'megu wi'kA'nona'^tc''. 

Na"kA pitige'megu wi'Api"Api'^tci ne'ki'megu pemikiga'nowe''tc''. 

I'ni wi'nani mi'ca'm a'ci'A'kawapA'mcgwi'^tci neni'wA wi'pwawita- 

'itAna"'tcima'*tc i'"kwawAni neni'w'^*'; mo'tci'kago'i wI'i'cikA'- 

25gatwa''tci neni'w agwi'megu kAna'g'"'''^'. MA'kwa'^tci'megu 

piti'ge wi"Api"Api^tc'". 

Na'kA"'tci wfpwawi'megu"A'samiwIgawi'nowi''tc'". Wl'pwawiwl- 
gawi'gapi^'tc'', mo'tci'megu mA'sani'gapif'. Ini'megu wi'inA'i'- 
nApi'^tci ki'ki'ki'meg''"'. Kago"na'k i"ci'A"ckApite wi'pwawi'- 
SOmegu'ce'gi'cig''''. Ini'megu ki'kl'ki wi'inA'i'nApi'^tc'". 

Wri'ci'ta'a^'tci neni'w a'cime'kwina'wame^tc'", niA'nip a'"ine''tc'": 

"Na'i', neme'come'seti'g''''', ina'nemagwe mene'tA'megu katemi'- 
nawag''"'^', I'ni na''nin inu'g inanetA'mawigu neme'to'siinenl'- 
wiwen°''. I'cita'a'tAmugu ki'yawaw^''/' ina'pip a'a'^tcimo'e'- 
35gowa'^tci klgano'ni'^tci"''. 
228 



THE WHITE TINY-HOOF SACRED PACK. 

(It is meant) to be for the left front hoof of the Wliite Buffalo, on 
the east and north of hun. It is called the Wliite Tiny-Hoof Sacred 
Pack. This is the origin of this sacred pack. 

Only a man and a woman who is well on in years, one who has 
indeed ceased to menstruate; also a girl who has not yet begun to 
menstruate; and a boy, is the one watched by this (sacred pack). 
Indeed simply anyone. One who has started to menstruate regularly 
is not tliought of when this White Buffalo's sacred pack is being 
worsliipped. 

At that time a man must not think of anything wicked in his heart. 
He must only think rightl}" in his heart. He must not think of court- 
ship toward women. He must not laugh at them in a courting way. 
That man too must not mention a woman in any way during the gens 
festival. Also if he goes out and sees one, even the one he courts, 
he must not wait to talk to her. AU he could do was to have seen 
the woman. He must think of women only in a way that is proper 
during the gens festival. And if he were to think of them wickedly 
he would be considered as naught among the manitou. 

Indeed the man must be very careful to look after his life, as it 
seems. Indeed lie must act in a quiet way. 

When a woman speaks to him, he must speak to her quietly. 

Also he should keep sitting inside as long as there was a gens festival. 

That sacred pack looks after a man in that way so that the man will 
not talk about a woman there; even it is not allowed for the man to 
joke in any way. He must sit ciuietly inside, the entire time. 

Again, he must not go out too soon. He may not move his feet, 
even if his feet have gone to sleep. Indeed he must sit that way 
nevertheless. Again, should he in any way get tired sitting, he may 
not lie down. Indeed he must sit that way nevertheless. 

It is said this was what the man was told when he was reminded 
of what to think in his heart : 

"Now my grandfathers, whatever you may have thought of the 
one you have first blessed, you must now think that of my own life 
also. Think that in your hearts about your lives," it is said they were 
told by the ones who gave the gens festival. 

229 



230 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth, a.:n-. 40. 

U'ckinawa"Api ki'ganut'''. Ina'nanA mA'n a'cikAno'natA ne'ni- 
'wa'"'. I'nip a'i'ne'^tcini ne'niwAg a'tcaginAgApe'kwa''sawa'^tc''. 
MA'lvwa'^tcime'gup a'pe"se"cawa^tc''. 

Na'kA'''tc agwi'lcAnagwA ■wi'a''tci'piwa''tc''. Pe'ki'megu wi'tcitA'- 
5piwa'*tc''. 

Me'ten6''megu ke'te'nA kAtawi'sagi'^^tciwat"', I'ni wi'no'wiwa''tc''. 

Ini'n a'ciwapi'A'kawapAme'gwiwa''tci wapipiipI''sigA'cawimi'ca'mi 
mo'cAgi'megu ne'niwAg''''. Ponimyanotatci'gima'i nenlgi'raegu 
'iniinetagu'siwAg''''. Ca'cki'megu wi'a''penawike"tcimAmatomo- 

10 wita''awa'*tc i'nip ananetagu"siwa''tci ne'niwAg''''. A'peuega'- 
megu 'inane'megogi mane'towAn°'', i'cike'kanetAmo'gip''. 

I'nina' u'wIya'A na"tA'senw a'"nowi''tc'', Ini'megu mo"tc uwi- 
■^tcineno'tawa" a'kl"cimlnawane'megu''tc'". 
U'wiya'A na"k*", a'pl'tci'ce'gi'cig'"', mAmI'"ci'An a'mawi'a- 

15 '*tcimo''egu''tc''. "Napiwi'n"^', na'gwaijAn"*'", a'uwi'giyAni pe"ki" 
cegi"cegi'ci''kAp'^". Awi't u'wIya'A kag6''meg i'ttene's"^'. Iniigi 
■wi'nA mA'n aiy5"i keni'cke'cka'wawAgi mane'towAni nane'kane'- 
matcig'''','' a"ine'^tc''. Mo'tci'meg u'wIya'A ku'setagA'niwit Inimc'- 
gup a'migu'^tci mAmi''crAn''''. Iniga'ipi'meg ami''ta'i nagwa'^^tci 

20ke'tcnA'meg''"'. InA'gii' Api"Apite pwawinagwa't"', awi'tApi 
nAna"c A'cA'mena''^'. Ne'ki'megu pemiklga'nowe''tc awi'tA wl'- 
'seni's*'. 'O' nagwategii"ipi na"ina'i mAmI''cra'i wi'ku'wanit''', 
Inami''ta'i ■H'i''kume''tc''. Cewa'nA krci'ineguwl"senit®', Inami'- 
'ta'i peini'nowI''tci nag%\'a"^tc''. Awi'tA Ina''i wI'Api"Api^tc i'ci'- 

25 ta'a's'*^'. I'ni na"kan a'to'tawu'^tc''. 

O'ni pwawi'megunAna'i'cegi'ci'g I'nanan i'ni ml'ca'mi wawinwa'- 
neg^vit'^', na"k a'mA'sani'gapi^tci pwawi'megumii'tApit ini'meg ii'ci- 
WAwInwa'negwa''tc''. Na'kA"'tci pwiiwi'mcgukag6''i'i'ciwawAne- 
"cka'"i'ci'ta'at-*', ini'megu 'iiyl'g''''. 'O'n i"kwawAn a"nowI'^tci 
30nawa't*', pwawikA'cki kag6''i 'a"igu''tci pi'ne'ci pwawi'^tca"kA- 
'ckikago"i'i'cinawa"egut-^', I'nA na"kA wanwinwa'negwit i'ni 
mi'ca'm"''. O'ni a'pA'klgwA'titnigi wanAto'kA'megu 'api"ApitA 
pwawimAtAgo'kwapit'^', I'nA na'"lc*'. Ini'^tca" u'wiya' a'tcagi'Ini'- 
'cawi'^tc I'nananA nenl'w""^'. 

35 Ke'tenA'megu mA'kwa'''tc a'me'to'sane'niwi'^tc'', mA'kwa'^'tci 
no'tAgA kl'ganon"''. 

Me'cega'mego'na' a'tA"cigwan ina''i piti'g a'tA'ciklga'nowe^tci 
nenl'w'^'^', Ini'megu wI'pwawiwawAnane'megwi'^tci manetowi'i'cita'- 
'agAn°''. Wi'nA wai)e'ckiku'pi''tci'nenu'sw a'A'kawapAta''iwa''tc''. 



MICHELSON.] WHITE TINY-HOOF SACRED PACK. 231 

It was said a young man was giving that gens festival. It was he 
who spoke to the men in that way. Whenever the men were spoken 
to in this Avay, it is said, they would all bow their heads down. It is 
said they listened with attention. 

Also it was not allowed that they lean against something as they 
sat. Indeed they were to sit upright. 

They might go outside only when they were on the point of 
tirinating. 

That is the way this White Tiny-hoof vSacred Pack watches over 
the men only. Those (women) who have ceased to menstruate are 
considered as men. It is said the men alike are only expected to be 
earnest in their hearts about worshipping. It is said that they knew 
that the manitou thought of them all alike. 

At that time if some one goes out several times, even his fellow- 
Indians would take notice of him. 

Again, while some one would lie down a ceremonial attendant 
would go over and tell him of it. "Well, if you depart, you then 
might lay around in your home. There would be no one to say 
anything to you. As it is now, in here you are in the way of those 
who are worshipping the manitou," he would be told. Even though 
if anyone was feared, he would be told the same thing by the cere- 
monial attendant. It is said that he would then truly have to 
leave. If he kept sitting there and did not leave it is said that he 
would never be fed. As long as the gens festival was going on he 
would not eat. And if he left, it is said, he would be invited when- 
ever the attendants would go out to invite. Still, after he had eaten, 
he woidd have to go out and leave. He would not tliink in his heart 
of keeping on sitting there. That is what they did to them too. 

And then the one who did not lie down is the one who is complimented 
by that sacred pack, also the one who does not stir from liis seat 
when his legs go to sleep is given a compliment by it in the same 
way. Also with regard to the one who never thinks wickedness in 
his heart of anytliing, it is just the same. And the one who sees a 
woman when he goes out, whom the woman can not stir when she 
tempts liim with her speech, he also is the one who is complimented 
by that sacred pack. And the one who sits unmoved in a smoky 
place, who never covers his face is another one. When anyone does 
all these things he is the same. 

One who indulges in the festivals of gentes in a quiet and earnest 
way, truly his life is right. 

Indeed no matter how many men there are inside in the gens 
festival, they \vill not be unknown to the manitou's thought. They 
are put there by the White Buffalo to be watched over. 



232 OEIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. axn. 40. 

Ne'niwa'i tcitApi'm<*tci"i wi'nagAtawane'meme''tc''; wi'pwawi'u'- 
wiya"AWA'nLma''tci Ke'cema'netowAn"'', i'nip wa"*tc I'n i'ci'- 
'tciga'^tci wape'ckiku'pi''tci'nenu's''*'. Wi'wi'cigi'*tca"megu'u'A- 
"kawapA'meme''tci ne'niwa''', kwlye"sa"a"'', u'ckina'wa'a'i wi'i'ci- 
5 'i'cita'atAini'nigwani pemate'"siwen°''; nigani'ga'i wi'i'cinene- 
"kaneti'so'nigwan"'". Ini'ni wa"*tc i'ci''tciga'^tc''. Cewa'iiA wi'wi- 
'cigi'megu'A'kawapA'meme'^tci me'to'sane'niwa'"; I'ni wi'iiA wa'- 
■^tci nAna'"A't6''tc u'wiyaw'"'', na"kani wapipapi'si'gA'cawiml- 
'ca'm"°''. 

10 Uwiwa'A' na'kA<^tc'', "NinA'mAtA "a'g"''^'','' ina'netAg u'wiyawi 
me'cena''megu ki'ki'kina'wa'tow™'^'. Cewa'nApi pe'ki'megu mamA- 
"ka''tci'megu me'to'^'tci nc'ciwAna"'tci'tow u'wiyaw''''. Pe'kime'- 
gupi nia'netonag agwi' kago'anctagii''si''tcin°''. A'ci'megune'ciwA- 
na"'tcanig I'n anane'mcgu''tci ma'netowa'''. Mamye'tci'megu 

15wI'nA me'to'''tc u'wiyawi no'to'w"*'. InAga'i'nanA kl'giinoni 
pwawi'mcgukag5''i'i'cikekye'tenama'netAg'^', wt\piku'pi''tcinenu- 
'swimAnia'tom6n°''. 

Uwiya'A' na'kA'''tc'', ta'pwa'tAgA ke'tenA'megu a'A'pi'tci- 
menwi'ciwa'pe'si'^tc''. A'pwawi'megiikago''i'i"cina'a'kwA'mAtAg''''. 

20 A'penawe'meg a"ki"cagu''tciwawene'tenig upemate"siwen''''. Na'- 
"k*', ma'netowa"! kateminaga'ni''tci' a'ki'cagu''tci'megumenwapA'- 
megu^'tc''. Me'to'^tci'meg a'pi'ne'si'^tci mane'tonag''''. Pc'kigji'- 
'in anotatiinigi'megu anemi"cawit'^". A"cike'kanetA'mini''tci mene'- 
'tA katcminawe'si'ni''tcin i'n anemi''cawit'*'. Ini<*tca'" I'mlnanA 

25na''Ini anane'megutA ma'netowa"''. 

Agwiga" ma'mA"ka'^tci wapiku"pi"'tcmenu'swiml"cameg api'ni- 
•^tci"! ma'netowa"i wi'inane'megu''tc'". Me'cemego'na"! ma'netow 
anaweniwi'ni''tcin°'"; Ke'cemane'towAni tA'"sw a"n6''kani'^tci 
ma'netowa"'", I'n a'ciplnane'megu''tci wi"ci'gApit a"prtciklga'- 

30nowe''tc'". SAnAganemawA'gipi wI'dgApi'm^'tci'''. AuetAga'"ipi 
nomAgawe'meg a'tcItA'piwa'^tc o'n a'no'wiwa''tc'". 

I'na' wI'nApi piti'ge a'gwi kAna'gw u'wIya"A wi"kiwiwIga'wApi- 
''tc'". A"kiwiga'"ipiwiga'wApi''tc'", kAbotwe'megu mAmI''cI'Ani, 
"Nrka'n""", kwaiyA"kwi'megu pe'noyAn'"'". "Iya''i mame'ci'megu 

35 kiwi'ina'inA'pi'kAp'*". AiyS'wI'nAmA'nima'netowA tA"cinene'kaneta'- 
gu"siw'"^". A'gwi kAnagwA'megu wrtA"ciwapAwapAnatA'piyAg''''®'. 
Iya"tca a"uwI'giyAn awitA'meg u'wIya"A kago" i'nene"s'^'. 
Me"cena'ka'"mo'tci nepAne'pa'kAp*". Aiyo'wI'nA wl"nene"kane- 
mAgwe'meg i"'cigenwi wi'nA ma'netow^*'. Ini'^tcawa'^'tci wl'cigi- 

40tcitA'piyag'''"^". "Ini^'tea" ki"i"caw'"". Ki'na'g''''*"." I'nip anawe'- 
niwi'^tc u'wlyit" A"samitA"se'nw a'wIga'wApi'^tc'". I'nip a''penu- 
''tc'". Cewa'n a'wi'kumaweniwi''tci'megu na'"ina"i wrseni'ni"*tcini 
me" to" sane 'niwa' ' " . 



MiCHELSON.] WHITE TINY-HOOF SACRED PACK. 233 

That the men sitting there should be considered; and that some 
one may not fool the Gentle Manitou, it is said, was why the White 
Buffalo makes such rules. Indeed then the men, boys, and young 
men must be watched over carefully (to see) in what way they will 
think about life; and whether they thought about their futm-e lives. 
That is why he has those rules. Still, the people are to be watched 
over carefulh^; that is why he has put himself Qiis spirit) there, and 
also that White Tiny-hoof Sacred Pack. 

Again, if some one tliinks of himself, "Not I," it is likely that he 
is acting contrary to its (desires). But it is said, though, that he 
will eventually ruin his life indeed, as it seems. It is said that 
among the manitous he is considered nothing. In the way which is 
ruin, that is what the manitous think of him. It seems that he 
eventually kills liis life. He is that one who does not tliink anything 
is true in the gens festival, the worship .of the Wliite Buffalo. 

When, moreover, some one does believe in it, his life surely is 
always all right. He does not get sick in any way. Indeed his life 
is always beautiful. Again, the manitous who bless liim look upon 
him with extreme satisfaction. It seems as though he is clean 
among the manitous. He is the one who continues to do those 
tilings that have been told. He is one who continues to do tilings 
like the one who fu-st knew it and who was blessed with it. He is 
that one who is thought about that way by the manitous. 

It is not only the manitous in that White Buffalo sacred pack who 
will tliink of liim in that way. It is any of those who is called a 
manitou; as many manitous as are appointed by the Gentle Manitou, 
tliink him clean when he thus sits firmly during the gens festival. 
It is said they consider those who sit firmly tough. Some, it is said, 
sat down a little while and then went out. 

Inside, it is said, it is not allowed for any one inside to sit, lean, 
and move around. It is said when some one did go about, sit and 
lean, suddenly a ceremonial attendant, "My friend, you had better 
go home. Over there you might sit any way. Here the manitou 
is now being thought of. Indeed it is impossible for us to sit the 
way we please in here. Yonder where you live no one would say 
anything to you. You could even sleep over there. In here it is 
fixed so that we are to think about the manitou. That is why you 
(pi.) are to sit firmly. You must indeed do that. You must go." 
It is said that was the way one was told when he sat leaning too 
many times. It is said that he would then go home. Still, he 
was indeed invited when the people ate. 
3509°— 25 1 IC 



234 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. anx. 40. 

Kl'ciwi"seiii'ni"*tcini i'liA nenl'wA wata'pAnig u'''tci'ckwat a'u- 
''tcipemi'nowI''tc''. Cewa'n a'wa'gomu''tc''. MAniga''ip a'i'''tci 
tci'gi'ckwate krcinemA''su'^tcin°'' : '0' tcaganago'niAgig'''', wa- 
pipapi'sI'gA'cawimi'ca'm™'', nenu'so'gi tcaganago'mAgig'"','' a'i''*tc 
Si'niyA pwawimA"kwa<'tci'Api"Apit'^'. I'nip a'nayapimA'kwata- 
neta'gu'si^'tc i'n a'i'ciwa'gomu'^tc''. 

AnetAga'"ip a'gwi kA'ckiwagom6'wa''tcin a'ma'nani^tci me'to- 
'sane'niwa'''. Ini'gip*', ""Wii'na'i \vawAiae'cka''iwiwA'meg'"'V' 
a'inaweni'wiwa''tci pwawikA'ckiwago'mii'^tcig'''". 

10 Mo'cAgi'megu nenl'wA tci'tApit i'n a'cinagAtawane'megwi'^tc''; 
tA''swi piti'g I'na' a''Api^tc a'tA'cikiga'nowe'^tc'". Wi'co'ckA'co- 
"cka'kwApi''tciga''ineg''"'. I'n ananeta'gu'si^'tci neni'w^*'. A'a- 
"cki'megupl'tiga'^tc a'iiAna"Api''tc'", 'anApi"'tci'*tca"meg''"', ini'- 
megu wI'inA'i'nApi'^tc'. I'n a'ciwi'ci'gi''tcip ane'tA witapi'megu- 

15"I'ni'inA"i'nApi''tci ne''ki pemikiga'nowe''tc''. 

Ca'ckima'" api'Apit'^', nimi'tA wi'nAp a'g'''''". InAga'i'nanA ma- 
ma'witA''kri'cigA' sagi'''tc''. Cewa'n a'tA'swi'megunImiwA"Am5'wc- 
''tcin"'", wi'"nlmi''tc'". Cewa'n iiylgi'meg a'nagAtawane'megAvi''tci 
mi"camAn''''. 

20 Ca"ck api'"ApitA me'to'^tciine'gupi mA'kAta'wiw'^'^'. Agwiga''ipi" 
segi"kAtAnii na'i ne'ka'niki'ce'gw i'n ina' inApi'wa''tcin''''. No- 
tAme'gup aiyi"kwiwAg'''". Ane'tA wawananetAmogigii" winA'^tca- 
'ipi'megu na''ina'i wi'wi'se'niwa'^tc''. Na'kA'''tc'', wimi'^'tciwa^tc 
ii' wawaniinet Amowa '' tci 'megu wi'mi' ''tciwa '^tc' ' . 

25 O'ni ki'ci'ini'cikunA'gwitcigi nie"t6''^tci" ca'cki'megu mA"kwa"'tc 
a"Api'A'piwa''tc'". A'gwi mamye'"tci wi'co'ckA'co'cka'kwA'piwa- 
''tc''. Ca'cki'meg ilnA'inA'piwa'^tc'', wi"i'ciniA'kwa''tcitcitA'piwa- 
"*tc'". I'ni winApi'meg a"ca'wiwa"^tc''. WawananetAmogime'gupi 
na''ina'i wi'wi'se'niwa''tc''. 

30 Na''k^vpi wawi'witcig uwi'wawAn"'', "NAtome"k5'," 'i'wAgi ki'ci- 
'siga'iga'wu^'tcm''''. Pyana'wa'^tci' uwi'wawa" a'wi'se'nini''tc'". 
A'Apiwa'^tci'meg a'tcitA'pini^'tc''. Ki'ciwi'seni'ni''tcin°'", winwa- 
WA'meg''"', "Na'i', nagwa'n""','' a''ina<'tc''. Me"teno' a'na'- 
gwani^'tc''. Pwawiga'"ipi'ni'nawate ne'ki'megu 'ina" a'Api'A'- 

35piwa''tc i'ni ne''k amina'i'Api'A'pini<'tc''. 

I'ni na'ka'nip a'ca'wiwa'^tci kwanA'gwitcig Ji'inA'inA'piwa'^tc''. 
Ini'g ini'g ini me'ce'na' anemi'cinAto'matcigime'ce'na' uwi'wawa'''. 
A'pemega"winwawAna"i ma'netowa'i nene'kane'meg5g i'n a'ci'cji- 
'ckitcitA'piwa^'tc'', i'n a'mAmatotAmo'we''tcini wapiku'pi'^'tcinenu- 

40 'swimi'ca'm™''. 

Ini''tea"ipi wa'^tci'megu'u 'aiyigwami'tiwa''tc i'n a'citatapA'- 
"kwitcitA'pitcig''''. Pe'ki'megu ke'tcinanetagAni'wiwAg'^''. 



MICIIELSON.] WHITE TINY-IIOOF SACRED PACK. 235 

After they had eaten, that man would go outside by the East door. 
But he would have to give thanks. After he had stood near the 
door, it is said, he would say this: "Those with whom I am related 
in all ways, Wliite Tiny-hoof Sacred Pack, buffaloes, to those with 
whom I am related in all ways," ^ the one said who would not sit 
still. It is said then he would be considered all right when he gave 
thanks. 

Some, it is said, could not give thanks when there were many 
people. Those, it is said, would bo told, "Why, indeed he is wicked," 
that is what would be said of those who could not give thanks. 

Every man seated, alike is watched over by it that way ; as many as 
were sitting in that gens festival. Indeed he must sit upright. That 
is what is expected of a man. As he sat when he first came in, that 
is the way he must always sit. Some try hard to do this, to sit like 
that throughout the gens festival. 

(This applies to) one who sat there, not a dancer. He (a dancer) 
was the one who went repeatedly outside to cool by the wind. Yet 
every time there was a dancing song he would have to dance. But 
the sacred pack also would watch over hmi. 

The one who sat still seemed as though he was fasting. Usually, it 
is said, they would not sit like that all day long. Some got tired 
before. It is said that some did as they pleased and ate whenever 
they wanted to. Again, they indeed were to eat whatever they 
wanted to eat. 

And those who had gone through that seem to have nothmg to do 
but only sit there c[uietly. They did not have to sit continuously 
there upright. They only had to sit there cjuietly, just as they had 
seated themselves. It is said that was what they did. They did 
as they pleased and ate whenever they wanted to. 

Again, it is said, those who had wives said, "Call her," after they 
had been served. Wlien their wives came,^ they ate. They sat 
wherever (their husbands) sat. After they had eaten, they them- 
selves (the men) said to them, "Now depart." Only then would 
they leave. If they did not say that to them, they sat there just as 
long as (the men) sat there. 

It is said this was also what those that had gone through (the per- 
formance) did when they sat like that. They were the ones who thus 
called in their wives. Wlien they merely sat there like that during 
the worship of the Wliite Buffalo Sacred Pack, they too were thought 
of by the manitous. 

That was the reason then, those who sit throughout indeed urged 
each other. Indeed they were thought a great deal of. 

1 Supply "I thank." 

2 Free on account of the impossibility of translating literally without violating Enghsh iciiomatic usage 



236 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. a.nn. 40. 

Winwa'wA na''kA tapa'natcig uwi'wawa' ini'g Inig aneminAto'- 
matcig''''. MenwapAmawAgipa'pe'e wawi^tci'kwa'witcig a'liAto'- 
meme'^tc''. 

SAnAganetAmo'gip i'n i'ca'wiwen aiyeme'to'sane'niwAg''''. I'nipi 
5wa'''tc'', "Wi'cigA'pi'kAn i'na' a'wijAne wapiku'pi''tcinenu''swimi- 
"ca'mi inamato'tAmcg'"'','' i'nip a'i'nawa''tci \vagwi''sitcig'''", "ku- 
'tA'mo'lwvni wapipapI'sigA'cawimi'ca'm™''. Ini'kii'i wi'pwawiwa- 
wAnaneme'gwiyAn a'pi"tciwawAne'cka"ita'a'wAnan°''." I'n a'ine'- 
''tcipi km'ye'sa" a'a''tci'mo'e''tci mi'ca'm a'atotA'mawu''tc''. 

10 Ini'*tca"ipi wa''*tc i"cawi''tc ane'tA minawi'i'cinene'ka'netAg 
u'wiyawi niga'ni'c''. Ina'nanA k^^a^'tcawi't ana'^tci'mowe''tci 
wi"i''cawi''tc''. Wi'a'^tcimegume'to'sane'niwi''tci pi'ci'ta'tanige 
na'kA"*tc A'"k''. Kagigawi'megunie'to'saneni'wiwen Ina''i tAiia- 
totA'mwap'". 

15 "O' roA'nA pwa\vi'ini"cawit^', 'waguna"ina'i wl'u'^tcime'to'sanenl'- 
wi'e''tc'' 1 A'gwi mane'towAni me"t6''*tci pa'ci'megu pe'seta'wa- 
''tcin"'". Waguna'tca''Ina'\vI'nA wru''tcime'to'saneni'wi'e''tc'" ? 
Wi'A'ckwi'wana'inA'itA'ciwawAne'cka'anetagA'niwiwA me'to'saneni'- 
wi'et®'. 

20 WiVsiwene'twiyu I'nana" A''k Ini''tca''ipi pemine'k^\'mowa''tci 
ne'niwAg'^'". Wa'^tci' sAIlAga'kunA'ma^v^l''tci wi'i'ca'wiwa'^tc''. 
I'kwa'wAp A''tenaw A'pi'tci'sAnAgA'teniwi i'ca'wiwen ma''i 
wapiku'pi'^tcinenu'swimi'ca'm a'mAmatotA'mo\ve''tc'". Neni'wApi 
ke'tenA'megu ki''cagu''tci' sAiiAgA'teniwi 'i'ca'wiwen a'mAmatota'- 

25 tanig I'ni mi'ca'm"''. 

A'gwip A'ce'megu nimi'eti'wa''tcin°''. A'gw upinlmi'ctl'wa''tcin''''. 
WAninaweme'gupi tA'ci'sAnAgi''t6wAg ina'' a'witcigi wapiku'pi- 
•'tcine'nu'son a'tA'cimAmatomowa'^tci'nip'". A'gwi mi'ca''tcimA- 
matomowa'^tci'nip''. 

30 Ke'tenA'meg ini'giyuwa'nApi ne'niwAgi tcItA'pitcigi pe'ki'megu 
Api'nAp ane't a'kwAmA'tAmogi no'mAgaw*®'. 'A'aiyi'kwA'piwa- 
"^tciga'' 'ipini wa'''tc i'ca'wiwa'^tc''. Ume''ckumwaw ii'pwawike- 
'tcimAmatapo''ckanig i'nipi wa'''tci kl''cagu''tc aiyl''kwiwa'*tc''. 
"Ane'tAp'', ei'cI'kyawA'genap''. Ki'ciga''ipikigano'we'*tcini ke'ki'- 

35nawa''tc ini'meg ina'' iiiA'piwAg''''. 

Ka'ci'ci'ci'kyawAge'ne''tcin i'nip A'^tca''megu a'kA'ckima<*tcunigA'- 
tenig u'ka'twawAn"''. 

Cewa'iiAp'', kiganutcigi'megu me"ten6' ii'tA'ci'ka'watcig i'n 
a'cawi'ni'^tcin uwi'ya'An"''. A'gwi kut-A'g a"ci'sut A'semi'i'wa- 

40 ''tcin"''. Me'teno"megu mane'senogima'wi'sut i'n a'tA'ci''kawat^'. 
NomAgawepi'megu a'ki'cina'samigi'ta'wawa''tci me''ck"''. 



MiCHELSON.] WHITE TTNY-HOOF SACRED PACK. 237 

Moreover, those who love theu- wives are the ones who call them in. 
The women, it is said, admire tlieir fellow-women when thev are 
thus called. 

The people of long ago considered that performance as being hard 
to do. That was the reason, according to tradition, why those who 
had sons said to them, " If you are there, you shall sit firmly, when the 
Wliite Buffalo sacred pack is being woi-shipped. You should fear 
the wliite tiny sacred pack. That is the one that can not but know 
how wicked your heart is." It is said that was M-hat a boy would be 
told, when he was told about the sacred pack. 

That is why, it is said, some who thought closely of their future 
lives did this. Those were the ones who tried to do those things that 
they had been told. They are indeed to live beyond when this earth 
is made again. Indeed everlasting life is mentioned in there. 

And as for the one who does not do that, how could he be made to 
live there? As it seems, he does not listen to the manitou at all. 
Why then could he be made to live there ? The thought of him being 
wicked would remain there, if he were made to live (there) . 

That the earth mav be beautiful, is trulv what the men are striving 
for. That is why they have made the (rules) so hard to do. It 's 
said that a woman's rule is not so hard when the White Buffalo's 
sacred pack is being worshipped. It is said that the man's rule is 
indeed very hard when that sacred pack is worshipped. 

They did not dance merely to be dancing. They did not dance for 
fun. It is said the ones who were all around when that Wliite 
Buffalo was worshipped had a hard time. It is said that they did 
not worship him sportively. 

Surely some of the men who were sitting there indeed even got very 
sick for a short tune. As they got tired from sitting was why this 
happened to them. Because their blood could not flow easily was 
the cause of them getting so very tired. Some, it is said, would be 
rubbed do^vn (on their muscles). As a sign, after the gens festival 
was finished, they would surely sit just as they had sat. 

After being rubbed do^vn on the muscles then their feet were at 
last able to move. 

Yet, it is said, the ones giving the gens festival were the only ones 
who could wait upon anyone who was like that. They were helped 
by a member of no other gens. A member of the War gens was the 
only one who attended them. It is said that in a little while they 
cured then- blood. 



238 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

A'ceme'gup I'n ananeme'gowa''tc uke'te'si'mwawAni kateminagu'- 

ni'^tcini wapiku'pi''tcine'nu'son'''", wa''*tci me'se'ha'i kA'cki'cA- 

'cAwe'nawa''tc i'n a'cawi'ni'^tci''', i'n a"cikigano'wa''tcini nenya- 

'pApi'ni'^tci'''. NeniwAgiga'ipi'megu me"ten6' i'n anemi'cinenya- 

5 'pA'pitcig'*''. 

Wii'^tciga" a'nagAtawaneme'gowa'^tci ke'tenA'megu wi'wiga- 
'^tcipe'ci'gwime'to'saneni'wiwa'^tc'"; wi'pwa\vi'megukag6''i'cikimo- 
'^tci'i'ca'wi\va''tc''. I'nipi wii'^'tci ■wi'ciginagAtawaneme'gowa'^tc''; 
na"kA wi'pwfiwikim6''tciwawAne'cka'ita'"iiwa<'tc''. I'ni na''k*', 
lOca'cki'niegu wi'm'cigi'megutcitA'piwa'^tci ne"ki pemime'cki''senigi 
mi"camAn°''. 

A'lcwiya'"megu i'ni me'cki'seto'we'^tcini wape'ckikTi'pi<'tci'nenu- 

'swimi'ca'm i'nipi pe'ki'megu mA'kwate"siwen a'mo'kenA'mowa- 

''tci kegime'sima''megu tA''sw ina''i piti'g a'A'piwa'^tc''. Me'to- 

15 "^tcinie'gupi na'inii'wawAg A'pi'tcita''awAgi Ke'cemane'towAni 

na'kA'''tci wape'ckiku'pi'^tcine'nu'son''''. 

Na'ikAnak.\nawi'tcigiga"ip A'pena'^tci'megu a'kAnakAna'wiwa- 
''tc''. Me'sotawe'megu a'kAnotA'mowa''tc lune'to'saneniwi'wa- 
waw"^"'. Me'cema'mego'na''", ag\viga'"i ma'mA'ka'*tci ki'ganut 
20 wi'nAtu'ta'su'^tci me'to'saneni'wiwen"''. Me'cemego'na'''. 

Ke'gime'si winwa'wA kiga'nutcig Agawa'niiwAgi wi'wiga'^tci- 
nagAtA'mini'^tc ute'cita'wenwaw^''. Ini'giyu ne'niwAg inu'g 
atAma'wApit i'wAg''''. 'Aiyega'"i mamatomo'wApit i'wAg''''. 

Agwiga"i wi'AtA'mawa'^tc''. Ca'cki'meg a'Api'A'piwa'^tc'"; ce- 

25wa'na' sAnAgi'megu'i'ca'wiwAg''''. Uwiya'Aga''ipi' co'cki'gapit ini'- 
raeg amina"i'nApi''tc''. Mo'tci'megu wi'niAma''tci'ne'ka''tc u'wiya' 
^'gkwi' Pe'ki'megu mane'towAni wi'nenc'ka'nema'^tc u'wiya'*'. 
I'nip a'ciiiAtawaneta'gu'si'^tci wi'i''cawi'^tc''. Wa''tci''tca''megu 
wi'cigitci'tApi'^tc"'. Niine'ka'nematA tca'g anago'ma'^tcin"'', tii'- 

SOpanatA me'cemego'na'i tcinawa'ma^tcin"'', 'i'ni'^tca'i'nanan i'n 
a'ciku'''tcawit*'. 

'O'n ane'tA neni'wA niA'^tcinata'wLnon a'ke'ka'netAgi wi- 
'pwawi^tca'ike'ka'neme'^tc a'ci'ta'a^'tc'', me'to''*tci wi'mAtA'- 
gou'^tc a'ci'ta'a''tc''; i'nip a'ku'''tcawi'*tc i'ni %vi"i''cawi'*tc'", 

35 ne'lvAniki'ce'gwe wi'pwawima'tApi''tc''. NomAgepi'meg a'tci'tApi- 
''tc a'pemimegupA''segwi''tc''. AnetAga''ipi ki'ki'ki'meg ina''i 
wi'Api'A'piwa'^tc i'cita''awAg i'n ii'ca'witcig''''. Kago''meg ii'i'ca'- 
wiwa^'tci mamye'tci'mega'pemipA'se'gwiwa'^tc''. "Ini na'kA'pin a'ca'- 
wiwa'^tc''. 

40 'O'ni na'kA''^tci mA'^tcima'neto'a'i nane'kanemegu''tci'gipi nawA- 
'kwitnigi'nip i'n a'ne'pawa'^tc''. Inina''meg a't6'kene''*tcip''. 
"Nagwa'n"""'," a'i'gowa''tci mAnii''ci'An'*''. Ini na''kanig a'ca'- 
wiwa'^tc''. 



MiCHELSON.] WHITE TINY-HOOF SACKED PACK. 239 

Because their old member had simply thought (that they should 
do that), the one who was blessed by the Wliite Buffalo, is why 
they could rub down those who were so afflicted, those made crippled 
from sitting while they were holding such gens festivals. The men 
were the only ones, it is said, who thus became crippled from sitting. 

Why they were being watched was that they might truly indeed 
lead careful, upright lives; that they might not do something in 
secret. That is why, it is said, they were being watched very closely; 
also that they might not think evil in their hearts in secret. Then 
again, that they might sit only firmly, just as long as the sacred packs 
were spread out. 

Especially when the White Buffalo sacred pack was spread out it 
is said that then all exhibited quietness indeed, as many as were 
seated inside. It seemed, it is said, that they had seen the Gentle 
Manitou, and also the White Buffalo while they thought of them. 

Those who knew how to speak would always give speeches. They 
would speak (and pray) for everyone's life. Indeed anyone asked 
for (long) life, and not only the one who was giving the gens festival. 
It was anyone. 

Every one of those giving the gens festival wished the people to 
carefully follow their worship. Those men are now spoken of as 
the ones who sit to smoke. Long ago they were spoken of as ones 
who sit to worship. 

They were not to smoke. They were only to keep sitting there, 
yet they had to do hard things. It is said that if some one should 
sit with his legs stretched out he would have to sit like that. Even 
no one should move his hands. Indeed one had to try very hard 
to think about the manitou. That, they say, is what one is expected 
to do. That is the reason thej' sit firmly. The one who remembers 
all his relations, and is fond of his various relatives, he is that one 
who tries to do that. 

And some man, when he knew about evil medicine and when he 
desired not to be found out, he thought in his heart to cover him- 
self, as it seemed; then he tried to do that, namely, to sit all day 
long without moving. In a little while, it is said, after sitting there 
he would arise. It is said that some who did that desired in their 
hearts to nevertheless sit there. When something happened to them, 
they would indeed have to get up. It is said that was another thing 
happened to them. 

Then again, those who were thought of by the little evil manitous 
went to sleep at noon. They would be awakened at that time. 
"Depart," they would be told by the ceremonial attendant. That 
again, is what happened to them. 



240 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

'O'ni' ca'cki'megu me'to'sane/nlW^', niA'kwa'^tci'megu' ca''ckii 
ma'to'sa'neniwit*^', ina'nan I'n a'i'ciku''^tcawi''tc'", tapi'iwatA'- 
meg''"', pwawi'megiikag5"i'i'cime'to'''tci'aiyi"kwApit*', kl'cikl- 
gano'we'^tcin ma'naiiA wanAto'kA'meg anemi'nowit*'. 
5 'O'ni nanenenya"pApit'^', i"kwawa 'aniwi"kawat*', na''k A'penii- 
''tci'megu nane'ka'nemat^'. MA'kwa'^tci ■ft'inA'megu mato'siine'- 
niwit mi'i'*tca"megu' ca"ck A"pena'^tci nane'ka'nemat i"kwawa"i 
na''k A"pena''tci ml'kemi"kemat Ina'nanA nanenenya"pApit*". 
I'niwa'''tci nenya"pApi''tc i''kwawa'''. A'sa'mi tA'se'nw a'plta"- 
lOckanig i'kwiiwina'mowen I'n a'mana'tenigi me'to'^tci na'minaw''^". 
I'ni wa"'tci nenya''pApi'*tci kwa'^tcimAmatomowA'pi^tcin"''. 



Ne'niwAg i'n a'ca'witcig'^''. Ini'glnigi' ca'cA'ca'cawAne'gutcig 
kl"cildgano'ni''tcini mane'senogi'wi'so'ni'^tci''', cewa'nA mo'cAgi'- 
megu ne'niwa'"'. 

15 O'ni pe'ki'megu kl'cagu'*tci'meguwawAne"cka"iwit^', 'ane't 
a'ku''^tcawi''tc''. Pe'ki'megu me'to''tcime'gupi mane'towAn a''na- 
wa'^tci na''kA me't6<'tci'meg a'tA'cikAkAno'negu'^tc a'ciwiipi'- 
ta'a'^tc a'Api"Api''tc''. A'ki'cagu'*tcime'gupiku'tA'mowa''tci wl- 
'matA'piwa'^tc''. Ca"ckip a'kiwinanag%va'pi\va'*tci wawAne''cka- 

20 Ag''''. I'n ana''*tcime''tc a'ca'wiwa'^tc a'ku"*tcimAmatomowA'- 
piwa'^tc''. 

O'ni krci'A'cawaiyeme'*tcimInA"kyatcig''''. MAni'meg a'cipltiga'- 
wa^'tcin a'wapipegi'tA'nowa'^tc''. Me'teno'me'gupi nyawi'wa'^tcin 
a'poiiipegi'tA'nowa''tc'.'. 

25 I'ni na''kanig ana'''tciine''tc i'n a'ca'witcigi ma'^tcime'^tciminA'- 
'kyateig''''. A'gwipi me'nwina'ipiti'ge'Api'Api'wa'^tcin a'tA'cimA- 
mato'meme''tci wape'cldku'pi''ine'nu"soni ine'to''tciga''ip'. Wa'^^tc 
i'ca'wiwa'^tc a'ki"ci'meguke"tcikwaiyanAn5"kyawa''tc''. I'nipi wa- 
•'tcini'ca'wiwa'^tc''. Agwi kAna'gwA wi'kA'ckipe'ci'gwiwa'^tc''. 

30 Kwaiya'ci'megu 'i'ca'wiwAg i'n°''. Na''k a'tA'cimAniato'mowe- 
•^tc'', agwikAna'gwA wi'tA"ciwAni'mawa''tci me'to'sane'niwAn"''. 
I'ni wa'''tci ke'ki'nawa'^tc i'ca'wiwa"'tc''. " Ni'mawimAinato- 
wAp'Y' ane'tAp i'cita"awAg''''. Me't5'<*tcip uwi^'tci'megnme'to- 
'saneni'wawAn a'wAni'mawa''tc a'pwawike'kaneme'gowa'^tci mane'- 

35 towAn"''. Agwi kAna'gwA wi'wAni'mawa''tc''. Ini'^tca" wa'^tci'- 
nip i'ca'wiwa'^tc''. 

Agwi kAna'gwA wi'wAnitA'mowil'^tci wapipapi'sigA'cawimi'ca'm"''. 
Ini'ni wi'nA wapiku'pi'^tci'nenu'swA a'kawa'pi'to'^tc''. 

Na''kA winA'megu na''ina'i tAnatotA'mwAp u'wiyaw^'', cewa'n 

40u"kateg A'ki' niAn°''. Agu'wiya'A kA"ckipAne"ckAgin°''. Mamye- 

'tci'megu A"pena''tci ma"ce'lvAniwA me'to'sa'neniw™^'. Agwi'- 



MICHELSON.] WHITE TINY-HOOF SACRED PACK. 241 

And as for the one who onl}- is. a human, who indeed is a quiet 
human, when one tries to be that, he is the one who gives satisfac- 
tion, the one who (it seems) does not in any way get tired sitting, 
the one who goes out unconcernedly after tlie gens festivaL 

And the one who becomes cramped from sitting is the one who is 
ahvays after women, also is he who is always thinking of them. 
Although indeed he is one who leads a quiet life, but one who indeed 
thinks of them always, and who is always courting them, he is one 
who becomes cramped from sitting. That is why he becomes cramped : 
on account of the women. When the women's breath goes inside of 
him too many times, there is much of it in him, as it seems. That 
is the reason why he becomes cramped from sitting whenever he tries 
to sit as a worshipper. 

The men are the ones to whom this happens. They are the ones 
who are rubbed down by the members of the War gens after they 
have celebrated a gens festival, though indeed only by men. 

And one who is indeed extremely wicked, who is wicked in all 
ways — some of them trj^. Indeed it is said that he would begin to 
imagine in his heart that he saw the manitou, also it would seem 
that he would be addressed by him as he sat. They would indeed be 
very afraid to stir from their seats. They who were wicked would 
only look on (from some corner of their eyes) . That is what is said 
of the things that happened to them when they tried to sit as wor- 
shippers. 

Then as regards those who had committed murder long ago. Just 
as soon as they went inside they started to have a nosebleed. Only 
after four had come there they would stop having a nosebleed. 

The (following) is another thing that is said of those who did that, 
those who had committed murder. It is said that it seemed as if 
they did not sit comfortably inside where the White BufPalo was 
worshipped. What made that happen to them, was that they had 
already committed (murder). That was the reason they did that. 
It was impossible for them to act uprightly. They had already done 
that. Again, in the place where there was worship, it was impossible 
for them to fool the people. That is why what they had done was so 
well-known. It is said that some would thmk in their hearts, "I am 
going to sit in worship." It would seem as though they were fool- 
ing their own fellow people (by making them believe) that the 
manitou did not know of them. It was impossible for them to fool 
them. That was the reason, it is said, that happened to them. 

It was impossible for them to deceive that white tiny-hoof sacred 
pack. That is the one who was made to watch by the Wliite Buffalo. 

Also it has been said that (the Wliite Buffalo) mentioned his self as 
bemg m there, yet it was only the earth from his foot. It is impos- 
sible for anyone to refrain from stepping on this. The people surely 



242 ORIGIN" OF TEE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

megu kAna'gwA wi'ki'mA'to'^.tci kago" i'cikimotA'no'kyat^'. 
Mamye'tci'megu mA'n A''k A'pAnA'sita'gapa's*^'. Ini'^tca'" wa^tc 
u'"kateg u'^'tc A'kawa'pi'to'^tc i'ni wapipapi'sigA'cawimi'ca'm™'". 
Agwi'^tca"megu kAna'gwA wi'wawAnane'megvvi''tci me'to'sa'- 
5neniw i'ni wapipapI'sIgA'ca'wimrcam"''. Mo'tci'peno''tc A'te''tci 
tA'cikiigo" iiiA'no'kyat^', ke'kiinemegwi'sA'megu na''ina'i wape- 
'ckiku'pi'^tcincnii'swimi'ca'mi mAmatotA'mowet"'. "Piti'ge nl'A'- 
pi'ApV" 'i'ci'ta'af', Ini'meg rimi'cawi'"^tcip'", pegi"tA'"s'^'. 'I'n 
a'ci'i'cike'kiiio'sowa''^tc I'nina'i me'to'sane'niwAg i'ca'wiwen"''. 

10 U'wTya'A nomAga'w A'pi'A'pi^tcin u'wiya' ini'meg a'ki'cini'inii'- 
neme/'tc''. 

Wrpwawiyuga''imAtAg6'kwa'piwil''tci mamatomowA'pitcig'^''. 

Na"kA raamo'cAgi'meg inagwA'piwAg'''', u'ckina'wii'Ag'''', o'ni 
wata"sawAgi mo'cA'g'^'', o'ni na'kA^'tci ki'ci'uwi'uwi'witcig'''', 

15 o'ni nalvA'^'tc'', pA'ci'ta'Ag""'. A'nanAtawi'megu'inag\vA'piwa''tc'". 
A'gw'ipi me'ce'meg inag\vApi'wa''tcin"''. Nena'tawi'nieg a'inagwA'- 
piwa^'tc'". Ccwii'mvp agwi'megu kAna'gwA wi'tA'cikAkAkAnoneti- 
wa'^tc''. 

MamaiyA'pape'e ma'nawAg a"ckiwapikigano'we''tcin°''. Ki'cina- 

20 wA'kwii'nigin i'nip'', WAni'nawe me'to'^'tc a'tcitA'piwa'^tc a'miimye- 
"ckagwA'piwa'^tc''. Ayi'kwA'pitcig a"Anemipe'nowa''tc''. Ane- 
tAga"i' ca''cki' sa.gi"*tc a'Api"A'piwa"*tc''. A'pwawimA''tcinA'- 
mowa'^tc naya'pi wI'mawinAna'A'piwa''tc''. 

AnetA'meg a'wi'cigitcitA'piwa'^tc''. Inigii'ipi'megu ke'tapAtA'- 

25mowa''tci wape'ckiku'pi'^tcine'nu'swai''''. Agwiga''ip A'te'"tci 
wi'inA'ina'piwa'^tc''; ini'meg a'yiiniw a'tAna'piwa^'tci winwa'wA 
nc'niwAgi miimatomowA'pitcig'^''. I'ni ■wrnene'kinawa''awa''tci 
mane'towAni wi'cigi'megutcitA'piwat"'. 

O'ni kwiinAgwitcItA'pitcig'''", pwaAvi'megukag5''i'cinenya'pA'pit- 

SOcig'''', kl'cikigano'we'^tcin ina'u'^'tci nyii'wugun a'pwawi'megunA- 
"sAtawikAna'wiwa''tc''. Kena'^tci'meg a'AnemikAno'nawa'^tc uwi'- 
ya'Ani me'cema'mcgo'na''', agwiga"i negu't'"; a'gwi na'kA'^t.ci 
mamA'ka''tci tcinawama'wa'^tcin°'', me'cemego'na"'', i''kwawa"'', 
ne'niwa'"', me'cemego'na' awiya'ini'gwa'in"''. Agwi'mamye'tci 

35 tcina\va'ma''tcini ke'ca^'tci'megu wi'i'cikA'nona'^tc''. Wi'pwawi'- 
megunA'sAtawikA'nawi^'tc''. Mo'tci'megu kag6"i •w'i'pwawikago'- 
'i'cikugwi"sa'to'*tc''. Ca"cki nya'wuguni wi'cA'ki'megume'to'sane'- 
niwi^'tc''. 

Na'kA''*tci piti'ge wi'pwawi'megu'se'k\vi'''tc'', sagi^'tci'megu, 

40wi'i'ci'megupwawi'uwi'ya'Ani"A'pi'clvA'mini''tc u'se'kwi'wenwaw"'''. 
A'wawAnigeno'inigi'^tca"meg a'Anemi'se''kwiwa''tc''. Ane'tApi me- 
'tegwina'gAnegi' se'kwi'se"kwiw'Ag''''. O'ni nyawiigmiagAte'- 
nigini nepi'g a'ciwe'towa^'tc'". A'samawAni'na' a'A''sawa'*tc 
a'wapipugo'towa'^tc u'se'kwi'wenwaw'''''. I'n a'ca'wiwa''tci tapA- 

45'kwi'mcgu pwawimatA'pitcigi ne''ki pemikiga'nowe'^tci ne'niwAg''''. 



MICHELSON.] WHITE TINY-HOOF SACRED PACK. 243 

always step on it. It is impossible for anyone to do anything in 
secret and hide it. Surely he would he resting his feet on this earth. 
That, verily, is the reason why he has made that white tiny-hoof 
sacred pack to watch from his hoof. It is impossible for that white 
tiny-hoof saci-ed pack to not laiow about the people. Even if one 
did anything far ofT, it would know about him when the time came to 
worship the White Buffalo sacred ]>ack. If he thought ill his heart, 
"I shall sit do^^^l inside," it is said the same would indeed happen to 
him, he would have a nosebleed. It is said that was how the people 
at that time could tell about the doings. Wlien some one sat dowai 
for a little while he was thought of the same (as others). 

The ones sitting to worship were not to cover their heads. Again, 
they sat in groups, the young men, iuid then the braves only; then 
agam, those who had already married; then again, the old men. 
They all sat in groups, each (group) by itself. It is said they did not 
sit in any way they pleased. They sat m groups, each by itself. 
Yet it was not allowed that they talk to each other. 

Early, when the gens festival first began there would be many. 
In the afternoons, it is said, where they had been sitting the groups 
would seem to scatter. Those who had tired from sitting would go 
home. Some would only be sitting around outside. They would not 
dare to go back in to sit do'wn. 

Some woidd indeed sit firmly. It is said that was what they were 
looking steadily at the Wliite Buffalo Skin. It is said, the men who 
sat there to worshijj did not look far away; at that one place was 
where they were looking. If they sat firmly they would then remind 
(the heart of) the manitou. 

Then those who sat throughout, those who were not cramped at all 
from sitting, after the gens festival did not talk meanly to anyone 
for four days. They would speak gently to anyone and not only to a 
single person; again, not only to one to whom they were related, 
any one of the women and men, anybody, whoever it might be. It 
was not only a relative to whom they were to speak gently. They 
were not to speak m a mean way. They were even not to jerk any- 
thing. They only had to lead a cjuiet life for four days. 



Also he was not to spit inside, but outside, so that indeed no one 
might step upon their spit. They indeed spat in some imcomfortable 
place. It is said some would spit in a wooden bowl. And when four 
days were up, they took them to some water. They would put 
tobacco in it and float their spit down. That is what was done by 
those men who sat throughout the gens festival without stLrring. 



244 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth, ann. jo. 

Inigii" u'se'kwiwenwa'wip A'pi'ckA'mawut Ini'meg ami'ta'i 
peteganetAma.'gowa''tc ume'to'saneni'wen.wa\vi mane'towa'''. I'niy 
a'cawiwa'te'e poni'cawiwa'te'®". Ananemegowa'te'e na"ina'i 
tapitcit.\'piwa''tci ne''ki pemikiga'nowe'^tc'', peteganemegowa"sApi 
Smanc'towAii"''. Aminiinemegowa'te' awi'tan iniineme'gowa's*". 
Ca'cki'megu nAna'w iya"i mawi'Api'A'piwa's'^'. Inini'meg amine- 
'ciwAna''tci'ego'wa''tcm ami'Api'ckAmagowa'gwa'in"''. 

O'ni na'kA''*tci myan6ta'ni''tcin A'pi'ckA'minit"', i'nipi pe''ki ne- 
'ciwA'tenig''''. Nepowa'sAme'gup u'se'lcwa'wenwaw A'pi'clvA'- 
lOma^vuf". AwitAga"ipi kenwa"ci na"sawa's*'. Cewii'n inime'gupi 
kaya''tcl''i ne'po'i''tci nji'wi'n a'pi'ckA'mawat*^'. 

I'nip a'ca'wiwa''tc I'n a'i'ci'A'ckita'pA'kwipwawiinatA'piwa''tci ne'- 
'ki pemiwape'cliiku'pi''tcinenu'"swikIga'nowe''te'". I'ni winA'^tca'- 
'meg i'cine'gutenwi" sAiiAga'kuni'gawa^tc''. I'na'u'^tc agwT'na' 
ISna'kA'^tci kiigo"! wri'ciku'tA'mowa''tc''. A'cawiwa^'tci'mcg a'me- 
"to"sancnI'wiwa''tc I'nip a'ca'wiwa'^tc''. 

Ku^tci'"ipi' sA'sagi'iiwenl'wiwAg a'ckitapA'kwitcitA'pitcigi nc'"ld 

pemikigii'nowe'^tc''. A''tcimcgu'siwAgiga''meg I'n il'ca'witcig''''. 

Inipi'megu kag6'"meg a"ki'ci'cimanetowanetagAnI'wiwa''tci kl'cita- 

20pA'kwitcItApi'wa'^tcini ne''ki- pemiklgii'nowe''te''. "Ke'kaneme- 

gotu'ge mane'towa','' inaweniwA'gip i'n a'ca'witcig''''. 

TJ'ckina'wa'Ag A'kwiya"i pe'kimegu'p Tnig T'ni tepane'gowa''tci 
tclnawama'wa''tci'i krcitapA"kwitcitApi'wa<^tcin°''. NeniwAgigii'- 
"ipi wagwi''sitcigi wanAga''i wayo'ci'se'mitcigi ne'niwAg""'', a'mi- 

25 "catane'mowa''tc'". I'nipi pepo'nigin a'ke"tcimA'kAtawine''*tc Inig 
u'ckina'wa'Ag I'n a"citapA'k\\dtcItApI'wa''tcin°''. 0''swawa' ume- 
'co"wawa'i ma'k.\tawInego'wa''tci' I'n a'eitapA'lvsvitcItA'pitcigi 
klgano'ni'^tcini mane'sen5gimawi's5'ni''tci'i mamatotAmi'ni'^tcini 
w&pikii'pi'^tci'nenu'swimrca'm™'". 

30 Na"ina'ka''ipi wi'klgano'we''tcini ne'niwAgi kawi'cani'meg 
a'Ane'Ane'nwiwa''tc''. A'koglnAme'cka'nowa'^tc''. Wi'pIninAme'- 
'ckawa'^tci mamatomowitcitA'piwat i'nipi wa''^tc i'ca'wiwa'^tc''. 
Ma'ka''megu ke'"tcinigwe ki''ce'son a'mawikoginAme'cka'nowa''tc''. 
'O'n anagwi'nigin a"Ane'nwiwa''tc ane't*". "I'nip a'ca'wiwa"^tc'', 

35"Ni'ku''tci'megu'utapA'kwitci'tAp'V' a'cita"atcig''''. "Ne''ki pcmi- 
ki'giinugi ni'A'pi'Ap'V' a'cita"atcig i'nip a'ca'wiwa''tc'". Inu'g 
a'gw In i'cawi'wa'^tcin"''. AtAma'wApiw inawe'niwIwA mo''tc 
Inu'g''"'. A'gwi mAmatomo'wApIwA 'i'ne''tcin°''. 

Na"k*', ke'tenA'meg AtA'mawAg ina" iipi'A'pitcig ii'tA'cilvIga'- 

40nowe'*tc'". Me'ce'megu winwa'wA wiiwanane'tAmogi wi'i'ca'wiwa- 

■^tc''. Na''kA me'eena''meg ina''i nepane'pawAg''''. Cii'cki'meg 

awawi'i'ca'wiwAg'''". Inu'g a'gsvi pA'cI'wataw a'cige'nige' i'cawi'- 

wa'^tcin a'klgii'noni'^tci mane'senogiinawi'so'ni''tci'''. 



MiciiELSON.] WHITE TINY-HOOF SACKED PACK. 245 

If that spit of theirs were stepped on, their Ufe would be taken 
back by the manitous. They Avould stop doing what they had done. 
What had been thought of them when they sat there during the gens 
festival, it is said that would be taken back by the manitou. They 
would not be blessed in the way that had been planned for them. 
They would only go in there to sit for naught. They would be 
ruined by that one who might hapj^en to sten on (their spit). 

Then again, if one who was menstruatmg should step on it, that 
indeed is very terrible. It is said that they would die if their spit 
should be stepped on. They would not be alive long. Yet it is said 
the one who had stepped on it would die too in a little while. 

It is said that was what they did when they sat through for the 
first tune during the gens festival of the Wliite Buffalo without 
stirring from their seat. Indeed, though, that is the only one time 
the rules were so hard. From then on they were not afraid of any- 
thing. They did the things they usually did in their lives, it is said 

Yet, it is said, those who first sit througli the clan feast are treated 
carefully. It is said those who do that are talked about. They are 
indeed thought of as possessing in some wav the nature of a manitou, 
after they have sat through during the gens festival. It is said they 
would say this of those who did this: "The manitous probably know 
them." 

The young men who sit through are indeed more loved by their 
relatives. It is said the men who had sons or the men who had 
grandsons (if they did this) would be very proud. Those young 
men would then be made to fast severely that winter, it is said, when 
they sat through like that. Their fathers or grandfathers were the 
ones who made them fast, when they sat through the gens festival of 
the War gens when the White Buffalo sacred pack was worshipped. 

It is said that whenever there was to be a gens festival the men 
would swim beforehand. They would wash their skin. It is said 
they did this so that when they sat to worship their skins might be 
clean. Indeed they would go down to wash their skins before the 
sun arose. Then some would bathe in the evening. That is what 
those did who thought in their hearts, "I shall sit thi-ough." Those 
who thought in their hearts, "I am going to sit through as long as 
the gens festival goes on," they would do that. Now they do not do 
that. They are even now spoken of as ones who sit to smoke. ^ They 
are not spoken of as ones who sit to worship. 

Again, those who sit where the gens festival is, indeed do surely 
smoke. Indeed they do as they wish to do. They even sleep there. 
They only do a httle of what had to be done. Now they do not do 
what they used to do at aU when the members of the War gens 
celebrated their gens festival. 

3 Indian singular, but the sense is plural. 



246 OMGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. Ieth. ann. 40. 

"Kiga/nowAg'^'V' iwAgiga'' mo'tc'', na''k*", "Wi'nimi'eti'pip''," 
'i'-wAg""'. Agwiga'"' , "Wrwapiku'pi''tcinenu"swiiiu'ca'mi klganu'- 
pip'"." Agu'wiya' i'^tci'n"''. 

NeniwAgigii" a'gwi wi'Api'A'piwa^'tc inu'g''''. Me'ten6"megu 

5pwawi'u'ciino'gemit i'liA miiwi'AtA'A'tAinat'*^'. NakA'^'tc aga'- 

watAgA \vi'mena''ckonu''tc'', 'ite'p In a'mawi'Api"Api'^tc''. Ki'ci'- 

ineguke'tciki'pu'^tca''tcin°'', ini'meg a''nagwa''tc''. Agwiga''ina'i 

\vi'aiyi"ci"Api'"Api''tc ma''". Me'cema'mego'na'''. 

O'ni na'lv.v'''tci wi'menwApi''tci'meg''"', wrpipfckApi^'tci'ineg i'n 
10na'kA''^tc ii'cinAtawii'netAg a'tA'cikiga'nowe'^tc api"Apit*^". 

Inu'gi na"kA''^tci mamye'tci'megii wrAnemima'mAninina'i'Ane- 
"ckane''tci'ga\\'u''tc''. Wiiipe'^tci'megu niml'liA'mapi'^tc i'n a'ci'- 
ta'a"*tc''. Ki'ci'megumena"ckunonimi'''tci''tcin a'ke'tcA'tAma^tc 
a'ci'ta'a''tc''. Iniycga"! nA"cawaiy a'cawi'nite' a'gw ini nene- 
15 'kane'tAgin°'\ WliiA'megu wi'tA'cimenwito'tawu'^tc i'n a'ci'tii'a- 
''tc''. 

MA'ni wapiku'pi'^tcinenu'swimi'ca'mi ki'ci'meguponi'ane'tAke- 
He'nA'a'netAmwA inu'g'''". Ini''tca''i wa'''tci po'ni'i'ci'i'citii'a'- 
nite'e nA''cawaiye me'to'sane'niwa'''. A'poninigani'i'cinene'ka'- 
20netAg u'wiya" u'wiyaw"^''. Me'ce'meg a'cime'to'sanenl'wigwan i'n 
a'ci'ta'a''tc inu'gi me'to'sii'neniw"''^'. Niinegu't ina'i kawA'gi ke'ka- 
netAmo''iwAgi ni'^tcine'niwAg''''. Na'pima' ke'kanetAmu'gwa'ig'^''. 
I'n a"kwi'''tci wapipapi'sigA'ca'wimi'ca'm"''. 



MICHELSON.] WHITE TINY-HOOF SACEED PACK. 247 

Also they even say now, "They are to give a gens festival," also 
they say now, "They are to have a dance." (Tliey) do not (say), 
"It is said that they are going to have a White Buffalo sacred pack 
gens festival." No one says tliat. 

The men too, do not sit at all now. It is only the one who has 
not any smoke who goes in to smoke. Also the one who wishes to 
eat meat food, goes in and sits there After he has had his belly 
filled he then indeed departs. He does not remain sitting there. 
It is just anyone. 

Then again, to have a good seat, and to have a seat soft, is what 
is wished by the one who sits at the gens festival. 

Again, now they surely have to fill up his pipe every once in a 
whUe. Indeed he must continually have his pipe in his mouth, that 
is what he wishes in his heart. After eating meat food he desires in 
his heart to smoke hard. He does not think in his heart of what 
they used to do long ago. He wishes in his heart that he be treated 
well in there. 

Some have ah-eady ceased to think this Wliite Buffalo sacred pack 
as being true now. That is the reason why they have ceased to 
tliink as the people of long ago have thought. Everyone has ceased 
to think about his life in the future. The people's hearts' desire now 
is to let their hves go anjr«ray. There is one here and one there of 
my fellow-men who still know it. They used to know about it more. 
This is the end of the Wliite Tiny-hoof Sacred Pack. 



O'NI WAPINENU'SW UMAIYA'WlNEG U"TCI'NAWE 
NIGANINE'KA'GANEGI TA"CI Ml'CA'M'"'. 

MAniga" a'cite''katag'''' : wapinenu''swigA'cawiinrca'm"''. I'n 
a"cite"katag''''. 

MAmi'd'Agi'megu na'ta'wi nagAtawaneme'gwiwa''tci mA'ni'i 

mi'ca'm"'". Wi'wIga''tci'megumAmi'cr'iwa'*tc I'n a'cinagAtawii- 

5neme'gwiwa'*tc''; wi'wigate'sA'mowa''tci kago"''; wi'nepi'sAmowa- 

''tci'megu kilgo"''; na'kA'''tci wrpwawi"A"samikegene"sA'inowa''tc''; 

kena'^tci'megu'u ■tt'T'tAne"sA'mowa''tc''. 

I'ni na"kan°'': ■wi'pwawiga'i'sIgina'sA'niowa''tc''; wi'pwawi- 

'Aniwina'sA'mowa''tc'". Sigina'sAmowa't I'ni wi'tcaginowa''ckanigi 

10 me'to'sanenl'wiwen"'". Ca'ckimego'ni wrnAnawitAno'gowa''tc''. 

Winwa'wA na'kA"'tci wrnlnawi'megume'to'saneni'wiwAgi me'- 

'sotiiwe ke'egwi'ta'wawate me'to'sane'niwAn°''. 

Na"kA wi'wIga''tci'kAmowa''tci'megu'u ki'giinoni wawiya'sl'- 
winig''''. Pwawiga'iwIga'^tcrkA'mowat''', ini'megu wl'ke'kaneme'- 
15gwiwa''tci mrca'm"''. A'gwi'^tca' wi'nA'kimAmo'wa''tcini mane'- 
towAg I'ni pwawiwlga''tci'ka'tanig''''. Me"ten6''megu wlga^tcfka'- 
tanig i'ni nii'VlnwawA na'kunA'mowa'^tci mane'towAg''''. MahiI'- 
'ci'a'i wIga''tci'kA'mini''tc''. 

Mami'ci'itci'gipi niganimAmi"crAni nana'imego'wa"'tcin'''". Nlga- 
20 nimA'ml'ci'A pe''ki' samv'gi'tot a'nagAtawa'nematc uwi<'tcimAmi'- 
'ci'a'i •wi'pwawikago''imemya'cki'kA'mini''tc''. Wi'wiga''tcrkAmi- 
ni'^tci'meg i'n a"cima''tc uwi'^tcimAim"ci'a'''. Pe'ki'^tca ipi'megu 
wiga'^tcrkAmogi'mcg A''pena^tci mAmi"ci'Agi ki'ganon"''. A'gwipi 
kago'"meg i"cimemya'cki'kAmo'wa''tcin°''. Wi'kogenAmowa''tciga'- 
25"megu pota'kwa'wa''tcin°''. I'n ananeme'gwiwa''tc i'ni wapincnu- 
'swigA'ca'wimi'ca'm™''. Mo'cAgi'mcgu mAmr"ci"Ag'''". O'ni ne'pi 
wi'mo'ckapowa'wa''tcini wl'natowa'^tci'meg''"'. A'ckigenigi'megu 
wi' mo" ckapo ' wawa "^tc' " . 



Wi'pwawiga''megu kago"i'ci"amAnowita"awa''tc ne'"ki nii'Vln- 
SOwawA pemimAmi'ci'"i\va'^tc''. Mo'tcipi'meg ute'ckwa'se'e'mwilwa, 
a'nl'mini''tc a'pwawimi'ketiwiwapA'tiwa"tc''. U'wiya'A mrketiwi- 
"ApAna'netit i'"lcwawAni mA'mi'ci'*', ini'megu nana''i'kAgA wi'nA 
ka'si'pi ne'ciwAna'<*tci'to''tc''; kasipi wim\'megu nana"e'sAg'^'. 
AwitA'pini mane'towAgi nA'ku'nata's in i'"cawite mA'mi'ci''^'. 
248 



(THEN) TPIE SACRED PACK WHICH BELONGS ON THE 
RIGHT FRONT HOOF OF THE WHITE BUFFALO. 

This is the name of it: The White Buffalo's Hoof Sacred Pack. 
That is the name of it. 

This sacred pack watches over the ceremonial attendants sepa- 
rately. Tliis watches over them so that they act carefully as cere- 
monial attendants ; that they may cook things carefully ; indeed that 
they may cook things in water; also that they may not cook any- 
thing in too much of a hurry; that they indeed cook slowly. 

Tliis is another (I'eason) : that they may not boil (things) over; 
that they may not boil it too much. Should it boil over, then all 
life would aU go outside. They would then be working for naught. 
They, too, will have weak lives if they should let it get spilt ^ for every 
one of the people. 

Indeed they must take close care of the gens festival offerings 
which are of meat. If they do not take careful care of it, then 
indeed the sacred pack will know about them. The manitous then 
will not receive it if it is not taken good care of. The manitous only 
take that which is taken good care of. The ceremonial attendants 
took good care of it. 

It is said that the ceremonial attendants are instructed by the 
leading ceremonial attendant. The leading ceremonial attendant 
has a hard time looking after his fellow ceremonial attendants so that 
they may not ruin anything. He tells his fellow ceremonial attend- 
ants to do things mdeed carefully. It is said that the ceremonial 
attendants were always careful in handling the gens festival offerings. 
They did not ruin anything while handling it. They had to wash 
things when they put them into kettles to cook. That is what is 
expected of them by that "\^Tiite Buffalo Hoof sacred pack. That 
was for the attendants alone. And, when they were to add water for 
the cooking they were to go after it. They were to add on truly 
fresh water. 

Indeed they were not to feel lustful during the time they acted as 
ceremonial attendants. Even when their girls were dancing, they 
did not look at each other in a courting way. If some one of the 
attendants should laugh at a woman in a courting way, then he him- 
self would rum that which he was handling; he himself would ruin 
that which he was cooking. If a ceremonial attendant should do 
this, that would not be accepted by the manitous. 

1 Free translation. 

249 

3599°— 25 1 17 



250 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. lO. 

WinA ku'^tci'na'i mAmi'ci'A mAma'tomow"^'. MAma'tomawA wa- 
pe'ckiku'pi'^tcine'nu'son"''. Ku'^tci"! nAna'i'kA'mawawA mama- 
tome'me''tc'', cewii'nA mA'lvw-a''tci'megu wi'mAini"cri''tc i'ci'genlw'^''. 
A'g\vi na'kA'''tci wi'Aniwetu'namu''tci maml''ci'it i'cige'nigin 
5u^v^yaw ini'meg''"'. Ca"cki Avi'nAtawa'netAgi nana'TkAgi 
wIpwawimya'ci'totAg'"'. 

Wrwiga'^tci'meguinAmi'"cI'i''tci ne'ki'megu'u pemikIga'nowe''tci 
tA'"swi mami'ci''iwa''tc'". Pe'ki'megu niga'nimA'mi'ci'A nana'I'- 
'kAgini wapi'gunAn"^''. Ini'nipi pe'"ki ke"tci niga'n A'k\vane'- 

lOtAgin a'klga'nowe'^tci \vape'ckiku'pi''tci'nenu's''*'. O'ni tAgwA- 
'a'n°''. I'nipi pe"ki ki"cagu''tci wlga''tci"katag i'cini''cwaiyAg''''. 
O'ni nie'cemego'na' i'ci'u'wiya's''; 6'ni" ci'ci'pa''", pena'wa''", 
ma'ci"sawa''", pA''kiwa''', tcagi'meg a'ci"sawi'm''tci"i kiwi'sa'ni- 
''tc''. A'klgii'nowa'^tci kiga'nutcig'''' : pe"cege"slwa''', niA'kwa"'', 

15iiA'sAgwA''ka''', cega'gwa"''; o'ni wapi'gunAn"'', me'sa/'kwa''', 
mA'cku''*tci'sAn''''. Inu'g Ane'mo'a'i kii'tci'kawa'wa'^tci"''. 



SAnAgi"towAgi mAmi"crAg''''. Agwiga'kAnfi'gwA pA'klgwA"tamwi 
klwi'megunemA''sowa's'^". Agwi kAna'gwA' ca"cki mA'mrcT'A' ca''ck 
Api"Api''tc''. Ini'meg a'mi'ta'i kl'cinene'ka'netAgi nagAtawiine'- 

20megwi''tci wapinenu'swigA'cawiml'ca'm'"'". "I'ni na'pe'e nagAta- 
waneme'gwiyage ni'nan a'mAmf ci'yag'"''." A"cita'awa<^tcinipi'- 
meg''"', 'a'pemipA"segwi^tci"sawa<^tc a'kiwineinA"sowa''tci mAmi'- 
'ci'Ag'^''. 

Nana'e'sA'mowa'^tci ki'ceta'nigin I'n a'mawitA'ka"ci'nowa''tci ne'- 

25 'ki pcminAgAmo'iii'^tcini kigano'ni''tci'''. Ki'cinaga'm''tcin a'piti'- 
gawa'^tci inAmi"ci'Ag''''. O'nina'i piti'g a'nenyamA"sowa''tc'". 

O'ni niga'nimA'mfcrA pitige'megu ne'ki'megu pemikiga'nowe- 
''tci piti'g a'"awi''tc''. Cewii'nA winA'meg ii'wawana'nctAgi wi- 
'klwi'cawi'Hcipi piti'g'^'''. WrApi'Api'^tciniga'''', a'ci'ta'ii'^tc'', 

30 klgano'ni'^tci' a'A'pini^'tc a'mawinAna"Api''tc a'Api"Api'*tc'". KAna'- 
gwA wr'nowi'^tc''. "Ni"wI'sen°'V' "i'ci'ta'at®', me'ce'megu wi- 
'wawana'netAgi na''ina'i wi'i'ciwi'se'nigwani wi'mi''^tcigwan"''. 
Cewa'nA me'ten6''megu kl'cikiga'nowet Ina'mi'ta'i mawi'sa'gi- 
•'tcl'^tci mA'ml'ci"'^. 

35 AnetA'pini mganimAmi''ci'Age ku''tAmogi wi'wi'se'niwa''tc''. Mc- 
'teno"meg a'uwigi'wa''tcini ki"cipya'wa''tcin I'nip a'wi'se'niwa- 
''tc''. A'ku'tA'mowa'^tci wi'no'wlwa'^tc aya'cikigano'we''tcin°'". 
Uwiya'A'ga'i notA nowi't*', Inipi'megu p6niniganimAinI''ci'i'^tc''. 
Pdnime'gupi kag6'"ane'inena' i'n i'"cawit u'wiya''^'. 



MicnELsoN.] SACRED PACK O^T EIGHT FRONT HOOF. 251 

The ceremonial attendant, too, is worshipping. He is worshipping 
the Wliite Buffalo. Though he takes care of that which is offered to 
him (the White Buffalo) as worship, still it is a rule that he must act 
quietly as an attendant. The life of one who is a ceremonial attend- 
ant is such that he must not be a talker. He must indeed only think 
about that which he is handlmg so that he might not do it wrongly. 

As many as act as a ceremonial attendant must act carefully during 
the time the gens festival is on. The very leading ceremonial attend- 
ant has to care for the pimipkins. It is' said those are the ones the 
White Buffalo thinks the most of (when they are offered) in the gens 
festival. Then the corn dumplings. It is said those two things are 
the ones which are handled with greatest care. Then simply any 
kind of meat; then ducks, turkeys, prairie hens, grouse, and all 
different kinds of those that fly. Those giving the gens festival 
would offer these when they lield the gens festival: deer, bears, elks, 
badgers, and skunks; and pimipkins, com, beans. Those are the 
things the ceremonial attendants took good care of. Now dogs are 
the ones of whom they take good care. 

The attendants have a hard time. It does not matter if it is smoky, 
they would be standing aroimd. A ceremonial attendant can not 
simply remain seated all the while. Straightway he recognized that 
the White Buffalo Hoof sacred pack watched over him. " Oh, that 
is what keeps track of us ceremonial attendants." It is said when 
they would think that in their hearts, they would jump up and then 
stand around. 

When that which they were cooking was cooked they went out to 
cool off during the time those celebratmg the gens festival were 
singing. After the (latter) have simg, the ceremonial attendants go 
m. They then stand around inside. 

Now, the leading ceremonial attendant stood inside during the gens 
festival. Yet he could do as he pleased uiside. Whenever he wished 
in his heart to sit down, he went and sat down where those celebrating 
their gens festival were sitting (and) remained seated. He could not 
go outside. If he thought in his heart, "T shall eat," he indeed 
could do as he pleased about the time he was to eat (and) what to 
eat. Yet the ceremonial attendant could only go outside after the 
gens festival. 

It is said that some leading ceremonial attendants were afraid to 
eat. They would eat only after they had gone to their home. They 
were afraid to go outside during the gens festival. If any one went 
out before (it was over) it is said he would indeed cease to be the 
leading ceremonial attendant. It is said they would cease thinking 
anything of him if some one did this. 



252 ORIGIX OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. axx. so. 

Ca'ckiga''megu niganimA'mi'ci' a'pege'caVAto''tci -w-ape'ckiku'pi- 
•'tcmenu''swimi'ca'm™''. A'tA'swiwinA'^tca'me'gupiponinaga'we- 

•'tcin Tnime'gup a'pege'caVAto'^tc'". Xa'kA'<^tc'', mamaiyA'megi 
ma'ke'tcinigw-e ki''ce's5n a''nateg A''k ina" wi'A''tamgi -R-apiku- 
5'pi'*tci'iienu'swimi'ca'ra™'". O'ni wanA'tagAn a'A''ci't6''tc'". Jkligu'- 
na'a'i nyaV ina" a'ne'mAna'^tc''. Aylgimcgupi'na' i'n a'tAg- 
■vripegepege'ca'wAto'^tci wanA'tagAn°''. O'nipi ii^'kA'^'tci tcagi'- 
megu kag6"i ki'cip6ta'kwa''n-e''tcin a"nategi rae"teg6ni' cwa'ci'- 
g''-^'. A'wa'kAHAgi'ge'cAg'''". AVa'sikinigu'ma'cAg''''. 

10 O'ni mAmi"ci'Ag inini'pin a'ai'y6wa'*tca'ku'k^v'A'mcwa''tc ii'tAne- 
"sA'mowa'^te''. A'cite'katAmowa'^tci'p inini kl'giinowike'ci'kapya- 
'j'gAnAn"''. I'nip a'cite"katag i'nina' Tni'n'^''. 

O'n a'A'ckiTneDo'kAmiwikiga'Dowa''tc'', o'ni me'tegunii'cita''tApA- 
gon a"nateg'''\ Pya3'a''tci'meg a'nTmiwA'A'mowe''tc''. Nlgane- 

15 gatcigi'pinin a'nimA'ckA'A'mowa'^tci me'tegumi'cita"tApAgon'"\ 

Me'to''tciga"inA nIga'nimA'ml'ci' a"mine''tci" sagi'^'tci wi'ki'wita- 
"•tc''; wa''*tc ini'ni nate'g''''. Me'ce'na'i winA'meg''"', "Ki"sagi- 
''tci kAta\d'sagi''*tciyAn'"''," ina'pip''. ' 

Nagwa''*tcini nlga'nimA'nircrA mA'kn'a''tci'nieg a'Anemi'ci'ta'a- 

20 ""tc''. A'gwi kAna'gwA kago''i An'Anemi'ciwawAne'cka'i'ci'ta'a- 

■•te'". Ki'pene'meg Ini'ni ki'cipya'to''tcini piti'g ini'meg"^"', 

a'poninowi'''tcipi ne'Id'megu pemikiga'nowc'^tc''. WlnAga''meg 

a'kAno'negu'^tci kigano'ni'^tci'''. O'ni wi'n a'kA'nona'^tci niAmi'- 

'ci'a"''. "Xepagwita'"apen°*^V' a'i'ni'^tcini kigano'ni<'tci"'', "Na'- 

25tenu ne'p''," a"ina''tci mAmi"ci'An°'". Pyato'ni'^tcini winA'meg 

a"awAtenA'niagu'*tc''. Oni'''tca'i ■vrt'nA kigano'ni'^tci' a'awAtenA'- 

mowa'^tci ne'p''. A'^tca'megu'pini kiga'nutcig a'nie'nowa''tc''. 

Ea'cimeno'\s"a"*tcini kiga'nutcig inini'meg a'awAtenAma'wawii'^tci 

nIsaminAnii"ci"An°''. O'n i'niviin a'awAtenA'mawa''tci niganiuiA'- 

SOmi'ci' apinate'ni^^tcin"''. Ini'pin a'mawi'sigi"sA'to'^tc a'ckwAtA'- 

mini''tci klgano'ni''tci'''. Sagi'''tci me'ce na''ina' a'mawitA'ci'sigi'- 

'sAto'^tc''. Ini'meg A''pena''tc a'ca'wiwa'^tc''. 



O'ni na''k'^', mAmi"ci'Agi kag6''iki'ce'sAmo'wa'*tcin'' 
niganimAnu"ci'An a"a'*tcuno'"awa<'tc''. " I'ni mA'n a'ki''cetag'"'," 
35a'i'nawa'*tc'". O'n I'nA kigano'ni''tci' a'a'^tci'mo'a'^tc'', a"ke''kA- 
Va'^tc aci'so'ni'^tciQ''''. "Kl'ce''sigaw'''^V' a''iaa''tci kigano'ni- 
•*tci"''. 

A'pi'tciku'tA'mowa''tci wapinenu'swigA'ca'wimi'ca'm™'". I'nipi 

■wi'cigi'megu mAnii''ci'Ag A'kawapAme'g\viwa''tci -w-fpYrawi'megu- 

40kag6"i'i"cipe'tca'wiwa''te''. Ini na'winwa'wA mAnii"ci'Agi w-i'a- 



MiCHELsox.] SACKED PACK ON RIGHT FRONT HOOF. 253 

T]ie leading ceremonial attendant Avould only smoke the Wliite 
Buffalo Hoof sacred pack. It is said, though, that he would have to 
smoke it as often as they ceased singing. Again, he Trould go after 
earth very early before the sun arose, on "which the Wliite Buffalo 
Hoof sacred pack xras to rest. He then made a ridge of earth ■vrith it. 
On it he stuck four little feathers. It is said that he 'would also 
smoke that ridge from time to time. Then again it is said after every- 
thing had been put on to boil, ho went out after eight sticks. He 
peeled the bark off by cutting. He cut them into sharp points (on 
one end) . 

The ceremonial attendants used these, it is said, to stir whatever 
they were cooking. What they called these, it is said, was gens 
festival forks. It is said that was what the}' called them at that time. 

When they gave the first spring gens festival, he then went after 
oak leaves. When he came back they sang the dancing songs. 
Those leading in the dance, it is said, wore these oak leaves in their 
hair. 

It seemed as if the ceremonial attendant was given a chance to go 
out; that was the reason he went after these. It is said at any time 
he would be told, "You may go out, if you are on the point of uri- 
nating." 

Wlien the leading ceremonial attendant would depart, he would 
think that which was right in his heart. He was not to go along 
thinking evil in his heart. If, however, he had thus brought these 
(see above) in, he could not go out at all during the clan feast. He 
was indeed spoken to by those giving the gens festival. He then 
spoke to the ceremonial attendants. When those celebrating the gens 
festival said, "We are thirsty," he said to a ceremonial attendant, 
"Go after water." When the latter brought it. he gave it to him. 
He then would hand the water to those celebrating the gens festival. 
Those celebrating the gens festival drank at last, it is said. After 
drinking it those celebrating the gens festival handed it back to the 
leading ceremonial attendant. The leading ceremonial attendant 
handed it back to the one who had fetched it. It is said he would 
go and pour out that which was left by those celebratuig the gens 
festival. He would go and pour it some place outside. Indeed that 
is what they always did. 

Then again, when the ceremonial attendants had cooked tilings 
they told the leading ceremonial attendant about it. '' This is now 
cooked." they said to him. He would tell it to those celebrating the 
gens festival, mentioning the name. "He is through cooking," he 
said to those celebratuig the gens festival. 

They were so much in fear of the White Buffalo Hoof sacred pack. 
It is said that it watched over the ceremonial attendant ver}- closely 
so that they might not make any mistakes in some way. It will re- 



254 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DAXCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

''tcime'g\\'iwa'*tc''. KAbo'tw A'ckA"'tci mama'^tcima''megu wa'sii'- 
yanigi wi'i'gwiwa'^tc'', "Ma'da wl'n A''per)a''tci ne''ki menwimA- 
mi'"cl"i''tc aiyo''i wIga'''tcrkAmwA kigakIga'nowe''tc''. Tcagi'- 
megu kago'"i kl'giinoni wIga''tci'kAmwA'ineg A''pena''tc''. Na'k 
5a'gwi kago'i wa'wutAm i'cinene'kane'ma'^tcin i''kwawa'''. MaiiI'- 
megu nene'ka'netAgi niA'nl nug ana"'tcimAg'^''. Ini'^tca'^meg 
a"cawi<'tc ana '"^tcimAg ''''." I'ni w'rina''tcimegwi'''tcip i'nina'i 
wapinenu'swigA'ca'wimica'mi inA'mi'cf*'. 

Wf A'semi''egu^tc ina" api'ni''tci'i ml''camegi wIga'sitA'meg 
10A''pena'^tc a'tA'swiklgano'we''tcin"''. 

NiganiniA'ml'ci'A pe'ki'megu wi'cigi'megu'A'kawapAmegwitA'- 

pini ■wapinenu'swigA'ca'wimi'ca'm'"'', ccwa'n A'penii^'tci'megu 

wi'iiA niganimA'mfcrA mi'negwiwA me'to'sanenl'wiwen"''. Inane- 

ta'gu'slw^'"^'. I'nipi wil'^tci'megu wrci'giwa''tci niganimAmi'- 

IS'ci'Ag'''', wi'pwa\vi'nieguno'wIwa''tci wii'^'tc i"cita'"awa''tc''. 

WinwawAga'na/'ip a'nagAtawane'mawa''tci mAmi''ci'a'i wT- 
'pwawi'sa'slginsl'si'gani<'tc'' ; na"liA. wI'pwawi'Aniwetuna'nioni''tc'' ; 
nAiionemi'megu wi'tA'cimAmI'ci"iiii''tc inanemawA'gip uwl'^tci- 
mAmi'ci'"wawa"'". 

20 Agwiga"ipi kAiia'gw a'ka'ka'ke'tanigi mAmi''crAg''''. WAnAto- 
"kAme'gupi tcigA'cku'te lviwinemA''sowAg''''. Ki'cagu'^'tcipimega'- 
pe'e nepiwa'ku"siwAg a'wi'cA"sowa''tc''. N^'kA'^'tc'', a'pA'klgwA'- 
tanig ag^vimegu kAnii,'gwA. Ki\vipi'megunemA''sowAgi IvA'ga^'tci- 
•'tci nawipe'ge'c a'A'ka\vapAtA'mowa''tci nana'e'sA'mowa^tci 

25wi'pwawi'sigina'tanig''''. Kena^'tci'meg a'tAne'ca'wawa''tci niAml'- 
'cI'Ag''''. 

Ininiyuga"ip a'A'kAwS.pAmegwI'wa^'tcin a'Api'A'mowe<^tc''. Ina'- 
"meg a'A''tanig'''". Pe'ki''tcri'ipimega'pc' ina''inegu tAnane'mawAgi 
mane'towa''". KAnagwA'megu kag6''i wi'i'cikImotc''siwa'*tc i"ci- 

30wapita"awAgi mAmi'"Ag''''. 

O'n a'sigA"Ama'wawa'*tci •vv-rwl'seni'ni'^tci'i wa'^tcinowI'tatAg''''. 
Wi'pwawi'mcgu'uwr_ya'Animya'ci'A'cA'mawa''tc''. A'pene'meg a'i'ci- 
'A'cA'mawa''tc''. Ag^vigifwin a'me'sotawi'siga'i'gawa'^tc''; a'pA- 
'kitlwi'siga'i'giiwa'^tc''. A'pene'meg ai'yatA'sw a'A'cA'ma\va''tc''. 

35Negu't Ana'gAnAn ii'a'wAto'^tci nlga'mmA'ml'cr u'wiya's a'Anemi- 
pAgi'^senAg'"'. O'ni ku'tAgA mA'nii'ci'A nepo'p a'Anemi'sI'gA'Ag''''. 
I'nip a'ca'wiwa''tc''. TcigA'ckutoga'meg a'tA"ci'sIga'i'gawa''tc''. 
Nepo'pin a'pA'setiigi'meg o'n u'wiya's a'tA''ki'seg''''. Pe'ki'^tca- 
'ipimega'pe'e wrcA''sowAg'"'. 

40 O'ni ki'ci'siga'iga'wa''tcini nlganimA'mi'd'A wapinenu'swigA- 
'cawimi"cameg api'ni''tci'i maneto'waiya' a'mawika'slne'^^tca'u- 
•^tc''. O'ni ku'tAgAgi mAmi'ci''a'Agi no'kame'ki"senig ti'kil'slne'- 
''tca"owa''tc''. 



MICHELSON.] SACRED PACK ON EIGHT FRONT HOOF. 255 

port the ceremonial attendants. Some time later on it w^Ul say tliis 
of them when there is daylight for the final time, "This one has 
always taken good care of the gens festival offerings as long as he has 
acted as a ceremonial attendant. Indeed he always takes good care 
of all lands of offerings. Again, he did not in the meantime think 
at all about women in his heart. Indeed all he thought of was this 
wliich I have said of him. He did what I have said of him." That 
is what will be said of the ceremonial attendant at that time by the 
Wliite Buffalo Hoof sacred pack. ' 

He who is careful every time they have a gens festival will lie helped 
by those who are in that sacred pack. 

It is said that the leading ceremonial attendant is the one who is 
watched very closely by that Wliite Buffalo Hoof sacred pack, yet 
it always gives life to the leading ceremonial attendant. He is 
thought of thus. That is the reason, it is said, the leading ceremonial 
attendants believe in it strongly, and why they do not think of 
going out. 

They likewise, it is said, keep track of the ceremonial attendants 
that they may not boil things over; also that they may not talk too 
much; that they act as ceremonial attendants there in quiet. It is 
said that is what they wish of their fellow ceremonial attendants. 

It did not (scorch) the cei'emonial attendants (when it was very 
hot). It is said they would indeed stand around nevertheless near 
the fire. It is said that they would indeed be very wet from sweat- 
ing. Again, when it was smoky it did not (stop them) . They indeed 
stood around just the same amidst the smoke to watch what they 
were cooking so that it might not boil over. Indeed the ceremonial 
attendants kept fires up slowly. 

It is said that those (i. e., the packs) who watched over them were 
untied. They were indeed there. The_y indeed thought in their 
hearts that the manitous were right there. The attendants would 
never tliink of doing things secretly in their hearts. 

And they dished out a little bit to those who were to eat.^ They 
were not to feed anyone in a wrong way. They fed them all alike. 
This was not the time they had to dish out (food) to all; it was the 
time when it dished out the invited ones.^ They fed all the same 
amoimt. The leading ceremonial attendant took one dish of meat 
and handed it out. Another attendant would then go around serving 
soup. That was the way, it is said, they did. Indeed they did the 
serving by the fire. That soup, it is said, was hot and that meat 
was cool. It is said that they would always be very warm. 

After they had dished out (the food) the leading ceremonial attend- 
ant would go and wipe his hands on the manitou skins in the White 
Buffalo Hoof sacred pack. The other attendants wiped their hands 
on the loose fresh earth (upon which the bmidle rested). 

' Free translation. ' The point is a kettle ol food is ready; the main food will be later on. 



256 OBIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. 40. 

O'ni ki'citcatcagi"senya'ni''tcin°'', nlganimA'mi'cI' A''k ii'kiwi- 
"awAtenA'mawa'^tci prsa'j'fmigi krci'seni'ni"^tc'i'''. A'ka'sine''tca'- 
'oni''tc''. 

Iniga'ipi'meg A''kAnAn :i'mawAtenA'mowa''tc'\ NAnAguta'g 
•5 a'sIgi'sA'"towa''tci' cIgwAtAmo'we''tcin"''. MA"kwa"^tci'meg a'ca'- 
wiwa'^tc''. A'pwa\vi'meguklwitAnctuna'inowa''tc''. ManetowAiii'- 
megu wl'nene'kane'mriwa"^tc a'ina'neme'^tci klgiino'ni'^tci'''. 

A'wiga''tciga'meguwi'se'niwa''tci wl'se'nitcig'''', wi'pwawi'mcgu- 
kago"ikwa"ckwAt.\'mowa'*tc''. 
10 MAmi'"ci'Agi na''k a'wi'se'niwa''tc''. A'nemA"sowa''tci'meg''"". 
"A"nemA"swi"se'nyawa''tc''. Agwiga"ipi ■wi'ame'kwana'i'gawa''tc''. 
I'nipln ini'g a'ca'wi\va''tci niAmfd'Ag a'wi'se'niwa''tc''. Kivviga. 
pawAgipi'meg a'\vrse'niwa''tc''. Uwiyii'Aga'ip ii'tcI'tApi'^tc ii'wi'- 
'seni''tci rnA'mrd"-^', iiya'kvva'nemap''. Ini'*tca"ipi wa"'tc A'"pena- 
15 ''tci nemA"sowa''tci mAmi"crAg a'\vi'se'niwa''tc'". TcIgA'ckutcga- 
'ipi'meg a"t.v'ci"se'nyawa''tc''. A'ckutagiga''ip ana'sAmiga'pa- 
wa^'tc"'. 

Ane'tApi pe'ki'mcgu' sAnAgane'tAm5gi \vi'mAmI'ci''iwa''tc''. 
'Iniga'wi'iiApi wa''tci'sAnAganetA'mowa''tc'', ii'iieniA'swiwI'se'- 
20nini''tci inAmi'"ci'a"''. Ccwa'nApi inAmi"ci'Agi me'ce'megu na''ina'- 
wI'se'niwAg'^'". Na"kApi winwawA'megii wawanane'tAmogi na'- 
'ina'i wl'ml'^tciwa'^tciga''''. "Nrmena''ck6n°"V' a'cita'Titcigi 
mI''*tciwAg u'wiya's''. 

Ke'kinawa"*tcipi kigil'nutcig unlganimAml'cI'e'mwawAni mA'n 

25a'i'nawa''tc'', "Ki'wItAma'wawAgi kr'tcimAmI''ci'Agi wi'wi'se'- 

niwa''tc'". Wi"wawananetAmogiga''megu wi'raI'''tciwa''tc'V' ina'- 

pipi niganimA'ml'ci'*'. O'nip a"a''tci'mo'a'^tc umAini'cT"cma"i 

\vi'\vl'se'nini''tc'". 

Ini''tca"ip u'^tciwapi'meg a'wawananetA'mowa^tci wlVrse'- 

SOnini'^tci mAmi'"crAg''''. Kl'ciwi'senl'wa''tcin ii'mawika'sine'^tca'- 

"owa'^tci maneto'waiya'i wapinenu'swigA'cawimI"camog api'ni- 

•^tci'''. KAnotAmogiga'ipi'meg i'ni ml'ca'm'"'", wfketemina'gwiwa- 

''tc''. A"a<*tcimcti''sowa''tc a'pwawiwawAne'cka''iwa'^tc'", mA'kwa- 

''tci'meg a"me'to"sanem'wiwa''tci wi'wapAmegwiwa'''tci"*tca'i wapi- 

35ku'pi'^tcinenu''swimrca'm"'''. I'nip a'ca'wiwa<'tci mAmi''crAg''''. 

Na'kA'^'tc'', a'g%vi kAnagwA'mcg i'cimrcate"si'wa''tcin"''. Ca- 

'ckime'gup a'uta'sij'a'niwa''tc''. O'n a'me'tcinAme''ckawa^tc''. 

I'nip a"ci''tawa''tc. Me'tAiiA'sitawA'gip'". 

Na'kA"'tc'', a'g\yi kAiiagwA'meg u'wiya'A wi'ma"cenAg uwi'ne- 
40 'sAD"^''. A'k\viya''megu mAmi'ci'A'gipi kAiiagwA'megu wi'ma'cane- 
'kwa'nowa'^tc''. I'nipi pe'ki'mcgu kT'cagu'^tci'megu' sA'sa''kwawa- 
"^tci Mi'i'ca'wiwa^'tc'', aya'ci"A"kwiya'"i kago''i tA'crkA'mowa'^tci 
\vi'mi'<*tciiii''tci me'to'siliie'niwa'''. I'm pe"ki IvAnagwA'megu 
wi'ma"cane"kwa'nowa''tc''. 



MicniSLSON.] SACRED PACK ON EIGHT FRONT HOOF. 257 

Then after they all had eaten (their things up), the leading attend- 
ant went around handing loose fine earth to those who had eaten. 
They wiped their hands wdth this. 

It is said that they then gathered up the bones. They poured 
what was left out by the fire. They acted quietly. They did not 
go around talldng. They were ^vished by those celebrating the gens 
festival to tliink about the manitoii. 

Those that ate, ate carefully so they might not drop anytliing from 
their mouths. 

The attendants also ate. They stood up. They stood up eating. 
They did not use spoons. It is said that was another tiling those 
attendants did when they ate. They stood around while eating. 
If any (ceremonial attendant), it is said, did sit down while eating 
he was considered a berdache. It is said that was the reason why 
the ceremonial attendants always stood up while eating. They 
always ate by the fire, it is said. They stood facing the fire. 

It is said that some thought it hard to act as ceremonial attendants. 
That was the reason why they thought it hard, because the ceremo- 
nial attendants stood up while eating. Yet the ceremonial attend- 
ants ate whenever (they wished to oat) . Also they ate whatever they 
wanted to eat. Those who thought in their hearts, "I am going to 
eat meat food," ate meat. 

To be certain, those celebrating the gens festival would say this to 
their leading ceremonial attendant: ''You may notify your fellow 
ceremonial attendants that they can eat. The}' can eat whatever 
they wish to eat," it is said the leading ceremonial attendant would be 
told. He then, it is said, told his ceremonial attendants that they 
might eat. 

From then on, it is said, the attendants would eat whenever they 
wished. After eating they would go and wipe their fingers on manitou 
slcins that were in the White Buffalo Hoof sacred pack. Indeed they 
would speak to that sacred pack, that it might bless them. They 
would tell of themselves that they were not wicked, that the Wliite 
Buffalo Hoof sacred pack might look upon them as leading quiet lives. 
It is said that is the way the ceremonial attendants did. 

Again, it is said, that they did not dress up in gay attu'e at all. 
They wore only a breechcloth. And they were naked. It is said 
that was the way they were dressed. It is said that they were bare- 
footed. 

Also it was not allowed for any one to touch their hair. Especially 
the attendants were not to touch their hair at all. Indeed that was 
said to be very much against the rules of religion for them to do that, 
wliile they were handling anything the people were to eat. Indeed it 
was emphatically not allowed for them to touch their hau-. 



258 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

Na'kA''*tc A'ckwanage'tawAn fi'gwi kAna'g^vA wi'ku'kenA'niowa- 
"^tc''. Kena'^tcime'gup a'wlga'^tcike'caweni'gawa'^tc'". 

O'ni na'kA'^'tci piti'go pamagwApi'ni'^tci'i ne'p a'klwimenamena'- 
'awa^'tc''. Winwa'wA wlnAinego'n a'cita"a'wa'*tcin°'', 'a'na'towa- 
5 ''tci ne'p''. Cewa'nA nigani'megu mAmi"ci'An I'n a'i'nawa'^tc''. 
Cewa'n"*', ""AgwikAna'gwA," 'a'gwi wi'i'gowa''tc''. "'Au','' 
a'inegowa<'tci'mcgu'"'. I'nipi pyato'wa'^tcin"'', ii'klwimena''awa- 
''tci neniwa'i'megu mo'cA'gi mene't'-^'. O'ni ki'citcagimena'a'wa- 
''tcini ne'niwa"'', 5'n A''tca"meg i''kwawa'''. Mo'cAgi'megu na'- 

lO'kani' i"kwawa'''. 

Agwiga'"ip I'nA ne'niwa'i wawiyagimenowa'^tcini ne'p i"kwa- 
wAg''''. SA'sa'kwawAgime'gupi wrwawiyagime'nowa'*tci ne'p I'n 
a'cikiga'nowe''tc''. Cewa'n A'pena^'tci'megu nc'niwAgi mene''t'^'; 
o'n fiko'w i''kwawAg''''. 

15 A'me'nowa''tci mAmi''ci'Agi na"kA''*tc a'pe'klnigi'megu menome'- 
nowa^'tci ne'p'". Ag%vini'"i menome'noni''tci menowa'^tci'nip''; 
kutAgi'meg'^'''. A'pe'^tci wi'nApi winwa'w ina" A''taniwi menome'- 
nowa'^tc''. Agwiga"ip uwi'ya'Ani wi"mena"awa''tc''; mo'cAgi'megu 
mAmi"ei'Ag''''. Cewa'nApi mAmi'"crAgi mi'ca'm a'"tanigi pyato'- 

20wa''tcini ne'pi nyiiwe'nwi pAgigawi''towAgi tAga'wi wapinenu- 
"swigA'cawLmI''cameg''''. WinwawApime'gonini ne'ci''k^v mAinI''ci'Ag 
a'menome'nowa''tc'', mo'cAgi'megu mAmi"ci'Ag''''. 

Agwi wiiiA''tca''ipi kAna'gwA wi'sigi'sa''t6wa'*tc'', m6"tc Ane'ki'''. 
Wi'tcagAtAmowa''tci'mcg i'ci'geniwi tA''sw anemikwapA'A'mowa- 

25 "^tc''. ManetowAnipi'megu tAnane'mawAg a'wrpume'go\va''tci 
ne'pi mAmi'"ci'Ag''''. 

Na'kA'''tc'', A"pena''tci'megu wl'ke'sine'''tcawa''tc i'ci'giwAgi 
mAmi"ci'Agi wi'siga'iga'wa''tcin°'". A'ke"sine''tcawa''tci'megu ke'- 
gime'si mAmI"ci'Ag'''". I'cepi'meg I'n a'cime'gowa'^tci kigiino'ni- 

30 ''tci'''. A'cawaiye'meg u"'tcipya''tci mA'ml'ci'A wi'pini'u'^tci'meg 
A"pena'*tc u'ne'keg'''". Ea'cipike'sine"'tca'\va''tcin°'", a'no'sA'mowa- 
"^tc une"kwawAni m'ke'tci'slga'iga'wa'^tcin''''. Ki'ci'megmia'kA'- 
■^tci'siga'iga'wa'^tcin a'k6gene'''tcawa''tc'", nayapi'meg a'cawiwa'te' 
a'i"ca'wiwa"*tc''. A'no'sA'mowa'^tc une"kwawAni mAmi"ci'Ag''''. 

35 I'nipi wl'n a'cimenwa 'netAgi wape'ckiku'pi'^tci'nenu's'^-^'. Ini- 
''tca" ini'gi mAmi"ci'Ag i'ni wa'<'tc i'n i'ca'wiwa'^tc'', a'ku- 
'tAmowa'*tciga'"meg i'ni wi'pwawi"ca'wiwa''tc''. 

MAnii"ci"Agi yo' kago'' i'ciwawAne'cka'Ano''kyawate kiigS'ipi'meg 
ina''i piti'g , i'cike'kinawa'^tca'wiwa'sA wl'i'ci'meguke'ka'neme- 
40 ''tc''. Iniga''ip amu'^tci'ca'wiwa'^tci wapinenu''swigA'cawimI- 
'ca'm""''. I'nip amu''*tci ke'kil'neme'^tci mAmI"ci'Agi kiigo' i'cikl- 
m6te"siwat^', mi'kemawa'^tci'i'ga'i mfketlwiwapA'tlwat®'; kago'- 
'iga''meg i'ciwawAne'cka'o'wawate m.Ami''ci"Ag''''. 



MICHELSON.] SACKED PACK ON RIGHT FRONT HOOF. 259 

Again, they were not to turn burning wood. It is said they 
stirred the fire up slowly and carefull\'. 

And again, they would go around giving water to those who were 
seatetl in rows inside. Whenever they wished to do this in their 
hearts, they then would go after water. Yet they had to tell the 
leading attendants about it. Yet they could not be told "No." 
They would always be told, "All right," indeed. It is said when they 
brought it, they would go around first giving water to the men only. 
Then after the}" had first given water to all the men, then the women 
at last. And (they gave it) to the women only. 

It is said that the women did not drink water then with the men. 
Indeed it was against the rules for them to drink water with each 
other when they had a gens festival like that. Yet it was alwa3's the 
men first; then the women (would drink) afterwards. 

"\Anien the ceremonial attendants drank, the water was different. 
They did not drink that water the (others) had been drinking ; it was 
another. It is said that what they drank was always there. They 
would not give everyone a drink; it was only the ceremonial attend- 
ants themselves. Yet, it is said when the attendants would bring 
them water where the sacred pack was they would pour four times a 
little of it on the White Buffalo Hoof sacred pack. The ceremonial 
attendants themselves alone would then drink this, indeed it was 
only for the attendants. 

Verily they were not to spill an}^ of it, even a little. It was (the 
rule) that they had to drink as much as they dipped out. The 
attendants thought that the manitou was drinking that water with 
them. 

Again, it was the ceremonial attendants' duty always to wash their 
hands whenever they would dish out (food). Every one of the 
attendants would wash their hands. It is said they were just told 
to do so by those celebrating the gens festival. A ceremonial attend- 
ant beginning from long ago always kept clean in his hands. It is 
said that after they had washed their hands, they would smoke tliem 
(with disinfectants) that they might greatly serve (food). After 
again serving food again they washed their hands, and did the things 
they had done. The ceremonial attendants would smoke their hands. 
It is said that was what the Wliite Buffalo liked. That was the reason 
these ceremonial attendants did that, as they indeed were afraid not 
to do that. 

Should the ceremonial attendants do something wicked, it is said 
they would do something in a marked way, whereby they would be 
known. It is said they would do this on account of the White 
Buffalo Hoof sacred pack. It is said that is how the ceremonial 
attendants would be known if they did something secretly, (for 
instance) if they should look at those whom they courted in a courting 
way; and if the ceremonial attendants should say anything evil. 



260 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. io. 

Na'lcA'''tc'', kago''meg i'dwawAne'cka/i'd'ta'af', ini'mcg ayi'g 
ami'ca'wi\va''tc''. Kago''meg i'ci'mane'ci'"cawi's'^'. Me"t6''^tcipi 
ml'ca'm a''^tcimegwit'^'; 'amu^tci"cawi'^tc''. 

Ini'*tca'"ipi wa'^tci'megu lvi'cagu'^tci'meguwiga'"siwa^tci'. 

5 A'gwi wa'wutAmi kago''i wi'i"citA"ci"cmene'ki'ta'a'^tci mA'ml- 
"ci''^'. Ca'cki'megu na'na'i'lwv'maga''tc a"tA'ciwiga''tci'k^\g''''„ 
Na'IcA'''tc'', manetowAni'meg a"tA'cinene'ka'nema''tci wi'ketemi'- 
nagu'^tci mA'mfcf^'. "Inipi'meg A''pena''tc a'ci'ta'a''tci niA'mi- 
'ci'-'^'. A'kwiya''megu mga'nimA'mi'd' A"pena'^tci kiino'iiegutA 

lOkigiino'ni'^tci'''. Wi'nA na'"kjV pe'ki'meg a"ke'tcinene'ka'nema''tci 
mane'towAn"'', w&piku'pi'^tcine'nu'son"'". Wrketeml'nagu<^tci'- 
meg a'i'ciwi'ca'ta'a''tci na'"winA niga'nimA'mi'ci'^'. Inipi wi'iiA 
wa'*tciki'cagu'^tciwi"cigi''tc'', a'mganirQAmI'"ci'i''tc''. Uwi'^tcima- 
ml'"ci'a" a"A'kawa'pAma''tci wrpwawikago"imemya'cki'lc4.'mini- 

15 ''tc''. WrwIgii'^tcrkAniini'^tci'meg a'ina'nemri''tc uwi'^tcimAmi''ci- 
'a"i nIganimA'mi'ci'*". WinA'megu niganimA'mi'ci'A tcagime'to- 
'sane'niwAn a'AnemikAiio'negu'^tc''. A'pena'*tciga"meg a'pl- 
"tcikiga'nowe*^tci wimv'megu "NiganimA'mi'ci" 'a"ine'''tcip''. 
O'ni wi'nA me'cena"meg a'Anemi"Ano''kana''tci mAmi''cI'a''". 

20 I'nipi wI'nA nana'ima'''tci'i nIganimA'mi'cf '^'. MAmI"ci"a" ag^viga- 
'kvna'g''''*', "A'g''"'''' wi''igu'^tc''. A'lJenawe'megu "'Au'," 
a"iiiidtc''. 



MA'ni na'kA'''tc'', kago'"i \ri'pwawip6''tci'"sanig a'pl'te'tanigi 
kago'''. I'nipi pe''k a'kawapAtA'mowri''tc''. Kago''i po'^tci'- 

25'sanig''^", mA'^tciinaneto'Ani'megu \vi'po'*tc.i'sA'ta'gowa''tc''. I'nip 
ananetA'mowa'^tc''. Ini''tca'"ipi wa'^tci'megu ki''cagu'^tc A'kawa- 
pAtA'mowa''tc i'ni wi'i'ci'genig''''. Me"cema''meg6nai kago'tfi 
wrpo''tci'sani'gip''. A'po"'tci''sanig inipi'megon"'', a'mawi'sigi- 
'sa''towa''tci mamrcAma'gatcig'"'. Inipi'meg A"pena''tc a'ca'- 

30wiwa''tc''. Ku'tAmo'gipi wi'mi'''tciwa'*tc'". 



Ne'pi na"k^', a'na'towa'^tc'', kAnagwA'megu no'tA wi'pAgi- 

'senA'mowa'^tc''. Miimye'tci'megu piti'g a'tA'ciklga'nowe''tci 

pyato'wa^'tcin i'nip a'pAgi"senA'inowa''tc'". N6tAga''i pAgi'senA'- 

mowat^'-, ini'megu wi''1\rcitepanetA'mini''tci mA''tcimanct6'"a'An''''. 

35 Ini'*tca'"ipi wa'^tei'niegu'u pwawina'ipAgi'senA'mowa'*tci mAini'- 

'cfAg"'' 



MICHELSON.] SACRED PACK ON ElfiHT FRONT HOOF. 261 

Again, should one think wickedly in his heart, they would also do 
the same thing. He would do something that would make him 
ashamed. It is said that it would seem that the sacrctl pack would 
report him; that would be the reason he did this. 

It is said that was the reason why they were so careful when they 
acted as ceremonial attendants. 

A ceremonial attendant was not to think unnecessarily about any 
(other) thing in the meantime. He would only take good care of 
what he was handling (for the manitou). Also the ceremonial 
attendant would be thinking in his heart about the manitou, that he 
might be blessed. Indeed it is said that was what the ceremonial 
attendant always thought in his heart. It was even more so with 
respect to the leading ceremonial attendant who was always spoken 
to by those celebrating the gens festival. He too would always think 
intently of the manitou, the Wliite Buffalo. He, the leading cere- 
monial attendant, too, would strongly desire that he might be blessed. 
It is said that was the reason why he tried so very hard, was because 
he was the leading ceremonial attendant. He watched over his 
fellow attendants that they might not ruin anything. The leading 
ceremonial attendant wished his fellow attendants to do (things) 
truly carefully. All the people would always speak to the leading 
ceremonial attendant himself. Indeed always during the gens 
festival he would always be told, it is said, "Leading ceremonial 
attendant." Then indeed he would employ the ceremonial attend- 
ants. It is said those were the ones the leading ceremonial attendant 
instructed. It was impossible for him to be told by the ceremonial 
attendants, '"No." Everyone alike said "All right." 

Then this also [was a rule], that while anything was cooking there 
must not anything drop into it. It is said that was what they 
indeed watched out for. If something did drop in, the evil manitou 
was the one who dropped it in for them. That was what they 
thought about it. It is said that was the reason why they watched 
so hard that it might be like that. Indeed it was any little thing that 
dropped in. It is said that when (something) did fall in, that was 
taken out by those acting as ceremonial attendants and poured out. 
It is said they always did this. It is said that they would be afraid 
to eat it. 

Again, when they went after water, they could not set it down 
before the right time. Surely they could only set it down after 
they had brought it inside of where the gens festival was held. Shoukl 
they have set it down before, then the little evil manitou woukl 
have claimed it as his own. It is said that was the reason why the 
ceremonial attendants never set it down. 



262 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ann. lo. 

Pe'kiga''megu ka'tcitawe'"sitcigi nepinepina'tegig'^'', 'a'gwip 
a'cki'gitcig''''. Ki'ci'megumamimamlnawita''atcig''''. A'ckigi'A'gip 
a'gwi wito'ka'wu''tcin°''. "Me'cena'"meg aiyi'kwine'ke'u'gowate 
me'tci'gi ■\vi'A''t6wAg''''; wI'agwA'piwa'^tc''," inanetagu'siwA'gip'". 
5 Ini^tca" i'ci'megu'u mamlmamlnawita"atcigi mAinI''crAgi wa''^tci 
nana'towa'^tc I'ni ne'p''. 



A'ckigi'A'gipi wInane'"siwAgi' ca"ck''. I'nip a'ciwito''kawu''tc 
a'cki'gi'Ag a'mAmrci''iwa''tc''. O'n a'nAna'e'sa"kwawa'^tc a'cki'- 
gi'Ag''''. 
10 Ayigiwa''mcgu'u pA'ci'to'Ag'^''. Me'teno'inegu klge''sitcigi 
pA'ci'to'Agi ne'pi na'tegig''''. I'nip a'ca'wiwa''tc''. 

O'ni na'kA''*tci na'"ina" a"me'sotawi'megu'u'sigA'Ama'wa"^tci 

wi'kume'me''tci' i'nip a'ke"tcike'sine'''tcawa''tc''. Kl'clni'cawi'- 

wa'^tci a'wapi'slga'i'gawa'^tc''. Cewa'nAp'", Ana'gAnAni nawA'^tci'- 

15megu no"sAm6gi mAmI''ci'Ag''''. Tniga''ipi mAmI"ci'Ag a'pwa- 

witcitA'piwa'^tc'". A'penii'^tci'meg a"nemA''sowa'^tc'\ 

'O'nipi niga'nimA'mi'cI'A niI''camAn a'A''tanigi te'pina' ii'nenya'- 
mA'su'^tci ne'ki'megu pemi'siga'i'gani''tci mAmI''cra'''. AgwikAna'- 
gwA wi'tci'tApi^tc''. 

20 Ki'ci'megutcatcagi'senya'ni'^tcini wi'seni'ni'^tci''', mAmi"crAg 
a'mawAteiiA'mowa'^tci' cIgw^AtAm6'we''tcin A''kAnAn"''. A'wiga- 
''tci'ipeguniawAtenA'mowa''tci wI'pwawi'megunegu'ta'iklwagwA'- 
tanis'^''. A'i'"cima''tci niganimA'mfcrA mAnii''ci'a'''. O'ni ki'ciki- 
gano'we^tcin ini'pinin a'a'wAtog A''kAnAn°''. Niga'nimA'mi'ci" 

25a'Aneminiga'ni"*tc A"k a'Anemi'so'genAg'"''. I'niye mamaiyA'- 
mcg api'nategi niiyapi'meg a"niawipAgi'ci'weto''tci wa'tenAg''''. 
Me'teguini"cita"tApAgo'mna'ina"meg a"A't6'*tc''. O'n A'"kAnAn 
i'nin ina" a'sige'cka'nAmegi" cigwAta'tagin"''. 

Niiyapi'megu ke'gime'si ma'mye'tc a'mawitcagipiti'gawa''tci 
30mAmi"ci'Ag a'tA'cikigano'wete'"'. I'na''*tca' a'u''tcino'wiwa^tc''. 
'I'nip a'penope'nowa''tc a"uwigi'wa''tcin°''. A'ki'cikunA'gwiwa''tc 
a'inaneti"sowa'^tc''. 

I'nugi wi'n agwi'megu wata'wi 'in i'cawi'wa''tcini mAmI"crAg''''. 
Ca'cki'meg a'mAmI'ci"iwa''tc'", memya'ckiga' mo'tci'meg''"'. Agwl'- 
SSniye watawi'meg i'ci'kegin"''. Me'to^'tci'meg awawi'cawi"iwAgi 
mAmi'"cI'Ag''''. Ane'tA ki'ci'meguwi'seni'wa''tcin Ini'meg a'pe'- 
nowa^'tc''. Ane't a'wi"cA'"sowa''tc ini'meg a'no'wiwa''tc'". Ane't 
a'pA"kigwA"sowa''tc ini'meg a"no'wiwa''tc'". Ane^t ina''megu 
tA'cikegya'ck^vtawane'mawAgi wi'kume'me''tci'''. Agwi'*tca'ape'- 
40'enigi menwi'A'cAma'wa''tcin i'n a'ca'witcig''''. Me'teno''meg 



MICHELSON.] SACRED PACK ON RIGHT FRONT HOOF. 263 

Indeed those who were very old were the ones who always went 
after water, not the young ones it is said. They were the ones who 
already thought seriously about things in their hearts. It is said 
that young ones were not permitted. It is said that they would be 
thought of (in this way), "Why, very likely when they are made 
tired they will set it down on the ground; they will rest." That 
verily is why those ceremonial attendants who already think seriously 
about things go after that water. 

It is said that the younger ones only butcher (the meat). That 
was what the younger ones were allowed to do when they acted as 
ceremonial attendants. Again, the younger ones had to cook. 

Also, indeed, the old men. Only those old men who were strong 
were the ones who went after water. It is said that was the way 
they did. 

And also when the time came for them to serve all of those invited 
it is said that they would wash their hands very vigorously. After 
they had done that they would begin to serve (the food). Still, it 
is said, the ceremonial attendants would wait and smoke the bowls. 
Now it is said that the ceremonial attendants did not sit down. 
Indeed they would always stand up. 

And it is said the leading ceremonial attendant would then stand 
where the sacred packs were as long as the ceremonial attendants 
were serving (the food) . He was not to sit down. 

After those who were eating had all eaten the ceremonial attendants 
would go around and gather the bones that were left. They gathered 
them up carefully indeed so they were not to be lying around any- 
where. That is what the leading ceremonial attendant said to the 
ceremonial attendants. And after the gens festival, it is said those 
bones were then taken away. The leading attendant would take 
the lead carrying earth in his hands. Eventually he carried that 
earth back to where he got it early in the morning. He (also) put 
oak leaves there. Those bones were then poured out there, those 
that were left over. 

Indeed, eventually every one of the ceremonial attendants had to 
go straight back in where they had had the gens festival. They 
then went out from there. It is said that they would each go to 
their homes. They considered that they had gone through it. 

Now the ceremonial attendants do not do that at all. All (they do) 
is to only act as ceremonial attendants, even indeed very carelessly. 
It is not Hke what it used to be at all. It seems as though the cere- 
monial attendants just do a little (of what ought to be done). Indeed 
some go home after they have eaten. Some go outside when indeed 
they get hot. Some go outside indeed when the smoke gets into 
their eyes. Some think meanly of those who are invited, even in 
there. Those who do that do not usually feed them properly. 



264 ORIGIX OP THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ,>NS, 40. 

ii'cAne'kiitl'wa'^tcin In a'cimamenwi'A'cA'tiwa'^tc''. Inu'gi mc'teno'- 
'megu klgano'ni"*tci' a'nagAtawanemc'gowa''tci mAmi'ViAg I'n 
a'pcn ;l'i'ci'slga'i'gawa*'tci mAmI''crAg'"". 

Agw I'niy A'cawai'ye mAmi"cI'a' a'ca'\vini''tci pA''c i'cawl'wa- 
5 ''tcin"''. Na"kA niT'cate'siwAgi'mcgu me'ce'na'i mAmi''ci'Ag''''. 
Agw i'niye kago''mcg i'ciku't.\mo'wa'*tcini wapinenu'swi'gA'ca'- 
wimi'ca'm™''. 

Ponigii/'mo'tc ina''i tAgwi'A"tawAn ini'ni mi'ca'ma'An°''. 
Nyawipina' A"tiiwAni pI'caganimu'ta'Ag''''. Inu'gi ne'ci'kA'meg 
10 ina'' A'to'pi wape"ckiku'pi''tcinenu''swiini'ca'ni™''. Ini'megu ne'ci''k 
a'cincguti''sct6g''''. Po'n ii'A'kawa'pi'An i'na" A'to'p''. 

Ane'tApi' cagwane'mow.\g ito'pi wl''avva''tc Ina" a'A''tanig ini'n 

a'kawa'pi"An°''. A'p\vawiga''ipina'A''tanigi pe'kimegu'pin a"ma'- 

nawa''tci mAmI''ci'Agiga'i na'lwv'''tci ni'mitcig'''". A'nianawa''tci'- 

1.5 meg*"*'. MiimatomowApitcigi'ga' a'manawa''tci'megu'"'. Ini^'tca'- 

'ipi wa'''tci po'n I'na' ini'n A'to'g i'n ji'ca'wigin a'kawa'pi'An"''. 

I'n a'kwi'''tci w'apc'ckiku'pi''tcincnu's\vi'a'kawapA'megwi'^tc''. 
Wapinenu'swigA'ca'wiml'ca'm a'kwi'^tc''. 



MIC iiKLsiiN] SACRED PACK OX RIGHT FRONT HOOF. 265 

They onh' feed well the one with whom they are well acquainted. 
The ceremonial attendants now serve everyone alike only when they 
are being watched over by those celebrating the gens festival. 

The ceremonial attendants do not do the way the ceremonial 
attendants used to do long ago. Again, the ceremonial attendants 
even dress up indeed in fine attire. They are not at all afraid of that 
^A^iite Buffalo Hoof sacred pack. 

Those little sacred packs are no longer there together. Four of 
them are in a parfleche. • The \Miite Buffalo sacred pack is the only 
one that is now put there. Indeed that is the only one that is placed 
there by itself. They do not put the watchers * there any more. 

It is said that some do not want to go over when those watchers 
are there. When they are not there, there are then many ceremonial 
attendants and also the dancers. Indeed there would be many. 
Also there would be many indeed of those who sit as worshippers 
there. It is said that is the reason why they have ceased to put 
those watchers there when there is anything like that. 

This is the end of (the story of) the one who watches over the White 
Buffalo. The end of the Wliite Buffalo Hoof Sacred Pack. 

* Minor packs. 

3599°— 2Di IS 



"O'NI WAPECKIKUTPTCI'NENU'SWA 'UMAIYA'WINEG 
U"TCIWA''TCINA'W^KWAG U^TCIWA^'TCIP^GI'CI'MONIG 
U'°TC A"CITE"KATAGI MI'CA'M'"'. 

Wape'ckinenu'so'ckA'cimi'ca'm a'cite"katag''''. Mo'cAgi'megu 
na''kani kl'ganut a'kawapA'ineg\vi''tc'". 

Ea'ganutA na'ina"inegu mAmi"crAni -pya-'nit a'^tcimo'egut*'', 
"Wi'ci"caiyAn"'','' ine't"', mA'kwa''tci'inegu. "'Au'," wi'i"ciwa- 
5 ''tc''. Wi'pwawi'megukag5"i'i'cimAtunwawinA''kutAg''''. MA'kwa- 
•^tci'megu, "'Au'," wl'i'''tc'". 

Na'ina''meg a'klyu''sani'^tc'', "ini'meg a'kl'ci'meguku'setawa'- 
wa^'tci mAmI"ci'An°'". 

Wi'nA na'kA"*tci mA'mi'ci'A wrpwawi'megukago''i'i'cikiV'gatwa- 
10 ''tc'". Wi'kegye'tenAma''tci ino'tci'megu'u mamrcAmawawa'''tci'i 
klwi'a^tci'mo'ate ■wrci"cani''tc''. 

ManetowAnimego'ni niganimA'ml'ci" a'kl'cikege''ckawa''tc a'ci'- 
ta'a'^tc*'. 

'O'n"'', wi'kiga'nutcig'''', na''kA na'ina''meg a'kl'ciwItA'mawu- 

15 "^tci wi"cl'"cawa''tc'', Ini'megu mane'towAn a'kl'ci'megutAniine'- 

mawa'^tc uwl'yawag''''. Ca'ckimc'gupini wi'i'cine''towa''tci kiigo'' 

a'nene"kanctA'mowa''tc'', wrmAtagw'iklga'nowa'^tci wi'wapAtAma'- 

gowa'^tei wape'ckiku'pi'^tcine'nu'son"'', wi'tapi''awa'^tc''. 

I'nip a'citii"awa''tci kiga'nutcig''''. 

20 Cwa'cigAgifmegu tA'sugu'n i'ci'nigan a'ke'ka'iga'wawa^'tc''. 
Inime'gup A''pena''tc i'ci'nigan"''. 

Oni'pinigi wi'klga'nutcigi pe''k a'ci''cawa"^tc''. 'ApinApi'meg 
ane't a'miwAg a'mawi'cl"cawa''tc''. Me'cemego'na' a'nAtuna'A'- 
mowa'^tci mi"'tcipa'''. 
25 Neni\vAgiga''ipi wawl'witcigi wawite'p a'i3l'tci'cl''cawa'^tc a'gwi 
kAkAnonetra'wa'^tcin uwi'wawa"''. 

Ane'AnenwiwAgiga''ip'". I'ni ne''ki wi'pwawiwine''siwa''tc''. 

I'nipi wa'''tc Ane'Ane'mvIwa''tc''. 

O'ni na''ina'i \vi'kIga'nowa''tc a'A'sipi'A'ci"t6wa'^tci wI'tA'cino'- 

30'sowa''tc''. MamaiyApi'meg a'wapino"sowa'*tci wi'tA'ciklga'nowa- 

■^tc''. A'mawipiti'gawa''tc iniga"ipi wrkiga'nowa''tc''. MAmi''ci- 

'Agi kiwimawA^tciwe'towAg''''. KiwimaniiwA'gip a'kiyu''sawa''tc''. 



A'Anemi'awAteiiAma'wawa^tc api'ci'"catcig''''. 'A'Anemi'megu- 
'awA'tSwe'^tc''. 
266 



(THEN) THE SACRED PACK TH^VT IS SPOKEN OF AS 
BEING ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE WHITE BUFFALO; 
ON THE SOUTH AND WEST SIDE OF HIM. 

It is called the Wliite Buffalo's Hoof Sacred Pack. It also watches 
only over one celebrating a gens pack. 

Whenever one who is to celebrate his gens is approached by a 
ceremonial attendant and is informed, " You must hunt," if he is told 
that, he must cjuietly say, "All right." He must not consent in any 
foolish way. He must quietly say, "All right." 

When the ceremonial attendant has begun to walk around, they 
are then already afraid of him. 

The ceremonial attendant himself must not joke in any way. 
Indeed he must tell the truth when he goes around notif j'ing those for 
whom he acts as ceremonial attendant to hunt. 

The leading ceremonial attendant thinks in his heart that he has 
the manitou already in him. 

Then, again, after those who were to celebrate their gens festival 
were told to hunt, they indeed thought in their hearts that the 
manitou was within them. They only thought about that which they 
were going to kill for it, that the White Buffalo might look upon them 
enjoying a gens festival, that they must please him. 

That, it is said, is what those celebrating a gens festival thought 
about in their'hearts. 

They would name the date eight days ahead. That was the number 
of days ahead (they would) always (set the date). 

And then, it is said, those who were to give the gens festival would 
hunt earnestly. It is said that some would even move camp when 
they went to hunt. They hunted for any kind of little game. 

It is said that the men who had wives did not, at least while hunt- 
ing, talk to their wives. 

It is said that they would always bathe. They were not to be dirty 
during that time. That was the reason why they bathed. 

And when the time came for them to hold the gens festival they all 
joined in the making of a place where they were to smoke themselves. 
It is said they indeed began to smoke themselves early where they 
were to hold the gens festival. They would go in, it is said, where 
they were to give the gens festival. The ceremonial attendants 
gathered up (that which they were to offer). It is said that they 
went in great numbers as they walked around. 

Those who had gone hunting would continue to hand them (the 
game) . These would continue to be taken. 

267 



268 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ax.v. 40. 

Niganiga''ipi iiiA'mrcfA klwinl'ganit a'pemi'uwi'gini^tci miine- 
senogimriwi'so'ni''tci''\ WinAme'gup a'nAnatu"tawa'*tc''. "Kene- 
'ta'wii'ip"''^'," a"ina''tci mami'cAmawa"'tci'''. 



A'Anemiga'me'gupi'A'prtci'awA't6we''tc S'Anemi'a'WAtenA'mawu- 
5 ''tci wi'kiga'nowc''tc''. Aiyaniwe'megu wapikupi'^tcinenu'swiml- 
'ca'm a'"A"tag a'mawA'^tcI'wetogi mena''ckunon"''. 

O'n a'Anemi'a"'tci'mo'e''tc T'na' iiwi'tA pA''cit6'A mane'senogima'- 
wi'sut"^": "MA'nIn uta''Inem'"'V' a"Ane'mine''tci pyiitotAmo'we- 
''tcin°''. A"A'nemike'ki'no'su''tc''. Kegime'si'ineg a'ke'ki'no'su- 
10<*tc'". 

Inigiga"! •w'l'klga'nutcig A"pena''tci'megu manetowAni'meg a'nene- 
"kane'ma\va''tc''. Wi'ke'kanetAmagowa*^tci'meg a'Anemi'cita'atA'- 
mowa'^tc ukiga'nonwaw'^'', kegime'si'meg I'n a'cita''a\va''toi mane- 
'senogimawi'sutcig''''. 
15 Ane'tAp ApinAme'gupi mA'kAta'wiwAgi ne/'ki pemi'ci"cawa'*tc''. 
Apeno'Aga" a'ci"caniitAina-wu''tci'megir"'. Wl'kiga'no'i'^tc a'liAta- 
wanetA'niawTi''tc''. 

Na"k o"swawa"i nape'netcig Ape'no'Ag ugl'wawa'i tA'gwA'an a'ci'- 
"toni'^tc''. 'O tcAtcAwi'kii/'i kl'ca'kAtii'nigini wapi'gunAn ii'awAta- 
20 "i'wani''tc''. "MA'ni mA'nA wrki'ganu''tc'','' 'a'cl'wani'^tc ugi'- 
wawAn"''. 

'O'n a'ne'pena"sowa''tc Ape'no'Agi na'penego'wa'^tcini ne'niwAn 

a'ci''cani'^tc''. A'nAtuna'Ama'gowa''tci \\i'kIgii'nowa''tc''. Ne'to'- 

ni'^tcini kago'' ini'n a'kIga'nowa''tc'\ Cewa'nanA mAne'seno- 

25giniawi'Ape'no'a'i na"penat a'mAmrpri'*tci'meg''"'. Ki'ci'api'ci'- 

"ca'^tcini ^vrmAmi'ci'i''tci'meg''"'. I'cigenl'wip I'n a''cawit-^'. 

O'ni ka''kva'a'i piime'iiegut A'peno' ume''co'Ani' ca''ck a'wi'tama- 
''tc a'mawiklgano\vA'pini''tc''. Wi'nA na''m A'peno' lya'' il'mawi- 
'Api''Api''tc''. Ne''ki wInA'*tca"megu pemikiga'nowe''tc lya'' a'Api'- 

SO'Api^^tc''. 

'O'ni kiga'nutcig a'no'wiwa''tci wa'witep''. Nen5tawi'A'sa'ma\vAn 
a'Ata"pe'nawa''tc i'ni mi'ca'm a'A'"tanigi wape'ckinenu'so'ckA- 
'cimfca'm a'sA'kA'wa/'towa^tc''. 'O'ni na'kA'^'tci' sagi'^'tci kl'cipya'- 
\va''tcini tepina"meg A'peme'g a'ina''kawa''tci nenota'wi'A'sa'- 

35mawAn°''. Wa'^^tc i'cawiwa''tciga''i me't6'''tci mane'towa'i wi'ke- 
'kaneme'go-v\'a''tc a'tA'ciklga'nowe'^tc'", wru''tcino'wIwa''tc'". 'Ini- 
''tca'i'p inini wa"'tc i'ca'wiwa''tc A'sa'mawAn"''. 

Uwiya'Aga'i'pini pwawi''cawit''', awi't aiyapAmipItane'niena'ana" 

a'tA'cikTga'no\ve''tc''. Na'ina''nieg a''nowI'^tc Inina''megu me- 

40to'''tc a"penu''tc a'u'wigi''tc''. Ku"^tciga'kwiga'wI'nAp ina''megu 

piti'g Api''Api's a'tA'cikiga'nowe's*', cewa'nAp awi't Ini'ni wape- 



MiCHELSON.] SACRED PACK ON THE EIGHT SIDE. 269 

It is said that the leading ceremonial attendant was the one who 
was in the lead (as they went) around among the dwellings of the 
War gens. He was indeed the one, it is said, who asked them. 
"Have you slain game?" he would sa}^ to those whose ceremonial 
attendant he was. 

It is said that all the while the offerings he was handed were being 
taken that a gens festival might be held. The meat food was brought 
together in one spot where the Wliite Buffalo sacred pack always was. 

Then an old man that was a member of the War gens, and who 
was there, would be always told: "This is that one's," he would 
be told as it was brought in (for the feast). He would keep track 
of them. Indeed he kept track of everything. 

Those who were to give the gens festival would always think about 
the manitou in their hearts. To know what thej- thought in their 
hearts aljout their gens festival every one of those who were members 
of the War gens desired in their hearts. 

It is said that some even fasted as long as they were hunting. 
They indeed hunted in behalf of a child. They wanted something 
which it could offer in tiie gens festival. 

Again, the mothers of children whose fathers were dead would 
make corn dumplings. Then sometimes they would send dried 
pumpkins along. "This is the (pumpkin) this one is to offer," their 
mothers said. 

And where there were stepchildren, their stepfather hunted. He 
would seek an offering for them. When he killed something then 
that is what they offered in the gens festival. Still, that one who 
was a step-parent to children of the War gens acted as a ceremonial 
attendant. He would act as an attendant indeed after he had gone 
out to hunt. It is said that is the rule of anyone who does that. 

Then the child who was cared for by aged people would only go 
along mth its grandfather when the latter went to sit as one cele- 
brating a gens festival. That child went and sat there too. It of 
course sat there as long as the gens festival was held. 

Those celebrating the gens festival then went out for a while. 
They took up Indian tobacco and burned it for that Wliite Buffalo's 
Hoof sacred pack, where it was. Then after they had come outside, 
they would throw that Indian tobacco straight up (in the air). Why 
they cUd this w'as because they wanted the manitous to know where 
they were giving the gens festival, as it seemed, and from where they 
came out. It is said that was the reason they did this with the 
tobacco. 

If some one, it is said, did not do that, they would not think that 
he had gone back in where the gens festival was. "V\lienever he went 
out it seemed as if he had departed for home. Although he would 
be sitting inside there where the gens festival was, yet the manitou 



270 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. anx. 40. 

"ckinenu"so'ckA"cimi"cameg api'ni^tci'i maneto'waiya' I'n inane'- 
megu's'^'. WinAmego'nA me'to'sa'neniwA tA'cinA'naw i'na' Api'- 
'Api's*'. 

Ini''tca'"ipi wa^'tcimego'ni me"cena' I'n i'ca'wiwa'^tc'". Me'cega'- 
5'megu kl'ganut'*', i'kwa'w^*', A'peno'*", a'nawA''tcimegu'une"sa'- 
mawAniwape'ckinenu'so'ckA'cimi''camegipA'gina'*tc''. Mo''tci 
ta'ki'so"itcig ini'meg a'to'tawu'^tc''. Wayo''sitcigi inAne'senogi'- 
mawa''", "Ma'A'ni mA'iiA 'une'sii'mawAn"''/' a'ine'^tcipa'pe"'''. 
Apeno'aAga'in inime'gup a'ca'whva'^tc''. 

10 'O'ni na"k a'pi'tci'megukIga'nowa''tci kii'tcita'we'sitA neni'wA 
wi'tcItApi^tci'meg''"'. 

Na''kA wi'wi'cigi'inegunA'gAmu''tci na'gAmut'^'. 
Na"kA mA'k\va''tci'megu wraiya''tcimo'e'tiwa''tc'". Wl'pwawi'- 
megukago"i'cinA"sAtawikAnone'tIwa''tci ne''ki pemiklga/nowa'^tc''. 

16U'wiya"A kago" i'cinA'sAtawikA'nawit*', wi"pe"tA'sAgigenigi'mcg 
u'wiyaw'"''. Wi'menwi''tca''meg a'penawe'megu ke'ca'^'tci wl- 
'kAnone'tiwa'^tc''. Ini'megu ki'ganoni wi'aiyatotAma'tiwa'^tc'" 
I'nip a'ci'a'ciine'tiwa'^tc''. Iniga''ipi wlnwa'wA wape'ckinenu'so- 
'ckiml'ca'm I'ni mo'cAgi'megu ki'giinut a'kawapA'megwi^'tci wli 

20 "inemi'i'ca'wigwani ne'ki'megu pemiklga'nowa'^tc''. I'ni ne''kin 
peminagAtawaneme'gwiwa''tc'", ini'^tca" ina^'tcimotu'ga'ig'"'. Ini- 
''tca''winA wa''tci'megu ki'cagu'''tci ku'tA'gi mo"tci tAga'wi kiigo'- 
'a"i wi'ino'wa'i''tci pe"tci ki'ganut*'. 

Na''k*^', ke'te'nA wi'mA'kwa''tci'megu'i'ci'ta'a''tc''. Wi'pwawi- 

25wa'wutAininene'kita'a'*tci nii''ketIwi-na'kA"'tci-wawAne'cka'i'cita'- 
'agAni, -wi'pwawinene'ka'netAg^''. I'nipi kwii'tA'g"''. Aiya'^tci- 
^tcime'gupi i'citlw^'^", wi'ku'tA'mowa''tcimegu'pIni wape'ckinenu'so- 
'ckA'cimica'm'"''. 

A'utotametigi'meg ana'netig'''', i'ni wi'inaneme'tlyAg'^^'''. Ini'- 

30 nani wape'ckinu'so'ckA'cimi'ca'mi wi'ki'cagii''tcimenwinawa"to- 
y^gkwe'_ J'j^ ananeme'nAgvve wi'nA niA'n a'ci''soyAgwe kiltemi'- 
nonAgwA wapiku'pi''tci'nenu"s'^'^'. Ke'tcinawe'megu Ke'cemane'- 
towAn An6''kaneg'''^*'. Kina'nA<^tca'i niA'ni keketemina'gunan°*'. 
MA'n a'ci'so'ni''tcini ketemina'wagwani mane'senogimawi'so'ni- 

35 ^tcin"''. 'Iniga"mAni wa^'tci'megu ke"tci ki'cagu"'tci wAni'nawe 
mA'n a'ci'A'kawapA'tatag'''". TA'senwi'mAni pe''kagi''tc ini'megu 
tA''swi wa"*tc A"kawapAma"soyAg'"'^'. Agwiga"ina'i ku'tAgAn In 
i'ci'kegin°'V' a'ine'^tcipa'pe' u'cki'nawa''^", me'cemego'na''', 'i'kwii- 
WAgi'ga''". 

40 "A"ci''tca"megume'nwikeg Anemi'i'ci'ta'ag''"'. Ini'megu kl'ina- 
neme'guwawA me'ee'na'i kwiye'n inane'tAmagwe kl'yawaw""''. 
'Ano'tatagi niA'ni wape'ckiku'pi^'tcinenu'swimi'ca'm I'n i'citii'- 
'ayag''"'''', Ini'megu wi'i"cigen'''''. Ag\viga"i ni'nA ke'ktinetA'- 



MICHELSON.] SACRED PACK ON THE RIGHT SIDE. 271 

skins that were in the WMte Buffalo's Hoof sacred pack would not 
think that of him. That person himself would be sitting there for 
naught. 

It is said that was the reason why they indeed did that. Anyone 
who was celebrating the gens festival, or a child, stopped to throw 
his (or its) tobacco on the White Buffalo's Hoof sacred pack. Even 
those who were in cradles would be made to do that. Those whose 
fathers were of the War gens would be told: '"This is this one's 
tobacco." It is said that was what they usually did, even a little 
child. 

Then again, the man who was aged was to sit up while they held 
the gens festival. 

Again, the one who sang was to sing loudly indeed. 

Again, they were to instruct each other quietly. They were not 
to speak to each otlier in any harsh way as long as they held the 
gens festival. If someone did speak harshly in any way his life 
would be made ill. Indeed, then they were to speak to each other 
pleasantly and kindly, everyone alike. They were to talk about 
the gens festival to each other. It is said that was what they advised 
each other to do. As for them, it is said that White Buffalo's Hoof 
sacred pack only watched over the one giving the gens festival in 
whatever way he was to do as long as they were holding the gens 
festival. That is how long it kept track of them, is what they seem 
to have told. That is the reason why one celebrating the gens festival 
was afraid to accidentally say something even a little out of the way. 

Again, one truly indeed must think right in his heart. He must 
not unnecessarily think thoughts of courting, nor must he think of 
wickedness. It is said that was what he was afraid of. They earnestly 
said to one another that they must fear that White Buffalo's Hoof 
sacred pack. 

"Wliat brethren think of each other, that is what we shall think 
of each other. We shall then very much please that White Buffalo's 
Hoof sacred pack. That is what is expected of us, who are members 
of this gens, by the Wliite Buffalo who blessed us. He has personally 
been appointed by the Gentle Manitou. He has then blessed us 
with this. He has blessed the one who bore the name of the War 
gens. That indeed is the reason why this (name) is being so greatly 
watched from everywhere. As many as are the number (of limbs) 
that branch out from him, from just as many (places) are we watched. 
There are no others like that," a young man would be told, (or) 
simply anyone, women too. 

"Indeed then, continue to think in a good way. Indeed h.p will 
think just so of you, if you think rightly about your lives, if you 
wish anything of this White Buffalo's Hoof sacred pack in the way 
it has been planned, it will be just that way. I do not know what it 



272 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

manin anota'tagwiin"'','' a''ine''tci kigii'iiutcig''''. "Ca'cki'megu 
kegime'si'megu niAkwa'^'tci wl'i'cita'ayiig'^"'''/' a''ine''tc''. 

Ini'^tca''ipi kiga'nutcigi wa'^'tci mA'kwa"'tc Api'A'piwa'^tc''. 
A'gwip u'wiya' ii'cki'gi'Agi ta'itAnanAgetuna'mu''tcin°''. Pe'ki'- 
Smegu inA'kwa'<'tci kl'cinaga'wa'^tcini mA'ku'a'''tc a'Api'A'piwa'^tci 
ne'niwAg''''. 

O'ni pA'cit6'"a"Ag a'ta'itAnanAgctuna'mowa''tc''. Ini'megu mi'- 
'camAn a'aiyatotA'mowa''tci na'kA"'tci ne'poM^en"''. Miime'tcina'- 
'wapAnwi a'atotA'mowa'^tc''; M'i'i'ca'wini''t('i na'iklgano'ni'^tcin''''. 

10''Me'cena"wInA'megu kAbo'twe wi'nepo''ini''tc''. A'gwi wi'kagi- 
gane'niwi'^tc''. Ka'kanetAmi'ni'^tcini iiAgA'monAni na'kA'''tci 
ki'giinoni nagAtawanetAmi'ni''tci''', me'cemego'na' ii'cike'kino'so'- 
nu'*tci'i wi'nepo'ini'^tei'meg''"". Cewii'n i'nina'i wi'memvi'megu'i- 
"ca'wini''tc''. Mame'tcina''megu w?i"sayawi pyate'ci'tanig'^''', I'n 

ISi'ni wi'wapAma''sowa'*tci kwIyena'niyiigA pyii'^tci'ca'witcig'''". 
Ma'ba wlruv'meg ii'cimenwa'netAgi pya<'tci"cawitA wlnanina'ini 
wi'mAmato'mo'e''tc''. WrwapA'tone^'tci inAmato'mowen iipl- 
"tcikI''cagu"*tci'sAnAgA'tenig''''. MAmii'tomute mame"ci''kA wi- 
'a'nowaw^'*^'. Inina'i luAiii wl'n a'pi'tcina/'sayAgw ii'iuAmAmato'- 

20moyAyAgw aiya'pi'tcina' aiyA'ckA''tci'ga' a'gwi" sAnAgito'- 
yAgwin""'." 

I'nip a"ine'*tci ki'cagwApi'wa'^tcini kiga'Dutcig""''. Kegiuie'si'- 
meg a'a''tci'mo'e''tci wri"cita''awa'^tc''. Wi'mAniatomowita''awa- 
''tci''tca''meg A"pena'^tci ne''ki pemikIga'nowe''tc''. Kegime'si'- 

25megu wi'ku''tca'wiwa'*tc''. A'pene'megu wi'i'cita''awa'itc'", ke'gi- 
"kwiiwe kegApen6"emeg ayi'g''''. I'ni wa'^tca'^tci'mo'e'^tci wi'wi- 
"cigi'megunene'kanetA'mowa'^tci wapiku'pi''tcinenu"swai''''. 

Na''k'^', ki'ganutA wi'ku'setAgi'meguga' na'wi'n a'kaw&pA'- 
megwi''tc''. Tcawlne/'kipi pe'kwagwA'niiwAgi neno'tawine'sa'- 
30mawAni nwtl'witcig''''. Pwawi''tca"i-'une'sama'witcig I'nipi wate'- 
nawa'^tci nwawl'wa''tcmi pagina'wa'^tcin"''. 

Nenota'wine'sa'mawAni mAniga"ip ano'v/awa''tc'', ini'n ii'nl- 
maya''kawa''tc A'sii'mawAn"'", "Ma'd A'tAman""', neme''cu. 
AiyapAini'kuT ni"pitig a"tA'cimAmatQ'moyag''''V' i'nip'". 'AnetAga'- 
35 "ipi mA'n°'', "MA'n A'tAman""", neme''c"", Ke'cemaneto'w^"'''," 
'i'wAg'''". 'I'nip i"cinI'"ewaiyAg ano'wawa''tci ne'niwAg''''. I"kwa- 
WAg ini'meg a"citcawino'wawa''tc''. 

"O'ni mi'"cameg a"pAgi'nawa''tci mA'nip ano'wawa''tc'", "Nemei 
'come'seti'g'"'', wape'ckinenu'so"ckA"ciina'netotig''-", wa'\vitep- 
40no'inAga" ni'"now^'". Nl"pyA wInA'meg''""." Ini'pinig ano'wilwa- 
<*tc''. 

Kiga'nutcig Ini'"ipi maneto'waiya" a"kAn6'nawa'*tci w^pe- 
Vkinenu"so"ckA'cimI''cameg api'ni'^tci''". 



MicHELSON.] SACEED PACK ON THE EIGHT SIDE. 273 

has been planned," those holding the gens festival would be told. 
"Indeed, every one of yoxi must only think quietly in your hearts," 
they were told. 

Tliat was the reason why, it is said, those celebrating the gens 
festival sat there quietly. None of the young (people) talked away 
(in there). Indeed the men sat there very quietly after they had 
finished singing. 

The old men then were accustomed to do the talking. They would 
talk about those sacred packs, also death. They would talk about the 
final day; what those do who were always giving festivals of the 
gentes. "They were indeed going to die sometime. They were not 
going to live forever. The one who knew the songs, also the ones who 
studied about the gens festivals or in any (other) way, (was) the one 
who was to indeed die. Still at that time it will be all well for him. 
Indeed when that final day gradually comes those who believe in it 
will then be looked after. The one who did as he pleased will be 
made to worship at that time. He will be shown that worship is so 
very hard. If he worships, then at that time most likely he speak 
in vain ( • ^Vlien we worship now during our life once in a while 
we do not have a hard time later on." 



It is said that was what would be told to those celebrating the gens 
festival after they were seated. Every one of them would bo told 
what to think in their hearts. They were to always think aliout 
worship in their hearts during the gens festival. Indeed every one 
must try to do so. They were to think alike, women as well, 
children, too. Tliat is the reason they were told to think intently 
of the White Buffalo hide. 

Again, the one giving the gens festival was to be in fear of that 
which watched over him. It is said that those who went out piled 
Indian tobacco in the middle. Those who did not have any tobacco 
got it from the Indian tobacco which those who went out had dropped. 

It is said this is what they would say as they threw up that tobacco: 
"Smoke this, my grandfather. I am indeed going to go back inside, 
where we are worshipping," so it is said. And it is said some (would 
say) this, "Smoke this, my grandfather, Gentle Manitou," they said. 
The men, according to tradition, would say it in those two ways. 
The women would say the same thing in the two ways. 

And when they threw it on the sacred pack, according to tradition, 
they would say this, "My grandfathers, Wliite Buffalo's Hoof mani- 
tous, I am going to go out to rest for a little while. Indeed I am 
going to come (back)." It is said that is what they would say. 

It is said those celebrating the gens festival spoke to those manitou- 
skins which were in the Wliite Buffalo's Hoof sacred pack. 



274 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

Kiganutci'g inig iiyigipi'meg ane't Ite'pi wi'mawi'Api'A'piwa''tci 

ku''tAmog^''. Agwiyugii"ipi kAna'gwA \vrcegi'ci'nowa''tc''. 

Mamye'tci'megu wrtcitA'piwa^'tc i'ci'geniwi ne'ki'megu pemiklga'- 

nowe'^tc'". Mo'tci'megu na''inig a'gwi kAna'gwA wi'co'ckiga'- 

Spiwa'^tc''. 

Na''kAp'', sA"sa''kwa,wAgi wrwIgawA'piwa'^tci kigil'nutcig''''. 
MA'kwa'^tci'megu wI'Api'A'piwa^tc'' ; wrziene'kanetAmowa<'tci'ga'i 
klga'nowa''tc a'pi'tci"sAnAganetA'ino\va''tc''. I'nip a'ci'i"cita''awa- 
''tci tcagi'meg''"'. 

10 Wani''tcane'sitcigi'ga' uni'^tcane"swawa'i wi'menwime'to'saneni'- 
wini'^tc i'nip a'cita''awfl''tc'', kenwii'cime'gupi wI'AnemiwI'^tcime- 
'to'saneni'gani'^tc''. Inip a'cita'a'piwa^'tc uni''tcane''swawa'i nane- 
'kane'matcig'^''. Ini''tca'"ipi wa''*tci wl'cawita''awa''tci wl'pwawi'- 
meguiio'wiwa''tci ne''ki pemiklga'nowe'^tc''. 

15 I'ni na''kA mrca'm inime'gup a'cipwawiwawAnaneme'gwiwa^tc 
anemi'cita''awa''tci wape'ckinu'so'ckA'cimi'ca'm™''. 

O'n a'ca'wiwa''tci kiga'nutcig''''. Nl''cwi klgiino'ni^tci, 
A'penii'^tci'meg a'aiya'^tcimo''awa''tc''. Negu'ti To''ka'n"*', negu'tt 
Krcko''"^', pe'ki'megu ka'kane'tAgi a'ci'genig'^'', tcigimegu kag6''i 

20ka"kane'tAgig''''. Ini'gip a'tA'ci'aiya'aiyato'tAgigi me'cemegona" 
kiigo'''; aylgi'megu kiga'nowa''tci wrina'inanetA'mawu"tc i'nip 
a'ci'aiya''tcimo''awa''tc''. Agwiga/'neguti wi'a''tcimo''awa''tc'', me 
'sotawe'megu kigano'ni''tci''', i'kwawa'i'ga'''. 

O'ni ni'Vwi na'kav'''tc'", a'pe'kiwa'^tci'ineg''"', o'ni na'ina'gatcig''''. 

25Na"tawi'megu na''kanigi nAgAinonAni'meg a'aiyatotAma'wawa'^tc'". 
"Ni'na''inag'"'V' a'cita''atcig ina'"megu ke'"tcina' a'tcitA'piwa'^tc''. 
Ki''cko'Agi To'kanipA'ci'to'An a''tcimo'egowa''tci'nip'', o'ni T5'- 
'kanAgi Ki'cko'ipA'ci'to'An a^tcimo'ego'wa'^tcin''''. A'ci'i'ci'- 
"senigi nAgA'monAn a'ciwapi'ga'i'u''tci''tca'ini'ci''senig a'a^'tcimo- 

30 'e'gowa''tci pe'kiga''megu ka'kiinetAmi'ni'^tci'i wape'ckiku'pi- 
''tcinenu'swimi'caminAgA'monAn"''. A'tA'swipi'meguponinaga'wa- 
''tcin°'', 'a'wapi'a'^tci'mo'e'^tc''. Mamenwine'ki'meg a'a''tci'mo'e- 
''tc''. Ag\\'iga'"i kutA'gi wi'ina'ina^'tci'mo'e'^tci' ca'cki'megu mo- 
'cAgi'megu nAgA'monAn a'ci'"senig'''". 

35 Kwiyeiiji'niegu ki"cikigano'wa''tcin°i', a'A'k\va'^tci'mo'e''tci na'- 
'inig'''', me'ce'meg u'ckina'wii'Agi wi'ina'ina'gawa''tc a'cita''atcig''''. 

O'n a'pe'kiwa''tci'megu ni'cwimego'ni'inigi nagAmiitcig''''. Aiya- 

'c6'kApi'meguna''inigi ka'^tcipi'towAgi nAgA'mSnAn"''. Negu'ti 

Ki'cko" o'ni negu'ti To'ka'n'"^'. "I'nipi na''inig a'ca'i"ca'wiwa''tc'". 

40A'ni'copiwa^tciga"meg''"". Negu'ti ne'iiiwAn tca'wine'k a'A'pini'^tc 

anwa\va'iga'ni''tcin°''. 



MICHELSON.] SACRED PACK ON THE RIGHT SIDE. 275 

Some celebrating the gens festival also, it is said, were afraid to go 
over there and sit down. It is said that it was not permitted that they 
lie down. Indeed the rule was that they had to sit up as long as the 
gens festival lasted. They could not at the time sit with their legs 
straightened out. 

Again it is said that it was against (the rules of rehgion) for those 
celebrating the gens festival to lean while sitting. They were to sit 
quietly; they were to think how hard it was to celebrate their gens 
festival. That was what they each thought in their hearts, indeed, 
every one of them. 

Those who had children, it is said, would think in their hearts how 
their children might lead good lives, and that they might continue 
to live on Avith the rest for a long time. Tliat is what those who 
thought about their children would think in their hearts as they 
sat there. That, verily, is the reason why they were not to wish to 
go outside as long as they were holding the gens festival. 

It is said, moreover, that sacred pack, the White Buffalo's Hoof 
sacred pack, could not but know what they thought in their hearts. 

Now as to what those celebrating the gens festival did. Two 
would always be talking to those celebrating the gens festival. One 
was aTo'kan""^'; one was a Ki'cko'^', they were indeed those who 
really knew how it was, and who knew about everything. It is said 
those were the ones who would tell about every conceivable thing: 
also it is said they would tell them what would be thought about 
their offerings. Tliey were not to talk to one, but all of those who 
were celebrating the gens festival, women as well. 

Then again, there were two others, different ones, and those who 
could sing. They too would merely talk about the songs to them. 
Those who thought in their hearts "I am going to learn to sino-," 
would go over and sit near. It is said the Kl'ckos would be instructed 
by a To'kan"-^' old man; and the To'kans were instructed by a 
Ea'cko'^" old man. They were taught the order of the songs, and 
the origin of (the songs) by ones who knew the songs of the White 
Buffalo's Hoof sacred pack well. As often as a song would end, they 
would begin to be taught them. They would be taught them quite 
often. Tliey were not told anything else but only the order and 
words of the songs. 

Exactly when the gens festival was indeed over, they stopped 
telling those young men about them, anyone of them who wished in 
their hearts to learn to sing (them) . 

Then there were still two others, different ones, who sang. It is 
said that these would take turns in starting off the songs. One was a 
Kl'cko''^' and one was a To'kan"*'. It is said that was what they 
did. They indeed sat as a pair. One man sat in between who 
beat the drum. 



276 OEIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. axn-. 40. 

O'ni na'"kan anwawa"igatA ne'kAnikl'cegwe'megu wrpwawimegu'- 
nowi'^tc''. I"cigiw''*". Na'ma"meg a'pi'tiga''tc a'tA'ciklga'- 
nowe'^tc inime'gup a'pwawi'nowI''tc''. Na"kApi na'ina''megu 
kl'cinAna'agwA'piwa'^tci kiga'nutcig I'nin a'poni'megukA'nawi''tc'', 
5SA'sa"kwaVApi wi'kA'nawi'^tci kago"i'c'". Ca'cki'meg a'Api"Api- 
••tc'". Ki'cinaga'wa''tcin a'Api''Api''tc'. 'AgwikAnagwAme'gupi 
wi'ApAnanitci'ga'''. Me'ce'megu wi'n a'Api"Api'*tc''. Wl'pwawi'- 
megu'uwi'ya AnitA'cipe'sepe'se'tawa''tc i'cigi'w""*^'. Iniga/' i"ca'n'ite 
mane.'tonagi nc'ciwAnatanetagu'si''sApi'. Uwi'yii'An anwawa''igatA 
lOpe'sepe'se'tawat a'tAnetiina'moni''tci me'cema'mego'na'''. Na'kA'- 
^tci wi'pwawi'megukAno'nawa''tc i'ci'giwAg Ini'n anwawa'iga'ni- 
''tcini kiga'nutcig''''. Ini'pini pe''k a'ci'A'kawapAme'gwiwa'^tci 
wape'ckinenu'so'ckA'cimrca'm"''. 



O'ni na"kA'''tci neguti'megu kanakA'nawit*'. InA'megu wi'nanA 
15ne"ki'megu me'to'saneni'wigwan inimegona'nAp Jinemik^vnakA'- 
nawnt*'. Me'teno"megu ne'po'it ina'mi'ta'i kutA'gA na'kA"'tci 
wiipikAnakA'nawi'^tc''. 

Na''ina' A'ci'e'te me'to^'tci wi'na'ikAnakA'nawit ananemiiwe'- 
niwit/*^', i'nip inami'"ta'i nc'ci'megu mAmAmato't/Vmegi wape- 
20"ckinenu's5'ckA"cimi'ca'm""'. Inipa'mi'ta'i na'i'n anane'niatan°*', 
"MA'nA wi'AnemikAkA'notAgA nemAmatomo'nenan"''." 

Inime'gupi' ca''ck a'nowag''''. Inipina'mi'ta'i wapikugwa^'tcikA- 
nalvA'nawi^'tc''. Ki'ci'meguwlga''sit a'kAnakA'nawi''tc*', Inipa'- 
mi'ta'i wi'^tci'sS 'ma ''tci' a'^tci'mo'a''tc''. Inipa'mi'ta'i ldga'nowa''tc''. 

25 Na'ina"mcgiru nawA''kwanig I'nip 5\mi''ta' A'cki'megu'u wiipikA- 
nakA'nawi<'tc''. Pa'ciwInA''tca''meg a'p6niklga'nowe''tci ponikA- 
nakA'nawi''tc''. AgwikAna'gwA no'tA wrA'kwanAgetu'namu^tc''. 
I'nip a'ca'wiwa^tc A'cki^'tca/'meg'"''. Onl'na'u'^tci noniAgawe 
na'kA'''tc A'ckA''*tci kIgano'we''tcini winwawA'mcg a'wawiina- 

30 netA'mowa'^tci wi'A'kwapya"t6wa^tc uta^'tci'monwaw"^''. Uwiya- 
'Aga''ip'', "Na'kA'megu nrke'nwa''tcim™"V' a'ci'ta'a''tc'', Iniye'- 
megu niiya'p a'ina''tcimu'te' a'ina'''tcimu''tc a'A'cka''^tcimu'^tc 
a'na'ina"'tcimu''tc''. 

Ini'megu niiya'p''. Cewa'nA pepya^'tci'megu nyiiwe'mvi na''kan 

35i"cawi''tc''. I'nip a'ca'wiwa''tc''. Kl'peneme'gupi nyawe'nw i'n 
a'ca'wiwa'^tci kanakAna'witcig i'nip a'ke"tcinanetagAni'wiwa''tc'', 
Inigii'iplni wape'ckinenu'so'ckA'ciml'ca'm akekiineme'^tci'megu 
a'tepane'g\viwa''tc mi''ci nyawe'nwi kakanwikAnakAna'witcig''''. 
Ini'^tca'"ipi wa"*tci'megu wiga'"siwa'^tci nyawe'nwi k^vnakAna'- 

40 wiwa'^tc''. 



MICHELSON.] SACRED PACK ON THE RIGHT SIDE. 277 

Again, that one who beat the drum was not indeed (permitted) to 
go out all day long. That was the rule for him. It is said that 
whenever he had gone in where the gens festival was, he was then 
not to go out. Again, it is said, he ceased to speak from the time 
those celebrating the gens festival had seated themselves. It is 
said it was against the religion for him to speak in any wa}^. He 
only sat there. After the singing he would sit there. He would 
even not laugh. He only was to sit there. Indeed his rule was 
such that he did not have to listen to anybody there. If he did that, 
he would be considered worthless among the manitous, it is said. 
That is, if the drummer should listen to anyone who was talking, 
mdeed, any of them. Again, it is the rule that those celebrating 
the gens festival must not speak to the drummer. It is said that 
they were being watched closely by the White Buffalo's Hoof sacred 
pack (that they might not do it). 

Then again, there was one who gave speeches. Indeed that same 
one was always there to give speeches as long as he lived. Only when 
he died, did another begin to give speeches. 

When the time came for one to be installed, as it were, who they 
thought would know how to give speeches, then the 'Wliite Buffalo's 
Hoof sacred pack alone would be worshipped. Then that (one who 
was desired to give speeches) would be the one to be thought of 
thus, ''This is the one who is to continue to speak our prayer." 

It is said that is all that is said. That one would then begin to 
try to make speeches. After he had become careful in making 
speeches, he would then tell his own gens about it. They would 
then give a gens festival. 

Indeed, just when noon came, he would give a speech for the first 
time. He would cease talldng when the gens festival ceased. He 
was not to stop talking before. That, it is said, is what they did at 
first. Then from then on at another gens festival a little later on 
they themselves ended their speech just as they wished. It is said 
when someone thought in his heart, "I am going to talk long again," 
he would say what he had said at fii-st in his speech. 



Indeed it was all the same. Still, he had to do that over four 
times. It is said that was the way they did. If, however, those 
who talked did like that four times, it is said they were then thought 
a great deal of. It is said then that it is known that the White 
Buffalo's Hoof sacred pack loved those who were known to have 
given four long speeches like that. That was the reason why they 
were careful to give four long speeches. 



278 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

U' Okinawa' Agigifmeg i'n ii'cikAnakAna'witcig'''". Pa'ci'meg 
ane'tA pA'cito'a''iwAg''''. Inigipi'meg iiyaniw i'n a cikAnakAna'- 
witcig'''", 'aya"meg A'ckigi"iwa'^tc u<'tcipya'''tc a'kAnakAna'- 
wiwa'^tc''. Wape'ckiku'pi''tcinenu''swimi'ca'm a'kAkAiiStA'mowa- 
5 ''tc''. Na''kA kegime'si'megu me'to'sane'niwAn a'a^'tcimwi'ta'- 
wawa'^tci mamatomo'ni<'tcin°'', me"sotawema''meg a'tA'so'ckena- 
wa'^tci'meg I'na" wigi'yapeg a'tA'cimAinato'mowa'^tc''. AnetAga"ip 
ApinA'mcgu'u mai'yowAg a'A'ckiwapikAnakAna'wiwa''tc u'ckina- 
wa''a Ag''*''. Ki'pe'nepi maiy6'wa''tcin'''', manepi'megu mai'- 
lOyowAg'"'. A'ki'cagu'*tciga''inigiketemagita''awa''tc i'nipi wa"'tci 
mai'yowa'^tc'". Mayowa''tci'nip ina''meg a'mawinAna'A'piwa''tci 
wape'ckinenu'sS'ckA'cimi'ca'm a"A''tanig''''. 

Kiganutcigi'pini kegime'si'meg a'sA'kA'wa''t6wa'^tci mi"camAn 
i'n a cimaiyom6'ni''tcin a'ckikAnakAnawi'ni''tcin°'". 

15 O'ni nana'imatA mAmi"ci'An''''. Neguti'megu na'ipinan a'cawi- 
>^tc'". Me'to"^tci paminAnato''tawat a'pi'te'sa''kwani'^tci mami'- 
c"i'An°'". CewawinA'pinA me'ten6''mcgu niganimAmi"ci'An anemi- 
kAno'na^'tcin"''. "Ta'ni "a'pi'tciwA<'tca''owa''tc''?" "_a'"ina^tc'', 
a'Anemi'meguke'kanetA'mini"*tc a'pi'te'sa''kwani''tc'". Inipi'megu 

20a"cawi''tc'". 

O'ni na kA'''tc'', negu'ti w"i'Anemi'cipA'ki'gamu''tc'". Me'cemego'- 
na' a'ci'so'ni'^tci' a'AnemipA"kima''tc''. Mo'cAgi'meg a'Anemiwi- 
'ku'tiwa^'tc i'n a'ci''sutcigi pa'ki'metcig''''. O'n inA'megu ne''ki 
wi'pemikiga'nowe''tci wawana'netAg'''^', mAmi"cfa"i nana"imatA 

25 wi"AnemiwA''tca''oni''tc'". 

O'n i'na'i wawigi't*', ca'cki'meg a'Api"Api<'tci ne'"ki pemikiga'- 

nowe'^tc''. WinApi me"teno' a'gwi kago''i" sA"sa'"kwa'*tcin'»'". 

Wi'nowi^'tcini'ga'i me'ce'meg a'pemi'nowi'^tc''. WinA'megu 

ne'ci'"k*'. A'wi'*tci'to'''tcip ini'ni mi"camAn i'ni wa^'tci pwawiwi- 

30 nAkago''i'ci'sA'sa''kwa''tc''. A'pe'menAg''''. 

A'pe^tcipi'megu wiga''tci''kataw i'ni wi'giyap a'A'gotiig ini'ni 

mi'"camAn''''. Agwiga'ip i'na'i kugunA'megin A"ckutaw''''; kena- 

''tci'meg''"'. Me'to'^tcime'gupi me'to'sii'neniw A'pi'tane'tagwAtw 

A"ckutaw ini'n a'A'gotag''''. Agwigii'i'p ina'i' se'kwatA'megin"''. 

35 Pekime'gupi" 'sA'sagi'"tataw i'n A"ckutaw a'A'gotag ini'n"''. 

Na"kA''*tc'", a'gw A'kAnAn i'na' A'kA'sA'megini me'cemego'na' 
i'ci'A''kAnAn°''. Me'teno'me'gup aiya'pi"tcina'i nenotawA''samaw 
anemi'A"kA'sut*', 'aiyane'ki''iy'. AiyA'ckA"'tci na'kA'<*tci pApA'- 
gatAgw anemi'A'"kA'sut'^'. Inini'pin a'cikige'simi'gatagi mi'- 
40'camAn"'". Iiii''tca''ipini na''wa'*tc Apena^tci'megu'u wa'^'tc A'kA'- 
'swawa'^tci pApAga'tAgwAni na"kanin Anenotawi'A'sa'mawAn"''. 
Inime'gupi wa'^'tc aiyane'ki" i'ci'A'kA''swawa<*tc a'kikigAna'sA'- 
mowa'^tc ini'ni ini"camAn°''. 



MiciiELSON.] SACRED PACK ON THE RIGHT SIDE. 279 

The young men were indeed the ones who gave speeches Uke that. 
Some at hist become old men. It is said they were always the same 
ones who spoke like that, those who started to speak beginning from 
their youth up. They talked to the White Buffalo's Hoof sacred pack. 
They also spoke for every one of the people who were worshipping, 
indeed for every one of those who were in that house where they were 
worshipping. Indeed it is said that some young men even wept 
when tliey firet began to give speeches. Whenever, it is said, they 
would weep many (others) would weep too. They wept because they 
felt so humble in their hearts. Whenever they would weep it is said 
they would go and sit down where the White Buffalo's Hoof sacred 
pack was. 

Every one of those celebrating the gens festival then smoked the 
sacred packs with tobacco whenever those who were making their 
first speeches wept. 

Now as to the one who gave instructions to the attendant. It is 
said that there was just one who did that. It was one who seemed to 
ask the attendants how their cooking was progressing. Yet he could 
only speak to the leading attendant. "How is their cooking pro- 
gressing T' he said to him, that the latter might know always how 
their cooking was progressing. It is said that was what he did. 

Then again, there was one who was to distribute (the kettles of 
food). He would give it out to any member of the gens. Those 
who were members of that gens would invite each other only after 
being given (a kettleful of food). Then that one who has charge of 
how the attendants should cook, is the one that has his own will 
about how long a time the gens festival should last. 

And the one wlio lives in that house only sits there as long as the 
gens festival is going on. He is the only one, it is said, who is exempt 
from the rules of the religion. Whenever he wants to go out, he goes 
right on out. He is the only one. He is exempt from the rule 
because it is said he alone lives with the sacred packs. He takes 
care of them. 

It is said that the house where those sacred packs hung was always 
taken good care of. It is said that the fire was never handled in 
jerks; it was gently. The fire was considered just like a human 
where those (sacred packs) hung. It is said that it was never spat 
upon. The fire was indeed kept very clean where those (sacred 
packs) hung. 

Again, bones of any kind were never burned there. The only 
thing, it is said, that was burned was Indian tobacco, a little at a 
time and at intervals. Again later on evergreen tree wood was 
burned there. It is said that was how those sacred packs were made 
strong. It is said that was the reason why they always burned the 
evergreen tree wood and also that Indian tobacco. That was the 
reason why they burned them little at a time, because they made the 
sacred packs strong. 



280 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

'Ini'pini wa'''tc a'ca'wiwa''tc Ini'gi pame'nAgig''''. Na''kAp'', 

'agwi'megu na'inAgAtAmo'wa''tcin°''. Ina''meg A''pena''tc a'awi- 

a'\viwa''tc aiyaniwe'meg''"'. Inini'megu' ca"ck a'wfcigi'megu- 

"aiya''tci'^tci'A'kawapAtA'ino\va''tc'". Cewa'nApi wi''tci'soma'wa- 

5 ''tci' a,nemipyatogo'wa''tci'i wl'i'cimena'cku'nowa'^tc''. Cii'ckipi'- 

megu pcmenagAni'wiwAgi nii'VinwawA me'cemego'na'i wl^'tci- 

'soma'wa''tci'''. Tiigwa'ginig iniga'i'p in°'', "Ma'iia mA'ni keml- 

'ca'menani wi'wi'''tci'tot inu'g''''. Cewii'nA pe'ki'megu nifkinaiiA 

krtapi'eguna'n°'^V' "ina'pip''. Ini'^tca'i'p in a'to'tawu'^tc a'A'se'- 

10mi"e''tci wi'Anemi'cimr'^tciwa''tci ka'kA"wa'sutA wI'wi'''tci"to''tc''. 

A'pe'ponigi pe'kiine'gupi" sAiiA'gi'ap''. Agwiga''ipi kAna'gwA 
wi"ci'ca''tc''. Ina''megu aiya'niw a"awi'awi''tc''. 

O'ni meno'kAinl'i'nigin"'', 6'ni pe''ki pii'menAg a"awi'^tci'. 

Iniga'ipi'megu kwa'tA'mowa''tc'', wape'ckinenu'so'ckA'cimi'- 
15'ca'm™''. I'nip A'penii'^tci'meg a'kawapAme'gwiwa''tc''. Kiigo" 
u'wiya' a'i'ci'a'nwa'tAg'''', ke'tenApi'niegu kag6''megup i''cawlw'''^'_ 
I'nip*'. 

Pe'kiga''ipi pa'menAg iiylgi'meg a'kiwi"ci'ca''tc''. MA'kwa^'tci'- 
meg a'kiwi''cawi'*tc''. Inipi'megu na'wI'nApi kvva'tA'g''''. 

20 Meno'kAmi'inigi'nipi mawA'^tcipya'wa'^tcin'''', ayawi'ci'megu- 
pya'wa'^tc a'kigakiga'nowa''tc''. Ini'n a'mAinatotA'mowa'^tci pApI'- 
wimi'ca'ma'An"''. . KrcitcagiponI'wa''tcin°'', '5'nip A'*tca"megu 
\vape'ckiku'pi''tcinenu''s\vimi'ca'm a"mAniatotA'mowa''tc'', Ivi- 
'cininitcagimAmatotAmo'wa''tcini pApi'wiml'ca'ma'An"'". I'n a'kwi'- 

25 '^tci wape'ckinenu'so'ckA'cimi'ca'mi mo'cAgi'megu kigii'nutcig a'ka- 
wapAnie'gwiwa''tc'". 
A'k\vi"^tc''. 



MICHELSON.] SACKED PACK ON THE EIGHT SIDE. 281 

It is said that was the reason those who took care of them did that. 
Again, it is said, they never left them. Indeed they always staid at 
that one place. They only watched over them very particularly as 
best they could. Still, it is said, those who belonged to their gens 
would bring in meat food for them. They themselves, it is said, 
were cared for only by an}^ of the members of their gens. It is said 
that during the fall, "This is the one who will now live with our 
sacred pack. Still, he will indeed please us very much," they would 
say about him. That was the way he was treated, it is said, when 
the one who was named to live with it was helped to obtain his food. 

It is said that during the winter he was given a heavy (burden). 
He could not hunt, it is said. He had to stay at the same place. 

Then in the spring, the one who really took care of it stayed (in 
turn) . 

It is said that was what they feared, the White Buffalo's Hoof 
sacred pack. That watched over them always. Indeed when some- 
one did not believe in it in any way, it is said that something would 
truly indeed befall him. That (was what happened to them), it is 
said. 

The one who really took care of it, it is said, also hunted about as 
well. He went hunting around quietly. It is said that was what 
he too was afraid of. 

When they all returned together in the spring, it is said, just as 
soon as they came, they would give gens festivals. They would 
worship those small sacred packs. After they all camped, then it is 
said, they would at last worship the White Buffalo's sacred pack, 
after worshipping all those small sacred packs. Tliis is the end of 
the White Buffalo's Hoof sacred pack which watches over those 
celebrating the gens festival only. 

The end. 

3599°— 25t 19 



SOME LINGUISTIC NOTES ON THESE TEXTS. 

These texts are of especial linguistic importance as they differ 
stylistically and in content from any Fox texts published by the late 
Doctor Jones. Hence it is that we have a rather different vocabulary. 

It may be noted that the loose composition, described by me in the 
American Anthropologist, n. s. 15, 473 et seq., and in the International 
Journal of American Linguistics, 1, 50 et seq., is a favorite construc- 
tion in this text. Examples are: krci-megu-p5m-'ane'tA-ke-'tenA- 
a'net.vmwA, "some have already ceased to think it true," 246.17, IS' 
(inclusion of megu, a particle of weak meaning, anetA, an independent 
pronoun meaning "some," an adverb ke'teuA, meaning "truly," here 
M'ith adjectival sense, within the verbal compound) ; a'nawA^'tci- 
megu- une'sa'mawAni-wape'cki-nenirso'ckA'cimrcamegi-pA'gina'^tc'' 
"he threw his tobacco on the Wliite Buffalo's Hoof sacred pack," 270.5, 
6 (inclusion of particles and nouns) ; neki'ci-tapi-tA'senwi-kA'nona'"^* 
" I have spoken to him the correct number of times," 70.8 (inclusion of 
tA'senwi, an inanimate intransitive verb, with the virtual mean- 
ing of "times"). See also 70.35; 70.37; 70.38; 72.13, 14; 74.12 
74.19; 74.33; 76.24; 78.7; 80.21; 84.25; 90.30, 31; 94.15; 116!32, 33 
120.3,4; 124.44,45; 126.10; 128.33; 130.23; 130.24; 130.37; 132.26 
132.27; 132.42; 132.46,47: 134.6,7; 134.9,10; 136.8,9; 138.17 
1.38.20,21; 138.43; 140.16,17; 140.22; 140.28; 144.12; 144.15,16 
144.28,29; 144.40,41; 146.11,12; 146.40,41; 148.10; 148.11,12 
148.15, 16; 148.16, 17; 148.23, 24; 148.25; 150.7; 150.8; 152.5 
152.7; 152.18; 152.24; 152.37; 166.16; 166.29, 30; 210.13, 14 
212.17; 212.17, 18. Other examples can be easily found. It should 
be noticed that it is wholly arbitrary on our part as to whether we hold 
that kA'cki "ability" is ■ndthin or without the verbal compound at 
166.16 and at 166.29, though it is out of the compound at 160.8 and 
204.9; at 86.38 it probably is out of the compound; at 210.15, 210.18 
pemi may be considered as being either witliin or without the verbal 
compound. It is also to be observed that mawd "to go to" is found 
outside a verbal complex at 48.31, which shows it is not a mere prefix 
(see XIX International Congress of ^Vmcricanists, 544). Though this 
loose construction is a favorite in this text, it should not be thought 
that it is confined to ritualistic texts. 

I have shown above the looseness in verbal composition; from two 
examples it appears that this looseness extends at least to a certain 
degree in nouns: note kl'^tcimegu'Aneno'tananA "our fellow Indians," 
84.15, 16 and i'kwawi**tca'i'cita"agAni "women's thought," 168.16, 
Avith the inclusion of the particles megu and ''tca'i respectively. 

In discussing a number of points it will be convenient to refer to the 
paragraphs of the Algoncjuian sketch in the Handbook of American 
282 



MICHELSON.] LINGUISTIC NOTES. 283 

Indian Languages,' and Bull. 72, pp. 68-72, should also be consulted, 
as well as the Imguistic notes on other texts contained in this volume. 

§ 13. Treatment of w before the locative suffix -g''"'. After a 
vowel w is lost, nenlgi'-megu "as a man," 230.8, as contrasted with 
nenlw''*' "man." When preceded by a consonant the w becomes u 
(uwa'nAgog' of Jones is an error for uwaiiAgug'^'') ; compare also 
American Anthropologist, n. s. 15, 472. It should be added that 
terminal ^' and i" of singular animate and inanimate nouns respec- 
tively do not occur in the locative singular: the forms are wrongly 
discussed in the sketch. 

§ 13. Treatment of w before the vocative suffix -tig''''" (-tige). 
After a vowel w is lost: ine'nitig'"'' "O men," 128.22, 23, i'"kwatig'''''"0 
women," 128.23 (i'kwaw™*"" woman"). The same thing has happened 
in Cree, as can be seen from Lacombe. 

§ 20. Note on -'kit-. There is a use of -'ka- not mentioned in the 
sketch wliich is exemplified by a couple of instances in the texts: 
ne'po'kaw"^^' "he had a death in his family," 148.11; a'kwAmatA'mo- 
'kaw^*^' "his family has a sickness," 150.31, 32 (for-Amo-, see below). 
Tliat this formation is old is shown by Algonkin nepokedjik "les 
parents du mort" (quoted from Cuoq), a participial. 

§ 20. Treatment of nouns before -'ka-. In composition with -ka- 
animate and inanimate nouns lose terminal -*' and -'' respectively; 
when consonantal clusters foreign to the genius of the language would 
thereby occur e is inserted: see § 8 near the end. But if the noun 
ends in a vowel followed by -w'''^", the w" is lost also. An example is 
a'pe'na'ka''tc'' "he hunted for turkeys," 52.20, as compared with 
penaw'^'^' "turkey" (cf. 52.19,21). It should be noted that although 
A'penawen""' "disease" combines with -"ka-, yet in this combination 
the a behaves hke the a in pyiiw'''*^ "he, she comes," etc., and not 
like the a of ordinary stems in a: A'penawene'ka'gwii'igi "whosoever 
may have the disease," 176.24, 25, and agwi kina'nA kago"i wl'i'ci- 
■A"penawene"kai'yAgwin°'" "we shall not be affected in any way by 
the disease," 176.23, 24, -'kaiy- is phonetic for -ka-|-y-). For -w""^" 
preceded by a consonant observe nenu'su'ka'W^"^" " he is on a buffalo- 
hunt" as contrasted with nenu's"-^" "buffalo, cattle." That the phe- 
nomenon is old is made clear by the fact that it also occurs in Ojibwa, 
though largely disguised owing to the phonetics of that language. 
Examples from Jones's texts are klgama'ku"kainin "we shall have 
bear to eat" (ma'kwa "bear"); wiyasi"kawat "they had meat" 
(wiyas "meat"). 

§ 20. Use of -gji-. A couple of times -ga- occurs in a usage that is 
not quite clear : wI'nAtawine'tAma'gayAni " you might cause them to be 
killed," 154.27-28 (for -Ama-, see below), a"me'sanetAma'gayAg'"'^' 
"we have gotten good from it," 190.8. Contrast these with a'me- 

1 Bur. .\mer. Ethn., Bui). 40, part 1. 



284 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

'sane'tAmAg'^'"'" "we have derived benefit from it," [cf. 190.5] and iine- 
'tAmawAgW osimAn' " because we slew his younger brother" in Jones's 
Fox Texts at 344.10. It is quite possible that a'me'sanetAma'- 
gayAg'^'^"' is due solely to its occurrence in a speech in which the 
mystic word no^'tc'' is interspersed everywhere, but the first case 
must be old as is to be seen from Algonkin nitamagek " they kill for 
another" (cjuoted from Cuocj, Gr. do la langue algonquine, §225). 

§ 29. An anomalous form which belongs in §29 occurs in the texts 
at 138.32: a'me'kawi'"cinan(i) "was where I stumbled." Theanomaly 
is to be explained as duo to phonetic law (see p. 616).- 

§ 30. Potential mode. There are some forms in the texts that do 
not agree with the ones given in the sketch. Tlius wrcigA'pi'kAn(i) 
"you [sing.] shall sit firmly," 236.5; wapa'cka"kAgo'*' "we [inch] 
would fall down," 158.4; kiwinanawuti''lcAgo'*" "we [inch] might 
always see each other about," 174.26; a'^tcimo'a'kAn(i) "you [sing.] 
must tell them," 122.21; ku'tA'mo'kAni, "you [sing.] should fear it," 
236.6, 7. It will be recalled that in Kickapoo there is a similar case: 
see Jones's Kickapoo Texts, 98, footnote 1, and 125. It should be 
observed that -a- in -a'kAiii is the same element found in -a'^tci, 
-awa''tc"', -as*', -awa's'^", etc., and similarly -Amo- in -Amo'kAni the 
same as in -Amog'''', -Amowa'^tc'', etc. 

§ 30. Potential subjunctive mode. The following does not agree 
with the correspondent in the table given in the sketch: awitai'- 
yatuge kA'ckimawitpAtA'gAgo'A "might we [inch] not be able to go 
over to see it?", 194.1, 2. See also 194.3. 

§ 30. Prohibitive mode. These texts and others, as well as some 
notes, show that all forms in the table with "he" and "they" as 
subjects should have terminal -e, not -i. The same applies to the 
potential mode. 

§ 31. Imperative mode. A novel formation is to be found in 
mawinatawiwrsenitag(e) "let us go over and see if we could eat," 
184.20. That this is an ancient formation is shown by Cree -tak 
(Lacombe, Grammaire de la langue des Cris, 59 top). 

§ 32. Interrogative mode. From nesatan' "they must have slain 
him" in Jones's Fox Texts at 94.14 it is evident that there exists in 
Fox a mode that bears a close relation to the conjunctive of the 
interrogative mode: with -atan°'' (in my transcription) compare 
-agwiini (-agwan"'') in the table shown on page 406, vol. iv, of tlie 
Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, and for the usage 
compare § 32 of the sketch. In the said Journal (iv, 408, 409) I have 
shown that there exists a participial bearing the same relation to the 
conjunctive of the interrogative mode as the ordinary participial 
does to the ordinary conjunctive mode. Now it is perfectly obvious 

a This is an old, probably proto-Algonquian, anomaly, for it occurs also in Cree, Ojibwa, and Algonquin, 
as can be seen from the works of Lacombe, Baraga, and Cuoq. 



MICHELSON.] LINGUISTIC NOTES. 285 

that anane'matanA "he that would be thought of," 276.20, is a par- 
ticipial bearing tlie same relationship to the mode of nesatiini (both 
written with full-somiding terminal vowel) as -agwanA does to 
-agwiini. [Both nesatani and anane'matanA are actives, not pas- 
sives; the translation given above is merely one of convenience. It 
may be added that Jones's translation of the former as having a 
plural subject is wrong.] 

§ 34. Distinction of third persons animate in the independent 
mode. Corresponding to -ni'^tci we have -niwAni as is shown by 
i'niwAn(i) "he said," 176.45, as compared with 'I'w^'^' "he said" 
('i'wA''^" at 176.42 is rhetorical for this). 

§ 34. Form of the obviative terminations. The endings should 
have been given as -An'' [-An"'" in my transcription] and -a''' as can be 
seen from not only Jones's own texts but these as well. 

§ 34. Possessed noun of the third person as subject. A novel form 
of the verb, namely, -AminiwAni of the independent mode, occurs in 
the texts, e. g., u'gwi'sAn a'kwAmatAmi'niwAn"'' "his son is sick," 
150.39. Tliis obviously coiTesponds to -Amini'^tci of the conjunctive 
mode. An explanation showing why possessed nouns of the third 
person as subjects have the construction under discussion should 
have been given: it is simply that the u- pronominal element pre- 
supposes an understood third person with the result that to keep 
the third persons apart the obviative construction must be resorted to. 

§ 34. -Amaw-, -Amo-, -Ama-. These are found in the manner 
described in the sketch. The following novel points may be noted: 

(a) -Ama- before the reflexive suQLx: agwi . . . A'ckunAmati- 
'soyanin "I did not save it for myself," 80.14-15. That this is an 
ancient type is shown by Algonkin, Ojibwa, and Montagnais: see 
Cuoci, Grammaire de la language Algouquine, § 225, Baraga, Diction- 
ary of the Otchipwe Language, under wabandamadis (nin), Lemoine, 
Grammaire Montagnaise, 53 bottom. 

(b) -Ama- before the secondary connective stem -ga-: a'me'siine 
tArna'gayAg'^^*'" "we have gotten good from it," 190.8; wi'uAta- 
wine'tAma'gayAni "you might cause them to be killed," 154.26-27. 
I confess that I do not see the difference in meaning between the first 
example and a'me'sane'tAniAg''''''', 188.44. Thecomposition is ancient 
as is vouched by the evidence of Algonkin: see Cuoq, 1. c, § 225 
(nitamagek "they kill for another"). 

(c) -Amo- before the secondary connective stem-' ka-: a'kwAmatA'- 
mo'kaw*'^" "his family has a sickness," 150.31-32 (see the note on 
§ 20). 

(d) -Amo- before the secondary connective stem -migAt- : ke'kane- 
tAmomigAtwi "it has consciousness thereof," 160.31. For -migAt- see 
§§ 20, 28. 



286 OKIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 40. 

(e) -Amo- before -i-: wrkek'anetAm6"iyani "that I may know 
about it," 158.34. I do not know why the ordinary wi'ke'kanetAmani 
is not used in this passage, unless the -i- is the same element discussed 
in§ 20. 

(f) -Amo- before -W-: wi'A'pI'tcike'kiinetAmowita'awA "he will think 
that he knows about it," 114.17-18. The construction is of the same 
type discussed by me in the International Journal of American 
Linguistics, i, 52, 53. 

§ 41. A passive composed of gu and followed by a copula, 
-'si- anunate, -At- inanimate: From notagu'slw""^' "he is heard," 
quoted from Jones's sketch, § 3, but in my transcription (accents dis- 
regarded) it is evident such an indefinite passive must be assumed; see 
also Bull. 72, B. A. E., p. 69; a few examples occur in these texts: 
wi'ina'^tcime'gu"siw(A)"hewill be spoken of,"46.5;wi'inaneta'gu"si''tci 
"hewould be considered," 228.17,1 8 ;tA''cinene'kaneta'gu'sIw''-^" "he is 
now bemg thought of here," 232.35, 36; agwi' kag5'anetagu''si<'tcin"'' 
"he is considered nothing," 232.13; ke'ka'netagwAtwi "it (a sacred 
pack) is known," 156.12-13. It is evident that the Kickapoo pas- 
sive mentioned by me in Jones's Kickapoo Tales, 196, belongs here. 
Furthei'more, the construction occurs in Ojibwa and Algonkin ^ as 
can be seen from the works of Baraga and Cuocj, e. g., Ojibwa 
nindinendagos "I am thought," inendagwad "itis thought," Algonkin 
kitinenindagosimin "we are thought of," nikanenindagosi "he is 
thought to be the chief," inenindagwat "one should think." I 
thought it possible on the basis of other material that an inanimate 
copula -At- should be assumed (International Journal of American 
Linguistics, i, 53). The above establishes it, but there is further 
evidence for it, namely, sAn.AgAtw'' "it is difficult" as compared 
with ne'sAUAgi't"' "I had a hard time with it." And it will be noted 
that -si- is complementary to -At- in this case: SAUAge 'siw^*" (with 
secondary e for i) "he is troublesome." Furthermore, exactly as the 
t of sAUAgAtw'' disappears before 'k'' and 'k«' of the conjunctive and 
subjunctive modes respectively, so it does in the case of gwAt: pwa- 
wike'kiinetagwA'ke "if it is not kno^vn," 160.11. Again the evidence 
of Ojibwa and Algonkin shows that the formation is old: see Baraga, 
Dictionary, under sanagad and sanagis, Cuoq, Lexique, under sanak-.^ 

§ 41. A new form belonging to the conjunctive mode of the inde- 
pendent passive is to be found in a'cimfci'nAmeg'''" "as it has been 
given us (exclusive)." The law that n becomes c before i which is a 
new morphological element or the first sound of such an element (see 
American Anthropologist, n. s. 15, 470) shows that the grammatical 
ending is -uiAmeg'''' which resembles -Amegi of the third person 

3 Cree (also Montagnais) likewise has a similar formation, e. g.,SAkihikusiw"ilestaimabie"(Lacombe» 
Grainiiiaire,34J. 
* [Montagnais also: see Lemoine, Grammaire, 10.] See also Baraga, Grammar, 411 bottom. 



MICHELSON.] LINGUISTIC NOTES. 287 

inanimate given in the sketch. [Tlie passage had to he omitted in 
printing owing to some patent errors.] 

§ 41. Indefinite passive: potential subjunctive mode. There are 
a few cases in these texts showing sucli a formation exists as they are 
introduced b}^ awi'f^'. The terminations are evidently -Inii'A, 
-nenii'A, -naA ^ for the first, second, and third person singular respec- 
tively: awi'tA kago"(i) i'"ci ni'uA nene'kiine'mina'*" "I would not be 
thought of in any way,'' 192.29 [loose composition; the other ele- 
ments arekago"'', i'ci, nl'n"'^', nene'ki, fine, m], awi't aiyo''i p3'ane'- 
na"-*' "you (sing.) would not have been brought here," 80.26 [other 
elements pya, n; e to prevent -nn-], awi'tApi nAua'c 'A'cA'mena''^' "it 
is said thathe never would be fed," 230.20, 21 ['a'ca, m (not 'a'caui as 
in the sketch, in my transcription) ; e to prevent-mn-]. An example not 
introduced by awitA is ponime'gupi kag6''ane'mena'(A) "he would 
cease being thought anything of," 250.39 [loose composition; ele- 
ments poni, megu, pi; rest explained]. 

§ 41. A novel participial of the independent passive. Though not 
mentioned in the sketch a participial in -etA corresponding to the con- 
junctive -e'^tci, quite regular in formation, is found. However a 
participial of novel formation is also foimd, e. g., wi'wapAma/'sutcigi 
''they who will be looked at," 180.13. Tlie syllable -su- at once 
recalls the middle voice, but -a- is not clear. (See Bull. 72, Bur. 
Amer. Ethn., p. 69.) 

§ 41. A formation w"ith -gAuiwi-. A couple of examples of this 
novel formation are in the texts: a'ke'tcinanetagAni'wiwa''tc'' "they 
are thought of a great deal," 276.36; pemenagAni'wiwAgi "they 
were cared for,'' 2S0.6. The anal3-sis of the first example is a — wa- 
•^tci, § 29; ke'tci, § 16; n, § 8; iine, § IS; t, § 37; the combination 
-ancta has been met above in the go passive with si, At, and corresponds 
to Ojibwa and Algonkin -enenda-, eninda- respectively, Cree -eyitta- 
(tipeyittakusiw"ilestdignede posseder," from Lacombe),Montagnais 
-clita- (see Lemoine, Grammaire, p. 53) ; it is also found in a peculiar 
passive tepanetata'w"'' (in my transcription) "it was owaicd," Jones's 
Fox Texts at 34.1 (-tii-, § 20; -w''", § 28). So that it is an old com- 
bination. It is clear that the -a- of the second example is the same as 
in the first; hence the preceding -n- must be the instrumental particle 
which has become merely formal in value; for the verbal stem see 
Jones's Kickapoo Tales, 94.21; -wAgi is the pronominal element, § 28. 
Algonkin has a formation that corresponds to -gAiiiwi-; see Cuoq, 
Grammaire, § 205; and it is evident that both Cree and Montagnais 
have a similar formation. I do not know how wi'A'ckwf wana'Ina- 

s On further investigation it would seem that the forms for the first and second persons are constructed 
nearly as in a transitive verb with the third person singular animate as subj cct and first and second person 
singu'lar respectively as objects; and that form of the intransitive third person singular animateshould be 
given as -ena'A -unii' a (cf . -citci -uiitci) 



288 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE BUFFALO DANCE. [eth. ANN. 10. 

'itA'ciwawAne'cka'anetagA'niwIwA "the thought of him being wicked 
would remain there"; 236.18, is to be analyzed in full: wl — wa, 
§ 28; A'ckwi- (Jones's Askwi-) "remain"; tA'ci-, § 16; wawAne'cka'i- 
"wicked, worthless" [InA, § 47; 'wana'i, particle]. 

§ 41. An anomalous formation. At 224.25 we have an anomalous 
indefinite passive in wa'^'tc A'kawapAmaweni'wiwa'^tci "why they 
were watched." " Observe at 224.29 we have the normal wa'<*tc 
A'kawa'pAme''tc('") "why they were watched." [The only point to 
note in this case is that -e"^tc'" is singular as well as plural, contrary to 
the sketch.] 

§ 41. -i- after -go-. A single example of this is nepemiwapi- 
'kAnego"ipen'"*^' "we (excl.) were straightway abandoned," 150.43. It 
would seem that this -i- is the same as discussed above (-Amo'i-, § 34e). 

§ 42. The locative case is sometimes used in the sense mentioned 
by Cuoq, Grammaire, § 23e. An example in Jones's Fox Texts is 
(in my transcription) 'ickwa'sa'eg'''" "as a girl," 68.13 (Jones's trans- 
lation is a trifle free). One in these texts is nenlgi'-megu "as a man" 
(idiomatically "men" in English), 230.8. For the phonetics of the 
locative singular and vocative plural, see the reraai-ks under § 13. 

§ 44. At 86.5 nln"'^" and In°'' combine into ninani. 

§ 45. It should be noted that obviative forms of the possessive 
pronouns occur, as also locatives. An example of the latter is 
kcmaiyawinwagi "on j^our (pi.) right arm." Observe that terminal 
-A of ke — wawA does not occur in the locative (as in nouns) , and that 
the preceding w is elided before the locative suffix (as in nouns). 
The vocative singiilar of a possessed animate noun of the first person 
plural, exclusive and inclusive, has an anomalous formation. 

§ 47. At 134.28 we have the inanimate plural of a novel demon- 
strative pronoun, ma'iyane. The animate singular and plural, 
respectively, are ma'i'yA, ma'iya'gA; the inanimate ma'i'ye, ma'iyane; 
the obviative singular and plural are ma'iyane, ma'iya'A, respec- 
tively. This pronoim is used with the idea of invisibility, and 
immediate past time. So ma'iyagA means "those that have just 
left and are completely out of sight." The pronoun iniya'gA would 
refer to more remote time. 

We now come to topics where references to the paragraphs of the 
sketch are not feasible. 

Verbalization of adverbs and participles. Examples are: inina'iwi- 
ni'gip(i) "at this given date," 122.25 (Inina'i) ; ki'ci"A"ckA''tci'I'winig(i) 
"after a long time," 196.39 (A'ckA'^'tc"); ki'a'cowipwA'megu' "you 
must cross over," 196.26 (a'co'w""') ; nlga'nlw"'^' "he is the leading 
one," 190.40 (nlga'n°''); krkl"kime"k^' "if he nevertheless speaks 
to you," 146.40 (ki'kl'k''); ki'kl'cagu'^tcitopwA'megu klyawaw(i) 

e On further study it appears that an indefinite passive in -aweniwi-is of freruent occurrence. See for 
example 64.41, 222.20. Ordinary intransitive verlDal pronouns go with it. 



MICIIELSOX.] LINGUISTIC NOTES. 289 

"3'0ii will bring an awful fate on yourselves," 196.31 (krcagu''tc''). 
It is none the less clear that from the point of view of Fox grammar, 
the bulk of these so-called adverbs and particles should be considered 
as verbal stems, for which reason they are included in the list, p. 616 
et seq. 

-wi-. I have spoken of a morphological element -wi- in the Inter- 
national Journal of American Linguistics, i, 53. The following 
examples wherein -wi- (whether or not the same -wi-) serves to con- 
nect reciprocals are novel: a'pwawimi'ketIwapA'tIwa''tc'' "they did 
not look at each other in a courting way," 248.3; mfketlwapA'tlwate 
"if they should look at each other in a courting way," 258.42; ml'- 
'ketiwi'ApAna'netitC'^') " if he should laugh at her in a courting way," 
248.31, 32. The English translations do not bring out the double 
reciprocals (-tl- § 38) owing to different idiomatic usage. 

-i- to combine nouns. A few examples are manetowi'i'cita"agAni 
"the manitou's thought(s)," 230.38, 39; ugimawi'u'ckina'wii" "chief's 
son" [literally "chief-youth"], 178.3; iienotawi'A"sa'mawAn(i) 
"Indian tobacco," 268.31. Observe that the terminal -*' of the 
prior members of the compounds are not used. 

Ugimawi- at the beginning of a verbal compound. A wholly novel 
type of verbal compound, namely, ii'ugimawiae'tawa'migA'ki "as it 
has slain a chief," is found at 178.24. The analysis is 'a — "ki, § 29; 
ugimawi from ugimaw™^' "chief," as above; for the relationship of 
ne'taw- to ne'to- (compare ne'tow"*^' [in my transcription], Jones's Fox 
Texts, 66.8) ; ne- stem "kill;" -amigA-, related to -iimigAt-, § 20: com- 
pare also under the passive -go- followed bj' a copula. Ai^parently 
manetowatAge'si'i'ni'^tci'(i) " those of mysterious power," 154.37, is 
something of the same order. It is not ciuite clear how wl'me'to'- 
saneniwapA'mawa^tc'' " they will see him as a mortal," 210.33, is to be 
judged: it is possible that the medial portion is for -wiwa-, and accord- 
ingly to be taken as above (me'tosanenlw"*'). On the other hand, 
it may be of the novel type shown in a'maneto'"ka'su''tc'' "he con- 
jured for a miracle" [cf. Jones's Fox Texts, 62.15], literally "he 
pretended to be a manitou," ugima'ka'so'w™'*^" "he pretends to be 
chief," in which terminal -w"*^' of the uncompounded nouns dis- 
appear. C'ree and Ojibwa and probably other Algonquian languages 
also have this formation. 



THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY 
OF A FOX INDIAN WOMAN 



BY 



TRUMAN MICHELSON 



291 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introduction 295 

Indian text 296 

Englisli translation 297 

Ethnological notes 338 

Linguistic notes on the Indian text 34") 

List of stems 61 J 

293 



THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX INDIAN WOMAN. 



Bi" Tkuman Michelson. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The autobiography of a Fox Indian woman (whose name is with- 
held by agreement), written in the current syhabary, was obtained 
through Harry Lincoln in the summer of 1918. It was restored 
according to the phonetics of Dalottiwa, Harry Lincoln's wife, in 
the summer of 1920; a few odd sentences are restored according to 
the phonetics of Harry Lincoln. No attempt was made to influence 
the informant in any way; so that the contents are the things which 
seemed of importance to herself. It may be noted that at times 
the original autobiography was too naive and frank for European 
aste; and so a few sentences have been deleted. 

As Dalottiwa read very well and for the most part avoided spelling- 
pronunciations (of which I have spoken on another occasion), the 
Indian text was dictated hut a single time. A few patent errors 
detected by grammatical analysis have been corrected. 

I have previously spoken of the occurrence of homographs in Fox 
texts written in the current syllabary. An example occurring in the 
present memoir is anakanani. This may equally well represent 
AnagAUAn"'" "plates" or AnakAUAn"'' "mattings." Dalottiwa and 
Harry Lincoln correctly took the homograph as Ana'kAnAn"''. Tlie 
fact that in Fox wedding ceremonies mattings, but not dishes, are 
given shows that the homograph stands for Ana'kAnAn"''. 

The English translation is based on a paraphrase written by Horace 
Poweshiek, supplemented and corrected by a grammatical analysis 
of the text by myself. This task was materially lightened by some 
linguistic notes, based on the text, obtained from Harry Lincoln. 
The translation has been made as literal as possible without violence 
to English idiomatic usage. The- list of verbal stems occurring in 
the text (p. 616) is nearly exhaustive: and some grammatical notes are 
given. Hence the student interested primarily in Indian linguistics 
will have no difficulty in working out the text. The ethnological 
notes are intended to make this paper also serviceable to students 
of American ethnology. It may be added that though autobiogra- 
phies of Indian men have previously been published, this autobiog- 
raphy of an Indian woman is nearly unique. ' 

See also Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins, Life Among the Paiutes, Boston, 1883. 

295 



INDIAN TEXT. 

Ka'o'niyapi wrato'tAman a'ca'wiyan"''. Magwa"e''tca'i negu'- 
twa'cig ii'tA'swipepo'nwayan u^'tciwiip a'wapike'ka'netAman"''. 
A'gwhvin ayi'gi pe'"k''; newAniwAnrk aiyawA'si negutawa'InAgA'ki 
pete'gi'c''. 
5 Ka'o'n a'tA'crka'noyani nI''tcapA'g a"A"ci'Ag''''. A'wl''tca'- 
noniAgi tatA'gi neguta'pe'e ke'tcinl^'tcapA netA'"ci'a*^'. O'nape 
na''k Ape'no'Agi tatA'gi mane'megu. Ona'pe' a'wA'''tca'u'^tci 
tatAga'pe' I'nA me'cini''tcap'^'. NinAga''megii wina'pe'e newA'^tca'- 
'o"kan°"'. Ona'pe' a'wi'se'niyag a'mano"puyag a'i'ciwapi'ka'- 
lOnoyan"''. Na''kA wIgiyapa'Ani netA'ci'A'ci'tu lu^'tcapA'g a'uwigi- 

"Ag''''. 

No'ig a'tA'swipepo'nwayani magwa" a'wapikugwa''tcig^va'si'- 
gawAgi neni'^'tcapAg'''". Cewa'pe'ki nemya'cii''''. Nemaiyo- 
maiyotAmegu a'pwawina'ign'a'"soyan"''. Ag^vij-ugiiape kA'cko- 

ISwa'yanin"'", 'A'ci'tawi'n""',' a''inAgi ne'g'^'"^". "Kageya''ma'klnA 
wi'na'igsva'soyAnima'''; wa''tcipwawi'A'ci"tonan''''. 'Inima'i wa'^tci 
naigwii'sug'''', a'kug\va''tcigwa'siga\vu''tc iini'^tcapi'nawAg'"'. Ini- 
ga'wa'*tc uni'^tcapigi tcagi'megu kago'' A'ci"tawap'' — uto'ci'kltA- 
ganwa'^"', umA'ke'sa'wawAiiiga'''." Oni^'tca'ape' A"pena''tci'megu 

20 'a'kugwa''tc,igwa'si'gawAgi nenl'^'tcapAg'"'. 

Ka'o'ni' cwa'ci'gA magwa'' a'tA'swipepo'nwayan a'wapimAta- 
gwanetAinan a'Ane'Ane'nwIyan"''. Kl'pene'megu A'ci'''tc a'pe'- 
mapyagi' sipo'w a'uwigl'yagini neta'pe''tcAne'nwIpen i'ckwa'- 
'sa'Ag'^''. Nemanapenape''"'. Nene'ckimegopenAga' winape'e' eewa'- 

25 nA ka'ckikimlyagini'mcgu 'a'mawAnenwIyag'"''. Anetape kl'ckl- 
"ckA'tA'wap a'pwawiaeno''cawa'*tc''. Ni'nA wi'nA^ agwi nAna''ci 
ki'cki'ckAtA'wigini" cema' neneguti'egop a'i'ckwa'sa''iyan"''. Ca'- 
'cki neke'tcine'ckimegopape' a'pwawikA'ckimigi ne'cki'migin"''. 
Na'"kA nemA'k.\.tawi'negopi pwawineno'ca'yanin"''. Na''kA nene- 

30 'cki'megopi kutAgAgi wi'witamAg i'ckwa'sa'Agi po'si wawAne- 
'cka'Ag'^''. "A'ci'enAgi''tc agwima' inigi kiigo' wi'na'i'to'wa''tcin 
Anemikl'cigr'iwate pwawikag6'na'iku''tci''to\vat'''. Inigii' wi'i'ca'- 
wiyAni pwawina'iku'*tci"toyAni kiigo''!, ca"cki kiwitAiienegoyAii"'''," 
netegopape' Ji'mA'kAta'wi'cig''''. NawA''kwagini netA'cA'megop''. 

SoCewit'nA papeg\vA'meguna'tA'sugunagAto''igin ini'meg a'ki'ciwAni'- 
'kayan a'cine''ckiinig''''. Na''k-^'. "Ka'tA neguta'i na'inepiiwu'- 
wa'kAiii wi'^tcanomA'^tcin i'ckvva'"sa'Ag''''. 'AiyapAinipyano' 
'a'uwIge''iyAgw aya'wa'sayagi ki'kl'ci'p''*'. Ka'tA pe'kutane'mi- 
'k-\ui neguta'tA'c'". AiyA'ckA'^tci wi'^tcanom™''," ne'tegop'' 
296 



ENGLISH TRANSLATION." 

Well, I shall now tell what happened to me.' From the time when 
I was six years old is perhaps when I begin to recollect it. Of course 
(I do) not (recollect it) fully; I forget once in a great while (some 
days) each year back. 

Well, I plaj^ed with dolls - when I made them. (And) when I 
played with them I would make one large doll. Now they would be 
supposed to be many children. And that large doll, I would pretend, 
would do the cooking. Of course I would do the cooking in my play. 
And many of us would eat together when we ate, I pretended. And 
then I made little wickiups ' for the dolls to live in. 

When I was perhaps seven years old I began to practice sewing 
for my dolls. But I sewed poorly. I used to cry because I did 
not know how to sew. Nor could I persuade my mother to (do it) 
when I said to her, "Make it for me." "You will know how to sew 
later on; that is why I shall not make them for you. That is how 
one learns to sew, by practicing sewing for one's dolls. That is why 
one has dolls, namely, to make everythmg for them — their clothing 
and moccasins." And so I would always practice sewing for my dolls. 

Wlien I was perhaps eight years old I began to like to swim. If 
we were living near where a river flowed by, we girls always would 
swim. Tliere were many of us. Although we were scolded, yet 
when we could do so secretly we would go swimming. Some would 
be whipped because they did not mind. As for me, I was never 
whipped * as I was the only girl (my parents) had. I would only be 
severely scolded when I did not mind when I was forbidden (any- 
thing). And I was made to fast when I did not pay attention. And 
I was forbidden to go with the other little girls, that is, the very 
naughty ones. "They might get you (into their habits), as they wiU 
not know how to make anything when they grow up in the future 
if they do not try to make an3-thing. That is the way you will be if 
you do not try to make anything, if you merely loaf around," ^I 
would be told when I was made to fast. I was fed at noon. But 
soon, within several days, I had forgotten what I was forbidden. 
Again I was told, "Do not sleep anywhere (in the wickiups) of the 
little girls with whom you play. Come back to where we live while 
it is still daylight." Do not be out some place in the night. Play 
with them now and then." 

<• See Ethnological Notes, pp. 338-344. 

3509°— 2.5t 20 297 



298 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [eth. ^nn. 40. 

Ka'5'ni' ca'g a'tA'swipepo'nwayan a'AnemilvA'cki'A'se'mi'Agi 
ne'gi'y-'^'. Men5"kAmIgini wapi'A'tcigagin"'', "Kago'a' A'tcigiino' 
wfutawi'e'miyAn"'"," a'"i'cig'"'. Ke'tena'pe' a A'tci'gayan"''. 

. WapitAtAgo'A'megin a''tcigag'''', "Cl kinA winA na'ketA''ki 

5 tAtAgo'An""'," 'a''i'cig''''. TcAgimona'aga' netumona'agAn"''. 

KAbo'twe na'kapc" a'ponimona'cka'igag''''. Nemrcatanema'pe''"'. 

A'ki'ciwaiya''tciponI'kAmeg a"tcigag'''', ne'cagwanemuyuga'ape'e 
kago'i wl'i'ci''taiyan"''. Cewana'pe'*^", "MAni ki'ci'ci"taiyAne me'- 
'cena" ki'mawi'^tcanomawAg i'ck\va''sa'Ag'^'V' a'i'ciga'pe In a'Anwa- 

10 ^tciyan"''.' Ke'tenape'eni "a'ke'tciwi'^tcanornAg Apeno'Ag^'". 
A'mamrk6''iyag a'cimAtagwiine'tAmag'"'''. 

Na'ina' na'k a'tci'gayage ki'cikegin"'', "Ci'! Ku^'tciwA'^tca'uno' 
winA kliiA ki'cigi"toyAn°''," a''i'cig''''. Ke'tena'pe'e nl'nani "a"ku- 
'*tciwA''tca''oyan°''. Ki'ce'sA'manin a'kutAtA'mowa'^tci neme'so'- 

IStanAg''''. "Pe''ki wIgAniwi," a'i''ciwa''tc''. "Ki'ci'gi'to''tci pe'kiga- 
'megaylgi wiga''sa'kwawA," netegopa'pe'"'. Nemi'catanem in a"ci'- 
wa''tcin°'". Keya'ApAgii'wIn i'ce'megu a'ci'mige'e wrna'e'sa- 
'kwiiyan a'iniinemig''''. O'ni nuiA, "Ke'tenaiyatug'^^','' a'i'cita'- 
"ayan"''. 

20 Ka'o'ni meda'swipepo'nwayan iniyagani ni'^tcapAg a'ponimAta- 
gwiinemAg''''. Ini wi'nA kiiwAgi'megu nemAta'gwanet a'Ane'- 
nwlyan"''. Cewa'nan"*', "Ni'mawAne'nwi?" a'inAgini ne'g'"''-^', 
''A'u," a'Tci'^tc'', "ko'kiune'sA kl'kogenAmawawA iiprse'"ka"An°'', 
ninAga" ayigi kl'kogenAmawi," a''i'cig'"'. Papiwigeno'igi'wa'"megu 

25 'a'Ano''ka'cigi wi'kogenAman"''. Ke'tenAmega'po'e neme'*tci- 
manem""', " Ni'mawAnenwi," wi'iyan a'ku"tAmani wi'kogeni- 
gayan°''. Keya'ApAga'winA wl'na'ikogenigayan a'inanemigi wa- 
dtcitotawige'"''. Ke'tenA'megu nena'iko'genige kAbo't""'. 

"Inima'klnA wii'^tcitotonani wi'na'ikogenigiiyAn^'V' netegwA 

SOneg'"'''^'. "Agwi'ku'i kagigawi'Anemipcmeni'\va''tcin u'wiya'-*'. 
KAbo'tweku pya'^tci'sawi "a'tA'cipemeniwat a'pAnapAme''tc''. Ni'n 
aiyo' ne'gy agwi tapA'kwike'kanemAgin a'cinagu''sig\van"''. Ne- 
'segwi'sA nekl'ci'geneg''''''^'. Ini'^tca' a't6'tawi'*tc inug a'totonan°''. 
Agwi' ca"cki wi'tAnenegoyani wito'ka'wi''tcm"''. ApinA m6"tci 

35ninA' cwa'cig a'tA'swipepo'nwayan! pe'ki'megu 'a'na'e'sa"lvwayan°''. 



kwA' 



Kiigo' ji,'ci'utAnie''si''tcini ne'segwi's a'wA''tca"oyan'''"," neteg 
Netanwa"tawaw in a'i'^tc'', ninA yugii' i'n a'meda''swipep5'nwayan 
A''tca''meg a'Anemipe'kina'e'sa"kwayan°'', na''kA^ a'na'igwa'- 
soyan"'', cewa'nA nemya'cii'^''. Na'kA^ inina"megu na''ina'i 
40t6''ki''tcini negyA, "To'kino', ne'pi ki''nafV" a''i.'ci'^tc''. "Na'kA 
piwe'ke'ne'sanu wi'pe'ckunonanawA''tciga'yAgwin°''," a"i'ci<'tc''. 
A"cag\viinemoyanape'e neki'ki'kimegopi'megu. Ini'megu A"pena- 
''tc a'to'tawig'''' 



MiCHELSON.] AUTOBIOGKAPHY OP A FOX WOMAN. 299 

Well, when I was nine years old I was able to help my mother. 
It was in spring when planting was begun that I was told, "Plant 
something to be your own." Sure enough I did some planting. 
When they began to hoe weeds where it was planted, I was told 
"Say! You weed in your field." My hoe was a little hoe. And 
soon the hoeing would cease. I was glad. 

"NVhen (we) ceased bothering where it was planted, I was unwilling 
to do anything. But when I would be told, "When you finish this, 
then you may go and play with the little girls," I was willing. I then 
surely played violently with the children. We played tag ' as we 
enjoyed it. 

And at the time when what we planted was mature, I was told, 
"Say! You must try to cook ^ what you have raised." Surely then 
I tried to cook. After I cooked it, my parents tasted it. "What she 
has raised tastes very well," they said to me. "And she has cooked 
it very carefully," I would be told. I was proud when they said 
that to me. As a matter of fact I was just told so that I might be 
encouraged to cook. And I thought, "It's probably true." 

And when I was ten years old I ceased caring for dolls. But I 
still liked to swim. But when I said to my mother, "May I go 
swimming?" she said to me, "Yes. You may wash your grand- 
mother's waist for her, and you may wash mine also," I was told. 
I was made to wash (anything) little. Surely I would not feel like 
asking, "May I go swimming," as I was afraid of the washing. Now 
as a matter of fact the reason why I was treated so was to encourage 
me to learn how to wash. 

"That is why I treat you like that, so that you will learn how to 
wash," my mother told me. "No one continues to be taken care of 
forever. The time soon comes when we lose sight of the one who 
takes care of us. I never got to know how my mother looked. My 
father's sister brought me up. To-day I treat you just as she treated 
me. She did not permit me to be just fooling around. Why, even 
when I was eight years old I knew how to cook very well. When 
my father's sister was busy with something, I did the cooking," she 
said to me. I did not believe her when she said that, for I was then 
ten years old and was just beginning to cook well, and I knew how 
to sew but I was poor at it. At that time when my mother woke 
up, she said to me, "Wake up, you may fetch some water.^ And go 
get some little dry sticks so we may start the fire," she said to me. 
When I was unwilling I was nevertheless compelled. That is the 
way I was always treated. 



300 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [Ein. a:,n. 40. 

KAbo'twe na''kA, "MAniga" kepApAgya'i," netegop'', pyatogi 
pApAgya'itcaga'ano'ig'"''. Nenn'catanem""'. "MAnigit' ketA'pi- 
'kani," ne'tegop''. A'mAne'sayaga'pe'e ne'gyA ninAgii"; netA'- 
nemotA kfcA'Amani pApIwime'sa'a"An°''. Wlnape'e nenana'iwAne- 
S'kag''""'. 'A'a'Hcimo'i'^tfi wi'inApi'toyan"''. Kageya''megon 
a'\\'apine'cimAne''sayani ke"tcin'"''. 

Ka'o'ni meda'swinegut a'tA'swipeponwayani na"kA mA'ckimu'tii- 
'An a'A'ci'to'^tca'pe" a'wapAwapAuiAg''''. "Na'i', kr'ku'^tci't'^'," 
neteg''""^'. Negu't in a'nipi'tawi''tci tcAgimA'ckimuta'a'''. A'ke- 

10 'kA'A'mawi'^tci \vi'i'ci'"t6yaii''''. Ke'tenA nekAtawimeguna"i''t"', 
cewiipe'ki'megu nemya'ca'"''. Na'lvA''tci'megu, "KutA'gi ki''A- 
'ci't"'," ne'tegSp''. AwA'simii'megon ancgi'kwag''''. O'ni pe''ki 
k.Abo'tw ii'na'i'toyan"'". Ke'tena'pe' in a'cagwiinemoyani wi'a'cI'- 
'toyan"''. A'cki''tc,a"ke netAnwa'^tc a'A'ci''toyan iiya/pwawipe'- 

15kina'i''t6yan°''. Cewa'nA iieki'ki'ki'meg5pi'megu wi'A'ci''t6yan°''. 
Pepoginini pe'k a"A'ci"A"ci'toyan"''. Ka'o'ni na'kA ninA'megu 
ApA'ko'aiyA tciige'ci'a'it a'nipi'tawig''''. ''A"ci'i niA'nA," a''i'cig''''. 
A'ku^'tci'Ag''''. Kageya''mcgu neki''ci'a'^'''. Nekl'cagu'^tcimj'a- 
ca"''. Kageya"megon a'wapi'A'se'mi'Agi ne'gyA ki'cina'ApA'kwa- 

20 'kayan-''. 

Pe''ki mi'catanemowa'pe'e kago' ki'cina'i'to'j^anin"'". "Inima' 
kinA kinag^vi wi'A'ci'tati"soy^vni ki'cine'cipemeneti"soyAn°''*. 
Wa'^tci ki'kl'ki'menani wi'A'ci'toyAni kago'i, agwigii" ketemagi'e'- 
nanjn"''. 'A'kAkAto'nenani kago" wi'na'i"toyAn°''. Kwaiya'ci 

25ki'citcagina'i''t6yAne kago''i poniniiwiyAn""', agwikilgo' wi'i'ci- 
"sAnAgi'to'yAnin"''. Ki'A'ci'tu wi'utawi'e'miyAn"''. Ni'naiy5n 
a'to'tawi'^tci pa'menitA ne'seg\vi"s-^'. Wa''tci na'i'toyani kago'a'''. 
'Nekctemagi'egwapo'/ nete'cita' a'An5''kil'ci''tci kago' A''pena'*tc''. 
Keya'ApAga"winA menwitota'wite'^'. K'icike'kanetAmani'*tca'i 

SOninA, ''wanA menwitota'wigwan"'',' nete'cita'ape'*'. O'n inugi kin 
ini wii'^tc ini'megu to'tonan'"'. Iniyatuge na'kin a'iniine'miyAn"'' 
'neketemagi'cg\vA,' kete'cita'apetug'""'. 'A'tepanenaniku'i wa''tci 
wi'na'i'ka'noyAn inane'menan"''. 'O' pwawiga'tepa'nenan awitA 
na'ikiwAno'kanenAga''^'. 'Wi'to'tawAg'"',' inanemenan'"''. Nepwa- 

35 "kaiyAne''tca'i ki'ci'giyAne peteg i'ci me'kvvane'tAmAn a'to'tonan"'", 
'"WiinA menwitota'wig\vani ne'g''^'^',' ki'i'cita''*'. O wawAne'cka- 
'iy.uiiga' agwi wi'na'ime'kwanemi'yAnini ki'ci'A'ce'noyan"'". Na'- 
'kA mA'n""''. A'na'i"t5yAni kago' a'gwi wi'A'ci'to'yAnin"''. Ini 
wi'i'ca'wiyAni \vawAnie'cka"iyAn'"''. Ag'.viga''in i'cinAtawane- 

40menanini wi'i'ca'wiyAn"'". MA'lvwa'^tci'megu wi'Anemipemeneti'- 
'soyAni keteniinemen'"''," netegwA neg''>"^'. 



MICHELSON.] AUTOBIOGEAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 301 

Soon, moreover, I was told, "This is your little ax," when a little 
ax was brought. I was glad. ''This is your wood-strap," I was 
told. My mother and I would go out to cut wood; and I carried the 
little wood that I had cut on my back. She would strap them for 
me. Slie instructed me how to tie them up. Soon I began to go a 
little ways off by myself to cut wood. 

And when I was eleven years old I likewise continually watched 
her as she would make bags. "Well, you try to make one," she said 
to me.^ She braided up one little bag for me. She instructed me 
how to make it. Sm-e enough, I nearly learned how to make it, but 
I made it verj' batUy. I was again told, " You make another." It 
was somewhat larger. And soon I knew how to make it very well. 
Then surely I was unwilling to make them. At fii'st I was willing 
to make them as I did not know how to make them very well. But 
I was constrained to keep on making them. During the winters I 
kept on making them. Moreover, at that time a little rush mat was 
woven for me. "Make this," I was told. I tried to make it. Later 
on I finished it. I made it extremely pooi'ly. Soon I began to help 
my mother after I Icnew how to make rush mats.^ 

She would be very proud after I had learned to make anything. 
"There, you will make things for yourself after you take care of 
yourself. That is why I constrain you to make anything, not to 
treat you meanly. I let you do things so that you may make some- 
thing. If you happen to know how to make everything when you 
no longer see me, you will not have a hard time in any way. You 
will make your own possessions. My father's sister, the one who 
took care of me, treated me so. That is why I know how to make 
any little thing. 'She is in the habit of treating me meanly,' I 
thought, when she ordered me to make somethmg all the time. Now 
as a matter of fact she treated me well. When I knew about it, I 
would think, 'why she must have treated me very well.' And that 
is why I treat you so to-day. So very likely when you think of me. 
you think, 'she treats me meanly.' It is because I am fond of you 
and wish you to know how to make things. If I were not fond of 
you, I would not order you around (to do tilings). (If I were not 
fond of you) I would think, 'I don't care what she does.' If you 
are intelligent when you are grown and recollect how I treated you, 
you will think, 'I declare! My mother treated me well.' Or if you 
are bad you will not remember me when I am gone. And this. 
Though you know how to make things you will not make anything. 
That is what you will do if you are bad. I do not wish you to be 
that way. I desire that you take care of yom'self quietly," my mother 
told me. 



302 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [eth. ann. 40. 

O'ni na"kA meda'swini"cw a'tA'swipepo'nwayan"'', "Na'i', ma'Ani 
ku''tci'tonu," netegop''. NemA'ke"sa'An°'". "Ki'iiAtawiwapi'A'ci- 
"tati'su ki'cina'i'toyAn"'". Kekl'ciku'^tcike'ka'netA keni^'tcapAg 
a'ci'ci"tawA"^tc''. I'ni ku^tci ■wa'i'ci''toyAn°'",'' netegop''. Ca"ck 
5 in a'Ane'cA'mawig^'". Pe'tci'to'yanini na''k a'pene'ckenAmawig'''". 
"MAni'ku'i ■wri'ci"t6yAni," a'"i"cig''''. Kageya"megu ke'tenA ne'na 
'i't"'. 

'O'ni na''kA me'ckwa'swawA tcage'cl"a'it a'ana'kwatA'mawig"^''. 

'Ane'ki'in a'ke'ki'tawig''''. "Na'i', mA'nA, ku''tci"A'ci'i," a'"i'cig''''. 

10 A'wapikii'''tci'Ag'''". Ke'tenA 'megu kiigeya' nena''i'a'^'*^'. On 

a'A'ci'A'ci'Agi me'ckwa'swawAg''''. Tape'siwA'megu negyA kago' 

krcina'i"t5yan''''. 

Inina'kii'megSni pe"k a'na'e'sa"kwayan°''. Neguta' aya^tcini 

negyA, "KrwA-'tca'"'," a"i'ci'*tc''. Na'k Ana"kAnAn a'A"ci"to'*tc'', 

15ninape' a'wA''tca"oyan°''. "Ki'nAgA''tciwA''tca'''', inima' a'kAta- 

wipya'^tci'sagi' sagi^'tci wi'a'wiyAn"''. Ki"wA''tea'eti"su"ma'i' sagi- 

■^tc a'wiyAn""'," netegopape'"'. 

KAbo'twani, "Na'i', wapiku'^tcipAninu; ki'nAtawina'i'tu na"kA 
ma'An Ana''kAnAn°''," a"i'cig''''. A'wapiku''tcipAniyan°''. Kage- 
20j'JimPgu pe''kin a'na'ipA'niyan. A'wapi'A'se'A'semi'Agi neg''''*'. 
Mi'catanemow a'Anemi'moguna'i''t6yani kiigo''''. 

'O'ni na''kA meda"swine'sw ii'tA'swipepo'nwayan"''. "Na'i' 
nagAtawaneti'sun°"'; iniyap a'kAtawi'A'cki'kwiiwiyAn"''. Ka'tA 
wAni"ka'kAni mA'n ana'*tcLmo"enan''''. Ne'ciwAna^'tci'i'yagAni 

25 ketawamawAgi pwawiwiga''siyAn°'''. Myanetwima' In A'cld'kwawi- 
\ven°''. ManetowAgi ne'ckinAmogin"''. U'wiya' ii'ketemi'nagu'^tci 
manetowAn a'cki'kwawini''tcin a'wi'puma'^tc in a'ne'ckinagu'^tci 
kateminagu'^tcin a'pSninene'kaneme'gu'^tcin''''. Ini'^tca' 'wlga- 
'sino',' wa'^tc itigi wa'^tcipAgo'ci'megu witAmatig''''. Kinaiyo 

30na''ina A'cki'kwiiwiyAn a'tA'ci'megu'a'cki'kwawiwAnan Ini'megu 
wrkA'ki"soyAn°''. Ka'tAga' wigl'yapegi pya"kAn°''. Ini wi'i'ca'- 
wiyAn"''," netegwA neg'''"^'. Ne'sagimeg''''*'. 

Ke'tenA^tci'megu meda' swine' sw ape' taw a'tA'swipepo'nwayan""', 
"Me'sa'Ani natotAnu," netegop''. Katawina'wA'k\vag a'na'g^vai- 
35yan°''. lya'neguta' aneme'"kaiyani kago''megu nete'cipe'kina- 
goti's"'. Neki'cagu''tci'sa'ge's A''tca'mayu'ga'In In a'ca'wiyan"''. 
Agwi'megu ke'kanetAmanin a'ciwapawi'wanan"''. "MA'ni 
vatugan a'wutA'mawig a'a'^tci'mo'ig''''," nete'cita'"''. 

InAmegoni nawiplg\^'aw a'mawi'cegi'cegi'cinan"''. Neta'itAnwa- 

40ge's a'sage"siyan''''. KwiyenAga' inina kAtawinlpenwi ki'citcagi- 

negwA^'tci'igayag''^'. A'ckA'^tci'megi kAbotweyatug a'A'ckA''tcipwi- 

'ite'e negyA 'ii'pyii'^tcinAtuna'wite'^'. KAbo'twan a'me'kawi^'tc'". 

Ina'ka'ini pe''k a'ke'tciniaiyoyan°''. 



MICHELSON.] AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 303 

And again, when I was twelve years old, I was told, "Come, try 
to make these." (They were) my own moccasins.^ "You may start 
to make them for yourself after you know how to make them. For 
you already know how to make them for your dolls. That is the 
way you are to make them," I was told. .She only cut them out for 
me. And when I made a mistake she ripped it out for me. "This 
is the way you are to make it," I was told. Finally I really knew 
how to make them. 

And then a small belt of yarn was put on the sticks for me. A 
little was started for me. "Try to make this one," I was told. 
I began to try to make it. Later on I surely knew how to make it. 
Then I kept on making belts of yarn. My mother was pleased when 
I learned how to make anything. 

At that time I knew how to cook well. Wlien my mother went 
any place, she said to me, "You may cook the meal." Moreover, 
when she made mats I cooked the meals.'" " You may get accus- 
tomed to cooking, for it is almost time for you to live outside. You 
will cook for yourself when you live outside," I would be told. 

Soon I was told, "Well, begin to try to weave; you may wish to 
make these mats." Then I began to try to weave. Later I knew 
how to weave very well. Then I began to help my mother all the 
time. She was proud when I continued to learn how to make any- 
thing. 

And then I was thirteen years old. "Now is the time when you 
must watch yourself; at last you are nearly a young woman. Do 
not forget this which I tell you. You might ruin your brothers if 
you are not careful. The state of being a j'oung woman is evil. 
Tlie manitous hate it. If any one is blessed by a manitou, if he 
eats with a young woman he is then hated by the one wlio blessed 
him and the (manitou) ceases to think of him." That is why it is 
told us, 'be careful' and why we are told about it beforeliand. At 
the time when you are a young woman, whenever you become a 
young woman, you are to hide j'ourself. Do not come into your 
wickiup. That is what you are to do." She frightened me when she 
told me. 

Lo,sure enough when I was thirteen and a half years old, I was told, 
"Go get some wood and carry it on your back." It was nearly noon 
when I started out. Wlien I was walking along somewhere, I noticed 
something strange about myself. I was terribly frightened at being 
in that condition. I did not know how I became that way. "This 
must be the thing about which I was cautioned when I was told," I 
thought. 

I went and laid down in tlie middle of the thick forest there. I 
was crying, as I was frightened. It was almost the middle of sum- 
mer " after we had done our hoeing. After a while my mother got 
tired of waiting for me. She came to seek me. Soon she found me. 
I was then crying hard. 



304 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [eth. ann. 40. 

"N.".'i', ponwage'sinu'. A'cema'in a'cawig a'i''kwawig''''. I'ce 
'i'cigi'etip ini wi'i'cawig''''. A'g\viga'kag5' wi'i'cawi'yAiiin°''. 
Inima''mAni wi'ki'cikwaiya'kwanetAmAn a'na'awig''''. In a'cawi- 
yAni pepoge'eroAtA' sAnAgi'"to'kAp*". NepA^tci'kAp Anenwi'- 

SyAiie'e pepya'^tciyuga megu nyawenwi tcApogi'sa'o"kAp-*'. I'ceme- 
gon a'cawigipi mA'n a'A'ckini''cawig'''". Inugi winA mA'n ii'na'- 
"awigi me'ce'megu upyiini ki'Anenwi na'ina' a'Anenwi'wAnan"''," 
netegop'". "MAtAmAtAg\vi'cinenu. Ka'tA nAtawa'pi'kAn"''. Ki- 
'mawi'A'ci'gon""','' netegop''. 

10 Pe'ki'megu ni'nan a'tA'cikutAge''soyani nawipi'k^vA■c■kiyuga'''. 
Na"kA pe'"ki wi'cAta"''. 

A"Anagwi'igimegon°'', "Iniyap a'na'nenan"''. A'ki'cig5nani wl- 
'uwIgiyAn°'". ^LvtAgo'kwa'unu. KatA'megu neguta'i wi'i'cinAta- 
wa'piyAn i'cita'"a'kAn°''," netegSp''. lya' in a'pya'cigi tcAgiwi- 

ISgiyapa'''. Ka'o'ni na'"kA ke'piwAiii ki'kA'megu nekepi"ugop'". 
AiyagwA'^tci'megu wi'i'cipwawitA'papAtanig inagwA'tawAn"''. Ka- 
"sipi'meg a"uwige''iyani ta'wa'iwi wf tA'ciwA'*tca''oyani' sagi- 
''tcima''". Inigii'nigi' ca'cki'megu wi"inegi"k^a'"einage n6"kunie"sA^ 
inegi'kw'i'togwan"''. 

20 Neg''^^","K5'kume'sAni wi"nanAgaiy5'wT'tA'eiwI'^tci'e'k'',"netegwA 
QggkyA' KutAgAma' winA'megu metemo'a"'^". Keya'ApAyu wi'tA- 
'cikegye'kinii''tc inA wa''tcipyane''tc''. A'pwawininaniwi'seniyani 
ne'k^vniki'ceg'""'". WapAg'"'', "Ki'nato'nepenA wraiyoyAiiiniwA'^tca'- 
'oyAne'," netegop''. Agwiwi'capenayanina"sage''siyan°''. W^pAni- 

25ginin5'kume'sa"mawiwi'"seni''tc''. Ca'cki'mega'pl'tcmiawfseni''tcini 
ne'ci'kani ina' a'tA'ciku'ta''^tciyan°''. A'Anagwigimegon a'pyatawigi 
mA'ka/'ko'Ani wi'wA'^tca'oyan ina'i kagoa'i mr^'teiwa'i ne'pi na"kA 
me'sa'An"''. A'^tca'megon a'wA''tca"oyan°''. 

Oni'^tca'ape'e no'kume's a'tA'cikegye'kimi''tc a'a''tei'mo'i''tc a'ci- 

30 menwiwetowe^'tc uwiyani'na^''. Pe'kiynga'niegu ke'tenA metemo'- 
'sL'r'^\ Ke'temv''tca''megu ta'pwatug ana'ina''tcimo'i''tc''. "No- 
'cl"i," netegwape, "k^vbo'twe ■«"i'a''tcLmo"enan a'pe'cigwi'wetog 
uwiyanina''''. Inugi mAni kenawi a'pi'tcike'kyaiyan"''. A'cimigini- 
"^tca' a'i'ca'wiyan"''. A'ku'^tcawiyani'meg a'nagAtawane'tAmani 

35wi'i"cipe"cigwiweto'wanani nlya''^''. Ke'tenA 'megu netapA'ku'ckA 
ke''kyawen°'"," neteg"*^"^'. "Ini'^tca' ami'ca'wiyAni pe'seta'wiyAn 
ana'ina''tcinio'"enan°''. MAnA winA kegy ayano'tegi'^tci niiwa- 
'iyaninape'e netaiya^'tci'mo'a'^^'. A'tcInawamAgigii" wii'^tci'aiya- 
''tcimo'Ag'''', ku''tci' u'se'gwi'sAni menwi'totagw a'peme'negu''tc''. 

40 1'ni wa^'tci na'i'to'^tci kinan a'i'kwa'wiyAgvve keini'ke''tcawwe- 
nenan"''. Ke'kinawapAniAte'^tca' a'ci"to'^tcmi kag5' menwa'wa- 
kAp"^', keg'"'^', no'ci"''. Na''k.v noAni. Ninan a'pl'tci'giyag ini'^tca' 
a'A'cki'kvvawiyage neniA'kAtawipen''*^". MAmanugunip'' : anetA me- 
da'suguniwAg'''', anetA nyawi, nyanAnwi, a'^tcipAnAgi'^tci'meg''"'. 

45 Inugi winani a'Anemipe'kinikeg''''. Nin a'A'cki'kwiiwiyani' cwa'cigA 
netA'sugun"''. I'ce mo'tci'megu neta'pe'^tcimainA'kAtampenA 
pa'ci'meg a'ke'tciki'ci'giyag''^'," netegwA no'kume's*". 



MICHELSON.] AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 305 

" Come, stop crying. It's just the way with us women. We have 
been made to be that way. Notliing will happen to you. You will 
have gotten over this now in the warm weather. Had it happened to 
you in winter j'ou would have had a hard time. You would be cold 
when 3'ou bathed as you would have to jump into the water four 
times. That is the way it is when we first have it. Now, to-daj', as 
it is warm weather, you may swim as slowly as you like when you 
swim," I was told. " Lie covered up. Do not try to look around. I 
shall go and make (a wickiup) for you," I was told. 

I was suffering ver}- much there in the midst of the brush. And it 
was very hot. 

It was in the evening when I was told, "At last I have come for 
you. I have built (a place) for j^ou to live in. Cover your face. Do 
not think of looking any place." I was brought there to the small 
wickiup. And I was shut off by twigs all around. There was brush 
piled up so that I could not see through it. There was only a little 
space where I lived to cook outside. My grandmother must have 
made it a size so that there was onlj' room for us to lie down in. 

" I shall fetch your grandmother to be here with you," my mother 
told me. It was another old woman.*' As a matter of fact the 
reason she was brought there was for to give me instructions. I did 
not eat all day long. The next day I was told, " We shall fetch things 
for you to use in cooking." I was not hungry as I was frightened. 
The next day nw grandmother went to eat. It was only as long as 
she (took) when she went to eat that I was alone, but I was afraid. 
In the evening I was brought little buckets to cook with, any little 
thing to eat, water and wood. Then for the first time I cooked. 

And my grandmother would keep on giving me instructions there, 
telling me how to lead a good life. She really was a verj^ old woman. 
Surely she must have spoken the truth in what she had been saying to 
me. '"My grandchild," she would say to me, "soon I shall tell you 
how to live an upright life. To-day you see how old I am. I did 
exactly what I was told. I tried and thought how to hve an upright 
life. Surely I have reached an old age," she told me. "That is the 
way you should do, if you listen to me as I instruct you. Now as for 
your mother, I began giving her instructions before she was grown up, 
every time I saw her. Because she was my relative is why I gave 
her instructions, although she was well treated by her father's sister 
by whom she was reared. That is why she knows how to make things 
which belong to the work of us women. If you observe the wa}^ your 
mother makes anything, you would do well, my grandchild. And 
this. As many of us as entered young womanhood, fasted. It was 
very many days: some fasted ten days, some four, five, every kind 
of way. To-day, to be sure, things are changing. When I was a 
young woman I fasted eight days. We always fasted until we were 
grown up," my grandmother told me. 



306 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [eth. ann. 4u. 

NegyAgii' ca'ck in a'pepya''tcinepinatawi''tci me'sa'Ani na''kA 
wi'pe'tawayanini -wa^tca'cyanin"'". Na''kA netAnA'AnA'tA'gipen""^'. 
Ma'ii a'cawl'yagin"''. 

"KatAga" ma'ce'nAgAni klne'sAn"^'' : tcage'cka ki'*tc'=". Na"kA 
Ska'tA wI'ckupAno'iga'kAn"''. Aylg In a'kwip5gwA'to'ig a'mi''tcig 
uwIpi^'tcinawAni tcage'ckaw.vn"'". Ina'^tcimiipi wa''tci ku''tAmegi 
wI'ckupAno'igiga' wi'mi''tcig'*'V' netegwA no'kume'sA. A'penii- 
"^tci'megu neta^'tcimo'egw a'cimenwi'genig''''. "Na'i' na'kA mA'ni. 
I'ni wi'ki'cigiwa'neme'ki neniwAg ii'ki'ci'A'cki"kwa'wiyAn°'', Ini'- 

lOmegu wa'wapinAtawa'neme'ki ^\'i'mi''keme'k''. Pwawi<'tca'megu- 
ldwimane"cita"ayAn a'gw A"cita'i wi'mA'^tci'no'kini wi'ml'keme'k''. 
Nimi'etlginigii" mana'wa''tcini kwaye''sa'Ag a'^tcipAnAgi'^tci tA'ci- 
"ci'ani'anigo'wiiwate pwawi'megukiwamanagu'"siyAne napi'megu 
kenwa'"ci kl'ku'se'tagog''''. Ani'iinige'tawAte win a'gwi wi'kago- 

15'ane'me'kin°''. Ini'mcgu wi'wapi'ko'k''. WawAne'cka''i}^Ane keta- 
wamawAgi wi"mane'cita''awAgi na'lcA ke"ci"sa'Ag'^''. MA'kwa'^tci- 
<^tca'i kiwitaiyAiie wi'mi'catane'mowAg''''. Ki'tepa'negog'^''. Ca- 
"cki'megu kiigo' ayaniw a'uwi'giyag^\'e tA'ci'A'ci'A'ci"toyAne 
ki'maminegogi kago'i wate'tenAino'wa'^tcin"''. Na''kA kiigo" 

20 a"i'nA''tcini ki"tapwa''tag5gi ketawa'mawAg'''". In a''cawigi mA- 
'k\\^a'^tc a'kiwitagi tepii'ci'wawAg uteneniminawAg'''". "O' mA'ni 
na'"k*'. Uwi'^tci'i'ckwa'sa'i'nawAg anetA wawAne'cka''iwAg''''. 
Inigi''tca'i kakiwita'mete wawAne'cka'Ag A'ci'i'wawa's*', a'pi- 
'tcipwawipe'kiki'cinepwa'kag''''. Ka'tA'^tca' na'iklwItami'yagAni 

25wawAne'cka'i'witcig'''', no'ci''i," netegwA no''kume's'''. "Na''kA 
mA'ni. Me'cemego'na'i ka'kyatA ki'menwito'tawa""*'. ManetowA- 
niku'i wa'pAineg'''^'^'; wa"'tci tapA'kwike'kya'^tc a'wiga''tciweto''tc 
u'wiya"^''. Ka'tA u'wiya'A tatA'cimi'yagAn"'". Ka'tA pA'cipA- 
"cito'wa'kAn"'". Ka'tA na'ikemote'kAn"'". Na'ikemo'teyAne ki'ke- 

30tema'ge's''. Kii'tA ke'ta'wi'emi tepatAmAn"^". A"kwiya"megu 
a'gwi kago' ^yi'na'i'ute'tenAmAnin"''. Kago'i" ca'ca'ku'siyAHAnega'i 
ki"na"i*ute'tenA kago"'". Na'"kA ka'tA u'wiya'A kiwinA"sAtawino'- 
"kAtaAvi'yagAn"''". A"pene'megu ki'A'pi'tcike'ca''tci'awA ka'tcigit*'. 
I'ni no'ci''i, acime'nwikeg a'i"cawig''''," neteg\\'A no''kume's'*^'. 

35 A'pena'^tci'megu neta'itAna'*tcimo"egwA wi"i"ca'wiyan'''". 

KAbo'twani meda"sugun ina' a'ki'ci'uwi'giyan"'', "Na'i', i'niyapi 
wi"mawi"AnenwiyAn°'"," in a'i'ci'^tci ne'g'^^''". A'nagwaiyage' 
sipog'''". "KetenAno' na'i kepi'se'ka'^'," ne'tegop''. Ki'cikete- 
nAman in a'tcApogi'sa"oyan''''. 'Oni, "Wi'pe'pe'cunan"''," 
40netegop''. Me'sotawi'megu nepe"pe"cug5p'". "O'ni na"k A'kigi," 
netegop''. "Ca'"ck uta'siyananimu kekota'"," a"i'cig''''. Nepwa- 
migi na'"k a'pe"pe'cwig'=''. "Wi'pwawina'ike'tcimyano'tayAni 
ke'tci'A'^tcigage me'ck"''," neteg6p'\ Pe'ki'naegu nekutAgi'egop'". 
KutAgAn in a'u'ce'ki'tAinan"''. Inin a'pAgi'tAmani kiwi'u'ce- 



MICHELSON.] AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 307 

My mother only came to fetch me water and Httle sticks of wood so 
that I might Idndle a fire when I cooked. And we made strings. 
That is what we did. 

''Do not touch your hair: it might all come off. And do not eat 
sweet things. And if what tastes sour is eaten, one's teeth will come 
out. It is owing to that saying that we are afraid to eat sweet things," 
my grandmother told me. She always gave me good advice from 
time to time. ''Well, there is another thing. Now the men will 
think you are mature as you have become a young woman, and they 
will be desirous of courting j^ou. If jou do not go around bash- 
fully," for a long time they will not have the audacity to court you. 
When there is a dance, when there are many boys saying all sorts of 
funnj- things, if you do not notice it, they will be afraid of j'ou for a 
very long time. If you laugh over their words, tliey will consider you 
as naught. They will begin bothering you right away. If j^ou are 
immoral j'our brothers ^^ will be ashamed, and your mother's broth- 
ers.'" If you live quietly they will be proud. The}* will love you. 
If you are only always making something in the same place where 
you live, they will always give you something whenever they get it. 
And your brothers will believe you when you say anything to them. 
When one lives quietly the men folks love one. And there is another 
thing. Some of the girls of our generation are immoral. If one goes 
around all the time with those who are immoral, they would get one 
in the habit of being so, as long as one has not much intelligence. Do 
not go around ^vith the immoral ones, my grandchild," my grand- 
mother told me. " And this. You are to treat anj^ aged person well. 
He (she) is thought of by the manitou; because he (she) has con- 
ducted his (her) life carefuUy is why he (she) reached an old age. 
Do not talk about anyone.'' Do not lie. Do not steal. If you 
practice stealing, you will be wretched. Do not (be stingy) with a 
possession of which you are fond. (If you are stingy) you will not 
get anything. If you are generous you will (always) get something. 
Moreover, do not go around and speak crossly toward anyone. You 
must be equally kind to (every) old person. That, my grandchild, 
is a good way to do," my grandmother said to me. She was indeed 
always instructing me what to do. 

Soon I had lived there ten days. "Well, at last you may go and 
take a bath," my mother said to me. We started to the riA-er. 
"Take off yom- waist," I was told. After I had taken it off I leaped 
into the water. Then, "I am going to peck you ^Yith something 
sharp," I was told. I was pecked all over. ''And now on your 
lower part," I was told. "Only use your skirt as a breechcloth," is 
what I was told. I was also pecked on my tliighs. "It will be that 
you will not menstruate much if the blood flows plentifully," I was 
told. I was made to suffer very much. I put on other garments. 



308 AUTOBIOGKAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. Feth. ans. 40. 

'kitAmanini yowe. A<'tca'megon a'nAtawa.'piyan°''. 'O'ni na''lvA 
meda'sugun a'ne'ciwA''tca'oyani'megu" sagi'^tc''. TA'ci'meda'sugu- 
nagA'ki na"kani a'mawi'AnenwIyan"'". "O'ni'^tca" A''tca"megu 
fi'wapiwi'pu'gayani pltig'^''". 

5 Negyan a'a'^tcimo'Ag'''', "Pe"ki ku'^tci no''kmne'sA neta'pe- 
"^td'a^'tcimo'egwA wi'i'ca'wiyan"''','' ne'tena^*'. ApA'ApAnani'''^'. 
"Inima' wa'^tci 'api'nanAgi wraiya"*tcimo'e'ki pe'"k a'cimenwi'- 
genig""'. 'Napigii" pe'setawa'ki^'tc''',' a'inanemenan"''." 

Oni'^tca" pe"k awA'simegon a'wapi'i'ci'a'pe''^tcimigi kago"inegu 

10wri'ci''taiyan°''. Pa'ckityani na'kan a'ci''t6'*tcin°'', "EanA'na'i," 
a''i'ci''tc''. PApIwipa'ckitf iinape'e ne'tA'ci't"'. Kageya"megu 
mame'ca"iwAni ki'ci'to'yanin''''. Ka'o'ni meda'swinyanAnwi 
'a"tA'swipep6'nwayan°''. 

"Na'i' penA kugwa^'tcigwa'sunu pI'wa'Ani" senipa'i''ka'''. 

15 Ivetawi''emAni kiA'ci'A'ci'tati'su iia'ig\va''soyAni nImi'3"Anini 

wfai'yoyAn"''. Kwaiya'ci ki'ciga'na'igwa"soyAni ke'kanemcnege 

Id'Ano'Ano'ka'negop'". Agwigii'ca'ck'". Ki'tepA'ugo'p''. Ki'me'sii- 

netAmcgu na'ig\va''soyAn'"^'," netegwA neg''''^'. 'Oiii'^tca', ii'wa- 

. pikug\va'^tcigwa"soyan"''. Kenwa'ci^tca'"megu ne'pcmi'kA wl- 

20'wlga'si3^an°''. Neguta'"megu nl'cwawa'I'me ne'pcmi'lvA wl'wlgii'- 
"siyan"''. Ini'mcg u'^tciwiip A'pena'^tci kago" a'A'ci"toyan"''. 

Meda'swikutwa'cig a'tA'swipepo'nwayan a'penawig Ana''kAnAn 
a'A'ci'A'ci''t6yag'"='. Pe'pogini mA'ckimii'ta'Ani na"lv^\. mo'ckwa- 
'swawAg a'senipa'igwa"soyag a'plwa'igwa/'soyag'"''. Ke'tenA^'tci'- 

25megu netAno'Ano'ka'negopi kiigoM netepA'ugopimcga'pe'®'. "Ini- 
ma' klnA," nctegopa'pe''^', wii'^tci 'Anemi'a'^tcimo''enani wl'na'i'- 
'toyAni kago'"''. Ini ma'An Ana''kAnAni ki'ci''togin u'^wlya" 
a"mme'^tci kAbotwe'meg a"citAmi mI"ciwawA kago''". Na''kA 
ma'Ani mA'ckimu'ta'Aii ayigi'meg ii"mlne''tc'', a'citAmi ml'netlpi 

30 kago' ute'tenapi'megu kiigo'''. I'ni wii'^tc A'nwa<^tclg a'A'ci'A'ci- 
'togi kiigo' a'me'sane'tAmegi krci''togin°''," ne'tegop''. Ka'cI 
ke'teiiA^'tci'meg a'wapiminawane'tAmani tapvfiip ana'ina'^tcimo- 
"igin"'". 

0'ni''tca"i n6"igAne'"siyaii awA'si'"ma'i neguta"i' sagi^'tc a'a'wiyani 

35ni'ciigunagA'ki''tca"i me"cena" k.\b6'tw A'ckjV''tci tepe/'k ayii'cine'- 
paiyan"'', "To'klno','' netegwA negut''. A'ckuta'kani kiwi- 
'sogenAmw a'wa'se'cawa'^tc'". NenlwA'^tci a"wapAinAg'''". KA"ci 
pe'ki'megu neki'cagu''tci'sage"s''. ApinA'megu nenegApi'"s a'siige- 
'siyaii"'". A'mlwe'ci'wAgiga" agwi nie'^tci kwiyen i'ci'cimoyanin"'". 

40MA"sa''tciga"megu nekA'ckikA'nona™^'. Oui^'tca' u^'tciwap aiya- 
pi'tcina''megona"pya''tciku''tcipyaniita'wiwa'^tcineniwAg''''. A'pena- 
''tciyuga/'mcgu nekegye'kimegop a'cime'nwikeg''''. Na'"kA kAbo'- 
twiin a'ke'kanemig a'wapiku''tcimi'kema"soyan'^''. 



JIICHELSON.] AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 309 

I threw away those which I liad formerly been wearing around. And 
then for the first time I looked around to sec. And again I had to 
cook alone for myself outside for ten days. After ten days I again 
went to bathe. And then for the first time I began to eat indoors 
with (the others). 

I told my mother, "My grandmother has always been instructing 
me what I should do," I said to her. She laughed. "That is why 
I went after her, so she would instruct you thoroughly in what is 
right. 'She might listen to her,' is what I thought of you." 

And I began to be told to make something more than ever. More- 
OTcr, when she made a basket,'* she said to me, "You (make one)." 
I would make a tiny basket. Later on the ones wliich I made were 
large ones. And then I was fifteen years old. 

'■ You may now try to sew bead and applique ribbon work. If you 
know how to sew you are to make tilings to wear when you dance. 
If it is knowm that you can already sew, (people) will hire you. Not 
merely that. You will be paid. You will be benefited by knowing 
how to sew," my mother told me. Then indeed I began to practice 
sewdng. It took me a long time to sew well. It (must have) taken 
me two years to sew well. From then I was always making some- 
tliing. 

I was sixteen years old when we were making mats in the sum- 
mer. In the winter we were making sacks and yarn belts, (and) 
we were semng applique ribbon work and bead work. Behold, it 
was true that I was constantly asked (to make) something, (and) I 
would be paid. "That is why," I would be told, "I continuously 
told 3'ou to learn to know how to make things. After these mats 
are completed, and any one is given them, soon he (she) (will) give 
something in return. And also in regard to these sacks, when (any- 
one) is given them, he (she) gives something in return, no doubt. 
That is why one is wilUng to make things, because they are benefited 
by what is made," I was told. Lo, surely when I began to realize 
it, what I had been told was true. 

Now when I was more than seventeen, wliile living outside some- 
where, after two days, late at night while I was still sleeping, (some 
one) said to me, "Wake up." (The person) was holding a match, 
and lit it. Lo, it was a man when I looked at him.'" I was as 
frightsned as possible. I trembled as I was frightened. When I 
ordered him away, (my voice) did not (sound) natural when I spoke. 
I was barely able to speak to him. And from then on, now and then 
men tried to come to me. I always had been instructed what was 
proper. Wlien it was known (what kind of a person) I (was), they 
began to try to court me. 



310 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [eth. Axu. lo. 

O'n a'a'^tcimo'ig'''', "Na'i', nrcw-apitAge''siyAn I'ni wI'nAtawi- 
"unapa'miyAn"''. Wrunapami'wAnanAgii'megonA wi'kakAnoneti- 
"atA mc''ten6'i wapikAnonetiyAn""'. Ka'tA wi'nA me'cemegonA 
mane kalvAnonetl'i'yagAn"''. Agwi menwi'kegin in a'ca'\viwa''tc 

5i"kwawAg a'raana''awa'*tc uwi'ka'nwawa"''. A'g\vi menwitotago'- 
wa'^tcini \vanapaml'wa''tcin a'kyawani''tc a'kc'kaneme'gowa''tc 
a'ca'wiwa''tc''. Ini''tca'wa''tci ne'"ckitigi wi'ma'na'e''tc uwi'kani'- 

• nawAg''"'." In a'i'cig'''". 

O'ni kiVbo'twe meda'swi'cwa'cig a'tA'swipepo'nwiiyan ii'meno'- 

10 'kAmigi na'"ina''tca' A'ta'i'minAn a'wapi'kAmegi negut i'kwii'ii' ji- 

'wI'tamAg a'A'tii'imine'kayag^'. " Ki'navvapenA negut''," neteg- 

wape''''. "I'cema' ketecimen""'','' onape' a'i'ci'^tc''. Keya'ApAga- 

winA ki'citi'wate'e negut u'ckina'wa'An iya" wi'nawu'tiwa'^tc'". 

KAbo'tw lya' pya'nutag*"'*'. Pe'ki'^tci'megu po'sotawi ke'ca^'tci- 

15 'e'tlwAg'''". A'semi'egwA'megu a'A'ta'imine'ka<^tc''. Nepepyii- 
''tcimegape'enawA'se'kagw'A negu'ta' wl''aiyag'"''. KAbotwemegoni 
kutAgAn in a'pepya''tchntama''tc in um'^tci'u'ckina'wa'An"''. 
O'ni ninan i'kwii'a' a"tA"ci"kawi''tci wa'kAkAnoneti'emAg''''. 
"Agwima'kago' m'i'ca'wi''tcin"''; niA'kwa^tcima''megu ki'kAkAno'- 

20netip'''*','' netegw i'n i'kvva'"'^'. A'tA'swi'meguneguta'i'aiyagini 
pyawAgi'megu inigi neniwAg""'. Kageya'megoni ke'ten a'wapikA- 
'ckikA'nonAg i'n u'cki'nawa''^'. 0'ni''tca" pe''k a'kakiwinyii'- 
wiyag'"''. K^v'ci pe'ki^'tcl'megu ke''tenA inetate''tawap ani'anigo'- 
wawAg''''. Ini'megu ni'n a'a'pe'^tcinAtawa'nemAgi wi"nawAgi 

25pa'pegwA neguta' ayaiyanin a'ki'cinawAg''''. 

Mane ■svinA'mogu nctA"ci'"kagogi ne'niwAgi wi'kAkAnoneti'Ag"''. 
KAbo'twan a'ke'ka'nemig''''. Ka'cI pe'ki'^tci'megu neke'tcine- 
"cki'megop'". KutAgA'^tci'megu neke'kA'Amagop u'cki'nawa'A 
^\'i"unapa'miyan"'". Nekwaiya'cigii'ninanA'Ane'katipen''*'. 

30 O'n"'', "NAtawa'^tci'megu ki'unapami kegen"''," netegop'', '"Ni- 
'cwapitAge"siyAne ki'u'napam™'',' kete'ne yowe a'a''tcimo'"enan''''," 
netegop'', "na'k^v kene'ckime'ne yowe wawAne'cka'Agi wi'kakiwi'- 
tamA'^tc''. Ke'tenanA mA'n a'ki'cipwawikwiyena"iyAn°''. Aya- 
na'siiyani yowe ketAga'wanene wi'ki'citapA'kwimenwiwapAmenani 

35 wi'i'cimenwi'unapamiyAn"''. Inugi wi'n agwi'megu tAnane'mena- 
nini wi'negutimenwi'unapa'miyAn"''. Pe'kima' winanA kakAnone- 
tiyAn o'sAni mya'cawi'niwAn"''. Nane'sene'sA'megu. I'n a'ca- 
wini'^tc o"sAn°'". Na'iwapi'kwawaniwAn"''. Kiigo'' na'k a'cima- 
mAtanA'kiwinigin agwi wlto'ka'wa''tcui itepi wi'ani'^tc u'wiwAn"''. 

40 InA neniwA na'kA pe'ki'megu nanigi"to'i^*'. Ini"*tca'megu ninan 
a'inanemAgi wi'i''cawi^tc ugwi"sema"*'. A'sami'megu' c'a''ck 
a'petu''sa"'*'. Agwi'megu ninA ke'kane'mAgini kago' wi'i'cimi- 
'ke"'tcawi''tc''. Wa'cipAgA'megu kinA tA'cipemeni'yagAp unapa'- 



MiCHELSdN.] AUTOBIOGEAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 311 

Then I was instrupted, "Well, when you are twenty,-" then you 
may desire to take a husl)and. Wlioever is the one whom you are 
going to take as your husband, he alone is the one with whom you 
are to talk when you begin to talk with (a man). Do not talk to 
many. It is not right for women to haye many friends. Their 
husband (s) mil not treat them well as they are jealous when they 
know what (their ^viyes) have been doing. That indeed is why 
(women) are forbidden to have many friends." That is what I was 
told. 

Then soon when I was eighteen, in the spring at the time when 
(people) begin to pick strawberries, I accompanied a young woman 
when we were strawberrying.^^ "We will see one," she would say 
to me. Then she would say to me, "I am just joshing you." As a 
matter of fact she and one young man had made arrangements to 
see each other over there. 

Soon he came over there. They were well acquainted with each 
other and treated each other kindly. She was helped by him when 
she was picking strawberries. She kept coming to me to get me to 
go with her some place. .Soon he came with another young man. 
Then this young woman got me to talk to his fellow young man. " He 
will not do anything; you may talk together cjuietly," that woman 
told me. As often as we went anywhere those men came. ■ Finally 
I surely began to talk to that young man. And then we foiir went 
around (together) a great deal. It surely was enjoyable (to hear 
them) say fimny tilings. Then it was that I alwaj's wished to see 
him right away when I went anywhere, that is after I had seen him. 

Of course many men tried to get me to talk with them. Soon it 
was laiown (what land of a person I was). My, but they scolded 
me severely. Another young man had been selected for me to take 
as husband. (The other one) and I were already well acquainted. 

"You had better take a husband right away," I was told, "' Wlien 
you are twenty, you shall take a husband,' I told you formerly when 
I was instructing you. And I forbade you to go around with immoral 
(girls). Surely you are already not doing right. I desired to see 
you well-married while I was still living. But now I do not expect 
you to be well-married to one (man). The father of the one with 
whom you talk is evil. He (your lover) might beat you. That is 
the way his father is. He is always beating his wife.^^ And when 
anytliing is taking place, he ■will not allow his wife to go there. More- 
over, that man is extremely lazy.-^ That is why I think the son 
will be like that. He is always merely walking around. I have 
never knowTi him to do any work. If you took him as your husband, 
you would probably then be taking care of him. He would cheat 



312 AXTTOBIOGEAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [eth. ANN. 40. 

miyAn""". WAnina'une's'^', kinaiyuga"mAiii keki'citcagina'i'tu 
kemi'ke''tcawiwe'nenan a'i'kwawijAg''"'''. Agwi'^tca' inA wi'una- 
pami'yAnin°''. KutA'gA ki'u'napiimi niiiA na'anetA'monanA 
wiVi''tca'wiwA'*tc'". Ki'poniga''InAkAkAnone'traw.A kemiinawa'- 
5tagAn°^'. Ki'penega' ke'kiinemenane na'kA kAkAnonetl'At I'n 
wI'poniwawananctAmAni kekago'e'menan"''. A'gwi wi'tapwa'e'- 
nanini kago' a'ci'yAnin''''. I'ceyumAni petegi kepya'^tci'meguke- 
'kanemen a'pe'seta'wiyAn a'ciwItAmo'nanin"''. I'ni wa''^tci 
tapwii/'cnani kiigo' a'ci'yAnin"''. Na"kA mA'ni. Ta'swI na'i"t6- 

lOyAni pe''ki nemi'ca'tanem™"'. Iniga"ai)e'e wa'^tci ne'cki'menage 
wawAiie'cka'Agi wi'kakiwiwitamA'^tc''. Ke'tenanAmA'ni na'ina'- 
'megu wapikakiwiwi'tamA'^tc ii'ke'kanemenag'"''. A"p6niku'sA''tci 
ne'niwAg''''. lyama'kii'ape keku''sa\VAgi neguta' wI"aiyAn°''. 
Inugiga" ketAgawatAmegu ne'guta' wr'aiyAn A"pena''tc''. 

15Agwima" wi"kag6'anetagu'sI'yAnini wawAne'cka''iyAn°'''. MA'ksva- 
''tcima' kiwita'ni'^tcin a'Agawanawa''tci neniwAgi wl'wi'^tcawiwawa- 
''tc''. O wawAne'cka'a'igii'i' ca'cki'megu wrwapA'ci''awa''tc'''. 
Wa"'tci mAtagwf kawawa'^tc agwigii' wi'uwiwiwa''tc u^'tcitA'ci'ka'- 
wawa'^tc''. Ki'kegeni''tca'megu"unapam a'ci'menanA Icwaiya'k"''," 

20ne'teg5p''. 

Meda'swi'cag a'tA'swipepS'nwayan"''. Oni nA'tawa'^tc a''cimig 
a'wapikAkAnonetf Ag''*'. Agwi'megu me'^tcikvPiyen inaneniAgin"'". 
IniyA'megu kutA'g awA'si nete'cmene'kiinema'''^'. A'pena'^tci'- 
megu, "Tanina' k^vkAno'netiyan"®','' nete'cita' ape'"'. Agwi'mcgu 

25kA'ckipe"kiponikAk.vnoneti'Agin°''. Netute'tanemawA'megu. On in 
a"cimigA na''k a'kaklwI'taniAgi ne'guta' ayayanin°'". Kageyji- 
'megon a'ane'kawAg''''. Cewii'nA kutAgA'megu a'wA'si nete'ci'a- 
"pe'^tcinene'ka'nemawA na'ckinA'mawig'"*'. 

0'ni''tca" k.\bo'tw a''cimig a'wapl''kawi''tc uwi'gewagi wi'i'ciwi- 

30 tamAg''''. A'pena'^tci'megu netA'ci'kagwA wrwi'tamAg a'tA'swinii'- 
wAgin"'". 0'n°'', "Na'i', pe'kiina''nInA neku'seta'wawAgi keme- 
's5'tanAg''''," ne'tena™*'. "'O' kl'nA tan a'uwigiyag\ve kl'i'ciwl'- 
tiimen'"''," neteg''"''^', "a'gwima'pepe'kinatowa'yAgwin agwi'^tea' 
wi'ku'seta'tiyAg^T i'ci'kegin"''. Ninaiyo' a'gwi ku'seta'wAgini 

SSkeme'so'tanAg''''. Ta'n agwi kago' i'ciwawAne'cka'itotonanin"''. 
Ne''ki pya^tcikAkAnonetiyAgwe mA'kwa'^tci'megu ketA"ci'k6n°«'. 
Kekc'ka'netAga'''. Nekegye'tenamita'e'megu wi'wi''tcawi'tiyAgwe 
niA'kwa'^tc''. 'Tanina" A'nwa'^tcit'^',' nete'cita' A''pena<^tc''. KinA'- 
megii me''ten5' i'n a'cita''ayani ^\^'wi'^tca'■winan°''. Pe'kigii'- 

40 nicgii ki'menwitoto'n'"''. .A'cimiyAni'megu ni''i'ca''''. Na''k 
A'pena'^tci'megu ni'mi''ke''tca^''. Ma'Agi na"kA keme'so'tanAg 
a'gwi wl'ne'ckinAmonanin"''. Agwiga" i'ce'cime'nanin"''. Ma'- 
ninug a'i'nenani kc'tcnA'meg i'ni Avi'i'ca'wiyan"''," neteg''''"'^'. 
KAbo'twan a'Anwa'*tciyan°''. Pe'kutagin a'na'g\vaiyag'"''. A'mane- 

45"cita''ayan a'wa''sayag iya' wi'pAgAmi'taniAg a'uwigiyag'"''. 
WapA'g in ifnawn'^tci pe'ki'megu ke'tenA kiwimenwitotawapi 
manwanetA'mawig a'unapa'miyan"'". 



MicBELsoN.] AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 313 

3'ou, for you already know how to do all the work that belongs to us 
women. You really must not take him for your husband. You 
must take the other one as your husband, the one with whom I 
think it proper for you to liA'e. You must stop tallcing with the one 
you are tr-s-ing to love. If, however, I learn that you talk again 
with hini, you ■\vill cease to have control over an}- of our tilings. 
I shall not beheve anything you say to me. Now I know in the 
past that you listened to what I told you. That is why I believed 
you when you said anything to me. And tliis. As many things as 
you have learned to make, I am very proud of (them). That is why 
I would forbid you to go around with immoral (girls). Surely as 
soon as you began to go aroimd with them M'e found it out. You 
are no longer afraid of men. You formerly were afraid to go any- 
where because of them. But now you always desire to go some- 
where. You Mall be thought of as naught if you are immoral. The 
ones who are moral are those whom men want to live with (i. e., 
marrAO- And thoy A\'ill only make sport of the immoral ones. That 
is why the}^ bother tliem, to have a good time with them, not to 
marry them. You might as well quickly take as your husband the 
one whom I permit you," I was told. 

I was nineteen years old. Then I made up my mind to begin 
talking with the one I was permitted. I did not like him very well. 
I thought more of the other one. Always I would think, " Would that 
I might talk (with him)." I really couldn't stop talking with him. 
I worried about him. And I again went around Avith the one I Avas 
permitted, when I went anyAvhere. Later on I became acquainted 
with him. But I always thought more of the other one, the one they 
hated on my account. 

Soon the one I Avas permitted began to try to have me accompany 
him to his home. He always asked me to go Avith him whenever I 
saw him. Then I said to him, "I am very much afraid of your 
parents." " WeU, I will go Avith you to your home," he said to me, 
"we do not speak a different language, so it is not right for us to be 
afraid of each other. As for me, I am not afraid of your parents. 
For I have done nothing evil to you. As long as we have been talking 
together, I have been quiet Avith you. You know it too. I intend 
that we shall live quietly Avith each other. I ahvays think, ' Oh that 
she were Avilling.' You are the only one with Avhom I wish to live. 
I shall treat you very nicely. Whatever you tell me, I shall do. 
And I shaU always Avork. And I shall not hate your parents. I am 
not fooling you. What I say to you this day, I shall siu-ely do," he 
said to me. Soon I consented. At night we departed. When it Avas 
daylight, I Avas (rather) ashamed to go where we lived with him. 
The next day when he was seen, he surely was treated very nicely, for 
I had taken for a husband ^* the one they had Avished me to. 
3590°— 25t 21 



314 • AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [eth. ANN. 40. 

O'n u'taiyani 'a"mrci''tci na'"k uto'ce'ki'tagAni ni'mi^'tcin ayo'- 
'aiyo^'tci mi'cate"siwen°''. O'ni ni'nA netawa'mawAg a"mInAg 
i'nini na''kA kAt6"ckA'ca'An°''. KAbo'twe na"kA no"kumA 
nepya'^tcinA'tomeg''"*'. "Itepi 'anu'," netegwA neg'''"^". "A'na'- 
5gwaiyan°''. lya' pya'yaiyan"'', "AiyS'ku'i," ne'tegop''. "TcitA- 
pinu'," ne'tegop''. A'nAna'A'piyan"'". Ka'cI newapi'^tcimi"ca''tci- 
'egop''. Kegime'si'megu netcagimrca''tci'egop''. 'O'ni, "Na'"kA 
mAHAga' wi'a'wAnAtA" ca"cketo'*V' ne'tegop'*. Aylgi'meg iiiA 
"A'"tawi niA'^'tca'mi na'"kA' sAgetunapI'''tcigAn inA A''tawr 

lOcii'cke'to'eg''''. Pe'ki'megu ninA netAnemimAgi'nepa'c a'na'- 
gwaiyan"''. NepAgAinimi"ca'te's a'awrgiyag"""'. A'wa'pAtAgi 
neg'"'*'. A'"natAgi' sAgetimapi''tcigAn°'', " Inima'kl'nA nl"cwln 
a'ute'tenA''tci kAto'ckA'ca'Ag'''". InA 'wii'nA kiitA'g unapami'yAne' 
ini kiigo' i'cimine'nena''^'. KAbo'twani na''lc\. ni'nA, "Na'i', 

ISmAni awA'tagiin""'," a'Tcig'''". Wi'se'niweni mA'ckimu'ta'eg 
A'to'A'to'p Ana'kAnAni na"kA na'tA'swi'megu me'ckwa'swawAgi' 
sogi'sogi''tcigap''. In a'ki'ca'wiyag'"''. '0'ni''tca' ca''ck a'mami'- 
'ciwa^'tci kago"i tclnawamatcigi wi'^tcawiwo'niAgini mA"^tca'ini 
ta'tAg''''. O'ni nlnA wi'se'niwen"'', niA'cku'^tci's'^', wapi'gunAni 

20negiiti'megu niA'cki'muta' a'pe' A'kwjl'wi pa'ckitlgiga' a'pe' 
a'awAta'gayan"'', Ana"kAnAn°'', me'"sIgwAg''''. 

Ke'tenA winA'megu kenwa'cT'ma'i nemenwitotagwA wi^'tca'wi- 
wAg""^". NegyA na''liA pe'ki'megu nene''ckimegwA wi'aiyl'cikAkA- 
nonetI''emAgi ku'tAgAn"''. NetA''kawapAmegwA'meg''"^'. Cewa'n 

25 agwi'megu kA'ckiponinene'kane'mAgini nIna'nA ta'ni 'InA ni'nA 
miinwanenaAg''*'. Wl''tca'AviwAgAga" a'gwi ni'nA menwane'- 
niAgin"''. Ini'^tca' InA kutA'gA wa'''tc A'pena^'tci nene'ka'nemAg"^''. 
Kiigo' anA'kl'wigini negj^A'megu nekiwi'tiimaw ii'A'kawapAmi- 
''tci wi'pwawikutAgAna'kAk^\kAn6neti''emAg''''. Na''kA ne'ci'kA 

SOneguta' ■wi"aiyani nene"ckimeg''''*'. "Witami wI'^tca'wiwAtA 
neguta' Jiyai'yAn"''. Kiigo' ina^'tcimenagig'"''. 'TA'ci'kiitiwA 
ku'tAgAni ne'niwAn"'',' ine'nAgi^'tc u'wiya'. Na'iwe"siwAgimii' 
niLtawimemyii'cki"atcigi wawiweti'ni''tci'''," netego'pape""". 

On ape'tawawa'i'ne ki'ci'^tca'wiwAgi kAbo'twe neponimyiinot®'. 

35Ka'6'ni nii''k ii'a'^tci'mo'ig'"'. "Na'i', mA'niyap ii''cawig iniyu- 
"magwa'e ■wi'uni''tcane'siyiig''^'''. Kiigo'' ii'wA'''tca'ug a'A'"kAtag 
a'g\vi na'imi'''tcigini wi'pwiiwi'A'gotiig ape'no'Ag utA'pitiyiipi'- 
nwiiwAn"''. Nii''l\A pA'ganAn a'gwi na'imi'^'tcigini wi'pwiiwipi- 
'anwipo'kepyagiwa^'tc ape'no'Ag''''. Na''k ii"pepog agwi na'i- 

40 'Apigii''sugini wi'pwiiwi'Ago'su^tc ape'no'Ag''''. Na"k a'gwi 
na'iwiiwii''tcigii'ci'negini wi'^tcawi'wA'^tcigi wi'pwawi'u''katwagi'u- 
''tcini'giwa''tc''. Nii''k uwiyii''a'Ag u'ka'twawAn a'gwi na'imi'- 
''tcigin°''. A'cii"kiwAgi nJi"kA wi'gii'sipi wi'pwawimii'ce"kawu- 
''tc''. Ayigi'pinig ii'mii'cene'^tc in a'cA"'tci'bwig u'kiitwag u''tcini'- 

45giwAg ape'no'Ag'"'. SAnAge'siwAgiga"ip in ii'u'*tcini'giwa''tc''. 



MiCHELSON.] AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 315 



Then he gave me his horse, and the clothing which he used at 
dances, liis finery. And I gave that horse to my brothers. Soon my 
mother-in-law came to summon me. "Go over there," my mother 
said to me. I departed. When I arrived there, "Right here," I was 
told. "Sit do-wm," I was told. I sat down comfortahly. Well, they 
began to clothe me in finery. I was clad all over in finery. Then, 
"You may also take this kettle (home)," I was told. There were also 
some dry goods in it, and a bridle was in the kettle. I had a very 
large bundle on my back when I departed. I arrived where we lived 
clad in finery. My mother looked at (the bundle). When she saw 
the bridle (she said), "Now you have two horses. If you had taken 
the other (man) as your husband, you wouldn't have been given 
anything." Soon I likewise was told, "I say, you take this (to 
them)." Food was placed in a sack, mattings (were to go), and 
several belts of yarn were tied around them. Then we were through 
(with the wedding ceremonies). And then only the relatives of my 
husband gave me each something, usually dry goods. And I would 
take a sack or basket full of food, beans, pumpkins (to his people), 
and mattings and corn. 



Surely my husband for a long time treated me nicely. And my 
mother strongly forbade me to keep on talking with the other one. 
She watched me closely. But I couldn't stop thinking of him, for 
he was the one I loved. I did not love my husband. That is why I 
always thought of the other one. When anything was going on, I 
went around with my mother as she was watching me so that I shoidd 
not talk with the other one again. And she forbade me to go any 
place by m3'self. "Go with your husband when you go any place. 
They might say something about you. Some one might say of you, 
'she goes around with another man.' Those who desu-e to make 
trouble for married couples are smart," I would be told. 

And when I had been living with him for half a year, soon I ceased 
having catamenial flows. Thereupon I was given instructions again, 
"Well, this is what has happened: probably you are to have a 
child.^^ Wiien anything is cooked and it is burned, it must not be 
eaten so that children's afterbirths will not adhere. And nuts are 
not to be eaten, so that the babies will be able to break through the 
caul. And in winter, one is not to warm their feet, so that the babies 
will not adhere (to the caul). And (women) ai'e not to join their feet 
to those of their husbands, so that (the babies) will not be born feet- 
first. And the feet of no (animals) are to be eaten. And one must 
be careful not to touch cra^vfish. Also, if these are touched when one 
is enceinte, the babies will be born feet-first. It is said that (women) 



316 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. rETH. Ann. 40. 

Wa''tcita'pwa'cag ii'sagitigi wT'pwawikenwa'citA'cikutAgi'togi na'ina" 
no'cag'"''. A'citi'ginimegon a"cawig''''. Na''k uwI'ya'a'A napegA 
wi'pwawima"cene'^tc''. Ma"cenetega'"ipi nepo''iwa's ape'no'Agi 
kl'cini'giwate me"po'cag'"''. O" cii'ckiga' aVSpAme^'tci na'pegigi 
5maiyawapAmapi'megii. Aylgi'pin a'sASA'gwapig aVa'pAme'^tci 
pyami'ckwaiiAglgwawAg ape'no'Ag''''. Ka'o'ni na''kA ki'cegwi- 
wapAtA'Ag a'ma'ce''kawu''tc A'peme'gip a'pe'^tcina'piwAg'^''. Agwip 
A'kigi kA'ckinapi'wa''tcin ape'no'Ag'^''. Na"k uwiya'ii' a"ckepyat 
a'ma"cene'*tci nepo'"iwAg ape'no'Ag''''. I'm tA'swaiyAgi ne'- 

lO'ckitigi kago"'". 'O'n A'pena'^tci'megu %v'i'nato'tAmegi me"sa'Ani 
wI'uwiwA'cigi'megu i''citipi wi'ke'cawA'u'gowa''tc ape'no'Ag''''. 
Na"kA ki'cike'kaneti"sugin a'A''^tci'kwig I'n a'ponikago'i"cawig 
unapami'nawAg''''. Wine'siwA'gip a'nl'giwa''tc ape'no'Ag''''. Ki- 
'ciwapimAma''tcI'wa''tcini pA'ci kiigo' ii'i'ca'i'ca'wini'^tc ume- 

IS'sotanwawa'''. .In a'cikeg i'n a"cawig''''. SAnAgAtwiku''tci winA'- 
megu pe"k a'i'kwawiyAgwe no'ca'yAgwin'^''. KekutAgi"topen°*'. 
Aneta ne"segog ape'no'a'''. Cewii'n a'g^vi ku'tA'iuAgwin i'ce ku'*tc 
in a'cigi''enAgvre wi'i'ca'wiyAg''"'''. Ini^tca'yatuge "wa''*tci pwa- 
wiku"tAinAg''"'^'. O tcagigii'i ku"tAmAgwe na'ina'megu'yatug 

20a"tcagike'kya'wAgwan ini'mcgu amA''kwiyAg''"''''. AwitA kA'cki- 
'ane'kwigi'kAgo''*^'. Ca'"cki'^tca' a'citlgini'megu i"cawipi na'ina' 
no''cagin''''. Pwawigii' a'cime^'tcin i'ca'witcig inigi mamya'ke'cka'- 
ffutcig uni''tcane'swa'wa''"." 

I'n a'kl'citcagi'a'*tciino"enan a"cawig'''', a'pwawikl'cike'ka- 

25netAman a'pi'tci'sA'nAgA'k a"no'cag''''. Agwi mo'tci'megu aylg 

inugi wi'kA'ckike'kanetA'manin"''. Pano''megu ld'cin6"cayane 

na'ina' Ini wi'ke'kane'tAman a'pI'tci'sAnAgA'k''. KAbo'twe ke'tenA 

netAnemi'upi'ckwa'^tc^'. Nemane'eita""'. Agwi'megu nimi'e'tlgin 

Itepi 'aiyanin a'mane'cita"ayan''''. 

30 KAbo'twani' cwa'cigA tA'swiki'ce'sw it'pya'^tci'sagi no''kum 

a'pya''tc''. Negyan a'pya'^tcikAkAnonetra''tc''. "Inima mag^va" 

a'kAtawino'ca''tc''. Wi"pAg5'ci''tca'A"ciga\vAgwe \vI'tAno'ca''tc''. 

Wa'''tci wa'wutAmi pyaiyan"'', tepe''k a'kwAmAtA'ki''tc''V' 'inawA 

negyan"''. A'A'ci'gawa'^te''. Ki'cigawa'^tcin'''', "Napiwa'iuv, kl'- 

35 "nAtomi na'ina' a'kwAmAtA'mugwan"''," a''ina<'tci negyan"''. 



KAbotwan a'a'ksvAniA'tAmani ne'ci"kan Anagwiwiyu'ga'i ne'ce- 
gi'ccgi'cin'"''. Agw a'^tciino'yanin"''. KAbotwiin"'', "Cl! a'kwA- 
mAtAgAni wonAna'i?" a''i'eig''''. "'A'a"e," ne'si, "ne'cigAniku' 
tAga'wi neta'kwAniAt'''," ne'tenawA neg"'"'". "'0 '6"'," 'i'wA, 
40 "inima"yatuge wi'unI<'tcane''siyAn''''. Ni'nA'tomiiw i'ni'''^'. 'Ki- 
'nAtomi,' iwAku'^tciyo"®"." NoniAge'megu a'ki'cipya''tc'', "Na'i', 
itepina'i'a'nu wigiya'pe'eg''''," neteg''*'*'. A'Ana'k.'V'A'ma'n'ig''''. 
A'nAna'A'piyan ina" Api'kan A''pemeg a'utApi'ka'tawig''''. "MAiii 



MICHELSON.] AUTOBIOGEAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 317 

have a hard time when they are born that waj'. That is why one 
beheves and fears (what one has been told), so that one will not 
suffer a long time at childbirth. It is better to do what we are told. 
And no corpse is to be touched. If it is touched the babies would die 
after they are born, by inheriting it. And if the dead are looked at, 
they are to be looked at with straight eyes. Also it is said that if 
they are looked at slantingly, the babies will be cross-eyed. And if 
cranes are touched, the babies will always look upward. The chil- 
dren will not be able to look upon the ground. And when any one 
drowns, if he is touched, the babies would die. These are the number 
of things one is forbidden to do. And it is told that one should carry 
wood always on one's back so that the babies will be loosened (i. e., 
born easily). Again, after (a woman) knows that she is pregnant, she 
is to cease to have anything to do with her husband. (Otherwise) the 
babies will be filthy when they are born. When their parents do not 
observe this, (the babies) begin to move around. That is the rule 
when that happens. For we women have a hard time at childbirth. 
We suffer. Some are killed by the babies. But we are not afraid 
of it, as we have been made to be that way. That is probably the 
reason why we are not afraid of it. Oh, if we were all afraid of it, 
when we all became old, that is as far as we could go. We should not 
be able to branch out (to a new generation). So at childbirth we 
should do only what we are told. The ones who do not do as they are 
told are the ones who are injured by their children." 

I have now told you all how it is, though I did not know about 
this, namely, how hard childbirth is. Even at this time I was not 
able to know about it. Only after I had given birth (to a child) 
would I know how hard it is. Soon surely my abdomen grew large. 
I was ashamed. When there was a dance I did not go there as I 
was ashamed. 

Soon after eight months were by, my mother-in-law came. She 
came of talk with my mother. "Now is the time when she is on 
the point of giving birth (to a child). We should build (a httle 
wickiup) beforehand for her so that she may be delivered there. 
That is why I took my time coming, (thinking) she might be sick 
at night," she said to my mother. They built it. After they built 
it, she said to my mother, " Well, you may summon me whenever she 
is sick." 

Soon I became sick in the evening when lying alone. I did not 
tell of it. Soon I was told, "You might be sick?" "Yes," I 
answered, " I am sick and have a little pain in the small of my back," 
I said to my mother. "Oh ho," she said, "very likely now is the 
time when you are to have a child. I shall summon her. For she 
said, 'you will summon me.'" In a little after she came, she said 
to me, "Come, go to the little wickiup." (Blankets) were spread for 
me. When I sat down comfortably a strap was fastened from above. 



318 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [eth. ANN. 40. 

ki'Ata'pe'nAmagw-i na''ina'i pe''ki wapAmAtA'mAnin''," ne'tegop'', 
Aj:kAmi''tci'megu pe"ki netAnemi'A'pi'A'pi''tAmAt'^'. Kageya", 
"Ini' cegi'cinu. Pe"ki''tca' wapAmAtA'niAiiini ki'kutAp"". Kl'u- 
^tcigwAHApi ku'^tci tepina"megu ki'i'cipe/'cigwAp'V' a'Tcig''''. 
5 Inina'i'ca'wiyan""'. A'Atii'penAinagwiyanape" Api'kan""'. A'gwima' 
kA'ckinl'gi'^tcin"''. 

Ki'cinawitepe'kigin a'kAtawi'anawi"t6yani wi'wAnaglyan"'". 
A'sage''siwa^tc a'tA'cinAna'I'ka'witcig i''kwawAg''''. "Kl'mAma- 
to'mopen°'^'," in a'i'yowa''tc''. Ne'samawAn in a'ku'nawAn a'a'- 

lOwAna'^tci no"kum™*', a'mawimAmatoma'^tc i''kwawAni na'ino'ca- 
'*tcigani"^tcin°''. O'n a.''pya<*tc i'n i'"kwawA' sa'sa'simegon a'Ana- 
"po'ka^tci nata'winon°'". Ki'ca'po'ka''tcin°'', "Na'i', ki'ki'ki'- 
megu nawA'^tcitcitApi'^tc*'". Ki'kegyanenapwA wi'pwawiki'pi'sa- 
''tc'V "a'i'''tc''. Ki'citcitApi'igini newi''cemeg a'se''swami''tc''; o'n 

15a'mena'i<'tc''. Ki'cimena'i'^tcin ji'wapi'naga'^tc''. A'peminowi'- 
naga^'tc a'tetepi'naga''tc ini wigi'yapa'''. A'a'wiyani tepina" peme'- 
ga'^tcini pAgApA'kwa'Am''-^". "Nowinu' kwiye'sa'i'wAnan"''," iwa'- 
pe'"'. Na'kape' a'wapi'naga''tci pemega'^tcini na'kA'megu pAgA- 
pA'kwa'iga'''^'. "Nowinu' a'i'ckwa'sa'i'wAnan"'','' ini na'kape'' 

20a'i'''tc''. Nyawenwi ki'citetepi'naga'^tc a'pi'tiga'^tc'', na"k 
a'me'na'i^'tc''. "Ini'ku'^tci wi'ni'gini^'tc''. Me'cena' wi'cegi- 
'cin"'*'. Ca"cki wiga''tci'cune'k"". Ki'kegyani^'tcigwA'nanapwA 
tepina'' i'ci' ca''ck''," i'wA. Ke'tenA'^tci'megu i'n a'nigi'^tci 
kwiye'"sa''*'. 

25 I'ni a'ki'cike'kane'tAman a'pi'tAniAtAineg a"no'cag''''. Ki'cino- 
'cayani na"k agwi'^tcimegu na"kA pa'ci negu'ta' tAnAmAtAma- 
nin°''. Nemenwipema'te's''. Apeno"a'An a'pA'ke'cA'mawu^'tc 
uwi'nwi neguti'^tci'c A'ku'cA'mawap''. A'ckigenigiga"megu "aiyopi 
mo'co'wagAn"''. A'sogi''tawu'*tci wa'^tci pA'ke'cA'mawu"^tc''. 

30 A'koge'^tcane''tc''. WapAnig In a'te''kine''tci te'kina'gAneg''''. 
O'n uwi'nwig uwiya'sa' a'tetepa'kwi'se'tawu''tci pApAgiwaiya'a" 
u'ce'keg A'pa'kwi'se'tawap''. "Ki'ci'kA'ci'kawi'se'tawaw aiya'pi'- 
'tcina'i wi'kegenipA'kinwiya'^tc''," ne'tegop''. In a'to'tawAg''''. 
A'gwi wT'nA ni'nA na'ikoge'nAgin"''. NegyA nenAna'i'kAinag''"'^". 

35 Ne'sugunage'si^'tc a'pA'ki'nwiyii'^tc''. Agwiga' ayi'gi ka'kAm utA'- 
tAgin a"notAgi ni'cuguni'megu. 

'0'n°'', "Ki'a'pe''tci'megute"kina^^': tcigitepa'ki'^tc''', wagi- 
'sigi'wa'ki'^tc"", wawagApaiya'ki^'tc"'. Inima' wa''tci wigatApine- 
''tci ■wa'i'ci'giwa''tc''. A'inApine'^tci wi'co'cka'kwi'giwa'^tc''. KAta- 

40 wiga''megu negutawa'ime te''kinap''. Na"k a'gw a'pe'^tci'soge'ne- 
•^tcin"''. Wawapi"s6neg A'sapi ki'cinonowa'^tcini wi'pwawi'utAmi- 
"i'wawa'"tc*'. Kwaiya'ci^tca' me'cena' nane'sA'piwAgi ncguta' 
a'yagin a'pwawiki'ki'twiiwa'^tc''. Iniga" a"sa'soge'nawa''tc anetA' 
pagi'sena'wa''tcinimeg6n a'naai'yoni'^tc''. UtAini"eg6g a'A'ci"awa- 

45 ^tc a'sa'soge'nawa'^tc''," ne'tegop'". 



MICHELSON.] AUTOBIOGR.iPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 319 

"You are to hold on to this when you begin to feel intense pain," I 
was told. I then felt more intense pain. After a while I was told, 
" Lie down. When you begin to suffer acute pain you are to try to 
sit up. You are to sit on your knees and you are to sit erect." I did 
so. I would hold on to the strap. (The child) could not be born. 

After midnight I was nearly unable to get up. The women who 
were attending me became frightened. Then they said among them- 
selves, "We shall pray (for help)." My mother-in-law took Indian 
tobacco and went to a woman skilled in obstetrics for help. And 
when that woman came, she at once boiled some medicine. After 
she had boiled it, she said: "Let her in any case sit up for a whUe. 
You must hold her so that she will not fall over." After I was made 
to sit up, she spat upon my head; and she gave me (the medicine) 
to drink. After she had given me (the medicine) to drink, she began 
singing. She started to go out singing and went around the httle 
wickiup singing. Wlien she danced by where I was, she knocked on 
the side. "Come out if you are a boy," she would say. And she 
would again begin singing. When she danced by she again knocked 
the side. "Come out if you are a girl," she would say again. After 
she sang four times in a circle, she entered (the wickiup). And she 
gave me (medicine) to drink. "Now it will be born. She may lie 
down. Only lay her down carefully. You must hold her knees 
straight up," she said. Lo, sure enough, a little boy was born. 

Then I knew how painful childbu'th was. After I had bo rue (the 
chUd) I was not in pain in any spot. I was well. They cut off the 
baby's navel with one inch of the cord on it. A brand-new pair of 
scissors was used. They tied up the place where he was cut. His 
belly was washed. The next day he was placed in a cradle. And 
they tied a little piece of meat on his navel with a cloth going aroimd 
(his body), tying it on his abdomen. "You must moisten him once 
in a M'hile so that his umbilical cord wiU drop off soon," I was told. 
I did so to him. I did not wash him myself. My mother attended 
to him for me. In three days his lunbihcal cord dropped off. He 
could not draw the milk out for two days when I nursed him. 

Then, "You must always keep him in a cradle: (otherwise) he 
might have a long head, (or) he might be humpbacked, (or) he might 
be bow-legged. That is why they are placed carefully, so they will 
(not) be that way. W^hen they are tied that way they ^vill be 
straight. They are kept in cradles for nearly one year. Again, they 
are not to be held all the time. They are placed in a swing after 
they suckle so that they wiU not be a nuisance. They become 
trained to be left alone when one goes some place, if they are not 
cry-babies. And when they are constantly held some cry when they 
are laid down. (People) are bothered by them when they get them 
used to being constantlv held," I was told. 



320 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OP A FOX WOMAN. [eth. ANN. 40. 

Ne'swapitAgi ne'swi tA'suguni' sagi'^tci neta"''. 

O'ni kAbo'tw a'wapipe'kmawi''tci wI'^tca'wiwAg''*'. Agwi'megu 
me'^tci'kwiyenA pya''tci'cimonwa'wite' i'ca'wi'^tcin°''. Keyii'ApA- 
gii" I'niyA i'kwa'a'aiyow iiya'pwawi'unapa'miyani kaklwI'tiimAgA 
okago" ana'ina'^tcimo'ate'*''. "Pe'ki'megu kinanA ketA'cimenwito'- 
tawA pe'kiga' wl'naijn)w Ida kiwA kutAgAni ne'niwAni me'to'^tci'- 
megu unapamp'^'. Ni'n ii'cike'ka'nemAg''''. 'Agwi nAna'ci vri- 
'poni'katiyAg\vin°'', mo'tci'megu ku'tAgAgi wi'^tca'wiwAg''''*'', 
itiwAgigii''','' a'ina^'tcimo'ate''''. Kiigeya'megoni ke'ten a'tapwa- 
10 'tawate'eyatug''^". Inina'megon u'^'tciwiip a'wiipi'Anemimya'cito'- 
tawi'^tc''. I'cega' winA'meg I'n i'kwa'a' a'kegya'ckAtawaneme^tc 
a"menwitota'wini''tc'". Winaiyuga" a'gw uwiweme'gu''tcini neniwa" 
a'wawAiie'cka'i'^tc''. Kageya''megu newapinane'"segop''. 

" Iniku'i yo'we wa^tci ne'cki'menani me'cemegonA wrkAnonetl- 

15'A^tci neniwAg''''. 'Me'ten6''megu -vvrunapamI'wAnan.\ kl'L\kAno- 
ne'tfa'^'^V wa'^tcine'iiane'"'," nctegwA ne'g'''"^'. "Kageya'ma" 
kl'a'kwa'apwA ke'gwi'swaw a'il'pe''tcipegi'cki'katlyag'""^'. Nepo- 
'iwAgima'' apeno'Ag a'a'"kwawa''tc'','' ne'tegop"'. 

KAbo'twani katawina'etuna'mo'i''tci negwi'se'emenan a'a'kw'A'- 

20niAtAg'''". Pe'ki'megu nekwinAtawi'cita'"'. Kiigeyamegon a'nepo- 
'i'^tc''. Ka'ci pe'ki'^tcl'megu kl'cagu'^tci" sAnAgAtw a'nepo'kiig'''". 
IvAnagwA'megu wl'pwawimya'cita'ag''''. " Ini ku''tci yowe wa'''tc 
a''tcimo''enani mi''ckutA^ a'tA'ci'sii'sagi'agwe yo"^"^'," netegop''. 
"Inima' wa^'tci pwawina'ipAgAme''tc uni''tcane'si'nawAg''''. Awa- 

25'si'meg iVikT'cagu'^tcita'ana'A na'ne'set^'," ne'tegop'". Ki'cipItA'- 
'u'^tc awA'sI'mcgoni nemya'cita''ayan''''. Nyawugun a'Anag^vigin 
a'A'cAnoAge'^tci pltA'watcig''''. A'wapi'A"ci"t5yage mrcate"siwen 
a'ckigcgi'meg""''. Kl'ci'toyag a'nAtawa'nemAgi wfu'ce'ki'Agef^'." 
Netcagi'megunene'kane'mawAg ape'no'Ag''''. Negu't In a'me'- 

30'kawAgime't6''tc'', "MA'nAmagwa" a'pI'tcitepa'nAge'enetape'no'em 
a'prtcitepana'suf^V' nete'cita'^'. On in a'u'ce"ki"Age^tci wi'ugwi- 
"siya'ge tatAg"^''. 

O'n A'ckA^'tcimii' awA'sima''meg a'Anemimya"cawi<'tci wT'^tca'- 
wiwAg''*'. NanIgi''to'I'"^'. Cewit'nA nene''ckimegwA negyA wi'pe- 

35 'cegwa''iyan"''. O'ni na"kA k.\.bo'twe ne'g5'A 'a"nepeg''''. Ni- 
'cwapitAginyanA'nwi a'tA'swipepo'nwayan"''. Pe'ki'megu nekl- 
"cagu^'tcita"'''. Tcagi'megu neme''kwanet a'ina'ina''tcuiio''ite''''. 

O'n u"'tciwap a'wapike'tenAne'cipemenAmani niya"''. Pe'ki- 
■^tci'megu' sA'nAgAf*^''. Agwi nAna"c A'cenugini mi'ke'^tcawlwe- 

40 n"''. KAnagwA'megu" ca''cki wi'klwltag''''. "'Wana'i ke'tenA 
menwitota'wigwani negyA kiigo' wi'na'i''t6yan a'tA'ci''kawi^tc''. 
Ami'cawiwana'ni ninA mAni pwawike'kanetAma'ne' i'ci mi"ke''tca'- 
wiwen i'kwa'wiwen"'' ? AwA'sI'meg i'ciketemage'si'ka'A pwawiki- 

1 Harry Lincoln tells me the modern form is wi'A'ce'ki-; and similarly in other forms. 



MicHELSON.] AtTTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 321 

I lived outside for thirty-three days.-" 

Then soon my husband began to act dilFerently. He did not treat 
me at all the way he had done when he was acting nicely. The fact 
of the matter is that the young woman with whom I used to go 
around before I was married had been tolhng him something. ''You 
are treating her so well, but your wife formerly was the same as 
married to another man. (That is) what I know about her. 'We 
shall never stop talking to each other even if we marry other (per- 
sons),' they said to each other," she kept on telhng him. Finally he 
apparently really believed her. From that time on he began to 
treat me badly. That young woman was made jealous because he 
treated me well. That was why she kept on telling him stories. As 
for her, the men would not marry her as she was immoral. Finally 
(my husband) began to beat me.-' 

''That is why I formerly forbade you to talk to any men. That is 
why I said to you, 'You must talk only to the one whom you are to 
marry,' " my mother said to me.^* '' Finally you will make your son 
angry if you are alwaj-s having trouble with each other. Babies die 
when they become angry," ^' I was told. 

Soon, when our Uttle boy nearly knew how to talk, he became iU. 
I felt very sorrowful. Later on, indeed, he died. It is surely very 
hard to haA-e death (in the family) . One can not help feeling badly. 
''That is why I told you about it when you were both unfortunately 
frightening him," I was told. '' That is why children are not struck. 
One would feel worse if one had beaten (the child)," I was told. I 
felt worse after he was buried.^" The fourth day we fed those who 
buried him in the evening. We began to make eveiy kind of new 
finely. After we had made it, I began to tliink over the one whom 
we should adopt. I thought of all the babies. I found one as if this 
way: "This one perhaps is loved as much as I loved my baby," I 
thought. Then we adopted him, so that we in a waj^ had a son. 



And then later on (my husband) became meaner. He was lazy. 
But my mother forbade me to be divorced.'" And soon my mother 
died. I was twenty-five years old. I felt terribly. I remembered 
everything she told me from time to time. 

And from that time I really began taking care of myself. It was 
very hard. Work never ended. (A person) coidd not just stay 
around (and do notliing). ''Sm-ely my mother treated me well in 
teaching me how to make things. What would have happened to 
me if I had not known work suitable for women ? I should have been 
even poorer, if my mother had not instructed me," I thought all the 



322 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [eth. ann. 40. 

'cikegye'kimite'e ne'g''''-^'," nete'cita'e'meg A''pena''tc''. A'A'ci'A- 
"ci'toyanimegu kago'i ke'tenA'megu nena'imi'negopi wi'u'ce'kitA- 
m5"iyan°''. Oni nuiA krci"toyan a'mi'cl'wayan'''". MenS'kA'- 
mlgin ii'A'tci'gayani kiigo' a-'wiga^tcfkAman"''. Ke'tenA kinagwi 
5ki'cikegini newA''tcawA'''tca'"'. Pepoginiga" agwi kw'inAtawiwA- 
''tca'o'yanin"''. 

O'ni wI'^tca'wiwAgA' ca'cki'megu a'tA'cimya/'cawi'^tc''. Nimi- 
'etigin a'gwi wito'ka'wi'^tcini wi'mawiwapA'gayan""'. KAbo'- 
twan"'', "Na'i', awa'^tci ne'gyA a'ki'ci"A'"cenu'^tci netA'cimAnA- 

lOketema'gi'eg'^'^*'. I'cegii" winaiyowe negy a'nane'ckimi'^tci wi'pe- 
'cegwa"iyani wa'''tci mA'nA tA"ciketema'gi'i''tc''. Agwigii'wi'nA 
menwane'niAgin"''. Inugigii" win awit u'wIyii'A ne'cki'mi's*'. 
KutAgaiyowega" ninA miinwa'nemAg'''^'. WinAga' nene'cki'na- 
wa"-^V' nete'cita'®". Kl'kl'kimegon a'wapiwapAgayani nimi'e'- 

15tlgin°'". Pe'kimego'n a'ke'tca'k\va''tc''. " InAga'yatuge wi'nawA- 
^tci wa''tci ki'ki'ke"siyAn itepi wi"aiyAn°'V' a'i'ci'^tc''. "NetA- 
gawanawAku" wi'nawAg'''V' netenawape. NAtawa''tc a'wapimaml- 
we''ci'wAg''''. 

"KutAgAgi nAtawi'uwiwinu mii'kwate'sitcig'''". Ag^vima' mAiii 

20nAna"ci wi'kA'ckimenwiwI''tcawitiyAgwin''''. Aya'ciku''tci mA'kwa- 
"*tci tA'ciwI'^tcawinani kewiipimya'ca''"''. Me'^tci'waga" nInA nete- 
'cita'e ■v\a'wi'*tcawinan"''. I'cema' neta'cimegSp''. Klyawi wi- 
'menwitota'wiyAniga'yatuge wa"*tci a'"ciinig agwiga" ketemagi'i- 
yAn"''. Ini'^tca' wI'u'^tcipe'cegwa'iyAg''"'"''. KrnrigwA''tca'megu. 

25Menwawi"kApA ku^'tci wi'a'pe'^tciwI'^tcawitiyAgw i"cita"ayAn'"'". 
MA'kwa^'tcima" nirke''tca'wi"kApA wi'pwawiketemage'siyAg''''®'. 
Ninaiyo ini pya''tci'ca'wiyani keke'kanem™''. MA'kwa''tci nemaml- 
'ke''tca''''. Ka'oni kl'nA pine'ci'megu a'wapikj^a'wayAn"''. Agwi- 
ga'nln u'wiya'A kAkAnoneti'yanini ne"ki kl'ciwI'^tca'witiyAg''''^'. 

30 Inugi''tca' mAiii mamA'ka'^tci'megu kl'pe'ceg\va''ipen°*'," netena"*'. 

"Ke'ten ini wi'p5ni''tca'ini'ca™''. Krwapimenwi'toten'"''. Na'kA 

m'mami''ke''tca'^'". A'gwi wi'na'i'anomiyAnini kago' a'ci'yAnin"''. 

Aiyo' ■u''^tciwapi kinA'megu ki'wawanetA wi'Anemi'cawiyAg'"'''",'' 

neteg''''*". "IvAnagwA'megu, ag^vi'megu wi'pA'citapwa'tonanin 

35aiyIgwamitA"cimenwa''tcimoyAn A'sami kenwa'ci kepyii'^tcikete- 
magi'i," ne'tena'^'^'. Agwi'ku' kA'cke'ci''wAgin°''. A"na'g%vaiyan 
a'pya'^tcime'ceni'^tc''. "Tapwa'tawin""'," neteg'"''''. "Agwi-'tca'- 
'megu," netena"^*'. NetA'cike'tenegwA'megu. "Ag\vi neguta" 
wI'aiyAn"''," neteg''''*'. A'ke'tcimaiyoyan on a'pAgi"seni''tc''. 

40 Ne'ci'sa' a'uwigiwa'^tc a"aiyan lya' In a'nepai'yanin"''. WapA- 
gini ne'ci'sa'*", "Nemanige kepya'^tcinepawipen'"^'. Kago'megu 
kete'ca"^''," neteg''**'. "Pe'kiku" nemya'citotagwA wl'^tca'wi- 
WAg''*". Ini'^tca' a'cagwane'moyan"''," ne'tena'''''. "Me'sotawima' 
keke'kanemegop a'ketemagi'e'k*'. Agwi'^tca' u'wIya'A wi'anwa- 



MicHELSON.] AUTOBIOGEAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 323 

while. Wlienever I made anything I surely was given clothing to 
wear in exchange. And when I made something, I gave it away. In 
the spring when I planted anything I attended to it carefully. Surely 
I cooked it when it grew. In winter I did not lack things to cook 



And my husband did nothing but act meanly. When there was a 
dance he would not allow me to go and see it. Soon I thought, 
"Well, now that my mother has gone, this fellow treats me meanly. 
It was because my mother forbade me to become a divorcee that (I 
allowed) this fellow to iU-treat me. Besides I do not love him. Now 
no one would scold me. And I love the other one. I hate this one." 
I began to see dances in spite (of what he had said) . He was fearfully 
angry. " It's because you may see that man is why you are perverse 
in going there," he said to me. "I want to see him," I would say to 
him. I began to chase him away. 



"You may marry other (women) who are ciuiet (i. e., moral). We 
shall never be able to live nicely together. While I was living 
ciuietly (i. e., morally) with you, you began to act badly. And it was 
not my idea to live with you. It was because I was told. I suppose 
I was permitted so that you would treat me well and not abuse me. 
So now we will be divorced. You must go. You could have behaved 
nicely if you had wished us to live together always. You might have 
been working quietly so that we should not be poor. You know how 
I have been doing. I have been working quietly. And you without 
reason began to be jealous. I have not talked to any one as long as 
we have been living together. But now we must surely be divorced," 
I said to him. 

"Truly from now on I shall stop acting that way. I shall begin to 
treat you nicely. And I shall work diligently. I shall not be able 
to refuse what you ask me. From now on you shall have control of 
what we shall continue to do," he said to me. "No, I shall not 
believe you though you may do your best to speak nicely. You have 
iU-treated me too long," I said to him. I was not able to chase him 
away. As I was leaving he came and seized me. "Believe me," he 
said to me. "No, indeed," I said to him. He held me there. " You 
are not going off any place," he said to me. I cried bitterly and he 
let me go. 

I went where my uncle (mother's brother) lived and slept there. ^- 
The next day my uncle said to me, " It is strange that you came and 
slept with us. Something has happened to you." "My husband 
treats me very badly. That is why I was unwilling (to keep on living 
with him)," I said to him. "It is known broadcast that he abuses 



324 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [kth. ANN. 40. 

neme'kini ■fta'pe'ceg^a''iyAn a'cita'a'wAnan"'". Ninaiyo win a'gwi 
wi'ne'ckime'nanin°''. Wi'tcawA"pi'tciku''tci'megumenwit6'tatIg i"ci- 
genw a.'wl''tcawi'tigin°'". Ninaiyo mAnA wI''tca'wiwAgA nemen- 
wito'tawa"*', wi'nA na"kA nemenwitotag'^"'*'. A'pena'^tci'megu 
5newA'''tca'eg\vA mi'ke'^tcawlyanin°''. "O' kAbo'twe mya"cit5tawAg 
aya'citA'cimenwitotawi'^tci na''k aya'cimA'k:wa''tcikiwIta'*tci kago" 
i"ciwapinAn6''tcikyawayan''®", awitA menwanetA'mowa'sA tclna- 
wamatcig''''. Ke'tenaiyuge nl'nA mya"cawi'ka'*'. PAgi'cit awitA'- 
megu uwi'yaAni ne'cldmegu'sA tcinawa'ma''tci''". NinAga' wAni- 

lOnawe tA'citapanemina''^'. Mame'ci'k aiyo'megu awitA na'kA 
me'kawiyaga' in amicLmenwawigwan"*'. Ke'ten inami'ta'i petcgi'- 
meg a'pe^'tcinAtawanemAg I'niyA manwawit*'. Kwaiya'ciyuga' 
krcine'ckinawa/'iyiiga''^'. NinA''tca''megu ne'ci'kA tA'cinene- 
'kanemryaga'-^'. Ke'tena'i wi'nAga' awitA tA'cinene'kanemi's*'. 

15Kl'cagu''tci'megu ne'cki'nawi's^"/' netegwA ne'ci'sa'-^". "Na'i', 
ne'cem""', pe'ki'megu mA'nin a'kwiminawipe'se'cayAn a'kl'ci'A'pi- 
'tcigiyAn"''," i" ii'i'ci'^tc''. "KawAgi ku"'tci kenene'kanctapetuge 
ke'gyA a'ina"ina''tcimo'enugwan°''. Wawirsa'i''tca'i kl'wapiwawAne- 
'cka''\ MA"kwa''tci''tca''megu wapAml'yagApA neniwAg''"'. 'MA'nA 

20magwa' amimenwito'tawitA',' a'inanemawAtanA''tca' I'nA na"k 
ami'unapa'miyAn"'^'. WAnimo'^tc inA menwitoto'k"^', mA'kwa''tci'- 
megu ki'tA'ciwI''tca'wiwa"'*'. Ka'tA na'"k^v kutAgA nAtawiineml'- 
yagAn"'". Ag\\'iku' ayigi menwikegini manenwi wl'unapamiyagw 
a'i'kwawiyag'''^'''. TatA'"cimap i'kwaw in a''cawi''tc''. Me'to'^tc 

25a"peme'cit6''tci neni**'. Ini, ne'cem"'', a'inane'menani wi'i'ca'- 
wiyAn"''. A'ki'ci'A'cenu'^tci ke'gyA wa"*tc aiya''tcimo"enani ninA 
tatAg a'ke'kanetAmo'"iyan°'". Na'kA mA'n iniigi pe'cegwa"iyAne 
kAna'i negutawa'ine ni'cwawa'inega' ca'cki kilviwita'kAp*'. Ca''cki 
tA'ci mamike''tca'wi'kAp*'. Me'cenA''tca" inina" unapa'mi'kAp'*'," 

SOnetegwA ne'ci'sa''^'. 

Ini'^tca'meg a'pe"cegwa"iyan°''. Ku^'tc A'pena'^tci'megu neku- 
''tci'kagWA' cewa'n ag\vi'megu pA'ciwatiiwi wi'nayapike'ca'<'tci- 
'Ag''''. Pe'ki'megu nene'ckinawa'''^'. 

On iniyA aya'ea'cke'si"iyani kakAnone'tiyaiiA kAbo'tw u'wiwAn 

35a'nepeni'*tc''. Negutawa'ine ki'cipe'cegwa''iyani ki'cipani''tci na'kan 
a'w!ipi'kawi''tc''. KutAgAgi wi'nA mane'megu netA'cI'kagogi' 
cewa'n a'gwi kAkAnoneti'Agin"''. Ka'on inA kAbo'tw a'wapikAkA- 
nonetiAgi neki'ciyuga'ane'ka'tipenaya'A'ckigiyag'"^'. 'O'ni kAbo'tw 
a'nanAtu'tawi'^tci wa'^tcipe'cegwa'iwanan"'". A'a''tciino"Agi nanagA- 

40 "^tci'meg ii'ca'wiyan"''. 

"Pe'ki ni'kA! NAn5tanemenowAgwan°'\ ApinAga' mo''tcLma' 
unapamiwAne'megu keponina'wTin"'''. Nawunanega' mo'tc awitA 
kA'ckimA'^tcinonAga'A kiigo'i wi'inenan'^'". Mama"^tcigiyu'meg 
a'^tci'mi'kAp*'. Kete'cawi tatAg a'unapamiyAn"''. Napi ninaiyowe 



MICHELSON.] AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 325 

you. No one will reproach you if you think of being divorced. I 
myself will not scold you. It is a rule that a mai-ried couple should 
alike treat each other well. As for me, I treat the one with whom I 
live (i. e., wife) well and she treats me well. She always cooks for me 
when I am working. And if I were suddenly to treat hor badly while 
she was still treating me well and while she was still living morally, 
were I to become jealous over sometliing without reason, her relatives 
would not hke it. For I surely would bo doing wrong. If she cast 
nae off none of her relatives would scold her. Every one, all over, 
would be glad of what happened to me. Certainly I should not find 
one (woman) who behaved as well. Surely I should always want 
back the one who behaved well. (But) I might have angered her. 
I alone should be thinking of her. Surely she would not think of me. 
She would hate me as much as possible," my uncle said to me. '' Well, 
my niece (sister's daughter), now you are of sufficient age to hsten 
attentively," he said to me. "You probably still think of what 
your mother told you. You may fooHslily begin to be immoral.^' 
You should look at men cjuietly (i. e., without an immoral purpose). 
Whomever you think ■wiU treat you well is the one whom you should 
take for your husband. If he happens to treat you well, you should 
hve cjuietly ■with him. Do not again desire another (husband) . For 
it also is not right for you women to have many husbands. A woman 
who does that is gossiped about a good deal. It is the same as if she 
goes from man to man. That, my niece, is what I want you to do. 
Because your mother is gone is why I teU you as I understand it. 
And if you are now divorced you should stay (single) for at least one 
or two years. You should just be working dihgently. Then you 
might marry that one," my uncle said to me. 



And so I became divorced. Of coui'se (my former husband) was 
always trying to get me, but I could not be kind again to him. I 
hated him tremendously. 

And the wife of the (man) with whom I talked when I was still a 
virgin died. After I had been divorced for one year and he had 
become a widower free from death-customs,^^ he again began to 
(court) me. Of course others courted me but I did not talk to them. 
And soon I began talking with him, for we were already acquainted 
with each other while we were young. And soon he asked me why 
I became divorced. I told him exactly how it was that I became 
divorced. 

' ' Well ! He was entirely wrong in what he thought of us. I ceased 
seeing you when j^ou were married. Even if I had seen you I should 
not have been able to screw up my courage to say anything to you. 
You surely would have reported me. You acted that way when you 



326 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [eih. anx. 40. 

kA'ckimenane' awitA na'ine'se'nAga'*'. Inugi wi'nani w-rAnwa- 
••tciyAne kina'n I'ni wi'i'cawiyAg''''"'",'' neteg''^^'. "I'ceyatuge 
na'kA kl'nA wI'nane'ci'yAni wa'^tci tA'crka'wiyAn"'','' ne'tena'^'^'. 
"KA'cinagwA ke'senwiyapi kenotag iniyA wI'^tcawiwAg a''pAgA- 
SmAg''''? A'gwi mo"tci negutenwi pAgAmAgin"''. Agwi na'ine- 
'ckimAgin""''. Nani'mlwA na'"kA nimi'eti'nigin aya'pwawiwapi- 
kiwa'kwAmAtAg''''. Ini^'tcfi'megu kinA na''k amito'tonan""'. 
WrnanimiyAnigii' i'cita'"ayAne nani'mi'kAp*". I'cema' i'cigi'etlpi 
winanlmig''''. Agwigii" InAma' ke'kiinemAgin u'wiyii'A wI'tA'ci- 

lO'uwiwetl'^tc''. Taniyatug ami'ca'wi''tci wi'ml'ketl''tciga' maniiwAgi- 
yuga' me'to'sane'niwAg'''"? AwitA ''tca"megu pAnapAinena' u'wiya' 
In a'tA'cimrketit^'. NinA 'wanape' a'cita'"ayan°''. Anwa^tciyAne- 
''tca' ini'megu ki'i'ca'wipen"'^". KetAgawanene wT'Anwa/'tciyAni 
pe'ki'megu. A'pena'^tc'', 'tanina'i wi'^tca'wiwAg'^®',' nete'ci'ta'^'," 

ISneteg'''^-^'. " O me'ce wI'nA negutawa'inAgA'k aiyo'u'^tc Anwa'^tci'- 
"ka'-^', inugi win a'g'"''','' i^^ a'inAg''''. Ca'ck In aiyA'ckA'^tc 
a' kAkAnonetlyag'"'' . 

IniyAgii' ka'tAwI'^tcawiwAg agwi'megu pawanemu^'tcin"'". 
A'penil'^tci'megu neku'^tcl'kag'"^^". Cewji'n agwamegu pA'ciwittiiwi 

20wi'nayapike'cata'nemAg''''. KA'ci nene'ckinawa'egwA kwaiya'c 
a'mya'citota'wi'^tcin"''. Pe'ld''tca"megu nene'ckinawa'*'*'. 

Ini kAbotw a'pj'ii'^tci'sagi na'ina' a'ke'kA'AinawAgi wi'wi''tcawi- 
tiyag''^". A'na'AVTitlyag'"'", " KA'cI'niyapi na'ina'i yowe ke'kA- 
'AmawI'yAni wI'Anwa'^tciyAn''''. Inugi'^tca" pe'kutagi katA wl- 

25 "ciga'ko'AgAni ketA'clcwiitamwa'^''. Itep Ini w^i'pyanutonan"'" ?" 
neteg''*'*'. Inin a'cawiyan°''. A'pya'^tc''. Na'"kA me"cena'"megu 
tcAtcAwi'i neguta'"nepa'w A'te'tci wigi'yapegi tcmawa'nia''tci" 
a'awini^'tc'". Nl'nA na''kA me'cemeg5'na'i nekaklwipitiga'wawAg''''. 
Agwimegu na'imya'ci'mi''tcin"''. Pe'ki'*tca''megu nekfcagu'^tcite'- 

SOpana"'"*. IniyAga' mene'"tA wI'^tca'wiwAgA pe'ki'megu milme'sA'- 
te'sl"*'. I'ni'^tca' wa^'tci ne'ckinawAg''''. 

Oni kutAgA kl'ciwi''tcaViwAgi pe'ki'megu nemenwipema'te's''. 
Nlmi'etigin"'', "Mawiniminu'. Mamane'cimigigii' pwawi'iya'nagu'- 
'siyAn a'tA'nA'kig''''," netegwA'megu. '" Kyaw a tug ''''',' i'cigigii'. 

35 Nemane'cita' I'ni wl'i'cig'''"." netegwape'®". "Mi'cate'sinu'," 
netegwape'e'. 

KAbo'twape'^' ca'"ck a'tA'cikAkAnonetiyag''^", "I'cipwawinl'kai- 
yowe nInA kA'ckimeno'wanani mene'tAga'wI'naiyo kina'nA kekA- 
IvAnone'tlpen"'''," neteg"""*'. "KA'cina'gwA," In a''inAg'''', "agwi'- 
40ku''tci wawananeti'so'yanini ne'gy aya'pemate'si'^tc'. KAbo'twe 
ku'^tciyo'we neke'kii'nemegop a'kAkAnonetI''enan°''. A'tAnwawa- 
mig a'ne"cldmig'''', 'ku'tAgAni ki'u'napam""'',' a''icig'''". InA<^tca" 
mA''tca"wa'In''*'. Keya'ApA nuiAga' wawananeti'"soyan awit I'iia 
k.'i.'cki'unapa'mi'ka"'^'. Wrcawi'megu ki'nA kA'cki'mi'kApA kekl- 



MICHELSON.] AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 327 

were married. If I had persuaded you (to marry me) at the time, 
I should not have beaten you. Now you must be willing for us to 
do that," he said to me. "I suppose you too will beat me, that is 
why you are courting me," I said to him. "Why, how often have 
you heard of me striking the one with whom I was living ? I never 
struck her even once. Nor did I scold her. She danced vigorously 
at dances also before she became ill. That is how I should treat 
you too. You might dance vigorously if you felt like dancing vigor- 
ously. To dance vigorously is natural. I do not know of any one 
being married (at the dances). How, pray, could any one act in a 
courting way as there would be many people ? No one would fail to 
be seen if he courted there. I should think that way myself. If 
you are willing we shall do that. I want you to consent very much. 
I have always thought, 'I wish I might live with her,'" he said to 
me. "Well, I might consent in a year, but not now," I said to him. 
For a long time we were merely talking with each other. 

The one with whom I formerly lived never gave up. He always 
tried to court me. But I could not think kindly of him again. For 
he had angered me as he already had treated me badly. I hated 
him thoroughly. 

Soon the time came which I had set for us to live together. When 
we saw each other, he said to me, "Well, at last it is the time you 
set for your consent. To-night at night do not latch your door 
firmly. I shall come to you." That is what I did. He came. 
And sometimes he would sleep far off in a wickiup where his relatives 
lived. And at any time I went and visited my relatives. He never 
spoke crossly to me. So I loved him dearly. The other one, the 
one with whom I first lived, was sensual. That is wliv I hated him. 



And after I married the other one I was so well. When there was 
a dance, he said to me, "Go and dance. I should be made ashamed 
by their talk if you were not seen when something is going on. 
'He is probably jealous,' is what they would say of me. I am 
ashamed to have that said of me," he would say to me. "Clothe 
yourself in fine apparel," he would also say to me. 

And soon when we were talking together, he said to me, "I Avish 
I had been able to persuade you long ago, for we first talked with 
each other." "Well," I said to him, "I was not master of my own 
person while my mother was yet living. They soon found out that 
I was talking with you. I was scolded and I was told, 'you must 
marry the other fellow.' It was that good-for-nothing. The fact is 
that had I been master of myself, I couldn't have married him. 
Perhaps you might have persuaded me, for I had already become 



328 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [eth. ANN. 40 

'ciku'^tcimeguydwe'A'ne'kon""^'. A"pena'"*tci kii'^tci winA'megu 
kenene'kii 'nemen A''kwiya" A'cki''tca'. A'ckiponikAkAnoneti"enani 
nekiwa'te's'V' ne'tena"*'. "Na'i, me'ce'na'i keki'ciku'^tcimAni- 
menwi'ute'te'netlpen"'^'," in a'ci'^tc'". Ka'ci pe'ki'megu mame'- 
Snowa""^". Me'ccna''megu ni'cwawa'ine nepya'^tciwi'^tcawiwa^*'. 
NinAga" a'ckAmi'megu netAnemi'A'pI'tcite'panawA a'menwito'tawi- 
•^tc'". 

KAbo'twe na"kA netuni'^tcanesa"ipen°-*', i'ckwa"sa''^", cewa'nA 
nyiiwi ki'ce'swAge'si''tci ne'po'I^'^'. NAta\va'''tcin a'me'na'igi nata'- 

lOwimoni wi'pwawina'kjv'uni''tcane'siyaii a'a"kowinep6"iwa'*tci wani- 
^tcane"sl'yanm°'". 

Agwi'megu iiAna'ci nota'wAgini wI'^tca'wiwAgA wT'mya'nowa'^tc''. 
Mo'tci'megi tepe'k a'cawA'cawAno'wini''tc'', "Naniminu'," nete- 
gwA'megu. "KA'ci pe'ki'megu neme'"kawawA nenl'^'^V' nete- 

15'cita'"^'. "Aniwawi'megu niA'nanugi kAbo'twe pA'gi'cite kiwi- 
'kawi'yaga'A'megu," nete'cita'"'. Kenwa'ci neguta' a'ya''tcmi 
nekwi'noma'^'^'. "O'ni, "Na'i', neta'pi'egwA mA'n a'menwitotawi- 
''tc'', nete'cita"^'. A'wapi'A'ci'A'ci'tawAg umi'cate''siwen'''', uma- 
'ke"sa'An°'', umate'ta'An"'', upl"se'ka''', uka'kika'pi'a''', uta- 

20"cowanegwA'ata'''. Tcagimegu kag5'i mi'cate"siweni ki'ci'tawA'- 
gin°'', "Ma'Aiii ki'ci'to'nanin ii'pi'tcitapi'i'yAni ne"ki wi'^tca'- 
winan a'p^va^v^nAna'cikago'i'cimya'cina^va"iyAn'''". 'KinAga" wi- 
'nam'miyAn"'',' a'inane'menan"''. Wa'^'tc A'ci"tonan°''." "Pe- 
'Id'megu keta'pi'"'. Ini'meg a''cimig a'aiya'^tci'mo'ig'^''. 'Wl- 

25 ''tca'wiwAt i'kwa'wA menwagome'ke menwitd'tawAte Ivi'nAku' 
ayigi ki'nAna'i'kagwA ne'pwa'kat®'. WawAne'cka'ite' win a'gwi wi- 
"tapi"A''tcin°''; ca'cki'megu wl'ketemagi'e'ki \\a'i'ci'ta'a'"^',' ne'- 
tegop''. Inugi^'tca' mAn i'ni nena't a'witA'mawig''''," neteg'^''*". 

A'kwiya'meg5ni pe'ki nuiA'meg a'wawanane'tAmani kago''". Na- 
30 "i'ci'cawaiyu'gii'i mane'megu pyanaw uwiya' a'ci"ca'*tcin°''. 
Agwi'^tca'megu na'i'AgawatAmagini mena''ckunon a'na'i''ci'ca'^tc''. 
InAmegon a'yitnlw a'tA'ci'unapa'miyan""'. Manwawa'ine'megu 
netu'napam"''. KAbo'twani tawa''igAn a''pyane''tc''. Pa'pegwA 
na''k*', "PitigayAgwe wlnana'i tiiwa'igAnegi tAgwiyAgwe mAma- 
35 tomo'kAgo''^'," a"i'ci''tc''. Me'cemegS'na'i nekiwi'ca'wipen"'^'. 
Agw'ini ego 'na'i pA'cikl'winene'lcanetA'manini pe'cegwa''iwen a'pi- 
'tci'tatAgimenwa'gomAg'"'. 

KAbo'twitn a'wapi'a'kwA'a'kwA'mAtAg''''. Pe'ki'megu neka'twa'- 
nema'^'^'. Neki'cagu'*tcita'e'megu. KAbo'twani pe'ki'meg a'wapi- 
40 ane'ane'me'si''tc''. Wawu'sa''megu ne'maiyo a'kl'eagutanemAg''''. 
'O'n a"nepeg''''. KAbo'twe pe'ki'megu neki'cagu'te's''. Nine'sA'n 
in a'pene'cke'uAman a'pene'ckane'kwa'noyan"''. Manuguni'meg 
A'pin a'gwi kA'ckinepai'yanin a'ka"tu'si'yanin°''. NyawugunagA'- 



MICHELSON.] AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 329 

acquainted with you. For I was always thinking of you, especially 
at first. \Mien I first stopped talking to you I was lonely," I said 
to him. '"Well, let it be, for we have each other nicely at last," he 
said to me. My, but he talked so nicely. I had been living with 
him for two years. I continued to love him more and more as he 
treated me well. 

Soon we had another child, a little girl, but it died after it was four 
months old. Then they had me drink medicine so that I woTold not 
have a child again as they died when I had them. 

I never heard my husband speak crossly. Even when there were 
Shawnee dances ^' at night, he said to me, "Have a fine time dancing." 
"Well, I have surely found a man," I thought. "If this (man) were 
to cast me off to-day, I should tag after him anyhow," I thought. 
When he went to any place for a long time, I yearned for him. And 
I thought, "He has made me happy by treating me well. Then I 
began to make things for him, his finery, his moccasins, his leggings, 
his shirt, his garters, his cross-belt.^" After I had made finery of 
every kind for him, (I said), "These are what I have made for you 
as you have made me happy as long as I have lived with you, (and) 
because you have never made me angry in any way. 'You must 
dance vigorously,' I thought. That is why I made them for you." 
"You please me very much. That is how I was told when given 
instructions. 'If you live with a woman, if she likes the way you 
act and you treat her well, she will also care for you if she is intelli- 
gent. If she is immoral, you will not please her; she will only think 
of treating you meanly,' I was told. Now I see what I was told," he 
said to me. 

I had more and more charge over everything. It seems as if he 
was a good hunter, for he brought in much game when he went 
hunting. So we never were in want of meat, as he knew how to 
hunt. I was rightly married to him. I was married to him a good 
many years. Soon a drum was brought.^^ And suddenly he said to 
me, "If we join in (the ceremony of that) drimi we might be wor- 
shipping." We were just about doing it. I did not even think of 
divorce as I liked his ways so much. 

Soon he fell ill. I felt very sorry for him. I felt terribly. Soon 
he became sicker and sicker. I cried in vain, as I felt so badly about 
him. And he died.^* Soon it was terrible for me. I undid my hair 
and loosened it. For several nights I could not sleep as I was sorrow- 
ful. On the fourth day I called the men. "You are to divide all 
3599°— 25t 22 



330 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [eth. ann. 40. 

'kin ii'nA'tomAgi ne'niwAg''''. "NetaVIe'iiienanAni ma'Ani ki- 
'tcaginlgA'A'matlp'"*'," a'"inAgi tcinawa'mAgigi ne'niwAg'''". Ka- 
'o'n a'pya''tcipena"a'kw^a'wiwa^tci nenapaniA'niydwe tcinawa'- 
matcig i''kwawAg''''. Na"kA ku'tAgAni pya'towAgi wfu'ce'kitA'- 
5manin°''. A'mA'kAtawI'ce'kl'tAman"''. KAbo'twe na'"kan i'ni- 
yiigA neniwAgi tcInawamAgigi mi'nAgigi netawi'eme'nanAn a'pya- 
towa'^tci wl'se'niweni tcagimegu ktigo'a'''. I'kwiiwano'kyanitAgwi 
pya'towAg''''. 'O'ni na''kA ninan I'nyagA pya'^tcipena'akwawitcig 
a'mawi'a''tci'ino'Agi ■wi'na'towa'^tc I'ni wi'se'niwen"''. Pe'ki'meg 

lOa'ki'cagu'^tciketeniagita'''". NeinA''kAta'^''. KAbotwemegape'e 
nepemiwapu's A'te'tc a'mawitA'cimai'yoyan"'', peno''tciina''megu 
wi'pwawike'ka'nemig'''', "Nane'ciwiwi'nan i'cika"tu''sltuge me'to- 
■^tci tcinawamatug'^*','' wl'pwawi'i'cig''''. Na''k ApinA'megu 
nenanl'gi'to'''. Ca'cki'megu ^\'i'cegi'cegi''cinani nemAta'gwanet*'. 

ISNenanep a'kiwa'te'siyan"''. 

KAbo'twan i'nij^A ne'ci'sii" a'notagateyatug'"''. "Pe'ki'megu 
myano'we'slw una'pamAn a'ne'peni'^tc''. KutAgi'meg i"cawl''*". 
Inugi me'to^'tci'meg a'kvvA'mAtAm''^','' a'ine'tagat^'. A'pyanu'- 
tawi^'tc''. "A'pya'*tciwapA'menan'''', ne'cem""'', a'kwAmA'tAgin"''. 

20 Pe'ki'megu ke'nawi's*"," nete'g''''*'. "A'gwi," netcna"*'. "Kepya- 
''tciku'a''tcimo"ene wi'i'ca'wiyAn"''. Keke'kii'ncmen pepe'seta'- 
wiyAn ini na''ina' a'pe'cegwa''iyAn a'ciwitA'monan"''. A'tapwa- 
'ta'wiyAn inimegu ke'ten a'i'ca'wiyAn a'ci'menan"''. Pe'ki'megu 
kemenwinawa'"'. ^Lvni^'tca' wI'i'ca'wiyAii"'', nc'ccm"''. Ka't 

25A'sami kvve'kwawi 'a'pe'^tcinene'kaneml'yilgAni ku'cku'clrw-atotap''. 
I'ni wi'i'cawigi kl'pene wi'pamAt Ina'pA'waiyAn""^'. MamaiyA'- 
megu ki'ponime'to'sa'neni"''. Ini'^tca" wa^'tci ne'ckitig Ini wT'i'- 
'cawig''''. Ca'cki'ku'i ka'tu'siyAne \\a"^tca'wiwAt Inugi' mAn a'clga'- 
wiyAn"'', awitA kago" anA'ki'wigin Itepi''a"kAp'^"," a"i'ci''tc''. 

30"Na''kA ka't Aniwetuna'mo'kAn"'', na''kA ka'tA na'i'ApA'ApAna'- 
ni'kAn a'pi'tci'cIga'wiyAn"'". Ca'cki'megu kiigo' ki'A'ci'A'ci"tu 
mA'kwa'^tc''. A'gwi wI'AniwAtawapi'yAnin"''. Miigwa" a'pwawi- 
wIga''siyAni ka'kAmi'meg a'pwawI'yatuge'a''tci'mo'e'k u'wIya'A 
wI'i'ca'wiyAn a'cki'megunepegi wI'^tca'wiwAt'^'. Ninaiyo netu'- 

35 tAme's inina'i wa'^tci pwawipyaiyani wl'a'^tcimo'enane'e wI'i'ca'- 
wiyAn"''. MAniga' I'n a'ca'wiwa'^tc a'ne'peni''tci wl^'tcawiwa'^tci'''. 
Na''ina' a"mawipita''ome''tci wi'^tca'wawAg iya' pyane'^tcin"''. 
Wa'nAgug A'kwi''tci kl'ci'A''se''tcin Inigi tcI'paiyAg a'wiipikAkA- 
none'^tc''. Kl'cikAkAnone^tcini mene''tA tclnawa'matcig a'wiipipA- 

40gi"senAnawawa''tc a'ku'nawAn"'', o'ni ku'tAgAg a'kowi. Me'cena'i 
kl"citcagipAgi'senAmawawa''tcini mawA''tca'kowIni wi'^tcawiwatcig 
a'pAgi'seuAmawawa'^tc''. Tetepu''sawAg a"A'pini''tc''. 'O'ni wiita'- 
pAnig a'i'ciwapu'"sawa'*tc''. Me'cemegona' Anemi'awAgi nawi'sA- 
'sAgAn^*^'. A'po'si'megu'sA'sAgA'nigini 'Anemina'kwi'^tcinog''''. 

45A'gwiga' pete'g inapi'wa^tcini uAna'c''. Petegigii'i na'piwate 



MICHKLSON.] AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 331 

these possessions of ours among you," I said to my male relatives. 
And then the female relatives of my dead husband came to comb my 
hair. And they brought other garments for me to wear. I wore 
black clothing. And soon those male relatives of mine to whom I had 
given our possessions brought food of every kind. The women 
brought all things which women raise. I went over to those (women) 
who had combed my hair and told them to take that food. I felt as 
wretched as possible. I was fasting. Soon I would walk far oft' to 
cry, it was far off so that it would not be known, (and) so that it 
should not be said about me, " Heavens ! she must be very sorry, even 
as if she were related to him." And I became lazy. I only wanted 
to lie down. I kept on sleeping as I was lonely. 



That uncle (mother's brother) mentioned before probably heard 
about it. "She is very poorly since her husband died. She acts 
differently (from what she did formerly). To-day she is as if sick," 
is what he heard. He came to me. "I have come to see, my niece 
(sister's daughter), whether you are sick. You are losing much 
weight," he said to me. ''No," I said to him. "I have come to 
instruct you as to what you should do. I know that you listened to 
what I told you Avhen you were divorced. As you believed me you 
did exactly as I told you. You have made me very happy. Now this 
is what you are to do, my niece. Do not think so very much of him all 
the time, for it is dangerous to do that. That will happen to you if 
you dream that you are sleeping with him. You will cease to live 
very soon. That is why it is forbidden to do that. If you are sorry 
for your husband while still bound by death ceremonies, you would 
not go where something is going on," he said to me. "And do not 
talk much, and do not laugh as long as you are bound by death cere- 
monies. You must be merely always quietly making something. 
Nor must j-ou look around too much. Perhaps it was because you 
were not careful that no one straightway instructed you what you 
should do when your husband first died. I myself was busy at the 
time; that is why I did not come and instruct you what you should do. 
This is what is (supposed to be) done when one's husbands (wives) 
die. When they are taken to be buried (those surviving) accompany 
them when the (dead) are brought there. After they are placed on 
top of the hole, they begin to speak to those ghosts. After they have 
spoken to them, first the relatives (of the dead) begin to throw 
tobacco for them, then others afterwards. After all have offered 
tobacco to them, then last of all the husbands (wives) offer tobacco to 
them. They walk around in a circle where the (dead) is. Then they 
walk toward the East. They continue to go any place in the brush. 
They go through very thick brush. They are never to lonk backward. 



332 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [eth. axn. 40. 

mamaiyA' nepo''iwa's*'. Peno''tcimeg6n a'mawiu''tciku''kiwa''tc 
aiyapAm a"awa'*tc'". I'n a'ca'wiwa''tc''. Agwiyu'magwa' in 
i'cawi'yAnini kinA In ane'ta'gayan"'",'' netegw'A ne"ci'sa'-*'. 



"Agv/iku' ke'kanetAmanini'yatug a'i'cike'ge'*''. A'gwi ku'^tci 

5nInA na'inota'wAgini negy aya'na'sa'^tc a'cawi'nigwiini' cigawi'- 

ni''tci''". Ini^'tcaVa^tci pwawike'kanetAman a'cawiwenigwan"''. 

A'gw ite'p i'ai'yanin a'pi'tA'u'^tc''. Aiy6'"megu ne'tawi wigi'- 

yapeg'^'V' ne'tenawA nc'ci'sa'*'. 

"MAni ku^'tc ini wa'^^tc i'ca'wiwa'^tc'', wi'wAnipa''awa''tci 
lOnoganawAn"'', a'sA'sA'gAnigi ■\va''tci klklyu'siiwa'*tc'V' in a'i'ci- 
■^tc"'. " Ini'^tca'ya'ApA wii'^tci po'sita/'ilj^An"'". Inigii' i'cawi'yAne" 
ana'^tcimo'enan inug awit in i'ca'wi'kAp'*'. Na'k A'pena'^tci'megu 
wi'seni'yAnin A'"ckutagi kl'A'"tawa'^*'. KatA'megu nAna'ci WAni'- 
"ka'kAn a'pi'tcipwawikl'cipA'gine'^tci ne'ki'megu' cigawi'wAnan"''. 
15 1'ni wi'i'ca'wiyAn"'','' netegwA ne'ci'sa'*'. "Na' ini. Na'kA'^tca' 
kAbo'twe ki'pya^'tchvi'tAmSn""^','' in a'i'ci''tc''. A"nag^va'*tc''. 

"Oni'^tca' A'pena'^tci'megu wi'seni'yanin A"ckutag a'A"tawAgi 
wi'^tc'a'wiwAg''*'. Na"kA neku'^tcawi'megu ■wi'poni'a'pe''tcinene- 
"ka'nemAg a'ku''tAmani wi'ne'pcyani ma'mai^'^'. 

20 A'ckA^'tc ini kAtawipAgita'pip a'ine'ta'gayani ke'tenana'i kAbo'- 
twe nepya'^tcinAto'mcgop''. lya' ifpyaiyani ma'nawAgi neno'- 
tawAg*"". Ina'ka' iya' a'plti'gayan ina'tci wa'ce'ki''etcigi tA'ci- 
'senyawAg""''. A'A''cAmigi miime'^tcina'' tatAg a'nawA''tciwi'pu'- 
tiyage wi^'tca'wiwAgi'ciwap a'peno'e'^tc''. Ki'ci'seniya'nin"'', "Ke- 

25 tenAnii ketu'ce'ki'tagAn"''," a''i'cig''''. KutAgA' nin ii'cki'kegin a'wa- 
pinAna'e'ckawig'''', na''k a'pena'a''kwa'igi na''k ii'ke'si'gwanig'^''. 
'0'ni''tca', "Na'i', ka'tA penina'wi'kAn'"'. Ini'mcgu ki'kiwi'i'ci- 
"ce'kif^'. Ki'wapimi'ca'te'si pc'ki'megu ki'wawiinanetA wi'kiwi'ca'- 
wiyAn°''. Uwiya'Agii' wi'wi^tca'wiwA'^tc i'cita''ayAne ki'wl''tca'- 

30wiwa"*'. Ki'pemenegwA ku'^tc u'wiya'A wi'^tcawiwAt'^'. Ka'tA 
tA'ciku'setawi'kag"""'. Keki'ciku'tapi''ipen ii'menwito'tawA'^tci tci- 
nawa'niAget aya'na'sa^'tc''. Waguna'^tca'inina'i wi'u.''tcikiwime- 
mya'ckanc'menag'"^' ? I'ni ki'tiipwii'tawipenA^'tca' inugi mAn il'ine- 
nag''^'," ii'icig''''. 'O'n a■nag^vaiyan°''. 

35 A'^tca'megon a'wapime'cena'i'A'cki'ce'kitAinan"''. Na''k a'wa- 
piwiga"siyan''''. O'ni'^toa' a''pya'^tc i'niyA na''kA ne'ci'sil'*'. 
"Na'iniyapi na''k a'pya''tci'a''tcimo''enan"'', ne'cem™'". Ma'u 
inug i'n a'ki'cipa'niyAn"''. Keke'ka'net a'pi'tciki'sate''siyAn 
a'me'ka'wAte'e ma'nwawitA neniwA manwitoto'k'^'. Pe'ki^'tca'- 

40"megu ki'sa^'tc i'cita'iinu'. Ka'tA''tca' inAmegu poninene'kanemi'- 
yagAn""'". SAnAge'siwAku' ayigi neniWA manwawit"^'. Keki- 
'ciyupetegike'kanetA^ a'toto'ki naene''tA wi'^tca'wiwAt'^'. Pe'ki'- 



MICHELSOX] AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 333 

If they were to look backward they would die soon. It is far off where 
they are to go, and turn to go back. That is what they (are supposed 
to) do. Perhaps you did not do that, so I have heard," my uncle 
said to me. 

"I did not know that that was the way. For I did not hear my 
mother, when she was alive, speak of how those unreleased from 
death-ceremonies should act. That is why I did not know what 
should be done. I did not go there when (my husband) was buried. 
I stayed here in the wickiup," I told my uncle. 

"This is why they do that, so they may run and hide from that 
soul, and wh}- they wander around in thick brush," he said to me. 
" So that is why you feci so badly. If you had done as I now tell you, 
you woidd not be that way. And when you eat always put some on 
the fire for him. Do not forget (to do this) as long as an adoption- 
feast has not been held and as long as you are not freed from death- 
ceremonies. That is what you must do," my uncle said to me. 
"Well, that is all. I shall soon come again to give you instructions," 
he said to me. And he departed. 

And then always when I ate I put (food) on the fire for my hus- 
band. And I tried to cease to thmk of him all the time as I was 
afraid to die early. 

Later on when I heard that an adoption-feast was about to take 
place, sure enough they soon came to summon me. When I came 
there, there were many Indians. When I went in there, the ones 
who were adopted were eating there. When the}' fed me it was as 
if we were eating with my husband for the last time, in order that he 
might be released. After I had eaten, I was told, "Take off your 
clothmg." Then they began to clothe me in fresh clothes, and my 
hair was combed and my face was washed. And then I was told, 
"Well, do not take off your (clothing). For (now) you are to be 
clad like this. You may begin to wear finery. You may go and do 
whatever you please. If you are desirous of marrying anyone, you 
may marry him. Some one will take care of you if you marry him. 
Do not be afraid of us. You have pleased us by treating our relative 
well while he was alive. So why should we be against you ] So you 
must believe what we say to you this day." And then I departed. 

For the first time I began to wear fresh clothing. And I began to 
be careful again. And that uncle of mine came again. "At last I 
have come to give you instructions again, my niece. Tliis day you 
have ceased to be restricted by death-ceremonies. You know how 
hard it was to find a good man who treated j'ou well. So you must 
feel very badly. Do not stop thinking of him (in a little while). 
A good man is hard to find. You know how your first husband 
treated you in the past. Ho abused you badly. So you should not 



334 AUTOBIOGKAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [etit. a\n. 40. 

megu keketema'gi'eg'"^'^'. Ini'^tca' amu'^tci kenwa'cimii' pwawi- 
wAni''kanA<'tci ma'iy aiya'kowl wi'^tca'wiwAt'^'. Ki'wapi'kagogiyii'- 
megu neniwAg''''. Ka'tA'^tca' pa'pegwA wapT'ka'tlyAn i'citii'- 
'a'k^ui"''. Nj^awawa'ine ku"*tcawinu wi'pwawi\VAni''kanA'*tci 
5 wT'^tca'wiwAt a'pAna'pAniA'^tc''. KawAgi ku"^tci niA'ni ke'tA'ckig^''. 
Ag^vi<*tca''megu kilgo'i kenwa'ci'mii'i pwawiwi'^tcaViwAt u'wiya"*'. 
Me''tci'wanA na''kani wi'i'cimenwawiwA wi'wi''tca\viwa'wAtan°*'. 
Ini'^tca' wa''tcipya'^tci'aiya''tcimo"enan a'ka'twanetA'monani wi- 
''tcaViwAt-^'. I'ni wi'i'ciku'^tca'wiyAn"''. Na''kA pe'ki ku'Hci 

lOwinA'megu nemfcatiinem a'tapwa'ta'wiyAn a'cime'nwikeg ii'ina- 
'*tcimo"enan°''. AnetA ku'^tci na"ina"megu nepe'ni"'tcin uglwawa'i 
wapiwawAne'cka''iwAg'''', a'poni'uwi'ya'AninAna'ime'gowa^tc''. 

KutAga''ka' agwi pe'setawa'wa''tcin a'kegye'kimegowii'^tc''. Ini- 
^tca' nl'iiA nagAtawaneti'sowA ne'cemi'A ■wa'*tci'cita''ayan°''. 

ISNa'ini, ne cem"'', a'ki'ci'aiya'^tcimo''enaii°''. I'ca'wiyAne wi'i'cipe- 
'cigwiwe't5yAni ki'ya"'." 

A'cimi'^tci'ineg in a'ca'wiyan"''. 'A'pwawikA'cki'kawi'^tc u'wiya' 
a'mi'kemi'ke'miwa''t:ci ne'niwAg'''". Neke'tcine'ckimawA'megu 
u'wiya'A mi'ke'mi'^tcin'"'. Nyiiwawa'ine neklklwit a'pi'tcitatAgi- 

20 ka'twa'nemAgi wi'^tca'wiwAg'^*". Uni'^tcane'siya'ne'e win awitAme- 
'cena'i nAna'ci na''k uniipii'mi'ka''^'. MA'ni wi'n A'sami'megu 
neta'pe'^tcikiwi'ne'ca''''''. "Wa''tci 'a'pe''tciklwate''siyan°''," nete- 
'cita'ape""^". Nyawawa'i'mAgA'k awA'sima'i'ni na'kA negu'ti nenlw 
a"wapike'ca''tci'Ag''''. KAb5'twani wi'uwiwe'tiyag a''i'ci''tc'". 

25"Na'i, wrwi''tcawitiyAgwc'ku'i wa'''tci wiipi'konani wrke'ca''^tci- 
'enan°''. Ma'iyaiyu' wi<'tca'wiwAtA netu'wl'kan"''. Pe'ki'megu 
nekAkAnone'tlpen"*'. In InA<'tca"a'pe'e, 'nepo"iyane nl'nA mene''tA 
mA'nA''tca' wi'^tca'wiwAgA ki'tA'ci''kawawA wruwi'wiyAn"''. 
Pe'"ki 'A'samimenwawi'^-^'. Ketuwinemwi ku'^tc a'uwi'kane'tiyAg'''"''. 

SOl'cema'i nekekye'cLvtawanemawAgi ku'tAgAgi neniwAgi wi- 
'uwiwiwa'^tc a"A'samimenwawi''tci mA'n.^ wi'^tca'wiwAg'"^'. Ini- 
''tca' wif'^tci kinan i'nenan""'. WAnimo'^tci mene'tA nepo'iyan"*'', 
agwi' ku"*tci ke'kanetAmAgwin°'V nete'gwiyo"^'. 'Na'kA kl'men- 
witotawawA'megu pe'ki'ma" netepanawaiyow a'me'nwawi''tc'',' 

SSneteg*""*^'. Ini'^tca' wii^'tc ini'megu wi'i'ca'wiyAgwe tA'ci"k6nan"'". 
'Wawu'sa'iwa'gii'i kl'menwito'tawa'""^",' a"i'cig'''', nAna'i wiipimya- 
'citotonAga'-^'. Ku'^tcawi'ka'A'megu a'toto'ki yowe ni'kan"'^' " 
a"i"ci<'tc''. "O'n Anwa'^tciyan"''. 

"O' ke"tenA winA'megu a'gwi na'i'a"kwa'*tcin°'', cewanA nanigi'to- 

40 "iwA'megu tiitAg''''. Upyit'ne'siwA kago' a"A'"ci't6''tc''. Na''kA 
tAnetineniwi"'^". A'gwi'^tca' in A'pi'tcitepa'nAgin i'niyA napeg 
a'pi'tcitepa'nAg'^''. 

'Oni nA'tawa''tci na"k a'Agawa'tAmani wi'uni''tcane''siyan''''. 
"Napiga" win uni''tcane''siyane ki'Ano'ka'ci'yaga'"^". Me'^tci'wa'nA 

45 wa'wu'sa'a'kowi tcagi'nawa's'^",'' nete'ci'ta'"'. O'ni kAbo'twe mete- 



MICHELSON.] AUTOBIOGBAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 335 

forget your last husband for a long time. The men will begin to 
court you. Do not think of beginning to respond to them right 
away. For foiu- years try not to forget your husband of whom you 
have sight. For you are still young. It will be nothing if you do 
not marry any one for a long time. Your next husband will not be 
as good. That is why I have come to teU you how sorry I am for 
your husband. So you must try to do that. And I am very proud 
that you beheved me when I told you to do what was right. Some 
(women) become immoral when their mothers die, as they cease to 
be guided by any one. And they do not listen to others when they 
are instructed. That is also why I think my niece will watch out 
for herself. Well, my niece, I have finished instructing you. If you 
do that, you will lead a straight life." 



I did as he told me. None of the men who were courting me was 
able to get my consent. I sharply scolded any one who courted me. 
For four years I remained (single), (showing) how sorry I was for 
my husband. If I had had a child I should have never married 
again. As it was, I was too much alone all the time. "That is 
why," I thought, "I am always lonely." When more than four 
years were up, I again began to be kind to one man. Soon he asked 
that we should many. "Now I began to be kind to you so tliat 
we should be married. Your husband was my friend. We used to 
talk together a great deal. He said to me, ' if I die fh-st, you must 
coiu-t the one with whom I hve, so as to marry her. She behaves 
very well. She is your sister-in-law as we are friends.^" It is because 
I do not want other men to marry her as she is too good. That 
reaUy is why I say it to you. It might happen that I shoidd die 
first, for we do not know when we are to die,' he said to me, 'and 
you must treat her nicely as I love her dearly as she is good,' he said 
to me. So I am trying to get you (to agree) for us to do so. As I 
was told, 'you must treat her well,' I could not begin to treat you 
meanly. I should try (to treat you) as my friend treated you," he 
said to me. Then I consented. 



Oh, he never became angry, but he was rather lazy. He was slow 
in making anything. And lie was a gambler. I did not love him 
as much as I did the one who was dead. 

And I began to wisli to have a child again. "If I had a child I 
should have it do things for me. Surely they will not all die," I 
thought. Soon I asked an old woman who laiew about medicine. 



336 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [etii. ANN. 40. 

mo'a'A nata'winoni ka'ka'netAg a'nanAtu'tawAg''''. "A''tatuge 
nata'winoni menug amikA'cki'uni''tca'ne"sig'''" ?" ne'tena"*'. "Ka- 
"ciwatowi ninaiyo' neke'ka'net*'," nete'tegwA, "uni'^tcane'si'kApA'- 
megu me'noyAne, kekI'ciga'iyowe'unI''tca'ne's'V' neteg''"*'. 
5 " I'ce ku^'tci nata'winoni nemenu wa'^tciponi'uni<'tcane''siyan''' ",'' ne'- 
tenaw'^'. "Agwi'^tca' ini kago'"egin"''. Uni'^tcane'si'kApA'meguya- 
'ap"^','' neteg'^**". "Napima'i tcinawami'yagAp uni''tcane''siyAn'^'''," 
neteg'"'*". A"me'na"i''tc'". Ke'tenA'megu a'wapi'uni'uni'^tcane'- 
'siyan''''. 
10 Ea'cimana'"Age'^tci neni'^tcane'se'nanAg In a'nepegi na"kA wi- 
"tcawiwAg''-^'. "Na'i, me'cena' ini wi'pwawina'kAnAna'ci'unapa'- 
miyan°'V' in a'cita''ayan'''', "ma'Agi ku'^'tc ini wi'A'semi'iwa'^tci 
neni'*tca'ne'sAg'''V' nete'cita""'. 



MiCHELSON.] AUTOBIOGBAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. 337 

"Is there perhaps a medicine whereby one might be able to hare a 
child if one drank it?" I said to her. "Surely I know one," she said 
to me, ''you might have a child if you drink it, for you already have 
had children," she said to me. "It was because I drank a medicine 
that I ceased having children," I said to her. "That is notliing. 
You might easily have a child," she said to me. "You might have 
relatives if you had children," she said to me. She gave me (medi- 
cine) to drink. Stire enough, I began to have children. 

After we had many children then my husband died. "Well, I 
shall never marry again," I thought, "for now these cliildren of mine 
win help me (get a hving)," I thought. 



ETHNOLOGICAL NOTES. 

* On the position and duties of Fox women, as well as the training 
of girls, see Marston, Forsyth, Perrot, aU apud E. Blair, Indian 
Tribes of the Upper Mississippi and Great Lakes Region, vol. i, pp. 
75-77, vol. ii, pp. 151-153, 165, 212-217; C. Atwater, Indians of ths 
Northwest, pp. 101, 102, 111 et seq.; A. E. Fulton, Red Men of Iowa, 
p. 140. The above references apply to the Sauk and Fox for the 
most part; the exact tribes referred to by Atwater and Perrot can 
not be determined with absolute accuracy, but they were of the same 
or neighboring locahty. Other references appurtenant to details will 
be given at appropriate points. A fairly fuU bibhography of Fox 
etlinftlogy is given by Michelson, Journal of the Washington Academy 
of Sciences, vol. 9, pp. 595, 596. This has been revised and ampli- 
fied, and is incorporated in this volume; see pp. 30-36. The writer 
has a fairly long Fox text (obtained from another informant) , as yet 
unpubhshed, on how children are supposed to be brought up. The 
portion relating to girls ethnologicaUy agrees remarkably with the 
training set forth in the present volume. This is occasionally cited 
as T. The translations given are free. [See Michelson, How Mes- 
kwaki children should be brought up, in American Indian Life, ed. Dr. 
E. C. Parsons, pp. 81-86.] 

^ Dolls were formerly made of corn husks in the fall ; their clothing 
was made of musla-at and squirrel skins. 

^ On Fox dwellings see Carver, Three Years Travel, etc., pp. 29 
(Sauk), 30, 31; Forsyth, apud E. Blair, Indian Tribes of the Upper 
Mississippi and Great Lakes Region, vol. ii, pp. 227, 228; A. R. 
Fulton, Red Men of Iowa, p. 442; Reports, Comm. Indian Affairs, 
1896, p. 162, 1897, p. 148, 1898, p. 171; A. Busby, Two Summers 
Among the Musquakies, p. 95; H. Rebok, The Last of the Musquakies, 
pp. 39, 40; M. A. Owen, Folk-Lore of the Musquakie Indians, p. 24; 
Greene, The Red Man, vol. v, pp. 104-106. To-day a good many 
famiUes live in shacks and there are a few good frame houses; but 
still nearly half the Foxes live in wickiups of rush mats in winter 
and "bark houses" in summer. [Planks now take the place of bark. 
The above remarks held true at the time this paper was prepared 
for press, but now (fall of 1924) the bulk of the Foxes live in shacks.] 

■* Even at the present day Fox children are rarely whipped ; they 
are made to fast instead. Formerly their cheeks were painted with 
charcoal; in this way the entire village would know they were fasting, 
and accordingly no lodge would offer them meals. See also Marston, 
r.pud E. Blair, Indian Tribes of the Upper Mississippi and Great 
338 



MiCHELSON.] ETHNOLOGICAL NOTES. 339 

Lakes Region, vol. 2, p. 165; Forsyth, ibidem, 212; A. R. Fiilton, 
Red Men of Iowa, p. 443 ; A. Busby, Two Summers Among the Mus- 
quakies, p. 166. The form of punishment mentioned by Miss Owen, 
Folk-Lore of the Musquakie Indians, pp. 65, 66, must be exceptional. 
See the review of her work by Michelson, Curr. Anthrop. Lit. 2, pp. 
233-237. 

^ Lazy girls are disliked (T) . 

" The same injunction is given in T, but modified by the remark, 
"Of course people would like a girl to live with them a few days." 

' "Tag" is played in the following way: If there are ten, they get 
nine short sticks all of which are the same length, and one long one. 
Thej' are held between the thumb and index finger; the tops are seen. 
The one who makes the sticks does so secretly. When the one with 
the sticks comes to where other children are he tells them to pull out 
one each. Whoever gets the long one is to be the chaser. They will 
make marks on a tree or post. All assemble there except the one who 
has the long stick. If any child wants to run, the one who has the 
sticks will chase him (or her) ; or all can run out at the same time ; in 
the latter case the chaser wiU chase any one he (or she) thinks he (or 
she) can catch. The rule is that the one chased must be touched 
squarely on the head. The one thus touched becomes the chaser's 
partner, and helps in chasing. After all are caught, new sticks will 
be made; or if there chances to be a swift runner left they say he must 
be the chaser. 

* Girls should learn to cook, make mattings, sacks, beadwork, and 
moccasins. In this way after marrying they will have an easy time 
(T). See references to Atwater, Fulton, Forsyth, Marston, Perrot, 
given above. 

" Even at the present time women usually fetch water and wood. 
However, men now ordinarily chop the wood. See references to 
Atwater, Fulton, Forsyth, Marston, Perrot, given above; also Fulton, 
1. c, p. 440, and A. B. Busby, Two Summers Among the Musciuakies, 
p. 108. 

^" Even to-day the staple food of the Foxes is a fried bread. See 
Reports, Comm. Indian Affairs, 1896, p. 162, 1898, p. 171; Busby, 
1. c, p. 96; Fulton, 1. c, pp. 442, 443. 

" It is not lawful for a woman who is menstruating to eat with 
others; she secludes herself in a little lodge, and it is not considered 
proper for a man to linger about there, and a man is not to enter such 
a lodge. It may be noted that to-day some young men violate these 
rules in both cases. It may be added that if a widower or widow (if 
unreleased from death-ceremonies) or a menstruating woman runs 
through a garden, the belief is that the crops ^\-ill fail; if he or she 
touches a tree, the tree will die; or if he or she bridle or hitch a horse, 
the horse wiU die. The narrative supplies other details. Compare 



340 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [eth. axn. 40. 

also Marston, 1. c, pp. 171, 172; Owen, 1. c, pp. 69-71; W. Jones, 
Fox Texts, p. 318. As in many other cases. Miss Owen's statements 
can not be confirmed by the present -writer in their entirety. As the 
ReUgion Dance is of only recent introduction (from the Potawatomis), 
any puberty ceremonies connected with it must either be modern or 
only recently attached to it. It may be added that although puberty 
rites for boys have practically been given up, those for girls still 
persist. As is well known, there are similar practices among many 
Indian tribes. 

'^ " The middle of summer: " nipenwi is the time when Indian corn, 
pumpkins, squashes, and beans are mature. This will be about the 
middle of summer. 

'^ As stated, the girl's maternal grandmother was dead; the term 
grandmother in the present instance is only a coiu-tesy-term. 

" This may sound strange, but the point is that '' a bashful girl" is 
one who giggles, etc. A girl who giggles, etc., according to the Fox 
point of view, is extremely apt to succumb readily to sexual advances. 

'" The reader will doubtless notice how rarely the girl's brothers are 
mentioned in this autobiography. This is probably because Fox 
brothers and sisters do not associate with each other except when 
they are young. The same kind of segregation takes place, or did 
until recently, in a number of Indian tribes, e. g. the Omaha. Even 
at the present time the segregation obtains among the Foxes. A Fox 
boy would not dream of taking his sister to an Indian dance or a 
moving picture show, or a circus, etc. Nevertheless Fox brothers 
and sisters are fully as fond of one another as white brothers and 
sisters are. It is simply a matter of different etiquette. 

'" The lay reader will doubtless ask why it is that the girl's maternal 
imcles would be ashamed of her conduct, while her father is not men- 
tioned. And with us, all relatives would feel disgraced if a kins- 
woman were immoral. A considerable digression is necessary to 
explain the situation from the Fox point of view. Among the 
Foxes the well-known '' joking-relationship" exists between a girl 
and her maternal uncles, as it does in a number of other Indian 
tribes; but in addition to this, there is a special bond between them: 
a girl's maternal uncle is supposed to give her advice, and if he loves 
her, he will buy almost anything for her. If a girl is sensible, she 
will follow her maternal uncle's advice, and in this way get along 
comfortably. [The word for "my maternal vmcle" is ne'ei'sa"*'.] 
The case of paternal uncle is enth-ely different. [The word for "my 
paternal uncle" is noV, the same as that for "my father."] He 
will have little to say regarding her, provided her own father is 
U^'ing, though he will call her netane's^^', which is the same word for 
"my daughter." If he is more intelligent than her father, he might 
give her good advice, but that is as far as he could go. If, however, 



MICHELSON.] ETHNOLOGICAL NOTES. 341 

her father were dead, he would treat her exactly as one of his own 
daughters. If he has no children of liis own, he may give his brother's 
daughter, even if his brother is still living, almost anything, clothes, 
money, etc. She would ask him as freely as she would her own 
father, that is, if her father's brother were well off. If a girl's paternal 
uncle had children of his own (boys or girls), it is considered that he 
has enough to take care of; and in this case he would not make her 
the presents named above. But if the girl's father were dead he 
would treat her exactly as his own daughter. Even if a girl is saucy 
to her father or immoral, and he knows it, he will not want to say 
much about it; he wdl not scold her severely. The girl's mother 
wiU think it is the duty of the girl's father to reprove her if she is 
impudent to him, and will say nothing. If a girl is saucy to her 
mother, her mother ^\-ill reprove her, even slap her, or make her go 
without meals. She may slap the erring daughter untd the latter 
is nearly 20 years old. If a mother knows her daughter is immoral 
she vnR make her fast for four days. If she still is immoral, the 
mother will make her fast for eight days. In the early days eveiy 
one in the camp knew who was fasting, and none of the girl's rela- 
tives would give her food or water. Under no circumstances will a 
girl be saucy to her maternal uncle. That is why a mother often 
tells her daughters to ask their maternal uncles for advice. In a 
way a girl is afraid of her maternal uncles; she is better acquainted 
with her parents. Nor would a girl be impudent to her paternal 
uncles; if she were, they would "get after her," though her own 
father coiddn't. On the other hand, a girl would not go to her 
paternal uncles for advice. The only answer as to why they do not, 
I have been able to elicit is that ''it's not their way," which answer 
is in substance what most Em'opeans woidd give if pressed to explain 
why they did not commit infractions against definite social usage. 
[A girl or boy may be saucy to their grandparents; they will report 
the offender to her or his mother who will make the child fast.] I 
presume Hartland would interpret the peculiar relation of a man to 
his sister's daughter as a survival of female descent; actually the 
Foxes are organized in exogamous groups with male descent, and 
were so as far back as 1827. See Forsyth apud Blair, 1. c, vol. ii, 
p. 210. Nor is there any reason to suppose that they had previously 
been organized in groups with female descent. From the data 
given above one could hold that the Foxes originally had father- 
right but were giving away to mother-right just as easity as vice 
versa. Personally I think either interpretation entirely out of place, 
and consider the whole matter simply a social phenomenon. 

'' Some of these injunctions occm* in T. 

'* The basket work of the Foxes is not very esthetic. 



342 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [eth. ANN. 40. 

^^ It is considered improper for a boy and girl, unless very young, 
to be seen talking together. A young man can not meet his inamo- 
rata openly; it must be in the brush or at night when the old people 
are asleep. For the Sauk cf. Paterson's Autobiography of Black 
Hawk, p. 60. 

^° Most Fox girls even to-day marry much earlier than this, and 
this has been the case from at least 1820 onward. See Marston, 1. c, 
p. 165 (14 to 18); Forsyth, 1. c, p. 216 (14 usually; rarely as late as 
16) ; Fulton, 1. c, p. 141 (generally at 15) ; Rebok^ H. M.,"Last of the 
Mus-qua-kies (Dayton, O., 1900), p. 43 (marry . . . from 14 to 16). 
Miss Owen's statement (Folk-lore of the Musquakie Indians, p. 74) 
that 24 is the marriageable age for girls is a typical example of her 
inexact observations, and her lack of knowledge of documentary 
sources regarding the Foxes. 

^' A girl is not supposed to go off by herself unless she has some 
good reason. If a girl gads about and does no housework she soon 
acquires an unenviable reputation. So T. 

" Wife beating is not common among the Foxes, but it occurs 
sporadically; in Forsyth's time the state of affairs was apparently 
the same. See Forsyth, 1. c, 215. 

^^ In the early days girls wished to marry young men that were 
successful in killing game, who trapped and sold furs, thereby gaining 
an easy livehhood; but to-day girls are told to try to marry young 
men who have homes, horses, and everything they want. The young 
man who can support a wife is the one to marry. It is bad form for a 
young girl to marry a divorced man, and vice versa (T). 

^' On marriage among the Foxes see Marston. 1. c, 165-167; For- 
syth, 1. c, 214; Busby, 1. c, 82, 8.3; Owen, 1. c, 72-76. Compare, for 
the Sauks, Paterson, 1. c, 59, 60. Compare also Perrot, apud Blair, 
1. c, i, 67, 68, 69. Some details may be added. Ordinarily if a man 
marries a divorcee or widow she gets no presents, unless his parents 
emphatically approve of the woman. To-day a boy usually sounds 
his father on the subject of marriage, but he may have begun paying 
nocturnal visits to his inamorata previously. The narrative in the 
text is typical of marriage among the Foxes to-day. The facts show 
very clearly that the girl is not merely purchased. 

2^ The data given in the text are very full. See, too, Forsyth, 1. c, 
210. The present writer can confirm but few of the alleged facts 
given by Miss Owen, 1. c, 63 et seq. He knows some are mistaken. 
To-day the Foxes no longer name a child at a gens festival held 
shortly after birth. 

^^ The Indian text at tliis point is too naive for European taste, and 
so has been deled. The only point of ethnological interest is that 
during the period named carnal intercourse is not allowed. The point 
that men would not marry the immoral girl corresponds exactly to 



MiciiKLsuN.] ETHNOLOGICAL NOTES. 343 

what is said on page 313 of the text, and to the information contained 
in T. And it is almost exactly what takes place to-day. Young men 
rarely but occasionally marry girls of bad reputations. 

" The reader may wonder why it was that none of the woman's 
male relatives interfered. I asked a male informant why. He 
volunteered the statement that when he was younger he had been 
told by his parents not to "butt in" if his brother-in-law beat his 
sister, for his sister woidd love his brother-in-law more than himself. 
"Leave them alone; they will come out all right." He then cited an 
example of relatives interfering, and how useless it was; the relatives 
will not interfere next time. 

-* It is a fact that Fox women who have good reputations do 
exactly as the mother advised her daughter. 

^^ It is claimed that a baby really has knowledge from the beginning 
and some people understand them before they can talk, e. g., George 
Kapayou's father. 

^^ Full references to mortuary customs and obsei-vances are given 
later on. 

■'*' On divorce compare Forsyth, 1. c, p. 215; Busby, 1. c, pp. 35, 83. 
It is to be regretted that at the present time divorces are extremely 
prevalent among the Foxes; there is hardly a girl or boy 21 years old 
who has not been married at least twice. It may be noted that 
Forsyth's statement that a man could force his wife to return, willy- 
nilly, to a certain extent still holds good. If a woman leaves her 
husband and right away starts to go with another man with a view 
to marriage, the former husband will beat her. Formerly adultery 
on the part of the woman was punished by cutting off her ears, nose, 
or even killing her. A husband might kill her lover if the latter was 
caught red-handed. See Forsyth, 1. c, pp. 214, 215; Jones, Fox 
Texts, pp. 142 et seci-, 144 et seq. 

^- I asked a male informant why the girl did not go to her father's 
instead of her maternal uncle's. He replied, "When a girl marries, 
her father releases her entirely. So it's of no use for her to go to him 
for advice afterwards. If it was his son. that would be diflferent." 
See my note on the relations between a girl and her maternal uncle, 
page 340 et seq. 

^' To-day divorcees are very apt to be immoral. Hence the man's 
word of caution. 

^* FuU notes on death customs are given on page 344. 

^^ The Shawnee dance is the same as the Snake dance (which has 
nothing in common with the Snake dance of the Hopi) which the 
Foxes acquired while in Kansas. Formerly it was pretty likely to 
be rough; and girls and their lovers would meet on such occasions. 
The husband's confidence in Iris wife could not be shown to greater 
advantage than by permitting, or rather urging, his wife to be 
present. 



344 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [riH. axn. to. 

^^ On Fox clothing see Forsyth, 1. c, p. 235; Cathn, Manners, 
passim; McKenney and Hall, History, passim; Busby, 1. c, pp. 96, 
97, 112, 113; Fulton, 1. c, pp. 443, 445, 446; Reports, Comm. Indian 
Affairs, 1897, p. 149. For the Sauk see also Beltrami, Pilgrimage, 
vol. 2, p. 145. To-day Fox men ordinarily wear European clothing; 
but I have seen a few old-timers with roached hair, blankets, etc., for 
their daily apparel. On ceremonial occasions they nearly all wear 
clothing that is Indian to the extent that the tailoring is Indian, even 
if the clothing for the most part is of European materials. Buckskin 
leggings and moccasins are still worn on such occasions. Moccasins 
made of spht leather and canvas are still frecjuently used on ordinary 
occasions. Women are far more retentive of their old-style clothing. 
Bucksldn skirts and waists are now unknown, but the clothing Fox 
women normally wear is tailored entirely on Indian lines, though 
shoes and stockings have generally replaced moccasins and leggings. 
A few old women still wear leggings habitually. On gala occasions 
women's clothes are more gaudy, and beautifully beaded bucl-^skin 
moccasins are worn. 

'' The ch-um brought no doubt refers to the bringing of the Rehgion 
Dance to the Foxes by the Wisconsin Potawatomi. 

^* On Fox mortuary customs. and observances see Marston, 1. c, 
p. 172; Forsyth, 1. c, pp. 206-208, 212; Fulton, 1. c, pp. 446, 447; 
Busby, 1. c, pp. 34, 35, 117 etseq., 129, 130, 185, 186, 188-190; Owen, 
1. c, p. 77 et seq.; Reports, Comm. Indian Affaire, 1896, p. 162, 1S9S, 
p. 166; Jones, Internat. Cong. Americanists, 1907, a^oI. 1, pp. 263-277, 
Journal of American Folk-lore, xxiv (1911), pp. 217, 218, 220-222, 
224,226, Fox Texts, pp. 156et seq., 336 et seq., 382, 383; Michelson, 
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 70, no. 2, 121, 122. Com- 
pare Perrot, 1. c, pp. 70-74, 78-88. See also note 11, page 339, above. 
See also the present writer's paper which contains a fuller bibli- 
ography in this volume, p. 35 et seq. These supplement the pub- 
hshed data rather than contradict them. 

^^ The two men are the same as brothere. If a woman's husband 
dies, after the adoption-feast is held, if her parents-in-law like her 
they will ask an older brother to many her so as to keep her in the 
f anuly. Besides the " joking relation " which exists between brother- 
in-law and sister-in-law (frequently obscene; entirely different from 
that existing between a man and his sister's daughter) thei'e is 
another: after the death of the man's wife, before he is released from 
death ceremonies, he must do as his sister-in-law says ; but if he obeys 
the rules, he can make her his bride when four years are up; on 
the other hand, if the man does not hve up to the rules, his sister-in- 
law acquh-es certain rights over him. 



LINGUISTIC NOTES ON THE INDIAN TEXT. 

The Fox text contained in this paper is of considerable linguistic 
importance as it differs in content from any previously published 
Fox texts. Hence it is that certain novel grammatical features occur 
which are not treated in the Fox sketch in the Handbook of American 
Indian Languages, Bulletin 40, Bur. Amer. Ethnology. Tlie reader 
should be thoroughly familiar with the phonetic shifts of the language 
(see p. 616) before attempting to study the text, as much that is 
obscure ^vill at once be clarified. It may be noted that such initial 
contractions as a- for a'A- and a'i- (e. g., a'cawiyan"'' 302.36 for a'i- 
'cawiyan°'') are quite common. If this is kept in mind the reader 
will be greatly facilitated in consulting the list of stems. 

The follo^\■ing grammatical notes are given as an aid to the compre- 
hension of the Indian text. Tlie paragraphs referred to are those 
of the grammatical sketch of Fox cited above. Consult also Bull. 
72, B. A. E., p. 68 et seq., and this volume, p. 282 et seq. 

§ 10. The combination -a i- commonly contracts to -a-: winani 
304.45, winanA 310.36, ke'tenauA 310.33, negyan (for negyA Ini) 
308.5, mA'nanugi 328.15. 

§ 10. Freciuently a final -i is dropped before consonants where it 
normally remains: aiyS'ku'i (for aiyo'iku'i) 314.5, lya' 314.5, kag5'- 
megu (for kiigo'imegu) 322.41, me'cena" 318.21, agwiga'nin (for 
agwiga'i ninA) 322.28-29, ini"tca' (for ini'^tca'i) 322.24, etc. 

§ 14 (end). The elision of formative elements before -tuge (sufSx 
indicating probability) is exemplified by kyawatug'"'' (kyawa'"*') 
326.34, A"tatuge {Atix'"'') 336.1. See also 304.31, 330.12, 13. 

§ 28. The intransitive third person plural inanimate is given as 
-oni. Tliis applies in the majority of cases, but strictly speaking it 
should be given as -wAni; after consonants -oni naturally would occur 
(see p. 616), but after vowels -wAni is retained: inag^vA'tawAn""'" 
(304.16) " they were piledup in such away,"' milme'ca/'iwAni (308.12) 
"they were large ones," tcage'ckawAn"'" (306.6) "they all fallout." 

§ 29. Sometimes the ending -ni is used even when the negative 
agwi is not used, e. g., ki'citcagipAgi'sen.imawawa'^tcini (330.41) " after 
all have offered (thrown) it to them." See p. 612. When -ni is so 
used, a " whenever " clause is indicated. 

§ 30. As I have pointed out on another occasion, the table contains 
a number of errors; the text in the present volume confirms this: 
note pe'setawa'ki^tc^' (308.8; potential) "she might listen to her," 

1 The translations of the isolated Fox words and phrases in these linguistic notes, of necessity, are not 
always precisely the same as in the English rendition of the connected text. 

3599°— 25t 23 345 



346 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAN. [eth. ANN. 40. 

kA'cki'mi'kApA (326.40; potential) "you might have persuaded me," 
a'^tcimi'kAp*' (324.44) "you would have reported me," tcinawami'- 
yagAp[^'] (336.7; potential) "you might be related to them," 
wapAmi'yagApA (324.10; potential) "you might look at them," ne- 
'ciwAna'^tci'I'yagAni (302.24 ; potential) "you might ruin them," tcage- 
'cka'ki"^tc®' (306.4; potential) "they (inan.) might all come off," awitA 
kA'cki'ane'kwigi'kAgo''^" (316.20-21; potential subjunctive) "we 
should not be able to branch out." Furthermore, all terminations 
in -'kitci should be changed to -'kitce (in Jones's transcription). 

§ 32. No transitive forms are given in the sketch; see, however, 
the Jotu-nal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, iv, pp. 406-408. 
Examples occurring in the Indian text are a'ina'ina''tcimo'enugAvan"'' 
(324.18) " whatever she said to you from time to time,"nAnotanemeno- 
wAgwan"'' (324.41) "hewaswronginwhathethoughtof us (inclusive)." 
No participial forms are mentioned in the sketch; but see the Journal 
of the Washington Academy of Sciences, iv, pp. 408, 409. Examples 
in the Indian text are wI'vmapaml'wAnanA (310.2) "whomever you 
shall take as your husband," ami'cimenwawigwan"*' (324.11) "whoever 
would contrive to behave well," wi'wI'^tcawiwawAtan'^-*' C334.7) 
"whomever you shall live with (i. e., marry)." 

§ 33. The forms given in the table on page 829 are really obviatives. 
Other obviatives likewise exist, though not treated in the sketch, 
e. g., wi'^tcawiwo'mAgini (314.18) "the one with whom I lived" [i. e., 
husband, in the present instance; could be wife]. Tlie -m- clearly is 
the same element found in conjunctive and subjmictive of the 
indefinite passive when obviatives are the subjects. 

§ 34. Tlie obviative singular and plural of animate nouns should be 
given as -Ani and -a'i respectively, as shown by all Fox texts published 
thus far. 

It should be said that -Ama- is nothing but a phonetic transfor- 
mation of -Amaw- before certain consonants; see page 616. Examples 
of -Ama- are to be found at 310.28, 330.2. 

The anomalous formation -Amo'i- (see Bull. 72, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 
p. 69) occurs at 324.27. 

§ 35. It should have been mentioned that inanimate verbs have 
obviatives though inanimate nouns do not. Examples are: wIgAnIwi 
(298.15) "it tastes well," a'cimenwi'genig'^'' (306.8) "as was good," 
a'po'si'megu'sA'sAgA'nigini (330.44) "where the brush is very thick." 

§ 39. It may be remarked that -'tati'so-, -'tatisu are nothing more 
than phonetic transformations of -'taw- -ti'so-, -'taw- -ti'su respec- 
tively; examples are to be found at 300.22, 302.2-3. 

§ 41. In Bulletin 72, page 69, 1 have spoken of the passive in -a'so-. 
An example in the Indian text contained in the present volume is 
a'pi'tcitepana'sut'^' (320.31) "he that is loved as much as." 



MICHELSON.] LINGUISTIC NOTES. 347 

Tlie passive composed of the ordinary passive sign -gu- and the 
copula -"si- for the animate, -At- for the inanimate, which I have 
noted in Bulletin 72, loc. cit., is represented also in the text of this 
paper: agwima'' wI'kago'anetagu'sI'yAnini (312.15) "you will be 
thought of as naught." 

According to the table the termination of the independent mode of 
the indefinite passive for the third person, singular or phiral, animate 
or inanimate, is -api; and some examples are given justifying this. 
However, the Indian text of the present paper contains forms in 
-pi for the singular: 'ai^'opi (318.28) "it is used," i'"cawipi (316.2) 
"it is done," mi'netipi (308.28) "one is reciprocally given," 'i'cigi'etip 
(for -pi, 304.2; see also 326.8) "one is made to be that way" [very 
literally, "one is grown that way"]. In the conjunctive mode -gi 
replaces -pi: a''cawig'''' (316.24) "how it is, how it is done," itigi 
(302.29) "it is told," witAmatig'^'' (302.29) "one is informed," 
ne''ckitlgi (310.7) "one is forbidden," a'sagitlgi (316.1) "as one is 
afraid," a'citl'gini (316.2) "as one is told." It is not easy to decide 
the construction at 316.9, 10. Note, however, -api is found at 316.5, 
318.40,318.41. See p. 613. 

A peculiar potential subjunctive of the indefinite passive, ending 
in -ena''^' is to be seen in awitA'*tca'"megu pAnapAmena" (for -na'"^' ; 
326.11) "he would not fail to be seen." This -ena"*" bears the same 
relation to -na'''' (see pp. 287, 347, 494) that -e<*tc'' (the normal termi- 
nation of the third person animate, singular or plural, of the conjunc- 
tive of the indefinite passive) does to -''tc'' (the ending of the third 
person singular animate, intransitive, of the conjunctive mode). 

Though not given in the sketch, there is a subjunctive mode of the 
indefinite passive. The termination -ete for the third person animate 
bears the same relation to -e'^tci of the same person but conjunctive 
mode that -te (the termination of the intransitive third person ani- 
mate, subjunctive mode) does to -"*tci (same person but conjunctive 
mode): na'ne'sef' (320.25) "if they are beaten." 

I have pointed out in the International Journal of American Lin- 
guistics, i, p. 56, the conjunctive of the indefinite passive, with obvia- 
tives as subjects end in -me'^tci. An example in the Indian text is 
a'mawipita"ome''tci (330.37) "when they go to bury him" [really a 
passive]. 

§ 45. There is a type of possession not treated in this paragraph, 
namely, when the possesser is indefinite. The combination u — inaw- 
expresses this. To -inaw- are suffixed the ordinary nominal endings 
to show whether animate or inanimate, singular or plural, are to be 
ascribed to the possessed noun. Of course in some way the u is to 
be associated with the ordinary u of third persons. Examples are: 
uwi'kani'nawAg'^'' (310.7-8) " their friends," unapiimi'nawAg'"' (316.13) 
"their husbands," unl'^tcane'si'nawAg'''' (320.24) "one's children," 



348 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A FOX WOMAK. [eth. ann. 40. 

uwIpi'^tcinawAni (306.6) "one's teeth." Tlie word uteneniminawAg'''" 

(306.21) "one's men-folk" presents a few difficulties. The -t- is the 
usual intercalated -t-; there is a doublet of nenlwA "man" inenlwA. 
Now the -w- of the last would be eliminated before the -m- suffix 
which is identical with the ordinary -m- suffix of possessives, as duly 
explained by me in the International Journal of American Lin- 
guistics, i, p. 50. The initial i changes to e as there is a u in the 
preceding syllable which is a different morphological unit: see the 
American Journal of Philology, xli, p. 183, and below, p. 616. 

At 310.41 we find a wholly anomalous formation, ugwi"sema'^'^',- 
which probably should be rendered "the son." "His son" would 
be ugw4'sAn°'". It is evident that the initial u- is to be associated 
with the ordinary u- of the third person in possessives; the -m- also 
needs no explanation; the -e- prevents the combination -'sm- which 
is not tolerated m Fox; the rest of the form is unclear. 

§ 48. As I have pointed out before (P. A. E. S., ix, p. 127; I. J. 
A. L., i, p. 52) obviatives of indefinite pronouns exist, though not 
treated in the sketch. An example is uwi'ya'Ani "any one," 324.9. 

A pronoun not touched on in the sketch is me'cemegouA " any one," 
"every one," 320.14. 

We have now come to a point where references to the sketch are 
impractical. 

I have treated loose verbal composition in the International Journal 
of American Linguistics, i, 50. Some examples occurring in the 
Indian text contained in this paper are: a'pwawi-ninani-wi'seniyani 

(304.22) "I did not eat then," a'pepya'^tci-nepi-natawi'^tci (306.1) "she 
kept coming to fetch water for me," pwawi-''tca'-megu-kiwimane- 
'cita''ayAn (306.10-11) "if you do not go around with bashful 
thoughts," a'pi'tci-pwawi-pe'ki- ki'ci-nepwa'kag'''' (306.23-24), "as 
long as one has not much intelligence," nepepya''tci-megiipe'e-nawA- 
'se'kagwA (310.15-16) "she kept coming to askme to accompanyher," 
a'tA'swi'-meguneguta'i-aiyagini (310.20) "as often indeed as we went 
any place," ki 'p6ni-ga"-inA-kAkAn5ne'ti'awA (312.4) "you must 
really stop talking to that one." See also 312.19, 312.25, 314.41-42, 
316.1, 316.12, 316.22, 316.32, 322.9, 10, 322.31, 324.2, 324.32-33, 
324.38, 326.44, 328.1. 

The following are in a way new types of composition, though they 
might also be covered under the term "loose composition:" agwima" 
wi'kag5'anetagu'sI'yAnini (312.15) "you will be thought of as naught" 
[kago''' anything], agwi'^tca'ini kag6'"egin'''' (336.6) "that verily is 
not anything" [kago''' combined with the inanimate copula -e-]. 

It may be mentioned that "loose composition" apparently never 
occurs after stems which can not occur in the initial position and that 
for the greater part it occurs immediately after the first initial stem. 

' Supported by udanesemaw', Jones's Fox Texts, 102.15. 



MICHELSON.] LINGUISTIC NOTES. 349 

I have shown in the American Anthropologist, n. s. 15, pp. 474, 475, 
the curious verbalizing of possessed nouns. Examples in the pre- 
ceding text are to be found at 298.3, 310.29, 310.31, 312.2-3, 312.19; 
at 310.35 and 310.36 the cases are more complicated as " loose com- 
position" also occurs. 

It should be noted that where parts of the body are the objects of 
transitive verbs a stem which usually closely resembles the ordinary 
nominal one, but commonly ending in a, is inserted in the verbal 
compound immediately before the instrumental particle. See for 
example 304.13, 316.6, 318.30, 318.37. For convenience a few cases 
which strictly do not belong here, though they are analogous, are 
included. 

As I pointed out in Bull. 72, Bm-. Anier. Ethnology, page 70, there 
is a peculiar potential subjunctive, not treated in the sketch, whose 
characteristic seems to be a termination -na''^'. A couple of examples 
are tA'citiipanemina''*' (324.10) " one would have then rejoiced at me," 
kago' i'cimine'nena'*" (314.14; awitA imderstood) "he would have 
given you nothing." Note that there is a potential subjunctive of 
the indefinite passive which is clearly related to -nti"'^'. See pages 
287, 347, 494. [An additional example of -na'*' is to be foimd at 
320.25.] 

The element -w- (-wi-) discussed by me in the International Journal 
of American Linguistics, i, pp. 52, 53, occurs in wi'ki'cigiwa'neme'ki 
(306.9) "they will think that you are mature." 

When transitive verbs have an indefinite object or objects -iwa- is 
inserted immediately after the instrumental particle, and the ordinary 
intransitive pronominal endings are added. (See 308.28, 322.3.) 

The structure of nawa'iyiin (304.37-38) "when I saw her" is not 
clear to me, though in other Fox texts I have found similar cases. 
Likewise unapiimiwAne (324.42) [precise translation? "when you 
took a husband" free rendition] is not clear in the posterior portion. 



NOTES ON 
FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS 



BY 



TRUMAN MICHELSON 



351 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Introduction 355 

A. This is the story of what they do and how they pray when there is a 

death 380 

B. The very beginning of tlie story how any one dies 386 

C. The way Mesk wakies do when they die 402 

D. Now this is the story of what, it seems, the people did a long time ago 

when any one died 424 

E. What hajapens to a man, not a woman, unreleascd from death-cere- 

monies; (it is) merely the condition of a man unreleased from 

death-ceremonies 434 

F. That is what (people) do when their children die '. 452 

G. Miscellaneous notes on Fox mortuary customs 462 

H. The way these (people) do when they lose sight of their fellow-mortals 

when the blessing (religion) was brought here 464 

I. The ghost-feast 472 

K. Notes on the adoption-feast 482 

L. On widows unreleased from death-ceremonies 484 

Some linguistic notes on the Indian texts 493 

List of stems 616 

353 



INTEODUCTION. 

The following are the most important pubUshed sources of infor- 
mation regarding Fox mortuaiy customs and behefs: 

Baldwin, C. C, ed. Indian narrative of Judge Hugh Welch. Western Reserve 
and Northern Ohio Hist. Soc., vol. ii, Tract No. 50, Cleveland, 1888. 
p. 107. 

Busby, Allie B. Two summers among the Musquakies. Vinton, Iowa, 1886. 
pp. 34-35, 117 et seq., 129-130, 185-186, 188-190. 

Forsyth, Thomas. An account of the manners and customs of the Sauk and 
Fox nations of Indians tradition [1827]. In Blair, E. H., Indian trilies of 
the upper Mississippi Valley and region of the Great Lakes, vol. ii, Cleve- 
land, 1912. pp. 206-208, 212. 

Fulton, A. R. The red men of Iowa. Des Moines, 1882. pp. 446-447. 

Galland, Isaac. The Indian tribes of the West. Annals of Iowa, Davenport, 
1869. pp. 274, 363, 364, 365. 

[Probably reprinted from his Chronicles of the North American Savages (1835), but I can not 
be positive, for the copy in the Library of Congress is defective, though Pilling saw a perfect copy 
there. See A. Busby, Two summers among the Musquakies, p. 53 et seq., and compare this 
with Annals of Iowa. 1S69, p. 347 et seq.] 

Gbegg, p. [Note.] In Yarrow, H. C, A further contribution to the study of 

the mortuary customs of the North American Indians. First Ann. Rept. 

Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1881. pp. 140-141. 
Harrington, M. R. Sacred bundles of the Sac and Fox Indians. Anthrop. 

Pubs. Univ. Mus., Univ. Pa., vol. iv, no. 2, 1914. pp. 258-259. 
Jones, William. Mortuary observances and the adoption rites of the Algonkiii 

Foxes of Iowa. CongrSs Inter, des Am^r., xvi" sess., 1906, vol. i, pp. 263- 

277, Quebec, 1907. 
Fox texts. Pubs. Amer. Ethn. Soc, vol. i, 1907. pp. 156 et seq., 206 

et seq., 336 et seq., 382-383. 
Notes on the Fox Indians. Journ. Amer. Folk-lore, vol. xxiv, 1911. 

pp. 217-218, 220-222, 224, 226. 
Episodes in the culture-hero myth of the Sauks and Foxes. Journ. Amer. 

Folk-lore, vol. xiv, no. Iv, 1901. p. 225 et seq. 
Marsh, Cutting. Letter of March 25th, 1835. Wis. Hist. Soc. Colls., vol. xv, 

1900. pp. 13.3-134, 149-150. 
[Sec, too, M. II. Harrington, op. cit.) 
Marston, Major Morrell. Letter to Reverend Dr. Jedidiah Morse [1820]. 

In Blair, E. H., Indian tribes of the upper Mississippi Valley and region 

of the Great Lakes, vol. ii, Cleveland, 1912. p. 172. 
Michelson, Truman. How Meskwaki children should be brought up. In 

Parsons, Elsie Clews, American Indian life. New York, 1922. p. 83. 
[Report on Field Work] Smithson. Misc. Colls., vol. 70, no. 2, 1919. pp. 

121-122. 
The autobiograph}- of a Fox Indian woman. Fortieth Ann. Rept. Bur. 

Amer. Ethn. p. 291, passim. 
MooNEY, Jambs, and Thomas, Cyrus. [Article] Fox. Handbook of Amer. 

Inds., Bur. Amer. Ethn., Bull. 30, pt. 1, 1907. p. 473. 

355 



356 FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [eth. A.S.N. 40. 

Owen, Mart Alicia. Folk-lore of the Musquakie Indians of North America. 

Pubs. Folk-lore Soc, no. Li, London, 1904. p. 77 et seq. 
Re[o]bok, Hokace M. The last of the Mus-qua-kies. Dayton, Ohio, 1900. 

pp. 44-45, 50-55. 
Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs (Department of the Interior), 

Washington, 1896, p. 162; 1898, p. 166 
Spencer, J. W. Pioneer life. 1872. 

The data contained in this volume are intended to supplement and 
confirm our previous knowledge of the subject. The general relia- 
bility of the informants is shown by the fact that other ethnological 
data obtained from them have checked up exceedingly well; that the 
data given in the present instance are quite like that previously pub- 
lished where they are at all comparable; that the Indian texts pre- 
sented all supplement and confirm, rather than contradict, each 
other; that the data correspond very closely to that obtained from 
other informants, though not published here; that the customs and 
beliefs correspond to what I often witnessed and heard (this applies 
especially to the speeches given at burials) . 

Tlie distinguishing features of this volume consist in the more 
detailed information furnished, the taboos noted, and the speeches. 
Furthermore, this information is given almost entirely in Fox with 
English translation. 

Text H deals with the mortuary customs and beliefs of those who 
belong to the so-called Religion Dance which was introduced among 
Foxes (Meskwakies) by the Potawatomi of Wisconsin. I may here 
briefly add a little information to that given in the Indian text. A 
few years ago at the death of one of Wanatie's sons, Joe Peters, who 
was acting as a ceremonial attendant, gave me tobacco and told me 
to go to Wanatie's. I arrived there toward nightfall. After food 
was eaten by the people assembled there, Joe took tobacco and gave 
it to John Allen, an aged warrior, with the request that he tell war 
stories. I could not take this down at the time, but gathered the 
drift of his conversation sufficiently to know that he was talking 
about the fight in 1854 against the Arapaho, Cheyenne, Kiowa, and 
Comanche. At midnight we were fed again. Tliere were now various 
games till nearl}^ three, when we were again fed; and then there were 
further games till nearly six, when the people dispersed. 

I may add that when a person is a member of the Singing Around 
Rite and dies, this society has charge at the adoption-feast, and 
the adopted automatically becomes a member of the society. Mem- 
bers of the society at this time may invite outsiders to join in the 
dancing or playing of games. In this case the one invited eats at 
the same time as the members of the society, i. e., before the others. 
I once witnessed the burial of a member of this society. Membere 
came as the dead was being brought to the grave. They held a large 
drum, beat it, sang, and partially danced until the body was laid in 
the grave. 



MicHELsoN.] INTRODUCTION. 357 

If a death occurs the chiy a gens festival was to be celebrated, this 
latter will be suspended till a ceremonial runner comes telling the 
wishes of the bereaved ones. The festival will begin or be postponed 
in accordance with their wishes. 

Wlien a dead pei-son has been in the habit of visiting a dwelling 
there is a belief that the big soul (see below) will come around the 
place. Cedar leaves are burned to drive this away; they are burned 
especially in the doorway. Sometimes an ash is dropped into a 
bucket of water. This also will drive the big soul away. 

It is believed that the (little) soids of married couples are always 
together in life. When either the man or the woman dies, at the 
funeral he or she is adjured not to look backward on their journey 
westward to where Aiyapa'ta"'^' dwells; for in that case the soul of 
the departed would take the soul of the Hving along, and hence the 
living would die. For a recent discussion of the soul-steahng concept 
see R. Lowie, Primitive Religion (New York, N. Y., 1924), page 177 
et seq. 

If a pereon sees a lizard on the road, either the person or the person's 
relatives will die. 

In case of childbirth, it is believed that if the afterbirth adheres to 
the mother, both the mother and child will die. 

It should be noted that there are a number of "ghost-feasts" 
which are not treated at length in this paper because of the paucity 
of information obtained concerning them. Among those extinct we 
may note there was one in which old men who were unmarried 
and women who had ceased to menstruate were the sole persons who 
ate. Another one was when dancing occurred all night. There were 
two in which four and two dishes were used, respectively. In the 
latter case water was poured also. The names of the following '■ 
are known, but it is claimed that they were extinct at more ancient 
time than those listed above : ma wa di lo we ni (meaning ?) , ma wa 
to lo we ni (meaning ?), A ne nai tti la ya wi se nye we ni (Future- 
Ghost Eating-Rite), lye ne ti wi se nye we ni (Bring-To-Each Other 
Eating-Rite), o wi tti sge ti wi tti le ko ge we ni (Reciprocal-Foe 
Ghost-Feast). A form of a ghost-feast in combination with a gens 
festival still is practiced to-day. As many as dance give the ghost- 
feast. 

There are a number of adoption-feasts which are no longer used. 
One is where the adopted danced four times. Another is one in which 
the adopted was painted red and remained standing all night. Another 
is an adoption-feast in combination with the gens-festival (ki ke 
no wi la ki ta mo we ni). Still another is a combination ^\^th the 
Mide (me te wi la ki ta mo we ni) ; and lastly, one in combination 
with the Wizard Rite (wa la no -wi la ki ta mo we ni) .^ 

1 Given in the current syllabary; the renditions so far as given are by myself. 
* Further information on this was received too late to insert in this volume. 



358 FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [eth. axx. 40. 

It may be also observed that practically every gens and society 
has a number of wailing songs of its own, sung the night after some 
ones dies. These are not given here, for the reason that I am ignorant 
of the majority of them. I liave a collection of these songs which is 
fairly complete for the Thunder gens. They will be pubUshed at a 
future time in combination with other data on this gens. My other 
collections of such songs are not as full as desirable. 

As is hinted at below, the stick implanted near the head of the 
dead tells to which gens the deceased belonged. This stick is painted 
green if the dead belonged to the Bear gens, red if he or she belonged 
to the War gens. 

I append some notes on Fox mortuary customs and beliefs taken 
down in English. 

1. 

There are two kinds of souls: one is like a shadow in the daytime 
and also at night. When this soul leaves you, you die. Wlien- the 
same soul inside leaves, we stop breathing and die. " Mend'ganaw"-^" " 
is the name of the little one inside. "Ke'tci'uno'ganaw"'^'" is the 
name of the soul that stays outside. The small soul is the same as 
life. Tlie large soul simply watches over the other. That is why we 
are bad. When the outside soul gets too big, the owner will commit 
murder immediately. When it does not become very large, the 
owner leads a good life. It seems Wl'sA'ka''^' placed the outside 
soul there. Wlien a child is still unborn the small soul is already 
within it. And the large soul is close to the unborn child. Only 
the small soul goes to the west where lyapa'ta''^' is. The small soul 
can be reborn. This may happen four times. It will have a new 
large soul each time. The large souls come from Wi'sA'kii'*'. The 
small souls come from Ke'tcimanetow""*^'. "WTien one tliat is dead 
comes back to life, the small soul has reentered a body. After 
death for four days the small soul will stay near the dead. The 
large soul also stays. After four days the small soul goes under- 
neath the ground; what is to happen at its destination has already 
been done. A hole has been bored in its liead and charcoal is put 
in it. This is so the soul will forget the people on this earth, etc. 
The soul then leaves. Tliere is a soul-river (tcipaiyi'sipowi), and a 
soul-bridge (tcIpaiyiku'ka'igAni). The souls must cross this. If the 
soul is bad, it falls off. If the soiil falls off, it stays there till the 
end of the world. If the soul is good it gets across and arrives where 
the souls are kept. Tliere is only one path. It is fixed so that 
flowers bloom on both sides of it, and there are trees. If the little 
soul turns out to be bad it will rest by those trees. There are two 
paths at the soul-bridge: one is red and one gray. The red path is 
followed by men, the gray by women. Young people, boys and 
girls take their choice. At fu-st thev come to where small children are 



MICHELSON.] INTEODUCTIOjST. 359 

kept. Mter passing foiir hills they come to where boys and girls are. 
^yter four more hills they come to where divorced people are; after 
four more hills they come to where older people are. That is where 
lyapa'tii''^' is. lyapa'ta"*' has them dance four days. After the 
dances are over, whenever they are thirsty they drink out of that river; 
but they never get enough. When ghost-feasts are held (a'tclpe'ku'- 
'kwawii'^tc'') they get enough. The big soul stays where the body is; 
it seems as if it guarded the body. That is what frightens people 
sometimes. As long as the bodies last, those large souls are by them. 
Tlie reason the large souls watch is so that no one will disturb the 
bodies, bones, or anything. When any one disturbs the bodies, the 
large souls tell at the end of the world. At the end of the world the 
large souls are asked if they are going to do the same again. The 
small souls are reminders; they will make one think that they have 
existed previously. Formerly if a young couple were living with the 
man's people, if the man died, the widow stayed four years with them. 



When everything is ready the one to be adopted is called. The 
person handling the food will take a little piece of everything and put 
it in the mouth of the one adopted. Tlien he or she is asked to feed 
him or herself. iVf ter this is done they change the clothes of the one 
adopted. Then he o*- she gets off the bench and stands there facing 
the east. A person then speaks to him or her, saying that he or she is 
called upon to take the place of the dead; he or she will be related to 
the relatives of the dead exactly as the dead was. They then talk 
as if to the spirit of the dead, saying that he or she is now permitted 
to go to the west where Aiyapii'ta'-*^' is, and he or she is asked to do a 
favor for his or her relatives which he or she left on the surface of the 
earth, that he or she should pray to Aiyapa'tii"'*^' to bless his or her 
relatives. Wlien the dead departs westward, he or she is told not to 
look back at his or her relatives, and only to look forward tiU he or 
she arrives where Aiyapa'ta'^' is. Then the one adopted is led 
around four times inside the wickiup. Tlie fourth time he or she 
goes out having Indian tobacco in his or her hand. After going out 
the one adopted drops the tobacco, invites persons, and goes where 
the goods are hanging. Then a little dance is held and games are 
played. In the case of an adoption to take the place of a man 
lacrosse is played, or in case the adoption-feast is held for a woman 
the Indian dice game is played. All this time the one adopted is not 
supposed to look back at all. After the dance is over, calicoes are 
distributed among those invited. And then these go away from the 
place. After this is done they claim that the soul of the dead has 
departed. Some time later it is the right thing for the adoj^ted to 
return goods, flour, and sugar. The people who made the adoption 



360 FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [eth. ANN. 40. 

put food on the fire. It is believed tliat if the adopted lool^s back, 
some relative of those adopting will soon die. If the adopted stum- 
bles, the same will happen. The rules for a widow to observe are 
nearly the same as for widowers. Yet after a man is released, he is 
released entirely. A woman is not. She must wait longer before 
getting married. As soon as women lose their husbands they 
unbraid their hair. For four da}'S they h'ave a feast for those who 
did the burying. The fourth day they comb her hair and braid it. 
And it must remain so till she is released. Till released the widow 
must not laugh nor wash her face. Nor dare she go about and talk 
much. She may talk decently to some women. She may not go any 
place where festivals, etc., are being held. She must not put on any 
clothing she wishes: it must be only the clothing which she receives 
from the relatives of her dead husband. If she wears out her moc- 
casins, she dare not patch them. It is proper for the man's relatives 
to do so. In the morning for four days um'eleased widows go east- 
ward c[uite a way, about 3 o'clock in the morning. Tliey do this to 
get out of sight of their husbands. When walking they might know 
that some one was walking behind them; it would be the spirit of 
their dead husband. If they hear something they must not look 
back. Before releasing the widow the man's relatives come over and 
change her clothing, and comb her hair. Wlien they hold an adop- 
tion-feast for the man, at the same time, the same parties will prepare 
some goods for the widow. Wlien the person to be adopted is called 
the widow is called at the same time. As they feed the one to be 
adopted the widow is also fed. It is the belief that the widow and 
her husband are eating together for the last time. Tlie face of the 
widow is washed for the first time since the death of her husband, and 
her hair is combed. The widow will be on the bench opposite the 
man who is to be adopted. After this is done, both will be clad in 
finery. The widow goes out through the west door. Widows are 
then told that from that time onward they can dress better if they can 
afford it. When the widows go home they change their clothes and 
put on their old clothing to show their sorrow at the loss of their 
husbands. Formerly widows waited four years before remarrying; 
to-day they do not. If a widow dreams of her husband, especially 
if she dreams she is sleeping with him, she will die. As soon as a 
woman's husband dies she is told to try to forget him. 

I also subjoin translations (by myself) of thi'ee Fox texts appur- 
tenant to Fox mortuary customs and beliefs, the first two written in 
the current syllabary by Alfred Kiyana and the last by Harry 
Lincoln. The Indian texts themselves were received too late to 
incorporate in the present volume. 



MiciiELsdN.] INTRODUCTION. 361 

WHAT TIIEY DO AVHEN AN ADOPTION-FEAST IS HELD, WHEN THE PEOPLE 
RELEASE EACH OTHER. 

Tliosc giving the adoption-feast have much food; not a little, much. 
Tliey are playing with each other for the last time. Tliey are stopping 
to play with their relatives for the last time. They play only the 
kinds of games (their relatives) enjoyed (playing) while alive. Those 
invited dance heartily. And those related to (the dead) are they 
who dance heartily where those whom they have adopted are dancing. 
They dance where (the adopted) are dancing. They are dancing 
with (the dead) for the last time. 

(Tliis) is how it is arranged inside when an adoption-feast is held.' 
And this is how the adopted sit. Tliat is how they sit. And that 
is how they walk. Tliere are very many people there when that 
happens. A long time ago, to be sure, it is said, only those who 
were invited were those there, not simply any one. And to-day 
there are very many there, simply anybody; and there is much food. 
Also it is said that (formerly) it was not so: there was but a little 
food, not a large amount. Surely there must be a large amount 
to-day. Wlien anyone cooks a little he is blamed. That is an evil 
thing we have done once. 

Ball players play ball there. Tliose who first hurl this ball, hurl 
it toward the west. "WTien the Ki'ckos first touch they hurl it in 
that direction. And when the To'kans touch it first they hurl it in 
that direction. Tlie ball playei's (always) use lacrosse sticks: that is 
what they call them. When the To'kans win, they are supposed to 
eat. To'kan-bowls: that is what they are called. And when the 
Ki'ckos win, they are called Ki'cko-bowls. (Tliose holding the 
adoption-feast) desire that all the people dine sumptuously. Tliat is 
how the people hold adoption-feasts. No one is supposed not to eat. 
Every one of those there, as many as went to plaj with the one for 
whom the adoption-feast is held, are expected to eat. Tliey desire 
that no one go away from there hungry: they desire that all of the 
people eat, even children, no matter what they eat. No person is 
thus thought of, "Do not eat." That, it is said, is what those giving 
the adoption-feast and those attired in finery think of the entire 
crowd. 

It is not lawful for (the adopted) to look inside: they must look 
straight ahead. It is said that it was against their religion for those 
adopted to look baclavard. That, it is said, is what they did. 

Then they begin to give calicoes to those whom they invited, the 
entire group whom they invited: there is no one to whom they do 
not make presents. Surely they make presents to the entire group 

2 Refers to a diagram not reproduced here. 
3599°— 25t 24 



362 FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [eth. akn. 40. 

whom tliey invited. The calicoes are counted, niey go about 
holding in their hands exactly as many inviting-sticks as there are 
calicoes hanging on (the poles). Tlie adopted invite those invited; 
any one they first meet are the ones they invite. It certainly is not 
merely any one: it is only those they meet first. Tliey precisely 
are those they invite. They continue to invite them as they meet 
them in turn. 

Old men are those who speak to those arrayed in finery (i. e., those 
adopted) . These (latter) do not start to walk on at simply any time : 
whenever they are arrayed in finery, (the speakers) stop to thoroughly 
instruct them for a long time as to what they shall think about, and 
how they are to regard those to whom they are going to be related. 
It seems as if (the adopted) is selected to be made a relative from 
among those to whom they desire to be related. That is how they 
adopt each other: as they were related to the dead, they will be 
related to each other in precisely the same way. That is how they 
adopt each other. And from that time onward the one adopted is 
well treated. The one adopted is regarded exactly as the dead was 
regarded. And later on he (or she) begins to buy flour, and coffee, 
and sugar — any kind of food. It shall not be a little but much of it, 
bounteous so that the amount of coffee bought and brought to where 
(the adopters) live will last for one year.^ Moreover, the sugar (shall) 
be plentiful and abundant. And whenever there is much of it they 
fetch it and take it to where the one by whom they were adopted 
(literally, clad in finery) lives, and there they give it away. All then 
begin to frequently visit those by whom they were adopted. Tliat 
is what they do. Tliey are fond as possible of each other. And 
they begin to constantly array (the one adopted) in finery and fre- 
quently give him finery. Then they are always closely related to 
each other. 

i\jid the one who speaks at length to the one who has been clad in 
finery (the one spoken to) has been seated there, inside, early in the 
morning. And the one who is going to make them dance has already 
been seated there a long time. And one person attends to cooking 
the food: one man, one woman. So there are two who attend to the 
cooking. The man fetches the water: the woman merely continues 
to look at the food being cooked. 'When (the cooking) is done, the 
man says, "That is all," and takes it off the fire. Then the man goes 
about with much smoking tobacco and much chewing tobacco. Any 
one that is in the habit of chewing tobacco, he gives a chew, and any 
one in the habit of smoking he gives a smoke. It is lawful for any 
one to ask for tobacco and for any one who drinks to ask for water. 
He himself dips out water for him. The one who does that always 
stands about. If, however, any one has been hired it is not lawful 

* Free rendition. 



MICHELSON.] INTRODUCTION. 363 

for any one to say, "I shall not do so.'-' Every one always says, 
"All right." That is what he was told a long time, and it is so even 
to-day: it has not been changed. Even to-day they still do what 
the people did a long time ago. The Meskwakies still do so. 

And a woman is made to stop and play with (the dead) before (she 
leaves). When they play the double-ball game, only women play it, 
not men. Only women play this. The one adopted throws the 
double balls in the air. And when a Ki'cko woman begins to throw 
them she first throws them toward the west. And when an O'ckA'c 
[To'kan] woman touches them first she throws them toward the west. 
Fom* times they hrow them in (the goal) . Then they win.. When the 
Ki'ck5 women throw them in (the goal) four times first then they win. 
And when the O'ckA'c women throw them in (the goal) first four 
times, then they win. Wlien the women stand thus, the women are 
told: "Do not fight each other. You must merely play together. 
Do not become angry at each other. You must play with each other 
quietly. Let no one be angry if she is accidentally hit. You must 
play quietly with each other," those who are made to play with the 
future ghosts are told. Sure enough, no one gets angry. They play 
quietly (fairly) with each other. The peoi)le begin to think that they 
are really playing with (the dead) for the last time. That is how it is. 
Tliey are stopping to play happily with the dead for the last time. 
Those related to (the dead) think their relatives arc truly there. Some 
cry at the time. Nothing affects some who feel happy. It is a sign 
that they have done nothing mean. And those who have acted badly 
toward (the dead) cry whenever their relative is released by an 
adoption-feast. And when good-hearted people live properly, when 
they hold an adoption-feast, it is a perfectly splendid day. And 
when bad people do this, it is a bad day. Sometimes it rains. It is a 
bad day in some way. It is not a good day, it is boimd to be a bad 
day in some way. Even when it is a good day it changes to be a 
bad day. And whenever good-hearted people hold an adoption- 
feast when it is a bad day, even when it is raining hard, or when it is 
a bad day in any way, it becomes a perfectly splendid day and full 
of sunshine, when they do that, hold an adoption-feast. 

Now why they employ a person accustomed to speaking is because 
they desire to be instructed regarding what they are to think of each 
other, and how they should think of the one for whom they are hold- 
ing the adoption-feast. They are not thoroughly instructed for a 
short time; they are told for a long time the thought which they 
should think of the (dead), and they are told never to speak angrily 
of (the dead). 

And those who are arrayed in finery are instructed while they are 
being properly clothed. Tliey are told how they will be related to 
the ones who will be their relatives, the relatives of (the dead). 



364 FOX MORTUABY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [eth. ANN. 40. 

"This is how you will be related to them," they are told while they 
are being properly clad there, when they are made to wear fine 
apparel. They must not attire themselves in finery there. There 
are (people) there by whom they are clad in finery and properly 
attired, (persons) employed (for that purpose). And the (persons) 
who clothe (the adopted) properly are given a very little finery, not 
abundant. Because they have been hired is why they are given it. 

And when the (adopted) have been clothed, they make firm their 
foothold and a pause is made to address them earnestly. Tliey stop 
to talk to them earnestly for a long time. It is as if the ghost were 
spoken to earnestly there when they are addressed earnestly. The 
ghost is spoken to earnestly there for a long time. When they have 
been spoken to, they walk in a circle fom* times. As soon as they 
have walked in a circle four times, they start to walk out. From 
there they go about inviting anyone they see. As soon as they have 
walked about they go and stand fixedly where the calicoes hang. 
Then food is carried out. They begin to "set the table." Tlien 
those invited sit do\vn comfortably and then immediately some one 
says "Eat." He summons any one, not only those he wishes. 
Every one, the whole crowd of people, is summoned to eat. As soon 
as they have eaten they begin to play all sorts of games with each 
other. As soon as they finish playing with each other, they go home. 
That is all. 

THE GHOST FEAST. 

A person, it is said, is extremely sorry when his (or her) relative 
dies. It seems then that he (or she) began to fast earnestly when 
he (or she) wailed over his (her) relative. He (or she) always blackens 
his (or her) face with charcoal before the sun rises. Wlien he (or 
she) has painted his (or her) self, when he (or she) has blackened his 
(or her) face with charcoal, he (or she) departs. He (or she) stops 
to throw Indian tobacco on the fire before departing. "Now, my 
grandfather, as I am wretched, I must go -wailing over the one to 
whom I am related so that I may go about weeping from here," is 
what he (or she) says to the Spirit of Fire. The one wailing over (the 
dead) forthwith departs. That is always what (the person) does. 
Before the sun rises, he (or she) has already departed. He (or she) 
goes about in the forest weeping. 

It seems as if he made our nejjhews ' sorrowful at the time when he 
(or she) was informed what happened to them when they were hated 
by the manitous. At first there was (but) one manitou by whom 
they were hated. Soon there were two. They (Wi'sA'ka'*') and his 
younger brother were living in perfect health (but) both treated their 
fellow manitous harshly. Finally some of the manitous not living 

sThat is, Wi'sA'kii'A' and Aiyapa'ta'*'. 



MICHELSON.] INTRODUCTIOX. 365 

in peace and comfort thought they could not live happily. Then 
soon there were three who hated (the brothers). Now it seems after 
there were four of those manitous right away there were many by 
whom they were hated: such is the report concerning our nephews." 
Then their fellow manitous began to take council: four times they 
took council concerning (our nephews). Their grandmother was 
summoned. 

Tlie old woman was simimoned. When she arrived there, there 
was a long lodge where the councillors were debating with loud voices. 
It is a fact that when she entered there were only men there. In the 
center there was a carpet. "Here," she was told by the ceremonial 
attendant. But she said "Here," and the old woman tlirew herself 
down heavily at the threshold. Then they began to speak saying 
that her larger grandson was hated. They spoke in one strain. 
^Ylicn she had listened to what all said, then, it is said, the old woman 
started to rise to her feet. "It is not possible for you to overpower 
my grandchild. I think my grandchild has already all his plans," 
she said. "However the Ceremonial Rimner is the one whom you 
might contrive to overpower if you were to kill either of them," she 
said. "Even now my grandchild would not fail to know what you 
say to me," she said to them and went out. 

Tlien at the time they heard no more of it: such is the report con- 
cerning our nephews. Then one man went around crying out, "Now 
those of us who are brothers shall go in groups in opposite directions," 
he said. "I am bragging for those of us who are Ki'ckos and those 
of us who are 0'ckii.'ces," said the crier. And those who went along 
went with others in opposite directions. As they went with the 
groups they went in opposite directions, WrsA'ka'"^' going to the 
north and his younger brother to the south. WfsA'ka'*' continued 
to lose more and more of those whom he accompanied. Finally they 
were a few, a very few. Finally they made all sorts of excuses. 
"Why I must stop to tie my moccasin-string carefully," they said, 
or " I must stop to tie my legging-strap carefully," they said. Finally 
there were three running. Wi'sA'ka''*^' was rimning in between. "I 
shall not lose sight of these," he thought. As he winked his eye 
once he lost one. Then there were but two. "Oh I shall not lose 
this fellow," he thought. They were going at full speed. Now he 
lost him as he winked. He stood aroimd now here now there. 
Soon he discovered his younger brother by the sound of his voice. 
Blindly he started to run toward where he heard hmi. The fom-th 
time he started to rim, lo, he heard the cries of his younger brother 
fainter and fainter. "Why, Wi'sA'ka''^', my elder brother, now they 
are killing me," he said, "'Where, pray, are you? These fellow 
manitous are killing me," he said. Then (Wi'sA'ka'^') ceased hear- 

«That is, Wi'SA'kii'A' and Aiyapa'ta'*'. 



366 FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [eth. ANN. 40. 

ing him. Tlien he ran that way: such is tho report concerning our 
nephew. He leaped from crest to crest of the great mountains: such 
is the report concerning (our nephew). Wlien he arrived there on 
tlie run the grass was twisted where his younger brother had strug- 
gled. He felt like as if to cry. This whole earth shook and quaked. 
"Oh, go down in the earth," the manitous said to each other: such 
is the report concerning them. Then WrsA'ka'"^' started to turn 
and stand. He felt like crying. Then nearly all the manitous 
nearly fell out (of their holes). "Do your best, for it is your fault 
as you challenged Wl'sA'kii''^'; you must get very far down in the 
earth," they said to each other: such is the report on the manitous. 
Surely there was fear: such is the report concerning them. Some 
were very much afraid. 

Then Wi'sA'ka"'^" departed for where (his people) lived. When he 
arrived where they lived there were merely deserted lodges. "Why, 
grandmother, where are all the people who were here T' he said to her. 
''What is it, my grandchild," he M^as told. "Why they who were 
here were not people," (she said to him). "Where are they all, I 
said," he said to his little grandmother. "Oh, did you think they 
were people? They were manitous, my grandchild." "Oh, yes, 
they must be manitous. I thought they were mortals, grand- 
mother," he said to his little grandmother. "No, my grandchild, 
they are truly manitous," he was told by his little grandmother. 

Then it is said, Wi'sA'ka"'^" lay down. Pie lay down doubled up 
where he was. At night he heard some one far off. The second 
night he heard him about fairly near. "Why, I wonder what it is," 
he thought. The third time he heard him very near by. "Why, my 
younger brother has been slain," he thought, "some one has probably 
come to play a joke on me," he thought. "Assuredly my younger 
brother has been slain," he thought. The fourth night he thought 
(some one) was coming. He thought he was surely close to the door. 
' ' Now, my elder brother, open( this) for me," he was told. He merely 
changed (the position) where he lay. And he turned over to the other 
side. "Come, our fellow manitous have released me," he was told. 
Oh, so be it, eventually our nephew turned where he lay: such is the 
report concerning our nephew, so be it. The fourth time he was 
spoken to, his little brother had his finger-nails showing. "Come, 
my elder brother, what, pi'ay, is the reason that you do not open (the 
door) for me?" he was told at the time. "My little brother, I must 
not open (the door) for you," he said to him. "Why, in this way you 
have made our aunts and uncles wretched," he was told. "Now, my 
little brother, I did not stop to think that our aunts and imcles would 
come to life again," he was told. "Now by chance I have wailed 
much over you, by chance the manitous have heard me. I simpl}^ 
did not think of anything; that is why I was not clever," he said to 



MicHELSON.] INTRODUCTION. 367 

his little brother. "Now, my little brother, I must not open (the 
door) for you," he said to him. "Where this manitou who goes by 
shining when there is daylight (i. e., the sun) continues to go out of 
sight, there you will go and kindle a fire for our aimts and our uncles," 
he said to him. 

Then (Wl'sA'ka'^') started to rise to his feet, took do-wn their rattle, 
picked up their drum, slid their flute out of a bundle, and then 
(picked up) their burning fire stick. "That, my little brother, is 
what I fetched you," he said to him. "Now, my little brother, 
should 3'ou think, 'I shall lose sight of much of our food,' (you are 
mistaken :) your food will, so be it, be far nicer. Our axmts and our 
miclcs will continue to bring you much of it. Should jon think, 
'I shall lose smoking tobacco,' my little brother, verily our aunts and 
our uncles will always bring it to you. Should you think, 'Oh what a 
lot of goods I have left,' my little brother, as long as the earth con- 
tinues to be green, our aunts and our uncles will continue to bring 
more to you," he said to him. "And, my little brother, you will have 
more power than those called manitous : they will not have as much 
power as you.^ You alone will have fivefold power,"* he said to 
his younger brother. "But, my younger brother, you must have 
pity on those I shall live with in the future. Surely, my younger 
brother, my people are going to be wretched. Verily, you must bless 
them for my sake, so that they shall ask back from each other that 
with which each shall cover each other (i. e., blankets). Exactly 
what you think of my (people) they will do, in whatever way you 
think of them and in whatever way you bless them. Surely my 
fellow-people and I shall live wretchedly," he said to him, "my 
younger brother, when you start to leave me this day, you will walk 
away quietly. Do not think of looking back at me just for fun. 
You must, my younger brother, merely think of what is good, and 
do not think of being down-hearted. You must think quietly so you 
may have a good step in your walk ( ?) . You must look only straight 
ahead. Do not think of looking sideways anywhere. Nor must 
you think uselessly of this our habitation. Do not think of your 
former possessions. You must quietly walk away to-day. You 
must believe what I say to you. You must remember what I say 
to you. Do not, my younger brother, fail to recollect what I tell you 
here this day. Ai\d, so be it, my younger brother, whenever our 
aunts eventually remember each other they will always ask each 
other fervently for food and for that with which they cover each 
other (i. e., blankets), or anything, even life. You must bless them 
for my sake in whatever way you think of them for my sake. Those 
with whom I live shall be wretched indeed, my little brother," he said 
to him. 

' Free rendition, but the sense of the passage. 
8 That is, iive times that of the other manitous. 



368 rOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [eth. ann.40. 

Aiid, SO be it, any one ° who thinks of it is told (by the other 
people), "Do not think you have separated entirely from the relative 
of whom you have lost sight." And that verily is why one does 
not thmk of his own mouth.'" And it is why one places (food) at 
the edge of the fire for one's relatives. Even at the present time the 
darkness comes and stands." And, so be it, they also place water 
with (the food) as (the dead) desire it. 

Oh, how, so be it, wiU be it that Aiyapa'ta''*" will not be made 
mindful when he first puffs the tobacco? He will be made mindful 
by what he was told by his elder brother. He will think, "Well, I 
had an elder brother; he told me, 'you must bless them for my 
sake.'" And as soon as he is brought this food yonder by his aunts 
and his uncles, he will forthwith be made mindful in this way. And, 
so be it, when this darkness comes to be midnight, then (the ghosts) 
will make a fog smoking this tobacco on their way.'^ This is said 
of those named (i. e., the ghosts), "They are making a fog smoking." 
And so they (the ghosts) shall stand in single file. The one named 
first shall stand ahead. (A relative) will speak to him first. And 
(the ghosts) are spoken to as they are named. (On returning to Aiya- 
pa'ta''^') they must stand in the order (they stood at the ghost-feast), 
and they must tell what they were told by the one who remembered 
them. They must tell it exactly to Aiyapa'ta'*". "Oh this really 
is what they told us who remembered us and whom we left in wretch- 
edness on the face of the earth," they will say to him. "They asked us 
to think of something good for them, and that they might live long 
with their fellow mortals. That is what they asked of us. And that 
they reach an old age (is what they asked of) their respective rela- 
tives. Oh, they also asked us to return to them this with which 
we are clad. Oh, they also asked us that whenever they were spoken 
to evilly from across the earth (?) (that this might not happen). 
That we kindly remove disease from them, they likewise asked us. 
Those who remembered us asked of us every thing that is good," so 
be it, they will say to Aiyapa'ta'"^'. 

Oh, they really will live in person with the manitou there. They 
will surely have a nice life there. "Those who remembered us with 
this food ask us that we bless them that way." Tliat is what (the 
ghosts) will say to lyapa'ta"^" (a variant of Aiyapa'ta"^') with whom 
they live. 

Now (the ghosts) make the (food) increase: such is the report 
regarding them. "Now they said to us that they would increase 
this food." 

• Literally, this one. 

i» That is, one does not think so much of feeding one's self as feeding the ghost by having a ghost-feast. 

11 That is, when it is dark the dead relatives take the food. 

1! Free rendition, hut the exact sense. 

13 Spoken by the ghost named. 



MiCHELSON.] INTRODUCTION. 369 

"They must coax them that way. And now as many of us as are 
invited will sleep pleasantly, live in health, and, so be it, we shall 
each and every one of us continue to see the manitou's earth as he 
continues to change its seasons, all of you to whom I am related. 
ThatisaU."'* 

SOME FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS '^ 

Well, soon a baby died. And a (pcreon) M'ent about telling the 
news. The Indians were told. And at the same time (the pei-son) 
went about telling those who were to sing and those who were to 
come and smoke. He went about and also summoned those who were 
to come and smoke that veiy night. And the next day he went about 
asking those who were to dig the grave to come with him. So I 
also was asked to accompanj^ him. It was impossible for me to be 
un^\■illing. Of course it is a rule that one must be %\'illing when one is 
asked to go vnth. one. This is how they liire each other. It seems 
as if Indians will continue to be busied in exactly the same way. 
And they go and give assistance. 

When children are laid to rest there are not very many (needed). 
There are four (men) some place, it is said. And when a grown person 
dies, eight is the number, it is said. When any grown person dies 
there are many indeed, it is said. That is what is done. So I departed 
as soon as I was asked to come along. When I came where this 
(child) who had lost its life was, I entered. Lo, this (child) who had 
lost its life was there. And I began to measure how large he was and 
to measure what the size of (the dead body) was. 

And there were dry goods for (the dead) to wear at the time of 
being laid to rest. That is how it is. 

Now, as soon as I had measured (the dead) I went to see whether 
there were boards enough. As soon as I had looked at them I went 
to tell how many there were and how long they were ( ?) , and (I went 
to tell) every little thing which I desired, those things, for instance, 
which would be used, both nails and a saw which would be used in 
making this casket. . 

So we again departed yonder to the graveyard. When we came 
yonder we again sought a relative (of the dead) . And as soon as we 
found one on the north side then we dug the grave. That is how it is. 

As soon as we had dug the grave then we also began to make this 
casket. Moreover, we also made the covering (of the grave). This 
is how deep the grave was, four and a half feet; such is the number of 
feet (deep) the grave was. That is how it was. 

And as soon as we had finished digging the grave we also tried 
placing the casket (inside the grave) to (see if) it fitted well. As soon 

I* Spoken by the speaker at the ghost-feast. 

1^ The first part describes some events which actually took place. The second part is a series of obser- 
vations. 



370 FOX MOKTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [f.th. ANN. 40. 

as it fitted well tlien indeed we were tlirough our work. So we 
informed this head-man. He himself simply remained seated. We 
simply kept on telling him we were getting along unth our work. That 
is how it was with respect to this head-man. He was simply told 
when the work was done. And as soon as we were finished with our 
work we informed him. Then, indeed, he departed and went to give 
the information. And when he came yonder he told (them), "Well, 
now they have finished with their work," said he. 

And they again began to dress properly the one who had lost his 
life. At that time they began to bathe him. As soon as he was 
bathed, he was properly clothed. First he was combed. That is 
what they did first. As soon as his hair was combed then they began 
putting a necklace on him. As soon as a necklace was put on him 
a shirt was put on him, and then his leggings. As soon as a shirt 
was put on him, then moccasins (were put on him). And they began 
putting another shirt on him. And he was likewise covered with a 
blanket. And they also began to paint (his face). As soon as (his 
face) was painted they, moreover, stopped to address him, and he 
was told what he should say to (Aiyapa'ta''^') when he arrived where 
the latter dwelt. He was asked to bless the relatives with life only. 
That is what he was told. 

And then the head-man was given charge of him. And he (the 
head-man) started to pick (the dead) up and also began to speak. 
As soon as he had spoken a little, he began to lead (the dead) to the 
graveyard. Wlien he brought liim there he was met by some (people) • 
That is what they did. And then they placed the casket properly 
on the grave. At that time tliis person wlio had lost his life was 
placed witliin the cavity of (the casket) . That is how it was. That 
is what the people do. 

And as soon as this dead had been brought to and laid in the 
cavity of (the casket), one person, one skilled in oratory, was handed 
Indian tobacco. And he, moreover, began to speak to (the dead) 
and told him to think of what is good on his way and not to remember 
what is evil. That is what tliis person who spoke at length to him 
said to liim. That he remove every disease from those related to 
him (the dead), is what (the dead) was besought to tell Aiyapa'tti'*" 
who resides (?) in the west. And (the dead) was asked to turn back 
to those related to him all (the goods) which he was taking, and (he 
was asked) to think of these persons in that way." That is all. 

When they had finished speaking to him then he was lowered (in 
the grave) . Then they began to bury him. As soon as he was 
buried they spoke again. They told these earths [i. e., Mother-of- 
all-the-Earth] that this one (who had lost his life) lay peacefully 

" Free rendition. 



MICHELSON.] INTRODUCTION. 371 

within them (and they asked) that these who dwelt on the surface 
of the earth be blessed with life. That is what they were told." 
That is all. 

And then (those in charge) were all finished with their work. And 
they who had laid (the dead) to rest were told to go and eat. So 
they departed where they dwelt where tliis dead person was taken up. 
So they departed and went to eat. Wlien they came yonder they 
sat down comfortably in a group, (and) this one in whose family the 
death had occurred/' spoke as he thought: "Well, now to-day you 
have placed this one to whom we are related well and carefully (to 
rest). We are pleased that you did not refuse the one wo employed 
to employ you. That is why you are to eat," said he whose dead 
(it had been) . Then these men began to eat. That is how it was. 
That was how this performance was which I saw. That is how I 
have repeatedly seen these Indians do. This is simply the way 
they have been doing generation after generation. There is nothing 
new in it. So that is why I am telling this to-day the same way. 

And as soon as they had eaten they were also told, "To-morrow 
evening," they were told, "you must come here, you must come to 
eat," they were told. And in the evening they again came there, 
and they went to eat. As soon as they had gathered a table was set 
and they began to eat again.'* And (the speakers) said the same as 
they had said. For four days they continued doing this, (and) in a 
way they fed their dead. That is how it was. And they always ask 
for life. That is what they desire especially, life. That is how it is. 

And they give each other some little thing, formerly the property 
of those who have lost their lives. And they carry it off. Yet it is 
not taken inside (a dwelling) ; for four days these tilings are carefully 
placed somewhere out of doors. They are placed out of doors. At 
the end of four days these things are taken watliin (the dwellings). 
This head-man perhaps gives away some little thing. That is what 
they do. 

At the time this head-man cuts off a stick and stands it on the 
spot where the head of the dead is."^* (It is) as if he teUs to what 
gens the (dead) belonged. That is how it is. 

Now on the fourth day then (the speaker) speaks longer. At 
that tune this Aiyapa'tii''*^" is spoken to directly. He is told to 
bless those relatives whom (the dead) has lost (and) not to desire 
others (to come to him). That is what this Aiyapa'ta''^" is usually 
told. That is what they do. 

And. (this is) another (thing) they do when they feel badlj^ (at the 
death of a relative). On the fourth day is the time when one would 
cry if one (felt like) crying. That is how the story is. Then the 

I' I have been obliged to omit a portion of the original as being illegible. 
18 Free rendition. 



372 FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [eth. anm. 40. 

manitous listened to them. The people did that very (often) long 
ago. But to-day there is a different rule. That is how it is. 

Everything is placed with (the dead) there (i. e., food, etc.), in 
their caskets. (The dead) are brought it. That verily is how this 
rule is. That is how it is. 

The dead are always laid with, their heads facing the west. And 
then (Indian) tobacco is cast on them, from the south side (Indian) 
tobacco is cast on them. (Tobacco) is cast on them in accordance 
with (the rules of) the individual gentes. (In accordance with the 
rules of) some (gentes) tobacco is cast on them from the north side. 
And that is another thing they do. Indian tobacco (not white 
brands) is alwaj's cast on them, when (the dead) are brought it. 

There is, in a way, a story that when an Indian dies, he really 
doesn't die. He merely wanders (?) on this earth. When it is said 
"He is dead" he really is not. He is merely absent for a wliile. 
Soon he will be seen, and all will see each other again. That is one 
thing those who know tell. That is why some of those who know 
do not feel badly when any one dies. Oh, the younger people, to 
be sure, do not know this story. That is why they feel very badly 
when they lose sight of their relatives. That is how all the speakers 
tell their story. They are careful when they tell it. That really 
is how it was while (this was) still Indian country. To-day, to be 
sure, it is a little different. These Meskwaldes do otherwise. They 
act a little differently because they all are of the younger generation. 
That is why these Indians act cUfferently. That is how it is to-day. 

Well, these (people) have placed aside their dead. And we have 
helped them and so pleased them as they did not fail to obtain our 
assent when they emploj-ed us. And so they are glad. And so it 
is that they have placed this food in a pile (for us), and did not con- 
secrate it to their own mouths. To-day they think only of what is 
good. And he who has lost sight of this sky thus leaves these his 
relatives in peace; if he had a mother, grandmother, a maternal 
aunt, a grandfather — all his different relations — he left them all 
prosperous with life. Nor did he think of anything at all evil when 
he started to walk away. And they, these who are related to him, 
must tliink in exactly the same way, merely that they be blessed 
with life by tins person who has left them. And we must continue 
to be kind relatives to each other. That is how this is told. We 
have eaten good food for the benefit of the dead (?) and in this way 
we shall sleep quietly this day when it is night. That is what I say, 
ye men and women, all to whom I am related. 

A point may here be raised — the likeness or dissimilarity of Fox 
(Meskwakie) mortuary customs and beliefs to those of other Algon- 
quian and non-Algonquian tribes, especially those geographically 



MICHELSON.] INTEODUCTIOX. 373 

contiguous. That the reader may properly understand this point I 
give here a few (not exhaustive) refei"ences. 

For the general subject: 
Bdshnell, David I., Jr. Native cemeteries and forms of burial east of the 

Mississippi. Bur. Amer. Ethn., Bull. 71, 1920. 
Fletcher, Alice C. [.\rticle] Mourning. Handbook of American Indians, 

Bur. Amer. Ethn., Bull. 30, pt. 1, 1907. pp. 951-953. 
Orb, R. B. Mortuary customs of our Indian tribes. Thirty-first Archaeo- 
logical Report, 1919. Appendix to the Report of the Minister of Educa- 
tion, Ontario. Toronto, 1919. pp. 56-77. 
Thomas, Cyrus. [Article] Mortuary customs. Handbook of .American Indians, 

Bur. Amer. Ethn., Bull. 30, pt. 1, 1907. pp. 945-947. 
Yarrow, H. C. Introduction to the studv of mortuary customs among North 

American Indians. Washington, ISSO. 
A further contribution to the study of the mortuary customs of the 

North American Indians. First Ann. Rept. Bur. Ethn., pp. 87-203, ISSl." 
For Yuchi: 
Speck, F. Ethnology of the Yuchi Indians. Anthrop. Pubs. Univ. Mus., 

Univ. Pa., vol. i, no. 1, 1909. pp. 97-98. 
For Creek: 
Speck, F. The Creek Indians of Taskigi town. Mem. Amer. Anthrop. Asso., 

vol. II, pt. 2, 1907. pp. 118-119. 
For Delaware: 
Loudon, Archibald. A selection of some of the most interesting narratives of 

outrages committed by the Indians in their wars with the white people. 

Carhsle, 1808. Reprint, 1888. pp. 296-297. 
Gregg, J. Commerce of the prairies. Thwaites' Early Western Travels, 

vol. XX, Cleveland, 1905. p. 316. 
For Meno-mini: 
HoFrMAN, W. I. The Menomini Indians. Fourteenth Ann. Rept. Bur. Ethn., 

pt. 1, 1896. pp. 239-241. 
Skinner, A. Social life and ceremonial bundles of the iNIenomini. Anthrop. 

Papers Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. xin, 1915. pp. 21, 63-72. 
Material culture of the Menomini. Mus. .\mer. Ind., Indian Notes and 

Monographs, 1921. pp. 78-82. 

For Micmac, Montagnais, and Penobscot: 
Speck, F. Kinship terms and the family band among the northeastern Algon- 
kian. Amer. Anthrop., n. s. vol. xx, 191S. p. 149. 
For Ojibwa: 
Jones, W. Central .41gonkin. Annual Archeol. Rept. for 1905, Toronto, 1906. 
p. 136. 

For Sauk: 
Hewitt, J. N. B. [Article] Sauk. Handbook of Amer. Inds., Bur. .\mer. Ethn., 

BuU. 30, pt. 2, 1910. pp. 478-479. 
MicHELsoN, Truman. [Report on Field Work.] In Rept. Smithsonian Inst. 

for 1922, Washington, 1924. p. 63. 
Patterson, J. B., ed. Autobiography of Black Hawk. Oquawka, 111., 1882. 

p. 67. 
Skinner, Alanson. Observations on the ethnology of the Sauk Indians. Bull. 

Pub. Mus. of Milwaukee, vol. v, no. 1, Milwaukee, 1923. pp. 1-57. 
[Also most of the references given under Fox at the beginning of this paper; 

early writers often do not distinguish customs of the two.] 

» No additi'^nal references are given to Yarrow's work for the practices of the various tribes, e.g., Sauk. 



374 FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [cm. anjj. 40. 

For Eastern Cree: 
Skinner, A. Notes on the Eastern Cree and Northern Saulteaux. Anthrop. 
Papers Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. ix, 1912. pp. 80-81. 
For Northern Saulteaux: 
Skinner, A. Ibid. pp. 166 et seq. 

For Plains Ojibwa: 
Skinner, A. Political and ceremonial organization of the Plains-Ojibway. 
Ibid., vol. XI, 1915. p. 493. 
For Polawalomi: 
Armstrong, Perry A. The Sauks and the Black Hawk War. Springfield, 

1SS7. pp. 607 et seq. 
Baldwin, C. C, ed. Indian narrative of Judge Hugh Welch. Western Reserve 
and Northern Ohio Hist. Soc, vol. ii, Tract no. 50, Cleveland, 1888. 
p. 107. 
Lawson, p. V. The Potawatomi. Wisconsin Archeologist, vol. xix, 1920. 

pp. 71-72. 
De Smet, Pierre-J. Life, letters, and travels of Father Pierre-Jean de Smet. 

Vol. Ill, New York, 1905. pp. 1081 et seq., 1091-1092. 
Skinner, Alanson. The Mascoutens or Prairie Potawatomi Indians. Bull. 
Pub. Mus. of Milwaukee, vol. vi, no. 1, Milwaukee, 1924. p. 38 (last 
paragraph) et seq; p. 48 et seq.; 211 et seq.; 219 et seq. 
For Algonqiiia?i Indians in general: 
Perrot, Nicolas. Memoir on the manners, customs, and religion of the savages 
of North America. In Blair's Indian Tribes of the Upper Mississippi 
Valley and region of the Great Lakes, vol. i, Cleveland, 1911. p. 70 
et seq. 
For Kansas: 
Dorsey, J. O. Mourning and war customs of the Kansas. .\mer. Nat., vol. 

XIX, pp. 670-680, 1885. 
Skinner, A. Kansa organizations. Anthrop. Papers .4mer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
vol. XI, 1915. pp. 755, 772-773. 
For Kickapoo: 
Michelson, Truman. [Report on Field Work.] In Rept. Smithsonian Inst, 
for 1922. Washington, 1924. p. 63. 

For Osage: 

BRADBnRY, John. Travels in the interior of ,\merica. In Thwaites' Early 
Western Travels, vol. v, Cleveland, 1904. p. 63. 

Gregg, J. Op. cit. p. 339. 
For Winnebago: 

Lamere, Oliver, and Radin, Paul. Description of a Winnebago funeral. 
Amer. Anthrop., n. s. vol. xiii, 1911. pp. 437-444. 

Radix, Paul. The Winnebago tribe. Thirty-seventh Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. 
Ethn., 1923. pp. 140-155. 

Schoolcraft, Henry R. Information respecting the history, condition, and 
prospects of the Indian tribes of the United States. Vol. iv. Phila., 1854. 
p. 54 et seq. 
For Omaha: 

Dorsey, J. O. Omaha sociology. Third Ann. Rept. Bur. Ethn., 1884. p. 258. 

Fletcher, Alice C, and La Flesche, Francis. The Omaha tribe. Twenty- 
seventh Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1911. pp. 313, 588 et seq., 641. 

For Santee Sioux: 
RiGGS, S. R. Dakota grammar, texts, and ethnography. Cont. N. Amer. 
Ethn., vol. IX, Washington, 1893. p. 210 et seq. 



MicHELsoN.] INTEODUCTION. 375 

For Teton Sioux: 
DoKSEY, J. O. Teton folk-lore. Amer. Anthrop., vol. ii, 1889. pp. 143-148. 

' For Assiniboine: 
LowiE, Robert H. The Assiniboine. Anthrop. Papers Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
vol. IV, pt. 1, 1909. pp. 41-42. 
For Comanche: 
Gregg, J. Op. cit. p. 351. 

Robert H. Lowic's Primitive Society, chapter ii, should be con- 
sulted for the levirate and sororate in general. Dr. John R. Swanton 
informs me that among the Alibamu the clan to which the deceased 
wife or husband belonged must replace them for the opposite con- 
tracting party. Among the Kickapoo the junior levhate only occurs, 
to judge from my unpublished Kickapoo texts on Kickapoo mortuary 
customs and beliefs. Yet as these were obtained from Init a single 
informant I should not consider this as absolutely conclusive. 

Going back to the question of likeness and dissimilarity of mortuary 
customs and beliefs, it is clear that a nimiber of features are shared 
in common between the Foxes and other tribes. Some of these 
similarities are too detailed to be the result of independent origin. 
In .short, acculturation has taken place extensively. Among the 
Siouan tribes this has also taken place. Concrete proof of tliis is the 
fact that both the Fox and Winnebago believe that if a widow or 
widower unreleased from death-ceremonies goes tlirough a garden 
the crops will die; that if they touch a tree it will die; moreover? 
both tribes have injunctions that such persons must not go bare- 
footed, and that they must dress shabbily; etc. The problem of 
um-aveling tliis matter in detail can not be solved until we have 
much more detailed information among the tribes to which references 
have been given and others also (e. g., Iowa, etc.). A clear case of 
such borrowing is the custom of a man having a claun on his deceased 
wife's sisters. 

Quite similar to the question raised above is that regarding the 
culture-hero's peculiar relationship to mortals. He is related to them 
as sister's son. Obviously then, with a male speaker, he will be 
"nephew" and with a female speaker, "son." This follows from the 
Fox system of consanguinity. But he is related to mortals this way also 
among the Sauk, Kickapoo, Potawatomi [Prairie Band], and Menomini. 
Sauk, Kickapoo, and Potawatomi [Prairie Band] have even direct 
correspondents to Fox Wi'sA'ka''^'. And Peoria and Cree have 
forms which correspond absolutely to Wi'sA'ka'tcag'"''^', the form 
which occurs in songs among the Foxes. A cjuery may be asked, 
whether this may not be the old Central Algoncpian word ? Among 
the Northern Saulteaux, etc., the word is obviously borrowed; it 
may be original in the Cree group of Central Algonquian languages. 
The Menomini and Ojibwa words correspond to each other, but can 



376 FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [eth. ANN. jo. 

not be phonetic correspondents; therefore borrowing seems most 
likely. The same applies to the name of tlie brother of the culture- 
hero among the Foxes (Aiyapa'ta'-^' and variants) .'" Mexican Kicka- 
poo Pa'pa'tii'A^, Ojibwa Niina'iDadam and Menomini Ona'pata obvi- 
ously resemble it; but these can not be phonetic correspondents; and 
so borrowing seems plausible. The case is different with regard to 
Fox Tclpaiyapo's'^'^', a rare alternate to Aiyapa'ta'^'. For Tcipaiya- 
po's"*' has a phonetic equivalent among the Mexican Kickapoo and 
the Potawatomi [Prairie Band]. At present I can not determine 
with certainty whether this is a case of acculturation or an old in- 
herited word. 

Another point should be brought out here. Wi'sA'ka''^' and his 
brother Ai3'apa'ta''^' are referred to in the Indian texts of this paper 
as "our nephew(s)," etc. As noted above, "nephew" means sister's 
son with a male speaker. Observe that in these sacred discourses 
the ordinary Fox word for "nephew" with the appropriate possessive 
pronoun is not used; and this holds true in other Fox texts on mor- 
tuary customs which are not reproduced here; and it also holds true 
for all Fox speeches I have heard at burials. On the contrary, in 
all such cases it is the exact phonetic equivalent of the Ojibwa, 
Ottawa, Peoria, Miami (etc.), and wShawnee terms according to the 
schedules of Morgan, Jones (unpublished), and Michelson (unpub- 
lished) ; naturally the appropriate possessive pronoun is used in any 
given passage. Thus, kenegwAne's'^' "your (sing.) nephew," keneg- 
WAne'senan"'^" "om- (inch) nephew," kenegNVAne'senauAg'''" "our 
(inch) nephews." The ordinary respective equivalents are keneg- 
wa'*', keneg^va'enan"'^', kenegwa'enanAg''''. Obviously the first set 
are derived from the word for "son-in-law" (Fox nenegsvAn"-^' 
"my son-in-law") with the addition of the diminutive suffix -'s-. 
This last kinship term has an exact equivalent in Ojibwa, Ottawa, 
Sauk, Kickapoo, and perhaps Peoria-' and Miami (etc.). This 
clearly favors the custom of cross-cousin marriage, but it is inter- 
esting to note tliat such a marriage is abhorrent to the Foxes at 
least. It may be noted, however, that according to the schedules of 
Morgan, Baraga, and Jones there are several kinship terms in Ojibwa 
which distinctly favor such a type of marriage, not merely one. And 
Lacombe's Cree schedules favor it. It would be interesting to know 
whether among both of them cross-cousin marriage actually takes 
place. According to the evidence set forth it would seem that the 
sacrosanct word for "nephew" in Fox is probal)ly due to accultm-a- 
tion and is not an old inherited one, even though the word occurs in 
Fox songs (e. g. Jones' Fox Texts, 106.6, where a distorted form for 
"elder sister" occurs in the same song); but the ordhiary word also 

20 Nah-pat-tay (given by Marsh, loc. cit.) is even closer to the Ojibwa and Menomini words; but I can 
not substantiate it. Sauk has the exact equivalent of at least one variant. 

21 My own Peoria schedules do not conform to this, but those of Morgan do 



MicHELSON.] INTBODUCTION. 377 

occurs in them. In the American Anthropologist, n. s., 26, p. 96, I 
pomt out that Morgan's Sauk [Sawk] and Fox schedules are really 
Sauk, and that there are some faults. What concerns us at this 
point is that the Sauk term given for sister's son is the exact equiva- 
lent of the Fox sacrosanct term, not the common term. This is 
absolutely opposed to iriy unpublished Sauk schedules. It may be 
noted that the interpreter Morgan used was a mixed-blood Menomini^ 
and perhaps in this way the unusual term was introduced. In this 
connection it may be stated that according to Morgan's Menomini 
schedules the terms for "my nephew (sister's son)" and "my son- 
in-law" obviously have the same base as in Ojibwa, etc., and so 
favors the existence of cross-cousin marriage. But Skinner does not 
mention such a type of marriage in his Menommi Social Life and 
Ceremonial Bmidles; and it should be noted that the term given by 
him for "my son-in-law" differs totally from that given by Morgan. 
Unfortunately Skinner does not note this discrepancy, and he does 
not seem to be aware of the fact that Morgan had published schedules 
of Menomini kinship terms. It should be stated that according to 
Morgan the Kickapoo term for nephew (sister's son, male speaker) 
is not the ecjuivalent of the ordinary Fox word, but that of the 
sacrosanct word. This is opposed to the published schedules of 
Jones and my own unpublished ones. . Moreover, in some Kickapoo 
texts dealing with mortuaiy customs, etc., dictated by a single 
informant, in phrases almost identical with Fox ones in which the 
sacrosanct word is used, the exact equivalents of common Fox words 
are employed (e. g. kenegwa'enanA^ "oui- [inch] nephew" [sister's 
son, male speaker]). Whether this is a fault on the part of the 
informant or not, I do not know. I do not think that the common 
Fox stem for " nephew" (sister's son, male speaker) is to be explained 
as lacking an n- sufRx, as has been maintained, but is rather to be 
explained as a hypocoristic formation. It should be noted that 
hypocoristic derivatives certainly are to be found among Fox per- 
sonal names. And they also occur in both Osage and Omaha (Fran- 
cis La Flesche, personal communication).^^ As is known, Indo- 
European parallels to the latter abound, e. g., Freddy, Tommy, 
Bess, Sanskrit Devas (for Dovadattas) , Greek TiivnnTos (for ' Aywviiriros) , 
ZeDfts (for ZeO^tTTiros) . Colloquial English sis (for sister) wiU illus- 
trate a hypocoristic kinship term. The whole subject is too well 
known in Indo-European philology to merit special references. 

The Indian texts in this volume were written by various Foxes in 
the current syllabary and subsecjuently restored phonetically by me 
according to the phonetics of Harry Lincoln. The English transla- 

" An Omaha example (in La Flesche's transcription) is Nagi for Mika^inaci "Singed Brown Coyote" 
(Mikafi coyote, nafi singed brown). 
3599°— 25t 25 



378 FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. Teth. ANN. 40. 

tions are based on English paraphrases either written or dictated by 
three Indians, corrected and supplemented by a grammatical analysis 
of the texts. This task was materially lightened by the intelligent 
help rendered by Harry Lincoln. The following will show the authors 
of the texts and English paraphrases: 

Syllabary text by — English paraphrase by — 

A Sam Peters Horace Poweshiek. 

B Sam Peters Horace Poweshiek. 

C Alfred Kiyana Harry Lincoln. 

D Sara Peters Horace Poweshiek. 

E Alfred Kiyana Harry Lincoln. 

F Harry Lincoln Horace Poweshiek. 

G Harry Lincoln Harry Lincoln. 

[ George Young Bear. 



H Joe Peters -.jj j ■ , 

I Harry Lmcoln. 

I Joe Peters George Young Bear. 

K Harry Lincoln Harry Lincoln. 

L Jack BuUard Harry Lincoln. 

Jack Bullard received his information from a very aged woman. 
It should be mentioned that both Sam and Joe Peters have Sauk 
blood on their father's side, though both (as well as their father and 
grandfather) have lived steadily at Tama with the Foxes. 

To more than any one person I am indebted to Harry Lincoln for 
assistance in preparing this paper for press. Besides the help 
which I have acknowledged above, it was through him that the last 
text was obtained; and I have more than once received valuable 
hints on ethnological as well as linguistic matters. 

Text H contained a good deal of matter which, though of ethno- 
logical value, was entirely foreign to mortuary customs and beliefs. 
This extraneous matter has been deled. For a like reason the end 
of text I has been left out. 

As stated above, the English translations are based on paraphrases 
by various Indians, corrected and supplemented by a grammatical 
analysis of the texts. Tliese translations for the most part are as 
literal as possible without violence to English idiomatic use, for my 
aim has been to make the paper serviceable to both the ethnological 
and linguistic student alike. A practically exhaustive list of stems 
(see p. 616 et seq.) as well as some linguistic notes have been added 
as a further aid to the comprehension of the Indian texts. 



A'NE'PO'PTCI MA' NP A'^TCIMON A'CA'WIWA^TC 
A'MAMATO 'MO WA'^TC" . 

Ka'6' mAni'yatuge ne'gutenw A"cawaiye negu'ti na'kA'^tc 
a'cike'ka'netAge'e mA'ni ne'powen"''. Ma'iia me'to'sa'nenlwA 
negu'ti me'cena" kAbo'tw a'wapimamA'kAtawite'"'. Peponigini'- 
megu 'a'wapimamA'kA'tawI''tc''. Me'cena" ne'gutenw kAbo'tw 
Sa'keteminawe'site'"'. "Na'i', mA'ni wi'nA mA'n a'ca'wiyagw 
u'wiya'A nepo'"i''tcin°'V' a"ine''tc''. A''igu<'tc uwIya'Ani'megu. 
"Na'i', mA'n a'mAne'seno'winayagwe mamA'ka''tci'megu wiita'- 
'sawAgi wi'nawA''tcipAgA'tAmogi wata"sawAg''''," a"ine''tc'", 
"wi'AnemitA'cine'^tcame'gowaHci na'seme'^tci''','' a"ine''tc'", "vn- 

10'tapipyane'gowa''tc lya' aya'aiyaiyag'^'^'''. I'ni me'teno'i wi- 
'pyaiyiigw ina"'', I'n a'ca'wiyag''"''''," a"ine'^tc''. "Pwawiga'Ini'ca'- 
wiyag''"®', notA'megu kl'tA'cine'ciwAna'te'sip'^*'," a'"igu''tc'". 
" Ea'ne'ciwAna''tci"e'guwawA nane'ciwAna''*tci'atA me'to'siine'- 
niwa'''," i'nipi a''igu'^tc ini'ni negu't'', na"kA tatA'g a'cike'ka'- 

15netAgi mamA'kA'tawit*'. 

Me'to'''tci tatA'gi mA'ni manemane'seno'wina'^tcig I'na' wi'nA 
nayapi'megu pyawAg'''', i'n a'ca'witcigi mane'senowi'na''tcigi 
niiyapi'megu me'to'saneni'wiwAg''''. I'n a'ke'towa''tci ma'A'gi 
Me'ck\yA''ki'Ag''''. A'gwi na"k i'nina'i kag6"i wawAnanetAmo'- 

20wa'itcin''''. 

Ma'u inina" nepo"i''tcini me'to'sa'nenlw i'n a'nA'tome'*tci wa'ta- 
"siiw a'kA'nakA'nawi^'tc''. MAni'gii' a''ketu''tc'', "Na'i', tci- 
nawamenan inugi mA'ni a'pAnapA'tAmAni mAnet6wa''sayami 
na'kA"*tci ma'netow u'tA'kim"''. A'Anemikugwii'kame'kwi'- 

25'seto''tc u'wiyawi mA'nA k5'kume''senanA Me'sA'kAiniku'kwiiw^'^", 
a'Anemi'A'cki'A'ckipAgame'kwi''set6''tc u'wiyaw"'', mA'ni na'kA'- 
''tc A''ki a'Anemi'A'cki'A'ckipAganA'kwA'gotag u'ki"cegiuni ma'- 
netow a'pAnapA'tAmAn inu'g''''. Ma'u a'pAgo'cu''sayAn a'na'se'- 
'kawA'^tc Aiyapa'ta''^', kiuA^'tca' awA"si ki'menwikiwi'taiya'''. 

30Na'"kA ma'A'g a'tci'nawamA'^tci tca'g a'inago'tAmAni, ca'cki'^tca' 
pemate''siweni na'egA'c ini wi'i"ci'A'pi''kAnA<'tc'', wi'i'ci'u'kunaga'- 
pawa'^tci na"kA'''tc ayi'gi mAne'sen6"i maiya'ckA'mowate wi'i- 
'cipwa'witayapime'gowa''tc uwi'^tci'ckwe'wawa"''. Ini wi'ina'- 
neniA^'tci tcinawamA''tcig'*''. Na'kA'''tci wi'pwawikiwine'ci"capwa- 

35 'ciklmane'cigwaga'pawa''tci tcinawa'mA''tcig''''. I'n"''. Ka'o' 
380 



A. 

THIS IS THE STORY OF WHAT THEY DO AND HOW THEY 
PRAY WHEN THERE IS A DEATH. 

Now it seems this is how once, long ago, a certain person knew 
about death. Soon at one time this mortal began to fast earnestly. 
It was in winter when he began fasting. Soon he was once blessed. 
"Now this is the way you should do when any one dies," he was told. 
He was told by some one. "Now when you die on the warpath the 
warriors must stop and boast of their valorous deeds," he was told, 
"so that they may be taken care of by (the enemy) who are slain," 
he was told, "and so they may be brought straight to where you go. 
That is the only way you will get there, if .you do that," he was told. 
"If you do not do that you will be ruined before (you get there)," 
he was told. "The one who destroys people will destroy you," that, 
it is said, is what he was told by one (person) , and how the one who 
fasted earnestly knew about it- 



It seems as if those who die in warfare get there, those who do that, 
and those who die in warfare live again. That is what these Mes- 
kwakies say. And at that time they were not ignorant of anything. 



Now when a human being died, a warrior was summoned to speak. 
And this is what he said, "Now, my relative, this day you have lost 
sight of the manitou's daylight and this earth of the manitou. You 
have this day lost sight of our grandmother, Mother-of-all-the-Earth, 
as she changes her body, as she makes her body green, and the mani- 
tou's skies which he made green.' Going ahead and reaching Aiya- 
pa'ta"*", you wiU dwell more pleasantly there. And you are to leave 
all these relatives of yours with a good life, you wiU think of them 
and also that they may have such blankets, and that if they meet 
war, their enemies will not be successful in their desires. That is 
the way you are to bless your relatives. And that they may not 
stand around shamefacedly. That is all. And this is how I got the 

' A trifle free. 

381 



382 FOX MORTUABY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [eih. axn. ao. 

mAni'ga'i niA'n a'na'peiiAiiAgi kl'^tcrckwe''enan°*'. A'nyiiwugu'- 
niyani mAni''tca a'ciwane'pe'ni'Ag'^''." I'ni a'a'totAg uwi'^td'- 
'ckwe'An"''. " I'nA''tca' i'nan iya'" wi'tapA'kwi'Anemipemine'^tca- 
me'k Iya' wi''pyane'k*', wi'pe'cigwl'wene'k*','' i'n a'i'nawa'^tci 
5na'sawa'^tcini tana" A"ca'Ani me'cewa'mego'na'''. Ka'o'n a'nl'- 
miwa'^tc'", a'kakagiwe'gawa'^tc''. Na'kA''*tc a'ca'wiwa''tc ii'anA'- 
mowa^'tci na'"ina' a"ne"sawa''tc uwi''tci'ckwe'wawa'''. I'n a'ca'- 
wiwa''tc'". TcAtcawi a'nome'gowa'^tc a'cawiwa''tci\va''megu. 

Nl'iiA nenawawA tapA'kwi Kune'piigawA a'^ci'-suf^', a'kwiye- 

10 'sa''iyan'''', a"nlmi<'tc a'nAna'i'ci'meme''tci nepo'i'ni<*tcin°'". No- 
me'gwigw'ani na''ina' a"ne'sa''tc uwI''tcI''ckwe'An°''. Klwipane- 
'ckApi'AmwA me''teg6''\ Kl'cki'ckAtA''igaw a'n6'megu''tci tatAg 
a'ciwapi'"kanu"^tc''. KitAnotawAineg aylg a'anaVina^'tci tatA'g''''. 
Kl'cipapAgAma'^tc a'tcItci'genAg uma'te's a'krcklgwa'cwa''tc': 

15a'i'ciwapi"kanu''tc''. Ka'ciki'cklgwa'cwa*^tcin A''tca'mcg6n a'pA'- 
gAtAg''"'. Na'kA''*tc'', "Na'", mAnA''kA netAna^'tcimu wa<*tcina'- 
wA'kwag'''','' 'i'wA. "Ne'niwAgi tAna'^tci'mawAg A'ka'sAn"'','' 
iwA'"A. "KA'ci'^tca' i'cawi'wagwan a'pwawine'siig'''"^','' a''ina''tc 
uwi"kana'''. "A'mawinanAgi nomi't*'. 'NlnAku'VinA netA'- 

20gawatA wrnenrwiyan"'',' nete'nawAg'^''," 'iwa"a. "Ne'se'nw 
a'co'wa'kiwe pyayaiyan I'n a"nawAgi nl<^tci"ckwe' a'Ane'me- 
'ka^'tc''. A'kl'kapa'one'g^vlyani niga'n ane'mi'a'^tc a'mawi'sAgA- 
pinAgi nomi'f^'. A"wap5tapa''oyani tatwa"ki'eg a'mawi'cegi'- 
'cinan"''. KAbo'twe ke'te'nA pyii'^tcike'^tcI'wA neni'w^*'. Na'ina' 

25 pya'^tcike'^tci'^tc a'pAgo'ciwiiwa'ciwe'nAmani nepa"cke'sigAn°''. 
Ke'tcina"megu pyatu'sa"*tcin a'pemipA'segwI'*tci"saiyan°''. Ini'- 
megu ume''ta'An a'ana'kwi''sA'a'^tc''. Ini'megu a''pemwAg''''. 
Neni'w A'ta'wa'saw"*'. ApinA'megu nenu'somowA. Kl'cimegape- 
"epA"segwIw"*', na"k a'mawi'nAnAg''''. Iniku" mo'tci, 'Pe"ki 

30 n6"ki''Agigi ne'nu'sog'''', "a"inAg'''". A'mawinano'ke'nawAg''''. Ki- 
'cine'sA'gin a'kl'ckl'gwii'cwAg''''. I'n ana'pe'nAnAgi kl'^tci'ckwe'e- 
nan°*'," i''ketow''*'. "InA^'tca" mAnA I'nini wi'AneminAna'ine''tc- 
ame'gu''tcini ketcIpa'menan°^V' i'n a''ketu<*tc'', "wi'Anemiwetiigu- 
''tcini tA''sw Inug a'wAt6''tc''." I'n a"ketu<'tci mA'nA Kune'pagiiwA 

35a"ci"sut*". 

I'n a'ca'wiwa''tci na''kA negu'ti tatA'g'^'', a'nAna'i"ci'tIwa''tci 
tcinawa'ma^tcigi, ne'gutenwi tatAg a'ca'wiwa'^tc''. Agwi'^tca" 
ninA ke'kanetA'manini tapwamigA'tugwan"''. Na'kA^'tci'megu 
i'nina'i me'tApi'eti'gwii'igi niipo'wa'^tcini me'to'sane'niwAg iiyama'''. 

40 Ka'o'ni na"k a'pAgi'tAmegi ni'atot*', I'ni ku''*tcimego'nIni 
ne'powen"''. Cewa'nA tAga'wimeg ayl'gi pe'kl'nigen"'''. A'^tcipAnA- 
gi"*tci'megu i'd'HawAg''''. 



MiCHELSoN.l WHAT THEY DO WHEN THERE IS A DEATH. 383 

better of our enemy. By fasting for four days I easily killed him," 
he said. Tliat is what he related of his enemy. "So he is the one 
who will take care of you on your way there, who will bring you 
there, who will land you there in a straight line," that is what (the 
warriors) say about the one they killed, a Sioux, or any other. And 
then they danced, they danced a crow dance. And they imitated 
what they did when they slew their foes. That is what they did. 
Sometimes they would be on horseback or the way they actually did. 
I myself saw a (man) called Swaying Wings, when I was a boy, 
dancing when a dead person was laid to rest. He must have been 
riding horseback when he slew his enemy. He was straddling a stick. 
He was whipping it, showing what he did when he was riding horse- 
back. He was also crawling around, sneaking upon (his foe). After 
he dealt him a blow, he held his knife upwards and cut off his head; 
that is the way he pretended to do. After he had cut his head off, he 
struck (a post). And "Well, I shall tell (of my experiences) in the 
south," he said. "Tlie men were talking of a Kaw over there," he 
said. "What was the matter that you didn't slay him? " he said to his 
friends. "Then I got my riding (horse). 'I wish to be the man,' I 
said to them," he said. "When I got over the third hill, then I saw 
my enemy walking along. Then I rode ahead of where he was going, 
to tie my horse. Then I ran crawling in the hollow, lying in wait. 
Soon surely the man came into view. When he came into view, I got 
ready beforehand with my gun. When he came very near I began 
to rise to mj' feet. He at once strung his bow. Then I shot him. 
The man fell on his back. He even bellowed like a buffalo. After 
he would stand up, I again went to attack him. 'The buffaloes are 
the ones I easily kill,' - 1 even thus said to him. Tlien I went to give 
him a fatal shot.^ After I killed him, I cut off his head. Tliat is how 
I got the best of oirr enemy," he said. " So this fellow shall take care 
of our corpse on the way," he said, "he shall carry (the things) he 
takes for him on the way this day." That is what this fellow called 
Swaving Wings said. 



That is one way they did when laying each other to rest, the way 
the relatives once did. I do not myself know if it is true. And at 
that time people when they died were buried out in the open in a 
sitting position. 

Now I shall relate about adoption-feasts, as that is in the line of 
death. But it is also a little different. They have performances all 
sorts of ways. 

2 Free translation. ' Literally, shoot again and again. 



384 FOX MOHTUABY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [eth. ann. to. 

PAgi'tAmegi me"to''^tci hia'da wi''nagwa''tci pa'ginet A'^tca'megu 
pe''ki wi'a"pe''tci''tc'', wi"pwawi-aiyapAmi-"aiyo''tatAgi-ki'wita"*tc''. 
Me'to'^'tc A'^tca'mego'ni pe"ki wi''penu''tci wi"a''pe'^tcl'^tc''. 
Pwawiga '' ipi-'u'wiya" A-nyawawa'i'ne-pA 'gina ''tc ' ' , i'nipi a' wit ego '- 
5wini''tc'', aiy5"tA"ci A'kwitA''kAmig'''". Ini''tca'wa''tci'ci'tci'gawa- 
''tca'pe''*', a'pAgitA'mo\va<*tc'', mA'ni me'to^'tci'tatAgi wi'pwawini- 
"ca'wini''tc''. Ka'o'ni mA'ni wl'se'iiiweni wa''*tc A'tagi me'to'^tci'- 
tatAgi wi'ma'nawa"^tci me'to'sane'niwAgi wiSvi'seniwa'^tci' tatAg''"'. 
Me'to'^tci' tatAgi wl'^tcano'mawa'^tc ini'ni pagine'me''tcin'''". Ka- 

10'5na'pe'e mA'ni krciwi'seni'wa'*tcini ku'sigawAga'pe' i"kwaw a'pA'. 
gine'^tci ku'si'gawAg 6' ii'pwawiku'siga'wa'^tcin a'konAno"iwa''tc''. 
Me'to'^tci tatAgi' mAni wa'^tci'ca'wiwa'^tci me'to"'tci y5w i'na'kw-aw 
a"ca'i"cawite"ey6w aya'pema'te'si'^tc'". Ini''tca'"ini wa'^tci'ci'tciga- 
we'niwig''''. Na'kA ma'A'gi neniwAg a'pA'gine'^tc'', plgi'iwAga'- 

15 pe'"'. TcAtcawiga'a'pe'e mamA'kA'sa''iwAgi neniwAgi' tatAg*"', 
a'cina'iwe'siwa'te'e yS'W""'. 'O' na'ka'pe'^ pagA'Ato'wawAg'''". 
A'tci'Ana'pe' ii'aiyowa'^tc''. Me'to'^tci 'tatAg a'nawA'*tciwi''tcan6- 
mawa^'tcip''. MA'ni'^tca' a'cike'g In a'pagA'Ato'wawa'^tc'". Ma'da 
neni'w a'pA'gine'^tc a"to'ka'niwi''tc'', To'kanAgimego'n a'Ani"towa- 

20 ''tc''. Agwi kA'cki'Ani't6wa''tcini Krcko''kwa'Ag''''. 'O' a'ki'cko- 
'kvva'i''tciga"ipi pa'ginet''^, i'n Ani''t6wa''tci Ki'"ko'Ag a'ci'tA'm in 
a'pwawi'Ani'"towa''tci To''kanAg''''. I'ni na'kani a'ciwa'pikeg ini 
tatAg''''. Ka'o'ni mA'ni. A'ni'miwa''tc'', me'to'^'tcln Ji'nawA- 
tciwi'^tcano'mawa''tc''. Ini<'tca''in a''cikeg''''. Ka'o'ni mA'ni 

25na"kA kutA'g''''. Me't6''^tci mA'ni na''ina'i na'gwa''tcini wa'ce- 
'ki'et migi''tca" wa'ce'ki''a'^tcig inini me'cena'mega'pe'e me'cena'- 
"ina' A'kwiwita'mawAg'"'. Kago'a'pe' Anemi'sogeuAmawawAg 
inini' tatAg''''. Me'to'''tci me'cena"ina' a'A"kwiwita'mawa''tc''. I'ni 
na''k a''cikeg''''. Ka'o'ni mA'ni wa'ce"ki'etA ne'ki'megu pwawikl- 

30'cA''cAteg Inine'ki'pwawi Ite'pi'a''tc''. Ka'o'ni kl'ciml'ci'wa'^tcini 
pA'kwa''cigAni meda'"so"cken ini me'cena' itep a"aiya"aiya''tci 
me'cemego'na'in a'tA"ciwI''tci'a''tc''. Pe'kimegon a'te'pane''tc''. 
I'n a'ca'wiwa''tci ma'Agi Me'ckwA''ki'Ag''''. Na'kA'^'tc ayl'g, 
ne'ki'megu pemate"sigwan ini'megu ne''ki tcinawa'ma''tc''. I'n 

35a'ca'wiwa''tci mA'n a'u'ce'ki'e'tlwa''tci ma'Agi Me"ck\vA"ld'Ag''''. 
CAto"etig i'ni ni'A"kwatot in a'cinota'gayani ni'nA cAto''etig'"'', 
Wapinenu'swe' CA'to 



MICHELSON.] WHAT THEY DO WHEN THERE IS A DEATH. 385 

When there is an adoption-feast it is as if the one for whom the 
adoption-feast is given will depart really forever, so that he will not 
(come) back and stay here. It is as if he will go away forever. Tliey 
say that when an adoption-feast is not held within four years the 
person will become an owl, here on this earth. That is why they act 
that way, that is, hold an adoption-feast, so that that will not happen 
to (the dead). And why this food is there, is so that there will be 
many people there to eat. It is as if they are to play with the person 
for whom the adoption-feast is given. And after they eat, they play 
dice or they play the women's ball game when they don't play dice, 
when an adoption-feast is given for a woman. The reason perhaps 
why they do that is because it is what that woman habitually did 
when she was still alive. That is why they behave that way. And 
when an adoption-feast is given for these men, they would play cards. 
Sometimes they play the moccasin game (according to the games) the 
men were in the habit of playing. And they would play ball. They 
used lacrosse sticks. It is as if they were playing with him for the last 
time, so it is said. This is how it is when they play ball. When the 
man for whom the adoption-feast is held is a To'kan"'^", the To- 
'kauAg'''' win the game. The Kl'ckS'Ag'''' can not win.^ And if it 
is a Kl'cko'*' woman for whom the adoption-feast is given the Ki'cko- 
'Ag'''' win, as in turn the TD'hanAg""'' do not win. And that is the 
way it is. And this. Wlien they are dancing, it is as if they were 
"playing with him (her) . That is how it is. And there is still another 
thing. At the time the person who has been adopted is ready to 
leave, the ones who adopted him (her) usually accompany him (her) 
a little way. They would go holding (the goods) for him (her). 
They, it seems, accompany him (her) a little way. And that is 
how it is. And as long as the one adopted does not give back 
in return (ten sacks of flour), so long is he not to go there. And 
after he has given ten sacks of flour, he can go there any time, 
(or) he can live with them. They will love him very dearly. 
That is the way these Meskwakies do. And as long as he shall live, 
so long is he related to (those who selected him to be their relative). 
That is the way these Meskwakies do when they adopt each other. 
That is as far as I shall tell what I have heard, my friends, my friend 
W&piuenu's"'^'. 

'Ki'cko'kwa'Ag'''' is rhetorical for ICrcko'Agki'. 



B. 

A'A'CKIWATIKEG A'°TCIMON A'NETO'PTC U'WiYr*'. 

KA'cina'gwA mAniyatug a'cawiwa'te" a'A'ckina'ina'ipAna'te'si^tci 
negu'ti me'to'saneniw'"^'. A'ckine'po'it A'cki''tca'i wa'^tci wilpikegi 
tatA'gi Wi'"sA'ka' ute'ca'wiwen"''. Me'cena"yatuge k^\bo'tw 
a'wapitatepowa'wate'e mane'towAg'''", a'wapitepi'mete'e Wi''sA'ka" 
5 u'sI'ma'Ani winAme'gaylg''''. Mane'towAgi ma'A'g a'pwawimenwa- 
ne'mawa'^tc a'm"cini''tc u'sime'tl'a'i kAbo'twan a'ki'cowiiwate'e'- 
yatuge wi'pAna''tci'"awa''tci negutwayaw'^''. Im'yiituge negu't 
a'AnS'ka'nete" a'nA'toma'^tci WrsA''ka'An 6'ku'me'sAn"''. 

Mete'ino' lya" pyaya'^tci kA"ci pe'ki^'tci'megu manetowa' a'pemi- 

10 tepi''tcigwAna"cka'tini''tc''. Ina'megumego'nA po''tca"anig a'wawi- 
"kwAnA'pi'i"*tc. A'ckwa'tameg a'AtAma'"ete' A'pwa'gAnAn°'". 
Ini'meg a'nA''kuma''tc''. Ka'o'ni ki'cinA''kuma'^tc ii'kAno'nete"'*': 
"Na"i, mAniku" winA ma'A'gi wa^'tci nA'tome'ki mane'towAg''''. 
Wrpwawimenwjme'to'saneni'wigina'inanetA'mowa'^tc uwi'yawaW'". 

15MAnA''tca''i negu'ti ko''ci'semA wi'p5nime'to'sane'niwi<'tc'V' 
a"me'*tc'', "mA'nA mage'ginegA ko"ci'sem"'*^','' a"ine''tc'". ""O' 'o' 
'wana'ini wa'^tci nAto'miyag''''^V' a"i''ciwa''tci me^'tcemo'g''*'. 
" 'O' ci' mA'nA '^tca'VinA niageginegA tcagiki'"cawiwA netena'- 
nemaw'''^'. MAnA''tca''yatug amikA'ckita''AmagwA A"ckapawA 

20wi'kA'ckita"Aniawag\vanima'''," a"i'"ciwa'*tc'". "MA'niyu wi'nanug 
a"p3^aiyani neki'ci'meguke'kaneme'gotug'"''," a'i"ciwa''tci me'- 
^tcemog''^". Iniga"mcgu a'peminowi'te'"'. 

Inl'yatuge na'tA'sugunagA'tenig a'kIpApamwa"tAge'e mAmi'cI"'^', 
"Na'i', mAni' kemene'se'menani krkiwapAtape'n""*^'. A'ut5tametl'- 

25yAgwini a'nigawi ki"apen°*','' a'kiwinetuna'mute'e mAmi'ci" A"cka- 
paw"^'. 

Iniyatug I'n a''ckigit a'wapiwene'te'e wa'^tcike'si'yanig a'i'ciwi- 
''tcawe'te""' ; inAga" ka"te"sitA •wa''tcinawA"kwanig''''. A'klwapA- 
tA'mowa'^tci mA'n A"k''. 

30 Ki'cipeno''tcipyane''tci mA'nA Wi'"sA'ka' I'niyatug a'wapiwAni'- 
'ate'e witama'^tci'''. Wi"sA"ka' ini'megu a'mo'cita'ate'"'. "KA'ci- 
''tca" ma'Ag i'ca'wiwAg'^'V' a'i"cita"ate"e Wl'sA'ka'*'. A'ckAmi 
a'Anemi'Ane'kI''ini''tc''. Kageya'"megu' ca''cki nya'w a'pemiwl'- 
tama'^tc'". "Ma'Agi wi'nanug a'gwi wi"wAni''Agin"'V' a'cita'a''tc'". 

35 Ma'a'iga" A"cki''tca" A'te'ckawi'megu a'Anemi'ca'wini''tc''. " Nl'nawA- 
''tciwIga'tApitu nemlwe''ciwen'''','' a'Anemi'ke'toni''tc''. Ka'oni'- 
megu a"AnemiwA'ni'a''tc''. Kagawa'^tci nl''cw a'pemiwi'tama'^tc''. 
386 



B. 

THE VERY BEGIXNIXG OF THE STORY HOW ANY OXE 

DIES. 

AVell, this, very likely, was what they did when one person first 
lost his life. The one who first died is why Wi'sA'ka"*"'s custom 
first began. It seems likely that at one time the manitous were 
having a council about Wi'sA'ka-*"s younger brother, and also 
himself. As these manitous did not like the two brothers soon they 
decided to kill one of them. So, it appears, one (of them) was sent 
to summon Wi'sAka'-*"s grandmother. 

TTlien the old woman arrived there, behold the manitous were 
seated in a row with their knees touching each other. She squatted 
down at the rear of the wickiup. She was given a pipe to smoke at 
the door. She at once accepted it. After she accepted it. she was 
addressed: "Xow this is why these manitous summon you. They 
think their lives will not be peaceful. One of these your grandchil- 
dren shall cease living." she was told, "your grandson who is the big 
one," she was told. "Oh ho, that is why you summon me," said the 
old woman. "Well, I think the big one has already completed his 
plans. The ceremonial runner is the one whom you might get. if you 
were able," she said. "He probably alreadj- knows that I came here 
this day," the old woman said. She then went out. 



Several days later a ceremonial attendant went crying about, 
"Xow we shall go about and look at this island of ours. Those of 
you who are brothers, shall go in opposite directions," the cere- 
monial attendant and runner said while going around. 

TTlien, it seems, the younger (brother) was led, he was made to 
accompany them toward the north; the old one was led toward the 
south. They looked about this earth. 

After this Wi'sA'ka'*' had been led far off, then it appears that he 
began to lose those whom he accompanied. Then Wl'sA'ka'*' was 
suspicious. "What are these going to do?" thought Wi'sA'ka"*'. 
Tliey became fewer and fewer in number. Finally he went along with 
only four. "I shall not lose these now," he thought. At first these 
did all sorts of things. "I shall stop to tie my bundle well," they 
continued to say. And then he continued to lose them. Finally he 
went along with two. "I shall not lose these," Wi'sA'ka'*' probably 

387 



388 FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [eth. ann. 40. 

"Ma'Agi wi'nanug a'gwi wi"wAni''Agin°'','' a'citii'ate'eyatuge Wi'- 
'sA'kti'*'. Me'ce'megu ne'gutenwi mA'n a'cimatanAgI'gwa'cka''tc 
a'wA'ni'a'^tci na'"kanin°''. Negu'ti kagawa''tci'megu negu't 
a'pemiwltama'te'^'. Pe'ki'inegup In aAkawa'pAma'^tc Inin"''. 
5 KAbotwemegu na''k a'wAni'a'te''''. I'niyiitug a'tcagiwAni'ate'e 
wlta'ma''tci'''. 

"NAtawa'^tci'mcgu miime^tcinai ni'mawike''tci'sA nigani pemii'- 
"kiwig'^'V' a'ci'tii'a'^tc''. A'pemi'penu''tci ne'ci'k*'. Ina" ke''*tci- 
sa^'tci me'cena"megu na''k a'AnemapAta'ninig'''", na'kA'megu 

lOa'pemi'penu'^tc''. Me'cena'' ne'gutenwi na'gi'sa''tc'', kAbo'tw 
a'ka'cke'tawa'te' u'si'ma'An"'', "Na'i', Wi'sA''ke, ne"se'"se tani "wanA 
ii'a'wiyAn? Iniyapi ma'A'g a'ne''ciwa''tc'"," a'igu'te' a'mAmato'- 
megu'^tc u'si'ma'An"''. "A'awI'wAnani pya'n""'," a"igu''tc''. 
A'pemi'penu''tc''. A'tAne''tawa''tc a'eipemi'penu''tc''. AiyAga'- 

ISma'klw a'pemipAgi'cig''''. I'ni na''k a'nA'gi'sa'^tci ke'tenA'^tcI'- 
megu u'si'ma'An a'Aneminane'ku'wani'^tc a'co'wa'ki'einego'na'''. 
Ite'pin a'ciwa'pu'sa^'tc'". Ka'^tci'^tci' ca''ck a'aiyl'ciki'pyamA'ckA'- 
tenig a'tA'ci'kawo'mete' u'si'ma'An"'*. Iniyatuge Wi'"sA'ka" 
a'mya'cita''ate''^'. Wl'mai'yogini ii'ine'cka'te''^'. 

20 KiigyatA'megu a'kegyatame'ki''sawa''tci mane'towAg''''. "Ci! 
Namegi'mii' iiiApig''"'," a'igowa''tci manetowa'i manetowAg''''. 
"KinwawAga'i ki'mA'^tci'nawapwA Wi''sA"ka"'^V' a'i'tiwa<'tc''. 

Me'cena'yatugemegon a'pemiwapu'sate'e'. Ina' pyaya'^tc 6'kume'- 
"se'wag'''', 'wana'a'iga' iniyii'A me'to'sane'nivva''' ? Ne'ci''k uwl'- 

25gewawi a'A"tanig''''. A'pemipi'tiga^'tc'". "Ano''ku tatepi wjina'- 
niyagA me'to'siine'nivvAg''''," a'ina'te' o'kume''sa'An°''. "No'cl'i, 
me'to'saneniwAgi 'wiinA ketecita'^'," a'igute' o'kunie"sa'An°''. 
"MAne'towAgima'Inig''''," a'igute' o'kume''sa'An°'". "'O 'o' 
manetowAgi'wa'nA," a'inate''^'. "A'a"e, manetowAgiku"Inigi 

SOpamiwi'^tcawi'wAwig'''"," a'igu'te"'^'. " 'O '6' 'wa'nA 'I'ni," a'ina'te' 
o'kiime''sa'An"''. 

A'nAna'i'cige'e'yatuge pa'pegwA a'ckipe'kuta"inigi negu't 
a'kiwika''cki'a''tci wawlya'i'nigwan"''. "Ci! 'WiinA ''tea''yatuge 
pya'^tcinAna''kawit6'tawitA ne'sapi yo wI'nA ne'slma'"^'," a'citii- 

35 'ate'*''. PapegwA'megu na'kA'<'tci wa,pAnigi pe'ku'tanigi na'kA'- 
megu pyatewiinema'^tc uwI'ya'An"''. Ke'tcina'e'meg ii'klwika'- 
'cki'a''tc''. Na'kA'megu kutAgi ne'sugunagA'tenigi na'kA'megu 
a'pyani'^tc a'ekAmi'megu ke"tcina' utA'ckwatamwagi'megu 
ii'pAgAma'nema'^tc''. "'WanA yatuge kl'tA'cikAka'^tcito'tawitA 

40 a'nepo''kayan'"'' V a'ci'ta'a'*tc''. NyawugunagA'tenigi''tca'yatugani 
pe'kutainigi'megu a'pAgAmwawa"cini'*tci negu't utA'ckwa'- 



MICHF.LSON.I BEGIXXTXG OF STORY HOW ANY ONE DIES. 389 

thought. Well, as he once shut his eye an instant he again lost (one 
of them) . So he went along with one. He watched him very closely. 
Soon he also lost him. So it seems he lost all he accompanied. 



"Well, I shall run over to the side of yonder hill for a view for the 
last time," he thought. He started off running hy himself. He 
ran up a hill to where there was a view, and he again started running. 
Now once when he stopped nmning, soon he heard his little brother. 
"Now, Wl'sA'kii''^', my older brother, where, pray, are you? At 
last these (manitous) are killing me," so he was told when he was 
besought by his younger brother. "Wlierever you are, come," he 
was told. He started running. He ran in the direction he heard 
him. He leaped from the crests of hills to the crests of other hills. ^ 
^Vlien he halted in his flight, surely the voice of his little brother was 
becoming lower over the hill. So he walked in that direction. Wlien 
he came to view it, the grass was tramped down where they had 
struggled with his younger brother. Then, it seems, Wi'sA'ka'*' had 
painful feelings. And he gulped as if to weep. 

The manitous nearly came to the surface of the earth. "Well! 
Place yourselves (deeper) in the earth," the manitous were told by 
the manitous. "For you are challenging Wl'sA'^i'^^V' they said to 
each other. 

Well, it seems as if he started to walk away. When he arrived 
at their grandmother's, where were the people who were formerly 
there? Their dwelling was there alone. He started to enter. 
"Grandmother, where are the people who were formerly here?" he 
said to his little grandmother. "My grandchild, did you think they 
were people?" he was told by his little grandmother. "They are 
really manitous," he was told by his little grandmother. "Oh yes, 
manitous," he said to her. "Yes, they are manitous with whom 
we have been living," he was told. "Oh that's it," he said to his 
little grandmother. 

Tlien it seems that he lay down. Suddenly early in the evening 
he heard some one about. "Well! Wlio, pray, who is it that is come 
to play a trick on me when my little brother is slain?" he thought. 
Suddenly the next day when it was night he again thought he heard 
the sound of some one approaching. He heard him about very 
close by. On another day, the third day, he thought he was coming, 
arriving even closer to their door. "Who probably is it that is 
joking with me when I have a death (in my family) ?" he thought. 
Tlie fourth day at night one person came straight to their door. 

6 Free translation 



390 FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [ETH. ANN. 40. 

tamwag''''. Iniyatug a'kAnonegu'te'^', "Na"i', ne'se''s-', pa'kenA'- 
mawin""'. NepyA'ku'i, ne'se''s'"'. Cewa'n a'gwi kA'cki'to'yanini 
wi'pa'ke'nAmani ketA'ckwata'menan""','' a'igu^tc''. Ca''ck 
a'klwikugwa''ki'cigi Wl''sA"ka'*'. Nyawo'nAmegi k^ui6'negu"^tc 
Su'sI'ma'An a'klwi'sA'sagigA'ca'ckani'^tc''. "Na'i', a'pe''^tcipa- 
"kenAmawi'n""','' a^igu^'tc'". "Ke'tenAku" nepAgi'senego'gi 
kl'^tcimaneto'naiiAg'^''," a"igu''tc''. "A'ke'ka'nemc'k a'po''sotawi- 
mya'cita"ayAni wa'^'tci pAgi'se'iiiwa'^tc'V' a''igu''tc u'sI'ma'An°''. 
Inina' yatugan a'pemipA'segwi'te'e Wi''sA'ka''^'. Umi"camwaw^'', 

10cI''cIgwAn°'', A'ckwane'ketiiw"'', pe'pigwa'ck"'', utA'ku'kuwawAn 
a'awAtenAmawate'*^". "Na'i', ne'sl"'", a'gwi wrpItigA'nanin"''. 
Ma'Ani'^tca' keta'wineme'nanAn ini mAnA'kA'^tca'i niAiiA ki'ce'- 
'sw a'Anemine'ki''tc''. KrmawitA'ci\vI''tcime'to'sanenrmawAgi kegi- 
'e'nanAgi ke'ci'sa'e'nanAg'''','' a''ine''tc''. " 'NAgvva't.\gwi'yatug 

ISa'cipAnA'tAmani new'I'seniwe'nenan"'',' a'citii'a'wAniiniga"'', ne'si''"', 
'miyiituge wi'puni'AtA'maiyan"''/ a'cita'awAnaniga'i ne'si"'', 
kInA'ku'i ma'A'gi kegi'e'nanAgi ke'cisa'e'nanAgi tca'gi wl'i'ci- 
nagwA'teniwi wrAnemipyapyatAta'e'tiwa''tc''. A'ku'nawAn A"pena- 
''tci wi'tAgwi'seta'tiwAg'''', ne'si'"''. N^'kA'^'tci ki'iiA me''teno'i 

20 nyanAiionogi ki''kegApi wi'ina'ina'nemA'^tci kegi'e'nanAgi ke'ci'sa- 
'e'nanAg''''," a''inete' i'n A"ckapaW'*'. "Cewa'nA, ne'si''i, ki- 
"keteminAmawi ni'n aiyo'i wi'tA'ciwi'^tcime'to'saneni'mAgig''''. 
Wi'ketemage"siwAgi wi'me'ta'kwinAtuna'Anio''i\vAgi wi'mi'^tci- 
wa'^'tc'"," a''ine''tc''. "Na'kA'''tci wi'nAtota'se'tiwAgi pemate'- 

25'siwen°''. I'lii'^tca' kl'inanetAmaw"'", tca'wi tA'swi ki'wi'^tcime'to- 
'saneni'mapenA kegi'e'nanAgi ke'ci'sii'e'nanAg'"'," a'i'nete' A''cka- 
piiw"*'. "Tcagi'megu wi'i'cinAtota'se'tlwAg'''", tca'gi wi'i'ci'u- 
'kunaga'pawa'^tc''. Na"kA niAne'seno' ini'^tca' inanetAmawiyAn 
aiyo' wi'tA'ciwi'^tcime'to'saneni'mAgig''''. Ini'megu wi'i"cigen'''', 

30ne'si"i," a'inete'e'yatug a'nowen^\.'mawii''tc uta'wine'mwawAn"''. 
"Ka'tA^'tca'i pete'g inapA'mi'kAn°''. Ca'cki'mA'kwa''tci ki'Anemi- 
'cita'a'wu'se pemiwapu"sayAn'"''. Ketemagi'i'kAni wapAnapA'- 
mi'k^vn"'', ne'si''''; mA'kwa'''tci krwapu's*"', ne'si"''. Ini^'tca'- 
'yiitug inane 'menAgwe ki^'tcimanetO'nanAg''''," a'ine'te"®". "I'n 

35a'pe''tci nagwa'n""', ne'si"''," a'ina'te' u'si'ma'An"''. 

"Na'i', a'eitAmi ki'a'*tcimo"en°<'', ne'se"s^'," a'igu'te'®'. "Na'i' 
aiyapAmi'ku' yo'we wi'pyana'aiyowe kegi'e'nanAgi ke'ci'sa- 
'e'nanAgi pa'kenAniawi'yAne'"". NyawugunagAto'nige' ini wi'p3'a- 
nA'aiyow'"'*''. Wi'Api'^tcipA'^tcipAnawa'te'e yo'we kegi'e'nanAgi 
40ke'ci'sa'e'nanAg'^''. Ki'nA''tca' ne'se"se keta'^tciketemagi"awAgi 
kegi'e'nanAgi ke'ci'sa'e'nanAg''''," a"ine''tci Wi"sA'ka'*'. 

"'Wa' ke'tenA'ku''", ne'si''i, me'^tci'wa'nA neminawita'"*', a'pi- 
'tcipo''s6tawiki'cLmawi'menan°'', ne'si"''. A'gwi pa"ci kiigo" nene- 



MICHELSON.] BEGINNING OF STORY HOW ANY ONE DIES. 391 

Then, it seems, is when he was addressed, "O my older brother, 
open it for me. I have really come, my older brother. But I can 
not open our door," he was told. Wl'sA'ka''^' merely turned around 
where he lay. When his little brother spoke to him the fourth time, 
his nails were on (the door). "Come, open it for me," he was told. 
"Tlie manitous of our time have truly set me free," he was told. 
"Because they know that you have felt very badly is why they 
release me," he was told by his younger brother. 

At that time, it seems, Wi'sA'kii'*" started to rise to his feet. He 
handed him their sacred pack, a rattle (gourd), a burning billet of 
wood, a flute, and their drum. "Now, my younger brother, I shall 
not let you inside. (But you shall take) these our belongings toward 
where the sun sets. You shall live there with your aunts (mother's 
sisters) and uncles (mother's brothers)," he was told. "Should you 
think 'I will sorrowfully lose our food,' my younger brother, or if 
you should think 'I will now cease smoking,' my younger brother, 
these our aunts and uncles will continue to bring each other all 
kinds of food (and) for you. Always they will place Indian tobacco 
for each other, my younger brotlier. And you only shall have with 
it fivefold power and control over our aunts and uncles," the cere- 
monial runner was told. "But, my younger brother, for my sake you 
must take pity on those with whom I shall live here. They will be 
poor and will eat only that for which they hunt,"" he was told. 
"And they will ask each other for life. So you will think of them 
for my sake, for we shall equally live with our aunts and uncles," 
the ceremonial runner was told. "They will ask each other for all 
sorts of things, even blankets. And for my sake bless those with 
whom I shall live here when in warfare. That is the way it shall 
be, my younger brother," he probably was told when he was handed 
out their possessions. "So do not look back at me. You must 
merely walk along with a quiet heart when you start to walk. You 
might make me poor by keeping on looking at me, my younger 
brother; you may walk away quietly, my younger brother. Tliat, I 
suppose, is what our fcllow-manitous desire of us," he was told. 
" Now depart forever, my younger brother," he said to his younger 
brother. 

" Now in turn, my elder brother, I shall give you some information," 
he was told. "Our aunts and uncles would have come back if you 
had opened (the door) for me. Tliey would have come back in four 
days. Our aunts and uncles would have come to life in that time. 
You, my elder brother, are the cause of making our aunts and uncles 
wretched," Wl'sA'kii''^' was told. 

"Too bad, my younger brother, I did not realize it as I already had 
wailed so bitterly over you, my younger brother. I did not even 

^ A very free rendition, but tlie exact sense of tiie passage. 



392 FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [eth.axn.40. 

'kanetA'manin"'". MA'kwa''^tci"^tca' na'"egA'ce ki'Anemi'wapu's"','' 
a'ine'te"*". Fn a'wapu'sa'te'"'. Vn a'ca'wiwa<'tc a'A'ckiwa'pikegi 
ne'powen"'', wa'''tci wapa'pya'seg""'. 

A'ckine'po'it*" "Tcipai'yapo's''-^'" i'cite"ka'sowA a'ckine'po'itA 
Sme'to'sanenl'w^*'. Iniyiitu'ge kAbotwe'megu a'nepo''ite" ii'ckine'- 
po'it*'. A'nepo"kawa''tci me'to'sane'niwAg a'pwawike'kftnetA'- 
mowa'^tci wi'i'cawi'gwa'igi Tcipaiyapo's5n a'nepo''ini'*tc''. Inina" 
me'to'sane'niwAgi napo'ka'wa'^tcini tcatcagi mA'kAtawi'gwa'ig'''". 
Ca'cki'meg a'Agonawa'^tc'". 

10 Ka'o'ni yiituge negu't a'wapimA'kAtawite"^'. Nyawuguni^'tciya- 
tu'gan a'keteminawe'si'te""". A'ketemi'nagu^tci ma'A'ni WI'sa'- 
'ka'Aii"''. MA'ni 'a'^tcimon a'tcagi'a'^tcimo'"egu<'tc''. Ma'ii ato'- 
tatag'''': a'ca'wini<'tci ma"a" a"ne"seme'*tci Wl'sA'ka" u'si'ma'An"''. 
Na''ina' I'n a'atotA'magu''tci ■Wi'sA'"ka"An°''. "Wa^'tci wiipikegi 

15wi'nanepo''iyagwe," ii'igu'te' ini'ni Wi"sA''ka'An°''. ^'MAni^'tca 
wi'i'ca'wiyag'""'''," a"ine'*tc''. "Ki'pAga'topwA kiigo'''. I'ni wI'kA'- 
nonagwe ketcipa'mwawAg''''; wi'nAto'ta'sagwe me'to'saneni'wi- 
wen°''. Me'ce'megu wl'ina'wagwan Ini'megu ■\vi'i"cigen''''," a'i- 
gu'te'^'. A'kiwi'meguwi'tama'^tc''. Ina'^tciniawe'niwiw**'. Inini- 

20 ''tca'i wfutogimaml'wa'^tcin"''. "KetcIpa'mwawAg'''V' ii'ine'^tc''. 
InA'^tca' 'I'nanA "P6'kitepa''uwa'*"" ane't"^'. 'rnaiiA panApAna'- 
''tci'atA napo'i'ni'^tcin''''. 

Ka'oni'yatuge na"kA kutA'g a'ne'po'i'^tci me'to'sa'nenlw'^'^'. 
I'kwawA 'wii'nA a'nepo"ite''^'. Ini''tca"yatug ii'kAkAnone'te' i'nA 

25negu'ti ka'ka'nemat a'tlni^'tc Ini' u'slme'ti'a'''. MAni''tca''yatug 
ana'te'*'', "Na'i'," a'ke''kA'wa''tc ana'wama'^tci nap6'i'ni''tcin°'', 
"Na'i', tclnawa'menan Inugi mA'ni a'maiya'cko''soyAni ne'- 
p6wen°''. Ini'*tca''yatug a'ciki'ci'seto'iiAgo'A kenegwAne'se'nanAgi 
wi'ito'migA'ki ki'yanan"'', wi"nanep6"iyAg''"'^'. MA'ni wa''sayawi 

30 inugi a'pAiiapA'tAmAn"''. MA'ni wi'na'se''kawA'^tci kenegwAne'- 
'senanA Aiya'pa'ta"'^'. MAnA'itca' a"kunawA ketawA'ta'en""^','' 
a"ina''tc'', "wi'AtAma'^tci kene'gwAne'sA Aiyapa'tii''^'; wi'nlganipA'- 
'tii'pwatA ma'A'n a'ku'nawAn"''. Na'i', mA'nA a''kunawA kepya- 
tAta'wi'tone inA'nA na''kA tcIna'waniAg A'kwitA''kAmigi wii'^tci'- 

35 'kAnAgA tcina'wamAgA mA'ni a'cime''tci''tcimi''tci ma'A'ni a'ku'nawA- 
ni a'pyatAta'wi'e'k''. MAni''tca' a'cinAto'ta'se'ki ke''kyaweni, na'kA'- 
''tci mA'ni, wI'pwawikwinAta'we'si'^tci wi'kiwi'ci'u'kuna'gapa'^tc''. 
I'ni wa'''tci pya''tci'An6"ka"ci''tci wi'ina'^tcimo''enan°''," a'inete'e'- 
yiituge na'po'it*'. "KA'ci wI'to'tawA'^tci tcIna'wamAtA aiyo" 

40 A"kwitA''kAmigi wa''tci''kAnAtA, wi'tA'ciwapAna'pAmA'^tc''. Na'e'- 
gA'ce ki''wapu's'''," a'ine'te''^'. "MA'ni a'Anemikugwa'kina'gwi- 
"to'^tci ma'netow u'tA'kimi, a'Anemi'A'cki'A'ckipAgame'kwi"seto- 
''tc'', na''k ukl'"cegumi a'Anemi'A'cki'A'ckipAganA"kwA'g6to''tc'' — 



MICHELSON.] BEGINNING OF STORY HOW AN^ ONE DIES. 393 

think of anything else. So you may please walk away quietly J" he 
was told. Then he started to walk away. Tliat is what they did 
when death first began, and why it began. 

The person who was the first to die was called "TcIpaiyApo'sW^'" 
[Ghostly]. Then, it seems, the one who first died soon died. Wlien 
the people had a death they did not know what to do when Tclpai- 
yApo'sw*' died. At that time when the people had a death they 
would all fast. They merely hung (the corpse on a scaffold). 

And it seems one person began to fast. Lo, he was blessed on the 
fourth day. He was blessed by this Wi'sA'kii''^". He was instructed 
regarding this story in its entirety. Tliis was related : what happened 
to them when Wi'sA'ka''^"s younger brother was slain. At the time 
he was instructed by Wl'sA'ka'*'. "(This) is the beginning of your 
dying," he was told by that Wi'sA'ka'*'. "This is what you must 
do," he was told. "You must boil (cook) something. Then you 
must speak to yom* corpse; you must ask for life. Whatever you 
say to him will truly come to pass," he was told. He went around 
with him (Wi'sA'ka'^'). That is what is told of him. He became 
their chief. "Your corpses," he was told. That very one was the 
one called "Head-piercer." That one was the very one who first 
took away life from the dead. 

And it seems another person died. It was a woman who died. 
Then, it seems, one person who knew what the brothers had said to 
each other spoke to her. This, it appears, is what he said to her, 
calling her by the term he was related to the dead, " Now, my relative, 
this day you have met death. That, it seems, is how our nephews 
have planned our lives to be, that we should each and every one of us 
die. To-day you have lost sight of this daylight. You are to go 
straight to our nephew (sister's son) Aiyapa'ta''^'. So I send this 
Indian tobacco by you," he said to her, 'so that your nephew 
Aiyapa'ta"'^" may smoke; he must be the one to first smoke this Indian 
tobacco.' Well, I bring you this tobacco, and this my relative * 
whom I have left on the sm-face of the earth sends this message by 
me when he brings you this Indian tobacco. And this is what they 
ask you for, old age, and this, that they be not in want of blankets 
to clothe themselves when they stand around. That is why I am 
sent here to tell you." That is what it seems the dead was told. 
"Never mind your relatives whom you have left here on the surface 
of the earth, ° you must look upon him as happy there. You may 
walk away slowly," she was told. "Where the manitou continues to 
change the appearance of his earth, where he continues to make it 
green, and where he continues to make his skies green, where he con- 

' So the text; obviously, however, "our nephew" [or"your son"] should be substituted for "your 
nephew." 
8 Grammatical singular, but plural in meaning. 
* Free translation. 

3.599°— 2.5t 26 



394 FOX MOBTUABT CUSTOMS AXD BELIEFS. [eth. axx. 40. 

a'pAriapA'tAmAn"*'. MA'kwa'*tci'*tca" ca"cki na'e'gAce" cfi'cki 
wapu'sa'in""'. Wi"mA'^tc Aiya'pa'ta'A pvanu'tawAt^'. 'Ma'iu 
win a'pTa*tciine'*tci'*toi'miwa'*tci tclnawa 'niAgigi mA'n a'wi'pwa- 
wiwicapenawa'^tc''. na'kA tca'gi wipemiwane'pe'ci'ute'teriA'- 
omowa'^tci wi'i'ci'u'kunaga'pawa'*tc''. Xa'kA''*tcayigi na"inai mA'ni 
niAne'senowa 'kya'seto'nigwam mane'towAni u'to'kimi ayi'gi wi- 
'klwimi'ca^tcinagwi'oni'^tc''. I'n a'ciine''tci'*tci'niiwa'*tci \nine'nani 
tcinawa 'niAgig^''. Xa'kA mA'ni: wl'i'ciim''*tciwa'^tci tcagi'megu 
kago'''. a'ciine'^tci'^tci'miwa'*tci wi'i'nenan"''. Ma'Aniga' a'ku'- 

lOnawAni pya'^tci'awAta iVa'^tcin"'"." a''ma'*tc''. I'n a'nawa'^tc 
utclpa'mwawa'i na'ina' panate'si'ni'^tcmi neniwAga'i ne'po'ite 
tana'k A'peno'A tana'ke mete'mo' i'kvrawAga''. Ini'megu wate'- 
natagi kA'nawin aiyd'megu: ute'natawi na'ina" a'ne'tA'mawu'^tc 
u'si'maAni Wi'sA'ka'*'. 

1-5 Ka'o'ni neniwA na"kA ne'po'i'^to a'uni"^tca'ne'si*'tc ^''tigi^tc a'u'- 
wiwi''tc''. Aa'^tci'mo'e'^tci na'ina' a'nAna'i'cime'^tc''. Mene- 
'tAmi'megu Me'sA'kAmi'gu'kwawA' SA'kAA'mawap''. Inugi na'kA 
me'cena'ina' u''*tciwapi mA'n a"ine'^tc''. "Xa i' mA'nA'A a'knnawA 
ki'nA ki'mene'tAmitape'sinu'tawawA pemame'ki'cinAni Me'sA- 

20kAmigu'kwaW^'. ilA'nA ko'ci'semA wi'pitd'*tca'moyAn°^'. Majia- 
■^tca' a'kxmawA kenlganitape'sinu'tawaw'^^'. KiAse'mi'awA m a 'n \ 
ko'ci'seniA na'ina' kA'nonat Aiyapa'taAni kl'nA mA'ni aAne- 
mJA'ckiAckipAgamekwise'toyAni kiya'wi ko'ci'semAg a'pltopito- 
"^tca'moyAn"''." a'ine'te'^'. 

25 "MA'n inug a'na'5e''kawA"*tci kenegwAne'sena'n"^', ki'nA ^tca' 
awAS iya' ki'menwikiwi't*'." a'ine''ine'*tc'', "mA'n iini'^tcane'- 
'siyAn"^'. na'k a'uwi'wiyAn""'. a'u'giyAn""'. a'ute'kwa'miyAn""'. 
a'utota'miyAn"'', a'nA'gAnA**tc''. Ca'cki'^tca' mAkwa'^^tci klA- 
'semi'awAg'''. Ki'a'^tcimw-i'ta'wawAgi ma'A'n a'ku'nawAn awAta'- 

30 ikin"''. Wra'*tcimw-i''tawA''tc a'cinAtawanetAmawawa'*tc uneg- 

wAne'swawAn"''. pemate'siweni wi'inaneme'gowa'^tci ta'ya'tAgwi 

kenegwAne'se'nanAn"'. " I'n a'ne''tc'\ "AVipwawipetegi'i- 

'ciwapAnanemA*^tci tcina'waniA'*tc''. Ca'cki niA'kwa''*tci ki'na'se'- 

kawawA kenegwAne'senan"'. Ketemagi'i'yagAni tcinawa'mA- 

35 '*tcig^''.' I'n a'ne'^tc"'. "Ca'ck a'cime'^tci'^tcime'k ini wiAnemi- 

"cita\ni''sayAn''''. ilA'ni na'k*^'. A'pAnapA'tAmAni pamame'ki- 

'segi pamame'kwA'gotag^'." I'n a'nawa^'tci nap6'i'ni''tci tclna- 

wa'ma'^tcigi kanokAn6'na'*tcigi napo'i'ni''tci''\ •'Wa'^teipAgi'- 

cimngi wT'i'ciwapu''sayAni mA'kw-a''*tc''." I'n a'nawa"*tc''. 

40 Aiyo'megu tca'g ute'natawi ma'A'gi Wi'sA'ka' u'si'maAni 
na'ina' a'ne'tA'mawu'^tc''. I'ni wate'natagi kA'nawin"''. I'ni ni'n 
a'cLke'ka'nemAg^''. A'Aneme''kawa"^tci mA'ni wi'se'niweni nya'- 
wTigun a'ke'giwa'*tc''. PitA''wa'*tcigi wa''*tci nyawuguni pemi- 
wfse'niwa'^tci wiawAta'wome''tc ini'n Aiyapa''ta'An''''. PitA''wa- 



UICHELSON.] BEGISSIXG OF STORY HOW AXT OXE DIES. 395 

tinues to change their appearance — you have lost sight thereof. You 
may merely walk away quietly and slowly. This is what you are to 
say to Aiyapa'ta'*' when you come to him, 'This is the message my 
relatives send by me. that they be not hungry and that they all may 
easily obtain blankets to wear.'" And when the manitou sends wars 
on his lands, also (he will provide things') whereby they may appear 
in gay attire. That is the message my relatives send by me to tell 
you. And this: that they may have all kinds of food to eat. such is 
the message they send by me to tell you. And they sent this Indian 
tobacco by me,'" he said to her. That is what they said to their 
corpses if a man died, or a child, or an old woman, or a woman. 
That indeed is from where their speech is gotten: it is gotten from 
the time Wi'sA'ka'^'s younger brother was slain. 

And then a man died who had children, a mother, and a wife. He 
was spoken to when he was laid (in the grave). First an offering 
(of tobacco) was made to Mother-of-aU-the-Earth. And then they 
begin to tell her this: •'O Mother-of-all-the-Earth, who art about 
everywhere, you shall first joyfully receive this Indian tobacco. 
You are to take this, your grandchild, within your body. Verily 
you must first joyfully receive this Indian tobacco. You are to help 
this, your grandchild, when he speaks to Aiyapa'ta'^'. as you continue 
to make yourself green when you receive your grandchildren in your 
body," she was told. 

(The corpse was told) "This day you will come to our nephew, and 
you will be better off there." he was told, "'you have children, a wife, 
a mother, a sister, and a brother whom you are leaving. So you are 
to merely quietly help them. You will deliver their message when you 
bring him this Indian tobacco which they send by you. You will 
teU for them what they desire from their nephew, that they and all of 
us be blessed with life by our nephew.'" That is what he was told. 
"And you are not to think backwards of your relatives.'" You must 
simply go quietly to our nephew. (Otherwise) you might make 
your relatives poor." That is what he was told. "You are merely 
to think of the message they have given you as you walk along. 
..\jid this. You have lost sight of the earth and the sky which hangs 
everywhere." That is what the relatives said to the dead, (the rela- 
tives) who spoke at length to those dead. " You are to walk quietly 
towards where the sun goes down." That is what they said to him. 

It was all gotten from the time that Wi'sA'ka'^'s younger brother 
was slain. The speech was obtained from that. That is how I 
know about them. They (the dead) are four days on the way when 
taking this food. That is why those who bury (.the dead) feast for 
four days, so that Aiyapa'ta'^' might be taken (the food). Those 

>• Free translation. 



396 FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [eth. /nn. 40. 

''tcig a'wi'se'niwa'^tc I'na'. Na'"kA ki'ciwrsenl'wa''tcin"'', pe'kutii- 
'i'nigin i'n a'awA'towa'^tcipa'pe'e napo"itcig a'awAta'wawa'^tc 
Aiyapa"ta'An°''. Ini'^tca' a''cikeg i'n a'<'toim5n'''", tA"swi nl'nA 
nota'gayan"''. A''tcipAnAgi''tci winA'megu I'n a'^tci'mowAg''''. 
5 Na'kA'^'tc aiyo"mAn a'nep6''iwa''tci me'to'sane'niwAg ini''tca''i 
tcI'panA'ki pyaya'wa''tcin°''. MA'n a''nepeg u'wiya' aiy6''megu 
kenwa''ci kl'wItaW^". Kiwi''tca'wiwawA me'to'sane'niwa'''. Me- 
'ten6"megu ki'cinAna"i'ka'wu''tci a'kA'ckipe'nowa<'tc''. Ini'^tca' 
ina'^tcimowAgmA'a'pe"®'; ke'kii'nemap a'citapwa'gwii'ig''''. I'n 

10 a'ca'wiw'a''tc a'pA'gine'^tc u'wIya'*^'. I'ni na''kA kutA'gi tAga'wi 
a'ina'^tci'mo'e''tc a'kAkA'none'^tc'". Wa'ce"ki"etA nl'ato'tA i'ni. 
MAni"^tca'' ane'^tc'': "Na'i', inugi mA'ni pe''k ini wi"na'se''kawA'^tci 
kenegwAne'sena'n"-*'." Ini<'tca''yatuge mene'"tA ki'pya''tcime- 
'to'saneni'witcig a'iti'wate'"". "MA'ni'^tca" wi'ina''tci'mo'A''tci 

ISkenegwAne'sena'n"*'." Ana'wama''tc a'ke'kA'wa'^tci wa'ce'ki'e'me- 
'^tcini kakA'nonat*'. A'sii'miiwAni' soge'nawAgi wa'ce'ki''etcig'"'. 
'O' tana''ke "u'gwi'site pagine'me'^tcin''''. "Na'i, negwi"s'^", inu'- 
gi mA'ni a'wapu''sayAn°'', aiyo" A'kwitA''kAmig ii'ponikiwi'- 
taiyAn"'', wi'na'gwaiyAni ma'Agi'^tca' tcinawii'mAtcig aiyo" wi'u- 

20 ''tci"kAnA''tci tca'g a'inago'tiyAni tca'g anago'mA''tcig i'ce''tca'. 
I'n a'ciki'ci'se'tonAgwe kenegwAne'se'nanAgi wi'wi''tcime'to- 
'saneni'mAgw ai'yanetA keneg^vAne'se'nanAg''''. I'ni wa''^tc ito'ito'- 
migA'ki kerne" to'saneniwiwe'nenan'^'', a'ki'ci'kwaiya'ciki'ei'se'- 
tonAg'""''. MA"k\va''tci''tca'" mAni na''egA'ce wi"wapu'sa'"eneg''''. 

25 I'ni wi'Anemi'citawu''sayAn°'V' i'ni 'a'ne"*tc'', "ini a'ciki'cikwaiya- 
'ci'ina'kimA'monAgw^e kenegwAne'se'nanAgi wi'Anemi'ci'tci'gayAgwe 
pemate'"siweni wi'i'ci'A'pi''kAnA'^tci tcinawa'mA'^tcig''''," i'n a'ne^'tci 
wa'ce''ki'etA me'to'sii'neniw"*'. 

Na'kA'''tci mA'ni kutA'gi negu'ti na''k iniwa'megonini na'ina" mAni 

30 kutA'gi ni"atot*'. MAni' tatAgi a'wi'"kuwa''tci wa'ce"ki^et*", ini'gi 
wiku'me'^tcig iiyig ini'gi tatA'gi tci'paiyAg i''ciwa.p''. 'I'ni wif^tci 
ma'ne 'ai'yotiigi wi'se'niweni tci'paiyAgi' tatAg uwi'seni'wenwaw"'". 
Ina'^tcimowAga'pe''^'. I'n a'cike'kanetAmani ni'n a'cipe"se"cayan°''. 
Ini tA''swi mA'n ana^'tci'moyan"'', ca''cki ni'n a'cinota'gayan"'". 

35Na'ina"megu mA'nA Wi''sA'ka'A 'u'si'ma'Ani ne'tA'mawu'^tc 
inina''meg6ni wii^'tci pya^'tcimawAte'natag a'^'tcimon"''. Ina"megu 
ute'nataw'''". I'ni tA'"swi me'kwanetAma'ni' cAto"etig'"'', Wapine- 
nu''swA wi'wa'pAtAg''''. 

Ka'o'ni kutA'g a'A'ckine'p6'i''tc u'wiya" a'kiga'nwi'e''tci ta- 

4QtA'g'''". A'eiwapi<*tca''tatAgikiga'nwi'e''tci na'ina'"mAn a'Anagwini- 
gi'ga' a'"nepcg u'wiya'*'. I'n a'ki'ganugi "A'nemo'A niA'cku^'tcI- 
'sA'ga"''. A'kAkA'none'^tc A'ckuta'na'siw''*': "Na'i', neme''cu 
A'ckutana'siw"'"', ki'uA mA'ni aiyo' ketA''seg6pi wi'tA'cipe'cigwa- 
''tcimo''tawA''tci k6'ci"semAgi kago" atomigAte'nigin uwi'yawaw"'". 

45 Ma 'nA ''tea a'"kunawA ki'nA ki'mene'tAmitape'sinu'tawaw"*". 



MICHELSON.] BEGINNING OF STORY HOW ANY ONE DIES. 397 

who bur_v (the dead) feast then for (four days). And after they 
have feasted, at nights those who died would take (the food) to 
Aiyapa'ta'*'. Tliat is how the story goes, as much as I have heard it. 
To be sure they tell it all sorts of ways. 

And when people die here, they arrive at the land of ghosts. Now 
when any one dies he stays a long time here. He lives with the 
people. Only after an adoption-feast has been held for them, could 
they go. That is what (people) usually say; I do not know if they 
speak the truth. This is what they do when any one is released by 
an adoption-feast. And they speak to them a little differently when 
they address them. So I shall tell about a person being adopted. 
This is what (the dead) is told: "Well, this day you are going straight 
to our nephew." That is, so it seems, what the people who first 
came to live, said to each other. "This is what you must tell our 
nephew." The one who delivers the speech calls the one who is 
being adopted by the kinship-term (of the dead). Those who are 
being adopted hold tobacco in their hands. Oh, it may be his " son 
for whom the adoption-feast is held. "Now my son, as you walk 
away ceasing to dwell on the surface of the earth, you are to depart 
leaving these, your relatives, all your different relatives here. This 
is how our nephews have made plans for us, so that some of us might 
live with each of our nephews. That is why our lives are so, for it 
has already been planned for us. So you are summoned to walk 
away quietly and slowly. As you walk away you will constantly 
think of (what you have been told)" he is told, "that is how our 
nephews already have made it a rule for us to follow, namely, to 
leave life with your relatives in good cheer." That is what an 
adopted person is told. 

And this one other little thing also, of the same character, will I 
tell. Wlien the one adopted goes around giving invitations, those 
invited are supposed to be ghosts. That is why a large amount of 
food is used, because it is supposed to be food for the ghosts. That 
is what they usually say. That is what I know of it, (and) how I 
have heard. This is all I have to tell, that is all I have heard. Tliis 
story has been collected from the time the younger brother of this 
Wi'sA'ka'*' was slain. It is derived from there. That is as much 
as I remember, my friends, so that Wapinenu'sw'^' may look (at what 
has been written). 

And there is another story when some one first dies and when a 
gens festival is held over the person. When a person dies in the 
evening is why a gens festival is given. A gens festival of a dog or 
beans is held. The Spirit of Fire is addressed: "Now my grand- 
father. Spirit of Fire, you have been placed here to uprightly tell 
your grandchildren when something happens to their lives. You 
shall be the first to gladly receive this Indian tobacco. And the 

" The bereaved one's. 



398 FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [eth. -inn. 40. 

Na'"kA mA'nA "A'neniig a'tAna^'tcimetA Tayapi'gwa'cig ayl'gi 
wfA'tAmaw™*'." I'n a'nawa'^tc''. "Wi'pe'cigwa'^tcimo'ta'wiyag 
aneriAmagayage mAn a/'kunaw™'*"." I'n a'nawa'^tc''. Ki'cikA- 
n5na'wa''tcin I'n a'wapina'gawa''tc''. I'n a'mai'yowa''tci tatA'g''''. 
5Ke"tcima'netowAn a'a''tcimo'"awa'^tc'', "Negu'ti mi'so'n a'pAnate- 
'simigA'tugwan°'\ Inipa'pe' a'I'yowa''tci mane'towAg''''. Ne- 
'kAnitepe''kwe a'nAgA'niowa''tc''. A'niba''cime'^tci tatA'gi na'po- 
'it*'. Ini tA"sw a'ca'wiwa'^tc ina''. 

Ka'o'ni na"kA yatuge negu'ti kutA'g iiketcminagu'te' ini'ni- 

10 ""tea' Po'kitepa'u'wa'An ane'me''tcin"''. A'a''tcimo'"egu''tc a'cimi- 
'kc'^tca'wini<'tc lya'"'". U'wiya'A mA'ni napo''i''tcin inipape- 
'iinlnini a'p6'kitepa''ugu''tc'". 

Pe'kiga"megupi nanlmi'etl'niwa'i tci'paiya'"'. Na'kA'^tci'mAn 
a'cikegipi itepi mAni'mogu aiyo" a'cikeg aiyo'' I'nip a"cikeg iya''i 

15 tcIpanA'k''. Ana'*tcimu''tci negu'f " MAgitug''*' " i"ci'sow itep 
a'a'pi'a'^tc''. MAnA"k a'apitA'cine'po'i''tci' Sinina'peteg AnI'ga'ma" 
npguta''yatug ini'yiitug a'nepo'i'te' iya"i tA'ci ka'o'n i'kwawA 
wiito'tamit a'pya"^tciwapiwena'te'e tci'paiyAn aya'i' ca'"cki 
negAto'ck-v'ca'a'i pema'one'gowa''tc'' — aya'pwawi A'ta'pyanAn 

20 a'awA'awawa'^tc i''*tcinAg''''. Me'oe'megu a'pya'^tcipap6'nlwa''tc'", 
nyawugunagAtenigiyatugan"''. KAbo'tw a'kutena'te'e wato'- 
tamit a'me'ckwine'gwani''tci kA"ci a'Ape'so"ini''tci<*tci. Onipiga' 
a'wiga''tci''cima''tc''. MA'nAga' nii'po'it ini'yiitug a'nagwate''^'. 
TcipanA'k a"a''tc'". A'Ane'Ane'me'ka'^tci wa'^tcipAgi'ci'monig''''. 

25Ke''tcimyawime'gup a'Anemi'"seniw''''. Aniwi'kawaniwa"ipi niii- 
'tAnA'sita'i'ni'^tci'''. KAbo'tw a'nAgi"ckawa''t.ci negu'ti metemo'- 
'a'An°''. "A'pyaiyAn""'',"' a"igu<'tc''. "A'a''e," a''ina'^tc''. 
"Nina'nA wina'niyiigA wi'kA'ekipya''tcipe'nowAg'"V' a''igu'^tc''. 
"Agwi''tca''meg uwiya'A wi'pyil^tcipenu'^tc i'cita"a''tcin°''," a''ina- 

30 djc''. "Pe''ki' ckwe' pe"kiga"winan a'A'ckA'^tci'pwi'Ag'''V' a"ini''tc 
ini'ni tci'paiyAn"''. 

I'n i'na'tci kegya'tciga^ no'ta'An a'A''tanig'''". Me'cemegu 
nc'guta'Ina'i a'pi'tiga''tc'\ Ina'tci'i nanep6'i'ni<*tcin a/'nawa'^tc''. 
Piti'g a'A'"cAme''tc''. "'O' iya'ma'ku'wi'n uwi'giwAgi tcinawa'- 

35inA'*tcig'''V' a"ine'^tc''. "Taniyapi wi'i'ca'wiyAn"'",'' a"ine''tc''. 
"Kiwa"k.\niga"?" a"ine<'tc'". "A'a"e," a'i"ciwa''tc''. Pe''kipi 
manii'niwa'i tci'paiya'*'. Ke'tcotiiweni'meg i'na' a'A''tanig''''. 
IvAbo'tw a"nawa''tc umi"sa'Ani na'pe' u'ce'mi'An apya'^tci- 
'sAgapyani'gani''tc''. "Na'i' niA'nA ki'a'wAnawA ki'Aneinino'- 

'iOmegu," a''igu''tc'", "kegA'tomyagAni'megu." "'Au'," a''ina''tc''._ 

Ki'ci'A''cAme''tc i'na' wigi'yapeg i'n a'pya''tci'penu''tc''. Ini- 

''tca"yatug ini'ni Po'kitepa'u'wa'An a'pemine'kiigu'te'"". "Ma ua- 

••tca pyagwa'ni M\'gitug''^'," a''ine''tc'". "Pemine"kawu"k"^," 

a''ine"*tc''. A'pemine'kagu'"^tc inini Po'kitepa'u'wa'An"'". I'n 

45a''cawi<'tc'". A'pe'mamu''tc''. "AnigA pA'gine'k"'," a"ine''tc''. 
Katawi'meguniAtAne''tc in a'pA'gina''tc u'taiyan°''. I'nipi me'ta'- 



MiciiELSON] BEGINNING OF STORY HOW ANY ONE DIES. 399 

being who has his eyes on the smoke-hole, who is said to be there, 
will also take a smoke." Tliat is what they say to him. "You will 
tell it trutMuUy for us when we hand out this Indian tobacco." 
Tliat is what they say to him. After they have addressed him then 
they begin to sing. This is supposed to be weeping. Tliey say to 
the Great Manitou, "One name has been broken." The manitous 
always say that among themselves. They sing all night. They are 
supposed to stay up with the dead. Tliat is all they do there. 

And then it seems another person was blessed by the one called 
Head-piercer. He was told how (Head-piercer) worked yonder. 
When any one died (Head-piercer) would pierce their head. 

It is said that the ghosts have a fine time dancing. And it is said 
that over yonder in the land of the ghosts it is as it is here. 
A person by the name of "Big-Mouth" reports this who is said to 
have been there. It seems when he died the other side of Cedar 
Rapids, that is where he died over there, then a woman, who was 
his sister, carried the corpse here when they only used horses to ride 
upon — before the Indians used wagons. They camped many times, 
it seems it was four days. Soon when his sister felt him he had a 
red arm and was still warm. Then she laid him down very care- 
fully. Tlien it seems this dead one departed. He went toward the 
land of the ghosts. He kept on walking toward the setting of the 
sun. He followed a large road.'^ Persons who were barefooted had 
made many tracks, it is said. Soon he met an old woman. "So 
you have come," he was told. "Yes," he said to her. "Our (rela- 
tives) will not be able to come," he was told.'^ "No one desires to 
come," he said to her. "Oh I am very tired of waiting for them," 
that corpse said. 



Lo, there were big and long wickiups there. He entered one. Lo, 
he saw those who had died. Inside they fed him. "Oh your rela- 
tives live over there," he was told. "What are j'ou going to do?" 
he was told. "You may return?" he was told. "Yes," he replied. 
It is said there were many ghosts. It was (like) a large town there. 
Soon he saw his elder sister, I mean his niece (sister's daughter) 
coming leading an animal.'- "Now you must take this (horse) and 
ride him," he was told, "including the saddle." "All right," he said 
to her. 

After he had been fed in that wickiup, he started back. As he was 
returning it seems that he was pursued by Head-piercer. "Big 
Mouth has come," (Head-piercer) was told. "Pursue him," he was 
told. Then Head-piercer pursued him. That is what happened 
to (Big Mouth). He started to flee. "Throw him away," he was 
told. When he was nearly overtaken he gave up his horse. Then, 

12 Free traaslation. 



400 FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [eth. ann. 40. 

'Icwi pe''k a"pe'mamu''tc'\ Ininiga'i'pinini Po'kitepa'u'wa'Ani 
mAtAnegu'te'ega' Inin I'ni wi'pwawi'ape'si'te'"'. 

I'n ana'ina'^tcimu'^tca'pe' i'nA pA'"cit6''^'. "Ma'nawAgi pe''k''," 
iwa'pe'*". NenotawawA'megu ni'nA a'kwaye'sa''iyan I'n a'ina''^t('i- 
5mu''tc''. Mecla"siiguniga''yatug a"pemine'po'i''tc''. KwIyenA'megu 
meda"sugunagA'tenig a'ape'si'te'"', kwiyenA'megu lya" a'pyane- 
■^tc''. "I'n ana'i'ina'''tcimu''tc I'nA pA"cito''*'. Utaiya'n ini 
mi'ne'^tcini a'mAni''egu'*tci Po'kitepa'u'wa'An"''. I'n ana'i'ina'- 
''tcimu'^tc Ite'p a'a'pi'a'^tci tcI'panA'k I'nA pA''cito'-^'. I'ni nl'A- 

10'kn'ii'''tcimt\w"''', cAto''etig'"'". MA'n a'cawi<'tci' neguf, cA't"', 
Wapinenu''s^'«'. 

Ka"o' niA'ni na''k ane'^tci wa'nAgug ii'kf ei'cime'^tc A'kwi'ta- 
'kigi nap6''itcig'''': 

"Ka'o' i'ni mA'n a'pAnapA'tAniAn a'ckipAgaoA'kwA'gotiig''''. 'O' 

15lni''tca''yatuge wi'nA no"^tc'', a'A'kwa'pyiiyiigi wi'nA no'^tc'', keme- 
"to'saneni'wiwen"'', wI'nA no^'tc*'. 'O' winwa'wA wI'nA no^'tc'', Me- 
'sA'kAinigu'kwaw"*', wi'nA no'^tc'', wi'plt6''tcame'k'', wI'iiA no'^tc'', 
mA'nA k6''kume's'*', wI'nA no'^tc''. 'O'nlniyatug''^', wI'nA no'''tc'', 
a'cikl'capya'se'tonAg'^'^''', -wlnA no'^tc'', "6' kenegWAne'se'nanAg'''", 

20 wI'nA no^'tc''. Oni^tcaVlnAga' no'^'tc'', niA'kwa'^'tc'', wInA no''^tc'', 
wlVapina'se''kawA"*tc'', wI'ila no"'tc'', '6' kenegwAne'sena'nAg'''', 
wi'nA no'^'tc'', aiya'ko'wi, wI'nA no''*tc'', Inu'gi wI'iiA no'^tc'', 
a'ciki'ci'se'tonAg''"'''', wI'nA no^'tc''. '0' wI'iiA no^'tc'', pAgAinigapa- 
wino'kAtawA'te keneg\vAne'sena'nA,wI'nAn6''tc'',wI'awAtenA'mawA- 

25 ''tc'',wI'nAno'^tc'', a'ku'nawAn"'', wI'nA no'^tc''. Ca'Vk'', wI'nA no- 
''tc'', pema'te'siwen"'', wIiiA no'^tc'', Avra''tcimwi''towa''tc'', wI'nA no- 
^tc'". Aiyo", wI'uA no'^tc'', A'kwitA"kAraig'''', wI'nA no'''tc'", 
wa''tci'kAnA''tcig'^'", wi'nA no'^'tc"', wrpwawi-wI'nA-no'*'tc''-wa- 
pAna''tci'i"A''tci tcinawa'mA''tcig'''', wI'nA n6'<*tc''. I'ni'^tca' na'- 

30 'egA"c''',wi'na'gwaiyAn°'" ,\v-I'nAn6'"*tc'',Aiya'pa'ta'*", wI'nA no'^^tc'', 
na''k*', wI'nA no''^tc'', wa'ne'pe''c'', wi'nA no'''tc'", wrAnemiute'- 
"tenAgi tcinawamAt*', wI'nA no'^'tc'', wrAnemi'u'kuna'gapa''tc'', 
ke''kya\ven'''', wi'nA no'^'tc''. 'O' wlnwa'wA'^tca', wI'nA no'^tc'', 
kl'citl'gvva'ig'''', wI'nA no''^tc'', wl'ina'ina'inanemawa'^tci wlnwa'- 

35 w^-^', wI'nA no'^'tc'', wrina"ina'ne'mawa''tc u'ci'sa'wawa''', wi'nA 
no'<'tc'', ugl'wawa'i wI'nA wI'nA no'<'tc''. Tani^'tca' wri"cikeg'''', 
wI'iiA no'''tc'', 'o' a'nwa'to'k'', wI'nA no'^'tc'', pAgAmigapawi'- 
'tawAt^', wI'nA no'^'tc'', kenegvvAne''senan"*', wI'nA no'^tc', 
Wrnaiyatugega' wI'nA n6''^tc'', tca'gi mA'ni, wi'nA no'^'tc'', 

40a"A'ckipAganA'kw-A'goto''tci ma'netow'^'*^', wI'nA no''^tc'', ukl- 
'cegumwaw*'', wI'nA n6''*tc''. Ini'^tca' mA'k\va'''tci wrwiipu'- 
"sayAn"'', wI'nA no''^tc''." 

i'n a'cipe'se'tawAgi na''kA negu'ti kakA'nonatA nap6'i'ni''tcin°''. 
A'^tcipAnAgi^'tci'megu ina'^tci'mowAgi kiikAno'na'^tcigi napo'i'ni- 

45 <^tci''', Wapinenu"s^'''. I'n anetu'namu''tci negu'f. 



MICHELSON.] BEGINNING OF STORY HOW ANY ONE DIES. 401 

it is said, he fled on foot (literally, without anything). It is said 
that if he had been overtaken by Head-piercer, he would not have 
come back to life again. 

Tliat is what that old man used to tell. "There are very many of 
them," he used to say. I myself heard him tell it w^hen I was a 
boy. It seems that he was dead for ten days. On exactly the tenth 
day he came back to life, exactly when he was brought here. That 
is what that old man used to tell. Only he was deprived of the 
horse (which had been given him) by Head-piercer. That is the story 
the old man who had been to the land of the ghosts used to tell. 
Tliat is as far as I will tell about him, my friends. That is what 
happened to one man, my friend Wapinenu's^'*^'. 

And this is what the dead are told after they have been laid in the 
grave on the hill : 

"Now you have lost sight of the green skies which hang above. 
It is, so be it, as it seems, as far as your life extends, so be it. She,'^ 
so be it, Mother-of-aU-the-Earth, this our grandmother, will have you 
in her body, so be it. It is, so be it, as has been planned for us, so 
be it, by our nephews, so be it. And then you, so be it, will walk 
quietly, so be it, straight to (our nephew), so be it, as it has been 
planned far back for us here by our nephews, so be it. Wlien you 
reach, so be it, our nephew, so be it, you will hand him the Indian 
tobacco, so be it. You are only, so be it, to speak to him for life, so 
be it, for them (those here) . You are not, so be it, to look back, so be 
it, at those, so be it, whom you have left here, so be it, your relatives, 
so be it, so be it, so that you will not destroy them, so be it. So now 
you may quietly walk away to Aiyapa'ta''^', so be it, and ask that 
your relatives easily obtain blankets to wear in the future and attain 
an old age. Tliey, so be it, promised each other, so be it, to bless their 
uncles (mother's brothers), so be it, and aunts (mother's sisters), so 
be it. So it can not be that he will not believe you, so be it, when 
you step up to our nephew, so be it. Now it seems, so be it, that 
all this green sky, so be it, which the manitou has hung (from above), 
is their sky, so be it. So you may quietly walk away, so be it." 



Tliat is how I heard one person speak who spoke to a dead (person) . 
Tlie dead are addressed in all sorts of ways, Wapinenu'sw*". That is 
how one person spoke. 



" The word must be so rendered despite tbe Indian text. 



c. 

A'CA'WIWA^TC l'NEPO'"IWA''TCI ME'CKWA"Kl'AG°'. 

A'caViwa'^tci Me'ckwA''ki'Ag a'nepo''i\va'*tc'', nii''kA wa'^^tci ke- 
kanetA'mowa''tci wl"iti'i'tlwa''tci kAkAnone'tlwat®'. MA'nip a"ca'- 
wiwa'^tc''. 

Mane'towAn a'ckiki'ciniAina''tci'e'gowa'*tci me'to'sane'niwAg iikA- 
5none'gowa'*tc'', "MA'ni wi'i'cime'to'saneni'wiyag''™"," a'i'gowa<^tc''. 
" MA"kwa''tci'mcgu krAnemime'tome'to'sane'niwip''*'. Ni'naiyo' 
keki'cimAma'^tci'enep'''*'. Ka'tA'^tca'i wawAne'cka'i-me'to'sanenl'- 
wiweni-nene'kanetAga'g''"'. Inugi niA'ni ni'n a'ki'ci'e'nAgow'"''. 
A'gwi ai_vo'nina'i wi'nepo'I'yagwin"''. Kenwa'ci'megu kl'me'to'sii- 

lOneniwi'p"'^'. I'ni nl'n anitneme'nAgow^"'. A'gwi' ca"cki no'mA- 
gtiwi wi'me'to'saneniwi'yagwin"''. KAkanwa'ci'megu wfAnemina- 
nilw'u'tiyag'''^'''. I'ni ni'n ananeme'nAgow'^^". Ne'cagwanemu 
nl'nA nand'mAgawi wl'me'to'saneni'wiyag'''"^'. Cewa'n ini'megu 
mamye"tci ki'pya'nutap^^'. I'ni tcAtcA''kwime'to'saneni'wiwen'''". 

15 MA'ni wi'u^tci'ca'wiyag''"'''. WawAne'cka'ita"agAni na"ina'i wii- 
pikekane'tAiniigw inini wi'pyanu'tAniag'''"''. Inu'gi wI'nA niAni 
kenwa'ci'megu kl'AneminanawapwA mA'nA krce''sw*'. Mamye- 
'tci'megu mA'nA ki'ce''swA tA''swi mama'^'tciyagwe ki'tcagina- 
wa'p'^'^". Ni'nA 'I'nA netAno''kanaw^*". MAni'megu a'cina'- 

20wagwin i'ni wi'ki'ci'meguke'kiine'menag a'cime'to'saneni'wiyag''''^'. 
Wi'wawAne'cka'i'ga'ime'to'sane'niwit inini'megu wi'ke'kiineme'gu- 
''tcini ki''ce'son°'". Neni'w i'kwa'wA w4''sayagi kiigo'' i'ciwa- 
wAne'cka'ikA 'notify' , inini'megu wi'ke'kaneme'gu'^tcini ki"ce- 
"son"''. O'ni mA'ni. Na"kA tepe'"ki pe"ki wi'A'kawapAme'- 

25gwiyag''^'"'V' a'i'gowa''tci mane'towAu"''. "MA'kwa'*tci''tca''megu 
me'to'sane'niwig''"'. Ki'ke'ca'*tcime"to"sane'niwip"'^". Ki'ke'cata- 
netipwA'megu. Ka't a'cimya'netegi inaneti"kag''"'. Me'sotawi'- 
megu ki'tepa'netip^*'. Na''kA wawAne'cka'ikA'nawIni kii'tA nene- 
'kftnetAgix'g''"'. Me'cemego'na'i mya"cikegi kene'cki'menep''*'. 

30Me'nwikegi ku'^tci ni'n anJineme'nAgowe A'peniiwe'mcgu a'cime'- 
nwikeg i'ni ni'n'"^'. KAkanwa'ciga''megu ki'Anemime'tome'to- 
"sane'niwip'''*^". A'gwi no'mAgiiwe' ca'"cki wi'me'to'saneniwi'- 
yagwin"''. Xe'ki'megu wi'Anemitapwa'tawi'wagwan ini wi'Anemi- 
"i'"cikegi ki'yawaw"''. Anemi'megu-A'pi'tci-wawAne'cka'i'wag- 

35 wan"'', ini'megu wi'Anemi'A'pi'tcikegi keme'to'siineniwi'wenwaw'^''. 
MA'ni me'to'''tc a''cikegi ki'yawawi me'cemego'na' mAni kiigo" 
a' tci 'gay ag ''''''". A'cki'*tca'"megu Ani'wige's*'. Ka'o'ni kAbo'twe 
ponimenwi"katag'"'', ini'*tca"megu niA'ni wl'i"cikegi mA'ni kepe- 
mate'si'wenwaw'^''. I'n i'nugi niA'ni ka'cki'ine'nAgoW"''," 

40 a'i'gowa^'tci kakAnonego'wa^tcin"''. 
402 



c. 

THE WAY MESKWAKIES DO WHEN THEY DIE. 

(Tliis is) what the Meskwakies do when they die and how they 
know what they shall say to each other if they speak to each other (at 
burial). This it is said is what they did. 

The people were addressed by the manitou by whom they were 
first made to move (i. e., have life), "This is the way you shall exist 
as mortals," they were told. "You must live quietly in the future. 
I made you to move (i. e., gave you life). Do not think of an evil 
life. Tliis day I have made you. You will not die right away. For 
a long time you will exist as mortals. Tliat is what I think of you. 
You will not exist as mortals for merely a short time. You will con- 
tinue to see each other for a very long tune. That is what I desire 
for you. I am unwilling for you to live (but) a very short time. 
But you will surely come to that. Tlien life will be very short. This 
is why that will happen to you. At the time when you begin to have 
evil thoughts, then you will come to it. Now to-day you will con- 
tinue to see the sun for a long time. Surely as many of you as stir 
(i. e., have life) will all see him. I myself employ him. As you now 
see him, he will have known how you live. Whoever shall live evilly 
will be known by the sun. The man or woman who says anything 
evil while it is daylight will be known by the sun. And this. You 
will also be watched very carefully at the night," they were told by 
the manitou. "Live quietly. You must live gently. You must 
think kindly toward each other. Do not think of what is evil 
toward each other. You must all be fond of each other. And do not 
think of bad language. I warn you against anything which is bad. 
For I desire you (to do) what is right, always what is right is what I 
desire of you. (If you do that) you will continue to live for a very 
long time. (It) will not (be) for a short time. You will only live so 
long as you shall continue to believe me. For as long as you shall 
continue to be evil, so long will your life be (short) . Your body is the 
same as when you plant anything. At first it will grow rapidly. 
And if it soon is not properly taken care of, then your life will be like 
this. This is what I can tell you to-day," they were told when they 
were addressed by him. 



403 



404 FOX MORTUARY CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS. [eth. ann. 4C. 

'O'nipi kAbo'twe negu't A'ckA^'tci'megu a'ne'p5"i'^tc''. A'pwa- 
wike'kanemawa''tci'megu a"ciwapawi'nigwan°'". Kenwa'ci'megu 
a'kiwipemenawa''tc'". KAbotwep mi negu't a"mo'"ci'to<*tc a'ciwapi- 
"ca'wini'^tc''. Onin a'a''tci'mo'a''tci me