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Full text of "Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution"

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Fifty-sixth Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1938-1939 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
^ WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



FIFTY-SIXTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1938-1939 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1940 









O^ i / £ -' f ¥° 



FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Chief 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1939, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of May 23, 1938, which pro- 
vides "For continuing ethnological researches among the American 
Indians and the natives of Hawaii and the excavation and preserva- 
tion of archeologic remains. . . ." 

systematic researches 

M. W. Stirling, Chief, left Washington on December 24 to begin 
archeological excavations at a large site near the village of Tres 
Zapotes in southern Veracruz. This work was undertaken in co- 
operation with the National Geographic Society, which financed the 
expedition. The permission to conduct the work was obtained earlier 
in the year from the Mexican Department of Public Education, 
whose generous cooperation greatly facilitated the work. With Dr. 
C. W. Weiant as assistant, excavations were begun on January 1 
and continued until April 15. 

Although detailed results of this first season of work cannot be 
announced until further study has been made of the material, far- 
reaching connections are indicated which require careful study of 
the Maya, Zapotec, Huastec, and Teotihuacan areas. Nine major 
stone monuments were excavated at the site, including the famous 
"Cabesa Colosal," and a very large collection of ceramics and figu- 
rines was obtained. The most interesting discovery was a stone monu- 
ment inscribed with an initial-series date. This is in a style closely 
related to that on the Tuxtla statuette and apparently records a 
late Baktun 7 date. 

At the conclusion of the work the collections were brought to Mexico 
City where a division was effected with the Mexican Government. 
A large carved stone box and the dated monument were sucessfully 
transported to the National Museum in Mexico City. 

201197-40 l 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

The greater part of the year was devoted by Dr. John R. Swanton, 
ethnologist, to work connected with the researches of the United 
States De Soto Expedition Commission. During most of October and 
the first half of November 1938, he was in the field in the interest of that 
Commission. Visits were made by automobile to points in North and 
South Carolina and southern Georgia, and a great deal of time was 
spent in researches in Florida, where he was assisted materially by 
Dr. Herman Gunter, the State geologist, and J. Clarence Simpson. 
On leaving Florida, Dr. Swanton visited Dr. Walter B. Jones, mem- 
ber of the Commission from Alabama, at Tuscaloosa, and then went 
to Aberdeen, Miss., where he was met by Col. John R. Fordyce, the 
Commissioner from Arkansas. In company with Colonel Fordyce 
and Dr. W. A. Evans, of Aberdeen, he visited several points in north- 
ern Mississippi. Colonel Fordyce then drove him to Helena, Ark., 
where 2 days were spent in the examination of sites along Crowley's 
Ridge and on White River. Afterward excursions were made to the 
Menard Mounds near Little Rock and points along the Little Mis- 
souri River. On October 26 Dr. Swanton and Colonel Fordyce joined 
Miss Caroline Dormon, the Louisiana member of the Commission, 
and her sister, at Jonesville, La., and spent 2 days on the Ouachita 
and Tensas Rivers in launches kindly furnished by the Mississippi 
River Commission and accompanied by some of the Commission's 
officials. Later Dr. Swanton visited Baton Rouge to confer with 
members of the geological staff of the Louisiana State University, 
and with James A. Ford, the archeologist engaged in research work 
in that State, returning from there to Little Rock and thence to 
Washington. 

The remainder of the calendar year 1938 was devoted to the com- 
pletion of the report of the Commission, and during the first months 
of 1939 Dr. Swanton was engaged in reading proof for this report, 
which appeared in May as House Document No. 71 of the Seventy- 
sixth Congress. It covers 400 pages and includes 11 maps. 

On May 30, by special invitation, Dr. Swanton attended the unveil- 
ing of a marker at Shaw's Point, near Bradenton, Fla., commemora- 
tive of the landing of De Soto, and during this trip he spoke to 
audiences at Rollins College, Winter Park, on the Indians of Florida 
and the work of the De Soto Commission, and before the Kiwanis 
Club at Bradenton and the Jacksonville Historical Society at Jack- 
sonville on the latter subject. 

On December 29, 1938, Dr. Swanton delivered the retiring address 
as president of section H of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. 

The start of the fiscal year found Dr. John P. Harrington, ethnolo- 
gist, engaged in a study of the northern provenience of the Navaho. 
This tribe, the largest single-dialect Indian population in the United 



FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 3 

States, numbering some 50,000 souls, centers its present habitat in 
eastern Arizona and western New Mexico and speaks an aberrant 
form of Western Apache. It is patent that Western Apache, and also 
Eastern Apache (represented by Kiowa Apache, Jicarilla Apache, 
and Lipan) are tongues of northern origin, coming from beyond the 
present northern boundary of the United States, the language-bearing 
ancestors of these so-called Navaho and Apache peoples having mi- 
grated from the north. This migration was far back of the range of 
history, and the reason for accepting this migration is found in the 
existence of the surprisingly closely related Athapascan languages oc- 
cupying all the interior of Alaska and western Canada, a patch near 
the mouth of the Columbia, and another taking in much of the southern 
Oregon and northern California coast region. 

The study of the northern origin of the Navaho consisted of the 
assembling of documentation from historical and ethnological sources, 
interviewing of Indians, and discussions with archeologists and eth- 
nologists engaged in Siberian, Alaskan, Great Basin, High Plains, 
and Navaho region investigations. 

The nearest linguistic sisters of the Navaho language in the north 
are the Carrier and closely related Chilcotin of the southernmost 
part of the Northern Interior Plateau mentioned above, and east of 
them the Sarcee, in the Rockies and the plains just east of the Rockies. 

The Smithsonian Institution having come into possession of an 
imprinted source giving a first-hand account of the Sacramento 
Valley Indians of California in 1850, including two vocabularies of 
native Indian languages, from the pen of Prince Paul, educated Ger- 
man traveler and friend of Sutter, the founder of Sacramento, Calif., 
Dr. Harrington left in May to check this new and important material 
with native informants. The source consisted of an account of the 
natives of the "Hok" farm, belonging to Sutter. Dr. Harrington 
discovered the old Indian rancheria mound called "Hok" on the 
west edge of the Feather River 7 miles south of Yuba City. 

July 1 found Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., archeologist, in camp 
at the Lindenmeier site, north of Fort Collins, in northern Colorado, 
continuing his excavations in search of additional information on 
Folsom man, the aboriginal nomad who hunted bison, mammoth, and 
the American camel on the western plains during the closing stages of 
the glacial period. The work was carried on until the end of Septem- 
ber when digging was stopped for the season. During the course of 
the summer's investigations 3,500 square feet of the original surface of 
occupation was uncovered. The overburden ranged from 3 to 8 feet 
in depth so that a considerable quantity of earth had to be removed 
before the stratum containing the desired archeological record was 
reached. Included in the layer were various concentrations of cut 
and split animal bones, most of them from the extinct Bison taylori, 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

several hearths, places where the stone drippers had made their tools 
from different kinds of material present in the vicinity, and an assort- 
ment of implements. The collection of specimens of the people's 
handicraft obtained from the season's excavations comprises, in addi- 
tion to typically fluted points and a series of tools similar to those 
found in previous years, several new types of stone knives and scrap- 
ers and a number of bone fragments bearing- portions of simple, in- 
cised, geometric decorations. This material serves to broaden the 
knowledge on the material culture complex characteristic of this 
group of early American peoples. The digging also produced im- 
portant evidence on the relation between the occupation level and 
certain geologic deposits and helped confirm the correlation of the 
site with definite features dating from the late glacial horizon in that 
general area. 

After the termination of the work at the Lindenmeier site, Dr. 
Roberts visited places in Nebraska, Wyoming, and Saskatchewan, 
Canada, where local collectors have found objects attributable to the 
Folsom or some other, presumably associated, complex. The sites in 
Nebraska are in the southwestern corner of the State in Chase and 
Dundy Counties. The locations inspected in Wyoming are in the 
northeastern part of the State in the vicinity of Sundance. The 
Saskatchewan sites are near Mortlach and are of interest because they 
extend the range of this type of material well toward the north along 
the postulated route of migration of peoples coming from Asia into 
the New World. From Mortlach, Dr. Roberts returned to Washing- 
ton and resumed his office duties on November 1. 

During the winter months galley and page proofs were read and 
corrected for the report, Archeological Remains in the Whitewater 
District, Eastern Arizona, Part I, House Types, which appeared as 
Bulletin 121 of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Manuscript for 
the second part of this report, describing the artifacts and burials asso- 
ciated with the house remains, was revised, completed, and transmitted 
to the editor for publication in the bulletin series. An article, The 
Folsom Problem in American Archeology, which appeared in the 
book Early Man, as depicted by leading authorities at the Inter- 
national Symposium at the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia, March 1937, was revised, augmented with new information 
and a series of illustrations, and otherwise made suitable for use in the 
appendix to the Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the 
Smithsonian Institution for 1938. In addition several short papers on 
archeological subjects were written for various anthropological jour- 
nals. Information on Old World archeology was furnished for a 
radio broadcast on the subject Pushing Back History, and this and 
several other scripts for "The World is Yours" program were read and 
checked for errors. 



FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

In March the Honorable Cordell Hull, Secretary of State, 
appointed Dr. Roberts to represent the United States on the 
International Commission for Historic Monuments. 

On June 9, 1939, Dr. Roberts left Washington for Colorado, where 
he resumed excavations at the Lindenmeier site. By the end of the 
fiscal year he had opened up another portion of the site and was 
obtaining further data on the Folsom problem. 

Dr. Julian H. Steward, anthropologist, spent the months of July 
and August 1938 in continuing an archeological and ethnological 
reconnaissance in western South America which was begun during 
the preceding fiscal year. During this period several Indian vil- 
lages of the highlands were visited, and a number of archeological 
sites were examined in both the highland and coastal regions. These 
researches were undertaken as a preliminary to the editing of the 
projected Handbook of South American Indians, and on his return 
to Washington Dr. Steward began preparation of the final plans for 
the Handbook. These plans were completed during the remainder 
of the fiscal year, and the project has now been initiated, various 
contributors having been invited to participate. 

Scientific papers prepared by Dr. Steward during the past year 
are : Anthropological Reconnaissance of Southern Utah, for a Bureau 
of American Ethnology Bulletin ; Anthropological Reconnaissance in 
South America, for Explorations and Field-Work of the Smith- 
sonian Institution in 1938; Some Observations on Shoshonean Dis- 
tributions, for the American Anthropologist; The Economic Basis 
of Changes in the Shoshonean Indian Culture, for the Scientific 
Monthly; Notes on Hillers' Photographs of the Paiute and Ute 
Indians taken on the Powell Expedition of 1873, for the Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous Collections. 

Henry B. Collins, Jr., was appointed ethnologist in the Bureau, 
effective February 1, 1939, by transfer from the Division of Eth- 
nology, United States National Museum. From February 1 to the 
end of the fiscal year Mr. Collins spent the greater part of his time 
working over the large and varied collection of artifacts, numbering 
several thousand specimens, which he excavated in 1936 at Cape 
Prince of Wales and other prehistoric Eskimo sites in the immediate 
vicinity of Bering Strait. A statement of the activities of Mr. 
Collins during the preceding part of the fiscal year is included in 
the report of the Department of Anthropology of the United States 
National Museum. 

Dr. William N. Fenton, ethnologist, joined the staff of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology on February 6, 1939, coming to the Bureau 
from St. Lawrence University. He will continue ethnological 



6 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

studies among the Iroquois groups in New York and Canada with 
the aim of cleaning up some of the ethnological problems in the 
northeastern area that remain from the research of previous students. 
The Rosenwald Fund of Chicago financed a field trip to the Senecas 
at Coldspring on the Allegany Reservation in southwestern New 
York during the interim that followed the end of the first semester 
at the University and preceded removal to Washington. Dr. Fenton 
wrote up his field notes on the Seneca Midwinter Festival as a sup- 
plement to notes taken in 1934, as soon as he was established at the 
Bureau. In April and May, Dr. Fenton wrote a monograph on 
Iroquois Suicide from cases collected during 1935, as a member of the 
United States Indian Field Service, and parallel cases that occur in 
the earlier ethnological and historical sources on the Iroquois. He 
submitted the manuscript for publication in June before leaving for 
the field. Another manuscript, Tonawanda Longhouse Ceremonies: 
Ninety Years After Lewis Henry Morgan, written in 1936 and 
recently rewritten, was submitted for publication at the same time. 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES 

Miss Frances Densmore, a collaborator of the Bureau, in continua- 
tion of her study of Indian music, submitted two manuscripts entitled 
"Choctaw War and Dance Songs" and "Choctaw T and Seminole 
Songs," with phonograph records and transcriptions of 31 Choctaw 
and 9 Seminole songs. The Choctaw songs were recorded near 
Philadelphia, Miss., in January 1933, and the Seminole songs were 
recorded at Brighton, Fla., in February of the same year. Tran- 
scriptions and phonograph records of two performances on a Choctaw 
flute were also submitted. These flutes were played by medicine men 
during ball games to bring success to one group of players and 
confuse their opponents. Robert Henry, who recorded the flute 
playing, is a leading medicine man at the ball games. The 66 Choc- 
taw songs, now in possession of the Bureau, were listed according 
to their catalog numbers. Fourteen manuscripts on the music of 
the Winnebago, previously submitted, were combined in one manu- 
script and retyped preparatory to publication, the retyped material 
comprising about 300 pages. The 205 Winnebago songs were ar- 
ranged in final order, and listed according to serial and catalog num- 
bers. The galley and page proof, also the music proof, of Nootka 
and Quileute Music were read during the year. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1939, John G. Carter, a 
collaborator of the Bureau, devoted considerable time to the ethno- 
graphic and Indian sign-language material contained in the manu- 



FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

scripts of the late Maj. Gen. Hugh L. Scott, United States Army. 
These manuscripts, together with other material, were donated to 
the Bureau by the widow of General Scott. The material donated 
consisted of newspaper clippings, pamphlets and other printed mat- 
ter, photographs, and manuscript. 

This material was examined, read, and classified. The photographs 
were turned over to their proper custodian in the Bureau for filing 
and record. The pamphlets and other printed matter were disposed 
of in like manner. The manuscript was read and classified in sepa- 
rate riling jackets. Many historical references in these manuscripts 
were checked for accuracy. 

An extensive research was made into the writings of most of the 
early discoverers and explorers of the North American continent, 
beginning with the Norsemen, in order to determine the extent to 
which and the localities in which the sign language was used by the 
North American Indians. It was ascertained, as far as the records 
which have been examined to date reveal, that the sign language 
was confined to the buffalo-hunting tribes of the plains west of the 
Mississippi River, and to tribes adjacent to the plains who made 
seasonal hunts into the buffalo country. This confirms the state- 
ments made by General Scott in his manuscripts. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editing of the publications of the Bureau was continued 
through the 3 7 ear by Stanley Searles, editor. 

BULLETINS ISSUED DURING THE TEAR 

118. An Archaeological Survey of the Norris Basin in Eastern Tennessee, by 
William S. Webb. 

119. Anthropological Papers, Nos. 1-6. No. 1, A Preliminary" Report on 
Archeological Explorations at Macon, Ga., by A. R. Kelly. No. 2, The Northern 
Arapaho Flat Pipe and the Ceremony of Covering the Pipe, by John G. Carter. 
No. 3, The Caribs of Dominica, by Douglas Taylor. No. 4, What Happened 
to Green Bear Who Was Blessed With a Sacred Pack, by Truman Michelson. 
No. 5, Lemhi Shoshoni Physical Therapy, by Julian H. Steward. No. 6, 
Panatiibiji', an Owens Valley Paiute, by Julian H. Steward. 

120. Basin-Plateau Aboriginal Sociopolitical Groups, by Julian H. Steward. 

121. Archeological Remains in the Whitewater District, Eastern Arizona. 
Part I, House Types, by Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

122. An Archaeological Survey of Wheeler Basin on the Tennessee River in 
Northern Alabama, by William S. Webb. 

123. Anthropological Papers, Nos. 7-12. No. 7, Archeological Investigations 
in the Corozal District of British Honduras, by Thomas and Mary Gann. No. 8, 
Linguistic Classification of Cree and Montagnais-Naskapi Dialects, by Truman 
Michelson. No. 9, Sedelmayr's Relacion of 1746, translated and edited by 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Ronald L. Ives. No. 10, Notes on the Creek Indians, by J. N. B. Hewitt, edited 
by John R. Swanton. No. 11, The Yaruros of the Capanaparo River, Venezuela, 
by Viucenzo Petrullo. No. 12, Archeology of Arauquin, by Vineenzo Petrullo. 

IN PRESS 

101. War Ceremony and Peace Ceremony of the Osage Indians, by Francis 
La Flesche. 

124. Nootka and Quileute Music, by Frances Densmore. 

125. Ethnography of the Fox Indians, by William Jones, edited by Margaret 
Welpley Fisher. 

The Index to Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes lias been completed. 
Publications distributed totaled 19,527. 

LIBRARY 

The library continued under the direction of Miss Miriam B. 
Ketchum, librarian. Accessions during the year totaled 223. 

The exchange list has been completely revised and brought up 
to date, and seven new exchange sets have been added. 

The rare book section was finished early in the fiscal year, and 
the rarest items and many others of importance have been shelved 
in it. More than half of these books have been recataloged and 
classified and permanently labeled and shelved. 

All the publications of North American societies and institutions 
have been sorted and all matter not in the field of the Bureau dis- 
carded as far as possible. 

The librarian attended the meetings of the Inter-American 
Bibliographical and Historical Society at Washington, D. C, in 
February, and the Special Libraries Association at Baltimore in May. 

The usual routine work of accessioning and cataloging new mate- 
rial and entering new periodicals received has been kept up to date. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Following is a summary of work accomplished by E. G. Cassedy, 
illustrator : 

Topographic surveying 1 

Plates prepared 94 

Line drawings 114 

Photographs retouched 44 

Lettering jobs 126 

Graphs 12 

Maps 18 

Mechanical drawings 2 

Engrossing jobs 1 

Total 412 



FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 9 

COLLECTIONS 

Accession 
No. 

148J0S. Potsherds, figurine fragments, and other artifacts from various sites 
in Mexico, collected in 1938 by M. W. Stirling for the Bureau. (51 
specimens. ) 

152,153. Male skeleton from deep trench west of Mound A, Shiloh National 
Monument, Term., and a miscellaneous archeological collection, ob- 
tained in the course of excavations conducted by F. H. H. Roberts, 
Jr., during the winter of 1933-34 in cooperation with the Civil Works 
Administration. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning 
the North American Indians, both past and present, and the Mexican 
peoples of the prehistoric and early historic periods. Various speci- 
mens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them furnished 
for their owners. 

Personnel. — Dr. Truman Michelson, ethnologist, died July 26, 1938. 
On February 1, 1939, Henry B. Collins, Jr., was appointed by transfer 
from the United States National Museum to fill the vacancy caused 
by the death of Dr. Michelson. Dr. William N. Fenton was ap- 
pointed as ethnologist on February 6, 1939. H. B. Chappell resigned 
as clerk in the library of the Bureau on October 4, 1938, and Walter 
B. Greenwood was appointed on November 1, 1938, to fill this 
vacancy. Stanley Searles, editor, retired on June 30, 1939. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Chief. 

Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

o 



Fifty-seventh Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1939-1940 






\tn 



M^ 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



FIFTY-SEVENTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1939-1940 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1941 



FIFTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Chief 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1940, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of March 16, 1939, which 
provides "* * * for continuing ethnological researches among the 
American Indians and the natives of Hawaii and the excavation 
and preservation of archeologic remains. * * *" 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

M. W. Stirling, Chief of the Bureau, left Washington on Decem- 
ber 26 to continue his archeological excavations in southeastern 
Mexico. Work was continued at Tres Zapotes until April 20. Two 
additional expeditions were made, one to Cerro de Mesa on the Rio 
Blanco in the State of Veracruz, and the other to La Venta in 
northern Tabasco. As last year, the work was undertaken in cooper- 
ation with the National Geographic Society. Dr. Philip Drucker 
accompanied Mr. Stirling as assistant archeologist. 

As a result of the second season of work, the chronology of the 
Tres Zapotes site has now been satisfactorily determined. Indica- 
tions are that the site was occupied from a date before the begin- 
ning of the Christian era but that it was abandoned sometime before 
the beginning of the Spanish conquest. 

At Cerro de Mesa, 20 carved stone monuments were located and 
photographed, including one with an initial series date in the Maya 
calendar. This date reads 9-1-12-14-10, or 1 Oc 3 Uyab. The 
discovery of this monument raises to three the number of initial 
series now known from the State of Veracruz. Although a very 
early Baktun 9 date, it is later than Stela C from Tres Zapotes and 
the Tuxtla statuette. Of the 20 monuments at Cerro de Mesa, 12 are 
stelae. 

Twenty monuments were also unearthed at La Venta, including 
five colossal heads, several beautifully carved altars, and some stelae. 

288575—41 1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

At the conclusion of the work the collections were brought to Mex- 
ico City and a division of the material was made by the department 
of archeology of the Mexican Government, whose splendid coopera- 
tion did much to facilitate the work in the field. 

Mr. Stirling attended three anthropological conferences as a dele- 
gate of the United States Government, these being the Twenty- 
seventh Session, International Congress of Americanists, held at Mex- 
ico City, August 5-15, 1939; the First Inter-American Congress on 
Indian Life, at Patzcuaro, Michoacan, April 14-24, 1940; and the 
Eighth American Scientific Congress, in Washington, May 10-21, 
1940. 

Dr. J. R. Swanton, ethnologist, devoted the greater part of the 
fiscal year to the assembling of material bearing on the ethnology 
and early history of the Caddo Indians, former inhabitants of 
northwestern Louisiana, southwestern Arkansas, northeastern Texas, 
and southeastern Oklahoma. This now covers about 700 typewritten 
pages including copies of original Spanish and French texts. He 
rendered assistance to various local organizations in preparing for 
the placing of markers along the trail followed by Hernando de 
Soto and celebrations connected with them. Investigations were 
undertaken for the United States Board on Geographical Names, 
of which Dr. Swanton is a member. A bulletin by him entitled 
"Linguistic Material From the Tribes of Southern Texas and North- 
eastern Mexico" is now in page proof. 

Dr. Swanton was much gratified at the kind recognition tendered 
by his anthropological associates this year on the completion of 
40 years' service in the Bureau and the Institution in having dedi- 
cated to him volume 100 of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collec- 
tions entitled "Essays in Historical Anthropology of North 
America." 

At the beginning of the fiscal year, Dr. John P. Harrington, 
ethnologist, was engaged in field studies at Anadarko and Apache, 
Okla., on the Kiowa Apache Tribe, in reality a variety of Lipan 
and not Apache Indians according to language, and possibly iden- 
tical with the "Palomas" of early Spanish archives of New Mexico. 
These peoples, which can well be termed "Lipanan* from the Lipan, 
one of the tribes, have become extinct or have been shoved far 
from their former ranges, with the sole exception of the Kiowa 
Apache, which, because of alliance with the powerful Kiowa Tribe, 
succeeded in remaining in the region although assimilating the 
Kiowa culture. 

Returning to Washington, Dr. Harrington proceeded in the latter 
part of July to Window Rock, Ariz., location of the administrative 
headquarters of the Navaho Tribe. Just as the Kiowa Apache 
show a subtype of western Plains culture submerge to that of 



FIFTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 3 

the Kiowa, so the Navaho show Great Basin culture with a varnish 
of many Pueblo features, and study proves that these Pueblo fea- 
i ures are in every case directly derived from some particular Pueblo 
with which the Navaho have had century-long contact. For in- 
stance, the Navaho of Ramah derive their Pueblo features from 
Zuni. The most interesting discovery of all was the prominence 
of the buffalo in Navaho ceremony, in which the buffalo plays a 
role as large as among the Pueblos. 

In the case of both the Kiowa Apache and Navaho, language study 
is the most practical means of proving that the language-bearing 
ancestors of these tribes came from the north, where similar lan- 
guages are still spoken, occupying the interior of Alaska and of 
western Canada. 

Proceeding October 25 to the Chipewyan of eastern Alberta, Can- 
ada, Dr. Harrington found them to consist of a southern-projecting 
tongue of the language of the great Athabaska Lake of northern 
Alberta, which derives its name from Algonquian Cree Adhapas- 
kaaw, meaning "much grass" and applied originally to the Peace 
River Delta at the western end of the lake. Chipewyan means 
"pointed skins," referring to an old habit of dress. The Chipewyan 
language proved to be surprisingly close to Navaho in vocabulary 
and construction. 

Proceeding to the Sarcee language of southern Alberta, Dr. Har- 
rington encountered another closely related tongue, and one which is 
most nearly affiliated with the Beaver and the Sekeneh, two dialects 
that lie north of the Sarcee. Dr. Harrington learned the tradition 
that the Sarcee and Beaver were originally one people but that in 
migrating southward across a frozen lake, the water monster became 
angered and broke the ice, those Indians on the northern side becoming 
the Beaver and those having crossed to the southern side becoming the 
Sarcee. The Sarcee were found to have adopted the culture of the 
neighboring Blackfeet, and the meaning of the name of the Blackfeet, 
Ayaatciyiiniw, was found to mean "ugly enemy." 

The Carrier, Chilcotin, and Nicola dialects were reached in Decem- 
ber. These are located on the upper Fraser River, especially about 
the great lakes at the head of this stream. 

The Sekeneh were also reached in British Columbia and the name 
was found to mean "Rocky Mountain Indian." 

Returning to Washington, Dr. Harrington proceeded in March to 
the study of the Tlinkit Indians of southeastern Alaska, finding these 
to be related to the Navaho, in a close relationship which cannot mean 
many centuries of separation. 

Dr. Harrington then proceeded in May to the study of the At chat, 
or Eyak, Tribe, which was found to have occupied the entire eastern 
half of the Gulf of Alaska, a stretch of coast 350 miles long, extending 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

from Prince William Sound in the west to Latuya Bay in the east. 
This tribe has earlier been called Ugalenz and Eyak, but the real 
name of the tribe has never been known, Atchat meaning "on this 
side" or "opposite," referring to location on the Gulf of Alaska and 
opposite the islands. This language also proved to be closely related 
to the Navaho, and, as might be expected, more closely related to 
the languages of British Columbia and the Navaho than is the island 
language. 

Dr. Harrington returned to Washington on June 29. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year, July 1, Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, 
Jr., archeologist, was engaged in excavating at the Lindenmeier site 
in northern Colorado. The investigations were continued through 
July and August and were brought to a close for the season on 
September 15. The area under examination was a portion of the Fol- 
som camp site that has occupied a Bureau of American Ethnology- 
Smithsonian Institution Expedition's attention for several seasons. 
The 1939 excavations consisted of the removal of the overburden, 
ranging from 3y 2 to 5y 2 feet in thickness, from some 1,540 square feet 
of the old area of occupation, digging a series of 10 test trenches in 
unsampled parts of the site, and prospecting in outcroppings of the 
archeological layer in the banks of a deep ravine that traverses a 
portion of the site. The excavations in the camp remains produced 
more specimens than any previously made in areas of comparable size. 
The collection of artifacts includes typically fluted Folsom points, 
fluted knives, knives made from the flakes removed from the faces of 
the points in producing the channels, other kinds of flake knives, a 
variety of scrapers including several forms of the spokeshave type, 
flakes with small points used for marking on bone and wood, hand- 
hammer stones and large choppers, red and yellow ochers used for 
pigments, bone punches and awls, pieces of decorated bone from ob- 
jects of unknown form and function, and tubular bone beads. The 
latter are the first to be found in the Folsom Complex. They were 
made from shafts of long bones. Unfortunately, the criteria for 
identification were removed in the process of manufacture, but they 
seem to be rabbit and bird. One of these specimens was decorated 
with a series of short parallel lines cut into its surface. 

Dr. Roberts returned to the office in Washington on October 1. 
During the fall and winter months he read galley and page proofs 
on the report Archeological Remains in the Whitewater District, 
Eastern Arizona. Part II. Artifacts and Burials, which appeared 
as Bulletin 126 of the Bureau of American Ethnology. He also 
served as technical advisor for "The World is Yours" programs, 
"Cortez, the Conquistador" and "Pompeii Lives Again," and wrote the 
article for "The World is Yours" pamphlet on Pompeii. He also 
prepared a manuscript on the subject Developments in the Problem 



FIFTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

of the North American Paleo-Indian. Galley and page proofs were 
read and corrected for this paper, which appeared in the Essays in 
Historical Anthropology of North America, volume 100, Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collections. Special papers on archeological subjects 
were prepared and presented before the Pennsylvania State Archeo- 
logical Society, the American Anthropological Association, and the 
Eighth American Scientific Congress. 

Dr. Roberts left Washington, May 26, for Colorado and resumed 
investigations at the Lindenmeier site. While the preliminary exca- 
vations were under way, a number of places in that vicinity were 
visited for the purpose of checking purported finds of Folsom ma- 
terial. Work at the Lindenmeier site was in full progress at the 
close of the fiscal year. 

As editor of the Handbook of South American Indians, Dr. Ju- 
lian H. Steward, anthropologist, in consultation with leading au- 
thorities on South American anthropology, drew up a working 
outline for this project. A two-volume, 2,000-page work to be pub- 
lished in 5 years, the Handbook will contain articles by specialists 
on the various subjects. The volume of essays in honor of Dr. 
Swanton, for which Dr. Steward served as technical editor, was 
pushed through to a successful conclusion and published on May 25, 
1940. Several studies of Shoshonean archeology and ethnology 
were written and published. 

May 26 to July 1 was spent by Dr. Steward among the Carrier 
Indians of British Columbia. Records of land tenure, subsistence 
activities, and sociopolitical changes during five generations were 
procured from the Stuart Lake and neighboring Carrier. It was 
found that within the framework of aboriginal land utilization, the 
sociopolitical structure had shifted from a band organization to a 
matrilineal clan and potlatch system derived from the coast. In 
historic times, the latter had given way before a patrilineal family 
system. Records of general ethnography, 100 specimens of native 
artifacts, and over 50 specimens of plants used in aboriginal times 
were also obtained. 

In July 1939 a Latin-American bibliographic conference at Ann 
Arbor, Mich., was attended. In December 1939 two papers were 
read before the American Anthropological Association in Chicago. 
In May 1940 Dr. Steward served as secretary of the Anthropologi- 
cal Section of the Eighth American Scientific Congress, meeting in 
Washington. 

Henry B. Collins, Jr., ethnologist, continued working over the mate- 
rial which he excavated in 1936 at prehistoric Eskimo village sites 
around Bering Strait. The collection from one of the sites — Kurigi- 
tavik, at Cape Prince of Wales — consists of several thousand artifacts 
of ivory, bone, stone, clay, wood, and baleen and provides a detailed 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

pict ure of prehistoric Eskimo culture of the intermediate Thule-Punuk 
stage, the age of which may be estimated at around a thousand years. 
The material from Kurigitavik, together with that from two earlier 
sites, has provided needed information on the transition from the 
Birnirk stage to the Thule, and collections from several later sites 
reveal the changes leading up to the culture of modern times. 

Manuscripts completed during the year included a general paper 
summarizing the archeological evidence bearing on the origin of the 
Eskimo and the cultural position of this group in relation to neighbor- 
ing peoples in Asia and America; and shorter papers on Eskimo art, 
on the voyages of Vitus Bering (for the Smithsonian radio series), 
and on prehistoric Indian crania from the Southeast. 

Early in July 1939 Dr. William N. Fenton, associate anthropolo- 
gist, left for Salamanca, N. Y., to conduct ethnobotanical studies 
among the Iroquois Indians of New York and Canada. He visited 
the Senecas of Allegany and Cornplanter Eeservations, in southwest- 
ern New York and Pennsylvania, and the Mohawks of St. Regis 
Keservation, N. Y., and Caughnawaga, Province of Quebec. He 
called briefly on the Hurons of Lorette and the Mohawks of Oka, 
Lake of the Two Mountains, near Montreal. At Ottawa he studied 
the extensive catalog of Iroquois ethnological photographs in the 
National Museum of Canada. The month of August was passed 
among the Iroquois of Six Nations Reserve in Ontario, where he 
worked with Simeon Gibson, interpreter to the late J. N. B. Hewitt. 
About a hundred herbarium specimens were collected; when identi- 
fied at the National Hebarium, these proved to be largely duplicates 
of medical plants gathered in previous years of field work among the 
Senecas. Moreover, interesting similarities of plant use and termi- 
nology were noted among Seneca, Mohawk, and Cayuga-Onondaga 
remnants who now live on widely separated reservations. Such 
resemblances suggest older basic Iroquois botanical concepts and 
medical practices. Photographs illustrating various activities in 
Iroquois herbalism comprise part of 100 negatives that were taken 
in the field. The early notes of F. W. Waugh were reviewed with 
Mohawk and Cayuga informants, and some paradigms in the several 
Iroquois dialects were recorded for comparative purposes. Returning 
to Allegany for the Green Corn Festival, Dr. Fenton reached 
Washington in mid-September. 

During the winter's office work, Dr. Fenton read in the historical 
literature and located towns of the several Iroquois bands at successive 
periods in their history, with a view to outlining the major cultural 
problems arising from Iroquois tribal movements and conquests. This 
study, now published, attempts to begin for the Northeast the type of 
systematic approach that Dr. Swanton has accomplished for the 
Southeast. Dr. Fenton also published A Further Quest for Iroquois 



FIFTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL, REPORT 7 

Medicines, in Explorations and Field-Work of the Smithsonian 
Institution in 1939, and An Herbarium from the Allegany Senecas, 
in The Historic Annals of Southwestern New York. Several lectures 
on various aspects of Iroquois culture were delivered to Washington 
audiences, and in June, Dr. Fenton addressed a regional meeting of 
botanists at the Allegany School of Natural History on Iroquois 
Ethnobotany. 

On May 2, 1940, Dr. Fenton again left for Salamanca to resume 
field work among the Seneca. Working primarily at Allegany Res- 
ervation, he also visited Tonawanda, collecting early spring medic- 
inal plants. This season, work with informants was combined with 
a project to study Iroquois masks and ceremonial equipment in 
museums located near the Iroquois. At the close of the fiscal year, 
the extensive Converse collections in the New York State Museum 
(Albany) and Montgomery County Historical Society (Fort John- 
son), and the Boyle and Chiefswood collections in the Royal Ontario 
Museum of Archaeology (Toronto) were measured and photo- 
graphed. The pictures have proved to be useful in eliciting new 
material from informants and promise future usefulness in estab- 
lishing local types of carving. A complete record of the mask- 
making technique has been made together with photographs of 
crucial stages in the process, and the rituals of several shamanistic 
societies have been taken with a flash camera for the first time. Dr. 
Fenton was engaged in field work at the close of the fiscal year. 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES 

Miss Frances Densmore, a collaborator of the Bureau, continued 
her study of Indian music chiefly by completing manuscripts for 
publication. A trip was made to Wisconsin Dells, Wis., to confer 
with Evergreen Tree, a Cochiti Indian, and to obtain further in- 
formation concerning songs he recorded several years previously. 
Additional information concerning the peyote cult was also received 
from Winnebago informants in Wisconsin and Minnesota. 

Nine manuscripts on pueblo music were recast and combined in 
a manuscript entitled "Music of Acoma, Isleta, and Cochiti Pueblos, 
New Mexico." Four manuscripts on "Choctaw Music," previously 
submitted, were similarly combined. The manuscript on "Winne- 
bago Music" was completed, and a portion of the section on the 
peyote cult was restudied, extended, and retyped. These three 
manuscripts are now ready for publication. 

Eleven manuscripts on the music of the Seminole in Florida were 
combined in a tentative manuscript of more than 300 pages. The 
number of transcribed Seminole songs now in possession of the 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Bureau is 173 and these were arranged in a tentative order, corre- 
sponding to the order in the manuscript. About 70 Seminole songs, 
recorded in 1932 and 1933, have not yet been submitted to the Bureau. 
Work was begun on this material and a few of the songs were 
transcribed. 

A peculiar custom observed in a few of the oldest Choctaw and 
Seminole songs consists in an embellishment of the melody in repe- 
titions. It was found that the several renditions differed from one 
another and that the Indians were able to sing the simple melody, 
without the embellishments. These consisted in the addition of 
short, unimportant tones, without changing the trend of the melody. 
The custom resembles the improvisation which was noted in the 
songs of the Tule Indians of Panama and is in contrast to the exact 
repetitions of songs by northern tribes of Indians. A similar custom 
exists among Negroes on the Island of Trinidad in the British West 
Indies, and has been called Calypso. 

According to Louis C. Elson (Curiosities of Music, p. 278, Oliver 
Ditson & Co., Boston, 1880), "The power of improvisation which is 
so well developed in the African Negro, is fully sustained by his 
descendants * * *." 

Miss Densmore presented to the Bureau the original manuscript 
of an Onondaga Thanksgiving Song, written down for her in 1903 
at Syracuse, N. Y., by Albert Cusick, a prominent Onondaga from 
the reservation near that city. The native words with their trans- 
lation were also obtained. The song is in two parts, the lower being 
rhythmic and resembling a vocal accompaniment to the melody. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editorial work of the Bureau has continued during the year 
under the immediate direction of the editor, M. Helen Palmer. There 
were issued three bulletins, as follows: 

Bulletin 101. War ceremony and peace ceremony of the Osage Indians, by 
Francis La Flesche. vii+280 pp., 13 pis., 1 fig. 

Bulletin 124. Nootka and Quileute music, by Frances Densmore. xxvi+358 pp., 
24 pis., 7 figs. 

Bulletin 125. Ethnography of the Fox Indians, by William Jones. Edited by 
Margaret Welpley Fisher, ix 4-156 pp. 

The following bulletins were in press at the close of the fiscal year : 

Bulletin 126. Archeological remains in the Whitewater District, Eastern 
Arizona. Part II. Artifacts and burials, by Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. With 
appendix, Skeletal remains from the Whitewater District, Eastern Arizona, by 
T. D. Stewart. 

Bulletin 127. Linguistic material from the tribes of southern Texas and north- 
eastern Mexico, by John R. Swanton. 



FIFTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL, REPORT 9 

Bulletin 128. Anthropological papers, numbers 13-18. 

No. 13. The mining of gems and ornamental stones by American Indians, 

by Sydney H. Ball. 
No. 14. Iroquois suicide: A study in the stability of a culture pattern, 

by William N. Fenton. 
No. 15v Tonawanda Longhouse ceremonies: Ninety years after Lewis 

Henry Morgan, by William N. Fenton. 
No. 16. The Quichua-speakhig Indians of the Province of Imbabura (Ecua- 
dor) and their anthropometric relations with the living popula- 
tions of the Andean area, by John Gillin. 
No. 17. Art processes in birchbark of the River Desert Algonquin, a cir- 

cumboreal trait, by Frank G. Speck. 
No. 18. Archeological reconnaissance of southern Utah, by Julian H. 
Steward. 
Bulletin 129. An archeological survey of Pickwick Basin in the adjacent por- 
tions of the States of Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee, by William S. Webb 
and David L. De Jarnette. With additions by Walter P. Jones, J. P. E. Morri- 
son, Marshall T. Newman and Charles E. Snow, and William G. Haag. 

Bulletin 130. Archeological investigations at Buena Vista Lake, Kern County, 
California, by Waldo L. Wedel. With appendix, Skeletal remains from Buena 
Vista sites, California, by T. Dale Stewart. 

Bulletin 131. Peachtree Mound and village site, Cherokee County, North Caro- 
lina, by Frank M. Setzler and Jesse D. Jennings. With appendix, Skeletal re- 
mains from the Peachtree Site, North Carolina, by T. Dale Stewart. 

Publications distributed totaled 13,984. 

LIBRARY 

There has been no change in the library staff during the fiscal 
year. Accessions during the fiscal year totaled 364. 

The section of North American periodicals has been reclassified 
and reshelved and a temporary shelf-list made. Permanent catalog 
and shelf-list cards have been made for part of this material. 

The library staff has relabeled and reshelved 4,687 books. All these 
are now in the Library* of Congress classification. As of June 30, 
1940, practically all North American material has been reclassified 
and reshelved, almost all Central and South American material, and 
about two-thirds of the sections on ethnology other than American. 
Library of Congress cards have been ordered when available for all 
books reclassified which did not already have them. Practically all 
these cards have been prepared and filed in the catalog. 

The Librarian attended the meetings of the Inter- American Biblio- 
graphical and Library Association at Washington, D. C, in February 
and the meetings of the Eighth American Scientific Congress at Wash- 
ington in May. 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Following is a summary of work accomplished during the fiscal 
year by E. G. Casscdy, illustrator: 

Line drawings 152 Photographs retouched 35 

Stipple drawings 4 Negatives retouched 25 

Wash drawings 14 Charts 3 

Lettering jobs 184 Mechanical drawings 5 

Plates assembled 54 

Graphs 22 Total 515 

Maps 17 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning 
the North American Indians, both past and present, and the Mexican 
peoples of the prehistoric and early historic periods. Various speci- 
mens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them furnished 
for their owners. 

Personnel. — Miss M. H. Palmer was appointed on July 1, 1939, 
as editor to fill the vacancy caused by the retirement of Stanley 
Searles. Miss Ethelwyn E. Carter, junior stenographer, resigned 
on September 17, 1939, and Mrs. Catherine M. Phillips was appointed 
on November 6, 1939, to fill this vacancy. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Chief. 

Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

o 



Fifty-eighth Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1940-1941 






T*2 



fll 






g/AJGTO^ 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



FIFTY-EIGHTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1940-1941 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1942 










'-. &A 



-J- -2m* 



APPENDIX 5 

REPORT ON THE BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1941, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of April 18, 1940, which 
provides "* * * for continuing ethnological researches among the 
American Indians and the natives of Hawaii and the excavation and 
preservation of archeologic remains. * * *" 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

M. W. Stirling, Chief of the Bureau, left Washington on Decem- 
ber 29 to continue his archeological excavations in southern Mexico. 
Intensive excavations were begun at the site of Cerro de las Mesas 
on the Rio Blanco in the state of Veracruz, this site having been 
visited the preceding season. In addition, another expedition was 
made to the site of Izapa in the southwestern part of the state of 
Chiapas. As in the 2 preceding years, the work was undertaken in 
cooperation with the National Geographic Society. Dr. Philip 
Drucker again accompanied Mr. Stirling as assistant archeologist. 

At Cerro de las Mesas 20 carved stone monuments were unearthed 
and photographed, several mounds were cross-sectioned, and a num- 
ber of stratigraphic trenches dug on various sections of the site. 
The stratigraphic work proved unusually successful and extends the 
cultural column for this part of Veracruz to a much later date than 
did the excavations at Tres Zapotes. Two initial series dates were 
deciphered at Cerro de las Mesas, one being in the 1st katun, the other 
:n the 4th katun, of baktun 9. Another stone monument at this site 
was of considerable interest because of its similarity to the famous 
Tuxtla statuette. Large quantities of jade were found including one 
cache containing 782 specimens. 

At Izapa a large number of stelae, most of them with altars, were 
excavated and photographed. This site is important because of its 
location, which makes it an interesting link between the west coast 
of Guatemala and the isthmian region of southern Mexico. 

At the conclusion of the work at Cerro de las Mesas at the end 
of April, the collections were brought to Mexico City where Dr. 
Drucker remained to work with them. 

433734—42 1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

During the year Dr. John R. S want on, ethnologist, employed most 
of his time in completing an extensive report on the Indians of the 
Southeast, upon which work had been done during several past 
years, and which covers about 1,500 typewritten pages. This is now 
ready for final copy and editing. 

The bulletin entitled "Source Material on the Ethnology and His- 
tory of the Caddo Indians," upon which he was at work last year 
is now in galley proof. It will cover about 350 printed pages. A 
brief contribution by Dr. Swanton entitled "The Quipu and Peruvian 
Civilization" has been accepted for publication in a forthcoming 
bulletin of anthropological papers and is now in the hands of the 
printer. 

Early in the year the bulletin prepared by Dr. Swanton entitled 
"Linguistic Material from the Tribes of Southern Texas and North- 
eastern Mexico," was completed and distributed. It contains all of 
the fragments of the Coahuiltecan, Karankawan, and Tamaulipecan 
tongues known to be in existence, and covers 145 pages. 

Considerable time has also been devoted by Dr. Swanton to answer- 
ing letters, including particularly extension of advice regarding the 
placing of markers along the route pursued by Hernando de Soto 
and work for the United States Board on Geographical Names. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. John P. Harrington, eth- 
nologist, was engaged in working over Navaho materials and those 
of the closely related Tlingit language of Alaska. Recent field 
studies had proved that something like 200 words of Navaho and 
Tlingit are almost the same despite the 2,000-mile separation of the 
two languages. Sometimes the same word was found to be applied 
to two very different organisms; for instance, what is crab apple in 
the north is cactus in the south (spininess being the trait which these 
two plants evidently have in common), and jack pine in the north 
was found to be juniper in the south. 

Tlingit was copiously recorded in southeastern Alaska, and the 
Ugalenz language, related to the Tlingit and to the Navaho, was 
discovered and studied. The Ugalenz formerly occupied 350 miles 
of southeastern Alaska coast, from Prince William Sound in the 
west to Latuya Bay in the east. 

The origin of the name Sitka, the old Russian capital of Alaska, 
was discovered. The name means "On the oceanward side of Baranov 
Island." Shee is the name of Baranov Island, and Sitka is situated 
on its oceanward side. 

Leaving in August for Gallup, N. Mex., Dr. Harrington worked 
on many parts of the Navaho Reservation, finding a surprising uni- 
formity in dialect. This uniformity must have arisen from a jumb- 
ling together of earlier Navaho dialects when the Navahos were in 



FIFTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 6 

captivity in eastern New Mexico in 1867 and 1868. During this 
captivity, dialects were evidently jostled together, and resettlement 
by the United States Government further dislocated them. 

Field work during the latter part of the summer was done with 
more than 10 of the leading Navaho interpreters. In a tribe of more 
than 45,000 population, there are many educated speakers, including 
university graduates, and with them were explored special features 
of the language which could not have been obtained from the tongues 
of poor and uneducated tribes without much greater expenditure of 
time. 

The Navaho language was found to have only 4 vowels and 34 
consonants, making it a true consonantal language. The sounds of 
Navaho were found to be almost identical with those of the other 
languages of the Southwest, for instance, with those of the neighbor- 
ing Tewa language. Also many words were found to be the same 
as in Tewa. Navaho was found to have, for practical purposes, 
a high and a low tone, and a falling and rising tone only on long 
vowels and diphthongs. One of the most peculiar developments 
to be found in any language is the hardening in Navaho of almost 
any consonant by placing a sound of German ch after it if it is 
voiceless, and of open g (gh) after it if it is voiced. There are also 
traces of a hardening of 1 to n, and the like. 

Returning to Washington late in the fall, Dr. Harrington continued 
his study of the Navaho, until it now constitutes a finished manuscript 
of more than 1,200 pages. Throughout the work there has been a 
constant revelation that Navaho and related languages are not as 
unlike other American Indian languages as has been thought by early 
vocabulary makers and classifiers. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year, July 1, 1940, Dr. Frank H. H. 
Roberts, Jr., was engaged in a continuation of excavations at the Lin- 
denmeier site, a former Folsom camping ground, in northern Colorado. 
From August 1 to 31 he was on leave and during that period, in ac- 
cord with the Smithsonian Institution's policy of cooperation with 
other scientific organizations, directed the excavation program of the 
advanced students at the University of New Mexico's Chaco Canyon 
Research Station. 

From Chaco Canyon, N. Mex., Dr. Roberts went to Boulder City, 
Nev., to inspect a large cave located in the lower end of the Grand 
Canyon of the Colorado River at the upper reaches of Lake Mead. 
The trip to the cave was made by motorboat from Pierce's Ferry in 
company with officials of the National Park Service's Boulder Dam 
Recreational Area. Rampart Cave is situated in the south wall of 
the canyon at the top of a steep talus 600 feet above the present water 
level. It is of unusual interest because of its extensive deposits of 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

sloth remains and of the bones from large creatures that preyed on 
the sloth, and the possibility that it may provide evidence of human 
contemporaneity with such extinct animal forms in that area. Plans 
and methods for a program of excavation were discussed and various 
suggestions were made concerning the advisability of providing an 
exhibit in situ for visitors to the Boulder Dam Recreational Area. 

From Boulder Dam, Dr. Roberts returned to the Lindenmeier site 
where he continued his investigations until the end of September when 
the project was brought to a close. During the six seasons of intensive 
exploration of this Folsom site and the adjacent area much new and 
valuable information on the subject of early occupation of North 
America was obtained. From the large series of specimens collected 
it will be possible to draw comprehensive conclusions relative to the 
material culture and economic status of the aboriginal peoples inhabit- 
ing that portion of the country during the closing days of the last Ice 
Age, and in general to broaden the knowledge on early stages in New 
World history. 

Dr. Roberts returned to Washington in October. He spent the 
autumn and winter months working on the material from the Linden- 
meier site, preparing the manuscript for his report on the investiga- 
tions there, in writing short articles for publication in various scien- 
tific journals, in identifying numerous archeological specimens sent in 
from all parts of the country by interested amateurs, and in furnishing 
information on many phases of New World archeology. Plans and 
preparations were made for an expedition to the Code region in the 
province of Penonome, Panama, but, because of the last-minute devel- 
opment of an insuperable combination of adverse circumstances, the 
proposed investigations had to be abandoned. 

On May 15, 1941, Dr. Roberts went to Bedford, Va., to initiate exca- 
vations at the Mons site near the Peaks of Otter where the late D. I. 
Bushnell, Jr., had found artifacts suggestive of a much earlier aborig- 
inal occupation of the area than previously had been supposed. Con- 
struction work on the Blue Ridge Parkway had destroyed much of the 
site, but a series of test trenches dug in various undisturbed remnants 
established the fact that it had once been an Indian camping place, 
possibly a village site of late protohistoric times. However, there was 
no evidence of its having been used by older groups comparable to the 
early hunting peoples of the western plains. 

On the completion of the work at the Mons site. Dr. Roberts returned 
to Washington and on June 11 left for San Jon, N. Mex. Camp was 
established on the rim of the Staked Plains 10^2 miles south of that 
town and excavations were started at a site where material suggestive 
of another phase of early man in North America, the so-called Yuma, 
has been found. The location is in a shallow basin that appears to 



FIFTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

have been an old, filled-in lake bed. Heavy erosion in recent years 
started a series of ravines and gullies and exposed extensive deposits 
of bones. Stone implements found near some of these outcroppings 
indicate the possibility that many of the creatures were killed by 
aboriginal hunters and that an association of man-made objects and 
bones from extinct species of animals can be established. Bison, 
camel, and mammoth bones, as well as those from smaller and as yet 
unidentified mammals, occur in the site. Material in the fill in the 
old lake bed probably can be correlated with other geologic phenomena 
of established age. Hence, the determination of contemporaneity be- 
tween the artifacts, animal remains, and lake deposits would constitute 
an important addition to the evidence on early occupation in the New 
World. There is also a possibility that the site may contribute infor- 
mation on the subject of relationships between some of the different 
older cultural remains. At the close of the fiscal year Dr. Roberts and 
his party were well started on the problem of the San Jon site. 

The beginning of the fiscal year found Dr. Julian H. Steward, 
anthropologist, in British Columbia completing researches on abo- 
riginal Carrier Indian ethnography and on ecological aspects of 
recent changes in Carrier socio-economic culture at Fort St. James and 
neighboring villages. While here a collection was made of more than 
100 Carrier specimens of material culture, and of more than 50 ethno- 
botanical specimens. At this time several pit-lodge sites were ex- 
amined. From here Dr. Steward proceeded to Alaska, and then by 
plane from Ketchikan to an island off the coast where he investigated 
a burial site reported by Commander F. A. Zeusler, of the Coast Guard, 
and Ranger Lloyd Bransford, of the United States Forest Service. 
Accompanied by the latter, he procured specimens of several skeletons, 
fragments of carved burial boxes and other materials, and a mummified 
body in excellent preservation. The body was dressed in buckskin, 
wrapped in a cedar mat, and deposited in a cedar box. All specimens 
were brought back by plane to Ketchikan and shipped to the Smith- 
sonian Institution. From Alaska Dr. Steward went to Berkeley, 
Calif., to hold consultations on the Handbook of South American In- 
dians, which is being prepared for the Smithsonian Institution. 
From there he proceeded to Albuquerque and Chaco Canyon, N. Mex., 
for further consultations and to attend the Coronado Quatrocenten- 
nial and the Chaco conference, finally arriving in Washington late in 
August. 

The remainder of the year was devoted mainly to editorial and or- 
ganizational work on the Handbook of South American Indians, and 
work on the project was actually initiated, $6,000 having been made 
available for this purpose by special appropriation for cooperation 
with the American republics through the Department of State's Inter- 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

departmental Committee. The collaboration of 33 contributors, each 
a specialist in some phase of South American anthropology, was ar- 
ranged. Work accomplished during the year included completion of 
manuscripts by Dr. Robert H. Lowie and Dr. Alfred Metraux totaling 
more than 150,000 words ; completion of a new base map drawn from 
the American Geographical Society's 1 : 1,000,000 sheets, and of four 
new maps showing respectively the vegetation, climates, physical fea- 
tures, and topography of South America ; compilation of a preliminary 
bibliography of nearly 2,000 items; substantial progress on many other 
manuscripts; and integration of the Handbook plan with research 
activities of many other institutions in different countries. Arrange- 
ment was made to engage the services of Dr. Metraux on full-time 
basis as assistant editor in the fiscal year 1941-42. The services of a 
secretary were had for the Handbook during three months of 1941. 

During the fall Dr. Steward acted as chairman of the Program 
Committee of the American Anthropological Association, arranging 
the program for the Christmas meetings in Philadelphia. He also 
served on the Committee on Latin American Anthropology of the 
National Research Council and accepted membership on the Scientific 
Advisory Committee of the Pan American Trade Committee. 

The following scientific papers were published: Archeological Re- 
connaissance of Southern Utah, Bur. Amer. Ethnol. Bull. 128, pp. 
275-356 ; Nevada Shoshone, in Univ. California Culture Element Dis- 
tributions ; several short papers on the Carrier Indians ; a description 
of the Handbook of South American Indians for the Boletin Biblio- 
grafico de Antropologia Americana. An article was prepared for 
American Antiquity on The Direct Historic Approach to Archeology. 

During the fiscal year Dr. Henry B. Collins, Jr., ethnologist, con- 
tinued with the study and description of archeological collections from 
prehistoric and protohistoric Eskimo village sites in the vicinity of 
Bering Strait. Material was also assembled for a paper on the origin 
and antiquity of the Eskimo race and culture in relation to the larger 
question of the original entry of man into America. 

At the request of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology 
and Ethnology of Harvard University, Dr. Collins made two trips to 
Cambridge to assist in the identification and selection of materials for 
the new Eskimo exhibit being planned by Donald Scott director of the 
Museum, and his assistant, Frederick G. Pleasants. 

Dr. Collins also served as collaborator and technical adviser for 
Erpi Classroom Films, Inc., in connection with production of a motion- 
picture record of Eskimo life on Nunivak Island, Alaska, to be made 
by Amos Burg, explorer and photographer. The film, designed for 
use in the elementary schools, will provide an authentic picture of the 
daily life and activities of the Nunivagmiut, who have retained more 



FIFTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

of their native culture than any other coastal-group Eskimo in Alaska. 

During July 1940 Dr. William N. Fenton, associate anthropologist, 
was engaged in field work among the Senecas of Allegany Reserva- 
tion, N. Y. While here he delivered the St. Lawrence University 
series of lectures at the Allegany School of Natural History. The 
lectures on the Iroquoian Peoples of the Northeast covered prehis- 
toric cultures of the area, the adjustment of the Iroquois to their 
environment, their society and government, and their religious sys- 
tem. At the Six Nations Reserve on Grand River, Ontario, Canada, 
August 9 to September 1, the yearly cycle of ceremonies that are 
currently celebrated at the Onondaga Longhouse were outlined by 
Simeon Gibson and the principal speeches that constitute the bulk 
of the annual Midwinter Festival were taken in Onondaga text and 
translated. This study is an extension of previous investigations 
of Seneca ceremonies which Dr. Fenton has published, and it adds 
new material on the nature of village bands and their removals, 
the function of moieties, the nature of residence after marriage, and 
the sororate which was practiced, at least by the Lower Cayugas. 
Further assistance was rendered by Deputy Chief Hardy Gibson 
with Hewitt's manuscript on the Requickening Address for installing 
chiefs in the Iroquois League, which Dr. Fenton is editing for pub- 
lication. 

Returning from the field September 15 with 300 photographic 
negatives, largely of masks studied at museums in New York and 
Ontario together with a series of their manufacture and use in 
Iroquois fraternities, much time elapsed assembling pictures and 
notes and arranging them for study. 

A special paper on The Place of the Iroquois in the Prehistory of 
America was presented before the Anthropological Society of Wash- 
ington; and Dr. Fenton also served as technical adviser for An 
Indian League of Nations, which was broadcast October 27 on 
"The World is Yours" radio program. 

Work on two new research projects aimed at clearing up prob- 
lems previously outlined was begun during the year. While serving 
as consultant to the Pennsylvania Historical Commission on arche- 
ological matters, Dr. Fenton contacted local historians who are col- 
laborating in special phases of a study of Cornplanter's Senecas on 
the upper Allegheny River; and it is planned to publish their find- 
ings together with Quaker Mission Journals from 1798 which describe 
Indian life and events attending Handsome Lake's revelations. In 
quest of original sources, Dr. Fenton searched the Records of the 
Yearly Meeting of Friends of Philadelphia, and visited the libraries 
of Haverford and Swarthmore Colleges. In this project he has 
had the active help of M. E. Deardorff of Warren, Pa., and C. E. 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Congdon of Salamanca, N. Y., who have located and transcribed 
other documentary sources. 

Iroquois music has long deserved serious study, and with the devel- 
opment of modern electric sound-recording apparatus, record making 
in the field has become practicable. When the Division of Music 
in the Library of Congress furnished the necessary blanks and 
apparatus for Dr. Fenton's trip to the Six Nations Midwinter Fes- 
tival, January 10 to February 17, 1941, Dr. Fenton undertook the 
task of making the recordings, first at Ohsweken, Ontario, and later 
at Quaker Ridge, N. Y. Sixty-two double-face records were made 
of samples of social and religious dance songs, and complete runs of 
several shamanistic song cycles and the Adoption Rite of the Tutelo 
were taken. Informants gave complete texts for all the recordings, 
and these, as rewritten after returning to Washington, should prove 
helpful to the transcriber. For this purpose the Recording Labora- 
tory is furnishing a duplicate set. Because musicologists have ex- 
pressed interest in the recordings, several were selected for a proposed 
Album of Iroquois Music, which the Library contemplates publishing ; 
and in return for the fine cooperation of the Recording Laboratory 
and the Division of Music, Dr. Fenton delivered a lecture, Music in 
Iroquois Religion and Society, illustrated with slides and records, 
as the first of a series by the Archive of American Folk-song. It 
was repeated for the Society of Pennsylvania Archaeology at its 
annual meeting. 

In addition a series of brief informal excursions were made to 
Allegany regarding place names and to explore the area that may 
be flooded by the proposed Allegheny Reservoir, and to Tonawanda 
to collect song texts of the Medicine Society. 

Besides a number of book reviews in scientific and historical jour- 
nals, Dr. Fenton published two papers in Bureau of American Eth- 
nology Bulletin 128 — Iroquois Suicide: A Study in the Stability of 
a Culture Pattern, and Tonawanda Longhouse Ceremonies: Ninety 
Years After Lewis Henry Morgan — and an article, Museum and 
Field Studies of Iroquois Masks and Ritualism, which appeared in 
the Explorations and Field-work of the Smithsonian Institution in 
1940. Dr. Fenton prepared for publication in the Annual Report 
of the Smithsonian Institution for 1940, a paper entitled "Masked 
Medicine Societies of the Iroquois." 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES 

Miss Frances Densmore, a collaborator of the Bureau, continued 
her study of Indian music by collecting additional songs, transcribing 
these and songs previously recorded, and preparing material for pub- 
lication. In August 1940 a trip was made to Wisconsin Dells, Wis., 



FIFTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 9 

to interview a group of visiting Zuiii Indians. Songs were obtained 
from Falling Star, an Indian born in Zuiii, who had lived in the 
pueblo most of his life and taken part in the dances. His father 
also was a singer and dancer. Falling Star recorded 17 songs, 15 
of which were transcribed and submitted to the Bureau. These are 
chiefly songs of lay-participants in the Kain Dance and the songs 
connected with grinding corn for household use. 

Additional data on the peyote cult among the Winnebago were 
obtained from a former informant and incorporated in the manuscript 
on that tribe. 

In October Miss Densmore went to Washington for consultation 
on manuscripts awaiting publication. During the winter she tran- 
scribed records of 71 Seminole songs, completing the transcriptions 
of recordings made in that tribe during the seasons of 1931, 1932, and 
1933. It is expected that the book on Seminole music, containing 
245 songs, will be completed in the near future. 

A paper on A Search for Songs Among the Chitimacha Indians 
in Louisiana, submitted in 1933, was rewritten, amplified, and pre- 
pared for publication. The Chitimacha is the only tribe visited by 
Miss Densmore in which all the songs have been forgotten. Musical 
customs were remembered, and several legends were related in which 
songs were formerly sung. 

In May 1941 Miss Densmore read a paper on The Native Art of 
the Chippewa before the Central States Branch of the American 
Anthropological Association at the annual meeting held in 
Minneapolis. 

At the close of the fiscal year Miss Densmore was in Nebraska, her 
special interest being a search for songs that were recorded phono- 
graphically by Miss Alice C. Fletcher in the decade prior to 1893 
and published in that year by the Peabody Museum of American 
Archaeology and Ethnology. If Indians can be found who remem- 
ber these songs, they will be recorded again. A comparison of the 
two recordings will show the degree of accuracy with which the 
songs have been transmitted, and will be important to the subject 
of Indian music. 

The entire collection of recordings of Indian songs submitted to 
the Bureau by Miss Densmore has been transferred to the National 
Archives for permanent preservation. These recordings were made 
and submitted during the period from 1907 to 1940, all having been 
cataloged and transcribed in musical notation. Many hundreds of 
other recordings have been made, studied, and retained by Miss 
Densmore but not transcribed. Recordings submitted after 1940 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

have been cataloged in sequence with the former collection. Thirty- 
five tribes are represented in the collection of 2,237 recordings, in addi- 
tion to a group of songs recorded in British Columbia in which the 
tribes are not designated. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editorial work of the Bureau has continued during the year 
under the immediate direction of the editor, M. Helen Palmer. There 
were issued three bulletins, as follows : 

Bulletin 126. Archeological remains in the Whitewater District, eastern 
Arizona. Part II. Artifacts and burials, by Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. With 
appendix, Skeletal remains from the Whitewater District, eastern Arizona, 
by T. D. Stewart, xi+170 pp., 57 pis., 44 figs. 

Bulletin 127. Linguistic material from the tribes of southern Texas and 
northeastern Mexico, by John R. Swanton. v+145 pp. 

Bulletin 128. Anthropological papers, numbers 13-18. xii+368 pp., 52 pis., 
77 figs. : 

No. 13 The mining of gems and ornamental stones by American Indians, 

by Sydney H. Ball. 
No. 14. Iroquois suicide : A study in the stability of a culture pattern, 

by William N. Fenton. 
No. 15. Tonawanda Longhouse ceremonies : Ninety years after Lewis Henry 

Morgan, by William N. Fenton. 
No. 16. The Quichua-speaking Indians of the Province of Imbabura 
(Ecuador) and their anthropometric relations with the living 
populations of the Andean area, by John Gillin. 
No. 17. Art processes in birchbark of the River Desert Algonquin, a circum- 

boreal trait, by Frank G. Speck. 
No. 18. Archeological reconnaissance of southern Utah, by Julian H. 
Steward. 

The following bulletins were in press at the close of the fiscal year: 

Bulletin 129. An archeological survey of Pickwick Basin in the adjacent 
portions of the States of Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee, by William S. 
Webb and David L. De Jarnette. With additions by Walter P. Jones, J. P. E. 
Morrison, Marshall T. Newman and Charles E. Snow, and William G. Haag. 
Bulletin 130. Archeological investigations at Buena Vista Lake, Kern County, 
California, by Waldo L. Wedel. With appendix, Skeletal remains from Buena 
Vista sites, California, by T. Dale Stewart. 

Bulletin 131. Peachtree Mound and village site, Cherokee County, North 
Carolina, by Frank M. Setzler and Jesse D. Jennings. With appendix, Skeletal 
remains from the Peachtree Site, North Carolina, by T. Dale Stewart. 

Bulletin 132. Source material on the history and ethnology of the Caddo 
Indians, by John R. Swanton. 
Bulletin 133. Anthropological papers, numbers 19-26: 

No. 19. A search for songs among the Chitimacha Indians in Louisiana. 

by Frances Densmore. 
No. 20. Archeological survey on the northern Northwest Coast, by Philip 
Drucker. 



FIFTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 11 

No. 21. Some notes on a few sites in Beaufort County, South Carolina, by 
Regina Flannery. 

No. 22. An analysis and interpretation of the ceramic remains from two 
sites near Beaufort, South Carolina, by James B. Griffin. 

No. 23. The eastern Cherokees, by William Harlen Gilbert, Jr. 

No. 24. Aconite poison whaling in Asia and America : An Aleutian transfer 
to the New World, by Robert F. Heizer. 

No. 25. The Carrier Indians of the Buckley River : Their social and relig- 
ious life, by Diamond Jenness. 

No. 26. The Quipu and Peruvian civilization, by John R. Swanton. 
Bulletin 134. Native tribes of eastern Bolivia and western Matto Grosso, by 
Alfred M£traux. 

Publications distributed totaled 11,882. 

LIBRARY 

There has been no change in the library staff during the fiscal year. 
Accessions during the fiscal year totaled 378. 

The library staff has relabeled and reshelved 5,137 books. The sec- 
tions of general ethnology and non- American material, and linguis- 
tics have now been entirely reclassified and reshelved. Library of 
Congress printed cards, so far as they are available, have been 
ordered for practically all of this material, when not already in the 
catalog. Part of the work of typing these cards and filing in the 
catalog has been completed and will be finished in a month or two. 

The sorting of foreign periodicals and society transactions has 
been completed and all material not in the library field has been 
put aside for appropriate disposal. A temporary shelf list has been 
made for this material and it is hoped that this section will be 
reclassified and reshelved by the first of the year. The checking lists 
for the second edition of the Union List of Serials were marked with 
our holdings and returned. 

The sorting of the pamphlet collection has been completed and 
more than half have been classified and shelved. Library of Con- 
gress cards where available have been ordered. In the future the 
library will have no separate pamphlet collection. All pamphlets 
that are kept will be classified and shelved with the books. Work 
has also been done on Congressional documents and some of this 
material is now classified and reshelved. Government documents 
from the War and Interior departments, publications of the Chero- 
kee and Choctaw nations, and of various special boards and com- 
missions have been sorted and classified and all Library of Congress 
cards available ordered. 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Following is a summary of work accomplished during the fiscal 
year by Edwin G. Cassedy, illustrator: 

Line drawings 602 

Stipple drawings 3 

Wash drawings 4 

Maps 22 

Graphs 6 

Plates assembled 95 

Photographs retouched 14 

Lettering jobs 114 

Mural paintings 2 

Negatives retouched 5 

Total 867 

The month of December 1940 and the first half of January 1941 
were devoted to work on the new Index Exhibit in the Smithsonian 
main hall. 

COLLECTIONS 

Collections transferred by the Bureau of American Ethnology to 
the Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum, 
during the fiscal year were as follows : 

Accession 
No. 

124559. Portions of a child's skull and skeleton collected near Kissimmee, Fla., 

and sent in by L. R. Farmer. 
157,350. Skeletal and cultural remains from burial sites on Pennock Island and 

Dall Island, southeastern Alaska, collected during the summer of 

1940 by Dr. Julian H. Steward. (36 specimens.) 
157,796. Collection of 94 ethnological specimens from the Carrier Indians, 

obtained by Dr. Julian H. Steward in the region of Fort St. James, 

British Columbia, in 1940. 
157,965. Collection of ethnological objects purchased among the Iroquois Indians 

during the past summer by Dr. William N. Fenton. (3 specimens.) 
158,151. Collection of carved wooden masks and musical instruments collected 

by the late J. N. B. Hewitt among the Iroquois Indians of the Six 

Nations Reserve, Grand River, Ontario, Canada. (27 specimens.) 
158,498. Two unfinished wooden masks made by Tom Harris, an Onondaga Indian 

of the Six Nations Reserve, Grand River, Ontario, Canada, and 

collected in August 1940 by Dr. William N. Fenton. 

160.243. Archeological specimens from a sand burial mound on Lemon Bay, near 

Englewood, Sarasota Co., Fla. (25 specimens.) 

160.244. Archeological specimens from various mounds in the vicinity of Parrish, 

on Little Manatee River, Manatee Co., Fla. (61 specimens.) 
160,249. Archeological and skeletal material from a refuse and burial mound 
iy 2 miles west of Belle Glade, in Palm Beach Co., Fla. (988 archeo- 
logical specimens. The skeletal material in this accession has not 
been counted this year, but the figures will be included in some future 
annual report.) 



FIFTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 13 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning 
the North American Indians, both past and present, and the Mexican 
peoples of the prehistoric and early historic periods. Various 
specimens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them 
furnished for their owners. 

Personnel. — Mrs. Frances S. Nichols, editorial assistant, retired on 
August 31, 1940; Miss Anna M. Link served as editorial assistant 
from September 1, 1940, to April 30, 1941, when she resigned to 
accept a position in the library of the United States National Mu- 
seum; Miss Nancy A. Link was appointed on June 1, 1941, to fill 
this vacancy. Miss Florence G. Schwindler was appointed on Jan- 
uary 6, 1941, as stenographer in connection with the preparation of 
the Handbook of South American Indians ; she resigned on April 21, 
1941, to accept a position in the War Department. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Chief. 

Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

o 



Fifty-ninth Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1941-1942 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



FIFTY-NINTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1941-1942 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1943 



., iJLfi.i A*— £ 






FIFTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Chief 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1942, conducted in 
accordance with the act of Congress of April 5, 1941, which provides 
"* * * for continuing ethnological researches among the American 
Indians and the natives of Hawaii and the excavation and preservation 
of archeologic remains. * * *" 

During the fiscal year, the energies of the Bureau have been diverted 
to an increasing extent to activities concerned with the war effort. In 
particular, members of the Bureau staff have cooperated with the 
Ethnogeographic Board, and it is expected that diversion of effort in 
this direction will increase as the war continues. Activities concerned 
with Latin America have likewise been emphasized. 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

M. W. Stirling, Chief of the Bureau, left Washington for Mexico 
early in April 1942 in continuation of the program of work for the 
Smithsonian Institution-National Geographic Society archeological 
project in southern Mexico. A visit of 2 weeks was made to the site 
of La Venta in Tabasco, where Dr. Philip Drucker was conducting 
excavations on the same project. From La Venta, Mr. Stirling went 
to Tuxtla Gutierrez in Chiapas in order to attend the archeological 
conference held under the sponsorship of the Sociedad Mexicana de 
Antropologia. While in Chiapas opportunity was taken to visit vil- 
lages of the Zoque, Tzotzil, and Chamula Indians. A trip was also 
made to the ancient Maya ruins of Palenque, where a week was spent 
at the site. Mr. Stirling returned to Washington early in June. 

The remainder of the year was spent in Washington administering 
the affiairs of the Bureau and in the preparation of reports dealing 
with the work in Mexico. 

Dr. John R. S wanton, ethnologist, devoted the greater part of the 
fiscal year to digesting and carding the extant materials in the lan- 
guage of the Timucua Indians of Florida, a language which passed out 
of existence early in the eighteenth century. He also devoted some 
time to the revision of a large general paper on the Indians of North 

503054—43 1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

America. This manuscript has not been submitted for publication as, 
owing to its size, there is little likelihood of its being printed in the near 
future. A brief paper was prepared on The Evolution of Nations, 
and this was published in the series of War Background Studies of 
the Smithsonian Institution. 

Dr. Swanton has also continued to serve as the representative of 
the Institution on the United States Board of Geographical Names. 

Dr. John P. Harrington, ethnologist, conducted field work during 
the year on two problems involving linguistic studies of Aleut, the 
language of the islands between Asia and America, and of Athapascan, 
the language of the northern Rockies, of a large part of the Pacific 
coast, and of the southern deserts. He left Washington in August 
1941 to visit the Aleutian Islands, where he was fortunate enough to 
secure the services of Ivan Yatchmeneff, son of the Unalaska chief. 
The Aleuts consist of three divisions, popularly known as Unalas- 
kans, Atkans, and Attuans, but all of them are under the Unalaska 
chief. Working on St. Paul Island, famous as the breeding place of 
the fur seal, and elsewhere, he made a complete study of the sounds 
and grammar of the language, with the result that it proved to be a 
penetrant from the American side, a typically American language of 
eastern origin, which has penetrated westward never quite to cross the 
Aleutian Chain. The Unalaska dialect is related to and undoubtedly 
derived from the language of the Alaska peninsula. The fact that the 
Chain was occupied by an American language is important because 
of its possible fundamental relationship to the Athapascan stock of 
inland Alaska. 

A byproduct of the field studies was the obtaining of a probable 
etymology of the name "Aleut" which differs from those previously 
offered by other investigators. The name is still pronounced with 
three syllables in Russian, as Al-e-ut, and is the same as the tribal 
name "Aglimyut," in modern usage applied to a Bristol Bay tribe. 
The name of the high hill on St. George Island also omits the interior 
m, just as it is omitted in the word "Aleut." Early Russian usage 
took over the name with inclusive application, which later became 
crystallized into application to speakers of the Aleut language alone, 
although the Kodiak Islanders are still spoken of in Russian and 
Aleut as the Kodiak Aleuts, even at the present day. 

Following the Aleutian work, Dr. Harrington proceeded to British 
Columbia, where he undertook studies of the relationship of Navaho 
and Apache with the Athapascan stock of the northernmost Rocky 
Mountains. This relationship was first reported by Horatio Hale 
and by William Turner. In British Columbia Dr. Harrington recov- 
ered traditions that the Chilcotin language had formerly occupied 
the Nicola Valley, and was able to obtain a large number of Chilcotin 



FIFTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 3 

words in that region, handed down in individual families. Following 
this lead, he was able to discover individuals who had in their remote 
youth actually spoken the extinct Kwalhioqua and Tlatskanai dialects 
of Washington and Oregon, and to recover vocabularies of these with 
all their original phonetics. He also recorded the tradition that the 
Upper Umpqua language of what is now the vicinity of Roseburg, 
Oreg., had come from the Kwalhioqua. The Roseburg language is 
related to the languages of the Rogue River region of southern Oregon 
and those of northern California. In confirmation of these findings, 
he obtained the tradition that the Blue Lake Indians had come from 
the south bend of the Smith River, far to the north. Dr. Harrington 
has traced the Chilcotin or Chilco language all the way from Lake 
Chilcotin, which drains into the Fraser River, to the head of Eel River 
in northern California. This work has demonstrated that the Eel 
River language is merely a Chilco dialect which has drifted south. 
The exact provenience of these southern tongues is Dr. Harrington's 
present goal. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., 
was engaged in archeological excavations at a site on the north rim 
of the Staked Plains, 10% miles south of the town of San Jon, 
N. Mex. These investigations were continued until September 6. 
The work produced evidence for an interesting sequence of projectile 
points and other artifact types and new information on some phases 
of the aboriginal occupation of that portion of the Southwest. The 
oldest archeological material present was found to be in association 
with bones from an extinct species of bison and in the same stratum 
as mammoth remains. Indications are that, although from a dif- 
ferent complex, this material probably dates from about the end of 
the Folsom horizon some 10,000 to 15,000 years ago. Between this 
level and the next in the series there was a gap of an, as yet, un- 
determined although appreciable length of time. During this inter- 
val the large bison were replaced by a smaller species, the modern 
buffalo. From the start of the second stage down to protohistoric 
times there was no break in the occupation of the area investigated, 
and the points and artifacts were found to progress from forms 
similar to those found in the Texas area to the east to those com- 
monly associated with late sites in many parts of the country. The 
specimens from the second level belong to the so-called Yuma cate- 
gory, and the evidence from San Jon indicates that chronologically 
they are much later than hitherto supposed. The artifacts from the 
late horizon show that several different Indian groups used that 
area as hunting territory. In the light of present knowledge, how- 
ever, it is not possible to identify the specific groups from the arti- 
fact types. 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

In keeping with the Smithsonian Institution's policy of coopera- 
tion with and aid to other institutions, Dr. Koberts took leave from 
July 28 to August 9 to give a series of lectures on Southwestern 
archeology and to direct student excavations at the University of 
New Mexico Field Session in the Chaco Canyon, N. Mex. During 
his absence, the work at San Jon was continued under the supervision 
of Eugene C. Worman, Jr., of the department of anthropology, 
Harvard University. From the Chaco Canyon, Dr. Roberts re- 
turned to San Jon, and, upon completion of the work there, returned 
to Washington. 

The fall and winter months were spent in regular office routine; 
in the preparation of a manuscript entitled "Archeological and 
Geological Investigations in the San Jon District, Eastern New 
Mexico" for publication in the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collec- 
tions; in library researches for information for and sponsoring 
programs on Carthage, Zebulon M. Pike, and Babylon for "The 
World Is Yours" broadcasts ; in organizing air-raid protection groups 
for the Smithsonian building and serving as building warden under 
the Public Buildings Administration Civilian Defense program ; and 
in assisting in the preparation of material for evacuation to storage 
places outside of Washington. 

On June 27 Dr. Roberts left Washington for Newcastle, Wyo., to 
inspect a site on the Cheyenne River where animal bones and arti- 
facts were reported to be eroding from a gully bank and possible 
valuable information was in danger of being lost through the action 
of natural agencies. This investigation was just starting at the close 
of the fiscal year. 

Dr. Julian II. Steward, anthropologist, continued his activities as 
editor of the Handbook of South American Indians. On September 
2, 1941, Dr. A. Metraux was appointed to assist Dr. Steward in the 
preparation of the Handbook. 

At the end of the fiscal year, completed manuscripts totaling about 
600,000 words had been received from approximately 90 contributors. 
Half of the contributions are from Latin American scientists, while 
the remainder are from North American specialists on Middle and 
South American Indian tribes. The very important tribal map 
covering a large portion of South America was completed for the 
Handbook by Curt Nimuendaju and is now in Dr. Steward's hands. 
A collection of photographs of South American Indians was begun, 
and between 4,000 and 5,000 bibliographic items had been assembled. 
From February to May 1942, Dr. Steward visited Brazil, Argen- 
tina, Paraguay, and Chile, where he conferred with Latin American 
anthropologists and arranged for their cooperation in matters per- 
taining to the Handbook. He also discussed plans for the formation 



FIFTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

of an "inter-American anthropological and geographic society," for 
the development of cooperative anthropological and geographic re- 
search, and for the expansion of the exchange of publications. 
During this visit, Dr. Steward was made an honorary member of 
Academia Guarani of Paraguay and Sociedad de Antropologia de 
Argentina. 

Dr. Steward has also served during the year as a member of the 
Policy Board of the American Indian Institute, the Advisory Board 
Strategic Index, and Publications Subcommittee of the Joint Com- 
mittee on Latin American Studies. 

During the past fiscal year, Dr. Henry B. Collins, Jr., ethnologist, 
continued with the study of archeological materials from prehistoric 
Eskimo village sites around Bering Strait. In April he presented 
a paper at the annual meeting of the American Philosophical Society, 
at Philadelphia, in which he discussed the relationships between pre- 
historic Eskimo culture and recently described Neolithic remains from 
the Lake Baikal region, southern Siberia, which have been regarded 
as the source of the basic American Indian culture. The paper, 
which is to be published in somewhat expanded form in the Proceed- 
ings of the Society, points out a number of close resemblances between 
the oldest Eskimo cultures — which probably date from around the 
beginning of the Christian era — and the Siberian Neolithic. The 
older stages of culture elsewhere in America, such as Folsom and 
Sandia, exhibit no such resemblances; it seems unlikely, therefore, 
that the Siberian Neolithic was the reservoir from which American 
culture in general was derived. 

In the latter part of the fiscal year, Dr. Collins devoted considerable 
time to work in connection with the war effort, including the prepara- 
tion of illustrated reports on various strategic areas. Preparation 
was also begun on a general paper on Alaska for the Smithsonian 
War Background Studies. 

Dr. William N. Fenton, associate anthropologist, devoted the 
summer months of 1941 to the preparation of an introduction to his 
materials on Iroquois medical botany. Since a surprising number of 
Indian herbs have been taken into our pharmacopoeia, it was decided 
to publish the section on Contacts between Iroquois Herbalism and 
Colonial Medicine, a unit of itself, as an article in the appendix to 
the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1941, reserving 
the balance of the studj^ for a longer monograph. 

In November, Dr. Fenton went to Brantford, Ontario, to work with 
Simeon Gibson of Six Nations Reserve at translating Onondaga texts 
bearing on the Iroquois League which his father, Chief John A. Gibson, 
had dictated to the late J. N. B. Hewitt. Of these the principal manu- 
script is a 189-page version in Onondaga of the "Deganawi'dah" legend 
of the founding of the Iroquois confederacy. Some 13 years later, 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Chief Gibson dictated a longer version of the same legend to Dr. Alex- 
ander Goldcnweiser, and this manuscript was turned over to Dr. Fen- 
ton some years ago by its collector. A translation of the Hewitt 
manuscript was completed in the field, and this has been reworked in 
part during the winter. Plans were made to translate the Golden- 
weiser manuscript during the ensuing year. 

Two other research projects continued through the year. New mate- 
rials were discovered by Dr. Fenton's collaborators in a study of Corn- 
planter's Senecas on the upper Allegheny River, mentioned in the 
report of last year, and the search for journals of the Quaker missions 
after 1798 has continued with some success. In this work Dr. Fenton 
acknowledges the labors of Messrs. M. E. Deardorff, of Warren, Pa., 
and C. E. Congdon, of Salamanca, N. Y., in transcribing manuscript 
sources and collecting much new material in the field. 

The second project was conceived several years ago to fulfill a grow- 
ing need among Americanists for an English edition of J. F. Lafitau's 
important but now rare Moeurs des Sauvages Ameriquains (2 vols., 
Paris, 1724). Dr. Elizabeth L. Moore, of Parkersburg, W. Va., one- 
time member of the French department at St. Lawrence University, 
has undertaken the translation, and at the end of the year had com- 
pleted, under Dr. Fenton's direction, the translation of those sections 
in volume 1 which include Lafitau's observations of the American sav- 
ages at his mission among the Mohawks of Caughnawaga and the 
Abenaki of nearby St. Francis, omitting for the most part long ex- 
tracts from contemporary and earlier works that Lafitau felt obliged 
to copy. In order to conserve the Bureau's copy of this rare work, a 
microfilm copy was made, which is fortunate since the original library 
copy has been evacuated for the duration. 

Early in March Dr. Fenton commenced compiling, with the help 
of Drs. Metraux, Collins, and Steward, a cumulative list of anthropolo- 
gists arriving in Washington for war work and the agencies in which 
they were employed. 

Following appointment to the Smithsonian War Committee on April 
1, a large proportion of Dr. Fenton's time and efforts have gone into 
the work of the Committee, of which he has served as secretary. At 
his suggestion the Committee drafted and distributed questionnaires 
soliciting basic data for "A roster of personnel, world travel, and spe- 
cial knowledge available to war agencies at the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion," and by early June the roster had been ushered through a pre- 
liminary and a first edition. The Smithsonian roster was patterned 
after personnel lists of the Oceania committee of the old "Ethnographic 
Board" of the National Research Council, and through these contacts 
the Smithsonian participated in setting up the Ethnogeographic 
Board. At the end of the fiscal year Dr. Fenton was detailed to act 



FIFTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

as an assistant to the director of the Board, Dr. William Duncan 
Strong. 

During the year, Dr. Fenton delivered several illustrated lectures 
presenting some of the results of his studies of Iroquois culture. 

At the end of the fiscal year a manuscript entitled "Songs from the 
Iroquois Longhouse ; Program Notes for an Album of American In- 
dian Music from the Eastern Woodlands" was accepted for publica- 
tion by the Institution to accompany an album of phonograph records 
by the same title which the Archive of American Folk Song, Library 
of Congress, is bringing out as volume 6 of Folk Music of the United 
States. 

Dr. Philip Drucker, assistant anthropologist, devoted the first half 
of the fiscal year to analysis of the pottery collections made in 1941 by 
the Smithsonian Institution-National Geographic Society expedition 
at Cerro de las Mesas, Veracruz, Mexico, and the preparation of a re- 
port on this material, Ceramic Stratigraphy at Cerro de las Mesas, 
Veracruz. Thanks to the cooperation of the Department of Archeol- 
ogy of the Mexican Government, he was able to study comparative col- 
lections of materials stored in the Museo Nacional de Mexico from 
adjacent regions, which greatly facilitated the placing of the Cerro de 
las Mesas culture. It was found that this site was occupied from a 
time level corresponding to that of Teotihuacan III of the Highland 
cultures until shortly before the Spanish conquest. The Ninth Cycle 
dates discovered in 1940 probably belong to the early period of oc- 
cupation at Cerro de las Mesas. Of added interest is the fact that these 
dates are not only of importance to the archeology of the Gulf Coast, 
but in addition are the first actual carved dates even indirectly refer- 
able to the important center of civilization of the Mexican Highland, 
Teotihuacan. Following the period of Teotihuacan influence, a new 
set of influences appeared, probably an actual immigration, of Mixte- 
can people who brought with them their pottery craft, so that during 
the Upper Period at Cerro de las Mesas great quantities of Mixtecan- 
type (Cholultecan) wares were made. The modern designation of 
this coastal region as the "Mistequilla," incidentally, thus may be seen 
to be a well-based ethnic identification. 

In the latter part of January, Dr. Drucker set out for the site of La 
Venta, in northwest Tabasco, where discoveries in 1940 indicated the 
importance of the place as an ancient ceremonial center. Excavations 
were carried out, aimed primarily at recovering stratigraphic material 
for the analysis and placing of the site in relation to the Tres Zapotes 
and Cerro de las Mesas "pottery yardsticks" established in former 
years, and for comparisons with material from more distant sites as 
well. Toward the end of the season some exploratory excavations were 
undertaken in structures at the site, especially in the large ceremonial 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

patio. These efforts were rewarded by the finding of an elaborate 
tomb of basalt columns, and a number of pieces of small but exquisitely 
carved jade. Most of these jade pieces represent the little-known art 
style often designated "Olmec," and are among the first of such objects 
to have been scientifically excavated. Their study will be important in 
defining and placing this art in its proper cultural context. 

At the conclusion of the work, the materials were brought to Mexico 
City, where a division was made with the Department of Archeology 
of the Mexican Government. The entire body of stratigraphic ma- 
terials, and a part of the remaining objects, were then shipped to 
Washington for purposes of study. 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES 

At the beginning of the fiscal year, Miss Frances Densmore, a 
collaborator of the Bureau, began the recording of Omaha songs at 
Macy, Nebr., on the Omaha Reservation. Musical studies had been 
made among the Omaha by Miss Alice C. Fletcher prior to 1893, 
and Miss Densmore wished, if possible, to contact singers who had 
recorded for Miss Fletcher and also to obtain duplicate recordings 
for comparative purposes. Among the older Indians, Miss Dens- 
more located three singers, Edward Cline, Benjamin Parker, and 
Mattie Merrick White Parker, from whom songs had been obtained 
by Miss Fletcher. Miss Densmore recorded 32 songs from this 
group, including several which had been sung for Miss Fletcher. 
Joseph Hamilton and Henry J. Springer, who had been too young 
to sing for Miss Fletcher, were familiar with the songs of old war 
societies and recorded 33 songs. A third group comprised younger 
men, George R. Phillips, Robert Dale, and John G. Miller, from 
whom 6 songs connected with the first World War were obtained. 

Some of Miss Fletcher's published Omaha songs were played on a 
piano and were recognized by the Indians as having been recorded 
for her. Miss Densmore obtained new recordings of these which 
were transcribed and compared with the versions presented by Miss 
Fletcher. It was noted that while the general effect of each melody 
is the same in both versions, differences are rather marked. An ade- 
quate comparison of the singing of these songs in the two periods 
of time could be made only if the original recordings were available 
for comparison with the records made in 1941. In contrast to the 
differences in these serious songs, it was said that the song of the 
hand game, presented by Miss Fletcher, is in use at the present time. 
This was re-recorded for the present work, and the two versions 
differ only in the omission in the new recording of a few bytones. 
From this it appears that songs in common use are preserved among 
the Omaha without change, while songs connected with ancient cus- 



FIFTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 9 

toms or ceremonies, which have not been sung for many years, are 
being forgotten and will soon disappear. 

Miss Densmore also obtained from Benjamin Parker a description 
and a model of an old type of drum. In former times the cylinder 
of this drum was a charred log, preferably of oak or elm. The 
lower head was of hide from the lower part of a buffalo's neck, and 
the upper head, which was struck, was made of deer hide or the hide 
from a hindquarter of an elk. These heads were laced together 
with buffalo thongs and tightened with bits of wood in the lacing, 
a custom not observed previously among the Indians. 

During the year Miss Densmore arranged in final order 245 songs 
to accompany her manuscript on Seminole music and revised por- 
tions of the text to conform to this arrangement of the material. 

In December 1941 Miss Densmore was appointed as consultant at 
The National Archives for work in connection with the Smithso- 
nian-Densmore collection of sound recordings of American Indian 
music, and during the ensuing months she was engaged in planning 
the organization of the collection. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editorial work of the Bureau has continued during the year 
under the immediate direction of the editor, M. Helen Palmer. 
There were issued one Annual Report and three Bulletins, as follows: 

Fifty-eighth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1940-1941. 
13 pp. 

Bulletin 129. An archeological survey of Pickwick Basin in the adjacent 
portions of the States of Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee, by William S. 
Webb and David L. DeJarnette. With additions by Waiter B. Jones, J. P. E. 
Morrison, Marshall T. Newman and Charles E. Snow, and William G. Haag. 
53G pp., 316 pis., 99 text figs. 

Bulletin 130. Archeological investigations at Buena Vista Lake, Kern 
County, California, by Waldo R. Wedel. With appendix, Skeletal remains from 
the Ruena Vista sites, California, by T. D. Stewart. 194 pp., 57 pis., 19 text 
figs. 

Bulletin 131. Peachtree Mound and village site, Cherokee County, North Caro- 
lina, by Frank M. Setzler and Jesse D. Jennings. With appendix, Skeletal remains 
from the Peachtree Site, North Carolina, by T. D. Stewart. 103 pp., 50 pis., 
12 text figs. 

The following Bulletins were in press at the close of the fiscal year : 

Bulletin 132. Source material on the history and ethnology of the Caddo 
Indians, by John R. Swanton. 
Bulletin 133. Anthropological papers, numbers 19-26 : 

No. 19. A search for songs among the Chitimacha Indians in Louisiana, 

by Frances Densmore. 
No. 20. Archeological survey on the northern Northwetst Coast, by Philip 
Drucker. 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

No. 21. Some notes on a few sites in Beaufort County, South Carolina, by 
Regina Flannery. 

No. 22. An analysis and interpretation of the ceramic remains from two 
sites near Beaufort, South Carolina, by James B. Griffin. 

No. 23. The eastern Cherokees, by William Harlen Gilbert, Jr. 

No. 24. Aconite poison whaling in Asia and America : An Aleutian transfer 
to the New World, by Robert F. Heizer. 

No. 25. The Carrier Indians of the Bulkley River: Their social and re- 
ligious life, by Diamond Jenness. 

No. 26. The quipu and Peruvian civilization, by John R. Swanton. 

Bulletin 134. Native tribes of eastern Bolivia and western Matto Grosso, by 
Alfred M6traux. 

Bulletin 135. Origin myth of Acoma and other records, by Matthew W. 
Stirling. 
Bulletin 136. Anthropological papers, numbers 27-32: 
No. 27. Music of the Indians of British Columbia, by Frances Densmore. 
No. 28. Choctaw music, by Frances Densmore. 
No. 29. Some enthnological data concerning one hundred Yucatan plants, 

by Morris Steggerda. 
No. 30. A description of 30 towns in Yucatan, 1937-39, with introductory and 

explanatory remarks, by Morris Steggerda. 
No. 31. Some western Shoshoni myths, by Julian H. Steward. 
No. 32. New material from Acoma, by Leslie A. White. 
Bulletin 137. The Indians of the Southeastern United States, by John R. 
Swanton. 

Publications distributed totaled 11,631. 

LIBRARY 

There has been no change in the library staff during the fiscal year. 
Accessions during the fiscal year totaled 350. Volumes received by 
exchange have fallen off sharply owing to the war, which has prac- 
tically stopped exchange except from Great Britain and her posses- 
sions and from South America, Several new exchange sets have been 
started during the year. 

The reclassification of the library is practically completed. The 
foreign society transactions and the foreign periodicals have been 
reshelved and a temporary shelf list made. The publications of Indian 
schools and missions have been classified, reshelved, and a temporary 
shelflist made. All available Library of Congress cards for periodi- 
cals in our collection have been obtained, and these cards have been 
sorted and will be prepared as soon as time permits. 

The rare-book collection has been classified, reshelved, and shelf- 
listed, and Library of Congress cards were obtained for nearly all this 
collection. About 600 volumes of the rare-book collection were 
packed for shipment to war storage in April. 

New books received during the year have been classified and shelf- 
listed and are now on the shelf. The usual work of recording new 



FIFTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 11 

periodicals and society transactions and examining them for material 
of interest and for book reviews has been kept up to date. 

A beginning has been made on bringing analytical entries up to 
date. The American Anthropologist, American Journal of Physical 
Anthropology, American Antiquity, and other important sets have 
been brought up to date with main cards only. Other sets and sub- 
ject entries remain to be done. 

The librarian attended the meetings of the Inter-American Biblio- 
graphical and Library Society in February 1942, and assisted in the 
formation of a Map and Geography group in the Washington chapter 
of the Special Libraries Association. Talks by the librarian on the 
library and the rare-book collection were given before the Map group 
of the Special Libraries Association on January 6, 1942, and before 
the Museum group on March 10, 1942. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

During the year Mr. E. G. Cassedy, illustrator, continued the 
preparation of illustrations, maps, and drawings for the publications 
of the Bureau and for those of other branches of the Institution. 

COLLECTIONS 

Collections transferred by the Bureau of American Ethnology to 
the Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum, 
during the fiscal year were as follows : 

Accession 

No. 
161294. Cult objects from voodoo shrines in the region of Croix des Bouquets near 

Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and a small lot of archeological objects from 

Tortuga Island off the north coast of Haiti ; collected by Dr. A. Metraux 

during the summer of 1941. 
162205. Archeological materials from Ventura, Santa Barbara, Inyo, and Kern 

Counties, Calif., collected by Dr. W. D. Strong in 1934. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was furnished by members 
of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning the 
North American Indians, both past and present, and the Mexican 
peoples of the prehistoric and early historic periods. Various speci- 
mens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them furnished 
for their owners. 

Personnel. — Dr. Philip Drucker was appointed on August 1, 1941, 
as assistant anthropologist; Dr. Alfred Metraux was appointed on 
September 2, 1941, as anthropologist; Miss Ethelwyn E. Carter was 
appointed on September 2, 1941, as assistant clerk-stenographer in con- 
nection with the preparation of the Handbook of South American 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Indians; Mrs. Catherine M. Phillips, junior stenographer, was pro- 
moted to assistant clerk-stenographer on January 16, 1942, in the 
editorial division, Smithsonian Institution, and Mrs. Ruth S. Abram- 
son was appointed on March 12, 1942, to fill this vacancy ; W. B. Green- 
wood was transferred on February 12, 1942, to the United States 
National Museum, and on April 1, 1942, was reassigned to his former 
position in the Bureau library. 
Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Chief. 

Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

o 



U-£ 



Sixtieth Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1942-1943 






SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



SIXTIETH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1942-1943 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1944 



SIXTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Chief 



Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1943, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of June 27, 1942, which pro- 
vides "* * * for continuing ethnological researches among the 
American Indians and the natives of Hawaii and the excavation 
and preservation of archeologic remains. * * *" 

During the fiscal year, activities concerned with the other American 
republics have been emphasized, and the energies of various staff 
members of the Bureau have been directed to an increasing extent 
to projects bearing on the war effort. In particular, members of the 
Bureau staff have cooperated with the Ethnogeographic Board in 
preparing information for the armed services, and it is expected that 
efforts in this direction will increase as the war continues. 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

On January 13, 1943, M. W. Stirling, Chief of the Bureau, left 
Washington on the fifth National Geographic Society-Smithsonian 
Institution archeological expedition to southern Mexico. Excavations 
were continued at the site of La Venta in southern Tabasco and re- 
sulted in the discovery of numerous new details of construction of 
the rectangular stone-fenced enclosure, one of the central features of 
the site. Three rich burials of important personages were uncovered 
containing offerings principally of jade of unusually high quality. 
Two mosaic floors in the form of jaguar masks made of polished 
green serpentine were discovered, one at a depth of more than 20 feet. 
During the course of the work an exploration trip was made up the 
Eio de las Playas, one of the headwater streams of the Tonala River, in 
order to verify the existence of a ruin in this vicinity. The collections 
obtained during the course of excavations at La Venta were shipped 
to the National Museum in Mexico City. Mr. Stirling was assisted 
throughout the season by Dr. Waldo R. Wedel, of the division of 
archeology of the United States National Museum. 

During the course of the fiscal year Mr. Stirling contributed to the 
War Background Studies of the Smithsonian Institution an article 
entitled "Native Peoples of New Guinea," which was published as 

563753- 43 1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

No. 9 of that series. He also contributed several articles to the Ethno- 
geographic Board for distribution to the armed forces. During the 
year Mr. Stirling's paper entitled "Origin Myth of Acoma and Other 
Records" was issued as Bulletin 135 of the Bureau. 

Dr. John R. Swanton, ethnologist, devoted a considerable por- 
tion of the year to the reading and correcting of galley and page proof 
of his work entitled "The Indians of the Southeastern United States," 
which is being published as Bulletin 137 of the Bureau. This will be a 
volume of approximately 850 pages exclusive of the index. 

Some further work was done on the materials preserved from the 
now extinct language of the Timucua Indians of Florida, but it was 
decided to discontinue this for the present. These materials — con- 
sisting of a catalog of Timucua words and English-Timucua index 
to the same, photocopies of the religious works in Timucua and 
Spanish printed in Mexico in the seventeenth century, and typed copies 
of these with some interlinear translation — have been labeled care- 
fully and placed in the manuscript vault. 

Time was also devoted to the extraction of ethnographical notes 
from the volumes of Early Western Travels, edited by Reuben Gold 
Thwaites. A paper entitled "Are Wars Inevitable?" was contributed 
as No. 12 to the War Background Studies of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. A few investigations were undertaken for the Board on Geo- 
graphical Names, of which Dr. Swanton is a member. 

Dr. John P. Harrington, ethnologist, was occupied during the first 
part of the year in an investigation of the Chilcotin languages of 
northern California. The results of this work indicated that Chilcotin 
was introduced into California from Canada in pre-European times, 
but owing to the varying rate in time reckoning for the accomplish- 
ment of linguistic changes, the length of Chilcotin occupancy in Cali- 
fornia cannot be estimated. With the exception of a small area south 
of the mouth of the Klamath River, Chilcotin occupies the entire 
coastal region of northern California to the mouth of Usal Creek 
in Mendocino County. In addition to the linguistic connections dis- 
covered, local traditions were obtained linking the Chilcotin peoples 
with a more northern group. Two separate stories were recorded 
deriving the Hupa from the region north of the mouth of the Klamath 
River, and one was obtained deriving the Indians of a part of the Eel 
River drainage from the Hupa region. 

Since his return to Washington, Dr. Harrington has been engaged 
in the preparation of material for the linguistic section of the Hand- 
book of South American Indians. This work resulted in the discovery 
that Witoto is Tupi-Guaranf, and also the very interesting finding 
that Quechua is Hokan. The Hokan hitherto had been known to ex- 
tend only to the Subtiaba language of the west coast of Central 
America. Detailed studies of Quechua and of Cocama have been made 



SIXTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 3 

for the purpose of making comparisons with other South American 
languages and with a view to discerning possible further linguistic 
affiliations. In addition to this work, Dr. Harrington has also made 
an extensive study of the grammar of the Jivaro language of South 
America. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., 
senior archeologist, was engaged in prospecting and testing an in- 
teresting site in the Agate Basin, on a tributary of the Cheyenne 
River between Lusk and Newcastle, in eastern Wyoming. Dr. Roberts 
had been sent to make preliminary investigations at this location, 
despite the general policy of no regular field work for the duration 
of the war, because of the possibility that much information might 
be lost as a result of erosive activities in the area and from disturb- 
ance of the deposits by amateur collectors hunting for specimens. 
The site gave evidence of having been the scene of a bison kill on the 
edges of a marsh or meadow. Animal bones and artifacts were found 
in a stratum that breaks out of the bank some 20 feet above the bottom 
of an eroding gully. This layer is covered by an overburden that 
deepens rapidly as it is followed back into the bank, and at a depth 
of 4 feet, where the tests were terminated, was still continuing. All 
the bones found, of which there were many, proved to be modern 
bison. Associated with these were projectile points, which, although 
they suggest an affinity with the Collateral Yuma type — a form that 
has been considered relatively early in the Plains area — nevertheless do 
not have all the significant characteristics of that type. The points 
have unhesitatingly been called Yuma by numerous people who 
have examined them, and there is no question of their belonging 
in that general category, although they should not be considered 
classic forms. All the points found at the site are consistent in 
pattern, yet have a considerable range in size. In the seventy- 
some points or large and easily identified fragments found there, 
no shouldered, barbed, or tanged forms appear. The material un- 
questionably represents a cultural unit without intrusions from 
other sources. Dr. Roberts dug 32 examples out of undisturbed 
deposits. The remaining specimens are in the collections of local 
residents, who picked them up as they weathered out of the gully 
bank. Only a few end and side scrapers have been found, prob- 
ably because of the fact that the camp proper has not yet been 
located, but they are typical of those associated with the so-called 
early hunting complexes. Geologic studies have not yet been made 
of the deposits. They indicate some antiquity, but that they are 
not as old as the age formerly postulated for Yuma remains is demon- 
strated by the fact that the bison represented are all modern forms. 
It is hoped that when present conditions are over, the site can be 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

thoroughly excavated and detailed studies made of the material. The 
site was found by William Spencer, of Spencer, Wyo., and was re- 
ported to the Smithsonian Institution by Eobert E. Frison, deputy 
game warden, Wyoming State Game and Fish Commission of New- 
castle. Permission for the investigations was granted by Leonard 
E. Davis, owner of the land. 

Leaving Newcastle, Wyo., on August 1, Dr. Roberts proceeded to 
Tucumcari and San Jon, N. Mex., for the purpose of disposing of some 
of the equipment stored there at the close of the 1941 season and ar- 
ranging for storage of the remainder for the duration. 

On his return to Washington, Dr. Eoberts resumed his office activi- 
ties. Galley and page proofs were read for his report, "Archeologi- 
cal and Geological Investigations in the San Jon District, Eastern 
New Mexico," which appeared in the Smithsonian Miscellaneous 
Collections, volume 103, No. 4. Manuscript was prepared and galley 
and page proofs were read for a paper entitled "Egypt and the Suez 
Canal," which was published as No. 11 in the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion War Background Studies. By request, an article, "Evidence for 
a Paleo-Indian in the New World," was written for the Acta Ameri- 
cana, an international quarterly review published by the Inter- Ameri- 
can Society of Anthropology and Geography. During the period from 
October 1 to June 30 a series of survival articles was prepared from 
data furnished by members of the Smithsonian staff. These articles 
were made available to the armed forces through the office of the 
Ethnogeographic Board. Dr. Roberts devoted considerable time to 
the task of gathering this information from the Institution's authori- 
ties in the various fields of science and working it into articles for 
general reading. He also furnished information on various subjects 
in response to requests from numerous members of the armed services. 
At the close of the fiscal year he was engaged in assisting in the prepa- 
ration of a survival manual for the Ethnogeographic Board. 

On April 1, 1943, Dr. Roberts was designated as Acting Chief of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology whenever the Chief, by reason of 
absence, illness, or other cause, is unable to discharge the duties of his 
position. 

Dr. Julian H. Steward, anthropologist, continued his activities as 
editor of the Handbook of South American Indians, one of the Smith- 
sonian projects conducted under funds transferred from the State 
Department for "Cooperation with the American Republics." He also 
prepared a number of articles for publication in the Handbook. The 
Handbook, which is three-fourths completed, will consist of four 
volumes of text and a two-volume bibliography. Material has been 
contributed to it by 100 specialists on the Indian tribes of Central 
and South America and the Antilles. 



SIXTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

Dr. Steward took an active part in the creation of the Inter- Ameri- 
can Society of Anthropology and Geography, the purpose of which 
is the development of cooperative anthropological and geographic re- 
search. Dr. Ralph L. Beals was appointed to take over the work of 
organizing and developing the society. The society has approxi- 
mately 700 members throughout the Americas, and the first issue of its 
quarterly journal, Acta Americana, was in press at the close of the 
fiscal year. 

Plans were developed for cooperative Institutes of Social Anthro- 
pology to assist in training students and in carrying on field work 
in the other American republics. 

Dr. Steward served as a member of committees concerned with co- 
operative work in the field of inter-American relations and was a 
member of the Board of Governors of the National Indian Institute 
of the United States. He also represented the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion at the inauguration of Dr. Everett Needham Case as president of 
Colgate University. 

Dr. Alfred Metraux, ethnologist, continued his work as assistant to 
Dr. Julian H. Steward in preparing the Handbook of South American 
Indians. In addition to editing materials furnished by other contribu- 
tors, Dr. Metraux completed a large amount of manuscript material 
of his own for use in the Handbook. Through an arrangement with 
the National University of Mexico, Dr. Metraux went to Mexico City 
to teach from March until the end of the fiscal year. During the year 
Dr. Metraux's paper entitled "The Native Tribes of Eastern Bolivia 
and Western Matto Grosso" was issued as Bulletin 134 of the Bureau. 

During the fiscal year Dr. Henry B. Collins, Jr., ethnologist, was 
engaged in work relating to the war, for the most part in connection 
with the Ethnogeographic Board. Early in July 1942 Dr. Collins 
was detailed by the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and by 
the Chief of the Bureau to assist in handling requests for regional 
and other information received by the Ethnogeographic Board from 
the armed services and other war agencies. On February 28, 1943, 
he was elected Assistant Director of the Board and in this capacity 
continued in charge of research relating to the above-mentioned re- 
quests. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. William N. Fenton, as- 
sociate anthropologist, was engaged, at the request of the Pennsyl- 
vania Historical Commission, in a brief field trip among the Seneca 
Indians on the Cornplanter Grant in northwestern Pennsylvania. 
The object of this work was to collect Indian geographic names and 
traditions on hunting and fishing along the Allegheny River. 

Following his return to Washington, Dr. Fenton devoted most 
of his time during the remainder of the year to projects received 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

by the Ethnogeographic Board from the armed services and other 
war agencies. One of the results of his work has been a strategic file 
of personnel in the United States familiar with foreign countries. 
Growing out of the Roster of Personnel, World Travel, and Special 
Knowledge Available to War Agencies at the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, as first compiled by the Smithsonian War Committee early 
in 1942, the present World File of Regional Specialists at the Eth- 
nogeographic Board now includes over 2,500 names of individuals, 
their travel and special knowledge. Cross-indexed by name, as well 
as by country, this index has enabled the Director of the Board to 
locate promptly any person in response to requests from the armed 
forces for authorities who might possess unusual information, photo- 
graphs, maps, and knowledge of languages of a given area. Certain 
officers as well as civilian specialists have returned repeatedly to the 
Smithsonian building to consult this file. In recognition of this 
work, in February Dr. Fenton was elected a research associate of 
the Ethnogeographic Board. 

At the request of the War Department, Office of Chief of Engi- 
neers, to the Institution, Dr. Fenton delivered a lecture on "The 
Nature and Diversity of Human Culture" to a class in Psychology 
of Administration. 

Dr. Fenton has continued membership on the Smithsonian War 
Committee, acting as its secretary. 

Work on the Indian place names of western New York and west- 
ern Pennsylvania has continued by correspondence with Messrs. M. 
H. Deardorff, Warren, Pa., and Chas. E. Congdon, of Salamanca, 
N. Y. At the end of the fiscal year, another correspondent, Dr. 
Elizabeth L. Moore, of Meredith College, had about completed the 
translation of J. F. Lafitau's Moeurs des Sauvages Ameriquains (2 
vols., Paris, 1724) , a project reported last year. 

Publications for the year include: Songs from the Iroquois Long- 
house: Program Notes for an Album of American Indian Music 
from the Eastern Woodlands, published jointly by the Smithsonian 
Institution and the Library of Congress as vol. 6 of Folk Music of 
the United States (Archive of American Folk Song) ; Contacts be- 
tween Iroquois Herbalism and Colonial Medicine, in Smithsonian 
Report for 1941 ; Last Seneca Pigeon Hunts, in Warren County Penn- 
sylvania Almanac, 1943; and Fish Drives among the Cornplanter 
Seneca, in Pennsylvania Archaeologist; also several book reviews in 
professional and other journals. At the close of the fiscal year, the 
paper entitled "The Last Passenger Pigeon Hunts of the Cornplanter 
Senecas," which had been prepared with M. H. Deardorff for the 
Anthropological Papers of the Bureau, had been accepted for pub- 
lication in the Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. 



SIXTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

In December 1942 Dr. Philip Drucker, assistant ethnologist, re- 
ceived a commission in the United States Naval Reserve and was 
granted a military furlough. Dr. Drucker had spent the preceding 
portion of the fiscal year in preparing final reports on archeological 
work previously conducted in Mexico by the National Geographic 
Society-Smithsonian Institution archeological expeditions. These 
reports, in press at the end of the fiscal year, will appear as Bulletins 
of the Bureau. 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES 

Miss Frances Densmore, a collaborator of the Bureau, continued 
work on the study of Indian music by completing two large manu- 
scripts — Seminole Music, and Music of Acoma, Isleta, Cochiti, and 
Zuni Pueblos. She also devoted considerable time to a study of the 
traces of foreign influences in the music of the American Indians. 
During a portion of the year she was engaged in writing a handbook 
of the Smithsonian-Densmore collection of sound recordings of Ameri- 
can Indian music for the National Archives. 

Miss Densmore presented to the Bureau a record of her field work 
on Indian music and customs for the Bureau from 1907 to 1941, and 
completed the bibliography of her writings on that subject. She also 
presented the original phonograph record of a speech in the Ute 
language by the famous Ute chief Red Cap, made in 1916, and a 
similar record of a speech in the Yuma language by Kacora, made in 
1922, with accompanying information. 

In 1943 Miss Densmore completes SO years' study of the music, 
customs, and history of the American Indians. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editorial work of the Bureau continued during the year under 
the immediate direction of the editor, M. Helen Palmer. There were 
issued one Annual Report and three Bulletins, as follows : 

Fifty-ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1941-1942. 
12 pp. 

Bulletin 132. Source material on the history and ethnology of the Caddo Indians, 
by John R. Swanton. 332 pp., 19 pis., 5 text figs. 

Bulletin 134. The native tribes of eastern Bolivia and western Matto Grosso, 
by Alfred Metraux. 182 pp., 5 pis., 1 text fig. 

Bulletin 135. Origin myth of Acoma and other records, by Matthew W. Stirling. 
123 pp., 17 pis., 8 text figs. 

The following Bulletins were in press at the close of the fiscal year : 

Bulletin 133. Anthropological papers, numbers 19-26: 

No. 19. A search for songs among the Chitimacha Indians in Louisiana, by 
Frances Densmore. 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

No. 20. Archeologieal survey on the northern Northwest Coast, by Philip 
Drucker. With appendix, Early vertebrate fauna of the British 
Columbia Coast, by Edna M. Fisher. 
No. 21. Some notes on a few sites in Beaufort County, South Carolina, by 

Regina Flannery. 
No. 22. An analysis and interpretation of the ceramic remains from two sites 

near Beaufort, South Carolina, by James B. Griffin. 
No. 23. The eastern Cherokees, by William Harlen Gilbert, Jr. 
No. 24. Aconite poison whaling in Asia and America : An Aleutian transfer 

to the New World, by Robert F. Heizer. 
No. 25. The Carrier Indians of the Bulkley River : Their social and religious 

life, by Diamond Jenness. 
No. 26. The quipu and Peruvian civilization, by John R. Swanton. 
Bulletin 136. Anthropological papers, numbers 27-32 : 

No. 27. Music of the Indians of British Columbia, by Frances Densmore. 

No. 28. Choctaw music, by Frances Densmore. 

No. 29. Some ethnological data concerning one hundred Yucatan plants, by 

Morris Steggerda. 
No. 30. A description of thirty towns in Yucatan, Mexico, by Morris Steggerda. 
No. 31. Some western Shoshoni myths, by Julian H. Steward. 
No. 32. New material from Acoma, by Leslie A. White. 
Bulletin 137. The Indians of the southeastern United States, by John R. 
Swanton. 
Bulletin 138. Stone monuments of southern Mexico, by Matthew W. Stirling. 
Bulletin 139. An introduction to the ceramics of Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, 
Mexico, by C. W. Weiant. 

Bulletin 140. Ceramic sequences at Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, Mexico, by Philip 
Drucker. 

Bulletin 141. Ceramic stratigraphy at Cerro de las Mesas, by Philip Drucker. 
Bulletin 142. The contemporary culture of the Cahita Indians, by Ralph L. 
Beals. 

Publications distributed totaled 10,793. 

LIBRARY 

Accessions during the fiscal year totaled 321. There has been a 
sharp decrease in all classes of accessions, owing to reduced funds in 
the case of purchases and to war conditions in the case of gifts and 
exchanges. 

The Library of Congress cards for nonserial matter on hand at the 
beginning of the fiscal year, amounting to several thousand, have 
been prepared and filed. Cards for foreign periodicals and society 
transactions have been prepared and filed, including shelf-list cards. 
A record of holdings appears on each of these shelf -list entries and 
some are now in their permanent form. 

Several thousand pamphlets, including a number of valuable ones 
pertaining to the Indian Territory and the Five Civilized Tribes, 
were reclassified and reshelved. 

The library has been much in use as a source of material for the 
Ethnogeographic Board and the war agencies. 



SIXTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 9 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

During the year E. G. Cassedy, illustrator, continued the prepara- 
tion of illustrations, maps, and drawings for the publications of the 
Bureau and for those of other branches of the Institution. 

COLLECTIONS 

Collections transferred by the Bureau of American Ethnology to 
the department of anthropology, United States National Museum, 
during the fiscal year were as follows : 

Accession 
number 

1626S2. Archeological materials collected at Tres Zapotes, Tuxtla District, south- 
ern Veracruz, Mexico, during the winters of 1938-39 and 1939-40 by 
the National Geographic Society-Smithsonian Institution expedition 
under M. W. Stirling. (1,359 specimens.) 

163712. 14 ethnological specimens originally obtained by C. Spencer from the 
Payamino Indians, eastern Ecuador, and 3 archeological specimens 
from excavations along the Napo River in the vicinity of Eden, Ecuador. 
( 17 specimens. ) 

165123. Stone ax blade and 5 bark-cloth dance masks collected by Dr. Irving 
Goldman from the Kobeua (Cubeo) Indians, southeastern Colombia. 
(6 specimens.) 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning 
the North American Indians, both past and present, and the Mexican 
peoples of the prehistoric and early historic periods. Various speci- 
mens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them furnished 
for their owners. 

Personnel. — Indefinite furloughs for military service were granted 
to Dr. Philip Drucker and Walter B. Greenwood on December 31, 

1942, and January 15, 1943, respectively; Miss Nancy A. Link was 
appointed editorial clerk in connection with the preparation of the 
Handbook of South American Indians on August 15, 1942, by trans- 
fer from the Bureau, and resigned on January 23, 1943 ; Mrs. Eloise 
B. Edelen was appointed editorial assistant on August 24, 1942, on 
the Bureau roll; John E. Anglim was appointed senior illustrator 
for the Handbook on August 12, 1942, and resigned on April 21, 

1943, to be inducted into the Army; Mrs. Verne E. Samson was 
appointed editorial clerk for the Handbook on December 22, 1942; 
Mrs. Ruth S. Abramson resigned as assistant clerk-stenographer on 
May 28, 1943. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Chief. 
Dk. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

o 



Sixty-first Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1943-1944 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



SIXTY-FIRST 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1943-1944 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1946 



■'• 






SIXTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Chief 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Amer- 
ican Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1944, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of June 26, 1943, which pro- 
vides "* * * for continuing ethnological researches among the 
American Indians and the natives of Hawaii and the excavation and 
preservation of archeologic remains. * * *" 

During the fiscal year emphasis on activities concerned with Latin 
America has continued. 

Dr. W. D. Strong, Director of the Ethnogeographic Board, planned 
to return to his duties at Columbia University soon after the close of 
the fiscal year, and the work of the Board will thereafter be conducted 
entirely by members of the Bureau staff. 

As the war continues and the need for specialized information grows 
less it is expected that the Bureau may gradually assume more of its 
normal duties. 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

On January 28, 1944, Dr. M. W. Stirling, Chief of the Bureau, left 
Washington on the Sixth National Geographic Society-Smithsonian 
Institution expedition to Mexico. The month of February was spent 
in the states of Michoacan and Jalisco, where a photographic record 
was made of lacquer working in Uruapan and vicinity, and of pottery 
making in Tlaquepaque. Ethnological pictures were made depicting 
the activities and customs of the Tarascan Indians of Lake Patzcuaro. 

From the beginning of March until the middle of May, an archeo- 
logical reconnaissance was conducted in southern Veracruz, Tabasco, 
and Campeche, with the principal objective of finding the extent of 
the early La Venta culture in this area. Several new sites were located 
as a result of this survey, and photographic records were made of a 
number of private archeological collections. 

Dr. Stirling returned to Washington on May 22, 1944. 

During the year a report by Dr. Stirling, "Stone Monuments of 
Southern Mexico," was issued as Bulletin 138 of the Bureau. 

During the year just passed, Dr. John R. Swanton, ethnologist, 
completed the reading of proof for Bulletin 137, "The Indians of the 
Southeastern United States." 

661717—46 1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

A study of the much discussed Norse expeditions to America was 
undertaken and a manuscript completed embodying the results. 

During the course of the year Dr. Swanton furnished to the Navy 
Department more than 1,000 Indian tribal names and names of prom- 
inent Indians, to be used for naming war vessels. Approximately 200 
of these have been used. 

On June 30, 19-14, Dr. Swanton retired from the Bureau after 
almost 44 years of service. 

Dr. John P. Harrington, ethnologist, continuing his American In- 
dian linguistic studies, discovered evidence suggesting that Quechua 
and Aymara, the languages of the two most highly civilized groups 
of aboriginal South America, are related to the Hokan stock of western 
North America. This is the first time that a linguistic relationship 
has been indicated between North and South America. In addition 
to this Dr. Harrington has reduced the number of linguistic stocks in 
South America by establishing the relationship of many groups previ- 
ously considered to be separate. 

Because of his unique knowledge of languages, Dr. Harrington has 
been called upon daily by the Office of Censorship to translate letters 
written in little-known languages from all over the world. 

During the.year several short papers on linguistic subjects have been 
published in scientific journals. 

On July 5, 1943, Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., senior archeologist, 
went to Abilene, Tex., where he spent 5 days investigating a prehistoric 
Indian burial which had been exposed 21 feet below the surface in a 
bank of the Clear Fork of the Brazos River by floodwaters and which 
was in danger of being washed away by a new rise. Studies of the 
deposits at the site showed that the burial had been made during the 
closing days of the Pleistocene or the beginning of the Early Recent 
geologic period about 10,000 years ago. The skeleton was turned over 
to the division of physical anthropology of the United States National 
Museum, where it has received careful study and has added to the 
knowledge of the physical type of the early Texas Indians. 

Returning to Washington, Dr. Roberts spent the remainder of the 
summer and the months of early autumn preparing contributions 
to, obtaining pictures for, editing the manuscript, and reading proof 
of a manual, "Survival on Land and Sea." which was prepared for 
the Publications Branch of the Office of Naval Intelligence, United 
States Navy, by the Ethnogeographic Board and the staff of the 
Smithsonian Institution. He later worked on a revision of this man- 
ual for a second edition and also served as a consultant for a similar 
manual being prepared for the Army Air Forces. During this period 
he also furnished information to several other branches of the armed 
services and some of the war agencies. 



SIXTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 3 

Dr. Roberts also worked on his final report on the excavations at 
the Lindenmeier Folsom Man site in northern Colorado, a project 
completed shortly before the outbreak of the war, and also wrote a 
number of articles for publication in scientific journals. On March 16, 
1944, Dr. Roberts was appointed a member of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution's Committee on Personnel Utilization and from that date until 
the close of the fiscal year devoted considerable time to the activities 
of that committee. 

During such periods as the Chief was absent from Washington, 
Dr. Roberts served as Acting Chief of the Bureau. 

On September 1, 1943, Dr. Julian H. Steward, anthropologist, was 
appointed Director of the Institute of Social Anthropology, an autono- 
mous unit of the Bureau, reporting directly to the Secretary. His 
work as editor of the Handbook of South American Indians also con- 
tinued concurrently. A brief statement on these two projects will be 
found later on in this report. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. Alfred Metraux, ethnologist, 
was teaching in Mexico City, through an arrangement with the Na- 
tional University of Mexico. He returned to duty on August 1, 1943, 
and assisted Dr. Julian H. Steward in the preparation of the Hand- 
book of South American Indians. Dr. Metraux was appointed Assist- 
ant Director of the Institute of Social Anthropology on September 18, 
1943. He completed four papers for the Handbook, and also gathered 
bibliographical material for several other contributions and assembled 
notes for the articles of the Handbook's fifth volume. 

During the fiscal year Dr. Henry B. Collins, Jr., ethnologist, con- 
tinued his work as Assistant Director of the Ethnogeographic Board. 
As in the previous year, the activities of the Board for which he was 
responsible concerned research in connection with regional and other 
information requested by the Army, Navy, and other war agencies. 
He represented the Smithsonian Institution and the Ethnogeographic 
Board as a technical adviser to the Emergency Rescue Equipment Sec- 
tion of the Navy and wrote the Arctic section for the booklet "Survival 
on Land and Sea." Some 750,000 copies of this official Navy survival 
manual have been distributed to the fleet and shore stations. 

Dr. Collins contributed the sections on geography, history, and 
anthropology for an article on the Aleutian Islands, which will be 
published as one of the series of War Background Studies of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

During such time as was available, Dr. Collins continued his re- 
searches on the Eskimo and the southeastern Indians. 

Dr. William N. Fenton, ethnologist, continued to serve as research 
associate of the Ethnogeographic Board. With the assistance of 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Miss Mae W. Tucker, he has maintained for the Ethnogeographic 
Board the world file of area and language specialists, which has 
grown to include more than 10,000 entries for all continents and island 
areas. This file has been extensively used by the military and other 
war agencies in their search for specialized personnel. From this 
file a series of five studies were prepared, together with maps and in- 
dexes, showing domestic sources of photographs on strategic areas 
of interest particularly to the Navy Department. At the request 
of the Army Specialized Training Division, the Ethnogeographic 
Board commenced a survey of area and language teaching in the Army 
Specialized Training Program and the Civil Affairs Training Schools 
in 25 American universities and colleges. Dr. Fenton participated 
in the survey, visiting 13 institutions between December 1943 and 
March 1944, and since that time has been occupied in writing up ob- 
servations and preparing reports for the proper offices. 

In addition to this work, Dr. Fenton continued his studies on the 
League of the Iroquois, translating a number of texts collected by 
J. N. B. Hewitt and A. A. Golden weiser. Dr.. Fenton 's publications for 
the year were : "The Last Passenger Pigeon Hunts of the Corn- 
planter Senecas" (with M. H. Deardorff), and "The Kequickening 
Address of the Iroquois Condolence Council" (of J. N. B. Hewitt), in 
the Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences; and an obituary, 
"Simeon Gibson: Iroquois Informant, 1889-1943," in the American 
Anthropologist; also several book reviews and notes in scientific and 
literary journals. 

Since joining the staff in December 1943, Dr. Homer G. Barnett, an- 
thropologist, has served as executive secretary of a committee formed 
under the sponsorship of the Ethnogeographic Board for the purpose 
of assembling data upon the existing state of our scientific knowl- 
edge of the Pacific Island area. The committee includes representa- 
tives of the geological, geographic, linguistic, political science, and 
anthropological disciplines. As executive secretary Dr. Barnett 
has served chiefly as organizer and coordinator of the committee's ac- 
tions. Since some of the committee members are located outside of 
Washington, considerable correspondence has been necessary as well 
as meetings both in Washington and New York. 

When not engaged in the above activities, Dr. Barnett has worked 
on the organization of field notes on various Salishan and Northwest 
Coast tribes, having in project a series of publications stressing cul- 
tural change among the Yurok, the Tsimshian, the Yakima, and the 
Makah. He has just completed one manuscript dealing with the 
Indian Shaker cult of the northwestern United States. 



SIXTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 5 

INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 

As stated above, Dr. Julian H. Steward, anthropologist, on Septem- 
ber 1, 1943, became Director of the Institute of Social Anthropology, 
an autonomous unit of the Bureau reporting directly to the Secretary. 
As Dr. Steward was instructed in the official order establishing the 
Institute to report to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
there are presented here brief abstracts from Dr. Steward's reports 
to Dr. Wetmore, Acting Secretary. 

The Institute of Social Anthropology was first conceived in July 
1942 and a project for its work was placed before the Interdepartmen- 
tal Committee for Cooperation with the American Republics in Au- 
gust of that year. Its stated purpose was to carry out cooperative 
training in anthropological teaching and research with the other 
American republics. For the fiscal year 1944, $60,000 was made avail- 
able for the work of the Institute by transfer of funds from the State 
Department appropriation. 

In September 1943 the Director visited Mexico and established the 
terms of an agreement for the work of the Institute with the authori- 
ties of the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia and the Instituto 
Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, submitting this to the Depart- 
ment of State in late September. After some months of delay encoun- 
tered in completing the agreement, Dr. George M. Foster, engaged by 
the Institute as anthropologist in charge of the work in Mexico, pro- 
ceeded to that country in May and started work in cooperation with 
the organizations mentioned above. Dr. Donald D. Brand also repre- 
sented the Institute in Mexico as cultural geographer. 

No formal agreement has yet been entered into for similar work 
in Peru. Nevertheless, Dr. John Gillin, appointed by the Institute in 
January 1944 as anthropologist, commenced work in that country on 
an informal basis. The remaining 6 months of the fiscal year were 
devoted to reconnaissance and teaching at Cuzco and Trujillo. 

A memorandum agreement for cooperative work in Colombia was 
submitted early in 1944, but at the close of the fiscal year it had not 
yet been reported out. 

A new series in social anthropology entitled "Publications of the 
Institute of Social Anthropology" was started with two papers, which 
went to the printer just before the close of the fiscal year. No. 1 was 
on "Houses and House Use of the Sierra Tarascans," by Ralph L. 
Beals, Pedro Carrasco, and Thomas McCorkle; No. 2 was entitled 
"Cheran, a Sierra Tarascan Village," by Ralph L. Beals. 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

HANDBOOK OF SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS 

The editing of the Handbook of South American Indians, begun 
some years ago, was continued during the year by Dr. Julian H. 
Steward after September 1, 1943, under his appointment as Director 
of the Institute of Social Anthropology. Funds for the preparation 
of the manuscript are transferred to the Smithsonian Institution from 
the State Department appropriation for "Cooperation with the Ameri- 
can Kepublics," and the Bureau will pay the cost of publication in its 
Bulletin series. 

Volume 1, "The Marginal Tribes," and volume 2, "The Andean Civil- 
izations," were completed during the year and sent to the printer. The 
manuscripts of volumes 3 and 4 were nearly completed. 

The Handbook is a truly cooperative project, as one-half of the 
100 contributors are scientists of the other American republics. 

SPECAL RESEARCHES 

Miss Frances Densmore, a collaborator of the Bureau, continued 
her work on the study of Indian music by writing a manuscript enti- 
tled "Omaha Music," with transcriptions of 64 songs. This manu- 
script was based upon research in Nebraska in 1941 and included re- 
recordings of several songs that were recorded for Miss Alice C. 
Fletcher by the same singers. The date of the previous recordings 
was said to have been 1887 to 1890 and the songs are included in Miss 
Fletcher's "Study of Omaha Indian Music," published by the Peabody 
Museum of Harvard University, and in "The Omaha Tribe," by Miss 
Fletcher and Francis La Flesche, in the Twenty-seventh Annual Re- 
port of the Bureau. Many songs in Miss Fletcher's work were recog- 
nized by men who had not the tribal right to sing them. The present 
manuscript includes old songs of Omaha military and social societies, 
songs connected with the First World War, and songs of legends and 
the hand game. 

Miss Densmore compiled and presented to the Bureau a chronology 
of her study and presentation of Indian music from 1893 to June 1944. 
This chronology was based on diaries, scrapbooks, and Reports of the 
Bureau. During a portion of the year she was engaged in completing 
the handbook of the Smithsonian-Densmore collection of sound record- 
ings of American Indian music for the National Archives. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editorial work of the Bureau continued during the year under 
the immediate direction of the editor, M. Helen Palmer. There were 
issued one Annual Report and six Bulletins, as follows: 



SIXTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 7 

Sixtieth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1942-1943. 9 pp. 
Bulletin 133. Anthropological papers, numbers 19-20'. ix+615 pp., 34 pis., 
02 figs. : 

No. 19. A search for songs among the Chitimacha Indians in Louisiana, by 

Frances Densmore. 
No. 20. Archeological survey on the northern Northwest Coast, by Philip 

Drucker; with appendix, Early vertebrate fauna of the British 

Columbia Coast, by Edna M. Fisher. 
No. 21. Some notes on a few sites in Beaufort County, South Carolina, by 

Regina Flannery. 
No. 22. An analysis and interpretation of the ceramic remains from two 

sites near Beaufort, South Carolina, by James B. Griffin. 
No. 23. The eastern Cherokees, by William Harlen Gilbert, Jr. 
No. 24. Aconite poison whaling in Asia and America : An Aleutian transfer 

to the New World, by Robert F. Heizer. 
No. 25. The Carrier Indians of the Bulkley River : Their social and religious 

life, by Diamond Jenness. 
No. 20. The quipu and Peruvian civilization, by John R. Swanton. 

Bulletin 130. Anthropological papers, numbers 27-32. viii+375 pp., 32 pis., 
5 figs. : 

No. 27. Music of the Indians of British Columbia, by Frances Densmore. 

No. 28. Choctaw music, by Frances Densmore. 

No. 29. Some ethnological data concerning one hundred Yucatan plants, by 

Morris Steggerda. 
No. 30. A description of thirty towns in Yucatan, Mexico, by Morris 

Steggerda. 
No. 31. Some western Sboshoni myths, by Julian H. Steward. 
No. 32. New material from Acoma, by Leslie A. White. 

Bulletin 138. Stone monuments of southern Mexico, by Matthew W. Stirling. 
vii+84 pp., 02 pis., 14 figs. 

Bulletin 139. An introduction to the ceramics of Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, Mexico, 
by C. W. Weiant. xiv4-144 pp., 78 pis., 54 figs., 10 maps. 

Bulletin 140. Ceramic sequences at Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, Mexico, by Philip 
Drucker. ix+155 pp., 05 pis., 46 figs. 

Bulletin 141. Ceramic stratigraphy at Cerro de las Mesas, Veracruz, Mexico, 
by Philip Drucker. viii+95 pp., 58 pis., 210 figs. 

The following publications were in press at the close of the fiscal 
year : 

Bulletin 137. The Indians of the Southeastern United States, by John R. 
Swanton. 

Bulletin 142. The contemporary culture of the Cahita Indians, by Ralph L. 
Beals. 

Bulletin 143. Handbook of South American Indians. Julian H. Steward, 
Editor. Volume 1. The Marginal Tribes. Volume 2. The Andean Civilizations. 

List of Publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology, with index to 
authors and titles. Revised to June 30, 1944. 

Publications distributed totaled 14,903. 

In addition to the regular work, the editorial staff of the Bureau 
edited the first two publications of the Smithsonian Institution's 
Institute of Social Anthropology, now in press. 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

LIBRARY 

Accessions during the fiscal year totaled 190. There has been a 
sharp decrease in accessions owing to war conditions. 

The routine work of accessioning and cataloging new material has 
been kept up to date. About half of the cards withdrawn from the 
catalog for reclassification have been returned to the catalog, with the 
new numbers added and subject headings corrected. 

The library has been used considerably for the work of the Ethno- 
geographic Board and other war agencies. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

During the year E. G. Cassedy, illustrator, continued, the prepara- 
tion of illustrations, maps, and drawings for the publications of the 
Bureau and for those of other branches of the Institution. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning the 
North American Indians, both past and present, and the Mexican 
peoples of the prehistoric and early historic periods. Various speci- 
mens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them furnished 
for their owners. 

Personnel. — Dr. Julian H. Steward, anthropologist, was appointed 
Director of the Institute of Social Anthropology, Smithsonian 
Institution, on September 1, 1943, by transfer from the Bureau, and 
Dr. Homer G. Barnett was appointed as anthropologist on December 
30, 1943, on the Bureau roll, to fill this vacancy. The work on the 
Handbook of South American Indians was continued under the 
Interdepartmental Committee for Cooperation with the American Re- 
publics after September 1, 1943. Anthony W. Wilding, clerk-stenog- 
rapher, was appointed Property Officer of the United States National 
Museum on December 20, 1943, by transfer from the Bureau, and 
Mrs. Catherine M. Phillips was appointed to fill this vacancy on De- 
cember 22, 1943, by transfer from the editorial division, Smithsonian 
Institution. Dr. John R. Swanton, ethnologist, retired on June 30, 
1944. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Chief. 

The Secretary, 

Smithsonian Institution. 

o 



Sixty-second Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1944-1945 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

MAY 21 1946 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



SIXTY-SECOND 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1944-1945 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1946 



SIXTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Chief 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1945, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of June 27, 1944, which pro- 
vides "* * * for continuing ethnological researches among the 
American Indians and the natives of Hawaii and the excavation and 
preservation of archeologic remains. * * *" 

During the fiscal year emphasis on activities concerned with the 
war effort and with Latin America has continued. It is hoped that 
as the need for war studies becomes less, the Bureau may soon resume 
its normal functions. 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

Dr. M. W. Stirling, Chief of the Bureau, left Washington for 
Mexico on January 29, 1945, to continue the work of the Smithsonian 
Institution-National Geographic Society archeological project in 
southern Mexico. From February 24 to March 6 a reconnaissance 
trip was made in the vicinity of Tapachula, Chiapas, during which a 
number of archeological sites were located. Two of these, at Caca- 
huatan and at San Geronimo, contained carved stone monuments. 

From March 6 to May 24 excavations were conducted at the site of 
Piedra Parada, Chiapas, 12 miles north of the town of Ocozocoautla. 
Most of the work was conducted on a large earth mound which cov- 
ered a complex stone-masonry structure, but a number of excavations 
were also made at other points in the site. Previous to inaugurating 
this work, and at intervals during its progress, trips were made to a 
number of limestone caves in the vicinity, all of which had been used 
as places of offering and contained large quantities of ceramic re- 
mains. The material from the caves belonged to the same relatively 
early period as that from the mound site. 

From May 28 to May 31 a new and large site of the La Venta cul- 
ture was discovered as a result of information received from Juan 
Del Alto, of Coatzacoalcos. It is located on the Rio Chiquito in 
southern Veracruz, near the small village of Tenochtitlan, on lands 
known as San Lorenzo. The site contains two large mound groups 
and a considerable number of carved monuments, including the two 

6774SO — 46 ] 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

largest colossal heads of La Venta type yet discovered. Unique fea- 
tures at the site are a stone aqueduct and a stone fount in the form of 
a swimming duck, decorated with water symbols. 

Dr. Stirling returned to Washington on June 17, 1945. 

Dr. John P. Harrington, ethnologist, prepared during the fiscal year 
12 articles on American Indian linguistic subjects. Outstanding 
among these is one on the Guarani language of South America, pro- 
duced through collaboration with Dr. G. T. Bertoni, and one on the 
Quechua language, written with the help of Prof. J. M. B. Farfiin of 
Lima, Peru. A large proportion of Dr. Harrington's time throughout 
the year was spent in translating letters and documents in obscure lan- 
guages for the Office of Censorship. 

During the fiscal year Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., archeologist, 
continued to work on the material obtained from the Lindenmeier site 
in northern Colorado — the location where a group of so-called Folsom 
men camped during the closing stages of the last glacial period — 
expanding his studies to include comparisons with artifacts from 
other sites attributable to early archeological horizons in the New 
World. In this connection he prepared a manuscript "The New 
World Paleo-Indian" for publication in the Annual Report of the 
Smithsonian Institution for 1944, an article "A Deep Burial on the 
Clear Fork of the Brazos River" for the Bulletin of the Texas Archeo- 
logical and Paleontological Society, and a paper "An Early Texan" 
for the Scientific Monthly. 

In March 1945 Dr. Roberts was designated as liaison officer between 
the Smithsonian Institution and the Committee for the Recovery of 
Archaeological Remains — a group representing the Society for Amer- 
ican Archaeology, the American Anthropological Association, and 
the American Council of Learned Societies — which was organized for 
the purpose of providing ways and means for the recovery of ma- 
terials that may be lost through the construction of dams and the flood- 
ing of large areas along many of the river systems throughout the 
United States. Dr. Roberts attended all meetings of this Committee, 
presenting the Institution's viewpoint and assisting in the drafting of 
plans for carrying out such a recovery program. Dr. Roberts devoted 
considerable time during the latter months of the fiscal year to a study 
of the maps and project reports of the Corps of Engineers and the 
Bureau of Reclamation for the dams which they plan to construct, 
and to research in the archeological literature relating to these areas 
in an effort to determine the districts where sites will be inundated and 
where provisions should be made for survey and excavation projects. 

In accord with the Smithsonian Institution's policy of cooperation 
with the Library of Congress, Dr. Roberts annotated four books on 
anthropological subjects for the United States Quarterly Book List. 
He also continued to serve as a member of the Institution's Personnel 



SIXTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 3 

Utilization Committee and as a part of this work prepared a manu- 
script for a handbook "Smithsonian Institution — Information for 
Employees." In addition he was the general department represent- 
ative on the Efficiency Rating Review Board for the Smithsonian 
Institution, and attended the United States Civil Service Commis- 
sion's Fourth Annual Institute of Efficiency Rating Boards of Review 
in June 1945. 

On September 22, 1944, Dr. Roberts was appointed Assistant Chief, 
and during absences of the Chief served as Acting Chief of the Bureau. 

Dr. Henry B. Collins, Jr., ethnologist, continued his work in con- 
nection with the Ethnogeographic Board. As in the previous year, 
he handled requests for information on geographical and other sub- 
jects which came to the Board from the Army, Navy, and other war 
agencies. When Dr. Wm. Duncan Strong resigned as Director in July, 
Dr. Collins was made Acting Director, and at the first Board meeting 
thereafter, in December, he was appointed Director. 

At the invitation of the sponsoring committee, Dr. Collins attended 
a meeting held in Montreal in September for the purpose of organizing 
the Arctic Institute of North America. The purpose of the Institute 
is to initiate, encourage, and support scientific research in Alaska, 
Canada, and Greenland, on the premise that studies in many fields of 
science will be required as the basis for efficient planning for the de- 
velopment of the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of North America. 
As one of the governors of the Arctic Institute, Dr. Collins attended 
several meetings in Montreal, at which plans for the operations of 
the organization were formulated. 

During such time as was available, Dr. Collins continued his re- 
searches on the archeology of the Eskimo and related problems. 

Dr. William N. Fenton, ethnologist, for the fourth successive year 
continued to devote a large part of the year to activities arising from 
the war effort. As research associate for the Ethnogeographic Board, 
six reports on Area Studies in American Universities were completed 
and issued in mimeograph form; others are in manuscript. These 
reports cover a survey of Army training programs undertaken in 1944, 
and again considerable time was spent in travel to the universities while 
observing the programs and interviewing teachers and trainees. The 
reception that greeted reports already distributed indicates that they 
are not without some usefulness. 

Scientific activities, although still of necessity somewhat curtailed, 
picked up toward the end of the year. Dr. Fenton was reelected 
secretary of the Anthropological Society of Washington, and was 
appointed to the Board of Editors of the Journal of the Washington 
Academy of Sciences, to serve for 3 years. Field researches on the 
Iroquois were resumed. Through a grant from the Viking Fund of 
New York. Dr. Fenton visited the Six Nations Reserve near Brantford, 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Canada, between April 23 and May 19. The Archive of American 
Folk Song, of the Library of Congress, again furnished recording 
equipment, enabling Dr. Fenton to make complete sound recordings 
of the chants of the Iroquois Condolence Council, previously un- 
collected, Chanters for the Dead, and several social dances. While in 
Canada, Dr. Fenton visited Toronto to consult with anthropologists at 
the University concerning a postwar plan for Iroquois studies, and 
certain specimens were studied at the Royal Ontario Museum of 
Archaeology. 

In addition to reports issued by the Ethnogeographic Board, sev- 
eral book reviews, notes, and articles were contributed to scientific and 
literary journals. A series on "Place Names and Related Activities 
of the Cornplanter Senecas" appeared during 1945 in the Pennsyl- 
vania Archaeologist. The Northwest Ohio Quarterly carried a "Com- 
mentary on Samuel Crowell's Account of Seneca Dog Sacrifice near 
Sandusky (1830)." A second paper, by J. N. B. Hewitt, "Some 
Mnemonic Pictographs Relating to the Iroquois Condolence Council," 
was completed by Dr. Fenton in the field and accepted for publica- 
tion in the Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, being 
in proof at the close of the fiscal year. Considerable progress may be 
noted on a related manuscript, which is a field report on "A Cayuga 
Condolence Cane with Pictographs Denominating the Founders of 
the Iroquois League," a project that was undertaken in 1943 for the 
Cranbrook Institute of Science. 

Near the close of the fiscal year, Dr. Fenton visited Harrisburg, 
Warren, and Philadelphia, Pa., for the purpose of furthering 
ethnological studies among the Cornplanter and Allegany Senecas in 
cooperation with the staff of the Pennsylvania Historical Commis- 
sion, local historians in northwestern Pennsylvania and southwestern 
New York, and the University of Pennsylvania. 

In connection with projected research in the prehistory of river 
valleys, Dr. Fenton prepared a plan for "An Anthropological Survey 
of the Allegheny River Reservoir Area of New York and Pennsyl- 
vania." 

Dr. H. G. Barnett, anthropologist, has devoted his efforts during 
the fiscal year to studies concerning the general problem of cultural 
change. Data bearing on this problem were obtained in the past in 
the field from various Indian communities and are supplemented by 
diverse historical sources such as regional histories, diaries, pioneer 
reminiscences, missionary accounts, church records, and a host of offi- 
cial reports on Indian investigations and reservation administration. 
The Indian communities involved include those of the Yurok and 
Hupa in northern California, the Siletz and Klamath in Oregon, and 
the Yakima, as well as several smaller groups around the southern 
end of Puget Sound, in the State of Washington. Two publications 



SIXTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 5 

are contemplated. It is expected that one of them, now in prepara- 
tion, will be completed at an early date. 

Dr. Gordon R. Willey, anthropologist, spent a large part of the 
fiscal year in editorial work on the Handbook of South American In- 
dians, translating and revising manuscript material and selecting 
and preparing illustrations. He also began and completed the study 
of several large collections of archeological specimens from south 
Florida. These collections, now in the United States National Mu- 
seum, came from sites in Palm Beach, Broward, and Dade Counties, 
and were excavated by Gene M. Stirling and Lloyd C. Reichard, rep- 
resentatives of the Bureau of American Ethnology, during the years 
1933-1936, as a part of the Federal Relief program in archeology. 
The field operations were conducted by Mr. Stirling and Mr. Reichard, 
and their notes, drawings, and photographs were used by Dr. Willey 
in the preparation of the final report, entitled "Excavations in South- 
east Florida," which will be published in the Yale University series 
in anthropology. The manuscript totaled approximately 50,000 
words, and included several tables, 8 line drawings, maps, and 17 
collotype illustrations. 

During the last few months of the fiscal year, a part of Dr. Willey's 
official duties were given over to preliminary preparations for archeo- 
logical research in Peru. This projected program calls for a co- 
operative investigation of the Viru Valley of northern Peru. Colum- 
bia University, Yale University, and the Bureau of American Ethnol- 
ogy are the proposed participants. Actual research and results of 
research will be undertaken and published separately by the partici- 
pants ; collaboration will be in the form of common service functions, 
such as field laboratories, transportation, and aerial photography. 
The work is planned for the spring and summer of 1946. 

INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 

The Institute of Social Anthropology was created in 1943, as an 
autonomous unit of the Bureau of American Ethnology, to carry out 
cooperative training in anthropological teaching and research with 
the other American republics. As the Director, Dr. Julian H. 
Steward, was instructed in the official order establishing the Institute 
to report to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, there is 
presented here his report to Secretary Wetmore. 

The Institute of Social Anthropology, carrying out a program of 
cultural and scientific cooperation with the American republics under 
a grant transferred from the Department of State, continued under 
the directorship of Dr. Julian H. Steward. Dr. Alfred Metraux, 
Assistant Director, was transferred to the War Department on April 
2, 1945, to accept an assignment for work in Europe. Miss Ethelwyn 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Carter served as secretary throughout the year. Dr. Henry J. Bru- 
man, cultural geographer, who had been on leave of absence since July 
17, 1944, resigned on June 30, 1945. 

In Mexico, the Institute was represented by Dr. George M. Foster, 
Jr., anthropologist, and Dr. Roland D. Brand, cultural geographer, 
cooperating with the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia of the In- 
stituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia. From August to De- 
cember they taught at the Escuela, and from December to June they 
supervised a party doing field research among Tarascan villages in 
Michoacan. The field party consisted of students from Mexico and 
from several other American republics. 

In Peru, the Institute was represented by Dr. John P. Gillin, an- 
thropologist, until his resignation January 31, 1945, to resume his 
teaching duties at Duke University. Dr. Gillin spent approximately 
C months making a study of Moche, a north coast Indian community. 
Mr. Harry Tschopik, Jr., anthropologist, joined the staff of the In- 
stitute on January 1, 1945, and was assigned to the field office in Lima, 
Peru. In cooperation with the Museos Historicos, under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Luis Valcarcel, he supervised a field party consisting of 
representatives of the Museos Historicos in making a cultural survey 
of the central Highlands of Peru in the region of Huanuco. 

An agreement was concluded with the Escola Livre de Sociologia e 
Politica, of Sao Paulo, Brazil, for cooperation in teaching and re- 
search in the social anthropology of Brazil. Representatives of the 
Institute of Social Anthropology are to be detailed to Brazil at a 
later date. 

Arrangements for cooperative work in Colombia remained 
uncompleted. 

Publication Number 1 of the Institute of Social Anthropology, 
"Houses and House Use of the Sierra Tarascans," by Ralph L. Beals, 
Pedro Carrasco, and Thomas McCorkle, was made available for dis- 
tribution. Publication Number 2, "Cheran, a Sierra Tarascan Vil- 
lage," by Ralph L. Beals, was received in galley proof from the printer. 
Publication Number 3, "Moche, a Peruvian Coastal Community," by 
John P. Gillin, and Publication Number 4, "Cultural and Historical 
Geography of Southwest Guatemala," by Felix Webster McBryde, 
were sent to the printer. 

Of the $61,132 originally allocated by the Department of State to 
the Institute of Social Anthropology for the fiscal year 1945, $3,500 
was transferred back to the Department of State and $2,500 trans- 
ferred to the Handbook of South American Indians for the purchase 
of an extra 600 copies of volume 3 to be distributed by the Department 
of State. From the remaining amount, $51,418 was actually obli- 
gated, making a savings of $3,714. 



SIXTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 7 

In June 1945 the Smithsonian Institution accepted a grant of $2,500 
from the Office of Inter- American Affairs to be allotted to Dr. Gre- 
gorio Hernandez de Alba of Bogota, Colombia, for work on the 
anthropology of Colombia. 

HANDBOOK OF SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS 

Work continued on the Handbook of South American Indians. 
Volume 1, "The Marginal Tribes," was received in page proof and 
volume 2, "The Andean Civilizations," in galley proof from the 
printer ; volume 3, "The Tropical Forest Tribes," and volume 4, "The 
Circum-Caribbean Tribes," were completed and sent to the printer; 
and volume 5, "Comparative Anthropology of South American In- 
dians," is in the final stages of preparation. 

Mrs. Lucille E. Levine, stenographer, resigned on April 10, 1945, 
and Dr. Gordon K. Willey was transferred to the Bureau of American 
Ethnology from the roll of the Handbook of South American Indians 
on August 17, 1944. 

For the completion of the Handbook of South American Indians, 
$6,000 was transferred from the Department of State. An additional 
$2,500 was authorized by the Department of State to be transferred 
to the Handbook to purchase 600 extra copies of volume 3 for distri- 
bution by the Department of State from the amount originally allo- 
cated to the Institute of Social Anthropology. Of this total amount, 
$8,482 was actually obligated. 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES 

Because of lack of funds, no special researches were conducted 
during the fiscal year. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editorial work of the Bureau continued during the year under 
the immediate direction of the editor, M. Helen Palmer. There were 
issued one annual report, one bulletin, one special publication, and one 
paper in the Institute of Social Anthropology Series, as follows : 

Sixty-first Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1943-1944. 
9 pp. 

Bulletin 142. The contemporary culture of the Cahita Indians, by Ralph L. 
Beals. xii+244 pp., 20 pis., 33 figs., 1 map. 

List of Publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology, with index to 
authors and titles. Revised to June 30, 1944. 68 pp. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 1. Houses and house use of the 
Sierra Tarascans, by Ralph L. Beals, Pedro Carrasco, and Thomas McCorkle. 
37 pp., 8 pis., 20 figs. 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

The following publications were in press at the close of the fiscal 
year: 

Bulletin 137. The Indians of the Southeastern United States, by John R. 
Swanton. 

Bulletin 143. Handbook of South American Indians. Julian H. Steward, 
editor. Volume 1: The Marginal tribes. Volume 2: The Andean civilizations. 
Volume 3 : The Tropical Forest tribes. Volume 4 : The circum-Caribbean tribes. 

Publications distributed totaled 11,570. 

In addition to the regular work, the editorial staff of the Bureau 
continued work on the publications of the Institute of Social Anthro- 
pology. 

LIBRARY 

There has been no change in the library staff during the fiscal year. 
Accessions during the year totaled 204. There has been a large in- 
crease in gifts, both spontaneous and on our request. Aside from one 
large gift which came to us as a unit, both types of gifts are double 
the number received during the previous fiscal year. Exchanges also 
much increased over last year and material is beginning to come in 
from the various countries of western Europe now that postal service 
is once more established. Several foreign serial sets have been 
brought up to date by missing numbers supplied, sometimes in long 
runs, so that our serial sets are in a very good position, considering the 
disturbed conditions of the past 5 years. 

The routine of accessioning and cataloging new material has been 
kept up to date, and the checklist for the supplement to the last edi- 
tion of the Union List of Serials was checked for new entries and 
errors and returned to the editor. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

During the year E. G. Cassedy, illustrator, continued the prepara- 
tion of illustrations, maps, and drawings for the publications of the 
Bureau and for those of other branches of the Institution. 

COLLECTIONS 

Collections transferred by the Bureau of American Ethnology to 
the Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum, 
during the fiscal year were as follows : 

Accession 
No. 

168052. Collection of spoons and fishhooks from Indians of the northwest Pa- 
cific coast of British Columbia and southeast Alaska ; also a bone skin 
scraper from the Alaskan Eskimo. From the estate of David I. Bush- 
nell, Jr. 

1G8260. Collection of arrows, skin quivers, and headdresses from the Hupa 
Indians, Humboldt County, Calif., collected by E. Q. Johnson. 



SIXTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 9 

Accession 

No. 
168929. Ethnological specimens collected by J. N. B. Hewitt from the Iroquois 
Indians of the Six Nations Reserve, Grand River, Ontario, Canada, 
and by James Mooney from the Cherokee of North Carolina. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning the 
North American Indians, both past and present, and the Mexican 
peoples of the prehistoric and early historic periods. Various speci- 
mens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them furnished 
for their owners. 

Personnel. — Dr. John R. Swanton, ethnologist, who retired on June 
30, 1944, was tendered an appointment to the honorary position of 
collaborator on July 4, 1944. This action was taken in recognition of 
Dr. Swanton's long and distinguished services to the Bureau. Dr. 
Gordon R. Willey was appointed on August 16, 1944, as anthropolo- 
gist, by transfer from the staff of the Handbook of South American 
Indians. Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., was appointed Assistant 
Chief of the Bureau on September 22, 1944. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Chief. 

Dr. A. Wetmore, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

o 




Sixty -third Annual Report 

of the 

UREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1945-1946 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



SIXTY-THIRD 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1945-1946 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1947 



^ rf ? ^| 



SIXTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Chief 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1946, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of June 27, 1944, which pro- 
vides "* * * for continuing ethnological researches among the 
American Indians and the natives of Hawaii and the excavation and 
preservation of archeologic remains. * * *" 

systematic researches 

Dr. M. W. Stirling, Chief of the Bureau, left Washington January 
6, 1946, in order to continue work on the Smithsonian Institution- 
National Geographic Society archeological project in southern Mex- 
ico. From the latter part of January until the middle of April, arche- 
ological excavations were conducted at the site of San Lorenzo on the 
Rio Chiquito in southern Veracruz. This was the site discovered by 
Dr. Stirling the preceding year at the conclusion of the work in Chi- 
apas. During the season's work just concluded a map of the site was 
completed, several of the mounds were cross-sectioned, and a number 
of stratigraphic trenches dug. 

During the course of the work 24 stone monuments were located, in- 
cluding 5 colossal heads of La Venta type, and 2 table-top altars. 
In addition, there were a number of miscellaneous monuments repre- 
senting jaguars and seated figures, both human and anthropomorphic. 
The collections made during the course of the work, after inspection 
in Mexico City, were shipped to Washington. During the period of 
this work, Dr. Stirling was assisted in the field by Dr. Philip Drucker. 
Dr. Stirling returned to Washington on May 9. 

During the fiscal year Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Assistant Chief, 
read and corrected page proof for the article, "The New World 
Paleo-Indian," which was printed in the general appendix to the 
Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1944. He prepared 
an article, "Prehistoric Peoples of Colorado," to be used as one chap- 
ter in a forthcoming history of Colorado which is being published by 
the State Historical Society of Colorado, and another article, "One 
Hundred Years of Smithsonian Anthropology," to be published in 

725747-47 1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Science. In addition he wrote two book reviews for anthropological 
journals, annotated six books for the United States Quarterly Book 
List, and worked on the final report on the investigations at the Lin- 
denmeier-Folsom site. 

On the basis of information obtained through correspondence with 
various members of the Virginia Archeological Society and from a 
review of the literature on Virginia, Dr. Roberts prepared a state- 
ment for the National Park Service, Region 1, on the archeological 
sites that would be inundated by the construction of dams and reser- 
voirs in the James River Basin, beginning at Richmond and continu- 
ing up the main stream and its larger tributaries to the foot of the 
mountains. He also carried on extensive correspondence in connec- 
tion with the agreement between' the National Park Service and the 
Smithsonian Institution relative to archeological work in river basins 
where flood-control dams and irrigation projects will result in the 
flooding and loss of important archeological sites. This included 
preliminary plans for work in the Missouri Basin and suggestions 
and advice on the situation in the Etowah and Savannah River Val- 
leys in Georgia, the Warrior River in Alabama, the Neches, Trinity, 
and Brazos Rivers in Texas, the Arkansas River and its tributaries 
in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Sacramento, American, Kings, 
and Kern Rivers in California. This entailed the writing of many 
letters to local people in the various areas seeking information about 
the existence of sites and the checking of the literature for additional 
information. In October Dr. Roberts was designated as director in 
charge of the archeological surveys and excavations to be conducted 
under the administration of the Smithsonian Institution in coopera- 
tion with the National Park Service, the Corps of Engineers, and the 
Bureau of Reclamation. In this connection he assisted officials of 
the National Park Service in preparing estimates and justifications for 
supplemental funds for 1946 and the funds for 1947 archeological work 
in the Missouri Basin. 

Dr. Roberts also served as the general department representative on 
the Efficiency Rating Board of Review for the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, taking part in three hearings. In relation to this he attended 
two Civil Service Commission Institutes of Efficiency Rating Boards 
of Review and six sessions of the Interagency Conference on Training 
Aids and on Orientation. 

On April 12 and 13, 1946, Dr. Roberts represented the Smithsonian 
Institution at the final convocation and other exercises of the sesqui- 
centennial celebration of the University of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill. During the year he also served on various committees for the 
Institution. 



SIXTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 3 

From July 1, 1945, to June 30, 1946, Dr. Roberts served as vice 
chairman of the division of anthropology and psychology of the 
National Research Council. 

During the absences of the Chief, Dr. Roberts was Acting Chief of 
the Bureau. 

Dr. John P. Harrington, ethnologist, spent the early part of the 
fiscal year in Washington, D. C, where he produced a Kiowa grammar 
of 405 manuscript pages and wrote 8 articles for scientific periodicals. 
During part of this period he was still engaged in work for the Bureau 
of Censorship. 

Dr. Harrington left Washington February 11, 1946, for Clovis, 
N. Mex. There he interviewed Mr. Scheurich, grandson of Governor 
Bent, New Mexico's first Governor, and about 80 years of age. From 
Clovis, Dr. Harrington went directly to Gallup, N. Mex., where he con- 
tinued his studies of Navaho phonetics. From Gallup he went to 
Albuquerque, N. Mex., where he worked with Mr. Shupla, expert 
speaker of the Hano language, which is related to Tewa. From Al- 
buquerque he went to Santa Barbara, Calif., where he continued his 
Chumashan studies, and was engaged in this work at the close of the 
fiscal year. 

Dr. Henry B. Collins, Jr., ethnologist, resumed his research on Es- 
kimo archeology, which had been largely suspended during recent 
years because of his duties as Assistant Director, and later Director, 
of the Ethnogeographic Board. On December 31, 1945, the Board was 
formally dissolved, but on decision of the sponsoring agencies — the 
three research councils and the Smithsonian Institution — Dr. Collins 
continued operation of the office for an additional 6 months. The his- 
tory of the Ethnogeographic Board, written by Dr. Wendell C. Ben- 
nett, was prepared for publication, and a Board project for a survey 
of wartime Government documents was begun January 1, 1946, under 
the direction of Dr. Homer G. Barnett, assisted by Walter B. Green- 
wood. The report on this project has been prepared by Dr. Barnett 
and will be published, with bibliography, in the near future. 

Dr. Collins attended several meetings of the Board of Governors of 
the Arctic Institute of North America in Montreal, and contributed 
the section on anthropology for "A Program of Desirable Scientific 
Investigations in Arctic North America," issued as Bulletin No. 1 of 
the Arctic Institute. Several book reviews were also prepared for the 
United States Quarterly Book List and other scientific journals. 

As a member of the Committee on International Cooperation in 
Anthropology of the National Research Council, Dr. Collins assembled 
from committee records and other sources information on the activi- 
ties of anthropological societies, universities, and museums in Scan- 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

dinavia during the war. This was published in the American An- 
thropologist under the title "Anthropology During the War: Scan- 
dinavia." 

During the month of July 1945, Dr. William N. Fenton was en- 
gaged in a study of place names and related activities of the Corn- 
planter Senecas. When completed, this series, on which M. H. Dear- 
dorff of Warren, Pa., and C. E. Congdon of Salamanca, N. Y., have 
collaborated, will comprise the Indian names of places throughout 
the valley of the Allegheny River. Another problem on which work 
was continued was the documenting and description of the Condo- 
lence Council for installing chiefs in the Iroquois League, the study 
of which the late J. N. B. Hewitt had commenced a generation ago. 
Having collected the sacred songs and ritual chants of this ceremony 
for the Library of Congress in the spring, Dr. Fenton returned to 
the Six Nations Reserve on October 29, 1945, in the Recording Lab- 
oratory sound truck for the purpose of making a documentary film. 
Dr. Fenton was invited to sit in on the rehearsals and attend the instal- 
lation of two Cayuga chiefs on November 20, 1945. The family of 
one of the candidates, Chief John Hardy Gibson, has served American 
ethnology for two generations, and with the help of Howard Skye 
and the cooperation of the chiefs, a complete transcript of the proceed- 
ings of the Condolence Council among the Canadian Iroquois was 
prepared and published for the first time since Horatio Hale's ac- 
count in the last century. This material, written up on returning 
from the field, became the body of an illustrated lecture on "The Six 
Nations of Canada," which Dr. Fenton was invited to deliver before 
the Royal Canadian Institute of Toronto, January 12, 194G. In the 
field, Ernest Dodge, of the Peabody Museum of Salem, collaborated 
in recording some rare Iroquois flute music from James White, Onon- 
daga of Six Nations. In addition, a complete performance of the 
Dark Dance Rite of the Little People was recorded with Eli Jacob, 
Cayuga of Sour Springs, as leading singer. Similar recordings were 
made of the Death Feast ritual in the spring, and from Howard Skye, 
an official of the ceremony, Dr. Fenton obtained a fairly complete 
account of the fall celebration. The same informant helped translate 
a Cayuga text of the Tutelo Migration Legend, collected by Hewitt. 
Returning by way of Allegany Reservation, near Salamanca, N. Y., 
material for a second album of Iroquois songs was collected from 
singers at Coldspring Longhouse. Christian lrymns in Seneca were 
recorded near West Salamanca to extend coverage of hymn singing 
already collected in Mohawk and Oneida. Acknowledgment is due 
the Viking Fund of New York for support of this field work. 

An outstanding event in Iroquois studies was the organization and 
conduct of the First Conference on Iroquois Research, held October 



SIXTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 5 

26-28 at the Allegany State Park, N. Y. Discussions were devoted 
to ethnology, linguistics, and archeology with reference to the Lower 
Great Lakes area. The proceedings of the conference, written by Dr. 
Fenton, were distributed to the 20 persons in attendance and to others 
interested. Dr. Fenton attended a similar conference on the pre- 
history of eastern New York and New England, held February 22, 
1946, at the New York State Museum, Albany. 

"Area Studies in American Universities" reclaimed D. Fenton's 
attention, when the Commission on Implications of Armed Services 
Educational Programs, of the American Council on Education, re- 
quested him to prepare a report for publication on the Ethnogeo- 
graphic Board's Survey of the Foreign Area and Language Train- 
ing Programs of the ASTP and the Civil Affairs Training Schools 
during 1943-44. The manuscript for the final report, totaling some 
180 pages, was virtually completed at the close of the fiscal year. 
Completion of this report coincided with the end of the Ethnogeo- 
graphic Board and discharged a final obligation to that wartime 
activity. 

The following publications by Dr. Fenton appeared during the year : 

Place names and related activities of the Cornplanter Senecas (Pennsyl- 
vania Archaeologist) : 

III. Burnt-house at Cornplanter Grant, vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 88-96. 

IV. Cornplanter Peak to Warren, vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 108-118. 

V. The Path to Conewango, vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 42-56. 

(With J. N. B. Hewitt) Some mnemonic pictographs relating to the Iroquois 

Condolence Council (Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 

vol. 35, No. 10, October 15, 1945, pp. 301-315). 
An Iroquois Condolence Council for installing Cayuga chiefs in 1945 (Journal 

of the Washington Academy of Sciences, vol. 36, No. 4, April 15, 1946, pp. 

110-127). 

Dr. Philip Drucker, anthropologist, resumed his duties at the Bu- 
reau of American Ethnology on December 17, 1945, after release to in- 
active duty by the Navy. He departed almost immediately for Mexico 
to assemble equipment, set up camp, and make preparations for exca- 
vating a site in southeastern Veracruz, San Lorenzo, that had been 
selected by Dr. M. W. Stirling, Chief of the Bureau, for this season's 
work by the National Geographic Society-Smithsonian Institution 
cooperative expedition. On Dr. Stirling's arrival, in the latter part 
of January, Dr. Drucker remained as his assistant. Intensive exca- 
vations were carried out in various mounds and other features of the 
site, and numerous stone monuments, including altars, statues, and 
tremendous monolithic heads of "Olmec" or "La Venta" type were 
found. While Dr. Stirling occupied himself with a study of the 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

monuments, Dr. Druckor made tests to locate an occupational zone, 
and dug a deep stratigniphic trench to oDtain ceramic materials to 
define the culture horizon to which the monuments belong. The 
material from these investigations will be of inestimable value in 
tying in the monuments with those of Tres Zapotes and La Venta, and 
defining the ancient "Olmec" culture. 

Following the close of the expedition's camp in mid-April, Dr. 
Drucker proceeded to the neighboring state of Chiapas to carry out 
reconnaissance planned to supplement that done by Dr. Stirling the 
previous year. He was able to locate a number of caves containing 
offerings or caches of pottery vessels from pre-Spanish times, and 
made collections which were shipped to Mexico City for ultimate 
shipment to Washington. In addition to the caves, a number of 
extensive village sites were discovered which contained not only 
remains of stone houses but also ball courts and great ceremonial 
structures of masonry. 

On May 21 Dr. Drucker proceeded to Mexico City where the San 
Lorenzo and Chiapas collections were inspected by officers of the 
Museo Nacional de Mexico, and where, through the courtesy of those 
officers, permission was obtained to ship the collections to Washington 
for study and for preparation of reports for publication. While the 
shipping permit was going through necessary channels, Dr. Drucker 
availed himself of the opportunity of studying ceramic and jade col- 
lections in the Museo Nacional, and to visit sites in the central highland 
where important discoveries have been made in recent years, such as 
Tula, in the state of Hidalgo, and Xochicalco, in Morelos. At the end 
of the fiscal year he was completing preparations to return to 
Washington. 

During the month of July 1945 Dr. Gordon Willey, anthropologist, 
was entirely occupied in completing a 50,000-word manuscript en- 
titled "Excavations in Southeast Florida." This paper will make 
available the results of the archeological field program carried out 
in south Florida in 1933-36 by the Bureau of American Ethnology in 
conjunction with the State of Florida. 

From August 1945 to February 1946 Dr. Willey was primarily 
engaged in editorial work on the final volumes of the Handbook of 
South American Indians. The fifth and last volume of this work 
was submitted to the editor of the Bureau at the end of February, 
with the exception of part 3, "The languages of South America," 
which is being prepared by Dr. J. Alden Mason. During this period 
a 25,000-word article on South American ceramics was prepared for 
inclusion in the Handbook, and a 3,000- word article on the archeology 
of the Argentine pampas was prepared to be published as part of a 
Yale University symposium on Argentine archeology. 



SIXTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 7 

During the early part of 1946 Dr. Willey also assisted Dr. Roberts 
in preparing preliminary plans for the Federal Valley Authority 
archeological program. 

In February a brief survey trip was made to Georgia on the pro- 
posed Allatoona River control project. 

From March until June Dr. Willey was engaged in conducting 
archeological field work in the Virii Valley in northern Peru, for a pro- 
posed study of prehistoric settlement patterns in the valley. At the 
close of the fiscal year Dr. Willey was still engaged in this field work. 

INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 

The Institute of Social Anthropolgy was created in 1943 as an 
autonomous unit of the Bureau of American Ethnology, to carry out 
cooperative training in anthropological teaching and research with the 
other American republics. As the Director, Dr. Julian H. Steward, 
was instructed in the official order establishing the Institute to report 
to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution; there is presented 
here his report to Secretary Wetmore. 

Washington office. — The Institute of Social Anthropology, carrying 
out a program of cultural and scientific cooperation with the American 
republics under a grant of $77,351 transferred from the Department 
of State, continued under the directorship of Dr. Julian H. Steward. 
Miss Ethelwyn Carter served as secretary throughout the year. 

Mexico. — In Mexico the Institute was represented by Dr. George M. 
Foster, Jr., anthropologist, in charge of the work; by Dr. Stanley S. 
Newman, linguist; and by Dr. Robert C. West, cultural geographer, 
who joined the staff in February 1946, when Dr. Donald Brand resigned 
to resume his teaching duties at the University of New Mexico. 

Since cooperation with the Escuela Nacional de Anthropologia began 
in June 1944, 15 university courses in anthropology, geography, and 
linguistics have been given, attended by more than 100 individual 
students. Total enrollment in all courses has exceeded 150. Because 
of the international nature of the Escuela, it has been possible to reach 
students from countries other than Mexico, including Haiti, Guate- 
mala, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Spain, France, Canada, and the 
United States. In both courses and field work, students have had an 
opportunity to learn American techniques, methodology, and, above all, 
ideals of scholarship. 

Basic field reasearch on the important Tarascan population of 
Michoacan has been conducted. Institute staff members have put 24 
man-months, and the seven participating students 55 man-months, into 
this research. The field work of the Institute, in conjunction with 
previous studies, has resulted in the most complete body of cultural 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

data available on any comparable area in Latin America. One large 
monograph on the Tarascan area has already been published, and three 
more will follow in 1947. Six student papers of from 100 to 200 
manuscript pages are also being prepared for publication in Spanish 
by the Escuela. 

Pei^u. — Dr. F. Webster McBryde, cultural geographer, was assigned 
in September 1945 to take charge of the Institute work in Peru. 
Harry Tschopik, Jr., continued his work in Peru throughout the year. 

The accomplishments can be shown best by a resume of the work since 
it began early in 1944. At this time, Peru had no institution devoted 
essentially to social science teaching and research, and its geographical 
society was requesting advice from the United States about its pro- 
posed reorganization. The cooperation of the Institute has helped 
the Ministry of Education of Peru to establish a well-financed national 
center of social science, the Instituto de E'studios Etnologicos. The 
Instituto, dedicated to teaching, research, and publication, is a most 
important development, because for the first time Peru can obtain 
scientific information on her native peoples, who are the predominant 
element in her contemporary population. The staff of the Peruvian 
office of the Institute of Social Anthropology has given lectures at the 
Universities of Cuzco and Trujillo, and courses in geography and an- 
thropology are planned for the Instituto, thus enabling Peruvian stu- 
dents to obtain training in United States techniques of social science. 
Dr. McBryde has helped in the reorganization of the geographical 
society and has advised on changes in the geography curriculum in 
San Marcos University in Lima. 

The Institute staff has carried out extensive research among Peru- 
vian coastal and central highland communities. The latter project, 
done in cooperation with three Peruvian scientists, involved 36 man- 
months and included 30 different communities. The data will be 
published in both Spanish and English in several monographs, two of 
which already are in press. They not only represent significant con- 
tributions to knowledge on heretofore little-known groups, but also 
will be very useful to Peruvian authorities interested in such practical 
problems as that of obtaining laborers for the high Andean mines 
and that of colonizing sparsely populated areas of eastern Peru, a 
matter of prime importance to the agricultural experimental stations. 
At the request of the Peruvian-Bolivian educational commission, a 
survey will be made of the settlement patterns of the altiplano to 
provide a basis for the establishment of rural schools. 

The importance of these research results has been acknowledged and 
stressed by the Minister of Education in a speech before the Peruvian 
Congress. 



SIXTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 9 

Brazil. — Cooperation with the Escola Livre de Sociologia e Politica 
began October 1, 1945, when Dr. Donald Pierson was assigned as rep- 
resentative of the Institute of Social Anthropology to Brazil. In 
February 1946, Dr. Kalervo Oberg was assigned as cultural anthro- 
pologist to cooperate with the Escola Livre. 

In effect, the Institute has taken over and expanded a program 
which was begun under Dr. Pierson in 1940 and which has helped 
make the Escola Livre one of the most important social science centers 
in South America. Seven courses in sociology and anthropology are 
now being given by the Institute staff. Students in the social science 
major have increased from 5 in 1945 to 24 in 1946. The first masters 
degrees in social science were given in February 1946. With the help 
of the Institute staff, it has been possible to increase the undergraduate 
curriculum from 3 to 4 years, a very distinct educational gain. 

Institute staff members have continued to guide the program of 
translating 200 articles and 13 books from English into Portuguese. 
This work, financed by outside funds, is of great importance as an aid 
to teaching. 

Field research to be started this year will meet the outstanding 
need of Brazilian students, namely, intensive training in field methods 
through their application. The research results will be published 
in English and Portuguese. Surveys in Matto Grosso and rural areas 
near Sao Paulo have already been carried out by Institute staff mem- 
bers and students. 

Publications. — Publication No. 2, "Cheran : A Sierra Tarascan Vil- 
lage," by R. L. Beals, was issued during the year. Publication No. 3, 
"Moche, a Peruvian Coastal Community," by John Gillin, and Pub- 
lication No. 4, "Cultural and Historical Geography of Southwest 
Guatemala," by Felix Webster McBryde, were received in proof. 
Publication No. 5, "Highland Communities of Central Peru: A Re- 
gional Survey," by Harry Tschopik, Jr., was sent to the printer. 
Publication No. 6, "Empire's Children: Tzintzuntzan and its People," 
by George M. Foster, Jr., was contracted for by a printer in Mexico. 
Mrs. Eloise B. Edelen, of the editorial staff of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology, did the editorial work on these publications. 

Handbook of South American Indians. — No grant from the De- 
partment of State for cooperation with the American republics was 
requested for the Handbook during the fiscal year 1946. The final prep- 
aration of the manuscript and clerical work pertaining to the Hand- 
book was undertaken by the Washington office of the Institute of 
Social Anthropology, with the assistance of Dr. Gordon Willey, of 
the Bureau of American Ethnology. 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Volume 1, The Marginal Tribes, and volume 2, The Andean Civili- 
zations, were issued in June 1946. In addition to the usual edition 
of 3,500 distributed by the Bureau of American Ethnology, the De- 
partment of State ordered 600 copies for distribution through its 
embassies in Latin American countries, and the Superintendent of 
Documents ordered 1,000 for sale. Volume 3, The Tropical Forest 
Tribes, and volume 4, The Circum-Caribbean Tribes, were received 
in galley proof. With the exception of the linguistic section, volume 
5, The Comparative Anthropology of South American Indians, was 
completed and submitted to the editor of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology for the final editing. 

During the fiscal year, the Interdepartmental Committee on Scien- 
tific and Cultural Cooperation of the Department of State granted 
the Bureau of American Ethnology $15,000 toward the cost of pub- 
lishing the Handbook. 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES 

Miss Frances Densmore, a collaborator of the Bureau, prepared 
for publication a paper entitled "Music of the Alabama Texas." 
In this tribe, Miss Densmore found that only ordinary dance songs 
remain. 

She also submitted her complete bibliography covering 50 years of 
study of American Indian music and a paper entitled "Prelude to 
the Study of Indian Music in Minnesota." Another long paper was 
completed on the subject "Distribution of Certain Peculiarities in 
Indian Songs." This paper is illustrated with a number of distribu- 
tion maps. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editorial work of the Bureau continued during the year under 
the immediate direction of the editor, M. Helen Palmer. There were 
issued one Annual Report and one Bulletin, listed below; also two 
volumes of a five- volume Bulletin, and one publication of the Institute 
of Social Anthropology. 

Sixty-second Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1944-1945. 
9 pp. 

Bulletin 137. The Indians of the Southeastern United States, by John R. 
Swanton. 943 pp., 108 pis., 5 figs., 13 maps. 

The following publications were in press at the close of the fiscal 
year : 

Bulletin 143. Handbook of South American Indians. Julian H. Steward, 
editor. Volume 3: The Tropical Forest Tribes. Volume 4: The Circum-Carib- 
bean Tribes. 



SIXTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 11 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 3. Moche, a Peruvian Coastal 
Community, by John Gillin. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 4. Cultural and historical geography 
of Southwest Guatemala, by Felix Webster McBryde. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 5. Highland Communities of Cen- 
tral Peru : A regional survey, by Harry Tschopik, Jr. 

Publications distributed totaled 12,730. As compared with the 
fiscal year 19 11-1 5, this was an increase of 1,160. 

In addition to the regular Bureau work, the editorial staff conducted 
the editorial work on the publications of the Institute of Social 
Anthropology. 

LIBRARY 

There has been no change in the library staff during the fiscal year. 
Accessions during the year totaled 109. There has been a marked 
falling off in the number of gifts to the library, doubtless due to the 
disturbed condition of the publishing industry following the end of 
the war. Though there is a slight decrease in exchange material in 
the form of books which are entered on the accession book, there has 
been a very great increase in exchange material as a whole. Large 
shipments, covering the period since 1939 or 1940 to date, have been 
received from many of our exchanges in Europe and other parts of 
the world. Many of our sets have thus been brought up to date 
without inquiry on our part. 

The routine of accessioning and cataloging new material has been 
kept up to date. A small amount of work has been possible, also, on 
analytical entries for periodical material. It is hoped that this work 
will soon be brought up to date. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

E. G. Cassedy, illustrator, spent most of his time from July 1945 
through April 1946 on art work for the Old Apothecary Shop, a new 
exhibit in the National Museum. Other work of routine nature was 
done for the Handbook of South American Indians and for other 
branches of the Institution. 

archives 

Miss Mae W. Tucker continued her work of operating and cata- 
loging the manuscript and photographic archives of the Bureau. In 
addition to furnishing material for routine requests for photographs 
and manuscripts, many qualified visitors were received and furnished 
with materials or working facilities. 

The Mohawk Dictionary, copied by Mrs. Erminnie Smith from 
records in Canada, was alphabetized and filed for more ready refer- 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

ence. A number of the Iroquoian vocabularies collected by Mrs. Smith 
and J. N. B. Hewitt and recorded in the Powell Outline volumes were 
copied on cards and filed for more convenient reference. The num- 
ber of these cards so far completed is approximately 7,500. Personal 
and place names numbering about 600 were copied from New York 
State historical documents and placed in the card catalog. The Nez 
Perce dictionary compiled by Miss S. L. McBeth w T as copied on cards 
from the original manuscript in the Bureau collection. These cards 
number about 2,000. 

Early in 1946 preparation was begun for a catalog of the unpub- 
lished manscript material in the Bureau archives, to be published for 
distribution. In order to insure as accurate a catalog as possible the 
material is being checked piece by piece and listed on memorandum 
sheets for the final typing. 

COLLECTIONS 

Collections transferred by the Bureau of American Ethnology to 
the Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum, 
during the fiscal year were as follows : 

Accession 

No. 
171677. One elk-horn quirt from the Pawnee Indians. Collected about 1877 
near Columbus, Nebr., by Elon J. Lawton, M. D. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning the 
American Indians of both continents, both past and present. Various 
specimens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them fur- 
nished for their owners. 

Personnel. — Dr. Philip Drucker, anthropologist, returned to duty 
from military furlough on December 17, 1945. Dr. Homer G. Barnett 
resigned December 31, 1945. Mrs. Catherine M. Phillips, clerk-stenog- 
rapher, transferred to the War Department May 21, 1945, and Mrs. 
Jessie S. Shaw was promoted to fill this vacancy effective June 3, 1946, 
by transfer from the division of ethnology, United States National 
Museum. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Chief. 

Dr. A. Wetmore, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

o 









Sixty-fourth Annual Report 

of the 

UREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 

1946-1947 



* 



*ttm 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



SIXTY-FOURTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1946-1947 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1948 



SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Chief 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1947, conducted 
in accordance with the Act of Congress of June 27, 1944, which 
provides "* * * for continuing ethnological researches among 
the American Indians and the natives of Hawaii and the excavation 
and preservation of archeologic remains. * * *" 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

Dr. M. W. Stirling, Chief of the Bureau, spent the greater part 
of the fiscal year in Washington, attending to administrative duties 
and completing for publication reports on archeological field work 
in southern Mexico. Two papers were completed entitled "An 
Archeological Reconnaissance of the State of Tabasco, Mexico," and 
"Piedra Parada, a Chiapas Highland Site." Considerable progress 
was also made on a paper entitled "Additional Stone Monuments 
of Southern Mexico." 

Several lectures were given during the year on anthropological 
subjects. In April 1947 Dr. Stirling went to Houston, Tex., as 
representative of the Smithsonian Institution at the Inauguration of 
Dr. Wm. Vermilion Houston as President of Rice Institute. 

Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Associate Chief of the Bureau and 
Director of the River Basin Surveys, devoted the major part of his 
time during the fiscal year to directing the program of the River 
Basin Surveys. The latter is a cooperative project between the 
Smithsonian Institution, the National Park Service, the Bureau of 
Reclamation, and the Corps of Engineers, United States Army. Its 
purpose is the recovery of such archeological and paleontological 
information and materials as will be lost through the construction 
of dams and the creation of large reservoirs in many of the river 
valleys of the United States. 

In directing the survey work Dr. Roberts recruited personnel, 
arranged for supplies and equipment, established cooperation with 
local institutions in various parts of the country, prepared over-all 
plans for a Nation-wide archeological program, wrote progress re- 
ports for the cooperating agencies, and aided in the preparation of 
preliminary reports on the results of surveys in various reservoir 

1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

areas. He went to Atlanta, Ga., July 23-25, 1946, to confer with 
representatives of the National Park Service and engineers in the 
office of the Division Engineer for the South Atlantic Division, Corps 
of Engineers, about the problems in that area. He went to Lincoln, 
Nebr., September 24 to October 4, to meet the incoming field parties 
from the Missouri Basin. At that time he received reports on the 
explorations, discussed plans for future investigations, and assisted 
in making arrangements for carrying on the work at the field head- 
quarters during the fall and winter months. While at Lincoln he 
made two trips to Omaha to confer with officials of the National 
Park Service, Region 2, and engineers from the office of the Division 
Engineer, Missouri River Division, Corps of Engineers. From De- 
cember 26 to 31, he was in Chicago, 111., to take part in a symposium 
on river valley archeology in which there were representatives from 
the National Park Service, the American Anthropological Associa- 
tion, the Society for American Archeology, the Committee for the 
Recovery of Archeological Remains, and several universities. Dr. 
Roberts' report on the activities of the River Basin Surveys appears 
in subsequent pages. 

During the course of the year Dr. Roberts wrote several book 
reviews for anthropological journals, annotated four books for the 
United States Quarterly Book List, prepared a number of popular 
articles on the work of the River Basin Surveys, and served as a con- 
sultant on manuscripts on anthropology and archeology for several 
encyclopedias. 

Dr. Roberts was the General Department Representative on the 
Efficiency Rating Board of Review for the Smithsonian Institution. 
In this connection he attended the Civil Service Commission Institute 
of Efficiency Rating Boards of Review. He represented the Smith- 
sonian Institution at a meeting held in Washington, D. C, April 15, 
1947, for the purpose of organizing a National Council for Historic 
Sites and Buildings. 

From July 1, 1946, to June 30, 1947, Dr. Roberts served as a member 
of the executive committee of the Division of Anthropology and 
Psychology, National Research Council. 

During the absences of the Chief, Dr. Roberts was Acting Chief of 
the Bureau. 

The beginning of the fiscal year found Dr. John P. Harrington, 
ethnologist, at Searchlight, Nev., from which point he traveled with 
Murl Emery to a point above Cottonwood Island in one of the wildest 
portions of the Colorado River where, according to Indian tradition, is 
the house of Matavilya, principal deity of the lower Colorado region. 
The house of Matavilya was discovered to be a natural formation con- 
sisting of a butte about 200 feet high on the western side of the river, 
and opposite this butte another, perhaps 500 feet in height, on the 



SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 3 

eastern side of the river. These two buttes are interpreted by the 
ancient Indians of the region as being what remains of the doorposts 
of the house of Matavilya, and Indian tradition has evidently attached 
itself to this place for many generations, probably for many centuries. 

The interesting myth was obtained which recounts the destruction 
of the house at the time of the cremation of Matavilya. Consider- 
able time was spent in checking with surviving ancient Indians in 
regard to the discovery of this important site, Dr. Harrington going as 
far as Tehachapi, Calif., for this purpose. 

On November 6, 1946, Dr. Harrington returned to Washington, 
D. C, and the entire remainder of the fiscal year was spent in sorting 
over and preparing various articles for publication. 

The first of these undertakings was the preparation of an article on 
the State Names of Mexico. This paper covers not only the state 
and territory names of Mexico, but also the country names of Central 
America and South America. Several of the etymologies are new, 
notably that of the name of the Mexican State of Yucatan, which 
is here seen to be derived perhaps from a hypothetical form Yucahtan. 

The next item completed was an article on the Tewa language of 
New Mexico. A paper on the Province Names of Canada was next 
finished. Compilation for this work had long been in progress, part 
of it done in Canada. 

An extensive paper on the Aleutian language was next written, 
embodying the results of previous field work in Alaska. Another 
paper was prepared consisting of a detailed ethnogeographic descrip- 
tion of the projecting rocks and islands off the coast of California. 

A manuscript was completed with the title "Quirix is the Native 
Name of San Felipe Pueblo." This paper sets forth the unique thesis 
that Bandelier is wrong in assuming that Quirix, which gives its name 
to the Keresan linguistic stock, is Bernalillo, or any site in the vicinity 
of Bernalillo, but that the recorded form is a Spanish spelling of the 
Indian name of San Felipe. The Tewa of the Castafieda account of 
the Coronado Expedition would then be Isleta, and Isleta is still called 
Tewa in Keresan. 

A number of short papers were also written, the titles being as 
follows : 

The Name Yucatan. 

The Name Colorado. 

The Three Earliest Mentions of the Turquoise Mines of New Mexico. 

The Name Chuckwalla. 

Rita, a Short-Cut for Saying Riito. 

De Alarcon has the Name of Zunyi Salt Lake. 

Olivella River, the Old Name of Santa Fe Creek. 

Trail Holder. 

H'aak'o, Original Keresan Name of Acoma. 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Dr. Henry B. Collins, ethnologist, continued his investigations in 
Eskimo anthropology. During the winter he completed the number- 
ing and cataloging of his collection of some 7,000 archeological speci- 
mens excavated at Cape Prince of Wales and other prehistoric Eskimo 
village sites around Bering Strait. 

At the February meeting of the Board of Governors of the Arctic 
Institute of North America, Dr. Collins was elected vice chairman of 
the Institute. His article, The Origin and Antiquity of the Eskimo, 
tracing the Old World affiliations of the Eskimo culture and race type, 
will appear as one of the chapters of a general book on the Arctic to be 
published by the Arctic Institute. 

In May Dr. Collins was appointed Chairman of the Directing Com- 
mittee for the Arctic Bibliography and Roster, two separate projects 
which the Arctic Institute of North America is carrying out under 
contract for the Office of Naval Research of the Navy Department. 
In these projects the Arctic Institute is receiving active cooperation 
and assistance from the Library of Congress and the National Re- 
search Council. Officials of the latter organizations, and representa- 
tives of the Navy, Army, and Board of Governors of the Arctic Insti- 
tute comprise the directing committee, which serves as a policy and 
advisory body with the responsibility of organizing and supervising 
the work on the two projects. The bibliography project will be con- 
ducted by four experienced bibliographers, with clerical assistants, 
working in the principal libraries in the United States and Canada. 
It will have as its objective the compilation of an annotated, fully 
indexed bibliography covering the descriptive, geographical, and 
other scientific literature on the Arctic from the earliest historical 
writings to those of the present time. It is estimated that the bibli- 
ography project will require at least 3 years for completion. The 
Roster of Arctic Specialists, a 2-year project, is to be conducted by a 
staff of three workers, headed by a former official of the National 
Roster of Scientific and Specialized Personnel. The roster will be 
patterned after the National Roster and the World Roster of Area 
and Language Specialists compiled by the Ethnogeographic Board 
during the war. Its purpose will be to assemble a comprehensive 
record of the experience and specialized knowledge of scientists, ex- 
plorers, writers, and Arctic residents who possess first-hand informa- 
tion of value concerning the Arctic and sub- Arctic regions. 

Dr. Collins wrote the article Anthropology for the 1947 Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica Book of the Year. He also served as anthro- 
pological consultant for the Encyclopedia Arctica, which is being edited 
by Dr. Vilhjalmur Stefansson for the Navy Department. In this 
capacity he organized the anthropological sections of the Encyclo- 
pedia and contributed several articles on archeological subjects. 



SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

In June Dr. Collins left Washington for Martha's Vineyard, Mass., 
to conduct a 6 weeks' archeological survey of the island. 

Returning to a study of the social organization and ceremonial life 
of the Seneca Nation commenced before the war, Dr. William N. Fen- 
ton, ethnologist, established field quarters on the Allegany Reserva- 
tion between July 1 and September 18, when he returned to Washing- 
ton. Observations made 10 years ago were repeated at meetings of 
two orders of the Medicine Society, and observing the Green Corn 
Festival for the fifth time afforded information on social and cultural 
change. At the behest of one of the chiefs, Dr. Fenton recorded from 
Fannie Stevens, matron of the Heron clan, several hundred personal 
names belonging to the eight Seneca clans. Recordings made in 1945 
for a forthcoming album of Seneca music were played repeatedly to 
the singers and interpreters to assure accuracy of texts. With a 
possible documentary film in mind, 700 feet of 16-mm. Kodachrome 
moving pictures were taken of various activities in the Coldspring 
community. An additional week of field work from October 7 to 12 
permitted verifying some of the personal names in genealogies taken 
in 1933. 

Cultural affinities between the northern Iroquoians and their 
southern cousins, the Cherokee of the Great Smoky Mountains, have 
occupied the attention of Bureau ethnologists since Mooney's time. 
At the invitation of Lester M. Hargrett, of Washington, the bibli- 
ographer of Indian Laws, Dr. Fenton motored to Cherokee, N. C, in 
early December. We owe a brief and intensive introduction to 
Cherokee ethnology to Will West Long, who was 17 when James 
Mooney came to Cherokee and whose name is associated with the work 
of every field ethnologist who ventured into Big Cove settlement from 
1887 until March 14, 1947, when Will passed away. 

Dr. Fenton obtained information for contrasting the Boogah Dance 
of the Cherokee with masked performances of the Iroquois False-face 
Society, and some additional details were collected on the Eagle Dance, 
a variant of the calumet ritual, which reached the Iroquois during the 
eighteenth century by one documented line of diffusion from the 
Catawba and Cherokee of the Southeast. When recordings of Cherokee 
and Seneca Eagle Dance songs are compared, it will develop that 
they are derived from a common source. Photographs were made of 
the Cherokee mask-making process, and some portraits of Mr. Long in 
characteristic Eagle Dance postures. A report of these findings has 
been prepared for publication. 

Two collections of Americana seen on this trip deserve mention. The 
MacGregor Collection in the Library of the University of Virginia 
contains some notable early items on American Indians. Dr. T. H. 
Spence, Librarian of the Historical Foundation of the Presbyterian 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Reformed Church, Montreat, N. C, called attention to an extremely 
rare pamplet which describes Chickasaw and Choctaw towns, locates 
certain mounds, and contains notes on pigeon roosts (A Brief History 
of the Mississippi Territory ; to Which is Prefixed a Summary View of 
the Country between the Settlements on Cumberland River, and the 
Territory, by Rev. James Hall, A. M., Salisbury (N. C.) : 12 mo., pp. 
(2) 70, printed by Francis Coupee, 1801). 

The second conference on Iroquois research, which Dr. Fenton 
organized in 1945, was again the outstanding event in Iroquois studies. 
The conference, held October 4, 5, and 6, in cooperation with the Al- 
legany State Park Commission at Red House, N. Y., brought together 
anthropologists and historians interested in the Iroquois from the 
Northeastern States, Canada, and the Middle West. Charles E. Cong- 
don of Salamanca, N. Y., and Merle H. Deardorff of Warren, Pa., were 
cohosts to the conference. 

Dr. Fenton gave several lectures during the year on topics related 
to his work; on September 10 to the L. H. Morgan Chapter, New 
York State Archaeological Association, Rochester; October 15 to the 
Anthropological Society of Washington; December 12 to the Arts 
Club of Washington. 

A chapter was completed for a forthcoming report of the American 
Folklore Society: "Research in American Folklore: Plains, Eastern 
Woodlands, and Contact Folklore between Indians and Colonial 
Settlers." Seneca Songs from Coldspring Longhouse was prepared 
as program notes to an album of records which the Library of Congress 
is publishing. Work was continued on a final draft of a report for 
the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, A Cayuga Condolence 
Cane with Pictographs Denominating the Founders of the Iroquois 
League, a study which Dr. Fenton commenced several years ago at 
the request of the Cranbrook Institute of Science. 

As a member of the Committee on International Cooperation in 
Anthropology, National Research Council, Dr. Fenton attended two 
meetings in Washington, and prepared a report on Anthropology 
during the War, VII : The Arab World (American Anthropologist, 
1947, pp. 342-343). He relinquished secretaryship of the Anthropo- 
logical Society of Washington, becoming vice president, and continued 
to give, considerable time to the Journal of the Washington Academy 
of Sciences, as senior editor during 1947. 

Publications. — Place names and related activities of the Cornplanter 
Senecas, V : The path to Conewango (Pennsylvania Archaeologist, vol. 
16, pp. 42-56, April 1946). 

Twi-yendagon (Woodeater) takes the heavenly path; on the death 
of Henry Redeye (1864?-1946), Speaker of the Coldspring Seneca 



SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

Longhouse (American Indian, American Association on Indian 
Affairs, vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 11-15, 1946). 

Integration of Geography and Anthropology in Army Area Study 
Curricula (Bulletin American Association of University Professors, 
vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 696-706, winter, 1946) . 

Area studies in American universities (Commission on Implica- 
tions, Armed Services Educational Programs, American Council on 
Education, xi+89 pp., Washington, 1947). 

In addition, several reviews were prepared and published in the 
United States Quarterly Book List, and in other journals. 

Dr. Philip Drucker, anthropologist, returned to his official station 
at Washington from Mexico at the beginning of the fiscal year. While 
awaiting the arrival of the collections from San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, 
he began a study of the La Venta ceramic collections, excavated by 
the National Geographic Society-Smithsonian Institution expedition 
in the spring of 1942. 

During the ensuing months he classified some 24,000 sherds from 
the site of La Venta, recording descriptive data and stratigraphic dis- 
tributions which will be embodied in the final report on the culture 
represented at this key site of Olmec culture. At the conclusion of 
his study of these materials he prepared a brief paper entitled "Some 
Implications of La Venta Ceramics," for the Smithsonian Miscellane- 
ous Collections. 

On February 8, 1947, he proceeded from Washington to Mexico on a 
joint expedition of the National Geographic Society and the Smith- 
sonian Institution. The purpose of this expedition was to make an 
archeological survey of the Pacific coast of the state of Chiapas, 
Mexico. From the time of his arrival in Tapachula, Chiapas, on 
February 16, until his departure from Tonala, Chiapas, on May 24, 
he tested 15 archeological sites, obtaining from each collections of 
sherds ranging from 2,000 to 4,000 pieces on the average. Among 
these sites were several whose ceramics indicated a relationship with 
the Mixteca-Puebla area of the Highland, and which are probably to 
be attributed to the late pre-Conquest intrusions of the Nahuatl-speak- 
ing Pipil, colonies of whom penetrated as far southeastward as Nica- 
ragua. Other sites yielded wares that indicate affiliation with more 
ancient horizons, one such linking very definitely with the oldest ce- 
ramic complex yet known from Guatemala Highland and coast : the 
Miraflores horizon. One of the outstanding finds of the survey was the 
discovery of a midden deposit over 3 meters in depth, containing pot- 
tery in the upper 1.2 m., and no trace of ceramics below this point. This 
site requires more extensive excavation than was possible during the 
survey, but it is quite possible that it may contain the earliest remains 
yet known from southern Mexico and Central America— perhaps pre- 

771004—48 2 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

ceramic and early ceramic horizons whose existence up to now has 
only been suspected but never demonstrated. 

In the month of March, during the survey work, Dr. Drucker made 
a brief visit to Guatemala City where, through the courtesy of Drs. 
R. E. Smith and Edwin Shook of the Carnegie Institution, he was 
permitted to study pottery collections from the Guatemala Highlands 
and coast, in the Carnegie Institution Laboratory. 

From Tonala, Dr. Drucker proceeded to Mexico City to arrange for 
the exportation of the collections. 

On June 9 Dr. Drucker arrived in Washington, D. C, where he 
was detailed to the River Basin Surveys project, under the direction 
of Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Associate Chief of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology. After a series of conferences with Dr. Roberts, 
Dr. Drucker proceeded on June 16 to the Pacific coast to take charge of 
archeological work in areas to be inundated by Bureau of Reclamation 
and Corps of Engineers dams in that area. 

From July 1 through September 1 Dr. Gordon R. Willey, anthro- 
pologist, continued his field investigations, begun in March of 1946, 
as a member of the Viru Valley Expedition to northern Peru. The 
Virii program was a cooperative attempt, on the part of a group of 
anthropologists and a geographer, to study thoroughly a single valley 
of the Peruvian coast as a living unit through some 3,000 years of time. 
Archeological, geographical, and modern community studies were 
embraced in the project, which was under the direction of a steering 
committee of the Institute of Andean Research. As one of the major 
participants, Dr. Willey represented the Bureau on the steering com- 
mittee. His own share of the research consisted of a survey of the 
prehistoric settlement patterns of the valley. 

At the close of field operations in August over 300 sites had been 
studied from the point of view of community plan or settlement 
pattern. These sites were selected from all sections of the valley, and 
it is estimated that they represent a 25-percent sample of the total 
sites in the valley. All types of sites were included in the sample — 
cemeteries, dwelling units, fortifications, temples, and palaces. In 
addition particular attention was paid to prehistoric irrigation canals, 
evidences of past land utilization, and ancient roads. Preliminary 
analysis shows eight cultural periods to be represented. The survey 
was accomplished with the aid of jeep transportation and large-scale 
air photo-maps. A technique of site mapping, involving the use of 
an epidiascopic projector, was worked out with the air photos. The 
final report on this survey is now in preparation. 

In addition to the settlement survey Willey also excavated at two 
burial sites, one in the upper and one in the lower valley. A report 
on the first of these sites has recently been published. 

Early in August Willey took part in the Conference on Peruvian 



SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 9 

Archeology held at Hacienda Chiclin. At this time he presented a 
preliminary summary of his field results. 

After the work in Viru was terminated, Dr. Willey made a brief 
visit to the Lambayeque Valley, north of the city of Trujillo, and 
examined collections in the important but little-known Bruning 
Museum. Keturning south to Lima, he began a protracted trip by 
automobile, going from Lima to Caamana and from there inland to the 
Lake Titicaca region. From Puno, on the lake, he proceeded north to 
Cuzco, Ayacucho, Huancayo, and returned to Lima. During this 
trip, which consumed some 2 to 3 weeks during the month of Septem- 
ber, he visited numerous archeological sites. The most significant of 
these was the great architectural cluster at Huari near Ayacucho, the 
presumed center for the Middle Period Tiahuanacoid diffusion 
throughout Peru. 

Upon his return to the United States in October Dr. Willey pre- 
pared several short papers and began the initial work of organizing 
notes, maps, and photographs on the Viru settlement-pattern study. 
He was engaged in this until April of 1947. For the last 3 months of 
the fiscal year he transferred his research interests toward the com- 
pletion of a large monograph on the archeology of the Florida Gulf 
coast. This latter work, which embraces earlier field work of the 
author, as well as past field studies made by the Bureau in the Florida 
Gulf area, is intended as an over-all archeological summary of the 
region. 

During the year Dr. Willey also served as assistant editor to the 
professional journal, American Antiquity, and submitted various news 
items on recent researches in archeology in South America. He held 
a similar position with the Handbook of Latin American Studies for 
which he prepared bibliographic extracts on some 50 titles dealing 
with South American archeology and wrote a general summary of 
recent archeological activities for the South American Continent dur- 
ing the year 1945. 

In April Dr. Willey visited the Public Museum at Rochester, N. Y., 
where he delivered a lecture on the Viru work before the annual meet- 
ing of the New York State Archeological Society. 

The following articles were written by Dr. Willey during the fiscal 
year 1946^7 : 

1. The Viru Valley Program in Northern Peru. Acta Americana, vol. 4, No. 4, 

1946. 

2. A Middle Period Cemetery in the Viru Valley, Northern Peru. Journ. Wash- 

ington Acad. Sci., vol. 37, No. 2, 1947. 

3. Ecuadorean Figurines and the Ceramic Mold in the New World. (In press.) 

4. Growth Trends in New World Cultures. (In press.) 

5. An Interpretative Analysis of Horizon Styles in Peruvian Archeology. (In 

press.) 

In addition, one book review was prepared for Science. 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 

The Institute of Social Anthropology was created in 1943 as an 
autonomous unit of the Bureau of American Ethnology to carry out 
cooperative training in anthropological teaching and research with 
the other American Republics. During the past year it was financed 
by transfers from the State Department, totaling $113,150, from the 
appropriation "Cooperation with the American Republics, 1947." The 
major activities of the Institute of Social Anthropology during the 
fiscal year 1947 are as follows : 

Washington office. — The Institute of Social Anthropology main- 
tains headquarters in Washington for general planning, direction, and 
servicing of field projects. Dr. Julian H. Steward, founder and first 
Director of the Institute, resigned in September 1946 to accept a pro- 
fessorship at Columbia University. He was succeeded by Dr. George 
M. Foster, previously stationed in Mexico as social anthropologist of 
the Institute of Social Anthropology. 

Brazil. — Cooperation with the Escola Livre de Sociologia e Politica 
began October 1, 1945, when Dr. Donald Pierson was assigned as rep- 
resentative of the Institute of Social Anthropology to Brazil. In 
February 1946 Dr. Kalervo Oberg was assigned as cultural anthropolo- 
gist to cooperate with the Escola Livre. 

In effect, the Institute has taken over and expanded a program which 
was begun under Dr. Pierson in 1940 and which has helped make the 
Escola Livre one of the most important social-science centers in South 
America. 

During the fiscal year 1947 Institute of Social Anthropology scien- 
tists have given seven courses in sociology and anthropology, to sup- 
plement other courses given by local professors in the general field 
of the humanities. Advanced students have been given field training 
both in Mato Grosso among Indian groups, and among the rural 
peoples in the State of Sao Paulo, some distance from the city. This 
represents a very considerable educational advance, since for the first 
time advanced Brazilian students in anthropology and sociology, as 
a part of their regular courses, have been required to supplement 
theoretical classroom training with actual field experience. A number 
of papers by Smithsonian personnel and local students have been 
published in scientific series or journals other than Smithsonian vol- 
umes. Two monographs based on field work in 1947 are being pre- 
pared for publication by Smithsonian personnel in Smithsonian series, 
and Brazilian students also are preparing field notes for publication 
in Portuguese. 

Smithsonian staff members have continued to guide the program of 
translating 200 articles and 13 books from English into Portuguese, 



SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 11 

mentioned in last year's report. This work, financed by outside funds, 
is of great importance as an aid to teaching. 

Colombia. — Cooperation with the Instituto Etnologico of the Uni- 
versity of Cauca in Popayan began December 1, 1946. The Institute of 
Social Anthropology is represented by Dr. John H. Rowe who is en- 
gaged in cooperating with local personnel in the organization of this 
new institution and in giving three courses in anthropology to stu- 
dents. A short survey of the habitat of the Guambiano Indians has 
indicated that this is a satisfactory region for field work, which begins 
on a cooperative basis during the summer of 1947, with the participa- 
tion of Colombian professors and students. 

Mexico. — Cooperation with the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia, 
a dependency of the Ministry of Education, began June 1, 1944. Dr. 
George M. Foster, social anthropologist, was replaced by Dr. Isabel 
Kelly, when the former was transferred to Washington. Dr. Stanley 
S. Newman, linguist, and Dr. Robert C. West, cultural geographer, 
are the other two Institute of Social Anthropology representatives in 
Mexico. 

During the fiscal year 1947 these scientists have given five courses in 
social anthropology, linguistics, and cultural geography. The scene 
of field research was shifted in January 1947 from the Tarascan area, 
described in last year's report, to the Totonac Indian area east of 
Mexico City. Two monograph-length papers dealing with the Taras- 
cans havejbeen submitted by Smithsonian personnel for publication 
in the series of the Institute of Social Anthropology. A number of 
student papers have appeared in Mexican sources, and longer mono- 
graphs in Spanish are ready for publication. 

Peru. — Work began in Peru in January 1944, when that country had 
no institution devoted essentially to social science teaching and re- 
search. Subsequently a national center of social science, the Instituto 
de Estudios Etnologicos, of the Ministry of Education, has been es- 
tablished. Institute of Social Anthropology personnel cooperate with 
this Institute. During 1947 the Institute of Social Anthropology was 
represented in Peru by F. Webster McBryde, cultural geographer, 
and Dr. Allan Holmberg, social anthropologist, who arrived in July 
1946 to succeed Dr. Harry Tschopik, Jr. 

A party of six students and one professor accompanied Institute of 
Social Anthropology personnel to the Viru Valley in northern Peru 
for ethnographical and geographical field work during the months 
January to April 1947. Under the guidance of the Smithsonian scien- 
tists this material is now being prepared for publication. Courses 
also are being given in the Instituto de Estudios Etnologicos. In ad- 
dition, the cultural geographer has aided in the reorganization of the 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Geographical Society of the University of San Marcos in Lima, and 
in establishing the teaching curriculum of this department. 

Publications. — One monograph of the series Publications of the 
Institute of Social Anthropology appeared in June 1947 — Publication 
No. 3, Moche, a Peruvian Coastal Community, by John Gillin. Publi- 
cation No. 4, Cultural and Historical Geography of Southwest Guate- 
mala, by Felix Webster McBryde, Publication No. 5, Highland Com- 
munities of Central Peru: A Regional Survey, by Harry Tschopik, 
Jr., and Publication No. 6, Empire's Children: the People of Tzin- 
tzuntzan, by George M. Foster, were in proof. Publication No. 7, Cul- 
tural Geography of the Modern Tarascan Area, by Robert C. West, 
and Publication No. 8, Sierra Popoluca Speech, Mary L. Foster and 
George M. Foster, were edited and sent to the printer. Mrs. Eloise 
B. Edelen of the editorial staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
did the editorial work on these publications. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

The River Basin Surveys were instituted in the fall of 1945 as a unit 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology. They were organized to carry 
into effect a memorandum of understanding between the National 
Park Service and the Smithsonian Institution. This memorandum 
provided for surveys to determine the extent and nature of archeolog- 
ical and paleontological remains occurring in areas to be flooded by 
the construction of dams by the Bureau of Reclamation and the Corps 
of Engineers, United States Army. The memorandum was signed 
on August 7, 1945, by Newton B. Drury, Director of the National Park 
Service, and on September 8, 1945, by Alexander Wetmore, Secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution, and was approved by Harold L. Ickes, 
Secretary of the Interior, on October 9, 1945. 

The first actual field work got under way in July 1946. A transfer 
of $20,000 at the end of May 1946, by the Bureau of Reclamation 
through the National Park Service, provided the necessary funds for 
starting survey parties in the Missouri Basin. An additional $40,000 
subsequently was made available by the Bureau of Reclamation for 
work in this area during fiscal 1947. In September 1946 $27,000 
was transferred by the Corps of Engineers, through the National 
Park Service, for surveys outside of the Missouri Basin, and in March 
1947 $4,500 was transferred by the Bureau of Reclamation for surveys 
in the Columbia-Snake Basin. The Missouri Basin funds were for 
use in both Bureau of Reclamation and Corps of Engineers projects. 
The money provided by the Corps of Engineers was for Corps of 
Engineers projects only, while the Columbia-Snake Basin money was 
for use only in Bureau of Reclamation projects. 



SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 13 

The first survey parties were started in the Missouri Basin. These 
were followed by investigations in Georgia, Virginia-North Carolina, 
Texas, California, and the Columbia-Snake Basin. Supervision and 
direction of the surveys in Georgia, Virginia-North Carolina, Texas, 
and California were carried on from the main office in Washington. 
Direction of the work in the Missouri Basin was from a field office 
located at Lincoln, Nebr., and the Columbia-Snake Basin investiga- 
tions were based on a field office established at Eugene, Oreg. 

The Bureau of Reclamation and the Corps of Engineers made the 
entire salvage program possible through the transfer of funds, but 
in addition both agencies contributed in no small degree to the suc- 
cessful inception of the surveys through their cooperation in other 
ways. Division and District Engineers and Bureau of Reclamation 
personnel did much to facilitate the work of the survey men in the 
field. In some areas transportation was provided, in others, neces- 
sary labor was furnished to aid in emergency excavations, and else- 
where temporary office space and storage facilities were made avail- 
able at project headquarters. The genuine interest and desire to assist 
on the part of all with whom the members of the River Basin Surveys 
staff were associated in the various reservoir areas greatly aided the 
progress of the investigations. The planning of a Nation-wide arche- 
ological survey on a scale hitherto not believed possible became feasible 
with the transfer of funds. The cooperation of the National Park 
Service has been of marked benefit to the program and much credit 
is due to its officials for the obtaining of the the necessary funds and 
for the pleasant relationship existing between all the agencies involved 
in the program. 

Washington office. — Throughout the fiscal year the main office of the 
River Basin Surveys continued under the direction of Dr. Frank H. H. 
Roberts, Jr. Carl F. Miller, archeologist, joined the staff on Novem- 
ber 6, 1946. Miss Madeleine A. Bachand was appointed clerk-stenog- 
rapher on March 3, 1947, and continued to serve throughout the year. 
Mr. Miller was preparing to leave for the Pearl River project at 
Bogalusa, La., on November 13, 1946, when a request was received 
from the district engineer to postpone this work indefinitely because 
the project had been stopped. Mr. Miller was then assigned to the 
study of proposed projects in the Middle Atlantic Division of the Corps 
of Engineers. He devoted his time to searching the literature for 
information about sites which might be involved by construction pro- 
grams in Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, and West Virginia. 
During this period he also assisted the director in obtaining informa- 
tion about proposed projects of the Bureau of Reclamation in various 
parts of the country outside the Missouri Basin. On February 11, 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

1947, he left Washington for Richmond, Va., to confer with the offi- 
cials at the Region 1 office of the National Park Service. From Rich- 
mond he proceeded to Norfolk, Va., on February 13, to confer with the 
district engineer, Corps of Engineers, about a survey of the Buggs 
Island project on the Roanoke River. He left Norfolk on February 
14 and went to South Hill, Va., where he established headquarters. 
From that date until May 4 he surveyed all the Virginia and part of 
the North Carolina portion of the reservoir basin. He then returned 
to Washington and devoted the remainder of the fiscal year to pre- 
paring a preliminary report on the results of the survey and making 
recommendations and estimates for an excavation program in that 
area. 

Missouri Basin. — The first steps in initiating investigations in the 
Missouri Basin were the establishment of field headquarters at Lincoln, 
Nebr., and the assembling of personnel to undertake the field sur- 
veys. Dr. Waldo R. Wedel, associate curator of archeology, United 
States National Museum, who had been detailed to the River Basin 
Surveys for that purpose, left Washington for Lincoln, Nebr., on 
July 8, 1946, and upon his arrival there began instructing the person- 
nel recruited for the project and assembling equipment needed in the 
field. Through the courtesy of the University of Nebraska, office space 
was provided at the University's Laboratory of Anthropology. Later, 
additional space was made available for a laboratory. This arrange- 
ment continued throughout the year, and on June 30, 1947, both the 
field office and the project' laboratory were housed in the basement of 
the Love Memorial Library on the university campus. 

Actual reconnaissance started on August 3, 1946, and continued for 
a period of 7 weeks, at the end of which weather conditions made it 
necessary for the men to return to field headquarters. During this 
time, 3 parties of 2 men each, limited because of inadequate transporta- 
tion, covered more than 13,000 miles and made preliminary investiga- 
tions at 28 top priority Bureau of Reclamation projects and at 5 Corps 
of Engineers reservoirs. Since complete coverage of each reservoir 
basin was in no case possible, additional surveys were recommended for 
most of the units visited. One field party returned to the Harlan 
County Reservoir, Nebr., for a period of 5 weeks, October 16 to Novem- 
ber 23, 1946, and with the aid of local labor tested a number of sites 
and removed material which was being damaged by erosion or being 
excavated by unauthorized collectors. 

Dr. Waldo R. Wedel returned to Washington and to his regular 
duties at the National Museum on October 18, 1946. At this time 
Paul L. Cooper was designated as acting director for the Lincoln of- 
fice and continued to serve in that capacity until May 21, 1947, when 
Dr. Wedel, who had again been detailed to the Surveys, returned to 
Lincoln and resumed his supervision of the Missouri Basin program. 



SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 15 

During the fall and winter months at Lincoln the staff members 
prepared and completed preliminary appraisal reports covering 25 of 
the projects visited during the 1946 field season. By June 30 most 
of these reports had been distributed to the National Park Service, the 
Bureau of [Reclamation, and the Corps of Engineers, or were ready to 
be mailed. A general paper entitled "Prehistory and the Missouri 
Valley Development Program: Summary Report on the Missouri 
River Basin Archeological Survey in 1946," written by Dr. Wedel, was 
published in April in the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 
volume 107, No. 6. Throughout this period the field laboratory 
cleaned and cataloged more than 10,000 archeological specimens 
gathered from 208 different sites, and in addition processed 426 photo- 
graphic negatives and prepared approximately 2,200 prints for use in 
the reports. Maps were drawn showing the location of sites in each 
reservoir area, and the reports were mimeographed, assembled, and 
made ready for distribution. 

Field work was resumed in the latter part of April when three 
archeological parties consisting of four men each and one paleontologi- 
cal party consisting of one man, started for various reservoir projects. 
The paleontologist subsequently was joined by a student assistant. In 
addition to further investigations in reservoir areas visited during 
the 1946 field season, other projects were added to the list, and by 
the end of the fiscal year a total of 44 Bureau of Reclamation and 
6 Corps of Engineers projects had been surveyed. They are located 
in the States of Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, 
Wyoming, and Montana. All parties were in the field on June 30 
and expected to continue throughout the summer. During this 
period Dr. Wedel directed operations in the Lincoln office and made 
several visits to the field parties at the locations where they were 
working. He also attended conferences between the regional officers 
of the National Park Service and Bureau of Reclamation and Corps of 
Engineers representatives. 

The survey findings to date indicate that the Wyoming-Montana 
area contains few pottery-bearing sites. There, as in the western 
Dakotas, stone circles or "tipi-rings" are to be found in great num- 
bers. Numerous outcrops of artifacts in strata exposed by stream 
cuttings are plentiful and occur at varying depths below the surface. 
Some of them give promise of containing material belonging to 
early occupations, possibly even those of the Paleo-Indian, and they 
may supply much needed data on that phase of Plains prehistory. 
Throughout northern Kansas and northwestern Nebraska pithouse 
villages attributed to semisedentary peoples predominate. Pottery- 
bearing sites as well as "tipi-rings" occur on the tributaries of the 
Missouri in North and South Dakota. Groups of mounds, village 
remains, and former camp sites suggesting a more sedentary type of 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

occupation than that west of the Missouri occur in the Jamestown- 
Devils Lake-Sheyenne area. Along the main stream of the Missouri 
in the Dakotas are some of the largest and best preserved and most 
impressive fortified Indian village sites in the United States. They 
contain much of the story of the development of Arikara, Mandan, 
and other upper Missouri cultures. 

In many of the sites there is evidence of stratification and a se- 
quence of cultures or a series of stages in cultural development. 
Others contain the record of prehistoric floods, of silting and soil 
erosion, of recurrent droughts, and fluctuation in climate. The ex- 
cavation and the interpretation of the data contained in such sites 
will contribute greatly, not only to the story of the growth and 
development of the Plains Indians, but to our understanding of 
conditions similar to those met and overcome by the aboriginal peoples. 
For this reason the excavation and testing of several sites in three 
Bureau of Reclamation reservoirs was recommended for the fiscal 
year 1948, and for two important sites at one Corps of Engineers 
project. 

J. Joseph Bauxar, archeologist, joined the Missouri Basin staff 
on July 15, 1946. From that date until August 3 he devoted his time 
to obtaining information on archeological remains in the Dakotas, 
from reports on previous excavations and surveys in that area, and 
in making preparations for work in the field. From August 3 until 
September 22, in company with Paul L. Cooper, he engaged in a 
preliminary reconnaissance of reservoir projects in Nebraska, South 
Dakota, North Dakota, and Montana. In these reservoir basins a 
total of 68 sites were examined, site locations and descriptions being 
recorded and surface collections made. During the laboratory period, 
from September 22 until April 24, 1947, Mr. Bauxar prepared pre- 
liminary reports for seven of the reservoirs, Angostura, Box Butte, 
Bronco, Crosby, Deslacs, Fort Randall, and Jamestown, and pre- 
pared a technical report entitled "Notes on the Archeology of the 
Upper James and Sheyenne River Valleys and the Devils Lake 
Area." From April 24 until May 7 he joined Wesley L. Bliss in 
preliminary surveys of three reservoirs in Kansas, one in Colorado, 
and five in Nebraska. During this period 25 sites, none of which had 
been recorded previously, were visited. From May 7 to June 2 the 
time was spent in collaborating with Wesley L. Bliss and Theodore 
E. White on a report entitled "Preliminary Appraisal of Archeologi- 
cal and Paleontological Resources of the Proposed Reservoirs in the 
Republican River Basin." On June 2 Mr. Bauxar left Lincoln, as 
a member of the field party under the direction of Paul L. Cooper, to 
make a reconnaissance of the Fort Randall Reservoir in South Da- 
kota. This work was still in progress at the end of the fiscal year. 



SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 17 

Wesley L. Bliss was appointed to the Missouri Basin staff as an 
archeologist on July 17, 1946. From July 17 to August 4 he was 
occupied in making preparations for field reconnaissance in Wyoming 
and Montana. He left Lincoln on August 4 and returned on Septem- 
ber 22. In this period his party made preliminary surveys in six 
reservoir areas in Wyoming, one which lies both in Wyoming and 
Montana, and three in Montana. A total of 74 archeological and pale- 
ontological sites were found and recorded, and surface collections were 
made from each. The fall and winter months, September 22, 1946, 
until April 24, 1947, were spent at the Lincoln headquarters doing lab- 
oratory and library research and in writing preliminary reports. 
Reports were prepared for the Boysen, Tiber, and Medicine Lake Res- 
ervoirs. In addition, Mr. Bliss prepared a draft of a paper entitled 
"A Preliminary Appraisal of the Historic and Prehistoric Occupa- 
tion of the Western Plains." Some revision and the checking of some 
material were needed to complete the paper. In the early spring of 
1947 Bliss made several unofficial week-end visits with other members 
of the staff to archeological sites along the Missouri, north of Kansas 
City, and on the Big Blue River in Nebraska. These were for the 
purpose of obtaining a wider knowledge of archeological manifesta- 
tions in the area. In one case the trip was instrumental in stopping 
the destruction of a group of mounds in the path of a real-estate sub- 
division. From April 24 to May 7, 1947, Mr. Bliss, in association with 
J. Joseph Bauxar, as previously noted, made a reconnaissance of nine 
proposed reservoirs in Kansas, Colorado, and Montana. He assisted 
in the preparation of the report on the Smokey Hill Sub-basin. On 
June 10 Mr. Bliss left Lincoln in charge of a field party and proceeded 
to the Glendo Reservoir in Wyoming where the remainder of the 
month was devoted to an intensive survey. At the end of the fiscal 
year, 30 sites had been located in addition to the ones noted during 
the preliminary reconnaissance in the summer of 1946. 

Paul L. Cooper, archeologist, became a member of the Missouri 
Basin staff on July 15, 1946. Between that time and August 3 he as- 
sisted in the preparations for work in the field and made two trips to 
Omaha with Dr. Wedel for the purpose of consultation with members 
of the National Park Service and the Corps of Engineers. On August 
3 he left Lincoln with J. Joseph Bauxar to make preliminary surveys 
at reservoir sites in Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, and Mon- 
tana. As previously noted, 68 archeological and paleontological sites 
were located during the course of this survey. Mr. Cooper returned 
to the Lincoln headquarters on September 22, and from October 7, 
1946, to May 21, 1947, was in charge of the operation of the office and 
laboratory. During this period he planned and supervised the work 
of the project personnel, compiled monthly progress reports for the 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

National Park Service and the Bureau of Reclamation, assisted in the 
setting up of record systems in the laboratory and in establishing 
methods for issuing the reports based on the field work and laboratory 
studies. Owing to a shortage of personnel, it was necessary for Mr. 
Cooper to devote much of his time to direct supervision and to many 
of the actual operations involved in mimeographing and distributing 
the preliminary appraisals of the archeological and paleontological 
resources of the various reservoirs. In May Mr. Cooper represented 
the River Basin Surveys at a symposium on the River Valley program 
conducted by the Nebraska Academy of Sciences. During the period 
May 21 to June 2, 1947, Mr. Cooper prepared reports on Heart Butte, 
Dickenson, Deerfield, Shadehill, Blue Horse, Sheyenne, and Garrison 
Reservoirs, and on the Devils Lake area. Mr. Cooper left Lincoln on 
June 3, 1947, in charge of a field party which was to undertake a pre- 
liminary reconnaissance of the Fort Randall Reservoir on the Missouri 
River in South Dakota. This reconnaissance was still in progress on 
June 30, at which time 60 archeological sites had been located and 
recorded. 

Robert B. Cumming, Jr., archeologist, was added to the staff as 
laboratory supervisor at the Lincoln headquarters on October 1, 1946. 
Since the laboratory was then being moved to new quarters in the 
basement of the Love Memorial Library building, Mr. Cumming began 
work by assisting in the formulation of the laboratory plan and plac- 
ing the equipment in order so that routine work could proceed. Dur- 
ing the fall and winter months he assisted in planning and initiating 
basic laboratory methods. A triplicate filing system was devised in 
which information covering approximately 175 sites was filed in a site 
file, a reservoir file, and a reserve file. A photographic file system 
was organized wherein prints were mounted on 5- by 8-inch cards bear- 
ing descriptive information and were filed in accordance with a stand- 
ard trinomial system consisting of symbols for the State, county, and 
site. The negatives were filed in a separate cabinet using the same 
system for identification. Mr. Cumming also formulated the system 
for cleaning, cataloging, and storing the specimens and assisted in 
initiating an inventory procedure for equipment and supplies which 
he maintained throughout the year. In addition, he assisted in super- 
vising the maintenance of equipment. He also assisted in the work 
and supervision of the preparation of illustrations, drafting of site 
maps, typing, mimeographing, proofreading, and assembling of the 
preliminary reports. During such times as the field directors were 
absent from the headquarters office, he handled the business routine 
in the office. At the close of the fiscal year Mr. Cumming was engaged 
in processing the records sent in from the field for 50 sites located after 
resumption of the survey work. Because the laboratory was under- 



SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 19 

staffed during much of the year, it was necessary for Mr. Cumming 
to perform tasks which should have been done by laboratory workers. 
This condition was relieved somewhat during the last few weeks of 
the fiscal year when several part-time workers were added to the staff. 
This enabled Mr. Cumming to devote more time to the technical 
aspects of the laboratory problem. 

Jack T. Hughes, archeologist, was appointed to the Missouri Basin 
staff on July 15, 1946. From then until August 4 he assisted in the 
preparations for field work and received instructions as to the manner 
in which the surveys were to be conducted. On August 4 he left 
Lincoln with Wesley L. Bliss for a preliminary reconnaissance of 
Bureau of Reclamation reservoir sites in Wyoming and Montana. He 
returned to Lincoln on September 22 after having assisted in the ex- 
amination of the 10 reservoirs previously mentioned in the discussion 
of the work of Mr. Bliss. During the period from September 22, 
1946, to May 3, 1947, Mr. Hughes engaged in library research, labora- 
tory^ analysis of specimens, and the preparation of reports. Prelimi- 
nary appraisals were written for the Glendo, Kortes, Boysen, Anchor, 
Lake Solitude, and Oregon Basin Reservoirs in Wyoming, the Yellow- 
tail Reservoir in Wyoming and Montana, and the Canyon Ferry Res- 
ervoir in Montana. Technical reports were also written for Glendo, 
Kortes, Boysen, Anchor, Oregon Basin, and Yellowtail. From May 
3 to May 12, 1947, Mr. Hughes participated with Marvin F. Kivett, 
in a brief reconnaissance of seven proposed reservoir sites in the Lower 
Platte Basin of Nebraska. After his return to Lincoln, he assisted 
in the preparation of the preliminary appraisal of the archeological 
resources of this group of reservoirs in the Lower Platte Basin of 
Nebraska. On June 10 he left Lincoln with the field party under Wes- 
ley L. Bliss and spent the remainder of the month at the Glendo 
Reservoir in eastern Wyoming. 

Marvin F. Kivett joined the Surveys staff on July 15, 1946, as arche- 
ologist. On August 2 he left Lincoln to make a reconnaissance of eight 
reservoir areas in Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado. This work con- 
tinued until September 20, 1946, when he returned to Lincoln. In the 
course of 7 weeks spent in the field, a total of 75 archeological sites were 
recorded in the 8 reservoir areas; 60 of these sites were unreported 
prior to the reconnaissance. On October 16 Mr. Kivett went to the 
Harlan County Reservoir, Nebr., where he carried on an extensive 
survey until November 23. This included excavation in a prehistoric 
ossuary and limited test excavations in four occupational areas. This 
work produced much information on the nature of the archeological 
remains in the area. From November 24, 1946, to May 2, 1947, Mr. 
Kivett worked at headquarters in Lincoln writing preliminary ap- 
praisals of the resources of the eight reservoirs visited during the 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

summer field season and in analyzing the data and specimens collected 
and in preparing technical reports. The preliminary reports com- 
pleted and mimeographed for distribution were on the Kirwin, Cedar 
Bluff, and Kanopolis Reservoirs in Kansas; the Enders, Harlan 
County, and Medicine Creek Reservoirs in Nebraska ; and the Cherry 
Creek and Wray Reservoirs in Colorado. Mr. Kivett left Lincoln on 
May 3, 1947, in company with Jack T. Hughes. From then until May 
19 they made a preliminary reconnaissance of six reservoirs in the 
Lower Platte River Sub-basin. A total of 19 previously unreported 
archeological sites were located during this period. After his return 
to Lincoln, Mr. Kivett prepared preliminary reports on the Lower 
Platte River Basin including all the information obtained from the 
six reservoirs visited. The period from June 1 to June 9 was spent in 
preparing for a preliminary reconnaissance of the Garrison Reservoir 
in North Dakota. Mr. Kivett and his party left Lincoln for North 
Dakota on June 9, and at the end of the year they were engaged in a 
survey of the Garrison Reservoir. 

Theodore E. White, paleontologist, was appointed to the general 
River Basin Surveys staff on April 15, 1947. From that date until 
April 26 he devoted his time to studying collections of fossil material 
from the Missouri Basin in the United States National Museum. On 
April 27 he left Washington for Lincoln, Nebr., and on April 29 joined 
the Missouri Basin staff. He left Lincoln on May 2 and spent 6 days 
in a reconnaissance of proposed reservoir areas in the Lower Platte 
Sub-basin in north central Nebraska. During this time he visited 
seven reservoir basins finding fossil remains in only one. These were 
reworked material of little scientific value. Dr. White returned to 
the Lincoln headquarters on May 9 and left on May 13 to make a recon- 
naissance of the Republican and Smokey Hill Sub-basins in south- 
western Nebraska, Kansas, and Colorado. This work continued until 
June 6, during which time he visited nine reservoirs in Nebraska, eight 
in Kansas, and two in Colorado. Seven of these sites were recom- 
mended for a more detailed survey on the basis of material found 
and the extent of the exposures. From June 6 to June 13 Dr. White 
worked at the Lincoln headquarters preparing reports and recom- 
mendations for the various reservoirs which he had examined. On 
June 13 he left Lincoln to examine proposed reservoir areas in the 
North Platte Sub-basin in Wyoming, the Cheyenne River Sub-basin 
in Wyoming and South Dakota, and smaller sub-basins in North and 
South Dakota. This reconnaissance lasted until June 28, and during 
the period three reservoirs were visited in Wyoming, six in South 
Dakota and four in North Dakota. Three of the reservoirs were rec- 
ommended for more detailed investigation. White returned to Lin- 
coln on June 28 and at the end of the fiscal year was preparing to 
start for further survey work in Wyoming and Montana. 



SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 21 

Several students were employed as members of the various field 
parties for the Surveys beginning in June 1947. Robert L. Hall and 
Warren L. Wittry left Lincoln on June 2 with the Cooper party for 
the Fort Randall Reservoir in South Dakota, and at the end of the 
fiscal year were occupied in the survey of that area. John L. Essex, 
Gordon F. McKenzie, and Leo L. Stewart left Lincoln on June 9 as 
members of the Kivett party to make a reconnaissance of the Garrison 
Reservoir area in North Dakota. Mr. Essex had previously assisted 
Mr. Kivett in the work at the Harlan County Reservoir, Nebr., in 
November 1946. H. G. Pierce joined the Bliss party and left Lincoln 
on June 10 to assist in the survey at the Glendo Reservoir in Wyoming. 
He was still with the party at the end of the fiscal year. John C. 
Donohoe was employed on June 27 to assist the paleontologist, Dr. 
Theodore E. White. 

Georgia. — Intensive survey of the Allatoona Reservoir area on the 
Etowah River in Georgia was carried on during the period Novem- 
ber 12, 1946, to April 1, 1947. This survey was made by Joseph R. 
Caldwell, of the Division of Archeology, United States National Mu- 
seum, who was detailed to the River Basin Surveys for that purpose. 
Caldwell located 206 archeological sites representing a record of thou- 
sands of years of diverse human cultures. Information obtained from 
this survey has added materially to the aboriginal history of that part 
of Georgia. Full knowledge, however, cannot be gained without ex- 
cavation of some of the sites and the testing of others. In view of 
this the preliminary report, prepared by Mr. Caldwell and distributed 
to the National Park Service and the Corps of Engineers, recom- 
mends the excavation of 10 sites and the testing of 33 others. A re- 
quest for further funds for this purpose has been made by the National 
Park Service to the Corps of Engineers, but at the end of the fiscal 
year no response had been received to the request. The specimens col- 
lected from the sites examined during the course of this survey were 
transferred to the National Museum on April 17, 1947. 

Virginia-North Carolina. — The archeological reconnaissance of the 
Buggs Island project on the Roanoke River was carried on during the 
period of February 14 to May 1, 1947. This work was under the super- 
vision of Carl F. Miller of the River Basin Surveys staff. During the 
course of the investigations, 94 archeological sites were located, 2 of 
which are extremely important as they appear to represent an eastern 
phase of the so-called Folsom culture which flourished in the western 
plains during the closing days of the last Ice Age. Other sites are pre- 
Colonial and some date from the early Colonial period. The latter 
are significant as they contain material characteristic of the late seven- 
teenth-century contact with European culture and their investigation 
would throw considerable light on this little-known era. Excavation 
of 14 sites including the 2 eastern Folsom examples and the testing of 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

5 others has been recommended. A preliminary report on the Buggs 
Island Reservoir was completed but had not been processed for dis- 
tribution at the end of the fiscal year. 

Texas. — River Basin Surveys were started in Texas in March 1947 
when, through the kindness and cooperation of the authorities, a field 
base and headquarters were established at the Department of Anthro- 
pology of the University of Texas at Austin. A survey of the Addicks 
Reservoir on South Mayde Creek, a tributary of Buffalo Bayou, 
near Houston, got under way March 27 and was still in progress at the 
close of the fiscal year. The Addicks project is not a reservoir in the 
true sense of the word, but a flood-prevention dam which will not 
retain water in its basin for more than 2 or 3 weeks at a time. As 
a consequence, most of the sites located in the basin will be available 
for study or excavation during most of the year. A series of nine 
sites were found, however, which were being destroyed by stream ac- 
tion, by construction work on the dam, or by indiscriminate and unau- 
thorized digging. As a consequence, it was necessary to shift from a 
reconnaissance type of survey to an intensive testing procedure to 
salvage as much information as possible. Six of them were examined 
by digging a number of test pits in various portions of the areas which 
they covered, and subsequently two of the six were extensively excava- 
ted. The cooperation of the district engineer, Col. D. W. Griffiths, in 
supplying a crew of 10 men and a foreman for a period of several 
weeks made these excavations possible. One of the excavated sites 
consisted of a stratified midden containing a sequence of several cul- 
tural horizons. Work on the site was started on May 29 and completed 
on June 13. The second was started on June 16 and was still being 
dug at the end of the fiscal year. The information and material from 
these two sites will provide a fairly complete sequence showing the 
development of aboriginal culture in this area over a comparatively 
long period of time. During this period, the Indians progressed from 
a simple hunting group to a sedentary agricultural and pottery- 
making people. The data obtained are a significant contribution to the 
hitherto little-known pre-Columbian history of this part of Texas. 

The Hords Creek Reservoir on Hords Creek, near Coleman, was sur- 
veyed during the period May 6 to May 17, 1947. Only eight sites 
were found in the reservoir basin. Six of them were burned rock 
middens and two were open camp sites. None gave indication of 
being of sufficient importance to warrant further investigation. Com- 
parable material is available elsewhere in locations which will not be 
inundated. Unless construction work should reveal subsurface de- 
posits of archeological material, no additional work will be required 
in this reservoir. 

The Whitney Dam area on the Brazos River north of Waco was 
started on May 20 and was still in progress at the end of the fiscal 



SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 23 

year. By June 30 a little over half of the basin had been covered. 
Numerous sites had been located and recorded, and a number had 
been trenched for additional information. Several small rock shel- 
ters were excavated to salvage material which was being disturbed by 
unauthorized collectors. Two laborers for digging test trenches and 
for excavating in the shelters were supplied by the resident engineer. 
The Brazos flows through an important archeological and paleon- 
tological area in Texas and much information is contained in the sites 
which will be flooded by the Whitney Dam. On the basis of data 
already obtained by the survey, a number of key sites will be recom- 
mended for excavation. 

Joe Ben Wheat, archeologist, was appointed to the Surveys in Texas 
on March 20, 1947. He left Austin on March 25 for Galveston where 
he conferred with the district engineer and obtained information 
about the priority of various Corps of Engineer projects in Texas. 
From Galveston he proceeded to the Barker Reservoir near Houston. 
He found that the project was so near completion that there was no 
possibility of salvaging archeological information from that area. 
Construction on the Barker Dam had completely destroyed one large 
mound and obliterated any evidence of occupation areas. As a con- 
sequence he proceeded to the nearby Addicks Dam and began a sur- 
vey of that area. After learning that much of the reservoir basin 
would be under water only at rare intervals, Mr. Wheat turned his 
attention to six sites in the immediate vicinity of the dam which 
would be destroyed either as a result of construction or by erosion 
from stream action. All these were tested, and from the information 
thus obtained he concluded that two of them should be excavated as 
they contained a sequence of materials showing a number of cultural 
changes. In this connection he went to Galveston on May 20 and con- 
ferred with Colonel Griffiths, the district engineer. As a result of 
this conference, Mr. Wheat was furnished an excavation crew, trans- 
portation, and the equipment necessary for conducting the excava- 
tions. He returned to Addicks on May 22, and was able to begin 
actual excavations on May 29. Digging was still in progress on 
June 30. 

Robert L. Stephenson, archeologist, joined the Surveys in Texas on 
April 28. From that date until May 5 he worked at Austin, conferring 
with members of the Museum staff at the University, studying collec- 
tions of archeological material, and making preparations for field 
reconnaissance. He left Austin on May 6 for the Hords Creek Reser- 
voir. From May 7 through May 17 he examined the Hords Creek 
Reservoir Basin, locating and recording eight archeological sites. On 
May 18 he left Coleman for Waco where he conferred with Frank 
H. Watt, of the Central Texas Archeological Association, obtaining 
information about archeological sites along the Brazos River, and 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

particularly in the area to be flooded by the Whitney Dam. On May 
19 he went to Whitney and conferred with the Resident Engineer. 
On May 20 he began the actual survey of the Whitney Dam area and 
continued with that work to the end of the fiscal year. During the 
course of his investigations he interviewed numerous local residents, 
obtaining all the information possible pertaining to the occurrence of 
archeological sites, and studied collections of artifacts which had been 
gathered from sites in the area. In addition he made note of various 
historic remains and obtained such data as were available about them. 
This information was forwarded to the regional office of the National 
Park Service at Santa Fe, N. Mex., for the benefit of the Park Service 
historians. 

California. — Archeological surveys were started in California in 
May 1947. Through the cooperation of the Department of Anthro- 
pology of the University of California, at Berkeley, headquarters for 
the Surveys were made available. During the period from March 21 
through June 28, 1947, six Corps of Engineers proposed reservoir 
basins were surveyed. They were Pine Flat on King's River, Terminus 
on Kaweah River, Success on Tule River, Isabella on Kern River, 
Folsom on American River, and Coyote Valley on the east fork of 
the Russian River. A total of 59 sites were located, and of thi,s number 
8 have been recommended for excavation or partial excavation. 

Some immediate contributions to the archeological knowledge of 
California were derived from the surveys. Two aboriginal soapstone 
quarries and three pictograph sites, none of which had been described 
previously in archeological literature, were located. Surface collec- 
tions of sherds of the unique and little-known Yokuts-Mona pottery 
will permit a more extensive description of the type from archeological 
sources than has previously been possible. 

Franklin Fenenga, archeologist, was appointed to the California 
surveys on March 21. He made all the surveys in the six reservoirs 
listed above, prepared the preliminary reports on their archeological 
resources, and made recommendations for further work. On June 
28 Mr. Fenenga left Berkeley, Calif., for Eugene, Oreg., and at the 
end of the fiscal year was starting a survey of the Detroit Reservoir 
in the Willamette Valley. 

During the course of the surveys in California Mr. Fenenga em- 
ployed several student assistants. Stephen C. Cappannari served in 
that capacity from May 8 to 11 inclusive; Francis A. Riddell, May 
29-June 1, and June 12-15 ; Harry S. Riddell, Jr., April 17-20 ; and 
Clarence E. Smith, April 1--6, May 1-4 and 19-25. 

Columbia-Snake Basin. — The program for surveys in the Columbia- 
Snake Basin was just getting under way at tli6 close of the fiscal year. 
Dr. Philip Drucker, anthropologist on the regular staff of the Bureau 



SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 25 

of American Ethnology, was detailed to the River Basin Surveys for 
the purpose of directing the work in this area. On June 30 he had 
established field headquarters at Eugene, where the Department of 
Anthropology of the University of Oregon provided office and labora- 
tory space. Two field parties left Eugene on the morning of June 30, 
one to make a reconnaissance of the Detroit Reservoir, a Corps of 
Engineers project on the North Santiam River, in the Willamette 
Valley, Oreg., and the other to make investigations at the Cascade 
Reservoir on the North Fork Payette River in Idaho. Plans for the 
summer called for the survey of 4 Corps of Engineers and 12 Bureau 
of Reclamation projects. 

Dr. Drucker left Washington on June 17, 1947, for San Francisco, 
Calif. He spent the day of June 18 at Lincoln, Nebr., studying the 
operational procedure being used in the Missouri Basin surveys and 
the laboratory arrangements for processing and cataloging specimens 
received from the field. He arrived in San Francisco on the 19th and 
spent the following 2 days in conference with the regional officers of 
Region 4 of the National Park Service and members of the Department 
of Anthropology at the University of California in Berkeley. On 
June 22 he left San Francisco for Portland, Oreg., arriving on the 
23d. At Portland he spent 2 days discussing plans for the surveys 
with Regional Archeologist Louis R. Caywood of the National Park 
Service, regional officials of the Bureau of Reclamation, and repre- 
sentatives of the district engineer of the Corps of Engineers. At this 
time he also made arrangements for the field headquarters at Eugene. 
He returned to San Francisco on June 24 and reported the results 
of his trip to Portland to the regional office of the National Park 
Service. He also recruited personnel for the field parties and made 
arrangements for the shipment of equipment from Berkeley to Eu- 
gene. He left Berkeley on June 28, arriving at Eugene, Oreg., on the 
29th. He left Eugene on June 30 with the field party proceeding to 
the Cascade Reservoir. 

Clarence E. Smith, archeologist, was appointed to the Columbia- 
Snake Basin surveys on June 25. He spent the following 2 days 
assisting Dr. Drucker and Franklin Fenenga in making preparations 
for the summer's field work. On June 28 he left Berkeley in company 
with Fenenga for Eugene, Oreg. They arrived at Eugene on the 
29th and on the morning of the 30th left for the Detroit Reservoir. 

Richard D. Daugherty, archeologist, was appointed to the 
Columbia-Snake Basin staff on June 30, and left the same day for the 
Cascade Reservoir in Idaho. 

Francis A. Riddell joined the Surveys staff on June 26, as field 
assistant. He left Berkeley, Calif., on June 28 and arrived at Eugene, 
Oreg., on June 29. On June 30 he left Eugene in company with Mr. 
Daugherty and Mr. Drucker for the Cascade Reservoir. 



26 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Cooperating institutions. — The River Basin Surveys have been for- 
tunate in receiving wholehearted cooperation from local institutions 
in many portions of the country. Not only has space for field offices 
and laboratories been provided together with the assistance and advice 
of members of the various staffs, as at the University of Nebraska, the 
University of Texas, the University of California, and the University 
of Oregon, but in a number of cases units in the survey program have 
been taken over and are being worked by universities and local organ- 
izations. This active cooperation has relieved the River Basin Sur- 
veys of a considerable burden and has made for more rapid progress 
throughout the country as a whole. 

In Pennsylvania the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Com- 
mission helped with the program. The University of Kentucky as- 
sumed responsibility for investigations at the Wolf Creek and Dewey 
Reservoir projects in that State. The Alabama Museum of Natural 
History conducted surveys along the lower Chattahoochee River Basin 
in Alabama in areas which will be inundated. The Ohio State Mu- 
seum at Columbus investigated Corps of Engineers projects in that 
State. The University of Missouri, in cooperation with the Missouri 
Resources Museum and the Missouri Archeological Society, started 
surveys and excavations in that portion of the Bull Shoals Reservoir, 
on the White River, which lies in Missouri and at several Corps of 
Engineers projects on the Osage River. The Department of An- 
thropology of the University of Chicago and the Illinois State Mu- 
seum at Springfield agreed to cooperate in a survey of the Illinois 
River Basin where 17 Corps of Engineers projects are proposed. The 
University of Oklahoma examined and reported on two reservoirs, 
one of which, the Wister, will inundate extensive and important 
archeological material. The University of Nebraska cooperated both 
in the search for and the excavation of paleontological material and 
in archeological reconnaissance. The Nebraska State Historical So- 
ciety assisted in the survey work and also did some digging in sites 
which will be destroyed by construction work. The South Dakota 
Historical Society did some survey work and also some excavation. 
The University of North Dakota and the North Dakota Historical 
Society cooperated in making a survey at the Heart Butte Reservoir 
and in testing a number of sites in that area. The University of Colo- 
rado assumed responsibility for a survey of eight reservoir basins in 
the Colorado-Big Thompson project and for more intensive investi- 
gation at the Wray Reservoir in eastern Colorado. The University 
of Denver planned surveys of a number of reservoirs in the Blue 
River-South Platte project and of two in the Arkansas River Basin 
south of Pueblo. Western State College took over the examination 
of a group of reservoirs along the Gunnison River in western Colorado. 



SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 27 

The Archeological Survey Association of Southern California, spon- 
sored by a number of museums in that area, started the investigation 
of a number of Corps of Engineers projects in southern California. 
The University of Washington surveyed a number of proposed reser- 
voir basins in that State and made all the information available to 
the Columbia-Snake Basin group at Eugene. It also did some exca- 
vation work. 

The Reports of Progress prepared by the cooperating organizations 
are sent to the River Basin Surveys for coordination and are then for- 
warded to the National Park Service. All the information obtained 
thus becomes a part of the record of the River Basin Surveys in 
general. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editorial work of the Bureau continued during the year under 
the immediate direction of the editor, M. Helen Palmer. There were 
issued one Annual Report and one Publication of the Institute of 
Social Anthropology, as listed below. 

Sixty-third Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1945-46. 
12 pp. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 3. Moche, a Peruvian Coastal Com- 
munity, by John Gillin. 166 pp., 26 pis., 8 figs., 1 map. 

The following publications were in press at the close of the fiscal 
year: 

Bulletin 143. Handbook of South American Indians. Julian H. Steward, 
editor. Volume 3 : The Tropical Forest Tribes. Volume 4 : The Circum-Caribbean 
Tribes. Volume 5 : The Comparative Ethnology of the South American Indians. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 4. Cultural and Historical Geogra- 
phy of Southwest Guatemala, by Felix Webster McBryde. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 5. Highland Communities of Central 
Peru : A Regional Survey, by Harry Tschopik, Jr. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 6. Empire's Children : the People of 
Tzintzuntzan, by George M. Foster. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 7. Cultural Geography of the Mod- 
ern Tarascan Area, by Robert C. West. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 8. Sierra Popoluca Speech, by Mary 
L. Foster and George M. Foster. 

Publications distributed totaled 7,948, as compared with 12,730 for 
the fiscal year 1945-46. 

LIBRARY 

The Library of the Bureau has continued in charge of the librarian, 
Miss Miriam B. Ketchum, assisted by M. L. Fiester, who was appointed 
March 17, 1947. 

The total accessions in the library as of June 30, 1947, were 34,462. 
There were 148 new accessions during the fiscal year, by purchase, gift, 



28 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

and exchange. Many of the foreign exchanges which lapsed during 
the war have again resumed, and good progress has been made in filling 
the gaps, brought about by the war, in periodical sets. 

Cards on hand for domestic periodicals have been typed, and the 
shelf list for this classification is now complete. A beginning has been 
made on typing the cards for serial publications of domestic societies 
and institutions, and this will soon be finished. 

The labeling of sets of publications of domestic societies and institu- 
tions and all the domestic periodicals has been completed, and the 
labeling of the foreign serial publications has begun. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

From late fall of 1946 up to June 30, 1947, E. G. Cassedy, illustrator, 
spent most of the time, with the exception of time taken out to prepare 
weather graphs, work for the Editorial Division, and miscellaneous 
maps and plates, on the restoration of the old Indian negatives of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology. With the help of Mr. Brostrup this 
work has been progressing very satisfactorily and many negatives 
which were important historically and which were about to be lost 
have been preserved for coming generations. 

ARCHIVES 

Miss Mae W. Tucker continued the work of operating and cataloging 
the manuscript and photographic archives of the Bureau. In addi- 
tion to furnishing material for routine requests, some special requests 
for photographic prints requiring urgent attention have been filled. 
Visitors desiring to consult material in the archives have been given the 
required assistance. 

The greater part of the time has been given to work on the manu- 
script catalog which is being prepared for publication, to include all 
the unpublished manuscript material in the Bureau archives. The 
data for this catalog has been typed on individual cards for each item 
and is ready for final assembling. 

A new file-print collection consisting of prints made from the re- 
photographed and retouched negatives in the Bureau collection has 
been started and will continue as the new prints are made. On Mr. 
Cassedy's recommendation, an extra set of prints is being made along 
with the file prints, this set to be preserved for possible emergency use. 

Some time is necessarily required for research work in connection 
with both the manuscript material and the photographs. 

SPECIAL PHOTOGRAPHIC RESTORATION PROJECT 

The Bureau of American Ethnology ever since its inception in 1879 
has maintained a collection of photographic negatives of North Amen- 



SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 29 

can Indians. The file had its origin with the famous "Jackson" col- 
lection of over 1,000 negatives which was brought to the Bureau by 
Major Powell from the directorship of the United States Geological 
Survey. This unique and valuable group has been supplemented by 
about 11,000 additional negatives obtained from various sources in- 
cluding the field trips of the first 40 years, the exposures made in 
Washington of the visiting Indian delegations, gifts, and purchases. 
Nowhere else in this country is there a more complete photographic 
record of the Indians who figured prominently in peace and war 
during the important opening of the West in the nineteenth century. 
In several instances the only known photographs of important char- 
acters of this period are in this collection. 

The great bulk of this collection was made before 1900 in the early 
days of photography, and often under extremely adverse field condi- 
tions of heat and bulky weight. These factors have contributed toward 
a deterioration of the negative image. This deterioration fortunately 
has started around the edges of the negative and is progressing toward 
the center, still leaving the figure and facial characteristics quite legi- 
ble. However, if allowed to go on unchecked this collection will have 
disintegrated unto uselessness. 

During this fiscal year it was determined to inaugurate a systematic 
program of restoration and preservation of this unique collection. The 
continuous demand for reprints from these negatives, especially those 
being used for publication, made this restoration imperative. 

In February 1947 the services of a photographer, John O. Brostrup, 
were obtained. The photographer and the scientific illustrator have 
begun the program of restoration and preservation of these negatives. 
The following system was devised and is being used in this work : 

(1) Chemical improvement and cleaning of the original negative. 
(2) Making a uniform enlarged print from the original negative, 
cropping out destroyed and objectionable background areas. (3) Res- 
toration of missing areas, and improvement of backgrounds by the 
scientific illustrator with the minimum alteration necessary to pre- 
serve faithfully the original negative. (4) Copying the restored en- 
largement to uniform 8 by 10 inch size. (5) Printing of permanent 
file prints. 

All the processing is being carried out with the intent of insuring as 
great a degree of permanence as possible. 

First priority is being given those negatives which are needed to 
supply prints for pay orders, i. e., those for which there is an imme- 
diate demand. Second priority are those negatives which are in the 
most advanced stages of deterioration. 

At the beginning of the work in February an inspection was made 
of each negative, and those requiring early restoration were listed. 



30 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

A file of restored prints is being built up, and inspection in the 
offices of the Bureau of American Ethnology is invited. 

COLLECTIONS 

Collections transferred by the Bureau of American Ethnology to the 
Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum, dur- 
ing the fiscal year were as follows : 

Accession No. Collection 

176066. 65 ethnological specimens from the Rio Vaupes in Colombia and Brazil. 

Collected by Paul H. Allen. 
176157. 3 ethnological specimens from the Navaho Indians. Collected by Dr. 

John P. Harrington, at Fort Defiance, Ariz., in 1939. 
176347. 1 ceremonial cane from the Iroquois Indians of Six Nations Reserve, 

Canada. Collected by J. N. B. Hewitt, June 1916. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning the 
American Indians, both past and present, of both continents. Vari- 
ous specimens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them 
furnished for their owners. 
Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Chief. 
Dr. A. Wetmore, 

Secretaiy, Smithsonian Institution. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTIN9 OFFICE, 1141 



Sixty -fifth Annual Report 

■ 
of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 

? 

1947-1948 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



SIXTY- FIFTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1947-1948 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1949 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Director. — Matthew W. Stirling. 

Associate Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Senior ethnologists. — H. B. Collins, Jr., John P. Harrington, W. N. Fenton. 

Senior anthropologists. — G. R. Willey, P. Drucker. 

Collaborators. — Frances S. Densmore, John R. Swanton, A. J. Waring, Jr. 

Editor. — M. Helen Palmer. 

Librarian. — Miriam B. Ketchum. 

Illustrator. — Edwin G. Cassedy. 

INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 

Director. — G. M. Foster, Jr. 

Anthropologists. — Mexican office: Isabel T. Kelly, Stanley S. Newman ; Peru- 
vian office: George Kubler; Brazilian office: Donald Pierson, Kalervo Oberg. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Archeologists. — J. Joseph Bauxar, Wesley L. Bliss, Joseph R. Caldwell, 

George L. Coale, Paul L. Cooper, Robert B. Cumming, Jr., Richard D. 

Daugherty, Franklin Fenenga, Jack T. Hughes, Marvin F. Kivett, Carl 

F. Miller, Clarence E. Smith, Ralph S. Solecki, Robert L. Stephenson, 

Joe Ben Wheat, Arnold M. Withers. 
Paleontologist. — Theodore E. White. 



SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Chief 



Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1948, conducted 
in accordance with the Act of Congress of June 27, 1944, which pro- 
vides "* * * for continuing ethnological researches among the 
American Indians and the natives of Hawaii and the excavation and 
preservation of archeologic remains. * * *" 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

Dr. M. W. Stirling, Director of the Bureau, spent the first part of 
the fiscal year in Washington attending to administrative duties and 
in preparing a study on "Olmec Jade." 

On January 1 Dr. Stirling left for western Panama where he spent 
Zy 2 months in the excavation of four archeological sites on the Azuero 
Peninsula in cooperation with the National Geographic Society. Two 
of these were representative of the relatively late Code culture. A 
third was a mound site representing a new culture apparently ances- 
tral to Code, while the fourth site was a shell mound near the mouth 
of the Parita Kiver, which was found to contain a very early and 
completely new culture, unrelated to anything heretofore known in 
Panama. During this work Dr. Stirling was assisted in the field by 
Dr. Gordon Willey of the Bureau staff. 

At the close of the archeological field season a brief visit was made 
to the Guaymi Indians in the Province of Chiriqui. 

Dr. Frank H. H. Eoberts, Jr., Associate Director of the Bureau 
and Director of the River Basin Surveys, was mainly occupied 
throughout the fiscal year in directing the River Basin Surveys. In 
connection with this work he established cooperative projects with 
State and local institutions in various parts of the country, aided in 
the preparation of preliminary reports pertaining to the results of 
investigations in various reservoir basins, and wrote progress reports 
for the cooperating agencies. He went to Lincoln, Nebr., November 26 
to December 5, where he inspected the field headquarters and labora- 
tory for the Missouri Basin project, received reports on the results 
of the summer's surveys in that area, and aided in the preparation of 
plans for evaluating and handling the material collected. While in 
Lincoln he attended sessions of the Fifth Plains Conference for Ar- 
cheology and presided at a symposium on "The Paleo-Indian in the 

1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Central Plains." He also took part in a regional conference of Na- 
tional Park Service officials at which various phases of the River 
Basins program were discussed and plans for the future were formu- 
lated. In May he went to Milwaukee, Wis., to attend the annual 
meeting of the Society for American Archeology and presided over a 
symposium on "The River Basin Archeological Surveys." Dr. Rob- 
erts' report on the River Basin Surveys appears in another section of 
this report. 

Dr. John P. Harrington, ethnologist, was occupied at the beginning 
of the fiscal year in the preparation of a supplement to his recently 
completed Aleutian grammar. This supplement contains a long list 
of terms relating to natural history, weather, material cultures, 
sociology, religion, and geography. Following this Dr. Harrington 
completed a grammar of the Maya language consisting of 750 type- 
written pages. This study is of particular importance, as Maya is 
one of the "classic" languages of aboriginal America. 

Dr. Harrington then prepared and brought to completion a gram- 
mar of the Cahuilla language. The Cahuilla Indians are at present 
the leading native tribe of southern California. A large report on 
the Guarani language of South America was also finished. Guarani 
in the Republic of Paraguay has been given equal official and legal 
standing with Spanish. This is the only instance in which a native 
Indian language has been given a true literate status. A smaller paper 
on the Matako language of the central part of the Gran Chaco of 
Argentina was next completed. It was found that in many respects 
this language is surprisingly similar to Guarani. Another large 
paper was then prepared, describing and discussing the three principal 
ideographic writing systems of the world, Egyptian, Chinese, and 
Maya. 

Dr. Henry B. Collins, Jr., ethnologist, spent the period from June 
19 to August 16 on Martha's Vineyard, Mass., engaged in an archeo- 
logical survey of the western end of the island. He found a number of 
prehistoric Indian village and camp sites, mainly in the Chilmark- 
Menemsha-Gay Head region, and made collections of artifacts. On 
returning to Washington he resumed his Eskimo studies. 

As chairman of the Board of Governors of the Arctic Institute of 
North America, Dr. Collins continued to devote considerable time to 
the affairs of that organization. In the course of the year the Arctic 
Institute, with increased support from governmental and other sources, 
expanded its research and other activities. It opened a New York 
office at the American Geographical Society headquarters, established 
an open membership, and began publication of a journal. It spon- 
sored and administered a number of field studies in anthropology, 
botany, zoology, geology, and geography. These projects carried out 



SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 3 

in Alaska and northern Canada were financed in large part by the 
office of Naval Kesearch and the Canadian Government. 

Dr. Collins continued to serve as chairman of the Directing Com- 
mittee for the Arctic Institute's Bibliography and Roster projects. 
This committee selected personnel and put into operation these two 
projects — the preparation of a comprehensive annotated and indexed 
bibliography on the Arctic, and a roster of Arctic specialists. The 
projects are supported by funds from the Office of Naval Research, 
the Army, and the Defense Research Board of Canada. The bibliog- 
raphy project, with four expert bibliographers and three assistants, 
is under way at the Library of Congress; the roster project, with a 
director and assistant, has been given office space in the building of 
the Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

At the invitation of the Canadian Government, Dr. Collins left 
Washington late in June to conduct archeological work for the Smith- 
sonian Institution and the National Museum of Canada in the northern 
part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. 

At the beginning of the year Dr. William N. Fenton was on leave 
while teaching in the summer session of Northwestern University 
(June 23 to August 23), where he was invited to occupy the post of 
professor in the department of anthropology during that quarter. 
"While in the Chicago area, he was able to spend considerable time 
examining rare books and manuscripts in the Ayer Collection of the 
Newberry Library and to study ethnological collections from the 
Iroquois Indians in the Milwaukee Public Museum and in the Chicago 
Natural History Museum. Returning, Dr. Fenton spent the first 2 
weeks of September at field work among the Seneca Indians of Alle- 
gany Reservation in western New York. 

Teaching a course in primitive political institutions suggested a 
plan for undertaking a comprehensive political history of the League 
of the Iroquois which would attempt to test the findings of ethnology 
in the historian's traditional materials. The documentary materials 
on the Six Nations comprising the Iroquois League for the Federal 
Period alone and for the succeeding first decade of the nineteenth 
century exist in several large collections of papers which have not 
been used extensively by historians of Federal and Indian political 
relations. First, the papers of Samuel Kirkland (1741-1808) contain 
interesting sidelights on the political activities of the Six Nations, 
covering missionary activities among the Oneida, Tuscarora, and 
Seneca tribes ; the correspondence of an agent of the American Revo- 
lution; and the gradual civilization of the native Indians. Exami- 
nation of the Kirkland papers at Hamilton College was begun in 
September with the help of M. H. Deardorff of Warren, Pa., and 
Charles E. Congdon, an alumnus. The project is indebted to Dr. 
Arthur C. Parker of Naples, N. Y., for the loan of a Seneca Census of 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

1840 and several minute books of the Six Nations Council at Buffalo 
Creek by the New England missionary Rev. Asher Wright; these have 
subsequently been acquired by the American Philosophical Society. 

Two grants were received for Iroquois research. Toward the col- 
lection of materials for a political history of the Iroquois the American 
Philosophical Society made a grant for travel, photoduplication, and 
secretarial assistance ; and a similar grant was received from the Vik- 
ing Fund, Inc., for field work. 

Beginning in February, Dr. Fenton spent about 1 week of each 
month in travel to repositories of historical materials. He visited 
Salem and Boston to examine the Timothy Pickering papers, working 
in the Essex Institute and the Peabody Museum of Salem, and the 
Massachusetts Historical Society and the Houghton Library of 
Harvard in the Boston area. Frequent short trips were made to the 
library of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, to ex- 
amine parallel papers and to identify a Constitution of the Iroquois 
Confederacy by Seth Newhouse. In April Dr. Fenton went back to 
Hamilton College for further work on the Kirkland papers, and re- 
turning, he stopped at Vassar College library to arrange for copying 
the Jasper Parrish papers. Kirkland, Pickering, and Parrish were 
all concerned in negotiating treaties with the Six Nations after the 
Revolution, and their letters led to the immense collection of mementos 
relating to western New York which Henry O'Reilly of Rochester had 
collected in 15 large folio volumes for presentation to the New York 
Historical Society. By the end of June Dr. Fenton had completed 
a first examination of the O'Reilly papers and had arranged for micro- 
filming a substantial part of them. A policy of collecting as much as 
practicable on microfilm has cut down the cost of travel. 

Dr. Fenton completed a term as senior editor of the Journal of the 
Washington Academy of Sciences. In June he was appointed anthro- 
pologist member of the Language Panel of the United States National 
Commission for UNESCO. 

A second album of Iroquois records with program notes, edited by 
Dr. Fenton, entitled "Seneca Songs from Coldspring Longhouse," 
was published by the Library of Congress. 

Dr. Philip Drucker, anthropologist, was detailed to the River Basin 
Surveys July 1 to October 1, 1947, for work in the Columbia Basin. 
He returned to Washington on October 1, and during the ensuing 
months he brought to completion an ethnographic monograph entitled 
"The Northern and Central Nootkan Tribes," based on field investi- 
gations which he had made among the Nootkan-speaking Indians of 
Vancouver Island, British Columbia, some years before. This report 
describes in detail mode of life and customs of these Indians during 
the closing decades of the nineteenth century and is to be followed by 
a study tracing the oultural changes produced by European contacts 



SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

during the maritime fur trade a century earlier. On finishing this 
report, he completed an archeological monograph, "La Venta, 
Tabasco : A Study of Olmec Ceramics and Art," which summarizes the 
principal results of the studies made by the Smithsonian Institution- 
National Geographic Society expeditions to southern Veracruz and 
Tabasco, Mexico. In addition, he prepared two short papers for 
publication — "Preliminary Account of Archeological Reconnaissance 
on the Chiapas Coast," and one entitled "The Antiquity of the North- 
west Coast Totem Pole" — as well as summary reports for the Director, 
River Basin Surveys, on the results of investigations of 14 reservoir 
areas in the Columbia Basin and of 10 in California during the pre- 
ceding field season. 

On May 2 Dr. Drucker proceeded to Boston and Salem, Mass., to 
examine collections of manuscript materials and museum collections 
from the period of the maritime fur trade on the Northwest Coast, 
in the archives of the Massachusetts Historical Society and in the 
Peabody Museum, Salem. Through the courtesy of officials of those 
institutions, he was given access to the collections and was able to 
assemble a considerable amount of unpublished data relating to the 
problem of culture change due to early European influences. On 
May 9 he returned to Washington. 

On May 13 he was again detailed to the River Basin Surveys and 
left for the Pacific Coast, to resume charge of the River Basin Sur- 
veys work there. He was occupied with these duties at the end of 
the fiscal year. 

Dr. Gordon R. Willey was detailed to the River Basin Surveys for 
the period August 15 to October 1, 1947, for work in Tennessee. 

In the month of October Dr. Willey was occupied in writing addi- 
tional sections of a report, "Ancon and Supe : Formative Period Sites 
of the Central Peruvian Coast." This paper is being prepared in 
conjunction with J. M. Corbett and L. M. O'Neale and is to be pub- 
lished under the auspices of Columbia University. In November and 
December full time was devoted to a long monograph "Archeology 
of the Florida Gulf Coast." This involved both writing and a mu- 
seum survey in late November. Collections were examined in Cam- 
bridge, Andover, and New York. 

On January 1, Dr. Willey accompanied Dr. Stirling to western 
Panama for Sy 2 months of archeological excavations in Herrera Prov- 
ince. Four sites were examined and stratigraphic tests made in the 
most promising locations of each. May and June, following the re- 
turn from Panama, were occupied with writing the "Archeology of 
the Florida Gulf Coast." This report should be completed early in 
September 1948. 

In addition to regular research duties, Dr. Willey has attended 
two meetings of the Institute of Andean Research, of which he is a 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

member, and a meeting of Florida archeologists held early in August 
at Daytona Beach. He has also served as assistant editor to Ameri- 
can Antiquity, to the Handbook of Latin American Studies, and to 
the Journal of American Archaeology. For all these journals his work 
has entailed the covering of recent South American archeological lit- 
erature. 

In the Bureau he has acted as consultant during the final editing 
of the third and fourth volumes of the Handbook of South American 
Indians. 

The following articles were prepared by Dr. Willey for publication 
during the year 1947-48 : "Culture Sequence for the Manatee Kegion 
of West Florida," American Antiquity, vol. 13, No. 3 ; "The Cultural 
Context of the Crystal River Negative Painted Style," American An- 
tiquity, vol. 13, No. 4 ; "A Proto-type of the Southern Cult," Ameri- 
can Antiquity, vol. 13, No. 4. 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES 

Miss Frances Densmore, collaborator of the Bureau, conducted spe- 
cial research on music among the South American Indians and sub- 
mitted a manuscript entitled "Musical Customs of the Southern Hunter 
Indians of South America" as compiled from the Handbook of South 
American Indians. 

INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 

The Institute of Social Anthropology was created in 1943 as an 
autonomous unit of the Bureau of American Ethnology to carry out 
cooperative training in anthropological teaching and research with the 
other American republics. During the past year it was financed by 
transfers from the Department of State, totaling $94,882, from the 
appropriation "Cooperation with the American Republics, 1948." 
The major activities of the Institute of Social Anthropology during 
the fiscal year 1948 are as follows : 

Washington office. — Dr. George M. Foster continued as director of 
the Institute of Social Anthropology. He traveled to six South Amer- 
ican countries during the period February 14 to April 12, 1948, visiting 
Institute of Social Anthropology field stations in Popayan, Colombia, 
Lima, Peru, and Sao Paulo, Brazil. In addition, courtesy calls were 
made on anthropologists in Barranquilla and Medellin, Colombia, 
Quito, Ecuador, Cusco, Peru, La Paz, Bolivia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 
and Caracas, Venezuela. Dr. Foster also spent 3 weeks in Mexico 
(November 25-December 15, 1947) reading final proof on Publication 
No. 6 of the Institute of Social Anthropology. 

Brazil. — Drs. Donald Pierson and Kalervo Oberg continued their 
work in Sao Paulo in cooperation with the Escola Livre de Sociologfa 



SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

e Politica. They gave a number of courses in sociology and anthro- 
pology, supplementing other courses given by local professors in the 
general field of the humanities. Dr. Oberg, accompanied by several 
advanced students, returned to the Mato Grosso for 3 months, July- 
September 1947, to complete field work initiated the preceding year 
among the Terena and Caduveo Indians. Dr. Pierson, assisted by 
advanced students, continued field work at "A Vila," a cdboclo com- 
munity near Sao Paulo. The proximity of "A Vila" to Sao Paulo 
made it possible to utilize week ends and short vacations throughout 
the year, rather than spending a continuous longer period in the field. 

Colombia. — Dr. John H. Rowe continued to represent the Institute 
of Social Anthropology in Popayan, Colombia, cooperating with the 
Instituto Etnologico of the Universidad del Cauca. Courses in 
ethnology, linguistics, and archeology were given to the students 
enrolled in the Instituto and 2 months of field work was carried out 
among the nearby Guambiano Indians, August-September 1947. Dr. 
Rowe also twice visited Bogota to consult with local anthropologists 
of the National Ethnological Institute concerning anthropological 
activities in Colombia. Sr. Gabriel Ospina, formerly a student of 
Institute of Social Anthropology scientists in Mexico, was named 
director of the newly established Instituto de Antropologia Social of 
the Escuela Normal Superior. Utilizing field techniques learned 
while working with Dr. Foster in Tzintzuntzan, Mexico, he began a 
4-year anthropological study of the pueblo of Viani, to train local 
personnel, and to throw light on the functioning of this aspect of 
Colombian culture. 

Mexico. — Dr. Isabel Kelly and Dr. Stanley Newman continued to 
represent the Institute of Social Anthropology in its cooperative plan 
with the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia. Because of reduced ap- 
propriations as compared to the fiscal year of 1947, it was necessary 
to terminate studies in cultural geography on August 31, 1947, when 
Robert C. West left this service. Five courses in ethnology and lin- 
guistics were given during the academic year. Dr. Kelly, assisted by 
four students, returned to Taj in, Veracruz, to continue her study of 
the Totonac Indians, A photographic exhibit in the Benjamin Frank- 
lin Library in May 1947, of Totonac Indian scenes, prepared by Dr. 
Kelly, received favorable comment from many Mexicans, and was 
thoroughly described in El Nacional, the official Mexican Government 
newspaper. Dr. Newman, working with other faculty members and 
students, and working with native informants brought from the field, 
continued research on the Otomi and Nahuatl languages. 

Peru. — Dr. Allan Holmberg continued to represent the Institute of 
Social Anthropology in Peru in its cooperative work with the Instituto 
de Estudios Etnologicos. As in the case of Mexico, reduced appro- 
priations made it necessary to reduce the Peruvian staff; the services of 

816911 — 19 2 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Dr. Webster McBryde were terminated on September 30, 1947. Dr. 
Holmberg gave three courses in ethnology during the year ; two, in- 
cluding a seminar on field methods, in the Instituto de Estudios 
Etnologicos, and one in the University of San Marcos. Three months, 
February through April, 1948, were again spent in the Virti Valley, 
bringing to a close the studies initiated the preceding year by Dr. 
Holmberg, Dr. Jorge Muelle of the Instituto faculty, and selected 
students. 

Dr. Holmberg was one of three official United States delegates to 
the Hylean Amazon Project of the UNESCO in Iquitos, Peru, in 
May 1948. 

Publications. — Institute of Social Anthropology Publications Nos. 
4, 5, 6, and 7, appeared during the fiscal year. These are listed with 
the publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

The River Basin Surveys, a unit of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology organized to carry into effect a memorandum of under- 
standing between the Smithsonian Institution and the National Park 
Service providing for the recovery of such archeological and paleon- 
tological data and materials as will be lost through the construction 
of dams and the creation of reservoirs in many of the river valleys of 
the United States, continued its investigations throughout the year. 
The work was carried on in cooperation with the National Park 
Service and the Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior, 
and the Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, and was 
financed by the transfer of $73,800 from the National Park Service 
to the Smithsonian Institution. These funds were provided in 
part by the National Park Service and in part by the Bureau of 
Reclamation. 

Most of the work in the field was of a reconnaissance or survey 
nature, with only a limited testing of sites where such was necessary 
to determine their extent and character. In a few cases, however, 
actual excavations were undertaken. The activities involved 18 States 
and 38 reservoir areas. By the end of the year the number of reser- 
voir basins surveyed, since the first parties started in July 1946, totaled 
85. Their distribution is: Virginia 1, West Virginia 2, Georgia 2, 
Tennessee 1, Oklahoma 2, Texas 5, Colorado (outside of the Missouri 
Basin) 4, California 13, the Missouri Basin (7 States) 50, and the 
Columbia Basin (4 States) 15. Those where surveys were under 
way but not completed by June 30 are not included in this summary. 
In the various areas visited 1,576 sites were noted and recorded and of 
that number 250 have been recommended for extensive excavation. 
The excavations completed or in progress on June 30 were: New 
Mexico 1, Wyoming 1, Nebraska 1, South Dakota 1, North Dakota 1. 



SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 9 

Texas 1, and Washington 1. Preliminary appraisals with recommen- 
dations for further work, supplemented by some technical reports, 
have been completed for all the areas surveyed. Limited editions of 
61 have been mimeographed for distribution to the cooperating 
agencies. The others were in varying stages of being processed at the 
end of the year. These mimeographed pamphlets have not been 
made available to the general public because they are not complete 
archeological reports and are intended to be used only for reference 
purposes by the Surveys staff while the program is going forward. 
Keports for general distribution will be issued after the archeological 
and paleontological work in each unit has been completed. 

General direction and supervision of the work in Georgia, West 
Virginia, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado (outside 
of the Missouri Basin) , and some of the California projects were from 
the main office in Washington. Direction of the program in the 
Missouri Basin was from a field headquarters and laboratory at 
Lincoln, Nebr., while the activities in the Columbia-Snake Basin were 
under the supervision of a field office located at Eugene, Oreg. 

The assistance and whole-hearted cooperation given to River Basin 
Surveys staff men in the field by representatives of the National Park 
Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Corps of Engineers con- 
tributed in no small degree to the success of much of the work. At 
some of the projects temporary office space and storage facilities were 
provided, at others transportation was furnished, and in a few cases 
labor was made available to help in emergency excavations where 
material had to be recovered immediately. The National Park Service 
not only obtained the funds necessary for carrying on the program 
as a whole, but also served as the liaison between the Smithsonian In- 
stitution and the other governmental agencies to the benefit of all 
concerned. 

Washington office. — The main office of the River Basin Surveys was 
under the direction of Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., throughout the 
fiscal year. Carl F. Miller, archeologist, continued to operate from 
this office, while Joseph R. Caldwell joined the staff as archeologist 
on December 14, 1947, by transfer from the United States National 
Museum, and Ralph S. Solecki was appointed in the same capacity 
on March 2, 1948. 

Mr. Miller spent the months from the beginning of the fiscal year 
until January in completing a "Comprehensive Report on the Archeo- 
logical Aspects of the Buggs Island Reservoir, Virginia and North 
Carolina." He left Washington on January 10, 1948, in company with 
Mr. Caldwell, for Augusta, Ga., where they conferred with the Resi- 
dent Engineer of the Clark Hill project on the Savannah River. 
From Augusta they proceeded to Lincolnton, Ga., where they estab- 
lished headquarters, January 13. and proceeded to make a survey of 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the archeological remains of the area to be flooded by the Clark Hill 
Keservoir. During the course of this work they located 128 sites, 
70 of which will be covered by water when the dam. is completed. 
These sites included former village areas, camps, and stone-chipping 
stations, with a few mounds. Materials collected from the surface 
suggest the former presence of at least six sequent cultural groupings 
in the area, including a considerable number which possibly antedate 
the introduction of pottery making. Most of the sites are small and, as 
a result of long-continued cultivation and erosion, few have any depth. 
Three of them have been recommended for excavation. Two of the 
latter are representatives of the type of culture which has been named 
Stalling's Island, and the third is the Rembert Mound Group described 
by William Bartram in 1791 and partially excavated by C. C. Jones 
in 1878 and Cyrus Thomas in 1894 but never thoroughly studied. 
These mounds belong in the so-called Lamar period in the South- 
eastern cultural sequence. 

Miller and Caldwell completed their work at Clark Hill on May 31 
and returned to Washington. They spent the remainder of the fiscal 
year writing a preliminary report on the results of the survey and 
preparing recommendations and estimates for an excavation program 
in the basin. 

Mr. Solecki left Washington on March 8, 1948, for Hinton, W. Va., 
where he established headquarters and began a survey of the Bluestone 
Reservoir basin on New River. He completed the preliminary recon- 
naissance on April 19 and left for Huntington, W. Va., to confer 
with the District Engineer, Corps of Engineers. En route he stopped 
at Charleston where, with the aid of Mrs. Roy Bird Cook, State 
Historian and Archivist, he checked the records and manuscripts in 
the History and Archives Department of West Virginia for possible 
information on the Indians and early Colonial settlers in the New 
River valley. He left Huntington on April 21, for Pittsburgh, Pa., 
stopping to examine some archeological sites at Moundsville, W. Va. 
At Pittsburgh he obtained information from the District Engineer, 
Corps of Engineers, about the proposed West Fork Reservoir in 
the Monongahela Basin in north-central West Virginia. From Pitts- 
burgh he proceeded to the West Fork Reservoir area and made a 
preliminary reconnaissance of the area that ultimately will be flooded. 
This work was completed on May 6, and he returned to the Bluestone 
area for more intensive investigation of the remains occurring there. 

Inasmuch as both of the reservoir projects surveyed by Mr. Solecki 
are in mountainous regions, most of the traces of Indian and Colonial 
occupation occur along the river bottoms. A total of 42 archeological 
sites were found in the Bluestone area. These include mound groups, 
village remains, rock shelters, one location where there are pictographs, 
and four Colonial forts. At two of the sites, where potsherds were 



SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 11 

found on the surface, Solecki did some test digging. The material 
thus obtained places the cultural horizon in late pre-Columbian times 
and indicates certain links between the Ohio Valley and the Great Val- 
ley of the Shenandoah. Test excavations were also made in the largest 
of the rock shelters where both historic and prehistoric objects were 
found, the latter occurring in the deposits to a depth of 5 feet. 
Because no previous archeological work has been done in this district 
the excavation of three of the village sites and the large rock shelter 
has been recommended. Solecki found 14 small sites, presumably 
places where transient hunting parties had camped, in the West Fork 
Basin. None of these are of sufficient size or depth to warrant further 
study and no additional work was recommended. The West Virginia 
surveys were completed on May 28 and Solecki returned to Washing- 
ton where he spent the remainder of the fiscal year preparing reports 
on the results of his investigations. 

Dr. Gordon K. Willey, archeologist on the regular staff of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, was detailed to the River Basin 
Surveys during August and September. On August 14 he went to 
Nashville, Tenn., where he visited the office of the District Engineer 
for the purpose of obtaining information about the Center Hill proj- 
ect on the Caney Fork River near Baxter, Tenn. From there he 
proceeded to Baxter and from August 20 to September 12 carried 
on a survey of the area to be flooded. He found 39 sites consisting of 
temple mounds, small earth-rock mounds, villages, and caves showing 
some signs of occupation. Many of the sites proved to be Middle 
Mississippian in culture and period; some suggested that they be- 
longed in the pre-Mississippian category, and others may even repre- 
sent the Archaic. The Middle Mississippian designates the period 
when the people lived in large sedentary communities, depended pri- 
marily on intensive agriculture for their subsistence, built temple or 
substructure mounds, and made characteristic types of pottery and 
other artifacts. This generally is believed to have been about A. D. 
1300 to 1700. Pre-Mississippian also has been called the Burial Mound 
period, or Southeastern Woodland culture. At that stage the people 
lived in smaller communities or scattered households, lived pri- 
marily by hunting, fishing, food gathering supplemented by a little 
agriculture. This was during the centuries from approximately 
A. D. 800 to 1300. The Archaic refers to small, scattered groups of 
primitive hunters and food gatherers who are believed to have oc- 
cupied the area prior to A. D. 700. Excavations were recommended 
for one of the temple-mound sites and one of the earth-rock burial 
mounds, with testing in some of the village remains. Unfortunately 
flooding started before this could be accomplished, and the material 
obtained from the survey constitutes most of our knowledge of that 
portion of the Cumberland Basin. 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

After completing the survey at Center Hill, Dr. Willey proceeded 
to Knoxville, Term., where he discussed archeological problems with 
members of the Department of Anthropology at the University of 
Tennessee. From there he returned to Washington and prepared his 
report. He returned to his regular duties as a member of the Bureau 
staff on October 1. 

Oklahoma. — David J. Wenner, Jr., was appointed field assistant 
on July 29, 1947, and proceeded to make a survey of the Hulah Reser- 
voir basin on the Caney River in Oklahoma. The area to be in- 
undated by this project is not large and he was able to cover it in a 
few days' time. He found four sites, all apparently camping places, 
and because of their meager nature, did not believe them worthy of 
further investigation. From the Hulah region he proceeded to the 
Fort Gibson Reservoir project on the Grand (Neosho) River. A 
rapid survey of that basin located 24 sites consisting of 1 mound 
group, 1 bluff shelter, and the remains of 22 villages or camps. All but 
three of the sites will be covered by water. The most important is the 
mound group known as the Norman site. It originally consisted of 
six earth mounds and a large surrounding village area. Some work 
was done in four of the lesser mounds a number of years ago by the 
University of Oklahoma. One of the two remaining mounds is the 
largest at the site and is connected to an adjacent low mound by a 
ramp. Small test excavations have been made in the low mound 
but the large one is virtually intact. It represents a stage of cultural 
florescence in the southern United States about which very little is 
known and may be comparable in scientific wealth to the famous Spiro 
mounds, located in an adjacent county, destroyed by treasure hunters 
some 15 years ago. Excavation of the Norman mound probably 
would provide information essential to dating the Spiro-type culture 
which presumably was the forerunner of the native Caddo culture of 
the southern Plains at the beginning of historic times. For this 
reason thorough investigation of the remaining manifestations at the 
Norman site was recommended. 

Mr. Wenner completed his field investigations on August 15 and 
proceeded to Norman, Okla., where the University of Oklahoma pro- 
vided him with facilities for studying the material collected and writ- 
ing his reports. During the period of the surveys and the prepara- 
tion of the reports, Dr. Robert E. Bell, of the Department of An- 
thropology at the University, assisted Mr. Wenner as an advisor and 
consultant. After completion of the work Mr. Wenner left the Sur- 
veys to return to college. He again joined the staff on June 28, 1948, 
and at the close of the fiscal year was engaged in making a survey of 
the Tenkiller Ferry Reservoir on the Illinois River in the eastern part 
of the State. Robert Shalkop and William Mayer-Oakes, student as- 
sistants, were aiding in this work. 



SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 13 

Texas. — The River Basin Surveys in Texas continued to operate 
throughout the year from the base and headquarters supplied by the 
Department of Anthropology at the University of Texas, Austin. 
Excavations were completed at one project, the survey of another res- 
ervoir basin was brought to conclusion, and two others were started 
and finished. 

At the beginning of the year Joe Ben Wheat, archeologist, was en- 
gaged in excavations at the Addicks Reservoir. This work was termi- 
nated on July 15. Mr. Wheat then proceeded to Austin where he 
studied the material he had collected and prepared a preliminary 
report covering both the results of his survey of the Addicks Basin 
and his excavations in two of the sites located there. He also 
wrote a paper "Archeological Survey of the Addicks Basin : A Pre- 
liminary Report" which was published in volume 18 of the Bulletin 
of the Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society. He resigned 
from the Surveys on August 15 in order to return to the university 
and complete his graduate work. 

The excavations at the Addicks Reservoir proved interesting because 
they revealed a sequence of cultural stages extending from the era 
before pottery making and agriculture were introduced through suc- 
ceeding centuries until the beginning of contact with European cul- 
ture. The period covered is from about A. D. 900 to 1700. Who the 
people were is not known, but certain postulations may be made. At 
the time of the first French and Spanish explorations of the region 
the Akokisa band of the Atakapan occupied the area. Although little 
is known of the specific culture of this group, it is generally considered 
to have shared the general Atakapan culture extending into the lower 
Mississippi Valley. The archeological culture is of the same south- 
eastern pattern, which may point to the Akokisa as being the pre- 
Columbian inhabitants of the Addicks district. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Robert L. Stephenson, arche- 
ologist, was making a reconnaissance of the Whitney Reservoir basin 
on the Brazos River north of Waco. This work continued until Oc- 
tober 1, although August 2-4 he returned to Austin for the purpose of 
depositing material collected and of conferring with members of the 
Department of Anthropology at the University of Texas; August 
30 to September 1 he visited the Spanish Fort and other sites in the 
central Red River area ; and September 13-14 he went to a number of 
archeological locations near Waco, but outside the reservoir basin, for 
the purpose of gathering comparative data. On August 23 he made a 
li^-hour flight over the entire Whitney area, successfully locating 
archeological sites from the air and obtaining a comprehensive under- 
standing of the district as a whole. He returned to Austin on October 
1 and spent most of the following 2 months studying the material col- 
lected and writing the preliminary report. He also prepared an ar- 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

ticle, "Archeological Survey of Whitney Basin," which was published 
in volume 18 of the Bulletin of the Texas Archeological and Paleonto- 
logical Society. 

During the course of his investigations Mr. Stephenson located 
and recorded 61 sites in the Whitney Basin. These consist of 14 rock 
shelters and 47 occupational areas in the open. Two fossil localities 
were also located. He recommended 32 sites for further testing and 
excavation. Such work should produce important evidence on the 
cultural complexes of that portion of Texas. 

Mr. Stephenson left Austin on November 26 and went to Lincoln, 
Nebr., where he studied the field and laboratory methods being used 
by the Missouri Basin Survey group. While at Lincoln he also attend- 
ed the Fifth Conference for Plains Archeology and presented a paper 
on the work which he had been doing in Texas. He returned to Aus- 
tin on December 5 and on the 9th left to begin a survey of the Dam "B" 
Reservoir basin on the middle Neches River in the eastern part of the 
State. This work was completed on January 18, 1948, having been 
interrupted by a trip to the Whitney Reservoir where 3 days were 
spent in showing Dr. Theodore E. White, paleontologist, the bone 
deposits located earlier. While on this trip Mr. Stephenson located a 
large mound and accompanying village remains on the upper Neches 
River near Palestine, Tex. From Dam "B" he proceeded to the McGee 
Bend Reservoir on the lower Angelina River. Inclement weather, 
however, interfered with active work in the field, and most of the time 
until February 16 was devoted to studying local collections of arti- 
facts, working on field notes, and on the report on the results of the 
Dam "B" investigations. During this interval he also went to Galves- 
ton, Tex., for a 3-day conference at the office of the District Engineer, 
Corps of Engineers, regarding the dates of beginning and completion 
of reservoir projects in all parts of Texas. The period from February 
16 to April 15, except for 3 days (March 5-7) spent at Nacogdoches 
studying old records to obtain data on the early history of the area, was 
devoted to reconnaissance of the McGee Bend basin. When the survey 
was finished Mr. Stephenson returned to Austin and was occupied until 
the end of the year in preparing his reports on the Dam "B" and 
McGee Bend investigations. 

In the survey of the Dam "B" area 12 sites were located, but none 
gave indication of being of sufficient importance to warrant further 
examination. Comparable material occurs both in the McGee Bend 
Basin and elsewhere in the region. Unless construction work should 
reveal subsurface deposits of archeological significance no additional 
work will be required at this reservoir and none was recommended. 
At McGee Bend 80 sites were located and recorded. Of this number, 
8 are early and contain no pottery, 34 are early pottery sites of the 
Alto Focus (ca. A. D. 1000 to 1300) , 22 are late pottery sites of Bossier, 



SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 15 

] telcher, and Frankston Foci (ca. A. D. 1450 to 1600) , and 1 is a historic 
site. At many of these locations there are evidences of occupation 
through two or more cultural periods and they are important for that 
reason. Out of the group 31 sites have been recommended for fur- 
ther testing or more extended excavation. 

New Mexico. — The only work done thus far in New Mexico con- 
sisted of the excavation of portions of two shallow rock-shelters 8 
miles southeast of Tucumcari. The manifestations at that location, 
the Hodges site, were outside of the area directly involved by the 
Tucumcari project and were in no danger of destruction either by 
[ruction work or flooding. They were being dug, however, on 
week ends and holidays by workmen from the project and by settlers 
attracted to the district by the development of the irrigation program. 
In order to salvage as much as possible of what still remained, the 
excavations were initiated by Herbert W. Dick, temporary field assist- 
ant, who was employed by the Surveys for that purpose. Mr. Dick 
worked at the Hodges site from August 18 to 2G. He found that 
both shelters contained a homogeneous lot of archeological material 
representing a late pre-Columbian cultural period in that part of the 
Southwest. On the basis of potsherds, found in association with the 
stone and bone artifacts, a late fourteenth or early fifteenth century 
dating is given to the archeological manifestations. After completing 
the digging Mr. Dick went to Albuquerque, N. Mex., where he proc- 
essed the specimens and prepared a preliminary report on his findings. 

While Mi-. Dick was engaged at the Hodges site it was visited by 
Dr. Sheldon Judson who was completing a geological study of the 
San Jon, N. Mex., region for the Smithsonian Institution. Dr. Jud- 
son found that the lower deposits in the shelters contained interesting 
and helpful stratigraphy and from the evidence he obtained there was 
able to add another link in the "alluvial chronology" which he has 
established for that district, the chronology which promises to con- 
tribute much to the understanding of the complex history of the 
Late Pleistocene and subsequent periods in the Southwest. Because 
of this the Hodges site enjoys an importance out of all proportion to 
its antiquity and the archeological information which it produced. 

Colorado. — Investigations in certain portions of Colorado are a part 
of the major program for the Missouri Basin, but there are a num- 
ber of others which fall outside that drainage area and which are 
being conducted as separate units of the Surveys as a whole. These 
are in the Arkansas and Gunnison Basins. Later they will be ex- 
panded to the Colorado-Big Thompson projects and other tributaries 
of the Colorado. 

Donald Eastman and Gary L. Yundt were appointed field assist- 
ants on June 7 and immediately began surveys at a number of reser- 
voir basins in the Gunnison drainage. Brief preliminary investiga- 

816911 — 49 3 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

tions had been made at a number of these projects by Western State 
College, Gunnison, students under the direction of Dr. C. T. Hurst of 
that institution. Working in conjunction with Dr. Hurst and under 
his general direction, Eastman and Yundt completed the surveys of 
the Cottonwood, Cebolla, Gateview, and Almont reservoir areas and 
at the close of the year were engaged in a reconnaissance of the Taylor 
Lake project. The four basins where investigations were completed 
contained 16 sites consisting of both rock shelters and open camps. 
None appeared to be of sufficient importance to warrant recommenda- 
tion for further study by the River Basin Surveys. However, Dr. 
Hurst and Western State College volunteered to take over such of 
the units as indicated the possibility of contributing some knowledge 
and assume responsibility for the additional work needed to obtain it. 

Arnold M. Withers was appointed to the Surveys staff on June 13 as 
archeologist and on June 21 left Denver accompanied by W. W. 
Thompson and M. F. Sullivan, student assistants, to begin the recon- 
naissance of a number of reservoir projects in the mountains west of 
Pueblo. This work was going ahead at the close of the fiscal year. 
Mr. Withers and his associates used space made available by the De- 
partment of Anthropology of the University of Denver as their base 
of operations. 

Missouri Basin. — The Missouri Basin project continued in full 
operation throughout the year. On July 1, three archeological surveys 
and one paleontological reconnaissance were under way and the head- 
quarters and laboratory at Lincoln, Nebr., were actively engaged in 
processing data and specimens received from the field parties. Most 
of the activities were of a survey nature, but some digging was done 
at Birdshead Cave in the Boysen Reservoir, Wyo., at Medicine Creek 
Reservoir, Nebr., and at several paleontological sites in Wyoming. 
By the end of the first week in November weather conditions were such 
that it was necessary to stop explorations for the season and all regular 
personnel returned to Lincoln. From then until conditions again 
became favorable in the spring, the time was devoted to the study of 
materials and data collected and the preparation of reports. Field 
work was initiated March 29, 1948, when an extensive series of exca- 
vations was started at sites soon to be destroyed by construction oper- 
ations at the Medicine Creek Dam in western Nebraska. This work 
was in accordance with an agreement with the Bureau of Reclamation 
whereby the River Basin Surveys provided the technical supervision 
and the Bureau of Reclamation furnished the necessary labor and 
equipment. This undertaking was still in progress at the end of the 
fiscal year. On June 1 one archeological party left Lincoln for the 
Angostura Reservoir, S. Dak., for further survey and excavation, and 
on June 3 another left for Heart Butte Reservoir, N. Dak., to begin 
similar activities. A paleontological party departed on June 1 for the 



SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 17 

Boysen Reservoir area, Wyoming, to resume the collecting of fossil 
material. All three parties were at those respective locations at the 
end of the year. 

The general results of the Surveys' findings in the Plains were out- 
lined in the 64th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
and, although subsequent work added important details, need not be 
repeated. Some mention, however, should be made of the excavations 
carried on in the present year. Birdshead Cave, located near the 
base of the Owl Creek Mountains, in the Boysen Reservoir basin, 
Wyoming, contained several levels of aboriginal debris of occupation 
separated by layers of decomposed rock and dust. The artifacts re- 
covered, although small in number, show significant differences from 
level to level. If these specimens can be correlated with those from 
some of the single-occupation sites in the basin, a task which was being 
attempted at the close of the year, it may be possible to arrange the 
latter in a sequential order and thus establish a relative chronology 
for the area. As a whole the material from upper levels of the cave 
suggests a late pre-Columbian occupancy by Indians from the Great 
Basin farther west rather than by people from the Plains. This in- 
troduces another set of problems pertaining to the interrelationships 
between two rather distinct groups over a long period of time. Fur- 
ther work in the area should throw light on the subject. 

Excavations at the Medicine Creek Reservoir were carried on from 
September 5 to November 9, but little more than sampling was under- 
taken at that time. When the work was resumed in March, large- 
scale operations became possible through the labor and power ma- 
chinery contributed by the Bureau of Reclamation. The use of heavy 
equipment ordinarily is frowned upon by archeologists. Because of 
the short time available for excavation before the sites were destroyed 
by construction activities and the lack of funds needed to hire large 
labor crews, however, it was deemed advisable to use bulldozers and 
highway-grading machinery to remove the overburden from buried 
village remains. The results obtained amply demonstrated the prac- 
ticability and effectiveness of such equipment in uncovering archeo- 
logical materials with a minimum of breakage, and wherever possible 
its use probably will be extended to other projects. At Medicine 
Creek entire sites were stripped of their sod or other cover, making it 
possible to observe the complete village plan, to study village pat- 
terns, and to discover small features not readily determinable by the 
usual hand-labor methods. From March 29 to June 30 the remains 
of 25 houses were uncovered, 37 cache pits located beneath their floors 
were investigated, 13 similar pits outside the houses were examined, 
and 13 middens were dug. Some 28,000 specimens including utensils 
made of pottery, tools of bone, stone, and shell, and the remains of 
various food stuffs such as animal bones, mussel shells and charred 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

vegetal materials (corn, beans, seeds of sunflower, squash, and wild 
plum) were found. In a number of cases sections of wood in an 
excellent state of preservation were obtained from post holes in the 
house floors. These specimens are of value for determining the type 
of vegetation in the area hundred of years ago and possibly may 
furnish information for dating purposes. 

Most of the remains in this district belong to the Upper Republican 
culture, so named because the first of the type studied and defined 
were located in the Republican River drainage of southern Nebraska. 
It is not possible at this time to correlate them with any of the known 
tribes, such as the Dakota, Pawnee, or Comanche, but this may be 
done later. Remains of this culture are believed to date from ca. 
A. D. 1200 to 1500. A few of the sites appear to belong to what has 
been called "Woodland" because of their close relationship to others 
east of the Missouri. Tentative dating places it in the centuries 
A. D. 500 to 1200. In addition there are traces of a primitive hunting 
people who inhabited the area several millennia earlier. There is no 
doubt that the work at Medicine Creek has added a large and im- 
portant body of new data on the pre-Columbian inhabitants of western 
Nebraska and from it an unusually complete picture of life in the 
area should emerge. It seems evident that several long-held scientific 
theories regarding those people and their relationship to their environ- 
ment will need to be revised. The information from Medicine Creek 
certainly will be one of the most significant contributions yet made to 
the study of Plains prehistory. 

The paleontological work, under T. E. White, while not as important 
in some ways as the archeological investigations, is making a definite 
contribution to geology. This is particularly true in the Wind River 
Basin in W3 r oming where data collected by the River Basin Surveys 
field party has aided in the identification of younger beds than pre- 
viously had been supposed to be present in the area. Furthermore, no 
historical summary of paleontology in any of the river basins would 
be complete without consideration of the fragments of fossil bones and 
leaves frequently found by archeologists in Indian sites. These ob- 
jects probably were collected as curiosities, although they occasionally 
were used as ornaments and sometimes attempts were made to work 
silicified bones into implements. While not of great significance to 
paleontology, they are a part of the story, and study of the material 
is helpful. Thus far 94 reservoir areas in the Missouri Basin have been 
examined either briefly or in some detail, and specimens have been 
collected from some 68. In a number of cases this material has helped 
to clarify understanding of the area and will provide useful data for 
future reference. 

As during the previous year, Dr. Waldo R. Wedel, on detail to the 
River Basin Surveys from the Division of Archeology, United States 



SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 19 

National Museum, was in charge of the program. He prepared gen- 
eral plans and coordinated all phases of the work, making numerous 
trips of inspection to the areas where surveys and excavations were in 
progress and supervising the work at Lincoln. He returned to his 
official station at Washington on October 31, but during the fall and 
winter months made regular monthly trips to Lincoln to check on the 
work being done at the field headquarters and laboratory and to assist, 
through advice and discussion, in the preparation of the reports on 
the summer's activities. He left Washington on May 26 for Lincoln 
and on his arrival there resumed active direction of the program for 
the field season. 

J. Joseph Bauxar, archeologist, was at Chamberlain, S. Dak., at 
the beginning of the fiscal year with the party, under the direction 
of Paul L. Cooper, which was engaged in making a preliminary 
reconnaissance of the west side of the Missouri River in the Fort 
Randall Reservoir area. During the continuance of this work 82 
sites were visited, and data on about 20 others were obtained from local 
people. On July 19 test digging was initiated in some of the more 
promising sites. The period from July 19 to August 20 was devoted 
to the examination of burials at the Wheeler Bridge mound site. 
These occurred in 2 low mounds. At one of these there were 12 bundle 
burials, and at the other 2, or possibly 3, of the same type. Inasmuch 
as there were no funerary offerings accompanying any of the burials 
and the material in the mounds was scarce, there was nothing to 
indicate possible cultural relationship for these remains. On August 
20 Mr. Bauxar shifted his operations to the Pease Creek site where 
he opened an exploratory trench through a large refuse mound. 
Two definite occupation levels were noted there, and a large quantity 
of cultural material was recovered. The specimens suggest affiliation 
with either Upper Republican or prehistoric Arikara peoples. On 
September 17 investigations were started at another site which gave 
indications of a well-defined occupation level. Two trenches were 
dug at that location. They revealed a well-defined occupation level 
which extended below the plow zone. This work was completed on 
October 6, and attention was then turned to the Oldham site where two 
subsurface circular house floors were uncovered. These presumably 
belong to a late occupation which apparently was Arikara. Some 
slight evidence of an earlier Woodland occupation was also noted. 
A preliminary examination of all the data collected from the various 
sites investigated indicates a range of cultural types extending back 
from late historic Yankton through what possibly was early Arikara 
and even earlier Woodland. 

Mr. Bauxar returned to Lincoln on November 6 and from then 
until April 4 was engaged in working up his material and in establish- 
ing an ethnohistory file for the Missouri Basin to be used as a ready 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

reference by the staff in correlating archeological materials with those 
of known tribes. The Thwaites and Biddle editions of the Lewis and 
Clark journals and the Ordway journal were the sources examined 
for the desired information. A total of approximately 1,500 items 
pertaining to tribal locations, contacts, material culture, and other 
features were extracted from these journals. When this material has 
been prepared for filing under tribal and subject-matter headings, it 
probably will fill some 15,000 index cards. 

From April 4 to June 26 Mr. Bauxar was on special assignment to 
the National Park Service for the purpose of conducting historical 
investigations at the Homestead National Monument in Gage County, 
Nebr. Five limited areas were examined, and a report on the excava- 
tions was prepared and submitted to the National Park Service, 
Kegion Two Office, at Omaha. Upon the completion of this detail 
Mr. Bauxar returned to the Lincoln headquarters and resumed his 
work on the ethnohistory project. 

On July 1 Wesley L. Bliss, archeologist, was working with the 
field party under his direction at the Glendo Reservoir project in 
Platte County, Wyo. The survey of this area, started in the month of 
June, was completed on July 2, and having located a total of 43 sites 
the party moved the following day to Boysen Reservoir, in Fremont 
County, where further investigations were carried on until July 26. 
During this period tests were made in Birdshead Cave in the Owl 
Creek Mountains about 5 miles west of the dam site. This cave 
showed six levels of occupation, and prospects for obtaining interest- 
ing information about the aboriginal inhabitants of the area were so 
promising that plans were made to return to it later in the season. 
On July 27 the party moved to the Oregon Basin project in Park 
County where it continued reconnaissance work, locating additional 
sites which increased the total for the basin to 28, and did some test 
digging in two rock shelters. August 11 it moved to the Canyon 
Ferry Reservoir near Helena, Mont. Investigations there added to 
the number of sites located during the preliminary examination of 
the area in 1946, making a total of 31. The work there was completed 
on August 26, and attention was turned to the proposed Tiber Reser- 
voir near Shelby, Mont., where work continued until September 9. 
During this period Mr. Bliss and his party spent 4 days traveling by 
boat in order to locate and examine sites exposed along the river-cut 
terraces. These sites could not be reached by land and were not 
visited during the preliminary reconnaissance made the previous year. 
Additional sites located bring the total for Tiber to 53. Leaving this 
area, Mr. Bliss returned to the Boysen Reservoir and from September 
11 to November 6 completed excavation of the Birdshead Cave and 
did some test digging in other sites. He returned to Lincoln on No- 
vember 8 and from then until the end of the fiscal year was engaged 



SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 21 

in laboratory work and the preparation of supplementary reports 
on the Glendo, Boysen, and Canyon Ferry projects. He also wrote 
a "Summary Report on the Archeology of the Wyoming-Montana 
River Basin Surveys of 1947 — with Comments on Smokey Hill and 
Republican River Sub-basins in Kansas and Nebraska." Mr. Bliss 
presented two papers at the Fifth Conference for Plains Archeology 
in November. One of these summarized the results of the archeologi- 
cal surveys in Wyoming and Montana and the other discussed the 
subject of Early Man in the northwest Plains. Mr. Bliss also attended 
the joint meeting of the American Anthropological Association and 
the Society for American Archeology at Albuquerque, N. Mex., in 
December, and presented a paper dealing with archeological problems 
in the western Plains. 

As previously stated, Paul L. Cooper was in charge of a survey party 
which at the beginning of the fiscal year was operating in the Fort 
Randall Reservoir area in South Dakota. On July 12 and 13 Mr. 
Cooper attended a field conference of workers in upper Missouri River 
archeology at Bismarck, N. Dak., and from there he accompanied Dr. 
Waldo R. Wedel, field director of the River Basin Surveys, and Dr. 
Jesse D. Jennings, National Park Service archeologist, on an inspec- 
tion trip to a site which was being excavated by the University of 
North Dakota near Fort Yates, N. Dak. From there he returned to 
Lincoln and until August 4 worked on a preliminary report on the 
archeological resources of the Fort Randall Reservoir. On August 6, 
after conferring for 2 days with personnel of the Corps of Engineers 
in Omaha and with the Director of the University of South Dakota 
Museum at Vermillion, Mr. Cooper returned to the Fort Randall field 
unit which had been under the direction of Mr. Bauxar during his 
absence. From then until October 28 he remained with the field party 
and participated in the investigations already discussed in connection 
with Mr. Bauxar's activities. He then returned to Lincoln to take 
charge of the field headquarters upon the departure of Dr. Wedel for 
Washington. 

Mr. Cooper continued this supervision, which was both technical 
and administrative, throughout the fall and winter months during the 
periods when Dr. Wedel was in Washington. He made several trips 
to Omaha and Denver for the purpose of consulting with officials of 
the National Park Service, the Corps of Engineers, and the Bureau of 
Reclamation. As time permitted, the data collected during the field 
season were summarized preparatory to the writing of technical re- 
ports, and preliminary reports were prepared on certain phases of the 
field work. He also participated in the Fifth Conference for Plains 
Archeology, presenting a paper summarizing the field work and dis- 
cussing pottery types found in certain districts in the Plains area. In 
May Mr. Cooper represented the Missouri Basin project of the River 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Basin Surveys at the annual session of the Nebraska Academy of Sci- 
ences and read a paper explaining and summarizing the activities of 
the Surveys. On June 3 Mr. Cooper left Lincoln for North Dakota. 
Two days were spent en route in conferring with personnel at the 
University of South Dakota Museum. Arriving at the Heart Butte 
Reservoir project on the Park River in North Dakota, Mr. Cooper 
initiated reconnaissance work and started some test excavations in 
a site not far above the location for the dam. These investigations 
were in progress at the close of the fiscal year. 

Robert B. Cumming, Jr., archeologist, continued to serve as the 
laboratory supervisor at the Lincoln headquarters. He planned and 
directed the procedures for processing specimens, photographic nega- 
tives and prints, the preparation of maps and diagrams for the reports, 
the typing of manuscripts and cutting of stencils, and the general 
maintenance of equipment. During the course of the year 37,406 speci- 
mens were cleaned, repaired if necessary, numbered, cataloged, and 
stored. Since the beginning of the project 59,306 specimens have been 
processed. Over 830 photographic negatives and their prints were 
added to the files, bringing the total to 1,256. Approximately 100 
kodachrome positives were cataloged, making 179 now available for 
use in illustrating talks about the program. During the year Mr. 
Cumming established a file for photographic enlargements suitable 
for publicity purposes and one for lantern slides. Reference 'maps 
and aerial photographs were indexed and filed, 835 of the former and 
277 of the latter now being available for use by the staff. In addition 
Mr. Cumming assfsted in and supervised the mimeographing and 
assembling of reports issued during the year. These consisted of 10 
preliminary archeological reports, 5 supplementary archeological 
reports, and 2 paleontological reports. He also carried on the project 
inventory and requisitioning of supplies throughout the year. During 
such times as the field director and acting director were away from 
Lincoln he was in charge of the field office. 

From July 1 to November 7, Jack T. Hughes, archeologist, assisted 
Wesley L. Bliss in Wyoming and Montana, where he participated in 
reconnaissance and survey of several reservoir basins. From Novem- 
ber 8 to May 30 he worked in the office at Lincoln where he aided in 
the preparation of various reports on the field work of the 1947 
season. He wrote two reports entitled "Supplementary Appraisal of 
the Archeological Resources of Oregon Basin Reservoir, Park County, 
Wyoming" and "Supplementary Appraisal of the Archeological Re- 
sources of Tiber Reservoir, Toole and Liberty Counties, Montana." 
He also prepared the following section of a report entitled "Archeology 
of Birdshead Cave, Fremont County, Wyoming" : Introduction, site, 
locale, occupation, and complexes, as well as parts of those on remains 



SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 23 

and conclusions. During this period Mr. Hughes also devoted some of 
his time to an analysis of the archeological materials in the collection 
of the Nebraska State Historical Society from the Barn Butte site on 
the North Platte River in Garden County, Nebr., in the preparation of 
a report on this site; the preparation of a table showing proposed 
correlations of geological, climatological, and archeological events 
at several selected sites in the western United States ; and in the prepa- 
ration of a report on stonework terminology for the Nomenclature 
Committee of the Conference for Plains Archeology. 

Mr. Hughes left Lincoln on June 1 for the Angostura Reservoir 
in South Dakota where, with J.. M. Shippee, field assistant, he began 
a reconnaissance and intensive survey of the area to be flooded. This 
work was in progress at the close of the year. 

At the start of the fiscal year, Marvin F. Kivett, archeologist, was 
in charge of a party engaged in an archeological reconnaissance of 
the proposed Garrison Reservoir in northwest North Dakota. This 
reconnaissance included surface survey and limited test excavations in 
a number of the more important of the 70-odd known sites located in 
and adjacent to the reservoir. These sites include permanent earth- 
lodge villages, buried occupational zones, burial locations, and 
numerous tipi-ring groups. The reconnaissance was terminated at 
Garrison on August 20, and the party transferred its attention to 
the Baldhill Reservoir on the Sheyenne River, where a brief recon- 
naissance was carried on from August 22 to August 28. This resulted 
in the location of 10 archeological sites, 7 of which were occupational 
areas and 3 were mound groups. All the occupational sites yielded 
some pottery, while one mound tested yielded four disarticulated 
burials. The party returned to the River Basin Surveys Laboratory 
in Lincoln on August 29. 

On September 5 Mr. Kivett went to the Medicine Creek Reservoir, 
Frontier County, Nebr., to do some test digging at several previously 
located sites. Four pit-house floors, located in two village sites at- 
tributable to a variant of the Upper Republican complex, were ex- 
cavated, and an occupational area located on a low terrace near the 
mouth of Lime Creek was tested by means of trenches. The latter 
site presumably is a variant of the Woodland pattern. This work was 
terminated on November 9 because of inclement weather, and Mr. 
Kivett returned to Lincoln. 

During the period November 10 to March 27 Mr. Kivett prepared 
preliminary archeological reports for the Baldhill and Garrison Reser- 
voirs in North Dakota, and the proposed Davis Creek Reservoir in 
Nebraska. He also worked on a technical paper dealing with a shell- 
bead ossuary excavated during the fall of 1946 on Prairie Dog Creek, 
Phillips County, Kans., near the upper limits of the Harlan County 
Reservoir. 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

On March 28 Mr. Kivett returned to the Medicine Creek Reservoir 
to begin an extensive excavation program. During the period March 
29 to June 30, three village sites on or near the dam axis were excavated, 
and digging was started at the remains of a fourth village a short 
distance above the dam in the reservoir basin. This work included 
the uncovering of 25 house floors, the recovery of 2 burials, and ex- 
tensive excavations in midden areas associated with the house floors. 
Power machinery, furnished by the Bureau of Reclamation, was used 
primarily for removing the sterile overburden covering most of the 
area, for the removal of refuse dirt, and for digging exploratory test 
trenches. The bulk of the materials recovered appear to be attribut- 
able to the Upper Republican aspect. At the close of the fiscal year 
the work was continuing, with attention being directed toward a series 
of small sites on the right bank of the reservoir basin approximately 
1 mile above the dam axis, 

George Metcalf was appointed field assistant on September 25 and 
proceeded immediately to the Medicine Creek Reservoir where he 
joined Marvin F. Kivett in the excavation being conducted there. 
He returned to Lincoln on November 9 and from then until March 
28, when he again went to Medicine Creek, he devoted his time to 
classifying, studying, and writing a technical paper on the specimens 
collected during the field work. This report included not only the 
material obtained by the River Basin Surveys party, but also that 
secured by a group from the Nebraska State Historical Society which 
had excavated several house sites in the area during the summer. 
Mr. Metcalf 's manuscript will be incorporated into the major report 
on the Medicine Creek investigations. On June 30 he was in charge 
of a portion of the work at Medicine Creek. 

J. M. Shippee, field assistant, was with the Bliss party from July 
1 to November 8. After his return to Lincoln he devoted the time 
in the laboratory to work on the specimens from Birdshead Cave, the 
sorting and classifying of artifacts from other localities, and the prep- 
aration of maps. He left Lincoln on June 1 with the Hughes party 
and was participating in the surveys at Angostura Reservoir at the 
end of the year. 

Dr. Theodore E. White, paleontologist, was occupied in paleontolog- 
ical reconnaissance from July 1 to September 19. In the course of 
this work he visited 7 reservoir areas in Nebraska, 23 in Wyoming, and 
25 in Montana. This phase of his investigations was interrupted 
from August 21 to September 11 while he dug the skull and several 
vertebrae of a dinosaur from the Jurassic Morrison beds in the Middle 
Fork Reservoir area in northeastern Wyoming. Dr. White returned 
to the Lincoln office on September 20 and spent the time until Octo- 
ber 8 preparing preliminary reports on the reservoir projects exam- 
ined during the summer. He then left for the Rocky Ford and Philip 



SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 25 

Reservoir areas in South Dakota and from there proceeded to the 
Boysen Reservoir in Wyoming where he initiated a survey of the area 
to be inundated by that project. While in the Boysen Basin he col- 
lected a number of specimens of fossil mammals and a large soft- 
shelled turtle. He returned to Lincoln November 7 and from then 
until January 6 devoted his time to writing reports and consulting 
geological literature for information bearing on the reservoir areas. 

Leaving Lincoln, Dr. White went to Texas where, from January 9 
to 29, he made a paleontological reconnaissance of the Whitney Reser- 
voir basin on the upper Brazos River. From there he returned to 
Washington, D. C, and from February 2 to May 15 worked in the 
United States National Museum identifying osteological material ob- 
tained from archeological sites, examining specimens, consulting geo- 
logical literature relative to the reservoir areas in the Missouri Basin 
and Texas, and preparing reports. He then went to the Lincoln office 
and devoted the period from May 18 to June 1 making preparations 
for the summer's field activities. He left Lincoln on June 1 for the 
Boysen Reservoir where he resumed the investigations interrupted by 
the onset of bad weather the previous autumn. From June 4 to June 
30 he collected a number of specimens of fossil mammals and reptiles 
and made extensive notes on the structure and stratigraphy of the 
area. 

A number of student assistants were employed during the year as 
members of the various field parties. Robert L. Hall and Warren 
Wittry were with the Cooper party in South Dakota from July 1 to 
September 10, when they returned to college. Both men again joined 
Mr. Cooper on June 22 and were working with him at the Heart Butte 
Reservoir at the end of the fiscal year. Gordon F. McKenzie, John 
L. Essex, and Leo L. Stewart were with Marvin F. Kivett at the 
Garrison and Baldhill Reservoir projects in North Dakota at the be- 
ginning of the fiscal year. Mr. Stewart left the party on August 20, and 
Mr. Essex and Mr. McKenzie terminated their employment on August 
30 following the return to the Lincoln headquarters. H. G. Pierce was 
with the Bliss party in Wyoming and Montana from July 1 to Sep- 
tember 10. John C. Donohoe assisted Dr. Theodore E. White from 
July 1 to September and again joined him on June 14 for work in the 
Boysen Reservoir. Ernest Lundelius joined the staff on June 1 and left 
Lincoln with Dr. White when he started for Wyoming. Both he and 
Mr. Donohoe were with the White party at the close of the year. 

Pacific Coast area. — During the fiscal year the River Basin Surveys 
project in the Pacific Coast region carried out investigations of the 
archeological and paleontological resources in 14 reservoir areas in 
the Columbia Basin, and in 7 reservoir areas in central California. 
The results of this work were described in reports prepared for mim- 
eographing and limited distribution. A total of 180 sites were found 



26 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

in the Columbia Basin reservoirs, including sites of major and minor 
importance, and a total of 80 in those in California. 

Dr. Philip Drucker, detailed from the regular staff of the Bureau 
to serve as field director, was in charge of activities in this area. Dur- 
ing the period from July 1 to September 30 he made field headquarters 
at Eugene, Oreg., utilizing office space made available to the Surveys 
by the Department of Anthropology of the University of Oregon. He 
divided his time about equally between the Eugene office, where he 
planned the survey work and carried out the routine necessary for its 
operation, and the field, where he at times accompanied the survey par- 
ties, and checked on the results of their investigations. At the end of 
September he departed for Washington, D. C, having closed the field 
headquarters for the winter. In Washington he prepared the reports 
previously mentioned on the basis of the data collected by the field 
parties, in addition to his activities as a member of the staff of the Bu- 
reau of American Ethnology. 

On May 13 he left Washington for the Pacific Coast, stopping en 
route at Milwaukee, Wis., for the purpose of conferring with the 
Committee for the Recovery of Archeological Remains which met 
in that city on the 14th and of participating in a symposium on the 
River Basin Surveys program. He arrived at Portland, Oreg., where 
he conferred with the officials of the Columbia Basin Recreational 
Survey Office concerning the status of various reservation projects 
of the Bureau of Reclamation and the Corps of Engineers in the 
Columbia Basin. On May 18 he arrived in Eugene, Oreg., where he 
completed arrangements for office and laboratory space at the De- 
partment of Anthropology of the University of Oregon. From May 
20 to 28 he conferred with officials of the Region Four Office of the 
National Park Service at San Francisco on plans for the field season, 
and also with representatives of the departments of anthropology at 
the University of California, Berkeley, University of California at 
Los Angeles, and the University of Washington. As the result of 
these conferences, arrangements were made for two cooperative pro- 
grams of research. The Department of Anthropology of the Univer- 
sity of Washington arranged to put a party in the field under the direc- 
tion of a member of the River Basin Surveys staff, to make an intensive 
survey and preliminary testing of the Potholes (O'Sullivan) Reservoir 
area in eastern Washington. The corresponding department at the 
University of California arranged to undertake investigations during 
the latter part of the summer in reservoirs in the upper San Joaquin 
drainage that had previously been examined by the survey. 

During the month of June Dr. Drucker was occupied with planning 
the itineraries of survey field parties and obtaining the necessary per- 
sonnel and equipment for them. On June 28 the parties were as- 
sembled, given the necessary instructions, and sent into the field. At 



SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 27 

the close of the fiscal year Dr. Drucker was at the field headquarters 
in Eugene. 

Franklin Fenega and Clarence E. Smith, archeologists, had just 
commenced their field work at the beginning of the fiscal year. During 
the month of July they investigated three reservoir areas in the 
Willamette River drainage, the Detroit, Dorena, and Meridian, in 
Oregon. From there they proceeded to the site of the McNary Reser- 
voir on the Columbia River just upstream from Umatilla, Oreg., and 
Plymouth, Wash., where they continued investigations for the re- 
mainder of the summer. All these reservoirs are Corps of Engineers 
projects. McNary Reservoir they found to be extremely rich in archeo- 
logical remains, and after the preliminary reconnaissance survey had 
been completed on August 20, they carried out an intensive survey to 
establish which of the many sites found would most fruitfully reward 
excavation. On the basis of their intensive survey it was possible 
to make recommendations for the excavation of five groups of sites. 
On completion of the field work they summarized their field data, and 
submitted a preliminary report. Mr. Fenega resigned from the River 
Basin Surveys on September 22 in order to return to his academic 
work at the University of California. Mr. Smith was transferred to 
temporary headquarters at Berkeley, Calif., on the 22d, and carried 
out surveys at the following reservoirs in California: Dry Creek, 
Monticello, Kelsey Creek, Indian Valley, Sly Park, and Wilson Valley. 
On December 17 he resigned from the Surveys to resume academic 
work at the University of California. 

Richard D. Daugherty, archeologist, and Francis A. Riddell, field 
assistant, were also just starting field work at the beginning of the 
fiscal year. During the remainder of the field season they examined 
the following reservoir areas : Cascade, Smith's Ferry, Scrivers Creek, 
Garden Valley in Idaho ; Equalizing, Long Lake, and Potholes (O'Sul- 
livan) in Washington; Anderson Ranch and Palisades in Idaho; and 
Hungry Horse in Montana ; all projects of the Bureau of Reclamation. 
The greatest wealth of archeological remains they found to occur in 
the Bureau of Reclamation's Columbia Basin project, comprising 
Equalizing, Long Lake, and Potholes (O'Sullivan) Reservoirs. Both 
men resigned from the River Basin Surveys staff on September 24, 
having completed the preliminary reports on their field investiga- 
tions for the season. On June 15, Mr. Daugherty was reappointed to 
the River Basin Surveys staff and was put in charge of the coopera- 
tive project arranged with the Department of Anthropology of the 
University of Washington. On June 19 he departed for the field 
with his crew and established a field camp in the Moses Lake area. 
At the end of the fiscal year he was still in the field in that location, 
Mr. Riddell was reappointed to the River Basin Surveys staff as field 
assistant on July 28 and departed with other members of the survey 



28 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

crew to begin an investigation at Benham Falls Reservoir in eastern 
Oregon. 

George L. Coale, archeologist, Harry S. Riddell, Jr., field assistant, 
and Douglas Osborne, field assistant, joined the staff of River Basin 
Surveys on June 28 and proceeded to Benham Falls Reservoir to begin 
the season's survey work there. 

Albert D. Mohr and William S. King, who had assisted Clarence 
E. Smith during October and November, were employed by the River 
Basin Surveys temporarily as field assistants during the period May 
16-21 to carry out an investigation of the Mariposa Reservoir basin on 
Mariposa Creek on the east side of the San Joaquin Valley in central 
California. Only three small sites were located and none were rec- 
ommended for further investigation. 

Cooperating institutions. — State and local institutions have con- 
tributed to the River Basin Surveys program in various ways. In 
addition to furnishing space for field offices and laboratories as at the 
University of Nebraska, the University of Texas, the University of 
Denver, Western State College, the University of California, and the 
University of Oregon, universities and local institutions in some cases 
have joined forces with the Surveys for cooperative projects and in 
others have taken over units in the survey program. As previously 
mentioned, the excavation project at the O'Sullivan Reservoir in 
Washington was a cooperative undertaking between the University of 
Washington and the River Basin Surveys. This also was true for the 
surveys in western Colorado where members of the Surveys staff 
worked with field parties from Western State College at Gunnison. 

During the year the University of Kentucky made surveys at the 
Wolf Creek Reservoir on the Cumberland River, and at the Dewey 
Reservoir on Johns Creek in the Big Sandy River drainage. In 
addition, the University conducted excavations at the Wolf Creek 
Reservoir and furnished the River Basin Surveys with a detailed 
report on its activities. The University of Georgia established sur- 
veys in the Chattahoochee and Flint River basins and did some ex- 
cavation work in areas which will be inundated. The Alabama Muse- 
um of Natural History did reconnaissance work and some digging. 
The Florida Park Service took over the survey of the area in Florida 
which will be flooded by the construction of the Woodruff Dam on 
the Apalachicola River near Chattahoochee. The University of Ten- 
nessee made a survey of the Stewarts Ferry Reservoir basin on Stones 
River and did preliminary reconnaissance at the Harpeth River proj- 
ect. It also made arrangements for some salvage work at the Center 
Hill Reservoir where the impounding of water began too soon for the 
River Basin Surveys to do more than make a reconnaissance and rec- 
ommend the excavation of certain sites. The University of Missouri, 
in cooperation with the Missouri Archeological Society, made surveys 






SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 29 

in the Bull Shoals, Clearwater, Pomme de Terre, Joanna, Table Rock, 
and Waco Reservoirs, and carried on excavations in key sites at Bull 
Shoals and Clearwater. The University of Oklahoma did some exca- 
vation work in a village site which will be flooded by the Fort Gibson 
Reservoir on the Grand (Neosho) River. The University of Kansas 
did survey work and started excavations at a village site in the Kanap- 
olis River basin on the Smoky Hill River in Kansas. In Nebraska the 
State Historical Society carried on excavations at archeological sites 
in the Medicine Creek Reservoir area outside the Federally acquired 
lands adding important supplemental information on remains beyond 
the localities being worked by the River Basin Surveys. The Lab- 
oratory of Anthropology of the University of Nebraska excavated in 
two important sites in the Harlan County Reservoir area on the Re- 
publican River in the southern part of the State. The University of 
Nebraska State Museum carried on paleontological work near the 
Medicine Creek Dam site and on Lime Creek, a tributary of Medicine 
Creek, where important information was obtained on some of the earli- 
est cultural remains thus far found in North America. The Museum 
also collected paleontological material from the Harlan County Reser- 
voir. The University of North Dakota, in cooperation with the 
North Dakota Historical Society, carried on excavations at the Heart 
Butte Reservoir, on the Heart River, in the summer of 1947, and at 
the Baldhill Reservoir on the Sheyenne River beginning June 21, 
1918. The University of Colorado made a preliminary reconnais- 
sance of the 8 reservoir areas comprising the Colorado-Big Thompson 
project, while the University of Denver made brief surveys of 12 reser- 
voir basins comprising the Blue-South Platte project. Western 
State College of Colorado did preliminary work in nine reservoir 
basins of the Gunnison- Arkansas project. The Museum of Northern 
Arizona, at Flagstaff, assumed responsibility for surveys at the Alamo 
project on Williams River in the western part of the State, but had 
not started investigations at the end of the year. The Archeological 
Surveys Association of Southern California, sponsored by a number 
of museums in that area, completed surveys in eight proposed reservoir 
and flood-control projects in that portion of the State. The Univer- 
sity of California, at Berkeley, took over responsibility for the exca- 
vation of key sites located by the River Basin Surveys in the Pine 
Flat Reservoir on King's River and in the Isabella Reservoir on Kern 
River. Actual operations had not yet gotten under way, however, 
by June 30. 

Progress reports and completed reports prepared by the cooperat- 
ing organizations are sent to the River Basin Surveys so that the 
results of their investigations may be coordinated with the over-all 



30 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

program. All the information obtained by these groups thus becomes 
a part of the general record of the River Basin Surveys. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

There were issued 1 Annual Report, 2 Bulletin volumes (Hand- 
book of South American Indians) , and 4 Publications of the Institute 
of Social Anthropology as listed below : 

Sixty-fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1946-1947, 
30 pp. 

Bulletin 143. Handbook of South American Indians. Julian H. Steward, 
editor. Volume 3, The Tropical Forest tribes. 986 pp., 126 pis., 134 figs., 8 maps. 
Volume 4, Tbe Circum-Caribbean tribes, 609 pp., 98 pis., 79 figs., 11 maps. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 4. Cultural and historical geography 
of Southwest Guatemala, by Felix Webster McBryde. 184 pp., 48 pis., 2 figs., 
25 maps. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 5. Highland communities of Central 
Peru : A regional survey, by Harry Tschopik, Jr. 56 pp., 16 pis., 2 maps. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 6. Empire's children : The people 
of Tzintzuntzan, by George M. Foster. 297 pp., 16 pis., 36 figs., 2 maps. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 7. Cultural geography of the 
modern Tarascan area, by Robert C. West. 77 pp., 14 pis., 6 figs., 21 maps. 

The following publications were in press at the close of the fiscal 
year : 

Bulletin 143. Handbook of South American Indians. Julian H Steward, 
editor. Volume 5, The comparative ethnology of South American Indians. 
Volume 6, Physical anthropology, linguistics, and cultural geography of South 
American Indians. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 8. Sierra Popoluca speech, by 
Mary L. Foster and George M. Foster. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 9. The Terena and the Caduveo of 
Southern Mato Grosso, Brazil, by Kalervo Oberg. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 10. Nomads of the Long Bow: 
The Siriono of Eastern Bolivia, by Allan R. Holmberg. 

Publications distributed totaled 25,037 as compared with 8,205 for 
the fiscal year 1947. 

LIBRARY 

Accessions in the library of the Bureau totaled 145 volumes, bring- 
ing the total accession record as of June 30, 1948, to 34,607. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Work on the restoration of Indian photographs consumed the 
greater part of the year. The rest of the time was spent on work for 
the editors and on the preparation of maps and illustrations for 
Bureau publications. 



SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 31 



ARCHIVES 



Ever-increasing use is being made of the manuscript and photo- 
graphic collections of the Bureau. Cards for the manuscript catalog, 
compiled for publication, have been typed and assembled. Upon 
completion of this project, a similar catalog of the photographic 
negatives in the Bureau collection, was begun. Approximately 2,600 
cards for this catalog were typed by the end of the fiscal year. 

The Bureau also put into operation its new filing system of photo- 
graphic prints, the first installment of 30 albums having been ac- 
quired for prints from newly restored negatives. Each print is 
labeled with information pertinent to the subject. Full biographical 
data is furnished where possible in the case of portraits, so that the 
information is easily accessible to inquirers. At the close of the fiscal 
year, approximately 200 new file prints have been thus filed. Prints 
for the duplicate reserve file also have been labeled and filed with 
protecting paper between the prints. Requests for pay orders ex- 
ceeded 300 prints during the year. 

Up to July 1, 1948, 200 restorations of old negatives were com- 
pleted. This necessitated the making of 200 11- by 14-inch enlarge- 
ments, 200 mountings, 200 8- by 10-inch negatives, and 600 8- by 
10-inch file prints. In addition to the restoration program, the Bureau 
photographer filled requisitions for 53 negatives, 988 prints, and 807 



enlargements. 



COLLECTIONS 



Collections transferred by the Bureau of American Ethnology 
to the United States National Museum during the fiscal year were 
as follows : 

Accession 

No. Collection 

177,085. 1 skeleton of an Indian child, 2-3 years old, from near Lela, Wheeler 
County, Tex. 

177,393. 1 skull and 4 cervical vertebrae of a dinosaur. Collected by Dr. 
Theodore E. White 12^ miles west of Kaycee, Johnson County, Wyo. 

178,819. Archeological material collected at Cerro de las Mesas, Veracruz, 
Mexico, 1941, by the National Geographic Society-Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Expedition under the direction of Dr. M. W. Stirling. 

178,831. 3 Miocene specimens from the Canyon Ferry Reservoir area in Mon- 
tana ; and 6 Eocene specimens from the Boysen Reservoir area in 
Wyoming. Collected by Dr. T. E. White and John C. Donohoe. 

178,942. 538 specimens of archeological material collected by Dr. Gordon R. 
Willey from the Center Hill Reservoir on Caney Fork River, DeKalb 
County, Tenn. 

179,088. 2 mollusks from Medicine Creek, Nebr. 



32 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the year Dr. Antonio J. Waring of Savannah, Ga., was 
made a collaborator of the Bureau of American Ethnology, while 
Miss Frances Densmore and Dr. John R. Swanton continued as 
collaborators. 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning 
the American Indians, both past and present, of both continents. 
Various specimens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on 
them furnished for their owners. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Director. 

Dr. A. Wetmore, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

o 



Sixty-sixth Annual Report 



of the 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



MAR 20 1950 



1948-1949 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



r 



SIXTY- SIXTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1948-1949 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 19S0 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Director. — Matthew W. Stirling. 

Associate Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Senior ethnologists. — H. B. Collins, Jr., John P. Harrington, W. N. Fenton. 

Senior anthropologists. — G. R. Willey, P. Drucker (on military leave). 

Collaborators. — Frances S. Densmore, John R. Swanton, A. J. Waring, Jr. 

Editor. — M. Helen Palmer. 

Librarian. — Miriam B. Ketchum. 

Illustrator. — Edwin G. Cassedy. 

INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 

Director. — G. M. Foster, Jr. 

Anthropologists. — Brazilian office: Donald Pierson, Kalervo Oberg; Colombian 

Office: Raymond E. Crist; Mexican office: Isabel T. Kelly; Peruvian office: 

George Kubler. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Archeologists. — J. Joseph Bauxar, Wesley L. Bliss, Joseph R. Caldwell, 

George L. Coale, Paul L. Cooper, Robert B. Cumming, Jr., Richard D. 

Daugherty, Marvin F. Kivett, Carl F. Miller, Homer Douglas Osborne, 

Ralph S. Solecki, Robert L. Stephenson, Arnold M. Withers, Richard Page 

Wheeler. 
Paleontologist. — Theodore E. White. 

ii 



SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Director 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following Report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1949, conducted in 
accordance with the Act of Congress of June 27, 1944, which provides 
"* * * for continuing ethnological researches among the Ameri- 
can Indians and the natives of Hawaii and the excavation and pres- 
ervation of archeologic remains. * * *" 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

At the end of December Dr. M. W. Stirling, Director of the Bureau, 
left to continue the cooperative program of archeological work in 
Panama of the National Geographic Society and the Smithsonian 
Institution. Excavations were conducted at Utive in the province of 
Panama, at Barriles and Palo Santo in the province of Chiriqui, and 
at three sites midway between Santiago and Sona in the province of 
Veraguas. At Utive and Barriles heretofore undescribed ceramic 
cultures were encountered, while at the other sites much new informa- 
tion was obtained on the classic Chiriqui and Veraguas cultures. The 
expedition received splendid cooperation from Maj. Gen. Willis Hale, 
commanding general of the air forces of the Caribbean area, who, in 
addition to other assistance, allowed the use of two helicopters for 
reconnaissance work in the Utiv6-Chepo area. Dr. Stirling returned 
to Washington with the Panamanian collections in the middle of 
May. 

Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Associate Director of the Bureau 
and Director of the River Basin Surveys, devoted the greater part of 
his time during the fiscal year to the direction and administration of 
the River Basin Surveys. On November 4 and 5, Dr. Roberts 
attended the meetings of the American Philosophical Society at 
Philadelphia where he presented a paper on the River Basin Surveys 
program. From November 22 to 30, Dr. Roberts was at Lincoln, 
Nebr., inspecting the field headquarters for the Missouri Basin project. 
While at Lincoln he also took part in the Sixth Conference for Plains 
Archeology and presided over one of the symposia. During the year 
he also served as a member of the executive committee for the Divi- 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

sion of Anthropology and Psychology, National Research Council. 
Dr. Roberts' report of the work of the River Basin Surveys during 
the fiscal year appears in another section of this report. 

Dr. John P. Harrington, ethnologist, continued the revision of his 
grammar of the Maya language. Study of sources and the vast 
literature on the subject shows that there were 10 linguistic stocks in 
southern Mexico and Central America that had Maya-style hiero- 
glyphic writing. The work also included revision of a previous paper 
on Maya hieroglyphs. 

A study incident to this Maya work was the determination of the 
origin of the word "Maya." This word appears first in the letter written 
by Bartholomew Columbus in 1506 telling of the fourth voyage of 
Columbus. The letter employs the spelling "Mayam" which is 
clearly derived from the native Maya name for Yucatan, Mayab. 

During the winter a paper was prepared on the names "Tiwa" and 
"Tewa," designations of two languages in New Mexico. Early in the 
spring Dr. Harrington prepared a series of six maps of America show- 
ing the meanings of State, province, and country names. 

On April 14 Dr. Harrington left Washington for Old Town, Maine, 
to pursue ethnological and linguistic studies on the Abnaki Indians. 
He was engaged in this project at the end of the fiscal year. 

Dr. Henry B. Collins left Washington in June for the Arctic, having 
been invited by the Canadian Government to conduct archeological 
excavations with the assistance of Colin Thacker of the National 
Museum of Canada at Frobisher Bay on Baffin Island, where Charles 
Francis Hall in 1868 had reported ancient Eskimo house ruins and 
where a large group of Eskimo now live. The Eskimo ruins were 
found — buried remains of semisubterranean houses made of stones, 
whale bones, and turf. Excavation showed that the site had been 
occupied successively by Eskimo of both the prehistoric Dorset and 
Thule cultures. Comparison with other prehistoric Eskimo sites 
indicated that the Dorset phase represented is one of the earliest of 
that culture known. The Thule phase, which followed the Dorset, is 
likewise early, showing close affinities with northern Alaska, its place 
of origin. In addition to the archeological work, measurements were 
obtained and photographs taken of 80 adult Eskimo — 40 males and 
40 females — at Frobisher Bay. This was the first anthropometric 
study to be made of the present-day Baffin Island Eskimo. 

In Washington Dr. Collins continued as anthropological adviser for 
the Encyclopaedia Arctica, which Dr. Vilhjalmur Stefansson is pre- 
paring for the Office of Naval Research. Dr. Collins' term of office as 
Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Arctic Institute of North 
America terminated at the end of the calendar year 1948, but he con- 
tinued as chairman of the directing committee for the Institute's 



SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 3 

Bibliography of Arctic Literature and Roster of Arctic Specialists. 
In continuation of the archeological program begun in 1948 Dr. 
Collins left Washington in May to conduct excavations at Resolute 
Bay, Cornwallis Island, N. W. T., under the joint auspices of the 
Smithsonian Institution and the National Museum of Canada. 

From July 1 to September 10 Dr. Fenton was engaged in field work 
among the Seneca Indians of western New York on a grant from the 
Viking Fund of New York City. Working at Quaker Bridge on Al- 
legany Indian Reservation, he obtained a life history of an aged Seneca 
named Chauncey Johnny John with whom Dr. Fenton has worked 
since 1933. Especially fine materials were collected on social organi- 
zation, kinship, and age grades. Twelve reels of recordings were 
made which included the entire ritual of the Seneca Dark Dance, the 
opening address and several long prayers belonging to the Green Corn 
Festival, the entire Women's Rite of Thanksgiving to the cultivated 
crops, and an origin legend for the False-face Society in Seneca and 
in English. 

The Fourth Conference on Iroquois Research, under the direction 
of Dr. Fenton, met at Red House, N. Y., October 8-10, to review out- 
standing accomplishments in Iroquoian studies in the fields of lin- 
guistics, ethnology, and archeology. The Proceedings of the Con- 
ference, edited by Dr. Fenton, were issued in mimeograph form by the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

The project of collecting materials for a political history of the Six 
Nations was reported in a general paper to the American Philosophical 
Society on November 4. The same research led to examining the 
Kirkland Papers in Hamilton College Library, and on December 1 
Dr. Fenton addressed the College on its founder: "Samuel Kirkland: 
Observer, Negotiator, and Educator." A lecture was given to the 
Anthropology Club of Syracuse University, and manuscripts were 
examined in local libraries. Work continued in the manuscript col- 
lections of the New York Historical Society and at the New York 
Public Library. The Massachusetts Archives in the State House, 
the Essex Institute in Salem, and the Peabody Museum of Salem were 
visited in January. Three reels of the Pickering Papers were com- 
pleted and filed. Arrangements were made with Dr. C. M. Barbeau 
of the National Museum of Canada for obtaining microfilm of docu- 
ments in Canadian libraries for the American Philosophical Society 
Library. 

During the year Dr. Fenton served as a member of the Language 
Panel of the United States National Commission for UNESCO; he 
represented the Smithsonian at meetings of the Policy Board of the 
United States National Indian Institute, and in subsequent conferences 
at the State Department toward a Second Inter-American Confer- 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

ence on Indian Life, for which he prepared a paper. He served as 
President of the Anthropological Society of Washington. 

Dr. Fen ton published several papers on anthropological subjects in 
various journals during the year. 

The research activities of Dr. Gordon R. Willey, anthropologist, 
during the year were confined principally to study of data and mate- 
rials previously obtained in the field. They included the final prepa- 
ration of a monograph, "Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast," a 
culmination of studies begun by the Bureau of American Ethnology 
as early as 1923, with Dr. Willey engaged on the project since 1940. 
The war and other duties interrupted the completion of the manuscript, 
but it is now in process of publication by the Smithsonian. Eight 
other manuscripts by Dr. Willey are in press or awaiting publication, 
and four additional manuscripts are in preparation: "Ancon-Supe: 
Formative Period Sites of Central Peru" (with J. M. Corbett and 
L. M. O'Neale) ; "Huari, an Important Site in the Central Peruvian 
Highlands" (with D. Collier and J. H. Rowe); "Prehistoric Settle- 
ment Patterns in the Vim Valley, Perd," and "Archaeological Explora- 
tions in the Parita Zone, Panama\" 

Dr. Willey served in a consultative capacity for the period of final 
editing of volumes 5 and 6 of the Handbook of South American Indi- 
ans (Bureau Bulletin 143) and also assisted with certain administrative 
matters concerned with the Smithsonian River Basin Surveys. 

Dr. Willey participated in a series of round-table discussions under 
the leadership of Dr. A. L. Kroeber during the months October 
through February. These meetings, held at Columbia University, 
New York, were concerned with general discussions of anthropological 
method and theory. Throughout the year he served as assistant 
editor for the Handbook of Latin American Studies of the Library of 
Congress Hispanic Foundation. He also served as assistant editor of 
the journal American Antiquity, with reference to the South American 
area. 

From March through May Dr. Willey served as Smithsonian repre- 
sentative at several committee meetings of the State Department 
Committee for Scientific and Cultural Cooperation, and at an open 
meeting of the Caribbean Commission. 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES 

Miss Frances Densmore, collaborator of the Bureau, submitted to 
the Bureau a manuscript entitled "Musical Customs of the Indians of 
the Parana Delta and La Plata Littoral and the Gran Chaco." 

INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 

The Institute of Social Anthropology was created in 1943 as an 
autonomous unit of the Bureau of American Ethnology to carry out 



SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

cooperative training in anthropological teaching and research with 
the other American republics. During the past year it was financed 
by transfers from the Department of State totaling $97,900 from the 
appropriation "Cooperation with the American Republics, 1949." 
Long-range planning for the Institute became increasingly difficult 
during the year because of threatened budget reductions for the fiscal 
year of 1950. Otherwise, the Institute continued to function much 
as in previous years, and good work was done by all staff members. 
Principal activities were as follow: 

Washington office. — Dr. George M. Foster, Director of the Institute 
of Social Anthropology, made a 3-weeks trip to Spain in November 
1948 to investigate the possibility of ethnographical field work in that 
country, with a view to throwing additional light on the development 
of the contemporary cultures of Hispanic America. In March 1949 
Dr. Foster made a second trip to Spain, serving as Smithsonian 
Institution delegate at the centennial celebration of the Royal 
Academy of Natural, Exact, and Physical Sciences of Madrid. Dr. 
Gordon R. Willey assumed direction of the Institute of Social Anthro- 
pology during Dr. Foster's absence. 

Upon the recommendation of the Director a grant-in-aid was ex- 
tended by the Department of State to bring Dr. Luis Duque G6mez, 
Director of the Institute Etnol6gico y Servicio de Arqueologia of 
Bogotd, Colombia, to the United States for a 3-months period, Oc- 
tober 1948 to January 1949. An itinerary was arranged by Dr. 
Foster whereby Dr. Duque was able to visit the larger universities and 
anthropological centers in the United States both in the East and in 
the West. Also upon the recommendation of the Director, a like 
invitation was extended to Dr. Jose Cruxent, Director of the Museo de 
Ciencias Naturales in Caracas, Venezuela. Dr. Cruxent is expected 
to arrive in the United States in August 1949. 

Brazil. — Drs. Donald Pierson, sociologist, and Kalervo Oberg, social 
anthropologist, continued to give courses at the Escola Livre de 
Sociologia e Politica in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Dr. Pierson, assisted by 
students from the school, completed field work in the caboclo com- 
munity of "A Vila" near Sao Paulo, and completed a manuscript 
describing this work. Dr. Pierson also served as official observer of 
the United States Government at the UNESCO Conference held in 
Montevideo, Uruguay, September 6-10, 1948, to consider ways and 
means of stimulating the development of science in Latin America. 
He was brought to the United States at the end of June 1949, for con- 
sultation on future plans for work in Brazil. Dr. Oberg spent July 
and part of August 1948 in field work among the Indians of the 
headwaters of the Xingu River. In June 1949 he left on a 3-months 
trip to the Paressi and Nambiquara groups, northwest of Cuiaba in 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Mato Grosso. On both of these trips he was accompanied by students 
from the Escola Livre. 

Colombia. — Dr. John H. Rowe returned to the United States from 
Popayan, Colombia, in September to accept a permanent position at 
the University of California. Dr. Raymond E. Crist, professor of 
geography at the University of Maryland, was employed in February 
1949 on a temporary basis to replace Dr. Rowe. In the short time 
Dr. Crist has been in Popayan he has given courses and lectures in the 
Universidad del Cauca, dealing with Iberian culture and its dissemina- 
tion in the New World, and with geographic methods and theories. 
He has made several short field trips to small communities near 
Popayan, and has been host to the American Ambassador, Willard L. 
Beaulac, who, with his private party, flew from Bogota for the express 
purpose of becoming acquainted with the work of the Institute in 
Popayan. 

Mexico. — Dr. Isabel Kelly, social anthropologist, continued to repre- 
sent the Institute at the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia in Mexico 
City, giving anthropology courses and guiding independent research 
of students. A part of the spring of 1949 again was spent in the 
Totonac area, where final field notes on this group were taken, prepara- 
tory to writing a monograph describing the results of three seasons of 
work. Dr. Stanley Newman, linguist, resigned from the Institute 
in February 1949, to accept a position at the University of New 
Mexico. Up to this time be continued his teaching schedule at the 
Escuela. His research included investigations of the Otomi and 
Nahuatl Indian languages, and participation in the literacy campaign 
of the Mexican Government. A significant paper on the Otomi 
language was completed, and a major monograph on Nahuatl was 
undertaken. 

Peru. — Dr. Allan Holmberg resigned from the Institute in August 
1948 to accept a permanent position at Cornell University. He was 
immediately replaced by Dr. George Kubler, of Yale University, who 
arrived in Lima early in September. Dr. Kubler continued teaching 
projects in the Instituto de Estudios Etnol6gicos, and also gave a 
course in the University of San Marcos. He devoted much atten- 
tion to the social history of the colonial period in Peru, with particular 
emphasis on demography, and shifts in populations during this period. 
This work will to a considerable extent close the gap between the 
data of archeological studies in the Viru Valley in north Peru, made 
by Smithsonian and other scientists, and the contemporary studies 
made by Dr. Holmberg and teachers and students of the Instituto 
de Estudios Etnol6gicos, thus completing one of the longest sequences 
of culture history known from any part of the world. Dr. Kubler 
made a brief trip in March 1949 to Bogota and Popayan, to investigate 



SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

documents in the Colombian capital dealing with demographic move- 
ments on the west coast of South America in colonial times, and to 
consult with Dr. Crist on Institute of Social Anthropology matters. 
In June 1949 he served as Adviser to the American Delegation at the 
Third Annual Interamerican Indian Congress, held in Cuzco. 

Publications. — Institute of Social Anthropology Publications Nos. 
8 and 9 appeared during the year and Nos. 10, 11, and 12 were in 
press. These are listed with the publications of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

The River Basin Surveys, organized in 1946 as a unit of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology to carry into effect a memorandum of under- 
standing between the Smithsonian Institution and the National 
Park Service providing for the salvage of archeological and paleon- 
tological materials that will be lost as a result of the nation-wide 
program for flood control, irrigation, hydroelectric, and navigation 
projects sponsored by the Federal Government, continued its opera- 
tions during the year. As in the past, the investigations were con- 
ducted in cooperation with the National Park Service and the Bureau 
of Reclamation of the Department of the Interior, the Corps of 
Engineers, Department of the Army, and a number of nongovern- 
mental local institutions. The work was financed by the transfer of 
$145,400 ($20,000 of which was appropriated in the 2d Deficiency 
Act and did not become available for actual use until the beginning 
of fiscal 1950) to the Smithsonian Institution by the National Park 
Service. The money comprising these funds was derived in part 
from the Bureau of Reclamation and in part from the National Park 
Service. 

Activities in the field consisted mainly of reconnaissance or surveys 
for the purpose of locating sites that will be involved in construction 
work or are so situated that eventually they will be inundated. There 
was a limited testing of sites to determine their nature and extent, 
where such was deemed essential, and at seven locations extended 
excavation or intensive testing was carried on. The surveys covered 
67 reservoir areas scattered throughout 8 river basins and 14 States. 
At the end of the year the total of the reservoir areas surveyed or 
where some digging has been done since the start of the program in 
July 1946 had reached 154 located in 21 States. During the course 
of the work 2,107 archeological sites have been recorded, and of that 
number 456 have been recommended for excavation or further testing. 
Thus far preliminary appraisal reports have been finished for all the 
reservoirs, and 97 have been mimeographed for distribution to the 
cooperating agencies. Where several reservoirs form a unit in a single 

866385-50 2 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

drainage subbasin the information on all is included in a single report, 
so that the 97 mimeographed pamphlets contain information on some 
130 of the reservoir projects. In addition to the archeological papers, 
one comprehensive report on the paleontological problems in the 
Missouri Basin was also issued. More detailed technical reports 
completed for a number of projects have appeared in scientific journals 
or are awaiting publication. 

The distribution by States of all the reservoirs investigated, as of 
the close of the fiscal year, is as follows: California, 16; Colorado, 23; 
Georgia, 2; Idaho, 9; Illinois, 2; Iowa, 3; Kansas, 6; Minnesota, 1; 
Montana, 5; Nebraska, 16; New Mexico, 1; North Dakota, 13; 
Oklahoma, 5; Oregon, 12; South Dakota, 9; Tennessee, 1; Texas, 
10; Virginia, 1 ; Washington, 9; West Virginia, 2; Wyoming, 8. Exca- 
vations completed during the year were: Colorado, 1; Nebraska, 1; 
North Dakota, 1; Oklahoma, 1; Oregon, 1; Washington, 1. In a 
number of cases the digging was started in the previous fiscal year 
and continued over into fiscal 1949. Other States where excavations 
were made in prior years are: Kansas, 1; New Mexico, 1; Texas, 1; 
and Wyoming, 1. 

As has been the case since the start of the River Basin Surveys 
program, staff men in the field received full cooperation from repre- 
sentatives of the National Park Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, 
the Corps of Engineers, and various State agencies. Temporary 
office and laboratory space was provided at some of the projects, 
transportation and guides were furnished at others, and in several 
instances labor and mechanical equipment made available by the 
construction agency materially increased excavation operations. 
Had it not been for this assistance it would not have been possible to 
accomplish all that was done during the year. The National Park 
Service was primarily responsible for obtaining the funds which sup- 
ported the program and continued to serve as the liaison between the 
Smithsonian Institution and the other governmental agencies, both 
in Washington and through its several regional offices. The untiring 
efforts of Park Service personnel played a large part in furthering the 
progress of the program as a whole. 

The main office in Washington had general direction and super- 
vision over the work in Oklahoma, Texas, Minnesota, North Dakota 
(in the drainage of the Red River of the North), Iowa, Illinois, Colo- 
rado (outside of the Missouri Basin) , and California. In the Missouri 
Basin, direction of the program was from a field headquarters at Lin- 
coln, Nebr., where all the materials collected by the survey and exca- 
vation parties were also processed. Activities in the Columbia Basin 
were supervised from a field office located at Eugene, Oreg. 

Washington office. — Throughout the fiscal year the main head- 






SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 



quarters of the River Basin Surveys continued under the direction of 
Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. Carl F. Miller, Joseph R. Caldwell, 
and Ralph S. Solecki, archeologists, were based on that office, although 
Caldwell and Solecki did not work full time for the Surveys. 

Richard P. Wheeler was appointed archeologist on the staff on 
August 27, and from that date until May 16 functioned under the 
direction of the Washington office, although all his work was done in 
the field. On May 16 he was transferred to the Missouri Basin 
and from then until the close of the year was based on the Lincoln 
headquarters. 

Mr. Miller spent most of the year in the office preparing reports 
based upon material gathered in the field during the previous year, 
and assisting the Director in reviewing the literature pertaining to 
archeological manifestations occurring in areas where additional reser- 
voir projects are proposed. His "Appraisal of the Archeological 
Resources of the Clark Hill Reservoir Area, South Carolina and Geor- 
gia" was completed and mimeographed for distribution in December. 
Another article, "Early Cultural Manifestations Exposed by the 
Archeological Survey of the Buggs Island Reservoir in Southern 
Virginia and Northern North Carolina," was published in the Journal 
of the Washington Academy of Sciences, vol. 38, No. 2, December 

1948. A paper based on information obtained during the survey of 
the Clark Hill Reservoir, "The Lake Spring Site, Columbia County, 
Georgia," was to appear in American Antiquity, vol. 15, No. 1, July 

1949. Several others have been accepted for publication elsewhere. 
Mr. Miller made two trips to Clarksville, Va., in the late winter and 
early spring, the first for the purpose of investigating unauthorized 
pot-hunting activities in the Buggs Island Reservoir area, and the 
second to speak before the Archeological Society of Virginia on the 
problems of the Buggs Island archeological program. He also went 
to Richmond, Va., where he spent 2 days at the Valentine Museum 
examining manuscripts and other documentary materials pertaining 
to early explorations and surveys in Virginia, northern North Carolina, 
and eastern West Virginia in an effort to obtain further data bearing 
on the aboriginal history of the Buggs Island area. 

In July and early August Mr. Caldwell collaborated with Mr. Miller 
in working over the materials collected during the Clark Hill Reservoir 
survey. During that period he prepared a paper, "The Rembert 
Mounds, Elbert County, Georgia," based on new information obtained 
at Clark Hill. Another article, " Palachacolas Town, Hampton 
County, South Carolina," was printed in the Journal of the Washington 
Academy of Sciences, vol. 38, No. 10, October 15, 1948. On August 
19 Mr. Caldwell joined Dr. Robert E. Bell, of the University of Okla- 
homa, at Wagoner, Okla., and began the excavation of a large mound 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

at the Norman Site in the Fort Gibson Reservoir basin. That work 
continued until September 22. Mr. Caldwell returned to Washington 
on September 25 and on October 3 was granted leave of absence to 
join an expedition of the Universities of Chicago and Pennsylvania in 
Iraq and Iran. He returned to duty on the staff of the River Basin 
Surveys June 26, 1949, and began work on materials from the Alla- 
toona Reservoir basin in Georgia. 

Ralph S. Solecki devoted the summer and fall months to the prepara- 
tion of reports on his work at the Bluestone and West Fork projects in 
West Virginia. The Bluestone paper was mimeographed and dis- 
tributed in December and that for the West Fork in March. Mr. 
Solecki also prepared a detailed article, "An Archeological Survey of 
Two River Basins in West Virginia," which was published in West 
Virginia History, vol. 10, Nos. 3 and 4. In December he was tempo- 
rarily transferred to the regular staff of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology and was sent to Natrium, W. Va., to excavate a mound on 
the property of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. The latter organiza- 
tion planned to level the mound to make room for new buildings and 
in order that nothing of value might be destroyed made arrangements 
with the Bureau to have it done properly, providing the necessary 
labor for the project. Mr. Solecki returned to the River Basin Sur- 
veys on January 12. In following months he continued to work on 
the material from West Virginia and on May 8 was transferred to the 
Smithsonian Institution staff so that he could accompany a party of 
the United States Geological Survey to Alaska for an archeological 
reconnaissance along the upper Kukpowruk and Kokolik Rivers in 
northern Alaska. At the close of the fiscal year he reported having 
located some 50 late Eskimo sites. 

California. — Investigations in California were not as extensive as in 
previous years and were limited to three reservoir projects. In 
October David A. Frederickson and Albert Mohr, field assistants of 
the River Basin Surveys, working under the general supervision of 
Francis A. Riddell, assistant archeologist of the California Archeologi- 
cal Survey, University of California, and in cooperation with the latter 
organization, examined the areas to be flooded by the Black Butte, 
Farmington, and New Melones Reservoirs, all Corps of Engineers 
projects. 

The Black Butte Dam is to be built in Stony Creek, and the basin 
it will flood lies in Glenn and Tehama Counties, a region formerly 
occupied by the Wintun. The survey located 26 sites in the area and 
it is believed that excavations in a number of them would provide a 
reasonably accurate and balanced picture of the material culture of the 
Indians who lived there. 

The Farmington Dam is planned for Littlejohn Creek, and the 



SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 11 

reservoir formed by it will inundate areas in both San Joaquin and 
Stanislaus Counties. It would seem that in aboriginal times that 
section was more suitable for occupation than it has been in recent 
years because 24 sites were found there. Most of them are of the 
surface variety, indicating seasonal occupation, but some have cultural 
deposits with artifacts, bone, and shell occurring in some abundance. 
All the artifacts are alike, both in types and material, and are of 
particular interest because they consist in the main of crude core tools, 
cores, and flake tools, with only a few blade fragments and no arrow- 
heads. The material from which they were made occurs in the local 
stream beds in the form of cobbles. Excavations in a number of the 
sites are recommended for the purpose of obtaining information both 
as to their probable position in the chronological sequence of the area 
and as to their relationships. 

The New Melones Keservoir will fill a deep and narrow valley 
formed by the Stanislaus River in Calaveras and Tuolumne Counties. 
The area is one in which there was considerable mining activity at 
one time, and there is an existing reservoir which has modified the 
surface of the ground to some degree. Consequently only four sites 
were noted, despite the fact that the Northern Miwok once inhabited 
the region, and no further archeological activities were recommended. 

Colorado. — Because of the physiographic character of the area in- 
cluded within the political boundaries of Colorado the numerous 
projects there occur within the limits of several drainage systems. 
Consequently some of the archeological investigations have been 
conducted as a part of the Missouri Basin program, while others 
have been carried on as separate units of the Surveys as a whole. 
Only the latter are discussed in this section of the report. 

At the start of the fiscal year Donald Eastman and Gary L. Yundt, 
field assistants, were continuing reconnaissance of the area involved 
in the Taylor Lake Enlargement of the Gunnison-Arkansas project. 
They completed this work on July 7, after having located only two 
sites that will be covered by the waters of the larger lake resulting 
from the construction of a new dam. The sites apparently were 
former camps and only surface material was present. The latter, 
however, is crude in character and suggests a much earlier cultural 
horizon than that of the late nomads. Neither of the sites showed 
sufficient depth to warrant excavation, and no further work is recom- 
mended for that project. From Taylor Lake, Eastman and Yundt 
proceeded to the Cimarron Damsite located on the Gunnison River 
just below the confluence of the latter and the Cimarron. The area 
to be flooded by this project had previously been surveyed in part 
by the Chipeta Chapter of the Colorado Archeological Society, 
Montrose, which made it possible for the Survey men to complete 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

their work by July 17. All the sites located, eight in number, indi- 
cate that they were camping places, and the surface materials col- 
lected from them are typical of the late nomadic Indians of the 
region. Similar sites are abundant outside of the basin of the pro- 
posed reservoir, hence no further investigations are needed there. 
Eastman and Yundt returned to Gunnison, Colo., from the Cimarron 
project and, having completed their reports, resigned from the River 
Basin Surveys on July 23. During the course of their investigations 
they worked under the general direction and supervision of Dr. C. T. 
Hurst of Western State College, Gunnison, who had cooperated with 
the River Basin Surveys on a number of previous surveys. 

Arnold M. Withers, archeologist, completed reconnaissance of nine 
proposed reservoir areas in the Blue-South Platte project, which he 
had started toward the end of the previous year, and examined six of 
those in the Gunnison-Arkansas project east of the Rocky Mountains. 
All the proposed reservoirs of the Blue-South Platte project, Two 
Forks, Shawnee, Blue, Snake, Tenmile, Ruedi, Pando, Piney, and 
Empire, are located in the high mountain valleys of the Colorado 
Rockies at altitudes ranging from 8,000 to 10,000 feet above sea level. 
They will be situated in Douglas, Park, Summit, Eagle, Pitkin, and 
Clear Creek Counties. Only six definite archeological sites were 
found in the nine reservoir areas, although further surveys are recom- 
mended for the Snake and the upper part of the Two Forks, and they 
appear to have been temporary camps occupied by a people engaged 
in hunting and gathering wild food products. At none of them are 
the deposits of sufficient depth to warrant excavation. The materials 
collected from the surface suggest that the sites are prehistoric, al- 
though they have no great age, and that they probably are attributable 
to Ute Indians. 

The six proposed reservoirs of the Gunnison-Arkansas project, the 
Graneros, Cedarwood, Ben Butler, Pueblo, Higbee or Purgatoire, and 
Horse Creek, are in the broken country of the High Plains along the 
Arkansas or its tributaries in Pueblo, Huerfano, Otero, and Bent 
Counties, Colo. The rapid survey of the area by Withers produced 
a total of only 13 sites for the project. They consist of rock shelters 
and open camps. At a number of the latter, tipi rings were noted. 
Although the small number of sites indicates that the area was sparsely 
populated, the character of the materials collected from them suggests 
that a long period of time is represented. Testing is recommended 
for some of the rock shelters and two of the stone-circle sites, but none 
appears to be worthy of complete excavation. A more intensive in- 
vestigation of the Pueblo and Purgatoire reservoir basins is indicated 
if the projects are authorized and construction work is started. 
Withers completed his work and left the Surveys on August 14. 



SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 13 

During the investigations he was provided with a base of operations 
by the University of Denver. 

Preliminary reconnaissance of the eight reservoirs included in the 
Colorado-Big Thompson project by the University of Colorado was 
completed in the autumn of 1947. In accordance with recommenda- 
tions made at that time, the River Basin Surveys arranged for a more 
intensive survey and the testing of some sites in the Granby Reservoir 
on the Colorado River in Grand County. That work was carried out 
during August and September by Robert F. Burgh, field assistant, 
who was on leave of absence from the University of Colorado Museum, 
aided by William Woodard and Byron W. Houseknecht, student 
assistants. Only four sites were located in the area to be flooded, and 
two of those showed only surface traces of stone chips and a few im- 
plements. Another consisted of stone circles, presumably tipi rings, 
but yielded no artifacts. The fourth was a camp site located on the 
west side of the basin on a terrace adjacent to Stillwater Creek. 
Trenching of the site produced a variety of cultural remains consisting 
of hearths, potsherds, stone projectile points, stone scrapers, manos, 
metate fragments, and animal bones. No traces of house remains 
were found, and the occurrence of fireplaces at varying depths below 
the surface suggests that there were repeated but casual occupations 
of the terrace during successive seasons without any permanent habi- 
tation. Potsherds from the site were of two kinds, cord-marked and 
corrugated. The cord-marked is from a cooking ware of Woodland 
type, while the corrugated undoubtedly came from the Northern 
Periphery of the Southwest. The pottery indicates that the site 
probably dates between A. D. 900 and 1300. The bulk of the material 
obtained there shows that the affiliations were clearly with the pre- 
historic Plains cultures, particularly those responsible for the camp 
sites along the foothills in northeastern Colorado. 

Conclusions, based on the results of the work in that area, are that 
no further investigations are warranted in the Colorado-Big Thomp- 
son project unless construction operations accidentally uncover un- 
suspected remains. West of the Continental Divide there are no 
sites as good as the one examined in the Granby Reservoir, while east 
of it there are numerous examples outside the reservoir basins which 
not only appear to have the same cultural identity as those within 
them but to offer greater promise. 

Columbia Basin. — Work in the Columbia Basin was based on the 
field headquarters at Eugene, Oreg., where office and laboratory space 
was provided by the University of Oregon. Dr. Philip Drucker, on 
detail from the Bureau of American Ethnology, continued to direct 
the program until October 1 when he returned to Washington and his 
regular duties prior to being granted military leave beginning October 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

22. After Dr. Drucker's departure from Eugene, Homer Douglas 
Osborne, archeologist, was appointed acting field director and placed 
in charge of the office there. He continued in that capacity through- 
out the remainder of the year. 

From July to early September, two parties consisting of two men 
each, were engaged in the investigation of reservoir areas in the 
Columbia Basin. During that time they explored 15 reservoir basins, 
6 of which are Corps of Engineers projects, and 9 of which are projects 
of the Bureau of Reclamation. The Corps of Engineers projects in- 
clude the 4 navigational reservoirs on the lower Snake River in Wash- 
ington, Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental, Little Goose, and Lower 
Granite. In addition Lucky Peak Reservoir basin in Idaho was 
examined, and the results of the survey of Chief Joseph (Foster Creek) 
Reservoir in east-central Washington initiated some years ago by the 
University of Washington were checked and the survey was com- 
pleted. The work done in Bureau of Reclamation reservoirs involved 
the examination of sites in the Deschutes project, Benham Falls and 
Prineville Reservoirs, and checks of the proposed enlargement of 
Wickiup and Crane Prairie Reservoirs. In addition a series of small 
reservoirs in eastern Oregon and central Idaho were surveyed. They 
were: Mason, Ryan Creek, and Bully Creek in northeastern Oregon; 
and Lost Valley Enlargement and Horse Flat Reservoirs in Idaho. 
Within the boundaries of those 15 reservoir basins a total of 128 
archeological sites were found and recorded. 

Excavation projects were carried out in the McNary Reservoir 
area, Oregon- Washington, and in the O'Sullivan (Potholes) Reservoir, 
Washington. The work at McNary was a cooperative undertaking 
between the River Basin Surveys and the University of Oregon, while 
that at O'Sullivan was a joint venture between the Surveys and the 
University of Washington. 

Investigations at McNary were carried on from August 5 to Sep- 
tember 11 under the direction of Homer Douglas Osborne. The 
digging was done by students from various west coast universities. 
Extensive tests were made in two sites on Berrian Island, Wash., 
which had been designated as a source of aggregate for dam construc- 
tion, and at an important one on the Oregon side of the river. In 
addition to previously unknown information about local Indian vil- 
lage and house patterns, the excavations produced 48 burials and 
1,870 artifacts. The skeletal material provides one of the largest 
series thus far available for study and should throw considerable light 
on the physical characteristics and relationships of the people. The 
artifacts will give a good cross section of the material culture prevail- 
ing at the time of first contact with European influence. 

The O'Sullivan project was well under way at the start of the fiscal 



SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 15 

year and continued until August 19. Richard D. Daugherty, arche- 
ologist, was in charge of the party, which consisted of students from 
the University of Washington. The scene of operations was a village 
site located on the shores of Moses Lake, an area which will be in- 
undated when the dam is completed. Three house-pit depressions and 
the terrain immediately surrounding them were carefully examined. 
Good data were obtained on the form and construction of the houses, 
and the series of artifacts recovered during the digging will aid in 
determining the cultural status of the people. The absence of all 
European objects indicates that the site antedates the period of 
exploration and early trading posts. The results at O'Sullivan, in 
general, indicate that more intensive work should be done there. 

Special mention should be made of the excellent cooperation on the 
part of other governmental agencies. The National Park Service, 
through the Region Four office at San Francisco and the Columbia 
Basin Recreational Survey office at Portland furnished the Eugene 
office with current information on reservoir priorities, construction 
schedules, and field maps. The Bureau of Reclamation, through the 
Region One office in Boise, Idaho, not only supplied maps of reservoir 
areas and information on their projects, but greatly facilitated the 
archeological investigations by placing vehicles at the disposal of the 
survey parties. The Corps of Engineers, through the office of the 
Division Engineer, and also the Portland and Seattle District offices, 
provided maps and other essential information. In addition the 
Portland District office made a vehicle available for use at the McNary 
project, furnished a temporary headquarters, and provided assistance 
in the mapping of sites. 

Throughout the period of active work Dr. Drucker made numerous 
trips from the Eugene office to the various parties and the excavation 
projects. He also met with Dr. Robert F. Heizer, Director, California 
Archeological Surveys, and assisted in perfecting plans for the coopera- 
tive work to be carried on by that organization. After completing 
arrangements for maintaining the Eugene office during the winter 
months, he returned to Washington on October 1 . 

At the start of the year George L. Coale, archeologist, and Francis A. 
Riddell, Harry S. Riddell, Jr., and Homer Douglas Osborne, field 
assistants, were engaged in the survey of the Benham Falls, Prineville, 
Wickiup, and Crane Prairie Reservoirs. That work was completed 
on July 11, and Coale and Osborne returned to Eugene to assist 
Dr. Drucker in making preparations for the excavations at the McNary 
Reservoir. The two Riddells proceeded to northeastern Oregon 
where they made a reconnaissance of the Mason Creek and Ryan 
Creek Reservoirs. The surveys there being finished on July 16, they 
moved to Chief Joseph (Foster Creek) where on July 26 they completed 

866385—50 3 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the investigations previously started by the University of Washington. 
Francis A. Rid dell resigned from the Surveys on July 30. George L. 
Coale met Harry S. Riddell, Jr., at Pasco, Wash., on the 27th, and 
the two proceeded from there to Ice Harbor and Lower Monumental 
Reservoirs. After their reconnaissance of those two projects they 
went on to the Lucky Peak, Lost Valley, and Horse Creek Reservoirs 
in Idaho, and the Bully Creek Reservoir in Oregon. William W. Burd, 
who was appointed a field assistant on August 16, and Joel L. Shiner, 
who was promoted from the crew at McNary to field assistant, spent 
the period from August 18 to 30 examining the Little Goose and Lower 
Monumental Reservoirs for archeological remains. Burd returned to 
Eugene and resigned on August 31, while Shiner rejoined the party 
at the McNary excavations and continued with it until September 9 
when he resigned. After completing the field work at Moses Lake, 
Richard D. Daugherty proceeded to Seattle, Wash., where he processed 
and studied the materials obtained from the excavations and prepared 
a report on the results of the investigations. His appointment as 
archeologist terminated on September 16. 

As previously mentioned, Osborne spent the first few weeks of the 
year on survey duties and was then recalled to Eugene to aid in prepa- 
rations for the McNary project. He went with the party to that 
reservoir on August 5 and on August 16 was promoted to archeologist 
and placed in charge of the excavations. Upon his return to Eugene 
in September he was made Acting Field Director, and continued to 
function in that capacity throughout the remainder of the year. 
During the fall and winter months he wrote the preliminary appraisal 
reports for the 15 reservoirs surveyed during the summer, prepared 
a summary report and a longer, more detailed manuscript on the 
McNary excavations, and made compilations of data on historical 
references, ethnological descriptions, and trade goods to be used as 
ready sources for information on the Columbia Basin. During Febru- 
ary he made a survey of the Big Cliff Reservoir and checked the 
various bank-control projects of the Corps of Engineers along the 
Willamette River and its tributaries. On May 26 and 27 he partici- 
pated in a conference at Pendleton, Oreg., where representatives of 
the Corps of Engineers, the National Park Service, and the Bureau 
of Indian Affairs discussed the problem of the removal of Indian 
burials from areas that are to be flooded. Throughout the winter 
months Osborne was assisted in the laboratory by Lloyd Collins and 
Hiroto Zakoji, students of the University of Oregon. 

Illinois. — Archeological studies in Illinois consisted of the examina- 
tion of the records of previous surveys in the Illinois River Basin and 
the investigation of two reservoir areas where dams were under 
construction. 



SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 17 

During February Kichard P. Wheeler conferred with the District 
Engineer at Chicago about the flood-control program for the Illinois 
River Basin, discussed archeological problems involved with Dr. John 
C. McGregor, associate professor of anthropology at the University of 
Illinois, and with Dr. Kenneth G. Orr, assistant professor of anthro- 
pology at the University of Chicago. March 10 to 18, Wheeler 
checked the survey files of the Department of Anthropology and 
worked in the Harper Library, at the University of Chicago. Leaving 
Chicago he proceeded to Springfield, 111., where he conferred with 
Dr. Thorne Deuel, Director of the Illinois State Museum. From 
March 21 to 25 he made a reconnaissance of the Fondulac and Farm- 
dale Reservoir basins, the dams then being built, on Farm Creek, in 
Tazewell County, 111. No archeological sites were found in those 
areas, and no further work was recommended. 

In April Wheeler prepared a preliminary report, "Archeological 
Resources of the Proposed or Considered Reservoirs in the Illinois 
River Basin, Central and Northern Illinois," which embodied a 
synopsis of present knowledge of the archeology of this region and 
provided a list of known sites (based on the site list prepared for the 
River Basin Surveys in September 1947 by Dr. J. C. McGregor) in 
10 of the 15 proposed reservoirs in the Illinois River Basin for which 
maps are available. 

On May 16 Wheeler was transferred to the Missouri Basin, and his 
activities from then until the end of the year are included in that 
portion of the report. 

Iowa. — Work in Iowa was confined for the most part to surveys of 
two reservoir basins and the area immediately adjacent to the dam 
site of a third where preliminary construction activities were already 
under way. 

Richard P. Wheeler spent the period December 6 to 10 at the Red 
Rock Reservoir project, on the Des Moines River, and December 13 
to 15 at the Rathbun Reservoir on the Chariton River. During the 
progress of the work he consulted with Dr. Charles R. Keyes, Director 
of the Archeological Survey of Iowa, about the character and extent 
of the archeological remains in the two areas. In his reports prepared 
at the conclusion of his field investigations, Wheeler records 15 mound 
and occupation sites in the Red Rock basin, 4 of which will be involved 
in the dam construction, and 6 in the Rathbun area. More intensive 
studies under more favorable field conditions were recommended for 
both reservoirs. 

Between January 24 and February 3, Wheeler made a preliminary 
reconnaissance of the Coralville Reservoir, on the Iowa River, in 
Johnson and Iowa Counties, Iowa. Eight mound sites and one 
occupation site were located. Ten other sites, recorded prior to the 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

survey, could not be found because of the deep snow cover. Further 
work will be necessary before recommendations can be made for the 
salvage of archeological remains in that reservoir area. 

Missouri Basin. — The Missouri Basin project, as in previous years, 
continued under the general direction of Dr. Waldo R. Wedel and 
was based on the field headquarters at Lincoln, Nebr. During the 
fiscal year 12 new reservoir basins were surveyed for archeological 
remains; two areas only briefly examined in former seasons were revis- 
ited and subjected to intensive reconnaissance; while comprehensive 
excavations were carried on at one location. In addition to those activ- 
ities and certain paleontological investigations, laboratory and office 
work were carried on throughout the year. 

As the fiscal year opened, three archeological units and one paleonto- 
logical unit were engaged in field work. The largest project was the 
excavation program at Medicine Creek, Nebr., under the field direction 
of M. F. Kivett, archeologist, with George Metcalf as assistant. The 
work was made possible through an agreement with the Bureau of 
Reclamation under which the Bureau provided labor and power equip- 
ment while the River Basin Surveys provided the technical supervision 
and maintained the scientific records. This project terminated on 
August 20, having produced a large body of data and artifacts for 
several inadequately known prehistoric culture horizons. Aside from 
the scientific returns of the operation, it is important to note that the 
applicability of power machinery to the excavation of aboriginal village 
sites under careful technical supervision was amply demonstrated. 
The findings add much new information to that previously obtained 
elsewhere in the Central Plains through the small-scale sampling of 
many sites. 

A second unit under J. T. Hughes, archeologist, with J. M. Shippee 
as assistant, was at work in Angostura Reservoir, South Dakota. In- 
tensive survey there added numerous sites to those recorded during 
preliminary reconnaissance in 1946 ; and also disclosed the presence of at 
least one site that may have an antiquity of several thousand years. 
Because of the extreme scarcity of data from this early period, and the 
usual difficulty of working such sites, it is imperative that further 
excavation be carried on there. From September 15 to 30 Hughes 
and Shippee carried on preliminary reconnaissance at the Edgemont 
and Keyhole Projects in Wyoming, and at the Pactola and Johnson 
Siding Reservoir basins in South Dakota. At Edgemont 28 sites were 
recorded, while 29 were noted at Keyhole. Only one was noted at 
Pactola and none at Johnson Siding. 

A third unit under Paul L. Cooper carried on excavations at the 
Heart Butte Reservoir basin, North Dakota, through the month of 
July, and then transferred its activities to the proposed lower Oahe 



SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 19 

Reservoir project on the Missouri River a few miles above Pierre, 
S. Dak. On the basis of findings by that unit, it appears unlikely 
that remains of any great importance to archeology will be lost at 
Heart Butte. At Oahe, 61 sites were recorded between Pierre and 
the Cheyenne River, a distance of about 40 miles. They include some 
of the largest, best preserved, and most impressive Indian village re- 
mains in the Missouri Basin. Most of them are virtually untouched 
by trained archeologists and, with one or two possible exceptions, none 
has been adequately tested by excavation. Five of the sites will be 
affected almost as soon as construction work begins on the dam site, 
the access roads, and the railroad classification yards. Hence, 
salvage operations will be necessary at an early date. Because of the 
abundance and variety of remains, comprehensive excavation has 
been recommended to begin soon and to be carried forward vigorously 
so that a representative sample of the materials to be affected by Oahe 
Reservoir may be saved. 

From November 9 to 24 Cooper and Shippee excavated a burial 
mound in the spillway area of Fort Randall Dam, South Dakota. The 
Corps of Engineers provided a bulldozer and operator as needed, and 
assisted in numerous other ways. Without that cooperation, the 
work there would not have been possible. The findings, although not 
spectacular, are important because burial mounds are extremely rare 
on that portion of the Missouri, and their temporal and cultural 
relationships to other archeological complexes of the region can be 
determined, if at all, only through controlled excavations by trained 
investigators. 

A paleontological unit under Dr. T. E. White was in the field from 
July 1 to October 1. It worked at the Boysen Reservoir, Wyoming: 
in the Canyon Ferry Reservoir area on the Missouri River north of 
Townsend, Mont.; at the Angostura Reservoir, South Dakota; and at 
the Cedar Bluff Reservoir on the Smoky Hill River in Kansas. 

Limited field work was resumed in the spring. Richard P. Wheeler, 
archeologist, left Lincoln on May 27 for preliminary reconnaissance 
at several hitherto unvisited reservoir projects and for further survey 
of others previously examined in preliminary fashion. Projects 
visited by Wheeler prior to June 30 include Rocky Ford, Philip, Bixby, 
and Shadehill, in South Dakota; Cannonball and Dickinson, in North 
Dakota; Moorhead, in Wyoming-Montana, and Onion Flat in 
Wyoming. 

Among the particularly gratifying features of the year's field work 
were the results achieved through use of power machinery and the 
direct cooperation extended by the Bureau of Reclamation at Medicine 
Creek and by the Corps of Engineers at Fort Randall Reservoir. 
Such cooperative work, in terms of research accomplished, is the most 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

economical way of salvaging archeological remains on the scale needed. 
Application of the same procedures, including mechanized earth- 
moving operations, to other projects seems to be the only way of 
obtaining irreplaceable scientific data in the little time left for its 
recovery. 

In the laboratory 39 maps were drawn. Many of them were field 
maps, others were site and reservoir maps for use with published re- 
ports. Throughout the winter specimens were selected aad photo- 
graphed as analysis for technical reports proceeded. Including field 
photographs, a total of 918 negatives and 374 color transparencies 
were processed; 61 lantern slides were added to the slide series; 918 
prints were made, cataloged, and filed; 1,008 prints were made for 
report illustrations and reference purposes; and 350 enlargements 
were made for publicity and reference use. 

All specimens collected during the field season, a total of 45,233, 
were cleaned, numbered, cataloged, and stored. The majority of 
them came from Medicine Creek, Angostura, and Oahe Reservoirs. 
Samples of bone, shell, and vegetal specimens from various sites were 
packed and sent to specialists elsewhere for identification. In addi- 
tion, soil samples from some of the sites were sent out for analysis, and 
wood and charcoal specimens were sent away for tree-ring studies. 

The skeleton of an adolescent covered with thousands of shell beads, 
sent to Lincoln in a plaster case from the Harlan County Reservoir, 
Nebraska, in 1946, was mounted permanently for exhibit purposes. 
Pottery restoration, principally of Medicine Creek material, continued 
throughout the spring months, 17 earthenware vessels having been 
restored by June 30. 

Information concerning over 129 sites was added to the site file, 
and 45 maps were indexed and added to the map reference file. 

On July 1, J. Joseph Bauxar, archeologist, was stationed at the 
Lincoln, Nebr., headquarters, continuing the ethnohistorical research 
project he had started the preceeding year. The material collected 
consisted of such information as is pertinent to the archeologists' 
problem of determining the ethnic affiliations of the archeological 
complexes in the Missouri River Basin. Some 30 tribes and subtribes 
are represented in the Tribal Culture File. On January 9, 1949, Mr. 
Bauxar was transferred to the Oklahoma project of the River Basin 
Surveys and proceeded to Norman for the purpose of analyzing 
materials from the Norman site in the Fort Gibson Reservoir. 

Wesley L. Bliss, archeologist, devoted the time from July 1 until 
January 8 in the preparation of a general article "Birdshead Cave, 
a Stratified Site in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming," and a technical 
report on the same project. In late August he visited the sites in the 
Medicine Creek area being excavated by the State Museum of the 



SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 21 

University of Nebraska and in October accompanied a group from that 
institution on a trip to Signal Butte in western Nebraska for the 
purpose of reexamining the early sites at that location. On the basis 
of information obtained during the course of his work, he prepared 
a paper "Early and Late Lithic Horizons in the Plains" which was 
presented before the Sixth Conference for Plains Archeology at Lincoln 
in November. Mr. Bliss left the Kiver Basin Surveys staff on 
January 8. 

In addition to the field work previously mentioned, Paul L. Cooper 
in September accompanied Dr. Waldo R. Wedel, Dr. Gordon Baldwin 
of the National Park Service, and Dr. J. O. Brew and Frederick 
Johnson of the Committee for the Recovery of Archeological Remains, 
on an inspection trip to Missouri Basin archeological sites in Wyoming, 
Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska. Throughout 
the remainder of the year his activities were centered in the laboratory 
at Lincoln. Until March 24 he was in charge of the Lincoln head- 
quarters during such times as Dr. Wedel was in Washington, but from 
that date until June 30 devoted most of his attention to analyzing 
the data and specimens obtained during the field season and in the 
preparation of reports. He wrote a summary of the work done at two 
reservoirs in South Dakota, "Recent Investigations in Fort Randall 
and Oahe Reservoirs, South Dakota," which was published in Amer- 
ican Antiquity, vol. 14, No. 4, April 1949. 

Robert B. Cumming, Jr., archeologist, continued to plan and super- 
vise the laboratory procedures, as mentioned in an earlier paragraph, 
and from March 24 until June 30 was in charge of the Lincoln office 
when Dr. Wedel was not present at the laboratory. 

Following the summer field work Jack T. Hughes, archeologist, 
spent the remainder of the year in the laboratory studying the data 
and materials collected from the various reservoirs he had examined 
and writing reports on the results of his work. He prepared a 
memorandum on Cheyenne Basin archeology for the National Park 
Service and completed an article, "Investigations in Western South 
Dakota and Northeastern Wyoming," which was published in 
American Antiquity, vol. 14, No. 4, April 1949. He collaborated 
with Dr. Theodore E. White in writing a manuscript "The Long Site, 
an Ancient Camp in Southwestern South Dakota." The latter is a 
preliminary account of the archeology and physiography of one of the 
most significant sites yet found in the Angostura Reservoir basin. 
Hughes also prepared a paper, "Archeology and Environment in the 
Western Great Plains," which he presented at the Sixth Conference 
for Plains Archeology held in Lincoln in November. In addition he 
wrote a paper, "An Experiment in Relative Dating of Archeological 
Remains by Stream Terraces," which he read before the Anthropology 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Section of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences in May. He wrote a 
memorandum on geological deposits and archeological remains in the 
Tiber Reservoir basin, on the Marias River in northern Montana, for 
the United States Geological Survey, and "A Note on Fireplaces" for 
the Plains Archeological Conference Newsletter. Earlier in the year 
he had prepared an article, "Naming Projectile Point Types," for 
the same journal. At the close of the year he was occupied with a 
report on the Nebraska State Historical Society's investigations at 
the Barn Butte site in western Nebraska and was continuing his work 
on the development of a correlation table dealing with early remains 
in the western United States. 

Upon the completion of the excavation project at the Medicine 
Creek Reservoir, Marvin F. Kivett, archeologist, returned to Lincoln 
on September 1 and began the preparation of a brief preliminary 
report for the use of H. E. Robinson, District Manager of the 
Bureau of Reclamation. Included in it was a tabulation of work 
completed at various sites in the Medicine Creek Reservoir basin. 
After that manuscript was finished Kivett wrote a summary account, 
"Archeological Investigations in Medicine Creek Reservoir, Nebras- 
ka," which was printed in American Antiquity, vol. 14, No. 4, April 
1949. He then turned his attention to completing a laboratory 
analysis of the more than 30,000 specimens collected at Medicine 
Creek and to a study of comparable materials gathered in the same 
area by parties from the Nebraska State Historical Society and placed 
at his disposal, with the accompanying data, for inclusion in the final 
technical report. In addition, Mr. Kivett wrote a technical paper on 
the prehistoric ossuary which he excavated at the Harlan County 
Reservoir in the fall of 1946, and another "Archeology and Climatic 
Implications in the Central Plains," which was presented before the 
Sixth Conference for Plains Archeology. Two brief articles, one con- 
cerning the use of power equipment in archeological work and the 
other dealing with pottery nomenclature, were printed in the Plains 
Archeological Conference Newsletter. 

One trip of 4 days was made by Kivett to the Medicine Creek 
project during October for the purpose of marking trees from which 
sections for dendro chronological studies were to be cut under the 
supervision of the Bureau of Reclamation. In May he made a 1-day 
trip to the Harlan County and Medicine Creek Reservoirs to point 
out to members of the Missouri Basin Inter-Agency Committee 
archeological work completed and that contemplated for those 
reservoirs. Mr. Kivett resigned from the River Basin Surveys on 
May 31 to accept an appointment as Assistant Director of the Museum 
of the Nebraska State Historical Society. 

George Metcalf, field and laboratory assistant, participated in the 



SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 23 

excavations at Medicine Creek and, after his return to the Lincoln 
headquarters on August 24, assisted in the cleaning and cataloging of 
the last consignment of specimens from the project. From September 
12 until October 20 he supervised and aided in the processing of some 
7,000 specimens recovered from Medicine Creek sites by the Nebraska 
State Historical Society. As a part of that task all suitable shell, 
bone, and vegetal material was listed and prepared for submission to 
specialists for identification. Throughout the winter and spring 
months he worked with Mr. Kivett in the analysis of the Medicine 
Creek materials and wrote sections on worked bone, shell, and pottery 
for inclusion in the final technical report. He also assisted in the 
selection of specimens and the arrangement of photographic plates 
for the final report. At the end of the fiscal year he was engaged in 
making an analysis of the house remains in the Medicine Creek area. 

J. M. Shippee, field and laboratory assistant, returned to Lincoln 
with the Hughes party on October 1 and from then until November 8 
supervised the dismantling of the laboratory and its reinstallation in 
new quarters. Mr. Shippee then accompanied Mr. Cooper to the 
Fort Randall Reservoir, where he assisted in the excavation of a burial 
mound located on the site of the dam spillway. He returned to 
Lincoln in late November and spent the remainder of the year in the 
restoration of pottery and other specimens and in the cleaning and 
mounting, for exhibition purposes, of a juvenile skeleton which had 
been removed intact from an ossuary at the Harlan County Reservoir. 
He prepared a paper, "Some Problems of the Nebo Hill Complex," 
which was read before the Anthropological Section of the Nebraska 
Academy of Sciences on May 7. At the close of the year he was 
preparing and assembling equipment for the various parties starting 
for the field. 

Richard P. Wheeler, archeologist, was transferred to the Missouri 
Basin in May and on May 27 left Lincoln to make a series of prelim- 
inary surveys at reservoir projects in South Dakota, North Dakota, 
Montana, and Wyoming. By the end of the year he had visited eight 
reservoir areas. On June 30 he was at Fort Washakie, Wyo., where 
he obtained permission from the Business Council of the Shoshones 
and Arapahos to make preliminary surveys of the proposed Soral 
Creek and Raft Lake reservoir basins, which are located in the Wind 
River Indian Reservation, immediately after the start of the new year. 

Dr. Theodore E. White, paleontologist, confined his activities, with 
one minor exception, to work on the Missouri Basin problems through- 
out the fiscal year. 

From July 1 to 12 the lower Eocene deposits in the Boysen Reservoir 
area on the Big Horn River north of Shoshoni, Fremont County, 
Wyo., were prospected for fossils. Five fossiliferous "pockets," which 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

will be inundated when the reservoir is flooded, were found. The 
results of the work there confirmed the conclusions of the members of 
the United States Geological Survey who had mapped the structure 
and stratigraphy of that area. 

From July 14 to August 19 the Oligocene and Miocene deposits in 
the Canyon Ferry Reservoir area on the Missouri River north of 
Townsend, Broadwater County, Mont., were prospected for fossils. 
Material was obtained from three localities in the Oligocene and two 
in the Miocene. All those localities will be inundated. 

After the close of the work at Canyon Ferry, White's party pro- 
ceeded to the Angostura Reservoir on the Cheyenne River in Fall 
River County, S. Dak., to make a physiographic study of the area in 
connection with an early-man site. The period from August 21 to 
September 3 was spent in collecting data for that study. The party 
returned to Lincoln, Nebr., on September 4 in order to prepare a 
preliminary report on the results of the physiographic study. 

From September 23 to October 1 the Upper Cretaceous Carlile 
Shale in Cedar Bluff Reservoir on the Smoky Hill River south of 
Wakeeney, Trego County, Kans., was prospected for vertebrate fossils. 
Although a number of specimens were found, they were so badly 
disintegrated by the crystallization of gypsum and the weathering of 
marcasite that they were not worth collecting. 

About 70 specimens, representing 20 genera, were obtained in the 
Boysen Reservoir area. Although the specimens were for the most 
part rather fragmentary, they were sufficiently well preserved to estab- 
lish the age of those beds as belonging to the Lost Cabin faunal zone 
of the lower Eocene, a fact that had not previously been demonstrated. 
In the material obtained is the most nearly complete skull yet found of 
the primitive insectivore, Didelphodus. Although badly crushed and 
not impressive to look at, it adds a number of previously unknown 
details to the knowledge of the cranial morphology of that form. 
Also the skull and jaws of Didymictis , a primitive carnivore a little 
larger than a fox, was obtained in that area. Heretofore the form was 
known only from upper and lower dentitions. 

Nearly 125 specimens, principally insectivores, rodents, and small 
artiodactyls, were obtained in the Canyon Ferry Reservoir area. 
Most of the specimens were found in the Oligocene deposits which 
previously were very poorly known. The material obtained demon- 
strated that deposits of both lower and middle Oligocene age were 
present in that area. One of the Oligocene insectivores belongs to a 
problematical family previously unknown in deposits later than the 
upper Eocene. Also, it is the best-preserved specimen yet found and 
adds many details of the skull and dentition to the knowledge of that 
group. The small Oligocene mammals of that area, when compared 



SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 25 

to those of the same age on the Plains, illustrate the principles of 
geographical variation quite as well as the living species. 

White's laboratory activities for the year fall into two periods. The 
first, from October 4 to November 5, was spent at the field office at 
Lincoln, Nebr., preparing supplementary reports on the reservoirs 
visited and in identifying the osteological material obtained in archeo- 
logical excavations. Also, during that period the first draft of the 
technical report on the physiographic studies in the Angostura area 
was prepared. The remaining time was spent in the division of 
vertebrate paleontology at the United States National Museum. In 
addition to the preparation of technical reports on the paleontological 
material obtained in the reservoir areas, six boxes of osteological 
material from the Missouri and Columbia Basins were identified. 

White completed two technical reports representing the results of 
field and laboratory activities. They are: "Preliminary Analysis of 
the Vertebrate Fossil Fauna of the Boysen Reservoir Area," and 
"Endocrine Glands and Evolution No. 2: The Appearance of Large 
Amounts of Cement on the Teeth of Horses." Both were submitted 
for publication. At the close of the year he had virtually finished 
two other papers: "A Preliminary Appraisal of the Physiographic 
History of Horsehead Creek in the Vicinity of 39FA65" (with Jack T 
Hughes), and "Analysis of the Vertebrate Fossil Fauna of the* 
Canyon Ferry Reservoir Area." 

Throughout the field season White enjoyed congenial relationships 
with members of other Government agencies and with members of 
educational institutions. Among those from whom material assistance 
was received are: Harry A. Tourtelot of the United States Geological 
Survey, J. LeRoy Kay of the Carnegie Museum, Mr. McQuiren, 
geologist for the Bureau of Reclamation at the Boysen project, and 
Roy Austin, Superintendent of Public Schools at Townsend, Mont. 
Also the work was materially expedited by the many forest rangers 
who placed the facilities of their stations at the convenience of the 
party. 

As in previous years, a number of student assistants were employed 
as members of the various field parties. Robert L. Hall and Warren 
L. Wittry were with the Cooper party from July 1 to September 4 
and August 14, respectively. Gordon F. McKenzie joined the same 
party on August 1 and remained with it until September 4. John C. 
Donohoe was with the White party July 1 to 31, while Ernest L. 
Lundelius, Jr., accompanied it from July 1 to September 4. Dorothy 
E. Fraser was with the Cooper party during the month of August in 
the capacity of a special consultant. Neil J. Isto joined the Wheeler 
party on June 2 and was in the field at the close of the year. 

Oklahoma. — Work in Oklahoma consisted of both surveys and 



26 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

excavation. At the beginning of the year David J. Wenner, Jr., 
field assistant, was making a reconnaissance of the area to be flooded 
by the Tenkiller Ferry Reservoir on the Illinois River in the eastern 
part of the State. That work was completed on July 27 and the 
party moved to the Canadian Reservoir project on the Canadian 
River. Reconnaissance of that area was finished on August 17, 
when attention was turned to the adjacent Onapa project on the 
North Canadian. The survey there was completed on September 3. 
Within the 3 basins, 104 sites were found, 38 in Tenkiller Ferry, 41 
in the Canadian, and 25 in Onapa. The work in Tenkiller Ferry 
demonstrated that what were presumed to be mounds, actually are 
natural knolls on flood plains and terraces, and all the sites present 
are village or camp remains. Those in the other two areas are also 
mainly village sites representing both historic and prehistoric cultures. 
In passing it should be stated that the Canadian and Onapa are 
two of three smaller alternate projects proposed to take the place of 
the larger Eufaula Reservoir. The third in the group, the Gaines, 
still remains to be surveyed. Should the single Eufaula project 
eventually be carried through instead of the three smaller ones, very 
little additional field work will be required to determine the archeologi- 
cal manifestations involved. It is known that there are a number of 
mounds that lie outside the boundaries of the smaller reservoirs but 
which would fall within the maximum pool of the Eufaula. Mr. 
Wenner was aided in his work by William Mayer-Oakes and Robert 
Shalkop, student assistants. 

The excavations were at the Norman site in the Fort Gibson 
Reservoir basin on the Grand (Neosho) River near Wagoner. Earlier 
work by the University of Oklahoma had shown that the extensive 
village and mound group located there belonged to a Spiro-type 
culture and raised the possibility that the flooding of the largest 
double mound, which had never been excavated, would represent the 
loss of as important information and material as had the destruction 
of the famous Spiro mounds in the adjacent county. When Dr. 
Robert E. Bell of the Department of Anthropology of the University 
of Oklahoma reached the site in July he found that nearly all the 
village area and all mounds, with the exception of the largest double 
unit, had been removed by the bulldozers of the construction con- 
tractor. Even the large double unit had been damaged. The 
western periphery had been cut away and the smaller mound had 
been cut down several feet. With the assistance of the Engineers 
Dr. Bell was able to stop the operations so that archeological work 
could be done. During July and the first 2 weeks in August the 
University of Oklahoma field session under Bell excavated portions 
of several house sites still surviving south of the larger mound. On 



SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 27 

August 17, under the sponsorship of the River Basin Surveys, he 
began excavation of the large double mound by cutting a trench 
across the saddle between the two parts of the unit. The southern 
face of the trench was then carried forward toward the larger mound. 
Joseph R. Caldwell joined Bell on August 19 and they decided that 
neither the available time nor funds would permit the customary 
method of cutting forward with a continuous vertical face. Accord- 
ingly, a 10-foot trench was driven through the north-south axis of 
the mound to reach its base and to obtain a complete profile. The 
work continued until September 22. Surprisingly, the mound 
yielded very few specimens. Potsherds and artifacts were scarce 
throughout its various levels. It was learned, however, that its 
main portion was composed of six superimposed platforms which 
probably had been the placements for public buildings, although no 
complete post-hole patterns were discovered. The summit of the 
fifth stage above the base had been divided into two nearly equal 
areas by a single row of posts, and the entire level gave evidence of a 
severe conflagration in prehistoric times. Four human burials were 
found in the top level, but they were in such an advanced stage of 
decomposition that little remained to indicate their character. A 
number of glass beads in the same level suggests a historic contact in 
the final days of occupation. The results of the digging indicated 
that no additional work was required at the Norman site. During 
the course of the investigations there, however, another site was 
located which appears to be an important one, and it was recommended 
that further efforts in the Fort Gibson area be concentrated there. 

Red River of the North Basin. — Between August 27 and October 
29, 1948, Richard P. Wheeler, archeologist, investigated four Corps 
of Engineers reservoir areas in the Red River of the North Drainage 
Basin: the Homme Reservoir, under construction on the South Branch 
of the Park River, the proposed Pembina River and Tongue River 
Reservoirs, in northeastern North Dakota; and the proposed Orwell 
Reservoir, on the Ottertail River, in west-central Minnesota. In 
reports on those surveys, prepared at the Lincoln office of the River 
Basin Surveys between November 5 and 19 and issued at Washington, 
D. C, in December 1948, Wheeler noted the occurrence of sites in the 
vicinity of the Homme and Orwell Reservoirs but recorded the dis- 
covery of only one archeological site in the reservoir areas proper, 
an occupation site in the Pembina River Reservoir. The finding of 
bison bones in all four of the reservoir areas indicates that the river 
valleys were formerly the habitat of bison and perhaps of other large 
game and were possibly visited by hunting bands in prehistoric and 
historic times. It was recommended that rechecks be made at the 
Homme Reservoir, following the clearing of timber and underbrush, 



28 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

and at tho Pembina River and Orwell Reservoirs, at the time of the 
construction of the dams, in order to make sure that no archeological 
remains were overlooked. 

Texas. — The River Basin Surveys continued to operate throughout 
the year from the base and headquarters supplied by the Department 
of Anthropology at the University of Texas, Austin, Tex. Sur- 
veys were begun and carried to completion in five Corps of Engineers 
reservoirs. 

Robert L. Stephenson, archeologist, left Austin at the beginning of 
the fiscal year and went to Fort Worth where he conferred with the 
Engineer in Charge, Fort Worth Suboffice, Corps of Engineers, 
preparatory to starting surveys of four reservoir basins on the upper 
branches of the Trinity River. 

During July he completed investigations at the Benbrook Reservoir 
on the Clear Fork of the Trinity River in Tarrant County and at the 
Grapevine Reservoir on Denton Creek in Tarrant and Denton Coun- 
ties. No sites were found in the Benbrook basin and only 10, none 
of which require further investigation, were noted at Grapevine. In 
addition he made a 2-day reconnaissance in the areas of the Lavon 
Reservoir on the East Fork of the Trinity River and Garza-Little 
Elm Reservoir on the Elm Fork of the same stream. On the latter 
trip R. K. Harris, Rex Housewright, and Lester Wilson, of the Dallas 
Archeological Society, took him to sites that they had previously 
located in the two areas. 

On August 1, Mr. Stephenson accompanied Drs. Gustav A. Cooper 
and A. R. Loeblich, Jr., of the United States National Museum, and 
Robert Stark of Grapevine, Tex., to the vicinity of Bridgeport, 
Wise County, to collect invertebrate fossils. He also visited the 
Whitney Reservoir on the Brazos River, Hill County, and collected 
mollusks, needed to check previous identifications, from several archeo- 
logical sites. From there he went to the Texarkana Reservoir on the 
Sulphur River, Bowie County, for the purpose of gathering informa- 
tion regarding the dates of construction and of determining the neces- 
sary time and extent of a survey for that basin. During the month 
he also completed an intensive survey of the Garza-Little Elm basin 
where he noted 27 sites, 7 of which were recommended for further 
examination, and started investigations at the Lavon project. The 
latter continued until September 17 and during the progress of the 
work he made test excavations at two sites. The survey located 25 
sites, of which 8 have been recommended for more intensive investiga- 
tions. Both in the excavations and the survey he was greatly assisted 
by the members of the Dallas Archeological Society and on September 
10 spoke before a meeting of that organization. On September 18 he 
started a survey of the San Angelo Reservoir area on the North Concho 



SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 29 

River in Tom Greene County, which was finished on October 10. 
Only 13 small sites were located there, and as similar material is avail- 
able elsewhere no further work was recommended for the basin. 

Except for several short trips, Mr. Stephenson spent the remainder 
of the fiscal year at the headquarters in Austin analyzing the material 
collected and preparing reports on the summer's surveys. He went to 
Lincoln, Nebr., in November for the purpose of studying the field 
and laboratory methods being used by the Missouri Basin group and 
while there attended sessions of the Sixth Conference for Plains 
Archeology and was appointed to the Committee on Archeological 
Nomenclature. From January 2 to 7, he revisited the upper Trinity 
River area to investigate reports of additional material having been 
found there. Papers prepared by Stephenson during the months in 
the laboratory are: "Archeological Survey of McGee Bend Reservoir," 
which was published in volume 19 of the Bulletin of the Texas Archeo- 
logical and Paleontological Society; "Archeological Survey of the 
Lavon and Garza-Little Elm Reservoirs," to be published in volume 
20 of the same journal; "A Note on Some Large Pits in Certain Sites 
near Dallas, Texas," printed in American Antiquity, vol. 15, No. 1; 
a revision of his earlier report on the Whitney Reservoir which was 
mimeographed and distributed by the Washington office in April; 
and preliminary appraisals on the Benbrook, Grapevine, Garza-Little 
Elm, and San Angelo surveys. He also wrote a summary statement 
covering the results of the River Basin Surveys from their inception 
in 1947 to June 30, 1949, and prepared a summary and table of the 
culture sequences and their relationships in the Texas area as they 
had been worked out up to that date. 

Results of the year's investigations established a number of facts. 
In the survey of the Garza-Little Elm basin it was found that the 
remains include key sites for the determination of the cultural 
sequences in the area east of that known to have been inhabited by 
groups classified as the Henrietta Focus and west of the known 
Caddoan area. Similar sites have not been observed elsewhere. Very 
little is known of the cultural sequences involved in the area drained 
by the three forks of the Trinity River. The eight sites in the Lavon 
basin recommended for more intensive examination are believed to 
hold the answer to the problem of developments in the western border 
of the Caddo area. At least one new culture remains to be defined 
and described from the excavation of those sites. Furthermore, the 
material from them should shed much light on the interrelation 
between the cultures represented there and those to the east and west. 

Cooperating institutions. — Numerous State and local institutions 
cooperated with the River Basin Surveys throughout the year and 
made a definite contribution to the progress of the program. The 



30 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Universities of Nebraska, Oklahoma, Oregon, and Texas provided 
space for field offices and laboratories for regular units of the Surveys, 
while the Universities of Denver, Colorado, and California, and 
Western State College of Colorado supplied temporary bases of 
operations for specific projects. The Universities of California, 
Oklahoma, Oregon, and Washington joined forces with the Surveys 
for some reconnaissance work and for the excavations at the Fort 
Gibson, McNary, and O 'Sullivan Reservoirs. In a number of cases 
responsibility for units in the survey and excavation program was 
assumed by State and local institutions. 

The Museum of Northern Arizona and the University of Arizona 
did some preliminary survey work, while the San Diego Museum of 
Man conducted surveys and did some digging in the area of the Davis 
Dam on the Colorado River between Arizona and Nevada. The Uni- 
versity of Arkansas engaged in both reconnaissance and excavations 
in the area of Bull Shoals Reservoir in that State. The California 
Archeological Survey of the University of California conducted ex- 
cavations at the Pine Flat and Isabella Reservoirs, while the Archeo- 
logical Surveys Association of Southern California carried on recon- 
naissance work in that part of the State. The Florida Park Service 
surveyed the section in northern Florida that will be affected by the 
Jim Woodruff Dam on the Apalachicola River near Chattahooche and 
did some digging in a number of sites. The University of Georgia 
continued its surveys along the Chattahooche and Flint Rivers and 
conducted excavations at one site in the Allatoona Reservoir on the 
Etowah River. In Illinois the University of Illinois, the University 
of Chicago, and the Illinois State Museum furnished information 
about the extent and character of sites in the basins of 15 reservoir 
projects proposed for the Illinois River drainage. The Indiana His- 
torical Bureau carried on surveys and did some excavating not only 
at proposed Federal projects, but at those under State construction 
as well. 

The Museum of Natural History of the University of Kansas made 
excavations at Kanopolis Reservoir in July and August of 1948 in sites 
where the rising waters of the reservoir were already encroaching upon 
the remains. The results of that work were reported on by Dr. 
Carlyle S. Smith in an article, "Archeological Investigations in Ells- 
worth and Rice Counties, Kansas," which appeared in American 
Antiquity, vol. 14, No. 4, April 1949. In June of 1949 the same 
institution was beginning investigations at the Glen Elder Reservoir 
with other work planned for the Woodston, Webster, and Cedar Bluff 
projects in the same region of the Solomon River drainage. In Ken- 
tucky the University continued its program of excavations at the 
Wolf Creek Reservoir on the Cumberland River and at the Dewey 



SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 31 

Reservoir on Johns Creek. The University of Missouri and the 
Missouri Archeological Society again cooperated in making surveys 
in a number of reservoirs and in excavating sites in the Missouri por- 
tion of the Bull Shoals Reservoir and in the Clearwater and Pomme 
de Terre basins on the Black and Pomme de Terre Rivers, respec- 
tively. At the end of the year Montana State University was 
starting field work at the Canyon Ferry Reservoir on the Missouri 
River near Townsend, Mont. 

The Laboratory of Anthropology of the University of Nebraska 
was excavating in sites at the Harlan County Reservoir on the Re- 
publican River in the southern part of the State at the start of the 
fiscal year and had returned to the same locality for further activities 
in June 1949. The work done during the summer of 1948 was de- 
scribed by Dr. John L. Champe, in a report, " White Cat Village," 
published in American Antiquity, vol. 14, No. 4, April 1949. The 
Nebraska State Historical Society excavated a number of sites in the 
Medicine Creek Reservoir area in the early months of the year and 
in June had a party digging in the Mullen Reservoir area on the 
Middle Loup River in the north-central part of the State. The Uni- 
versity of Nebraska State Museum continued its paleontological and 
archeological investigations in the Harlan County and Medicine 
Creek Reservoir areas. One site in the Medicine Creek basin that 
proved of particular interest because of its implications of consider- 
able antiquity was described in an article, "The Frontier Culture 
Complex, a Preliminary Report on a Prehistoric Hunter's Camp in 
Southwestern Nebraska," written by Preston Holder and Joyce Wike 
and printed in American Antiquity, vol. 14, No. 4, April 1949. 

The University of North Dakota and the North Dakota Historical 
Society cooperated in excavations at the Baldhill Reservoir in the 
eastern part of the State in the summer of 1948, and toward the close 
of the fiscal year were preparing for intensive survey work in the 
Garrison Reservoir on the Missouri River near Sanish, N. Dak. The 
results of the previous summer's work were discussed by Dr. Gordon 
W. Hewes in "Burial Mounds in the Baldhill Area, North Dakota," 
which appeared in the April 1949 issue of American Antiquity, vol. 
14, No. 4. The Ohio State Museum did some survey and excavation 
work. The University of Oklahoma, as previously mentioned, did 
some digging at the Fort Gibson Reservoir and made independent 
surveys in other areas. The University of Utah assumed responsi- 
bility for surveys at a number of projects in the southwestern corner 
of that State but at the close of the year had not yet started field 
work. In Wisconsin, Beloit College made surveys and did some 
digging in the Black River project. 



32 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

The various cooperating organizations send progress and completed 
reports to the River Basin Surveys so that the results of their work 
may be coordinated with those for the over-all program. In this way 
the information obtained by them becomes a part of the general 
record of the River Basin Surveys. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

There were issued one Annual Report and two Publications of the 
Institute of Social Anthropology as listed below: 

Sixty-fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1947-1948. 
32 pp. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 8. Sierra Popoluca speech, by 
Mary L. Foster and George M. Foster. 45 pp. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 9. The Terena and the Caduveo 
of southern Mato Grosso, Brazil, by Kalervo Oberg. 72 pp., 24 pis., 4 maps, 
2 charts. 

The following publications were in press at the close of the fiscal 
year: 

Bulletin 143. Handbook of South American Indians. Julian H. Steward 
editor. Volume 5, The comparative ethnology of South American Indians. 
Volume 6, Physical anthropology, linguistics, and cultural geography of South 
American Indians. 

Miscellaneous publications. List of publications of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, with index to authors and titles. Revised to July 30, 1949. 

Bulletin 144. The Northern and Central Nootkan tribes, by Philip Drucker. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 10. Nomads of the long bow: The 
Siriono of eastern Brazil, by Allan R. Holmberg. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 11. Quiroga: A Mexican Municipio, 
by Donald D. Brand. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 12. Cruz das Almas: A Brazilian 
village, by Donald Pierson. 

Publications distributed totaled 19,660, as compared with 25,037 for 
the fiscal year 1948. 

LIBRARY 

Accessions in the library totaled 112 volumes, bringing the total 
accession record as of June 30, 1949, to 34,719. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

During the entire year the work of restoration on the valuable 
collection of old Indian photographs was continued. Approximately 
150 restorations were completed. 

The remainder of the time of the illustrator and of his assistant 
was spent on the regular work of preparation of illustrations and maps 
for Bureau publications. 



SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 33 

ARCHIVES 

.Research workers and students continued to use the manuscript 
material and the archives both through personal visits for consulta- 
tion and by correspondence. A number of manuscripts on the various 
Iroquoian tribes were loaned to the Library of the American Philo- 
sophical Society, Philadelphia, for use of students and research workers 
in that field. The major task of carding the more important Indian 
vocabularies has been begun with Indian and English divisions for 
each. These vocabularies are being arranged so that they can be 
expanded as new material arrives. Many of the Iroquoian vocabu- 
laries collected by James Mooney, Erminnie Smith, and J. N. B. 
Hewitt, as well as a Natchez vocabulary collected by A. S. Gatchet, 
have been carded. 

Some 5,000 prints and negatives, including both black and white 
and color, have been made during the year for various purposes. 
Considerable use was made during the fiscal year of the photographic 
collections as illustrations for both scientific and commercial pur- 
poses. The Walt Disney Studio and Metro-Gold wyn-Mayer have 
consulted the photographic files for authentic material in making 
motion pictures dealing with Indian subjects. 



COLLECTIONS 



Ace. No. 



- - 1 lot of fossils collected by Dr. Theodore E. White, Ernest L. Lundelius, 

and John C. Donohoe, from 6 locations in the Boysen Reservoir area, 
Wyoming. River Basin Surveys. 

1 lot of fossils collected by Theodore E. White, Ernest L. Lundelius, 

and John C. Donohoe, from 5 localities within the Canyon Ferry 
Reservoir area, near Helena, Mont. River Basin Surveys. 

181, 218 1 lot of earthenware vessels and other artifacts collected by Dr. Gordon 

R. Willey in Viru Valley, Department of La Libertad, Peru. 

182, 450 24 hand-made silver brooches from the Grand River Indians at Cale- 

donia, Ontario, Canada. Bought by the Bureau from Ephraim 

Schuyler, Oneida, Wis. 
182, 928 1 tobacco pouch and pipe of White Calf, a former chief of the Blackfoot 

Indians. Bequeathed by Florence Merriam Bailey to the Bureau. 
182, 986 1 lot of potsherds collected from Pissaisec, an Algonquian village, near 

Leedstown, Va., by the late David I. Bushnell, Jr. 
179, 533 1 lot of archeological material collected at the Hodges site on Plaza 

Larga Creek, Quay County, N. Mex., in August 1947 by Herbert W. 

Dicks as a project of the River Basin Surveys. 

179, 773 Indian skeleton from Lake Spring site, Savannah River, Georgia. 

River Basin Surveys. 

180, 455 1 lot of stone artifacts and rejectage collected by Sheldon Judson at 

various sites in Clay County, N. Mex. 



34 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Ace. No. 

1 lot of stone artifacts and potsherds collected by Drs. M. W. Stirling 

and Gordon R. Willey from a prehistoric shell mound near Monagrillo, 
Herrera Province, Republic of Panama, during the 1948 Smithsonian 
Institution-National Geographic Society Expedition to Panama. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the year Miss Frances Densmore, Dr. John R. Swanton, 
and Dr. Antonio J. Waring, Jr., continued as collaborators of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology. 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning the 
American Indians of both continents, past and present. Various 
specimens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them fur- 
nished for their owners. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Director. 

Dr. A. Wetmore, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

o 



Sixty-seventh Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1949-1950 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



SIXTY-SEVENTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1949-1950 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 19S1 



(J, S i U^kJlAjJjj^^J^ *? ^U^u^^&^M 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
June 30, 1950 

Director. — Matthew W. Stirling. 

Assooiate Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Senior ethnologists. — H. B. Collins, Jr., John P. Harrington, W. N. Fenton. 

Senior anthropologist. — Peter Drucker (on military leave). 

Collaborators. — Frances Densmore, John R. Swanton, A. J. Waring, Jr. 

Editor. — M. Helen Palmer. 

Librarian. — Miriam B. Ketchum. 

Scientific illustrator. — E. G. Schumacher. 

institute of social anthropology 

Director. — G. M. Foster, Jr. 1 
Acting Director. — Gordon R. Willey. 

Anthropologists. — Brazilian office: Donald Pierson, Kalervo Oberg; Mexican 
office: Isabel T. Kelly ; Peruvian office: Oezie G. Simmons. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Archeologists. — G. Ellis Burcaw, Joseph R. Caldwell, George A. Cheney, Paul 
L. Cooper, Robert B. Cumming, Jr., Richard D. Daugherty, Walter D. Enger, 
Jr., Franklin Fenenga, Jack T. Hughes, Edward B. Jelks, Donald J. Leh- 
mer, Carl F. Miller, Homer Douglas Osborne, Robert L. Shalkop, Joel 
L. Shiner, Ralph S. Solecki, Robert L. Stephenson, Samuel J. Tobin, 
Richard Page Wheeler. 

Paleontologist. — Theodore E. White. 



1 In absentia as of June 30, 1950. 



SIXTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Director 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1950, conducted 
in accordance with the Act of Congress of April 10, 1928, as amended 
August 22, 1949, which provides for continuing "independently or in 
cooperation anthropological researches among the American Indians 
and the natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection of the 
United States and the excavation and preservation of archeologic 
remains." 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

Dr. M. W. Stirling, Director of the Bureau, devoted most of his 
time during the fiscal year to administrative affairs of the Bureau. 
He also continued studies on the archeological collections made in 
Panama during the winter of 1948-49, particularly on the ceramic 
collection from the site of Utive in the Province of Panama. With 
the exception of a few brief trips for the purpose of attending scientific 
meetings or giving lectures, the entire year was spent in Washington. 

Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Associate Director of the Bureau 
and Director of the River Basin Surveys, spent most of the fiscal year 
in administering and directing the River Basin Surveys. In Septem- 
ber he attended the Twenty-ninth International Congress of Ameri- 
canists where he gave an illustrated talk on the program and work 
of the River Basin Surveys. Early in October he participated in the 
annual meeting of the National Council for Historic Sites and Build- 
ings at Williamsburg, Va. From Williamsburg he went to the Joshua 
S. and John E. Williamson farm near Dinwiddie to examine an archeo- 
logical site where considerable material attributable to the eastern 
variant of the Folsom culture had been found. That particular site 
is one of the most extensive of its kind thus far noted in the East, and, 
if excavated, should provide valuable information. 

Later in October Dr. Roberts visited the Missouri Basin head- 
quarters at Lincoln, Nebr., and, accompanied by Paul L. Cooper, 
proceeded to the Angostura Reservoir in South Dakota where a 
series of excavations was under way. After spending several days 
with the field party, they went to Wyoming to examine the site for 

1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the proposed Edgemont Reservoir on the Cheyenne River. From 
there they went to Fort Collins, Colo., where the Horsetooth Reser- 
voir is under construction, and examined paleontological and archeo- 
logical specimens uncovered in the process of the work. Returning 
to Washington early in November, Dr. Roberts went to Richmond, 
Va., and gave the principal address before the annual meeting of the 
Eastern States Archeological Federation. The subject of his talk 
was the progress and results of the River Basin program. 

Late in November and early in December Dr. Roberts was again in 
Lincoln, Nebr., where he assisted in making plans for reorganizing 
the laboratory and field headquarters. While there he took part in 
the Seventh Conference for Plains Archeology and presided over one 
of the symposia dealing with the problems of Plains archeology. 

In February and March Dr. Roberts visited the Departments of 
Anthropology at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City; the Univer- 
sity of Washington, Seattle; the University of Oregon, Eugene; and 
the University of California, Berkeley. He discussed the plans for 
field work during the coming season and made arrangements for 
student help and field assistants for the River Basin Surveys parties. 
While at Eugene he also inspected the field headquarters and labora- 
tory for the Columbia Basin project and assisted Joel L. Shiner, the 
acting field director, in making plans for the summer season. En route 
back to Washington, Dr. Roberts visited the Department of Anthro- 
pology at the University of Denver, where he talked with Arnold M. 
Withers about the cooperation of that institution in the program in 
Colorado. From there he proceeded to Lincoln to plan for the sum- 
mer's work in that area. At that time he also spoke on the River 
Basin program before the annual meeting of the Nebraska State 
Press Association at Omaha. 

In May Dr. Roberts visited the Fort Gibson Reservoir in Oklahoma 
and discussed plans for additional projects with the District Engineer 
at Tulsa. At Norman, Okla., he examined materials which had been 
salvaged from sites at the Fort Gibson Reservoir by a field party from 
the University of Oklahoma and also attended sessions of the annual 
meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. From Oklahoma 
Dr. Roberts went to Texas, visiting the Garza-Little Elm, Lavon, 
and Belton Reservoir projects. He also spent several days at the 
Whitney Reservoir where one of the River Basin Surveys parties 
under Robert L. Stephenson was excavating a series of Indian sites. 
From the Whitney Reservoir he went to Austin to inspect the field 
headquarters and laboratory located at the University of Texas. 

During the period July 1 through October 24, 1949, Dr. John P. 
Harrington continued the study of the grammar of the Abnaki lan- 
guage at Old Town, Maine. The Abnaki language is the only one of 



SIXTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 3 

the Indian languages of New England that is still spoken. Abnaki 
forms throw considerable light on the closely related, extinct Massa- 
chusetts language in which the famous Eliot Indian Bible is written. 
The earliest vocabulary, or vocabularies, of the Abnaki language re- 
sulted from the work of French missionaries in the Kennebec Valley, 
but the work has been lost. The maps and writings of Capt. John 
Smith, Champlain, and Lescarbot carry a number of Abnaki place 
names. The earliest extensive Abnaki vocabulary is that attributed 
to Capt. George Weymouth and was probably taken down by him in 
1605 from Abnaki Indians whom he captured near the St. George 
Islands, off the eastern end of Penobscot Bay, and took to England. 
This vocabulary was first printed in 1625. In 1691, 86 years after 
the Weymouth Abnaki vocabulary had been made, a young French 
missionary priest named Sebastian Rasles arrived in Canada and 
compiled his vast French-Abnaki dictionary. This dictionary was 
captured by the English at the battle of Norridgewock in 1724 and 
was first printed in 1833. 

On February 9, 1950, Dr. Harrington proceeded to Merida, Yuca- 
tan, for the purpose of studying the Maya language. A tape recorder 
was taken along and 10 half-hour recordings of stories told in the 
Maya language were obtained. Dr. Harrington returned to Wash- 
ington on April 11, bringing with him a large quantity of linguistic 
material. 

At the invitation of the Canadian Government, Dr. Henry B. 
Collins, Jr., conducted archeological investigations on Cornwallis 
Island in the northern part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. 
Excavations were made at four prehistoric Eskimo village sites at 
Resolute Bay on the south side of the Island. Dr. Collins and his 
assistant, Jean P. Michea, reached Resolute by plane on May 27 after 
brief stops at Frobisher Bay on Baffin Island, and at Thule in north- 
west Greenland. The work continued until August 23, 1949. The 
numerous house ruins on Cornwallis and neighboring islands show 
that this now uninhabited region once supported a sizable Eskimo 
population. The Cornwallis Island structures — built of stones, 
whalebones, and turf — proved to have been made by the Thule 
Eskimos, a prehistoric group that originated in Alaska and later 
spread eastward to Canada and Greenland. A large collection of 
artifacts was obtained which, after study, will be divided between the 
Smithsonian and the National Museum of Canada, joint sponsors of 
the work. As the natural history of Cornwallis Island is so little 
known, an attempt was made to collect representative samples of 
fossils, minerals, vascular plants, mosses and lichens, insects, and 
fresh-water invertebrates. 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Dr. Collins organized a symposium on Arctic anthropology as part 
of the program for the Twenty-ninth International Congress of 
Americanists held in New York in September 1949, the participants 
being anthropologists, archeologists, and linguists from the United 
States, Canada, and Denmark who have specialized in Eskimo 
research. 

Dr. Collins continued to serve as chairman of the directing commit- 
tee of the Bibliography of Arctic Literature and the Roster of Arctic 
Specialists, two projects that the Arctic Institute of North America 
is carrying out under contract with the Office of Naval Research for 
the Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, and the Defense 
Research Board of Canada. He also participated in organizing the 
forthcoming Alaska Science Conference to be held under the auspices 
of the National Research Council in November 1950, serving as a 
member of the steering committee and chairman of the social sciences 
division. 

During August Dr. William N. Fenton spent 2 weeks studying the 
archives of the Ontario County Historical Society at Canandaigua, 
N. Y. In August and September he made tape recordings in the 
field at Tonawanda and Allegany Seneca reservations. In October 
he completed a survey of Iroquois materials in the Massachusetts 
Archives at the State House, in Boston, and found additional Pickering 
letters in Salem. In December, 34 volumes of the printed journals 
of the Continental Congress (1774-89) were surveyed and extracted 
for Iroquois material. During March-May Dr. Fenton was detailed 
to assist the Department of Justice in the preparation of a case for 
the Court of Claims concerning Indian lands. In June he was detailed 
to the Office of Indian Affairs on problems of tribal organization 
among the Pueblos, the Klamath Indians of California, and the 
Blackfeet of Montana. Dr. Fenton was in the field on this assign- 
ment at the close of the fiscal year. 

In September Dr. Gordon R. Willey, anthropologist of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology, assumed the temporary duties of Acting 
Director of the Institute of Social Anthropology for the remainder of 
the fiscal year. However, research under Bureau auspices continued, 
and preparation of various manuscripts was carried forward. He 
continued the preparation of the manuscript "Prehistoric Settlement 
Patterns in the Virii Valley of Northern Peru." Subsequently he 
began studies on collections from the Canaveral and Ormond Beach 
Mounds in east Florida, completing these studies in May. The 
month of June was then devoted to rewriting and revising a manu- 
script, "Early Ancon and Early Supe: Chavin Horizon Sites of the 
Central Coast of Peru." This report, approximating 125,000 words, 



SIXTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

was written in collaboration with Dr. John M. Corbett and will be 
released by the Department of Anthropology, Columbia University. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 
(Report prepared by Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr.) 

The River Basin Surveys were organized as a unit of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology in the fall of 1945. Their purpose was to 
carry into effect a memorandum of understanding between the Na- 
tional Park Service and the Smithsonian Institution, which provides 
for the salvage of archeological and paleontological remains occurring 
in areas to be flooded or otherwise disturbed by the program of the 
Federal Government for flood-control, irrigation, hydroelectric, and 
navigation projects. The first actual field work was started in July 
1946 and has continued since that date. Throughout the period of 
operations, the investigations have been conducted in cooperation 
with the National Park Service and the Bureau of Reclamation of 
the Department of the Interior, the Corps of Engineers, Department 
of the Army, and a number of nongovernmental institutions scattered 
throughout various States. During the past fiscal year the work was 
financed by a transfer of $215,886 to the Smithsonian Institution by 
the National Park Service, derived in part from the National Park 
Service and in part from the Bureau of Reclamation. The money 
from the National Park Service was for use in areas outside of the 
Missouri Basin, while that from the Bureau of Reclamation was for 
work in the latter area. Because of the fact that the appropriations 
for fiscal 1950 were made available so late in the summer, the neces- 
sary funds could not be transferred to the Smithsonian Institution 
until the period for field work had passed in many areas. Conse- 
quently, less was accomplished than in previous years. 

Activities during the year included reconnaissance or surveys for the 
purpose of locating archeological sites or paleontological deposits that 
will be involved in construction work or are in locations that eventually 
will be flooded, and in the excavation of sites located by previous 
surveys. The survey work covered 26 reservoirs located in 8 States 
and scattered over 5 river basins. Excavations were completed or 
under way at the end of the fiscal year in 13 reservoir areas in 9 States. 
Three of the excavation projects were in areas where digging had been 
done in previous years, while the remainder were new undertakings. 
At the close of the fiscal year, the total of the reservoir areas, where 
surveys had been made or excavations carried on since the beginning 
of the program in July 1946, was 180 located in 23 States. Archeological 
sites located and recorded have reached a total of 2,260, of which 484 
have been recommended for excavation or additional testing. During 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the year preliminary appraisal reports were completed for all the 
reservoirs surveyed, and 23 reports were mimeographed for limited 
distribution to the cooperating agencies. This makes a total of 120 
such reports issued since the start of the program. The excavations 
made during fiscal 1950 bring the total for areas where such work has 
been done to 21 . Technical reports on the results of some of that work 
have appeared in scientific journals, while the completed manuscripts 
on others are now awaiting publication. Paleontological surveys have 
been made in 100 reservoirs, 56 being those where archeological work 
has also been done. The remaining 44 will eventually be visited by 
archeological parties. Including the reservoir areas where archeo- 
logical work remains to be done, the over-all total of reservoirs visited 
is 224. 

The distribution by States of all the reservoirs investigated for 
archeological remains as of June 30, 1950, is as follows: California, 20; 
Colorado, 23; Georgia, 3; Idaho, 10; Illinois, 2; Iowa, 3; Kansas, 6; 
Louisiana, 1; Minnesota, 1; Montana, 5; Nebraska, 16; New Mexico, 
1 ; North Dakota, 13 ; Ohio, 2; Oklahoma, 5 ; Oregon, 24; South Dakota, 
9; Tennessee, 1; Texas, 13; Virginia, 1; Washington, 9; West Virginia, 
2; Wyoming, 11. Excavations have thus far been made in: Cal- 
ifornia, 1 ; Colorado, 1 ; Georgia, 1 ; Kansas, 1 ; Montana, 1 ; Nebraska, 
1 ; New Mexico, 1 ; North Dakota, 2 ; Oklahoma, 1 ; Oregon, 1 ; South 
Dakota, 2; Texas, 3; Virginia, 1; Washington, 3; and Wyoming, 1. 

Throughout the fiscal year the River Basin Surveys received full 
cooperation from the National Park Service, the Bureau of Reclama- 
tion, and the Corps of Engineers, as well as various State agencies. At 
some of the projects guides and transportation were furnished to staff 
men in the field. At others, office and laboratory space was provided, 
and in a number of cases labor and mechanical equipment were made 
available by the construction agency. The assistance provided made 
possible a greater accomplishment than would otherwise have been 
possible had it been necessary for the River Basin Surveys men to rely 
on their own resources. The National Park Service was primarily 
responsible for procuring the funds necessary for carrying on the pro- 
gram and also served as the liaison between the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion and the other governmental agencies, not only in Washington but 
through its several regional offices as well. 

General supervision and direction of the work in California, Texas, 
Louisiana, Georgia, Ohio, and Virginia were from the main office in 
Washington. The Missouri Basin program was carried on under the 
direction of a field headquarters and laboratory at Lincoln, Nebr., and 
the activities in the Columbia Basin were supervised by a field office 
located at Eugene, Oreg. 



SIXTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

Washington office. — The main headquarters of the River Basin Sur- 
veys continued under the direction of Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., 
throughout the year. Joseph R. Caldwell, Carl F. Miller, and Ralph 
S. Solecki, archeologists, were based at that office, although Mr. 
Solecki did not work full time for the Surveys. 

Mr. Caldwell and Mr. Miller left Washington on July 7 for Carters- 
ville, Ga., where they started an excavation program within the area 
to be flooded by the Allatoona Reservoir. Mr. Miller completed 
part of the project early in December and returned to Washington, 
while Air. Caldwell continued digging until early in February, when 
he went to Athens, Ga., to establish a field laboratory and study the 
material obtained during the excavations. Facilities for the labora- 
tory at Athens were provided by the University of Georgia. During 
the first week in August Mr. Miller was temporarily detached from 
the Allatoona investigations and sent to Louisiana to make a prelimi- 
nary reconnaissance at the Bayou Bodcau Reservoir. Except for a 
week in May when he visited archeological sites at Chester's Island 
and Floyd's Island in the Okefenokee Swamp, Mr. Caldwell spent 
the remainder of the fiscal year at Athens preparing his report, "A 
Preliminary Report on Excavations in the Allatoona Reservoir," 
which was published in Early Georgia, vol. 1, No. 1, and a manuscript 
pertaining to the Rembert Mounds on the Savannah River, which 
will be published in the first volume of the River Basin Surveys 
Papers. 

After his return to Washington Mr. Miller devoted most of his time 
to a study of the material and information he had obtained at the 
Allatoona Reservoir and in the preparation of his portion of the report 
on the project. He also served as assistant to the Director, and 
during such times as the latter was absent from the office took charge 
of the operations. In June he went to the Buggs Island Reservoir, 
on the Roanoke River in southern Virginia, to excavate a large village 
and burial site that was being destroyed by construction within the 
area. During the year Mr. Miller completed and published five 
manuscripts on his work in the Southeast. 

Mr. Solecki, who had been transferred to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion's staff the previous May to conduct an archeological reconnais- 
sance in northern Alaska, returned to duty with the River Basin 
Surveys on September 11. In November he proceeded to Ohio, 
where he made a brief reconnaissance of the proposed Deer Creek and 
Paint Creek Reservoirs in the Scioto Reservoir basin near Chillicothe. 
During the remainder of the fiscal year he prepared a detailed report 
on the excavation of the Natrium Mound, 10 miles north of New 
Martinsville, W. Va., which he had dug during the winter of 1948-49. 

California. — In May, Albert Mohr and J. Arthur Freed, field as- 

919634—51 2 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

sistants, made surveys of the Burns, Bear, and Owens Reservoirs of 
the Merced group, in the San Joaquin Valley. Nineteen sites were 
located in the three projects, but as all of them are of little significance 
no additional work has been recommended for them. In June, Mohr 
and Freed made a survey at the Cachuma Reservoir on the Santa 
Ynez River, near Santa Barbara. They located 18 sites and at the 
end of the fiscal year Mohr was making preparations to dig a series of 
test trenches in two of them. 

Franklin Fenenga joined the River Basin Surveys as archeologist 
on June 19 and initiated a series of excavations at the Terminus 
Reservoir on the Kaweah River in the Central Valley. That area is 
particularly important because it was at the boundary of the terri- 
tories of the Wikchamni division of the Yokuts of the San Joaquin 
Valley and of the Balwisha group of the Mono Indians. The archeo- 
logical materials from the sites should provide important information 
on the problem of cultural contact and diffusion between the different 
tribes. 

Columbia Basin. — Work in the Columbia Basin was continued 
under the direction of the field headquarters at Eugene, Oreg., where 
the University of Oregon provided laboratory and office space. 
Douglas Osborne, acting field director, was in charge of the program 
in that area until he resigned on September 3 to accept a position 
with the University of Washington. Joel L. Shiner was appointed 
to succeed him and continued as acting field director throughout the 
remainder of the year. 

During August excavations were carried on in the McNary Reser- 
voir area, with Washington State College cooperating in the project. 
Eight sites were tested or excavated on the south side of the Columbia 
River between Umatilla Rapids and Techumtas Island, and in addi- 
tion further work was done at one of the sites excavated during the 
previous fiscal year. Survey reports had indicated that at two of 
the locations there probably were remains beneath a layer of volcanic 
ash. Digging there, however, failed to produce any evidence for such 
an occupation. Information from other sites investigated demon- 
strated that there were at least two cultural horizons along that 
portion of the river. The data seem to indicate that the older in- 
habitants made most of their implements of basalt while the later 
ones used chalcedony for the most part. The economy of the two 
groups appears to have been basically the same, although the earlier 
was less complex than the later. This is indicated by greater de- 
pendency on shellfish and a tendency toward sporadic occupation 
and a wandering life. 

During September Charles C. Case, Jr., and Robert C. Salisbury, 
field assistants, surveyed 11 proposed reservoirs in the Willamette 



SIXTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 9 

Valley, viz, Dexter, Hills Creek, Cougar, Blue River, Gate Creek, 
Green Peter, Cascadia, Wiley Creek, Holly, Falls Creek, and White 
Bridge. The Big Cliff, which had been surveyed by Osborne the 
previous spring, was revisited. Probably because of the extreme 
steepness of the terrain and the dense cover of timber, nothing of 
archeological interest was found. It seems likely that the small 
tributary canyons in which those reservoirs will be located were 
never used by Indians except for temporary hunting and fishing 
grounds. 

From the Willamette area, Case and Salisbury proceeded to the 
Heise-Roberts project on the Snake River in southeastern Idaho. 
That project consists mainly of bank-control work and when com- 
pleted will not flood any of the adjacent area. Careful examination 
of the terrain to be disturbed by the construction work failed to reveal 
any archeological remains, and so further work at that location will 
not be necessary. From there the survey team went to the Crow 
Creek Reservoir near the Idaho-Wyoming border. Careful search 
of the area to be flooded by that project failed to reveal any archeo- 
logical sites, and no further investigations will be required. From 
Crow Creek, Case and Salisbury returned to the Post Reservoir, 
which will be on the Crooked River, 10 miles east of the town of Post, 
Oreg. That district was occupied at one time by small bands of the 
northern Paiute, and since their economy was based on hunting and 
gathering, they spent little time in any one spot. Consequently, 
only three small camp sites were found in the area that will be flooded. 
At all three the archeological materials were found to occur only on 
the surface, and no further work has been recommended for that 
reservoir. 

During the fall and winter months Shiner processed the materials 
from the McNary excavations and prepared the preliminary appraisal 
reports on the results of the surveys. In collaboration with Douglas 
Osborne, a preliminary report was written, giving the results of the 
excavation program in the McNary Reservoir. In February, Mr. 
Shiner, with a party of students from the University of Oregon, 
excavated a small cave east of The Dalles where the relocation of a 
highway was destroying archeological material. This project was in 
cooperation with the University of Oregon, which provided the student 
labor and assumed all the expenses of the project. An interesting 
series of artifacts was obtained, showing a sequence of types for the 
area. 

In the early part of June Mr. Shiner made an inspection trip to the 
Cascade Reservoir on the Payette River, Idaho, to determine the 
condition of an archeological site where excavations w"ere planned. 
On his arrival there he found that the w r ater in the reservoir had risen 



10 BUREAU OF AMERTCAN ETHNOLOGY 

much more rapidly than contemplated and that there was no possibility 
for archeological work. From the Cascade Reservoir he returned to 
the McNary Reservoir to inspect the sites where work was to be done 
during the summer field season. 

Richard Daugherty joined the River Basin Surveys staff as arche 
ologist on June 12 and proceeded to the O'Sullivan Reservoir, near 
Moses Lake, Wash. Excavations were carried on at the O'Sullivan 
Reservoir in the summer of 1948 by Mr. Daugherty and the investi- 
gations this year were a continuation of the previous program. Daugh- 
erty began work in a village site and at the close of the fiscal year had 
excavated the remains of several pit houses and accompanying midden 
deposits. 

Douglas Osborne rejoined the River Basin Surveys on June 15 as 
a consulting archeologist and took charge of the general excavation 
program in the Columbia Basin. He proceeded with George Cheney 
and S. J. Tobin, who joined the Surveys on June 16 as archeologists, 
and their parties to the Chief Joseph and Equalizing Reservoirs in 
Washington. Cheney began svork at the Chief Joseph Reservoir on 
June 19 and from then until the close of the fiscal year was occupied 
in the excavation of village sites. Tobin's party at the Equalizing 
Reservoir began the excavation of a large cave on the same date. The 
cave, although its floor was littered with huge blocks that had fallen 
from the ceiling, gave evidence of considerable occupation, and numer- 
ous specimens of netting, cordage, basketry, and other perishable 
material were found there. Osborne returned to Eugene, and then 
proceeded with a party to the McNary Reservoir, where he began a 
series of excavations in sites lying farther upstream from those investi- 
gated during previous seasons. At the close of the fiscal year his 
party was busy digging house pits and midden deposits. 

A survey party consisting of George Coale, Stewart Peck, and 
Charles Farrell began a reconnaissance of the John Day Reservoir on 
the Columbia River June 27 and at the close of the fiscal year had 
located a number of important sites. 

Georgia. — The bulk of the work done in Georgia was at the Allatoona 
Reservoir on the Etowah River, near Cartersville. During the period 
from July to February, Joseph R. Caldwell excavated 6 sites and 
tested 10 others. From July to December, Carl F. Miller excavated 
5 sites and tested 9 others. As a result of the investigations, it is 
now possible to outline a new sequence of cultural stages in the 
Etowah River area. At least 10, and probably 11, different periods 
were identified, extending from the historic Cherokee of about 1755 
back to a pre-pottery period when the people depended for the most 
part on hunting and food gathering for their sustenance. The various 
periods as outlined on the basis of the investigations have been named 



SIXTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 11 

Gait, which is that of the historic Cherokee; Brewster and Lamar, 
which probably represent Creek occupation; Savannah and Etowah, 
which pertain to the same basic Muskogean stock but have not been 
identified as to the specific tribes; and the Woodstock period, which 
has not yet been correlated with any specific peoples but which is 
significant because it was characterized by a fortified village having 
circular palisades with towers and is the first where there is evidence 
for the growing of corn. The preceding period has been designated 
the Cartersville and is identified by a distinctive type of stamped 
pottery decoration and indications that the people had become at 
least semisedentary. The next preceding period was one represented 
by a site excavated by Mr. Miller but was not found by Mr. Caldwell, 
who did not include it in his sequence. Mr. Miller has tentatively 
designated the period as the Acworth. It was represented by the 
remains of a village containing some 60 round structures of varying 
sizes. Definite indications of Hopewellian influences were found in 
this horizon. The pottery was a plain, well-polished ware that 
preceded the introduction of stamped wares in the area. The next 
period recognized by both Caldwell and Miller is one designated 
the Kellogg. It was characterized by a semisedentary hunting and 
gathering culture. There was great use of storage pits, and a variety 
of acorns and nuts were recovered from them. Apparently it was 
during this period that the bow and arrow appeared in the Allatoona 
region. Antedating the Kellogg was a period called Stallings, which 
is represented only by scattered finds of potsherds from a fiber- 
tempered pottery. The oldest of the sequence, which tentatively has 
been designated pre-pottery, preceded the Stallings. The pre-pottery 
stage may represent several periods and cover a long duration of time. 
During that stage of the occupation of the area, the people had no 
pottery, no pipes, no agriculture, and possibly no houses. At least 
no evidence was found indicating any type of structure. The economy 
was basically hunting and gathering, and the chief weapon probably 
was a javelin hurled with a spear thrower. 

Louisiana. — The only work done in Louisiana during the fiscal year 
consisted of the reconnaissance made by Carl F. Miller at the Bayou 
Bodcau project on the Red River, northeast of Shreveport. He found 
that although there are archeological remains in that district, none of 
them occur in the area to be involved by the work of the Corps of 
Engineers. 

Missouri Basin. — -As in previous years, the program in the Missouri 
Basin was supervised and directed from the field headquarters at the 
University of Nebraska, in Lincoln. From July 1 until the end of 
December, Dr. Waldo R. Wedel was in charge of the program. His 
promotion to the position of curator of the division of archeology, 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

United States National Museum, made it necessary for him to with- 
draw from the River Basin Surveys activities, and on January 23 
Paid L. Cooper was designated as acting field director. 

Delay in the passage of the 1950 appropriation bill greatly reduced 
field work in the Missouri Basin during the summer of 1949 and 
prevented completion of the program originally set up for the fiscal 
year. However, it was possible to make surveys at the Onion Flat, 
Soral Creek, and Raft Lake Reservoirs in the Big Horn River basin 
in Wyoming during July, and to initiate an excavation program in the 
Angostura Reservoir in South Dakota. Nothing of archeological 
significance was noted in the three reservoirs, and no further work is 
recommended for them. 

The investigations at the Angostura Reservoir continued from 
early in July until November and were resumed in May. Though 
the final results of the excavations will not be known until it is possible 
to study all the materials obtained, it may be said that the sites where 
digging was done represent a number of different cultures, most of 
them indicating pre-pottery-making peoples. At two of them, 
however, evidence was obtained of two different pottery-making 
groups. At one of the sites the occupation level was so deeply buried 
that it was necessary to use a bulldozer to remove the sterile over- 
burden. Material from that particular site indicates a period of 
considerable antiquity. Tentative correlations suggest that it 
probably is comparable in age to some of the so-called Yuma remains 
in other parts of the Plains area. 

Other field work accomplished during the 1949 season was an 
18-day reconnaissance in the Oahe Reservoir area in South Dakota. 
Preliminary surveys had been made there in previous years, but 
during the reconnaissance in November more than 50 sites, many of 
them previously unrecorded, were visited. 

Active field work was resumed in June when a paleontological party 
proceeded to the Angostura Reservoir, the Boysen and Anchor 
Reservoirs in Wyoming, and the Canyon Ferry project in Montana. 
Important fossils were recovered from the latter area. On June 7 
excavations were started in the Garrison Reservoir in North Dakota, 
in the Tiber Reservoir in Montana, and later in the month at the 
Oahe project in South Dakota. All those activities were proceeding 
satisfactorily at the end of the fiscal year. 

During the fall and winter months considerable work was done in 
the laboratory. Eight preliminary reports were written and mimeo- 
graphed for distribution to the cooperating agencies. In all, 16,938 
specimens collected from 146 sites in 16 reservoir areas were cleaned 
and cataloged. Fifty-six maps were drawn and 1,318 negatives 
processed. The negatives include field photographs, black-and-white 



SIXTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 13 

negatives of color transparencies, and laboratory photographs. Two 
hundred and six transparencies were cataloged and filed; 78 enlarge- 
ments were printed and mounted; and 1,782 black-and-white contact 
prints were made, cataloged, and filed. More than 4,000 photo- 
graphic copies of archeological records were made to bring the basic 
record file up to date. A considerable number of animal bones taken 
from archeological sites were identified and there was some restora- 
tion of fragmentary pottery. 

G. Ellis Burcaw joined the staff as an archeologist on May 31 and 
left Lincoln on June 7 for the Garrison Reservoir in North Dakota, 
where he began a series of excavations at the so-called Rock Village. 
That site, one of the farthest upstream of the known fortified earth- 
lodge villages, was yielding considerable quantities of artifacts, in- 
cluding some European trade material, as work progressed at the 
close of the fiscal year. 

Early in the fiscal year Paul L. Cooper devoted his time to studying 
materials pertaining to the archeological remains in the Oahe and 
Fort Randall Reservoirs. During September he made two brief 
trips to the Angostura and Oahe Reservoirs and late in October 
accompanied Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director of the River 
Basin Surveys, on a visit to the excavation projects at the Angostura 
Reservoir and to inspect sites in other areas. During November he 
made a reconnaissance along the east side of the Missouri River in 
the Oahe Reservoir area. In December he accompanied Dr. Gordon 
Baldwin, of the National Park Service, Dr. Carlyle Smith, of the 
University of Kansas, and Wesley Hurt, of the University of South 
Dakota, on a trip to the Fort Randall and Oahe Reservoirs in South 
Dakota for the purpose of selecting sites for excavation by the Uni- 
versities of Kansas and South Dakota during the summer of 1950. 
On January 23, 1950, he was designated acting field director of the 
River Basin Surveys, and thereafter his activities were mainly con- 
cerned with planning and supervising the headquarters and field 
activities of the organization. 

Robert B. Cumming, Jr., archeologist, served throughout the year 
as laboratory supervisor at the Lincoln headquarters. During such 
time as the acting director was absent from the office, he assumed 
administrative responsibility for continuing its operations. In addi- 
tion he carried on research work on the skeletal material from the 
Medicine Creek and Harlan County Reservoirs and prepared an ap- 
pendix on the skeletal remains from the Woodruff ossuary for the 
technical report on the ossuary. He also did some work on the human 
remains from ossuaries in Nebraska. 

Walter D. Enger, Jr., archeologist, joined the River Basin Surveys 
staff on May 31 and left Lincoln on June 9 to begin the excavation of 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

sites to be flooded by the proposed Tiber Reservoir on the Marias 
River in Montana. Previous surveys in that area had shown three 
types of sites, consisting of buried occupational levels exposed along 
the edges of the river terraces, surface sites on the river terraces, and 
tipi-ring sites on top of the plateau surrounding the reservoir. Be- 
cause of the nature of the cultures represented, the artifact yield and 
the work accomplished before the end of the fiscal year was small, 
but considerable information was being obtained about the sequence 
of cultures and the general aboriginal characteristics of the area. 

Jack T. Hughes, archeologist, left Lincoln on July 7 and proceeded 
to the Angostura Reservoir in South Dakota, where he initiated a 
series of excavations. Hughes continued in charge of that project 
until September when he resigned from the River Basin Surveys to 
return to Columbia University for further academic work. Mr. 
Hughes prepared a report on the results of the Angostura work ob- 
tained while he was in charge of the field party. 

Donald J. Lehmer, Jr., archeologist, joined the Missouri Basin 
staff on June 1. He left Lincoln on June 9 with G. Ellis Burcaw and 
proceeded with him to the Tiber project where he assisted in estab- 
lishing headquarters. From there he returned to Pierre, S. Dak., 
and on June 19 began the excavation of a stratified earth-lodge village 
in the area of the Oahe Dam approach channel. By the end of the 
fiscal year his party had identified house remains attributable to both 
the Arikara and the Mandan. 

George Metcalf, field and laboratory assistant, spent the period 
from July 22, 1949, to November 7, 1949, with the field party at the 
Angostura Reservoir. During the fall and winter months he assisted 
in the analysis of the material from the Medicine Creek Reservoir and 
in the preparation of the report for the excavations made there during 
the previous fiscal year. He also made a study of ceramic materials 
from Upper Republican sites which are in the collections of the 
Nebraska State Historical Society at Lincoln. Metcalf left Lincoln 
on May 19 with the Wheeler party and at the close of the fiscal year 
was working at the Angostura Reservoir. 

Robert L. Shalkop joined the staff as an archeologist on June 28, 
and at the end of the fiscal year was preparing to leave with a recon- 
naissance party to survey a number of reservoir projects in Montana 
and Wyoming. 

James M. Shippee, field and laboratory assistant, was a member 
of the field party at the Angostura Reservoir from early in July until 
early in November. During the fall and winter months he devoted 
considerable time to the restoration of pottery vessels and the process- 
ing of other specimens from the Angostura excavations. During the 
spring months most of his time was occupied in the preparation of 



SIXTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 15 

field equipment to be used by the various parties during the summer 
months. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Richard P. Wheeler, archeologist, 
was engaged in preliminary archeological surveys of the Onion Flat, 
Soral Creek, and Raft Lake Reservoirs, in the Big Horn River basin, 
Fremont County, Wyo. He returned to the Lincoln headquarters 
on July 11 and spent the time from then until the middle of August 
preparing reports on the reservoir areas examined over the period 
in which his party had been in the field. In August he joined the 
Angostura field party and after the departure of Mr. Hughes took 
full charge of the operations. From September 4 to November 7, 
Wheeler and his crew partially excavated or tested and mapped 11 
sites. He returned to Lincoln in November and devoted the time 
from then until the middle of April in analyzing artifacts, supervising 
the drawing of site maps and profiles, and preparing an outline and 
notes for the final report on the Angostura investigations. On April 
19 he made a 5-day trip to the Angostura Reservoir to make plans 
for the excavations for the coming season. One month later he 
returned to the Angostura Reservoir with a field party and from then 
until the end of the fiscal year he excavated and tested two sites and 
supervised the removal of overburden with a bulldozer at two areas 
at a third site. The use of mechanized equipment in this particular 
instance was made necessary by the fact that the occupation level 
occurs beneath from 9 to 10 feet of sterile deposits, and there was not 
sufficient time to remove them by the usual hand methods. The 
materials found in the deeply buried level indicate an early hunting 
culture. 

Dr. Theodore E. White, paleontologist, spent the early months of 
the fiscal year in the laboratory at Lincoln identifying osteological 
material obtained from archeological sites and in preparing a report 
on the physiography of the Angostura Reservoir. He worked in 
Texas in November and December. In January he was transferred 
to the Smithsonian Institution staff and was sent to Panama. He 
returned to duty with the River Basin Surveys in May. He left the 
Lincoln headquarters on June 15 and proceeded to the Boysen Reser- 
voir area in W3^oming, where he prospected for vertebrate fossils 
until June 15. He then moved on to the Anchor Reservoir area 
where he prospected the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic deposits. 
On June 21 he moved to the Canyon Ferry Reservoir area in Montana, 
and spent the time prospecting the Oligocene and Miocene deposits. 
Two of the Oligocene localities produced abundant specimens, mostly 
small mammals, while three new localities were discovered in the 
Miocene deposits. Material obtained from two of the new localities 
definitely establishes the presence of both Lower and Middle Miocene 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

deposits in the area. During the course of this work, Dr. White was 
assisted by Prentiss Shepherd, Jr., a student at Harvard University, 
and William C. Harrup, Jr., a student at Columbia University. 

Ohio. — Field work in Ohio was restricted to brief visits to the 
proposed Deer Creek and Paint Creek Reservoirs on two tributaries 
of the Scioto River, near Chillicothe. Mr. Solecki, of the River 
Basin Surveys, went to Ohio in November and, in company with 
Ctyde B. King, superintendent of Mound City National Monument, 
and Raymond Baby, archeologist of the Ohio State Archeological 
and Historical Society, Columbus, determined that no sites of archeo- 
logical significance would be inundated by the proposed reservoirs. 
During the course of the reconnaissance, Mr. Solecki examined three 
features on Deer Creek and two nearby on Spruce Hill, which were 
purported to be Norse iron furnaces, but was unable to find anything 
that could be construed as conclusive proof that the remains repre- 
sented ancient iron furnaces. The opinion was that the features 
probably had been lime kilns dating from the early Colonial period 
in the area. 

Texas. — The River Basin Surveys in Texas continued to operate 
from the base and headquarters furnished by the Department of 
Anthropology of the University of Texas at Austin. Surveys were 
begun and completed at the Belton Reservoir on the Leon River, at 
the Canyon Reservoir on the Guadalupe River, and at the Texarkana 
Reservoir on the Sulphur River, near the town of Texarkana. The 
work at the Belton Reservoir resulted in the location of 43 archeo- 
logical sites. Five of them were found to lie outside the reservoir 
area. Twelve of the remaining are rock-shelter sites, 12 are open 
occupational areas, and 4 are a combination of the two forms. The 
remainder consist either of burned rock middens or deeply buried 
middens. Testing was done in five sites, and a number of interesting 
artifacts were recovered. However, it was discovered that during 
the course of the years most of the sites in the area had been looted 
by commercial collectors and so little remains that further investi- 
gations arc not warranted. Such evidence as was found during the 
reconnaissance and testing indicated that the Belton district probably 
was occupied by people of the Round Rock focus over a period of 
many centuries. 

At the Canyon Reservoir, 20 archeological sites were located and 
recorded. Five of them are large open sites, 3 are small rock shel- 
ters, 1 is a deeply buried occupation level, 1 is a subterranean cavern, 
and the remaining 10 are small open sites containing a single burned 
rock midden in each. The area is one from which only meager archeo- 
logical information is available and for that reason 8 of the sites have 
been recommended for excavation and complete analysis. 



SIXTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 17 

The Texarkana reconnaissance resulted in the location of 50 arche- 
ological sites, all of which are open occupational areas. At three of 
them there are small artificial mounds of the variety which has been 
called "Capped Ridge." Ten of the sites appear to belong to a non- 
pottery horizon, probably the Balcones phase. Seventeen are large 
village areas characterized by potsherds and appear to range in time 
from Early Gibson Aspect to Middle Fulton Aspect. At least two 
sites are related to the Coles Creek culture. The remainder are small 
sites of indeterminate affiliation. Of the total, 16 sites have been 
recommended for extensive excavation and analysis. 

Excavations were carried on at the Whitney Reservoir from March 
6 to June 18. During that period five Indian sites — three rock- 
shelter and two open sites — were extensively excavated and two 
historic sites were studied and recorded. One shelter called Picto- 
graph Cave contained material from two different periods, the first 
probably dating before A. D. 1200 and the second sometime subse- 
quent to that date but pre-Columbian. The early occupation is com- 
parable in many respects to the Round Rock focus in Texas, while 
the second has not yet been correlated with other remains. The 
data obtained from the shelter give interesting information pertaining 
to changes in diet and population density during the two periods of 
occupation. The second, known as Buzzard Shelter, is not far from 
the first, and also gave evidence of an early occupation in the lower 
depths of the fill. The later occupation in the shelter suggests certain 
similarities to that of the Toyah focus. While there is considerable 
similarity between the cultural sequence found in the two shelters, 
there are specific differences in artifact types and stratigraphic pro- 
portions. The third shelter, known locally as Sheep Cave, is the 
largest of the three, and the material from it agrees in the main with 
that from the other two. Five flexed burials were found there, how- 
ever, and study of the physical type represented should throw some 
light on the relationships of the people. 

Three weeks were spent in the excavation of a small occupational 
area on the second terrace of the Brazos River at the Steele site. 
The evidence of occupation on the surface covers about an acre in 
extent and it is underlain by an unknown number of occupational 
levels of considerably greater extent. Traces of occupation extend 
to a depth of at least 15 feet, and it will be necessary to use mechanical 
equipment to excavate a deep trench in order to make stratigraphic 
studies. The site appears to be a significant one in that the most 
recent occupation was prior to the advent of pottery and the bow and 
arrow in that area. 

The Stansbur}' site, the location of a historic Indian village, was the 
fifth area excavated. Material from it includes trade items of French, 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

English, and American origin. The occupation probably began in 
the mid-eighteenth century, or perhaps somewhat earlier, and lasted 
until 18G9. House patterns with compact floor, post holes, central 
fire hearth, and bell-shaped cache pits were found. In general, it 
may be said that the site shows relationship with Taovayas site of 
Spanish Fort. It is located near the site of Towash Village, one of the 
historic sites studied. This village was an early white settlement dat- 
ing from the 1840's to the present time. The first dam and bridge on 
the Brazos River were located there, and their remains, as well as those 
of the old stone store and church, are still to be seen. Measurements 
and photographs were taken in order to make scale drawings of the 
buildings. 

The other historic site studied was that of Fort Graham, a frontier 
post dating 1849-54. The outlines of one of the buildings, as well as 
several other features, were located. It also was determined that the 
"Village of the Caddoes," visited by Ferdinand Roemer in 1846, was 
situated at the site of Fort Graham. 

Excavations got under way at the La von Reservoir on June 19 in 
the Hogge Bridge site, one of 11 situated along the east fork of the 
Trinity River. Each of the sites contains a large circular pit, which 
is a feature peculiar to the area. Digging was started in one of the 
large pits in order to determine what their purpose may have been. 
By the end of the fiscal year, the southwestern quarter of the pit in 
the Hogge Bridge site had been cleared and the original surface un- 
covered. The pit was 10 feet deep, 65 feet in diameter on the inside, 
and had a rim of dirt from the original excavation piled around the 
periphery measuring 90 feet from crest to crest. The floor proved to 
be concave, and no post holes or evidences of a structure had been 
found by the end of the year. Along the east rim of the pit was a bur- 
ial area, and on the inner slope of the south side of the pit a bear burial 
was uncovered. Potsherds indicate that the site probably dates be- 
tween A. D. 1200 and 1500, but its cultural affiliations had not yet 
been determined. 

During November and December Dr. Theodore E. White prospected 
the Upper Cretaceous deposits in the Lavon Reservoir for vertebrate 
fossils. A number of specimens were located, but time permitted the 
removal of only two. One consisted of a small mosasaur (unident) 
skull and the skull of a large mosasaur (Tylosaurust) . 

During the time when he was not in the field, Robert L. Stephenson, 
archeologist, prepared reports on the various surveys which he had 
made and processed the specimens in the laboratoiy at Austin. In 
November he attended the Seventh Conference for Plains Archeology 
and presented a paper on the work he had been doing in Texas. In 
May he attended the meetings of the Society for American Archaeology 



SIXTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 19 

at Norman, Okla., and took part in the discussions held there. At the 
close of the fiscal year he was occupied with the excavations at the 
Lavon Reservoir. 

Edward B. Jelks was appointed temporary assistant at the labora- 
tory in October and in February was made assistant field archeologist. 
He helped Mr. Stephenson in the processing of specimens until March 
6, when he proceeded with the party to the Whitney Reservoir and 
assisted in the excavation program throughout the course of the work. 
During such times as Mr. Stephenson was not with the party, Mr. 
Jelks was in full charge. On June 12 he was appointed archeologist 
and proceeded to the Lavon Reservoir, where he was at work at the 
end of the fiscal year. 

Cooperating institutions. — As in previous years, numerous State and 
local institutions cooperated with the River Basin Surveys. Space for 
field offices and laboratories for units of the Surveys were provided by 
the Universities of Georgia, Nebraska, Oregon, and Texas. The 
Universities of Oregon and Washington and Washington State College 
joined forces with the Surveys both in reconnaissance work and in 
excavations at the McNary, O'Sullivan, Equalizing, and Chief Joseph 
Reservoirs in the Columbia Basin, while the University of Georgia took 
over the responsibility for the excavation of one large site in the 
Allatoona Reservoir in Georgia, and for a series of surveys as well as 
excavations along the Flint River in the southern part of that State. 
The University of Missouri and the Missouri Archeological Society 
continued their cooperation in making surveys in a number of proposed 
reservoir areas and in conducting some excavations. During the 
early months of the fiscal year, the Museum of Natural History of the 
University of Kansas, the Laboratory of Anthropology of the Univer- 
sity of Nebraska, the State Museum of the University of Nebraska, 
and the Nebraska State Historical Society continued excavation 
projects that had been started toward the close of the preceding year. 
The University of Oklahoma continued work in the Fort Gibson 
Reservoir in the summer of 1949, and in June of 1950 returned to the 
area for further work. 

Late in the fiscal year a program developed by the National Park 
Service, whereby various scientific agencies would carry on salvage 
work in proposed reservoir areas, got under way. On the basis of 
agreements between the National Park Service and the agencies 
concerned, certain funds were made available to the latter to help 
cover the expense of the investigations. The River Basin Surveys 
participated in that program in a consultative capacity only. The 
final results of the work accomplished, however, will be correlated with 
those of the Surveys. 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 

(Report prepared by Gordon R. Willey) 

General statement. — The objectives of the Institute of Social Anthro- 
pology are anthropological research on the community life of rural 
peoples of Latin America and the training of Latin American nationals 
in the methods and principles of modern social anthropology. The aim 
is to inform both the social scientist and layman in the United States 
concerning little-known peoples of other parts of the world and to 
build up in various Latin American countries a corps of professionally 
trained scientists and friends. 

During the past year the Institute was financed by transfers of funds 
from the Department of State, totaling $82,510, from the appropria- 
tion "International Information and Education Activities, 1950." 
As in the previous year, long-term planning has been done on a very 
tentative basis because of budget uncertainties for the future. Early 
in the fiscal year reorganizations in Department of State technical- 
aid-type programs called for a reappraisal of the Institute's goals and 
programs. With the Point IV foreign aid scheduled to take the place 
of many of the projects of the former Committee for Scientific and 
Cultural Cooperation, the question was raised as to whether the work 
of the Institute should come within this new organizational frame- 
work. The decision of the Institute, in keeping with the general 
policy of the Smithsonian Institution, was that the Institute should 
continue with basic research and teaching and not enter directly into 
the field of applied social science. Nevertheless, the Institute, 
through the office of the Director, served in an informal consultative 
capacity to the Program Analysis and Reports Branch of the Inter- 
departmental Committee and to the Point IV successor of this 
committee. Such consultation has included recommendations for 
anthropological aid and personnel for Point IV work, conferences with 
the representatives of other governmental agencies considering 
technical assistance programs, and informal memoranda from our 
field representatives on features of local native life that provide a 
background for economic development programs. 

The regular assignments and program of the Institute continued as 
formerly in the Washington office, and in the field stations in Brazil, 
Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. 

Washington office. — Dr. George M. Foster, Director, served from 
July 1 until September 3, assuming leave status at the end of this 
period to conduct privately sponsored research in Spain. Although 
these investigations in Spain are not officially connected with the 
Institute of Social Anthropology program, they bear directly upon it 
scientifically in view of the close historical relationships between Spain 



SIXTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 21 

and Latin America. Dr. Gordon II . Willey, on loan from the Bureau 
of American Ethnology, was Acting Director for the remainder of the 
year. Miss Lois C. Northcott, formerly secretary to the Director, 
became administrative assistant in November 1949. 

Upon the recommendation of the Director, Dr. Jose" M. Cruxent, 
Director of the Museo de Ciencias Naturales, Caracas, Venezuela, 
visited the United States on a Department of State grant-in-aid. He 
remained during August and September, traveling within this country 
to various museums and universities. 

In February, Dr. Willey began an extended tour of Institute field 
posts and, en route, visited other La tin- American countries to renew 
professonal contacts and to discuss scientific and local academic 
problems with Latin-American colleagues. Mexico City, Guatemala 
City, Panama^ Bogota, Quito, Lima, Santiago, Buenos Aires, Sao 
Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Caracas were included on this trip. 

Brazil. — Drs. Donald Pierson, sociologist, and Kalervo Oberg, 
social anthropologist, continued their research and teaching activities 
in cooperation with the Escola Livre de Sociologia e Polltica in Sao 
Paulo. Dr. Pierson, after a 2-months' consultation in the United 
States, assumed duties in the Escola Livre de Sociologia e Politica as 
dean of the graduate section. In connection with these duties he 
trained graduate students in problems of academic administration. 
In addition he taught courses in sociology and social anthropology, 
supervised masters theses in social anthropology, and was engaged in 
writing and preparing manuscripts in social anthropology and soci- 
ology. In April Dr. Pierson represented the Smithsonian Institution 
at Brazil's National Indian Week celebrations in Rio de Janeiro, 
at the request of the Brazilian Embassy. During May and June, 
Dr. Pierson, accompanied by graduate students, undertook an in- 
tensive social anthropological survey of the large and important Sao 
Francisco River Valley. This field work was sponsored by the 
federal government of Brazil as well as by the Institute of Social 
Anthropology. A survey report is anticipated that will be of par- 
ticular interest for the Brazilian Government's economic development 
plans for the Sao Francisco Valley. 

Dr. Kalervo Oberg, accompanied by a student assistant, spent the 
months of July and August in the northwestern Mato Grosso among 
the Nambicuara, Iranxe, and other Indian groups. These tribes, 
some of the most primitive in the world, lead a completely isolated 
life, and there is very little scientific literature on them. He returned 
to Sao Paulo late in August and resumed teaching, devoting his re- 
search time to the preparation of a manuscript on the Mato Grosso 
field work. Dr. Oberg delivered the address at the Escola Livre de 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Sociologla e Politica for the commencement exercises held in March. 
He spent May and June in the United States on consultation. 

Colombia. — In Colombia, Dr. Raymond E. Crist, cultural geog- 
rapher on leave from the University of Maryland, represented the 
Institute at the Universidad del Cauca, Popayan. For the past year 
Dr. Crist was in Colombia only for the months of July through August, 
returning to the United States in September. During this stay, 
which was a continuation of an appointment made in 1949, Dr. Crist 
and a group of Colombian scientists and graduate students made a 
survey trip into the western section of the Department of Cauca for 
the purpose of studying land utilization and agricultural and animal- 
husbandry techniques. In August he accompanied Dr. A. C. White- 
ford of Beloit University on a field trip among the Guambiano In- 
dians, and shortly thereafter he visited the lower Eastern Cordillera 
on a geographic survey. Dr. Crist was especially cited to the Secre- 
tary of State by the assistant public affairs officer in Bogota for the 
professional and personal success of his stay in Colombia. 

Mexico. — Dr. Isabel T. Kelly, Institute representative assigned to 
the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia in Mexico City, divided her 
time between teaching and the writing of the first volume of an 
ethnography of the Totonac Indians. This work was completed in 
March, and since then Dr. Kelly has continued with preparation of 
the second volume. She also carried on a research seminar for Mex- 
ican graduate students in the writing and general preparation of 
scientific monographs. 

The United States-sponsored Benjamin Franklin Library in Mexico 
City exhibited some 80 photographs taken by Dr. Kelly during her 
work among the Totonac Indians, and these photographs were later 
borrowed by the Mexican Government for displays in Jalapa, Monter- 
rey, Morelia, and Oaxaca. Dr. Kelly's activities have been favorably 
publicized by a feature article released in the Mexican popular weekly 
magazine Nosotros. 

In connection with the Washington office's attempt to demonstrate 
the utility of anthropology for the Point IV type of economic devel- 
opment program, Dr. Kelly prepared an analysis of possibilities for 
public housing in the tropical coastal area of the Gulf of Mexico. This 
was written from the point of view of the native cultures involved, 
with which Dr. Kelly is expertly familiar, and points up the conflicts 
and difficulties to be overcome in implanting technological ideas on 
alien societies. During September Dr. Kelly was in the United 
States for consultation. 

Peru. — The 1950 year opened with Dr. George A. Kubler, on leave 
from Yale University, as the Institute's representative attached to the 
Peruvian Instituto de Estudios Etnologicos in Lima. Dr. Kubler, an 



SIXTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 23 

authority on the Colonial Period in Peru, continued with his research 
on archival material in the Department of La Libertad, Trujillo, as 
well as in the Lima archives. Consultation with students in anthro- 
pology and history was also maintained. Dr. Kubler returned to the 
United States in September. A manuscript covering a part of Dr. 
Kubler's work in Peru, "The Indian Caste of Peru, 1795-1950," an 
analysis of population and racial attitudes, was submitted for publica- 
tion in April. 

Ozzie G. Simmons, current representative in Peru, arrived in Lima 
in November. Mr. Simmons offered a course on American ethnic 
groups and acculturation in the Peruvian Instituto de Estudios 
Etnol6gicos and began field investigations at the town of Lunahuana. 
Studies at this community, initiated in February with the aid of a 
student assistant, have run throughout the year and will extend into 
1951. Coincident with this research Mr. Simmons is collaborating in 
a seminar on social anthropological field methods. He has also aided 
in a questionnaire project conducted by the Peruvian National School 
of Social Work among groups of highland Indians who have recently 
moved to the vicinity of Lima in response to industrial opportunities. 
Quite importantly, he has been instrumental in advising the Peruvian 
Ministry of Public Health to add a Peruvian social anthropologist to 
their staff for work in the Department of lea. This has created an 
excellent job opportunity for a Peruvian trained by us and has shown 
the way for further employment of our trainees in governmental 
departments. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

There were issued one Annual Report and one Bulletin volume 
(Handbook of South American Indians), and one Publication of the 
Institute of Social Anthropology as listed below : 

Sixty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1948-1949. 
34 pp. 

Bulletin 143. Handbook of South American Indians. Julian H. Steward, 
editor. Volume 5, The comparative ethnology of South American Indians. 
xxvi + 818 pp., 56 pis., 190 figs., 22 maps. 1949. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 10. Nomads of the Long Bow: 
The Siriono of eastern Bolivia, by Allan R. Holmberg. 104 pp., 7 pis., 4 charts, 
1 map. 1950. 

The following publications were in press at the close of the fiscal year : 

Bulletin 143. Handbook of South American Indians. Julian H. Steward, 
editor. Volume 6, Physical anthropology, linguistics, and cultural geography of 
South American Indians. 

Bulletin 144. The northern and central Nootkan tribes, by Philip Drucker. 

Bulletin 145. The Indian tribes of North America, by John R. Swanton. 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Bulletin 146. Chippewa child life and its cultural background, by Sister M. 
Inez Hilger. 

Bulletin 147. Journal of an expedition to the Mauvaises Torres and the Upper 
Missouri in 1850, by Thaddeus B. Culbertson. Edited by John Francis 
McDermott. 

Bulletin 148. Arapaho child life and its cultural background, by Sister M. 
Inez Hilger. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 11. Quiroga: A Mexican Munici- 
pio, by Donald D. Brand. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 12. Cruz das Almas: A Brazilian 
village, by Donald Pierson. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 13. The Tajin Totonac: Part 1. 
History, subsistence, and technology, by Isabel Kelly and Angel Palerm. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 14. The Indian caste of Peru, 
1795-1950: A population study based upon tax records and census reports, by 
George Kubler. 

Publications distributed totaled 19,116 as compared with 19,660 for 
the fiscal year 1949. 

LIBRARY 

The total number of volumes accessioned in the library is 34,838, an 
increase of 119 volumes over the fiscal year 1949. 

ARCHIVES 

The largest collection of Indian photographs acquired by the 
Bureau in many years was obtained during the past year when the 
LiL-iry of Congress gave permission to copy pictures submitted long 
ag<^ lor copyright purposes. These pictures, made more than 50 
years ago, show many famous Indians whose portraits are new to the 
collections. Another group of 50 rare Indian photographs was re- 
ceived from Eddie Herman, a Sioux Indian of Hot Springs, S. Dak. 

The manuscript material in the archives of the Bureau has been 
used by research workers both by personal visits for consultation and 
by correspondence. 

A new manuscript of 2,380 pages, in the Fox Indian language, 
consisting of a vocabulary, with grammatical and linguistic notes, 
was donated to the Bureau by Miss Ella A. Merritt of Washington. 
This work was compiled by the late James Brannin, formerly connected 
with the United States Navy during the time (1935-42) he was 
stationed near the Fox Indians in Wisconsin. 

COLLECTIONS 
Ace. No. 

175998. Surface material from aboriginal sites in Allatoona Reservoir area, 

Cherokee, Bartow, and Cobb Counties, northwest Georgia, collected 

by Joseph R. Caldwell from November 1946 to April 1947. River 

Basin Surveys. 



SIXTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 25 

Ace. No. 

182578. Archeological materials, consisting of stone artifacts and potsherds, 
from two prehistoric shell mounds near Monagrillo, Herrera Province, 
Republic of Panama, and including in the Monagrillo pottery series 
what is believed to be the earliest yet known from Panama, collected 
by Drs. M. W. Stirling and Gordon R. Willey during the 1948 Smith- 
sonian Institution-National Geographic Society expedition to Panama. 

182845. A collection of archeological material together with 250 geological speci- 
mens, 31 mammals, botanical specimens, 4 fish, 20 insects, and approxi- 
mately 64 marine invertebrates from Cornwallis Island, the Canadian 
Arctic, collected by Henry B. Collins, Jr., in the summer of 1949 on the 
National Museum of Canada-Smithsonian Institution Expedition. 

183940. 68 potsherds of various types from an archeological site, Crystal River, 
Citrus County, Fla., collected by Dr. Gordon R. Willey. 

185245. 2 beetles, 2 lizards, 1 snake, and 1 frog from Province of Chiriquf, Pa- 
nama, collected by Dr. M. W. Stirling. 

185249. About 20 specimens of Eocene invertebrate fossils from Louisiana, col- 
lected by Carl F. Miller. River Basin Surveys. 

185382. 11 original oil paintings of Yahgan, Ona, and Tehuelche Indians, Argen- 
tine prisoners, and scenes of the Furlong Expedition of 1908 to Tierra 
del Fuego, painted by Charles W. Furlong. 

185538. (Through Carl F. Miller) 12 fresh-water mollusks from northwestern 
Georgia, gathered in an Indian village site. River Basin Surveys. 

185627. (Through Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr.) 2 mosasaur skulls collected 
by Dr. T. E. White from upper Cretaceous deposits of the Lavon Re- 
servoir area, 1 mile east of Culeoka, Collin County, Tex. River Basin 
Surveys. 

186797. 4 dictaphones and phonographs, including ones used by Alice C. Fletcher 
and Frances Densmore. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Miss Frances Densmore, Dr. John R. Swan ton, and Dr. Antonio 
J. Waring, Jr., continued as collaborators of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology. 

During the year information was furnished by members of the 
Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning the American 
Indians, past and present, of both continents. The increased number 
of requests from teachers of primary and secondary grades and from 
Scout organizations indicates a rapidly growing interest in the American 
Indian throughout the country. Various specimens sent to the 
Bureau were identified and data on them furnished for their owners. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Director. 

Dr. A. Wetmore, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

o 



Sixty-eighth Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1950-1951 



/OKI 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



SIXTY-EIGHTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 

DGY 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
Washington 25, D. C. 



HE 

ON 



February I, 1952 

The Smithsonian Institution Library is 
revising its exchange records. 

If the publications of the Smithsonian 
you are now receiving are not correctly 
addressed, please notify: 

The Librarian 
Smithsonian Institution 
Washington 25, D. C. 
U. S. A. 

Kindly address ail exchange publi- 
cations intended for the Smithsonian 
Library to: 

The Library 

Smithsonian Institution 
Washington 25, D. C. 
U. S. A. 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1952 



SIXTY-EIGHTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1950-1951 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 19S2 



U.S. Jus I "**- 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
June 30, 1951 

Director. — Matthew W. Stirling. 

Associate Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Senior ethnologists. — H. B. Collins, Jr., John P. Harrington, W. N. Fenton. 

Collaborators. — Frances Densmore, John R. Swanton, A. J. Waring, Jr. 

Editor. — M. Helen Palmer. 

Librarian. — Miriam B. Ketchum. 

Scientific illustrator. — E. G. Schumacher. 

INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 

Director. — G. M. Foster, Jr. 

Anthropologists. — Brazilian office: Donald Pierson, Kalervo Oberg; Colombian 

office: Charles J. Erasmus; Mexican office: Isabel T. Kelly, William L. 

Wonderly, linguist ; Peruvian office: Ozzie G. Simmons. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Archeologists. — G. Ellis Burcaw, Joseph R. Caldwell, George A. Cheney, Paul 
L. Cooper, Robert B. Cumming, Jr., Richard D. Daugherty, Walter D. Enger, 
Jr., Franklin Fenenga, Donald D. Hartle, Edward B. Jelks, Donald J. Leh- 
mer, Carl F. Miller, Homer Douglas Osborne, Robert L. Shalkop, Joel 
L. Shiner, G. Hubert Smith, Ralph S. Solecki, Robert L. Stephenson, Samuel 
J. Tobin, Richard Page Wheeler. 

Paleontologist. — Theodore E. White. 

ii 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Director 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1951, conducted 
in accordance with the Act of Congress of April 10, 1928, as amended 
August 22, 1949, which provides for continuing "independently or in 
cooperation anthropological researches among the American Indians 
and the natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection of the 
United States and the excavation and preservation of archeologic 
remains." 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

Dr. M. W. Stirling, Director of the Bureau, left Washington early 
in January to continue the program of archeological work in Panama 
inaugurated in 1948 in cooperation with the National Geographic 
Society. En route, he made stops of several days each in Mexico, 
Guatemala, El Salvador, and Costa Rica to study and photograph 
archeological collections in those countries. In Panama the primary 
objective was an archeological reconnaissance on the relatively un- 
explored Atlantic coast of Panama lying between the Canal Zone and 
the Chiriqui lagoon. It was here in 1502 that Columbus attempted 
to establish the first European colony on the American mainland. 
Three river systems in this region were explored — the Rio Salud, 
Rio Indio, and Rio Code del Norte. The latter is the largest river 
on the Panama north coast. Columbus foimd this region inhabited 
by Indians who wore gold ornaments and who did not live in villages 
but in single houses separated from one another by considerable dis- 
tances. Dr. Stirling's archeological work confirmed this observation. 
The archeological remains consisted primarily of pottery and stone 
objects removed from the refuse deposits where the houses had stood. 
Near the coast the pottery was simple in style, unpainted, and with a 
limited variety of forms. Near the headwaters of the rivers the 
pottery became more elaborate as a result of influences from the high 
culture centers that existed in pre-Columbian times on the Pacific 
side of the divide. On concluding this survey, in the latter part of 
March, the expedition established headquarters at La Pintada in the 
Pacific drainage opposite the headwaters of the Code del Norte, where 
additional excavations were undertaken with the intention of estab- 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

lishing the relation between the prehistoric cultures of the two re- 
gions. Dr. Robert Rands accompanied Dr. Stirling in the field as 
archeological assistant. 

Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Associate Director of the Bureau 
and Director of the River Basin Surveys, devoted most of his time 
during the year to the management and direction of the River Basin 
Surveys. In October he went to Lincoln, Nebr., to inspect the Missouri 
Basin headquarters. Accompanied by Paul L. Cooper, field director, 
he then proceeded to the Fort Randall Reservoir area near Chamber- 
lain, S. Dak., and visited a number of archeological sites that were 
being tested by one of the field parties. From Chamberlain he went 
to Pierre, S. Dak., and inspected the investigations being carried on 
in the area of the Oahe Dam. Dr. Roberts also went to several other 
sites that will be flooded by the Oahe Reservoir and discussed with 
Mr. Cooper plans for excavation projects at those locations when field 
work got under way in the spring months. After returning to the 
headquarters at Lincoln, Dr. Roberts went to Colorado where early 
in November he spent two days at the Lindenmeier site seeking char- 
coal that could be used for carbon-14 dating. He also spent two days 
testing a rock shelter near Livercnore, which had been reported to 
contain materials belonging to the Folsom complex. Dr. Roberts 
found considerable evidence of occupancy of the shelter by recent In- 
dians but saw nothing to indicate the older horizon. In April he 
went to Clarksville, Va., where excavations were under way in sites 
that will be flooded by the Buggs Island Reservoir. In May he went 
to Evanston, 111., to attend the annual meeting of the Society for 
American Archaeology, of which he was President, and then pro- 
ceeded to Lincoln, Nebr., where he assisted in the preparation of plans 
for the summer field season in the Missouri Basin. From Lincoln 
he went to Oklahoma and spent several days visiting sites in the 
Tenkiller Ferry Reservoir and observing the excavations that were 
being made by a River Basin Surveys' party near Tahlequah. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. Henry B. Collins, anthropolo- 
gist, left for a second season of field work on Cornwallis Island in the 
Canadian Arctic. As in the two preceding years the work was con- 
ducted under the joint auspices of the Smithsonian Institution and 
the National Museum of Canada. Dr. Collins and his assistant, Walter 
E. Taylor, anthropology student at the University of Toronto, were 
flown by the Royal Canadian Air Force from Montreal to the Reso- 
lute Bay weather station on Cornwallis Island, stopping en route at 
Churchill on Hudson Bay. The excavations yielded a large collection 
of the Thule culture material, most of it from in and around an 
unusually large stone and whalebone house at the site designated as 
M 1, a mile from the weather station. Just to the rear of this house 
was a small and inconspicuous house ruin, indicated only by a shal- 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 3 

low depression in the ground, which turned out to be the oldest Thule 
structure thus far found in the central or eastern Arctic. The artifacts 
from this house were identical with those from the earliest Thule sites 
in Alaska. The house had evidently been occupied very briefly, for 
perhaps only one or two years, by some of the first Thule migrants 
from Alaska, who in all likelihood had then continued on their way 
to northwest Greenland. A similar shallow depression nearby yielded 
Dorset objects, the first indication that this early but little-known 
Eskimo culture had reached Cornwallis Island. Three culture stages 
are thus represented at Resolute — Dorset, early Thule, and developed 
Thule. The first two were probably represented by only a few families 
who lived there for very short periods. The last stage was of much 
longer duration, probably a century or more, during which time the 
population was probably to be numbered in the hundreds. In June 
1951 Mr. Taylor returned to Resolute to complete some of the excava- 
tions that had to be left unfinished the preceding August. 

Dr. Collins was reelected to the board of governors of the Arctic 
Institute for a 3-year term, and also for a 1-year term as treasurer of 
the organization. He continued to serve as chairman of the directing 
committee that planned and supervised the bibliography and roster 
projects on which the Arctic Institute has been engaged for the past 
four years under contract with the Office of Naval Research. The 
Roster of Arctic Specialists, containing biographical data on Amer- 
ican and Canadian citizens having expert knowledge of the Arctic 
regions, was completed and turned over to the agencies that had spon- 
sored and financed the work — U. S. Departments of the Army, Navy, 
Air Force, and Defense Research Board of Canada. The first five vol- 
umes of the Arctic Bibliography were also completed and delivered to 
the Government Printing Office through the Department of the Army, 
which had contributed additional funds for its publication. Prepared 
under the direction of Miss Marie Tremaine with a staff including 
expert bibliographers, translators, and scientists working at the Li- 
brary of Congress and other libraries in the United States and Canada, 
the Arctic Bibliography is one of the most comprehensive regional 
bibliographies ever assembled and should be a useful research tool 
for scientists and others interested in the North. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year, Dr. John P. Harrington was 
on the Crow Indian Reservation in southern Montana conducting lin- 
guistic studies. Dr. Harrington found in connection with his studies 
that the word Missouri, formerly thought to mean "large canoe" or 
"wooden canoe," means simply "canoe" and, as applied since aboriginal 
times to the Missouri River, means by implication the navigated river. 
Dr. Harrington also obtained detailed information concerning the 
Mandan coracle or bull boat from Crowsheart, an Indian 94 years 
of age. An article was completed on this subject. On December 19, 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Dr. Harrington returned to Washington, D. C, and spent the time 
until March 9 writing reports on his field work. On this date he left 
for Mexico in order to resume his studies on the Maya language. At 
the end of the fiscal year he was in Mexico City continuing this work. 

Commencing July 1, Dr. William N. Fenton, having completed an 
assignment for the Indian Service at Taos Pueblo, conducted a survey 
of manuscripts relating to the ethnohistory of eastern Indians in the 
Henry E. Huntington Library at San Marino, Calif. The latter re- 
search, carried out with the aid of grants from the research funds 
of the American Philosophical Society, was published in the Proceed- 
ings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 95, No. 3. 

Factions are a peculiar feature of American Indian political organi- 
zation that has yet to be worked out for the country as a whole. Some 
ideas about political structure and methods of field work, which Dr. 
Fenton developed over a long period of field and library study among 
the Six Nations, were this past year transferred to the study of Indian 
self-government, which is riddled with factional disputes, in three 
divergent tribal cultures — Taos, Klamath, and Blackfeet. Each field 
situation was unique and required adjusting techniques, but the main 
principles hold. Field work was completed at Klamath Indian Agency 
in August, and the situation at Blackfeet Agency in Montana was 
explored during September. On returning to Washington late in 
September, at the request of the Indian Bureau Dr. Fenton drafted 
a comprehensive plan for the study of the Blackfeet problem by a 
team of social-science specialists who would be drawn from several 
disciplines including anthropology. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 
(Report prepared by Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr.) 

Instituted in the fall of 1945 as a unit of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, the River Basin Surveys were organized to carry into 
effect a memorandum of understanding between the National Park 
Service and the Smithsonian Institution. The memorandum per- 
tains to the salvage of archeological and paleontological remains that 
would otherwise be lost as a result of numerous projects for flood 
control and irrigation, hydroelectric installations, and navigation 
improvements in the river basins of the United States. The field 
work was started in July 1946 and has continued since that date. 
During the entire period of operations the investigations have been 
conducted as an interagency program with full cooperation on the 
part of the Smithsonian Institution, the National Park Service, and 
the Bureau of Reclamation of the Interior Department, and the Corps 
of Engineers of the Department of the Army. In addition, numerous 
non-Federal institutions scattered throughout the various States have 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

aided in the work. The program in the last fiscal year was financed 
by a transfer of $174,375 to the Smithsonian Institution by the Na- 
tional Park Service. Those funds were derived in part from the 
National Park Service and in part from the Bureau of Reclamation. 
The money from the Bureau of Reclamation was for use in the Mis- 
souri Basin, while that from the National Park Service was for use in 
all other areas throughout the United States. Because the appro- 
priations for the previous year became available so late in the field 
season, a substantial carry-over ($135,574) increased the 1951 funds 
so that a much larger series of investigations was possible than would 
otherwise have been the case. 

Activities during the year consisted of reconnaissance or surveys for 
the purpose of locating archeological sites or paleontological deposits 
that will be flooded or otherwise destroyed by construction work and 
in the excavation of sites located by previous surveys. In all, 45 
reservoir basins located in 13 States and scattered over 8 river basins 
were visited by survey parties. In addition one lock project and four 
canal areas were examined. Excavations were completed or were 
under way at the end of the fiscal year in 20 reservoir areas in 10 
States. During the course of the year there were 26 excavating 
parties in the field. Eight of the excavation projects were in areas 
where digging was done in previous years, but the remainder were 
new undertakings. When the fiscal year closed, the total of the res- 
ervoir areas where surveys had been made or excavations carried on 
since the beginning of actual field work in July 1946 was 225 located 
in 25 States. During the course of the work 2,894 archeological sites 
have been located and recorded, and of that number 545 have been 
recommended for excavation or additional testing. Preliminary 
appraisal reports were completed for all the reservoirs surveyed, and 
14 reports were mimeographed for limited distribution to the co- 
operating agencies. This makes a total of 134 such reports issued 
since the start of the program. In some cases a series of reservoirs is 
included in a single report covering a subbasin, and for that reason 
the total number of reports is less than that of the reservoirs. The 
excavations made during the fiscal year brought the total for areas 
where such work has been done to 33. The results of some of that 
work have been published as technical reports in various scientific 
journals, and one Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology con- 
taining eight such papers is now in press. That Bulletin inaugurates 
a new series, to be called "River Basin Surveys Papers" and designed 
as an outlet for the reports resulting from the interagency archeologi- 
cal salvage program. Paleontological surveys have been made in 
115 reservoir areas, 70 being those where archeological work has also 
been done. The remaining 45 in due course will be investigated by 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

archeological parties. The over-all total of reservoirs visited, includ- 
ing those where archeological work still needs to be done, is 270. 

The reservoirs investigated for archeological remains as of June 30, 
1951, have the following distribution by States: California, 20; Colo- 
rado, 24 ; Georgia, 4 ; Idaho, 11 ; Illinois, 2 ; Iowa, 3 ; Kansas, 7 ; Ken- 
tucky, 1 ; Louisiana, 1 ; Minnesota, 1 ; Montana, 14 ; Nebraska, 27 ; New 
Mexico, 1 ; North Dakota, 13 ; Ohio, 2 ; Oklahoma, 7 ; Oregon, 26 ; Penn- 
sylvania, 2; South Dakota, 9; Tennessee, 1; Texas, 15; Virginia, 2; 
Washington, 11; West Virginia, 2; Wyoming, 19. Excavations since 
the start of the program have been made in : California, 5 ; Colorado, 
1 ; Georgia, 1 ; Kansas, 1 ; Montana, 1 ; Nebraska, 1 ; New Mexico, 1 ; 
North Dakota, 4 ; Oklahoma, 2 ; Oregon, 3 ; South Dakota, 5 ; Texas, 7 ; 
Virginia, 1 ; Washington, 8 ; Wyoming, 3. 

The River Basin Surveys received extensive cooperation during the 
year from the National Park Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, the 
Corps of Engineers, and numerous State and local institutions. 
Guides and transportation were furnished staff men in the field at a 
number of projects, while at others office and laboratory space was 
provided. In several cases labor and mechanical equipment were con- 
tributed by the construction agency. Had it not been for the assist- 
ance provided in that way, it would not have been possible for the 
River Basin Surveys' men to accomplish as much as they did. As in 
past years, the National Park Service served as the liaison between 
the various agencies and provided the Smithsonian Institution with 
the necessary information concerning the locations of the proposed 
dams and reservoirs and also their priorities. In addition, the Na- 
tional Park Service carried the responsibility for budgeting the costs 
of the program and for procuring the funds. 

General supervision and direction of the work in California, Geor- 
gia, Kentucky, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Virginia were from the 
main office in Washington. The program in the Columbia Basin was 
directed from a field headquarters and laboratory at Eugene, Oreg. ; 
that in the Missouri Basin was under the supervision of a field office 
and laboratory at Lincoln, Nebr. ; and that in Texas was under the 
field office at Austin. All the materials collected by the survey and 
excavation parties in those three areas were processed at the field lab- 
oratories. In addition, the collections made in Georgia were processed 
at a laboratory at Athens. 

Washington office. — The main headquarters of the River Basin Sur- 
veys continued under the direction of Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 
Joseph R. Caldwell, Carl F. Miller, and Ralph S. Solecki, archeolo- 
gists, were based on that office, although Caldwell spent the entire 
year in Georgia, and Solecki took leave of absence to join an expedition 
going to the Near East, Dr. Theodore E. White, paleontologist, di- 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

vided his time between the Washington office, the Missouri Basin, and 
the Texas area. 

Mr. Caldwell spent the early months of the fiscal year working on 
his report on the results of the excavations completed during the pre- 
vious year at the Allatoona Reservoir. In November he proceeded to 
the Buford Reservoir area on the Chattahoochee River northeast of 
Atlanta where he carried on a survey until April 6. In the latter part 
of April Mr. Caldwell made an investigation at the site of Fort Char- 
lotte in McCormick County, S. C, to determine what work might be 
necessary to obtain full information about it before it is flooded by the 
waters of the Clark Hill Reservoir. From Fort Charlotte Mr. Cald- 
well returned to his field base at Athens where he prepared a manu- 
script "The Booger Bottom Mound : A Forsyth Period Site in Hall 
County, Georgia." 

At the beginning of the year, Carl F. Miller was carrying on ex- 
cavations at a site on the east bank of the Roanoke River near Clarks- 
ville, Va. He continued operations there until August 4, when he 
returned to Washington. During the months spent in the office, Mr. 
Miller worked on his section of the report on the excavations at the 
Allatoona Reservoir in Georgia. On February 28 he returned to 
Clarksville and resumed investigations in the Buggs Island Reservoir 
area. Those operations continued until June 20, when he proceeded 
to Bassett, Va., and made a survey at the Philpott Reservoir on the 
Smith River. He returned to Washington on June 30. During such 
times as the Director was absent from the Washington office, Mr. 
Miller served as Acting Director of the River Basin Surveys. 

Ralph S. Solecki devoted the early months of the year to the com- 
pletion of reports on work done previously. In October he made a 
brief investigation of the area at Morgantown, W. Va., where a new 
navigation lock was under construction. From there he proceeded to 
the Conemaugh Reservoir on the Conemaugh River in western Penn- 
sylvania, where he made a reconnaissance of the area that will be 
flooded. From the Conemaugh project he proceeded to the East 
Branch Reservoir basin on the Clarion River, also in Pennsylvania. 
After completing the survey of that area, he returned to Washington 
and completed his report on the field investigations. 

Dr. Theodore E. White spent the winter and early spring months 
in Washington studying the materials he had collected during the 
summer field season and in the preparation of a manuscript "Prelim- 
inary Analysis of the Fossil Vertebrates of the Canyon Ferry Reser- 
voir Area." In April he went to Texas where he collected fossils from 
the Lavon Reservoir on the East Fork of the Trinity River in Tarrant 
County and from the Garza-Little Elm Reservoir on the Elm Fork of 
the same river in Denton County. In June Dr. White proceeded from 

983058—52 2 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Texas to Lincoln, Nebr., and resumed his activities in the Missouri 
Basin. 

California. — At the beginning of the fiscal year a party under the 
direction of Franklin Fenenga was excavating a site in the Terminus 
Reservoir area on the Kaweah River, in Tulare County. That work 
was continued until August 1, and upon its completion detailed in- 
formation had been obtained about a small village consisting of 14 
houses and 3 distinct milling places. The site was important be- 
cause it provided an opportunity to study the remains left by a group 
of people who occupied the region in historic times and concerning 
whom there is an extraordinarily complete ethnographic record. The 
lower end of the Kaweah Canyon was formerly occupied by a small 
band of the Yokut Indians known as the Wukchumne or Wickchamni. 
Correlations of the data from both the ethnological and archeological 
sources of information will make it possible to prepare an archeolog- 
ical report containing an almost unique amount of information on 
the function and significance of the artifacts and the various features 
of the site. Many items of the material culture previously known only 
through tradition are now represented by actual objects recovered 
during the archeological researches. 

Upon the completion of the digging at the Terminus Reservoir, 
Mr. Fenenga moved his party to the Folsom Reservoir located on the 
American River, in Eldorado County, where excavations were carried 
on from August 3 to September 16. About 75 percent of the site was 
investigated. The returns were small in that only a single burial 
and 214 artifacts were found. The burial was that of a child about 
12 years old and had no accompanying offerings. The artifacts con- 
sist for the most part of stone and, as most of them are unspecialized 
forms making functional identifications or comparisons with objects 
from other sites difficult, they are not particularly significant. A 
small series of arrow points, about half of which were made from 
a native opal, will be useful in the matter of correlation with other 
sites, but at present there is so little material available for study from 
that particular region that conclusions are not warranted. Until 
more data are obtained, it will not be possible to give a reasonably 
complete picture of the material culture of the people who occupied 
the site. 

Two field parties excavated at the Cachuma Reservoir on the Santa 
Ynez River, in Santa Barbara County. One of them, under Albert D. 
Mohr, worked from August 1 to September 12, while the other, under 
Martin Baumhoff, worked from April 3 until May 18. The first party 
excavated in a site that contained evidence of three cultures previously 
described by David Banks Rogers. They are the Oak Grove, Hunting, 
and "Chumash." The evidence obtained there substantiated the re- 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 9 

ported sequence for the Santa Barbara area. It also indicated that 
two phases each of the last two periods might be defined as the result 
of further work. The same party also did some testing in another 
site which apparently represents a single late period that extended 
into early historic times. 

The party under Mr. Baumhoff concentrated its efforts at the second 
site where Mr. Mohr worked and obtained considerable additional 
information from it. Preliminary study of the artifacts indicates 
that the occupation is attributable to the Canaliiio. There is evidence 
of trading activities in the form of tubular beads from the San Joaquin 
Valley and potsherds similar to the pottery made by the Yokuts of 
that region and the western Paiutes. No house remains were found, 
but there were scattered piles of stones that appear to have been inten- 
tional rather than accidental, and in one case there was a pear-shaped 
pit 12 feet 8 inches long, 6 feet 3 inches wide, and 1 foot 3 inches in 
depth, which had been lined with slabs of shale and was filled with 
rocks of all sizes. The function of the pit has not been determined. 
It was at first thought that the feature may have been a sweat house, 
but the nature of the shale lining was such that it probably would 
not have withstood the heating necessary for sweat-house purposes. 
Additional work is needed at the Cachuma Reservoir in order to gain 
a better understanding of the aboriginal history of the area. 

Columbia Basin. — Work in the Columbia Basin was continued under 
the supervision of the field headquarters at Eugene, Oreg., where 
laboratory and office space were provided by the University of Oregon. 
Joel L. Shiner served as acting field director throughout the year. 
Activities in that area consisted of a survey of six reservoir projects 
and excavations in four areas where preliminary reconnaissance work 
had already been completed. The John Day Eeservoir basin on the 
John Day River, in Oregon, was examined by Robert Farrell and 
Stuart Peck during the first two weeks in July. The party found 88 
sites and recommended testing or more extended excavations for 8 of 
them. From the John Day Reservoir, Peck and Farrell proceeded 
to the Hells Canyon Reservoir on the Snake River, in Oregon-Idaho, 
where they found 22 sites, of which 4 were recommended for investiga- 
tion. The latter survey was completed the middle of August. During 
July George L. Coale and Octavio Romano surveyed the area to be 
flooded by the Albeni Falls Reservoir on the Pend Oreille River, in 
northern Idaho. They found 13 sites and recommended the testing of 
5. Construction work on the dam has progressed to such an extent 
that the indicated work may not be possible at that location. From 
the Albeni Falls area, Coale and Romano proceeded to the Katka 
and Libby Reservoir projects on the Kootenai River, in Idaho and 
Montana, where they made a preliminary reconnaissance. The Katka 
Dam is located in Idaho, but the reservoir will extend upstream into 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Montana. The survey of the Katka area located and recorded 14 
sites, of which one was recommended for excavation. Three others, 
however, were found to be worthy of testing. The Libby area contains 

11 archeological sites, and because so little is known of the archeology 
of the Kootenai Indians, 6 of the 11 were recommended for further 
study. Extensive excavation would not be required at any of them, 
however. John M. Campbell spent July and August making a survey 
of the Priest Rapids Reservoir basin. The Priest Rapids Dam is to 
be built in the Columbia River just below the rapids and will create 
a pool area 56 miles long. The district to be flooded is an important 
one from the standpoint of the aboriginal occupation of the area, 
and 74 sites were found there. Of that number, 29 are considered 
to be of high archeological significance. The sites consist of those 
with well-preserved house pits, the remains of open camps, cave shel- 
ters, burial grounds, and various groups of pictographs. The region 
is one that was occupied by several different Indian groups, and knowl- 
edge from it should have an important bearing on a large section of 
the Plateau Culture area. 

At the start of the fiscal year a party under the direction of Douglas 
Osborne, consulting archeologist, was continuing excavations at a site 
on the Washington side of the Columbia River near Mottinger in the 
McNary Reservoir basin. The site was that of a postcontact village 
and probably was the location of that visited by Robert Stuart in 1812. 
During the course of the digging three house pits and one mat lodge 
were uncovered, and three additional house pits were tested. The 
house pits were circular, and if the identification of the village is 
correct it would indicate that the circular earth lodge was in use in 
that area at a later date than most anthropologists have believed. The 
artifacts obtained were not numerous, which is a condition found at 
most of the places worked in the McNary basin. In addition to abo- 
riginal stone and bone implements and shell ornaments, a variety of 
European goods was obtained. Several of the house pits gave evi- 
dence of several separate occupations, which may indicate that the 
village was not lived in continuously but was revisited from time to 
time, perhaps by the same group of people. The remains of the long 
narrow mat house, which was a popular form of multif amily dwelling 
during the historical period in that area, agree closely with the de- 
scriptions of such houses given by the Umatilla Indians to ethnological 
investigators in previous years. One complete burial was recovered 
at that location. Late in July Mr. Osborne transferred his party to 
a site near Cold Springs on the Oregon side of the river where he dug 
four house pits in the remains of a small village. During periods of 
high water the site appears to be located on an island, as a portion 
of the river flows through an old channel and separates it from high 
ground to the south. The village was situated on the side nearest 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 11 

the main channel and consisted of two distinct groups of houses. The 
largest group was centered about 500 feet downstream from the 
smaller one. An almost identical condition had previously been noted 
at another site where work was done during the summer of 1949, but 
thus far no explanation for such a division has been found. The pits 
at this particular location were also circular in form and indicated 
a single occupation. The lack of well-developed midden or refuse 
areas implies that the village must have been short-lived or that par- 
ticular care was taken to throw refuse into or near the river. Trade 
goods were scarce at this site, which would seem to indicate that it 
should be dated as slightly earlier than the time of the first contact 
with the Whites or just prior to 1800. The Lewis and Clark map shows 
the "island" but does not indicate the presence of a village or at least 
the existence of houses. It would appear that the village had been 
abandoned and had fallen into ruin before 1805. The most important 
contribution from the excavations at these sites is the verification of 
data secured at other locations in the McNary, particularly with re- 
spect to the size and shape of the former houses and their artifact asso- 
ciations; also, it was indicated that, while fishing was the primary 
source of subsistence, hunting actually played a larger part in the econ- 
omy than previously supposed. Mr. Osborne also completed the exca- 
vation of a house pit at a site 1 mile downstream where work was done 
the previous summer, and in addition located and removed 17 burials 
from Sheep Island in the middle of the river about equidistant from 
the other three sites. Some work had been done previously at that lo- 
cation by Thomas R. Garth, who was then with the National Park 
Service. Osborne, who was under a temporary appointment as con- 
sulting archeologist, completed his investigations the end of August 
and returned to his regular duties at the Washington State Museum. 
Richard D. Daugherty and his party continued the excavations 
started near the end of the previous fiscal year at the O'SulKvan Reser- 
voir near Ephrata, Wash., and completed the investigations on Sep- 
tember 2. They spent the summer season at a small village site close to 
a larger one where Daugherty did some work in the summer of 1948. 
During the current year two large circular house pits were dug, and 
the remains of a rectangular mat dwelling were uncovered. A series 
of cairns that had formerly contained burials was also studied. The 
graves had been systematically rifled by local collectors, however, and 
little could be learned other than that the piles of stone had covered 
the remains of cremations. Information pertaining to the house 
types agreed with that from the previous digging, and from that data 
it will be possible to draw a number of conclusions about the dwellings 
of the area. Not a single item was found suggesting White contact, 
but the similarity of the artifacts to those from other sites in the 
region where there was association with contact material suggests that 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the occupancy was not long prior to the time the first white men reached 
the area. In general the artifacts consist of projectile points, various 
types of scrapers, knives, drills, hammerstones, sinkers, pendants, 
grinding stones and pestles, stone pipes, bone awls and points, bone 
flaking tools, gaming pieces, and beads. While carrying on his excava- 
tions, Daugherty also tested a site in the Lind Coulee where materials 
attributable to the Paleo-Indian occur. The site is outside the reser- 
voir basin but is along the course of lateral and distribution-system 
canals, and as Lind Coulee is to be used as a wasteway for them the 
archeological remains will ultimately be destroyed. 

A party under the direction of Samuel J. Tobin was excavating in 
a large rock shelter in the Equalizing Keservoir basin southwest of the 
town of Grand Coulee, Wash., at the start of the fiscal year. The 
work was carried on through July. Evidence obtained there was that 
the shelter was not a regular dwelling place but rather a spot where 
small parties probably camped from time to time. Three distinct 
levels of occupation were found, but apparently no great length of 
time intervened between each level, and the materials suggest that 
the same cultural group was involved throughout. The chief signifi- 
cance of the shelter is that a considerable amount of dry material such 
as is rarely found in open sites was obtained. Included in it are 
cordage, fragments of bow staves, arrow or spear shafts, textile frag- 
ments, matting, and pieces of basketry. Nonperishable artifacts are 
projectile points, bone implements and beads, and shell beads. The 
rear wall of the shelter was decorated with pictographs, some made 
with white paint and others in red. Analysis of the dry materials 
should throw considerable light on that phase of the material culture 
of the people in the area. Present indications are that the shelter 
may well have been occupied by either the Nespelem or their eastern 
neighbors the Sanpoil. Although contact objects were lacking below 
the surface, it is difficult to assign either a historic or a pre-Columbian 
age to the site. 

The beginning of the fiscal year found a party under George A. 
Cheney digging in village remains along the Columbia River in the 
basin to be flooded by the Chief Joseph Reservoir. The work con- 
tinued through July and August and into early September. In 
August Tobin's party was shifted to that project to assist in the in- 
vestigations. The work in September was a cooperative effort, the 
Washington State Museum providing the necessary labor. At the 
end of the season 42 house pits located in 7 sites had been dug and 
accompanying trash mounds examined. Good information was ob- 
tained concerning the house type, and indications are that there was 
no particular village pattern. The structures do not seem to have 
been grouped, but at all the sites were strung along a terrace above 
the river in sheltered areas well back from the water. The artifacts 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 13 

recovered consisted in the main of stone projectile points, blades, 
scrapers, hammers, pestles, pipes, choppers, and bowl fragments. The 
evidence in general appears to show that a single cultural level was 
represented at all the sites investigated. The area is one, however, 
where the river has done considerable scouring and shifting, and it 
is possible that older materials may have been destroyed. Though 
many of the data from the Chief Joseph Reservoir supplement those 
reported by earlier workers for the Upper Columbia-Grand Coulee 
Reservoir, there are some marked differences in certain artifact cate- 
gories. Considerable light will be thrown on the archeology of that 
portion of the Columbia Basin when studies on the materials from 
the Chief Joseph Reservoir are completed. 

On April 2 Joel L. Shiner started excavations at a site in the McNary 
Reservoir where a cultural layer had been discovered underneath a 
thick stratum of wind-deposited volcanic ash. The site, which was 
reported to the River Basin Surveys in January by Thomas R. Garth, 
represented a single occupation by a group of Indians having a simple 
culture and, except for the projectile points, very crude tools. Some 
100 artifacts, including hammerstones and choppers in addition to the 
points, were found there. Large numbers of animal bones, many of 
them burned, and mussel shells were present in the midden. There 
were no indications, however, of any type of habitation. The culture 
probably represents a fairly early horizon in the Columbia Basin, but 
its proper place in the sequence for the area cannot be determined 
definitely until the volcanic ash is correlated with one of the known 
eruptions in the region or the burned bones have been dated by the 
carbon-14 method. Typologically the artifacts appear to be of re- 
spectable age. 

At the end of April Mr. Shiner moved his party to the site of a 
former fishing village at the mouth of the Walla Walla River and 
carried on excavations there until the middle of May. Most of the 
digging was done in a midden deposit adjacent to the house remains, 
and a good series of artifacts was obtained. That is one of the few 
locations where enough material was found to make possible a satis- 
factory statistical study of the types of artifacts. The village appar- 
ently was occupied just prior to and during the first coming of the 
white man. A large number of burials had been present at one time, 
but the locality had been so thoroughly dug by local collectors that 
only scattered bones were found by Shiner's party. 

During the year seven preliminary reports were completed and 
mimeographed at the Eugene office. Specimens from the various 
surveys were processed and cataloged and the photographs taken by 
the various parties were cataloged and filed. Because of the situation 
with respect to funds for the following fiscal year, it was necessary to 
close the Eugene office on June 30, 1951. 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Georgia. — Field work in Georgia was carried on from a base of 
operations furnished by the University of Georgia at Athens. The 
main investigations during the year were of a survey nature. From 
November 14 to April 6 a reconnaissance was made of the area that 
will be inundated by the proposed Buford Reservoir on the Chatta- 
hoochee River. From April 23 to 28 a brief reconnaissance was made 
in the Clark Hill Reservoir, on the Savannah River, for the purpose 
of locating the remains of Fort Charlotte. 

The Buford Reservoir basin occupies a large intermediate section 
of north-Georgia terrain lying between the Allatoona Reservoir area 
on the Etowah River and the north-Oconee drainage. The region is 
one that is virtually unknown archeologically, and it should contain 
significant data as far as a proper understanding of cultural develop- 
ments in that part of Georgia is concerned. The preliminary survey 
located 46 sites in the area to be flooded. Included in the group are 
29 that appear to represent a rather early prepottery period. There 
is some evidence that this group of sites may be somewhat older than 
the Stallings Island Prepottery Culture. A larger proportion of 
sites belong to the Woodstock period than was found to be the case 
during the investigations at the Allatoona Reservoir. The larger 
number of early sites indicates either that there was a sizable popula- 
tion in the district or that it was occupied over a long span of time. 
Extensive investigation of a number of the sites should give an answer 
in that respect. Two large previously unrecorded mounds were also 
noted, and some test digging was done in them. One gave evidence 
of having been erected over a small natural knoll, and the outlines of 
a small square house with a bench, bed, or throne at one end were 
found on its summit. The mound appears to represent a rather late 
and previously unknown complex which probably is pre-Lamar in 
age. The other mound apparently is one of the oldest artificial struc- 
tures thus far found in Georgia. It differs from previously recognized 
types of eastern mounds in that it was not accretional and probably 
was not intended for burial purposes. Neither does it seem to have 
been a temple platform or domiciliary mound. Evidence obtained 
during the course of testing it and adjacent areas suggests that it 
probably belongs in the Forsyth Period, which falls into the general 
category known as the Burial Mound I Period. In many ways the 
mound suggests similarities to the well-known Swift Creek Mound. 
One postulation as to its function is that it may have been erected for 
ceremonial purposes even though there are no traces of a structure on 
its summit. A simple earthen platform without a structure would be 
the logical beginning in the development of the eastern temple-mound 
complex. 

In addition to the pre-Columbian sites, the survey found a number 
attributable to the historic Cherokee. The latter are located for the 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 15 

most part along the course of the old Federal Road, which passed 
through the Cherokee country to the Tennessee settlements. A brief 
study was made of the Vann House which was built between 1805 
and 1813 to serve as an inn for people traveling along the Federal 
Road and stands on a high knoll overlooking the Chattahoochee River 
about iy 2 miles from the present town of Oscarville. It is one of 
the few Indian country taverns still standing. In its present form 
the structure shows several periods of enlargement, but the old original 
portion is readily discernible, and careful study of it should produce 
interesting data on the nature of the taverns of the period when built. 

The search for the remains of Fort Charlotte, in the Clark Hill 
Reservoir area, showed that it was located on the South Carolina 
side of the Savannah River, but inasmuch as it will be inundated by 
the Clark Hill Reservoir, the dam for which is being built in Georgia, 
investigation of the site is considered to be a part of the Georgia 
project. Fort Charlotte, built in 1765 as one of the Colonial defenses 
against the Cherokee Indians, was seized on July 12, 1775, by South 
Carolina troops — one of the first overt acts of defiance by the rebellious 
Colonies against the British Government. It continued to be occupied 
by Colonial troops until the close of the Revolutionary War. Because 
of the lack of accurate information about the actual physical character 
of the fort and the fact that certain phases of its history correlate 
with Indian activities in that area, it is hoped that all remaining 
evidence pertaining to it can be retrieved from the site before it is 
inundated. 

Kentucky. — During the period April 16 to May 18 Douglas W. 
Schwartz, field assistant, made a reconnaissance and carried on limited 
test excavations in the basin to be flooded by the proposed Celina 
Reservoir on the Cumberland River, in southern Kentucky. He lo- 
cated 24 archeological sites, representing a number of cultural periods ; 
further work in the area probably would make it possible to establish 
a sequence for them. Excavations in six major sites have been recom- 
mended, but inasmuch as all of them are above the pool line there is 
no immediate urgency for their investigation. Their location is such, 
however, that after the reservoir is filled they may be subject to some 
wave action and will be easily available to unauthorized diggers. 
Consequently, plans should be made for additional work in that 
district. 

The survey in the Celina area was done in cooperation with the 
University of Kentucky, which furnished Mr. Schwartz with the 
necessary transportation and provided him with office and laboratory 
space for working over his material. Dr. William S. Webb, head 
of the university's department of anthropology, assisted Mr. Schwartz 
in an advisory capacity. 

983058—52 3 



1() BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Missouri Basin. — Activities in tho Missouri Basin continued to be 
supervised and directed from the field headquarters at the University 
of Nebraska in Lincoln. Paul L. Cooper served as acting field di- 
rector from July 1 until October 3, when he was made field director 
for the Missouri Basin program. The operations in the Missouri 
Basin shifted in character during tho course of the year. Where 
previously most of the activities had been concerned with preliminary 
surveys, a larger number of excavating parties were sent into the field 
and greater emphasis was placed on the actual salvage of materials 
from sites that eventually will be inundated. 

From July .'• to November 21 a two-man archeological survey party 
headed by Robert L. Shalkop made preliminary reconnaissance of the 
Apex, Brenner, Clark Canyon, Gibson, Kelley, Landon, Nilan, and 
Wilson Reservoirs in Montana ; (he Middle Fork and South Fork proj- 
ects in Wyoming; and the Narrows in Colorado. The party also re- 
visited the Keyhole Reservoir area in Wyoming and the Moorhead 
and Yellow! ail projects whose basins occur in both Montana and AVyo- 
ming. The Shalkop party located and recorded 127 new sites. From 
August 12 to November 3 a two-man party led by George Metcalf in- 
vestigated the area of the Fort Borthold Reservation in the Fort Gar- 
rison area in North Dakota, locating and recording 55 new sites. Dur- 
ing October a two-man reconnaissance party under Richard Page 
Wheeler visited 10 potential reservoirs in the Niobrara subbasin in 
Nebraska. The party found a total of 41 archeological sites. Robert 
B. Cumming, Jr., and an assistant carried out a reconnaissance of the 
Ashton Reservoir area in the Lower Platte basin in Nebraska from 
November 7 to 15 and at the same time examined the sites of the Sar- 
gent, Woods Park, and Ashton Feeder canals. Since only one archeo- 
logical site was found by Cumming's party, the area does not ap- 
pear to have had much aboriginal occupation. This party also inves- 
< igated an ossuary that had been uncovered at the Cushing dam site. 
During the period June 5 to 9, Franklin Fenenga and an assistant sur- 
veyed the Love well Reservoir area on White Rock Creek in northern 
Kansas and recorded six archeological sites. On June 19 Fenenga 
and an assistant proceeded to Wyoming -and by (he end of the fiscal 
year had made surveys at the Bull Creek, Smith, Buffalo Bill, Tri- 
angle Park, Willow Park, and Red Gulch Reservoirs. Five sites were 
found in the Bull Creek Reservoir and one large workshop area, which 
may be relatively old, was discovered in the Red Gulch Reservoir. 
None of tho other projects visited contained archeological 
manifestations. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year a party under the direction of 
Richard Pago Wheeler was excavating at the Long site in the Angos- 
tura Reservoir basin on tho Cheyenne River in South Dakota. That 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 17 

work, which had been started in the previous year, continued until 
July 19, when the Wheeler party moved to the Boysen Reservoir area 
in Wyoming. The Long site is of particular interest because it repre- 
sents one of the early hunting-culture occupations in the Plains area. 
The material from it is limited in quantity, but the blades, scrapers, 
and projectile points probably can be correlated with some of the types 
from other hunting cultures and will aid materially in filling in the 
gaps in present knowledge about the prehistory of the western Plains. 
Charcoal obtained from unprepared hearths has been dated by Dr. 
W. F. Libby by the carbon-14 method and shows that the occupation 
at the Long site was in the interval from 7,073 ± 300 to 7,715 ± 740 years 
before the present. 

The Wheeler party began work in the Boysen Eeservoir area on the 
Big Horn River near Shoshoni, Wyo., on July 20 and continued oper- 
ations until September 20. During that period a number of sites were 
tested, and fairly extensive excavations were carried out at three loca- 
tions. Most of the sites were in the open and proved to be the remains 
of camps rather than of villages. One small rock shelter was found to 
contain considerable refuse material as well as various types of arti- 
facts and broken animal bones. One crevice burial, discovered on a 
butte top overlooking the reservoir area, presumably belonged to the 
historic period as a number of porcelain beads and a short coil of iron 
were sifted from the sand that lay directly below the crevice. Two of 
the sites examined probably are late prehistoric, while the others are 
older, perhaps considerably older. In addition to the excavating 
work, the Wheeler party photographed and sketched many petro- 
glyphs and made extensive surface collections from numerous occupa- 
tional sites, several of which were newly discovered while the digging 
was going on. 

On June 21 Wheeler and his field assistant, J. M. Shippee, returned 
to Wyoming and started excavations at the only known pottery site 
in the Keyhole Reservoir area on the Belle Fourche River near Moor- 
croft. By the end of the fiscal year they had dug three shallow test 
areas across the site and recovered a series of artifacts consisting of 
stone and bone implements and a variety of potsherds. The apparent 
absence of dwellings of any kind, the shallowness of the middenlike 
deposits, and the character of the material found there suggest that 
the site, which covers approximately 30 acres, was a late prehistoric 
or protohistoric hunting camp. The work there had not yet progressed 
sufficiently to make possible the correlation of the remains with one of 
the historic tribes known to have inhabited that part of Wyoming. 

The largest excavation operations in the Missouri Basin during 
the year were those in the Oahe Reservoir area on the main stem of 
the Missouri River near Pierre, S. Dak. A party under the super- 
vision of Donald J. Lehmer was digging in the remains of a large 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

fortified village near the Oalie dam site on July 1 and continued at 
that location until October, when it was shifted to another fortified 
village a short distance farther downstream. At the first location, 
called the Dodd site, the remains of 21 earth lodges, 27 cache pits, 
and 16 miscellaneous features were uncovered. In addition, 8 test 
trenches and 27 test pits were dug. The Dodd site is of particular in- 
terest because of the fact that three types of houses were found there, 
and there was definite stratigraphic evidence for a sequence of the 
various forms. The latest structures at the location had been circular 
earth lodges, while the earlier ones were rectangular. There appar- 
ently were two types of rectangular earth lodge, the oldest being 
smaller and with a somewhat different pole arrangement than the later 
ones. Although it has not been established beyond question, it appears 
that the circular houses were those built by the Arikara, while the 
rectangular ones are attributable to the Mandan. Several thousand 
specimens, consisting of potsherds, stone, bone, shell, and metal arti- 
facts, were found during the digging, and the analysis of that mate- 
rial should be a definite contribution to the archeology of the area. 
At the second location, known as the Phillips Ranch site, 5 earth lodges 
and 46 cache pits had been cleared and one test trench dug across the 
fortification ditch when weather conditions brought the activities to 
a close on November 26. The structures at the Phillips Ranch site 
were circular and appear to correlate with those of the final period 
at the Dodd site. Mr. Lehmer returned to the Phillips Ranch site on 
June 20 and resumed his excavation program. It was still under way 
at the close of the fiscal year. During the short period involved one 
house was completely cleared and another started. The presence of 
a palisade inside the fortification ditch surrounding the site was es- 
tablished, and the overburden from the northeast quadrant of the 
area was stripped away, revealing a number of features lying outside 
the houses. 

Additional work in the Oahe area got under way in June when a 
party under the direction of Dr. Waldo R. Wedel, who was detailed to 
the River Basin Surveys from the U. S. National Museum, began ex- 
cavations at the Cheyenne River village site, about 45 miles north of 
the Dodd site. The Cheyenne River village is one of the largest and 
best preserved of the fortified sites along the Missouri River, although 
a portion of it has been carried away by the encroaching stream. It 
apparently was occupied for a considerable period and probably con- 
tains several components. By the end of the fiscal year one earth lodge 
had been uncovered, the work on a second was nearly completed, and 
digging had started on a third. One cache pit had been cleaned and 
another located. Two test trenches excavated across the moat had 
shown that the original bottom was about 6 feet below the present 
surface. The artifact yield from the investigations was proving 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 19 

highly satisfactory, and the artifacts should give a well-rounded pic- 
ture of the material culture of the former occupants of the village, 
as well as indicating their relationship to other peoples in that portion 
of the Plains. 

Early in July a party led by Thomas R. Garth started investigating 
historic sites in the area to be affected by the Fort Randall Reservoir 
in South Dakota. They spent a short time examining the site of old 
Fort Randall, across the river from Pickstown, but devoted most of 
the field season to work in the vicinity of Chamberlain. Extensive 
but unsuccessful efforts were made to locate the site of Fort Recovery, 
an early fur-trading post. The remains of other trading posts and 
military establishments were found, however, and partially investi- 
gated. Included in that group are Fort Hale, Fort Brule, Fort Look- 
out trading post, Fort Lookout military post, and the Whetstone 
Agency. At Fort Hale there was evidence of a large building that 
probably had been a trading post, two smaller buildings, and indica- 
tions of a stockade. There was also evidence that there had been an 
earlier Indian occupancy of the site. At Fort Lower Brule the re- 
mains of a cabin 45 feet long were uncovered, and an 18-by-12- 
f oot cellar was excavated. An abandoned well was also investigated, 
and about 30 "snow snakes," some of which were decorated with 
geometric and some with realistic designs, were recovered. "Snow 
snakes" were frequently made from bison ribs and in some cases were 
equipped with feathers stuck to two wooden pegs inserted in one end 
of the bone. Objects of this type were generally used in playing a 
rather simple game, which consisted of sliding them along the frozen 
crust or in a rut in the snow. The players chose sides, and when a 
"snake" outdistanced all on the other side it counted as a point. The 
remains of the fur- trading post, presumably adjacent to the military 
post, were found, and an Indian earth lodge was located while the 
area was being tested for the historic remains. The Garth Party 
also located 29 new Indian sites in the Chamberlain area. 

Further work was started in the Fort Randall Reservoir area on 
June 3 when a party under the supervision of Robert B. Cumming, 
Jr., began excavations at Indian sites near the mouth of Platte Creek. 
Work was started at the Oldham site, an earth-lodge village, and at 
the close of the fiscal year the remains of one house had been un- 
covered and a second was in the process of excavation. Efforts to 
trace the fortification ditch that had surrounded the village had not 
been wholly successful because surface indications of a large part of 
that feature had been completely obliterated by cultivation. How- 
ever, it was hoped that subsequent digging would make it possible to 
follow its entire course. 

At the beginning of the year a party under the direction of G. 
Ellis Burcaw was excavating at the Rock Village located in the Gar- 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

rison Reservoir basin, near Hazen, N. Dak., a few miles above the dam 
site. Rock Village was reputedly occupied in the late eighteenth 
century by the Hidatsa. During the field season, which terminated 
November 3, five house floors had been uncovered and a number of 
other features investigated. A party under the direction of Donald 
D. Hartle resumed work at that location early in June. Additional 
house floors were being uncovered and a number of cache pits had been 
cleaned of their accumulated debris. The artifact yield was proving 
satisfactory and the specimens should add to the picture of the Plains 
culture as a whole. Rock Village is particularly interesting because 
it presumably was the most northerly of the fortified earth-lodge vil- 
lages belonging to the period preceding the replacement of aboriginal 
material culture by trade goods obtained from the white man. 

A second party, under the direction of G. H. Smith, was sent to 
the Garrison Reservoir in June to study the site of Fort Stevenson, one 
of the important military posts in that area during the period 1867 
to 1883. The post was located a few miles above the dam site on 
the left side of the Missouri River. By the end of the year the founda- 
tions of the post hospital had been traced and excavations had been 
started on the site of the south barracks. There is considerable docu- 
mentary information about Fort Stevenson, but knowledge of the 
post will be considerably broadened by the study of its actual location 
and remains. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year excavations were being conducted 
at the Tiber Reservoir on the Marias River in Montana by a party 
under the supervision of W. D. Enger. Two of the sites investigated 
were occupation levels attributable to a simple hunting culture. They 
were characterized for the most part by hearths ; charcoal ; bones from 
bison, deer, and smaller mammals ; and scattered chips of stone with an 
occasional artifact. The cultural levels began approximately 2 to 4 
feet beneath the present surface, and in one of them a rock-ringed 
hearth about 2 feet in diameter was found 7^2 f ee t below the surface. 
The yield from both sites was small, but there is sufficient evidence 
to indicate that the area was not heavily populated and that the peo- 
ple were dependent for the most part on the hunt for their subsistence. 
Other sites examined, but not extensively dug, included tipi-ring 
clusters, bison kills, and surface camp sites. Sites such as that con- 
taining the deeply buried hearth may contribute important informa- 
tion on the rate of deposition in the area in question. When materials 
from the low level are correlated with those from other districts, it 
may be possible to determine the lapse of time since the fire pits were 
built and used. 

Paleontological and geological investigations were continued in 
the Missouri Basin during the year. In the summer of 1950 a party 
under Dr. Theodore E. White explored Tertiary deposits in reservoir 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 21 

areas in Montana and North Dakota and Cretaceous deposits in South 
Dakota. Work in the Lewis and Clark and Broadwater Counties in 
Montana where the Tertiary stratigraphy has been imperfectly known 
since its discovery in 1904 by the late Dr. Earl Douglass definitely 
established the presence of Lower and Middle Oligocene and Lower 
and Middle Miocene in that area. In North Dakota the investigations 
demonstrated that the Cannonball Marine member of the Fort Union 
formation has a much greater areal distribution than was formerly 
supposed. Other activities consisted of rapid surveys of proposed 
reservoir projects in Nebraska and Colorado. Investigations in Mon- 
tana were resumed in June of 1951. 

Laboratory activities at the field headquarters in Lincoln during 
the year included the processing and cataloging of specimens; the 
processing of records, including the indexing and filing of photo- 
graphs; and the preparation and mimeographing of preliminary re- 
ports for distribution to the cooperating agencies. The specimens 
processed, numbering 84,255, came from 371 sites distributed over 18 
reservoirs and other projects. In all, 11,764 reflex copies of records 
were made. Color transparencies totaling 651 were cataloged. Black- 
and-white photographic negatives numbering 1,707 were made, and 
7,507 contact prints were processed. In addition, 197 8-by-10" en- 
largements were made. The drawings, tracings, and maps prepared 
for use in the various reports numbered 469. 

Several exhibits were prepared interpreting the salvage program 
and the prehistory of the Missouri Basin area. One of them was dis- 
played at the Eighth Conference for Plains Archeology, while another 
was placed in the windows of the Surveys' quarters in downtown 
Lincoln. A series of lantern slides illustrating the salvage program, 
particularly with respect to Nebraska, for use in an automatic pro- 
jector, was prepared in cooperation with the University of Nebraska 
State Museum and was installed in the latter institution. 

G. Ellis Burcaw, archeologist, was in charge of a field party exca- 
vating at the Rock Village in the Garrison Reservoir, N. Dak., at 
the start of the fiscal year. He continued his activities there until late 
in October and returned to the field headquarters at Lincoln on Novem- 
ber 3 where he worked on his field report covering the summer's 
activities. 

Paul L. Cooper, field director, devoted most of his time to manage- 
ment problems and general supervision of the field office and labora- 
tory. He made numerous trips to inspect and consult with field parties 
and served in an advisory capacity to the Region Two office of the 
National Park Service at Omaha, Nebr., in the matter of preparing 
agreements for cooperative projects carried on by State and local 
institutions in the Missouri Basin. 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Kobort B. Cumming, Jr., archeologist, served as laboratory super- 
visor at the Lincoln headquarters from July 1 to November 6. During 
such times as the director was absent from the office, Mr. Cumming 
assumed administrative responsibility for the Lincoln office. After 
November 6 Mr. Cumming took over the duties of a field archeologist, 
conducting surveys in the Ashton Reservoir area and carrying on ex- 
cavations in the Fort Randall Reservoir basin. During the winter 
months he wrote a preliminary report on the results of his survey 
work and assisted with the preparation of a preliminary report on 
the Oahe Reservoir. He also prepared a report on the physical anthro- 
pology of skeletal material excavated at the Massacre Creek site, 
Nebr., by the Nebraska State Historical Society, a cooperating insti- 
tution. At the close of the year he was supervising the excavations 
at the Oldham site near Platte, S. Dak. 

Walter D. Enger, Jr., archeologist, was engaged in a series of exca- 
vations at the Tiber Reservoir on the Marias River in Montana at 
the beginning of the fiscal year. The party under his supervision con- 
tinued its activities until September 16, when it returned to the Lincoln 
headquarters. 

Franklin Fenenga, archeologist, reported to the headquarters at 
Lincoln, Nebr., on October 26 and served as laboratory supervisor 
from November 6 to June 1, when he was assigned to duty in the field. 
Early in June he made a survey of the Lovewell Reservoir area in 
Kansas and in the latter part of the month made a preliminary recon- 
naissance of six potential reservoir areas in Wyoming. During the 
winter months in Lincoln he wrote preliminary archeological recon- 
naissance appraisals of the Sun River basin and the Jefferson River 
basin which were issued in mimeograph form. He also prepared sur- 
vey reports for the following reservoir projects : Keyhole, Yellowtail, 
Narrows, Moorhead, Fort Randall, and Lovewell. In addition, Mr. 
Fenenga wrote "A Historical Analysis of Anthropological Interests 
in the Psychological Sciences," for publication in the Proceedings of 
the Nebraska Academy of Sciences. In November Fenenga was elected 
editor of the Plains Conference News Letter. 

Thomas R. Garth, archeologist, joined the River Basin Surveys on 
July 2 by transfer from the National Park Service. On July 17 a 
party under his supervision began a series of investigations of historic 
sites in the Fort Randall area. That work continued until late in 
October, when he turned his attention to a survey of the area in the 
vicinity of Chamberlain, S. Dak., for the purpose of locating Indian 
sites. He completed his reconnaissance and returned to the Lincoln 
office on November 7. On November 27 he was detailed to the Na- 
tional Park Service to complete reports on work he had previously 
done at the Whitman Mission and Fort Walla Walla in Washington. 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 23 

He returned to duty with the Kiver Basin Surveys on February 27, 
when he prepared a report on the results of his activities in the Fort 
Randall area. 

Donald D. Hartle worked at the Oahe Reservoir as assistant to 
Donald J. Lehmer from the beginning of the fiscal year until Decem- 
ber 1. During February and March he was employed on a Texas 
project. On April 17 he was appointed archeologist and from then 
until June 1 assisted in the laboratory at Lincoln. He then proceeded 
to the Rock Village site in the Garrison Reservoir, N. Dak., where he 
started a series of excavations which were still under way on June 30. 

Donald J. Lehmer, archeologist, was in active supervision of the 
excavations at the Oahe Reservoir in South Dakota from July 1 until 
December 1. From the latter date until March he worked at the 
Lincoln office preparing the report on the results of his investigations 
at the Docld site. In March he was transferred from the Missouri 
Basin headquarters to a project in Oklahoma, where he remained until 
the first of June, when he returned to the Lincoln headquarters. On 
Jane 20 he proceeded to the Oahe Reservoir and resumed excavations 
at the site where he was working when the field season ended the pre- 
vious November. That work was continuing at the end of the fiscal 
year. While at Lincoln Mr. Lehmer completed a paper giving pre- 
liminary descriptions of the pottery types found at the Dodd site. 

George Metcalf, field and laboratory assistant, was at the Angostura 
Reservoir in South Dakota assisting Richard Page Wheeler at the 
beginning of the fiscal year. On July 10 he returned to the Lincoln 
office, where he worked on material obtained during the course of 
excavations at the Medicine Creek Reservoir. On August 12 he pro- 
ceeded to the Garrison Reservoir and joined the party under G. Ellis 
Burcaw. From August 22 until October 18 he carried on a reconnais- 
sance of the area around the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation and 
located and recorded 55 sites, including historic buildings, the remains 
of earth-lodge villages, camp areas, deeply buried hearths, tipi-ring 
sites, burial sites, and one reputed battleground. After completing 
the survey he remained at the Rock Village excavation assisting Mr. 
Burcaw until the end of the field season, when he returned to Lincoln. 
During the winter months he assisted in the processing and analysis 
of materials from the various excavations and helped to prepare sec- 
tions of some of the reports on the previous season's work. On June 1 
he left Lincoln for the Garrison Reservoir to assist in the work at the 
Rock Village. At the end of the fiscal year he was continuing his 
activities at that location. 

James M. Shippee, field and laboratory assistant, was at the field 
headquarters in Lincoln until July 17, when he left to join the excavat- 
ing party at the Angostura Reservoir in South Dakota. He assisted 
in the activities there and accompanied the party when it moved to 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the Boysen Reservoir in Wyoming, returning with it to Lincoln in 
September. During the period September 28 to October 30 he as- 
sisted in the survey in the Niobrara River subbasin in Nebraska and 
from November 7 to 15 aided in the examination of the Ashton Res- 
ervoir area and the region adjacent to the Sargent, Woods Park, and 
Ashton Feeder canals. He also assisted in the salvage of the burials 
uncovered by activities at the Cushing dam site. During the winter 
months he devoted his time to the restoration of pottery vessels from 
the Boysen and Oahe Reservoirs and assisted in other laboratory 
duties. On June 21 he accompanied the excavating party that was 
sent to the Keyhole Reservoir in Wyoming and was occupied there 
at the end of the fiscal year. 

George H. Smith joined the River Basin Surveys staff as archeolo- 
gist on May 2. Until June 4 he devoted his time to a study of the 
problems centering about historic sites in the Fort Randall, Oahe, and 
Garrison Reservoirs, and in familiarizing himself with the work 
already accomplished in those areas. He also made a quick trip to 
the Oahe and Garrison Reservoirs in company with M. J. Mattes and 
R. H. Mattison, historians of the National Park Service. On June 11 
a party under his supervision began excavations at the site of Fort 
Stevenson, and at the close of the fiscal year he was still engaged 
in that activity. 

At the beginning of the year Richard Page Wheeler, archeologist, 
was in charge of a party excavating at the Angostura Reservoir in 
South Dakota. In July he and his party moved to the Boysen Reser- 
voir in Wyoming, where they carried on excavations until September 
20. Wheeler then returned to the headquarters at Lincoln and from 
September 28 through October 30 directed the survey of 10 potential 
reservoir sites in the Niobrara River subbasin in northern Nebraska. 
Returning to the field headquarters, he spent the winter months 
completing his report on the Niobrara survey and working on detailed 
technical reports on his investigations in the Angostura and Boysen 
areas. On June 21 he left for the Keyhole Reservoir near Moorcroft, 
Wyo., where he began a series of excavations which were actively 
under way at the end of the fiscal year. In April Mr. Wheeler was 
elected chairman of the anthropology section of the Nebraska 
Academy of Sciences to serve for 1952. 

On July 1 Dr. Theodore E. White, paleontologist, was investigating 
deposits in the Canyon Ferry Reservoir. From there he proceeded 
to the Garrison Reservoir and subsequently to the Fort Randall 
Reservoir. At all three locations he collected fossils and continued 
his studies of the geology of the various areas. From September 22 
to 29 he made a rapid survey of 10 proposed reservoir projects in the 
Niobrara River subbasin in Nebraska. The completion of that task 
in so short a time was made possible through the cooperation of Morris 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 25 

Skinner of the Frick Laboratories who is thoroughly familiar with 
the area. From October 8 to 14 Dr. White examined Pliocene de- 
posits in the Bonny Keservoir in northeastern Colorado. From No- 
vember until June he was engaged in work elsewhere. Returning to 
the Missouri Basin on June 17, he proceeded to the Canyon Ferry 
Reservoir in Montana to continue his search for fossils. Nearly 100 
specimens were collected, including forms previously unknown from 
the area. Those from the Oligocene deposits consisted of marsupials, 
insectivores, rodents, and small artiodactyls. The larger animals, 
such as the rhinoceroses, are represented only by fragments. The 
material obtained from the Miocene deposits consists of large oreo- 
donts, beavers, rabbits, and small rodents. While at the Lincoln 
office Dr. White prepared a paper, "Observations on the Butchering 
Technique of Some Aboriginal Peoples," which was presented before 
the Eighth Annual Conference for Plains Archeology held at Lincoln 
late in November. 

Oklahoma. — During the fiscal year both surveys and excavations 
were carried on in Oklahoma. From July 1 to August 10 Leonard 
G. Johnson and James G. Smith, field assistants, made a reconnais- 
sance of the Gaines Creek Reservoir on Gaines Creek, a tributary of 
the South Canadian, in eastern Oklahoma. They located 52 archeo- 
logical sites, most of which indicate temporary occupation despite the 
fact that at two locations there were mounds, and at other places vil- 
lages seemed to have existed. Most of the sites in the Gaines Creek 
area were found on high ground above the high-water mark, but a 
number of those that will be flooded appear to be of some significance, 
and excavations have been recommended for six of them. In addi- 
tion to the aboriginal remains, the former location of one historic 
settlement, North Fork Town, was established. The Gaines Creek 
Reservoir constitutes part of an alternate plan that has been prepared 
for that area. One plan calls for a single large reservoir to be known 
as the Eufaula. The other calls for three smaller projects which in 
the main will inundate approximately as large an area as the one 
reservoir. In view of that situation the surveys have been carried on 
from the standpoint of the three smaller reservoirs but extending the 
investigations sufficiently beyond their limits to take in the one large 
project. The other two smaller reservoirs, the Canadian and the 
Onapa, were surveyed during previous years. At that time the Ca- 
nadian was found to involve 41 archeological sites and the Onapa 25. 
With the results of the Gaines Creek survey, it now is evident that a 
total of 118 sites will be included in the Eufaula basin if the one large 
project is carried through. If only one or two of the smaller reser- 
voirs are completed, the archeological salvage needs will, of course, 
be less. 



26 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

After completing their studies at the Gaines Creek project, John- 
son and Smith proceeded to the Optima Keservoir area on the North 
Canadian (Beaver) River in Texas County. The dam for the project 
is to be erected just above the confluence of the North Canadian and 
Coldwater Creek and will flood areas along both streams. Three sites 
were found along the North Canadian and one along Coldwater Creek. 
In all cases they were found to be above the high- water line, and there 
is no urgency with respect to excavating them. Site 3 lies at the 
upper end of the basin that will be flooded along the North Canadian, 
and investigation at some future date has been recommended. 

The excavations made in Oklahoma were in the area to be flooded 
by the Tenkiller Ferry Reservoir on the Illinois River near Tahlequah. 
Some testing was done at two locations, but most of the work was at a 
third, known as the Cookson site, where a party under the direction 
of Donald J. Lehmer dug 6 houses, 4 graves, 2 hearths, and 31 cache 
pits. Two components were isolated. The early one was character- 
ized by rectangular houses with four center posts and trench en- 
trances, while the later was characterized by rectangular houses with 
two center posts and indications of a bench along the north wall. 
There was no evidence of an entryway for these houses. The projec- 
tile points accompanying the early horizon fall within the range that 
is considered typical of Archaic and early Woodland in the Southeast. 
They also are common in the material from the prepottery Grove 
Focus in northeastern Oklahoma. Associated potsherds indicate a 
ware similar to the utility forms from the Spiro components. The 
latter ware in itself cannot be limited to an early horizon, but the 
small amount found in the excavations of the early component sug- 
gests that pottery was just beginning to appear in the complex. Stone 
artifacts in the late horizon differ somewhat from those of the earlier. 
Slate hoes and double-bitted axes are absent and projectile points are 
predominately small. The pottery associated with the late horizon is 
a shell-tempered ware which usually is decorated. The total complex 
has certain similarities to Orr's Fort Coffee Focus, but it probably will 
warrant being set up as a separate focus. The houses of the early 
horizon are similar to those considered typical of the early Spiro 
component, while those of the late horizon are quite similar to those 
for the late Spiro component. 

The work at the Tenkiller Ferry was completed at the end of May, 
and Mr. Lehmer returned to the Missouri Basin headquarters at Lin- 
coln. Throughout the period of the activities in Oklahoma, both for 
the surveys and the excavations, Dr. Robert E. Bell, of the University 
of Oklahoma, aided the field parties in the capacity of a consultant, 
and the University of Oklahoma cooperated in the loan of equipment 
and in making office space available to the men when they were in 
Norman. 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 27 

Pennsylvania. — Investigations in Pennsylvania consisted of two sur- 
vey projects. During October a reconnaissance was made of the Cone- 
maugh River Reservoir in Indiana and Westmoreland Counties and 
of the East Branch Reservoir on the Clarion River in Elk and McKean 
Counties. The dam for the Conemaugh Reservoir, situated near Tun- 
nelton, is scheduled for completion by December 1951. The reservoir 
will flood approximately 21 miles of the Conemaugh River and 11 
miles of one of its larger branches, the Black Lick Creek. Within 
the pool area eight archeological sites were located. Of this group 
only one was deemed worthy of further exploration and excavation. 
It covers about 10 acres and is located on one of the larger terrace 
bottoms above the river near an 'old fording place. An Indian trail, 
the Venango, is supposed to have crossed the river at that point. 
The East Branch Reservoir apparently is located in a district where 
there was little aboriginal occupation because no archeological sites 
were found there. This probably may be attributed to the fact that 
the reservoir will fill a narrow V-shaped valley which was not suitable 
for Indian inhabitation. The surveys in Pennsylvania were made by 
Ralph S. Solecki. 

Texas. — The River Basin Surveys in Texas continued to operate 
from the base and headquarters furnished by the department of an- 
thropology of the University of Texas at Austin. Robert L. Stephen- 
son was in charge from July 1 until April 15, when he was granted 
an extended leave of absence. Edward B. Jelks then assumed direc- 
tion of the project. During the fiscal year surveys were begun and 
completed in the Ferrell's Bridge Reservoir on Cypress Creek in north- 
east Texas and in the Granite Shoals Reservoir on the Colorado River 
in central Texas. Excavations were continued and brought to comple- 
tion in two field sessions in the Lavon Reservoir on the East Fork of 
the Trinity River, while the first field session at Garza-Little Elm 
Reservoir on the Elm Fork of the Trinity resulted in the excavation 
of two sites and the brief testing of three others. Excavations were 
also started and brought to completion in three sites in the Falcon 
Reservoir on the Rio Grande. The excavation of two sites and testing 
of three others were completed in the Belton Reservoir on the Leon 
River in central Texas. 

The excavations started the previous year in the Lavon Reservoir 
were completed on August 2, with recommendation for additional 
excavation to be undertaken during the spring of 1951. The work 
there included excavation of over 40 percent of the large circular 
pit in the Hogge Bridge site as well as several test squares and several 
deep-strata squares outside the pit. The purpose for which the pit 
was built is still unknown, but it was determined that the site is a pure 
component of the newly delineated Wylie Focus. This is a culture 
complex probably overlapping the latter part of Gibson aspect and 



28 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the early part of Fulton aspect times in the Caddoan area and is coeval 
with the Henrietta Focus of the southern Plains area. It is not a part 
of either of those complexes but apparently an independent culture 
in contact with both and dating probably between 1300 and 1500. 

Excavations were started in three archeological sites in the Falcon 
Reservoir on February 9. Donald D. Hartle was appointed temporary 
field archeologist for this project, and, under the supervision of Mr. 
Stephenson, he dug two historic sites and one deeply buried site. 
No positive evidence of Indian occupation was found in the two his- 
toric sites, which consisted of two and four stone-house ruins, re- 
spectively. Both probably may be referred to the Early to Middle 
Spanish Colonial period in the area. In the prehistoric site, a bull- 
dozer was used for half a day and an area 20 feet by 40 feet was un- 
covered to an average depth of 12 feet below the surface, exposing an 
extensive occupation area which was excavated by hand in arbitrary 
6-inch levels to an additional depth of 18 inches. Large quantities of 
workshop refuse and 200 artifacts were recovered from the level. The 
stratigraphic profile provided by the 12-foot trench wall revealed two 
additional occupation levels at depths from the surface of approxi- 
mately 4 and 7 feet, respectively. 

In the Ferrell's Bridge Reservoir, E. O. Miller and E. H. Moorman 
conducted a survey from January 29 to February 16 and from April 
9 to 21. During that survey 34 archeological sites were located and 
recorded. Five of them contain small artificial earth mounds; the 
remainder are open occupational areas. Six of the sites have been 
recommended for further excavation. 

The Belton Reservoir, surveyed the preceding year and recom- 
mended for no further excavation, was later found to contain two 
previously unknown archeological sites meriting some investigation. 
Mr. Miller and Mr. Moorman, who had located the sites, spent the 
periods December 11 to 13 and February 28 to March 2 in brief 
excavations of the Urbantke site and the Grimes-Houy site. In addi- 
tion, they made extensive tests in three other nearby sites. It was 
found that the Urbantke site contained considerably more pottery 
than most of the sites in the area. The artifact analysis showed con- 
siderable similarity to the three rock shelters excavated the previous 
year in the Whitney Reservoir area. The excavations at the Grimes- 
Houy site uncovered 10 burials, and analysis of the artifacts and site 
features indicates a relatively late date. It possibly was a Comanche 
burial site. 

The second season of excavations at the Lavon Reservoir was begun 
on March 12 and continued until May 4. The work included further 
digging in the Hogge Bridge site and extensive excavations in the 
Branch and Campbell Hole sites. In order to determine quickly the 
stratigraphic profile involved in the large circular pits in those sites, 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 29 

a bulldozer was used for a total of 22^ hours. This provided exten- 
sive stratigraphic trenches through the pit and the midden areas in 
the Branch and Hogge Bridge sites and one long exploratory trench 
in the Campbell Hole site. The use of a bulldozer for this work proved 
very satisfactory, and little material damage was done to the artifacts 
or the features encountered. 

The first field session at the Garza-Little Elm Reservoir was begun 
on May 7 and continued until June 13. Extensive excavations were 
completed in the Lake Dallas and Ledbetter sites and brief tests were 
made at the Pease and Craft sites. One of the few large Archaic sites 
in this area, the Lake Dallas site, yielded artifacts that should be 
valuable in the integration of the Archaic complexes of northeast 
Texas. At the Ledbetter site — one of the most extensive local examples 
of the later agriculture-pottery period — an interesting group of arti- 
facts was found that suggests contacts with both the Caddoan peoples 
to the east and the peoples who lived to the west and southwest. 

At the Granite Shoals Reservoir, surveyed during February and 
March by Robert H. Humphreys, 12 archeological sites were located 
and recorded. They are all open occupational areas along the narrow 
valley of the Colorado River. None are extensive or deeply stratified, 
and since some information is on record from sites both upstream and 
downstream from this project no further investigations are recom- 
mended. Such evidence as was found during the reconnaissance and 
testing indicated that the Granite Shoals region probably was occu- 
pied by people of the Round Rock and Uvalde Foci over a period of 
many centuries. 

Dr. Theodore E. White spent the first 2 weeks in April in the 
Austin laboratory identifying the f aunal remains from the archeologi- 
cal excavations of the Whitney, La von, Belton and Falcon Reservoirs. 
During the remainder of April and the first week of May, he collected 
fossils from the Upper Cretaceous deposits of the Lavon Reservoir. 
He devoted most of May to investigations at the Garza-Little Elm 
Reservoir, where he located and collected several vertebrate specimens 
of Pleistocene age. They included a bison skull, a turtle, and a horse 
jaw. 

When he was not in the field, Robert L. Stephenson, archeologist, 
devoted his time to analysis and study of the archeological materials 
from the Lavon and Whitney Reservoirs and in organizing and pro- 
gramming the work for the various field parties sent out from the 
Austin headquarters. He completed an article on "Culture Chronol- 
ogy in Texas," which was published in American Antiquity, and fin- 
ished a paper, "The Hogge Bridge Site and the Wylie Focus," for 
publication in the same periodical. 

Edward B. Jelks, archeologist, assisted Mr. Stephenson in the field 
and laboratory throughout the year until April 15, when he took 



30 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

over supervision of the Texas project. He spent most of the remainder 
of the year in the field at the Lavon and Garza-Little Elm excavations. 
He prepared a "Field Manual for Beginners in Central Texas Arche- 
ology," which was mimeographed and distributed to amateur archeolo- 
gists who had requested guidance. As a result of historical research 
undertaken to supplement archeological investigation at the Stans- 
bury site in the Whitney Reservoir, he prepared a paper, "Indians of 
the Central Brazos Area," which was presented at the annual meeting 
of the Texas Historical Association on April 27. 

E. O. Miller and E. H. Moorman served as field and laboratory assist- 
ants throughout the year. They participated in the investigations in 
the Lavon and Garza-Little Elm Reservoirs, began and completed the 
excavations in the Belton Reservoir, and carried on the survey of 
Ferrell's Bridge Reservoir. The remainder of their time was spent in 
the laboratory in Austin cataloging and tabulating the materials from 
the various field projects and preparing a report on their survey of 
the Ferrell's Bridge Reservoir. 

As a result of the financial status of the River Basin Surveys' work 
in the Texas area, the Austin office was closed on June 30. 

Virginia. — Field work in Virginia during the year included the 
survey of one reservoir area and the excavation of a number of sites 
in another. On July 1, Carl F. Miller was digging at a site immediately 
east of Clarksville, Va., on the east bank of the Roanoke River in 
the Buggs Island Reservoir. Stripping operations there had destroyed 
a large part of the site before information was received about the 
work under way. Consequently, it was possible to salvage material 
from only two small portions of the site. From those areas 77 burials 
with their accompanying artifacts were recovered, and various midden 
pits, as well as the remains of a rectangular structure, were uncovered. 
That project was completed early in August. On February 28, excava- 
tions in the Buggs Island area were resumed, and from then until 
June 20, digging was carried on at nine different sites. At one there 
was stratification showing that it was first occupied during the pre- 
ceramic times and had continued in use until about the middle of the 
ceramic period, when it was abandoned. Two of the sites investi- 
gated were on Occaneechi Island near Clarksville. One of them con- 
tained heavy cultural deposits consisting of both Indian and European 
materials. Unfortunately, there had been so much disturbance by the 
later occupation that it was difficult to obtain satisfactory evidence 
from it, although a good series of artifacts was found. The second 
site on the island was one of the largest thus far examined in the basin. 
Forty-four burials were found there representing all types from fully 
flexed to partial cremation. The burned floor area of a large rec- 
tangular structure measuring 35 by 15 feet was uncovered. The house 
had five distinct floor levels interspersed with layers of clean sand. 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 31 

Whether that indicated five separate occupations of the structure or 
remodeling activities during the course of a long-continued tenancy 
is not known, but further study of the data obtained from the digging 
may throw light on the subject. The structure had been built over 
a number of burials, and after it was abandoned other graves were 
dug through the floor, showing that the site continued to be inhabited 
after the dwelling had burned. A number of the burials were accom- 
panied by turtle carapaces, which undobutedly were placed there as 
funerary offerings. They do not seem to have been used as food 
receptacles, for in every instance they were inverted. Possibly they 
may have had totemic significance and were placed with the dead to 
indicate that the individual was a member of the turtle clan. A good 
pottery series obtained from the site should fill certain gaps in the se- 
quence for the area. The work on Occaneechi Island indicates that it 
was not the place where the village mentioned by Lederer, who visited 
it in 1670, was located and that previous identification of it as such was 
in error. The current investigations indicate that the Occaneechi vil- 
lage probably was on another island lying some distance downstream 
from the one that now bears that name. 

It had been hoped that at two of the sites, where fluted points and 
other artifacts suggestive of the eastern variant of the Folsom com- 
plex had been picked up from the surface, some remnants of the de- 
posits belonging to that period would still be intact. The excava- 
tions showed, however, that the sites had suffered extensive erosion 
and that the artifacts previously found there were simply float ma- 
terial that remained when the deposits were carried away. Addi- 
tional work still remains to be done at the Buggs Island Reservoir. 
The survey was made at the Philpott Reservoir during the last week 
in June. The archeological manifestations found there are so 
closely related to those in the Buggs Island area that no additional 
work will be required. Materials gathered from the surface are so 
similar to those from Buggs Island sites that they could not be recog- 
nized if placed in the same collections. 

West Virginia. — The only work done in West Virginia during the 
year was the brief survey made at the site of the new navigation 
lock at Morgantown. Examination of the area involved by the con- 
struction disclosed that practically no new lands will be inundated 
by the project. The water there is to be kept within the limits of 
the river channel, which has rather steep and confining banks. Rail- 
roads parallel the channel on both sides, and any archeological remains 
that may have been there at one time were long since destroyed. No 
further investigations are necessary at that project. 

Cooperating institutions. — Various State and local institutions co- 
operated with the River Basin Surveys during the year. Space for 
field offices and laboratories for units of the Surveys were provided 



32 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

by the Universities of Nebraska, Oregon, Georgia, and Texas. The 
Universities of Oklahoma and Kentucky furnished temporary bases 
of operations for the parties working in their States. The University 
of Oklahoma took over the responsibility for the excavation of sites 
in the Fort Gibson Reservoir, and the University of Georgia con- 
tinued making surveys along the Flint River in the southern part of 
that State. The University of Missouri and the Missouri Archeologi- 
cal Society continued to make surveys in a number of proposed reser- 
voir areas and carried on excavations in others. The University of 
Arkansas also made surveys and did some digging in reservoir areas 
in that State. In June, parties with which the River Basin Surveys 
were cooperating began excavations in the McNary Reservoir and at 
Lind Coulee in Washington. The McNary party came from the Uni- 
versity of Washington at Seattle ; that at Lind Coulee from the Wash- 
ington State College at Pullman. 

The program developed by the National Park Service late in the 
previous year whereby various scientific agencies carried on salvage 
work in proposed reservoir areas continued throughout fiscal year 
1951. On the basis of agreements between the agencies concerned 
and the National Park Service, certain funds were made available 
to the agencies to help finance specified investigations. The River 
Basin Surveys served in a consultative and advisory capacity only in 
the carrying out of that program. Agreements were made, how- 
ever, with the University of Nebraska, the Nebraska State Museum, 
the Nebraska State Historical Society, the University of Kansas, the 
University of South Dakota, the North Dakota Historical Society, 
the University of Wyoming, and the University of Montana for work 
in the Missouri Basin. Similar agreements were made with the 
University of Mississippi for a survey of the Grenada Reservoir in 
that State, with the University of Oklahoma for excavations at the 
Eufaula Reservoir, with the University of Texas for excavations at 
the Falcon Reservoir, with the Museum of New Mexico at the Chamita 
Reservoir, with the University of California for excavations at the 
Farmington Reservoir, and with the University of Washington for 
work in the McNary area. The final results of the work accomplished 
under those agreements will be published by the institutions con- 
cerned, but they will correlate with and augment the information 
obtained by the River Basin Surveys. 

INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 
(Report prepared by G. M. Foster) 

General statement. — The objectives of the Institute of Social 
Anthropology are anthropological research on the community life of 
rural peoples of Latin America and the training of Latin American 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 33 

nationals in the methods and principles of modern social anthropol- 
ogy. The purpose is to inform both the social scientist and layman 
in the United States concerning little-known peoples of other parts 
of the "world and to build up in various Latin American countries a 
corps of professionally trained scientists and friends. 

During the past year the Institute was financed by transfers of 
funds from the Department of State, totaling $92,740, from the appro- 
priation "International Information and Educational Activities, 
1951." As in the previous year, long-term planning has been done on 
a very tentative basis because of budget uncertainties for the future. 
Nevertheless, a full program was maintained in all countries, and 
work on a short-term basis was initiated in Guatemala. The year in 
review has seen increasing interest on the part of the Institute in a 
more direct application of anthropological knowledge and techniques 
to the practical problems of social and economic change that face 
Latin American countries. Accordingly, for the first time an at- 
tempt was made to enlist Institute personnel in a common research 
problem in all four countries in which programs have been maintained 
for several years for the purpose of pointing up some of the types of 
contributions anthropologists can make to "action" programs of eco- 
nomic and social betterment in so-called underdeveloped areas. It 
was decided that an analysis of American-sponsored technical-aid 
programs, with a history of several years of successful operations, 
might reveal common operational problems, the solution of which 
might be facilitated by anthropological counseling. After reviewing 
a number of programs, it was decided that health centers developed by 
the Institute of Inter- American Affairs in cooperation with the Min- 
istries of Health of Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Brazil would be the 
most satisfactory subjects. Two centers in each country, one urban and 
one rural, were selected, and during March and April the operations 
of these centers were studied, particularly in relationship to the basic 
cultures of the peoples served. A dual goal was envisaged: (1) that 
of determining, if possible, what may be the common factors that 
favor and factors that inhibit the introduction and acceptance of ideas 
and habits new to the ethnic groups in question; (2) that of pointing 
up difficulties in going projects, and making remedial suggestions. 
A 100-page mimeographed report was prepared, which outlined the 
theoretical basis for the work, described the work of health centers, 
discussed salient aspects of indigenous culture that were affected by 
this work, and made suggestions as to how utilization of anthropologi- 
cal knowledge would increase the effectiveness of such work. One 
hundred copies were sent to the Institute of Inter- American Affairs, 
and plans made to distribute additional copies to various national and 
international organizations carrying out a wide variety of technical- 
aid programs. 



34 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Major activities in each of the field offices, and in Washington, were 
as follows: 

Brazil. — Drs. Donald Pierson, sociologist, and Kalervo Oberg, social 
anthropologist, continued their research and teaching activities in 
cooperation with the Escola Livre de Sociologia e Politica in Sao 
Paulo. Dr. Pierson's administrative duties as dean of the graduate 
division occupied much of his time. In addition, he gave three courses 
in sociology and guided independent and graduate research. In Feb- 
ruary 1951, he directed an intensive course on rural life in Brazil, 
sponsored by several ministries of the state of Sao Paulo, to about 70 
persons who are government employees and administrators in various 
offices. Dr. Pierson continued to develop plans for extensive social- 
science research as a part of the Brazilian Government's plan for eco- 
nomic and social development of the Sao Francisco River Valley. 
This planning came to a head with an offer from the National Com- 
mission of the Sao Francisco Valley to transfer $27,000 to a fund to 
be directed by Dr. Pierson for intensive socioethnological study and 
analysis of the problems of industrialization and settlement in this 
enormous area. 

Dr. Oberg returned to Sao Paulo in July 1950, via Lima, after a 
period of consultation in the United States. While in Lima he visited 
and consulted with Ozzie Simmons, Institute representative in that 
country. During the fall, and a part of the spring, he gave courses 
in anthropology as usual at the Escola. During March and April 
he carried out health-center investigations at Colatina, in the Rio 
Doce Valley, and Cameta, at the mouth of the Tocantins River in the 
Amazon basin. A lengthy report covering this work was submitted 
to the local offices of the Institute of Inter- American Affairs. In 
April Dr. Oberg represented the Smithsonian Institution and the 
United States Government in Rio de Janeiro at the Second Annual 
National Indian Week. At the end of the year plans were being 
completed to lend Dr. Oberg for a 6-week period to the Institute of 
Inter-American Affairs for additional anthropological work in 
Chonin, in Minas Gerais. 

Colombia. — Because of the budgetary uncertainties it was necessary 
to discontinue the Colombian program in 1949. A new memorandum 
of understanding was agreed upon in November 1950 by the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs of Colombia and the United States Department of 
State whereby it was agreed that future Smithsonian Institution ac- 
tivities in Colombia would be in collaboration with the InstitUto 
Etnologico Nacional in Bogota, directed by Licenciado Luis Duque 
Gomez, rather than with the Popayan branch of the Instituto, as in 
former years. Charles J. Erasmus joined the staff of the Institute of 
Social Anthropology in the fall of 1950 to take charge of this program. 
Mr. Erasmus has given a general course in ethnography at the Insti- 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 35 

tuto Etnologico as a part of the regular curriculum of this organiza- 
tion. A number of Colombian towns and villages were surveyed for 
possible field work, and final decision was made on the village of Kota, 
about 20 kilometers to the north of Bogota. This is a typical mestizo 
village of the Savanna of Bogota, representative of much of rural 
Colombian life, and conveniently close to Bogota so that short vacation 
periods as well as long field periods are possible. During March and 
April Mr. Erasmus devoted his time to the health-center research 
described in the introduction, working in the Ricuarte barrio of 
Bogota, and in the Magdalena River port of La Dorada. 

Guatemala. — Late in 1950, upon the request of Dr. Antonio Gou- 
baud-Carrera, Guatemalan Ambassador to the United States, the tem- 
porary detail of an Institute ethnologist to Guatemala became pos- 
sible. Accordingly, Richard N. Adams joined the staff, arriving in 
that country in December. In the seven months at his disposal Dr. 
Adams gave a general course in the Instituto de Antropologia e His- 
toria. A series of special lectures was also given to personnel of the 
Instituto Indigenista. Dr. Adams also supervised field research in 
several villages, including La Magdalena, near Guatemala City, in 
which the Central American Institute of Nutrition is carrying out 
long-range investigations. This work was designed to shed light on 
the cultural factor in a program aimed at bettering the nutritional 
and general health practices of the peoples concerned, and in gather- 
ing data applicable to similar projects in other Central American 
countries. Because of budgetary limitations it was, unfortunately, 
necessary to drop Dr. Adams from the Institute staff at the end of the 
fiscal year. Fortunately, it was possible to make arrangements for 
him to continue his Guatemalan work by means of a Department of 
State specialist grant. 

Mexico. — During the fall of 1950 Dr. Isabel T. Kelly, Institute rep- 
resentative, continued preparation of the second volume on the Taj in 
Totonac Indians, the first volume of which was sent to the printer in 
June 1950. In March 1951 she participated in health-center analyses, 
studying the Beatriz Velasquez Aleman Center in Mexico City, and 
that in the suburb of Xochimilco. Late in the winter she made a recon- 
naissance trip through the Sierra de Puebla and selected the highland 
Totonac village of San Marcos Eloxochitlan for field work. In April 
a 3-month period of field work was initiated, in which five students 
from the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia participated. This study 
of a highland Totonac community will, among other things, in con- 
junction with the lowland Tajin Totonac afford data on the relation- 
ship of environment to culture. 

Dr. William Wonderly joined the Institute in March 1951 to teach 
linguistics at the Escuela Nacional. This was the first time that lin- 
guistics had been taught in Mexico under Institute of Social Anthro- 



36 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

pology auspices since Dr. Stanley Newman left three years ago. Two 
courses were given, one on general linguistics and the other on mor- 
phology and syntax. 

Peru. — Ozzie G. Simmons continued his teaching activities at the 
Instituto de Estudios Etnologicos in Lima. Field studies, in which 
several Peruvian students participated, were initiated in the non- 
Indian village of Lunahuana, in the upper Caiiete Valley, south of 
Lima. This work, when completed in 1951, will still further broaden 
our knowledge of contemporary Peruvian rural culture, which already 
includes the villages of Moche (Gillin), Sicaya (Tschopik, Muelle, 
and Escobar) , and Vim (Holmberg and Muelle) . During April Mr. 
Simmons carried out his part of the health-center investigations, 
studying the Lima center in Bimac barrio, and the center in Chim- 
bote, on the north coast of Peru. 

Washington. — Dr. Gordon R. Willey served as Acting Director of 
the Institute until September, at which time he went to Harvard Uni- 
versity as Bowditch Professor of Mexican and Central American 
Archeology and Ethnology. 

Dr. George M. Foster returned in September from a year's field 
trip to Spain to resume duties as Director of the Institute. While in 
Spain, Dr. Foster worked with Dr. Julio Caro Baroja, director of the 
Museo del Pueblo Espanol in Madrid, making a general survey, based 
on printed sources and field studies, of Spanish ethnography. Dr. 
Foster's part of the work was oriented toward the historical and theo- 
retical problems involved in the carrying of Spanish culture to the 
New World, and its assimilation with native American culture. This 
work was planned to give added depth and background to the 
continuing studies of Institute and cooperating Latin American 
personnel. 

Dr. Foster made a month's trip in March to Guatemala, Colombia, 
and Peru, for the purpose of consulting with Institute field personnel, 
and appraising the new Guatemalan project as well as the newly 
opened Bogota office. Consultations were also held with heads of the 
participating national institutions in all three countries. Dr. Foster 
spent much of the month of June in assembling the health center's 
report. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

There were issued one Annual Report and two Bulletins (one a 
volume of the Handbook of South American Indians), and two Pub- 
lications of the Institute of Social Anthropology, as listed below: 

Sixty-seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1949-50. 
ii-f-25 pp. 1951. 

Bulletin 143. Handbook of South American Indians. Julian H. Steward, 
editor. Volume 6, Physical anthropology, linguistics, and cultural geography 
of South American Indians, xiii+715 pp., 47 pis., 3 figs., 18 maps. 1950. 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 37 

Bulletin 144. The northern and central Nootkan tribes, by Philip Drucker. 
ix+480 pp., 5 pis., 28 figs., 8 maps. 1951. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 11. Quiroga : A Mexican municipio, 
by Donald D. Brand, assisted by Jose Corona Nunez, v+242 pp., 35 pis., 
4 maps. 1951. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 12. Cruz das Almas : A Brazilian 
village, by Donald Pierson, with the assistance of Levi Cruz, Mirtes Brandao 
Lopes, Helen Batchelor Pierson, Carlos Borges Teixeira, and others, x+226 pp., 
20 pis., 13 figs., 2 maps. 1951. 

The following publications were in press at the close of the fiscal 

year: 

Bulletin 145. The Indian tribes of North America, by John R. Swanton. 
Bulletin 146. Chippewa child life and its cultural background, by Sister 
M. Inez Hilger. 

Bulletin 147. Journal of an expedition to the Mauvaises Terres and the 
Upper Missouri in 1850, by Thaddeus B. Culbertson. Edited by John Francis 
McDermott. 

Bulletin 148. Arapaho child life and its cultural background, by Sister 
M. Inez Hilger. 

Bulletin 149. Symposium on diversity in Iroquois culture. Edited by 
William N. Fenton. 

No. 1. Introduction : The concept of locality and the program of Iroquois 

research, by William N. Fenton. 
No. 2. Concepts of land ownership among the Iroquois and their neighbors, 

by George S. Snyderman. 
No. 3. Locality as a basic factor in the development of Iroquois social 

structure, by William N. Fenton. 
No. 4. Some psychological determinants of culture change in an Iroquoian 

community, by Anthony F. C. Wallace. 
No. 5. The religion of Handsome Lake: Its origin and development, by 

Merle H. Deardorff. 
No. 6. Local diversity in Iroquois music and dance, by Gertrude P. Kurath. 
No. 7. The Feast of the Dead, or Ghost Dance at Six Nations Reserve, 

Canada, by William N. Fenton and Gertrude P. Kurath. 
No. 8. Iroquois women, then and now, by Martha Champion Randle. 
Bulletin 150. The modal personality of the Tuscarora Indians, as revealed 
by the Rorschach test, by Anthony F. C. Wallace. 

Bulletin 151. Anthropological Papers, Numbers 33-42. 
No. 33. "Of the Crow Nation," by Edwin Thompson Denig. With bio- 
graphical sketch and footnotes by John C. Ewers. 
No. 34. The water lily in Maya art : A complex of alleged Asiatic origin, 

by Robert L. Rands. 
No. 35. The Medicine Bundles of the Florida Seminole and the Green 

Corn Dance, by Louis Capron. 
No. 36. Technique in the music of the American Indian, by Frances 

Densmore. 
No. 37. The belief of the Indians in a connection between song and the 

supernatural, by Frances Densmore. 
No. 38. Aboriginal fish poisons, by Robert F. Heizer. 
No. 39. Aboriginal navigation off the coast of Upper and Baja California, 

by Robert F. Heizer and William C. Massey. 
No. 40. Exploration of the Adena Mound at Natrium, W. Va., by Ralph S. 
Solecki. 



38 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOtfY 

Bulletin 151. Anthropological Papers, Numbers 33-42 — Continued 
No. 41. The Wind River Shoshone Sun Dance, by D. B. Shimkin. 
No. 42. Current trends in the Wind River Shoshone Sun Dance, by Fred 
Voget. 
Bulletin 152. Index to Schoolcraft's "Indian Tribes of the United States," 
compiled by Frances S. Nichols. 

Bulletin 153. La Venta, Tabasco: A study of Olmec ceramics and art, by 
Philip Drucker. 

Bulletin 154. River Basin Surveys Papers. Inter-Agency Archeological Sal- 
vage Program. Numbers 1-6. 

No. 1. Prehistory and the Missouri Valley Development Program : Summary 
report on the Missouri River Basin Archeological Survey in 1948, by 
Waldo R. Wedel. 
No. 2. Prehistory and the Missouri Valley Development Program : Summary 
report on the Missouri River Basin Archeological Survey in 1949, by 
Waldo R. Wedel. 
No. 3. The Woodruff Ossuary, a prehistoric burial site in Phillips County, 

Kans., by Marvin F. Kivett. 
No. 4. The Adrlicks Dam site : 

I. An archeological survey of the Addicks Dam basin, Southeast Texas, 

by Joe Ben Wheat. 
II. Indian skeletal remains from the Doering and Kobs Sites, Addicks 
Reservoir, Texas, by Marshall T. Newman. 
No. 5. The Hodges site : 

I. Two rock shelters near Tucumcari, N. Mex., by Herbert W. Dick. 
II. Geology of the Hodges site, Quay County, N. Mex., by Sheldon Judson. 
No. 6. The Rembert mounds, Elbert County, Ga., by Joseph R. Caldwell. 
Appendix. List of River Basin Surveys reports published in other series. 
Bulletin 155. Settlement patterns in the Viru Valley, Peril, by Gordon R. 
Willey. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 13. The Tajin Totonac: Part 1. 
History, subsistence, and technology, by Isabel Kelly and Angel Palerm. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 14. The Indian caste of Peru, 
1795-1950: A population study based upon tax records and census reports, by 
George Kubler. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 15. Indian tribes of Northern Mato 
Grosso, Brazil, by Kalervo Oberg. With appendix by Marshall Newman on 
"Anthropometry of the Umotina, Nambicuara, and Iranxe." 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publ. No. 16. Penny capitalism: A Guate- 
malan Indian economy, by Sol Tax. 

Publications distributed totaled 22,377 as compared with 19,116 
for the fiscal year 1950. 

LIBRARY 

One hundred twenty-three volumes were added to the library of 
the Bureau, bringing the total accessions as of June 30, 1951, to 34,961. 

ARCHIVES 

Manuscript material has been made available to research workers 
both in the office and through the furnishing of microfilm copies. The 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 39 

major project accomplished during the year was the classification of 
the great collection of Iroquois material assembled by J. N. B. Hewitt. 

The addition of five new metal storage cabinets greatly improved 
the conditions for protecting the manuscripts. Since more cabinets 
could not be obtained, another method of storage for the material in the 
archives annex was developed. Using heavy cardboard filing boxes, 
graded to size, does away with the wrappings formerly used and makes 
the material much easier to consult. 

A method of preserving the rare Indian drawings in the collections 
by the process of lamination was adopted on advice from the preserva- 
tion division of the National Archives. 

Through the librarian of the Geological Survey, the collections have 
been enriched by the addition of the original catalog of the photo- 
graphic negatives made on the famous Grand Canyon expedition of 
J. W. Powell. This list in Major Powell's handwriting, removes all 
doubt as to the identification of the pictures made by J. K. Hillers 
and E. O. Beaman. The original negatives have long constituted an 
important sector of the Bureau's Indian photographic archives. 

COLLECTIONS 

Ace. No. 

185184. Archeological materials and skeletal remains of 7 individuals from the 
Addicks Reservoir, on South Mayde Creek in Harris County, 16 miles 
west of Houston, Tex., collected 1947 by Joe Ben Wheat, River Basin 
Surveys. 

187265. Archeological materials from 12 sites in Tenkiller Ferry Reservoir area, 

located on the Illinois River about 13 miles above its confluence with 
the Arkansas River and about 7 miles northwest of Vian, in Sequoyah 
and Cberokee Counties, Okla., collected by David J. Wenner, Jr., River 
Basin Surveys. 

187266. Archeological materials surface-collected from 2 sites in the Hulah 

Reservoir area on Caney River about 15 miles northwest of Bartles- 
ville, near Hulah, northeastern Osage County, Okla., collected in 1947 
by David J. Wenner, Jr., River Basin Surveys. 

187267. Archeological materials surface-collected from 17 sites in the Fort Gibson 

Reservoir area, a Corps of Engineers water-control project on the 
Grand (Neosho) River, beginning 7.7 miles above its mouth and in- 
cluding portions of Wagoner, Cherokee, and Mayes Counties, Okla., 
collected in 1947 by David J. Wenner, Jr., River Basin Surveys. 

187539. Archeological material from Postcontact Eskimo sites on Itkillik Lake 

and at Anaktuvuk Pass in the Brooks Range, northwestern Alaska, 
collected during the summer of 1949 in the Colville Basin by Arthur 
Bowsher and Dr. George Llano. 

187540. Archeological material, mainly stonework, from the West Fork Reservoir, 

Lewis County, W. Va., collected in April 1948 by Ralph Solecki, River 
Basin Surveys. 

187541. Archeological material from Bluestone Reservoir area, on the New River, 

100 miles south of Charleston, between Hinton and Narrows, W. Va. ; 
in Giles County, Va. ; Monroe and Summers Counties, W. Va., collected 
March-May 1948 by Ralph S. Solecki, River Basin Surveys. 



40 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Aco. No. 

187542. Archeological materials from a mound at Natrium, Marshall County, W. 
Va., collected by Ralph S. Solecki during December 1948 and January 
1949. 

187742. Approximately 80 fossil mammals from the Boysen Reservoir area of 
Wyoming, the Canyon Ferry Reservoir area of Montana, and the 
Garrison Reservoir area of North Dakota, collected by Dr. T. E. White, 
River Basin Surveys. 

188194. (Through Dr. F. H. H. Roberts, Jr.) 4 specimens, including Creodont 
skull from the Paleocene of North Dakota, Plesiosaur skull, fish and 
a marine turtle from the Pierre Cretaceous, collected by Dr. T. E. 
White at the Fort Randall Reservoir area in South Dakota, River 
Basin Surveys. 

188807. (Through Dr. Paul L. Cooper) 4 fresh- water mussels from Hitchcock 
County, Nebr., River Basin Surveys. 

1S9103. Archeological material, mostly potsherds, from Utive, Panama, collected 
by Dr. Matthew W. Stirling. 

189439. Archeological materials from Round Bottom site on the Travis farm 
about 3^ miles south of Moundsville, Marshall County, W. Va., col- 
lected, with the exception of 3 celts presented by Mr. Travis, by Ralph 
S. Solecki during December 1948 and January 1949. 

191092. 23 lizards, 6 snakes, 13 frogs, 10 marine invertebrates, and insect speci- 
mens from Panama, collected by Dr. Matthew W. Stirling and party 
during the 1951 Smithsonian Institution-National Geographic Society 
Expedition. 

188344. (Through Dr. Henry B. Collins, Jr.) Approximately 250 spiders, 27 
springtails, and 1 parasitic wasp from Cornwallis Island, Canadian 
Arctic, collected by Dr. Collins in summer of 1950 on National Museum 
of Canada-Smithsonian Institution Expedition. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the year Dr. Frances Densmore, Dr. John R. Swanton, and 
Dr. Antonio J. Waring, Jr., continued as collaborators of the Bureau. 

Information was furnished during the year by members of the 
Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning the American 
Indians, past and present, of both continents. Requests from teach- 
ers of primary and secondary grades and from Scout organizations 
continue to increase and indicate a rapidly growing interest in the 
American Indians throughout the country. Various specimens sent to 
the Bureau were identified and data on them furnished for their 
owners. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Director. 

Dr. A. Wetmore, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

o 



Sixty-ninth Annual Report 

of the 

UREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1951-1952 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



SIXTY-NINTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1951-1952 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 19S3 






BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
June 30, 1952 

Director. — Matthew W. Stirling. 

Associate Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Anthropologists. — H. B. Collins, Jr., Philip Drucker. 

Ethnologist. — John P. Harrington. 

Collaborators. — Frances Densmore, John R. Swanton, A. J. Waring, Jr. 

Scientific illustrator. — E. G. Schumacher. 

institute of social anthropologt 

Director. — G. M. Foster, Jr. 

Anthropologists. — Brazilian office: Donald Pierson, Kalervo Oberg ; Colombian 

office: Charles J. Erasmus; Mexican office: Isabel T. Kelly ; Pei'uvian 

office: Ozzie G. Simmons. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Archeologists. — Ralph D. Brown, Joseph R. Caldwell, Paul L. Cooper, Robert 
B. Cumming, Jr., Franklin Fenenga, Donald D. Hartle, Edward B. Jelks, 
Donald J. Lehmer, John E. Mills, Joel L. Shiner, G. Hubert Smith, Ralph 
S. Solecki, Robert L. Stephenson, Richard P. Wheeler. 

Geologist. — Theodore E. Whpte. 



SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Director 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1952, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of April 10, 1928, as amended 
August 22, 1949, which provides for continuing "independently or in 
cooperation anthropological researches among the American Indians 
and the natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection of the 
United States and the excavation and preservation of archeologic 
remains." 

Information was furnished during the year by members of the 
Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning the American 
Indians, past and present, of both continents. The increased number 
of requests from teachers of primary and secondary grades and from 
Scout organizations indicates a rapidly growing interest in the Ameri- 
can Indian. Various specimens sent to the Bureau were identified 
and data on them furnished for their owners. 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

Dr. M. W. Stirling, Director of the Bureau, devoted most of his 
time during the fiscal year to administrative affairs and to the prep- 
aration of manuscript on previous field studies in Panama and 
southern Mexico. During the year he prepared three reports for 
publication : "Stone Monuments of the Rio Chiquito, Mexico," "The 
Use of Jade in Aboriginal America," and "An Archeological Survey 
of Southern Veracruz, Tabasco, and Northern Campeche." 

Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Associate Director of the Bureau 
and Director of the River Basin Surveys, devoted most of his time dur- 
ing the year to the management and direction of the River Basin Sur- 
veys. In August he went to Lincoln, Nebr., to inspect the Missouri 
Basin headquarters. From Lincoln, accompanied by Paul L. Cooper, 
field director, he proceeded to the Fort Randall Reservoir area near 
Chamberlain, S. Dak., and visited a number of archeological sites that 
were being excavated by field parties of the River Basin Surveys and 
also the excavations being conducted by the Nebraska State Historical 
Society. He also took part in a conference on local archeological 
problems held at the field camp of the University of Kansas party 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

which was excavating an Indian village site as part of the cooperative 
program of the National Park Service. From the Fort Randall area 
he proceeded to the Oahe Reservoir area north of Pierre, S. Dak., 
where he visited two River Basin Surveys excavating parties. From 
Pierre he proceeded to Cody, Wyo., in company with Dr. Waldo R. 
Wedel, curator of archeology, United States National Museum, to in- 
spect an archeological site on Sage Creek where remains of early man 
had been found. The purpose of that trip was to assist in planning 
a series of investigations to be carried on there during the field season 
of 1952 as a cooperative project between the Smithsonian Institution 
and Princeton University. Returning to Pierre, Dr. Roberts held 
a. number of conferences with staff members to discuss the plans and 
operations of the salvage program in that area. During the fall and 
winter months he made several trips to the Missouri Basin headquar- 
ters at Lincoln. In March he went to Columbus, Ohio, and delivered 
a lecture on "Early Man in the New World" before the Ohio State 
Historical Society at the State museum. He returned to Columbus in 
May to attend the annual meeting of the Society for American Archae- 
ology and to take part in a symposium dealing with the carbon-14 
method for dating archeological remains. During the year Dr. 
Roberts completed two manuscripts: "River Basin Surveys: The 
First Five Years of the Inter- Agency Archeological and Paleonto- 
logical Salvage Program" and "The Carbon-14 Method of Age Deter- 
mination," both of which were published in the 1951 Smithsonian 
Annual Report. During the year Dr. Roberts received the Viking 
Fund Medal and Award of the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthro- 
pological Research for his work in American archeology. 

Dr. Henry B. Collins, anthropologist, continued his research on the 
Eskimo and other Arctic activities. Through arrangements with the 
National Museum of Canada, his assistant of 1950, William E. Taylor, 
returned to Cornwallis Island in the Canadian Arctic for further 
excavations. Mr. Taylors collections, including Thule and Dorset 
culture materials, with notes and photographs, were received by Dr. 
Collins for inclusion in the final report on the Cornwallis Island work. 
Preliminary reports on the first two seasons' excavations on Cornwallis 
Island were published in the annual reports of the National Museum of 
Canada for the fiscal years 1949-50 and 1950-51. A general article, 
"The Origin and Antiquity of the Eskimo," summarizing the present 
evidence of archeology, physical anthropology, and linguistics, was 
published in the 1950 Smithsonian Annual Report. A paper on the 
present status of the Dorset culture, with special emphasis on new 
evidence from Greenland and Alaska, which was presented at the 
December 1951 meeting of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, will be included in a volume on American archeology 



SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 3 

being published by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological 
Research. At the meeting of the Society for American Archaeology 
in May 1952 Dr. Collins presented a paper summarizing and evaluating 
the results of radiocarbon dating in the Arctic in the light of the arche- 
ological evidence, and including an interpretation of the ancient 
Denbigh Flint Complex of Alaska, its Old World connections and age, 
and its relationships to Folsom, Yuma, and Eskimo. The paper will 
appear in the January issue of American Antiquity. An article on 
the progress of anthropology in 1951 was prepared for the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica and another on the Races of Asia for the Ency- 
clopaedia Hebraica. He also edited Science in Alaska, a volume of 
selected papers presented at the First Alaskan Science Conference held 
in Washington in November 1950 under the auspices of the National 
Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. The volume was 
published by the Arctic Institute of North America and contains 
papers on Alaskan anthropology, agriculture, botany, geology and 
geography, geophysics, meteorology, public health, and zoology. Dr. 
Collins continued to serve as chairman of the directing committee 
supervising preparation of Arctic Bibliography, a comprehensive, an- 
notated, and indexed bibliography of English and foreign-language 
publications in all fields of science relating to the Arctic and sub-Arc- 
tic regions of America, Siberia, and Europe. The bibliography is 
being assembled by the Arctic Institute of North America under con- 
tract with the Office of Naval Research with funds from the Depart- 
ments of the Army and the Navy, and the Defense Research Board 
of Canada. At the end of the fiscal year material for a supplemental 
volume of about 900 pages was completed and ready for the printer. 
Proofreading continues on the initial six volumes of similar size now 
at the Government Printing Office. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. John P. Harrington was 
in Mexico engaged in studying the Maya language. On his return 
to Washington he completed the preparation of a grammar and dic- 
tionary of the Maya language, with the assistance of a Maya informant, 
Domingo Canton Aguilar, whom he brought to Washington for that 
purpose. He also completed a monograph on the numeration sys- 
tem of the Valladolid Maya Indians of Yucatan. Another paper 
he completed during the fiscal year was on the first vocabulary of 
the Virginia Indians, compiled by William Strachey in 1612. The 
original of this vocabulary is in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, 
England. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year and until after Labor Day, Dr. 
William N. Fenton was visiting professor of anthropology at the 
University of Michigan. During his stay in Ann Arbor he examined 
important historical papers relating to the political history of the 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Six Nations, or Iroquois, in the William L. Clements Library of the 
University of Michigan. Returning to Washington in September, 
Dr. Fenton resumed his research at the Bureau of American Ethnol- 
ogy. He organized and conducted the Seventh Conference on Iro- 
quois Research held at Red House, N. Y., October 5-7. In November 
he participated in a symposium on the training of professional anthro- 
pologists, which was held on the occasion of the annual meetings 
of the American Anthropological Association. Late in November 
Dr. Fenton was called to the National Research Council to organize 
a national conference on disaster studies, in which he participated 
on December 6. He resigned his position with the Bureau to accept 
an appointment as executive secretary of the Division of Anthro- 
pology and Psychology at the National Research Council and began 
his duties on January 1, 1952. 

Dr. Philip Drucker reported for duty as general anthropologist 
on January 3, 1952, immediately following his release to inactive duty 
by the United States Navy. On February 15 he proceeded to Mexico 
D. F., for a period of 6 weeks, which he spent studying the large 
offering of artifacts of jade and similar materials excavated in 1941 
at Cerro de las Mesas by the National Geographic-Smithsonian 
Institution archeological project. This collection is housed in the 
National Museum of Mexico. On his return to Washington he pre- 
pared a descriptive monograph on the collection, which was ready 
to be submitted to the Director of the Bureau at the end of 
the fiscal year. In addition, Dr. Drucker continued his studies of 
Meso-American archeology in general. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

(Report prepared by Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr.) 

The River Basin Surveys, organized in the autumn of 1945 as a unit 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology to carry into effect a memo- 
randum of understanding between the Smithsonian Institution and 
the National Park Service, continued its operations throughout the 
year. The memorandum provides for the salvage of archeological 
and paleontological materials that would otherwise be lost as a result 
of numerous projects for flood control and irrigation, hydroelectric 
installations, and navigation improvements in the river basins of the 
United States. As in the past, the investigations were conducted in 
cooperation with the National Park Service and the Bureau of 
Reclamation of the Department of the Interior, the Corps of Engi- 
neers of the Department of the Army, and a number of nongovern- 
mental local institutions. The operations as a whole are called the 
Inter- Agency Archeological and Paleontological Salvage Program. 



SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

The work of the River Basin Surveys in the past fiscal year was 
financed by a transfer of $156,403 to the Smithsonian Institution 
by the National Park Service. Of that amount $120,783 was for 
investigations in the Missouri Basin and $35,620 was for all other 
areas where projects were under way. The money comprising those 
funds was derived in part from the Bureau of Reclamation and in 
part from the National Park Service. Carry-over of previous funds 
provided an additional $77,576 for the Missouri Basin and $350 for 
other areas. The total of all funds available for the year was $234,329. 
Because of a delay in the passage of the appropriation bill it was 
necessary to suspend operations outside the Missouri Basin during 
July and August. 

Activities in the field consisted of reconnaissance or surveys for 
the purpose of locating archeological sites and paleontological 
deposits that will be involved in construction work or are so situated 
that they will be flooded, and in the excavation of sites observed and 
recorded by previous surveys. In contrast to former years there was 
greater emphasis on excavation. This was because of the fact that 
the survey parlies were finally catching up with the over-all program 
and there were fewer proposed reservoir areas needing attention. 
Archeological survey parties visited 10 new reservoir basins located 
in 6 States and a paleontological party made preliminary investiga- 
tions at 6 reservoirs in 3 States. In addition a number of reservoirs 
where previous preliminary surveys had been made were revisited 
for further checking. At the end of the fiscal year excavations were 
completed or under way in 13 reservoir areas in 11 States. There 
were 22 excavating parties in the field during the course of the year. 
Six of the excavating projects were in areas where there had been no 
previous digging, but the remainder were a continuation of investi- 
gations at reservoir projects where there had been other operations. 
At the close of the fiscal year the total of the reservoir areas where 
archeological surveys had been made or excavations carried on since 
the start of the actual field work in the summer of 1946 was 235 
located in 25 States. The survey parties have located and reported 
3,105 archeological sites, and of that number 578 have been recom- 
mended for excavation or limited testing. Preliminary appraisal 
reports were completed for all the reservoirs surveyed. Some, 
together with others finished near the end of the previous fiscal 
year, were mimeographed for limited distribution to the cooperating 
agencies. During the year 15 such reports were distributed, bring- 
ing to 149 the total issued since the start of the program. The 
discrepancy between the latter figure and the total number of reser- 
voirs is due to the fact that in some cases a series of reservoirs is 
included in a single report covering a subbasin, while in others the 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

completed manuscrips had not yet been mimeographed at the close 
of the year. Excavations made during the year brought the total 
for reservoir basins where such work has been done to 38, located in 
17 States. Reports on some of that work have been published in 
various scientific journals, and eight such papers are now in press 
as a Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology. The technical 
reports on two other excavation projects have been finished. Paleon- 
tological surveys have been made in 121 reservoir areas, 86 of them 
being those where archeological work has also been done. Eventually 
the other 35 will be visited by archeological parties. The total of all 
reservoir basins surveyed, including those where archeological work 
still remains to be done, is 270. 

As of June 30, 1952, the reservoir projects which had been surveyed 
for archeological remains were distributed by States as follows: 
California, 20; Colorado, 24; Georgia, 4; Idaho, 11; Illinois, 2; 
Iowa, 3 ; Kansas, 7 ; Kentucky, 1 ; Louisiana, 1 ; Minnesota, 1 ; Mon- 
tana, 15 ; Nebraska, 28 ; New Mexico, 1 ; North Dakota, 13 ; Ohio, 2 ; 
Oklahoma, 7 ; Oregon, 27 ; Pennsylvania, 2 ; South Dakota, 9 ; Tennes- 
see, 1; Texas, 19; Virginia, 2; Washington, 11; West Virginia, 2; 
Wyoming, 21. Excavations have been made or were being made in 
reservoir areas in: California, 5; Colorado, 1; Georgia, 3; Kansas, 1; 
Montana, 1 ; Nebraska, 1 ; New Mexico, 1 ; North Dakota, 3 ; Okla- 
homa, 2; Oregon, 2; South Carolina, 1; South Dakota, 3; Texas, 7; 
Virginia, 1 ; Washington, 3 ; West Virginia, 1 ; Wyoming, 2. The 
foregoing figures refer only to the work of the River Basin Surveys or 
that which was done in direct cooperation with local institutions. 
Projects carried on by local institutions alone or in direct cooperation 
with the National Park Service are not included because complete 
information about them was not available. 

Throughout the year the River Basin Surveys continued to receive 
helpful cooperation from the National Park Service, the Bureau of 
Reclamation, the Corps of Engineers, and numerous State and local 
institutions. At a number of projects guides and transportation were 
furnished to staff members in the field. Temporary office and labora- 
tory space was provided at others, and on several occasions labor and 
mechanical equipment were made available by the construction agency. 
Such assistance speeded up the work of the field men and made pos- 
sible greater accomplishment than would otherwise have been the 
case. The National Park Service continued to serve as the liaison 
between the various agencies both in Washington and through its 
several regional offices and provided the Smithsonian Institution with 
necessary information about the locations for proposed dams and 
reservoirs and construction priorities. Furthermore, the National 
Park Service primarily was responsible for obtaining the funds which 



SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

made the operations possible. The progress of the program as a 
whole was greatly furthered by the enthusiastic help of Park Service 
personnel. 

General direction and supervision of the work in California, Geor- 
gia, and Virginia were from the main office in Washington. In the 
Columbia Basin the program was directed from a field office and 
laboratory at Eugene, Oreg. ; that in the Missouri Basin was under 
the supervision of a field office and laboratory at Lincoln, Nebr. ; and 
that in Texas was under a field office and laboratory at Austin. The 
materials collected by the survey and excavating parties in those three 
areas were processed at the respective field laboratories. The collec- 
tions made in Georgia were processed at a laboratory in Athens. 

At the end of the fiscal year a change was made in the plan of 
operations for the Inter- Agency Salvage Program. The work of the 
River Basin Surveys was terminated in the Columbia Basin and Pacific 
coast areas, in the Southwest including Texas, and in Georgia and 
other portions of the Southeast. With the beginning of the new 
fiscal year the direction and supervision of the investigations in those 
areas were to be under the National Park Service with its respective 
regional offices in direct charge. At the close of the year arrange- 
ments were being made to transfer certain of the River Basin Surveys' 
personnel to the National Park Service and for the latter agency to 
take over the various field headquarters. 

Washington office. — Throughout the fiscal year the main headquar- 
ters of the River Basin Surveys continued under the direction of 
Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. Carl F. Miller, Joseph R. Caldwell, and 
Ralph S. Solecki, archeologists, were based on that office. Because of 
lack of funds for work outside the Missouri Basin, however, Miller 
was assigned to the Missouri Basin project during July, August, and 
September, and Caldwell was on leave without pay until Septem- 
ber 10, 1952. Solecki was on leave of absence with an expedition to 
Iraq for most of the year, returning to duty with the surveys in May. 

Mr. Miller's activities in the Missouri Basin are discussed in that 
section of this report. During the fall and winter months at the 
Washington office he completed his technical paper on the excavations 
he supervised at the Allatoona Reservoir in Georgia during an earlier 
fiscal year and processed specimens from sites which he dug at the 
John H. Kerr (formerly called Buggs Island) Reservoir the latter 
part of the previous fiscal year. In May he returned to the John H. 
Kerr Reservoir area on the Roanoke River in southern Virginia and 
carried on test excavations at a number of sites. That work was 
completed on June 30 and Mr. Miller returned to Washington. The 
gates of the dam T\ere scheduled to be closed early in July, and no 
further investigations are planned for that area. 

234733—53 2 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Early in August Mr. Caldwell received word that an important 
site located a short distance above the Clark Hill Dam on the Savan- 
nah River, Ga., would be inundated well in advance of the date 
originally indicated by the engineers. With funds provided by the 
Smithsonian Institution and the University of Georgia and with the 
help of the resident engineer of the Corps of Engineers, he started 
excavations on the 18th of the month and continued to dig until he 
and his party were driven out by water at the end of October. When 
Federal funds became available in September the River Basin Sur- 
veys took over the financing of the project. During January and Feb- 
ruary Mr. Caldwell carried on test excavations at the remains of Fort 
Charlotte at the upper end of the Clark Hill Reservoir in South Caro- 
lina. While at his headquarters at Athens, Mr. Caldwell completed 
five preliminary reports and made considerable progress on the final 
technical report of his part of the excavations at the Allatoona Reser- 
voir. The report on Fort Charlotte was mimeographed and ready 
for distribution at the close of the fiscal year. An article on work 
completed a previous fiscal year, "The Booger Bottom Mound: A 
Forsyth Period Site in Hall County, Ga.," was published in Ameri- 
can Antiquity, volume 17, No. 4, April 1952. Mr. Caldwell's employ- 
ment by the River Basin Surveys was terminated as of June 30, 1952, 
by his transfer to the National Park Service. 

Dr. Theodore E. White, geologist, divided his time between the 
Washington office and the Missouri Basin. He spent the winter and 
early spring months in Washington cleaning, identifying, and cata- 
loging specimens he had collected during the field season. He also 
identified four lots of mammal bones from archeological excavations 
along the Columbia River, and four lots of bones from the Missouri 
Basin which were sent to Washington for that purpose. He com- 
pleted a manuscript, "Preliminary Analysis of the Vertebrate Fossil 
Fauna of the Canyon Ferry Reservoir Area," which was accepted for 
publication in the Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 
and two papers on observations on the butchering techniques of ab- 
original peoples as indicated by the bones from the refuse deposits at 
archeological sites. One paper, "Preliminary Analysis of the Verte- 
brate Fossil Fauna of the Boysen Reservoir Area," was published in 
the Proceedings of the United States National Museum, volume 102, 
No. 3296, April 1952. Another, "Observations on the Butchering 
Technique of Some Aboriginal Peoples, I," appeared in American 
Antiquity, volume 17, No. 4, April 1952. A third, "Suggestions for 
Facilitating Identification of Animal Bone from Archeological 
Sites," was printed in the Plains Archeological Conference News 
Letter, volume 5, No. 1, May 1952. In May Dr. White left Washing- 
ton to continue his field investigations in the Missouri Basin. 



SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 9 

After his return to active duty Mr. Solecki spent the time until 
June 30 working on manuscripts and reports. He also made prepara- 
tions for an aerial survey of certain reservoir areas in the Missouri 
Basin and was to proceed to the latter area at the beginning of the 
new fiscal year. 

California. — The only work in California during the fiscal year was 
at the Cachuma Reservoir on the Santa Ynez River in Santa Barbara 
County. From April 28 to June 30 Albert D. Mohr, field assistant, 
supervised excavations at two sites. At one of them a cemetery be- 
longing to what is called the Hunting Culture, the middle stage of a 
three-culture sequence, was dug, and in addition the remains of a 
house belonging to the same horizon were uncovered. The latter are 
of particular interest because only two such structures were known 
previously and the one discovered this year has added considerable 
information with respect to construction methods. Opening of graves 
in the cemetery produced skeletal material useful in determining the 
physical characteristics of the people and also good data on burial 
customs. The other site, also mainly a burial ground, belongs to a 
later horizon probably attributable to the Chumash. 

A report by Martin A. Baumhoff, field assistant the previous year, 
on the investigations at the Cachuma Reservoir in late fiscal 1951 was 
completed early in June 1952 and the manuscript is now available for 
publication. A summary report on the results of the excavations made 
at the Terminus Reservoir on the Kaweah River in Tulare County was 
completed by Franklin Fenenga, archeologist, during the autumn 
months and was published in American Antiquity, volume 17, No. 4, 
April 1952. 

As indicated in the preliminary section of this report, the River 
Basin Surveys will have no further projects in California, as the 
operations there are to be under the direction and supervision of the 
Region Four office of the National Park Service. 

Columbia Basin. — The field office at Eugene, Oreg., was closed from 
July 1 to September 10 because of lack of funds, and during that 
period there were no activities in the region. After the office was 
reopened and until the close of the fiscal year the operations for the 
Columbia Basin were, as in the previous year, under the supervision 
of Joel L. Shiner. Office and laboratory work during the fall and 
winter months was mainly concerned with the processing, study, and 
cataloging of materials from the surveys and excavations of the pre- 
vious year. Most of the materials and data were from a habitation 
site in the McNary Reservoir area which had been buried beneath a 
thick mantle of volcanic ash which is estimated to be several thousand 
years old. A summary report on the results of that excavation was 
finished, mimeographed, and distributed to the operating agencies. 
Study of the materials from another site in the McNary area, a village 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

of late prehistoric and early historic times, was also completed and a 
summary report finished. The latter was mimeographed and dis- 
tributed in June. 

Late in October Mr. Shiner made a brief investigation at the site 
of The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River and in March made an 
exhaustive survey of the area to be flooded. A brief preliminary re- 
port was issued after the first visit, while a second and more detailed 
one was written and mimeographed following the investigations in 
March. The survey showed that there were 10 sites and that 3 were 
worthy of further investigation. One of them is a very large mound 
with stratified deposits some 15 feet in depth. It offers one of the best 
opportunities along the Columbia River for obtaining evidence on the 
sequence of cultural development. This mound, the Wakemap, is in 
danger from two sources, flooding and looting by private collectors. 
The situation with respect to unauthorized digging was so critical that 
plans were being made to start excavations there shortly after the be- 
ginning of the new fiscal year. Two other sites in the area were tested 
later in the spring and one of them proved to be much deeper and 
richer in artifacts than had been anticipated. One test pit, 5 feet 
square, yielded large numbers of flaked-stone tools and "fetish" stones 
and reached a depth of 13 feet. More extended excavations at that 
location are indicated. 

From April 7 to 19 Mr. Shiner carried on test excavations at three 
sites in the McNary area. One of them consisted of an occupation 
level underlying the same layer of volcanic ash as that covering the 
site worked the previous year. The findings corroborated those of 
the previous year and in addition the digging produced several new 
artifact types. At another it appeared that the Indians who had 
occupied it moved in shortly after the fall of the ash. The interval 
represented by the ash layer will help to explain certain differences 
in the artifacts and provides a good basis for establishing relative 
dating in the district. Excavations at the third site proved fruitless. 
The latter part of April Mr. Shiner moved his field party to the Albeni 
Falls Reservoir project on the Pend Oreille River in Idaho for the 
purpose of testing a number of sites in that basin. The occupational 
debris at the various locations was found to be so shallow, however, 
that extensive digging was not warranted. Consequently the party 
spent several days making surface collections. A good series of 
specimens was obtained which will be useful in extending the known 
distribution of types. The data collected indicate that the area 
never had a permanent population. It apparently was a place where 
various groups of Indians spent their summers hunting, fishing, and 
gathering food. 

After returning to the office Mr. Shiner devoted most of his time 
to processing the artifacts collected in the field. Over 1,500 were 



SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 11 

cleaned and cataloged. A report on the investigations at Albeni 
Falls was completed and one on the test digging at The Dalles was 
practically finished by the end of the year. A collection of specimens 
from a previous year's digging in the McNary Reservoir was packed 
and shipped to Washington. 

Four articles pertaining to the results of previous work in the 
Columbia Basin were published in American Antiquity, volume 17, 
No. 4, April 1952. They were : "The 1950 Excavations at Site 45BN6 
McNary Reservoir, Wash.," by Joel L. Shiner; "Material Culture of 
an Upper Coulee Rock-shelter," by John E. Mills and Carolyn 
Osborne; "Archeological Investigations in the Chief Joseph Reser- 
voir," by Douglas Osborne, Robert Crabtree, and Alan Bryan; and 
"Archeological Investigations in O 'Sullivan Reservoir, Grant County, 
Wash.," by Richard D. Daugherty. 

Mr. Shiner's affiliation with the River Basin Surveys terminated on 
June 30 by transfer to the National Park Service. The River Basin 
Surveys office at Eugene was to be kept open, however, by the National 
Park Service, and Mr. Shiner was to be permitted to complete his 
reports on the work he did for the Smithsonian Institution. The 
River Basin Surveys will have no further operations in that area. 

Georgia. — As in the case of the Columbia Basin, field work in the 
Georgia area was handicapped by the delay in obtaining funds and 
the limited amount of money available for the project. During the 
period from August 18 until the end of October an emergency co- 
operative excavation project, as described in an earlier section of 
this report, was carried on at the Lake Springs site on the Savannah 
River just above the Clark Hill Dam. A large sample of archaic 
material representing a prepottery horizon called the Savannah River 
Focus of the Stalling's Island Culture was obtained there together 
with a small series of contemporary crania showing a population of 
both round- and long-headed individuals. The most important dis- 
covery at the site, however, was a new early culture deep below the 
archaic levels. This new manifestation, winch has been designated 
the Old Quartz Culture, showed an artifact assemblage similar to 
those which had been found at a large number of open stations in 
Piedmont Georgia and South Carolina. They have been regarded 
as probably early but could not be so proven until the discovery of 
the stratigraphy at Lake Springs. Unfortunately, the rising waters 
of the Clark Hill Reservoir flooded the excavation pits before as 
much work had been done as was desired, but the results obtained 
are a definite contribution to the archeology of the region. 

In late January and February test excavations were carried on in 
the remains of Fort Charlotte at the upper end of the Clark Hill 
Reservoir in South Carolina. Although located in the latter State 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the investigations were considered as part of the over-all Georgia 
project. The outline of the fort was traced and a few minor arti- 
facts were recovered. The fort had been a masonry structure erected 
in 1765 as a defense against the Creek and Cherokee Indians who were 
prone to raid the Scotch-Irish, French Huguenot, and German settle- 
ments in the Long Canes region of upper Carolina. Its seizure by 
patriot forces in 1775 was the first overt act of revolution in the 
southern colonies. American possession of the fort throughout the 
struggle was of considerable importance in holding the loyalties of 
the inhabitants of upper Carolina during the troubled times that 
followed. The recent excavations there give information about the 
physical nature of the fort and its location which was not available 
in documentary records. Underlying the occupation level of the 
fort were Indian materials indicating that the location had also been 
a place where the aborigines held forth. Pottery fragments suggest 
that the Creeks were the tribe involved. There is no question but 
what the Indian material is some years, possibly a good many, older 
than the fort and that the site was deserted at the time it was chosen 
for the location of Fort Charlotte. 

There will be no further work in Georgia under the direction and 
supervisions of the River Basin Surveys, unless there are further 
changes in present plans. As indicated earlier in this report Mr. Cald- 
well's employment terminated on June 30 and he was transferred to 
the National Park Service. He will be permitted, however, to com- 
plete his technical reports on work done under the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution and the manuscripts will be turned over to the River Basin 
Surveys. 

Missouri Basin. — The Missouri Basin project as in previous years 
continued to operate from the field headquarters at Lincoln, Nebr. 
Paul L. Cooper served as director for the program in that area from 
July 1 until February 28 when, in accordance with his request to 
be relieved of administrative duties, Ralph D. Brown took charge. 
Certain changes were made in the organization at that time and Mr. 
Brown was designated as chief of the Missouri Basin project, the old 
title of field director being dropped. Mr. Cooper remained with the 
organization and was assigned to the position of consulting archeolo- 
gist. The trend toward more excavation and less reconnaissance or 
survey work, started the previous year, continued and increased in 
fiscal 1952. This is attributable to the fact that much has been ac- 
complished in the survey portion of the program and there is less 
need for that kind of activity than in previous years. Furthermore, 
the available funds were sufficient to provide for extensive excavations. 
During the course of the year the staff was able to devote a greater 
proportion of its time to the study of data and specimens and in the 
preparation of technical reports. 



SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 13 

During the year archeological surveys were conducted in five new 
reservoir areas of which three were in Wyoming, one was in Montana, 
and one in Nebraska-South Dakota. Others where the preliminary 
reconnaissance had not been completed were revisited and a total of 
115 new sites was recorded. In the 1951 field season archeological 
excavations were made in four reservoir areas by seven different units. 
By the end of June 1952 there again were seven archeological excava- 
tion parties working in four reservoir areas, three of them the same 
as in the previous year. Digging at the Keyhole Reservoir in Wyo- 
ming was completed in 1951 and excavations in the Jamestown Reser- 
voir in North Dakota were started in 1952. The other three are 
Fort Randall and Oahe in South Dakota, and Garrision in North 
Dakota. During the year there were paleontological investigations 
in 12 reservoir areas. An archeological survey party was scheduled 
to start for the field in late June but because of an emergency was 
delayed and its departure rescheduled for the first week in July. 

At the Fort Randall Reservoir in South Dakota the 1951 excava- 
tions were at an Indian site and at a historic trading-post site. The 
Indian site is of particular interest because it represents three occupa- 
tional periods. One was a fortified earth-lodge village, one an unfor- 
tified earth-lodge village, and the third an occupational area under- 
lying both of the others. In the fortified area 7 earth lodges, a smaller 
structure, 450 feet of stockade trench, 11 cache pits, and 22 refuse 
areas were exposed and excavated. In the unfortified earth-lodge 
area, one circular earth lodge, one cache pit, and four refuse pits were 
unearthed. In May 1952 excavations were resumed in the unfortified 
area and before the end of June had exposed 2 earth lodges, a refuse 
midden, and 19 exterior pits. The date of the fortified village was 
earlier and the occupational area beneath much older still. Comple- 
tion of the work at that location will provide an excellent sequence 
of materials leading up to the development of fortified villages in 
that district. 

The historic work in the Fort Randal] Reservoir in 1951 was at the 
location of the Fort Lookout trading post. The occupational level 
of the post was established. Charred beams used in construction, 
sections of vertical posts still in place, and other architectural fea- 
tures were uncovered, along with numerous specimens of trade goods. 
Two Indian occupational levels antedating the establishment of the 
trading post and the nearby fort were found beneath the ruins of 
the post. They are of interest because they produced materials not 
previously known in that part of South Dakota. In May 1952 historic 
investigations were resumed, but they were at the site of the Whetstone 
agency which was established for the Brule and Ogallala bands of 
Sioux from the Fort Laramie region by a treaty drawn in April 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

1868. By 1869 about 1,000 Indians were living there, and by 1870 the 
number had increased to about 2,250. One year later the Indians 
were moved to a new location but the agency buildings continued in 
use through the later 1870's as a steamboat landing for supplies to be 
conveyed overland to Indian agencies in the interior. Little is known 
about the physical characteristics of the agency or of the Indian 
camp, and digging there should provide interesting data to augment 
the documentary records. By the end of June floor areas had been 
uncovered and cedar post butts in palisade trenches were exposed. 
Work at that site is scheduled to continue until it is completed, which 
probably will be at about the end of the current field season. 

In the Oahe Reservoir area during the 1951 field season excavations 
were carried on at two Indian sites. One of them is located just 
below the dam in an area which will ultimately be destroyed by con- 
struction activities, while the other is several miles upstream on the 
west bank just below the point where the Cheyenne River empties into 
the Missouri. At the first location, known as the Phillips Ranch 
site, 5 earth lodges and 47 cache pits were uncovered, 2 trenches were 
dug across the fortification ditch which surrounded the village, and 
the refuse-bearing overburden was stripped from approximately one- 
eighth of the village area. During the previous year 5 lodges and 
46 cache pits had been dug, so the total for the village was 10 houses 
and 96 cache pits. A large collection of specimens was obtained there, 
the most outstanding probably being a few small fragments of coiled 
basketry. The latter is extremely rare in archeological sites in the 
Plains area. The data obtained from the site provided the basis for 
establishing a previously unrecognized cultural complex for the dis- 
trict. It appears to date from the early part of the eighteenth cen- 
tury and almost certainly represents the protohistoric Arikara 
occupation of the area. Excavations at the Phillips Ranch site have 
been completed. 

The other site, known as the Cheyenne River village, was only par- 
tially dug and will be completed at a later date. The work there 
consisted of the excavation and mapping of four house sites (a fifth 
was nearly finished when heavy storms flooded it so badly that it had 
to be abandoned) and the digging of cache pits. Cultural materials 
from house sites and cache pits were recovered in large quantities 
and preliminary studies indicate that they will provide much new 
information about the arts and industries of their makers. 

The 1952 excavations in the Oahe Reservoir were started at new 
sites. One of them, which had been partly destroyed by construction 
activities, is on the east bank of the Missouri River opposite the 
Phillips Ranch site, while the other, which represents a large village, 
is located not far downstream from the Cheyenne River village. 



SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 15 

Work had not progressed sufficiently at either location by the end of 
the fiscal year to indicate what results might be expected. 

At the Garrison Reservoir in North Dakota two excavating parties 
spent the 1951 field season digging in Indian and historic sites. At 
one Indian village location the remains of 8 circular houses, 4 sweat 
lodges, 48 cache pits, and numerous other miscellaneous features were 
uncovered. The artifact yield was good, including uncommon stea- 
tite fragments from bowls made from that material. The bowls 
probably reached the area by trade from the west. They may have 
come up the Columbia and down the Missouri as that was a main 
aboriginal trade route. During the 1950 field season at that location 
five houses were excavated and the palisade and moat were traced. 
The combined data for the two seasons give a satisfactory story of the 
village and its material culture. The village was reputedly occupied in 
the late eighteenth century by the Hidatsa Indians and is particularly 
interesting because it presumably was the most northerly of the forti- 
fied earth-lodge communities belonging to the period preceding the 
replacement of aboriginal material culture by trade goods obtained 
from the white man. The other site investigated had also been a 
fortified village. Five houses and parts of a sixth were excavated 
there, and a ceremonial structure 72 feet in diameter, a large village 
gateway, and several other features were found. Cross sections were 
taken of the surrounding defensive ditch. This site, believed to have 
been occupied chiefly by the Arikara Indians, produced relatively 
few artifacts but it throws valuable light on the architecture and 
community plan of the period. In June 1952 an excavating party 
proceeded to the Night Walker's Butte to begin digging the remains 
of one of the few known Indian villages located on top of a butte. 

The historic-sites party spent the period from July 1 to October 7, 
1951, in the excavation of Fort Stevenson, a mile above the Garrison 
Reservoir dam site. The foundations of five of the more important 
military buildings and of several minor ones were traced and a con- 
siderable quantity of materials was obtained. Fort Stevenson was a 
typical Missouri River frontier post and was built to keep the river 
open for navigation and to protect the Fort Berthold Indians from the 
Sioux. In addition the post served as one of the main points on the 
overland mail route which ran from St. Paul to Montana. Although 
the fort was started in 18G7 and was completed late in 1868 and there 
are considerable documentary data about it, useful new information 
pertinent to the actual character of the post and certain Indian rela- 
tionships was obtained during the course of the work. Before stop- 
ping for the season the Fort Stevenson party made tests in a trading- 
post site at the mouth of the White Earth River and obtained some 
trade goods. The historic-sites party returned to the Garrison area 
in June 1952 and began work at a site in the Fort Berthold district. 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

From July 1 to September 25, 1951, six key sites were excavated in 
the Keyhole Reservoir on the Belle Fourche River in Crook County, 
Wyo. The excavated sites include one large protohistoric camp with 
pottery remains, three prehistoric camp sites, and two stratified rock 
shelters. The lowest levels in both rock shelters are manifestations 
of a new early-man complex. The data indicate that the aboriginal 
occupation of the Keyhole area may have started about 5,000 years ago. 
Much more recent materials were found in the upper levels and in a 
few cases there were potsherds from vessels of the so-called Woodland 
types. The latter are significant because they extend considerably 
westward the known range of that kind of Indian pottery. The in- 
vestigations at the Keyhole Reservoir have been completed. 

The Jamestown Reservoir on the river of the same name in North 
Dakota was listed for investigation for the first time since the start 
of the program. A survey party was supposed to make a reconnais- 
sance there in the fall of 1951 but because of bad weather was unable 
to do so. As a consequence a combined survey and excavating party 
went there in May 1952. After 3 weeks' preliminary examination of 
the area and 18 sites had been located, excavations were started in a 
mound 75 feet in diameter and 10 feet in height located on a bluff, 
and in some house remains on the bottom lands. The mounds in that 
portion of North Dakota show considerable similarity to those in 
northern Minnesota and southern Manitoba and all probably belong 
to the same cultural complex. The actual people involved have not 
been identified as yet, and as little is known about the character of 
the remains the results of the investigations there should add mate- 
rially to knowledge about the Indians. The work there had not 
progressed sufficiently by June 30 to permit a statement about the 
findings. 

During the 1951 field season the paleontological party visited and 
collected in five reservoir areas, two in Montana, one in North Dakota, 
and two in South Dakota. In exploring the Oligocene and Miocene 
deposits in the Canyon Ferry Reservoir basin in Montana the party 
added two genera of small mammals to the known fauna of the Oligo- 
cene and six genera of those of the Miocene. While the sediments of 
the Montana group of the the Upper Cretaceous were being studied 
near the dam for the Oahe Reservoir, S. Dak., the first nearly complete 
skeleton of one of the pygmy species of mosasaur, genus Clidastes, 
ever obtained was found. The 1952 field season's work started with 
a preliminary reconnaissance of the Tuttle Creek and Lovewell Reser- 
voir basins in the Kansas River drainage, Kansas, and was followed 
by surveys of three reservoir areas in the Platte Drainage. They 
w r ere the Narrows in Colorado, and the Ashton and Trenton in 
Nebraska. Preliminary prospecting was also carried on at the Gavins 



SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 17 

Point Reservoir on the Missouri River in Nebraska and South Dakota. 
The first of June found the party at the Keyhole Reservoir in Wyo- 
ming exploring Cretaceous sediments and the latest report is that 
most of the skeleton of a small plesiosaur was found in the New- 
castle member of the Granerose shale, the first record of vertebrate 
remains from that formation. On June 25 the party moved to the 
Canyon Ferry Reservoir in Montana and was just starting work there 
at the end of the fiscal year. 

During the course of the year seven preliminary appraisal reports 
were completed, mimeographed, and distributed to the cooperating 
agencies; four were completed and are ready for mimeographing; 
and two supplements to previous reports were finished and are await- 
ing mimeographing. Four short articles on specific subjects in Plains 
archeology were prepared by members of the staff and published 
in the Plains Archeological Conference News Letter. Two articles 
were published in American Antiquity and one report appeared in 
the Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum. One technical report 
on excavations in the Oahe area was completed and the first drafts 
of those on two others have been finished. 

The laboratory at Lincoln processed 87,935 specimens from 170 
sites in 18 reservoir areas and 2 sites not in reservoir areas. The 
work in the laboratory also included : reflex copies of record sheets, 
21,444; contact prints made, 8,826; negatives, 2,036; enlargements, 
1,326; specimens drawn for illustrations, 872; color transparencies 
cataloged, 321 ; drawings, tracings, maps made, 112. 

Robert B. dimming, Jr., archeologist, was in charge of the survey 
and excavation of aboriginal archeological sites at the Fort Randall 
Reservoir in South Dakota from July 1 to November 6 and from 
May 19 to the end of the fiscal year. During the winter months at 
the Lincoln headquarters Mr. Cumming worked on the technical re- 
port on the Oldham site, the scene of most of his activities during the 
1951 summer field season. 

Paul L. Cooper, archeologist, served as field director for the Mis- 
souri Basin activities during the period from July 1 to February 28. 
On the latter date he became consulting archeologist for the project. 
During the spring months Mr. Cooper devoted considerable time to 
discussing the project with Mr. Brown, the new chief, and in con- 
sultation with other members of the staff on archeological procedures 
in the laboratory. He completed a report of progress for the period 
from the beginning of the project in 1946 through April 1952 for 
the Interior Missouri Basin Field Committee. He also worked on 
a more detailed report covering the calendar years 1950 and 1951. He 
met with the Interior Missouri Basin Field Committee at its April 
session where he evaluated the progress made to that date by the 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

River Basin Surveys of the Smithsonian Institution and took part in 
a discussion of the future needs of the salvage program. Mr. Cooper 
served as the chairman of the Ninth Conference for Plains Arche- 
ology, which met at Lincoln in April. On June 6 he left Lincoln 
for the Oahe Reservoir in South Dakota and at the end of the fiscal 
year was directing a party excavating aboriginal sites along the Mis- 
souri below the mouth of the Cheyenne River. 

Franklin Fenenga, archeologist, was in charge of a reconnaissance 
party from the beginning of the fiscal year until September when he 
returned to the Lincoln office. During the field season his party 
visited 15 proposed reservoir areas. Probably the most interesting 
part of the season was that devoted to a boat trip down the Bighorn 
River Canyon in Wyoming-Montana to examine the area of the pro- 
posed Yellowtail Reservoir. On June 8 he went to the Oahe Reservoir 
and started a series of excavations near the dam site a few miles above 
Pierre, S. Dak. Those activities were well under way by June 30. 
During the months spent at the headquarters in Lincoln Mr. Fenenga 
prepared preliminary appraisal reports for seven reservoir projects. 
He presented two papers before the Ninth Conference for Plains 
Archeology, and served as editor of the News Letter for that confer- 
ence. He was reelected to that office for the year 1952-53. He also read 
a paper before the 62d annual meeting of the Nebraska Academy of 
Sciences. During the 1952 meeting of the Academy he served as acting 
chairman of the anthropological section and was elected its chairman 
for 1953. Mr. Fenenga had two papers published during the year: 
"The Archeology of Slick Rock Village, Tulare County, California," 
American Antiquity, volume 17, No. 4, April 1922, and "The Wabino, 
a One-time Rival of the Midewiwin," Proceedings of the Nebraska 
Academy of Sciences, 62d Annual Meeting, 1952. 

Donald D. Hartle, archeologist, was in charge of an excavating 
party at the Rock Village site in the Garrison Reservoir area of North 
Dakota from July 1 to August 20. From August 20 to October 27 
he directed the excavations at the Star site in the same reservoir basin. 
The latter part of October, in collaboration with James H. Howard of 
the North Dakota State Historical Society, he recorded 12 Indian 
songs, including several of those known as "Custer" songs. Two 
Arikara Indians, Jonie Fox and Davis Paint, did the singing for 
Hartle and Howard. From November 1 to June 1, Hartle spent his 
time at the Lincoln headquarters studying his materials from the Rock 
Village and preparing a technical report on the results of his investi- 
gations. Further work was contemplated at Rock Village and the 
manuscript could not be finished until that was done. Hartle left 
Lincoln on June 2 with a party to continue his studies at Rock Village 
and by the end of the month had completed the additional excavations. 



SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 19 

Mr. Hartle presented a paper on the investigations at Rock Village 
before the Ninth Conference for Plains Archeology at Lincoln in 
April. 

Donald J. Lehmer, archeologist, conducted excavations from July 1 
to September 10 at the Phillips Ranch site in the Oahe Reservoir near 
Pierre, S. Dak. Returning to Lincoln from South Dakota Mr. 
Lehmer devoted the period to December 31, when his appointment 
with the River Basin Surveys terminated, to completing a technical 
report on the results of two seasons' work in the Oahe area. This 
report, consisting of 250 manuscript pages, presents in detail the infor- 
mation obtained from the Dodd and Phillips Ranch sites. Publica- 
tion of the report is planned for the next fiscal year. In addition Mr. 
Lehmer completed two shorter articles which were published in 
American Antiquity for April 1952. One was "The Fort Pierre 
Branch, Central South Dakota." The other was on an Oklahoma 
project and is referred to in a later section of this report. 

George Metcalf, field and laboratory assistant, worked with the 
Hartle party in the Garrison Reservoir during July and August. In 
addition to taking an active part in the excavations he made a series 
of surveys in the area and located a number of new sites. In Septem- 
ber he joined the Smith party in the investigations at Fort Stevenson 
and in October participated in a reconnaissance of the region adjacent 
to Fort Stevenson. During the winter months he checked the survey 
records and prepared a supplemental report on the archeological 
resources of the Garrison Reservoir. He assisted in the analysis of 
artifacts from the Rock Village and collaborated in the preparation 
of the section of a technical report dealing with trade materials and 
pottery. In May Mr. Metcalf made a survey of the Big Sandy Reser- 
voir in the Eden Valley, western Wyoming. In June, during an 
emergency, he took charge of one of the parties in the Oahe area for a 
2- week period. On June 30 he was en route to join the party under 
G. H. Smith in the Garrison Reservoir, N. Dak. 

Carl F. Miller, archeologist, transferred to the Missouri Basin for 
the season, spent the latter part of July, August, and until September 
13 digging in a historic site in the Fort Randall Reservoir near Cham- 
berlain, S. Dak. When the excavations were completed Mr. Miller 
proceeded to Lincoln where he spent two weeks completing field records 
and other data. From Lincoln he returned to his base at the Washing- 
ton office where he finished his report on the summer's activities. 

John E. Mills joined the staff of the Missouri Basin project as 
an archeologist on April 10, 1952. During April and May he ex- 
amined and studied all the records and artifacts pertaining to historic- 
site research in the Fort Randall Reservoir area and in May made a 
brief survey trip through the reservoir basin with National Park 
Service representatives of Region Two to determine what historic 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

sites merited excavation. In early June he started excavations at 
the site of the Whetstone Agency and was continuing operations 
there at the end of the fiscal year. 

James M. Shippee, field and laboratory assistant, spent the early 
part of July with the Wheeler party at the Keyhole Reservoir in 
Wyoming. The last 2 weeks of the month he joined the Fenenga 
party for the boat trip through the Bighorn Canyon. He returned 
to the Keyhole area in August and remained with the Wheeler party 
until it returned to Lincoln in September. During the fall and win- 
ter months he was occupied with various duties at the field head- 
quarters. In March he spoke before the Great Bend chapter of the 
Missouri Archeological Society and in May read a paper at the annual 
meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences on salvage work at an 
archeological site destroyed by flood prevention work near Kansas 
City, Mo. 

G. H. Smith, archeologist, spent the period from July 1 to October 
1, 1951, excavating in the remains of Fort Stevenson. During that 
period five of the more important building sites were completely or 
largely excavated and there was some digging in a few lesser ones. 
In October Mr. Smith, accompanied by George Metcalf , made a recon- 
naissance in a previously unsurveyed part of the Garrison Reservoir. 
Some test excavations were made at that time at the supposed site of 
the fur-trading post of James Kipp. From October 28 to June 2, Mr. 
Smith was at the Lincoln headquarters where he prepared a report on 
the results of the Fort Stevenson investigations. The first draft was 
completed and referred to the Chief for review. In May Mr. Smith 
accompanied a party of National Park Service historians on a visit 
to historic sites in the Gavins Point, Fort Randall, Oahe, and Garri- 
son Reservoirs. In June he returned to the Garrison Reservoir and 
started excavations at the supposed site of the original Fort Berthold, 
and at Fort Atkinson, its successor, which is also known as Fort Ber- 
thold II. By June 30 a section of the site of the latter had been 
opened and considerable information was being obtained concerning 
the post and Indian trade in general. 

Dr. Waldo R. Wedel, curator of the division of archeology, U. S. 
National Museum, was detailed to the River Basin Surveys for the field 
season of 1951. He directed excavations at the Cheyenne River 
village site in the Oahe Reservoir area from June 21 to September 14. 
During the winter months at his regular station in Washington Dr. 
Wedel worked on the materials and data from the site. As there is 
considerable more digging to be done there, however, it will not be 
possible to write the detailed technical report until that has been 
accomplished. 

Richard Page Wheeler, archeologist, spent the period from the start 
of the fiscal year through September 25 excavating at sites in the Key- 



SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 21 

hole Reservoir area in Crook County, Wyo. Returning to Lincoln, 
Wheeler spent the autumn and winter months analyzing field data 
and preparing a number of reports. He published a paper, "A Note . 
on the 'McKean Lanceolate Point' " in the Plains Archeological Con- 
ference News Letter, volume 4, No. 4, based on materials from sites 
in the Keyhole Reservoir area. He presented a report on the Keyhole 
investigations before the Ninth Conference for Plains Archeology in 
April. Before starting for the field in June he completed two manu- 
scripts : "Excavations and Survey in the Boysen Reservoir Area, Cen- 
tral Wyoming" and "Plains Ceramic Analysis : A check-list of Fea- 
tures and Descriptive Terms." From the middle of June until the 
end of the year Mr. Wheeler was in charge of a survey and excavation 
party at the Jamestown Reservoir in North Dakota. 

Dr. Theodore E. White, geologist, spent the period from July 1 
to 8 exploring the Oligocene and Miocene deposits in the Canyon 
Ferry Reservoir area in Montana. From July 10 to 21 he was at the 
Tiber Reservoir in the same State studying the Colorado group of the 
Upper Cretaceous. From July 22 to August 13 he examined the ex- 
posures of the Paleocene Fort Union formation on the south side of 
the Missouri River in the Garrison Reservoir in North Dakota. The 
period from August 15 to September 8 was spent exploring the sedi- 
ments of the Montana group of the Upper Cretaceous near the dam in 
the Oahe Reservoir area. He then moved on to the Fort Randall 
Reservoir and spent September 8 to 16 in the area near the dam. That 
completed Dr. White's field investigations for the 1951 season. His 
activities during the winter months have already been discussed in con- 
nection with the section on the Washington office. From May 15 to 21, 
1952, he made a preliminary survey of the Tuttle Creek and Lovewell 
Reservoirs in the Kansas River drainage, the Narrows, Trenton and 
Ashton Reservoirs in the Platte drainage, and Gavins Point on the 
Missouri River. From June 2 to 25 Dr. White examined the Cre- 
taceous sediments in the Keyhole Reservoir and then moved on to the 
Canyon Ferry Reservoir for further explorations in that area. 

Oklahoma. — No field work was done in Oklahoma during the last 
fiscal year. The technical report on the excavations of the previous 
year at the Tenkiller Ferry Reservoir on the Illinois River, 15 miles 
south of Tahlequah, was completed by Donald J. Lehmer. The report, 
"The Turkey Bluff Focus of the Fulton Aspect," was published in 
American Antiquity, volume 17, No. 4, April 1952. No further work 
will be done in Oklahoma by the River Basin Surveys of the Smith- 
sonian Institution since it falls within one of the areas where the 
investigations will be under the direction and supervision of the 
National Park Service after July 1, 1952. 

Texas. — The River Basin Surveys in Texas continued to operate 
from the headquarters at Austin. The office, which was closed tempo- 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

rarily at the beginning of the fiscal year because of lack of funds, was 
reopened on September 10 and functioned until June 30, 1952. Edward 
B. Jelks, acting field director, was in charge during that period. 

Field work in Texas consisted of surveys and excavations. Prelimi- 
nary surveys and appraisals were made at the Colorado City Reservoir 
on the Colorado River in Borden and Scurry Counties, at the Oak 
Creek Reservoir in the same drainage in Coke County, at the Paint 
Creek Reservoir on the Clear Fork of the Brazos River in Haskell 
County, and at the Cooper Reservoir on the South Sulphur River in 
Delta County. A total of 62 sites was found. In the Colorado City, 
Oak Creek, and Paint Creek areas none of them appeared to be of 
sufficient importance to warrant further investigations. At the Cooper 
Reservoir, however, are a number of small mounds and several village 
sites which give surface evidence of occupation by two cultural phases. 
Six of the sites have been recommended for excavation. 

Excavations were carried on in three sites at the Belton Reservoir 
on the Leon River in Coryell County. Some work had been done there 
in a previous year, but the current digging added much new informa- 
tion. Artifacts from the Caddoan area to the east were found in asso- 
ciation with material from the Central Texas and Edwards Plateau 
cultural aspects. Analysis of the specimens makes it possible, by 
cross-dating, to place the Central Texas aspect in its proper place in 
the relative chronology for Texas. 

In April, May, and June an excavating party investigated three 
sites at the Texarkana Reservoir on the Sulphur River in Cass and 
Bowie Counties. Adequate data were obtained to reconstruct the cul- 
tural history of each. Twelve burials were found at one of the sites, 
nine at another, and five at the third. The skeletal material will pro- 
vide good information on the physical characteristics and possible 
relationships of the people. When all the data from the excavations 
have been studied and the report is completed a gap in the knowledge 
of that Texas- Arkansas area will be filled. The results should have 
an important bearing on the problem of Caddoan influences in the 
eastern Texas region. 

Four survey reports were completed for mimeographing during the 
year. A technical report, "Archeological Excavations at the Belton 
Reservoir, Coryell County, Texas," by Edward B. Jelks and E. O. 
Miller, has been completed and will be published this fall in the 
Bulletin of the Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society. A 
general paper, "The River Basin Surveys Archeological Salvage Pro- 
gram in Texas," was prepared by Edward B. Jelks for the Texas 
Journal of Science. One technical report, completed the previous 
year, "The Hogge Bridge Site and the Wylie Focus," by Robert L. 
Stephenson, was published in American Antiquity, volume 17, No. 4, 
4pril 1952. 



SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 23 

The River Basin Surveys will do no further work in Texas since that 
is one of the projects being taken over by the National Park Service 
on July 1. Arrangements have been made, however, for the com- 
pletion of the reports on the investigations made under the direction 
and supervision of the River Basin Surveys and when the manuscripts 
are received they will be published in accordance with previous plans. 

Virginia. — All the work in Virginia during the past year was con- 
cerned with the John H. Kerr Reservoir (formerly called Buggs 
Island) on the Roanoke River. During the period from May 19 to 
June 30, 1952, test excavations were made in seven sites. One had been 
partially dug the previous year but a stratigraphic test as a counter- 
check against the earlier results was deemed advisable. Data ob- 
tained during the current activities augment those from other seasons, 
filling in certain gaps and clarifying some obscure features. From 
all the information now available a complete sequence of cultural de- 
velopments from a relatively early prepottery stage to the late pre- 
Colonial period can be described. No further work will be possible 
at the John H. Kerr Reservoir as the gates of the dam will be closed 
in July and the various sites will soon be flooded. 

Sections of the technical report pertaining to sites that were exca- 
vated in previous years have been completed. The writing of the 
report on the current investigations and the summary and conclusions 
should be completed before the end of the present calendar year. 

Future work in Virginia depends upon the program of the Corps of 
Engineers. There are proposed projects for the James and Shenan- 
doah Valleys and when they are authorized investigations will be 
needed in both. Indications are that two small reservoirs in the upper 
James drainage may be started within the next year or two. 

Cooperating institutions. — Various State and local institutions co- 
operated with the River Basin Surveys as in previous years. The Uni- 
versity of Washington and State College of Washington cooperated 
in excavations in the Columbia Basin. Space for field offices and 
laboratories for units of the surveys was provided by the Universities 
of Nebraska, Oregon, Texas, and Georgia. 

The program developed by the National Park Service whereby 
various scientific agencies carried on salvage operations on the basis 
of agreements between those agencies and the Service was continued 
throughout the year. In some cases the agreements were signed in 
the preceding year and in others the work provided for did not start 
until after the close of the fiscal year. However, during fiscal 1952 
such agreements were in force with the University of California, Uni- 
versity of Washington, University of Oregon, State College of Wash- 
ington, Montana State University, University of Missouri, University 
of South Dakota, Nebraska State Historical Society, University of 
Kansas, University of Wyoming, State Historical Society of North 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Dakota, University of Nebraska State Museum, University of Ne- 
braska Laboratory of Anthropology, University of Oklahoma, Uni- 
versity of Texas, the Museum of New Mexico, and the University of 
Mississippi. 

INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 

(Report prepared by George M. Foster) 

During the period under review one phase in the history of the In- 
stitute of Social Anthropology drew to a close, and a new one began. 
The Department of State informed the Smithsonian Institution on 
September 28, 1951, that it would terminate its support on December 
31, 1951. Following the abolition of the Inter-Departmental Com- 
mittee on Scientific and Cultural Cooperation in 1949, under whose 
auspices the Institute of Social Anthropology was established and its 
work carried out, the Institute was placed under the Division of Inter- 
national Exchange of Persons. Since the Institute did not form an 
organic part of this program, the Department of State's decision to 
terminate support was not entirely unforeseen. During the period 
July 1-December 31, 1951, operations were financed with a grant of 
$42,000 from Public Law 402. 

For some time there had been a growing feeling on the part of the 
Institute personnel that the general factual knowledge it had accumu- 
lated since 1944 should be put to some practical use. Therefore, in 
the spring of 1951 anthropological analyses of health centers sponsored 
by the Institute of Inter-American Affairs and the Ministries of 
Health in Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Brazil were carried out. The 
results of this investigation were made available in mimeographed 
form in July in a paper entitled "A Cross-Cultural Anthropological 
Analysis of a Technical Aid Program," which demonstrated to the 
satisfaction of the II A A that the anthropological knowledge and tech- 
nical methods used by anthropologists would be useful in carrying 
out United States Government technical aid programs in Latin 
America. Accordingly, in a letter dated September 28, 1951, Dr. 
Henry G. Bennett, Administrator, Technical Cooperation Administra- 
tion, asked the Institute of Social Anthropology to integrate its activ- 
ities with those of the IIAA, effective January 1, 1952. In response 
to this request the IIAA made a grant of $45,705 to enable the ISA 
to continue its activities in all four countries, with the understanding 
that Smithsonian anthropologists would be available for program 
analyses of technical aid projects. 

Individual activities of staff members are described in the separate 
country sections. The largest single enterprise consisted of participa- 
tion in a general survey of IIAA public-health programs in Latin 
America. During the spring of 1952 the IIAA decided to utilize 



SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 25 

anthropologists on a permanent basis and requested that plans be 
made to incorporate ISA personnel directly into that organization. 
This, of course, signaled the termination of ISA activities as such. 
Accordingly, the Department of State was requested to notify the 
Ministers of Foreign Relations of the cooperating countries that the 
United States would make use of the escape clauses in its memorandum 
agreements, bringing to a close as of June 30 the agreements that have 
governed ISA operations during past years. Late in June 1952, the 
IIAA asked to extend its grant to the Smithsonian Institution for 
an additional 3 months, to give time for an orderly transfer of person- 
nel. An additional $15,725 was included in the amended grant, which 
was to terminate September 30, 1952. 

Operations during the period July 1, 1951, to June 30, 1952, were 
as follows : 

Washington. — Dr. George M. Foster continued as Director of the In- 
stitute. In September he concluded arrangements with the United 
States Public Health Service and the IIAA whereby certain Institute 
of Social Anthropology staff members, as indicated below, would be 
detailed for varying periods to participate in health-program analyses. 
He spent most of October in El Salvador as a member of the team that 
was initiating this work, and gathered data from a country little 
known anthropologically. During January and February 1952, he 
visited field personnel in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, and Mexico and 
participated in the health survey in Chile. In May he went to Geneva, 
Switzerland, as an adviser on cultural problems to the American 
Delegation to the Fifth Assembly of the World Health Organization. 
In June he undertook the editorship of the full USPHS-HAA report 
on the Latin- American health survey. 

Early in October the Smithsonian Institution brought Dr. Julio 
Caro Baroja, director of the Museo del Pueblo Espaiiol in Madrid, 
to Washington for a 3 months' stay. During this period he and Dr. 
Foster were engaged in the preliminary steps of writing a major mono- 
graph on Spanish ethnography, designed to make available Hispanic 
background data to make more intelligible the modern cultures of 
Hispanic America. Dr. Caro's passage was taken care of by the 
Smithsonian Institution; his stay in the United States was made 
possible by a grant from the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthro- 
pological Research. 

Miss Lois Northcott, administrative assistant to the Director since 
1947, resigned to take a position with the Technical Cooperation Ad- 
ministration in Egypt, and her place was taken by Mrs. Virginia 
Clark, formerly with the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Brazil. — Both Dr. Donald Pierson and Dr. Kalervo Oberg contin- 
ued their teaching activities at the Escola de Sociologia e Politica in 
Sao Paulo. Dr. Pierson, as in former years, served as dean of grad- 



26 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

uate work, as co-editor of the quarterly Sociologia, and as editor of 
the book series Biblioteca de Ciencias Sociais. In addition, he was 
occupied in developing long-range plans for an elaborate cultural 
research program in the Sao Francisco Valley. The sum of 500,000 
cruzeiros was made available to the Escola by the Brazilian Govern- 
ment to carry out this work, and Dr. Pierson was asked to plan and 
direct the research. In the spring of 1952 he made several short trips 
to this area to organize field teams and initiate work. The services of 
Dr. Oberg were requested by the IIAA for analyses of some of their 
health and health-education programs in Chonin, Minas Gerais, dur- 
ing the months of July and August 1951. After concluding formal 
teaching obligations in December he again returned to Chonin, re- 
maining until April 1952. His assignment in Sao Paulo being con- 
cluded, Dr. Oberg was brought to Washington in June, preparatory 
to reassignment to Rio de Janeiro by the IIAA. Dr. Pierson elected 
not to transfer to the IIAA, and on June 30, 1952, his connection 
with the ISA was severed. 

Colombia. — Charles Erasmus continued his collaboration with the 
Colombian Government's Instituto Etnologico in Bogota. In August 
he initiated a community analysis of the mestizo village of Tota in 
the Province of Boyaea. In this work he was aided by Dr. Silva 
Celis, director of the anthropological museum in Sogamosa, and Sr. 
Silvio Yepes, member of the staff of the Instituto Etnologico. In 
November he was detailed to the United States Public Health Service 
and sent to Ecuador where he remained until January 1952. In this 
capacity he participated with the health survey group which at that 
time was working in Ecuador. He was detailed to the IIAA in May 
1952, and sent to Haiti for 6 weeks to participate, with a team of 
experts, in surveying the Artibonite Valley for planning of agricul- 
tural programs. 

Mexico. — Dr. Isabel Kelly taught two courses during the fall semes- 
ter at the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia, in Mexico City. During 
October she made a brief visit to El Salvador to consult with the 
director of the Institute regarding analyses of IIAA projects (see 
Washington), and to make comparative observations in that country. 
In November she initiated additional research on health problems in 
the Federal District, in which work she was assisted by students from 
the Escuela Nacional. This research continued until March 1952. 
In May and June of that year Dr. Kelly carried out research in ap- 
plied anthropology in the village of Cadereyta, Queretaro, where the 
IIAA desired information on the sociological effects of a new water- 
supply system. 

Dr. William Wonderly continued teaching activities through Au- 
gust, at which time he asked to be placed on leave status for the re- 
mainder of the year. In December the decision was made not to 



SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 27 

continue linguistic training as a part of the Institute of Social Anthro- 
pology program, and he left the staff to accept a position at the Uni- 
versity of Oklahoma. 

Both Drs. Kelly and Wonderly represented the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution at the Mexican Government's "Round Table" anthropological 
conference in Jalapa, Veracruz, in August. 

Peru. — Ozzie Simmons continued his teaching activities at the In- 
stitute de Estudios Etnologicos in Lima, and continued to direct 
research in the mestizo village of Lunahuana in the Caiiete Valley 
south of Lima. In December Mr. Simmons was detailed to the United 
States Public Health Service and sent to Chile to participate in the 
evaluation of IIAA health projects in that country. This work con- 
tinued until late January 1952. Mr. Simmons was brought to Wash- 
ington in April 1952, following which he took leave to defend his 
dissertation at Harvard University, where he was awarded his doc- 
torate. He returned to Lima in May to conclude his study in the 
Lunahuana Valley. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

There were issued during the year one Annual Report, four Bulle- 
tins, and one Publication of the Institute of Social Anthropology, as 
listed below: 

Sixty-eighth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1950-1951. 

ii + 40 pp. 1952. 
Bulletin 146. Chippewa child life and its cultural background, by Sister M. Inez 

Hilger. xiv+204 pp., 31 pis., 1 fig. 1951. 
Bulletin 147. Journal of an expedition to the Mauvaises Terres and the Upper 
Missouri in 1850, by Thaddeus A. Culbertson. Edited by John Francis 
McDermott. viii + 164 pp., 2 maps. 1952. 
Bulletin 148. Arapaho child life and its cultural background, by Sister M. Inez 

Hilger. xv+253 pp., 40 pis., 1 fig. 1952. 
Bulletin 149. Symposium on local diversity in Iroquois culture. Edited by 
William N. Fenton. v + 187 pp., 21 figs. 1951. 
No. 1. Introduction : The concept of locality and the program of Iroquois 

research, by William N. Fenton. 
No. 2. Concepts of land ownership among the Iroquois and their neighbors, 

by George S. Snyderman. 
No. 3. Locality as a basic factor in the development of Iroquois social 

structure, by William N. Fenton. 
No. 4. Some psychological determinants of culture change in an Iroquoian 

community, by Anthony F. C. Wallace. 
No. 5. The religion of Handsome Lake ; Its origin and development, by 

Merle H. Deardorff. 
No. 6. Local diversity in Iroquois music and dance, by Gertrude P. Kurath. 
No. 7. The Feast of the Dead, or Ghost Dance at Six Nations Reserve, 

Canada, by William N. Fenton and Gertrude P. Kurath. 
No. 8. Iroquois women, then and now, by Martha Champion Randle. 
Institute of Social Anthropology Publication No. 14. The Indian caste of Peru, 
1795-1940. A population study based upon tax records and census reports, 
by George Kubler. vi+71 pp., 2 pis., 1 fig., 20 maps. 1952. 



28 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

The following publications were in press at the close of the fiscal 
year: 

Bulletin 145. The Indian tribes of North America, by John R. Swanton. 
Bulletin 150. The modal personality of the Tusearora Indians, as revealed by 

the Rorschach test, by Anthony F. C. Wallace. 
Bulletin 151. Anthropological Papers, Nos. 33-42. 

No. 33. "Of the Crow Nation," by Edwin Thompson Denig. With bio- 
graphical sketch and footnotes by John C. Ewers. 
No. 34. The water lily in Maya art : A complex of alleged Asiatic origin, 

by Robert L. Rands. 
No. 35. The Medicine Bundles of the Florida Seminole and the Green Corn 

Dance, by Louis Capron. 
No. 36. Technique in the music of the American Indian, by Frances 

Densmore. 
No. 37. The belief of the Indians in a connection between song and the 

supernatural, by Frances Densmore. 
No. 38. Aboriginal fish poisons, by Robert F. Heizer. 
No. 39. Aboriginal navigation off the coast of Upper and Baja California, 

by Robert F. Heizer and William C. Massey. 
No. 40. Exploration of the Adena Mound at Natrium, W. Va., by Ralph 

S. Solecki. 
No. 41. The Wind River Shoshone Sun Dance, by D. B. Shimkin. 
No. 42. Current trends in the Wind River Shoshone Sun Dance, by Fred 
Voget. 
Bulletin 152. Index to Schoolcraft's "Indian Tribes of the United States," com- 
piled by Frances S. Nichols. 
Bulletin 153. La Venta, Tabasco: A study of Ohnec ceramics and art, by Philip 

Drucker. 
Bulletin 154. River Basin Surveys Papers: Inter- Agency Archeological Salvage 
Program. Nos. 1-6. 
No. 1. Prehistory and the Missouri Valley Development Program : Sum- 
mary report on the Missouri River Basin Archeological Survey in 19-18, 
by Waldo R. Wedel. 
No. 2. Prebistory and the Missouri Valley Development Program: Sum- 
mary report on the Missouri River Basin Archeological Survey in 1949, 
by Waldo R. Wedel. 
No. 3. The Woodruff Ossuary, a prehistoric burial site in Phillips County, 

Kans., by Marvin F. Kivett. 
No. 4. The Addicks Dam site : 

I. An archeological survey of the Addicks Dam basin, Southeast Texas 
by Joe Ben Wheat. 
II. Indian skeletal remains from the Doering and Kobs sites, Addicks 
Reservoir, Texas, by Marsball T. Newman. 
No. 5. The Hodges site : 

I. Two rock shelters near Tucumcari, N. Mex., by Herbert W. Dick. 
II. Geology of the Hodges site, Quay County, N. Mex., by Sheldon Judson. 
No. 6. The Rembert mounds, Elbert County, Ga., by Joseph R. Caldwell. 
Appendix. List of River Basin Surveys reports published in other series. 
Bulletin 155. Settlement patterns in the Viru Valley, Peru, by Gordon R. Willey. 
Bulletin 156. The Iroquois Eagle Dance, an offshoot of the Calumet Dance, by 
William N. Fenton, with an analysis of the Iroquois Eagle Dance and songs, 
by Gertrude Prokosch Kurath. 



SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 29 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publication No. 13. The Tajin Totonac : Part 1. 
History, subsistence, shelter, and technology, by Isabel Kelly and Angel 
Palerm. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publication No. 15. Indian tribes of Northern 
Mato Grosso, Brazil, by Kalervo Oberg. With appendix by Marshall New- 
man, entitled "Anthropometry of the Umotina, Nambicuara, and Iranxe, 
with comparative data from other northern Mato Grosso tribes." 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publication No. 16. Penny capitalism : A Guate- 
malan Indian economy, by Sol Tax. 

Publications distributed totaled 21,505, as compared with 22,377 
for the fiscal year 1951. 

ARCHIVES 

Miss Mae W. Tucker, archivist for the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology, retired at the end of February 1952 after nearly 27 years' 
service with the Institution. 

Notable additions to the collections during the fiscal year were the 
diaries of John K. Hillers, who accompanied Maj. J. W. Powell on 
his famous voyage through the Grand Canyon of the Colorado in 
1871 and 1872. Mr. Hillers, who became photographer for the ex- 
pedition, kept a full daily record of the expedition, which constitutes 
a most valuable addition to our knowledge of this famous adventure. 
The diaries were presented to the Bureau by Mrs. J. K. Hillers of 
Washington, D. C, daughter-in-law of the author. 

Mrs. Alice Norvell Hunt, of Washington, D. C., presented to the 
Bureau an interesting collection of early photographs of western In- 
dians collected by her father while an army officer in the West and 
Southwest. Comprising photographs made by Baker and Johnston ; 
Addison of Fort Sill, Oklahoma Territory; O. S. Goff, Dickinson, 
N. Dak.; A. S. Goff, Fort Custer, Mont; Chr. Barthelmess, Fort 
Keogh, Mont. ; and Chase Thorne, El Paso, the 46 prints, including 
a number of famous Indians, are all new to the collections. 

William H. Myer, of Washington, D. C, and Mrs. Annie Lee 
Myer Turner, of Carthage, Tenn., presented a book containing 75 
drawings by Indians of the Southern Plains. The book was acquired 
about the year 1880 by Capt. David N. McDonald and was later 
purchased by W. E. Myer, father of the donors. 

Mrs. J. C. Cardell, of Lenoir, N. C, presented a Mohawk dictionary 
of 973 pages with French equivalents. It is in the dialect spoken at 
Lake of Two Mountains, Caughnawaga and St. Kegis in the Province 
of Quebec, Canada, and is the work of Kev. J. A. Cuoc. It was 
obtained later by Jeremiah Curtain, father of the donor. 

Henry Lookout, of Pawhuska, Okla., son of the late Fred Lookout, 
last principal chief of the Osage Nation, sent to the Bureau on 
indefinite loan a group of papers relating to the history of the Osage 
Nation, passed down from father to son for generations. Among the 



30 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

documents is a treaty of peace between the United States, the Osage 
Nations, and the Missouri and Arkansas Tribes, signed in 1815 at 
Portage des Sioux in what is now St. Charles County, Mo. In addi- 
tion to the many Indian seals and signatures, it carries the signatures 
of William Clark, of Lewis and Clark expedition fame, Ninian 
Edwards, governor of the Territory of Illinois, and Auguste Chouteau, 
principal figure of the early fur trade in the West. Also included in 
the material from Mr. Lookout is a Jefferson medal of 1801, made 
for presentation to Indian leaders. These are extremely rare since 
they were usually buried with their recipient. 

COLLECTIONS 

Ace. No. 

191398. Mold and finished face mask of Frances Densmore, made by Micka in 1912. 

192S29. Cornhusk ceremonial mask, Grand River Iroquois, Ontario, Canada, 

probably collected by J. N. B. Hewitt. 
(Through Dr. M. W. Stirling) Ceremonial and historical wampum of 

the Iroquois, collected in 192S-29 by J. N. B. Hewitt at the Six Nations 

Reserve, Ontario, Canada. 
192830. Shell necklace used in the Tutelo adoption ceremony, collected in 1941 

by W. N. Fenton. 

FKOM RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

193461. Skeletal and archeological material from sites Mc44 and Ha6, Buggs 

Island Reservoir, Roanoke River, near Clarksville, Va. 
191031. (Through Dr. F. H. H. Roberts, Jr.) Vertebrate material collected by 

Dr. Theodore E. White, May 1951, Garza-Little Elm Dam, north fork 

of Trinity River, Denton County, Tex. 
191587. Fossil vertebrate material from Oligocene and Miocene deposits in the 

Canyon Ferry Reservoir area, Montana, collected by Dr. Theodore E. 

White, July 1951. 

192062. 5 fossil vertebrates including mammals, reptiles, and fishes, from 

Garrison Reservoir area near Williston, N. Dak., collected by Dr. 
Theodore E. White, August 1951. 

192063. 1 mosasaur skeleton and shark teeth from Pierre formation, Upper 

Cretaceous, in Oahe Reservoir area near Pierre, S. Dak., collected by 

Dr. Theodore E. White, August 1951. 
193460. Tympanic bullae of kangaroo rat from near Pierre, S. Dak. 
193S35. (Through R. L. Stephenson) Approximately 120 land mollusks from 

Texas. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Director. 
Dr. A. Wetmore, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



U S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1953 



Seventieth Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 

ETHNOLOGY 
i 

1952-1953 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



SEVENTIETH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1952-1953 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1954 



U.S. J^»Jdt*J*~Jr f &"■"»** 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
June 30, 1953 

Director. — Matthew W. Stirling. 

Associate Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Anthropologists. — H. B. Collins, Jr., Philip Druckeb. 

Ethnologist. — John P. Harrington. 

Collaborators. — Frances Densmore, John R. Swanton, A. J. Waring, Jr., 

Ralph S. Solecki. 
Scientific Illustrator. — E. G. Schumacher. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Arch eolog 1st s. — Paul L. Cooper, Robert B. Cumming, Jr., Franklin Fenenga, 

Donald D. Hartle, Carl F. Miller, John E. Mills, G. Hubert Smith, Ralph 

S. Solecki, Robert L. Stephenson, Richard P. Wheeler. 
Geologist. — Theodore E. White. 

ii 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Director 



Sir : I have the h nor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Amer- 
ican Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1953, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of April 10, 1928, as amended 
August 22, 1949, which provides ". . . to continue independently or 
in cooperation anthropological researches among the Ajnerican In- 
dians and the natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection 
of the United States and the excavation and preservation of 
archeologic remains." 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

On January 28 Dr. M. W. Stirling, Director of the Bureau, left 
for Panama on the fourth National Geographic Society-Smithsonian 
Institution archeological expedition to Panama. From February 13 
to March 1 the expedition was in Darien where 2 weeks were spent 
on the Sambu River studying the little-known Choco Indians. The 
fact that their territory was opened for settlement only 2 years 
ago offered unusual opportunity to study the beginnings of the ac- 
culturation process. Following this, Dr. Stirling spent a month in 
archeological work on the islands of the Gulf of Panama, with head- 
quarters on Taboga Island. Excavations in shell-midden sites were 
conducted on Taboga and Taboguilla Islands and a large burial site 
in a rock shelter on Uraba was investigated. He spent the first half 
of April on Almirante Bay in the Province of Bocas del Toro where 
he examined midden and cave sites and made test excavations. He re- 
turned to Washington on April 20. 

Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Associate Director of the Bureau, 
was occupied most of the year with the management of the River 
Basin Surveys, of which he is Director. In August he went to Lin- 
coln, Nebr., to inspect the headquarters of the Missouri Basin project, 
whence, accompanied by Ralph D. Brown, chief of the Missouri Basin 
project, and Dr. Gordon C. Baldwin, archeologist from the Region 
2 office of the National Park Service at Omaha, Nebr., he proceeded 
to the Harlan County Reservoir project in south-central Nebraska 
where he visited the excavating party from the Laboratory of An- 
thropology of the University of Nebraska, under the direction of 
Dr. John L. Champe. The work at the Harlan County Reservoir was 

l 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

a cooperative undertaking between the Laboratory of Anthropology 
and the Inter- Agency Archeological Salvage Program. While there 
the party examined several sites which had been excavated during the 
summer or were then being dug. From Dr. Champe's camp the party 
proceeded to Medicine Creek Eeservoir, near Cambridge, Nebr., where 
E. Mott Davis of the Nebraska State Museum, University of Nebraska, 
was carrying on another cooperative project, excavating a site con- 
taining material belonging in the Early Man category. From Medi- 
cine Creek Dr. Koberts and his associates went to Denver, Colo., where 
they conferred with officials in the regional office of the Bureau of 
Reclamation. From Denver they went to Laramie, Wyo., where they 
examined and studied a collection of specimens from excavations 
carried on by Dr. William Mulloy of the University of Wyoming 
at the Keyhole Reservoir. The latter work was also a cooperative 
project. From Laramie the party went to Cody, Wyo., where it spent 
2 days at the Horner site where a joint party from the Smithsonian 
Institution and Princeton University, under the leadership of Dr. 
Waldo R. Wedel and Dr. Glenn L. Jepsen, was collecting interesting 
new evidence on one of the early hunting groups in the Plains area. 
From Cody, Dr. Roberts and his companions went to Billings, Mont., 
to confer with regional officials of the Bureau of Reclamation about 
the various projects underway or contemplated in that portion of 
the Missouri Basin. At Billings the party was joined by John L. 
Cotter from the Washington office of the National Park Service. 
From Billings, they went to the Garrison Reservoir in North Dakota 
where they inspected the excavations being conducted by River Basin 
Surveys parties at the site of Fort Berthold II and an early his- 
toric Indian village on the top of a small butte near Elbowoods, 
N. Dak. The group then went on to Bismarck, N. Dak., where it 
examined and studied materials which had been collected by a party 
from the North Dakota State Historical Society at the site of the 
Indian village which was adjacent to Fort Berthold II. From Bis- 
marck the party proceeded to Jamestown where the River Basin Sur- 
veys were excavating a village site and some mounds in the area 
to be flooded by the Jamestown Reservoir. It then proceeded to 
the Oahe Dam of the Oahe Reservoir near Pierre, S. Dak., where 
two River Basin Surveys groups were digging. One of the latter was 
at work in the remains of a fortified village a short distance above 
the dam while the other was occupied at an earlier site some miles 
upstream. From Pierre, Dr. Roberts and his associates went to the 
Fort Randall Reservoir where another River Basin Surveys party 
was digging in two sites. En route they stopped and inspected a 
site where the University of Kansas had carried on a cooperative 
excavation project during the earlier part of the season. From Fort 
Randall the group returned to the headquarters at Lincoln where 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 3 

several days were spent in examining and studying collections coming 
in from the various field parties. At that time Dr. Roberts assisted 
Mr. Brown in preparing plans for the termination of the various field 
parties and for the fall and winter work at the laboratory in Lincoln. 

Dr. Roberts returned to the field office at Lincoln in September 
following the accidental death of Mr. Brown, and for a period of 2 
weeks took charge of the operations there, supervising the termination 
of the field projects and the return of personnel and equipment to 
the field headquarters. At that time he also reviewed and edited a 
number of preliminary reports on reconnaissance surveys, and ap- 
proved them for mimeographing and distribution. 

In December Dr. Roberts went to St. Louis to attend the annual 
meetings of the American x\ssociation for the Advancement of Science 
and gave the retiring address as chairman of Section H, speaking on 
the subject "Progress in the Inter- Agency Archeological and Anthro- 
pological Salvage Program in the United States." In May he at- 
tended the meetings of the Society for American Archeology at 
Urbana, 111., taking part in a number of discussions pertaining to the 
work in the Plains area. Later in the month he went to Lincoln, 
Nebr., to take part in a meeting of the Missouri Basin Inter- Agency 
Field Committee. In January he completed a manuscript, "Earliest 
Men in America, Their Arrival and Spread in Late Pleistocene and 
Post Pleistocene Times," for the International Commission for a 
Scientific and Cultural History of Mankind. During the year Dr. 
Roberts received an alumni award from the University of Denver for 
distinguished service in the field of American archeology. 

Dr. Henry B. Collins, anthropologist, continued his Eskimo studies 
and other Arctic activities. He continued to serve as a member of 
the National Research Council's Committee on International Relations 
in Anthropology and was appointed a member of the Permanent 
Council of the International Congress of Anthropological and Ethno- 
logical Sciences, to participate in planning for the next session of the 
Congress, to be held in Philadelphia in 1954. 

As a member of the Board of Governors of the Arctic Institute of 
North America Dr. Collins attended several meetings of the Board 
and of the executive committee held in Montreal, Ottawa, and Wash- 
ington. As chairman of the directing committee of the Arctic Bib- 
liography, he continued to supervise the operation of this project and 
made arrangements with the Department of the Air Force for support 
of the work during the present and coming fiscal years and for the 
publication of the material assembled in 1952 and 1953. The Arctic 
Bibliography is being prepared for the Department of Defense by the 
Arctic Institute under contract with the Office of Naval Research. It 
describes, and indexes by topic and region, the contents of 24,000 
publications in all fields of science relating to the Arctic and sub- 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Arctic regions of America, Siberia, and Europe. About 40 percent 
of the material is in English, 30 percent in Russian, and the rest mainly 
in Scandinavian, Finnish, German, and French. The first 3 volumes 
of the Bibliography, of approximately 1,500 pages each, will be issued 
as a publication of the Department of the Army in July 1953. A 
fourth volume of the same size, representing the work of the past 2 
years, was turned over to the printer at the end of the present fiscal 
year. 

Dr. Collins participated in the preparation of a Program of His- 
tory of America, which the Comision de Historia of Mexico is or- 
ganizing under the sponsorship of the Rockefeller Foundation. In 
January he attended a meeting in Havana at which plans for the 
program were discussed, and prepared a paper on the subject assigned 
to him — the Arctic Area — which summarized existing knowledge of 
the archeology, ethnology, physical anthropology, and history of the 
Eskimo and Indian tribes of the American Arctic. 

On June 23 Dr. Collins and his assistant, William E. Taylor, were 
flown by the R. C. A. F. from Montreal to Cornwallis Island in the 
Canadian Arctic Archipelago to conduct further archeological ex- 
cavations for the National Museum of Canada and the Smithsonian 
Institution. The principal objective of the work is to obtain addi- 
tional information on the prehistoric Dorset culture, traces of which 
were found there, with Thule culture remains, by Dr. Collins and Mr. 
Taylor in 1950 and 1951. 

The beginning of the fiscal year found Dr. John P. Harrington, eth- 
nologist, engaged in the preparation of a study of the Abenaki In- 
dians of Maine, Quebec, and formerly also of Vermont, who speak the 
nearest related living language to the extinct tongue of the Massa- 
chusetts Indians, in whose language the Eliot Bible was written. The 
two tongues were so closely akin that an Indian speaking one could 
with a little practice have understood the other. A complete treatise 
on the Abenaki has been assembled, including unique lists of the terms 
referring to their culture, and the material awaits completion of the 
typing to make it ready for the printer. 

On December 20 Dr. Harrington proceeded to Santa Barbara, Calif., 
where he continued his studies of the Chumash Indians of the Santa 
Barbara Channel region. In 1542 the Cabrillo Expedition visited 
these shores, and, contrary to the custom of the time, put on record 
about 42 place names, nearly all of which can be identified. All the 
sites along the coast were visited. The coming of Cabrillo antedated 
that of the Pilgrim Fathers to what is now Massachusetts by nearly 
80 years, and the Indian words written down are far older than any 
others recorded in California. During the four centuries which have 
elapsed since Cabrillo came, the language has evidently changed but 
little. Through good fortune Dr. Harrington was able to locate the 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

long-looked- for chapel of Saxpilil and to identify the site of the vil- 
lage of Coloc. On April 20, 1953, he returned to Washington. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. Philip Drucker, anthropolo- 
gist, was in Washington continuing his studies of Meso-American 
archeology. During the latter part of the summer he began prepara- 
tions for an acculturational study in southeast Alaska. On Septem- 
ber 30 he left Washington for Juneau, Alaska, where he began his 
investigation of the development and function of the highly interest- 
ing intertribal organization of Alaskan Indians known as the Alaska 
Native Brotherhood. In November he had the good fortune to be in- 
vited to attend the annual convention of this organization at Hoonah, 
Alaska, in the role of an observer. On the first of December he re- 
turned to Washington and began preparation of a report on the study 
just completed. 

Shortly after the first of the year Dr. Drucker went to Mexico, D. F., 
where he conferred with officials of the Mexican Government and ob- 
tained the necessary permits to enable him to carry out a program 
of archeological reconnaissance in the Olmec area of western Tabasco 
and southern Veracruz. This research project was sponsored jointly 
by the Smithsonian Institution and the Wenner-Gren Foundation for 
Anthropological Research. At the end of January he departed for 
the field where he continued his investigations until the middle of May. 
He returned to Mexico City to make arrangements for the exportation 
of the ceramic samples collected in the course of the survey, the study 
of which should make it possible to identify as to culture affiliation 
each of the 70-some-odd archeological sites discovered and tested in the 
course of the trip. On June 10 he left for Washington, D. C. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 1 
(Report prepared by Fkank H. H. Roberts, Jr.) 

As in previous years the investigations of the River Basin Surveys 
were carried on in cooperation with the National Park Service and the 
Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of the Interior, the Corps of 
Engineers of the Department of the Army, and various State and local 
institutions. During the fiscal year 1952-53 the work was financed 
by a transfer of $122,700 from the National Park Service to the Smith- 
sonian Institution. Included were $111,065 for investigations in the 
Missouri Basin and $11,635 for all other areas where projects were 
underway. An additional $50,294 in carryover of previous funds was 
also available for the Missouri Basin, making a total of $161,359 for 
that area. The over-all total for the fiscal year, including an unex- 
pended balance of $3,390, was $172,994. That amount was approxi- 



1 See article by Dr. Roberts in 1951 Smithsonian Report, pp. 351-383, for a 5-year summary 
of the River Basin Surveys work. 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

mately 26 percent less than for the preceding year and necessitated a 
corresponding reduction in operations. 

Field investigations consisted of reconnaissance or surveys for 
locating archeological sites and paleontological deposits that will be 
affected by construction work, or are located in areas that will be 
flooded, and the excavation of sites that previous survey parties had 
observed and recorded. Following the trend of the preceding year 
there was much greater emphasis on excavation because the survey 
parties had in large measure caught up with the general program and 
there were fewer proposed reservoir areas requiring preliminary 
study. Keconnaissance parties visited 6 new reservoir basins located 
in 3 States. Further surveys were made in 7 reservoir areas where 
some preliminary studies had previously been carried on. They were 
in 5 different States. At the end of the fiscal year excavations were 
completed or were underway in 6 reservoir basins in 4 States. During 
the course of the year there were nine excavating parties in the field. 
Four of them were in areas where there had been no digging previously. 
The other five continued investigations at reservoir projects where 
work was started during prior field seasons. A paleontological party 
collected materials and made geologic studies in 4 reservoir basins in 3 
States. By June 30, 1953, reservoir areas where archeological surveys 
had been made or excavations carried on since the start of the program 
in 1946 totaled 241 in 27 States. One lock project and four canal 
areas were also investigated. The survey parties have located and 
recorded 3,469 archeological sites, and of that number 852 have been 
recommended for excavation or limited testing. Preliminary ap- 
praisal reports were completed for all the reservoirs surveyed, and 
where additional reconnaissance has resulted in the discovery of fur- 
ther sites supplemental reports have been prepared. Some of those 
finished during the fiscal year, together with others completed toward 
the end of the previous year, were mimeographed for limited distribu- 
tion to the cooperating agencies. In the course of the year 23 such 
reports were issued. The total number distributed since the start of 
the program is 172. The variance between that figure and the total 
number of reservoirs investigated is partially attributable to the 
fact that in a number of cases a whole series of reservoirs occurring 
in a basin or subbasin has been included in a single report. Other 
completed manuscripts had not yet been mimeographed at the end of 
the year. Excavations carried on during the year brought the total 
for reservoir projects where such investigations have been made to 42 
located in 17 different States. The results of certain phases of some 
of that work have appeared in various scientific journals, and Bulletin 
154 of the Bureau of American Ethnology, River Basin Surveys 
Papers, containing 6 reports, was ready for release on June 30, 1953. 
Detailed technical reports on 10 additional excavation projects have 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

been completed and are ready for publication. Paleontological sur- 
veys have been made in 121 reservoir areas. Archeological work has 
also been done in 88 of them and the remaining 33 will eventually be 
visited by archeological parties. The total of all reservoir basins 
surveyed, including those where archeological studies are still to bo 
made, is 273. 

The reservoir projects that had been surveyed for archeological re- 
mains, as of June 30, 1953, were distributed by States as follows: 
Alabama, 1 ; California, 20 ; Colorado, 24; Georgia, 4; Idaho, 11 ; Illi- 
nois, 2 ; Kansas, 10 ; Kentucky, 1 ; Louisiana, 1 ; Minnesota, 1 ; Missis- 
sippi, 1 ; Montana, 15 ; Nebraska, 28 ; New Mexico, 1 ; North Dakota, 
13 ; Ohio, 2 ; Oklahoma, 7 ; Oregon, 27 ; Pennsylvania, 2 ; South Da- 
kota, 9; Tennessee, 3; Texas, 19; Virginia, 2; Washington, 11; West 
Virginia, 2; Wyoming, 21. Excavations have been made or were 
being made in reservoir basins in: California, 5; Colorado, 1; 
Georgia, 4; Kansas, 3; Montana, 1; Nebraska, 1; New Mexico, 1; 
North Dakota, 4 ; Oklahoma, 2 ; Oregon, 2 ; South Carolina, 1 ; South 
Dakota, 3 ; Texas, 7 ; Virginia, 1 ; Washington, 3 ; West Virginia, 1 ; 
Wyoming, 2. Only the work of the River Basin Surveys or that in 
which there was direct cooperation with local institutions is included 
in the foregoing figures. Projects that were in direct cooperation 
with the National Park Service or were carried on by local institutions 
alone are not included because complete information about them was 
not available. 

The River Basin Surveys continued to receive extensive and helpful 
cooperation during the year from the National Park Service, the 
Bureau of Reclamation, the Corps of Engineers, and various State 
and local institutions. Detailed maps of the reservoirs under investi- 
gation were supplied by the agency concerned and at a number of 
projects temporary office and laboratory rooms, as well as dwelling 
facilities, were provided. For survey work in Tennessee guides and 
transportation were furnished by the Corps of Engineers and the same 
source made transportation available at a series of excavations in 
Georgia. The work of the River Basin Surveys men was made much 
easier by the assistance of the field personnel of the other agencies and 
their accomplishments were much greater than they would have been 
without that help. As in other years, the National Park Service 
functioned as the liaison between the various agencies both in Wash- 
ington and in the field. Through its several regional offices it secured 
information about the locations for dams and reservoirs and data on 
their construction priorities. The National Park Service also was 
mainly responsible for the preparation of estimates and justifications 
and procurement of funds for carrying on the program. The en- 
thusiastic cooperation of Park Service personnel was a definite aid in 
all phases of the operations. 

282736—54 2 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

The main office in Washington directed and supervised the work in 
the east and south, while that in the Missouri Basin was under the 
supervision of a field headquarters and laboratory at Lincoln, Nebr. 
The materials collected by survey and excavating parties in the east 
and south were processed in Washington. Those from the Missouri 
Basin were handled at the Lincoln laboratory. 

Washington office. — The main headquarters of the Kiver Basin 
Surveys continued under the direction of Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, 
Jr., throughout the year. Carl F. Miller and Ralph S. Solecki, 
archeologists, were based on that office, although Solecki was trans- 
ferred to the Missouri Basin Project early in July and continued 
there until October when he returned to Washington. Late in No- 
vember he was granted leave of absence to accept a Fulbright Scholar- 
ship for archeological investigations in Iraq. He was appointed a 
collaborator of the Smithsonian Institution and from March until 
the end of June conducted excavations financed jointly by the Iraq 
Government and the Smithsonian Institution. 

At the start of the fiscal year Mr. Miller was in the office working 
on material obtained the latter part of the previous year at the John 
H. Kerr Reservoir (Buggs Island) on the Roanoke River in southern 
Virginia. During July he spent several days inspecting a site near 
Cambridge, Md., where a large mound attributable to the Adena 
culture was being destroyed by a housing development. In August he 
made a brief survey of the Demopolis Reservoir basin on the Warrior 
River in Alabama and checked on several sites in the Grenada Reser- 
voir on the Yalobusha River in Mississippi. In October he took part 
in the Southeastern Archeological Conference held at Macon, Ga., 
and in November made all arrangements for the annual meeting of the 
Eastern States Archeological Federation which met in Washington. 
During the autumn months he completed his technical report on the 
excavations that he made at the Fort Lookout Trading Post site in 
the Fort Randall Reservoir basin in South Dakota while on loan to 
the Missouri Basin Project the previous year. He also finished cer- 
tain revisions in the completed technical report on work at the Alla- 
toona Reservoir on the Etowah River in Georgia. He revised a paper 
on Indian pottery types of Pissaseck, Va., for publication in the 
Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Late in December 
Mr. Miller visited the Bluestone Reservoir on New River near Hinton, 
W. Va., to ascertain the exact status of the reservoir pool and what the 
situation was with respect to sites that had been recommended for 
excavation and testing when a survey was made of the area in 1948. 
During January and February he studied materials from his exca- 
vations at the John H. Kerr Reservoir and worked on his technical 
report for that project. From March 9 to June 6 he conducted exca- 
vations at four sites in the Jim Woodruff Reservoir area on the Flint 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 9 

River in southern Georgia, and gave a number of talks on the River 
Basin Surveys program before local groups both in Georgia and 
northern Florida. 

Dr. Theodore E. White, geologist, divided his time between the 
Washington office and the Missouri Basin. From November 12, 1952, 
to March 30, 1953, he was in Washington, cleaning, cataloging, and 
identifying the small mammals he had collected during the field sea- 
son. In addition he identified three lots of bone from archeological 
sites in the Columbia Basin and one lot from a site excavated by a 
cooperating agency in the Missouri Basin. He completed a series of 
five papers on "Observations on the Butchering Technique of Some 
Aboriginal People" and was a joint author, with C. M. Barber, of a 
sixth. All have been submitted for publication in American An- 
tiquity. He also finished a manuscript, "Endocrine Glands and Evo- 
lution, No. 3," for the journal Evolution. Two other papers, "Lith- 
ology, Distribution and Correlation of the Alachua Formation of 
Florida" and "Lithology, Distribution and Correlation of the Bone 
Valley Formation of Florida," were submitted to the Committee on the 
Nomenclature and Correlation of North American Continential Ter- 
tiary. Three papers by Dr. White were published during the year. 
They were: "A Method of Calculating the Dietary Percentage of 
Various Food Animals Utilized by Aboriginal Peoples," American 
Antiquity, vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 396-98; "Collecting Osteological Mate- 
rial," Plains Archeological Conference News Letter, vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 
3-7; and "Studying Osteological Material," ibid., pp. 8-15. 

Alabama. — An archeological reconnaissance of the Demopolis 
Reservoir basin on the Warrior River made August 5-7, 1952, showed 
that although archeological remains are present in the area they 
would be little affected by flooding in the bottomlands. No excava- 
tions were recommended for the project. 

Georgia. — During the period from March 9 to June 6, 1953, surveys 
and excavations were carried on along the Flint River, in southern 
Georgia, in a portion of the area that will be flooded by the Jim Wood- 
ruff Dam situated in the Apalachicola River, just below the junction 
of the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers, in northern Florida. Carl 
F. Miller completely excavated 2 sites, partially excavated 2 others, 
and located 25 sites not previously listed by the University of Georgia 
when it made the preliminary survey there. One of the excavated 
sites, Montgomery Fields (9DrlO) , was basically Weeden Island in its 
relationships but contained a number of traits not previously reported 
for that culture. The floor pattern of a fairly large rectangular struc- 
ture that had been formed by individual posts, each set in its own hole, 
was uncovered, and outlines of a number of small circular structures 
suggesting the same type of construction were found. The large 
feature probably was a dwelling, while the smaller ones were either 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

sweat houses or menstrual huts. There were some 30 midden or roast- 
ing pits associated with the house remains. One dog burial was found 
but no human remains. Underlying the Weeden Island material was 
a nonceramic level characterized by stone artifacts in which projectile 
points were the predominant form. The latter differ from previously 
known types from preceramic levels in the area and may indicate a 
separate culture. A slightly different variant of Weeden Island cul- 
ture was found at the Lusk Springs site (9Dr21), which was thor- 
oughly tested but not completely excavated. 

The second site was on the south bank of the Flint River 2y 2 miles 
east of Hutchinson's Ferry Landing. An extensive deposit of shells 
located there had been recorded as a single site (9Dr29) but actually 
proved to be two (designated A and B) . Unit A was found to contain 
a straight Weeden Island II component, while Unit B represented a 
Weeden Island I component with an underlying deposit of Santa 
Rosa-Swift Creek materials. About 150 yards east of 9Dr29 early 
spring floodwaters in the Flint River exposed another small site 
(9Dr37) . The deposits at that location were widely scattered and had 
very little depth. From various eroded pits and subsequent test dig- 
ging, however, a series of Deptford, Swift Creek, and Weeden Island 
I potsherds were recovered, which makes possible the placing of the site 
in the cultural sequence for the area. During the course of his surveys 
Mr. Miller joined in the search for the historically significant location 
of Apalachicola Fort or Cherokeeleechee's Fort at the junction of the 
Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers. That town was established in 171G 
by the Apalachicola when, as a result of the Yamasee war, they moved 
back from the Savannah River in South Carolina to the territory they 
had formerly occupied in southern Georgia. Their chief at that time 
was named Cherokeeleechee or "Cherokee Killer," and his town fre- 
quently goes by the same designation. Not many years later the group 
withdrew to a new location farther up the Chattahoochee. Mr. Miller 
tested one site tentatively identified as that of the fort but did not find 
evidence to support such a possibility. 

During the period that Mr. Miller was working in the Jim Woodruff 
area Joseph R. Caldwell, archeologist of the National Park Service, 
was digging at a productive site on the Chattahoochee River known as 
Fairchild's Landing. Considerable new material was found there in 
a series of stratified shell deposits. Several phases of the Weeden 
Island culture are represented, and at one end of the site were some 
early historic remains. Caldwell's data and those of Miller should 
serve as cross checks and definitely establish all Weeden Island charac- 
teristics for the area. In the region adjacent to Fairchild's Landing 
Mr. Caldwell observed evidence of a possible historic Indian site which 
may represent one of the several "Fowl Towns" mentioned in various 
documents. Mr. Caldwell also took part in the search for Apalachi- 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 11 

cola. Dr. Mark F. Boyd, of the Florida Historical Society, through 
an agreement between the National Park Service and the Society, 
made a historic-site survey of the whole reservoir basin, working in 
conjunction with Miller and Caldwell in a number of instances. Dr. 
Arthur Kelly, of the University of Georgia, cooperated in all the 
recent activities, giving Caldwell and Miller the benefit of the knowl- 
edge he obtained while making a general survey of the Jim Woodruff 
area in previous years. He also helped Dr. Boyd with his historic- 
sites investigations. 

During June excavations were carried on by Ripley P. Bullen in 
the small portion of the Jim Woodruff Reservoir lying in Florida, 
under a cooperative agreement between the National Park Service and 
the Florida State Museum of the University of Florida. Mr. Bullen 
and his party dug one site near the dam, finding four superimposed 
occupation levels separated by sterile zones. The bottom level yielded 
quantities of lithic materials and definitely represented a preceramic 
culture. The next higher cultural layer contained sherds from fiber- 
tempered pottery, fragments from steatite vessels, and numerous stone 
artifacts. The latter, Mr. Bullen reported, constitute many times the 
number of previously documented worked-stone specimens from the 
fiber-tempered period in all Florida. The third occupation level was 
found to belong to the Deptford cultural horizon. The upper layer 
contained village remains of the Fort Walton period. Associated with 
that occupation were four "specialized" pits containing charred ker- 
nels of corn. The evidence from the site will be extremely important 
to Florida archeology because it is the first place that a fiber-tempered 
complex has been found in situ in west Florida and is only the second 
place where undisturbed Fort Walton village material has been avail- 
able for extensive study. Investigations at three other sites produced 
materials that will help in filling the gap between the Deptford and 
Fort Walton periods at the large site. One of the three indicated a 
Weeden Island period and another a Kolomoki complex. That is the 
first time "pure" Kolomoki remains have been found in Florida. 

Mississippi. — The Grenada Reservoir area on the Yalobusha River 
in Mississippi had been surveyed for archeological remains during a 
previous fiscal year by the University of Mississippi operating under a 
cooperative agreement with the National Park Service. Upon the com- 
pletion of that survey 4 of the 51 sites found were recommended for 
excavation. To determine whether digging there was more essential 
than in some other areas, several of the sites were examined during 
August 25-27, 1952. It was finally decided that the meager funds 
available for digging might be used to better advantage in districts 
where less was known about the cultural manifestations, particularly 
so since there is a considerable number of sites in the Grenada basin 
that will not be affected and can be investigated at some future date. 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Missouri Basin. — The Missouri Basin Project continued to operate 
throughout fiscal 1953 from the field headquarters at Lincoln, Nebr. 
Ralph D. Brown served as chief of the project from July 1 to Septem- 
ber 7, when he died as the result of an accident. On September 22, 
Robert L. Stephenson, who had been on leave from the River Basin 
Surveys' staff, returned to active duty and was assigned to the super- 
vision of the project, serving as acting chief throughout the remainder 
of the year. In the interval from September 7 to 22, Dr. Frank H. H. 
Roberts, Jr., was in direct charge of the Lincoln office. Activities dur- 
ing the year were concerned with all four phases of the salvage pro- 
gram. There were preliminary surveys; excavations; processing of 
the collections obtained from the digging, analyses and study of the 
materials, and the preparation of general and technical manuscripts 
on the results ; and the publication and dissemination of scientific and 
popular reports. Most of the work was in the second and third phases. 
Much of phase 1 was finished in previous years and phase 4 will not get 
into full swing until more of phase 3 is completed. At the start of 
the year there was a permanent staff for the Missouri Basin Project 
of 20 persons. In addition there were 4 temporary part-time em- 
ployees assisting in the laboratory. Through July and August and 
part of September 6 temporary assistant archeologists, 60 temporary 
student laborers, and 25 local nonstudent laborers were employed in 
the field. During the summer season 11 of the regular staff were also 
engaged in fieldwork. As the surveys and excavations were brought 
to a close the temporary employees were gradually laid off and by the 
first of November only the permanent staff of 20 and a temporary 
draftsman-illustrator were on the rolls. In May it became evident 
that a much more limited budget would be available for 1954 and that 
a reduction in force would be necessary. Consequently by the close of 
the day's work on June 30 the staff had been reduced to 11 persons. 

On May 18 and 19 the Interior Missouri Basin Field Committee, 
consisting of representatives from all the agencies of the Department 
of the Interior concerned with the over- all Missouri Basin program, 
held its 61st regular meeting at the River Basin Surveys' head- 
quarters on the campus of the University of Nebraska, at the invitation 
of the Missouri Basin Project and the Laboratory of Anthropology of 
the University. The first session was devoted to routine business, but 
during the evening of May 18 the members visited the Surveys' labo- 
ratory located in the business section of Lincoln and heard Mr. 
Stephenson explain in detail the mechanics of the field and laboratory 
work of the salvage program. A series of exhibits of fossil speci- 
mens, objects from historic sites, Indian-site artifacts, and methods 
of pottery reconstruction was used to illustrate portions of Mr. Steph- 
enson's talk. The visitors were also shown the entire process of han- 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 13 

dling materials from the time they arrive from the field until their 
analysis and study have been completed and the covering report has 
been written. Most of the session on May 19 was devoted to a pre- 
sentation of the work and results of the Inter- Agency Archeological 
and Paleontological Program. Howard W. Baker, regional director 
of the National Park Service, Region 2, at Omaha, Nebr., served as 
chairman. Frederick H. Johnson, secretary of the independent- 
advisory Committee for the Recovery of Archeological Remains, 
sketched briefly the general background and importance of the re- 
covery program and explained the activities and purpose of his com- 
mittee. Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., then discussed the Smithsonian 
Institution's part in the program as a whole, both from the standpoint 
of the Missouri Basin and other areas throughout the country. Dr. 
Gordon C. Baldwin, archeologist, Region 2, National Park Service, 
explained the part his organization has played, told what had been 
accomplished as of that date, and outlined the needs for the future in 
a 6-year program. Robert L. Stephenson told about the plans for 
the remainder of the fiscal year in the Missouri Basin and explained 
the reasons for the proposed projects. Dr. C. Bertrand Schultz, di- 
rector of the Nebraska State Museum of the University of Nebraska, 
summarized the work that his institution had been carrying on as a 
cooperative effort in the paleontological phase of the investigations 
and stressed the need for such studies in a proper understanding of the 
Missouri Basin. Dr. John L. Champe, director of the Laboratory of 
Anthropology, University of Nebraska, commented on the status of 
archeology in the Plains area before the salvage program was started 
and spoke about the current activities from the viewpoint of the 
cooperating institutions. The historical aspects of the program were 
presented by Merrill Mattes, regional historian of the Region 2 office, 
National Park Service. He outlined the historical background for 
the area, described the current activities and the methods used in mak- 
ing the studies, and made clear the relationship between that subject 
and those discussed by the other speakers. As a result of the session 
the members of the Committee undoubtedly left Lincoln with a much 
better understanding of the salvage program and its aims. 

During the year 10 field parties operated in the Missouri Basin. 
One of them made a series of extensive tests in 4 archeological sites, 
while 7 were primarily occupied in conducting full-scale excavations 
in 19 sites. In connection with that work, however, some reconnais- 
sance was carried on in the areas where their investigations were 
underway. One of the parties was concerned mainly with archeo- 
logical surveys and another with paleontological studies. The exca- 
vations were in 2 reservoir areas in North Dakota, 2 in South Dakota, 
and 2 in Kansas. The survey party operated in 5 reservoir areas in 
Kansas, 3 of them being covered for the first time and 2 being revisited 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

for further checking. The paleontological party worked in 1 reser- 
voir area in Montana, 1 in North Dakota, and 1 in South Dakota. It 
also visited another project in North Dakota to examine a specimen 
reported from the Upper Cretaceous deposits there. During July 
and August 1952, 3 aerial photographic missions were flown over 12 
reservoir areas. In all, 5,000 air miles were flown and G2 objectives 
were photographed. The latter included excavated archeological 
sites, sites to be excavated, dams and reservoir construction features, 
and the general topography of the areas to be covered by the ground 
surveys. The plane used was the personal property of one of the 
staff archeologists and the pictures were taken by the staff photog- 
rapher. 

The reservoir basins where reconnaissance work was carried on 
were : The Kirwin, on the north fork of the Solomon River, where 4 
additional archeological sites were located and recorded ; the Webster, 
on the south fork of the Solomon, where 3 were found ; Tuttle Creek, 
on the Big Blue River, with 118 ; Glen Elder, on the Solomon River, 
with 17 ; and Wilson, on the Saline River, with 18. On the basis of the 
evidence obtained, it is apparent that no additional studies will be 
needed in the Kirwin and Webster areas. At Tuttle Creek, however, 
there is important material and 10 of the sites have been recommended 
for future excavation. Included in the 10 are 4 historic sites which 
are of special significance with respect to the early exploration and 
settlement of that section of the West. Of the 17 sites recorded for 
the Glen Elder, 6 small ones gave evidence of being extremely im- 
portant because they contain materials thus far not observed in the 
area and they have been recommended for complete excavation. At 
the Wilson Reservoir 6 of the 18 sites were found to be significant 
from the standpoint of their relationship to one of the pre-Columbian 
cultures which thus far is imperfectly known. Two of the sites are 
caves, probably containing dry materials, and should yield types of 
artifacts rarely preserved in open sites. One of the recommended 
sites may prove to be of considerable importance because materials 
there are eroding from a terrace bank and appear to belong to one of 
the early occupations in the Plains area. Parties working in the Fort 
Randall Reservoir basin in South Dakota located 2 new sites, while 
those operating in the Oahe basin in the same State found 180. At 
the Jamestown Reservoir in North Dakota 3 new sites were found. 
The total of new sites observed and recorded in the Missouri Basin 
during the fiscal year was 339. 

In the Garrison Reservoir basin on the main stem of the Missouri 
River above Bismarck, N. Dak., 2 field parties conducted archeological 
excavations in 3 of the 147 known there. During July and August 
and part of September one party dug in the remains of Fort Berthold 
II. The work at that location falls into the historic category, but it 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 15 

is important because the fort was established in connection with the 
large Mandan-Hidatsa-Arikara village, called Like-a-Fishhook, which 
was occupied from about 1845 to 1890. The remains of the Indian 
village were studied by parties from the North Dakota State Historical 
Society under a cooperative agreement with the National Park Service, 
but much information was needed with respect to the fort and the 
evidence it might contain bearing on the relationships between the 
Indians and the Whites. Fort Berthold was originally built in 1858 
as a trading post and was known as Fort Atkinson. Its name was 
changed in 1862, and from 1863 to 1867 it served as a military post. 
Later it became the agency for the three tribes living in the adjacent 
village. While there is fairly extensive documentary evidence about 
the military and trading post, there are many gaps in the record and 
the archeological excavations contributed information which will help 
to complete the story of the activities there. About 75 percent of the 
fort, including the stockade line and two bastions, was excavated. 
Plans call for further work there during fiscal 1954. 

In July and August one party excavated the site of a fortified 
village on the top of a small butte on the north bank of the Missouri 
about 10 miles above Fort Berthold. The site is known by the name 
Night-Walker's Butte in the Bull Pasture because there is an Indian 
tradition to the effect that a Hidatsa chief by the name of Night- 
Walker broke away from the main tribe and led his band to the top of 
a butte where he built a village. Two other sites in the area are also 
in somewhat similar locations, and which of the three actually was the 
Night- Walker village is open to question. Nothing found during the 
excavations throws any light on the problem. The floor areas of 27 
earth lodges were uncovered; 29 fire pits, 26 cache pits, 10 roasting 
pits, and 2 sweat lodges were dug; and approximately three-fourths of 
the stockade which encircled the edge of the butte was traced. Ma- 
terials found there suggest that the village was built about or shortly 
before 1800. The excavations were completed and the detailed tech- 
nical report on the results was well in progress at the end of the year. 

In September the party that worked on the butte investigated the 
remains of an earth lodge across the river from the village site. It 
was called Grandmother's Lodge and was the traditional dwelling 
place of one of the Mandan or Hidatsa supernatural beings who was 
believed to be the patroness of gardens and crops. The ceremonial 
lodge, which was only partially excavated, appears to have been rec- 
tangular in floor plan and may be older than any other lodge thus 
far reported for that area. At least one additional lodge and prob- 
ably several others are present at the site and further work is planned 
for it during fiscal 1954. That particular location provides an ex- 
cellent opportunity for comparing evidence obtained through archeo- 

282736—54 3 



1G BUREAU OF AMIORICAN ETHNOLOGY 

logical investigations with the legendary story which is a part of 
the myths of the Indians in that district. 

At the Jamestown Reservoir on the James River in eastern North 
Dakota one field party continued excavations started toward the close 
of the previous year. By the end of the season in September it had 
dug in 5 of the 28 known archeological sites which will be flooded by 
that reservoir. Two of the sites were burial mounds attributable to 
the Woodland culture, one was a campsite consisting of a series of 
boulder-lined depressions strung along the crest of a low bluff, one 
was a burial pit exposed by a power shovel in the borrow area directly 
west of the dam, and the other comprised the remains of an Indian 
village. The floors of four circular houses and a small sweat lodge 
were uncovered at the latter location. The site covers more than 2 
acres and only about 10 percent of it was investigated. A few metal 
objects and the potsherds found there suggest that the village had 
Mandan affiliations or at least trade relations with that group and 
that it was occupied during the first half of the eighteenth century. 

In the Oahe Reservoir Basin in South Dakota two parties continued 
investigations started toward the end of the preceding fiscal year. 
Excavations were carried on in 4 of the known 318 sites in the basin. 
At the Black Widow site (39ST3), the location of an extensive earth- 
lodge village of many scattered houses, about 30 miles upstream from 
the dam on the west side of the Missouri, evidence of two occupations 
was found. One period was prior to contact with the whites and 
the other was during the eighteenth century. During July, August, 
and September numerous cache pits, a refuse mound, and extensive 
areas of village surface were dug and four house floors were cleared. 
Three of the houses belonged to the early period, while the other was 
of the later occupation. The fourth house was superimposed upon 
cache pits of the early occupation. All four houses were circular in 
outline but there were conspicuous architectural differences between 
the three older examples and the one late form. Materials from the 
site suggest that the older level had its closest affiliations with the 
Myers site (39ST10), where the South Dakota Archeological Com- 
mission did some excavating in 1949, and with one of the three com- 
ponents in the Cheyenne River site (39ST1), which was partially 
excavated by a Missouri Basin Project party in the summer of 1951. 
The later period of occupation appears to be Arikara, although his- 
toric documentation for the site seemingly is not known. The same 
party exhumed a single flexed burial which was about to be destroyed 
by erosion at a multicomponent site (39ST23) not far from the Black 
Widow site. Part of the skeleton was missing and there were no 
mortuary offerings accompanying it. 

The second excavating party concentrated its efforts in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the dam. It completed excavations started at the 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 17 

Indian Creek site (39ST15) the previous year, made a series of tests 
at the Mathison site (39ST16), and did extensive digging at the 
Buffalo Pasture site (39ST6). At the Indian Creek site, which lies 
on the line of the proposed discharge channel for the Oahe Reser- 
voir, two house floors were cleared. One, probably a ceremonial struc- 
ture, was 50 feet in diameter. It contained a raised earthen platform 
or altar, covered with mud plaster, along the wall opposite the entry- 
way. Beside the altar was a buffalo-skull shrine. Only about 1 per- 
cent of that site was excavated, but since it was evident that there 
would be some delay in the construction of the discharge channel, 
further efforts were deferred until a later field season. The Mathi- 
son site, also on the line of the discharge channel, is stratified and the 
tests showed it contains data on several different Indian periods. In 
addition it probably was the location of Fort Galpin, one of the fron- 
tier posts. Most of the activity during July, August, and early Sep- 
tember was at the Buffalo Pasture site 1 mile upstream from the right 
wing of the dam on the west bank of the river. A large fortified 
earth-lodge village had been located there. Four earth lodges, the 
cross section of the defensive ditch or moat, and over 210 linear feet 
of the palisade wall inside the moat were excavated. One of the lodges 
proved to be a ceremonial house and contained an excellent example 
of an altar with bison-skull offerings. Although only about 8 percent 
of the site was excavated there was an unusually large yield of arti- 
facts. Included in the materials are over 100 restorable pottery ves- 
sels, which is a rare find so far as the Plains area is concerned. The 
material and information from Buffalo Pasture rounds out and helps 
to clarify that obtained from two sites, Dodd (39ST30) and Phillips 
Ranch (39ST14), between it and the clam which were dug during 
previous seasons. 

While the River Basin Surveys parties were working in the Oahe 
area in the summer of 1952 the South Dakota Areheoloeical Commis- 
sion and the W. H. Over Museum of the University of South Dakota 
carried on excavations at the Thomas Riggs site (39HU1) under a 
cooperative agreement with the National Park Service. On two pre- 
vious occasions the W. H. Over Museum had worked there but had not 
completed its investigations. During the 1952 season its party, under 
the leadership of Dr. Wesley R. Hurt, Jr., excavated the remains of 
five houses and dug a long trench through the village area. Evidence 
found there indicates that the village was occupied at about A. D. 
1500 and that it probably did not have more than 200 inhabitants at 
any one time. Just what the relationship between it and later An- 
kara or Mandan communities may have been is still to be determined. 

The two parties, one for Indian and one for historical sites, working 
in the Fort Randall Reservoir basin continued the operations started 
toward the end of the preceding year. During the field season excava- 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

tions were carried on in 6 of the 53 known sites which will be inun- 
dated. At the start of the year the Indian-site party was centering its 
activities in village remains where considerable digging had been done 
the previous field season. At that location, the Oldham site (39CH7) , 
there was evidence for three periods of occupation. The latest was 
an earth-lodge village with palisade and moat where most of the 
digging was done during the 1951 season, the middle period was an 
earth-lodge village with a palisade but no moat, and the earliest was 
an occupation level underlying both of the others. At the start of 
the 1952 field season, in May, activities were centered on the portion 
of the site representing the middle period. Beginning with the new 
fiscal year attention was turned to the area where there was some over- 
lap between the remains of the last two periods. During the course 
of the digging 2 earth lodges, 3 drying racks, 2 infant burials, 270 
feet of stockade, including 1 bastion, 76 pits, most of which were cache 
pits, and numerous fire pits were uncovered. Tubular copper beads 
were found in one of the infant burials. The specimen yield from the 
site was great and study of the material shows that when the results 
are completely tabulated there will be much new information about 
the material culture of the people who inhabited that area. The mid- 
dle period apparently correlates with what is known as the Great Oasis 
Aspect in Minnesota. Although less than half of the site was ex- 
cavated, sufficient data were obtained to warrant stopping the work in 
August and moving the laborers to a new location. The latter, the 
Hitchell site (39CH45), consisted of the remains of a semipermanent 
village characterized by circular, hutlike, pole-framed structures 
which probably were covered with skins or brush. The site was 
stratified and preliminary analysis of the materials from it indicates 
that it was related to the latest and the earliest periods at the Oldham 
site. While work was underway at the Hitchell site some of the 
laborers, under the supervision of a field assistant, dug 1,698 feet of 
test trenches at the Pease Creek site (39CH5) several miles down- 
stream. The evidence revealed by the trenches shows that there were 
two occupations. The latest was by a group using the location mainly 
as a camping area, while the earlier presumably had a more permanent 
type of settlement. Pottery found there suggests Upper Republican 
and Nebraska cultural influences. The artifact complex as a whole 
is unique in the Fort Randall area. During the summer season addi- 
tional testing was carried on at a campsite (39CH51) where some 
digging had been done during a previous year. Those investigations 
completed the studies at that location. The activities of the Fort 
Randall Indian party were brought to a close in late September. 

During July the historic-site party completed the excavation of 
the Fort Whetstone site (39GR4) on the west bank of the Missouri 
River near the mouth of Whetstone Creek. The palisade was traced 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 19 

and the outlines of the buildings that stood inside the fortification were 
followed. Exact dimensions of the fort and buildings were obtained, 
as were some of the constructional features of the interior of the build- 
ings. All wooden structures had been burned, and evidence indicates 
that the post was destroyed shortly after abandonment in 1872. About 
90 percent of the site was excavated and no additional work will be 
required there. A number of discrepancies found between the various 
features revealed by the digging and a plan of the fort drawn in 1871 
raised a number of puzzling historical problems. About 500 yards 
northwest of the fort the remains of a "Missouri Dugout" were found 
and excavated. At the end of July the party moved to the Fort 
Randall site (39GR15) on the west bank of the Missouri River half a 
mile southeast of the Fort Randall military post. Work there showed 
that the remains were those of a brick kiln, which probably belonged 
to the period of Fort Randall I. The remains of the kiln and features 
associated with it were completely excavated and the party left the 
Fort Randall Reservoir area at the end of August, proceeding to the 
Kirwin Reservoir in Kansas. 

During the 1952 field season work was also carried on in the Fort 
Randall area by the Nebraska State Historical Society and the Uni- 
versity of Kansas under cooperative agreements with the National 
Park Service. The Historical Society party under the direction of 
Marvin F. Kivett continued excavations in two sites (39LM26 and 
39LM27) located along the highway a short distance east of Oacoma 
and about 2 miles west of Chamberlain, S. Dak. Some digging was 
also done at a site (39LM81) 10y 2 miles upriver from Chamberlain. 
The work at the first two locations, which was completed, showed 
evidence of a historic Siouan occupation underlain by an earth-lod°-e 
village belonging to what has been called the Fort Thompson focus. 
The third site was found to have three components, historic Siouan, 
a level producing a simple-stamped type of pottery which has not yet 
been culturally correlated, and an earlier Woodland occupation. The 
University of Kansas party under Dr. Carlyle S. Smith spent a third 
season at the Talking Crow site (39BF3) about 3y 2 miles below Fort 
Thompson, S. Dak. During the three seasons at the site 9 houses were 
completely excavated, 4 were partially excavated, and 14 were tested 
to obtain their dimensions and samples of materials from them. 
Stratigraphic tests were made in three refuse mounds, trenches were 
dug across the surrounding fortification on four sides of the site, two 
long trenches were cut through areas between the houses, and numer- 
ous other test pits and trenches were dug. From the data obtained it 
appears that the site had four components. The latest was Siouan 
dating from shortly after the Civil War. Prior to that was the last 
occupation by earth-lodge-building people, probably the Arikara, 
during the period when European trade goods were beginning to 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

appear in the area. Preceding that was an occupation which just 
antedated the introduction of trade goods. The earliest occupation 
was definitely prehistoric in age and its cultural affinities seem to 
have been widespread. The latest component appears to correlate 
with one phase of Kivett's Oacoma sites and with the Indian Creek 
site in the Oahe area. The one just preceding seems to equate with 
an older phase at Kivett's sites and with the latest component at the 
Oldham site. The next to the oldest component correlates with the 
older level at the Black Widow site in the Oahe area, but there is still 
some question as to the relationship of the first occupation at Talking 
Crow. 

In the Kirwin Reservoir basin in Kansas the historic-sites party, 
which had moved from the Fort Randall area, spent the period from 
September 2 to 20 excavating the remains of Camp Kirwan, an old 
frontier post located on the right bank of the Solomon River in Phil- 
lips County. The site (14PH6) was completely excavated and the 
palisade line was traced as an intrusive trench in the soil. 

An archeological party spent 3 weeks in June 1953 testing sites at 
the Tuttle Creek Reservoir in Kansas. During that period work was 
carried on at four sites ; three of them were in the spillway construction 
area, and one in the general construction area for the dam. Two of 
them had been severely damaged by the cut for the spillway, while the 
others were in immediate danger of destruction by further activities. 
One of the sites in the spillway line (14P014) was an earth and stone 
mound approximately 26 feet in diameter with a maximum height of 
iy 2 feet. The mound contained a burial pit with skeletal remains oc- 
curring at two levels. The original interment of at least three bodies 
apparently had been dug into to make room for subsequent burial of 
three, possibly four, more bodies. In both levels there was one articu- 
lated skeleton in a semiflexed position. Stone implements, copper 
beads, and fragmentary bits of copper sheeting were found with the 
bones. At some distance from the pit the remains of an extended 
burial without a skull were found. It had no accompanying mortu- 
ary offering. Indications were that the skull had been removed by 
some earlier digger and also that the interment was a later intrusion in 
the mound. In general appearance the mound suggested relationship 
to others in the Tuttle Creek, Glen Elder, and Wilson Reservoir basins. 
They have not as yet been assigned to any culture but may well have 
Woodland affiliations. The extended burial possibly is attributable to 
the Kansa, as it had certain similarities to others found elsewhere 
which presumably were made by that tribe. Furthermore, materials 
collected from two occupation areas nearby indicate a late occupancy, 
and since a historic Kansa village is known to have existed in the 
immediate area it seems likely that they may also have lived at those 
locations. As a matter of fact, the two sites (14P012 and 14P013) 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 21 

may represent parts of a single large occupational area as one is on the 
eastern edge of the spillway and one is on the western edge of it and 
both have been extensively damaged by construction activities. Ma- 
terials collected during the digging there consist of buff-colored pot- 
sherds with gray shell-tempered paste and punctated decorations, 
small triangular-unnotched projectile points, an abundance of stone 
scrapers, a conical copper bangle, and some bits of sheet metal. The 
fourth site tested (14RY10) is on the west side of the Blue River. It 
was buried under considerable flood-borne silt but the exploratory 
trenches indicated the former presence of an earth lodge and other 
village features. Potsherds from the house area suggest that a cul- 
tural transition was underway at that location. It was not possible 
to do any extensive digging there, but at the end of the fiscal year 
plans were being made by one of the local institutions to continue the 
investigations as a cooperative effort. It was necessary for the River 
Basin Surveys party to close down its work on June 26 and return to 
the headquarters at Lincoln. 

The paleontological field party completed its activities at the Key- 
hole Reservoir in Wyoming on July 1, 1952, and left the following 
day for the Canyon Ferry Reservoir in Montana. En route, at the 
request of the National Park Service, it visited the South Unit of the 
Theodore Roosevelt National Monument to examine some paleontolog- 
ical material found in that area. From July 5 to August 3 the party 
explored exposures of the Oligocene and Miocene deposits in the 
Canyon Ferry Basin. Some 75 specimens of small mammals were 
collected, adding greatly to the knowledge of certain groups, particu- 
larly the rabbits and small dogs of the Miocene. During the period 
the paleontologist also identified the Tertiary sediments in a number 
of localities in the Toston Basin for a mapping party of the United 
States Geological Survey. From August 9 to 30 the party explored 
the exposures of the Paleocene Fort Union formation in the Garrison 
Reservoir near Elbowoods, N. Dak. Specimens are exceedingly rare 
in that formation, and because of the uncertain correlation of the 
deposits the value of those found is materially increased. During 
that period the nearly complete skeleton of Ghmnpsosaurus, an alli- 
gatorlike aquatic reptile, was collected. Exposures of the Oacoma 
member of the Upper Cretaceous Pierre shale in the vicinity of the 
Oahe Dam were explored from September 2 to 10. A number of 
specimens of marine reptiles were found but they had been exposed 
too long to be worth collecting. 

The paleontological party returned to the field in June, and from 
June 1 to 7, 1953, at the request of the National Park Service made a 
paleontological survey of certain areas in the Badlands National 
Monument. From the 9th to the 27th it continued explorations of the 
Oligocene and Miocene deposits of the Canyon Ferry Reservoir area. 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Initial flooding of the reservoir made it necessary to visit several 
localities by boat. About 100 specimens of small mammals, rabbits, 
rodents, and marsupials were obtained. Of special interest is a very 
small rabbit, details of the teeth of which suggest that it may be 
ancestral to the cony or pika, the tiny rock rabbit which lives high 
in the mountains. If such should prove to be true these are the 
earliest known specimens of that group of rabbits found anywhere 
in the world. The Canyon Ferry Reservoir basin, which will not be 
available for study another season because of the impounded water, 
has been the most productive, both in the number and variety of 
species, of any locality in the area and is the only one thus far that has 
produced a sizable Middle Oligocene fauna in the Intermountain 
Basins. On June 27 the party moved to the Fort Peck Reservoir in 
Montana for the purpose of examining a plesiosaur (marine reptile) 
skeleton found in the Upper Cretaceous Bear Paw shale by a member 
of the Fish and Wildlife Service. At the end of the year the party 
was at Fort Peck. 

During the year 18 preliminary appraisal reports were completed, 
mimeographed, and distributed to the cooperating agencies. One 
supplemental report, on the Fort Randall Reservoir, was completed 
and ready to mimeograph. Fourteen short articles on specific sub- 
jects in Plains archeology were completed and printed in various 
publications. Six appeared in the Plains Archeological Conference 
News Letter; four in the Proceedings of the Nebraska Academy of 
Sciences, 63d annual meeting ; one in American Antiquity ; one in the 
Americana Annual ; and two in the Missouri Basin Progress Report, 
issued monthly by the Interior Missouri Basin Field Committee. 
Thirteen additional articles were completed and had been accepted 
for publication by various journals. Nine reports were completed 
and were ready to submit for publication. They included three tech- 
nical papers on excavations in the Garrison Reservoir area, one on an 
excavated site in the Oahe area, one on historic sites dug in the Fort 
Randall basin, one on excavations in the Kirwin Reservoir, one gen- 
eral paper on the subject of articles of white manufacture as exempli- 
fied by the materials from various sites in the Missouri Basin, and two 
on work in the Northwest done by a member of the staff prior to his 
joining the Missouri Basin Project. 

The laboratory at Lincoln processed 161,036 specimens from 339 
sites in 9 reservoir areas and 1 unassignable site. A total of 22,570 
catalog numbers was assigned to the series of specimens. The work 
in the laboratory also included: Reflex copies of record sheets, both 
negatives and prints, 12,629; photographic negatives, 2,281; photo- 
graphic contact prints, 11,474; enlargements, 5" x 7" to 20" x 24", 
4,082 ; photographs mounted for files, 6,374 ; transparencies mounted in 
glass, 1,132; drawings, tracings, and maps, 126; specimens drawn for 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 23 

illustration, 504; completion of restoration of pottery vessels, 32; 
vessels or rim sections restored, 84. 

Temporary interpretative displays showing the scope and results 
of archeological investigations in the Missouri Basin were installed 
in the windows of the laboratory in the business section of Lincoln 
in November 1952, and in the windows of a large Lincoln department 
store in February 1953. A special display illustrating and interpret- 
ing the archeology of the Oahe Keservoir area was installed for the 
Corps of Engineers by the Missouri Basin Project in the registration 
building for visitors at the Oahe Dam observation point. Special 
archeological and paleontological displays were prepared for the 
meetings of the Interior Missouri Basin Field Committee held at the 
headquarters and laboratory in May. 

Paul L. Cooper, consulting archeologist, was in charge of one exca- 
vating and survey party in the Oahe Keservoir basin from July 1 
until October 16. He supervised the digging at the Black Widow 
site and toward the end of the season participated in the reconnais- 
sance work. During the fall and winter months in the laboratory he 
correlated the records of the Oahe reconnaissance with previous 
records, summarized information from published and unpublished 
sources of varied nature, made use of data obtained from excavations 
by the Missouri Basin Project and other agencies, and prepared "An 
Appraisal of the Archeology of the Oahe Keservoir." He also worked 
on a summary report of the activities of the Missouri Basin Project 
during the calendar years 1950 and 1951. This is concerned with 
investigations in 42 reservoir areas, the work of 2 full-season survey 
parties and other shorter-term parties, the activities of a paleontolog- 
ical party during 2 field seasons, and the excavations carried on by 
12 full-season parties in Indian and historic sites in 6 different reser- 
voir basins. The specimens obtained from the Black Widow site 
received preliminary study and a provisional classification was made 
of the pottery found there. Mr. Cooper participated in the Tenth 
Conference for Plains Archeology at Lincoln in November and at- 
tended the sessions of the Society for American Archeology at 
Urbana, 111., in May. 

Robert B. Cumming, Jr., archeologist, was in charge of the Indian- 
site excavations and survey in the Fort Randall Reservoir area in 
South Dakota from July 1 to September 26. He supervised the dig- 
ging at the Oldham, Hitchell, and Pease Creek sites. During the 
months at the laboratory in Lincoln he made analyses of the material 
and data obtained during the 1951 and 1952 seasons at the Oldham 
site and prepared a technical report on the results of his investigations 
at that location. In addition he completed a supplementary report for 
the previously issued "Appraisal of the Archeological and Paleon- 
tological Resources of the Lower Platte Basin," and finished the first 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

draft, with an accompanying map showing the location of all sites 
found to that date in the reservoir area, of a supplementary report 
on the Fort Randall basin. From June 10 through 17, 1953, he super- 
vised the work of the excavating party in the Tuttle Creek Dam area 
in Kansas. Mr. Cumming presented a resume of the 1952 field work 
at the Tenth Conference for Plains Archeology in November. 

From July 1 to September 15 Franklin Fenenga, archeologist, was 
in charge of an excavating party in the Oahe Reservoir area and 
also took part in additional surveys in the general vicinity of the dam. 
He directed the digging at the Buffalo Pasture, Mathison, and Indian 
Creek sites. In August he installed a special display to interpret the 
archeology of the- Oahe Dam area in the observation building main- 
tained by the Corps of Engineers at a spot overlooking the east wing 
of the dam. During the remainder of the year, at the Lincoln head- 
quarters, he completed appraisal reports on the archeology of the 
Gavins Point Reservoir in Nebraska and South Dakota and for the 
Middle Fork Reservoir in Wyoming. He also completed a detailed 
technical report on the results obtained at the Indian Creek site and 
had finished approximately 75 percent of the report on the Buffalo 
Pasture Village by the end of the fiscal year. He presented three 
papers on archeological field methods before the Seminar on Plains 
Archeology at the Laboratory of Anthropology of the University of 
Nebraska. He took part in the Tenth Conference for Plains Arche- 
ology and was reelected to a third term as editor of the Plains 
Archeological Conference News Letter by that group. He presided 
as president at the anthropological section of the 63d annual meeting 
of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and presented a paper, "The 
Ice-Glider Game, an 18th-Century Innovation in Northern Plains 
Culture." He also prepared an article, "The Weights of Chipped- 
Stone Projectile Points, a Clue to Their Functions," for publication 
in the Southwestern Journal for Anthropology. While in the field 
he addressed several organizations, telling about the work of the 
River Basin Surveys, and during the months in Lincoln acted as 
preceptor of the Indian Project of two groups of Campfire Girls. 
Because of the curtailment of funds for the Missouri Basin Project 
it was necessary to terminate Mr. Fenenga's appointment in a reduc- 
tion-in-force action on June 30, 1953. 

During July, August, and early September Donald D. Hartle, 
archeologist, was in charge of the excavations at the Night- Walker's 
Butte site and Grandmother's Lodge in the Garrison Reservoir area. 
In September he also measured and photographed a modern dance 
lodge in the Santee Bottoms. Throughout the remainder of the year 
he was at the Lincoln headquarters where he completed the detailed 
technical report on the excavations, carried on during 2 previous 
years at the Rock Village site (32ME15). He completed a series 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 25 

of notes on the work at Night- Walker's Butte, the Grandmother's 
Lodge, and the dance lodge, and presented a summary report on his 
summer's work at one of the sessions of the Tenth Conference for 
Plains Archeology. As a result of the reduction in force, made neces- 
sary by curtailed funds, Mr. Hartle's employment was terminated 
on June 30, 1953. 

George Metcalf, field and laboratory assistant, was a member of 
the Fort Berthold excavating party in the Garrison Reservoir area 
from July 1 to September 26, 1952. In addition to taking an active 
part in the digging at the fort he spent several days guiding the 
paleontological party to exposures noted during the previous year's 
surveys and in checking on the location of archeological sites reported 
by local residents. Mr. Metcalf also assisted in the investigations 
at the Grandmother's Lodge site. After returning to the Lincoln 
headquarters he prepared the material from Fort Berthold II for 
cataloging, made an analysis of the artifacts from the Night-Walker's 
Butte excavations, studied and prepared descriptions of specimens 
from the Star Village site (32ME16) dug the preceding year, and 
started work on a description of the remains of the last Arikara earth 
lodge, a task at which he was engaged until the end of the fiscal year. 
During the winter he also prepared book reviews for the North Dakota 
Historical Quarterly and for Nebraska History. Mr. Metcalf 's em- 
ployment was terminated on June 30 through the reduction-in-force 
program, but on July 1 he was to take a position as a museum aide 
in the division of archeology, United States National Museum. 

On July 1, 1952, John E. Mills, archeologist, was occupied with 
an excavating party at the site of the Whetstone Army post in the 
Fort Randall Reservoir area in South Dakota. He completed that 
work on July 25 and moved his party to the Fort Randall brick-kiln 
site where he dug until August 29. During August he also made a 
reconnaissance, visiting the sites of the Lower Brule Indian Agency, 
Fort Lower Brule, and Fort Hale for the purpose of planning possible 
future excavations at those locations. In September he took his party 
to the Kirwin Reservoir area in Kansas and dug the site of Camp 
Kirwan. From October through June Mr. Mills was engaged at head- 
quarters analyzing materials and preparing reports on the results of 
his investigations. He completed technical papers on "Historic-Sites 
Archeology in Fort Randall Reservoir, South Dakota," and "Exca- 
vation at Camp Kirwan, Kansas." In addition he completed manu- 
scripts on the results of work which he did before joining the staff 
of the Missouri Basin Project. They were: "Quantitative Analysis 
of a Columbia River Shell Mound," and "Cultural Continuity at 
Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island." In September he addressed the 
Kirwin High School on the subject "Smithsonian Institution River 
Basin Surveys" and in May presented a paper, "Ethnohistory," before 



26 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the Nebraska Academy of Sciences. Mr. Mills requested leave of ab- 
sence in May to return to the University of Washington to complete 
his studies for an advanced degree in anthropology. Such was 
granted, but in the reduction-in-force program it was necessary to 
remove his name from the rolls as of June 30. 

At the start of the fiscal year J. M. Shippee, field and laboratory 
assistant, was at the headquarters in Lincoln. He spent several days 
assembling data for use in making an aerial survey and on July 15 
and 16 flew with Ralph S. Solecki over five reservoir areas in Kansas. 
On July 23, under the general direction of Mr. Solecki, he started a 
ground survey of the Tuttle Creek Reservoir and was in that area 
until September 8. From that date until October 4 he assisted in the 
survey of the Glen Elder, Kirwin, Webster, and Wilson Reservoir 
basins. On his return to the laboratory he helped to complete the 
survey sheets and maps for the 156 new sites found, aided in the 
analysis of specimens, the identification of photographs, and the prep- 
aration of exhibits. He wrote an outline summary of the results of 
Solecki's work for presentation at the Tenth Conference for Plains 
Archeology. In November he also gave an illustrated talk before the 
Kansas City Chapter of the Missouri Archeological Society. On June 
10, 1953, Shippee went to the Tuttle Creek Reservoir as assistant to 
Mr. Cumming and after the latter's return to Lincoln on June 17, 
was in charge of the excavating party for the remainder of the project. 
Mr. Shippee's employment was terminated by the reduction in force 
on June 30. 

G. H. Smith, acheologist, was in charge of the party digging at the 
site of Fort Berthold II on July 1 and continued to supervise those 
excavations until the end of the season on September 23. Returning 
to the headquarters at Lincoln he spent the time from September 26 
to June 30 working over materials and writing reports on his field- 
work. He completed the detailed technical paper on the results of the 
investigations made during a previous year at Fort Stevenson in the 
Garrison area. He also finished a brief report on the excavation of 
Fort Berthold II intended primarily to indicate progress at the site 
as of the end of the fiscal year. A manuscript consisting of a descrip- 
tive account of glass beads, some 8,000 in number, recovered at Fort 
Berthold was written and accepted for publication by the Central 
Texas Archeologist. A summary account of the history of the 
Niobrara River Basin was prepared for submission to the Bureau 
of Reclamation for use in the revision of the Niobrara Basin report 
of that Bureau's Region 7 office. At the Tenth Conference for Plains 
Archeology Mr. Smith reported on the work at Fort Berthold II 
and also presided as chairman at a session devoted to Plains Ethno- 
history. Mr. Smith resigned, effective June 19, to attend the American 
School of Research, Athens, Greece. 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 27 

Ralph S. Solecki, archeologist, was transferred to the Missouri 
Basin Project early in July. During the period from then until Oc- 
tober 4 he was in charge of the surveys of the five Kansas reservoirs 
and in July and August flew three aerial photographic missions over 
other Missouri Basin areas. After completing the aerial missions 
Mr. Solecki prepared an article, "Photographing the Past," which ap- 
peared in the September issue of the Missouri River Basin Progress 
Report. While at the Lincoln office during the latter part of October 
and early November appraisal reports on the five Kansas Reservoir 
surveys were completed by Mr. Solecki. 

Robert L. Stephenson, acting chief of the Missouri Basin Project, 
devoted a major portion of his time to managing the operations of 
the project. However, he was able to prepare a series of summary 
statements on the past 7 years of Missouri Basin Project activities 
in detail, reservoir by reservoir. He also did extensive work on a 
technical report of the excavations he supervised during previous 
years at the Whitney Reservoir on the Brazos River, Hill County, 
Tex., and made some analysis of notes and materials from the Aceo- 
keek site in Maryland. He served as chairman of one section of the 
Tenth Conference for Plains Archeology in November, attended the 
annual meeting of the Society for American Archeology at Urbana, 
111., where he presented a paper, "Accokeek : A Middle-Atlantic Cul- 
ture Sequence," and acted as a discussant for two other papers. He 
served as chairman for an informal conference of Plains archeolo- 
gists held at the Lincoln headquarters in April, and was host for the 
meeting of the Interior Missouri Basin Field Committee meeting in 
May. At the end of the fiscal year he was on a tour of inspection 
of the Missouri Basin. While in the field he visited White's paleon- 
tological party at Canyon Ferry Reservoir in Montana. 

At the start of the fiscal year Richard Page Wheeler, archeologist, 
was in charge of the survey and excavation party at the Jamestown 
Reservoir in North Dakota. He continued his investigations there 
until September 26 when he returned to the headquarters at Lincoln, 
Nebr. Throughout the remainder of the year he worked on a major 
technical report summarizing the results of excavations and surveys 
made by himself and others in the Angostura Reservoir, S. Dak., and 
in the Boysen and Keyhole Reservoirs in Wyoming, between 194G 
and 1951. That report was virtually completed at the close of the 
year. In addition he prepared a paper, "Plains Ceramic Analysis: 
A Check-List of Features and Descriptive Terms," which was pub- 
lished in the Plains Archeological Conference News Letter, vol. 5, 
No. 2. He also wrote an interim report, "Appraisal of the Archeo- 
logical and Paleontological Resources of the Jamestown Reservoir, 
North Dakota: Supplement," which was mimeographed and dis- 
tributed to the cooperating agencies. At the Tenth Conference for 



28 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Plains Archeology in November he gave a resume of the Jamestown 
investigations and read a paper on the preceramic subsistence patterns 
in the Great Plains. On May 1 he presented a paper on Dakota 
mounds and earthworks at the 63d annual meeting of the Nebraska 
Academy of Sciences. In the late spring he collaborated with Dr. 
Donald J. Lehmer on a paper, "Time Horizons in the Northern Plains." 

Dr. Theodore E. White, geologist, was in charge of the paleontolog- 
ical field party during all its operations. As previously noted, work 
during the 1952 season was in the Canyon Ferry, Garrison, and Oahe 
reservoir areas, and in June 1953 the party returned to the Canyon 
Ferry Reservoir in Montana for additional collecting. From Sep- 
tember 15 to November 6, 1952, and from April 2 to May 30, 1953, 
Dr. White was in the laboratory at Lincoln. During those periods 
he was occupied in identifying osteological material collected by the 
various archeological excavating parties. Dr. White's other activities 
were discussed in connection with the operations of the Washington 
office. 

Cooperating institutions. — Various State and local institutions co- 
operated in the Inter-Agency Salvage Program during the year. 
Most of those activities were on the basis of agreements between the 
agencies and the National Park Service, but in a few cases State 
groups carried on independently, although correlating their efforts 
closely with the over-all operations. The Ohio State Archeological 
and Historical Society continued to assume responsibility for all 
reservoir areas in that State. The Indiana Historical Society in- 
cluded surveys of potential reservoir areas in its general program for 
archeological research in Indiana and made periodical reports on the 
results of the investigations. Institutions working under agreements 
with the Service and the projects undertaken were : California Arche- 
ological Survey, University of California, Berkeley, made surveys of 
the proposed Trinity, Lewiston, Mooney Gulch, Red Bank, Oroville, 
Nimbus, Ice House, Union Valley, Pilot Creek, San Luis, and San 
Lucas Reservoirs of California and the Humboldt River and trib- 
utaries in Nevada, and started excavations in sites in the Nimbus and 
Red Bank areas; the Carnegie Museum of Pittsburgh excavated in 
the Conemaugh Reservoir area on the Conemaugh River in Pennsyl- 
vania ; the Florida State Museum of the University of Florida dug a 
number of sites in the portion of the Jim Woodruff Reservoir basin 
located in Florida ; the University of Kansas continued excavations at 
a site in the Fort Randall Reservoir basin in South Dakota ; the Uni- 
versity of Missouri excavated in the Pomme de Terre Reservoir on 
the river of the same name and at the Table Rock Reservoir on the 
White River in Missouri ; Montana State University dug several small 
sites in the Garrison Reservoir area in North Dakota ; the Nebraska 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 29 

State Historical Society worked at three sites in the Fort Randall 
basin, South Dakota; the University of Nebraska Laboratory of An- 
thropology continued excavations in the Harlan County Reservoir on 
the Republican River, Nebr.; the University of Nebraska State 
Museum made archeological excavations in the Medicine Creek Reser- 
voir in western Nebraska, and on a volunteer basis did paleontological 
work in several Missouri Basin projects; the State Historical Society 
of North Dakota continued excavations in the Garrison area; the 
University of Oklahoma worked at the Tenkiller Ferry Reservoir on 
the Illinois River and at the Keystone Reservoir on the Arkansas 
River in Oklahoma ; the University of Oregon excavated in sites near 
The Dalles Dam on the Oregon side of the Columbia River ; the Uni- 
versity of South Dakota worked in the Oahe Reservoir basin in South 
Dakota; the State College of Washington investigated an early site 
in the Lind Coulee, Wash. ; the University of Washington excavated 
at the Wakemap Mound site on the Washington side of the Columbia 
in The Dalles Reservoir basin ; and the University of Wyoming con- 
tinued its digging at the Keyhole Reservoir on the Belle Fourche 
River in Wyoming. 

INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 

In the spring of 1952 the Institute of Inter- American Affairs, De- 
partment of State, which had made a grant to the Institute of Social 
Anthropology to enable it to carry on its functions from January 1, 
1952, to the end of the fiscal year with the understanding that the 
Smithsonian anthropologists would be available for program anal- 
yses of technical aid projects, decided to utilize anthropologists 
on a permanent basis. A request was made that plans be prepared 
to transfer ISA personnel to the Institute of Inter- American Affairs 
on July 1 and bring to a close the ISA activities as such. Late in 
June 1952, however, the Institute of Inter- American Affairs ex- 
tended its grant to the Smithsonian Institution for an additional 3 
months, so that there could be an orderly transfer of personnel, and 
provided $15,725 to finance the ISA until September 30, 1952. Before 
that date it became apparent that further time would be needed, and 
the grant was extended to December 31, 1952, and an additional $15,- 
725 made available. The total funds for the 6-month period were 
$31,450. The activities of the Institute of Social Anthropology ended 
on December 31, 1952. 

The period from July 1 to December 31, 1952, was one of retrench- 
ment and the closing down of projects. In Washington Dr. Foster 
was occupied in terminating the work of the Institute, in the planning 
of anthropological aspects of the program in the Institute of Inter- 
American Affairs, and in the preparation of four article-length manu- 
scripts on contemporary cultures in Latin America for publication 



30 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

in anthropological journals. Dr. Kalorvo Oberg, who had returned 
to the Washington office in June, prepared reports on the cultural 
problems encountered by technical aid programs in Brazil, and read 
and commented on Institute of Inter- American Affairs reports, as 
requested. He described Servicio programs in Brazil at the annual 
meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 
at St. Louis, Mo., in December. 

In Mexico all former Institute of Social Anthropology programs 
were terminated and the activities of Dr. Isabel T. Kelly were inte- 
grated with those of the Mexico City offices of the Institute of Inter- 
American Affairs. Her assignments, all made from that office, in- 
cluded trips to Monterey and Veracruz. In Colombia, beginning July 
1, the work of Charles J. Erasmus was directly integrated with the 
Bogota office of the Institute of Inter- American Affairs and all 
assignments, including program planning, routine office work, and 
field work in fisheries and agriculture were made by that office. Dr. 
Ozzie Simmons was in Peru on July 1 awaiting transfer to Chile by the 
Institute of Inter- American Affairs. There was imexected delay in 
the shift, however, and as he had not been assigned to an Institute 
program in Peru he made use of the time in terminating basic field 
studies in the Canete Valley which, when published, will add to the 
knowledge of contemporary Latin American culture and will be a use- 
ful adjunct to program planning in the Institute of Inter-American 
Affairs. Dr. Donald Pierson resigned his position in Brazil on June 
30, 1952, and subsequently returned to the United States. 

Mrs. Eloise B. Edelen, of the Smithsonian Institution editorial 
staff, continued to edit Institute of Social Anthropology manuscripts. 
Publication No. 13, "The Taj in Totonac," by Isabel T. Kelly and 
Angel Palerm, was released on September 22, 1952. Publications No. 
15, "Indian Tribes of Northern Mato Grosso, Brazil," by Kalervo 
Oberg, and No. 16, "Penny Capitalism: A Guatemalan Indian 
Economy," by Sol Tax, were released for distribution on April 2 and 
June 16, 1953, respectively. 

On December 31, 1952, the employment of Dr. George M. Foster, 
Director, was terminated through a reduction-in-force action; and 
anthropologists Isabel T. Kelly, Charles J. Erasmus, Ozzie Simmons, 
and Kalervo Oberg were transferred to the Institute of Inter- Ameri- 
can Affairs. 

ARCHIVES 

An apparent increase in public interest concerning American 
Indians, particularly those of the West, has resulted in greater 
demands on the large photographic collections. For the period from 
March 1 to June 30, 1953, 288 prints, together with data concerning 
them, were furnished in response to 104 requests. 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 31 

During this same period 77 manuscripts were consulted, and 12 
orders for microfilm and photostatic copies were filled. 

Numerous gifts of photographs and manuscripts were received 
during the year. New linguistic materials accessioned included a 
portion of a Ponca-English vocabulary and a number of hymns 
translated in the Omaha language. This material, prepared in 1872 
by J. O. Dorsey, was presented to the Bureau by Mrs. Virginia Dorsey 
Lightfoot. A portion of an English-Choctaw vocabulary prepared 
by Cyrus Byington about 1860 was presented by Donald D. McKay. 
The Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio presented a news- 
paper of 1874 in the Creek language. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

The time of the illustrator was spent in preparing and executing 
illustrations and maps for Bureau and Kiver Basin Surveys publica- 
tions and for research associates, and making posters, graphs, charts, 
diagrams, and maps, and repairing and altering illustrations for the 
editorial division and other departments of the Institution. Floor 
plans and front elevations also were executed for the Smithsonian 
planning committee. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

There were issued 1 Annual Report, 5 Bulletins, and 3 Publications 
of the Institute of Social Anthropology, as follows : 
Sixty-ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1951-1952. 

ii+ 30 pp. 1953. 
Bulletin 145. The Indian tribes of North America, by John R. Swanton. vi+726 

pp., 5 maps. 1952. 
Bulletin 150. The modal personality structure of the Tuscarora Indians, as 
revealed by the Rorschach test, by Anthony F. C. Wallace, viii+120 pp., 1 pi., 
8 figs. 1952. 
Bulletin 151. Anthropological Papers, Nos. 33-42. ix 4-507 pp., 37 pis., 25 figs., 
7 maps. 1953. 
No. 33. "Of the Crow Nation," by Edwin Thompson Denig. Edited, with 

biographical sketch and footnotes, by John C. Ewers. 
No. 34. The water lily in Maya art : A complex of alleged Asiatic origin, by 

Robert L. Rands. 
No. 35. The Medicine Bundles of the Florida Seminole and the Green Corn 

Dance, by Louis Capron. 
No. 36. Technique in the music of the American Indian, by Frances 

Densmore. 
No. 37. The belief of the Indian in a connection between song and the 

supernatural, by Frances Densmore. 
No. 38. Aboriginal fish poisons, by Robert F. Heizer. 
No. 39. Aboriginal navigation off the coasts of Upper and Baja California, 

by Robert F. Heizer and WiUiam C. Massey. 
No. 40. Exploration of an Adena mound at Natrium, West Virginia, by 

Ralph S. Solecki. 
No. 41. The Wind River Shoshone Sun Dance, by D. B. Shimkin. 



32 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

No. 42. Current trends in the Wind River Shoshone Sun Dance, by Fred W. 
Voget. 

Bulletin 153. La Venta, Tabasco : A study of Olmec ceramics and art, by Philip 
Drucker. x 4-257 pp., 66 pis., 64 figs. 1952. 

Bulletin 155. Prehistoric settlement patterns in the Viru Valley, Peru, by 
Gordon R. Willey. xxii+453 pp., 60 pis., 88 figs. 1953. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publication No. 13. The Tajin Totonac. Part 
1. History, subsistence, shelter, and technology, by Isabel Kelly and Angel 
Palerm. xiv+369 pp., 33 pis., 69 figs., 18 maps. 1952. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publication No. 15. Indian tribes of northern 
Mato Grosso, Brazil, by Kalervo Oberg. With appendix entitled "Anthro- 
pometry of the Umotina, Nambicuara, and Iranxe, with comparative data from 
other northern Mato Grosso tribes," by Marshall T. Newman, vii+144 pp., 
10 pis., 2 figs., 3 maps, 14 charts. 1953. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publication No. 16. Penny capitalism: A 
Guatemalan Indian economy, by Sol Tax. x+230 pp., 6 maps, 19 charts. 1953. 

The following publications were in press at the close of the fiscal 
year: 

Bulletin 152. Index to Schoolcraft's "Indian Tribes of the United States," com- 
piled by Frances S. Nichols. 
Bulletin 154. River Basin Surveys Papers : Inter- Agency Archeological Salvage 
Program. Nos. 1-6. 
No. 1. Prehistory and the Missouri Valley Development Program : Summary 
report on the Missouri River Basin Archeological Survey in 1948, by 
Waldo R. Wedel. 
No. 2. Prehistory and the Missouri Valley Development Program : Summary 
report on the Missouri Basin Archeological Survey in 1949, by Waldo R. 
Wedel. 
No. 3. The Woodruff Ossuary, a prehistoric burial site in Phillips County, 

Kans., by Marvin F. Kivett. 
No. 4. The Addicks Dam sites : 

I. An archeological survey of the Addicks Dam basin, Southeast Texas, 
by Joe Ben Wheat. 
II. Indian skeletal remains from the Doering and Kobs sites, Addicks 
Reservoir, Tex., by Marshall T. Newman. 
No. 5. The Hodges site : 

I. Two rock shelters near Tucumcari, N. Mex., by Herbert W. Dick. 
II. Geology of the Hodges site, Quay County, N. Mex., by Sheldon Judson. 
No. 6. The Rembert Mounds, Elbert County, Ga., by Joseph R. Caldwell. 
Appendix. List of River Basin Surveys reports published in other series. 
Bulletin 156. The Iroquois Eagle Dance, an offshoot of the Calumut Dance, by 
William N. Fenton, with an analysis of the Iroquois Eagle Dance and songs, by 
Gertrude Prokosch Kurath. 
Bulletin 157. Anthropological Papers, Nos. 43-48. 

No. 43. Stone Monuments of the Rio Chiquito, Veracruz, Mexico, by Mat- 
thew W. Stirling. 
No. 44. The Cerro de las Mesas offering of jade and other materials, by 

Philip Drucker. 
No. 45. Archeological materials from the vicinity of Mobridge, S. Dak., by 

Waldo R. Wedel. 
No. 46. The original Strachey vocabulary of the Virginia Indian language, 

by John P. Harrington. 
No. 47. The Sun Dance of the Northern Ute, by John Alan Jones. 
No. 48. Some manifestations of water in Mesoamerican art, by Robert L. 
Rands. 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 33 

Publications distributed totaled 38,596, as compared with 21,505 for 

the fiscal year 1952. 

COLLECTIONS 
Ace. No. 

1889S3. 7 ethnological specimens from States of Washington and California, and 
from the Amazon Basin ; 120 archeological specimens from Texas, 
Mexico and Panama. 

195312. (Through Dr. F. H. H. Roberts, Jr.) Plesiosaur skeleton and spine of 
hybodont shark from Graneros formation, Newcastle member, in Key- 
hole Reservoir area, Crook County, Wyo., collected in June 1952 by Dr. 
Theodore E. White, River Basin Surveys. 

195942. Approximately 74 fossil vertebrates from Oligocene and Miocene de- 

posits of Canyon Ferry Reservoir area in Montana, and 4 mollusks, 
collected August 1952, by Dr. Theodore E. White, River Basin Surveys. 

195943. Skeleton, without skull, of fossil reptile from Tongue River member of 

Fort Union formation in the Fort Garrison Reservoir area, North 

Dakota, collected in September 1952 by Dr. Theodore E. White, River 

Basin Surveys. 
197275. Archeological materials excavated by field party under Franklin Fenenga 

at Slick Rock Village, Tulare County, Calif., River Basin Surveys. 
197689. 144 specimens from Georgia including deeply weathered flint artifacts 

from Macon Plateau, Bibb County, and 1 lot of chips, probably from old 

Oconeetown, Milledgeville, Baldwin County. 
1978S6. Bones of 2 species of birds from State of Washington. River Basin 

Surveys. 

198525. 613 archeological surface specimens from Eufaula Reservoir, Onapa and 

Canadian Reservoir areas, southeastern Oklahoma, collected August 
and September 1948 by David J. Wenner, Jr., River Basin Surveys. 

198526. 380 archeological surface specimens from the Eufaula (Gaines Creek) 

Reservoir, southeastern Oklahoma, collected July and August 1950 by 
Leonard G. Johnson, River Basin Surveys. 

198527. 54 archeological surface specimens from Optima Reservoir, North 

Canadian River, Texas County, Okla., collected August 1950 by Leonard 
G. Johnson, River Basin Surveys. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Dr. Frances Densmore, Dr. John K. Swanton, and Dr. Antonio J. 
Waring, Jr., continued as collaborators of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology. On November 14, 1952, Ralph S. Solecki was named 
collaborator in archeology. 

On February 24, 1953, Mrs. Margaret C. Blaker joined the staff of 
the Bureau as archives assistant. 

Information was furnished during the past year by members of the 
Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning the American 
Indians, past and present, of both continents. The increased number 
of requests from teachers, particularly from primary and secondary 
grades, from Scout organizations, and from the general public, indi- 
cates a rapidly growing interest in the American Indian. Various 
specimens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them fur- 
nished for their owners. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Director. 

Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

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