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Full text of "Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution"

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Given By 



Forty -sixth Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1928-1929 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



FORTY- SIXTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1928-1929 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1930 



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For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington. D. C. - - - Price 31.90 (Paper cover) 



U.S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUmMiS 



• • ».•-..•• 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Smithsonian Institution, 
Bureau of American Ethnology, 
Washington, D. C, Septemhcr 15, 1929. 
Sm : I have the honor to submit herewith the Forty-sixth 
Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology for 
the fiscal year ended Jime 30, 1929. 

With appreciation of your aid in the work under my 
charge, I am 

Very respectfully yours, 

M. W. Stirling, 

Chief. 
Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



CONTENTS 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF 

Page 

Systematic researches 1 

Special researches 11 

Editorial work and publications 13 

lOustrations 14 

Library 15_ 

Colleetions 15 

Property 16 

Miscellaneous 16 

ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 

Anthropological Survey in Alaska, by Ales Hrdlicka 19 

Indian Tribes of the Upper Missouri, by Edwin T. Denig, edited by 

J. N. B. Hewitt 375 

V 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Chief 



The operations of the Bureau of American Ethnologj' 
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1929, were conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress approved May 16, 
1928, making appropriations for simdry civil expenses of 
the Government, which act contains the following item : 

American ethnology : For continuinf;; ethnological researches among 
the American Indians and the natives of Hawaii, the excavation and 
preservation of archseologic remains under the direction of the 
Smithsonian Institution, including necessary employees, the prepara- 
tion of manuscripts, drawings, and illustrations, the purchase of 
books and periodicals, and traveling expenses, $60,300. 

Mr. M. W. Stirling entered upon his duties as chief of 
the bureau August 1, 1928, succeeding Dr. J. Walter 
Fewkes, who retired January 15, 1928. ' 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

During the months of September and October Mr. Stir- 
ling worked with a group of Acoma Indians who were 
visiting Washington and secured from them in as com- 
plete form as possible the origin and migration myth of 
that very conservative tribe. This myth not only de- 
scribes the emergence of the first human beings from the 
underworld but also explains the origin and functions 
of the pantheon of demigods and heroes connected with 
the legend. The myth likewise explains the origin and 
function of the clans and the medicine societies and the 



Z BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

reason for the many ceremonies practiced. In connec- 
tion with this work phonograj^hic records were made of 
66 songs, many of which have been transcribed by Miss 
Frances Densmore, as described in her report. This in- 
formation fills an important gap in onr knowledge of the 
oldest inhabited pueblo in the United States. 

Mr. Stirling spent the months of March and April in 
Florida, where a survey was made of the mounds in the 
vicinity of Tampa Bay. An interesting discovery was 
made of a series of mounds composed of mixed sand and 
shell, constructed at a distance of about 4 miles inland, 
parallel to the shore, and in each instance directly back 
of a large shell mound located on the salt water. Pre- 
liminary excavations were made at Cockroach Point, 
Palma Sola, and Safety Harbor. The shell mound at 
Cockroach Point is the largest on the west coast of Florida 
and is composed entirely of shell and bone, refuse from the 
meals of the Indians who formerly occupied the site. 
Collections of shells and bones were made in the different 
levels of the mound, together with human artifacts asso- 
ciated with them, with a view to establishing a culture 
sequence. 

The site at Safety Harbor was determined to be of the 
same culture as that excavated at Weeden Island during 
the winters of 1923 and 1924. 

The large sand mound at Palma Sola proved to be of 
exceptional interest and was selected as a site for intensive 
excavation next winter. 

During the latter part of April Mr. Stirling visited Chi- 
cago for the purpose of delivering lectures before the Geo- 
graphic Society of Chicago and the anthroiDologists of Chi- 
cago and vicinity. From Chicago he went to Memphis, 
Tenn., where he attended the meeting of the Tennessee 
Academy of Sciences and addressed the society at their 
annual banquet. Proceeding from Memphis to Macon, 
Ga., he visited the large mounds on the site of Old Ocmul- 
gee Town, traditional founding place of the Creek Con- 
federacy. 



ADMINISTRATH^E REPORT 



During the third week in May Mr. Stirling attended the 
conference of Mid- Western Archeologists, which was held 
at St. Louis under the auspices of the National Research 
Comicil, and as representative of this body went to Mont- 
gomery, Ala., to deliver an address at the unveiling of a 
nionvmient by the Alabama Anthropological Society on the 
site of old Tukabatchi. 

He also attended the meeting of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science in New York in 
December, 1928, as representative of the United States 
Government. 

Dr. John R. S wanton, ethnologist, was engaged during 
the year in completing the proof reading of his bulletin on 
the Myths and Tales of the Southeast, which has been re- 
leased for publication. 

Considerable material was added to his manuscript pa- 
per entitled " Source Material for Choctaw Ethnology.'* 
Part of this was collected from the archives of the State 
Department of Archives and History at Jackson, Miss., 
and some from the eastern Choctaw at Philadeli^hia, Miss., 
in July, 1928. Also, a great deal more work was devoted 
to the projected tribal map of aboriginal North America 
north of Mexico and to the accomi^anying text, including 
the incorporation df some valuable notes furnished by Mr. 
Diamond Jenness, chief of the division of anthropology 
of the Geological Survey of Canada, 

Work was continued throughout the year on the Timu- 
eua dictionary which, in spite of the elimination of a large 
number of cards on account of closer classification and the 
correction of errors, still fills 14 trays. 

Shortly after July, 1928, Dr. Trmnan Michelson, eth- 
nologist, left Washington to renew his research among the 
Algonquian tribes of Oklahoma. He first studied the 
linguistics, sociology, and physical anthropology of the 
Kickapoo. Kickapoo in certain respects is very impor- 
tant linguistically. While working on Arapaho he was 
able to formulate many phonetic shifts of complexity. 
Even so, the amount of vocabulary that can be proved to 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

be Algonquian is very small. The grammatical structure 
is, however, fundamentally Algonquian. It is also true 
that there are a few traits which are distinctly un- Algon- 
quian ; for example, the order of words. 

The first week in August Doctor Miehelson went to 
Tama, Iowa, to renew his work among the Foxes. He 
there restored phonetically some texts previously obtained 
in the current syllabic script and worked out some transla- 
tions. He also obtained some grammatical notes on these 
texts. Some new Fox syllabic texts were collected and 
new and important ethnological data were obtained. 

Doctor Miehelson returned to Washington in Septem- 
ber. He corrected proofs of Bulletin 89, Observations on 
the Thunder Dance of the Bear Gens of the Fox Indians, 
and prepared for publication by the bureau a memoir 
entitled " Notes on the Great Sacred Pack of the Thunder 
Gens of the Fox Indians. ' ' Early in June Doctor Michel- 
son left for Oklahoma, where he obtained more Kickapoo 
linguistic notes, further elucidating the relation of Kicka- 
poo to Fox. From this it appears that Kickapoo diverges 
more widely in idiom than hithereto suspected. He also 
secured some Kickapoo texts in the current syllabic script 
and obtained new data on social organization. Some brief 
Shawnee linguistic notes were collected. These show that 
while Shawnee is in certain respects very important for 
a correct understanding of Fox phonology, as a whole it 
is not as archaic. It is also now clear that Shawnee is 
further removed from Sauk and Kickapoo than he had 
previously surmised. Doctor Miehelson witnessed several 
Kickapoo dances and attended a Shawnee ball game. 

In June, 1929, Mr. John P. Harrington, ethnologist, 
completed his report on the Taos Indians, who inhabit 
a large pueblo on an eastern affluent of the Rio Grande 
in north-central New Mexico. These are the northernmost 
of the New Mexico Pueblo Indians and are peculiarly in- 
teresting because of the long intimate relations they have 
had with the Jicarilla Apaches, Utes, Comanches, and 
other tribes of Great Plains culture. During the period 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT 



of Spanish domination in New Mexico the Taos had to 
play the double and difficult role, because of their frontier 
position, of persuading the Spanish that they were really 
on their side, and the Plains Indians that they were really 
on theirs. The relations with the Plains Indians existed 
far back in Taos history and amounted at times to the 
incorporation of large bodies of these Indians in the blood 
which went to make up the present-day Taos. And there 
is still more remote and fundamental connection with one 
group of Plains Indians, namely the Kiowa. The Taos 
language, which was the language of one of the ancient 
groups which contributed to the composition of Taos, has 
been determined to be a dialect of Kiowa, which seems 
to indicate that this contingent of the Taos population at 
least, like the Kiowas themselves, once lived in the north- 
ern region of the Rocky Momitains, probably in what is 
now Canada. 

Grasping still another opportunity to check the old and 
new information on this region, studies on the related 
Karuk Indians of the central Klamath River region of 
California were resumed during field work on the coast 
and were continued throughout the year, resulting in an 
accumulation of carefully analyzed material, a large part 
of which is now ready for publication. The work consists 
of many divisions of information, including the grammar 
of the language, its sounds, its peculiar musical intona- 
tions, and the system of long and short consonants and 
vowels ; the history of the tribe, which remained intact and 
unspoiled up to 1850; the census, with the peculiar old 
personal names ; the villages, which were strung out along 
the river and its tributary creeks ; the construction of the 
living houses and sweat houses, and the description of all 
the manufacti;res, and the process of making the objects, 
all in Indian; the social life, an organization without 
chiefs ; the great festivals and the various dances ; feuds, 
Avars, and peace making ; sucking and herb doctors, and the 
sources of their power ; medicine formulas and myths, all 
in the language, for any other record of them would be 



6 BTJEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

inadequate. This information is accompanied by photo- 
graphs and phonograph records and is rapidly appi'oach- 
ing completion for publication as a report of the bureau. 

Early in June Mr. Harrington went to Chaco Canyon, 
N. Mex., for the purpose of making further study of the 
Pueblo Indian languages, notably the relation of Zuhi and 
Keresan to the newly discovered Kiowan family. Coop- 
erating with students at the University of New Mexico 
attending the university summer school being held at 
Chaco Canyon under the joint auspices of the State Uni- 
versity and the School of American Research, a minute 
comparison was made of the Taos and Zuiii languages, re- 
sulting in the discovery of the genetic relationship of these 
two languages, a relationship which can be traced through 
himdreds of words of similar sound and identical con- 
struction, which was long ago hinted at by the discovery 
of such words as lana, big, and papa, older brother, which 
are the same in sound and meaning in both languages. 
About 200 kymograph tracings were made. Similar gen- 
etically related words and features were also discovered in 
the Keresan language. Cooperating in this work were 
Miss Sara Godard, Miss Clara Leibold, Miss Anna Ris- 
ser, Miss Janet Tietjens, Miss Winifred Stamm, Mr. Regi- 
nald Fisher, and several other students. The results are 
ready for publication, including the kymographic alpha- 
bet, which is mounted and ready for the engraver. 

The months of July and August, 1928, were spent by 
Dr. F. H. H. Roberts, jr., archeologist, in completing 
archeological investigations along the Piedra River in 
southwestern Colorado. During that time the remains of 
50 houses belonging to the first period of the prehistoric 
Pueblo peoples were excavated and examined. As a re- 
sidt of these researches it was possible to determine a 
three-stage chronological development of the house types 
in the district as well as to postulate very definite recon- 
structions of the dwellings. An additional discovery was 
that in the arrangement of the structures the builders had 
developed the prototype of the unit house which was the 



ADMINISTRATR'E REPORT 7 

characteristic building of the following stage, the Pueblo 
II period. Besides the work in house remains, a nimiber 
of burial mounds were explored and many skeletons and 
objects of the material culture of the people were obtained. 
The latter include a large number and variety of pottery 
specimens, many of which represent an entirely new fea- 
ture in the ceramic industry, bone and stone implements, 
and ornaments. The work as a whole gives a clear-cut 
picture of the life and conditions prevailing at a time of 
instal:>ility and disturbance due to an influx of new 
peoples, with its attendant cultural transition. 

On the completion of the work along the Piedra River 
one week was spent in a reconnaissance of the Governador 
district in northern New Mexico. The Governador region 
includes the Governador, Burns, La Jara, and Frances 
Canyons. The latter are of special archeological and 
ethnological interest, because it was to that section that 
a large group of the Pueblo Indians from the Jemez vil- 
lages fled after they had been disastrously defeated in the 
Battle of San Diego Canyon during the month of June, 
1696, by Spanish forces engaged in the reconquest of the 
Southwest. The ruins of the dwellings built by the 
refugees are in a good state of preservation and furnish 
excellent information on the methods and styles of house 
building prevalent at that time. At the close of the Gov- 
ernador explorations Doctor Roberts returned to Wash- 
ington, reaching there the middle of September. 

During the autunm illustrations were prepared to ac- 
company a manuscript entitled "Recent Archeological 
Developments in the Vicinity of El Paso, Tex.," which 
was published in January, 1929, as volume 81, No. 7, 
of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Proof of 
another paper entitled "Shabik'eshehee Village, a Late 
Basket Maker Site in the Chaco Canyon, New Mexico," 
was corrected, and this appeared in June, 1929, as Bulle- 
tin 92 of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Considerable time was spent in the laboratory of the 
division of American archeology of the United States Na- 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

tional Museum in working over the collection made during 
the excavations along the Piedra River. A portion of 
this work included the restoration, from fragments found 
in the various houses, of a number of unusually fine culi- 
nary and storage jars and a series of decorated bowls. 

From January to Jime a 545-page manuscript on the 
work in southwestern Colorado was prepared. Accom- 
panying this report are 40 text figures drawn by Doctor 
Roberts. The figures include 64 drawings, consisting of 
maps of the San Juan areheological area and the Piedra 
district, outlines of the various village and house groups, 
restorations of the different forms of dwellings, details in 
building construction, outline groups of pottery forms, 
and designs from decorated ceramic containers. 

On May 11, 1929, Doctor Roberts left Washington for 
Denver, Colo., where one week was spent in studying 
museum specimens. From Denver he proceeded to Gal- 
lup, N. Mex., where he outfitted for work in the region of 
the Long H Ranch, eastern Arizona, 45 miles from the 
Pueblo of Zuiii. After conducting a reconnaissance a site 
was chosen on the Long H Ranch, 1 mile northwest of the 
ranch buildings, and a series of excavations started. As 
work progressed it was found that the site was one which 
had been occupied by Basket Maker III and Pueblo I peo- 
ples and that it showed the transition from the one period 
to the other. At the end of June, eight fine examples of 
pit houses had been uncovered. Excellent data on the 
type and character of this form of structure were obtained 
and several new features in the method of house group- 
ings were observed. The burial mounds of three house 
clusters were examined and 30 interments exhumed. The 
latter were accompanied by mortuary offerings of pottery ; 
bone and shell implements; shell beads, bracelets, and 
pendants; and turquoise ornaments. With the various 
objects found in the houses the total number of specimens 
reaches 300. The work has furnished valuable informa- 
tion on a little-known phase of the prehistoric sedentary 
cultures of the Southwest. 



ADMINISTBATIVE EEPOKT 9 

During the year Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnologist, con- 
tinued his studies on the Iroquois. In 1900 and immedi- 
ately subsequent years Mr. Hewitt undertook seriously to 
record in native texts the extant rituals, ordinances, and 
laws pertaining to the institutions and structure of the 
League or Confederation of the Five (later Six) Tribes 
or Nations of the Iroquois of New York State. At that 
time there were still living two or three men among the 
Iroquois of Canada who grasped more or less fully the 
intent and purpose of the various institutions of this 
league, and Mr. Hewitt had then acquired a conversational 
knowledge of the two languages in which these rituals, or- 
dinances, and laws were chiefly expressed, to wit, the 
Mohawk and the Onondaga. The use of the Cayuga, 
Oneida, and Seneca was exceptional. 

From these men Mr. Hewitt obtained standard texts 
in the native tongues of the informants. The death of 
two of these informants made a study of the material 
furnished by them difficult. Resort was had then to other 
less noted informants in these matters, and there was ob- 
tained a large number of versions of portions of the stand- 
ard texts already mentioned, which disclosed views and 
statements which it seemed impossible to harmonize with 
those appearing in the standard texts. It was imperative 
that the value of these discordant statements should be 
ascertained where possible and that paljDable omissions 
from the standard texts should be utilized. The task was 
to ascertain in these analytical studies what was trans- 
mitted tradition and what was the personal opinion of 
the informant, unwittingly expressed. 

This work of comparison was undertaken to secure the 
best possible translations, interlinear and free, of the sev- 
eral native texts thus studied. The texts of the Installa- 
tion Chant, the Eulogy of the Founders, of the Traditional 
Biography of Deganawida which describes in great detail 
the years of difficult work which had to be done to estab- 
lish the League of the Five Tribes of the Iroquois in the 
Stone Age of America, and also the native text of the 

SS253°— 30 — 2 



10 BUEEAU OF AMEEICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Requickening Address of Installation, were subjected to 
this kind of study. 

Mr. Hewitt represented the Smithsonian Institution on 
the United States Geographic Board. In addition to at- 
tending the meetings, he spent about three days in 
researches for the executive committee. 

As custodian of manuscripts of the bureau, Mr. Hewitt 
did some classificatory linguistic work on new items 
acquired. 

Mr. Hewitt left Washington on May 6, 1929, to con- 
tinue his studies among the Iroquoian tribes dwelling 
in Canada and in the State of New York. His work con- 
sisted chiefly in literal and free translation of formal 
native diction embodying legislative, ritualistic, and fo- 
rensic thought ; and, also in the coordination of divergent 
traditional statements of traditionally hstorical events, in 
eliminating the incongruous, and in conserving the congru- 
ous. He secured 15 parcels of wampum strings, severally 
bearing the name of one of the ))urdens of the ritual, the 
Requickening Address of Installation. 

Dr. Francis La Flesche, ethnologist, during the last 
fiscal year completed Wa-sha'-be A-thi", an Osage war 
ceremony, composed of 270 pages of manuscript, with 
diagrams and illustrations; also the Wa'wa-tho", a cere- 
mony pertaining to the peace pipes, composed of 129 pages 
of manuscrijit, with illustrations. In this paper is a full 
and detailed description of the discoidal pipes, ancient and 
modern, found in the Eastern States, many of which may 
be foimd in the various museums. 

With the assistance of Mrs. Grace D. Woodburn, he has 
revised the work on the Osage Dictionary. There are 
approximately 19,000 words of the Osage language in com- 
mon use among the tribe, with English equivalent; about 
17,000 English words with Osage transcriptions are given. 
The words, with their meanings, can not be given posi- 
tively, but a clear idea of usage has been given. About 35 
illustrations have been completed for this work. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPOET 11 

SPECIAL EESEAECHES 

The study of Indian music lias been continued during 
the past year by Miss Frances Densmore, a collaborator 
of the bureau. Material has been submitted on the songs 
of the Menominee, Winnebago, Pawnee, Ymna, Acoma, 
and the Indians living on the Eraser, Thompson, and 
Squamish Rivers in British Columbia; also on a small 
group of songs recorded at Anvik, Alaska, and obtained 
through the courtesy of Rev. John W. Chapman. A com- 
parison of the songs in this wide territory has been im- 
portant in the develojoment of the research. 

Eight manuscripts have been submitted with the follow- 
ing titles: "Menominee Songs of Pleasure, Dances, and 
Manabus Legends"; "Songs of Indians Living on the 
Fraser, Thompson, and Squamish Rivers in British Co- 
lumbia"; "Origin Song of the Dice Game and Other Win- 
nebago Songs"; "Winnebago Songs Connected with the 
Recent War ' ' ; and 17 analytical tables comparing Pawnee 
with songs previously analyzed; "Winnebago Songs Con- 
nected with Legends, Games, and Dances" ; "Acoma Songs 
of the Flower Dance and Corn Dance"; "Acoma Songs 
Used in Treating the Sick and Other Acoma Songs" ; and 
"A Comparison Between Yuma, Acoma, and Alaskan In- 
dian Songs," with 18 tables of analysis of Yuma songs. 
The number of songs transcribed and analyzed is 117, and 
a large nimiber of dictaphone song records were stvidied 
without transcription. Miss Densmore corrected the 
proof of her book on Papago Music and the galleys of 
Pawnee Music; the tinal work of preparing the Pawnee 
material for publication was also done during this year. 
A large amount of work was done upon the preparation of 
Menominee and Yuma material for publication. Cata- 
logue numbers have been assigned to all transcribed songs, 
except the Acoma, the highest catalogue number in her 
series being 1848. 

During August and September, 1928, a field trip was 
made to the Winnebago and Menominee tribes in Wis- 
consin. A large dance, continuing three days, was held 



12 BUKEATJ OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

by the Winnebago near Black River Falls. This dance 
was witnessed, as well as numerous incidents of life in the 
camp, and about 50 photographs were taken. 

At the conclusion of this gathering Miss Densmore went 
to Keshena, Wis., for further work among the Menominee. 
The manuscript already prepared was read to reliable 
members of the tribe and details were added. An inter- 
esting oportunity for seeing Menominee dances was af- 
forded by the annual Indian fair which continued four 
days. Among the old dances presented were those in 
imitation of the fish, frog, crawfish, rabbit, partridge, and 
owl. The songs of these dances, together with their ac- 
tion and origin, were recorded. The Manabus legend con- 
cerning the first death was obtained, together with its 
songs, and the work included the recording of other old 
material. 

A drum-presentation ceremonial dance, commonly 
called a dream dance, was held at the native village of 
Zoar on September 2 to 5. This was attended each day 
and closely observed. Miss Densmore remaining 10 hours 
beside the dance circle on the third day of the ceremony. 
Many photographs were taken. 

On September 14 Miss Densmore proceeded to Tomah, 
Wis., and resumed her study of Winnebago music. Addi- 
tional songs of the war-bundle feast, also called the winter 
feast, were recorded, together with several old legends and 
their songs, and the origin of the bowl-and-dice game, with 
its song. The legend of this game origin had previously 
been obtained among the Menominee. Numerous photo- 
graphs were taken, and two drumming sticks were ob- 
tained, one being decorated with otter fur and used a 
generation ago by the leader at the drum. 

During October, 1928, Miss Densmore went to Wash- 
ington, D. C, and recorded 27 Acoma songs from Philip 
Sanche, who, with several Acoma Indians, was engaged 
in work for the chief of the Bureau of American Ethnol- 
ogy. A larger niunber of Acoma songs had previously 
been recorded for the chief of the bureau and these records 



ADMIlSriSTRATIVE REPORT 13 

were studied, 16 being transcribed as representative 
examples. 

EDITORIAL WOEK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editing of the publications of the bureau was con- 
tinued through the year by Mr. Stanley Searles, editor, 
assisted by Mrs. Frances S. Mchols, editorial assistant. 
The status of the publications is presented in the following 
summary. 

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED 

Forty-first Annual Eeport. Accompanying papers : Coiled Basketry 

in British Columbia and Surrounding Region (Boas, assisted by 

Haeberlin, Teit, and Roberts) ; Two Prehistoric Villages in Middle 

Tennessee (Myer). 626 pp., T37 pis., 200 figs., 1 pocket map. 
Forty-third Annual Report. Accompanying papers: The Osage 

Tribe: Two Versions of the Child-naming Rite (La Flesche) ; 

Wawenock Myth Texts from Maine (Speck) ; Native Tribes and 

Dialects of Connecticut, a Mohegan-Pequot Diary (Speck) ; 

Picun's Children's Stories (Harrington and Roberts) ; Iroquoian 

Cosmology — Second Part (Hewitt). 828 pp., 44 pis., 9 figs. 
Forty-fourth Annual Report. Accompanying papers: Exploration 

of the Burton Mound at Santa Barbara, Calif. (Harrington) ; 

Social and Religious Beliefs and Usages of the Chickasaw Indians 

(Swanton) ; LTses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians (Densmore) ; 

Archeological Investigations — II (Fowke). 555 pp., 98 pis., 16 

figs- 
Bulletin 84. Vocabulary of the Kiowa Language (Harrington). 

255 pp., 1 fig. 
Bulletin 86. Chippewa Customs (Densmore). 204 pp., 90 pis., 27 

figs. 
Bulletin 87. Notes on the Buffalo-head Dance of the Thunder Gens 

of the Fox Indians (Michelson). 94 pp., 1 fig. 
Bulletin 89. Observations on the Thunder Dance of the Bear Gens 

of the Fox Indians (Michelson). 73 pp., 1 fig. 
Bulletin 92. Shabik'eshchee Village: A Late Basket Maker Site 

in the Chaco Canyon, New Mexico (Roberts). 164 pp., 31 pis., 

32 figs. 

PUBLICATIONS IN PRESS 

Forty-fifth Annual Report. Accompanying papers: The Salishan 
Tribes of the Western Plateaus (Teit, edited by Boas) ; Tattooing 
and Face and Body Painting of the Thompson Indians, British 
Columbia (Teit, edited by Boas) ; The Ethnobotany of the Thomp- 
son Indians of British Columbia (Teit, edited by Steedman) ; 
The Osage Tribe: Rite of the Wa-xo'-be (La Flesche). 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Bulletin 88. Myths and Tales of the Southeastern Indians (Swan- 
ton). 

Bulletin 90. Papajro Music (Densmore). 

Bulletin 91. Additional Studies of the Arts, Crafts, and Customs 
of the Guiana Indians, with special reference to those of Souih- 
eastern British Guiana (Roth). 

Bulletin 93. Pawnee Music (Densmore). 

DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLICATIONS 

The distribution of the publications of the bureau has 
been continued under the charge of Miss- Helen Munroe, 
assisted by Miss Emma B. Powers. Publications were 
distributed as follows : 

Report volumes and separates _* 7,605 

Bulletins and separates 11,890 

Contributions to North American Ethnology 34 

Miscellaneous publications 583 

Total 20, 112 

This is an increase of 10,986 iiublieations distributed, 
due to the fact that 5 more publications were distributed 
to the mailing list than in the previous year. The mail- 
ing list, after revision during the year, stands at 1,642. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Following is a summary of work accomplished in the 
illustration branch of the bureau under the supervision 
of Mr. De Lancey Gill, illustrator : 

Photographs retouched and lettered and drawings made ready 

for engraving 874 

Drawings prepared, including mafis, diagrams, etc 53 

Engravers' pi'oofs criticized 690 

Printed editions of colored jjlates examined at Government 

Printing Office — 23,000 

Correspondence attended to 125 

Photographic laboratory work by Dr. A. J. Olmsted, Na- 
tional Museum, in cooperation with the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology : 

Negatives 143 

Prints 275 

Films developed from field exposures 12 



ADMINISTRATR'E EEPOET 15 

LIBRARY 

The reference library has continued under the care of 
Miss Ella Leary, librarian, assisted by Mr. Thomas Black- 
well. The library consists of 28,512 volumes, about 16,377 
pamphlets, and several thousand unbound periodicals. 
During the year 591 books were accessioned, of which 112 
were acquired by purchase and 479 by gift and exchange ; 
also 200 pamphlets and 4,100 serials, chiefly the publica- 
tions of learned societies, were received and recorded, of 
which oidy 112 were obtained by purchase, the remainder 
being received through exchange. The catalogue was in- 
creased by the addition of 1,400 cards. Many books were 
loaned to other libraries in Washington. In addition to 
the constant drafts on the library of the bureau, requisi- 
tion was made on the Library of Congress during the year 
for an aggregate of 200 volumes for official use, and in turn 
the bureau library was frequently consulted by officers of 
other Government establishments, as well as by students 
not connected with the Smithsonian Institution. 

While many volumes are still without binding, the con- 
dition of the library in this respect has greatly improved 
during the last few years ; 431 volumes were bound during 
the year. 

COLLECTIONS 

100,592. Several thousand anthropological specimens and small col- 
lections of mammals, plants, moUusks, and minerals from various 
localities in Alaska, secured by Henry B. Collins, jr., during 1928. 
(3,730 specimens.) 

102.768. Small collection of archeological objects gathered by Charles 
T. Earle at an aboriginal camp site at Shaws Point, Fla. (26 
specimens.) 

102.769. Two textile fragments collected in the Canyon de Chelly, 
Ariz., by Dr. W. H. Spinks. (2 specimens.) 

102,896. Collection of 61 ethnological specimens secured from the 
Hupa Indians of California by E. G. Johnson. (61 specimens.) 

103,344. Two specimens of sheet mica collected from unidentified 
mounds in Ohio by the late Dr. E. H. Davis and presented to the 
bureau by Miss Betsey B. Davis. (2 specimens,) 



16 ' BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

103,964. Pair of charms used by the Karuk Indians of northern Cali- 
fornia to ward off pains and bewitchments. Made by Mrs. Phoebe 
Maddux, of the Karuk tribe. (2 specimens.) 

105,865. Collection of ethnological objects gathered from the Hupa 
Indians of California by E. G. Johnson and purchased from him 
by the bureau. (27 specimens.) 

PROPERTY 

Oflfice equipment was purchased to the amount of 
$292.70. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

The correspondence and other clerical work of the office 
has been conducted by Miss May S. Clark, clerk to the 
chief, assisted by Mr. Anthony W. Wilding, assistant clerk. 
Miss Mae W. Tucker, stenographer, assisted Dr. John R. 
Swanton in his work of compiling a dictionary of the Ata- 
kapa and compiled two catalogues of the manuscripts in 
the archives of the bureau — one arranged according to 
author and the other numerically. Mrs. Frances S. 
Nichols assisted the editor. 

During the course of the year information was furnished 
by members of the staff in reply to numerous inquiries 
concerning the North American Indian peoples, both past 
and present, and the Mexican peoples of the prehistoric 
and early historic periods to the south. Various speci- 
mens sent to the bureau were identified and data on them 
furnished for their owners. 

Personnel. — Mr. M. W. Stirling was appointed chief of 
the bureau August 1, 1928. Dr, J. Walter Fewkes retired 
as associate anthropologist of the bureau November 14, 
1928. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Chief. 

Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 



17 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 

By ALES HRDLICKA 



19 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 29 

General remarks 31 

Northwest coast — Juneau 32 

The Coast Indians 32 

Notes of archeological interest 33 

The writer's trip on the Yukon 39 

Tanana — Yukon 39 

Ancient man 41 

The Indians at Tanana 42 

Ruby 48 

Galena 51 

Nulato 53 

Kaltag 54 

The Anvik jjeople 57 

Bonasila 60 

Holy Cross 61 

Ghost Creek 62 

Paimute 66 

Russian Mission 70 

MarshaU 72 

St. Michael 84 

About Nome 88 

Aboriginal remains 89 

Nome — Bering Strait — Barrow 90 

Savonga 92 

The Diomedes 94 

The Yukon Territory — Sites, the Indians, the Eskimo 123 

The Tanana 123 

Brief historical data 123 

Population 124 

Indian sites and villages along the Tanana 125 

Lower Tanana, Nenana to Yukon 126 

The Yukon below Tanana 126 

Brief history 126 

The Yukon natives 129 

Native villages 131 

Present conditions 133 

Archeology of the Yukon 134 

The random specimens 134 

Location of villages and sites on the Yukon 136 

Pre-Russian sites 140 

Archeology of Central Alaska 144 

Ancient stone culture 144 

The pottery 146 

The yUaskan grooved stone ax 147 

21 



22 CONTENTS 

Page 

Anthropology of the Yukon 150 

The living Indian 150 

Pure bloods 150 

General type 151 

Color 151 

Stature and strength 151 

Head form 151 

Body 151 

Photographs 151 

Skeletal remains of the Yukon 151 

Detailed measurements of skuUs 152 

Lower middle Yukon Indian crania 153 

Skeletal parts 156 

Skeletal remains from the bank at Bonasila 156 

The crania 157 

Additional parts 159 

The Yukon Eskimo 161 

The living 161 

Measurements on living Yukon Eskimo 162 

Skeletal remains of Yukon Eskimo 162 

Skeletal parts of the Yukon Eskimo 163 

Notes on the archeology of the Western Eskimo region 165 

Old sites in the region of the Western Eskimo 168 

Present location of archeologieal sites 171 

Sites and villages 176 

Burial grounds 183 

Prince WiUiam Sound, Kodiak Island, Alaska Peninsula 184 

Kodiak Island and neighborhood 184 

Alaska Peninsula 186 

Bristol Bay to Cape Romanzof 190 

Cape Romanzof to Northern (Apoon) Pass of the Yukon and north- 
ward 195 

St. Michael Island 195 

Norton Sound 195 

South shore of Seward Peninsula west of Bluff 196 

Scammon Bay, Norton Sound, south coast of Seward Peninsula, to 

Cape Rodney 198 

The northern shore of the Seward Peninsula 202 

Kotzebue Sound, its rivers and its coast northward to Kevalina 204 

Seward Peninsula, Kotzebue Sound, and northward 204 

Kevalina — Point Barrow 205 

Point Hope (Tigara) 205 

Point Hope to Point Barrow 206 

Barrow and Point Barrow 206 

The St. Lawrence and Diomede Islands 209 

St. Lawrence Island 209 

The Diomede Islands and the Asiatic coast 210 

Physical anthropology 213 

Earlier data 213 

Older anthropometric data on the western Eskimo 228 

Stature and other measurements on the living 228 

TheskuU 231 



CONTENTS 23 

Physical anthropology — Continued. Page 

Present data on the western Eskimo 238 

The living 238 

Measurements of Uving western Esliimo 238 

Stature 238 

Height sitting , 239 

Arm span 239 

The head 239 

The forehead 240 

The face 241 

Lower facial breadth 242 

The nose 242 

The mouth 243 

The ears 243 

The chest 244 

The hand •_ 245 

The foot 246 

Girth of the calf 246 

Physiological observations 247 

Summary of observations on the living western Eskimo 249 

Remarks 250 

Present data on the skull and other skeletal remains of the western 

Eskimo 254 

The skull 254 

Skull size 255 

Module and capacity 258 

Additional remarks on cranial module 258 

SkuU shape 258 

Height of the skuU 261 

The face 263 

The nose 267 

The orbits 270 

The upper alveolar arch 275 

The basion-nasion diameter 277 

Prognathism 282 

Skulls of Eskimo children 294 

Crania of Eskimo children 295 

Southwestern and midwestern Eskimo 295 

Principal cranial indices in children compared with those in 

adults 297 

The lower jaw 299 

Strength of the jaw 301 

Breadth of the rami 303 

Other dimensions 303 

The angle 305 

Rfeumg 306 

Mandibular hyperostoses 306 

Main references 310 

Skeletal parts other than the skull 313 

The long bones 314 

Comparative data 315 

Long bones in Eskimo and stature 316 

Length of principal long bones, and stature in the living, on the St. 

Lawrence Island 317 

Long bones vs. stature in Eskimo of Smith Sound 317 



24 CONTENTS 

Page 

A strange group of Eskimo near Point Barrow 318 

Anthropological observations and measurements on the collections-- 321 

Physical characteristics 323 

Origin and antiquity of the Eskimo 329 

Origin of the name ' ' Eskimo " 329 

Opinions by former and living students 330 

Origin in Asia 330 

Origin in America 330 

Origin in Europe — Identity with Upper Palaeolithic man 331 

Other hypotheses 332 

Theories as to the origin of the Eskimo 333 

Asiatics 333 

American 340 

European 347 

Opposed to European 351 

Miscellaneous and indefinite - 351 

Discussion and conclusions indicated by present data 355 

Summary 361 

Bibliography 367 

Index. 629 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATES 

Page 

1. a. "Old Minto" on the Tanana. Indian village. (A. H., 1926.) 

6, Present Nulato and its cemetery (on hill to the right of the 
village) from some distance up the river. (A. H., 1926.) c, The 
Greyling River site, right bank, 22 miles above Anvik; site and 
graveyard (male skeleton) from top of knoll. (A. H., 1926.) 54 

2. o, View on the Yukon from above Kaltag. (A. H., 1926.) b, Indian 

burial ground, middle Yukon. (A.H., 1926.) c, Anvik, from the 
mission. (A. H., 1926.) 54 

3. o. Midnight on the Yukon. 6, Lower middle Yukon: painted burial 

box of a Yukon Indian (before 1884) said to have been a hunter of 
bielugas (white whales), wliich used to ascend far up the Yukon 64 

4. o, Eskimo camp below Paimute, Yukon River. 6, Old "protolithie" 

site 12 miles down from Paimute, right bank, just beyond " 12-mile 
hill" (skuU, bones, stones), c, "Old" site in bank seen in middle of 
picture, 12 miles down from Paimute, opposite that shown in pre- 
ceding figure. (A. H., 1926.) 64 

5. a, Cape Prince of Wales from the southeast. (A. H., 1926.) 6, Vil- 

lage and cemetery slope. Little Diomede. (A. H., 1926.) 96 

6. a, Asiatics departing for Siberia from the Little Diomede Island. 

(Photo by D. Jenness, 1926.) 6, c, "Chukchis" loading their boat 
with goods on Little Diomede Island, before departure for Siberia. 
(Photos by D. Jenness, 1926.) 96 

7. a, Eskimos from East Cape arriving at Nome, Alaska. 6, East Cape 

of Asia (to the southward). (Photo from Joe Bernard.) 96 

8. A group of women at Sliishmaref. (Taken at 2 a. m. by A. H., 1926.).. 96 

9. a, My "spoils," loaded on sled, Point Hope. (A. H., 1926.) 6, The 

load is heavy and sledding over sand and gravel difficult. (A. H., 
1926.) \ 136 

10. Characteristic stone axes, middle Yukon. (A. H. coll., 1926.) 136 

11. Crude stone artifacts, found at Bonasila, lower middle Yukon. (A. 

E. coU., 1926.) 136 

12. Crude stone artifacts, found at Bonasila, lower middle Yukon. (A. 

H. coll., 1926.) 136 

13. Tanana Indian woman 150 

14. Chief Sam Joseph, near Tanana village, on the Yukon. (A. H., 

1926.) 150 

15. a, Yukon Indians, at Kokrines, Jacob and Andrew. Jacob probably 

has a trace of white blood. (A. H. 1926.) 6, Yukon Indians at 
Kokrines. (A. H., 1926.) 150 

16. Yukon Indians, a, Marguerite Johnny Yatlen, Koyukuk vOlage. 

(A. H., 1926.) 6, Lucy John, Koyukuk, daughter of a former chief. 

(A. H., 1926.) 150 

17. Yukon Indians, a, George Halfway, Nulato on the Yukon. (A. H., 

1926.) b, Jack Curry of Nulato, 41 years. (Now at Ruby, middle 
Yukon; Eskimoid physiognomy.) c, Arthur Malamvot, of Nulato. 150 

88253°-^0 3 25 



26 ILLUSTRATIONS 

Page 

18. a, Indian children, mission school at Anvik, lower middle Yukon. 

6, Indian children, mission school at Anvik, lower middle Yukon. 

c, Two women of Anvik, on the Yukon, somewhat Eskimoid 150 

19. Terminal piece of a lance or harpoon, northern Bering Sea. Black, 

high natural polish. Most beautiful piece of the fossil ivory art. 

(A. H., 1926, U.S.N. M.) 174 

20. Fossil ivory specimens showing the old curvilinear designs. Northern 

Bering Sea. (A. H. coll., 1926, U.S.N.M.) 174 

21. Objects showing the old fossil ivory art, northern Bering Sea. 

(U.S.N.M., Nos. 1 and 3 coll., A. H.," 1926.) J74 

22. Fossil ivory needle cases and spear heads, northern Bering Sea, show- 

ing fine workmanship. (A. H. coll., 1926, U.S.N.M.) 174 

23. a, Small, finely made objects in fossil ivory and stone (the head), 

from the ruins at Point Hope. (A. H. coll., 1926.) 6, Old fossil 
ivory olijects, northern Bering Sea. The article to the right is 
almost classic in form; it is decorated on both sides. (A. H. coll., 
1926, U.S.N.M.) 174 

24. Fossil ivory combs, upper Bering Sea. (A. H. coll., 1926) 174 

25. Fossil ivory objects from the upper Bering Sea region. Transitional 

art. (Museum of tlie Agricultural College, Fairbanks, Alaska.) 174 

26. Old black finely carved fossil ivory figure, from the northeastern 

Asiatic coast. (Loan to U.S.N.M. by Mr. Carl Lomen.) 174 

27. Wooden figurines from a medicine lodge, Choco Indians, Panama. 

(U.S.N.M. colls.) 174 

28. Left: Two beautiful knives lately made of fossil mammoth ivory 

by a Seward Peninsula Eskimo. (Gift to the U.S.N.M. by A. H., 
1926.) Right: Two old ceremonial Mexican obsidian knives. 
Manche de poignard en ivoire, avec sculpture reprSsentant un 
renne. Montastruc (Peccadeau de I'lsle; in De Quatrefages (A.) — 
Hommes fossiles, Paris, 1884, p. 50.) 174 

29. Billings and Gall's map of Bering Strait and neighboring lands, 1811.. 178 

30. Eskimo villages and sites, Norton Sound and Bay and Seward Penin- 

sula, and the Kotzebue Sound, from Zagoskin's general map, 1847. 178 

31. Graves at Nash Harbor, Nunivak Island. (Photos by Collins and 

Stewart, 1927.) 214 

32. The school children at Wales 214 

33. a. Children, Nunivak Island. (Photo by Collins and Stewart, 1927.) 

6, Adults, Nunivak Island. (Photo by Collins and Stewart, 1927.) _ 214 

34. King Island Eskimo; a family group 214 

35. King Island native 214 

36. A fine full-blood Eskimo pair, northern Bering Sea region, a, Young 

Eskimo woman, northern Bering Sea region. (Photo by Lomen 
Bros.) 6, Eskimo, northern Bering Sea region. (Photo by F. H. 
Nowell.) 214 

37. Typical full-blood Eskimo, northern Bering Sea region. (Photo by 

Lomen Bros.) 214 

38. Elderly man, St. Lawrence Island. (Photos by R. D. Moore, 1912. 

U. S. N. M.) 214 

39. The Wales people. (Photo by Lomen Bros.) 242 

40. The long broad-faced types, Wales. (Photo by Lomen Bros.) 242 

41. a, The broad-faced and low-vaulted Eskimo, St. Lawrence Island. 

(Photo by R. D. Moore, 1912. U. S. N. M.). 6, Broad-faced 
type, St. Lawrence Island. (Photo by R. D. Moore, 1912. U. S. 
N. M.) 242 



rLLUSTRiTIONS 27 

Page 

42. The long-faced type, n, A young man from Seward Peninsula. 

6, A boy from St. Lawrence Island 242 

43. A "Hypereskimo," King Island. Excessively developed face 242 

44. Eskimo "Madonna" and child, northern Bering Sea region. (Photo 

by Lomen Bros.) 242 

45. Young woman, northern Bering Sea region. (Photo by Lomen Bros.)- 250 

46. Young women, full-blood Eskimo, Seward Peninsula. (Photo by 

Lomen Bros.) 250 

47. A Point Hope group 250 

48. a. Eskimo woman, Kevalina. (Photo on the "Bear" by A. H., 1926. 

U. S. N. M.). 6, The body build of an adult Eskimo woman, 
upper Bering Sea 250 

49. Elderly woman, St. LawTence Island. (Photos by R. D. Moore, 1912. 

U. S. N. M.) 2.50 

50. a, Yukon Eskimo, below Paimute. (A. H., 1926.) 6. Norton 

Sound Eskimo woman and child. (A. H., 1926.) 250 

51. Eskimo,. Indianlike, northern Bering Sea region. (Photos by Lomen 

Bros.) 2.50 

52. Eskimo, Indianlike, northern Bering Sea region. (Photos by Lomen 

Bros.) 250 

53. Eskimo, Indianlike, northern Bering Sea region. (Photo by Lomen 

Bros.) 250 

54. Eskimo, Indianlike, northern Bering Sea region. (Photo by Lomen 

Bros.) 250 

55. Eskimo, Indianlike, northern Bering Sea region. (Photo by Lomen 

Bros.) 250 

56. Eskimo, Indianlike, Arctic region. (Photo by Lomen Bros.) 2.50 

57. Siberian Eskimo and child, Indian type 250 

58. a, Mrs. Sage, Kevalina. Fine Indian type. Born on Notak. Both 

parents Notak "Eskimo." (Photo by A. H., 1926.) 6, Eskimo 
family, Indian-like, near Barrow. (Photo by A. H., 1926.) 250 

59. Skulls from old burials. Point Hope; right skull shows low vault. 

( U. S. N. M.) 262 

60. Skulls from old burials. Point Hope; right skuU shows low vault. 

(U. S. N. M.) 262 

61. Western Eskimo and Aleut (middle) lower jaws, showing lingual 

hyperostoses. (U. S. N. M.) 308 

TEXT FIGURES 

1. The Tanana River between Nenana and Tanana, with Indian villages, 125 

2. The Yukon from Tanana to below Kokrines 137 

3. The Yukon from below Kokrines to below Koyukuk 137 

4. The Yukon from below Koyukuk to Lofkas 138 

5. Old map of the Nulato district 139 

6. Map of Kaltag and vicinity. (By McLeod) 139 

7. The Yukon from Bystraia to below Holy Cross 140 

8. The Yukon from above Holy Cross to below Mountain Village 141 

9. The Yukon from below Mountain Village to near Marshall 141 

10. The Yukon from near Marsliall to below Kavlingnak 142 

11. From above Kobolunuk to mouth of river 143 

12. Conventionalized design from fossil ivory specimen shown in Plate 19. 174 

13. World map 177 



28 ILLUSTRATIONS 

Page 

14. Dall's map of the distribntion of the tribes of Alaska and adjoining 

territory, 1875 178 

15. Nelson's map, Eighteenth Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1898 179 

16. Linguistic map, United States census, 1920 180 

17. Villages and sites on Kodiak Island 185 

18. Villages and sites on the proximal half of Alaska Peninsula 187 

19. Villages and sites on the distal half of Alaska Peninsula 188 

20. Eskimo villages and sites on Nushagak Bay to Kuskokwim Bay 191 

21. Eskimo villages and sites, Kuskokwim Bay to Scammon Bay 193 

22. Eskimo villages and sites, Scammon Bay to Norton Sound and Bay 

to Cape Rodney 198 

23. Eskimo villages and sites, Wales. (By Clark M. Garber, 1927) 201 

24. Eskimo villages and sites, Sevv'ard Peninsula, Kotzebue Sound, and 

Arctic coast, to Kevalina 203 

25. Eskimo villages and sites, Kevalina to Point Barrow 207 

26. Russian map of St. Lawrence Island, 1849. (Tebenkof) 209 

27. Eskimo villages and sites, St. Lawrence Island, the Diomedes, and the 

eastern Asiatic coast 211 

28. The Bering Strait Islands 212 

29. Probable movements of people from northeastern Asia to Alaska and 

in Alaska. (A. Hrdlicka) 360 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



By Ales Hrwlicka 



INTRODUCTION 

Alaska and the opposite parts of Asia hold, in all probability, the 
key to the problem of the peopling of America. It is here, and here 
alone, where a land of another continent approaches so near to 
America that a passage of man with primitive means of navigation 
and provisioning was possible. All the affinities of tlie American 
native point toward the more eastern parts of Asia. In Siberia, 
Mongolia, Tibet, Manchuria, Formosa, and in some of the islands 
off southeastern Asia, living remnants of the same type of man as 
the American aborigines are to this day encountered, and it is here 
in the farthest northwest wliere actual passings of parties of natives 
between the Asiatic coast and the Bering Sea islands and between 
the latter and the American coasts have always, since these parts were 
known, been observed and are still of common occurrence. 

With these facts before them, the students of the peopling of this 
continent were always drawn strongly to Alaska and the opposite 
parts of Asia; but the distances, the difficulties of communication, 
and the high costs of exploration in these far-off regions have proven 
a serious hindrance to actual investigation. As a result, but little 
direct, systematic, archeological or anthropological (somatological) 
research has ever been carried out in these regions; though since 
Bering's, Cook's, and Vancouver's opening voyages to these parts a 
large amount of general, cultural, and linguistic observations on the 
natives has accumulated. 

For these observations, which are much in need of a compilation 
and critical analysis, science is indebted to the above-named captains ; 
to the subsequent Russian explorers, and especially to the Russian 
clerics who were sent to Alaska as missionaries or priests to the 
natives; to various caijtains, traders, agents, miners, soldiers, and 
men in collateral branches of science, who came in contact witli the 
aborigines; to special United States Government exploratory expe- 
ditions, with an occasional participation of the Biological Survey 
and the Smithsonian Institution, such as resulted in tlie fine '" Cor- 
win " reports and the highly valuable accounts of Leffingwell, Dall, 

29 



30 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. la 

Nelson, and Murdoch ; to the separate pieces of scientific work by men 
such as Goidon and Jennes; and to Joclielson and Bogoras of the 
Jesup exploring expedition of the American Museum. 

As a result of all these contributions, it may be said that there has 
been established a fair cultural and linguistic knowledge of the Aleut, 
the Eskimo, and the Chukchee, not to speak of the Tlingit, considera- 
tion of which seems more naturally to fall with that of the Indians 
of the northwest coast. 

There are also numerous though often very imperfect and occa- 
sionally rather contradictory notes on the physical status of these 
peoples, and some valuable cultural and even skeletal collections were 
made. Since 1912 we possess also a good series of measurements on 
the St. Lawrence Island natives, together with valuable cranial ma- 
terial fi'om that locality, made, under the direction of the writer, by 
Kiley D. Moore, at that time aide in the Division of Physical 
Anthropology in the United States National Museum. 

The need of a further systematic archeological and somatological 
research in this important part of the world was long since felt, and 
several propositions were made in this line to the National Research 
Council (Hrdlicka) and to the Smithsonian Institution (Hough, 
Hrdlicka) ; but nothing came of these until the early part of 1926, 
when, a little money becoming available, the writer was intrusted 
by the Bureau of American Ethnology with the making of an exten- 
sive preliminary survey of Alaska. The objects of the trip wei'e, 
in brief, to ascertain as much as possible about the surviving Indians 
and Eskimos; to trace all indications of old settlements and migi-a- 
tions ; and to collect such skeletal and archeological material as might 
be of importance. 

The trip occupied approximately four months, from the latter 
part of May to the latter part of September, affording a full season 
in Alaska. It began with the inside trip from Vancouver to Juneau, 
where at several of the stopping places gi-oups of the northwest coast 
Indians were observed. At Juneau examination was made of the 
valuable archeological collections in the local museum. After this 
followed a trip with several stops along the gulf, a railroad trip with 
some stops to Fairbanks, a return trip to Nenana, a boat trip on the 
Tanana to the Yukon, and then, with little boats of various sorts, a 
trip with many stops for about 900 miles down the Yukon. This 
in turn was followed by a side trip in Norton Sound, after which 
transportation was secured to the island of St. Michael and to Nome. 
From Nome, after some work in the vicinity, the revenue cutter Bear 
look the writer to the St. Lawrence and Diomede Islands, to Cape 
Wales, and thence from place to place of scientific interest up to 
Barrow. On the return a number of the more important places. 



iiRDLicKA] INTRODUCTION 31 

besides some new ones, were touched upon, while the visit to others 
was prevented by the increasing storms, and the trip ended at 
Unalaska. 

Throughout the journey, the writer received help from the Gov- 
ernor, officials, missionaries, traders, and people of Alaska; from 
the captain, officers, and crew of the Bear; and from many indi- 
viduals; for all of which cordial thanks are hereby once more ren- 
dered. Grateful acknowledgments are especially due to the follow- 
ing gentlemen : Governor George A. Parks, of Alaska ; Mr. Harry G. 
Watson, his secretary ; Mr. Karl Thiele, Secretary for Alaska ; Judge 
James Wickersham, formerly Delegate from Alaska; Father A. P. 
Kashevaroff, curator of the Territorial Museum and Library of 
Juneau ; Dr. William Chase, of Cordova ; Mr. Noel W. Smith, gen- 
eral manager Government railroad of Alaska; Mr. B. B. Mozee, 
Indian supervisor, and Dr. J. A. Romig, of Anchorage ; Prof. C. E. 
Bunnell, president Alaska Agriculture College, at Fairbanks; Mr. and 
Mrs. Fullerton, missionaries, at Tanana; Rev. J. W. Chapman and 
Mr. Harry Lawrence, at Anvik; Father Jette and Jim Walker, at 
Holy Cross; Mr. C. Betsch, at the Russian Mission; Messrs. Frajdc 
Tucker and E. C. Gurtler, near the mission ; Mr. Frank P. Williams, 
of St. Michael; Judge G. J. Lomen and his sons and daughter, at 
Nome; Rev. Dr. Baldwin, Fathers La Fortune and Post, Captain 
Ross, LTnited States Coast Guard, and Mr. Elmer Rydeem, merchant, 
at Nome; C. S. Cochran, captain of the Bear, and his officers, par- 
ticularly Mr. H. Berg, the boatswain; Rev. F. W. Goodman and 
Mr. LaVoy, at Point Hope ; the American teachers at Wales, Shish- 
mareff, Kotzebue, Point Hope, and elsewhere; Messrs. Tom Berry- 
man, Jim Allen, and Charles Brower, traders, respectively, at Kotze- 
bue, Wainright, and Barrow ; Mr. Sylvester Chance, superintendent 
of education, Kotzebue, Alaska ; the United States marshals, depvity 
marshals, and postmasters along the route ; and the numerous traders, 
miners, settlers, and others who were helpful with specimens, advice, 
guidance, and in other matters. 



") 



General Remarks 

The account of the survey will be limited in the main to anthro- 
pological and archeological observations; but it is thought best to 
give it largely in the form of the original notes made on the spot 
or within a few hours after an event. These notes often contain 
collateral observations or thoughts which could be excluded, but the 
presence of which adds freshness, reliability, and some local at- 
mosphere to what otherwise would be a rather dry narrative. A pre- 
liminary account of the trip and its results was published in the 



32 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

Smithsonian exploration volume for 1926 (AVashino^ton, 1927, pp. 
137-158). 

Not much reference is possible to previous work of the nature 
here dealt with in the parts visited, except in the Aleutian Islands, 
where good archeological work was done in the late sixties by 
William H. Dall,i and in 1909-10 by Waldemar Jochelson.- 

The archeology and anthropology of the Gulf of Alaska, the in- 
land, the Yukon Basin, the Bering Sea coasts and islands, and those 
of the Arctic coasts up to Point Barrow are but little known. The 
archeology is in reality known only from the stone and old ivory 
implements that have been incidentally collected and have reached 
various institutions where they have been studied ; from the excava- 
tions about Bari'ow, conducted by an expedition of the University 
Museum, Philadelphia, in charge of W. B. Van Valin, and by the 
trader, Mr. Charles Brower, the results of which have not yet been 
published ; and from the recent diggings at Wales and on the smaller 
Diomede Island by Doctor Jenness." Neither Dall. Nelson. Rau, nor 
Murdoch conducted any excavations outside the already mentioned 
work in the Aleutians. 

Northwest Coast — jTJNEAtr 

THE COAST INDIANS 

Passage was taken on a small steamer from Vancouver. The 
boat stopped at a number of settlements on the scenic " inside " 
route — which impresses one as a much enlaiged and varied trip 
through the Catskills — permitting some observations on the Indians 
*of these parts. 

The main opportunity was had at Aleut Bay. Here many British 
Columbia Indians were seen on the dock, belonging to several tribes. 
Names of these, as pronounced to me, were unfamiliar. They have 
a large agency here; engage in salmon industry. A minority, only, 

iDaU, Wm. H. : Alaska as it Was and Is; 1865-1895. Bull. PML Soc. Wash., 1900, 
vol. XIII, 141. On Prehistoric Remains in the Aleutian' Islands. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 
November, 1872, toI. iv, 283-287. Explorations on the Western Coast of North America. 
Smiths. Kept, for 1873, Wash., 1874, 417—418. On Further Examinations of the 
Amaknak Cave. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1873, vol. v, 196-200. Notes on Some Aleut 
Mummies. Proc Cal. Acad. Sci., Octohcr, 1874, vol. v. 399^00. Deserted Hearths. 
The Overland Monthly, 1874, vol. xiii, 25-30. Alaskan Mummies. Am. Naturalist, 1875, 
vol. IX, 433-440. Tribes of the Extreme Northwest. Contrib. N. Am. Ethnol., vol. i. 
Wash., 1877. On the Remains of Later Prehistoric Man Obtained from Cavc-S in the 
Catharina Archipelago, Alaska Territory, etc. Smiths. Contr. to Knowledge, No. 318. 
Wash., 1878. 

- Jochelson, W., Archjeological Investigations in the Aleutian Islands. Carnegie Inst, 
of Wash. Publ. No. 367, Wash., D. C. 1925. 

i' Rau, Chas., North American Stone Implements. Smiths. Rept. for 1872, Wash., 
1873. Prehistoric Fishing in Europe and North America. Smiths. Contr. to Knowl- 
edge, Wash., 1884, vol. xxv. Thomas, Cyrus, Introduction to the Study of North 
American Archaeology. Cincinnati, 1898. Jennes, D. Archieological Investigations in 
Bering Strait. Ann. Rep. Nat. Mus. Canada for 1926 (Ottawa 1928), pp. 71-80. 



HEDLK-KA] INTEODUCTION" 33 

full bloods — of the younger a large majority mixed (white blood). 
The full bloods all show one marked type, of short to moderate 
stature, rather short legs, huge chest and head, i. e., face. Color 
near onion-brown, without luster. Indians, but modified locally. 
Remind one (chest, stature, stockiness, shortness of neck and legs) 
of Peruvian Indians. 

Indians at Prince Rupert same type; color pale brown; eyes and 
nose rather small for the faces in some, in others good size. Look 
good deal like some Chinese or rather some hand-laboring Chinese 
and JajDanese look like them. 

Indians at Juneau (the Auk tribe) very similar, but most mixed 
with whites. 

Jiuieau. — A week was spent at Juneau, gathering information, ob- 
taining letters of introduction, and making a few excursions. The 
city has an excellent museum devoted to Alaskan history and arche- 
ology, under the able curatorship of Father Andrew P. Kashevaroff, 
himself a part of the history of the Territory. The archeological 
collections of Alaska Indians and Eskimos are in some respects — 
e. g., pottery — more comprehensive than those of any other of 
our museums; but they, together with the valuable library, 
are housed in a frail frame building, under great risks from botli 
fire and thieves. Fortunately the latter are still scarce in Alaska, 
but the fire risk is great and ever present. The museum is a decided 
cultural asset to Juneau. 

NOTES OF ARCHEOLOGICAL INTEREST 

Auk Point. — Thanks to Father KashevaroflP and Mr. Charles H. 
Florv, the district forester, an excursion was arranged one day to 
Auk Point, approximately 15 miles distant, a picturesque wooded 
little promontoiy near which there used to be a settlement of the Auk 
Indians. On the jjoint were several burials of shamans and a chief of 
the tribe (all other dead being cremated), and near the graves stood 
until a short time ago a moderate-sized totem pole. Of all this 
we found but bare remnants. The burials of three shamans and one 
chief had been in huge boxes above ground; but they had all been 
broken into and most of the contents belonging to the dead were 
taken away, including the skulls. The skeletal parts of two of the 
bodies and a few bones of the chief remained, however, with a few 
objects the vandals had overlooked. The latter were placed in the 
Juneau Museum while the bones, showing some features of interest, 
were collected and sent to Washington. A large painted board near 
the graves of the shamans remained, though damaged. The totem 
pole, however, had been cut down the year before by a young man 
from Juneau, who then severed the head, which he carried home, 



34 ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA [ETH. ANN. 46 

and left the rest on the beach, from where it was soon washed 
away. Thus a group of burials, the only ones known of the once 
good-sized Auk tribe, have been despoiled and their record lost to 
science. And such a fate is, according to all accounts, rapidly 
overtaking similar remains everj^where in southeastern Alaska. 

Rare stone lamp (?). — At the museum one of the first and most 
interesting objects shown the writer bj^ Father Kaslievaroff was a 
large, heavy, finely sculptured oblong bowl, made of hard, dark 
crystalline stone, decorated in relief on the rim and with a squatting 
stone figure, cut from the same piece, near one of the ends. The 
bowl looks like a ceremonial lamp, though showing no trace of 
oil or carbon. Subsequently four other bowls of this same re- 
markable type and workmanship were learned of, two, the best of 
the lot, in the University Museum at Philadelphia; one in the 
Museum of the American Indian, New York ; and one, somewhat in- 
ferior and of reddish stone, in the possession of Mr. Miiller, the 
trader at Kaltag, on the Yukon (later in that of Mr. Lynn Smith, 
marshal at Fairbanks). The localities where the five remarkable 
and higli-grade specimens have been found range from the Kenai 
Peninsula in soutliwestern Alaska to the lower Yukon. The Juneau 
specimen comes from Fish Creek, near Kuik, Cook Inlet (see De- 
scriptive Booklet Alaska Hist. ]\Ius., Juneau, 1922, pp. 26. 27) : that 
in the Heye Museum is from tlie same localitj-; the one in Philadel- 
phia was found in the Kenai Peninsula; while that at Kaltag came 
from an old Indian site on the Kaiuh slough of the Yukon. Locally, 
there is much inclination to regard these specimens as Asiatic, es- 
pecially Japanese, and a bronze Japanese Temple medal has been 
found near that now at Juneau. On the other hand, a strong sug- 
gestion of similarity to these dishes is presented by some undecorated 
large stone lamps from Alaska, and by a class of pottery bowls with 
a human figure perched on the rim at one end from some of the 
Arkansas mounds, Mexico, and farther southward. (See Mason, 
J. A. A remarkable stone lamp from Alaska. The Museum Jour., 
Phila., 1928. 170-194.) 

Copper mask. — Shortly before leaving Juneau I became acquainted 
with Mr. Robert Simpson, manager of the " Nugget " curio shop, and 
found in his possession a number of interesting specimens made in 
the past by the Tlingit Indians. An outstanding piece was an old 
copper mask, which was purchased for the the National Musuem. 
Mr. Simpson obtained it years ago from a native of Yakutat and 
stored it with native furs and other articles of value. It originally 
belonged to a shaman of the Yakutat tribe and was said to have been 
worn by him in sacrificial slave killings, the shaman with the mask 
representing some mythical being. It is an exceedingly good and rare 
piece of native workmanship. 



HKDI.UKA] . INTEODXJCTION 35 

Copper '■'■ shield^ — Another interesting article secured from Mr. 
Simpson is a large old shieldlike plate of beaten copper, decorated 
on one side with a characteristic Tlingit engraved design. Mr. Simp- 
son, in a letter to Doctor Hough, dated June 26, 1926, says : " The 
shield, or to speak more correctly the copper plate — for it was not 
used as a shield — was the most valuable possession of the Tlingits. 
They were usually valued in slaves, this one, at the last known ex- 
change, having been traded for three slaves. The possessor of four 
or five such plates was a man of the utmost wealth. Some claim that 
they got these copper plates from the early New England traders and 
others that they came from the Copper River. Either is possible. 
Lots of the Copper River nuggets were very large and flat and could 
have readily been hammered into plate form. I bought this in the 
village of Klawak on the west coast of Prince of Wales Island. I 
do not know of another one around here. All of the local elderly 
natives are familiar with its previous value, and when they have 
wandered into my shop to sell things they always made deep obei- 
sance to this plate." 

Talks. — While in Juneau the writer spoke before the Rotarians, 
who honored him with a lunch ; and later, in the auditorium of the 
fine new high school, gave a public lecture on " The Peopling of 
America," etc. The object of these and the many subsequent talks in 
Alaska was, on the one hand, to reciprocate as far as possible the 
kindness and help received on all sides, and on the other to leave 
wholesome information and stimulus in things anthropological. The 
audience was invariably all that a lecturer could desire, and many 
were left everywhere eager for help and cooperation. The aid of 
some of these men, including prospectors, miners, settlers, engineers, 
foresters, and various officials, may some day prove of much value 
in the search for Alaskan antiquities. 

Juneau — /Seward. — June 8, leave Juneau. It has been raining 
every day, with one exception, and is misting now, depriving us of 
a view of most of the coast. Wlierever there is a glimpse of it, 
however, it is seen to be mountainous, wooded below, snowy and icy 
higher up, inhospitable, forbidding. 

June 10, arrive at Cordova, a former native and Russian settle- 
ment of some importance. Will stay here large part of the day and 
go to see about Indians, old sites, burials, and specimens, the main 
liotel keeper, the assistant superintendent of the local railway, the 
postmaster, the supervisor of the forests, and Dr. William Chase, 
who has been connected with the work of the Biological Survey in 
these regions. Mr. AV. J. McDonald, the forester, takes me out some 
miles into the very rugged country, where there are still plenty of 
bear and mountain goat. After which Doctor Chase takes me to the 
old Russian and Indian cemetery. There are many graves, mostly 



36 ANTHUOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. axn. 4G 

Indian, but also a few whites, and even a Chinaman. Russian 
crosses are still common. The older Indian part could be easily 
excavated. Learn of skulls and bones on " mummy " island in Prince 
William Sound. 

hiMans. — See quite a few. Nearly all appear more or less mixed; 
color in these more or less pronounced tan with red in cheeks and 
.some tendency to paleness. Heads still all brachycephalic and of 
only moderate height; faces bi'oad, noses not prominent, in males 
tend to large. 

Two adult men, evidently full-bloods — jDui-e Indian type of the 
brachycephalic form, head moderate in size, medium short, face not 
very large, nose slightly or moderately convex, not prominent, but 
all Indian. Color of skin submedium to near medium brown, no trace 
of whitish or pink. Stature and build medium; feet rather small; 
hair typical Indian, black, straight ; beard sparse and short ; mustache 
sparse, no hair on sides of the face. 

The boat makes two or three more commercial and passenger 
stops before reaching Seward, the main one at Valdez, the terminal 
of the Richardson Trail to the interior. These stops permit us to 
see some fish canneries, which are of both general and anthropologi- 
cal interest. These establishments employ Japanese, Philippine, and 
Chinese labor, and it was found to be (juite a task to distinguish 
these, and to tell them from the coast Indians. The Chinamen can 
be distinguished most often, though not always, the Japanese less 
so, while the Filipino usually can not be told from the Indian, even 
by an expert. Here was a striking practical lesson in relationships. 

Seward — Anchorage. — Seward found to be a fine little town, full 
of the same good brand of people that one finds everywhere in 
Alaska and who go so far to restore one's faith in humanity. It 
is the terminus of the Government railroad to Fairbanks and a port 
of some importance. 

Indmn hmket)n/. — No Indians were seen here, though some come 
occasionally. But several of the stores, including that of the Seward 
Drug Co. (Mr. Elwyn Swestmann), have an unexpectedly good 
sujoply of decorated Alaska Indian baskets. It was found later, in 
fact, that the Alaskan Indians, with the Aleutians, compare well in 
basketry with those of Arizona and California. 

Anchorage. — June 12-13. Anchorage, on Cook's Inlet, is a good- 
sized town for Alaska and the headquarters of the railroad. Here 
"were met some very good friends, particularly Mr. Noel W. Smith, 
general manager of the railroad; Dr. J. H. Romig, formerly of the 
Kuskokwim; and Mr. B. B. Mozee, the Indian supervisor. Here, at 
Ellis Hall, I lectured on " The Origin and Racial Affiliations of 
the Indians," and the large audience included seven male (some full 



hrdluka] INTEODUCTION 37 

blood) and two female (mix blood) Indians — of the latter, one very 
pretty, approaching a Spanish type of beauty. Near town I also 
visited with a launch two small Indian fishing camijs. From Doctor 
Romig information was obtained about the Indians and some old 
sites of the Kusltokwim ; and through the kindness of Messrs. Smith 
and Mozee I was enabled to visit the Indian school at Eklutna. Here 
at Anchorage I also was given the first and rather rare old Indian 
stone implement. 

The Indians at the camps included 6 full bloods — i men, 2 women. 
One of the men tested on chest. Typical full-blood results. 

Type of full bloods : Color slightly submedium to medium brown, 
never darker; heads, subbrachyceplialic to full brachycephalic, 
rather small; forehead in men more or less sloping in two; face,, 
not large, Indian; nose tends to convex but not high. Indian in 
features and behavior, but features not as pronounced as general 
in the States tribes. 

The full bloods in town : Medium to short stature, not massive 
frames, moderate-sized faces, Indian type, but not the pronounced 
form; head brachycephalic ; hair all black; mustache and beard 
scarce, as in Indians in general; color of skin submedium brown. 
Children in camp (up to about 5 years) were striking by a relative- 
ly considerable interorbital breadth, otherwise typical Indian. 

Birch-haTk dishes. — At Anchorage, in several of the stores, but 
particulai'ly at one small store, were seen many nicely decorated 
birch-bark dishes or recej^tacles. They are made by inland Indians, 
are prettily decorated with colored porcupine quills, and evidently 
take the place of the baskets of other tribes. It was difficult to learn 
just what Indians made the best or most, though the Tananti 
people were mentioned. No such fine assortment of these dishes 
was seen aftei' leaving Anchorage. 

EJilutua. — Sixteen miles from Anchorage, along the railroad, is 
the Indian village and school Eklutna. ]\Ir. Smith made it possible 
for me to reach this place on a freight and to be picked up later the 
same day by the passenger train. 

At Eklutna was found an isolated but prettily located and well- 
kept Indian school, with about fifty children from many parts of 
soutliwestern Alaska. More than half of these children showed 
more or less admixture of white blood, but there was a minority of 
unquestionable full bloods. There were two children from Kodiak 
Island and two or three southern Eskimo. The main impression 
after a detailed look at the children was that, while they all showed 
clear Indian affinities and some were typically Indian, yet on the 
whole there was a prevalent trace of something Eskimoid in the 
physiognomies — an observation that was to be repeated more than 
once in other parts of Indian Alaska. 



38 ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann, 46 

Burials. — At a few minutes* walk from the school at Eklutna 
there is in a clearing of the forest a small Indian village, with a 
late graveyard showing Russian influence. A short distancje 
farther, however, according to the Indians, there is an old burial 
place of some magnitude, with traces of graves, although quite 
obliterated. 

Eklutiia — FaJrharikfi. — Since reaching Seward the almost inces- 
sant drizzles have ceased and the weather has been fine and pleasantly 
warm. Everything is green, grass is luxuriant, and there are many 
flowers. 

The railroad journey is a regular scenic tour, with its crowning 
point a glorious view of Mount McKinley. The trains run only in the 
daytime. For the night a stop is made at a railroad hotel, in a 
quiet, picturesque location, at the edge of a good-sized river. They 
have foxes in cages here and a tame reindeer. There are no nativesi 
in this vicinity. 

There are two interesting passengers on the train, with both of 
vsrhom I became well acquainted. One is Joe Bernard, an explorer 
and collector (besides his other occupations) in Alaska and Siberia. 
He furnishes me with some valuable pictures and much information. 
The other man is Captain Wilkins, the flier of Point Barrow fame, 
who strikes me as an able and modest man. 

The next day, as the train stops at Nenana, I am met, thanks to a 
word sent by Mr. Noel W. Smith, by Chief Thomas and a group of 
his people. These behave kindly and tell me of a potlatch to be held 
at Tanana " after some days," where they will visit. The chief im- 
presses me with his rather refined though thoroughly Indian 
countenance. 

Fairbanks. — Before reaching Fair-banks, the inland capital of 
Alaska, I am met by Prof. C. E. Bunnell, head of the Alaska Agri- 
cultural College. This college, located on an elevation about 4 miles 
out of the city, I visit with Professor Bunnell soon after arrival, to 
find there some interesting paleontological and archeological collec- 
tions. Here are fair beginnings which well deserve the good will of 
the Alaskans. Unfortunately the college has not yet the means 
for any substantial progress or research in these lines, and the collec- 
tions are housed in a frame building where they are in serious danger 
from fire. But their presence will aid, doubtless, in the saving of 
other material of similar nature from the Tanana region, and speci- 
mens of special scientific importance will doubtless be i-ef erred to 
scientific institutions outside. 

Fairbanks is a good-sized town, built on the wide flats of the 
Tanana River. Its population, now reduced, includes some civilized 
natives, most of whom, however, are mix breeds. A large peti-ified 
mammoth tusk on the porch of one of the semi-log houses shows 



HRDi.irKA] WRITER'S TRIP ON YUKON" 39 

that these are regions of more than ordinary biological interest. And 
there is soon an occurrence which demonstrates this fuither. Mr. 
John Buckley, the deputy marshal, takes me to an old Japanese 
resident, now a rooming-house keeper, who has had a hobby of col- 
lecting fossils, and who in the end is happy to donate to the Nationa.1 
Museum a fine skull of a fossil Alaskan horse, together with some 
other specimens, refusing all payment. Such is the human Alaska, 
or at least the most of it. 

Here, too, to a full hall in the library, a lecture is given on " The 
Peopling of Alaska and America," after which follows a return to 
Nenana to catch a steamer to the Yukon. 

THE WRITER'S TRIP ON THE YUKON 

TANAXA YUKON 

June 17. Nenana: This is a small town on the Tanana, mostly 
railroad buildings, with a hospital; there is one street of stores 
(three short blocks), most of them now empty. About half a mile 
off a small Indian settlement about an Episcopalian mission. 

Country flat on both sides of the rather large river, except for 
some hills back of the right shore beyond the railroad bridge, for a 
short distance. The river flats seem scarcely 3 or 4 feet above water, 
overgrown with brush and a few scrubby trees, later spruce thickets. 
Purple flowers (fireweed) strike the eye. 

No relics found at Nenana ; no information concerning old sites or 
abandoned villages along the stream. 

Physically, the Indians seen at Nenana were submedium brown, 
good many still full blood, pure Indian type, brachycephalic, faces 
(nose, etc.), however, of but medium prominence. Moderate to good 
stature. 

They are all fairly "civilized," wear white men's clolhing, to 
which on gala occasions are added bands or collars of beadwork, and 
sjjeak more or less English. The younger men are evidently good 
workers. 

The distance from Nenana to Tanana is given as about 190 miles 
by the river. 

The government boat Jacohs^ on which» we shall go down the 
Tanana, is a moderate-sized, shallow-bottomed stern-wheeler, and, 
like all such boats on these rivers, will push a heavily laden freight 
barge before it. There are about a dozen passengers, the boat 
labor, a trader or two. All kindly, open. A few women — most of 
both sexes of the Scandinavian type. On barge some horses, a cow, 
pigs, chickens. 

Leave after lunch — very good, generous, and pleasant meal in a 
local restaurant that would do credit to a large city ; only the people 



40 ANTHEOPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA [ETH. axn. 40 

are better, more human. Meals $1, the almost universal price in 
Alaska. 

Some quaint expressions : When anyone has been away, especially 
to the States, they say he was " outside." I am an " outsider ;" 
show it " by my collar." Underdone bacon is " easy." To assent 
they say " you bet." In a restaurant, to a decent, cheerful girl : 
"May i have a little hot coffee?" "You bet!" Which bright 
answer is heard so often that one finishes by being shy to ask. 

Dogs, of course, do not pull, but " mush." This is from the Cana- 
dian French " marche." Dogs do not understand " go " or " go on," 
only " mush." 

Extensive flats. Below Nenana these flats, plainly recent alluvial, 
are said to extend up to 60 miles to the left (southwestward) and to 
20 miles to the right. As one passes nearer they are seen to range 
from 3 up to about 8 feet above the level of the river at this stage 
of water. 

Cabins and fishing camps along the river, mostly flimsy structures, 
with a few tents. Indians in some. The Indians are said by the 
whites to be pretty lazy, living from day to day; yet they seem 
industrious enough in their own camps and in their own way. 

Storage or caches, little houses on stilts. Dog houses in rows. 
Curious wheel fish traps, revolving like hay or wheat lifting ma- 
chines, run by the current. They scoop out the fish and let them fall 
into a box, from which the fisherman collects them twice a day. It 
is the laziest fishing that could be devised. The contraption is said 
to come from the northwest coast, but has become one of the char- 
acteristic parts of the scenery along the Tanana and the Yukon. 
An Indian camp — stacks of cordwood — canoes. 

The day is sunny, moderately warm and rather dry — about as a 
warm, dry, fall day with us. The river shows bars, with caught 
driftwood; also considerable floating wood. There are seagulls, 
said to destroy young ducks and geese and water birds' eggs. 
Shores now wooded, mainly poplar, not large. Farther back and 
farther down, spruce. 

The river averages about 200 to 300 yards but differs much in 
places and there are numerous side channels (sloughs) . It is crooked ; 
many bends. The current is quite marked, stated to run 4 to 6 miles 
an hour. The water is charged with grayish-brown silt, part from 
glaciers higher above, part from banks that are being " cut." The 
banks are entirely silt, no trace of gravel or stone. Indian camps 
getting very scarce. Boat making good time, but now and then re- 
quires careful manipulation, with its big, heavy barge in front. Once 
driven to shore, but no damage, and after some effort gets away 
again. No trouble yet from mosquitoes, but there are some horseflies. 



HRDLi.KA] WEITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 41 

Pass a large camp — a Finn married to a squaw, and three or four 
Indian families — all snug in a clearing of the fresh-looking woods 
on the bank of the river. 

Bend after bend in the stream, and boat has to follow them all, 
and more, for the current and deeper water are now near this bank 
and again at the opposite bank. 

The water in many places is undermining the bank, exposing 
frozen strata of silt. The top often falls in without breaking, with 
trees and all, and it then looks like heavy, ragged mats hanging over 
the bank, with green trees or bushes dipping into the water, and per- 
haps a chnnp of wild roses pi-ojecting from the sward. There are 
many low bushes of wild roses in this country, pink and red kinds, 
now blooming. Also many small bushes of wild berries — cranberries 
(low and high), raspberries, dewberries or blueberi'ies. 

Meat is im])orted even to here from Seattle, and carried far down 
the Yukon. When received they place it in a " cellar " or hole dug 
down to the frozen ground and place the meat there — a natural and 
thoroughly efficient refrigerator. 

Past Old Minto, a little Indian village, a few little log houses in 
a row facing the river, with a wheel fish trap in front (pi. 1, a). 
Later a few Indian houses and a " road house '' with a store at Tolo- 
vana. Most Indians there (and elsewhere here) died of tlie '' flu " 
in 1918, the bodies being left and later buried by the Government. 
A few isolated little Indian camps. 

The boat ties to trees along the banks. No docks or anything of 
that nature. Not many mosquitoes yet, more horseflies, which, how- 
ever, do not botlier man very much. 

After reaching Hot Springs (right bank), there is seen a long 
range of more or less forested, fairly steep-sloped hills along the 
right bank, coming right down to the water's edge for miles, with 
bush and forested flats opposite. At the end of one of the ravines 
with a little stream, right on the bank, remnants of a little glacier 
melting very slowly in the sun. Strange contrast, ice and green 
touching. Boat making good time along the hills. 

June 18. Hardly any sleep. Sun set after 10 and rose about 2.30, 
with no more than dusk between. Then heat in the cabin, and above 
all the noises. The boat stuck five hours on a bar and there were all 
sorts of jerks and shudders and calls. 

Flats again on both sides, but hills beyond, with just one little 
spot of snow. Will be warm day again. 

ANCIENT MAN 

Prospects of old remains of man all along the river are slight if 
any. Old silt flats have doubtless been mostly washed away (as now) 
and rebuilt. Only on the older parts, now often far from water, 
88253°— 30 4 



42 ANTHEOPOLOGtCA^L SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

could anything remain and there it is all a jungle of forest with un- 
dergrowth, with all surface traces absent (no stone, no shell), and no 
one here to find things accidentally. As to the hills that approach 
the river, the slopes (shales, overlain by what looks like stratified 
mud and silt rock) are mostly of recent exposure, and have doubt- 
less been receding slowly through erosion, so that the bank line along 
them is not old ; and their valleys are few, narrow, and were higher 
formerly as well as more extended toward where the river flowed 
then. The only hopeful spot is about Hot Springs, where fossil 
animal remains are said to exist, but here nothing as yet has been 
noted suggesting ancient man. 

June 18, 4 p. m. River getting broader. Some low dunes. In 
distance a range of bluish hills before us — the hills along the Yukon. 
Boat meandering from side to side. Every now and then a necessary 
steam blow-out of mud, or a short whistle, hurry of a man over the 
top of the barge and of two half-breeds along its side to the prow 
to test, with long pointed and graduated poles, the depth of the 
water, calling it out to the captain. The calls range from " no 
bottom '■ to " 4 feet," at the latter of which the boat begins to touch 
and back water. 

5 p. m. Arrived at Tanana, a cheerful looking town, extending 
over about half a mile along the right bank of the Yukon, here 
about 20 feet high ; but now, with the gold rush over, rather " slack " 
on both business and population, as are all other Yukon towns. 
Somewhat disappointed with the Yukon — not as majestic here as 
expected. See storekeeper — introduced by captain. Hear good news. 
The Indians have a big potlatch at the mission, 2 miles above. 
Tanana Indians expected. And there will be many in attendance. 
Rumors of this potlatch were heard before, but this was the first 
definite information. Get on a little motor boat with Indians who 
were making some purchases, and go to the St. Thomas Episcopal 
Mission, Mr. Fullerton in charge. 

THE INDIANS AT TANANA 

The mission above Tanana is beautifully located on the elevated 
right Yukon bank, facing Nuklukhayet island and point, the latter, 
according to old reports, an old trading and meeting spot of the 
Kuchin tribes, and the confluence of the Tanana with the Yukon. 
The mission house, located on rising ground, the wooden church 
lower down, the cemetery a bit farther up, and the Indian village a 
bit farther downstream, with their colors and that of the luxuriant 
vegetation, form a picturesque cluster. 

I am kindly received by Mr. Fullerton and his wife and given 
accommodation in their house. On the part of the good-sized In- 



HKDLiCKA] WRITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 43 

dian village everything is life and bustle and we soon are over. 
Motor launches owned and operated by the Indians in the river; 
dogs, scores of the big, half -wild, noisy sled dogs tied to stakes along 
the slope of the bank, fighting stray ones, barking in whole out- 
bursts, feeding on smelly fish, or digging cooling holes into the bank 
in which they hide most of the body from the warm rays of the 
sun; and many Indians, about 400 in all, in whole families, in houses, 
large canvas tents, cooking, eating, visiting — a busy multitude, but 
with white man's clothes, utensils, etc., not nearly so interesting 
as a group of more primitivie Indians would be. 

Walk, visit, talk, and observe. Note many mix-bloods, especially 
among the younger ones and the children. Among the full bloods, 
many, about one-half, with features reminding more or less of Eski- 
moid; but a few typically Indian, i. e., like most of the States 
Indians. 

Medium stature, substantial but not massive build, quite a few of 
the older women stout. Color of full bloods generally near medium 
bi-own. features regular Indian but not exaggerated, noses rather 
low especially in upper half, eyes and hair Indian. Epicanthus 
not excessive in children, absent in adults (traces in younger women), 
eyes not markedly oblique. Behavior, Indian. 

The more pi'onounced Eskimoids have flatter and longer faces, 
more oblique eyes, and more marked epicanthus. They should come, 
it would seem, from Eskimo admixture. The Tanana Indians 
(Nenana) did not, so far as seen, show sucli physiognomies. 

Toward evening, and especially after supper, natives sing and 
dance. Songs of Indian characteristics, and yet different from those 
in south ; some more exiDressive. A song " for dead mother," very 
sad. affects some to crying aloud (a woman, a man). A wash song — a 
row of women and even some men imitating, standing in a row, the 
movements in washing, while others sing; humorous. A dance in a 
line, curving to a circle, of a more typical Indian character. Late 
at night, a war dance, with much supple contortion. Also other 
songs and dances up to 2.30 a. m. — heard in bed. 

June 19. With dogs barking and whining and Indians singing, got 
little rest. All Indians sleep until afternoon. No chance of doing 
anything, so go down to town to get instruments and blanks. Find 
that storekeeper has an old stone ax — sells it to me for $1. Also 
tells of a farmer who has one — go there with the boat and obtain 
it as a gift; told of another one — a Finn — has two, sells them for $i. 
Come from the gravelly bank of the river or are dug out in garden- 
ing. There may well have been old settlements in this favorable 
location. After return, visit some tents to see sick. Much sickness — 
eyes, tuberculosis — now and then probably syphilis. 



44 ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SUEVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann.46 

Indians relatively civilized, more than expected, and most speak 
tolerable English. Have flags, guns, sleep in some cases on iron 
beds and under mosquito netting, smoke cigarettes and cigars; and 
even play fiddles. Of course some have also learned the white man's 
cupidity and vices. 

This day I met with something unexpected, due to perversity of 
mix-breed nature. Seeing so many Indians present, and after a 
good reception by them the evening preceding, I thought of utiliz- 
ing the occasion for taking some measurements. I therefore men- 
tioned the thing to some of the head men shortly after my arrival 
and receiving what seemed assent, went to-day to Tanana to 
get my instruments. On coming back and finding a few of the old 
men. who were quite friendly, I invited them into the "kashim" 
(community house) and began to question them on old sites, etc., 
when in came, probably somewhat under the influence of liquor, 
a mix-breed to whom I had been introduced the night before and 
who at that time acted quite civilly, but now coming forward began 
rather loudly and offensively to question about what I wanted here 
and about authority, giving me to understand at last quite plainly 
that he wanted to " be paid "' if I was to take any measurements. 
He claimed to be one of the " chiefs," and I would not be allowed 
to do anything without his help. His harangue quite disturbed 
the other Indians, who evidently were both ashamed and afraid 
of the fellow. And as I would not be coerced into employing and 
paying him, and there being no one, as I learned, of supreme author- 
ity, the "chief" of these Indians being little more than a figurehead, 
it was decided to give up the attempt at measurements. The rest 
of the visit was therefore given to further observations and to the 
witnessing of the potlatch. Chief Joseph (pi. 14), nominally the 
head of these Yukon Indians, expressed his sorrow and tried to 
make amends by offering himself. 

The potlatch was evidently in the main a social gathering of 
the Yukon Indians, with the Tanana natives as visitors. It con- 
sisted mainly of eating, singing, and dancing, to be terminated 
by a big " give-away." This latter was witnessed. It proved a 
disappointing and rather senseless affair. The whole transaction 
consists in the buying and gathering, and on this occasion giving 
away, of all sorts of objects, by some one, or several, who have lost 
a husband, wife, mother, etc., during the preceding year. The pos- 
sessions of the deceased are included in this and doubtless often 
transmit disease. All the color of the observance is now gone. 
The goods — blankets, clothing, fabrics, guns, and many other ob- 
jects, even pieces of furniture, trunks, or stoves — are gathered in 
the open and when the time comes are one after another selected 



HKDLICKA] WRITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 45 

by those dispensings and brought to this or that man or woman of 
those who have gathered around. No song, no ceremony, no talks, 
no thanking, no " wake " following. Just a poor shadow of some- 
thing that formerly may have been a tragic, memorable, and meaning 
occasion. 

Eeturned to Tanana near 10 p. m. and found lodging with a store- 
keeper who kept a " hotel." Got a big room, big bed, and when 
store closed was alone in the house, the storekeeper sleeping else- 
where. 

June 20. But, Alaska was evidently not made for sleepers. Had 
not a wink until after 3 a. m. — daylight, people talking loud and 
walking on the board walk outside, and heard so clearly in my 
room — loud-laughing girls, the dogs, and at last another boat with 
its siren; and every now and then a singing mosquito trying to get 
at me through even the small opening left under the sheet for 
breathing — there being no netting. Finally doze off, to wake near 
9 a. m., but everything closed, deadlike. However, go to a little 
frame house for breakfast, and in waiting until it is made find my- 
self with two elderly men who go to-day down the river with their 
boats. One is a former store clerk, etc., and now an " optician " — 
peddles eyeglasses down the river ; the other was a prospector, miner, 
and blacksmith, now an itinerant " jeweler " and a reputed " hootch " 
peddler. As the latter — otherwise a pretty good fellow — has a 
good-sized though old boat, arrange to go down with him. See the 
marshal, storekeeper, settle with my hotel man (had to go at 11 to 
awake him), and ready to start. 

The outfit is largely homemade, not imposing, old, unpainted, and 
unfit for the rough — but it could be worse. It consists of a scow, 
a low, flat-bottomed boat, partly covered with canvas roof on birch 
hoops, in which Peake (the owner) carries fresh meat to some one, 
a stove, dishes, bedding, and many other things ; and the motor boat 
proper, in which there is little room except for the machine and its 
tender. The latter sits on a soap box ; I, on a seat extemporized from 
a cylindrical piece of firewood with a little board across it, with my 
two boxes aJid bedding within easy reach. Sit in front of the scow, 
except when driven back by spray. But our motor works and so we 
start quite well at some time after 11. The arrangement is to stoj) at 
every white man's camp or settlement down to Ruby. I could have 
gone on a better boat with its owner, but they charge here $15 a day, 
with " keep," and twice the amount for the return of the man and 
the boat, which is beyond my resources. 

Tanana — Ruby. The river is clearer than the Tanana, and much 
broader. It is a great fine stream and its shores, while mostly still 
low on the left, on the right rise here and there into moderate loess 



46 ANTHROPOLOGICAL. SUEVEY IN ALASKA [ETH. ANN. 46 

bluffs, far beyond which are seen higher elevations and bluish for- 
ested mountains. All covei-ed with poplar and spruce. 

2.15 p. m. Wind has so increased that the scow bumps and squeaks 
and there is danger of opening its seams. Therefore side to the 
beach and make lunch — a roast of fat pork, oversalted, canned 
spinach, dry bread, and black coffee. All on a simple, old, but effici- 
ent little stove in the boat. Our companion, the oculist, rides not 
with us but in a nice little green canoe with a plaything of a gasoline 
motor fastened to the backboard, but we all eat and sleep together. 

But a few small Indian camps seen, and no white man's house. 
Soon after lunch, however, approach "The Old Station," where 
there are a few Indian houses, and later a white man's place (Bur- 
chell's). Stop at the latter. Learn that we are 20 miles from 
Tanana and on a 5-mile-long channel. There are here 15 to 40 feet 
high loesslike (silt) bluffs with a flat on the top, which latter 
was from far back one of the most im'portant sites of the Indians 
of these regions. Mr. Burchell and his partner kindly take me back, 
with their better boat, to the main old site. Many old gi-aves there, 
a few still marked. Traces of dugouts (birch-bark lined), houses, 
caches, etc., from Burchell's place to old main site. Important 
place that deserves to be thoroughly excavated, though this wiU 
entail no little work. Site was of the choicest, dominant, healthy. 
Connects by a trail, still traceable, with the Koyukuk region. 

There are said to be no traces of pottery in any of these parts. 
But average to very large stone axes are washed out occasionally 
from the banks, and other articles are dug out (long ivory spear, 
bone scraper, etc.). Promise of bones, etc., by Mr. Burchell. 

One hundred miles more to Ruby. Near 8 p. m. start again — sun 
still high, little wind — endeavor to get to the " bone yard," a great 
bank bearing fossils. Fine clean scenery, flat on left, flat to elevated 
with grey-blue mountainous beyond on right. Water now calm and 
we make good progress. Very few camps — dogs on the beach, fish- 
drying racks a little farther, then a little log cabin and perhaps a 
tent, with somewhere near by in the river the inevitable fish wheel, 
turning slowly with the current. 

Had %upper at Burchell's ; white fish, boiled potato, coffee, some 
canned greens. 

Scenery in spots precious, virginal, fiat at the river, elevated be- 
hind, foreground covered by the lighter green of poplars and birches, 
with upright, somber, dark spruce behind. Sun on the right, half 
moon on the left, and river like a big glassy lake, just rippling a 
little here and there. Cooler — need a coat. On right, getting 
gradually nearer the mountains. 



HEDLiOKA] WEITER'S TRIP OX YUKON 47 

Near 10 p. m. Snn still above horizon. On left a long (several 
miles), mostly wooded, but here and there denuded, palisadelike 
bank, apparentl}' 200-400 feet hiirh — the " graveyard." 

Monday, June 21. Just at sunset last night — after 10 oclock — 
came to the " bone yard " bank — a long curving line of loess bluffs 
100 to 300 feet high, steep right to ^Yater's edge, riven by many ra- 
vines. Lowest third (approximately) light compact loess; then a 
thick layer of river sand (stratified more or less) and small gravel, 
then from one-third to nearly two-fifths of darker loess. In spots 
quite dark, frozen, but on surface melting, " running," also tumbling 
in smaller or larger masses. Wherever darker there emanates from 
it and spreads far out over the river a decided mummylike smell. 
Too late to photograph from boat, and no other place available. 
Also impracticable to explore with any detail — would take several 
days and be a difficult work. The bluffs become gradually lower 
downstream. Xo bones seen from boat, but mostly were not near 
enough to discern. A remarkable formation, in many ways, and 
in need of masterly study as well as description. 

Night on a low gravelly and pebbly beach. Many mosquitoes. 
Mosquito netting found bad — sides too short (gave directions, but 
they were disregarded) and mesh not small enough. In a short time 
impossible to stay under. Supplemented by old netting of Mr. 
Peake, who will sleep under his canvas in the boat ; but the old dirty 
net has holes in it and the mosquitoes keep on coming through the 
two. Fighting them imtil some time after midnight, then under all 
my things — netting, blanket, clothes — find some rest, sleeping until 
4.30 a. m. After that — full day. of course^sleep impossible. The 
"optician," who slept well under proper Alaska netting, gets up, 
wakes my man; we both get up, shake, roll up bedding, have a cat- 
wash, then breakfast, and at G.30 off once more along the beautiful 
but not hospitable river. 

Inquiry at a local white man's cabin about fossils and Indian 
things negative — has paid no attention, and fossil bones that he 
sometimes comes across generally not in good state of preservation. 

Eight bank now hilly, with greater hills and then mountains be- 
hind. Warm, river smooth, just a light breeze. How puny we are 
in all this greatness. 

A lot of trouble develops with the engine to-day — bad pump. 
Will not get to Ruby until evening. Meat, on which I must sit 
occasionally, begins to smell, and there are numerous horseflies, 
probably attracted by the smell. 

Four p. m. Visit Kokrines, on a high bank, native village, ceme- 
tery. Photograph some natives, are good natured, talk pidgin Eng- 
lish. Clearly considerable old Eskimo admixture, but the substratum 



48 ANTHROPOLOGICALi SURVEY IN ALASKA [bth. ann. 46 

and main portion is Indian. All kind and cheerful here, glad to 
have pictures taken. Only white man is a " road-house " keeper ; 
i. e., storekeeper. Store, however, poorly stocked, probably in all not 
over $200 worth of goods. " Optician," who is hoggish, has head- 
ache, but eats and drinks all he can nevertheless. " Jeweler " re- 
paired his pump, and so we are once more on the way — 35 miles more 
to Ruby. No trace of any relics at Kokrines. 

River now a mile wide, with many " slews " (side channels, 
sloughs), and many low, flat, forested islands. Mountains to right, 
higher, traces of snow. Smoke wall from forest fire advancing from 
the west — now also smell. Islands beautiful, fresh colors and clean — 
light grass on border, then green and grayish poplars, birches, and 
alder, from among which rise the blacldsh green spruces. Little 
native fishing camps a mile or two apart, right bank — on left wilder- 
ness of flats, as usual. 

A few miles above Ruby conditions change — ^liigh bluffs (rocky) 
now on left, flat on right side. Ruby, from a distance and after the 
loneliness of the day, looks quite a little town on the left bank, at 
the base of the higher ground. 

Ruby 

June 22-23. Our approach to Ruby was very modest. With 
Mr. Peake paid off, we just sided against and tied to the bank, on 
which are the lowest houses of the village, and carried out my boxes 
and bedding on the bank. There two or three men were idly watch- 
ing our arrival. I asked about the local marshal, to whom I had a 
note, and had my things carried to the combined post office and hotel. 
In almost no time I meet Mr. Thomas H. Long, the marshal, become 
acquainted with the people about, tell my mission, and begin to col- 
lect. It does not take long for one properly introduced to be thor- 
oughly and warmly at home in Alaska. The first specimen I get is a 
fine fossilized mammoth molar. It is brought to me by Albert 
Verkinik, who was about to depart for some mines, but went back to 
get the tooth. And he asks no compensation. 

The parts of two days spent at Ruby were quite profitable. Visit- 
ing, and in the jail, were several Indians who could be noted and 
photographed. At the old jail there were two skulls of Indians 
that were donated. The teacher had two of the characteristic Yukon 
two-grooved axes. The postmaster, Mr. H. E. Clarke, gave a col- 
lection of fre,sh animal skulls. Mr. Louis Pilback donated two mam- 
moth molars, found 2 miles up the Yukon on Little Melozey Creek, 
about 8 feet deep, in the muck right over the gravel. Mrs. Monica 
Silas brought me a good old stone knife. Several of the men took 
me down to the beach to see a damaged fossil elephant skull, also to 



HBDLieKA] WEITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 49 

see some fossiliferous workings above the town. Another party took 
me a few miles up and across the river to see an Indian camp and 
near by some old burials. The collections were sent through parcel 
post; and the evening before departure I gave a lecture to an atten- 
tive and respectful audience. 

The town itself, however, is now a mere damaged and crumbling 
shell of what it was in the heyday of its glory, during the gold rush. 
Many of the frame dwellings and stores are empty ; the board side- 
walks are rickety and with big holes; and in the air is a general lack 
of impetus. 

June 23. Failing to find another suitable boat, I once more made 
an arrangement to go farther down the river with Mr. Peake and 
his friend. Peake's boat and scow were not much to look at, and 
the troubles with the engine, and with its owner's raw swearing at 
times, were somewhat trying; but for my purpose the outfit did well 
enough, and I was treated very well and given all needed oppor- 
tunity to examine what was of importance on the banks. I was 
quite sorry when eventually we had to part company, and I know 
Mr. Peake has not forgotten my quest, for I heard of his talking 
about it to partie^, with whom I was very glad to come in contact, 
on the Kuskokwim. 

June 23. The sunny evening of my second busy day at Ruby, 
near 10 p. m., Peake unexpectedly comes to the hotel to tell me he 
will be ready to start to-night, on account of quiet water. His 
wash " is being ironed " and will be ready soon. The marshal comes 
in, calls the prisoners to take down my baggage, and at 10.15, after 
true, hearty good-byes, I am once more in the old scow. Then Peake 
goes for his wash, with an Indian woman, and does not come until 
near 11. River peaceful, sun shortly set, sky somewhat cloudy, for- 
est fire on opposite shore below still smoking a great deal. Leaving 
good people at Ruby, who promise to help in the future. It is 
getting much cooler after a pretty warm day. Will lie on the hard 
boxes and try to get a little sleep. 

Thursday, June 24. We went long into the night, then stopped 
at a lone cabin. Up timely, but slow start — it is 10.10 a. m. before 
we go. The time gained at night lost now — bad habits. Breeze up 
the river, occasionally strong, but not severe. 

The cabin was the " Dutchman's," or Meyer's. He came out at 
1 a. m. to meet us, at the bark of his big dogs, a good-heai'ted, 
weather-seared prospector, fisherman, and trapper of about 40, alone 
with his huskies. Asked me into his little log hut, prepared a place 
for my bedding on a frame, burned powder against the mosquitoes, 
brought out from cool " cellar " a bottle of root beer he brews, and 
then we went to sleep. But dogs kept waking us and Meyer went 



50 ANTHROPOLOGIC.Uli SURVEY IN ALASKA [ETH. ANN. 46 

out several times to qtiiet them. Fall asleep at 3.20 and oblivious 
imtil near 7. Meyer forces on me six bottles of root beer. I leave 
him some prescriptions, and taking my bed roll we go down to the 
boat. M}^ men still sleeping, as I expected. And then slow awaken- 
ing, breakfast, and late starting. 

Meyer never saw any Indian bones or stones, but promises cheer- 
fully to watch for them hereafter and to make inquiries. Of course, 
he also, like so many in these lands, tells of a " prospect " of a gold 
find, and is quite confident he'll " make good." As usual, also, it 
is a " lead " that was " lost " and he believes he has found it. And 
all the time the gold is inside, not outside, of these hunters of the 
yellow star. 

Hills on the right again; flat islands, banks, etc., on the left. 
Meyer's is 18 miles down from Ruby, right bank. About 5 miles 
farther down on the slopes of the right bank is a pretty little In- 
dian graveyard (pi. 1, 6), and a little lower down there are three 
now empty Indian huts. 

Hills and mountains seen also now beyond the wide flats of the 
left bank. The hills on right, along which we pass, are more or less 
forested, but often just bushy and grassy. They' rise to about 600 
to 700 feet and the slopes are seldom steep. Along their base there 
are many elevated platforms, low swells, and nooks, that could have 
served of old — as they serve here and there now — for native habita- 
tion, though only few could have accommodated larger villages. 

Pass an Indian camp — the inevitable staked dogs; a swimming 
boy — first being seen bathing in the open. 

Whiskey Creek next. Sixty-two dogs, all along the bank, and 
each one-half or more in his own cooling hole ; holes they dig down 
to near the frozen ground. A settler, and two Indians — a photo- 
graph. No relics or bones now, but will watch ; promise also to save 
some animal skulls, etc. 

Twelve o'clock. Off again. Day better now, less squally, warm. 

Hills above and below lower and earthy — loess, at least much of 
it. The right shore is all along sunnier, higher, more beautiful, and 
more open to wind (less mosquitoes). These are the reasons, doubt- 
less, why it was of old and is still the favored side for habitations 
by natives as well as whites. 

Just before reaching " Old Lowden," overtaken by a rather crazily 
driven small motor boat with four young Indians, who hand us a 
crude message for the storekeeper at Galena, telling him that a baby 
in the camp is to die to-night. I offer to see the baby. Find a boy 
infant about one year or a little over, ill evidently with bronchitis. 
Father and mother, each about 30, sit over it brooding in dumb 
grief, each on one side. Respond not to my presence, and barely so 
to my questions. And when I begin to tell to the fellow who inter- 



HRDLifKA] WRITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 51 

prets and is some relative that the baby need not die, and what to 
do — I note that he is somewhat under the influence of liquor and a 
little flushed — to my dismay he begins to rant against me as a doctor 
and against the Government, and wants me perforce, seemingly, to 
say that the child is going to die and die to-night. There are two 
guns around and I almost anticipate his catching hold of one. The 
gist of the piecemeal talk is that they believe I am a Government 
doctor, who ought to stay four or five days with them and take over 
the child's treatment, and yet the fellow insists that the child will 
die before next moining. I do not know what they would say or 
do to the doctor if he undertook to stay and the child died — or if it 
recovered. It is dismal. They have the idea that the " Government " 
is obliged to do all sorts of things for them, without being clear 
just what, and that it does not do them. They believe, and try to say 
so, that I am sent and paid by the Government to treat them. 
Probably they have heai'd about the Government medical party that 
is to examine conditions along the river this summer, and think that 
I do not want to do or give what is necessary. I give all the possi- 
ble advice, but there is plainly no inclination to follow it. I offer 
some medicine ; they sneer at medicine. Even the father says he does 
not understand it or want it. They are all surly and in a dangerous, 
stupid mood. So there is nothing left but to go away as well as 
one may. 

On way down the bank a woman is seen cleaning and cutting 
fish — knife steel, with wood or ivory handle, of the Chinese and 
Eskimo type. A porcupine, bloated, and with flies and maggots on 
it already about the nose, mouth, and eyes, lies next to the woman, 
and its turn will probably come next after the fish. 

Have modest lunch — canned peai's, a bit of cold bacon left from 
morning, a bit of cheese, and coffee; and start once more onward. 
So much beauty here, and such human discord. 

3.30 p. m. Passing on right bank a line of bluffs, wholly of loess, 
about 200 feet high and approximately 4 miles long, and as if shaven 
with knife from top to water's edge. After that flats only on both 
sides, with but one hill far ahead of us. 

Motor trouble again — same old pump; but not for long; in half 
an hour on again. A steamer upward passes us — like a stranger, and 
power. 

Galena 

A little town (village), on a flat promontory. An old consump- 
tive storekeeper — no knowledge of any old implements or skeletal 
remains. Lowden village moved here due to mine opposite and better 
site. About 10 Indian houses here; inhabitants now mostly in fish- 
ing camps. 



52 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SUEVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. is 

From Galena down, low shores and islands as on the Tanana, as 
far as can be seen, with mountains, grayish blue, in far distance 
(and only occasional glimpses). River never less than three- fourths 
of a mile and sometimes together with its sloughs and islands several 
miles broad. Some geese; occasional rabbit seen on land; otherwise 
but little life. First gulls. 

Tlie Indians at Ruby and Galena show here and there an Eskimoid 
type, with the younger nearly all mix bloods (with whites). Full 
bloods of same type as all along the river, brachycephalic, low to 
moderate high vault of head, moderate to medium (rarely above) 
stature, medium brown, noses not prominent, concavo-convex, moder- 
ately convex or nearly straight, Indian cast of the face, but quite a 
few more or less Eskimoid. Not very bright. 

Sit in the bottom of the scow, in front, before the stove and make 
notes. When we stop, jump out to tie the boat; when leaving, push 
it off. Getting sunburnt dark. Forgetting once again that I have 
a stomach or any other organ. Only sleep, never fully, much less 
than ought to; but even that is somehow much more bearable here 
than it would be at home. 

6.45 p. m. Suddenly, after a turn, confronted with a steep rocky 
promontory about 500 feet high — stratified mud rocks. On side, 
high above, a tall white cross; learn later an Indian murdered a 
bishop here. A little farther, on a flat below the slope, a small settle- 
ment. A remarkable landmark, known as the Bishop's Rock. After- 
wards again flats, but some more elevated than before to the left. 
River like a great looking-glass. Same character of vegetation and 
colors as farther above, but details varied. 

At Ruby had made a genuine, effective. Alaska mosquito netting, 
and so now feel quite independent of the pest ; also have two bottles 
of mosquito oil, which helps. Forunately on the water we are not 
bothered. 

Toward night reach Koyukuk River, and later on. Koyukuk village, 
a pleasant row of houses, white and native, on a high bank. Here, 
at last, pass one good night, sleeping under good mosquito netting 
in the house and on the bed of an Italian trader. Also had good sup- 
per of salmon, and good breakfast of bacon and eggs, and so feel 
rested and strong. 

Friday, June 25. But in the morning the sky is overcast and every 
now and then there is a loose shower. Of course my boon comjjanions 
are not ready again until long after 9 o'clock, and then the engine will 
not go again, so a longer delay. They were inclined, in fact, to 
" lay over," but I urged them on. But they are detei-rained if it rains 
a bit more to "tie to" somewhere. Fortunately there is no wind. 
About 3 miles below Koyukuk and its flats, the high bluffs with 



hrdliCka] 



WRITHE'S TRIP ON YUKON 53 



Steep more or less shavedlike barren slopes recommence. A gloomy 
day. 

About 7 miles down, after a large rocky promontory, a small grave- 
yard on the side of a hill, with a little native camp about a third of a 
mile beyond. 

10.'±5 a. m. Beautiful wooded great hills, 400 to 800 feet high, all 
along the right bank again, with large V-shaped valleys between. A 
fine, rounded, slightly more than usually elevated island ahead. Left 
banks flat. 

Sun coming out a little; cool, but not unpleasant. No more 
showers, river smooth, boat making time. Blue hazy mountains far 
to the left front. 

Hills to right rocky, strata horizontal to warped, mud rocks, broad 
banks of sandy, gravelly or mucky materials, not consolidated, be- 
tween hard strata. 

Now and then a small Indian camp, usually two or three tents, 
Indians, dogs, boats; some drying fish (not much). 

11.00 a. m. Another isolated little graveyard, right slope, near an 
old camp. 

There is no possibility now of excavating any of these graveyards, for 
the Indians are in unpleasant disposition toward the Government for 
various reasons. But such a place as that near Burchell's could be 
excavated as soon as conditions impi'ove. Also that above Ruby and 
another opposite and just below Ruby. There are no longer any 
superstructures left at these (or but traces) , and the graves, as seen 
above Ruby, are near (within 2 feet of) the surface. 

No trace or indication of anything older than the double-gi-ooved 
ax culture has thus far been seen anywhere in the valley ; and large 
stretches of present banks are quite barren. 

As we approach Nulato the horizon before us becomes hilly and 
mountainous. The sun is now fully out and its waimth is very 
pleasant. Pass an Indian woman paddling a canoe ; later an Indian 
family going upstream in a motor boat. Most of these Indians 
possess a motor boat of some sort, and know how to run it, though 
it is not in their nature to be overcareful. 

NuLATO 

(PI. 1, 6) 

Arrive midday. Quite a village, as usual along the water front 
on a high bank. Large fancy modern surface burial ground with 
brightly painted boxes and flying flags on a hill to the right. Met 
by local marshal and doctor ; my things are taken to a little hospital. 
Natives here have poor reputation, but now said to be better. Boys 
nearly all mix bloods. Several men and women show Eskimo type. 



54 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [bth. ANN. 48 

but majority are Indian to somewhat Eskimoid. Soon find they are 
not very well disposed — want pay for everything, and much pay. 
Have a few specimens, but to obtain anything from them is difficult. 
Have been spoiled. 

A visit with the marshal to the site of old Nulato on the proxi- 
mate point; nothing there, just a rabbit's skull and a lot of mos- 
quitoes. Photograph old graveyard (that of old Nulato), on the 
distal point beyond the creek. 

Mr. Steinhauser, trader, of Czech descent, helpful and kind. But 
nothing further to do here. Steamer that was to be here to-night 
or to-morrow will not arive, just learned, until Tuesday (this is 
Friday) ; and so must engage a little gasoline boat to the next station, 
Kaltag, 40 miles down the river. 

Sleep under my new netting in the hospital. In the morning, after 
Ijarting with doctor and marshal, start 8.30 a. m. Boat little, shaky, 
run by a half-breed boy of about 18. My old scow with Peake and 
his companion will stay a day longer. Partly cloudy, warm. 

Pass flats, and come again to similar shaved-oil bluffs like yester- 
day. We are now running close to the shore so that I can see 
everything. Flowers, but not many or many varieties. 

9.50 a. m. Pass (about 8 miles from Nulato) a few burials (old 
boxes) on right slope. (PI. 1, c.) Indian camp about one-half 
mile farther, and a few old abandoned huts and caches. 

Everything on and along thei river about the same as yesterday, 
except in little details. Sky clouded: light clouds, however. The 
boy with me has had good schooling (for a native) and is a good 
informer. But there is little of archeological or anthropological 
interest hereabouts. (PI. 2, a.) 

12.10 p. m. Another rounded island ahead of us; far beyond it 
grayish-blue hills and mountains. Six miles more to Kaltag. But 
little life here — a few small birds, a lone robin, a lone gull. 

Kaltag 

1.00 p. m. Kaltag in view — a small modern village on right bank, 
less than half the size of Nulato; a nearly compact row of log and 
plank houses. Nothing of any special interest seen from distance, 
and but little after landing. The old village used to be somewhat 
higher up the river. 

There is an old abandoned .site also just opposite the present 
Kaltag. Another site, " Klenkakaiuh," is, I am told, in the Kaiuh 
slough south of Kaltag, in a straight line about 10 miles, but no one 
there; and several other old villages in that region along that 
slough — same Indians as those of Kaltag. All of Kaltag go there 
on occasions, but do not live there permanently any more. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE I 










i." 



m^^w^ 



a, "Old Minto" on the Tanana. Indian village. (A. H.. 192fi) 




::-::. ^SB^ 



6. Present Ntilato and its cemetery (on hill to right of village) from some distance up the river. 

(A. n., 192(i) 




c. The Greyling River site, right banlc. 22 miles ahove Anvik; site and graveyard (male skeleton) 
from top of knoll. (A. II., 1926) 



BLIREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 2 




a, View on the Yukon from above Kaltag. (A. H., 192(j) 




b, Indian burial ground, Middle Yukon. (A. n., 192G) 




c, Anvik, from the mission. (A. U., iy2(ij 



iirdliCka] WRITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 55 

At Kaltag Eskimoid features already predominate and some of 
those seen are fully like Eskimo. 

There is a tradition of an Asiatic (Chukchee) attempt at Kaltag 
once. 

Later in the afternoon photogi'aph some natives and go with 
Mr. Miiller, the storekeeper, and Mr. McLeod, the intelligent local 
teacher, on the latter's boat, " hunting " along the banks up the 
stream. Meet an old Indian (Eskimo type) paddling a birch-bark 
canoe, said to be the only canoe of that sort now on the Yukon. 
About three-fourths of a mile above the village see caved bank and 
find a skull and bones — " split " old burial of a woman. 

A canoe coming, so we all go farther up the beach, pretending to 
examine stones. It is only the boy who brought me, however, going 
home with some planks, and he grins knowingly. 

After that we locate three exposed coffins, two undisturbed and 
covered with sod. These two, for fear of irritating the natives, are 
left. But the third is wrapped only in birch bark. It was a power- 
ful woman. With her a bone tool and a white man's spoon. With 
the burial that had tumbled out of the bank there were large blue 
and gray beads and three iron bracelets — reserved by the teacher. 

I gather all the larger bones and we put them temporarily in a 
piece of canvas. It is hard to collect all — the men are apprehensive — 
it might be dangerous for them if detected. Everything smoothed 
as much as jDossible, and we go across the river to examine two fish 
nets belonging to the trader. One of these is found empty ; but the 
other contains five large king salmon, 1.5 to 20 pounds each, three 
cirowned, two still alive. The latter are hooked, hoisted to the edge 
of the boat, killed with a club, and, full of blood, thrown into the 
boat — great, stout, fine fish. To secrete our other findings from the 
natives the storekeeper gets a large bundle of grass and ties it to 
my package. We shall be bringing " medicine." 

Arrive home, only to learn that against our information the river 
boat has left Tanana on schedule time, is now above Koyukuk. and is 
expected to arrive at Kaltag before 8 p. m. Hurriedly pack, a few 
more photographs, supper, and the smoke of the steamer begins to 
be visible. In a little while she is at the bank, my boxes are brought 
down, a greeting with old friends on the boat — the same boat 
(Jacobs) on which I went from Xenana to Tanana — and we start off 
for Anvik. 

Mr. Miiller. the trader at Kaltag, German by birth, has a young, 
fairly educated Eskimo wife, a good cook, housekeeper, and mother 
of one child. The child is an interesting white-Eskimo blend. 

In his .store Mr. Miiller showed me a good-sized heavy bowl of red 
stone with a figure seated in a characteristic way near one end. The 
specimen was said to have come from an old site on the Kaiuh and 



56 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

is of the same type as that at the museum in Juneau and the two 
in the east, one at the Museum of the American Indian, New York, 
and the other at the University Museum, Philadelphia. Regret- 
tably Mr. Miiller would not part with the specimen. (See also p. 34.) 

The natives of Kaltag, .so far as seen, are more Eskimoid than 
those of any of the other settlements farther up the river. 

Fine evening; sit with a passenger going to Nome, until late. 
Learn that the boat to St. Michael is waiting for this boat and will 
go right on — not suitable for my work. Also we are to stop but a 
few minutes at Anvik, where I am to meet Doctor Chapman, the 
missionary. 

Sunday, June 27. About 5 a. m. arrive in the pretty cove of 
Anvik. Received on the bank by Doctor Chapman, the head of the 
local Episcopalian mission and school, and also the Anvik post- 
master. The doctor for the present is alone, his wife and daughter 
having gone to Fairbanks, and so he is also the cook and everything. 
In a few minutes, with the help of some native boys, I am with 
my boxes in Doctor Chapman's house, and after the boat has left 
and the necessities connected with what she left attended to we 
have breakfast. I am soon made to feel as much as possible " at 
home," and we have a long conversation. Then see a numlier of 
chronic patients and incurables; attend a bit lengthy service in 
Doctor Chapman's near-by little cliurch; have a lunch with the 
ladies at the school; visit the hill graveyard. They have reburied 
all the older remains and there is nothing left. Attend an afternoon 
service and give a talk to the congregation of about half a dozen 
whites and two dozen more or less Eskimoid Indians on the Indians 
and our endeavors; and then do some writing, ending the day by 
going out for about a mile and a half along the banks of the Anvik 
River, looking in vain for signs of something older, human or 
animal. (PI. 2, c.) 

There are many and bad gnats here just now — how bad I only 
learned later, when I found my whole body covered with patches 
of their bites ; and also many mosquitoes, which proved particularly 
obnoxious during the lunch. As the doctor is alone, the three excel- 
lent white ladies of the school, matron and teachers, invited us, as 
already mentioned, to lunch with them. We had vegetable soup, 
a bit of cheese, two crackers each, a piece of cake, and tea. But I 
chose an outlandish chair the seat of which was made of strips of 
hide with spaces between ; and from the beginning of the lunch to its 
end there was a struggle between the proprieties of the occasion and 
the mosquitoes that kept on biting me through the spaces in the seat. 
Chairs of this ty{>e, and I finally told that to the ladies to explain 
my seeming restlessness during the meal, should be outlawed in 
Alaska. 



hedliCka] WRITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 57 

The Anvik People 

The Anvik people, it will be recalled, were the first Yukon natives 
seen by a white man. They were discovered in 1834 by Glazunof, 
and since then have occupied the same site, located favorably on a 
point between the Anvik and the Yukon Rivers. They belonged 
to the Inkalik tribe, a name given to them, according to Zagoskin, 
by the coast people and signifying " lousy," from the fact that they 
never cut their hair, which in consequence, presumably, harbored 
some parasites. Their village was the lowest larger settlement of the 
Indians on the Yukon, the Eskimo commencing soon after. 

The Anviks to-day are clearly seen to be a hybrid lot. There are 
unmistakable signs of a prevalent old Eskimo mixture. The men 
are nearly all more or leas Eskimoid. and even the head is not infre- 
quently narrower, fairly long, jaws much developed. The women, 
however, show the Eskimo type less, and the children in a still smaller 
measure — they are much more Indian. Yet even some women and 
an occasional child are Eskimoid — face flat, long, lower jaw high, 
cheek bones prominent forward (like welts on each side of the nose), 
whole iDliysiognomy recalling the Eskimo. The more Indianlike 
types I'esemble closely those of the ujjper Yukon. There is percep- 
tible, too, some mixture with whites, particularly in the young. 

To bed about 11. Attic warm and window can not be opened 
because of the insects. Sleep not very good; some mosquitoes in 
room anyway. Wake up after 3 and just begin to doze off again 
when the doctor gets up. About 4 he puts his shoes on—one can 
hear every sound throughout the frame house, even every yawn — 
and then goes to the kitchen where there soon comes the rattling of 
pots. At 4.30 comes up to bid me good morning and ask me if I am 
ready to get up and have breakfast. A man with a boat is to be 
ready at 6 to take me to some old site. So a little after 5 I get up, 
shave, dress and go down. Another night to make up for sometime, 
somewhere. 

We finish breakfast and the doctor goes to look for the man, but 
everything deadlike, no one stirring anywhere. So I pack my stone 
specimens from the river above and the bones from Kaltag, etc. It 
is 8 a. m. and then at last Harry Lawrence, our man, appears — 
having understood to come about that time — and before long we 
start, in a good-sized boat, up the Yukon. 

Day mostly cloudy but fairly good ; no wind. Must use mosquito 
mixture all the time, even after I get on boat, but they quit later. 
Am standing on the back of the boat against and over the " house " 
over it — inside things shake too much and I can not see enough. 

Passing by fish wheels — heaps of fish in their boxes — some just 
being caught and dumped in. Picturesque bluffs passed yesterday 
88253°— 30 5 



58 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IX ALASKA [eth. axn. m 

seen to be of volcanic stone, near basalt, not granite, with indication 
of minerals. Passing close to vertical cliffs of fissured and frag- 
mented rocks 200 to 500 feet high^dangerous. Consolidated vol- 
canic ashes with inclosure of many bowlders — fine lessons in geologiy. 
Slides of soil and vegetation here and there. Large spruces and 
altogether a richer vegetation since this particular rock region was 
reached. There was in fact a plain line of demarcation in the vegeta- 
tion where the rocks changed. 

Sleepy. Afraid to doze and fall off. so go inside. But there the 
motor thumps and shakes too much for a nap to be possible. 

About 12 miles upstream from Anvik, on the north bank, the min- 
eralized rocks and tufa suddenly cease, to be superseded by a line, 
several miles long, of sheared-off loess bluffs about 200 feet high. 
Here the vegetation changes very perceptibly. Two mammoth jaws 
obtained from these deposits have a few years ago been given to Mr. 
Gilmore, of the United States National Museum. 

22 to 23 miles up the river, north bank, a fine large platform and an 
old native site. Many signs still of pit and tunnel houses. A little 
farther upstream a hill with abandoned burials. Excavate a grave 
on a promontory over the river — not very old — wet and not much 
left of soft parts, but succeed in getting the skeleton. Fine middle- 
aged adult, somewhat Eskimoid, about typical for this region. 
Carry down in a bag, dry on the beach gravel. Lunch on beach; 
cheese, bread, coffee. The site is known as that of the Greyling River. 
(PI. 2, i.) 

Start back a little after 3. Very warm day. River smooth. Sky 
looks like there might be a storm later. 

Hear of pottery — 40 j'ears ago it was still made at Anvik. Was 
black, of poor quality. The women used to put feathers in the clay 
" to make the pots stronger." When buried it soon rotted and fell 
to pieces. In shapes and otherwise it was much like the Eskimo 
pottery. Its decorations consisted of nail or other impressions, in 
simple geometrical designs, particidarly about the rim. It was 
rather gross, but better pieces did occur, though rarely. 

It is becoming plain that there are no known traces of any really 
old settlements along the present banks of the Yukon ; nothing be- 
yond a few hundred years at most. If there was anything older no 
external signs of it have been noted, and no objects of it have ever 
been found. It seems certain that the stone imijlements thus far seen 
were used and made by the pre-Russian and probably even later 
Indians. They all belong to the polished-stone variety. No " paleo- 
lithic " type of instrument has yet been seen. 

It is also evident that the Eskimo admixture and doubtless also cul- 
tural influence extended far up the liver. The farther down the 



HHDLlcKA] WRITER'S TRIP OST YUKON 59 

river, particularly from Ruby, the more the Eskimoid physical char- 
acteristics become marked and the Indian diluted, until at Anvik 
most, or at least much, physical and cultural, is clearly Eskimo. 

Have further learned quite definitely that native villages on the 
Yukon were seldom if ever stable. Have been known (as at Kaltag 
and elsewhere) to have changed location as much as three times 
within the last few scores of years, though in general they keep to the 
same locality in a larger sense of the word. Anvik alone seems to 
have remained on the old site since the advent of the whites. 

Anvik. Tuesday, June 29. Last night gave talk on evolution to 
white teachers, etc. Quite appreciated, regardless of previous state 
of mentality. 

Caught up with some sleep, even though my attic room was so 
hot that the gum from the spruce boards was dropping down on me. 
Good breakfast with the doctor — canned grapefruit, corn flakes with 
canned milk, bread toasted in the oven, and coffee. . 

Pack up my Greyling skeleton — much drier to-da_y — and dispatch 
by parcel post, through the doctor as postmaster. 

Photograph school children and village. Gnats bad and have to 
wear substantial underclothing (limbs are already full of dark red 
itching blotches where bitten by them) though it is a hot day again. 
The full-blood and especially the slightly mixed children would 
be fine, not seldom lovely, were they fully healthy; but their lungs 
are often weak or there is some other tubercular trouble. 

The color of the full-bloods, juvenile and others, on the body, is 
invariably submedium to nea^ medium brown, the exposed parts 
darker; and the chest test (mine) for full-bloodedness holds true. 
The young are often good looking ; the old rather ugly. 

All adults fishing now. the fish running much since a day or 
two: all busy at the fish camps, not man}', in the daytime especially, 
about the mission. 

At noon air fills with haze — soon recognized as smoke from a fire 
which is located at only about a mile, and that with the wind, from 
the mission. We all hasten to some of the houses in the brush — 
find enough clearing about them for safety. The school here burned 
two years ago and so all are apprehensive. Natives from across 
the river hasten to their caches. Luckily not much wind. 

After lunch children come running in saying they hear thunder; 
one girl saying in their usual choppy, picturesque way, " Outside 
is thunder"; another smaller one says, "It hollers above.'' Before 
long a sprinkle and then gradually more and more rain until there 
is a downpour followed by several thunderclaps (as with us) and 
then some more rain. That, of course, stops the fire from ap- 
proaching closer and all is safe. Such storms are rare occurrences 
hereabouts. 



60 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. axn. 46 

My limhs are a sight from the gnats. Must apply Aseptinol. 
Worse than any mosquitoes; like the worst chiggers. Poisonous — 
some hemolytic substance, which causes also much itching, especially 
at night. 

Arrange to leave to-morrow. Good people these, unpretentious, 
but white through and through. 

Mr. Lawrence, the local trader, who with his boy was with me 
yesterday, is going to take nie to an old site down the river and then 
to Holy Cross. Donates a fine old ivory arrow point from the site 
mentioned. Doctor Chapman gives three old dishes and two stone 
axe.s — haft on one of recent manufacture. The natives seem to have 
nothing of this nature, and no old site is near. The nearest is 
Bonasila, where we go to-morrow. 

This is truly a fish country. Along the placid Anvik River fish 
smell everywhere — dead fish on shore here and there, or fish eggs, 
or offal. • 

Wednesday, June 30. Hazy and cool. 52° F. Take leave with 
friend. Doctor Chapman, then at school, and leave 8 a. m. for 
Bonasila. 

The gnat pest was bad this morning — could hardly load my bag- 
gage; had to apply the smear again, but this helps only where 
put and for a time only. 

BOXASILA 

Close to 10 a. m. arrive at the Bonasila site. Not much — 
just a low bank of the big river, not over 4 feet high in front, and 
a higher rank grass-covered flat with a' little stream on the left and a 
hill on the right. But the flat is full of fossae of old barabras 
(pit and tunnel dwellings), all wood on surface gone; and there is a 
cemetery to the right and behind, on a slo^ie. 

Examine beach and banks minutely until 12. Modest lunch — two 
sandwiches, a bit of cake and tea — and then begin to examine the 
shore again. Soon after arrival finding bones of animals, some 
partly fossilized ; beaver, deer, caribou, bear, fox, dog, etc., all 
species still living in Alaska, as found later, though no more in the 
immediate neighborhood. 

Mosquitoes and gnats bad — use lot of oil. Begin soon to find 
remarkably primitive looking stone tools, knockers, scrapers, etc. 
Crawl through washed-down trees and brush. Many stones on the 
beach show signs of chipping or use. Very crude — a protolithic in- 
dustry; but a few pieces better and .showing polished edge. Also 
plenty of fragments of pottery, not seldom decorated (indented). 
Make quite a collection. And then, to cap it, find parts of human 
skeleton, doubtless washed out from the bank. Much missing, but a 



HBDLiiKA] WBITEB'S TRIP ON YUKON 61 

good bit recovered, and that bit is very striking. (See p. 156.) Also 
a cut bone (clean cut, as if by a sharp knife) in situ in the mud 
of the bank, and a little birch-bark basket still filled with mud from 
the bank, with later a larger basket of same nature in situ; could 
save but a piece. Conditions puzzling. Was there an older site 
under one more recent ? 

2 p. m. About 2 p. m. go to the cemetery. About a dozen burials 
recognizable. A pest of mosquitoes and gnats — Lawrence soon 
bleeds over face and neck, while I keep them off only by frequent 
smearing. He soon has to smear, too. Open five graves — placed 
above ground, wooden (split and no nails) boxes covered with earth 
and sod. Skeletons all in contracted position, head to the east and 
lying on right side. Some in poor condition. Three women, one 
man, one child. Gnats swarm in the moss and the graves, and with 
the smears, here and there a trickle of blood, the killed pests and 
the dust, we soon look lovely. But there is enough of interest. 
With each burial appears something — with the man two large blue 
Russian beads; first woman — a pottery lamp (or dish), iron knife; 
with the second two fire sticks, stone objects (sharj)eners), partly 
decayed clay dish; with the third, a Russian bead and a birch-bark 
snuffbox; with the child a "killed" (?) glass bottle of old form 
and an iron flask; in the grave of an infant (bones gone) a Russian 
bead. A grave of a child — bones burned. 

6.15 p. m. Rest must be left. Lawrence may be enabled to do 
some work in the fall. Leave 6.15; carry quite a lot — in sacks, gaso- 
line cans, lard cans. Wonder how I shall be able to send things from 
Holy Cross, and what next. Cool, sky overcast whole day. 

Holt Cross 

Thursday, Julj' 1. Slept on the floor of a little store last night 
at Ghost Creek. The Catholic mission at Holy Cross, with all sorts 
of room, about li^ miles down, and where, though late and tired, I 
visited Father Jules Jette, a renowned student of the dialects of the 
Yukon Indians, did not offer to accommodate me, and the trader in 
their village could only offer me a " bunk " in one little room with 
three other people. So after 10 p. m. we went down to the " Ghost 
Creek," where I was gladly given a little corner in the store of Alec 
Richardson. Of course there were whining dogs outside, right next 
to the store on both sides, and they sang at times (or howled) like 
wolves, whose blood they seem to carry. And a cat got closed in with 
me and was pulling dried fish about, which she chewed, most of the 
night it seemed. So there was not much sleep until from about 5 
a. m. to 8.30, after the cat was chased out and the dogs got weary. 
Then no breakfast till near 9.30. 



62 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [BTH. ANN. 46 

Went to mission again to see Father Jette — he is not of the mis- 
sion — a fine old Frenchman and scliolar. He was not responsibls for 
last night and anyway I was spoiled farther up the river. His 
meritorious work deserves to be known and published. 

After a verj' simple lunch packed yesterday's collections from the 
Bonasila site — five boxes. The parcel post here alone will cost 
$20.40. How odd that the transportation of the collections of a 
Government institution must be paid for from the little appropria- 
tion received for scientific work to another department of the same 
Government. 

It is cloudy, drizzly, cold. Am endeavoring to leave to-morrow, 
but they want $35 to the next station, and the boat does not leave 
for St. Micliael until the 11th. Fortunately I am able to send away 
the collections, and there will surely be some way down the river. 

Ghost Creek 

July 1-2, 10.30 p. m. A night on the Yukon. (PL 3, a,) They 
have lit a powder against the mosquitoes. Smear the many gnat 
bites with Mentholatum — helps but for n, while — and having now my 
fine meshed netting, my own bedding, and a clean pillow, I feel 
fine, safe from all the pests, and ready for a quiet night, all alone. 

Commenced dozing off when a he-cat, who hid in the store at 
closing, begins to make all kinds of unnamable noises. Stand it for 
a while, but he does not stop and one could never sleep — so crawl 
out from the bed, catch the beast, and throw him out. 

In again and settling down, when another cat — did not know there 
were two here — begins to mew and tries to force its way out under 
the door, which is about 2i^ inches above the floor. Persists until 
I have to get up the second time. Throw that cat out and in bed 
once more. 

In a minute, however, the dogs outside espied the cats and began 
a pandemonium of howls and yelps and barks. Try hard, but can 
not stand it. Moreover, the last cat got on the roof, where I hear 
him walking, and he seems in no hurry to get off. So finally have 
to get out, catch the cat on the edge of the roof, throw him back into 
the store, and to bed for another trial. But soon have to smear the 
body; the bites itch too much. The sleepiness is now quite gone. 
A mild amusement as to what next. It must be midnight or later 
now, and it has grown cold. One blanket is not sufficient. Doze off 
a little, wake up with cold, readjust blanket and flaps of bag, doze 
off a little again — the dogs commence to howl, just for a song this 
time, in two, thi-ee, then a unison. The bites itch bitterly, now here, 
now there. The sun has risen ; it is real cold, probably no more than 
about 40° to 45° F. And so on until 5.30, when at last fall into 



IrEDLICKAJ 



WRITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 63 



a deep, dreamless sleep, regardless of light, cats, dogs, and everything 
and sleep until 8.30. 

Wake up, can not believe my watch; but it goes, and so probably 
is right. But no one anywhere yet stirring. 

Dress, wash a bit in the muddy river; head feels as if it had been 
knocked by something heavy. Make my " roll '' of bedding and 
then work on notes, putting down faithfully what has transpired. 
About 9.30, at last, the storekeeper comes to say they overslept and 
that a cup of coffee will be ready before long. 

Friday, July 2. " Ghost Creek " was named so bectiuse of many 
burials about the creek. The flat between the hills here is about 
three-fourths of a mile long by the water front, with rising slopes, 
and used to extend considerably farther out, but was " cut " or 
washed away by the river. It has been used for a village site and 
burial ground by the old Indians of the vicinity. As the banks 
tumble away, bone arrow points, barbed and not, stone scrapers, and 
other objects wash out. Graves are found in the ground as well as 
above it. Russian influence prevalent in the objects buried with the 
bodies, but site extends to pro-Russian time. Same type graves as 
at Bonasila, with slight local modifications. 

At Bonasila the burials above ground were in boxes of hewn wood, 
joined somewhat as the logs in a log house, and without any base. 
The body inside was covered with birch bark (three or four pieces), 
then covered with the top planks, unfastened, and these in turn 
covered with about a foot of earth and sod. At Ghost Creek the 
same, but there is an undressed-stake base or platform on which the 
sides of the " coffin " rest and with somewhat less earth and sod on 
the top of the box. But graves differ here from underground and 
birch bark alone (no trace of wood, if any was ever there; but 
probably none used) to such aboveground as have iron nails and 
sawed planks. Here, as at Bonasila, a few simple articles are 
generally found buried at the head, and for these many of the graves 
were already despoiled and the skeletal remains scattered or reburied. 

There appears to be no line of demarcation between the under- 
ground and aboveground graves; possibly the latter were winter 
burials, but this must be looked into further. 

The bodies here, except the latest, are buried flexed. Exception- 
ally, both at Bonasila and here, the planks surrounding the grave 
were painted with some mineral pigments which resist decomposition 
better than the wood, and decorated in a very good native way with 
series of animals and men, caribou, bear, etc. Too faint to photo- 
graph, and too bulky and decayed to take away; but decoration much 
superior to ordinary Indian pictogra^^hs, and apparently connecting 
with the type of art of the northwest coast. It is of interest that 



64 ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. axn. 46 

practically the same decorated burials were seen by Dall amon<i the 
Eskimo of Norton Sound (Unalaklik)/ In this case it was prob- 
ably the Indian habit that was adopted by the near-by Eskimo, for 
none of the more northern Eskimo practiced such burials. The habit 
was also known in southeastern Alaska. (PI. 3, b.) 

Jim Walker, the helpful local mix-breed trader, has dug out many 
of these graves (alone or witli Harry Lawrence), and a good many 
of the objects are said to have been taken away by Father O'Hara, 
formerly of the Holy Cross Mission. 

According to all indications the stone culture of Bonasila and of 
Ghost Creek (li^ miles upstream from Holy Cross) were related, 
both passing apparently into the Russian period, and that at Ghost 
Creek continuing down to our times, for there is still living here an 
old man who belongs to this place which once had a large village. 
Much could be done yet and saved in both places. 

Saturday, July 3. At last slept, notwithstanding everj^thing, and 
succeeded even in being warm. 

Breakfast 8.30, for a wonder. Two soft-boiled Seattle eggs, two 
bits of toast with canned butter (not bad at all), some over-pre- 
served raspberries, and a faded-looking nearly cold "flapjack" with 
sirup, also mediocre tea. But all goes here, and the stomach calls 
for no other attention than to fill it. 

Finishing work, getting further information from the old Indian, 
writing, and waiting to go away with a trader to Paimute, the first 
all-Eskimo village. 25 miles farther down the river. Rains occa- 
.sionally, but not very cold. Many gnats when wind moderates. 

Lunch — canned sardines ( in this land of fresh salmon ! ) . a bit of 
toast, some canned fruit, and that unsavory tea. 

Have utilized this day in a profitable manner. Have learned 
that there was another burial ground alwut half a mile farther up- 
stream, behind an elevation. So got a rowboat and with Jim 
Walker's young boy rowed over. Had to wade through high grass 
over a wet flat, and then up the rank grass and bush-covered slope, 
and there found a number of old burials. All rifled, but most of 
the bones still there. So send boy back, on the quiet — there is above 
the store the camp of the old man with an old Indian woman and 
sick girl — for some boxes, and meanM'hile collect. It is an unceasing 
struggle with the mosquitoes and gnats in the tall grass and weeds; 
but one after another I find what remains of the usual old box 

* .Vlaska and Its Resources, p. in : " Onr attention was/ attracted by the numerous graves. 
These are well worth the careful attention of the ethnologist ; many of them arc very old. 
The usual fashion is to place the body. (Inuhled up. on its side, in a box of plank hewed 
out of spruce logs and about 4 I'cct long ; this is elevated several feet above the ground 
on four posts, which project above the coffin or box. The sides are often painted with 
red chalk, in figures of fur animals, birds, and fishes." 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 3 




a. Midnight on the Yukon 




6, Lower middlt; "i iiko:, I ii];i( .1 i.uriil i.dx of a Y'ukon Indian (before 1884) said to have been a 
hunter uf Bielui^ai. (.white whalesj, which used to ascend far up the Yukon 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 4 




a, Eskimo camp below Pairaute, Yukon River 




b, GUI "]iruhiliiliit'" sile V2 miles down from Palmate, ritthl h;ink, jusi tieyomi " r2-m.ile bill.' 
(skull, bones, stones) 




' site la bunk seon in middle of picture, 12 miles down from Panniite, oppo:?ite that sliown in 
preceding figure. (A. li., 1926) 



HKDLIOKA] WRITER'S TRIP 0>f YUKON 65 

burials. The bones are mostly in good condition. The boy arrives 
with several empty gasoline boxes, we gather drier grass and moss, 
and pack right on the spot, eventually get to the boat, strike off as 
far as pos.sible from the shore so none could see what is carried, and 
proceed to Walker's storeliouse. Old Indian and his old crony 
nevertheless stand on bank and look long at us. In storehouse boxes 
closed, later delivered by the boy to the mail boat, and so that mucli 
is saved; for were it not collected, in a few years the weather, vegeta- 
tion, and animals, human and other, would destroy everything. 

Moreover, the utmost care is taken always to leave everything in as 
good shape as found ; and the i-emains taken will be treated so well 
and may give us so much that we need that there is no more hesita- 
tion in securing them than there would be on the part of a paleon- 
tologist in securing old bones for his purposes. 

For suj^per, though it is still early, am invited by Simel. an elderly 
Jew mail carrier. Have fine meat-and-potato soup, lettuce-and- 
cucumber salad (even if the cucumbers from the Holy Cross hot- 
house are overripe and bitter), fresh (storage) meat, cooked dried 
apples, and poor but hot coffee — all seasoned with the best will and 
genuine, simple friendliness. 

Max Simel, whose home is at Ophir, has been in this country 29 
yeai's, and "never needed to buy a quarter's worth of medicine." 
Has a wife in Seattle, also a daughter and a son ; has not seen them 
for four years. Wants me to call on them and tell them I met him. 
With his companion, Paul Keating, of Holikachakat. gives me some 
interesting information. They tell me indejsendently and then to- 
gether of an occurrence that shows what may happen along this great 
river. A well-known white man and woman, prospectors on their 
mail route, have last year thawed and dug out a shaft, nearly 40 feet 
deep, through muck and silt, to the gravel, in which they hoped to 
get gold; and just before they reached the gravel they found a piece 
of calico, old and in bad condition, but still showing some of its 
design and color. 

7 p. m. It rains, but wind has moderated, and so near 7 p. m. 
we start on our way farther down the river, stopping just long enough 
at Holy Cross to attend to mj^ reservation for St. Michael. The agent 
has no idea when the boat will go — maybe the 11th, maybe not until 
the 14th or later. 

Going on an old leaky scow with an elderly, faded, chewing, not 
very talkative but for all that very kindly and acconunodating man, 
who with one hand holds the steering wheel and with the other most 
of the time keeps on bailing. He carries supplies for his store and I 
my outfit, camera, and umbrella. Sky has here and there cleared, 



66 ANTHKOPOI.OGICAL, SXTEVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

even patches of sun appear on far-away clean-cut hills. Water not 
very rough; make fair time downstream. Banks flat now, river 
broad, some hills in distance. 

8.00 p. m. Hills nearer ahead of us. Some of the flats look from 
distance like fine tree nurseries. Getting cool. Cloudy ahead. The 
banks flat and low, no good site for habitation. Not even fishing 
camps here — just long " cut-banks " (banks being cut by the river) 
and low beaches. Here and there new bars and islands that are 
being built by the river. No birds, no boats, just an occasional 
floating snag or a rare solitary gull, 

Paimute 

Paimute down river, I am told, has nothing but Eskimo; Holy 
Cross, but a few natives now. mainly Indian; above Holy Cross, 
Indian, Eskimo only as adapted or in admixture. 

July 3, 8.30 p. m. Hills on right now right before us. Behind first 
a fish camp of the Holy Cross Mission natives. River narrows and 
bends. Two other fish camps become visible. Stop ; damp, cold, 
smoke, fish smell, a few natives, Eskimo. River now like molten 
glass, but air damp and cold, and I must sit behind the engine and 
keep my hands over the hot exhaust pipe to keep somewhat com- 
fortable. 

Pass bulging bluffs on right — old stratified shales. 

11.00 p. m. Arrive at our destination about 11 p. m. But a few log 
huts on the right side of the river, with few others and a primitive 
frame church in the back. A little store and a big storehouse (with 
skins, etc.), trader's house (log cabin) a few rods away. Open 
store, only to find that a pup had been forgotten there, made a lot 
of mess and dirt and ate most of one side of bacon. 

12.00 p. m. Got to bed in the cabin at 12. Spread bed roll on 
two reindeer skins which, with fire in the stove, keep me fairly warm. 
Rain in night and several earth tremors — common in these parts; 
feel several light ones every night and a stronger one occasionally 
even in daytime (a big " fault " in the Alaskan range and a prox- 
imity to the Aleutian volcanic zone). 

Awake before 8, but as it still rains nothing can be done, while 
my man within a few feet of me still snores; stay in blanket till 9. 
Modest breakfast at 10 a. m. 

10.00 a. m. A little house cleaning — watch kitten clean windows 
of the many flies, which it eats; and then my man, a Swede by birth, 
sailor, self-taught painter (of ships and sea scenes), and musician 
(accordion), goes to bail out the boat. Still full of bites that itch 
and need a lot of Aseptinol, which in turn makes underwear look 
dreadful. And no liath possible. 



hkdliOka] WKITEE-S TRIP OX YUKON 67 

Last night met some of the local Eskimo, full bloods, mostly from 
the Kuskokwim River. Stronfr, kinder than the Yukon Indians. 
But they differ but little in some cases from the latter. They are 
medium brown in color, hair exactly like the Indian, beard also — 
only the rather flat (not prominent) mid parts of the face, with 
rather long and narrow (upper two-thirds) nose, and the cheek 
bones protruding more or less forward, with face long (often), due 
to the vertical development of the jaws, helps to distinguish them as 
Eskimo. There is no clear line of demarcation between the Indian 
farther up the river and the Eskimo down here, yet in some here 
the Eskimo type is unmistakable. They have more epicanthus, 
flatter, longer, and stronger (more massive) face, stronger frame, 
rather submcdium length of legs, and less Brachycef)halic (or more 
oblong) head, but not the characteristic, narrow and high, keel- 
shaped dome that one is used to associate with the Eskimo. 

1 p. m. A little lunch — just a cup of coffee and a few crackers. 
Photograph two natives. 

1.30 p. m. Start toward Russian Mission. Trader carries sugar 
in bags and tea for camps. 

Near 2. Stop at an Eskimo camp, see sick baby, photograiDh a 
few individuals. Get an ax for a pocketbook — old man happy as a 
child at the exchange. Made another one happy this morning in 
payment for information with one of my steamer caps. (PI. 4. a.) 

Pass along the still continuing bulging hills on the right. They 
are forested over lower joarts, barren, though mostly greenish, above. 
As usual flats on left, devoid of man. Occasionally a fish camp on 
right, or a small village, somewhat different, though in essentials 
like the Indian (more gregariousness noticeable — up river mostly 
individual or at most two or three families) . Every favorable higher 
flat or low saddle among the hills on the right and facing the river 
(or a slough) is utilized by tlie natives, but such places are scarce. 

The ax obtained looks as if it had been broken after found, to make 
of it a single-edge tool. Tumbled out of a bank. Old Eskimo knew 
not who made it. Found some miles below Paimute by the old man. 
Others found, but lost. Ivory arrow and spear points also known 
to natives, but no one now has any. 

A mountain ahead of us. Sky clouded mostly, high diffuse vapors 
and low, heavy but separated cumuli in the east; one would expect 
soon a heavy rain. Visibility exceptionally good, horizons far 
away, uncommonly clear. Mountains sharply outlined against the 
sky. 

About 12 miles below Paimute, on left, some higher banks (old silts 
and dunes). The ax from the old man had been found here. Stop. 
Find pottery 12 feet, charcoal 15 feet from surface, Also polished 



68 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann, k 

and worked stones. But most of bank has already been cut off and 
what remains shows no signs of man on the top. (PI. 4, h.) 

Cross river obliquely to right bank, just beyond last (" 12-mile '') 
hill. Find at once numerous evidences of stone work along the stony 
beach. In an hour have a fair collection, mainly rejects, but interest- 
ing. On top of bank find several mounds and ridges, doubtless dunes, 
though the one farthest up the river looks very much like a large 
oval man-made mound. Parts of two much-weathered skulls and 
one bone lay on the top of this. No definite marks of graves except- 
ing perhaps in one instance. A sign of old clearing farther down, 
but no "barabras." A spot well worthy of exploration. It was, I 
learned a little later from Nick Williams, a native who used to act 
as a pilot on the river, the old mountain village or " Ingrega-miut," 
and the site is 12 miles downstream from Paimute. (PI. 4, c.) 

Beyond are flats and cut banks, both sides, but with hills (old 
water front) behind on the right and mountains in front. River 
here very wide. 

Many of the worked stones, and occasionally, according to native 
information, skulls and bones, are washed out from the banks and 
deposited (rolling, etc.) lower on the beach in something like strata, 
and in that way evidence is being perverted. Some day a new bank 
or even a dune may be formed over these secondary deposits and a 
great source of possible future error be completed. 

All the natives along the river (to here) like to bury on the lower 
slopes of near-by hills. 

To bed on floor of kitchen tent at the fine, clean little place of 
Tucker's, at 10.30. At 1.30 the 20 dogs start a fine, sustained, unison 
howl song, and I seem to hear an approaching boat. As the Gov- 
ernor of Alaska is ex23ected, slip on shoes and necktie, brush hair, 
and run out. There is a little boat at the little " dock " (the only 
one seen so far on the Yukon). Tucker and his son are already 
there, and I soon hear that the governor is on the boat, which is 
that of Mr. Townsend, of the Fish Commission. In a few minutes 
we meet, both in shirt sleeves. And I learn the Matanfrnka, the 
boat that was to take me from the Russian Mission to St. Michael, 
has broken down and is not coming. In her place, but no telling 
as to time, will be sent the AgTies, a smaller and slower boat, on 
which three people have already this season been " gassed " (over- 
come by the exhaust gases), one of them jumping into the river. 
She has accommodation for four persons at most, and that of the 
most primitive, they say. The governor fortunately gives me some 
hope that I may be picked up and taken down by the same boat which 
is taking him to Holy Cross. He also tells me of a skull for me at 
one of the sto^jping places, Old Hamilton. A frank, good, strong 
man. 



HRDllfKA] 



WEITEE''S TRIP ON YUKON 69 



Boat leaves in a few minutes. Back to bed, but now almost full 
daylight — also cold, and so no more than a doze until 6.15, at whicli 
time the boy comes to the kitchen where I was kindly accommodated 
to start fire and breakfast. So up with a drowsy head. At 7 break- 
fast — coffee, oatmeal, flapjacks, and good company. Everything 
about this place is neat, fresh, pleasing — the best individual place 
on the river. Cloudy, blustery, cool; can not start, so go 11/2 miles 
down to Dogfish village, or I-ka-thloy-gia-miut — probably the same 
as Zagoskin's I-ka-lig-vig-miut. Only three or four families there 
now; nearly all the inhabitants died of influenza in 1900. But 
already before reaching the village, in examining the stones along 
the beach. I find some chipped ones, and they represent the same 
industry evidently as those at the two sites yesterday. Later find 
numerous chipped scrapers, pointed hammers, crude cutters and 
chisels, and a few axes. Make quite a collection, including a few 
objects found in possession of natives. 

This is a good site, above high water. Must be old. Pottery also 
encountered occasionally by present occupants, but not one bead ; 
little if any river cutting here for a long jjeriod. Worth exploration. 
Photograph another Indianlike Eskimo. Want to buy an old dish 
from an Eskimo, border inlaid with six white stones, shaped like an 
oblong lozenge with rounded corners, but he wants $20. Lunch all 
together, some Eskimo included, at Tucker's, and then as the wind 
moderates and the sun comes out, start for the Russian Mission. 
Mostly still clouds and cool, with some rain in the mountains to 
the right. 

Finds and inquiries made at Dogfish village make it positive that 
the stone culture there is Eskimo, i. e., of the Eskimo of this region 
who are probably not a little mixed with Indians. Their head is 
but moderately oblong, not keel shaped. The majority, however, 
have Eskimo features. 

But the cupid-bow (double-grooved) axes are not known to have 
been made by these people, and when used after being found or 
brought down ft-om farther up the river they apparently were 
broken. One such example was seen already at Ruby — another one 
at Anvik — secured ; and one found yesterday at Mountain village. 
The axes here are most often oblong, quadrilateral, without gi-oove, 
or approaching the single-grooved axes of the Indians in the States. 

July 6. Proceed down the river toward Russian Mission, examin- 
ing the banks as closely as possible. Toward evening stop at 
" Gurtler's," a short distance above the mission. 

Mr. Gurtler is a German by birth ; his wife is half Indian, of Rub}'. 
She, as well as her 14-year-old daughter, are neat, apt. and very in- 
dustrious, quiet and nice mannered. With an Eskimo woman, she 



70 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ANN. 4« 

cleans and cuts up — a whole art of its own — on the average over 200 
ffood-sized salmon a day. Clean place, very good smoking house — 
much superior to those up the river, except Tucker's. 

Sleep in a clean bed of theirs; would much prefer my own and 
the hard floor, but fear to offend. 

RussiAx Mission 

Pack my stones and bones collected between here and Holy Cross, 
and after lunch go to Russian Mission. Meet Mr. Cris Betsch. the 
trader, and find him both friendly and anxious to help. Teacher 
and her mother invite me to supper. Before that Mr. Betsch calls in 
a number of the older men, and we have a talk about ancient things, 
but they know nothing worth while beyond a few score of years at 
most ; they give me, however, some data and names of old villages. 

A few years ago some human bones and skulls were dug up here 
and reburied. Eskimo readily agree to help us find them and to let 
me take them. Moreover, they are quite eager to dig up an old medi- 
cine man sujiposed to be buried under a good-sized (for this country) 
blue spruce. They get shovels, soon find some of the old bones and a 
damaged skull, and later on, with the help of information given by 
an elderly woman, uncover also a female skull. Uncover further 
the end of two birch-bark-covered coffins, from Russian time, and 
would readily dig them out did I not restrain them; as also with 
the medicine man. We shall probably get some such specimens from 
this locality later, so there is no need of disturbing the burials. 

Mrs. Barrick, the teacher, gives us a " civilized '' supiDer, at which I 
am introduced for the fir.st time to a great and fine Yukon specialty, 
namely, smoked raw strij^s of king salmon, and find them excellent. 
Then a good talk with all, after which pack specimens — still some- 
what damp, but it would be difficult to wait — deliver to the post, and 
am sent to niy place around the hill at a little past 10 p. m. with an 
invitation by Mr. Betsch to go to-morrow to* " the slough of the 32 
kashims (council or communal house)," about 10 miles down the 
river. But I have already been promised by Gurtler to take me 
down to this place, and so I can not accept. Just now I need sleep. 

July 7. After breakfast examine banks and beach along Gurtler's 
place and find two stone implements, two pieces of decorated pot- 
tery, and a bone of some animal. Wash, dry, and pack, then a cup 
of coffee — the Gurtler's have a habit of drinking a second cup at 
about 10 a. m. each day — and then, after some of the seemingly 
inevitable trouble with motor, start down the river. It rained yes- 
terday; the clouds show low pressure; it is not warm and the water 
is somewhat rough. 



HRDi.irKA] WKITER'S TRIP ox YUKOlSr 71 

Stop a bit at the mission to give Mrs. Barrick a fish and get a bag 
or two from Mr. Betsch. and then proceed. From the river the 
Eussian Mission settlement is seen to be very favorably situated at 
the foot of the southern slope of a big hill. But the recency of the 
iiat below and in front of the church and schoolhouse is clearly 
seen again. The site about where the church and school are may — 
in fact must, it is so favored — be a very old one, and doubtless a 
thorough excavation of the sloj^e from the back of the houses 
upward would be both easy and very instructive. The place should 
by all means receive attention. 

Reach and examine the " 32 kashim slough," a beautiful side chan- 
nel about T miles long; reach about V/o miles from its entrance. 
examine banks and pass through jungle, find tracks of foxes and of 
a bear, also see one big beautiful red fox trotting ahead of us on the 
other beach — but not a trace of man. Examine also the " mounds " 
on Grand Island, but find them to be only dunes. 

Lunch on the beach; remarkably few mosquitoes and no gnats; 
smoked raw salmon strips again, and coffee; and at 5 leave for home, 
it being impossible so late to go down to the end of the channel. 

On return all going nicely until 5. Then, in a slough 3i/o miles 
from the Russian Mission, after an examination of another likely site, 
breakdown of the motor. Do everything possible to make it go until 
about 8, but in vain. Then I take the crazy little rowboat that luck- 
ily we took with us, bail out the water with our shovel, and row to 
the mission for help. Get there about 9, send back a launch with some 
natives, have a little supper with the teacher, and row home around 
the hill, reaching Gurtler's near 11. In a few minutes the launch 
is towed in and all is well once more. Mr. Betsch got for us two 
good native '' kantags " or wooden dishes. Also we fix to go down to 
the " 32 kashims " to-morrow once more with Mr. Betsch and the 
teacher. 

July 8. Up a littl§ after 6 ; breakfast ; and then comes in a native 
from the mission with two letters and information that the Agnes, 
the little mail-carrier boat, has arrived during the night and is wait- 
ing for me to take me to Marshall and to Old Hamilton, whence 
another boat will take me in a day or two to St. Michael. So get 
ready in a minute, put my baggage on a native's boat, pay my bill, 
leave another lot of good friends, and row to the mission. There is 
the little dinghy Agnes with its "accommodation" for three passengers 
already two-thirds filled up, and towing two big logs as a freight. 
Put my things partly in a "bunk," partly on the roof, give good-byes 
to Betsch and the teacher, help to push off the boat which is stuck in 
the mud, and we are off for another Yukon chapter. 



72 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [bth. ann. 46 

We pass by the lower end of the "32 kashim " sloun;h — no sign of 
any site — all I'ecently made flats. If there is anything left of the old 
sites it must be at the foot of the hills, or has been covered with silt. 
The site is so favorable that in all probability there was once there 
a good-sized settlement, but due to river action and the jungle it 
could not be located. Mr. Betsch visited the place that day, and again 
with some old natives on another occasion, without being more 
fortunate. 

Cloudy, slightly drizzly day, no trace of sun, mists over the tops of 
the hills. Could not stand it in the boat, so sitting on my box on 
the roof of the boat, wrapjDed, due to the cold, in a blanket. 

A little below the " 32 kashim " slough a small stream enters from 
inland — a place to be examined ; but this boat can not stop for such 
8 purpose. 

A half mile or so farther down a few graves and crosses, with 
remnants of a native habitation. 

Over 3 miles down, just beyond first bluff, fine site, with low hills 
stretching far beyond it — now but a few empty, half-ruined native 
houses. Should be explored. 

South of second rocky bluff a live camp, and farther down an- 
other. 

The left side of the river is still all flats as far as one can see, 
but about 17 miles below Russian Mission human bones came out of 
a bank there (on a slough). 

Marshall 

At 3 p. m. reach Marshall, a little cheerful-looking mining town, 
high on a bank. See the place, identify the skeleton from the above- 
mentioned bank as that of a missing white man, see telegraph oper- 
ator, i^ostmaster, teacher, commissioner. Sun comes out, is warm. 
Almost no mosquitoes here and no gnats. Hills above and beyond 
town belong alreadj' to the coast range and are barren of trees, even 
largely bare of shrubs and bushes. Leave 4.30. 

Soon after Marshall — after passing by an Eskimo village (white 
man's style of buildings) — leave the hills and enter flats on both 
sides. This is the beginning of the delta region. River like glass, 
and it is warm in the sun but very perceptibly cooler when sun is 
hidden. 

The boat has only three bunks, and there are five of us with the two 
pilots. But on the last trip up, there were, fortunately only for 
about eight hours, seven, incltuling two women and a child, and that 
without any privacy or conveniences whatsoever. It is almost crim- 
inal, and they chai-ge a very steep fare. However, for me it will 
soon be over — only about 36 hours. Still it is hard to believe this 



bedliCka] WEITER'S trip ON YTJKOST 73 

is yet in the United States ami presumably under some sort of 
supervision. 

Which brings me to a realization that the first half of my jour- 
ney — the preliminary survey of the Yukon — is slowly closing; a 
little, and it will be the sea and other conditions, which also brings 
the realization that I have seen much but learned not greatly. What 
should be done would be to own a suitable fast boat ; to locate on each 
of the more important old sites a partj' for careful, prolonged exca- 
vation ; and to try to locate, in the rear of or on the liigher places on 
the present river flats, more ancient sites than are known to date. 
Tliese steps, together with the enlisting of the interest in these mat- 
ters of every jDrospector, miner, and trader, would before many years 
lead to much substantial knowledge. 

Friday, July 9. Must keep up these notes, for they alone keep me 
posted on the day and date ; even then I am not always sure. There 
are no Sundays in nature. 

Slejjt in my bag on the roof of the Agnes. Her namesake must 
have been one of these goodly but insufficient and but indifferently 
clean native women, plodding, doing not a little work, but wanting 
in many a thing. It was cold and dreary, but I found an additional 
blanket, and so, with mosquito netting about my head — one or two 
got in anyway — would have slept quite well had it not been for a 
dog. At about 1 a. m. we stopped in front of a little place caUed 
also ■' Mountain Village." And almost at once we began to hear a 
most piteous and insistent wail of a dog who either had colic or thirst 
or hunger, and he kept it ujd with but little stops for what seemed 
like two hours, making my sleep, at least, impossible. 

Saturday, July 9. Morning. Cold, cloudy, rough — head almost 
beginning to feel uncomfortable, the boat is tossing so much. A 
teacher comes aboard with an inflamed hand which I fix; a few 
questions, the mail bag, and we are off again. Enter a slough where 
it is less rough and warmer. Later the sun will probably come out 
again. This evening we sliall be at Old Hamilton and then a new 
anxiety — how to get to St. Michael. 

Just had a little walk over the roof — my roof, for the other two 
passengers prefer to sleep in the gassy, dingy room below, though how 
they can stand it is beyond my medical ken. It is four short steps 
long, or five half steps in an oblique direction. 

Every object in distance ai^pears magnified all along the river for 
many days now. An old snag will look like a boat or a man, hills 
look higher, a boat looks much more pretentious than she proves to 
be on meeting. 

Firs and spruce have now completely disappeared, also forests of 
birch, etc., are reduced to brush both on flats and lower parts of hills. 

. 88253°— 30 6 



74 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [BTH. ANN. 46 

Very large portion of the hills in distance just greenish with grass 
and lichens, not even a brush. 

9.45 a. m. Meet the Mataiiushm bound upward. Looked from dis- 
tance like an ocean steamer; from near, just a lumbering, moderate- 
sized river boat with a barge in front. But a whole lot better than 
ours. 

The scenery has become monotonous. The gray river, although 
only one of the '' mouths," is broad, and the country is all low. 
Nothing but bushy or grassy cut banks on the right, and mud flats, 
" smoking ■' under the wind, to low banks on left. It is a little 
warmer and the warm sun shows itself occasionally, but I still need 
the wrapping of a double blanket. The wind luckily is with us and 
the waves not too bad. 

Noon. Passing " Fish village " ; a few huts and tents. 

No " camps " here outside the few villages ; just an endless dreary 
waste and water. 

New Hamilton — a few native huts only now — no whites. 

Keach Old Hamilton — about a dozen houses with a warehouse, 
a store of the Northern Commercial Co., and a nice looking but now 
unoccupied school. 

Here the governor told me there was somewhere a skull waiting 
for me, and the storekeeper would tell me of it. But when we arrive 
there are only two or three natives to meet us. The storekeeper, 
who is also postmaster, is said to be sick in bed. He is supposed to 
have an ulcer or some other bad thing of the stomach. So we go to 
his house and find him in bed, with a lot of medicine bottles on a table 
next to him. Is alone ; no wife. Shows no enthusiasm in seeing me, 
though heard of my coming. Reads letters — no attention to me. 
Gets up — I ask him about his illness — answers like a man carrying a 
chip on his shoulder. Goes to store to attend to mail, and barely 
asks me to follow. I wait in store ; he finishes mail and goes out — ■ 
orders the Eskimo present out gruffly, and to me says, " You may 
stay in the store; I'll be back." But I wait and wait, and finally 
decide the man for some reason is unwilling to help me. Asked him 
before he went out about the Matanuska, but he told nie she might 
not be back from Holy Cross in a month, trying doubtless to dis- 
courage me to stay. On going toward the Agnes I find him sitting 
on a log and talking to a couple of men from a tugboat that has 
arrived — just talk, no business, judging from their laughing. So I 
go on the boat, write a few words to Mr. Townsend of the Bureau of 
Fisheries, who makes this place his headquarters, and with some 
feeling hand this to the man, telling him at the same time that 
plainly he does not wish to assist me in any way. This, of course, 
rouses him; he gets red and says a few lame words, ending with, 
" Do you think I would touch any of them dam things or that 



HKDLIlKA] 



WRITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 75 



I would let any of my men (natives) touch them? Not on your 
life !" So I leave Old Hamilton, for he is the only white man there 
now. But the place had other distinctions. Until recently, I am 
told, they have had a teacher, a young girl, who in her zeal had the 
natives collect all the burial boxes with their contents and had them 
all thrown into the river. Xot long after she accomplished that she 
left. The storekeeper told me that " If I want them so bad I could 
pick them up (skulls and bones) along the river where the water 
washed them out after the teacher threw them in." Luckily there 
were not many " Old Hamiltons." 

We met here a boat from St. Michael with Mr. Frank P. Williams, 
the well-known postmaster and trader of St. Michael, who comes 
for the two men. my fellow passengers. We get acquainted and, to 
escape the gases of the Agnes, I go with them. The boat is heavier 
and free from fumes, though without acconmiodation. At about 7 
p. m. we arrive at Kotlik, at the mouth of the river — an abandoned 
wireless station, a store, and four tents of natives. But the old 
wireless building, now the storekeeper's house, is the dwelling place 
of a clean white man, Mr. Backlund, who is now "outside," but 
with whom Mr. Williams is in some partnership; so we occupy the 
building. Outside the wind has risen to half a gale and there are 
squalls of rain and drizzle. The Agnes has to " tie to," as she would 
be swamped in the open. My boxes and bedding, which were on the 
roof of the Agnes, are soaked, though the contents will be dry. So 
both boats are fastened to a little "dock," and we soon have fire in 
the stove, supper, and then — it is 11 p. m. — a bed, not overclean, 
somewhat smelly, but a bed and free from mosquitoes, rain, wind, 
and cold. 

July 10. Up at 6.30. Outside a storm and rain — just like one of 
the three-day northeasters with us, and cool. Both boats were to 
leave, but are unable to do so. I find that Mr. Williams's tug will 
come back here and go to St. Michael on the 13th, so arrange with 
Mr. Williams to take me and leave the Agnes for good. This partly 
because I learn of two graveyards near, one li/2) the other 4^4 
miles distant. 

After lunch, rain for a while ceasing, I set out for the nearer 
burial place. This is already a tundra country — treeless and bush- 
less flats overgrown with a thick coat of moss, into which feet bury 
themselves as in a cushion, and dotted with innumerable swampy 
depressions with high swamp grass. Walking over all this is very 
difficult — lucky I have rubl)er boots. Even so, it is no easy matter, 
except where a little native trail is encountered. 

The graveyard, belonging to the now abandoned little village above 
Kotlik, consists of only about half a dozen adult graves. These 
consist of boxes of heavv lumber laid on a base raised above the 



76 ANTHKOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [bth. ANN. 46 

ground level, and covered with other heavy boards. Some of the 
burials are quite recent. Open three older ones. In two the re- 
mains are too fresh yet, but from one secure a good female skeleton, 
which I pack in a practically new heavy pail, thrown out probably 
on the occasion of the last funeral. Then back, farther out, to avoid 
notice, through swamps and over moss, and with a recurring wind- 
ilriven drizzle against which my umbrella is but a weak protection. 

Reach home quite wet and a bit tired. Have to undress and, 
wrapped in a blanket, dry my clothes and underwear about the 
stove. 

Nothing further this day and evening — just wind and heavy low 
clouds and rain. 

July 11. Up at 4.40. Weather has moderated. The Affiles left 
at 4 and Mr. Williams's boat, due to^ favorable tide, must soon go 
also. Breakfast, and all leave me before 6. 

Yesterday we brought up my needs — i. e., collection of skeletal 
material — to the few natives here, explaining to them everything, 
and they do not object in the least. One of them, in fact, is to take 
me to-day to the more distant cemetery in a rowboat and help me 
in my work. 

My man, after being sent for, comes at a little after 7. He is a 
good-looking and well-behaving Eskimo of about 35. He brings a 
good-sized tin rowboat — a whaling or navy boat probably; but "he 
leaks a whole lot." The oarlocks are not fastened to the boat, the 
plate of one is loose, and the oars are crudely homemade of drift- 
wood and pieces of lumber fastened on with nails; in one the shaft 
is crooked, while the other is much heavier. But we start, with the 
sky still leaden and gray but no wind and calm water. I row 
and he paddles; then he rows and I paddle. We carry but the 
camera, a little lunch, a heavier coat each, and a box and two bags 
for the specimens. We pass a number of broods of little ducks, the 
mother prancing before us until the young are in safety, and there 
are several species of new kinds (to me) of water birds, some of 
which fly right above us, examining us. In the distance we see a 
big abandoned dredge, then a few empty log houses and " barabras " 
on the bank of a stream and the edge of the tundra. This is Pas- 
tolik, our destination. There is no one anj'where near, an ideal con- 
dition for work, if work there'll be. And tliere will be — for almost 
inmiediately upon landing I see, beginning at a few rods distance 
on the tundra, a series (about 50) of old graves, in all grades of 
mossiness and preservation. A few are, we later find, quite late, but 
the majority are old — 60 years and over according to information 
given by the natives of Kotlik. They do not, except perhaps the 
few late ones, seem to belong to anyone still living. Yet " Pash- 



URDii. KA] WRITER'S TRIP OX YUKON 77 

tolik," as they wrote it then, used to be a phice of some importance 
in the Russian times, and even later. 

We settle in an empty native house, and I start investigation. 
The older graves are found widely spread in several clusters, but a 
few are isolated at a distance. 

The graves are all aboveground and resemble in substance those 
along the lower Yukon (Bonasila and downward). They consist 
of a base of small logs or splits; a rude box about 3 feet long by 
about 2 feet wide, of heavy, unpainted, unnailed, split boards; four 
posts near the four corners ; a cover, unjoined, of two to three heavy 
split boards; two crosspieces over this, at head and base, perforated 
and sliding over the uj^right posts, and a few half splits (smaller 
drift logs split in two) laid over the top of the crosspieces. 

On the first cover lies as a rule a stone — generally a piece of a 
slab or a good-sized pebble — unworked, though now and then show- 
ing some trace of use. The pebble is generally broken. 

When the grave is opened there is usually over the body, as a 
canopy on a light frame, a large (probably caribou) skin — rarely 
birch bark. Neither covers or envelops the body but simply forms 
a covering over it, with some space between it and the body. The 
body lies flexed, on left or (rarely) right side, with the head toward 
(or near) the east (same as at Bonasila). It is often covered with 
or enveloped in a native matting. There are but few traces of 
clothing on women; none on men. And very seldom is there any- 
thing else in the coffin. 

Some ^f the oldest graves were found tumbled down and could 
not be examined. The moss and roots envelop the bones, and it is a 
tough job to get them out ; also they eat the bones and destroy them. 
Even in the older boxes, however, the downward part of the skele- 
ton — generally the left — is, due to moisture, usually in much worse 
state of preservation than the upper. 

Childi-en have been buried in large native wooden dishes and 
these were in some cases placed on the tojs of adult graves, but more 
generally about these, or even apart. 

Many household articles, from matches and pails to dishes, alarm 
clocks, lamps, etc., are placed upon the ground near the more recent 
dead. Excavation would probably recover here many older objects, 
though wood decays. 

The wind has died down and the flat is as full of mosquitoes as a 
Jersey salt meadow, and there is an occasional gnat. They bite, and, 
having been almost free of the pest at Kotlik, I failed to take my 
"juice" along, so just have to do the best possible. The gnats enter 
even the eyes, however. 



78 ANTHBOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [BTH. ANN. 46 

Woi-kas never before. Decide to utilize the rare opportunity to 
the limit, and to take the whole skeletons, not merely the skulls, leav- 
ing only the few fresher ones and those that are badly damaged. A 
great Sunday; burial after burial: opening the wooden grave — 
taking out and marking on the spot bone after bone — fighting mos- 
quitoes all the while — and packing temporarily in any convenient 
receptacle. Fortunately there are quite a few boxes and pails and 
oil cans on the spot, left by the dredge people and the few natives 
who evidently sometimes come to the place. At about 2 eat lunch — 
coffee (the Eskimo put what was for three cups into about two 
quarts of water, so there is but a suggestion of coffee), raw smoked 
fish for me and eggs with bacon (left over from breakfast) for my 
companion, and on again until about 5 p. m. or a little later. Last 
two or three hours, however, work with some difficulty. A gnat bit 
me in an eyelid, or got into my eye, and that has now swollen so 
that I can hardly see with it. My Eskimo, however, is about all I 
could wish. He just looks at me working in a matter-of-fact way, 
and carries the filled boxes, or looks around for something I could 
take with me, and even helps on a few occasions with the bones, find- 
ing evidently the whole proceeding quite right and natural. Brings 
me, among other things, an old copper teakettle, but to his wonder I 
do not want it and leave it. I find a fine large walrus-ivory doll 
and a handsome decorated "kantag" (wooden bowl), besides smaller 
objects, and also a large piece of a poor quality clay pot (no pottery 
now), with a fragment of a decorated border as on the lower Yukon. 

Pack up, we load on the boat — lucky now she is so spacit)us — get 
into the shallow river — the tide has run out — push the boat out and 
start for home. 

Thus far we had but slight drizzles. But the clouds now grow 
heavier, and as we have much farther to row than this morning, 
due to the low water, we are caught by showers. The last mile or so 
we have to hurry, see a big rain approaching. My man pushes her 
with a pole while I row all I can, with both hands, with the heavy 
oar. Of course the whole population of Kotlik has to see our arrival. 
And more, too, for in our absence a schooner came in with wood and 
a number of the natives. They talk, but no one is either angry or 
excited. We two carry the boxes, pails, etc. — grass covered — into the 
house; how lucky I am now alone. Inside I remove the wet grass 
from them — the bones, too, are somewhat wet — then pay my Eskimo 
$5, which again is taken as a matter-of-fact thing, without thanks, 
but he well deserved the amount, even if I rowed a full half. 

It is 9 p. m. My man comes again, we have a modest supper, he 
some left-over meat and I again the smoked fish, which I feel is 
strengthening me as well as agreeing with my stomach, and then to 



bedliCka] WKITEE'S TRIP ON YUKON 79 

rest, quite earned to-daj^ Seldom have done as much in a day. 
Thirty-three graves collected, with over twenty nearly complete skele- 
tons, and all restored so that I had to take considerable care not to go 
again into some already emptied. But this place should be dug 
over. The tundra in a few years swallows up everything on the 
surface. It literally buries or assimilates bones' and all other objects, 
the moss and other vegetation with probably blown dust covermg 
them very effectively. Finding anything below the surface and that 
even a foot or more, as was actually experienced, means something 
quite different under these conditions than it might elsewhere. 

Monday, July 12. Slept fairly well and feel refreshed, but the 
eye still badly swollen. The Eskimo believe, I think, I got it from 
the bones. Yet they are quite sensible — a marked mental difference 
between them and the Yukon Indians. 

Breakfast before 7 — cereal, raw smoked fish, and coffee. Then 
pack. At the store buy empty gasoline boxes, but no nails to be had, 
and no packing. Lunch at 1 — macaroni, raw smoked fish, sauer- 
kraut, coffee; then pack again, fix boxes, break old ones to get nails, 
even pull a few unnecessary ones from the boards of the house, go 
see my man's wife, a hopeless consumptive, and at 6 through with all 
except cleaning. Another fair work-day, 12 tightly packed boxes. 
Then clean up, burn rubbish, and ready for departure early to- 
morrow. 

Supper — macaroni, raw smoked fissh, greengage plums, a little 
sauerkraut, and coffee. Then a little walk outside, watch Eskimo 
women and children jump the rope (hilariously, but awkwardly), 
and go in to catch up with my notes. Nobody scowls at me, so that 
although thej^ probably fear me as a " medicine man " they are not 
at all resentful for what I did yesterday. They are grown-up chil- 
dren, nmch more tractable than the ludians. But otherwise they 
show so much in common with the Indian that the moi-e one sees of 
them the more he grows drawn to the belief of the original (and that 
not so far distant) identity of their parentage. It seems the Es- 
kimo and the Indian are after all no more than two diverging fingers 
of one and the same hand; or they were so a bit farther back. 
Mental differences thei'e are, yet these are no more than may be found 
in different tribes of the Indians or difi'ei-ent groups of other races. 

Tuesday, July 13. Rise a little after G. Eye still sore after 
Simday's gnat and sweat and dirt; must use boric acid frequently. 
An Eskimo actually said yesterday it was a sickness from touching 
the bones. A little breakfast — have no more salmon strips, so just 
cereal, canned plums, and coffee. And then with the help of two 
young Eskimo carry my spoils and baggage on to the tug, which has 
come for me. By about 7 start. Good-by Kotlik, what little there 
is of it. 



80 ANTHEOPOLOGIC-U. SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth.ann.4G 

At 9 arrive at Mr. Williams's reindeer camp farther up the coast. 
There are five tents and two small log houses of natives — the herders 
with their families, dogs, and fish racks; and three whites, Mr. 
Williams, owner of the boat and of most of the herd of about 
8,000 animals; Mr. Palmer, of the United States Biological Survey; 
and a Dane, Mr. Posielt, here for the Biological Survey of Canada. 
All are already at the corral some distance over the hill, branding, 
counting, etc., the great reindeer herd, which belong to several 
owners. 

A short walk along the shore brings me in sight of the herd. 
The animals can be heard grunting a good distance off. The herd 
is so large and so compact that it looks like a forest of horns. The 
animals keep on moving in streams, but remain in the herd. They 
go to the shore to drink some of the salty water, instead of salt. 
All is of interest, even though the branding, the cutting off of big 
slices from the ears, and castration, is rather cruel. 

At lunch, for the first time, reindeer meat, a select steak. It is 
tender and decidedly good. Has no special flavor and is poor in 
fat, but tender and good. 

Afternoon, once more to tlie corral, and then various things, 
including a photograph of a little impromptu native group. 

Supper once more on reindeer meat. This time prepared as a 
sort of a stew with onions — again very good. But we were to leave 
after supper for St. Michael and I see no intention to that effect. 
Instead they all go once more to the corral to continue the work 
until about 11 p. m. So I have to settle for the night, with some 
hope that we may leave in the morning. We sleep four side by 
.'ide in a tent 10 feet wide. Luckily they had a spare clean blanket 
or two, and but one of the three snores, and he like a lady; also 
the weather has cleared and is warmer, so the night is fairly good. 

Wednesdaj% July 14. Morning bright, calm. Breakfast, and all 
hurry off to corral without even any explanation- — just a few casual 
words, from which I understand that we shall not go. So I write 
whole forenoon, though feeling none too good about the delay. 
Had I my own boat, as one should have in this country, all would be 
different. As it is I am utterly helpless. At lunch speak to Mr. 
Williams; and though not much willing, he half promises that we 
may go to St. Michael tonight. 

Afternoon. Walk 8 miles along the beach, to a cape and back, 
looking in vain for traces of human habitation and collecting along 
the beach what this offers, which outside of some odd, flat, polished 
stones is but little. Come back near 6 — soon after supper — and hear 
with much satisfaction that, after all, we will go to-night to St. 
Michael. 



hbdliCka] WEITEB'S trip ON YUKOIT 81 

RESUME 

So ends the Yukon and its immediate vicinity. What has been 
learned ? 

1. The great and easily navigable river, extending for many hun- 
dreds of miles from west to east, could not but have played a ma- 
terial part in the peopling of Alaska, and quite probably in that 
of the continent, and all human movements along it must have left 
some material remains. It seems, therefore, a justified inference that 
the valley of the Yukon harbors human remains of much scientific 
value. 

2. Such remains, judging from the present conditions, were left 
exclusively along the banks of the river, on the flood-safe elevated 
platforms of the banks, and especially about the mouths of the 
tributaries of the Yukon of those times. 

3. But the banks and mouths of the past are seldom, if ever, those 
of to-day. The river, with its currents, storms, and ice pack every 
spring, is changing from year to year. It is ever cutting and eroding 
in places, and building bars and islands or covering with flood silts 
in others. In many stretches no one can be sure where the banks 
were 500 or 1,000 years ago, not to speak of earlier periods. 

4. The banks and islands of to-day, therefore, are for the most 
part recent formations, in which it would be useless to expect any- 
thing very ancient. And there is nothing like the successive ocean 
beaches at Nome and elsewhere, which would guide exploration. 

5. The right hilly side of the river alone seems to offer some hope 
of locating some more ancient sites and remains; yet it is quite 
certain that the river ran once far to the left, for all the vast flats 
on that side are of its consti'uction ; so that the more ancient re- 
mains of man may lie in that direction. But there everj'thing is, 
from the point of view of archeology, a practically unexplorable 
jungle and wilderness, and there is no one there who might make 
accidental discoveries. 

6. It would seem that the best hope for the archeologist along the 
Yukon, so far as the more ancient remains are concerned, lies along 
the tributaries of the stream, and that particularly at the old limits 
of the more recently made lands. 

7. Nevertheless the banks of the Yukon as they are now are not 
wholl}' barren. Up from Tanana, at the Old Station, probably about 
Ruby and Nulato, about Kaltag and the Greyling River, at Bona- 
.sila. Holy Ci-oss and Ghost Creek, and at the Mountain village. Dog 
village, Russian Mission, and doubtless a number of other sites, they 
contain both cultural and skeletal remains that, if recovered, will be 
invaluable to the anthropological history of these regions. 



82 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

8. The line of demarcation between tlie Indians of the Yukon and 
the Eskimo, outside of language, is indefinite. Traces of old Eskimo 
admixture are perceptible among the Indians far up the river, and 
the cultures of the two peoples in many respect* merge into each 
other; while among the Eskimo of the lower river and farther on 
there are physiognomies that it would be hard to separate from the 
Indian. Whether all this means simply extensive past mixture, or 
whether, as would seem, the Alaska Indians as a whole are nearer 
physically to the Eskimo than are the tribes in the States, remains 
to be determined. Among the Athapascan Mescalero Apache, who 
have reached as far south as New Mexico, a somewhat Eskimoid 
tinge to the face, especially in young women, was by no means very 
unusual 25 years ago when I studied this tribe. This problem will 
be touched upon again in this volume. 

9. All along the Yukon, from near Tanana (Old Station) to the 
mouth of the river, in the Indian and in the Eskimo region, there pre- 
vailed the same type of winter house, namely, a largely subterranean 
room with a subterranean timnel or corridor entrance; and also a 
similar type of summer dwelling, formerly a skin, now a canvas, tent. 
The winter dwellings were built within of stout posts and covered 
with birch bark and sod, looking from outside much like the present- 
day Navaho hogan; while the pits left by them remind one of the 
southwestern " pit dwellings," the kashims of the Pueblo kivas. As 
a hogan, so these largely subterranean dwellings along the Yukon 
had a smoke-air-and-light hole in the center of the top, a fireplace 
in the middle of the floor, and benches (of heavy hewn planks in the 
north) along the sides. Each village, furthermore, had at least one 
larger structure of similar nature, the " kashim," or communal house. 
All this may still be traced more or less plainly on the dead sites 
along the Yukon, and houses as well as a kashim of this type were 
seen at Kotlik and Pastolik, at the mouth of the river. 

10. The native industry of the river presents also much similarity, 
though there are differences. 

Pottery, of much the same type and decoration, was made at 
least as far as the lower middle Yukon. 

Stone implements were made and used all along the river, and 
were much alike. But the double-grooved, cupid-bow ax of the 
Yukon Indian, hafted in the center and used for chipping rather 
than cutting, is lower down replaced by the same ax, in which one 
end has been broken off (or has not been finished), and which is 
hafted as an adze ; or by oblong quadrilateral flat axes which have 
not been found up the river. 

The peculiar and apparently very primitive stone industry of 
Bonasila is, it seems, just a development of local conditions — nature 



HRDLR'KA] WRITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 83 

of most available stone, and essentially hunting habit of the people 
that resulted in many skins which called for numerous scrapers. 
Nevertheless the site deserves a thorough further exploration. 

There was apparently not much basketry along the river, the place 
of the baskets being taken by the birch-bark dishes of the Indian and 
the kantag or ingeniously made wooden dish of the Eskimo part of 
the river. 

Canoes among the Yukon Indians were mainly of birch bark, 
while the Eskimo had mainly skin canoes. 

11. Neither the Indians nor the Eskimo of the Yukon practiced 
deformation of the head or of any other part of the body, or dental 
mutilation. The Indians as well as the Eskimo occasionally pierced 
the septum of the nose, for nose pieces, while the Eskimo cut on 
each side a slit in the lower lip for the introduction of labrets. The 
Eskimo cut their hair short in a characteristic way, reminding 
strongly of cei'tain monks; the Indians left their hair long. But 
at Anvik the Indians both cut their hair and wore labrets. They 
also used the wooden dish. 

12. From all the preceding it appears that there must have been 
long and intensive contacts between the Yukon Eskimo and Indians; 
that, through war or in peace, they became mutually admixed; and 
that there were mutual cultural transmissions. 

13. No further light for the present could be gained on the origin, 
antiquity, or early migrations of the Yukon Indian. It was deter- 
mined, however, that he represents but one main physical type, and 
that this type is the same as that of the Indians of the Tanana and 
most other Alaskan Indians of the present time. 

14. Exceptional skeletal remains were washed out from the banlc 
at Bonasila. They are of Indians (?), but appear to be not those 
of the Yukon Indian of to-day. They present a problem which is 
to be solved by further exploration of the site. 

15. The Eskimo of the lower parts of the river are in general 
better preserved and more coherent than the Indians. They are 
more tractable people and are taking more readily to woi-k and 
civilization. 

16. These Eskimo show, in the majority of cases, fairly typical 
Eskimo physiognomies. But their heads are not as those of the 
northern and eastern members of the race. The head is less narrow, 
less high, and has but now and then a suggestion of the scaphoid 
form that is so characteristic of the Greenland, Labrador, or north- 
ern Eskimo cranium; also, the angles of the jaws are less bulging 
and the lower jaws themselves do not appear so heavy. 

17. The Yukon Eskimo burials are in all essentials much like 
those of the Indians up the river. Here again a cultural connection 



84 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

is very evident, in this case there having in all probability been an 
adaptation of methods by the Eskimo from the Indians. 

18. Archeological prospects along the delta flats occupied by the 
Eskimo appear very limited. 

St. Michael 

Thursday, July 15. In the morning, after a good trip, reach St. 
Michael — quite a town from a distance, with many boats on the 
shore in front of it; but soon find that it is largely a dead city and 
ships' graveyard, not harbor. With the gold rush over, and the Gov- 
ernment railroad from Seward to the Xanana, men and business 
have departed. Before the smnmer is over most of the large build- 
ings and the fine large boats are to be demolished, and there will 
be left but a lonely village. 

Unload my collections on the old dock. The postman kindly comes 
down from his place, which, with Mr. Williams's store, is far up on 
the hill above the harbor, the boxes are weighed and stamped for 
the parcel post, and relieved of them I go to the hotel and spend the 
day in visiting the teacher, the marshal, Mr. Williams's store, where 
I see a whole lot of recent Eskimo ceremonial masks decorated with 
colors and feathers, and the wireless station to send a message to the 
Institution. All native (Eskimo) character is almost gone from the 
place, what remains being mainly civilized mix bloods; and also 
little, if anj'thing, remains to be collected, particularly now when all 
vacant land is thickly overgrown with grass and weeds. An occa- 
sional skull appears, one having been seen recently on the beach and 
one on Whale Island, but there is little besides, though things could 
be found doubtless by excavation. 

Items of interest in Mr. Williams's store, and also in that of the 
N. C. Co., are various articles cut handsomely by the Eskimo 
from walrus ivory, both fresh and " fossil " (old and nicely dis- 
colored). There are beads, napkin rings, hairpins, cigar and ciga- 
rette holders, and other objects, generally exceedingly well made and 
decorated. It is, of course, well known that the Eskimo are very apt 
in this work; it is not, however, so well known that every island 
or village has certain specialties and types of decoration. This is 
so true that an observer before long can tell in many instances just 
where a given article has been made. 

The fossil ivory industry is, it was soon learned, becoming a 
serious detriment to archeological work in these regions; of which, 
however, more later. 

During the day I find that a small boat, the Silver Wave, belong- 
ing to Lomen Bros., will leave St. Michael for Nome that same eve- 
ning. As this suits me very well I engage a berth on the boat, help 



hbdliCka] WKITER'S TRIP ON YL'KOX 85 

to get my baggage ,on deck over a broken landing place, and get 
ready to depart. 

At 6 leave St. Michael. The Silver Wave is a tub — ^too short — am 
told if it were of proper length they would have to have more help. 
Result — very unsteady. Fortunately the weather is fair, and the 
captain gives me a berth in his cabin. I had originally a stateroom, 
right in the back, with three bunks or beds, so small that one could 
barely get into the beds ; but there came two mix-breed women with 
a girl and so they turned me out and put me in the " hole " — seven 
bunks in an ill-ventilated cabin under the deck in the stern of the 
ship. She is only about GO feet long by about 15 broad. As it is I 
have a bunk in what would have been a well-ventilated little cabin, 
had it not been for rough weather which came on later in the night 
and which necessitated the closing of the window. 

Friday, July 16. The rougher weather came and the boat began 
to pitch and roll. Luckily I slept for the most part. At about 6.30 
the captain called me to breakfast with him. I got up rather groggy 
from the sea, but managed to wash my face and get to the little 
messroom, where the cook stai'ted to bring eggs, bacon, coffee, etc. — 
and then I had enough and had all I could do to reach my bunk 
again without getting seasick. I was kept on the verge of it until 
after 10, when we arrived off Nome. 

This, however, meant no relief. There was no bay, no dock, no 
shelter for even such a small boat, and so we anchored a few hundred 
yards off the shore along which stretch the long line of unpainted 
(mostly), weather-beaten frame dwellings of this northern capital. 

By this time I barely keep my feet, but they lowered a heavy row- 
boat, and several of us — there were four other men passengers — are 
helped to tumble in. I get back, and to steady myself catch hold 
of the borders of the boat, only for this the next moment to be 
dashed against the larger boat with my hand between. It was almost 
too much, the seasickness and added to it the very painful hurt. 
Fortunately the fingers were not crushed, just bruised badly — they 
might easily have been mashed to a pulp. 

They row us in and we tumble out on the sand, and there is no one 
to receive anybody or take any notice. However, after a while there 
comes accidentally an old two-seated Ford. Three of us crowd in, 
leave the few bulkier things we brought along on the beach un- 
guarded, and are driven to the other end of the town, to the Golden 
Gate Hotel. 

This is a big old frame building, out of plumb in several directions. 
There is no one in the spacious lobby. However, after a time some 
one, not looking much like a proprietor — more like a groom at work — 
comes out from somewhere and without much ado shows us each to a 
room. Mine smells nuisty, old sweat and blankets and mould, and 



86 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

looks out on a dilapidated tin roof — must ask for another. Finally 
get one " front " for $3 — the other was only $2.50. Musty too, but 
fairly large, and with a double bed with, at last again, clean covers. 

Unshaven — in the khaki worse for rain and work — with fingers 
so sore they can not bear a touch, feverish, and head still dizzy — I go 
to lunch. On my way stop at Coast Guard building — no one there ; 
at the Roads Commission — office empty; at the Customs — not a soul. 
But at the courthouse they tell me where Judge Lomen sometimes 
lunches, and so I go there. It is near by — nothing hei'e is far dis- 
tant — and so I soon sit at Mrs. Niebeling's, a justly famed Nome's 
"for everybody," at a clean table and to a big civilized dinner. 
Order reindeer roast — find it this time, in my condition, not much to 
boast of — one could hardly tell it from similarly done beef — and 
begin on the coffee when in comes a young man, asks me if I am the 
doctor, and introduces himself as Mr. Alfred Lomen, the judge's 
son; and in a minute or two in comes the judge himself, a kindly 
man of something over 70. It all makes me feel a lot better, though 
still weak. Have rest of lunch together and talk, but do not get 
very far in anything that interests me; but the judge takes me to 
the Catholic Fathers here, who have an orphanage somewhere near 
where I want next to go, and leaves me with Father Post. The 
father is kindly, but himself does not know much, and so makes 
arrangements for me to meet next day Father Lafortune, who works 
among the E.skimo. 

Then I go once more to the Coast Guard building and meet Cap- 
tain Eoss, in charge. The Bear, I learn, has just arrived here, and 
is soon going north. She is my godsend, evidently. So Captain 
Ross sends me over to see Captain Cochran. The meeting is good, 
and I have a promise to be taken to t^e cape and some other stations. 
But the Bear goes first to coal at St. Michael, and then will make 
a visit to St. Lawrence Island. So I propose to go to Teller first, 
see what I can of the Chukchee-Eskimo " battle field " near there, 
and be taken from there by the Bear. The priests give me some 
hope for getting there over an inland route, but later on tell me one 
of the boats of the orphanage which is located in that region is away 
and the other has broken down, so that there will be no possibility 
of making the trip through the Salt Lake and to Teller. But the 
Victoria (the Seattle boat to come to-night) will go to Teller. Un- 
fortunately, if weather is rough or there are no passengers she will 
not stop at Nome, so all is again uncertain. The Silver Wa.ve goes 
northward next Monday, but I have a dread of her. All of which 
is put down merely to show slightly what an explorer without a 
boat of his own may expect in these regions. 

Nome, Saturday, July 17. Poor night again — it surely seems to 
be the fashion in Alaska. The Victoria came at night (or what 



HRDLR-KA] WEITEE"S TRIP ox YUKON^ 87 

should be night). The ramshackle big frame hotel, with partitions 
so thin that they transmit every sound, got about 40 guests, and next 
room to mine came to be occupied by two women who had visitors, 
female and male, were taken out for a ride after 12 and returned 
about 2 a. m. One of them, or their visitor, had a perpetual vocal 
gush, the others chimed in now and then, and a strong male voice 
added the bass from time to time, with old Fords noisily coming 
and going outside, and people going up and down the stairs. So 
sleep for some hours was out of the question. And there was nothing 
to do about it. 

After breakfast went to meet Father Lafortune, a Catholic mis- 
sionary priest to the Eskimo, who speaks their language well and 
who promised to accompany me to their habitations; and together 
we spent the forenoon on one side of the town, among the natives 
of the Diomedes, and most of the afternoon on the other end among 
the people from King Island. It was a good experience, resulting 
in seeing a good many of the Eskimo and getting some information, 
a few photographs, and quite a few old specimens. Then we went to 
the parsonage, where I got a few good photos from Father Lafor- 
tune's collection. He is a matter-of-fact, always ready to help, 
natural he-man, rather than a priest and teacher, and a great prac- 
tical helper to the natives, who all are his friends. 

Also saw Judge Lomen, arranged for lecture to-morrow, saw 
Captain Ross about the Bear, and various other people; but there 
is not much to be obtained here about old sites and specimens. Tele- 
graphed Institution, and also to the Russian consul at Montreal for 
permission to visit the Great Diomede Island. Evening packing. 
Natives bring walrus ivory, some excellent pieces. Weather whole 
day cloudy, threatening, occasional showers, cool but not cold. 

Sunday, July 18. Heavy sleep 10 p. m. to 7 a. m., regardless of 
a typewriter going in the next room and the women (now quieter, 
however) on the other side. 

Forenoon spent in talking with people and attending a little 
service, for the natives mainly, at the Catholic Church of Fathers 
Post and Lafortune. Poor, simple, but sincere and interesting. 

After lunch more consultations, then a visit to bank where they 
smelt gold dust (even to-day), and then a lecture on '* The Peopling 
of America," at the courthouse. Well attended, and many came to 
shake hands after. Then a dinner, with examination of a number 
of interesting and valuable specimens, at Judge Lomen's. Among 
other objects there is a duplicate, in ivory, of the l)roken double ax 
from the Yukon, the two grooves and even the break being well 
represented. Evening — examination of specimens at Reverend Bald- 
win's. Cloudy, cool, threatening, but stormy weather abating. 



88 ANTHROPOLOGICAL StTEVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ANN. 4(5 

About Nome 

Due to the delay with the Bear, the next few days until July 23 
were spent at and about Nome. They proved more profitable than 
was expected. Numbers of interesting specimens were found in the 
possession of some of the dealers, and more of those of scientific 
value were secured either through gift or by purchase for the 
National Museum. These collections consisted of objects of stone — 
i. e., spear points, knives, axes, etc. — but above all of utensils, 
spear points, effigies, etc., some of them of remarkable arti.stry and 
decoration, were made of walrus ivory that through age has turned 
" fossil." 

Among the stone objects were several axes made of the greenish, 
hard nephrite which came from the " Jade Mountain " on the Kobuk 
River. The objects from fossil ivory came principally from the St. 
Lawrence Island, the Diomede Islands, Cape Wales, unknown parts 
of the nearer Asiatic coast, and here and there from the Seward 
Peninsula. 

A large majority of these objects are now collected by the natives 
themselves, who assiduously excavate the old sites, and are sold at 
so much per pound as " fossil ivory " to crews of visiting boats or to 
merchants at Nome and elsewhere, to be worked up into beads, 
pendants, and other objects of semijewelry that find ready sale 
among the whites. 

In addition a certain part of these objects is reserved by the 
natives, esiDecially those of the Diomede Islands, and worked up by 
themselves. The more striking the coloration of the ivory, the more 
desirable it is for the beads, etc., and the less chance of the object, 
regardless of its archeological or artistic value, to be preserved. 
The most artistic pieces, nevertheless, are usually disposed of sepa- 
rately, bringing higher prices than could be obtained for beads. 

In this way hundreds of pounds collectively of ancient imple- 
ments, statuettes, etc., are recovei-ed each year from the old sites on 
both the Asiatic and the American side of the Bering Sea, and are 
cut up, their scientific value being lost. Most of the fossil ivory, 
fortunately, consists of objects which, though showing man's work- 
manship, are of relatively little scientific value; nevertheless it was 
seen repeatedly that specimens of real archeological value and artistic 
interest would be destroyed if their color and texture made them suit- 
able for some of the higher-priced jewelry. 

The Eskimo, as rejieatedly found later, have not the slightest hesi- 
tation about excavating the old sites, and whatever they can not 
use, which as a rule includes animal and human bones, and in fact 
everything else except stone tools and ivory, is left in the excavated 
soil and lost. The amount of destruction thus accomplished by the 



hrdliCka] WEITER'S TRIP ON YUKOjST 89 

women, children, and even men each year is large and promises to 
grow from year to year as long as the supply lasts. This means that 
unless scientific exploration of these old sites is hastened there will 
be little left before long to study. 

The fossil ivory trade lias become such that many of the officers 
and the crews even of the visiting vessels, including the revenue cut- 
ters, engage in buying the ivory from the natives and cutting it up in 
their spare time into beads and other ornaments. A captain of a well- 
known boat who with his crew visited in the summer of 1926 a small 
island on which there is an extensive frozen refuse heap containing 
many bones and tools of the natives who once occupied the place, 
exclaimed, " Gad, there's $50,000 of ivory in sight." 

The boat crew t«ok away about " 2 bushels " of it, or all that could 
be removed from the extensive frozen pile. I saw some of this ivory 
later, all cut up, but with a number of the pieces still showing old 
hiunan handiwork, and some beads made of other parts of the lot 
were brought later to my office in Washington. 

If American archeology and ethnologj' are to learn what they need 
in these regions it is absolutely essential that they take early steps 
for a proper exploration of the old sites, besides which every effort 
should be made by the intelligent traders, missionaries, teachers, and 
officials to save the more artistic and characteristic pieces of human 
workmanship in the old ivory, and bring them with such data as 
may be available to the attention of scientific men or institutions. 
It would in fact be of much value, and the writer has suggested 
this to the Governor of Alaska, to establish a local museum at Nome, 
where such objects could be gathered and saved to science. 

ABORIGINAL REMAINS 

The coast of which Nome is now the human center, up to Cape 
Wales, together with the nearer islands, was occupied by the Maigle- 
miut (Zagoskin), or Mahlemut (Dall et al.) subdivision of the 
Eskimo. They were a strong group, and great traders. During 
the Russian times the Aziags, from what is now the Sledge Island, 
with probably others from the coast, visited yearly foi' trading pur- 
poses as far as St. Michael and the Yukon, while the Wales people 
were known to trade up to fairly recently as fai- as Kotzebue, both 
at the same time having trading connections with Asia. 

Of these natives, with the exception of those at Wales, there 
remains but little. On Sledge Island there are only two dead vil- 
lages, and on the coast from Port Clarence to far east of Nome there 
is not a single existing native settlement. A few remnants of the 
people live in Nome, but they have lost all individuality. 

88253"— 30 7 



90 ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA [bth. ann. 46 

Dead sites are known to exist from west to east, at Cape Wooley ; 
at the mouth of the Sonora or Quartz Creek; at the mouth of the 
Penny River — some natives are said to still go to fish there in sum- 
mer; at the mouth of a small river 3 miles east of Nome; both west 
(a larger village) and east (a small site) of Cape Nome; and 18 
miles east of Nome (the " Nook " village). 

Most of these sites have been peopled within the memory of the 
oldest inhabitants. 

Thanks to the kind aid of the Reverend Doctor Baldwin, I was 
able to visit several of the sites east of Nome, more particularlj' the 
Nook village, and it was still possible to find two skeletons and a 
skull on these sites. 

The Nook site must have been one of considerable importance. 
It was an especially large village, or rather two near-by villages, in 
one of which I counted upward of 30 depressions, remnants of the 
semisubterranean houses with vestibules, such as are elsewhere de- 
scribed from the Yukon. 

Here a clear illustration was had of what changes on sites of this 
nature may be wrought in a short time by the elements. 

Fifteen years ago, I was assured, there were still many burials 
and skeletal remains scattered along the coast near the Nook village. 
Then in 1913 came a great southwestern storm, which at Nome 
ripped up the cemetery and carried away some coffins with bodies, 
scattering them over the plains in the vicinity. Since that storm 
not a vestige remains of any of the burials or bones near the large 
Nook village. On prolonged examination I found nothing but sands 
overgrown with the usual coast vegetation. Everything had been 
carried away or buried and the pits of the houses were evidently 
themselves largely filled in. 

The burials on this coast west of Golovnin Bay were evidently all 
of a simpler nature than those on Norton Sound and the Yukon. 
There is plenty of driftwood, but for some reason this was not hewn 
into boards with which to make burial boxes. The dead were merely 
laid upon and covered with the driftwood, though this was done, 
as later seen on Golovnin Bay, rather ingeniously. One of the two 
skeletons found near Cape Nome, an adult male, lay simply among 
the rocks on the lower part of the slope of the hill. 

Old sites, though often small, may be confidently looked for along 
all these coasts in the shelter of every promontory, at the mouth of 
each stream, and on the spits which separate the ocean from inland 
lagoons (as in the case of the Nook village). 

Nome— Bering Strait — Barrow 

Friday, July 23. Received word to be on the Bear, which ar- 
rived yesterday, before 10 o'clock this morning. Due to the shallow- 



HRDLICKA] WRITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 91 

ness of the water the boat, though drawing only 18 feet, stands 
far out from the shore and makes a pretty sight, looks also quite 
large in these waters where there is nothing above a few hundred 
tons. 

Am soon at home. The captain's cabin, with thi-ee beds, is nicely 
furnished, but has the disadvantage of being situated at the very 
rear of the vessel, above and beyond the sei'ew. There is another 
passenger, a teacher-nurse for Barrow. I take the isolated bunk on 
the right, and this becomes my corner for the next six weeks. 
Toward 11 a. m. the wind begins to freshen, soon after which we 
leave for St. Lawrence Island. After midday the wind increases 
considerably, waves rise, and the Bear begins to plunge. Before 
the afternoon is over the wind blows a half gale and we are being- 
tossed about a gi-eat deal. Have to take to bed. The boat is being 
tossed up and down and in all directions. Resist in vain, then at 
last become ill, and this passes into a long spell of about the worst 
seasickness I have ever endured. There were a good many sick on 
the Bear that evening and night. 

Saturdaj^, July 2-1. AVind and water slowly quieting down, and 
the boat is approaching Cape Chibukak off St. Lawrence Island, 
where is located the main of the two villages of the island, known 
as Gambell. The Bear gradually approaches to within about a 
half mile of the shore, where we anchor. The water here is quieter, 
and before long a large baidar (native skin boat) is shoved off from 
the land and approaches our boat. This is the usual procedure 
when the sea permits. There are no docks, and closer in there is 
danger from rocks and shallows. There are a number of natives 
in the boat, together with the local teacher, and each one, including 
the teacher, carries a smaller or larger bag of fossil ivory, various 
articles made of fresh ivory, and some other objects, for sale to 
the officers and crew of the boat. They climb on our deck, where 
(hey evidently feel quite at home, and in a few minutes carry on 
a busy trade and barter with everyone. I succeed in getting a 
fine fossil ivory pick; but the main supply had evidently been pre- 
empted and I only see it later in the possession of the officers, who 
kindly let me have what is of less value to them and more to 
science. 

Some of the Eskimo bring, in addition to the ivory, other articles 
for sale — fish, birds, and the meat of the reindeer, which are for the 
ship's messes and constitute very welcome additions to the diet. 
Besides all this the natives also frequently bring skins of foxes and 
even bear, which also find buyei-s. In return the boats carry off the 
mail and such supplies as they have obtained by barter or purchase. 
These visits are mutually enjoyable as well as profitable occasions. 



92 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

and afford one the opportiinitj^ of seeing many of the natives, even 
if prevented, as in tliis case, from visiting their village. 

The Eskimo impress one here as in every further locality as a 
lively, cheerful, and intelligent lot, good traders, and advancing 
in many ways in civilization. The latter is perhaps especially true 
of the St. Lawrence Eskimo, who from what was seen now and 
later must have had especially good missionaries and teachers as 
well as a considerable freedom from bad influences from the outside. 

Savonga 

About 40 miles east-southeast of Gambell is the second and smaller 
village of the St. Lawrence Island, known as Savonga, which was 
the object of our next visit. It was here that we were to buy two 
or three reindeer carcasses, the animals being killed and dressed for 
us by the natives in an astonishingly short time. The little village 
is prettily situated on the green flat of the elevated beach. It con- 
sists of less than a dozen modern small frame dwellings. One of 
these, that of the headman, Sapilla (who regrettably died during the 
following winter), is of two stories — a unique feature for an Eskimo 
dwelling in these waters. Here we were visited by three boats and 
the previous scenes were repeated, only, due to the proximity of 
a rich old site, there were more objects of old ivory. 

The captain made me acquainted with Sapilla. whom I found 
remarkably white-man-like in behavior. Then the shijj doctor, not 
feeling very well after yesterday's storm, filled my pockets with 
tooth forceps and I was taken to the shore, to see the women and 
children who would not venture out and to attend to any tooth ex- 
traction that might be needed. 

We were considerably farther from the shore than even at Gam- 
bell, but I was sent on one of our motor boats and so it did not take 
long to land. Upon landing we came to bright and clean and 
smiling little groups of women and children, full of color in their 
cotton dresses, and I was soon in one of their houses. All these 
dwellings were built by the Eskimo themselves, and it was a most 
gratifying surprise to find them as clean and wholesome as any 
similar dwelling of whites could be. Moreover, these houses were 
furnished with stoves, chairs, tables, crockery and other utensils 
exactly as if they were those of a good class of whites, with the smell 
oif the seal, which as a rule is so clinging to and characteristic of 
the Eskimo house, barely perceptible. 

It was a busy and interesting hour that I spent at Savonga. I 
saw probably all the inhabitants that were at home; pulled five 
teeth — the teeth of these quite civilized people are no more as sound 
and solid as were those of their fathers and mothers — and found and 



HRDLicKA] WRITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 93 

purchased cheaply many smaller objects of fossil ivory, which they 
excavate from a near-by old site. 

These objects are obtained from an old village located on the coast 
about 4 miles farther east, on or near the North Cape, visible from 
our boat. The natives excavate in this site as far as it thaws every 
summer, and find many objects. They, moreover, make an occa- 
sional trip to the two little rocky Punuk islands located about 12 
miles south of the East Cape of the St. Lawrence, which, though 
accurately charted by the Russians as early as 1849, yet until the 
summer of 1926 remained practically unknown. On one of these 
islands there is now known to exist an extensive frozen refuse heap, 
containing large quantities of old ivory implements as well as other 
objects of scientific interest. 

The land visit was a great tonic after the wild and mean preced- 
ing night, and I did not relish at all the Bear's whistle calling us 
away. What a great thing it would be if a revenue cutter could for 
just one season be given to science ! 

Sunday, July 25. Left St. Lawrence 9.30 last night, sea quieting. 
We are now passing, on our right. King Island, isolated roclcy mass. 
Day fair, cool, water getting smooth. 

About 50 miles north one can now see plainly Cape Prince of 
AVales (pi. 5, a), and to the left, hazy, the two Diomedes. We are 
now 95 miles from St. Lawrence. On really clear days one could see 
from here even the Asiatic heights. Therefore, from the latter on a 
clear day one sees the Diomedes, the Cape, the highlands beyond, 
and King Island, while a little farther south there is on such a day 
a good view from Asia of the St. Lawrence Island. All this was in 
good weather easily reached from Asia and must have been utilized 
from the earliest time in passing onward from one continent to 
the other. 

We can now see also much of the coast in the direction of Teller 
and the York Mountains behind. 

From hour to hour there is growing on one a profound apprecia- 
tion that the Bering Sea was a most favorable amphitheater of 
migration, particularly from the less hospitable Asia eastward into 
America. And practically the whole trend of native movements to 
this day is from Asia towai'd America. 

Later in the day, now a fine, bright summer day, arrive off Wales. 
Here again anchor far out. Last year the Bear grounded here and 
our captain is apprehensive. Wales is a straggly village — or two 
villages — located on a large, flat sandy spit, dotted with water pools, 
and projecting fi-om the Seward Peninsula toward Asia. Near by 
are old sites, probably of much archeological value, and in these 
for some weeks now excavations have been carried on by Dr. D. 



94 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [bth.ann.4G 

Jenness, of the Victoria Memoiial Museum of Ottawa. Here also 
is located an exceptionally educated and observant teacher, Mr. Clark 
M. Garber. 

A big umiak comes to us with many natives bringing the usual 
trade, and on it, much to my pleasure, are both Doctor Jenness and 
Mr. Garber. Doctor Jenness asks to go with us to the Little Diomede 
to do some work there. He has had encouraging experience here, 
finding evidences of occupation dating many centuries back, and 
has collected some valuable specimens, including a few with the 
fine old curved-line decoration. Mr. Garber gives me some valuable 
information about the skeletal remains of this place and engages 
to collect for me, who can not leave the boat, a few boxes of these 
specimens, which promise is fulfilled later. 

The natives are a jolly and sturdy lot, even though they bear, and 
that since their earliest contacts with whites, a rather bad reputa- 
tion. That this is founded in some fact, at least, is told us in the 
annals of the Kussians, and is also shown by the little structure on 
the hillside off which we are anchored. This has a tragic and at the 
same time quaint history. It is the grave of a missionary Doctor 
Thornton, who was killed, we are told, by two local young fellows. 
These were apprehended, sentenced to die, and were to be shot by 
their relatives, which all evidently found quite just. On the ap- 
pointed day they were taken out to the burial ground, helped to 
prepare their burials, one asked yet to be allowed to go to the village 
to get a drink, went and returned, and then both were shot. The 
executioner of the boy who went to get the drink is said to have been 
his uncle. 

The Diomedes 

Late that night we leave slowly for the Diomede Islands, the 
nearer of which is only about 18 miles distant. The two islands 
lie, as is well known, just about in the middle of the Bering Strait. 
One is known as the larger or Russian, the other as the smaller 
or American Diomede. The boundary line between Russia and the 
United States passes between the two. Both islands have been oc- 
cupied since far back by the Eskimo. To-day there is one small 
village on the American and two small settlements on the Russian 
island. 

July 26. Up at 5.40, breakfast 6, and off in one of our staunch 
motor boats, with Jenness, for the Little Diomede. Countless birds 
flying in .streams about the island. 

The island is just a big rock, with barren flat top and steep 
sides, covered where inclination permits with great numbers of larger 
and smaller granite bowlders. There is neither tree nor brush here. 
The village, if it deserves that name, with a school, occupies an 



HEDLiOKAj WEITEE'S TRIP ON YUKON 95 

easier slope, facing the larger island across a strait seemingly about 
a mile broad. There are but a few dwellings, due to local necessities 
and conditions built above ground and outside of stone. One that 
was entered showed a dark foreroom, a storage attic, and a cozy 
somewhat lighted living and sleeping back room, entered through 
a low and narrow entrance. The houses seem to be built on old 
debris of habitations, and there are refuse heaps, one of which was 
eventually worked in by Doctor Jenness, though without much 
profit. 

The bowlder-covered slope above the village was the burial ground 
of the natives. (PI. 5, h.) Unfortunately most of the skeletal re- 
mains have been collected by a former teacher and then left and lost. 
With Doctor Jenness and the present teacher, himself an Eskimo, we 
climb from bowlder to bowlder and collect what remains. The work 
is both risky to the limbs and difficult in other respects. The large 
bowlders are piled up manj- deep; and there being little or no soil, 
there are all sorts of holes and crevices between and underneath the 
stones. Deep in these crevices, completely out of sight or reach, nest 
innumerable birds (the little auk), and their chatter is heard every- 
where. But into these impenetrable crevices also have fallen many 
of the bones and skulls of the bodies that have been " buried " among 
the bowlders, and also doubtless many of the smaller articles laid 
by the bodies. 

The burials here were made in any suitable space among the rocks. 
The body was laid in this space, without any coffin and evidently 
not much clothing. About it and on the rocks above were placed 
various articles. We found clay lamps, remnants of various wooden 
objects, the bone end pieces of lances, and finally one or two pieces 
of driftwood to mark the place. Here the bodies decayed and what 
was left had either tumbled or was washed by rain into the crevices. 
It was suggested, however, that much may have been taken hj dogs 
and foxes. Some of the skulls and here and there one of the larger 
bones remained, to eventually be covered by moss and eroded. With 
the help of Doctor Jenness and the teacher I was able to find five 
male and seven female crania in fair condition, wliich will be of 
much value in the study of this interesting contingent of the Eskimo. 

No evidence in the graveyard among the rocks of any great an- 
tiquity, nothing more than perhaps a few scores of years. But traces 
of older burials would surely be completely lost among the rocks, 
though they may lie in the deep crevices and holes where they can 
not be reached. 

Upon return am treated to a cup of good hot coffee — never can 
get a real hot cup of coffee on the boat — and excellent bread, made 
by the Eskimo wife of the teacher ; and see his family of fine chubby 



96 ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA [bth. ann. 46 

children. Can not help but kiss his girl of about 10 — she is so 
fresh and innocent and pretty. Obtain also from the wife of the 
teacher a good old hafted " jade " ax, though she hesitates much 
to part with it — it used to belong to her grandmother; and from 
the teacher himself a number of interesting articles in old ivory. 
Leave Doctor Jenness. Have learned to like him much, both for 
his careful work and personally, in our short association; and at 11 
a. m. return to the boat. 

Cold, but calm and sunny. Sit on boxes at the very end of the 
good old Bear. See Asia, the two Diomedes, and Seward Peninsula, 
all in easy reach, all like so many features of a big lake. Pass around 
Greater Diomede. 

There never could have been any large settlement on the Diomede 
Islands — they are not fit for it. The Great Diomede has just two 
mediocre sites, which are occupied now each by about half a dozen 
dwellings. A small old settlement, a few stone houses, has also 
once existed. I am told, on the elevated top of the larger island op- 
posite the Little Diomede. On the latter only the one visited — every- 
vrhere else the steep slopes or walls come right down into the water, 
and there is even no landing possible (or only a precarious one at 
best) except where we landed. The old natives of the Little Diomede 
are said to have believed that another village had once existed farther 
out from the present site and that it has become submerged. The 
evidence cited (told by the native teacher) is not conclusive, and 
no indication of such a settlement could be seen from the beach. But 
in front and possibly beneath the native houses, in the old refuse, 
there may be remnants of older dwellings. 

Just passed from Monday to Tuesday, and then back to Monday, 
all in a few hours — the day boundary. We are now just north of the 
Bering Strait and see all beautifully, in moderate bluish haze. 

A grand panorama of utmost anthropological interest. A big lake, 
scene of one of the main migrational episodes of mankind. Sea 
just wrinkling some, day calm, mostly sunny, mildly pleasant, 
with an undertone of cold. 

How trivial feel here the contentions about the possibilities of 
Asiatic migrations into America. There can be no such problem 
with those who have seen what we now are witnessing. Here is a 
great open pond which on such days as this could be traversed by 
anyone having as much as a decent canoe. As a matter of fact it 
has always been and is still thus traversed. (PI. 6, a.) The Chuk- 
chee carried on a large trade with America, so much so that we find 
the Russians complaining of their interfering with their trade. 
(PI. 6, J, c.) The Diomede people stand in connection on one hand 
with the northeastern Asiatics and on the other hand with the whites 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 5 




n, Cape Prince of \\ ulf^ Irum iIil- ^uiuiiea^i. i,A, H . rj 




I, \ lUage ;md (.cmelcTi duliu, LlUk' Diuiiiuili. >A. LI., 1926) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 6 




a, Asiatics departiui: for Siberia from the Little Diomede Island. (Photo by D. Jenness, 1926) 







(), "('hukchis" loading their boat witli goods on Little Diomede Island, before departure for Siberia. 
(Photo by D. Jenness, 1926) 




c, " Chiikchis" loading their boat with goods on Little Diomede Island, before departure for Siberia. 
(Photo by D. Jenness, 1926) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 7 




0, Eskimos from East L'ape arriving at Nome, Alaska 




b, East Cape ol Asia (to tlie southward;. U'hoto by Joe Bernard) 



•< 



§ 



3 
Z 
2 
< 



>■ 

8 



D 
CO 




HRDLiOKAl WRITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 97 

as fai- as Nome, where most of them go every summer to sell their 
ivory and its products and bring back all sorts of provisions. And 
in the same way the King Islanders come every summer to Nome, 
on the east end of which, as the Diomedes on the west, they have 
their summer habitations. (PI. 7, a, h.) Only a year or two ago. 
the natives tell, an Eskimo woman of St. Lawrence Island set out 
alone in a canoe with her child to visit a cousin on the Asiatic coast, 
60 miles distant, and i-eturned safe and sound after the visit was 
over. 

To bed dressed — the captain tells me we shall soon be at Shish- 
maref , on the north shore of the Seward Peninsula, and that he will 
have me called, if I want to visit the village. 

Awake 11.30 p. m. At 11.4.5 word comes that we have arrived and 
a boat is getting ready. On tleck in five minutes. Of course it is 
still light — there is no real night any more in these regions. 

Have a cinnamon roll — the night specialty for the crew on the 
Bear — and a bowl of coffee. The natives, two boats full, already 
coming, and a fine full-blooded lot they show themselves to be. They 
are accompanied hj Mr. Wegner, a big, pleasant young teacher. 

Leave natives trading and set off in ship's boat. The Bear is 
anchored about ly^ miles off. Fortunately fairly quiet or we should 
not be able to go ashore. Teacher and a young English-speaking 
native go with us. We have the launch and the skin whaleboat. 
Anchor first off shallow beach and transfer into the skin boat for 
the landing. 

Tuesday, July 27. It is about 12.30 a. m. Many native women, 
youngsters, and some men gather about us at the school. Talk to 
them — explain what I want, which is mainly skulls and bones — all 
quite agieed. Take two young natives, some bags, and proceed to 
where they lead me. 

Find, about half a mile from the present village, a big and im- 
portant old site, which existed up to the white man's time. But 
dunes on which burials were made and house sites have been largely 
graded by a fox-farm keeper and trader, Mr. Goshaw. He had 
gathered many skulls — shows me a photo of two rows, at least 40 — 
will not tell what he did with them. Says he sent " many things to 
the Smithsonian," but can give no details, " and to the universities," 
but will not mention which. Also "J3uried a lot." Bad business. 

Gathering what is possible from the debris thrown out by the 
Eskimo woi'king for the fox farm, we proceed rapidly from mound 
(dune) to mound. Find burials still on the surface in situ — i. e., 
nearly buried by the rising carj^et of the vegetation — but skulls gone. 
Many of those on remaining heaps imperfect, but at least something 
can be saved. Collect all that is worth collecting. See Mr. Goshaw — 



98 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SUEVEY IN ALASKA [ETH. ann. ie 

get but little out of hira. Donates a few archeological specimens of 
no great value — has no more. 

We hurry on to the other village and burial ground, almost a mile 
west of the present settlement. Find only a small pile of bones, 
with one whole male skeleton of fairly recent date. 

Then back, as fast as possible, the Indians carrying the bags with 
bones, and load on boat. My shoes and feet have long since become 
thoroughly wet, after which Mr. Wegner loaned me wool socks and 
native shoes that protected my feet. But now these must be left 
behind and I have to get into my wet, cold shoes — socks too wet. 
Officers in a hurry to get back. It is now 3.00 a. m. ; the sun rose 
about 1.30. Pay my men, change shoes, photograph women (pi. 8) 
and then men — all pleasant and willing. See a few poor articles of 
archeological nature — not worth getting; and after a hearty hand- 
shake with the teacher we take off through the somewhat rougher 
water to the whaleboat. then on to the motor boat and the ship. Ar- 
rive with six bags of specimens, reaching boat just a little after 4. 
Sleepy captain meets us, but luckily shows no grudge, though this 
stop and his loss of sleep were essentially for me. Tliongh it would 
seem they could have readily waited for our going ashore until morn- 
ing, or have given me a little more time at the Diomedes, which 
would have brought us here later. Am too much awake now and 
worked up to sleep. Lie down a while but fully awake. Total sleep 
last night 21/2 hours. But it was worth it, except for the vandalism. 

Pack — inadequate boxes — until 3.30 p. m. \\Tiole collection made 
last night put in order. But back and knees stiff. Weather two- 
thirds fair (my own estimate), some wind, sea choppy. Lie down but 
can not sleep. 

At 5.30 off Kotzebue. Due to shallowness of water must anchor 
far out of sight. At 6 go to land in ship's larger launch. Waves 
rather bad. much tossing about and spray, have to get behind the 
canvas canopy that is raised over one seat. It is 15 miles from where 
the Bea/' is anchored to the Kotzebue village — over two hours of (at 
times) rather violent to.ssing up and down and side wise. Run for 
a part of the time not far from beach — a number of isolated, orderly 
fish camiD.s — lots of fish drying. Wonder at not getting seasick 
again — it must be the open air or difference of movement. 

Kotzebue village lies around sj point on a not very high, flat bank, 
facing the bay of three rivers (Selavik, Kobuk, Noatak). As we ap- 
proach I count over 50 clean tents of Eskimos, about 15 frame houses 
and stores, and many skin and other boats on beach or in water. 
Many natives hurry to meet us. 

Go ashore. Thomas Berryman, the trader, with the local judge 
and two or three other whites come also to meet us. After getting ac- 



hrdliOka] WEITEB'S TRIP ON YUKON 99 

qiiainted inquire about possibility of exploring the Kobuk and reach- 
ing the Kovukuk and Yukon. But all that I learn is uncertain and 
discouraging. There are but few native villages on the river, all Es- 
kimo; and higher up the water is rapid, necessitating much hauling 
of the boat by the natives, which is costly; upon which follow three 
or four days' portage. The trip would cost much, and no loads 
over 40 pounds to a man could be carried. 

Only a few old sites hereabouts are known by those whom I have 
a chance to ask. Say there is a somewhat important one at Cape 
Krusenstern. Mr. Berryman has from tliere a big stone (slate) 
lance. He also has a huge j^iece of serpentine, over 80 pounds in 
weight, with a moderate depression in top and some cutting (old 
native work), said to have been used as a lamp. Wants to keep this 
and si^earhead, but donates an old rusty tin box full of smaller 
things and promises to obtain skulls for us; and I get a similar 
promise from a man (probably one of Mr. Berr3'man's storekeepers) 
from farther up the counti'y. 

Later meet here Mr. Chance, the school superintendent of these 
parts; a young and not prepossessing man, but one who steadily 
improves on closer acquaintance. Learn from him of a skeleton 
recently dug out from the ground under the schoolhouse. 

See many natives, all Eskimo, good looking, clean, and kind. 
Some mix bloods, but the majority pure. Good to moderate stature, 
well proijortioned though not fat body, medium to somewhat^ lighter 
brown color, physiognomies less typical Eskimo than hitherto and 
often strongly like Indian. Too late and dusky to photograph. 

Go to see the teacher and find that the skeleton he dug out was 
placed by him in an open box, pushed as far as possible under the 
rafters of the floor of the schoolhouse and covered with gravel and 
earth. There are four of us — start hurriedly digging for it, remove 
with shovel, hoe and arms about a ton of the " filling " — and can not 
reach the box. It is 10 p. m., the wind rising, officer comes and 
urges me to get back to the boat. So must leave with promise that 
the box will be gotten out and await me on our return from the 
north. Have by this time decided the best policy will be to go 
with the Bear as far as she may go. Load empty boxes, some pack- 
ing — and one of the young white men who have been digging with 
us runs up from the distant schoolhouse announcing that they 
" struck "' the box. Urge him to run back as fast as he can and get it. 
Luckily the postmaster and a good many others who came to see us 
off delay us; also the transfer of the mail and boxes to the larger 
boat. Finally, after a good many anxious looks, I see at last the 
two young men appear, one with a wheelbarrow on which is the box 
of bones. Bones look not very old, and Eskimoid at first sight, but 



100 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

take box, which contains a good deal of gravel, carry it througli the 
very interested Eskimo to the boat, all get in, hurried good-bys to 
everybody, and we are off. 

A two and a half hours' trip once more, and the last more than 
half of it very rough. Such tossing and dancing and dipping and 
twisting, with the spray, fortunately not cold, shooting high up at 
times, or an angry wave splashing over. But the boat is large and 
strong and so eventually we reach the Beai% which was completely 
out of sight until about an hour after we started, and in a few min- 
utes off we go to the north. A little fruit, bed. and know nothing 
more until near 7 the next morning. It was a long day — over 25 
hours in a stretch without a wink. Yet did not feel bad; the work 
and good nature of people about and those met with, with some 
success, are good tonics. 

Wednesday, July 28. All of us have to consult the calendar to be 
sure of the day and date. 

Sort and wash Berryman's specimens — a nic€ lot of little things, 
mainly of stone, slate, flint, etc. 

Then go after my bones. Find the spray made the earth and 
gravel in the box thoroughly wet, so that it is necessary carefully to 
excavate all the bones. Find a male, rather short-statured, typically 
Eskimo. May have been a burial of the Russian times. Wire for all 
details. Must dry bones. Meanwhile try to catch up with notes. 
Toward evening expect to be in another village. Weather fair. 
Have passed the Arctic Circle during night, but it is not cold nor in 
any way strange here. Sunset coloring lasts long and passes into 
that of sunrise — no real night, no stars; but moon seen late at night 
and far to the south. 

May this weather continue, for in rough weather landing at any of 
these places — ^there are no harbors whatever and always shallows and 
bars and shoals — would be extremely risky or impossible and my 
work, for which I feel ever more eager, would suffer. If only I could 
see all worth seeing, and stay a little longer when I find what I am 
after. 

We reach Kevalina. It is just a schoolhouse and about seven sod 
houses. Only a native school teacher, from whom I do not get much. 

No remains or old site very near, but an old village, with *' good 
many things," exists on the Kevalina River within a few hours' dis- 
tance (by canoe) from Kevalina. 

Natives bring old adzes (mounted- by them, however), and a har- 
poon handle from the old site — bought. 

Spend rest of day in washing, sorting, and packing specimens. 

After supper am invited to the officers' room and given by Lieut. 
M. C. Anderson a fine selection of old ivory harpoon heads and other 



hrdliCka] WEITER^S TEIP ON YTTKON 101 

things. Many of these are from the old site on the St. Lawrence 
Island, and especially from little isles off that island named Punuk. 
All this strengthens the importance of those islands for regular 
exploration. 

Thursdaj', July 29. In anticipation of being called up again dur- 
ing the night, at Point Hope, which is evidently another important 
spot for archeological exploration, for the natives are said to bring 
many old articles for sale each year, I do not undress and go to bed 
eaidier, but have, because of the anticipation, closeness of air, and a 
cat jumjDing on my face just as I am dozing off, a very poor night; 
and no call came after all. In the morning there are cold showers, 
the sky is much clouded, and the wind keeps on blowing from the 
north-northwest, threatening, the officers say, to drive the ice toward 
this shore, which would be bad for us. It is cool and disagreeable. 
We have anchored to the south of the spit on which stands the vil- 
lage and can not unload or get ashore. Nor can the natives come 
here to us. 

The village consists of a schoolhouse, a little mission (Rev. F. W. 
Goodman), an accumulation of houses, semisubterraneans, and tents. 
A few tents are also seen a good distance to the right — a reindeer 
camp. Otherwise there is nothing but the long, low, sandy, and 
grassy spit projecting far out into the ocean. 

Later. The north-northwest still blows, and so the ship has to 
a'nchor to the south of the long. spit on the point of which is the vil- 
lage. Of this but little can be seen, just a few houses, and it seems 
near and insignificant. 

The captain is evidently waiting again for the natives to come out, 
and I am helpless. Finally, however, a boat is made ready and I 
am taken to the shore with the mail. This is piled on the beach, and 
with two officers we start to walk toward the dwellings opposite to 
us, which are the mission. Heavy walking in the loose sand and 
gravel of the steep beach, and as we ascend it is seen the buildings 
which seemed so near to the shore are about a mile or more away. 

A man coming toward us — the missionary, Archdeacon Goodman. 
Tell him my mission ; says ho has some business on the ship, but will 
come, and there will be no trouble in helping me to a " good deal of 
what I want," which sounds fine. 

In the absence of the missionary, go to see the teacher. The school 
is over a mile in the direction toward the point. Find him at home 
and helpful. In 15 minutes, with his aid, engage two native boys, 
give two sacks to each, and send them out over the long flats (old 
beaches) to pick up every skull and jaw they can find. They go 
cheerfully, and we depart shortly after to see Mr. La Voy, a movie- 
picture man, who has been staying here for some time making movie 



102 / NTKROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [bth. ann. 4g 

pictures of the natives, and at the same time collecting all the 
antiquities they could bring him. We go to see his collection, but 
find him not home ; has gone for mail. The rare mail in these regions 
is, of course, the most important of events. So back to the school 
(a good many rods from the sod house part of the native village to 
the left), and then — it is now near noon — to the mission, a good 
mile from the school and more from the village. 

Road staked on one side with whale ribs about 2 rods distance. 
Flats on both sides show many parts of bleached human bones. They 
are a part of the old extensive burial grounds. Unfortunately, about 
two years ago the predecessor of the present missionary had most of 
the skulls and bones collected and put in a hole in the new cemetery, 
now seen in the distance to the right of the mission. This new 
burial place is surrounded by a unique whale-rib fence. Reach mis- 
sion, but no one there. Does not look good. Try one building and 
door after another — no one — learn later that the missionary has no 
family. Twenty minutes to 1. Nothing remains but to go back to 
the school for some lunch. So leave my raincoat, camera, and re- 
maining bags (expecting to do main work on the buried bones) and 
hurry back to the school, which I reach just after 1, and, thanks to 
their late clock, just in time for a modest lunch, but with a real hot 
cup of coffee. Queer that the only genuinely hot cups of coffee I 
got on this journey were furnished by Eskimo — for Mrs. Moyer, the 
wife of the teacher, is an Eskimo. 

Then comes the mail and Mr. La. Voy, and I go to see the latter's 
collection. 

Find a mass of old and modern material, of stone, bone, and 
wood. All the older things are from an old site on the point. It is 
an important and large site, as found later (at least 50 houses), which 
the natives (getting coffee, tea, chewing gimi, chocolate, candy, etc., 
for what they find) are now busy digging over and ruining for 
scientific exploration. Women dig as well as men, confining them- 
selves to from 2 to 3 uppermost feet that have thawed ; but even thus 
finding a lot of specimens. Bones, of course, and other things are 
left and no observation whatever on the site is made. It is a pity. 

Mr. La Vo}^ donates some stone objects, mainly scrapers, and then 
I go with a native he emijloys to the '' diggings." Find much already 
turned over- — one woman actually digging — but very much more still 
remaining. Examine everything — site evidently not ancient but of 
the richest — and then return with the woman to get some of her 
" cullings." 

On the way am called by a man whose sod house (semisubter- 
ranean) we pass. We sit on the top of his house and soon establish 
a regular trading place, with a big flat stone as a counter. One 



HBDLICKA] WRITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 103 

after another the native women and men bring out a few articles, 
good, Ijad, or indifferent, hiy them on the stone, I select what I want, 
lay so much money against the articles, and usually get them. 
Everybody in the best of humor. The natives surely enjoy the 
sport, and so do I. if only I was not hurried. Thus trade for at 
least an hour until my pockets are bulging. Then once more to the 
school and once more to the mission. In the latter get my things, 
as nobody is there yet. Doctor Goodman having doubtless been de- 
layed on the boat. I hear that there are prospects of both him and 
Mr. La Voy going north with us on a little vacation. Send the coat 
with S23are bags to the school by a native I meet, while I go to look 
at the rib cemetery and photograph it. Find the bones have been 
interred in its middle and a low mound raised over them, so there 
is for the moment notliing to do there. Therefore go over the 
plain a little farther, picking up a few odds and ends, a damaged 
skull, and finally, from a fairly recent burial box. a fine skull with 
its lower jaw. Then attempt to pass a pool of water and sink in 
the mud to above my rubber boots, so that the icy water runs in, 
wetting me thoroughly, and gurgling henceforth with every step 
in the shoes. Try to get these off but can not. Tlie feet must be 
congested. So spill out all I can by raising the feet, and then do 
some hard walking which takes away the cold. 

Evening, thougli no dusk approacliing. Sit on gravel to empty 
more water from shoes, but can still hardly get one off. And just as 
I succeed I see. across another long pool, two men, one with a cap of 
an officer of the ship, waving their arms, evidently signifying to 
me that the time is up and I am to return. Call to them to wait. 
Impossible to make them hear me or for me to hear them. All 
here is elusive — enchantedlike — distances, sounds. Finally they 
stop. I catch up with them after passing a broad ditch and learn 
that the ship is about to sail and they are waiting for me. My coat, 
however, and collections are still at tlie school, over a mile away, 
so once more it is necessary to hurry to the school and then back 
to the ship. So things go wlaen promises go wrong and one is 
alone under a constant apprehension. 

The boys collected four bags full. Moreover, they undertook to 
bring them toward the boat, and are bringing the last two just as 
I approacli the beach. There are Eskimos on the beach with dog 
teams and sledges waiting to cart off what was unloaded from the 
ship. Photograph one of the teams and then on into the boat and 
to the Beat' with the four bags, a box full, part of another bag, and 
all pockets full of specimens. Only to learn when we reach the 
boat that both Doctor Goodman and Mr. La Voy are going with 
us and that the former after supper is still to go and get his things 



104 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [bth. ANN. 46 

from the mission. I have no boat to go back with, and so lose 
several hours. 

July 30. Gloomy morning, windy, cool, sea not good. Do not 
feel easy. But need to pack. One of the officers, Boatswain Berg, 
lends me his short sheepskin coat, and I pack up to lunch. The sea 
is getting worse. Have but little lunch and soon after have to take 
to bed or would again be sick. To avoid the pitching of the end 
of the boat where my bed is I go to the dispensary and lie until 6. 
From 6 on the sea moderates somewhat, so that I am able to have a 
little supper. After that go to officers' wardroom, play two games of 
checkers with the doctor, get some more specimens from two of the 
officers, and retire. 

When I boarded the Bear it became plain to me that I must earn 
as much as iDossible the sympathetic understanding of my woi-k by 
both the officers and the crew, and so I gave two talks, one to the 
officers and the other to the men, telling them of our problems in 
Alaska, of the meaning and value of such collections as I was making, 
and of other matters that I felt would be useful on this occasion. As 
a result I had throughout the voyage nothing but the friendliest feel- 
ings of all and their cooperation. Sincere thanks to the officers and 
the crew of the Bear, from the captain downward. 

Saturday, July 31. At 4.30 a. m. suddenly a heavy bump forward, 
followed by several smaller ones. Ship rises and shivers. Have 
struck ice floes. Going very slowly. Further bumps at longer or 
shorter intervals and occasionally the ship stops entirely. Seas 
fortunately much calmer. 

Up at 7. We are in a loose field of ice — aquamarine-blue ice 
covered with hillocks of snow, all shapes and sizes, as after a hard 
winter on the Hudson, only floes mostly larger and especially deeper. 

Soon after breakfast hear walrus and seals had been observed on 
the ice, and shortly before 9 the captain comes down hurriedly to tell 
us they have just spiecl^ — they now ha^-e a man in the crow's nest up 
on the foremast — a white bear. 

Kun up — everybody pleasurably excited — to the front of the ship. 
See a black-looking head of something swimming toward a large ice 
floe about 500 yards in front of us. As we approach the head reaches 
the floe, then a big yellowish paw comes out upon the ice, then the 
shoulders, and finally the whole bear. The officei-s hurry forward, 
each with a gun. Soon men all there. Some one fires. Bear stands 
broadside watching us. The bullet goes way over. Then other 
shots — still missing — water spouting high in many places. Bear 
bewildered, does not know what to do, lopes off a little here and there, 
stops again, looking at us, and now — we are less than 100 yards from 
him it seems — a bullet strikes him above the loin — we can see him jerk 



HRDLiCKA] WRITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 105 

and the red sj^ot following. He runs clumsily, but other shots follow, 
some seemingly taking effect, and then he drops, first on his belly, 
then, twisting, turns over on his back. A few more movements with 
his paws and head, and he lies still, quite dead. Can not but feel 
sorry for the poor bear, who did not know why he was being killed, 
and had no chance. 

A motor boat is lowered and goes to get him. They find on the floe 
the remains of a seal on which he fed. Tie a rope to him, drag him 
into the water, tow him to the Bear, which has stopped and where 
all stand on the bows in expectation and with all sorts of cameras, 
and prepare to hoist the brute aboard. Captain says it is the second 
case of this nature in 20 years. Ropes are fastened about the big 
body, attached to a winch, and the big limp form is hauled up. thougli 
not without some difficult}, due to its size and weight. All stand 
about him, examine, photograph. They will let the natives at Wain- 
wright skin it and give them the flesh. It is a middle-sized, full- 
grown male. It shows only two wounds, the one in the side and one 
where the bullet passed through his mouth, knocking out one of the 
canines. 

Cold — must put on second suit of underwear. Very gloomy, but 
storm abated. No land in sight^ — above Cape Lombard all is flat. 
It rains in that direction. We meander among the floes, now and 
then bumping and shivering. Should a wind come up and blow the 
ice landward we would be in danger of being closed in and stopped 
or delayed. 

Evening. Arrive off Wainwright. Village recent — older site 20 
miles away. People the usual type of Eskimo. Visit the village, but 
soon return. 

After supper the boat stops — fear the ice. Another pa.ssenger is 
added here, Jim Allen, the local trader, with a bagful of white 
fox skins and a bear skin. Conditions becoming a bit crowded. 

Sunday, August 1. No movement to-day. They are apprehensive 
of the ice, and so we stay here, the one place of all where there is 
nothing for me to do. Of course there are the natives, but with the 
constant uncertainty as to when we shall start and a lack of facilities 
I can not do much with them. 

The weather is quiet but still cloudy, though the sun may possibly 
peep out. Ice seen in the offing. Would be more interesting to be 
in it, as yesterday. The bear has been skinned, cut up, and we shall 
try some of its flesh at noon. Rest of day quiet but still mostly 
cloudy, though occasionally a little of pale, lukewarm sun. At 
3.30 give lecture to the officers and fellow passengers on the subject 
of evolution. Seems quite appreciated. Reading, writing, and 
walking the deck fills the time. Ate a little of the bear meat — some- 
88253°— 30 8 



106 ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth.ann.40 

what tough, otherwise not much different from reindeer or even beef. 
If better prepared (especially roasted on coals) would be quite 
palatable. 

Yesterday there were several flurries of snow, none to-day, but air 
cold enough to make a long stay outside disagreeable. 

Toward evening Captain announces that he is going to try to reach 
Barrow, about 80 miles northeastward, and soon after supper we 
start. He also tells me we may be there at or not long after mid- 
night and so to be ready, for the boat will be unable to stop more 
Ihan an hour or two. As the only place where a few skulls and 
bones may be found is about ll^ miles outside of the village and it 
takes a good 30 minutes to make a mile over the tundras, I shall 
have to rush once more. But I am promised a man to help me. 

August 2. With clothes on, and anticipation, slept poorly. Ship 
.stopped about 1 a. m. and I imagined we were off Barrow. But on 
rising find that we have gone on and tlien backward again, encoun- 
tering ever more ice. It is cold and foggy outside, and cloudy and 
gloomy. We now meander among the big floes, now and then bump 
into one until the whole ship heaves and shivers, and occasionally 
the siren, stop for a while to diminish the shock. We are now on 
way back to Wainwright. If we only could go as far back as Point 
Hope, where there is so much of interest. I might have stayed over, 
but would surely have reproached myself for missing the remainder 
of the coast. 

Back off Wainwright, cold, windy, sky gloomy as usual. 

Late in the afternoon go with the trader to land, to visit the site 
of an older village, about a mile down the shore. Walk along the 
beach. Cold wind, raincoat stiffens. Walrus meat and blubber 
chunks (slabs, etc.) along the beach at several places, also a large 
skinned seal. Traces, as one nears the village, of worked stones, but 
all waterworn and no finished objects. At one place in bank, about 
3 feet deep, a layer of clear blue ice about 20 inches thick — .strangely 
pure ice, not frozen earth or even inclusion of any dirt or gravel. 

Village site small, along the edge of the low (about 10 feet) bluff. 
Count remains of eight dwellings. Some animal bones, but nothing 
else on surface or in vicinity. Burial place not seen. Companion 
says there is nothing. 

A simple supper at the trader's, prepared by his Eskimo wife, and 
good company: Doctor Smith, of the Geological Survey, with two of 
his men; Jim Allen, the storekeeper, a big, good-hearted fellow; 
La Voy. the big, active movie man. who knows all the gossip and 
enjoys telling it with embellishment; and two men of the ti'ader. 
Menu : Soup, boiled reindeer meat, underdone biscuits, coffee. 

After supper go to a meeting at the school, where our missionary, 
Doctor Goodman, is to talk to the natives. Large .schoolroom 



hedliOka] WRITER-S TRIP OX YUKOX 107 

crowded. I talk through an interpreter — a serious disadvantage — 
on cleanliness. Fine study for me on the many present, though like 
elsewhere on such occasions they are mainly women and children. 
Good many Indianlike faces, though cheekbones more prominent 
and more flatness between them. But hair, low foreheads, eyes (ex- 
cept in children where they are more superficial, less sunken, and 
with more epicanthus than in Indians), lips, and other character- 
istics the same as in Indians. Some of the faces are strong, many 
among the younger pleasant, some of the young women handsome. 
A moderate number of mix bloods, even among the adults. Color 
of skin in full bloods medium to submedium brown, exactly as in 
full-blood Indians along the Yukon, but cheeks more dusky red. 

The behavior of these peojDle is in all important points radically 
that of the Indian, but they are more approachable and open and 
matter-of-fact people. More easily civilized. Good mechanics. 
Less superstitious, more easily converted to white man's religion. 
And good singers. Their singing at the meeting in the schoolhouse 
would have shamed a good many whites in this respect. 

Except for epidemics, I am told, these natives would more than 
hold their own in numbers. They are fecund, if conditions are 
right. Sterility is rare. They marry fairly young. 

August 3. Still standing, though we had to pull out farther 
south and away from the shore. The water was pretty rough and 
I had to go to bed again, but weather moderated. 

We are in touch with the world through the ship's radio, but get 
more trash — same all through the radio service in Alaska — than 
serious news. Spend time in reading, talking; some play solitaii-e 
games; captain and Allen play cribbage. Deck too small for any 
outside games, even if it were not so cold. 

Ice floes floating about us, now scarce, now thicker; water splashing 
against them and wearing them out into pillared halls, mushrooms, 
and other strange forms. Due to their snow covering, the water 
upon them, so far as it results from melting, is sweet, and in it swim 
many small fishes. It snowed a bit again to-day. 

August 4. No change, except that the sea is somewhat calmer, 
and for a while we have once more seen the sun, but it was hazy 
and just mildly warm, while the same wind, from the sea, even though 
now subdued, has an icy undertone. It snowed a little this morning. 

Thursday, August 5. Sea calm, atmosphere hazy, but the wind 
has turned at last slightly ofl.shore and the sun penetrates thi-ough 
the mists, until it conquers and shines, warm and bright if not 
wholly clear, once more. Ice visible only on the horizon. At 7.15 
we start on another effort to reach Barrow. 

Pass Wainwright, and aU is well until after lunch, when fog 
(though fortunately not thick) develops and the floes increase until 



108 ANTHROPOLOGICALi SUEVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

they are as thick as at the first attempt in this same region. Heavy 
bumps and strains follow one another and the boat must often go 
very slow or even stop altogether. Sometimes the heavy ship just 
staggers from the impact, but the floes are generally broken by the 
shock and swirl away out of our way, or scraping the ship pass 
to the rear. All aboard show new interest and energy. The forced 
stops and inaction were dulling even to the crew. 

File a wireless to be sent from Barrow. It will reach Washington 
to-morrow after we shall have started on the return journey. 

Two dogs on board fight fiercely. An officer, the owner of one, 
trying to separate them is bitten by his own through a finger. 

A marine, in swinging the heavy lead with which they are con- 
stantly sounding the depth, gets the cord caught about his hand 
and suffers a bad sprain witli fracture. 

The captain's little black cat, Peter, helps to entertain us by his 
antics. No wonder sailors in their often monotonous existence like 
all sorts of mascots. 

Friday, August 6. Of course our dates got mixed, and more than 
one has to consult the calendar and count. The Bear had to turn 
back once more last night; ice too heavj'. Anchored, however, not 
far to south. This morning very cloudy, rainy, chilly, but wind 
from near to east, and so from about G a. m. we are once more labori- 
ously on our way. Now and then a bump, heave, stagger, then again 
the screw resumes its cheerful song. We are passing through the 
most dangerous part of all the coast here where many vessels have 
been lost, sometimes whole small fleets of whalers. But very few 
come here now — we have seen but one since leaving Kotzebue. They 
call this stretch " the boat graveyard." 

Saturday, August 7. Stalled, about 30 miles from Barrow. An- 
chored in the protection of a great grounded flat, in a clear pond of 
water, with ice all around it, but especially seaward, where the pack 
seems solid. Some open water reported beyond it. but wind (wild) 
keeps from the wrong quarter and the captain will mal^e no further 
attempt until conditions change. Of course it is cloudy again and 
has rained some during the night and morning, but the temperature 
is somewhat higher, so that one does not need an overcoat and 
gloves, although the officers wear their sheep-lined short coats which 
are nice and warm. 

After noon asked the captain for the skin whaleboat to explore 
the sliore. The latter is nearly a mile distant and shows about 60 
feet high dirt bluffs. Got the boat and went with the boatswain. 
Berg, a young "hand," Weenie, and the movie man, La Voy. 
Rowed with La Voy. Had a wholesome two and a half hours 
exploi'JDg, Found a little stream, with traces of native deer camp 



HKOLicKA] WEITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 109 

(collected two seal skulls) ; a moderate number of flowers and grasses 
(collected some mushrooms) ; some fossil shells from the bluffs; and 
two Eskimo burials. One of these, a woman, nearly all washed away 
and lost; of the other, a man, secured the skull, jaw, one shoulder 
blade and jDart of a diseased femur with corresponding socket 
(mushroom arthritis), also the two humeri. A good specimen. Re- 
turned, rowing again, near 4. All there playing cribbage and 
solitaire. 

Am tempted to walk to Barrow ; but there are some streams in the 
way which it might be impossible to ford. Moreover, no one knows 
the distance. 

Sunday, August 8. Morning finds us once more thwarted, and 
standing at our place of refuge. No change in conditions, but there 
will be a change of moon to-night, so I at least have hopes. In my 
travels I learned too much about the moon not to believe in it. 
Toward evening ice begins to move out. 

Monday. August 9. At 12.30 a. m., unexpectedly, a new start. 
The wind has turned at last (new moon!) to northeast, but is mild. 
Soon in ice. Many bumps and much creaking and shaking. Cap- 
tain's collie gets scared and tries to get into our beds, one after 
another. But very little sleep under these conditions. 

In the morning we find ourselves in a thicker ice field than any 
before, with floes on all sides. Boat barely creeps. Toward 10 a. m. 
further progress found almost impossible, and so forced to turn back- 
ward once more. However, can not even go back and so, near 12, 
anchor about a mile offshore opposite a small river with lagoonlike 
mouth and two tents of natives — " Shinara," or " Shinerara." 

Ask captain for a boat to visit and explore the coast. Consents, 
and so at 1 we go forth, about eight of us, with the captain's dog. 
Reach Eskimo, photograph the group. All look remarkably Indian- 
like. Then go to look for skeletal material. Nothing near, so return 
for the Eskimo boy. He leads me about a mile over the highland 
tundra to two burials in boxes — not old. Look through crevices 
shows in one an adolescent, in the other a female (or a boy) with 
hair and skin still on. Leave both. 

Then into the boat once more after buying some fossil teeth, and 
with the boy Isaac — his father is Abraluim — try to go into the river, 
and soon get stuck in the stickiest mud (oily shale) imaginable — 
gi-eat work to clean even the oar with which we had to push ourselves 
off. Land then on the beach and for the next two hours explore 
that side of the basin. Find remains of two small settlements — 
seven huts in all, none very old. 

Gather five skulls with parts of four skeletons, most bones missing ; 
also some mushrooms, several interesting humeri of seals, and a piece 



110 AXTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. axn. 46 

of piimicelike fossil bone. Near 4.30 begins to rain a bit so we hurry 
to boat, and in a little while, after depositing Isaac near his camp, 
reach the Bear. 

Eskimo on shore had two skinned seal lying on the ground, and 
there were many reindeer horns. A pile of them was over a fire, 
being smoked. 

Tlie wind has been the whole day from the northeast, the long- 
wished-for wind, and the ice has moved out sufficiently to induce 
the captain to make another start. So at 5 p. m. off we go again, 
and for quite a while the screw sings merrily, until we reach some 
remaining ice, when there are more bumps and staggers. 

The waters about the ship show, whenever calmer, the heads of 
swimming .seal, grown and little. But they are wary and keep at 
a distance. Otherwise the only live things are an occasional gidl, 
and rarely a couple of ducks. In the icy water, however, on and 
alwut the floes, are seen again numerous small, dark fish (from the 
size of a big minnow to that of a tomcod) ; and along the shore swim 
merrily hundreds of very tame and graceful little snipes, lovely small 
birds, too little, luckily, to be hunted. 

Little enthusiasm about my collecting, but the boatswain and some 
at least of the men are genuinely helpful. I believe some of the 
others ai'e a bit superstitious. But I get some chance at least, and 
that is precious. 

Expect to reach Barrow before 12 p. m.. and to start back before 
morning — a big chance for some sleep again if I want to do some 
collecting. Sleep, through the frequent lack of it, has become a 
kind of obsession in one's thoughts, yet when there were chances dur- 
ing the days of waiting it would not come. 

August 9, evening, to 10 next morning. This is a land of odds and 
wonders. In the morning tilings looked hopeless; toward evening 
the wind has driven away enough ice to make a narrow open lane 
near the shore, and utilizing this we arrived without difficulty 
at 8 p. m. at the long unreachable Barrow. At 9 boat takes us 
ashore. At 9.30 p. m. I start with an Eskimo and a seaman (Wee- 
nie) from the Bear on a collecting trip over about 3 square miles 
of tundra behind Barrow, and at 12 :30 return to ship with four bags 
of skulls and bones. But sleep ! Hardly any since 12.30 last night, 
and very little after return to-day, foi- due to fear of ice they 
called in everybody from shore before 3 a. m., and the newcomers 
keep on walking and talking and banging with their baggage until 
.5, when, fearing a return of the ice, we start once more southward, 
toward — it feels strange, but it is so — home. It was a remarkable 
good fortune, our getting there thus and getting out again, as we 
did, without damage. 



KRDLI.^KA] WRITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 111 

Barrow is a gond-lookinp and rather important place. It stretches 
about 2 miles aloufr the low shore, in three clusters, the two main 
ones separated b}' a lagoon. It has a radio station, a mission 
hospital, and a school. There are over 200 natives here, and also quite 
a few whites, including Mr. Charles Brower, the trader, observer 
and collector, with his native wife and their family, the teacher, the 
missionary and his family, and the nurses. 

The liurial place here is the most extensive in the Eskimo territory. 
Taking the older parts and the new, it covers over a square mile of 
the tundra, beginning not far beyond the site of the hospital and 
extending to and beyond a small stream that flows over a mile inland. 
But the burials were grouped in a few spots, the rest being barren. 

This extensive burial ground is now aliout exhausted for scientific 
purposes, excej^t for such skeletons and objects as may have been 
assimilated — i. e. buried — by the tundra. That such exist became 
quite evident during our search, and they naturally are the oldest 
and most valuable. We secured two good skulls of this natui-e. They 
were completely buried, only a little of the vault showing, and had 
there been time we should doubtless have found also parts of the 
skeletons. The skulls were discolored brown. 

Of tile later skeletal material we found but the leavings, the best 
having lieen carried off by other collectors. There were remnants 
of hundreds of skulls and skeletons, but for the most part so dam- 
aged as not to be worth saving. Nevertheless our diligent midnight 
search was not in vain, and we brought back four sacks full of speci- 
mens, the Eskimo carrying his with the utmost good nature. The 
destruction here is due to sailors and other whites and to dogs, foxes, 
and reindeer. 

The reindeer herds, going in lumdreds over the ground, help 
materially to scatter and damage the bones. So, the older material 
gone, while the more recent burials are, at least so far as the 
younger element is concerned, quite worthless to science, containing 
many mix bloods of all sorts — even occasionally with the negro 
(men from the wrecked whaleboats). The collection now secured 
was the last one possible from this locality, except through exca- 
vation. 

Tuesday. August 10. The boat is now crowded. We lost one 
woman and got three; also about five or six men — newspaper, movie, 
radioman, a dog teamster, a trapper. Quite a variety, in every way, 
nnd most are to go with us at least as far as Nome. They will have 
to hang up two hammocks in our little cabin each night, and some 
must sleep elsewhere. 

Packing the whole morning. Five boxes. My man of last night 
helloing, a fine, big young fellow. This aid in the work is a great 



112 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann.40 

boon to me, and the transportation of the many specimens by the 
Bear down to Seattle or San Francisco will be a fine service to the 
Institution. 

The older of us, that is those who have been longer on the ship, 
feel like veterans and are drawn closer together. The new lot, 
heterogeneous, do not attract, particularly' one of the women. An 
older one, evidently a well-liked nurse, goes off at Wainwright, 
which we reach once more at 8 p. m. Hei'e goes off also Jim Allen, 
the trader, who is a good fellow in a rough shell and whom I 
learned to like. He lielped us all a good deal while in the ice. 

The movie man from Point Hope is a somewhat spoiled, gossipy, 
and roughshod, but otherwise a good-hearted big kid — not verj' 
wise, but not mischievous, and more than efficient in his own calling. 
Is 40, but already- aging, like a weather-beaten poplar — not pine 
or oak. Is violently against all " kikes," or eastern money-lending 
Jews, from whom he used to borrow at usurious interest and who 
sold him out once or twice when he could not paj'. 

Lost Jim Allen and dropped the nurse, but are still too many. 
At 10 p. m.. just as the minister and I have retired, there comes a 
call for the former to go up. A couple of Eskimos have arrived, 
with their friends, to be married. So he dresses and performs the 
function. I am too weary to rise and dress to go and look at it. 
He says it was quite tame. Then the anchor, and once more we 
are off. No ice any more, and the sea has again a swell, which was 
absent in the ice-covered waters. 

Wednesday. August 11. Swell, but not bad, though one of the 
women, another nurse, is ill, and the other, a " writer," etc., will not 
get up for breakfast. Quite a problem now to get washed and 
shaved. Both the minister (archdeacon) and the movie man like 
to use perfumed things, and the former takes much time with his 
toilet, so I endeavor as before to be first up. 

August 12. A great da3^ Was called a little after 12.30 a. m., after 
but little sleep (through anticipation), to examine a site ashore — - 
a coal mine, a water source, and possibly something human. Two 
miles to shore, in semidarkne&s ; no night yet in these regions. A 
long tramp over the mossy and grassy tundra; mosquitoes. One 
native igloo, and on a little elevation some distance off a grave of 
a child; otherwise nothing. After examination of the coal strata, 
a curious secondary inclusion in sand and gi'avel. and the stream 
of water (good to drink, even if not clear), we depart and reach 
shi^D again after 4 a. m. 

Beginning to be — in fact am already — a " night doctor," for sure. 
Never thought I could stand such doings, but am standing it, and 
that even with some cold and bothersome night cough. But am 



IIKDIKKA] -SVRITEK'S TRIP ON YUKON 113 

sure short on sleeping, for it is impossible for me to catch up during 
the days: am not a day sleejjer. I suppose when one is most of 
the time half hungry his mind naturally reverts to hunger, as mine 
does to sleep. 

We are due to-day again at Point Hope, and I am anxious for a 
little time there. 

At night. This was a day of harvest. Reached Point Hope about 

3 p. m., but had to go ai'ound again to the other side, due to the 
swell and surf on the north. I went to shore in the first boat, about 

4 p. m. Doctor Goodman, with whom we are very friendly, was 
with me and promised to go over and help me get some men with 
whom I want to excavate the burial hole of his predecessor. But 
when on the shore stays behind and remains. So we go on with my 
man from the ship to the whalebone graveyard. Near there see 
two Eskimo men with some dogs. They smile ; so I tell them what 
I want; in two minutes have engaged them; in about three more 
we begin to dig, and in about five minutes after strike first bones. 

My good friend the boatswain, Mr. Berg, comes to help, and as I 
now have four to work I take a bag and go on collecting a little 
more over the plains beyond where we are. Get a good bag. Find 
another good-natured Eskimo, Frank, coming from fishing, engage 
him to help carrying and eventually to take place of one of my first 
workers, who is an old man. Then we see Doctor Goodman, far 
away, coming to the mission. Borrow two more shovels from his 
stock and a few coal bags. Meanwhile bone and skull pile is fairly 
exposed from one side and top gravel parth' removed, so I give up 
intended trip to old village site and, as we were given only to 9.30 
p. m., go to work on the pile. 

A great deal here. More than anticipated, though all is a jumble, 
with the long and other bones of the skeleton on the top. The work 
is to get down in the moist gravel, disengage one bone and skull afrer 
another as rapidly as possible, give it a rapid look-over, and either 
save, if fairly well preserved or showing some special feature, or 
discard. If saved, the specimen is handed to one of the Eskimo, 
who cleans it of gravel, lays it out to dry a little, and then places it 
gently in a bag. 

Many of the bones and skulls were found so damaged that they 
had to be left. But much was also good. The strenuous work, how- 
ever, had to go on without interruption and at the fullest possible 
speed, if the main part of what Avas there was to be saved. So no 
supper, no stop for even a minute, until after 8 p. m. Sixteen bags 
full, and some of the sacks quite spacious. At last had to give up — 
no more time, no sacks, and lower down everything frozen as hard 
as flint. The main part, however, secured — 183 good skulls, several 



114 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IX ALASKA [eth, axn. 40 

hundred lower jaws, and a lot of long and other bones. This, to- 
gether with the rest of the material from this place, ought to give 
us data of much value. 

But now, how shall the lot be got on the boat. Luckily, one of the 
Eskimo that has been working for me has a dog team and sled. So 
I engage these; and shortly after we finish putting everything in 
order — in the presence now of Doctor Goodman, who comes to look at 
us — the man arrives, with a good-sized sled and 13 whitish dogs. 
Load all the bags on — and then a sight never to be forgotten — the 
dogs pulling the load across the tundra, depressions, gravels, right 
down to the water's edge and to the motor boat that is waiting for us. 
How they strained, pulled with all will, and obeyed. A wise leader 
in front, six pairs behind. No reins, only a few calls from the 
Eskimo, and they knew just what to do. Tried to photograph them, 
but light already poor — advancing season. (PI. 9, a. b.) 

Then hurry to the teacher, not home ; to La Voy, not home. Find 
teacher in tent, sick, trembling; I fear beginning of typhoid. Did 
not get anything for me in our absence. La Voy promised to give 
me some things from his collections, but now is not here. A native 
woman, however, meets me far out on the beach, and I learn she has 
dug out for me since our first visit five good skulls from the ground — 
some, she shows, deep to above the elbow. She has them near the 
ship — we go on — on the road boys and women overtake me with a 
few things to sell. Then the woman brings her skulls, in a bag on 
her back, in excellent condition. I pay her for her trouble. Reach 
our boat, and the bell on the Bear rings 9.30. 

The bone pile — the sled and dogs and load over the tundra — the 
woman carrying a native (seal) bag with skulls — will be three rare, 
indelible pictures. 

On the Bear at 10. A little sandwich, fruit, and a cinnamon cake 
with coifee, and to bed. But irritating tire-cough keeps me up for 
another hour. 

Friday, 13th. Packing. A nice day. Toward evening stop at 
Kevalina. Obtain a few things and pictures. To bed soon, but 
cough .still bothers. I have nothing for it; there is but little on the 
boat in the way of medicines outside of the most ordinary things. 

Saturday, 14th. Up .5.30, early breakfast, and 6.45 start once more 
for Kotzebue. The Bear has anchored about 12 miles off, so do not 
reach village until 8.35, and have to go back at 9.10. Rush to store, 
get boxes, barrels, and packing. And then to the schoolhouse, where 
I expect some information about the skeleton found under the house 
and obtained on my former visit. Also promised information from 
Mr. Chance, the supervisor, about old sites. But Mr. Chance is gone, 
and no letter or message — it came later, to Washington. A few 



HRDLicKA] WRITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 115 

words with the teacher, and one of the boys from our boat is already 
calling me. 

Return at 11 a. m. and spend the rest of the day packing, finishing 
just at supper. A curious sunset at 8, a horizontally banded sun, 
several clear-cut, fairly broad, dark bands. Sea getting rougher. 

Sunday, August 15. Bad sea, wind, waves, fog. Have to take to 
bed and do without breakfast. Stay in until lunch. We could not 
stop again at Shishmareff ; could not get ashore. The nest stop, late 
afternoon, is to be at the Little Diomede, to take oS Jenness; but if 
too rough we shall go on to Teller. The wind is from the northwest 
and the foghorn keeps on blowing. 

The whole day continues rough, foggy, unfriendly. The ship can 
not stop at the Diomede, nor go to Teller; obliged to go to Nome. 
After supper all chairs and movable articles have to be tied up. 
Most day in bed, but escaped I'eal seasickness, and got some sleep. 

Monday, 16. AVeather moderated. We are in lee of the mountain- 
ous part, of Seward Peninsula. After breakfast oiF Nome, and at 
11 a. m. in town. First stop at Lomen's. Then from one to another 
till 4.55 p. m., when Dan Sutherlantl, the Alaska Delegate to Con- 
gress, escorts me to the boat. Saw many friends, got some mail, 
and. best of all, got a fine deposit collection for the National Museum 
from Mr. Carl Lomen. The judge asked me for another lecture for 
next Saturday, when we are to see Nome for the last time. 

About 5 a. m'. arrive at Golovnin Bay to take water. At this place 
this is generally a day of jjartial rest and recreation for the crew. 
The water is taken from a small stream fed by a spring that comes 
out from a cave of the mountain, and is put direct into the whale- 
boats, brought to ship, and pumped into its tanks. 

Shortly after breakfast the captain gives us the larger motor boat, 
and with Mr. Berg and two of the seamen I start for a little survey 
trip along the northern .shore of the bay. In less than an hour we 
reach a sheltered nook with a small stream, where there is an old 
frame dwelling with some outstructures, all evidently abandoned, 
though various articles of use hang or lie about, including several 
guns of old patterns. 

On a bluff to the left of the house are six burials, some old, wood 
near all rotten, some more recent. The latter, two in number, both 
show a large animal skin covering of the body, besides which the 
latter shows remnants of clothing. Secure two good skeletons, 
practically complete; also head and a few parts of a newborn (or 
near) child. A unique feature — with one of the male skeletons is 
found a complete skeleton of an eagle. Could have got also a female 
skeleton, but was still unclean, and we perceived a small native motor 
boat coming toward us from the reindeer camp about I14 miles 



116 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [bth. ann. 46 

farther inward. So we replaced everything (outwardly) and started 
off to meet the native boat. Found in it two young men and three 
women. Inquired about old sites and learned of one about 3 miles 
farther inward. 

Stopjjed at the reindeer camp. Found there about a dozen in- 
dividuals. Got more information, also a young man to go with us, 
bought for the Bear a dozen good-sized silver salmon — caught this 
morning and lying for protection against flies, in a pool of water — 
and left for the old site " around the point." 

A nice site, but small. Fine beach for bathing if it were in a 
wai-mer climate. Remains of about a half dozen semisubterranean 
houses. A coj^iaer nail from one shows they were not very ancient. 
And no burials left, save one. more recent, of a child, most of which 
is gone. But there is a green elevated plane rising from the beach 
and we soon find several varieties of berries, especially large and good 
blueberries, a variety of huckleberry, and a sort of wine-tasting 
dwarf blackberry. Collect enough for immediate consumption — a 
most welcome diversion in every way — and get some for the captain. 

Leave near 1 p. m. A little lunch on boat, then once more the 
reindeer camp, where the young women make us good hot coffee 
with as good biscuits as one could find anywhere. Buy more berries 
from them, load our fish (12 salmon i-anging about 12 pounds each, 
for $3), and start off for another site just around Stony Point. 

Eound up one point, then another and another, up to five, and by 
that time the going has become so rough that we get much tossed 
about, ship water, dog gets frightened and near sick, and just 
as we reach what we thought must be the last point there juts out 
still another. It is now so rough that the boatswain thinks we could 
not land, and so nothing remains but to turn back to the mother 
boat. Reach there near 3.30 p. m. Soon all boats are hoisted, and at 
4 the Bear is on her way to St. Michael. 

August 18. Arrived about midnight off St. Michael ; must stay out- 
side due to shoal water. Somewhat rough. 

In the morning boat coaling, dirty work, so all who can go ashore. 
Meet Mr. Williams again; buy a few native articles in stores, visit 
Mrs. Evans, the teacher-nurse, who has on an occasion successfully 
amputated a native's finger. The deputy marshal takes me to his 
house, gives me some dried deer meat and smoked salmon strips, and 
promises to be on a lookout for specimens for us. Near noon return. 
Still rough. 

At night a bad blow and the ship tossing a great deal, almost as 
during the .storm to St. Lawrence. Feel it considerably, but after 
3 a. m. wind and water moderate. Feel effects of it, however, whole 
morning. For an explorer to be ever in rough weather subject to 
seasickness is a horrid affliction. 



btrdliOka] WRITER'S TRIP ON YUKON 117 

August 19. Off Xonif once more. Everything, city, mountains, 
appear exceedingly, unnaturally clear — not a good sign. After 
9 a. m. go to town. Soon at the Lomens' headquarters, and the sons, 
particular!}' Carl, bring out three smaller boxes full of things from 
St. Lawrence and Nunivak Islands, and give me the choice of all. 
And after I am through — near two hours' fast work — Carl adds one 
beautiful tusk (carved) from Nunivak Island, and then adds another, 
and two big bones of a mammoth, some as gifts, some as an addition 
to his loan to our institution. Excellent men. 

Lunch with Rali^h and Carl; then a good walk in the open; and 
then another lecture. All pleased, and two bring me sjjecimens for 
our museum. Slowly back to boat and 4.45 on the Bear again. Nice 
day, but getting cooler and blustery. 

Captain Koss comes to port, the graphophone starts its usual jazz 
songs next (ward) room, then the supper, all visitors gone, and the 
Bear raises anchor to be off for the north once more. 

August 19. evening. A new, hnal chapter begins with to-day. 
What will it contain when over ? 

August 20. Rough. Go north until in plain sight of the Diomedes 
as well as Cape Wales, and then the captain decides landing wovdd 
be risky, if not impossible; and so reluctantly we turn back and 
proceed toward Teller. What a tantalizing experience this must 
have been to poor Jenness, who is waiting for us on the Little 
Diomede. a most dreary place, to be taken off'; and I, too, expected 
collections at both the Diomedes and the Cape. 

Saturday. August 21. Port Clarence, off Teller. This proved 
a day never to be forgotten; for failure of a rigid system, for bad 
weather, for strain and endurance, and nearness to almost anything. 

My purpose was to utilize the Bears visit to Teller for a survey 
of a Chukchee-Eskimo battle field, of which I heard repeatedly 
from the Yukon onward. Sometime during the earlier half of the 
last century the Chukchee from Asia are said to have made an in- 
vasion of the peninsula and to have reached as far as the Salt Lake, 
east of Teller, when they were met by the united Eskimo and badly 
defeated. The exact spot where this happened is, however, some- 
what uncertain, and it was to locate it, examine, and collect what 
might be possible of the remains that were said to be still there 
that I asked Captain Cochran to let me have one of the motor boats, 
to which he kindly consented, uniting the trip with some topographi- 
cal observations for his own purposes. 

The evening before I was told by the second officer that we shall 
start some time soon after midnight for that part of the old battle 
field — there seemed to be two of them — at the eastern point of the 
Salt Lake. As a result could not undress, and after ship stopped in 



118 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [bth. axn. 46 

Port Clarence, near 11 p. m., had but a little rest. The call came at 
4 a. m. A little breakfast, a package of lunch, and start at 5.10. 

First note. Ship about 7 miles from Teller. Water deep enough 
much nearer, but we came at night. Here there are already dark 
nights between about 9 p. m. and 4 a. m., and so they were cautious. 

Second. The officer says he has orders not to stop at Teller, where 
there is an old Indian (Dunak) from whom I expected to get exact 
bearings, and where there is also a white trader, Mr. Peterson, who 
Iniows the place and might possibly have accompanied us. 

Third. Distances, as usual, longer than estimated. We find even- 
tually that the destination is about 32 miles from Teller. 

Fourth. A brisk head wind and sea retarding us. 

Fifth. As we approach our spot, a shoal water, with grass, prevent- 
ing us from going straight to the most likely place, and no other way 
was tried. It is 11 a. m. and already I hear an intimation that we 
shall not have time for anything except to make a lunch. This is 
the same officer, a v'ery good man at his post but rigid and without 
much interest in anything else than his own field, who after 10 
miles' trip to Kotzebue gave us 25 minutes there, when it required 
15 minutes alone to reach the school from the boat. 

So we end by landing on the extremity of a spit there to make 
lunch, and I have only the time it takes to prepare the latter. I find, 
in hurry, remains of five old semisubterranean dwellings on the 
northern side of the point, and about as many low mounds with 
remnants about of rotten driftwood — undoubtedly old burials. 
Probably the skeletons have been assimilated by the tundra vege- 
tation and blown material. A single native skull, a female, without 
face, is lying about. Collected. 

"\^Tiile lunch is being made ready the officer and the boatswain, 
Mr. Berg, each shoot a duck. Then the lunch, a hurried loading, 
and departure, after some delay in setting the sail, at 1.30 p. m. I 
saw nothing that looked like a battle field. Its determination and 
survey must be left for some future explorer. 

Sail rapidly. Wind fresh, with us, also waves. Cross Salt Lake, 
and Tussoc " River." About 4.30 reach Grantly Harbor and wind 
increases; also waves. We run fast, and well enough, but the 
umiak (skin boat) we are pulling begins to suffer. It rides crazily 
and is jerked over the seething waves. The crossbar by which it is 
partly held breaks, and now the boat goes more sidewise, with water 
lapping over its border and getting in. Wind now quite a gale, 
breaking waves everywhere — every now and then a big one — white- 
caps all over. A dim view of Teller in distance, when the skin 
boat begins to fill more rapidly and sag. Must stop engine— waves 
toss us like mad — one could be thrown bodily out of the boat if 



HRDLICKA] WEITEE'S TRIP ON YUKON 119 

not careful in bending or moving and holding. The sail comes 
down and the mast is laid down, a bad piece of work. Berg and 
Pete Brant (an elderly trapper with us but formerly of Coast 
Guard Service at Nome, a good sailor and knowing these waters) 
work very hard and well. The skin boat has to be pulled alongside 
and bailed out by young Weenie, a very hard and dangerous task. 
Mr. Berg's rain hat (" souwester ") blows off and is lost in the 
seething waves. Later Weenie nearly loses his — snatches it out 
between the boats with a narrow escape for his head. Then Weenie 
climbs into the skin boat — a brave act — and finishes the bailing, but 
is much " in '" after getting back. Then our big staunch motor 
launch starts again at reduced speed. But the skin boat does great 
antics and threatens to fill again or break; so Pete Brant holds the 
rope and is jerked every now and then, until I fear that he may 
any moment be jerked out into the waves and watch to catch his 
legs. Fortunately he succeeds in preventing it, but there was a 
slim margin. 

It has drizzled or rained, besides the wind, most of the afternoon, 
and there is a lot of spray to splashes from the waves. All this has 
to be taken as it conies, but the water is not cold, and our boots and 
oilskins give protection. Nevertheless my right knee to hip gets 
thoroughly wet and chilly, and I was not alone. But there is little 
time to think of such things. We see at Teller the waves breaking 
high on the shore, some boats already on the beach and others being 
driven there, a few people looking helplesslj^ on. 

About 5.50 we round the Teller spit and come in the lee of it into 
calmer water. But the visibility over the water is probably not 
over a mile now. and we see no trace of the Bear. The gasoline 
supply is getting rather low ; and all are more or less cold, though 
dressed warmer than I and, due to their hip-high rubber boots — 
mine reach only to the knee — not wet. I now shake a lot with 
the cold, without being able to stop it. So we skirt the protecting 
bluffs southward to where everyone thinks the Bear is, near a little 
stream from which they were to take fresh water. But though we 
all strain our eyes to the limit, there is no trace of the ship. 

Thus reach Cape Riley and the stream, which is found dry, without 
a drop of water. Get on the pebbly beach, turn skin boat over to 
get the water out, and hurry to chop wood. No wood save the water 
troughs, so chop these. Must have fire. I warm up a little by 
running around and chopping. They pour gasoline on the wood, 
make a big fire, cook a pot of coffee, and with bread and preserved 
meat make a supper, though it is mainly coffee. 

Near 8 and getting dark. Storm, outside of pi-otection of cliffs, 
unabated. There is a second watering place, 7 or 8 miles across the 



120 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [ETH. ANN. 4G 

bay, and our only chance to find the Bear is to rush for this. But to 
do this we must go diagonally across the waves and similarly against 
the wind — a bad prospect. Also, we have only just about enough 
gasoline to reach the place. But there is no help. 

Thus a new start, and before long we are once more in the waves. 
It is now quite obscure. The waves break now and then and splash 
over us. Before long the slrin boat is again sagging and in danger 
of sinking. Once more pull alongside and dangerous, exhausting 
bailing by Weenie. 

And so on, tossed, driven aside, but thanks to the good engine 
never stopping. I hold to seat not to be thrown against things or 
even out : the others are becoming gruff, irritable. And then Higsby 
makes out a faint light far ahead. No one certain, but in a while 
it seems moving. A solitary small light somewhere far on the sliore, 
probably, not the boat. 

But soon another stronger light discerned, seemingly moving to 
the left, and later .several — the ship in all probability. 

We toss and I'eel and .stagger nearer, but motor still going strong. 
For the skin boat they found at last a position in which it takes but 
little water. Finally see decisively a blinking light, the mast signal. 
We show our lantern a few times. Then the ship looms before us, 
but there is still the risky task of getting alongside and aboard. 
However, all is accomplished without real damage. 

The cabin — the good and anxious captain — a little canned grape- 
fruit, and bed. But head falls and rises, the events of the day re- 
appear, wonder what has become of the trade schooner we saw being 
driven on the beach — and so on until consciousness passes into deep 
sleep. The Bear is fairly quiet, not in the brunt of the weather. 
And this eventually moderates, so that a little after 4 we start again, 
only to anchor once more at 6, a little below where last night we had 
our supper. 

Augu.st 22. Cloudy, drizzly, rough still, and wireless news of 
widespread bad storms, even in the States. So we shall wait. One 
more hojDe for my collections at the Cape and with Jenness. 

Captain sa^'s this morning the officer misundei-stood his orders 
about Teller. The trip demonstrated a numlier of things. One of 
the main and most gratifying was the sterling quality of the men 
with me, officer, boatswain, motorman. Weenie. Pete, in the teeth of 
real danger. They were all that men should be under such conditions, 
which is the best way I can express it. The trip may have been 
in vain so far as its scientific object was concerned, but it brought 
a number of men face to face with life's stresses and found their 
mettle of the truest quality, without exception, to witness which 
was worth the whole experience. 



hedliCka] WRITER-S TRIP ON YUKON 121 

Auirust 22-23. During the niffht have left Port Clarence and 
endeavored once more to reach Wales and the Diomedes, to be again 
turned away by fog and rough weather. The captain doubts if 
there will be any more decent " spells." The season for this stormy 
sea is too far advanced. Unable to land anywhere. 

The da}' is followed by another horrid night, again off the St. 
Lawrence Island. Boat tossing and heaving and rolling, waves 
reaching and even splashing over the level of the high upper deck 
in the back, everything tied up and cleared or fastened, a danger 
in making even a few steps of being thrown against something, or 
on the deck of being thrown overboard, and everything constantly 
cracking, creaking, with every few minutes an impact big thudlike 
or a splash of a wave, the floor heaving and twisting; and thus from 
before evening until morning. Then a trace easier, but the whole 
day gloomy and rough and the night again more unsettled. To-day 
better, wind which began east then turned northwest, then almost 
north, now stoiDjied, but a heavy swell is running, heaving us nearly 
as much as yesterday. We have gone very slowly. 

Have arrived off Savonga. The sky is now clear and there is 
not much wind, but the swell is and keeps on such that, not- 
withstanding the I'epeated calls of our siren, the Eskimo whom we 
see above the beach near their boats, do not dare to launch these 
and come, nor does the captain care to risk one of our own launches, 
though we need fresh reindeer meat and all would like once more 
to meet the nice lot of natives of this village. After a prolonged 
wait and as conditions show no iminovement, nothing remains but 
to leave the island. 

Our next stop, if the weather permits, is to be at Nunivak Island. 
This is a large island off the Alaskan coast, well below the present 
delta of the Yukon and some distance above Kuskokwim Bay. The 
island is one of the least explored, and the people living upon it 
one of the least known. It is only during the last few years that 
a trading and a reindeer post has been established on this island, 
and only the second year that there is a teacher. What little is 
known of the natives, a branch of the Eskimo, shows that they have 
many different habits from those fai"ther north, in clothing, decora- 
tion, etc. They make rather good black pottery, and from this 
island come the most elaborate carvings in ivory, reminding strongly 
of small totem poles. A photograph of a group of these people, 
seen at the Lomen Studio at Nome, showed remarkably lu'oad and 
short faces, unlike the Eskimo of the north. All of which made me 
very anxious to visit the island. 

To be brief such a visit, though promised to me by the captain, 
could not be realized. The waters about the island are so im- 

88253°— 30 9 



122 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IX ALASKA Ieth. ann. 4g 

jjerfectly charted that in weather that continued half rough it was 
thought unwise to risij a hmding. I felt this keenly, as the various 
other impossibilities of the trip. But I could never forget all the 
unexpected help I received from the Revenue Cutter Service, for 
which I was deeply grateful, and had to aclniowledge the justice of 
the captain's position. We came so near that the land birds from 
the island were ali'eady about us, but then turned toward the 
Pribilofs and Unalaska. . . 

Only little remains to be told. At the Pribilof Island, St. Paul, 
we stopped at night, to take on four live fur seals for the Academy 
of Sciences of San Francisco, and there we ran once moi'e into 
stormy weather. Here are a few notes from this period : 

August 27. Toward evening again a gale, southwest. At night 
worse. Ship tossing rather wildly. No possibility to me of either 
getting up or resting. Barely keep from being horribly ill again. 

Later in night ship had to be turned back and just drift. 

August 28. All day the storm continues. I could take no meals, 
not even a drop of water. In bed and barely standing it. Ship 
hove to at last and just drifting. 

August 29. Gale keeps on just as bad, howling till 1.30 a. m. 
Then it moderates somewhat and ship starts going again. Last night 
we were only 60 miles from Unalaska, now a good deal farther out. 
Steam, still in half a gale and big sea, until after midday, when, not 
without some difficulty and danger, we reach the fine little protected 
harbor of Unalaska. Feel weak, near worn out. 

August 30, p. m. Rest, and all is Mell again. Secure a little row- 
boat and go with old Pete Brant to near-by islands. Storm over 
for the day and fair, though not entirely. Row, climb hills, pick 
berries and mushrooms, watch a bearlike semiwild pig, out whole 
afternoon, returning strengthened, refreshed. Only no appetite yet. 
Found no traces of human occupancy, but heard of some in the 
" Captain's Bay "' and at other spots. 

The few Aleuts in Unalaska at this time show physiognomies 
akin to the brachj^cephalic Indian, and not the Eskimo type. 

August 31-September 1. A new gale, with drizzles. Luckily we 
are at a dock, but I can do little. They are cleaning the boilers and 
coaling. Evening of 1st have a good dinner — captain and the rest 
of us from the Bear's cabin — at a friendly local trader, Louis Strauss, 
and after that give lecture on "Man's Origin, etc." Introduction 
by Capt. Van Buskirk, local commodore of the Revenue Cutter 
Service. Lecture well received, make numerous fi'iends, get good 
information. Strauss's supper was the first I could eat with some 
taste and hunger. But the lecture did me good. 

September 2. Coaling and overhauling of boilers finished. Gale 
stopped. Ship leaves 1 p. m. Lay fairly sunny. Everyone sees us 



HRDLieKA] THE YUKON TEKRITOEY 123 

off. Harbor and hills look fine, though sky again clouded. Outside 
quite a swell after the gales. Pass the Ilaida, practicing with her 
cannon. The Algonkiri was here too, with the story of their visit to 
the Punuk Islands. The fresh green steep mountains toward the 
entrance of the harbor are refreshing to the eye. 

Pass through Akitan. Pass picturesque, especially the outstanding 
isolated rocks near the islands. 

Toward evening, far to the left (east), see under the clouds a 
glorious icy cone, the " Pogrovemoi," and later a lower but still great 
mountain a little farther and to the right an old but not so very old 
volcano. Other volcanoes there are, the captain tells me, now hidden 
by the low clouds. 

Have a new passenger, Mr. Charles Brower, the trader of Barrow. 
Came from the Brower^ ship of his own company, a little larger and 
faster than the Bear, and going also to San Francisco, but with 
poorer accommodations. Brings with him a box of archeological 
specimens from the Barter Island, in the north. Examine them, but 
find little of special interest. 

It takes us a little less than 10 days of a fairly good journey to 
reach San Francisco. Dock at Oakland late in the evening. The 
next morning, after breakfast, the boxes and barrels with collections 
are taken on the dock — a big jjile. Then the Santa Fe officials 
kindly run a flat freight car to the pile, the boxes, etc., ai'e loaded 
on, the main part taken to the freight depot, the most valuable ones 
to express, shipped, and shortly after what remains of the expedi- 
tion is on the Santa Fe Limited for Chicago. It onlj^ needs to 
be added that, notwithstanding the variety of receptacles and the 
difficulties of packing, the collections reached the Institution with- 
out damage to a single specimen. Thanks once more for the help 
received in making all safe to the captain and officers of the Bewr, to 
Mr. Berg, the best of boatswains, to the carpenter, and to all those of 
the crew who assisted. 

THE YUKON TERRITORY— SITES. THE INDIANS, THE 

ESKIMO 

The Tanana 

brief historical data 

The Tanana is the largest tributary of the YiJcon. It is over 
600 miles in length, and in its breadth, though not in its volume, it 
appears to equal, if not to exceed, the Yukon at their junction. The 
first white men to see the mouth of the Tanana were the Russian 
traders (about 1860), followed before long by the employees of the 



124 ATSTTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN' ALASKA [ETH. ANN. 46 

Hudson Bay Co. Dall says that it has long been noted on the 
old maps of Russian America, under the name of the River of 
the Mountain Men, while the Hudson Bay men called it the Gens- 
des-Buttes River. (Alaska and Its Resources, 281-282.) Dall 
mapped the junction of the river with the Yukon. The first who 
descended a part of its course were two traders, Harper and Bates, 
who reached the river higher up, sometime in the late seventies. 
The name of Harper is preserved by having been given to the 
big bend of the stream, 12 miles above its mouth. Its scientific 
exploration begins only in 1885, with the passage down nearly its 
entire length of Lieut. Henry T. Allen, United States Army;=* the 
main work concerning the geography and geology of the river being 
done m 1898 by A. H. Brooks." 

POPULATION 

The native population of the Tanana has always been remarkably 
scarce. Dall obtained an estimate of their whole number as about 150 
families.' Petrof, in 1880, thought they numbered perhaps seven 
or eight hundred; * Allen in 1885 estimated them at between 550 and 
600;^ Brooks, in 1898, thought there were less than 100; " and the 
1910 United States Census gives the total number of the " Tenan- 
kutchin,"' full bloods and mix bloods, as 415." 

According to Brooks (Reconnaissance, 490-491), the Tanana na- 
tives were separated into two geographic contingents, the eastern or 
highland and the northwestern or lowland groups. The most east- 
erly group included the Indian settlements in the vicinity of Forty- 
mile and Mentasta Pass trail; the northwestern comprises to-day 
those from Xenana to the mouth of the river. 

The Tanana Indians were generally regarded by other natives 
as warlike and dangerous, but so far as their relation with the whites 
was concerned there was little justification for this notion.^- Physi- 
cally they were reported by Brooks to " average rather better than 
the Indians of the Yukon" (Reconnaissance, 492). There are but 
a few and scanty other references to them in this connection. 

■'Allen, Henry T., Military Reconnaissance In Alaska. Comp. Narr. Expl. Alas., 415-416. 
440-452. 

° Brooks, A. H., Reconnaissance in the Tanana and White River Basins. Twentieth 
Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv., Washington, 1900, pt. vii, 437^38 ; also the Geog. and Geol. 
-Mas., U. S. Geol. Surv. Doc. 201, lOOfi. 

' " Their numbers are supposed not to exceed 150 families." Alaska and Its Resources, 
p. 108. 

'Notes Alas. EthB.. 161. 

» Brooks, op. cit., 493. 

'» Brooks, op. cit., 493. 

" Population, m, 1137. 

•- See Castner, J. C, A Story of Hardship and SuEEering in Alaska : Comp. Narr. Expl. 
.\laska, 686-709. 



HKDLicKA] THE YUKON TEKEITORY 125 

Indian Sites and Villages Along the Tanana 

Upper course. — On this much larger part of the river it is possible 
to report but indirectly. 

A. H. Brooks, in 1898, reports thus on this subject : ^^ " Several 
Indian houses are found on and near the Tanana between the Good- 
paster and Salchakat and constitute a subgroup of the upper Tanana 
Indians. * * * The most thickly settled part of the region is 
along the sluggish portions of the lower Tanana. The largest vil- 
lages are at the mouth of the Cantwell and Toclat Rivers, and each 
of these consists of a number of good cabins. In the intervening 
region there are a number of isolated houses and fishing stations, 
which are marked on the accompanying map." 




FiGL'RE 1. 



151° ISO' WS" 

-The Tanana Hiyer between Nenana and Tanana, with Indian villages 



To which Lieutenant Castner, who explored the upper Tanana, 
adds the following : " " On 750 miles of the Tanana proper and its 
tributaries I saw seven small hamlets, and not to exceed 100 Indians— 
men, women, and children." 

From information obtained by me at Fairbanks, at the United 
States marshal's office and from miners, it appears that the following 
villages are better known : 

Village, 150 miles east of Fairbanks. 

Mansfield Lake village, 300 miles east of Fairbanks. 

Tetlen, 410 miles east of Fairbanks. 

East Tetlen, 7 miles southeast of Tetlen. 

" Brooks, A. H.. A Reconnaissance in the White and Tanana River Basins, Alaska, in 
1808 : Twentieth Ann. Kept. L'. S. Geol. Surv., 1900, pt. ^^I, p. 401. 
" Castner, op. cit., p. 706. 



126 ANTHEOPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IKT ALASKA [bth. ann. 46 

LOWER TANANA, KENANA TO TTTKON 

No old sites were learned of on this part of the river, and few, if 
any, are probably preserved, due to lowness of banks and extensive 
destruction (cutting of the banks) by the river. 

The present Indian villages on the river are as follows: 

1. Nenana (or Tortella), al)Out a mission, half a mile from the 
railroad station and town of the same name, on the left bank of 
the Tanana and near the mouth of the Nenana Eiver. (Fig. 1.) 

2. "Old Minto," 27 miles from Nenana, right bank; but a small 
number of Indians there now. 

3. Village at the mouth of the Tolovana, right bank (where the 
Tolovana entei's the Tanana) ; the village is on the distal (down- 
stream) point. Nearly abandoned; only two families there now. 
Summer (fishing) camp on the opposite point. 

4. A small settlement at mouth of Baker Creek, right bank, about 
4 miles upstream from Hot Springs. 

5. "Crossjacket village," on left bank, about 45 miles above Ta- 
nana, 40 miles below Hot Springs. Used to be called "Cosna." 
Occupied, though only a few there. 

6. Near 5, but on the opposite bank, a few habitations. 

During the open season the Indians live scattered along the river 
in fishing camps. This is especially true along the right bank down- 
stream from Nenana. 

The Yukon Below Tanana 
briee history 

The Yukon is the principal river of Alaska. It is one 
of the greatest and most scenic rivers in the world. It is ap- 
proximately 2,300 miles long (from the headwaters of the Lewes 
River), in its middle and lower courses ranges at times with its 
sloughs to several miles in breadth, and includes many hundreds of 
islands of its own formation. Its scenery is still essentially primeval, 
afi'ected but little by human occupation or industry. It has, in fact, 
gone considerably back in these respects since the gold rush was over. 

This great stream has lieeii known to the white man for less than 
a century. Cook, in September of 1778, sailed near, discovering 
Stuart Island and Cape Stephens of the St. Michael Island, but 
missed the river. 

In 1829 P. E. Chistiakof, director (1826-1830) of the Eussian- 
American colonies, sent the naval officer Vasilief to explore the 
coasts between the Alexander Redoubt (at the mouth of the Nush- 
agak) and the Shaktol or Norton Sound, and in 1830 Vasilief ex- 
jjlored the larger part of the Kuskokwini River, of which the Russians 



HRDLii^KA] THE YUKON TERRITORY 127 

knew already from their earlier explorers. Here they heard of an 
even gfreater stream to the north. 

In 1831, on the recommendation of Vasilief, Michail Dmitrievich 
Tebenkof was sent to Norton Sound with tlie view of further explo- 
ration and the establishing of a post in that region. Tebenkof dis- 
covered that Cape Stephens was not a part of the mainland but of 
an island; and he built here a fortified post which in honor of his 
patron saint is called St. Michael, a name which subsequently passed 
to the whole island. The post was to serve both trade and further 
exploration. 

From St. Michael, at the end of 1834, a small party is sent out 
under the leadership of an educated " kreol " (son of a native mother 
and Russian father), Andrei Glazunof, and on January 26, 183.5, they 
reach the good-sized Indian village of Anvik, on the Kwikhpak, or 
Yukon. ^^ From here Glazunof travels down the river to the large 
village of Aninulykhtykh-pak (above Holy Cross), the last Indian 
(as distinguished from Eskimo) village down the river, whence 
Glazunof sends most of his party back to St. Michael and himself 
proceeds to the Kuskokwim. 

In 1836 the Russians effect the first settlement on the Yukon, at 
Ikogmiut (Zagoskin, 6), later known as the Russian Mission. 

In 1838 Malakof, over land portage, reaches Nulato and builds 
there a trading post, which, during his absence the next winter, is 
burned by the natives. In 1841 Dieriabin rebuilds and fortifies this 
post, becomes its headman, and is there eventually (1851) killed by 
the Indians. 

In 1841 Lieut. Laurenti Alexief Zagoskin is delegated to explore 
the " Kwikhpak," with its portages to the Kotzebue Sound, and the 
Kuskokwim River; and in 1843 he navigates and maps 600 miles of 
the Yukon, or from about the mouth of the Apkhun (northern) pass 
to the mouth of the Novitna River, with approximately 100 miles of 
each, from their mouth, of the Koyukuk and of the Ittege (or 
Innoko) Rivers. 

Tlie Russian post at Nulato remains until the sale of their American 
dominions bj^ the Russians to the United States in 1867. From it and 
from St. Michael individual Russian traders ranged over the river 

1= There is some confusion about tlie exact date of Glazunof's .lourney, partly duo per- 
haps to the fact that he started on Dec. 30. Wran.^-eU (St;it. and Ethnog. Nachricht., 1.38) 
says th.Tt Glazunof's expedition was outfitted the same year (ISS."!) in which the St. 
Michael redoubt was established. In Zeleny's abstract of Zagoskin's report (p. 212) and 
liy Zagoskin himself (pp. 6, 23) the departure of the expedition is put a year later, or 
1834, which is jjrobably correct. Dall's remarks (Alaska and Its Resources, 276, 338) 
on the subject contain several errors, both of dates and facts. There is also considerable 
confusion as to the names Kvikhpak and Yukon. The terra Kvikhpak ( Kvikh, river; pak, 
large) is of Eskimo origin and was applied by these to that part of the river which they 
occupied. The name Yukon, or something near this, is of Indian derivation and was 
applied to those parts of the river, below Tanana at least, that were peopled by the 
Khotana or Indians. 



128 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [bth. ann. 46 

and its lower affluents, but there was no further noteworthy scientific 
exploration. In 1863, however, Lukin, who after Vasilief and Kol- 
niakof helped to explore the Kuskokwini. readied to Fort Yulvon. 

Meanwhile the river has been visited by both the Enj^jlish and 
the Americans. In 1847 Mr. Bell, of the Hudson Bay Co., having 
heard of the great stream from some of the Indians who visited the 
fort on Peels River, set out in quest of it, accompanied by a native 
guide, and reached it by the Rat and the Porcupine Rivers." 

Between 1843 and 18G7 the river in its lower and middle reaches 
is freely traversed by the Russian traders. In 1851 Nulato is reached 
by Lieutenant Barnard, of H. M. S. Enterprise^ in search of Frank- 
lin, only to be massacred there with some of the Russians and natives 
by the ofPended Indians of the Koyukuk. In 1861 Robert Kennicott 
traverses a part of the Yukon, and in 1865 he. with Capt. Charles 
S. Bulkley, leads there the expedition of the Western Union Tele- 
graph Co., which is accompanied by William H. Dall and Frederick 
Whymper, and results in much information. Already, however, in 
1863, Slrahan Jones, commander of the Peels River Fort, has de- 
scended the Yukon to the mouth of the Novitna River or the upper- 
most point reached by Zagoskin, thus completing its identification 
as one and the same great stream. This point and the Tanana mark 
the westernmost penetration by the English (the Hudson Bay Co.). 

In 1865 begin American exjilorations proper. In that year, under 
an agreement with the Russians, Maj. Robert Kennicott, heading a 
party of the Western Union Telegi-aph exi^lorers, crosses from St. 
Michael to Nulato. Kennicott dies in Nulato a year later, but the 
explorations are carried on to result eventually in a series of valuable 
publications, more particularly by Dall and Whymper.^' 

The researches under the auspices of the Western Union Telegraph 
Co., themselves backed by the Government, are followed by ex- 
plorations under the direct auspices of the American Govern- 
ment. Thus, in 1869 there is a reconnaissance of the river by Capt. 
C. W. Raymond; in 1883, that by Lieut. Frederick Schwatka; in 
1885 by Lieut. Henry T. Allen; in 1898 by Capt. W. P. Richardson; 
and these are succeeded by the geological surveys of A. H. Brooks 
and companions.^* 

From 1878 on commenced placer and mining explorations for gold 
in Alaska leading gradually to the eventual great gold rush of the 
later nineties, which brought a whole flotilla of large river steamers 
and other craft to the Yukon and led to a rapid growth of some of 
the old and the establishment of a number of new settlements along 

'" Ricbardson, J., Arctic Searching Expedition, London, 1851, ii, 206. 
"For details see Ball's Alaslia and Its Resources. Boston, 1870. 

"" See Compilation of Explorations in Alaska. .Senate Rept. 1023, Washington, 1900 ; and 
reports on Alaska of the United States Geological Survey. 



HRDLiCKA] THE YUKON TERRITORY 129 

its banks. The rash passed in turn, many of the miners and others 
departed, boats became idle and were beached or taken to the St. 
Michael ship " bone yard," where, together with most of the build- 
ings, they are now (1926) being broken up; and the Yukon has 
reverted in a large measure to its former primeval, dormant, lonely 
state. 

Such, in brief, is the white man's history of the Yukon, with all of 
which the river remains but half known, at best. It has never 
been fully surveyed, which would be a vast and unending task. It 
contains a large number of barely known little tributaries that are 
lost in the jungle-covered flats with their many pools and lakes. 
It has innumerable islands and channels, in which the traveler is 
easily lost, and it cuts and builds constantly during the open season. 
Its valley is squally and rai^y. The stream may one moment be 
like a great, liquid, softly flowing mirror, to be in a few minutes 
churned into an ugly and dangerous roughness from which every 
smaller boat must seek shelter. Its shores are inhospitable, except 
for the native fisherman and hunter, and torment man with swarms 
of gnats and mosquitoes. 

But there is no malaria ; no snakes or other poisonous things. And 
when the weather is decent the water, the wooded shores, and the 
fresh, clean virginal parklike islands have a greatness and charm 
that compensate for mucli. Besides which there is the still more 
intensive allure of original exploration. Botany, zoology, and above 
all paleontology, find here still a fruitful field, while for anthro- 
pology, and esijecially archeology, the land is still largely a terra 
incognita. 

The Yukon Natives 

Upon their arrival on the Kvikpak and Yukon, the Russians found 
the banks of the stream peopled in its upper and middle courses by 
Indians and lower down by the Eskimo.'^ The last Indian village 
downstream was Aninulykhtykh-pak, since completely gone. Its 
site is identifiable with one that used to exist in front of the present 
mission of Holy Cross or just above. The first Eskimo village of 
some note was Paimute. 

As to the Indians of the Yukon and its tributaries, there is a con- 
siderable confusion of names, almost every author using his own 
spelling and subdivisions. It is evident that there were two sets of 
names of the various Indian contingents, namely the names, some- 
times contemptuous, given to them b}' outsiders, and the names in 

*® See .\uszug aus dem Taireburho dps Schiffer-gohiilfpn Andreas Glasunow. In Wrangpll. 
Ferd. v., Statistische und ethnograpbische Nachrichten u. d. Russichen Besitzungen a. d. 
Nordwestkiiste v. Amerika. Ed. by K. 0. v. Baor. St. Petersburg, 1839, 137-160. Zagos- 
kia, A., I'eSechoduaia opis Oasti russkick vladenii v. AmerikS. 2 parts. St. Pet6rsburg. 
1847-1848, pp. 1-183, 1-120, and 1-43 ; with a map. 



130 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

use among themselves, which generally meant the people of this or 
that locality. The facts are that they all belonged to the Tinne or 
Dene family ; ="• -'^ that there were two probably related generic names 
for them, namely Kutchin (used especially on the upper Yukon) and 
Khotana (used mainly along the central and lower parts of the 
stream) ; and that along the Yukon itself, with its channels, there 
were three main subdivisons of the people: The Kutchin (with va- 
rious qualifications) on the upper parts of the river, down to Fort 
Yukon ; the Yukonikhotana, from Fort Yukon to Nulato ; -^ and the 
Kain (Petrof) or Kaiyuh (Dall) Khotana, or Inkaliks (of the 
Russians), from Nulato to Holy Cross. 

In addition there were the Tenan-kutchin Tenan-khotana or 
Mountainmen of the Tanana ; and the Yunnaka-khotana (Zagoskin) 
or Koyukuk-khotana (Dall). the peoplfe of the Koyukuk. 

These groups were settled in a moderate number of permanent or 
winter villages along the rivers, in the summer spi-eading along the 
streams in camps. The population found by the first Russian ex- 
plorer, Glazunof, from Anvik to Aninulykhtykh-pak, was seemingly 
a rather large one. He is reported by Wrangell to have counted, at 
Anvik, 240 grown males; at Magimiut, 35; and at Aninulykhtykh- 
pak 300. At the last-named village in particular there were present 
" many people," Glazunof estimating altogether nearly 700. These 
figures, except for Magimiut, seem too large and were not even ap- 
proached later ; but before the next count, that by Zagoskin, all these 
settlements had been visited by smallpox; and at the big village 
Glazunoff may have seen a potlatch, such as may still yearly be 
witnessed at some settlements on the river. 

Zagoskin in 1843 made a detailed and evidently reliable count of 
all the villages that became known to him. His data in this respect, 
as in others, being of fundamental value, are here given, the Eskimo, 
for convenience, being included. 

=<>Dall, Contr. N. A. Ethn., vol. 1, p. 17. 

==■ Zagoskin : " ' * * great family of tile Ttynai nation, wbich occupies the interior 
of tlic mainland of our colonies and known to us under various names — Yug-elnut, Tutna, 
Golcanf' or Kilrane [according to the pronunciation of those giving the information]. 
Kenaici, lukaliti, Inkalich-liuatov [distant Inkaliks], and others — names given to them 
by the neighboring coastal people." 

— Petrof, Ivan, p. 161 : " This tribe, comprising the Yunakhotana and the Kutcha- 
kutchin of UaU, inhabits the banks of the Yukon River from Fort Yukon westward to 
Nulato." 



HIlDLlCKAJ 



THE YUKON TEERITORY 



131 



Native Villages on the Yukon and in the Vicinity, 1843 (Zagoskin, III, 

39-41)' 



Villages 



Total 



Adult 
males ^ 



Inkalit-Iugelnut: 

Inselnostlende 

Khuingitatekhten 

Ilteiileiden 

Tlego 

Khuligichagat 

Kvygympainag-miut_ 

Vazhichagat 

An vig 

Makki 

Anilukhtakpak 



Total. 



Inkiliks proper: 

Kunkhogliuk 

Ulukak 

Ttutago 

Kakoggo-khakat _ 
Khutul-khakat _ _ . 

Khaltag 

Khogoltlinde 

Takaiak 

Khuli-kakat 



Total. 



Yunnaka-khotana: 

Notaglit 

Tlialil-kakat 

Toshoshgon 

Tok-khakat 

Nok-khakat 

Kakliliakhlia-kakat. 
Tsonagogliakhten. . 

Tsogliachten 

Khotyl-kakat 

Unylgakhtkhokh 

Nulato 



Total - 



Tlegon-khotana: 

Innoko natives seen on the Yukon 

Village totality 

Total 

All Indians counted on Yukon and Koyukuk. 



' See also Petrof (Ivan). Tenth Census Rep., Wash., 1880, VIII, 
is not always correct. 
* This doubtless included many subadults. 
5 31 per cent, or 1 in 3.2. 



33 
37 

100 
45 
70 
71 
80 

120 
44 

170 



770 



11 
35 
32 

9 
16 

9 
60 
81 
11 



264 



37 

27 
30 

6 
50 
26 
11 

7 
65 
17 
13 



289 



44 
45 



89 



1,359 



11 
30 
14 
25 
25 
18 
37 
9 
48 



225 



5 

10 

8 

3 

4 

3 

17 

27 

3 



80 



8 
7 
5 
3 

11 
7 
4 
2 

19 
2 
2 



70 



33 
14 



47 



422 



43 



24 



23 



6 

l32 



37; but his transliteration of names 



132 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN" ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



Native Villages on the Yukon and in the Vicinity, 1843 (Zagoskin, III, 

39-41)— Continued 



Villages 



ESKIMO 

Kavliunag-miut 

N ygyklig-miut 

Kauyg-miut 

Ankachag-miut 

Takchag-miut 

Ikuag-miut 

Nukliluiag-miut 

I kog-niiut 

Ikaligvig-miut 

Pai-miut 

Total of Kvikhpag-miut 



Total 



11 
13 
45 

122 
40 

130 
60 
92 
45 

123 



681 



Adult 
males 



3 
4 
11 
32 
12 
35 
17 
22 
14 
35 



185 



Houses 



38 



Dall, referring to 1866-G7 (Contr. Am. Ethn., I, 23, 39), esti- 
mated the number of the Yukon Eskimo at 1,000 and that of the 
Yukon and Koyukuk Indians, from the mouth of the Tanana down- 
ward, at 2,800. Only a few sites of villages are incidentally given 
by Dall. 

Ivan Petrof, as a special agent for Alaska of the United States 
Census for 1880, reports himself the following Indian settlements 
and numbers of inhabitants on the Yukon (Compil. Narrat. Expl. 
Alaska, 68; gives also data on Eskimo, but his arrangement and 
unidentifiable localities prevent these data from being used here) : 



Aiivik station and village 94 

Single house 20 

Single house 12 

Single house 15 

TanaUh'ithaiak 52 

Single house 15 

Chageluk settlements 150 

Khatnotoutze 115 

Kaiakak 124 

Kaltag 45 

Nulato, station and village 163 

Koyukuk settlements 150 

Terentu'fs station 15 



Big Mountain 100 

Single house 10 

Sakatfllan 25 

Yukokakat 6 

Melcizikakat 30 

Jlentukakat 20 

Soonkakat 12 

Medvednaia 15 

Novo-kakat 106 

Kozmas 11 

Nuklukaiet 27 

Ramiiart village 110 

Fort Yuk'iu 82 



Later demograjahic records on the Yukon and its tributaries and 
on the coast comprise additional data by Petrof, published as a 
part of the Eleventh (1890) United States Census and arranged 
by districts and linguistic groups; and the data of three subsequent 



HKDrirKA] THE YUKON TERRITORY 133 

United States Censuses, 1900, 1910, and 1920, which are given in dif- 
l'erin<r ways, but in the main by major ethnic and territorial or 
jurisdictional subdivisions. 

Due to incomplete enumerations; to the use of native estimates for 
actual count (as seems to have been the case with Dall'a figures, as 
well as others) ; the different methods and classifications employed ; 
and the inclusion of units now into one and now into another group 
(as with Petrof, who includes three Indian villages below Anvik 
among the Eskimo, etc.), the various counts are not comparable and 
give but hazy ideas of the true conditions. Yet they are not without 
value, particularly in showing the earlier population of the villages 
and the relative proportion of the sexes and ages. The more help- 
ful details are given in the appendix; for still others see references 
in bibliography. 

PRESENT CONDITIONS 

To-day, judging from all the obtained evidence, which comprised 
information, the witnessing of a potlatch at Tanana at which were 
assembled practically all the Indians above Nulato, and a visit below 
the Tanana of nearly all the villages where the Indians still live, 
the total number of the Tinneh on the lower Tanana (from Fair- 
banks to the moutli of the river) and on the Yukon from Tanana 
to Anvik, can scarcely be estimated to reach 1,000. It is probably 
well below that number. Moreover, not one-half of the adults and 
much fewer among the j'oung are still full bloods. Disease, bad 
liquor (Yukon), and mostly as yet imperfect accommodation to 
changing conditions are steadily diminishing the numbers. Since 
our visit many have died from influenza, especially at Anvik. Their 
future is not hopeful. On the Tanana, however, and with the more 
educated in general, conditions are better, and much good is being 
done by the four missions on the two rivers (Nenana, Tanana, Anvik, 
and Holy Cross). 

The old Indian settlements along the Yukon are gone, with a few 
exceptions. On some of the sites, as at Tanana, Nulato, Kaltag, etc., 
there are new villages bearing the old names but built by or in imita- 
tion of whites and sheltering a mixed population. The very names 
of not a few of the older Indian sites have gone into oblivion; or 
the natives call those they still know by a corruption of a white man's 
name, such as " Ulstissen " (for Old Station). Anvik alone has kept 
its original site and some of its old character, the mission and the 
white trader being across the river. 

In the Eskimo part of the Yukon, below Holy Cross, conditions on 
the wliole appear to be somewhat better. There has also been a 
diminution in. population. The majority of the old villages have 
ceased to exist, while under the influence of whites some new settle- 



134 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IX ALASKA [eth. axn. 46 

ments or names have appeared. Yet there are respectable remnants 
of the Eskimo, and, being better workers than the Indian and seem- 
ingly more colierent, they manage to sustain themselves somewhat 
better than he does. Their greate.st handicap is disease. The bene- 
ficial effect among them of the old Russian Mission has declined, but 
(here are a number of Government schools which have a good in- 
fluence. They are more tractable, sensible, and in some I'espects 
perhajDs more able than the Indians. 

But there exists to-day no clear-cut demarcation, geographical, 
cultural, or even physical, between the two people. Anvik, the last 
Indian village downstream, is in every respect at least as much 
Eskimo as Indian; more or less Eskimolike physiognomies are seen 
again and again among the Indians ; and Indianlike features are com- 
mon among the Eskimo. There has either been an old and consider- 
able admixture on both sides, or there are some fundamental similari- 
ties of the two groups; perhaps both. 

Archeolooy of the Yukon 

Up to 1926 no archeological work had been done along the Yukon 
or its tributaries, and barring a few isolated specimens there were no 
archeological collections from these regions. 

The archeology of the river consists, (1) of the dead but formerly 
known villages; (2) of older sites, " dead " and unloiown before even 
the Russians arrived ; and (3) of random stone objects worked by 
man that now and then are washed out from the river banks or are 
found in working the ground. Except in details conditions are much 
alike along the whole river and will best be dealt with as a whole. 

THE RANDOM SPECIMENS 

Wherever the beach of the river shows more or less of stones 
that are not talus or just pebbles, there are generally found stones 
worked by man. Such localities are scarce. The first exists between 
Tanana (the village) and the mission above it. Here specimens are 
found occasionally on the beach and occasionally in the soil of the 
local gardens. Other such sites were located at Bonasila, below 
Anvik, and in four places between Paimute and the Russian Mission. 
A few are also present from Marshall seaward. 

An examination of the terrain adjacent to such parts of the beach 
shows mostly, but not always, traces of an old settlement. 

The specimens consist of characteristic axes or adzes, stone scrap- 
ers, hammers, stone knives (along the Eskimo part of the river), 
tomahawk heads (probably), objects less well defined, and chips. 
There may be semifossilized animal bones, and rarely a bit of char- 



HEDLicKA]' THE YUKON TERRITORY 135 

coal, a piece of pottery (for details see Narrative), or an object of 
ivory. 

The ax proper is peculiar. It is a cupid's-bow ax, double-edged, 
and with one or two grooves across its middle. (PI. 10.) It is as 
a rule made of heavy basaltic stone, and its edges are sharpened by 
polishing. Rough parts may have been polished also on the body. 
Its distal surface is convex (from sharp edge to sharp edge), its 
proximal surface straight or mildly convex. I succeeded in getting 
a specimen remounted recently by one of the Indians near Tanana. 
This form of an ax is still remembered by the old Indians when in 
use. They cut trees with it, cutting sidewise and detaching the wood 
in splinters. They also remember clubs with stone heads, and told 
me they were carried on the back over the right shoulder so as 
to be ready for instant and effective use. 

These axes have apparently been used by both the Indians and the 
Eskimo, but there is an interesting difference. The several specimens 
I obtained or saw from Tanana to Ruby were all complete. But 
from about the vicinity of Ruby downstream the bi-edged ax seems 
to disappear, or, rather, one-half of it disappears, the butt hence- 
forth either being left unfinished or one-half of the double ax being 
broken oft' and the remainder being mounted now as an adze on a 
shorter handle. This form, and it exclusively, with various sec- 
ondary modifications, is found over a wide area among the Eskimo 
and may reach into Asia, for I obtained a specimen of it from one 
of the Diomede Islands. It connects directly with the Bering Sea 
Eskimo ivory adze and chisel. On the other hand the bi-edged ax 
appears, in various modifications, to extend widely over Indian 
Alaska. 

The remaining stone implements need but little mention here. 
They will be studied and reported separately by our archeologist. 
A special note will, however, be necessary later about the very primi- 
tive stone industry of Bonasila, below Anvik. (See p. 144.) 

Of pottery I have seen no example above Anvik, but this can 
not be taken as evidence of its absence above that point. At Anvik, 
Bonasila, and farther down the pottery is like that of the western 
Eskimo. It is coarse ware, hand shaped, and of rather poor quality. 
It consists of small round bowls to fairly large, more or less conical, 
jars. It is never painted but is frequently decorated with thumb 
marks and especially with grooves running parallel with the border. 

Ivory implements were encountered first at Bonasila and consisted 
of a few fine long points barbed on one side, looking like those of 
the Eskimo and probably of Eskimo origin. There were also a few 
tools of bone, generally scrapers. 



136 ANTHEOPOLOGICAl, SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

Russian beads, especially those of the large blue variety, are oc- 
casionally encountered, usually singly or in small numbers, especially 
in some spots. 

A unique archeological specimen from the lower middle portion 
of the Yukon Valley is the large stone dish obtained by Mr. Miiller, 
the trader at Kaltag. (See p. 34.) 

Besides these random specimens, other cultural objects are found 
along the Yukon in connection with old burials. These consist of 
an occasional wooden dish, sharpening or polishing stones, rarely a 
figurine (doll?) in ivoi-y, Russian snuffboxes, fire sticks, dishes of 
birch bark, etc. The cuUings in this field are quite poor, but there 
has been no excavation of older burials that have been assimilated by 
the tundra and lie now in the earth beneath. 

The archeology of the old habitation sites, on the other hand, 
particularly perhaps on the Shageluk and between Holy Cross and 
Marshall, is decidedly promising and invites careful excavation. 

Location of Villages and Sites ox the Yukon 

Especial attention was given to the location of the numerous dead 
villages and older sites along the Yukon. This task was found, in 
most instances, fairly easy with villages that " died " since the 
Russo-American occupation, for mostly they still show plain traces 
and are generally remembered by the old Indians or even old white 
settlers. Their precise allocation on a map, however, is not always 
easy or certain. As to the prehistoric sites the search is much more 
difficult and depends largely on chance discoveries. 

The villages still existing give only a partial clue, in many cases, 
to the old, even where these bore the same name, for on occasions a 
village changed its location, though remaining in the same general 
vicinity and retaining the same name. Thus there existed at differ- 
ent times apparently, between the earliest contacts with whites and 
the present, at least 2 Nuklukhayets, 2 Lowdens, 3 Nulatos, 3 Kaltags, 
2 Anviks, etc. ; besides which there were differences in recording the 
names and changes due to efforts at translation of the native term, 
or an application by the whites of a new name, often that of a trader 
or settler, to an old site. 

In places even late village sites, in others burials, were witnessed 
being undermined by the river or the sea. Such sites with their con- 
tents will probably sooner or later be completely lost from this 
cause. Many doubtless have thus been lost previously. 

The villages and sites located along the Yukon are here enumer- 
ated and as far as possible charted. Information about them was 
obtained from the older Indians or river Eskimo and from such 
whites as had direct knowledge in that line. Most of these sites were 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 9 




u, My •spoils," loaded uii slud, Poiut ilope. (A, ij., ia2S) 




'', The load is heavy and sledding over sand and gravel difficult. (A. II., 1920) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 10 




Characteristic stone axes Middle Yukon 
(A. IL colL, l'J2(i.j 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 1 1 




Crude stone Artifacts. Four-JO at Bonasila. Lower Middle Yukon 

(A. H. coll., 1926.) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 12 




Crude stone artifacts, found at Bonasila, Lower Middle Yukon 

(A. H. toll., 11.128.) 



hbdliCka] 



THE YUKON TEEEITORY 



137 



examined personally, but in some instances this was impossible. The 
details concerning those seen will be found in the Narrative,- but a 
few generalizations may here be useful. 




I5'^° 153° 

Figure 2. — The Yukon from Tanana to below Kokrines 

The dead village sites are much alike along the whole river. 
They are generally located at the mouth of some inland stream that 
carries clear fresh water, particularly if on the other side there is 
the protection of a hill. The dwellings were invariably on a flat 
and were throughout semisubterranean and of the same general 




Figure 3. — The Yukon from below Kt)krines to bf'low Koyukuk 

type; which applies also to the larger communal houses or 
" cashims."' The sites can often be told from afar in summer by 
the rich gi-ass that covers them. 



882.53° 



-1(1 



138 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[HTH. ANN. 40 



The burials were as a rule not far from a village and preferably 
on the slopes of the nearest hill. They veere mostly above ground, 
but under the influence of Russians there were also shallow-ground 




Figure 4. — The Yukon from below Koyukuk to Lofkas 

burials. The latter can readily be told by the sawed planks of 
the coffins and the iron nails by which they are fastened. In 
many places no surface burials remain or there are mere traces. In 



HEDLICKAJ 



THE YUKON TERRITORY 



139 



such places little mounds may betray old burials assimilated by the 
tundra. Trenching in likely spots would doubtless reveal others of 
which no trace remains on the surface. 




FiGCKE 5. — Old map of the Nulato district 



No excavations of any of these sites have ever been attempted, 
but many of the surface burials were disturbed or destroyed by 
seekers of relics and the curious vandal, who is present on the 
Yukon as in other parts of the country. 




Figure 6. — Map of Kaltag and vicinity. (By McLeod) 

The majDs shown here were made imder my direction on the basis 
of maps and charts provided by the Geological and Geodetic Sur- 
veys, in Washington. Additional old sites will doubtless be located 
in the future and may be added to these records. 



140 



anthropological survey in alaska 
Pre-Russian Sites 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



As already told in the Narrative, a search for truly ancient sites 
along the Yukon has proven largely negative. A more intense and 
prolonged archeological survey, with exploratory trenches wherever 
there is promise, may one day prove more fruitful. But, as pointed 




Figure 7. — The Yukon from Bysti'aia to below Holy Cross 

out before, much can never be expected. Man could at no time 
have occupied the Yukon Valley and watershed in large numbers. 
He would not have found enough sustenance. Even with fair re- 
sources he would hardly have tarried in these inclement regions as 
long as the ways toward the south were open. He never built here 
of lasting materials and had little chance to develop or even keep up 



IIKDI.ICKA] 



THE YUKON TEKEITOEY 



141 




160° 
Figure S. — The Yukon from above Iloly Cross to below Mountain Village 




162° 161'' 

FiGDEE 9. — The Yukon from below Mountain Village to near Marshall 



142 



ANTHBOPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[BTH. ANN. 46 



any higher culture, and since he is gone the ever-cutting river has 
taken away whatever it could reach and scattered it through its 
silts and gravels. There is nevertheless a number of small elevated 
plateaus along the right bank that ought to be sounded by explora- 
tory jjits or trenches, particularly perhaps where there are traces of 
later habitations. 

There are. of course, some sites that are older than others. The 
most interesting of these was found at Bonasila, beneath the old 
site of Makki or Magimute, 18 miles downstream from Anvik. (See 
Narrative.) The main facts concerning this site are as follows: 

At the above distance from Anvik, on tlie right bank of the river 
and following a wooded hill, is a low flat backed by rising ground 




163° 

Figure 10. — The Yukon from near Marshall to bcluw Kavlingnak 

and cut across by a little .stream. The flat is narrow, at present about 
300 feet; and the part above the stream is deeply pitted by the re- 
mains of semisubterranean houses of a " dead " native village, which 
I believe is identifiable with the Magimute of the Russians. On the 
slope behind the village were still about a score of old surface burials, 
with an article here and there of Russian derivation. 

The bank of the flat rises at present only about 4 feet above the 
beach of the river, but the flat behind is higher. The bank itself 
contains many specimens sliowing human workmanship, consisting 
of objects of stone, birch bark, bone, and rarely also of ivory, besides 
many fragments of pottery, many bones of wild Alaskan animals, 
and here and there a human skeleton. Some of these objects are low 
down in the bank. All the bones from the bank, including the 
human, and even the rare points of ivory, are semifossilized ; the 



brdlicka] 



THE YUKOlsr TEERITORY 



143 




20' 16V +0 

FiGiRB 11. — From above Kobolunuk to mouth of river 



144 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 4ii 

stone industry is peculiar; and the human remains differ plainly from 
both those of the later Yukon Indian and from those of the Eskimo. 
They are apparently Indian (see section on physical characteristics), 
but a tall Indian of a type that now is only met with much farther 
south. 

The stone industry from the bank appeared at first sight so 
primitive that even the term " paleolithic " would not fit and the 
only term that seemed to meet the situation was " protolithic." It 
consists predominantly of scrapers and knockers, with here and there 
a tool sharjjened for cutting. The scrapers look especially crude. 
They consist simply of pieces of smaller or larger andesite-like vol- 
canic slabs broken to the desired size and chipped more or less 
roughly along what was to be the scraping edge. A closer exami- 
nation of the stones, which were obtained from a base of a cliff 
farther down the river, showed, however, that they were of material 
which is hard to work, and that the chipping, under the circum- 
stances, was not really bad. (Pis. 11, 12.) Pottery must have been 
fairly plentiful and quite up to the average of the river, both in make 
and decoration. 

Two fine long, partly fossilized ivory points picked up formerly 
on the site were obtained from Mr. Lawrence. They are handsomely 
barbed on one side and show a high grade of skill. They must have 
come from the Bering Sea and may belong to the old fine ivory 
culture of the western part of that region, of which more later. 

There are also some fairly ancient sites farther down the river 
(see Narrative), but just what they are and how old remains to be 
determined. 

A report on the archeological remains from the bank of Bonasila 
by Mr. H. W. Krieger, one of the curators of the Department of 
Anthropology, United States National Museum, follows: 

ARCHEOLOGY OF CENTRAL ALASKA 

Ancient Stone Cultuee 

"Until the results of Doctor Hrdlicka's Alaskan reconnaissance 
were first made known to science it had been generally assumed that 
Alaskan and Canadian subboreal regions were archeologically bar- 
ren. It had been currently accepted that only as one approached 
the great river valleys of the Skeena, the Eraser, and the Columbia 
could anthropological exploration be conducted to advantage. One 
might expect to uncover cemeteries and ancient village sites only 
tliere where a dense and sedentary population had long been estab- 
lished. Through the discovery of ancient village sites and centers 



HEDLiCKA] ARCHEOLOGY OF CENTRAL ALASKA 145 

of poi^iilation in the lower and middle Yukon Eiver Valley, Doctor 
Hrdlirka has extended the northern archeological horizon into the 
sub- Arc tic. 

" Of the many sites examined, the old village site at Bonasila, 18 
miles helow the confluence of the Anvik and Yukon Rivers, yielded 
the most interesting data. Crudely flaked implements of trap rock 
■with cutting edges showing evidence of chipping and grinding were 
uncovered. These implements are unique among Alaskan artifacts 
and have no relationship with Imown types of Eskimo or Indian 
stonework. In the shaping technic employed by their aboriginal 
makers; in form, and in type; and, generally, in tlieir undeveloped 
character, the stone artifacts from Bonasila and other ancient arche- 
ological sites on the middle Yukon may be classified as primitive 
neolithic. 

'■ The stone implements uncovered at Bonasila are so crudely fash- 
ioned and are apparently of such an improvised nature as to sug- 
gest an extreme conservatism in culture development, or perhaps a 
degeneration, due largely to lack of better materials. Due to the 
lack of basalt, jadeite, or other hard stone in the valley of the lower 
middle Yukon, recourse was had to sandstone and trap rock by the 
jDrimitive makers of stone axes and celts. 

" Crude pottery vessels and potsherds were discovered associated 
with the objects of stone. This ware incorporates elementary dec- 
orative designs distinct from the known historic Eskimo or Indian 
types of pottery decoration. There can be no intimation that this 
ware is archaic or that it belongs to any archaic culture offshoot 
from farther south. It therefore becomes a question of some un- 
known earlier Asiatic culture connection that manifested itself in 
crude forms of flaked and ground stone implements and in miique 
pottery forms. It is uncertain that the ancient fossil ivory culture 
of northwest Alaska, of which Doctor Hrdlicka has brought in some 
excellent examples, is in any manner associated with the primitive 
neolithic stone and potterj^ forms uncovered at Bonasila. It is 
established, however, beyond a doubt that both cultures and types of 
artifacts are Asiatic in origin and have little or no connection with 
the culture of the western Eskimo. 

"The Eskimos of the lower Yukon Valley made extensive use of 
slate and of jadeite in the production of their polished knives and 
celts. Slate knives and polished celts of jadeite are characteristic of 
Eskimoan culture throughout the whole of its extent in Alaska. 
Each of these materials as well as the finished products shaped from 
them were subjects of native barter. Eskimos often undertook long 
journeys for their procui-ement. It is therefore noteworthy that no 



146 ANTHEOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ANN. 46 

single object fashioned from slate or jadeite and but few points of 
fossilized ivory were recovered at any of the sites characterized by 
the primitive stone culture and pottery of the Bonasila type. 

" The most characteristic finds at Bonasila are the crudely flaked 
implements of stone, some of wliich show incipient chipping and 
grinding. The coarse type of pottery is unlike that of the modern 
Eskimo in temj)ering, firing, and decorative design. 

" The stone culture of the site, although rich in forms, is deficient 
in technical development and is scarcely worthy of being classed as 
neolithic. There were found in numbers the following types of 
artifacts: Circular, discoidal stone pebbles with rim fractures due 
to use; river wash pebbles of irregular form used as improvised 
scrapers and hammerstones ; basaltic, discoidal hammerstones with 
abraded edges and pitted at the center; large flake saws of trachyte 
(trap rock) triangular in section but provided with sharply 
fractured cutting edges; slender flaked fragments of trap rock 
tapered to the form of wedges with intentionally worked end .sections 
and cutting edges; crudely flaked stone knives with evidence of 
secondary chipping at cutting edges; other knives of thin slabs of 
trap rock with flaked and bilaterally ground beveled cutting edges; 
oblong axes of flaked sandstone with hafting notches struck off at 
the edges midway from the base; abrading tools of sandstone; celts 
of sandstone with ground and beveled working edge and notched 
for hafting as an ax; stone scrapers with ground and beveled cut- 
ting edges; fragmentary perforators of stone; rechipped, flaked 
knives sha}>ed by grinding; roughly worked, multiple-grooved 
hammers or mauls ; and many stone objects unformed and unworked 
but classified generally as hammerstones. 

THE POTTERY 

"About a hundred pottery shards and smaller pottery vessels were 
recovered from the site at Bonasila. Pottei-y vessels representative 
of the Bonasila culture were shaped out of the solid and show no 
trace of coiling. In this respect they conform to the generalized 
north Asiatic and Eskimo ware. There is, however, no check stamp 
decorative design that is applied with a paddle by the Eskimo nor 
evidence that pottery vessels had been built up about a basketry base. 
The paste is light buif or gray in color, the buff ware being better 
fired and of the same color on the inside, while the gray ware is either 
gray or black on the inner surface. A well-defined unfired area covers 
one-half o'f the sectional diameter. Both buff and gray wares show 
evidence of better firing than in modern Eskimo pottery. Tempering 



hrdliCka] archeology OF CENTRAL ALASKA 147 

is of coarse fragments of steatite, which is much more durable than 
tempering materials such as blood, feathers, and ashes formerly em- 
ployed by the primitive Eslrimo potter. 

" The pottery from Bonasila is utilitarian and consists of shallow 
spherical lamj^s, globose bowls, and cooking pots without feet or 
bases. The ware is coarse, side walls and bottom varying from 1 to 
2 ccnitmeters in sectional thickness. This type of i^ottery is prac- 
tically duplicated in shards recovered by Doctor Hrdlicka from what 
is now Eskimo territory in the Yukon Valley near the Russian Mis- 
sion. It is probable that further search would bring to light an ex- 
tensive region yielding this type of ancient pottery of distinctive 
design and unrelated either to Tinne or Esldmo ware. 

"Decorative attempts consist of bold incised parallel transverse 
lines on the upper sector of the outer surface of the vessel. Deep 
corrugations ajspear on the inside of the rim flare. Both corrugations 
and incised line decorations were made with a paddle or wood 
splinter shaped for the purpose. Some of the shai-ds have deeply 
incised pimctations irregularly encircling the outer surface of the 
vessel just below the rim extension. 

" Shallow spherical pottery lamps accompanied surface burials at 
Bonasila. These lamps have a less durable tempering material than 
the other pottery fragments recovered. The paste is porous and is 
poorly fired. Decorative designs incised on the interior surface of 
the lamps are reminiscent of typical Eskimo punctate designs as 
traced on the inner cii'cumference of rectilinear or curvilinear etch- 
ings on ivory and bone. It is very probable that these pottery lamps 
are of a later date and are of Eskimoan handicraft. 

THE ALASKAN GROOVED STONE AX 

[PI. 10] 

" The grooved stone ax is a typical New World implement. Its dis- 
tribution is limited to tribes of the eastern maize area, the Pueblo 
tribes of the Southwest, the Athapascans, and the northern woodlands 
tribes. Elsewhere in America grooved stone implements of any de- 
scription are rare, although not unknown. The groove for the at- 
tachment of cord or sinew binding is common also to the stone adze, 
which is characteristic of Indian tribes of the Pacific Northwest and 
of the Eskimo of Arctic America. The distribution of the stone adze 
is more intensive but is much less extensive than is that of the grooved 
stone ax and appears to be an environmental form borrowed from 
the Arctic tribes by the Indian of southeast Alaska and of British 
Columbia. 



148 ANTHEOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth, ann. 48 

" The double-bitted, multiple-grooved stone ax has two areas of dis- 
tribution in North America. One of these is the country of the 
northeastern woodlands Indians, extending as far south as the Central 
Atlantic States. The other area of distribution is the extreme north- 
west, or the mainland of Alaska. 

" In the collection brought to the National Museum from Alaska by 
Doctor Hrdlicka are eight grooved stone implements. All but one 
of these have cutting edges for use as axes or adzes. The exception, 
Cat. No. 332809, U.S.N.M., is a grooved spherical stone maul or 
club 9.5 centimeters (3.7 inches) long and 7.5 centimeters (2.9 
inches) in sectional diameter. This grooved object was found near 
Tanana on the beach of the Yukon River. Like the grooved stone 
axes in Doctor Hrdlicka's collection, the groove is incomplete. A 
flattened space of approximately 2 centimeters is left ungrooved for 
the hafting of a flat surfaced handle end with binding, which is 
passed around the transverse groove and then through a hole in the 
wooden handle. 

" Three single-grooved, double-bitted stone axes were collected from 
various points on the Yukon River. These are of interest because 
of their similar grooving and double cutting edges. Each is identical 
in form, each has been shaped by pecking, except in the sector near 
the cutting edges where they have been sharpened and polished by 
grinding. Between the raised borders of the centrally pecked groove 
and the cutting edges the surface has been shaped to a slight con- 
cavity by pecking. In Cat. No. 332805, U.S.N.M., this concavity 
is replaced by a well-defined convex bevel. The pecked groove is 
at right angles to the longitudinal axis and is comparatively shallow 
but has a wide diameter of 2 centimeters or more. The material is 
uniformly of basalt. The axes are 20 centimeters or more long, while 
the sectional diameter varies from 6 to 10 centimeters according to 
whether the ax is flattened or oval in section. 

" Grooved, double-bitted stone axes similar to those collected by 
Doctor Hrdlicka from the Middle Yukon region have since become 
known also from stations farther south in Alaska. One was plowed 
up in a field near Matanuska and is now in the chamber of commerce 
exhibit at Anchorage, while another was collected in 1927 by the writ- 
er from near Chitna, Alaska. This Alaskan type of grooved ax is 
practically identical with that of the central Atlantic seaboard 
States, as figured by Walter Hough in tlie Proceedings of the United 
States National Museum, volume 60. article 9, page 14. 

"Another grooved type of stone object brought to the National 
Museum by Doctor Hrdlicka is a stone war club of unusual type. 
It was found on the Yukon River beach li^ miles below the Mis- 



HRDLidKA] ARCHEOLOGY OF CENTRAL ALASKA 149 

sion at Tanana. It is 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) lon^ and is slender, 
the maximum sectional diameter being but 3.5 centimeters (1.4 
inches). Like the single-grooved axes, it was shaped by pecking, 
but much of the surface was also gi-ound. The reverse or hafting 
surface is flat; the obverse is convexly tapered to sharjs cutting 
edges which are at right angles to the haft. The material is basalt. 
The hafting grooves, two in number, are comparatively deep and 
closely spaced. As to form this stone weapon is unique, appearing, 
so far as is known to the writer, nowhere else on the American 
Continent. It has been entered on the records of the National 
Museum as Cat. No. 332807, U.S.N.M. 

" One form of the double-bitted, multiple-grooved stone axes re- 
sembles closely ivory forms made from walrus tusks in the Bering Sea 
region. This form also gives evidence of secondary modification, 
specimens having been broken intentionally to reduce the tool to a 
simple adze. The material is basalt and its range in the north is 
limited to the Eskimo area, but becomes widespread to the south in 
southeastern Alaska and in British Columbia. The form of this 
widely diffused stone adze is approximated in a series of broken 
stone axes collected by Doctor Hrdlicka. Two such broken and 
originally double-bitted axes. Cat. Nos. 332806 and 332810, U.S.N.M., 
were collected from the banks of the Yukon at an old village site 
below Anvik. These axes are broken with a crude irregular fracture 
just above the upper transverse gi'oove. Another stone ax, Cat. 
No. 332812, U.S.N.M., is from Ruby, Alaska, and is practically iden- 
tical with the double-bitted but single-grooved stone ax from Tanana. 

" It would appear from this brief presentation that there is a re- 
markable similarity of form, approaching identity, in the ancient 
stone axes from the river valleys of central Alaska. Whether the 
particular ax has one cutting edge or is double-bitted ; whether it is 
provided with one of with two parallel transverse hafting grooves, 
the general identity of form remains. The striking thing about the 
presence of the double-bitted ax among archeological finds from cen- 
tral Alaska is tliat we do not find it represented in such numbers 
anywhere until it again reappears in the Atlantic seaboard States. 
The very interesting cultural objects discovered by Doctor Hrdlicka 
and supplemented by my collection in 1927 show that Alaska is far 
from sterile or fully known areheologically and make further explo- 
ration both jJromising and important." 



150 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [bth. ANN. 46 

ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE YUKON 

Notes on the physique of the Yukon natives are found in the reports 
of all the explorers of the river, but they are imperfect and of little 
scientific value; the principal ones are given below.^^ Anthropo- 
metric observations on the living people of the middle and lower 
Yukon, with its tributaries, are nonexistent.'* As to crania, there 
are a few measurements on two " Yukon Indian " skulls (No. 7530, 
and probably No. 7531), and on three crania of the Yukon Eskimo, 
by Jeffries Wyman (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1868, XI, 452) ; on 
one " Ingaleet " and three " Mahlemut " or Norton Soimd Eskimo 
skulls by George A. Otis (List of Specimens, etc., 35) ; and on four 
skulls collected by Dall, one from Nulato and the i-est presumably 
from St. Michael, by Hrdlicka (Catal. of Crania, p. 30, Nos. 242925, 
242899, 242901, 242936). 

The Living Indian 

Notes on the living Indians of the Yukon have already been given 
in the Narrative. They will be briefly summarized in this place. 
Measui'em^nts of the living were impracticable during the journey. 

Pure bloods. — The Yukon Indians are a sparse and largely mixed 

=^ Glazunof (Wrangcll, .Stat, und Ethnog. Nacbr., 146-147) : "The men are big, 
brunette, with bristly black hair." 

Zagoskin (pt. ii, 61-62) : " Tbe Tinneb belong in general to tbe American family of 
redskins, but marked external differences are perceptible in those who are mixed with the 
Kskimo. The Tinneh are of medium stature, rather dry but well shaped, with oblong 
face, forehead medium, upright, frequently hairy, nose broad and straight, hooked, eyes 
black and dark brown, rather large « • • expression intelligent, in those of more 
distant tribes somber, roving ; lips full, compressed ; teeth white, straight ; hair straight, 
black to dark brown, fairly soft ; many of the men hairy over the body and with fairly 
thick, short mustache and beard; hands and feet medium, calves small; in general lively, 
communicative, cheerful, and very fond of pleasure and song." 

I^all, William FI., Alaska and Its Resources, 53-54 : " The Ingaliks are, as a rule, tall, 
well made, but slender. They have very long, squarely oval faces, high, prominent cheek 
bones, large ears, small mouths, noses, and eyes, and an unusually large lower jaw. The 
nose is well formed and aquiline, but small in proportion to the rest of the face. The 
hair is long, coarse, and black, and generally parted in the middle. * * * Their com- 
plexion is an ashy brown, perhaps from dirt in many cases, and they seldom have much 
color. On the other hand, the Koyukuns, with the same high cheek bones and piercing 
eyes, have much shorter faces, more roundly oval, of a pale olive hue, and frequently 
arched eyebrows and a fine color. They are tbe most attractive in appearance of the 
Indians in this part of the territory, as they are the most untamable. The women espe- 
cially are more attractive than those among the Ingaliks. whose square faces and ashy 
complexion render the latter very plain, not to say repulsive." (Some of these statements 
were evidently somewhat in error. — A. H.) 

Schwatka, F. (Milit. Eeconn. (1883), Comp. Narr. Explor. Alas., 350) : "As regards 
these Ingaliks as a class, they are, as a rule, of average beisht. tolerably well built, but 
slender, differing in this respect from the natives farther down the river. They have 
long black hair and a complexion brown by nature, but often verging toward black on 
account of a liberal covering of dirt." 

See also Richard.son, J. (.\rctie Search. Exp., I, .379). Jones. S., The Kutcbin Tribes 
(Smiths. Rept. for 1866, 320-327). Whymper, F., Travel and Advent., etc.; and later 
writers (including Bancroft's "Native Races," etc., I, 127 et seq.). 

'-•Ten (8 m. 2 f, ) Loucbeux, or Kucha-Kuchin, from the upper Yukon, were measured 
by A. J. Stone and reported by F. Boas (Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York, vol. xiv, 
pp. 53-68, 1901). 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 13 




Tanana Indian Woman 



H 

a: 
o 
a. 



1 


^^^^^^B^^^^^^^^^98I^^^^^\.^^^^^^^B 


^ 


^^^^fcL_r^ 


-5 




■^F^^^P'^ V'J '•^. 




-j 


-^ --^^^^^Mj^^jgys^^^^^^^^^^pB 


.:<ial 


l^^^l 




BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 15 





Q, Jacob and Andrew. Yukon Indians at Kokrines. Jacob probably has a trace of white blood. 

(A. H., 1926.) 




b, Viikuii InUiLLDi at Kukiuit'i. tA. H., 1926.) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 18 




a, Indian c-liildren, Mission Schiml at Anvik, Lower Alid-ilo Vukou 




b, Indian cliiMren. Mission School at Anvik. Lower Middle Yukon 




'■^.'."•'.V>'V.','; •••'i 




c, Two women of Anvik, on the Yukon, somewhat Eskimoid 



HRDLicKA] ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE YUKON 151 

population. The mixture is especially evident in the children and 
the younger generation. It is mainly that with whites, but in the 
lower settlements there is also a good deal of older mixture with the 
Eskimo. There is fortunately as yet no Negro admixture. 

General, type. — The full bloods are typically Indian, though not 
of the pronounced plains type. The type is fairly uniform, but there 
is not seldom, even up the river, as elsewhere in Alaska, a suggestion 
of something Eskimoid in the physiognomy. 

Color. — The color in general is near medium brown, ranging to 
lighter rather than darker. The hair is the usual full black of the 
Indian. 

Stature amd strength. — The stature and build are generally near 
medium, rather slightly below than above. 

Head form. — The head is generally moderately rounded high meso- 
to moderately brachycephalic. The face is medium Indian. 

Body. — The body proportions seldom impress one with unusual 
strength, yet some of the men are by no means weaklings. The most 
fitting term by which to characterize conditions in this respect is 
again " medium," with an occasional deviation one way or the other. 

Photographs. — The accompanying photographs, taken by the 
writer from Tanana to Anvik, show a few of the physiognomies. 
Some of the girls and women, as well as boys and men, are quite 
good looking. (Pis. 13-18.) 

From Anvik downward along the river the type of the people 
becomes plainly more Eskimoid and on the whole more robust. But 
as one can frequently meet farther up the river individuals who 
remind one more or less of the Eskimo, so here it is frequent to see 
faces that look like Indian. Whether due to old mixture or to other 
reason, the fact is that there is no line of somatological demarcation 
in the living populations of the river, and the same applies, as will 
be seen later, to the skulls. 



"; 



Skeletal Remains of the Yukon • 

The first Yukon Indian skull measured was that of a half-chief 
of the Nulato group, collected in the early sixties by William H. 
Dall. There are now three records of this skull, originally and again 
now a Smithsonian specimen, one in Wyman ("Observations on 
Crania," Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1868, XI, 452, No. 7530), one in 
the Otis "Catalogue" (35, No. 259), and one in Hrdlicka's " Cata- 
logue of Human Crania in the United States National Museum 
Collections" (p. 30, No. 242925). It is a normal, well-developed 
male slvull, which gives no suggestion of mixture. The true meas- 
urements of this " type " specimen, taken by present-day instruments 
ajid methods, are as follows : 



152 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL. SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



Yukon Indian skull No. 242925 



Vault : 

Length cm 

Breadth cm 

Height to bregma cm 

Cranial index 

Mean height index 

Height-breadth index 

Cranial module (mean di- 
ameter) cm 

Cranial capacity c. c 

Face: 

Menton-nasion ( teeth but 

slightly worn) cm 

Alveolar point-iiasion cm 

Diameter bizygomatic maxi- 
mum cm 

Facial index, total 

Facial index, upper 

Facial angle 

Alveolar angle 



18. 


4 


14 




13.8 1 


76'. 


1 


So. 


2 


9S 


6 


15. 


40 


1, 520 


12 


1 


7. 


3 


14 




S6 


i 


52 


1 


69 




53 


5° 



Orbits : 

Right- 
Height cm- 
Breadth cm- 
Left— 

Height em- 
Breadth cm_. 

Mean index 

Nose: 

Height cm- 
Breadth cm_. 

Index 

Upper alveolar arch : 

Length cm_. 

Breadth cm- 
Index 

Basio-facial diameters : 

Basion-alveolar point cm— 

Basion-subnasal point_cm_ 
Basal-nasion cm_. 



3. 25 


4.2 


3.45 


4 


81 


5.1 


2.5 


Jfi 


5.7 


6.7 


So.l 


10.6 


9.4 


10.5 



The skull is seen to be mesocephalic, rather high, and of good 
brain capacity; the face is of medium Indian proportions; the orbits 
are unequal, rather low; the nose is of medium height and breadth; 
the upper dental arch, the basio-facial diameters, and the facial and 
alveolar angles, are all near medium Indian. 

There was another Indian skull in the five Wyman reported, but 
its identity is uncertain. A later collection by Dall included three 
Indian female crania from Alaska, but their exact provenience is 
uncertain; their measurements are given in my catalogue. 

On the 1926 trip I succeeded in collecting directly from the burials 
along the lower middle Yukon 17 adult skulls and skeletons. Such 
material is both scarce and dilRcult to obtain, due to the attitude 
of the Indians. All the specimens in the collection are from the 
Russian, times on the river. A few of the skulls show traces of 
Eskimoid in their features, but none offer a suspicion of a mixture 
with the whites. The measurements are given below. They partly 
agree, partly disagree, with those of the Nulato skull. The vaidt, 
the breadth of the nose, the dimensions of the dental arch, are much 
alike, but the height of the face, nose, and orbits in the Nulato speci- 
men is somewhat lower. These may be tribal but also simply indi- 
vidual differences. We may generalize by stating that the lower 
middle Yukon Indian was mesocephalic, with a fairly high vault, 
and moderate capacity. The face was of relatively good height but 
moderate breadth, resulting in a high upper facial index. Facial 
and alveolar prognathism and other features apjiroach the prevalent 
Indian medium. 



HKDLR' KA ] 



ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE YUKON 



153 



LOWER MIDDLE YUKON INDIAN CRANIA 

SEX: MALE 









Approxi- 


6 S'3" 
s; 3 9 

t. ^ d 


a 

■a 

sa 

~a 

2 

5 


J3 

1 




M 

•a 


1 


« 


i 
a 


d 

O 

3 
to 
o 

2 

O 


Collection 


Locality 


mate 
age of 
subject 


1^^ 

las 
> 


1 
§ 


M 

a 
S 

1 

o 


1 

a 


£ 

1 
td 


3 

o 

a 


03 

a 

o 


332512 


A. HrdliCka 


Magi (Bonasila) . . 


Adults., 


18.4 


13.8 


14.0 


75.0 


87.0 


101.4 


16.40 


1,480 


332517 


do 


Ohost Creek, near 
Holy Cross. 


...do.... 


18.1 


13.8 


13.4 


76. t 


83. 8 


97.1 


15.10 


1,375 


332514 


do_ 


do 


...do.... 


18.0 


13.9 


14.0 


77.2 


87.5 


100.7 


15.30 


1,425 


332503 


do 


Qreyling River 
(above Anvik). 


...do 


1(17.3) 


(13.4) 


(12. 7) 


77. S 


8S.6 


94.8 


(14.47) 


(1,220) 


332507 


do 


Ohost Creek 


...do.... 


18.2 


14.1 


13.2 


77.5 


81.5 


93.6 


15.17 


1,480 


332526 


do 


do... 


...do 


18.5 


14.4 


13.7 


77. « 


83.5 


95.1 


15.53 




339752 


H, \V. Krieger.. 


do... 


...do 


17.5 


13.9 


13.5 


79. i 


86.0 


97.1 


14.97 


1,515 


332502 


A. Hrdlifka 


do 


...do.... 


17.8 


14.2 


13.3 


79.8 


83.1 


93.7 


15.10 


1,370 




(7) 


(7) 


(7) 


m 


(7) 


(7) 


(7) 


(6) 


Total . 








126.5 
18.07 
17.5 
18.5 


98.1 
14-01 
13.8 
14.4 


95.1 
IS. 59 
13.2 
14.0 








106.57 
15. SI 
14.97 
15.53 


8,645 










77.5 
75.0 
79.8 


8i.7 
81.5 
87.5 


96.9 

93.6 

Ml. 4 


l.Ul 


Minim 


um 






1,370 




una 






1,515 













Catalogue 
No. 


Teeth: 
Wear 
men- 
ton- 
nasion 
height 
(a) 


Alveo- 
lar 
point- 
nasion 
height 
(bj 


Diam- 
eter 
bizygo- 
niatic 
maxi- 
mum 
(c) 


Facial 
index, 
total 


Facial 
index, 
upper 


Ba- 

sion- 
alveo- 

lar 
point 


Basion- 
sub- 
nasal 
point 


Basion- 
nasioD 


Facial 
angle 


Alveo- 
lar 
angle 


Height 

sym- 
physis 


332512 

332517 


112.3 


7.5 
7.4 
7.7 
8.1 


13.4 
13.4 
13.3 
13.6 
14.1 


91.8 


56 
55. S 
57.9 
59.6 


10.2 
10.2 
10.2 
10.5 


8.9 
8.9 
9.4 
9.5 
8.6 


10.2 
9.7 
10.4 
10.4 
10 

10.4 
10.1 
9.7 


68.5 
64.5 
69 
66.5 


61 
61.5 
63.5 
59.5 


3.9 
4 


332514 

832503 

332507 


'13 

'12.8 
(') 


97.7 
94.1 


4.5 
3.7 
3.7 


332626 














332552 


(') 
1 13 


8.1 


13.6 
14.1 








8.8 
9.2 






3.8 


332502 


91. S 


57 4 


10.4 


62 


53 


4.2 




(4) 
51.1 
It 78 
12.3 
13 


(5) 
38.8 
7.76 
7.4 
8.1 


(5) 
67.8 
13.16 
13.3 
14 1 


U) 


(« 


(5) 

61.5 

10.3 

10.2 

10.5 


(7) 
63.3 
9.04 
8.6 
9.5 


(8) 
80.9 
10.11 

9.7 
10.4 


(5) 


(5) 


(7) 
27.8 


Averages 

Minimum. - 
Maximum.. 


93. 9 
91.8 
97.7 


57.1 
55. S 
59.6 


66 
62 
69 


55 
51 
63.5 


3.97 

3.7 

4.5 








(7) 
95.5 
13.64 
13.3 
14.1 


















Totals 






























f- 
































Maximum.. 











































1 Premature occlusion of sagittal and subdevelopment of vault; probably a moron, facial and skeletal parts 
all normal. 
' Medium. 
> Slight. 
' Moderate. 
• Cons. 
8 Unknown; all lost. 

88253°— 30 11 



154 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



LOWER MIDDLE YUKON INDIAN CRANIA— Continued 
SEX: MALE— Continued 



Catalogue No. 



332512_ 

332517. 

332514. 

332503. 

332507. 
332526. 
332552. 

332502- 



Orbits: 

Height, 

right, 

left 



Breadth, 

right, 

left 



3.8 

3.8 

3.9 

3.8 

3.7 

3.7 

4 

3.95 

3.85 

3.95 



Orbital 

index, 

mean 



Nose 
Height 



88.3 
916 
91. S 
95. S 



Breadth, 
maxi- 
mum 



5.3 

5 

5.5 

6.7 

5.2 



2.55 

2.6 

2.3 

2.45 

2.5 



Nasal 
index 



J,8.1 

62 

41.8 

iS 

iS.l 



Palate: 
Exter 

nal 
length 

(a) 



5.5 
5.6 
5.3 
5.4 



External 
breadth, 
maxi- 
mum 
(b) 



6.4 
6.5 
7 
6.3 



Palatal 
index 



SB. 9 
86.1 
76.7 
86.7 



3.9 
3.9 

4.15 
4 



Si 



5.35 
5.8 



2.6 
2.96 



,50.9 



Eight- 
Left... 
Totals 



Averages... 
Minimum.. 
Maximum. 



(71 

(7) 
24.85 
24.80 
S.6S 
S.5J, 
3.35 
3.4 
3.76 
3.7 



O) 

(7) 

27.30 

27.10 
a. 90 
3.87 
3.7 
3.7 
4.16 
4 






91 
91.6 



V) 
37.85 

S.il 

5 

5.8 



17.85 
2.66 
2.3 
2.96 



(.7) 



47.: 
41.. 
62 



(5) 
27.7 

6.64 

6.3 

5.9 



32.7 

6.64 

6.3 

7 



(«) 



84.7 
76.7 
90.8 



SEX: FEMALE 













a 


ho 










■6 

5^ 








Ap- 


^ « 2 

tr a c! 

■sBg 


•a 


.a 











"^ 








proxi- 


aa 


oi 




p 






"2 


3 


Collection 


Locality 


mate 
age of 
subject 


i - 

3 £"50 

C3 ti^^ 


~a 
1 


s 

be 

i 


1 

•a 
1 


a 


£ 
"S 


73 


a 

'a 

=3 


aB 

.''as 
oS 
c. 


o 








> 


p 


(0 


o 


ri 


a 


u 





332506 


A. Hrdlifka 


Magi (Bonasila)... 


Adult. 


18.2 


13.4 


13.1 


73. e 


82.9 


97.8 


14.90 


1,400 


332520 


do --- 


Ghost Creek 


...do... 


17.9 


13.2 


12.7 


73.7 


81. 4 


96.1 


14.60 


1,335 


332508 


do 


Magi 


...do... 


17.2 


12.8 


13.1 


74.4 


87.3 


102. S 


14.37 


1,225 


332519 


do 


Ghost Creek 


...do... 


16.2 


12.3 


12.3 


76.9 


86.6 


100.0 


13.60 


1,070 


332610 


do 


Magi 


...do... 


17.6 


13.5 


13.2 


76.7 


84.6 


97.8 


14.77 


1,375 


332504 


do 


...-♦lo... 


...do... 


17.9 


13.8 


13. 5 77. 1 


86.4 


97.8 


16.07 


1,3.W 


332525 


do -.- 


Ghost Creek 


...do... 


17.4 


13.5 


12. 6,77. e 


81.2 


9S.6 


14.47 


1,260 


332525 


do 


Magi - 


...do... 


17.2 


13.4 


12.6 


77.9 


82.4 


94-0 


14.40 


1,230 


332522 


do 


Novi River 


...do... 


16.7 


13.4 


12.8 


80. S 


86.3 


95.6 


14.30 


1,210 


339751 


H. W. Krieger.-.. 


Magi 


...do... 


16.4 


13.4 


12.6 


81.7 


84.6 


94.0 


14.13 




1,210 




(10) 


(10) 


(10) (M) 


(.10) 


(/O) 


(10) 


(10) 


Totals 








172.7 
17. B7 


132.7 
13.27 


128.4 
12. 84 








144.6 
14.46 


12,670 


Averag 


es - 






76.8 


84.1 


96.8 


1,267 










16.4 
18.2 


12.3 
13.8 


12.3 \7S.6 


81 


92.6 
102.3 


13.60 
15.07 


1.070 


Maxim 


iim 






13.5 l«/.7«7.S 


1,400 



















bkdliCka] 



ANTHBOPOLOGY OF THE YUKON 



155 



LOWER MIDDLE YUKON INDIAN CRANIA— Contmued 

SEX: FEMALE— Continued 



1 Catalogue 
No. 


Teeth: 
Wear 
men- 
ton - 
nasion 
height 
(a) 


Alveo- 
lar 
point- 
nasion 
height 
(b) 


Diam- 
eter 
bizygo- 
matic 
ma.xi- 
mum 
(c) 


Facial 

index, 

total 

(aXIOO) 

c 


Facial 
indes, 
upper 
(bxlOO) 
c 


Ba- 
sion- 
alveo- 

lar 
point 


Basion- 
sub- 
Divsal 
point 


Basion- 
nasion 


Facial 
angle 


Alveo- 
lar 
angle 


Height 

of 
sym- 
physis 


332506 

332520 


1 12.1 


7.5 
6.9 
-7 
6.7 

-7 
-8 

6.8 
7.1 
6.7 


12.7 
13.3 
12.6 
12.1 
-12 
13.6 
12.9 
12.8 
13.3 
13.1 


9o.S 


69.1 
61.9 
66.6 
66. i 
68. S 
66 


9.9 
10.6 
9.6 
9.3 
9.7 
10.4 


8.8 
• 9.4 
8.5 
7.8 
8.4 
9.1 
8.7 
8.4 
8.6 
8.5 


-10 
9.7 
9.9 
8.8 
9.5 
10.5 
9.9 
9.6 

-10. 
9.3 


-69 
-63 
-71 

64.6 
-67 
-68 


-64 
-62 
-61 

42.6 
-51 

54.6 


3.8 


332508 

332519 


no. 8 


86.7 


-3 


332510- 

332504 

332525 


+11.6 
>13. 1 

W 

'11.8 


96.7 
91. S 


3.7 
3.9 
3.6 


332505 

332522 


9S.S 


6S.1 
Si.l 
61.1 


9.5 
9.2 
9.6 


-70 

74.6 
-67 


-51 
-64 
48.5 


3.7 


332751 


•11 


-84 


3.36 


Totals 


(6) 

70.4 

11.73 

10.8 

13.1 


(9) 
63.7 
7.08 
6.7 
-8 


(10) 

128.4 

IS. Si 

-12 

13.6 


(6) 


(9) 


(9) 
87.8 
9.76 
9.2 
10.6 


(10) 
86.2 
8.62 
7.8 
9.4 


(10) 
97.2 
9. 71 
8.8 
10.5 


(9) 


(9) 


(7) 
26.05 


Averages... 
Minimum., 
Maximum.. 


91.7 
-Si 
96.7 


66.1 
61.1 
69.1 


-6S 
-63 
74.5 


-6S 

42.6 
-64 


S.68 
-3 
3.9 



Catalogue No. 



332506. 
332520. 
332508. 
332519. 
332510. 
332504. 
332525. 
332505. 
332622. 
332751 . 



Right. 
Left... 



Total.. 



■ll-. 
Average..]. ' 

Minimum. -■ 



Maximum..] " 



Orbits: 

Height, 

right, 

left 



3.65 

3.6 

3.3 

3.4 

3.7 



3.4 
3.5 
3.3 
3.2 
3.7 
3.65 



1 3.26 

j 3.8 

1 3.6 

I 3.7 

i 3.6 

I 3.1 

I 3.2 



(9) 
(9) 

31.55 

31 

3.61 
3.44 
3.1 
3.2 
3.8 
3.65 



Breadth, 

right, 

left 



3.8 
3.8 
3.7 
3.7 
4 



3,7 
3.66 

3.66 
3.66 
3.95 
4.06 



3.8 

3.95 

3.86 

3.96 

3.95 

3.8 

3.7 



(9) 

(9) 
34.4 

34.05 
S.Sl 
S.78 
3.55 
3.55 
4 
4.05 



Orbital 
index, 
mean 



; 
6 
9S.S 



I 90. 



95.9 
91.6 
91.9 
86. 6 



S4 



(9) 
(9) 



91.7 
91 



Nose: 
Height 



5.5 

4.76 

6.2 

4.7 

4.7 

6.4 

5.15 

4.9 

5.46 

6 



(10) 
60.76 

6.07 

4.7 
6.6 



Breadth, 
maxi- 
mum 



2.2 

2.4 

2.6 

2.3 

2.3 

2.16 

2.2 

2.35 

2.3 

2.4 



(10) 
23.1 

S.Sl 

2.15 
2.5 



Nasal 
index 



iO 

60. b 

iS.I 

48.9 

48.9 

39.8 

4i.7 

48 

ii.2 



m 



46.6 

S9.8 
60.6 



Palate: 
Exter- 
nal 
length 
(a) 



6.2 
6.4 
5.2 
5.4 
5.3 
6.7 



5.3 

5 

6.3 



(9) 
47.8 

6. SI 

5 
6.7 



Rxtemal 
brciidth, 
maxi- 
mum 
(b) 



6.1 

6 

6.8 

5.5 

6.4 

6.7 



5.8 



(9) 
55.4 

e.ie 

6.6 
6.7 



Palatal 
index 



86. t 
90 
89.7 
98 B 
8g.a 
86. t 



91. i 
75.8 
SI. 6 



(9) 



76.8 
98. e 



I Slight. 



' Cons, 



* Medium. 



< Moderate. 



' U. medium; 1. mod. 



156 ANTHEOPOLOGICAIi SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann, 46 

Skeletal Parts 

There are seven adult skeletons of males and seven of females. For 
present purposes it will suffice to take the males alone and to restrict 
consideration to the long bones. The essential data on these are 
given on page 160, where they are contrasted with those of North 
American Indians in general, and with those of the western Eskimo. 

The bones show both relations to as well as differences from the 
bones of Indians in general and fair distinctness from those of the 
Eskimo. 

Contrasted with the long bones of miscellaneous North American 
tribes taken together, the Yukon Indian bones show absolutely 
slightly shorter humerus (or arm), somewhat shorter radius (or 
forearm), a slightly shorter femur (or upper part of the leg), and 
a plainly shorter tibia. These Indians had therefore relatively some- 
what shorter forearm and especially the leg below the knees than their 
continental cousins. These facts are plainly evident from the radio- 
humeral and tibio-femoral indices of the two groups. In this rela- 
tive shortness of the distal parts of the limbs the Yukon Indian ap- 
proaches the Eskimo, standing near midway between the Indian in 
general and the Eskimo. There might be a ready temptation to 
attribute this to a mixture with the Eskimo ; but an examination of 
the records will show that the same condition, so far at least as the 
upper limb is concerned (lower?), is already present in the old 
Bonasila skeleton, which gives no suggestion of an Eskimo mixture. 
It is more likely, therefore, that these are generalized characteristics 
of functional origin such as a considerable use of the small canoes. 
This view seems to be supported by the relative strength of the bones. 
In the Yukon Indian the humerus is stouter, the femur of the same 
strengtii, and the tibia very perceptibly weaker than they are in Indi- 
ans in general. In the Eskimo, with even greater dependence on the 
canoe, both the humerus and the fenuir are notably stouter, while 
the tibia is weaker, than are similar bones in the Indians in general. 

The humero-femoral index in the Yukon Indians is unusually 
high, indicating a relative shortness of the femur. This character 
is not present in the Eskimo, nor in the continental Indian. It is 
probably also of old functional origin, though this for the present 
must remain a mere suggestion. 

All of this shows clearly the interest and value of other skeletal 
parts than the skull, and particularly of the long bones, for anthro- 
pological studies. 

Skeletal Remains from the Bank at Bonasila 

The skeletal material from the bank at Bonasila consists now of 
portions of three adult skulls, one male and two females, and of 13 
bones of the male skeleton. All the specimens are more or less 



hrdlicka] 



ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE YUKON 



157 



stained by manganese and iron and all are distinctly heavier than 
normal, sliowing some grade of fossilization. They closely resemble 
in all these respects the numerous animal bones from the bank and 
in all differ from the later surface burials of the place. 

THE CRANIA 

Tlie male skull, No. 332513, is represented by the frontal bone 
united with a larger part of the face, a separated left temporal, and 
the right half of the lower jaw. A large Inca bone, recovered from 
the beach a year later, may also belong to the same specimen. The 
missing parts are probably still somewhere in the sands of the 
beach where there is going on a very instructive scattering and redep- 
osition on a 4 to 6 feet lower level of the contents of the old bank. 

The skull is that of a male of somewhat over 50 years of age, judg- 
ing from the moderate to marked wear of the remaining teeth. It is 
a normal undeformed specimen, and the same applies to the bones 
of the skeleton. 

Notes and measurements. — The frontal shows a medium develop- 
ment, no slope. The supraorbital ridges are rather weakly developed 
for a male, leaving the upper borders of the orbits rather sharp. 

Cm. 
Diameter frontal minimum t>. 75 

Diameter frontal maximum 11.8 

Diameter nasion-bregma 11. 5 

The skull as a whole was evidently mesocephalic, and neither low 
nor very high. The thickness of the frontal is about medium for 
an Indian. 

The face is of medium proportions and strength, with rather large 
orbits, good interorbital breadth, medium malars. medium broad 
nose, and but moderate alveolar prognathism. The nasal bridge is 
not high, nasal bones fairly broad, spine moderate, lower borders 
well defined though not sharp. The submalar (canine) fossae are 
shallow. 

Measurements 



Alveolar point-nasion 

height cm 7.8 

Facial breadth about medium 

for an Indian. 
Nose: 

Height cm 5.5 

Breadth, near cm 2. 7ri 

Index 50 

Left orbit: 

Height cm 3. 75 

Breadth cm 4 

Index 93. 7 

Minimum interorbital dis- 
tance cm 2.6 



Upper dental arch : 

Length, approximately-cm 5. 6 

Breadth, approxi- 
mately cm 7 

Index, approximately SO 

Lower jaw : 

Height at symphysis ap- 
proximately em 

Thickness at Mj (witii the 
tooth held midway be- 
tween branches of com- 
pass) cm 

Height of asc. ramus cm 

Breadth minimum of asc. 
ramus cm 



4.1 



1.5 
6.9 



158 



ANTHEOPOLOGICAl, SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[BTH. ANN. 46 



The condyloid process of the lower jaw is high, mandibular notch 
deep. The whole jaw is strong but not thick or massive. It is In- 
dianlike, not Eskimoid, in all its features. The teeth are of good 
medium size. 

Skull No. 333383.— Oi this skull I brought the right parietal with 
about one-third of the frontal ; Mr. Krieger, a year later, the remain- 
der of the frontal. Other parts are missing. 

The specimen was evidently a good-size female skull, normal, un- 
deformed, probably mesocephalic in form, and moderately high. The 
thickness of the bones is not above moderate. 

Cm. 

Diameter frontal minimum 9.7 

Diameter frontal maximum 12.5 

Diameter nasion-bregma 11.1 

Skull No. 3339S0. — Of the third skull, recovered from the sands 
of the beach at low water in 1927 by Mr. Lawrence, there are only 
the two parietals. The specimen is that of a young adult female. 
The bones, rather submedium in thickness, indicate a skull of slightly 
smaller size and slightly shorter than the preceding but of much the 
same general type. 

The skeletal parts of mal^ No. 332613. — Humeri : The long bones 
all give the impression of straightness, length, and of a certain 
gracility of form combined with strength, but without massiveness. 
The right humerus presents a small but distinct supracondylar proc- 
ess, a rarity among Indians. The fossae ai"e not perforated. Meas- 
urements : 



Length, maximum : 

Riglit cm— 35.8 

Left cm__ 35.3 

Major diameter at middle: 

Right cm— 2.5 

Left cm__ 2. 4 

Minor diameter at middle: 

Right cm— 1. 65 

Left cm— 1.6 

Index at middle : 

Right 65 

Left 66.'i 



at middle, 



cm. 

cm_ 



Type of shaft 
prismatic : 

Right 

Left 

Right radius : 

Length, maximum, 

near cm 27 

Radio-humeral index, ap- 
proximately 75. 5 



There is but small 



The shaft approaches type IV (quadrilateral), 
curvature. 

Eight ulna: Lacks the olecranon; shaft prismatic, with anterior 
and posterior surfaces fluted; but a moderate curvature backward 
upper third. 



HBDLK^KA] AjSTTHEOPOLOGY 


OF 


THE YUKON 


159 


Femora : 




Femora — Continued. 




Length, bicondylar, right 






Diameter maximum at up- 




cm 


48.2 




per flattening — 




Humero-femoral index 


7^.3 




Right cm__ 


3.5 


Diameter autero-posterior 






Left cm_. 


3.7 


maximum at middle — 






Diameter minimum at up- 




Right cm — 


3.05 




per flattening — 




Left cm__ 


3.2 




Right cm__ 


2.1 


Diameter lateral maximum 






Left cm- 


2.25 


at middle — 






Index at upper flattening — ■ 




Eight cm 


2.5 




Right 


60 


Left cm__ 


2.65 




Left 


GO.S 


Index at middle — 






Type shaft at middle — 




Right 


S2 




Right 


1 


Left 


82\.S 




Left, near 


1 



The bones, especially the right, are remarkable for their graceful 
form and approach to straightness. The linea aspera is high but 
not massive or rough. 

Right tibia : Length ( ? ) , extremities wanting. A moderate physio- 
logical curvature forward, middle third. 

Diameter antero-posterior at middle, right cm 3. 25 

Diameter lateral at middle cm 1.95 

Index at middle 60 

The bone is distinctly platycnaemic, as the femora are platymeric 
and the humeri platybrachic, a harmony of characters which is often 
met with in the continental Indian. 



ADDITIONAL PARTS 

These include four ribs, the atlas and two lumbar vertebrae. The 
first rib ai^proaches the semicircular in type and is rather large, 
indicating a spacious chest. Otherwise there is nothing special. 

A comparison of the long bones of this interesting skeleton with 
those of the later Indians from the same and near-by localities as 
well as with those of the western Eskimo (see table, p. 160) shows 
a number of striking conditions. The length of the bones of the 
skeleton is far above the mean of both those of Indians and the 
Eskimo, indicating a stature of at least 10 centimeters (4 inches) 
higher. In none of their characteristics are tlie bones near to tho.se 
of the Eskimo, making it doubly certain that the subject was not of 
that affiliation. Comi^ared with those of the later Indians of the 
same territory, the bones show in one line remarkable differences, in 
another remarkable likenesses. The differences concern all the rela- 
tive proportions of the shafts — the bones of the old skeleton give 
without exception indices that are markedly lower; they are dis- 
tinctly more platybrachic, platymeric, and platycnaemic. But the 
more basic humero-femoral and radio-humeral indices are practically 



160 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



the same; showing fundamental identity. The hiimero-femoral 
index is esiDecially important in this case. It is exceptionally high in 
the Yukon Indians, due to a relatively long humerus, and the same 
condition is seen in the old skeleton. It seems safe, therefore, to 
conclude that the owner of the old skeleton was not only an Indian 
but an Indian of the same ishysical stock from which were derived 
the later Indians of the Yukon ; but he was evidently of an earlier 
and differe-nt tribe or of a purer derivation than those who followed. 
To more fully establish and then trace this type, both as to its 
derivation and extension, will be tasks of future importance. 

YUKON INDIANS : MAIN LONG BONES 

SEX: MALES 1 



Paired bones 



Yukon Indians 



Older 

skeleton 

at Bona- 

sila 



From 

Russian 

times 



Miscel- 
laneous 
North 
American 
Indians 



Western 
Eskimos 



Humerus: 

Mean length 

At middle — 

Diameter, major. 
Diameter, minor. 
Index 



Radius: 

Mean length 

Radio-humeral index.. 



Femur: 

Mean length (bicondylar) 

Ilumero-femoral index 

At middle — 

Diameter, antero-posterior, maximum. 

Diameter, lateral 

Index. 

At upper flattening — 

Diameter, maximum 

Diameter, minimum , 

Index ._ 



Tibia: 

Mean length 

Tibio-femoral index.. 

At middle — 

Diameter, antero-posterior, maximum.. 

Diameter, lateral 

Index 



(2) 
35,55 

2.45 
1.68 

ee.i 

(1) 
n.27 

1. 7S. B 

(2) 
48.2 
IIS 

3.12 

2.57 
8S.I, 

3.60 
2.18 
60. i 

(1) 



3.25 

1.95 

eo 



(10) 
31.17 

2.38 
1.67 
70 

(10) 
23.61 

75. 7 

(H) 
41.92 
7i.5 

2.96 

2.58 
S7.t 

3.26 
2.30 
70.7 

(14) 
34.19 
81.5 

3.04 
2. 

66 



' (378) 
31.8 

2.22 
1.63 
73.1 

(378) 
24.7 
77.7 

' (902) 

42.7 

n. 72.5 

2.96 

2.58 

87. S 

3.27 
2.42 

74 

(324) 
36.9 
84.4 

3.28 
2.16 
6S.S 



'(76) 
30.88 

2.42 
1.82 

75.2 

(76) 
22.86 
7i 

(84) 
42.70 

Q. — 72 

3.03 

2.71 

89.5 

3.37 
2.48 

7S.B 

(84) 
33.61 

78.7 

3.10 

2.12 

88.1 



' See also data in writer's "Physical Anthropology of the Lenape," etc.. Bull. 62, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 
Washington, 1916; and his " Anthropology of Florida." Fla. Hist. Soc. Pub. No. 1, Deland. Fla.. 1922. 

' These numbers apply to length only: under the other items the numbers are in some cases smaller, in 
some larger. The differences are due to defects in some of the old bones. 

3 See also data on p. 165. 



hbdliCka] anthropology OF THE YUKON 161 

The Yukon Eskimo 
the livtng 

As with the Indians farther up the river, the necessities of the 
writer's journey did not permit more than visual observations, but 
in 1927 Henry B. Collins, jr., succeeded in measuring six adult males 
at Marshall. 

In general, the people of the Yukon delta and from this to Paimute 
are true Eskimo. By this is meant that in the majority of indi- 
viduals they can readily be told as a tyjje apart from the Indian and 
belonging plainly to that of the extensive family of the Eskimo. 
But when the differences are to be defined the task is not easy ; some 
of the distinguishing marks, though well appreciated, are somewhat 
intangible. 

The physical differences are essentially those of the lihysiognomy. 
The head is neither narrow nor scaphoid, or even very high. The 
Indian face is more prominent and more sculptured; that of the 
Eskimo appears fuller, especially in the lower part, and flatter. Part 
of this is due to the bony structure, part to the differing amounts 
of fat. An eversion of the angles of the lower jaw, M'hich is relatively 
frequent and sometimes excessive in the Eskimo male while almost 
absent in the Indian, may give the Eskimo face almost a square ap- 
pearance. Take with this the seemingly somewhat low Eskimo fore- 
head, the not verj^ widely open and somewhat on the whole more 
slanting eye, and the characteristic Eskimo nose with its rather 
narrow and not prominent nasal bridge, the ridiculous monklike cut 
of the hair (in the older males), the often rather full lips with, in 
the males, a tuft of sparse mustache above each corner of the mouth; 
add to all this a mostly smiling or ready-to-smile " full-moon " ex- 
pression, and it would be impossible to take the subject for anything 
else than an Eskimo. The Indian's face is more set, less fat, in the 
males at least, less broad below, with seemingly a higher forehead, 
sensibly made-up hair, not seldom a bit more mustache, and a nose 
that generally is both broader and more prominent. 

But the differences are less marked in the women and still less so 
in the children, especially where similarly combed and clothed. And 
there are, pai'ticularly on the Yukon, not a few of both Indian and 
Eskimo who even an expert is at a loss where to class. They may be 
due to old mixtures ; no new ones are taking place ; but it seems that 
there may be present another important factor, that of a far-back 
related parentage. 

In the color of the skin and eyes, in the color and nature of the 
hair, there is no marked difference between the two peoples of the 
Yukon. In stature the Eskimos are slightly higher. 



162 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SUBVEY IN ALASKA [EIH. ANN. 46 

MEASUREMENTS ON LIVING TTIKON ESKIMO 

The exact provenience of the six men measured at Marshall is 
uncertain, but they seemingly were all from the lower Yukon and 
all were apparently full-blood Eskimo. But the measurements are 
rather peculiar. They are given, for comparison, with those of the 
western Eskimo in general (p. 165). They approach nearest to those 
of the Togiak Eskimo, well down below the Kuskokwim. They 
show a higher stature than all of their relations farther south, ex- 
cept the Togiaks, and they have a rounder head. They .oi-e, in fact, 
moderate brachycephals, a veiy unexpected form in this strain of 
people. The Togiaks also are brachycephalic. The vault is rel- 
atively somewhat higher than it is in the other groups, though the 
height is not excessive. The nose is slightly lower as well as nar- 
rower than it is in all the other contingents. The face is close to 
those of St. Lawrence Island. The ear is jDerceptibly smaller and 
especially narrower than elsewhere, but perhaps the age factor enters 
into the case. The hand is much like that of Togiak and St. Law- 
rence, the index being identical. 

The brachycephaly of the group for the present is hard to explain. 
It can not be ascribed to a mixture with the river Indians, for these, 
as has been seen from the skulls, were meso- rather than brachy- 
cephalic. There is need here for further inquiry. 

SKELETAL REMAINS OF YUKON ESKIMO 

As with the Indian, such remains are still rare. Some measure- 
ments of three " Smithsonian Mahlemute " skulls from the Yukon, 
collected by William H. Dall, are given by Jeffries Wyman, and 
probably the same sjoecimens appear in the Otis Catalogue, the meas- 
urements in which are regrettably not very reliable. These speci- 
mens can not now be located, and the scarce data are of but little 
value. The three skulls examined by Wyman were all mesocephalic. 

It is now possible to report on 40 adult skulls from the lower 
Yukon and the delta. An abstract of the measurements is given in 
the next table. The data indicate a considerable local variation. 
All the skulls, or very nearly all, are mesocephalic; but they differ 
considerably in height and in all the facial features. The Pilot 
Station group, from the apex of the delta, and hence the midst of 
the Eskimo territory on the Yukon, is especially peculiar. Both the 
vault and the face, in the series as a whole, range from low to high, 
and much the same is true of the height of the nose and that of the 
orbits, while the palate is exceptionally broad, giving a low index, 
all of which would seem to indicate instability or conditions in 



UBDLICKA] 



ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE YUKON 



163 



change, together probably with admixtures from farther up the 
river. We need more material, particularly from the stretch of the 
river between the apex of the delta and Paimute. 



YUKON ESKIMO CRANIA 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEI0M 



17 males 



Pilot 
station 



"Lower 
Yukon' 



Kashu- 
nolc (of 
Yuiton) 



Kotlik 

and 
Pastolik 



23 females 



Pai- 
mute 



Pilot 
Station 



Kashu- 

nok 
mouth 



Kotlik 

and 
Pastolik 



Number of adult skulls 

Collector __ _, 

Vault: 

Length 

Breadth 

Height 

Module 

Capacity 

Cranial index 

Mean height, index 

Height-breadth, index 

Face: 

Menton-nasion 

Alveolar point-nasion 

Diameter bizygomoticmax- 

imum 

Facial index, total _ 

Facial index, upper 

Orbits: 

Mean height 

Mean breadth 

Mean index 

Nose: 

Height 

Breadth 

Index 

Upper alveolar arch: 

Length 

Breadth _, 

Index 

Basi-facial diameters: 

Basion-alveolar point 

Basion-subnasal point 

Basion-nasion 

Facial angle_ 

Alveolar angle 

Height of lower jaw at symphy- 



(3) 



18.90 
15.07 
13.77 
15.91 
,660 
79.7 
81. e 
91.4 

12.40 
7.85 

14.97 

Si.i 

BS.S 

3.58 
4.07 
S7.7 

5.27 
2.67 
iS.7 

6.70 
7.40 

77 

10.35 
9.07 
10.60 
70 

55 

3.63 



CD 
C) 

18.8 
14.2 
13.7 
15.57 
1,535 
75.5 
SS 
96.5 



(2) 
(!) 

18.45 
14.10 
13.65 
15.40 
1,408 
78. i 
SS.9 
96.8 



7.1 
14.4 



3.55 
4 
88. 7 

5.05 
2.15 
4S.6 

5.4 

6.6 

81.8 

n.10.3 
9.4 
10.8 
74 
60 



57.9 

3.80 
3.91 
97.1 

6.65 
2.28 
iO.S 

5.4 
6.65 
SI. 2 

10.15 
9.10 
10.16 
66 
60 



(11) 

m 

18.44 
13.90 
13.60 
15.31 
1,486 
75. i 
811 
97.8 

12.67 

7.78 

14.13 

90.1 

55 

3.67 I 
3.98 
9tS 

5.53 
2.51 

i5.i 

5.57 
.6.70 



10.40 
9.17 
10.41 
68 
52 

3.76 



(1) 
(=) 

18.7 
H 
n.l3. 6 
15.40 



7 J,. 9 
n.8S. S 
71.96. i 



(3) 



17.80 
14 

13.20 
16 
1,442 
78.7 
8S 
9i.S 

11.90 
7.40 

13.47 

89.1 

55 

3.54 
3.89 
91 

5 

2.33 
i6.7 

5.40 
6.60 
81.8 

10.17 
8.80 
9.97 

67 

52 

3.67 



(1) 

(') 

18.7 
13.9 
12.4 
16 



7 J,. 3 
76.1 
89.2 



3.60 
3.80 
92.1 

6.60 
2.45 

U.5 



8.90 
10.20 



(18) 
(■') 

17.72 
3.62 
13.04 
14.81 
1,359 
76.8 
83. B 
95. S 

11.82 
7.49 

13. 26 

89 

56.5 

3.62 
3.86 
94.1 

5.19 
2.31 

U.5 

6.45 
6.38 

85.4 

10.09 
8.86 
9.98 

67 

53 

3.56 



' Howgate & Schwatka Exp. 



! Rev. P. I. Delon. 



i A. HrdliCka. 



SKELETAL PARTS OF THE TUKON ESKIMO 



The next table gives the measurements of the long bones in both 
sexes in the Yukon Indian (for comparison), in the Yukon Eskimo, 
and in the western Eskimo, the latter coming mainly from the coast 



164 ANTHKOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [ETH. ANN. 40 

south of the Yukon and from the Nunivak and St. Lawrence Islands. 
The Yukon Eskimo material, collected from intact burials by the 
writer, is unfortunately limited to the northern mouth of the river. 
The skeletons from St. Lawrence Island were collected on the 
Smithsonian exi^edition to th^ place in 1912 by Riley D. Moore, 
1927 expedition by H. B. Collins, jr., and T. D. Stewart, all of the 
National Museum. 

The Yukon Eskimo show perceptibly longer bones than do either 
the Indians or the southeastern and mid western Eskimo, indicating 
a somewhat taller stature. 

The humerus in the males is less broad than either in the Indians 
or the midwestern and southwestern Eskimo and has as a consequence 
high shaft index; but in the females the index in the Yukon and 
western Eskimo series is identical. The radius is relatively even 
shorter in the Yukon that it is in the other Eskimo, giving low radio- 
humeral index. 

The femur is notably less platymeric in the male and slightly less 
so in the female Yukon Eskimo than it is in both the Indians and 
the rest of the southwestern and midwestern Eskimo, giving a higher 
index at the upper flattening. The meaning of these facts is not 
obvious and they may undergo some modification with more material. 

As to strength, measured by the mean diameter of the shafts, the 
Yukon Eskimo in comparison to the southwestern and midwestern 
show a slightly weaker humerus, and in the males a sliglitly weaker 
femur at middle, but in the males again, a slightly stronger tibia. 
If, however, the mean diameters of the bones are taken in relation 
to the length of the bones, then in both sexes and in all the parts the 
southwestern and midwestern Eskimo are slightly stronger. This 
would seem to indicate more exertion, with harder life, among the 
coastal and insular than among the river Eskimo. As a matter of 
fact Kotlik and the near-by Pastolik, from which our skeletons came, 
were favorably situated at the northern mouth of the river. 

The Yukon Eskimo females, as compared with the males, have a 
somewhat weaker and especially somewhat flatter humerus, with a 
consequently lower shaft index; they have relatively even a shorter 
radius, giving a lower radio-humeral index; their humerus itself is 
relatively short, giving a lower humero-femoral index ; their femur is 
relatively somewhat flatter at the upper flattening, giving a lower 
index of platj'mery; while their tibia is relatively less strong antero- 
posteriorly, resulting in an index that is more than four points higher 
than that of the males. 



hrdliOka] 



ARCHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 



165 



YUKON INDIAN, YUKON ESKIMO. AND WESTERN ESKIMO LONG 

BONES ' 



Paired bones of the two sides 



Humerus: 

Mean length (right and left) 

At middle — 

Diameter, major _ 

Diameter, minor. 

Index 

Radius: 

Mean length.. 

Radio-humeral index.. 

Femur: 

Mean length (bicond.) 

Humero-femoral index _ 

At middle — 

Diameter antero-posterior maxi- 

imnm 

Diameter lateral 

Index 

At upper flattening^ 

Diameter, maximum 

Diameter, minimum 

Index , 

Tibia: 

Mean length (I. A.) , 

Tibio-femoral index. 

At middle — 

Diameter, antero-posterior mas- 

imnm 

Diameter, lateral 

Index 



Male 



Yukon 
Indian 



(10) 
31.17 

2.38 
1.67 

m 

(10) 
23.61 

75.7 

(14) 
41.92 



2.96 
2.58 
SI.l 

3.25 
2.30 
70.7 

(14) 
34.19 
S/.5 



3.04 
2 

66 



Yukon 
Eskimo 



(16) 
32.10 

2.33 
1.80 
IS.i 

(16) 
23.44 
7S 

(22) 
43.78 
n. 73 



3.05 

2.67 

87.6 

3.31 
2.57 
77.4 

(22) 
35.14 
80. S 



3.16 
2.15 
68.3 



South- 
western 
and niid- 
westem 
Eskimo 



(143) 
30.69 

2.40 
1.80 
7S.1 

(98) 
22.90 

74. S 

(196) 
42.50 



3.08 
2.70 
87.6 

3.35 
2.51 
76 

(141) 
33.86 
79.7 



3.12 
2.12 
67.9 



Female 



Yukon 
Indian 



(4) 
28.12 

1.90 
1.40 
7S.7 

(4) 
21.10 



(8) 
40.16 
7S 



2.69 
2.46 
94.7 

2.84 
2.16 
75. « 

(8) 
31.97 
79.6 



2.72 
1.82 
66.9 



Yukon 
Eskimo 



(16) 
28.31 

2.07 

1.61 

73. S 

(16) 
20.18 
71.3 

(27) 
41.11 
n.69 



2.74 
2.44 



3.02 

2.27 

7S.4 

(27) 
32.01 
79.8 



2.61 
1.90 

72. S 



South- 
western 
and mid*- 
western 
Eskimo 



(136) 
28.40 

2.10 

1.64 

75.2 

(109) 
20.60 
7S.2 

(132) 
39.36 

72. S 



2.69 
2.46 

91. S 

3.02 
2.26 
71 S 

(147) 
31.32 
79. S 



2.71 

1.89 

69.9 



' See also data on p. 160. 

NOTES ON THE ARCHEOLOGY OF THE WESTERN 
ESKIMO REGION 

Archeological work in the va.st area of the western Eskimo is still 
in its infancy. Until the 1926 Smithsonian expedition nothing what- 
ever had been done in this line in the Eskimo parts of the south- 
western coasts of Alaska -^ or on the Kiiskokwim or Yukon Rivers. 

Some time between 1877 and 1881 E. W. Nelson made limited exca- 
vations on St. Michael Island -'^ (see p. 170) and also dug on Whale 
Island. 

^ Dall, W. H., and Jochelson, W., made, as is well known, valuable excavations In the 
Aleutian Islands ; but the Aleuts were not E.skimos. (See Cat. of Crania, etc., U.S.N.M., 
1D24, 39.) 

^ Nelson, E. W., The Eskimo About Bering Strait ; Eighteenth Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. 
Ethn., pt. 1, Washington, 1800, p. 263. 



166 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA rBTH. ANN. 46 

In 1912 V. Stefansson excavated at Barrow.-' Having two months 
to spend at this place he engaged numerous Eskimo of the village and 
had them excavate the native village sites in the neighborhood. He 
says (p. 388) : " It was a small army that turned out to dig wherever 
there was a ruin or a kitchen midden, and they worked energetically 
and well. While the excavations were not done as methodically and 
scientifically as could have been wished, still we were able to get from 
them a collection of over 20,000 archaeological specimens within the 
space of six weeks. This collection (which is now safely stored in 
the American Museum of Natural History) brings out man}' signifi- 
fcant and some revolutionary ideas with regard to the prehistoric 
history of the Eskimo. My method was to dig as much as possible 
myself, and to go around as best I could to see the others at work. In 
many cases I was able to see the exact position from which the im- 
portant finds were taken." The specimens have since in part been 
described by Wissler.^' Stefansson brought also some archeological 
specimens from Point Hope, where, however, no excavations were 
made; and collected a valuable series of crania from Point Barrow. 

In 1917-19 excavations near Barrow were conducted by W. B. Van 
Valin, leader of the John Wanamaker expedition to northwestern 
Alaska, for the Univei'sity Museum at Philadelphia. The excava- 
tions were made in some mounds located about 8 miles southwest of 
Barrow and about 1,000 yards back from the beach on the tundra, 
and uncovered six old igloos containing, aside from many cultural 
objects, the skeletal remains of 83 individuals. These remains have 
since been found to be those of an intrusive group of people and to 
be of special interest.^' 

In 1924 Easmussen during the last parts of his great journey 
gathered numerous archeological specimens at Point Hope and from 
other localities along the west coasts of Alaska. 

In 1926, finally, the year of mj' survey, some careful initial excava- 
tions, with very interesting results, were carried on at Wales and 
on the Little Diomede Island by Dr. D. Jenness, of the National 
Museum of Canada, Ottawa. A preliminary report on the results 
of this work has been published in the annual report of the National 
Museum of Canada for 1926. 

Besides such more professional work a good deal of archeological 
collection has been done in the regions under consideration by local 
people, particularly traders and teachers; and the demand for speci- 

^ My Lifo with tho Eskimo. N. Y., 1913, 387, 388. See also his The Stefansson-Ander- 
son Arctic Expedition : Preliminary Ethnological Report. Anthrop. Tapers Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist, XIV, N. Y., 1914. 

™ Wissler, Clark, Harpoons and Darts in the Stefdnsson Collection. Anthrop. Papers 
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 1916, XIV, 401-443. 

=» Sec section devoted to this find, p. 318. 



hrdliOka] AECHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 167 

mens has made assiduous excavators of some of the Eskimo them- 
selves, particularly at Point Hope and at St. Lawrence Island. 

Beginning with the north, the first white man to be mentioned 
in this connection is Charles Brower, the well-known trader at 
Barrow. Mr. Brower has not only aided all the explorers who 
have reached this northernmost point, but he has also been directly 
instrumental in excavating and the making of archeological col- 
lections, though, regrettably, some of these have been scattered. 

During 1925-26 there lived at Point Hope a very active and inter- 
esting man, sent there by the Fox Film Co. to photograph the 
Eskimo — Mr. Merle La Voy. La Voy, whom I met at Point Hope 
and who for a time became our fellow-passenger on the Bear, had 
not only succeeded remarkably in his own line, but had also amassed 
during his stay a large archeological collection. He did not exca- 
vate himself, and unfortunately paid no attention to the scientific 
side of the case; but by offering the natives sugar, tea, chocolate, 
chewing gum, tobacco, etc. in exchange for specimens, he so stimu- 
lated them that they engaged most assiduously in the excavation, or 
rather picking over as they thawed, of their old ruins, and brought 
him thousands of objects, some of which are of considerable interest. 
At the time of my visit there were several barrels full of specimens, 
largely of stone and ivory. Skulls and bones, regrettably, were 
neglected and reburied in the debris. Later this collection was 
transjDorted to San Francisco, where it remains at the date of this 
writing, in Mr. La Voy's possession. 

At Kotzebue Mr. Tom Berryman, the trader, has made some col- 
lections of Eskimo archeological material, from which I benefited 
for the National Museum ; and the local teacher, Mr. C. S. Replogle, 
informed me that he had a large collection at his home in the States. 

At Nome I found a valuable lot of specimens in fossil ivory, pot- 
tery, and stone, in the possession of the well-known Lomen bi'others, 
members of one of the foremost families in Alaska. The best parts 
of this collection I was fortunate to secure for exhibit in the United 
States National Museum. 

A large and valuable collection of western Eskimo archeological 
material was made some years ago by Dr. Daniel Neuman. A part 
of this collection is in the museum at Juneau; the whereabouts of 
the rest and of Doctor Neuman himself I was unable to discover. 
There are several collections of archeological material from the 
western Eskimo region at Seattle and San Francisco, but none repre- 
sents scientific excavation. 

The names of Joe Bernard, Prof. H. N. Sverdrup, and O. W. 
Geist should be mentioned in this connection, all having collected 
archeological objects in the western Eskimo region. Many speci- 



168 ANTHEOPOLOGICAL SUEVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

mens of value collected by these men and others are in various 
museums or in private hands in Fairbanks, along the west coast or in 
Europe. 

My own small part in the archeology of Bering Sea and the north- 
western coast of Alaska was, as ah-eady stated, mainly that of mak- 
ing a survey of conditions. The object was to obtain a good general 
view of what there was in the line of archeological sites and re- 
mains, and thus help to lay a foundation for more organized re- 
search in the future. In addition all possible effort was made to 
collect and obtain specimens of distinct archeological value. Both of 
these endeavors met with results of some importance. 

Old Sites in the Region of the Western Eskimo 

The shores of the Alaska rivers, the littoral parts of Alaska, the 
more northern Bering Sea islands, and those portions of the Asiatic 
coast that were once or are still occupied by the Eskimo, are strewn 
with " dead " villages and old sites. Many of these dead villages or 
sites are historic, having been abandoned, or very nearly so, since 
the coming of the whites ; some are older, in instances doubtless con- 
siderably older. Collectively they offer a large, almost wholly vir- 
ginal and highly important field to American archeology. They 
may contain much of the secrets of Eskimo origin and of his cul- 
tural, as well perhaps as physical, evolution. But these secrets are 
not to be given up easily. They are held within a perpetually 
frozen ground, which on one hand preserves everything, but on the 
other will not yield its contents except to assiduous and prolonged 
labor. 

Ruined or " dead " villages began to be encountered by the earliest 
Russian and other explorers. Beechey (1826) tells us that between 
approximately the latitude of Nelson Island and Point Barrow 
(60° 34' to 71° 24' N.) they noticed 19 (Eskimo) villages, some 
of which were very small and consisted only of a few huts, and 
others appeared to have been deserted a long time.^" 

Hooper, in 1884, reports Eskimo ruins on the Asiatic side: 

" Near the extremity of the cape [Wankarem] we found the ruins 
of houses similar to those now in use by the Innuits, half under- 
ground, with frames of the bones of whales. Probably they were 
former dwellings of Innuits, who for some reason crossed the 
straits and attempted to establish themselves on the Siberian side. 
These houses have been found by different travelers at many places 
along this coast, and various causes assigned for the abandonment 
of the attempt to settle here by the Innuits. * * * 

'" Beechey, P. W., Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Bering's Strait. Phila., 
1832, 474. 



HEDLiCka] ABCHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 169 

"At Cape Wankarem and at other places on the Siberian coast we 
found the ruins of houses sfinilar to those now in use by the Innuits. 
These houses, which have been found by different travelers at many 
places along that coast, are not at all like those used by the Tchukt- 
chis, which, on account of the migratory habits of the reindeer 
tribes, are so constructed that they can be taken down and put up 
again at will." ^^ 

Ray and Murdoch both speak of old sites. The very spot they 
selected for their observatory at Barrow was one of these. Ray says 
of it: 

"A point about 12 feet above the sea level, lying between the sea 
and a small lagoon three-fourths of a mile northeast from Uglaamie, 
was finally selected. The soil was firm and as dry as any unoccupied 
place in that vicinity, and as it was marked by mounds of an ancient 
village would be free from inundation." ^- 

And farther on : 

" That the ancestors of those people have made it their home for 
ages is conclusively shown by the ruins of ancient villages and win- 
ter huts along the seashore and in the interior. On the point where 
the station was established were mounds marking the site of three 
huts dating back to the time when they had no iron and men ' talked 
like dogs'; also at Perigniak a group of mounds mark the site of 
an ancient village. It stands in the midst of a marsh ; a sinking of 
the land causing it to be flooded and consequently abandoned, as 
it is their custom to select the high and dry points of land along 
the seashore for their permanent villages. The fact of our finding 
a pair of wooden goggles 26 feet below the surface of the earth, 
in the shaft sunk for earth temperatures, points conclusively to the 
great lapse of time since these shores were first peopled by the race 
of man." ^^ 

The village of Sidaru. southwest of Cape Belcher, which in Ray's 
time had a population of about 50, has since gone " dead." 

The most direct attention to this subject has been given by Nelson. 
In his excellent large memoir on " The Eskimo about Bering 
Strait " ^* he states as follows : 

" Ruins of ancient Eskimo villages are common on the lower Yukon 
and thence along the coast line to Point Barrow. On the Siberian 

" Hooper, C. L., Report of Arctic Cruise ot the Revenue Steamer Corwin, 18S1. Wash- 
ington, 18S4, 63, 90. 

'^ R.iy, Lieut. P. H., Report of the International Polar Expedition to Point Barrow, 
Alaska. Washington, 1S8.5, 22. 

^ Ray, P. H., Ethnographic Sketch of the Natives. Report of the International Polar 
ExpcdiHon to Point Barrow, Alaska. Washington. 1S8S, 37. 

'' Eighteenth Ann. Kept, Bur. Amer. Eth., pt. 1, Washington, 1900, 203 et seq. 

88253°— 30 12 



170 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 4e 

shore they were seen from East Cape along the Arctic coast to Cape 
Wankarem. ... 

" On the shore of the bay on the southern side of St. Michael Island 
I dug into an old village site where saucer-shape pits indicated the 
places formerly occupied by houses. The village had been burned, 
as was evident from the numerous fragments of charred timbers 
mixed with the soil. In the few cubic feet of earth turned up at 
this i^lace were found a slate fish knife, an ivory spearhead, a doll, 
and a toy dish, the latter two cut from bark. The men I had with 
me from the village at St. Michael became so alarmed by their super- 
stitious feelings that I was obliged to give up the idea of getting 
further aid from them in this place. I learned afterward that this 
village had been built by people from Pastolik, at the mouth of the 
Yukon, who went there to fish and to hunt seals before the Russians 
came to the country. 

" On the highest point of Whale Island, which is a steep islet 
just offshore near the present village of St. Michael, were the ruins 
of a kashim and of sevei-al houses. The St. Michael people told me 
that this place was destroyed, long before the Russians came, by a 
war party from below the Yukon mouth. The sea has encroached 
upon the islet until a portion of the land formerly occupied by the 
village has been washed away. The permanently frozen soil at this 
place stopped us at the depth of about 2 feet. Here, and at another 
ancient Unalit village site which was examined superficially, we 
found specimens of bone and ivory carvings which were very ancient, 
as many of them crumbled to pieces on being exposed. 

" Along the lower Yukon are many indications of villages de- 
stroyed by war parties. According to the old men these parties 
came from Askinuk and Kushunuk, near the Kuskokwim, as there 
was almost constant warfare between the people of these two sec- 
tions before the advent of the Russians. 

" Both the fur traders and the Eskimo claim that there are a large 
number of house sites on the left bank of the Yukon,^'* a few miles 
below Ikogmut. This is the village that the Yukon Eskimo say had 
35 kashims, and there are many tales relating to the period when it 
was occupied. At the time of my Yukon trips this site was heavily 
covered with snow, and I could not see it ; but it would undoubtedly 
well repay thorough excavation during the summer months. One 
of the traditions is that this village was built by people from Bristol 
Bay, joined by others from Nunivak Island and Kushunuk. One 

'^ This is the " villago of 32 kashims," which I mention in the Narrative and of which 
I heanl independently (p. 71). The present Esicimo claim that it existed on the right 
bank, about 12 miles below Uussian Mission (Ikogmut). My visit and subsequently that 
of Mr. f'liris Betsch, the kind and interested trader at Russian Mission, the latter with 
an old Eskimo, failed to definitely locate the site, but further efiforts are desirable. 



hkdliOka] archeology OF WESTERN ESKIMO 171 

informant said that a portion of tliis village was occnpied up to 
1848, when the last inhabitant died of smallpox, but whether or not 
this is true I was unable to learn. 

"Another informant told me that near the entrance of Goodnews 
Bay, near the mouth of the Kuskokwim, there is a circular pit about 
75 feet in diameter, marking the former site of a very large kashim. 
A few miles south of Shaktolik, near the head of Norton Sound, I 
learned of the existence of a large village site. Both the Eskimo 
and the fur traders who told me of this said that the houses had been 
those of Shaktolik people, and that some of them must have been 
connected by underground passageways, judging from the ditchlike 
dej^ressions from one to the other along the surface of the ground. 
The Shaktolik men who told me this said that there were many other 
old village sites about there and that they were once inhabited by a 
race of very small people who have all disappeared. 

" From the Malemut of Kotzebue Sound and adjacent region I 
learned that there are many old village sites in that district. Many 
of these places were destroyed by war parties of Tinne from the 
interior, according to the traditions of the present inhabitants. 

" On Elephant Point, at the head of the Kotzebue Sound, I saw 
the site of an old village, with about 15 pits marldng the locations 
of the houses. The pits sloped toward the center and showed by their 
outlines that the houses had been small and roughly cii'cular, with a 
short passageway leading into them, the entire structure having been 
partly underground. 

"The Eskimo of East Cape, Siberia, said that there were many 
old village sites along the coast in that vicinity. These houses had 
stone foundations, many of which are still in place. There is a large 
ruined village of this kind near the one still occupied on the cape. 

" On the extreme point of Cape Wankarem, and at its greatest 
elevation, just above the present camp of the Reindeer Chukchi, a 
series of three sites of old Eskimo villages were found." 

To this, on pages 269 et seq.. Nelson adds an account of the villages 
that " died " on St. Lawrence Island during the winter of 187&-80. 
Capt. C. L. Hooiier. in the "Cruise of the Corwin in 1881, Notes 
and Observations " (published in Washington, 1884, p. 100) gives the 
date as 1878-79, and adds further details about these villages. 

Present Location of Aecheologioal Sites 

Through personal visits, wherever possible, and through informa- 
tion from all available sources, an effort was made to locate and 
learn the character of as many of the old sites as could be traced. In 
this endeavor I was aided by many whose services are hereby grate- 
fully acknowledged. Especial thanks are due to Captain Cochran 



172 ANTHROPOLOGICAIi SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

with the officers and men of the Bear^ particularly Boatswain H. 
Berg; to the Lome.n brothers and their esteemed father, at Nome; 
to Father B. La Fortune and the Reverend Baldwin at Nome; to 
Mr. Sylvester Chance, superintendent of the northwestern district, 
Bureau of Education; to Mr. Charles D. Brower, trader at Barrow; 
to Mr. Jim Allen, trader at Wainwright; and to Dr. E. P. Walker, 
head of the Biological Survey of Alaska. The list to follow, supple- 
mented by maps, will give in brief the name, location, and description 
of the remains. 

The old sites occur, (1) in the form of refuse heaps; (2) as late 
village sites, smaller or larger areas of ground covered with mostly 
circular elevations and depressions, with occasionally the wooden re- 
mains of igloos or kashims, or only partly ruined dwellings; such 
remains are the most common; (3) as old village sites in the form of 
a long irregular ridge mound or of more or less separate heaps; 
(4) as heaps or " mounds " of individual structures. And as 
" passed " sites, covered completely by sand or silt and unknown until 
uncovered through the washing away by the sea or rivers of some of 
the deposits. 

In addition there are the remains of burial grounds which are 
occasionally marked by small low mounds or hummocks produced by 
decayed burials that have been more or less assimilated by the tundra. 
Stony beaches with chips, implements, etc., such as are found off old 
sites on the Yukon, have not been seen in the region now dealt with 
in any instance. 

The ruined dwellings and communal houses throughout this region, 
with a few minor exceptions, were of one general type. They were 
circular, yurta-shaped, semisubterranean structures, with a more or 
less subterranean tunnel approach, built of hewn driftwood and 
earth. These dwellings, when the wood decays and the dome falls 
in, leave characteristic saucer-and-handle-like depressions. But 
where such dwellings were close, and especiifilly where they were 
heaped up or superimposed on older ones, the remains, together with 
the refuse, may form an irregular elevated ridge or a large irregular 
mound. 

On the Diomede Islands the dwellings are built of stone, and ruins 
of stone houses have been reported to me from inland of the western- 
most parts of the Seward Peninsula. Stone dwellings wei'e also 
known on Norton Sound. 

Some of the ridges and heaps, as at Shislmiaref , Point Hojse, one 
of the Punidj Islands, etc., are large and may be up to 15 feet and over 
in depth, but mostly the remains are of moderate to small size. The 
latter sometimes could easily be confounded with natural formations. 
The older remains may supei'ficially be indistinguishable even to an 



HBDLieKA] AECHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 173 

experienced observer; and if there is anything still more ancient, it 
lies somewhere in the old sands and beaches where, except through 
some fortunate accident, it can not be discovered. Except for their 
surface, the remains are generally frozen hard, and no excavation is 
possible except through gradual exposure and the melting of layer 
after layer by the warmth of the sun or a melting of the ground 
with water or by some other artificial means. 

Some at least of these ruins are rich archeologically. They greatly 
exceed in this respect a large majority of village ruins and mounds 
in the interior of the continent. This apjiears from their gradual 
excavation by the natives at Barrow, Point Hope, St. Lawrence 
Island, and elsewhere. The natives have now for many yeai-s been 
selling thousands of articles thus obtained to traders, teachers, and 
crews of visiting vessels. A regular and growing trade detrimental 
to archeology is now being carried on in " fossil ivory," which gen- 
erally consists of pieces showing human workmanship and occasion- 
ally includes specimens of rare beauty and importance. 

The archeological contents of such old sites as that near Savonga 
on the St. Lawrence Island, or those at Wales, Point Hope, Barrow, 
etc., are varied, and in instances exceedingly interesting. They com- 
prise a large variety of objects of stone, ivory, bone, and wood, while 
in the more superficial layers are also found occasionally glass beads 
or objects of metal. Some ruins, such as those at Point Hope and 
Kotzebue, are very rich in stone objects; others, as those at the St. 
Lawrence Island, are rich in articles of ivory and bone. Pottery is 
generally scarce. Articles of stone comprise mainly points, Iniives, 
adzes, and lamps; those of wood, goggles and masks; of bone, various 
parts of sleds, a large assortment of snow and meat picks, and scrap- 
ers; of ivory, barbed points, harpoons, and lance heads, and a large 
variety of tools, fetishes, and ceremonial objects; of clay, a few dishes 
and pots for culinary purposes. Traces of objects made of whalebone 
or even birch bark may also appear. 

The stones used were mainly slate and flint, but there may also 
be met with quartz, quartzite, and especially the Kobuk " jade." 
The workmanship is as a rule good to excellent. Tlie arrow points 
show a number of interesting, not yet fully known, types, the long 
blade with parallel sides predominating. The stone lamps and rare 
dishes also need further study. The knives all approach the Asiatic 
semilunar variety. 

The bones and wooden objects and the pottery from this region 
are fairly well covered by the writings of Ray, Murdoch, Nelson, 
Rau, Thomas, and others; the masks need further study. 

The most interesting archeological specimens from the region of 
the western Eskimo, however, are some of those in " fossil ivory," 
the term being applied to walrus ivory that through long lying in 



174 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



the ground has assumed more or less of a pearly yellow, variegated, 
sepia-brown or black color. These objects are known as yet very 
imperfectly. They are scarce at and especially north of Point Hope, 
and again along the west coast south of Norton Sound. Their center 
of frequency comprises seemingly the St. Lawrence Island, some 
parts of the Asiatic coast, the Diomedes, and parts of the Seward 
Peninsula. But they occur at least up to Point Hope, while west 
of Bering Strait they are said to appear as far as the river Kolyma. 
Some of the objects in fossilized ivory show the well-known Esltimo 
art, with geometrical design. But besides these there occur here and 

there beautiful specimens, har- 
poon heads, figures, needle cases, 
etc., which are of the finest work- 
manship and which both in form 
and design differ from the pre- 
vailing Eskimo types. They are 
examples of high aboriginal art; 
and their engraved decorative 
lines are not geometrical but 
beautifully curvilinear. (Fig. 
12.) The accompanying illustra- 
tions of specimens I succeeded in 
obtaining from different sources 
will show the nature of this art. 
(Pis. 19-26.) Isolated specimens 
of this nature have been secured 
before by Nelson, Neuman, Sver- 
drup, Stefansson, and others. 
Jenness in 1926 dug out a few 
from the old sites at Wales. 
There are several in the Museum 
of the American Indian in New York. But the largest and best 
collection of these remarkable articles is now that of the United 
States National Museum.^'"' 

The large fossil ivory figure (20.3 cm. maximum length, pi. 26) 
collected by Mr. Carl Lomen and now in the National Museum is of 
special interest. It comes from the Asiatic side. It is a handsomely 
made piece, belonging in all probability to the high fossil ivory 
culture. Its peculiarity is the bi-bevel face, a face made by two 
planes rising to a median ridge. It is so far a unique specimen of 
its kind. But with the aid of Mr. H. W. Krieger, curator^ of 
ethnology. United States National Museum, we found similar bi- 

i^" MacCurd.v described the first specimen of this liind in 1921 as "An Example of Eslcimo 
Art," in Amer. Anthrop., vol. 23. No. 3. pp. 384-385. See also Collins (H. B.. jr.). Prehis- 
toric Art of the Alaskan Eskimo, Smith. Misc. Coll., toI. 81, No. 14, 52 pp., Washington, 
1929. 




FiGCEB 12. — Conventionalized design from 
fossil ivory specimen shown In Plate 19 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 19 




Terminal Piece of a lance or harpoon. Northern Bering Sea 
Black, high natural polish. Most beautiful piece o( the fossil ivory art. (A. H., 1926, U.S.N.M.) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 20 






FOSSIL IVORY SPECIMENS SHOWING THE OLD CURVILINEAR DESIGNS. 
NORTHERN BERING SEA 

(A. U. coll., 1926, U.S.N.M.) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 21 




OBJECTS Showing the old fossil ivory art. northern 

BERING SEA 



(U.S.N.M., Nos. 1 and 3, coU. A. H., 1926.) 




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0. 
in 

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Ll 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 23 




a, Small, finely made objects in fossU ivory and stone (the head), from the ruins at Point Hope 

(A. H. coll., 1926.) 




b, Old fussU ivory objects, northern Bering Sea. The article lo the right is almost classic in form; 
it is decorated on both sides. (A. H. coll., 1926, U. S.N.M.) 




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Q. 

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BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 26 




Old Black Finely Carved Fossil ivory Figure, from the North- 
eastern ASIATIC COAST 

(Loan to U.S.N.M. by Mr. Carl Lomen.) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 28 




Top; Manche de poignard en ivoire, avec sculpture repr^sentant un renne. Montastiuc {Peccadeau 

de risle; in de Quatrefages (A.), Homnies fossUes, Paris, 1884, p. 50) 
Left: Two beautiful knives of fossil mammoth ivory latelv made by a Seward Peninsula Eskimo. 

(Gift to the U.S.N. ^L by A. H., 1926.) 
Right; Two old ceremonial Mexican obsidian knives. 



HKDLicKA] ARCHEOLOGY OF WESTEEN ESKIMO 175 

beveled faces in wooden figures from northeast Asia, in wooden 
Eslcimo masks from the Yukon, and in wooden ceremonial figures 
from Panama. The latter are shown herewith. (PI. 27.) The 
whole presents evidently a nice problem for the archeologist and 
student of culture. 

I had further the good fortune to secure, through the kindness of 
Reverend Baldwin, two handsome and remarkable knives from 
fossil mammoth ivory. Tliese knives were said to have been made 
recently by the Eskimo of the Seward Peninsula. They are shown in 
Plate 28. They each bear on the handle a nicely carved crouching 
animal figure. With them are shown, somewhat more reduced, two 
probably ceremonial knives from Old Mexico; and also the handle 
of a late palaeolithic poignard from France, illustrated by De 
Quatrefages.^'^ Regarding the latter form we read the following in 
Mortillet : ^' " D'autres poignees de poignard, faites dans des donnees 
pratiques et artistiques analogues, ont ete recueillies dans diverses 
collections. Les j^lus remarquables sont deux poignees en ivoire 
trouvees i^ar Peccadeau de I'Isle, a Bruniquel. L'une se rattachait a 
la lame, comme dans la piece precedente, i^ar le train de derriere; 
I'autre, au contraire, jjar la tete." Knives with similar crouching 
animal figures on the handle are being made by the ICing Islanders. 

Here, evidently, is one more interesting problem for the archeolo- 
gists. 

Tlie art shown by these objects, the conventionalization, and 
especially the decorations, apj^ear to show affinity on one hand to 
deeper eastern Asia and on the other to those of tlie American north- 
west coast and even lower. This may prove to mean much or little. 
The fact that these specimens establish beyond question is that at one 
time and up to a few hundreds of years ago there existed in the lands 
of the northern Bering Sea native art superior to that existing 
there later and at the present, and comparable with the best native 
Siberian or American. 

The meaning of this fact seems to me to be of importance. The 
evidence suggests, aside from other things, that Americon cultural 
developments may after all not have been purely local or even 
American, but that they may, in part at least, have been initiated or 
carried from Asia. In view of these and other recent developments 
it seems rational to consider that America may have been peopled 
by far eastern Asiatic groups that not merely carried with them 
differences in language and physique but also in some cas'-s i datively 
high cultural developments. But these for the present are mere 
hypotheses. 

M Quatrcfages, A. de., Hommes fossiles et liommes sauvages. Paris, 1884. 
" Martinet, G. de., Le pr^historique engine et antiquity de rhomme. Paris. 1900, 
20&-207. 



176 ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

There is no definite indication as yet that the people of the high 
fossil ivory art in the northern Bering Sea and neighlxiring parts 
were any others than the ancestors of the Eskimo. The skeletal re- 
mains from these regions, as will be shown later, rather support 
this view. But those ancestors may not yet have represented the 
characteristic present type of the peoj^Ie. Here, too, nothing definite 
can be said before the results of sufficient scientific excavations 
become available. 

Sites and Villages 

The location of the western Eskimo villages has received more or 
less attention by most of the explorers in their region from the 
Russian time onward ; but sucii eiforts are generally limited to the 
living villages in the area visited by the observers. 

Perhaps the earliest Russian map of value in this connection on 
the Bering Sea region is that which I find in Billings and (Jail's 
Voyage or " Puteshestvie " of 1791, printed in St. Petersburg 1811. 
The map bears no date, but is evidently quite early. It gives three 
villages on the western jjoint and north coast of the Seward Penin- 
sula, namely Kiemile (later Nykhta, now Wales), Chegliukh, and 
Tykiak. (PI. 29.) 

The most notable and valuable of the Russian contributions to this 
subject is that of Zagoskin. This refers to the period of 1812-1844 
and is contained partly in his " Peshechodnaia Opis," etc. (St. 
Petersburg. 1847), but especially on his maps. There are, I find, 
two of these maps — the " Merkatorskaia Karta Casti Sieverozapad- 
nago Berega Ameriky " and the " Merkatorskaia Generalnaia Karta 
Casti Rossijskich Vladenii v Amerike." I came across the first in 
one copy of Zagoskin's invaluable account, which should long ago 
have been translated into English, and the other in another copy. 
Part of the second is here reproduced. (PI. 30.) Both bear the 
statement that they were made by Zagoskin as the result of his ex- 
plorations on the Yukon in 1842-1844. The second (" general ") map 
is much the clearer and richer. Both maps, but especially the second, 
give a good number of villages, especially about Norton Sound and 
along the southern shore of Seward Peninsula. The orthography 
differs somewhat on the two charts. 

The Tebenkof Atlas of 1849 includes a remarkably good map of the 
St. Lawrence Island. As on other Russian maps it gives the Punuk 
Islands, that later are lost by most map makers, and indicates the 
location of what probably were all the living settlements of that 
time, except on the Punuk. (Fig. 27.) 

Finally, in 1861, Tikhmenief, in his " Istoriceskoie Obozrenie " 
(history of Russian America) gives a detailed maja with many loca- 
tions of Eskimo villages. 



erdliCka] 



AECHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 



177 



The Aleutian Islands and Kodiak are excellently dealt with by 
Veniaminof and also Tikhmenief, though little special attention is 
given to the location of the settlements. 

None of the Russian exi3lorei-s, regi'ettably, report verbally on the 
deserted sites or ruins. But their registration and location of many 
villages that have since become " dead " is of much historical as 
well as anthropological value. 

Of later and particularly American authors who gave attention to 
the location of the western Eskimo settlements, the foremost is E. W. 
Nelson. Beginning in 1877 with the St. Michael Island and ending 
with the cruise of the C'orwln in 1881, Nelson made trips down the 
coast to the Kuskokwim, up the Yvikon to Anvik, over the Bering 
Sea, the St. Lawrence Island and parts of the Chukchee Peninsula, 




FiGCKE 13. — World map 

and finally, with the Corwin, along the northern coasts to Point Bar- 
row. And these journeys were devoted largely to biological and 
ethnological observations and collections, the latter including the 
location of the western Eskimo habitations of that time. His loca- 
tions are given on the accompanying map (fig. 15) taken from his 
classic memoir, " The Eskimo about Bering Strait," published in 1900 
in the Eighteenth Annual Report of tlie Bureau of American Ethnol- 
ogy. This memoir contains a section of "Ruins" (pp. 263-266), a 
brief account of the recently dead villages on St. Lawrence Island 
(p. 269), and an instructive section on Eskimo burials (pp. 310-322). 
Nelson brought also the first more substantial collection of Eskimo 
crania. 

The next deserving man in these connections is Ivan Petrof. Of 
Russian-American extraction, Petrof was charged in 1880 with the 



178 



ANTHBOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 48 



census enumeration of the natives in Alaska, and he later published ^* 
a valuable report on his work, together with detailed demogi-aphic 
data and a map on which are given all the living settlements of his 
time. Nelson's map is partly based on Petrof 's data. 

Since Nelson and Petrof but little has been done in this field. 
But the maps of these two observers have been utilized more or less 
by the map makers of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
the Geological Survey, and other Government agencies concerned 
with Alaska. The result is that some of these charts are exception- 
ally useful to the anthropological explorer in Alaska; neverthe- 
less the data they carry are incomplete and the locations or names 





R\ xj T/NA/eH MOS. 
^^AVA'Wr TRIBES 

f,^ I \ ALruTS 

^ — zX'JSrA CHOHCHIS 
\ ^A,-^CRICA TimaiTS 

^^1 NAIDA "A Ky&AHS/ 



V. ■■ v-rt^ ■ 




FiGUBB 14. — Ball's map of the distribution of the tribes of Alaska and adjoining 

teiTitory, 1875 

are not always exact, a good many of the villages shown are now 
dead, and old ruins, as usual, have received no attention. 

A very valuable supplement to all the maps has in 1902 been 
published by the United States Geological Survey. It is the 
Geograjihic Dictionary of Alaska, by Marcus Baker. This 
volume, besides brief but serviceable historical data, gives in 
alphabetical order nearly all the then-known names of localities in 
Alaska, including those of the Eskimo and Indian settlements; and 
each name is accompanied by brief but in many instances most 
helpful information. This highly deserving volume, indispensable 



=« Tenth Census, viii ; rcprintod in Compilation of Narratives of Explorations in Alaslsa. 
U. S. Senate Kept. 1023, WasUington, 1900, 50-281. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 29 



Xa 31; E -P 13 .. K 




■ ^nr u^ert^f 



Billings and Galls Map of Bering strait and Neighboring Lands. 

1811 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 30 




II I .Uni-riivin 



ESKIMO VILLAGES AND SITES. NORTON SOUND AND BAY AND SEWARD 
PENINSULA. AND THE KOTZEBUE SOUND. FROM ZAGOSKIN'S GENERAL MAP. 
1847 



hkdliCka] 



ARCHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 



179 



to every student of Alaska, has for many years been out of print, 
but it is understood that a new revised edition is slowly being 
prepared. 




LE&END 

I I MB 

,5-J/f/A70 YU/T CHUKCHI ATff/tPASOIIV 

SCALE OF MILES 



o ^z, ao lao tbo 



FiGCKE 15. — Xilsou's map. (Eighteenth Ann. Kept. Bur, Amer. Ethn., 189S) 

Otlaer useful publications in these connections are the United 
States Coast Pilots of Alaska, the various accounts of travelers, ex- 
plorers, and men in collateral branches of science (geology, biology. 



180 



ANTHEOPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 4« 



etc.), the publications of the Alaska Division of the United States 
Department of Education, the annual reports of the Governor of 
Alaska, and the decennial reports on Alaska of the United States 
Census. 




Z77777?i 



ESKIMAUAN ATHAPASCAN ALEUT TLlNfalT 

Figure 1G. — Linguistic map, United States census, 1920 

The object of the following notes and data is some measure of 
usefulness to future anthropological and archeological workers in 
Alaska. They are surely incomplete and very imperfect, yet they 
may be of some service. 



HUDLICKA] AKCHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 181 

Archeological and anthropological research in the highly impor- 
tant western Eskimo region is bound to develop in a not far distant 
future; for this is the region through which in all probability 
America was peopled. It is this region that promises to solve flie 
problem of the antiquity of the Eskimo and may throw much light 
upon the origin of these people, and one that, as shown above, has 
begun to reveal highly interesting old cultural conditions. And it 
is a region in whicli destruction of the remains by nature, but most 
so recently by the natives themselves, proceeds at an alarming i^ace. 

The information on which these notes and the accompanying 
charts are based has been obtained largely from the Russian and 
other maps, from local traders, teachers, missionaries, and natives, 
and from a few exi^lorers.^^ Only in a minority of cases was it 
possible to visit the places in person ; to have visited all would have 
been a task of pleasure, but would have required a staunch boat of 
my own and at least three full seasons. 

Many of the sites to be given are now " dead " and there may be 
several old sites in the vicinity of a living village. Others combine 
ruins with present habitations. Still others are partly or even wholly 
abandoned a part of the year when the inhabitants go camping or 
hunting, and are partly or wholly occupied during the rest of the 
year. Finally, there are some new settlements, with modern dwell- 
ings and ways, and their number will increase, the Eskimo taking 
kindly to civilization and individual property. 

The data to be given here are limited to the Eskimo territory 
in southwestern and western Alaska, leaving out those in Silieria 
where much is uncertain. Due to the uncertainties of the Prince 
William Sound region they will begin with Kodiak Island. There 
are also on hand, principally due to Dr. E. P. Walker, numerous 
locations of old sites and villages in the Indian parts of southern 
and southeastern Alaska, but these will best be reserved for another 
occasion. 

The Eskimo area will be roughly seen from the accompanying map 
published on the basis of the enumeration by the Fourteenth United 
States Census of 1920. A very great part of the territory allotted 
to the Eskimo, as well as that of the Indian, is barren of any popu- 

" I am especi.illy indebted to the two maps of Zagoskin (one prepared by himself, one 
from his data) ; to the 1840 Russian map of the St. Lawrence Island : to the various maps 
of the U. S. Geolotrical Survey and the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey : to the maps and 
data of W. H. Dall, E. W. Nelson, and Ivan Petrof ; to the various reports of the Concin 
and other voyages in the Bering Sea and the western Arctic ; to the Geographic Dictionary 
of Alaska, by Marcus Baker, and to the V. S. Coast Pilots of Alaska ; to the data of the 
Alaska Division, U. S. Department of Education ; to Dr. E. P. Walker, of the Biological 
Survey : to Father La Fortune, the Reverend Baldwin, and to Mr. Carl J. Lomen at Nome : 
to Mr. Sylvi'sfiT Chance, superintendent in 1026 of the schools of the Kotzebue district : 
to Messrs. James Allen at Wainwright and Charles Brower at Barrow ; and to numerous 
other friends who aided me in this direction. 



182 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ANN. 46 

lation or its traces; the divisions represent the hunting grounds or 
grounds claimed by each people, not an occupied territory. The data 
will be given in south-to-north order. 

Nearly all the settlements in these regions are now, and have 
evidently always been, on the shores of the seas and bays, as close 
to the water as safety would permit. A few villages and sites occur 
also, however, on inland lakes and rivers. The favored locations 
have been an elevated flat near the mouth of a fresh-water stream 
or the outlet of a lagoon, a sufficiently elevated spit projecting into 
the sea, or an elevated bar between the sea and an inland lake. The 
essentials were an elevated flat, a supply of fresh drinking water, 
and a location favorable for fishing and hunting; if there was some 
natural protection, so much the better. There were no inland settle- 
ments except on the lakes and rivers. In a few cases, as at the 
Kings and the Little Diomede Islands, very difficult locations were 
occupied only because outweighed by other advantages. 

Caves throughout the occupied region north of the Aleutian chain 
are absent, and there was therefore no cave habitation. 

None of the settlements were very large, though a few were much 
larger than others. They ranged from one or two family camps 
or houses to villages of some hundreds of inhabitants. A large ma- 
jority of the settlements had from but two or three to approximately 
a dozen families. 

There were two main types of dwellings, the semisubterranean 
sod houses for the winter and the skin tents for summer. In some 
jDlaces the two were near each other ; in others the summer dwellings 
were in another and at times fairly distant locality. 

The "zimniki" (in Russian) or winter houses were throughout 
the region of one general type. They were fair-sized circular semi- 
subterranean houses, made of driftwood and earth, and provided 
with a semisubterranean entrance vestibule. Their i-emains are char- 
acterized everywhere by a circular pit with a short straight trench 
depression, the same pot-and-handle type as found along the Yukon. 
Rarely for the construction of the houses, where driftwood did 
not suffice, recourse was had to whale ribs and mandibles. The 
" letniki," or summer houses, were constructed on the surface of 
wood, sod and skins, or of whale ribs and skins, approaching on one 
hand the summer huts of various continental tribes and on the other 
the " yurts " of the north Asiatic peoples. The " kashims," or com- 
munal houses, were built, much as on the Yukon, like the family 
dwellings, but occasionally quadrilateral and nmch larger. Smaller 
semisubterranean storage houses of driftwood and sod near the 
winter dwellings were seemingly general. 

Ruins of stone dwellings, without mortar, are said to exist in 
places on Norton Sound and Bay and on a lagoon near the western 



unDLicKA] ARCHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 183 

end of the Seward Peninsula. The few houses on the Little Diomede 
are made of loose unhewn stone slabs. The dwellings of the King 
Islanders are built on the rocky slope of the island on platforms sup- 
ported by jDoIes, all of driftwood. 

There is as a rule an absence of separate refuse heaps near the 
villages. The refuse apparently has been dumped about and be- 
tween the houses rather than on separate piles. 

Dead villages abound. On consulting the older Kussian records, 
however, it is seen that nearly all were still " living " as late as the 
early forties of the last century. Yet there are sites that were 
" dead " already when the Russians came, and the accumulations in 
other cases denotes a long occupation. 

The site of a dead village, in summer, is generally marked by 
richer and greener vegetation; same as on the Yukon. The site 
itself is usually pitted or humped in a line forming a more or less 
elevated ridge, or the pits may be disseminated without apparently 
much order. An^ there may be irregular moundlike heaxjs without 
external traces of any structure. 

In the older sites no trace of wood is visible ; in the later rotten 
posts, crosspieces, parts of the covering of the house or tunnel, or even 
a whole habitation may be present. In the old sites the wood is 
hewn with stone axes ; in the later it is sawed, and there may be nails. 

Older accumulations lie occasionally beneath more recent ones, 
though no interruption of continuity may be traceable. Of a super- 
position of villages no trace was observable. 

Btxrial Grounds 

Due to the impossibility of digging sufficiently deep into the frozen 
ground the western Eskimo buried their dead neAr or on the surface 
or among rocks. Occasionally they utilized also, it seems, old dwell- 
ings for this jnu-pose, and in more recent times at least the surface 
burials, wherever there was driftwood, would be protected by heavy 
rough-hewn planks put together in the form of boxes or by drift- 
wood. They bear close fundamental resemblance to those of the 
Yukon. On the Nunivak Island occur graves made of rough stone 
slabs piled up without much order. (PI. 31, «., b.) 

Throughout the region the burials were located near the village, 
but the distance varied according to local conditions and habits. In 
some of the Eskimo villages of the lower Yukon, as at Old Hamil- 
ton, some burials were close to the houses of the living. In the Bering 
and Arctic regions the burial grounds, though sometimes of necessity 
not far from the houses, as at the Little Diomede, in other places, 
as at Point Hope and Barrow, were at a distance extending to beyond 
a mile and a half from the village. 



184 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. a.-^s. 4o 

As a rule the wood of burials older than about 80 years was found 
fully decayed with the bones secondarily buried. Of earlier burials 
there is generally no trace on the surface, but on excavation skeletal 
remains are found at various depths below the surface. These char- 
acteristic self-burials, or rather tundra burials, may j^rove of much 
importance to anthropology in the future. As outlined before (see 
Narrative, pp. 77, 79) the process is a decay of the wood ; the sagging 
down of the bones, covered more or less by the decayed material; an 
encroachment of moss or other vegetation on the little mound thus 
produced ; and gradual accumulation through wind or water carried 
materials of more covering over the bones, imtil the mound disap- 
pears and the remains, generally still in good condition, are buried 
as if intentionally inhumed. 

The Eskimo everywhere were found to be exceedingly sensible 
about the older, and even recent, skeletal remains, and assisted readily 
in their collection, as well as in excavation, offering thus the best 
possible conditions for anthropological and arct^ieological work in 
these regions. 

The notes, charts, and a detailed list of the sites and villages fol- 
low. In numerous cases it was found impossible to say whether a 
site was completely " dead " or still occasionally partly occupied, so 
that distinctive markings had to be abandoned. 

Prince William Sound, Kodiak Island, Alaska Peninsula 

Very largely still a terra incognita for anthropology and arche- 
ology. Partly occupied by Indians (Prince William Sound, Kodiak 
Island?), partly by mix-blood Aleut (parts of Peninsula, and of 
Kodiak), partly by Eskimo. There is but little skeletal or arche- 
ological material from the whole extensive territory. 

kodiak island and neighborhood 

[Fig. 17] 

1. Litnik (probably the Russian "Lietnik," the name for a .sum- 
mer village). — Indian village on Afognak Bay, Afognak Island. 
This name is foimd on a map made by the Fish Commission in 1889. 
Apparently it is the Afognak of other maps (G. D. A.).**" 

2. Afoffnak. — On the southwestern part of Afognak Island. Vil- 
lage or row of scattered dwellings on shore of Afognak Bay, in 
southwestern part of Afognak Island. Population in 1890, 409. 
(G. D. A.) According to Walker, "an important, occupied native 

*° G. D. X. : Geographic Dictionary of Alaska, by Marcus Baker, L'. S. Geol. Surr., Wash- 
ington, 1902. 



IIEDLlC'KA] 



ARCHEOLOGY OF WESTEEN ESKIMO 



185 



village which has probably been occupied for a long time. No doubt 
there are other native villages in this immediate vicinity." 

3. Spruce Island. — Ouzinkie, or Uzinki; an occupied native vil- 
lage and cannery. (E. P. W.)." 




Figure 17. — Villages and sites on Kodialt Island 

4. Eagle Harbour or Ugak Bay. — Possibly the native village 
" Orlova " of the Russians. (G. D. A.) 

5. Kiliuda. — Native village, on the north shore of Kiliuda Bay, 
Kodiak. Has been generally written Kiliuda. (G. D. A.) 

« E. p. W. : Dr. E. P. Wallser. 
88253°— 30 13 



186 ANTHEOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 40 

6. Nvrnxmniut. — Native village, on the shore of Three Saints Har- 
bor, Kodiak. (G. D. A.) Better known locally as Three Saints 
Bay. There was formerly an old native and Russian settlement at 
this point and vicinity, and fishing operations are frequently now 
conducted here. (E. P. W.) 

7. Kaguyah. — Village, at Kaguyak Bay, on the southwestern shore 
of Kodiak. It may be identical with the Kaniag-miut of the Rus- 
sian-American Co., in 1849. (G. D. A.) An old native village at 
present occupied by only one or two families. Possibly an old 
site. (E. P. W.) 

8. AiaktaJik. — Village on one of the goose islands, near Kodiak. 
Population in 1890, 106. (G. D. A.) An occupied native village 
consisting of about a dozen houses, but which has probably been 
occupied for a long time. (E. P. W.) 

9. Akhiok. — Native village on the northern shore of Alitak Bay, 
Kodiak. Native name from Petrof, 1880. Apparently identical 
with Oohaiack of Lisianski in 1805. (G. D. A.) An occupied native 
village consisting of about a couple of dozen houses. This or pos- 
sibly other villages in the vicinity have undoubtedly been occupied 
for a long time. It is possible that there was a native settlement at 
Lazy Bay near this point, for Lazy Bay was formerly a native head- 
quarters for sea otter hunting. (E. P. W.) 

10. Karluk. — Village at mouth of Karluk River, Kodiak. Native 
name from the Russians. (G. D. A.) 

11. ZJyak. — Bay indenting the northwestern coast of Kodiak; also 
a village. Native name from the Russians. Lisianski, 1805, spells it 
Oohiack and the village Ooiatsk. Petrof, 1880, writes it Ooiak. Has 
also been written IJiak. (G. D. A.) 

12. Larsen Bay. — A cannery has been located at this point for a 
number of years, and there is an old native trail from Larsen Bay 
to Karluk River, so presumably natives have frequented this section 
and no doubt have at some time had settlements there. Definite 
information regarding this is not available. (E. P. W.) 

13. Ugamik. — Native village at head of Uganik Bay. Shown by 
Lisianski, 1805, who spells it Oohanick. (G. D. A.) An occupied 
native village and one which has apparently been in use for a con- 
siderable period. (E. P. W.) 

ALASKA PENINSULA 

[Figs. 18, 19] 

Native settlements or old villages at one or more points in Kam- 
ishak Bay, Ursus Cove, or Iliamna Bay are reported, but there is 
nothing definite on the subject. (E. P. W.) 



HIiDLlCKA] 



AECHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 



187 



14. U'tmnna. — An occupied native village, and undoubtedly there 
are various village sites on Iliamna Lake regarding which informa- 
tion could be obtained from parties in Iliamna. (E. P. W.) 

15. Ashivak. — Native village (population 46 in 1880), near Cape 
Douglas, Cook Inlet. Native name reported by Petrof in 1880. 
(G. D. A.) 

16. Kayayak. — Village, on Svikshak Bay, Shelikof Strait, about 
25 miles southwest of Cape Douglas. Tebenkof, 1849, has Kaiaiak 




Figure 18. — Villages and sites on tbe proximal half of Alaslia Peninsula 

settlement, which has on many charts appeared as Kayayak. 
(G. D. A.) 

17. Kukak. — Native village, on Kukak Bay. Lutke, 1835, has 
Koukak Bay and village. (G. D. A.) 

18. Katviai. — Village, on Katmai Bay, Shelikof Strait, northwest 
of Kodiak. This is one of the most important of the native villages. 
Population in 1880, 218; in 1890, 132. (G. D. A.) A native village 
which was occupied up to the time of the Katmai eruption but was 
abandoned at that time. (E. P. W.) 



188 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IjST ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 40 



19. Cold 5a?/.— Small village. 

20. Kanatak. — A native village consisting of about half a dozen 
houses until in 1922, when oil activity in the vicinity caused a small 
vdiite settlement to locate at this point. This, however, has since 
been almost entirely abandoned by whites. (E. P. W.) 

21. Kuiukuk. — Small village. 

22. Chignik. — Fishing station on Chignik Bay, Alaska Peninsula. 
Population in 1890, 193. (G. D. A.) There are three canneries in 
this immediate vicinity, a number of natives, and undoubtedly some 
native villages and probably old village sites. (E. P. W.) 




Figure 10. — Villages and .sites on the distal half of Alaska Peninsula 

23. Kaluiak. — Native village, on the southern shore of Chignik 
Bay, Alaska Peninsula. So given by Petrof in 1880 and the Fish 
Commission in 1888. (G. D. A.) 

24. Mitrofania. — An old native village which has recently been 
abandoned or practically abandoned ; was apparently a rather im- 
portant village at one time. (E. P. W.) 

25. Peri^viUe. — A recently established native village consisting of 
natives from various points along the Alaska. Peninsula who were 
moved there primarily by the Bureau of Education since the Katmai 
eruption. (E. P. W.) 

26. Kujulik. — Walker has been informed that there is an old vil- 
lage site of that name either in this bay or on Kumlik. 



BHDLirKA] AECHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 189 

27. Old village mentioned on this island; uncertain. 

28. Wo,m>ese>iski. — An old village site on this island reported. 
(E. P. W.) 

29. Pat'Iof.—Rev. D. Hotvoitzky. of Belkofski, informed Walker 
that there is a very old abandoned village site at the head of this bay. 

30. Belhofshi. — Bay, cajse. and village on south coast of Alaska 
Peninsula. Named by the Russians as early as 1835 and probably 
earlier. (G. D. A.) The most important occupied native village on 
the Alaska Peninsula. Quite an old village and a former head- 
quarters for sea-otter hunting. (E. P. W.) 

31. 32. Morzhovol. — Nftive village at western end of Alaska 
Peninsula. Named Morzhovoi (Wah-us) by the Russians. Variously 
spelled. There are or were two villages, one called Old Morzhovoi, 
the other New Morzhovoi, being about 12 miles apart. Old Mor- 
zhovoi was at the head of Morzhovoi Bay; New Morzhovoi is on 
Traders Cove, which opens into Isanotski Strait. The Greek church 
here is named Protassof, and Petrof, 1880, called the settlement 
Protassof. (G. D. A.) An occupied native village. The natives 
from this village also live during the canning season at the cannery 
in False Pass directly across the strait from Morzhovoi and at Ika- 
tan a short way to the south. (E. P. W.) 

33. Herendeen. — Walker has been informed that there are some 
shell mounds or kitchen middens about this bay. Walter G. Culver, 
formerly an employee of the Bureau of Education, but who is at 
present in Anchorage in care of the Alaska Railway, can give infor- 
mation regarding this and can also give information regarding most 
of the other native villages along the Alaska Peninsula. (E. P. W.) 

34. Port MolJcr. — Eskimo site somewhere in this vicinity; name 
and exact location uncertain. 

35. Unanffashik. — A native village, or portage, near Port Heiden. 

36. Meshilc. — A village on Port Heiden. 

37. Ugashik. — A native village on the Ugashik River. Reported 
by Petrof, 1880. 

38. Igagik {or Egegik). — A ^yllage at the mouth of the Egegik 
River. 

39. Kiniak {or Naknak, or Swvorof). — A village (of "Aleuts," 
Sarichef ) at mouth of Naknak River, Bristol Bay, south side. 

40. Pawik {or Pakwik). — Eskimo village, at mouth of Naknak 
River, Bristol Bay, north side. 

41. Kogmnk. — Eskimo village at mouth of Kvichak River, Bristol 
Bay. Native name, reported in 1880 bv Petrof, who spelled it Kog- 
giung. (G. D. A.) 

42. Lockaiiok. — Small village. 

43. Kaslianak. — Small old village. 



190 ANTHROPOLOGICAL. SURVEY IN ALASKA [bth. ann. 46 

44. Kvichak. — Old Eskimo village on river of same name between 
Kvichak Bay and Iliamna Lake. 

Bristol Bay to Cape Romanzof 

From the northern part of Bristol Bay to Cape Romanzof a 
partial survey of the coast was made in 1927 by Collins and Stewart 
(U. S. National Museum Expedition). In these regions and on 
the Nunivak Island it was possible to locate a series of villages 
some of which are still '" living," others in ruins. In the late 
seventies of the last century, as stated before, the coast between 
Kuskokwim Bay and St. Michael Island was visited and its villages 
recorded by Nelson. A detailed archeological survey of this coast 
remains for the future. Doctor Romig, formerly a medical mis- 
sionary at Bethel, told me of a number of old sites on the river. 
Some notes of interest by T. D. Stewart are given in the details. 
Mr. F. W. Bundy, for a time my companion on the Bear, told of 
an old site on the Kuskokwim. In March, 1927, H. W. Averill, 
writing from Bethel, tells of a deep-lying old site on the southern 
coast of the Kuskokwim Bay. (See details.) And later the same 
year Father Philip I. Delon, of the Holy Cross Mission, sent in 
three skulls from Kashunuk, in the Yukon delta, with information 
of much additional material in that locality. 

45. Nv^hagak. — Old Russian post, "Alexandrovsk." Eskimo vil- 
lage, a few whites; a number of old native sites scattered about 
head of Nushagak Bay. 

46. Ekuk. — Eskimo settlement near the mouth of Nushagak River. 
Name from Lutke, 1928, who spelled it Ekouk. Has also been writ- 
ten Yekuk. (G. D. A.) 

46a. Reported site of Eskimo village. 

47. UaJik. — Native village, on the western shore of Kulukak Bay, 
Bristol Bay, Bering Sea. Given by Petrof, 1880, as Ooallikh and 
by Spurr and Post as Oalligamut; i. e., Oallik people. (G. D. A.) 

48. Togiak. — Old Eskimo settlement. 

49. Ekilik. — Possibly the same as Togiakmute, reported in 1880 
by Petrof. Eskimo village on the west bank of Togiak River, 
about 10 miles from its mouth. Eskimo name obtained by Spurr 
and Post, in 1898, who write it Ekiligamut; i. e., Ekilik people. 

50. A small Eskimo village. 

51. Mwntmk. — Eskimo village at head of Goodnews Bays, Ber- 
ing Sea. Population in 1890, 162. Name from Petrof, 1880, who 
spelled it Mumtrahamute. (G. D. A.) Visited 1927 by Collins 
and Stewart ; collections. 

52. Site of a village, at junction of Bessie Creek and Arolic 
River. 



HRDLIrKA] 



ARCHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 



191 



63. Arolik. — A village. H. W. Averill of Bethel write.s me under 
date of jVIarch 3, 1927, as follows : " I am sending you some old stone 
pieces that came from the Aralic River, a tributary of the lower 
Kuskokwim River, that were washed up by a bend in the river from 
an old village that is now 6 feet underground." 




Figure 20. — Eskimo villages and sites on Nushagak Bay to Kuskokwim Bay 

54. KwlrMk. — Eskimo village on the eastern shore of Kuskokwim 
Bay, at the mouth of the Kwinak or Kanektok River, Bering Sea. 
So given by Sarichef, 1826, and Tebenkof, 1849. Petrof, 1880, writes 
it Quinehahamute, or, omitting the termination mute, meaning peo- 
ple, it would be Quene-a-ak. (G. D. A.) 

55. Apokak. — Eskimo village on the eastern shore of Kuskokwim 
Bay, at the mouth of Apoka River. According to Nelson, 1878-79, 



192 ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann.46 

its native name is Apokagamute; i. e., Apokak people. In the 
Eleventh Census, 1890, it is called Ahpokagamiut. (G. D. A.) 

56. Eek. — Eskimo village at mouth of Eek River. 

57. Akiah. — Eskimo village on the right bank of the Kuskokwim, 
about 30 miles above Bethel. Petrof, 1880, wrote its name Ackiag- 
mute; i. e., Akiak j^eople. Spurr and Post, 1898, write Akiagmut, 
following Missionary J. H. Kilbuck. (G. D. A.) Reindeer camps 
in vicinity. 

58. Bethel. — White and Eskimo settlement and mission at or near 
the old Eskimo village Mumtrelega. 

59. Napaiskak. — Eskimo village on the left bank of the Kuskok- 
wim, about 4 miles below Bethel. According to Nelson, 1878-79, its 
native name is Napaskiagamute, and according to Missionary Kil- 
buck, 1898, it is Napaiskagamut; i. e., Najiaiskak people. 

60. Old sites. — Mr. Bundy, my comi^anion for a time on the Bear, 
gives the following details : " Specimens found about 12 miles below 
Bethel, Alaska, at the mouth of the Kuskokwim River, beneath 
about 10 or 12 feefc of alluvial soil deposits of sand and clay. 

"Mr. Jack Heron, of Bethel, first noted the presence of old im- 
lilements, and upon returning with him about August 1, 1923, we 
found the river had cut into the bank quite a bit and had brought to 
A'iew, after the high waters had receded, additional specimens. 

" Those found included : A large copper kettle of perhaps 8 gal- 
lons capacity of early Russian pattern, several arrowheads of slate 
or dark gray flint, and two spearheads of bone with several broken 
Imife blades of slate and one or two small ivory ornaments resembling 
birds." 

61. Napakiak. — Eskimo village on the right bank of the Kus- 
kokwim, about 10 miles below Bethel. Nelson, 1878, reports the 
native name as Napahaiagamute. (G. D. A.) 

62. Klnak. — Eskimo village on right bank of the lower Kuskok- 
wim. Visited by Nelson in January, 1879, who reported its native 
name to be Kinagamiut; i. e., Kinak people. Its population was at 
that time about 175. Population in 1880, 60; 1890, 257. (G. D. A.) 

63. Village site (?). 

64. Kus-lcovcck. — Eskimo village, on the right bank of the Kus- 
kokwim River, near its mouth. Name from Nelson, who passed near 
it in January. 1879, and who writes it Kuskovakh. (G. D. A.) 

65. Popokak. — Native village. 

66. Kulvagavik. — Eskimo village, on the western side of Kus- 
kokwim Bay. Bering Sea. Visited by Nelson in January, 1879, and 
its native name reported by him to be Koolvagavigamiut. (G. 
D.A.) 



hrdliCka] 



AECHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 



193 



67. KongiffanaA\~^skimo village (of about 175 people in 1878) 
on north shore of Kuskokwim Bay. Visited by Nelson in December, 
1878. (G. D. A.) 

68. Anogok. — E.skimo village, on the mainland shore just west of 
Kuskokwim Bay, Bering Sea. Visited by Nelson in December, 1878. 
(G. D. A.) 

69. Choi it. —Eskimo village, of about 60 people in 1878, on left 
bank of the Kuguklik River, northwest of Kuskokwim Bay. Visited 
by Nelson in December, 1878. (G. D. A.) 




FiGURB 21. — Eskimo villages and sites. Kuskokwim Bay to Scammon Bay 

70. ChichiTiak. — Eskimo village on the mainland, east of Nunivak 
Island, Bering Sea. Visited by Nelson in December, 1878. 
(G. D. A.) 

70a. Old village site. 

71. Sfaganuk. — Eskimo village, on the mainland, east of Nunivak 
Island, Bering Sea. Visited by Nelson in December, 1878 
(G. D. A.) 

72. Agiukchuk. — Eskimo village, on the mainland, east of Nuni- 
vak Island, Bering Sea. Visited by Nelson in December. 1878. 
(G.D.A.) 

73. KasMgaluk. — Eskimo village, on Nelson Island, Bering Sea. 
Visited by Nelson in December, 1878. (G. D. A.) 



194 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA Ieth. ANN. 4C 

74. KaJmkluk. — Eskimo village, on Nelson Island, near Cape Van- 
couver, Bering Sea. Visited by Nejson in December, 1878. 
(G. D. A.) 

74a. Old village site. 

75. Tamwnak. — Eskimo village, at Cape Vancouver, Nelson Island, 
Bering Sea. Name from Nelson, who visited it in December, 1878. 
Visited 1927 by Collins and Stewart; collections. 

75a. Village site. 

76. UkaJc. — Eskimo village, in the Yukon Delta, on shore of Hazen 
Bay. Visited by Nelson in December, 1878, and its name reported 
by him as Ookagamiut; i. e., Ulvak people. Petrof, 1880, calls it 
Ookagamute. (G. D. A.) 

77. Vnakak. — Eskimo village, in the Yukon Delta, near Hazen 
Bay. Nelson, who visited it in December, 1878, reports its name 
to be Oonakagamute; i. e., Unakak people. Petrof, 1880, calls it 
Oonakagamute. (G. D. A.) 

78. Kvigailuk. — Eskimo village, in the Big Lake country, between 
the Yukon and Kuskokwim. Nelson in 1879 passed near it and re- 
ports its name to be Kvigathlogamute. (G. D. A.) 

79. Nurwchok. — Eskimo village, in the Big Lake region. Visited 
by Nelson in January, 1879, who reports its native name to be 
Nunochogmute ; i. e., Nunochok people. 

80. Nanvogaloklak. — Eskimo village, in the Big Lake country. 
Visited by Nelson in January, 1879. Population in 1880, 100; in 
1890, 107. (G. D. A.) 

81. Nash Earhor. — Living village, Nunivak Island; school; Col- 
lins and Stewart, 1927, anthropometric data, collections (also from 
other parts of island). 

82. Koot. — ^Village, Nunivak Island, near Cape Etolin; partly oc- 
cupied. Population in 1890, 117. 

83. Inger. — (In Eleventh Census: Ingeramiut.) Dead village, in 
southeast part of Nunivak Island. Population, 1890, 35. 

84. Kvigak {or Kwik). — Dead village, southern part of Nunivak 
Island. 

85. Taohikuga. — ^Dead village, Nunivak Island, below Cape 
Mohican. 

86. Kashwimk. — Eskimo village; some collections; skeletal mate- 
rial in vicinity reported 1927 by Father Del on, of the Holy Cross 
Mission, Yukon. 

87. AsMnuk. — Eskimo village on the southern shore of Hooper 
Bay, Yukon Delta. Native name, from Nelson. Population 1878, 
200. (G. D. A.) 

87a. Village site. 

88. Agia-k. — Eskimo village on promontory north of Hooper Bay. 
88a. Village site. 



HEBLifKA] AECHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESFIMO 195 

89. Igag. — Small village. 

90. kut {Kutrmut). — Small village on Kut River, head of Scam- 
mon Bay. 

Cape Romanzof to Northern (Apoon) Pass of the Yukon and 

Northward 

On this coast there is little information since the time of Nelson. 
There are a number of occupied villages as well as of old sites. The 
region is bleak and the Eskimo there are reported to live miserably. 

The principal Eskimo villages and sites along the lowermost 
branch of the Yukon have been given previously. (Fig. 11.) 

From the northernmost pass of the Yukon to St. Michael Island 
the coast is poor in Eskimo remains. A site of interest here is the 
old camj^ing ground, with a few permanent houses, of Fastolik, and 
there are two small sites farther up the coast. Fastolik to the 
writer's visit was still occasionally occupied by a few Eskimo fami- 
lies. There are onlj' three houses, but a relatively large and old 
cemetery speaks of a larger population, probably camping here in 
tents during the summer seasons of the past. The burial grounds 
were found to be rather extensive and give indications of containing 
human bones as well as artifacts below the present surface (buried 
by the tundra). The main part of the burial grounds may well 
repay an excavation. 

St. Michael Island. — Eskimo remains exist on the northeastern 
point of the island beyond the present white man's village, and also 
on the rock (Whale Island) opposite this point. During my visit 
the ground was so overgrown by high weeds that details were 
hidden. On this same northeastern point near the extension of the 
white settlement is a small living Eskimo village, most of the in- 
habitants of which are now of mixed blood. Across St. Michael 
Bay are said to be some old traces of Eskimo, and Nelson reported 
an old site in the southern part of the island. Finally at Cape 
Stephens, in the western extremity of the island, there is " Stebbins," 
another living village. Nothing could be learned of any human 
remains on the opposite Stuart Island. 

Norton Sound. — North of St. Michael Island is Norton Sound 
and Norton Bay. Along the east coast of the Sound there are three 
villages still occupied, but with old accumulations. It is reported 
that in this region there are some ruined houses in which mammoth 
tusks had been used in the construction, but nothing definite could 
be learned as to the location of these houses and the whole may be 
but a story. The village of Unalaklik was of importance in the 
past and its older remains would probably repay excavation. Old 



196 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN^ ALASKA [ETH. ANN. 46 

sites are reported from the vicinity of Shaldolik and at Cape 
Denbigh. 

The Norton Ba_y region (fig. 22), now almost depopulated, had in 
1840 a whole series of moderate-sized living Eskimo settlements, both 
on the east and the west shore. These shallows are but little visited, 
and it is probable that the remains of the villages and some at least of 
the skeletal material of their burying grounds are well preserved. 
They call for early attention. 

To the west of Norton Bay, on the southern coast of Seward 
Peninsula, is Golovnin '- Bay. On the eastern shore of this bay 
are now, as there were in Russian times, two settlements, but the 
name of one has been misplaced. On Zagoskin's map it is clearly 
seen that the village Ching or Chinig corresponds in location to 
what now is the mission, while what is now called " Cheenik " was 
in 1840 Ikalik or Ikalikhaig. There will soon be seen another 
instance of such a misapplication of the original names. 

To the west Golovnin Bay is bounded by a large promontory end- 
ing in Rocky Point. To the east of this point is a shallow bay, 
where I found a late Eskimo house and on the elevated shore a lit- 
tle to the left four fairly recent adult burials. Farther down the bay 
was an Eskimo camp, without signs of anything older; but Zagos- 
kin's map gives a settlement, probably also a camp, at this place, 
named Knikhtak. From this a rocky point projects eastward into 
the bay. Behind this point is a shallow cove with elevated ground 
above the beach, and at the inland end of this bay I found the re- 
mains of a small old village. Traces of burials were seen on the ele- 
vated ground but skeletal remains were absent. 

On the southwestern shore of the promontory that bounds Golov- 
nin Bay on the west the Russians (Zagosldn) recorded two villages, 
the one near to Rocky Point being Chiukak, that on a point farther 
northwest being named Chaimiut. Later the name Chiukak became 
ap2)lied to tlie former Chaimiut, while Chiukak proper was dead and 
forgotten. On latest maps, such as Chart 9302 United States Coast 
and Geodetic Survey, neither of the old names appears. The name 
Bluff denotes a small settlement in about the location of the former 
Chaimiut. Some Eskimo met in Golovnin Bay said that there are 
skeletal remains near the original Chiukak, but an attempt to reach 
the place failed through rough water. 

South Shore of Seward Peninsula West of Bluff 

A number of dead villages are found along this coast. The first 
and largest is located a few miles west of Port Safety, 18 miles east 

"This is the correct orthography. See Russian maps. 



HUDLicKA] .ARCHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 197 

of Nome. This was a large village extending for a considerable 
distance along the elevated beach separating an inland lagoon from 
the sea. The depressions of the dwellings, of the usual dipper-with- 
handle type, are very plain. Old settlers at Nome remember when 
the village was still occupied. Nearer the sea the beach is said to 
have been lined with burials, but the storm of 1913 took or covered 
everything. (See Narrative, p. 90.) 

A small Eskimo settlement existed on a rocky elevation east of 
Cape Nome. There are some house sites, but the place gives little 
promise of archeological importance. We found evidence that the 
site must have been occupied until fairly recently. Among the 
bowlders were found two skeletons. 

A larger dead village is located near the mouth of a little stream 
west of Cape Nome. It is doubtless the Azachagiag of the Zagoskin 
general map. It gives no great promise archeologically. 

From Nome to Point Spencer there are several old sites, all 
" dead "; and there are one or two recently " dead " villages on Sledge 
(the old Aiak or Aziak) Island. Of the coast sites, the most impor- 
tant is reported to be tliat at Cape Woolley. It is said to have been 
the stopping point of the King Islanders and may have been their 
old mainland village. 

A number of old sites and burial grounds have been seen or learned 
of in Port Clarence and Salt Lake. They are marked on the map, 
and those of the lake have been discussed in the Narrative (p. 117). 
Those on Salt Lake (Imuruk Basin) deserve attention. 

Between Port Clarence and Cape Prince of Wales only one, and 
that evidently not a very large site, was learned of at Cape York. 

The most important site of the peninsula region is doubtless that 
at the cape. Thanks to the able local teacher of that time, Mr. Clark 
M. Garber, I am able to present a detailed map of this locality. It 
is here that Doctor Jenness in 1926 conducted some excavations with 
interesting results. But the site has bai-ely been touched. It is the 
nearest point to Asia. There are ample indications that it has been 
occupied for a long period and by relatively large numbers of people. 
Besides the ruined parts and old heaps there are still the skulls and 
bones of many burials among the rocks about the village, and there is 
evidence that more are in the ground. It is one of the chief sites of 
the far northwest for systematic thorough exploration, and such ex- 
ploration is a growing necessity for all branches of anthropology 
interested in the problems of the Bering Sea and Asiatic-American 
connections. 



198 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL. SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



ScAMMON Bat, Norton Sound, South Coast of Seward Peninsula, 

TO Cape Rodney 

[Fig. 22] 

91. MelatoKk. — A small coast village. 

92. Bimiuf. — A small coast village. 

93. Kwlhak. — Eskimo village on the outer coast in the Yukon 
Delta, a little south of the mouth of Black River. Native name, from 
the Coast Survey, 1898, which gives it as Kwikagamiut. (G. D. A.) 




Figure 22. — Eskimo viUagPs and sites, Scanimon Kay to Norton Sound and Bay to 

Cape Rodney 

94. Kipniak. — Eskimo village and Coast Survey tidal station at 
mouth of Black River in the Yukon Delta. Nelson, 1879, reports 
its name to be Kipniaguk and Dall writes it phonetically Kip-nai-ak. 
(G. D. A.) 

95. Kogomiuf. — A small village. 

96. W aklarok. — A small village. 



hedliOka] AECHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 199 

97. N~unam.ehrok. — A small village. 
97a. Eleutak. — A small settlement. 

98. Nil^. — A small village. 

99. Kuv'kluak. — A small village near the mouth of the Kwikluak 
Pass of the Yukon, south bank. 

100. Alahomuk. — A small settlement. 

101. Kwiguk. — ^A village on Kwikluak Pass of the Yukon, north 
bank. 

102. Kunkpak. — Village near mouth north bank of pass of same 
name, Yukon River. 

103. Nakhli'wak. — A small village, occupied part of time, about 2 
miles from mouth of Apoon Pass, Yukon; visited by the writer; small 
skeletal collection. 

104. Kotlik Paint. — ^A store and Eskimo camp (summer) at mouth 
of Apoon Pass, north bank. (A. H.) 

105. Pa-ttol/'k. — Four Eskimo houses, occupied winter. Extensive 
burial ground near. Collections, A. Hrdlicka. Good prospects for 
excavation in burial places. 

106. Pikmiktalik. — Eskimo village, near the mouth of Pikmiktalik 
River, about 30 miles to the south of St. Michael, western Alaska. 
(G. D. A.) 

106a. Pastoliak. — A site near mouth of next small stream to the 
north. A few houses. Some burials. 

107. St. Michael and Whale Islund. — Old sites, northeast end of 
St. Michael and on Whale Island, opposite. A small living village 
near the point of the main island, mostly mix bloods. (A. H.) 

107a. Dead village. Nelson reports it had been peopled by the 
Pastolik Eskimo ("Eskimo about Bering Strait," p. 263). 

108. Stebbins. — A living Eskimo village at Ca2:)e Stephens. 

110. Golsova. — A small camp at mouth of river of same name. 

111. TJnalaMeet {or Unalaklik) .- — Important old Eskimo village, 
Norton Sound; western end of portage to Yukon. Population in 
1880, 100 ; in 1890, 175. 

112. Shaktolik. — Eskimo village, at mouth of Shaktolik River, 
Norton Sound. Population in 1880, 60; in 1890, 38. (G. D. A.) 
Old settlement ; several old sites in this region. 

113. NitMit. — Eskimo village, on the eastern shore of Norton 
Sound, immediately behind Cape Denbigh. (G. D. A.) Originally 
given on Zagoskin's general map. (A. H.) 

113a. Tapkhalik. — Old village on east shore of Norton Bay. 

114. Unakhtuglig or Unagttdig. — Originally given on Zagoskin's 
general map. (A. H.) 

115. Kviguk. — Eskimo village, on north shore of Norton Bay, at 
mouth of the Kviguk River. Eskimo name, from the Russians. 



200 ANTHROPOLOGICAL STJEVEy IN ALASKA [bth. ann. 46 

Tikhmenief, 1861, has Kviegmiut and Kvieguk-miut ; i. e.,'Kviguk 
people. (G. D. A.) Originally on Zago&kin's general map. 

116. Kvig-tiMut. — Old village, above the preceding; originally on 
Zagoskin's general map. 

117. Kvinl'hak {n.ow Inglestat). — Old village at head of Norton 
Bay. Originally on Zagoskin's general map. 

118. TuJukhtidig {at or ivear Elim). — Old village on west coast 
of Norton Bay. 

119. Atn'tk. — Old village below the preceding. 

120. Camp {Reindeer). 

121. Chinig.— Old village at or near the site of present mission; 
name now erroneously applied to village at Point Golovnin. 

122. Ikalikhvig. — Present Cheenik. at Point Golovnin. 

123. Old site; located 1926 (A. H.) ; a moderate-sized village; 
not promising for excavation. 

124. Knikhtak. — Originally on Zagoskin's general map; now a 
camp, no old remains in evidence ; a house and four burials on same 
shore, 2 miles farther south; collection (A. H.). 

125. Chiukak. — Dead village; on Zagoskin's general map; some 
skeletal material remaining; name-now applied to a village farther 
up the coast. 

126. Chainmut. — Dead village; originally on Zagoskin's general 
map ; name belonged to village nearer the point. 

127. VkvikhtuUg. — Dead village at Topkok Head; originally on 
Zagoskin's general map. 

128. Dead village, 18 miles east of Nome, near Port Safety. 
(A.H.) 

129. Azacha-glag. — Dead village, west of Cape Nome; originally 
on Zagoskin's general map. 

130. Nome. — Probably small native village at this site in the past. 
Now principal white settlement in western Alaska. King Island, 
Diomede, and some Wales natives reside on the outskirts during 
summer. 

131. Aziak Island {Sledge Islarul). — Two dead villages; the prin- 
cipal one at the northern point of the island. Visited by Collins, 
1928. Collections. 

132. >S7«.wA-.— Small old site. 

133. King Island {Ukiook). — Old village, still occupied in winter; 
in summer inhabitants live at Nome. 

133a. A village site at Cape Woolley ; said to be the stopping place 
of the King Islanders. 

134. Dead sites. 

135. Burials. 

136. Siniak. — Now a Lutheran Mission for the Eskimo. 



brdliCka] 



AECHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 



201 




Figithe 23. — Eskimo Tillages and sites, Wales. (By Clark M. Garber, 1927) 
88253°— 30 14 



202 ANTHROPOLOGICAL. SURVEY IN ALASKA [HTH. ann. 48 

137. Teller. — Old Eskimo site; some still live here with a few 
whites. A few Eskimo camps along Tuksuk Channel. 

138. Salt Lake {Invur'uk Basin). — Ruins seen on north shore. 
(A. H.) 

139. Old sites near eastern end of lake ; a Chukchee-Eskimo battle- 
field in vicinity. (A. H.) 

140. Old village site on the St. Marys River. 

141. Burials reported. 

142. Wales. — Old Nykhta, Zagoskin's maps; see special descrip- 
tion; collections. 

The Northern Shore of the Seward Peninsttla 

This shore is but little known to science. It is dangerous of ap- 
proach to any except small boats. The only place that could be 
visited by me was Shishmaref, a good-sized thriving Eskimo village, 
on both sides of which along the sea are remains of old sites with 
burials. The more important old settlement was that to the east 
of the village. Here are found large and extensive heaps, the tops 
of which have recently been leveled for fox cages, the whole site 
belonging, regrettably, to a newly established fox farm. It is an 
old site, though probably occupied up to white man's times, and 
is doubtless of some importance. Excavations would still be possible, 
as the bulk of the remains is intact; and though the surface skeletal 
material has been removed (part saved for our collections), there are 
indications of surface burials (assimilations by the tundra) in the 
ground. 

Between Wales and Shishmaref are several dead sites, as shown 
on the map, and some of them, judging from the information ob- 
tained, are of promise. One of these settlements, " Tapkhaig," was 
evidently still a living village at the time of Zagoskin (1840). 

Northeast and east of Shishmaref the coast is known even less than 
that to the west. A few miles off Shishmaref I saw from a distance — 
the boat could not approach nearer — what to all appearances was a 
large ridge of ruins, and from various maps and other sources in- 
formation was obtained of several other sites, all of which represent 
former villages. From one of these sites on the Bucknell River Mr. 
Carl Lomen secured a fine piece of fossil ivory carving, and the site 
is said to be of much promise. The whole coast is a virgin field for 
archeology. 

143. Mitletukemk.— Old village site. Visited by Collins, 1928; 
collections. 

144. Tapkhaig or Ekpik. — Old village site, originally shown in 
Zagoskin's general map. 

145. Sinrazat. — Old site. 



HRDLICK4] 



ARCHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 



203 



146. Karatuk or Shishinwef. — Living village, with ruins on both 
sides. Visited by A. H. ; collections. 

147. Kimdlow. — Old site. 

148. Old site reported. 
148a. 8ivk.—<d\^ site. 

149. Old site (?). 

150. Paapkuk. — Old site. 

151. Deenng. — Recent settlement, but old sites probable in vicinity. 
151a. Kualing. — Old village, now long dead, shown by Zagoskin. 

(General map.) 




Figure 24. — Eskimo Tillages and sites, Seward Peninsula, Kotzebue Sound, and Arctic 

Coast, to Kevalina 

152. Kivmlik. — A village at mouth of river of same name. 

153. Dead villages reported on the two promontories; promising 
archeologically. On Elephant Point Nelson saw the site of an old 
village " with about 15 pits marking the locations of the houses." 
(Eskimo of Bering Strait. 264.) 

153a. Buckland River. Camp sites. 
153b. Old village site. 

154. Old whaling place, occupied summers only. (S. Chance.) 

155. Seloiwik. — Old village. Old igloos and camps at various 
places in the Selawik Basin. (S. Chance.) 

156. Camps. (S, Chance.) 



204 AXTHEOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. axn. 46 

166a. Chilvvik. — A village, now long dead, shown on the general 
map of Zagoskin. 

157. Fish camps. (A. H.) 

KoTZEBUE Sound, Its Rivers and Its Coast Northward to Kevalina 

Figure 24 shows the village sites that it was possible to locate in 
these regions. Nearly all these are now " dead villages," though some 
Eskimo may still occasionally camp in their vicinity. A large 
present settlement of the Eskimo, well advanced toward civilization, 
is found at Kotzebue, and fish camps extend from here along the 
shore in the direction of Cape Blossom. Another important recent 
living village and school center is Noorvik on the lower Kobuk 
River. 

Inquiries as to old sites in this region were greatly assisted by Mr. 
Sylvester Chance, at the time of my visit the supervisor of the Gov- 
ernment schools of the district. At my request and with the aid 
of the natives Mr. Chance has compiled a list of such sites and 
settlements as could st^ill be remembered, and the information has 
been incorporated into these records. 

Among the more important ruins of this vicinity are apparently 
those at and near Cape Krusenstern, and again those near Kevalina 
farther to the northward. Archeological specimens of considerable 
interest were seen and partly secured from both localities. The old 
Kevalina especially should receive early attention, for it is being 
excavated by the Eskimo of the present village, though fortunately 
this is at some distance. 

Seward Peninsula, Kotzebue Sound, and Northward 

158. Kotzebue. — Old name : Kikikhtagiulc. (Zagoskin, general 
map.) A small white with a large Eskimo settlement. Old burials 
in ground (assimilated). A. H. collections. 

159. Noorvik. — White and native village; school center. 

160. Oksik. — Old camp, still occupied. (S. Chance.) 

161. K'lana. — Old village, still occupied. (S. Chance.) 

162. ShesoaUk. — Old camjD, still occupied in summer. (S. Chance.) 
162a. Kuhok. — Old village shown on general map of Zagoskin. 

163. Aniyak. — Old camp, still occupied. (S. Chance.) 

164. Old site reported here ; said to be promising archeologically. 

165. Tikizat. — Eskimo village, at Cape Krusenstern, Arctic Ocean. 
Eskimo name, from Petrof, 1880, who reported a population in that 
year of 75. 

166. KUigmak. — Old camp, still occupied. 

167. Noatak, — A living village, 



HRDLieKA] ARCHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 205 

168. Old camp, exact location not certain. (S. Chance.) 

169. Matthew or Aniyak. — Old camp. 

170. Ottalu. — Camp, occupied. (S. Chance.) 

171. Old site reported; exact location ( ?). 

172. Old site, rich archeologicalh% exact location undetermined; 
small collection. (A. H.) 

173. Kevalina. — Living Eskimo village. 

174. Plngo. — Old dead village. (S. Chance, Jim Allen.) 

Kevalina — Point Barrow 

POINT HOPE (TlG.iRA) 

This is tlie most important ruin as well as living Eskimo village 
in Arctic Alaska. It is unanimously declared by the Eskimo of the 
coast to be one of the oldest settlements and has always been the 
largest native center on the coast. The point was called Golovnin 
Point by the early Russians; it was called Point Hope by Beechey 
in 1826 in honor of Sir William Johnston Hope. At the time of its 
visit by the revenue cutter Corwin, 1884, there are said to have been 
two villages ;" the second being possibly at the site of the old whaling 
station. Rasmussen, who visited the village about 1924, speaks of 
it in part as follows : ^* " Point Hope or Tikeraq, ' the pointing finger,' 
is one of the most interesting Eskimo settlements on the whole coast 
of Alaska, and has doubtless the largest collection of ruins. The 
old village, now deserted, consists of 122 very large houses, but as 
the sea is constantly washing away jDarts of the land and carrying 
off more houses, it is impossible to say what may have been the origi- 
nal number. Probably the village here and its immediate neighbor- 
hood had at one time something like 2,000 souls, or as many as are 
now to be found throughout the whole of the Northwest Passage 
between the Magnetic Pole and Herschel Island." 

The ruins are to the northwest and west of the j^resent village. 
Those to the northwest consist of imposing hea^is, which together 
form an elevated ridge facing the sea. It is said that this old 
settlement was abandoned because of the encroachments upon it by 
the sea, particularly during storms. 

The ruins of this main compound have been for several years 
assiduously excavated inch by inch by the local Eskimo, and thou- 
sands of articles of great variety, of stone, bone, ivory, and wood, 
with here and there in the uppermost layers an object of metal, are 
being gathered and sold to all comers. With these are found a few 
human skulls and bones, but esj^ecially the skulls and bones of various 
animals, all of which unfortunately have hitherto been left behind in 

«" Healy, M. A. Cruise of the Concin in the Arctic Ocean 18S4. Washington. 188!>. p. 27- 
" Rasmussen. Knud, Across Arctic America. New T01I5, London. 1927, 329-330. 



206 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

the mud. But the probably most valuable central and lower por- 
tions of the piles remain. The locality calls loudly for proper ex- 
ploration, which will well repay any museum by the quantity and 
value of the specimens that are sure to be recovered. 

POINT HOPE TO POINT BARROW 

Information about this i^art of the northwesternmost coast of 
Alaska was obtained principally from Jim Allen, the trader at 
Wainwright, and Charles Brower, the trader at Barrow; but parts 
of the coast were also examined in person. The number of old sites 
is rather large, but it appears that there is not much of special 
promise until we reach near Barrow. 

Old " igloos " southwest of Barrow : From 5 to 8 miles south- 
west of Barrow and at some distance (up to about 400 yards) from 
the shore there existed, and in part still exist, a series of elevations 
which the natives of Barrow always regarded as natural. On 
excavation the larger of these elevations proved to be old structures 
with numerous burials and cultural objects, and the remains, as 
shown elsewhere, are exceptional for this coast. Six of these 
" mounds " have been excavated by the University of Pennsylvania 
Expedition (Van Valin), while several are still remaining. It is 
very important that these should be carefully excavated before they 
are attacked by the natives of Barrow for mercenary puriDoses. 

BARROW AND POINT BARROW 

Two large living villages, with old sites and inhumed (natural) 
burials in their vicinity, and w'ith some old remains between them. 
Barrow is the most important present mixed settlement and center of 
civilization in the Arctic. Besides the school, it contains a mission 
hospital and recently a meteorological observatory and wireless sta- 
tion. The tundras to the east of the village for about lyo miles show 
patches of burials, particularly in the more distant parts of this 
region on the elevations to both sides of a small stream. 

Much archeological work remains to be done about Barrow, par- 
ticularly in the remainder of the old " igloos." East of Point Bar- 
row the population is very sparse and no ruins of any note or settle- 
ments are rei^orted before those of the Barter Island and the mouth 
of the Colville River. 

175. Prngishufftiruk. — A small old site. 

176. Ketchemeluk. — A small old site. 

I76a. Ijmot. — Eskimo village on the Arctic coast, near Cape 
Thomson, a little south of Point Hope. Name from Petrof, who 
wrote it Ip-Not and Ipnot, and reported a population of 40 in 1880. 

177. Old whaling station. 



hrdlilka] 



AECHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 



207 



178. Point Hope or Tigara. — Eskimo village at Point Hope, Arctic 
Ocean. It is Tiekagag-miut of Tikhmenief , 1861 ; Tikirak of Petrof, 
1880, who reports a population in that year of 276. Spelled Tikera 
in the Eleventh Census. Herendeen gives Tik-i-rah. The Eskimo 
name of the settlement is said to be Tik-i-rah-mum. Visited by 
A. H. ; important collections. 

179. Weumk {or Wevok). — Eskimo village on the Arctic coast, 
near Cape Lisburne. Eskimo name, published by the Hydrographic 
Office in 1890. (G. D. A.) (Jim Allen.) 




Figure 25. — Eskimo villages and .sites, Kevalina to Point Barrow 

180. Iniktilik. — Small village, occupied. (S. Chance.) 

181. Pittivegia. — A small old site at the mouth of river of same 
name, north side. (Jim Allen, S. Chance.) 

e. Napayochak. — Old camp, two igloos. (S. Chance.) 

/. Tolageak. — ^A small old site. (S. Chance.) 

g. Emelik. — A small old site. (S. Chance.) 

?L Pingasoogarook, — Old village, still occupied. (S. Chance.) 

182. UTnalik. 



183. Koochik. 

184. 

185. 



Trapping stations; igloos. (S. Chance.) 



208 ANTHKOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IS ALASKA [eth. ANN. 40 

186. KokoJik. — Eskimo settlement, at Point Lay, Arctic coast. 
(G. D. A.) Old but still partly occupied village. (S. Chance.) 
Kelik. (Jim Allen.) 

187. Napaijochik. — Old camp, two igloos. (S. Chance.) 

188. Tolageak. — Old dead igloos. (S. Chance.) 

189. Utukok. — Old small settlement at northern mouth of Utukok 
River. 

190. Enielik. — Old deserted igloo. (S. Chance.) 

191. Kayakshulik, — A live village at Icy Cape. (Jim Allen, S. 
Chance.) 

192. NokotJih (f).— Old igloo. (S. Chance.) 

193. Mitliktcbvik. — A dead moderate-sized village, about 5 miles 
below Kilik. (Jim Allen.) 

194. Kilimantavic. — Eskimo village, near Wainwright Inlet, Arc- 
tic coast. Tikhmenief , 1861, calls it Kilametagag-miut ; Petrof , 1880, 
calls it Kolumalrturook; Hydrographic Chart 68 calls it Kelamanto- 
wruk, while later charts omit it or call it Kilimantavic. According 
to Murdoch this name is Ke-lev-a-tow-tin (sling). (G. D. A.) A 
large dead village about 20 miles below Wainwright. (Jim Allen.) 
Kilamitavic. (S. Chance.) 

195. Old abandoned camp. (S. Chance.) 

196. Wamv:righf. — A large living native village; some remains 
of old habitations on its eastern outskirts. (A. H.) About a mile 
south of present settlements are the remains of the old village once 
occupied by the Wainwright people. (Jim Allen.) 

197. KMiii.—Old site. 

198. Sedaini. — Old dead village. 

199. Atnik. — Old dead village. (S. Chance.) Possibly same with 
next. 

200. Itanik. — On maps Atanik. Old village, still partly occupied. 
(S. Chance,- Jim Allen.) Called Ataniek in Tikhmenief, 1861. 
(G. D. A.) 

201. PmoshMragin. — Petrof, 1880, shows a native village of this 
name (population 29) on the Seahorse Islands. On British Ad- 
miralty Chart 593 (ed. of 1882) it is called Pingoshugarun. 
(G. D. A.) Pingasoogarook : Old village, still occupied. (S. 
Chance.) 

202. Kok/oJak. — Two old igloos, still occupied. (S. Chance.) 

203. Sakmnna. — Small camp. 

204. Sinm'u. — Small camp about 22 miles from Barrow; visited 
by A. H. ; small skeletal collection. 

205. Walakpa. — A small dead old settlement about 12 miles from 
Barrow. 

206. Nunava. — Small camp. 



bhdliCka] 



ARCHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 



209 



207. " Old Igloos." — A veiy important site archeologically. Ex- 
plored partly by Van Valin. (See special section devoted to this 
site.) 

208. Barvoxo. — Known also as Utkiavik. Uglaamie, or the Cape 
Smyth village. Important white and Eskimo settlement. Old re- 
mains. Extensive burial grounds east of village. (A. H. collec- 
tions.) 

209. Nvmmwa. — Remains of old camping site, about 4 miles from 
Barrow. 

210. Point Ban'ow. — The Eskimo Nuwuk. Good-sized living vil- 
lage. Remains of older habitations. Population in 1853, 309. 
(G. D. A.) 

The St. Lawrence and Diomede Islands 



ST. LAWRENCE ISLAND 



Ranking in archeological and anthropological importance with 
Wales and in some respects perhaps even exceeding the latter, is 
the large island of St. Lawrence, with the almost forgotten little 
Punuk group at its eastern extremity. 




Figure 26. — Russian map of St. Lawrence Island, 1849. (Tebenkof) 

The main island was discovered by Bering on St. Lawrence Day, 
August 10, 1728, and it was found peopled by the Eskimo. In 1849 
an excellent map of it was published by Tebenkof in Novo-Archan- 
gelsk, and on this map (fig. 26) are indicated about a dozen smaller 
or larger Eskimo settlements, some of which, however, are not named 
and may already have been " dead." 

About 1878 there were still six settlements with somewhat less than 
1,500 Eskimo inhabitants on the island. That winter (1878-79) not 



210 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ANN. 46 

less than 1,000 of the population died of famine (Hooper), three of 
the villages becoming completely depopulated and a fourth nearly so. 
The Punuk Island village may have become extinct about the same 
time. 

To-day there are on the St. Lawrence Island but two living settle- 
ments, the main one, now known as Gambell, at the old site of Chi- 
bukak on the northwestern cape, and the other, Savonga, about 40 
miles east of it, near Cape North. 

A number of the old sites on this island, and also that on one of the 
Punuks, indicate a long occupation, antedating by far the advent 
of the Russians. The accumulations rise in some places to imposing 
heaps or ridges. Their frozen contents yield quantities of fossil 
ivory, all of which shows the work of man, and among them occur 
specimens with fine curvilinear designs and of high scientific as well 
as artistic value. 

Through Nelson in 1881 and R. D. Moore in 1912 the Smithsonian 
Institution has acquired a large quantity of human skeletal material 
from the main island, and there is now (1928) an expedition of the 
Institution under Collins on the Punuk as well as the St. Lawrence 
exploring some of the principal ruins. 

THE DIOMEDE ISLANDS AND THE ASIATIC COAST 
[Figs. 27 and 28] 

The smaller or American Diomede, though a very inhospitable 
place, supports, and that evidently since long, a small Eskimo vil- 
lage of stone houses, below and about which there is a considerable 
accumulation of refuse. Doctor Jenness dug here for a short time 
in 1926. 

The larger or Russian Diomede has two villages, each of which is 
larger than the one on the smaller island. There are also said 
to be some remains in a broad depression on the eastern side of the 
island, while skeletal remains are reported by the natives to exist 
among the rocks on the top. This island is in need of thorough 
attention. Its people are reputed to be skilled ivory workers. They 
come yearly to Nome, where they were visited and seen at their 
work by the writer. They bring each year some fossil ivory, said 
lo come mainly from the Asiatic coast, and among this are occa- 
sionally articles of much interest. 

Ruins of Eskimo villages are also present along the coasts of the 
Chukchee Peninsula, both those facing the Bering Sea and those 
along the Arctic. Very little is definitely known or can be found 
from the American Eskimo about these ruins, and some of them 
may not be Eskimo. Nelson in his book (p. 26.5) reports briefly 



HRDLIC'KA] 



ARCHEOLOGY OF WESTERN ESKIMO 



211 



on a few about Cape Wankarem. Interesting objects of the fossil 
ivory culture are said to occur in these old sites as far west as the 
Kolyma, but nothing is certain except that there are ruins, that a 
good number of them are probably Eskimo, and that fossil ivory, 
both worked (walrus) and unworked (mammoth), comes from these 



tJUOHAN \ 

'AS , 







66" 



64- 



172° 170° 

FiGL'RE i7. — Eskimo viUages and sites, St. Lawrence Island, the Diomedes. and the 
eastern Asiatic coast 

coasts. A noteworthy report is that of a large native cemetery 
on the Bering Sea side, with hundreds of burials in rough stone- 
slab graves. Information of this was given me by Joe Bernard, 
well known in connection with Bering Sea explorations, who had 
seen the site in person. 



212 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



211. Gatnhell {or Chibukuk). — Old Eskimo settlement on the 
northwest cape of St. Lawrence Island. United States National 
Museum expedition, 1912, by Riley D. Moore; anthropometric data; 
important collections. 

212. Small sites, north bay, St. Lawrence Island, indicated on 1849 
Russian map (q. v.). 

213. Savonga. — A small modern Eskimo village. A. II., 1926; 
some collections. 

214. Ruins of an old site 4 miles northeast of Savonga. Impor- 
tant archeologically. 

215. Kwluliak. — Dead village. 

216. Former summer site. Given on the 1849 Russian map. 




N 






<^s 



:i/vf//v- 



CE: or WALES' 







FlGLBE 28. — The Ili-ring Strait Islands 

217. Important old site with large accumulations on one of the 
two Punuk Islands. Explored 1928 by Collins; collections. 

218. Kidegak. — Dead village. Important archeologically. Partly 
explored by Collins, 1928; collections. 

219. Chitnak. — One of the dead villages of 1879. (Nelson, 
Hooper.) 

220. Pugwviliak. — One of the dead villages of 1879. (Nelson, 
Hooper. ) 

221. Old site; no details available. 

222. Living small village on the smaller (American) Diomede Is- 
land. Some old accumulations. A. H., 1926, collections; some exca- 
vations same year by D. Jenness. 



HkdliCka] physical ANTHROPOLOGY 213 

223. Nunarhuk. — Village still occupied, on greater (Russian) 
Diomede, located on an elevated slope around the southern cape of 
the island. Skeletal and other remains reported on top ot mesa. 

224. Village, still occupied, on an elevated saddle near middle of 
west coast of island. 

225. Eskimo village, East Cajoe of Asia. Other villages indicated 
along the coast of Chukchee Peninsula. Others on north coast. 
(See Nelson, The Eskimo of Bering Strait, p. 265.) 

PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 
Earlier Data 

The previously published data on the western Eskimo are few in 
number and mostly not as well documented as would be desirable. 
There are, however, a good number of references to the physical 
characteristics of the people by explorers. The main of these are 
given below. These references in general are not of much scientific 
value, yet in some instances they approach this closely and are of 
considerable interest collectively. 

1784,' Cook:" 

The inlet which we had now quitted, was distinguished by Captain Cook 
with the name of Prince William's Sound. * * * The natives whom we 
saw were in general of a middling stature, though many of them were under 
it. They were square or strong chested, with short thick necks, and large 
broad visages which were for the most part rather flat. The most dispropor- 
tioned part of their body appeared to be their heads, which were of great mag- 
nitude. Their teeth were of a tolerable whiteness, broad, well set, and equal 
in size. Their noses had full round points, turned up at the tip; and their 
eyes, though not small, were scarcely pi'oportioned to the largeness of their 
faces. The.v had black hair which was strong, straight, and thick. Their 
beards were in general thin or deficient, but the hairs growing about the lips, 
of those who have them, were bristly or stiff and often of a brownish color; 
and some of the elderly men had large, thick straight beards. * * * The 
complexion of some of the females, and of the children, is white without any 
mixture of red. Many of tlie men, whom we .saw naked, had rather a swarthy 
cast, which was scarcely the effect of any stain, as it is not their custom to 
paint their bodies. 

Vol. 3, page 31. All the Americans we had seen since ovfr arrival on that 
coast (west coast of Alaska) had round, chubby faces, and high cheek bones, 
and were rather low of stature. 

Ibid., page 72: Norton Sound.— The woman was short and squat and her 
visage was plump and round. * * » Her husband was well made and about 
5 feet 2 inches in height. His hair was black and short, and he had but little 
beard. His complexion was of a light copper cast. * * * The teeth of both 
of them were black, and appeared as if they had been filed down level with 
the gums. 

" Cook, Capt. James, and Capt. James King. A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean. London, 
1784, II, vol. 2, p. 300. 



214 ANTHKOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

1821, Kotzebue : ^^ 

Kofxrbue Sound. — The Americans [i. e., Eskimo] are of a middle size, robust 
make, and healthy appearance ; their countenances * * * are characterized 
by small eyes and very high cheek bones. 

1832, Beechey : " 

The western Esquimaux appear to be intimately connected with the tribes in- 
habiting the northern and nortlieastern shores of America, in language, fea- 
tures, manners, and customs. They at the same time, in many respects, re- 
semble the Tschutschi. from whom they are probably descended. * * * 

They are taller in stature than the eastern Esquimaux, their average height 
being about 5 feet 7Vi inches. They are also a better looking race, if I may 
Judge from the natives I saw in Baffin's Bay, and frohi tlie portraits of others 
that have been published. At a comparatively early age, however, they (the 
women in particular) soon lose this comeliness, and old age is attended with a 
haggard and careworn countenance, rendered more unbecoming by sore eyes 
and by teeth worn to the gums by frequent mastication of hard substances. 

1850, Latham : ^« 

Pliysically the Eskimo is a Mongol and Asiatic. 

The Eskimos of the Atlantic are not only easily distinguished from the 
tribes of American aborigines which lies to the south or west of them, and with 
•which they come in contact, but they stand in strong contrast and opposition 
to them — a contrast and opposition exhibited equally in appearance, manners, 
language, and one which has had full justice done to it by those who have 
written on the subject. 

It is not so with the Eskimos of Russian-America, and the parts that look 
upon the Pacific. These are so far from being separated by any broad and 
trenchant line of demarcation from the proper Indians or the so-called red 
race, that they pass gradually into it, and that in respect to their habits, man- 
ner, and api>earance, equally. So far is this the case tliat he would be a bold 
man who should venture, in speaking of the southern tribes of Russian- America, 
to say here the Eskimo area ends and here a different area begins. 

1853, Hooper : *^ 

Kotzebue Sound Esgui'meaux. — The men generally were taller than the aver- 
age of Europeans, strongly built and well foraied ; some had well-marked fea- 
tures * * *. The women were generally short, the visages of the younger 
ones tolerably good but * * * the very reverse was the case with the dames 
of more advanced age. Their figures inclined to the squat, their mien and ex- 
pression promised intelligence and good nature. Although both sexes had in 
most instances the round flat face of the Mongolian cast, a few individuals 
possessed well-defined, though petite features, and all had fine eyes. 

"Kotzebue. Otto von, A voyaRe of discovery into the South Sea and Bering Strait, 
1815-1818, vol. 1, p. 209. London, 1821. 

*' Beechey, F. W., Narrative of a voyage to the Pacific and Bering Strait. Philadelphia, 
1832, pp. 474-47G. 

•"Latham, Robert G., The varieties of man. London, 1850, pp. 290-292. 

" Hooper, W. H., Ten months among the tents of the Tuski. London, 1853, pp. 223-224. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 31' 





Graves at Nash Harbor. Nunivak island 
(Photos by Collins and Stewart, 1927.) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 33 



-^iiir^ 




a, Children, Nunivak Island. (Photo by Collins and Stewart, 1927) 




b, Adults, Nunivak Island. (.Phuto bj Cuilins and Stewart, Vj21) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNTAI. REPORT PLATE 34 




King island Eskimo; A Family Group 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 35 



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BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 37 




Typical Full-blood Eskimo, northern Bering Sea Region 
(Photo by Lomen Bros.) 



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HRDLifKA] PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 215 

1853, Seemann, vol. ii, pages 49-51: ^" 

The Eskimos. — By comparing the accounts transmitted by different writers 
we find that the various tribes, however widely separated geographically, differ 
but slightly from each other in appearance, manners, customs, or language. 
They are, however, by no means as uniform in size as might have been 
expected. Those inhabiting the vicinity of Norton and Kotzebue Sounds are 
by far the finest and tallest, while those li\'ing between Cape Lisburne and 
Point Barrow are, like the tribes of the eastern jwrtions of America, much 
shorter in stature, and bespeak the inferiority of the districts in which 
they live. 

Both sexes are well proportioned, stout, muscular, and active. The hands 
and feet are small and beautifully formed, which is ascribed by some writers 
to their sedentary habits, but this cannot be the case, as probably no people 
take more exercise or are more constantly employed. Their height varies. In 
the southern parts some of the men are 6 feet ; in the more northern there is 
a perceptible diminution, though by no means to the extent generally imagined. 

Their faces are flat, their cheek bones projecting, and their eyes small, 
■ deeply set, and, like the eyebrows, black. Their noses are broad ; their ears 
are large, and generally lengthened by the appendage of weighty ornaments ; 
their mouths are well formed, their lips are thin. * * * 

The teeth of the Eskimos are regular, but from the nature of their food and 
from their practice of preparing hides by chewing, are worn down almost to 
the gums at an early age. Their hair is straight, black, and coarse; the men 
have it closely cut on the crown, like that of a Capuchin friar, leaving a band 
about two inches broad, which gradually increases in length towards the back 
of the neck; the women merely part their hair in the middle, and, if wealthy, 
ornament it with strings of beads. Tlie possession of a beard is very rare, 
but a slight moustache is not infrequent. Their complexion, if divested of its 
usual covering of dirt, can hardly be called dark ; on the contrary, it displays 
a healthy, rosy tint, and were it not for the custom of tattooing the chin 
some of the girls might be called pretty, even in the European acc^tation of 
the term. 

1861, Kichardson : ^^ 

The Eskimos are remarkably uniform in physical appearance throughout 
their far-stretching area, there being perhaps no other nation in the world so 
unmixed in blood. Frobisher's people were struck with their resemblance in 
features and general aspect to the Samoyeds and their physiognomy has been 
held by all ethnologists to be of the Mongolian or Tartar type. Doctor Latham 
calls the Samoyeds Hyperborean Mongolidae, and the Eskimos he ranges among 
the American Mongolidae, embracing in the latter group all the native races of 
the New World. The Mongol type of countenance is, however, more strongly 
reproduced in the Eskimos than in the red Indians — the conterminous Tinng 
tribes differing greatly in their features, and the more remote Indians still 
more. 

Generally the Eskimos have broadly egg-shaped faces with considerable 
prominence of the rounded cheeks caused by the arching of the cheek bones, but 
few or no angular projections even in the old people, whose features are always 

" Seemann, Berthold, Narrative of the voy.ige of H. M. S. Heralil. London, 1S53, vols. 
I— n. On the Anthropology of Western Eskimo Land and on the Desirability of Further 
Arctic Research. J. Anthrop. Soc, London, 1865, vol. in, p. 301. 

"Richardson, Sir John, The Polar Regions. Edinburgh, 1861, p. 301. 



216 ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA [BIH. axn. 4« 

much weather beaten and furrowed. The greatest breadth of the face is just 
below the eyes, the forehead tapers upward, eiidiiis narrowl.v, hut not acutely, 
and in like manner the chin is a blunt cone ; both the forehead and the chin 
recede, the egg outline showing in profile, though not so strongly, as in a 
front view. The nose is broad and depressed, but not in all, some individuals 
having prominent noses, yet almost mil have wider nostrils than Europeans. 
The eyes have small and oblique apertures like the Chinese, and from frequent 
attacks of ophthalmia and the effect of lamp smoke in their winter habitations 
adults of both sexes are disfigured by excoriated or ulcerated eyelids. The 
sight of these people is, from its constant exercise, extremely keen, and the 
habit of bringing the eyelids nearly together when looking at distant objects 
has in all the grown males produced a striking cluster of furrows radiating 
from the outer corners of each eye over the temples. 

The complexions of the E.skimos when relieved from smoke and dirt are 
nearly white and show little of the copper color of the red Indians. Infants 
have a good deal of red on the cheeks, and when by chance their faces are 
tolerably clean are much like European children, the national peculiarities of 
countenance being slighter at an early age. Many of the young women appear 
even pretty from the liveliness and good nature that beams in their counte- 
nances. The old women are frightfully ugly * * *. 

The young men have little beard, but some of the old ones have a tolerable 
show of long gray hairs on the upi>er lip and chin. * • * The Eskimo 
beard, however, is in no instance so dense as a European one. 

The hair of the head is black and coarse, the lips thlckish, and the teeth of 
the young people white and regular, but the sand that, through want of cleanli- 
ness, mixes with their food, wears the teeth down at an early age almost to 
the level of the gums, so that the incisors often have broad crowns like the 
molars. 

The average stature of the Eskimos is below the English standard, but thej 
can not be said to be a dwarfish race. The men vary in height from about 
5 feet to 5 feet 10 inches or even more. They are a broad-shouldered race, 
and when •■seated in their kayaks look tall and muscular, but when standing 
lose their apparent height by a seemingly disproportionate shortness of the 
lower extremities. This want of symmetry may arise from the dress, as the 
proportions of various parts of the body have not been tested by accurate 
measurements. The hands and feet are delicately small and well formed. 
Mr. Simpson (Blue Book, 1855) observed an undue shortness of the thumb in 
the western Eskimos, which, if it exists farther to the east, was not noted by 
the members of the searching expeditions. 

1870, Dall : '- 

Page 136: The Innuit, as they call themselves, belong to the same family as 
the northern and western Eskimo. I have frequently used the term Eskimo 
in referring to them, but they are in many respects very different people. 
* * * It should be thoroughly and definitely understood that they are not 
Indians nor have they any known relation, iihysieally * * * to the Indian 
tribes of North America. Their grammar, appearance, habits, and even their 
anatomy, especially in the form of the skull, separate them widely from the 
Indian race. On the other hand, it is almost equally questionable whether 
they are even distinctly [distantly?] related to the Chukchees and other prob- 
ably Mongolian races, of the eastern part of Siberia. 

" Dall, W. H., Alaska and Its Resources. Boston, 1870. . 



HBDLIl'KA] 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 219 



fully shaped bands and feet ; " a pyramidal head ; " a broad egg-shapetl face ; 
high rounded cheek bones ; flat nose : small (iblique eyes : large mouth : teeth 
regular, but well worn;'" coai-se black hair closely cut up<in the crown, leav- 
ing a monk-like ring around the edt'e."" and a paucity of beard." "' 

more than 5 feet Id heigbr." — Figuier's Flumaii Race, p. 211. At Kotzebiie Sound "tallest 
man was 5 feet incbes : tallest woman 5 feet 4 incUes." — Beechey's Voy., i, 360. 
"Average lieiglit ivas 5 feet 41^ incbes " ; at tbe mouth of the Mackenzie tbey are of 
" middle stature, strong, and muscular." — Armstrong's Nar., 140, 1S2. " Low, broad set, 
not well made nor strong." — Hearne's Trav., p. IGG. " The men were in general stout." — 
Franklin's Nar.. i, 29. " Of a middle size, robust make, and healthy appearance." — 
Kotzebue's Voy., i, 209. " Men vary in height from about 5 feet to 5 feet 10 inches." — 
Richardson's Pol. Reg., p. 304. " Women were generally short." " Their figure inclines 
to squat." — Hooper's Tuski, p. 224. 

^" Hands and feet. — " Tous les individus qui appartiennent 4 la famille des Esquimaux 
se distingucnt par la petitcsse de leurs pieds et de leurs mains, et la grosseur toorme de 
leurs tetes." — De Pauw, Recberches I'bil. I, 2C2. " Thi; hands, and feet are delicately 
small and well formed." — Richardson's Pol. Reg., p. 304. " Small and beautifully made." — 
.Seemann's 'N'oy. Ilernld, ii, 50. At Point Barrow " Their hands, notwithstanding the great 
amount of manual labor to which they are subject, were beautifully small and well formed, 
a description equally applicable to their feet..' — Armstrong's Nar., p. 101. 

<* Head. — " The head is of good size, rather flat superiorly, but very fully developed 
posteriorly, evidencing a preponderance of tbe animal passions ; the forehead was for the 
most part low and receding ; in a few it was somewhat vertical but narrow." — Arm- 
strong's Xar., p. 193. Their cranial characteristics "are tbe strongly developed coronary 
ridge, the obliquity of the zygoma, and its greater capacity compared with the Indian 
cranium. The former is essentially pyramidal, while the latter more nearly approaches a 
cubic shape." — Dall's Alaska, p. 376. " Greatest breadth of the face is just below the eyes, 
the forehead tapers upwards, ending narrowly but not acutely, and in like manner tbe 
chin is a blunt cone." — Richardson's Pol. Keg., p. 302. Doctor Gall, whose observations on 
the same skulls presented him for phrenological observation are published by M. Louis 
Choris, thus comments upon the head of a female Eskimo from Kotzebue Sound : 
'• L'organe de I'insinct de la propagation se trouve extremement develops pour une tete de 
temmo." lie finds the musical and intellectual organs poorly developed, whUe vanity and 
love of children arc well displayed. " En gf-ncral," sagely concluded tbe doctor, " cette 
tcte femme prc!sentait une organization aussi heureuse que celle de la plupart des femmes 
d'Europc. " — Voy. Pitt., pt. iij p. 16. 

"" Feice. — " Large, tat, round faces, high cheek bones, small hazel eyes, eyebrows slant- 
ing like the Chinese, and wide mouths." — Beechey's Voy., i, 345. " Broad, flat faces, 
high cheek bones." — Doctor Hayes in Hist. Mag., i, p. G. Their " teeth are regular, but 
from the nature of their food and from their practice of preparing hides by chewing, are 
worn down almost to the gums at au early age." — Seemaun's Voy. Herald, ii, 51. At 
Hudson Strait, "broad, flat, pleasing face; small and generally sore eyes; given to bleed- 
ing at tbe nose. " — Franklin's Nar., i, 20. " Small eyes and very high cheek bones." — 
Kotzebue's Voy., i, 209. " La face platte. la bouche ronde. le nez petit sans etre Serase, 
le blanc de I'oeil jaunatre, I'iris noir et peu briUant." — De Pauw, Recberches Phil., i, 262. 
They have " small, wild-looking eyes, large and very foul teeth, the hair generally black, 
but sometimes fair, and always in extreme disorder." — Brownell's Indian Race?, p. 467. 
"As contrasted with the other native American races, their eyes are remarkable, being 
narrow and more or less oblique.'' — Richardson's Nar., i, 343. " Expression of face 
intelligent and good natured. Both sexes have mostly round, flat faces, with Mongolian 
cast." — Hooper's Tuski, p. 223. 

'^ Hair. — "Allowed to hang down in a club to tbe shoulder." — Richardson's Pol. Reg., 
p. 305. "Their hair is straight, black, and coarse." — Seemaun's Voy. Herald, n, 51. 
A fierce expression characterized them on the McKenzie River, which " was increased by 
the long, disheveled hair flowing about their shoulders. " — Armstrong's Nar., p. 149. 

^^ Beard. — '* The old men had a few gray hairs on their chins, but the young ones, 
though grown up, were beardless." — Beechey's Voy., i, 322. " The possession of a beard 
is very rare, but a slight mustache is not infrequent." — Seemaun's Voy. Herald, ii, 51. 
*'As the men grow old they have more hair on the face than red Indians.'' — Richardson's 
Nar., I, 343. " Generally an absence of beard and whiskers." — Armstrong's Xar., p. 193. 
" Beard is universally wanting." — Kotzebue's Voy., i, 252. " The young men have little 
beard, but some of the old ones have a tolerable show of long, gray hairs on the upper lip 
and chin." — Richardson's Pol, Reg., p. 303. "All have beards." — Bell's Geography, v, 294. 
Kirby affirms that in Alaska '' many of them have a profusion of whiskers and beard." — 
Smith.s. Report, 1S04, p. 416. 



220 ANTHROPOLOGICAi SURVEY IN ALASKA fETH. ann. 46 

Simpson, 1875 : «= 

Tliese people are by no means the dwarfish race they were formerly sup- 
posed to be. In stature they are not inferior to many other races and are 
robust, muscular, and active, inclining ratlier to spareness than corpulence. 
The tallest individual was found to be 5 feet 10% inches, and the shortest 
5 feet 1 inch. The heaviest man weighed 195 pounds, and the lightest 12.5 
pounds. The individuals weighed and measured were taken indiscriminately 
as they visited the ship, and were all supposed to have attained their full 
stature. Their chief muscular strength is in the back, which is best displayed 
in their games of wrestling. The shouldeis are square, or rather raised, 
making the neck appear shorter than it really is, and the chest is deep : but 
in strength of arm they can not compete with our sailors. The hand is 
small, short, broad, and rather thick, and the thumb api)ears short, giving 
an air of clumsiness in handling anything; and the power of grasping is not 
great. The lower limbs are in good proportion to the body, and the feet, 
like the hands, are short and broad with a high instep. Considering their 
frequent occupations as hunters, they do not excel in speed nor in jumping 
over a height or a level space, but they display great agility in leaping to 
kick with both feet together an object hanging as high as the chin, or even 
above the head. In walking, their tread is firm and elastic, the step short 
and quick ; and the toes being turned outward and the knee at each advance 
inclining in the same direction, give a certain peculiarity to their gait difficult 
to describe. 

The hair is sooty black, without gloss, and coarse, cut in an even line across 
the forehead, but allowed to grow long at the back of the head and about the 
oars, whilst the crown is cropped close or shaven. The color of the skin is 
a light yellowish brown, but variable in shade, and in a few instances was 
observed to be very dark. In the young, the complexion is comparatively fair, 
presenting a remarkably healthy sunburnt appearance, through which the 
rosy hue of the cheeks is visible ; before middle life, however, this, from 
exposure, gives place to a weather-beaten appearance, so that it is difficult to 
guess their ages. 

The face is flat, broad, rounded, and commonly plump, the cheek bones high, 
the forehead low, but broad across the eyebrows, and narrowing upwards; 
the whole head becomes somewhat pointed toward the crown. The nose is 
short and flat, giving an appearance of cc>n.siderable space between the eyes. 
The eyes are brown, of different shades, usually dark, seldom if ever alto- 
gether black, and generall.v have a soft expression ; some have a peculiar 
glitter, which we call gipsylike. They slope slightly upwards from the nose, 
and have a fold of .skin stretching across the inner angle to the upper eyelid, 
most perceptible in chiUlhnod, which gives to some individuals a cast of coun- 
tenance almost perfectly Chinese. The eyelids seem tumid, opening to only a 
moderate extent, and the slightly arched eyebrows scarcely project beyond 
them. The ears are l)y no means large, but frequently stand out sideways. 
The mouth is prominent and large, and the lips, e.specially the lower one, 
rather thick and protruding. The jawbones are strong, supporting remark- 
ably firm and commonly resiular teeth. In the youthful these are in general 
white, but toward middle age they have lost their enamel and become black 
or are worn down to the gums. The incisors of the lower jaw do not pass be- 
hind those of the upper, but meet edge to edge, so that by the time an indi- 

"' Simpson, .John, Observations on the We.stern Eskimo and the Country They Inhabit. 
In A Selection of P.ipers on .\rctic Geography and Ethnology, Pres. by the Roy. Geogr. 
Soc, London, 1875, pp. 23S-24G. 



hkdliCka] physical ANTHROPOLOGY 221 

vidual arrives at maturity, the opposing surfaces of the eye and front teeth 
are perfectly flat, independently of the wear they are subjected to in every 
possible way to assist the hands. The expression of the countenance is one 
of hal)itual good humor in the great majority of both sexes, hut is a good deal 
marred in the men by wearing heavy lip ornaments. * * * 

While young the women are generally well formed and good looking, having 
good eyes and teeth. To a few, who besides possessed something of the Circas- 
sian cast of features, was attributed a certain degree of brunette beauty. 
Their hands and feet are small, and the former delicate in the young, but soon 
become rough and coarse when the household cares devolve upon them. Their 
miivements are awkward and ungainly, and though capal)le of making long 
journeys on foot, it is almost painful to see many <if them walk. Unlike the 
men. they shuffle along commonly a little sideways, with the toes turned in- 
wards, stooping slightly forward as if carrying a burden, and their general 
appearance is not enhanced l)y the coat being made large enough to accom- 
modate a child on the back, whilst the tight-fitting nether garment only serves 
to display the deformity of their bow legs. * * * 

The physical constitution of both sexes is strong, and they bear exposure 
during the coldest weather for many hours together without appearing incon- 
venienced, further than occasional frostbites on the cheeks. They also show 
great endurance of fatigue dnring their journeys in the summer, particularly 
that part in which they require to drag the family boat, ladeii with their sum- 
mer tent and all their moveables, on a sledge over the ice. 

Extreme longevity is probabl.y not unknown among them ; but as they take 
no heed to number the years as they pass, they can form no guess of their 
own ages, invariabl.v stating " they have many years." Judging altogether 
from app<'arance. a man whom we saw in the neighborhood of Kotzebue Sound 
could not be less than 80 years ef age. He had long been confined to his bed 
and appeared quite in his dotage. There was another at Point Barrow, whose 
wrinkled face, silvery hair, toothless gums, and shrunk limbs indicated an age 
nothing short of 75. This man died in the month of April, 1853, and had paid 
a visit to the ship only a few days before, when his intellect seemed unim- 
paired, and his vision wonderfully acute for his time of life. There is another 
still alive, who is said to be a few years older. 

1877, Dall : ^^ 

Page 9 : The Orarians are distinguished * * * by a light fresh yellow 
complexion, fine color, broad build, scaphocephalic head, great cranial capacity, 
and obliquity of the arch of the zygoma. 

Page 17: The Ekogmut inhabit the Yukon delta from about Klpniuk to Pasto- 
lik * * *. Tlieir most noticeable personal peculiarity consists in their hairy 
bodies and strong beards. 

1884, Hooper : " 

About 3,000 Innuits inhabit the northwest coast of America, from the Col- 
ville River, on the east, to Bering Strait, including the islands therein, on the 
west. Many of these came under my observation while cruisin;; in the Arctic 
Ocean in command of the Corwin. 

In apiJearance they are tall and muscular, many being 6 feet in height, and 
some were seen that would exceed that even. Their peculiar dress gives them 

" Dall, W. H., Tribe.> of the Extreme Nortliwest. Contribution to Nortli American 
Ethnology, i, Washington, 1877. 

" Hooper, C. L,, Report of cruise of the revenue steamer Conein, 1881. Washington, 
1884, p. 101. 



222 ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN" ALASKA [bth. ann. 4G 

a squat appearance, anil their stature seems less than it is in reality. The 
women are much shorter than the men, but both sexes are strong and active, 
though not equal in these respects to the Tchuktchis and other reindeer tribes 
of Siberia. 

The face of the Innuit is broad below the eyes, the forehead is narrow and 
receding, the chin and lower jaw broad and heavy. The nose is usually broad 
and flattened, but not always ; occasionally one is seen whose features are well 
formed and handsome. In the young children this is the almost invariable 
rule ; many of them are really beautiful. The eyes are .small and black, and 
appear to be slightly oblique, and for this reason, perhaps nmre than any other, 
they have been classed with the Mongolidce. They have large mouths, thick, 
loosely hanging lips, and fine, strong teeth. These, however, from eating raw 
food, are usually vei-y much worn. The labrets worn in the lips are hideous- 
looking things, made of bone, glass, stone, ivory, or in fact anything within the 
reach of the native which can be worked into the requisite shape. 

They have rather light skin, very different from the Indians of the plains; 
and in this also they differ from the Tchuktchis, being much lighter, and when 
cleansed from the dirt which usually covers them, and freed from the sunburn 
and tan due to long exposure, they become quite fair. Tbey have small, well- 
formed hands and feet, much smaller in proportion than white men. This was 
particularly noticeable when buying boots and mittens from them for our 
use ; only the langest sizes made by them could be used at all. They are gen- 
erally without beard, but as the men grow old, they sometimes have a thin, 
straggling mustache and beard, but it is never full and regular. The hair is 
coarse and black. 

1885, Ray: ^' 

Pages 37-38: The following table will .show that physically the Inyu of 
North American coast does not conform to the typical idea of the Eskimo. 
They are robust, healthy i)eople, fairer than tlie North American Indian, with 
brown eyes and straight black hair. The men are beardless until they attain 
the age of from 20 to 25 years, and even then it is very light and scattering, 
and is always clipped close in the winter; at this season they also cut off 
their eyebrows and tonsure their crown like a priest, with bangs over their 
forehead. Their hands and feet are extremely small and symmetiical ; they 
are graceful in their movements when unincumbered by heavy clothing. 

Page 46 : Physically both sexes are very strong and possess great powers of 
endurance. 

1888, Murdoch : <■'" 

In stature these people are of a medium height, robust, and muscular, inclin- 
ing rather to spareness than cnrpulence, though the fullness of the face and the 
thick fur clothing often gives the impression of the latter. There is, however, 
considerable individual variation among them in this respect. The women are 
as a rule shorter than the men. occasionally almost dwarfish, though some 
women are taller than many of the men. The tallest man observed measured 
5 feet 91/0 inches and the shortest 4 feet 11 inches. The tallest woman was 
5 feet 3 inches in height and the shortest 4 feet V2 inch. The heaviest man 
weighed 204 pounds and the lightest 126 pounds. One woman weighe<l 192 
pounds and the shortest woman was also t he lightest, weighing only 100 

" Ray, P. H., Ethnographic sketch of the natives. Report of the International Polar 
Expedition to Point Barrow, Alaska. Washington, 1885. 

""Murdoch, .1., Ethnological results of the Point Barrow expedition. Ninth Ann. Kept 
Bur. Ethn., 1887-88, pp. 33-39. Washington, 1892. 



hedliOka] physical ANTHROPOLOGY 223 

pounds. The hands and feet are small and well shaped, though the former 
soon become distorted and roughened by work. We did not observe the pecu- 
liar breadth of hands noticed by Doctor Simp.sun, nor is the shortness of the 
thumb which he mentions sufficient to attract attention. Their feet are so 
small that only one of our party, who is much below the ordinary size, was 
able to wear the boots made by the natives for themselves. Small and delicate 
hands and feet appear to be a univer,-;al characteristic of the Eskimo race and 
have been mentioned by most observers from Grei'nlaud to Alaska. 

The face is broad, flat, and round, with high cheek bones and rather low 
forehead, broad across the brow and narrowing above, while the head is some- 
what pointed toward the crown. The peculiar shape of the head is somewhat 
masked by the way of wearing the hair and is best seen in the skull. The 
nose is short, with little or no bridge — few Eskimo were able to wear our 
spring eyeglasses — and broad, esj>ecially across the alie nasa>, with a peculiar, 
rounded, somewhat bulbous tip, and large nostrils. The eye.s are horizontal, 
with rather full lids and are l)ut slightly sunken below the level of the face. 

The mouth is large and the lips full, especially tlie under one. The teeth are 
naturally large, and in youth are white and generally regular, but by middle 
age they are generally worn down to flat-crowned stumps, as is usual among 
the Eskimo. The color of the skin is a light yellowish brown, with often con- 
siderable ruddy color on the cheeks and lips. There apiiears to be much natural 
variation in the complexion, some women being nearly as fair as European.s', 
while other individuals seem to have naturally a coppery color. In most cases 
th£ complexion appears darker than it really is from the effects i^f exposure 
to the weather. All sunburn very easily, especially in the spring, when there 
is a strong reflection from the snow. 

The old are much wrinkled, and they frequently suffer from watery eyes, 
with large sacks under them, which begin to form at a comparatively early 
age. There is considerable variation in features, as well as complexion, among 
them, even in cases where there seems to be no suspicion of mixed blood. 
There were several men among them with decided aquiline noses and some- 
thing of a Helirew cast of countenance. The eyes are of various shades of 
dark brown — two pairs of lisht hazel eyes were observed — and are often 
handsome. The hair is black, perfectly straight, and very thick. With the men 
it is generally coarser than with the women, who sometimes have very long 
and silky hair, though it generally does not reach much below the shoulders. 
The eyebrows are thin and the beard scanty, growing mostly upon the upper 
lip and chin and seldom appearing under the age of 20. In this they re- 
semble most Eskimo. Back, however, siwaks of the " luxuriant beards and 
flowing mustaches " of the Eskimo of the Great FLsh River. Some of the 
older men have rather heavy black mustaches, but there is much variation 
In this respect. The upix-r part of the body, as much as is commonly exposed 
in the house, is remarkably free from hair. The general expression is good 
humored and attractive. 

The males, even when very young, are remarkable for their graceful and 
dignified carriage. The body is held erect, with the shoulders square and 
chest well thrown out, the knees straight, and the feet firmly planted on the 
ground. In walking they move with long swinging elastic strides, the toes 
well turned out and the arms swinging. * * * 

I should say that they walked like well-built athletic white men. The women, 
on the other hand, although possessing good physiques, are .singularly un- 
graceful in their movements. They walk at a sort of shuflling half trot, with 
the toes turned in, the body leaning forward, and the arms hanging awkwardly. 



224 ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SUEVEY IN ALASKA [ETH. ANN. 46 

A noticeable thing about the women is the remarkable flexibility of the 
body and limbs and the great length of time they can stand in a stooping 
posture. * * * Both men and women have a very fair share of muscular 
strength. Some of the women especially showed a iwwer of carrying heavy 
loads superior to most white men. We were able to make no other comparisons 
of their strength with ours. Their power of endurance is very great, and 
both sexes are capable of making long distances on foot. Two men some- 
times spend 24 hours tramping tbrou.i;h the rough ice in search of seals, and 
we knew of instances where small parties made jnurneys of 50 or 75 miles on 
foot without stopping to sleep. 

The women are not prolific. Although all the adults are or have been 
married, many of them are childless, and few have more than two children. 
One woman was known to have at least four, but investigations of this sort 
were rendered extremely difficult by the universal custom of adoption. Doctor 
Simpson heard of a " rare ease " where one woman had borne seven children. 
We heard of no twins at either village, though we obtained the Eskimo word 
for twins. 

1890, Murdoch : " 

The people who live on the extreme northwest corner of our continent are 
far from being an ugly or an ill-made race. Though they are not tall — a man 
of 5 feet 10 inches is a tall man among them — they are well proportioned, 
broad shouldered, and deep chested. The men, as a rule, are particularly well 
" set up," like well-drilled soldiers and walk and stand with a great deal of 
grace and dignity. 

The women do not have such good figures, but are inclined to slouchiness. 
They are seldom inclined to be fleshy, though their plump, round faces, along 
with their thick fur clothing, often give them the appearance of being fat. 
They generally have round, full faces, with rather high cheek bones, small, 
rounded noses, full lips, and small chins. Still, you now and then see a person 
with an oval face and aquiline nose. Many of the men are very good looking, 
and some of the young women are exceedingly pretty. Their complexion is a 
dark brunet, often with a good deal of bright color on the cheeks and especially 
on the lips. They sunburn very much, especially in the spring, when the glare 
of the sun is reflected from the snow. They have black or dark-brown e.ves and 
abundant black hair. The women's hair is often long and silky. When they 
are young they have white and regular teeth, but these are worn down to 
stumps before middle life is reached. Cheerful and merry faces are the rule. 

1890, Kelly :«« 

Personal appearance. — There are three types observable among the Arctic 
Eskimos of Alaska. The tall, cadaverous natives of Kangoot. Seelawik, Koovuk, 
and Kikiktowruk, on Kotzebue Sound, who live on fish, ptarmigans, and mar- 
mots. They always have a hungry look and habitually wear a grin of fiendish 
glee at having circumvented an adverse fate. There is a tendency among these 
people to migrate north. 

Then there is the tall, strongly knit type of the Nooatoks, a gigantic race, of 
a splendid physique that would be remarkable in any part of the world. 

°' Murdocb, J., Dress and physique of the Point Barrow Eskimos, Popul. Sci. Montb., 
Dec., 1890, 222-223. 

■"^ Kolly, J, W,, Arctic Eskimos iu Alaska and Siberia, Revised and edited by Sheldon 
Jackson. Bull. No. 3, Soc. Alaskan Nat. Hist, and Etbnol,, Sitka, 1890, p, 15. 



HEDLKlKAl PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 225 

Rugged as the mouutains amons which they live, vigorous and courageous, 
they stop at nothing but the impossible to accomplish a desired end. Their 
food supply i.s the reindeer, mountain sheep, ptarmigans, and fish. There are 
many of the coast natives of this type, but they lack the healthy glow and the 
indomitable will of the Nooatoks. 

The third type is the short, stumpy one, probably that of the old Eskimo be- 
fore the admixture with southern tribes, now found on the Arctic coast. * * * 

The Eskimos have coarse, black hair, some with a tinge of brown. Many of 
the coast people of both sexes are bald from scrofulous eruptions Males have 
the crown of the head closely cropped, so that reindeer may not see the waving 
lock.s when the hunter creeps behind bunch grass. They have black eyes and 
high cheek bones. The bones of the face are better protected from the severity 
of the climate by a thicker covering of flesh than southern races. 

Among the coast people the nose is broad and flat, with very litt'e or no ridge 
between the eyes. The adult males have short mustaches, and some of the 
elder ones — more noticeable in the interior — ^have rough, scraggy beards. Gen- 
erally their beard is very scant, and most of them devote otuerwise Idle 
hours to pulling out the hairs. 

1900, Nelson:"^ 

The Eskimo from Bering Strait to the lower Yukon are fairly well-built 
people, averaging among the men about 5 feet 2 or 3 inches in height. The 
Yukon Eskimo and those living southward from that river to the Kuskokwim 
are, as a rule, shorter and more squarely built. The Kuskokwim people are 
darker of complexion than those to the northward, and have rounder features. 
The men commonly have a considerable growth of hair on their faces, be- 
coming at times a thin beard 2 or 3 inches in length, with a well-developed 
mustache. No such development of beard was seen elsewhere In the territory 
visited. 

The people in the coast region between the mouths of the Kuskokwim and the 
Yukon have peculiarly high cheek bones and shaip chins, which unite to give 
their faces a curiously pointed, triangular appearance. At the village of 
Kaialigamut 1 was Impressed by the strong development of the superciliary 
ridge. From a point almost directly over the pupil of the eye and extending 
thence inward to the median line of the forehead is a strong bony r'dge cau.s- 
ing the brow to stand out sharply. From the outer edge of tliis the skull 
appears as though beveled away to the ears, giving the temporal area a con- 
siderable enlargement beyond that usually shown. This curious development 
of the skull is rendered still more striking by the fact that the bridge of the 
nose is low, as usual among these people, so that the shelf-like projection of 
the brow stands out in strong relief. It is most strongly marked among the 
men and appears to be characteristic at this place. Elsewhere ia this district 
it was noted only rarely here and there. 

All of the people in the district about Capes Vancouver and Romanzof, anil 
thence to the Yukon mouth, are of unusually light complexion. Some of the 
women have a pale, slightly yellowish color, with pink cheeks, differing but 
little in complexion from that of a sallow woman of Caucasian blood. This 
light complexion is so exceptionally striking that wherever they travel these 
people are readily distinguished from other Eskimo, and before I visited their 
territory I had learned to know them by their complexion whenever they came 
to St. Michael. 

69 Nel8on, Edward W., The Eskimo about Bering Strait. Eighteenth Ann. Rept. Bur. 
Amer. Ethn., Washington, 1900. pp. 26-29. 



226 AJJTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [kth. axn. 40 

The people of the district just" mrntioned are nil very short and squarely 
built. Inland from Cape Vancouver lies the flat marshy country about Big 
Lake, which is situated between the Kuskoknim and the Yukon. It is a 
well-jwpulated district and its inhabitants differ from those near the coast 
at the capes referred to, in being taller, more slender, and having more 
squarely cut features. They also differ strikingly from any other E.skimo 
with whom I came in contact, except those on Kowak River, in having the 
bridge of the nose well developed and at times sufficiently prominent to sug- 
gest the aquiline no.se of our southern Indian tribes. 

The Eskimo of the Diome<le Islands in Bering Strait, as well as those of 
East Cape and Meehigme and Plover Bays on the Siberian coast, and of St. 
Lawrence Island are tall, strongly built people and are generally similar in 
their physical features. These are characterized by the unusual heaviness of 
the lower part of the face due to the very .square and massive lower jaw, which, 
combined with broad, high cheek bones and flattened nose, produces a wide, 
flat face. These features arc frequently accompanied with a l<iw retre-ating 
forehead, producing a decidedly repulsive physiognomy. The bridge of the nose 
is so low and the cheek hones so heavy that a profile view will frequently show 
only the tip of the person's nose, the eyes and upper portion of the nose being 
completely hidden by the prominent outline of the cheek. Their eyes are less 
oblique than is common among the people living southward from the Yukon 
mouth. Among the people at the northwestern end of St. Lawrence Island 
there is a greater range of pliyslognomy than was noted at any other of the 
Asiatic localities. 

The Point Hope people on the American coast have heavy jaws and well- 
developed superciliary ridges. At Point Barrow the men are remarkable for 
(he irregularity of their features, amounting to a positive degree of ugliness, 
which is increased and rendered specially prominent by the expression produced 
by the short, tightly drawn upper lip, the projecting lower lip, and the small 
beady eyes. The women and children of this place are in curious contrast, 
having rather pleasant features of the usual type. 

The Eskimo from Upper Kowak and Noatak Rivers who were met at the 
summer camp on Hotham Inlet are notable for the fact that a considerable 
number of them have hook noses and nearly all have a cast of countenance 
very similar to that of the Yukon Tieinif. They are a larger and more robustly 
built people than these Indians, however, and speak the Eskimo language. 
They wear labrets, practice the tonsure, and claim to be Eskimo. * * * 
Among them was seen one man having a mop of coarse curly hair, almost 
negroid in character. The same feature was observed in a number of men and 
women on the Siberian coast between East Cape and Plover Bay. This latter 
is undoubtedly the result of the Chukchi-Eskimo mixture, and in the case of 
the man seen at Hotham Inlet the same result had been brought about by the 
Eskimo-Indian combination. Among the Eskimo south of Bering Strait on the 
American coast not a single instance of this kind was observed. The age of 
the individuals having this curly hair renders it quite improbable that it came 
from an admixture of blood with foreign voyagers, since some of them must 
have been born at a time when vessels were extremely rare along these shores. 
As a further argument against this curly hair having come from white men, 
I may add that I saw no trace of it among a number of people having partly 
Caucasian blowl. As a general thing, the Eskimo of the region described, have 
small hands and feet and the features are oval in outline, rather flat and with 
.slightly oblique eyes. 

Children and young girls have round faces and often are very pleasiint and 
attractive in feature, the angular race characteristics becoming prominent after 



hkdliCka] 



PHYSICAX, ANTHKOPOLOGY 227 



the individuals approach manhood. The women age rapidly, and only a very 
small proportion of the people live to an advanced age. 

The Malemut and the people of Kaviak Peninsula, including those of the 
islands in Bering Strait are tall, active, and remarkably well built. Among 
them it is common to see men from 5 feet 10 inches to 6 feet tall and of pro- 
porti(mate build. I should judge the average among them to be nearly or quite 
equal in height to the whites. 

Among the coast Eskimos, as a rule, the legs are short and poorly developed, 
while the body is long with disproportionately developed dorsal and lumbar 
muscles, due to so much of their life being passed in the kaiak. 

The Eskimo of the Big Lake district, south of the Yukon, and from the Kaviak 
Peninsula, as well as the Malemut about the head of Kotzebue Sound, are on 
the contrary very finely proportioned and athletic men who can not be equaled 
among the Indians of the Yukon region. * * * There were a number of 
half-blood children among the Eskimo, resulting from the intercourse with 
people from vessels and others, who generally show their Caucasian blood by 
large, finely shaped, and often remarkably beautiful brown eyes. The number 
of these mixed bloods was not very great. 

1905, Jackson : " 

The Eskimos of Alaska are a much finer race physically than their kindred 
of Greenland and Labrador. In the extreme north, at Point Barrow, and 
along the coast of Bering Sea they are of medium size. At Point Barrow the 
average height of the males is 5 feet 3 inches and average weight 153 pounds; 
of the women, 4 feet 11 inches and weight 13.5 pounds. On the Nushagak 
River the average weight of the men is from 150 to 167 jwunds. From Cape 
Prince of Wales to Icy Cape along the Arctic Coast and on the great inland 
rivers emptying into the Arctic Ocean they are a large race, many of them 
being 6 feet and over in height.'^ They are lighter in color and fairer than 
the North American Indian, have black and brown eyes, black hair, some 
with a tinge of brown, high cheek bones, fleshy fiices, small hands and feet, 
and good teeth. The men have thin beards. 

1916, Hawkes:" 

The Alaskan Eskimo are a taller and more symmetrical people than their 
brethren of the central and eastern districts. They lack that aijpearance of 
stoutness and squatness inherent in the eastern stock, and for proportion and 
development of the various parts of the body they do not compare unfavorably 
with Indians and whites. It is not unusual to tiud in an Alaskan Eskimo 
village several men who are 6 feet tall, with magnificent shoulders and arms 
and bodily strength in proportion. The usual height, however. Is about 168 
centimeters for men, which is some 10 centimeters above the height of the 
eastern Eskimo. * * * xhe average for women among the western Eskimo 
is 158 centimeters, which approximates the height of the men in the Hudson 
Bay region, 158 centimeters (Boas). The female type in Alaska is taller and 
slimmer than in the east, and the width of the face is considerably less. 
Eskimo women of large stature are often seen in the northern section of 

™ Jackson, Sbeldon, Our barbarous Eskimos in northern Alaska. The Metropol. Mag., 
Vol. xxn. New York. .luce. 1905, pp. 257-271. 

•' Either a bad misprint or bad error. — A. H. 

'- Hawkes, Ernest William. Skeleta? measurements and observations of the Point Barrow 
Eskimo, with comparisons with other Eskimo groups. Am. AntUrop., n. s. xviii. No. 2, 
pp. 206-207, Lancaster, 1916. 



228 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

Alaska. The individual variation here is more conspicuous tlian in Labrador 
or Hudson Bay. 

1923, Jenness : " 

In hi.s report on tile Copper Eskimos, D. Jenness gives excellent descriptive 
notes on tliis group vsrith references to others. These notes, too voluminous to 
be transcribed, may well be consulted in these connections. 

Older Anthropometric Data on the Western Eskimo 

stature and other measurements on the living 

• The earliest actual measurements of the living among the western 
Eskimo are those given in Captain Beechey's Narrative (1832, p. 
226) , where we read that of the Eskimo of Cape Thompson (north of 
Kotzebue Sound) "the tallest man was 5 feet 9 inches (175.3 centi- 
meters), the tallest woman 5 feet 4 inches (162.6 centimeters) in 
height." As seen before, Beechey also stated that the stature of the 
Eskimo increases from the east to the west. 

In 1881-82, Lieutenant Ray collects and in 1885 reports evidently 
careful measurements of 51 men and 30 women from the villages of 
Uglaamie, at Cape Smythe, now Barrow, and Nuwuk, on Point 
Barrow.'* An abstract of the data shows as follows: 

Average height : Male. 5 feet 3V{. inches (161.3 centimeters) ; female. 4 feet 11% 

inches (151.8 centimeters). 
Average weight : Male, 153% pounds ; female, 135% pounds. 
Talle.st male: 5 feet 8% inches (174.6 centimeters). 
Tallest female: 5 feet 3 inches (160 centimeters). 
Shortest male: 4 feet 11 inches (149.9 centimeters). 
Shortest female: 4 feet % inch (123.2 centimeters). 
Weight : Male, 126 to 204 pounds ; female, 106 to 172 pounds. 

In 1892, in connection with the preparation of the anthropological 
exhibits for the World Exposition at Chicago, an extensive effort was 
made under the direction of Frederick W. Putnam and Franz Boas 
to secure, by the help of a group of specially instructed students, 
physical data on many tribes of the American aborigines, and this 
included a contingent of the western Eskimo. An abstract of the 
results was reported by Boas in 1895." The locality where the 
Eskimo were measured is not given, but it was most likely Nome 
or St. Michael Island. Thirty-four men gave the high (for the 
Eskimo) average of 165.8 centimeters, an unstated number of 
women an equally elevated average of 155.1 centimeters. No details 

" Jenness, D., Physic.il characteristics of the Copper Eskimos. Ropt. Canail. Arct. Exp. 
1913-1918. Ottawa, 1923, p. 38. 

" Ray, Lieut. P. H., Report of the International Polar Expedition to Point Barrow, 
Alaslia. Washington, 1885. p. 50. 

'°Zur Anthropolo),'ie der Nordamerikanischen Indianer. Verh. Beii. Ges. Antbrop., 
Sitz. Mai 18, 1895 (with Z. Ethnol. for same year). 



HEDLlfKA] 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 



229 



are given. There is also given the mean and distribution of the 
cephalic index on 114 living western Eskimo of both sexes. (On 
chart, p. 395, the number is 141.) The mean index was 79.2. There 
are again, as under Stature, no details as to locality, and none 
could be obtained from the author. ' 

In 1901 Deniker, in his Races of Man (p. 580), reports the stature 
of 85 Eskimo of Alaska, doubtless males, as 163 centimeters. 
There are no details, no references, and I have not been able to trace 
the source of the measurement. 

During the years 1897-1899 A. J. Stone made an extended jour- 
ney along a portion of the upper Yukon and through parts of 
northwestern Alaska and the Mackenzie River basin, for the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History. On this journey he made some 
measurements of Indian and Eskimo, and these were published in 
1901 by Fi-anz Boas.'" The Eskimo measured were the " Nunatag- 
miut " (11 males, 5 females), of the Noatak River, Alaska, and the 
"Koukpaguiiut," (12 males, G females), east of the mouth of the 
Mackenzie. The Noataks, who alone interest us more closely here, 
gave the relatively high (for Eskimo) stature of 167.9 centimeters in 
the men and 155.6 centimeters in the women. The number of subjects 
is small and there may possibly have been some unconscious selec- 
tion ; yet it is clear that in this group there are numerous fairly tall 
individuals. 

Stone's Data on the Noatak Rrer Eskimo 



Stature 

Stretch of arms 

Height of shoulder. 

Length of arm 

Height sitting 

Widthof shoulders. 

Length of head 

Width of head 

Width of face 

Height of face 



Males (11) 


Females (5) 


167.9 


155. 6 


173.0 


159. 2 


139. 7 


128.4 


73.9 


66.0 


86.8 


81. 8 


38.0 


34. 2 


18.9 


18. 1 


15. 45 


14. 26 


15. 57 


14. 46 


12.84 


11. 98 



Height of nose 

Width of nose 

Index of stretch of 

a rms 

Index of arm 

Index of height 

sitting 

Index of width of 

shoulders 

Cephalic index 



Males (11) Females (5) 



5. 63 
3. 76 

103. 1 



52. 6 

22. 6 
81. 6 



5. 3 
3.34 

102. 4 
42. 6 

52.4 

22 

78.8 



™ A. J. Stone's Measurements of Natives of the Northwestern Territories. Bull- Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., 1901, xiv, pp. 53-68. 



230 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



In addition, Doctor Jenness, in 1913, measured 13 adult male Point 
Hope Eskimo for stature, head length, and head breadth." He 
obtained the following records : 



stature 


Head 
length 


HAd 
i breadth 


Cephalic 
index 


Stature 


Head 

length 


Head 
breadth 


Cephalic 
index 


160.5 


19. 7 


15. 1 


76. 6 


174. 3 


18. 6 


15. 1 


81. 1 


168. 5 


19.6 


14.7 


75.0 


158. 3 


18.7 


15. 4 


82.3 


167. 3 


19. 4 


14.5 


74.7 


168.2 


19.2 


16.3 


84. 9 


162. 9 


21.0 


14.6 


69.5 


167.3 


18.7 


15.9 


85.0 


162.4 


19. 2 


14.5 


75.5 










167.8 


19.5 


14. 9 


76. 4 


Means ' 








170.2 


18.8 


14.7 


78.2 










170. 4 


18.8 


14.8 


78.7 


168.2 


19.28 


15.06 


78. 1 


168. 3 


19. 4 


15.3 


78.8 











^ By present writer. 

Doctor Jenness '^ also gives useful data on the stature and cephalic 
index of living Eskimo from other localities which, with the addition 
of the sources and a slightly different arrangement, are here ref)ro- 
duced : 

Statube 



Place 



Men 



Cases Stature 



Women 



Cases Stature 



Smith Sound (Steensby) 

S. W. Greenland (Hansen) 

Labrador (Duckworth and Pain) 

Smith Sound (HrdHcka) ' 

S. E. Greenland (Hansen) 

Point Barrow (Ray) 

Hudson Bay (South Island and Aivilik) 

(S. I. 35, Tocher; A. 9, Boas) 

Mackenzie Delta (Jenness) 

N. E. Greenland (Han,sen) 

Coronation Gulf (Jenness) 

Iglulik, Hudson Bay (Parry) 

Point Hope (Jenness) 

Mackenzie Delta (Stone) 

Noatak River (Stone) 



8 
21 
11 

3 
22 
51 

44 
4 
31 
82 
20 
13 
12 
11 



157.4 
157. 6 
157.7 
157.7 

160. 4 

161. 5 

162. 
162. 2 
164. 7 
164. 8 
166.0 

166. 5 
167.5 

167. 9 



10 
24 
10 



23 

28 

12 



15 
42 
20 



145.4 
151. 8 
149. 7 



152. 9 
153.6 

151. 8 



155. 1 

156. 4 
153.7 



151.5 
155.5 



1 Added from author's Anthropology ot Central and Smith Sound Eskimo, 1910, 228; the stature of one 
woman was 146.7. 

"Physical Characteristics of the Copper Eskimo. Rep. Canad. Arch. Eiped. 1913-1918, Ottawa, 1923, 
Introd., also p. B37. 

" Kep. Canad. Arct. Exped., 1913-1918, B50. 



hrdliOkaJ 



PHYSICAX, ANTHROPOLOGY 
Cephalic Index ' 



231 





Men 


Womea 




Cases 


Indei 


Cases 


Indei 


Mackenzie Delta (Stone) 


12 
4 
22 
11 
35 
82 
31 


73.9 
76. 1 
75.7 
77.0 

77.2 
77.6 
77.8 






Mackenzie Delta (Jenness) . _ _ 


6 
23 
10 


75. 2 




75.0 


Labrador (Duckworth and Pain) 


74.5 


Coronation Gulf (Jenness) _ _- 


42 
15 
10 
24 


76. 6 


Northeast Greenland (Hansen) __ _ _ _. 


76. 5 


Smith SoiinH (Stppnshv) 


8 ' 78. 
21 j 78. 1 
13 i 2 78. 3 
11 1 81.6 

1 


77. 4 


Southwest Greenland (Hansen) 


76. 8 


Point Hope (Jenness) 




Noatak River (Stone) _ _ _ _ . _ 


5 


78. 8 







> Physical Characteristics of the Copper Eskimo. Rep. Caoad. Arct. Eiped., 1913-191S, Ottawa. 1923 
p. B55. 
' The totals of the measurements give 75./ — X. H. 

THE SKULL 

The first western Eskimo skull collected for .scientific purposes 
was apparently that of a female St. Lawrence Islander. It was 
taken from the rocks of the island by the Kotzebue party in 1817. 
It was reported upon j^hrenologically in 1822 by Gall.'** 

In 1839 Morton, in his "Crania Americana" (p. 248), gives 
measurements and the illustration of a western Eskimo skull from 
Icy Cape, collected by Dr. A. Collie, surgeon of H. M. S. BJossoni. 
The principal measurements of this evidently female skull were: 
Length, 17.02 centimeters; breadth, 12.70; height, 12.70. Cephalic 
index, 7^.6. 

In 1862"' and 1863 «" Daniel Wilson reports briefly on six 
Tchuktchi skulls, which were probably those of Asiatic E.skimo. He 
says: 

M.v opportunities for examining Esquimaux crania liave been sufficient to 
furnish me with very satisfactory data for forming an opinion on the true 
Arctic .sliull form. In addition to the measurements of 38 slculLs, * * * 
I have recently compared and carefully measured six Tchuktchi [probably 
Asiatic coast Eskimo] skulls, in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution, 
exhumed from the burial place of a village called Tergnyune, on the island of 
Arikamcheche, at Glassnappe Harbor, west of Bering Strait, and during a 

" Voyagp pittoresquc autour du Monde, by Louis Choris. Paris, 1S22, pp. 15, 16. 

™ Wilson, Daniel, Prehistoric man. Two vols. Lond., 1862 ; ii, pi. 15 ; 3d ed., 1876, 
II, 192, 15. 

*» Wilson, Daniel, Physical ethnology. Smith.sonian Report for 1862, Washington, 1863. 
pp. 261-262. The measurements of the Tchuktchi are given in the Prehistoric Man, 
vol. II, Table 16. 



232 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

recent visit to Philadelphia I enjoyed the advantage of examining, in company 
with Dr. J. Aitken Meigs, a series of 125 [eastern] Esquimaux crania, ob- 
tained liy Doctor Hayes during his Arctic journey of 18(10. The comparison 
between the Tchul^tchi and the true Esquimaux skull is interesting. Without 
being identical, the correspondence in form is such as their languages and 
other affinities would suggest. Of the former, moreover, the number is too 
few, and the derivation of all of them from one cemetery adds to the chances 
of exceptional family features ; but on carefully examining the Hayes col- 
lection with a view to this comparison, I found it was quite possible to select 
an equal number of Esquimaux crania closely corresponding to the Tchuktchi 
type, which indeed presents the most prominent characteristics of the former, 
only less strongly marked. 

In Prehistoric Man, Volume II, Plate XV, this author gives also 
the measurements of the Icy Cape skull recorded by Morton. 

The principal mean measurements of the six Tchuktchi skulls (both 
sexes) were: Height, 17.60 centimeters; breadth, 13.59; height. 13.77; 
cranial index, 77.3. 

The next measurements on western Eskimo crania are those given 
in 1867 by J. Barnard Davis {Thes. crau.). This author measured 
skulls, 3 of which were from Port Clarence (Seward Peninsula), 
2 from Kotzebue Sound, and 1 from Cape Lisburne. The measure- 
ments, regrettably, are in inches. They include the greatest glabello- 
occipital length, greatest breadth, height (plane of for. magn. to 
vertex), height of face (chin-nasion), and breadth of face (d. bizy- 
gom. max.). The cranial index of the 4 specimens identified as 
male averaged 75.5 (75-76), that of the 2 females 77.5 (77-78). On 
page 226 the author mentions also an artificially deformed skull 
of a Koniag; this was in all probability a wrong identification for 
no such deformations are known from the island (Kodiak). 

In 1868 Jeffries Wyman*' published measurements of 5 skulls of 
" Tsuktshi," the same as those of Daniel Wilson, and of 5 from the 
Yukon River, " three of which are Mahlemuts." 

The identification of the specimens was partly erroneous. The 
data with corrected identification are republished by Dall (q. v.) in 
1877. And the same skulls figure in all future measurements. 

In 1875 Topinard*^ gives the Barnard Davis measurements in 
metric form without, so far as the western Eskimo are concerned, 
any additions. 

The main measurements of Barnard Davis's western Eskimo skulls, 
converted to metric values, follow. The sex identification in some 
of the specimens is doubtful. 

" Observations on Crania. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, 440-4G2. Boston, 1868. 
'^■- Topinard, P., Mesures craniometriques des Esquimaux. Rev. d'Anthrop., 1873, il, 
499-522. 



HRDLK'KA] 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 



233 





Skull 
length 


Breadth 


Height (to 
vertex) 


Cranial 
index 


Port Clarence, male 


17.8 
17.8 
-IS 


13.45 
13. 45 
-14 


-14 
14. 2 
13. 45 


75. 7 


Do 


75. 7 


Port Clarence, female . 


77.6 






Means of the three.. . 


17. 86 


13.64 


13. 59 


76. 4 




Kotzebue Sound, male.. _ 


17.55 
17.3 


13. 2 
13.45 


13.45 
13.7 


75.4 
77. 9 


Kotzebue Sound, female . .. 






Means of the two (probably both 
females) 


17. 4 


13.35 


13.6 


76. 6 






Cape Lisburne, male 


18.3 


14. 2 


-14 


77.8 







The next records are those by George A. Otis, published in 1876 
in the Check List of the Specimens in the Section of Anatomy of the 
United States Army Medical Museum, Washington (pp. 13-15). 
Aside from those on Greenland crania the author gives here the meas- 
urements of 3 presumably Eskimo skulls collected by Dall ; of 2 
western Eskimo skulls, no locality; and of 3 Mahlemut skulls, prob- 
ably from Norton Sound (St. Michael Island). In his later (1880) 
catalogue,**^ page 13. Otis adds to the above three skulls from Prince 
William Sound, which, however, were more probably Indian; the 
three Mahlemuts, on the other hand, are given with the Alaskan 
Indians (p. 35). These data are of but little value. The Eskimo 
skulls are the same Smithsonian specimens that were reported upon 
in 1868 by Jeffries Wyman. 

In 1878. Rae ^^ mentions some measurements or observations on 
the skulls of Western Eskimo by Flower, but no records of these 
could be located. Rae says: 

I had the privilege of attending.' the series of admirable lectures so ably 
given by Professor Flower at the Royal College of Surgeons a few weeks ago 
on the " Comparative Anatomy of Man," from which I derived much useful 
information and on one point very considerable food for thought. 

I allude to the wonderful difference in form exhibited between the .skulls of 
the Eskimos from the neighborhood of Bering Strait, and of those inhabiting 
Greenland, the latter being extremely dolichocephalic, whilst the former are 
the very opposite — brachycepUalic, the natives of the intermediate coast, from 
the Coppermine River eastward, having mesocephalic heads. 



*" List of the specimens In the Anatomical Section of the Army Medical Museum. 
Washington, 18S0. 

** Rae, John, Eskimo skulls. J. Anthrop. Inst. Gr. Brit., London, 1878, vii, 142. 



88253° 



234 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



In 1879 Lucien Carr, in his " Observations on the Crania from the 
Santa Barbara Islands, California'"*^ (p. 281), gives erroneously 
Otis's measurements of Aleut skulls as those of " Alaskan Eskimo." 

Meanwhile W. H. Dall has published (1877) his monograph on 
the " Tribes of the Extreme Northwest," *" in which he includes 
Wyman's and also some of Otis's data on the Eskimo (and Aleut) 
skulls from Alaska and Asia. The Tshuktshi are now classed as 
Asiatic Eskimo, the Mahlemuts as Eskimo from St. Michael Island. 
The total number of skulls described in the former series is 11, in 
the latter series 6 (of Aleuts the number of skulls measured is 27 
adults and 7 children). The means of the princijDal measurements 
of the Eskimo series, both sexes together, are as follows : 

Jeffries Wtman's and Otis's Measurements of Western Eskimo Crania 



Crania (both sexes) 


Length 


Breadth 


Height 


Cranial 
index 


Asiatic Eskimo 


(11) 

17.8 

(6) 
17. 5 


(11) 
14. 1 

(6) 
13. 2 


(7) 
13. 2 

(6) 
13. 1 


(11) 
79. 3 


Northwest American Eskimo.. _ . __ _ 


(6) 
75. 1 







There were also taken the weight, capacity, circumference, longi- 
tudinal arch, length of the frontal, parietal, and occipital, " zygo- 
matic diameter," and in two specimens of each series the facial 
angle. To-day these data have but a historical value. 

In 1882, Quatrefages and Hamy,*' in their " Crania ethnica " 
(p. 440) give the measurements of two male Kaniagmiouts (Kodiak 
Indian, A. Pinart, collector) and one female Mahlemiout. The prin- 
cipal measurements of these skulls are as follows : 



SkuU: 

Length 

Breadth 

Height (bas.- 
bg.) 

Cranial index 



Males (2) Female (1) 



18.6 
14. 2 

14 3 

76.34 



17. 9 
13.9 

13. 2 

77. 65 



Nose: 

Length 

Breadth 

Nasal index 

Facial index, total 
Orbital index 



Males (2) Female (1) 



5.9 


5. 1 


2.3 


2.3 


38.08 


45.09 


77.69 


70. 37 


92.68 


90.24 



In 1883 Dr. Irving C. Rosse, in his " ^ledical and Anthropological 
Notes on Alaska," *** refers to his examination of a number of Eskimo 

S5 Rep. U. S. Geogr. Surv. W. of 100 Mericl.. vol. vii. 

»" U. S. Geog. and Gcol. Surv. Rocky Mt. Reg. Contributions to North .Vmorican Eth- 
nology, I. Washington. 1877. p. 63 et seq. 

"'Quatrefages, A. de, and Hamy, E. T., Crania ethnica. Paris, 1882. 438, 440. 
»> Cruise of the Coiiein in 1881. Washington, 1883, p. 38. 



hbdliCka] 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 



235 



skulls from the St. Lawrence Island brought to the Army Medical 
Museum.*** There are no measurements outside of a reference to the 
capacity, but there are two excellent chromolithographs showing two 
female crania, besides a number of outline drawings. 

The next data on the western Eskimo skull are in rather unsatisfac- 
tory condition. They are those of Boas. In his report on the "An- 
throjjologie der nordamerikanischen Indianer," '"" Doctor Boas men- 
tions the cranial index of the Alaska Eskimo to average 71-^ and on 
page 397 he reports the same index as secured on 37 "Alaska Eskimo " 
skulls, apparently of both sexes. The only note relating to these 
figures is found on page 393, where it is stated that these results 
proceed from measurements that had been made for the author at 
the Peabody Museum, Cambridge, the American Museum, New York, 
the Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia, and the United States Army 
Medical Museum, Washington; and that he utilized also the measure- 
ments of Barnard Davis and Otis. On 22 of the above western 
Eskimo skulls there is also given the length-height index of 76.6. 
There is no information as to either sex or locality. There are no 
other measurements. 

Deniker (1901) and later Martin (1914) repeat the data given by 
Boas. 

In 1890 Tarenetzky ^^ publishes measurements and observations on 
four Koniag (Kodiak) skulls and one Oglemute (Aglegmute, Alaska 
Peninsula). The main measurements (pp. 70-71) are: 





Eoneag9« 


Koneage 


Koneage 


Eoneage 


Means ' of 
the four 

from 
Kodiak 
Island 


Aglegm- 

jute 

{Alaska 

Peninsula) 


Skull: 

Length 

Breadth, .. 


17. 1 
13. S 
13. 1 

50. 7 

4. 7 
2. 4 

51. 
87.5 


16. 4 
15.7 
14.4 

95. 7 

5. 3 
2.5 

47.1 
97.6 


17. 2 
15.8 
14.0 

91. 8 

5. 7 

2. 6 

46.6 

92. 7 


16. 8 
14.4 
13. 2 

85. 7 

5.9 

2.3 

39.0 

80.9 


16. 88 
14.93 
13. 68 

88. 4 

5. 40 

2. 45 
■i5.4 

89. 7 


19.0 
13. 7 


Height 

Cranial index 

Nose: 

Length 

Breadth 

Nasal index 

Orbital index 


14. 1 

7S. 1 

5. 8 
2.3 

39.6 

88. I 



■Most if not all the Kodiak skulls are doubtless females, the Oglemute a male. Quite probably also 
the Kodiak skulls are those of Aleuts and not of Eskimo. 
(•By present author. 

'*" Now in the Division of Physical Anthropology of the U. S. National Museum. 
^'' 1895, Verb. Berliner, Ges. Anthrop. p. 3G7 et seq. 

■*" Tarenetzky. Al., Beitrii^^p zur CrnnioloEcie der Ainos auf Sachalin. Meuj. Acad, imp. 
Sc. St. P^tersb., 1890, XXXVII, No. 13, 1-55. 



236 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ITH. ANN. 46 



In 1900 Sergi "^ reports on four Kodiak skulls that he examined in 
Paris. Two of these are probably Aleut (or Indian). The cranial 
indices were, respectively, 75.8, 78.3, 88, and 88.2. 

In 1916 E. "W. Hawkes presented a thesis on the " Skeletal Measure- 
ments and Observations on the Point Barrow Eskimo, with Compari- 
sons from other Eskimo Groups." "- The number of skulls measured 
was 27, of which 14 were identified as adult males, 5 adult females, 6 
adolescents, and 2 infants. In addition there ai-e measurements by 
Ealph Linton of other skeletal parts than the skull of three skeletons. 

The measurements, though the first tjken by this author, have evi- 
dently been taken in a painstaking manner and according to modern 
methods, and are therefore of some value. An abstract of those on 
the adults follows: 

Principal Meastjbements of Point Babkow Ceania, by Hawkes 



Vault: 

Length 

Breadth 

Basion-bregma 

height 

Cranial index.. 
Height-length 

index 

Height-breadth 

index 

Face: 

Diam.bizygom. 

max 

BF:BH pro- 
portion 

Chin-nasion 

height 

Alveolar point- 

nasion 



Males (14) 


18. 


91 


13. 


73 


13. 


86 


73. 


65 


73. 


U 


100. 


68 


14. 


10 


102.6 




(6) 


13. 


15 


(14) 1 


7. 


42 



Females (6) 



17. 86 
13.58 

13. 30 

7^.06 

74- 45 
98.01 

13. 40 

98. 7 
(3) 

11. 60 

(5) 

6. 80 



Face. — Continued 
Facial index, 

total 

Facial index, 
upper 

Nose: 

Height 

Breadth 

Index 

Orbits: 

Height 

Breadth 

Index 

Dental arch: 

Length 

Breadth 

Index 



Males (14) 



Females (6) 



92. 13 


62.48 


86.20 


54.05 


5. 66 


5.24 


2.30 


2. 18 


40. 69 


1,1.62 


3. 76 


3.59 


4. 13 


4.05 


91. 3 


88.5 


5.31 


6.27 


4.96 


6.06 


95. 4 


96. 7 



In 1923 Cameron "^ published the following data on six western 
Eskimo skulls from Port Clarence, collected by the Canadian Arctic 
Expedition : 



»' Sergi, G., Cranl Esquimesi. Atti della societa Romana di antropologia, Roma, 1900, 
VII, 2, 93-102. 

"'Am. Anthrop., 1916, xTiii, 203-244. 

" Cameron, John, Osteolog.v of tho westorn and central Eskimo. Rep, Canad. Arctic 
Exp., 1913-1918. Ottawa, 1923. With a report on the teeth by S. G. Ritchie and J. S. 
Bagnall. Table and means by the present writer. 



hedmCka] 



PHYSICAL .\NTHROPOLOGY 



237 



Poet Claeence (Sewabd Peninsula) Eskimo Crania 



Vault 


Nose 


Length 


Brpadth 


Height 


Cranial 
index 


I.«ngth 


Breadth 


Nasal 
index 


Orbital 
index 


Males: 

18.9 - 


13.9 
14.3 
13.25 
13. 
13.7 

13.63 

13. 1 


14. 1 
13.7 
14.2 
13.3 

13.82 
12.8 


73.6 
76.5 
70.2 
73.4 
71.4 

72.97 

73. 1 


5.9 
5.3 
6.0 


2.5 
2.5 
2.2 


41S.4 
47.2 
36. 7 


86.4 


18.7 


85. 7 


18.8 


86. 4 


17 8 


88.9 


19 2 








Mean: 18.68 

Female: 17.85 


5.73 


2.40 


41.9 


86.9 













The last contribution to the craniology of the western Eskimo 
before the present report are the data embodied in my " Catalogue 
of Human Crania in the United States National Museum Collec- 
tions," published in 1924.^* These data are embodied in those of the 
present report. 

For ready survey the old records on western Eskimo crania are 
given in the following table. A sex distinction in the earlier reports 
was mostly impracticable or remained doubtful. 

Pbevious JVIeasueements of Westebn Eskimo Skulls 



1 Icy Cape, 9 (Morton, 1839).. 

6 Asiatic Eskimo {" Tschtiktchi ") : 

mean (Daniel Wilson, 1862). 

3 Port Clarence (Banard Davis, 
1867)... 

2 Kotzebue Sound, 9 (Barnard 
Davis, 1867) 

1 1 Asiatic Eskimo (Wyman and Otis, 

1868-1876) 

6N. W.Amer. Eskimo (St. Michael 

Island)(Wym:mand Otis, 1868-1876). 
2 Kodiak Island, cf (Quatrefages and 

II amy, 18S2) 

1 Kodiak, 9 (Quatrefages and Hamy, 

1882) 

(37 western Eskimo) " (Boas, 1896)... 

4 Kodiak Island, 9 ' (Tarenetzky, 
1900) 



Vault 



Length Breadth Height '^j^'^ei' 



4 Kodiak Island, ' (Sergi, 1900) 

14 Point Barrow, cf (Hawkes, 1916).. 

5 Point Banow, 9 (Hawkes, 1916)... 
5 Port Clarence, & (Cameron, 1923).. 
1 Port Clarence, 9 (Cameron, 1923).. 



17.02 
17.60 
17.86 
17.40 
17.80 
17.50 
18.60 
17.90 



16.88 



18.91 
17.86 
18.68 
17.85 



12.70 

13.59 
13.64 
13.36 
14.10 
13.20 
14.20 
13.90 



14.93 



13.73 
13.68 
13.63 
13.10 



12.70 

13.77 
13.59 
13.60 
13.20 
13.10 
14.30 
13.20 



13.1 



13.86 
13.30 
13.82 
12.80 



7i.e 

77. t 

76. i 

76.6 

79. S 

75.1 

76. SS 

77.65 
(77) 

88. i 
2:7?./ 
2 : 88.1 

7S.65 

76.1 

73 

73.1 



Nose 



Length I Breadth Index 



6.9 
5.1 



5.66 
5.24 
6.73 



2.3 

2.3 



2.30 
2.18 
2.40 



iS.l 



iS.i 



40.7 
il.6 
il.9 



Orbital 
index 



S9.7 



91. S 

83.5 
86.9 



a No details; series comprises specimens measured by Wyman, Otis, and Barnard Davis. 

" Probably Aleuts, not Eskimo. 

' Not the same with those of Tarenetzky; two probably Aleut. 

■" No. 1 : The Eskimo, Alaska and Related Indians, Northeastern Asiatics. Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus.. 1924. Lxiii ; spp.. 51 pp. 



238 anthropologicaii sxjevey in alaska [eth, ann. 46 

Present Data on the Western Eskimo 

THE LI\1XG 

Barring the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands in the south and the 
Chukchee territory in the west, the Bering Sea is wholly the sea of 
the Eskimo, tlie Indians occupying the inland but reaching nowhere 
to the coast. There is doubtless mucli of significance in this remark- 
able distribution. It is now quite certain that the Eskimo has not 
been pressed out by tlie Indian; there are as a rule no traces of liim 
farther inland than wliere he has been within historic times. On 
the other hand no Indian remnants or remains are known from 
any part of the coasts or islands within the Eskimo region ; though 
the study of the older sites in these regions has barely as yet begun, 
besides which (see Narrative) it is a serious question whether really 
old sites could now be located in these I'egions at all even if they had 
once existed. At all events the Eskimo appears from all indications 
to be the latest comer, and judging from his remains liis occupancy 
here is not geologically ancient ; it is one to be counted, apparently, in 
many hundreds of years rather than in thousands. The Aleuts in the 
south are, as I have pointed out in the Catalogue (No. 1. 1924. p. 39), 
not Eskimo but Indians, related to the general Alaska Indian type; 
and the Pribilof Islands appear never to have been occupied until 
fairh^ recently, when a good number of Aleuts, mostly mixed bloods, 
have been transported and established there in the interest of the 
seal fisheries. 

MEAStTREMENTS OF LIVING WESTERN ESKIMO 

Thanks to Moore, Collins, and Stewart, all of the National 
Museum, instructed by me and working with the same instru- 
ments, we now have several small to fair series of measurements on 
the living western E.skimo of both sexes. They are tabulated below. 
They are the first made on these groups and will be of much interest 
both in general and in connection witli the measurements made on the 
skulls and bones of most of the same people. The main points shown 
are as follows : 

Stature. — The stature of the males ranges from markedly to mod- 
erately submedium. There is a considerable similarity. Only the 
Yukon group and that of Togiak I'each near or slightly above me- 
dium, the general human medium for males approaching 165 centi- 
meters. The female stature on the St. Lawrence Island averages 12 
centimeters less than that of the males, which is about the difference 
found in most other peoples. At Hooper Bay, and esjDecially at the 
Nunivak Island, the difference is less, indicating either that the males 
are sliglitly stunted or that the growth of the females is somewhat 
favored. 



hrdliCka] physical ANTHROPOLOGY 239 

Height sifting. — The hei<];ht-sittin<r-stature index ranges from 
slightly to quite notably higher than it is in other races, indicating 
a tendency toward a relatively long trunk and somewhat short limbs. 
A study of the long bones shows that this is due especially, if not 
wholly, to the relative shoi'tness of the tibia ; and the subdevelopment 
of this bone may, it seems, be ascribed to a great deal of squatting 
both at home during the long winters and in tlie canoes. The male 
Eskimo show more difference from other males in this respect than 
the Eskimo females show from other females.*"^ 

A7'm span. — Relatively to the stature the length of the arms in the 
Eskimo males is shorter than it is in other racial groups, though there 
appears to be some inequality in this resj^ect. This shortness would 
be especially marked if we compared the arm span with the height 
sitting. It is due essentially to a shortness of the distal half of the 
upper limbs. The males once more show tliis disproportion more 
as compared to other males than the females compared with others 
of their sex. (See comp. data in Old Americans.) This may be 
connected in some way with the male Eskimo work and habits ; or it 
may be an expression of a correlative subdevelopment with that of the 
lower limbs. It is a good point for further study. 

The head. — The head, especially when taken in relation to the 
stature, is of good size, particularly on the Nunivak Island and on the 
Yukon. This agrees with what is known of the Eskimo head, skull, 
and brain elsewhere. 

The size of the Eskimo head — which is not caused by a thick skull — 
will best be appreciated by contrasting it with that of civilized whites. 
In whites in general the mean head diameter or cephalic module 
ranges in males from approximately 15.70 to 16.40; in the male west- 
ern Eskimo groups the range is 15.87 to 16.08, and 16.11 in the group 
at Marshall on the Yukon. The percentage relation of the module to 
stature in 12 groups of male whites, including the old Americans, 
averages 9.31 to 10.11 ; in the male Eskimo groups it is from 9.57 to 
9.9^. In females, the cephalic module is 15.57 in the old Americans, 
15.36 to 15.68 in the Eskimo; the relation of the module to stature in 
the former being 9.59, in the latter 10.15 to 10.^5. 

In the western Eskimo woman the head dimensions are particu- 
larly favorable. In the old American whites the mean head diameter 
in the female is to that of the male on the average as 95 to 100; in 
the two main groups of tlie western Eskimo it is as 96.1 and 96.7 to 
100. Nothing is known as to the cause of this apparently favorable 
status of the Eskimo woman; it is another interesting point for 
further inquiry. 

•^ For compar.Ttive data on theso and othor proportions see writer's Old Americans, 
Baltimori', 1925 ; also Topinard's and Martin's textbooljs. 



240 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SUEVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



In shape, the head of the western Eskimo is highly mesocephalie 
to moderately brachycephalic and of only fair height, and it seldom 
approaches the scaphoid or dome-shaped. It is not the narrow, high, 
keeled skull of the northeastern and often the northern Eskimo. 
The physiognomy, the characteristics of the body, and the mental- 
ity and behavior, are in general typical Eskimo ; but the form of the 
vault is substantially diiferent. It is a form which approaches on 
one side that of the northwesternmost Indian, and on the other that of 
the northeastern and Mongoloid Asiatics. More must be said about 
this when we come to consider the skull. 

The forehead. — Anthropometric studies have shown repeatedly ^'^'^ 
that the height of the forehead is not a safe gauge of intelligence, 
as commonly believed, but is controlled by the variable height of 
the hair line. Thus the common full-blood American Negro 
laborer and servant show a slightly higher forehead than the edu- 
cated old American whites. 

Something of a similar nature is found in the Eskimo. As seen 
in the following table, in the males the western Eskimo forehead is 
absolutely, and especially relatively to stature, higher than it is in 
the whites. In the females the absolute height in the two races is 
identical, but relatively to stature the Eskimo again shows a clear 
though somewhat lesser advantage. The condition is apparently not 
due to the size of the head, for this is not greater than in the whites, 
in the males; while in the females, where the Eskimo shows a 
slightly larger head than the white in relation to stature, the fore- 
head fails to correspond. 

Dimensions op Forehead 





Western Eskimo 


old Americans 




Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 




cm. 
6.86 
4.23 
10.58 

71. 1 
64.8 


cm. E 

6.45 

4.23 

10. 54 

73. 7 
61. 2 


cm. 
6.59 
3. 78 
10. 59 

76. 4 
63. 7 


cm. 

6.45 




3. SO 


Breadth: Diameter frontal minimum 

Percentage relation of diameter frontal 
minimum to breadth of face 


10. 12 

77.8 


Forehead index (HX100)_ 


62. 1 


(d) 





With the lower breadth of the forehead, conditions are also inter- 
esting. The absolute figures for the two races show a reversal. 



^° See 01(1 Americans ; al.so the writer's The natives of Kharga Oasis. Egypt, .Smiths. 
Misc. Coll., Washington, 1912 ; Anthropology of the Chippewa, Holmes Anniv. Vol., 
Washington, 1916 ; and Measurements of the Negro, Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 1928, xii. 
No. 1. 



HRDLlfKA] 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 



241 



The height of the forehead is larger in the Eskimo than in the white 
males, equal in the females; the lower frontal breadth is equal in the 
males but larger in the Eskimo than in the white female. Propor- 
tionately to stature, which is so much lower in the Eskimo, both sexes 
of the latter show an advantage in the dimension over the white. 

The percental relation of the breadth of the forehead to that of 
the face reflects the excess of the latter in the Eskimo, particularly 
the male. There is evidently not a full direct correlation between 
the two dimensions. Yet relatively to its height the face is broader 
in the females than in the males (see below), which is doubtless 
not without influence on the lower breadth of the forehead in the 
former. 

To summarize, the western Eskimo forehead exceeds in area that 
of the American whites, in both sexes, and that particularly in rela- 
tion to stature. As to the individual measurements, the male Eskimo 
forehead as contrasted with that of the white is especially high, the 
female esi^ecially broad. 

To which should be added that in the Eskimo the spheno-tem- 
poral region is often remarkably full, almost bulging, so that, con- 
trary to what may be observed in the Negi'o, the frontal maximum 
diameter is also probably larger than in the whites, all of which 
doubtless has significance, even though this is not yet fully under- 
stood. 

The face. — The principal measurements and relations are given 
below. They show a face large and especially broad. Moreover, 
relatively to its height the face is especially broad in the Eskimo 
female, in connection doubtless with the well-known excess of the 
work (in softening leather, etc.) of her jaws, with consequent de- 
velopment of the muscles of mastication, which in turn broaden the 
zygomae. » 

Dimensions of the Face 



Western Eskimo 



old American whites 



Height menton-nasion 

Females to males (M = 100) 

Diameter bizygomatic maximum 

Females to males (M = 100) 

Facial index, anatomic 

Facial module (or mean diameter), ana- 
tomic 

Female to male (M = 100) 

Percentage relation of female and male to 
stature 



Male Ftwxle 

12.67 n. 64 

91. 9 
14. 88 14. 30 

96. 1 
85. 2 SI. 4 

13. 77 12. 97 

94. 2 

8. 49 8. 50 



Male FeiTiale 

12. 15 11. 09 

91. 3 

13. 87 12. 99 

93. 6 
87. 6 85. 4 

13. 01 12. 04 

92.5 

7. 46 7. 44 



242 



ANTHBOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



The great size of the Eskimo face is especially apparent in the 
relations of the mean diameter of the face to stature; it is in this 
respect no less than 12 per cent in excess of that of the whites in the 
males and 12.5 per cent in the females.^" 

Lomer facial breadth. — Due to the great development of the mas- 
seter muscles and the consequent frequent lesser or greater eversion 
of the angles of the lower jaw, the bigonial diameter in the Eskimo 
is very large, jDarticularly when taken in relation to stature, and in 
such relation it looms especially large in the females. Compared 
with the old American whites, the bigonial breadth in its relation to 
stature is higher in the Eskimo males by 15.5 per cent, in the Eskimo 
females by 17.7 per cent. And measurements of Eskimo lower jaws 
in general show that this breadth in the western contingents is not 
exceptional 

Lower Facial Breadth 



Western Eskimo (St. 
Lawrence Island) 



Old Americans 



Diameter bigonial 

Female vs. male 

Percentage relation to stature 

Percentage relation to breadth of face 



Males Females 

11.78 11.18 

7. SI 7. 39 

80 79. 5 



Mates Females 

10. 63 9. 84 

92. 6 

6. 09 6. 08 

76. 7 75. 8 



The nose. — The nose of the western Eskimo promises to be of 
much importance in the study of Eskimo origins in general. No- 
where in this region is it like the nose of the northern or north- 
eastern groups. It is decidedly broader. Its breadth is intermediary 
between that of the Alaska and other Indians and that of the north- 
ern and northeastern Eskimo^ connecting with both, and these charac- 
teristics are so generalized throughout western Alaska and the Bering 
Sea islands that they can not possibly be attributed to Indian or 
other admixture. Nor can this relatively broad nose of the western 
Eskimo be well attributed to environmental effects, i. e., to a broaden- 
ing of a formerly narrow nose through climatic conditions. There 
do not appear to be any such conditions. The only rational explana- 
tion seems to be that this is the more original condition of the 
Eskimo nose, and that the northern and northeastern narrowness 
is a later derivation. More may be said on this point when we 
come to consider the skeletal remains. 



«" A word of slight caution is due here. In all these cases the proper way would be to 
compare the Eskimo with whites of same mean stature. But we have no such whites 
available. As it is the comparisons must be taken merely as approximations, but they 
are so close approximations that the substance of the conclusions is probably correct. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 40 



THE LONG AND BROAD-FACED TYPES. WALES 

(1*11010 by Lomen Bros.) 




a 










C C'J 

S 05 



< 



O 

a. 

bJ 

cc 

.J 
< 

z 
z 

< 

I 



>• 
f- 
q; 
o 




2 
< 



3 
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a: 
m 




BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 43 




A ■■Hypereskimo," King island. Excessively Developed 

Face 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 44 




ESKIMO ■MADONNA" AND CHILD. NORTHERN BERING SEA REGION 

(Photo by Lomen Bros.) 



HEDLlfKA] 



PHYSICAL .ANTHROPOLOGY 



243 



The Eskimo nose is also high, which goes with the height of the 
whole face ; that in turn evidently is attributable to more work and 
demand — in brief, more mastication. The nose, face, lower jaw, and 
other parts of the Eskimo anatomy offer rare opportunities for 
studies in the heredity of acquired characters. 

No.sE Meusukbmbnts 





American whites 








old Americans 
and immigrants 


Old Ameri- 
cans 


Western Eskimo 




Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Height - . . .. 


(13 groups) 
4. 95-5. 4 
3. 45-3. 6 

62. 5-73 


4. 94 
3.25 

66 


(6 groups) 
5. 47-6. 03 
3. 82-3. 93 
63. 7-71. 9 


5.03 


Breadth .__ . . 


3. 61 


Index - -_ - 


71.9 







The mouth. — The western Eskimo mouth is large. It is con- 
siderably larger (wider) than in the old American whites, though 
these are of much higher stature. In relation to stature the width 
of the western Eskimo mouth exceeds that in the white old Ameri- 
cans by 13 per cent in the males and by nearly 14 per cent in the 
females, but there is a close relation with that of a large group 
of Indians. The details follow : 



Mouth Width 





Western Eskimo 
(Nunivak and 
St. Lawrence Is- 
lands) 


16 tribes of Indians 
of the Southwest 
and northern 
Mexico. 


Old American 
whites 




Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Width 


5. 73 5. 44 


5. 85 5. 49 
93- fl 


5. 37 4 95 


Females versus males- 


92 3 


Pereentage relation to stature 


S.53 


3.67 


3.50 


3.55 


3. 07 


3.08 



The ears. — The ears of the western Eskimo are large. They are 
especially long. They exceed in both size and relative length those 
of whites, but are in both resjDects much more like those of the 
American Indian. The excess in length, both in the Eskimo and 
the Indian, is especially marked when this measurement is taken in 
relation to stature. 

Eelatively to its length, the ear of the female Eskimo in all our 
groups is somewhat narrow, giving a lower index. This is not 
observed in the available whites and Indians. 



244 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



None of the series below are affected seriously by the age factor; 
though with an organ so much influenced by age as the ear the ideal 
way would be to compare only groups of the same age. 







Eaes 










Western Eskimo 


Miscellaneous North 
American Indian 


old American whites 
(Labor Ser.) 




Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Height of left ear 

Breadth of left ear 

Ear index.. . 


7.05 

3.82 
54.2 

4.34 


6.61 
3. 49 

52.8 

4.33 


7.25 
3.90 

53.2 

4. 25 


6. 95 
3. 70 

53.6 

4.35 


6. 69 
3. 79 

56. 7 

3.S4 


6. 10 
3.47 
56. 9 


Percentage relation of 
ear length to stature _ 


3.68 



Western Eskimo groups 



Whites in general 



Height of left ear.. 
Breadth of left ear 
Ear index 



6. 71- 7. 40 6. 49- 6. 73 
3. 72- 4. 04 3. 45- 3. 57 

>S. 3 -58. 9 52. 3 -53. 1 



6. 20- 6. 69 
3. 58- 3. 79 

56 -58. 6 



The chest. — The best measurements of the chest, experience has 
shown, are the antero-posterior and lateral diameters at the nipple 
height in the males and at the cori-esponding level of the upper border 
of the fourth costal cartilages in the females. They give not merely 
the individual dimensions but also their relation, which is of much 
ontogenic as well as other interest, and their mean gives the chest 
module which in relation to the stature is anthropologically as well as 
individually (medically) important. 

The table following gives the chest measurements in the western 
Eskimo, in a large group of Indians (my older data), and in the old 
American whites as well as others. 

The Eskimo chest is large. In the males, in addition, it is very 
deep. Compared to that of the white old Americans it is markedly 
deeper in the males and broader in the females, notwithstanding the 
fact that the Americans are much taller. It is even larger, besides 
being relatively deeper in the males and somewhat broader in the 
females, than it is in many tribes of the Indian. Only tall and 
bulky Indians such as the Sioux show a chest that is absolutely 
somewhat larger, but in relation to stature, with which the dimen- 
sions of the chest stand in close correlation,^" the Eskimo prevails 
even in this instance. This excess in chest development in the Eskimo 
must be ascribed in the main to his occupations and exertions, par- 
ticularly again, it would seem, in connection with the canoe. 



"The chest dimensions correlate with stature, respectively the trunk height, and the 
breadth correlates with the depth ; but both are Influenced by function. 



hedliOka] 



PHYSICAL .ANTHROPOLOGY 
Chest MEA.strKEMENTS 



245 





Western Eskimo. 
Nunivak Island 


Ifi tribes of southwestern 

and New Mexico 

Indians 


Old Americans 




Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


stature . 


161.8 
29.97 
24. 63 

82. 2 
27.30 

16.87 


153. 1 
28. 63 
-22. 
76.8 
25.32 
16.53 


167.3 
29. 89 
22.77 
76. 15 
26.33 
15.74 


-155. 

28. 21 
21.91 
77.66 
25.06 
16. 17 


174.3 
29.76 
21.70 

72.9 
25.73 

H. 75 


161.8 


Breadth - - 


26.62 


Depth ... 


20.03 


Index 


75. 3 




23. 32 


Module vs. stature. - 


14.41 




4 other groups of west- 
ern Eskimo, males 


72 Sioux Indi- 
aas, males 


12 other groups of 
white males 


Stature- _ 


- 160. 6-166. 
-29. 6- 30. 
-23. - 24. 75 

76. 7- 83. 3 
26.97 
16. 56 


-174. 
31.92 
-26. 

81. 4 
28.96 
16. 6 A 


163. 4-171. 6 


Breadth . ... 


-25. 9- 28. 


Depth 


20. 9- 22. 6 


Index ......... 


72. 9- 81. 5 


Module ..... . . 


23. 4- 25. 7 


Module vs. stature. _ _. ... 


14. 22- IL 8A 



















The hand. — The hand of the Eskimo is small, both absolutely and 
relatively to stature. But it is rather broad relative to its length, 
giving a high index. The index is higher than that of any of the 
groups available for comparison, white or Indian, excepting a few 
groups of immigrant whites, laborers. 

Hand 



Western Eskimo (group 
means) 



Males 



Females 



16 tribes of 
southwestern 
and Mexican 

Indians 



Males 



Fe- 
males 



Old Americans 



Males 



Fe- 
males 



12 groups 
of immi- 
grant 
whites 



Males 



Left hand: 

Length _ 

Breadth 

Percentage relation of hand 
length to stature 



17. 35-18. 42 
8. 60- 8. 90 



w.m 



16. 60-16. 85 
7. 78- 8. 20 



10. 9i 



18.63 
8.61 



11.07 



17.20 
7.71 



19.28 
9.18 



11.06 



17.34 
7.87 



-11. -11. S 





Western Es- 
kimo 


Southwestern 

and Mexican 

Indians 


Sioux 


Old Ameri- 
can whites 


12 other groups 
of whites 




Males 


Fe- 
males 


Males 


Fe- 
males 


Males 


Fe- 
males 


Males 


Fe- 
males 


Males 


Fe- 
males 


Hand index... 


49.6 


47.5 


45.9 


44.8 


47.6 




47.6 


45.4 


47.6-50.3 









72 Sioux males: U.iO. 



246 



ANTHEOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



The foot. — The foot of the western Eskimo, like his hand, is both 
absohitely and relatively to stature rather short, but it is broad, 
giving a high breadth-length index. Its actual breadth perceptiblj^ 
exceeds that of the much taller old American whites, though not 
I'eaching that of any of the immigrant laborers. 

Contrary to what was seen in the case of the hand, the relative 
))roportions of the Eskimo foot, as expressed by the index, are almost 
identical with those of the southwestern and Mexican Indians. The 
Sioux foot is relatively longer, and so is that of whites except 
southern Italians, who, though their foot as a whole is larger, give 
the same index as the Eskimo. 



Foot 





Western 
Eskimo 


16 tribes of 

southwestern 

and Mexican 

Indians 


Old Americans 


12 groups 
of immi- 
grant 
whites 




Males 


Fe- 
males 


Males 


Fe- 
males 


Males 


Fe- 
males 


Males 


Left foot: 


24.23 
9.72 


22.13 
8.70 


25.42 
10.15 


23.30 

9.07 

15. OS 


26.12 

9.49 

H.S7 


23.33 
8.36 




Breadth . __. 




Percentage relation foot length- stature. - 


15.S6-ie.7S 





Western 
Eskimo 


Southwest- 
ern and 
Mexican 
Indians 


Sioux 


Old American 
whites 


12 other groups 
of whites 




Males 


Fe- 
males 


Males 


Fe- 
males 


Males 


Fe- 
males 


Males 


Fe- 
males 


Males 


Fe- 
males 




40. 1 


39.3 


39.9 


38.9 


37.1 




36.3 


36.8 


37. 9-40. 1 









72 Sioux males: IS. 40. 

Girth of the calf. — The western Eskimo, lilce the American Indi- 
ans, are characterized by a rather slender calf. The size of the 
calf correlates in a large measure with stature. Reducing our meas- 
urements to calf girth-stature ratios, these are seen to be much alike 
in the three racial groups used for comparison, namely the Eskimo, 
the Indian, and the old American white. But this is deceptive. 
The correlation of size of calf with stature is not uniform (see " Old 
Americans," p. 348) for all stature groups; as the scale in stature 
descends the calf is relatively stouter. If we take white Americans 
of approximately the same stature with the Eskimo here considered, 
there appears a higher ratio, showing that stature for stature the 
girth of the calf of the Eskimo is smaller, notwithstanding his gen- 
erally more ample supply of adipose tissue. Once more his relation 



HRDLU'KA] 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 



247 



is closer with the Indian. The Eskimo and the Indian women 
are especially much alike, while the white women make a marked 
exception — their calfs (as well as thighs) have more fat than is 
found in those of their Eskimo and Indian sisters. 

Measurements of the Leg 



Western Eskimo 



Southwestern and 

Mexican Indians 

(16 tribes) 



Old white 
Americans 



Maximum girth of left calf. _ 

Percentage relation to stature. 

Percentage relation to stat- 
ure in those approaching 
the Eskimo stature 

Females v. males (M = 100)- 



Male 
33. 6 

20. 7 



Female 
3L 4 
20. 6 



Male 
34. 1 

20. 52 



Female 
32 
20.54 



Male 
36. 1 
20. 3 



Female 
35. 5 
21. 95 



1.6 



2.3 



93. 5 



93. 9 



98. S 



I 



Physiological Observations 

Due to various difficulties which do not exist to that extent elsewhere, 
the physiological observations on the Eskimo are neither as numerous 
or extended as would be desirable; yet there are some data of value. 
They extend to the pulse, resijiration, temperature, and dynamome- 
tric tests of hand pressure. They were made mainly on St. Law- 
rence and Nunivak Islands, by Moore, Collins, and Stewart. They 
quite agree, especially after elimination of some records that are 
clearly erroneous or abnormal. The tests should be extended with 
even more rigid precautions in future work among the Eskimo. 

The results are given below. They were all made in the summer 
season and on healthy subjects, yet there were numerous indications 
of temporary disorders, pathological or functional. Even after a 
careful elimination of the obvious cases of such disorders not a few 
minor irregularities have doubtless remained, so that the data can 
not be taken for more than fairly close approximations to the normal. 

The data show remarkably low pulse, respiration rate and tem- 
perature close to those of whites, with a submedium hand pressure. 
(For comparative data see "Old Americans.'") The low pulse is 
also characteristic in the Indian, as I have repeatedly pointed out 
before (see especially my " Physiological and Medical Observations 
among the Indians," etc.. Bull. 34, Bur. Amer. Ethn., Washington, 
1908). 

The dynamometric tests agree also better with those on the Indians 
than with those on whites; they are valid only as to the hands, and 
they embody not only the strength of the muscles but also that of the 
conscious impulse behind them. The age factor, of importance, does 
not here enter materially into the case. 



248 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[BTH. ANN. 40 



Pttlbb, Respiration, Tempekature, and Stretngth 
ST. LAWRENCE ISLAND ESKIMO 

MALES ALL 









strength (Collins dynamometer) 








Pressure right hand 


Pressure left hand 


(63) 


(54) 


(61) 


(60) 


(60) 


62. 1 


20. 1 


98. 64 


34. 36 


28. 75 


(40-78) 


(15-25) 


(97. 6-99. 4) 


(19. 5-45. 5) 


(19. 5-44) 


(47) 


(47) 


(47) 


(57) 


(57) 


♦61.3 


♦20.4 


* 98. 84 


* 34. 34 


* 29. 78 



7EMALES SUSPICIOUS CASES ELIMINATED 



(25) 

72.4 

(54-84) 


(25) 

20 

(15-23) 


(25) 

99. 13 

(98. 4-99. 9) 


* 

(47) 

20. 13 

(14. 5-29) 


(47) 
16.81 

(12-22. 5) 



NUNIVAK ISLAND ESKIMO 



Pulse' 


Respiration ^ 


Temperature ^ 


Males 

(6) 

63. 2 

(52-68) 


(6) 

18.2 

(16-21) 


(6) 
98.05 

(97. 8-98. 4) 



» Sitting, at rest, no signs of any health disorder. 

^ Sitting, at rest. 

3 Sitting, at rest, sub lingua. 

* Subjects where all three determinations were not possible 
and the most suspicious ones (abnormally above or below the 
mean) eliminated. 

The details of these six records were : 



Age (year) 


Time of day 
(p. m.) 


Pulse 


Respi- 
ration 


Tem- 
pera- 
ture 


40 
33 
19 

45 
40 


4.40 

2 

2.30 

1.25 

1.30 


60 
66 
88 
68 
64 


21 
18 
18 
18 
(14) 


98.1 
97.8 
98.2 
98.4 
97.8 



In connection with the pressure tests in the two hands, some inter- 
esting comparisons are possible between the Eskimo here dealt with 
and the old white Americans. As all the tests were made with the 
same instrument and method the results inspire confidence. It is in 
details of this nature that the anthropologist finds again and again 
the most striking proofs of the basal unity of the living races and 
their necessarily common origin somewhere in the past. 



HRDLIlKA] 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 



249 



Pbessube Foecb in the Hands in thb WESTsatN Eskimo and Old White 

Americans 



Western Eskimo 



Male Female 



Old Americans 



Male female 



Pressure: 

Right hand 

Left hand 

Percentage relation of left to right 

Percentage relation of female to male (M 
100): 

Right hand 

Left hand 



Kg. 
34. 36 
28. 75 
S3. 7 



Kg. 
20. 13 
16.81 
83.5 



Kg. 
41. 8 
36. 1 
86. 4 



Kg. 
23. 3 
19. 4 

83.6 



55.8 
53. 7 



55.5 
53. 7 



Summary of Observations ox the Li\tng Western Eskimo '' 

These Eskimo are generally of submedium stature, occasionally 
reachinfr medium. The distal parts of their extremities are relatively 
short. Walk in adult males somewhat awkward. 

In head form they are highly mesocephalic to moderately bra- 
chycephalic; the height of the head averages about medium. The 
head is of good size, especially when taken in relation to stature. 
The forehead is above medium in both height and breadth. 

The face is large in all dimensions, generally full and rather 
flat. In men it not seldom approaches a square form. The lower 
jaw region is largely developed, the angles of the lower jaw are 
liroad to protruding. 

The nose is of fair breadth, with bridge somewhat narrow above 
and on the whole only moderately high. The mouth is large, lips 
medium to somewhat above. The ears are long. Beard sparse on 
-sides of face, mostly sparse on chin ; mustache sparse and often limited 
to tufts above the corners of the mouth. Expression generally good- 
natured, smiling. 

The chest is large, in females bi"oad, in males especially deep. 
There is but a mild lumbar curve and no steatopygy. The lower 
limbs in females are less stout and shapely than they are in whites. 
The hands and feet are small, but, particularly the foot, relatively 
broad. 

Temperature and respiration approach those in normal whites, 
though they appear frequently to be slightly higher; pulse normally is 
slow. 

Dynamometric tests of strength (pressure, both hands) give some- 
what lower records than in whites. 



^ Incorporated in this are writer's own observations. 
882.53°— 30 17 



250 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. « 

Kemaeks 

The most noteworthy and important result of these studies on 
the living western Eskimo is the evidence, coming to light again 
and again, of their fundamental somatic relations to the Indian. 
These relations are too numerous and weighty to be accidental. Nor 
can tliey be ascribed to mixture with the Indian in such far-away 
groups as the St. Lawrence Islanders, who so long as known have 
never had any direct or even indirect contact with Indians. These 
relations in dimensions and relative proportions of the body, and 
in ijhysiological characteristics such as the slow normal pulse, are 
sui^plemented by many phases of behavior, and often by a more or 
less Indianlike physiognomy. They inevitably lead to the con- 
clusion that the Eskimo and the Indian are in the root members of 
the same family. They are two digits of the same hand, separate 
and diverging, yet at base joined to and derived from the same 
source. And this source, according to many indications, is the 
paleoasiatic, "mongoloid," stem of northern Asia. The western 
Eskimo shows to be nearer this source than his more northern and 
northeastern relatives, indicating either that he is a later comer, or, 
\vhich is more probable, that he has changed less in the south than 
in the north. It may be possible to say something more on this 
subject after the skeletal remains have been considered. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 45 




YOUNG WOMAN. NORTHERN BERING SEA REGION 
(Photo by Lomen Bros.) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 46 




Young Women, full-blood Eskimos, Seward Penjnsula 
(Photo by Lomen Bros.) 



' '. 












z 
< 




BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 50 




n. Yukon Eskimo, below Paimute. (A. H., 102'1) 




b, Norton yound Eskimo woman and cbild. (A. H.> 1926) 



s- 

o 
a. 

a: 



3 
z 
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< 



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s- 

£ 





a 

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Z 

<: 
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BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 54 




ESKIMO. INDIANLIKE; NORTHERN BERING SEA REGION 

(Photo by Lomen Bros.) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 55 




ESKIMO, INDIANLIKE: NORTHERN BERING SEA REGION 
(Photo by Lomen Bros.) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 56 




ESKIMO. INDIANUIKE; ARCTIC REGION 
(Photo by Lomen Bros.) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 57 




SIBERIAN Eskimo and Child. Indian Type 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 58 




a, Mrs. Sage, Kevaliaa. Fine Indian type. Boid on Nolak. Both 
parents Notak " Eskimo." (A. H., 1926.) 




6, Eskimo family, Indianlike; near Barrow. (A. H., 1926.) 



urdliTka 1 



PHYSICAL, ANTHEOPOLOGY 



251 



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252 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IX ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



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URDI.Il'KA] 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 



253 



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254 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [bth. ann. 4o 

Present Data on the Skull and other Skeleital Remains of the 

Western Eskimo 

the skull 

Until recently collections of skeletal remains of the western Eskimo 
were confined largely to skulls. The material in our own institutions 
comprised a small collectiim of Mahlemut (St. Michael Island) and 
"Chukchee '' (Asiatic Eskimo) crania made in the early sixties by 
W. H. Dall; a larger series of crania gathered in 1881 on St. Michael 
and St. Lawrence I.slands by E. W. Nelson; 28 skulls with 3 skeletons 
brought in 1898 by E. A. Mcllheny from Point Barrow; a valu- 
able lot of skulls from Indian Point, Siberia, with a few from St. 
Lawrence Island, collected by W. Bogoras ; and some scattered speci- 
mens by otlier explorers. To this were added in 1912 an important 
collection of skulls, with a few skeletons, made by Riley D. Moore, at 
that time my aide, on St. Lawrence Island ; an important lot of crania 
gathered a few years later by V. Stef ansson at Point Barrow ; and a 
third large and highly interesting lot, this time of both skulls and 
skeletons, collected near Barrow for the University Museum at Phila- 
delphia in 1917-1919 by W. B. Van Valin. But none of the later ma- 
terial was described execepting the Mcllheny collection which, in 1916. 
was reported ujDon by E. W. Hawkes."" 

During the survey wliich is the subject of this report a special 
effort was made to collect all the older skeletal material along the 
Bering Sea and Arctic coasts that could be reached, and the result 
was the bringing back of some 450 crania, nearly 50 with skeletons, 
and many separate parts of the skeleton ; nearly all of the specimens 
proceeding from localities thus far not i-epresented in the collections. 
To which were added in 1927 nearly 200 skulls with a good number 
of skeletons gathered by H. B. Collins, jr., assistant curator in the De- 
partment of Anthropology, United States National Museum, and my 
aide, T. D. Stewart, on Nunivak Island and along the west coast of 
Alaska from Bristol Bay to near the Yukon delta.""" 

We tlms have now a relatively vast amount of skeletal material on 
the western Eskimo; it is essentially a virginal material; it is well 
identified as to locality; and the specimens are mostly in very good 
condition. 

Aside from Hawkes's thesis, nothing of note had been published 
On these collections until 1924, when the first number of my Cata- 
logue of Human Crania in the United States National Museum Col- 
lections appeared, which includes the principal measurements on 

•" Skeletal Measurements and Observations of the Point Barrow Eskimo, Amer. Anthrop., 
n s. XVIII, pp. 203-244. Lancaster, 1916. 
""■ In 1(128 Mr. Collins brought another important accession to these collections. 



hrdliCka] physical ANTHROPOLOGY 255 

290 skulls of the western Eskimo. Since then, in view of the grow- 
ing importance of the subject, I have remeasurecl every specimen 
reported before; have measured personally all the new collections; 
and thanks to the kindness of those in charge have been enabled to 
extend the measurements to all the collections of Eskimo crania, 
both from Alaska and elsewhere, that were preserved up to the 
spring of 1928 at the National Museum at Ottawa, the American 
Museum of Natural History of New York, and the Wistar Institute 
of Philadelphia, which now contains the University Museum collec- 
tions. The total records reach now to 1,283 adult skulls from prac- 
tically all important parts of the total Eskimo area, besides a con- 
siderable quantity of other bones of the skeleton. The main results 
of the work will be given here, the detailed measurements being re- 
served for another number of the Catalogue. 

To save reiwtitions and possible confusion and to show more clearly 
the status of the southwestern and midwestern Eskimo, the entire 
cranial material will be dealt with in this section, and previous 
records on the northeastern and a few other groups of the Eskimo 
will not be drawn upon to preserve the advantage of dealing with 
data obtained by the same methods, instruments, and observer. 

In presenting the records it is found expedient, both on geo- 
grajihical and anthropological grounds, to make but three groupings. 
The first of these comprises the Eskimo from their southernmost 
limit to Norton Sound and the Bering Sea islands ; the second group 
takes in Seward Peninsula (or the larger part of it) and the Arctic 
coast to Point Barrow; while the third embraces all the Eskimo 
east of Point Barrow. The first of these three groups is i-emarkably 
homogeneous, the second and third show each some exceptional units. 
It may be said at once that the dialectic subdivisions of Dall, 
Nelson, and others, in a large majority of cases are not found to be 
accompanied by corresponding physical differences, so that in a 
somatological classification they become submerged. 

SKULL SIZE 

The external size of the .skull is best expressed by the cranial 
module or mean of the three jjrincipal diameters; the internal size, 
respectively the volume of the brain, by the "cranial capacity." 

The module among the southwestern and midwestern Eskimo aver- 
ages 15.44 centimeters in the males and 14.77 centimeters in the fe- 
males. For people of submedium .stature these are good dimensions. 
Fifty-two male and 40 female skulls of the much taller Sioux (writ- 
er's unpublished data) give the modules of only 15.2.5 and 14.27 centi- 
meters; while 6 male and 9 female Munsee Indians, also tall,^ give 

1 Bull. 62. Bur. Amer. Etta., p. 22. Nos. 320-313. 



256 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

practically the same values as these Eskimos, namel.y 15.48 centi- 
meters for the males and 14.75 centimeters for the females. 

Not all the western groups, however, give equally favorable pro- 
portions. In general, the coast people below Norton Sound, and 
especially below the Yukon, give, so far as the males are concerned, 
the lowest values. It is interesting to note that it is precisely these 
people who among the western Eskimo are reputed to be about 
the lowest also in culture. The Togiak and near-by Kulukak males 
showed, as seen before, also about the smallest head in the living. 
The St. Lawrence Island males stand just about the middle, but 
the females of this island, as, interestingly, also in the living, show 
markedly less favorably. The Nunivak sloills, as with the living, are 
somewhat above the average, while in the small Pilot Station 
(Yukon) group, just as in the near-by contingent of Marshall among 
the living, the males have the largest heads in this western territory. 
The lower Yukon Eskimo were also shown, it may be recalled, to be 
of a higher stature than the majority of the coast people. It is a 
group that deserves further attention. 

The module of the female skull does not evidently stand always 
in harmony with that of the male. The most striking example of 
this is shown, as already mentioned, by the St. Lawrence Island 
females, both skulls and the living. The females of this isolated 
island are also unduly short, but their small head is not entirely 
due to the defective stature. There must exist on this island, it would 
seem, some conditions that are disadvantageous to the female. In 
the small groups, such as that from the Little Diomede, the dishar- 
monies are doubtless partly due to small numbers of specimens, but 
there may also be other factors, such as the bringing in of women 
from other places.- 

Taking the mean of all the groups equalizes conditions, and it is 
seen that the module in both sexes is almost identical with that of 
the more northern groups, to Point Barrow. But the north Arctic 
and northeastern groups give a cranial module that in both sexes is 
somewhat higher, though their stature, according to the available 
data (Deniker, Boas, Duckworth, Steensby, Thalbitzer), is not 
superior. 

A very remarkable showing is that of the percentage relation of the 
female to male skull size in the three large gi'oupings. In the first two 
it is identical, in the third it differs less than could confidently be ex- 
pected among the closest relatives. Another remarkable fact is that 
this important relation is found to be much like that in the Eskimo 
in various groups of Indians ; thus it was 96 in the Indians of 

' More or less danger in such cases as these lies in erroneous sexing of the skulls. Due 
to experience, care, and especially to the relatively numerous accompanying Imnes or 
skeletons, this danger in the present series has been reduced to the minimum. 



HRDLIllKA] 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 



257 



Arkansas and Louisiana," .9J.-5 in the Munsee of New Jersey,^ and 96.It 
in the Indian skulls of California/ But it is only 93.G in the Sioux 
(52 male. 40 female skulls) and differs more or less also in other 
tribes and peoples. A comprehensive study of this relation, with 
due respect to age, will some day well repay the effort. 

T. ^ HT /L + B + H\ 
Eskimo: Cranial Module I ^ I 

MALES IN ASCENDING ORDER 
Southwestern and inidwesteTU 



Togiak 

Mumtrak 

Southwestern .41aska 

Hooper Bay 

St. Michael Island 

Little Diomede Island.. 

Pastolik and Yukon 

Delta 

St. Lawrence Island 

Golovnin Bay to Cape 
Nome 



Males 

(5) 
15.21 

(4) 
15.22 

(3) 
15. 25 

(9) 
15.30 

(8) 
15.30 

(5) 
15. 33 
(14) 
15.34 
(145) 
15.42 

(4) 
15.52 



Females 
(7) 


14.73 


(6) 


14.68 


(2) 


14.90 


(4) 


14.68 


(6) 


14.72 


(7) 


15.09 


(20) 


14.83 


(128) 


14.27 


(2) 


14.65 





Males 


Females 




(46) 


(70) 


Nuni vak Island 


15.53 


14.90 




(13) 


(16) 


Indian Point (Siberia).. 


15. 54 


14 88 




(3) 


(2) 


Chukchee 


15.56 


15.05 




(4) 


(1) 


Port Clarence 


15. 57 (14 57) 




(9) 


(16) 


Nelson Island 


15.59 


14 64 




(3) 


(3) 


Pilot Station, Yukon 


15. 91 


15 


General averages, ap- 


(275) 


(290) 


proximately 


16. U 


H. 77 



Females vs. males (M = 
100) 



95. 7 



Northwestern 



(2) (1) 

Kotzebue Sound 15.05(14 67) 

(12) (8) 

Shishmaref 15.19 14 71 

(132) (84) 

Point Hope 15.37 14 72 

(47) (52) 

Point Barrow 15. 45 14 75 

(35) (34) 

Barrow and vicinity 15. 46 14. 66 



(27) 

Old Igloos near Barrow. 15. 52 

(19) 

Wales 15. 66 

General averages, ap- (274) 

proximatelj' 15. 39 

Females vs. males (M = 

100) 96. 



(24) 
14 72 

(14) 
14 86 

(217) 
11 73 



Northern and northeastern 



(49) (52) 

Greenland 15.51 14 72 

Hudson Bay and vi- (5) (2) 

cinity 15.55 14 57 

Baffin Land and vl- (16) (17) 

cinity 15.55 15.04 

(6) (10) 

Northern .'Arctic 15. 63 14 85 

'Bull. 62, Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 23. 



Southampton Island 



(9) (6) 

15. 65 15. 18 
(7) (2) 

Smith Sound 15.81 15.15 

General averages, ap- (92) (89) 

proximately 15.62 14.92 

Females vs. males (M = 

100) 95.5 

•Cat. Crania. U. S. Nat. Mus.. No. 2. 



258 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SUT?VEY IN ALASKA [BTH. ann. « 

MODTILE AND CAPACITT 

A comparison of considerable interest is also that of the cranial 
module or mean diameter, to the capacity of the same skulls. This 
comparison reveals an important sex factor.^ Relatively to the 
module, the capacity is very appreciably smaller in the female than it 
is in the male. This is a universal condition to which, so far as known, 
there are occasional individual but no group exceptions. It appears 
very clearly in the Eskimo. In 283 western male Eskimo skulls in 
which we have so far measured the capacity," the module averages 
15.38 centimeters, the capacity 1.490 cubic centimeters; while 
in 382 female skulls thus far gauged the former averages 14.82 
centimeters, the latter 1,337 cubic centimeters. The percentage 
relation of the capacity to the module, the numbers taken 
as a whole, is 9&.S in the males but only 9()£ in the females. This 
means that relatively to the external size of the skull the female 
Eskimo brain is 6.66 per cent smaller. Similar sex disproportion 
exists in other American groups as well as elsewhere. Some day 
when suitable data accumulate it will be of much interest to study 
this condition on a wider scale. 

ADDITIONAL REMARKS ON CRANIAL MODULE 

Befoj-e we leave this subject, it may be well to point out two note- 
worthy facts apparent from the data on the northwestern and north- 
eastern groups. The first is that the figures on both sexes from 
Barrow and Point Barrow are very nearly the same, suggesting 
strongly the identity of the people of the two settlements; and the 
Point Hope group is in close relation. The second fact is the curious 
identity of the old Igloo group. 8 miles southwest of Barrow, with 
the Gi'eenlanders. The import of this will be seen later. 

SKULL SHAPE 

Utilizing the materials of the Otis and Barnard Davis Catalogues 
and with measurements taken for him on additional specimens in 
several of our museums, Boas, in 1895 (Verb. Berl. anthrop. Ges., 
398), as already mentioned, reported the cranial index of 37 " west- 
ern Eskimo " skulLs of both sexes (without giving localities or de- 
tails) as 77. He also reports in the same place (p. 391) the cephalic 
index of 61 probably male living "Alaska Eskimo," again without 
locality, as 79.2. These i-ather high indices and the relatively elevated 
stature (61 subjects, 165.8 centimeters) lead him to believe (p. 376) 

'• See writer's " Relation of the Size of the Head and Skull to Capacity in the Two 
Sexes," Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 1925, viil. No. 3. 

" All measured de novo by my aide, T. D. .Stewart ; for procedure see my "An- 
thropometry." 



BKDLiiT'KA] PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 259 

that both are probalilj' due to an admixture with the Alaskan Indian, 
though the report contains no measurements of the latter. 

The data that it is now possible to present may perhaps throw a 
new light on the matter. As was already seen in part from the data 
on the living, the head resp. the skull tends to relative shortness 
and broadness throughout the southwestern, midwestern, and Bering 
Sea region (excepting parts of tlie Seward Peninsula). Important 
groups in this region, ^particularly those on some of the islands, had 
little or no contact with the Indian. The cranial index in most of 
the groups of the southwestern and midwestern Eskimo equals or 
even exceeds that of the Indian. And Eskimo groups with a rela- 
tively elevated cranial index are met with even in the far north, as 
at Point Hope, Hudson Bay, and Smith Sound." Finally, the 
shorter and broader head connects with that of the Asiatic Eskimo 
and that of the Chukchee, as well as other northeastern Asiatics.^ 

The records now available show the highest cranial indices to 
occur on the coast between Bristol Bay and the Yukon and on lower 
Yukon itself, while the lowest indices of the midwest area, though 
still mesocranic, occur in the aggregate of Nunivak Island and the 
mouths of the Yukon. Another geographical as well as somatologi- 
cal aggregate is that of the people of the St. Lawrence and Diomeile 
Islands and of Indian Point, Siberia, tlie cranial index in these three 
localities being identical. 

Eskimo: Cranial Index 
Mean of both sexes /Male + female index\ ^^ ^ 281 adult skulls 

IN DESCENDING ORDER 
Southwestern and midwestern 



(11) 
Togiak SO. 1 

(13) 
Hooper Bay 79. 7 

(10) 
Mumtrak 79. 6 

(6) 
Pilot Station, Lower Yukon 79. 3 

(5) 

Chukchee (Siberia) 78. 6 

(26) 
Nelson Island 78 

(6) 
Southwestern Alaska 77. 7 



(32) 

Indian Point (Siberia) 77. 4 

(12) 

Little Diomede Island 77. 4 

(299) 

St. LawTenee Island 77. 2 

(5) 

Port Clarence 76. 6 

(34) 

Pastolik and Yiikon Delta 76. 1 

(14) 

St. Michael Island 75. 7 

(116) 
Nunivak Island 75. 6 



■^ Compnre writer's ".\n Eskimo rtrnin,"' Amer. Anthrop. n. .s.. vol. ni, pp. 454—500, 
Ntw York, 1901 ; and bis " Contribution to the Autliropology of Central and Smith Sound 
Eskimo," Anthrop. Papers, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., v, pt. 2, New York, 1910. 

* Compare, besides present data, measurements by Bogoras in his report on " The 
Chukrhee," Mem. .Vm. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1904-9, xi, p. 33 ; 148 male and 49 female adults 
gave him the mean stature of 162.2 and —152, the mean cephalic index of 82 and S1.8. 



260 ANTHEOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [bth. ann. 46 

NoHhweslern 



(222) 

Point Hope 76. 

Kotzebue Sound and Kobuk (3) 

River 75. 4 

(22) 

Shishmaref 74. 5 

(101) 
Point Barrow 74. 1 



(73) 
Barrow 73. 5 

(33) 
Wales 73. 5 

(7) 
Golovnin Bav *°72. 6 

(52) 
Igloos, southwest of Barrow 69. 7 



Northern and northeastern 



(15) 
Northern Arctic 73. 6 

(33) 

Baffin Land and vicinity 73. 2 

(101) 
Greenland 71. 9 



(7) 
Hudson Bay and vicinity 76. 3 

(9) 

Smith Sound 76. 2 

(15) 
Southampton Island 74. 8 

The Seward Peninsula shows sudden differences. There are a 
few localities along its southern coast where the cranial type belongs 
apparently to the Bering Sea and southern area. One site at Port 
Clarence was one of these. But already at Golovnin Bay, which 
is not far from Norton Sound and St. Michael Island, and according 
to the evidence of the most recent collections (Collins 1928), also 
at Sledge Lsland, there is a sudden a^jpearance of marked dolicho- 
crany, which is repeated at Wales, on the western extremity of the 
peninsula, approached at Shishmaref, the main Eskimo settlement 
on its northern shore, and, judging from some fragmentary material 
seen at the eastern end of the Salt Lake, also in the interior. The 
cause of this distinctive feature in the Seward Peninsula is for the 
jjresent elusive. The little known territory urgently needs a thor- 
ough exploration. 

The distribution of the cranial index farther north along the 
western coast shows several points of interest. The first is the 
exceptional position of Point Hope, one of the oldest and most popu- 
lous settlements in these regions, which by its cranial index seems 
to connect with the Bering Sea groups. The second is the closeness, 
once more, of Bari-ow and Point Barrow. The third and greatest 
is the presence, in a small cluster of old igloos 8 miles down the coast 
from Barrow, of a 'group of people that finds no counterpart in its 
cranial index and, as will be seen later, also in some other character- 
istics, in the entire western region; in fact, in the whole Eskimo 
territory outside of Greenland. As noted before, the size of the head 
in this group is also closest to that of Greenland. These peculiar 
facts indicate a problem that will call for separate consideration. 

'" Including 4 female skulls collected by Collins in 1928 and received too late for general 
inchLsion into these series. 



BRDLirKA] PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 261 

The northern and northeastern groups, with the exception of the 
mesocranic Hudson Bay and Smith Sound contingents, and the very 
dolichocranic Greenlanders, show dolichocrany much the same as 
that of Barrow and Point Barrow. 

HEIGHT or THE SKULL 

This is a measurement of mucli vahie, both alone and as a sup- 
plement to the cranial index, for skulls with the same index may be 
high or low and thus really of a radically distinct type. 

The height of the vault is best studied in its relation to the other 
cranial dimensions, particularly to the mean of the length and 
breadth, with both of which it correlates. But in the Eskimo it is 
also of interest to compare the height with the breadth of the skull 
alone. The former relation is known as the mean height index 
and the latter as the height-breadth index. Both mean the per- 
centage value of the basion-bregma height as comjiared to the other 
dimensions. 

TT 

The mean height index -Tnf-f T^r~rTT\> advocated independ- 

'^ (Mean of JL + B) ^ 

ently by the writer since 1916 (Bull. 62, Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 116), 
is proving of much value in differentiation of types and has already 
become a j^ermanent feature in all writers' work on the skull. 
There is a corresponding index also on the living. 

In the American Indian the averages of the index range from 
approximately 76 to 90. (See Catalogue of Crania, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Nos. I and II.) Where the series of specimens are sufficiently large 
the index does not differ materially in the two sexes. Indices below 
80 may Jae regarded as low, those between 80 and 84 as medium, 
and those above 84 as high." 

The southwestern and midwestern Eskimo skulls show mean 
height indices that may be characterized as moderate to slightly above 
medium. In general the broader and shorter skulls show lower 
indices, aj^proaching thus in all the characters of the vault the 
Mongolian skulls of Asia. (Compare Catalogue Crania, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., No. I.) The Indian Point, St. Lawrence Island, and Little 
Diomede Island skulls are again, as with the cranial index, very close 
together, strengthening the evidence that the three constitute the 
same group of people. (Pis. 59, 60.) 

The northwestern Eskimo and most of those of the northeast 
have relatively high vault. Barrow and Point Barrow are once 
more almost the same. The Point Hope group shows a high vault, 
though also rather broad. The somewhat broad Hudson Bay crania 

"These subdivisions are somewhat arbitrary and may, as data accumulate and are 
better understood, be found to need some modification. 



262 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 4(5 



are but moderately high, like those of the southwestern Eskimo. The 
northern Arctic skulls give smaller height than would be expected 
"with their type; the Southampton Island specimens give higher. 
The old Igloo groujD from near Barrow stands again close to Green- 
land; its skull is even a trace narrower and higher, standing in both 
respects at the limits of the Eskimo. The whole, as with the cranial 
index, shows evidently a rich field of evolutionary conditions. 

Eskimo: Cranial Meam Height Index 

(H-Floor-Line of Aud. Meatus to BgXIOO) 
Mean of L + B 

mean of both sexes in ascending order 

Southwestern and midwestern 



(11) 
Togiak 81. 8 

(2.5) 

Nelson Island 82. 1 

(6) 

Southwest Alaska 82. 3 

(6) 

Pilot Station, Yukon 82. 3 

(10) 

Mumtrak 82. 5 

(13) 

Hooper Bay 82. 7 

(116) 
Nunivak Island 83. 3 



(5) 
Chnkchee 83. 3 

(34) 

Pastolik ajid Yukon Delta 83. 4 

(4) 
Port Clarence 83. 4 

(29) 

Indian Point (Siberia) 83.8 

(279) 
St. Lawrence Island 84. 1 

(12) 
Little Diomede Island 84. 5 

(14) 
St. Micliael Island 85. 1 



Northwestern 



(69) 
Barrow 83. 8 

(99) 

Point Barrow 84. 1 

Kotzebue Sound and Kobuk (2) 
River 84.4 

(20) 
Shislimaref 84. 5 



(33) 
Wales 85. 

(216) 
Point Hope 85.7 

(4) 

Golovnin Bav-Cape Nome 85. 9 

(51) 
Igloos, southwest of Barrow 86. 3 



Northern and northeastern 



(7) 
Hudson Bay and vicinity 82. 2 

(15) 
Northern Arctic 82. 7 

(33) 
Baffin Land and vicinity 84. 4 



(0) 
Smith Sound 85. 1 

(101) 
Greenland 85. 1 

(15) 
Soutliampton Island 85. 5 



The height-breadth index - — ^^r — of the Eskimo skull shows in 
substance the same conditions as did the mean height index, but 



o 

a. 

u 
a: 

_] 
< 

3 
Z 
Z 
•< 

X 

p 




z 
in 

I) 



a. 
o 
a. 



< 

Z 
Z 

< 



>■ 
I- 

a. 
o 

u. 



>■ 

a 
o 

o 
z 

I 




hrdhOka] 



PHYSICAL, ANTHROPOLOGY 



263 



while less informative or dependable on one side, on the other it 
accentuates the relative narrowness of the skull in some of the 
groups. 

Eskimo: Height-Breadth Index of the Skull 

mean of both sexes in ascending order 
Southweslern and midwestern 



(12) 
Togiak 91.9 

(6) 
Pilot Station, Lower Yukon.,- 92.8 

(10) 

Mumtrak 93. 1 

(5) 

Chukchee 93. 1 

(13) 

Hooper Bav 93. 2 

(25) 

Nelson Island 93. 7 

(5) 

Yukon Delta 94.7 

(5) 
Southwest .41aska 95. 2 



(12) 

Little Diomede Island 96. 3 

(279) 

St. Lawrence Island 96. 5 

(116) 

Nunivak Island 96.7 

(31) 

Indian Point (Siberia) 96. 7 

(29) 

Pastolik 96. 8 

(6) 
Cape Nome and Port Clarence.. 97. 

(14) 
St. Michael Island 98. 2 



Northwestern 



(99) 
Point Barrow 98.7 

(69) 
Barrow 98. 8 

(20) 

Shishmaref 98. 9 

• (216) 

Point Hope 99. 2 



Kotzebue Sound and Kobuk (3) 

River 99.6 

(33) 
Wales 100. 3 

(51) 
Igloos, southwest of Barrow 105. 



Northern and eastern 



(7) 

Hudson Bav and vicinity 95. 3 

(16) 
North Arctic 97. 8 

(9) 
Smith Sound 98. 3 



(15) 
Southampton Island 99-8 

(33) 

Baffin Land and vicinity 99. 9 

(101) 
Greenland 101. 8 



THE FACE 



The facial dimensions of the Eskimo skull offer a number of points 
of unusual interest. The face is absolutely and especially relatively 
to stature very large in all measurements. It is particularly high 
between the upper alveolar point and nasion. 

The large size of the Eskimo face will best be appreciated from 
a few ficrures. 



264 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



Facial Dimensions of the Western and Otheb Eskimo Crania Compared 
With Those of the Siouan and Algonquian Tribes 





Southwestern and 
midwestern Eskimo 


Eskimo in general 


Siouan 
tribes 


Algonquian 
tribes 




Mean of 14 
groups 
(male) 


10 groups 
(female) 


27 groups 
(male) 


22 groups 
(female) 


12 groups 
(male) 


15 groups 
(male) 


Total height (ment.- 

nas.). -- 


12.60 

7.87 

14.25 
U. 06 


(11. 63) 

(7. 29) 

(13. 27) 
(10. 28) 


12. 52 

7.79 

14.26 
11.03 


(11. 59) 
(7. 21) 

(13. 22) 
(10. 22) 


12. 26 
7. 52 

14. 16 
10.84 


12. 11 


Upper height (alv. pt.- 
iias.) 


7.35 


Diameter bizyg. max.. 
Module of upper face 

(U. H. + B) 


13. 89 
10. 62 


2 





So far as known there are no larger faces among the Indians than 
those of the Sioux, yet they remain very perceptiblj^, in all three 
measurements, Iwhind the Eskimo. No face as large as that of the 
Eskimo is known, in fact, from anywhere else in the world. In 
whites the mean diameter of the largest faces (see data in Martin's 
Lehrbuch Anthi-op., 789-791) does not exceed 10.36 centimeters. 
The above showing assumes especial weight when it is recalled that 
both the Siouan and the Algonquian tribes are among the tallest there 
are on the American Continent. The cause of the large size of the 
Eskimo face can only be the excessive use of the jaws; no other 
reason even suggests itself. But the character may already be more 
or less iiereditary. It furnishes another attractive subject for further 
investigation. 

With its large dimensions the face of the Eskimo skull presents 
generally also large orbits, large molars, submedium prominence and 
breadth of the nasal bridge, shallow suborbital (canine) fossae, large 
dental arch above medium teeth, and a large and stout lower jaw 
with broad not seldom more or less everted angles, giving the whole 
a characteristic appearance. With partial exception of the orbits 
and the nose, which are subject also to other factors, all these features 
of the Eskimo face are explainable as .strengthenings resulting from 
the increased function of mastication. 

The main dimensions of the cranial face in the three large group- 
ings of the Eskimo are given in the next table. 



iinDii.KA] PHYSICAL ANTHEOPOLOGT 265 

Western and Other Eskimo: Facial Dimensions in the Skull 



Males 



Men- 

ton- 

nasioD 



Alve- 
olar 
point- 
nasion 



Diam 

eter 
bizy- 
gomatic 
maxi- 
mum 



Cranial facial 
index 



Total Upper 



Females 



Men- 

ton- 

nasion 



Alve- 
olar 
point- 
niision 



Diam' 
eter 
bizy- 
gomatic 
maxi- 
mum 



Cranial facial 
index 



Total 



Upper 



Groups 

Southwestern and 

midwestern 

Groups 

Northwestern 

Groups 

North Arctic and 
northeastern 



(9) 

12.60 
(5) 

12.58 
(5) 

12.22 



(14) 



(7) 

7.73 

(6) 

7.69 



(14) 

14.25 
(7) 

14.23 
(6) 

14.32 



(8) 



(5) 

88. S 

(5) 



(14) 

65. S 
(7) 

51 i 
(6) 

53.7 



(8) 

11.63 
(2) 

11.55 
(3) 

11.61 



(10) 

7.29 
(7) 

7.19 
(5) 

7.13 



(10) 

13.27 
(7) 

13.18 
(6) 

13.15 



(8) 



87.7 
(2) 



(3) 
86.7 



(10) 

SI 
(7) 

Si. 6 
(5) 

5i.2 



These data show a number of interesting conditions. The heijjht 
of the upper face (alveolar point-nasion) is greatest in the south- 
western and midwestern groups, is slightly lower in the northwest- 
erniers, and still further slightly lower in the north Arctic and the 
northeast. On the other hand the facial breadth is slightly higher 
in the north and east, and that although the vault has become 
mostly decidedly narrower. 

These facts are shown best by the upper facial index, which in the 
males descends quite perceptibly in the west from the south to the 
north and in the Arctic from the west to the east. In the females 
there is a parallel gradual diminution in the upper facial height 
from the south to the north and then east, but the facial breadth 
diminishes very slightly also instead of increasing, as a result of 
which the upper facial index shows only minor diiferences ; yet these 
differences are in the same direction as those in the males. 

These matters are involved with a number of factors — the stature, 
the breadth of the vault, and the development and direct influence 
of the temporal muscles, besides hereditary conditions. Their proper 
study will necessitate even more — in fact, much more — material than 
is now at our disposal. 

The following table gives the distribution of the upper cranial 
facial index in the various gi'ouiTs. Of the two indices that of the 
whole face, including the lower jaw, is the less valuable; first, because 
the jaw is often absent ; second, because it is influenced by the height 
of the lower jaw, which does not con-elate perfectly with the upper; 
and third, on account of the wear of the teeth, which in such people 
as the Eskimo is very common and diminishes more or less the total 
height of the face. Its averages in the three main gi-oupings have 
already been given. Its figures are not very exceptional. 

88253°— 30 18 



266 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IS 4.LASKA. 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



Eskimo Skulls: Facial Index, Upper 

mean of both sexes in ascending order 

Southwestern and midwestern 



Pilot Station, Lower Yukon. 



(6) 
53. 6 
(5) 
Cape Nome and Port Clarence. 54. 

(10) 

Hooper Bay 54.4 

(9) 

Mumtrak 54. 5 

(93) 

Nunivak Island 54. 6 

(262) 

St. Lawrence Island 54. 9 

(8) 
Togiak and vicinity 55. 



(24) 
Indian Point (Siberia) 55. 1 

(23) 

Nelson Island 55. 2 

(4) 
Southwestern Alaska 55. 4 

(10) 
St. Michael Island 55. 5 

(25) 

Pastolik 55. 7 

(4) 
Chukchee 55. 8 

(11) 
Little Diomede Island 56. 



Norlhu'estern 



(190) 
Point Hope 52. 8 

(2) 
Kotzebue 53. 7 

(17) 
Shishmaref 54. 1 

(42) 
Igloos north of Barrow 54. 1 



(41) 
Barrow 54. 8 

(75) 
Point Barrow 55. 2 

(31) 
Wales 55. 4 



Northern and northeastern 



(9) 
Smith South .. 51. 7 

(14) 
Southampton Island 52. 3 

(23) 
Baffin Land and vicinity 53. 8 



(90) 
Greenland 54. 1 

(7) 

Hudson Bay and vicinity 54. 3 

(11) 
Northern Arctic 56.6 



The upper facial index of the Eskimo skull i.s hiph, thf)U<:h there is 
considerable group variation. The reason is the height of the upper 
face, for which the accompanying considerable expansion of the zygo- 
matic arches does not fully compensate. In the white groups this 
index ranges from approximately 50 to 54; it averages 5'2S in 15 
Algonquian and 53.1 in 12 Siouan tribes. The means in the large 
Eskimo groupings are from a little below 5Jf to a little over 55. Its 
regional differences have already been mentioned. Sex differences 
in the index are very small. There are a number of points of signifi- 
cant agreement, the foremost of which is once more that in the 
case of Barrow and Point Barrow, and especially that of the Old 
Igloos near Barrow and Greenland. 



hbdliCka] 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 



267 



THE XCSE 

Equally as engaging as the whole face of the Eskimo skull is the 
cranial nose. Our data throw much light on this feature also. 

Where the dimensions of the whole face are altered by some cause 
the nose can not remain unaffected. This is especially true of its 
height, which correlates directly and closely with that of the face 
proper; the correlation of the breadth of the nose with that of the 
face is weaker and more irregular, but not absent where not counter- 
acted by other factors. Accordingly with the high Eskimo upper 
face there is found also a high nose, both being the highest known 
to anthropometry. But the nasal breadth, instead of responding to 
the considerable facial breadth, has become smaller, until in some of 
the Eskimo groups it is the smallest of all known human groups. 
There is plainly another potent factor in action here. This factor 
could conceivably be connected simply with the above-average growth 
of the facial bones; but if this were so then individuals with smaller 
development of these bones ought to have broader noses, and vice 
versa. This point can readily be tested. Taking the largest and best 
cranial series, that of St. Lawrence Island, and selecting the skulls 
with the smallest and the largest faces, the facts come out as follows : 





Smallest development of face 


Largest development of face 




Face height 
(upper) 


Face 
breadth 


Breadth of 
nasal aper- 
ture 


Face height 


Face 
breadth 


Breadth of 
nasa! aper- 
ture 


10 males. _ 


7.52 
6.81 


13.64 
12.56 


2.37 
2.37 

22. Jt 


8.46 
7. 54 


14.79 
14.02 


2. 49 


10 females , - 


2. 40 


Percentage relation of 
breadth of nose to 
mean diameter of 
face: 

Male 


21.4 

22.2 


Female 












1 









The above data show that while the narrow nose in the Eskimo is 
to some extent affected by the large development in these people of 
the facial bones, yet there must be also other factors. 

But if not wholly connected with the development of the facial 
bones, then some of the causes of the narrow nose in the Eskimo must 
either be inherited from far back or must be due to influences outside 
the face itself. 

Pushing the character far back would be no explanation of its 
original cause, but it may be shown that such a procedure would not 
be justified. In the following important table are given the now 
available data on the breadth of the nasal aperture of the Eskimo, 



268 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SXJKVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN". 46 



group by group and area by area, and these data show that narrow 
nose is by no means universal in this family. The nasal aperture 
is broader in the southwest and midwest than in the northwest, and 
broader in the latter region than in the Arctic north and the north- 
east. In general it is seen that the farther northward and north- 
eastward the narrower the nose, until it reaches beyond that of all 
other human groups; while in the west and southwest it gradually 
ajiproaches until it reaches the nasal breadth of the Indian. And 
that this latter condition is not due to Indian admixture is shown 
by the fact that among the broadest noses are those of the Eskimo 
in Siberia and those on the St. Lawrence Island, where there was 
no known contact with the Indian, while the narrower noses are 
along the midwestern coast, where Indian admixture might have 
been possible. 

Eskimo : Breadth of the Nasal Apeetuke 

both sexes taken together in descending order 

Southwestern and midwestern 



(5) 

Southwestern Alaska 2. 50 

(31) 

Indian Point (Siberia) 2. 48 

(5) 

Chukchee 2. 47 

(6) 

Pilot Station, Lower Yukon 2. 45 

(280) 

St. Lawrence Island 2. 42 

(29) 

Pastolik 2. 41 

(13) 

Hooper Bav 2.39 

(10) 
Mumtrak 2.38 



Cape Nome and Port Clarence. 

Nelson Island 

Togiak and vicinity 

Yukon Delta 

Nunivak Island 

Little Diomede Island 

St. Michael Island 



}iorth ivcstern 



(3) 
Kotzebue 2. 41 

(34) 
Wales 2. 37 

(20) 
Shishmaref 2. 36 

(56) 
Barrow 2.35 



Point Hope 

Point Barrow 

Igloos, north of Barrow. 



Northern and northeastern 



(9) 
Smith Sound 2.29 

(15) 
Northern Arctic 2. 26 

(14) 
Southampton Island 2. 25 



Baffin Land and vicinity.. 
Greenland 

Hudson Bay and vicinity. 



(6) 

2.38 

(23) 

2.37 

(9) 

2.36 

(4) 

2.34 

(107) 

2.33 

(11) 

2.32 

(13) 

2. 21 



(211) 
2.33 

(92) 
2. 30 

(48) 
2.30 



(29) 
2. 25 

(98) 

2.23 

(7) 

2. 19 



HRDLICKA] 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 



269 



It is hardly ijossible. therefore, to assume that a narrow nose is an 
ancient inheritance of the Eskimo. From the facts now at hand it 
seems much more probable that the Eskimo nose or respiratory nasal 
aperture was not originally very narrow, but that it gradually 
acquired this character as the people extended farther north and 
northeastward; and there appears to be but one potent factor that 
could influence this development and that increases from south to 
north, namely, cold. A narrowing of the aperture can readily be 
understood as a jjrotective development for the throat and the organs 
of respiration. 

It is not easy to see how the bony structures respond to the eifects of 
cold or heat, but that they do, particularly where these are aggravated 
by moisture, has long been appreciated, and shown fairly con- 
clusively through studies on the nasal index by Thomson and later 
by Thomson and Buxton."" An even more satisfactory study would 
have been that of the nasal breadth alone. Perhaps the normal 
variation with the elimination of the less fit are the main agencies. 

The next two tables show other interesting conditions. The first 
of these, seen best from the more general data, are the relations of 
the nasal dimensions and index in the two sexes. The females in 
all the three large groupings have a higher nasal index than the 
males. Tliis is a general condition among the Indians as well as in 
other races. It is usually due to a relative shortness of the female 
nose. This condition is very plain in the Eskimo. The female nose 
is actually narrower than the male, due to correlation with shorter 
stature and lesser facial breadth, yet the index is higher. The reason 
can most simply be shown by comparing the genei'al mean nasal 
breadth and height in the two sexes. The breadth in the female is 
approximately 96.2 per cent of that in the male; the height is only 
92.7 per cent. 

Nasal Dimensions in Western and Other Eskimo Crania 







Males 






Females 






Height 


Breadth 


Index 


Height 


Breadth 
(10) 
2.32 


Index 


Groups - - 


(14) 
5.46 


(14) 
2. 42 


(14) 
44.3 


(10) 
5.06 


(10) 


Southwestern and mid- 
western -- 


45.8 






Groups 


(7) 
.5.42 


(") 
2.37 


(7) 
43. 7 


(6) 
5.06 


(6) 
2.30 


(6) 


Northwestern 


45. 4 






Groups ._ . 


(6) 
5.38 


(6) 
2.28 


(6) 
4^.4 


(5) 
4.95 


(5) 
2. 18 


(5) 


Northern Arctic and 
northeastern 


44-0 



"" Thomson, Arthur, The correlation of isotherms with variations in the nasal index. 
Proc. Seventeenth Intern. Cong. Med,, London, 1913, Sec. I, Anatomy and Embryology, 
pt. II, S9 ; Thomson. Arthur, and Buxton, L. H. D., Man's nasal index in relation to cer- 
tain climatic conditions, Journ. Koy. Anthrop. Inst., Liii, 92-122, London, 1923. Addi- 
tional references in these publications ; also in the latter an extensive list of data on 
nasal index in many parts of the world. 



270 



ANTHBOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



(ETH. AXN. 46 



Detailed group data on the nasal index show that this ranges from 
47.7 on the Yukon to Jfl.S in the northernmost contingent of the 
Eskimo at Smith Sound. The Kotzebue group that shows even a 
higher index than on the Yukon is too small to have much weight. 
Barrow and Point Barrow are once more nearly the same, as are the 
Old Igloos and Greenland; and there are some other interesting 
relations. 

Eskimo Skulls : Nasal Index 

both sexes taken together in descending order 

Southwestern and midwestern 



(6) 

Pilot Station, Lower Yukon 47. 7 

(5) 

Southwestern Alaska 47. 5 

(31) 

Indian Point (Siberiaj 46. 5 

(13) 

Hooper Bav 46. 2 

(6) 
Cape Nome and Port Clarence _ . 46. 

(280) 

St. Lawrence Island 46. 8 

(5) 

Chukchee 45. 6 

(10) 
Mumtrak 45. 2 



(107) 

Nunivak Island 45. 1 

(9) 

Togiak and vicinity 45. 

(29) 

Pastolik :. 44.9 

(23) 

Nelson Island 44.6 

(11) 

Little Dioniede Island 44. 5 

(13) 

St. Michael Island 42. 9 

(4) 
Yukon Delta 42.7 



North western 



(3) 

Kotzebue 49. 

(20) 

Shishmaref 46. 

(34) 

Wales 45. 3 

(211) 
Point Hope 44. 9 



(56) 
Barrow and vicinity 44. 

(48) 
Igloos north of Barrow 44.0 

(92) 
Point Barrow 43. 5 



Northern and nortlieastern 



(7) 

Hudson Bay and vicinity 44. 6 

(16) 
North Arctic 44. 1 

(29) 
Baffin Land and vicinity 43. 8 



(98) 
Greenland 43. 6 

(14) 

Southampton Island 43. 

(9) 
Smith Sound --- 41. 8 



THE ORBITS 



In many American groups the orbits are notoriously variable, yet 
their mean dimensions and index are of value. 



UHDLIc'KA] 



PHYSICAL ANTHROrOLOGY 



271 



Tlie EsskiiiKi dibits have lon<i; been known lor their ample propor- 
tions. Their mean heiglit and breadth are hiryer than those of any 
other known people and the excess is especially apparent when pro- 
portioned to stature. Taking the family as a whole, the mean height 
of the two orbits in males averages approximately 3.64 centimeters, 
the mean breadth 4.03 centimeters; while the males of 23 Algonquian 
tribes give for the same items 3.42 and 3.93, and those of 12 Siouan 
tribes 3.58 and 3.96 centimeters. 

The general averages for the female E.skimo approach for orbital 
height 3.52 centimeters, for breadth 3.89 centimeters, dimensions 
which also surpass those in the females of any other known human 
group. 

These large dimensions of the Eskimo orbit are, however, on closer 
examination into the matter, found not to be racial characters except 
m a secondary way. They are the direct consequence of the high and 
broad face. The correlation of the orbital height and breadth with 
the height and breadth of the face are shown by the following 
figures. These figures indicate also some additional details of 
interest. 

Eskimo Orbits: Right and Left 
MALES 



Height 



Eight Left 



Breadth 



Eight U'tt 



Index 



Eight Left 



St. Lawrence Island 

Nunivak Island 

Point Hope 

Greenland 



(145) 
3. 67 3. 68 

(41) 
3. 59 3. 59 

(120) 
3. 63 3. 63 

(46) 
3. 64 3. 65 



(145) 
4, 05 4. 01 

(41) 
4. 05 4. — 

(120) 
4. 05 4. 01 

(46) 
4. 02 3. 96 



(145) 
90. 7 91. 8 
(41) 

88. 7* 89.7 
(120) ■ 

89. 6 90. 5 
(46) 

90. 6 92. 1 



FEMALES 



St. Lawrence Island 

Nunivak Island 

Point Hope 

Greenland 





(128) 




3. 


62 3. 

(58) 


60 


3. 


50 3. 

(70) 


52 


3. 


54 3. 

(45) 


54 


3. 


55 3. 


56 





(128) 




3. 


92 3. 

(58) 


89 


3. 


88 3. 

(70) 


84 


3. 


91 3. 

(45) 


88 


3. 


86 3. 


83 



(128) 
91. 7 93. 6 

(m 

90. 2 91. 8 
(70) 

90. 5 91. 4 
(45) 

91. 9 92. 9 



272 



AJTTHKOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



The general orbital index of the Eskimo is close to 90 in the 
males, 90.5 in the females. Such orbits are classed as also relatively 
high or 77iegaseme, a character in which they resemble many of the 
American Indians. Thus the male crania of the Siouan tribes give 
the practically identical general index of 90.o. 

The slightly higher index in the females is the rule to which there 
are but few exceptions, and those in individual groups where the 
numbers of specimens may not be sufficient. The same tendency is 
observable in the Indians, and appears in fact to be panhuman. It 
is due to slightly lesser relative height as compared to the breadth 
of the orbit in the males, which condition is due in all probability 
to the greater development in the males of the frontal sinuses and 
supraorbital arches. 



Eskimo Crania: Dimensions of the Orbits in Relation to Those of the 

Face 

orbital heiont versus upper facial height 



Males 


(10) 
Lowest faces (7.2-7.4) 


(10) 
Average faces (7.8) 


(10) 
Highest faces (8.4-9) 


Face 


Orbits 


Face 


Orbits 


Face 


Orbits 


7.37 


3.62 


7.80 


3.65 


8.55 


3.78 


Females 


(10) 
Lowest faces (6.4-6.8) 

• 


(10) 
Average faces (7.3) 


(14) 
Highest faces (7.8-8.4) 


Face 


Orbits 


Face 


Orbits 


Face 


Orbits 


6. 69 


3. 54 


7. 30 


3. 56 


7.89 


3.67 



PERCENTAGE RELATIONS OF ORBITS TO FACE 



49. 1 


46. S 


44.2 


53 


48. 7 


46. 6 



HRDLldKAl 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 



273 



Eskimo Crania: Dimensions of the Orbits in Relation to Those of the 

Face — Continued 

ORBITAL BREADTH VERSUS FACIAL BREADTH 



Males 


CO) 

Narrowest faces (13.4 and 

below) 


(17) 
Average faces (14.2) 


(10) 
Broadest faces (14.9 and 
above) 


Face 


Orbits 


Face Orbits 


Face 


Orbits 


, 13. 30 


3.96 


14. 20 


4.01 


15. 11 


4. 17 



Females 


(10) 

Narrowest faces (12.7 and 

below) 


(14) 
Average faces (13.3) 


(10) 

Broadest faces (13.9 and 

above) 


Face 


Orbits 


Face 


Orbits 


Face 


Orbits 


12. 57 


3. 74 


13. 30 


3.88 


14.09 


3. 98 



PERCENTAGE RELATIONS OF ORBITS TO FACE 


29. S 


28.4 


28.2 


29.8 


29.2 


27.6 



Individual variation in the orbital index of the Eskimo is ex- 
tensive, reaching from slightlj' below SO to well over 100. It ex- 
tends more or less over the whole Eskimo area, without conveying 
definite indication anywhere of either a mixture or of a special evolu- 
tionary tendency. Yet it occasions group differences that eventually 
might prove evolutionary, though they maj' merely rejaresent the 
next or higher order of variability, namely, that of groups within 
a family. 

Orbital Dimensions and Index in Eskimo Skulls 





Males 


Females 


Area 


Mean 
height 


Mean 
breadth 


Mean in- 
dex 


Mean 
height 


Mean 
breadth 


Mean in- 
dex 




(13) 


(13) 


(13) 


(13) 


(13) 


(13) 


South and midwestern. 


3.63 


4.01 


90. 6 


3.56 


3.87 


92. 1 




(6) 


(6) 


(6) 


= (6) 


(6) 


(6) 


Northwestern 


3.62 

(5) 


4.02 

(5) 


90. 1 
(5) 


3.61 

(5) 


3.92 

(5) 


89. 7 




(5) 


Northern Arctic and 














northeastern 


3. 65 


4. 07 


89.5 


3.54 


3. 91 


90.6 



274 



ANTHHOPOLOGICAL SUKVEY IK ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



The jrroup diiFerences in the orbital index of the Eskimo skull are 
shown in the next table. They elude a satisfactory explanation, un- 
less recourse is had to the above suggested tiieory of normal group 
variability within a family. They have about the same range in 
the three large areas, which would seem to .support this theory. 

Group relations are indicated in the cases of Pastolik- Yukon Delta- 
St. Micliael Island; Point Barrow-Barrow; and Old Igloos-Green- 
land. 

Eskimo Skulls: Mean Index of the Orbits 
both sexes t.vken together in ascending order « 

Southwestern and midweslern 



(10) 
Mumtrak 88. 4 

(11) 

Little Diomede Island 89. 4 

(6) 
Cape Nome and Port Clarence.. 89.7 

(101) 

Nunivak Island 90. 1 

(31) 

Indian Point (Siberia) 90. 3 

(5) 

Chukchee 90. 6 

(6) 

Pilot Station, Lower Yukon 91. 

(5) 
Southwest Alaska 91. 4 



(271) 

St. Lawrence Island 91. 7 

(24) 

Nelson Island 91. 9 

(13) 

Hooper Bay 92. 5 

(29) 

Pastolik 93. 2 

(7) 

Togiak 93. 3 

(4) 

Yukon Delta 93.8 

(13) 
St. Michaellslaud 94.4 



Northwestern 



(3) 
Kotzebue 86. 1 

(20) 
Shishmaref 88. 9 

(34) 
Wales 89. 4 

(85) 
Point Barrow 90. 3 



(200) 

Point Hope 90.4 

(53) 
Barrow 91. 1 

(43) 
Igloos north of Barrow 91. 1 



Northern and northeastern 



(9) 
Smith Sound 87.6 

(13) 
Southampton Island 88. 4 

(28) 
Baffin Land and vicinity 90. 



(16) 
Northern Arctic 91.0 

(94) 
Greenland 91. 6 

(7) 
Hudson Bay and vicinity 92. 3 



HnDLlCKA] 



PHYSICAL ANTHIiOPOLOGY 



275 



THE UPPEK AL^'EOLAK ARCH 



The dental arches correlate with function (use), with stature, with 
the dimensions of the face, and with those of the teeth. The western 
as well as other Eskimo show arches that ai"e about equal in absolute 
dimensions to those of our taller Indians, such as the Munsee, Arkan- 
sas, and Louisiana:" but^ relatively to stature the Eskimo arch is 
decidedly larger. 

The upper dental arch index ( — ^ — - ), now being used in pref- 
erence to the unwieldy " uranic index " ( — j j of Turner, is 

rather high, showing that the arch is relatively, as well as abso- 
lutely, broad. The same index in the Munsee averaged in the males 
82.S, in the females 82.7; in the Arkansas and Louisiana mound skulls 
84-4 in the males and 85.1 in the females. Data are needed here for 
more extensive comparisons. 



Eskimo Crani.\: Alveol.\r .\rch 



11 groups: 

Southwestern and 

midnestern 

6 groups: 

Northwestern 

5 groups: 

Northern Arctic 
and northeast- 
ern 



Males 



External 
length 



5. 56 
5.63 

5.68 



External 
breadth 



6.66 
6. 61 

6.75 



Module 
imean 
diam- 
eter) 



6. 11 
6. 12 

6.21 



Index 

LXlOO 



53. 5 

85. 1 

54. 2 



Females 



External External 
length breadth 



5.34 
5.38 

5.37 



6.38 
6.31 

6.28 



Module 
tmean) 
(diam- 
eter) 



5.86 
5.85 

5.83 



Index 
LXlOO 



8S.8 
86. Z 

85.6 



•° See Bull, 62, Bur. Am. Ethn., and writer's Report on an Additional Collection of 
Skeletal Remains from Arkansas and Louisiana, published with Clarence B. Moore's report 
on the .\ntiqulties o£ the Ouachita Valley, Philadelphia, 190S. 



276 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL, StTRVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



Eskimo Skulls: Length-Breadth Index of the Upper Alveolar Arch 

both sexes taken together in ascending order 

Southwestern and midwestern 



(5) 
Pilot Station, Lower Yukon 79. 4 

(8) 
Togiak and vicinity 80. 6 

(4) 

Chukchee 81. 1 

(12) 
Hooper Bay 81. 7 

(9) 
Mumtrak 81. 7 

(9) 

Little Diomede Island 82. 2 

(234) 
St. Lawrence Island 83. 



(10) 
St. Michael Island 84.3 

(22) 
Pastolik* 84. 4 

(90) 

Nunivak Island 84. 4 

(4) 

Southwest Alaska 84. 7 

(5) 
Cape Nome and Port Clarence- _ 84. 9 

(22) 
Indian Point (Siberia) 85.0 

(22) 
Nelson Island 85. 5 



North western 



(39) 
Igloos north of Barrow 84. 1 

(14) 

Shishmaref 84. 4 

(171) 
Point Hope 84. 6 



(31) 
Wales 84. 9 

(38) 
Barrow 85. 8 

^ (66) 
Point Barrow 87. 1 



Northern and northeastern 



' (9) 
Smith Sound 82. 7 

(13) 

Southampton Island 83. 7 

(7) 
Hudson Bav and vicinity 84. 4 



(23) 
Baffin Land and vicinity 85. 7 

(89) 
Greenland 85. 9 

(10) 
Northern Arctic 86. i 



Sex differences in tlie index are small, nevertheless the females 
tend to show a slightly higher index, due to relatively slightly 
smaller breadth of the arch. 

The size of the arch and its index differ but little over the three 
main areas of the Eskimo territory, yet there are slight differences. 
They appear plainly in the following table. Notwithstanding the 
fact that on the whole the southwestern and midwestern groups are 
somewhat taller than those of the far north and northeast, the largest 
palate, in the males at least, is found in the latter area. 

In the southwest and midwest the upper alveolar arch is rela- 
tively (as well as absolutely, barring one group) somewhat broad and 
short. This may be in correlation with the broader head in this 
area, just as the absolutely slightly longer palates over the rest of the 
Eskimo territory and particularly (in males) in the northeast may 
correlate with the longer heads in those regions. This point may be 



HRDI.ldKA] 



PHYSICAL .ANTHROPOLOGY 



277 



tested on our splendid material from St. Lawrence Island. Takinor 
the broadest and the narrowest skulls from this locality, the follow- 
ing data are obtained for the proportions of the upper dental arch : 

Eskimo Cbania : Dental Aech and Form of Skull 
st. lawrence island material 



Length 

Breadth .^ 

Index 

Mean diameter 

Mean cranial diameter (cranial 
module) of same skulls 

Percentage relation of mean 
dental arch diameter to the 
mean diameter of the skull. 

Length of same skulls 

Percentage relation of length 
of dental arch to that of skull. 



Males 



Females 



Narroi 
(C.L 


Test skulls 
70.7-7.3.5) 




5. 68 
6.83 
83.3 
6.26 




15. 61 




AO.l 
19. 21 




29.5 



Broadest i Narrowest 

skulls (80.6- I skulls (70.3- 

83.1) 74.2) 



5.58 

6.77 
83. 4 
6. 18 

15. 49 



39. S 
18. 10 

30. 8 



5.52 
6. 66 

83. 9 
6. 09 

14. 97 



40. 7 
18.35 

30. 1 



Broadest 

skulls (80.9- 

83.8) 



5. 20 

6. 36 

83. 7 
5.78 

14 73 



39. 3 
17. 25 

30. 1 



The above figures show several conditions. The first is that the 
arch is quite distinctly larger in the narrow than in the broad skulls 
in both sexes. The second fact is that the skull (vault) itself is 
slightly larger in the narrow-headed. The third is that the length of 
the arch is somewhat greater in the narrow and long skulls than it is 
in the broad and shorter, relatively to the skull size. The fourth is 
that there appears a close correlation, more particularly in the 
females, between the length of the arch and that of the skull. 



THE BASION-NASIOX DIAMETER 

The anterior basal length (basion-nasion) is a measurement of 
importance, though its full meaning in anthropology is not yet 
entirely clear. From data quoted by Martin (Lehrb., 715-716) it 
appears to average in whites up to 10.3 centimeters in males and up 
to 10.1 centimeters in females, and is known to correlate closely with 
the length of the vault. Secondarily it also correlates with stature. 

Data on American Indians are not yet generally available, though 

in preparation. The Munsee skulls gave the writer for the diameter 

the means of 10.27 for the males and 10.02 for the females; the 

•mound skulls from Arkansas and Louisiana gave 10.45 for the males 

and 9.77 for the females. 



278 



ANTHKOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



An abstract of the data on the Eskimo skulls is given in the next 
table. The values for the measurement are rather high, especially 
for such short people. The percentage relation of the measurement 
to the length of the skull appears also to be high. Manouvrier (1882, 
quoted in Martin, Lehrb.. 716) found this relation in French skulls 
to be 53.6 in the males and SJ-f.T in the females. 

E.sKiM" Crania: r{ASi(iN'-NA.sioN Length 





Groups of males 


Corresponding groups of 
females 




Ba.sion- 

nasion 

diameter 


Its i-»er- 
centage re- 
lation to 
length of 
skull 


Basion- 

nasion 

diameter 


Its per- 
centage re- 
lilion to 
lent'th of 
skuil 


Southwestern and miflwestern. _ 


(13) 
10.38 

(6) 
10. 58 

(5) 
10. 65 


(13) 
66. 4 
(6) 
56. i 
(5) 
56.2 


(13) 

9. 85 

(6) 

10.06 

(5) 

10. 06 


(13) 
■55. 7 


Northwestern 


(6) 
56.3 


Northern Arctic and northeastern 


(5) 
56.4 



The female measurement to that of the male, in the Eskimo, is 
as 94..9 to 100. As a similar relation of the cranial modules in the 
two sexes is close to 95.7, the anterior basal length would seem to be at 
a little disadvantage in the female Eskimo skull. 

The same condition is seen also when the basion-nasion diameter 
is compared with the length of the skull. In the males, notwith- 
standing the fact that the length of the vault is increased through the 
development of the frontal sinuses and not infrequently also through 
that of the occipital ridges, the percentage relation of the basion- 
nasion to tiie maximum total length of tlie vault is approximately 
56.3, in the females but 55.8. It seems therefore safe to say that in 
the Eskimo, in general, that part of the brain anterior to the fora- 
men magnum is relatively somewhat better developed in the males 
than in the females. 

But to this there are some exceptions. Thus it may be seen in the 
general table which follows that in the northwestern groups condi- 
tions in this respect are equalized; and in the succeeding detailed 
table it will be noted that while the males exceed the females in this 
particular in 14 of the groups, in 5 groups conditions are equal (or 
within one decimal), and in 5 the female percentage exceeds slightly 
that in the males. In the numerically best represented groups condi- 
tions are neai-ly equal, with the males nevertheless slightly favored. 



hbdliCka] 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 



279 



Eskimo Skulls: Basion-Nasion Length and Its Relation to Length 

OF Skull 

SEXES SEPARATELY IN ASCENDING ORDER 





Males 


Females 




BNXIOO 
B N- Skull 1 


BNXIOO 
'^ ^- Skull 1 


Southwestern and midwestern 
Little Diomede Island _ 


(4) 
10. 18 56. 2 

(3) 
10. 20 .5^ 8 

(3) 
10. 27 5J,. 3 

(9) 
10.29 57.6 

(4) 
10. 32 67 

(146) 
10. 36 56. 3 

(3) 
10. 37 55. 8 

(11) 
10. 41 56. 5 

(8) 
10. 44 57. 3 

(9) 

10.46 56.8 
(3) 

10. 47 67. 2 
(3) 

10.47 67.6 
(15) 

10. 54 66. 6 

(46) 
10. 55 56. 1 

(2) 
10. 45 67. 3 

(133) 
10. 48 57 

(12) 
10. 50 66. 8 

(47) 
10. 54 56. 2 

(35) 
10. 61 66. 9 

(19) 
10. 64 56. 7 

(27) 
10.70 55.6- 


(7) 
9. 91 61 9 


Chukchee -. . .. 


(2) 
10. 00 61 8 


Pilot Station (Yukon)... ... 


(3) 
9. 97 56 


Hooper Bay. 


(4) 
9. 70 56. 7 


Mumtrak 


(6) 
9. 52 65. 1 


St. Lawrence Island .. _ _. . 


(133) 
9. 93 66. 1 


Yukon Delta 




Pastolik ... .. . 


(18) 
9. 98 56. 3 


St. Michael Island 


(6) 
9. 98 66. 3 


Nelson Island 


(15) 
9. 73 65. 9 


Togiak.. . . . ... _. 


(7) 
9.56 56.7 


Southwestern Alaska ._ . 


(2) 
9.80 5Jf.8 


Indian Point and Puotin 


(16) 

9. 97 56. 6 


Nunivak Island. ....... 


(69) 
10. 02 56 


Northwestern 
Kotzebue 




Point Hope .. ._ 


(82) 
10. 00 66. 9 


Shishmaref . . 


(8) 
10.20 57.5 


Point Barrow . . . 


(52) 
9. 94 56. 5 


Barrow 


(34) 
10. 01 66. 3 


Wales . . 


(15) 
la 01 65. 5 


Igloos north of Barrow 


(24) 
10. 18 66. 2 



280 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL, SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



Eskimo Skulls: Basion-Nasion Length and Its Relation to Length op 

Skull — Continued 

SEXES SEPARATELY IN ASCENDING ORDER 



Males 



B-N. 



BNXIOO 
SkuUl 



Females 



B-N. 



BNXIOO 
Skull 1 



Northern and northeastern 

Baffin Land and vicinity 

Hudson Bay and vicinity 

Greenland 

Northern Arctic 

Smith Sound 

Southampton Island 



(16) 


(17) 


10. 51 S5. 6 


10. 11 5S.2 


(5) 


(2) 


10. 60 56. Jt 


9. 75 55. 6 


(48) 


(52) 


10. 60 55. 9 


10. 13 56. 2 


(5) 


(10) 


10. 68 56. 1 


10.07 65.3 


(7) 




10. 70 56. 4 




(9) 


(5) 


10. 83 57. 3 


10. 34 56. 9 



An interesting point is that in the north and nortlieast, where the 
skulls are longest, there is evidently a slightly greater relative de- 
velopment of the occipital portion of the vault, or slightly lesser 
development of the frontal portion. 

Some additional points of interest appear when the basion-nasion : 
skull-length index, taken collectively for the two sexes, is compared 
in the different groups. All these comparisons suffer, naturally, 
from unevenness and often insufficiency of thei numbers of specimens, 
yet some of the results are very harmonious with those brought out 
repeatedly by other data. Thus the St. Lawrence material stands 
once more close to the medium of the southwestern and midwestern 
groups ; Barrow and Point Barrow are almost identical ; and so are 
the Old Igloos from near Barrow and Greenland. The St. Michael 
islanders show very favorably in the midwest, the Shishmarefs in 
the northwest and the Southampton islanders in the northeast. 



HEDLIOKA] 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 



281 



Eskimo Skulls: Basion-Nasion Line m Relation to Skull Length 

/BNX100\ 
\ Sh J 

BOTH SEXES TOQETHER IN ASCENDING ORDER 
Southwestern and midwestern 



(5) 
Chukchee 54 8 

(6) 
Pilot Station, Lower Yukon 65. 2 

(11) 
Little Diomede Island 55. 6 

(24) 

Nelson Island 55. 9 

(115) 
Nunivak Island 56.0 

(10) 

Mumtrak 56. 1 

(279) 
St. Lawrence Island 56. 2 



(5) 
Southwestern Alaska 56. 2 

(29) 
Pastolik 56. 4 

(10) 
Togiak 56. 5 

(31) 
Indian Point and vicinity 

(Siberia) 56. 5 

(13) 
Hooper Bay 56. 6 

(14) 
St. Michael Island 56. 8 



Northwestern 



(51) 
Igloos southwest of Barrow 55.9 

(99) 
Point Barrow 55.9 

(69) 
Barrow 56.1 



(34) 
Wales 56. 1 

(215) 

Point Hope 57.0 

(20) 
Shishmaref 57. 1 



Northern and northeastern 



(33) 
Baffin Land and vicinity 55. 4 

(10) 
Northern Arctic 55. 7 

(7) 
Hudson Bay and vicinity 56. 



(100) 
Greenland 56. 1 

(7) 

Smith Sound (male) 56. 4 

(14) 
Southampton Island 57. 1 



The next table gives the percentage relations of the basion-nasion 
diameter to the mean diameter of the skull. The correlation of the 
two is even closer than in the case of the skull length, and the 
grouping, while in the main alike, seems in general even more in 
harmony with that in previous comparisons. The St. Lawrence 
Island females are very exceptional, as was also apparent in other 
connections. The unusual smallness of their skull (compare section 
on Cranial module) is evidently due to a poor development of its 
posterior half. 

88253°— 30 1!4 



282 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN'. 46 



Eskimo Crania : Percentage Relation of the Basion-Nasion Diameter to 
Mean Cranial Diameter (Cranial Module) 

'BNX100^ 



/ BNX100 \ 
V CM ^ 



BOTH SEXES TOGETHER IN ASCENDING ORDER 
Southwestern and midwcstern Northwestern 



Pilot Station, Yukon.. 
Chukehee 

Little Diomede Island - 



65.6 

66.0 

... 66. 1 

Hooper Bay 66. 4 

Nelson Island 66. 7 

Togiak 66.9 

Southwest Alaska 67. 3 

Indian Point, Siberia 67. 4 



Mumtrak 

Nunivak Island 

Pastoli k 

St. Michael Island 

St. Lawrence Island: 
Male 



67.4 

67. 6 

67.6 

68. 

67.2 

Female (69.6) 



Wales 

Point Barrow. 

Point Hope 

Barrow 



67.7 

67.8 

68.1 

68.4 

Old Igloos 69.0 

Shishmaref 69. 2 

Northern Arctic and northeastern 

Baffin Land 67.4 

Hudson Bay 67. 6 

Smith Sound (male) 67. 6 

North Arctic 68. 1 

Greenland 68.5 

Southampton Island 68. 7 



PROGNATHISM 

Since better understood, the subject of facial prognathism has lost 
much of its allure in anthrojDology ; yet the matter is not wholly with- 
out interest. 

Facial protrusion is as a rule secondary to and largely caused by 
alveolar protrusion, which in turn is caused by the size and shape of 
the dental arch ; and the dental arch is generally proportional to the 
size of the teeth. The form of the arch is, liowever, quite influential. 
With the teeth identical in size a narrow arch will be more, a broad 
arch less jirotruding, and a narrow arch with small teeth may pro- 
trude more than a broad one with larger teeth. Another influence 
is that of the height of the upper face, the same arch jjrotruding more 
in a low face than in a high one. And still another factor is the in- 
cline of the front teeth, though this affects merely the appearance of 
prognathism and not its measurements. 

There are different ways of measuring facial prognathism, and 
with sufficient care all may be effective; I prefer, for practical 
reasons, linear measurements fi-om the basion, which, together with 
the facial and subnasal heights, give triangles that can readily be 
reconstructed on paper and allow a direct measurement of both the 
facial and the alveolar angle. The three needed diameters from 
basion are taken, the first to the " prealveolar point," or the nwst 
anterior point on the upper dental arch above the incisors; the sec- 
ond to the "subnasal point," or the point on the left (for con- 
venience) of the nasal aperture, where the outer part of its border 
passes into that which belongs to the subnasal portion of the maxilla 



hbdliCea] 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 



283 



(the point where the subnasal slant begins) ; and the third to nasion. 
The facial heifiht is that from the alveolar point {lowest point of 
the upper alveolar border in the median line) to nasion; while for 
the subnasal height, wliicli can not be measured directly, I utilize 
the difference between the facial and nasal heights, which is very 
close to the needed dimension. 

The important basion-nasion diameter has already been considered. 
That to the subnasal point needs no comment. That to the prealveo- 
lar point shows in the western and other Eskimo as follows : 

Eskimo Crania : Basion-Prealveolab Point Diameter 

All Eskimo 

Males: 

Mean diameter centimeters.. 10. 54 

Mean relation to length of skull per cent. _ 66. 3 

Females: 

Diameter centimeters. . 9. 99 

Relation per cent.. 56. 8 



MALES 



A = Basion prealveolar point diameter 
B = Its relation to length of skull 



Southwestern and 
midwestern 


Northwestern 


Northern Arctics 
and northeastern 


A B 
10. 38 56. 4 

18. 41 


A B A B 

10. 58 56. 4 10. 65 56. 2 
Mean skull lengths 

18. 75 1 18. 96 


females 


9. 85 56. 7 1 10. 06 56. 3 \ 10. 06 55. A 

Mean skull lengths 

17. 69 17. 86 1 18. 15 



As in other details, so here there is a remarkable similarity between 
the skulls from the three large areas, pointing both to the unity of 
the people and to absence of heterogeneous admixtures. As the 
skull length increases so does the basi-alveolar line, but the relative 
proportions of the two remain very nearly the same. 

The relative value of the basi-alveolar length in the males, com- 
pared to the length of the skull, is in general about 0..5 per cent 
higher than it is in the females. This is just about the excess of the 
relative proportion of the length of the male dental arch when com- 
pared to the same skull dimension. The general mean skull length 
in the Eskimo male approximates 18.705, in female 17.899 centi- 
meters; the mean length of the arch is, in the male, close to 5.625, 
in the female 5.365 centimeters; and the percentage relation of the 
latter to the former is 30.6 in the males, 30 in the females. The 
relatively slightly greater basi-alveolar length in the males is evi- 
dently, therefore, at least partly due to the relatively longer male 



284 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

dental arch, which in turn is doubtless due to the somewhat larger 
teeth in the males. ^^ 

Notwithstanding the just discussed slight sex difference in the 
Eskimo, the facial angle, i. e., the angle between the basi-alveolar line 
and the line nasion-alveolar point, is equal in the two sexes. This 
equalization is due largely, if not wholly, to the effect in the males 
of the relatively longer basio-nasion diameter (v. a.), while the 
alveolar angle, or that between the basi-alveolar and the subnasal 
lines, is in general by about 1 per cent lower in the females (males, 
56° ; females, 55°), indicating a slightlj^ greater slant of the subnasal 
region in the female, which can only be due to a relatively slightly 
shorter in this sex of the basion-subnasal point diameter. As a matter 
of fact, the percentage relation of this diameter to the length of the 
skull amounts in the males to 56.3, in the females to but 55.6. 

Compared to that in the Indians, the facial angle in the Eskimo 
skulls shows close aiSnities. Its value (69°) is very nearly the same 
as in the mound skulls from Arkansas and Louisiana (males 70.7°, 
females 69°). In other Indians it ranges from close to 68° to 71.5°. 
In the Munsee it reached 73.5°. In whites, according to Rivet's 
data," it ranges from about 72° to 75° ; in a gi-oup of negroes it was 
68.5°. In American and other negro crania measured by me ^^ it 
ranged from 67° to 70.5°, in Melanesians from 66° to 68°, in Aus- 
tralians from 67° to 69°. 

The alveolar angle is more variable. It shows considerable indi- 
vidual, sex, and gi-oup differences. It averages slightly to moder- 
ately higher, which means a more open angle or less slant in the males 
than in the females. In the Eskimo as a whole it was seen to be 
approximately 56° in the males, 55° in the females; in the Munsee 
Indians (Bull. 62, Bur. Amer. Ethn.) it was males 59°, females 
57° ; in the Arkansas and Louisiana skulls (J. Ac. Sci., Phila., 1909, 
XIV) it averaged males 55°, females 52°. In my catalogue material 
it shows a group variation of 46.5° to 55.5° in the negro, 47.5° 
to 52.5° in the Australians, 46.5° to 50.5° in the Melanesians. In the 
whites it generally exceeds 60°. 

Differences in facial and alveolar protrusion among the Eskimo 
according to area are small, yet they are not wholly absent. The 
figures below show that in the southwesterners and midwesterners, 
where the skull is more rounded, the prognathism is smallest; and 
that toward the north and northeast, where the skull is narrower 
and the palate (dental arch) tends to become longer, prognathism 
increases. The " Old Igloo " group shows once more such affinity with 
the Greenlanders that it is placed with the third subdivision. 

" Compare writer's Varintion in the dimensions of lower molars in man and anthropoid 
apes. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., TI, 423-438. Washington. 1923. 

"= Kivet, P., Recherches sur le prognathisme. L'Anthropologie, xx, pp. 35, 175 ; Paris, 
1909. XXI, pp. 505. 637. 1910. 

" Cat. Crania, U. S. Nat. Mus., etc., No. 3. Washington, 1928, 88, 105. 139. 



HRDLI(-KA] PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 285 

Eskimo Skulls: Facial and Alveolar Angle with Principal Areas 



Groups 

Facial angle 

Alveolar angle - 



Males 



South- and 
midwest 



(13) 
68 
55 



Northwest 



(5) 
69 
56 



North and 
northeast 



(6) 
70 
55 



Females 



South- and Northwest ^O'^^ and 
midwest J^wthwest northeast 



(13) 
67. 5 
54 



(5) 
69 
55 



(6) 

70 

54.5 



Individual group differences in the facial and alveolar angle are 
moderate, yet evidently not negligible. (See next table.) The most 
prognathic, especially in the siibnasal region, are the skulls from 
Nelson Island. A marked alveolar slant is also present in the Pilot 
Station Yukon group, and in Greenland. The least prognathic are 
the St. Michael Islanders, the Point Hope people, and those from 
Southampton Island. St. Lawrence stands once more near the 
middle of the southwesterners and midwesterners, and there are to be 
seen the principal old relations. 

The main points shown by the above conditions are the group 
variability, particularly in the southwest and midwest; the tendency, 
on the whole, toward a slightly greater prognathy, both facial and 
alveolar, in this same area; and the evidence that the alveolar slant 
has some individuality. 

Eskimo SKtnxs : Groitp Conditions in Facial and Alveolab Angle "" 



South and midwest 



Facial 
angle 



Alveolar 
angle 



(20) 



Nelson Island 66.3 51.5 

(4) 

Southwest Alaska 66.8 54.5 

(4) 

Chukchee 66.8 57.0 

(21) 

Indian Point 67. 56. 5 

(8) 

Togiak 67.0 54.0 

(242) 

St. Lawrence Island 67. 8 55. 3 

(86) 

Nunivak Island 67.8 56.5 

(23) 

PastoUk 68.3 54.8 

(10) 

Hooper Bay 68. 3 55. 3 

(10) 
Little Diomede Island. 68. 5 57. 5 

(9) 

Mumtrak 68.8 55.3 

(5) 
Pilot Station, Yukon.. 68.8 52.0 

(10) 
St. Michael Island 70. 56. 8 



Northwest 
Sledge Island 69.5 



Facial Alvenlar 
angle angle 

(11) 

54.9 

(31) 
Wales 67.8 56.0 

(17) 
Shishmaref 68.3 55.8 

(73) 
Point Barrow 69. 5 56. 

(43) 

Barrow 69.8 56.8 

(181) 
Point Hope 70.5 56.5 



North and northeast 



(11) 



North Arctic 68.5 54.5 

(24) 
Baffin Land 70.0 55,0 

(87) 
Greenland 69.8 53.8 

(35) 
Old Igloos near Barrow. 70. 3 55. 8 

(7) 
Hudson Bay 70.3 56.8 

(12) 
Southampton Island 71 55 



"» Lower angles mean higher, higher angles lower facial or alveolar protrusion. 



286 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANX. 46 



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to 

K 



o 

m 



Oo fe«ai 






I rt" M O 0» '^ ^'"'^ 



IM Oi iM 



=3 C - £ 






; * S 5 






•^ c ■- S 

C O 0) o 



n 






a CO eo 



i« 






CC CO S 1^3 I 



^ W5 »* to ^ Oi 



O O lO PC »o 



IQ OO ^ O) >Q ^ 



Cfl O C4 'O 



O 0> -"J" « 

v^ I-: v^ ^ 



.-H 1/3 S m 

Tf ^H C^ ^H ' 



I to — . (^ — 



^-^ ,-> O ^-v (N --^ < 

"ci -^ ■* r- oi 00 CO ( 

-* . CS .CO . ■>?• 

CO •-' OS .-H — ' — , 



!■ SI gr> -, 
^ 30 ^ >« 



' C4 00 * 



00 OC SO ' 
CO CO 



Q0OSO0«*O0O6CJC^r^00a0Oi<**oot^^ 



s ss 



' CO ■^^ CO ' 



' OO *-^ •« '•^ 






33 =^ -* »* »* 



liT CO 



Lower 

Yukon 

and 

delta 


eO'-OcO'-ieocDco-v 


coe^ •^SJtoSst^ 


^^ r- ^^ 

CO 00 CO CO 


s? 


CO tp eo 10 


Oi to GO !d 
-<j< t^ CO 01 


r- ■* 


:g 



odod-t-oscocicoci 



Oi QO 01 



»iaa©jt--^o05OOs 



-^ 00 -, 



OS t* a> 



■* 01 ^D ro I 
■<*• CO 



1 i^ iQ Oj t-. 



I O ^ <D <0 I 
I . ■* . "■** 

' -^ -^ CO '-^ I 



to 


to 




3 



^to--i-^09coo6'Oe 

QO 03 ^ f 



5-+ 



^, ** CO •-< CO CD ; 
»* -* M i>^ " 

00 OS -* 



CO 




^-v 

■* CO 


^ 


8 


q: 


S 


Tj- 


S 


CO 




Q to 


Q to 


^ 


»3 


cJ 


SS? 




co 


s 


ST 


to 


9? OS 


SP 
















.n 












en 
















to 
















































E- 














































Nusha- 

gak 

Bay 

and 
Kana- 


^ 


.-( ■»»" 


^ 


^ 


-^ 


■^ 


Q 


s 


S" 




3 ^^ 


Q »5 


Q 




■^ 


■o ^ 





^ 


<D 


Q 


«0 


Q^ 


c 










m 









^. 












c4 






^ 


















































m3 S a 










^ 




^ 


h- 










































































5s ga 


























































































t> «l2 "1 
















^ 






















^ 






















































;S° 




C? cc 


c^ 


"<*< 


1.:: 




;1h^ 


'(C 


■^ 




•-1 "^ 


C 00 


c 


^ 


w 


00 -H 


00 


^ 


00 


Q 


t^ 


Q Qra 






0* 




■^ 




-^ 




12 




00 


?: 


^ 




?S 




^i 


t^ 




"* 




s 


^ 




















- 




























•a B 

2 3 



















■a 






d 




■0 






d 


S3 








d 




•^ 


"Si 


03 



u 












rfl 




fci 






















h 




:: 


2 


d 



■a iiS z o 



HRDLICKA] 



PHYSICAL, ANTHROPOLOGY 



287 



oi ira cs o "o r- *3 



©* « (O N 



(N ^ *^ PJ ^ C3 I 

•t]! ^ lO cj 



M t^ M (O iB-i ^* W 1 

lO <o «i I 



O — ' O) -^ o 



i-H <d «5 



00 Tf CC Tt* ' 

v_- p5 ^-^ - 



C5 OJ 



--T -«J^ iQ ITS ^ lO 



^ o" 06 



coos»oc^-4'rftoerj 

00 -^ CO 



I O .^ Oi >-« o ■ 



. -<t- . tr — — 



>-H r- --■ OS <D *D 



w ^ 


^ 




^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


'— 


^ 


"-' 




^ 




^ 


01 


'-' 




^ 




'-^ 


"^ 


^ 




^ 




^ 


00 






PS 


00 


S 


So 


5 


j:;^ 




?r 


^Ci 


00 


tt: 


00 


3 


co" 


05 


00 


CO 

CO 


So 


8 


CO 


.^ 


p 


5 


p 


s 


P 


_, 


CS 


§ 


^ d 




nj 









o> 




?o 




rr^ 








ar, 




^ 




O) 




^ 




irf 




(O 




6J 




CO 




























































^ 


^ 




^^ 






^ 




„ 




_ 




„ 




_ 




_ 


-H 


^ 




„ 




„ 




„ 




„ 


>o 































































































































(-1 




rh 




<a> 




ro 












in 




r^ 




Co 












«^ 














































-^ 


















.— V M5 








J.^ 












^ 
















j.^ 






„ 










^ 




^ 


CO 


£J « 


M 




CO 


CM 


»* 


*o 


®* 




CO 




CO 




*? 


<- 


CO 




« 




ao 










■V 










<S 





























^ 




»o 
















h- 




f... 




CO 


















«d 


































'" 







B 


S 



s 


8 

OS 


« 




g 


2 


g 




g 


CO 


s 


s 


s 




s 






s 


?5 


S 


•^ 


3 


5! 


s 


<d 


s 


CO 






s 


^ 



s 


03 


s 





s 


§ 


g 


■o 

^ 


£ 


CO 


s 


M 

m 

rf 


w 


-* 

g 


s 


10 


g 


CO 


s 


4 


S 




U3 


« 


CO 


s 


5 


« 


S 

CO 


s 




3 


§5 


w 


s 

g 


p 


s 


P 


8 


S 


CO 


s 


g 


s 


s 


w 


10 


s 


ci 


^ 


^ 


S 


U3 


S- 


to 


w 


t*3 


« 






S 



§ 


10 
oi 


f 





3^ 


§ 


■^ 


g 


§ 


CO 


§ 




§ 


^ 

g 


s 


to 

CO 




^ 
■^ 


■0 

CO 


§ 


00 


^ 


s 

lO 


g 




^ 


s 


i 


"<»< 


s 





2 




2 


S3 

CJ 


s 


§ 


w 


S 


s 


CO 


rr 


§ 


-* 


9^ 


•J- 


OJ 

.0 


2 


CJ 


3 


ao 


S 





S 


3 

«5 


s 


5 


2 


g 

CO 


s 


CO 




s 




S 





3 


§ 


3 


KS 

S 


g 


s 


CO 


OJ 
CO 


s 


9* 


G 


10 


s 




CO 


s 


«» 

4 


s 


s 




s 


CO 


s 


QO 


s 


00 
CO 


3 





s 


to 

06 


3 


05 


CT 


«5 


s 


^ 


3 


CO 


3 




C^ 




3 


CO 




3 




^ 


0* 

to 


Cm 





Ch 


to 
to 


^ 


0:1 


Ch 


^ 








^ ■* -^ 00 

a> 






lO 04 00 lO «3 -*» CO 

-<1- 00 



ko 00 CO CO 



C^ 01 10 CD 



"3 a 



4— 03 SO TO CO — 

pq n n fe -< 



O) v 



o 



o 






a 



S s a 

1^ 



288 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



.g 

a 
o 
O 






o 

Iz 
■< 
►J 

» 

M 

O 

o 
f- 

a 
K 

< 

o 
o 

K 
Pi 

g 
O 

o 



to 



ii 






-— ' CO 


S3 


S no 3 -,• 


^ t^ ST W3 cT CO 

-- s' ^ 1 = Si 


(46) 
7.61 
(47) 

14.05 
(IS) 

«7./ 


§5 


si 

moo 


PS 


pfe 


PS 


Pw 


P goo 


P-*Poo S S 


PSPS®-» 


P 


" od 


I-H 


■* 


»o 


i g 


;? fe a 


^ s s 


§ 


Baffin 
Land, 
north- 
em 
Devon, 

and 
vicinity 


•^ 00 


2" 

— ' CO 


to 00 
■^ CO 


— • 


1 !£■>-. 

; i^S 


G" Oi S" 10 CO w 


01 S »■ N g Ob 




Hudson 
Bay 
and 

Ungava 
Bay 


00 


SS 


10 t> 


3 "o 


3 s - 


>Q e— iQ to ^ 1-1 


«? S w? S Q 


Si 


s 


co 


id 


S? U5 


S S; 2 


'^ s §s 


IP 




S?8 


g 


OS -c 

2 


g ^ ©1 


ST >-, ST 00 S S 
^ ^ §■ ^ ^ 


OJ OS Tfl QO ^ 




Mel- 
ville 
Penin- 
sula 


" s 




3 "^ 

CO 


3s 

»d 


: :~^8 


C 4^ C eo S" 00 


^ 00 1 1 I [ 


1 J 


u 

is < 


5?S 


g8 


CO 


id 


1 I *^ 


Q >-i i? j^ c? 
^ S " &■ " 3 


3 g 33 C <to 

00 -^ ^ 
1-H «i 


i? «s 


■ii 


S 00 


5? 3 


PS 

Sec 


55 


5? S^ Ob 


P ^. P <to ^ .-1 




Si 


Old 
Igloos, 
south- 
west of 
Barrow 


■— ' CT> 


m 


--^ IN 




Sg 


P »J P »<3 CD CO 




S5 


Barrow 

and 
vicinity 




gs 






i 1^5 
1 l^-a 


00 01 , ■ 




s. 




•-I CO 


I" 




g 2 




i^ii^l 


3D lO ^ CO ~^ t* 

3^ CIS ^^ 


5^ 


SB 
M 




f?S§ 




id 


s ^ S 

CO i^ 


g -^ ^ »5 P So 

" # " 8 " 3 


^ « ^ 00 c" »-. 


2- 




CO -^ 


CO (D 


2^ 

-^ CO 


52 


CI? 5? 00 


SJ ^ 00 S" CO 


CD tN «0 »» 

= '- = 3 ■■^ SS 


<o 

==5 


1 










00 oT 00 

^ ^ w e>i 


ST oj ^ ^ ^ 


^^ ^H ^-v !D .'^ 
CD 00 00 -H ©* 

"^ = 3=-S 




pi 


00 


-^ 00 
CO* 


gS 

CO 


as 


1 1 -* 




SR Si5 C 


5 


COtH 




S?R 


10 


s?S 


3 « S ■==■ 


«S *3 •S' Q4 ^ t* 


lO 00 lo (N ^ 00 


<?« 


oi 


CO 


^ 


lO 


1 s 


12 SJ '=^ 
00 --1 


- 3 g 


:§ 


fflS 


00 


CO 


CO 


= 8 

id 


^^/^JS 




P ^ CO P '^ 

" 3"§8 


Q OS 


1.9 & 

oppq 


g^ 

^ 2 


CO 


,^ CO 

CO --I 


gS 

id 


S «, ^ ■^ 


S? d S? ■** CO CD 


g OS g CO g 0« 

"•^ 3 "SS 






a 

01 

> 


S3 




B 

■a 




6 ° 
a i 




1 ^ I 

S f g 
a S 1 
i 1 1 

M; £ 

9 ^gS 


? a s 

> ,1, 3 -o 

= s a .9 
a S g .2 


1 
g 

.9 



HEDLlfKA] 



PHYSICAL, ANTHROPOLOGY 



289 



"ior-TOaoccio»i>-«*»or-<ot-oat-'*aodooc>l«oft5Tp«D-!P«5~* eot^ 



^-^O^-'Oi^'O'-' ^^ 



.«_ -lO- Cl'._,firs*^iO^-'CCl'— '"«" 



^i 


t^ CO 


r- 


S 


f^ -♦ fT" (-. 


t^ 


3 


t^ 


^ 


P t- 


f:- 


s 


P 


S 


^T" *^ f^ lo 


R 


s 


P « 


©S 


oJ 




g 


C 55 




CO 




-«< 


^ 




>o 




M 


8 "= 




<d 


5 


" rf 


§s 


s s 


tc 


iC 




iH" 


g 


to 


§ 


i?co 


£■ 


n 


S" 


« 


s-^as 


a 


(N 


C 00 


PS 


w oi 


^^ 


o 




^ 


m. 


"■^ 


CO 


-§g 


'^^ 


.d 


■^ 


N 


wri w« 


'^ 


<d 


-8 


rf 


ES 


SS 


w? 


s 


S- w <? 


W3 


g 


S" 


s 


»« 


S" 


3 


io 


?5 


i? »3 S" I^ 


c? 


H 


Q 


5?S 


g 


a> 




ci 


§ S 




CQ 




m 


a 




O 




ca 


"' w ^ O 




<ti 


S 


" m 



Oi Oil « 



I 05 oj to o 
; -^ CO 



« Tp 10 ca *c 



lOO^OP^^Q*Q•o-*»ocow^to■^GO■*t--<^^o■-^c^ 



© w »o N i 
S. ,-i S. «: ■ 



<0 C0«CC0OS0Oi(D-^(C05to^MSi 

*— — — — — "*■ «i "^ „• t^ 



I wi Oi M oa 



'®^^S'^*^"^"'^'^^^2'~^'°^^" 



■ ^ ^-^ iC ^^ (O ^^ c 









*-N o> --^ « ,-^ ^ 

^ CO op « iO "O 
'-^ O ^- Oi >— • O 



:S 



, M — . 01 . 



cOCCO'ao®l05'05^cOOi--»iCU2iO-^U5tDMOl 



■ (O ^-' <o « 



s 


CO 


§ 


S 


g 


^ 


S 




S 




So 


S 


00 


s 


00 


-, 


S 


g 


S 


S 


^ 


5s 


§ 


s 


s 


s 


OS ^ 


g 
















S 




lO 


^ 




-- 


Tl' 


■2- 


!^ 




















s 


CO 








--> 




--. 














































1-1 


r- 


IM 


S 


M 


"* 


■>-. 


•C 


W 




M 


* 


(N 





-». 


Q> 


N 


.0 


tN 


^ 


«i 


Oi c? 


•o 


'— « 


00 


■■— 


CO a 


00 




a 




















ftS 




■» 












N- 










ui 




~f 


CO 



























































3 


N 


s? 


S" 


*« 


s 




^ 


s 


CJ 


g 




'■' 




" 


s 


^ 


•« 


" 




■^ 


CO 



^ lO ^-' CJ • 



PS 




^ 




^ 
















OS 








s 










s 




s 


































































































5" 






























































« CO 


S^ 


s 


rn 


^ 


p 




^ 


•<^ 


m 


^ 


^ 


s 


^ 


0-, 


TO 


S:; 


(^ 


s 


^ 


00 CO 


^ 


1^ 


s 


^ 


QO C? M 


























































rb 








on 




On 




r^ 








cr, 












wi 


m 


























»Q 




































ss 


S" 


s 


«? 


s 


"S 


g 


^ 


is 


S" 


s 


*o 


8 


>S" 


eo 


s 


g 


U5 


CO 


I? 


S" 


g 


5? 


s 


^ 


iQ ^ a5 







Oi 

















CO 




'^ 




8 




ui 




pa 




^ 


10 









*S CO 
QO 


Po 


- 


OS 


^ 


00 


c 


»o 


Q 




■;:j 




^ 


s 


c 


to 


^ 


(^ 


s- 


g 


^ 


t>. 'Ch 


^ 


;3 


OS 


Q 


^^S 


rt 








ci 
























« 




« 




5 


« 




CD 




S* "" " 




















































w" -* 


CO 


lO 


« 


CO 


^ 


Kl 


S? 


»<5 


CO 


S 


CO 


s 


s? 


^ 


CO 


!S 


CO 


^ 


^ 


0* CO 


CO 


p? 




s? 


to CO 


^ 




OS 









g 




§ 




CO 




■* 




ss 




U5 




c^ 




^ 


«o 




r- 




fe " 



D. 

•a 



^ a a 

•BO o 

■f 1 S 
3 



« fe < s 



2 S Q W s) 



J m fl 



290 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



W 






Is 


-*^ 


H 


a 


H 


o 


m 


r ) 


->: 


1 


W 


< 





;? 




< 


•t; 


tf 


(B 


o 


M 






02 



O 









^. lO ^^ O 


^^ o .^ oc 




*-> ^^ O --V O — s to 
























^1 


























<! 




1-1 l-l 




s <- ■=<> 




^ "3 


H 




O" 






^ 






















1 
















C *j 


to S CD I^ 


£■ ca to 38 


1 I S" OS S" ift 








































^ o 


.-. ^ 














COh 












:< 














ill 

3g02 


pspf: 


pgfTS 


S" C fT 


fzr -^ I I ffi" CO t^ o 


: IS- 
















« 










,^ 


























S ■^ S ' 8^ S ^ 






^•^^ 




s ^ s «: 


S %1-g '•i 


g=^8°^ 


















^^1 






w„ w^,-^« 




































• 












, Jj 


to r- (O « 


to o S" t^ 


*D <0 "O ^ 


^^COOcO'-'iO^ 


»5 ■*» Bo *^ 




"5 '"'id 


"^ r^ "" « 






fe S ■- 3 


■^ r^ ^ -4 




"si 
















'"' 








ii-- 


00 r~ 00 <o 


00 o So" <jO 


00 00 OO 00 »* 


^QOS'OOSD-^J'S'CS 


«i <C «3 




-— • t- ^-' M 


-— • CO --^ "* 


-g-s^s 


-g--=;-'--a 


-§-§ 




Wl2 






^ 








03 














,- c ^a 


CO 00 re 
























Pilo 
Statio 

lowe 
Yuko 


















■* 

^ 




CC ■§ 
















a 


M 3 S I- S 




s sg^ 






























D 


Del 

(Kas 

nok) 

low 

Yuk 












^ 
















^ CS ^ o 


^s^s 










ft& 






~-*'^l«00Mcofeo 


«*-*«»(>- 




r-* "" rt 


"^ w "^ ^ 


CD o6 -; 




" o6 " ~t 
















on 














w 






■"" 








S'o 


r^ ^ t^ f^ 


3 r^ (O S 


^ ?r t^ ?o »-< 


•©OlOeC-f-Hu^cO 


S' =5« 




S a 


■^ I::; '^ S2 




-s-s^s 


wg^„„„^rf 


"fe-S 




"S-S 














ZS 






— 










,-, OJ ^-N lO 


^~. lO --> O 

o ^ o * 




^-v ^-, c-1 ,^ t^ ^-, r~ 








s g ^. g t 


g "rs ^ ^ "^ 3 ^ 


«ss:t 




•SS 

3 






^l^g-'Sg 






1-1 f-H 










^" 






^ 










.^ I- ^-^ M 


SSSS 










2 




































g 






J^ 00 cc 








S 






rt- 










,-^ r- y-^ r^ 




S" c ts. cr 








^ 


t;;^ •-< t^ T^ 


(^ 00 t^ r- 




OS — . -^ <» 


t- Tf 


M -tfl 


»0 ©} ©J 


o ri i^ CO 


<^ Ka 




o 






CO 






f^ 






'"' 








03 « 


fJS?3 S 






^ . . ^ o ^ o 






Jig 










t>: ^-o 




« "to oj 




1 > CO 






























Sg 






^- 








pa. 






















I 1 SP d > 














: J -a o 1 














^ CI X3 1 




























index 

on hei 

Qt-nasi 
zygom 


1 a 

2 3 










I I *< 










1 "O 








I S 


. I la 


J3 s§ o 3 ; 


aj CD 






s •s 


\ 3 

J ? 
■a e 


y 

eight 


ight-breadt 
ce: 
Menton-n 

Alveolar p 
Diameter 


al inc 
ialind 






ult; 
Len 

Bre 


W 5 


1 1 ° 










> 


o 


u o 2 


t2(S 





hrdliOka] 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 



291 



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292 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 





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HRDLU'^KA] 



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 



293 



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294 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ANN. 46 

SKULLS OF ESKIMO CHH^DREN 

A special effort in our work has been made to secure well-pre- 
served skulls of children. As elsewhere, so among the Eskimo, more 
children die than adults, but conditions are not favorable for the 
preservation of their skeletal remains. Most of the bones are done 
away with or damaged by animals (foxes, dogs, mice, etc.), while 
others decay, so that generally nothing remains of the youngest 
subjects and but a few bones and a rare skull of the older children. 
The total number of such skulls in our collection now reaches 25. 
They are all of children of more than 2 but mostly less than 6 years 
old, and are all normal specimens. The principal measurements of 
their vault — a study of the face is a subject apart and needing more 
material — are given in the following tables. 



HRDLIOKA] 



SKULLS OF ESKIMO CHILDREN 



295 





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296 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



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hkdliCka] 



SKULLS OF ESKIMO CHILDREN 



297 



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298 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[BTH. ANN. 46 



The main interest centers in the comparison of the relative pro- 
portions of these skulls with those of the adults from the same locali- 
ties. These comparisons, given in the smaller table, are of consider- 
able interest. 

The cranial index is considerably higher in the children. On 
analysis this is found to be due almost wholly to a greater relative 
breadth of the child's skull. During later growth the Eskimo 
cranium advances materially more in length than in breadth. A 
further expansion in breadth is evidently hindered by some factor 
outside of the bones themselves, for nothing appears in these that 
could constitute such a hindrance. And the only evident outside fac- 
tor capable of producing such an effect are the strong pads of the 
temporal muscles. 

The mean height index ( ^ j i p ) remains much the same 

° \mean of L + B / 

in the children and adults, indicating that the relative increase dur- 
ing growth in skull length compensates for the lagging increase in 
breadth, while the proportion of the height to the mean of the length 
and breadth remains fairly stable. 

The much greater growth in length than in breadth of the Eskimo 
skull from childhood onward is shown even better in the second part 
of the table by a dii'ect comparison of the mean dimensions. The 
length of the adult skull is by over 9 per cent, the breadth by less 
than 4 per cent, greater than that in childhood in the same groups. 

The adult Eskimo skull has also grown very perceptibly more in 
height than in breadth, though somewhat less so than in length. The 
result is a notably higher height-breadth index in the adult. Com- 
pared to that in childhood the adult Eskimo skull is therefore rela- 
tively markedly longer, higher, and narrower. 

These facts are probably of more significance than might seem at 
first glance; for it is precisely by the same characters, carried still 
further, that some of the Eskimo differ from others. Let us com- 
pare two of our largest and best groups, those of St. Lawrence Island 
and Greenland : 





Number 

of skulls 

(both 

sexes) 


SkuU 
length 


Breadth 


Height 


St. Lawrence IslEnd _ 


(293) 
(101) 


1&05 
18.51 


13.90 
13.30 


13.45 


Greenland - 


13.54 







The Greenland skull is longer, narrower, and somewhat higher. 
The differences are less than those between a child and an adult 



hkdlicka] the lower jaw 299 

western Eskimo, but of the same nature. This apparently speaks 
strongly for the development of the Greenland type of Eskimo 
cranium from the western. On the other hand, the type of skull 
shown by the Eskimo child approaches much more closely than that 
of the Eskimo adult to the type of the skull of (Jie Mongol. 

The above are mere observations, not theories, and they carry 
a strong indication that mostly we are still floundering only on the 
borders of true anthropology, embracing all phases of life and devel- 
opment, which, if mastered, would give us with beautiful definition 
many now vainly sought or barely glimpsed solutions. 

A highly interesting feature is the relatively great development 
in the Eskimo, between childhood and the adult stage, of the anterior 
half of the skull or basion-nasion dimension. This augments, it is 
seen, by even 3.4 per cent more than the length. This growth must 
involve some additional factor to those inherent in the bones them- 
selves and in the attached mu.sculature, and this can only be, it seems, 
the development of the anterior half of the brain. Evidently this 
portion of the brain between childhood and adult life grows in the 
Eskimo more rapidly than that behind the vertical plane correspond- 
ing to the basion. It is a very suggestive condition calling for fur- 
ther study, and thus far almost entirely wanting in comparative data 
on other human as well as subhuman groups. 

THE LOWER JAW 

The lower jaw of the Eskimo deserves a thorough separate study. 
For this purpose, however, more jaws in good condition are needed 
from various localities, and particularly more jaws accompanying 
their skulls. As it is, a large majority of the crania are without the 
lower jaw, or the alveolar processes of the latter have become so 
affected in life through age and loss of teeth that their value is dimin- 
ished or lost. Still another serious difficulty is that the measuring of 
the lower jaw is difficult and has not as yet been regulated by general 
agreement, so that there is much individualism of procedures with 
limited i^ossibilities of comparison. 

One of the principal measurements taken on the available Eskimo 
mandibles was the symphyseal height. This is taken by the sliding 
calipers and is the height from the lower alveolar point (highest 
point of the normal alveolar septum between the middle lower in- 
cisors) to the lowest point on the inferior border of the chin in the 
median line.^* The results are given in the following tables. 

" Shonid there be a decided notch in the middle, as happens in rare specimens, it Is 
rational to take the measurement to the side of the notch. 



300 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SUBVEY IN ALASKA 

Eskimo Lower Jaw : Height at Symphysis 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



Male 



South- 
western 
and mid- 
western 



North- 
western 



Northern 

and 
eastern 



Female 



South- 
western 
and mid- 
western 



North- 
western 



Northern 

and 

eastern 



Groups (main) 

Specimens 

Average 

General mean in west- 
ern Eskimo 

Percental relation of 
female to male 
(M = 100) 



(9) 
(116) 
3.75 



(5) 
(143) 
3. 76 



(5) 
(40) 
3.67 



(9) 
(121) 
3.38 



(5) 
(134) 
3.34 



(5) 
(25) 
3.39 



3.76 



3.36 



89.4 



Males, 
19 groups 
(399 jaws) 



Females, 
19 groups 
(280 jaws) 



General mean for all Eskimo (approximate) 

Percental relation of female to the male 

General mean of total facial height 

Percental relation of height of jaw to total facial height - . 

General mean of upper facial height 

Percental relation of height of jaw to upper facial height. 



3.73 




3.37 

90.4 
11.60 
29 

7.20 

47 



Just what these figures mean will best be shown by a table of com- 
parisons.^' All these are my own measurements. 

Lower Jaw of Various Races: Height at Symphysis 



Eskimo (all) 

North American Indians: 

Sioux ,. 

Arkansas 

Florida 

Munsee 

Louisiana 

Kentucky 

" From my Phys. Anthr. of the Lenape, etc., the Anthropology of 



Male 


Female 


(399) 


(280) 


3.73 


3.37 


(36) 


(26) 


3.60 


3. 22 


(52) 


(50) 


3. 66 


3.24 


(29) 


(21) 


3.69 


3.38 


(9) 


(6) 


3. 70 


3.40 


(15) 


(14) 


3.72 


3. 29 


(44) 


(30) 


3.49 


3. 18 



Female ver- 
sus male 
(M = 100) 



90.4 

89.4 
88.5 
91.4 
91.9 

88.4 

91.1 

Florida, and the Catalogue of Crania. 



hedliCka] • THE LOWER JAW 301 

Lower Jaw of Various Races: Height at Symphysis — Continued 



Female ver- 
sus male 
(M = 100) 



U. S. whites (miscellaneous) 

Negro, full-blood, African and American 
Australians 



Male 


Female 


(50) 


(30) 


3.29 


2.87 


(41) 


(8) 


3. 54 


.3.14 


(261) 


(191) 


3. 44 


3.07 



87. 2 

^ SS. 7 

89. 2 



' Approximately. 

The table shows the Eskimo jaw to be absolutely the highest at 
the symphysis of all those available for comparison, with the female 
nearly the highest.^'' Relatively to stature it exceeds decidedly all 
the groups, the Indians that come nearest matching it in the abso- 
lute measurement being all much taller than the Eskimo. And the 
female Eskimo jaw is relatively high compared with that of the 
male, being exceeded in this resjject only in three of the Indian 
groups, in two of which, however, the showing is due wholly and 
in one partly to a lesser height of the male jaw. The relative excess 
of the female jaw in this respect seems particularly marked in the 
northern and northeastern groups, though it must remain subject 
to corroboration by further material. 

The white, Negro, and Australian data have an interest of their 
own. 

Strength of the Jaw 

The Eskimo jaw is generally stout. Barring rare exceptions there 
is nothing slender about it. The body, moreover, is frequently 
strengthened by more or less marked overgrowths of bone lingually 
below the alveoli and above the mylohyoid ridge. These neoforma- 
tions will be discussed later. 

The strength of the mandible may be measured directly in various 
locations on the body. Due to the peculiar build of the body, how- 
ever, and especially to its variations, these measurements are by no 
means simple and wholly satisfactory. It is hardly necessary in this 
connection to review the various attempted methods, none of which 
has become standardized. As a result of experience I prefer since 
many years to measure the thickness of the body of the jaw at the 

^° Rudolf Virchow, as far back as 1870, in studying some mandibles of the Greenland 
Eskimo, found that the height of the body in the middle (3.5 centimeters) was greater 
than that of the lower jaws of any other racial group available to him for comparison. 
Archiv. fiir Anthrop., it, p. 77, Braunschweig, 1870. 



302 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



.second molars, and that in such a way that either the molars, if the 
measurement is taken from above, or the lower border of the jaw if 
it is taken from below, lies midway between the two branches of 
the sliding calipers with which the measurement is taken. The two 
methods (from above or below) give results that are nearly alike. 
In some cases the one and in others the other is the easier, but 
wherever the teeth are lost the measurement from below is perhaps 
preferable. The records obtained on the lower jaws of the western 
Eskimo and other racial groups are given in the next table. 

Thickness op the Body of the Loweb Jaw at the Second Molaes in the 
Western Eskimo and Othek Gboups 





Male 


Female 


Female 












versus male 




Right side 


Left side 


Right side 


Left side 


(M = 100) 




(240) 


(243) 




Western Eskimo millimeters - _ 


16. 2 16. 3 


15. 1 15. 1 


92.9 




(29) 


(28) 




Florida Indians do 


16.6 


15.5 


93.4 




(21) 


(16) 




Louisiana Indians do 


16.3 


15. 3 


93.9 




(58) 


(47) 




Arkansas Indians do 


15.2 


14.7 


96. 7 




(40) 


(22) 




Kentucky Indians do 


14 7 


14.2 


96.6 




(50) 


(20) 




American whites (misc.). -do 


14.5 


12.8 


88.3 



The figures show that the Eskimo jaw is very stout. It is ex- 
ceeded in thickness only by the jaws of Florida, which in general 
are the thickest in America, and in males is about equaled, in females 
very slightly exceeded by those of the prehistoric Indians of Loui- 
siana, who belong to the same Gulf type with the Indians of Florida. 
The old Arkansas Indians, though closely related to those of 
Louisiana, show a very perceptibly more slender jaw, particularly 
in the males; while in an old Kentucky tribe (Green Kiver, C. B. 
Moore, collector) the jaws are still less strong. The lower jaws of 
the American whites (dissecting-room material) are slightly less 
stout than even those of the Indians of Kentucky in the males, and 
much less so in the females. The interesting sex differences are 
shown well in the last column of the above table. 



hedliCka] 



THE LOWER JAW 



Breadth of the Rami 



303 



Still another character that reflects the strength of the lower jaw 
is the breadth of the rami. The most practicable measurement of 
this is the breadth minimum at the constriction of the ascending 
branches. A great breadth of the rami is very striking, as is well 
known, in the Heidelberg jaw, and the Eskimo have long been known 
for a marked tendency in the same direction. The measurements of 
the lower jaws of the western Eskimo show as follows : 



LowEB Jaws of the Western Eskimo and Othee Raciai, Groups : Breadth 

MiNIMtTM OF THE ASCENDING BRANCHES 





Male 


Female 














Female 












versus male 




Right 


Lett 


Right 


Left 


(M = 100) 




(243) 


(240) 


(237) 


(228) 




Western Eskimo... centimeters. _ 


3. 99 


4.03 


3. 68 


3. 70 


92 




(20) 


(20) 


(13) 


(13) 




Florida Indians do 


3.82 


3.85 


3.39 


3.34 


87. 7 




(21) 


(19) 


(19) 


(16) 




Louisiana Indians do 


3.72 


3.72 


3.29 


3.27 


88.2 




(62) 


(60) 


(58) 


(61) 




Arkansas Indians do 


3.47 


3. 47 


3.24 


3.23 


93.2 




(42) 


(40) 


(30) 


(29) 




Kentucky Indians do 


3. 44 


3. 44 


3. 18 


3.21 


92.9 




(50) 


(50) 


(20) 


(20) 




United States whites (miscella- 












neous) centimeters, _ 


3. 17 


3. 14 


2.89 


2.82 


90.5 



The Eskimo jaws, and particularly that of the female (relatively 
to other females), have the broadest rami. Otherwise the series 
range themselves in the same order as under the measurement of the 
stoutness of the body. 

Other Dimensions 

Four other measurements were taken on the jaws, namely the 
length of the body (on each side) ; the height of the two rami; the 
bigonial diameter; and the body-ramus angle. The results of the 
first three may conveniently be grouped into one table. 



304 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



Additional Measurements on the Lower Jaw 

MALE 





Length of body, 
each side > 


Length of 

body as a 

whole ^ 


Height of ramus ^ 


Diameter 
bigonial * 




Eight 


Left 


Right 


Left 




Western Eskimo 

Florida Indian _ 


(236) (236) 
10. 28 10. 28 


(100) 
8.03 

(24) 
8.45 

(19) 
8.44 

(62) 
7.88 

(42) 
7.45 

(50) 
7.57 


(132) (131) 
6. 45 6. 38 

(18) 

6.72 

(15) 

7 

(52) 

6.52 

(37) 

6.48 

(50) 

6. 53 


(201) 

11. 42 

(22) 

10. 75 


Louisiana Indian 




(17) 
10.67 






(57) 
10.49 






(38) 
10. 48 






(50) 
10. 11 













FEMALE 



Western Eskimo 

Florida Indian 

Louisiana I ndian 

Arkansas Indian 

Kentucky Indian 

U. S. whites (miscellaneous) . 



(230) 
9.61 



(228) 
9.60 



(100) 
7.47 

(19) 
7.72 

(16) 
7.38 

(57) 
7.46 

(30) 
7. 12 

(20) 
7.02 



(134) 
5.61 



(128) 
5.57 



(18) 
6.02 
(15) 
5.77 
(52) 
5.85 
(25) 
5.64 
(20) 
5.87 



(199) 
10. 57 

(17) 
9.70 

(15) 
9.90 

(56) 
9.58 

(30) 
9. 45 

(20) 
9. 12 



1 Sliding calipers : Separate measurement of each half of the body, from the lowe-st point 
on the posterior border of each ramus not affected by the angle to a point of corresponding 
height on the line of the symphysis. The anterior point may, in consequence of a lower 
or higher location of the posterior point, range from the chin to above the middle of the 
symphysis, but the results are much alike. The measurement leaves much to be desired, 
but is the best possible if the two halves of the body are to be measured separately. 

= The length of the whole jaw is measured on Broca's mandibular goniometer, by laying 
the jaw firmly on the board, applying the movable plane to both rami, and recording the 
distance of the most anterior point of the chin from the base of the oblique plane. This 
measurement is easier than the previous, though on account of the variation in the angles 
and the lower part of the posterior border of the rami it is also not fully satisfactory, and 
it does not show the differences in the two halves of the body. 

' Sliding calipers : One branch applied so that it touches the highest points on both the 
condyle and the coronoid, while the other is applied to the lowest point of the ramus 
anterior to the angle, if the bone here is prominent ; if receding, the branch of the compass 
is applied to the midpoint on the lower border of the ramus. 

' Sliding calipers : Maximum external diameter at the angles ; the maximum points may, 
exceptionally, be either anterior to or a little above the angle proper. 



nnDLiOKA] 



the lower jaw 
Females to Males (M = 100) 



305 





Length 
each side 


Length as 
a whole 


Height of 
rami 


Diameter 
bigonial 


Western Eskimo 


93. i 


93.0 
91.4 
87.4 
94.6 
95.6 
92. 7 


87.3 
89.6 
82.4 
89. 7 
87.0 
89.9 


92. 6 


Florida Indian 


90. 2 


Louisiana Indian 




92.8 


Arkansas Indian . 




91.3 


Kentucky Indian- _._ _ . 




90. 2 


U. S. whites (miscellaneous) 




90. 2 









The Eskimo lower jaw, which, as seen before, is characterized by 
a high and stout body and the broadest rami, shows further that 
these rami are remarkably low, and that the bigonial spread is 
extraordinarily broad. The length of the body, on the other hand, 
is not very exceptional, being perceptibly exceeded in some of the 
Indians. 

The Angle 

The angle between the body and the ramus of the lower jaw is 
known to differ with the age and sex as well as individually. Not 
seldom it differs also, and that sometimes quite apj^reciably, on the 
two sides. Racial differences are as yet uncertain. 

The angle, es^Jecially in some specimens, is not easy to measure, 
and the position of the jaw may make a difference of several degrees. 
Numerous trials have shown that the proper way is to measure the 
angle on the two sides separately, and to so place the jaw in each 
case that there is no interference with the measurement by either 
the posterior or the anterior enlarged end of the condyle. 

Leaving out jaws in which extensive loss of teeth has in all 
probability resulted in changes in the angle, the western Eskimo 
material gives the following data : 

Western Eskimo: Angle of the Lower Jaw 



Right side. 



Male Female 



(224) 
119. 6° 



(217) 
124. 5° 



Left side- 



Male 



(218) 
119. 5° 



Female 



(207) 
124.3° 



In the male Munsee Indians the angle was 118° ; in those of 
Arkansas and Louisiana, 118.5° ; in those of Peru (Martin, Lehrb., 
884), 119°. In the whites, males, the average angle approximates 
122° ; in the Negro, 121° (Topinard, Martin). 



306 ANTHKOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. la 

The angle in the female in the Eskimo is to that of the male as 
104 to 100; in the Arkansas and Louisiana series it was 103. In 
the whites the proportion seems to be a little higher. 

There are evidently, if we exclude the whites in whom the short- 
ness of the jaw conduces probably to a wider angle, no marked racial 
differences, but the subject needs a more thorough study on large 
series of sexually well-identified specimens, carefully selected as 
to age. 

The average angle on the right differs in the Eskimo but very 
slightly from that on the left, though individually there are fre- 
quent unequalities. 

Eestjme 

The Eskimo lower jaw differs substantially in many respects from 
that in other races, particularly from that of the whites. It is char- 
acterized by a high and stout body ; by broad but low rami ; and by 
excessive breadth at the angles. The body-ramus angle is moderate. 
To which may be added that the chin is generally of but moderate 
jjrominence, and that the bone at the angles in males is occasionally 
markedly everted. 

Mandibular Htpeeostoses 

These hypertrophies or hyperostoses are rarely met with also in the 
jaws of the Indian and other people. They are symmetric and 
characteristic, though often more or less irregular. They generally 
extend from the vicinity of the lateral incisors or the canines back- 
ward, forming when more developed a marked bulge on each side 
opposite the bicuspids, which gives the inner contour of the jaw 
when looked at from above a peculiar elephantine appearance. 
They may occur in the form of smooth, oblong, somewhat fusiform 
swellings, or as a continuous more or less uneven ridge, or may be rep- 
resented by from one to four or five more or less rounded or flat- 
tened hard " buttons " or tumor-like elevations. In development 
they range from slight to very marked. 

These hyperostoses have been reported by various observers (Dan- 
ielli, S0ren Hansen, Rudolf Virchow, Welcker, Duckworth & Pain, 
Oetteking, Hrdlicka, Hawkes). They received due attention by 
Fiirst and Hansen in their "Crania Groenlandica " (p. 178). They 
have been given the convenient, though both etiologically and mor- 
^jhologically inaccurate, name of " mandibular torus " ; I think man- 
dibular hyperostoses or simply welts would be better. Fiirst and 
Hansen found them, taking all grades of development, in 182, or 85 
per cent, of 215 lower jaws of Greenland Eskimo; in 28 jaws, or 13 
per cent, they were pronounced, the remainder being slight to me- 
dium. A special examination of 62 lower jaws of children and 710 



HKDLIl'KA] 



THE LOWER JAW 



307 



lower jaws of adult western Eskimo (with a small number from 
Greenland) gives the following record: 

Lingual Mandibular Hyperostoses in the Western Eskimo 

children 

[62 mandibles, completion of milk dentition to eruption of second permanent molar] 



None or in^ 
distinguish- 
able 



Slight to 
moderate 



Specimens. 
Per cent 



47 
75. S 



1 10 
16. 1 



8. 1 



ADULTS 
[Both sexes. 710 mandibles] 



Specimens - 
Per cent 



215 


356 


114 


30.3 


50. 1 


16. 1 



25 

3. 5 



' None in the younger children. ' All in older children or adolescents. 

ADULTS 

[Sexes separately. M. 350; F. 360 mandibles] 





None or indis- 
tinguishable 


Slight to moder- 
ate 


Medium 


Pronounced 




Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Specimens.- _ .. 


71 

ao. 3 


144 
40.0 


193 

55. 1 


163 

45. 3 


67 

19. 1 


47 
IS. 1 


19 

5.4 


6 


Per cent . - _ 


1. 7 







The significance of these hyperostoses is not yet quite clear. 
Danielli, who in 1884 reported them " in the Ostiaks, Lapps, a 
Kirghiz, a Peruvian Indian, and four white skulls, offered no ex- 
planation. For S0ren Hansen,'* who first suggested the resemblance 
of these formations to the torus palatinus, "the significance of this 
feature, wliicli also occurs in other Arctic races not directly related 
to the Eskimos, is not clear." R. Virchow,'^ who reports " wulstigen 
und knolligen Hyperostosen " on both the upper and lower jaws of 
a Vancouver Island Indian, restricts himself to a brief mention of tlie 
condition with a suggestion as to its causation (see later). Welcker -" 
found them in the skulls of a German (Schiller?), Lett, and a 
Chinese, but has nothing to say as to tlieir meaning. Duckwortii 

" Danielli, J., Arch. p. I'antrop. e I'etni.l., 1S8 1, xiv. 
"Meddel. om. Gr0nl., 18S7, No. 17. 

"' Beitr. Kranicl. d. Insul. w. Kiiste Am.-r.. 18SD, 398. 
'"Arch. Anthrop.. 1902. .\xvii, 70. 



308 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. anx. 46 

and Pain -^ report the " thickening " in 10 out of 32 Eskimo jaws, 
but do not discuss the causation ; and the same applies to Oetteking,-- 
who reported on a series of Eskimo from Labrador. In 1909 
Gorjanovic-Kramberger -^ somewhat indirectly notes the condition, 
without a true api^reciation of its meaning. 

In 1910 I had the opportunity to report on the mandibular hyper- 
ostoses in a rare collection of crania and lower jaws of the central 
and Smith Sound Eskimo." Of 25 lower jaws of adults and 5 of 
children, 18, or 72 per cent, of the former and 2 of the latter showed 
distinct to marked lingual hyperostoses, while in the remaining cases 
the feature was either doubtful (absorption of the alveolar process) 
or absent. Two of the five children showed the peculiarity in a 
well-marked degree. A critical consideration of the condition leads 
me to the conclusion that it is not jDathological, and my remarks 
were worded {p. 211) as follows: "A marked and general feature 
is a pronounced bony reinforcement of the alveolar arch extending 
above the mylohyoid line from the canines or first bicusjDids to or 
near the last molars. This physiological hy23erostosis presents more 
or less irregular surface and is undoubtedly of functional origin, the 
result of extraordinary pressure along the line of teeth most con- 
cerned in chewing ; yet its occurrence in infant skulls indicates that 
at least to some extent the feature is already hereditary in these 
Eskimo." 

In 1912, Kajava -' reported lingual hyperostotic thickenings on the 
lower jaws of 68 adult Lapps, and found the condition in frequent 
association with pronounced wear of the teeth. In 1915, finally, 
Fiirst and C. C. Hansen, in their great volume on " Crania Groen- 
landica," approach this question much more thoroughly. They, as 
also Kajava, did not know the writer's report of 1910. They found 
the " torus " (p. 181) , '' also in the mandibles of some various Siberian 
races in a not insignificant percentage * * * and also not in- 
frequently among European races, especially in the Laplanders 
(30 to 35 per cent)." They also report the presence of the condi- 
tion " in a Chinaman," and saw indications of a good development 
of it in 17 per cent of 164 middle ages to prehistoric, and in 12 per 
cent of later Scandinavian lower jaws. Their interesting comments 
on its possible causation, though at one point seemingly not har- 
monizing, are as follows (p. 180) : " The possibility is not precluded 
that we have here a formation which, even though it has at first 
arisen and been acquired through mechanical causes, has in the end 

^ J. Anthr. Inst.. 1900, xsx, 134. 

" Abh. und Ber. Zool. und Anthr. Mus., Dresdin, 190S, xii. 

-'' Sitzber. preuss. Ak. Wis.^i., Li-Liii. 

" .\nthrop. Pap's. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., v, pt. ii. 

~ Verb. Ges. Finn. Zahnarzte, 1912, ix. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 61 




Western Eskimo and Aleut (Middle) Lower Jaws, Showing Lingual 
Hyperostoses. iU.S.N.M.) 



HRDLICKA] THE LOWER JAW 309 

become a racial character, albeit a variable one." And page 181 : 
" There seems to be no doubt whatever that it is a formation connected 
with Arctic races or Arctic conditions of life ; and, accordingly, it can 
not safely be assumed to be a racial character, however difficult it is 
to regard it as a formation only acquired individually." 

With both the previously published and the present data, I believe 
the subject of these bony formations may now be approached with 
some hope of definite conclusions. 

These hyperostoses give no indication of being pathological. They 
are formed largely, if not entiiely, by compact bone tissues of evi- 
dently normal construction. They never show a trace of attending 
inflammation or of ulceration or of breaking down. They resemble 
occasionally the osteomae of the vault of the skull, and more dis- 
tantly the osteomae of the auditory meatus, but in those cases 
where the bony swelling is uniform and in many others they show to 
be of quite a different category. (PI. 61.) 

As a rule these bony protuberances in the Eskimo are not con- 
nected with evidence of pyorrhoea, root abscesses, or any other 
pathological condition of the teeth, for those conditions are prac- 
tically absent in the older Eskimo skulls; therefore they can not be 
ascribed to any irritation due to such conditions, and the Eskimo 
have no habits that could possibly be imagined asi favoring, through 
mechanical irritation, the development of these bony swellings. 
AVear of the teeth, which has been thought to stand possibly in a 
causative relation to these developments, is common in many races 
and even in animals (primates, etc.), without being accompanied 
by any such formations. . 

The development of such overgrowths is not wholly limited, as 
already indicated from the cases reported by Danielli (1884) and 
Virchow (1889), to the lower jaw, but somewhat similar growths 
may also be observed, though much more rarely, both lingually and 
on the outer border of the alveolar process of the upper jaw in the 
molar region. When present in the latter position they interfere 
with the measurement of the external breadth of the dental arch. 

But, if neither pathological themselves nor due to any pathological 
or mechanical irritation, then these hyperostoses can only be, it would 
seem, of a physiological, ontogenic nature ; and if so, then they must 
be brought about through a definite need and for a definite purpose 
or function. 

These views are supported by their marked symmetry, which is 
very apparent even where they are irregular; by the fact that in 
general they are not found in the weakest jaws (weak individuals), 
or again in the largest and stoutest mandibles (jaws that are strong 
enough as it is) ; and by the history of their development. 



310 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SUKVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ANN. 46 

Our rather extensive present data on children show that these 
formations are absent in infancy. They begin to develop in older 
childhood, in adolescence, or even during the earlier adult life ; they 
stop developing at different stages in different individuals, and they 
never lead to any deformity of the body of the mandible. 

These overgrowths are further seen to be more common and to more 
frequently reach a pronounced development in the males than in the 
females. 

What is the effect of these hyperostoses? They strengthen the 
dental arch. With them the arch is stronger ; without them it would 
be weaker. The view is therefore justified that they augment the 
effectiveness of the dental arch; which is just what is needed or 
would be useful in such people as the Eskimo where the demands on 
the jaws exceed in general those in any other people. 

All these appear to be facts of incontrovertible nature; but if so 
then we are led to practically the same conclusion that I have reached 
in the study of the central and Smith Sound Eskimo, which is that 
the lingual mandibular hyperostoses are physiological formations, 
developed in answer to the needs of the alveolar portions of the 
lower jaw. They could be termed synergetic hyperostoses. 

The process of the development of these strengthening deposits of 
bone is probably still largely individual; yet the tendency toward 
such developments appears to be already hereditary in the Eskimo, 
as indicated by their beginning here and there in childhood. But 
their absence in nearly one-third of the Eskimo mandibles, their 
marked differences of occurrence and development in the two sexes, 
and their occasional presence in the jaws of various other peoples, 
including even the whites, speak against the notion of these hyper- 
ostoses being as yet true racial features. 

Taking everything into consideration, the writer is more than ever 
convinced that the lingual hyperostoses of the normal lower (as well 
as the upper) jaw, in the Eskimo as elsewhere, are physiological, 
ontogenic developments, whose object and function is the strength- 
ening of the lower alveolar process in its lateral portions. Only 
when excessively developed, which is very rare, they may, mechani- 
cally, perhaps cause discomfoi't and thereby approach a pathological 
condition. 

Main References 

Danielli,-^ 1884: "Saw the condition in lower jaws of 1 Swede, 
1 Italian, 1 Terra di Lavoro jaw, 1 Slovene, 1 Hungarian, 1 Kirghis, 
1 ancient Peruvian." 

Found hyperostoses in 9 out of 14 Ostiak lower jaws. 

'" Danielli, Jacopo, Iperostosi in maudibole umano specialmente di Ostlacclii, ed anche 
in mascellari superiore. Archivio per I'antropologia e I'etuologia, 1884, xiv, 333-346. 



HBDLICKA] 



THE LOWKR JAW 311 



Material : Young 2, adult 6, old 6. 

Hyperostoses in young 1, adult 3, old 5. 

Mantegazza. at his request, examined some Ostiak and Eskimo 
skulls in Berlin and found the hyperostoses in 2 Ostiak lower jaws 
(slitrht) and in 1 Eskimo skull from Greenland (marked). 

Found also smaller hyperostoses in the upper jaw ventrully to the 
molars (" situate quasi sempre dalla parte interna in cori-ispondenza 
dei molari ") : 

Skulls: 2 Italians, 1 Hungarian, Y Norwegians, 2 Lapps, 5 Ostiaks. 

Plate shows 8 lower jaws, 1 with slight, 7 with marked hyperostoses 
(1 symphyseal swellings, 3 tumorlike). 

Refrains from interpretation (could not I'each conclusion). 

Virchow,-" 1889, page 392 : In upper jaws of three Santa Barbara 
skulls: "An den Alveolarriindern der weiblichen Schiidel Nr. 3-6 
von S. Barbara besteht eine hcichst eigenthiimliche und seltene, knol- 
lige Hyperostosis s. Osteosclerosis alveolaris, wie ich sie in gleicher 
Starke friiher nur bei Eskimos gesehen hatte. Ein leichter Ansatz 
dazu zeigt sich auch bei dem mannlichen Schadel Nr. 4 von S. Cruz. 
Es diirfte dieser Zustand, der mit tiefer Abnutzung der Ziihne 
zusammenfalt, durch besonders reizende Nahrung bedingt sein." 

Vancouver Island skulls : " dagegen sehen wir dieselbe alveolare 
Hyperostose, die wir bei den Leuten von S. Barbara und weiterhin 
bei Eskimos kennen gelernt haben." 

Virchow,^'* 1892 : " Der Alveolarrand gleichfalls mit hyperosto- 
tischen Wiilsten besetzt, jedoch mehr an der inneren Seite, besonders 
stark in der Gegend per Priimolares und Canini, weniger stark in der 
Gegend der Incisici." 

Welcker.-^ 1902 : " Exostosen der Alveolarriinder. Von erheblicher 
Beweiskraft konnen Eigenthiimlichkeiten und Abnormitaten des 
Knochengewebes under der Knochenoberfliiche werden, wenn diesel- 
ben, bei an sich grosser Seltenheit ihres Vorkommens, an einem Ober- 
schiidel und Unterkiefer zugleich vorkommen. 

" So fand ich am Unterkiefer der Gypsabgiisse des sogenannten 
Schillerschiidels sehr merkwiirdige, bis dahin nirgends erwahnte, 
erbsenformige Exostosen an den Alveolen der Eck- und Schneide- 
ziihne. Ganz iihnliche, wenn auch etwas fliichere Exostosen zeigen 
die Alveolen eben derselben Ziihne des Oberschiidels, und es beweist 
dieses seltene Vorkommen bei dem Zutreffen aller iibrigen Zeichen 
das Zusammengehoren beider Stlicke mit holier Sicherheit. 

^Virchow, R., in Beitriige zur Craniologie der Insulaner von der Westkiiste Nord- 
amerikas. Zeitsclir. f. Ethnol.. Verhandl., 18S9, xxi, 393, 401. 

■' Virchow. R.. Crania Etlinica Americana. Berlin, 1892, Tatel xxiii. A " long-head " 
male adult of Koskimo, Vancouver Island. 

^ Wclckor. IT., Die Zugehiirigkeit eines Unterkiefers zu einem bestimmten Schiidel, 
nebst Untersuchungen iiber sehr auffallige, durch Auftrockuung und Wiederanfeuchtung 
bedingto Groben und Formveranderungen des Knochens. Arch. f. Anthropol., 1902, 
XXVII, 70. 



312 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 48 

" In einer etwas anderen Form, in der dieselben einen geschlos- 
senen, exostotischen Saum bilden, fand ich Alveolarexostosen bei 
einem Lettenschiidel (G. Gandras, 47 J., Halle Nr. 52). Hier sind 
die Alveolarriinder der Schneide-und Eckziihne mit flachen, am 
Oberkiefer streifenformigen (senkrecht gestellten), am Unterkiefer 
mehr rundlichen Exostosen besetzt, so dass der sonst papierdiinne 
Zahnflachenrand beider Kiefer in einen, die Zahnhalse begrenzenden 
wulst-formigen Saum umgewandelt ist. Der gleiche Charalrter 
dieser nicht haufigen Abnormitiit an beiden Kiefern giebt die vollste 
Ueberzeungung der Zusammengehorigkeit. 

" In schwiicherem Grade zeigt diesen Zustand ein Chinesenscliadel 
der Halle'schen Sammlung (Lie Assie)." 

Fiirst,^" 1908 : " Wir haben hier auf diese interessante anatomische 
Bildung aufmerksam machen wollen, die, wenn nicht konstant, doch 
in sehr hohem Prozentsatze und in bestimmter charakteristischer 
Form bei den Eskimos auftritt und in verschiedenen Variationen auf 
dem Unterkiefer anderer Rassen, speziell nordischer oder arktischer, 
vorkommt. — AVir wollen spiiter eine ausfiihrlichere Besehreibung 
iiber den Torus mandibularis mitteilen." 

Gorjanovic-Kramberger,^^ 1909: "Durch die Ausbiegung der seit- 
liehen Kieferflachen wurde ferner die Druckrichtung der M und P 
eine gegen die innere Kieferwandung gerichtete. Als direkte Folge 
dieses Druckes hat man die starke Ausladung der entsprechenden 
lingualen Kieferseiten im Bereiche der P und M anzusehen, die da 
eine auffallende Einengung des inneren Unterkieferraumes bewerk- 
stelligte." 

Hrdlicka (A.), 1910. See text. 

Hansen,^- 1914 : " The lower jaws attached to the skulls are power- 
fully formed, high, and, above all, very thick, their inner surface 
being markedly protruding, rounded, and without any special promi- 
nence of linea mylohyoidea. This peculiarity, which is common 
enough among the Eslvimo and certain Siberian tribes, but is other- 
wise exceedingly rare, must be regarded as a hyperostosis of the 
same nature as the so-called torus palatinus. It is a partly pathologi- 
cal formation due to a peculiar mode of life rather than a true 
morphological mark of race." 

Fiirst, C. M., and Hansen, C. C, 1915. See text. 

=° Fiirst, Carl M.. Demonstration des Torus mandibularis bei don Aslsimos und anderen 
Rassen. Verhandlungen der Anatomischcn Gcsellschaft in Berlin, 1908, Ergiinzbft z. 
Anatom. Anz., 1908, xxxii, 295-296. 

'^ GorjanoTic-Kramberger. K., Der Unterkiefer der Eskimos (Gronlander) als TrSger 
primitiver Merkmale. Sitzungsberichte der kiJniglieli preussischen Akademie der Wissen- 
sehaften, 1909, Li. 

^ Hansen, Spren, Contributions to the anthropology of the East Greenlanders. Med- 
delelser cm Gr0nland, Copenhagen, 1914, xxxix, 169. 



HKDi.irKA] SKELETAL PARTS 313 

Caineron,^^ 1923 : '' In some instances the bony thickening was 
excessive. For example, in mandible XIV H-8 the inward bulging 
of the bone was so mai-ked that the transverse distance between the 
inner surfaces of the body opposite the first molars was reduced to 
21.5 millimeters. This jaw had therefore an extraordinary appear- 
ance when viewed fi-om below. (See fig. 5.) The writer would 
regard these bulgings as bone buttresses built up by nature to resist 
the excessive strain thrown upon tiie alveoli of the molar teeth. He 
exhibited the mandibles to Prof. H. E. Friesell, dean of the dental 
faculty, University of Pittsburgh, and this authority concurred in 
the opinion expressed above." A disagreement with this view is 
expressed by S. G. Ritchie, pages 64c-65c, same publication. 

SKELETAL PARTS OTHER THAN THE SKULL 

The skeletal parts of the western Eskimo, outside of the skull, are 
but little known. The only records are those on two skeletons (one 
male, one female) from Point Barrow by Hawkes,^^ and those on a 
few bones from Port Clarence by Cameron.^" The data on the skele- 
tal parts of the northern and eastern Eskimo are only slightlj' 
richer, being for the most part fragmentary and scattered.^' Nor 
has the time arrived yet for a comprehensive study of such material, 
for notwithstanding the relative abundance in crania and the more 
resistant individual skeletal parts, the securing of anywhere near 
complete skeletons is very difficult. Nevertheless there is now a good 
number of the long bones of the western Eskimo in the possession 
of the National Museum and the main data on these, all secured 
personally by the writer, will be given. They must for the present 
remain essentially as so many figures without adequate discussion and 
comparisons. Nevertheless a few facts appear so plainly that they 
may well be pointed out before concluding this section. 

^ Cameron. Jiihn, The Copper Eskimos. Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition, 
1913-1918. Ottawa, 19L'3, xii, c. 5o. 

^ Amer. .\nthrop., 1916, LViii^ 240-243. 

^ Rep. Canad. Arct. Exp., 1913-1918, Pt. C, 1923, 5G-5T. 

'"Mainly by Turner (London, 1886): Duckworth (Cambridge, 1904); Hrdlifka (New 
York, 1010) ; Cameron (Ottawa, 1913—1918) ; also a series of incidental references and 
comparisons. 

88253°— 30 21 



314 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 
Westebn Eskimo: The Long Bones 



[ETH. ANN. 40 





Males 


Females 










Seward 








Seward 


Bones of both sides taken to- 
gether 


South- 
western 
and 


Seward 
Penin- 
sula ' 


Point 


Penin- 
sula and 
north- 


South- 

we.stern 

and 


Seward 
Penin- 
sula 


Point 


Penin- 
sula and 
north- 




midwes- 


Hope 


western 


midwes- 


llope 


western 




tern 




Eskimo 


tern 




Eskimo 




groups 1 






m gen- 
eral 3 


groups 






in gen- 
eral 


Humeri: 


(143) 


(261) 


(67) 


(100) 


(136) 


(26) 


(55) 


(83) 


Length maximum 


30.69 


31.42 


31.07 


31.17 


28.40 


28.75 


28.83 


28.83 


At middle — 


















Diameter maximum. 


2.40 


2.46 


2.46 


2.46 


2.10 


2.14 


2.16 


2.15 


Diameter minimum,. 


1.80 


1.81 


1.86 


1.85 


1.54 


1.59 


1.63 


1.62 


Index at middle 


76.1 


73. S 


75.8 


76.1 


7S.S 


7H 


76. i 


76.1 


Radii: 


(9S) 


(20) 


(15) 


(37) 


(109) 


(16) 


(8) 


(24) 


Length maximum 


22.90 


23.63 


23.44 


23.50 


20.50 


21.26 


s (21. 58) 


21.25 


Radio-humeral index (ap- 




















716 


75.2 


76. i 


76.4 


7S.2 


74 


(74. 8) 


74 


Femora: 


(195) 
42.50 


(44) 
43.20 


(10) 


(60) 
43.46 


(132) 


(26) 




(31) 


(44.06) 


39.36 


40.12 




40 44 


Humero - femoral index 








7tS 


7S.7 


< (70. S) 


71.7 


72. « 


71.7 




71.S 


At middle- 


















Diameter antero- pos- 


















terior 


3.08 
2 70 


3.17 
2 72 


(3.33) 
(2 68) 


3.21 
2 72 


2 69 
2 46 


2.85 
2.65 




2.88 


Diameter lateral 

Index at middle 

At upper flattening— 




2.56 






(.80. i) 


SJ,.8 


91.5 


89.6 




88.9 














Diameter maximum.. 
Diameter minimum.. 
Index at upper flat- 


3 35 


3 34 


(3. 27) 
(2 58) 


3 32 


3.02 


3.04 




3.06 






2.59 


2.26 


2.37 




2.40 


















75 


77 


(79) 


78./ 


74.6 


78 




78.4 


Tibiae: 


(141) 


(3.5) 


(41) 


(79) 


(147) 


(18) 


(17) 


(36) 


Length (in position) 


33.86 


34.52 


36.40 


35.52 


31.32 


31.90 


32.90 


32.50 


Tibio-femoral index (ap- 




















79 7 


79.9 


'(.ss.e) 


8/. 7 


79.6 


79.6 




80.4 


At middle- 


















Diameter antero-pos- 




















3.12 
2.12 


3.13 
2.12 


3.26 
2.20 


3.19 
2.16 


2.71 
1.89 


2.71 
1.93 


2.80 
1.92 


2.75 


Diameter lateral 


1.92 


Index at middle 


67.9 


67.7 


67.4 


67.8 


69.9 


71. S 


68.8 


70 



1 Principally Hooper Bay, Nunivak Island, Pastolik, and St. Lawrence Island. 
' Mainly Shishmaref, Wales and Golovnin Bay. 
' Including Point Hope. 

* Number of femora insufficient. 

* Number of radii insufficient. 



HRDLICKA] SKELETAL PARTS 315 

Tlie first fact shown by the preceding figures is the slightly greater 
length of all the long bones in the michvestern and northwestern 
groups as compared with those of the Bering Sea (midwestern and 
southwestern). This means naturally that the people of the Seward 
Peninsula and northward average somewhat taller in stature. 

The second evident fact is that the people of the Seward Peninsula 
and the more northern groups (so far as represented in these collec- 
tions) show a slightly greater stature of all the bones than the 
groups farther south, showing that they were both a somewhat taller 
and somewhat sturdier people. 

The next fact of imj^ortance is the remarkable agreement in .some 
respects in the relative proportions of the main skeletal parts be- 
tween the jieople of the more southern and the more northern groups. 
The males are more regular in this respect than the females. The 
relative proportions of the humerus and again the tibia at their 
middle are identical in the males of the soutliwestern and midwestern 
groups and those farther northward ; and the radio-humeral, humero- 
femoral, and tibio-femoral indices are all very closely related. Wliy 
there should be less agreement in these respects among the females 
it is difficult to say ; in all probability the series of specimens are not 
sufficiently large. 

The next table presents data and some racial comparisons. Here 
the western Eskimo are taken as a unit. They are seen to consider- 
ably resemble the Yukon Indians, but somewhat less so other Indians 
in the radio-humeral and tibio-femoral indices, and they resemble all 
the Indians in the relative proportions of the femur at its middle. In 
other respects there are somewhat more marked differences, especially 
between the western Eskimo and the Indians in general. Some irregu- 
larities in the Yukon series may be due to insufficiency of numbers. 

When compared with the bones of the whites and the negroes the 
Eskimo and Indians separate themselves in many respects as a 
distinct groujD, while the white and the negro bones are particularly 
distinct through the greater relative thickness of the humerus and 
tibia at their middle, and of the femur at its upper flattening; in 
other words the Eskimo as well as the Indians are more platybrachic, 
platymeric and platycnemic than the whites or the negroes. 

The basic relation of the Eskimo to tlie Indian bones is quite evi- 
dent ; though the Eskimo, when compared to Indians outside of 
Alaska, show a relatively shorter radius and tibia, indicating the 
already discussed relative shortness of the forearm and leg. 

Long Bones in Eskimo and Stature 

One of the most desirable of possibilities in the anthropometry of 
any people, but particularly in groups now extinct, is a correct esti- 



316 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SUEVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANN. 46 



Westbkn Eskimo. Long Bones : Compaeative Data 
MALES 



Western Eskimo 

Yukon Indians 

Other Indians 

United States whites (mis- 
cellaneous) 

United States negroes 



Hu- 




Femur 






merus: 
Index 

of shaft 
at the 

middle 
(all 

groups) 


Radio- 
humeral 
index 






Hu- 

raero- 
femoral 
index 


Tibia: 
Index of 
shaft at 
middle 


Index of 
shaft at 
middle 


Index 
of shaft 
at upper 

flat- 
tening 


' (243) 


(135) 


(255) 


(255) 


(243) 


(220) 


75. 1 


76 


86.2 


76.5 


72 


67.9 


(10) 


(10) 


(14) 


(14) 


(10) 


(14) 


70 


75.7 


87. 1 


70. 7 


74.5 


66 


(448) 


(370) 


(902) 


(902) 


(378) 


(1259) 


73.3 


77. 7 


87.3 


74 


72. 5 


66. 1 


(1930) 


(1052) 


(207) 


(836) 


(800) 


(1400) 


83 


73.6 


97 


83 


72.5 


71. 1 


(112) 


(74) 


2 (14) 


(48) 


(50) 


(63) 


84. 1 


77.3 


(9L 2) 


86.8 


7L6 


73.9 



Tibio- 
femoral 
index 



(220) 

80.7 

(14) 

8L5 

(324) 

84. 4 

(1216) 

82. 1 

(68) 
84. 9 



FEMALES 



Western Eskimo 

other Indians 

United States whites (mis- 
cellaneous) 

United States negroes 



(213) 


(133) 


(153) 


(153) 


(153) 


(183) 


74. 1 


73. 1 


90. 2 


76.5 


7L8 


70 


(348) 


(200) 


(327) 


(248) 


(200) 


(910) 


70. 1 


76.6 


91.8 


70 


72.5 


70 


(770) 


(424) 


(100) 


(192) 


(290) 


(600) 


79.3 


72.7 


97 


77.7 


7L6 


7L 9 


(52) 


(34) 


2 (17) 


(48) 


(52) 


(44) 


79.2 


77. 2 


(100) 


81. 1 


70.2 


75.9 



(183) 
80 

(384) 
84.3 
(520) 
8L5 
(48) 
83.7 



I Bones of both sides. 



' Numbers insufficient. 



mation of tlieir stature. For this purpose the most useful aid has been 
found in the long bones, and various essays have been made by Manou- 
vrier, Rollet, Topinard, Pearson, and others '^ at preparing tables 
or arriving at methods that would enable the student to promptly 
and satisfactorily obtain the stature as it was in life from the length 
of the long bones. But all these .essays were based on observations 
on white people, and it has always been recognized that they could 
not with equal confidence be applied to other racial groups. They 
would in all lorobability be especially inapplicable to the Eskimo 
with his relatively short forearms and legs; yet the possibility of 
estimating the stature in many localities of the Eskimo territory, 
where no living remain, would be of real value. Fortunately for this 
purpose there are now some data on hand which make this possible. 

" See section on Estimation of Stature from Parts of the Skeleton, In author's An- 
thropometry, Wistar Inst., Philadi'lphia, 1920. 



HItDLICKA] 



SKELETAL PARTS 



317 



In 1910, ill my Contributions to the Anthropology of the Central 
and Smith Sound Eskimo, I was able to report both the stature and 
the length of the long bones in two normally developed adult males 
and one adult female from Smith Sound. To this it is now possible to 
add larger though less direct data from the group of St. Lawrence 
Island. We have the stature of many of the living from this place 
and also the mcasui-ements of numerous long bones from the dead 
of the same group. The relations of the two are given below, together 
with corresponding data from Smith Sound. There is in general 
such a striking agreement in the relative proportions that the latter 
may, it would seem, be used henceforth for stature estimates also in 
other parts of the Eskimo region. 

Length of Peincip.al Long Bo.nes, and Stature in the Living, on the 
St. Lawhence Island 





Male 


Female 




(63) 
Mean stature: 103.3 


(48) 
Mean stature; 151.3 




Mean 
dimensions 


Percental 
relation 

to stature 
(S = 100) 


Mean 
dimensions 


Percental 
relation 

to stature 
(S = IOO) 


Humerus- ._ _ .' 


(58) 

30.41 
(23) 

23.03 
(100) 

32. 54 
(58) 

34. 16 


IS. 6 
14.1 

27. S 
20. 9 


(49) 

27.77 
(35) 

20. 77 
(38) 

38. 12 
(50) 

31. 13 


18 S 


Radius _ 


13 7 


Femur 


26 1 


Tibia _ __ _ _ 


20 5 







Long Bones vs. Stature in Eskimo of Smith Sound ' 




Female 



Stature 

Humerus: 

Mean length (of the two) 

Percental relation to stature 

Radius: 

Mean length 

Percental relation to stature 

Femur: 

Mean length 

Percental relation to stature 

Tibia: 

Mean length 

Percental relation to stature 



146.7 

24 56 

IS. 1 

19.85 
13.5 

38. 55 

26. 3 

30.9 

21. 1 



' Hrdiitka, A., Contribution to the anthropology of central and Smith Sound Eskimo. Anthrop. 
Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., v, pt. 2, 280. New York, 1910. 



318 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SUR\^Y IN ALASKA [ETH. ANN. 46 

A STKANGE GEOUP OF ESKIMO NEAK POINT BARROW 

In 1917-1919, in the course of the John "Wanamaker Expedition for 
the University Museum, Philadelphia, "W. B. Van Valin, with the 
help of Charles Brower, the well-known local trader and collector, 
excavated near Barrow a group of six tumuli, which proved in the 
opinion of Van Valin to be so many old igloos, containing plentiful 
cultural as well as skeletal material. The collections eventually 
reached the museum, but due to lack of facilities they were in the 
main never unpacked. 

I heard of this material first from Mr. Brower, with whom I sailed 
in 1926 from Barrow southward, and later with Dr. J. Alden Mason 
I saw the collection still in the original boxes, at the University 
Museum. In April of this year the skeletal remains wei-e transferred 
to the Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, and after their transfer I 
obtained the permission of Dr. Milton J. Greenraan, director of the 
Wistar Institute, to examine the material, which was of importance 
to him in connection with his own collections from Barrow and south- 
ward. A due acknowledgment for the privilege is hereby rendered 
to both Doctor Greeninan and Doctor Ma.son. 

The study proved one of unexpected and uncommon interest. The 
material was found to consist of two separate lots. The first of these 
consisted of a considerable number of brown colored, more or less 
complete skeletons with skulls, proceeding from the " igloos" ; while 
the second lot comprised a scries of whitened isolated skulls, witliout 
other skeletal parts and mostly even without the component lower 
jaws, gathered on the tundra near Barrow. At first sight, also, 
the skulls of the two groups were seen to present important 
differences. 

The " igloo " crania, while plainly pure Eskimo, proved to be of a 
decidedly exceptional nature for this location. The skulls, in brief, 
were not of the general western Eskimo type, but reminded at once 
strongly of the skulls from Greenland and Labrador. And they were 
exceptionally uniform, showing that they belonged to a definite and 
distinct Eskimo group. 

After writing of this to Doctor Mason, he kindly sent me a copy of 
the notes and ob.'^ervations on the discovery of the material by W. B. 
Van Valin, who was in charge of the excavation. The detailed notes 
will soon be published by Doctor Mason. The main information they 
convey is as follows : 

The excavations by Van Valin date from 1918-19. They were made 
in six large " heaps," approximately 8 miles southwest of Barrow and 
about 1,000 yards back from the beach on the tundra. Two of the 
heaps were on the northern and four on the southern side of a ravine 



HRDLiCKA] A STRANGE GROUP OF ESKIMO 319 

or draw formed by a drain flowing from inland to the sea. The 
Eskimo at Barrow knew nothing about these remains or tlieir people. 

Each of the heaps inclosed what in the excavator's opinion was an 
"igloo" made of driftwood and earth; and all contained evidently 
undisturbed human skeletons. The total number of bodies of all 
ages was counted as 83, and they ranged from infants to old people. 
There were many bird and other skins (for covers and cloth- 
ing), and numerous utensils. The hair on the bodies was in general 
" black as a raven." Most of the bodies lay on " beds " of moss or 
" ground willows," or rough-hewn boards. Thei-e was no indication 
of any violence or sudden death. The bodies at places were in three 
levels, one above the other; but there was but moderate uniformity in 
the orientation of the bodies. There were found with the burials no 
traces of dogs (though there were some sled runners), and no 
metal, glass, j^ipes, labrets, nets, soapstone lamps or dog harness; but 
thei-e were bows and arrows, bolas, and ordinary jDottery. The cul- 
tural objects, Doctor Mason wrote me, resemble in a smaller measure 
those of the older Bering Sea, to a larger extent those of the old 
northern or " Thule " culture. There were some jadeite axes, indi- 
cating a direct or indirect contact with Kotzebue Sound and the 
Kobuk River. 

Some of the bearskin coverings were " as bright and silvery " as 
the day the bear was killed (Van Valin) ; and the frozen bodies were 
evidently in a state of preservation approaching that of natural 
mummies. 

Notwithstanding indications to the contrary. Van Valin reached 
the opinion that these remains were not those of regular burials, 
though offering no other definite hypothesis. 

Desiring additional information about this highly interesting find, 
I wrote to Mr. Brower, who assisted at the excavations, and received 
the following answer : 

These mounds are from 5 to S miles south of the Barrow village (Utkiavik). 
The largest that were fipened were the farthest south, and seemed more like 
raised lumps on the land than ruins. No doubt that is the reason no one had 
bothered them. 

The Eskimo have no traditions of these people. In fact they did not even 
suspect the mounds contained human remains until Mr. Van Valin started to 
investigate them. 

While Van Valin thought they might be houses, I have always thought they 
were burial mounds, as there seemed no family to have been together at the 
time of death as often has happened. When whole families have died from some 
epidemic, then the man and wife are together under their sleeping skins. In 
these mounds each party was wrapped separate, either in polar bear or musk 
ox skins ; none were wrapped in deer skins. If male, all his hunting imple- 
ments were at his side, and if a female her working tools were with her, as 
scrapers, dishes of wood, and stone knives. The men had their bows, arrows, 



320 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SUEVEY IN ALASKA [eth. anx. 46 

spears, and often a heavy club, for what purpose unless used iu fighting I 
could not make out. At the head of each person was a small receptacle, made 
of whalebone, and In it or alongside was a long wing boue that had been used 
as a drinking tube. In some cases there seemed to be the remains of food in 
the platters, but that was impossible to identify. Most of the bodies were laid 
on the ground, a few had the remains of scrub willow under them, while only 
in two or three cases had there been driftwood planks under the bodies ; these 
were crudely hewn with their old stone adzes. 

There seems to have been some sort of driftwood houses over these bodies 
at some time, but they detayed and have fallen on the remains, which were in 
some cases embedded in the ice. Often before the frame had broken down 
earth must have accumulated and covered the bodies. In these cases the flesh 
has the consistency of a fine meal. While with those in the ice in some cases 
part of the flesh still remained. In both cases when exposed to the air they 
rapidly disintegrated, leaving nothing except the bones. By measurements they 
must have been a larger race than the present people. 

When your letter reached here I at once started making inquiries as to what 
mounds were still intact; and I find that as far as known only two of the 
larger ones have not been ojiened. The Eskimo have been opening the mounds 
ever since they were found, taking from them all the hunting implements 
and other material and selling them aboard the ships for curios. It seems a 
shame that all this should be lost to science, and if no one takes an interest in 
these places in a year or two they will all be gone. 

I have again made inquiries as to what the present Eskimo think of these 
people, but they tell me they have no tradition regarding them and that they 
do not know if tliey were their ancestors or not. In fact, they are ignorant 
of where they came from or when they died. 

To date I do not know of any whaling implement being found with these 
old people, neither is any of the framework of these mounds made from the 
bones of whales. In some of the implements ivory has been used. The mounds 
farthest from the shore were about 400 yards, those that remain are closer to 
the beach. Some of the smaller ones are on the banks of small streams but 
never very far from shore. Undoubtedly, however, they were at one time 
considerably farther from the sea. but the sea is every year claiming some 
of this land, especially where the banks are high along the beach. There the 
lieach is narrow and during a gale the waves wash out the land at its base. 
This is about all that I can tell you of these people. All credit for finding 
these mounds belongs to Van Valin. 

Yours truly, Chas. D. Beowes. 

The mfiterial. — The collection as received at the TVistar Institute 
was notable for its general dark color, enhanced in many of the 
specimens by dark to black remains of the tissues. There was no 
mineralization and but little bone decay, though the bones were 
somewhat brittle. 

There is a scarcity of children and adolescents; there are in fact 
only two skulls of subjects less than 20 years of age in the collection. 

The skulls and bones that remain show no violence. 

The remains show a complete freedom from .syphilis or other con- 
stitutional disease; the only pathological condition present in some 
of the bones being arthritis. This speaks strongly for their preced- 



HRDLIOKA] 



A STRANGE GROUP OF ESKIMO 



321 



ing the contact with whites. The surface series, though smaller, 
shows three syphilitic skulls. An additional fact of interest is the 
absence in both the igloo and the surface series of all marks of 
scurvy. Such marks are fairly common farther southward. Finally, 
none of the siculls are deformed, either in life or posthumously. 

Anthropological Observations and Measurements on the 

Collections 

Age. — The first observations made on the igloo material were those 
as to the individual ages of the bodies. Such observations are neces- 
sarily rough, yet within sufficiently broad limits fairly reliable. The 
criteria are principally the condition of the teeth and that of the 
sutures. The possible error in such estimates is, experience has 
shown, as a rule well within 10 years in the older and within 5 years 
in the young adults or subadults. 

One of the objects of these observations on the " igloo " material 
was to get some further light on whether the remains were those 
of a group that perished of an epidemic, famine, or some other sud- 
den agency, or whether they represented just burials. The age dis- 
tribution of the dead would differ considerably in the two cases. 

Estimated Ages at Death 

lOLOO MATERIAL 



Males (27) 

Females (25) 

Mean, both sexes 



20 to 25 



Per cent 
11 
16 
13. 5 



30 to 40 



Per cent 
15 
24 
19 



Per cent 
41 
44 
42.5 



Per cent 
33 
16 
25 



surface series 



Males (21) . ... ... 




5 
36 
17 


48 
36 
43 


48 


Females (14) 

Mean, both sexes . . . 


29 
11. 5 


29. 5 







The above table shows the data obtained, with those on the surface 
material from the same collection and known to be that of ordinary 
burials. 

The results do not agree with the composition of the living popu- 
lation but are apparently near to what might be expected in burials. 
Taking the sexes apart, the series from the surface shows a somewhat 
more favorable condition for the men, but worse for the women. 
Taking the materials, however, regardless of sex, the proportions of 



322 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[ETH. ANX. 46 



nges in the earlier igloos and in the late surface burials ai'e practically 
identical. This points strongly against the idea of the igloo remains 
being those of people who either died there of starvation, of an epi- 
demic, of being smothered, or of some other sudden affliction, and to 
their having been just ordinary burials. 

To arrive at something still more definite, if possible, I appealed 
on the one hand to the United States Census and on the other to 
Doctor Dublin of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., New York, 
for data as to the distribution of ages among the dead, using the same 
age-categories as in the case of the " igloo " material. The data fur- 
nished by Miss E. Foudray through Dr. Wm. H. Davis, Chief Statis- 
tician of the Bureau of the Census, are particularly to the point. 
They are as follows : 

Per Cent Age Distribution of Indian Population in Axa.ska Aged 20 Years 
AND Over, According to the Census of 1900 





20 to 24 


25 to 44 


4.1 to .54 


55 and over 


Males - -- ---_- 


17.8 
19. 4 
IS. 6 


54. 2 
53.3 

53. 7 


15. 9 
15.9 
15.9 


12. 1 


Females - _ 


11. 4 




11.8 







Pee Cent Age Distribution at Death (E.stimated) of Indian Popci-ation of 
Alaska in 1900, Who. Had They Ln-ED, Wouxd Have Appe.\red in the Cen- 
sus OP 1910 AT Ages 20 Years and Over 





20 to 24 


25 to 44 


45 to 54 


55 and over 




13.2 
11.9 
12. 6 


43.9 
47.0 

45.4 


21.3 
19.5 

20. 4 


21. 6 


Females.. . 


21. 6 


Both sexes . 


21. 6 







There is a remarkable agreement of these figures with those 
obtained on both the Igloo and the Barrow surface burial material, 
except that for the two middle age series the figures are reversed. 
This may mean an error in the two respective estimates on the In- 
dians, or it may mean that for these two ages the conditions among 
the Eskimo concerned were better than they were in 1900 among the 
Alaska Indians. 

All the above, together with the details on the orderly treatment 
of the bodies, and the absence of such conditions as were encountered 
in the dead villages on St. Lawrence Island (Hooper, Nelson), in- 
clines one to the conclusion that the Igloo remains, however excep- 
tional the method for the Eskimo, were just burials. 



HRDLICKA] 



A STRANGE GKOUP OF ESKIMO 



323 



Physical Characteristics 



The skull. — The most noteworthy feature about the Igloo remains 
is the marked distinctiveness of tlie skull. This strikes the observer 
at the first sight of the specimens, and the impression is only strength- 
ened by detail examination. Tlie skulls are very narrow, long, and 
liigh. They differ jjlainly from anj'thing except occasional indi- 
vidual specimens, either about Barrow or along the rest of the west 
coast of Alaska, with the jjossible excejjtion of a few groups of 
Seward Peninsula. They recall stronglj' the crania of Labrador and 
.south Greenland. It is the Labrador-Greenland type throughout, 
men, women, and even the two children. It is a group outside of the 
range of local variation. It is a strange Eskimo group, either de- 
veloped here in former times as it developed in Greenland and 
Labrador, and possibly the Seward Peninsula, or one tliat had come 
here from places where such type had already been realized. 

The following data (the individual measurements will appear in a 
later number of the Catalogue of Crania) show the differences be- 
tween the Igloo and the surface material, the latter both of the Van 
Valin and of the author's collections, and the valuable Stefansson 
material, now at the American Maseum, from Point Barrow. They 
need but little comment. They show clearly on one hand the wholly 
Eskimo nature of the Igloo skulls, and on the other their distinct- 
ness from those of the later burials, both of Barrow and Point Bar- 
row. The vault especially is characteristic — narrow, long, high, more 
or less keel-shaped. The face in general is much more alike in the 
three groups; nevertheless its absolute height and breadth in the 
Igloo series are slightly smaller than in the other two, and there 
are minor differences in the orbits and the palate. 

Eskimo Crania, Barhow and Vicinity 





Old Igloos 


Surface burials, Barrow 


Surface burials, Point 
Barrow 




Males 
(27) 


Females 
(25) 


Males 
(37) 


Females 
(36) 


Males 
(49) 


Females 
(52) 


Vault: 

Length maximum. 

Breadth maxi- 
mum 

Basion - bregma 
height 

Cranial index 

Height-breadth 
index 


19.25 
13. 30 

14.02 

69. I 

105. 5 
86. 2 
15. 52 


18. 11 

12. 72 

13. 21 

70. 2 

104. 6 
86. 4 

14. 72 


IS. 90 
13.73 

13. 78 

72. 6 

99.6 
84.6 
15. 46 


17. 77 

13. 23 

12. 97 

74.5 

98. 1 
82. 9 

14. 66 


IS. 74 
13.84 

13.78 

73. 9 

99.6 
84. 7 
15. 44 


17. 91 
13.32 

13. 08 

74.4 

97. 8 


Mean height index . 
Cranial module 


83. 4 
14. 75 



324 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [ETii. anx. m 

Eskimo Crania, Barrow and Vicinity — Continued 



Old Igloos 



Males 
(27) 



Females 

(25) 



Surface burials, Barrow 



Males 

(37) 



Females 
(36) 



Surface hurials, Point 
Barrow 



Males 
(49) 



Females 

(52) 



Face: 

Height: menton- 

nasion 

Height: upper al- 
veolar p o i li t - 

nasion 

Breadth: Diam- 
eter bizygomatic 

maximum 

Facial index, total. 
Facial index, up- 
per 

Basion-nasion 

Basion - subnasal 

point 

Basion - upper al- 
veolar point 

Lower jaw: Height at 

symphysis 

Orbits: 

Mean height 

Mean breadth 

Mean index 

Nose: 

Height 

Breadth 

Index 

Alveolar arch: 

Length 

Breadth 

Index 



12. 4 



7.7 



14. 2 

86. 9 

54-5 
10. 70 

9. 33 

10. 45 

3. 72 

3. 62 
3.97 

91. 3 

5. 45 
2.37 

43.6 

5. 57 
6.68 

83. 4 



11. 21 
7.01 

13. 08 

86. S 

53. 8 
10. 18 

9. 12 

10. 13 

3.38 

3.47 
4. 01 
91 

5.02 
2.23 

44-4 

5.34 
6. 29 

84. 9 



7.89 



14.34 



7. 18 



13. 16 



55 
10. 61 

9. 31 

10. 39 

3. 95 

3.60 
4.04 

89. 2 

5. 52 
2. 39 

43.4 

5. 59 
6.45 



54. 7 
10.01 

8. 86 

9. 85 
3.27 

3. 61 

3.88 
93 

5. 19 
2.32 

44.7 

5. 22 

6. 13 

85. 1 



7.86 



14. 26 



55.1 
10.54 

9. 23 

10. 39 

3. 9 

3. 61 
4.02 
89.9 

5. 48 
2. 31 

42. 2 

5. 63 
6.47 
86. 9 



7. 22 



13. 06 



55. 3 
9. 94 

8.73 

9.77 



3. 55 
3. 90 

90. 7 

5. 11 
2.29 

44-9 

5. 25 

6. 01 

87.4 



Let us now contrast the Igloo .skulls with tliose of southern Green- 
land from the collection of the United States National Museum.^" 
The size of the .series is such that they are nicely comparable. And 
to the two is added a small recent series (A. H., 1926, and Collins, 
1928), from Golovnin Bay and Sledge Island (Seward Peninsula). 

™ The measurements of tbi.s series have been published by the writer in the first part 
of the Catalogue of Human Crania in the U. S. National Museum (Proc. U. S. N. M.. 
1924, Lxiii, art. 12. p. 26), but as a few errors crept in, the whole series was remeasured 
by the writer. 



hkdliCka] 



A STKANGE GEOUP OF ESKIMO 



325 



Main Measurements op the Barrow "Igloo" and of Greenland Eskimo 

Crania 



Golovnin 

Bay and 

Sledge 

Island 



Igloos 



Greenland 



Females 



Golovnin 

Bay and 

Sledge 

Island 


Igloos 


(13) 


(25) 


18. 03 


18. 11 


13. 36 


12. 72 


13.21 


13. 21 


74.1 


70.2 


97.9 


104.6 


84,2 


86.4 


14. 87 


14. 72 


11. 98 


11. 21 


7.35 


7.01 


13. 25 


13.08 


90. 4 


S6.8 


B6. 4 


53.8 


3.58 


3.47 


3.92 


4 01 


91. 2 


91 


5. 15 


5.02 


2. 29 


2.23 


44.5 


44-4 



Greenland 



Number of specimens __ 

Vault: 

Length 

Breadth 

Height 

Cranial index 

Height - breadth 

index 

Mean height index 
Module 

Face: 

Menton-nasion 

height 

Alveolar point- 

nasion height 

Breadth 

Facial index, total- 
Facial index, up- 
per 

Orbits: 

Mean height 

Mean breadth j 

Mean index 

Nose: 

Height 

Breadth 

Index 



(8) 

19.20 
13.70 
14.08 
71.3 

102. 8 
85. 6 
15. 66 



12. 70 

7.90 
14. 29 
88. 9 

55.3 

3.65 
4. 11 



5. 58 
2.35 

L2. 1 



(27) 

19.25 
13.30 
14.02 
69. 1 

105.5 
86. 2 
15. 52 



12. 39 

7.71 
14. 16 

86. 9 

64-5 

3.62 
3.97 
91.3 

5. 45 
2.37 
43. 6 



(49) 

18.97 
13. 61 
13. 95 

71. 8 

102. 5 
85. 7 
15. 51 



12.38 

7.61 
14.05 
87. 1 

64. 1 

3.64 
3.99 

91.4 

5.24 
2.27 

43.3 



(52) 

18.04 

12. 98 

13. 12 

72 

101 
84. 6 
14.72 



11.52 

7.05 
13.03 

85. 7 

54.1 

3.55 
3.85 

92. 4 

4.99 
2.20 



A comparison of the Igloo and Greenland series shows striking 
similarities ; hardly any two geographically separate groups originat- 
ing from a single source could reasonably be expected to come nearer. 
The Igloo skulls are even narrower in the vault than the Green- 
landers, which means so much farther away from the southwestern, 
midwestern, and Asiatic Eskimo; and offer a few other differences, 
but all these are of small moment, not affecting the essential rela- 
tions of the two groups. 

A comparison of the Igloo and Greenland series with the material 
from Golovnin Bay and Sledge Island shows also numerous similari- 
ties but with them some rather material differences. The differences 
are especially marked in the females, whose characteristics approach 



326 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eTH. ANN. 46 

more those of the midwestern Eskimo, which suggests that an im- 
portant proportion of them may have been derived from the latter. 
However, even the males tend to diifer. Both sexes show absolutely 
a somewhat broader skull than that of the northerners ; in both sexes 
the skull, as seen from the cranial module, is slightly larger in the 
Seward Peninsula series than in either of the other groups; but the 
principal differences are seen in the face, which in the Seward 
Peninsula group is jjerceptibly larger and especially higher than it 
is in either the Igloo or the Greenland seri-es. The orbits also in the 
southerners are larger and the nose is slightly higher. 

On the whole it may be said that the resemblance of the Igloo 
crania to those of Greenland is closer than that to either or both of 
the series of Golovnin Bay and Sledge Island. This suggests the 
possibility that a similar though not quite the same differentiation in 
the skull may have taken place both in the Seward Peninsula and in 
the far north; though the possibility of a derivation of any one of 
the three groups from any of the others can not be discarded. So 
far as the skull is concerned a definite solution of the identity of the 
Igloo material would have to be, it would seem, postponed to the 
future. 

The used data on the Greenland Eskimo skulls agree closely with 
those of Fiirst and Hansen (Crania Groenlandica, fol., 1915), and 
also with the much fewer and scattered records of Virchow, Davis, 
Duckworth, Oetteking, Pittard, etc.,*" on Eskimo skulls from 
Labrador. 

Stature and strength. — The bones of the skeleton of the Igloo series 
show the i^eople to have been of good height and of above medium 
Eskimo robustness. The principal measurements are given below, 
together with the corresponding ones on the western and the Yukon 
Eskimo. The material is not all that could be wished for, either in 
numbers or representation, but it will suffice for rough comparisons. 
Regrettably nothing for comparison is available as yet from Green- 
land or other parts of the far northeast where we meet with long, 
narrow, and high skulls. 

*» For more exact references see writer's Contribution to the Antliropology of Central 
and Smith Sound Eskimo, Anthrop. Papers Am. Mub. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 1910, V, pt. 2 ; 
and tlie bibliography at the end of this volume. 



hrdlicka] 



A STRANGE GROUP OF ESKIMO 



327 



The Long Bones of the Igloo People and Other Eskimo Bones of the 

Two Sides Together 





Male 


Female 




Igloo 


Seward 
Peninsula 
and north- 
western 
Eskimo 


Yukon 
Eskimo 


Igloo 


.Seward 
Peninsula 
and north- 
western 
Eskimo 


Yukon 
Eskimo 


Humerus: Length- 


(35) 


(100) 


(16) 


(27) 


(83) 


(16) 


maximum 


31. 17 


31. 17 


32. 10 


28.41 


28.82 


28. 31 


At middle: 




Diameter, major.. 


2. 47 


2. 46 


2.33 


2.11 


2. 15 


2.07 


Diameter, minor. _ 


1. 86 


1. 85 


1.80 


1.60 


1.62 


1.51 


Index 


75.2 
(31) 


75. 1 
(37) 


78. 2 
(16) 


76. 1 

(17) 


75. 1 
(24) 


73.2 


Radius: Length, max- 


(16) 


imum 


23. 53 

75.5 


23. 50 

75. 4- 


23.44 

73 


20. 98 

73.8 


21.35 

74 


20. 18 


Radio-humeral index. . 


71.3 


Femur: Length, bicon- 


(33) 


(60) 


(22) 


(25) 


(31) 


(27) 


d)-lar 


43. 86 

71. 1 


43. 46 

71. 7 


43. 78 
73 


40. 31 

70.5 


40. 44 
71.3 


41. 11 


Humero-femoral index. 


69 


At middle: 














Diameter, ante- 














ro-posterior 


3.37 


3. 21 


3.05 


2. 88 


2. 88 


2. 74 


Diameter, lateral. 


2. 90 


2. 72 


2. 67 


2.51 


2.56 


2.44 


Index 


86. 1 


84.8 


87.6 


87.3 


88.9 


88. 8 


At upper flattening: 




Diameter, maxi- 














mum 


3.51 


3.32 


3.31 


3.09 


3.06 


a 02 


Diameter, mini- 




mum 


2. 71 

77. 2 


2. 59 

78. 1 


2.57 

77. 4 


2.30 

74-4 


2. 40 

78.4 


2.27 


Index 


75. 4 


Tibia: Length in posi- 


(29) 


(79) 


(22) 


(24) 


(36) 


(27) 


tion 


35.60 

81.2 


35. 52 

81. 7 


35. 14 
80.3 


31.94 

79. 2 


32.50 

80.4 


32. 01 


Tibio-femoral index 


79. S 


At middle: 














Diameter, ante- 














ro-posterior 


3.26 


3. 19 


3. 16 


2.80 


2.75 


2.61 


Diameter, lateral. 


2.20 


2. 16 


2. 15 


1.87 


1. 92 


1.90 


Index 


67.5 


67.8 


68.3 


66. 7 


70 


72. 8 







The above table shows some remarkable and interesting condi- 
tions. 

The first of the most apparent facts is that the type of the Yukon 
Eskimo stands well apart from both of the other series in a number 
of essentials, showing that it is not very nearly related and that it 
may be left out of consideration. 

On the other hand the long bones from the Seward Peninsula and 
the northwest coast, especially those of the males, show very closely to 



328 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IK ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

those of the Igloo group. The male bones of the two series are almost 
identical, except that the Igloo bones are somewhat stronger. 

Such close resemblances can hardly be fortuitous. They speak 
strongly for the basic identity of the old Igloo people with those of at 
least parts of the Seward Peninsula and parts of the northwest 
coast. If we take the bones from the Seward Peninsula alone (see 
p. 314) it is found that these resemblances still hold. 

The evidence thus shown constitutes a strong indication that the 
old Igloo group may be inherently related to that part of the Eskimo 
population of Seward Peninsula which shows the long and nari-ow 
skull; but the data offer no light on the questions as to whether the 
Igloo group may have been derived from that of the Seward Penin- 
sula or vice versa, and on the true relation of either or both of these to 
the Eskimo of Baffin Land, Greenland, and Labrador. 

To definitely decide the problem of the Igloo group there are needed 
data on the long bones of the northeasterners; in the second lAace it 
is highly desirable to know how large and how ancient was the group 
of the narrow-headed people on the Seward Peninsula and Sledge 
Island; and in the third place it is important that the cultural history 
of the two groujjs be known as thoroughly as possible. All of which 
are tasks for the future. 

The possibility of a development of the Igloo cranial type on the 
northwest coast itself can not be denied, in view of the facts that 
all its characteristics are within tlie ranges of normal individual 
variations on that coast, and that similar developments have evi- 
dently been realized elsewhere. But in such a case it would be 
logical to expect, locally or not far away, some ancestry of the group, 
and the group would not probably be limited to a little spot and a 
few scores of persons. Had the group developed incidentally from 
a physicallj'' exceptional familj', it could not be expected to have 
been anywhere nearly as uniform as the group under consideration. 
The high degree of uniformity of the Igloo contingent speaks for 
a well accomplished differentiation; and as there is no other trace of 
this in the conditions near Barrow, and there are no ruins denoting 
a long occupation, the evidence is against a local development and 
for an immigration of the gr«up. A coming of a small-sized con- 
tingent from the Seward Peninsula would be easy; its coming from 
Greenland ,or Labrador or Baffin Land would surely be difficult, but 
not impossible to the Eskimo, wlio is known to have been a traveler. 

Wliatever may be the eventual solution of the Igloo problem, it is 
plain that the presence of that group near Barrow, together with the 
presence of evidently closely related groups in a part of the Seward 
Peninsula and again in the far east of the Eskimo region, offers much 
food for thought and investigation. The most plausible pcssibility 



hbdliCka] origin and antiquity of the ESKIMO 329 

Avould seem to be a relatively late (within the laiesent millennium) 
coming of a physically already well differentiated small group, from 
either the south or the east, with a relatively short settlement at the 
Barrow site, some local multiplication in numbers, and then extinc- 
tion partly through disease, partly perhaps through absorption into 
a stronger and newer contingent derived from the western people. 

ORIGIN AND ANTIQUITY OF THE ESKIMO 

All anthropological research on the Eskimo has naturally one ulti- 
mate object, which is the clearing up of the problems of the origin 
and antiquity of this highly interesting human strain; and it may 
well be asked what further light on these problems has been shed 
by the studies here dealt with. To show this with a proper perspec- 
tive it will be requisite to briefly review the previous ideas on these 
problems. 

Oeigin of the Name " Eskimo " 

According to Charlevoix (Nouv. France, III, 178), the term 
" Eskimo " is a corruption of the Abenaki Indian Esquimantsic or 
the Ojibway Ashkimeg, both terms meaning "those who eat raw 
flesh." In the words of Captain Hooper,*^ " Neither the origin nor 
meaning of the name ' Esquimaux,' or Eskimo, as it is now spelled, 
is known. According to Doctor Kink, the name ' Esquimaux ' was 
first given to the inhabitants of Southern Labrador as a term of deri- 
sion by the inhabitants of Northern Labrador, and means raw-fish 
eater. Dall says the appellation ' Eskimo ' is derived from a word 
indicating a sorcerer or shaman in the language of the northern 
tribes." 

For Brinton,''- as for Charlevoix, the term '^ Eskimo " is dei'ivetl 
from the Algonkin " Eskimantick," " eaters of raw flesh." Accord- 
ing to Chamberlain,*^ Sir John Richardson (Arctic Seai'ching Exp., 
p. 203) attempts to derive it from the French words ceux qui miaux 
(miaulent), referring to their clamorous outcries on the approach 
of a ship. Petitot (Chambers Encyc, Ed. 1880, IV, p. 165, article 
Esquimaux) says that at the present day the Crees, of Lake Atha- 
basca, call them Wis-Kimowok (from Wiyas flesh, aski raw, and 
mowew to eat), and also Ayiskimiwok (i. e., those who act in secret). 
In Labrador the English sometimes call the Eskimo " Huskies " (loc. 
cit., p. ix. 7. Chambers Encyc, article Esquimaux. See Hind. Trav. 
in Int. of Labr., loc. cit., and Petitot loc. cit., p. ix.) and Suckemos 

^ Hooper, C. L., Cruise of the U. S. revenue steamer Corwin, 1S81. Washington, 
1884, p. 99. 

•1= Brinton, D. C, Mytlis of the New World. 1868, p. 23. New Yorli. 

■"Chamberlain, A. F., The Eslcimo race and language. Proc. Canadian Inst., 3d ser., 
vol. Ti, pp. 2GT-2CS. Toronto, 1889. 

88253°— 30 22 



330 ANTHKOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [bth. ann. 46 

(Richai'dson, Arctic Searching Expedition, p. 202) and Dall (Proc. 
Am. Ass. Adv. Sci., 1869, p. 266) says that in Alaska the Tinneh 
Indians call them " Uskeeme " (sorcerers). 

The Eskimo call themselves " Innuit," said to be the ijlui'al of 
in-nu, the man, hence " the people " ; the same being as a rule the 
meaning of the name by which the various tribes of the Indian call 
themselves. 

On the Asiatic coast the Eskimo is known as the " Yuit," " On- 
kilon," " Chouklouks," or " Namollo "; while in the east appears the 
name " Karalit." 

None of this has thrown any light on the origin of the Eskimo. 

Opinions Bt Former and Living Students 

Origin in Asia. — Many opinions on the origin of the Eskimo have 
been expressed by diti'erent authors. Among the earliest of these 
were those of missionaries, such as Crantz (1779), and of the early 
explorers, such as Steller, v. Wrangell, Liitke and others. They were 
based on the general aspect of the Eskimo, particularly that of his 
physiognomy; and seeing that in many features he resembled most 
the mongoloid peoples of Asia they attached him to these, which 
meant the conclusion that he was of Asiatic derivation. Quite soon, 
however, there began to appear also the opinions of students of man. 
The first of these was that of Blumenbach, as expressed in his In- 
augural Thesis of 1781. In this thesis, more particularly its second 
edition, he classifies the Eskimo expressly as a part of the Caucasian 
or white race. But after obtaining an Eskimo skull and an Eskimo 
body he changes his oi^inion and in 1795-1806 he comes out with a 
definite classification of the Eskimo as a member of the Mongolians; 
and a similar conclusion, with its implied or expressed consequence 
of a migration from Asia to America, has been reached since, mainly 
on somatological but also in part on linguistic and cultural bases, 
by a large number of authors, including Lawrence, Morton, Picker- 
ing, Latham, Flower, Peschel, Topinard, Brinton, Virchow (1877), 
Quatrefages and Hamy (1882), Thalbitzer, Bogoras and numerous 
others. With all of this, the conception of the Asiatic origin of the 
Eskimo has not passed the status of a strong probability, lacking a 
final conclusive demonstration. 

A chronological list of the more noteworthy individual statements 
is given at the end of this section. 

OHgin in America. — Since the earlier parts of the nineteenth 
century the opinion began to be expressed that the Eskimo is not of 
Asiatic but of American origin. Already in 1847 Prichard tells us 
that there are those who " consider them as belonging to the Amer- 
ican family," and he plainly favors this conception. 



HRDLILKA] ORIGIN AND ANTIQUITY OF THE ESKIMO 331 

Between 1873 and 1890 the American origin of the Eskimo is re- 
peatedly asserted by Rink, who for 16 winters and 22 summers lived 
with the eastern Eskimo, first as a scientific explorer and later as 
I'oyal inspector or governor of the southern Danish settlements in 
Greenland (preface by R. Brown to Rink's Tales and Traditions, 
1875). In this opinion, briefly, the Eskimo were derived from the 
inland Indian tribes of Alaska ; without referring to the origin of the 
Indian. 

Rink's authoritative opinion was followed or paralleled by Daniel 
Wilson (1876), Grote, Krause, Ray, Keane, Brown, and others. In 
1887 Chamberlain expresses the somewhat startling additional theory 
that it was not the Eskimo who was derived from the Mongolians 
but the Mongolians from the Eskimo or their American ancestors. 
And in 1901-1910 Boas comes to the conclusion that the Eskimo 
probably originated from the inland tribes (Indian?) in the Hudson 
Bay region. 

An interesting case in these connections is that of Rudolf Virchow. 
In 1877 (see details at the end of this section) he expresses the belief 
in the Eskimo coming from Asia; in 1878 he seems to be uncertain; 
and in 1885 he comes out in support of tlie opinion that tlie original 
home of the Eskimo may have been in the western part of the Hudson 
Bay region. Among later students of the problem, Steensby ** and 
Birket-Smith ^^ incline on cultural grounds to this hypothesis. 

Wissler, not explicit as to the Eskimo in 1917 (The American In- 
dian), in 1918 (Archaeology of the Polar Eskimo) finds, after 
Steensby, the most acceptable theory of the Eskimo origin to be that 
" they expanded from a parent group in the Arctic Archipelago " ; 
but in 1922, in the second edition of his The American Indian, he 
repeats word for word his opinion of 1917, which appears to favor 
an Asiatic derivation. 

Origin m Europe — Identity with Upper Palaeolithic nmn. — About 
the sixties of last century growing discoveries in France of imple- 
ments, etc., of later palaeolithic man brought about a realization that 
not a few of these implements and other objects, particularly tho.se 
of the Magdalenian period, resembled like implements and objects 
of the Eskimo; from which, together with the considerations of tb» 
similarities of fauna (reindeer, musk-ox, etc.), and of climate, there 
was but a step to a more or less definite identification of the Magda- 
lenians and Solutreans with the Eskimo. In 1870 Pruner-Bey *" 
claims a similarity between Solutrean and Eskimo skulls. In 1883 

" Contr. Ethn. and Anthropogcog. Polar Eskimos, Med. om Gronl., xxxiv, Copenhagen, 
1910; also, Origin of the Eskimo culture, ibid., 1016, 204-218. 

^ Internat. Congr. Americanists, New York, 1928. 

*> In Ferry, H. de, Le Maconnais prehistorique, etc., 1 vol, Macon, 1870, with a section 
by Pruner-Bey. 



332 ANTHBOPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 46 

these views received the influential support of De Mortillet (see 
details). In 1889 the theory receives strong support from the char- 
acteristics of the Chancelade (Magdalenian) skeleton which Testut 
declares are in many respects almost identical with those of the 
Eskimo. And within the next few years the notion is upheld by 
Hamy and Herve. It remains sympathetic as late as 1913 to Marcel- 
lin Boule, and finds most recent champions in Morin and Sollas. 

However, there were also many who opposed the effort at a direct 
connection of the ujDper palaeolithic man of Europe and the Eskimo. 
Among these were Geikie, Flower, Rae, Daniel Wilson, Robert 
Brown, Dechelette, Laloy. At present the theory is supported 
mainly by Morin and Sollas, opposed by Steensby, Burkitt, Keith, 
MacCurdy, and others; while most students of the Eskimo ignore 
the question. 

Other hypotheses. — Besides the preceding ideas which attribute 
the origin of the Eskimo to Asia, or America, or old Euroi>e, there 
were also others that failed to receive a wider support ; and there 
were authors and students who remained undecided or were too 
cautious to definitely formulate their l)eliefs. Some of the former 
as well as the latter deserve brief mention. 

Gallatin, in 1836, mainly on linguistic grounds, recognizes the 
fundamental relation of the Eskimo and the Indian and seems in- 
clined to the American origin of the former, but makes no clear state- 
ment to that effect. For Meigs (1857), who probably followed an 
earlier opinion, the Eskimo came " from the islands of the Polar 
Sea." C. C. Abbott (1876) saw Eskimo in the early inhabitants of 
the Delaware Valley. To Grote (1875, 1877), the Eskimo were " the 
existing representatives of the man of the American glacial epoch "; 
thej' were modified Pliocene men. Nordenskiold (1885) follows 
closely Meigs and Grote; the Eskimo may be " the true autochthones 
of the Polar regions," having inhabited them from before the glacial 
age, during more genial climate. Keane (1886) believed the Eskimo 
developed from the Aleuts. For De Quatrefages (1887), man origi- 
nated in the Tertiary in northern Asia, spread from there, and some 
of his contingents may have reached America and been the ancestors 
of the Eskimo ; the western tribes of the latter being a mixture of the 
Eskimo with Asiatic brachycephals. Nansen (1893) avoids a dis- 
cussion of the origin of the Eskimo; and the same caution is ob- 
servable more or less in most modern writers. 

The following chart of the more noteworthy opinions regarding 
the origin of the Eskimo will sliow at a glance the diversity of the 
views and their lack of conclusiveness. 



HBDLIl KA] 



ORIGIX AXD ANTIQUITY OF THE ESKIMO 



333 



Theokies as to the Origin of the Eskimo 



Asiatic: 

Steller 1743 

Cranz 1779 

Blumenbach... 1795 

Lawrence 1822 

Von Wrangell. 1839 

Morton 1839 

McDonald 1841 

Latham 1850 

Pickering 1854 

Wilson 1863 

Rae 1865, 

1877-78, 1886 
Markham 1865, 

1875 

Wliymper 1869 

Pescliel 1876 

Kuhl 1876 

Petitot 1876 

Topinard 1877 

Virchow 1877 

Ball 1877 

Palmer 1879 

Henry 1879 

Dawson 1880 

Quatrefages___ 1882, 

1887 

Elliot 1886 

Flower 1886 

Brown 1888 

Ratzel 1897 

Hrdlicka- 1910,1924 



Asiatic — Con. 

Thalbitzer 1914 

F first and Han- 
sen 1915 

Wissler 1917 

Mathiassen 1921 

Bogoras._ 1924, 1927 

American: 

Prichard 1847 

Rink 1873, 1888 

Holmes 1873 

Wilson 1876 

Grote 1877 

Krause 1883 

Ray 1885 

Virchow 1885 

Keane___ 1886, 1887 

Brown 1888 

Murdoch 1888 

Chamberlain.- 1889 

Quatrefages 1889 

Boas 1907, 1910 

Wissler 1917 

European or con- 
nected with Eu- 
rope: 

Lartet and 

Christy 1864 

Dawkins 1866 

Herve 1870 

Abbott 1876 

De Mortillet_ . 1883 



European — Con. 

Testut 1889 

Boule 1913 

SoUas... 1924, 1927 

Opposed to Europe: 
Brown . 
Burkitt. 
Dechelette. 
Flower. 
Geikie. 
Keith. 
Laloy. 
MacCurdy. 
Rae. 

Steensby. 
Wilson. 
Hrdlicka (1910). 

Miscellaneous and 
indefinite: 

Gallatin 1836 

Richardson 1852 

Meigs 1857 

Grote 1875 

Abbott 1876 

Nordenskiold.. 1885 

Keane 1886 

Quatrefages 1887 

Nansen 1893 

Tarenetzky 1900 

Nadaillac 1902 

Jenness 1928 



ASIATICS 

Steller. 1743 : " Several references -n-liich indicate that Steller re- 
garded the E.skimo as related to the northeastern Asiatics. 

Cranz, 1779 : ^'^ Points out the resemblances of the Eskimo (and 
their product) to the Kalmuks, Yakuts, Timgus, and Kamchadales, 
and derives them from northeastern Asia (forced by other peoples 
through Tartary to the farthest northeast of Asia and then to 
America) . 

Blumenbach, 1781 : *' Tlie first of the five varieties of mankind 
" and the largest, which is also the primeval one, embraces the whole 

" Steller, G. W., Journal, 1743. Transl. and repr. in Bering's Voyages, Am. Geog. 
Soc. Research, ser. I, 2 vols., vol. ii, p. 9 et seq. New York, 1922. 

'- Cranz, David, ni.ftorie von Gronland, Frankf. and Leipz.. 1779. .300-.301. 

'"Blumenbach, J. F., De generis humaui varietate uativa. 2d ed., Goettingen, 1781; 
in The anthropological treatises of J. F. Blumenbach, Anthr. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 99, 
ftn. 4. 



334 ANTHROPOLOGICAL STJBVEY IN ALASKA [ETH. ANN. 46 

of Europe, includinc: the Lapps, * * * and lastlj', in America, 
the Greenlanders and the Esquimaux, for I see in these people a 
wonderful difference from the other inhabitants of America; and, 
unless I am altogether deceived, I think they must be derived from 
the Finns." 

But in his '' Beitriige zur Naturgeschichte," 2d ed., Gottingen, 
1806, Blumenbach classes both the Lapps and the Eskimo with the 
Mongolians (Anthr. Treatises of Blumenbach, Lond., 1865, p. 304) : 
" The remaining Asiatics, except the Malays, with the Lapps in 
Europe, and the Esquimaux in the north of America, from Bering 
Strait to Labrador and Greenland. They are for the most part of 
a wheaten yellow, with scanty, straight, black hair, and have flat 
faces with laterally projecting cheek bones, and narrowly slit 
eyelids." 

Von Wrangell, 1839 : ^o " * * * jin-e sclavische Abhiingigkeit 
von den Rennthier-Tschuktschen beweist, dass die letztern spatere 
Einwanderer und Eroberer des Landes sind, welches sie jetzt inne 
haben." 

Lawrence, 1822 : " " The Mongolian variety * * * includes the 
numerous more or less rude, and in great part nomadic tribes, which 
occupy central and northern Asia; * * * and the tribes of Eski- 
iiiaux extending over the northern parts of America, from Bering 
Strait to the extremity of Greenland. * * *. 

" The Eskimaux are formed on the Mongolian model, although 
they inhabit countries so different from the abodes of the original 
tribes of central Asia." 

Latham, 1850 : ^- " Our only choice lies between the doctrine that 
makes the American nations to have originated from one or more 
separate pairs of progenitors, and the doctrine that either Bering 
Strait or the line of islands between Kamskatka and the Peninsula 
of Alaska, was the highway between the two worlds — from Asia to 
America, or vice verea. * * * Against America, and in favor of 
Asia being the birthplace of the human race — its unity being as- 
sumed — I know many valid reasons. * * * Physically, the 
Eskimo is a Mongol and Asiatic. Philologically, he is American." 

1851 : ■" " Just as the Eskimo graduate in the American Indian, so 
do they pass into the populations of northeastern Asia — language 
being the instrument which the present writer has more especially 

™A'on Wrangell, in Baer and Helmersen's " Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Russischen 
Reiches," pp. 58-59. St. Petersburg, 1839. 

^ Lawrence, W., Lectures on physiology, zoology, and the natural history of man, 
pp. 511-513. London. 1822. 

^- Latham, Robert Gordon, The Natural history of the Tarieties of man, pp. 289-291. 
London, 1850. 

'^ Latiam, Robert Gordon, Man and his migrations, p. 124. London, 1851. 



HRDLifKA] ORIGIN AND ANTIQUITY OF THE ESKIMO 335 

employed in their affiliation. From the Peninsula of Alaska to the 
Aleutian cliain of islands, and from the Aleutian chain to Kamskatka 
is the probable course of the migration from Asia to America — traced 
backwards, i. e., from the goal to the starting point, from the circum- 
ference to the center." 

Pickering, 18.54 : ^* " The Arctic Regions seem exclusively possessed 
by the Mongolian race." 

Wilson, 18G3:" "The same mode of comparison which confirms 
the ethnical affinities between the Esquimaux and their insular or 
Asiatic congeners, reveals, in some respects, analogies rather than 
contrast between the dolichocephalic Indian crania and those of the 
hyperborean race." 

Markliam, 1856 : ^^ " The interesting question now arises — whence 
came these Greenland Esquimaux, these Innuit, or men, as they call 
themselves, and as I think (hey ought to be called by us? They are 
not descendants of the Skroellings of the opposite American coast, 
as has alread_y been seen. It is clear that they can not have come 
from the eastward, over the ocean which intervenes between Lapland 
and Greenland, for no Esquimaux traces have ever been found on 
Spitzbergen. Iceland, or Jan Mayen. We look at them and see at 
once that they have no kinship with the red race of America ; but a 
glance suffices to convince us of their relationship with the northern 
tribes of Siberia. It is in Asia, then, that we must seek their origin." 

TTIiymper, 18G9: ^' " That the coast natives of northern Alaska are 
but Americanized Tehuktchis from Asia, I myself have no doubt." 

Peschel, 1876 : "^ " The identity of their language with that of the 
Namollo, their skill on the sea, their domestication of the dog, their 
use of the sledge, the Mongolian type of their faces, their capability 
for higher civilization, are sufficient reasons for answering the ques- 
tion, whether a migration took place from Asia to America or con- 
versely from America to Asia, in favor of the former alternative; 
yet such a migration from Asia by way of Bering Strait must have 
occurred at a much later period than the first colonization of the 
New World from the Old one * * * 

" It is not likely that the Eskimo spread from America to Asia, 
because of all Americans they have preserved the greatest resem- 
blance in racial characters to the Mongolian nations of the Old 

" Pickering. Charles, The races of man, p. 7. London, 1854. 

"^ Wilson, Daniel, riiysical ethnology. Smithsonian Report for 1SG2, p. 262. Wash- 
ington, 1S63. 

™Marl5ham, C. R.. On the origin and migrations of the Greenland Esquimaux. .1. 
Roy. Geog. Soc, xxxv, p. 90. London, 1865. 

f^' Whymper, Frederick, Travels in Alaska and on the Yukon, p. 214. New York, 1869. 

" Peschel, Oscar, The races of man, pp. 396-97. New York, 1876. 



336 ANTHROPOLOGICAL STJEVEY IN ALASKA [ETH. ANN. 4G 

World, and in historical times their migrations have always taken 
place in an easterly direction." 

Kuhl, 1876 : °^ " Bilden so die Eskimo in der Sprache das Binde- 
glied zwischen America unci Asien, so ist dies noch viel mehr der 
Fall in Bezug aiif ihren Typus : dieser stimmt bei den Polarvolkern 
diesseits und jenseits der Beringsstrasse 'zum Verwechseln ' iiberein, 
wie denn auch ein bestandiger Verkehr hiniiber und heriiber 
stattfindet. Hierin liegt der unwiderstehliche Beweis, class diese 
Polarvdlker wenigstens von einer Herkunft sind und class eine 
Einwanderung von einem Continente in das andere hier stattge- 
funden hat. Haben wir nun die Wahl, entweder die Eskimo aus 
Asien nach America, oder die Tschuktschen, die dort auf der 
Asiatischen Seite wohnen, aus America einwandern zu lassen — wof in- 
sich auch Stimmen erhoben haben — so werden wir keinen Augenblick 
zweifelhaft sein: eine spiitere Riickwanderung eines einzelnen 
Stammes in das Land der Viiter wai-e immerhin denkbar; aber wer 
liber die Tschuktschen hinweg die Sache in's Grosse sieht, kann fiir 
die Urzeit nur eine Einwandervmg von Asien nach America, nicht 
umgekehrt, annehmen, und hierf iir finden wir ausser den allgemeinen 
Griinden, welche uns der Verlauf Tmserer Untersuchungen nahe 
gebracht, noch zwei besondere Beweise bei den Eskimo : einmal 
konnen wir die Spur ihrer Wanderungen historisch verfolgen, und 
diese waren nach Osten gerichtet, sodass sie Gronland, mit dem 
heute ihr Name so eng verbunden ist. zuletzt erreichten (S. 209) ; 
sodann haben die Eskimo allein unter den Americanischen Stiimmen 
das Mongolische Gepriige ganz luiversehrt bewahrt — dies bliebe 
unerklJirlich, wenn sie Americanische Autochthonen wiiren * * * 
Einen deutlichen Hinweis auf die Urheimath Asien enthalten auch 
die Wanderungen der Stiimme durch das Americanische Continent, 
soweit wir dieselben verfolgen kiinnen." 

Dall, 1877 : ^'o " I see, therefore, no reason for disputing the hypoth- 
esis that America was peopled from Asia originally, and that there 
were successive waves of emigration. 

"The northern route was clearly by way of Bering Strait; 
* * * Linguistically, no ultimate distinction can be drawn be- 
tween the American Innuit and the American Indian. * * * j 
shall assume, what is also assumed by Mr. Markham, that the orig- 
inal progenitors of the Innuit were in a very primitive, low, and 
barbarous condition. * * * 

" I assume, then, that the larger part of North America may have 
been peopled by way of Bering Strait. * * * j believe that this 

^9 Kubl, Dr. Joseph, Die Anfiingo ties Menschengeschlechts und scin einheitlicher 
Urspi-unj, pp. 315-16. Leipzig, 187G. 

°° Dall, W. n.. Tribos of the extreme northwest. V. S. Geog. and Geol. Survey, i, 
pp. 93-10.5. Washington, 1877. 



HRDLICKA] ORIGIIf AND ANTIQUITY OF THE ESKIMO 337 

emigration was vastly more ancient than Mr. Markham supposes, and 
that it took place before the present characteristics of races and 
tribes of North American savages were developed. '■' * * 

"My own impression agrees with that of Doctor Kink that the 
Innuit were once inhabitants of the interior of America; that they 
were forced to the west and north by the pressure of tribes of In- 
dians from the south ; that they spread into the Aleutian region and 
northwest coast generally, and possibly simultaneously to the north; 
that their journeying was originally tentative, and that they finally 
settled in those regions which afforded them subsistence, perhaps 
after passing through the greater portion of Arctic America, leaving 
their traces as they went in many places unfit for permanent settle- 
ment ; that after the more inviting regions were occupied, the pres- 
sure from Indians and still unsatisfied tribes of their own stock, in- 
duced still further emigration, and finally peopled Greenland and the 
shores of northeastern Siberia ; but that these latter movements were, 
on the whole, much more modern, and more local than the original 
exodus, and took place after the race characteristics and language 
were tolerably well matured. * * * 

" I conclude that at present the Asiatic Innuit range fi-om Koliu- 
chin Bay to the eastward and south to Anadyr Gulf. * * * 

" To the reflux of the great wave of emigration, which no doubt 
took place at a very early period, we may owe the numerous deserted 
huts reported by all explorers on the north coasts of Asia, as far east 
as the mouth of the Indigirka. At one time, I thought the migration 
to Asia had taken place within a few centuries, but subsequent study 
and reflection has convinced me that this could not have been the 
case. No doubt successive parties crossed at different times, and some 
of these may have been comparatively modern." 

Rae, 1878 : "^ "All the Eskimos with whom I have communicated 
on the subject, state that they originally came very long ago from the 
west, or setting sun, and that in doing so they crossed a sea separating 
the two great lands. 

" That these people (the Eskimos) have been driven from their 
own country in the northern parts of Asia by some unknown pressure 
of circumstances, and obliged to extend themselves along the whole 
northern coast line of America and Greenland, appears to be likely, 
and that the route followed after ci'ossing Bering Strait was of neces- 
sity along the coast'eastward, being hemmed in by hostile Indians on 
the south, and driven forward bj^ pressure from the west * * *_ 

" Such were my opinions 12 years ago, and their correctness has 
been rather confirmed than otherwise, by all that we have since 
learned, * * * " 

" Rae, John, Eskimo Migrations. Jour. Anthrop. Inst. Great Britain and Ireland, tii, 
pp. 130-131. London, 1878. 



338 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ann. 40 

1887 : *"- " Professor Flower said that his investigation into the 
physical characteristics of the Eskimos led him to agree entirely 
with Doctor Rae's conclusions derived from other sources. He looked 
upon the Eskimos as a branch of the North Asiatic Mongols (of 
which the Japanese may be taken as a familiar example), who in 
their wandering across the American continent in the eastward direc- 
tion, isolated almost as perfectly as an island population would be, 
hemmed in on one side by the eternal polar ice, and on the other by 
hostile tribes of American Indians, with whom they rarely, if ever, 
mingled, have gradually developed special modifications of the Mon- 
golian type, which increase in intensity from west to east, and are 
seen in their greatest perfection in the inhabitants of Green- 
land. * * * 

" Doctor Rae also thinks that the Eskimos came from across Bering 
Strait from Asia. Their traditions and many other things point in 
that direction, and they are in no way related to the ancient cave 
men of Europe." 

Dawson, 1880 : "' Eskimo : " On the eastern side of the continent 
these poor people have always been separated bj' a marked line from 
their Indian neighbors on the south, and have been regarded by them 
with the most bitter hostility. On the west, however, they pass into 
the Eastern Siberians, on the one hand, and into the West-coast In- 
dians, on the other, both by language and physical characters. They 
and the northern tribes at least of West-coast Indians, belong in all 
probability to a wave of population spreading from Bering Strait." 

Quatrefages et Hamy, 1882 : °* " Les Esquimaux ou Eskimos, qui se 
nomment eux-memes Innuits, constituent dans la serie mongolique 
im groupe exceptionnel, qui differe a maints egards de ceux qui 
viennent de passer sous nos yeux, mais dont I'origine asiatique n'est 
plus aujourd'hui contestee et dont les affinites occidentales frapjjent 
de plus en plus les observateurs speciaux." 

Brown, 1888 : *^ " It is only when we come to the region beginning 
at Cape Shelagskii and extending to tke East Cape of Siberia that 
we find any traces of them. This tract is now held by the coast 
Tchukchi, but it was not always their home, for they expelled from 
this dreary stretch the Onkilon or Eskimo race who took refuge in 
or near less attractive quai'tei's between the East Cape and Anadvrskii 
Bay." 

"" Rae, John, Remarks on the Natives of British North America. Jour. Anthrop. Inst. 
Great Britain and Ireland, m, p. 200. London, 1887. 

"' Dawson, J. W., Fossil men and their modern rcpresentatires, pp. 48-49. Montreal, 
1880. 

■" Quatrefages, A. de, et Hamy, E. T., Crania ethnica. Les cranes des races humaines, 
p. 437. Paris, 1882. 

"^ Brown, Robert, The origin of the Eskimo. The Archaeological Review, i. No. 4, pp. 
238-289. London, 1888. 



HRDi.iOKA] ORIGIN AND ANTIQUITY OF THE ESKIMO 339 

Ratzel, 1897 : "'' " If we ask whence they came, Asia seems most 
obvious, since between the American and Asiatic coasts of Bering 
Straits, intercourse has always been ventured upon even in the rudest 
skin-boats. * * * 

'• Ethnographic indications also point predominantly to the 
west. * * * 

" But we liave an equal right to suppose a migration from America 
into Asia." 

Thalbitzer, 1914:" "I still believe (like Eink), that the common 
Eskimo mother-group has at one time lived to the west at the Bering 
Strait, coming originally from the coasts of Siberia."' 

Fiirst and Hansen. 1915:''^ "We are to some extent acquainted 
with the diffusion of the Eskimos over the earth, and know that they 
could not liave come directly from Europe and that Greenland was 
populated from the west, one may naturally conclude, as has often 
been concluded before, that their descent is from the west, in other 
words from Asia, though the time at which such an immigration took 
place and the racial type which they then possessed must remain 
still more hypothetical than immigration itself." 

Mathiassen, 1927 : "" " We must therefore imagine that the Tliule 
culture, with all its peculiar whaling culture, has originated some- 
where in the western regions, in an Arctic area, where whales were 
plentiful and wood abundant, and we are involuntarily led toward the 
coasts of Alaska and East Siberia north of Bering Strait, the regions 
to which we have time after time had to turn in order to find pai-allels 
to types from the Central Eskimo finds. Tliere all the conditions 
have been present for the originating of such a culture, and from 
there it has spread eastward right to Greenland, seeking everywhere 
to adapt itself to the local geographical conditions. And it can 
hardly have been a culture wave alone; it must have been a migra- 
tion. The similarities between east and west are in many directions 
so detailed that it is difficult to explain them without assuming an 
actual migration of people from the one place to the other." 

Jochelson, 1928 : "° " In discussing tlie question of former Eskimo 
occupation of the Siberian Arctic coast a very remote period of time 
is not meant, so that in this sense the assumed recent Eskimo migra- 
tions from Asia into America and vice versa do not interfere with the 
general theory of the Asiatic origin of the American population." 

"•" Ratzel, Friodrlch. The history of mankind, ii, pp. 107-108. London, 1897. 

»■ Thalbitzor, W., The Ammassalik Eskimo. Meddolelscr cm Gr0nland, vol. xxxix, pt. 
1, p. 717. Copenhagen, 1914. 

'' Fur.st, Carl M., and Fr. C. C. Hansen, Crania Grocniandica, p. 228. Copenhagen, 
1915. 

"» Mathiassen, Therkel, Archaeology of the central Eskimos. Report of the Fifth 
Thule Expedition 1921-1924, p. 184. Copenhagen. 1927. 

""Jochelson, W., Peoples of Asiatic Russia. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., p. 60. New York, 
1928. 



340 ANTHROPOLOGICAL STXRVEY IN ALASKA Ibth. ann. 4g 

AMERICAN 

Pricliard, 1S47 : ''^ "A question has been raised, to -what department 
of mankind the Esquimaux belong. Some think them a race allied 
to the northern Asiatics, and even go so far as to connect them with 
the Mongolians. Others, with greater probabilitj', consider them as 
belonging to the American family. All the American writers eminent 
for their researches in the giottology of the New World, among whom 
I shall mention Mr. du Ponceau and Mr. Gallatin, are unanimous in 
the opinion that the Esquimaux belong to the same great department 
of nations as the Hunting Tribes of North America." 

Kink, 1890 : '= " * * * kann es wohl keinem Zweifel unterworf en 
sein, dass die Eskimos den sogenannten Nordwest-Indianern an der 
Kiiste Alaskas und welter siklwiirts am niichsten stehen. Es diirfte 
deshalb der Untersuchung werth sein, ob sie nicht audi wirklich als 
das iiusserste nordliche Glied dieser Volkerstamme zu betrachten 
waren. Man hat angenommcn, dass diese letzteren, dem Laufe der 
Fliisse folgend, vom Binnenlande zur Kiiste gekommen sind. Sie 
lernten dann, theilweise und um so mehr wohl, je weiter nach Norden 
sich ihren Lebensunterhalt aus dem Meere zu verschaffen. Die 
Eskimos endigten damit, sich ausschliesslich der Jagd auf dem Meere 
zu widmen, und erlangten dadurch ihre merkwiirdige Fiihigkeit, alien 
Hindernissen des arktischen Klimas Trotz bieten zu konnen. 
Betrachten wir demnach, wie man vermeintlich noch jetzt die Spuren 
der Veriinderungen beobachten kann, denen sie nach und nach unter- 
worfen woi'den sind, indem sie sich, unserer Vermuthung zufolge, 
nach Norden und Osten verbreiteten." 

Eink, 1873 : '^ "As far as can now be judged, the Eskimo appear to 
have been the last wave of an aboriginal American race, which has 
spread over the continent from more genial regions, following prin- 
cipally the rivers and watercourses, and continually yielding to the 
pressure of the tribes behind them, until at last they have peopled 
the seacoast. * *■ * 

" The author explains some of the most common traditions from 
Greenland as simply mythical narrations of events occurring in the 
far northwest corner of America, thereby pointing to the great 
probability of that district having been the original home of the 
nation, in which they first assumed the peculiarities of their present 
culture." 

" Prichard, James Cowles, Researches into the physical history of mankind, vol. v, 
p. 374. London, 1847. 

"Rinlt, H., Die Verbreltung der iSskimo-Stiimme. Congrfts International des Am^ri- 
canistes, 1SS8, 221-22. Berlin, 1S90. 

" Rink, n.. On the descent of the Eskimo. M^m. Soc. Roy. d. Antiquaires du Nord ; 
Journ. anthiop. Inst., ii, 1873, pp. 104, 100, 108. 



iikdliCka] origin AND ANTIQUITY OF THE ESKIMO 341 

Captain Piin also expressed his belief that " the Eskimo were pure 
American aborigines, and not of Asiatic descent." 

Kink, 1875 : '* " If we suppose the physical conditions and the 
climate of the Eskimo regions not to have altered in any remarkable 
way since they were first inhabited, their inhabitants of course must 
originally have come from more southern latitudes, * * * ^^ j^p_ 
pears evident on many grounds that such a southern tribe has not been 
a coast people migrating along the seashore, and turning into Eskimo 
on passing beyond a certain latitude, but that they have more prob- 
ably emerged from some interior count rj*, following the river banks 
toward the shores of the polar sea, having reached which they be- 
came a coast people, and, moreover, a polar-coast jDeople. The Eskimo 
most evidently rej^resenting the jjolar-coast people of North America, 
the first question which arises seems to be whether their development 
can be conjectured with any probability to have taken place in that 
part of the world. Other geographical conditions appear greatly to 
favor such a supposition * * *. The rivers taking their course to 
the sea between Alaska and the Coppermine Kiver, seem well adapted 
to lead such a migrating people onward to the polar sea. * * * 

'" The probable identity of the ' inlanders ' with the Indians has al- 
ready been remarked on. When the new coast people began to spread 
along the Arctic shores, some bands of them may very probably have 
crossed Bering Strait and settled on the opposite shore, which is 
perhaps identical with the fabulous country of Akilinek. On the 
other hand, there is very little ^Jrobability that a people can have 
moved from interior Asia to settle on its polar seashore, at the same 
time turning Eskimo, and afterwards almost wholly emigrated to 
America. 

" On comparing the Eskimo with the neighboring nations, their 
physical complexion certainly seems to point at an Asiatic origin ; 
but, as far as we know, the latest investigations have also shown a 
transitional link to exist between the Eskimo and the other American 
nations, which would sufficiently indicate the possibility of a common 
origin from the same continent." 

Rink, 1875 : '° " The author, who has traveled and resided in Green- 
land for 20 years, and has studied the native traditions, of which 
he has preserved a collection, considers the Eskimo as deserving 
particular attention in regard to the question how America has been 
originally peopled. He desires to draw the attention of ethnologists 
to the necessity of explaining, by means of the mysterious early 

" Rink, H.. Tales and traditions of the Eskimo, pp. 70, 71, 72, 73. Edinburgh and 
London. 1875. 

" Rink, n., On the descent of the Eskimo. In a Selection of Papers on Arctic Geog- 
raphy and Ethnology, Koy. Geog. Soc, pp 230, 232. London, 1875. 



342 ANTHEOPOLOGICAL STJEVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ANN. 46 

history of the Eskimo, the apparently abrupt step by which these 
people have been changed from probably inland or riverside in- 
habitants into a decidedly littoral people, depending entirely on the 
products of the Arctic Sea; and he arrives at the conclusion that, 
although the question must still remain doubtful, and dependent 
chiefly on further investigations into the traditions of the natives 
occupying adjacent countries, yet, as far as can now be judged, the 
Eskimo appear to have been the last wave of an aboriginal American 
race, which has spread over the continent from more genial regions, 
following principally the rivers and watercourses, and continually 
yielding to the pressure of the tribes behind them, until at last they 
have peopled the seacoast. * * * 

"When we consider the existing intercourse between the inhabi- 
tants on both sides of Bering Strait, we find many circumstances to 
justify the conclusion that those traditions of the Greenland Eskimo 
refer to the origin of the Eskimo sledge dog from the training of 
the Arctic wolf, to the first journeys upon tlie frozen sea, and to 
intercourse between the aboriginal Eskimo and the Asiatic coast." 

Eink, 1886:"" " Gronland kann ja nur von Westen her seine esld- 
moische Bevolkerung empfangen haben. Dasselbe lasst sich mit 
Wahrscheinlichkeit auch von den niichsten Nachbarliindern jenseits 
der Davisstrasse annehmen, und wenn wir diese Vermutung weiter 
erstrecken, gelangen wir zum Alaskaterritorium als der wahrschein- 
lichen Heimat der jetzt so weit zertreuten arktischen Volkes. 
Zunachst findet diese Annahme eine Bestiitigung darin, dass die 
Eskimos hier nicht auf die Kiiste beschrankt, sondern auch liings der 
Fliisse ins Binnenland verbreitet sind, nur dass der ungeheure Fisch- 
reichtum dieser Fliisse es moglich gemacht haben kann, dass hier 
urspriinglich eine noch viel grossere Bevolkerung, als jetzt, sich 
sammelte, welche durch Auswanderung das notwendige Kontingent 
zur Entstehung der auf die Meereskiiste beschriinkten Stiimme 
geliefert haben kann." 

Wilson, 1876 : " " Some analogies confirm the ]^x-obability of a por- 
tion of the North American stock having entered the continent from 
Asia by Bering Strait or the Aleutian Islands; and more probably 
by the latter than the former. * * * 

" In this direction, then, a North American germ of population 
may have entered the continent from Asia, diffused itself over the 
Northwest, and ultimately reached the valleys of the Mississippi, and 
penetrated to southern latitudes by a route to the east of the Rocky 
Mountains. Many centuries may have intervened between the first 

™ Rink, H., Die Ostgronlander in ilirem Vprhiiltnissc? zu den tbrigen EslsimostSmmeB. 
Deutscli Geographische Blatter, IX, p. 229. Bremen, 188C. 

•' Wilson, Daniel, Prehistoric man, pp. 343-352. London, 1S7G. 



HKDLICKA] ORIGIN^ AND ANTIQUITY OF THE ESKIMO 343 

immigration and its coming in contact with races of the southern 
continent ; and philological and other evidence indicates that if such 
a northwestern immigration be really demonstrable, it is one of very 
ancient date. But so far as I have been able to study the evidence, 
much of that hitherto adduced appears to point the other 
way. * * * 

" With Asiatic Esquimaux thus distributed along the coast adjacent 
to the dividing sea ; and the islands of the whole Aleutian group in 
the occupation of the same remarkable stock common to both hemi- 
spheres: The only clearly recognizable indications are those of a 
current of migration setting toward the continent of Asia, the full 
influence of which may prove to have been more comprehensive than 
has hitherto been imagined possible. * * * "' 

Grote. 1877:"^ Regards the Eskimo as the original inhabitants of 
North America and believes they extended down to 50° in the eastern 
and 60° in the western part of the continent. 

Krause, 1883 :*" " Ueberblickt man nun die gegenwartige Verbrei- 
tung der Eskimos in Asien. so wird man der Ansicht von Dall und 
Nordenskiold beistimmen, dass die asiatischen Eskimo aus Amerika 
eingewandert sind und nicht. wio Steller. Wrungell. und andere ver- 
mutheten, zuriickgebliebene Reste einer ehemals zahlreicheren, nach 
Amerika hiniibergezogenen Bevolkerung. Immerhin wiirde durch 
die Annahme eines amerilcanischen Ursprunges der jetzigen Eskimo- 
be viilkerung die Moglichkeit friiherer Wanderungen in entgegenge- 
setzter Richtung nicht ausgeschlossen sein, nur giebt die gegenwar- 
tige Verbreitung keinen Anhalt fiir eine solche, und historische Be- 
weise fahlen." 

Raj^, 1885 : *^ " Of their origin and descent we could get no trace, 
there being no record of events kept among them. * * * 

" That they have followed the receding line of ice, which at one 
time capped the northern part of this continent, along the easiest 
lines of travel is shown in the general distribution of a similar peo- 
ple, speaking a similar tongue, from Greenland to Bering Strait ; in 
so doing they followed the easiest natural lines of travel along the 
watercourses and the seashore, and the distribution of the race to- 
day marks the routes traveled. The seashore led them along the 
Labrador and Greenland coasts; Hudson Bay and its tributary 
waters carried its quota towards Boothia Land: helped by Back's 

"Grote, A. R., Buff. Daily Courier, Jan. 7, 1877 (q. by. R. Virchow, Z. Ethnol., Verh., 
IX, 1877, p. 69). 

*° Krausf, Aurcl, Die Bevollterungsverhaltnisse der Tschuktschenhalbinsel. Verb. Berl. 
GPS. Anthrop., etc., in Z. Ethn., XV. pp. 226-27. 1883. 

«' Ray, r. 11., Ethnographic Sketch of the Natives. Report of the International Polar 
Expedition to Point Barrow, Alaska, pt. 2, p. 37. Washington, 1885. 



344 ANTHROPOLOGICAL STJEVBY IN" ALASKA [eth ann. 46 

Great Fish River, the Mackenzie carried them to the northwestern 
coast, and down the Yukon they came to people the shores of Norton 
Sound and along the coast to Cape Prince of Wales. They occupied 
some of the coast to the south of the mouth of the Yukon, and a few 
drifted across Bering Strait on the ice, and their natural traits are 
still in marked contrast with their neighbors, the Chuckchee. They 
use dogs instead of deer, the natives of North America having never 
domesticated the reindeer, take their living from the sea, and speak a 
different tongue. Had the migration come from Asia it does not 
stand to reason that they would have abandoned tlie deer upon 
crossing the straits." 

Keane, 1886 : ^- " Dr. H. Eink, in the current number of the 
Deutsche Geographische Blatter (Bermen, 1886) * * * n^akes 
it .sufficiently evident that their primeval home must be placed in 
the extreme northwest, on the Alaskan shores of the Bering Sea 

* * * the Aleutian Islanders, who are treated by Doctor Rinlv as a 
branch of the Eskimo family, but whose language diverges pro- 
foundly from, or rather shows no perceptible affinity at all to, the 
Eskimo. The old question respecting tlie ethnical affinities of the 
Aleutians is thus again raised, but not further discussed by our 
author. To say that they must be regarded as ' ein abnormer 
Seitenzweig,' merely avoids the difficulty, while jDcrhaps obscuring 
or misstating the true relations altogether. For these islanders 
should possibly be regarded, not ' as abnormal offshoot,' but as the 
original stock from which the Eskimos themselves have diverged. 

* * * Doctor Rink himself advances some solid reasons for bring- 
ing the Eskimo, not from Asia at all, or at least not in the first 
instance, but from the interior of the North American continent. He 
holds, in fact, with some other ethnologists, that they were originally 
inlanders, who, under pressure from the American Indians, gradu- 
ally advanced along the course of the Yukon, Mackenzie, and other 
great rivers, to their present homes on the Bering Sea, and Frozen 
Ocean." 

No individual or decided standpoint on the question is taken in 
the author's Man, Past and Present, 1920 edition. 

Brown, 1881 : ^^ " The Eskimo are therefore an essentially American 
people, with a meridional range greater than that of any other 
race. * * * 

" It is also clear that this migration has always been from west to 
east, as also has been that of the Indian tribes; * * * 

" Did these hyperboreans come from Asia or are they evolutions, 
differentiations, as it were, of some of the other American races? 

«= Keane, A. H., The Eskimo. Nature, xxxv, pp. 309, 310. London, New York, 1886-87. 
'2 Brown, Robert, Tbe Origin of the Eskimo. The Archaeological Review, i. No. 4, pp. 
240-250. London, 1888. 



HRDLIfKA] OlilGIN' AND ANTIQUITY OF THE ESKIMO 345 

That all of the American 2:)eople.s came originally from Asia, is, I 
think, an hypothesis for which a great deal might be said. Unless 
tliey originated there or were autochthonic, an idea which may at 
once be dismissed ; they could scarcely have come from anywhere else, 
* * * but the central question is whether tlie Eskimo are of a 
later date than the Indians or are really Indians compelled to live 
under less favorable conditions than the rest of their kinsfolk. The 
latter will, I think, be found to be the most reasonable view to 
adopt. * * * 

" Doctor Eink seems not far from the truth when he indicates 
the rivers of Central Arctic America as the region from whence the 
Eskimo spread northward. * * 

" It is not at all improbable that the original progenitors of the 
race may have been a few isolated families, members of some small 
Indian tribe, or the decaying remnants of a larger one. Little by 
little they were expelled from their hunting and fishing grounds on 
the original river bank until, finding no place amid the stronger 
tribes, they settled in a region where they were left to them- 
selves. * * * 

" It may, however, be taken as proved that the Eskimo are in no 
respect and never were a European people; that they are not and 
never were an Asiatic one, except to the small extent already de- 
scribed; that the handful of peojjle settled on the Siberian shore 
migrated from America, and that it is very probable the Eskimo 
came from the interior of Arctic America, Alaska more likely than 
from any other part of the world." 

Virchow, 1877 : ^* " Ich mochte namentlich darauf aufmerksam 
machen, dass diejenigen, welche den nachsten Ankniipfungspunkt 
fiir die Urbevolkerung Amerika's bei den Eskimo's suchen, welche 
ferner die Sprache und die Formen der Eskimo's nach Asien hinein 
verfolgen, leicht ein petitio principii machen diirften, insofern als 
es wohl sein konnte, dass sie ein spiiteres Phiinomen fiir ein friiheres 
halten. Warum soUte nicht die Einwanderung der Eskimo's von 
Asien erst erfolgt sein, nachdem liingst andere Theile des Continents 
ihre Bewohner erhalten hatten? " 

1878 : ^'' " Nun ist es sehr bemerkenswerth, dass gegeniiber dieser 
physiognomischen Aehnlichkeit der Eskimos und der Mongolen eine 
absolute Difl'erenze Zwischen ihncn in Bezug auf die Schiidelkapsel 
existirt" (examined six living Greenland Eskimos). 

^ Virchow, R., AntUropolosrie Amerika's. Verh. Berl. Ges. Anthr., etc.. .Jahrg. 1877 
(with Z. Ethnol.. 1877, ixi, pp. 154-0o. 

^' Eskimos. Verh. Berl. Ges. Anthr., etc., 1878, pp. 185-189 (with Z. Ethnol., 

1878, X), p. 18(i. 

88253°— 30 23 



346 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SUKVEY IN ALASKA [eth.ann.46 

1885 ■.^'^ " Verbimlen wir dieses mit dem Umstande, dass die Sagen 
der Ungava-Eskimos stets nach Norden iiber die Hudson-Strasse 
verlegt werden, dass man im Baffin-Lande stets iiber die Fury- und 
Hecla-Strasse fort nach Siiden als dem Schauplatz alter Sagen 
hinweist, und dass die westlichen Eskimos ebenso den Osten als das 
Land ihrer sagenhaften Helden und Stamme betraehten, so gewinnt 
die Vermuthung an Wahrseheinlichkeit, dass im Westen des Hudson- 
Bay-Gebietes die Heimath der weitverbreiteten Stamme zu suchen 
ist." 

Chamberlain, 1889 : *' " In a paper read before the Institute last 
year (Proc. Can. Inst., 3d. sen. Vol. V., Fasc. i., October, 1887, p. 70), 
I advanced the view that instead of the Eskimo being derived from 
the Mongolians of northeastern Asia, the latter are on the contrary 
descended from the E.skimo, or their ancestors, who have from time 
immemorial inhabited the continent of America." 

Boas, 1901 : *** "AH these data seem to me to prove conclusively that 
the culture of the Alaskan Eskimo is very greatly influenced by that 
of the Indians of the North Pacific coast and by the Athapascan 
tribes of the interior. This is in accord with the observation that 
their physical type is not so pronounced as the eastern Eskimo type. 
1 believe, therefore, that H. Rink's opinion of an Alaskan origin of 
the Eskimo is not very probable. If pure type and culture may be 
considered as significant, I should say that the Eskimo west and 
north of Hudson Bay have retained their ancient characteristics more 
than any others. If their original home was in Alaska, we must add 
the hypothesis that their dispersion began before contact with the 
Indians. If their home was east of the Mackenzie, the gradual dis- 
persion and ensuing contact with other tribes would account for all 
the observed phenomena. * * * Qn the whole, the relations of 
North Pacific and North Asiatic cultures are such that it seems 
plausible to my mind that the Alaskan Eskimo are, comparatively 
speaking, recent intruders, and that they at one time interrupted an 
earlier cultural connection between the two continents." 

To which he adds in the second part of this work,*** speaking of the 
Eskimo taboos: "It may perhaps be venturesome to claim that the 
marked development of these customs suggests a time when the Es- 
kimo tribes were inland people who went down to the sea and gradu- 
ally adopted maritime pursuits, which, however, were kept entirely 
apart from their inland life, although in a way this seems an attrac- 
tive hypothesis. 

™Virchow, R., Eskimos. Verb. Berl. Ges. Anthr., etc., 188.". p. ifi.'i (with Z. Ethnol., 
1883, XVII). 

" rhamberlain, A. F., The Eskimo R.aoo and LaDguage. Proc. Can. Inst., vi, p. 2S1. 
Toronto. 1889. 

^ Boas, F., Eskimo of Baffin Land and Hudson Bay. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., xv, pp. 
369-370. 1907. 

""Ibid., XV, pt. 2, pp. 569-570. 1907. 



HRDLicKA] ORIGIN AND ANTIQUITY OF THE ESKIMO 347 

Boas, 1910 : "" " There is little doubt that the Eskimos, whose life 
as sea huntei-s has left a deep impression upon all of their doings, 
must probably be classed with the same group of peoples. The 
much-discussed theory of the Asiatic origin of the Eskimos must be 
entirely abandoned. The investigations of the Je.sup North Pacific 
Exijedition, which it was my privilege to conduct, seem to show that 
the Eskimos must be considered as, comparatively speaking, new 
arrivals in Alaska, which they reached coming from the east." 

Clark Wissler, 1917.^' Page 363: "The New World received a 
detachment of early Mongoloid peoples at a time when the main 
body had barely developed stone polishing." 

Pages 361-362 : " Our review of New World .somatic characters 
revealed the essential unity of the Indian population. It is also • 
clear that there are affinities with the Mongoloid peoples of Asia. 
Hence, we are justified in assuming a common ancestral group for 
the whole Mongoloid-Ked stream of humanity. We have already 
outlined the reasons for assuming the pristine home of this group to 
be in Asia." 

Page 335 : " For example, the Eskimos, whose first appearance in 
the New World must have been in Alaska, spread only along the 
Arctic coast belt to its ultimate limits." 

1918^-. Page 161 : " The most acceptable theory of Eskimo origin 
is that they expanded from a parent group in the Arctic Achipelago." 

1922.''= Pages 368, 396, 398: Identical in every word again with 
that of 1917. 

EUROPEAN 

Dawkins, 1866 : ^* " The sum of the evidence proves that man, in a 
hunter state, lived in the south of Gaul on reindeer, musk sheep, 
horses, oxen, and the like, at a time when the climate was similar to 
that which those animals now inhabit. To what race did he belong? 
In solving this the zoological evidence is of great importance. The 
reindeer and musk sheep now inhabit the northern part of the 
American Continent and are the pi'incipal land animals that supply 
the Esquimaux with food. The latter of these has departed from 
the Asiatic Continent, leaving remains behind to prove that it shared 
the higher northern latitudes of Asia with the reindeer, and this 

™ Boas, FraDz, Ethnological Problems in Canada. Jour. Roy. Anthrop. Inst. Great 
Britain and Ireland, XL, p. 534. London, 1910. 

^ Wisslor, Clark, The American Indian. New York, 1917. 

^- Archaeology of the Polar Eskimo. Anthrop. Papers, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

XXII, pt. 3, p. IGl. New York, 1918. 

»= The American Indian. New York, 1022. 

^Dawkins, Boyd, In a Review of Lartet and Christy's " Cavernes du Pt^rigord " (1864), 
in the Saturday Review, xxii, p. 713, 1866. [This review is not signed but is attributed 
to B. D.] 



348 ANTHROPOLOGICAL STJKVEY IN ALASKA [bth. ann. 46 

latter has retreated farther and farther north during the historical 
period. May not the race that lived on these two animals in southern 
Gaul have shared also in their northern retreat, and may it not be 
living in company with them still? The truth of such a hypoth- 
esis as this is found by an appeal to the weapons, implements, and 
habits of life of the Esquimaux. The fowling spear, the harpoon, 
the scrapers, the marrow spoons are the same in the ice huts of Mel- 
ville Sound as in the ancient dwellings of southern Gaul. In both 
there is the same absence of pottery; in both bones are crushed in the 
same way for the sake of the mari-ow, and accumulate in vast quanti- 
ties. Tlie very fact of human remains being found among the relics 
of the feast is exislained by an appeal to what Captain Parry ob- 
served in the island of Igloolik. Among the vast quantities of bones 
of walruses and seals, and skulls of dogs and bears found in the Esqui- 
maux camp, were numbers of liunum skulls lying about among the 
rest, which the natives tumbled into the collecting bags of the officers 
without the least remorse. A similar carelessness for the dead was 
also observed by Sir J. Ross and Captain Lyon. This presence, then, 
of human remains in the south of Gaul is another link binding the 
ancient people then living there to the Esquimaux. Their small size 
also is additional evidence. 

'' The only inference that can be drawn from these premises is 
that the people in question were decidedly Esquimaux, related to 
them precisely in the same way as the reindeer and musk sheep of 
those days were to those now living in the high North American 
latitudes. The sole point of difference is the possession of the dog 
by the latter people, but in the vast lapse of time between the date 
of their sojourn in Europe and the present day the dog might very 
well have been adopted from some other superior race, or even re- 
duced under the rule of man from some wild progenitor. By this 
discovery a new j^eople is added to those which formerly dwelt in 
Europe. The severity of the climate in southern Gaul is proved by 
the northern animals above mentioned. As it became warmer musk 
sheep, reindeer, and Esquimaux would retreat farther and farther 
north until they found a resting place on the American shore of the 
great Arctic Sea. Possibly in the case of the Esquimaux the inuni- 
gration of other and better-armed tribes might be a means of acceler- 
ating this movement." 

Hamy, 1870:^" "II nous parait, comme a MM. de Quatref ages, Car- 
ter-Blake, Le Hon, etc., que les earacteres anatomiques des races de 
Furfooz et de Cro-Magnon doivent leur faire prendre place dans le 
groupe hyperboreen." 

°= Hamy, E. T,, Tr^cis <Je paK'ontologie humaine. p. 355. Taris, 1870. 



HKDi.irKA] OKIGIN AND ANTIQUITY OF THE ESKIMO 349 

Dawkins, 1874 ^" : In 1866. Boyd Dawkins, on the basis of the re- 
semblances between the implements of the Eskimo and those of the 
later prehistoric man of Europe, advances the idea that the Eskimo 
were close kin to the palaeolithic man of Europe, before the scientific 
forum. In his Cave Hunting he says: ''Palaeolithic man appeared 
in Europe with the arctic mammalia, lived in Europe along with 
them, and disappeared with them. And since his implements are of 
the same kind as those of the Eskimos, it may reasonably be con- 
cluded that he is represented at the present time by the Eskimos, for 
it is most improljable that the convergence of the ethnological and 
zoological evidence should be an accident." 

1880 : "' '• The probable identity of the cave men with the Eskimos 
is considerably strengthened by a consideration of some of the ani- 
mrals found in the caves. * * * 

"All these points of connection between the cave men and the 
Eskimos can, in my opinion, be explained only on the hypothesis 
that they belong to the same race * * *." 

The cave man : " From the evidence brought forward in this chap- 
ter, there is reason to believe that he is represented at the present 
time by the Eskimos."' 

Mortillet, 1889:"' " Les Groenlandais, au point de vue paleoeth- 
nologique, presentent un tres grand interet. lis paraissent se relier 
tres intimement aux hommes qui habitaient TEurope moyenne pend- 
ant I'epoque de la Madeleine. lis seraient les descendants directs des 
Magdaleniens. lis auraient successivement emigre vers le pole, avea 
I'animal caracteristique de cette epoque, le renne. Habitues aux 
froids les plus rigoureux de I'epoque magdalenienne, ils se sont re- 
tires dans les regions froides du Nord. * * * 

" Comme on le voit, il y a la plus grande ressemblance, tant sous 
le rapport physique et moral que sous le rapport artistique et indus- 
triel entre les hommes de la Madeleine et les Groenlandais. Cette 
ressemblance est telle que nous pouvons en conclure que les seconds 
sont les descendants des premiers." 

Testut, 1889 : "° " Parmi les races actuelles, celle qui me parait 
presenter la plus grande analogic avec I'homme de Chancelade est 
celle des Esquimaux qui vivent encore a I'etat sauvage dans leg glaces 
de I'Amerique septentrionale. lis ont, en effet, le meme crane que 
notre troglodyte quaternaire ; leur face est constituee suivant le meme 
type ; ils ont, a pen de chose pres, la meme taille, le meme indice Pala- 
is Dawkins, Boyd, Cave Hunting, p. 359. London, 1874. 
" Dawkins, Boyd, Early Man in Britain, pp. 240, 241, 24.5. London, ISSO. 
" Mortillet, G. de, Les Groenlandais descendants des Magdaleniens. Bulletins de la 
Soci^te d'Anthropologle, VI, pp. 86S-870. Paris, 1883. 

"■' Testut, L., Reeherches anthropologique.s sur le .squelette quaternaire de Chancelade 
(Dordogne). Bull. .Snc. d'anthrop., viii, pp. 243-244. Lyon, Paris. 1889. 



350 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY LST ALASKA [ETH. ANN. M 

tin, le meme indice nasal, le meme indice orbitaire, le meme degre de 
torsion de lliumerus, etc. * * * 

" La decoiiverte de Chancelade. en mettant en himiere une analogic 
fraj^pante entie le squelette de notre troglodyte perigourdin et celui 
des Esquimaux actuels, apporte a cette opinion aussi seduisante que 
naturelle, Tappui de Tanthropologie anatomique qui, dans I'espece, 
a une importance capitale. Elle lui est de tous points favorable et 
eleve a la hauteur d'une verite probable, je n'ose dire d'une verite 
demontree, ce qui n'etait encore qu'une simple hypothese." 

Herve, 1893 : ' " * * * * par leurs usages et par leurs moeurs, 
aussi bien que par leur materiel industriel et artistique, les Hyper- 
boreens actuels (Tchouktches et Eskimaux) sont extremement 
voisins des Troglodytes magdaleniens de I'Europe occidentale ; a 
ce point que Hamy a pu dire " qu'ils contiuuent de nos jours, dan Ifes 
regions circumpolaires, Fage du renne de France, de Belgique, de 
Suisse, avec ses caracteristiques zoologiques, ethnographiques, etc' 
(op. cit., 366). 'Nous avons vu, d'autre jjart, que les plus purs 
d'entre eux ne different pas anatomiquement des Magdaleniens. 
C'est done au rameau hyperboreen que nous sommes amenes a ratta- 
cher, au jDoint de vue ethnique, les demieres joopulations de I'Europe 
quaternaire.' " 

Boule, 1913 : - " On sait d'ailleurs, depuis les travaux de Testut sur 
THomme de Chancelade, que les relations des Esquimaux sont avec 
d'autres HommeS fossiles de nos pays, mais d'un age geologique plus 
recent." 

Sollas, 1924 : ^ The Magdalenians are represented " in part, by the 
Eskimo on the frozen margin of the North American Continent and 
as well, perhaps, by the Red Indians. * * *" Due to pressure 
of stronger peoples, the ancestors of the Eskimo were present to the 
north ; '• but as there was no room for expansion in that direction, it 
was diverted toward the only egress possible, and an outflow took 
place into America over Bering Strait or the Aleutian Islands. The 
primitive Eskimo, already accustomed to a boreal life, extended 
along the coast." 

1927 : "* " The assemblage of characters presented on the one hand 
by the Chancelade skull, and on the other by the Eskimo, are in very 
remarkable agreement, and that the onus of discovering a similar 
assemblage, but possessed by some other race, rests with those who 
refuse to accept what seems to me a very obvious conclusion. * * * 

^ Hervfi, Georges, La Race des Troglodytes Magdaleniens. Rev. mens, de I'Ecole 
d'anthrop., ni, p. 188. Paris, 1893. 

'' Boule, Marcellin, L'lloiume fo-ssilo de la Chapelle-aux-Saints, pp. 228. Paris, lOl.'j. 

^ Sollas. W. J., Ancient hunters and their modern representaUres, pp. 500, 592. New 
York, 1924. 

< Sollas, W. J., The Chancelade skull. J. Roy, Anthrop. Inst., lvii, pp. 119, 121. London. 
1927. 



i£nDH(-KA] ORIGIN AND ANTIQUITY OF THE ESKIMO 351 

" Our only reason for any feelintj of surprise is, not that Chan- 
celade man should prove a close relation of the Eskimo, but that 
so far he is the only fossil example of his kind of which we have any 
certain knowledge." 

OPPOSED TO EUEOPEAN 

Rae, 1887 : ^ " The typical Eskimo is one of the most specialized 
of the human race, as far as cranial and facial characters are con- 
cerned, and such scanty remains as have yet been discovered of the 
prehistoric inhabitants of Europe present no structural affinities witli 
him." 

Laloy, 1898 : " " Cette theorie est absolument contredite par les 
faits." (That is, the theory of the identity of the Eskimo with the 
European upper palaeolithic man.) 

Dechelette, 1908 : ' " C'est en vain qu'on a note certains traits d'anal- 
ogie de I'art et de I'industrie * * * telles analogies s'expliquent 
aisement par la parite des conditions de la vie materielle." 

Burkitt, 1921 : ^ "Again the Magdalenians have been correlated with 
the Eskimos, who inhabit to-day the icebound coastal lands to the 
north of the New World, and also the similar lands, on the other side 
of the straits, in the northeast corner of Asia. But the vast differ- 
ence in place and in time would make any exact correlation very 
doubtful." 

MacCurdy, 1924 : ^ "If a Magdalenian type exists, it is probably 
best represented by the skeleton from Raymonden at Chancelade 
(Dordogne). One must not lose sight of the fact that the osteologic 
record of fossil man is even yet so fragmentary that there is grave 
danger of mistaking individual characters for those on which vari- 
eties or species should be based." 

Keith, 1925 : " " In the Chancelade man we are dealing with a mem- 
ber of a racial stock of a true European kind." 

MISCELIoANEOtTS AND INDEFINITE 

Gallatin, 1836 : ^^ " Whatever may have been the origin of the Es- 
kimo, it would seem probable that the small tribe of the present 

" Rae, Dr. John, Remarlcs on the natives of British North America. J. Roy. Anthrop. 
Inst. Great Britain and Ireland, xvi, pp. 200-201. London, 1887. 

"Laloy, L'Antlir., ix, p. 586. 1898. 

' IX'chelette, J.. Manuel crArcheoloKic prthistorique, etc., pp. 312. Paris, 1908. 

» Burkitt, il. C, Prehistory, p. 307. London, 1921. 

' MacCurdy, G. G.. Human Origins, v. i, pp. 406-407. New York and London, 1924. 

i» Keith, Arthur, The Antiquity of Man, p. 86. Loudon, 1925. 

" Gallatin, Albert, A Synopsis of the Indian Tribes of North America. Archaeologia 
Americana, II, pp. 13, 14. Cambridge, 1836. 



352 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SLTEVEY IN ALASKA [etii. an.n. 46 

sedentary Tchuktchi on the eastern extremity of Asia is a colony of 
western American Eskimo. The language does not extend in Asia 
beyond that tribe. That of their immediate neighbors, the " Rein- 
deer," or "Wandering Tchuktchi," is totally different and belongs 
to the Kouriak family. 

" There does not seem to be any solid foundation for the opinion 
of those who would ascribe to the Eskimaux an origin different from 
that of the other Indians of North America. The color and features 
are essentially the same; and the differences which may exist, par- 
ticularly that in stature, may be easily accounted for by the rigor 
of the climate and partly, perhaps, by the nature of their food. The 
entire similarity of the structure and grammatical forms of their 
language with those of various Indian tribes, however different in 
their vocabularies, which will hereafter be adverted to, affords an 
almost conclusive proof of their belonging to the same family of 
mankind." 

Richardson, 1852:'= "The origin of the Eskimos has been much 
discussed as being the pivot on which the inquiry into the original 
peopling of America has been made to turn. The question has been 
fairly and ably stated by Doctor Latham in his recent work On 
the Varieties of Man, to which I must refer the reader ; and I shall 
merely remark that the Eskimos differ more in physical aspect from 
their nearest neighbors than the red races do from one another. The 
lineaments have a decided resemblance to the Tartar or Chinese coun- 
tenance. On the other hand, their language is admitted by phi- 
lologists to be similar to the other North American tongues in its 
grammatical structure ; so that, as Doctor Latham has forcibly stated, 
the dissociation of the Eskimos from their neighboring nations on 
account of their physical dissimilarity is met by an argument for 
their mutual affinity, deduced from philological coincidences." 

Meigs, 1857 : ^^ "A connected series of facts and arguments which 
seem to indicate that the Eskimo are an exceedingly ancient people, 
whose dawn was probably ushered in b}^ a temperate climate, but 
whose dissolution now approaches, amidst eternal ice and snow ; that 
the early migrations of these people have been from the north south- 
wards, from the islands of the Polar Sea to the continent and not 
from the mainland to the islands ; and that the present geographical 
area of the Eskimo may be regarded as a primary center of liuman 
distribution for the entire polar zone." 

" Richardson, Sir John, Orijnn of the Esltimos. The Edinburgh New Philosophical 
Journal, LII, p. 323. Edinburfih, 1S52. 

" Meigs, J. Aitkcn, The cranial characteristics of the races of men. In Indigenous 
Races of the Earth, by Nott, J. C, and Gliddon, George R., Philadelphia, p. 2G6. London, 
1857. 



HRDLItKA] ORIGIN AND ANTIQUITY OF THE ESKIMO 353 

Abbott, 1876 : ^* " It is fair to presume that the first liuman beings 
that dwelt along tlie shores of the Delaware were really the same 
people as the jjresent inhabitants of Arctic America." 

Grote, 1875 : ^° Basing himself on certain biological reasonings, the 
author concludes " that the Eskimos are the existing rejiresentatives 
of the man of the American glacial epoch, just as the White Mountain 
butterfly {Oeneis semidea) is the living representative of a colony of 
the genus planted on the retiring of tlie ice from the valley of the 
White Mountains." 

In a later communication ^^ the author expresses the opinion that 
the peopling of America " was effected during the Tertiary ; that 
the ice modified races of Pliocene man, existing in the north of Asia 
and America, forced them southward, and then drew them back to 
the locality where they had undergone their original modifica- 
tion. * * * 

'■ During the process, then, which resulted in the race modification 
of the Eskimos, their original numbers must have been decreased 
by the slowly but ever increasing cold of the northern regions, until 
experience and physical adaptation combined brought them to a 
state of comparative stability as a race." 

Baron Nordenskiold ^^ thought that the Eskimo might probably 
be the true " autochthones " of the polar regions, i. e., that they had 
inhabited the same jjrevious to the glacial age, at a period when a 
climate prevailed here equal to that of northern Itaiy at present, as 
proved by the fossils found at Spitzbergen and Greenland. As it 
might be assumed that man had existed even during the Tertiary 
period, there was a great deal in favor of the assumption that he had 
lived in those jDarts which were most favorable to his existence. The 
question was one of the highest importance, as, if it could be proved 
that the Eskimo descended from a race which inhabited the polar 
regions in the very earliest times, we should be obliged to assume 
that there was a northern (polar) as well as an Asiatic cradle of the 
human race, which would open up new fields of research, both to the 
philologist and the ethnologist, and probably remnants of the culture 
and language of the original race might be traced in the present polar 
inhabitants of both Europe and Asia. 

"Abbott, C. C, Traces of American Autochthon. Ain. Nat., p. 329. June, 1876. 

15 Grote, A. R., Effect of the Glacial Epoch Upon the Distribution of Insects in North. 
America. Proc. Am. Ass. Adv. Sci., Detroit meeting, 1875, B. Natural History, p. 225. 

'« Grote. A. R., On the Peopling of America. Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sc, ill, p. 181-185, 
1877. 

" Eskimo. Lecture before the Georgr. Soc. of Stockholm, Dee. 19, 1884 ; abstract in 
Proc. Roy. Georgr. Soc, vn. No. 6, p. 370-371. London, 1885. 



354 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SITEVEY IN ALASKA [eth. ANN. 46 

Keane, 1886: " " The Aleutian Islanders, who are treated by Doc- 
tor Eink as a branch of the Eskimo family, but whose language 
diverges profoundly from, or rather shows no perceptible affinity 
at all to, the Eskimo. The old question respecting the ethnical 
affinities of the Aleutians is thus again raised, but not further dis- 
cussed by our author. To say that they must be regarded as ' ein 
abnormer Seitenzweig,' merel}' avoids the difficulty, while perhaps 
obscuring or misstating the true relations altogether. For these 
islanders should possibly be regarded, not as ' an abnormal offshoot,' 
but as the original stock from which the Eskimo themselves have 
diverged." 

Quatref ages, 1887 : ^° From migi-ations of Tertiary man : Men origi- 
nated in Tertiary in nortliern Asia : spread from here to Europe and 
over Asia ; " D'autres aussi gagnerent peut-etre I'Amerique et ont 
pu etre les ancetres directs des Esquimaux, . . . Sans meme 
supposer I'existence passee de la continuite des deux continents, les 
hommes tertiaires ont bien pu faire ce que font les riverains actuels 
du detroit de Behring, qui vont chaque jour d'Asie en Amerique et 
reciproquement." . . . 

" Evidemment la race esquimale est americaine. Au Groenland, 
au Labrador, dont personne ne lui a dispute les solitudes glacees, 
elle a conserve sa purete. Elle est encore restee pure quand elle a 
rencontre, les Peaux-Eouges proprement dits, parce que ceux-ci lui 
ont fait une guerre d'extermination qui ne respectait ni les femmes 
ni les enfants. Mais, dans le nord-ouest americain, elle s'est trouvee 
en rapport avec des populations d'un caractere plus doux et des 
croisements ont eu lieu. Or, pai-mi ces populations, il s'en trouve 
de brachycephales. Tels sont en particulier certaines tribus, con- 
fondues a tort sous un meme nom avec les vrais Koluches . . . 
Ces tribus sont de race jaune et leur crane ressemble si bien a celui 
des Toungouses que M. Hamy les a rattachees directement a cette 
famille mongole. Les Esquimaux se sont croises avec elles; et ainsi 
ont pris naissance ces tribus, dont I'origine metisse est attestee par 
le melange ou la fusion des caracteres linguistiques aussi bien qu' 
anatomiques." 

N'ansen, 1893 : -" " So much alone can we declare with any assur- 
ance, that the Eskimos dwelt in comparatively recent times on the 
coasts around Bering Strait and Bering Sea — probably on the 

" Keane, A. H., The Eskimo : a commentary. Nature, xxxv. p. 309. London, New 

York, 1886-18S7. 

1° Quatrefages. A de, Histoire Ck-nf rale des Races Humalne.s, introduction I'Etude des 
Races Humaines. pp. 136, 435. Paris, 1887. 

=»Nansen, Fridtjof, Eskimo Life, pp. 6, 8. London, 1893. (Translated by WUliam 
Archer.) 



URDi.i.'KA] OEIGIX AND ANTIQUITY OF THE ESKIMO 355 

American side — arid have thence, stage by stage, spread eastward 
over Arctic America to GreenLind. * * * 

" The likeness between all the different tribes of Eskimos, as well 
as their secluded position with respect to other peoples, and the 
perfection of their implements, might be taken to indicate that they 
are of a very old race, in which everything has stiffened into definite 
forms, which can now be but slowly altered. Other indications, 
however, seem to conflict with such a hypothesis, and render it more 
probable that the race was originally a small one. which did not 
until a comparatively late period develop to the point at which we 
now find it, and spread over the countries which it at present 
inhabits." 

Tarenetzky, 1900:-^ "'Die Frage ist bis jetzt noch nicht entschieden 
und wird wahrscheinlich auch niemals definitiv entschieden wei'den 
ob die gegenwiirtig die Nordostgrenze Asiens und die Nordwest- 
grenze Amerikas bewohnenden Polaivolker urspriinglich aus Asien 
nach Amerika oder in umgekehrter Richtung zu ihren Wohnsitzen 
wanderten." 

De Nadaillac -- believed that the Eskimo (with some other aborigi- 
nal Americans), now savage and demoralized, have issued from races 
more civilized and that they could raise themselves to the old social 
level were it not for their struggle with inexorable climate, famines, 
and lately also alcoholism. 

Jenness, 1928 : -^ " We still believe that the Eskimos are funda- 
mentally a single people; that they liad their origin in a homeland 
not yet determined ; but we have learned that they reached their pres- 
ent condition through a series of complex changes and migrations, 
ihe outlines of which we have hardly begun to decipher." 

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS INDICATED BY PRESENT DATA 

The maze of thoughts on the origin of the Eskimo shows one fact 
conclusively, which is that the necessary evidence on the subject has 
hitherto been insufficient. From whatever side the problem has 
been approached, whether linguistically, culturally, from the study 
of myths, or even somatologically, the materials were, it is plain, 
more or less inadequate and there was not enough for satisfactory 
comparisons. The best contributions to Eskimo studies, from the 
oldest to the most recent, all accentuate the need for further research 
and more ample collections. 

=' Tarenitzky, A., Beitrage zur Skelet-und Schadelkundo der Aleuten, Konaegen, Kenai 
und Koljuschen. Mem. Acad, imp d. sc, ix. No. -1. p. 7. St. rptcrshurg. 1900. 

- Nadaillac, M. dt, L<.-s Eskimo. L'Anthropologic, xiii, p. 104. 1902. 

^ Jenness, D., Ethnological Problems of Arctic America. Amer. Geogr. See. Special 
Publ. No. 7. New York, 1928. 



356 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA Ieth. ann. 40 

Another point is that heterogeneous and wide apart as many of the 
opinions may seem, yet when the subject is looked upon with a 
larger perspective they may often perhaps be harmonized. Thus a 
belief in an American origin of the Eskimo need not exclude that in 
the Asiatic derivation of his parental stock. Even in tiie case of the 
supposed European derivation the Eskimo are understood to have 
reached America through Asia; there is not one suggestion of any 
importance advocating the coming of the Eskimo over northwestern 
Europe and Iceland. Only the Meigs-Grote-Nordenskiold theory of 
an ancient polar race and its descent southward appears now as 
beyond the bounds of what would be at least partly justifiable. 

What is the contribution to the subject of the studies reported in 
this treatise, with its relatively great amount of somatological mate- 
rial? The answer is not easy. 

Even the truly great and precious material at hand is not sufficient. 
There are important parts of the Arctic, such as the Hudson Bay 
region, Baffin Land, and the central region; several parts of the west 
coast, such as the inland waters of the Seward Peninsula and the 
Eskimo portions of the Selawik, Kobuk, Xoatak, and Yukon Rivers ; 
and above all the Eskimo pnvt of nortlieastern Siberia, from which 
there are insufficient or no collections. There is, moreover, especially 
in this country, a great want of skeletal material from the non-Es- 
kimo Siberian tribes, and also from the old European peoj^les that are 
of most importance for comi^arisons. It must be plain, therefore, 
that even at present no final deductions are possible. All that can 
be claimed for the evidence here brought forth is that it clears, or 
tends to settle, certain secondary problems, and that it jDresents in- 
dications of value for the rest of the question. 

The secondary problems that .may herewith be regarded as settled 
are as follows : 

1. UnHy or pTmralify of the race. — The materials at hand give no 
substantiation to the possibility of the Eskimo belonging to more than 
one basic strain of people. They range in color from tan or light 
reddish-yellow to medium brown ; in stature from decidedly short 
to above the general human medium ; in head from brachycephalio 
and low to extremely dolichocephalic, high and keel shaped; in eyes 
from horizontal to decidedly mongoloid; in orbits from microseme 
to hypermegaseme ; in nose from fully mesorrhinic to extremely 
leptorrhinic ; in physiognomy from pure "Indian" to extreme 
" Eskimo.'' Yet all through there runs, both in the living and in 
the skeletal remains, so much of a basic identity that no separation 
into any distinct original '" races " is possible. At most it is permis- 
sible to speak of a few j)revalent types. 

- 2. Relation. — The general basic prototype of the Eskimo, accord- 
ing to all evidence, is so closely akin to that of the Indian that the two 



hhdliCka] origin AND ANTIQUITY OF THE ESKIMO 357 

can not be fully separated. They appear only as the thumb and the 
digits of the same hand, some large old mother stock from which 
both gi-adually differentiated. This appears to be an unavoidable 
conclusion from the present anthropological knowledge of the two 
peoples. 

Tlie next unavoidable deduction is that the mother stock of both 
the Eskimo and the Indian can only be identiKed with the great 
yellow-brown stem of man, the home of which was in Asia, but the 
roots of wliieh, as has been discussed elsewhere, were probably in 
ancient (later paleolithic) Europe.-' The latter fact may explain the 
cultural as well as somatological resemblances between the Eskimo, 
as well as the Indian (for the Indian, physically at least, has much 
in common with the upper Aurignacians). and the upper glacial 
Euroijean populations. But such an explanation can not in the 
light of present knowledge legitimately be extended to the assump- 
tion that either the Indian complex or the Eskimo originated as 
such in Europe ; they could be at most but parts oi the eventual more 
or less further differentiated Asiatic progeny of the upper paleolithic 
Europeans. 

3. Mixture. — It has been assumed by Boas and others that the 
eastern Eskimo have become admixed with the eastern Indian and 
the western with the Alaskan Indian, that the physical and especially 
craniological differences between the eastern and western Eskimo were 
due to such a mixture, and that both extremes deviated from the type 
of the pure Eskimo, who was to be found somewhere in the central 
Arctic. Tlie evidence of the present studies does not sustain such an 
assumption. 

As shown before "° and is seen more clearly from the present data, 
the western Eskimo type is also present or approached in various 
localities in tlie far north (part of Smith Sound, Southampton 
Island, part of the Hudson Bay coast, with i^robable spots in the 
central Arctic proper). There is no indication of any central region 
where the western Eskimo type would be much " purer " than 
elsewhere. 

Individual skulls and skeletons in the west, jjarticidarly in certain 
spots (especially on Seward Peninsula), show the same characteris- 
tics as the most diverging skulls or skeletons in the farthest 
northeast. 

And both in the west and in the east the most pronounced Eskimo 
characteristics exceed similar features in the Indian, indicating in- 
dependent development. Such cliaracteristics involve the stature 

^ Hrdlifka, A., The Peopling of Asia. Troc. Am. Pliilos. Soc, Lx, 535 et seq. 1921 ; and 
Tlie Peopling of tlio Eortb. Ibid., Lxv, l.'iO, et seq. 1926. 

'^ Contrib. Autbrop. Central and Smith Sound Eskimo. Anthrop. Papers Am. Mus. Nat. i 
Hist., 1910. 



358 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [ETH. ANN. 46 

(taller in the west, shorter in the east than that of the Indian) ; the 
size of the head (everywhere averaging higher in the Eskimo) ; 
dolichocephaly, height of the head, its keel shape (all more pro- 
nounced in the eastern and now and then a western Eskimo than in 
anj^ Indian group) ; the face, nose, orbits, and lower jaw; with the 
relative proportions and other characteristics of the skeleton. All 
these point to functional and other developments within the Eskimo 
groups and none suggest a large Indian admixture. 

It is well known that more or less blood mixture takes place among 
all neighboring peoples where contact is possible, even if otherwise 
there be much enmity. Such enmity, often in an extreme formi, ex- 
isted everywhere it seems between the Eskimo and the Indian, as a 
result of the encroaching of the former on the latter ; there are many 
statements to that effect. Within historic times also there are no 
records of any adojDtions or intermarriages between the two peoples. 
Nevertheless where contact took place, as on the rivers and in the 
southwest as well as the southeast of the Eskimo territory, some blood 
mixture, it would seem, must have developed. The Indian neighbor 
.show it. and it would be strange if it remained one-sided. But of a 
mixture extensive enough to have materially modified the type of 
the Eskimo in whole large regions, such as the entire Bering Sea and 
most of the far northeast, there is no evidence and little not only 
probability but even possibility. Nothing approaching such an ex- 
tensive mixture is shown by the near-by Indians; and it would be 
most exceptional in people of this nature if a much greater propor- 
tion of the mixture was into the Eskimo. 

Finally, a mixture of diverse human types, unless very old, may be 
expected to leave numerous physical signs of heterogeneity and 
disturbance, none of which is shown by either the western or eastern 
Eskimo. Such groups as that of the St. Lawrence Island, or that 
of (Greenland, are among the most homogeneous human groups 
known. The range of variation of their characters is as a rule a 
strictly normal range, giving a uniform curve of distribution, which 
is not consistent with the notion of any relatively recent material 
mixture. 

4. The indications. — The indications of the data and observations 
presented in this volume may be outlined as follows : 

The Eskimo throughout their territory are but one and the same 
broad strain of people. This strain is fundamentally related to that 
(or those) of the American Indian. It is also uncontestably related 
to the yellow-brown strains of Asia. 

In many respects, such as pigmentation, build of the body, physiog- 
nomy, large brain, fullness of forehead, fullness of the fronto-spheno- 
temporal region, largeness of face and lower jaw, height of the nose, 



hedliCka] origin AND ANTIQUITY OF THE ESKIMO 359 

* 

size and characteristics of the teeth.-" smallness of hands and feet, 
etc., the Eskimos are remarkably alike over their whole territory. 
They differ in details, such as stature, form of the head, and breadth 
of the nose. But the distribution of these differences is of much 
interest and probably significance. Higher statures, broader heads, 
and broader noses are found especially in the west, the latter two 
particularly in the Bering Sea region; low group statures, narrow 
heads and narrow noses reach, with few exceptions, their extremes 
in the northeast. Between the two extremes, however, there is no 
interruption, but a gradation, with here and there an irregularity. 
These conditions sjDeak not of mixture but rather of adaptation and 
differentiation. 

They strongly suggest a moderate stream of people, rooted in Asia, 
of fairly broad and but moderately high head, of a good medium 
stature, with a mesorrhinic nose (and hence probably originally not 
far northern), and with many other characteristics in common, reach- 
ing America from northeasternmost Asia after the related Indians, 
spreading along the seacoasts as far as it could, not of choice, or choice 
alone, but mainly because of the blocking by the Indian of the roads 
toward the south and through the interior ; and gradually modifying 
physically in adaptation to the new conditions and necessities; to 
climate, newer modes of life, the demands of the kayak, and above 
all to the results of the increased demands on the masticatory organs. 

The narrowness, increased length and increased height of the 
Eskimo skull, without change in its size or other characteristics, may 
readily be understood as compensatory adaptations, the develop- 
ment of which was initiated and furthered by the develoi^ment and 
mechanical effects of the muscles of mastication. 

A similar conclusion has been reached in my former study on the 
central and Smith Sound Eskimo (1910). It has been approached 
or reached independently by other .students of the Eskimo, notably 
Fiirst and Hansen (1915) in their great work on the East Green- 
landers. It is a conclusion of much biological importance for it 
involves not merely the development but also the eventual inheritance 
of new characters. 

Former authors, it was seen, have advanced the theories of an 
American origin of the Eskimo. This could only mean that he 
developed from the American Indian. And such a development 
would imply physical and hereditary changes at least as great as 
those indicated in the preceding paragraphs, and in less time. A 
differentiation commenced well back in Asia, geographically and 
chronologically, and advancing, to its present limits, in America 
would seem the more probable. 

"" See Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop., vi, Nos. 2 and 4. 1923. 



360 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA 



[KTH. ANN. 46 



An origin of the Eskimo in Europe, during the last glacial inva- 
sion, would not only pusli into the hazy far past the same ciianges as 
here dealt with, but it would at the same time fail to explain the 
physical differences within the Eskimo group, and deny any sub- 
stantial changes in him during the long time of his migration 
toward the American northern coasts. 

Absolute proofs of the origin of the Eskimo, as of that of the 
various strains of the Indians, are hardly to be expected. Sucli ori- 
gins are so gradual and insidious that they would escape detection 
even if watched for while occurring; they are noticed only after suf- 




FiGiiRE 20. — Probable luuvemeilts of ycople from nurtlieastei'n Asia tu Alaska and in 

Alaslta. (A. Hrdlifka) 

ficient differences have developed and become established, which takes 
generations. The solving of racial origins must depend on sound 
scientific induction. 

Such induction may not yet be fully possible in the case of the 
Eskimo. The evidence is not yet complete. But with the present 
and other most recent data there is enough on hand for substantial 
indications. The evidence shows that barring some irregularities, 
due possibly to later intrusions or refluxes, the farther east in the 
Eskimo territory the observer proceeds tlie more highly differentiated 
and divergent the Eskimo becomes, and there is a greater gap 



HRDLlfKA] SUMMARY 361 

between him and his Indian neighbors, as well as other races. 
Proceeding from the east westward, conditions are reversed. In 
general the farther west we proceed the less exceptional on the 
wliole the Eskimo becomes and the more he approximates the Indian, 
particularly the Indian of Alaska and the northwest coast. As this 
can not, in the light of present evidence, be attributed alone to mix- 
ture, it is plain that if it were possible to proceed a few steps farther 
in this direction the differences between the Eskimo and the Indian 
would fade out so that a distinction between the two would become 
difficult if not impossible. 

The facts point, therefore, to an original identity of the source 
from which were derived the Indian, more particularly his latest 
branches, and the Eskimo, and to the identification of this source with 
the palaeo-Asiatic yellow-brown people of lower northern Asia. The 
differentiation of the Eskimo from this source must have proceeded 
over a fairly long time, and probably started already it would seem 
on the northern coasts of Asia, where conditions were present capable 
of beginning to shape him into an Eskimo ; to be carried on since in 
the Bering Sea area and especially in the Seward Peninsula and 
farther northward and eastward. In a larger sense the cradle of 
the Eskimo, therefore, while starting jDrobably in northeast Asia,- 
covered in reality a much vaster region, extending from northern 
Asia and the Bering Sea to the far American Arctic. 

SUMMARY 

What is the substance of the results of all these new obseiwa- 
tions and studies on the western Eskimo, who is the main subject of 
this report? In large lines this may be outlined as follows: 

1. The western Eskimo occupied, uninterrupted by other people 
(save in a few spots by the Aleuts), the great stretch of the Alaskan 
coast from Prince William Sound and parts of the Unalaska Penin- 
sula to Point Barrow, all the islands in the Bering Sea except the 
Aleutians and Pribilovs, and the northern and western coasts of 
the Chukchi Peninsula in Asia. 

They extended some distance inland along the Kuskokwim and 
Yukon Rivers; along the interior lakes and rivers of the Seward 
Peninsula; along a part of the Selawik River, most (perhaps) of the 
Kobuk River, and apparentlj^ along the whole Noatak River, com- 
municating over the land with the lower Colville Basin. But no 
traces of original Eskimo settlements have ever been found in the 
true Alaska inland or along those parts of the Alaska rivers that 
constitute the Indian territory. 

2. The present population is sparse, with many unpeopled inter- 
vals, and not highly fecund, but, except when epidemics strike, it 

88253°— 30 24 



362 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA [eth. anx. 46 

110 more diminishes; children and young people are now much in 
evidence, hygienic and economic conditions have improved, and the 
]ieople in general are well advanced in civilization. Their condition 
and morale are rather superior, in places very perceptibly so, to 
those of the majority of the Alaska Indians. 

3. Except where there has been more contact with whites, a 
large percentage of these Eskimo are still full bloods. They are a 
sturdy, cheerful, and liberal yet shrewd lot. They intermarry and 
mix not inconsiderably among themselves (between villages). Some 
of the white traders have married Eskimo women and raised prom- 
ising families. Where larger numbers of whites were or are in prox- 
imity clandestine mixture is apparent. The better educated show 
often decidedly good mental, mechanical, business, and artistic abil- 
ities. In the isolated localities, such as St. Lawi-ence Island, the 
people have apparently escaped the jieriod of demoralization that so 
often attends the passing from the old to new conditions. 

Tuberculosis and venereal diseases are present but not prevalent; 
rachitis seems absent. The people show much endurance, but lon- 
gevity as yet is not much in evidence. Alcoholism is almost non- 
existent except on occasions when drink is provided by whites. 
. 4. The region of the western Eskimo shows a former larger popu- 
lation of the same people. This is attested by many " dead " villages 
and old sites. And this i^opulation evidently goes back some cen- 
turies at least, for some of the remains are extensive and both their 
depth and their contents give the impression of prolonged duration ; 
though seemingly all thus far seen could be comprised within the 
Christian era. 

5. No habitations or remains belonging to a distinct people (In- 
dians) have thus far come to light anywhere within the territory 
of the western Eskimo; and no trace has as yet been found of 
anything human that could be attributed to greater antiquity than 
that of the Eskimo. But the older beaches and banks where such 
remains might have existed have either been covered with storm - 
driven sands and are now perpetually frozen, or they have been 
"cut" away and lost; and there seems no hope for finding such re- 
mains in the interior away from the sea or streams, for such parts 
were never under recent geological conditions favorable for human 
habitation. 

6. The now known remains consist of the ruins of dwellings and 
of accumulated refuse, the two together forming occasionally marked 
elevated heaps or ridges. Some of these ridges are over 18 feet deep. 
They contain many archeological specimens of stone, ivory, wood, and 
bone. The ivory in the older layers is more or less " fossilized." The 
upper layers of such remains usually contain some articles of white 



HEDLICK4] SUMMARY 363 

man's manufacture (copper, iron, beads) ; lower layers are wholly 
aboriginal. Indian artifacts occur in Eskimo sites only in the 
proximity of the Indian on tlie rivers. 

7. The prevalent or later culture shown by the remains is fairly 
rich, of good to relatively rather high grade, and of considerable uni- 
formity. There are numerous indications of extensive trade in 
vai'ious articles, particularly those of tlie Kobuk '' jade.'' 

8. On the Asiatic coast, in the northern parts of tlie Bering Sea, 
on the Seward Peninsula, in tlie Kotzebue region and at Point Hope, 
the deefjer portions of the remains give examples of the higher 
and riclier " fossil ivory culture." This is distinguished by many 
objects of liigh-class worlcmanship, and by curvilinear to scroll de- 
signs. The art appears to have distinct affinities witli, on one hand, 
deeper Asia, and on the other with the northwest coast of America 
and even farther soutli. It is not clearly separated from either tlie 
contemporaneous or tlie later Eskimo art, j'et it is of a higher grade 
and delicacy and much distinctiveness. It is not yet known wliere 
this art begins geographically, what preceded it, whence it was 
derived, just how far it reached along tlie coasts, or even what was 
its main center. It seems best for the present to reserve to it the 
name of the " fossil ivory art " (rather than Jenness's too limiting 
" Bering Sea culture ") , and to defer all conclusions concerning it to 
the future. 

9. It seems justifiable, however, to point to the significance of what 
is already known. This " fossil ivory art " especially, but also the 
general culture of the western Eskimo, are highly developed and 
differentiated cultures, denoting considerable cultural background, 
extended duration, and conditions generally favorable to industrial 
and artistic developments. It has, it is already ascertained, cer- 
tain affinities in Asia. If this art and the attending culture were 
advancing toward America, as seems most probable, then the ques- 
tion of cultural influences and introductions from Asia to America 
will have to be reopened. 

10. Due to the perpetually frozen ground and the consequent 
necessity of sui'face burials, the area of the western Eskimo was, 
until recently, relatively rich in skeletal remains lying on the sur- 
face. It is no more so now, due to storms, beasts, missionaries, 
teachers, and scientific collectors. But while only a scattering re- 
mains of the surface material, there is much and that of special 
importance lying in the ground, mostly self-buried or assimilated by 
the tundra. This material, which now and then is accompanied by 
interesting archeological specimens, calls for prompt attention; it 
will help greatly in clearing local and other problems. 



364 ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA Ietii. ANN. 46 

Occasionally burials vrei'e made or dead bodies were left in old 
houses. These remains, too, may prove of special value. 

11. Observations on both the living and the skeletal remains in 
the western Eskimo area, supplemented by those on the northern 
and northeastern Eskimo, are now ample enough to justify certain 
generalizations. These are: 

a. Barring the Aleuts, who are Indian, the Eskimo throughout 
belong somatologically to but one family, and this family appears 
as a remarkably pure racial unit, somewhat admixed in the south 
with the Aleut, on the western rivers with the Indian, and in the 
east and a few sjDots elsewhere with recent white people. 

6. Within this family there is observable a considerable cranial 
change, with moderate differences in nasal breadth, stature, and 
color, but the general characteristics of the jjliysiognomy, and of the 
body and the skeleton, remain remarkably similar. 

c. The changes in the skull affect mainly the vault, which, in di- 
mensions, ranges through all the intermediary grades from moder- 
ately broad, short, and moderately high to pronouncedly narrow, 
long, and high, and in form from moderately convex over the top to 
markedly keel shaped. 

The distribution of skull form is somewhat irregular, but in gen- 
eral the broader and shorter heads predominate in the Asiatic and 
the southwestern and midwestern American portions of the Eskimo 
region, while the longest and narrowest heads are those of parts of 
the Seward Peninsula, and especially those from an isolated old 
settlement near Barrow with those of Greenland (exclusive of the 
Smith Sound), Baffin Land, and, judging from other data, also east- 
ern Labrador. More or less transitional forms are found between 
the two extremes, without there being anywhere a clear line of 
demarcation. 

The breadth of the nose, too, averages highest in the Asiatic, Ber- 
ing Sea, and the more southern Eskimo of the Alaska coast, the least 
along the northern Ai'ctic coast and in the northeast. The statui'e 
is highest along the western Alaska rivers and parts of the coast, 
least in Greenland and Labrador. 

The skin, while differing within but moderate limits, is ajjparently 
lightest along parts (at least) of the northern Arctic. 

12. The whole distribution of the physical characteristics among 
the Eskimo strongly suggests gradual changes — within the family 
itself; and as the long, narrow, high skull with keeled dome, occur- 
ring in a few limited localities in the west but principally in southern 
Greenland and neighboring territories, appears to be the farthest 
limit of the differentiation which finds no parallel in the neighboring 
or other peoisles, while the form found in northeastern Asia, the 



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INDIAN TRIBES OF THE UPPER MISSOURI 

Bt EDWIN THOMPSON DENIG 

EDITED WITH NOTES AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 
Bt J. N. B. HEWITT 



375 



PKEFACE 

This manuscript Is entitled "A Report to the Hon. Isaac I. 
Stevens, Governor of Washington Territory, on the Indian Tribes 
of the Upper Missouri, by Edwin Thompson Denig." It has been 
edited and arranged with an introduction, notes, a biographical 
sketch of the author, and a brief bibliograjahy of the tribes mentioned 
in the rejjort. 

The report consists of 451 pages of foolscap size; closely written 
in a clear and fine script with 15 pages of excellent pen sketches 
and one small drawing, to which illustrations the editor has added 
two photographs of Edwin Tliompson Denig and his Assiniboin 
wife, Hai-kees-kak-wee-lah, Deer Little Woman, and a view of Old 
Fort Union taken from " The jNIanoe-Denigs," a family chronicle, 
New York. 1924. 

The manuscript is undated, but from internal evidence it seems 
safe to assign it to about the year 1854. 

The editor has not attempted to verify the statements of the author 
as embodied in the report; he has, however, where feasible, re- 
arranged some portions of its contents by bringing together under 
a single rubric remarks upon a common topic which appeared in 
various parts of the report as replies to closely related but widely 
placed questions; and he has attempted to do tliis without changing 
tlie ]3hraseology or the terminology of Mr. Denig, except in very rare 
instances, and then only to clarify a statement. For example, the 
substitution of the native term for the ordinary English expression, 
the Great Spirit, and divining in the place of " medicine '" in medi- 
cine man, jjractically displacing medicine man, by the word dh'iner. 

In his letter of transmittal " To his Excellency, Isaac I. Stevens, 
Governor of Washington Territory," ]\Ir. Denig writes : " Being 
stimulated with the desire to meet your wishes and forward the 
views of government, I have in the following pages endeavored to 
answer the ' Inquiries ' published by act of Congress, regarding the 
' History. Present Condition, and Future Prospects of the Indian 
Tribes ' with which I am acquainted. * * * Independent of my 
own personal observation and knowledge acquired by a constant 
residence of 21 years among the prairie tribes, in every situation, I 
have on all occasions had the advice of intelligent Indians as to the 
least important of these inquiries, so as to avoid, if possible, the 
introduction of error. * * * 

S8253'— 30 25 377 



378 PEEFACE 

"It is presumed the following pages exhibit a minutiae of infor- 
mation on those subjects not to be obtained either by transient visi- 
tors or a residence of a few years in the country, without being, as is 
the case with myself, intimately acquainted with their camp regula- 
tions, understanding their language, and in many instances entering 
into their feelings and actions. 

" The whole has been well digested, the different subjects pursued 
in company with the Indians for an entire year, until satisfactory 
answers have been obtained, and their motives of speech or action 
well understood before placing the same as a guide and instruction to 
others. 

" The answers refer to the Sioux, Arikara, Mandan, Gros Ventres, 
Cree, Crow, Assiniboin. and Blackfeet Nations, who are designated as 
prairie, roving, or wild tribes — further than whom our knowledge 
does not extend. 

" I am aware of your capacity to judge the merits of the work and 
will consider myself highly honored if I have had the good fortune 
to meet your approbation; moreover I shall rejoice if I have con- 
tributed in any degree toward opening a course of policy on the part 
of the Government that may result in the amelioration of the sad 
condition of the savages. Should the facts herein recorded ever be 
published or embodied in other work it is hoped the errors of 
language may be corrected, but in no instance is it desired that the 
meaning should miscarry." 

Elsewhere in this letter Mr. Denig writes : " Some of their cus- 
toms and opinions now presented, although very plain and common 
to us who are in their daily observance, may not have been rendered 
in comprehensible language to those who are strangers to these 
things, and the number of queries, the diversity of subjects, etc., 
have necessarily curtailed each answer to as few words as possible." 

The report was made in response to a circular of "Inquiries, Re- 
specting the History, Present Condition, and Future Prospects of 
the Indian Tribes of the United States," by Henry R. Schoolcraft, 
Office of Indian Affairs, Washington, D. C. printed in Philadelphia, 
Pa., in 1851. This circular is a reprint of the circular issued in July, 
1847, in accordance with the provisions of section 5, chapter 66, of 
the Laws of the Twenty-ninth Congi-ess, second session, and ap- 
proved March 3, 1847, which read, '■^ And he if fv/rther enacted, That 
in aid of the means now possessed by the Department of Indian 
Affairs through its existing organization, there be, and hereby is, 
appropriated the sum of five thousand dollars to enable the said 
department, under the direction of the Secretary of War, to collect 
and digest such statistics and material as may illustrate the history, 
the present condition, and future prospects of the Indian tribes of the 
United States." 



PREFACE 379 

The original circular recites that it was addressed to four classes 
of individuals, namely, " I. Persons holdino; positions under the 
department, who are believed to have it in their power to impart 
much practical information respecting the tribes who are, respec- 
tively, under their charge. II. Persons who have retired from 
similar situations, travelers in the Indian Territory, or partners and 
factoi-s on the American frontiers. III. Men of learning or re- 
search who have perused the best writers on the subject and who 
may feel willing to communicate the results of their reading or re- 
flections. IV. Teachers and missionaries to the aborigines." 

The circular closes with an expression of the " anxiety which is felt 
to give to the materials collected the character of entire authenticity, 
and to be apprised of any erroneous views in the actual manners and 
customs, character, and condition of our Indian tribes which may 
have been promulgated. The Government, it is believed, owes it 
to itself to originate a body of facts on this subject of an entirely 
authentic character, from which the race at large may be correctly 
judged by all classes of citizens, and its policy respecting the tribes 
under its guardianship, and its treatment of them, properly under- 
stood and appreciated." 

The 348 inquiries in the circular embrace the history (and arche- 
ology), the tribal organization, the religion, the manners and customs, 
the intellectual capacity and character, the present condition, the 
future prospects, and the language, of the Indian tribes of the United 
States. 

But the report of Mr. Denig consists of brief and greatly condensed 
replies to as many of the questions propounded in the circular in 
question as concerned the native tribes of the upper Missouri River, 
to wit, the Ai-ikara, the Mandan, the Sioux, the Gros Ventres, the 
Cree, the Crows, the Assiniboin, and the Blackfeet, tribes with whom 
he was thoroughly acquainted, although the Assiniboin seem to have 
been the chief subjects of his observations. It should be noted that 
the answers to some of the questions, if adequately treated, would 
have required nearly as much space as was devoted to the entire 
report. 

Wliile the facts embodied in the replies of Mr. Denig are, when 
unqualified, affirmed of all the eight tribes mentioned in his letter 
of transmittal, he is nevertheless careful, when needful, to restrict 
many of his answers to the specific tribes to which their subject 
matter particularly related. But, of course, all the tribes mentioned 
belonged measurably to a single cultural area at that time. 

That Mr. Denig made use of the circular issued by Mr. Schoolcraft 
is clearly evident from the fact that on the left-hand margin of the 
manuscript he usually wrote the number of the question to which 
he was giving an answer. 



380 PEEFACE 

In the manuscript there appear two quite distinct handwritings, 
and so it is possible that this particuhir manuscript is a copy of an 
original which was retained by the author. 

Dr. F. V. Haj'den made extensive use of this report in prei:)ara- 
tion of his " Contributions to the Ethnography and Philology of 
the Indian Tribes of the Missouri Valley," Philadelphia, C. Sherman 
& Son, 1862. But he did not give Mr. Denig proper credit for using 
verbatim numbers of pages of the manuscript without any indication 
that he was copying a manuscrijjt work from another writer whose 
position and long experience among them made him an authority on 
the tribes in question. This piece of plagiarism was not concealed 
by the bald statement of Doctor Hayclen that he Avas " especially 
indebted to Mr. Alexander Culbertson, the well-known agent of the 
American Fur Co., who has spent 30 j^ears of his life among the 
wild tribes of the Northwest and speaks several of their languages 
with great ease. To Mr. Andrew Dawson, superintendent of Fort 
Benton; Mr. Charles E. Galpin, of Fort Pierre; and E. T. Denig, 
of Fort Union. I am under great obligations for assistance freely 
granted at all times." 

Mr. Edwin Thompson Denig, the author of this manuscript re- 
port, was the son of Dr. George Denig and was born March 10, 1812, 
in McConnellstown, Huntingdon County, Pa., and died in 1862 or 
1863 in JIanitoba, probalily in the town of Pilot Mound, in the vicin- 
ity of which his daughters live, or did live in 1910. His legally mar- 
ried wife was the daughter of an Assiniboin chief, by whom he had 
two daughters, Sara, who was born August 10, 1844, and Ida, who 
was born August 22, 1854, and one son. Alexander, who was born May 
17, 1852, and who was killed by lightning in 1904. 

To his early associates Mr. Denig was a myth, more or less, having 
gone West as a young man and having died there. He lost caste 
with his family because of his marriage with the Assiniboin woman. 

Mr. Denig entered the fur trade in 1833 and became very influ- 
ential among the tribes of the upper ilissouri River. He was for 
a time a Government scout; then a bookkeeper for the American 
Fur Co. Earlier he had gone to St. Louis and became connected 
with the Choteaus and the American Fur Co. Before he was 30 
years of age he was living among the Indians as the representative 
of these two companies in that vast and almost unknown region 
between the headwaters of the Mississippi and the Missouri Rivers 
inhabited by tribes of the Sioux. 

Mr. Denig became a bookkeeper for the American Fur Co. at 
Fort Union, situated near the mouth of the Yellowstone River, of 
the offices of which for a time, about 1843, he was superintendent. 
Because of his thorough and comprehensive knowledge of the Indians 



PREFACE 381 

of his ado^jted tribe, their language, customs, and tribal relations, 
he was consulted by most of the noted Indian investigators of that 
period — Schoolcraft, Hayden, and others. 

Being a Government scout, Mr. Denig was able to conciliate the 
Indians during the expedition of Audubon in 1843, making it pos- 
sible for the great Frenchman to collect his wonderful specimens. 
A very colorful description of Fort Union was written by Mr. Denig 
July 30, 1843. This description is found in Volume II, page 180, 
of " Audubon and His Journals." In it Mr. Denig writes : " Fort 
Union, the principal and handsomest trading post on the Missouri 
River, is situated on the north side, about 6V2 niiles above the mouth 
of the Yellowstone River; the country around it is beautiful and 
well chosen for an establishment of the kind." Then after describ- 
ing in detail the structure and furnishings of the fort, he says: 
" The princijjal building in the establishment, and that of the gentle- 
man in charge, or bourgeois, is now occupied by Mr. Culbertson, one 
of the partners of the company," and farther on, " Next to this 
is the office, which is devoted exclusively to the business of the com- 
pany. * * * This de^jartment is now under my supervision 
[viz, E. T. Denig]." 

During this period Audubon sojourned with him for some time 
and spoke of him not only as an agreeable companion but also as a 
friend who gave him valuable information and enthusiastic assist- 
ance. One of his frequent companions at Fort Union was the Belgian 
priest, Father De Smet. Their corresjiondence was continued after 
De Smet had returned to Belgium. (See Life, Letters and Travels 
of Father De Smet, Chittenden and Richardson, 4 vols., New York, 
1905.) 

Several plausible but nevertheless quite unsatisfactory etymologic 
interpretations of the name, Assiniboin, have been made by a num- 
ber of writers. Among these interpretations are " Stone Roasters," 
" Stone Warriors," " Stone Eaters," etc. Tliese are unfortunately 
historically improbable. It appears that difficulty arises from a mis- 
conception of the real meaning of the limited or qualified noun it 
contains, namely, hoin. This element appears in literature, dialecti- 
cally varied, as pour, poitar, poll, poual, Iwdn, pwan, pwdt, etc. 
Evidenth', it was the name of a grou^) of people, well known to the 
Cree and the Chippewa tribes, whom they held in contempt and so 
applied this noun, b&in, liixm, pwdt, etc., to them. The signification 
of its root bivd(n) or pwd{t) is " to be powerless, incapable, weak." 
So that Ptvdtak or Bwdnug (animate plurals) is a term of contempt 
or derision, meaning " The Weaklings, The Incapable Ones." This 
name was in large measure restricted to the nomadic group of Siouan 
tribes in contradistinction from the sedentary or eastern group of 



382 PREFACE 

Siouan peoples who were called Nadowesiwiig, a term appearing in 
literature in many variant spellings. The name Dakota in its re- 
stricted use is the appellation of the group of tribes to which the 
name Bwdnug, etc., was applied. This fact indicates that the Assini- 
hoin, or Assinibwdnug , were recognized as a kind of Dakota or Na- 
kota peoples. Nakota is their own name for themselves. The rup- 
ture of the Dakota tribal hegemony thrust some of these peoples 
northward to the rocky regions about Lake Winnipeg and the 
Saskachewan and Assiniboin rivers. So it was these who were 
called Eock or Stone Dakota (i. e., Bwdnug). It would thus appear 
that the rupture occurred after there were recognized the two groups 
of Siouan tribes in the past, namely, the nomadic or western, the 
Dakota, and the sedentary or eastern, the Nadawedmug of literature. 

Traditionally, the Assiniboin people are an offshoot of the Wazi- 
kute gens of the Yanktonai (Ihafikto°wa°na) Dakota. 

Dr. F. V. Hayden in his " Contributions to the Ethnography and 
Philology of the Indian Tribes of the Missouri Valley " says that 
Mr. Denig was " an intelligent trader, who resided for many years at 
the junction of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers as superintend- 
ent of Fort Union, the trading post for the Assiniboins." Of the 
vocabulary of the Assiniboin language, recorded by Mr. Denig, Doc- 
tor Hayden wrote that it is " the most important " one theretofore 
collected. From the citation from Mr. Denig's description of Fort 
Union in a preceding paragraph it appears that Doctor Hayden is in 
error in making Mr. Denig superintendent of the fort rather thiin of 
the office of the American Fur Co. at that point. 

In one of his letters Reverend Father Terwecoren wrote that Mr. 
Denig, of the St. Louis Fur Co., is " a man of tried probity and 
veracity." 

From references in Audubon, Kurtz, De Smet, Hayden, and School- 
craft, and as well from a perusal of this manuscript, it is evident 
that Mr. Denig was an exceptional man, and for more than 20 years 
was a prominent figure in the fur trade of the upper Missouri River. 

In this summary rejDort to Governor Stevens Mr. Denig has suc- 
cinctly embodied in large measure the culture, the activities, the 
customs, and the beliefs of the native tribes who occupied the upper 
Missouri River 75 years ago, more than 75 per cent of which has been 
lost beyond recovery by contact with the white man. For more 
than 40 years the native life with which Mr. Denig was in contact has 
been largely a thing of the past, so that it is futile to attempt to 
recover it from the remnants of the tribes who formerly traded with 
Mr. Denig at Fort Union. 

In addition to preparing this report to Governor Stevens Mr. 
Denig also recorded a Blackfoot Algonquian vocabulary of about 70 
words, a Gros Ventres Siouan vocabulary, and an Assiniboin Siouan 



PREFACE 383 

vocabulary of more than 400 words, which was published by School- 
craft in his fourth volume. 

From a letter written February 27, 1923, by Dr. Rudolph Denig, 
of 56 East Fifty-eighth Street, New York, N. Y., the following in- 
teresting biogra^jhical matter relating to the ancestry of Mr. Denig 
is taken : 

The Denigs, or " Deneges," trace their descent from one Herald 
Ericksen, a chieftain, or " smaa kongen," of the Danish island of 
ilanoe in the North Sea, from whose descendant Red Vilmar, about 
14G0, they derive an unbroken lineage. They were seafarers, com- 
manding their own vessels, and engaged in trade in the North and 
Baltic Seas. 

About 1.570 Thorvald Christiansen changed the tradition of the 
family by becoming a tiller of the soil, having obtained possession 
of a large farm near Ribe in northern Slesvig, which to this day 
bears its ancient name of Volling gaard. Christian Thomsen, 1636- 
1704, was the first of the family to take up a learned profession ; he 
studied theology, and being ordained a minister in the Lutheran 
Church, he was also the first biograi^her of the family, in that he left 
a kind of genealogy inscribed on the flyleaves of his Bible. 

His grandson, Frederick Svensen, took part as corporal in a 
Danish auxiliary corps at the age of 17 in Marlborough's operations 
in the Netherlands in the war of the Spanish Succession. Following 
the disbanding of his corps he took up his residence in Cologne, and 
after a few years he found a permanent home, about 1720, in Biebrich- 
Mosbach, opposite Mayence. 

The two branches of the familj' at present are the descendants of 
Philip George and Johan Peter, both sons of Frederick. Johan 
Peter emigrated to Amei'ica in 1745, leaving among his descendants 
Edwin Thompson Denig, the subject of this treatise; Commodore 
Robert Gracie Denig, United States Navy, his son; Major Robert 
Livingston Denig, United States Marine Corps, a distinguished 
soldier of the World War, and Dr. Blanche Denig, a well-known 
woman physician of Boston. 

The descendants of Philip George include Dr. Rudolph C. Denig, 
professor of clinical ophthalmology in Columbia University, New 
York, N. Y. 

Ethnologically, it may be of more than passing interest to know 
that the name Denig was originally Denek(e), then Deneg, which 
was taken as a family name by Frederick Svensen at the time he left 
Denmark in 1709. Until then the family had followed the old Scan- 
dinavian custom of the son taking his father's first name with the 
suffix sen or son as his family name. 



384 PREFACE 

The Denigs came to their present name in the following manner: 
After the Kalmar War, 1611-1613, conditions in Denmark became 
critical, and the Danes were hard pressed for all the necessaries of 
life, esjDecially foodstuffs. They were therefore forced to import 
grain from neighboring countries. So it happened that Ludvig 
Thorvaldsen, born in 1590, was sent l)y his father. Thorvald Chris- 
tiansen, to Valen in Westphalia, a district still renowned for its 
agriculture, to buy corn. 

Ludvig went there every fall for thi'ee or four successive yeai-s. 
Eventually the Westphalians nicknamed him Deneke; " Den " mean- 
ing Dane, and the suffix " eke," like " ike," " ing." and " ig," a diminu- 
tive, derivative, or patronymic. Naturally this surname was not 
used at home, but it became useful when occasional trips took mem- 
bers of the family outside of Denmark. 

The use of such a nom de guerre has always been popular with 
Scandinavian and kindred races like the Friesians. As the supply 
of available names did not meet the demand, frequent similarity 
of names made it difficult to avoid losing one's identity. 

When Frederick Svensen Deneg had settled in Biebrich-Mosbaeli 
the name Deneg had to undergo another change. While in the north 
the syllable " eg " is pronounced like " ek," the Chatto-Franconian 
dialect around IMayence pronounces it like " esh." Automatically, 
for eu^Dhonic reasons the name was dialectically changed to Denig. 
In former times such capricious changes in names were frequently 
made. In perusing old chronicles many names are found written 
in three or four different ways within one century. An instance to 
the point is the Frankish name of King Meroveg, who was also 
called Merovig, and his descendants were called Meroveger, Mero- 
viger. and Merovinger, according to dialects spoken in the different 
regions of the former Frankish empire. This parallels the change 
of Deneg to Denig. 

Upon his arrival, September 5, 1851, at Fort Union, 3 miles 
above the mouth of the Yellowstone River on the Missouri. ]\Ir. 
Frederick Ktirz, the Swiss artist, of Berne, Switzerland, who had 
heard some ugly rumors about Mr. Denig, wrote in his Journal 
(yet in manuscript) : " Bellange delivered the letter he brought to 
a small, hard-featured man, wearing a straw hat, the brim of which 
was turned up in the back. He was my new bourgeois^ Mr. Denig. 
He impressed me as a rather prosy fellow. . . . He ordered sup- 
per delayed on our account that we might have a better and more 
plentiful meal. A bell svnnmoned me to the first table with Mr. 
Denig and the clerks. My eyes almost ran over with tears. There 
was chocolate, milk, butter, omelet, fresh meat, hot bread — what 
a magnificent spread. I changed my opinion at once concerning 



PREFACE 385 

this new chief; a hard, nifjcardly person could not have reconciled 
himself to such a hospitable reception in behalf of a subordinate 
■who was a total stranger to him" (pp. 205-206). Kurz remained 
•with Denig three years. 

Again, Kurz wrote : " In his relations with me he is most kind 
and agreeable. Every evening he sits with me either in my room 
or in front of the gate and relates experiences of his earlier life. 
As he has held his position in this locality for 19 years already, 
his life has been full of adventure with Indians — particularly since 
the advent of the whisky flask. He wishes me to paint, also, a 
portrait of himself and his dog, Natah (Bear), a commission I am 
very glad to execute " (p. 211). 

Again, in speaking of the duties of Mr. Denig, Kurz wrote: 
" It goes without saying that a howr/eois who occupies the position 
of responsible warden, chief tradesman, and person in highest au- 
thority at a trading-post far removed, where he has fifty men under 
his direction, may regard himself of more importance than a man 
who directs five men " (p. 213) . 

Again Kurz wrote: "As a matter of course, Denig keeps the 
subordinate workmen strictly under his thumb — what is more, he 
has to, if he is to prevent their overreaching him. He feels, how- 
ever, that one man alone is not sufficient to enforce good order 
among these undei-lings, for evei-y one of them is armed and, though 
not courageous in general, are, nevertheless, touchy and revengeful. 
So, for purposes of order and protection he has attached to himself 
the clerks who stand more nearly on the same level with him in 
birth and education and afford, besides, the only support, moral as 
well as physical, upon which he can reckon" (p. 21C). 

Again Kurz wrote: "He talks to me continually about Indian 
legends and usages. As he writes the best of these stories for Pere 
De Smet, by whom they are published, there is no need of my pre- 
serving more than some bits of memoranda" (p. 238). This ex- 
plains why the writings on these matters of Father De Smet have a 
close family resemblance with those of Mr. Denig. 

Again Kurz wrote : " Mr. Denig has been reading to me again 
from his manuscript, which is extremely interesting. He is very 
well educated and he has made a thorough study of Indian life — a 
distinct advantage to him in trade. He is so fond of the life in 
this part of the country that he is averse to any thought of going 
back to his Pennsylvania home in the United States. For the 
reason, as he says, that he may avoid political carryings-on that 
disgust him" (p." 242). 

Another entry in the Kurz Journal reads: "September the 24th. 
Began a poitrait of Mr. Denig — life-size, knee-length. This work 



386 PREFACE 

is to be finished before Mr. Culbertson's return from Fort Laramie" 
(p. 254). 

The following citation is from the Kurz Journal at page 577: 
'' February the 26th, Mr. Denig is a Swedenborgian and at the same 
time he is a Freemason. He mentioned to me that it would be of 
great advantage on my travels if I were a Freemason." 

It seems appropriate to insert here briefly what another intimate 
friend of Mr. Denig, the Reverend Father De Smet, thought of the 
knowledge and attainments of our author. Father De Smet in 
speaking of the source of his information in a particular instance 
wrote : " I have it from two most reliable sources — that is to say, 
from a man of tried probity and veracity, Mr. Denig of the Saint 
Louis Fur Company . . ."^ 

On page 1215 of this same work Father De Smet in a personal 
letter to Mr. Denig, dated September 30, 1852, wrote : " I do not know 
how to express my gratitude for your very interesting series of 
narratives concerning the aborigines of the Far West. . . . Noth- 
ing could be more gratifying to me than the beautiful and graphic 
details which you have given me of the religion, manners, customs, 
and transactions of an unfortunate race of human beings." 

It is hoped that these excerpts from the writings of Frederick Kurz 
and Father De Smet, both intimately associated with Mr. Denig, will 
supply some data concerning our author not otherwise accessible. 

The Swiss artist, Friedrich Kurz, who painted many pictures of 
the region around Fort Union, lived with Denig for some time, and 
in 1851 painted his portrait. 

The Indians called Mr. Denig " The Long Knife," which simply 
meant that they knew him as "an American." 

In the manuscript Mr. Denig employs the word " band " to denote 
" a gens of a tribe," the word " clans " to denote " societies " or 
" corporations," and the " orders of doctors " he calls " shamans or 
theurgists." To understand Mr. Denig these meanings must be kept 
in mind. 

The Editor. 

• Chittenden, H. M.. and Rich.Tidson, A. T. Life, letters, and travels of Father Pierre- 
Jean De Smet, S. J., 1801-1873. Vol. IV, p. 1111. New York, 1905. 



I 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Letter of transmittal 393 

The Asbiniboin 

History 395 

Origin 395 

Name and geographical position 396 

Ancient and modern habitat 397 

Vestiges of early tradition 398 

Names and events in history 399 

Present rulers and condition 401 

Intertribal rank and relations 403 

Magnitude and resources of territory a cause of the multiplication of 

tribes 405 

Geography 406 

Figure of the globe 406 

Local features of the habitat 406 

Surface of the country 407 

Facilities for grazing 408 

Effect of firing the prairies 408 

Wastelands 409 

Effects of volcanic action 409 

Saline productions 409 

Coal and mineral products ' 410 

Climate 410 

Wild animals 410 

Ancient bones and traditions of the monster era 411 

Animals used as armorial marks 412 

The horse — Era of importation 412 

Pictographs — Charts on bark 412 

Antiquities 413 

Pipes . 413 

Vessels and implements 414 

Astronomy and geology 414 

Earth and its motions 414 

The sun 415 

The sky 415 

Future life — Indian paradise 418 

Arithmetic 418 

Numeration 418 

Coin 420 

Keeping accounts 420 

Elements of figures 421 

Medicine 422 

General practice 422 

Depletion by bleeding 426 

Stoppage of blood and healing art 427 

Amputation 427 

Theory of diseases and their remedy 428 

Parturition 429 

387 



388 CONTENTS 

Page 

Government 430 

Tribal organization and government 430 

Chiefs 431 

The Sndoo-kah, "Circumcised" 434 

Soldiers 436 

Councils 446 

Scope of civil jurisdiction 448 

Chiefship 448 

Power of the war chief 449 

Power of the priests in councils 450 

Matrons in councils 451 

General councils 451 

Private right to take life 452 

Game laws, or rights of the chase 455 

Indian trade 457 

Education 466 

Warfare 470 

Property 474 

Territorial rights 476 

Primogeniture 478 

Crime 479 

Prayers 483 

Prayer of warrior 483 

Prayer to ghosts 484 

The moon 484 

Parental affection 485 

Religion J 486 

Immortality 498 

Mythology: Legends, tales 500 

Manners and customs 503 

Constitution of the Assiniboin family; kinship 503 

Camp life 505 

Courtship and marriage 510 

Music 612 

Longevity 513 

Hospitality 513 

Midwifery, childbirth, naming 516 

Assiniboin personal names 518 

Children 519 

Suicide 522 

Personal behavior 523 

Scalping 524 

Oaths 524 

Smoking 524 

Fame 525 

Stoicism 525 

Taciturnity 526 

Public speaking 526 

Travel 526 

Senses 527 

Juggling and sorcery 528 

Strength and endurance 529 

Spirituous liquors 629 



CONTENTS 389 

Page 

Hunting 530 

Throwing buffalo in a park 532 

Approaching buffalo 534 

Deer hunting 536 

Elk hunting 537 

Grizzly bears 537 

Beaver 538 

Wolves and foxes 538 

Instruction in hunting 542 

Fishing 544 

War 544 

Costume of a warrior 553 

Weapons 555 

Dancing and amusements 556 

Scalp dance 557 

Brave's dance 558 

Fox dance 561 

Duck dance 562 

Bulls' dance 562 

Soldiers' dance 562 

White crane dance 563 

Crow dance 564 

Dance of the mice comrades 564 

Whip dance 564 

God-seeking dance 564 

Women's dance 564 

Games 565 

Racing 566 

Gambling 567 

Death and its consequences 570 

Orphans and the aged 576 

Lodges 577 

Canoes 579 

Mental and ethical advancement 579 

Medicine; drugs 581 

Food 581 

Garments; dresses 584 

Ornaments 590 

Paints and dyes 591 

Tattooing 592 

Badges of office 592 

Beard 593 

Intellectual capacity and character 593 

Picture writing 603 

Myth telling 607 

Fables 609 

Songs; music 617 

Present condition and future prospects 620 

Intermarriage with whites 625 

Population 625 

Language 625 

Bibliography 627 

Index 629 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATES 

Page 

62. Fort Union as it ai)]3eared in 1833 394 

63. Edwin Thompson Denig and Mrs. Denig 394 

64. Drawings by an Assiniboin Indian 414 

65. Culinary utensils 414 

66. Characteristic implements of the Assiniboin 414 

67. a, Comb root; b, Cat-tail 414 

68. The calumet and its accompaniments 446 

69. A buffalo park or "surround" 532 

70. An Assiniboin running a buffalo 532 

71. Scalp dance 558 

72. Coo-soo', or game of the bowl 558 

73. The Chun-kan-dee' game 578 

74. A lodge frame and a completed lodge 578 

75. The interior of a lodge and its surroundings 578 

76. An Assiniboin stabbing a Blackfoot 578 

77. Map of region above Fort Union 606 

78. Diagram of a battle field 606 

79. Diagram of a battle field 606 

80. Musical instruments 606 

TEXT FIGURES 

30. Lancet 426 

31. Diagram of a council lodge 437 

32. Cradle board 519 

33. Tool for fleshing the hide 540 

34. Tool for scraping hides or shaving the skin 541 

35. Picture writing 603 

391 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



To His Excellency Isaac I. Stevens, 

Governw of Washington Tet^tory. 

Sir : Being stimulated with a desire to meet your wishes and for- 
ward tlie views of Government, I have in the following pages en- 
deavored to answer the Inquiries published by act of Congress re- 
garding the history, present condition, and future prospects of the 
Indian triljes with which I am acquainted. 

Had I been called upon to illustrate the facts herein recorded by 
reference to their different individual histories and actions, a 
more voluminous and perhaps interesting work might have been 
presented the general reader, but in conformity to the instructions 
laid down in the document referred to, have only replied to the vari- 
ous queries, limiting the answers to plain statements of facts. 

Independent of my own personal observation and knowledge 
acquired by a constant residence of 21 years among the prairie tribes 
in every situation, I have on all occasions had the advice of intelli- 
gent Indians as to the least important of these queries, so as to avoid, 
if possible, the introduction of error. Should there be new ideas 
presented, and the organization, customs, or present condition of the 
Indians made public in the following manuscript differ either ma- 
terially or immaterially from any other now extant I would beg 
leave to say I would much rather have the same i-ejected than to see 
it published in a mutilated form or made to coincide with any his- 
tories of the same people from others who have not had like oppor- 
tunities of acquiring information. 

Some of their customs and opinions now presented, although very 
plain and common to us who are in their daily observance, may not 
have been rendered in comprehensible language to those who are 
stranger to these things, and the number of queries, the diversity of 
subjects, etc., have necessarily curtailed each answer to as few words 
as possible. In the event, therefore, of not being understood or 
of apparent discrepancies presenting, it would be but justice done the 
author and patron to have the same explained, which would be cheer- 
fully done. 

It is presumed the following pages exhibit a minutiae of informa- 
jtion on those subjects not to be obtained either by transient visitors 
or a residence of a few years in the country, without being, as is the 
S8253°— 30 26 393 



394 LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

case with myself, intimately acquainted with their camp regulations, 
understanding their language, and in many instances entering into 
their feelings and actions. The whole has been well digested, the 
different subjects pursued in company with the Indians for an entire 
year, until satisfactory answers have been obtained, and their motives 
of speech or action well understood before placing the same as a 
guide and instruction to others. The answers refer to the Sioux, 
Arikara, Mandan, Gros Ventres, Cree, Crow, Assiniboin, and Black- 
feet Nations, who are designated as prairie roving or wild tribes, 
further than whom our knowledge does not extend. 

I am aware of your capacity to judge the merits of the work, and 
will consider myself highly honored if I have had the good fortune to 
meet your apiDrobation. Moreover, I shall rejoice if I have contrib- 
uted in any degree toward opening a course of policy on the part of 
Government that may result in the amelioration of the sad condition 
of the savages. Should the facts herein recorded ever be published 
or embodied in other works, it is hoped the errors of language may be 
corrected, but in no instance is it desired that the meaning should 
miscarry. 

Should any references be required by the department for whom 
this is written I beg leave to name as my friends and personal ac- 
quaintances in addition to your Excellency, Col. D. D. Mitchell, Ken- 
neth Mackruger, Esq., Kev. P. I. De Smet, Messrs. P. Chouteau, Jr., 
& Co., and Alex. Culbertson, Esq., all of St. Louis, and Dr. John 
Evans, United States geologist, any of whom will satisfy inquiries on 
this head. 

Permit me, my dear friend, to remain with great respect and high 
consideration, truly your most obedient servant, 

Edwin T. Denig. 



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INDIAN TRIBES OF THE UPPER MISSOURI 



By Edwin T. Denig 



THE ASSINIBOIN ^ 

History 

Origin. — But little traditionary can be stated by these Indians as 
authentic of their origin which would be entitled to record in history, 
though many singular and fabulous tales are told concerning it. As 
a portion of people, however, once inhabiting another district and 
being incorjjorated witii another nation, their history presents a con- 
nected and credible chain of circumstances. The Assiniboin were 
once a part of the great Sioux or Dacotah Nation, residing on the 
tributary streams of the Mississippi ; say, the head of the Des Moines, 
St. Peters, and other rivers. This is evident, as their language with 
but little variation is the same, and also but a few years back there 
lived a very old chief, known to all of us as Le Gros Francois, though 
his Indian name was Wah-he' Muzza or the " Iron Arrow-point," 
who recollected perfectly the time of their separation from the Sioux, 
which, according to his data, must have been about the year 1760.- 
He stated that when Lewis and Clark came up the Missouri in 1805 
his band of about 60 lodges (called Les Gens des Roches) had after a 
severe war made peace with the Sioux, who at that time resided on 
the Missouri, and that he saw the expedition referred to near White 
Earth River, these being the first body of whites ever seen by them, 
although they were accustomed to be dealt with by the fur traders 
of the Mississippi. After their first separation from the Sioux they 
moved northward, making a peace with the Cree and Chippewa, 
took possession of an uninhabited country on or near the Saskatche- 
wan and Assiniboin Rivers, in which district some 2.50 or 300 lodges 
.'5till reside. ' Some time after the expedition of Lewis and Clark, or 
at least after the year 1777, the rest of the Assiniboin, at that time 
about 1,200 lodges, migrated toward the Missouri, and as soon as 
they found superior advantages regarding game and trade, made 

^ Consult Preface for etymolojjic analysis of this word and for Us objective moaning. 

- This traditional date given by Denig is evidently much too late, for as early as the 

middle of the seventeenth century they were known to the Jesuit missionaries of Canada. 

395 



396 TRIBES OF THE UPPER MISSOURI [eth. ann. 46 

the latter country their home. One principal incident in tlieir his- 
tory which they have every reason to remember and by which many 
of the foregoing data are ascertained is a visitation of the smallpox 
in 1780 (see Mackenzie's travels), when they occupied the British 
territory. Even yet there are two or three Indians living who are 
marked by the disease of that period and which greatly thinned their 
population, though owing to their being separated through an im- 
mense district, some bands entirely escajsed. Upon the whole it does 
not appear to have been as destructive as the same disease on the 
Missouri in 1838, which I will have occasion to mention in its proper 
place in these pages and which reduced them from 1,200 lodges to 
about 400 lodges. 

Name and Geographical Position.— The name of the Assiniboin 
among themselves is Da-co-tah, same as the Sioux, which means " our 
people." By the Sioux they are called Ho'-hai or "Fish-eaters," 
perhaps from the fact that they lived principally on fish while on 
the British grounds, as most of those Indians do. By the Cree 
and Chippewa they are called As-see-nee-poi-tuc or Stone Indians; 
hence the English name of Assiniboin arises. As has been stated, 
at the earliest date known they roved about the head of St. Peters, 
Des Moines, Lac du Diable, and Lac qui Parle ; and they were then 
joined with the Sioux Indians, who inhabited and claimed all > the 
lands between the Mississippi and the Missouri as low down as Big 
Sioux River and as high up as the head of Rivier a Jacques, thence 
northward toward Lac du Diable, other bands of Sioux (Teton) 
residing west of the Missouri. The number of Assiniboin when they 
separated must have been at least 1,500 lodges, averaging six souls 
to a lodge [or about 9,000 persons]. Their migration has been 
referred to and the extent of land they occupied in the British terri- 
tory on the Saskatchewan, etc., was very large, but at present their 
habitat is entirely different, and it may be as well to state it here. 
The northern Assiniboin, 250 or 300 lodges, rove the country from 
the west banks of the Saskatchewan, Assiniboin, and Red Rivers 
in a westward direction to the Woody Mountains north and west 
among small spurs of the Rocky Mountains east of the Missouri, and 
among chains of small lakes through this immense region. Occa- 
sionally making peace with some of the northern bands of Blackfeet 
enables them to come a little farther west and deal with tliose Indians, 
but, these " peaces " being of short duration, they are for the most 
part limited to the prairies east and north of the Blackfeet range. 
The rest of the Assiniboin, say 500 to 520 lodges [who may be called 
the Southern Assiniboin], occupy the following district, viz, com- 
mencing at the mouth of the White Earth River on the east, extend- 
ing up that river to its head, thence northwest along the Couteau 



DENIQ] THE ASSINIBOIX 397 

de Prairie, or Divide, as far as the Cyprus IMountains on the North 
Fork of the Milk River, thence down Milk River to its junction with 
the Missouri River, thence down the Missouri River to the mouth 
of AVhite Earth River, or the starting point. Formerly they in- 
habited a portion of country on the south side of the Missouri River 
along the Yellowstone River, but of late years, having met with 
great losses by Blackfeet, Sioux, and Crow war parties, they have 
been obliged to abandon this region and now they never go there. 
As before remarked, the Assiniboin still numbered 1,000 to 1,200 
lodges, trading on the Missouri until the year 1838, when the small- 
pox reduced their numbers to less than 400 lodges. Also, being 
surrounded by large and hostile tribes, war has had its share in 
their destruction, though now they are increasing slowly. 

Ancient and Modern Habitat.— Before proceeding further it 
would be well to state and bear in mind that of all the Indians now 
residing on the Missouri River the Assiniboin appear to have made 
the least progress toward acquiring civilized ideas or Icnowledge of 
any kind. Superstitious, lazy, and indisposed to thought, they make 
no attempt to improve themselves in any waj'. ' Neither are they 
anxious that othei's should teach them; consequently they are far 
behind the other tribes even as regards their own savage manner of 
life. This will receive further explanation. They do not think the 
Great Spirit created them on or for a particular portion of country, 
but that he made the whole prairie for the sole use of the Indian, 
and the Indian to suit the prairie, giving among other reasons the 
fact that the buffalo is so well adapted to their wants as to meat 
and clothing, even for their lodges and bowstrings. To the Indian is 
allotted legs to run, eyes to see far, bravery, instinct, watchfulness, 
and other capacities not developed in the same degree in the whites. 
The Indian, therefore, occupies any section of prairie where game is 
plentiful and he can protect himself from enemies. With regard to 
any other kind of right than that of possession and ability to de- 
fend, . besides the general right granted by the Great Spirit, they 
have not the most distant idea. The Assiniboin conquered nothing 
to come into possession of their habitat, they had their difficulties 
with surrounding tribes and still have, as others have, and continue 
as they commenced, fighting and hunting alternately. Their first 
interview with Europeans (now spoken of) was when the traders 
of the Mississippi pushed their traffic as far as their camps, and 
from whom they obtained firearms, woolen clothing, utensils, etc. 
Afterwards these supplies were had from the Hudson Bay Co. and, 
latterly, from the Americans on the Missouri River. There is every 
reason to believe that the introduction of ardent spirits among therri 
was coeval, if not antecedent, to that of any other article of trade. 



398 TRIBES OF THE UPPER MISSOURI [eth. anx. 4C 

Before the trade was opened with them by the whites they say they 
used knives made of the hump rib of the buffalo, hatchets made of 
flint stone, mallets of the same, cooking utensils of clay and wood, 
bones for awls, and sinew for thread, all of which articles can yet be 
found among them. They made with these rude tools their bows and 
arrows, pointing the latter with stone, and, as game was abundant, 
hunted them on foot or threw them into pens built for the purpose, 
which method they continue to use to this day. In this way they 
had no difficulty in supporting themselves, and so contend that they 
have gained notiiing by intimacy with the whites but diseases which 
kill them off in numbers and wants which they are unable at all 
times to gratify. They have never sold lands by treaty, and the only 
treaty (with the exception of that at Laramie, 1851) was made by 
them through an Indian agent of the United States named Wilson, 
at the Mandan village in 1825. But this was merely an amicable 
alliance for the protection of American traders and an inducement 
held out to the Indians to leave off trading at the Hudson Bay Co.'s 
posts and establish themselves on the Missouri, without, however, 
any remuneration on the part of the United States. 

Vestiges of Early Tradition. — They have no creditable tradition 
of the Mosaic account of the creation or deluge, neither of their 
ancestors having lived in other lands nor knowledge of foreign 
quadrupeds nor any idea of whites or other races occupying the 
country before the Indians. It is easy to perceive in converse with 
them that whites have from time to time endeavored to explain the 
Mosaic account of the creation and deluge, together with other 
scriptural records, but instead of comprehending the same they have 
mixed with their own superstitions and childish notions in so many 
various and nonsensical forms that none is worthy of record. 

They have no name for America, neither do they know of its 
extent, for the most part believing that the lands occupied by them- 
selves and the surrounding tribes compose the greatest part of the 
world, and certainly contain the greatest reputed number of people. 
It vexes and grieves them to be told of large tracts of land elsewhere, 
and they do not or will not believe the whites to be as human as 
they are. 

There is nothing in this subject any Assiniboin could either com- 
prehend or answer, except that there is a mound about 50 miles 
above the mouth of the Yellowstone on the west side and near the 
Missouri consisting of an immense pile of elk horns, covering an 
area of about an acre of ground, and in height about 30 feet. We 
have frequently inquired of these and the surrounding nations as 
to its origin, but it was raised previous to the knowledge or even 
tradition of any tribe now living in these parts. From the state of 
decay the horns are in it must be very ancient. 



DENIG] THE ASSINIBOIN 399 

Names axd Events in History. — There is no great event in the 
history of the Assiniboin that gives them cause to rejoice. True, 
they have occasionally gained a battle, but at other times have lost 
greatly by wars. Upon the whole they have had the worst of it ; at 
least they, being a smaller nation than the Blackfeet and Sioux (their 
enemies) have felt the loss more severely. The principal calamity 
that first overtook them, and by which they suffered greatly, was the 
smallpox in 1780. (See Mackenzie's travels and other authors.) 
On this occasion they lost about 300 lodges of their people, and it is 
to this day mentioned by them as their greatest first misfortune. In 
the spring of 1838 this disease was again communicated to them, be- 
ing brought up the Missouri by a steamboat, and although every 
precaution had been used, the boat cleansed, and no appearance of 
disease for a long time aboard, yet it in some way broke out among 
the Indians, beginning with the Sioux tribes and ending with the 
Blackfeet. Being an eyewitness to this, we can with certainty give 
an account of its ravages. When the disease first appeared in Fort 
Union we did everything in our power to prevent the Indians from 
coming to it. trading with them a considerable distance out in the 
prairie and representing to them the danger of going near the infec- 
tion. All efforts of the kind, however, proved unavailing, for they 
would not listen, and 250 lodges contracted the disease at one time, 
who in the course of the summer and fall were reduced to 65 men, 
young and old, or about 30 lodges in all. Other bands coming from 
time to time caught the infection and remained at the fort, where 
the dead were daily thrown into the river by cartloads. The disease 
was very virulent, most of the Indians dying through delirium and 
hemorrhage from the mouth and ears before any spots appeared. 
Some killed themselves. 

On one occasion an Indian near the fort after losing his favorite 
child deliberately killed his wife, his two remaining children, his 
horses and dogs, and then blew his own brains out. In all this the 
Indians behaved extremely well toward the whites, although aware 
they brought the disease among them, yet nothing in the way of 
revenge took place, either at the time or afterwards. Being obliged 
to be all the time with them, helping as much as possible to save a 
few, they had plenty of opportunities should they have wished to 
do damage. Every kind of treatment appeared to be of no avail, 
and they continued dying until near the ensuing spring, when the 
disease, having spent itself, ceased. The result was that out of 
1,000 lodges and upward of the Assiniboin then in existence but 
400 lodges or less remained, and even these but thinly peopled. 
Relationship by blood or adoption was nearly annihilated, all prop- 
erty lost or sacrificed, and a few very young and very old left to 



400 TRIBES OF THE UPPER MISSOURI [eth. ann. 46 

mourn the loss. Most of the principal men having died, it took years 
to recover from the shock. Young men had to grow up, new leaders 
to be developed, remnants of bands to be gathered together, property 
to be had — in fact, under all these adverse circumstances, so slow 
has been the increase that during the interim of 17 years but 100 
lodges have accumulated. In times like this no leader can be ef- 
fective. All counsel was rejected; their chiefs and divining men 
shared the fate of the others. With the Mandan the disease was even 
more destructive. Before it they numbered 600 warriors and in- 
habited two large villages where the Arikara are now stationed, 
and when the disease ceased about 30 men remained, from wliich 
remnant have since sprung about 25 lodges. All this time an Assini- 
boin chief named The Gauche, or by the Indians " He wlio holds 
the knife," was the princijjal man in the band which bore his name, 
consisting of 250 lodges. 

These died in greater proportion than the others and after the 
disease had disappeared the old chief found himself at the head of 
about 60 fighting men. The Gauche was a very old man ancf had 
had the smallpox in the north; he was also famed in their annals 
as a leader and divining man. He had been very successful in his 
expeditions against the Blackfeet, and by the use of poisons admin- 
istered occasionally to his people, while predicting their death, he 
had inspired in all the fear of a sorcerer. His life contains a history 
which our limits do not admit of describing, although well known, 
singular, interesting, and authentic. On this occasion he under- 
stood that the Mandan were rendered totally helpless by the effects 
of the smallpox, and conceived the idea of taking their village and in 
a measure retrieving his losses by the horses and other property of 
these Indians. Gathering together the remnant of his band, about 50 
men, he proceeded thither. The writer saw him pass with the pipe 
of peace to lull suspicion, in order to enter their village in a friendly 
way, and then at a given signal each one with knife in hand to rush 
upon and destroy the unsuspecting friends. The whole was well 
planned, managed, and kept secret, and it would have succeeded but 
for an occurrence of which tlie Assiniboin was not then aware. The 
Arikara, a tolerably numerous people, having left the Missouri, had 
been for years residing on the Platte River, and having previously 
had the smallpox did not contract the disease to any extent. About 
the same time The Gauche was on his way to the Mandan, they re- 
turned suddenly from the Platte and took possession of their village 
a short distance from the Mandan. Now the Arikara numbered 
about 500 men, all deadly enemies to the Assiniboin, so that when the 
latter presented their pipe of peace the ceremonies were interrupted 
by an attack of the Arikara. The Assiniboin were routed, and 
about 20 of them killed. 



DENiG] THE ASSINIBOIN 401 

The old chief, as usual, escaped, though his day of power was over. 
Shortly afterwards he predicted the day and hour of his own death 
at the fort- — days beforehand, without any appearance of disease 
or approaching dissolution, and the writer with other gentlemen at 
the fort saw the same fulfilled to the letter. The conclusion was that 
he took poison, which he was long supposed to have received from 
the whites in the north and kept a dose for the fullness of time. 

This man had more renown than any other leader spoken of, al- 
though several have done gallant actions. His success may be attrib- 
uted to great cunning and the large force he always headed, together 
with the power his fetishes gave him over his fellows, who blindly 
followed his instructions and fought desperately under his prophecies, 
though his life shows the anomaly of a great leader being entirely 
destitute of every particle of personal intrepidity. Many other 
events have happened which form data in their history; indeed it is 
composed of reference to certain remarkable occurrences, such as the 
year of the smallpox, year of the deep snow, year of massacre of 30 
lodges of Blackfeet, year of great rise of waters, and other natural 
phenomena. 

Present Rulers and Condition. — Their present ruling chief is 
Man-to-was-ko, or the Crazy Bear, made chief by Colonel Mitchell, 
Commissioner of the United States, at the Laramie treaty in 1851. 
The choice could not have been better. The Crazy Bear has always 
been a respectable and brave man, greatly elevated above all the rest 
in intelligence but not ranking with some in military exploits, having 
never been a great warrior, though on some small occasions he has 
shown an utter contempt of death before his enemies. He is a mild, 
politic man, looking after his peoples interest, and viewing with a 
jealous eye anything inconsistent with them. Even when a very 
young man his opinions were always honored with a hearing in 
council, and he now bears his honors with great credit to himself 
and service to his people, endeavoring to carry out to the letter the 
stipulations of the treaty to which he is a party. 

Among the princii^al soldiers and war captains may be mentioned 
To-ka'-ke-a-na, or the " First Who Flies." This man is a son of the 
old chief, Wah-he Muzza, or " Iron Arrowpoint," mentioned before. 
The whole of that old man's numerous family have been, and those 
living still are, desperate men, proud and overbearing with their 
people, though good to the whites. From the eldest, named " The 
Sight," who visited Washington City by General Jackson's orders, to 
the one now mentioned, five in number have been killed by their own 
people in personal cjuarrels. 

The one now s^Doken of has frequently led parties to battle and 
showed such a recklessness of danger that his name stands high as a 



402 TRIBES OF THE UPPER MISSOURI [eth. ann. 46 

warrior; has also killed two of his own people who wei'e concerned 
in the murder of his brothers; was at the Laramie treaty and since 
behaves himself with great moderation; is one of the Crazy Bear's 
principal soldiers and supports; and should the Bear die would 
undoubtedly take his place as chief of the tribe. 

Wa-ke-un-to, or the Blue Thunder, is another warrior and 
partisan in a band of 200 lodges, is not over 25 years of age, but has 
raised himself to distinction by going to war alone on the Sioux and 
bringing home scalps and horses; he has also headed several war 
excursions with great success and is generally liked by his own 
people. 

Wo'-a-see'-chah, or Bad Animal, known to traders by the name of 
Le Serpent, is a war leader and chief of Les Gens des Canots Band, 
the same 200 lodges of which Blue Thunder is one of the warriors 
and camp soldiers. I believe he has never killed many enemies but 
has murdered in quarrels two of his own people, is considered a sensi- 
ble man, very friendly to the whites, judicious in his government of 
his band, and also is a person whom it is not desirable to aggravate 
too much. Me-nah (The Knife), A-wah-min-ne-o-min-ne (The 
Whirlwind), Ish-ta-o-ghe-nah (Gray Eyes), He-boom-an-doo (La 
Poudriere), and others are soldiers and warriors whose histories are 
known to us and would present the usual features of savage life 
and warfare. 

The Assiniboin speak but one dialect, being radically the same as 
the Sioux; no other is incorporated in it, though some few can in 
addition speak Cree and others of the northern bands of Blackfeet, 
but no more than one interpreter is required in transacting any busi- 
ness with each or all of them. A person who can speak the Sioux 
language well could interpret for the Assiniboin, or vice versa. 

There are manj' elderly persons capable of stating their traditions 
and willing to impart any information they are in possession of 
regarding their history ; but what is heard from them in this respect 
is so mingled with fable and superstition as seldom to admit of its 
serving as a basis for truth or knowledge or for a correct repre- 
sentation of their past condition. They do not exhibit any chain of 
connected facts; and though these oral tales have been preserved 
entire, transmitted in their original form through successive gen- 
erations, and may possibly have been the belief of their ancestors, yet 
at the present day are regarded more as a source of amusement than 
a medium of instruction or means of perpetuating their history. Too 
much error has been the result of depending for knowledge on these 
traditions by people who only understand them in their literal sense 
or have been badly interpreted. All facts among the nations with 
whom we profess an intimate acquaintance and minute knowledge 



DEXIG] THE ASSINIBOIX 403 

farther than a century back are involved in obscurity, mingled with 
fable, or embodied in their superstitions. 

The time when the tribe reached its present location was from 1804 
to 1825, when the most of them might be considered as established 
on the waters of the Missouri, the boundaries of which have been 
pointed out, though in 1839. 60 lodges of Assiniboin came over from 
the British northern possessions and joined those of the Missouri, 
since which time thej' have resided together. 

IxTERTKiBAL Raxk axd RELATIONS. — As to the qucstioH, what rank 
and relationship does the tribe bear to other tribes, we are not aware 
of any political scale of superiority or inferiority existing among any 
of the tribes along the Missouri ; neitlier do their traditions point out 
or assign any such particular position to each other. Being well 
acquainted with the manners and customs of tlie Sioux, the Arikara, 
the Mandan, the Gros Ventres, the Crow, the Assiniboin, the Cree, and 
the Blackfeet tribes we can safely say that no such distinction exists 
that would receive the sanction of all parties. There is, however, 
this: Each nation has vanity enough to think itself superior to its 
neighbors, but all think the same, and the more ignorant they are the 
more obstinately they adliere to their own opinions. All tribes are 
pretty much independent of one another in their thoughts and 
actions, and, indeed witli the exception of tlie Gros Ventres, the 
Mandan and the Arikara, who are stationary and live in a manner 
together, neighboring tribes usually are completely in the dark re- 
garding one another's government, not even knowing the names of 
the principal cliiefs and warriors unless told them or recognizing 
them when pointed out. In all the above-mentioned tribes there is 
no such thing as pretensions to original rank. Rank is the growth of 
the present, as often acquired as lost. The greatest chief any of these 
tribes ever produced would become a mere toy, a butt, a ridicule, in a 
few days after he lost his eyes or sense of sight. 

Neither has affinity of blood in this sense anything to do with rank 
as to succession. If the son for want of bravei-y or other qualifica- 
tions can not equal or follow the steps of his father chief, he is noth- 
ing more tiian an ordinary Indian. There are consequently no dis- 
cordant pretensions to oi-iginal ranlc, though it may be a matter of 
dispute which of two or three cliiefs ranks at present the highest, 
and in this case it would be immediately decided in council by the 
principal men. In fact the rank or standing of each Indian, be he 
chief or warrior, is so well known, and his character so well judged 
by the vox populi that he talces his place spontaneously. A higher 
step than his acts and past conduct confer, imprudently taken, would 
have the effect of injuring him in their eyes as a leader. Every chief, 
warrior, or brave carves his own way to fame, and if recognized as 



404 TRIBES OF THE UPPER MISSOUKI [ETH. ANX. 46 

one by the general voice becomes popular and is supported ; if not, he 
mixes with hundreds of others who are in the same situation, waiting 
an opportunity to rise. There is no relative rank among tribes bear- 
ing the name of uncle, grandfather, etc. The names of the different 
bands among themselves or the surrounding tribes have no such sig- 
nification. There are, of course, affinities of blood and relationship 
among the Indians as well as among whites. People have their 
fathers, uncles, grandfathers, brothers-in-law, etc., but this personal 
or family relationship has nothing to do with the clanship, nor has 
it any bearing on other tribes. As to the relations above alluded to 
we will have occasion to refer to them under the head of tribal 
organization and government. Among eastern or southern tribes 
such distinctions may exist, but we can vouch they have no name nor 
interest in all the tribes mentioned in the beginning of this answer. 
To pi'event misunderstanding, it should be observed that when we 
speak of a tribe we mean the whole group who speak that language. 
Different tribes are different gi'oups. Portions of these groups or 
tribes are called gentes, and portions or societies of these gentes are 
designated as subgentes, and the next or most minute subdivision of 
gentes would be into families. 

" Peaces " are made between wild tribes by the ceremony of smok- 
ing and exchanging presents of horses and other property ; sometimes 
women. The advantages and disadvantages are well calculated on 
both sides before overtures for peace are made. It is a question of 
loss and gain and often takes years to accomplish. The Crows, a rich 
nation, five years ago, through the writer as the medium made peace 
with the Assiniboin after half a century of bloody warfare. "Why? 
The Crows being a rich nation and the Assiniboin poor, how could 
the former gain? The points the Crows gained were these: First, 
liberty to hunt in the Assiniboin country unmolested and secure from 
the Blackfeet; second, two enemies less to contend with and from 
whom they need not guard their numerous herds of horses; third, 
the privilege of passing through the Assiniboin country to the Gros 
Ventres village in quest of corn. Now for the other party. The Crows 
having large herds of horses and the Assiniboin but few, the former 
give them a good many every year to preserve the jseace. The Crows 
winter with the Assiniboin, run buffalo with their own horses, and 
give the latter plenty of meat and skins without the trouble of killing 
it. The Crows are superior warriors and the others have enough to 
contend with the Blackfeet. Again, one enemy less, and jointly the 
numerical force is so augmented as to make them formidable to all 
surrounding tribes, while separately they would prey upon each 
other. It is in this case evident the peace must last, there being suffi- 
cient inducements on both sides to keep it, although upon the whole 



DBNio] THE ASSINIBOIN 405 

any of their "peaces" are liable to sudden and violent intei'ruptions 
and are not to be depended upon. 

Magnitude and Eesources of Territory a Cause of the Muitipu- 
CATiON OF Tribes. — There can be no doubt that magnitude and re- 
sources of territory are the principal causes of an increase of popula- 
tion. All roving tribes live by hunting, and scarcity of animals 
produces distress, famine, disease, and danger by forcing them to 
hunt in countries occupied by their enemies, when game is not found 
in their own. Such a state of things happened in this district in 
1841, when during a total disappearance of buffalo and other game 
some of the Assiniboin and Cree were under the necessitj' of eating 
their own children, of leaving others to perish, and many men and 
women died from fatigue and exhaustion. Although the above posi- 
tion is evident, yet we do not see how it could multipW tribes, much 
less dialects. A large territory with much game might induce i^or- 
tions of other tribes not having these advantages to migrate, make 
peace with the residing nation, and perhaps increase in a greater 
ratio than they otherwise would have done, but the language would 
remain the same, neither would it produce a separate tribe, but only 
a portion of the tribe who migrated. 

The Gros Ventres of the Prairie were once Arapaho and lived on 
the Arkansas. They have for a century past resided with the Black- 
feet, yet have preserved their own language. True, by these means 
they learn to speak each other's language, but thejr do not commingle 
and make a separate dialect of the two. The Assiniboin from the 
Sioux, the Cree from the Chippewa, the Crows from the Gros Ventres 
are three other cases of separation, and in each the language is so 
well ijreserved that they understand without any difficulty the people 
whence they emanated. The causes of these sepai'ations, whether 
feuds, family discords, or in quest of better hunting grounds, does 
not now appear. Most probably it was dissatisfaction of some sort. 
From all appearances we may reasonably expect to see ere long a 
portion of the Sioux occupying the large disputed territory south 
of the Missouri and along the Yellowstone, as game is becoming 
scarce in their cUstrict since white emigration through it and Indians 
are thronging there from St. Peters and elsewhere. 

The Sioux regard the Mississippi as once their home, and it is very 
certain that nation came from thence, also the Cree and Assiniboin, 
and perhai^s others. It does not appear that the track of migration 
pursued any direct course. From certain facts, similitude of lan- 
guage and customs, it would seem some nations traveled from south 
to north or north\Aest, such as the Gros Ventres of the Piairie who 
were once Arapaho. The Arikara speak the same as the Pawnee 
and must have migrated westward. The Blackf eet moved from north 



406 TKIBES OF THE UPPER MISSOURI [eth. ann. 46 

to southwest, and the Crows, Cree, and Assiniboin west and north. It 
is reasonable to l^elieve they spread out over these immense plains 
from all points and at different times as circumstances favored or 
forced them. The habits of the prairie Indian differ essentially 
from the Indian of the forest, and those of stationary and cultivating 
habits from both. It is impossible for us now to state with any 
degree of certainty the time of their first location on these plains, 
or to point out any one general course of emigration pursued by 
them. 

Geography 

Figure or the Globe. — It can not be expected that these Indians 
who are in a complete savage and unenlightened state should have 
any knowledge of the configuration of the globe or of its natural 
divisions. They know what a small lake or small island is and have 
names for the same as they are to be met with through their country. 
They think the earth to be a great plain bounded by the Rocky 
Mountains on one side and the sea on the other, but have no idea 
of its extent nor of any other lands except those they are acquainted 
with. Although told frequently, they can not realize extent of lands 
in any great measure, and without troubling themselves to think or 
inquire are content with believing there are few lands better or 
larger than their own. It is not in their nature to acknowledge in- 
feriority, which would follow were they convinced of the extent of 
the territory and power of the whites. Of the sea they have a vague 
idea from information offered them by the traders, and would not 
believe there is such a body of water had not the same received a 
sort of sanction through the Cree and Chippewa, some of whom, 
having seen Lake Superior, represent it as the ocean. 

Local Features of the Habitat. — The chief rivers running 
through the Assiniboin country are, first, the Missouri, whicii is so 
well known as to need no descrij^tion here. The next is Milk River, 
on the northwest boundary, a very long and narrow stream ; heads in 
some of the spurs of the Rocky Mountains east of the Missouri and 
lakes on the plains, runs a southwest course, and empties into the 
Missouri about 100 miles above the Yellowstone. Its bed is about 
200 yards wide at the mouth, though the waters seldom occupy more 
than one-third of that s^jace, except during the spring thaw, when, 
for a week or two, it fills the whole bed ; is f ordable on horseback all 
the year except at the time above alluded to and when swollen by 
continuous rains. 

Riviere aux Tremble, or Quaking Aspen River, empties into the 
Missouri about 50 miles below Milk River, is about half the length 
and breadth of the others, and heads in the range of hills constituting 
the divide, called " Les Montaignes des Bois." It is f ordable at all 



DENia] 



THE ASSINIBOIN 407 



times except during spring freshets and wlien swollen by rain. 
Neither of these streams is navigable by any craft larger than a 
wooden canoe except at the high stages of water above referred to, 
and then navigation would be difficult and dangerous owing to float- 
ing ice and driftwood. There are no rapids or falls in either of 
them. 

Several creeks fall into the Missouri below the point on the east 
side called Big Muddy, Little Muddy, Knife River, etc., all of which 
contain but little water and are of no consequence. 

Wliite Earth River, the last, is about 100 miles in length and at 
the mouth a little more than 100 yards wide, contains but little 
water, always fordable, and not navigable by anything, empties into 
the Missouri near the commencement of the Great Bend. None of 
these rivers being navigable except the Missouri, goods are only 
landed at the following points along that river, viz : Fort Pierre 
(Sioux), mouth of the Teton River; Fort Clarke (Ankara) at their 
village; Fort Berthold (Gros Ventres village) ; Fort Union (Assini- 
boin), mouth of Yellowstone. Steamboats have gone up the Mis- 
souri as high as the mouth of Milk River, but heretofore goods for 
Fort Benton (Blackfeet), near the mouth of Maria River, have been 
transported by keel boats from Fort Union. 

We know of no large navigable lakes in this district, though along 
the northern boundary there are many small ones, or rather large 
ponds of water, without any river running through them or visible 
outlet, being fed by snows, rain, and .springs, and diminished by 
evaporation and saturation. Lakes of this kind are to be met with 
in many places on the plains and differ in size from 100 yards to 2 
or 3 miles or even more in circumference, are not wooded, and con- 
tain tolerably good water. Small springs are also common, most of 
them having a mineral taste, though none are large enough to afford 
water power. 

SuEFACE OF THE CouNTRT. — The wliolc couutry occupied by the 
Assiniboin is one great plain, hills and timber only occurring where 
rivers run, in the valleys of which good land for cultivation is found, 
but the general feature appears to be sterile as regards arable land, 
producing, however, grasses of different kinds, some of which are 
very nutritious, and particularly adapted to raising horses, cattle, 
and sheep. The prairies may be said to be interminable and destitute 
of the least particle of timber except along the banks of the few 
streams before mentioned, and even these but thinly wooded. Water, 
however, can always be found in the small lakes and rivers spoken 
of. The Assiniboin do not cultivate the soil in any way, though the 
Gros Ventres and Arikara raise corn and pumpkins to some extent on 
the Missouri bottoms. By experiments made at or near Fort Union, 



408 TEIBES OF THE UPPER MISSOURI [BTH. ANN. 46 

we find that oats, potatoes, corn, and all garden vegetables grow 
well if the season be favorable. The soil, being light and sandy, 
requires frequent rains to produce good crops, which happens about 
one year in three; the others fail from drought and destruction by 
grasshoppers, bugs, and other insects. The natural productions of 
the country are few and such as no one but an Indian could relish. 
A wild turnip called by them teep-see-na, and by the French pomme 
blanche, when boiled is eatable, is found in quantity everywhere on 
the plains, will sustain life alone for a great length of time either 
cooked or in its raw state, can be dried and preserved for years, or 
pidverized and made into passable bread. 

Wild rhubarb is found and eaten either raw or cooked. It has 
ratlier a pleasant sweetish taste. Artichokes grow in quantites near 
marshes. Chokecherries, bullberries, service berries, buds of the 
wild rose, red jDlums, and sour grapes are the principal fruits and 
are greatly sought after by the Indians, preserved, dried, cooked, and 
eaten in various ways, and considered by tliem great luxuries. Wild 
hops are in abundance which possess all the properties of the culti- 
vated hojD. These are all of any note the country produces. 

Facilities for Grazixg. — These Indians raise no stock of any 
kind, though judging from that raised at Fort Union it is one of the 
best grazing countries in the world. The supply of grasses of spon- 
taneous growth is inexhaustible and very nutritious. The only diffi- 
culty is the severe cold winter and depth of snow, though if animals 
were provided for and housed during the severe cold we know that 
a hardier and better stock can be raised than in the States. As yet, 
liowever, no market being open for surplus stock and but few raised 
for the use of the fort, our attention has not been much directed to 
that business, but have no hesitation in advancing the opinion that 
horses, horned cattle, and sheep would thrive and increase well with 
proper care. We are not able to say whether water could at all 
times be had by digging on the high prairie and in the absence of 
sjirings or creeks, never having tried the experiment, though the 
country abounds in small lakes, cool springs, and creeks where good 
localities for grazing jDurposes could always be chosen. In the 
winter animals appear to want very little water and generally eat 
snow in its place. 

Effects of Firing the Prairies. — ^We presume thei-e must be 
some mistake that any of the tribes residing on tlie plains set them 
on fire to facilitate the purposes of hunting. It has the contrary 
effect, driving the game out of their own country into that of their 
neighbors. Buffalo may pass through a burnt country covered with 
snow, but can not remain, and travel until they meet with suitable 
grazing. Consequently tlie greatest precautions are used by both 
Indians and whites to prevent their taking fire in the fall, when the 



OENIO] THE ASSINIBOIN 409 

grass is dry (the only time it will burn), and the most severe pen- 
alties short of death are imposed on any person, either white or red, 
who even by accident sets the prairie on fire. A good thrashing with 
bows and sometimes tomahawking is in store for the poor traveler 
who has been so forgetful as not to put out his camp fires and they 
extend to the i^lains. These fires are made mostly by returning war 
parties, either with the view of driving the buffalo out of their 
enemy's country or as signals to their own people of success in their 
exiDedition, though sometimes they originate in accident or petty 
malice of individuals. With regard to its injuring the soil it has no 
such effects ; on the contrary, the next crop of grass is more beautiful 
than the other, as the undergrowth and briars are by that means 
destroyed. The same, unfortunately, is not the case with the timber. 
There are no forests on the plains to burn, though where the fire 
passes through the bottoms of the Missouri it consumes and kills 
great quantities of timber, which dries and decays and is only re- 
placed in time by younger saplings. Fruit bushes are also destroyed, 
though they recover its effects in three or four years. 

Waste Lands. — In this section there are no deserts or barren land 
of any extent ; though there are some marshes, pools, and swamps 
which, however, are not so close together or extensive as to form 
any formidable obstruction to roads. Even if they could not be 
drained or otherwise disposed of, they could be left on either side 
of the way. Neither do these appear to affect the health of any of 
the Indians more than being the cause of producing hosts of mos- 
quitoes, which are very annoying to man and beast. 

Effects of Volcanic Action. — We are not aware of any remark- 
able appearances of this kind,^ neither are there to be found exten- 
sive sand plains or other tracts entirely destitute of herbage. The 
cactus is found everywhere, but not in such quantity as to destroy 
herbage or be a hindrance to animals traveling. A mile or two 
may occasionally be found where herbage is comparatively scarce. 
Still, even in these places there is sufficient for animals for a short 
lime. 

Saline Productions. — ^We do not feel ourselves competent to state 
the properties of the mineral springs so common throughout all 
this country. Some of them no doubt contain Glauber salt, as they 
operate as a violent cathartic; others have the taste qf copper, sul- 
phur, etc. What the country would produce in the way of gypsum, 
saltpeter, etc., we can not say, never having witnessed any geological 
or mineral researches and being personally completely uninformed 
regarding this branch of science. 

' There are portions of pumice stone and other things occasionally picked up that hava 
undergone volcanic action ; also burning tiills, but no eruptions. 

88253°- 



410 TKIBES OF THE UPPER MISSOURI [bth. ann. 46 

Coal and Mineral Products. — Dr. J. Evans, who lately traveled 
through this counti-y, can enlighten yon on this subject. As for us, 
we must plead unadulterated ignorance. 

Climate 

The climate is pure and dry and perhaps the healthiest in the 
world. In the months of May and June, when east winds prevail, 
much rain falls, but during the rest of summer and fall the season 
is generally dry and moderately warm, except a short time in July 
and August, when intensely hot. There are occasionally severe thun- 
derstorms accompanied by rain or hail ; not more, however, than three 
or four in a summer, and these in a few hours swell the smallest 
streams so as to overflow their banks, but with the ceasing of the rain 
they fall as suddenly as they rise, and do no damage, as there are 
neither crops nor fences to injure. Tornadoes we have never seen 
here, although they do happen on the Missouri far below this place. 
Severe gales are occasionally met with, lasting but a few minutes. 
With regard to temjierature and other natural phenomena I refer 
you to the accompanying tables. 

Wild Animals 

The most numerous and useful animal in this country is unques- 
tionably the buffalo, both as regards the sustenance of all the Indians 
and gain of the traders. Any important decrease of this animal 
would have the effect of leaving the Indians without traders, no re- 
turns of smaller skins being sufficient to pay the enormous expense 
of bringing supplies so far and employing such a number of people. 
Buffalo are very numerous, and we do not, after 20 years' experience, 
find that they decrease in this quarter, although upward of 150,000 
are killed annually throughout the extent of our trade, without taking 
into consideration those swamped, drowned, calves frozen to death, 
destroyed by wolves, or in embryo, etc. It j'et would appear that 
their increase is still greater than their destruction, as during last 
winter (1852-53) there were more found in this quarter, and indeed 
in the whole extent of our trade, than liad been seen for many years 
before. 

The buffalo is the Indian's whole dependence. It serves him for 
all his purposes — meat, clothing and lodging, powder homs, bow- 
strings, thread and hair to make saddles. In the winter season the 
hides are dressed, made into robes and traded to whites, by which 
means they are able to buy all their necessaries and even some lux- 
uries. Robes are worth about $3 each, and although the number 
sent to market is great, yet the high price paid for them to Indians 
and the danger of transportation is such that fortunes are more 



denig] 



THE ASSINIBOIN 411 



easily and often lost than made at the business. Beaver were for- 
merly numerous and valuable, therefore much hunted by whites and 
Indians, but of late years the price of that fur being greatly reduced, 
and the danger of hunting considerable, does not induce either whites 
or Indians to hunt them. This animal has been trapped and killed 
to such an extent as to threaten their entire extinction, though for 
the last 10 or 12 years, since beaver trapping by large bodies of men 
has been abandoned, they have greatly increased, and are now to be 
found tolerably plentiful in all the small streams and in the Missouri 
and Yellowstone. These Indians do not and never did trap them 
much; though the Crow and the Cree still make good beaver hunts, 
they do not rely much on this either as a source of profit or food. 

Elk, deer, bighorn, and antelope are numerous and afford a means 
of living and profit to the Indians although they are not hunted to 
any extent except in a great scarcity of buffalo. From this circum- 
stance they do not diminish and are found now in much the same 
numbers as 20 years back. 

Wolves are very plentiful and of three kinds, the large white wolf, 
the large grayback wolf, and the small prairie wolf, all a good deal 
hunted and many killed, though they continue to increase. They fol- 
low the buffalo in large bands, waiting an opportunity to pounce upon 
one that has been wounded or mired. They also destroy a great many 
small calves in the month of May when they are brought forth. The 
skins of the larger kind are worth 70 cents to $1 each; the smaller 
about 50 cents each. 

Red and gray foxes, hares, badgers, skunks, wild cats, otters, er- 
mines, and muskrats are found and killed when opportunity offers. 
Of all these the red fox appears to be the only one that has diminished 
in numbers. We are not aware that any animals have disappeared 
altogether, nor of any perceptible decrease of any except the beaver 
and red fox. The Indians kill onh^ as many buffalo as are wanted 
for meat and hides. Taking onlj- as manj^ hides as their women can 
dress, they do not destroy them wantonly to any extent ; consequently 
the destruction is limited, and that not being equivalent to the in- 
crease, but little diminution, if any, is perceptible, and the trade as 
long as this is the case can not have the effect of exterminating them. 
It is different as regards the beaver and fox. Their skins require no 
labor except drying, and being slower to increase must of course be 
the first to disappear if hunted. Grizzly bears are tolerably numer- 
ous on the Missouri and Yellowstone and are not hunted often, al- 
though killed occasionally. The animal being ferocious is not much 
sought after by the Indians. 

Ancient Bones and TRAornoNS of the Monster Era. — The In- 
dians know from bones found that such animals existed and were of 



412 TEIBES OF THE UPPER MISSOURI [eth. ANN. 40 

immense size, but their traditions never make mention of the living 
animal. To these bones, etc., they assign the general name of Wan- 
wan-kah, which is a creature of their own imagination, half spirit, 
half animal. Any whirlwind or great tempest would be attributed 
to the movements of the Wan-wan-kah, also any other natural phe- 
nomenon. Many stories are told of its actions, but all are fabulous, 
although they profess to believe in the existence of its powers, some 
even stating they have seen it crossing the Missouri in the form of a 
large fish covering half the breadth of that river." 

Animals Used as Armorial Marks. — These armorial marks or 
symbols, such as the eagle, owl, bear, serpent, etc., do not represent 
any tribal organization but kinship occasionally. Neither do they 
refer to any traditions of any early date, but are insignia adopted 
by themselves as their medicine or charm. Most Indians have a 
charm of this kind, either in consequence of some dream or of an idea 
that the figure has some effect in carrying out his views regarding 
war, the chase, or the health of his family. These are assumed for 
his own purposes, whether real or imaginary, to operate on his 
own actions or to influence those of other Indians. To these tangi- 
ble objects, after Wakofida, who is a spirit, they address their 
prayers and invocations. Neither do these symbols affect them re- 
garding the killing of the same animals on all occasions, though after 
he has killed it he will smoke and propitiate [the spirit of] the 
dead carcass, and even offer the head small sacrifices of tobacco 

and provisions. 

The Horse 

Era of the Importation of the Horse. — ^When the horse was first 
introduced among them does not appear by any of the traditions of 
these ignorant people. The name of the horse in Assiniboin is 
shunga (dog) tunga (large), i. e., large dog. Among the Sioux it 
is named shunka (dog) wakan (divining), i. e., divining dog, which 
would only prove that the dog was anterior to the horse, inas- 
much as they were obliged to make a name for the strange animal 
resembling some known object with which it could be afterwards 
compared. 

PiCTOGRAPHS 

Charts on Bark. — Their drawings of maps and sections of coun- 
try are in execution miserable to us but explanatory among them- 
selves. Most Indians can carve on a tree, or paint, who they are, 
where going, whence come, how many men, horses, and guns the 
party is composed of, whether they have killed enemies, or lost 
friends, and, if so, how many, etc., and all Indians passing by, either 

* See page 017 at the end of their oral tales. 



DENiG] THE ASSINIBOIN 413 

friends or foes, will have no difficulty in reading the same, though 
such representations would be quite unintelligible to whites unless 
instructed. (PI. 64.) Some Indians have good ideas of propor- 
tion and can immediately arrive at the meaning of a picture, point- 
ing out the objects in the background, though others can not distin- 
guish the figure of a man from that of a horse, and as to their exe- 
cutions of any drawing they are rude in the extreme. Where the 
natural talent exists, however, there is no doubt they could be 
instructed. 

Antiquities 

From the Sioux to the Blackfeet. inclusive, there is not in all 
that country any mounds, teocalli, or appearances of former works 
of defense bearing the character of forts or any other antique struc- 
ture. Not a vestige or felic of anything that would form data, or be 
an inducement to believe their grounds have ever been occupied by 
any other than roving tribes of wild Indians; nor in the shape of 
tools, ornaments, or missiles that would lead to any such inference. 
We have not been moi-e fortunate in searching their traditions in the 
hope of finding some clue relative to these things. They do not be- 
lieve that any persons ever occupied their country except their own 
people (Indians), and we can not say we have ever seen or heard 
anything to justify any other conclusion regarding the extent of 
territory mentioned. 

The elk-horn mound, mentioned elsewhere, is evidently of re- 
mote date and the work of Indians, but proves nothing sought by 
these researches. It might be stated that although no antique vessels 
of clay are found, yet the Arikara now, and as long as the wliites 
have known them, have luanufactured tolerably good and well- 
shaped clay vessels for cooking, wrought by hand without the aid of 
any machinery, and baked in the fire. They are not glazed, are of a 
graycolor, and willanswer for jjots, pans, etc., equally as well as those 
made by the whites, standing well the action of fire and being as 
strong as ordinary potter's ware. They also have the art of melting 
beads of different colors and casting them in molds of clay for ear 
and other ornaments of various shapes, some of which are very 
ingeniously done. We have seen some in shape and size as drawn 
in Plate 65, the groundwork blue, the figure white, the whole about 
one-eighth inch thick, and presenting a uniform glazed surface. 

Pipes 

No antique pipes are found, but many and various are now made 
by all Indians. 



414 TRIBES OF THE UPPER MISSOTJEI [eth. ann. 46 

Vessels and Implements 

The Arikara and Gros Ventres, who raise corn, have other vessels 
as alluded to, but not the roving tribes, except the utensils furnished 
by whites. None of these things denote anything more than a people 
in the rudest state of nature, whose only boiling pot was once a 
hollow stone, or the paunch of a buffalo in which meat can be boiled 
and still is on occasions, by filling the paunch with water and casting 
therein red-hot stones until the water attains a boiling point, after 
which the stones are taken out, and one added occasionally to con- 
tinue the heat, or the paunch suspended above a blaze at such a dis- 
tance that the fire, though heating, does not touch it. Their spoons 
are yet made of the horns of the bighorn and buffalo, wrought into 
a good shape, some of which will hold half a gallon with ease. 
These are dippers. Others for eating are made smaller of horn and 
wood, yet large enough to suit their capacious mouths. (PI. 65.) 
In all this and in everything they do, but one idea presents itself — 
that of crude, untutored children of nature, who have never been 
anything else. 

The only ancient stone implements we have ever seen are the 
hatchet, stone war club, arrow point, buffalo shoulder-blade ax, hump- 
rib knife, and elk-horn bow, the shapes of which we have endeavored 
to draw in Plate 66, and all of which, except the knife, can yet 
occasionally be seen among them. 

There is a total absence of anything antique, any shell, metal, 
wampum, or other thing formerly possessed by inhabitants supposed 
to have occupied this country. Neither are there any hieroglyphics 
or traditions to denote anything of the kind. 

Astronomy and Geologt 

Earth and Its Motions. — ^Their knowledge on this subject is very 
limited. They believe the earth to be a great plain containing per- 
haps double the extent of country with which they are acquainted, 
and that it is void of motion. They do not believe the stars are 
inhabited by other people, but admit they may be abiding places of 
ghosts or spirits of the departed. They are not fond of talking 
about the