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Full text of "Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution"

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Given By 
Smithsonian Institute 



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Forty-ninth Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1931-1932 




SMITHSONIAN - INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



FORTY- NINTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

193M932 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1933 



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3. 



6 



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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Smithsonian Institution, 
Bureau of American Ethnology, 

Washington, D. C, July 1, 1932. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the Forty-ninth Annual 
Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1932. 

With appreciation of your aid in the work under my charge, I am 
Very respectfully yours, 

M. W. Stirling, 

Chiej. 
Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary oj the Smithsonian Institution. 

165764—33 III 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Systematic researches 1 

Special researches 6 

Editorial work and publications 7 

Library 7 

Collections 8 

Miscellaneous .- 8 

V 



NOTE 

The Forty-eighth Annual Report of the Bureau is the last of this 
series to be published in royal octavo size with accompanying scien- 
tific papers. In the future, annual reports of the Bureau will consist 
only of the administrative report, which will be issued in octavo 
form. 

VI 



FORTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Chief 



Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the opera- 
tions of the Bureau of American Ethnology during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1932, conducted in accordance with the act of Con- 
gress approved February 23, 1931. The act referred to contains the 
following item : 

American ethnology : For continuing ethnological researches among the 
American Indians and the natives of Hawaii, the excavation and preservation 
of archeologic remains under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, in- 
cluding necessaiy employees, the preparation of manuscripts, drawings, and 
illustrations, the purchase of books and periodicals, and traveling expenses, 
$72,640. 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

M. W. Stirling, chief, left New York on September 26, 1931, as a 
member of the Latin American expedition to South America. The 
first region visited by the expedition was the San Bias coast of 
Panama. Here Mr. Stirling spent approximately a month in mak- 
ing an ethnological survey of the Tule Indians. . From Panama the 
expedition proceeded to Ecuador, where three weeks were spent in 
investigating archeological sites in the Andean highlands in the 
vicinity of Cuenca. After crossing the Andes and descending to the 
frontier post of Mendez, three months were spent among the Jivaro 
Indians of the Santiago and Maranon Rivers. The expedition crossed 
the mountains from Mendez to the upper Yaupe River. They then 
descended the Yaupe to the Santiago, passing down this river to its 
junction with the Maranon, Much of the time was spent living 
with the Jivaros in their own houses, where Mr. Stirling was able to 
record first-hand a considerable quantity of ethnological data. In 
addition to this a collection was made representing the material 
culture of the Indians of the region. After a short excursion up the 
Alto Maranon, the expedition passed through the famous Pongo 

1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Manseriche, descendin<5 by rafts to Iquitos, from which point the 
collections were shipped by way of the Amazon River to the National 
Museum. Mr. Stirling returned to Washington on April 26, 1932. 

Ur. John 11. Swanton, ethnologist, was in the field from November 
2 to December 6, 1931, his object being the location of the route fol- 
lowed by De Soto and Moscoso through Arkansas and Louisiana 
from 1541 to 15-43. He was tlie guest for a part of this time of Col. 
John R. Fordyce, of Hot Springs National Park, Ark. More suc- 
cess was attained in determining the probable course of the Span- 
iards than had been anticipated. While in the field he also collected 
linguistic material from the Tunica Indians near Marksville, La. 
There are supposed to be only three individuals who can still use 
the old tongue. 

Doctor Swanton devoted a large part of his time to continuing 
preparation of the Handbook of the Southeastern Indians, and a be- 
ginning has been made on a bulletin to include the linguistic material 
of the Coahuiltecan tongues now extinct. The work of copying the 
tribal map of the Indians of North America has been practically 
completed. 

Dr. Truman Michelson, ethnologist, was at work among the South- 
ern Cheyenne at the beginning of the fiscal year. The object was 
to restore phonetically some Cheyenne words previously extracted 
from Fetter's Dictionary which were clearly Algonquian in origin. 
Measurements were taken of some 23 subjects, and a good deal of 
new ethnological information was obtained. Near the middle of 
July Doctor Michelson left for Tama, Iowa, to obtain some addi- 
tional material on Fox ceremonials. Early in August he left Iowa 
and went among the Northern Cheyenne to restore the list of 
Cheyenne words mentioned above according to Northern Cheyenne 
phonetics. Incidentally a really representative group of Northern 
Cheyenne were measured. A statistical study has shown that the 
vault of the skull is decidedly low as compared with that of most 
Algonquian peoples and rather resembles the skull of the Dakota 
Sioux. In June, 1932, Doctor Michelson again left for the field. 
He succeeded in gaining some important sociological data on the 
Kiowa and obtained some new facts on Cheyenne linguistics, 
sociology, and mythology. 

John P. Harrington, ethnologist, made a thorough study of the 
Indians of Monterey and San Benito Counties, in central California, 
and investigated the little known Chingichngich culture of the coast 
of southern California. Working with the oldest survivors of the 
Costanoan and Esselen speaking Indians of Monterey and San 
Benito Counties, Mr. Harrington found it possible by fully utilizing 
all the early records and vocabularies to illuminate the former life 



FORTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT S 

of these people and to define it as clearly as that of some of the better 
known western groups. The study demonstrated that this culture 
indicates a key region for central California ethnology, since it 
proved to be a connecting link between the cultures of northern and 
southern California. These Indians lived on a wooded mountain- 
ous coast, the northern breaking down of the great Santa Lucia 
Kange, in a broad interior valley, known in early times as la Canada 
del rlo de Monterey and now as the Salinas Valley, and in the hilly 
region between coast and valley, and east of the valley. The region 
was rich in fish, shellfish, game, and in vegetable foods and medic- 
inal herbs. Labor was roughly divided between men and women, 
the men tending to the animal food and the women to the vegetable. 
The houses were built of poles and thatch, shaped like a half 
orange, with smoke hole at the top, and slightly sunk in the ground. 
The people lived in villages and were governed by the village chief 
and elders. One or more sweathouses were to be found at each vil- 
lage. The people hardened themselves to going the year around with 
little or no clothing in the mild climate, and the dense morning fogs 
did not keep them from rising at daylight and taking the daily morn- 
ing plunge. A bride was taken to live at the house of her husband's 
people or to a new house built near there. A captain, or even an 
ordinary man, would sometimes have two or more wives, but monog- 
amy was the rule. One of the important discoveries is that the 
people had clans. 

From July 1 to September 22, 1931, Dr. F. H. H. Koberts, jr., 
archeologist, continued excavations at the site 3l^ miles south of 
AUantown, Ariz., where work was started in May of the previous 
fiscal year. The Laboratory of Anthropology of Santa Fe, N. Mex., 
cooperated in the project through July and August. The summer's 
work resulted in the excavation of the subterranean portions of 14 
structures. The excavations showed that several of the dwellings 
had been destroyed by fire. The charred remnants of timbers lying 
on the floors demonstrated clearly the method of roof construction. 
The details were so clearly shown in one of the houses that it was 
restored so that visitors to the site might see what dwellings of that 
type were like. Two other pits were covered with shed roofs so that 
they will be preserved for a long time to come. The Douglass method 
of determination gave dates ranging from 814 to 916 A. D. On 
February 1 Doctor Eoberts left Washington for Yucatan, having 
been detailed to the Carnegie Institution of Washington in the 
capacity of consulting archeologist. He spent 10 days at Chichen 
Itza, during which time he gained much first-hand information con- 
cerning the character of the ancient Mayan civilizations, and also 
visited Uxmal, the pyramids at San Juan de Teotihuacan, and sev- 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

eral other important archeological sites in the vicinity of Mexico 
City. While in Mexico City he had the opportunity of seeing and 
examining the various objects found at Monte Alban by the expedi- 
tion under Prof. A. Caso. Doctor Roberts left Washington on May 
21 to resume his researches at the site south of AUantown, Ariz. 
Excavations were commenced on June 2, and by June 30 the remains 
of two additional pit houses had been cleared of the accumulated 
debris, and the remains of seven slab-lined storage cists uncovered. 
In addition 15 burials belonging to the habitation group were found. 
One of the pit structures uncovered had been destroyed by fire, and 
the charred timbers furnished one of the earliest building dates thus 
far obtained in the Southwest, namely, 797 A. D. 

On July 10, 1931, Dr. W. D. Strong entered upon his duties as 
ethnologist in the bureau. Early in August he left for a reconnais- 
sance trip through central and western Nebraska, central South 
Dakota, and western North Dakota. Evidence of a prehistoric cul- 
ture believed to pertain to the early Pawnee was followed up the 
Republican River and west as far as Scottsbluff. Here a very im- 
portant stratified site on Signal Butte was investigated, and after 
arranging for complete excavation the next summer. Doctor Strong 
continued the survey trip up the Missouri River. Many large pre- 
historic villages of the sedentary tribes in this region were visited 
and their locations and characteristics noted for future investigation. 
The survey ended with a visit to the living Arikara Indians on the 
Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota. Many good informants 
were visited and preliminary ethnological work on the life and cus- 
toms of this very important agricultural people was commenced. 
During the autumn and winter of 1931-32 the text and illustrations 
of a manuscript entitled "An Introduction to Nebraska Archeology " 
were prepared. 

On May 25, 1932, Doctor Strong left for Lincoln, Nebr., and on 
June 15 excavations were commenced in the stratified deposits on the 
top of Signal Butte. Large collections of specimens from all three 
levels were secured, especially from the lowest level of occupation, 
which was very thick and gave evidence of great antiquity. Marked 
cultural differences between the three levels were apparent during the 
excavation work. Burials, both complete and partial, were found in 
the upper level, but no burials were encountered in the lowest level, 
though fragments of human bone were found. It is already certain 
that the unusual case of stratigraphy present on the summit of Signal 
Butte will, when the material has been studied in detail, yield clear 
evidence of an extensive sequence of cultural and artifact types for 
the high plains region of central North America. 



forty-ninth: annual report 5 

J, N. B. Hewitt, ethnologist, completed the revision and the edit- 
ing of the manuscript journal of the Swiss artist, Rudolph Fried- 
erich Kurz, for publication by the bureau. He also made an inten- 
sive study of the internal organic structure of the Iroquois and the 
Huron (Wyandot) clan, which was a most important unit of social 
and political organization. This investigation revealed some hith- 
erto unnoted and disregarded organic features of clan structure. 
The results of this study were submitted for publication. In addition 
he continued his work of coordinating the variant versions of tra- 
ditional and ceremonial matters recorded in native text in the 
Mohawk, the Cayuga, and the Onondaga vernaculars. In addition 
to the four myths of the Wind Gods mentioned in the previous 
report, five others of this series of texts were completed, as was also 
the paper dealing with the decipherment of an interesting series of 
mnemonic pictographs. Mr. Hewitt represents the Smithsonian In- 
stitution on the United States Geographic Board, and as a member 
of its executive committee has much active research work to do. 

On May 11, 1932, Mr. Hewitt resumed his ethnological researches 
among the Iroquois members of the former Six Nations of Indians 
on the Grand River Grant, near Brantford, Ontario, Canada. His 
investigations began with a study of the permanency and the re- 
maining cohesive power of the clan among these people, and of its 
influence, if any, on the social and political activities of these Indians 
to-day. He found what had been superficially apparent for some 
time, namely, that the clan structure and authority had become com- 
pletely forgotten, and so maintained no effective guidance in social 
and political affairs. David Thomas, a former chief of the Cayuga 
and an intelligent man, of the Grand River Reservation, dictated a 
number of traditional and interpretative Cayuga texts dealing with 
certain phases of the ancient league rituals. John Buck, sr., a former 
Tutelo chief, supplied further information relating to the Wind 
Gods, and he also gave much assistance in interpreting league texts 
already recorded by Mr, Hewitt. 

Winslow M. Walker, associate anthropologist, was in the field at 
the beginning of the year, exploring certain caves in the Ozark 
region of north central Arkansas. A large cavern at Cedar Grove 
yielded the burials of 12 individuals and a considerable number of 
artifacts and articles of rough stone, chipped flint, bone, shell, and 
crude undecorated potsherds heavily shell-tempered. The resem- 
blance to the culture of the Ozark Bluff Dwellers described by M. R. 
Harrington is very marked. The skeletal remains indicate a long- 
headed people of moderate stature, the so-called " pre-Algonkin 
type." Three localities were found where there were petrographs — 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

both carved and painted symbols and fif^nres — but the designs at 
each of these sites were different and distinctive, and they could not 
be correlated with any of the Bluff Dweller caves. 

In the middle of July Mr. Walker went to Louisiana, where for 
a month explorations of mound and village sites in various parts of 
northern Louisiana were undertaken, principally in the Red River 
and Mississippi Valleys. At Natchitoches, on Red River, while 
preparations were going on for the construction of some ponds for 
a new Government fish hatchery, an ancient Indian burial ground 
was discovered. Mr. Walker arrived in time to save some of the 
skeletal material and fragments of a beautiful highly decorated and 
polished pottery. The period from January to June was spent in 
the compiling of an index of all archeological sites so far reported 
from the region of the lower Mississippi Valley, with maps showing 
the location of these sites in the States of Louisiana and Arkansas. 

From the study of the material found at Natchitoches a paper 
has been prepared for publication entitled " Discovery of a Caddo 
Site at Natchitoches, Louisiana." The results of this study seem to 
justify the conclusion that this was the burial ground of the tribe 
of the Natchitoches, a branch of the Caddo, found inhabiting this 
location by Henri de Tonti in 1690. The beautful polished and 
engraved pottery is very similar to that made by the Ouachita 
Indians living along the river of that name in Louisiana and 
Arkansas. 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES 

The study of Indian music was continued during the past year by 
Miss Frances Densmore, a collaborator of the bureau. The three 
outstanding results of the year's work are a study of the Peyote cult 
and its songs among the Winnebago Indians, an intensive study of 
the songs and customs of the Seminole in Florida, and the comple- 
tion for publication of a manuscript entitled " Nootka and Quileute 
Music." In addition, numerous Pueblo songs recorded in 1930 have 
been transcribed and other Pueblo songs recorded. Eight manu- 
scripts and the transcriptions of 109 songs have been submitted, 
together with the phonographic records and complete analyses of the 
songs. 

Field trips were made to Wisconsin Dells in August and Septem- 
ber, 1931. The first trip was devoted to the Pueblo work, the re- 
cording of Winnebago dance songs, and a continuance of the general 
study of the Winnebago. Following this a visit was made to a 
basket makers' camp near Holmen, Wis., where the ceremonial songs 
of the John Rave branch of the Peyote organization were recorded 
by William Thunder, a leader in the ceremony. On the second trip 
to Wisconsin Dells the ceremonial songs of the Jesse Clay branch 



FORTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

of the organization were recorded by James Yellowbank, who is a 
leader in that branch. In September, 1931, and in June, 1932, the 
study of peyote was continued with Winnebago Indians. 

On November 6, 1931, Miss Densmore arrived in Miami, Fla., to 
resume a study of the Seminole Indians begun in January. During 
the early part of her stay the work was conducted in the Seminole 
villages at Musa Isle and Dania and in three camps on the Tamiami 
Trail between Miami and Everglades. Sixty-five songs were re- 
corded by Panther (known as Josie Billie), a leader in the Big 
Cypress band of the tribe. He is a medicine man in regular practice, 
and his work was sometimes interrupted by his attendance upon the 
sick. 

Early in February Miss Densmore went to Fort Myers and made 
a trip to remote villages in the Everglades under the guidance of 
Stanley Hanson of that city. Then she went to the region west of 
Lake Okeechobee and recorded 125 songs at Brighton from Billie 
Stuart, a leader of singers in the Cow Creek group of Seminoles. 
Returning to Miami, work was resumed at Musa Isle. Additional 
songs were recorded by Panther, and an important tradition was 
related by Billie Motlo, one of the few remaining old men of the 
tribe. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editorial work of the bureau has continued under the direction 
of the editor, Stanley Searles. During the year seven bulletins were 
issued, as follows: 

Bulletin 94. Tobacco among the Karuk Indians of California (Harrington). 

xxxvi+2S-4 pp., 36 pis., 2 figs. 
Bulletin 98. Tales of the Cochiti Indians (Benedict), s+256 pp. 
Bulletin 102. Menominee music (Densmore). xxii+230 pp., 27 pis., 3 figs. 
Bulletin 103. Source material for the social and ceremonial life of the Choctaw 

Indians (Swanton). vii+282 pp., 6 pis., 1 fig. 
Bulletin 104. A survey of prehistoric sites in the region of Flagstaff, Arizona 

(Colton). vii+69 pp., 10 pis., 1 fig. 
Bulletin 105. Notes on the Fox WapAnowiweni (Michelson). v+195 pp. 1 fig. 
Bulletin 107. Karuk Indian myths (Harrington), v+34 pp. 

LIBRARY 

The library of the Bureau of American Ethnology is made up 
largely of works on the archeology, history, customs, languages, and 
general culture of the early American peoples, notably the North 
American Indian. The library has 30,071 volumes and 16,867 
pamphlets, together with thousands of unbound periodicals and 
numerous photographs, manuscripts, and Indian vocabularies. The 
additions during the year were 400 volumes and 150 pamphlets. The 
number of periodicals entered was 3,400; of cards prepared for the 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

catalogue, 5,00-4; of volumes bound, 200; and of loans made, 2,156. 
The reference service of the library was unusually large, both to 
Smithsonian scientists and to students and others outside the Insti- 
tution, 

COLLECTIONS 

Accession No. 

115902. Collection of archeological material collected by M. W. Stirling at 
various sites in Alabama and Florida in 1931. (148 specimens.) 

114568. Archeological and skeletal material collected for the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology by F. M. Setzler from various sites in Texas in 1931. 
(69 specimens.) 

115562. Archeological and ethnological objects collected for the Bureau of 
American Ethnology by Neil M, Judd on the San Carlos Indian 
Reservation, Gila County, Ariz. (49 specimens.) 

115827. Specimens of shell from Horrs Island, Fla., collected by M. W. Stirling 
in 1931. (3 specimens.) 

117184. Archeological material collected in 1931 by W. M. Walker from caves 
and rock shelters in the Ozark region of north central Arkansas, 
occupying portions of Searcy and Marion Counties. (23 specimens.) 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning 
the North American Indians, both past and present, and the Mexi- 
can peoples of the prehistoric and early historic periods. Various 
specimens sent to the bureau were identified and data on them fur- 
nished for their owners. 

Personnel. — Dr. William Duncan Strong was appointed as eth- 
nologist on the staff of the bureau on July 10, 1931. Miss Marion 
Illig was appointed as junior stenographer on September 1, 1931. 
De Lancey Gill was retired as illustrator on June 30, 1932, by 
operation of the economy bill. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Chief. 

Dr. C, G. Abbot, 

Secretary^ JSmithsonian Institution. 

o 



Fiftieth Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1932-1933 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D.C. 



FIFTIETH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1932-1933 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1933 



FIFTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 

OP THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Chief 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1933, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress approved June 30, 1932. 
The act referred to contains the following item: 

American ethnology: For continuing ethnological researches among the 
American Indians and the natives of Hawaii, the excavation and preservation 
of archaeologic remains under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, 
including necessary employees, the preparation of manuscripts, drawings, and 
illustrations, the purchase of books and periodicals, and traveling expenses, 
$66,640. 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

M. W. Stirling, chief, devoted most of his time during the year to 
office routine and to the preparation of manuscript accumulated 
from past researches. Several sections of his report on the ethnology 
of the Jivaro Indians of eastern Ecuador were completed, and con- 
siderable progress was made in the preparation of a manuscript 
describing and illustrating the important finds made by F. H. Gush- 
ing, former ethnologist of the Bureau, during excavations in a muck 
deposit ai Key Marco, Fla. A set of excellent photographs illus- 
trating this work was discovered in the Bureau archives, where they 
had been deposited, unindexed, by Mr. Cushing, whose death took 
place shortly after the completion of his Florida field work. 

Mr. Stirling also gathered a large quantity of unpublished material 
relating to the career of Sitting Bull, including a new and heretofore 
unknown hieroglyphic autobiography drawn by Sitting Bull himself, 
a more important specimen than the famous copy of a Sitting Bull 
autobiography in the Bureau archives made by Four Horns. 

Dr. John R. Swanton, ethnologist, devoted the greater part of 
his time, beyond that used in answering correspondents, to an exten- 
sive paper on the ethnology of the southeastern Indians, mentioned 
in previous reports. A great volume of material has been added. 
Progress has also been made in the preparation of a bulletin to include 
all the linguistic material rescued from the now extinct Coahuiltecan 
and Karankawan dialects. 

Dr. Swanton took part in the "Conference on Southern Pre- 
History" held at Birmingham, Ala., December 18-20, under the 
auspices of the Division of Anthropology and Psychology of the 

24090—33 1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

National Research Council, through its committee on State archeo- 
logical surveys, of which Dr. Carl E. Gutlie is chairman. To this he 
contributed two papers, one entitled "The Southeastern Indians of 
History" and the other "The Relation of the Southeast to General 
Culture Problems of American Pre-History." He presided as presi- 
dent of the American Anthropological Association over the sessions 
of that body at its meeting at Atlantic City, N.J., December 28-30. 

Bulletin 108, entitled "A Dictionary of the Atakapa Language", 
consisting largely of material collected by the late Albert S. Gatschet 
but systematized and edited by Dr. Swanton, appeared during 
the year. 

Dr. Truman Michelson, ethnologist, was at work among the 
Cheyenne and Arapaho at the beginning of the year. Among the 
Cheyenne the prime object was to get an insight into their mythol- 
ogy, though their sociology was not neglected. Among the Arapaho, 
work was linguistic and sociological. He secured the personal narra- 
tive of an aged southern Arapaho woman. An analysis shows clearly 
that this is almost entirely institutional, closely following the tribal 
pattern. With but few changes it might be the autobiography of 
any aged Arapaho woman. On July 22 Dr. Michelson left for Tama, 
Iowa, to renew researches among the Foxes in that vicinity. New 
data on ceremonials were obtained and some older data verified. He 
left Tama on August 8, stopping at Chicago to consult with some 
anthropologists of that city and to inspect certain collections. 

While in the office Dr. Michelson prepared for publication by the 
Bureau a manuscript entitled "When the War Chiefs Worship the 
Wolf", which is to be combined with a paper entitled "Fox Miscel- 
lany", which was prepared last year. Dr. Michelson worked out a 
long series of phonetic shifts in Arapaho, which will ultimately be 
published. He succeeded in finding Algonquian etymologies for a 
host of Blackfoot words and stems; which contradicts the usual 
assumption that Blackfoot vocabulary must be largely from outside 
sources. A grant was made to Dr. Michelson by the National 
Research Council whereby he could employ a technical assistant to 
bring the late Dr. Jones' Fox and Ojibwa material into shape for 
publication, and Mrs. Margaret Welpley, a former student of 
Dr. Michelson's, was selected for this purpose. At the close of the 
fiscal year all the Fox ethnological material was virtually ready for 
publication. 

J. P. Harrington, ethnologist, spent the year in an endeavor to 
rescue before it is too late what can still be learned of the culture of 
the Indians of southern California and adjacent regions to the north 
and east. Attention in this field naturally centered about the classic 
work of Boscana published by Alfred Robinson in 1846, as Boscana's 
work has never been thoroughly checked with modern Indians. 



FIFTIETH ANNUAL REPORT tJ 

Father St, John O'SulUvan of San Juan Mission gave invaluable 
collaboration in a renewed study of the San Juan Indians. 

The Fred H. Bixby ranch near Long Beach was identified as the 
birthplace of the Indian prophet Chinigchinich. All obscure passages 
in Boscana were completely cleared up as a result of this work and 
much new ethnological data was secured. 

Scarcely a source of information that could be thought of was 
left untried. Information was gathered by correspondence from 
universities and professors in this country, Spain, Italy and Mexico. 
The manuscript, comprising some 800 pages, was completed for 
publication, and should be a standard source book for the ethnology 
of southern CaUfornia Indians. Thorough linguistic, ethnobotani- 
cal, and historical studies were made to support the Boscana. 

The beginning of the year found Dr. F. H. H. Roberts, Jr., arche- 
ologist, in camp 3}^ miles south of Allantown, Ariz., engaged in a 
series of archeological excavations which had been started in June. 
The work as a whole was a continuation of a program of researches 
begun during the summer of 1931. In July 1932 a semisubterranean 
structure of the Pueblo I pit-dwelling type was cleared of accumu- 
lated debris. Eight granaries and two surface shelters accompanying 
the pit remains were also uncovered. This group contributed valu- 
able data on the habits and customs of the people of that horizon. 
Specimens of the arts and industries obtained from the structures 
aided materially in determining the culture pattern. 

Investigations were shifted to a Pueblo II site late in July, and a 
6-room unit house with its adjacent ceremonial chamber or kiva was 
excavated. Digging was also carried on in the nearby refuse mound. 
Twenty burials were found and interesting information obtained con- 
cerning mortuary customs. A representative collection of artifacts 
was also made at this location. The investigations demonstrated that 
the typical unit house was present in a region where it hitherto had 
not been supposed to exist. 

Dr. Roberts returned to Washington in September and spent the 
winter preparing plans, diagrams, and a report on the summer's 
activities. 

Dr. Roberts left Washington at the end of May 1933 for Arizona. 
En route he stopped at Norton, Kans., to inspect purported Indian 
mounds. The formations proved to be entirely natural. 

In Arizona investigations were resumed at the site south of Allan- 
town. The work consisted largely of checking notes made in previous 
seasons and making preparations to abandon the site, the latter move 
being necessitated by the lack of funds required to carry the' researches 
to a proper conclusion. 

From July 1 to 16, 1932, Dr. W. D. Strong, anthropologist, 
continued his stratigraphic researches at Signal Butte in western 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Nebraska. From July IG to September 2 archeological research was 
carried on in historic and prehistoric Arikara and Mandan sites in 
South Dakota. Some ethnological work was also accomplished 
among the former people. From September 16, 1932, to January 28, 
1933, he was in Washington, where the collections were unpacked, 
classified, and the writing of reports commenced. 

On January 28, 1933, Dr. Strong left Washington for 6 months' 
anthropological research in northeastern Honduras. This included a 
6 weeks' expedition up the Patuca River, where archeological sites 
were mapped, some excavating was carried on, and the Sumu and 
Miskito Indians were briefly studied. An accident occurring on this 
trip caused a delay of several weeks at Puerto Castilla for hospital 
treatment. From April 24 to May 24 an archeological survey of the 
Bay Islands was accomplished. This yielded unusually valuable 
results. On June 4 the party made a muleback trip across the moun- 
tains to the interior town of Juticalpa. From here they flew to 
Tegucigalpa to interview officials. On July 1 the party was return- 
ing by mule to the coast. Many new archeological sites, some of 
very large size, were discovered on this trip. Valuable contacts were 
also made with the Paya Indians in the interior. 

Winslow M. Walker, associate anthropologist, resumed investiga- 
tions in the mound area of the Mississippi Valley from the middle of 
August to the middle of November 1932. Excavations made on the 
site of the former great mound at Jonesville, La., revealed evidences 
of more than one period of occupancy, the earliest containing pottery 
of a type similar to that found in the Hopewell mounds of Ohio. 
Other interesting features discovered include portions of a log palisade, 
a kind of stairway of logs, a lone human skull, minus the lower jaw, 
lying in the mud beneath the lowest step, and great sheets of cane laid 
down with careful regularity throughout the mound. Other mounds 
in this group, formerly known as the Troyville group, were examined, 
and the conclusion was reached that they probably stand on the site 
of the great Indian town of Anilco visited by De Soto in 1542. A 
report on this work has been prepared entitled "The Troyville 
Mounds, Catahoula Parish, La." Mr. Walker also spent some time 
while in Arkansas endeavoring to locate the sites of the Quapaw 
villages shown on the Ross map of 1765, but changes in the river 
course have obliterated all trace of them, A start has also been made 
on a card catalog listing the locations of early historic Indian villages, 
to serve as a guide for further profitable archeological work in the 
Southeast. 

J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnologist, devoted considerable time to a study 
of the probable date of the formation and organization of the League 
of the Five Iroquois Tribes. This required especial research in the 
early writings of the first explorers in the valley of the St. Lawrence 



FIFTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

River. This study confirmed Mr. Hewitt's earlier estimate that the 
approximate period was 1559-70. 

A study of the Jesuit Relations shows that the organic units of the 
federal structure of the historical League of the Five Iroquois Tribes 
differed from those of the Huron in nonessentials only. Mr. Hewitt 
also established the fact that the Iroquois had not been expelled from 
the north by Algonquins in prehistoric times. 

A new translation with interpretative notes of the Fifth Ritual of 
the Federal Ceremony of Condolence and Installation, "The Requick- 
ening Address", consisting of 8,385 native terms, was made. 

Mr. Hewitt represented the Smithsonian Institution on the United 
States Geographic Board, as a member of its executive committee. 

As custodian of manuscripts, Mr. Hewitt has been assisted by Miss 
Mae Tucker, who has also continued the task of cataloging the 
thousands of negatives and photographs accumulated since the 
establishment of the Bureau. 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES 

The study of Indian music was continued during the past year by 
Miss Frances Densmore, a collaborator of the Bureau. Seven manu- 
scripts were submitted, with the following titles: "Winnebago, Iro- 
quois, Pueblo, and British Columbian Songs"; "Seminole Songs Con- 
nected with Legends and Dances"; "Dance Songs of the Seminole 
Indians"; "Choctaw Songs of Dances and Games"; "Songs of the 
Alibamu Indians"; "Alibamu Songs of the Buffalo and Other 
Dances"; and "Chitimacha, Choctaw, and Seminole Music, with a 
Comparative Survey of Indian Music in the Gulf States." Seven 
manuscripts previously submitted on the music of British Columbian 
Indians have been combined and retyped. 

An extended field trip in the Gulf States was begun in December 
1932 and concluded in February 1933. The first tribe visited was the 
Alibamu in Polk County, Tex., more than 60 songs being recorded. 
The Chitimacha at Charenton, La., were next studied. About 80 
songs were recorded from the Choctaw near-Philadelphia, Miss. The 
Seminole in Florida were revisited and about 70 songs were recorded. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editing of the publications of the Bureau was continued through 
the year by Stanley Searles, editor. The status of the publications 
is presented in the following summary. 

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED 

Forty-ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Sec- 
retary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1931-32. vi + 8 pp. 

Bulletin 99. The Swimmer manuscript: Cherokee sacred formulas and medic- 
inal prescriptions (Mooney and Olbrechts). xvii + 319 pp., 13 pis. 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Bulletin 106. Ethnographical survey of the Miskito and Sumu Indians of 

Honduras and Nicaragua (Conzemius). vii+191 pp., 10 pis., 1 fig. 
Bulletin 108. A dictionary of the Atakapa language, accompanied by text 

material (Gatschet and Swanton). v+181 pp., 1 pi. 
Bulletin 109. A dictionary of the Osage language (La Flesche). v + 406 pp. 
Bulletin 110. Yuman and Yaqui music (Densmore). xviii + 216 pp., 31 pis., 

7 figs. 
Bulletin 111. The village of the great kivas on the Zufii Reservation, New 

Mexico (Roberts), ix + 197 pp., 64 pis., 34 figs. 
List of publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology, with index to authors 

and titles, iv + 55 pp. 

PUBLICATION IN PRESS 

Forty-eighth Annual Report. General index, annual reports of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, vols. 1-48 (Bonnerjea). v+1220 pp. 

The number of publications distributed was 29,889. 

LIBRARY 

The reference library has continued under the care of Miss Ella 
Leary, librarian. The library consists of 30,391 volumes, about 
16,993 pamphlets, and several thousand unbound periodicals. Dur- 
ing the year 320 books were accessioned. There were also received 
126 pamphlets and 3,440 serials, chiefly the publications of learned 
societies. Books loaned during the year numbered 960 volumes. 
In the work of cataloging 4,840 cards were added to the catalog. A 
considerable amount of reference work was done in the usual course 
of the library's service to investigators and students, both those in 
the Smithsonian Institution and others. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Following is a summary of work accomplished by E. G. Cassedy, 
illustrator for the Bureau. 

Maps (colored) 9 

Tracings 12 

Mechanical drawing 1 

Preliminary drawings 50 

Line drawings 54 

Sketches (color) 6 

Photographs retouched 33 

Accession COLLECTIONS 

number 

114181. Archeological material from various sites between the Rio Salado and 
the Rio Dulce, known as Mesapotonua Santiaguena, Argentine, and 
presented to the Bureau by E. R. Wagner, Museo Arcaico Provin- 
cial, Santiago del Estero, Argentine. 

120252. Collection of human skeletal material found by Dr. F. H. H. Roberts, 
Jr., while conducting archeological researches for the Bureau at a 
site on the Zuni Indian Reservation, N.Mex., in the summer of 1930. 

121548. Two boxes of mammalian and bird remains from a stratified archeo- 
logical site at Signal Butte, Nebr., collected during the summer of 
1932 by Dr. W. D. Strong. 



FIFTIETH ANNUAL REPOKT 



Accession 
number 

121824. Seventeen daguerreotypes, thirteen ambrotypes, and one tintype of 
Indian subjects which had accumulated in DeLancey Gill's office. 

122561. One lot of turkey bones {Meleagris gallapavo), nymph of bug of family 
Reduviidae, and two fragments of swamp cane collected by W. M. 
Walker from the Jonesville mound, La. 

122696. Decorated potsherd from Weeden Island mound, Tampa Bay., Fla., 

presented to the Bureau by D. I. Bushnell, Jr. 

122697. Coiled pottery jar and several decorated potsherds from Keams Can- 

yon, Ariz., transferred to the Bureau by the Office of Indian Affairs. 
122701. Pottery bowl and pottery tobacco pipe made by the Tule Indians of 
the village of Mulatupa on San Bias coast of Panama, sent to the 
Bureau bj^ A. G. Cleveland. 

122704. Collection of ethnological specimens from the Jivaro Indians of the 

Upano, Santiago, Chinganasa and Alto Maranon Rivers of eastern 
Ecuador; archeological and ethnological objects from the Chama 
Indians of the Ucayali River in Peru; two copper and two stone 
axes from Mendez, Ecuador, and one stone ax from the Upper Yaupe 
River, Ecuador; and a collection of land snail shells from the Upper 
Paute River in the vicinity of Mendez, Ecuador, collected by M. 
W. Stirling in 1932. 

122705. Slab of shell-tempered pottery used as part of a grave lining from an 

Indian grave near Nashville, Tenn., sent to the Bureau by P. E. 
Cox. 

122979. Quirt and beaded bag collected by George R. Cassedy at Pawnee 
Junction, Nebr., in 1869 from Buckskin Charlie (a Sioux) and pre- 
sented to the Bureau by E. G. Cassedy. 

124507. Six projectile points from Yuma County, Colo., sent to the Bureau by 
Everett Harte of Wray, Colo. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning 
the North American Indians, both past and present, and the Mexican 
peoples of the prehistoric and early liistoric periods. Various speci- 
mens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them furnished 
for their owners. 

Personnel. — E. G. Cassedy was appointed illustrator on November 
25, 1932. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Chief. 

Dr. C. G. Abbot,' 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



o 



//-/- 



Fifty 'first Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 

% 

1933-1934 



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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D.C. 



FIFTY-FIRST 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1933-1934 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1935 



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FIFTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Chief 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, ofl&ce work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1934, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress approved June 16, 1933. The 
act referred to contains the following item: 

American ethnology: For continuing ethnological researches among the Ameri- 
can Indians and the natives of Hawaii, the excavation and preservation of 
archeologic remains under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, including 
necessary employees, the preparation of manuscripts, drawings, and illustrations, 
the purchase of books and periodicals, and traveling expenses, $50,000.00. 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

M. W. Stirling, Chief, devoted the early part of the year to office 
routine and to the preparation of manuscript relating to past re- 
searches. When the Civil Works Administration began to expand 
its relief program, opportunity was taken to give work to a number of 
especially equipped unemployed in the translation of manuscript and 
rare printed material in foreign languages and to the typing and 
copying of a considerable quantity of rare manuscript material in the 
archives of the Bureau which has been in danger of disintegrating 
because of age. 

On December 11, 1933, Mr. Stirhng left Washington for Florida to 
supervise archeological projects which he had proposed in connection 
with the Federal Civil Works Administration relief program. After 
conference with Civil Works Administration officials at Tallahassee 
and Jacksonville, work was conducted in the excavation of mounds 
and habitation sites in the vicinity of the south fork of the Little 
Manatee River near Bradenton, Fla., and on Perico Island near the 
mouth of the Manatee River. A sand burial mound was excavated 
at Englewood in the southern part of Sarasota County. On the 
eastern coast of Florida, work was conducted on Canaveral Island, 

102418—35 1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

at Miami Beach, and at Orniond Beach. In the central part of the 
State a large site near Belle Glade in the vicinity of Lake Okeechobee 
was excavated. Because of the amount of labor which it was possible 
to utilize, much information was obtained which will help to clear up 
the problems of Southeastern archeology. 

During the same period, Mr. Stirling took the opportunity of over- 
seeing the work conducted under the auspices of the Bureau of 
Ethnology at Macon, Ga., where a large and important mound group 
was being excavated with the cooperation of the Macon Historical 
Society. On May 5, Mr. Stirling returned to Washington where he 
worked on the preparation of the collections obtained during this 
field work and on the preparation of reports on the different excava- 
tions. 

Upon the death of the late Gen. Hugh L. Scott, his valuable mate- 
rial on the sign language of the American Indians was added to the 
Bureau arcliives. Richard Sanderville, Blackfoot Indian, who had 
been one of General Scott's principal informants, was brought to 
Washington in order to go over this material and to supplement it in 
places which appeared lacking. Opportunity^ was also taken to make 
additional motion pictures and a general photographic record of the 
sign language with Mr. Sanderville as model. 

During the earlier part of the year Dr. John II . Swanton, etluiolo- 
gist, completed the bulletin on the languages of certain Texas tribes, 
of which mention was made in his last report. This includes all of the 
linguistic material known to be in existence, both published and 
unpublished, from the Coalmiltecan, Karankawan, and Tamaulipecan 
stocks, i. e., all of the Indian tongues of Texas west and south of the 
Atakapa and Tonkawa, and extending as far into Mexico as the 
boundaries of the Huastec and Uto-Aztecan tribes. 

The remainder of his ofl&ce work, aside from correspondence, has 
been devoted mainly to the handbook of Southeastern Indians, men- 
tioned in previous reports. The present draft of this work contains 
about 1,200 typewritten pages. 

At the end of February Dr. Swanton went to Macon, Ga., at the 
invitation of the Society for Georgia Archaeology, to attend its first 
meeting and take part in its activities as indicated elsewhere. He 
remained at Macon for about 3 weeks, visiting archeological sites both 
in the immediate neighborhood and in other parts of Georgia and mak- 
ing some attempts to locate the route pursued by De Soto in crossing 
the State in 1540. Dr. Swanton thinks there is little doubt that the 
crossing point on the Oconee has been identified with the old trail 
crossing at Carr Shoals, a few miles above Dubhn. 

Dr. Truman Michelson, ethnologist, devoted the bulk of his 
time to preparing a paper entitled "The Linguistic Position of 
Nawa0inanana°." This consisted of going over Kroeber's published 



PIFTY-FIEST ANNUAL REPORT 3 

material and establishing the phonetic shifts of the language. It 
also meant codifying in fmal form a number of Cheyenne shifts which 
he had partially worked out in previous years. It also involved 
clarifying some shifts in Arapaho and Atsina. The special novelty 
consists in showing how at least certain Algonquian languages became 
divergent simply by the operation of complex and far-reaching 
phonetic shifts. The manuscript was completed before the end of 
the fiscal year. Toward the close of the fiscal year Dr. Michelson 
was engaged in working out the phonetic shifts in Natick, an extinct 
Algonquian language, on the basis of Trumbull's Dictionary. 

During the first 6 months of the fiscal year, Dr. John P. Harrington, 
ethnologist, continued his field studies among the Mission Indians of 
California, obtaining a rather exhaustive set of notes to accompany 
the publication of the Boscana manuscript recently discovered by him. 
It is the long-lost original of the only complete report ever written by 
a Franciscan missionary on the ethnology of the California Indians. 
It was written by the Rev. Jeronimo Boscana at San Juan Capistrano 
Mission on the coast of southern California in 1822, and is a delight- 
fully variant version of the Boscana account entitled " Chinigcliinich ", 
published in English translation by Alfred Robinson as an appendix 
to his Life in California in 1846. The task of taking this Spanish 
original to the oldest surviving Indians and eliciting their comment 
on its many detailed statements proved fascinating and often went 
far beyond the scope of the original. 

The following 5 months were spent in Washington, D. C, in elab- 
oration of field material. A very literal and careful translation of 
the newly found manuscript was made, and this translation was 
published in the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 92, 
No. 4. Copy of the Spanish text has been prepared, and this with 
the notes, which exceed several times the bulk of the manuscript, mil 
constitute a later publication by the Smithsonian Institution. 

Leaving Washington for California early in June, Dr. Harrington 
spent 17 days with an old Indian informant who contributed much 
to the Boscana notes and gave considerable other important infor- 
mation. The end of the fiscal year found him still in the field. 

Dr. F. H. H. Roberts, Jr., archeologist, was on leave of absence 
from the Bureau during the months of July and August 1933. During 
this time he excavated the remains of a small village of the Pueblo I 
type. The investigations were carried on Sji miles south of Allan- 
town, Ariz., on a portion of the site where researches were conducted 
in the field seasons of 1931, 1932. The 1933 work was done under 
the auspices of the Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 
as a part of its program of field training for graduate students. The 
Laboratory and the Bureau cooperated in the investigations of 1931 
and the Bureau sponsored those of 1932. Despite its small size, the 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

villag:c excavated in 1933 contributed valuable data on developments 
occurring within a single phase in the history of the pre-Spanish 
Pueblo Indians, and this knowledge is being incorporated in the large 
report on the residts of the previous years' investigations at the site. 

In the 2 months allotted to the work, two unit dwellings — one 
consisting of 5 rooms and a subterranean ceremonial chamber, 
the other containing 7 rooms and a ceremonial chamber — a third 
underground structure, and several courts were excavated. The 
refuse mounds were trenched and 24 burials with accompanying 
mortuary offerings were uncovered. A few timbers used as roof 
beams in the structures were sufficiently preserved to make possible 
their dating by means of dendrochronology. These show that the 
village was built and occupied between 800 and 850 A. D. Specimens 
collected include pottery ; stone tools, bone implements and ornaments; 
and some tiny beads made from shells, both red and white in color, 
which make a string 37 feet 3}2 inches in length, one of the longest 
ever found in the Southwest. 

The autumn months were spent in office researches and routine. 
Drawings were made to illustrate the report on the Arizona work. 
Information was furnished in response to inquiries. Manuscripts 
were written detailing various problems in southwestern archeology 
and explaining the results of the Bureau's activities in that field. 

Dr. Roberts left Washington December 16, 1933, for Pittsburg 
Landing, Tenn., where he began work December 21, on a group of 
mounds located on the old battlefield in Shiloh National Military 
Park. The project was one of many sponsored by the C W. A. and 
provided for an extensive investigation. The work continued until 
March 30, 1934. The site is located on a high bluff above the west 
bank of the Tennessee River and lies between two deep ravines through 
which flow tributary branches of the main stream. It consists of 7 
large mounds, 6 domiciliary and 1 burial, and numerous low elevations 
which mark the places where dwellings once stood. To the west of 
the area of occupation is an embankment, extending across the neck 
of the bluff from one ravine to the other, indicating the former exist- 
ence of a palisade which protected the community on that side. 

Dr. Roberts returned to Washington April 2, and from that time 
until June 30 worked over material from the Southwest and from 
Shiloh. 

On July 1, 1933, Dr. W. D. Strong, with the Smithsonian expedition 
in northeastern Honduras, was returning from a muleback and air- 
plane reconnaissance of the interior between Trujillo and Tegucigalpa. 
The party returned to TrujiUo on July 7, having located a considerable 
number of important and hitherto unknown ruins of Chorotegan type 
on the overland traverse. Collections were packed and sliipped from 
Puerto Castilla and Dr. Strong reported in Washington July 18. 



FIFTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPOET 5 

Frorft that date until December he was occupied in sorting and 
classifying the Honduras ethnological and archeological collections 
and commencing a report on the Bay Island reconnaissance. At the 
same time work was resumed on the report dealing with the stratified 
archeological horizons excavated on Signal Butte the year before. 
On December 11, 1933, Dr. Strong left Washington to take charge of 
archeological excavations at Buena Vista Lake, Kern County, Calif., 
made possible by a grant from the Federal Civil Works Administra- 
tion. This work lasted until March 30, 1934. The excavations 
■yielded a mass of specimens and detailed stratigraphic data bearing 
on the prehistoric human occupation of the great southern valley of 
California. Winslow M. Walker, who acted as assistant director on 
the excavations, is preparing a report on this work. 

Beside the main excavation work at Buena Vista Lake a series of 
week-end reconnaissance trips to the Cuyama Valley yielded infor- 
mation on the prehistory of the eastern Chumash. A large burial 
ground and several village sites were excavated. The prehistoric 
house type in this border area seems to have been a round or ovoid 
earth-lodge, mth from two to four central posts and no entrance pas- 
sage. One house of this sort, early historic in time, had a flue up one 
side, reminiscent of Pueblo house types. At the close of the C. W. A. 
excavations a small party, under Dr. Strong's direction, made a sur- 
vey of cav^s and village sites in the Santa Barbara Mountains west of 
the Cuyama Valley, and in the Hurricane Deck region of the Sisquoc 
River. Considerable perishable material from caves, data on a num- 
ber of village sites, and some interesting pictographs were obtained 
on this trip. The culture of the eastern Chumash, as revealed by 
these vaUey and mountain sites, seems to have been intermediate 
between that of the coastal Chumash and Island Shoshonean culture 
and that of the Lake Yokuts. Particularly interesting is the fact 
that the eastern Chumash cultural remains are particularly close to 
those recovered from the older of the two kitchen middens excavated 
on Buena Vista Lake. 

Dr. Strong returned to Washington May 1, 1934, and resumed 
work on the Signal Butte and Bay Island archeological reports. 

Winslow M. Walker, associate anthropologist, unable to resume 
field researches because of the provisions of the Economy Act, instead 
devoted his time to a systematic examination and classification of the 
manuscript material collected by the late Dr. Cyrus Thomas relating 
to Indian mounds. These notes and reports were then refiled accord- 
ing to geograpliical location in the manuscript division. Some 
unpublished notes belonging to the late James Mooney were also 
found, which contained data about archeological sites in various parts 
of the Cherokee country, and these together with a series of maps 
prepared by Mr. Mooney in the field were revised with the helpful 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

assistance of Mrs. Mooney, and made available for the use of any 
students interested in that section of the Southeast. 

About the middle of December 1933 Mr. W. M. Walker left Wash- 
ington to assist Dr. Strong in the direction of an archeological excava- 
tion project near Taft, Calif., made possible by a grant from the 
Federal Civil Works Administration. The site chosen consisted of 
two large shellmounds on the shore of Buena Vista Lake, known to 
the early Spanish explorers as the Yokuts village of Tulamniu. These 
mounds and a portion of the adjoining hill tops were made the object 
of systematic excavations lasting until the end of March 1934, em- 
ploying a large number of men taken from the local rehef rolls, as well 
as a number of experienced students from the University of Cali- 
fornia, and a staff of technical specialists. As a result a large amount 
of information was obtained about the construction and occupation 
of the shellmounds, the burial places of some 600 of their former 
inhabitants, and a collection of about 4,500 specimens illustrating 
their material culture. Indications are that the inhabitants of the 
later mound are closely related in culture to the shellmound builders 
of the San Francisco Bay region, some of whom may have worked 
their way up the San Joaquin Valley, until they appeared in historic 
times as the lake tribes of the Southern Yokuts. 

Following the closing of the C. W. A. work early in April, Mr. 
Walker also accompanied Dr. Strong on a 2-weeks' packing trip into 
the Santa Barbara Mountains mentioned above. 

Mr. Walker returned to Washington the latter part of April and 
has since been engaged in the classification and study of the material 
collected in preparation for a report on the ancient Yokuts village 
site of Tulamniu. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1934, Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt, 
ethnologist, was engaged in office work. The time was devoted to 
the revision and literal and free translation of native texts in the 
Mohawk, the Cayuga, and the Onondaga languages, relating not only 
to the several institutions of the League of the Iroquois, but also to 
the traditional accounts of the events leading to its establishment 
with traditional biographies of the founders and their antagonists, 
and also those relating to the legendary origin and development of 
the Wind or Disease Gods and as well those relating to the Plant or 
Vegetable Gods. 

In the writings of many historians of the tribes of the Iroquois, 
there is a constant occurrence of the terms "elder" brothers, tribes, 
and nations, and "younger" brothers, tribes, and nations. These 
phrases have often been employed to show the tribal or racial descent 
of one Iroquois Tribe or people from another. Mr. Hewitt was able 
to demonstrate that the eldership or juniorship of tribes or nations 



FIPTY-FIEST ANNUAL REPOET 7' 

or political brothers among the Iroquois peoples has quite a differ- 
ent signification, these terms being courteous forms of address of an 
institutional nature, which bars completely the historical inferences 
or deductions so frequently made from them. 

Mr. Hewitt was also enabled as a result of his studies to assign to 
their proper place and function the seven wampum strings utilized 
b}^ the Iroquois in the Farewell Chant of the Condolence and Instal- 
lation Convocation of the League of the Iroquois. 

As the representative of the Smithsonian Institution on the United 
States Geographic Board and as a member of its executive committee 
Mr. Hewitt attended 10 regular and 4 special meetings of the Board 
and also 10 regular and 6 special meetings of the executive com- 
mittee. On April 17, 1934, the President, by Executive order, abolished 
the United States Geographic Board, transferring its paid personnel 
of three members to the Interior Department, with the records and 
other property of the Board. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editing of the publications of the Bureau was continued 
through the year by Stanley Seaiies, editor. The following publica- 
tions were issued during the year ended June 30, 1934: 

Fortj'-eighth Annual Report. Accompanying paper: General index, annual 
reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology, vols. 1-48 (Bonnerjea). v, 
1,221 pp. 

Fiftieth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution, 1932-33. 7 pp. 

Publications distributed totaled 14,761. 

LIBRARY 

The reference library has continued under the care of Miss Ella 
Leary, librarian. The library consists of 30,701 volumes, about 
17,095 pamphlets, and several thousand unbound periodicals. Dur- 
ing the year 310 books were accessioned, of which 34 were acquired 
by purchase, the remainder being received through gift and ex- 
change; also 102 pamphlets and 3,130 serials, chiefly the publica- 
tions of learned societies, were received and recorded. The cata- 
loging kept pace with the new accessions, and some progress was 
made in cataloging ethnologic and related articles in the earlier serials, 
3,840 cards being added to the catalog. A considerable amount of 
reference work was done in the usual course of the library's service 
to investigators and students, both those in the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution and others. 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Following is a summary of work accomplished by E. G. Cassedy, 
illustrator, for the Bureau. 

Water-color drawings 71 

Line drawings 64 

Stipple drawings 50 

Wash drawings 4 

Crayon drawings 1 

Graphs 38 

Maps 13 

Lettering jobs 206 

Layouts — Sizing, lettering, and assembling 119 

Retouched drawings .„_ 35 

Tracings 2 

Retouched photos .. 8 

Restored negatives 8 

Accession COLLECTIONS 

number 

123372. Skeletal material from a burial site near Sarasota, Fla. (1 specimen). 
125140. Archeological material from various sites in Louisiana, Georgia, and 

Mississippi, collected by W. M. Walker during the fall of 1932 (63 

specimens) . 
125392. Archeological and human skeletal remains, also some bird bones and 

four incomplete dog skeletons, collected in Arizona by Dr. F. H. H. 

Roberts, Jr., during the seasons of 1931 and 1932 (662 specimens). 
126434. Ethnological material from the Sumu and Miskito Indians collected by 

Dr. W. D. Strong while on a recent expedition to Honduras, also 

some natural history specimens (43 specimens). 
128084. Ethnological specimens from Australia and Papua presented to the 

Bureau by Joel H. DuBose (13 specimens). 
129974. Archeological and skeletal material collected by F. M. Setzler from 

August 20 to November 1, 1933, from mounds and village sites 

within the Marksville Works, near Marksville, La. (1,772 speci- 
mens) . 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning 
the North American Indians, both past and present, and the Mex- 
ican peoples of the prehistoric and early historic periods. Various 
specimens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them fur- 
nished for their owners. 

Personnel. — Miss Marion Illig, junior stenographer, resigned on 
December 11, 1933. 

Miss Edna Butterbrodt was appointed junior stenographer on 
June 1, 1934. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, ChieJ. 

Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

o 



^^■it^^<''h'^-':A''^''l:'' 




t 



Fifty-second Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1934-1935 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



FIFTY-SECOND 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1934-1935 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1935 



FIFTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Chief 



Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1935, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of March 28, 1934. The act 
referred to contains the following item : 

American ethnology : For continuing ethnological researches among the Ameri- 
can Indians and the natives of Hawaii, the excavation and preservation of 
archeologic remains under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, includ- 
ing necessary employees, the preparation of manuscripts, drawings, and illustra- 
tions, the purchase of books and periodicals, .and traveling expenses, $52,910.00. 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

M. W. Stirling, Chief, left Washington on October 23, 1934, to 
investigate the location of finds of the eastern type of Folsom point 
in King and Queen and Halifax Counties, Va., and in Granville 
County, N. C. It was discovered that the points in question were all 
surface finds, the exact location of several being examined. Two in- 
teresting facts developed from this study: None of the Folsomlike 
points was found in connection with village site material, and all of 
them were recovered from hilltop fields or other elevations where 
erosion had removed the topsoil. Until finds are made in situ, and 
in association with other material, very little can be said as to the 
antiquity of the specimens beyond the fact that they appear to be 
earlier than the ceramic horizons in the same region. 

On January 18, 1935, Mr. Stirling arrived at San Jose, Guatemala, 
from which point he visited archeological sites on the Pacific Coastal 
Plain. Proceeding to the highlands of Guatemala, he visited several 
Maya Quiche villages in the vicinity of Lake Atitlan and Chichi- 
castenango. Subsequently he studied the old empire ruins of 
Quirigua on the Motagua River and Copan in Honduras. After 
returning to Guatemala from Honduras, Mr. Stirling proceeded to 

33175-35 1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Yucatan, where he spent a week as a <j^uest of the Carnegie Institu- 
tion in viewing the sites of Uxnial and Chiclien Itza. On February 
12 he returned to Washington. 

On June 18 Mr. Stirling left Washington from Macon, Ga., to 
examine the progress made by Dr. A. K. Kelly on the large-scale 
mound excavations near that city. From Macon Mr. Stirling pro- 
ceeded to Brunswick, Ga., to view some of the archeological sites on 
the Sea Islands and to consult with National Park Service officials 
regarding the establishment of archeological monuments in that area. 
From Brunswick he went to Manatee, Fla., to examine some interest- 
ing Calusa material discovered by Montague Tallant. Following 
this, a brief trip was made to Cape Sable and the Florida Keys to 
locate some of the southernmost examples of Calusa archeological 
sites. On the return trip to Washington, he spent 2 days at Talla- 
hassee, Fla., in consultation with Vernon Lamme, Florida State 
Archeologist, and visited several interesting sites in the vicinity. 

Dr. John R. Swanton, ethnologist, devoted a considerable part of 
the year to the amplification of his report on the Southeastern 
Indians, material being added from Spanish, French, and English 
sources. 

In November and the first week of December, Dr. Swanton, accom- 
panied by F. M. Setzler, assistant curator of archeology in the 
United States National Museum, visited Macon, Ga., as the guests of 
Dr. and Mrs. Charles C. Harrold, stopping on the way at various 
points in North Carolina to examine archeological collections and 
sites connected with the expedition of De Soto. They remained in 
Atlanta, at the invitation of Mr. and Mrs. Beverly M. Du Bose, long 
enough to view the famous Etowah mounds at Cartersville. Besides 
visiting several sites in the immediate neighborhood of Macon, they 
made a trip to Panama City, Fla., and with the helpful cooperation 
of Judge Ira A. Hutchinson of that place viewed many of the sites 
explored by Clarence B. Moore and obtained an excellent collection 
of potsherds from one of the large shell heaps. On the return trip 
to Washington productive attempts were made to identify sites 
visited by De Soto in both North and South Carolina. Lectures 
were delivered at Macon and also at Emory University, Atlanta, 
before those interested in the local archeology. 

During the last week in December, Dr. Swanton took part in a 
conference on the prehistory of the lower Mississippi Valley at 
Baton Rouge, La., and on his way back spent some time visiting 
Indian sites along Alabama River with James Y. Brame, Jr., of 
Montgomery, Ala. 

Shortly before the end of the year Dr. Swanton took up again 
his work on the Timucua linguistic material, which had been laid 
aside for some time. Timucua is no longer spoken, and, with the 



FIFTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 6 

exception of two letters and some isolated words, all that is known 
regarding it is contained in five early seventeenth-century religious 
works published by the Franciscan friars Pareja and Movilla, with 
a grammar by the former. 

At the beginning of the year Dr. Truman Michelson, ethnologist, 
was engaged in working out the phonetic shifts of Natick on the 
basis of the material contained in Trumbull's Dictionary. With 
very few exceptions these are now satisfactorily solved, and have 
been indexed on file cards. When a few remaining obscure points 
are elucidated it will be possible to present a complete paper for 
publication. During the year a number of technical papers were 
prepared for publication in certain professional periodicals. Among 
these is a series of papers solving certain difficulties in Algonquian 
sound-shifts and etymologies as well as showing that some sound- 
shifts took place in Proto-Algonquian times. An article on Winne- 
bago social and political organization should also be noted. The- 
data extracted from Caleb Atwater's writings, previously neglected, 
are important. A new technique of determining the gentes of some 
tribes at certain times is given. Since gentes often own personal 
names, it is clear that personal names occurring as the signers of 
treaties and in early documents can be utilized in determining the 
gentes. Of general ethnological interest will be Dr. Michelson's 
communication, shortly to be published in the American Anthropol- 
ogist, on Miss Owen's Folk-Lore of the Musquakie Indians. Since 
the book deals with the Musquakie Indians, we have a right to 
suppose that the Indian words cited are Musquakie. However, Dr. 
Michelson shows that several are not even Algonquian but Siouan. 
Dr. Michelson has prepared and submitted for publication two 
papers : " Further Notes on Algonquian Kinship Terms " and 
" What Happened to Green Bear Wlio Was Blessed with a Sacred 
Pack." 

Dr. John P. Harrington, ethnologist, continued during the year 
his researches on the Indians of California and other related western 
Indians, both in the field and in Washington. At the beginning of 
the year he was engaged in work in southern California with an 
aged Indian, reviewing with him the ethnology contained in Father 
Boscana's unique report on the culture of the southern California 
coast Indians, written in 1822, the manuscript of which Dr. Harring- 
ton recently discovered. The rehearing and annotating of this im- 
portant manuscript was continued with other informants until well 
into the fall, resulting in the elucidating of practically every passage 
of the old text. On the completion of this work Dr. Harrington 
returned to Washington, D. C, to continue the annotation of the 
Boscana manuscript. Owing to the presence of Mission Indians in 
the city of Washington during all the latter part of the year, as 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

delegates in connection with legislative work, Dr. Harrington 
availed himself of this opportunity to amplify the work. Legends 
and other materials from these Indians were reheard, discussed, and 
edited. This work was still in continuation on June 30. 

Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., archeologist, devoted considerable 
time during the year to a study of the problem of so-called Folsom 
man. Extensive correspondence was carried on with collectors 
throughout the country concerning their finds of Folsom points and 
many examples were sent to him for study, photographing, and 
measuring. As a result of this work much new information was ob- 
tained concerning variations in this peculiar type of projectile point 
and its distribution. 

Dr. Roberts left Washington September 23, 1934, for Fort Collins, 
Colo., to investigate a site which had been reported to the Smithso- 
nian Institution by Maj. Roy G. Coffin, professor of geology in Colo- 
rado State College. The site was discovered in 1924 by Judge C. C. 
Coffin and his son. A. L. Cofl[in, of Fort Collins. Among the speci- 
mens were points which later were identified as belonging to the 
Folsom type, the oldest thus far laiown in North America. Dr. 
Roberts spent 6 weeks exploring the site, with the permission of the 
owner of the land, William Lindenmeier, Jr., of Fort Collins. From 
an intact midden layer 14 feet below the present ground level, and a 
quarter of a mile distant from the place of the original finds by the 
Coffins, he procured a whole series of implements which definitely 
establish a complex for the Folsom horizon. 

Dr. Roberts returned to Washington November 20, 1934, and dur- 
ing the winter months prepared a manuscript detailing the results of 
his work. This paper, entitled "A Folsom Complex: Preliminaiy 
Report on Investigations at the Lindenmeier Site in Northern Colo- 
rado ", was published June 20, 1935, in the Smithsonian Miscel- 
laneous Collections, vol. 94, no. 4, publ. no. 3333. 

Dr. Roberts left Washington again for Fort Collins on May 26. A 
camp was established at the Lindenmeier site and excavations on 
a larger scale than those of the preceding autumn were begun. The 
digging yielded numerous specimens of stone implements and a con- 
siderable quantity of bison bones, indicating that they are from much 
larger animals than the modern bison. A number of stone imple- 
ments were found in direct association with these bones, and one 
vertebra contains the tip end from a typical Folsom point. 

While the work at the Lindenmeier site was progressing, Dr. 
Roberts visited a number of locations in the northern Colorado area 
where Folsom specimens haA^e been found. None of the latter indi- 
cated possibilities for increased knowledge on the subject comparable 
to those at the Lindenmeier site. 



FIFTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT O 

During the month spent in the office Dr. Roberts also worked on 
manuscripts detailing the results of archeological work conducted 
in Arizona and at Shiloh National Military Park, Tenn. 

From July to October 1934, Dr. W. D. Strong, ethnologist, was 
in Washington working with the collections made in Spanish Hon- 
duras during the preceding j^ears. During the year a report on one 
phase of this work, entitled "Archeological Investigations in the Bay 
Islands, Spanish Honduras ", was completed. It was published Feb- 
ruary 12, 1935, in the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol, 92, 
no. 14. In October 1934 Dr. Strong was sent to Fort Collins, Colo., 
to examine and assist in work at a newly discovered site where a 
habitation level occupied by Folsom man was being investigated by 
Dr. F. H. H. Roberts, Jr., of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 
Returning to Washington in the same month, he was occupied for 
some time in revising and amplifying an earlier report, "An Intro- 
duction to Nebraska Archeology ", which was completed and went 
to press March 1, 1935. From December 1934 until the end of the 
year. Dr. Strong served as an adviser in anthropology to the Bureau 
of Indian Affairs. Prior to May 1934 this work was carried on in 
addition to his other duties but, subsequent to that time, through an 
arrangement between the Bureau of American Ethnology and the 
Bureau of Indian Affairs, full time was devoted to this task. 

Winslow M. Walker, associate anthropologist, devoted the time 
from July 1 until the end of the calendar year in working with the 
collections made in connection with the Federal Civil Works Admin- 
istration relief project at Buena Vista Lake, Calif. At the same 
time Mr. Walker was able to continue work in connection with his 
researches in the lower Mississippi Valley, and completed for publi- 
cation the report of his work on the large mound at Troyville, La. 

J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnologist, was engaged durmg the year in a 
revision of the native Onondaga text of the Requickening Address 
of the Condolence Convocation of the Iroquois League, adding to 
the text and translation the summarizing speech introductory to the 
Second Part of this Address, retranslating the whole. He also re- 
vised the historical tradition of the founding of the League of the 
Iroquois, not only words but incidents as well, retranslating the 
whole to conform to the corrections. Texts of laws relating to other 
aspects of the League were also revised and made to conform to later 
information obtained in his researches. 

Mr. Hewitt worked on the preparation of a paper analyzing 
approximately 400 Chippewa place names. He also prepared a list 
of over 200 Seneca personal names arranged according to the age 
grades of the individual. 

In the course of the year Mr. Hewitt attended the meetings of the 
Advisory Committee to the Division of Geographic Names of the 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Department of the Interior, for which he also did some research 
work. 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES 

Miss Frances Densmore, a collaborator of the Bureau, continued 
her study of Indian music during this year, submitting disk records 
of Indian songs made at the Century of Progress Exposition. The 
records of seven songs were submitted, with transcriptions of two 
Navaho and four Sioux songs, and accompanying data. These have 
been cataloged consecutively with her former work. Two of the 
Sioux songs were selected by Dean Carl E, Seashore for graphic 
reproduction by his method of phonophotography, the work being 
done at his laboratory at the University of Iowa, Iowa City. This 
is the first use of this technique of graphical recording in connection 
with the study of Indian music. Dr. Seashore states : " From a 
single playing before the microphone three groups of records are 
made : First, a re-recording of the song on hard disks for auditory 
reference; second, a phonophotographic record of pitch, intensity 
and time ; and, third, an oscillogram for harmonic analysis to deter- 
mine tone quality." Through his courtesy there was submitted a 
print of a portion of the original phonophotogram of one of these 
songs, and a graph, or " pattern score " made by Dr. Harold Sea- 
shore from the phonophotogram. A comparison of this score with 
the transcription made by Miss Densmore corroborates the evidence 
of the ear in discerning the pitch of Indian singing and also opens 
interesting new avenues of investigation. Miss Densmore added a 
chapter on a summary of analysis to her book on British Columbian 
music, awaiting publication. 

Acknowledgment is made of the courtesy of Mrs. Laura Boulton 
and Dr. George Herzog in providing the use of the Fairchild disk 
recording apparatus on which Indian songs were recorded at the 
Century of Progress Exposition. 

EDITORIAL. WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editing of the publications of the Bureau was continued 
through the year by Stanley Searles, editor. In addition to the 
current work of the office, considerable progress was made on com- 
paring and correcting the comprehensive manuscript index of Bul- 
letins 1-100 of the Bureau. Every entry is being verified. 

An index of Schoolcraft's work entitled " Indian Tribes ", in six 
volumes, begun last year, is well advanced. 

Bulletin 112, "An Introduction to Pawnee Archeology ", by Waldo 
Rudolph Wedel, was edited and prepared for printing; and work 
has been done on other manuscripts in the custody of the editor. 
Publications distributed totaled 11,955. 



FIFTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 



LIBRARY 



The reference library has continued under the care of Miss Ella 
Leary, librarian. The library consists of 31,101 volumes, 17,189 
pamphlets, and several thousand unbound periodicals. During the 
year 400 books were accessioned, of which 47 were acquired by pur- 
chase, the remainder being received through gift and exchange of 
Bureau publications; also 94 pamphlets and 3,125 serials, chiefly 
the publications of learned societies, were received and recorded. 
Books loaned during the year numbered 1,069. In the process of 
cataloging, 1,550 cards were added to the catalog files. Requisition 
was made on the Library of Congress during the year for 140 vol- 
umes for official use. This year, more than in previous years, advan- 
tage was taken of the interlibrary loan service for books needed by 
the staff. 

As usual, hundreds of publications were consulted in the library 
during the year by investigators and students, other than members 
of the Smithsonian Institution. Individual contributors both at 
home and abroad continued to show their interest by sending contri- 
butions to the library. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Following is a summary of work accomplished by E. G. Cassedy, 
illustrator : 

Engrossing 1 

Line drawings 115 

Graphs 43 

Ptiotographs retouched 68 

Maps — 29 

Tracings 17 

Lettering jobs : 147 

Plates prepared 97 

Photographs colored 21 

Mechanical drawings 5 

Paintings repaired 2 

Total 545 

COLLECTIONS 

Accession 
Number 

130570. Pottery fragments from Weeden Island, Fla., collected by D. L. Reich- 
ard (4 specimens). 

130576. Human skeletal material obtained through excavations conducted 
under the Federal Civil Works Administration by W. M. Walker at 
various sites in California (88 sjiecimens). 

132127. Skeletal material excavated from Peachtree Mound at Murphy, N. C. 
(39 specimens). 

132168. Skeletal material obtained in the course of archeological work con- 
ducted at Ormond Beach, Fla., during the winter of 1933-34 under 
the Federal Civil Works Administration (53 specimens). 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

133314. Collection of archeological material obtained on the mainland of 
Spanish Honduras and on the adjacent Bay Islands by Dr. W. D. 
Strong in 1933 (327 specimens). 

134994. Skeletal material from Perico Island, Manatee County, Fla., collected 
by the C. W. A. during the winter of 1933-34 (180 specimens). 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning 
the North American Indians, both past and present, and the Mexican 
peoples of the prehistoric and early historic periods. Various speci- 
mens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them furnished 
for their owners. 

Personnel. — The appointment of Winslow M. Walker, associate 
anthropologist, was terminated May 31, 1935, owing to ill health. 

Miss Helen Heitkemper was temporarily appointed as junior 
stenographer in the absence of Miss Edna Butterbrodt, on furlough. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Chief. 

Dr, C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary^ Sinithsonian Institution. 

o 



"'Mi 




Fifty -third Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1935-1936 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



FIFTY-THIRD 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1935-1936 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 19.-7 



rv. 



FIFTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AT^IERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



3f. W. Stirijng, Chief 



SiH : I iiave tlie hoDor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
ca}; Etlmology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1936, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of February 2, 1935. The act 
referred to contains the following item : 

American ethnology: For coiitiiuiiiig etlmologk-al researches among the Amer- 
oan Indians and the natives of Hawaii, the excavation and preservatioii of 
archeologic remains under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, includ- 
ing necessary employees, the preparation of manuscripts, drawings, and illustra- 
tions, the purchase of books and periodicals, and traveling expenses, $58,730.00. 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

At the beginning of the fiscal year M. W. Stirling, Chief of the 
Bureau, was in southern Plorida for the purpose of locating arche- 
ologicaJ sites which it was anticipated would be excavated later in 
the year with relief labor. Mr. Stirling returned to Washington 
the latter part of July. In December tAvo Works Progress Admin- 
istration archeological projects having been approved on request of 
the Florida State Archaeological Survey in cooperation with the 
Smithsonian Institution, Mr. Stirling again went to Florida in order 
to consult with Works Progress Administration officials and super- 
vise the establishing of the projects in Hillsborough and Dade Coun- 
ties. He retu)-ned to Washington December 22. During the visit 
of a Blackfeet Indian delegation to Washington in the month of 
March 1936 opportunity was taken to make further checks and modi- 
fications on the sign language material of the late Gen. Hugh L. 
Scott. 

Dr. John R. Swanton, ethnologist, devoted the greater part of his 
time during the first half of the fiscal year to the arrangement of the 
Timucua linguistic material under stems. Further material was 
added to his large paper on the Indians of the Southeast. On De- 
cember 26, 1935, Dr. S^-anton Avas appointed by the President a mem- 
ber of a commission of seven "to study and report to the next session 
of Congress its recommendations for a suitable celebration of the 
four-hundredth anniversary of the expedition of Hernando de Soto." 

1 1 2348— -'.7 1 



2 lUlll'.Al? ()!•' A.M1:KI(.'A.\ J'/rjlN'OLOliV 

A later act of Congress extends the time Avithiii Avhicli the report may 
be made to January 2, 19139. Since this appointment was made, the 
activities of the Commission have absorbed a great deal of his time, 
involving as they do the promotion of reseai'ch in foreign deposi- 
tories of manuscripts, particularly those of Spain, the translation of 
Spanish works, and especially a stndy and determination, as far as 
that is possible, of the route taken l)y the great explorer and his suc- 
cessor, Moscoso, through territories now covered by 10 States of the 
Union. This involves the use of library materials and direct study in 
the field. At the re(iuest of the other mem1)ers of th.e Connnission, 
Dr. S wanton acted in the capacity of temporary chairman m arrang- 
ing the first meeting, March 5 to 7, in the Smithsonian Building. At 
this meeting Dr. Swanton accepted the permanent chaii-manship of 
the Commission, with the understanding, howevei-. that he was to 
serve onl^^ until the factual report is made. A second meeting was 
held at Tampa, Fla., on I\Iay 4 to 6. After this was over, he accom- 
panied Col. J. R. Fordyce, vice-chairman of the Commission, in an 
investigation of parts of the route of De Soto between Florida and 
Mississippi, and May 30 to June 18 he made a second expedition to 
examine that section between South Carolina and the jNIississippi 
River. 

During the year an interesting and ethnologically important letter 
beai'ing on the Indians of Florida was brought to Dr. Swanton's 
attention by Dr. Lucy L. Wenhold, of Salem College, Winston-Salem, 
N. C. A negative photostat of this document is also in the possession 
of the Florida State Historical Society, which has kindly loaned the 
use of it in making a positive copy, and this is being prepared for 
publication in the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections with anno- 
tations by Dr. Swanton and Dr. Wenhold. 

On July 3, 1935, Dr. Truman Michelson, ethnologist, started on an 
expedition to the region of James and Hudson Bays, made possible by 
a subvention from the American Council of Learned Societies. The 
object was to make a linguistic map of this area. He spent some 
weeks at Moose Factory, about 10 days at the Great Whale River, a 
little over 2 weeks at Fort George, and a day at Rupert's House, and 
returned to Washington September 20. Besides getting data from 
the Indians and Eskimos of these places, he was able to get in contact 
with one Indian from the East Main River, one Cree from Wenusk, 
on the Avest side of Hudson Bay, one Cree from the Albany River, 
v>-ho had also been at Attawapiskat, and one Ojibwa from the xVlbany 
River. Data from some of the more remote localities were obtained 
by indirect means. His observations indicate that the folklore and 
mythology of these northern tribes are far closer to those of the 
Central Algonquian tribes than is usually thought. 



yiFrV-THIRI) AXNITAL UKPOUT 6 

On June 5, under a new grant from the American Council of 
Learned Societies, Dr. Michelson left Washington to renew his studies 
among the Indians and Eskimos of the James and Hudson Bays 
region. 

The entire fiscal year was spent by Dr. John P. Harrington, eth- 
nologist, in study of the Mission Indians of California, compiling 
complete notes for the forthcoming edition of the Boscana manu- 
script of 1882, which tells in 15 chapters of the life and religion of 
these Indians. This important manuscript of the early Franciscan 
Father Boscana, a missionary born in Catalonia, Spain, and stationed 
for years among the Mission Indians, was recentl}^ discovered by 
Dr. Harrington and a literal English translation of it without notes 
lias already been published. 

As a bj^product of the preparation of these notes an interesting 
accouiit of the ethnology of the JNIission Indians has been assembled, 
covering their mode of life, dress, food, sociology, religion, language, 
and knowledge of nature. The presence of Mission Indians in 
Washington has constantl}' enhanced and i^erfected this work 
throughout the fiscal j-ear. 

At the begimiing of the year Dr. F. H. H. Roberts, Jr., archeologist, 
was engaged in excavations at the Lindenmeier site north of Fort 
Collins, Colo. This work was continued until September 10. The 
Lindenmeier site is the location where the first series of stone imple- 
ments definitely attributable to the Folsom complex, the oldest estab- 
lished horizon in the archeology of North America, was found in 
the autumn of 1934. The investigations of the 1935 season were a 
continuation of those begun the preceding fall and consisted of in- 
tensive excavation of certain portions of the site. The digging 
brought forth additional information which malvcs possible the draw- 
ing of more detailed conclusions on the material culture of Folsom 
man. 

Wlien the summer's project was brought to a close Dr. Roberts 
went to Globe, Ariz,, at the request of the authorities at Gila Pueblo, 
foi- the purpose of conferring with members of the staff on the 
finds whicli they had made at Snaketown, a Hohokam site, near 
l^hf^enix. He also studied the collections in the Gila Pueblo Museum 
and visited the Snaketown site and Casa Grande. The latter was 
the scene of considerable activity on the part of Cosmos Mindeleff 
and Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, members of the staff of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, 40 and more years ago. Dr. Roberts returned 
to Washington October 1. 

In January he took part, by special invitation, in a symposium on 
Early Man in America which was held at the annual meeting of the 
Society of American Naturalists at St. Louis. He also prepared a 
manuscript detailing tlie work done during the summer. This report, 



4 f.ri'vKAL' OF AI^fKniCAX ETHNOIiOCV 

Additional Inforination on the Folsoni Complex, Report on the Sec- 
ond Season's Investigations at the Lindennieier Site in Northern 
Cok)rado, was issued on tlune 30 as Smithsonian Miscellaneous 
Collections, vol. 95, no. 10. 

Dr. Roberts left Wasliington Juno 1 for Anderson, Iowa, to insi)ect 
a site where Folsom points and other material had been found. This 
proved to be a highly interesting place, as it marks tlie easternmost 
locality that the true or High Plains form of the Folsom point has 
been noted. While in Iowa he saw and studied numerous collections 
of specimens and found evidence of the Folsom complex at a number 
of sites. From Iowa he proceeded to Colorado, where he resumed 
excavations at the Lindenmeier site. By the end of the year, June 30, 
several trenches had been run through portions of the site and an area 
20 by 30 feet had been completely cleared of the several feet of accu- 
mulated earth which had covered it. This area consisted of an old 
occupation level upon which the traces of Folsom man and his activ- 
ities were numerous. 

From July 1935 to January 1936 Dr. W. D. Strong, anthropologist, 
served as consultant in anthropology to the Bureau of Indian Affaii'S. 
In addition to office work in relation to numerous acculturation studies 
being made on various Indian reservations of the United States, Dr. 
Strong made two field trips to various reservations and administrative 
centers in New Mexico and Arizona in August and December, re^^^ec- 
tively. In November a trip of several weeks was made to the Chip- 
pewa reservations in Minnesota to advise on problems of tribal i"eor- 
ganization. On January 5, 1936, Dr. Strong left Washington for 
Honduras as leader of a joint archeological expedition from the 
Bureau of American Ethnologv, Sinithsonian Institution, and the 
Peabody Museum, Harvard University. He was assisted in the field 
by Alfred Kidder II and Drexel A. Paul, Jr., from the Peabody 
Museum. Establishing its base at Progreso, in the Ulua Valley, the 
expedition made stratigraphic excavations at several sites on the Ulua 
River. In March and April Dr. Strong, with Mr. Paul, conducted 
excavations around the north end of Lake Yojoa, while jMr. Kidder 
worked on the Comayagua River. In May and June the entire ex})e- 
dition worked sites on the Chemelicon River, including the site of 
Naco, first visited by Cortez and the early Spanish Conquistadores. 

On the Ulua River excellent stratigraphic series were secured of 
the prehistoric polychrome pottery horizons. At Playa de los Muer- 
tos, on the Ulua, these horizons, corresponding roughly to the close of 
the Maya Old Empire, ^vel•e found to overlay a much earlier living 
level marked by monochrome, polished, and incised pottery. 

The work of the expedition approached conclusion in June, and on 
June 30 preparations for departure began. Throughout its entire 
work the expedition received cordial cooperation and assistance from 



FIFTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPOKT O 

the governiiient of the Republic of Honduras. It was also luaterially 
aided by the United Fruit Coinpan y, from whose employees it received 
unlimited liospitality. Without these much appreciated sources of 
cooperation its scientific results would have been much curtailed. 

Dr. Julian H. Steward was appointed as ass(X*iate anthrojiologist 
in the Bureau, effective October 21, 1935. During September 1935, 
prior to reporting to Washington, Dr. Steward traveled to Pendleton, 
Greg., for the purpose of making a selection of 200 negatives of ethno- 
logical subjects taken by the late Maj. Lee Morehouse. These were 
purchased by the Bureau from Mrs. L. L. Cornelison, his daughter. 
From November 16 to December 10, 1935, Dr. Steward was engaged in 
conducting a W. P. A. archeological project in the vicinity of Miami, 
Fla. During this time he supervised tlie excavation of the larg'3 
mound at Miami Beach and began work on a smaller mound several 
miles northwest of the city of JMiami. Because of Dr. Strong's de- 
parture for Honduras, when Dr. Steward returned to Washington he 
was delegated to continue the cooperative work between the Bureau of 
Indian Affairs and the Bureau of American Ethnology previously 
conducted by Dr. Strong. In connection with these duties Dr. 
Steward made an extended trip from March 7 to April 15, 1936, in 
the interest of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. On June 19 he left 
Washington for the purpose of continuing his field work among tho 
Shoshoni, Bannock, and Gosiute Indians of Utah, Nevada, and Idaho. 
During the winter and spring Dr. Steward prepared for publication a 
series of trait lists collected from the Shoshoni Indians of Nevada 
during the summer of 1935. From other material collected at tlie 
same time he completed two articles entitled "Shoshoni Polyandry*' 
and "Panatubiji, a Biography of an Owens Valley Paiute." In addi- 
tion. Dr. Steward completed for publication in the Smithsonian 
Annual Report an article entitled "Indian Petroglyphs of the United 
States." 

J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnologist, completed a detailed study of the ap- 
proximate position and territorial habitat of the northern Iroquoian 
tribes and of the contiguous Algonquian peoples as they were at the 
time these groups were first visited by the early explorers. Mr. 
Hewitt also made a historical study for the purpose of showing the 
marked influence' of the principles and aims of the League of the Five 
Iroquois Tribes as founded by Deganawida in the early sixteenth 
century on those of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Hewitt had previously recorded from the late Chief J. A. 
Gibson two Onondaga versions of what is fundamentally a single 
ritual, namely, the Requickening Address. He made a new transla- 
tion of these, having first revised both texts so that there should be 
no material differences in the meaning of the two. He also made a 
careful revision of the Onondaga texts and laws relating to the posi- 



6 lUllKAlT OV A:\rKRICAX KTHN()1J)(;Y 

tioii and powers aiul liiiiitations of the Federal Chieftains, and also 
those 4^overnin^- the Chief Warriois. 

He also added to the Bureau's collection of ritual wampuin strings 
by completing two new sets of strings made from loose beads on 
patterns taken from originals in the Museum of the American Indian, 
Heye Foundation, and a set which was owned by the late Chief David 
Skye, of the Canadian Six Nations. 

During the year Mr. Hewdtt continued to represent the Bureau of 
American Ethnology on the Advisory Committee on Geographic 
Xames. Department of the Interior. 

On June 21, 1936, Mr. Hewitt left Washington on field duty, visit- 
ing the Tuscarora Reservation near Lewiston, N. Y.. and then the 
Grand River Grant to the Six Nations in Ontario. On the latter 
reservation he obtained a short Delaware vocabulary and a fine Mo- 
hawk text embodying the so-called Handsome Lake Religion, the 
preparation of which Avas about completed by the end of the fiscal 
year. 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES 

Miss Frances Densmore, a collaborator of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, in continuation of her study of Indian music, submitted 
a manuscript entitled "Dance Songs of the Seminole Indians", with 
phonogi-aph records and transcriptions of 25 songs. These songs 
were recorded in February 1932 at Brighton, Fla., by Billie Stewart, 
one of the best singers in the Cow Creek group of the tribe. Five 
songs connected with the tribal ball game were presented, together 
with songs of the alligator, steal-partner, switch-grass, and buffalo 
dances. The songs of the ball game were sung to bring success and 
were accompanied by beating on a water-drum hung hj a strap from 
the player's shoulder. A coconut-shell rattle accompanied the dances. 
All the songs of each series were recorded. This afforded an oppor- 
tunity to note the maintaining of a fundamental pitch throughout 
the series, witli a pleasing variation of rhythm in the several melodies. 

EDITORIAL WORK AXD PUBLICATIONS 

The editing of the publications of the Bureau was continued 
through the year by Stanley Searles. editor. In addition to the cur- 
rent Avork of the office the comprehensive manuscript index of Bulle- 
tins 1-100 has been corrected. All entries have been verified. 

An index of Schoolcraft's "Indian Tribes", in six volumes, is Hear- 
ing completion. More than 30,000 entries have been made and are 
now being alphabetized. 



FIFTY-THIRD ANXTAL KKPOKT 



Bulletin 112. "An Introduction to Pawnee Archeology", by Waldo 
Rudolph Wede!, and Bulletin 113, "The Troyville ]Mounds, Catahouk 
Parish, Louisiana", by Winslow M. Walker, were issued. 

Work has been done on otlier manuscripts in the custody of the 
editor. 

Publications distributed totaled 9,337. 

LIBRARY 

Miss Ella Leary continued in cliarge as li])rarian until Febn-ary 
29, 103G, when she was retired on account of ill health. Miss Miriam 
B. Ketclnim was appointed to succeed her, effective April 1, 1936. 

The following figures apply to bound books and pamphlets of 100 
pages or over. Pamphlets of le^;s than 100 pages are no longer 
accessioned. 

Books received by pureliase 18 

Books received by exchange 62 

Books received by gift 19 

Total 99 

Numerous pamphlets have been received, as well as the usual 
periodicals and society transactions, mostlj'- by excliange or gift. 
The library contains, as of June 30, 1936 : 

Total accession record 31, 200 

Total withdrawals and losses 661 

' Net total 30,539 

There are also about 20,000 pam])hlets and more than 3,000 voliunes 
of unbound periodicals and society transactions. 

It is planned to reclassify the library according to the Library of 
Congress scheme of classification, and copies of the scheme in the 
Bureau's field have been furnished by the Library of Congress. All 
new material is being put in the new classification, and it is hoped 
that a real start on older material can be made during the coming 
year. A shelf list has been begun and will be continued along with 
the reclassification. 

A depository set of Library of Congress catalog cards is being 
established, 

A beginning has been made on refiling the catalog and the task will 
be completed within the next few months. 



8 BUREAT 01' AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Follo^Yin<; is a suniniarv of work aoconi})lished by E. G. Cassedy, 
illustrator: 

Graphs 29 

Line drawings 163 

Maps 12 

Photos retouched 10 

Tracings 18 

Plates assenibleil 29 

Lettering jobs 354 

Negatives retouched 6 

Photos colored 2 

Total 623 

, , ,. „ COLLECTIONS 

Accession 

uuaibiT 
lor>,21>l. Archeological material coUefted by M. W. Stirling from a village site 

formerly occupied by the Waccamaw Indians near Myrtle Beach, 

S. C. 
138.344. Two eartheuAvare bowls from the Dragoon Mountains, southeastern 

Arizona. 
138;501. The Mrs. Charles D. AValcott collection of 27 pictures of Navaho sand 

paintings and four paintings of miscellaneous subjects. 
139,472. Ten photographs of Australian natives ; 20 lithographs of Congo Negro 

subjects; 33 slides of subjects from Palestine, Tunis, Syria, etc. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was f urnislied by mem- 
bers of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning the 
North American Indians, both past and present, and the Mexican 
peoples of the prehistoric and early historic periods. A'arious speci- 
mens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on tliem furnished 
for their owners. 

Personnel. — Dr. J. H. Steward was appointed associate anthropol- 
ogist October 21, 1935. Miss Edna Butterbrodt, junior stenographer, 
resigned January 12, 1936. Miss Helen Heitkemper was appointed 
January 28, 1936, to fill the vacancy. 

Respectfully submitted. 

jM. W. Stirling. Chief. 

Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary., Sniithsotiian In.^titufion. 

O 



i'v;:-- 



Fifty-fourth Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1936-1937 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



FIFTY-FOURTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1936-1937 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1938 



FIFTY- FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Chief 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Amer- 
ican Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1937, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congi-ess of March 19, 1936. The act 
referred to contains the following item : 

American ethnology : For continuing ethnological researches among the Amer- 
ican Indians and the natives of Hawaii, the excavation and preservation of 
archeologic remains under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, includ- 
ing necessary employees, the preparation of manuscripts, drawings, and illus- 
trations, the purchase of books and periodicals, and traveling expenses, $58,730.00. 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

M. W. Stirling, Chief, spent the major part of the fiscal year in 
Washington, during which time the ethnological report on the Jivaro 
Indians of Ecuador was completed and submitted to the printer. 

At the end of February 1937 Mr. Stirling left Washington for St. 
Augustine, Fla., in order to attend the conference held under the 
auspices of the Carnegie Institution of Washington for the purpose 
of outlining a program of research concerning the historical and 
archeological past of the city of St. Augustine and vicinity. At the 
conclusion of this conference he continued to Manatee, Fla., in order 
to examine some interesting newly discovered mounds in that vicinity. 
Continuing up the Gulf Coast of Florida, a visit was made to Bristol, 
on the Apalachicola River, where a sherd collection was made on a 
large mound near the river south of the town. Mr. Stirling then pro- 
ceeded to Panama City, Fla., in order to photograph several private 
archeological collections. 

From Panama City, Mr. Stirling went to Macon, Ga., for the pur- 
pose of examining the large archeological project there which was 
inaugurated by the Smithsonian Institution with the Society for 
Georgia Archeology and now being conducted under the auspices of 
that society by Dr. A. R. Kelly. From Macon, Mr. Stirling proceeded 
to Philadelphia, Pa., in order to attend the International Conference 
on Early Man, held under the auspices of the Philadelphia Academy 
of Sciences. On the conclusion of this conference Mr. Stirling 
returned to Washington. 

32195—38 1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Mr. Stirling was delegated to represent the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion at the meeting held at Media, Pa., on May 13, 1937, in honor of 
the one hundredth anniversary of the birth of Daniel Brinton. 

Dr. John R. S^Yanton, ethnologist, devoted the greater part of his 
time during the past fiscal year to work as chairman of the United 
States De Soto Expedition Commission. This involved field expedi- 
tions from November 11 to December 9, 1936, and from May 16 to 
June 4, 1937, except for 3 days, December 3 to 5, devoted to a meeting 
of the Commission at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Ala. 
The first field trip extended over parts of Florida, Georgia, Alabama, 
Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. The second was confined to an 
intensive study of that section of De Soto's route which passed through 
northern Mississippi. During these expeditions small collections of 
potsherds were made, which will be of assistance in studying the cul- 
tures of the prehistoric inhabitants of the several areas visited. As 
chairman of the fact-finding committee of the same Commission, Dr. 
Swanton prepared a report covering about 600 typewritten pages, and 
this was adopted by the Commission at its Tuscaloosa meeting and 
embodied in its report to Congress. The entire report has since been 
submitted, but, as publication has not yet been ordered, it is still pos- 
sible to add material, and he is engaged in doing so. 

During the year Dr. Swanton also made some additions to his data 
on the Indians of the Southeast, and he has been collecting from orig- 
inal sources the most important references to the Quapaw Indians. 

Until the end of the fiscal year Dr. Swanton continued as a member 
of the executive committee of the Division of Anthropology and 
Psychology of the National Research Council and as vice-president 
of section H of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science for the current calendar year. 

Dr. Truman Michelson, ethnologist, renewed his researches among 
the Algonquian tribes of the James and Hudson Bay region under 
a grant-in-aid by the American Council of Learned Societies. He 
spent some time at Moose Factory, and a short time at Fort George, 
Attawapiskat, and Weenusk. Owing to the presence of some Albany 
Cree at Moose Factory and some Indians from Rupert's House as 
well as on shipboard, he was able to do personal work with them. 
By correspondence he obtained some additional text -material from 
Rupert's House; by meeting the manager of the Hudson Bay Co.'s 
post at the Ghost River and an Indian from Lac la Ronge he ob- 
tained data from these regions. The results of the previous expedi- 
tion were checked up as much as feasible. It results that the state- 
ment made previously that east of Hannah Bay Cree leaves off and 
Montagnais-Naskapi begins is confirmed. Besides texts and vocabu- 
laries from the general area, a rather comi)lete schedule of kinsliip 
terms for the Great Whale River Indians, those of Fort George, the Ci*e© 



FIFTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 3 

of Moose Factory, Albany, Attawapiskat, and Weenusk was obtained. 
Very obviously the system of consanguinity favors cross-cousin 
marriage; and it is to be noted that at the Great Whale River and 
Albany both types of this marriage occur; at Moose and Attawapiskat 
it is restricted to marriage with paternal aunt's daughter ; at Weenusk 
apparently neither type obtains. It may be mentioned that by lin- 
guistic technique it is possible to show in the places named that a 
number of old terms have been replaced, e. g., the term for cross- 
nephew has been replaced by the term originally restricted to son-in- 
law, etc. Also the kinship systems favor exogamy, but he has not 
been able to find a true gens or clan organization in the wliole area. 

Dr. Michelson returned to Washington September 20, v.here he 
studied the material gathered on this and previous expeditions. By 
correspondence with Hudson Bay Co.'s officials and a missionary 
he obtained data on the Cree of Cumberland House, Norway House, 
Oxford House, Trout Lake, God's Lake (all dialects in which original 
I is replaced by n), Montreal Lake, Stanley, Pelecan Narrows (dia- 
lects in which original I is replaced hy y). A study was made of the 
Montagnais of Le Jeune, over 300 years ago ; the orthography plainly 
indicates kh, tch, and some other variations are representatives of 
one and the same sound, namely, the one usually transcribed by tc. 
This study enabled him also to make at least one correction to the 
Handbook of American Indians, and prove one supposed Algonkin 
tribe actually was Montagnais-Naskapi. From correspondence it 
would appear that the dialect spoken at Island Lake is a mixture 
of Cree, Ojibwa, and possibly Algonkin proper. This indicates that 
in a number of places there is such a mixture, but apparently not on 
the same scale. A map showing the distribution and interrelations 
of the Cree and Montagnais-Naskapi dialects has been made. Tech- 
nical papers have appeared in professional journals, and others have 
been prepared and are awaiting publication. The Bureau published 
Fox Miscellany (Bulletin 114), the proof-sheets of which were 
corrected during the fiscal year. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year," Dr. John P. Harrington, 
ethnologist, prepared a report on the Use of Ferns in the Basketry 
of the Indians of Northw^estern California, centering on the use of 
fern species among the Karuk tribe. The baskets of this section are 
really built of lumber, that is, of the shredded roots of the Oregon 
pine. But the two materials which make the baskets beautiful are 
the glossy black of maidenhair fern stems and the handsome red of 
Woodwardia fern filaments, dyed with alder bark. 

Dr. Harrington next prepared a paper on Kiowa Memories of the 
Black Hills and of the Devil's Tower. The Kiowa Indians, 600 
miles to the south, still have memories of the Black Hills country 
of South Dakota, wdiich they occupied some 150 years ago. They 



4 BUREAU OF AMEUICAN ETHNOLOGY 

also retain knowledge of myths regarding the remarkable basalt 
column near Sundance, Wyo., on tlie northwestern slope of the 
Black Hills, known as the Devil's Tower, but to the Kiowa as the 
Kock Standing Like a Tree. An elaborate paper was finished on 
the subject, going into the geology, histoi-y, and mythology of the 
Devil's Tower. 

Dr. Harrington next finished a report on The Northern Pro- 
venience of the Navajo and Apache, tracing related languages in 
detail to Alaska, northwestern Canada, and the Pacific Coast of 
the United States, and telling in detail how tlie relationship of 
Navajo and Apache to the Indians of the far northwest was dis- 
covered by W. W. Turner, librarian in the Patent Office, Wash- 
ington, D. C, in 1852. This voluminous report resulted in the 
discovery by Dr. Harrington of a curious distribution of these lan- 
guages, the map of which takes the form of a wishbone. Their 
nucleus is in the far Northw^est, one prong extending down the 
Pacific Coast and terminating a little north of San Francisco Bay, 
another eastern prong extending down through the Rocky Moun- 
tain region and culminating in the Navajo and Apache of the 
Southwest. An exhaustive study was made of the earliest docu- 
ments and maps on the subject, in the compilation of which Dr. 
Harrington was assisted by the Geographic Board of Canada. 

A report was completed on the Siberian Origin of the Ameri- 
can Indian, presenting the background, the earliest historic writ- 
ings on the subject, the Eskimo problem, the problem of the means 
of crossing (whether by boat, over ice, or by means of former land 
bridge), the distribution of tribes and density of population as 
bearing out the theory, and general aspects. In this study he was 
assisted by many other students, including native interpreters of 
the Bering Strait region. This report suggests that America was 
first discovered as a result of over-population which developed in 
the east of Asia and forced Paleo-Siberian peoples to enter the 
Chukchi Peninsula. From this point they sighted and spilled over 
into America, using the Diomede Islands as resting places on their 
transit, if this were during the period of the existence of the Ber- 
ing Strait, and followed the food supply down what is now the 
Alaskan coast, without realizing that the}' had discovered anything 
more than an outlying island. 

A paper was prepared on the Life of Jeronimo, Apache Indian 
Chief, and the Indian leader whose expeditions probably cost the 
United States Government more money and trouble than did those 
of any other chieftain. The life and times of Jeronimo were 
minutely searched, and data were compiled in chronological order. 
The material of this paper is especially interesting to the American 



FIFTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

public as it deals with a period already dimming in the memories 
of living men. The name, Alope, of the first wife of Jeronimo, 
was discovered to be merely a corruption of the Mexican Spanish 
name Guadalupe. 

Studies on linguistic relationship in the Southwest and California 
were continued. These studies have resulted in the discovery that 
Tano-Kiowan and Aztecan are genetically related, and to this larger 
group Dr. Harrington gave the name Patlan. The discovery was 
also made that Hopi is a Southern California Shoshonean dialect^ 
showing developments in common with the Southern California Sho- 
shonean dialects, and constituting with them a dialectic group of the 
Aztecan family in contradistinction to any other group. This unity 
of Hopi with Southern California Shoshonean was first noticed many 
years ago, the word for wood-rat (e. g., Hopi qdala, wood-rat, South- 
ern California Shoshonean qdala^ wood-rat) leading immediately to 
the discovery. It was also noticed by Dr. J. R. Swanton and Dr. 
Harrington that Tano-Kiowan and Shoshonean have genetic rela- 
tionship with the languages of the Southeastern United States (Musk- 
hogean, Chitimacha, Atakapa, Tonkawa, Timucua), Tano-Kiowan, 
for instance, and all the Southeastern languages above-mentioned 
showing the characteristic prefix nia-^ something, used in deriving 
nouns from verbs (e. g., Tanoan thd, to dwell; natha, house). 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., 
archeologist, was engaged in excavating at the Lindenmeier site in 
northern Colorado. At this place remains attributable to the ma- 
terial culture of Folsom man, one of the earliest known inhabitants 
of the New World, are found. The 1936 investigations constituted 
the third season's work there, and valuable new information was 
obtained on this important phase in tli,e study of the history of the 
American Indian. Digging was carried on at three different por- 
tions of the site, and considerable new bone material and several new 
types of implements came from the excavations. Most of the bones 
were from the large extinct species of bison {Bison taylori) which 
the people hunted, but in addition a number of bones from the Amer- 
ican camel, probably Camelops^ were obtained in direct association 
with the bison bones and with stone implements. This adds one more 
extinct species of animal to the list of those found with Folsom 
artifacts. One of the significant facts established by the work is 
that the site was occupied before and during a period characterized 
by the formation of a thick, black soil layer produced by heavy vege- 
tation that thrived when conditions were more favorable than those 
of recent times. That the people were there before the inception of 
this era of abundant growth points to an even greater antiquity than 
that suggested by the presence of implements and bones in the bottom 



g BUREAU OF AMP^RICAN ETHNOLOGY 

of the soil level. The work was brought to a close September 5, 1936. 

In the latter part of August Dr. Roberts also investigated a site 
near Kersey, Colo., where Folsoni type objects were found by F. W. 
Powars and his son Wayne, residents of Greeley. This location is 
on a low terrace of the rolling terrain lying along the south side 
of the South Platte lliver valley. Present evidence indicates that 
it was a camp, but one occupied for a relatively short period of time. 
Specimens obtained there represent a typical Folsom complex. They 
are so similar to those from the Lindenmeier site that it is difficult 
to distinguish between specimens from the two sites. Bones are 
scarce, and those recovered are so fragmentary that they are valueless 
for determining the species of the animals represented. 

After the completion of the Lindenmeier and Powars site investi- 
gations Dr. Roberts proceeded to Sterling, Colo., where he visited 
and inspected a number of sites in that vicinity. All proved to be 
of more recent origin than the Folsom type material. From Sterling 
Dr. Roberts retui-ned to Washington. The autunm months were 
spent in the office working over the material obtained during the 
summer's investigations. 

February 24 Dr. Roberts sailed for Cairo, Egypt, where he served 
as oner of two American experts at the International Conference of 
Archeologists held March 9 to 17, under the auspices of the Com- 
mittee for Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations. As his 
part of the agenda for the sessions. Dr. Roberts presented a paper 
on the subject "The Material Organization of an Archeological 
Mission." This included a discussion of the choice of personnel for 
a field staff, the securing of equipment, the establishment of field 
headquarters, and the general administration of such a project. At 
the close of the conference he visited a number of sites in Egypt 
and had an opportunity to study methods of excavation and general 
archeological procedure as practiced in the Egyptian area. From 
Egypt he went to Greece, Italy, France, and England and studied 
collections in the museums at Athens, Naples, Rome, Paris, and 
London. He returned to Washington April 24. 

On May 21 Dr. Roberts left Washington for Kingman, Ariz., 
where he and Dr. C. W. Gilmore, curator of vertebrate paleontology, 
United States National Museum, investigated a find of mastodon 
bones and man-made objects. The deposit is located near a large 
spring 24 miles west of Kingman. A week's study and excavation 
demonstrated that the material was a secondary deposit, washed in 
from surrounding slopes, and of no importance from the stand- 
point of the association of man and extinct mammals. Dr. Roberts 
left Kingman on June 2 for Denver, Colo., and Fort Collins. On 
June 12 he resumed excavations at the Lindenmeier site. By the 



FIFTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

end of the fiscal year an area covering 375 square feet had been 
uncovered. Numerous implements and considerable additional in- 
formation were obtained from this work. These data serve to round 
out more fully the story of the customs and habits of Folsom man. 

During the winter months Dr. Roberts also prepared several 
manuscripts on the subject of the work at the Lindenmeier site and 
on Southwestern archeology in general. 

Upon his return from Spanish Honduras early in the fiscal year, 
Dr. W. D. Strong, anthropologist, spent his entire time in working 
over tlie archeological collections from the Uhia River. With the 
assistance of Alfred Kidder IT, and Drexel A. Paul, Jr., Dr. Strong 
completed tlie report on this work which is to be published in the 
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections under the title "Preliminary 
Report on the Smithsonian Institution-Harvard University Archeo- 
logical Expedition to Northwestern Honduras, 1936." 

From July 1 until late October 1936, Dr. Julian H. Steward, asso- 
ciate anthropologist, continued his work of the previous year among 
Shoshonean tribes in the Great Basin and Plateau areas. He had 
two objectives : First, to study the ecological basis of the social and 
political organization of the bands of horse Shoshoni in Utah and 
Idaho to supplement his previous study of the foot Shoshoni of 
Nevada ; second, to continue his ethnographic survey by means of an 
element list. An element list and satisfactory ecological material 
were procured from the following: Bannock, Fort Hall Shoshoni, 
Lemhi Shoshoni, and Grouse Creek (northwestern Utah) Shoshoni 
at Fort Hall, Idaho ; Promontory Point (Great Salt Lake) Shoshoni 
at "Washakie, Utah; Pahvant Ute (now almost extinct) at Kanosh, 
Utah; Gosiute (detennined to be actually Shoshoni) at Skull Valley 
and at Deep Creek, Utah. Before returning to Washington, Dr. 
Steward drove to Fallon, Nev., to examine guaiio caves said to hold 
promise, but found little of interest. He returned by way of south- 
ern Nevada and southern Utah, making brief visits to several South- 
em Paiute reservations. The remainder of the year was devoted to 
preparation of research material for publication, and eight manu- 
scripts have been completed. 

The beginning of the fiscal year found J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnolo- 
gist, on the Tuscarora Reservation near Lewiston, N. Y., where he 
went to continue his researches on the League of the Five Iroquois 
Tribes. From Lewiston Mr. Hewitt proceeded to the Grand River 
Grant to the Six Nations in Ontario. Here he had the good fortune 
to obtain a complete Mohawk text embodying the so-called Hand- 
some Lake religious teaching, this document consisting of more than 
5,700 Mohawk terms. Considerable additional information was ob- 
tained concerning the interesting dual nature of the tribal organiza- 



g lUTREAU OF ARIKUK'AN ETHNOLO<}Y 

tion. On his return to Washington Mr. Hewitt completed the trans- 
lation of the Mohawk text giving details of the birth and early child- 
hood of Deganawida, also another Mohawk text giving an accoimt of 
the dancing lads wlio finally became the Pleiades. 

During the month of June 1937, Mr. Hewitt again left Washing, 
ton for Brantford, Canada, in order to check over in the field his 
two large manuscripts in Onondaga text, one being the Iroquois 
New Year Ceremony and the other consisting of the four Thanks- 
giving Festivals. The end of the fiscal year found Mr. Hewitt still 
in the field engaged in tliis task. 

EOrrORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editing of the publications of the Bureau was continued 
through the year by Stanley Searles, editor. 

Bulletin 114, Fox Miscellany, by Truman Michelson, was issued 
during the year. 

Bulletin 115, Journal of Rudolph Friederich Kurz, edited by J. N. 
B. Hewitt, was released for printing. 

Bulletin 116, Ancient Caves of the Great Salt Lake Region, by 
Julian H. Steward, was released for printing. 

An index of Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes, in six volumes, has been 
further advanced toward completion. 

Work has been done on other manuscripts in the custody of the 
editor. 

Publications distributed totaled 14,708. 

LIBRARY 

Miss Miriam B. Ketchum continued in charge throughout the year 
as librarian. 

Accessions during the fiscal year numbered 580 volumes, bringing 
the total nimiber of volumes in the library to 31,115; there are also 
about 20,000 pamphlets and about 2,000 volumes of unbound periodi- 
cals and society transactions. 

The number of volumes prepared and sent to bindery was 1,330. 

Library of Congress cards have been obtained for practically all 
of the new books received during the year and for some of the older 
material. All new material is being classed in the Library of Con- 
gress scheme of classification and sei3arately shelved. A partial 
depository set of Library of Congress catalog cards has been estab- 
lished and will shortly be installed in working order. 

The work of refiling the catalog continues. Thirteen drawers are 
now finished. 



FIFTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT Q 

A great many missing numbers have been requested and nearly 
all of these have been supplied, amounting in some cases to several 
volimies of a set. Of the exchange sets, 8 old sets which had been 
allowed to lapse have been reestablished, and 11 new sets have been 
established. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Following is a summary of the work accomplished by E. G. Cas- 
sedy, illustrator: 

Line drawings 266 

Graphs 13 

Plates lettered or numbered 199 

Plates assembled 64 

Plates sized for engraver 129 

Airbrush jobs 6 

Photos retouched 51 

Topographic maps 3 

Maps 3 

Mechanical drawings 3 

Lettering jobs 3 

Engrossings , 2 

Water color paintings 1 

Total 743 

COLLECTIONS 
Accession 
number 

140,528. Skeletal material from two sites on Canaveral Peninsula, Brevard 
County, Fla., collected by the Bureau in cooperation with the Fed- 
eral Civil Works Administration during the winter of 1933-34. (250 
specimens.) 
142,561. Archeological specimens and human and animal bones collected during 
mound excavations in Florida during the winter of 1933-34 in 
cooperation with the Federal C. W. A. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was furnished by 
members of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concern- 
ing the North American Indians, both past and present, and the 
Mexican peoples of the prehistoric and early historic periods. Vari- 
ous specimens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them 
furnished for their owners. 

Personnel. — Miss Helen Heitkemper, junior stenographer, resigned 
March 16, 1937. Miss Ethelwyn E. Carter was appointed May 1, 
1937, to fill the vacancy. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Chief. 

Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

o 



Fifty-fifth Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 

1937-1938 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



FIFTY-FIFTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1937-1938 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON: 1939 



FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Chief 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1938, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of June 28, 1937, The act 
referred to contains the following item: 

American ethnology : For continuing ethnological researches among the Amer- 
ican Indians and the natives of Hawaii, the excavation and preservation of 
archeologic remains under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, in- 
cluding necessary employees, the preparation of manuscripts, dravsangs, and 
illustrations, the purchase of books and periodicals, and traveling expenses, 
$58,730. 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

During the greater part of the fiscal year, M. W. Stirling, Chief 
of the Bureau, was in Washington engaged in administrative duties 
and in preparation of various publications. 

From the latter part of January until the middle of March, 1938, 
Mr. Stirling was in Mexico examining archeological sites and museum 
collections. A site in the Canton of the Tuxtlas south of Vera Cruz 
was selected for excavation during the winter of 1938-39. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year. Dr. John R. Swanton, etlinol- 
ogist, was engaged in the preparation of the final report of his re- 
searches in the interests of the United States De Soto Expedition 
Commission, of w^hich he is chairman. One field expedition was 
undertaken in connection with this research. It was directed in 
the first instance to the southern part of Clarke County, Alabama, at 
the invitation of James Y. Brame, Jr., of Montgomery, an indefat- 
igable student of the route of De Soto, who hoped that he had dis- 
covered the site of the old town of Mabila, where occurred a notable 
battle between the Spaniards and Indians on October 18, 1540. The 
site in question, at a place called Lower James Hammock, on the 
bluff above Choctaw Lake, proved to be an interesting one and 
specimens of certain novelty types of pottery were obtained, but the 
question as to its identity with Mabila is still in doubt, the evidence 
being rather negative. After this work was finished an attempt was 
made to locate other Indian town sites in the southeastern part of the 
county, but, aside from a very small one previously identified by Mr. 
2 

113157—39 



FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 3 

Brame, nothing was found, there being, in fact, a singular dearth 
of Indian remains in this county in the section where it would be 
natural to look for Mabila. In the southwestern part of the county, 
however, there is a spot to which the Indians resorted for salt, one 
noted on early French maps, and here a considerable collection of 
potsherds was made and a number of pictures of the site taken. 
While Dr. Swanton was engaged in this investigation, the Choctaw 
Hunting and Fishing Club kindly extended the use of its camp at 
Choctaw Bluff. 

After returning to Montgomery, Dr. Swanton proceeded to Tus- 
caloosa and David De Jarnette, assistant to Prof. Walter S. Jones, 
took him to Scottsboro and afterward on a number of trips along 
the part of the Tennessee River valley believed to have been traversed 
by De Soto. It seems to be indicated rather clearly that the Span- 
iards crossed and recrossed this several times. Before returning to 
Washington Dr. Swanton attended a meeting on October 29-30 called 
by the De Soto Committee of the Society of the Colonial Dames of 
America in preparation for a celebration of the quadricentennial of 
the passage of the Mississippi by De Soto, and he delivered an 
address at one of the sessions. 

Dr. Swanton has also added some further material to his large 
paper on the Indians of the Southeast. 

In December he presided as vice-president over several sessions 
of Section H, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
at Indianapolis. 

In March he was appointed to the United States Board on Geo- 
graphical Names to occupy the place made vacant by the death of 
J. N. B. Hewitt, and he attended the twelfth annual meeting on 
May 23. 

Dr. Truman Michelson, ethnologist, left Washington early in July 
1937 to undertake field work among the Montagnais-Naskapi Indians 
of the northern shore of the St. Lawrence River and vicinity. This 
work was made possible through a generous grant-in-aid made by 
the American Council of Learned Societies. He arrived at Natash- 
quan July 12 and spent 18 days there, following which he continued 
his investigations at Seven Islands, Moisie, and Bersimis. Owing to 
the migratory habits of the Indians Dr. Michelson was able to get 
data not only on Indians of the localities named but also others in 
this region, including Mingan, St. Margeret's River, Godbout, Shel- 
terbay, and Sheldrake. He was also able to check up his previous 
information on the Indians of Davis Inlet, far north on the Labra- 
dor coast ; and by good fortune came in contact with an Indian of a 
band from the northeast corner of Lake Kaniapiskau — a band barely 
known to the scientific world. The principal object was to complete 



4 I5UIIEAU OF AMKKICAN ETHNOKOOV 

a map showing- the distribution and interrelations of the Cree and 
Montagnais-Naskapi dialects. Jn addition to the linguistic work 
which was the primary purpose of the trip, many new ethnological 
data were obtained, together with certain observations in physical 
anthropology. The remainder of the year was spent in Washing- 
ton in the preparation of manuscripts and in routine work. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. John P. Harrington, eth- 
nologist, finished a comparative study of the Tano-Kiowan family 
of languages, a compact body of dialects which have inherited the 
same phonetics, grammatical peculiarities, and vocabulary, although 
the Tanoan branch is typically Pueblo in culture while the Kiowa 
branch is equally typical of the Western Plains culture. No lin- 
guistic study shows better how habitat has produced two cultures by 
migration from a linguistic nucleus which had perhaps originally a 
third culture — possibly like that of the Flatheads of the northern 
Rockies, from which region the linguistic progenitors of both Ta- 
noans and Kiowans apparently came. The Tano-Kiowan situation, 
however, is clearer than the surprisingly similar Athapascan situa- 
tion, since there is historic information on the nortliern origin of 
the Kiowa, whereas the migration of any body of southern Athapas- 
cans from the north still remains theoretical. It is established that 
both the Tanoans and the southern Athapascans of the southwest- 
ern United States are of comparatively recent northern origin, at 
least as far as their language-transmitting ancestors are concerned. 

Returning to the study of the Devils Tower, which has a bearing 
on the Tano-Kiowan provenience problem. Dr. Harrington was 
assisted materially by Newell F. Joyner, custodian of the Devils 
Tower National Monument, Devils Tower, Wyo., who supplied a mass 
of material, including maps and other data. If the Kiowans came 
from the somewhat far north, it is certain that their linguistic 
relatives, the Tanoans, did also. 

Working by similar methods, Dr. Harrington also made a study 
of the Athapascan peoples. Here we have a northern linguistic 
nucleus still extant, not of the past but of the present, and a family 
of languages more intimately associated with the problem of the 
original entry of man from Siberia into America, since if we exclude 
the somewhat aloof-standing Eskimo, all the territory of America 
nearest Asia is occupied by the Athapascan and related Tlingit 
tongues. 

Following up Goddard's discovery that the Kiowa-Apache-Lipan- 
Jicarilla form a separate language group, having shifted over- 
aspirated tx to kh^ that is, the x having assimilated the t to its 
articulatory position, Thomas' recent work on the Prairie Apaches 
was found of interest. A considerable list of the Prairie Apaches are 



FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

known to us by name through the old Spanish historical documents of 
New Mexico, showing that the kh language was spoken by many tribes 
which covered a large area of the High Plains. The northernmost 
of these tribes is reported in old Spanish sources from what is now 
northeastern Colorado, only 150 miles south of the Black Hills. This 
takes away the element of novelty from the fact that the Kiowa- 
Apache joined the Kiowa in the Black Hills region about the year 
1800 or earlier, and shows that the Kiowa-Apache also were merely 
one of the kh speaking tribes, typically Prairie Apaches, and not an 
Athapascan people en route migrating from Canada, as Goddard at 
first conjectured. A report was finished on the northern provenience 
of the Navaho and Apache. 

Considerable time was also spent on a new sign language study, 
through Kiowa informants and other sources, bringing out addi- 
tional information regarding the nature and structure of this inter- 
esting Plains Indian invention. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. Frank H. H. Koberts, Jr., 
archeologist, was conducting excavations at the Lindenmeier Site 
north of Fort Collins, Colo. This was a continuation of the pro- 
gram of investigations started in the fall of 1934 and carried on 
during succeeding summers. Tlie location is one where Folsom 
man, one of the earliest known New World inhabitants, camped 
and made the weapons and tools that were used in killing and 
dressing the big game that constituted his main source of sustenance. 
Work was resumed in 1937 at the point where the 1936 activities 
terminated and at the end of the summer an area of some 2,800 square 
feet had been uncovered and numerous traces of occupation noted 
and studied. Several places were found where bison and other large 
animals had been dismembered, cooking fires lighted, and a feast 
enjoyed. At other places there were indications that individuals had 
been seated there manufacturing stone projectile points, knives, and 
scrapers. Many charts were drawn recording the nature of the 
assemblages of bones and stone implements and showing their distri- 
Inition. In addition, 133 diagrams illustrating the character of the 
overlying deposits were prepared as the excavations progressed. 
These, together with the extensive notes on the work, add valuable 
data to the body, of information on the mode of life and customs 
of the people. A collection of 735 specimens was obtained and 
among them were several new forms of knives, scrapers, and points. 
These broaden the knowledge relative to the general complex and 
nature of the material culture. 

At the close of the excavating season Dr. Roberts proceeded to 
North Platte, Nebr., where he inspected a number of collections be- 
longing to local residents and visited the sites where many of them 



g BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

were found. Through the iuferest of K. K. Langford, of North 
Platte, he was able to see a number of locations where Folsom-type 
objects have been found and add to the series of notes that is being 
kept on the subject of Folsoni distribution. From North Platte Dr. 
Roberts returned to Washington. 

The \vinter and spring months were devoted to office duties. These 
included the study of the material obtained during the suimner's 
excavations and the revision and completion for publication of a 
manuscript on archeological work done in the Whitewater District 
in eastern Arizona. Besides completely revising the text of this re- 
port, 15 additional plans and diagrams were drawn to augment those 
already prepared. This manuscript was turned over to the editor and 
is to appear as Bulletin 121 of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 
With the permission of the Chief of the Bureau and the Secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution, several short manuscripts were pre- 
pared for publication in anthropological journals and other profes- 
sional papers. 

Dr. Roberts left Washington on June 7, 1938, for Fort Collins, 
Colo., and again resumed excavations at the Lindenmeier Site. At 
the close of the fiscal year the diggings had been reopened and a num- 
ber of specimens obtained. These included several pieces of bone that 
bear evidence of attempts at engraving designs on them and give 
some indications of a certain amount of artistic effort on the part of 
Folsom men. 

Dr. J. H. Steward, ethnologist, remained in Washington during 
the greater part of the fiscal year and completed his final report 
on the tribes of the Great Basin-Plateau area. This was submitted 
to the editor and will appear as Bulletin 120 of the Bureau. In 
anticipation of an extended expedition to South America, Dr. Stew- 
ard spent considerable time in making preparations for his projected 
ethnological studies in the western part of South America. On April 
20 he left Washington for Ecuador in order to begin this work. The 
end of the fiscal year found him still in Ecuador working among the 
highland Indians. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editing of the publications of the Bureau was continued 
through the year by Stanley Searles, editor. 

BtrrXETINS ISSUED DURING THE YEIAE 

115. Journal of Rudolph Friedorich Kurz, edited by J. N. B. Hewitt. 

116. Ancient Caves of the Great Salt Lake Region, by Julian H. Steward. 

117. Historical and Ethnographical Material on the Jivaro Indians, by M. 
W. Stirling. 



FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 



REXKASKD FOE PUBLICATION 



118. An Archaeological Survey of the Norris Basin in Eastern Tennessee, by 
Maj. William S. Webb. 

The index of Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes has been almost com- 
pleted. 

Work has been done on other manuscripts in the custody of the 
editor. 

Publications distributed totaled 16,569. 

LIBRARY 

There has been no change in the library staff. Accessions during 
the fiscal year totaled 395. 

Eight new exchanges were added during the year, three of these 
being large, important sets, one domestic and two foreign. 

Library of Congress cards have been obtained for practically all 
of the new material received as well as for some older items. Analyti- 
cal entries have been made for all periodical items in the Bureau's 
field received since April 1936. The depository set of Library of 
Congress catalog cards is now installed in working order and has 
proved to be a great help to the staff as well as to those in the library. 

The librarian attended the meetings of the Inter-American Bib- 
liographical and Historical Association in February 1938, and made 
arrangements to exchange cards for South and Central American 
Indian languages and folk-lore entries with Dr. Boggs, of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Following is a» summary of work accomplished by E. G. Cassedy, 
illustrator : 

Line drawings 175 

Maps 25 

Photos retouched ! 28 

Lettering jobs 96 

Plates assembled 213 

, Drawings, etc., prepared for engraver 415 

Diagrams and' charts 7 

Graphs 6 

Mechanical drawings 4 

Wash drawings 1 

Total 970 

Accession COLLECTIONS 

No. 

144,343. One earthenware water jar from the pueblo of Acoma, and one deco- 
rated basket made by the Aleuts of southwestern Alaska. (2 
specimens. ) 



g BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Accession \ 

No. ' 

146,287. Three figurine pottery fragments and three figurine pottery heads 
from a railway cut near the Aguan River, Maloa District, north- 
east Honduras, Central America. Purchased from J. R. Allsopp. 
(6 specimens.) 

146,639. Potsherds, arrowpoints, shell bead, and fragment of worked shell from 
Liberty and Dade Counties, Fla. Collected by M. W. Stirling. (6 
specimens. ) 

148,063. Earthenware vessels and fragments from Ulua River, Comayagua 
River, and Lake Yojoa regions of Honduras, collected in 1936 by 
Smithsonian-Harvard University Expedition under Dr. W. D. Strong. 
(93 specimens.) 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning 
the North American Indians, both past and present, and the Mex- 
ican peoples of the prehistoric and early historic periods. Various 
specimens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them fur- 
nished for their owners. 

Personnel. — Dr. W. D. Strong, anthropologist, resigned August 
31, 1937. J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnologist, died October 14, 1937. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Chief. 

Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 

O 



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