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Full text of "Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution"

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Seventy -first Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1953-1954 




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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
^ WASHINGTON 

D. C. 







V 



SEVENTY-FIRST 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1953-1954 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 19SS 



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BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
June 30, 1954 

Director. — Matthew W. Stirling. 

Associate Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Anthropologists. — H. B. Collins, Jr., Philip Druckek. 

Ethnologist. — John P. Harrington. 

Collahorators. — Frances Densmore, John R. Swanton, A. J. Waring, Jr. 

Scientific Illustrator. — E. G. Schumacher. 

river basin surveys 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Archeologists. — Paitl L. Cooper, Carl F. Miller, G, Hubert Smith, Ralph S. 
SoLECKi, Robert L. Stephenson, Richard P. Wheeler. 
n 



SEVENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Director 



Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1954, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of April 10, 1928, as amended 
August 22, 1949, "to continue independently or in cooperation 
anthropological researches among the American Indians and the 
natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection of the United 
States and the excavation and preservation of archeologic remains." 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

M. W. Stirling, Director of the Bureau, studied in the laboratory 
and prepared descriptions of the archeological materials collected 
during 1953 on Taboga, TabogTiilla, and Uraba islands in the Gulf of 
Panama, and from the region of Almirante Bay on the north coast of 
Panama. Technical descriptions of the materials, principally 
ceramics, were completed and photographs for illustrations made 
preparatory to publication of the report in the Bureau's Bulletin 
series. Otherwise most of the time during the fiscal year was occupied 
with administrative duties. 

Dr. Franlc H. H. Roberts, Jr., Associate Director of the Bureau and 
Director of the River Basin Surveys, devoted virtually all his time 
during the year to the direction and management of the River Basin 
Surveys. In that connection he reviewed and revised a number of 
manuscript reports of the results of field investigations by members 
of the Surveys' staff. In May he attended the annual meeting of the 
Society of American Archaeology at Albany, N. Y., and as a member 
of the executive committee presented a set of Archaeological Stand- 
ards, prepared jointly by him and Dr. Waldo R. Wedel of the U. S. 
National Museum, which was adopted by the Society. 

Dr. Henry B. Collins, anthropologist, continued his Eskimo research 
and other Arctic activities. From June 24 to August 29 he and his 
assistant, William E. Taylor, conducted archeological excavations on 
Cornwallis Island in the Canadian Arctic, the work being sponsored 
jointly by the Smithsonian Institution and the National Museum of 
Canada. Cornwallis and the other islands in the northern part of the 
Arctic Archipelago were uninhabited when discovered by Parry in 
1819, and Eskimos have not lived that far north in Canada in historic 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

times. However, Dr. Collins's excavations have shown that e 
centuries ago when living conditions were better, Cornwallis Is ,al)l 
had been occupied by two distinct groups of prehistoric Eskimos ^fd 
Thule and Dorset. Tlie remains visible on the surface — the ruiiied 
solidly built houses of stones, whale bones, and turf — are those oijon 
Thule people. The Dorset occupation, which preceded Thule, ;^: 
indicated by a buried sod line within and below which were f ounc jbr 
stone, bone, and ivory implements characteristic of that culljje 
Thule material was found above the old sod line. The Dorset artiJ g 
were different in type from the Thule and were also more dejjts 
patinated, being dark brown or gray in contrast to the light cn^i^i 
colored Thule objects. The same was true of the animal bones; t uj, 
from the Dorset level were more weathered in appearance, da^is 
colored, and lighter in weight than the relatively fresh-looking b;^^ 
from the upper part of the midden. The marked difference in 
state of preservation of the animal bones and artifacts suggests 
after the Dorset occupation the site had been abandoned for sj 
centuries before the Thule Eskimos established their village on 
same spot. Samples of sod, soil, charcoal, wood, bones, skin, 
other organic materials were collected for possible dating by raj^ 
carbon and pollen analyses. 

Dr. Collins prepared a preliminary report describing the '.^ 
excavations for the Annual Eeport of the National Museum 
Canada. His booklet "Arctic Area," a summary of existing km 
edge of the ethnology, archeology, physical anthropology, 
linguistics of the Eskimos and Northern Indians, was publishec 
the Comision de Historia of Mexico as one of the unit studies ir 
Program of the History of America. Other papers include 
critique of the role of Ipiutak in Eskimo culture and an evaluatioi 
the recently developed technique of lexico-statistics in relation to 
archeological evidence. This new linguistic technique, which 
tempts to estimate the time of separation, or age, of related langua 
on the basis of vocabulary change, produces results for the Arctic a 
that are in close agreement with the evidence of two other dat,, 
techniques — dendrochronology and radiocarbon analysis — as wellji 
with Dr. Collins's previous reconstruction of culture growths, c,, 
tacts, and population movements in the Eskimo area as deduced fr 
archeology. 

Dr. Collins continued to serve as chairman of the directing comn 
tee supervising the work on the Arctic Bibliography, which the Ar* 
Institute of North America is preparing for the Department of j 
fense under contract with Office of Naval Research. The first tli 
volumes of the Bibliography, of approximately 1,500 pages each, W( 
issued by the Government Printing Office in August 1953. They 1 
and summarize and index the contents of 20,000 of the more imports 5, 



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SEVENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 



(ublications in all fields of science relating to the Arctic and sub- 
Lrctic areas of the world. The work on the Bibliography is being car- 
ied out by a staff of 12 bibliographers and scientists under the direc- 
ton of Miss Marie Tremaine. Most of the work has been done at the 
iibrary of Congress but the collections of the New York Public 
library, Smithsonian Institution, Harvard University, and some 60 
ther large libraries in the United States and Canada have also been 
tilized. In addition to books and monographs, the Bibliography 
sts and describes material published in more than 1,400 scientific 
mrnals and serial publications in English, Russian, and other lan- 
uages. Titles of foreign-language publications are given in the 
-iginal and in English, with description of the contents in English, 
overing all fields of science for all the Arctic and sub- Arctic, the 
rctic Bibliography is now recognized as the most comprehensive 
'gional bibliography ever assembled. Volume 4, of approximately 
500 pages, is scheduled for publication in August 1954. Dr. Collins 
ade arrangements with the Department of the Air Force, which has 
ipported the work for the past two fiscal years, for continuation of 
e Bibliography project in 1954-55, and for the printing of volume 5, 
e material for which was delivered to the Government Printing Of- 
;e in June 1954. 

On June 21, Dr. Collins and three assistants, William E. Taylor, Jr., 
r. J. Norman Emerson, and Eugene Ostroff, left to conduct arche- 
ogical work in Hudson Bay. The expedition is being sponsored by 
e National Museum of Canada, the National Geographic Society, and 
e Smithsonian Institution. The party was flown by the Royal 
madian Air Force from Montreal to Coral Harbour, on Southamp- 
n Island, and will remain until September, investigating prehistoric 
skimo sites on Southampton and Coats Islands. 
During July and August of 1953, Dr. John P. Harrington was in the 
gion of Santa Barbara, Calif., continuing his studies of the Chu- 
ash Indians, the most advanced tribe of the State. He also made a 
ecial study of place names as recorded by the Cabrillo expedition of 
42 and by the Portola and Anza expeditions of 1769 and 1776, re- 
ectively. A great majority of these names were located during the 
Id study. On returning to Washington Dr. Harrington continued 
e preparation of a detailed report on his findings. 
At the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. Philip Drucker, anthro- 
dogist, was in Washington continuing his studies of Olmec arche- 
Dgical materials from southern Mexico. He also began preparations 
r a field trip to the coast of British Columbia and southeast Alaska 
order to continue his study of modern intertribal Indian organiza- 
m. Early in September he went to British Columbia to carry on this 
)rta J search. A grant from the Arctic Institute of North America made 
1 is work possible. Toward the end of the calendar year a supple- 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

mentary grant from the American Philosophical Society enabled him 
to proceed to southeast Alaska to complete his study of the Alaska 
Native Brotherliood. In mid-March he returned to Washington, 
Since his return Dr. Drucker has worked on the final report on these 
intertribal organizations and on related problems of acculturation on 
the Northwest Coast, He also devoted considerable time to a com- 
mittee study of the research potential of the Smithsonian Institution. 
During the fiscal year Drucker prepared two papers for publication, 
one on "Origins of Northwest Coast Culture" and the other with 
Eduardo Contreras on "Site Keconnaissance in Olmec Territory." 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 
(Prepared by Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr.) 

The River Basin Surveys, instituted in the autumn of 1945 as a 
unit of the Bureau of American Etlmology to carry into effect a 
memorandum of understanding between the Smithsonian Institution 
and the National Park Service, providing for the salvage of archeolog- 
ical and paleontological materials which will be lost as a result of the 
nation-wide program for flood control, irrigation, hydroelectric and 
navigation projects sponsored by the Federal Government, State, and 
private agencies, continued its operations during the year. As in 
previous years the work was carried on in cooperation with the Na- 
tional Park Service and the Bureau of Reclamation of the Department 
of the Interior, the Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, and 
a number of State and local institutions. During the fiscal year 1953- 
54 the investigations were financed by transfer of $71,495 from the 
National Park Service to the Smithsonian Institution. Included in 
that sum were $64,500 for work in the Missouri Basin and $6,995 for 
other areas. An additional carry-over of $3,409 made the over-all 
total available for obligation during the fiscal year $74,904. That sum 
was approximately only 43 percent of that available for the preceding 
year and made necessary a sharp reduction in the work of the River 
Basin Surveys. 

Activities in the field consisted for the most part of reconnaissances 
or surveys for the purpose of locating sites that will be involved in 
construction work or are so situated that they will eventually be 
covered by the waters of the reservoirs formed by the completion of 
dams. There also was some excavation, but because of lack of funds 
the digging was on a small scale. In several reservoir areas intensive 
test surveys were carried on. The parties concerned with that activity 
visited sites previously located and recorded but about which there was 
meager information. At each such site a number of test pits were dug 
and artifacts were collected in order to determine the cultural affilia- 
tions of the remains found there. Straight reconnaissance parties 



SEVENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 5 

visited two reservoir basins located in one State. The intensive test 
surveys were made in three reservoir areas in two States. At the end 
of the fiscal year excavations were completed or were under way in 
four reservoir basins in two States. During the course of the year 
there were four excavating parties in the field, three of them in areas 
where investigations had previously been made. By June 30, 1954, 
areas where archeological surveys had been made or excavations 
carried on since the start of the program in 1946 totaled 243 in 27 
States. One lock project and four canal areas also have been investi- 
gated. During the course of the work a total of 4,345 archeological 
sites have been recorded and of that number 852 have been recom- 
mended for excavation or further testing. Preliminary appraisal 
reports were completed for all the reservoirs surveyed and further 
supplemental reports have been prepared where additional reconnais- 
sances have resulted in the discovery of further sites. During the 
course of the year seven such reports were issued. The total number 
distributed since the start of the program is 179. "Wliere several 
reservoirs form a unit in a single drainage subbasin, the information 
on all was included in a single report. Consequently, the 179 mimeo- 
graphed pamphlets contain information on all the 243 reservoirs thus 
far surveyed. Excavations carried on during the year brought the 
total for reservoir projects where such investigations have been made 
to 44 located in 17 different States. The total number of sites thus far 
excavated or extensively tested totals 324. Fourteen manuscript re- 
ports on previous excavation work were completed during the year and 
are ready for publication. One major technical report was in final 
page-proof form at the end of the fiscal year and will appear as Bureau 
of American Ethnology Bulletin 158. In view of the necessary reduc- 
tion in force because of lack of funds, no paleontological field work was 
carried on during the year. The paleontologist who formerly was a 
member of the River Basin Surveys staff was lent by the National 
Park Service for a period of three weeks to the Missouri Basin Project 
of the River Basin Surveys in order that he might complete the identi- 
fication of specimens previously collected. 

The reservoir projects which have been surveyed for archeological 

remains as of June 30, 1954, were distributed as follows : Alabama, 1 ; 

California, 20; Colorado, 24; Georgia, 5; Idaho, 11; Illinois, 2; 

Kansas, 10; Kentucky, 2; Louisiana, 2; Minnesota, 1; Mississippi, 1; 

Montana, 15 ; Nebraska, 28 ; New Mexico, 1 ; North Dakota, 13 ; Ohio, 

2; Oklahoma, 7; Oregon, 27; Pennsylvania, 2; South Dakota, 9; 

Tennessee, 4; Texas, 19; Virginia, 2; Washington, 11; West Virginia, 

2; and Wyoming, 22. 

Excavations have been made or were under way in reservoir basins 

in: California, 5; Colorado, 1; Georgia, 4; Kansas, 3; Montana, 1; 

Nebraska, 1 ; New Mexico, 1; North Dakota, 4; Oklahoma, 2; Oregon, 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

.S; South Carolina, 1; South Dakota, 3; Texas, 7; Virginia, 1; Wash- 
inf^ton, 4; West Virginia, 1 ; and Wyoming, 2. The foregoing figures 
include only the work of the River Basin Surveys or that in v^hich 
there was direct cooperation with local institutions. Projects that 
were carried on by local institutions under agreements with the 
National Park Service are not included because complete information 
about them is not available. 

During the year the River Basin Surveys continued to receive help- 
ful cooperation from the National Park Service, the Bureau of 
Reclamation, Corps of Engineers, and various State and local insti- 
tutions. Temporary office and laboratory space were provided at 
some of the projects, transportation and guides were furnished at 
others, and in several cases mechanical equipment was made available 
by the construction agency. Detailed maps of the reservoirs under 
investigation were supplied by the agency concerned. The field per- 
sonnel of the various agencies was extremely cooperative in assisting 
the River Basin Surveys men and because of that help much more 
was accomplished than would have been possible otherwise. The 
National Park Service continued to function as the liaison between 
the various agencies both in Washington and in the field. It also 
was responsible for the preparation of estimates and justifications and 
the procurement of funds for carrying on the program. The co- 
operation of Park Service personnel was a definite aid in all phases 
of the operations. 

The main office in Washington directed and supervised the program 
in the East and South while the field headquarters and laboratory in 
Lincoln, Nebr., directed the work in the Missouri Basin. The mate- 
rials collected by Missouri Basin parties were handled at the Lincoln 
laboratory while those from the East and South were processed in 
Washington. 

Washington Office. — Through the fiscal year the main headquarters 
of the River Basin Surveys continued under the direction of Dr. 
Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. Carl F. Miller and Ralph S. Solecki were 
based at that office although Mr. Solecki was on leave without pay 
during most of the year. From July 1953 until May 12, 1954, Mr. 
Solecki was in Iraq as a Fulbright Scholar, conducting excavations 
financed jointly by the Iraq Government and the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution. On May 12, 1954, he returned to active duty with the River 
Basin Surveys and made a reconnaissance of two projects on the 
Cumberland River in Tennessee. On June 28 he resigned to resume 
his graduate studies in anthropology. 

Mr. Miller spent the greater part of the year in the office preparing 
reports based upon field investigations made in previous years. In 
August he completed a brief preliminary report of a rapid recon- 
naissance of the Cheatham Lock and Dam, Old Hickory, and Carthage 



SEVENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 7 

Reservoirs in Tennessee. He completed one manuscript pertaining 
to the Siouan occupation of the Roanoke River area in southern Vir- 
ginia. This research was an outgrowth of his studies in connection 
with the results of his excavations at the John H. Kerr (Buggs 
Island) Reservoir. In addition Mr. Miller worked on his detailed 
technical report for the John H. Kerr Reservoir, completing the 
analysis, classification, and comparison of specimens obtained from 
a number of different sites. In May 1954, Mr. Miller made a brief 
trip to a site along the old Chesapeake and Ohio Canal near Sharps- 
burg, Md., where traces of an Indian occupation were being uncovered 
by erosion. On that trip Mr. Miller accompanied Dr. John M. Cor- 
bett and John L. Cotter of the Archeological Branch, History Di- 
vision, National Park Service. At the close of the fiscal year Mr. 
Miller was busy working on his John H. Kerr report. 

Missouri Basin. — The Missouri Basin Project continued to operate 
throughout fiscal 1954 from the field headquarters at the University 
of Nebraska and the laboratory in the business section of Lincoln, 
Nebr. Robert L. Stephenson served as acting chief of the project 
from July 1 to June 14 when he was promoted to chief. Activities 
throughout the year were greatly reduced because of the lack of funds. 
The permanent staff had been cut from 21 to 11 on July 1 and during 
the year was further reduced to 8. Consequently field activities were 
on a much smaller scale. However, all four phases of the salvage pro- 
gram as originally drawn up were in progress. Some reconnaissance 
work was done consisting of intensive survey and testing of archeo- 
logical sites in two reservoirs and reconnaissance of a portion of a 
third reservoir. The second phase, the excavation of selected sites, 
continued at three sites in three reservoir areas while a fourth field 
party did some digging at four sites in a single reservoir area. The 
third phase of the program, the processing of the collections obtained 
from the digging, the analysis and study of the materials, and the prep- 
aration of general and technical manuscripts on the results, was car- 
ried on actively by the members of the staff. Phase four, the 
publication and dissemination of scientific and popular reports, 
showed some accomplishment. Several short papers w^ere published 
during the year and one long report was in the final stages of printing 
at the Government Printing Office. By the end of the fiscal year 10 
manuscripts had been completed and submitted for publication. 

During the year six River Basin Surveys field parties operated in the 
Missouri Basin. In July, ^Vugust, and Sej^tember one party visited 57 
previously located sites in the Fort Randall Reservoir and carried on 
test excavations in 18 of them. Test pits were dug and surface collec- 
tions of artifacts were made at the other 39 sites. Many of them were 
actually in the process of being inundated by the rising waters of the 
reservoir at the time the party visited them. A total of 5 previously 

327156—55 2 



S BUHKATT OF A\TKRTCAN ETHNOLOGY 

uiireconlod sites were Icxnted in addition to the 57 examined and 
sample collections were made from each. During August, September, 
and October another party made an intensive reconnaissance and 
tested major sites in the Oahe Keservoir area in north central South 
Dakota. The purpose of tliat party was to locate new and unrecorded 
sites in the area, to visit all the old sites reported in previous years 
in order to reevaluate them in terms of new information, and to test 
extensively those which seemed to warrant full-scale exploration in 
order to determine the minimum amount of digging necessary to obtain 
a fair sample from each. The party accomplished all three objec- 
tives. Eleven previously unknown sites were recorded and tests made 
in them. A totnl of 80 previously located sites were revisited and 
tests of varying intensiveness were made in 45. 

In May 1964 a reconnaissance party returned to the Fort Randall 
Reservoir to obtain further information from several additional sites 
for which the data were not conclusive. The party found that several 
of those scheduled for study had already gone under water but by the 
end of the fiscal year 13 had been visited and more or less intensively 
investigated. Extensive excavations were carried out at three of them. 
At one a circular house and an exterior cache pit were dug, and at 
another stratified camp remains were trenched. At the end of the 
year the party was clearing debris from the ruins of an earth lodge. 
A second party also went to the Fort Randall Reservoir in May to 
com.plete investigations at a large earth-lodge village which had been 
occupied by at least two groups of prehistoric Indians and w^here con- 
siderable work had been done during two previous seasons. At the 
end of the year that party was still in the field, having excavated earth 
lodges, palisade trenches, and cache pits, establishing not only the 
two occupations previously noted but a third one as well. The evi- 
dence obtained indicates that the three occupations took place at vari- 
ous times between A. D. 1500 and 1700. At the end of the year the' 
water of the reservoir had already risen to the lower edges of the site 
and it was expected that by mid-July the entire area would be under 
several feet of water. 

A third party went to the Garrison Reservoir in North Dakota in 
May and resumed excavations at the site of Fort Berthold II where 
extensive digging had been done during the 1952 field season. Shortly 
after arriving at the location the River Basin Surveys party joined 
forces with one from the State Historical Society of North Dakota 
which was working under a cooperative agreement with the National 
Park Service. As a single unit, the combined group completed the 
excavation of all features of the site of Fort Berthold II, which was 
occupied by both fur traders and American military forces from about 
1858 to 1890. The group then turned its attention to the remains of 
the adjacent Indian village where considerable digging had been done 



SEVENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 9 

in previous years by the North Dakota Society. During the progress 
of the oj^erations the remains of Fort Berthold I, an earlier fur-trading 
]^ost dating from 1845 to 1862, were located and uncovered. The orig- 
inal post had been burned by the Sioux Indians and earth lodges 
erected over the site. For that reason its location was long in doubt 
and it was a fortunate circumstance that it was found because much 
previously unknown information on the fur trade during the middle 
nineteenth century was obtained. At the end of the fiscal year the joint 
field party was occupied with the remains of Indian houses located 
between the two trading posts. No further work will be possible there 
after the 1954 field season because the Garrison Reservoir was to cover 
it before the end of the summer. Heavy equipment was used with 
marked success during the digging at the Garrison Resei-voir. By 
using a road grader and a bulldozer it was possible to define for the 
first time the entire course of the palisade which originally enclosed the 
oldest portion of the Indian village. As a result of the investigations, 
a complete detailed map of the entire Indian village and the two Fort 
Bertholds could be made. 

The fourth party went to the Jamestown Reservoir area in east- 
central North Dakota early in June. It devoted three weeks to a sur- 
vey of the upper end of the basin, locating five new sites of which three 
were tested. The remaining time was spent digging at the location of 
a former earth-lodge village where excavations were started during 
the 1952 field season. The work of the 1954 season determined the 
limits of the village and added enough new information to make pos- 
sible a fairly accurate description of early eighteenth century Mandan 
culture in that part of the Plains. There were other sites in the area 
which merited further study but since flooding was already well under 
way, no additional work could be done. The party had returned to the 
headquarters at Lincoln by the end of the fiscal year. 

During July two of the temporary staff members assisted a joint 
party from Kansas State College and the Laboratory of Anthropology 
of the University of Nebraska in excavations at a site in the Tuttle 
Creek Reservoir in northeastern Kansas. The site was partially dug 
by a River Basin Surveys group in June 1953 but it was not possible 
to complete the work that had been started before the party had to 
return to the Lincoln headquarters. Since portions of an earth lodge 
and other village features had been uncovered, it w\as essential to 
finish those investigations and to accomplish that end the cooperative 
effort was organized under the sponsorship of Kansas State College. 
The information obtained helps to explain a little-known phase of the 
history of that particular district. 

During the year the Laboratory at Lincoln processed 27,965 speci- 
mens from 181 sites in 3 reservoir areas and 5 unassignable sites. A 
total of 5,346 catalog numbers were assigned to the series of specimens. 



{() BlKKAl' or AMKllICAX KTliNOLOGY 

As of June oO, 1954, archeological nuiterials from 1,496 sites in reser- 
voir areas and from 43 sites outside reservoir areas where loss from 
other construction was imminent had been cataloged. The work in 
the laboratory also included: reflex copies of record sheets, 9,488; 
photographic negatives, 2,160; photographic prints, 12,367; prints 
mounted to illustrate manuscripts, 220; photographic transparencies 
mounted in glass, 188 ; drawings, tracings, and maps, 211 ; pottery ves- 
sels restored, 5 ; pottery vessel sections restored, 145 ; specimens drawn 
for illustration, 57; plate layouts for manuscripts, 122; restorations 
of human crania, 10. 

Interpretative displays showing the scope and results of archeologi- 
cal investigations in the Missouri Basin were installed from time to 
time in the windows of the laboratory in the business section of Lin- 
coln and in one of the main banks of the city. A special display ex- 
plaining the archeological salvage program was also installed at the 
Nebraska State Fair held at Lincoln during September. The latter 
attracted considerable attention from visitors to the fair. 

Paul L. Cooper, archeologist, was at the Lincoln headquarters at 
the beginning of the fiscal year and did not make any field trips during 
the summer of 1953. He devoted the months at the laboratory to the 
completion of a summary report of the Missouri Basin salvage pro- 
gram during the calendar years 1950-51. He also completed for pub- 
lication a technical report on the excavations made at the Heart Butte 
Reservoir during a previous season. In addition he worked on a report 
of investigations in three burial mounds, two near the location of the 
former AVheeler Bridge and the "V^Tiite Swan Mound which was in the 
area of the spillway of the Fort Randall Dam. A report on the human 
skeletal material is being prepared by Dr. Marshall T. Newman of the 
U. S. National Museum and will appear as an appendix to the archeo- 
logical report. Mr. Cooper participated in the sessions of the Eleventh 
Conference for Plains Archeology held at Lincoln in November. On 
May 16 he proceeded to the Fort Randall Reservoir area in South Da- 
kota and directed an intensive test survey of 13 sites and carried on 
excavations in 3 sites. Some of them had already been partially inun- 
dated and others were flooded shortly after they were investigated. 
At the end of the fiscal year he was continuing his operations in the 
Fort Randall area. 

Robert B. Cumming, archeologist, was at the headquarters in Lin- 
coln at the start of the fiscal year. On July 27 he left for the Fort 
Randall Reservoir area in charge of a party which was to make inten- 
sive test surveys during the period extending to September 12. After 
instructing the party as to the proper procedure, he returned to the 
Lincoln headquarters and devoted his time to analyzing and prepar- 
ing a report on the results of his previous investigations in that area. 
During the time he w^as at the laboratory Mr. Cumming completed a 



SEVENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 11 

technical report on the excavations which he had made at the Tuttle 
Creek Dam in Kansas the previous year. He also prepared a special 
report concerning the archeological potentialities of the Powder River 
Basin in Wyoming. In November he participated in the Eleventh 
Conference for Plains Archeology, presenting 3 papers. On May 17 
he returned to the Fort Randall Reservoir area and resumed excava- 
tions at a site where work had been done during two previous field 
seasons. On May 31 he returned to the field headquarters leaving his 
party under the direction of Harold A. Huscher. Mr. Gumming re- 
signed from the River Basin Surveys on June 6 after having been 
with the Missouri Basin Project from its inception in 1946. 

Harold A. Huscher, field assistant, was in direct charge of the field 
party in the Fort Randall area from July 27 to September 12. He 
worked under the general supervision of Robert B. Cmnming. Dur- 
ing the time he was in the field he supervised the testing of 18 sites and 
located 5 which were previously unrecorded. After returning to the 
field headquarters at Lincoln, Mr. Huscher completed a report on the 
summer's work. He returned to the university for graduate work dur- 
ing the fall and winter and rejoined the River Basin Surveys in June 
when he took charge of the excavating party, which had been under 
Mr. Cumming's direction, in the Fort Randall area. At the end of the 
fiscal year, Huscher and his group were busy stripping a large area 
and uncovering house remains at the important Oldham site. 

G. H. Smith, archeologist, rejoined the staff of the Missouri Basin 
Project in May and proceeded to the Garrison Reservoir area in North 
Dakota where he resumed excavations at the site of Fort Berthold II 
and Like-a-Fishhook village. Smith was subsequently joined by Alan 
R. Woolworth, curator of the Museum of the State Historical Society 
of North Dakota, and his group of laborers and the combined parties 
worked as a unit in carrying on the excavations. In addition to com- 
pleting the investigation of Fort Berthold II which Smith had started 
in the summer of 1952, various Indian house remains were cleared and 
the original Fort Berthold, which was established by the American Fur 
Company in 1845, was located. In addition to those activities, the 
general base map of the entire area which had been started in 1952 
was completed. This provides for the first time an adequate historical 
and archeological map of the entire site. The joint field party was 
still at work there at the close of the fiscal year. During the year Mr. 
Smith completed the detailed technical report on the excavations which 
he made in a previous season at the site of Fort Stevenson, also in the 
Garrison area. 

During the fiscal year Robert L. Stephenson, chief of the Missouri 
Basin Project, devoted the major portion of his time to directing the 
operations of the project. In addition, however, he prepared a series 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

of summary statements on the 7 years of the project's activities. He 
also virtually completed a technical report, "Archeological Investiga- 
tions in the Whitney Reservoir Area, Hill County, Texas," and pre- 
pared an article on salvage archeology for the Bible Archeological 
Digest and a paper, "Taxonomy and Chronology in the Central Plains- 
Middle Missouri Eiver Area," which was published in the Plains An- 
thropologist, No. 1. He also took an active part in the Eleventh 
Conference for Plains Archeology and presented a paper at the Sixty- 
fourth Annual Meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences in 
Omaha. He gave the principal address at the Semiannual Meeting 
of the Missouri Archeological Society held in Kansas City in May. 
In June he made a tour of inspection, visiting the various field parties 
working in the Missouri Basin. 

Richard Page Wheeler, archeologist, was at the field headquarters 
at the beginning of the fiscal year working on reports covering his 
previous investigations. On August 13 he proceeded to the Oahe 
Reservoir area in South Dakota where until October 9 he, with two 
assistants, made an intensive survey of the lower section of the area. 
In the course of the work 82 previously recorded sites were visited and 
16 new ones were discovered. In a number of instances material new 
to the Oahe area was noted and one of the sites gave evidence of five 
successive occupations. After returning to headquarters Wheeler de- 
voted the winter and spring months to work on technical reports con- 
cerning excavations made in previous seasons at the Angostura, 
Boysen, and Keyhole reservoirs in South Dakota and Wyoming. He 
completed two articles; one, "Selected Projectile Point Types of the 
United States: II," was published in the Bulletin of the Oklahoma 
Anthropological Society, vol. 2, while the other, "Two New Pro- 
jectile Point Types : Duncan and Hanna Points," was printed in the 
Plains Anthropologist, No. 1. He participated in the Eleventh Con- 
ference for Plains Archeology and attended the Sixty-fourth Annual 
Meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences where he presented a 
paper, "New Contributions to the Archeology of Oahe Reservoir." 
At that time he was elected chairman of the anthropology section for 
the Sixty-fifth Annual Meeting of the Academy. On June 3 Wheeler 
proceeded to the Jamestown Reservoir in North Dakota and resumed 
excavations at a site where he dug in 1952. While that work was 
going on he also made a survey of the upper end of the reservoir basin. 
The Jamestown investigations were completed and "Wheeler returned 
to the Lincoln Office on June 30. 

Tennessee. — The only work done in Tennessee during the year was 
the detailed surveys of the Cheatham Lock and Dam and Old Hickory 
Lock and Dam projects on the Cumberland River near Nashville. A 
brief preliminary reconnaissance of the area in June 1953 indicated 
that a more extended examination was warranted and arrangements 



SEVENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 13 

were made for further investigations. During the period from May 17 
to June 2 both projects were covered on foot, by vehicle, by boat, and 
by two flights over them in light planes for photographic purposes. 
The Cheatham Dam is located 35 river miles below Nashville and 
the reservoir it impounds will be about 67.5 river miles long. Twenty 
archeological sites were found in the area but only one will be affected 
by the flooding of the basin. The others, lying on the second and 
third bottoms or higher slopes will not be in danger. The one which 
will be involved represents an Archaic horizon and test digging in it 
was recommended. At one of the higher-level locations a fluted point 
Avas found in association with a series of nondescript flakes and chips. 
This indicates that the Paleo-Indian was in the area, although there 
may not be a true site for that horizon. The Old Hickory Dam is 
located 25 river miles upstream from Nashville and 2 river miles below 
the town of Old Hickory. The reservoir which it forms will extend 
97.3 river miles above it. Twenty -three archeological sites were found 
within the limits of the proposed pool. The sites comprise 18 Archaic, 
1 Middle Mississippi, 1 cave of undetermined cultural affiliations, al- 
though probably Middle Mississippi, and 3 which did not give suf- 
ficient surface evidence to permit identification. Test excavations 
were recommended for four of the sites. 

Cooperating institutions.— M in previous years, a nmnber of State 
and local institutions cooperated in the Inter- Agency Salvage Pro- 
gram. In a few cases State groups carried on independently, but 
correlated their activity closely with the over-all operations. Most of 
the projects, however, were under agreements between the National 
Park Service and the various agencies. In Indiana the Historical 
Society continued to include surveys of proposed reservoir areas in its 
general program for archeological investigations in that State and 
made reports on the results of its work. The Ohio State Archeological 
and Historical Society again conducted salvage operations in several 
localities. The Alabama Museum of Natural History and the Bir- 
mingham Anthropological Society voluntarily investigated the situa- 
tion along the Coosa River Valley where a series of dams was planned 
by the Alabama Power Company. Louisiana State University made a 
survey of the construction area for a new river channel at the mouth 
of Old River in Louisiana. The cooperative efforts of the Kansas 
State College and Laboratory of Anthropology of the University of 
Nebraska at the Tuttle Creek Dam have already been discussed. 

Institutions working under agreements with the National Park 
Service and the projects undertaken were: the University of Calif- 
ornia, Berkeley, in the summer of 1953 completed the excavation of 
sites in the Nimbus and Redbank Reservoir basins, obtaining impor- 
tant data from the latter, and in the late spring of 1954 began investi- 
gations in the Monticello Reservoir basin ; the University of Missouri 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

excavated in the Table Rock Reservoir area on the White River in 
Missouri during tlie summer of 1953 and returned to the same area in 
June 1954; during the first quarter of the year the University of 
Kansas completed excavation at four sites in the Fort Randall 
Reservoir basin in South Dakota; the Nebraska State Historical 
Society started a series of excavations on June 10 at the Crow Creek 
site in the Fort Randall Reservoir basin and had just gotten well under 
way at the end of the fiscal year; the University of Nebraska State 
Museum completed work on a portion of one site in the Medicine 
Creek Reservoir area in western Nebraska at the end of July and then 
moved to the Big Sandy project in southwestern Wyoming where a 
number of sites were investigated during the month of August, 
paleontological studies being conducted on a voluntary basis at several 
locations in the Missouri Basin by the same organization ; as previously 
noted, the State Historical Society of North Dakota resumed its 
activities at the Garrison Reservoir, North Dakota, in May and was 
still at work at the end of the fiscal year ; the University of Oklahoma 
was preparing to start surveys late in June at the Norman, Foss, and 
Fort Cobb reservoir projects in that State; the University of Oregon 
excavated at sites in The Dalles Reservoir on the Oregon side of the 
Columbia River in the summer of 1953 and returned to the same 
locality for the 1954 field season; a joint party of the W. H. Over 
Museum of the University of South Dakota and South Dakota 
Archeological Commission completed excavation at the Spotted Bear 
and Cottonwood sites in the Oahe Reservoir area in South Dakota in 
the first quarter of the year and in June returned to the same basin 
and started digging at the Swan Creek site; the University of Utah 
was preparing to start a basin-wide survey in the Missoui'i Basin at 
the close of the fiscal year ; the University of Washington carried on 
excavations at the Wakemap Mound on the Washington side of the 
Columbia River at The Dalles Reservoir project during the first quar- 
ter and returned to the same location in June. In the case of the three 
cooperating groups in the Missouri Basin, the River Basin Surveys 
assisted the field activities by the loan of vehicles and other equipment. 

ARCHIVES 

Mrs. Margaret C. Blaker, archivist for the Buieau, continued her 
program of reorganizing the manuscript and photographic collections 
in addition to the usual daily routine. 

From time to time the photographic and manuscript collections of 
the archives are enriched by gifts from pei-sons who find old or rare 
items in their possession. During the past fiscal year among the more 
important additions received were the following : 

About 100 prints and 16 glass-plate negatives of California Indians made 
ca. 1889-95 by the Rev. H. C. Meredith, a missionary. Received through John 
Witthoft, Pennsylvania State Museum. 



SEVENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 15 

Twenty mounted stereoscopic views of ethnological subjects made on the 
Geographical Ebcplorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian ("Wheeler 
Surveys") of 1871, 1873 and 1874. Gift of Vincent McMullen, Washington, D. C. 

Thirty photographic prints of Crow Indians made by Dr. Dixon on the Wanna- 
maker expedition to the Plains, 1909-13. Received through Dr. Georg Neumann. 

The following photographs were received through loan for copying : 

Fifty-seven original prints of Kiowa and Comanche Indians made in and 
around Fort Sill, Okla., on the Kiowa Reservation in the 1890's by various 
photographers, including George W. Bretz. Lent by F. B. Shuler, Hamilton, 
Ohio. 

Photographic print (copy), a portrait of Billy Bowlegs, Seminole leader, 
thought to have been made in 1852. Lent by H. P. Kennedy, Tampa, Fla. 

Photograph of a Kansa delegation to Washington in winter of 1909-10. 
Lent by Vincent McMullen, Washington, D. C. 

Identifications of a number of portraits of Kiowa and Comanche 
Indians living on the Kiowa Resei^ation in the 1890's were supplied 
by Arthur R. Lawrence, Lawton, Okla., who obtained the information 
from descendants or contemporaries of the individuals portrayed. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

During the past fiscal year, E. G. Schumacher, illustrator, con- 
tinued the preparation of illustrations, charts, maps, and diagrams 
for publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology, including 
those of the River Basin Surveys. Time was also taken to prepare and 
execute many miscellaneous diagrams, drawings, and other illustrative 
materials for different branches of the Institution. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 
^t- There were issued 1 Annual Report and 3 Bulletins, as follows : 

Seventieth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1952-1953, 

ii-f-33 pp. 1954. 
Bulletin 152. Index to Schoolcraft's "Indian Tribes of the United States," 

compiled by Frances S. Nichols. vi-[-257 pp. 1954. 
Bulletin 154. River Basin Surveys Papers : Inter-Agency Archeological Sal- 
vage Program. Nos. 1-6. xviii+336 pp., 56 pis., 40 figs, 1953. 
No. 1. Prehistory and the Missouri Valley Development Program: Sum- 
mary report on the Missouri River Basin Archeological Survey in 1948, 
by Waldo Wedel. 
No. 2. Prehistory and the Missouri Valley Development Program: Sum- 
mary report on the Missouri River Basin Archeological Survey in 1949, 
by Waldo R, Wadel, 
No, 3, The Woodruff Ossuary, a prehistoric burial site in Phillips County, 

Kansas, by Marvin F. Kivett. 
No. 4. The Addicks Dam sites : 

I. An archeological survey of the Addicks Dam basin, Southeast Texas, 
by Joe Ben Wheat, 

II. Indian skeletal remains from the Doering and Kobs sites, Addicks 
Reservoir, Texas, by Marshall T. Newman. 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

No. 5. The Hodjjes site: 

I. Two rock shelters near Tucuincari, New Mexico, by Herbert W. Dick. 

II. Geology of the Hodges site, Quay County, New Mexico, by Sheldon 
Judson. 

No 6. The Rembert IMounds, Elbert County, Georgia, by Joseph R. Cald- 
well. 
Appendix. List of River Basin Surveys reports published in other series. 
r>ulletin inc. The Iroquois Eagle Dance, an offshoot of the Calumet Dance, 
by William N. Fenton, with an analysis of the Iroquois Eagle Dance and 
songs, by Gertrude Prokosch Kurath. vi+324 pp., 28 pis., 36 figs. 1953. 

The following publications were in press at the close of the fiscal 
year: 

Bulletin 157. Anthropological Papers, Nos. 43-48. 

No. 43. Stone Monuments of the Rio Chiquito, Veracruz, Mexico, by Mat- 
thew W. Stirling. 
No. 44. The Cerro de las Mesas offering of jade and other materials, by 

Philip Drucker. 
No. 45. Archeological materials from the vicinity of Mobridge, South 

Dakota, by Waldo R. WedeL 
No. 46. The original Strachey vocabulary of the Virginia Indian language, 

by John P. Harrington. 
No. 47. The Sun Dance of the Northern Ute, by J. A. Jones. 
No. 48. Some manifestations of water in Mesoamerican art, by Robert L. 
Rands. 
Bulletin 158. River Basin Surveys Paper No. 7. Archeological Investigations 

in the Oahe Dam area. South Dakota, 1950-51, by Donald J. Lehmer. 
Bulletin 159. The Horse in Blackfoot Indian culture, with comparative ma- 
terial from other western tribes, by John C. Ewers. 
Bulletin 160. A ceramic study of Virginia archeology, by Clifford Evans, with 
an appendix on an analysis of projectile points and large blades, by C. G. 
Holland. 

Publications distributed totaled 21,229, as compared with 38,596 
for the fiscal year 1953. 

COLLECTIONS 

Ace. No. 

194273. Casts of vessels and figurines excavated at Cerro de las INIesas, Veracruz, 

Mexico, in 1941. Original material collected by Dr. M. W. Stirling, 
1948. 

194274. Potsherds and figurines excavated at La Venta, Tabasco, Mexico. Col- 

lected by Philip Drucker, 1942. 
195872. Twenty-five pottery vessels from Veraguas, Panama. Collected by Dr. 

M. W. Stirling, 1951. 
200850. Nine gold, copper, and pottery objects from Panama (19.51), and 2 

archaic pottery figurines from Mexico (1946). Collected by Dr. M. W. 

Stirling. 
201030. Eleven stone beads from Veraguas, Panama (1949), and 1 effigy bird 

from Veracruz, Mexico. Collected by Dr. M. W. Stirling. 
201671. Pottery vessel from Panama. Collected by Dr. M. W. Stirling, 1951. 
202489. Twenty-six ethnographical specimens from a sub-Andean Indian tribe 

of Colombia, S. A. 



SEVENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 17 

196412. Miscellaneous bones of 7 species of mammals from Sapeloe Island, Ga., 
carbon-14 determined age about 3,800 years. Through Dr. A. J. 
Waring. 

199026, 201160. One snake, 1 gecko, 3 grasshoppers, and 6 marine mollusks from 
Taboga Island, Panama Bay, collected by Dr. M. W. Stirling, 1953. 

FROM RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

199132. Eighteen archeological specimens from 4 sites in Albeni Falls Reser- 

voir area, Pend Oreille River, Bonner Co., Idaho, Collected by Joel L. 
Shiner, 1952. 

199133. Ninety archeological specimens from 2 sites in Cachuma Reservoir area 

on Santa Ynez River, Santa Barbara Co., Calif. Collected by Albert 
D. Mohr, 1952. 

199134. 650 archeological specimens from Site 45 BN 3, McNary Reservoir, Co- 

lumbia River, Benton Co., Wash. Collected by Dr. Douglas Osborne, 

1948. 
199267. Two bird bones from North-South Dakota area. Through Robert L. 

Stephenson. 
199210, 200377. Thirty fresh-water mussels from archeological sites in the Mis- 
souri Basin. Through Robert L. Stephenson. 
199430. Fifty-seven Oligocene fossil mammal specimens from Canyon Ferry 

Reservoir area in Montana, collected by Dr. Theodore E. White, June 

1953. 
200125. Pottery, stone, bone, and shell artifacts and human skeletal material 

from the Woodruff Ossuary, Phillips Co., Kans. Collected by Marvin 

L. Kivett, 1946. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Dr. Frances Densmore, Dr. John R. Swanton, Dr. Antonio J. War- 
ing, Jr., and Ralph S. Solecki continued as collaborators of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology. 

On April 30, 1954, Dr. John P. Harrington retired after 39 years' 
service as ethnologist on the staff of the Bureau. Upon his retire- 
ment he was appointed research associate of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion and will continue his linguistic studies in that capacity. 

Information was furnished during the past year by members of 
the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning the Amer- 
ican Indians, past and present, of both continents. The increased 
number of requests from teachers, particularly from primary and 
secondary grades, from Scout organizations, and from the general 
public, indicates a rapidly growing interest in the American Indian. 
Various specimens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them 
furnished for their owners. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Director. 

Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

o 



y 



Seventy-second Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1954-1955 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



SEVENTY-SECOND 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1954-1955 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1956 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
June 30, 1955 

Director. — Matthew W. Stihling. 
Associate Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 
Anthropologists. — H. B. Collins, Jr., Philip Drucker. 

Collaborators. — Frances Densmore, John R. Swanton, A. J. Waring, Jr., 
R. J. Squier, R. F. Heizer, Sister M. Inez Hilger, Ralph S. Solecki. 
Research Associate. — John P. Harrington. 
Scientific Illustrator. — E. G. Schumacher. 

river basin surveys 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Archeologists. — Carl F. Miller, G. Hubert Smith, Robert L. Stephenson, 
Richard P. Wheeler. 

II 








XMyvh^'^n^t^ 



SEVENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 
BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Director 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1955, conducted 
in accordance with the Act of Congress of April 10, 1928, as amended 
August 22, 1949, which directs the Bureau "to continue independently 
or in cooperation anthropological researches among the American 
Indians and the natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection 
of the United States and the excavation and preservation of archeo- 
logic remains." 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

In addition to his administrative duties. Dr. M. W. Stirling, Direc- 
tor of the Bureau, completed the preliminary studies of the archeologi- 
cal collections made in Panama in 1953, and prepared for publication 
the sections relating to Taboga, Taboguilla, and Urava Islands, and 
also that from Almirante Bay on the Panama north coast. 

Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Associate Director of the Bureau, 
was occupied principally with duties pertaining to the management 
of the River Basin Surveys, of which he is Director (see his report, 
p. 5). He reviewed and revised a number of manuscripts on the 
results of excavations at sites in various areas. In the latter part of 
September Dr. Roberts went to Lincoln, Nebr., to discuss the opera- 
tions of the field office located there and to talk with the men who 
were coming in from the field. En route to Lincoln he visited the 
Department of Anthropology at the University of Michigan where 
he examined various archeological collections and spoke to a group 
of students on the problem of Early Man in America. In November 
he attended the 12th Plains Conference for Archeology held at the 
Laboratory of Anthropology, University of Nebraska, and took part 
in discussions on the archeology of the Missouri Basin. During the 
winter months he devoted a portion of his time to the preparation 
of a manuscript covering the high points and summarizing the activi- 
ties of the River Basin Surveys from the beginning of fieldwork in 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the summer of 1D46 to the end of the calendar year 1954. In May he 
attended the annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology 
at Bloomington, Ind., and participated in a symposium on the archeo- 
logical salvage program. Thence he proceeded to Lincoln where he 
spent a week reviewing the activities of the field office and laboratory 
and assisting in the preparation of plans for the summer field season. 
Toward the end of June Dr. Roberts again went to the headquarters 
at Lincoln to assist in the preparations for sending parties to the field 
and started on an inspection trip through the Missouri Basin in com- 
pany with Dr. John M. Corbett and Paul Beaubien of the National 
Park Service. At the end of June the group was at Cherokee, Iowa, 
where Dr. Reynold J. Ruppe, Jr., of the University of Iowa, was 
directing a joint party of the University and the Sanford Museum in 
excavations at an archeological site on Mill Creek. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. Henry B. Collins, anthro- 
pologist, was in the Canadian Arctic, conducting archeological work 
on Southampton Island in Hudson Bay. The expedition was spon- 
sored jointly by the Smithsonian Institution, the National Geographic 
Society, and the National Museum of Canada. Dr. Collins was as- 
sisted by Dr. J. N. Emerson, assistant professor of anthropology, Uni- 
versity of Toronto, William E. Taylor, Jr., research assistant, Musemn 
of Anthropology, University of Michigan, and Eugene Ostroff, pho- 
tographer, of Washington, D. C. 

The party left Coral Harbour, Southampton Island, on June 25, 
traveling by dog team over the sea ice, and camped for the greater part 
of the smnmer at Native Point, 40 miles down the coast. This aban- 
doned Eskimo village of 85 stone and sod house ruins was once the 
principal settlement of the Sadlermiut Eskimos, who became eirtinct 
in 1903. Excavation of selected house ruins, graves, and midden areas 
yielded a valuable collection of cultural and skeletal material of this 
little-known Eskimo tribe. 

One mile from the Sadlermiut site, on an 85-foot elevation and 
almost a mile from the sea, is a much older site of the Dorset culture, 
probably 1,000 years or more old. Covering an area of well over 20 
acres, this is the largest Dorset site thus far known. Excavations there 
yielded thousands of artifacts of stone, ivory, and bone, some of them 
typically Dorset, others representing types that were new to the Dorset 
culture. The site represents a phase of Dorset culture different in 
certain respects from any previously reported. Among the new types 
were several forms of microlithic blades recalling those of the upper 
Paleolithic and Mesolithic of Eurasia but not previously found in 
America. Wood was entirely absent at the site, having disintegrated, 
and the bird and mammal bones and the ivory, bone, and antler arti- 
facts were uniformly patinated and weathered, in striking contrast to 



SEVENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 6 

the fresh, well-preserved similar material from the Sadlermiut site. 
This suggests a considerable age for the Dorset site and bears out other 
indications that the Dorset culture in Canada and Greenland flourished 
at a time when the climate was milder than today. 

Over 45,000 mammal bones were excavated at the Dorset and Sadler- 
miut sites, and of these some 6,000 were identified in the field. One 
result was the demonstration of some striking differences in the food 
economy of the Dorset and Sadlermiut people. Twenty graves con- 
taining complete skeletons were excavated, and an additional 15 un- 
associated skulls were collected. In mid-July a trip was made by 
Eskimo boat to Coats Island where two Sadlermiut houses were 
excavated. 

A preliminary report illustrating and describing the results of the 
Southampton investigations was prepared for publication. Another 
article was prepared describing the current status of Arctic archeology, 
results accomplished, and problems toward which research should be 
directed. 

Dr. Collins continued to serve as a member of the Kesearch Com- 
mittee of the Arctic Institute of North America and of the subconmiit- 
tee responsible for planning and supervising the scientific work of the 
Point Barrow Laboratory, operated by the Office of Naval Research. 
He also continued as chairman of the directing committee supervising 
the work of the Arctic Bihliography, which the Arctic Institute is pre- 
paring for the Department of Defense, under an Office of Naval Re- 
search contract, with funds provided by the Department of the Air 
Force. Volume 4 of Arctic Bibliography, 1,591 pages, was issued by 
the Government Printing Office in August 1954. It lists and describes 
the contents of 7,627 publications in all fields of science relating to the 
Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of America and Eurasia. The material, 
which is extensively indexed and cross-indexed according to subject 
and geographical locality, covers papers published in English, Rus- 
sian, Scandinavian, and other languages. Volume 5 of the bibliog- 
raphy, containing analysis of contents of 5,494 publications, was is- 
sued in April 1955. Though all fields of science are included, volume 
5 gives special emphasis to health and disease in the Arctic, environ- 
mental effects, and anthropology, particularly the native peoples of 
northern Siberia and Europe. Material for volume 6 was turned 
over to the printer on June 20, 1955. 

On June 6, 1955, Dr. Collins left again for Southampton Island, 
to continue the excavations begim last year. The work is being spon- 
sored by the National Museum of Canada and the Smithsonian, with 
a grant received from the American Philosophical Society. 

At the beginning of July, Dr. Philip Drucker was at his official 
station in Washington, D. C, preparing a report on field researches 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

completed during the previous year. The report, entitled "Modern 
Inter-tribal Organizations on the Northwest Coast," was later sub- 
mitted to, and accepted by, the Arctic Institute of North America, the 
foundation that supported the major portion of the research, with 
supplementary financial assistance from the American Philosophical 
Society and the Smithsonian Institution. During the same interval 
he also completed a theoretical paper on "The Sources of Northwest 
Coast Culture," for publication in the New Interpretations of Ab- 
original American Culture History^ 75th Anniversary Volume of the 
Anthropological Society of Washington. 

Thanks to the liberal support of the National Geographic Society, 
it was possible to plan an ample program of archeological research 
at the important Olmec site of La Venta, Tabasco, Mexico. Plans 
were drawn up for a cooperative project, in which the National Geo- 
graphic Society, the Smithsonian Institution, and the University of 
California were to participate. Dr. Drucker, representing the Smith- 
sonian Institution, and Dr. Robert F. Heizer, of the University of 
California and honorary research associate of the Smithsonian, were 
to function as coleaders of the expedition. During the latter part 
of November and early in December, Dr. Drucker made a preliminary 
trip to La Venta to obtain clearances from local, civil, and military 
authorities, recruit labor, select a camp site, and negotiate other de- 
tails. On January 10 he left Washington to initiate the work, being 
joined on February 1 by Dr. Heizer and two of the latter's graduate 
students serving as archeological assistants. An additional member 
of the party was Ing. Eduardo Contreras S., assistant archeologist 
and representative of the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e 
Historia de Mexico. In passing, due tribute must be given the offi- 
cers of this organization, whose whole-hearted cooperation made the 
fieldwork possible. 

The primary aim of the expedition was to carry out architectonic 
investigations at La Venta, since in past years National Geographic 
Society-sponsored parties have recovered a good deal of information 
on Olmec ceramics and art. Excavations were restricted almost ex- 
clusively to the ceremonial enclosure, where tests in previous years 
had shown a variety of structures to exist. Working through a 3^- 
month season with a crew of about 50 local laborers, the party ex- 
cavated a series of structures of the ceremonial enclosure complex. 
It proved possible to identify a series of constructional phases in each 
of the individual structures and to work out a correlation of the phases 
throughout the ceremonial enclosure. From the drift-sand overbur- 
den that covered the structures, materials were recovered pertaining 
to one, or possibly two, post- Olmec occupations of the site. Deter- 
mination of the cultural affiliations of these later inhabitants is of 



SEVENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 5 

special interest. Carbon samples from post-Olmec deposits and from 
various structural phases of the Olmec occupation were collected for 
the purpose of obtaining accurate C-14 dates of the phases and 
periods. 

In addition, a series of offerings were found, consisting of objects 
of pottery, jade, serpentine, hematite, quartz crystal, and other min- 
erals, which add considerably to the stock of available knowledge of 
Olmec art and technology. 

At the end of the fiscal year, Dr. Drucker was at the Museo Nacional 
de Antropologia in Mexico, D. F., studying the collections made 
during the field season. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

(Prepared by FRANK H. H. ROBERTS, Jr.. Director) 

The River Basin Surveys continued investigations in cooperation 
with the National Park Service and the Bureau of Reclamation of the 
Department of the Interior, the Corps of Engineers of the Department 
of the Army, and various State and local institutions. Because of a 
further curtailment of funds the Inter- Agency Salvage Program did 
not produce as extensive results as in former years. During the fiscal 
year 1954-55 the work of the River Basin Surveys was financed by a 
transfer of $52,700 from the National Park Service to the Smithsonian 
Institution. The funds were entirely for use in the Missouri Basin. 
An additional carryover of $3,691.44 made a total of $56,391.44 for 
operations in the area. That amount was approximately 25 percent 
less than moneys available for the preceding year, which also had 
suffered a drastic reduction. As a consequence, there was a corre- 
sponding progressive decrease in the program. 

Field investigations during the year consisted mainly of excavations. 
On July 1, 1954, three parties were in the field; two were doing in- 
tensive digging — one in the Fort Randall area in South Dakota and 
one in the Garrison Reservoir area in North Dakota, and the third, 
also operating in the Fort Randall basin, was engaged in test excava- 
tions at a number of sites. In each case some reconnaissance work 
was carried on, but that constituted only a minor activity. At the 
end of the fiscal year no parties were in the field, but preparations 
were under way to send out three groups for intensive digging opera- 
tions in two reservoir areas. Because of lack of funds no pale^ntologi- 
cal studies were made during the year and none were planned for 
fiscal 1956. 

By June 30, 1955, areas where archeological surveys had been made 
or excavations carried on since the start of actual fieldwork in the 
summer of 1946 totaled 243 located in 27 States. In addition, one 
lock project and four canal areas had also been investigated. As a 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

result some 4,345 sites have been located and recorded. Of that num- 
ber 852 were recommended for excavation or limited testing. Pre- 
liminary appraisal reports were completed for all the reservoirs 
surveyed, and where additional reconnaissance has resulted in the 
discovery of other sites supplemental reports have been prepared. 
During the course of the year one such report was issued. Since the 
start of the program 180 reports have been distributed. The dif- 
ference between that figure and the total number of reservoir areas 
investigated is in part due to the fact that where several reservoirs 
form a unit in a single subbasin they are included in one report. 

At the end of the fiscal year 824 sites in 44 reservoir basins located 
in 17 different States had be^n dug either extensively or in part. In 
some of the reservoir areas only a single site was excavated while in 
others a whole series was examined. At least one example of each 
type of site found in the preliminary surveys has been investigated. 
In previous years the results of certain phases of that work appeared 
in technical journals and in Bulletin 154 of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology. Six manuscript reports on earlier excavation work were 
completed during the present year and are ready for publication. One 
major technical report was issued in December as Bulletin 158 of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, and a summary statement of the 
program in the Missouri Basin for the years 1950-51 appeared in 
April 1955 in the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 

The reservoir projects that have been surveyed for archeological 
remains as of June 30, 1955, were distributed as follows : Alabama, 1 
California, 20; Colorado, 24; Georgia, 5; Idaho, 11; Illinois, 2 
Kansas, 10 ; Kentucky, 2 ; Louisiana, 2 ; Minnesota, 1 ; Mississippi, 1 
Montana, 15 ; Nebraska, 28 ; New Mexico, 1 ; North Dakota, 13 ; Ohio, 
2 ; Oklahoma, 7 ; Oregon, 27 ; Pennsylvania, 2 ; South Dakota, 9 ; Ten- 
nessee, 4; Texas, 19; Virginia, 2; Washington, 11; West Virginia, 2; 
and Wyoming, 22. 

Excavations have been made or were under way in reservoir basins 
in: California, 5; Colorado, 1; Georgia, 4; Kansas, 3; Montana, 1; 
Nebraska, 1 ; New Mexico, 1 ; North Dakota, 4 ; Oklahoma, 2 ; Oregon, 
3 ; South Carolina, 1 ; South Dakota, 3 ; Texas, 7 ; Virginia, 1 ; Wash- 
ington, 4; West Virginia, 1 ; and Wyoming, 2. The foregoing figures 
include only the work of the Kiver Basin Surveys or that in which 
there was direct cooperation with local institutions. Projects that 
were carried on by local institutions imder agreements with the Na- 
tional Park Service are not included because complete information 
about them is not available. 

Throughout the year the National Park Service, Bureau of Recla- 
mation, Corps of Engineers, and various State and local institutions 
continued to provide helpful cooperation in the Inter- Agency Salvage 



Secretary's Report, 1955 



PLATE 1 




1. Operations of River Basin Surveys. Exposed floor areas being taken from top o tall 
ladder. Rising waters of Fort Randall Reservoir appear" in background. 







2. Operations of River Basin Surveys. Portion of the Oldham site as seen from the 
ladder. Holes in floor of area in left foreground outline former circular earth lodge 
Lntire site is now under water. 



Sfcrctnry's Report. 1955 



PLATE 2 




%^ 



t^y .','■ 



■j!Vwm''4is*-'' jriiA^- 




1. Operati"ii- i\ \i'r Easin Surveys. I'..^:; . '. i earth lodge at village site near 

Chamberlain, S. Dak. Missouri River in background. Area has since been destroyed. 




2. Operations of River Basin Surveys. Mechanical equipment was used successfully 
removing upper part of fill from house pits and for excavating long trenches. 



SEVENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 7 

Progi'iim and furnishacl valuable assistance to the Kiver l^anin Sur- 
veys. In several cases mechanical equipment was made available by 
the construction agency, and at otlier projects temporary office and 
laboratory space Avas provided. Transportation and guides wore 
furnished in a number of instances. The River Basin Surveys men 
received helpful assistance from the field personnel of the other 
agencie;?, and for that reason their accomplishments were much 
greater than would otherwise have been the case. As in previous 
years the National Park Service served as the liaison between the 
various agencies both in Washington and in the field. It also was 
mainl}^ responsible for preparing estimates and justifications and pro- 
curing funds to support the investigations. The wholehearted coop- 
eration of Park Service personnel greatly aided all phases of the 
operations. 

The main office in Washington continued general supervision over 
the work, while the field headquarters and laboratory at Tjincoln, 
Nebr,, was responsible for the activities in the Missouri Basin. The 
materials collected by excavating parties in the Missouri Basin were 
processed at the Lincoln laboratory. During the year there was a 
general distribution of specimens and materials from the laboratory to 
the U. S. National Museum and to various State and local agencies. 
The only activities outside the Missouri Basin pertained to the com- 
pletion of reports on work done in previous years and a brief check 
on the status of two construction projects in Tennessee, 

Washington office. — The main headquarters of the River Basin Sur- 
veys, at the Bureau of American Ethnology, continued under the 
direction of Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. Carl F. Miller, archeolo- 
gist, was based at that office and from time to time assisted the director 
in general administrative problems. 

At the start of the fiscal year Mr. Miller was in the office continuing 
his studies on the material obtained at the John H. Ken' (Buggs 
Island) Reservoir on the Roanoke River in southern Virginia and in 
the preparation of his report on the results of investigations at that 
locality. During the fall and winter months he completed a manu- 
script, "Reevaluation of the Eastern Siouan Problem with Particular 
Emphasis on the Virginia Branches: the Occaneechi, Saponi, and 
Tutelo." He also presented papers before several archeological socie- 
ties and interested study groups. In June, at the request of the Bu- 
reau of American Ethnology, he made a brief ivi\) to visit and examine 
various Archaic and Paleo-Indian sites in Alabama and Tennessee. 
He made an examination of Russell Cave in Jackson County, Ala., 
where three and possibly four occupation levels are present. He also 
visited several Paleo-Indian sites in the vicinity of Decatur and Hunts- 
viile, Ala., and studied collections of materials that had been obtained 



3 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

from them. From Alabama Mr. iMiller went, to Nashville, Tenn., and 
after conferring with tlie Corps of Engineers officers in that city pro- 
ceeded to the Cheatham and Old Hickory projects on the Cumberland 
River to determine the exact status of the reservoir pools in relation 
to the archeological sites in their basins. En route from Tennessee 
to Washington Mr. Miller stopped in Georgia and picked up materials 
collected during the course of investigations at the AUatoona Reser- 
voir and brought them to the National Museum. At the end of June 
Mr. Miller was making preparations to proceed to Montana to conduct 
excavations in the Tiber Reservoir area on the Marias River. 

Columbia Basin aiid Texas. — The River Basin Surveys did no field- 
work in these areas during the fiscal year, but two teclmical reports 
on previous investigations were completed and submitted for pub- 
lication. Joel L. Shiner, formerly in charge of the River Basin 
Surveys field headquarters at Eugene, Oreg., and now an archeologist 
with the National Park Service, turned in a manuscript, "The Mc- 
Nary Reservoir, a Study in Plateau Archeology," based on the results 
of excavations at nine sites. Edward B. Jelks, who was in charge of 
the field headquarters at Austin, Tex., before it was transferred to the 
National Park Service and who is still an archeologist with that or- 
ganization, completed a report, "Excavations at Texarkana Reservoir, 
Sulphur River, Texas," detailing the results of the digging at three 
sites. As his duties at the Lincoln, Nebr., office permitted, Robert L. 
Stephenson continued work on his "Archeological Investigations in 
the Whitney Reservoir Area, Hill County, Texas." Mr. Stephenson 
made the excavations on which it is based before transferring to the 
Missouri Basin. 

Missouri. Basin. — Throughout fiscal 1955 the Missouri Basin Project 
continued to operate from the field headquarters at Lincoln, Nebr. 
Robert L. Stephenson served as chief of the project from July 1 to 
September 3, when he was granted leave of absence to complete aca- 
demic work on an advanced degree at the Department of Anthro- 
pology, University of Michigan. After Mr. Stephenson's departure, 
G. Hubert Smith took over direction of the project as archeologist in 
charge. Activities during the year were concerned mainly with ex- 
cavations, the processing of the collections obtained from the digging, 
analyses and study of the materials, the preparation of general and 
technical manuscripts on the results, and the publication and dissemi- 
nation of scientific and popular reports. At the beginning of the 
fiscal year the Missouri Basin Project had a permanent staff of twelve 
persons. There were two temporary part-time employees assisting in 
the laboratory. During July, August, and part of September, 1 tem- 
porary assistant archeologist and 24 temporary student and local non- 
student laborers were employed in the field. During the field season 



SEVENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 9 

three of the regular staff were engaged in excavation activities. The 
temporary employees \N'ere gradually laid off as the excavations and 
test digging were brought to a close and by the first of October only the 
permanent staff', a temporary assistant archeologist, and a part-time 
office -worker were on the rolls. By the first of November it became 
evident that the funds available for 1955 would not permit the con- 
tinuance of as large a staff' and a reduction in force became necessary. 
As a result on June 30 the staff' had been cut to seven persons. 

During the year only three River Basin Surveys field parties op- 
erated in the Missouri Basin. Two of them were primarily occupied 
in conducting full-scale excavations while the third was engaged in 
making a series of test excavations. The latter and one of the full- 
scale digging parties worked in the Fort Randall Reservoir area in 
South Dakota while the other excavating party worked in the Garri- 
son Reservoir area in North Dakota. All three parties were in the 
field at the start of the fiscal year. At the Fort Randall Reservoir, 
which has been flooding since the closing of the dam in July 1953, 
excavations were carried on by a group under the direction of Harold 
A. Huscher at the Oldham Village site where previous digging had 
revealed evidence for several components but the relationships were 
not clear. Because of the rising waters of the reservoir pool and un- 
satisfactory working conditions, the investigations were brought to 
a close on July 24. The results of the season's efforts clarified the sit- 
uation at the Oldham site and will make possible a much more satis- 
factory story of the occupations there in the period A. D. 1500 to 1700. 
Shortly after the departure of the field party, the Oldham site went 
under Avater and will continue to be flooded throughout the indefinite 
future. 

The second party in the Fort Randall area under Paul L. Cooper 
continued its intensive sampling operatiojis until September 20. Dur- 
ing the season 13 sites ranging from the Woodland to the historic pe- 
riods were studied. The sites varied from small temporary camps 
to the remains of extensive earth-lodge villages. Several cultural 
traditions are represented in the material obtained from them. Mr. 
Cooper had planned to dig at several additional locations but the rising 
waters of the reservoir prevented his doing so. 

During the period the two field parties from the Missouri Basin 
Project were engaged in the Fort Randall area, a third party repre- 
senting the Nebraska State Historical Society, led by Marvin F. 
Kivett, and working under an agreement with the National Park 
Service, excavated at Crow Creek Village site. The imposing re- 
mains of that former fortified earth-lodge village have been well 
known to students for many years, but it was not until the summer 
of 1954 and excavations Avere under way that the presence of a second 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

village area, also fortified, was established. In the latter, evidence 
for two occupations, both prehistoric, was found. These are sig- 
nificant because one of them shows definite relationships with cultural 
materials in Nebraska while the other clearly defines a cultural phase 
found during an earlier season at another site in the Fort Randall area 
and which was not well understood. Important data were also ob- 
tained on earth-lodge types. In the vicinity of the village areas two 
burial mounds were tested and information was obtained on burial 
customs. The work at that location contributed so much to knowl- 
edge of aboriginal occupation in that portion of the Missouri Basin 
that the Historical Society in cooperation with the National Park 
Service again sent a party to the site on June 14 where it was 
continuing excavations at the end of the fiscal 3'ear. 

In June a party from the University of Kansas led by Dr. Carlyle 
S. Smith proceeded to the Fort Randall Reservoir area to begin 
excavations under a cooperative agreement with the National Park 
Service. The Kansas group started digging at a site near Fort 
Thompson. By the end of the fiscal year they had cut cross trenches 
and quadrants in the remains of a large earth lodge approximately 
52 feet in diameter and had tested several refuse mounds in a nearby 
field. The materials recovered by the close of the year indicated that 
the site had relationships with certain occupations at two sites pre- 
viously excavated in the Fort Randall area. The party planned to 
continue its operations through the month of July, and the additional 
information obtained should make possible a better understanding 
of aboriginal activities in that immediate district. 

The River Basin Surveys did no work in the Oahe Reservoir area 
during the fiscal year, but a party from the South Dakota State 
Archeological Commission and the W. H. Over Museum, under a 
cooperating agreement with the National Park Service, carried on 
excavations directed by Dr. Wesley R. Hurt at a location known as 
the Swan Creek site. Three and possibly four occupations were found 
there. The most recent of them represents the historic period. Parts 
of two fortification ditches with palisades, earth lodges, and caches, 
and burials of two types were uncovered. The sites proved to be so 
important and so complex that Dr. Hurt and his party returned there 
on June 15 and was continuing its excavations at the close of the fiscal 
year. 

In the Garrison Reservoir area at the beginning of the fiscal year 
a party from the Missouri Basin Project under G. Hubert Smith and 
a group from the State Historical Society of North Dakota led by 
Alan R. Woolworth, operating under an agreement with the National 
Park Service, were continuing their joint investigations at the sites 
of Forts Berthold I and II and the remains of the aboriginal village 



SEVENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 11 

named Like-a-Fislihook. Fort Bertliold II had been partially dug by 
Smith in 1952 and parties from the State Historical Society of North 
Dakota had carried on studies in the remains of the Indian village 
during three previous seasons. Toward the close of the 1952 season 
the North Dakota party found indications of the remains of Fort 
Berthold I but had no opportunity to study them. Because of lack 
of funds nothing was done there in the summer of 1953. The plans 
for the 1954 season included the clearing of several features at Fort 
Berthold II, excavation of the remains of Fort Berthold I, and some 
additional digging in the aboriginal area. When the project was 
brought to a close on July 10 the remains of the original Fort Berthold 
trading post were fully exposed and the stockade which surrounded 
the original Indian village had been found and completely defined. 
The excavations were greatly accelerated by the use of mechanical 
equipment. Fort Berthold I was built and occupied from 1845 to 
1862 and the adjacent Fort Berthold II, which originally was called 
Atkinson, was occupied from about 1858 to 1890 by both fur traders 
and American military forces. Like-a-Fishhook Village was situ- 
ated between the two trading posts and was built about 1845. It was 
occupied by groups of Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara who had joined 
forces against the Sioux. Information obtained from the digging of 
the various features in the area has made possible the preparation of 
the first complete map showing the extent of the two posts and the 
village and has added considerable information pertaining to the fur 
trade and other white and Indian contacts during the period involved. 
The entire area went under water in the spring of 1955. 

From Fort Berthold, Woolworth and the State Historical Society 
party moved farther upstream and excavated the remains of Kipp's 
Trading Post. The stockade was outlined and the positions and 
extent of the log buildings originally within the enclosure were de- 
termined. A representative collection of objects characteristic of the 
period was obtained. This supplemented and broadened the informa- 
tion from test excavations made there by a River Basin Surveys party 
in the fall of 1951. The site is of particular interest because it was 
occupied for a short time during the winter of 1826-27 when the 
period of organized trade on the Upper Missouri was just getting 
under way and because Kipp's Post seemingly was the immediate 
predecessor of Fort Union which became the great trade capital for 
that part of the Plains area. After completing the work at that 
location, the party made some further investigations at Grandmother's 
Ijodge, a site where some preliminary digging had been done during 
a previous season. Grandmother's Lodge was the traditional dwell- 
ing place of the Mandan or Hidatsa supernatural being who was 
considered to be the patroness of gardens and crops. Investigation 
of the remains provided data that can be compared with the legendary 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

story which is one of the important myths of the Indians in that 
district. 

Three detailed technical reports, all pertaining to excavations at 
sites in the Garrison Reservoir area in North Dakota, were completed 
and submitted for publication. Considerable progress was made in 
the preparation of the reports on the results of investigations in one 
reservoir area in South Dakota, a second reservoir area in North 
Dakota, and two reservoir areas in Wyoming. In addition several 
short articles and papers were written and sent to technical journals. 
Two major manuscripts were printed and distributed and several 
short articles were published. 

During the year the reduced laboratory staff processed 46,602 speci- 
mens from 51 sites in 4 reservoir areas. A total of 6,155 catalog num- 
bers was assigned to the series of specimens. The work in the labora- 
tory also included : reflex copies of records, 7,423 ; photographic nega- 
tives made, 685; photographic prints made, 787; photographic prints 
mounted, 2,854; manuscript prints mounted, 35; transparencies 
mounted in glass, 362; drawings, tracings, and maps, 110; specimens 
drawn for illustration, 81 ; pottery vessels restored, 2 ; pottery vessel 
sections restored, 32. Photographic activity was at a minimum be- 
cause the position of staff photographer left vacant by the death of 
the photographer at the end of the preceding fiscal year was not filled. 
However, the photographic laboratory at the Smithsonian Institution 
in Washington assisted by performing some of the required work. 
Drafting and specimen illustrating were also at a minimum because 
(here were not sufficient funds to replace the draftsman-illustrator who 
resigned in October. The laboratory staff devoted considerable time 
during the fiscal year to transferring analyzed records and special 
materials to various permanent repositories. In accordance with the 
policy adopted at the start of the program, various collections and 
the data pertaining to them were sent to several State and local agen- 
cies as well as to the United States National Museum. 

Archeological specimens and records from the following were trans- 
ferred to the division of archeology, U. S. National Museum: Am- 
herst Reservoir, 12 sites; Baldhill Reservoir, 11 sites; Beaver City 
Reservoir, 4 sites; Box Butte Reservoir, 1 site; Boysen Reservoir, 1 
site; Brewster Reservoir, 1 site; Broncho Reservoir, 6 sites; Buffalo 
Creek (renamed Bison) Reservoir, 1 site; Cushing Reservoir, 2 sites; 
Devil's Lake Reservoir, 3 sites; Dickinson Reservoir, 3 sites; Enders 
Reservoir, 5 sites ; Ericson Reservoir, 5 sites ; Fort Randall Reservoir, 
11 sites; Garrison Reservoir, 117 sites; Heart Butte Reservoir, 1 site; 
Jamestown Reservoir, 1 site (human bone only) ; Medicine Creek 
Reservoir (Harry Strunk Lake), 24 sites; Medicine Lake Reservoir, 
5 sites; Mullen Reservoir, 8 sites; Niobrara Basin (a series of 10 small 



SEVENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 13 

reservoirs), 44 sites; Oahe Reservoir, 8 sites; Red Willow Reservoir, 
3 sites; Rock Creek Reservoir, 1 site; Sargent Canal, 4 sites; Tiber 
Reservoir, 4 sites; sites not in reservoirs: Kansas, 1 ; Missouri, 1 ; Mon- 
tana, 11 ; Nebraska, 8. 

Archeological specimens and records were transferred as follows: 
From 107 Tnttle Creek Reservoir sites to the Department of Econom- 
ics and Sociolog}', Kansas State College. From one site in the Keyhole 
Reservoir to the Dej^artment of Economics and Sociology, University 
of Wyoming. From o]ie site in the Garrison Reservoir to the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology and Sociology, Montana State University. 
P^rom 14 sites in the Big Sandy Reservoir to the Department of x\n- 
tliropology. University of Nebraska. From one site in the Garrison 
Reservoir to the Nebraska State Historical Society. From 3 sites 
m the GarrivSon Reservoir to the North Dakota State Historical Soci- 
ety. Virtually all tlie material worth preservation from one of the 
sites, Fort Stevenson, went to Bismarck. 

Total number of sites from which archeological specimens were 
transferred to other organizations in fiscal 1955 : 434. 

Transfers of archeological specimens made prior to fiscal 1955 and 
not previously reported : Department of Anthropology, University of 
Denver, a total of 19 sites representing Bonny, Cherry Creek, Nari'ows, 
and Wray reservoirs. Department of x\nthropology. University of 
Nebraska, a total of 11 sites representing Harlan County Reservoir. 
jMuseum of Natural History, University of Kansas, a total of 66 sites 
representing Cedar Bluff, Glen Elder, Kanopolis, Kirwin, Lovewell, 
Nol'ton, Pioneer, Webster, Wilson, and Wolf Creek reservoirs. Divi- 
sion of archeolog}'^, U. S. National Museum, a total of four sites repre- 
senting Harlan County and Tuttle Creek reservoirs. 

Total number of sites from which archeological specimens were 
transferred prior to fiscal 1955 : 100. 

As of June 30, 1955, the Missouri Basin Project had transferred to 
other agencies the archeological specimens from a total of 534 sites. 
Of these, 513 sites were in 52 reservoirs. Twenty-one sites were not in 
reservoirs. 

In addition to transfers of archeological specimens in site lots, the 
Missouri Basin Project had, just prior to fiscal 1955, transferred rep- 
resentative series of potsherds to the following agencies: Ceramics 
Repository, University of Michigan ; W. H. Over Museum, University 
of South Dakota; Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas; 
Nebraska State Historical Society. 

Upper Republican sherds were transferred from Medicine Creek 
Reservoir sites 25FT13, 17, 39, and 70. Sites 39ST14 and 30, in Oahe 
Reservoir, furnished sherds of the following wares : Anderson, Fore- 
man, Monroe, and Stanley. 



14 BURKAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

All idoiitiiied, iiuworked shell ii\ storage was traiisfei-red to the 
University of Nebraska State IMuseiim in November 1D54. Except 
for specimens in the comparative collection in the Lincoln laboratory, 
this transfer included all specimens collected prior to 1954. Reser- 
voir distribution is as follows: Amherst, 2 sites; Angostura, 11 sites; 
Baldhill, 7 sites ; Beaver City, 1 site ; Bixby, 3 sites ; Boysen, 2 sites ; 
Buffalo Creek, 1 site; Canyon Ferry, 7 sites; Cushing, 1 site; Edge- 
mont, 1 site; Fort Randall, 35 sites; Garrison, 13 sites; Glendo, 8 
sites; Glen Elder, 13 sites; Harlan County, 8 sites; Heart Butte, 3 
sites; Kanopolis, 6 sites; Keyhole, 8 sites; Kirwin, 4 sites; Medicine 
Creek, 14 sites; Medicine Lake, 1 site; Moorhead, 1 site; Niobrara 
Basin, 7 sites ; Oahe, 58 sites ; Sheyenne, 2 sites ; Tiber, 5 sites ; Tuttle 
Creek, 10 sites; Wilson, 1 site; not in reservoirs, 3 sites. 

Total number of sites from which identified, unworked shell was 
transferred : 236, of which 233 were in 29 reservoirs and 3 were not in 
reservoirs. 

As of June 30, 1955, the Missouri Basin Project had transferred 
the identified, unworked animal bone from 453 sites to the University 
of Nebraska State Museum. No such transfers were made during 
fiscal 1955. Reservoir distribution of previous transfers is as follows : 
Amherst, 1 site; Angostura, 34 sites; Baldhill, 2 sites; Big Sandy, 1 
site ; Bixby, 3 sites ; Bonny, 1 site ; Boysen, 12 sites ; Canyon Ferry, 4 
sites; Clark Canyon, 1 site; Des Lacs, 1 site; Devil's Lake, 1 site; 
Dickinson, 2 sites; Edgemont, 6 sites; Enders, 1 site; Ericson, 1 site; 
Fort Randall, 85 sites ; Garrison, 60 sites ; Gavins Point, 1 site ; Glendo, 
14 sites; Glen Elder, 4 sites; Harlan County, 8 sites; Heart Butte, 5 
sites; Jamestown, 7 sites; Kanopolis, 5 sites; Keyhole, 9 sites ; Kirwin, 
4 sites; Kortes, 1 site; Medicine Creek, 13 sites; Medicine Lake, 2 
sites; Moorhead, 5 sites; Mullen, 3 sites; Niobrara Basin, 10 sites; 
Norton, 1 site ; Oahe, 93 sites ; Oregon Basin, 9 sites ; Red Willow, 1 
site; Tiber, 22 sites; Tuttle Creek, 1 site; Wilson, 4 sites; Yellowtail, 
3 sites; not in reservoirs, 12 sites. 

A special exhibit illustrating and explaining the Missouri Basin 
Salvage Program was prepared and installed at the Nebraska State 
Fair held at Lincoln during September. Considerable attention was 
shown the display by visitors, and numerous requests were received 
for literature pertaining to the operations of the project and the re- 
sults obtained from the various excavations. Temporary interpre- 
tative displays were also installed from time to time in the windows 
of the Laboratory in the business section of Lincoln. They attracted 
favorable attention and numerous passers-by dropped into the office 
to ask questions about different projects. Much local interest has 
developed since the Salvage Program has been under way. 

Paul L. Cooper, archeologist, was in charge of the intensive testing 
party in the Fort Randall area from July 1 until September 20. Dur- 



SEVENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 15 

ing that time he supervised the digging in 13 sites which were soon to 
go under water. Mr. Cooper returned to Lincohi on September 22 and 
during October and the early part of November devoted liis time to the 
study of the materials obtained during the summer and analysis of 
the information contained in his field notes. He also read proof on 
his report, "The Archeological and Paleontological Salvage Program 
in the Missouri Basin, 1950-51," which appeared in April in the Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 12, No. 2. Because of the short- 
age of funds and the necessity of curtailing tlie staff of the Missouri 
Basin Project, Mr. Cooper's emploj^ment was terminated November 20 
by a reduction-in-force action. 

Harold A. Huscher, assistant archeologist, was in charge of the 
party excavating at the Oldham site in the Fort Randall Reservoir area 
from July 1 to July 24. He returned to headquarters at Lincoln on 
July 27. During August, September, and the early part of October he 
devoted his time to analyzing and studying the materials obtained 
during the field season and in correlating his results with those of 
previous seasons' work at the site. He resigned from the Missouri 
Basin Project on October 15 to return to Columbia University and 
continue his work on an advanced degree. 

George Metcalf, formerly a member of the regular staff of the Mis- 
souri Basin Project but now a member of the division of archeology, 
U. S. National Museum, completed and turned in a manuscript, "Notes 
on Some Small Sites on and about Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, 
Garrison Reservoir, North Dakota." The data contained in the man- 
uscript were collected by Mr. IMetcalf during several seasons of field- 
work while a member of various River Basin Surveys parties. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year G. Hubert Smith, archeologist, 
was in charge of the Missouri Basin Project party which was cooper- 
ating with the North Dakota State Historical Society party in the 
Garrison Reservoir where excavations at the sites of Fort Berthold I, 
Fort Berthold IT, and Like-a-Fishhook Village were being brought to 
completion. The work was finished on July 10 and Mr. Smith pro- 
ceeded to Bismarck, N. Dak., where he devoted a week to the study of 
documentary records in the archives of the State Historical Society. 
Materials there contain considerable information about both of the 
forts as well as the Indian village and Mr. Smith deemed it advisable 
to be familiar with the records because of the light they might throw 
on the evidence obtained by the digging. Mr. Smith was on duty at 
the Lincoln headquarters from July 19, 1954, to May 20, 1955. From 
August 16 to August 81, during an absence of Robert L. Stephenson, 
he served as archeologist in charge. Pie again took over in the latter 
capacity from September 3, 1954, until May 20, 1955. Wliile at the 
project headquarters Mr. Smith revised and completed the draft of his 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

report on excavations at the site of Fort Berthold II, made largely in 
1952 and completed in 1954, and in collaboration with Alan R. Wool- 
worth of the North Dakota State Historical Society prepared a pre- 
liminary report of the investigations at the site of Fort Berthold I. 
Thronghout the fall and winter months Mr. Smith talked about salvage 
archeology before numerous groups in Lincoln. He reported on the 
current work of the Missouri Basin Project at the 12th Plains Confer- 
ence for Arciieology which was held at Lincoln in November. He also 
presented a paper at the May meeting of the Nebraska Academy of 
Sciences. At the request of the Indian Claims Section, Lands Divi- 
sion, Department of Justice, Mr. Smith was detailed to that organiza- 
tion on May 20 to assist in gathering data for an Indian land-claims 
case. He completed that assignment on Juno 30. A paper by 
Mr, Smith, "Excavations at Fort Stevenson, 1951," was published in 
North Dakota History for July 1954. 

Robert L. Stephenson, chief of the Missouri Basin Project, was at 
the headquarters in Lincoln on July 1. Shortly thereafter he left on 
a tour of inspection of the field parties working in the Missouri Basin. 
He accompanied Dr. John M. Corbett and Paul Beaubien of the Na- 
tional Park Service. The party visited the excavations at the Old- 
ham and CroAv Creek sites and the several sites under investigation by 
Paul L. Cooper. It also went to the Swan Creek site in the Oahe 
Reservoir area. After his return to Lincoln, Mr. Stephenson, in addi- 
tion to directing the operations of the project, continued work on sev- 
eral technical reports. Mr. Stephenson left the field headquarters at 
Lincoln on September 3 and proceeded to Ann Arbor, Mich. He was 
still in leave status at the end of the year. 

Richard P. Wheeler, archeologist, returned to the Lincoln head- 
quarters on July 1 from Jamestown, N. Dak., where he had been con- 
ducting excavations and m.aking surveys in the Jamestown Reservoir 
basin. Wheeler remained in the office throughout the fiscal year. He 
devoted his time to the preparation of reports on the results of his 
excavations in previous years in the Angostura Reservoir area. South 
Dakota, the Boysen and Keyhole Reservoir areas in Wyoming, and 
on the Hintz site in the Jamestown Reservoir area, North Dakota. He 
also prepared several short articles on specific artifact problems and 
wrote several reviews for professional journals. His paper, "A Check 
List of Middle Missouri Pottery Wares, Types, and Subtypes," was 
published in the Plains Anthropologist, No. 2, December 1954. In 
November Wlieeler served as chairman of a symposium on the arche- 
ology of the western plains at the 12th Plains Conference for Arche- 
ology and read a paper summarizing the results of his investigations 
in the Jamestown Reservoir area in 1954. In April he served as chair- 
man of the anthropology section at the 65th Annual Meeting of the 



SEVENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 17 

Nebraska Acndeni}^ of Sciences held at the University of Nebraska. 
At that time he also read a pieliminary statement relating to a study 
of aboriginal dwellings and settlement types in the Northern Plains. 
During the period when Mr. Smith was absent from the office, Mr. 
Wheeler performed such duties of the archeologist in charge as were 
required. At the end of the fiscal year he was preparing to take a 
field party to the Ouhe Dam area in South Dakota where excavations 
were planned for two sites. 

Coopcrat'tng institutions. — A number of State and local institutions 
continued to cooperate in the Inter- Agency Salvage Program through- 
out the year. Some of the State groups worked independently but 
correlated their activities closely with the over-all program. A ma- 
jority of the projects, however, were under agreements between the 
National Park Service and the various organizations. The Historical 
Society of Indiana continued making surveys of proposed reservoir 
areas as part of its general program for archeological studies in that 
State and made reports on the results of its work. The Ohio State 
Archeological and Historical Society carried on salvage operations in 
several localities. In a number of cases the sites involved were not 
in reservoir areas but the need for the recovery of materials was just as 
great as though they were ultimately to go under water. The Archeo- 
logical Survey Association of Southern California continued its volun- 
tarj' recovery of materials at several projects in the San Diego area, 
and the University of California Archeological Survey included sev- 
eral proposed reservoir areas in its general survey progi'am. 

A number of institutions worked under agreements with the Na- 
tional Park Service. The University of California Archeological 
Survey had a party under Dr. Adan E. Treganza, research associate, 
excavating in sites in the Berryessa Valley in the Monticello Res- 
ervoir basin in Napa County, California. The area is an important 
one for linking known Indian groups witli specific types of prehis- 
toric remains and the California party obtained valuable information. 
In the Columbia Basin a party from the University of Oregon, under 
the direction of Dr. L. S. (Pressman, excavated several sites on the 
Oregon side of the river at The Dalles. At that locality there is a 
record of long occupation extending possibly from the closing days 
of the last glacial period to historic times. Dr. Cressnian and his 
associates collected valuable data and interesting specimens in the 
course of their digging. On the Washington side of the Columbia 
River, above The Dalles, a party from the University of Washington 
under Warren Caldwell (>xcavated at the Wakemap Mound, an im- 
portant site in the area because of its depth and stratified deposits. 
Parties from the Univeisity of Missouri, mider the direction of Carl 
H. (^hapman, excavated at a number of sites in the Table Rock Res- 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

ervoir areu, on the White Iliv(M- in Missouri. Tliey investigated live 
open village locations and one cave. At one site evidences vi^ero found 
for three different Indian occupations. Several cultural complexes 
were represented in the materials recovered by the excavations. The 
Table Rock area is important because of the large number of sites 
occurring there and the variety of cultures represented. It is the 
only area remaining in which extensive remains of the Ozark Bluff 
Dwellers are still to be found. Special funds were appropriated for 
fiscal 1956 for the Table Rock area and the University of Missouri 
will continue its operations there throughout the year. Mention has 
already been nuide of the work of the cooperating institutions in the 
Missouri Basin. The River Basin Surveys aided the field activities 
of those groups by the loan of vehicles and other equipment and in 
one instance by making a survey of the site and preparing a detailed 
map locating the numerous features involved. One other project 
in the Missouri Basin consisted of a basin-wide survey of archeologi- 
cal resources by Dr. Jesse D. Jennings of the University of Utah. 
That also was a cooperative agreement with the National Park Service 
and while it was not strictly a salvage undertaking, various phases 
of the survey had a direct bearing on the problems of salvage 
aicheology. 

ARCHIVES 

The Bureau archives continued during the year under the custody 
of Mrs. Margaret C. Blaker. 

MANUSCRIPT COLLECTIONS 

There has been increasing utilization of the manuscript collections 
of the Bureau during the year by students through personal visit, 
mail inquiry, and the purchase of photoreproductions. Approxi- 
mately 225 manuscripts were used by research workers as compared 
with 150 last year. Visitors frequently express surprise as well as 
considerable satisfaction at having located little-known, unpublished 
sources. Publication of at least a skeleton catalog of the collection is 
being considered. 

Additions to the manuscript collection included the personal papers 
of Alice Cunningham Fletcher and her adopted son, Francis La 
Flesche, an Omaha Indian, which were deposited with the Bureau 
by Mrs. G. David Pearlman, Washington, D. C, on indefinite loan. 
Preliminary examination indicates that the collection contains little 
unpublished ethnographic data; its principal interest is biographical 
and historical. 

Dr. Frances Densmore made several additions to her personal 
papers which are in the Bureau, the most substantial being her diaries 
for 1899 and 1905-50. 

The following short manuscripts were received in the past year: 



SEVENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 19 

4467. Lyford, Carrie A. "Dolls of the American Indians." N. d. (ca. 1938). 40 
pp., 40-50 illus. Deposited by Harry Lyford, brother of the author, 
Washington, D, O. 

4425. Whltaker, C. H. (U. S. Consul, Ool<Jn, Panama). "A Report on the 
Customs of the San Bias Indiana" 1954. 86 pp., 62 photogi-aphs, 

1 map. Forwarded by the U. S. Department of State. 

4424. Witthoft, John. "Dakota (?) 'Border and Box' Painted Bison Robe." 

2 pp., 1 illus. Forwarded by the author. 

A number of manuscripts received in previous years but heretofore 
uncataloged were arranged, described, and made available for ref- 
erence, reducing the backlog of such material by about one-third. 
In this group were the papers accumulated by Dr. John R. Swanton 
while acting as cliairman of the United States De Soto Expedition 
Commission, 1935-39. These papers contain an extensive series of 
photocopies of documents in Spanish archives. 

Other manuscripts cataloged and now available for general ref- 
erence are as follows : 

4430. Anonymous. Drawings of tipis and robes obtained by George Miller 
from an Omaha Indian. N. d. 8 pp. Annotated by J. O. Dorsey. 

4452. Anonymous. Drawings by Indians of the Southern Plains. Ca. 1880. 
In two ledger books of 104 nimibered pages each. With one-page letter 
of transmittal from William H. Myer, Washington, D. C, June 3, 1952. 

4442. Bonnerjea, Blren. "Folk-lore in Some Languages of Northern India." 
Address to Anthropological Society of Washington, February, 1933. 
18 pp. 

4450. Capron, Louis. "The Hunting Dance of the Cow Creek Seminoles, Octo- 

ber 1946." 11 pp., 8 illus. 

4444. Carter, John G. (recorder). "Picture Writing of the North American 

Indians Translated by Richard Sanderville, Chief Bull, a member of 
the Blackfeet tribe of Indians of Montana, at the Bureau of American 
Ethnology . . . June 13 to June 18, 1934, from material furnished 
by the Bureau." 27 pp., 5 illus. 

4445. Carter, John G. "Statement of Robert Friday of Fort W^ashakie, Wyoming, 

member of Arapho tribal cotmcil, concerning his gi'andfather, Friday." 
Washington, D. C, 1938. 3 pp., typed. 
4440. Carter, John G. "Statements by Gilbert Day, a Shoshone Indian of 
Fort Washakie in regard to the Peyote Church among the Shoshone 
Indians." Washington, D. C, 1938. 22 pp. 

4447. Carter, John G. "Memorandum on the Proper Usage of the Word 

'Blackfoot' or 'Blackfeet' as Applied to the Siksika, Kalnah and Pikunl, 
or Blackfoot, Blood, and Piegan Tribes." N. d. 8 pp. 

4448. Carter, John G. "Big Snake, Oh-muck-see Sin-a-kwan, or Loud Voice, 

also Called Black Snake Man, a Piegan Indian Chief." N. d. 15 pp. 

4451. Cleveland, A. G. "The San Bias Coast." N. d. 77 pp. Also miscellaneous 

Items relating to the Cuna and Tule Indians, including a notebook of 
picture writing and 8 pp. of interpretations. 
4438. Clifford, Capt. Walter. "The Indian Campaign of 1876." Chapters 
written for the Rocky Mountain Husbandman. N. d. About 50 pp., 
unarranged. 

. "Notes at Random." Journal, Oct. 6, 1879-Nov. 4, 1879. 

Copy. 15 pp. 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

4433. Cuoc, Jean Andre. Mohawk-French Dictionary. N. d. 1 vol., 973 pp. 

Dialect spoken at Lake of Two Mountains, Caughnawaga, and St. Regis 
in Quebec, Canada. 

4436. Fenton, William Nelson. Papers accumulated while acting as representa- 

tive of the Smithsonian Institution on the Policy Board of the National 

Indian Institute, 1948-50. About 80 pp. 
4429. Glroux, Louis J. "Sketch of the Mayo and Yaqui Indians, who are helping 

to fight Carranza." Nogales, Ariz (sic), 1920. 5 pp. 
4463. Harrington, John P. "The Indian Place Names of Maine." 1949. 2 

boxes, contents itemized in catalog. 
4421. Genealogical chart by Hewitt showing his ancestory. 3 oversize sheets. 
4459. (Lee, Dale?). Field plans and profiles of Murphy Mound, North Carolina. 

N. d. (W. P. A. period.) Miscellaneous oversize sheets in 1 roll. 
4435. Newcomb, Franc J. "Navaho Ceremonies." Observations made on Navaho 

Reservation, Newcomb, N. Mex., 1939. About 80 pp., with snapshots, 

drawings, and botanical samples. 
4441. (Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe?). "The Age of Science: A Satire in Ten 

Numbers." Verses to Washington Irving, George Bancroft, B. Butler, 

John Torrey, Frederick Hall, Dr. Skinner, Charles F. Hoffman, John A. 

Dix, Henry Inman, and Lewis Cass. 1840. About 42 pp. 

4437. Snider, G. L. "A Maker of Shavings." Manuscript based on information 

from Edward Forte, known to the Indians of Standing Rock Agency as 
Chau Cozhepa (A Maker of Shavings), formerly First Sgt., Troop "D," 
7th Cavalry, and said to be the last white man who talked with Sitting 
Bull. With miscellaneous notes, including 4-page statement by Sgt. 
Forte, 12-page letter from Forte to Frank Fiske, Oct. 21, 1932, and 4 
photographs. 
4432. Stirling. Matthew W. Field notes on archeological work In the vicinity 
of Mobridge, S. Dak., 1923, with extracts from various sources. 
150-200 pp. 

4439. Swanton, John R. "The Psi Capacities." Discussion of extrasensory 

perception. Ca. 1950. 94 pp. 
4443. Tauber, Charles. "Entzifferung der Osterinsel-Hieroglyphen." 86 pp. 
(In German.) 

4434. Taylor, Douglas. "Notes on the Carib of Dominica." Test, notes, an- 

thropometric data, photographs, drawings, and correspondence received 
1938-40. 

4440. Verrill, John. "Results of Preliminary Survey of the Archeology and 

Ethnology of the Atrato Valley of Colombia, South America." 27 pp. 
Cuna glossary, 8 pp. Glossary with ethnographic notes, tribe uniden- 
fied, 11 pp. 5 maps. About 59 snapshots of Cuna and Choco Indians, 
with 8 pp. of captions and background information. N. d. Received 
1933. 
4431. Woodbury, George. "Preliminary Report on Excavation of Mortuary 
Moimds in Brevard County, Florida East Coast." Archeological Report 
of CWA Project 5-F-70, Dec. IS, 1933-Feb. 15, 1934. 12 pp., 11 maps, 
about 200 photographs (mainly uncaptioned). 

Additional progress was made in the amplification of the catalog 
by preparing nevr and detailed descriptions of manuscripts that had 
been only briefly listed in the original catalog many years ago. The 
usefulness of the catalog has been increased by cross-referencing the 
additional subjects. 



SEVENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 21 

A number of nonmanuscript items, which had previously been 
housed in the archives, were transferred to more suitable repositories. 
Ajnong these were wax cylinder recordings of Indian songs, wliich 
were transferred to the Bureau's record deposit in the music division 
of the Library of Congress. Ten cylinders contained Hopi songs 
recorded about 1900 and bore descriptive labels largely unintelligible 
except to a specialist in the Hopi language. Dr. Frederick Dock- 
stader, a Hopi specialist, assisted in the interpretation of these labels 
before the recordings were sent to the Library. 

A collection of mounted plant specimens unrelated to ethnological 
studies collected by Dr. A. E. Jenks early in his professional career 
were transferred to the University of Mimiesota, with which Dr. Jenks 
was long associated. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTIONS 

Public interest in the photographic collections continues to grow. 
Additions to the photographic collection included an album of photo- 
graphs relating principally to Indians made by William S. Soule in 
the vicinity of Fort Dodge, Kans., Camp Supply, Okla., and 
Fort Sill, Okla., in 1867-74. Although numerous examples of the 
fine work of this frontier photographer have long been in the Bureau, 
and have appeared in Bureau publications, the new volume is notable 
in that it belonged to the photographer and contains captions written 
by him. It also contains a number of prints not previously received, 
including a likeness of Soule himself. The photographs were pre- 
sented by l^iiss Lucia A. Soule of Boston, the daughter of the photog- 
rapher. 

A group of 32 negatives made on the Madeira, Tapajoz, and Xingu 
Rivers, Brazil, in 1911-12, were presented by the photographer, 
Francisco von Teuber, engineer. They include views of the country 
and the Indians of the region. 

Copy negatives were made for the Bureau files of a number of 
photographs from the personal collection of the late A. K. Fisher, 
well-known naturalist. The photographs were lent by Dr. Fisher's 
daughter-in-law, Mrs. Walter K. Fisher, of Pacific Grove, Calif., 
before she donated Dr. Fisher's personal papers, including photo- 
graphs, to the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. 

Photographs copied include views of Tlingit and Haida villages on 
the Alaskan coast and of habitations at Plover Bay, Siberia, all made 
on the Harriman Expedition to Alaska in 1899. A few photographs 
of Hawaiians made by H. W. Henshaw about 1900 and a series of 
photos made and collected by E. W. Nelson in Mexico in 1902 were 
also copied. 

A group of commercial portraits of Indians, collected by Gen. E. R. 
Kellogg while in command at Fort Washakie, Wyo., about 1891, was 
donated by his daughter, Mrs. Robert Newbegin, of Toledo, Ohio. 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Two important sets of photographs were obtained for reference 
purposes from other institutions (which retain the negatives and the 
right to grant publication permission). The first is a set of 86 
photographs of paintings of Indians by Paul Kane and a microfilm 
copy of Kane's sketchbook, made on his trip across the continent to 
the Pacific Northwest in 1845^8. The photographs were purchased 
from the Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology, Toronto, which 
owns the original paintings. The second reference collection con- 
sists of approximately 400 copy prints of photographs relating to the 
Indians of the Plains made by Stanley J. Morrow in the 1870's and 
1880's. The prints were received from the W. PI. Over Museum of the 
University of South Dakota, tlirough the River Basin Surveys. 

In addition to photographs recently received from sources outside 
the Bureau, a collection of some 1,000 photographic prints made in 
the years 1880-1905 and representing about 130 Indian tribes was 
transferred from the photographic laboratory. A number of re- 
searchers have benefited this year from the newly available material, 
and copy negatives are being made as required. 

Another project making available additional photographic re- 
sources in the Bureau was begun in the past year. It was found that 
a number of former staff members and collaborators had deposited 
rather extensive series of snapshot and other small negatives. Most 
of these were in labeled jackets, now deteriorating, and were without 
prints. 

Prints were requisitioned for some 260 of James Mooney's negatives 
of Arapaho, Kiowa, Comanche, Navaho, and Cherokee; by the end 
of the year about half of these had been sorted and arranged with 
proper identification, and placed in protective vinylfilm albums. It 
is hoped that in time similar groups of photographs by M. C. Steven- 
son, W J McGee, W. H. Holmes, F. W. Hodge, A. E. Jenks, J. O. 
Dorsey, and others may be processed in the same way. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Throughout the year work was continued by E. G. Schmnacher, 
illustrator, on drawings, charts, maps, diagrams, and sundry other 
illustrative tasks concerning the publications and work of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology, including the River Basin Surveys. He also 
made a variety of drawings for other branches of the Institution. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 
There were issued 1 Annual Report and 4 Bulletins, as follows : 

Seventy-first Annual Report of the Bureau of American Blhnolo^, 1953-1954. 
ii+17 pp. 1955. 



SEVENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 23 

Bulletin 157. Anthropological Papers, Nos. 43-48. iii-|-415 pp., 76 pis., 23 figs. 
1955. 
No. 43. Stone monuments of the Rio Chiquito, Veracruz, Mexico, by 

Matthew W. Stirling. 
No. 44. The Cerro de las Mesas offering of jade and other materials, by 

Philip Drucker. 
No. 45. Archeological materials from the vicinity of Mobridge, South Da- 
kota, by Waldo R. Wedel. 
No. 46. The original Strachey vocabulary of the Virginia Indian language, 

by John P. Harrington. 
No. 47. The Sun Dance of the Northern Ute, by J. A. Jones. 
No. 48. Some manifestations of water In Mesoamerican art, by Robert L. 
Rands. 
Bulletin 158. River Basin Surveys Paper No. 7. Archeological investigations 
in the Oahe Dam area. South Dakota, 1950-51, by Donald J. Lehmer. xi-f 190 
pp., 22 pis., 56 figs., 6 maps. 1954. 
Bulletin 159. The horse in Blackfoot Indian culture, with comparative mate- 
rial from other western tribes, by John C. Ewers. xv-}-374 pp., 17 pis., 33 
figs., 1955. 
Bulletin 160. A ceramic study of Virginia archeology, by Clifford Evans. With 
an appendix : An analysis of projectile points and large blades, by C. G. Hol- 
land, viii-f 196 pp., 30 pis., 23 figs., 1 chart. 1955. 

The following publications were in press at the close of the fiscal 
year: 

Bulletin 161. Seminole music, by Frances Densmore. 

Bulletin 162. Guayml grammar, by Ephraim S. Alphonse. 

Bulletin 163. The Din6: Origin myths of the Navaho Indians, by Aileen 
O'Bryan. 

Publications distributed totaled 24,533 as compared with 21,222 for 
the fiscal year 1954. 

COLLECTIONS 

Ace. No. 

202531. Archeological materials consisting of potsherds collected by Dr. Matthew 

W. Stirling on Taboguilla Island in 1953. 
203786. Insects, 95 mammals, and 15 marine invertebrates from Southampton 

and Coats Islands collected by National Geographic Society, National 

Museum of Canada, and Smithsonian Institution Expedition, 1954, 

led by Dr. Henry B. Collins. 
204571. 385 plants collected by James Mooney at Cherokee Reservation, Qualla, 

N. C, in 1888. 
205978. Models of heraldry, peyote and game equipment, collected by James 

Mooney among the Kiowa Indians. 
206445. 1 badger from New Mexico. 

FROM RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

202135. Archeological material from the Allatoona Reservoir area on the Etowah 
River, Cherokee, Bartow, and Cobb Counties, Ga. 

202358. 327 specimens of archeological material consisting of potsherds, copper, 
stone, bone, and shell objects, from 3 sites in Tuttle Creek Reservoir, 
Pottawatomie County, Kans., collected by Missouri Basin Project 
field parties in 1952-53. 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

202532. 120 archeological specimens from site 35-WS-5, Dalles Reservoir on 

Columbia River, Wasco County, Oreg. 
202537. Archeological materials from the Conomaugh Reservoir, Pennsylvania, 

scattered sites in Marshall and Wetzel Counties, W. Va., and Cheatham 

and Old Hickory Reservoirs, Tenn., collected by Ralph S. Solecki, 

1950 and 1954. 
203964. Archeological material from 2 sites in Cachuma Reservoir areas on Santa 

Ynez River, Santa Barbara County, Calif. 

205436. Archeological material in and about Broncho Reservoir, Mercer County ; 

Dickenson Reservoir Area, Stark County; Kochler site, Heart Butte 
Reservoir, Grant County, all in North Dakota. 

205437. 21,046 archeological specimens from 2 sites in Oahe Reservoir, Stanley 

County, S. Dak. 

205438. Archeological material from sites in and about Garrison Reservoir, In 

Dunn, Mercer, McLean, Mountrail, and Williams Counties, N. Dak. 
205526. 797 archeological specimens from Allatoona Reservoir area, Cherokee 

County, Ga. 
206347. 3,648 archeological specimens from Montana, collected by the Missouri 

Basin Project. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Dr. Frances Densmore, Dr. John R. Swanton, Dr. Antonio J. 
Waring, Jr., and Ralph S. Solecki continued as collaborators of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology. Dr. John P. Harrington is continu- 
ing his researches with the Bureau as research associate. On April 12, 
1955, Sister M. Inez Hilger, an ethnologist and a teacher at the School 
of Nursing, Saint Cloud Hospital, Saint Cloud, Minn., was appointed 
an honorary research associate of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Information was furnished during the past year by members of the 
Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning the American 
Indians, past and present, of both continents. The increased number 
of requests from teachers, particularly from primary and secondary 
grades, from Scout organizations, and from the general public, indi- 
cates a continuously growing interest in the American Indian. Vari- 
ous specimens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them 
furnished for their owners. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Sttrling, Director. 

Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTINS OFFICE: 1956 



Seventy-third Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1955-1956 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D.C. 



SEVENTY-THIRD 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1955-1956 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1957 






BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
June 30, 1956 

Director. — Matthew W. Stirling. 
Associate Director. — Frank H. II. Roberts, Jr. 
Anthropologists. — H. B. Collins, Jr., William C. Sturtevant. 
Collaborators. — Frances Densmore, John R. Swanson, A. J. Waring, Jr., 

Ralph S. Soleck. 
Research Associate. — John P. Harrington. 
Archives Assistant. — Margaret C. Blaker. 
Scientific Illustrator. — E. G. Schumacher. 

RIViER BASIN SURVEYS 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Archeologists. — Carl F. Miller, G. Hubert Smith, Robert L. Stephen- 
son, Richard P. Wheeler. 
II 



SEVENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



M. W. Stirling, Director 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1956, conducted in 
accordance with the Act of Congress of April 10, 1928, as amended 
August 22, 1949, which directs the Bureau "to continue independently 
or in cooperation anthropological researches among the American 
Indians and the natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection 
of the United States and the excavation and preservation of archeologic 
remains." 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

Dr. M, W. Stirling, Director of the Bureau, remained in Washington 
during the major portion of the fiscal year. In addition to regular 
administrative duties, he continued studies on the archeological collec- 
tions made in Panama during 1952 and 1953. In May and June he 
made two brief inspection trips to Kussell Cave in Jackson County, 
Alabama, where Carl Miller conducted archeological excavations 
under the auspices of the Bureau and financed by the National Geo- 
graphic Society. The services of Mr. Miller were lent to the Bureau 
by the Eiver Basin Surveys for six weeks, the duration of this work. 
The excavations, which reached a depth of 14 feet in the cave floor, 
gave evidence of a fairly continuous occupation which extended from 
approximately A. D. 1650 to the early Archaic. Samples from the 
14-foot level yielded a carbon-14 date of 8160 B. P. (before the present) 
± 300. 

The beginning of the fiscal year found Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, 
Jr., Associate Director of the Bureau and Director of the River Basin 
Surveys, on an inspection trip in the Missouri Basin. He visited 
survey and excavation parties working in the Oahe Reservoir basin 
in North Dakota and South Dakota and the Fort Randall Reservoir 
area, also in South Dakota. After his return to Washington he 
devoted practically full time to the management of the River Basin 
Surveys program and in reviewing and revising a number of manu- 
script reports on the results of investigations in various areas. In 
October Dr. Roberts went to Clarksville, Mo., to attend the annual fall 
meeting of the Missouri Archeological Society. He spoke at one of the 
sessions on the subject "The Inter-Agency Archeological Salvage 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Program." From Clarksville he proceeded to the field headquarters 
at Lincoln, Nebr., where he reviewed the results obtained by the field 
parties, working in the Missouri Basin during the summer and early 
fall months. Following his return to Washington he participated 
in the annual meeting of the Committee for the Recovery of Archeo- 
logical Remains. During the winter and early spring months Dr. 
Roberts worked on the manuscript of an article summarizing the activ- 
ities and the results of the archeological salvage program for the 
10 years that it has been operating. In May he went to the Lincoln 
office to assist in the preparation of plans for the summer's fieldwork 
in the Missouri Basin. He was in the Washington office at the end 
of the fiscal year. 

During the first two months of the fiscal year Dr. Henry B. Collins, 
anthropologist, with three assistants conducted archeological field- 
work on Southampton and Walrus Islands in Hudson Bay. The 
work was sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and the National 
Museum of Canada and was supported in part by a grant from the 
American Philosophical Society. The party, consisting of Dr. Col- 
lins, Dr. J. N. Emerson, University of Toronto, William E. Taylor, 
Jr., National Museum of Canada, and James V. Wright, anthropology 
student at the University of Toronto, left Montreal by R. C. A. F. air- 
craft on June 8, 1955, and arrived at Coral Harbour, Southampton 
Island, the following day. On June 13 they went by Eskimo dog 
team over the sea ice to Native Point, an abandoned Eskimo village 
site 40 miles down the coast, where they camped for the summer. 
Native Point (Tunermiut) was the principal settlement of the Sadler- 
miut, the aboriginal Eskimo tribe of Southampton Island, the last of 
whom died there in an epidemic in the winter of 1902-3. The site 
consists of the ruins of 75 semisubterranean stone and sod houses in 
addition to a dozen old "quarmats" or autumn houses built by the 
Aivilik Eskimos who have camped there in recent years. Hundreds 
of stone graves, cairns, and meat caches lie along the beach near the 
site and on the old shorelines in every direction for miles around. 
Excavation of house ruins, middens, and graves at the main Sadler- 
miut site and two smaller sites nearby supplemented the work of the 
previous year and provided an adequate picture of the material cul- 
ture and way of life of the Sadlermiut Eskimos. The Sadlermiut are 
commonly thought to have been descended from the Thule Eskimos 
who migrated from Alaska to Canada and Greenland some seven or 
eight hundred years ago. However, from the work on Southampton 
and Walrus Islands it seems more likely that the Sadlermiut had 
merely been influenced in some ways by the Thule culture and that they 
were actually the descendants of the prehistoric Dorset Eskimos, who 
were the other, and principal, object of study by the expedition. 



SEVENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 6 

The main Dorset site at which excavations were made lies a mile to 
the east of the Sadlermiut site. It is situated on the gently sloping 
surface of a 70-foot high headland which had once fronted the sea 
but which now lies half a mile back from the present beach. The site 
consists of shallow midden deposits, covered by a low, sparse growth 
of vegetation, extending for an area of well over 20 acres, one of the 
largest Dorset sites known. The site was designated T 1, from 
Tunermiut, the Eskimo name for Native Point. A second, later 
Dorset site was found near the Sadlermiut site and called T 2. A 
third Dorset site, T 3, slightly later than T 1, was found on the old 
beach line immediately below it, at an elevation of 40 feet above sea 
level. Samples of charred bone excavated at the T 1 site in 1954 were 
submitted to the University of Pennsylvania Carbon-14 Laboratory 
and found to be 2060±230 years old. The thousands of stone, ivory, 
and bone artifacts found at T 1 and T 3, though conforming in general 
to the basic Dorset culture pattern, were in many respects specifically 
different from those found at other Dorset sites in Canada and Green- 
land. Flint implements, which were far more abundant than any 
other artifacts, were small and delicately chipped, like Dorset im- 
plements generally, but most of them differed in form from previously 
known Dorset types, and some of them were unlike anything known 
from America. The majority of the blades would be described as 
microlithic, and some of them in shape and technique were similar to 
microlithic types from pre-Eskimo sites in Alaska and Mesolithic 
sites in the Old World. The cultural material from T 1 and T 3 seems 
to represent an older, simpler stage leading up to the classic Dorset 
culture; it should probably be referred to as formative or proto- 
Dorset. All f aunal remains from the excavations were preserved. The 
thousands of bird bones and occasional fish bones and mollusks were 
brought back to the Smithsonian for identification. The mammal 
bones were counted and as many as possible identified in the field. 
As a result of the bone count some striking differences were observed 
in the food economy of the Sadlermiut and Dorset Eskimos. 

Five days in July were devoted to excavations at an abandoned 
village site on Walrus Island. The houses, which had been made of 
massive blocks of granite, proved to be Dorset rather than Sadlermiut 
as expected, and provided the first adequate information on the house 
types of the Dorset Eskimos. The artifacts from the houses were 
typical or classic Dorset, different from and later than those from the 
proto-Dorset site T 1 at Native Point. Plants, fossils, and insects, 
including ectoparasites on birds and lemmings, were also collected 
during the summer. 

Two preliminary reports on the Southampton and Walrus Island 
work were prepared by Dr. Collins, one for the Annual Keport of the 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

National IMuseum of Canada and the other for Anthropological Papers 
of the University of Alaska. "Archaeological Research in the Ameri- 
can Arctic,'' a general article describing the current status of Arctic 
archeology, was published in Arctic Research, Special Publication 
No. 2 of the Arctic Institute of North America. Dr. Collins continued 
to serve as a member of the Board of Governors of the Arctic Institute 
of North America and of its committee on research. As chairman of 
the Directing Committee of Arctic Bibliography, he continued to 
supervise the preparation of this work, a comprehensive annotated 
bibliography which lists and summarizes the contents of publications 
in all fields of science relating to the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of 
the world. Volume 6 of the Bibliography, 1,208 pages, was issued 
by the Government Printing Office in April 1956, and material for 
volume 7, of approximately the same size, was turned over to the 
printer in June. Funds for the preparation of an eighth volume were 
obtained from the Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, 
and the Defense Research Board of Canada. As a member of the 
Permanent Comicil and the Organizing Committee of the Interna- 
tional Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Dr. 
Collins participated in the work of planning for the fifth session of 
the Congress to be held in Philadelphia, September 1-9, 1956. At the 
close of the fiscal year Dr. Collins was in Europe, making a survey of 
Mesolithic materials in museums for their possible bearing on the 
Eskimo problem. 

At the begimiing of the fiscal year Dr. Philip Drucker was in 
Mexico finishing up his fieldwork at La Venta, studying the material 
collected there and comparing it with the collections in the Museo 
Nacional at Mexico City. It was through Dr. Drucker's intercession 
that the U. S. National IMuseum received a collection of 187 polished 
jadeite and other stone objects from La Venta as a loan from the 
Museo Nacional of Mexico. Upon his return to Washington in Sep- 
tember he completed the writing of his share of the final report on the 
La Venta excavations, and also completed and submitted for publica- 
tion his manuscript on the Native Brotherhood Societies of Alaska 
and British Columbia. On December 9, 1955, Dr. Drucker resigned 
from the Bureau. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 
(Prepared by Frank H. H. Robekts, Jr., Director, from data submitted by staff members) 

Throughout the year River Basin Surveys continued its program 
for salvage archeology in areas to be flooded or otherw^ise destroyed 
by the construction of large dams. As in previous years, the work 
was carried on in cooperation with the National Park Service and 
the Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of the Interior, the 
Corps of Engineers of the Department of the Army, and a number of 



SEVENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 5 

State and local institutions. An increase in funds for the fiscal year 
made possible more extensive investigations than in the preceding 
year. During 1955-56 the program of the River Basin Surveys was 
financed by a transfer of $92,360 from the National Park Service 
and a grant of $12,000 from the Idaho Power Co. The funds from 
the National Park Service were for use in the Missouri Basin. A 
carryover of $3,663 from the previous year made the total available 
for operations in the Missouri Basin $96,023. The grant from the 
Idaho Power Co. was to provide for the excavation of sites along 
the Snake River in Oregon-Idaho which will be flooded by the con- 
struction of that company's Brownlee and Hells Canyon dams. The 
latter funds were the first for work outside the Missouri Basin made 
available to the River Basin Surveys in several years. 

Investigations in the field during the j^ear consisted of surveys and 
excavations. Most of the efforts were concentrated in the digging 
of sites. Because of a slight delay in receiving the new Federal funds, 
it was the middle of July before parties were sent out from the field 
headquarters at Lincoln, Nebr. On July 15 a survey party began in- 
vestigations in the Tiber Reservoir. On July 18 a second party start- 
ed digging at a fortified village site near the mouth of the Cheyenne 
River in the Oahe Reservoir area, and on July 20 a third party started 
operations in the vicinity of the Oahe Dam near Pierre, S. Dak. In 
May a historic-sites party began excavations at the location of an early 
trading post in the area of the outlet channel below the Oahe Dam. 
Early in June a second party returned to the Cheyenne site and re- 
sumed excavations at that locality. Later a third party proceeded to 
a village site near Whitlocks Crossing in the Oahe Reservoir basin 
and started investigations where no previous work had been done. 
On June 2 a survey party began operations in the Big Bend Reservoir 
area near Fort Thompson, S. Dak., and on June 12 an excavating party 
began digging a site in the Lovewell Reservoir area in northern 
Kansas. Late in June a party proceeded to Robinette, Oreg., where it 
established camp and initiated excavations in one of the Snake River 
sites. All these parties were continuing their investigations at the 
close of the fiscal year. During the year no paleontological studies 
were made in any of the areas by the River Basin Surveys. However, 
some fossil collecting was done by State institutions. 

As of June 30, 1956, reservoir areas where archeological surveys 
and excavations had been made since the Salvage Program got under 
way in 1946 totaled 244 in 27 States ; also four canal areas and one lock 
project had been investigated. The survey parties have located and 
reported 4,365 archeological sites, and of that number 862 have been 
recommended for limited testing or excavation. The term "excava- 
tion" in this connection implies digging approximately 10 percent of 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

a site. Preliminary appraisal reports have been issued for all the 
reservoirs surveyed, and in cases where additional reconnaissance has 
resulted in the finding of other sites supplemental reports have been 
prepared. During the last fiscal year four such reports were w^ritten 
and wei'Q distributed in a single mimeographed pamphlet. Through- 
out the years since the initiation of the program 181 reports have been 
distributed. The discrepancy between that figure and the total num- 
ber of reservoirs visited is due to the fact that in several instances 
the information obtained from a whole series of proposed reservoir 
projects occurring in a basin or subbasin has been included in a single 
report. 

By the end of the fiscal year 329 sites in 46 reservoir basins scattered 
over 17 different States had either been tested or partially dug. Only 
a single site was excavated in some of the reservoir areas, while in 
others a whole series was studied. Thus far at least one example of 
each type of site recorded in the preliminary surveys has been ex- 
amined. The results of certain phases of the excavations have ap- 
peared in various scientific journals and in the bulletins of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology and the Miscellaneous Collections of the 
Smithsonian Institution. During the year River Basin Surveys Paper 
No. 8, which is to be Bulletin 166 of the Bureau of American Ethnol- 
ogy, was sent to the printer, and at the close of the year galley proofs 
of the publication were being read by the author. Two detailed tech- 
nical reports on the results of earlier work were completed during the 
year and are ready for publication. 

The reservoir projects that have been surveyed for archeological 
remains as of June 30, 1956, were distributed as follows : Alabama, 
1; California, 20; Colorado, 24; Georgia, 5; Idaho, 11; Illinois, 2; 
Kansas, 10 ; Kentucky, 2 ; Louisiana, 2 ; Minnesota, 1 ; Mississippi, 1 ; 
Montana, 15 ; Nebraska, 28 ; New Mexico, 1 ; North Dakota, 13 ; Ohio, 
2; Oklahoma, 7; Oregon, 27; Pennsylvania, 2; South Dakota, 10; 
Tennessee, 4; Texas, 19; Virginia, 2; Washington, 11; West Virginia, 
2 ; and Wyoming, 22. 

Excavations have been made or were under way in reservoir basins 
in: California, 5; Colorado, 1; Georgia, 4; Kansas, 4; Montana, 1; 
Nebraska, 1 ; New Mexico, 1 ; North Dakota, 4 ; Oklahoma, 2 ; Oregon, 
4 ; South Carolina, 1 ; South Dakota, 4 ; Texas, 7 ; Virginia, 1 ; Wash- 
ington, 4 ; West Virginia, 1 ; and Wyoming, 2, The foregoing figures 
include only the work of the River Basin Surveys or that in which 
there was direct cooperation with local institutions. Projects that were 
carried on by local institutions under agreements with the National 
Park Service are not included because complete information about 
them is not available. 



SEVENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 7 

During the year the River Basin Surveys continued to receive help- 
ful cooperation from the National Park Service, the Bureau of Rec- 
lamation, the Corps of Engineers, the Geological Survey, and various 
State and local institutions. Transportation and guides were fur- 
nished in a number of instances, and mechanical equipment made 
available by the construction agency speeded the work at a number 
of locations. Temporary headquarters as well as living accommoda- 
tions were made available at several projects. Detailed maps of the 
reservoirs under investigation were supplied by the agency concerned 
and helpful information was provided whenever it was needed. The 
National Park Service continued to function as the liaison between 
the various agencies both in Washington and in the field and through 
its regional offices obtained information about the locations for dams 
and reservoirs as well as data concerning construction priorities. The 
National Park Service was also chiefly responsible for the preparation 
of estimates and justifications and in procuring funds for carrying 
on the program. Had it not been for the enthusiastic assistance of the 
personnel in all the cooperating agencies, it would not have been 
possible for the River Basin Surveys to have accomplished so much 
for the year. 

General direction and supervision of the program were continued 
by the main office in Washington. The field headquarters and labora- 
tory at Lincoln, Nebr., was in direct charge of the work in the Missouri 
Basin. All the materials collected in the Missouri Basin were proc- 
essed at the Lincoln laboratory and subsequently two large lots of 
specimens were transferred to the U. S. National Museum. Through 
the cooperation of the Washington State Museum at Seattle, the Snake 
River party was provided with a base of operations. The general 
direction of the activities in that area, however, was from the Wash- 
ington office. 

Washington office. — The main headquarters of the River Basin 
Surveys at the Bureau of American Ethnology continued throughout 
the year under the direction of Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. Carl 
F. Miller, archeologist, wiis based on that office and assisted the direc- 
tor in general administrative duties from time to time. William M. 
Bass was added to the staff on June 18 as a temporary physical 
anthropologist. 

Mr. Miller reported to the Lincoln office shortly after the beginning 
of the fiscal year and worked in the Missouri Basin until late in 
September, when he returned to the Washington office. His activities 
during the summer are covered in the IMissouri Basin portion of this 
report. After his return to Washington he prepared a series of brief 
reports on the results of his fieldwork and then turned his attention 
to his unfinished report on his previous investigations at the John H. 

4113.'i0- -57 2 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

KeiT (Buggs Island) Reservoir in Virginia. In April Mr. Miller was 
transferred to the regular staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
for the purpose of carrying on investigations in a cave in Jackson 
County, Ala., where the deposits contained a long sequence of Indian 
cultural history. He returned from Alabama in June and resumed his 
duties as a member of the River Basin Surveys staff. He proceeded 
to Lincoln, Nebr., and on June 21 left for South Dakota where he 
began excavations at a site in the Oahe Reservoir area. During the 
months in the Washington office Mr. Miller spoke before a number 
of Boy Scout troops and acted as scientific consultant to a number of 
high-school students who were participating in a science contest in 
Alexandria, Va. During the year Mr. Miller's manuscript "Revalua- 
tion of the Eastern Siouan Problem, with Particular Emphasis on 
the Virginia Branches — the Occaneechi, the Saponi, and the Tutelo," 
which was a byproduct of his study of the data pertaining to the 
John H. Kerr Reservoir, was sent to the printer and will appear as 
Anthropological Paper No. 52 in Bulletin 164 of the Bureau of 
American Etlinology. 

After joining the River Basin Surveys Mr. Bass began a study of 
the human skeletal material that had been collected in the Missouri 
Basin and transferred to the U. S. National Museum. His work was 
well under way at the end of the year. 

Columbia Basin. — After a lapse of several years the River Basin 
Surveys resumed investigations in the Columbia Basin late in the 
fiscal year. On June 11 Dr. Warren W. Caldwell joined the staff 
as archeologist. He left Seattle, Wash., on June 22 and proceeded 
with a party to Robinette, Oreg., where camp was established and 
excavations were started in a cave not far from the town of Robinette. 
The latter is built on a series of Indian sites, and tests were to be made 
also at various places in the town. The party was actively engaged 
in its investigations at the close of the year. 

A report, "Excavations in the McNary Reservoir Basin near Uma- 
tilla, Oregon," by Dr. Douglas Osborne, was sent to the printer toward 
the end of the fiscal year. It will appear as River Basin Surveys 
Paper No. 8, Bulletin 16G of the Bureau of American Ethnology. The 
report covers investigations made during a previous year when the 
River Basin Surveys was operating a full-scale program along the 
Columbia River. 

Missouri Basin. — The Missouri Basin project continued to operate 
throughout fiscal 1956 from the field headquarters and laboratory at 
1517 "O" Street, Lincoln, Nebr. Except for periods of one week in 
August and two weeks in September, when he was detailed to the 
Department of Justice to assist in an Indian Lands Claim case, G. 
Hubert Smith served as archeologist-in-charge from July 1 to Janu- 



SEVENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 9 

ary 10. On the latter date Dr. Kobert L. Stephenson, chief, returned 
from academic leave and resumed direction of the project. Activities 
during the year included all four phases of the Salvage Program : (1) 
survey; (2) excavation; (3) analysis; and (4) reporting. Phases 2 
and 3 received the greatest attention however. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year the Missouri Basin project had 
a permanent staff of eight, six assigned to the Lincoln office and two 
to the Washington office. Since the chief was in leave status there 
actually were only seven on active duty. Dr. Waldo R. Wedel, arche- 
ologist, and George Metcalf, field assistant, were detailed to the 
Missouri Basin project from the U. S. National Museum during July 
and August. In July, August, September, and October there were 
20 temporary student and local nonstudent employees working in 
the field. Their services were gradually terminated as excavations 
were brought to a close, and by November 5 only the permanent staff 
remained. During the winter and early spring months a clerk- 
stenographer, a photographer, and a part-time records custodian were 
employed. These permanent additions to the staff continued on duty 
throughout the remainder of the year. In addition, a temporary part- 
time draftsman and a temporary part-time photographer assisted in 
the laboratory on various occasions. Wedel and Metcalf were again 
detailed to the Missouri Basin project on June 5 and were working 
for it at the close of the fiscal year. One temporary field assistant 
entered on duty May 28 and another on June 11. Both were with 
field parties at the end of the year. A temporary physical anthro- 
pologist was appointed on June 18 and was assigned to the Wash- 
ington office to prepare reports on the skeletal materials from various 
Missouri Basin sites. The archeologist assigned to the Washington 
office returned to the Missouri Basin on June 20 and was on duty there 
at the end of the fiscal year. Also, 29 temporary student and local 
nonstudent laborers were employed in the field. Thus at the close of 
the year there were 11 permanent employees, 2 employees detailed to 
the Surveys, 2 temporary field assistants, 1 temporary physical anthro- 
pologist, and 29 temporary laborers on the staff of the Missouri Basin 
project. 

During the year eight River Basin Surveys field parties operated 
in the Missouri Basin, three in the period July-October and five in the 
period May-June. One party in the July-October period and one in 
the May-June period were occupied in survey and site-testing activ- 
ities. One party in the May-June period was engaged in the excava- 
tion of a historic site. The other five were excavating in prehistoric 
and protohistoric Indian village sites. Other fieldwork in the Mis- 
souri Basin during the year included six field parties from State insti- 
tutions working under agreements with the National Park Service 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

and in cooperation with the Smithsonian Institution. Three of these 
parties were in the field in the July-October period and three in the 
May-eTune period. 

In the Tiber Keservoir area a small field party directed by Carl F. 
Miller conducted excavations along the Marias River in north-central 
Montana from July 19 to August 16. Various sites located by previ- 
ous Smithsonian Institution parties in the area were revisited and 
excavations were conducted at site 24TL26. This site proved to be 
of Woodland affiliation with some possible earlier and later sporadic 
occupation. Other sites visited by previous parties and recommended 
for further study have been destroyed by periodic flooding in the area, 
and on the completion of the 1955 season no further work was recom- 
mended for the reservoir. 

In the Pactola Reservoir basin, the Carl F. Miller party conducted 
investigations on Rapid Creek in Pennington County, S. Dak., August 
19-24. A brief survey had been made there in 1948 by a Smithsonian 
Institution field party, but heavy vegetation prevented adequate in- 
vestigation at that time. Miller's party failed to fuid any archeo- 
logical materials and no further work was recommended for the area. 

In the Merritt Reservoir basin, the Carl F. Miller party conducted 
investigations on the Snake River and Boardman's Creek in Cherry 
County, Nebr., from August 26 to September 2. Sites recorded by 
a previous Smithsonian Institution party were revisited, sampled, 
and analyzed. Two of these had largely been covered by windblown 
sand, one was test excavated, and two yielded Woodland and later 
materials. Several blowouts were examined where chipped-stone arti- 
facts were recovered. No further work was recommended for this 
area, until such time as construction activities might bring to light 
new material. 

In the Glendo Reservoir area, on the North Platte River in Platte 
County, Wyo., the Carl F. Miller party continued its field season 
from September 5 to 13. Investigations there consisted of a reexam- 
ination of sites located by an earlier Smithsonian Institution field 
party and recording of two new sites. One site, 48PL15, remains as 
the principal locality for further examination in the Glendo Reservoir 
area, and work will be started there early in the new fiscal year. 

In the Oahe Reservoir area, the Carl F. Miller party concluded its 
field season at the Buffalo Pasture site (38ST6) in Stanley County, 
S. Dak., a short distance above the dam construction area. With the 
aid of a bulldozer a trench 11 feet wide, 367 feet long, and about 3i^ 
feet deep was cut across a portion of the site in order to expose the 
stratigraphy from the present surface to sterile deposits below any 
cultural remains. There had been extensive digging at the Buffalo 
Pasture site during a previous season when the remains of several 



SEVENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 11 

earth lodges were uncovered and the encircling moat and remnants 
of the palisade were studied, but it was not until the big trench was 
cut that the site was determined to represent a single occupation. The 
trench bisected the depressions of four circular lodges and exposed 
some 20 refuse-filled cache pits which were cleaned out by hand. An 
excellent series of specimens, including a large pottery vessel, was 
recovered while the operations were under way. 

The second field party in the Oahe Eeservoir area in the 1955 field 
season was a Smithsonian Institution group directed by Richard P. 
Wheeler. This party conducted excavations from July 20 to Novem- 
ber 5 at the Leavitt site (39ST215) and at the Breeden site (39ST16), 
formerly known as the Mathison site. The Leavitt site proved in 
part to represent an early historic Indian occupation related directly 
to the occupation at the Philip Ranch site, excavated in 1951 and 
reported in Bulletin 158 of the Bureau of American Ethnology, and 
in part to an older late prehistoric period. The site produced materials 
that assist greatly in the interpretation of both phases in the Oahe area. 
Especially important was the recovery of 15 human burials. One of 
them was particularly interesting because the skeleton was that of a 
large male with a lead musket ball embedded in the dorsal surface of 
the right pelvic bone. The individual had been shot in the back, 
possibly while running away from an assailant. There was nothing 
to indicate immediate death, but the man had not lived long because 
the bone surrounding the ball had not started to heal. Iron and brass 
bracelets, as well as glass beads, were found in several of the graves. 
At the Breeden site there was evidence for at least three occupations. 
The earliest was older than the first one at the Leavitt site and pro- 
duced four deeply buried rectangular house remains indicative of 
the Monroe Focus which is thought to date at approximately 
A. D. 1200-1300. The later occupations have not been sufficiently 
identified to correlate definitely with other known cultures but they 
did have circular house structures. One has been attributed tentatively 
to the La Roche Focus, which is estimated by some to be A. D. 1600- 
1700, and the other to the historic Teton Dakota of about 1825 to 1875. 

The third Smithsonian Institution party in the Oahe area in the 
1955 season was directed by Dr. Waldo R. Wedel, assisted by George 
Metcalf. Working from July 18 to August 31, that party continued 
investigations at the Cheyenne River site (39ST1) which were begim 
by Dr. Wedel in 1951 for the River Basin Surveys. The site, a multi- 
component one, is located near the juncture of the Cheyenne River 
with the Missouri. Excavation of a large rectangular pit house, be- 
gun in 1951 and identified with the earliest of three occupations, was 
completed in 1955, and a 70-foot section of the stockade line forming 
part of the defensive works for the last (third) occupation was un- 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

covered. Much of the fill removed from the rectangular house pit 
consisted of sherds, bone, and other refuse material attributable to 
an intermediate late prehistoric occupation for which no houses have 
yet been opened on the site. The 1955 work apparently confirms earlier 
inferences that the site represents three separate occupations, the 
earliest probably postdating circa A. D. 1300, the latest antedating 
1800 and in all likelihood attributable to the Arikara. At the close 
of the season Dr. Wedel recommended further investigations during 
the 1956 season in order to ascertain the nature of the dwellings left 
by the second occupation which it has been suggested may belong to 
the Bennett Focus. The site also promises important data bearing 
on the interpretation of village plans, the cultural sequences, and the 
way of life of the prehistoric Indians of that area. 

The fourth party in the Oahe area in the 1955 season was sponsored 
by the University of South Dakota and the South Dakota Archeo- 
logical Commission working under a cooperative agi'eement with the 
National Park Service. Dr. Wesley R. Hurt, of the University of 
South Dakota, was the director, and the party continued excavation 
of the Swan Creek site (39WW7) which was begun the previous year, 
ending a 7-week season on August 1. Human burials, a moat, a pali- 
sade, and houses were excavated, greatly increasing the information 
on these features for the region. This party also conducted limited 
test excavations at sites 39AV1V300, 39^VW301, 39WW302, and 39- 
^¥W303. 

In the North Dakota portion of the Oalie Reservoir area the State 
Historical Society of North Dakota, working under a cooperative 
agreement with the National Park Service, comprised the fifth field 
party in that reservoir. The party, directed by Alan R. Woolworth, 
conducted excavations at the Paul Brave (or Fort Yates) site (32S14) 
from early July until late August. Three earth lodges of rectangular 
pattern were excavated. Limited testing was also accomplished in 
sites 32SI2 and 32SI3. Surface collections were made at a series of 
other sites in the vicinity, and aerial survey provided photographic 
records of 10 other sites in the North Dakota portion of the reservoir. 

The 1956 field season in the Oahe Reservoir area began early, and 
by tlie end of the fiscal year six parties were in the field. G. Hubert 
Smith led a Smithsonian Institution party to the vicinity of the dam- 
construction area on May 21 and was still in the field at the end of 
the fiscal year. Smith's party spent some time examining old historic 
land records in the General Land Office at the State Capitol in Pierre, 
as well as records in the South Dakota Historical Society, in an effort 
to determine the location of various frontier trading posts. They then 
covered the area carefully on foot and fijially found what appear to be 
the remains of Fort Pierre II which was in use around 1859-63. It 



Secretary's Report, 1936 



Plate 1 




"•-"'V^ ■ ■ '^-^ > ff • ' ' ' ' - •* "■ ' •" 

I. River Basin Surveys: Floor pattern of rectangular earth lodge at tlic Chc_\ m 
site. Rows of holes indicate position of walls. Larger holes were cache pits. 
platform at far end. Workman is kneeling by fire pit 



lie \ illayr 
Entrance 




2. Ri\cr Basin Sur\'c; 
Cheyenne Village. 



Lc 



curved line uf ]',, 



-es shows location of palisade at liie 



Men working on small cache pits and other post holes inside the 



stockade. Field camp in background. 



Secretary's Report. 1956 







SEVENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 13 

also seems probable now that Fort Pierre II and Fort Galpin 
(1857-59) are identical in location. Excavations in this locality in 
June revealed the outline of the stockade, the location of several struc- 
tures, and produced interesting artifactual materials. The fort was 
much larger than most trading posts as the enclosure was approxi- 
mately 200 feet square. It was destroyed by fire. Other historic sites 
scheduled for investigation by this party include Forts La Framboise 
and Primeau (both dating in the 1860's) and, if time permits, the 
sites of Fort Sully and Fort Bennett. 

On June 5 Dr. Waldo R. Wedel returned to the Missouri River Basin 
and took a Smithsonian Institution field party to the Cheyenne River 
site (30ST1) where the final season of excavation was started. By the 
end of the fiscal year the party had opened several test areas, cache 
pits, and house features, recovering a good sample of artifacts. Upon 
completion of work at this site the Wedel party plans to finish excava- 
tions which were begun by another River Basin Surveys party in 1952 
at the Black Widow site (39ST3) . 

A Smithsonian Institution party directed by Carl F. Miller began 
digging at the Hosterman site (39P07) near Wliitlock's Crossing, S. 
Dak., the last week in June. Having only started by the end of the 
fiscal year this party had nothing to report. 

A University of South Dakota-South Dakota Archeological Com- 
mission party, working under a cooperative agreement with the Na- 
tional Park Service and directed by Roscoe Wilmeth of the University 
of South Dakota, began excavations in mid-June at the Swan Creek 
site (39^V1Y7). This party also planned to make test excavations at 
two nearby sites (39AVAV302 and 39WW303) after completing the 
work at the Swan Creek site w^hich was begun two seasons ago. They 
were in the field at the end of the fiscal year. 

A University of Wisconsin field party, working under a cooperative 
agreement with the National Park Service and directed by Dr. David 
A. Baerreis of that University, began work early in June at the Eklo 
site (39"W^V3) near Mobridge, S. Dak. The party expected to con- 
duct test excavations at two other nearby sites (39CA6 and 39CA9) 
after finishing the season's work at the Eklo site. They were in the 
field at the end of the fiscal year. 

In the North Dakota section of the Oahe Reservoir a State Histori- 
cal Society of North Dakota field party directed by Alan R. Wool- 
worth, working under a cooperative agreement with the National Park 
Service, began investigations in mid-June. They excavated at the 
Demery site (39C01) in Carson County, S. Dak., and at the Fireheart 
site (32SI2) in Sioux County, N. Dak. They also were to test an 
additional site (32SI208) in the vicinity. All three sites are near the 
North Dakota-South Dakota border. The party was in the field at the 
end of the fiscal year. 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

With the added results of the current year's work, it is now possible 
to identify at least nine archeological complexes in the Oahe portion 
of the Missouri Basin, covering the years about A. D. 850 to 1859. 
Some indications have been found of occupations belonging to an 
earlier period, but they are not sufficiently known as yet to be included 
in the definitely identified list. 

In the Fort Randall Reservoir two field parties operated in the 1955 
field season. The Nebraska State Historical Society, under a cooper- 
ative agreement with the National Park Service, had a party directed 
by Marvin F. Kivett excavating at the Crow Creek site (39BF11). 
Work was started on this site in the 1954 season and the second sea- 
son's digging there was completed late in August of 1955. This com- 
plex site contains the remains of two and possibly three occupations 
ranging in time over 300 or more years. The season's work provided 
new data on village plans, house types, fortifications, and relationships 
of this area to other areas in South Dakota and Nebraska. 

The second party in this area was that of the University of Kansas 
led by Dr. Carlyle S. Smith of that institution and working under a 
cooperative agreement with the National Park Service. They exca- 
vated site 39BF204 over a 7-week period ending the last of July. They 
also conducted some test excavations in site 39BF201, which appeared 
to be culturally identical to the former site. Both relate directly to 
the Spain site (39LM301) and the Talking Crow site (39BF3), which 
were excavated in previous years by parties under Dr. Smith. 

In the Big Bend Reservoir area a Smithsonian Institution party 
directed by Harold A. Huscher began an intensive survey and site- 
testing operation in this newly activated reservoir on the Missouri 
River in South Dakota on June 2. The party planned to search the 
entire reservoir area for archeological potentialities. It was scheduled 
to visit all known sites, locate all possible new sites, and make explora- 
tory tests in all of them in order to determine what additional excava- 
tion must be done before inundation. By the end of the fiscal year it 
had visited and tested 20 sites and had located several others from pre- 
vious records. 

In the Lovewell Reservoir area a Smithsonian Institution party 
directed by Robert W. Neuman began the excavation, on June 12, 
of three sites on ^Yliite Rock Creek in Jewell County, Kans. They 
started at site 14JW1 and worked there until the end of the fiscal 
year. The other two sites are 14,r\V2 and 14J\V201. These sites 
should help materially in establishing the significance and cultural 



SEVENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 15 

content of the Wliite Rock Focus and its relation to the western ex- 
tension of the Oneota Aspect. 

A total of 15 parties were in the field during fiscal 1956, 7 in the 
1955 season, and 8 in the 1956 season, investigating archeological 
remains in 8 reservoirs. They conducted excavations at 24 sites, 
tested over 40 sites, and examined the surfaces of nearly 100 sites. 
Each field party consisted of a crew chief and from 6 to 10 crewmen. 
Bulldozers and other heavy equipment, supplied through the courtesy 
of the Lytle-Green Construction Company and the Corps of Engi- 
neers, were used at some sites in order to expedite investigations. At 
all reservoir projects the complete cooperation of the Corps of Engi- 
neers and the Bureau of Reclamation personnel was always willingly 
given. 

On May 14 three members of this staff joined Dr. Dwight R. Cran- 
dell of the U. S. Geological Survey, Denver office, on an archeological- 
geological field trip to the areas of the Oahe, Big Bend, and Fort 
Randall Reservoirs in South Dakota. The party was in the field for 
seven days, examining Pleistocene and early Recent geological de- 
posits and fossil soils. The principal purpose of the trip was to 
instruct members of the River Basin Surveys staff how to recognize 
possible localities where archeological deposits of Early Man mate- 
rial or other pre-pottery cultural remains might be found. The 
results of the trip, while negative from the standpoint of actually 
finding such sites, provided this office with a great deal of informa- 
tion as to where and how to search for such material in the future 
and what might be expected in specific localities. The three members 
of this staff who accompanied Dr. Crandell were Richard P. Wheeler, 
G. Hubert Smith, and Lee G. Madison. Dr. Crandell's participation 
in the project was arranged through the cooperation of Dr. Wilmot 
H. Bradley, Chief, Geologic Division of the Geological Survey. 

AVliile fieldwork during the fiscal year was devoted to phases 1 and 
2 (survey and excavation) of the salvage program, laboratorj^ and 
office activities were devoted to phases 3 and 4 (analysis and report- 
ing). During the time the archeologists were not in the field they 
were engaged in analyses of their materials and in laboratory and 
library research. They also prepared manuscripts of technical scien- 
tific reports and wrote articles and papers of a more popular nature. 
The laboratory and office staff devoted its time to processing specimen 
materials for study, photographing specimens and preparing speci- 
men records, and typing and filing records and manuscript materials. 
The accomplishments of the laboratory and office staff are listed in 
the following tables. 



16 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
Table 1. — Artifact materials processed 



Reservoir 


Number 
of sites 


Catalog 
numbers 
assigned 


Number of 

specimens 

processed 


Glendo 


16 
1 

14 
3 
2 
4 


431 

7 

5, 183 

172 

58 

179 


585 


Merritt _ -- 


220 


Oahe 


36, 376 


Tiber _ __ _ 


374 


Non-Reservoir __ 


70 


Unassigned _ 


527 






TotaL -._ 


40 


6,030 


38, 152 







As of June 30, 1956, the Missouri Basin project had cataloged 
570,238 specimens from 1,517 numbered sites and 47 collections not 
assigned site numbers. 

Two shipments of archeological materials were sent to the United 
States National ISIuseum for permanent transfer. One was by 
Missouri Basin project vehicle and consisted largely of fragile items 
such as human skeletal remains, pottery vessels and vessel sections, 
bone, shell, and wooden artifacts. The second was by truck freight 
and consisted of stone specimens and other more durable materials. 

Table 2. — Record materials processed 

Reflex copies of records 1, 286 

Photographic negatives made 615 

Photographic prints made 2, 784 

Photographic prints mounted and filed 1, 004 

Plate layouts made for manuscripts 42 

Transparencies mounted in glass 81 

Drawings, tracings, and maps 14 

Pottery vessels restored 3 

Pottery vessel sections restored 32 

On May 3, 4, and 5 the amiual meetings of the Society for American 
Archaeology were held in Lincoln, Nebr. As a programmed part 
of the meetings, Thursday evening, May 3, was devoted to an "open 
house" at the Missouri Basin project laboratory at 1517 "O" Street. 
The office and laboratory were prepared with suitable displays of 
photographic and specimen materials in order to best exhibit the work 
of the Missouri Basin project. The "open house" was scheduled for 
8 : 00 to 10 : 00 p. m. but lasted until well past midnight. Approxi- 
mately 120 people visited the office and laboratory at that time. 

Most of the activities of the Lincoln office during the first three 
weeks in March were devoted to a general remodeling of the office 
space at 1517 "O" Street. The entire first floor was cleaned and 
painted. The floors were sanded and coated with floor preservative. 



SEVENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 17 

The west half of the first floor was partitioned into seven office cubicles. 
A map room was made and the filing and secretarial facilities were im- 
proved. All the work was done by members of the staff. 

Dr. Robert L. Stephenson, chief of the Missouri Basin project, re- 
turned to Lincoln on January 10 after 16 months academic leave and 
resumed his duties at the headquarters and laboratory. During the 
remainder of the fiscal year most of his activities were directed toward 
the preparation of plans for the summer's field program. In addition, 
he started work on a summary report of the Missouri Basin Salvage 
Program for the calendar years 1952-1955. He presented a paper, 
"Topography of a Late Archeological Site," at the 66th Annual Meet- 
ing of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences held in Lincoln on April 
20-21. An abstract of the paper was published in the Proceedings of 
the Nebraska Academy of Sciences. He also took an active part in 
the annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology held in 
Lincoln May 3-5 and presented a paper entitled "Pottery from the 
Accokeek Site, Maryland." At the close of the fiscal year he was pre- 
paring to take a field party to the Sully site (39SL4:) in the Oahe area 
north of Pierre, S. Dak. 

Harold A. Huscher, field assistant, who worked several previous 
seasons for the River Basin Surveys, rejoined the staff on May 28, and 
on June 2 left Lincoln in charge of a survey party which proceeded to 
Pierre, S. Dak., and began a reconnaissance of the proposed Big Bend 
Reservoir area on the Missouri River. The work of the Pluscher party 
was continuing on June 30. 

Robert W. Neuman, temporary field assistant, joined the staff on 
June 11. Pie left Lincoln on June 12 as the leader of a party which 
proceeded to the Lovewell Reservoir on Wliite Rock Creek, Jewell 
County, Kans. By the end of the fiscal year he had excavated for two 
weeks in site 14JW1 and one week in site 14JW201. The work of 
Mr. Neuman and his party was handicapped by severe rains but was 
continuing at the close of the year. 

G. Hubert Smith, archeologist, as previously stated was in charge 
of the Lincoln office during most of the period from July 1 to January 
10. His work for the Department of Justice pertained to preparing 
an ethnohistorical report on the Omaha tribe and appearing as a wit- 
ness at a hearing held in Washington late in September when his 
report was introduced as evidence. During the fall and winter months 
Mr. Smith completed the manuscript of a detailed archeological report 
on excavations at the site of Fort Berthold II (32ML2) in the Garri- 
son Reservoir area in North Dakota. In addition Mr. Smith worked 
on a manuscript pertaining to excavations at Fort Berthold I and the 
adjacent Like-a-Fishhook Village. The latter paper is being prepared 
in collaboration with Alan R. Woolworth of the North Dakota His- 
torical Society and James H. Howard who was formerly associated 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

with that organization and is now at the Kansas City Museum. Mr. 
Smith participated in the annual Plains Archeological Conference, 
the meetings of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and of the Society 
for American Archaeology which were held at Lincoln. At the An- 
thropological Section of the Academy of Sciences, he presented a 
paper on the ethnographic contributions of Paul Wilhelm, Duke of 
Wuerttemberg, who first visited the Upper Missouri region in 1820. 
Early in May Mr. Smith went to Pierre, S. Dak., and spent a week 
with the geological party that was studying deposits in the Oahe 
Reservoir area. Following that activity he remained at Pierre and 
began his regular summer's program, as mentioned in previous pages. 
Mr. Smith's party was continuing its excavations just below the Oahe 
Dam at the end of the j^ear. 

Upon completing the 1955 season's work Dr. Waldo R. Wedel re- 
turned to Lincoln, and before his departure for Washington from 
the Missouri Basin project headquarters, proceeded to Turin, Iowa, 
to examine a reported find of human skeletons. He was accompanied 
by Lawrence L. Tomsyck.of the Lincoln office, and when they arrived 
at the location of the burials they joined representatives from a num- 
ber of institutions in studying the finds. Absence of diagnostic arti- 
facts with the skeletons precluded any valid estimate of age or cul- 
tural affiliations, but nothing was noted that would confirm assertions 
which had been freely made that the bones were those of Paleo-Indians 
and had a Pleistocene dating. Upon his return to Washington Dr. 
Wedel resumed his regular duties at the U. S. National Museum. He 
was again detailed to the River Basin Surveys for the 1956 season 
and reported at the Lincoln headquarters on June 4. His subsequent 
activities were described in the preceding discussion of field parties in 
the Oahe area. 

Richard P. Wheeler, archeologist, was in charge of a field party 
working in tlie Oahe Reservoir area from July 25 through October 29. 
During the remainder of the fiscal year he devoted his time to analyz- 
ing the materials obtained in the field and in working on a number 
of technical reports and short articles. One article, "Recent xircheo- 
logical Salvage Oj)erations in the Missouri Basin," was published in 
the Missouri River Basin Progress Report, October-December, 1955, 
and another, " 'Quill Flatteners' or Pottery Modeling Tools," was 
published in the Plains Anthropologist, April 1956. Wheeler pre- 
sented a paper on his w^ork in the Oahe Dam area at the Plains Con- 
ference in November and participated in a number of discussions 
during the conference. He was elected chairman of the 14th Plains 
Conference which will be held in Lincoln in November 1956. At the 
end of the fiscal year Mr. Wlieeler was at the Lincoln headquarters 
working on reports. 



SEVENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 19 

Cooperating institutions. — Several State and local institutions con- 
tinued to cooperate in the Inter- Agency Salvage Program throughout 
the year, although the shortage of funds for working agreements in 
projects outside the Missouri Basin considerably reduced the activities. 
Several State groups carried on independently but their investigations 
were correlated with the general program. The New York State 
Museum at Albany kept close check on projects in that State. The 
Department of Anthropology at the University of Michigan studied 
the possible effect of proposed enlargements of the South Canal on 
St. Marys River on archeological manifestations in that district. The 
University of Minnesota made preliminary investigations relative to 
sites that may be involved in the flood-control program for the 
Mankato area. The Florida State Museum checked several proposed 
canal routes in the northern part of Florida. The Ohio State Histor- 
ical and Archeological Society continued salvage work in several 
localities, and the Historical Society of Indiana included examination 
of proposed reservoir areas in its general program for surveys in that 
State. The University of California Archeological Survey did some 
further work on projects for which it previously had agreements with 
the National Park Service, and the Archeological Survey Association 
of Southern California continued its volunteer efforts in the vicinity 
of San Diego. In the Columbia Basin the University of Oregon did 
additional digging at sites on the Oregon side of the Columbia River 
at the Dalles Reservoir, while the University of Washington continued 
its investigations on the Washington side. 

The only work done under an agreement with the National Park 
Service, except for that previously described for the Missouri Basin, 
was that of the University of Missouri in the Table Rock Reservoir 
on the "White River in southern Missouri. A special appropriation 
for that project for the fiscal year made possible an extensive series 
of investigations under the direction of Dr. Carl H. Chapman. Sites 
in the Table Rock area are exceptionally numerous and represent a 
variety of cultures. Considerable progress was made by Dr. Chapman 
and his parties during the year. 

ARCHIVES 

The Bureau Archives continued during the year under the custody 
of Mrs. Margaret C. Blaker. From June 4 to 6 Mrs. Blaker attended 
the Special Libraries Association Convention in Pittsburgh, Pa., 
where copyright problems and the preservation, microfilming, catalog- 
ing, and arranging of photographic and manuscript collections were 
discussed. 

MANUSCRIPT COLLECTIONS 

The manuscript collections continue to be utilized by students. 
Visitors consulted about 264 manuscripts, and reproductions of 70 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

manuscripts were mailed out. In addition, 89 mail inquiries con- 
cerning manuscripts were received and more than 200 manuscripts 
were consulted by the archivist in preparing replies. 

While examining these manuscripts, 93 of them were analyzed and 
more fully described in anticipation of publishing a manuscript 
catalog. Several descriptive lists of manuscripts relating to specific 
subjects or tribes were prepared for distribution. 

Additions to the collections included a manuscript translation of 
the Book of Genesis into Choctaw by Rev. Cyrus Byington, dated 
1862. This translation was received from Miss Marcia Walton of 
New York City. Accompanying the gift were a number of photo- 
graphs and news clippings relating to the Reverend Byington's work; 
some of these are for permanent deposit, while others have been lent 
for copying only. 

Just at the year's end. Dr. Philip Drucker's field notebooks and 
unpublished manuscripts for the period 1937-55 were accessioned and 
sorted. They cover ethnological and archeological work in Alaska, 
the Northwest coast, California, Meso-America, and Micronesia. They 
occupy about 20 manuscript boxes. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTIONS 

A sustained interest in pictorial data relating to the American 
Indian has been shown by authors, publishers, students, and others 
who have continued to draw heavily on the Bureau's photographic 
collections. There were 294 inquiries and purchase orders for photo- 
graphs, and 978 prints were distributed. In response to public inquiry, 
the archivist prepared numerous lists that described photographs 
available for specific subjects or tribes. 

Public interest has also been demonstrated by the contribution of 
additional Indian photographs to the Bureau's collections. 

Frank B. Shuler of Hamilton, Ohio, lent a group of 29 photographs 
of Kiowa, Comanche, Caddo, Wichita, and Sioux Indians. These 
photographs were made about 1900. Copy negatives of 17 of these 
were made for Bureau files. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. and Mrs. Hugh N. Davis, Jr., of 
Miami, Fla., the Bureau received 295 photographic prints of Seminole, 
Cheyenne, and Alaskan Indians photographed during the years 1905- 
62 by Deaconess Harriet M. Bedell, a missionary now residing in 
Everglades City, Fla. Mr. and Mrs. Davis contributed their services 
in making enlarged 8-x-lO" prints from snapshot negatives lent 
to them by Deaconess Bedell ; the cost of the materials used was borne 
by the Bureau. 

Later in the year a collection of 450 snapshot negatives of Seminole 
Indians, made principally by Stanley Hanson in the period 1927-31, 
was lent to the Bureau by Robert Mitchell of Orlando, Fla., through 



SEVENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 21 

Gene Stirling of Venice, Fla. Copy negatives of some 280 of these 
were made. Enlargements of the remainder are being printed, the 
work being about half completed at year's end. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Illustrative work for the Bureau of American Ethnology and the 
River Basin Surveys consumed the major portion of the illustrator's 
time for the year. This included a great variety of work on charts, 
graphs, maps, diagrams, photograph retouching, and other illustra- 
tions for the Bureau and River Basin Surveys publications. 

There were also charts, graphs, mechanical renderings, and illustra- 
tions on a variety of other subjects prepared for other Smithsonian 
departments. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

There were issued 1 Annual Report and 1 Bulletin, as follows : 

Seventy-second Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1954^1955. 

ii -f 24 pp. 1956. 
Bulletin 163. The Din6 : Origin myths of the Navaho Indians, by Aileen O'Bryan. 

viii -f- 188 pp., 1 pi., 23 figs. 1956. 

The following publications were in press at the close of the fiscal 
year : 

Bulletin 161. Seminole music, by Frances Densmore. 
Bulletin 162. Guayml grammar, by Ephraim S. Alphonse. 
Bulletin 164. Anthropological Papers Nos. 49-56. 

No. 49. The Ormond Beach Mound, east central Florida, by Jesse D. 

Jennings, Gordon R. Willey, and Marshall T. Newman. 
No. 50. Hair pipes in Plains Indian adornment, a study in Indian and 

White ingenuity, by John C. Ewers. 
No. 51. Observations on some nineteenth-century pottery vessels from the 

Upper Missouri, by Waldo R. Wedel. 
No. 52. Revaluation of the Eastern Siouan problem, with particular em- 
phasis on the Virginia branches — the Occaneechi, the Saponi, and the 
Tutelo, by Carl F. Miller. 
No. 53. Archeological reconnaissance of Tabasco and Campeche, by Mat- 
thew W. Stirling. 
No. 54. Valladolid Maya enumeration, by John P. Harrington. 
No. 55. Letters to Jack Wilson, the Paiute Prophet, written between 1908 

and 1911, edited by Grace M. Dangberg. 
No. 56. Factionalism at Taos Pueblo, New Mexico, by William N. Fenton. 
Bulletin 165. Music of Acoma, Isleta, Cochiti, and Zuni Pueblos, by Frances 

Densmore. 
Bulletin 166. River Basin Surveys Papers, No. 8. Excavations in the McNary 

Reservoir Basin near Umatilla, Oregon, by Douglas Osborne. 
Bulletin 167. Archeological investigations at the mouth of the Amazon, by Betty 

J. Meggers and Clifford Evans. 
Miscellaneous publications. List of publications of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, with index to authors and titles. Revised to June 30, 1956. 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Publications distributed totaled 17,018 as compared with 24,533 for 

the fiscal year 1955. 

COLLECTIONS 
Ace. No. 
208851. 4 specimens of birch bark bearing pictographs incised and etched by the 

Passamaquoddy Indians of Maine and the Abnalii of New Brunswick. 
209009. 35 vials and 39 envelopes of insects from Southampton and Walrus 

Islands, 300 plants, mollusks, fossils, lemmings, and 38 mammals, 

collected by Henry B. Collins. 

FROM RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

207595. Archeological material consisting of pottery, stone, bone, glass, and 

metal objects collected by reconnaissance parties of the Missouri 
Basin Project in and about 16 reservoir areas in Nebraska, and human 
skeletal material from 4 sites. 

207596. Archeological specimens from North Dakota, 

208180. 149 fresh-water mollusks from Nebraska and Wyoming, collected by 
Carl F. Miller. 

209283. Archeological specimens consisting of pottery, stone, bone, glass, and 
metal objects collected by parties of the Missouri Basin Project, in 
and about two sites in area of Fort Randall Reservoir, Charles Mix 
County, S. Dak., and human skeletal material from 39CH7. 

209694. Archeological material consisting of rim and body sherds from Clay 
County, Kans. 

209962. Archeological material consisting of pottery, stone, bone, and shell ob- 

jects collected by reconnaissance parties of the Missouri Basin Project, 
from two mound sites in South Dakota, 1947-48, human skeletal 
material. 

209963. Shell beads collected by reconnaissance parties of the Missouri Basin 

Project from site in Stanley County, S. Dak., human skeletal 
material. 
210409. Archeological and human skeletal material from site in Fort Randall 
Reservoir, S. Dak. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Dr. John E. Swanton, Dr. Frances Densmore, Dr. Antonio J. 
Waring, Jr., and Ralph S. Solecki continued as collaborators of the 
Bureau of American Etlinology. Dr. John P. Harrington is continu- 
ing his researches with the Bureau as research associate. Dr. William 
C. Sturtevant, ethnologist, joined the staff of the Bureau on March 
29, 1956. 

Information was furnished during the past year by staff members in 
reply to numerous inquiries concerning the American Indians — past 
and present — of both continents. Many new descriptive lists and in- 
formation leaflets were prepared in answer to requests for information 
on the Bureau's photographic and manuscript collections and other 
subjects. There continued to be a constant demand for information, 
published material, and photographs from teachers, particularly of 



SEVENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 23 

primary and secondary grades, from Scout organizations, and from 
the general public. Material for use in writing term papers was in 
frequent demand by high-school students who show an increasing 
interest in this popular subject. On several occasions publishers con- 
sulted various staff members regarding ethnological and archeological 
problems, and the archivist regarding unpublished manuscripts and the 
photograph collections. Specimens sent to the Bureau were identified 
and data on them furnished for their owners. 

EespectfuUy submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Director. 

Dr. Leonaed Caemichael, 
Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 

o 



^(~,' 



Seventy -fourth Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 

1956-1957 




SMITHSONIANf INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTbN 

D. C. 



SEVENTY-FOURTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1956-1957 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON ; 1958 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
June 30, 1957 

Director. — Matthew W. Stirling. 
Associate Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 
Anthropologists. — Henry B. Collins, William C. Sturtevant. 
Research Associates. — John R. SwAjnton, John P. Harrington, 

A. J. Waring, Jr., Ralph S. Solecki. 
Archives Assistant. — Margaret C. Blaker. 
Scientific Illustrator. — E. G. Schumacher. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Chief, Missouri Basin Project. — Robert L. Stephenson. 

Archeologists. — Warren W. Caldwell, Charles H. McNutt, 

Carl F. Miller, G. Hubert Smith, Richard P. Wheeler. 
Physical Anthropologist. — William M. Bass. 

n 



SEVENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 
BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGIY 



M. W. Stirling, Director 



SiK : I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1957, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of April 10, 1928, as amended 
August 22, 1949, which directs the Bureau "to continue independently 
or in cooperation anthropological researches among the American 
Indians and the natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection 
of the United States and the excavation and preservation of archeo- 
logic remains." 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

Dr. M. W. Stirling, Director of the Bureau, spent the period Febru- 
ary 4 to IMay 10 conducting an archeological reconnaissance in Ecuador 
under the joint auspices of tlie National Geographic Society and the 
Smithsonian Institution. Assisting in the work were Mrs. Stirling 
and Woodbridge Williams, National Geographic Society photog- 
rapher. During the course of tlie expedition the party saw all the 
major archeological collections in the country. They made test exca- 
vations at various places on the coast of Esmeraldas and Manabi and 
during April 3 to April 17 conducted a stratigraphic excavation at 
Tarqui, near Manta. The cultural deposits reached a depth of 15 
feet. Although detailed study of the abundant material recovered 
remains to be done, the site evidently belongs to the late Formative 
Period. Other places of interest visited during the reconnaissance 
were the Island of Santa Clara, the Inca ruin of Ingapirca, and the 
famous archeological site of La Tolita on the northern coast. On 
the east side of the Andes several mound groups were discovered on 
the Pastaza River in the vicinity of Puyo and Shell Mera. The work 
was accomplished with the permission and cordial cooperation of the 
Ecuadorean Casa de la Cultura. Tlie expedition is particularly in- 
debted to Carlos Zevallos Menendez, head of the Casa de la Cultura in 
Guayaquil, and to Emilio Estrada of Guayaquil for their whole- 
liearted assistance. 

Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Associate Director of the Bureau, 
devoted most of his time to duties pertaining to the management of 
the River Basin Surveys, of which he is Director (see his report, 

1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

p. 44). Early in July he made an inspection trip to a field party 
working- in the Lovewoll Ivoservoir area on Wliite Ivock Creek in 
Kansas, antl to parties workin<5 in the vicinity of Pierre, S. Dak. He 
attended and participated in the sessions of the Fifth International 
Con<»;ress for Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences held at 
Philadelphia, Pa., in September. Diii-inj:: tlie fall and winter months 
he reviewed and revised a number of manuscript reports on the results 
of investigations in several areas. In November he visited the field 
office and laboratory of the River Basin Surveys at Lincoln, Nebr., 
and presided over one of the sessions of the 14th Conference for 
Plains Archeology. At the end of April Dr. Roberts went to Lincoln 
to assist in preparing plans for the coming field season and to take part 
in a meeting of the Missouri Basin Inter- Agency Committee, which 
convened there on May 1. From Lincoln he went to Madison, Wis., to 
attend the annual meeting of the Society of American Archeology and 
to discuss problems concerning the Inter- Agency Salvage Program 
with archeologists present there. He returned to Lincoln later in 
May to confer with members of the field staff on the program for sum- 
mer fieldwork and attended sessions of the annual meeting of the 
American Association of Museums being held there. Early in June 
he visited a field party that was excavating sites in the Toronto 
Reservoir area on the Verdigris River in southeastern Kansas. At 
the close of the fiscal year Dr. Roberts was in the office in Washington. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. Henry B. Collins, anthro- 
pologist, was in Europe studying museum collections of Mesolithic 
materials for their possible bearing on the Eskimo problem. The 
study was supported by a grant from the American Philosophical 
Society. The need for such a study arose from the fact that recent 
excavations at early Eskimo and pre-Eskimo sites in Alaska, Canada, 
and Greenland have revealed a number of implement types similar to 
those of the Mesolithic and early Neolithic cultures of Eurasia, lending 
weight to previous indications that Eskimo culture was basically of 
JNIesolithic origin. Prominent among the Arctic sites exhibiting Meso- 
lithic affinities is the early Dorset culture site T 1, on Southampton 
Island, Hudson Bay, where Dr. Collins excavated in 1954 and 1955. 

In London Dr. Collins examined the extensive collection of Meso- 
lithic implements from Europe, Africa, India, and Ceylon in storage 
at the British Museum (Great Russell Street) as well as the African 
materials in the British Museum (Natural History), South Kensing- 
ton. At Cambridge he discussed Mesolithic problems with Dr. J. G. D. 
Clark and examined the collections, mainly from the early Mesolitliic 
site of Star Carr, in the University Museum. The Tardenoisian and 
Azilian collections in the JSIusee de I'Homme, Paris, were made avail- 
able through the courtesy of the Director, Dr. Henri V. Vallois. At 
the Bernisches Historisches Museum, Bern, Dr. Hans-Georg Bandi 



SEVENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT O 

showed Dr. Collins the materials from a stratified cave near Basel, 
where Tardenoisian was found overlying the older Sauveterrien, and 
Dr. R. Wyss showed him materials, now in process of publication, from 
early Mesolithic sites in the vicinity of Schotz, Canton Luzern. Drs. 
E. Vogt and Joseph Speck made available the extensive Mesolithic and 
Neolithic study materials in the Schweizer Landesmuseum, Zurich, 
and Museum fiir Urgeschiclitc, Zug. Other Swiss museums in which 
similar collections were studied were the Musee d'Art et d'Histoire, 
Fribourg; Museum Schwab in Biel; Ileimatmuseum, Rorschach; 
Musee d'xVrt et d'llistoire de Geneve; Historisches Museum, St. 
Gallen; Historisches Museum, Baden; Gletschergarten Museum, 
Luzern; Musee Archeologiquc et Ilistorique, Lausanne; and Heimat- 
museuni, Schotz. The extensive JMesolithic collections from Scandi- 
navia in the National Museum, Copenhagen, were examined during 
the time Dr. Collins was there as a delegate to the o2d Session of the 
International Congress of Americanists. At the ^luseum of Far East 
Antiquities in Stockholm, through the kindness of Drs. Karlgren and 
Sommerstrom, he was able to study the rich collection of artifacts 
from Mesolithic and Neolithic sites in Inner Mongolia obtained by 
the late Dr. Folke Bergman, archeologist of the Sven Iledin Expedi- 
tion. The firsthand knowledge of the Mesolithic materials from 
Eurasia gained from the museum survey will make possible a more 
precise evaluation of the relationship between the Old World Meso- 
lithic and the early Eskimo and prc-Eskimo cultures of the American 
Arctic. The results -svill be incorporated in reports describing and 
interpreting the Arctic materials, including those excavated on South- 
ampton Island in 1954 and 1955. 

Preliminary reports on the early Dorset materials from Southam[)- 
ton Island have been published in the Annual Report of the National 
Museum of Canada and in Anthropological Papers of the University 
of Alaska. A popular article on the work was published in the Na- 
tional Geograjihic Magazine for November 1956, and a general article 
on the same subject appeared in the Smithsonian Aimual Report for 
195G. An article on Eskimo archeology was prepared for the next 
edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Dr. Collins continued to 
serve as chairman of the directing committee of Arctic Bibliography^ 
an annotated and indexed bibliography of Arctic publications in all 
fields of science, which is being prepared for the Department of De- 
fense by the Arctic Institute of North America. Volume 7 of the 
Bihliogrnphy was issued by the Government Printing Office in June 
1956, and the material for volume 8 will be turned over to the printer 
in July. 

Dr. William C. Sturtevant, ethnologist, divided his time principally 
between continuing his studies of the Florida Seminole (begun before 
joining the Bureau) and initiating new studies among the Seneca. 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

During the year lie continued analysis and organization of his Sem- 
inole field notes and conducted research on printed, manuscript, and 
photographic nuiterials relating to the Seminole in library and 
archival repositories in Washington and in the library of the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society in Philadelphia. He continued the work 
of revising for publication a manuscript on Seminole medicine and 
magic, and prepared for fieldwork in Florida during the next fiscal 
year. He nearly completed during the year a long paper on the sup- 
posed ethnological resemblancjes between the southeastern United 
States and the West Indies. Plis short Seminole autobiography, col- 
lected in 1950 and 1952, appeared in the journal Tequesta^ this being the 
first such document published for any tribe of the southeastern United 
States, At the end of January and the beginning of February, 
Dr. Sturtevant spent a week in south Florida, where he delivered 
a public lecture on "The Indians of South Florida" before the His- 
torical Association of South Florida and read a paper on "Accom- 
plishments and Opportunities in Florida Indian Ethnology" at the 
annual meetings of the Florida Antliropological Society. This trip 
enabled Dr. Sturtevant to revisit several Seminole settlements, secur- 
ing some new ethnological data. 

Another project involved library research on the history and use 
of some root foods of the southeastern United States and tlie West 
Indies — chiefly the cycad Zamia and manioc. A monograph on the 
subject is in preparation, and future fieldwork concentrating on the 
same topic is planned for Cuba and perhaps elsewhere. New evidence 
has been discovered here relating to supposed prehistoric contacts 
between Vao, two regions and to contiiuiity in each area between 
aboriginal and European practices with regard to root foods, and on 
changes and borrowings during the historic period. 

Dr. Sturtevant's Seneca work concentrated on the use and manu- 
facture of wooden masks, and especially on the esthetic attitudes of 
the modern Seneca toward these masks. Trips were made to examine 
museum collections and consult specialists in Philadelphia, New York, 
New Haven, Albany, and Kochester. Dr. Sturtevant spent ISIay and 
June doing fieldwork on the Cattaraugus Seneca reservation in west- 
ern New York State, with briefer trips to the nearby Allegany Seneca 
reservation. No intensive ethnological work has been done on the 
Cattaraugus reservation for some 40 years, in marked contrast to 
the situation with other Seneca communities. The field woik enabled 
the documentation of differences between the Cattaraugus Seneca 
and other Seneca already described in the literature, especially in the 
ceremonial cycle of the non-Christian groups. Considerable informa- 
tion was collected on present-day usages and beliefs connected with 
the masks. Texts of myths, religious speeches, prayers, and songs 



SEVENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

related to them were recorded in Seneca and transcribed and trans- 
lated. Case histories of individuals cured by use of the masks were 
also gathered and analyzed. The esthetic attitudes of the Seneca 
toward the masks are difficult to distinguish from their feelings about 
their religious associations and ceremonial and curative powers, but 
through the use of photograj:)hs of museum specimens and the exam- 
ination with informants of specimens in use in the community and a 
collection in the Buffalo Museum of Science, some data on this topic 
were obtained. Another subject on which investigations were begun 
at both Cattaraugus and Allegany is an interesting pattern of ritual 
friendship, by which two or more individuals go through a ceremony 
for curative or other reasons, which puts them in a siblinglike rela- 
tionship and results in the extension of the appropriate kinship terms 
and some aspects of kinship behavior to other members of their fami- 
lies. This is a form of fictional kinship which has interesting paral- 
lels in many other societies; godparenthood and blood-brotherhood 
are related phenomena, for example. 

Dr. Sturtevant also attended the Fifth International Congress of 
Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, in Philadelphia, Septem- 
ber 1-9, and the Tenth Conference on Iroquois Research, Red House, 
N. Y., October 26-28. 

On May 8, 1957, Carl Miller was temporarily transferred from the 
River Basin Surveys to the rolls of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
for the period ending September 1, in order that he might continue 
the excavations begun last year at Russell Cave, Alabama, where very 
early Indian remains were found in stratigraphic sequence. He spent 
May and June at Russell Cave opening a new trench and making 
preparations for converting the excavation into a permanent exhibit. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

(Prepared by Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director, from data submitted by staff members) 

The River Basin Surveys, a unit of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology, continued its program for salvage archeology throughout the 
fiscal year. The investigations were carried on in cooperation with the 
National Park Service and the Bureau of Reclamation of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior, the Corps of Engineers of the Department of the 
Army, and several State and local institutions. Because of an increase 
m funds more activities were possible than in the preceding year. Dur- 
ing fiscal 1956-57 the work of the River Basin Surveys was supported 
by a transfer of $108,500 from the National Park Service to the Smith- 
sonian Institution. Of that sum $90,000 was for use in the Missouri 
Basin and $18,500 for work in other drainage areas. This was the first 
time in several years that Federal money was available for studies by 
the River Basin Surveys at projects outside the Missouri Basin. A 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

grant of $12,000 from the Idaho Power Co., made late in the spring of 
lJ)r)() lor arclu'olooical iiivosl in;ations alon<^ the Snake River in Idaho- 
Oregon in the districts to be Hooded by the Brownlee, Oxbow, and 
Hells Canyon dams, was available for the field season beginning July 1, 
and that, with the new Federal money, gave a total of $30,500 for 
several reservoir basins in scattered portions of the country. The 
Missouri Basin Project had a carryover of $24,954 on July 1 and that, 
with the new appropriation, provided a total of $114,954 for work in 
that area. The grand total of funds available for the River Basin 
Surveys for 1956-57 was $145,454. 

Field investigations during the year consisted of both surveys and 
excavations, although the major efforts were directed to the excavation 
of sites. On July 1, 1956, six parties were in the field — five engaged 
in digging, the sixth doing preliminary survey and testing. Three 
of the excavating parties were working in the Oahe Reservoir area in 
South Dakota, one w^as in the Lovewell Reservoir area in Kansas, and 
one was opening sites along the Snake River near Robinette, Oreg. 
The survey-testing party was devoting its entire attention to the Big 
Bend Reservoir area in South Dakota. Shortly after the first of July 
another party proceeded to a large site in the Oahe Reservoir area, also 
in South Dakota, and began a program of mapping and testing at the 
remains of the largest known earth-lodge village on the upper Missouri 
River. All these parties remained in the field until September. Late 
in August a party proceeded to the Coralville Reservoir on the Iowa 
River in Iowa and carried on a series of excavations in five sites, work- 
ing until mid-October. A survey-testing party worked in the Toronto 
Reservoir area in Kansas from September 22 to October 28. Late in 
October excavations were started at a large mound in the Hartwell 
Reservoir area on the Savannah River in Georgia. They were con- 
tinued until March, when the study of the mound was completed. 
During March and April a preliminary survey was made of the 
Dardanelle Reservoir area on the Arkansas River in Arkansas. Dur- 
ing April another party made a preliminary survey of the Warrior 
Lock and Dam on the Black Warrior River in Alabama. On May 
15 an excavating party proceeded to the Toronto Reservoir on the 
Verdigris River in Kansas, and on June 29 it completed the investiga- 
tions in that area. Early in June four excavating parties started 
dicrffiuir at sites in the Oahe Reservoir area in South Dakota and were 
continuing their investigations at the end of the fiscal year. At the 
same time an additional four field parties moved into the Big Bend 
Reservoir basin in South Dakota and began excavating sites in that 
area. They were continuing their operations at the end of the year. 
Late in June a survey-testing party moved to the Big Bend area and 
was just beginning its work on June 29. During the fiscal year nine 
parties from cooperating institutions also conducted excavations in 



SEVENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

the Missouri Basin. Six of them worked in the Oahe Reservoir area, 
one in the Glendo Reservoir area in Wyoming, one at the Tuttle 
Creek Reservoir in Kansas, and one at the l^omme de Tcrre Reservoir 
in Missouri. Three of the parties completed their projects during the 
field season of 195G and the remaining six were continuing their 1957 
programs at the end of the fiscal year. 

By June 30, 1956, reservoir areas where archeological surveys had 
been made or excavations carried on since the start of actual fieldwork 
by the River Basin Surveys in the summer of 1946 totaled 247 in 28 
States. In addition, two lock projects and four canal areas had also 
been examined. As a result of the surveys 4,622 sites had been located 
and recorded, and of that number 935 have been recommended for 
examination or limited testing. In using the term "excavation," the 
complete uncovering of a site is not indicated. Rather it implies 
digging only about 10 percent of the site. Though many of the 
locations are of sufficient significance to warrant complete excavation, 
the needs of the Salvage Program are such that it is not possible to 
make so extensive an investigation at any one location. Preliminary 
appraisal reports have been completed for all the reservoir areas sur- 
veyed with the exception of one that was done late in the year, and 
that report is well under way. During the course of the year two 
such reports were completed and at the end of the year were being 
mimeographed for distribution to the agencies cooperating in the 
Inter- Agency Archeological Salvage Program. Since the start of 
the program 183 such reports have been distributed. In several cases 
information obtained from a number of reservoir projects falling 
within a single basin or subbasin have been combined in a single report, 
and for that reason there is a considerable difference between the num- 
ber of reservoirs surveyed and that of the reports issued. 

At the end of the fiscal year 350 sites in 47 reservoir basins located 
in 18 different States had been either partially or extensively dug. 
In some of the reservoir areas only a single site was excavated, while 
in others a whole series was studied. At least one example of each 
type of site recorded by the preliminary surveys had been investi- 
gated. In the case of some of the larger and more complex types 
of village remains, it has been necessary to dig a number of som.c- 
what similar sites in order to obtain full information concerning 
that phase of aboriginal culture. Reports on the results obtained in 
certain of the excavations have appeared in the Smithsonian Mis- 
cellaneous Collections, in Bulletins of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, and in various scientific journals. During the year River 
Basin Surveys Papers 9-14, which are to be Bulletin 169 of tlie Bu- 
reau of American Ethnology, were sent to the printer. The six 
papers consist of three pertaining to investigations in the Missouri 

448034—58 2 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETPINOLOGY 

Basin, ono to a site in tho Allatoona Reservoir area in Georgia, and 
two to the Jim Woodruff Reservoir area, Georgia-Florida. Three 
detailed technical reports on the results of earlier work were com- 
pleted during the year and are ready to submit to the editors for 
})ublication. 

Tho distribution of the reservoir projects that have been surveyed 
for archeological remains was as follows on June 30, 1957 : Alabama, 
2; Arkansas, 1; California, 20; Colorado, 24; Georgia, 5; Idaho, 11; 
Illinois, 2; Kansas, 10; Kentucky, 2; Louisiana, 2; Minnesota, 1; 
Mississippi, 1; Montana, 15; Nebraska, 28; New Mexico, 1; North 
Dakota, 13; Ohio, 2; Oklahoma, 7; Oregon, 27; Pennsylvania, 2; 
South Dakota, 10; Tennessee, 4; Texas, 19; Virginia, 2; Washington, 
11 ; West Virginia, 2 ; and Wyoming, 22. 

Excavations have been made or were under way in reservoir basins 
in California, 5; Colorado, 1; Georgia, 5; Kansas, 5; Montana, 1; 
Nebraska, 1 ; New Mexico, 1 ; North Dakota, 4 ; Oklahoma, 2 ; Oregon, 
4 ; South Carolina, 1 ; South Dakota, 4 ; Texas, 7 ; Virginia, 1 ; Wash- 
ington, 4; West Virginia, 1; and Wyoming, 2. Only the work of 
the River Basin Surveys or that which was in direct cooperation 
between the Surveys and local institutions is included in the preced- 
ing figures. Investigations carried on under agreements between the 
National Park Service and State and local institutions have not been 
included because complete information about them is not available. 

As in previous years, helpful cooperation in carrying on the River 
Basin Surveys program was received from the National Park Service, 
the Bureau of Reclamation, the Corps of Engineers, and various 
State and local institutions. The Corps of Engineers provided 
transportation and guides for the work in two reservoir areas. 
Temporary headquarters and living accommodations were made 
available at several projects. The construction agency in several in- 
stances made mechanical equipment available to assist in heavy ex- 
cavations. The University of Washington at Seattle provided a base 
of operations and laboratory space for the Snake River party, while 
the University of Georgia furnished similar accommodations for the 
party working at the Ilartwell Reservoir in Georgia. Tlie field 
personnel of all the agencies was particularly helpful to the party 
leaders from the River Basin Surveys and expedited their activities 
in numerous ways. The National Park Service continued to serve 
as the liaison between the various agencies both in Washington and 
in the field. It also prepared the estimates and justifications needed 
to procure funds to support the Salvage Program. Throughout all 
the Park Service regions the regional directors and members of their 
staffs cooperated whole-heartedly in the program. 

The main office in Washington continued general supervision of 
the program, while the field headquarters and laboratory at Lincoln, 



SEVENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 9 

Nebr., was responsible for the activities in the Missouri Basin and in 
addition provided the base of operations for several of the parties 
working in adjacent areas. The materials collected by excavating 
parties in the Missouri Basin as well as those from the Snake River 
and reservoir areas in soutlieastern Kansas and in Arkansas were 
processed at the Lincoln laboratory. 

Washington office. — The main headquarters of the River Basin Sur- 
veys continued throughout the year under the direction of Dr. Frank 
H. II. Roberts, Jr. Carl F. Miller, archeologist, was based at that 
office and from time to time assisted tlie Director in some of the gen- 
eral administrative problems. In October Joseph R. Caldwell was 
appointed as temporary archeologist to carry on the project at the 
Hartwell Reservoir in Georgia, v/ith field headquarters at the Uni- 
versity of Georgia in Athens. His work was completed and his ap- 
pointment terminated on April 6, 1957. Dr. Robert E. Greengo 
joined the staff as an archeologist on a temporary appointment March 
6 for the purpose of making the preliminary survey at the Dardanelle 
Reservoir project in Arkansas. Dr. Greengo proceeded from Wash- 
ington to Lincoln, Nebr., where he obtained the necessary equipment 
for his fieldwork and went from there to Arkansas. The general ad- 
ministration of his field investigation was from the Lincoln office. 
Upon the completion of the survey, Dr. Greengo returned to Lincoln 
where he prepared his report. He subsequently returned to Wash- 
ington, and his employment was terminated on May 4. From the be- 
ginning of the fiscal year until the latter part of August William M, 
Bass served as a temporary physical anthropologist studying the 
skeletal material collected by various parties in the Missouri Basin. 
He returned to duty on Juiie 3 and resumed his work on the bones. 
He was occupied with that task at the end of the fiscal year. Al- 
thougli technically a member of the staff of the Washington office, Dr. 
James H. Howard, archeologist, reported to the Lincoln office on 
May 13 and worked under its supervision in the Toronto Reservoir 
area in Kansas. His work there was completed by the end of the 
year, and it was contemplated that he would be shifted to the Missouri 
Basin Project. Dr. Warren W. Caldwell, who was in charge of the 
Snake River field party at the beginning of the fiscal year, was shifted 
by tlie Washington office to the Missouri Basin Project in August. 
His place for the remainder of the field season was taken by George L. 
Coale, who served as a temporary archeologist until December 15. 
After being appointed a member of tlie regular Missouri Basin staff, 
Dr. Caldwell was detailed to the Coralville project in Iowa for the 
period from August 28 to October 13. Pie subsequently returned to 
the Lincoln headquarters, and all his later activities were in connec- 
tion with the Missouri Basin Project. 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

At the beginning of the fiscal ycjir Mr. IMiller was in charge of an 
excavating party in the Oahe Reservoir area, and his activities there 
are described in tlie section of this report pertaining to tlie Missouri 
Basin. After ho returned to Washington in September, ho prepared 
a brief report on tlie results of the work in South Dakota and then 
resumed writing on his unfinished report concerning investigations 
previously made at the John H. Kerr (Buggs Island) Reservoir, Va. 
In January he selected material from the collections made at the Clark 
Ilill Reservoir in Georgia and prepared an exhibit to be sent to the 
office of the Corps of Engineers at the Clark Hill Dam in Georgia. 
During the fall and Avinter months Mr. Miller gave talks before a 
number of societies and school groups in the Wasliington area about 
the work that he had done at Russell Cave in Alabama while on detail 
to the regular Bureau of American Ethnology staff in tlie closing 
months of the previous fiscal year. Early in April ho left for the 
Warrior Lock and Dam Project area on the Black Warrior River in 
Alabama and proceeded to carry on a preliminary survey to determine 
if archeological materials would be involved in tlie construction at 
that locality. He completed the survey on April 26, reporting that 
no significant materials would be lost as a result of that project. On 
April 27 Mr. Miller proceeded to Little Rock, Ark., for the purpose of 
making a preliminary survey of the Greers Ferry Reservoir area, but 
because of heavy rains and exceptionally high water in the area it was 
necessary to postpone that investigation indefinitely. From Little 
Rock he went to South Pittsburg, Tenn., to resume work at Russell 
Cave. On Ma}' 6 he was again transferred from the River Basin 
Surveys staff to the Bureau of American Ethnology for the period of 
the Russell Cave investigation and at the end of the fiscal year was 
still in that status. During the month of May Mr. Miller gave talks 
on his work at Oak Ridge, Tenn., and at Birmingham, Ala. In June 
he participated in a special televised educational program and spoke 
before several societies in Tennessee and Alabama. 

Alabama. — A survey of the Warrior Lock and Dam Project was 
made during April. No sites of importance were found in the area 
to be flooded. However, a number of significant sites which merit 
study under other than salvage auspices were discovered adjacent to 
the pool area. 

Arkansas. — From March 14 to April 20 a preliminary survey was 
made of the Dardanelle Reservoir area on the Arkansas River. Fifty- 
two sites were located and recorded and limited testing was recom- 
mended for 23 of them. A preliminary appraisal report was com- 
pleted in May. A proposed survey of the Greers Ferry Reservoir 
area had to be postponed because of high waters. 

Georgia. — During the period October 25, 1956, to March 23, 1957, 
in the Hartwell Reservoir area on the Savannah River, a largo mound 



SEVENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 11 

was excavated at the site of the lower Cherokee town of Tugalo near 
Toccoa. There are several historical references to the location dating 
back to about 1715. The village area at the site had previously been 
explored, but the mound had not been touched. The mound excava- 
tions uncovered four superini]iosod pottery dumj^s representing a 
clear continuity from historic Cherokee well back into prehistoric 
Cherokee. This represents the first known sequence within prehis- 
toric Cherokee materials. Below the Cherokee deposits with a break 
in continuity was a burned mound and a se(pience extending back- 
ward through four stages to the beginning of the mound construc- 
tion. The remains of earth-lodge temples were found on three of 
the levels and the traces of another type structure were uncovered on 
the fourth or lowest level. The latter rested on deposits indicating 
another break in continuity beneath which there was evidence of 
occupation by a group that has been called Late Middle Creek cul- 
ture which is believed to date about A. D. 500. The ceramic material 
obtained from the excavations provides one of the longest pottery se- 
quences ever fomid in the Georgia area. The work at the Tugalo 
Mound was a cooperative project in that labor for the digging was 
provided by the Georgia Historical Commission and a vehicle for 
transportation and equipment needed in the investigations was sup- 
plied by the Department of Anthropology of the University of 
Georgia. 

Iowa. — During the period August 28 to October 13 an excavating 
party from the River Basin Surveys working in the Coral ville Reser- 
voir area completely excavated one rock shelter and tested two others. 
Three open occupation sites were dug and three others tested. Two 
mounds were also excavated. The materials obtained demonstrate 
that the peoples living there had a basic Woodland Culture with some 
later Mississippi traits. The relationship was predominently toward 
the East, but some influences from the Plains were in evidence. 

Kansas. — During September and October a survey-testing party 
operated in the Toronto Reservoir area on the Verdigris River in 
southeastern Kansas. As a result of its investigations, seven sites 
were recommended for partial excavation or testing. On May 15 an 
excavating party proceeded to the area and by tlie end of tlie fiscal 
year had dug in eight sites, one of which v>as found by the excavating 
party and had not previously been reported. Six of the sites studied 
were occupation areas in the open and tlie other two were rock shel- 
ters. The materials obtained there indicate several cultural relation- 
ships. There is evidence for Upper Republican, Keith-Focus Wood- 
land, Archaic, and Kansas City Hopewell. The full significance of 
the information and specimens obtained will not be apparent until 
detailed studies have been made in the laboratory. No additional 
work will be required at the Toronto Reservoir. 



]2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Missouri Basin. — The Missouri Basin Project continued to operate 
throuohout the year from tlie field headquarters and hiboratory at 
1517 O Street, Lincohi, Nebr. Dr. llobert L. Stephenson served as 
chief of the project throughout the year. Activities included work 
on all four phases of the Salvage Program: (1) Survey, (2) excava- 
tion, (3) analysis, and (4) reporting. The first two phases were 
emphasized through the summer months and the second two during 
fall and winter. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year tlio staff, in addition to the chief, 
consisted of two permanent archeologists, two archeologists detailed 
to the project from the Washington office, three temporary field as- 
sistants, one field and laboratory assistant, one administrative assist- 
ant, one museum aide, one photographer, one clerk-stenographer, and 
one half-time records clerk. There were 28 temporary laborers in the 
emplo}'^ of the field parties. At the end of the 1956 field season all 
temporary employees, with the exception of one field assistant and a 
survey party chief, were terminated. The men detailed to the project 
for the season returned to tlieir regular duties in Washington in Sep- 
tember, and the temporary field assistant and survey party cliief were 
terminated in January. During the year two permanent archeolo- 
gists were added to the staff and four temporary archeologists were 
employed for the 1957 field season. In June one archeologist and one 
field assistant were again detailed from Washington for work in the 
field. At the Lincoln office one clerk-typist, one part-time draftsman, 
one laboratory assistant, and one part-time laboratory assistant were 
appointed. At the end of the year there were 76 temporary laborers 
employed by the field parties. 

During the year 16 River Basin Surveys field parties were active 
within the Missouri Basin, while 4 others working in reservoirs out- 
side the Basin also operated from the Project office in Lincoln. Of 
the 16 Missouri Basin parties, 1 was at work in July, August, and 
September in the Big Bend Eeservoir area. South Dakota, and 5 
parties were at work there in June. One party was at work in the 
Fort Randall Reservoir for a brief time in September. Four parties 
worked in the Oahe Reservoir in July and August and four other 
parties were there in June; one field party conducted excavations in 
the Lovewell Reservoir in Kansas in July and August. The four 
parties operating outside the Missouri Basin were concerned with the 
Coralville Reservoir in Iowa, the Toronto Reservoir in Kansas, and 
the Dardanelle Reservoir in Arkansas. 

Other field work in the Missouri Basin during the year included 
nine field parties from State institutions working under agreements 
with the National Park Service and in cooperation with the Smith- 
sonian Institution. Parties from the Universities of South Dakota 
and Wisconsin and from the North Dakota State Historical Society 



SEVENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 13 

were in the field in the July-October period. Parties from the Uni- 
versities of South Dakota, Idaho, Kansas, Missouri, Wyoming, and 
the State Historical Society of North Dakota were in the field in the 
May-June period. 

A River Basin Surveys party, directed by Robert W. Neuman, was 
in the field at the beginning of the fiscal year and completed 10 weeks 
of excavation in four sites along White Rock Creek in the Lovewell 
Reservoir area in Jewell County, Kans. Three of the sites were 
fairly extensive but did not yield much material. The artifacts 
found suggest that they may belong to the White Rock Aspect. The 
latter is so poorly known that the evidence recovered from them 
should, even though scanty, clarify the picture greatly. The fourth 
site was a moderate-sized burial mound of the "Middle Woodland" 
period. Unfortunately it had been partially destroyed in earlier 
years by pot-hunting activity. The profile and structure of the 
mound were, however, readily discernible, and enough material was 
recovered to identify readily its cultural relationship. Fragments 
of human and other bones were recovered along with cord-marked 
potsherds and other artifacts, including two small shell gorgets. No 
further work is anticipated for the area to be flooded by the waters 
of the Lovewell Reservoir. 

On September 21 and 22 further investigations were made im- 
mediately adjacent to the Oldham Site in the Fort Randall Reservoir 
in Soutli Dakota in an area in which burials and artifacts had been 
exposed by wave action and lowering of the reservoir. This site had 
been partially excavated in previous years, and it was hoped that the 
recent return there would produce additional important evidence. 
Furthermore there was an opportunity to determine whether a site 
once flooded could yield worthwhile archeological information if the 
water receded and left it exposed. Unfortunately, this work produced 
no new evidence concerning the occupations of the site, even though 
some artifacts were collected. The ground, though 10 feet above the 
water level, was too saturated and disturbed to provide any useful 
information about relationships to the house features, village, or other 
previously collected material. The work demonstrated conclusively 
that sites must be dug before they are flooded. 

A survey-testing party, directed by Harold A. Huscher, at the 
beginning of the fiscal year was conducting an intensive survey of the 
Big Bend Reservoir area, which is situated between the upper reaches 
of the Fort Randall Reservoir and the Oahe Dam, on the Missouri 
River, in central South Dakota. The party of three was in the field 
for 15 weeks and located, visited, and recorded 129 new archeological 
sites and revisited 26 previously known. Detailed field maps were 
made of approximately one-quarter of these sites and about one-third 
of them were tested. Many of them are large and productive and 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

material from them should fill in some of the gaps in present knowledge 
of the prehistory of the area, particularly for the period from about 
A. D. 1000 to 1700. 

Several military and trading posts pertaining to the early 19th 
century were also located in the area. Of particular interest is a site 
that may belong to the period of the Spanish-Colonial post of Regis 
Loisel (ca. 1802-03). Several interesting prehistoric sites appear to 
have had rectangular earth lodges arranged in rows, much the same 
as at the Huff site in North Dakota. Among other significant mani- 
festations are a boulder effigy site, "Middle Woodland" sites, and sites 
that appear to be nonceramic. 

At the beginning of the 1057 field season in mid-June, there were 
five field parties in the Big Bend Reservoir area. G. Hubert Smith 
and a party of nine were at work at the end of the fiscal year excavating 
the 19th-century historic trading post of white origin known as Fort 
Defiance (or alternatively Fort Bonis). This same party anticipates 
investigations at two other 19th-century historic sites in the area when 
it has completed the season's work at Fort Defiance- Bonis. Dr. 
Warren W. Caldwell and a party of nine at the end of the fiscal year 
were excavating the remains of an earth-lodge village which appears 
to have had three occupations, including a Middle Woodland compo- 
nent. Robert W. Neuman and a party of 10 were excavating a series 
of three linked earth-lodge village sites on the left bank of the Missouri 
River in the vicinity of Old Fort Thompson. William N. Irving and 
a party of nine were also working on the left bank of the Missouri 
River in the vicinity of Old Fort Thompson. They were starting test 
excavations in a series of 14 sites and will make a map of each village 
pattern. Harold A. Huscher and a party of two were preparing to 
start reconnaissance and mapping of sites and scouting for new sites 
in the entire area of the Big Bend Reservoir at the end of the fiscal 
year. None of the five parties had been in the field long enough 
by the end of the fiscal year to provide specific reports of results. 

A River Basin Surveys party, directed by G. Hubert Smith, was in 
the field in the Oahe Reservoir area at the beginning of the fiscal year 
and completed nine weeks of excavation at a late historic trading-post 
site near the Oahe Dam on July 31. This party excavated the stockade 
outline and the remnants of several interior structures, and recovered 
a considerable amount of object material representing the period about 
1860. The site is believed to be that of Fort Pierre II, which was oc- 
cupied after the abandonment of Fort Pierre I in 1858. Structural 
remains were found but a few inches below the plow zone, and in some 
instances much had been destroyed by plowing over the years. A 
road patrol was used for clearing away the overburden and very 
satisfactorily exposed the stockade and other structural features. The 



Secretary's Report, 1957 



PLATE 1 




1. Excavating in ruck slicker in the Coralville Reservoir area. 




2. Tracing the locations of buildings and the stockade at the site of Fort Pierre II. 



Secretary's Report. 1''57 



PLATE 2 




1. Two sides of catlinite plaque with engraved decorations. The plaque was found in the 
bottom of a cache pit at the Sully site, in the Oahe Reservoir area, near Pierre, S. Dak. 







2. Portion of burial area at the Cheyenne village site. 



SEVENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 15 

stockade proved to be approximately 220 feet square. Other struc- 
tural features included a wareliouse, a cellar, and a dAvelling. Among 
the objects recovered were two coins dated 1857, glass beads, a religious 
medallion, several small catlinite balls, and a great mass of hand- 
wrought iron. No further work is contemplated at that site. 

A second Kiver Basin Surveys party in the Oahe Reservoir area, 
directed by Dr. Waldo 11. Wedel, was in the field at the beginning of 
the fiscal year and completed 12 weeks of digging on August 25. This 
party was continuing excavations begun in previous years at the 
Cheyenne River site at the mouth of the Cheyenne River. Three 
definite occupations of the site were identified. The earliest was a 
rectangular-house component. The middle one was a circular-house 
component, and the final occupation was protohistoric Arikara, with 
circular houses. An encircling stockade and defensive ditch were dis- 
covered and excavated, but the specific occupation to which it belonged 
was not definitely determined. It presumably belonged to one of the 
two early occupations. A large burial area w-as excavated and the 
remains of over 50 individuals were recovered. The burials, in small 
pits placed close together, were flexed and in most cases had been 
covered with poles or wooden slabs. The burials almost certainly were 
from the Arikara occupation. Some artifacts, including pottery and 
a fine catlinite pipe, were recovered from the graves. The 1956 
season's excavations at the Cheyeime River site completed the investi- 
gations plamied for that location. 

A third River Basin Surveys party in the Oahe Reservoir area, 
directed by Carl F. Miller, was in the field at the beginning of the fiscal 
year and completed 9 weeks of digging on August 24. This party of 
nine began, and brought to satisfactory completion, the excavation of 
the Hosterman site on the Missouri River near Whitlocks Crossing, 
S. Dak. At that site evidence was found of a stockade consisting of a 
double row of posts. Several refuse pits, cache pits, and other similar 
features were excavated, including pits containing large sections of 
articulated bison bones. The latter appear to have been slaughtering 
areas. House structures presented a difficult problem as post holes 
were dim and difficult to identify. One structure vvas fairly clear in its 
outline, but the entrance was not located. Artifacts were moderately 
abundant and suggest that a single occupation, perhaps of short dura- 
tion, will be established for the site when analysis of the material has 
been completed. No further work is contemplated at that location. 

The fourth River Basin Surveys party in the Oahe Reservoir area, 
directed by Dr. Robert L. Stephenson, began work on July 2 and com- 
pleted 6 weeks in the field on August 10. This party of 10 conducted 
a testing operation at the Sully site some 20 miles above Pierre on the 
left bank of the Missouri River. The site is that of the largest known 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

earth-lodgo village on the river, and two objectives were accomplished 
during the season. First, a detailed map was made of the area and 
the site itself was staked oil' in lOO-foot blocks. Second, a 5-foot- 
square test was excavated at each lOO-foot stake along the north, south, 
east, and west base lines. In addition, two test trenches were dug and 
a house quadrant was excavated. The testing procedure was to obtain 
both horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of specimens and 
features over the entire site. From the analysis of such distributions, 
it was possible to plan for the recovery of a maximum amount of in- 
formation about the site as a whole from a minimum amount of excava- 
tion in the 1957 season. The site is nearly 4,000 feet hmg and 1,500 
feet wide and may contain the remains of as many as 400 house 
structures. More than half that number are identifiable on the surface 
as unquestionable structures, and an almost equal number appear as 
possible house structures. They range from 25 feet to over 60 feet in 
diameter. What were probably four ceremonial lodges are each almost 
90 feet in diameter. There is clear stratigraphy in the site, with struc- 
tures underlying a sterile zone, which in turn underlies a refuse heap. 
Cache pits are abundant and range from small pocket caches to large 
bell-shaped pits 7 feet deep and of equal diameter. Artifact material 
is abundant, and pottery sherds found there suggest at least three, and 
probably four, occupations. An outstanding specimen, a catlinite 
plaque with animal designs engraved on both sides, was found in one 
cache pit. Two certain burial areas, possibly several others, were 
located but not tested. No fortification ditch or stockade was observed. 

Cooperating institutions in the Oahe Reservoir area at the beginning 
of the fiscal year included a party from the University of South 
Dakota directed by Roscoe Wilmeth, a party from the University of 
Wisconsin directed by Dr. David A. Baerreis, and a party from the 
State Historical Society of North Dakota directed by Alan R. 
Woolworth. 

At the start of the 1957 field season in mid-June, there were four 
River Basin Surveys parties in the Oahe Reservoir area. Dr. Waldo 
R. Wedel, again detailed to the project by the United States National 
Museum, and a party of 10 were excavating the Black Widow site and 
testing six others nearby in the Fort Bennett area on the right bank 
of the Missouri River. The Black Widow site was sampled in 1952 
by a River Basin Surveys party. Since the material from it suggested 
affiliations with the site completed by Dr. Wedel in 1956, an extensive 
excavation was deemed advisable. The adjacent sites to be tested dur- 
ing the 1957 season seem to be a part of the same complex. Donald 
D. Hartle and a party of eight were making test excavations in a series 
of 30 sites on the riaht bank of the Missouri River in the Fort Bemiett 



SEVENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 17 

area at the end of the fiscal year. A house or two and several cache 
pits will be dug in eacli, and a map made of each village plan and site 
location. Dr. Robert L. Stephenson and a party of 25 were at work 
at the end of the fiscal year at the Sully site where preliminary studies 
were made the previous season. The major effort will be the excava- 
tion of that site, but seven other small nearby sites that may be related 
to it will be tested. Charles H. McNutt and a party of eight were 
makinjr test excavations at 14 sites on the left bank of the Missouri 
Iviver in the general vicinity of Old Fort Sully. They were excavat- 
ing a house or two and several cache pits in each and making a map 
of the village plan and site location. None of these parties had been 
in the field long enough, at the end of the fiscal year, to report any 
specific results. 

In May and June Dr. Theodore E. White, National Park Service 
geologist at Dinosaur National Monument, was detailed to the Mis- 
souri Basin Project for a period of 6 weeks. During that time Dr. 
"White made an osteological analysis, in the Missouri Basin Project 
laboratory, of all of the un worked animal bones from the sites exca- 
vated over the past four field seasons by the Smithsonian Institution's 
Iviver Basin Surveys field parties. Work was also done on bones col- 
lected by field parties of several of the cooperating institutions. This 
included over 300,000 individual bones from 63 archeological sites in 
eight reservoir areas. Dr. White selected numerous specimens for the 
Missouri Basin Project's comparative collection and set aside others 
that will be sent to the United States National Museum for further 
study or for exhibit purposes. The bulk of the identified bone mate- 
rials remaining was transferred to the Nebraska State Museum. Dr. 
White amassed voluminous notes on this bone material for use in 
continuing his series of reports on "Butchering Techniques of Aborigi- 
nal Peoples." Material was gathered for at least eight additional 
papers in this series. Seven have already been published. One of the 
])articularly interesting results of this osteological analysis was the 
identification of the remains of a number of unusually large dogs in 
the canid material. 

During the time the archeologists were not in the field, they were 
engaged in analyses of their materials and in laboratory and library 
research. They also prepared manuscripts of technical scientific re- 
ports and wrote articles and papers of a more popular nature. The 
laboratory and office staff devoted its time to processing specimen ma- 
terials for study, photographing specimens, preparing specimen rec- 
ords, and typing and filing records and manuscript materials. The 
accomplishments of the laboratory and office staff are listed in the 
following tables. 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Table 1. — Specimens processed July 1, 1966, through June SO, 1957 



Reservoir 


Number 

of 

sites 


Catalog 
numbers 
assigned 


Number of 

specimens 

processed 


Big Bend .__-.--_ -- 


114 

9 

51 

5 

3 

8 

20 

35 

5 


3,336 
878 

1, 191 
157 

10 

2, 198 
9,303 

536 
81 


24, 602 


Coralville 


3,088 


Dardanelle. _ 


1,384 


Fort Randall. _ -_ _ 


2,004 


Gavins Point __ 


11 


Lovewoll -_ 


5, 689 


Oahe_ 


140, 630 


Toronto - _ 


802 


Sites not in reservoirs _ _ 


679 






Collections not assigned site numbers 


250 
4 


17, 690 
23 


178, 949 
57 






17, 713 


179, 006 









As of June 30, 1957, the Missouri Basin Project had cataloged 
749,244 specimens from 1,725 numbered sites and 50 collections not 
assigned site numbers. 

Additional specimen transfers were made, all to the United States 
National Museum, as follows: Human skeletal remains from 3 sites 
in the Oahe Reservoir area ; bird bone from 23 sites in 5 reservoirs ; 
fish bone from 9 sites in 3 reservoirs ; and unworked shell from 2 sites 
in 2 reservoirs. 

Table 2. — Record materials processed 

Reflex copies of records 11, 879 

Photographic negatives made 1, 984 

Photographic prints made 7, 945 

Photographic prints mounted and filed 3,990 

Plate layouts made for manuscripts 10 

Transparencies mounted in glass 959 

Cartographic tracings and revisions 70 

During October 25-27 the annual meetings of the Mountain-Plain 
Historical Association were held in Lincoln and the Missouri Basin 
Project staff served as one of the local host organizations. As a pro- 
gramed part of the meetings the group was invited to tour the facili- 
ties at the Project laboratory. During the Thanksgiving weekend 
members of the staff participated in the 14th Plains Conference for 
Archeology, held in Lincoln. On April 27 members of the staff par- 
ticipated in the annual meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sci- 
ences. May 2, as a programed part of the meetings of the Missouri 
Basin Inter- Agency Committee being held in Lincoln, the group was 
given a conducted tour of the Missouri Basin Project facilities. 



SEVENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 19 

There were over 30 members who visited the laboratory. During the 
annual meeting of the American Association of Museums held in 
Lincoln, May 21-25, the Missouri Basin Project served as one of the 
local host organizations. Staff members participated throughout 
tlie meetings. 

Dr. Robert L. Stephenson, chief, when not in charge of field parties, 
devoted most of his time to managing the office and laboratory in 
Lincoln and preparing plans for the 1957 summer field season. He 
spent some time working on a sunmiary report of the IMissouri Basin 
Salvage Program for the calendar years 1952-55 and wrote several 
short papers for presentation before scientific groups. In January 
he attended and participated in the annual meeting of the Committee 
for the Recovery of Archeological Remains held in Washington, D. C. 
On April 9 he spoke before the Kansas City Archeological Society 
on the "Progress of Salvage Archeology in the Missouri Basin." On 
April 12 he went to Mitchell, S. Dak., where he was moderator for 
the afternoon session of the annual meeting of the South Dakota So- 
cial Sciences Association. The main topic under consideration was 
"South Dakota Prehistory" and at the end of the session Dr. Stephen- 
son summarized the discussions and emphasized the needs of salvage 
archeology in the area. He served as chairman of the Anthropologi- 
cal Section of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences at its annual meeting 
held in Lincoln on April 27. At that time he also presented a paper 
on "Emerging Problems in Missouri Basin Archeology." On May 1, 
by special invitation, he presented a paper, "How Has Archeology 
Contributed to Our Plistorical Knowledge?" before one of the ses- 
sions of the Missouri Basin Inter-Agency Committee which was 
meeting in Lincoln. "Wlien the annual meeting of the American Asso- 
ciation of Museums was held in Lincoln May 21-25, Dr. Stephenson 
served as a co-host and also was chairman for a program of Indian 
dances presented at an evening gathering. At one of the regular 
sessions, he spoke on the subject "Archeological Salvage Field Trips." 

Dr. Warren W. Caldwell, archeologist, joined the staff of the 
Missouri Basin Project on August 22 and, as previously mentioned, 
was detailed for work at the Coralville Reservoir in Iowa. During 
the fall and winter months after his return from the field, he prepared 
a report on the work he had done along the Snake River just prior to 
joining the Missouri Basin Project, and completed a report on the 
results of his investigations in Iowa. He participated in several 
scientific meetings, presenting papers before sessions of the 14th 
Plains Conference for Archeology and the Nebraska Academy of 
Sciences. During the year two papers, of which he was a coauthor, 
were published : "A Burial Cache from the Spokane Region," Ameri- 
can Antiquity, vol. 22, No. 1, and "The Problem of Northwest Coastal 
Interior Relationships as Seen from Seattle," American Antiquity, 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

vol. 22, No. 2. On Juno 1 Dr. Caldwell made a brief reconnaissance 
with G. Hubert Smith in the Big Bend Reservoir area for the purpose 
of determining where a camp should be established for the coming 
season's field work and also for inspecting the sites where he expected 
to work. On June 11 he and his party moved into the field and were 
engaged in excavations at the end of the year. 

Donald D. Ilartle, temporary archeologist, joined the Missouri 
Basin Project stall on June 6 and on June 12 left the field headquarters 
with a party to begin excavations at several sites in the Oahe Reservoir 
area. Mr. Hartle was formerly a full-time member of the staff at 
Lincoln and is still working on reports of work w^hich he did at that 
time. He was in the field at the end of the fiscal year. 

Harold A. Huscher, field assistant and temporary archeologist, was 
working in the Big Bend area at the beginning of the fiscal year, and 
his activities there have been discussed in a preceding paragraph. 
After his return to the Lincoln headquarters in the fall, he devoted 
several months to the preparation of a preliminary appraisal report 
on his summer's work. In his report he made specific recommenda- 
tions for an excavation program in the area during the 1957 field 
season. He left the project in January to complete work he was doing 
for the Department of Justice but returned in the capacity of a 
temporary archeologist late in June and proceeded to the Big Bend 
area where he was just beginning a survey program at the end of the 
fiscal year. 

William N. Irving, temporary archeologist, joined the Project staff 
June 10 and on June 12 left Lincoln in charge of a party to begin 
the excavation of a series of sites in the Big Bend Reservoir. His 
activities there to the end of the fiscal year have previously been 
described. 

Alfred E. Johnson, field archeologist and subsequently survey party 
chief, was in the field at the beginning of the fiscal year as a member 
of the Big Bend survey party under the direction of Mr. Huscher. 
In October he took over the task of making a survey and tests in the 
Toronto Reservoir area. He was in the field until mid-November 
when he resumed his academic work at the University of Kansas. He 
remained a part-time member of the staff, however, until early in 
January and during that period completed a report, "An Appraisal 
of the Archeological Resources of the Toronto Reservoir." Mr. 
Johnson did not rejoin the Project staff when fieldwork was resumed 
in the spring but went as an assistant with the party from the Uni- 
versity of Kansas which was working in the Tuttle Creek Reservoir 
area at the end of the year. His Toronto report was in the process of 
being mimeographed on June 30. 

Charles H. McNutt, archeologist, was appointed a member of the 
permanent staff of the Project on June 10. He devoted the following 



SEVENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 21 

week to learning the routine of the laboratory and Project office and 
on June 19 left Lincoln in charge of a party to start a series of test 
excavations in sites in the Oahe Reservoir area. His activities in that 
connection have already been discussed. 

Robert W. Neunian, field assistant and archeologist, was in charge 
of an excavating party at the Lovewell Reservoir in Kansas at the 
beginning of the fiscal year and worked there until August. After 
returning to the Lincoln headquarters, he resigned from the Project 
in order to resume his academic work at the University of Nebraska. 
During the fall and winter months, however, he continued work on 
his report of the results of the excavations in the Lovewell area and 
returned to the Project as a part-time employee in May. On June 10 
he was appointed temporary archeologist and left Lincoln with a 
field party on June 12 to begin excavations in a series of sites in the 
Big Bend area where he was occupied at the end of the fiscal year. 
Mr. Neuman participated in the annual meeting of the Nebraska 
Academy of Sciences on April 27, presenting a paper summarizing the 
results of his studies at the Lovewell Reservoir. 

G. Hubert Smith, archeologist, during the periods he was at the 
field headquarters in Lincoln, devoted his time to analyzing the ma- 
terials obtained from his field investigations and preparing reports 
on the results of his work. A 75-page manuscript on the findings 
made at the site of Fort Pierre II during the 1956 field season was 
completed. Mr. Smith also prepared an illustrated article on "Arche- 
ological Salvage at Historic Sites in the Missouri Basin," which w^as 
published in the Missouri Basin Field Committee Progress Report for 
March. During a 6-week period in February and March, Mr. Smith 
was detailed to the National Capital Parks, National Park Service, 
Washington, D. C, in order to make archeological investigations at 
the oldest known surviving building in the District of Columbia. The 
structure was built in 1766 and is known as the Old Stone House. Inas- 
much as it was being restored, it w-as deemed advisable to make an 
archeological study of it before too much work w^as done on it. Mr. 
Smith found a number of interesting facts about the physical history of 
the structure and prepared a report on them for the National Capital 
Parks. At the request of the Minnesota Historical Society, Mr. Smith 
spent a w^eek in Saint Paul w^here he assisted in planning future in- 
vestigations of historic sites in that State and in checking over results 
of previous undertakings of that nature. Mr. Smith participated in 
the various scientific meetings held at Lincoln during the year, pre- 
senting papers pertaining to his work at Fort Pierre II and discussing 
"The Present Status of Research on Early Historic Sites of the Mis- 
souri Basin." In April he gave an illustrated talk on "Dakotans before 
the White Man" at the 18th annual meeting of the South Dakota 
Social Sciences Association. During May he took part in a meeting of 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the Committee on Historic Sites of the Mississippi Valley Historical 
Association held at Lincoln. On June 10 Mr. Smith left with a field 
party for the Bi<^ Bend Ileservoir area and at the end of the fiscal year 
was enjjjaged in excavations previously described. 

Richard P. Wheeler, archeologist, was at the Lincoln headquarters 
during the entire year. Most of his time was spent completing a 
lengthy detailed manuscript pertaining to archeological remains in 
the Angostura Reservoir area, South Dakota, and the Keyhole and 
Boysen Reservoir areas in northeastern and west-central Wyoming. 
The manuscript is based on data gathered by reconnaissance parties 
of the Missouri Basin Project during the period 1946-51 and informa- 
tion obtained by excavating parties in 1950-52. Mr. ^Vlieeler served 
as general chairman of the 14th Conference for Plains Archeologj^ 
in November and presented a paper, "Archeological Field Data and 
Their Interpretation," at the annual meeting of the Nebraska Academy 
of Sciences in April. In May he gave an illustrated talk before the 
Interprofessional Club of Lincoln on the subject "Some Recent 
Archeological Discoveries in the Missouri Basin." Mr. Wheeler was 
in the Lincoln office at the end of the fiscal year. 

The activities of Dr. Robert E. Greengo and Dr. James H. Howard, 
archeologists, who were temporarily based at the headquarters of the 
Missouri Basin Project, have been discussed elsewhere and need no 
further comment. 

Snake River Basin. — Xt the beginning of the fiscal year a field party 
was excavating in sites along the Snake River in the area where the 
Idaho Power Co. is building its Brownlee and Oxbow dams. Test 
digging was done in a number of sites, and extensive excavations were 
carried on in four habitational areas. Two of the latter were on the 
Oregon side of the Snake River at Robinette and two on the Idaho 
side at Big Bar. Most of the material found there indicates that the 
sites date from the late prehistoric period to the early period of Euro- 
pean contact but at two of the locations there were items representing 
much earlier horizons. The general picture obtained by the investi- 
gations is that of an early expansion of Great Basin cultural features 
into the Northwest and their replacement by a more dynamic cultural 
pattern working upstream from mid-Columbia centers. The artifacts 
collected show that the people had a basically hunting-gathering type 
of economy. Implements associated with fishing were for the most 
part lacking but an abundance of fresh-water mussel shells in the 
middens indicates that aquatic food was actually consumed. Such evi- 
dence as was found pertaining to habitations suggests that rather 
fiimsy brush superstructures were erected over saucer-shaped floor 
areas. At the time of the arrival of the first Europeans, that area was 
inhabited by a band of the Shoshoni known as the "Mountain Sheep 
Eaters." They were a seasonal nomadic group subsisting mainly by 



SEVENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 23 

hunting and gathering activities. They have not been known to visit 
the region regularly since the 1880's and their survivors are now mainly 
on reservations in Idaho and Oregon. 

Cooperating institutions. — Several State and local institutions con- 
tinued to cooperate in the Inter- Agency Salvage Program throughout 
the year. In addition to those previously mentioned for the Upper 
Missouri Basin Area, the University of Missouri began a survey of 
the Pomme de Terrc Reservoir on the river of the same name in Mis- 
souri and continued its investigations in the Table Rock Reservoir area 
on the White River. The University of Kansas started a series of 
investigations in the Tuttle Creek Reservoir basin in Kansas, and the 
University of Wyoming excavated in the Glendo Reservoir area in 
Wyoming. In New Mexico the School of American Research began 
a survey of the Navajo Project, and in Arizona the Museum of North- 
ern Arizona started a salvage program in the Glen Canyon Reservoir 
basin. The University of Utah also participated in the Glen Canyon 
investigations. The University of Texas had an excavation program 
in the Ferrells Bridge area. The University of Oklahoma worked in 
the Keystone and Oolagah Reservoirs in that State. In California in- 
vestigations were made in the Monticello Reservoir area by Sacramento 
State College and at the Trinity River Project by the University of 
California at Berkeley. At the Dalles Reservoir on the Columbia 
River, the University of Oregon excavated on the Oregon side of the 
river and the University of Washington on the north side. Washing- 
ton State College started an excavation project in the Ice Harbor 
Reservoir basin. 

ARCHIVES 

The manuscript collections of the Bureau continued to be utilized 
by anthropologists and other students. About 222 manuscripts were 
consulted by searchers, either in person or through the purchase of 
reproductions. In addition, 95 mail inquiries concerning manuscripts 
were received and numerous manuscripts were consulted by the archi- 
vist in preparing replies. As in previous years, as individual manu- 
script files were called into use, their contents were reviewed and more 
fully recorded in the catalog; numerous annotations were made and 
about 55 new entries drafted. A number of new descriptive lists of 
manuscripts having to do with specific tribes or subjects were also pre- 
pared for distribution. 

Utilization of the Bureau's photographic collections by scholars, 
publishers, and the general public as a source of documentary informa- 
tion and illustrative material continued to increase. There were 444 
inquiries and purchase orders for photographs (as against 294 in 
1956) ; and 1,019 prints were distributed (978 in 1956). The archivist 
continued to prepare lists describing photographs available for specific 
subjects or tribes ; 65 such lists are now available. 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

A number of photographic collections relating to specific areas were 
s^tudied by specialists, who not only derived useful historical informa- 
tion from them for their own studies, but in turn were able to supply 
for the Bureau records numerous additional details concerning the 
identification of subject, locality, etc., thus increasing the value of the 
collections to future users. 

Over 400 photographic views of Mesa Verde, Colo., and vicinity, 
made and collected by J. W. Fcwkes in the period 1908-22, were 
studied by members of the National Park Service staff at Mesa Verde 
National Park; fuller identifications and descriptions were provided 
for many of these by the Park staff. About 40 of the pictures were 
considered of especial historical interest and were copied by them for 
the Mesa Verde files. 

A series of 124 photographs of ruins in Chaco Canyon, N. Mex., 
made by Victor Mindeleff in 1887 was studied by National Park Serv- 
ice archeologists at Chaco Canyon National Monument, N. Mex., 
and Southwestern National Monuments, Globe, Ariz. They identified 
a number of previously unidentified views and provided details of 
locality and additional notes on others. 

These series are of considerable historical interest in that they show 
ruins in states of preservation and repair differing from their present 
state; a few show ruins that are no longer standing. 

Additional caption information was provided by Dr. Harold C. 
Conklin of Columbia University for a group of 121 photographs of 
native peoples of the Philippine Islands made and collected by Col. 
Dache M. Reeves prior to 1938. 

Several members of the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes, who were in 
Washington on business, visited the Archives and provided additional 
identifications and other information about photographs of Cheyennes 
and Arapahoes taken in the early 1900's. 

During the year a number of new photographs were added to the 
collections through gift or loan for copying. 

Twenty-two photographs of Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi 
Indians living in the State of Michigan during the period 1853-ca. 1920 
were lent for copying by the Michigan Historical Commission, through 
Dr. Philip P. Mason, archivist. 

Dr. Paul H. Ezell, of the Department of Anthropology, University 
of San Diego, San Diego, Calif., lent for copying 11 photographs relat- 
ing to the Pima Indians ; they range in date from 1896 to 1954. 

Twenty-five original photographic prints relating to a number of 
Plains and Southwestern tribes were received as a gift from the Penn- 
sylvania State Museum, Harrisburg, Pa., through John Witthoft, 
director. Most of the photographs were made in the early 1880's by the 
photographic firm of Baker and Johnston. 



SEVENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 25 

A gift of 26 glass negatives of outdoor and studio portraits of 
Indians of the Southwest, principally Apaches, was made by Dr. E. M. 
Wurster of Willianisport, Pa., through John Witthoft, of the Penn- 
sylvania State Museum. The photographs are believed to have been 
taken by a photographer named Eames. 

Two groups of photographic prints were obtained for reference pur- 
poses from other institutions (which retain the negatives and the right 
to grant publication permission). Both groups are photographs of 
drawings made by llobert Ormsby Sweeny in Minnesota in 1852, the 
year in which he first settled in St. Paul. One set of prints was re- 
ceived from the British Museum and was made from that institution's 
collection of 20 original drawings by Sweeny. Another set of 20 
photographs represents a selection from a group of more than 60 
Sweeny drawings pertaining to Indian subjects in the collections of the 
Minnesota Historical Society. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

The illustrator on the staff of the Bureau devoted his time to the 
preparation of a variety of maps, graphs, and diagrams, the designing 
of charts, the restoration and retouching of photographs, and the 
preparation of various other illustrative work. An appreciable 
amount of time was allocated to making drawings for other depart- 
ments of the Institution. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

There were issued one Annual Keport, two Bulletins, and one 
miscellaneous publication, as follows : 

Seventy-third Annual Report of the Dureau of American Ethnology, 1955-1956. 

ii-H23 pp., 2 pis. 1957. 
Bulletin 161. Seminole music, by Frances Densmore. xxviii-}-223 pp., 18 pis., 

1 fig. 1956. 
Bulletin 162. Guayml grammar, by Ephraim S. Alplionse. ix-|-128 pp. 1956. 
Miscellaneous publication. List of publications of the Bureau of American 

Ethnology, with index to authors and titles. Revised to June 30, 1956. 112 pp. 

1956. 

The following publications were in press at the close of the fiscal 
year: 

Bulletin 164. Anthropological Papers Nos. 49-56 : 

No. 49. The Orniond Beach Moiuid, east central Florida, by Jesse D. 
Jennings, Gordon R. Willey, and Marshall T. Newman. 

No. 50. Hair pipes in Plains Indian adornment, a study in Indian and White 
ingenuity, by John C. Ewers. 

No. 51. Observations on some nineteenth-century pottery vessels from the 
Upper Missouri, by Waldo R. AVedel. 

No. 52. Revaluation of the Eastern Siouan problem, with particular em- 
phasis on the Virginia branches — the Occaneechi, the Saponi, and the 
Tutelo, by Carl F. Miller. 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

ItuUetln 104. Aiithropdlogical Papers Nos. 49-r)G — Continued 

No. 53. An archeological reconnaissance in southeastern Mexico, by 

Matthew W. Stirling:. 
No. 5-1. Valladolid Maj'a enumeration, by John P. Harrington. 
No. 55. Letters to Jack Wilson, the Paiute Prophet, written between 1908 

and 1911, edited by Grace M. Dangberg. 
No. 56. Factionalism at Taos Pueblo, New Mexico, by William N. Fenton. 
Bulletin 165. Music of Acoma, Isleta, Cochiti, and Zuni Pueblos, by Frances 

Densmore. 
Bulletin 166. River Basin Surveys Papers, No. 8. Excavations in the McNary 
Reservoir Basin near Umatilla, Oregon, by Douglas Osborne. With ap- 
pendixes by Marshall T. Newman, Arthur Woodward, W. J. Kroll, and B. H. 
McCleod. 
Bulletin 107. Archeological investigations at the mouth of the Amazon, by 

Bi'tty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans. 
Bulletin 168. The Native Brotherhoods: Modern intertribal organizations on 

the northwest coast, by Philip Drucker. 
Bulletin 109. liiver Basin Surveys Papers, Nos. 9-14 : 

No. 9. Archeological investigations in the Heart Butte Reservoir area, 

North Dakota, by Paul L. Cooper. 
No. 10. Archeological investigations at the Tuttle Creek Dam, Kansas, 

by Robert B. Gumming, Jr. 
No. 11. The Spain site (39LM301), a winter village in Fort Randall Reser- 
voir, South Dakota, by Carlyle S. Smith and Roger T. Grange, Jr. 
No. 12. The Wilbanks site (9CK-5), Georgia, by William H. Sears. 
No. 13. Historic sites in and around the Jim Woodruff Reservoir area, 

Florida-Georgia, by Mark F. Boyd. 
No. 14. Six sites near the Chattahoochee River in the Jim Woodruff Reser- 
voir area, Florida, by Ripley P. Bullen. 
Bulletin 170. Excavations at La Veuta, Tabasco, 1955, by Philip Drucker, 
Robert F. Heizer, and Robert J. Squier. With appendixes by Jonas E. Gull- 
berg, Garniss H. Curtis, and A. Starker Leopold. 

Publications distributed totaled 28,558 as compared with 17,018 for 
the fiscal year 1956. 

COLLECTIONS 

Ace. No. 

214119. 3 cedar-bark mats from Nootka Indians, British Columbia, Canada. 

214901. 27 miscellaneous archeological specimens from Tennessee and Illinois 
collected by J. W. Emmert and G. Fowke before 1894. 

205014. 15 land snails from Ecuador and 33 ethnological specimens from Ecua- 
dor and Florida (through Dr. M. W. Stirling). 

205300. John W. Powell catalog of Indian collections deposited in the Smith- 
sonian Institution, and supplement to catalog. 

207445. 13 specimens associated with Zuni Indian religious cult practices. 

FROM RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

212741. 2 fresh-water mussels from Iowa (through Robert L. Stephenson). 

211157. Archeological material from 4 Nebraska counties, 1955. 

211158. Archeological material from 2 sites in Oahe Reservoir, Stanley County, 

S. Dak., and human skeletal material, 1955. 
213526. Archeological material from Rock Village, Mercer County, N. Dak., 
1950-52. 



SEVENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 27 

Ace. No. 

213765. 9 specimens of archeological material from Pembina River Reservoir, 

N. Dali., 1948. 
214031. 1,332 specimens of archeological material from Fort Randall area, 

Gregory and Lyman Counties, S. Dak., 1950-52. 
214234. Archeological material from Garrison Reservoir, McLean County, 

N. Dak., 1952. 
214612. Archeological material from Fort Randall Reservoir, Lyman County, 

S. Dak., 1950. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Dr. John E. Swanton, Dr. John P. Harrington, Dr. A. J. Waring, 
Jr., and Ralph S. Solecki continued as research associates of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Dr. Frances Densmore, who had been a collaborator of the Bureau 
for a period of 50 years, died June 5, 1957, at her home in Red Wing, 
Minn., at the age of 90. Shortly before her death she corrected the 
proof of her last bulletin for the Bureau entitled "Music of Acoma, 
Isleta, Cochiti, and Zuiii Pueblos," which will be distributed in Au- 
gust 1957. Thirteen of her papers on Indian music were published 
by the Bureau as complete bulletins, five as anthropological papers, 
and one was published in the Annual Report series. 

Information was furnished during the past year by staff members 
in reply to numerous inquiries concerning the American Indians, past 
and present, of both continents. Twelve bibliographies or informa- 
tion leaflets were prepared and duplicated for distribution to the 
public, as follows : 

SIL-16, rev. Indian Crafts and Indian Lore. Bibliography. 

SIL-50. Selected List of Portraits of Prominent Indians. 

SIL-65, rev. Bibliography on the American Indians. 

SIL-76. Statement regarding the Book of Mormon. 

SIL-79. Indian Songs and Dances. Bibliography. 

SITj-81. Selected Bibliography on Stone-chipping Methods. 

SIL-89. Selected References on the Plains Indians. 

SIL-92. Origin of the American Indian. 

SIL-93. Trails and Trade Routes. 

SILr-96. Photographic Collections pertaining to the American Indians. 

SIL-98. Selected References on the Seminole Indians. 

SII-f-99. American Indian Medicine. Bibliography. 

Many new descriptive lists and information leaflets were prepared 
in answer to requests for information on the Bureau's photographic 
and manuscript collections. There continued to be a popular de- 
mand for information, published material, and photographs from 
teachers — particularly of primary and secondary grades — from Scout 
and other civic organizations, and from the general public. Infor- 
mation and reference material for term papers were constantly re- 
quested by hundreds of high school and college students. Staff mem- 



28 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

bers and tlio jircljivist woro freqneiitly consulted by publishers re- 
<^;irding the pro<^ress made in the various fields of anthropology and 
on specific projects for background material to be used in scientific 
and popular magazines and books, appropriate pictures and illus- 
trations. Many specimens were identified for owneis and data sup- 
plied to them. 
Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, 
Director^ Bureau of American Ethnology. 
Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary^ Smithsonmn Institution. 

o 



Seventy-fifth Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 

1957-1958 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 



SEVENTY-FIFTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1957-1958 




XJNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 19S9 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
June 30, 1958 

Director. — Fbank H, H. Roberts, Jr. 

Anthropologists. — Heney B. Collins, Willla-M C. Stuetevant. 

Research Associates. — John P. Haeeington, Matthew W. 

Stkling, a. J. Waeing, Jr. 
Archivist. — Maegaeet C. Blakee. 
Scientific Illustrator. — E^ G. Schum aches. 
Administrative Assistatit. — Jessie S. Shaw., 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

Director. — Feank H. H. Robeets, Jr. 

Chief, Missouri Basin Project. — Robert L. Stephenson. 

Archeologists. — Waeeen W. Caldwell, James J. F. Deetz, 
Beenaed Golden, Haeold A. Huscheb, WnxiAM N. Ieving, 
Chaeles H. McNutt, Gael F. Miller, Robert W. Neuman, 
G. Hubert Smith, Richard P. Wheelee. 

Field Assistant in Oeology. — Alan H. Coogan. 

Physical Anthropologist. — William M. Bass III. 



U 






SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended Jime 30, 1958, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congi'ess of April 10, 1928, as amended 
August 22, 1949, which directs the Bureau "to continue independently 
or in cooperation anthropological researches among the American 
Indians and the natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection 
of the United States and the excavation and preservation of archeo- 
logic remains." 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

(Prepared from data submitted by staff members.) 

Dr. M. W. Stirling, Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
from 1928 to 1947 and Director since 1947, retired on December 31, 
1957. At that time he was appointed a research associate. During 
the period from July 1 to December 31, 1957, Dr. Stirling devoted 
most of his time to administrative duties and the preparation of a 
manuscript pertaining to previous fieldwork in Panama and Ecuador. 
Exective January 1, 1958, Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Associate 
Director, was appointed Director. He also continued to be in charge 
of the River Basin Surveys. 

During the fiscal year Dr. Roberts devoted most of his time to the 
management of the River Basin Surveys and subsequently to the 
duties of the main Bureau office. In July and early August he made 
an inspection trip to the Missouri Basin where he visited all the ex- 
cavation parties of the River Basin Surveys and also several of those 
from cooperating institutions. He was accompanied by Dr. Robert 
L. Stephenson, chief of the Missouri Basin Project, Dr. John M. Cor- 
bett, National Park Service archeologist, and Paul L. Beaubien, re- 
gional archeologist for Region Two of the Service. Late in April 
Dr. Roberts went to the field headquarters at Lincoln, Nebr., to assist 
in preparing plans for the field season in the Missouri Basin. From 
Lincoln, in company w4th several members of the Missouri Basin 
Project staff, he went to Norman, Okla., to attend and participate in 
the annual meeting of the Society for American Archeology. From 
here the group proceeded to Russellville, Ark., where it inspected the 

1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

excavations being carried on by a Kiver Basin Surveys party in the 
Dardanelle Keservoir area. En route back to Lincoln a stop was 
made at the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, and a number 
of collections of archeological material in the museum there were ex- 
amined. After spending several additional days at Lincoln studying 
the operations of the oflice and laboratory, Dr. Roberts returned to 
Washington and was in the office at the close of the year. During the 
fall and winter months Dr. Roberts reviewed and suggested changes 
in the manuscripts of several detailed, technical reports on the results _ 
of excavations at sites in the Missouri Basin and other areas. 

Dr. Henry B. Collins, anthropologist, continued his Eskimo studies 
and other Arctic activities. He prepared an article on Eskimo art 
for the Enciclopedia Universale DelVArte, a 14-volume work to be 
published in Italian and English by the Istituto per la CoUabora- 
zione Culturale, Rome. His paper "Present Status of the Dorset 
Problem," which he presented at the 32d International Congress of 
Americanists in Copenhagen, was published in the Proceedings of the 
Congress. 

In May Dr. Collins participated in an international conference cm 
Arctic anthropology held at the Danish National Museum in Copen- 
hagen. Also attending were five anthropologists from the United 
States, one from Canada, four each from Denmark and the 
U. S. S. R., and two each from Norway, Sweden, and Finland. The 
purpose of the meeting was to discuss plans for closer international 
cooperation in Arctic anthropology. Following the conference Dr. 
Collins visited a large Mesolithic site, Kongemosen, representing the 
formative stage of the Ertebolle culture, and two other Mesolithic 
sites at Eriksholm and Langtved, near Holbaek. 

Dr. Collins continued to serve on the publications and research 
committees of the Arctic Institute of North America, as well as on 
the committee which plans the research program of the Arctic Re- 
search Laboratory at Point Barrow, operated by the Office of Naval 
Research. He also continued as chairman of the Directing Commit- 
tee which plans and supervises the work of the Arctic Bibliography. 
a comprehensive annotated and indexed bibliography of publications 
in all fields of science relating to the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions 
of America and Eurasia. The work is being prepared by the Arctic , 
Institute of North America for the Department of Defense. Volume 
8 of the Bibliography, which abstracts and indexes the contents of 
5,623 publications in English, Russian, German, and the Scandinavian 
and 17 other languages, was delivered to the Government Printing 
Office in June. This makes a total of 49,087 publications that have 
been abstracted thus far in Arctic Bibliography. 



SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 6 

Dr. William C. Sturtevant, ethnologist, spent the week of July 29- 
August 4, 1957, in South Carolina working with the last living speaker 
of any of the Siouan languages of the east — a Catawba man 85 years 
old. The informant proved somewhat less than satisfactory, owing 
to his age and rather poor recall of a language he has not spoken for 
some years. However, a vocabulary file of a few hundred entries was 
built up, and several short texts and songs were collected. In addition 
to transcription in a phonetic orthography, all materials were re- 
corded with a tape recorder, to form a permanent record of a different 
nature than the Catawba linguistic materials collected by others be- 
fore the advent of convenient mechanical recording devices with good 
fidelity. The language has not yet been adequately analyzed, nor 
has its precise relationship to other Siouan languages been established ; 
the tape recording will be invaluable when these tasks are eventually 
undertaken. 

Dr. Sturtevant spent 7 weeks continuing his field research among 
the New York State Seneca, during four separate trips. In September 
he devoted 10 days to close observation of the work of a skilled 
Seneca mask carver on the Allegany Reservation, making detailed 
notes on his construction techniques and taking numerous photographs 
to document the various steps in the process. For a few days of this 
period Dr. Sturtevant received valuable assistance from Dr. William 
H. Davenport of Yale University, a specialist on primitive art. It 
became evident during this fieldwork that observation of construction 
is an essential preliminary to the structural analysis of the forms of 
these Seneca masks and will be of considerable assistance in the etlino- 
evSthetic study initiated during the previous fiscal year. During Jan- 
uary and February, Dr. Sturtevant spent about 2 weeks on the 
Cattaraugus Reservation attending the annual midwinter ceremony 
of this Seneca group and discussing it with participants. The data 
obtained form part of a continuing study of the religion of this com- 
munity, wliich has previously received little attention from ethnolo- 
gists, in contrast to most other Iroquois non-Christian communities. 
In April 1958, Dr. Sturtevant visited Gainesville, Fla., for consul- 
tations on Florida anthropology with Dr. John M. Goggin. From 
there he traveled to Oklahoma via Montgomery, Ala. (where he ex- 
amined the collections of the Alabama Department of Archives and 
History), and the region around Philadelphia, Miss, (where he spent 
three days surveying the possibilities for research among the Missis- 
sippi Choctaw). In Oklahoma he examined the photograph and 
specimen collections of the Oklahoma Historical Society, attended 
the joint annual meetings of the Society for American Archeology 
and the Central States Anthropological Society, and had brief con- 
tacts with members of several Oklahoma tribes. Dr. Sturtevant also 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



attended the 11th Conference on Iroquois Kesearch at Red House, 
N. Y., in October 1957. At these latter two professional meetings he 
delivered three papers. In December 1957 he attended the Ameri- 
can Anthropological Association meetings in Chicago (where he also 
examined an important collection of Seminole artifacts and a large 
newly discovered collection of early photographs of the Seminole). 

In May and June 1958, Dr. Sturtevant returned for three weeks 
to the Allegany Reservation, where he concentrated on study of social 
organization, particularly residence patterns. These data should 
prove valuable for comparison with similar information, as yet un- 
published, collected some 25 years ago on this reservation by Dr. Wil- 
liam N. Fenton. Furthermore, the community studied is threatened 
with removal to make way for flooding of a large part of the reserva- 
tion by the proposed Kinzua dam. If the dam is built, present resi- 
dence patterns can then be compared with residence after relocation 
of the community. The nearly unanimous opposition of the Indians 
to relocation makes research of this sort rather difficult. 

Dr. Sturtevant's office work included continuation of his research 
on the Florida Seminole, on which a paper was published in Publica- 
tion No. 5 of the Florida Anthropological Society, and work on a 
paper on the historical ethnobotany of the cycad Zamia. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Carl F. Miller was continuing 
the excavations by the Smithsonian Institution-National Geographic 
Society Expedition at Russell Cave in Alabama. The work continued 
until the end of August, and during that period a section of the cave 
floor was excavated to a depth of 32 feet, where a water table was 
encountered and it was necessary to stop the digging. During the 
course of the work the skeletal remains of a very young infant were 
found at a depth of approximately 4 feet. On the basis of a carbon- 
14 date obtained during the previous season's investigations at the 
cave, it is estimated that the burial was approximately 5,000 years 
old. There were no accompanying mortuary offerings, but the de- 
posits where the remains were interred indicated that the Early 
Woodland Period was represented. The partially flexed remains of 
an adult male were found 8^ feet below the floor level and it also 
lacked any accompanying offerings. The burial probably was made 
about 7,000 years ago. The material from the deposits indicates that 
potterymaking began in that area at about 3500 B. C. Prior to that 
time the people apparently had a completely hunting-fishing economy. 
A large series of implements, discarded animal bones, and other ma- 
terials was obtained from the lower deposits, and at a depth of 23 
feet the remains of a hearth were uncovered. Charcoal from that 
hearth was recently dated by Dr. H. R. Crane at the University of 
Michigan as being 9,020 ±360 years old. The Russell Cave Expedi- 



I 



SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

tion brought back to the Smithsonian Institution somewhat more than 
a ton and a half of material for study and exhibit purposes. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

The River Basin Surveys, in cooperation with the National Park 
Service and the Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of the 
Interior, the Corps of Engineers of the Department of the Army, and 
various State and local institutions, continued its program for salvage 
archeology in areas to be flooded or otherwise destroyed by the con- 
struction of large dams. During the fiscal year 1957-58 the program 
was financed by a transfer of $175,624 from the National Park Serv- 
ice to the Smithsonian Institution. Of that amount $157,624 was 
for use in the Missouri Basin and the remainder covered operations 
in other areas. A carryover of $15,902 from the Missouri Basin 
funds for the preceding fiscal year made the total available for the 
Missouri Basin $173,526. The over-all total for the year was $191,526. 
The amount of available money was somewhat larger than during 
the previous fiscal year, and the increase was reflected in the work 
accomplished. 

Field investigation during the year consisted mainly of excavations, 
although some surveys were carried on in several areas. On June 1, 
1957, nine parties were in the field. Four were doing intensive dig- 
ging in the Great Bend Reservoir area and four were making ex- 
cavations in the Oahe Reservoir area, both projects being located 
in South Dakota. A survey party covered portions of the Big Bend 
area, which had not been visited during the previous summer's work, 
and carried on test operations in 14 sites. In September that party 
moved to the Oahe Reservoir basin where it started similar oper- 
ations. Most of the field parties had returned to their headquarters 
by the end of September. Early in the spring a party conducted 
excavations in the Dardanelle Reservoir area on the Arkansas River 
in Arkansas. During the period February-June, a survey party 
worked in three reservoir areas along the lower Chattahoochee River 
in Alabama and Georgia, and in April-June another party excavated 
in two sites in the Hartwell Reservoir area in South Carolina- 
Georgia. At the end of the fiscal year nine parties were conducting 
excavations along the Missouri River in South Dakota. Five were 
working in the Great Bend Reservoir area and four in the Oahe 
Reservoir Basin. 

By June 30, 1958, reservoir areas where archeological surveys and 
excavations had been made since the salvage program got under way 
in 1946 totaled 254 in 29 States. The survey parties have located 
and recorded 4,889 archeological sites, and of that number 997 have 
been recommended for excavation or limited testing. In general 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the term "excavation" does not indicate the complete investigation 
of a site, but usually means that only about 10 percent of it has been 
uncovered. There are some cases, however, where the locality is of 
sufficient significance to warrant extensive digging. Preliminary ap- 
praisal reports have been issued for all the reservoir areas surveyed, 
with the exception of the Big Bend in South Dakota and the group 
of three in Chattahoochee Basin. The report for the Big Bend has 
been completed, however, and will be processed early in the coming 
fiscal year. One preliminary report covering the survey of the 
Dardanelle Reservoir area in Arkansas was mimeographed and dis- 
tributed during the year. Since the beginning of the Inter- Agency 
Archeological Salvage Program, 184 appraisal reports have been 
issued. The discrepancy between that number and the total of the 
reservoir areas examined is due to the fact that in several cases in- 
formation obtained from a number of reservoir projects located in 
a single basin or subbasin have been combined in a single report. 

By the end of the fiscal year 388 sites in 52 reservoir basins located 
in 19 dijfferent States had been either partially or extensively dug. 
Only a single site was excavated in some of the reservoir areas, while 
in others a whole series was investigated. At least one example of 
each type of site recommended by the preliminary surveys had been 
excavated. In some cases it has been necessary to dig a number of 
somewhat similar sites because the complexity of such remains makes 
it essential to have considerable comparative material in order to 
obtain full information about that particular phase of aboriginal cul- 
ture. In brief it may be said that the cultural stages represented 
cover the range from the early hunting peoples of about 10,000 years 
ago to the frontier trading and Army posts of the latter part of 
the 19th century. Reports of the results obtained from some of 
the excavations have been published in Bulletins of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, in the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 
and in various scientific journals. During the year River Basin 
Surveys Paper No. 8, Bulletin 166 of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology, was distributed. It was written by Dr. Douglas Osborne 
and pertains to excavations in the McNary Reservoir Basin near 
Umatilla, Oreg. Accompanying the archeological report are ap- 
pendices on the skeletal material, trade goods, and composition of 
the copper objects found during the excavations. River Basin Sur- 
veys Papers 9-14, which will constitute Bulletin 169 of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology, were in page proof at the end of the year, 
and the volume should be ready for distribution early in the next 
fiscal year. Three of the papers pertain to investigations in the 
Missouri Basin, two to work done in the Jim Woodruff Reservoir 
area, Georgia-Florida, and one to a site in the Alatoona Reservoir 



SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

area in Georgia. Twelve detailed technical reports on the results 
of work done during previous years were completed during 1957-58 
and are ready to submit to the editors for publication as soon as 
funds sufficient to cover their cost are available. 

As of June 30, 1958, the distribution of reservoir projects that have 
been surveyed for archeological remains was as follows : Alabama, 3 ; 
Arkansas, 1; California, 20; Colorado, 24; Georgia, 8; Idaho, 11; 
Illinois, 2 ; Iowa, 3 ; Kansas, 10 ; Kentucky, 2 ; Louisiana, 2 ; Minne- 
sota, 1; Mississippi, 1; Montana, 15; Nebraska, 28; New Mexico, 1; 
North Dakota, 13 ; Ohio, 2 ; Oklahoma, 7 ; Oregon, 27 ; Pennsylvania, 
2; South Carolina, 1; South Dakota, 10; Tennessee, 4; Texas, 19; 
Virginia, 2 ; Washington, 11 ; West Virginia, 2 ; Wyoming, 22. Exca- 
vations have been made or were under way in reservoir basins in 
Arkansas, 1; California, 5; Colorado, 1; Iowa, 1; Georgia, 5; Kan- 
sas, 5; Montana, 1; Nebraska, 1; New Mexico, 1; North Dakota, 4; 
Oklahoma, 2 ; Oregon, 4 ; South Carolina, 2 ; South Dakota, 4 ; Texas, 
7 ; Virginia, 1 ; Washington, 4 ; West Virginia, 1 ; Wyoming, 2. The 
preceding figures include only the work of the River Basin Surveys 
or that which was in direct cooperation between local institutions and 
the Surveys. The investigations made by State and local institutions 
working imder agreements with the National Park Service have not 
been included because complete information about them is not 
available. 

The River Basin Surveys, as in previous years, received helpful 
cooperation from the National Park Service, the Bureau of Recla- 
mation, and the Corps of Engineers, and various State and local insti- 
tutions. The Corps of Engineers provided transportation and 
guides for work in one of the reservoir areas and provided temporary 
field headquarters for a party in another area. In several instances 
mechanical equipment to assist in heavy excavations was made avail- 
able by the construction agency. Field personnel of all the agencies 
was particularly helpful to the various party leaders from the River 
Basin Surveys and expedited their activities in numerous ways. The 
National Park Service continued to serve as the liaison between the 
various agencies, both in Washington and in the field. The Park 
Service also prepared the estimates and justifications for the funds 
needed to carry on the salvage program. In the several Park Service 
regions the regional directors and members of their staffs cooperated 
wholeheartedly in the program and greatly aided all phases of the 
operations. 

The main office in Washington continued general supervision of 
the program. The field headquarters and laboratory at Lincoln, 
Nebr., was responsible for the activities in the Missouri Basin and 
also provided a base of operations for the party which worked at the 

490358—69 2 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Dardanelle Reservation in Arkansas. The materials collected by the 
excavating parties in the Missouri Kiver Basin, as well as the one in 
Arkansas and those from the Toronto Reservoir area on the Verdigris 
River in Kansas, which were obtained the previous year, were proc- 
essed at the Lincoln laboratory. During the first two months of the 
fiscal year. Dr. James H. Howard, who supervised the project at the 
Kansas Reservoir, worked in the Lincoln office studying the speci- 
mens which he had recovered and preparing his report. 

Washington offiGe. — The main headquarters of the River Basin 
Surveys at the Bureau of American Ethnology continued under the 
direction of Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. Carl F. Miller, archeolo- 
gist, was detailed to the regular Bureau staff for the period from 
July 1 to December 29, in order to continue excavations at Russell 
Cave, Alabama, and to work up the material obtained from the cave. 
On December 30 he returned to the River Basin Surveys staff and 
from then until April 22 devoted his time to the completion of his 
report on previous excavations at the James H. Kerr (Buggs Island) 
Reservoir on the Roanoke River in southern Virginia. During the 
winter months he spoke before several local societies, completed an 
article on the Russell Cave work for the National Geographic Maga- 
zine and gave a lecture on the cave before the National Geographic 
Society in Washington. On April 22 he proceeded to South Carolina 
where he conducted excavations in the Hartwell Reservoir area. 
While engaged in those investigations he spoke before several local 
Rotary and Lions Clubs, several groups of Boy Scouts, and a Naval 
Research group at Clemson College. On May 23 he participated in 
a conference held at the University of Georgia at Athens, at which 
time representatives of the National Park Service, the University of 
Georgia, and the River Basin Surveys discussed future work for the 
Hartwell Reservoir area. Mr. Miller returned to Washington on 
June 26 and on June 29 was again transferred to the Bureau of 
American Etlmology to resume the activities at Russell Cave. The 
latter work, which is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian 
Institution and the National Geographic Society, was to continue 
through the early months of the following fiscal year. 

William M. Bass III, temporary physical anthropologist, was on 
duty in Washington at the beginning of the year. He devoted the 
month of July and the first week in August to a study of human 
skeletal material from various sites in the Missouri Basin and pre- 
pared reports on his findings. On August 9 he left Washington for 
Pierre, S. Dak., and spent the ensuing 3 weeks assisting in the removal 
of Indian burials at the Sully site in the Oahe Reservoir area. Mr. 
Bass returned to Washington August 29 and resigned from the Sur- 
veys in order to resume his studies toward an advanced degree. On 



SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 9 

June 2 Mr. Bass again reported for duty in Washington and spent 
3 weeks classifying human skeletal material from the James H. Kerr 
Reservoir in southern Virginia. He then proceeded to Pierre, S. Dak., 
and took charge of a party conducting excavations in the burial area 
at the Sully site. Mr. Bass was engaged in those activities at the close 
of the year. 

Harold A. Huscher, archeologist on the staff of the Missouri Basin 
Project, was detailed to the Washington office beginning February 
2, 1958, and on February 7 left for Georgia and Alabama, where he 
carried on preliminary surveys in three reservoir areas in the lower 
Chattahoochee River Basin. Mr. Huscher continued those activities 
until June 23 when he went to Athens, Ga., to participate in the 
conference at which Mr. Miller was also in attendance. Following 
the conference Mr. Huscher returned to Washington, and at the close 
of the fiscal year was preparing a summary report on the results of 
his explorations along the Chattahoochee. 

Alahama-Georgia. — During the period February 10 to June 21 
preliminary surveys were made in the areas to be flooded by the 
Columbia Dam and Lock, the Walter F. George Dam and Lock, and 
the Oliver Dam on the lower Chattahoochee River. The Columbia 
Dam and Lock and the Walter F. George Dam and Lock are projects 
of the Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, while the Oliver 
Dam is being constructed by the Georgia Power Co. The Columbia 
Dam is to be located a short distance below the bridge across the 
Chattahoochee River at Columbia, Ala. The Walter F. George Dam 
is to be built at Fort Gaines, Ga., and the Oliver Dam is located a 
short distance above Columbus, Ga. These three projects together 
will flood out 120 contiguous miles of the Chattahoochee bottoms. 
Since the area to be affected by the Walter F. George project will be 
the first to be inundated, most of the period was spent in that area, 
although some reconnaissance was made in both of the other basins. 

During the course of the survey in the Walter F. George basin, 
117 archeological sites were located and recorded on the Georgia side 
of the river and 90 sites on the Alabama side. They range from sim- 
ple village locations to areas containing the remains of several differ- 
ent cultures, and from single to multiple mound groups. In addition 
there are two historical sites of considerable importance. One is that 
of the Spanish Fort of Apalachicola, dating from 1689 to 1691, and 
the other the historic Creek town of Roanoke which was occupied by 
the whites and then attacked and burned by the Indians in 1736. Be- 
cause the exact dates of occupancy of the Fort are known, it should 
provide an important check point in working out the chronology of the 
area. Also, since the Roanoke village was burned it should be quite 
productive archeologically. The aboriginal sites range from Early 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Woodland to relatively late Creek villages dating from the period 
1675-1836. The latter present the possibility of a specific identi- 
fication of sites from ethnohistorical evidence, as well as an unusual 
opportunity to use the direct-historical approach in establishing a 
regional chronology. 

The manifestations in the Columbia Dam and Lock and Oliver 
Dam basins are an integral part of the entire picture in the Lower 
Chattahoochee Valley and must be studied in conjunction with those 
in the Walter F. George section. Complete coverage of those two 
projects was not possible in the time devoted to the reconnaissance, 
but it was determined that there are at least 14 sites in the immediate 
area of the Columbia Dam which will be affected by construction 
activities. One is a major mound site probably dating about A. D. 
1200, already half destroyed by the river, which calls for immediate 
investigation. Three others are major village sites attributable to the 
Weeden Island cultural pattern. In the Oliver Dam district there are 
at least 15 known sites including mounds, early village locations, and 
caves giving evidence of Indian occupation. The series encompasses 
a period of at least 3,000 years. 

The entire history of aboriginal development in that portion of the 
Chattahoochee Valley is contained in the river bottoms and low ter- 
races which will be flooded by the three reservoirs. Very little archeo- 
logical work has been done there and an extensive program of excava- 
tion is indicated. In addition, further surveys should be made in 
districts not covered during the recent investigations. 

Arkansas. — In the Dardanelle Reservoir Basin on the Arkansas 
River in west-central Arkansas, excavations were made in five sites, 
and two new sites were located and recorded during the period from 
March 18 to May 7. All seven of the sites involved were in the lower 
portion of the reservoir area. One rock shelter was almost com- 
pletely excavated and four open sites were extensively tested. Little 
was found at the excavated sites to indicate the type of dwelling or 
structures erected by the people. However, a considerable collection 
of artifact material was recovered which shows that the sites pri- 
marily represent the Archaic Period and that their ceramics were 
related to the Lower Mississippi Valley sequences. Only slight in- 
fluences were noted from the Caddoan area to the west and southwest. 
The two new sites found by the field party represent a mound-village 
complex and a historic Cherokee location. Because of adverse 
weather and unusually heavy rains during the period the party was in 
the Dardanelle area, not so much work was accomplished as had been 
contemplated, and it was recommended that similar excavations be 
made during the following fiscal year in upper portions of the reser- 
voir basin. 



SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 11 

The proposed survey of the Greer's Ferry Keservoir area, which 
was postponed the previous year because of high waters, was not 
made during the current year by a River Basin Surveys party as con- 
templated. Instead the University of Arkansas, working under an 
agreement with the National Park Service, carried out the prelimi- 
nary investigations at Greer's Ferry. The situation there was some- 
what comparable to that in the Dardanelle area in that weather con- 
ditions hampered the work to a considerable degree. It was planned 
that another party from the University would return to the Greer's 
Ferry area shortly after the beginning of the new fiscal year, 

Iowa. — No fieldwork was carried on in Iowa during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1958. However, the detailed technical report "Archeo- 
logical Salvage Investigations in the Coralville Reservoir, Iowa" was 
completed during the year and will be available for publication as 
soon as funds for that purpose are available. The report consists of 
100 typed pages, 12 plates, and 15 text figures. 

Kansas. — The only activity on the part of the River Basin Surveys 
during the fiscal year pertaining to Kansas was that of the comple- 
tion of the detailed technical report on the excavation in eight sites 
in the Toronto Reservoir Basin during the spring months of 1957. A 
typed manuscript of 90 pages with 12 plates and 15 text figures is now 
ready to submit to the editors. 

Missouri Basin. — As in previous years, the Missouri Basin Project 
continued to operate from the field headquarters and laboratory at 
1517 "O" Street, Lincoln, Nebr. Dr. Robert L. Stephenson served 
as chief of the Project throughout the year. Activities included work 
on all four phases of the salvage program: (1) Survey, (2) excava- 
tion, (3) analysis, and (4) reporting. The first two phases received 
major attention in the summer months, and the second two during the 
fall and winter. In addition to the four regular phases of the pro- 
gram, a special chronology program was initiated during the year. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year the staff, in addition to the 
chief, consisted of 4 permanent archeologists, 1 archeologist detailed 
to the Project from the Washington office, 5 temporary field assist- 
ants, 1 field assistant detailed to the project from the Washington 
office, 1 temporary physical anthropologist on duty in the Washing- 
ton office, 1 field and laboratory assistant, 1 administrative assistant, 
1 museum aide, 1 clerk-stenographer, 1 file clerk (half time), 1 
photographer, 1 clerk-typist, 2 temporary laboratory assistants, 1 
temporary (part time) draftsman, and 79 temporary field crewmen. 
At the end of the 1957 summer field season, all temporary field crew- 
men were terminated, with the exception of one who was assigned 
laboratory assistant's duties in the Lincoln office. The physical an- 
thropologist subsequently was on duty in the Missouri Basin for 3 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

weeks in August. The archeologist and field assistant detailed from 
the Washington office returned to their regular assignments in Au- 
gust. Two temporary field assistants were terminated in August. 
Two other temporary field assistants were appointed as archeologists 
on the permanent staff. One temporary field assistant was transferred 
to duty outside the Missouri Basin in January. One illustrator was 
added to the permanent staff in November. All other temporary 
employees were terminated in December and January. Four museum 
aides were added to the permanent staff during the year. One tempo- 
rary archeologist and two temporary field assistants were added at the 
beginning of the 1958 field season. At the end of the fiscal year there 
were 6 archeologists in addition to the chief, 1 administrative assist- 
ant, 1 clerk-stenographer, 1 file clerk (three-quarters time), 1 clerk- 
typist, 1 photographer, 1 illustrator, and 4 museum aides on the 
permanent staff. Temporary employees included 1 archeologist, 1 
physical anthropologist, 2 field assistants, 3 cooks, and 90 crewmen. 

During the year there were 19 Smithsonian Institution River Basin 
Surveys field parties at work within the Missouri Basin, while 
another, working outside the Basin, also operated from the Project 
office in Lincoln. Of the 19 Missouri Basin parties, 5 were at work 
in July, August, and September in the Big Bend Reservoir area in 
South Dakota, and 5 additional parties were at work there in June. 
Five parties worked in the Oahe Reservoir area in July, August, and 
September, and four other parties were at work there in June. The 
party outside the Missouri Basin was that in the Dardanelle Reser- 
voir area in Arkansas. 

Other field work in the Missouri Basin during the year included 11 
field parties from State institutions working under agreements with 
the National Park Service and in cooperation with the salvage re- 
search program of the Smithsonian Institution. Parties from the 
Universities of South Dakota, Idaho, Wyoming, Kansas, and Mis- 
souri and from the North Dakota State Historical Society were in the 
field during July to October. Parties from the Universities of South 
Dakota, Idaho, Wyoming, and Missouri were conducting excavations 
in June, as was a joint party from the North Dakota State Historical 
Society and the University of North Dakota. 

At the beginning of the year in the Big Bend Reservoir area, 
G. Hubert Smith and a party of 10 were engaged in excavations on 
the right bank of the Missouri River near the mouth of Medicine 
Creek, in Lyman County, S. Dak., at site 39LM241. This site was 
believed to be that of Fort Defiance (or Bonis), a small, short-lived 
trading post of the 1840's, It was one of a number of such estab- 
lishments organized from time to time in competition with the Ameri- 
can Fur Co. (P. Chouteau, Jr., & Co., after 1834) . It was hoped that 



SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 13 

work there would provide information on such lesser establishments 
of the fur and Indian trade, of which little was ever recorded at the 
time they were in use. Excavations at 39LM241 proved that it was 
not the site of Fort Defiance (or Bouis) but that it was of a later 
period of permanent settlement, dating after 1880. Further search 
for the Fort Defiance site proved fruitless. While somewhat scanty, 
the data and specimens from 39LM241 provide materials that should 
be very useful for comparative studies relating to this later period of 
white occupation. The Smith party completed 6 weeks of fieldwork 
and returned to the Lincoln office early in August. 

The second River Basin Surveys field party in the Big Bend Reser- 
voir area at the beginning of the year was directed by Dr. Warren W. 
Caldwell and consisted of a crew of nine. The group was at work on 
the right bank of the Missouri River in Lyman County, S. Dak., 
some 7 miles above the Lower Brule Agency, excavating in the Black 
Partizan site (39L1M218) . The latter consists of the remains of a pre- 
historic earth-lodge village of at least 2 component occupations and 
perhaps 3. The party completely excavated 1 circular earth-lodge 
ruin and a large portion of a second, cross-sectioned a defensive forti- 
fication ditch, excavated 1 complete bastion of the stockade, and tested 
a number of midden areas and cache pits. The circular houses were 
situated well outside the fortification ditch and were of the late occu- 
pation of about the end of the I7th century. The ditch and bastion 
represent two earlier occupation periods, with the ditch being dug 
during the earlier one, later filled in and, still later, redug. Tests 
indicated a rectangular house inside the fortification ditch and, to- 
gether with midden areas and cache pits in that area, provided both 
simple-stamped and cord-roughened pottery that predates the mate- 
rial recovered from the circular houses outside the stockade. Among 
the finds made in the cache pits, one of particular interest was the 
burial of two very large, adult dogs, together with a pup. After 12 
weeks of excavation, the party disbanded and returned to the Lincoln 
office on September 7. The Caldwell and Smith parties shared a 
joint field camp near the mouth of Medicine Creek. 

The third River Basin Surveys field party in the Big Bend Reser- 
voir area at the beginning of the year was under the direction of 
Robert W. Neuman and had a crew of 10. That party conducted 
excavations in four sites in the vicinity of Old Fort Thompson, the 
Indian Agency, on the left bank of the Missouri River in Buffalo 
County, S. Dak. Two of them were prehistoric village sites on the low 
terrace bottoms, and two were burial mounds situated on the higher 
terrace of the Missouri River. The Pretty BuU site (39BF12) was 
found to have had three separate occupations. The earliest and 
deepest remains were recovered from two test excavations that un- 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

covered two basin-shaped pits with burned, bright orange-colored i 
walls. One of these pits was associated with a few scattered post 
molds. The recovered artifacts suggest a Middle Woodland occupa- 
tion and include cord-marked pottery, crude triangular projectile 
points, stone end scrapers, elk or deer bone and antler tools, small 
shell disk beads, and concentrations of hematite. The middle occupa- 
tion was apparent in a large strata trench, where six cache pits with 
slightly convex bottoms and undercut walls were excavated. Fill 
within the pits included an abundance of Monroe, Anderson, and 
Foreman pottery that relates to an early, rectangular-house occupa- 
tion. Bone and stone implements were also numerous, but no archi- 
tectural features were found. The late occupation was represented 
in the excavations by the remains of a large, circular earth lodge. 
A central fire hearth, basin- and bell-shaped cache pits, and second- 
ary fiire hearths were excavated within the house. The ceramic col- 
lections from the house fill consist of at least nine pottery types, 
suggesting a long and varied occupation. The post-mold pattern of 
the house was poorly defined in some places, but the general pattern 
was unmistakable. 

The second village location excavated by the Neuman party was 
the Akichita site (39BF221). There, three midden areas were 
sampled extensively, and an abundance of artifacts and refuse was 
recovered, but no houses were located. One bell-shaped cache pit was 
dug. Artifacts collected suggest close affiliation with the older 
levels at the Dodd site (39ST30) near Pierre, S. Dak. It was felt at 
the end of the season that additional work was needed there, particu- 
larly an effort to determine the architectural pattern of the houses. 
A third site excavated was the Olson Mound (39BF223). It was a 
low, circular earth mound 1.5 feet high and 40 feet in diameter. No 
pottery and very few bone or stone artifacts were recovered from the 
fill. In the center, and on the base of the mound, there was a con- 
centration of badly decomposed human bones, suggesting the second- 
ary burial of an undetermined number of individuals. The cultural 
affiliation of the complex has not yet been determined. The final site 
excavations by the Neuman party were at the Truman Mound site 
(39BF224). The latter consisted of a group of four low, circular 
mounds in a line along the terrace edge, each measuring about 2 feet 
in height and 50 feet in diameter. Three of the mounds contained 
primary and/or secondary burials. One mound contained a deep, 
oval pit extending 6 feet below its top surface. A flexed burial, shell 
pendants, pottery sherds, and bone and shell tools were recovered 
from both the pit and the mound fill. Another of the mounds had a 
rectangular design of small rocks on its top surface and contained 
secondary burials. One skull displayed a large cut hole in the left 



Secretary's Report. 1958 



Plate 2 




1. Excavating a dwelling site of the period of permanent White settlement in the Big Bend 
Reservoir area, South Dakota. River Basin Surveys. 




2. Cutting trench through large burial mound at the Olson site, Big Bend Reservoir area, 
South Dakota. River Basin Survevs. 



Secretary's Report. I''58 



Plate 3 



i 




1. Floor of large circular earth lodge dating about the 17th century. Holes around periphery 
indicate location of wall poles; four larger holes in floor area show position of main supports. 
Entrance passage at rear with the Missouri River in background. Oahe Reservoir area, 
South Dakota. River Basin Surveys. 




2. Excavating house floor and cache pits at the Sully site, Oahe Reservoir area, South 
Dakota. River Basin Survevs. 



Secretary's Report. 1958 



Plate 4 




Four stages in the carving of a Seneca mask. Allegany Reservation, New York. 

September 1957. 



Secretary's Report. 1958 



Plate 5 




UrJ 



«< 



3 O 

-7- t« 



I C3 

<L) — ' 




SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 15 

temporal region. This mound lacked pottery, but in all other re- 
spects resembled the other three excavated mounds. The pottery 
from this mound group, including one restored vessel, was simple 
stamped, but had a typical Middle Woodland conoidal vessel shape 
and no decoration. This party disbanded and returned to the Lin- 
coln headquarters on October 3, after 1-i weeks of fieldwork. 

The fourth River Basin Surveys field party in the Big Bend Reser- 
voir area was directed by William N. Irving and consisted of a crew 
of eight. At the beginning of the year the party was at work on 
the left bank of the Missouri River in the vicinity of Old Fort 
Thompson in Buffalo County, S. Dak. Efforts were concentrated on 
the Medicine Crow site (39BF2), and excavations were made in three 
separate areas. In area A the men uncovered a circular earth lodge 
and several cache pits of the late occupation of about the early 18th 
century. In area C another circular earth lodge and several cache 
pits were excavated, and the recovered material suggests an occupa- 
tion date a few decades earlier than that of area A. One cache-pit 
burial was recovered there. The main work of the season was in 
area B, where a large series of extensive test excavations revealed 
deeply buried evidence of at least three separate occupations, antedat- 
ing the appearance of ceramics in the area. Some 25 projectile 
points and a large collection of camp refuse were obtained. The 
types of the artifacts and the stratigraphic situation, terminating in 
a coarse sand at the bottom, suggest an early Archaic occupation of 
perhaps as much as 5,000 or more years ago. One skull, recovered 
from the site, compares physically with the "Minnesota Man" re- 
mains, which generally are believed to be late Pleistocene in age. 
This is the best early-period site thus far noted in the immediate 
valley of the Missouri River. It has a strong potential for produc- 
ing evidence for a good sequence of occupations from very early 
preceramic times to late ceramic times. The geology of the terrace 
formations there, and pollen analyses, promise good interpretative 
possibilities. The party ended the season's work on October 3, after 
14 weeks of excavation. The Neuman and Irving parties shared a 
joint camp at Old Fort Thompson. 

The fifth River Basin Surveys field party in the Big Bend Reser- 
voir area at the beginning of the fiscal year was directed by Harold A. 
Huscher. He was assisted by a crew of three. This was a mobile 
party and constituted an extension of the previous summer's survey 
work in that area. During the season's work the group conducted 
extensive test excavations in 14 sites on both sides of the river in 
Buffalo, Hyde, Hughes, Lyman, and Stanley Counties; made surface 
collections from 14 other sites in Buffalo and Hyde Counties; and 
located 16 previously unrecorded sites. Of the sites tested, 12 were 

490358—59 3 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

recommended for excavation and 2 were written off as meriting no 
further attention. The 12 comprised either single- or multi-occupa- 
tion sites, ranging in time from Middle Woodland through the early 
ceramic periods of rectangular houses to and including the late 
ceramic periods of circular earth lodges. One suggests a preceramic 
horizon somewhat similar to that at the Medicine Crow site (39BF2). 
Of the sites visited and not tested, nine were recommended for further 
investigation, and five were written off. One of the latter five, 
39HU215, was first thought to be an early 19th-century trading post, 
but tests indicated that it was a late 19tli-century homestead allot- 
ment, probably of Dakota occupancy. On September 3 this party 
terminated its work in the Big Bend area after 8 weeks in the field, 
and moved to the Oahe Reservoir area to continue similar survey and 
testing activities. 

In the Oahe Reservoir area there were four River Basin Survey 
parties in the field at the beginning of the fiscal year, and a fifth 
party began work there early in September, Dr. Robert L. Stephen- 
son with a crew of 23 was excavating, at the beginning of the year, in 
the vicinity of Fort Sully on the left bank of the Missouri River in 
Sully Countj^, S. Dak. That party conducted intensive excavations 
in the Sully site (39SL4), the remains of the largest of the pre- 
historic earth-lodge villages known in the Missouri Basin. It also 
completely excavated a small rock-cairn burial site (39SL38) nearby. 
The latter consisted of a deep burial beneath a rock pile and produced 
a skeleton in poor condition, with no associated artifacts. The Sully 
site excavations included 13 circular earth lodges of the nearly 400 
presumed to be present in the site, and li/^ of the 4 ceremonial lodges. 
The house floors ranged in depth, below the surface, from 2 to 4 
feet; entrances were to the southwest; and two distinct architectural 
patterns were observed. One was composed of closely set double rows 
of small outer wall posts, the other was composed of widely spaced 
single rows of large outer posts with leaner posts outside them. Ap- 
parently there were two closely related, yet somewhat different, oc- 
cupational patterns, and the artifact inventory tends to support this 
distinction. The ceremonial lodges were 12-sided structures of 75- to 
80-foot diameters and had long entrance passages. The other houses 
all had very short entrances. The ceramic inventory suggests that 
there may have been an earlier occupation featuring rectangular 
houses, but no such houses were found in the areas excavated. Other 
features excavated include burial areas where 63 burials were re- 
covered, midden heaps, a large rectangular "plaza" area of unknown 
usage, a large I-shaped depression of unknown usage, a strata trench 
across the center of the site, and 91 cache pits. The major occupation 
of the site appears to have been by the immediate ancestors of the 



SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 17 

Arikara during the period 1600-1750. The other occupation or occu- 
pations were somewhat earlier. Among the unusual materials re- 
covered were several catlinite pipes, an ornament of turquoise, a piece 
of obsidian, and several ornaments made from marine shells. The 
burials will provide a good series for study, and the field party was 
particularly fortunate to have William M. Bass III, physical anthro- 
pologist of the River Basin Surveys staff, present to assist in the 
excavation of the burial areas. This party returned to the Lincoln 
headquarters on September 14, after 13 weeks in the field. 

The second River Basin Surveys party in the Oahe Reservoir area, 
comprising a crew of seven, was directed by Charles H. McNutt. At 
the beginning of the year they were camped with Dr. Stephenson's 
party near Fort Sully and were excavating in the nearby C. B. Smith 
site (39SL29) on the left bank of the Missouri River in Sully County, 
S. Dak. They uncovered major sections of 2 large circular earth lodges, 
10 cache pits, and 17 other features, and tested 2 extensive midden 
areas. This proved to be a moderately large earth-lodge village site 
of about the early I7th century. After the completion of work there, 
the party moved to the nearby Sully School site (39SL7) and exca- 
vated 2 houses, 12 cache pits, and 9 other features, tested one midden 
area, and trenched a portion of the fortification ditch and palisade. 
One of the houses had been a long, rectangular structure with an entry 
ramp to the south, while the other was a large circular structure. The 
two occupations thus indicated suggest that one belonged to a period 
approximating that of the C. B. Smith site, while the other was con- 
siderably earlier— perhaps between A. D. 1200 and 1400. The fortifi- 
cation ditch and palisade apparently surrounded the later period 
occupation. In addition to the excavations at those two sites, the 
McNutt party investigated two lesser sites in the vicinity. One, 
39SL9, was a small occupation area with a few surface remains. Test- 
ing there gave no promise of significant returns for intensive digging 
and no further work was attempted. The other, 39SL10, was a burial 
site along the edge of the present river bank. Stream cutting had 
destroyed all but the last vestiges of it, and there was little to salvage. 
The party disbanded and returned to the Lincoln headquarters on 
September 14, after 13 weeks of work. 

The third River Basin Surveys party in the Oahe Reservoir area 
was directed by Dr. Waldo R. Wedel, who was detailed to the River 
Basin Surveys for the summer by the department of anthropology of 
the U. S. National Museum. Dr. Wedel and a crew of nine worked 
near the Old Fort Bennett area on the right bank of the Missouri River 
in Stanley County, S. Dak. The party conducted intensive excavations 
in site 39ST203, where it uncovered two large circular earth lodges 
dating around the I7th century and two large long-rectangular houses 
of a much earlier period, perhaps the 14th or 15th centuries. The 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

floors of the circular houses were l^^ to 21/^ feet below the surface, 
while those of the rectangular structures were 3i^ to 4 feet. Other 
features excavated in this site include a burial pit with the remains of 
five individuals, and evidence of burning over the top of the corpses. 
The party also excavated a circular house and a large portion of the 
stockade line at the nearby site, 39ST50. This small fortified village 
of the late 18th or early 19th century may possibly be the Truteau vil- 
lage of the mid-1790's. Glass bottles and considerable metal were 
found in the site. Dr. Wedel's party disbanded on August 19, after 8 
weeks of excavation. 

The fourth River Basin Surveys party in the Oahe Reservoir area 
was directed by Donald D. Hartle. It consisted of a crew of seven and 
shared a joint field camp with the Wedel party. This party dug test 
excavations in three sites during the season. At 39ST11, two houses, 
nine cache pits, and several other features were excavated. The houses 
were small rectangular structures with single end posts, evenly spaced 
side-wall posts, and entrance ramps. Of especial interest was the 
small size and short-rectangular shape of these houses, distinguishing 
them from the long-rectangular structures of more usual occurrence. 
Architecture and artifact collections suggest affiliation with the 
early sedentary Anderson Focus of the 14th or 15th centuries. An- 
other interesting feature was the remains of three people who had died 
within a corner of one of the houses. With them were a whole pottery 
vessel and some fragments of basketry. In 39ST23, a dwelling house, 
a ceremonial lodge, several cache pits, a palisade and fortification 
ditch, and several other features were excavated. The pottery and 
circular houses suggest an Arikara occupation of perhaps the l7th or 
18th century. The ceremonial house contained an altar, and the wall 
posts were set in a trench around the base of the wall. At 39ST45, 
three houses, several cache pits, two palisade bastions, and several 
other features were excavated. This site was occupied at two differ- 
ent times at least, since one house was rectangular and two were circu- 
lar. The rectangular house was short and small and represents an 
occupation very closely related to that of site 39ST11. The circular 
house occupation was not entirely clear, but appears to have been 
representative of a culture pattern somewhat earlier than that of site 
39ST23. The two palisade bastions were oval in pattern and ex- 
tended laterally from a fortification palisade. This field party ended 
its work on August 24, after 9 weeks in the field. 

The River Basin Surveys' mobile survey and testing crew of three, 
under the direction of Harold A. Huscher, moved from the Big 
Bend Reservoir area on September 3 and began a site survey and 
testing operation in the Oahe Reservoir area between the mouth of 
the Cheyenne River and Whitlocks Crossing on the right bank of the 
Missouri River. Heavy vegetation growth and much rain during 



SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 19 

the season prevented the party from doing extensive site mapping or 
reconnaissance in the area, but several of the larger sites were visited 
and surface collections were made. A site map and exploratory tests 
were made at 39AK8, which appears to be related to the Huff site 
in North Dakota. Six other large sites were located and recorded 
for the fii-st time in this area. The party disbanded on September 
16, after 2 weeks in the Oahe Eeservoir area. 

The 1958 field season in the Missouri Basin began in the Big Bend 
Reservoir area on May 11 with a small party exploring in the vicinity 
of the Medicine Crow site (39BF2). William N. Irving with a crew 
of three and Mrs. Kathryn H. Clisby, pollen specialist from Oberlin 
College, Ohio, collected samples of fossil pollen from various local- 
ities in the area. Upon Mrs. Clisby's departure, Irving and his crew 
prepared a detailed map of the Medicine Crow site. On June 10 
he increased his party to eight crewmen and added an assistant 
trained in geology to work with him on stratigraphic terrace sequences 
relating to the geology of the site and its immediate vicinity. They 
located one new site containing a large mammalian fossil in a terrace 
fill deposit and another site with columnar fire hearths exposed in 
a cut bank of the river. Intensive excavations continued in area B 
at the Medicine Crow site, and by the end of the year were progress- 
ing through the upper 3 feet of the preceramic zones. 

On May 19, the second River Basin Surveys field party began op- 
erations in the Big Bend Reservoir area. This was a party of 10 
mider the direction of Robert W. Neuman excavating at two sites 
near Old Fort Thompson on the left bank of the Missouri River. 
Part of this crew continued work begun last season in the Akichita 
site (39BF221) in an attempt to learn details of architectural fea- 
tures. Extensive trenching had failed to find any traces of a house 
structure by the end of the year, although much midden refuse added 
significantly to the specimen inventory. The second section of the 
crew continued work begun last season at the Truman Mound site 
(39BF224). In that mound group, Mounds 5 and 6 were excavated 
during June, thus completing work at the site. In both mounds sec- 
ondary burials accompanied by shell, disk, and bone beads were found. 
Beneath Mound 6, several projectile points, bone beads, and other 
artifacts were found. This party planned to concentrate the re- 
mainder of the field season on the several other mound sites in the 
immediate vicinity. 

The third River Basin Surveys party in the Big Bend Reservoir 
area in June consisted of a crew of seven led by James J. F. Deetz. 
It began work on Jmie 10 and spent the remainder of the month in 
excavations in areas A and C of the Medicine Crow site (39BF2). 
Midden areas were trenched, and one circular earth lodge was exca- 
vated. This lodge was actually two closely superimposed structures. 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Work was continuing at this site at the end of the year. The field 
parties of Irving, Neuman, and Deetz shared a joint field camp near 
the Medicine Crow site. 

The fourth River Basin Surveys field party in the Big Bend Reser- 
voir area in June was composed of a crew of 13 directed by Dr. War- 
ren W. Caldwell. It began work on June 10 at tlie Black Partizan 
site in an effort to complete excavations started last season. By the 
end of the year a circular (or more exactly an octagonal) earth lodge 
had been completely excavated and a midden area trenched. 

The fifth River Basin Surveys party in the Big Bend Reservoir 
area consisted of a crew of seven led by Bernard Golden. It began 
work on June 10 at the Hickey Brothers site (39LM4) and spent the 
remainder of the year excavating midden deposits and one circular 
depression that appeared to be an earth-lodge ruin. Artifact inven- 
tory was small as of the end of the year. The Caldwell and Golden 
parties shared a joint camp at the Black Partizan site. 

In the Oahe Reservoir area, four River Basin Surveys parties were 
in the field during the month of June and a fifth party was scheduled 
to begin work early in the next fiscal year. The first party in the 
area had a crew of 10 under the direction of Charles H. McNutt. 
This group began on June 16, and spent the rest of the month con- 
tinuing excavations begun last season at the Sully School site 
(39SL7). There, a long expanse of the fortification stockade was 
uncovered, and work was well under way toward excavation of cir- 
cular earth-lodge structures. 

The second River Basin Surveys party in the Oahe Reservoir area 
in June consisted of a crew of 23 under the direction of Dr. Robert 
L. Stephenson, with Lee G. Madison as assistant. They began work 
on June 16 on the Sully site (39SL4) and by the end of the year had 
exposed the floors and other features of three circular earth-lodge 
structures. Artifact inventories were abundant in all 3, and an area 
surrounding 3 sides of each of 2 of the houses was being exposed in 
order to learn the nature of materials outside the houses. 

The third River Basin Surveys party at work in the Oahe Reservoir 
area by the end of the year was that of Richard P. Wheeler. It con- 
sisted of a crew of eight and was working on the Fort Bennett site 
(39ST12), on the right bank of tlie Missouri River near Old Fort 
Bennett in Stanley County, S. Dak. That party began work on June 
19, and by the end of the year had started the clearing of three circular 
earth-lodge structures. 

On the last day of the year, a fourth River Basin Surveys party 
started work in the Oahe Reservoir area. It was comprised of a crew 
of six, under the direction of William M. Bass III, and was to excavate 
the extensive burial area at the Sully site (39SL4:) . 



SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 21 

The McNutt, Stephenson, and Bass parties shared a joint field 
camp in the vicinity of the Sully site. Such 2- and 3-party field 
camps were proving to be efficient and economical, as many of the 
activities and expenses of several parties could be combined. The 
necessary field equipment, vehicles, number of cooks, and other ex- 
penses M^ere proportionately reduced. The consultative advantage of 
having two or three archeologists in a single camp was proving to be 
of great help in discussions pertaining to excavation methods and 
general archeological interpretations. 

Cooperating institutions in the Oahe Reservoir area at the beginning 
of the fiscal year included a party from the University of South Dakota 
directed by Dr. Wesley E. Hurt, Jr. ; a party from the University of 
Idaho under the direction of Dr. Alfred Bowers; and a party from 
the State Historical Society of North Dakota, directed by Daniel J. 
Scheans. At the end of the fiscal year cooperating institutions in the 
Oahe Reservoir included a party from the University of South Dakota 
directed by Eugene Fugle ; a party from the University of Idaho di- 
rected by Dr. Alfred Bowers; a party from the State Historical 
Society of North Dakota and the University of North Dakota com- 
bined, directed by Dr. James H. Howard. In other reservoirs in the 
Missouri Basin cooperating institutions had parties in the field at the 
beginning of the year as follows : The University of Wyoming, with 
a party directed by Dr. William Mulloy in the Glendo Reservoir of 
southeastern Wyoming; the University of Kansas, with a party di- 
rected by Dr. Carlyle S. Smith in the Tuttle Creek Reservoir of north- 
eastern Kansas ; and the University of Missouri with a party directed 
by Carl Chapman in the Pomme de Terre Reservoir of west-central 
Missouri. At the end of the fiscal year cooperating institutions were : 
The University of Wyoming with a party directed by Dr. William 
Mulloy in the Glendo Reservoir area and the University of Missouri 
with a party directed by Carl Chapman in the Pomme de Terre Reser- 
voir area. All these parties were operating through agreements with 
the National Park Service and were cooperating in the Smithsonian 
Institution research program. 

During the time that the archeologists were not in the field, they 
were engaged in analyses of their materials and in laboratory and 
library research. They also prepared manuscripts of technical, scien- 
tific reports and wrote articles and papers of a more popular nature. 

During January the first steps were taken by the staff archeologists 
of the Missouri Basin Project toward a long-range Missouri Basin 
Chronology Program. This program is a new departure in the field 
of salvage archeology and is directed toward a more precise under- 
standing of the time sequences of the prehistoric cultures represented 
in the sites being excavated in the Missouri Basin. One primary ob- 
jective of the program is to be able to plan future salvage excavations 



22 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



with increased efficiency. The program includes intensive research in 
dendrochronology, radiocarbon- 14 dating, pollen analysis, geologic- 
climatic dating, typological analyses of artifact materials, historical 
docmnentation, and the several subsidiary techniques applicable to 
chronology. Ultimately the program should provide a specific time 
scale into which each of the culture complexes represented in the 
excavated sites can be fitted with pinpoint accuracy. In the second 
half of the fiscal year the Missouri Basin Chronology Program made 
several significant accomplislmients. A large wall chart and map 
were prepared, showing temporal position and geographic location of 
all of the archeologically pertinent carbon-14 dates so far available. 
A series of 11 radiocarbon- 14 specimens were submitted to the Univer- 
sity of Michigan for dating. The available dendrochronological ma- 
terials on hand in the Missouri Basin were analyzed, and a determina- 
tion was made of what furtlier material is needed. Plans were also 
made for procuring additional dendrochronological specimens upon 
which a series of local master plots can be built. Pollen samples from 
ancient bog areas were collected and submitted to Oberlin College for 
analyses, and plans were made for further collecting of fossil pollens. 
A man with geological training was temporarily added to the staff 
to work out a terrace-system sequence along a portion of the Missouri 
River, and a series of specimens was submitted to the University of 
Michigan proportional counter laboratory for analyses. Representa- 
tives from several State institutions are also cooperating in the 
program. 

The laboratory and office staff devoted its time to processing specimen 
materials for study, photographing specimens, preparing specimen 
records, and typing and filing of records and manuscript materials. 
The accomplishments of the laboratory and office staff are listed in 
the following tables. 



Table 1. — Specimens processed July 1, 1957-June SO, 1958 



Reservoir 


Number 
of sites 


Catalog 
numbers 
assigned 


Number of 
specimens 
processed 


Big Bend - 


34 

13 

29 

5 


8,290 

5,417 

901 

23 


52, 718 


Oahe - - --- - 


38, 864 


Toronto 


1, 304 


Sites not in reservoirs. 


212 






Collections not assigned site numbers 


81 
2 


14, 631 
9 


93, 098 
9 


Total 


83 


14, 640 


93, 107 







SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 23 

Table 2. — Record materials processed July 1, 1957-June SO, 1958 

Reflex copies of records 9,240 

Photographic negatives made 2, 946 

Photographic prints made ^^< ^^1 

Photographic prints mounted and filed ^» 1^2 

Transparencies mounted in glass 1» ^^2 

Color pictures taken in the laboratory 368 

Plate layouts made for manuscripts ^2 

Cartographic tracings and revisions 220 

Plates lettered 37 

Artifacts sketched ^^ 

Profiles drawn 1^ 

As of June 30, 1958, the Missouri Basin Project had cataloged 
917,370 specimens from 1,762 numbered sites and 52 collections not 
assigned site numbers. During the current fiscal year, 8 pottery ves- 
sels and 37 pottery vessel sections were restored, and 104 nonpottery 
artifacts were repaired. Archeological specimens from 236 sites in 5 
reservoirs were transferred to the United States National Museum, as 
were selected specimens of dog, bird, and fish bones, and of shell. 
Pottery specimens and stone projectile points were transferred to 
Kegion Two of the National Park Service for use as display material 
at Wind Cave National Monument in South Dakota. The Missouri 
Basin Project received, by transfer from the Nebraska State His- 
torical Society, through the courtesy of Marvin F. Kivett, sample 
pottery specimens from four prototypical Nebraska sites. Cultural 
units and sites of these type specimens are : Dismal River, the Lovett 
site (25CH1) ; Lower Loup, the Burkett site (25NC1) ; Oneota, the 
Learysite (25RH1) ; and Valley Woodland, the Schultz site (25VY1). 
These specimens are now a part of the Missouri Basin Project com- 
parative collection. The Missouri Basin Project also received by 
transfer from the University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, 
through the courtesy of Dr. Carlyle S. Smith, archeological collec- 
tions from two sites in the Fort Randall Reservoir area. This was a 
permanent transfer of excavated materials which increased materially 
the research value of Missouri Basin Project collections. 

During the Thanksgiving weekend, members of the staff partici- 
pated in the 15th Plains Conference for Archeology, held in Lincoln. 
On April 19, members of the staff presented papers at the annual 
meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, also held in Lincoln. 
On April 30 and May 1 and 2, members of the staff attended and par- 
ticipated in the annual meeting of the Society for American Arche- 
ology held in Norman, Okla. 

Dr. Robert L. Stephenson, chief, when not in charge of field parties, 
devoted most of his time to managing the office and laboratory in Lin- 
coln and preparing plans for the 1958 sumjner field season. He spent 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

some time working on a summary report of the Missouri Basin Sal- 
vage Program for the calendar years 1952-56 and wrote several short 
papers for presentation before scientific groups. He also worked on a 
manuscript on the "Archeological Investigations in the Whitney Res- 
ervoir, Texas," and prepared text, pictures, and captions for a photo- 
graphic booklet, "The Inter- Agency Archeological Salvage Program, 
After Twelve Years." During the second half of the year, he served 
as chairman of the Missouri Basin Chronology Program. In August 
he addressed the Pierre, S. Dak., Rotary Club on "Archeological Sal- 
vage in South Dakota." In October he addressed the Fidelia Lyceum 
in Lincoln, Nebr., on "Prehistoric America in Missouri Basin." In 
January he attended and participated in the annual meeting of the 
Committee for the Recovery of Archeological Remains, held in 
Washington, D. C. On April 19 he attended the annual meeting of 
the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, held in Lincoln, and presented a 
paper on "The Missouri Basin Chronology Program." On April 30 
and May 1 and 2, at Norman, Okla., he attended the annual meeting 
of the Society for American Archeology and participated as a dis- 
cussant of a paper presented by Robert Bell, entitled "Caddoan 
Relationships to the Plains." 

Dr. Warren W. Caldwell, archeologist, during the fall and winter 
months devoted most of his time to analyses of specimen materials 
recovered from sites he had excavated over the past year. He com- 
pleted all plates, figures, and manuscript text for the final report 
"Archeological Investigations in the Coralville Reservoir, Iowa." He 
also completed all plates, figures, and manuscript text for the fiaial 
report, "Archeological Salvage Investigations in the Hell's Canyon 
Area, Snake River, Oregon and Idaho." He prepared a brief tech- 
nical manuscript, "Firearms and Connotive Materials from Fort 
Pierre II (39ST217), Oahe Reservoir, South Dakota," and a brief 
popular article, "The Smithsonian Institution in Arkansas." The 
latter was published in the June issue of The Ozark Mountaineer. Dr. 
Caldwell also submitted a short note for publication in the Davidson 
Journal of Anthropology entitled "Pacific Coast Clay Figurines : A 
Contraview." He submitted a book review of "Northwest Arche- 
ology," Research Studies of the State College of Washington^ vol. 24, 
No. 1, that was published in American Antiquity^ vol. 23, No. 2, 1957. 
During the second half of the year he served as dendrochronology 
chairman of the Missouri Basin Chronology Program. 

Donald D. Hartle, temporary archeologist, on the staff at the begin- 
ning of the year, left the project on August 26 to resume his graduate 
studies. Mr. Hartle was formerly a regular member of the staff at 
Lincoln and is still working on reports of work done at that time. He 
also is preparing a report on the results of his investigations during 
the 1957 field season in the Oahe Reservoir area. 



SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 25 

Harold A. Huscher, temporary archeologist, on the staff at the 
beginning of the year, was transferred to the Washington office on Jan- 
uary 27 to carry on the explorations in Alabama- Georgia previously 
discussed. Between his return from the field on September 16 and 
his departure for the Southeast, Mr. Huscher wrote a rough draft of 
a manuscript covering his work in the Missouri Basin in the summers 
of 1956 and 1957 — "Appraisal of the Archeological Resources of the 
Big Bend Reservoir, South Dakota." He also prepared the prelimi- 
nary draft of a brief technical manuscript on earth-lodge village forti- 
fications in the Missouri Basin, and presented it as an oral report at 
the 15th Plains Conference for Archeology in Lincoln on November 
28. He participated in the initial stages of the Missouri Basin 
Chronology Program. 

William M. Bass III, temporary physical anthropologist, left the 
staff on August 28. He rejoined the staff in the same capacity on June 
2 and remained in the Washington office until June 20, when he pro- 
ceeded to the Lincoln office where he spent five days working on a com- 
parative human skeleton. He left for the field in the Oahe Reservoir 
area on June 28. 

William N. Irving, temporary archeologist, was appointed to the 
permanent staff on May 18. When not in the field directing excava- 
tions, he was in the Lincoln office analyzing materials he excavated 
during the preceding summer and investigating the geological possi- 
bilities of the Medicine Crow site (39BF2). He presented a prelimi- 
nary report on the archeology of the Medicine Crow site at the 15th 
Plains Conference for Archeology on November 28, and a report on 
the chronology of the Medicine Crow site at the annual meeting of the 
Nebraska Academy of Sciences on April 19. On May 1 he went to 
Norman, Okla., and presented a paper on the chronological relation- 
ships of the early part of the Medicine Crow site at the annual meet- 
ing of the Society for American Archeology. During the second half 
of the year he served as geology chairman of the Missouri Basin 
Chronology Program. 

James J. F. Deetz, temporary archeologist, joined the staff on June 
2, and on June 10 left Lincoln for South Dakota to excavate a series 
of sites in the Big Bend Reservoir area. 

Alan H. Coogan, temporary field assistant, joined the staff on June 
2, and on June 10 left Lincoln for the field to serve as assistant to Wil- 
liam N. Irving in the geological-archeological work in the vicinity of 
Old Fort Thompson in the Big Bend Reservoir area. 

Bernard Golden, temporary archeologist, joined the staff on May 19 
and on June 10 left Lincoln to begin excavations in an earth-lodge vil- 
lage site in the Big Bend Reservoir area. 

Charles H. McNutt, archeologist, when he was not in the field, de- 
voted most of his time to analyses and the preparation of reports. He 



26 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

served as carbon- 14 chairman, during the second half of the year, in 
the Missouri Basin Clironology Program. He completed the final 
draft of a major technical manuscript covering part of his previous 
summer's work, entitled "Archeological Investigations in the C. B. 
Smith Site (39SL29), Oahe Reservoir, South Dakota." He also com- 
pleted the final draft of an unfinished manuscript begun by Harold A. 
Huscher, entitled "Appraisal of the Archeological Resources in the 
Big Bend Reservoir Area, South Dakota." On November 28, he pre- 
sented a paper, "Excavations at Two Sites in the Oahe Reservoir, Sully 
County, South Dakota," at the 15th Plains Conference for Archeology 
in Lincoln. On April 18 he presented a paper entitled "La Roche 
Ware and Relative Chronology" at the annual meeting of the Nebras- 
ka Academy of Sciences in Lincoln, From April 30 to May 3 he at- 
tended the annual meeting of the Society for American Archeology in 
Norman, Okla. He was senior author, with Richard P. Wheeler, of 
a brief article entitled "Bibliography of Primary Sources for Radio- 
carbon Dates," which was submitted in June for publication in the 
Notes and News section of American Antiquity. 

Robert W. Neuman, temporary archeologist, was appointed to the 
permanent staff on July 29. During the time he was not directing 
field activities he was busy completing the analyses of the data and 
materials he had collected and preparing reports on his previous 
seasons' work. He completed the final draft of a major technical 
manuscript entitled "Archeological Investigations in the Lovewell 
Reservoir Area, Kansas." On November 28, he presented a paper, 
"Excavations in Four Sites in the Big Bend Reservoir Area, South 
Dakota." On April 19 he attended the annual meeting of the 
Nebraska Academy of Sciences in Lincoln, and from April 30 to 
May 3 attended the annual meeting of the Society for American 
Archeology in Norman, Okla. 

G. Hubert Smith, archeologist, during the periods he was not 
in the field, devoted his time to completion of final drafts of two 
major technical reports and one minor report. One major technical 
report was "Archeological Investigations at the Site of Fort Ber- 
thold II (32ML2), Garrison Reservoir, North Dakota"; the second 
was "Archeological Investigations at the Site of Fort Pierre II 
(39ST217), Oahe Reservoir, South Dakota." A brief report on 
excavations at site 39LM241 was also completed. On November 29, 
he served as chairman for a section of the Plains Conference for 
Arclieology, devoted to historic sites archeology, and summarized the 
reports of the seven speakers. He submitted a book review of "New 
Discoveries at Jamestown" by John L. Cotter and J. Paul Hudson, 
which was published in the Autumn 1957 issue of Archeology. On 
January 2, Mr. Smith was detailed, on a reimbursable basis, to the 



SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 27 

National Park Service to conduct archeological excavations at the 
site of Fort McHenry in Baltimore, Md. 

Richard P. Wlieeler, archeologist, was at the Lincoln headquarters 
throughout the year until June 20. During this period he spent his 
time preparing technical reports on work completed in previous 
years. He completed the final section of a draft of a lengthy, detailed 
report on excavations conducted during 1949-51 in the Angostura 
Reservoir area in South Dakota and the Boyson and Keyhole Reser- 
voir areas in Wyoming. He also completed the draft of a technical 
report on excavations in the Jamestown Reservoir area in North 
Dakota. At the 15th Plains Conference for Archeology, in Lincoln, 
he presented a preliminary statement on the Stutsman Focus, and a 
paper, jointly with Harry E, Weakly, dealing with the cultural and 
chronological sequences at Birdshead Cave, Wyo. A third paper pre- 
sented at that meeting dealt with radiocarbon dates and prehistory in 
the central and northern Plains. As previously mentioned, he col- 
laborated with Charles H. McNutt in preparing a paper for submission 
to American Antiqidty. From April 30 to May 3 he attended the 
annual meeting of the Society for American Archeology in Norman, 
Okla. 

Snake River Basin. — No field explorations were carried on in the 
Snake River Basin during the fiscal year. However, one report on 
the investigations made there during the previous year was completed. 
It is called "Archeological Salvage Investigations in the Hell's Canyon 
Area, Snake River, Oregon and Idaho." The manuscript consists of 
95 typed pages and has 8 plates and 6 text figures. The material and 
information upon which the report is based were mainly from two 
sites in the vicinity of Robinette, Oreg. Another report pertaining 
to the excavations on the Idaho side of the river at Big Bar has not 
yet been completed, but it is well under way. 

South Carolina-Georgia. — Excavations were made at two sites in 
the Hartwell Reservoir Basin during the period from April 22 to 
June 21. One of them was located in South Carolina and the other 
in Georgia. In addition, three other sites in the South Carolina area 
were inspected and an extensive surface collection of artifacts was 
made at one of them. Owing to the refusal of the owner to permit 
digging, no attempt was made at the latter site to determine its depth 
or the extent of its deposits. 

One of the sites where digging was carried on is located in the 
fork created by the juncture of the Tugaloo and Chauga Rivers. The 
site originally consisted of one large mound flanked on either side 
by a low mound. During the last 10 to 12 years the large mound was 
intentionally reduced in height in order to facilitate cultivation of 
the field where it is situated. Consequently its present height of 
12 feet above the level of the bottom lands does not represent its 



28 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

original height and its contour has also been modified. Four test areas 
were dug in the vicinity of the present apex of the mound to deter- 
mine if possible where the original apex had been, and also to discover 
the pliysical makeup of the feature and the possible purpose for its 
construction. One of the test areas exposed the outline of a rectangu- 
lar structure with rounded corners and a subterranean floor. The 
posts which had formed the walls had been placed at 2-foot intervals. 
Because of lack of time the house remains were not completely ex- 
cavated. Enough was done, however, to determine its general charac- 
teristics. Two of the other test areas showed that the mound had 
been erected in several stages over a period of years. In each case 
the exterior mantle consisted of a hard-packed bluish-gray sandy clay 
which varied from 3 to 6 inches in thickness. Each mantle in turn 
had been spread over a layer of clean river sand averaging 1 foot 
3 inches in thickness. There had been at least four such features, 
and additional digging may reveal still earlier ones. Not much arti- 
fact material was recovered, but such as was found indicates that 
the latest culture represented probably was Cherokee with an earlier 
imderlying Etowah horizon. The site may well have been that of the 
Cherokee village and mound known as Chauga. 

On the Georgia side of the Tugaloo River approximately 2 miles 
downriver from the Yonah Dam of the Georgia Power Co. is a village 
and mound site which also has Cherokee affinities. This is the largest 
site in the Hartwell Basin and lies on a sandy ridge 1,000 feet long 
and 150 feet wide which parallels the river. There was a small 
mound 150 feet from the northern limits of the ridge which upon 
excavation proved to be quite unusual. The top layer or mantle 
consisted of a sandy humus. This covered a small mound of river 
cobblestones of various weights and diameters which was approxi- 
mately 2 feet in height and 18 feet in diameter. Directly underneath 
the base of the rock mound was a series of seven heavy-packed ash 
and calcined bone-filled basin-shaped hearths. Each of the hearths 
was circular in outline and averaged slightly over 5 feet in diameter 
and from 1 foot to 18 inches in depth. Because of the presence of the 
fragmentary calcined bones it was thought that the basins served as 
crematory areas over a long period of time. After the last or upper- 
most hearth had served its purpose, the cobblestone mound was erected 
over the crematory area, perhaps to indicate that it was a place of 
particular significance or to protect the features lying beneath it. 
Thus far such a manifestation is unique in southeast archeology and 
it may indicate a local cult which has previously passed unnoticed 
or has not been reported. 

Adjacent to and south of the mound were the remains of three 
houses representing different types of structure. The uppermost was 
approximately square and the walls had been constructed by placing 



SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 29 

individual posts in prepared post holes. Directly beneath those re- 
mains was evidence for a large rectangular "town-house" type of 
structure measuring 44 feet in length and 26 to 27 feet in width, 
with the doorway opening toward the south. The individual post 
form of construction had also been used in erecting that structure. 
Immediately beneath it and resting upon sterile red clay were the 
fragmentary remains of two small circular trench-type houses, the 
earliest form of house found throughout the Southeast. Additional 
work at this location would undoubtedly yield further evidence per- 
taining to the sequence of house forms and might also give a clue 
to their significance. 

Two unusual ceremonial burials were found in a test area some 40 
feet from the house remains. Tubular-shaped pits with saucer-shaped 
bottoms had been dug in the clean sterile sand of the ridge. The pits 
were approximately 2 feet in diameter and the walls of one had been 
lined with small cobblestones, while those in the other were left in 
their natural state. At the bottom of each pit, 5 feet 5 inches below 
the surface, were the fragmentary remains of a human cranium. 
Other bones may originally have been present, but they had long since 
disintegrated. The rock-lined pit was filled with a dark humic soil 
intermixed with some stones, while the other was filled with clean 
river sand. These burials may represent a new trait for that section 
of South Carolina, Georgia, and the Southeast. The specimens col- 
lected during the course of the work suggest that it was of Cherokee 
origin. The site has been identified, tentatively, as that of the Chero- 
kee Lower Settlements town of Estatoee by some. Others think 
further evidence is needed to demonstrate that such was the case, 
since historically it supposedly was on the South Carolina side of 
the river. Additional excavations are certainly warranted at that 
location. 

Cooperating institutioTis. — In addition to the several State and 
local institutions cooperating in the Missouri Basin, others partici- 
pated in the Inter- Agency Salvage Program in a number of areas. 
The University of Arizona carried on investigations in the Painted 
Kocks Reservoir basin on the Gila River in Arizona. The Museum 
of Northern Arizona continued its explorations in the Glen Canyon 
Reservoir area on the Colorado River. The University of Utah also 
cooperated in the Glen Canyon project, working the upper end of 
the basin. The University of California made surveys and conducted 
excavations in the Trinity Reservoir area on the Trinity River, the 
Terminus Reservoir on the Kaweah River, in the Coyote Valley 
Reservoir area on the Russian River, and in the Washoe Reservoir 
basin on the Truckee River. The University of Southern California 



30 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

worked in the Buena Vista watershed project and the Arroyo Grande 
Creed watershed project in California. Idaho State College made 
surveys along the Upper Snake, the Salmon, and Middle Fork Rivers 
in Idaho. The University of Southern Illinois carried on surveys 
and excavations in the Carlyle Dam area on the Kaskaskia River in 
south-central Illinois. In New Mexico the School of American Re- 
search excavated in the Abiquiu Reservoir area along the Chama 
River and made surveys in the Navajo Reservoir area along the San 
Juan River in northern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado. The 
University of Oklahoma participated in three projects. One con- 
sisted of a reexamination of the Fort Gibson Reservoir basin on the 
Grand or Neosho River. Surveys and excavations were made there 
a number of years ago before the dam was completed and the area 
flooded. Because of a greatly lowered pool level last year it was 
possible to return to the area and examine a number of sites which 
had been under water for some time. The other two projects of the 
University of Oklahoma were in the Sandy Creek Reservoir area 
along the Blue River and Waurika Reservoir basin along Beaver 
Creek, a tributary of the Red River. The University of Oregon sur- 
veyed and excavated in two reservoir basins. One was the Immigrant 
on Beaver Creek, a tributary of the Rogue River, and the other was 
the John Day along the Columbia River. The University of Texas 
continued its excavation project at the Ferrell's Bridge Reservoir 
along Cypress Creek, a tributary of the Red River in eastern Texas. 
The State College of Washington continued excavations in the Ice 
Harbor Reservoir area along the Lower Snake River in southeastern 
Washington. In the New England area surveys were made on a per- 
sonal contract basis by one member of the Department of Anthro- 
pology at Harvard University and by a member of the faculty from 
Temple University at Philadelphia. All these projects were carried 
on under agreements with the National Park Service. In several 
areas local groups continued to assist on a voluntary basis. These 
activities were mainly in Ohio, Indiana, and southern California. 

ARCHIVES 

The Bureau archives continued during the year under the custody 
of Mrs. Margaret C. Blaker. From June 1 to 6 Mrs. Blaker examined 
pictorial and manuscript collections relating to the American Indian 
in the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia, and in 
the American Museum of Natural History, the Museum of the Amer- 
ican Indian, the New York Historical Society, the New York Public 
Library, and the Frick Art Reference Library in New York. On 
June 13 Miss Barbara Hemphill entered on duty as a summer interne, 
detailed to the archives. 



SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 31 

Photogra'phic collections. — ^Anthropologists, historians, publishers, 
and interested members of the public continued in increasing numbers 
to draw upon the extensive photographic collections of the Bureau as 
a source of documentation and illustration. The year's total of 534 
orders and written and personal inquiries concerning photographs 
represents a 20-percent increase over the previous year's figure of 
444, and is almost double the 1956 total of 294. The 1,231 prints 
distributed is also an appreciable increase over the 1,019 of last year 
and 978 in 1956. The preparation and distribution, during the past 
2 years, of descriptive lists of specific portions of the photographic 
collections have undoubtedly made more searchers aware of the photo- 
graphic resources of the Bureau, the result being an increased num- 
ber of purchase requests. Lists describing photographs relating to 
86 tribes or subjects are now available; 21 such lists were prepared 
during the past year. 

There were 22 new photographic collections received during the 
year, some of which are described below : 

A very important collection relating to North American Indians was 
received by transfer from the Library of Congress. It consists of some 
7,200 photographs pertaining to over 120 tribal units of the United 
States, Alaska, and Canada ; the Southwest, the Northwest Coast, the 
Plains, and the Great Lakes areas are particularly well covered. The 
photographs were made by professional photographers from approx- 
imately 1890 to 1920, and are of excellent photographic quality. Over 
two-thirds of them are outdoor views; the remainder are portraits, 
most of which are accompanied by the name of the individual. At 
year's end only a preliminary examination of the collection had been 
made. The arrangement and cataloging of the photographs by tribe 
and area will be a major project for the coming year. 

An albimi of 60 photographs relating to the several Indian tribes re- 
siding on the Muckleshoot Reservation, Wash., in the period 1902-36 
was received as a transfer from the Indian Claims Commission, 
through the courtesy of Arthur C. Ballard, who made and collected 
the photographs. The collection, with detailed captions, includes 
portraits of Indian informants and views of native activities and 
equipment such as fishing gear, firemaking equipment, ceremonial ob- 
jects, houses, and tools. 

A collection of about 40 photographs of Plains Indians made by 
commercial photographers of the late 19th century was received as a 
gift from the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 
through John Witthoft, chief curator. Another group of 26 such 
photographs, including a number of Indian portraits by D. F. Barry, 
was lent for copying through the courtesy of Mr. Witthoft. 



32 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

A series of about 35 negatives relating to the Acoma, Laguna, and 
Taos pueblos and to the Navaho and Paiute tribes, made by Vernon 
Bailey during the first decade of the 20th century, was received as a 
transfer from the Smithsonian library, where they had been deposited 
as a gift from Mrs. Vernon Bailey in 1945. 

Thirteen photographs of Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache Indians, 
including recent portraits of some descendants of prominent Apache 
personalities of the 19th century, were received from Mrs. Eve Ball, of 
Hollywood, N. Mex. With the assistance of Apache informants, Mrs. 
Ball also provided identifications and notes on several photographs in 
the Bureau collections. 

Copy prints of 24 portraits and views of activities at Carlisle Indian 
School, collected by O. H. Bakeless, ca. 1892-1902, were forwarded by 
Dr. Archibald Hanna as a gift from the Yale University Library, 
through the courtesy of John Bakeless, who owns the original prints. 

Eight copy photographs relating to Indians of Michigan in the 
period 1865-ca. 1900, collected from various sources by the Michigan 
Historical Commission, were received as a gift from the Commission, 
through the courtesy of Dr. Philip P. Mason. 

Mrs. Marion Vincent, of Sequim, Wash., lent for copying eight 
photographs of elderly Clallam Indians taken at various dates in the 
first half of the 20th century, including a portrait of old Doctor Hall, 
the boatmaker. 

Kichard Pohrt, of Flint, Mich., forwarded as a gift eight photo- 
graphs of Indians of California and adjacent western States, made by 
commercial photographers about 1900. 

Six photographs of Seminole Indians made in Collier County, Fla., 
ca. 1900-1928, were received from Dr. Charlton W. Tebeau, of Coral 
Gables, Fla., through Dr. William C. Sturtevant. 

Two snapshots of the tombstone of Joseph Pawnee No Pashee, first 
governor of the Osage (d. 1883), located at Pawhuska, Okla., were 
received as a gift from E. B. Schackleford, of Pawhuska. 

Manuscript collections. — There is a continued increase in the utiliza- 
tion of the manuscript collections by anthropologists and other stu- 
dents. About 305 manuscripts were consulted by searchers, either in 
person or by the purchase of 9,696 pages of reproductions. In addi- 
tion, 68 mail inquiries concerning the manuscript collections were re- 
ceived, and a considerable number were examined by the archivist in 
preparing replies. As a result of this examination, new and more 
complete descriptions of 61 manuscripts were drafted for the catalog, 
annotations were added to numerous other catalog entries, and lists 
describing certain related groups were prepared for distribution. 

Thirteen lots of manuscript material were received in the archives. 
The following have been cataloged and made available for reference : 



SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 33 

4517. Beam, George L, (official photographer, Denver & Rio Grande Western 

Railroad). Miscellaneous correspondence and news clippings, Ca. 

1917-27. 1 portfolio. 
4507. Corbusier, William Henry. "Record of William Henry Corbusler, Colonel, 

U. S. Army, Retired." April 10, 1924, 80 pp., typed. Relates to the 

Apache Indians of Arizona. 
4505. Gilfillan, J. A. Chippewa dictionary (original draft?), notes on place 

names, etc.; miscellaneous lot of notes, unarranged. Ca. 1911? 1 

portfolio, 
4521, Harrington, John P, Miscellaneous short manuscripts, unpublished, 

1940-52 and n. d. 1 bos. (Titles listed in catalog.) 
3323. ^Marye, William B. Materials relating to the sites of Indian bridges, 

principally in Maryland and Virginia, and also in Delaware and North 

Carolina. 1932 ca.-1949 and 1956. 5 boxes. 

4524. Marye, William B. "Indian Shell Heaps on Chesapeake Bay and Its 

Estuaries In Maryland ; Some Incomplete Data Collected by William B. 
Marye." 1913 ca.-1956. 1 portfolio. 

4514. Newcomb, C. F. "Sketch of Southern Portion of Queen Charlotte Islands, 
B. C." 1901. Manuscript map, approx. 33" x 58". 

4513. NIblack, Albert P. Notes and correspondence relating to the ethnology 
of the northwest coast of North America; miscellaneous papers, un- 
arranged. Ca. 1884-89. 1 portfolio. 

4525. Scott, Gen. Hugh L. Papers relating to Indian conditions, accumulated 

while serving on the Board of Indian Commissioners, February 25, 1919- 
July 25, 1933. 3 boxes. (Subject list in catalog.) 
4504. Sturtevant, William C. "Notes on the History and Bibliography of Ca- 
tawba Linguistic Studies." July-August 1957. 18 pp., typed. 

A summary description of the holdings of the Bureau archives was 
prepared for the National Historical Publications Commission, U. S. 
National Archives, for inclusion in the guide to depositories of manu- 
scripts in the United States being prepared by the Commission. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

The Bureau staff artist, E. G. Schumacher, continued work during 
the year on a wide variety of artistic material for the Bureau of 
American Ethnology and Kiver Basin Surveys. An appreciable 
amount of time was also devoted to various illustrative tasks needed 
by different departments of the Smithsonian Institution. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBUCATIONS 

The Bureau's editorial work continued during the year under the 
immediate direction of Mrs. Eloise B. Edelen. There were issued one 
Annual Report and four Bulletins, as follows : 

Seventy-fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1956- 

1957. iI-}-28 pp., 2 pis. 1958. 
Bulletin 164. Anthropological Papers Nos. 4&-56. x-|-356 pp., 75 pis., 5 figs., 
15 maps. 19.57. 

No. 40. The Ormond Beach Mound, east-central Florida, by Jesse D. 
Jennings, Gordon R. Willey, and Marshall T, Newman. 



34 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

No. 50. Hair pipes in Plains Indian adoi'nment, a study In Indian and 

White ingenuity, by Jotin C. Ewers. 
No. 51. Observations on some nineteenth-century pottery vessels from the 

Upper Missouri, by Waldo R. Wedel. 
No. 52. Revaluation of the Eastern Siouan problem, with particular em- 
phasis on the Virginia branches — the Occaneechi, the Saponi, and the 
Tutelo, by Carl F. Miller. 
No. 53. An archeological reconnaissance in southeastern Mexico, by Mat- 
thew W. Stirling. 
No. 54. Valladolid Maya enumeration, by John P. Harrington. 
No. 55. Letters to Jack Wilson, the Paiute Prophet, written between 1908 and 

1911, edited and with an introduction by Grace M. Dangberg. 
No. 56. Factionalism at Taos Pueblo, New Mexico, by William N. Fenton. 
Bulletin 165. Music of Acoma, Isleta, Cochiti, and Zufii Pueblos, by Frances 

Densmore. xii+118 pp., 6 pis. 1957. 
Bulletin 166. River Basin Surveys Papers, No. 8. Excavations in the McNary 
Reservoir Basin near Umatilla, Oregon, by Douglas Osborne. With ap- 
pendixes by Marshall T. Newman, Arthur Woodward, W. J. Kroll, and B. H. 
McCleod. x-f258 pp., 40 pis., 6 figs., 19 maps. 1957. 
Bulletin 167. Archeological investigations at the mouth of the Amazon, by 
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans, xxviii+664 pp., 112 pis., 206 figs. 1957. 

The following publications were in press at the close of the fiscal 
year: 

Bulletin 143, vol. 7. Index to the Handbook of South American Indians. 
Bulletin 168. The Native Brotherhoods : Modern intertribal organizations on 

the Northwest coast, by Philip Drucker. 
Bulletin 169. River Basin Surveys Papers, Nos. 9-14 : 

No. 9. Archeological investigations in the Heart Butte Reservior area, North 

Dakota, by Paul L. Cooper. 
No. 10. Archeological investigations at the Tuttle Creek Dam, Kansas, by 

Robert B. Cumming, Jr. 
No. 11, The Spain site (39LM301), a winter village in Fort Randall Reser- 
voir, South Dakota, by Carlyle S. Smith and Roger T. Grange, Jr. 
No. 12. The Wilbanks site (9CK-5), Georgia, by William H. Sears. 
No. 13. Historic sites in and around the Jim Woodruff Reservoir area, 

Florida-Georgia, by Mark F. Boyd. 
No. 14. Six sites near the Chattahoochee River in the Jim Woodruff Reser- 
voir area, Florida, by Ripley P. BuUen. 
Bulletin 170. Excavations at La Venta, Tabasco, 1955, by Philip Drucker, Robert 
F. Heizer, and Robert J. Squier. With appendixes by Jonas E. QuUberg, 
Garniss H. Curtis, and A. Starker Leopold. 
Bulletin 171. The North Alaskan Eskimo: A study in ecology and society, by 

Robert F. Spencer. 
Bulletin 172. The story of a Tlingit community : A problem in the relationship 
between archeological, ethnological, and historical methods, by Frederica de 
Laguna. 
Bulletin 173. Anthropological Papers Nos. 57-62 : 

No. 57. Preceramic and ceramic cultural patterns in Northwest Virginia, 

by C. G. Holland. 
No. 58. An introduction to Plains Apache archeology — the Dismal River 

Aspect, by James H. Gunnerson. 
No. 59. The use of the atlatl on Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan, by M. W. 
Stirling. 



SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 35 

No. 60. A Caroline Islands script, by Saul H. Riesenberg and Shigeru 
Kaneshiro. 

No. 61. Dakota winter counts as a source of Plains history, by James H. 
Howard. 

No. 62. Stone tipi rings in north-central Montana and the adjacent portion 
of Alberta, Canada: Their historical, ethnological, and archeological as- 
pects, by Thomas F. Kehoe. 

Publications distributed totaled 28,131 as compared with 28,558 
for the fiscal year 1957. 

COLLECTIONS 
Aoc. No. 

216667. Late 18th-century wine bottle. 

219119. Miscellaneous archeological objects. 

FBOM EIVER BASIN SXmVEYS 

216556. Archeological and human skeletal material from Nebraska, excavated 
by River Basin Surveys archeologists in the summer of 1948. 

217608, 218413. Archeological material excavated from Buffalo Pasture site in 
Oahe Reservoir, Stanley County, S. Dak. 

214120,217212. (through Dr. Robert L. Stephenson) 21 land and fresh- water 
mollusks from Oregon, Wyoming, and South Dakota. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Dr. John K. Swanton, ethnologist on the staff of the Bureau from 
1900 to 1944 and a research associate since his retirement, died at 
his home in Newton, Mass., on May 2, 1958. Dr. Swanton is best 
known for his extensive work on the Indians of the Southeastern 
United States and as chairman of the DeSoto Commission. He was 
the author of 5 extensive articles in the Annual Report series of the 
Bureau, 12 complete Bulletins, 2 Anthropological Papers, and 2 pa- 
pers in the War Background Studies. He was coauthor of three Bul- 
letins and edited Byington's Choctaw Dictionary. His The Indians 
of the Southeastern United States, Bulletin 137, and The Indian 
Tribes of North America, Bulletui 145, are outstanding contributions. 
The report of the DeSoto Commission, of which he was the unnamed 
author, is in continuing demand. Dr. Swanton was a member of the 
National Academy of Sciences. He received the Viking Medal and 
Award for Anthropology in 1948. 

Dr. John P. Harrington and Dr. A. J. Waring continued as re- 
search associates of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Dr. M. W. 
Stirling, as research associate, used the facilities of the Bureau 
laboratory and continued his study of collections made on field trips 
to Panama and Ecuador in previous years. 

There were 2,772 letters of inquiry about American Indians and 
related problems received in the Director's office during the year. 



36 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Information was furnished by staff members in answer to many of 
the queries, and to others, information leaflets or other printed items 
were supplied. 

Eleven bibliographies or information leaflets were prepared or 
revised and duplicated for distribution to the public, as follows : 

SIIi-16, 2(1 rev., 6/58. Indian Crafts and Indian Lore. (Bibliography.) 3 pp. 

SIL-50, rev., 8/57. Selected List of Portraits of Prominent Indians in the Col- 
lections of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 3 pp. 

SIL-90, rev., 3/58. Dealers in Second-Hand Scientific and Government Publica- 
tions. 2 pp. 

SIL-100, 8/57. Anthropology as a Career. 18 pp. (Reading list, pp. 14r-18.) 

SIL-105, 8/57. Selected Bibliography on Cheroliee Customs and History. 4 pp. 

SIL-132, 12/57. Selected References on the Middle American Area. 5 pp. 

SIL-133, 12/57. Bibliography on Indian Languages and Language Families. 
6 pp. 

SIL-134, 12/57. American Indian Languages. (Explanation.) 2 pp. 

SIL-137, 12/57. The Cherokee Language. (Explanation with references.) 2 pp. 

SIL-174, 6/58. Selected References on the Indians of the Southeastern United 
States. 12 pp. 

SIL-175, 6/58. Selected References on Present-day Conditions among United 
States Indians. 9 pp. 

In addition to the leaflets described above, many bibliographies and 
information leaflets were compiled on topics of a general or specific 
nature, linguistic problems or terms, picture information, etc., and 
typescript copies sent out to hundreds of civic organizations such as 
the Scouts, Campfire Girls, summer camps, church clubs, and women's 
clubs throughout the country, as well as to the general public. The 
information files and bibliographic material were constantly reviewed 
by staff members so that the most up-to-date material for term papers 
could be sent in answer to hundreds of requests from high school and 
college students. Manuscripts were frequently read and appraised by 
staff members for colleagues and scientific organisations. Specimens 
were identified for owners and data on them supplied. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director. 

Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

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Seventy-sixth Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1958-1959 



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SEVENTY-SIXTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1958-1959 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1960 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
June 30, 1959 

Director. — Fkank H. H. Robeets, Jr. 

Anthropologists. — Henry B. Collins, William C. Sttjbtevant, 

Wallace L. Chafe, 
Research Associates. — John P. Harrington, Matthew W. 

Stirling, A. J. Waring, Jr. 
Archivist. — Mrs. Margaret C. Blaker. 
Scientific illustrator. — E. G. Schumacher. 
Administrative assistant. — Mrs. Jessie S. Shaw. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Chief, Missouri Basin Project. — Robert L. Stephenson. 

Archeologists. — Warren W. Caldwell, Harold A. Huscher, 

William N. Irving, Charles H. McNutt, Carl F. Miller, 

Robert W. Neuman, G. Hubert Smith. 



II 



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SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. Director 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, officework, and other operations of tlie Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1959, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of April 10, 1928, as amended 
August 22, 1949, which directs the Bureau "to continue independently 
or in cooperation anthropological researches among the American In- 
dians and the natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection of 
the United States and the excavation and preservation of archeologic 
remains.' 



5J 



SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 
(Prepared from data submitted by staff members) 

Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director of the Bureau, devoted a 
portion of tlie fiscal year to office duties and the general supervision 
of the activities of the Bureau and the River Basin Surveys. In 
September he went to the Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern 
Colorado as a consultant to the Research Committee of the National 
Geographic Society. While there he visited a number of ruins that 
are to be excavated to obtain new information on the aboriginal peo- 
ple of the region and also to provide additional exhibit areas for 
visitors to the park. As a result of the conferences on the Mesa Verde, 
the National Geographic Society made a grant to the National Park 
Service to assist in the excavation program on Wetherill Mesa. It is 
contemplated that the digging will continue over approximately six 
field seasons. Following the sessions on the mesa. Dr. Roberts spent 
a day at Hovenweep National Monument on the Colorado-Utah line 
north of the McElmo Canyon area where the late Dr. J. Walter 
Fewkes, a former Chief of the Bureau, carried on investigations some 
50 years ago. Judging from Dr. Fewkes's report and the condition 
of the area today, there has been little change since he first described 
the towers for which the area is famous. 

After his return to Washington, D.C., Dr. Roberts went late in 
September to Athens, Ga., and visited a number of projects in other 
parts of Georgia and South Carolina where salvage operations were 
underway, and participated in discussions relative to continuing work 

1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

in the area. During the early part of November he went to Austin, 
Tex., where he attended the Second International Congress of His- 
torians which was being lield at the University of Texas. He served 
as one of the commentators at the session on Pre-Hispanic peoples in 
the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Following his 
return to Washington he took part in the sessions of the American 
Anthropological Association, and toward the end of the month went 
to Lincoln, Nebr., to discuss various problems in Plains archeology 
with members of the Missouri Basin project staff and to attend the 
sessions of the Annual Plains Conference for Archeology. During 
December Dr. Roberts was a member of a panel at one of the sessions 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, where 
the subject of "Anthropology in the Federal Service" was presented. 

In January Dr. Roberts attended the meetings of the Committee 
for the Recovery of Archeological Remains held at the Department 
of the Interior in Washington, D.C., and presented a summary of the 
results of the preceding year's activities of the River Basin Surveys. 
He also took part in discussions pertaining to future plans for the 
Inter- Agency Archeological Salvage Program. At the end of Jan- 
uary he went again to Georgia where he met with representatives from 
the National Park Service, various State and local institutions, and 
assisted in the preparation of plans for a salvage program along the 
Chattahoochee River in Alabama and Georgia. Early in June he 
went to Colorado where he examined collections pertaining to early 
inhabitants of the Western Plains area at the Denver Museum of Nat- 
ural History and in the University Museum at Boulder. Returning 
to Nebraska he spent several days at the field headquarters and lab- 
oratory of the Missouri Basin project at Lincoln where plans were 
being completed for the summer's investigations in reservoir areas 
along the Missouri River in South Dakota. From Nebraska Dr. Rob- 
erts returned to Washington. 

During the fall and winter months Dr. Roberts reviewed several 
draft manuscripts of technical reports and returned them to their 
authors with suggestions for correction and revision. In addition, 
he did the technical editing on a series of six reports on historic sites 
archeology in the Missouri Basin which will appear as Bulletin 176 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Dr. Henry B. Collins, anthropologist, continued his Arctic re- 
search and activities. Material was assembled for an analysis of the 
"Tunnit" legends of the Canadian Eskimos, which describe in some 
detail the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canadian Arctic. On the 
basis of recent archeological investigations, particularly those by 
Dr. Collins in the Hudson Bay region, it appears that the mysterious 
Tunnits were in fact the prehistoric Dorset Eskimos rather than the 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 6 

Thule as previously assumed. Also in preparation was an article 
evaluating recent archeological discoveries in Alaska and northeast 
Siberia and their bearing on pre-Eskimo and Eskimo culture se- 
quences and relationships in the Bering Strait area. 

In December Dr. Collins attended a 2-day conference on polar re- 
search held at Hanover, N.II., under the auspices of Dartmouth Col- 
lege and the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Polar Ke- 
search. The conference discussed the probable future course of polar 
research in this country and the advisability of establishing a research 
institute to coordinate and administer scientific research in the Arc- 
tic and Antarctic. 

In June Dr. Collins went to Burke County, Ga., to examine an old 
Indian village site near Waynesboro where Dr. Roland Steiner in the 
1890's had collected an unusually large number of flint implements, 
now in the U.S. National Museum. The implements, nmnbering some 
16,000, were of particular interest because most of them were deeply 
patinated and were types which are now recognized as belonging to the 
Archaic period ; one of the types, an unusual form of asymmetric knife 
or scraper, was identical with a specialized form characteristic of 
the prehistoric Dorset culture of the eastern Canadian Arctic. 
Through the cooperation of Raymond De Laigle, clerk of court of 
Burke County, and his brothers, Ray and Roy De Laigle, it was pos- 
sible to locate the site from county records. It was found to be very 
much as described by Steiner 70 years ago and still prolific in stone 
artifacts and rejectage. A sizable collection of flint implements and 
flakes from this and other sites around Waynesboro was brought 
back for study. 

Dr. Collins continued to serve as a member of the research commit- 
tee of the Arctic Institute of North America, which evaluates appli- 
cations for research grants, and of the publications committee, which 
exercises supervision of the Arctic Institute's quarterly journal Arctic, 
its Technical Papers, and its series of Special Publications. As chair- 
man of the directing committee. Dr. Collins also devoted considerable 
time to the planning, supervision, and financing of the Arctic Bibli- 
ography, which is prepared by the Arctic Institute for and with the 
support of the Department of Defense. This comprehensive ref- 
erence work abstracts and indexes the contents of publications in all 
languages and in all fields of science relating to the Arctic and sub- 
arctic regions of the world. Volume 8, containing abstracts of 5,623 
publications in 1,281 pages, was scheduled for publication by the 
Government Printing Office early in July 1959, and work on volume 
9 is underway. Subject fields receiving special emphasis in volume 
8 include body systems, human and other; botany; construction; 
disease ; ecology ; economic and social conditions ; environmental effects 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

of darkness, light, and low temperature on man, animals, and plants; 
Eskimos; expeditions, especially Russian; fishes and fisheries; frost- 
bite; geology; hypothennia; ice and ice conditions; insects; meteorol- 
ogy ; physiology, human and animal ; Siberian native peoples ; snow ; 
transportation. These and some 230 other topics are listed alpha- 
betically in the index and, as necessary, also under the name of the 
particular locality or major geographical region to which they per- 
tain. Heretofore the Arctic Bibliography has been supported almost 
entirely by the Department of Defense. During the past year addi- 
tional generous support has been provided by the National Science 
Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and the National 
Geographic Society. 

Dr. Collins also made plans for a Russian translation project 
whereby the Arctic Institute, with the support of the National Science 
Foundation, would make available to American anthropologists 
translations of Russian publications on the archeology, ethnology, 
and physical anthropology of Siberia. 

Dr. William C. Sturtevant, ethnologist, spent the first part of the 
fiscal year in Washington at work on various projects related to his 
Seminole and Seneca research. He also prepared for publication a 
paper on the economic uses of Zamia, a cycad with a large imder- 
ground stem from which starch has been extracted for centuries by 
various Indian and other inhabitants of the West Indies and Florida. 
Another paper brought to completion reconsiders, with negative re- 
sults, the ethnological evidence for contacts between Indians of the 
southeastern United States and the West Indies (previously widely 
considered to have been quite significant for the history of the culture 
of the southeastern tribes) . Brief papers were completed on the his- 
tory of the classification of eastern Siouan languages (published in 
American Anthropologist), on the authorship of J. W. Powell's 
famous classification of North American Indian languages published 
by the Bureau of American Ethnology in 1892, and on two new tech- 
niques for ethnographic fieldwork. Dr. Sturtevant's pamphlet 
"Anthropology as a Career," issued by the Institution in July 1958, 
proved so useful to students and their advisers throughout the country 
that a second printing was required in May 1959. 

In mid-February Dr. Sturtevant left for Florida to begin 6 months' 
fieldwork among the Seminole Indians, with the support of a grant 
from the National Science Foundation. This was a continuation of 
the fieldwork Dr. Sturtevant conducted among these people before 
joining the Smithsonian staff. Besides filling in gaps in informa- 
tion obtained during previous trips. Dr. Sturtevant has concentrated 
on studying Seminole knowledge and uses of plants, both wild and 
cultivated. These Indians are the only ones in the eastern United 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

States who still use agricultural techniques once common to all the 
Indians of this region but heretofore undescribed by careful observers. 
Fields are cleared by cutting and burning, planted without fertilizer, 
and soon abandoned for new fields when fertility decreases and weeds 
become difficult to control. In addition to the ancient North Ameri- 
can Indian crops — corn, pumpkins, and beans — the Seminole grow 
a number of plants that were introduced from the West Indies during 
and after the 18th centuiy (banana, sugarcane, sweetpotato, taro, 
elephantear \^Xanthosoma\^ manioc, papaya, guava, citrus). Semi- 
nole knowledge of wild plants is also extensive, and they still use 
many of them for medicine, food, and in the manufacture of utensils 
and other artifacts. Dr. Sturtevant found that at least two dozen 
fields are being cultivated with aboriginal methods, but intensive 
study of these fields and other aspects of Seminole society and culture 
has been even more difficult than he anticipated, owing largely to 
increased political factionalism and antagonism toward inquisitive 
outsiders. 

Dr. Sturtevant compiled genealogical information preparatory to 
collaboration with Dr. John Buettner-Janusch, a physical anthro- 
pologist at Yale University, on a study of the genetic characteristics 
(chiefly blood groups) of the Seminole, who certainly have fewer 
non-Indian ancestors than any other surviving eastern tribes. 

Besides collecting herbarium specimens of plants used and recog- 
nized by the Indians, Dr. Sturtevant made an etlinological collection 
to supplement the Seminole holdings of the National Museum. He 
paid particular attention to clothing, since Seminole styles have 
changed rapidly but are still unique in many respects, and objects 
made for sale. The latter are an important part of Seminole econ- 
omy and involve objects quite different from those usually made for 
sale by other tribes. 

Dr. Wallace L. Chafe, ethnologist, joined the staff of tlie Bureau in 
April but did not report for duty until June as he was completing 
teaching duties at the University of Buffalo. Dr. Chafe spent the 
3 weeks before departing on June 29 in preparing for fieldwork on the 
Seneca reservations in western New York State. He will gather 
material that will enable him to complete a Seneca dictionary and 
will make further tape recordings of religious and mythological texts. 
This work was started under the sponsorship of the New York State 
Museum and Science Service and is being continued as a cooperative 
effort. 

On June 3, 1958, Carl F. Miller was temporarily transferred from 
the staff of the Kiver Basin Surveys to that of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology in order that he might continue directing the excava- 
tions of the Smithsonian Institution-National Geographic Society 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Expedition which had been started in 195G at Kussell Cave in Ala- 
bama. This third season of work continued through September 29 
and brought to completion the investigations at that site. Russell 
Cavo has contributed extensive information pertaining to Indian 
peoples who inhabited that area over a considerable period of time. 
Several cultural horizons are represented, the earliest of which is 
some i),020±:350 years old on the basis of carbon-14 dating of charcoal 
from a hearth at that level. The first peoples apparently had a com- 
pletely hunting-fishing economy and from that progressed through 
what is called the Archaic period to a more sedentary mode of life 
and became makers of pottery. The latter handicraft appeared at 
about 3500 B.C. The culture subsequently developed into what is 
known as the Early Woodland and continued through stages known 
as Middle and Late Woodland. It was during these three stages that 
agriculture became a part of their economy. The latest occupation 
seems to have been by Chickamauga Cherokee Indians in the early 
1600's. During the 1958 season Mr. Miller reached the original and 
lowest floor in the cave, some 43 feet below the present floor. How- 
ever, no evidence of occupation was found below the 37-foot level. 
During the course of the digging he found a fifth burial which helped 
to throw additional light on the mortuary customs of the people who 
inhabited the cave. 

While in northern Alabama, Mr. Miller visited several other caves, 
also Indian sites in the open, and studied many local collections in 
order to correlate the cultural remains from Russell Cave with those 
of the surrounding areas, particularly those attributable to Early 
Man phases. Mr. Miller also spoke before different groups of people 
in Bridgeport and Huntsville, Ala., and in South Pittsburg, Richard 
City, and Tullahoma, Tenn, Following his return to Washington on 
October 4, Mr. Miller devoted his time to the preparation of reports. 
In November and December he attended meetings of the American 
Indian Ethnohistoric Conference and the American Anthropological 
Association in Washington, D.C., and was one of the speakers at the 
Southeastern Archeological Conference in Chapel Hill, N.C. Mr. 
Miller returned to duty on the River Basin Surveys staff December 
14, 1958. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

The River Basin Surveys continued its program for salvage arche- 
ology in areas to be flooded or otherwise destroyed by the construction 
of large dams. These investigations were carried on in cooperation 
with the National Park Service and the Bureau of Reclamation of 
the Department of the Interior, the Corps of Engineers of tlie De- 
partment of the Army, and several State and local institutions. Dur- 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

ing the fiscal year 1958-59 the work of the River Basin Surveys was 
supported by a transfer of $162,000 from the National Park Service to 
the Smithsonian Institution. Of that sum, $137,000 was for use in 
the Missouri Basin and $25,000 was for investigations along the 
Chattahoochee River in Alabama and Georgia. The Missouri Basin 
Project had a carryover of $22,173 on July 1, 1958, and that, with 
the new appropriation, provided a total of $159,173 for the program 
in that area. The grand total of funds available for the River Basin 
Surveys for 1958-59 was $184,173. 

Field investigations throughout the year consisted mainly of exca- 
vations, although some limited surveys were carried on. On July 1, 
1958, 10 parties were in the field, all of them working in the Missouri 
Basin in South Dakota. Five of the parties were doing intensive 
digging in the Big Bend Reservoir area near Fort Thompson, four 
were excavating, and one was doing survey testing in the Oahe Reser- 
voir area north of Pierre. Most of the field parties had returned to 
their headquarters at Lincoln, Nebr., by the end of August. Two 
small parties made brief investigations in the Merritt and Big Bend 
Reservoir areas during December and January. In February three 
parties began excavations and test excavations along the Chattahoo- 
chee River in Alabama-Georgia. The latter continued operations 
until late in June, when work was stopped and the men returned to 
their headquarters. Early in June a party from the Missouri Basin 
project headquarters began excavations in several sites in the construc- 
tion area for the Big Bend Dam in South Dakota. 

As of Jmie 30, 1959, reservoir areas where archeological surveys 
had been made or excavations carried on since the beginning of field- 
work by the River Basin Surveys in the summer of 1946 totaled 
254, located in 29 States. Two lock projects and four canal areas 
had also been examined. The survey parties have located 4,909 
archeological sites, and of that number 1,017 have been recommended 
for excavation or limited testing. The term "excavation" in this re- 
spect does not imply the complete uncovering of a site, but rather 
digging only enough of it to obtain a good sample of the materials 
and information to be found there. While many of the locations 
are unquestionably of sufficient importance to warrant complete exca- 
vation, the needs of the salvage program make it impossible to con- 
duct so extensive an investigation at any one location. 

Preliminary appraisal reports have been issued for all the reservoir 
areas surveyed, with the exception of the three along the Chattahoo- 
chee River. The manuscripts of two of those reports have been com- 
pleted and the third is well underway, so that all of them will be 
processed early in the coming fiscal year. The preliminary appraisal 
report for the Big Bend Reservoir area in South Dakota was mime- 

5337S3— 60 2 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

ograplied and distributed in October 1958. Since the start of the 
Inter- Agency Archeological Salvage Program, 185 appraisal reports 
have been issued. In a number of cases the information obtained 
from several reservoir projects located within a single basin or sub- 
basin have been combined in one report and for that reason there is 
a discrepancy between the number of reservoirs surveyed and that of 
the reports issued. 

At tlie end of the fiscal year, 434 sites in 54 reservoir basins located 
in 19 different States had been either partially or extensively dug. 
In some reservoir areas only a single site was excavated, while in 
others a whole series was studied. At least one example of each type 
of site recommended by the preliminary surveys had been investi- 
gated. Where some of the larger and more complex types of village 
remains were involved, it was necessary to dig a number of somewhat 
similar sites in order to obtain full information about that particular 
phase of aboriginal culture. The sites investigated represent cultural 
complexes ranging from the early hunting peoples of approximately 
10,000 years ago to early historic Indian village remains and frontier 
trading and army posts of European origin. Reports on the results 
obtained in some of the excavations have appeared in the Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collections, in Bulletins of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, and in various scientific journals. During the year River 
Basin Surveys Papers Nos. 9 through 14, comprising Bulletin 166 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology, were published and dis- 
tributed. The papers consist of three reports on excavations in the 
Missouri Basin, one on digging in the Alatoona Reservoir in Georgia, 
one on investigations in six sites in the Jim Woodruff Reservoir basin 
in Florida, and one on historic sites in and adjacent to the Jim Wood- 
ruff Reservoir area in Florida-Georgia. The Missouri Basin reports 
were written by Paul L. Cooper, Robert B. Cumming, Jr., and Carlyle 
S. Smith and Roger T. Grange, Jr. Those pertaining to the South- 
east were prepared by William H. Sears, Mark F. Boyd, and Ripley 
P. Bullen. River Basin Papers Nos. 15-21, which will constitute 
Bulletin No. 176 of the Bureau of American Ethnology, were sent 
to the printer in March. That series of papers pertains to studies 
in historic sites in the Fort Randall, Oahe, and Garrison Reservoir 
areas in South Dakota and North Dakota. Nine detailed technical 
reports were completed during the year and are ready for publication 
when the funds sufficient to cover their cost are available. In addi- 
tion, the first and second drafts of seven technical reports were 
finished. The final drafts should be ready early in the next fiscal year. 

As of June 30, 1959, the distribution of the reservoir projects that 
had been surveyed for archeological remains was as follows: Ala- 
bama, 4 ; Arkansas, 1 ; California, 20 ; Colorado, 24 ; Georgia, 8 ; Idaho, 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 9 

11; Illinois, 2; Iowa, 3; Kansas, 10; Kentucky, 2; Louisiana, 
2; Minnesota, 1; Mississippi, 1; Montana, 15; Nebraska, 28; New 
Mexico, 1; North Dakota, 13; Ohio, 2; Oklahoma, 7; Oregon, 27; 
Pennsylvania, 2 ; South Carolina, 1 ; South Dakota, 10 ; Tennessee, 4 ; 
Texas, 19; Virgmia, 2; Washington, 11; West Virginia, 2; Wyoming, 
22. 

Excavations were made or were underway in reservoir basins in: 
Arkansas, 1; California, 5; Colorado, 1; Iowa, 1; Georgia, 7; Kansas, 
5; Montana, 1; Nebraska, 1; New Mexico, 1; North Dakota, 4; 
Oklahoma, 2 ; Oregon, 4 ; South Carolina, 2 ; South Dakota, 4 ; Texas, 
7 ; Virginia, 1 ; Washington, 4 ; West Virginia, 1 ; Wyoming, 2. Only 
the work of River Basin Surveys or that which was in direct coopera- 
tion between the Surveys and local institutions is included in the 
preceding figures. Investigations carried on under agreements be- 
tween the National Park Service and State and local institutions have 
not been included because complete information about them is not 
available. 

Throughout the year helpful cooperation was received from the 
National Park Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, Corps of Engi- 
neers and other Army personnel, and various State and local insti- 
tutions. The Corps of Engineers provided transportation and guides 
for work in one of the reservoir areas and the Commanding Officer 
at Fort Benning in Georgia assigned certain Army personnel to as- 
sist in some of the investigations made in that portion of the Walter 
F. George Reservoir basin which lies in the Fort Benning Reserva- 
tion. Helicopters were also furnished on several occasions to enable 
the archeologists to take aerial photographs of several sites in the 
reservoir area. In the Missouri Basin temporary headquarters and 
living accommodations were provided at several projects and storage 
space was made available so that much of the field equipment could be 
left at Pierre, S. Dak., during the winter months. The construction 
agency lent mechanical equipment in several instances to assist in 
heavy excavation and the backfilling of trenches and test pits. The 
various party leaders from the River Basin Surveys were given as- 
sistance by field personnel of all the agencies and the work was greatly 
expedited as a result. The National Park Service continued to serve 
as the liaison between the various agencies in the field as well as in 
Washington. The estimates and justifications for the funds needed 
to carry on the salvage program were also prepared by the Park 
Service. In Georgia the University of Georgia, the Georgia Histori- 
cal Commission, and various local clubs and groups of citizens were 
particularly helpful to the parties working along the Chattahoochee 
River. 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

The main office in Washington continued general supervision of 
the program, while the field headquarters and laboratory at Lincoln, 
Nebr., was responsible for the activities in the Missouri Basin, and 
in addition provided equipment and office assistance for the parties 
engaged in the Chattahoochee River project. The materials collected 
by excavating parties in the Missouri Basin, as well as those from 
the Chattahoochee Basin, were processed at the Lincoln laboratory. 

Washington offtce. — The main headquarters of the River Basin Sur- 
veys at the Bureau of American Ethnology continued under the 
direction of Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. As previously men- 
tioned, Carl F. Miller, archeologist, was detailed to the regular 
Bureau staff for the period July 3 to December 14, 1958. After 
his return to the River Basin Surveys staff, Mr. Miller completed 
the final revision of his report on the "Archeology of the John H. 
Kerr Reservoir, Soutliern Virginia and Northern Nortli Carolina." 
The report includes a summary of the many sites located during the 
course of the original survey of the area, as well as detailed informa- 
tion on tliose which were excavated by Mr. Miller. After submit- 
ting the John H. Kerr report, Mr. Miller began work on the final 
report pertaining to the investigations that he made at the Hoster- 
man site (38P07) in the Oahe Reservoir area. South Dakota, dur- 
ing a previous field season. The report was approximately one-half 
complete at the end of the year. During the winter and spring 
months Mr. ISIiller spoke before several teachers' organizations in the 
Washington area, addressed a meeting of the Narragansett Archeo- 
logical Society at Providence, R.L, the Arclieological Society of 
Virginia in Richmond, and the Southern Branch of the Arclieologi- 
cal Society of Maryland at Bethesda, Md. Most of his talks pertained 
to the Russell Cave explorations, although the one given at Bethesda 
compared the materials from the John H. Kerr Reservoir with those 
from the Shepard Barracks site in Maryland where excavations were 
carried on by the Maryland Society. In June, Mr. Miller read proof 
on an article about Russell Cave, which is to appear in a book on 
National Parks and Monuments in the United States being issued 
by the National Geographic Society. In January Mr. Miller received 
the Franklin L. Burr Award from the National Geographic Society 
in "recognition of his outstanding contributions to the science of 
geography and early American history through the archeological 
investigations of Russell Cave, Alabama." At the end of the fiscal 
year Mr. Miller was working in the Washington office. 

On October 13, 1958, Harold A. Huscher was transferred from 
the Missouri Basin project to the Chattahoochee River project. He 
was under the general supervision of the Washington office but con- 
tinued to work at the headquarters in Lincoln, Nebr., where he 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 11 

completed reports on the surveys made during tlie previous year at 
the Oliver and Columbia Reservoir projects on the Chattalioochee 
River. He also virtually completed the first draft of his preliminary 
appraisal of the archeological explorations in the Walter F. George 
Reservoir area. In early February, Mr. Iluscher returned to the 
Chattahoochee Basin and from then until late June carried on a 
series of investigations in the Columbia and Walter F. George Res- 
ervoir basins. While working in Alabama and Georgia, Mr. Husclier 
spoke before numerous clubs and local groups, t-ook part in several 
radio broadcasts devoted to archeological problems along the Chatta- 
hoochee River, and appeared on several TV broadcasts. He returned 
to the field headquarters at Lincoln, Nebr., on June 30. 

In February, Robert W. Neuman and G. Hubert Smith were trans- 
ferred to the Chattahoochee River project and under general direc- 
tion from the Washington ofBre proceeded to that area. Mr. Neu- 
man, during the period February 9 to June 23, carried on excavations 
in the vicinity of the Columbia Dam axis in Georgia and did test 
digging in one large mound on tlie Alabama side of the river. While 
in Georgia, Mr. Neuman spoke before various local clubs and groups 
of interested citizens. He also appeared on a TV interview pertain- 
ing to the salvage program and spoke before the Macon, Ga., Archeo- 
logical Society. He returned to the field headquarters at Lincoln, 
Nebr., on Jmie 27. Mr. Smith worked at two locations in the Walter 
F. George Reservoir area, one in Georgia and one in Alabama. He 
also talked before a number of local organizations. Mr. Smith 
returned to the field headquarters on June 17. 

Alabama-Georgia. — During the period February through June a 
series of test excavations was carried on at a number of sites in the 
areas to be flooded by the Columbia Dam and Lock and the Walter F. 
George Dam and Lock. Robert W. Neuman worked in seven sites 
on the Georgia side of the Chattahoochee River in the vicinity of the 
Columbia Dam axis. Six of the sites dated from the Archaic period 
and extended into Middle Woodland times. The seventh site on the 
Georgia side represented a historic Creek occupation dating about 
A.D. 1830. A good collection of materials was obtained from all 
these sites and the specimens will aid materially in working out the 
cultural stages m that area. On the Alabama side of the river Mr. 
Neuman excavated in the remains of a large mound which was being 
destroyed by the river. Some work had been done there many years 
ago by Clarence W. Moore, but there was little information pertain- 
ing to the general character of the mound. Mr. Neuman obtained 
information relative to the method of its construction and several 
stages in its growth. Further work is contemplated at the site. 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Harold A. Huscher carried on a series of excavations in four sites 
on the axis of the Columbia Dam 2i/^ miles below Columbia, Ala. 
The area is one of extensive sandy bottoms and, with minor varia- 
tions, the sites produce Weeden Island pottery types in the surface 
levels and to a depth of about 2 feet. There is also a scattering of 
Stallings Island potsherds, steatite fragments, and large heavy- 
stemmed projectile points down to about 4i/^ feet below the surface. 
Some of the flint flakes and points from the deeper levels have been 
completely altered chemically to a chalky residue. Similar points 
were found previously on the Macon plateau by Dr. A. R. Kelley 
and were described by him in Anthropological Paper No. 1, which 
appeared in Bulletin 119 of the Bureau. Mr. Huscher made maps 
and detailed excavation plans for these sites. 

Construction work was underway on the Walter F. George Dam 
in early February and Mr. Huscher made a series of 10- by 10-foot 
test excavations in three sites which were threatened with immedi- 
ate damage. One of them at the Georgia end of the dam axis yielded 
a variety of trade goods, including the mechanism of a flintlock. 
The site probably represents the location of a Creek village of about 
A.D. 1800. Another site on the Georgia side, a short distance above 
the dam, and one on the Alabama end of the dam axis, produced 
plain Early Mississippian pottery. The material from the Alabama 
site indicated pottery with angled-loop handles similar to the ware 
that has been called Bibb Plain. The pottery from the Georgia 
site had flat strap handles with vertical incised decoration. The 
pottery characteristics are so definite that it is possible to correlate 
the wares with those from other sites in the general area. 

Mr. Huscher later moved upstream and began the investigation of 
two sites on the Fort Benning Military Reservation. One of them 
on the Georgia side is an Early Lamar site and seems to contain a 
single "pure" component. The site had been destroyed to a large 
extent by Army bulldozers building a road, but trenches in two 
separate remnants revealed post-hole patterns that apparently rep- 
resented two rectangular houses. A nearby midden area yielded a 
good representative sample of pottery types associated with the 
houses. The second site was on the Alabama side of the river just 
north of Uchee Creek. It is a Swift Creek- Weeden Island site and 
has an older underlying level. Sgt. David W. Chase, curator of the 
Infantry Museum at Fort Benning, Ga., had done some work there, 
and because of the evidence he had obtained, indicating that it would 
be a type site for the Swift Creek-Weeden Island phase of Middle 
Woodland in the area, it was extensively tested by the Huscher party. 
Beneath the Middle Woodland levels in a portion of the site there is 
a bed of wliite sand which has yielded fiber-tempered potsherds of 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 13 

the Stallings Island type and fraf^ments from steatite vessels. This 
stratigraphic evidence augments that foimd in other locations along 
the river. Sergeant Chase turned over to the River Basin Surveys 
party extensive notes and collections resulting from his previous 
work at both sites. He also assisted Mr. Huscher in making detailed 
plane-table maps of the sites and plans of the excavations. 

G. Hubert Smith excavated in two historic sites in the Walter F. 
George Reservoir Basin. One of them on the Georgia side of the 
river was the location of the village of Roanoke, a colonial settlement 
that had originally been occupied by Creek Indians but was subse- 
quently taken over by the whites who lived there from 1831 until the 
community was destroyed by Indians in May 1836. Because of the 
long period in which the area was under heavy cultivation, Mr. Smith 
was unable to determine the settlement pattern or to obtain outlines 
for any of the village structures. He did, however, obtain an ex- 
tensive collection of specimens attributable both to the white occupa- 
tion and that by the Indians. Careful study of the material may 
provide information that will be useful in dating some of the other 
late Indian sites along the river. From the Roanoke site Mr. Smith 
went to one on the Alabama side in Russell County, which was the 
location of a fort built and occupied by the Spaniards from 1689 to 
1691. The fort known as Apalachicola was probably the most north- 
ern outpost of the Spanish occupation in the Southeast and was 
erected for the purpose of stemming the southward expansion of 
the English. The Spaniards possibly did not occupy the fort con- 
tinuously, but lived at times in an adjacent Indian village. The fort 
was destroyed by the Spaniards to prevent its falling into the hands 
of English traders from the Carolinas who were operating among 
the Creek Indians. Mr. Smith did not dig in the fort proper but 
confined his investigations to the area immediately surrounding it in 
order to delimit the extent of the fortifications and to determine the 
proximity of Indian occupation. The fort remains will not be sub- 
jected to flooding by the Walter F. George Reservoir, but the maxi- 
mum pool level will not be far distant and may damage the remains 
to some extent as a result of seepage. Consequently it is thought that 
a thorough study should be made of the site at a later date. Further- 
more, associations between Spanish and Indian objects will provide 
a helpful checking point in establishing chronology of the area, par- 
ticularly since the exact dates for the fort are known. After complet- 
ing the investigations at the two sites, Mr. Smith assisted Mr. Huscher 
in making detailed plane-table maps and trench plans for both. 

In addition to the test excavations described above, Mr. Huscher 
located and recorded 10 new sites in the Walter F. George and Co- 
lumbia areas and made collections from 46 sites. At the end of the 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

season's work along the Chattahoochee, all the records and collections 
of the three field parties were sent to tlie laboratory of the Eiver Basin 
Surveys at Lincoln, Nebr., for processing there and for use in the 
preparation of reports on the investigations, 

Tlie only other work by the River Basin Surveys pertaining to 
Georgia was that of Carl F. Miller, who completed a report on the 
test digging that he did during the previous year at the Tugaloo site 
in the Hartwell Reservoir area. However, the University of Georgia 
in cooperation with the National Park Service carried on a series of 
investigations in the Oliver Reservoir Basin and at the Standley 
Farm site, also known as Stark's Clay Landing, in the Walter F. 
George Reservoir on the Georgia side of the river. Work was con- 
tinuing at the latter location at the end of the fiscal year. 

Arkansas. — No fieldwork was carried on m Arkansas during the 
year ended June 30, 1959. However, a detailed technical report, 
"Archeological Investigations in the Dardanelle Reservoir Area of 
West-Central Arkansas," was completed by Dr. Warren W. Caldwell. 
The report consists of 85 typed pages, 2 maps, 8 plates, and 6 text 
figures. It will be published as a River Basin Surveys paper when 
printing fimds for that purpose are available. 

Kansas. — The only work done by the River Basin Surveys pertain- 
ing to Kansas during the fiscal year was the completion of a detailed 
teclinical report on the excavation of four sites in the Lovewell Reser- 
voir area on Wliite Rock Creek in Jewell County in the north-central 
part of the State. The report was written by Robert W. Neuman and 
is entitled, "Archeological Salvage Investigations in the Lovewell 
Reservoir Area, Kansas." It consists of 84 typed pages, 12 plates, 
and 3 text figures, and will be published as a River Basin Surveys 
paper. 

The Kansas State Historical Society at Topeka carried on surveys 
and did some test digging in the Pomona and Melvern Reservoir 
areas under a cooperative agreement with the National Park Service. 
The Pomona Dam is to be built on the 110-Mile Creek, and Melvern 
Dam will be in the Marais de Cygnes River. 

Missouri River Basin. — The Missouri Basin project continued to 
operate from the field headquarters and laboratory at 1517 O Street, 
Lincoln, Nebr. Dr. Robert L. Stephenson served as chief of the 
project throughout the year. Activities included work on all four 
phases of the salvage program : (1) Survey, (2) excavation, (3) anal- 
ysis, and (4) reporting. Most of the effort during the summer months 
was directed toward the second phase, with only minor attention to 
the first phase. The third and fourth phases received the major at- 
tention in the winter months. The special chronology program, be- 
gun last fiscal year, was continued. 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 15 

At the beginning of the fiscal year the permanent staff, in addition 
to the chief, consisted of six archeologists (one of whom was on loan 
to the National Park Service), one clerk-stenographer, one file clerk, 
one clerk-tj'pist, one photographer, one illustrator, and four museum 
aides. Temporary employees included 1 arclieologist, 1 physical an- 
thropologist, 2 field assistants, 3 cooks, and 90 crewmen. 

During llie year, 1 arclieologist was transferred to the staff from 
the Chattahoocliee Project on July 21, 1 cook joined the temporary 
staff on July 9, and 16 temporary crewmen were added in July. Dur- 
ing the last week of August and the first w^eek of September, all 
temporaiy crewmen and three cooks were terminated, and one cook 
was transferred from that position to laboratory assistant. The tem- 
porary arclieologist was terminated on September 12, and the two 
field assistants were terminated on August 29 and September 5, re- 
spectively. The physical anthropologist was terminated on September 
2, and one museum aide was transferred from full time to half time 
on September 15. The arclieologist on temporary-detached duty with 
the National Park Service returned to the permanent staff on October 
1. One arclieologist was transferred on October 13 to the Chatta- 
hoochee Basin project. 

On September 23, one arclieologist was assigned temporary-detached 
duty for 8 weeks with the National Park Service to conduct excava- 
tions at Fort Laramie National Monument, Wyo. He returned to the 
Jklissouri Basbi project on November 15. On December 4, one arche- 
ologist was assigned temporary-detached duty for 3 weeks with the 
National Park Service to conduct excavations at George Washington 
Carver National Monument, Mo. He returned to the Missouri Basin 
project on December 21. On February 9, two archeologists were trans- 
ferred for temporary duty with the Chattahoochee Basin Project. 
They returned to the Missouri Basin project on June 17 and 29, re- 
spectively. One museum aide resigned to take other employment on 
x>Iarch 20, and one archeologist was pemianently transferred to the 
National Park Service on May 30, to join the staff of the Wetherill 
Mesa Research project, Mesa Verde National Park, Colo. During 
June, six temporary crewmen were emploj^ed. 

At the end of the fiscal year there were five archeologists, in addi- 
tion to the chief, one administrative assistant, one clerk-stenographer, 
one file clerk, one clerk-typist, one illustrator, one photographer, and 
three museum aides on the permanent staff, and one laboratoiy assist- 
ant and six crewmen on the temporary staff. 

During the year there were 14 Smithsonian Institution River Basin 
Surveys field parties at work within the Missouri Basin. Of the 14 
Missouri Basin parties, 5 were at work in the Oaho Reservoir area 
during July and August, and 5 others were at work in the Big Bend 

533783—60 3 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Reservoir during July and August. Two small parties were at work 
during December and January, respectively, in brief investigations 
in the Merritt and Big Bend lleservoir areas. One party was at work 
in the Big Bend lleservoir area and a second (mobile) party was 
working in the general Missouri Basin area in June. 

Other fieldwork in the Missouri Basin during the year included 
10 parties from State institutions operating under cooperative agree- 
ments with the National Park Service and in cooperation with the 
Smithsonian Institution in the Inter-Agency Archeological Salvage 
Program. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year, in the Oahe Reservoir area. 
Dr. Robert L. Stephenson and a crew of 20 men were engaged in 
excavations at the Sully site (39SL4:). This was the third and final 
season of work at this, the largest of the earth-lodge village sites in 
the Missouri Basin. The site was situated on the second terrace of the 
Missouri River, 21 miles above Pierre, in Sully County, S.Dak. The 
1958 investigations were concentrated largely in the central and east- 
em portions of the site. These, with those of the two preceding 
seasons, provided a reasonably equal sample of features and specimens 
from all portions of the site. Excavation technique differed some- 
what in the 1958 season. During the 1957 season, whole houses were 
excavated, but the surrounding areas outside were not examined. In 
1958 only one house was excavated in this manner. In the other ex- 
cavation units, only half houses were dug, but the surrounding areas 
on three sides of each house were also excavated. In this way portions 
of 19 houses were investigated, with most of the essential structural 
details obtained from all but two of them. Experience of the previous 
seasons' work at this site suggested that more could be learned of the 
total village pattern in this way, and that excavation of complete 
houses was neither necessary nor economically feasible. Besides the 
house areas, half of a ceremonial lodge, two large cache-pit areas, a 
scaffold area, a midden heap, and another portion of the "plaza" were 
also excavated, and two midden areas were tested. Thus all or parts 
of 32 of the nearly 400 houses have been excavated, as have been 3 
of the 4 ceremonial lodges, a scaffold area, several cache-pit areas, 
midden heaps, and a "plaza." Numerous tests were made in an effort 
to locate a fortification ditch or stockade, but none was found. 

Emphasis was placed, in the field, upon securing architectural in- 
formation, and good superposition of varying types of dwelling 
houses was obtained. Two distinct, circular, dwelling-house types 
were present, one with a series of widely spaced large wall posts of 
an early period, and one with a series of small, closely set wall posts 
of a later period. There was considerable variation within each type. 
The earlier type had short entry ways, while the later one had medium- 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 17 

to-long entry ways. The earlier houses were of rather uniform size 
(about 36 feet in diameter), while the later ones ranged from 19 
feet to 47 feet in diameter. A unique feature was the presence of two 
concentrically superimposed ceremonial lodges, using ahnost the same 
floor level. One was 77 feet in diameter, superimposed upon one that 
was 64 feet in diameter. All the large ceremonial lodges excavated 
at the Sully site (as well as several of the later dwelling houses) were 
actually polyhedral rather than round, and had between 9 and 12 
sides. 

All occupations of this site were relatively late, with both major 
components (additional minor components have yet to be differenti- 
ated) in the circular-house tradition and probably relating to the 
period between rouglily A.D. 1600 and 1750. The pottery sample 
and other artifact inventory is large and varied, but no assessment 
of it has been made at this time. This field party disbanded on Au- 
gust 23, after 10 weeks in the field. 

The second River Basm Surveys field party in the Oahe Reservoir 
area consisted of a crew of eight men, under the leadership of William 
M. Bass III, physical anthropologist. This party devoted the major 
part of the season to excavations in the burial areas of the Sully site 
(39SL4) . This was a continuation of work begun in 1957 on a some- 
what smaller scale. Work was concentrated in three areas (Features 
218, 219, and 220) and 161 burials were recovered, bringing the num- 
ber of burials excavated at the Sully site to 224. Only a preliminary 
analysis of the skeletal remains has been made. Bodies were interred 
in shallow oval pits dug into an old surface about 1 foot below the 
current soil level. Burials were predominantly flexed or semiflexed 
and oriented with the head toward the west or northwest. A group 
burial, recovered from Feature 218, appears to be the remnant of a 
scaffold burial. Many of the graves had a covering of small poles, 
but few had grave goods included. The gTave goods that were re- 
covered included pottery vessels, ornaments, and an occasional cat- 
linite pipe. 

The Bass party, in addition to work at the Sully site, excavated 
nine rock-cairn burials at the Whistling Hawk site (39SL39), a 
rather ephemeral site on the same terrace 2 miles east of the Sully 
site. Burials were found in each cairn, but significant skeletal re- 
mains were scanty, as most of the bones were badly deteriorated. 
Artifacts with these burials were few. 

At the end of the field season, the Bass party devoted a short period 
to the excavation and collection of a group of burials and associated 
artifacts from a site (39YK202) recently discovered in the course of 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service construction work near the Gavins 
Point Dam. Only the prompt action and complete cooperation 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

of the Commission, the local contractor, the Corps of Engineers, 
members of the Yankton College staff, the National Park Service, 
and the Smithsonian Institution made this salvage operation success- 
ful. The burials proved to be of a group of Woodland people and 
included an appreciable number of personal ornaments, as well as a 
good series of skeletal remains. This party disbanded on August 23, 
after 8 weeks in the field. 

The third River Basin Surveys party in the Oahe Reservoir area 
at the beginning of the year was comprised of a crew of 10 men under 
the direction of Charles H. McNutt. This party conducted excava- 
tions at a series of sites in the Fielder Bottom- Telegraph Flat area 
near the Sully sit«. The work was a continuation of excavations be- 
gun the season before, designed to sample the smaller sites in the 
immediate vicinity of the Sully site, in order to roimd out the story 
of the prehistoric occupations of this once heavily populated area. 
At the Sully School site (39SL7), one house was excavated in its 
entirety, and portions of four more houses were exposed. Three test 
trenches were cut across the fortification ditch, and a large series of 
midden tests, cache pits, and subsidiary features were excavated. Be- 
cause of the two seasons' work there the total artifact sample is ex- 
tensive. The architectural information recovered is less satisfactory. 
The gumbo fill present in many of the features made it extremely 
difficult to determine structural characteristics. Two occupations were 
present, one represented by rectangular houses and pottery similar 
to that from the Thomas Riggs site, the other by circular houses and 
pottery in the La Roche tradition. Only part of the site was fortified. 
The rectangular-house occupation was confined within the fortifica- 
tion ditch, but the circular-house occupation was found both within 
and without the ditch. There is additional ceramic evidence that the 
fortification probably dates from the former, rather than from the 
latter, occupation. 

The Ziltener site (39SL10) was located along a treeless cutbank 
of the Missouri River bottoms approximately 3 miles southeast of 
the Sully site. Informants had reported that a number of skulls and 
artifacts were eroded from the bank from time to time by the annual 
spring rises in the river. The bank was carefully watched for several 
seasons by River Basin Sui-veys parties, but with little success. In 
1958 a storage pit and a house profile were visible, and a small cache 
was found where it had slumped from the cutbank. The remainder 
of the house and the storage pit were excavated. The house was 
circular, and the pottery of the La Roche tradition. 

The Nolz site (39SL40) was located on a terrace remnant below 
and somewhat to the southwest of the Sully sit€i. Three very faint 
house depressions were visible as surface features. Two of these 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 19 

were trenched and the third was half excavated. Central hearths 
were found in all cases. Three additional tests were made on the 
site. Artifact recovery was fair, but architectural data were poorly 
represented, owing to the shallow depth of fill above house floors 
and the clayey nature of the soil. The houses were probably circular 
and the pottery in the La Roche tradition. 

The Zimmerman site (39SL41), located on the same terrace as the 
Nolz site, consisted of a village area marked by about 40 large round- 
to-oval depressions. One rectangular house was excavated com- 
pletely, and half the fill of a second was removed. A midden area and 
12 cache pits were also excavated. There was no indication of the 
presence of any other component. Three exploratory trenches were 
dug, in an effort to find a fortification ditch, but no satisfactory ditch 
profile was discovered. The total data indicate that this was a single- 
component site, characterized by long-rectangular houses and Thomas 
Riggs pottery. 

The Glasshoff site (39SL42) was situated on the Zimmerman-Nolz 
terrace below the west end of the Sully site. According to an in- 
formant, the area was once used for cavalry exercises by Fort Sully 
personnel. In the past, sherds were collected from the surface there, 
and one test excavation (1953) had provided additional evidence 
of aboriginal occupation. No well-defined house depressions were 
apparent, but several surface anomalies were visible. Wherever tested, 
they proved to be the result of activities attributable to the occupa- 
tion of Fort Sully in the late 19th century. Trenching during the 
1958 season yielded historic specimens, a cache pit, and a part of an 
aboriginal dwelling. The latter was foimd on the last day of the 
field season. Artifact recovery was fair, and although some archi- 
tectural features were well preserved, few details were discernible. 
Pottery is simple-stamped and somewhat like the Thomas Riggs 
materials, but it appears to be a distinctive variant. 

Site 39SL27, a large, unnamed site on Telegraph Flat, 1 mile east 
of the Sully site, has several visible but shallow "house" depressions. 
Three small pits dug in the centers of depressions yielded neither 
artifacts nor architectural features. Additional work is needed at 
this site. 

The Wliistling Hawk site (39SL39) comprised a large area along 
the edge of Telegraph Flat terrace, east of 39SL27. A single pit 
excavated into a deep (house?) depression yielded no artifacts or 
architecture, although the Bass party excavated rock-caim burials 
at the site. 

Two sites not situated in Fielder Bottom were also tested. Site 
39SL19 was a low-lying area in the Little Bend region, 18 miles 
upstream from the Sully site. Two small, shallow pits were dug to 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

examine the fill, and the site was walked carefully. No indication of 
a village and no cultural material were found on the surface. This 
area will probably be flooded in 1959 and no further efforts there 
seem justified. The Pitlick site (39PIU16), 8 miles downstream from 
the Sully site, is the northernmost site in the Peoria Bottom group. 
It will not be flooded in 1959, but will probably slump badly. Two 
large trenches and two deep test pits were excavated. One trench 
cut through the shoulder and floor of a house, the other through a 
fortification ditch. One of the deep test pits may have cut through 
a house floor. No artifacts were recovered at the site. This party 
disbanded on August 23, following 10 weeks in the field. The Stephen- 
son, Bass, and McNutt field parties shared camp facilities near the 
Sully site in Fielder Bottom. 

The fourth River Basin Surveys field party in the Oahe Eeservoir 
area consisted of a crew of nine, directed by Richard P. Wheeler. It 
investigated a series of sites on the right bank of the Missouri River 
in the Fort Bennett area, 36 river miles above Pierre, Stanley 
County, S. Dak. The principal effort was directed toward excava- 
tions at the H. P. Thomas site (39ST12). A total of 60 circular 
earth-lodge depressions is apparent in area 1 of the site, and 21 
depressions are suggested in area 2. Three lodges were excavated 
in area 1 and two in area 2. Overburden was removed from six addi- 
tional lodges by bulldozer, and four dozer-cut trenches were carried 
across the moats in each area. Three midden deposits in area 1 were 
excavated, one containing a fragment of the floor pattern of a house. 
Three of the suggested five components appear to be assignable to 
the Snake Butte, Stanley, and Anderson-Monroe Foci, as defined by 
Lehmer for the Oahe Dam area. 

At the Agency Creek site (39ST41), adjacent to site 39ST12, seven 
small test pits and one bulldozer trench were excavated. Since time 
did not permit detailed investigation of these sample excavations, 
little can be said of the cultural implications of the site, although 
laboratory analyses of the artifacts will prove informative. Addi- 
tional tests were made at the Lounsbury site (39ST42) and at the 
Ramsey site (39ST236), the latter situated midway between 39ST41 
and 39ST42. At the Lounsbury site, test pits were excavated into the 
centers of two circular-house depressions, exposing the central 
hearths. The overburden was bulldozed from the surface of one 
house, but the structure was not fully excavated. The Ramsey site 
appears to be a series of middens only, and a stratigraphic cut, 5 feet 
by 10 feet, provided an abundance of artifacts but no house remains. 
These test excavations at the Agency Creek, Lounsbury, and Ramsey 
sites yielded thin, horizontally incised rim sherds and simple-stamped 
body sherds characteristic of the Bennett Focus as suggested earlier 



Secretary's Report, I")!*? 



Plate l 




1. Seminole settlement in the Everdades. 







^fr^^.r^£^..-^im^^^^. 



2. Digging up edible roots of elephant-ear (A . 

by the Seminole. 

533783 — 00 4 



\ ated 



Secretary's Report. l''5'> 



PLATE 2 




^•'"T.^^ 



1. Aerial view of a Seminole field in the Everglades. 








2. Corn growing in a Seminole field in the L>ig C\ press Swamp. 



Secretary's Report. 1959 



PLATE 3 




1. Excavation of Feature 1, a portion of a circular house exposed in slump bank along 
Missouri River at the Ziltener Site (39SL10) in the Oahe Reservoir area, South Dakota. 
Most of the house had washed away but the remainder was undisturbed, with a fair 
floor and post holes dug into soft silt. River Basin Surveys. 







1. Crew cxca\'ating remains at the Truman Mound Site (39BF224), a group of six 
burial mounds of the prc-earth-lodgc peoples in the Big Bend Reservoir area, South 
Dakota. River Basin Survcvs. 



Secretary's Report. I 'IS') 



Plate 4 




(See legend on opposite page.) 



Plate 4 

Representative examples of pottery vessels from various sites in the Missouri Basin, 
(a) From site 25FT17, an Aksarben Aspect site in Medicine Creek Reservoir, Nebraska, 
(b) From Leavitt Site (39ST215), Oahe Reservoir, South Dakota, (c) From White Swan 
Mound Site (39CH9), a Woodland Site in Fort Randall Reservoir, South Dakota, (d) From 
Leavitt Site (39ST215). (e) Stanley Tool Impressed vessel from Phillips Ranch Site 
(39ST14), Oahe Reservoir, (f) From Leavitt Site (39ST215). (g) Colombe Collared 
Rim vessel from Phillips Ranch Site (39ST14). (h) Foreman Cord Impressed vessel from 
Dodd Site (39ST30), Oahe Reservoir, (i) Mitchell Broad Trailed vessel from Dodd Site 
(39ST30). (j) From Cheyenne River Site (39ST1), Oahe Reservoir, (k) Stanley Braced 
Rim vessel from Dodd Site (39ST30). (1) Truman Plain Rim vessel from Truman 
Mounds Site (39BF224), Big Bend Reservoir, South Dakota, (m) From White Swan 
Mound Site (39CH9). (n) From Site (48FR84), Boysen Reservoir, Wyoming. Only 
known restored vessel from Wyoming, (o) From Leavitt Site ('39ST2I5). 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 21 

at the Black Widow (39ST3) and Meyers (39ST10) sites. This party 
disbanded on August 25 and returned to the headquarters in Lincoln 
after 10 weeks in the field. 

The fifth River Basin Surveys field party in the Oahe Reservoir 
area began work on July 25. It consisted of Harold A. Huscher and 
a crew of two men and worked primarily on the left bank of the 
Missouri River in Stanley County, S. Dak. This survey-mapping- 
testing crew investigated a series of six sites along Black Widow 
Ridge, 3 to 6 miles above the H. P. Thomas site, mapping and testing 
each. They are sites 39ST25, 39ST50, 39ST3 (Black Widow), 
39ST49, 39ST203, and 39ST201. The Huscher party mapped all four 
sites being excavated by the Wlieeler party, 39ST12, 39ST41, 39ST42, 
and 39ST236, and mapped and tested three other sites some 10 miles 
below the H. P. Thomas site. These are sites 39ST37, 39ST38, and 
39ST39. In addition, this party mapped and assisted the McNutt 
crew in testing the Pitlick site (39HU16) on the left bank of the 
Missouri River. Huscher was severely injured in a fall from a photo- 
graphic ladder on August 24, thus terminating the work of this 
field party after 4 weeks in the field. Following 5i/^ weeks in the 
hospital and another month of recuperation, he returned to duty on 
October 13. The Wlieeler and Huscher parties shared a joint field 
camp near Fort Bennett. 

In the Big Bend Reservoir area there were five River Basin Surveys 
field parties at work at the beginning of the fiscal year. The first con- 
sisted of a crew of 12 men under the direction of William N. Irving 
and included an assistant trained in geology to aid in investigations 
of stratigraphic terrace sequences relating to the geological-archeo- 
logical interpretations of the sites and their immediate vicinity. This 
party concentrated its efforts on the excavation of the early occupa- 
tions of the Medicine Crow site (39BF2) , begun last season, and other 
preceramic sites in the immediate vicinity. These sites are located 
near Old Fort Thompson on the left bank of the Missouri River, in 
or near the construction area of the Big Bend Dam, Buffalo County, 
S. Dak. At the Medicine Crow site, three major occupation zones, 
each containing two or more components, are distinguishable on the 
basis of the vertical distribution of point types within a 3- to 6- 
foot section of primarily aeolian silt. The basal section of a small 
fluted point was found in the lowermost occupation zone. From 
the same zone, however, came points that resemble those of the Fron- 
tier Complex, and others suggesting a long temporal range for the 
basal portion of the deposit. 

xidditional investigations were made at two sites, 39BF238 and 
39BF250, that had not been recorded previously, and at the Aiken 
site (39BF215). Only at the latter were immediately significant re- 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

suits obtained. Limited excavations there indicated five occupational 
layers and two well-defined, buried soils. At least two ceramic hori- 
zons are present, in the upper levels, one with simple-stamped or plain 
pottery, the other with cord-marked body sherds. Several additional 
occupations, in stratigraphically earlier positions, have yielded 
neither pottery nor other diagnostic artifacts. The great depth of 
deposit and the presence of buried soils may make possible a consid- 
erable refinement in the stratigraphy of late preceramic remains in 
the Big Bend Reservoir area. Geological investigations carried on 
by Alan H. Coogan in the area of the lower portion of this reservoir 
were intended to obtain information bearing upon chronology and 
the environmental sequence of the Medicine Crow, Aiken, and other 
early sites in the area. The possibilities for correlation of terrace, 
moraine, and other depositional features appear to be excellent. The 
Irving party disbanded on September 4 and returned to the Lincoln 
headquarters after 13 weeks in the field. 

The second River Basin Surveys party in the field in the Big Bend 
Reservoir area was a crew of 11 men under the direction of James 
J. F. Deetz. This party spent the entire season in excavation of the 
late (village occupation) components (areas B and C) of the Medi- 
cine Crow site (39BF2). The work was done in conjunction wath 
that of the Irving party in an effort to provide a comprehensive pic- 
ture of the site as a whole. In all, 16 houses were completely exca- 
vated, and 4 were tested with varying intensity. Included within the 
houses were 16 cache pits. Eleven cache pits were excavated in the 
interhouse living areas. A single burial was recovered. Three well- 
defined components have been established for the ceramic period of 
this site and a fourth, less adequately outlined component is proposed. 
The Stanley Component (latest) is characterized by a predominance 
of Stanley Braced Rim pottery ; circular houses, 25 to 30 feet in diam- 
eter with hard, light-colored floors; mortar pits; and absence of 
interior cache pits. Five domestic and four specialized house struc- 
tures are included in this component. The specialized houses were 
grouped about a "plaza" and included a ceremonial lodge, 50 feet in 
diameter, with an altar, plastered floor, and silled entrance. The 
Fort Thompson Component resembles that at the Oacoma site, but 
may be somewhat later. Talking Crow ware predominates. Houses 
range from 35 to 40 feet in diameter, have vaguely defined floors, 
in-floor caches, and lack mortar pits. Four such structures were 
excavated during the 1958 season. There were two cases of superim- 
position, with Stanley houses above Fort Thompson houses. A third, 
unnamed, component is represented by a series of large bell-shaped 
cache pits excavated in area C. These affiliate most closely with the 
Two Teeth site (39BF204) a short distance to the southeast. Talking 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 23 

Crow Straight Rim pottei-y predominates. The fourth component, 
occurring in area A, is represented by a house with an indistinct post 
pattern buried in Stanley and Fort Thompson refuse. The associated 
ceramics are varied, and at tliis time no definite assessment can be 
made of them. 

The investigations in areas A and C at the Medicine Crow site 
represent the first clear-cut Stanley occupation excavated south of 
the Oahe Reservoir. It is also important to note that a temporal re- 
lationship can now be established between the components involved. 
European trade materials found in association with Stanley features 
may be helpful in providing absolute dates for the latest occupation. 
The Deetz party terminated fieldwork on August 30 after 12 weeks 
in the field. 

The third River Basin Surveys party in the Big Bend Reservoir was 
comprised of a crew of 10 men, under the leadership of Robert W. 
Neuman. This party excavated or tested a series of four sites in the 
vicinity of Old Fort Thompson and tliree sites on the right bank of 
the Missouri River, in and adjacent to Good Soldier and Counselor 
Creeks. All seven sites are within the dam-construction area. The 
initial effort was devoted to the Akichita site (39BF221) located in 
the Missouri River bottoms adjacent to Old Fort Thompson. The 
site had been tested during the 1957 season, but although extensive 
evidence of occupation was recovered, no house structures were found. 
A network of five extended test trenches, excavated during the 1958 
season, was equally unsuccessful in locating habitations. Cache pits 
were the only structures uncovered. The artifact collection is exten- 
sive, and shows clear relationship to the Anderson-Monroe material 
from the Dodd site (39ST30) near Pierre, S.Dak. At site 39BF220, 
situated about 1 mile west of the Akichita site, much of the occupa- 
tion area has been washed into the river. Two excavation units, each 
30 feet by 50 feet, produced only a limited artifact return. However, 
a nmnber of pottery types were recovered. The inventory suggests 
that the site was occupied by circular-house people. 

The Truman Mound site (39BF224) , also in the Old Fort Thompson 
area, on the first terrace overlooking the river, was revisited for a 
second season in order to excavate the remaining two of the six mounds 
originally present there. The mounds, 1 to 2 feet in height, 50 feet 
in diameter, contained two types of burials : (1) secondary interments 
in shallow circular pits, (2) primary burials in deep oval pits. Arti- 
fact material recovered from the site suggests Woodland affiliation, 
but the conical-shaped vessels excavated are clearly simple-stamped, 
rather than the Woodland cord-marked type. In a stratum beneath, 
and not associated with the mounds, excavations recovered a number 
of stone artifacts. The most diagnostic type is represented by a tri- 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

angular point with a concave base. In the same stratum were ovoid 
knives, crude scrapers, a long-stemmed drill, hand-size cobbles, and 
fragments of bison bone. No pottery was in association. Site 
39BF270, located about 2 miles west of 39BF224, consisted of four 
low circular mounds, three of which were excavated. The recovered 
artifacts compare closely with those from the Truman Mound site. 

At site 39LM238, on the west side of the Missouri at the mouth 
of Good Soldier Creek, where the west abutment of the dam is to be 
built, a large "mound" was extensively cross-trenched and a series of 
test pits were excavated in an effort to locate village remains. The 
"mound" proved to be of natural origin (165 feet long, 90 feet wide, 
5 feet high) but capped by two occupational deposits separated strat- 
igraphically by a stratum of sterile yellow silt. The upper component 
contained simple-stamped pottery, triangular points, scattered post 
molds (many with bone wedges), and a few shallow firepits. The 
lower component contained cord-paddled pottery, large side-notched 
points, shallow basin-shaped firepits, and a large rock-filled hearth. 
A small rock shelter (39LM239), located about a mile and a half 
upstream from Good Soldier Creek, was briefly tested. It was 
thought that this site might possibly be the "Truteau Cave," histori- 
cally known to have been used as winter quarters by the trader Tru- 
teau in 1794. Excavation demonstrated the shelter to be sterile of 
any cultural material. Site 39LM6, a deeply buried, multicomponent 
village site at the mouth of Counselor Creek, 3 miles upstream from 
site 39LM238, was visited, and an eroding cache pit excavated. Some 
additional collecting was done, but no further excavation was at- 
tempted. The Neuman party terminated fieldwork on August 22, 
after 14 weeks in the field. The Neuman, Irving, and Deez parties 
shared camp facilities near the Brule Landing, 5 miles upstream from 
Old Fort Thompson. 

A fourth River Basin Surveys field party in the Big Bend Reser- 
voir area consisted of nine men, directed by Bernard Golden. This 
party conducted excavations at the Hickey Brothers site (39LM4), 
located on the right (west) side of the Missouri River, about 7 miles 
north of the Lower Brule Agency. The site is situated on the first 
terrace above the river, just north of the constricted neck of the Little 
Bend. The occupation area is delineated by a well-preserved fortifica- 
tion ditch. The latter is "coffin shaped" in plan, with bastions at 
the corners and in the intervening runs of wall. A single corner 
bastion was excavated, exposing a shallow moat backed by a pendulum 
loop of stockade posts. Tlie stockade line was further verified along 
one of the long walls, and a series of 25 test pits was excavated to 
sample the body of the site. Four of the shallow "house" depressions 
within the fortification were tested by area excavation and trenching. 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 25 

Results were limited. A relatively constant stratigraphy was re- 
vealed, but no aboriginal habitations were located with certainty. At 
least one hearth and other evidences of very localized "camp" areas 
were excavated, but artifacts were remarkably scarce. A limited 
number of potsherds (Stanley, Thomas Riggs) constitute the most 
distinctive material. A portion of the site had been disturbed by 
recent farming activities, but at best it does not seem to have been 
heavily occupied. This crew terminated fieldwork on August 20, 
after 10 weeks in the field. 

The fifth River Basin Surveys field party in the Big Bend Reser- 
voir area had a crew of 14- men under the leadership of Dr. Warren 
W. Caldwell. Work of this party consisted of excavations at two 
sites immediately to the south of the Hickey Brothers site, on the 
first terrace of the Missouri River, The major portion of the season 
was devoted to continuing excavations begun in the 1957 season at 
the Black Partizan site (39LM218), a large multicomponent earth- 
lodge village, situated one-fourth mile south of the Hickey Brothers 
site. Four houses within the fortification ditch were exposed. In 
addition, deep cross sections of the moat were cut at two places, and 
two extensive midden areas were sampled by trenching. Several 
differing house patterns were recovered. The most distinctive con- 
sisted of a small (18-foot diameter) square (?) house with rounded 
corners, large intramural cache pits, and a dearth of house posts. 
Thomas Riggs pottery was characteristic. Two circular houses were 
exposed, one 35 feet in diameter, the other 29 feet in diameter. The 
larger, containing many bone and stone- wedged post holes, overlay 
a large rectangular house. Associated cache pits are probably at- 
tributable to the latter structure rather than to the former. Braced 
rims and typical Thomas Riggs rims are both present. The smaller 
circular house was characterized by an abnormally large group of 
in-floor cache pits. The pottery sample is varied and much of it may 
predate the house. 

The deep midden debris overlying much of the site contained pot- 
tery rim sherds with horizontal trailed or incised decoration. Be- 
neath the midden, a series of large cache pits produced an abundance 
of Talking Crow pottery. The fortification ditch varies from 12 to 
15 feet in width and from 4 to 6 feet in depth, and contains both 
water- deposited silt and midden fill. The latter normally contains 
cord-marked body sherds and a scattering of mammal bone. 

At site 39M215, lying between the Black Partizan and the 
Hickey Brothers sites, only a single house was excavated. Site 
39LM215 physically overlaps both of the latter sites. The two houses 
dug at 39LM218 in 1957 appear to be associated with it. The single 
structure excavated this year was characterized by Talking Crow 



26 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

pottery and an abundance of slieet-copper fragments. This party 
broke camp and returned to the Lincoln headquarters on August 12, 
after 9 weeks in the field. The Ctildwell and Golden parties shared 
a joint field camp, situated adjacent to the sites under excavation. 

The practice of using joint field camps of two or three parties 
each has, in the past two seasons, proved very economical and efficient. 
Combining of activities and expenses of several parties and the con- 
sequent reduction in total quantity of field equipment, vehicles, num- 
ber of cooks, and other expenses constitute a major saving. Having 
several archeologists in a single camp is of great help in discussions 
pertaining to excavation methods and general archeological 
interpretations. 

During the winter months two very brief Missouri Basin project 
field parties were at work in the Missouri Basin. William N. Irving 
visited the Merritt Reservoir area and the nearby vicinity in north- 
central Nebraska from December 2 through December 7. This one- 
man party made extensive examinations of a number of the small 
Sandhills lakes for possible localities in which to collect fossil pollen. 
This was in connection with building a master pollen profile which 
will aid in interpreting the archeological sequences at sites in the Big 
Bend Reservoir and other reservoir areas in the central portion of 
the Missouri Basin. A second purpose of the trip was to determine 
whether recent construction activity in the IMerritt Reservoir area was 
endangering any previously unknown archeological remains. The 
potentialities for collecting fossil pollen looked very favorable, but 
actual collecting had to await colder weather when the lakes would be 
frozen over. No new archeological material that would be disturbed 
by work within the Merritt Reservoir area was noted. 

The second wintertime River Basin Surveys field party within the 
Missouri Basin consisted of William N. Irving and Lee G. Madison, 
who were in the field from January 19 through the 30th. This party 
was accompanied by Dr. Paul B. Sears, pollen specialist from Yale 
University, who kindly volunteered his services in order to assist in 
this important aspect of the salvage program. The group visited the 
vicinity of the Big Bend Reservoir area and collected an extensive 
series of pond-deposit samples for pollen analysis. Dr. Sears has 
kindly agreed to analyze these samples for fossil pollen, and in fact 
has already begun such analyses. At least one core sample has pro- 
vided a long pollen sequence, and others look promising. If a master 
profile can be established from these and other samples, it will assist 
greatly in identifying the vegetations and climates of past ages. By 
superimposing the pollen samples from archeological sites excavated 
in the Big Bend and other related reservoir areas upon this master 
pollen profile, climatic and ecological contexts can be determined for 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 27 

these sites and the age of the sites thus be correlated with the climatic 
changes. Details of ecology are thereby added to the archeological 
records salvaged from the reservoir to provide a fuller picture of the 
prehistory of the area. 

The 1969 summer field season in the Missouri Basin began in the 
Big Bend Keservoir area on Jime 4 with a single small crew, en- 
camped near the Hickey Brothers site on the right bank of the Mis- 
souri Kiver in Lyman County. Dr. Warren W. Caldwell and a crew 
of six began work on a series of sites at and near the proposed right 
(west) abutment of the Big Bend Dam, near the mouths of Good 
Soldier Creek and Counselor Creek. On Good Soldier Creek, site 
39LM235 was found to have been largely destroyed by construction 
during the winter of several small boat-landing ramps, but test pits 
were excavated in the remaining portion of the site. Very little ma- 
terial was recovered. The nearby site, 39LM236, was found to be 
completely inundated by an unusually high water level in the Fort 
Kandall Keservoir and no work was possible. At the mouth of Coun- 
selor Creek, the Useful Heart site (39LM6) was extensively trenched 
and full-scale excavation of this earth-lodge village site was in prog- 
ress at the end of the year. 

The only other Missouri Basin project party at work in Jime was 
a team of physical anthropologists consisting of William M. Bass, III, 
and two assistants. This team, working out of the Lincoln office, 
began operations on June 17 at the Department of Anthropology, 
University of Nebraska, making metric analyses of a large group of 
human skeletal remains from several reservoir areas in the Missouri 
Basin, and from other sites in the area. The team spent 5 days on a 
trip to the University of Oklahoma at Norman to make similar 
analyses, and at the end of the fiscal year was back in Lincoln study- 
ing the skeletal remains from sites in the Oahe Keservoir area. This 
party was materially assisted by a grant-in-aid to Bass from the 
University of Pennsylvania, Child Growth and Development Center, 
tlirough the kindness of Dr. Wilton K. Krogman. This grant pro- 
vided the salary for Bass and one assistant during June. 

Cooperating institutions at work in the Missouri Basin at the be- 
ginning of the fiscal year included a party from the University of 
South Dakota, directed by Eugene B. Fugle, excavating at the Four 
Bears site (39DW2) in the Oahe Keservoir area; a party from the 
University of Idaho, directed by Dr. Alfred E. Bowers, excavating 
for the second season at the Rygh site (39CA4) in the Oahe Keser- 
voir area; a joint party from the University of North Dakota and 
the State Historical Society of North Dakota, mider the direction of 
Dr. James H. Howard, excavating at the Tony Glas site (32EM3) in 
the Oahe Keservoir area ; a party from the University of Wyoming, 



28 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

directed by Dr. William Miilloy, excavating at a series of sites in the 
Glendo Reservoir in Platte County, Wyo. ; and a party from the 
University of Missouri, directed by Carl Chapman, in the Pomme de 
Terre Reservoir area of west-central Missouri. At the end of the 
fiscal year cooperating institutions were : A party from the University 
of Kansas, directed by Dr. Carlyle S. Smith, excavating at the 
Strieker Village site (39LM1) in the Big Bend Reservoir; a joint 
party from the University of North Dakota and the State Historical 
Society of North Dakota, directed by Dr. James H. Howard, excavat- 
ing at the Huff site (32M011) in the Oahe Reservoir area; and two 
parties from the University of Missouri, directed by Carl F. Chap- 
man, excavating at a series of sites in the Pomme de Terre Reservoir 
and making preliminary surveys in the Kassinger Bluff Reservoir 
area of west-central Missouri. All these parties were operating 
through agreements with the National Park Service and were coop- 
erating in the Smithsonian Institution research program. 

During the time that the archeologists were not in the field, they 
were engaged in analyses of their materials and in laboratory and 
library research. They also prepared manuscripts of technical scien- 
tific reports and wrote articles and papers of a more popular nature. 

The Missouri Basin Chronology Program, begun by the staff 
archeologists of the Missouri Basin project in January 1958, con- 
tinued to function throughout the current year. This is a coopera- 
tive program, bringing together the enthusiastic support and wide 
range of experience of 34 individuals representing 20 research insti- 
tutions working in the Missouri Basin area. This program, directed 
toward a more precise understanding of time sequences of the pre- 
historic cultures represented by the sites being excavated, is already 
beginning to be useful in more efficient planning of salvage opera- 
tions. Concrete results are being realized with a minimum expendi- 
ture of time and funds. The program includes intensive research 
in dendrochronology, and in this phase the field crews have collected 
wood specimens to be used in developing two master charts, one for 
the lower Big Bend Reservior area and one for the lower Oahe 
Reservior area. Sufficient wood is now on hand to begin preparing 
the master charts into which archeological wood samples may later be 
fitted. In addition, plans are in progress for the services of a full- 
time dendrochronologist, working on other funds, to concentrate his 
efforts on this problem. Research in radioactive carbon- 14 analyses 
is well underway within the framework of the program, and 11 speci- 
mens have been submitted to the University of Michigan Memorial- 
Phoenix Project Laboratory under the direction of Prof. H. R. Crane. 
Dates have been returned on all 11, and a second series of specimens 
is being prepared for submission. Pollen samples have been collected 
and are being analyzed by Dr. Paul B. Sears of Yale University. 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 



29 



Others have already been analyzed by Mrs. Catherine Clisby of 
Oberlin College, preparatory to establishing a fossil pollen sequence. 
Geologic-climatic investigations have been carried out by Alan H. 
Coogan, who was employed for the purpose by the River Basin Sur- 
veys. He worked in collaboration with William N. Irving in the 
lower Big Bend Reservior area. Other less specific researches are in 
progress to bring all possible chronology tecliniques to bear on this 
one basic framework for Missouri Basin chronology. 

The laboratory and office staff devoted its full time during the 
year to processing specimen materials for study, photographing speci- 
mens, preparing specimen records, and typing and filing of records 
and manuscript materials. The accomplishments of the laboratory 
and office staff are listed in the following tables : 



Table 1. — Specimens processed July 1, 1958, through June SO, 1959 



Reservoir 



Number of sites 


Catalog numbers 
assigned 


Number of speci- 
mens processed 


50 


9,254 


71, 281 


13 


1,975 


4,461 


4 


21 


512 


2 


10 


48 


1 


7 


158 


25 


8,668 


80,311 


3 


48 


194 


98 


19, 983 


156, 965 


5 


17 


83 


103 


20, 000 


157, 048 



Big Bend 

Dardanelle ' 

Fort Randall 

Glendo 

Lewis and Clark 

Oahe 

Sites not in reservoirs. 



Collections not assigned site numbers. 



la the Arkansas Basin. 

Table 2. — Record materials processed July 1, 1958, through June SO, 1959 

Reflex copies of records 8,968 

Photographic negatives made 2, 792 

Photographic prints made 11, 888 

Photographic prints mounted and filed 5, 566 

Plate layouts made for manuscripts 71 

Transparencies mounted in glass 1, 108 

Cartographic tracings and revisions 72 

Color pictures taken in lab 434 

Artifacts drawn 66 

Lettering of plates 75 

Profiles drawn 45 

It is of especial interest to note that on January 22 the one-millionth 
specimen was processed by the Missouri Basin project laboratory. As 
of June 30, the Missouri Basin project had cataloged, in 13 years of 



30 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

operation, a p:rand total of 1,074,418 specimens from 1,795 nmnbered 
sites and 54 collections not assigned site numbers, in 92 reservoir areas 
within the Missouri Basin. During the current fiscal year, 7 pottery- 
vessels, 23 pottery vessel sections, and 1 stoneware bowl were restored, 
and 154 non vessel artifacts were repaired. Archeological specimens 
from 3 sites in 2 reservoirs were transferred to the division of archeol- 
ogy, U.S. National Museum, and human skeletal remains from 26 
sites in 8 reservoirs were transferred to the division of physical an- 
thropology, U.S. National Museum. Archeological specimens 
(mostly trade goods) from three sites in- one reservoir were trans- 
ferred to the Region Two Office, National Park Service, for display 
at the Jejfferson National Westward Expansion Memorial Museum in 
St. Louis, Mo. The Missouri Basin project received, by transfer, 
from the University of Kansas, through the courtesy of Dr. Carlyle 
S. Smith, sample rim sherds of the Campbell Creek Indented type 
from the Talking Crow site (39BF3), and sample rim sherds of three 
varieties of the Cadotte Collared type from the Two Teeth site 
(39BF204) . These specimens have been added to the Missouri Basin 
project comparative collections. 

On July 26-27, archeologists of the staff of the Missouri Basin 
project joined with archeologists of the National Park Service and 
of State agencies at work within the Missouri Basin in a roundtable 
field conference in Pierre, S. Dak. This session, called the 1514th 
Plains Conference, was devoted to basic technical problems arising 
from the current field activities, and such conferences are to become 
a regular feature each summer. During the Thanksgiving weekend, 
members of the staff participated in the 16th Plains Conference for 
Archeology, held in Lincoln. On April 17, members of the staff 
participated in the annual meeting of the Nebraska Academy of 
Sciences, also held in Lincohi. On April 30 and May 1 and 2, mem- 
bers of the staff attended and participated in the annual meeting of 
the Society for American Archaeology, held in Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Dr. Robert L. Stephenson, chief, when not in charge of field 
parties, devoted most of his time to managing the office and labora- 
tory in Lincoln and preparing plans and budgets for the 1959 summer 
field season. He spent a portion of his time working on a summary 
report of the Missouri Basin Salvage Program for the calendar years 
1952-58 and on the preparation of a manuscript reporting the "Arche- 
ological Investigations in the Whitney Reservoir, Texas." He com- 
pletely revised and submitted a manuscript, "Excavations at Pueblo 
Pardo, New Mexico," which he had prepared in collaboration with 
Joseph H. Toulouse, Jr., in 1941, for publication as a monograph of 
the School of American Research, Santa Fe, N. Mex. He prepared 
and submitted for publication by the Alice Ferguson Foundation of 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 31 

Wasliington, D.C., a popular manuscript, "Prehistoric Peoples of 
Accokeek Creek." Throughout the year he served as chairman of 
the Missouri Basin Chronology Program. A photographic booklet, 
"The Inter- Agency Archaeological Salvage Program after Twelve 
Years," prepared by him at the end of last fiscal year, was published 
in September. In July he served as chairman of the 15i/^th Plains 
Conference held in Pierre, S. Dak. During the Thanksgiving week- 
end he attended and participated in the 16th Plains Conference for 
Archeology, serving as chairman for the half-day session on "Arche- 
ology of the Southern Plains," and presenting a paper on "The Sully 
Site" at another session. In January he attended and participated 
in the annual meeting of the Committee for the Recovery of Archaeo- 
logical Remains, held in Washington, D.C. In April he attended 
the annual meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, presenting 
a paper on "Administration in Anthropology" which was published 
in abstract in the Proceedings of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences. 
On April 30 and May 1-2, he attended the annual meeting of the 
Society for American Archaeology and presented two papers, "River 
Basin Sah^age Problems Today" and "The Missouri Basin Chronology 
Program," both of which were published in abstract in Abstracts of 
Papers of the 24th Annual Meeting of the Society for American 
Archaeology. During the year he gave eight talks on various 
aspects of Missouri Basin Salvage Archeology at five local organi- 
zations' regular meetings. 

Dr. Warren W. Caldwell, archeologist, during the fall and winter 
months devoted most of his time to analyses of specimen materials 
recovered from sites he had excavated in the Dardanelle and Big 
Bend Reservoirs during the previous year. He completed all plates, 
figures, and manuscript text for the final report, "Archeological In- 
vestigations in the Dardanelle Reservoir of West-Central Arkansas." 
He prepared a brief teclmical report on "Firearms and Related 
Artifacts from Fort Atkinson, Nebraska" and another entitled 
"Comments on the 'English Pattern' Trade Rifles," both for publica- 
tion in the Missouri Archaeologist. He prepared a manuscript, pic- 
tures, and captions for a photographic booklet entitled "Gavins 
Point Dam and the Lewis and Clark Lake" for publication by the 
Corps of Engineers, U.S. Department of the Army; and submitted 
for publication in the Tree-Ring Joum/il^ an article entitled "Den- 
drochronology and the Missouri Basin Chronology Program." He 
prepared a statement on "Plains Archeology and the Salvage Pro- 
gram" for publication in the Encyclopaedia Britannica Yearbook. 
In addition, he prepared several mimeographed statements for dis- 
tribution from the Missouri Basin project office, including "Report 
No. 3, Missouri Basin Project and Cooperating Institutions," and 



32 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

"Statement No. 2, The Missouri Basin Chronology Program." His 
article "The Smithsonian Institution in Arkansas," prepared late 
last year, was published in the Ozark Mountaineer for July 1958 . He 
prepared a book review of "Frontier Steel" by Arthur Rosebush, 
that was published in Nehraska History for March 1959. In July 
he attended and participated in the 1514th Plains Conference, held 
in Pierre, S. Dak. In November he attended the 16th Plains Con- 
ference for Archeology and served as chainnan for the half-day 
session on "The Chronology Program" and presented a paper on 
"The Black Partizan Site" at another session. In April he served 
as the general chairman of the annual meeting of the anthropology 
section of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, held in Lincoln, Nebr., 
and presented a paper entitled "Northwest Coast Archeology: An 
Interpretation," which was published in abstract in the Proceedings 
of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences. During the year he served 
as chairman of the dendrochronology section of the Chronology 
Program and gave a talk to the North Omaha Kiwanis Club on 
"The Missouri Basin Salvage Program." 

Harold A. Huscher in July participated in the 15iy^th Plains 
Conference in Pierre, S. Dak., and in November attended the 16th 
Plains Conference for Archeology, where he served as chairman for 
the half-day session on "Field Reports" and presented two papers 
entitled "Mapping in the Fort Bennett Area" and "Chronologies 
from Ceramic Analysis." His other activities have been reported 
in a preceding section. 

William M. Bass, III, temporary physical anthropologist, partici- 
pated in the 1514th Plains Conference in July and after the comple- 
tion of fieldwork, left the staff on September 2. During the spring 
months he devoted much of his own time to detailed metric analyses 
of the human skeletal remains excavated in the Oahe and other 
Missouri Basin reservoirs. On June 17 he returned to Lincoln to 
serve as party chief for the mobile physical anthropology team 
working in the general Missouri Basin area. 

William N. Irving, archeologist, when not in the field directing 
excavations, was in the Lincoln office analyzing materials he exca- 
vated during the previous two summers, particularly in regard to 
the Medicine Crow site (39BF2) and the Aiken site (39BF215). 
In July he attended and participated in the 15i/^th Plains Con- 
ference at Pierre, S. Dak. On November 27-28 he attended the 16th 
Plains Conference for Archeology and presented two papers, "Pre- 
Ceramic Sites in the Big Bend Reservoir" and "Pre-Ceramic 
Chronology in the Big Bend Reservoir." In collaboration with Alan 
H. Coogan, he prepared a manuscript on "Late Pleistocene and Re- 
cent Missouri River Terraces in the Big Bend Reservoir, South 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 33 

Dakota" to be published in the Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of 
Sciences. He was on leave without pay from February 9 to April 
24, to complete work on a report on Arctic research previously done 
for Harvard University. On April 30 and May 1-2, he attended 
the annual meetings of the Society for American Archaeology. He 
served throughout the year as chairman of the geologic-climatic 
section of the Chronology Program. At the end of the year he was 
in the Lincoln office, continuing work on his report on investigations 
at the IMedicine Crow and related sites. 

James J. F. Deetz, temporary archeologist, participated in the 
151/^th Plains Conference held in July. He completed his fieldwork 
on September 5 and terminated his employment at that time. He 
spent a portion of his own time during the winter and spring 
months analyzing materials from, and preparing a report on, the 
ceramic components of the Medicine Crow site (39BF2). 

Alan H. Coogan, temporary field assistant, participated in the 
151/^th Plains Conference held in July. He completed his fieldwork 
and tenninated his employment on August 29. In November he 
participated in the 16th Plains Conference for Archeology held in 
Lincoln, Nebr., presenting a paper entitled "The Physical Basis for 
Chronology in the Big Bend Reservoir." During the fall and winter 
months, on his own time, he prepared the report in collaboration 
with William N. Irving for publication in the Proceedings of the 
lowaAcadem/y of Sciences. 

Bernard Golden, temporary archeologist, completed his fieldwork 
and left the project on September 12. During the winter and spring 
months he devoted a portion of his own time to preparation of the 
first draft of a report on his 1958 excavations entitled "Excavations 
at the Hickey Brothers Site (39LM4), Big Bend Reservoir," which 
he submitted for review early in Jmie. In July he participated in 
the 1514th Plains Conference held in Pierre. 

Charles H. McNutt, archeologist, attended the 1514th Plains Con- 
ference in July. Wlien not in the field conducting excavations, he 
devoted most of his time to analyses of materials he had excavated 
over the past 2 years and to preparation of reports. He served 
throughout the year as chairman of the carbon- 14 section of the 
Chronology Program. On temporary-detached duty to the National 
Park Service from September 23 to November 15, for excavations 
at Fort Laramie National Monument, he completed a report on that 
work entitled "Excavations at Old Bedlam, Fort Laramie National 
Monument, 48G01, Wyoming, 1958." During the Thanksgiving week- 
end he participated in the 16th Plains Conference for Arche- 
ology, held in Lincoln, Nebr., and presented papers reporting 
on "Excavations in Fielder Bottom Area, Oahe Reservoir," "Exca- 



34 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

vations at Fort Laramie National Monument," and "Radiocarbon 
Dating in the Missouri Basin Chronology Program." In April 
he prepared a paper for the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, 
entitled "Comments on Two Northern Plains Pottery Wares," 
published in abstract in the Proceedings of the Academy. 
From April 7 to June 14 he was on leave without pay to complete his 
doctoral dissertation, which was submitted to the University of 
Michigan on June 29. On April 30 and May 1-2, he participated 
in the annual meetings of the Society for American Archaeology, 
held in Salt Lake City, Utah, and presented a paper entitled "Can 
Paraffin Be Removed from Charcoal Samples?" in collaboration with 
Dr. John L. Champe of the University of Nebraska. It was pub- 
lislied in abstract in the Abstracts of Papers of the 24th Annual 
Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. During the year 
ho also continued work on a manuscript on ceramic taxonomy of 
the South Dakota area and presented two slide talks to local civic 
groups concerning River Basin Salvage Archeology. He also wrote 
an article, "Bibliography of Primary Sources for Radiocarbon Dates," 
in collaboration with Richard P. Wheeler, which was published in 
American Antiquity^ volume 24, No. 3. At the end of the year he was 
preparing to begin fieldwork in the Oahe Reservoir area early in the 
next fiscal year. 

Robert AV. Neuman, archeologist, in July participated in the ISi^th 
Plains Conference held in Pierre. During the time he was not in 
the field conducting excavations he spent a large portion of his time 
in analyzing materials and preparing reports of excavations con- 
ducted the previous two summers. September 29-October 3 he made 
a trip in company with Harry E. Weakly, who kindly contributed 
his time, to the Big Bend and Oahe Reservoir areas to collect dendro- 
chronological specimens. On November 27-28 he participated in the 
16th Plains Conference for Archeology, presenting a paper on "Arche- 
ological Investigations in the Fort Thompson Area." From Decem- 
ber 4 to 21 he was on temporary-detached duty with the National 
Park Service to conduct excavations at George Washington Carver 
National Monmnent. He submitted a fuial report on that work 
early in January. He prepared a report on "Representative Quill 
Flatteners from the Central United States," which was read in 
absentia at the Nebraska Academy of Sciences meeting in Lincoln 
on April 17, and which was published in abstract in the Proceedings 
of the Academy. From February 9 to June 29 he was transferred 
to the River Basin Surveys outside the Missouri Basin for work 
in the Chattahoochee River Basin. His activities there have been 
described in previous pages. At the end of the year he was back 
in the Lincoln office working on a report, nearing completion, on 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 35 

excavations in a series of mound sites in the Big Bend Reservoir 
area. 

G. Hubert Smith, archeologist, at the beginning of the fiscal year 
was on temporary-detached duty with the National Park Service, 
conducting excavations at Fort McHenry National Monument, in 
Baltimore, Md. He submitted a report on his findings in September. 
On October 1 he returned to duty with the Missouri Basin project 
and spent the period from then until February 9 compiling a com- 
prehensive report on several seasons' work at Site 32ML2, Forts 
Berthold I and II, and Like-a-Fishhook Village. This report will 
combine the findings of five archeologists during four seasons of 
work at this site in the Garrison Reservoir of North Dakota. In addi- 
tion there will be an ethnohistoric account of the site. In February 
he was transferred to the Chattahoochee Basin project where he 
remained until June 17, when he again returned to the Missouri Basin 
project. In November he attended the annual meetings of the Ameri- 
can Indian Ethnohistorical Conference and the American Anthropo- 
logical Association, held in Wasliington, D.C. At a symposium of 
the latter group he contributed a paper on "Interpretive Values of 
Archeological Evidence in Historical Research." During the year 
he had a previously written article entitled "Great Carrying Place" 
published in the Naturalist^ a quarterly publication of the Natural 
History Society of Minnesota. He prepared reviews of "The Indians 
of Quetico," by Emerson S. Coatsworth, for publication in the fall 
1958 issue of Ethnohistory^ and of "New Light on Old Fort Snel- 
ling," by John M. Callender, for publication in a future issue of 
Nebraska History. He also prepared a brief article describing 
the work at Fort McHenry and submitted it for publication in the 
Maryland Historical Magazine. At the end of the year he was again 
at work on the comprehensive report on Site 39ML2, Forts Berthold 
I and 11, and Like-a-Fishhook Village. 

Richard P. Wheeler, archeologist, when he was not in the field, 
devoted his time to analyses of materials and preparation of reports 
on sites excavated by him in past years. He completed the final draft 
of his manuscript, "The Stutsman Focus: An Aboriginal Culture 
Complex in the Jamestown Reservoir Area, North Dakota." He 
also completed the major portion of a draft of a manuscript entitled 
"Mounds and Earthworks in the Jamestown Reservoir Area of North 
Dakota" and of another entitled "Three Stratified Occupation Sites 
in the Oahe Dam and Reservoir Area, South Dakota." In July he 
participated in the 15i/^th Plains Conference held in Pierre, and in 
November attended the 16th Plains Conference for Archeology, held 
in Lincoln, presenting papers on "Investigations near Old Fort Ben- 
nett, Oahe Reservoir" and "Dendrochronology in the Central North- 



36 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

ern Plains," the latter in collaboration with Harry E. Weakly. In 
April he presented a paper at the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 
meeting entitled "Comments on 'Method and Theory in American Ar- 
cheology,' " which was published in abstract in the Proceedings of the 
Academy. On April 30 and May 1-2, he participated in the annual 
meetings of the Society for American Archaeology in Salt Lake City, 
Utah, and presented a paper entitled "The Middle Prehistoric Period 
in the Central Plains," wliich was published in abstract in the Ab- 
stracts of Papers of the 24th Annual Meeting of the Society for' 
American Archaeology. During the year he collaborated with 
Charles H. McNutt, as previously mentioned, in an article that was 
published in American Antiquity. On May 30 he terminated his em- 
ployment with the Missouri Basin project and transferred to the 
National Park Service, joining the Wetherill Mesa project at Mesa 
Verde National Park. 

COOPERATING INSTITUTIONS 

A number of institutions and agencies cooperated in the Inter- 
Agency Salvage Program in several areas throughout the United 
States. In addition to those previously mentioned in the sections on 
the Missouri Basin and the State of Kansas, there were 19 working 
under agreements with the National Park Service. The University of 
Georgia continued its investigations at the Hartwell Keservoir on the 
Tugaloo River and conducted excavations in the Oliver and Walter F. 
George projects on the Chattahoochee River. The University of Ken- 
tucky made surveys and did some digging in the Barkley Reservoir 
area on the Cumberland River and the Nolin Reservoir Basin on the 
Nolin River. The New Jersey Museum did salvage work on Tock's 
Island, N.J. The University of Michigan carried on investigations 
along the Saginaw River in Michigan. The State University of Iowa 
did survey and test digging at the Rathbun project on the Chariton 
River in Iowa. The University of Oklahoma did some further work 
at Fort Gibson on the Grand River and at the Oolagah Reservoir on the 
Verdigris River. The University of Texas continued its operations in 
the Ferrell's Bridge area on Cypress Creek in eastern Texas and in 
the Diablo Reservoir region along the Rio Grande. Texas Western 
University also worked in the Diablo district. The School of American 
Research continued its studies in the Navaho Reservoir area along the 
San Juan River in northern New Mexico, The University of Utah 
and the Museum of Northern Arizona completed surveys in the Glen 
Canyon Reservoir area on the Upper Colorado River and started a 
series of excavations in a number of sites. The University of Utah 
completed its investigation of the Flaming Gorge project, also on the 
Upper Colorado. The University of Arizona conducted investigations 
along the Gila River above the Painted Rocks Reservoir area. In 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 37 

California the University of Southern California completed a series of 
investigations at the Casitas Reservoir on Coyote Creek. The Univer- 
sity of California at Los Angeles excavated a site in the Terminus 
Eeservoir area on the Kaweah River. The University of California 
at Berkeley completed its excavations in the Trinity Reservoir Basin 
on the Trinity River, and San Francisco State College made studies 
at the Wliiskeytown project on the Upper Sacramento River. The 
University of Oregon continued operations in the John Day Reservoir 
in the Columbia River. The University of Washington completed its 
investigations in the Priest Rapids Reservoir area, also in the Columbia 
River, and the State College of Washington continued its excavations 
in the Ice Harbor Reservoir area on the Snake River. A number of 
local groups and institutions continued to assist on a voluntary basis. 
These mainly were in New York State, Ohio, Indiana, Tennessee, and 
southern California. 

ARCHIVES OF ETHNOLOGY 

The Bureau archives continued during the year under the custody 
of Mrs. Margaret C. Blaker. On June 8 Nicholas S. Hopkins entered 
on duty as a summer intern to assist in arranging and describing 
manuscript collections, and on June 15 Winfield H. Arneson, sum- 
mer intern, entered on duty to assist with photographic collections. 

The use of the manuscript collections by anthropologists and his- 
torical researchers continues to increase. Approximately 329 manu- 
scripts were consulted by 92 visitors to the archives, and an equal 
number were consulted by the archivist in preparing replies to 87 mail 
inquiries concerning the nature and extent of manuscript information 
on specific topics or tribes. There were 22 purchase orders for a total 
of 2,897 pages of manuscript reproductions. In the course of exami- 
nation, new and more detailed descriptions of about 50 manuscripts 
were prepared for the catalog, and a number of descriptive lists of 
manuscripts were prepared for distribution. 

An anonymous English-Arikara vocabulary in a homemade note- 
book of 48 pages, thought to have been recorded ca. 18G9-74 by an 
associate or acquaintance of Washington Matthews, was donated by 
Dr. John A. Pope of Washington, D.C. 

Scholars, publishers, and the general public have continued to draw 
heavily on the photographic collections of the Bureau as a source of 
illustration and documentation. There were a total of 504 written 
inquiries, purchase orders, and personal inquiries concerning photo- 
graphs, and 1,208 prints were distributed through purchase, gift, or 
exchange. As in previous years, a number of lists describing photo- 
graphs in the Bureau's collection were prepared for distribution. 



38 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

One hundred such lists relating to specific tribes and subjects are now 
available. 

The Bureau has been fortunate in receiving the cooperation of 
several collectors of photographs that have ethnological and histori- 
cal value. Some of the collectors lent their pictures for copying, 
while others gave their prints to the Bureau, thus insuring their pres- 
ervation and making them available to students. 

An important collection of over 115 negatives of Seminole Indians 
made by Charles Barney Cory, Sr., in Florida in the period 1877-95 
was lent by Mrs. Zelma Carolyn Cory of Homewood, 111., and 
Charles Barney Cory of Madison, 111., through Alan R. Sawyer of the 
Art Institute of Chicago. Enlarged prints from these negatives are 
on file for reference at the Bureau. In addition, a group of 28 origi- 
nal and postcard prints by various photographers, collected by 
Charles Barney Cory in Florida and in the West, and relating to the 
Seminole, Shoshoni, Bannock, Paiute, Dakota, and other western 
tribes, was lent by Mr. Sawyer for copying. 

A collection of 65 photographs of Seminole Indians, made by Wil- 
liam D. Boehmer, Dwight R. Gardin, and others, was lent for copying 
by William D. Boehmer, educational field agent, Seminole Indian 
Agency, Okeechobee, Fla. 

A series of 21 negatives, prints, and postcard reproductions relating 
to the Seminole Indians, made and collected by the photographer, 
C. N. Button, in the first decade of the 20th century, was lent for 
copying by Louis Capron, West Palm Beach, Fla., together with 4 
Seminole photographs made by Capron in the 1930's. 

A collection of 115 prints of Indians of the Dakota, Chippewa, 
Winnebago, Paiute, Crow, Apache, and other tribes, made by com- 
mercial photographers in the latter half of the 19th century, was 
donated by G. Hubert Smith of Lincoln, Nebr. In addition, several 
early stereographs of Minnesota Indian subjects were lent by him for 
copying. 

A microfilm of the South Dakota Historical Society's collection of 
about 400 photograpliic prints relating to Western Indian history and 
Indian wars, along with a transcript of the accompanying caption 
material, was made available to the Bureau, through the courtesy of 
James Tubbesing of Winchester, Va., who made the film. A ref- 
erence set of enlarged prints has been made of about 130 subjects se- 
lected from the series because they supplement or document photo- 
graphs already in the Bureau's collections. 

A series of commercial photographs, including 17 by H. Bueh- 
mann, Tucson, Arizona Territoiy, relating to the Apache Indians, 
and 9 by J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa., showing students at the Indian 
School at Carlisle, was received by transfer from the Department of 
Civil History, Smitlisonian Institution. 



SEVENTY-SIXTH AISHSTUAL REPORT 39 

A group of commercial photographs of Indians — including six out- 
door scenes made by F. A. Kinehart in 1900, relating to the Crow In- 
dians and showing details of costume and horse gear — was received 
as a gift from Henry G. K. Tyrell of Baltimore, Md., in memory of 
his father, Henry Grattan Tyrell. 

A reference set of 18 photographs of drawings by Charles-Alex- 
andre Lesueur, showing Indians and archeological sites sketched by 
Lesueur in the lower Mississippi Valley in the period 1816-37, was 
purchased from the studio of Victor Genetier in Paris. The original 
drawings are owned by the Museum of Natural History, Havre, 
France. 

Six portraits of the Creek chief Pleasant Porter, made at various 
dates from 1872 to 1905 and assembled by Kalph W. Goodwin of 
Cambridge, Mass., while writing a biography of the chief, were lent 
by Mr. Goodwin for copying. He also provided biographical and 
other background information on several photographs of Creek In- 
dians in the Bureau collections. 

Wliile examining the collections of Pawnee photographs at the 
Bureau, Stephen G. Gover of Weatherford, Okla., a member of the 
Pawnee tribe, supplied notes on a number of the photographs, in- 
cluding pronunciations and translations of personal names. Mr. 
Gover also lent for copying a photograph of the Pawnee chief. 
Crooked Hand, and another of Dog Chief, son of Crooked Hand. 

With the assistance of Cheyenne informants, Mrs. Margot Liberty 
of Birney, Mont., provided identifications and biographical notes for 
a number of portraits of Cheyenne Indians in the Bureau collections. 
Father Peter Powell of Chicago, 111., also furnished notes of this 
kind. 

The extensive collection of photographs of North American In- 
dians transferred to the Bureau from the Library of Congress last 
year has been sorted and arranged by tribe or area, and is now avail- 
able for reference. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

E. G. Schumacher, staff artist, prepared original illustrations and 
examined and approved or redrew other illustrations for the various 
Bureau publications that were being edited for printing. Among the 
subjects worked on during the year were Kansas archeology and 
archeological investigations in British Guiana, Mohave ethnopsychia- 
try and suicide, historic sites archeology on the Upper Missouri, and 
historic trading posts in North and South Dakota. In addition, a 
variety of scientific and tecluiical art work was completed for other 
branches of the Institution. 



40 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The Bureau's editorial work continued during the year under the 
immediate direction of Mrs. Eloise B. Edelen. There were issued 
one annual report and four bulletins, as follows : 

Seventy-fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ajnerican Ethnology, 1957-1958. 

ii+36 pp., 5 pis. 1959. 
Bulletin 168. The Native Brotherhoods: Modem intertribal organizations on 

the Northvrest coast, by Philip Druclser. iv+194 pp. 1958. 
Bulletin 169. River Basin Surveys Papers Nos. 9-14, Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., 
editor, ix+392 pp., 73 pis., 13 figs., 9 maps. 1958. 
No. 9. Archeological investigations in the Heart Butte Reservoir area, North 

Daliota, by Paul L. Cooper. 
No. 10. Archeological investigations at the Tuttle Creek Dam, Kansas, by 

Robert B. Cumming, Jr. 
No. 11. The Spain site (39LM301), a winter village in Fort Randall Res- 
ervoir, South Dakota, by Carlyle S. Smith and Roger T. Grange, Jr. 
No. 12. The Wilbanks site (9CK-5), Georgia, by William H. Sears. 
No. 13. Historic sites in and around the Jim Woodruff Reservoir area, 

Florida-Georgia, by Mark F. Boyd. 
No. 14. Six sites near the Chattahoochee River in the Jim Woodruff Res- 
ervoir area, Florida, by Ripley P. Bullen. 
Bulletin 170. Excavations at La Venta, Tabasco, 1955, by Philip Drucker, Robert 
F. Heizer, and Robert J. Squier. With appendixes by Jonas E. Gullberg, 
Garniss H. Curtis, and A. Starker Leopold, viii-f 312 pp., 63 pis., 82 figs. 1959. 
Bulletin 171. The North Alaskan Eskimo: A study in ecology and society, by 
Robert F. Spencer. vi-f490 pp., 9 pis., 2 figs., 4 maps. 1959. 

Publications distributed totaled 27,721, as compared with 28,131 
for the fiscal year 1958. 

COLLECTIONS 

The following collections were made by staff members of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology or of the River Basin Surveys and trans- 
ferred to the permanent collections of the Department of Anthro- 
pology, U.S. National Museum : 

FROM BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
Acc. No. 

224347. Archeological materials collected by Ralph S. Solecki, from Marshall 
County, W. Va., during December 1948 and January 1949. 

FROM RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

222362. Indian skeletal material from the Lake Spring site, Columbia County, 

Ga., collected by Dr. Joseph R. Caldwell. 
224546. Archeological material collected by Waldo R. Wedel, for the R.B.S., 

B.A.E., from Oahe Reservoir, Stanley County. S. Dak., during 1951. 
224549. Samples of rock, brick, burned-earth, etc., collected by Ralph S. Solecki, 

R.B.S., from Ross County, Ohio, on November 30, 1949. 



SEVENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 41 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Dr. John P. Harrington, Dr. A. J. Waring, and Dr. M. W. Stirling 
continued as research associates of the Bureau. Dr. Stirling used 
}he facilities of the Bureau laboratory in the preparation of final 
reports on collections made in previous years during field trips to 
Panama and Ecuador. 

Dr. Wallace L. Chafe, scientific linguist, joined the staff on April 
J, 1959. In addition to the two summer interns mentioned in the re- 
port of the archivist, the Bureau was fortunate in having the services 
)f Norma L. Hackelman, another summer intern, who assisted with 
ihe preparation and checking of bibliographies to be included in 
;he Bureau's most useful bibliography and information leaflet series. 
Dwing to the limited staff and heavy workload, there were issued only 
wo new bibliographies and one revised list for distribution to the 
Dublic, as follows: 

5IL-50, 2d rev., 9/58. "Selected list of portraits of prominent Indians in the 
collections of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 3 pp. 

5IL-174, 12/58. Selected references on the Indians of Southeastern North 
America. ( State index, pp. 12-14 ; musical recordings, p. 14 ; museum ex- 
hibits, pp. 14-16.) 16 pp. 

5IL-197, 11/58. Selected bibliography of maps relating to the American Indian. 
4 pp. 

There were 2,759 letters of inquiry about American Indians and 
, 'elated problems received in the Director's office alone during the 
rear. Information was furnished by staff members in answer to many 
)f the queries, and to others, information leaflets or other printed 
I tems were supplied. In addition to the printed bibliographies and 
nformation leaflets described above several such items w^ere compiled 
)n topics of a general or specific nature and typescript copies sent out 
n answer to the hmidreds of requests for this information. Several 
nanuscripts were read and appraised by staff members for colleagues 
md scientific organizations. Numerous specimens were identified for 
)wners and data supplied on them. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director. 

Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 
Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



I 



Seventy-seventh Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1959-1960 






v:i^.i 



perV 



y^ 



,«*> 






SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D.C. 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 







UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1961 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
June 30, 1960 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Anthropologists. — Henry B. Collins, William C. Sturtevant, 

Wallace L. Chafe. 
Research Associates. — John P. Harrington, Sister M. Inez 

HiLGER, Matthew W. Stirling, A. J. Waring, Jr. 
Archivist. — Mrs. Margaret C. Blaker. 
Scientific illustrator. — ^E. G. Schumacher. 
Administrative assistant. — Mrs. Jessie S. Shaw. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 
Chief, Missouri Basin Project. — Robert L. Stephenson. 
Archeologists. — Warren W. Caldwell, Harold A. Huscher, 
Carl F. Miller, Robert W. Neuman, G. Hubert Smith. 



I 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OP THE 
BUREAU OP AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1960, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of April 10, 1928, as amended 
August 22, 1949, which directs the Bureau "to continue independently 
or in cooperation anthropological researches among the American 
Indians and the natives of lands mider the jurisdiction or protection 
of the United States and the excavation and preservation of archeo- 
logic remains." 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director of the Bureau, devoted part 
of the year to general supervision of the activities of the Bureau and 
the River Basin Surveys. In July he inspected the work of excavat- 
ing parties operating in the Pomona Reservoir area in Kansas, the Big 
Bend and Oahe Reservoir areas in South Dakota, and a portion of the 
Oahe Basin in E'orth Dakota. Three of the parties were from co- 
operating agencies and three represented the River Basin Surveys. 
In addition, he visited two excavations that were not a part of the 
salvage program, one conducted by a University of Nebraska field 
party and the other by a group from the State Historical Society of 
Nebraska. Dr. Roberts was accompanied by Carroll Burroughs from 
the Branch of Archeology of the Washington office of the National 
Park Service and Dr. Robert L. Stephenson, Chief of the Missouri 
Basin Project of the River Basin Surveys. While at Pierre, S. Dak., 
they participated in an informal conference attended by leaders of 
all the parties working in the Plains during the summer, many of 
their student helpers, and representatives from various universities 
and museums in the area. Virtually every phase of Missouri Basin 
archeology was discussed. 

In November Dr. Roberts went to Lincoln, Nebr., where he reviewed 
the operations of the field headquarters and laboratory of the River 
Basin Surveys and took part in the sessions of the Plains Archeologi- 
cal Conference at the University of Nebraska. At Omaha he met with 
representatives of the Corps of Engineers and the Region Two Office 

1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

of the National Park Service to consider various problems pertaining 
to salvage operations in the Missouri Basin. 

During late December and early January Dr. Roberts represented 
the Bureau at the meetings of the American Anthropological Associ- 
ation in Mexico City. He also visited various museums and archeo- 
logical sites in the surrounding area. Late in January after his 
return to Washington he participated in the meetings of the Commit- 
tee for the Recovery of Archeological Remains held at the Depart- 
ment of the Interior. He presented a summary of the results of the 
activities of the River Basin Surveys during the preceding year and 
joined in the discussions pertaining to future plans for the Inter- 
Agency Archeological Salvage Program. 

In April Dr. Roberts went to Lincoln to inspect the operations of 
the Missouri Basin project office and met with representatives of 
Region Two of the National Park Service to consider the fiscal situ- 
ation and fieldwork to be carried on during the 1960 summer season. 
Dr. Roberts assisted in the preparation of budgets and plans for the 
various River Basin Surveys parties which were to be leaving Lincoln 
early in June. 

At the request of the National Park Service, Dr. Roberts was au- 
thorized to serve as a member of an advisory group for the Wetherill 
Mesa excavations at Mesa Verde National Park. He went to Mesa 
Verde late in May and with other members of the group inspected 
the work under way at two large cliff ruins and in the project labo- 
ratory. The group spent one day discussing various problems pertain- 
ing to the project and made a number of recommendations with respect 
to the continuance of the investigations. 

Dr. Roberts did the technical editing of a series of four reports on 
archeological excavations in three reservoir areas. They will appear 
as River Basin Surveys Papers Nos. 21-24 in Bulletin 179 of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Dr. Henry B. Collins, anthropologist, continued his Eskimo studies 
and other Arctic activities. He prepared an article on the native 
peoples of the Arctic for a forthcoming edition of the Encyclo'paedia 
Britannica^ and his paper on Eskimo art appeared in the first issue 
of Dartmouth College's new journal devoted to Polar research. In 
another paper, published in Current Anthropology^ he discussed recent 
archeological discoveries in Alaska and Siberia and assessed the roles 
of local culture growth, diffusion, trade, population movements, tradi- 
tion, and geographical patterning as causative factors involved in the 
development and continuity of prehistoric Eskimo culture in the 
Bering Strait area. 

Dr. Collins was elected to the Board of Governors of the Arctic 
Institute of North America for a 3-year term. He continued to serve 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 3 

as a member of two Arctic Institute committees: (1) the Publications 
Committee, which is responsible for preparation of the Institute's 
quarterly journal Arctic and its two series, Technical Papers and 
Special Publications, and (2) the Eesearch Committee, which plans 
the Institute's research program by passing upon grant applications, 
acting as a scientific advisory group for military agencies engaged 
in conduct of basic research in the Arctic and Antarctic, and planning 
programs of Polar research which the Institute administers for Gov- 
erinnent agencies and other organizations. 

He also continued to serve as chairman of the directing committee 
of the Arctic Bibliography, a comprehensive work prepared by the 
Arctic Institute of North America for the Department of Defense. 
The purpose of the bibliography is to provide a key to scientific publi- 
cations in the principal libraries of the United States and Canada 
relating to the Arctic and sub-Arctic areas and to low-temperature 
conditions, and to assemble and systematize this material so that it 
may be readily available to scientists and others concerned "with prob- 
lems of northern research and development. In continuation of this 
program. Volume 8 of Arctic Bibliography (1,281 pages) was issued 
by the Government Printing Office in September 1959. It summarizes 
and indexes the contents of 5,622 publications in all fields of science. 
Volume 9, containing abstracts of 7,192 publications, is in press, and 
work is in progress on Volume 10. Covering the entire range of scien- 
tific literature in all languages on the Arctic and subarctic regions of 
the world, the Arctic Bibliography to date has abstracted and indexed 
the contents of 56,278 publications relating to these areas and to low- 
temperature conditions. 

In July 1959 Dr. Collins submitted a proposal to the National 
Science Foundation for the Arctic Institute of North America to trans- 
late Russian anthropological publications relating to northern 
Eurasia. Much of the Soviet and earlier Russian anthropological 
literature, particularly that on the archeology, ethnology, and iDhysical 
anthropology of Siberia, has a direct bearing on problems of American 
anthropology. However, this Russian literature is not available to 
the great majority of English-speaking anthropologists. English 
translations of selected articles and monographs from Russian journals 
and series would begin to meet this long- felt need. In March 1960 
the National Science Foundation awarded a grant to the Arctic 
Institute for the translation project and the work began in April, 
under the direction of Dr. Henry N. Michael of Temple University. 
An advisory committee, of which Dr. Collins is chairman, selects 
materials for translation and advises on matters pertaining to the 
publication and distribution of the translations. The translations will 
be printed in an inexpensive format, as a special publication series of 
the Arctic Institute, and offered for sale at modest prices. 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

With tho support of grants from the American Philosophical So- 
ciety and the National Science Foundation, Dr. Collins left for Europe 
June 24 to make a comparative study of archeological materials in 
European museums and to attend the 34th International Congress of 

At the beginning of the fiscal year, Dr. William C. Sturtevant, 
Americanists in Vienna and the 6th International Congress of Anthro- 
l)ological and Ethnological Sciences in Paris. 

ethnologist, was concluding a period of fieldwork begun in Februarj'^ 
1959 among the Seminole Indians in Florida. Returning north, he 
spent July 8 in and aromid Charleston, S.C., where he examined 
several old Southeastern Indian specimens and a portrait of Osceola, 
the famous Seminole leader, in the Charleston Museum, visited Osce- 
ola's grave at nearby Fort Moultrie, and briefly investigated modern 
Gullah Negro basketmaking near Fort Moultrie. 

On his return to Washington, Dr. Sturtevant spent most of his 
time at work on the materials collected during his extended field trip 
in Florida. He also prepared a paper on the agriculture of the 16th- 
century Taino Indians of the West Indies, which he delivered at the 
58th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association 
in Mexico City in December. While in Mexico Dr. Stm'tevant visited 
the impressive Maya archeological site at Palenque and then spent 
four days observing the lacquer-making industry at Uruapan, Mi- 
choacan, and makmg a small collection illustrating this craft for 
the National Museum. 

In mid-November, Dr. Sturtevant spent two days at Newtown, 
Cattaraugus Reservation, New York, for the wake and funeral of 
Solon Jones, who was a leader of the Longhouse religion, a great 
expert on Seneca ceremonies, a well-known orator in Seneca, and in 
his younger days a famous lacrosse player. Mr. Jones will be greatly 
missed by his many Iroquois friends and coreligionists and also by 
anthropologists familiar with his community. 

Dr. Sturtevant attended the 12th Conference on Iroquois Research 
(Red House, N.Y,, in October), the annual meetings of the Associa- 
tion for Asian Studies (New York, in April), and the Society for 
American Archaeology (New Haven, in May). 

Dr. Wallace L. Chafe, linguist, was engaged in fieldwork on the 
Tonawanda Reservation in New York State during July, August, 
and early September. He collected material for the completion of 
a Seneca dictionary and recorded and transcribed several religious 
texts which are part of the Longhouse ceremonial pattern. This field- 
work was sponsored by the New York State Museum and Science 
Service in cooperation with the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Dr. Chafe served as chairman of the 12tli Conference on Iroquois 
Research, held at Red House, N.Y., October 16-18. 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

During the first three weeks of November Dr. Chafe traveled to 
North Dakota and Okhihoma to acquaint himself with the present 
number and location of speakers of the Caddoan languages. This 
language family includes Arikara, Pawnee, Wichita, and Caddo. He 
obtained estimates of the number of speakers of each language, col- 
lected word lists, and made lexicostatistic comparisons. The trip was 
made under a grant from the American Philosophical Society. 

He returned to North Dakota for the first three weeks of June to 
collect further material on the Arikara language. He obtained 
phonological, grammatical, and lexical data which will be used in 
a comparative study of the languages of the Caddoan family. 

Dr. Chafe published articles on the Seneca language in Language 
and the International Journal of American Linguistics. In March 
he completed an index of the journal Language for the years 1955-59. 
Under the auspices of the American Philosophical Society, he began 
work during the spring on a project designed to obtain estimates of 
the present number of speakers of each of the Indian languages of 
North America. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

The River Basm Surveys continued its participation in the Inter- 
Agency archeological and paleontological salvage program. Its ac- 
tivities were in areas to be flooded or otherwise destroyed by the 
construction of large dams. The work was carried on in cooperation 
with the National Park Service and the Bureau of Reclamation of the 
Department of the Interior, the Corps of Engineers of the Depart- 
ment of the Army, and a number of State and local institutions. The 
investigations during the fiscal year 1959-60 were supported by a 
transfer of $122,055 from the National Park Service to the Smith- 
sonian Institution. Of that sum, $98,055 was for use in the Missouri 
Basin and $24,000 for investigations along the Chattahoochee River 
in Alabama and Georgia. On July 1, 1959, the Missouri Basin Project 
had a carryover of $10,764, and that, with the new appropriation, pro- 
vided a total of $108,819 for the program in the Missouri Basin. The 
grand total of funds available for the River Basin Surveys for 1959- 
60 was $132,819. 

Activities in the field throughout the year were mainly concerned 
with excavations, although some limited surveys were carried on and 
one party made a series of studies of skeletal material in museums 
and laboratories throughout the Missouri Basin. Because of a reduc- 
tion in funds, fieldwork was more limited than in the previous year. 
On July 1, 1959, there were three excavating parties working in the 
Missouri Basin in South Dakota, and the mobile group was operating 
in Nebraska. One of the parties in South Dakota was digging sites 
in the Big Bend Reservoir area and the other two were working in 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the Oahe Reservoir area. The excavating parties completed their 
work and returned to the headquarters at Lincoln, Nebr., in August, 
while the mobile party finished its season on August 21, after having 
visited 22 institutions and 11 field camps in six Missouri Basin and 
three adjacent States. 

In December one small party made a brief trip to the Lewis and 
Clark Lake above the Gavins Point Dam to examine a site which was 
being destroyed by wave action. The same party also visited a mound 
group near Mitchell, S. Dak., where unauthorized digging had been 
reported. The cooperation of the owner was obtained to prevent fur- 
ther destruction of the site which is an exceptional one for that area. 
From Mitchell the party proceeded to the Big Bend Dam site and 
made an inspection of the construction activities then under way. A 
second party returned to the Lewis and Clark Lake in February and 
spent eight days salvaging materials from the site which had been 
examined in December. In addition to a member of the River Basin 
Surveys staff there was a representative from the Laboratory of An- 
thropology of the University of Nebraska. These men were assisted 
by the area engineer, the reservoir naturalist, and the reservoir man- 
ager. The cooperative effort produced materials which identified the 
site as being attributable to the Woodland cultures. Activities along 
the Chattahoochee River in Alabama-Georgia were resumed in Jan- 
uary when a survey-testing party began operations in the Walter F. 
George Reservoir area which continvied until mid-June when work 
was stopped and the head of the party returned to Lincoln, Nebr. 
Early in Jmie one party began excavations in the Big Bend Reservoir 
area near the dam axis and another started digging at a mound site 
near the North Dakota-South Dakota boundary in the Oahe Reservoir 
area. A third party began studies the latter part of the month at the 
site of historic Fort Sully north of Pierre in the Oahe Reservoir Basin. 
All three were continuing their investigations at the end of the fiscal 
year. 

As of June 30, 1960, the River Basin Surveys had carried on 
reconnaissance work or excavations in 255 reservoir basins located in 
29 States. In addition, four canal areas and two lock projects had 
also been investigated. The sites located during the years between 
1946, when the program started, and the close of the fiscal year total 
4,948, and of that number 1,154 were recommended for excavation or 
limited testing. Because of the large number of sites and the lack 
of sufficient time and funds for the work, complete excavation has 
not been possible in any but a few exceptionally small ones. For 
that reason, when the term "excavation" is used, it implies digging 
only as much of a site as is deemed necessary to obtain a good sample 
of the materials and information to be found there. 



i 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

Preliminary appraisal reports have been issued for most of the 
reservoir areas which were surveyed. In a few cases no archeological 
manifestations were noted and no general report was distributed. 
During the last fiscal year preliminary appraisal reports for the 
Oliver Dam, the Walter F. George Dam and Lock project, and the 
Columbia Dam and Lock project on the Chattahoochee River were 
muneographed and distributed. Since the beginning of the salvage 
program 188 such reports have been issued. The discrepancy between 
the number of reservoirs surveyed and that of the reports issued is due 
to the fact that in several cases a number of projects located within 
a single basin or sub-basin were covered in one report. 

By June 30, 1960, 487 sites in 54 reservoir areas located in 19 differ- 
ent States had been either tested or dug sufficiently to provide good 
information about them. The sites investigated range in age from 
those represting hunting and gathering cultures of about 10,000 years 
ago to early historic Indian village locations and the remains of fron- 
tier trading and Army posts of European origin. The results ob- 
tained from some of the excavations have been published in the 
Smitlisonian Institution Miscellaneous Collections, in Bulletins of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, and in various scientific journals 
and historical publications. During the year River Basin Surveys 
Papers Nos. 21-24, comprising Bulletin 179 of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology, were sent to the printer. The papers consist of a 
report on excavations in the Texarkana Reservoir Basin on the Sul- 
phur River in east Texas, the Coralville Reservoir area on the Des 
Moines River in Iowa, and two detailed accounts about work in vari- 
ous sites in the McNary Reservoir area on the Columbia River. The 
Texarkana report was written by Edward B. Jelks. The Coralville 
paper was prepared by Warren W. Caldwell and the McNary Reser- 
voir papers were the work of Joel L. Shiner and Douglas Osborne. 
The latter two round out and complete the data which were contained 
in Osborne's River Basin Surveys Paper No. 8, Bulletin 165, "Exca- 
vations in the McNary Reservoir Basin near Umatilla, Oregon." At 
the end of the year the editors were working on Carl F. Miller's 
manuscript which gives in detail the results of his excavations at the 
John H. Kerr Reservoir basin in the Roanoke River, Virginia-North 
Carolina. 

On June 30, 1960, the distribution of reservoir projects that had 
been surveyed for archeological remains was as follows : Alabama, 4 
Arkansas, 1; California, 20; Colorado, 24; Georgia, 8; Idaho, 11 
Illinois, 2; Iowa, 3; Kansas, 10; Kentucky, 2; Louisiana, 2; Minne 
sota, 1; Mississippi, 1; Montana, 15; Nebraska, 28; New Mexico, 1 
North Dakota, 13; Ohio, 2; Oklahoma, 7; Oregon, 27; Pennsylvania 
2; South Carolina, 1; South Dakota, 10; Tennessee, 4; Texas, 19 
Virginia, 2; Washington, 11; West Virginia, 3; Wyoming, 22. 

576912—61 2 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Excavations had been made or were under way in reservoir areas 
in Arkansas, 1; California, 5; Colorado, 1; Iowa, 1; Georgia, 7; 
Kansas, 5 ; Montana, 1 ; Nebraska, 1 ; New Mexico, 1 ; North Dakota, 
4; Oklahoma, 2; Oregon, 4; South Carolina, 2; South Dakota, 4; 
Texas, 7 ; Virginia, 1 ; Washington, 4 ; West Virginia, 1 ; Wyoming, 2. 
The preceding figures include only the work of Kiver Basin Surveys 
or that where there was direct cooperation between the Surveys and 
local institutions. The work done by State and local institutions 
under agreements with the National Park Service has not been in- 
cluded because complete information about them is not available in 
the River Basin Surveys office. 

The National Park Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Corps 
of Engineers and other Army personnel, and various State and local 
institutions contributed helpful cooperation throughout the year. 
Transportation and guides were provided by the Corps of Engineers 
for the reconnaissance in one of the reservoir areas, and invaluable 
help was received through the commanding officer at Fort Benning in 
Georgia who assigned certain Army personnel to assist in some of the 
activities in the portion of the Waiter F. George Reservoir Basin 
which lies in the Fort Benning Reservation. In addition, the Army 
Air Command at Lawson Field furnished a helicopter so that aerial 
photographs could be made of major archeological sites and current 
excavations, as well as the progTess in construction of both the Colum- 
bia Dam and Lock and the Walter F. George Dam and Lock. In 
the Missouri Basin the project engineers for the Oahe Reservoir pro- 
vided storage space for equipment and also space for temporary living 
accommodations. Mechanical equipment was lent in several instances 
by the construction agency, which accelerated both the stripping of 
the top soil from sites and the back-filling of trenches and test pits. 
The field personnel of all of the cooperating agencies assisted the 
party leaders from the River Basin Surveys in numerous ways and 
the relationship was excellent in all areas. Both in Washington and 
in the field the National Park Service continued to serve as the liaison 
between the various agencies. The Park Service also prepared the 
estimates and justifications for the funds needed to carry on the sal- 
vage program. Along the Chattahoochee River the Georgia Histor- 
ical Commission, the University of Georgia, and various local clubs 
and groups of citizens in both Alabama and Georgia assisted the leader 
of the River Basin Surveys party in many ways. 

General supervision of the program was carried on from the main 
office in Washington, while the activities in the J^Iissouri Basin con- 
tinued to operate from the field headquarters and laboratory at 
Lincoln, Nebr. The latter also provided equipment and office assist- 
ance for the Chattahoochee River project. The Lincoln laboratory 



I 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 9 

processed the materials collected by excavating parties in the Mis- 
souri Basin and also handled those from the Chattahoochee Basin. 

Washington office. — The main headquarters of the River Basin 
Surveys at the Bureau of American Ethnology continued throughout 
the year under the direction of Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. Carl 
F. Miller, archeologist, was based at that office and from time to time 
assisted the Director in some of the general administrative problems. 
Harold A. Huscher, archeologist, worked under the general super- 
vision of the Washington office but because of lack of space and labora- 
tory facilities continued to work at the field headquarters in Lincoln, 
Nebr. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Mr. Miller was occupied with 
the technical report on excavations which he previously conducted 
at the Hosterman Site in the Oahe Reservoir basin in South Dakota. 
In September he attended a conference on eastern archeology held 
at Ligonier, Pa., under the auspices of the Carnegie Museum of 
Pittsburgh and composed of a group of invited guests. The problems 
discussed were mainly concerned with the Paleo-Indian, Eastern 
Archaic, and Woodland cultures. In October Mr. Miller made a 
survey of the Sutton Reservoir area in West Virginia. In November 
he attended the Southeastern Archeological Conference held at Macon, 
Ga. He completed his report on the Hosterman Site in February. 
During April he made a survey of archeological sites along the Cow- 
pasture River in Bath County, Virginia, investigating a number of 
small rock mounds and several open sites. During the year Mr. 
Miller examined and reported on several collections of artifacts which 
were sent in from various areas in the East and Southeast. He also 
gave a number of talks before various groups and societies in the 
Washington area. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Mr. Huscher was in the Lincoln 
office working on maps, records, and collections from the Oliver Dam 
and Reservoir, the Columbia Dam and Lock, and the Walter F. George 
Dam and Lock in the Chattahoochee Basin between Alabama and 
Georgia. In July he attended a field conference held at Pierre, S. Dak. 
In November he went to Macon, Ga., and participated in the South- 
eastern Archeological Conference held there. On his return to 
Lincoln he attended the Plains Conference which was held at the 
University of Nebraska. His three appraisal reports on the Chatta- 
hoochee projects were completed in October, November, and December. 
They were processed at the Lincoln office and were distributed from 
the Washington office m April. In January Mr. Pluscher returned to 
the Alabama-Georgia area where he resumed his field investigations 
in the Walter F. George Reservoir area. He returned to Lincoln late 
in June and at the end of the fiscal year was on annual leave. 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Alahmna-Georgia. — From January 19 to June 13 a series of test 
excavations was carried on at 10 sites in the area to be flooded by the 
Walter F. George Dam and Lock project. Six of the sites were in 
Georgia and four in Alabama. Because the season was unusually wet, 
work was limited for much of the time to sites in the sandy bottoms. 
At each location a number of pits 10 feet square were sunk through 
the deposits to sterile subsoil. At one of the sites in Georgia the main 
occupation appeared to have been Early Mississippian, although there 
was a thin surface overlay of the late Creek potsherds. There were 
some indications that Weeden Island peoples had been there for a 
time, and in the bottom levels decomposed flints similar to those which 
occur in abundance on the Macon Plateau were present. The various 
materials from the site suggest a long period of occupation or several 
occupations at intervals covering a considerable span of years. At 
two of the Georgia sites there were large plowed-down mounds with 
indications of village areas. One of them presumably dates from the 
Archaic period, and the other, in addition to Archaic materials from 
levels below the mound, also gave evidence of Weeden Island affilia- 
tions. Several of the sites contained Woodland materials, and one of 
those in Alabama presumably was the location of the Yuchi village 
mentioned by William Bartram and Benjamin Hawkins in their re- 
ports on travels through the Creek country in the 18th century. Dur- 
ing the field season collections were made from a total of 48 sites, 26 of 
which had not been previously investigated. Field lots of specimens, 
most of which were excavated, numbering 1,680, were added to the 
previous 1,086 field lots collected in the 1958 and 1959 seasons. This 
makes a total of 2,766 field lots for the three seasons of investigations 
along the Chattahoochee. 

In addition to the work of the River Basin Surveys parties there 
were cooperative projects by the University of Georgia, the Univer- 
sity of Alabama, and Florida State University. At the end of the 
fiscal year the University of Georgia was excavating a large platform 
mound near Stark's Landing in Georgia. The University of Alabama 
was digging in a village site adjacent to a large mound near Upper 
Francis Landing in Alabama. The Florida State University party 
was beginning investigations at the Spanish Fort of Apalachicola and 
the adjacent aboriginal village near Holy Trinity, Ala. 

Missouri River Basin. — The Missouri Basin Project, for the four- 
teenth consecutive year, continued to operate from the field head- 
quarters and laboratory in Lincoln, Nebr. Dr. Robert L. Stephenson 
served as chief of the project throughout the year. Activities in- 
cluded surveys, excavations, analysis of materials, and reporting on 
results. During the summer months efforts were mainly concerned 
with excavations. Analyses and the preparation of reports received 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 11 

the major attention during the winter months. The special chronol- 
ogy program, begun two years ago, continued to receive attention 
throughout the year. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year the permanent staff, in addition 
to the chief, consisted of five archeologists, one administrative assist- 
ant, one clerk-stenographer, one part-time file clerk, one clerk-typist, 
one illustrator, one photographer, and three museum aides. Tem- 
porary employees included one cook and six crewmen. 

During the summer field season one archeologist and one physical 
anthropologist were temporarily added to the staff. During July, 11 
additional crewmen were employed. The temporary archeologist 
was terminated on August 28, and the temporary physical anthro- 
pologist on August 21. All field crewmen were terminated during 
the last week of August. 

On September 4, one permanent archeologist resigned to return to 
graduate school, and on May 27 one permanent archeologist resigned 
to join the staff at the University of Tennessee. On January 2, the 
clerk-typist resigned, and on February 5, the clerk-stenographer re- 
signed. On February 23, a clerk-stenographer joined the staff but 
resigned on April 1 and was replaced on May 2. The file clerk was 
transferred from part time to full time on June 27. The temporary 
cook was transferred to laboratory assistant on September 1 and to 
the permanent staff on January 2. During the period from April 2 
to June 1, one archeologist was lent to the National Park Service to 
conduct archeological excavations at Colonial National Historical 
Park, Yorktown, Va. 

At the end of the fiscal year there were three archeologists in addi- 
tion to the chief, one administrative assistant, one file clerk, one clerk- 
stenographer, one illustrator, one photographer, three museum aides, 
and one laboratory assistant on the permanent staff, and 12 crewmen 
on the temporary staff. 

During the year there were nine Smithsonian Institution River 
Basin Surveys field parties at work within the Missouri Basin. Two 
were in the Oahe Reservoir area, one in the Big Bend Reservoir area, 
and one (a mobile party) covered the Missouri Basin area in general 
during July and August. Two small parties made investigations 
during December and February in the Gavins Point Reservoir area. 
Two parties were excavating in the Oahe Reservoir area and one in 
the Big Bend Reservoir area during June. 

Other fieldwork in the Missouri Basin during the year included 
10 parties from State institutions operating under cooperative agi-ee- 
ments with the National Park Service and in cooperation with the 
Smithsonian Institution in the Inter- Agency Archeological Salvage 
Program. 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

lleduction of funds for fiscal year 19G0 necessitated a curtailment 
of field activities, in comparison with past years, and a shift in the 
methods of carrying on the salvage program. Despite the accom- 
plishments of previous years in salvaging archeological values from 
the many reservoir areas in the Missouri Basin, scores of sites still 
remain to be studied and the reservoirs are rapidly nearing comple- 
tion. The enforced reduction of activities presented a critical prob- 
lem. The shift, or readjustment, in methods of lieldwork seemed 
the only reasonable expedient to accomplish the mission set out for 
the Salvage Program. This was a shift from major excavation of 
key sites and sampling of nearby, related sites, to a mere sampling 
of both key and secondary sites. This change in emphasis will be 
satisfactory for at least two seasons because of the earlier work in 
these same areas when full-scale excavations were possible at a num- 
ber of key sites. There is a framework of information from exten- 
sively excavated sites against which the data from the newly sampled 
sites can be evaluated. There are, however, many major sites, outside 
the known cultural framework, that promise to provide an abundance 
of new information if excavated, but little or nothing if only sampled. 
Another year, these sites must be excavated or lost forever. The 
sampling approach, in the face of limited field activities, produced 
w^orthwhile results in the field seasons of 1959 and 1960. Full-scale 
excavations of key sites, though, must again be carried on in succeed- 
ing years. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year. Dr. Warren W. Caldwell and a 
crew of six were engaged in testing a scries of sites in the Big Bend 
Reservoir area. The specific locality was that of the construction area 
of the dam along the right bank of the Missouri Eiver in Lyman 
County, South Dakota, and extending upstream to the area of the old 
Lower Brule subagency, a distance of approximately 12 miles. Sam- 
pling investigations were made at 19 of the recorded sites in the area 
and two new sites were located, recorded, and tested. A variety of 
cultural manifestations is represented. 

The first group of these sites is located near the mouth of Good Sol- 
dier Creek in the area where the powerhouse and right abutment for 
the Big Bend dam is to be built. Site 39LM235 had been partially de- 
stroyed by landing-ramp construction but was extensively tested in the 
remaining portions. Site 39LM236 was inundated by extreme high 
water of the Fort Randall Reservoir and tests made in it in the latter 
part of the season, after the water had receded, again demonstrated the 
uselessness of working a site that had been flooded. Sites 39L1VI237 
and 39LM238 were examined with limited test pits. xVll four sites 
consisted of stratified concentrations of refuse material partially ex- 
posed in the cut bank along the river and creek. Very little artifact 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 1^ 

material was recovered this season and the results of the tests proved 
to be of small diagnostic value. The first three appear to have been 
sporadically occupied camping places. The fourth, the Good Soldier 
Creek site (39LIVI238), previously investigated, is a stratified site of 
Plains Woodland affiliation overlain by a Mississippian component. 

A series of six sites near the mouth of Comicelor Creek was investi- 
gated. Site 39LIVI240 was briefly tested and i^roved to be another 
sporadically occupied camp site with a few potsherds of the lona 
types suggesting occupation in the later ceramic period of circular 
earth lodges. Site 39LM234 was extensively tested with a series of 
10 test pits scattered through the multitude of hmnmocks and depres- 
sions on the surface. Results were disappointing but adequate to 
demonstrate that it was the location of a village of one of the late 
periods in the area. Sites 39LM88 and 39LM89, newly located in 
1959, and the Tom Rattler site (39LM'214:) were briefly tested with 
very little diagnostic material being recovered. The Useful Heart 
site (39LM6) was extensively tested. There a sterile mantle 3 to 4 
feet in depth covered the remains of a village of late circular houses 
related to the Stanley Focus. A lower level of occupation at a 
depth of 6.5 feet represented an earlier time level with pottery related 
to the Over Focus. 

The next group of sites upstream (39LM229, 230, 231, and 233) 
were all briefly tested with negative results and written off as small, 
sporadically occupied camp sites. A fifth site in this group, the Pretty 
Head site (39LIVI232) was not investigated as it was the location of 
a large village and is scheduled for more extensive excavation than 
time would allow in the 1959 season. It is the only site in that imme- 
diate vicinity where additional work is required. The next group 
upstream included site 3901217, where brief testing produced only 
scattered evidence of sporadic occupation, and four significantly 
productive sites. The School site (39LM216) was the remains of a 
large village of circular earth lodges and contained pottery of lona 
types. One house quadrant and several test trenches were excavated. 
The Crazy Bull site (39LM219) was another large village site of 
circular earth lodges and provided pottery of the lona, Stanley, and 
Talking Crow types. Half a house and several test trenches were exca- 
vated. Site 39LM220, likewise, had been a village of circular earth 
lodges and it yielded pottery predominantly of the lona types. There 
a half house and several test trenches were excavated. Site 39L1VI221 
was a group of three moderate-size burial mounds. Trenching in them 
uncovered burial pits, infant burials, and scattered human bones. The 
artifacts were not abundant but were sufficient to demonstrate a prob- 
able relationship of the site to the Truman Mound group (39BF224) 
excavated by Robert W. Neuman in 1958. Finally a brief investigation 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHJSIOLOGY 

of one feature was made at the Hickey Brothers site (39LM4), ex- 
cavated by Bernard Golden in 1958. There a probable rectangular 
house pattern was partially uncovered, but the data from the site still 
are inadequate for a convincing demonstration of the cultural group 
to which it belongs. 

In all, the Caldwell party examined 21 sites, of which 1 was a burial 
mound group, 1 was a large village probably of the rectangular house 
period, 4 were large villages of late circular earth lodges, 1 was a 
stratified village of rectangular earth lodges overlain by an occupa- 
tion of later, circular earth lodges, and 14 sites which were sporadi- 
cally occupied camps producing little diagnostic material. Except 
for the Pretty Head site (39LM232), all others in this area may now 
be written off as not requiring further investigation unless something 
new is uncovered in the course of construction of the Big Bend Dam. 
The Caldwell party terminated the season's work on August 6, after 
9 weeks in the field. 

The second River Basin Surveys party in the field at the beginning 
of the year was a team of physical anthropologists consisting of 
William M. Bass, 3d, and two assistants. They were engaged in a 
survey of human skeletal materials from all the reservoir areas in 
the Missouri Basin, as well as skeletal materials from other institu- 
tions and areas outside reservoirs for the purpose of bringing together 
data on all the presently extant Indian remains from the Plains area. 
They visited all the field camps, assisting in the excavation of burials 
where needed, and went to all the museums and other repositories of 
archeological materials in the general area. They took anthropometric 
measurements on the remains of over 2,000 individuals, studying 22 
institutional collections and visiting 11 field camps in Oklahoma, 
Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, South 
Dakota, and North Dakota. The analyses of the scores of measure- 
ments, both cranial and postcranial, taken on each of the 2,000 indi- 
viduals, will provide the first broad study of the physical character- 
istics of the Indians who occupied the prehistoric villages in the 
various reservoir areas in the Missouri Basin. With the data on the 
differences between the physical types, the archeologist will be in a 
much better position to understand the cultural movements of peoples 
between villages and village areas. This field party was materially 
assisted, through the kindness of Dr. Wilton K. Krogman, by a grant- 
in-aid to Bass from the University of Pennsylvania Child Growth 
and Development Center. The party completed its season on August 
21, after 9 weeks in the field. 

The third Eiver Basin Surveys field party of the 1959 season began 
work in the Little Bend area of Sully County, South Dakota, in the 
Oahe Reservoir, on Jul3'^ 2. It consisted of a crew of seven under the 



Secretary's Report I960 



Plate 1 




ssr*^ 




'$.' 



Bend area of the Oahe Reservoir, producing Stanley Ware pottery. Examples of architec- 
tural style, settlement pattern, and artifact materials can be obtained by a series of tests 
of this kind at each site. River Basin Surveys. 




2. Expanded test cxcaxaTion in edge of circular house at site J^SLIJ, in the Little Bend 
area of the Oahe Reservoir. Center of house is to right of picture. A leaner post of the 
house wall can be seen to right of menu board. Large excavated cache pit is shown in 
center of picture and an unexcavated cache pit appears as dark semicircle at left. River 
Basin Surveys. 



Secretary's Report I960 



PLATE 2 



,X 







*■' 



Ir 




1. Section of a large cedar {Juniperus) cut by a Missouri Basin Projcci-Sniithsonian 
Institution field party in 1958. The tree stood high on the bluffs overlooking the "Grand 
Detour," the great loop of the Missouri now called the Big Bend. The earliest annual ring 
dates from ca. A.D. 1770. This log provides a fine illustration of variable tree growth in 
response to varying rainfall. The drought years of the 1840's and the 1930's are plainly 
visible. River Basin Survevs. 




2. View of soil profile section in site 3Vlii'2, a aceply buried, niuliicomponent site in iIil- 
Big Bend Reservoir. Soil samples were taken from seven zones in this cut to assist in 
determining the geologic-climatic periods of the various occupations. River Basin Surveys. 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 15 

direction of Dr. Charles H. McNutt. This party, like that of Caldwell 
in the Big Bend Reservoir, spent the season making a series of small- 
scale test excavations in a large number of sites along a restricted 
urea of the Missouri River. The crew was supplemented in mid- 
season by 5 additional crewmen, making a total party of 12. Sample 
excavations were conducted at 18 of the 22 previously recorded sites 
in the Little Bend. The remaining four sites are of sufficient eleva- 
tion to remain above water and also appear to be of minor significance. 
in addition, 11 new sites were located and recorded but only one was 
of sufficient value to warrant testing and mapping. 

The uniformity of the cultural materials from the Little Bend is 
rather remarkable. Only two sites (39SL12 and 39SL13) provided 
any evidence of long-rectangular house villages, and that is only in 
tlie form of Thomas Riggs types of pottery. All the other sites had 
been small to large villages of circular earth lodges providing sherds 
of only two major classes of pottery, Russell Ware and Stanley Ware. 
House depressions in all sites are miiformly circular and are usually 
either ringed, shallow depressions, or unringed deep depressions. 
Russell Ware pottery occurs characteristically with the former and 
Stanley Ware pottery with the latter. The consistency of this asso- 
ciation is striking. Villages with ringed house depressions and Rus- 
sell Ware pottery were usually compact and consisted of 1 large 
(presmnably ceremonial) house and from 5 to 10 small (presumably 
domiciliary) houses. No fortifications were found in association with 
any of these villages. Villages with unringed, deep house depressions 
and Stanley Ware pottery were either compact or diffuse and may or 
may not have had a particularly large (ceremonial) house and a forti- 
fication ditch. Some historic material was found in three of the 
four sites of this type examined. The individual sites are summarized 
briefly. 

Site 39SL12 consists of the remains of a large ceremonial house 
and at least seven smaller houses located on a low, bench promontory. 
Threes midden heaps and three cache pits were tested and the site was 
mapped. No defensive ditch could be found. Pottery consisted of 
both Rus.sell Ware and Thomas Riggs Ware. Site 39SL13 is likewise 
situated on a low bench promontory and consists of some 40 house 
depressions, including 2 large ceremonial houses but no defensive 
ditch was located. There, 3 house depressions were tested, and 1 
midden heap, 10 cache pits, 2 fireplaces, and 8 other test pits excavated, 
and the site was mapped. Pottery consisted of Stanley Ware, Russell 
Ware, and Thomas Riggs Ware, and a few objects of historic origin 
were found. They are the only two sites in the Little Bend area that 
suggest occupation during the long, rectangular-house period. 

Site 39SL19, located on the floodplain, was a compact village with 
deep depressions surrounded by a semicircular fortification ditch. 

576912—61 3 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Tests were made in one midden heap, a cache pit, and eight other test 
pits, and the site was mapped. An extensive sample of Stanley Ware 
pottery was obtained. Site 39SL3, located on a low terrace, was a 
compact area of 26 house depressions but no evidence of a fortification 
ditcli or large ceremonial house. Four houses were tested and three 
cache pits, thi-ee fireplaces, and a burial were excavated. The site 
was mapped. Pottery was of the Stanley Ware and some historic 
objects were recovered. Site 39SL28, located on the low brush prom- 
ontory just east of 39SL12, consisted of one large ceremonial house 
depre^ion and at least seven other smaller house depressions. One 
house was tested, four middens and two cache pits w^ere excavated, 
and the site was mapped. Stanley Ware pottery predominated in 
the collections but some Russell Ware was also fomid. These three 
sites and the one multicomponent site listed in the Thomas Riggs 
group above were the only sites with a predominance of Stanley Ware 
pottery. 

At the following sites Russell Ware pottery predominated. Site 
39SL8, situated on a low terrace, represents a diffuse village of 
nmnerous house depressions. Three houses were tested, and one 
midden, three cache pits, one fireplace, and one t«st pit were excavated, 
and the site was mapped. Site 39SL30 consisted of two very shallow 
house depressions on a low terrace promontory. One house was 
tested, and two middens and a fireplace were excavated. A map was 
made of the site. Site 39SL24 was a small, compact village contain- 
ing one large ceremonial house depression and at least five smaller 
depressions located on the low terrace above the floodplain. Four 
houses were tested, a midden, a fireplace, and a cache pit were exca- 
vated, and the site was mapped. Site 39SL202, the remains of 
another village situated on a low terrace above the floodplain, con- 
sisted of two rather large, ringed house depre^ions. Both houses 
were tested, two middens, and two fireplaces were excavated, and the 
site was mapped. Site 39SL36 contained only one very faint house 
depression on a high (or second) terrace and a small rock cairn. 
The house was tested, four middens and a fireplace were excavated, 
and the site was mapped. It was a small, poor site but some addi- 
tional house depressions may have been present. Site 39SL50, newl}-^ 
located in 1959, consisted of two shallow house depressions on a small 
terrace promontory. One house was tested, a midden and a test pit 
were excavated, and the site was mapped. It was a small, unpro- 
ductive site. Site 39SL23 consisted of a large ceremonial house 
depression and 17 smaller house depressions located on a high (or 
second) terrace above the floodplam. A considerable quantity of 
collared rim sherds were present in the collections. Three houses 
were tested, a midden, four cache pits, and two test pits were exca- 
vated, and the site was maj^ped. Site 39SL21 was a single house 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 17 

depression and two rock cairns located on the high terrace. Tests of 
cairns ware negative. The house was tested, two cache pits, a fire- 
place, and two test pits were excavated, and the site was mapped. 
Site 39SL22 was a large ceremonial house depression and three smaller 
depressions situated on the high terrace. One house was tested, two 
cache pits, a fireplace, and two test pits were excavated, and the site 
was mapped. Site 39SL20, consisting of two faint house depressions 
on the lower terrace, was a small site and not very productive. One 
house w\as tested, a midden, a cache pit, and two fireplaces were 
excavated, and the site was mapped. Site 39SL17 contained a large 
ceremonial house and six smaller depressions on the high terrace. 
Three houses were tested, two cache pits, a fireplace, and a test pit 
were excavated, and the site was mapped. Site 39SL16 was com- 
posed of three shallow house depressions and several other irregular 
depressions situated on the high terrace. Two houses were tested, a 
cache pit and a fireplace were excavated, and the site was mapped. 
This was a small and unproductive site. Site 39SL14 contained two 
house depressions on the high terrace adjacent to Site 39SL13. Both 
houses were tested, a midden was excavated, and the site was mapped. 
Site 39SL34, a single house depression on the high terrace and a part 
of the 39SL13 and 14 complex, was not productive. The house was 
tested, a midden was excavated, and the site was mapped. 

Ten sites, newly located in 1959, consisted of only minor-find spots 
of specimens, random fire hearths, cache pits, and similar isolated 
features. None is of enough significance to warrant further attention, 
though surface collections and/or minor tests were made in all of 
them. These sites are 39SL47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, and 57. 
Likewise, site 39SL25 was examined and written off as of no further 
interest. Thus by the end of the season tests had been made to pro- 
vide architectural details for 36 circular earth lodges in 17 separate 
sites and excavations had been conducted in 25 middens, 33 cache pits, 
1 6 fireplaces, and 26 random test pits. One burial was recovered and 
19 sites were mapped. Houses were consistently tested by excavat- 
ing a trapezoidal area on the depression edge with the base of the 
trapezoid (10-25 feet wide) just outside the house ring and the smaller 
base (5-10 feet) near the center. This gave maximal coverage of the 
house periphery. In many cases these tests were extended to the 
central fireplace, and where the wall post pattern seemed unsatisfac- 
tory the outer edge of the trapezoid was extended. The McNutt party 
completed its season's work on August 29, after 81/^ weeks in the field. 

The fourth Eiver Basin Surveys party for the 1959 season was 
directed by Dr. Alfred W. Bowers. This crew of five began intensive 
excavations at the Anton Rygh site (39CA4), in Campbell County, 
South Dakota, on July 13, and continuing the investigations that were 



18 BUIJKAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

carried on by Dr. Bowers during the previous two suinmers. The 
objective for this final season was the excavation of portions of the 
early, long-rectangular house component that underlay at least three 
later occupations of circular earth-lodge villages. This objective was 
only partially achieved. Portions of a rectangular house wall were 
uncovered, and a substantial series of early ceramic types of the 
Thomas Iliggs-Huif sequence was collected. In addition to this, a 
major contribution to an understanding of this type of prehistoric 
site was made in the excavation of a sequence of fortifications and 
defensive structures especially equipped with bastions and "strong 
points." Two distinctive fortification systems separated by 4 to 5 feet 
of fill were identified. The upper one is associated with late Alaska 
material and represents one style of fortification in use in earliest 
historic times. The lower system is associated with the Thomas 
Eiggs-Lower Fort Yates material of the rectangular house period of 
seven or eight centuries ago. The Bowers party completed its season's 
work on August 22, after six weeks in the field. 

Two Missouri Basin Project field parties were in operation for brief 
periods during the winter months. In response to notification by the 
area engineer at Gavins Point Dam that an archeological site was 
being destroyed by wave action at Lewis and Clark Lake, Kobert W. 
Neuman visited the site in company with Corps of Engineers person- 
nel during the period December 2-5. Brief testing of the Miller 
Creek site (25KX15) demonstrated that it was a campsite of the period 
prior to the sedentary earth-lodge villages in the area and may be of 
considerable significance when excavated later in conjunction with 
jjroposed bank stabilization work by the Corps of Engineers. The 
fine cooperation of the Corps of Engineers staff was most helpful in 
this project. In addition to work at the Miller Creek site, Neuman 
visited a burial-mound group near Mitchell, S. Dak., where unauthor- 
ized digging had been reported, and found that one of the mounds had 
been destroyed. The landowner agreed to allow no further unauthor- 
ized excavation there. The trip was completed with a brief survey of 
the construction activities at the Big Bend Dam. 

The second wintertime field party in the Missouri Basin also went to 
the Miller Creek site (25KX15). This was a cooperative project 
between the River Basin Surveys, the University of Nebraska I>abora- 
tory of Anthropology, and the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, at the 
Gavins Point Dam. The area engineer advised that bank-stabilization 
work vrould begin in the area of this site the week of February 15. 
During the period February 12-20, Robert W. Neuman, of the River 
Basin Surveys staff, and Thomas A. Witty, of the University of 
Nebraska Laboratory of Anthropology, excavated a portion of the 
site. They were assisted by the area engineer, the reservoir naturalist, 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 19 

and the reservoir manager of the Gavins Point Dam. The Laboratory 
of Anthropology provided a part of the field expenses. This is another 
example of the outstandingly line cooperation between various Federal 
and State agencies in the Inter-Agency Archeological Salvage Pro- 
gram. The ^liller Creek site, on the right bank of Miller Creek at its 
confluence with the Missouri River in Knox County, Nebraska, is a 
prehistoric Indian campsite exposed at a depth of from 3 to 6 feet 
below the surface. Test trenches revealed a moderate quantity of arti- 
facts including chopping tools, projectile points with and ^dthout side 
notches, and a few pottery fragments. The material relates the site to 
the> Woodland cultures. In addition, a day was spent at a site on the 
South Dakota side of Lewis and Clark Lake, collecting some deeply 
buried bison bones that appear to be of an extinct species. 

The 1960 summer field season in the Missouri Basin began in the Big- 
Bend Reservoir area on June 8. Dr. Warren W. Caldwell and the 
party under his direction, prevented by heavy rains and unexpected 
high water from reaching its primary objective of sites in Old Arm- 
strong County, Oahe Reservoir, temporarily transferred their activ- 
ities for the early part of the season to the area about the mouth of 
Medicine Creek in Lyman County, South Dakota. By the end of the 
fiscal year Caldwell had a crew of eight men, and excavations were well 
underway at Sites 39LM222 and 39LM224, two small earth-lodge vil- 
lages briefly tested in the 1959 season. 

The second Missouri Basin Project field party starting work in June 
was under the direction of Robert W. Neuman. It was engaged in the 
excavation of a burial-mound site near the North Dakota-South 
Dakota State line, in the Oahe Reservoir area, Sioux County. North 
Dakota. This site, the Boundai-y Mound group (32SI1), consists of 
several burial mounds of the Plains Woodland period, and is one of 
the extensive series of Woodland mound sites in the Oahe Reservoir 
area scheduled for excavation by this party during the 1960 season. 
By the end of the year excavations at this site were nearly completed. 
Mr. Neuman and his crew of six men had cut extensive trenches across 
three of the mounds and had dug several test pits in other parts of the 
site. 

The third Missouri Basin Project field party at work in Jime was 
a crew of three under the direction of G. Hubert Smith in the Oahe 
Reservoir area. This historic-sites party planned to begin digging on 
June 23 at the site of old Fort Bennett' (39ST26) in Stanley County, 
South Dakota. When it reached that location, however, it found most 
of it already under water and a change was necessary. The party 
moved to Fort Sully (39SL45) in Sully County on the other side of 
the Missouri River, and on June 28 started an investigation of the 
foundations and refuse dumps at that historic military post in order to 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

verify several ground plans of the post and gather a representative 
series of specimen materials of the period. 

Cooperating institutions working in the Missouri Basin at the begin- 
ning of the fiscal year included a party from the University of Kansas, 
directed by Dr. Carlyle S. Smith, excavating at the Strieker Village 
site (39LM1) in the Big Bend Keservoir and testing two nearby sites, 
39Lj\f226 and 39I.M227; a joint party from the University of North 
Dakota and the State Historical Society of North Dakota, directed by 
Dr. Jain^s II. Howard, excavating at the HufF site (32M011) in the 
Oahe Eescrvoir area ; and two parties from the University of Missouri, 
directed by Dr. Ca.^.F. Chapman, excavating a series of sites in the 
Pomme de Terre Reservoir area and making preliminary surveys in 
the Kassinger Bluff Reservoir area of west-central Missouri. In July 
and August, a party from the Kansas State Historical Society, under 
the direction of Roscoe Wilmeth, excavated one site and tested three 
others in the Pomona Reservoir area of east-central Kansas. In 
October a party from the University of South Dakota, directed by 
William Buckles, excavated a cemetery area at the Four Bears site 
(39DW2) in the Oahe Reservoir area of South Dakota. In April the 
Nebraska State Historical Society had a party, under the direction of 
Marvin F. Kivett, surveying sites in the Red "Willow Reservoir in 
southwestern Nebraska. At the end of the fiscal year, four cooperating 
institutions had archeological crews in the field: The State Histor- 
ical Society of North Dakota, at the Huff site (321M011) in the Oahe 
Reservoir area, under the direction of W. Raymond Wood ; the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska, at the Leavenworth site (39C09) in the Oahe 
Reservoir area, directed by Dr. Preston Holder; the University of 
Missouri, surveying and testing sites in the Kassinger Bluff Reservoir 
area, directed by Dr. Carl F. Chapman ; and the Kansas State Histor- 
ical Society, in the Wilson Resei-voir area in central Kansas, directed 
by Roscoe Wilmeth. All these parties were operating through agree- 
ments with the National Park Service and were cooperating in the 
Smithsonian Institution research program. 

During the time that the archeologists were not in the field, they 
were engaged in analysis of their materials and in laboratory and 
library research. They also prepared manuscripts of technical, 
scientific reports and wi'ote articles and papers of a more popular 
nature. 

The Missouri Basin Chronology Program, started by the staff 
archeologists of the Missouri Basin Project in January of 1958, and 
described in the Seventy-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, continued to operate throughout the year. The 
program has continued to have marked success and the entire group 
of 34 individuals and 20 research institutions has continued to co- 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 21 

operate in assembling data, under the general direction of the Missouri 
Basin Project staff members. Studies by Dr. Paul B. Sears of Yale 
University on the pollen samples collected last year have continued 
to progress, and at least one profile is being verified. Another group 
of 11 radioactive carbon-14: samples has been submitted to the Uni- 
versity of Michigan Memorial Phoenix Laboratory, under the direc- 
tion of Professor H. R. Crane, to add to the 11 dates already obtained 
on carbon-14: specimens. Plans for full-time participation by a dendro- 
chronologist made little headway during the year but look promising 
for next year. On a part-time basis, the dendrochronologist, Harry 
E. Weakley, continued to prepare materials for study. Alan H. 
Coogan, though no longer a member of the River Basin Surveys staff, 
continued his studies of the geologic-climatic aspects of the chronology 
of the terrace-situated sites in the Fort Thompson region of the Big 
Bend Reservoir area. The 11 radiocarbon dates already ol^ined in 
the ISIissouri Basin Chronology Program are given in their relative 
temporal positions in table 1. The dendrochronological material is 
illustrated in plate 2, figure 1, and the soil profile of a site near Fort 
Thompson, S. Dak., is shown in plate 2, figure 2, to illustrate the 
geologic-climatic approach to the dating of archeological materials. 

The laboratory and office staff spent its full effort during the year 
in processing specimen materials for study, photogi-apliing and il- 
lustrating specimens, preparing specimen records, and typing, filing, 
and illustrating records and manuscript materials. The accomplish- 
ments of the laboratory and office staff are listed in tables 2 and 3. 

As of June 30, 1960, the Missouri Basin Project laboratory had 
cataloged 1,219,563 specimens from 2,097 numbered sites and 58 col- 
lections not assigned site numbers in the 14 years of its operation. It 
may be noted in table 2 that considerable material from the Chatta- 
hoochee River Basin was processed in the Missouri Basin Project 
laboratory this year. This reflects collaboration for expediency and 
economy between the archeological investigations outside the Mis- 
souri River Basin and the facilities for Avork within the Missouri Basin 
and constitutes a major contribution to the effectiveness of the salvage 
program in the southeastern United States. In addition to the 
processing of these specimens, the Missouri Basin Project facilities 
were utilized for a portion of the year in the preparation of maps, 
illustrations, and the three mimeographed appraisal reports resulting 
from the work in the Chattahoochee Basin last year. Without the 
aid of the Missouri Basin Project facilities these researches would 
not have progressed so rapidly. 

The Missouri Basin Project staff archeologists and archeologists of 
the National Park Service aud the cooperating State agencies working 
in the Missouri Basin met on July 24 in a roundtable field conference 



22 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



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SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 
Table 2. — Specimens processed July 1, 1969-June SO, 1960 



23 



Reservoir 



Number of 

sites 



Catalog num- 
bers assigned 



Number of 
specimens 
processed 



MISSOURI BASIN PROJECT 



Big Bend 


17 
1 

50 
3 


404 

7 

5, 098 

9 


1,357 


Fort Randall . 


20 


Oahe _. - 


43, 437 


Sites not in reservoirs _ ._ 


26 






Collections not assigned site numbers 


71 
3 


5,518 
5 


44, 840 
5 


Total __ _ _ 




5, 523 


44, 845 









CHATTAHOOCHEE BASIN 



Columbia Dam _ _ 


33 

282 

11 

2 


4,053 

5, 170 

128 

83 


30, 161 


Walter F. George. -_ 


65, 779 


Oliver __ _ 


2,968 


Sites not in reservoirs _ 


1,254 






Collections not assigned site numbers 


328 
1 


9,434 
29 


100, 162 
138 


Total... ._ 




9,463 


100, 300 








Combined totals 


399 


14, 986 


145, 145 







Table 3. — Record material processed July 1, 1959-June SO, 1960 

MISSOURI BASIN PROJECT 

Reflex copies of records 10, 299 

Photographic negatives made 1, 781 

Photographic prints made 9, 945 

Photographic prints mounted and filed 3, 654 

Transparencies mounted in glass 283 

Kodachrome pictures taken 454 

69 

50 

44 

37 

36 



Plate layouts made for manuscripts. 
Cartographic tracings and draftings- 
Artifacts sketched 

Plates lettered 

Profiles drawn 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

in Pierre, S. Dak. This 16l^th Plains Conference, now a regular sum- 
mer event, and an adjunct of the annual autumnal Plains Conferences, 
was devoted to discussions of basic technical problems arising from 
current field activities. They centered principally around the se- 
quences of cultural groupings in this area and the interrelationships 
between the several cultural manifestations represented by excavated 
materials. During the Thanksgiving weekend, membere of the staff 
participated in the I7th Plains Conference for Archeology, held in 
Lincoln. On April 23, members of the staff took part in the Seven- 
tieth Annual Meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, held also 
in Lincoln. 

Dr. Kobert L. Stephenson, chief, devoted considerable time to 
managing the office and laboratory in Lincoln and preparing plans 
and budgets for the 1960 field season. He also worked on a summary 
report of the Missouri Basin Salvage Program for the calendar years 
1952-60, and on a complete revision of a large technical monograph, 
"The Accokeek Creek Site : A Middle Atlantic Seaboard Culture Se- 
quence," previously accepted as his doctoral dissertation at the Uni- 
versity of Michigan. He began preparation of an article, "Adminis- 
tration in Anthropology," and started preliminary analysis of the 
materials he recovered from the excavations at the Sully site (39SL4) 
in the Oahe Keservoir in 1956 to 1958. He also continued writing on 
the manuscript reporting the "Archeological Investigations in the 
Wliitney Reservoir, Texas." Throughout the year he served as chair- 
man of the Missouri Basin Chronology Program. In July he served 
as chairman of the 16i/2th Plains Conference held in Pierre, S. Dak,, 
and during the Thanksgiving weekend served as general chairman for 
the l7th Plains Conference held in Lincoln, Nebr. He was a panel dis- 
cussant for "The Texas Panhandle and the Southwest" in the session 
on "Plains-Southwest Relationships," and i^resented an exhibit of 
"The History of the Plains Conference" at that meeting. On Janu- 
ary 20 and 21, he participated in the annual meeting of the Committee 
for the Recovery of Archeological Remains, held in Washington, D.C., 
and on April 23, he attended the Seventieth Annual Meeting of the 
Nebraska Academy of Sciences in Lincoln, presenting a paper on "A 
Ceramic Dichotomy" which was published in abstract in the Proceed- 
ings of the Nehraska Academy of Sciences. During the year he pre- 
pared a book review of "The Cougar ISIountain Cave," by John Cowles, 
for publication in American Antiquity.^ and a book review of "Arche- 
ology of Coastal North Carolina," by William Haag, for publication 
in Ethnohistory. He also gave nine talks on various aspects of Mis- 
souri Basin Salvage Archeology at the regular meetings of local civic 
organizations and three talks to local school groups in Lincoln. On 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 25 

March 1, he became assistant editor of Notes and News in the Plains 
Area, for Aiimrican Antiquity, and on April 29, was appointed asso- 
ciate editor for the Plains Anthropologist. Taking annual leave, he 
served as part-time assistant professor of anthropology on the faculty 
of the University of Nebraska during the second semester of the aca- 
demic year (February to June) and taught an upper-division course, 
"Prehistory of North America." 

Dr. Warren W. Caldwell, archeologist, when not in charge of field 
parties, devoted most of his time to analyses of specimen materials he 
had recovered from salvage excavations in previous years. He com- 
pleted preliminary analysis of the ceramics and certain other artifacts 
from the Black Partizan site (39LM218) which he excavated in the 
Big Bend Reservoir in 1958. He reanalyzed the artifacts and data 
from the Hickey Brothers site (39LM4), excavated by Bernard 
Golden of the Missouri Basin Project staff in 1958, and in collabora- 
tion with Lee G. Madison and Bernard Golden completed the final 
manuscript, including figures and illustrations, "Archeological In- 
vestigations at the Hickey Brothers Site (39LM4), Big Bend Reser- 
voir, South Dakota." He reanalyzed the artifacts and stratigraphic 
data from the Wakemap Mound site (45KL26), and prepared intro- 
ductory chapters for the final report on the excavations there; com- 
pleted the final revision of the report, "Archeological Investigations 
in the Hell's Canyon Area, Snake River, Oregon and Idaho" ; revised 
and completed the manuscripts and illustrations for a popular photo- 
graphic booklet, "Lewis and Clark Lake," which was published by the 
Corps of Engineers, U.S. Department of the Army, Omaha, Nebr., in 
January. In collaboration with Charles H. McNutt and G. Hubert 
Smith, he contributed chapters to, edited, and completed final revision 
of a similar popular booklet, "Fort Randall Reservoir." The latter 
was submitted to the Corps of Engineers in Omaha for publication. 
He revised three manuscripts of short articles pertaining to firearms 
in the Plains: "Preliminary Notes on Fragments of Firearms and 
Related Objects from Fort Atkinson, 1820-1827," "Firearms and 
Related Materials from Fort Pierre II (39ST217), Oahe Reservoir, 
South Dakota," and "Comments on the 'English Pattern' Trade 
Rifle." They were submitted for publication in the Missouri Arche- 
ologist. Other manuscripts and publications completed by him this 
year were: "The Black Partizan Site, A Preliminary Anaylsis," 
accepted for publication in the Plains Anthropologist ; review of 
"Stone Age on the Columbia," by Emory Strong, accepted for pub- 
lication in Archeology ; review of "Archeological Explorations in 
Central and South Idaho, 1958," by Earl H. Swanson, Jr., Donald 
R. Tuohy, and Alan Bryan, accepted for publication in American 
Antiquity; "Pacific Coast Clay Figurines: A Contra view," published 



26 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

in the Davidson Journal of Anthropology^ vol. 3, No. 2 ; and a mimeo- 
graphed statement issued by the Missouri Basin Project, "Missouri 
Basin Project, Progress Report No. 4." On July 24, he participated 
in the 16i^th Plains Conference in Pierre, S. Dak., and November 
26-28 attended the iTth Plains Conference for Archeology in Lincoln, 
where he served as chairman of the session on "Field Reports" and 
presented a paper, "Excavations in the Lower Brule-Good Soldier 
Creek Area, Big Bend Reservoir." On April 23 he presented a 
paper, "Clay Figurines in the Prehistory of the Northwest," before 
the Nebraska Academy of Sciences in Lincoln. It was published in 
abstract in the Proceedings of the Academy. During the year he 
continued to serve as chairman of the dendrochronology section of 
the Missouri Basin Chronology Program. In February, he accepted 
appointment as collaborator for the Plains area for Abstracts of Neio 
World Archeology, and in April accepted appointment as assistant 
editor for Reviews and Literature for the Plains Anthropologist. In 
March he addressed the Sigma Gamma Epsilon, national earth- 
sciences honorary, on "The Smithsonian Institution and the Archeo- 
logical Salvage Program." On annual-leave time, he served as part- 
time assistant professor of anthropology on the faculty of the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska during the second semester of the academic year 
(February to June) and taught a lower-division course, "The Amer- 
ican Indian." 

Dr. Charles H. McNutt, archeologist, when not in the field conduct- 
ing archeological excavations, spent much of his time in studying 
materials he had obtained in previous seasons and in the preparation 
of reports on the results of those excavations. He attended and par- 
ticipated in the 16i/^th Plains Conference in Pierre in July, and the 
l7th Plains Conference for Archeology in Lincoln in November. At 
the latter he presented two papers, "The Thomas Riggs Focus, Addi- 
tional Data" and "Comments on Two Southwestern Pottery Types." 
In April he attended the Seventieth Annual Meeting of the Nebraska 
Academy of Sciences and presented a paper, "Comments on Prehis- 
toric Contacts between the Southwestern United States and the Areas 
to the East." It was published in abstract in the Proceedings of the 
Academy. In September he prepared an article, "The Missouri Basin 
Chronology Program," which appeared in the Progress Report of 
the Interior Missouri Basin Field Committee for October-December 
1959. In January he collaborated with Warren W. Caldwell and 
G. Hubert Smith in the preparation of a popular photographic book- 
let, "Fort Randall Reservoir," to be published by the Corps of Engi- 
neers, Omaha. Throughout the year he served as chairman of the 
carbon-14 section of the Missouri Basin Chronology Program. Dur- 
ing the course of the year he completed manuscripts on "The Okobojo 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 27 

Creek Site (39SL9), Oalie Reservoir," "The Ziltener Site (39SL10), 
Oahe Reservoir," "The Nolz Site (39SL40), Oahe Reservoir," and 
"The Glasshoff Site (3981^2), Oahe Reservoir." He also completed 
the final draft of the report, "The C. B. Smith Site (39SL29), Oahe 
Reservoir." All five of these are now ready for publication. In 
addition, he compeleted the artifact analyses and portions of the 
manuscripts of reports of work at the "Sully School Site (39SL7), 
Oahe Reservoir" and "The Zimmerman Site (39SL41), Oahe Reser- 
voir." On his own time during the second semester of the academic 
year (Februarj'^ to June), he served as part-time assistant professor 
of anthropology on the faculty of the University of Nebraska and 
taught a lower-division course, "World Ethnology." On May 27, 
he resigned from the River Basin Surveys to accept a teaching position 
at the University of Tennessee. 

William M. Bass III, temporary physical anthropologist, attended 
and participated in the 16i/^th Plains Conference in Pierre and after 
completion of his fieldwork resigned on August 28. During the re- 
mainder of the year he devoted much of his own time to study of the 
data collected in the field and to statistical analyses of the measure- 
ments taken on the human skeletal material from the Plains. These 
data will provide the basis for his doctoral dissertation at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania and also for an extensive handbook on the 
physical anthropology of the Plains Indians. 

William N. Irving spent the months of July and August in the 
Lincoln laboratory completing a first draft of a technical report on 
his excavations at the Medicine Crow site (39BF2) in the Big Bend 
Reservoir area. He resigned on September 4 to continue his studies 
toward a doctorate at the University of Wisconsin. 

Dr. xllfred W. Bowers, temporary archeologist, attended and 
participated in the IGi^th Plains Conference in Pierre in July. He 
resigned on August 28 to return to his regular position as professor 
of anthropology at the University of Idaho. During the course of the 
year he devoted a portion of his time to analysis of the archeological 
materials he had excavated during the past three summers at the 
Anton Rygh site (39CA4) in the Oahe Reservoir. 

Robert W. ISTeuman, archeologist, when not engaged in field 
activities, turned his attention to analysis and interpretation of arche- 
ological materials from sites he had previously excavated in the Big 
Bend Reservoir area of South Dakota. He completed a manuscript 
"The Truman Mound Site (39BF224), Big Bend Reservoir Area, 
South Dakota" and a brief article on "Representative Porcupine Quill 
Flatteners from the Central United States," both of which were ac- 
cepted for publication in American Antiquity. He prepared and 
published a brief article in the Florida Anthropologist entitled "Two 
Unrecorded Pottery Vessels from the Purcell Landing Site, Henry 



28 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

County, Alabama." He completed (he analysis of specimen materials 
and prepared final drafts of two manuscripts reporting sites he had 
excavated in the 1958 and 1959 seasons: "The Good Soldier Creek 
Site (39LM238), Lyman County, South Dakota" and "Two Sites in 
the Fort Thompson Area, Big Bend Reservoir, South Dakota." The 
former deals with a stratified site of Plains Woodland occupation 
overlain by a INIississippian component. The latter reports the in- 
vestigations at a burial momid site of Plains Woodland context and 
at a multicomponent village site. In November he attended the I7th 
Plains Conference for Archeology in Lincoln, and in April he pre- 
sented a paper, "Burial Patterns in Mounds of the Big Bend Area, 
Central South Dakota," at the Seventieth Annual Meeting of the 
Nebraska Academy of Sciences in Lincoln. This paper was published 
in abstract in the Proceedings of the Academy. In March he was 
elected to full membership in the Society of the Sigma Xi and was 
initiated in May. At the end of the year he was again in the field in 
charge of a crew excavating burial mounds in the Oahe Reservoir area. 
G. Plubert Smith, archeologist, was on duty at the Lincoln office most 
of the year. In July he participated in the 16i/^th Plains Conference 
in Pierre, and in November he attended the 17th Plains Conference 
for Archeology in Lincoln, serving as a discussant in a panel forum 
on "Plains Ethnohistory." He visited the State Historical Society of 
North Dakota in Bismarck during the period November 9-14 for the 
purpose of examining and borrowing field notes and specimens per- 
taining to the large technical manuscript he is preparmg on the com- 
bined researches at the site of Fort Berthold and Like-a-Fishhook 
Village (32IiIL2). The work on this report on four seasons of in- 
vestigation by three separate State and Federal agencies at this site 
occupied Mr. Smith the major part of the year. It was about two- 
thirds completed by June 30, 1960. On April 2, he was lent to the 
National Park Service at Colonial National Historical Park, York- 
town, Va., where he conducted excavations at the site of an early 18th- 
century dwelling and completed a comprehensive teclmical report of 
the results. In April he contributed a paper, in absentia, on "His- 
torical Archeology in Missouri Basin Reservoir Areas; Current In- 
vestigations" for the Twentieth Annual ]Meeting of the Nebraska 
Academy of Sciences. It was published in abstract in the Proceedings 
of the Academy and was accepted for publication in its entirety in the 
Plains Anthropologist. As previously mentioned, he collaborated 
with Caldwell and McNutt in the preparation of a popular booklet 
on "Fort Randall Reservoir." He wrote a review of "The Indian 
Journals of I^wis Henry Morgan — 1859-1862," edited by Leslie A. 
White, which was accej^ted for publication in Nehrasha History/. In 
March he was elected to full membership in the Society of the Sigma 
Xi, and initiated, in absentia, in May. He returned to his duties in 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 29 

Lincoln on June 1 and began preparations for the summer fieldwork. 
At the end of the year he was conducting investigations in historic 
sites in the Oahe Reservoir area. 

West Virginia. — A survey of the Sutton Reservoir (Cleveland M. 
Bailey Reservoir) on the Elk River in West Virginia was made during 
the period October 8-19. With the helpful cooperation of the Corps 
of Engineers the entire area was covered on foot and by vehicle and no 
archeological manifestations were found. This was one of the few 
s^rcas investigated where no further work would be required. 

Cooperating viistitutions. — In addition to the institutions and 
agencies previously mentioned in the sections pertaining to Alabama- 
Georgia and Missouri Basin, a number of others cooperated in the 
Inter-Agency Salvage Program in several areas throughout the 
United States. The University of Arkansas made an archeological 
survey in the Beaver Reservoir area on the "V\rhite River and carried 
on geological and paleontological investigations in the Greers Ferry 
Reservoir basin on the Little Red River. The University of Arizona 
continued its excavations in the Painted Rock project area on the Gila 
River. The Northern Arizona Museum of Science and Art made 
additional studies relating to the archeology, geology, flora, and 
fauna of the Glen Canyon project in the lower Colorado and San Juan 
Rivers. Southern Illinois University made a series of excavations 
in the Carlyle Reservoir basin on the Kaskaskia River in Illinois. The 
University of Kentucky conducted excavations in the Barkley Reser- 
voir area on the Cumberland River and at the Barren No. 2 project 
on the Barren River. It also conducted a survey of 22 small Federal 
projects scattered over the State of Kentucky. The University of 
Missouri carried on investigations in the Joanna Reservoir area on the 
Salt River in the Upper Mississippi Basin. The Museum of New 
Mexico again worked in the Navaho project area along the San Juan 
River. The University of North Carolina conducted surveys and 
excavations in the Wilkesboro Reservoir area on the Yadkin River. 
San Francisco State College conducted excavations at the Black Butte 
project on Stony Creek and in the San Luis Reservoir area above the 
juncture of San Luis and Cottonwood Creeks in Merced County, Cali- 
fornia. The University of Oregon continued its series of excavations 
in the John Day Reservoir area on the John Day River in the Colum- 
bia basin. Nevada State Museum made a survey of the Peavine 
Mountain Water Shed project in Nevada, and Washington State Col- 
lege carried on additional excavations in the Ice Harbor Reservoir area 
on the Snake River. The University of Texas made surveys in the 
Proctor Reservoir area on the Brazos River, the Navarro Mills project 
on Richland Creek, and the proposed reservoir areas on Flat Creek, 
Farmers' Creek, and Champion Creek. In addition it conducted 



30 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

excavations at the Ferrell's Bridge project on Cypress Creek at the 
Whitney Keservoir on the Brazos Eiver and in the Diablo Eeservoir 
region along the Kio Grande. It also investigated remains in the 
Canyon and Iron Bridge project areas. East Texas State College 
made paleontological surveys in the Iron Bridge area along the Sabine 
River and the Panhandle-Plains Museum made surveys in the Green- 
belt Reservoir area. The University of Utah continued its excavations 
in the upper portions of the Glen Canyon Reservoir area on the Colo- 
rado River. 

During the year various local groups and institutions continued to 
cooperate in the salvage program on a voluntary basis. They were 
mainly in Pennsylvania, New York State, Ohio, Indiana, Tennessee, 
and southern California. 

ARCHIVES 

The Bureau Archives continued during the year under the custody 
of Mrs. Margaret C. Blaker. On November 14 Mrs. Blaker attended 
meetings of the American Indian Ethnohistoric Conference in New 
York City and while returning to Washington she spent three days 
in Philadelphia examining pictorial and manuscript collections relat- 
ing to American Indians in the American Philosophical Society 
Library and in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

MANUSCRIPT COLLECTIONS 

The Bureau's manuscript collections continue to be utilized by 
anthropologists and other students. About 285 manuscripts were 
consulted by searchers, of whom 60 visited the archives in person and 
28 purchased reproductions totaling 2,346 pages. Some 350 manu- 
scripts were referred to by the archivist in obtaining information for 
90 mail inquiries. In the course of this examination, new and more 
detailed descriptive lists of manuscripts were also prepared and are 
available for distribution in response to specific inquiries. 

The papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher and her adopted son, 
Francis La Flesche, which had been deposited on loan in 1955 by Mrs. 
G. David Pearlman of Washington, D.C., were donated by Mrs. 
Pearlman in 1959 in memory of her husband, G. David Pearlman. 
During the year just ended this collection was arranged and cata- 
loged by Nicholas S. Hopkms, summer intern. The collection occu- 
pies 36 boxes. In addition to correspondence and other personal 
papers of both Fletcher and La Flesche, there is extensive ethno- 
graphic material relating to the Omaha, Osage, Pawnee, Dakota, and 
Nez Perce tribes, with smaller amounts on the Winnebago, the In- 
dians of Alaska, and a number of other North American tribes. 
Much of this material has not been published, and should be helpful 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 31 

to anyone studying those tribes. A 20-page outline of the subject 
matter of the collection has been prepared, and further information 
will be provided on request. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTIONS 

Eequests by scholars, publishers, and the general public for etlino- 
graphic photographs from the Bureau's collection continue to in- 
crease. The year's total of 604 purchase orders and written and 
personal inquiries concerning photographs is considerably greater 
than last year's total of 504, and the 1,983 prints distributed during 
the year through purchase, gift, and exchange represented a marked 
increase over the 1,208 of the previous year. 

As a result of new lists describing specific portions of the photo- 
grapliic collections that are frequently being prepared, much infor- 
mation about available photographs is gradually being distributed, 
with a corresponding increase in the distribution of photographs. 
At present about 110 lists have been prepared describing series of 
photographs relating to individual tribes or subjects. Since these 
are in typed form only, they are not distributed as complete sets, but 
copies of the relevant ones are sent in response to specific inquiries. 

The Bureau's files of photographs are constantly growing through 
the generosity and thoughtfulness of interested individuals who 
either lend their personal collections for copying or present them as 
gifts. For example, a series of 160 photographic prints relating to 
the Northern Cheyenne Sun Dances of 1958 and 1959, and to the 
moving and opening of the Sacred Buffalo Hat bundle in 1958 and 
1959, were made from negatives taken and lent by Mrs. Margot 
Liberty of Birney, Mont. The Bureau's set of prints is available for 
reference by students, but imtil 1970 purchase orders for copies will 
be referred to Mrs. Liberty who retains the negatives. 

Arrangements were made by Dr. William C. Sturtevant for bor- 
rowing and copying 69 photographs relating to the Florida Seminole 
taken during the first quarter of the 20th century. They were from 
the following collections in Florida: Collier Development Corpora- 
tion, Everglades ; the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History, Uni- 
versity of Florida, Gainesville ; the Willson-Cantrell Collection, Uni- 
versity of Miami Library, Miami; and the personal collections of 
Frank A. Robinson, Robinson Galleries, Miami; Dr. Charlton W. 
Tebeau, Miami ; and Mrs. M. K. Ashworth, Coral Gables. 

Daguerreotypes of Eleazer Williams, Mohawk, and John O'Brien 
Skenondough, probably an Oneida, made by Mathew Brady in 1853 
and owned by the Long Island Historical Society, Brooklyn, New 
York, were lent for copying through the courtesy of Miss Helen 
Bolman, librarian of the Society. 



32 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Nino pliolographs relating to various North American Indian 
tribes and two made by T. H. O'Sullivan in Colombia in 1870 while 
on the Darien Expedition under Commander Sel fridge were lent for 
copying by James Tubbesing of Winchester, Va. 

A collection of 3o photographs relating to St. Francis Mission, 
Rosebud Agency, South Dakota, and to other Dakota Indian agencies, 
including portraits of agency personnel, Indian police, students, and 
agency buildings, were received as a gift from Ilichard A. Pohrt of 
Flint, Mich. Eleven photographs by J. N. Choate pertaining to the 
Carlisle Indian School, Carlisle, Pa., were also donated by Mr. Pohrt. 

Nine photographs of Spanish Mission churches in the Southwest 
and Mexico were donated by George B. Eckhart, Tucson, Ariz. 

A large group photograph of a number of Ute Indians who were 
camping in the Garden of the Gods, Colorado, in 1913 was received as 
a gift from Dr. Sidney Margolin of Denver, Colo. 

An important collection of 312 glass negatives consisting of indi- 
vidual and group portraits of Indian delegates to Washington photo- 
graphed by C. M. Bell in the period 1874-1890 was purchased from 
W. T. Boyce of Washington, D.C. Bell's photographic work was 
well known to his contemporaries, and a cartoon in Leslie's Weekly 
for September 10, 1881, carries the legend, "Photographing an Indian 
Delegation, in Bell's Studio, for the Government." In recent years, 
with the exception of a small series of negatives in the Bureau of 
American Ethnology uncertainly attributed to him (an attribution 
now conlirmed). Bell's Indian photographs have been little known 
or used, and the whereabouts of his negatives was not known. The 
plates have not as yet been individually cataloged, but the following 
tribes are among those represented: Arapaho, Blackfoot, Cheyemie, 
Chippewa, Comanche, Dakota, Hidatsa, Sauk aaid Fox, and some 
of the Plateau tribes. 

With the assistance of Kiowa friends and relatives, Dr. Everett 
R. Rhoades of Oklahoma City, Okla., identified a number of Kiowa 
portraits in the Bureau liles. Father Peter Powell of Chicago, with 
the aid of John Stands-in-Timber and other Cheyennes, provided 
identifications and biographical notes on certain Cheyenne photo- 
graphs. During a visit to the archives William Hall, a Winnebago 
of Black River Falls, Wis., gave information about a number of 
Winnebago photographs. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

The Bureau's staff artist, E. G. S(^humacher, continued to do a w^ide 
variety of illustrating for Bureau and other publications of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. In addition, he made text drawings for articles 
written by staff members on various topics to be issued in local, 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 33 

national, and foreign periodicals. Most of the illustrations were of an 
archcological nature, although there was a sizable cross section of 
scientific and technical art material undertaken. Approximately 379 
halftone plates were mounted, revised, restored, retouched and/or 
lettered, 237 text illustrations drawn, and G6 charts, diagrams, and 
graphs prepared. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The Bureau's editorial work continued during the year under the 
immediate direction of Mrs. Eloiso B. Edelen. There were issued 
one Annual Eeport and five Bulletins, as follows : 

Seventy-sixth Aunual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1958-59. 

il + 41 pp., 4 pis. 19G0. 
Bulletin 143, vol. 7. Index to the Handbook of South American Indians, vi + 28G 

pp. 1959. 
Bulletin 172. The story of a Tlingit community : A prohlem in the relationship 
between archeological, ethnological, and historical methods, by Frederica de 
Laguna. x + 254 pp., 11 pis., IS figs. 19G0. 
Bulletin 173. Antliropological Tapers Nos. 57-62. iii + 498, 61 pis., 37 figs., 
2 maps. 1960. 

No. 57. Preceramic and ceramic cultural patterns in northwest Virginia, 

by C. G. Holland. 
No. 58. An introduction to Plains Apache archeology — the Dismal River 

Aspect, by James H. Gunnerson. 
No. 59. The use of the atlatl on Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan, by M. W. Stirling. 
No. 60. A Caroline Islands script, by Saul 11. Riesenberg and Shigeru 

Kaneshiro. 
No. 61. Dakota winter counts as a source of Plains history, by James H. 

Howard. 
No. 62. Stone tip! rings in north-central Montana and tne adjacent portion 
of Alberta, Canada : Their historical, ethnological, and archeological 
aspects, by Thomas F. Kehoe. 
Bulletin 174. An introduction to Kansas archeology, by Waldo R. Wedel. With 
description of the skeletal remains from Doniphan and Scott Counties, 
Kansas, by T. D. Stewart. xvii4-723 pp., 97 pis., 109 figs. 3959. 
Bulletin 177. Archeological investigations in British Guiana, by Clifford Evans 
and Betty J. Meggers, xxi-1-418 pp., 68 pis., 127 figs. 19(;0. 

Publications distributed totaled 31,547, as compared with 27,721 
for the fiscal year 1959. 

COLLECTIONS 

The following collections were made by staff members of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology or of the River Basin Surveys and 
transferred to the permanent collections of the department of anthro- 
pology and the department of zoology, U.S. National Museum : 



34 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

FROM BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Acc. No. 

228466. 318 items of archeological materials from La Venta, Tabasco, Mexico, 

collected by Robert F. Heizer, Philip Drucker, and Robert J. Squier 

in 1955. 

228740. 183 items of archeological material from Colville River drainage area, 

northern Alaska, collected by U.S. Geological Survey members, 1949- 
1950. Reported and turned over to Ralph S. Solecki for transfer. 

228741. 351 items of archeological material from along Kukpowruk and 

Kokolik Rivers, Alaska, collected by Ralph S. Solecki, 1949. 

FROM RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

221942. 5 fresh-water mussels from Hughes County, S. Dak., collected by 
Richard Wheeler and Harold A. Huscher in 1958. 

226498, 228124, 228919, 229853, 229854, 229855, 229856, 229857, 229861, 229862, 
230198, 230201, 230203, 230204. Archeological and human skeletal material 
collected in Oahe Reservoir, Campbell, Stanley, and Sully Counties, 
S. Dak. 

229858, 229859, 229860, 230200. Indian skeletal material from Big Bend Res- 
ervoir, Buffalo and Lynn Counties, S. Dak. 

230199. Indian skeletal material from Gavins Point Reservoir, Yankton City, 
S. Dak. 

230202. Indian skeletal material from Jamestown Reservoir, Stutsman City, 
N. Dak. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

On January 27, 1960, Miss Jean E. Carter was appointed tempo- 
rarily as museum aide and assigned to the Bureau Archives. She 
resigned effective May 4, 1960, and on May 23 Mrs. Caroline K. Cohen 
was appointed for a 3-month period to fill the vacancy. Raymond E. 
Machoian was also engaged for three months to assist with the clean- 
ing, sorting, and processing of archeological materials excavated at 
Kussell Cave, Alabama. 

Dr. John P. Harrington, Dr. A. J. Waring, and Sister Inez Hilger 
continued as research associates. Dr. M. W. Stirling, also a research 
associate, continued to use the Bureau laboratory in completing reports 
on fieldwork undertaken while he was Director of the Bureau. 

The following bibliographies and leaflets were issued during the 
fiscal year: 

SIL-65, 2d rev,, 10/59: Introductory bibliography on the American Indian. 
6 pp. 

SIL-230, 9/59 : Selected references on American Indian basketry. Compiled by 
William C. Sturtevant. 7 pp. 

SIL-231, 8/59 : Bibliography of wild food plants of United States Indians. Pre- 
pared by F. R. Irvine. 26 pp. 

SIL-234, 10/59 : Selected references on North American Indian clothing. Com- 
piled by William C. Sturtevant 4 pp. 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 35 

SIL-240, 10/59 : Manuscript collection, Bureau of American Ethnology Archives. 
1 p. 

SIL-242, 11/59: Selected references on federal Indian policy and administra- 
tion. Compiled by William C. Sturtevant. 10 pp. 

A new bibliographic series titled "Smithsonian Anthropological 
Bibliographies" was inaugurated under the auspices of Dr. William C. 
Sturtevant of the Bureau staff. This will include bibliographies of 
varying length and technicality, both areal and topical, in all fields of 
anthropology, and will be distributed to those requesting it. It is 
hoped that individuals not affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution 
who have prepared bibliographies for class use or other purposes which 
might be of general usefulness will submit them to the Bureau for 
consideration. No. 1 of the series is "Selected Eef erences on the Plains 
Indians," 36 pages, multilithed, compiled by John C. Ewers. As in 
other recent Bureau bibliographies, this one includes recordings of 
music, sources of illustrations, a list of museums where noteworthy 
Plains Indian collections are on exhibition, an index to the references 
according to tribe, and an index of the tribes according to State. 

An increase of 885 letters over last year brought the total number of 
inquiries about the American Indians received in the Director's office 
during the year to 3,644. In addition, staff members received many 
letters of a semiofficial nature, but these were not officially recorded. 
Leaflets and other printed materials were sent in answer to many of 
the inquiries, while information was supplied to others by staff mem- 
bers. More than 13,000 informational items, including printed and 
typescript articles, bibliographies, and several hundred photographic 
lists, were sent out in response to requests for such materials. Numer- 
ous specimens either brought to the office or sent by mail were identi- 
fied for owners and data supplied on them. 

Kespectfully submitted. 

Frank H. H. Egberts, Jr., Director. 

Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 

o 



Seventy-eighth Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU QF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLbCY 



1960-1961 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D.C. 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1960-1961 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1962 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

June 30, 1961 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Anthropologists. — Henet B. Collins, Willl&^m C. Stubtevant, 

Wallace L. Chafe. 
Research Associates. — John P. Harrington, Sister M. Inez 

HiLGEE, Matthew W. Stirling, A. J. Waring, Jr. 
Archivist. — Mrs. Margaret C. Blaker. 
Scientific illustrator.— E. G. Schumacher. 
Administrative assistant. — Mrs. Jessie S. Shaw. 

River Basin Surveys 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 
Chief, Missouri Basin Project. — Robert L. Stephenson. 
Archeologists. — Warren W. Caldwell, Harold A. Huscheb, 
Carl F. Millee, Robert W. Neuman, 6. Hubert Smith. 



I 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 
BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



Frank H. II. Robp:rts, Jr. Director 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on th& field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Amer- 
ican Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 19G1, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of April 10, 1928, as amended 
August 22, 1949, which directs the Bureau "to continue independently 
or in cooperation anthropological researches among the American 
Indians and the natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection 
of the United States and the excavation and preservation of arche- 
ologic remains." 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

Dr. Frank H. H. Koberts, Jr., Director of the Bureau, devoted a 
portion of the year to general supervision of the activities of the 
Bureau and the River Basin Surveys. In midsummer he inspected 
the work of excavating parties operating in the Big Bend and Oahe 
Reservoir areas in South Dakota and a portion of the Oahe Basin 
in North Dakota, as well as a field party working in the Wilson 
Reservoir area in Kansas. Three of the parties represented the River 
Basin Surveys and three were from cooperating agencies. In addi- 
tion. Dr. Roberts visited one excavation that was not a part of the 
salvage program. The work at that location consisted of investiga- 
tions in the remains of Fort Kearney, Nebr., a historic army post 
being studied by the Nebraska State Historical Society. During part 
of the trip Dr. Roberts was accompanied by Dr. John M. Corbett and 
Carroll A. Burroughs of the Washington office of the National Park 
Service, and during the entire trip by Paul L. Beaubien, regional 
archeologist. Region Three, National Park Service. Wliile at Pierre, 
S. Dak., the group took part in an informal conference attended by 
leaders of all the parties and many of their student helpers working 
in the Plains during the summer. A wide range of archeological 
problems in the Missouri Basin was discussed. 

In September Dr. Roberts w^ent to Mesa Verde National Park 
wliere he served as chairman of the Advisory Group for the Wetherill 
Mesa Project, a cooperative undertaking between the National Park 
Service and the National Geographic Society. The group spent 3 
iays discussing and inspecting the excavations underway in two large 
:;liff ruins and studied the operations of the field laboratoiy handling 

1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the materials recovered during the digging. Recommendations were 
made pertaining to the continuance of the investigations and improve- 
ments in the handling and cataloging of specimens. 

In November Dr. Roberts went to Norman, Okla., to attend the 
Plains Conference for Archeology and participate in discussions re- 
lating to the history of the Indians in that general area. 

Early in April at Mule Creek, Wyo., Dr. Roberts made arrange- 
ments for establishing a camp and starting a series of excavations in a 
Paleo-Indian site — a cooperative project between the National Geo- 
graphic Society and the Smitlisonian Institution. Upon the comple- 
tion of these activities he proceeded to Lawton, Okla., where he was 
the principal speaker at the dedication of the Museum for the Great 
Plains on April 9. Returning to the Washington office, he began 
preparations for sending a field party to the site at Mule Creek and 
in that connection left Washington early in June for Lincoln, Nebr., 
where he was joined by Dr. William M. Bass, who was to be the chief 
field assistant, and several other members of the party. They picked 
up two vehicles and field equipment and proceeded to Mule Creek to 
set up camp, and on June 12 began excavations. Dr. Roberts re- 
mained with the party until June 19. The party, however, continued 
operations under Dr. Bass and was busy digging at the end of the fis- 
cal year. As a result of the work up to that time an extensive deposit 
of bison bones, probably representing an extinct species, and a number 
of artifacts have been recovered. The site is one that dates about 
9,000 years ago. 

Dr. Roberts completed a manuscript, "The Agate Basin Complex," 
which is to be published in Mexico in a volume containing articles 
about the Paleo-Indian. He also did the technical editing of a 
series of seven reports on archeological excavations and studies in 
three reservoir areas, to appear in Bulletin 185 of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year. Dr. Henry B. Collins, anthro- 
pologist, was in Europe studying collections in the principal museums 
and attending two international anthropological congresses. He 
visited Lascaux and a number of other Paleolitliic cave and rock shel- 
ter sites in the Dordogne region of France and examined Megalithic 
sites and monuments in the Morbihan and Finistere districts of Brit- 
tany. Dr. Collins attended the 34th International Congress of Ameri- 
canists in Vienna, July 18-25, and the 6th International Congress of 
Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences in Paris, July 30- 
August 6. At the latter he presented a paper discussing the present 
status of evidence bearing on the origin of Eskimo culture. 

Dr. Collins continued to participate in the activities of the Arctic 
Institute of North Amercia as a member of its Board of Governors, 
as a member of the Publications Committee that supervises prepara- 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 6 

tion of the journal Arctic and two other publication scries, and of the 
Eesearch Committee that plans and supervises the Institute's exten- 
sive program of Arctic research. He also continued to serve as chair- 
man of the Directing Committee responsible for preparation of the 
Arctic Institute's Arctic Bibliography, a comprehensive work which 
abstracts and indexes the contents of publications in all fields of 
science, and in all languages, pertaining to the Arctic and sub- Arctic 
regions of the world. Volume 9 of Arctic Bibliography (1,599 
pages), containing abstracts of 7,192 scientific publications on the 
Arctic, was published in September 1960. Of the publications ab- 
stracted in this volume, 3,170 had appeared in English, 2,548 in Rus- 
sian, 790 in Swedish, Norwegian, and Danish, 338 in German, and 
346 in other languages. Volume 10, similar in size and content to 
volume 9, is in press, and work is proceeding on volume 11. 

The project which Dr. Collins organized last year for the purpose 
of translating Russian publications on the archeology, ethnology, 
and physical anthropology of northern Eurasia made progress under 
the editorship of Dr. Henry N. Michael of Temple University. The 
first volume to be completed is S. I. Rudenko's "The Ancient Culture 
of the Bering Sea Area and the Eskimo Problem," the only comprehen- 
sive Russian work on the archeology of northeastern Siberia. It is now 
in press and will appear as the first number in a special publication 
series of the Arctic Institute of North America. The Advisory Com- 
mittee, of which Dr. Collins is chaii-man, has selected material — 
monographs and shorter papers — for five additional volumes which 
are now being translated. The work is being carried out with the 
support of a grant from the National Science Foundation. 

Dr. Collins prepared a paper on the interrelationships of early 
Eskimo and pre-Eskimo cultures in Alaska, Canada, and Greenland 
and their affinities with Temperate Zone cultures in America and Asia 
to be published in a volume of the Special Publications series of the 
Arctic Institute of North America, and another paper on the environ- 
mental factors involved in the origin and development of Eskimo 
culture in the American Arctic. 

Dr. William C. Sturtevant, ethnologist, spent July and August 1960 
in Europe. He attended the 34th International Congress of Ameri- 
canists in Viemia and the 6th International Congress of Anthro- 
pological and Ethnological Sciences in Paris. The remainder of the 
period was spent in musemn research. In 11 museums of England, 
Austria, France, the Netherlands, and Sweden Dr. Sturtevant studied 
several hundred early specimens collected from eastern North Ameri- 
can Indians. He located, described, and photographed many im- 
portant specimens and collections, mostly from the northeast — there 
are surprisingly few early southeastern specimens in Europe. To one 
familiar with collections in the United States the number and good 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

condition of early noi-thcastem Indian objects in Europe are striking. 

A secondai-y objective of Dr. Sturtevant's study in Europe was a 
search for possible European prototypes of modern eastern North 
American Indian artifacts. Although he visited seven museums of 
peasant and folklore materials, this project was less successful than 
the first, both because of time limitations and because European col- 
lecting and research in some important categories of artifacts (e.g., 
basketry) are insufficiently developed. 

In November 19G0, Dr. Sturtevant attended an informal conference 
on Iroquois research in New Haven, Conn., the annual meeting of the 
Southern Historical Association in Tulsa, Okla. (where he delivered 
a paper on "History, Ethnohistory, and Folk History : Seminole Ex- 
amples"), and the American Indian Ethnohistoric Conference in 
Bloommgton, Ind. He also visited several museums and archival col- 
lections in Oklahoma City, Norman, and Tulsa. There are several 
important collections of southeastern Indian artifacts and documents 
in Oklahoma. 

Dr. Sturtevant also continued his research on various tribes of 
eastern North America. His paper "The Significance of Ethnological 
Similarities between Southeastern North America and the Antilles" 
was issued as Yale University Publications in Anthropology No. 64 
(1960) , and shorter comments by him appeared in Bureau of American 
Ethnology Bulletin 180 and in Current Anthropology, vol. 2, No. 3 
(both 1961). A somewhat revised version of his "Anthropology as a 
Career" (Smithsonian Publication 4343) was issued October 7, 1960. 

Dr. Wallace L. Chafe, linguist, completed work on t\. o manuscripts. 
One of them, "Seneca Thanksgiving Rituals," which is in press as 
Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 183, contains important 
Seneca religious texts, as well as transcriptions of the music that 
accompanies one of the rituals. The other, "Handbook of the Seneca 
Language," a nontechiiical description of Seneca orthography and 
grammar with an extensive glossary of Seneca terms encountered in 
the anthropological literature, will be published as a Bulletin of the 
New York State Museum. Dr. Chafe also continued the preparation 
of a Seneca dictionary. 

Beginning in October, Dr. Chafe mailed over 600 questionnaires in 
a survey of the approximate numbers and ages of speakers of the 
extant North American Indian languages. These were addressed to 
individuals who have had contact with the various Indian groups. 
The responses have been numerous and informative, and efforts are 
now being made to fill in the gaps. Fieldwork for the project is 
being conducted in cooperation with the American Philosophical 
Society. 

Dr. Chafe spent considerable time throughout the year processing 
Arikara and Caddo linguistic material already collected and preparing 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

to do further fieldwork on Caddo. He was also fortunate in being 
able to do some work with a speaker of Oklahoma Cherokee living 
in Washington. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

The Eiver Basin Surveys, a unit of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology organized to cooperate with the National Park Service and 
the Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of the Interior and 
the Corps of Engineers of the Department of the Army in the Inter- 
Agency Archeological and Paleontological Salvage Program, con- 
tinued its activities throughout the year. Attention was directed to 
areas that are to be flooded or otherwise destroyed by the construction 
of large dams in the various river systems of the United States. 
The year's investigations were supported by a transfer of $123,895 
from the National Park Service to the Smithsonian Institution. Of 
that sum, $103,895 was for work in the Missouri Basin and $20,000 for 
studies along the Chattahoochee Eiver in Alabama and Georgia. On 
July 1, 1960, the Missouri Basin Project had a carryover of $9,420, 
and that, with the new appropriation, provided a total of $113,315 
for the Missouri Basin Project. The grand total of funds available 
in 1960-61 for the River Basin Surveys was $133,315. 

Activities in the field were mainly concerned with excavations, al- 
though there were some limited surveys in two areas. The funds 
available for the last fiscal year were slightly greater than those 
for the preceding one, but because of increased costs there was little 
gain in the amount of work accomplished. On July 1, 1960, there 
were three excavating parties working in the Missouri Basin in South 
Dakota. One of them was digging sites in the Big Bend Reservoir 
area, and the other two were working in the Oahe Reservoir area 
farther north. The Missouri Basin parties completed their field 
activities the latter part of August and returned to the headquarters 
at Lincoln, Nebr. 

In September a party resumed explorations and excavations along 
the Chattahoochee River in Alabama and subsequently extended its 
efforts to the Georgia side of the river in the Walter F. George 
Reservoir area. Work continued there until the end of December. 
During October a small party spent a brief period investigating a site 
that was being destroyed by gravel operations in the upper reaches 
of the Big Bend Reservoir area in South Dakota and also collected 
material from the immediate construction areas of the Big Bend Dam. 

The 1961 field season got under way in May, when a small party 
went to the Merritt Reservoir area in Nebraska to make a final check 
on possible archeological manifestations at that location. Two pre- 
vious surveys there had failed to reveal cultural materials, but it was 
thought that because of shifting sand dunes and construction activities 
something previously missed might have been uncovered. Nothing 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

of that nature was found, and the party moved to the Big Bend area 
in South Dakota where it was expanded and began a series of excava- 
tions in some burial mounds. A second party went to the Big Bend 
area on June 13 and started excavations in a large village site on the 
west side of the river 4 miles above the dam site. A third party 
started working on the west side of the Missouri River in the Oahe 
Reservoir Basin on June 19. It was digging in a large village site 
located about 5 miles south of Mobridge, S. Dak. All three parties 
had the season's program well under way and were busily digging 
at the close of the fiscal year. During the fiscal year, 11 parties repre- 
senting institutions cooperating in the Missouri Basin program worked 
in four reservoir areas in Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota. 
There were 24 parties from cooperating institutions working in other 
basins throughout the country. 

As of June 30, 1961, the River Basin Surveys had carried on 
reconnaissance work or had excavated in 255 reservoir basins located 
in 29 States. In addition, two lock projects and four canal areas have 
been examined. During the years since the program got under way 
4,952 sites have been located and recorded, and of that number 1,157 
were recommended for excavation or limited testing. Because com- 
plete excavation has not been possible in any but a few exceptionally 
small ones, when the term "excavation" is used it implies digging 
only as much of a site as is thought essential to provide a reasonable 
sample of the materials and information to be found there. Prelim- 
inary appraisal reports have been issued for most of the reservoir 
areas which were surveyed. In some cases no archeological manifes- 
tations were noted and no general report was issued. During the past 
fiscal year no new reconnaissance work was undertaken and no such 
reports were distributed. 

By the end of the fiscal year, 519 sites in 54 reservoir areas located 
in 19 different States had either been tested or dug sufficiently to 
provide good information about them. The sites in which digging 
has been done cover a wide range of cultural characteristics. Some 
of them pertain to early limiting and gathering peoples of about 
10,000 years ago, while others represent communities lived in by 
early historic Indians and the remains of frontier, army, and trading 
posts of European origin. Between the two extremes are a series of 
sites attributable to sedentary horticultural groups extending from 
approximately the 6th to the 13th centuries A.D. 

Reports on the work have been published in the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Miscellaneous Collections, in Bulletins of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Etlinology, and in various scientific journals and historical quar- 
terlies. Bulletin 176, containing River Basin Surveys Papers Nos. 
15-20, was distributed in December 1960. These papers consist of 
a series of reports on historic sites excavated in the Garrison, Oahe, 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

and Fort Randall Reservoir areas in North and South Dakota. Bulle- 
tin 179, containing River Basin Surveys Papers Nos. 21-24, a series 
of reports on work in Texas, Iowa, and along the Columbia River, is 
in proof form and should be distributed in the early part of the next 
fiscal year. The papers in that Bulletin were listed in the report for 
1959-GO and need no further comment here. During the year, River 
Basin Surveys Paper No. 25, a report on the "Archeology of the John 
H. KeiT Reservoir Basin, Roanoke River, Virginia-North Carolina," 
by Carl F. Miller, was sent to the printer and will appear as Bulletin 
182. Another series of River Basin Surveys Papers, Nos. 26-32, to 
comprise Bulletin 185, was edited and sent to the printer in June. 
These reports are: "Small Sites in and about Fort Berthold Indian 
Reservation, Garrison Reservoir, North Dakota" and "Star Village: 
A Fortified Historic Arikara Site in Mercer County, North Dakota," 
by George Metcalf ; "The Dance Hall of the Santee Bottoms on the 
Fort Berthold Reservation, Garrison Reservoir, North Dakota," by 
Donald D. Hartle; "Crow-Flies-High (32MZ1), a Historic Hidatsa 
Village in the Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota," by Carlmg 
Malouf ; "The Stutsman Focus: An Aboriginal Culture Complex in 
the Jamestown Reservoir Area, North Dakota," by Richard P. 
Wheeler ; "Archeological Manifestations in the Toole County Section 
of the Tiber Reservoir Basin, Montana," by Carl F. Miller; "Archeo- 
logical Salvage Investigations in the Lovewell Reservoir Area, Kan- 
sas," by Robert W. Neuman. 

The figures showing the distribution of reservoir projects through- 
out the country and those in which excavations have been made did not 
change during the current fiscal year and for that reason need not be 
repeated. Readers desiring that information can obtain it by re- 
ferring to the Bureau's 77th Annual Report, for the fiscal year 1959- 
60. The excavations conducted during the present fiscal year were 
all in reservoir areas previously listed. Figures pertaining to the 
work done by State and local institutions under agreements with the 
National Park Service have not been included in recent reports be- 
cause complete information about them is not available in the River 
Basin Surveys office. 

The River Basin Surveys received helpful cooperation throughout 
the year from the National Park Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, 
the Corps of Engineers and other army personnel, and from various 
State and local institutions. The field personnel of all the cooperat- 
ing agencies assisted the party leaders in numerous ways, and in aU 
areas the relationship was excellent. Both in Washington and in 
the field the National Park Service continued to serve as a liaison 
between the various agencies. It also was responsible for the prepa- 
ration of estimates and justifications for the funds needed to carry 
on the salvage program. The Commanding Officer at Fort Benning 

620377—62 2 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

in Georgia provided valuable assistance in numerous ways while 
investigations were being made in the portion of the Walter F. George 
Reservoir basin which lies in the Fort Benning Reservation. In addi- 
tion, the Georgia Historical Commission, the University of Georgia, 
and various local clubs and groups of citizens in both Alabama and 
Georgia assisted the leader of the River Basin Surveys party while 
he was working along the Chattahoochee River. In the Missoui'i 
Basin the project engineers for the Oahe Reservoir provided space 
for temporary living accommodations and also for the storage of 
equipment. In a number of cases the construction agency lent mechan- 
ical equipment which was most helpful in the stripping of the topsoil 
from sites and the backfilling of trenches and test pits. In the Mis- 
souri Basin the Corps of Engineers also cooperated with the staff of 
the Missouri Basin Project of the River Basin Surveys in the prepara- 
tion of a number of small informative pamphlets telling about several 
of the reservoirs along the Missouri River. 

General supervision of the program was from the main office in 
Washington, but the activities in the Missouri Basin operated from 
the field headquarters and laboratory at Lincoln, Nebr. At the be- 
ginning of the year the latter provided office assistance and some 
equipment for the Chattahoochee River Project, but subsequently most 
of that activity was transferred to the main office in Washington. 
The Lincoln laboratory processed all the materials collected by ex- 
cavating parties in the Missouri Basin and also some of those from 
the Chattahoochee. 

Washington o-ffice. — Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., continued to 
direct the main headquarters of the River Basin Surveys at the Bureau 
of American Ethnology throughout the year. Carl F. Miller, arche- 
ologist, was based at that office and from time to time assisted the 
Director in some of the general administrative problems. Harold A. 
Huscher, archeologist, worked under the general supervision of the 
Washington office, but at the beginning of the fiscal year was based 
on the field headquarters for the Missouri Basin Project at Lincoln, 
Nebr. After completing his field activities along the Chattahoochee 
River, Alabama-Georgia, in late December, he joined the Washington 
office and continued to work there the remainder of the fiscal year. 

Mr. Miller spent the entire time in the Washington office working 
on materials and data he had collected during previous seasons in 
the field. He spoke before various groups interested in archeological 
subjects and answered numerous inquiries pertaining to artifacts and 
cultural materials from the southeastern archeological area. He also 
identified artifacts from 15 collections of southeastern material. In 
October he attended the sessions of the Eastern States Archeological 
Federation in Toronto, Canada, and in May he presented a paper on 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 9 

"The Archeology of the Clarksville Site, 44 Mc 14, Mecklenburg 
County, Virgmia," before a joint session of the Archeological Societies 
of Virginia and North Carolina held at Clarksville. He completed a 
short paper, "The Physical Structure of Rock Mound at 9 ST 3, 
Georgia," which was published in Southern Indian Studies, vol. 11, 
pp. 16-19. Mr. Miller furnished data that were used in the prepara- 
tion of the "Etlinological Map of Virginia," which was published by 
Hearn Brothers, Detroit, Mich. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Harold A. Huscher, while on 
annual leave, assisted Dr. Richard G. Forbis, Glenbow Foundation, 
Calgary, Alberta, in the excavation of the remains of a fortified earth- 
lodge village at Cluny in the Blackfoot Reserve on the Bow River 
about 65 miles east of Calgary. Returning from Canada he drove 
south by way of the front ranges and the high plains, visiting a number 
of the more important Early Man-type sites, such as those at Sage- 
creek and Agate Basin in Wyoming, Dent and Apex Spring in Col- 
orado, and Homo Novusmundus in New Mexico. In mid-August 
he returned to duty at Lincoln, Nebr., where he made preparations for 
resuming the archeological investigations in the Walter F. George Dam 
and Lock area along the Chattahoochee River. Shortly after his 
arrival at Eufaula, Ala,, at the end of August, he started his fieldwork. 
After returning to the Washington office in January he devoted his 
time to bringing up to date the several years' backlog of maps and field 
notes pertaining to the Chattahoochee investigations. In May the 
processed collections of the two previous years' fieldwork in Alabama- 
Georgia were moved from Lincoln to Washington for storage at the 
U.S. National Museum, and Mr. Huscher proceeded to combine that 
material with the collections he had made during the current season. 
At the close of the fiscal year he was busy selecting bone and shell 
specimens and items pertaining to the early colonial period for iden- 
tification by various Smithsonian specialists. 

Alabama-Georgia. — During the period from mid-September to the 
end of December Harold A. Huscher, using a power-driven screen of 
%-inch mesh and a small crew of local laborers, tested a series of 
15 sites below Eufaula, Ala., in the southwestern quadrant of the 
Walter F. George Reservoir Basin. Most of the sites fall into two 
general classes. The first group consists of those with a predominance 
of Mississippi an pottery, characterized by the early Mississippian 
globular pots with loop handles, comparable to the Macon Plateau 
types in Georgia and the Gordon types in Tennessee. Such pottery 
actually has a long time span, continuing down to the opening of the 
historic period (Pinellas, Fort Walton). The second group includes 
sites with an overlay of late Creek pottery such as the Chattahoochee 
Brushed variants and Kasihta Red-film in association with trade 
metal, china, and glass. 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Most major sites in this reservoir, however, are proving to be in 
the multiple-component category with several time levels represented. 
The stratification is usually gradational rather than sharply demar- 
cated, hence the digging is by arbitrary levels. At sites favorably 
located on the terrace points near stream junctions, underlying Early 
Woodland and Archaic manifestations usually will be definitely iden- 
tifiable, though not sharply separable, at depths of 2.0-5.0 feet below 
the present surface. The following are the most important sites in- 
vestigated during the fall season : 

The Spann's Landing site, 1HE34, is located in Alabama 3 miles 
above the dam axis, in a loop of the Chattahoochee River opposite 
Grace's Bend, and a little more than a mile below the Mandeville 
Mound site (ICLAl) ^ in Clay County, Ga. This site extends for 
more than 800 feet along the crest of a low natural levee, with the 
greatest concentration of material at the north or upstream end. 
A series of 14 squares 10-x-lO feet were laid out there in two rows, 
so spaced as to give an adequately distributed sampling. Of the 
14 squares, 8 pits were actually dug, to varying depths down to 5.0 
feet. There is a sparse overlay of brushed pottery, indicating some 
use of the area during the Late Creek period, but the most intense 
occupation was during Mississippian times, and probably fairly early 
Mississippian times, as indicated by the pottery remains. One pro- 
ductive cache pit yielded parts of several pots of the Pinellas arcaded 
ware ("pumpkin pot," "melon pot"), a type described from Florida 
and attributed to a late peripheral Mississippian manifestation. It 
is, however, considered diagnostic of a possibly earlier Mississippian 
period as described by Caldwell for the great Rood's Landing site 
(9SW1), 30 miles farther north, and the Mississippian cap on the 
large Mandeville Mound (Stark's Clay Landing, 9CLA1), as reported 
by McMichael and Kellar. Along the Chattahoochee the arcaded pots 
with temper and handle variants may have a much longer time range, 
apparently continuous, than in Florida, extending back to the earlier 
Macon Plateau period, with the Singer-Moye site (9SW2), south of 
Lumpkin on the headwaters of Pataula Creek, one of the earliest 
major sites. At depths of 2.5-4.0 feet below the present surface at 
Spann's Landing, fiber-tempered pottery comparable to the Stallings 
Island and Orange Plain types of the latest Archaic and earliest 



* Site designations used by the River Basin Surveys are trinomial in char- 
acter, consisting of symbols for State, County, and site. The State is indicated 
by the first number, according to the numerical position of the State name in 
an alphabetical list of the United States ; thus, for example, 32 indicates North 
Dakota, 39 indicates South Dakota. Counties are designated by a two-letter 
abbreviation ; for example, ME for Mercer County, MN for Mountrail County, 
etc. The final number refers to the specific site within the Indicated State 
and County. 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 11 

Woodland occurred consistently, as well as early point types, the 
latter regularly consisting of the decomposed flint first described 
from the Macon area by Kelly. 

1HE51, a site in Alabama at the junction of Hardridge Creek and 
the Chattahoochee River, 2.5 miles above the dam axis, was tested 
by six 10-foot squares, ranging in depth down to 5 feet. The pre- 
dominant occupation there was Early Woodland, with fiber-tempered, 
Deptford, and Swift Creek pottery types recognized. However, no 
productive pit area was located. A number of large, heavy-stemmed 
projectile points, again in the decomposed flint characteristic of the 
Archaic in this area, were recovered from the deeper levels. Several 
less important sites near Hardridge Creek were tested by from one 
to six 10-foot squares, to obtain a broad spectrum sample of the range 
of pottery in the area. One site, 1HE56, yielded a number of sherds of 
all-over fingernail-incised pottery, the only site where this specialty 
has risen to a significant frequency. 

Somewhat farther north, between "Wliite Oak and Cheneyhatchee 
Creeks, another series of sites was tested in order to check on ex- 
posures of Chattahoochee Brushed pottery, since a Late Creek village, 
Okitiyakni, had supposedly been somewhere in the general area. 
1BR46, 47, and 2A were found to yield significant amounts of 
brushed pottery, and one area of pits was located at 46. There a large 
fragment of a restorable pot, which agrees closely with published 
descriptions of the Late Creek ware from the Southeast and from 
Oklahoma, was found in direct association with trade metal. Eleven 
squares in all were dug at these sites, but no structural remains were 
identified. Eight 10-x-lO-foot squares were dug at five other nearby 
locations, but information recovered was less important. One site 
at the south side of Barbour Creek (IBRIO) was checked by four 
10-x-lO-foot squares, and consistently found to yield Gulf Woodland 
forms, some in direct association with a level of basin-shaped hearths. 
One of the latter was filled with irregular fist-sized fragments of 
burned clay, possibly fired for use as cooking "stones" or to provide 
pottery temper. 

In November 1960 an immediate salvage job became necessary on 
Hatcheechubbee Creek, in Russell County, Ala., some 17 miles north 
of Eufaula, where a highway relocation project was destroying an 
Early Woodland site, 1RU74. Known as the Kite site, it was dis- 
covered in 1959 by Sergeant David W. Chase. It lay on a point of 
terrace between the creek and a small unnamed spring branch from 
the north. There four 10-foot squares were laid out parallel to the 
right-of-way and taken down to depths up to 5 feet. The upper 
layers yielded several types of Early Woodland sherds of the Dept- 
ford and Swift Creek series, and a considerable range of thick fiber- 
tempered sherds (Stallings, Orange) was obtained at slightly lower 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

levels. A series of stone artifacts was obtained in the deeper part of 
the tests. They consisted of the very characteristic decomposed flint 
of the Archaic. Several burned rock areas were noted, but no pits 
were found. The site, though not rich, was interesting in that there 
was much less intrusion from above, with the close mixing of time 
periods that makes some of the larger, more productive sites so 
confusing. 

Beginning November 19, the remaining time was devoted to work 
on two mound sites. Trenched previously, they were 9QU1, and 
9QU5, south of Georgetown, Ga., in Quitman County. 

9QU1, Moore's "Mounds near Georgetown, Quitman County, 
Georgia" (Mounds of Lower Chattahoochee and Lower Flint Rivers, 
Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 2d ser. vol. 13, pt. 3, pp. 426-456, 
448), locally called the "Gary's Fishpond Mound" or the "Gary's 
Fishpond Site," consists of extensive village remams and a large low 
mound, now almost completely plowed down and carried away. The 
site was tested in the spring of 1960 by digging a T-trench along the 
east margin of the mound, and seven 10-x-lO-foot trenches in the 
adjacent village areas. Although actually only the roots of the 
mound are left, it appeared desirable to attempt to determine more 
exactly the period of its building. Since the outwash apron of the 
mound was found to be intact, it seemed the site offered an oppor- 
tunity for getting direct separation of mound, mound fill, and pre- 
mound periods, with the additional prospect of locating separate pits 
or features that would give individual "pure" samples. 

The original grid was reset and a larger area in the western half of 
the mound remnants was stripped, revealing the roots of a circular 
mound faced with clay. It probably was originally about 200 feet in 
circumference at the base. A section trench cut through the western 
margin revealed that the clay facing had been carefiilly built up at 
a steep angle. The actual base of the mound was about 4 feet below 
the present surface in this area. A palisade of spaced large-diameter 
posts followed just outside the curve of this clay wall, but the posts 
did not appear to have been set into the wall. The indications were 
of some sort of a clay-faced "caracol" type mound. Additional 
bedding lines outside the circular periphery indicated a possibility 
that some kind of overlying rectangular mound had been built on the 
core of the original circular mound. An area 20-X-20 feet was ex- 
cavated in mottled fill in the calculated center of the circular mound 
revealing numbers of post holes in interrupted alignments, running 
NW.-SE. and NE.-SW., though no clearly defined structure could 
be made out. Because of increasing inclemency of the weather the 
planned excavation of this center pit down into the submound could 
not be completed in the available time and the site was closed down. 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 13 

However, additional work is certainly indicated for that location and 
will be scheduled for the early part of the new field season. 

Several lots of midden excavated in the central 20-x-20-foot pit 
contain a high frequency of a carefully finished plain ware with 
thickened rims and no handles. This does not seem to be the local 
Weeden Island type, but may be evidence of contacts with or an actual 
occupation of the site by Early Mississippian peoples carrying a 
culture somewhat like that which becomes Coles Creek and Mound- 
ville farther west. If such were the case, the overlying rectangular 
structure would then relate to the later Fort Walton-Lamar period 
which seems to account for the greater part of the pottery from this 
site. The one recognizable structural pattern found, other than the 
mound, was located in the nearby village and consisted of large post 
holes at spaced intervals, outlining a corner and two adjacent walls 
of what was probably a house of the later period. 

Additional work was done at 9QU5, a site referred to locally as the 
"Mound on the Lower Lampley Place" or the "Mound below Cool 
Branch." For brevity the site and mound will be referred to as the 
"Cool Branch Mound Site." This site had been tested previously by 
a 5-foot trench from the east margin to the approximate center of the 
mound. The mound proper was built of basket-loaded clay, appar- 
ently at one single stage of building, and there was a submound post- 
hole pattern indicating some sort of premound building. 

Thirteen additional 10-x-lO-foot test pits were dug at this site, 
eight in an east- west line across the north margin, paralleling the edge 
of the terrace, and five bracketing the mound proper. Using a tractor 
scraper, the surface of the mound was stripped, revealing the approxi- 
mate edges of a regular rectangular clay-platform mound, with the 
corners oriented to the cardinal points. The mound was then bull- 
dozed away to a level approximately 0.5 foot above the contact of the 
clay mound with the underlying river-silt surface of the terrace, as 
determined in the previous trenching. The center of the mound was 
then cleared by hand shoveling, revealing the post holes of a rectangu- 
lar submound structure of closely set posts, comers closed, approxi- 
mately 27-X-36 feet over all. This building was oriented with the 
overlying mound, though lying partly outside the baseline on the 
northwest side. As nearly as could be determined from the bulldozed 
surface without actually tracing out the lines by shoveling, the south- 
west margin being the least certain, the original base dimensions of 
the mound were about 55-X-55 feet. At the center of the submound 
structure was a pile of red iron ore (hematite) probably representing 
a symbolic ceremonial fire. The sand beneath was stained red but did 
not seem actually to have been burned. Two beautiful spud celts, one 
of a fine-grained greenstone, were found together in the mound fill 
about a foot above the contact. Both had been broken by the bull- 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

dozing. The spud is commonly found in Mississippian mound sites 
westward to the Mississippi River. 

A 5-x-lO-foot test below the actual submound level revealed wall 
trenches of a rectangular open-cornered building, oriented NE.-SW., 
and in one of the series of 10-x-lO-foot trenches, Y5 feet southeast of 
the main mound, a straight section of wall trench was found. These 
features could not be examined further in the time available. Another 
test 400 feet northwest of the mound center and about 100 feet back 
from the terrace edge, also uncovered a house- wall trench at depths 
of 1.5 to 2.0 feet. Using a tractor, about a thousand square feet were 
stripped, tracing out the wall lines, but time did not permit complete 
study of the patterns. Rectangular, open-cornered houses, closely 
spaced but apparently not adjoining, were arranged in rows running 
NE.-SW. Hearths appeared to be in the forecourt to the southeast, 
rather than within the houses. No clearly defined occupation floor 
could be identified, hence the associations are not certain. Most of 
the pottery from that part of the site seems earlier than the houses, 
which presumably slightly antedate the mound, but continue into the 
mound period, since there is no evidence of a later house type. House 
evidence is so difficult to obtain along the Chattahoochee River, how- 
ever, that negative evidence cannot be relied upon, and the known 
house areas at this site should be excavated further to get as complete 
house plan evidence as possible. 

During the field season parties from the University of Alabama and 
the University of Georgia, under agreements with the National Park 
Service, also worked at sites in the Walter F. George Reservoir area. 

Missouri River Basin — For the fifteenth consecutive year the Mis- 
souri Basin Project continued to operate from the field headquarters 
and laboratory in Lincoln, Nebr. Dr. Robert L. Stephenson served 
as chief of the project throughout the year. Activities included sur- 
veys, excavations, analysis of materials, and reporting on results. 
During the summer months the work was mainly concerned with 
excavations. Analyses and preparation of reports received the major 
attention throughout the other months of the year. The special 
chronology program begun in January 1958 continued to receive 
attention. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year the permanent staff, in addition 
to the chief, consisted of 3 archeologists, 1 administrative assistant, 1 
clerk-stenographer, 1 illustrator, 1 file clerk on the permanent staff, 
and 12 crewmen on the temporary staff. One paleontologist, on loan 
from the National Park Service, was added to the temporary staff 
for a month for the purpose of analyzing nonhuman bone material 
from the sites excavated over the past three seasons. In June, 2 
assistant field archeologists, 1 cook, and 25 field crewmen were added 
to the temporary staff. 



Secretary's Report. 1961 



Plate 1 




^ -'-m. 



'Wf- 



1. Use of power screen speeds testing of sites in Walter F. George Reservoir area, 
Alabama. River Basin Surveys. 





2. Tracing bottom edge ol large mound along Chaitalioocliec l<i\cr in Georgia. River 
Basin Surveys. 



S,, .. I. ..\'.s Report, 1961 



Plate 2 



-r-^api 









.^^^* 



•^ 



1. Floor pit lor rrfiaiit:ular carlh lod.L'c in Oalic l^csc-rxoir aica. South Dakota. Rciiiaius 
of posts arc \'isiblc alon.sr left wall. RI\'cr Basin Surveys. 




'v*f 



H%i^' 



2. Excavating base of low iik)uik1 in Oahe Reservoir area in North Dakota. Bison 
remains buried with human bodies may be seen at left. 'IVaces of logs at right cover 
huuKin skeletons. River Basin Survevs. 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 15 

At the end of the fiscal year there were 3 archeolof]^ists in addition 
to the chief, 1 administrative assistant, 1 administrative clerk, 1 sec- 
retary, 1 scientific illustrator, 1 photographer, and 4 musemn aides on 
the permanent staff, and 2 assistant field archeologists, 1 cook, and 25 
field crewmen on the temporary staff. 

During the year there were 10 Smithsonian Institution River Basin 
Surveys field parties at work in the Missouri Basin. Three of these 
were in the Oahe Reservoir area and tw^o were in the Big Bend 
Reservoir area of South Dakota during July and August. One small 
field party conducted investigations during October and November in 
the Big Bend Reserv'^oir area. One party investigated tlie Merritt 
Reservoir area in Nebraska during May and June. Tw^o parties were 
excavating in the Big Bend Reservoir area and one in the Oahe 
Reservoir area during June. 

Other fieldwork in the Missouri Basin during the year included 
11 parties from State institutions operating under cooperative agree- 
ments with the National Park Service and in cooperation with the 
Smithsonian Institution in the Inter-Agency Archeological Salvage 
Program. 

There was a slight increase in appropriated funds for fiscal year 
1961, but since most of the new money was to cover wage-scale in- 
creases beginning in July, the fiscal situation brought into even sharper 
focus than before the critical problem of accomplishing the minimum 
necessary salvage at a time when two of the largest reservoirs. Big 
Bend and Oahe, were nearing completion and, in fact, Oahe was be- 
ginning to flood some of the important unexcavated archeological 
sites. However, when the parties took to the field in June it was 
possible to shift the methods of fieldwork from sampling of large 
numbers of sites back to the intensive excavation of a smaller number 
of key sites. The sampling techniques of the preceding two field 
seasons had been successful but some of the more intensive excavations 
were again needed. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year. Dr. Warren W. Caldwell and 
a crew of eight were engaged in minor test excavations at two sites 
in the Big Bend Reservoir of South Dakota. Site 39LM222, near 
the mouth of Medicine Creek, in Lyman County, was a diflfuse village 
of the La Roche complex. A small, circular house with closely spaced 
wall posts, four center posts, and a long entry passage, lay just above 
an earlier structure of indeterminate pattern. A shalloM'' ditch sur- 
rounding the deeper house suggested that the house itself may have 
formed a bastion, or strong point, in the fortification system. Seg- 
ments of both superimposed houses were excavated. Portions of a 
third house were also dug and it proved to have been a small, circular 
building differing little in structural details from the uppermost of 
the two superimposed houses. Pottery and other artifacts were 

620377—62 3 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

homogenous throughout the site, indicating a single La Roche-Iona- 
"Russell Ware tradition and but one occupation. This would place 
tlie village in the late sedentary-farmer period of the 15th to I7th 
centuries. The second site of the group, 39LM224, is located but a 
mile downstream from 39LM222, and represented another La Roche 
village of diffuse pattern, but with only four houses apparent from the 
surface. One of them, a burned circular structure with widely spaced 
wall posts and long entiy passage was partially excavated. 

On July 19, Dr. Caldwell moved to the Oahe Reservoir area in old 
Armstrong County (now a part of Dewey County), above the mouth 
of the Cheyenne River on the west bank of the Missouri, and hired a 
new crew of laborers. The Oahe Reservoir, already beginning to 
flood, had begun to cover some of the sites in that vicinity. One of 
those still above water was site 39AR201, the remains of a large com- 
pact village of 18 long-rectangular houses placed in rows but without 
apparent fortifications. The remnants of one of the structures were 
excavated and other tests were made in the site. This extremely long, 
narrow house had been nearly twice as long as it was wide and its 
ruins were covered by 4.5 feet of overburden. There had been a low 
bench along the rear wall into which a shallow trench had been dug to 
receive the rear wall posts. Dentalium, native copper, and abundant 
human bone scraps lay on the floor and an ochre-covered human 
bundle burial associated with a bison skull was found in the southeast 
corner. Pottery was consistently Thomas Riggs Ware. This site 
represented a village of the Thomas Riggs Focus of middle-period 
sedentary farmers in the Missouri Valley and may date from the 15th 
century. Less than 500 yards downstream the remains of another 
large Thomas Riggs village, site 39AR210, were tested and found to 
resemble 39AR201 in all respects except that there had been a rectang- 
ular, bastioned fortification system. This site had been flooded by the 
Oahe Reservoir and reexposed by a drop in the water level. Recovery 
of archeological details was minimal, owing to their having been 
obscured by the flood waters, but a good artifact sample was collected. 
The Caldwell party completed the season's work after 9 weeks in the 
field. 

The third River Basin Surveys party in the field at the beginning 
of the year, consisting of a crew of six under the direction of Robert 
W. Neuman, was excavating at the Boundary Mound site (32SI1) on 
the North Dakota-South Dakota boundary line in the Oahe Reservoir 
area, Sioux County, N. Dak. The site consisted of four dome-shaped 
burial mounds, ranging from 3 to 5 feet in height and 60 to 80 feet in 
diameter. Three of the mounds were excavated. Each contained a 
rectangular central burial pit covered with timbers and lined with 
matting. Bison remains (skulls, partial skeletons, and complete 
skeletons in articulation) were found around the timbers. The burial 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 17 

pits were 3 to 4i/^ feet deep and contained from 6 to 14 secondary 
human burials, the bones of several being coated with red pigment. 
Artifacts were generally associated with a single individual in each 
pit. They included side-notched projectile points, triangular knives, 
bipointed drills, an obsidian end scraper, sandstone atlatl weights, a 
catlinite object, cigar-shaped bone objects, tubular bone beads, bone 
awls, a bone pendant, a bear canine pendant, shell pendants, and 
worked human mandibles as well as those from dogs and beaver. This 
mound group comprised burial tumuli of the Woodland period with 
relationships to the east and southeast of the area. They probably date 
from the period of 1,500 years ago and earlier. 

The Neuman party continued investigations in other burial-mound 
sites along the right bank of the Missouri River between Mandan, 
N. Dak., and Mobridge, S. Dak. Site 32M0207 is a group of three 
mounds in Morton County, N. Dak., some 20 miles south of Mandan. 
One of them was excavated but yielded only a single secondary hu- 
man burial and no artifacts. The Schmidt site (32M020) is a group 
of eight burial mounds 12 miles south of Mandan in Morton County. 
One mound, 75 feet in diameter and 1.3 feet high, was excavated. It 
contained a single secondary human burial in a rectangular, central, 
timber-covered burial pit. Articulated bison bones lay near the 
charred timbers that had covered the pit. The only artifacts recovered 
were a few fragmentary stone tools from the surface near one of the 
miexcavated mounds. The Swift Bird site (39DW233) is a group of 
two burial mounds and three shallow, circular depressions. One of 
the mounds, 70 feet in diameter and 3 feet high, was excavated. A 
single primary burial lay on the mound floor. Artifacts associated 
with the burial include dentalium beads, a tubular bone bead, and a 
shell pendant in the shape of a thunderbird. It is of interest to note 
that no pottery was found in association with any of these burial 
momids. The Neuman party completed the season's work on Septem- 
ber 1, after 12 weeks in the field. 

The fourth Missouri Basin Project field party at work at the begin- 
ning of the fiscal year was a crew of three, under the direction of G. 
Hubert Smith, investigating historic sites in the Oahe Reservoir area. 
Activities at the site of Fort Sully (39SL45) in Sully County consisted 
of excavations of building foundations and refuse dumps and latrine 
pits in several parts of the site. Pits dug near the hospital and the 
barroom locations were particularly informative. The excavations 
provided detailed outlines of some of the main structures of this mili- 
tary post of the 1866-94 period. They also produced one of the largest 
known collections, obtained under controlled conditions, of military 
and civil objects of this period. Especially noteworthy is a large 
array of glassware, including "art glass," hundreds of bottles, medical- 
department glassware, and household glass. Many of these objects 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

are complete or little damaged and are marked as to origin or pur- 
pose. Objects of earthenware in great quantity, including Oriental 
earthenware, and numerous items of metal and leather were recovered. 
Strictly military objects are in the minority but unusual items of 
both military and civilian use will form a valuable comparative col- 
lection and future exhibit material. Even specimens of printer's 
type, for printing official orders, were found. 

Investigations at the site of Fort Bennett (1870-91) in Stanley 
County, directly opposite Fort Sully, having been abandoned in June 
owing to flooding by the Oahe Reservoir, were resumed in August 
when the pool level had receded somewhat. The site was uncovered 
but the ground was so thoroughly waterlogged that excavation was 
impractical. Photographs were take for record purposes and some 
historic specimens were collected. The experience gained there, as at 
other flooded sites, clearly emphasizes the hopelessness, in a great 
majority of cases, of trying to do archeological work in sites that have 
once been flooded and reexposed when the waters receded, whether the 
sites in question be historic or prehistoric. 

On August 10 the fifth Missouri Basin Project field party, con- 
sisting of Smith and his crew, moved into the Big Bend Reservoir 
area to conduct preliminary tests at site 39ST202, believed to be that 
of Fort George, a trading post of the 1840's. Only the scantiest con- 
temporary record of this post has been found, although it was visited 
by Audubon and is reputed to have been of some importance as an 
opposition post in the fur trade. Tests there located former log habi- 
tations and occupational debris of the period. The site is located in 
Stanley County at the northeast corner of the Brule Indian Reserva- 
tion. This field party also took charge of an emergency excavation of 
six human burials accidentally located by construction activities at 
the Big Bend Dam site and reported by the Corps of Engineers. The 
interments were in wooden coffins and contained glass beads and other 
late objects suggesting the early reservation period, though no record 
of such graves has been found. The Smith party completed 9 weeks 
in the field and returned to Lincoln August 19. 

During the period October 26 to November 6, one Missouri Basin 
Project field party investigated a site being destroyed by gravel opera- 
tions in the upper reaches of the Big Bend Reservoir area. Robert 
W. Neuman and a crew of two examined and tested the areas of the 
Arzberger site (39HU6), which were being cut away as a gravel 
quarry. A rich midden and several cache pits were exposed and ex- 
cavated. Artifacts were collected and data compiled, but there ap- 
peared to be little material that had not already been discussed in a 
report on this site. During the same period Neuman also made a 
flight over the lower portion of the Oahe Reservoir and took aerial 
photos of several sites that had been flooded and reexposed by a drop 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 19 

in the pool level. On the return trip to Lincoln this party also visited 
sites in the immediate construction area of the Big Bend Dam (at the 
request of the Corps of Engineers) and while there collected speci- 
mens for dendrochronological use. It also visited an earth-lodge vil- 
lage site near Wessington Springs, S. Dak., and examined several ama- 
teur collections in southwest Minnesota and northwest Iowa. 

The 1961 summer field season in the Missouri River Basin began in 
the Merritt Reservoir area on May 25. Robert W. Neuman and an 
assistant spent 11 days in a final intensive search of the flood-pool area 
of this dam on the Snake River in Cherry County, Nebr. The dam 
is well along in construction and, despite two previous surveys that 
provided very little archeological evidence, it was thought that a final 
investigation should be made. The shifting sand dunes in this area, 
combined with the construction activities, might have revealed some 
cultural remains of the earlier periods. Such was found not to be the 
case and no archeological manifestations were noted. This reservoir 
area can be written off as completed. 

The second Missouri Basin Project field party consisted of a crew 
of nine under the direction of Robert W. Neuman. This party began 
work on Jime 6 in the construction area of the Big Bend Reservoir 
(actually the upper reaches of the Fort Randall Reservoir) at site 
39BF225. At that location there is a group of three low burial 
mounds situated on the terrace just west of the Talking Crow site 
(39BF3) in Buffalo County, S. Dak. By the end of the fiscal year 
Neuman had trenched two of these mounds and foimd three compo- 
nents present: (a) Historic with coflin burials, (b) the mound com- 
ponent with secondary pit burials, and (c) a premound, nonceramic 
component. 

The third Missouri Basin Project field party of the season was 
composed of a crew of 10 directed by Dr. Warren W. Caldwell. It 
began work on June 13 at the Pretty Head site (39LM232). This 
site is located on the right bank of the Missouri River, 4 miles above 
the Big Bend Dam site in Lyman County, S. Dak. By the end of the 
year excavations were well under way in several middens, and in the 
remains of one long-rectangular house. 

The fourth Missouri Basin Project field party of the 1961 season 
was a crew of 10 directed by Dr. Robert L. Stephenson. This party 
began work on June 19 in the upper reaches of the Oahe Reservoir in 
Corson County, S. Dak., on the west side of the Missouri River some 5 
miles south of Mobridge. There a series of small sites extending from 
the Blue Blanket Island site (39WW9) downstream into Dewey 
County to site 39DW232 was to be investigated with intensive exca- 
vations at the Potts Village site (39C019) and the Le Compte Creek 
site (39DW234). The latter are the remains of circular house vil- 
lages with fortifications and suggest a possible link between the later 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

part of the long-rectangular-house period and the earlier part of the 
circular-house period. The two main sites each appear to have a 
single bastion in the fortification system. Excavations were well 
underway by the end of the year. 

Cooperating institutions working in the Missouri Basin at the be- 
ginning of the fiscal year included five field parties from State agen- 
cies in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri. 
W. Raymond Wood of the University of Oregon had a crew at work 
for the State Historical Society of North Dakota at the Huff site 
(32M011) in the upper reaches of the Oahe Reservoir some 18 miles 
below Mandan, N. Dak. Wood's party excavated eight houses and 200 
feet of palisade, and cross-sectioned the fortification ditch. This was 
the location of a fortified, bastioned village of long- rectangular houses 
with the houses loosely arranged in rows. One unusual house was 
nearly square and had four center posts comparable to the circular 
houses of other sites. Dr. Preston Holder of the University of Ne- 
braska had a crew at work at the Leavenworth site (39C09), 7 miles 
north of Mobridge in Corson County, S. Dak., in the Oahe Reservoir. 
This site, visited by Lewis and Clark in 1804 and attacked by Col. 
Henry Leavenworth in 1823, was an Arikara village (or pair of 
villages) of circular houses. Holder's crew excavated four houses and 
tested several midden areas. Dr. Wesley R. Hurt, Jr., with a Uni- 
versity of South Dakota crew, spent July and August excavating 
portions of the No Heart Creek site (39AR2) in old Armstrong 
County on the right bank of the Missouri River in the Oahe Reservoir. 
This small, compact, fortified. La Roche-type village had an unusual 
series of small bastions and entry ways. Thomas A. Witty with a crew 
from the Kansas State Historical Society excavated four sites and 
tested several others in the Wilson Reservoir area on the Saline River 
in Russell and Lincoln Counties, Kans. All four excavated sites re- 
late to the Central Plains Phase. Dr. Carl H. Chapman had a Uni- 
versity of Missouri crew in the field surveying and testing sites in the 
Kasinger Bluff Reservoir on the Osage River in Henry, Benton, and 
St. Clair Counties, west-central Missouri. 

At the end of the fiscal year six field parties representing four 
cooperating institutions were in the field in the Missouri Basm. Dr. 
Preston Holder was back at the Leavenworth site (39C09) in the Oahe 
Reservoir for a second season of work by the University of Nebraska. 
Dr. Carl H. Chapman was back at the Kasinger Bluff Reservoir in 
Missouri with a University of Missouri field party surveying and 
testing sites in that area. In addition. Chapman had a survey crew 
at work in the Stockton Reservoir area in Cedar and Dade Counties, 
Mo. Thomas A. Witty had a crew at work excavating the Woods 
site (14CY30) and testing several other sites in the Milford Reservoir 
on the Republican River in Geary County, Kans., for the Kansas 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 21 

State Historical Society. Dr. Wesley R. Hurt had a crew at work 
by boat, testing several sites being exposed by wave action along the 
shores of Lewis and Clark Lake (Gavins Point) and Fort Randall 
Reservoirs, for the Uni verity of South Dakota. Roger T. Grange had 
a crew from the Nebraska State Historical Society at work in the 
Red Willow Reservoir area in Frontier County, southwestern Ne- 
braska, excavating two sites near the dam construction area. All 
the parties mentioned above were operating under agreements with 
the National Park Service and were cooperating with the Smithsonian 
Institution in the research program. 

During the time that the archeologists were not in the field they 
were engaged in the analysis of their materials and in the laboratoiy 
and library research. They also prepared manuscripts of technical 
scientific reports and wrote articles and papers of a more popular 
nature. 

The Missouri Basin Chronology Program, begun by the staff arche- 
ologists of the Missouri Basin Project in January 1958, continued to 
operate and made considerable progress throughout the year. Con- 
tinued cooperation and participation by more than 30 individuals 
representing 30 research institutions throughout the Plains area has 
been rewarding. This year major emphasis was placed upon the 
dendrochronological section of the program. Harry E. Weakly of 
the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Dr. Warren W. Caldwell of the 
Missouri Basin Project, and Ward Weakly of the University of Ne- 
braska concentrated the tree-ring studies on a limited area along the 
Missouri River between Fort Thompson and the Cheyenne River in 
South Dakota. This takes in all the Big Bend Reservoir area and the 
lower portions of the Oahe Reservoir. A master chart has been 
constructed for this area using oak, ash, and cedar, that extends from 
the present back to A.D. 1302. Archeological wood, mainly cedar 
house posts, from a number of sites has been dated by the master 
chart. The dates look good, and in general correlate well with other 
chronological data, but until further checks have been made, release 
of these dates would be premature. In addition to the master chart, 
a "floating" sequence of nearly 300 years has been constructed, based 
upon timbers from houses of the Over Focus and the Thomas Riggs 
Focus. There also appears to be a high degree of correlation between 
the South Dakota master chart and the several charts that have been 
previously developed for areas of Nebraska. 

The radioactive carbon-14: section of the program has continued 
to develop, and in conjunction with the University of Michigan Memo- 
rial Phoenix Laboratory, under the direction of Prof. H. R. Crane, 
a series of four new dates has been released. Sample M-1079a^ char- 
coal from a house post of the late component at the Crow Creek site 
(39BF11) in the Fort Randall Reservoir, S. Dak., excavated by 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Marvin F. Kivctt for the Nebraska State Historical Society as a part 
of the Inter- Agency Archeological Salvage Program, gave a date of 
560±150 years ago. Sample M-1080a^ charcoal from Feature 4 of 
tlio Good Soldier site (39LM238) in the Big Bend Reservoir of South 
Dakota, gave a date of 2,380±150 years ago. This sample was 
excavated by Eobert W. Neuman of the Missouri Basin Project staff. 
Sample M-1081, charcoal from zone D of the Logan Creek site 
(25BT3) in northeastern Nebraska, excavated by Marvin F. Kivett 
for the Nebraska State Historical Society, gave a date of 7,250±300 
years ago. Sample M-1082^ wood from a house post in a small long- 
rectangular house (F. 2) of the Fay Tolton site (39ST11) in the 
Oahe Reservoir, gave a date of 860±150 years ago. This sample was 
excavated by Dr. Donald D. Hartle, then of the Missouri Basin Project 
staff. An experiment in the decontamination of charcoal treated with 
paraffin failed completely. A log, one end of which had been coated 
with paraffin and the other end not so treated, had had the treated 
end deparaffined and both sections were run for carbon-14: analysis. 
The two dates from the same piece of charred wood were several cen- 
turies apart. 

The laboratory and office staff spent its full effort during the year 
in processing specimen materials for study, photographing and il- 
lustrating specimens, preparing specimen records, and typing, filing, 
and illustrating record and manuscript materials. Accomplishments 
of the laboratory and office staff are listed in tables 1 and 2. 

The Missouri Basin Project staff archeologists and archeologists 
of the National Park Service and cooperating States agencies working 
in the Missouri Basin met on July 30 in a roundtable field conference 
in Pierre, S. Dak. This iTi/^th Plains Conference, now a regular 
summer event, and a supplement to the annual Thanksgiving Plains 
Conference, was devoted to discussions of current fieldwork and 
technical problems of field identifications. During the Thanksgiving 
weekend, members of the staff participated in the 18th Plains Confer- 
ence for Archeology, held in Norman, Okla. On April 14, members 
of the staff participated in the seventy-first annual meeting of the 
Nebraska Academy of Sciences in Lincoln. 

Dr. Robert L. Stephenson, Chief, devoted a large part of his time 
during the year to managing the office and laboratory in Lincoln and 
preparing plans and budgets for the 1961 field season. He compiled 
a 7- volume summary of construction data and archeological work in 
all the 789 named reservoir sites in the Missouri Basin for use in fu- 
ture planning in the Lincoln office. He completed the revision of a 
large technical monograph, "The Accokeek Creek Site: A Middle 
Atlantic Seaboard Culture Sequence," previously accepted as his doc- 
toral dissertation at the University of Michigan, and continued with 
preliminary analysis of materials he recovered from the excavations 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 23 

at the Sully site (39SL4) in the Oahe Reservoir in 1956-57-58. He 
also continued work on a monograph reporting the "Archeological 
Investigations in the Whitney Reservoir, Texas," and two smaller 
manuscripts, all nearing completion at the end of the year. Through- 
out the year he served as chairman of the Missouri Basin Chronology 
Program ; as assistant editor of "Notes and News in the Plains Area," 
for Amerwan Antiquity; and as associate editor for the Plains An- 
thropologist. At the 18th Plains Conference, held in Norman, Okla., 
on Thanksgiving weekend, he served as chairman of the session on 
"Field Reports" and as a panel discussant for the session on "The 
Alvsarben Aspect." 

Dr. Stephenson presented a paper, "The Housing Problem," at the 
seventy-first annual meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 
in Lincoln on April 14. During the year he wrote a number of book 
reviews for various scientific journals. He also wrote a brief article, 
"Comments on 'Relationships between the Caddoan Area and the 
Plains' by Robert E. Bell," for publication in the Bulletin of the Texas 
Archeological Society. On May 7 he was the guest speaker at the 
annual meeting of the Iowa Archeological Society, talking on the 
subject, "Drowning Our Heritage." Throughout the year he gave 
seven other talks on various aspects of Missouri Basin Salvage 
Archeology before regular meetings of local civic organizations and 
school groups. In July he drove to Moscow, Idaho, to deliver a load 
of archeological specimens from the Missouri Basin to Dr. Alfred 
Bowers of the University of Idaho and to consult with Dr. Bowers on 
the analysis of the material. While there he met with the executive 
dean of the University of Idaho to confer on problems involved in 
anthropological programs in the University. In May he was invited 
to Accokeek, Md., as a consultant to the Accokeek Foundation on an 
archeological research program for the Accokeek area. Pie took 
annual leave to serve as part-time assistant professor of anthropology 
on the faculty of the University of Nebraska during both the first and 
second semesters of the academic year. At the end of the year he was 
conducting investigations in prehistoric Indian village sites in the 
Oahe Reservoir area. 

Dr. Warren W. Caldwell, archeologist, when not in charge of field 
parties, devoted most of his time to analyses of specimen materials 
he had recovered from salvage excavations in previous years. He 
completed final revisions of his manuscript "Archeological Investi- 
gations at the Hickey Brothers Site, 39LM4, Lyman County, South 
Dakota," in collaboration with Lee G. Madison and Bernard Golden; 
and of the manuscript "The Garrison Dam and Reservoir," in collab- 
oration with G. Hubert Smith. He continued the detailed analysis 
of materials from the Black Partizan site (39L1\I218) in the Big Bend 
Reservoir, S. Dak., and in collaboration with Harry E. Weakly con- 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

tinued work on the dendrochronological materials from the Big Bend 
and Oahe Keservoirs of South Dakota. In May he consulted with 
Dr. Douglas Osborne of the National Park Service regarding com- 
plete revision and expansion of his monograph, "The Archeology of 
Wakemap; A Stratified Site near the Dalles of the Columbia," for 
publication in the National Park Service series. He also completed 
"Dendrochronology and the Missouri Basin Chronology Program," 
which was published in The Tree Ring Bulletin^ vol. 23, No. 3. In 
addition, he wrote several book reviews. On July 30 he served as 
chairman of the lTi/2th Plains Conference in Pierre, S. Dak., and 
over Thanksgiving weekend he gave a report on his current fieldwork 
at the 18th Plains Conference in Norman, Okla. On April 14 he pre- 
sented a paper at the seventy-first annual meeting of the Nebraska 
Academy of Sciences held in Lincoln, entitled "Some Thoughts on 
Guns and Indians." During the year he continued to serve as chair- 
man of the dendrochronology section of the Missouri Basin Chronol- 
ogy Program; as assistant editor for reviews and literature for the 
Plains Anthropologist., and as Plains collaborator for the Society for 
American Archeology publication, Abstracts of New World Archae- 
ology. On annual leave he continued to serve as part-time assistant 
professor of anthropology on the faculty of the University of Ne- 
braska. At the end of the year he was again engaged in excavating 
archeological sites in the Big Bend Reservoir area. 

Robert W. Neuman, archeologist, when not in the field conducting 
excavations, was analyzing archeological materials he had previously 
excavated in the Big Bend Reservoir area. He completed four man- 
uscripts and had them accepted for publication : "The Olson Mound 
(39BF223) in Buffalo County, South Dakota"; "Salvage Arche- 
ology at a Site near Fort Thompson, South Dakota"; "A Bibliog- 
raphy of Archeological References Relating to the Central and North- 
ern Great Plains Prior to 1930" ; and "Domesticated Corn from a Fort 
Walton Mound in Houston County, Alabama." The first three will 
be published in the Plains Anthropologist; the fourth in the Florida 
Anthropologist. An article, "Indian Burial Mounds in the Upper 
Missouri River Basin," was published in Progress of the Interior 
Missouri Basin Field Committee. During the year he served as chair- 
man of the carbon-14 section of the Missouri Basin Chronology Pro- 
gram. On Thanksgiving weekend he presented two papers at the 
18th Plains Conference in Norman, Okla., entitled "Excavations at 
Four Mound Sites in the Oahe Reservoir" and "The Brother of All 
Document, 1888." During late April and early May he drove to 
Washington, D.C., and Knoxville, Tenn., to deliver a load of Missouri 
Basin archeological specimens and to confer with archeologists at 
both cities. At the end of the year he was again in the field conduct- 
ing archeological excavations. 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 



25 



G. Hubert Smith, archeologist, after completing his fieldwork in 
August, was on duty the remainder of the year in the Lincoln office 
analyzing materials and preparing reports of work previously ac- 
complished at liistoric sites in the Missouri Basin. His principal 
effort was directed toward preparation of a large monograph com- 
bining his own and several other investigators' work at the site of 
Fort Berthold and Like-a-Fishhook Village (32MX/2) in the Garrison 
Reservoir, and by the end of the year he was well along on this manu- 
script. He also prepared an article, "Historical Archeology in the 
Missouri Basin Reservoir Areas," that was published in the Plains 
Anthropologist in November, and wrote (in collaboration with War- 
ren W. Caldwell) a manuscript, "The Garrison Dam and Reservoir," 
for publication by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Throughout 
the year he served as assistant editor for liistoric sites archeology for 
the Plains Anthropologist and as chairman of the historic documenta- 
tion section of the Missouri Basin Chronology Program. He partici- 
pated in the 18th Plains Conference, held in Norman, Okla., over 
Thanksgiving weekend with a report of his current field activities. 
On September 23-24 he participated as a discussant at the "Confer- 
ence on Historic Buildings and Sites" at Iowa State University at 
Ames. On January 26-28, at the annual meeting of the Society of 
Architectural Historians, in Minneapolis, Minn., he presented an illus- 
trated paper on "Frontier Buildings on the Upper Missouri," and on 
May 20 a similar paper, "Early Historic Buildings in the Missouri 
Basin," at the annual meeting of the Nebraska Association of Archi- 
tects, held in Lincoln. On April 14 he spoke at the seventy-first 
annual meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences in Lincoln on 
"Early Historic Sites and Buildings on the Upper Missouri: Some 
Problems of Evidence." At the close of the year he was at work in 
the Lincoln office on his monograph on site 32ML2. 



Table 1. — Specimens processed Jvly 1, 1960 — June SO, 1961 



Reservoir 


Numher of 
sites 


Catalog 
numbers 
assigned 


Number of 
specimens 
processed 


Big Bend ^ 


6 

1 
57 

1 
15 

3 


496 

83 

2, 311 

25 

2,417 

151 


2, 161 


Fort Ran dall 


1,339 


Walter F, George 


24, 101 


Lewis and Clark __ 


135 


Oahe 


8, 145 


Sites not in reservoirs 


226 






Site totals 


83 


5,513 


36, 107 






Collections not assigned site numbers 


1 


3 


46 


Combined totals _. _ _ 


84 


5,516 


36, 153 







26 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

As of June 30, 1961, the Missouri Basin Project had cataloged 
1,255,71 G specimens from 2,141 numbered sites and 59 collections not 
assigned site numbers. 

Specimens restored : Two pottery vessels and one vessel section. 
Specimens repaired : Fourteen nonpottery artifacts. 
Specimens transferred to other agencies: 
To the United States National Museum : 
Archeological specimens from 425 sites in 10 reservoir areas. 
Unworked shell from 16 sites in three reservoir areas. 
To the University of Nebraslca State Museum: 

Identified, unworked animal bone from 120 sites in seven reservoir areas. 

Table 2. — Record material processed July 1, 1960-June 30, 1961 
MISSOUKI BASIN PROJECT 

Reflex copies of records 8, 465 

Photographic negatives made 1, 507 

Photographic prints made 8, 916 

Photographic prints mounted and filed 1, 894 

Transparencies mounted in glass 498 

Kodachrome pictures taken in lab 160 

Cartographic tracings and drawings 66 

Artifacts sketched 45 

Plates lettered 40 

Profiles drawn 11 

Plate layouts made for manuscripts 12 

Cooperating institutions. — During the fiscal year a number of insti- 
tutions cooperated in the Inter- Agency Salvage Program in several 
areas. In addition to those previously mentioned in the sections per- 
taining to Alabama-Georgia and the Missouri Basin, the following 
AYork was carried on under agreements with the National Park 
Service : 

The University of Arkansas made studies in the Beaver Reservoir 
area on the "Wliite River and the Millwood Reservoir on Little River. 
The University of Kentucky conducted investigations in the Nolin 
Reservoir area on the Nolin River. The University of North Carolina 
worked at the Wilkesboro Reservoir on the Yadkin River. The Uni- 
versity of Tennessee carried on activities in the Milton Hill Reservoir 
on the Clinch River. The Carnegie Museum of Pittsburgh studied 
archeological manifestations in the Shenango Reservoir area on the 
Shenango River. The New Jersey State Museum conducted inves- 
tigations at Tocks Island. The University of Illinois had a project 
at the Shelby ville Reservoir on the Kaskaskia River, and Southern 
Illinois University made a series of excavations in the Carlyle Res- 
ervoir Basin on the same river. The Wisconsin State Historical 
Society conducted investigations in the Kickapoo Reservoir area on 
the Kickapoo River. The University of Texas carried on a series of 
surveys in the Texas Gulf Project. The Kansas State Historical 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 27 

Society excavated in the Council Grove Eeservoir on the Grand 
(Neosho) River. The University of Arizona continued its investiga- 
tions in the Painted Rock area on the Gila River. The Museum of 
Northern Arizona continued its studies in the Glen Canyon Reservoir 
area on tlie Colorado River, as did the University of Utah in the same 
area and in the Flaming Gorge and Plainfield Reservoir Basins. 
The Museum of New Mexico worked in the Navajo Reservoir area 
along the San Juan River. The College of the Sequoias conducted 
investigations in the Terminus Reservoir area on the Kaweah River 
in California, Idaho State College worked in the Bruce's Eddy area 
on the North Fork of the Clearwater River. Washington State Col- 
lege continued its excavations in the Lower Monumental and Ice 
Harbor areas along the Columbia River and the University of Wash- 
ington worked on the Priest Rapids- Wanapum Project in the Middle 
Columbia River district. The University of Oregon investigated 
sites in the John Day Reservoir Basin on the John Day River. Several 
institutions volunteered to carry on survey work without an agreement 
with the National Park Service. They include gi'oups in Pennsylvania, 
New York State, Ohio, Indiana, southern California, and West 
Virginia. In the latter State the West Virginia Geological Survey 
did reconnaissance work in the Summerville Reservoir area on the 
Gauley River. 

ARCHIVES 

The Bureau archives continued under the custody of Mrs. Margaret 
C. Blaker, archivist. In May 1961 Mrs. Blaker visited the Haverf ord 
College Library, Haverford, Pa., where she examined pictorial and 
manuscript material in the Quaker Collection concerning American 
Indians, and in June, visited the library of Hampton Institute, Hamp- 
ton, Va., and examined an extensive collection of field and studio 
photographs relating to Indians who were students at Hampton in 
the period 1880-1900. On July 10, 1960, Mrs. Caroline R. Cohen 
was appointed as junior anthropologist and was assigned to assist in 
the archives. 

MANUSCRIPT COLLECTIONS 

The papers of Dr. Frans M. Olbrechts, relating to his studies of the 
Cherokee Indians of North Carolina in 1926-31 when he was a col- 
laborator of the Bureau, were transmitted to the Bureau archives 
by Dr. Olbrechts' widow, Mrs. Margriet Olbrechts of Wezembeek- 
Oppem, Belgium, through Dr. A. E. Meeussen, Koninklijk Museum, 
Tervuren, Belgium. Dr. Olbrechts died at Aix-la-Chapelle, March 
24, 1958. The subject matter of the papers consists of the following 
categories : Vocabularies, grammar, texts, disease-name papers, Wilnoti 
formula papers, botany, myths, and miscellaneous ethnographic notes. 



28 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

An 18-pag6 inventory has been prepared, and the papers, which 
occupy 28 boxes, are available for study and microfilming. 

The manuscript collection continued to bo utilized by anthropolo- 
gists and other students. About 300 manuscripts were consulted by 
searchers who visited the archives in person or purchased microfilm 
and other reproductions totaling 7,146 pages. An equal number of 
manuscripts was consulted by the archivist in obtaining information 
for over 90 mail inquiries. In the course of this examination, new and 
more detailed descriptions of manuscripts were also prepared for the 
pennanent catalog and for future distribution in response to specific 
inquiries. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTIONS 

The Bureau's collection of North American Indian photographs, 
which is one of the most extensive and most active of its kind, con- 
tinued to grow through the generosity of interested individuals who 
either lent pictures for copying, or presented them as gifts. 

Sixty original photographs of Mesquakie Indians, mainly taken 
by J. L. Hudson of Tama, Iowa, and apparently dating in part from 
the 1 SCO's, were lent for copying by Norman Feder of New York City. 
Mr. Feder also lent a series of about 40 copy prints of Prairie Pot- 
tawotomie of the latter part of the 19th century. 

Over 150 photographic slides of American Indian subjects were 
received on loan from Mrs. Doris Collester of East Riverdale, Md. 
Of especial interest are several dozen slides of Apache, Pima, and 
Maricopa Indians dated 1871 or in years of the following decade. 
Many of the slides bear the name of Moore, Bond & Co., Chicago or 
Moore, Hubbell, & Co., Chicago, as distributor, although the original 
source of most of the photographs is still unknown. 

Forty-six photographs relating to Cree and Chipewyan Indians 
in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Mackenzie, Canada, taken by Dr. 
Francis Harper on an expedition of the Geological Survey of Canada 
to the Great Slave Lake in 1914 were obtained from the Geological 
Survey of Canada, through the courtesy of Dr. Francis Harper and 
Dr. J. M. Harrison, Director of the Survey. 

A scrapbook of James Earl Taylor, artist-correspondent for Frank 
LesUe^s Illustrated Weekly Newspaper from 1863 to 1883, was re- 
ceived as a gift from the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Com- 
mission, through John Witthoft. The scrapbook contains several 
hundred original photographic prints of western Indians, several 
photographs of Army officers, linecuts of western military posts, and 
other material assembled for the artist's reference, as well as reproduc- 
tions of a number of Taylor's own illustrations. 

Seventeen photographs of important men of the Osage, Caddo, 
Arapaho, Cherokee, Creek, Chickasaw, and Seminole tribes were 



SEVENTY-EIGPITH ANNUAL REPORT 29 

borrowed for copying from the Quaker Collection, Haverford College 
Library, Haverford, Pa., through the courtesy of Dr. Thomas E, 
Drake. The portraits are all on similar mounts of the carte de visite 
style, and most are inscribed with the subjects' names and the dateline 
September 1865, Fort Smith, Ark. Only one of the photographs has 
a photographer's imprint. It is a portrait of Left Hand and Powder 
Face, Arapahoes, with Superintendent Enoch Hoag. On the reverse 
is stamped, "AV. H. Lamon, Photograph Artist, Corner Massachusetts 
& Henry Sts., Lawrence, Kansas." Four views of Kickapoo bark- and 
mat-covered lodges in Chief Wapamashawa's village, Indian Terri- 
tory, were also borrow^ed from the Quaker collection and copied. 

Thirteen photographs, including 10 relating to Kiowa, Wichita, 
and Apache Indians, by Irwin of Chickasha, Indian Territory, 1892- 
ca. 1894, were lent for copying by Vernon M. Riley of Chino, Calif. 

Five photographs relating to Omaha and Ponca Indians of the 
latter 19th century, and a group photograph of the oflEicers of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science at Ann Arbor, 
1885, including the Reverend J. Owen Dorsey and Mrs. Erminnie A. 
Smith (both formerly associated with this Bureau) were lent for 
copying by Mrs. Virginia Dorsey Lightfoot of Takoma Park, Md. 

Five photographs of Osage Indians, taken in 1871 by T. M. Con- 
cannon at the Osage Agency, Indian Territory, were received as a 
gift from Mrs. Ernest J. Martin of Drain, Oreg. 

Nine photographs relating to Indians of the Southwest who were 
connected with projects of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation in that 
area in 1941-60 were donated b}'' the Bureau of Reclamation. 

Ten copy photographs of Ute Indians of the 1870's and 1880's were 
received in exchange from Dr. Omer C. Stewart of Boulder, Colo. 

Six recent photographs of Quapaw Indians of Oklahoma were pre- 
sented by Mrs. Velma Nieberding of Miami, Okla. 

A collection of between 100 and 200 mounted photographs and 
glass slides was received as a transfer from the library of the United 
States Department of the Interior. At year's end these photographs 
had not yet been arranged and individually listed. They relate to a 
variety of North American Indian tribes. 

During the year prints were prepared from several hundred snap- 
shot negatives by Matilda Coxe Stevenson that had not been previously 
cataloged. Most of the photographs were made at Zuni Pueblo, ca. 
1904. They include numerous views relating to dances and cere- 
monials and a lesser number pertaining to domestic activities. In 
spite of the fact that some of the photographs are not of high quality 
photographically, many are surprisingly clear and informative, and 
the collection as a whole warrants careful study. 

In addition to the Zuiii views, in the Stevenson collections there 
are a relatively small number of photographs relating to the pueblos 



30 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

of Cochiti, ca. 1904, San Iklefonso, ca. 1908, and Santa Clara, ca. 
1911. A 16-page caption list of the entire collection has been prepared. 
The photographic files continued to be used extensively by scholars 
and the general public. The year's total of approximately 600 pur- 
chase orders and written and personal inquiries concerning photo- 
graphs is about equal to that of last year, while the total of over 
2,000 prints distributed exceeds last year's figure. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Work during the past fiscal year consisted of the preparation of 
numerous charts, graphs, diagrams, and maps, the restoration of 
photographs, photo retouching, and the drawing of a variety of 
Indian artifacts. Also many miscellaneous drawings, diagrams, etc., 
were prepared for other branches of the Institution. 

LIBRARY 

Detailed information about the Bureau library is contained in the 
report of the librarian on the Smithsonian Library, but it is well to 
emphasize the fact that the Bureau library is still serving a useful 
purpose in providing reference material not only for members of 
the staff but for students and professionals in the Washington area 
and visitors from other parts of the country. However, it should be 
pointed out that the library is not wholly fulfilling the function that 
it should because of the lack of a librarian. A full-time librarian 
would not only greatly expedite the use of the facility by members 
of the staff, but would also be extremely helpful to those who find it 
necessary to consult publications in the Bureau library, many of 
which are not available in many other places. Furthermore, through 
an intimate knowledge of the material now available, a librarian would 
be able to see that new publications pertaining to the Bureau's 
researches are acquired promptly when they become available. For 
many years the Bureau library was one of the outstanding places in 
North America for anthropological research, and it well merits a 
return to its former status. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The Bureau's editorial work continued during the year under the 
immediate direction of Mrs. Eloise B. Edelen. There were issued 
one Annual Keport and two Bulletins, as follows: 

Seventy-seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1959-60. 

ii+35 pp., 2 pis. 1961. 
Bulletin 176. River Basin Surveys Papers, Nos. 15-20, Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., 
editor, ix-f .S37 pp., 65 pis., 25 figs. 1960. 
No. 15. Historic sites archeology on the Upper Missouri, by Merrill J. 
Mattes. 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 31 

Bulletin 176 — Continued 

No. 16. Historic sites archeology in the Fort Randall Reservoir, South 

Dakota, by John E. Mills. 
No. 17. The excavation and investigation of Fort Lookout Trading Post II 

(39L1M57) in the Fort Randall Reservoir, South Dakota, by Carl F. Miller. 
No. 18. Fort Pierre II (39ST217), a historic trading post in the Oahe 

Dam area, South Dakota, by G. Hubert Smith. 
No. 19. Archeological investigations at the site of Fort Stevenson (32ML1), 

Garrison Reservoir, North Dakota, by G. Hubert Smith. With an intro- 
duction by Robert L. Stephenson and an appendix by Carlyle S. Smith. 
No. 20. The archeology of a small trading post (32MN1) in the Garrison 

Reservoir (Kipp's Post) South Dakota, by Alan B. Wool worth and W. 

Raymond Wood. 
Bulletin 180. Symposium on Cherokee and Iroquois culture, edited by William 
N. Fenton and John Gulick. VI +292 pp. 1961. 
No. 1. Foreword by the editors. 

No. 2. Iroquois-Cherokee linguistic relations, by Floyd G. Lounsbury. 
No. 3. Comment on Floyd G. Lounsbury's "Iroquois-Cherokee Linguistic 

Relations," by Mary R. Haas. 
No. 4. Iroquois archeology and settlement patterns, by William A. Ritchie. 
No. 5. First comment on WUiam A. Ritchie's "Iroquois Archeology and 

Settlement Patterns," by William H. Sears. 
No. 6. Second comment on William A. Ritchie's "Iroquois Archeology and 
Settlement Patterns," by Douglas S. Byers. 
No. 7. Cherokee archeology, by Joffre L. Coe. 
No. 8. Comment on Joffre L. Coe's "Cherokee Archeology," by Charles H. 

Fairbanks. 
No. 9. Eastern Woodlands community typology and acculturation, by John 

Witthoft. 
No. 10. Comment on John Witthoft's "Eastern Woodlands Community 

Typology and Acculturation," by John M. Goggin. 
No. 11. Cherokee economic cooperatives : the Gadugi, by Raymond D. Fogel- 

son and Paul Kutsche. 
No. 12. The rise of the Cherokee state as an instance in a class: The 

"Mesopotamian" career to statehood, by Fred O. Gearing. 
No. 13. Comment on Fred O. Gearing's "The Rise of the Cherokee State as 

au Instance in a Class: The 'Mesopotamian' Career to Statehood," by 

Annemarie Shimony. 
No. 14. Cultural composition of the Handsome Lake religion, by Anthony 

F. C. Wallace. 
No. 15. Comment on Anthony F. C. Wallace's "Cultural Composition of 

the Handsome Lake Religion," by Wallace L. Chafe. 
No. 16. The Redbird Smith movement, by Robert K. Thomas. 
No. 17. Comment on Robert K. Thomas's "The Redbird Smith Movement," 

by Fred W. Voget. 
No. 18. Effects of environment on Cherokee-Iroquois ceremonialism, music, 

and dance, by Gertrude P. Kurath. 
No. 10. Comment on Gertrude P. Kurath's "Effects of Environment on 

Cherokee-Iroquois Ceremonialism, Music, and Dance," by William C. 

Sturtevant. 
No. 20. The Iroquois fortunetellers and their conservative influence, by 

Annemarie Shimony. 
No. 21. Change, persistence, and accommodation In Cherokee medico- 
magical beliefs, by Raymond D. Fogelson. 



32 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Bulletin ISO— Continued 

No. 22. Some observations on the persistence of aboriginal Cherokee per- 
sonality traits, by Charles H. Holzinger. 

No. 23. First comment on Charles H. Holzinger's "Some Observations on 
the Persistence of Aboriginal Cherokee Personality Traits," by David 
Landy. 

No. 24. Second comment on Charles H. Holzinger's "Some Observations on 
the Persistence of Aboriginal Cherokee Personality Traits," by John 
Gulick. 

No. 2.5. Iroquoian culture history: A general evaluation, by William N. 
Fenton. 

Publications distributed totaled 29,845, as compared with 31,547 for 
the fiscal year 1960. 

COLLECTIONS 

The following collections were made by staff members of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology or of the River Basm Surveys and transferred 
to the permanent collections of the department of science and tech- 
nology, the department of civil history, and the department of an- 
tliropology, U.S. National Museum : 

FROM BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Acc. No. 

236067. Dictaphone. Through Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

234469. 31 Belgian postage stamps. Through Mrs. Margaret C. Blaker. 

FROM RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

225806. 160 land and fresh-vi^ater mollusks from Arkansas and South Dakota. 

Through Dr. Robert L. Stephenson. 
232081. Indian skeletal remains from Big Bend Reservoir, Buffalo County, 

S. Dak. 
232741. 5,153 archeological items and skeletal material from Fall River County, 

S. Dak., and Crook and Fremont Counties, Wyo., 1957. 
233812. Indian skeletal materials from the McNary Reservoir region. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Dr. M. W. Stirling, Dr. John P. Harrington, Dr. A. J. Waring, and 
Sister Inez Ililger continued as research associates. Dr. Stirling, as- 
sisted by Mrs. Marion Stirling, using the Bureau's laboratory facili- 
ties, completed work on the materials from the Ecuadorian field trip 
undertaken while he was Director of the Bureau, and turned in a 
manuscript which will be published in the Bureau's series of anthro- 
pological papers. 

The following bibliographies and leaflets were issued during the 
fiscal year : 

SILf-50, 3d rev., 2/61: Selected list of portraits of prominent Indians in the 

collections of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 
SIL-53, rev., 2/61: Photographic collections of the Bureau of American 

Ethnology. 
SILr-76, rev., 7/60 : Statement regarding the Book of Mormon. 
SIL-92, rev., 1/61 : Origin of the American Indian. 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 33 

SIL-134, rev., 10/60 : American Indian languages. 

SIL-175, rev., 3/61 : Selected references on present-day conditions among U.S. 

Indians. 
SIL-264, 11/60 : Selected references on the Indian and the Frontier. 
SIL-276, 1/61 : Linguistic considerations in the interpretation of place names. 

Other bibliographies were revised during the year. They are : the 
"Battle of the Little Bighorn" (should be available for distribution 
by September 1961), and the popular "Bibliography of American In- 
dian Medicine" (available before December 1961.) 

The nearly 3,900 letters received in the Directors office plus a few 
hundred received by staff members are a good indication of the con- 
tinued interest in the American Indian. In addition, several thou- 
sand letters requesting Bureau publications are received yearly in the 
Editorial and Publications Division. Many complete sets of the Bu- 
reau's bibliographies were sent out upon requests from college and 
university professors and libraries, and to other educational organiza- 
tions. Approximately 10,200 informational items, including type- 
script and printed articles, bibliographies, and other leaflets, plus more 
than 300 photographic lists were mailed from the main Bureau office 
in response to requests for such materials. Many specimens were 
mailed in or brought to the office for identification and data on them 
were supplied. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director. 

Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 
Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 

o 



I 



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