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Full text of "Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution"

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Given By 
fTmlt.h.sonian Institute 



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Seventy-ninth Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1961-1962 









.A' 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D.C. 



SEVENTY-NINTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1961-1962 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1963 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

June 30, 1962 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Anthropologists. — Henry B. Collins, William C. Sturtevant, 

Wallace L. Chafe, Robert M. Laughlin. 
Research Associates. — Sister M. Inez Hilger, Matthew W. 

Stirling, A. J. Waring, Jr. 
Archivist. — Mrs. Margaret C. Blaker. 
Scientific illustrator. — B. G. Schumacher. 
Administrative assistant. — Mrs. Jessie S. Shaw. 

Rivee Basin Surveys 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Chief, Missouri Basin Project. — Robert L. Stephenson. 

Archeolo gists. — Lionel A. Brown, Warren W. Caldwell, 
Harold A. Huscher, Wilfred M. Husted, Oscar L. Mallory, 
Carl F. Miller, Robert W. Neuman, G. Hubert Smith. 



I? 






SEVENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director 



Sm : I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1962, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of April 10, 1928, as amended 
August 22, 1949, which directs the Bureau "to continue independently 
or in cooperation anthropological researches among the American In- 
dians and the natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection of 
the United States and the excavation and preservation of archeologic 
remains." 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., director, devoted a portion of his time 
to office duties and the general supervision of the Bureau and the River 
Basin Surveys. In mid- July in company with Dr. Robert L. Stephen- 
son, chief of the Missouri Basin Project of the River Basin Surveys, 
and Dr. John M. Corbett, archeologist for the National Park Service, 
he made an inspection trip to the River Basm Surveys excavating 
parties in the Missouri Basin and visited several local institutions 
which v.'ere conducting excavations in cooperation with the Inter- 
Agency Archeological Salvage Program. He then proceeded to the 
Agate Basin Site in eastern Wyoming where a joint Smithsonian In- 
stitution-National Geographic Society party under his general direc- 
tion was digging in a site attributable to one of the early hunting 
groups in the Plains area. Dr. Roberts remained at the site until the 
work was terminated early in August. The immediate field work was 
under the direction of Dr. William M. Bass. During the course of 
the investigations numerous cut and split animal bones with evidence 
both for a kill and for a camping area were found. Associated with 
them were a variety of stone and bone implements. Most of the ani- 
mal bones have been identified as representing bison of an extinct 
species. Bison antiquus. A few of the bones undoubtedly represent 
one of the Cervidae, but they are not diagnostic of species. Also, 
there were a few jack-rabbit bones. The artifacts in addition to pro- 
jectile points include various forms of scrapers, flake knives, spoke 
shaves, flakes with graver's points, and a few bone tools. This assem- 
blage of hnplements represents a definite contribution because it makes 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

possible the establislunent of an Agate Basin Complex. At two places 
in the excavated area, objects found at a lower level indicated that 
Folsom Man had at least visited the area prior to the occupation by 
the makers of the Agate Basin type complex. One carbon- 14 date 
obtained for the Agate Basin level indicates that the occupation was 
at about 9,350 ±400 years before the present, and charcoal from the 
Folsom level has given a date of 10,375 ±700 years before the present. 
This suggests that the basin was occupied at least at intervals over a 
period of about 1,000 years. 

After returning to Washington from Wyoming, Dr. Roberts went 
to Sao Paulo, Brazil, where he represented the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion and the United States at a conference on the origin and antiquity 
of man in the New World. He made three speeches at the conference 
and was elected one of the two vice presidents for the session. In 
September he went to Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern 
Colorado where he served as a member of the advisory group for the 
Wetherill Mesa Project. In November he participated in the 19th 
Plains Conference for Archeology at Lawton, Okla., and read a paper 
on the 1961 excavations at the Agate Basin Site. Later he went to 
Macon, Ga., as a member of an advisory group for a series of studies 
to be carried on at Ocmulgee National Monument. Early in June he 
visited the offices of the Missouri Basin Project of the River Basin 
Survey at Lincoln, Nebr., and assisted in sending out a number of 
field parties for work in Kansas, South Dakota, Wyoming, and 
Montana. 

Dr. Henry B. Collins, anthropologist, continued his Eskimo studies 
and other Arctic activities. The Russian translation program — An- 
thro'pology of the North: Translations from Russian Sources — which 
he organized in 1960 continued its operation with the support of a 
second year's grant from the National Science Foundation. The 
second volume of translations. Studies in Siberian Ethnogenesis^ 
edited by Henry N. Michael, was published by the University of 
Toronto Press for the Arctic Institute of North America in April 
1962. This 313-page volume contains 17 articles by Soviet etlinolo- 
gists, anthropologists, historians, and linguists on the origin and re- 
lationships of the Yakut, Tungus, Buryat, Kirgiz, the Amur tribes, 
and Samoyed and other ethnic groups of Siberia. Work is proceeding 
on the translation and editing of additional volumes and papers on 
Siberian archeology, ethnology, and physical anthropology selected by 
the Arctic Institute's advisory committee, of which Dr. Collins is 
chairman. 

Dr. Collins' article on Eskimo art appeared in volume 5 of the 
Encyclopaedia of World Art. It traces the development of Eskimo 
art from prehistoric to modern times and describes and illustrates the 



SEVENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 3 

various regional art styles, ancient and modem, in Alaska, Canada, 
and Greenland. He also prejoared an article on the relationships of 
the earliest Eskimo cultures to recently discovered pre-Eskimo cul- 
tures in the western Arctic for a volume on early man in the western 
Arctic to be published by the University of Alaska. 

Dr. Collins continued to serve as a member of the Board of Gov- 
ernors of the Arctic Institute of North America and as a member 
of its publications committee responsible for the quarterly journal 
Arctic and the two other Arctic Institute series, Technical Papers 
and Special Publications. He also continued to serve as chairman 
of the directing committee which plans and supervises preparation 
of the Arctic Bihliograpfhy^ a comprehensive reference work which 
abstracts and indexes the contents of publications in all fields of sci- 
ence, and in all languages, relating to the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions 
of the world. This Arctic Institute project, for which Dr. Collins 
has been primarily responsible since its inception in 1947, is being 
supported by grants and allotments from the Department of Defense, 
National Institutes of Health, Atomic Energy Commission, and De- 
fense Research Board of Canada. The Library of Congress provides 
office space, and most of the work of compilation and editing is done 
there under the direction of IVIiss Marie Tremaine. In addition to 
the unsurpassed collections of the Library of Congress, those of the 
Smithsonian Library and 80 other large libraries in the United States 
and Canada, as well as of polar research institutes in England, France, 
and Norway, are being utilized in the preparation of the bibliography. 
Volume 10 was issued by the Government Printing Office in December 
1961, and volume 11 is ready for the printer. Volume 10 (1,520 pages) 
abstracts and indexes the contents of 6,570 scientific publications on 
Arctic and sub-Arctic areas and on low temperature conditions ; added 
to the abstracts appearing in the previous nine volumes, this makes a 
total of 62,848 such publications abstracted to date. In volume 10, 
for the first time, Russian language material exceeds that in English, 
reflecting expanded research activities of Soviet scientists in their 
Arctic territories; the volume contains abstracts, all in English, of 
3,075 Russian publications, of 2,503 publications in English, 513 Scan- 
dinavian, 212 German, and 267 in other languages. Subjects that 
have received sj)ecial emphasis in this volume are geology, geophysics, 
mineral resources, meteorology, fisheries, oceanography, transporta- 
tion, construction, economic and social conditions, anthropology and 
acculturation of Eskimos and native Siberian peoples, acclimatization, 
military and public health, diseases, and the environmental effects of 
darkness, humidity, light, and low temperature on animals, man, and 
plants. 

Dr. William C. Sturtevant, etlmologist, continued his research re- 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

lated to the ethnology of the Eastern North American Indians. Par- 
ticularly he broadened his Iroquois research, previously concentrated 
on the Seneca of New York, to include the very poorly known Seneca- 
Cayuga of northeastern Oklahoma. During August 1961 he spent 3 
weeks doing field work among this group (including attendance at 
their major annual ceremony, the Green Corn Dance). In January 
and May he spent several days studying Oklahoma Seneca-Cayuga 
specimens in the Museum of the American Indian in New York, and 
in June visited the National Museum of Canada in Ottawa to study 
the large collection made among this group by Marius Barbeau in 1911 
and 1912. These Iroquois are descended from a group which settled in 
Ohio in the 18th century, together with accretions received since then 
from New York and Canada. At present those who speak an 
Indian language speak Cayuga. Although there have been continu- 
ous mtermittent contacts with other Iroquois, the culture of this group 
is the most deviant found in any Iroquois community, and its study 
promises to elucidate several aspects of general Iroquois culture — 
particularly some features of the various major ritual complexes. 
Conversations with informants during a brief return visit to the New 
York Seneca in October helped clarify some of these matters. 

While in Oklahoma Dr. Sturtevant spent a day among the Delaware 
inquiring about the last years of their ceremonial structure, the Big 
House. Carved posts from this building were studied in museums 
in Oklahoma, New York, and Toronto during this and previous years, 
and some notes on the subject by F. G. Speck were located in the 
American Pliilosophical Society Library in Philadelphia. Dr. Sturte- 
vant returned from Oklahoma via Mississippi and North Carolina, 
stopping about 3 days in each State to renew and expand his acquaint- 
ance with the Choctaw and Cherokee. 

During September Dr. Sturtevant prepared a paper on "Spanish- 
Indian Relations in Southeastern North America," which he delivered 
at the annual meeting of the American Indian Etlmohistoric Con- 
ference in Providence in October. This later appeared in Ethno- 
Mstory (vol. 9, pp. 41-94, 1962). His paper on "Taino Agriculture" 
was published in Antropologica Suj)plement PuMication No. 2 
(Caracas, 1961) . In October Dr. Sturtevant attended an International 
Conference on Iroquois Research, at McMaster University, Hamilton, 
Ontario, where he presented an oral report on his Oklahoma field 
work. In November he attended the annual meetings of the American 
Anthropological Association in Philadelphia. 

Dr. Wallace L. Chafe, linguist, spent July and Aug-ust in Anadarko, 
Okla., collecting material for a description of the Caddo language. 
He recorded a considerable quantity of linguistic data on this language 
for which almost no information was previously available, and he 



SEVENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 5 

returned to Oklahoma in mid-June 1962 to continue this work. In 
August ho spent a few days with Dr. Sturtevant at the Seneca-Cayuga 
Green Corn Dance and was able to locate a few speakers of Wyandot, 
a language that had been thought to be extinct. 

Between September and May Dr. Chafe worked at the Bureau on 
a half-time basis, teaching courses on several linguistic subjects at 
Catholic and Georgetown Universities. At Georgetown he worked 
with a speaker of Winnebago and hopes eventually to prepare some 
descriptive material on that language. Through this study he was 
led to pursue further some facts suggestive of a remote relationship 
between the Siouan, Caddoan, and Iroquoian language families. 
During the fall he continued his survey of the present number of 
speakers of North American Indian languages, the results of which 
are being published in the International Journal of American 
Linguistics. He read papers at the International Conference on 
Iroquoian Studies at Hamilton, Ontario, in October, and at the Annual 
Meeting of the American Anthropological Association in Philadel- 
phia in November. He was program chairman for the spring meeting 
of the American Ethnological Society in Washington in April and 
edited the papers read at the meeting for publication. During the 
late spring he spent several weeks continuing work on a Seneca dic- 
tionary. 

Kobert M. Laughlin, ethnologist specializing in the Middle Ameri- 
can area, joined the staff of the Bureau on June 11, 1962. He spent 
the remaining days of the fiscal year in research on the Huastec of 
Veracruz and San Luis Potosi, Mexico, in preparation for an article 
for the Handbook of Middle American Indians, to be published by 
the Middle American Research Institute of Tulane University. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

During fiscal 1962 the River Basin Surveys unit continued its pro- 
gram for salvage archeology in areas to be flooded or otherwise 
destroyed by the construction of large dams. The work as in previous 
years was carried on in cooperation with the National Park Service 
and the Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of the Interior, the 
Corps of Engineers of the Department of the Army, and a number 
of State and local institutions. An increase in funds that became 
available late in the year made possible an expansion in the program. 
During 1961-62 the investigations were supported by a transfer of 
$231,705 from the National Park Service and a grant of $2,000 from 
the Appalachian Power Co. The funds from the National Park 
Service were for use in the Missouri Basin and along the Chatta- 
hoochee River, Alabama-Georgia. The grant from the Appalachian 
Power Co. was to provide for an archeological survey in the area along 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the Roanoke River in southern Virginia where its Smith Mountain 
Project is underway. The funds from the National Park Service 
provided $204,500 for the Missouri Basin and $27,205 for the Chatta- 
hoochee Project. A carryover of $7,734 in the Missouri Basin made 
the total for that area $212,234. The grand total of funds available 
in 1961-62 for the River Basin Surveys was $241,439. 

Investigations in the field consisted of surveys and excavations. 
Most of the efforts were concentrated in the digging of sites, but sur- 
veys were made in three new reservoir basins and two watershed proj- 
ect areas. Also, at the end of the year a survey was underway in the 
Missouri River area in Montana, locally known as the Missouri Breaks, 
which is to be set aside as the Lewis and Clark National Wilderness 
Waterway. Two of the new reservoirs were in Virginia and one in 
Nebraska. One of the watershed projects was also in Nebraska and the 
other was in Iowa. At the beginning of the fiscal year three parties 
were in the field in the Missouri Basin. A fourth began operations 
in that area in August, and another party resumed investigations 
along the Chattahoochee River during the same period. At the end 
of April a party returned to the Chattahoochee area and started fur- 
ther excavations in the Walter F. George Reservoir Basin. In May 
two small parties were at work in Nebraska, one in South Dakota, and 
one in Iowa. In June 11 parties moved into the Missouri Basin; one 
of them was working in Kansas, seven were in South Dakota, one 
was in Wyoming, one was in Wyoming-Montana, and one in Montana. 
With the exception of the one in Alabama-Georgia, which terminated 
its activities on June 30, all these parties were continuing tJieir investi- 
gations at the close of the fiscal year. 

As of June 30, 1962, reservoir areas where archeological surveys and 
excavations had been made since the start of the salvage program 
totaled 258, located in 29 States. In addition, two lock projects, four 
canal areas, and two watershed areas had been examined. During the 
years since the program got underway, 4,979 sites have been located 
and recorded, and of that number 1,171 were recommended for exca- 
vation or limited testing. Because complete excavation is rarely 
possible, except in the case of a few small sites, the term "excavation" 
implies digging approximately 10 percent of a site. With the excep- 
tion of those where the work was done during the past year, prelimi- 
nary appraisal reports have been issued for most of the areas surveyed 
and, in cases where additional reconnaissance has resulted in the dis- 
covery of other sites, supplemental reports have been prepared. Wliere 
no archeological manifestations were noted or where they were too 
meager to be of import, no general report was issued. Manuscripts 
have been completed for two of the surveys made last year, and they 
probably will be issued sometime during the coming fiscal year. 



SEVENTT-NINTH AlSnSHJAL REPORT 7 

By the end of the year, 547 sites in 54 reservoir basins and 1 water- 
shed area had either been tested or dug sufficiently to provide good 
information about them. Thus far at least one example of each site 
recorded in the preliminary surveys has been examined. They cover 
the range from camping locations occupied by the early hunting and 
gathering peoples of about 10,000 years ago to village remains left by 
early historic Indians, as well as the remains of frontier Army and 
trading posts of European origin. Reports on the results of the in- 
vestigations have appeared in various scientific journals, in the Bul- 
letins of the Bureau of American Ethnology, and in the Miscellaneous 
Collections of the Smithsonian Institution. Bulletin 179, containing 
River Basin Surveys Papers 21-24, was distributed in December 1961. 
These papers consist of a series of reports on excavations conducted in 
Texas, Iowa, and the Columbia basin, Oregon-Washington. Bulletin 
182, containing River Basin Surveys Paper 25, a report on the exca- 
vations carried on in the Jolin H. Kerr Reservoir basin, Virginia- 
North Carolina, was in press at the end of the year and should be 
ready for distribution early in the coming year. River Basin Sur- 
veys Papers 26-32, comprising Bulletin 185, should be ready for 
distribution early in the coming year. The papers contain data on the 
results of investigations in the Tiber Reservoir basin, Montana, the 
Garrison and Jamestown Reservoir areas in North Dakota, and the 
Lovewell Reservoir area in Kansas. River Basin Surveys Papers 
33-38, which will constitute Bulletin 189, have been turned over to the 
editors and will be sent to the printer early in the next fiscal year. 
The contents pertain to excavations in North Dakota, South Dakota, 
and Kansas. 

Throughout the year the River Basin Surveys continued to receive 
helpful cooperation from the National Park Service, the Bureau of 
Reclamation, the Corps of Engineers, the Geological Survey, and 
various State and local institutions. The field personnel of all the 
cooperating agencies assisted the party leaders in many ways and the 
relationship was excellent in all areas. Transportation and guides 
were furnished in a number of instances, and mechanical equipment 
made available by the construction agency speeded the work at a 
number of locations. Detailed maps of the reservoirs under investi- 
gation were supplied by the agency concerned and helpful informa- 
tion was provided whenever it was needed. The National Park Serv- 
ice continued to serve as liaison between the various agencies, both in 
Washington and in the field. It also was responsible for the prepara- 
tion of estimates and justifications for the funds needed to carry out 
the salvage program. Valuable assistance in numerous ways was pro- 
vided by the commanding officer at Fort Benning in Georgia while 
studies were being made in that portion of the Walter F. George 

667773—63 2 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Reservoir basin which is within the boundaries of the Fort Benning 
Reservation. Various local clubs and groups of citizens, both in Ala- 
bama and Georgia, the Georgia Historical Commission, and the Uni- 
versity of Georgia assisted the leader of the River Basin Surveys 
party while he was working along the Chattahoochee River. In the 
Missouri Basin Project engineers and personnel from the Corps of 
Engineers were very helpful in carrying out activities in that area. 
Furthermore, the Corps of Engineers and the Missouri Basin Project 
of the River Basin Surveys cooperated in the preparation of small 
informative pamphlets telling about various reservoirs along the 
Missouri River. The pamphlets were published by the Corps of Eng- 
ineers and are being distributed to visitors at various reservoir 
installations. 

General direction and supervision of the program were continued 
by the main office in Washington. The field headquarters and labora- 
tory at Lincoln, Nebr., was in direct charge of the work in the Mis- 
souri Basin. The activities along the Chattahoochee River and in 
southern Virginia were supervised by the Washington office. 

Washington oiftce. — The main headquarters of the River Basin 
Surveys in the Bureau of American Ethnology continued under the 
direction of Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., throughout the year. Carl 
F. Miller and Harold A. Huscher, archeologists, were based at that 
office. Mr, Miller spent a major portion of the year in the Washing- 
ton office working on materials and data he had collected during pre- 
vious seasons in the field. He also corrected the final page proofs for 
his report on the investigations made at the James H. Kerr Reservoir 
on the Roanoke River in southern Virginia. He made a number of 
talks before schools and civic organizations in the metropolitan area 
of Washington and spoke before the Archeological Society of Dela- 
ware at Wilmington. In October he attended the sessions of the East- 
em States Archeological Federation at Williamsburg, Va. He 
identified numerous artifacts from the southeastern archeological area 
for collectors who either sent them to the office or brought them in 
person and furnished information for replies to letters inquiring about 
archeological problems. On April 3 at Rocky Mount, Va., he began an 
archeological reconnaissance of the Smith Mountain Project of the 
Appalachian Power Co. He completed that assignment and returned 
to Washington on May 11. He then prepared a report on the results 
of his survey, recommending a series of excavations for the two reser- 
voir areas included in the project. On June 11 he left Washington 
for Lincoln, Nebr., to take charge of one of the Missouri Basin field 
parties. His activities during the remainder of the fiscal year are 
covered in the Missouri Basin portion of this report. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Mr. Huscher was in the Washing- 



SEVENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 9 

ton oflSce working on records and collections from the previous field 
season. Early in August he established headquarters at Eufaula, 
Ala., for a series of archeological studies in the Walter F. George 
Eeservoir basin on the Chattahoochee Eiver. Because of unfavorable 
weather conditions, he ended his field activities there at the end of 
December. In November he participated in the sessions of the Con- 
ference for Plains Archeology, at Lawton, Okla., and on December 1 
and 2 in the Southeastern Archeological Conference held at Ocmulgee 
National Monument at Macon, Ga. After Ms return to Washington, 
]\Ir. Huscher devoted his time to the study of data and materials 
which he had collected during the previous months along the Chatta- 
hoochee Eiver. At the end of May he again returned to the Walter F. 
George Eeservoir area, Alabama-Georgia, and resumed his investi- 
gations of archeological sites to be flooded by the rising waters of 
the reservoir. He completed his field activities at the end of June. 

Alabama-Georgia. — During the period from August 4 to December 
30, a series of investigations was made in the Walter F. George Ees- 
ervoir basin on the Chattahoochee Eiver by a party under tlie direc- 
tion of Harold A. Huscher. They spent the first 2 weeks of the field 
season checking a series of public-use areas laid out at regular inter- 
vals on both sides of the Chattahoochee Eiver from Columbia, Ala., 
north to the Fort Benning area. Between the Fort Benning Eeser- 
vation and Columbus, Ga., a series of harbor developments is con- 
templated, and a further check of sites was made at that location. 
The party found that the recreation-area program would involve 
four important sites on the Alabama side of the river and one on 
the Georgia side. Original plans had called for virtual destruction 
of the great Eood's Landing mound site on the Georgia side, but as 
a result of conferences with the representatives of the Corps of Engi- 
neers the roads contemplated were shifted so that they would com- 
pletely miss the mounds and adjacent archeological manifestations. 
The new plans also provided for the development of the central 
plaza of the site as a grassed lawn area. This particular site is 
significant because it was an important ceremonial center which 
contained eight mounds. 

Following the study of the public-use area the crew was enlarged 
and the remainder of the field season was devoted to an examination 
of 24 additional sites. Collections were made from 21 of them, 9 
of which had not previously been listed. Actual excavations were 
made at eight sites, of which the two mounds south of Georgetown, 
Ga., were worked most extensively. In every place where digging 
was done, four or more squares were excavated. Each square is 
10' X 10' in area and each was excavated in 6" levels, the material 
from them being put through power screens. This made possible 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

much more progress than would have been the case had the usual 
hand methods been used throughout. 

The mound sites were particularly important because they contained 
considerable new information pertaining to several cultural periods 
in the region. One of them, known as the Cool Branch Mound site, 
proved to be an unusually fine example of a large burial mound with 
accompanying village, surrounded by a palisade. The large mound 
was in the approximate center and the walls were constructed to 
conform to its orientation. The enclosure was rectilinear, measuring 
about 700 feet on the side, with 10-foot-square bastions or towers 
spaced about 115 feet apart. The data obtained indicate that this 
village conformed quite closely to those which occupied the Gordon 
sites in Temiessee, the New Madrid sites, Aztalan in Wisconsin, and 
even the Huff and Black Partizan sites in the middle Missouri Valley. 
Furthermore, the findings agree closely with the description of the 
town of Mauvila in Alabama which the Spaniards destroyed in 1540. 
The village may well have been occupied at the time of the first pene- 
tration of the Spaniards, but it apparently was abandoned and fell 
into ruin before the Indians had contact with the Europeans, because 
no materials of European manufacture were recovered during the 
course of the excavations. The other locations consisted in the main 
of former villages, and they yielded specimens representative of all 
the cultural periods fi'om Early Archaic to Early Historic Creek. 
The data obtained from them will assist materially in developing 
the aboriginal history of that area. 

In the last week in April Mr. Huscher resumed his activities in 
the Walter F. George area. During most of May he continued fur- 
ther excavations at the Cool Branch site, gathering data on the burial 
pit which lay beneath the main mound and further information about 
the palisade walls and general village features. Attention was then 
turned to an examination of nine sites, one of which had not previ- 
ously been recorded. Actual excavations were conducted at six of 
the sites. In view of the limited time available, only three excava- 
tion squares were dug at most of them, although in one or two cases 
an additional square was opened. Two of the sites have particular 
significance. One of them on the Alabama side of the river in the 
Fort Benning area is presumed to be the location of the last town 
occupied by the Yuchi in that area. It has not definitely been identi- 
fied as to name, but the information from it should help to throw 
considerable light on the length of time that tribe was living that 
far north along the Chattahoochee River after having been driven 
from their Tennessee and Savannah River locations. The second site 
is on the opposite side of the river in Georgia and may well repre- 
sent an extension or continuation of the Yuchi village in Alabama. 



SEVENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 11 

Trade materials are present in the deposits at both locations. Those 
on the Georgia side, however, are much less numerous than those on 
the Alabama side and may indicate an earlier abandonment of that 
part of the village. There is close similarity between the specimens 
from both sites. The Georgia site actually may represent the loca- 
tion of one of the towns called Hlekatchka and also seems to be the 
most promising location for the original Captain Ellich's (Yuchi) 
town which was settled in the early 18th century. If it was 
Hlekatclika, the latter is reported to have been destroyed in 1814. 
Excavations on the site produced large quantities of debris indicating 
the burning of a house or houses, possibly the entire village, which 
supports the idea that it may have been that particular village. It 
is unfortunate that time and funds did not permit further and more 
extensive excavations on both sides of the river. The other sites 
which were tested during June contributed still more information 
pertaining to several aboriginal periods in the Chattahoochee Valley. 

Missouri Basin. — For the sixteenth consecutive year the Missouri 
Basin Project continued to operate from the field headquarters and 
laboratory in Lincoln, Nebr. Dr. Eobert L. Stephenson served as 
cliief of the project throughout the year. Activities included surveys, 
excavations, analyses of materials, and reporting on results. During 
the summer months the work consisted mainly of excavations. Analy- 
ses and preparation of reports received the major attention through- 
out the rest of the year. The chronology program, begun in January 
1958, was especially emphasized. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year the permanent staff, in addition 
to the chief, consisted of three archeologists, one administrative assist- 
ant, one administrative clerk, one secretary, one scientific illustrator, 
one photographer, and four musemn aides. On the temporary staff 
were two assistant archeologists, one cook, and 25 field crewmen. 
At the end of the year there were five archeologists in addition to 
the chief, one administrative assistant, one administrative clerk, one 
secretary, one clerk typist, one scientific illustrator, one photographer, 
and four museum aides on the permanent staff. The temporary staff 
included 4 archeologists, 5 field assistants, 3 cooks, and 83 field 
crewmen. 

During the year there were 19 Smithsonian Eiver Basin Surveys 
field parties at work in the Missouri Basin. Two of these were 
operating in the Oahe Reservoir area and two in the Big Bend 
Reservoir area of South Dakota during July and August. One 
small party investigated the Salt-Wahoo Watershed area in Nebraska 
in April; one party conducted surveys and excavations in the Pony 
Creek Watershed area in Iowa in May; a small party visited the 
Fort Sully Site in the Oahe Reservoir area in May ; a survey of the 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Arcadia Reservoir area in Nebraska was also made in May; during 
June one party was at work in the Tuttle Creek Eeservoir area in 
Kansas, one in the Missouri Breaks area of Montana, two in the 
Yellowtail Reservoir area of Montana and Wyoming, four in the 
Oahe Reservoir area of South Dakota, and three in the Big Bend 
Reservoir area of South Dakota. 

Other field work in the Missouri Basin included 12 parties from 
State institutions operating under agreements with the National Park 
Service and in cooperation with the Smithsonian Institution in the 
Inter- Agency Archeological Salvage Program. 

Appropriated funds for this fiscal year were materially increased 
over the previous 2 years, thus permitting a substantial increase in 
the amount of salvage that could be accomplished. Most of this new 
activity came at the end of the fiscal year since the field season at the 
beginning was nearly completed before the new money became avail- 
able. The field parties at work at the start of the year were conduct- 
ing intensive excavations of key sites. Toward the end of the year, 
when the 1962 field season began, crews were engaged in intensive 
surveys of new areas, sampling of large numbers of sites in other 
areas, and carrying on intensive excavations at a series of key sites 
in several reservoir basins. 

At the beginning of the year Robert W. Neuman, assisted by 
William G. Buckles, was directing a crew of 10 Indian laborers exca- 
vating a series of 8 prehistoric burial mounds near the Big Bend 
Dam in central South Dakota. Having begun work on June 7 of 
the previous fiscal year, this party continued in the field until Sep- 
tember 8. Three low, dome-shaped, earthen mounds were excavated 
at the Sitting Crow site (39BF225).^ The mounds, ranging from 
2 feet in height and 50 feet in diameter to nearly twice that size, 
contamed 10 intrusive historic interments rex)resenting at least 3 types 
of burials. These were primary burials in wooden coffins, primary 
burials in pits, and a secondary bundle burial. Some of the coffin 
burials were associated with grave posts and were scattered, singly, 
while others were associated with the pit burials within a circular 
enclosure of vertical posts. Glass, metal, wood, stone, leather, and 
fabric grave goods were recovered from this historic component. 
The burial mound complex proper was represented by single and 
multiple secondary burials. These remains were found scattered 
about on the mound floor or sometimes deposited in shallow, sub- 

1 Site do-slgnations used by the Iliver Basin Surveys are triaonilal in character, consisting 
of symbols for State, county, and site. The State is Indicated by the first number, accord- 
ing to the numerical position of the State name in an alphabetical list of the United States ; 
thus, for example, 32 indicates North Dalcota, 39 indicates South Dakota. Counties are 
designated by a two-letter abbreviation ; for example, ME for Mercer County. MN for 
Mountrail County, etc. The final number refers to the specific site within the indicated 
state and county. 



SEVENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 13 

mound pits. Artifact associations consist of small, triangular, side- 
notched points, end scrapers, marine and fresh-water shell beads, and 
a bipointed copper awl. 

Four mounds were excavated at the Side Hill site (39BF223). 
The burial mound component there was essentially the same as at the 
Sitting Crow site, but in addition there was evidence of cremation 
in association with Truman Plain Rim pottery. 

Only one mound was excavated at the Old Quarry site (39BF234). 
It was found to contain a portion of a wooden log, a bison skull, and 
concentrations of hematite on the mound floor. Two large, subfloor 
pits were located near the momid center and each contained secondary 
burials of seven to nine individuals. A single artifact, a large un- 
diagnostic body sherd, was recovered from one pit. A bison skull 
also was found in the same pit. 

Wliile testing below the mounds at the Sitting Crow and Side 
Hill sites, two, and possibly three, stratified, lithic components were 
located. The deepest component was indicated by a zone of charcoal- 
stained soil containing stone chips. The intermediate component 
was in a light-colored soil zone and contained thin, triangular points 
with concave bases, end scrapers, knives, worked and unworked chips, 
bison bone fragments, and shallow basin-shaped firepits. The upper- 
most lithic component is typologically similar to the McKean complex 
represented at various sites in western South Dakota and eastern 
Wyoming. 

During the last week of the field season, all the 46 mounds between 
Fort Thompson and Campbell Creek were mapped. They range from 
25 to 80 feet in diameter and from 1 to 4 feet in height. The tumuli 
sometimes occur singly and in other instances are in groups. 

The second Smithsonian Institution field party at work at the 
beginning of the year was directed by Dr. Warren W. Caldwell, 
assisted by Eichard E. Jensen. With a crew of 11 men, they had 
begun work on June 13 of the preceding year and continued through 
August 22. The entire time was devoted to excavations at the Pretty 
Head site (39LM232). This site is situated on the right bank of the 
Missouri River in the lower portion of the Big Bend Reservoir area. 
Two houses were completely excavated, a third was excavated except 
for the heavy fill marking one corner, two midden areas were exten- 
sively tested, a defensive moat was sectioned in several places, and 
the old occupation surface between two houses was cleared. 

The site is roughly a rectangular area of hillocks and depressions 
capping the riverward edge of Terrace 1, which stands about 60 feet 
above the summer stage of the Missouri River. A number of oval 
depressions were arranged in irregular rows paralleling the cutbank 
of the river. These proved to be the remains of houses, although 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the orientation was not consistent and the village pattern was by no 
means as regular as had been anticipated. The village had only one 
extended occupation. It appears that the houses had been arranged 
in streets or blocks but subsequent growth was haphazard and un- 
planned. There is further support of this view in relation to the 
defensive features of the village. The entire occupation area is 
mantled by midden debris and wind-blown silts to such an extent 
that the moat was completely obscured. At least one late house 
(Feature 7) was built athwart the moat, which was already filled with 
refuse and could have had but little usefulness for defensive purposes. 
Feature 7 was smaller and less complex than the other houses. 

Mantling all the houses were several soil zones, the earliest of which 
was particularly evident. It is tempting to equate this with a severe 
drought in the Central Plains during the last quarter of the 13th 
century. Drought conditions may well have been a disruptive factor 
that brought progressive changes and collapse to this village. The 
houses excavated (Features 2, 4, and 7) were uniformly of the long 
rectangular type but differed in details. All were deep, with floors 
excavated 2 to 3 feet below the old occupation surface, which in turn 
was 2 to 4 feet below the present surface. In each the floor had been 
painted with a red, mineral paint and in Feature 4 there were two 
such painted floors separated by 0.2 foot of sterile fill. The entrance 
to each house was a wide ramp from the old surface to the floor. In 
Feature 4, the ramp led across a wide platform and ended in a low 
step. On either side of the ramp was a narrow trench that continued 
across the front of the trench, separating it from the house proper. 
There was a similar trench in Feature 2. 

A large number of bell-shaped cache pits were found beneath the 
floor of Feature 2, but not in the other houses. Features 2 and 4 con- 
tained much bison bone, particularly skulls, lying on the floor and 
within the mantling fill. They were notably absent from Feature 7, 
suggesting a change in cultural emphasis or perhaps in local ecology. 
In each house the firepit was located on the centerline just inside the 
inner end of the ramp. Superstructures of all three houses were 
nearly identical. Posts 2 or 3 feet apart were set at the base of the 
wall excavation and, except for the entrance, continued around the 
entire perimeter. Central posts were absent but were replaced by 
roof supports in two rows, each a short distance from the centerline. 

A large area between Features 2 and 4 was cleared to the old sur- 
face and two thick midden deposits were trenched. The defensive 
moat was located and sectioned in six places, tracing it through Fea- 
ture 7 and around a bastioned corner. Uniformly the moat was 3 to 5 
feet deep with a maximum width of 10 feet. The accompanying 
stockade was not discernible. Artifacts were abundant in the midden 



Secretary's Report, 1962 



Plate i 



JiaiST"^.?*>iir!» ,^_.Ti.j«i;iii3fc«BII»ka5B!G!«''»i- 




1. Suiiilihtmiau Ri\cr Jjahiu Surveys crew excavating two burial pits at the Old Quarry 
Mound, Big Bend Reservoir, South Dakota. These pits contained bones of both infants 
and adults. 




2. Smithsonian River Basin Surveys crew skimming the tloor of a long, rectangular house 
following dragline pass at the Pretty Head site, Big Bend Reservoir. The dragline was 
found very effective in moving large amounts of overburden. 



Secretary's Report. 1962 



Plate 2 





W^ 



1. Long, rectangular house excavated at the Pretty Head site. Crewman is sitting in the 
remnant of a ditch that extended the length of the house. The floor of the house, except 
where disturbed by the ditch, was covered with a deposit of red ocher. River Basin 
Surveys. 




2. Aerial view of the Potts Village, Oahe Reservoir, South Dakota. The Missouri River is 
in the background. At maximum pool elevation the Oahe Reservoir will be about 15 
feet above this site. The excavations outlined in the fortified area indicate the house 
Structure within it. River Basin Surv'eys. 



SEVENTY-NINTH ANNTJAL REPORT 15 

areas and the house fill. Pottery was mainly of the Foreman types, 
but there was also much Over Focus pottei-y. Probably the cultural 
position of the site is intermediate between the Monroe- Anderson Foci, 
where Foreman Ware is frequent, and the Over Focus. Nonceramic 
artifacts were not distinctive, but a fragment of copper and a long 
bone object resembling an arctic snow beater are notable. These two 
objects suggest trade with the north, and the architecture of the 
houses is remarkably similar to certain examples reported for the 
northern Plateau. It seems suggestive that the Early Village people 
of the Plains may have cultural ties not hitherto recognized. 

The third Smithsonian field party at work at the beginning of the 
year was directed by Dr. Kobert L. Stephenson, assisted by Lee G. 
Madison. With a crew of 10 men they had begun excavations on 
June 19 of the previous year and continued work through August 31. 
Most of the season was spent on excavations at the Potts Village site 
(39C019) on the right bank of the Missouri River, just south of 
Mobridge, S. Dak., in the Oahe Reservoir area. All or parts of seven 
houses were excavated, the fortification ditch was tested in several 
places, middens and cache pits were sampled, the entire stockade was 
uncovered, and the single loop bastion and two bastioned entrances 
were completely excavated. 

This is the site of an early La Roche village that probably dates 
from about the late 15th or early to middle 16th century. It is en- 
tirely precontact, and no items of White origin were found in any 
part of the excavations. The site consisted of the remams of about 
30 circular earthlodges, grouped in a long, oval area along the edge 
of the second terrace above the Missouri River. Within the village 
11 houses, including a large ceremonial lodge, were encircled by a deep, 
narrow fortification ditch and palisade. The ditch was 6 to 8 feet m 
depth and 10 to 20 feet wide. The palisade was composed of upright 
cedar, cottonwood, and oak posts set close together. A single large 
loop bastion protected the north and west sides of the fortified area 
and a steep bank protected the east and southeast sides (toward the 
river) . 

Arcliitectural details of the entrances to these fortified villages along 
the Missouri River have not previously been determined. On the basis 
of some evidence, simple overlapping lines of stockade posts with a 
passageway between have been presumed. At the Potts site two 
examples of a very distinctive entrance were clearly defined. In this 
type of entrance the stockade line curved outward and then back in 
toward the center of the fortified area to form a small loop bastion 
about 10 feet in diameter, but with one side forming a straight line 
of posts extending some 10 to 15 feet into the village. Parallel to the 
straight line of posts was another similar line about 4 feet from it 



IQ BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

that extended outward from the fortified area and curved around to 
form a small loop bastion about 8 feet in diameter and then recurve 
back to join the regular line of the palisade posts. Thus the entrance 
consisted of two small, loop bastions with a narrow passageway be- 
tween them that ran some 10 feet back into the fortified area. Opposite 
the narrow passageway was a ramp across the fortification ditch. 
One entrance was to the north, the other to the south. 

Outside the fortified area the two houses that were partially ex- 
cavated appeared of the same structural type and artifact content as 
those that were within the fort. The architecture was of the four 
center post pattern with widely spaced wall posts, leaner posts, and 
short entrances, forming a circular earthlodge of some 28 to 45 feet 
in diameter. Artifacts from the site include abundant pottery, bone, 
stone, and shell objects. Tlie pottery is unusually homogeneous and 
well within the earliest of the La Eoche tradition. Elaborate or 
spectacular objects were almost entirely lacking, although a few 
shell ornaments and catlinite pipes were recovered. 

One week was spent in August by this party in excavating a portion 
of the Blue Blanket Island site (39W^V9), located on an island in 
the Missouri Kiver just north of the Potts Village site. This was a 
late village of circular earthlodges encircled by a wide, shallow forti- 
fication ditch and palisade. The palisade formed a nearly circular 
pattern enclosing less than 20 houses with no evidence of houses out- 
side it. The ditch was but 2 or 3 feet deep and 20 to 25 feet wide. 
Half of one house was excavated, the ditch and palisade were sampled 
in several places, and a dozen random test squares were dug. 

Stockade posts as well as outer wall posts of the house were split 
timbers set close together with the bark side in. Burning caused good 
preservation of the structural features. Inside the row of split wall 
timbers of the house were large, whole support posts spaced every 
6 or 7 feet to form main roof and wall supports. The four main center 
posts were large, whole posts. The entrance was short but unusually 
well made. Pottery and other artifacts were not abundant but metal 
objects were present. The village apparently is one of those viewed 
by Lewis and Clark as a recent ruin in 1804, and probably dates from 
the last quarter of the 18th century until about 1802 or 1803. Access 
to the site each day was by motorboat from the right bank of the 
river near the Potts Village site. 

The fourth Smithsonian field party at work during the early part 
of the fiscal year consisted of a crew of four men directed by Dr. 
William M. Bass. They worked from August 7 to 18 and excavated 
40 burials from the Sully site (39SL4), some 19 miles northwest of 
Pierre, S. Dak., on the left bank of the Missouri River. Dr. Bass 
spent two previous seasons on burial excavations at that site and has 



SEVENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 17 

recovered a total of 264 interments there. It was thought that the 
brief stay during the 1961 season would exhaust the burial area and 
give a good statistical sample of a single population. However, it 
became evident that more burials are to be found there and plans 
were made to continue the work in the 1962 season. The Sully site 
unquestionably offers a better opportunity than any other to obtain 
a really meaningful sample of the protohistoric Arikara physical 
types in the Missouri Basin. Numerous artifacts were recovered 
with the burials. They include catlinite pipes, wooden pipe stems, a 
whole pottery vessel, glass and copper beads, woven mats, and bone 
tools. 

The 1962 field season began early this year with a brief survey of the 
area to be flooded by the several proposed small reservoirs in the 
Salt-Wahoo Drainage Basin in Lancaster and Seward Counties, 
southeastern Nebraska. Robert W. Neuman, assisted by Lionel A. 
Brown and John W. Garrett, the latter a member of the staff of the 
Nebraska State Historical Society, spent April 5 and 6 investigating 
the areas designated as Dams 4, 8, 13, and 17. This initial survey re- 
vealed nothing of arclieological interest in proposed flood areas of 
these four reservoirs. Construction activities at these dams should be 
watched, however, when the time comes for building the dams, as 
buried sites of the Archaic and Woodland periods might then be 
discovered. 

The second Missouri Basin Project field party for the new season 
began work in the Pony Creek Drainage area of Mills County, south- 
western Iowa, on May 1. There the Soil Conservation Service is 
building a series of small reservoirs and terracing large areas as 
protection against erosion. Lionel A. Brown, assisted first by Wilfred 
M. Husted, and later by Lee G. Madison, made an intensive survey of 
the area in immediate danger of destruction, and then with a crew of 
3 men tested 7 of the 16 sites located. They completed the season's 
work on May 25. One house was excavated in each of three sites, 
13ML205, 13ML2'06, and 13ML216. Extensive tests were made in sites 
13ML201, 13ML204, 13ML208, and 13ML215. This party recom- 
mended further investigations in all of the sites, 13ML201 through 
13ML216 except 13ML201, 13ML213, 13ML214, and 13ML215, which 
will either be out of danger of damage from construction or have no 
promise of yielding useful arclieological information. The houses 
excavated were square to rectangular in shape and provided artifacts 
suggestive of the Aksarben Aspect and related materials. 

The third field party, consisting of G. Hubert Smith and Jerry L. 
Livingston, visited the historic site of Fort Sully (39SL45) in Sully 
County, north of Pierre, S. Dak., during the period of May 15-18 for 
the purpose of making a topographic map of the site, but heavy rains 
made this impossible. 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

The fourth party, Smith and Livingston, made a survey of the 
area to be flooded by the Arcadia Dam in Custer Comity, Nebr., on 
May 19 and 20. One site, 25CU202, was located within the reservoir 
area, but it appeared to be of little archeological value. 

On June 12, the fifth and sixth Missouri Basin field parties left for 
the field. Party No. 5, directed by Robert W. Neuman and assisted 
by John J. Hoffman and a crew of 10, began work on the early circular 
house village known as the Mostad site (39DW23-1) and by the end 
of the year was well along on the excavation of the fortification 
system of that site. Party No. 6, also directed by Neuman but as- 
sisted by James J. Stanek and a crew of 10, began work on the 2 
burial momids at the Swift Bird site (39DW233) . By the end of the 
year this party had cleared a large part of one mound and was ex- 
cavating the burial chamber within it. Both sites are on the right 
bank of the Missouri Eiver some 8 miles south of Mobridge, in Dewey 
County, S. Dak., and will be in the bank-slimiping area of the Oahe 
Reservoir. The two parties were camped together in the area between 
the two sites. 

The seventh and eighth Missouri Basin Project field parties left for 
the field on June 7. Party No. 7, directed by Dr. Warren W. Caldwell 
and assisted by Richard T. Jensen and a crew of 11, began work on 
the Langdeau site (39LM209) in the neck of the Big Bend in the 
Big Bend Reservoir just above Lower Brule, Lyman County, S. Dak. 
By the end of the year this crew was well along with the excavation 
of three houses of long-rectangular pattern. Party No. 8, also directed 
by Dr. Caldwell but assisted by Richard E. Carter and a crew of 
nme, began work on site 39LM2, overlooking Medicine Creek, near 
the neck of the Big Bend in the Big Bend Reservoir, some 8 miles 
above Lower Brule, Lyman County, S. Dak. By the end of the year 
this crew had completed the excavation of one circular house but was 
finding evidence of an earlier occupation of the long-rectangular house 
period. These two parties were camped together at the Crazy Bull 
School House near Lower Brule. 

The ninth Missouri Basin Project field party, under the direction 
of G. Hubert Smith assisted by Lee G. Madison and a crew of eight, 
left for the field on June 12. Based in Pierre, S. Dak., this crew at 
the end of the fiscal year was making progress on the excavations at 
the historic site of Fort George (39ST202) some 15 miles downstream 
from Pierre in Stanley Comity, in the area to be flooded by the Big 
Bend Reservoir. Prehistoric occupations lie beneath the historic fur 
trading post at that site and both historic and prehistoric components 
were being excavated. 

The tenth Missouri Basin Project field party, directed by Dr. Wil- 
liam M. Bass and assisted by Jon Muller and a crew of six, left Lin- 



SEVENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 19 

coin on June 7. Also based in Pierre with the Smith party, this crew, 
with the aid of heavy equipment, by the end of the year had exca- 
vated approximately 89 burials from a new area at the Sully site 
(39SL4:) some 23 miles upriver from Pierre in Sully County. The 
rising waters of the Oahe Reservoir were beginning to encroach upon 
the site at that time. So far over 350 burials have been recovered 
from this one protohistoric Arikara site. 

The eleventh Missouri Basin Project field party, directed by Dr. 
Alfred W. Bowers, assisted by William B. Colvin and a crew of 
10, left for the field on June 14. Based in Mobridge, S. Dak., this 
party began excavating at the two adjacent sites, 39C014 and 39C034, 
at the mouth of the Grand River in Carson County. These sites are 
in the bank-slumping area of the Oahe Reservoir and were substi- 
tuted for others that had become unavailable for excavation owing to 
impoundment of Oahe Reservoir waters. By the end of the year tests 
in middens, excavations of lodges, and samples of the fortification 
system w^ere progi-essing well. 

The twelfth field party, not scheduled to begin work until early in 
the following fiscal year, was to go to the Big Bend Reservoir. 

The thirteenth Missouri Basin field party, directed by Lionel A. 
Brown with a crew of five, left for the field on June 13, and after a tor- 
tuous trip by pack train down Black Canyon into the Big Horn Can- 
yon made camp at the confluence of the two canyons. The group 
began excavation of site 24BH215, adjacent to the party camp, in the 
bottom of the Big Horn Canyon some 6 miles upstream from the 
location of the Yellowtail Dam, Big Horn Comity, Mont. The site 
proved to be a large camping area and a few projectile points and pot- 
sherds had been recovered by the end of the year. 

Party No. 14 also left for the field on June 13. It consisted of Wil- 
fred M. Husted with a crew of five. The party established camp near 
the upper end of the Horseshoe Bend of the Big Horn River in Big 
Horn County, Wyo., in the upper reaches of the Yellowtail Reser- 
voir area. They tested one site and partially excavated another but 
the terrain proved to be so rough that work without a boat was im- 
practical. At the end of the year the men were making intensive foot 
surveys of that end of the canyon. There were prospects of obtaining 
a boat so that excavations could be resumed early in the coming fiscal 
year. 

Party No. 15 left for the field on June 13 with Oscar L. Mallory in 
charge of a crew of three. This group began an archeological survey 
along the Missouri River between Fort Benton, Mont., and the upper 
reaches of the Fort Peck Reservoir. Tliis is known as the Missouri 
Breaks area. Beginning near Fort Benton, the party had surveyed 
some 20 miles of the area by the end of the fiscal year and had located 
19 sites, mostly tipi sites and rock cairns. 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

The sixteenth Missouri Basin Project field party, directed by Carl 
F. Miller, with a crew of nine, left for the field on June 15 and estab- 
lished headquarters in the tovm. of Blue Rapids, Kans. By the end 
of the year this party had examined three of the sites in the upper 
reaches of the Tuttle Creek Eeservoir in Marshall County, north- 
eastern Kansas, and had begini testing one of them (14MH70). 

Cooperating institutions working in the Missouri Eiver Basin at the 
beginning of the fiscal year included six fi.eld parties, representing 
five State agencies in Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, and Missouri. 
Dr. Preston Holder, with a crew of students from the University of 
Nebraska, completed work during July on the Leavenworth site 
(39C09), 10 miles north of Mobridge, S. Dak., in the Oahe Reservoir 
area. Dr. Carl IT. Chapman and a crew from the University of Mis- 
souri continued the sun^ey and testing of sites in the Kaysinger Bluff 
Reservoir area on the Osage River in west-central Missouri during the 
period July to September. In addition, Chapman had a University 
of Missouri crew at work on the survey of the Stockton Reservoir in 
a branch of the Osage River in Cedar and Dade Counties, Mo. 
Thomas A. Witty with a group from the Kansas State Historical So- 
ciety was excavating the Woods site (14CY30) and testing several 
other sites in the Milford Reservoir area on the Republican River in 
Geary County, Kans. Roger T. Grange and a crew from the Ne- 
braska State Historical Society was at work in the Red Willow Reser- 
voir basin in Frontier County, southwestern Nebraska. This reservoir 
is nearly completed and by the end of this field season will begin to 
fill. Dr. Preston Holder, assisted by Dr. Emily Blasingham and a 
crew of students from the University of Nebraska, was at work on 
excavation, testing, and survey of sites in the Norton Reservoir area of 
northwestern Kansas. Dr. Carlyle S. Smith, assisted by Walter 
Birkby and a crew of students from the University of Kansas, began 
work in June excavating two key sites and testing several others in the 
Melvern Reservoir area in Osage County, east-central Kansas. Dr. 
Carl H. Chapman and a crew from the University of Missouri were 
continuing the survey and testing of sites in the Kaysinger Bluff 
Reservoir area in west-central Missouri and, with a second crew, was 
at work sampling sites in the Stockton Reservoir area in Cedar and 
Dade Counties, Mo. All the cooperating institution parties men- 
tioned above were operating under agreements with the National Park 
Service and cooperating with the Smithsonian Institution in the 
Inter- Agency Archeological Salvage Program. 

During the time that the Missouri Basin Project archeologists were 
not in the field, they were engaged m analyses of their materials and in 
laboratory and library research. They also prepared manuscripts of 
technical reports and wrote articles and papers of a more popular 
nature. 



SEVENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 21 

The Missouri Basin Chronology Program by the end of the year had 
been in operation 3i/^ years, having been begun by archeologists of the 
Missouri Basin Project in January 1958. Cooperation and continued 
participation by most of the archeologists in the Plains area have been 
most encouraging. Especial emphasis last year was on the dendro- 
chronological section of the program, particularly the master chart 
for the Fort Thompson-to-Cheyenne River area. During the fiscal 
year many wood samples from prehistoric houses were matched 
to this chart and considerable effort was devoted to the refinement of 
the laboratory techniques of tree-ring study being used in the Lincoln 
office. To this end additional equipment was purchased, such as mi- 
croscopes, a De Eouen Dendrochronograph, a power sander, and an 
increment borer. Also, consultations and advice were sought from 
the staff of the laboratory of tree-ring studies at the University of 
Arizona, and much assistance was obtained from these discussions. 

The carbon-14 section of the Chronology Program received major 
attention throughout the year. Seven additional dates were obtained 
from charcoal samples submitted to the University of Michigan 
Memorial Phoenix Laboratory. In addition to this source of C-14 
dates, an agreement was entered into between the Chronology Program 
and Isotopes Incorporated, of Westwood, N. J., under the direction of 
Milton Trautman, to date a series of charcoal specimens. The agree- 
ment with Isotopes Incorporated has resulted in 19 dates so far de- 
rived from the Missouri Basin Chronology Program. 

The laboratory and office staff spent its full effort during the year 
in processing specimen materials for study, photographing and illus- 
trating specimens, preparing specimen records, and typing, filing, and 
illustrating record and manuscript materials. The accomplisliments 
of the laboratoi-y and office staff are listed in tables 1 and 2. 

Dr. Robert L. Stephenson, chief, when not in charge of field parties, 
devoted a large part of his time to management of the over-all Mis- 
souri Basin Project. His individual archeological research and re- 
port writing were minimal during the year, but he made some further 
progress on the monograph reporting the "Archeological Investiga- 
tions in the Whitney Reservoir, Texas" and on the analyses of speci- 
mens from the Sully site (39SL4:) in the Oahe Reservoir. Through- 
out the year he continued to serve as chairman of the Missouri Basin 
Chronology Program, as assistant editor of "Notes and News in the 
Plains Area" for American Antiquity, and as associate editor of the 
Plains Anthropologist. At the 19th Plains Conference for Arche- 
ology, held in Lawton, Okla., on Thanksgiving weekend, he served as 
chairman of the session on "Salvage Archeology in the Plains" and 
presented a paper on "Three Smithsonian Salvage Sites" and also 
one on "Historic Montana Burials." 

Dr. Stephenson attended the meeting of the "Committee for the 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Recovery of Archeological Remains" held in Washington, D.C., on 
February 8-9 and reported on the Missouri Basin Project activities 
of the past 2 years and the prospects for the coming year. He at- 
tended the annual meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences in 
Lincoln on April 13. During the period April 15-22 he was in Austin, 
Tex., serving as technical adviser and making studio sequences for a 
motion picture on salvage archeology in the Plains area. From April 
28 to May 8 he attended the Society for American Archeology annual 
meeting at Tucson, Ariz., where he presented a paper on "Administra- 
tive Problems of the River Basin Surveys." "Wliile in Tucson he con- 
ferred with the staff of the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research and of 
the Geochronology Laboratory of the University of Arizona. During 
the year he wrote several book reviews for scientific journals and gave 
talks to various local civic organizations. Among the latter was the 
Omaha, Nebr., Kiwanis Club meeting to honor Dr. Ahmed Fakhry 
and the Tutankhamun exhibit at Joslyn Art Museum on May 9, and 
the meeting of the planning committee for the Heartland Exhibit at 
the New York World's Fair in 1964-65, held in Omaha on May 17. 
From June 17 to 24 he visited the field parties in Montana and at the 
end of the year was back in the Lincoln office. 

Lionel A. Brown, archeologist, joined the staff on April 2 and spent 
the ensuing month in the Lincoln office learning field and laboratory 
procedures and preparing for the summer's field work. He was in the 
field from May 1 to 25 conducting surveys and excavations in the 
Pony Creek Drainage area of southwestern Iowa. On June 13 he 
again left for the field, where at the end of the year he was excavating 
in the Yellowtail Reservoir in Montana. 

Dr. Warren W. Caldwell, archeologist, when not in charge of field 
parties, devoted most of his time to analyses of specimen materials he 
had recovered from salvage excavations in previous years. He com- 
pleted two drafts of a monograph entitled "Archeological Investiga- 
tions at the Black Partizan site (39LM218), Big Bend Reservoir, 
South Dakota," and that is now ready for fuial revision. He con- 
tinued sporadic work on the revision of his manuscript "The Archeol- 
ogy of Wakemap," wrote several reviews for various scientific journals, 
and had the following three technical articles and one monograph 
published: "Archeological Excavations at the Coralville Reservoir, 
Iowa," published in Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 179, 
River Basin Surveys Paper No. 22, 1961 ; "Tree Ring Investigations 
in Central South Dakota," published in abstract in the Proceedings of 
the 72d Meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, 1962; "Tree 
Ring Dating and the Village Cultures of South Dakota," published 
in Progress of the Interior Missouri Basin Field Committee, 1962 ; and 
"The Missouri Basin Chronology Program, Statement No. 3," pub- 
lished by offset in the Missouri Basin Project office, 1962. 



SEVENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 23 

Throughout the year he served as collaborator for the Plains area 
on Abstracts of New World Archeology and prepared abstracts of 10 
articles for that publication. In addition, he served as contributing 
editor for Plains literature and reviews for the Plaitis Anthropologist, 
and (on annual leave) as part-time assistant professor of anthropology 
at the University of Nebraska, as well as continuing his position as 
chairman of the dendrochronology section of the Missouri Basin 
Chronology Program. On April 14 he attended the annual meeting 
of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences where he presented a paper 
entitled "Tree Ring Investigations in Central South Dakota" and 
served as a panel discussant in a symposium on "Modern Research 
Methods in the Field of Ethnohistory." He attended the 27th annual 
meeting of the Society for American Archeology in Tucson, Ariz., on 
May 3-5, where he participated in a symposium on "Tree Ring Dat- 
ing" and also conferred with the staff members of the Laboratory of 
Tree Ring Research and the Geochronology Laboratory at the Uni- 
versity of Arizona. At the end of the year he was again engaged in 
excavating archeological sites in the Big Bend Reservoir area. 

Wilfred M. Husted, archeologist, joined the staff on April 16 and 
spent the rest of that month in the Lincoln office learning field and 
laboratory procedures and preparing for the simmier's field work. 
During May 1-11 he was in the field with Brown in the Pony Creek 
Drainage area in Iowa. On June 13, he again left for the field where, 
at the end of the year, he was excavating in Yellowtail Reservoir area 
in Wyoming. 

Robert W. Neuman, archeologist, when not in the field conducting 
excavations, was at work analyzing archeological materials he had 
previously excavated in the Big Bend and Oahe Reservoir areas. He 
completed one monograph entitled "The Good Soldier Site, Lyman 
Comity, South Dakota," which will appear as River Basin Surveys 
Paper No. 37 in Bulletin 189 of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 
The major portion of his laboratory research time was devoted to an 
analysis of data and the development of a trait list for burial mounds 
in the Middle Missouri and northern Plains areas, the compilation of 
a report on preceramic horizons in the Fort Thompson vicinity, and 
an article on check-stamped pottery in the northern and central Plains. 
Throughout the year he served as chairman of the carbon-14 section 
of the Missouri Basin Chronology Program. Over the Thanksgiving 
weekend he attended the Plains Conference for Archeology at Lawton, 
Okla., where he presented a paper on "The 1961 Missouri Basin Proj- 
ect Field Season" and another on "Historic Indian Burials near Fort 
Thompson." On April 13 he attended the annual meeting of the 
Nebraska Academy of Sciences in Lincoln and presented a paper en- 
titled "Check Stamped Pottery on the Central and Northern Plains," 
wliich was published in abstract in the proceedings of the meeting. 



2^ 



BUREAU OF .\:MEKICAX ETHXOLOGY 



On May 4-5 he attended and participated in the annual meeting of 
the Central States Anthropoligical Society in St, Louis. At the 
end of the year he was again in the held conducting archeological 
excavations. 

G. Hubert Smith, archeologist, was on duty at the firet of the year 
in the Lincoln office continuing work on the comprehensive report of 
investigations at the site of Like-a-Fisliliook Village and Fort Berth- 
old I and II (32:ML2) , in the Garrison Reservoir, Xorth Dakota. He 
devoted most of liis efforts during the year to this report and had 
completed most of a fii"st draft of it by the end of the year. During' 
the period July 21-29 he ac<:ompanied the chief on a trip to Montana 
and "Wyoming, particularly to consult with Bureau of Reclamation 
officials in regard to the salvage and preservation of Fort C. F, Smith 
at the mouth of the Big Horn Canyon in Montana, near the construc- 
tion area of the Yellowtail Dam. He attended the 19th Plains Con- 
ference for Archeology at Lawton, Okla., on Thanksgi\4ng weekend 
and sei-ved as chairman of a session on ''Historic Sites Archeology and 
Etlmography."' On April 13 he attended the annual meeting of the 
Nebraska Academy of Sciences in Lincoln and participated in a sym- 
posium on "Research ^lethods m Ethnohistory." On May 5 he at- 
tended and participated in the annual meeting of the National Trust 
for Historic Preservation held in Omaha, Xebr. Throughout the year 
he sen-ed as chaimian of the historic documentation section of the 
Missouri Basin Chronology Program and as a member of the edi- 
torial board of the Plains Anthropologist. 

During the period of May 15-20 he was in the field visiting the Fort 
Sully site in the Oahe Reservoir area of central South Dakota and 
making an archeological survey of the Arcadia Reservoir area in 
central Nebraska. On June 12 he returned to the field where he was 
again conducting excavations in the Big Bend Reservoir area at the 
end of the year. 

Table 1. — Specimens processed, July 1, 1961- June SO, 1962 



Reservoir 



Arcadia 

Big Bend 

Fort Randall 

Lewis and Clark 

Oahe 

Sites not in a reservoir area 

Total 



Number 
of sites 



26 



Catalog 
numbers 
assigned 



5 

2,435 

5 

4 

1,971 

325 



4,745 



Number of 
specimens 
processed 



29 

64, S92 

8 

20 

17, 457 

1,274 



83, 680 



SEVENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 25 

As of June 30, 1962, the Missouri Basin Project had cataloged 
1,339,396 specimens from 2,152 numbered sites and 59 collections not 
assigned site numbers. 

Specimens restored : 5 pottery vessel sections. 

Specimens donated to tlie Missouri Basin Project for comparative use : 
Thirty-oue pot rim sherds representing Fort Eice and HufE vpares — State 

Historical Society of North Dakota, courtesy of W. Raymond Wood. 
Thirty-one trade beads— University of Texas, courtesy of Edward B. Jelks. 
Three United States Army buttons dating 1850-70— courtesy of S. J. Olsen, 
Florida Geological Survey. 

Table 2.— Record material processed, July 1, 1961-June 20, 1962 

MISSOURI BASIN PROJECT 

Keflex copies of records 3, 809 

Photographic negatives made 1, 135 

Photographic prints made 3,392 

Photographic prints mounted and filed 1, 673 

Transparencies mounted in glass 564 

Kodachrome pictures taken in lab 156 

Cartographic tracings and drawings 55 

Illustrations 29 

Lettering of plates 10 

Profiles drawn 33 

Plate layouts made for manuscripts 10 

Virginia. — ^An archeological reconnaissance was made during the 
period from April 3 to May 11 at the Smith Mountain Project on 
the Roanoke Eiver in southern Virginia. That is an Appalachian 
Power Co. undertaking and consists of the construction of two dams — 
Smith Mountain and Leesville — which will provide water for power 
purposes. The two reservoirs they will form will be located in Bed- 
ford, Franklin, and Pittsylvania Counties, Va. The survey was made 
by Carl F. Miller. His work was greatly facilitated by complete 
cooperation on the part of personnel of the Appalachian Power Co. 
and the Nello L. Teer Construction Co. The power company provided 
a helicopter which made possible a study of the reservoir areas from 
the air and also the taking of aerial photogi^aphs of the more important 
sites. 

Mr. Miller located and recorded 35 sites in the Smith Mountain basin 
and 17 sites in the Leesville basin. Of the total of 52, only 1 will 
not be endangered by the inundation of the 2 areas. However, 
after careful examination of the surfaces and the testing of some 
sites, Mr. Miller concluded that only four of them merited excavation 
and detailed study. Three are in the Smith Mountain basin, while 
the fourth is in the Leesville basin. The sites cover the Early, Middle, 
and Late Woodland periods, involving a timespan beginning about 
3000 B.C. and lasting to about A.D. 1000. They are significant be- 



26 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

cause of the fact that they occur upstream from the James H. Kerr 
Keservoir where extensive archeological studies were made several 
years ago and, while related to the manifestations present there, 
tliey appear to contain some cultural elements which were not found 
farther downstream. Excavations will be made at Smith Mountain 
during the next fiscal year. 

ARCHIVES 

The Bureau archives continued under the custody of Mrs. Margaret 
C. Blaker, archivist. 

Following the death of Dr. John P. Harrington, extensive series 
of his linguistic and ethnographic notes relating to numerous North 
American Indian tribes were returned from private storage and 
deposited with the Bureau through the courtesy of his daughter, Miss 
Awona W. Harrington. This material is volmninous and has become 
disarranged during years of storage. To serve as a preliminary guide, 
a list of the manuscripts, with particular attention to those dealing 
with Indian languages of California, was prepared by Miss Catherine 
Callaghan, scientific linguist. 

A collection of letters, family records, and photographs from the 
estate of Matilda Coxe Stevenson, relatmg mainly to Mrs. Stevenson, 
although some pertained to her husband. Col. James Stevenson, was 
received as a gift from Manning Gasch of McLean, Va. 

Two copybooks containing Micmac ideogTams and an interlinear 
transcription of the Micmac words written about 1943 by Frank Navin, 
an Indian of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, were lent by the Kev. Father 
Placide, O.F.M., Cap., Kistigouche, Quebec, to be microfilmed for 
the Bureau archives. 

A collection of over 4,000 photographic prints relating to North 
American Indian tribes was transferred from the U.S. National 
Museum. The prints have been sorted and arranged by cultural area 
and tribe, but much remains to be done in tracing the original acces- 
sion data in order to determine actual or terminal dates and other 
relevant background information. 

Forty-two photographs relating to several Hopi pueblos, taken 
by Miss Margaret Brainard in 1929-31, 1938, and 1950, were donated 
by her. 

Thirty-six color transparencies of North Carolina and Oklahoma 
Cherokee, taken by Eaymond Fogelson in 19C0, were donated by him. 

Thirty-three photographs of persons of Indian descent living in 
Virginia, Mainland, Delaware, Maine, and Quebec, taken by Daniel 
Kennedy in 1960 and 1961, were donated by him. 

Sixteen photographs of Chippewa Indians taken in 1905 at Grand 
Marais and Grand Portage, Minn., by Frances Densmore before she 
became affiliated with the Bureau Avere donated by Eliot Davis, 



SEVENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 27 

superintendent of Grand Portage National Monument, Grand Marais, 
Minn. 

Seven photographs of western Indians were lent for copying by 
Vernon M. Riley of Chino, Calif. 

As in previous years the manuscript and photographic collections 
were consulted by numerous scholars and members of the general 
public. There were approximately 175 written and personal inquiries 
about manuscripts, including requests for microfilm copies, and ap- 
proximately 600 inquiries about and requests for photographic prints. 
Over 2,450 photographs were prepared and distributed, an increase 
over last year's figure. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

The illustrator devoted most of his time to preparing and com- 
pleting a variety of tasks in the fields of archeology, anthropology, 
and ethnology. Work was also prepared for the River Basin Sur- 
veys and for several other branches of the Institution. 

LIBRARY 

A reference librarian was appointed for the Bureau of American 
Ethnology Library in May 1962, to provide library services for the 
staffs of the Bureau and other branches of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, and other qualified scholars. Rearrangement of the library's 
collection has already been completed, and it is plaimed to organize 
and maintain the collection so that it will realize its potential 
usefulness. 

In the process of shifting materials, various interesting publications 
have attracted attention, among them what seems to be the original 
Circular in Reference to Degrees of Relationship Am,ong Different 
Nations by Lewis Henry IMorgan and a good collection of congres- 
sional reports pertaining to Indian affairs beginnini? with the 12th 
Congress. Several early editions of encyclopedias, dictionaries, and 
gazetteers have been gathered together and made more accessible for 
the patrons. 

The valuable reprint collection has been organized and an author 
index made with assistance of summer student employees. 
^ Special emphasis will be placed on the strengthening of this 
library's collection by filling gaps in important serial runs, reactivat- 
ing and following up on exchange materials, and the acquisition of 
important works, both retrospective and current. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editorial work of the Bureau continued during the year under 
the immediate direction of Mrs. Eloise B. Edelen. Tlie following 
publications were issued : 



28 BUREAU OF AIMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Seventy-eighth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1960-61. 

ii+33 pp., 2 pis. 1962. 
Bulletin 175. Mohave ethnopsychlatry and suicide : The psychiatric knowledge 
and the psychic disturbances of an Indian tribe, by George Devereux. 
vi+586 pp., 10 pis. 1961. 
Bulletin 179. River Basin Surveys Papers, Nos. 21-24, Frank H. H. Roberts, 
Jr., editor, xviii+337 pp., 56 pis., 43 figs. 1961. 

No. 21. Excavations at Texarkana Reservoir, Sulphur River, Texas, by 

Edward B. Jelks. 
No. 22. Archeological investigations at the Coralville Reservoir, Iowa, by 

Warren W. Caldwell. 
No. 23. The McNary Reservoir : A study in Plateau archeology, by Joel L. 

Shiner. 
No. 24, The Sheep Island site and the Mid-Columbia Valley, by Douglas 
Osborne, Alan Bryan, and Robert H. Crabtree. 
Bulletin 183. Seneca Thanksgiving rituals, by Wallace L. Chafe, iii+302 pp. 
1961. 

Publications distributed totaled 19,326, as compared with 29,845 
for the fiscal year 1961. 

COLLECTIONS 

The following collections were made by staff members of the River 
Basin Surveys of the Bureau of American Ethnology and transferred 
to the permanent collections of the Department of Anthropology, 
U.S. National Museum : 

AcG. Nos. 

236771, 238626, 238627 11,560 miscellaneous stone, bone, and shell 

archeological specimens from various 
localities in the United States. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Dr. M. W. Stirling, Dr. A. J. Waring, and Sister Inez Hilger con- 
tinued as research associates. Dr. John P. Harrington, linguist on 
the staff of the Bureau from February 20, 1915, until his retirement 
on April 30, 1954, and later research associate, died on October 21, 
1961, in San Diego, Calif., after many months' illness. 

Dr. Wallace L. Chafe worked part time during the academic year 
1961-62 so that he could teach linguistics in the graduate school at 
Catholic University of America. 

Robert M. Laughlin reported for duty on June 10 as ethnologist 
specializing in the Middle American area. 

The Bureau revised and reissued during the fiscal year the follow- 
ing bibliographies and lists : 
SIL-47, rev., 8/61 : Selected bibliography on the Battle of the Little Big Horn. 

5 pp. 
SIL-99, rev., 3/62: Bibliography on American Indian medicine and health. 

Compiled by William C. Sturtevant. 39 pp. 
SIL-65, 3d rev., 3/62 : Introductory bibliography on the American Indian. 7 pp. 



SEVENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 29 

SIL«-53, rev., 4/62 : Photographic collections of the Bureau of American Ethnol- 
ogy. 2 pp. 

SIL-90, rev., 4/62: Some dealers in second-hand anthropological and govern- 
ment publications. 2 pp. 

SILr-50, 4th rev., 6/62 : Selected list of portraits of prominent Indians in the 
collections of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 3 pp. 

SIL-81, rev., 6/62: Selected bibliography on stone-chipping methods. 4 pp. 

Although the 3,227 letters received in the director's office during 
the year indicate a decrease from the previous year, the total is well 
above the average for the past several years. This number, of course, 
does not include semiofficial letters received by staff members from 
colleagues and interested individuals. Because the Bureau does not 
maintain a mailing list for its bibliography series, many college and 
university librarians write in for complete sets and for information 
leaflets. About 8,000 informational items were mailed from the main 
Bureau office in response to requests for such material. The above 
totals do not include Bureau material and publications sent out by 
the Editorial and Publications Division. Many lots of specimens 
were received by mail or brought to the office for identification and for 
such information as could be provided by Bureau specialists. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director. 

Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 
Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



,;"T! 



H^h 



Eightieth Annual Report 

of the 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY 



1962-1963 







SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D.C. 



EIGHTIETH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1962-1963 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1964 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

June 30, 1963 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Anthropologists. — Henry B. Collins, William C. Sturtevant, Robert M. 

Laughlin. 
Research Associates. — Sister M. Inez Hilgeb, Matthew W. Stirling, A. J. 

Waring, Jr. 
Archivist. — Mrs. Margaret C. Blaker. 
Scientific illustrator. — E. G. Schumacher. 
Administrative assistant. — Mrs. Jessie S. Shaw. 

River Basin Surveys 

Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Chief, Missouri Basin Project. — Robert L. Stephenson. 

Archeologists. — Lionel A. Brown, Warren W. Caldwell, John J. Hoffman, 

Harold A. Huscher, Wilfred M. Husted, Richard E. Jensen, Oscar L. 

Mallory, Carl F. Miller, Robert W. Neuman, G. Hubert Smith. 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



Feank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1963, conducted in 
accordance with the act of Congress of April 10, 1928, as amended 
August 22, 1949, which directs the Bureau "to continue independently 
or in cooperation anthropological researches among the American 
Indians and the natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection of 
the United States and the excavation and preservation of archeologic 
remains." 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., director of the Bureau, devoted most 
of the fiscal year to office duties and to general supervision of the 
activities of the Bureau and the River Basin Surveys. 

Early in August, at the invitation of the Czechoslovak Academy of 
Sciences, Dr. Henry B. Collins, anthropologist, attended a meeting of 
the Permanent Council of the International Congress of Anthropo- 
logical and Ethnological Sciences in Prague. Following the meetings 
the delegates were taken on a week's tour to visit ethnographic mu- 
seums and inspect paleolithic and neolithic sites being excavated by 
Czech archeologists in Bohemia, Moravia, and Slovakia. 

On November 9-10 Dr. Collins participated in a symposium on Pre- 
historic Man in the New World held at Rice University, Houston, Tex., 
in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the university. His paper, 
discussing the present status and problems of archeological research in 
the American Arctic and subarctic, together with those of the 16 other 
participants in the symposium, will appear in a volume to be pub- 
lished by the University of Chicago Press. Dr. Collins's paper "Bering 
Strait to Greenland," evaluating the results of recent archeological 
discoveries in the American Arctic and their bearing on the problem 
of the origin and relationships of Eskimo culture, was published in 
December 1962 in Technical Paper No. 11, Arctic Institute of North 
America. Another paper, "Stefansson as an Anthropologist," was 
published in the Stefansson memorial issue of Polar Notes, No. 4. 

In December Dr. Collins was reelected to a 3-year term on the board 
of governors of the Arctic Institute of North America. He continued 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

to serve as a member of the Institute's publications committee and as 
chairman of the directing committee which is responsible for prepara- 
tion of the Arctic Bibliography, a reference work which summarizes 
and indexes the contents of scientific publications in all fields, and in 
all languages, pertaining to the Arctic and subarctic regions of the 
world. The material for Volume 11 of tlie bibliography, edited by 
Marie Tremaine, was delivered to the Government Printing Office in 
October 1962. Approximately 1,500 pages in size, it will contain 
abstracts in English of 6,607 publications, of which 2,990 are of books, 
monographs, and papers published in Russian, 2,638 in English, and 
979 in Scandinavian, German, French, and other languages. Ameri- 
can scientists and others interested in following the course of scientific 
research and economic and social developments in the northern parts 
of the Soviet Union find the bibliogi-aphy a valuable source of informa- 
tion, including as it does English abstracts of Soviet publications on 
such widely varied subjects as acclimatization, acculturation, adminis- 
tration and government, aerial mapping and reconnaissance, agri- 
culture, archeology, botany and zoology, construction, economic condi- 
tions, education, electric power, fishes and fisheries, forestry, geology 
and geophysics, hydrology, ice navigation, maps and mapping, 
meteorology, mineral resources, mines and mining, oceanography, pale- 
ontology, public health and medicine, petroleum, petrology, railroads, 
transportation, wildlife conservation and management, etc. Abstracts 
of anthropological publications have formed a substantial part of the 
Arctic BibliograpTiy from the beginning of the project. An attempt 
has been made, with considerable success, to summarize and index the 
contents of every paper that has been written on the Eskimos of 
Siberia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland; the Tlingit, Haida, and 
Tsimshian Indians of the Northwest Coast; the northern Athapaskans 
and Algonkians ; and the native peoples of northern Eurasia. 

The Arctic Institute's Russian translation project— Anthropology 
of the North: Translations from Russian Sources— which Dr. Collins 
organized in 1960, continued its operations under a renewed grant 
from the National Science Foundation and the editorship of Dr. Henry 
N. Michael. The third volume of the series, an English translation of 
the late M. G. Levin's definitive work on the anthropology of north- 
eastern Asia {Ethnic Origins of the Peoples of Northeastern Asia), 
was published by the University of Toronto Press in May 1963. Addi- 
tional translations of Russian publications on Arctic anthropology 
are in the course of preparation. 

Dr. William C. Sturtevant attended the 35th International Congress 
of Americanists (Mexico City, August 19-25), the joint annual meet- 
ings of the American Indian Ethnohistoric Conference and the Con- 
ference on Iroquois Research (Albany, October 12-14) , the 61st annual 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 6 

meeting of the American Anthropological Association (Chicago, No- 
vember 15-18), and the annual meeting of the Central States 
Anthropological Society (Detroit, May 16-18). At the last he 
participated in a symposium on primitive art. 

Dr. Sturtevant's time in Washington was devoted to continuing 
research on the Iroquois and Seminole, to preparation of a paper 
titled "Studies in Ethnoscience" which he presented at the Social 
Science Research Council's Conference on Transcultural Studies of 
Cognitive Systems (Merida, Yucatan, April 17-20), and to his duties 
as book-review editor of the American Anthropologist. Papers by 
him were published in the Florida Anthropologist and in Ethnohistory. 

In July Dr. Sturtevant spent about 2 weeks continuing etlmo- 
graphic fieldwork among the Seneca-Cayuga of Oklahoma, which he 
had begim the previous summer. This research, supported by a grant 
from the American Philosophical Society, is providing data on the 
most extreme variant of Iroquois culture, particularly on religion and 
ceremonial aspects, which casts a new light on the relatively well- 
known culture of the modern Iroquois communities in New York and 
Ontario. In October Dr. Sturtevant spent a few days on the Six 
Nations Reserve in Ontario, observing an important Iroquois religious 
ceremony and making inquiries for comparison with his Oklahoma 
data. In addition to this fieldwork, Dr. Sturtevant conducted archival 
research on the Oklahoma Seneca-Cayuga in the Indian Archives 
Division of the Oklahoma Historical Society in Oklahoma City 
(July 23-24) and museum research on Florida Seminole and other 
eastern Indian material in the Milwaukee Public Museum (Novem- 
ber 19-21 ) and in the College Museum of Hampton Institute, Hamp- 
ton, Va. (June 8-9). 

In November Dr. Robert M. Laughlin, ethnologist, began fieldwork 
in Chiapas, Mexico, where he collected and recorded ethnographic 
and linguistic materials, particularly myths and dreams, as well as 
numerous prayers, from the Tzotzil Indians of Zinacantan, Chiapas, 
and surroundmg areas. A vocabulary of 2,200 items of the dialect 
of Zinacantan collected by Lore M. Colby in 1960 has been expanded 
to 4,000 by Dr. Laughlin. He recorded a series of 26 dreams in Tzotil 
from a Zinacantan informant. Because specific dream experiences 
determine the selection of shamans from the community and also pro- 
voke new religious feasts, it is expected that dreams will illuminate 
many aspects of Zinacantan world view. This material is being pre- 
pared for publication. 

Dr. Laughlin utilized the results of a week of ethnographic re- 
search in the Huastec area of the States of San Luis Potosi and 
Veracruz, Mexico, in January 1963, to supplement library research 
for the preparation of the chapter "Huastec" for the HandhooJc of 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Middle American Indians. Another chapter for the Handbook^ en- 
titled *'Tzotzil," is in preparation. Dr. Laughlin returned to Wash- 
ington in mid-May to checli on data he had obtained in the field and 
to consult references in various libraries, and on June 14 left again 
for Mexico to continue his field studies. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

The River Basin Surveys, the unit of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology organized to cooperate with the National Park Service and 
the Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of the Interior, the 
Corps of Engineers of the Department of the Army, and State and 
local institutions in the program for salvage archeology in areas to 
be flooded or otherwise destroyed by the construction of large dams, 
continued its activities. An increase in funds made possible an ex- 
pansion of the program throughout the Missouri Basin. The investi- 
gations during 1962-63 were supported by a transfer of $271,000 from 
the National Park Service, a carryover of $64,498 Missouri Basin 
money, a grant of $7,285 from the Appalachian Power Co., and a 
carryover of $4,080 from an earlier contribution by the Idaho Power 
Co. The National Park Service funds were to support the investiga- 
tions in the Missouri Basin, and the grant from the Appalachian 
Power Co. was to provide for archeological excavations along the 
Roanoke River in southern Virginia where the Smith Mountain 
Project is nearing completion. The balance from the Idaho Power 
Co. came from a grant originally made to conduct researches in the 
Hells Canyon Reservoir area along the Snake River, Idaho-Oregon, 
and the work this year was a continuation of that project. This par- 
ticular investigation was carried on as a cooperative project between 
the River Basin Sui-veys and the Museum of Idaho State College at 
Pocatello. The grand total of fmids available for the River Basin 
Surveys in 1962-63 was $346,863. 

Activities in the field pertained, in large part, to surveys and ex- 
cavations. Most of the work was concentrated in the digging or 
testing of sites but surveys were made in six new reservoir basins. 
Five of the new reservoirs were in Kansas ; the sixth was in Nebraska. 
At the beginning of the fiscal year, nine excavating parties were in 
the field in the Missouri Basin and one survey party was operating 
in Montana. In September, digging was started in the Smith Moun- 
tain Reservoir area in southern Virginia, and in October a small group 
collected pollen samples from areas in western Nebraska. During 
February and early March one party excavated a site along the Chat- 
tahoochee River in Georgia. In May, a small group worked for a 
short period in South Dakota, while another made the reconnaissance 
of the six reservoirs previously mentioned. Also during May a party 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 



returned to the Smith Mountain area. During June, 11 parties began 
operations in the Missouri Basin and were fully occupied in the ex- 
cavation program at the end of the fiscal year. 

As of June 30, 1963, archeological surveys and excavations had been 
made, since the start of the salvage program, in a total of 264 reser- 
voir areas located in 29 different States. Furthermore, two lock proj- 
ects, four canal areas, and two watershed areas had also been ex- 
amined. Since 1946, when the program got underway, 5,009 sites have 
been located and recorded ; of that number, 1,175 were recommended 
for excavation or limited testing. Because of the conditions under 
which the salvage operations need to be conducted, complete excava- 
tions, except in the case of a few small sites, are rarely possible. Conse- 
quently, when the term "excavation" is used, it generally implies that 
only about 10 percent of a site was dug. 

By the end of the year, 484 sites in 54 reservoir basins and one 
watershed area had either been tested or excavated to the degree where 
good information about them had been obtained. It has been the 
policy of the River Basin Surveys to dig in at least one example of 
the various kinds of sites reported in the preliminary surveys. The 
sites range in nature from those which were simple camping areas, 
occupied by early hunting and gathering Indians of about 10,000 years 
ago, to village remains left by historic Indians of the mid-19th cen- 
tury. In addition, the remains of frontier trading posts of European 
origin and of Army installations have also been examined. The re- 
sults of the investigations have been incorporated in reports which 
have been published in various scientific journals, in the Bureau of 
American Etlmology Bulletins, and in the Miscellaneous Collections 
of the Smithsonian Institution. River Basin Surveys Paper No. 25, 
which constitutes Bureau Bulletin 182, pertaining to the work done in 
the John H. Kerr Reservoir Basin on the Roanoke River, Virginia- 
North Carolina, was published in October. River Basin Surveys 
Papers Nos. 26-32, which report on investigations in North Dakota, 
Montana, and Kansas, and comprise Bulletin 185, were released during 
Jmie. Reports on other investigations in the two Dakotas and 
Kansas, consisting of River Basin Surveys Papers 33-S8, constituting 
Bulletin 189, were sent to the Prmting Office early in the fiscal year 
and will be ready for distribution shortly after the beginning of the 
new year. Various members of the staff cooperated with representa- 
tives of other Federal agencies in the preparation of short popular 
pamphlets about some of the major reservoir projects. These pam- 
phlets were published by the cooperating agency and are distributed at 
the visitors' center for the reservoir concerned. 

As in previous years, the River Basin Sui-veys received helpful 
cooperation from the National Park Service, the Bureau of Reclama- 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

tion, the Corps of Engineers, the Geological Survey, and numerous 
State and local institutions. The party leaders were assisted in many 
ways by the field personnel of all the cooperating agencies, and the 
relationship was excellent in all areas. The National Park Service 
continued to serve as liaison between the various agencies, both in 
Washington and in the field. The Park Service also prepared the 
budget estimates and justifications for the funds needed to support the 
salvage program. 

General direction and supervision of the program were continued 
by the main office in Washington. Work in the Missouri Basin was 
directed by the field headquarters and laboratory at Lincoln, Nebr. 
The projects in southern Virginia and Georgia were supervised by 
the Washington office. 

Washington O^cc—Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., continued the 
direction of the main headquarters of the River Basin Surveys in 
the Bureau of American Ethnology throughout the year. Harold A. 
Huscher and Carl F. Miller, archeologists, were based at that office. 
Mr. Huscher had just returned from the Walter F. George Dam and 
Lock area on the Chattahoochee River below Columbus, Ga., at the 
beginning of the fiscal year. He remained in the office during the 
summer and fall months, working on the accumulatmg records and 
collections from the 4 preceding years. In November he attended 
the Southeastern Archeological Conference and the Conference on 
Historic Site Archeology at Mound State Park, MoundviUe, Ala., 
reading a report on the "Archaic of the Walter F. George Reservoir 
Area." On November 10 and 11, he attended the Eastern States 
Archeological Conference at Athens, Ga., readmg a paper on "Generic 
Western Names Identifiable in the Southeast." On November 22-24, 
he participated in the 20th Annual Plains Conference at Lincohi, 
Nebr., where he discussed "Southern Athapaskan Names in Early 
Spanish Records." Early in February he returned to Georgia and 
completed emergency excavations at a site just south of the City of 
Columbus. In May he attended the joint meeting of the Society for 
American Archeology and the American Association of Physical 
Anthropologists at Boulder, Colo., reading a paper on "Intermontane 
Athapaskan Continuities." At the close of the fiscal year he was work- 
ing on liis materials from the Walter F. George Reservoir area. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Mr. Miller was in charge of an 
excavating party at the Tuttle Creek Reservoir area in northern 
Kansas. The results of his activities there are covered m the follow- 
ing section on the Missouri Basin. On September 10 he left for 
the Smith Mountain and Leesville Reservoir area in southern Vir- 
ginia and carried on excavations there until November 18, when 
weather conditions made it advisable to terminate digging until spring. 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 7 

While in the Washington office he worked on materials he had pre- 
viously collected in Georgia and also started detailed studies on the 
ceramic material he had obtained while digging at Eussell Cave in 
Alabama. He also examined numerous archeological specimens sent 
to the Washington office by private collectors. In January he as- 
sisted in setting up a series of archeological exhibits at one of the 
schools in Newport News, Va. He also completed two short papers 
for publication, one describing certain polyhedral cores found in 
Kansas, the other discussing Chenopodium weeds as a source of food 
for Southeastern Indians. On May 15, Mr. Miller left Washington 
for Koclcy Mount, Va., to resume his investigations in the Smith Moun- 
tain Reservoir Project area, and at the end of the year he and his 
small field party were digging in one of the best sites found in 
that locality. 

Alabama-Georgia. — Harold A. Huscher spent the week of Novem- 
ber 4—10 at the Walter F. George Reservoir, checking and photograph- 
ing sites as they were being progressively flooded by the rising waters 
of the reservoir. At the upper end of the reservoir the historically 
important Coweta Town House site, 1 RU 9, where Oglethorpe 
held a peace conference with the Creek chiefs in 1739, was being 
destroyed by grading for the new Phoenix City dock development. 

The Walker Street site (Key School site) , 9 ME 60, reported by 
David W. Chase, Fort Benning Infantry Museum, was being destroyed 
by an eroding drainage ditch and immediate salvage operations were 
recommended. Huscher returned to Georgia on February 7, 1963, 
and, working under an emergency grant, investigated this site, which 
proved to be an Early Woodland occupation level buried in a natural 
levee of the Chattahoochee River south of Columbus. With the as- 
sistance of David W. Chase of the Infantry Museum, power equip- 
ment was used in stripping the overburden from 1,600 square feet 
of the site. The exposed camp layers were then excavated using 
power-screening techniques. Post holes in linear and curvilinear 
arrangements were recorded, but no complete house patterns were 
worked out. Twenty occupational features, including pits and 
hearths, were recorded. Over 3,000 sherds and stone artifacts were 
recovered, of which 1,000 were sherds of the sand-tempered fine- 
checked (Cartersville Check Stamped) types. There were 40 exam- 
ples of the tetrapodal pot-base and 9 examples of the subrectangular 
flat pot-base, characteristic of the late Deptford Period. Minority 
pottery types were, in descending frequency, large check stamped, 
complicated stamped, linear check stamped, and simple stamped. A 
few sherds showed combinations of check stamped and complicated 
stamped, possibly transitional Deptford-Swift Creek forms belonging 
with Willey's New River Complicated Stamped. The characteristic 

716-004—64 2 



8 BUREAU OF AJVIERICAX ETHNOLOGY 

point is triangular, thick cross-section, slightly excurvate sides, with 
baseline either straight, slightly concave, or slightly convex. The 
assemblage, seemingly a manifestation late in the Deptford Period, 
with some early traits of the Swift Creek complex appearing, most 
closely parallels that found in the submound and primary mounds 
at the Stark's Clay Landing site, 9 CLA 1 ("Mandeville Mound," 
University of Georgia), and the Mound at the Upper Francis Land- 
ing, 1 BR 15 ("Shorter Site," University of Alabama), and the 
Early Woodland level at the Russell Cave. 

Idaho-Oregon. — Under an agreement with the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, the Idaho State University Museum undertook archeological 
reconnaissance and excavations in the Hells Canyon Reservoir on the 
Snake River between Idaho and Oregon. Fieldwork began on March 
25, 1963, and concluded June 20, 1963. The project was under the 
general supervision of Dr. Earl H. Swanson, director of the museum. 
Max G. Pavesic, a graduate student at the University of Colorado, 
directed the fieldwork and was assisted by Roger Nance, Washing- 
ton State University, and by David Wyatt, University of Wash- 
ington. 

Field headquarters were maintained at Oxbow Dam, where the 
Idaho Power Co. generously made available a trailer for residence 
and for laboratory work. Additional assistance during the excavation 
was given by the Morrison-Knudsen Corp., which provided the field 
party with a bulldozer. Grateful acknowledgment is also due to 
Jess Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Amos Camp, Dan Cole, Ross Parker, Ralph 
Page, and Rudy Lanning for the help they gave. 

The field studies were conducted throughout by three men whose 
work included intensive reconnaissance and excavation at an impor- 
tant village site (No. lO-AJVI-l). Ten archeological sites were lo- 
cated which were not reported in the original survey of Hells Canyon 
(Columbia Basin Project, River Basin Surveys, Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, 1951). These include three rockshelters, seven camp sites, 
and numerous rock cairns. Five cairns were excavated. The first 
was excavated entirely by hand because these appear to be a type 
of archeological feature. Cairns of this nature are constructed of 
large boulders, which sometimes weigh several tons and which are 
covered by earth. Reports of burials beneath the cairns were given 
to the crew, but no archeological materials or data were obtained 
from them and they remain unexplained at this time. 

An important village site was given careful attention by the field 
party. Two adjacent housepits, as well as the area between, were in- 
tensively examined by excavation. These lie on a north-south axis 
parallel to the river. The largest structure is approximately 25 feet 
in diameter, while the smaller measures approximately 12 feet across. 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 9 

It could not be determined whether there was any superimposition of 
the structures. Stratigraphically, and by the artifact inventory, the 
housepits appear to be contemporaneous. In botli, the house fill is not 
more than SYo feet in depth. Little soil change was found in the fill, 
which was a dark loam near the top but became sandier with depth. 
Above the sterile soil, yellow sand and gravel, an ash layer is found 
throughout the limits of the housepits. Stratigraphically, there 
appears to be only one cultural occupation. 

Large quantities of tools, flakes, and bones were recovered, which 
indicate both intensive occupation and use of the area for hunting 
purposes. Preliminary examination of the artifacts suggests that 
occupation was late in prehistoric time, possibly early historic, and 
similarities can be seen with the Camas Prairie Phase reported at the 
Weis Rockshelter on Camas Prairie (B. Robert Butler, Contributions 
to the Prehistory of the Columbia Plateau, Occasional Papers No. 9 
of the Idaho College Museum) . 

Missouri Basin. — ^At the beginning of fiscal year 1947 the Missouri 
Basin Project of the River Basin Surveys began its operations from 
the field headquarters and laboratory in Lincoln, Nebr. The Project 
has carried on its activities for 17 consecutive years from that location. 
The office and laboratory were at first housed with the Laboratory of 
Anthropology in the basement of the Social Sciences Building. They 
were then moved to a basement hallway of the University of Nebraska 
Library. Shortly thereafter much more space was made available in 
the basement of the just-completed Burnett Hall on the University 
campus, and the Laboratory of Anthropology and the project again 
joined forces. By 1950, both the project and the Laboratory of An- 
thropology had outgrown this space, and the Missouri Basin Project 
rented a building at 1517 O Street. The project laboratory was 
transferred to the new location, but offices were maintained in Burnett 
Hall. In 1953 the offices were moved to O Street and the entire project 
operated from that location for the following 10 years. During the 
present fiscal year expansion of the project and deterioration of the 
upper floors of the building at 1517 O Street made new quarters an 
absolute necessity. On May 1, 1963, the Missouri Basin Project rented 
a one-story building at 1835 P Street in Lincoln and moved to that 
location. It is a relatively new, fireproof building of 14,000 square 
feet, with all laboratory, storage, and office facilities on one floor. 

Activities during the current fiscal year, as in past years, included 
surveys, excavations, analyses of materials, and reporting of results 
of the salvage of archeological remains being destroyed by dam and 
reservoir construction within the Missouri Basin. Dr. Robert L. 
Stephenson served as chief of the project, except for approximately 
3 months when he was on leave and Dr. Warren W. Caldwell func- 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

tioned as acting chief. During the summer months the work consisted 
mainly of excavations. Analyses and preparation of reports received 
the major attention throughout the remainder of the year. The special 
chronology program, begun in January 1958, was continued through- 
out fiscal 1963. 

At the beginning of the year the permanent staff, in addition to the 
chief, consisted of five archeologists, one administrative clerk, one 
administrative assistant, one secretary, one clerk-typist, one scientific 
illustrator, one photographer, and four museum aides. The tempo- 
rary staff included 4 archeologists, 5 field assistants, 3 cooks, and 83 
field crewmen. 

During July and August seven field crewmen were added to the 
temporary staff. By the end of the first week in August, the employ- 
ment of all the field crewmen and cooks had been terminated. Other 
terminations of temporary employees were made shortly thereafter. 
Four of the temporary archeologists and field assistants were trans- 
ferred to the permanent staff as archeologists. 

At the end of the fiscal year the permanent staff consisted of 21 
persons. These were, in addition to the chief, nine archeologists, one 
administrative assistant, one secretary, one administrative clerk, two 
clerk-typists, one scientific illustrator, one photographer, and four 
museum aides. The temporary staff consisted of 71 persons : 3 arche- 
ologists, 2 physical anthropologists, 4 cooks, and 62 field crewmen. 

During the year there were 25 Smithsonian Institution River Basin 
Surveys field parties at work in the Missouri Basin. During July 
and August four parties were working in the Oahe Reservoir area 
and four parties were working in the Big Bend Reservoir area of 
South Dakota ; two parties were working in the Yellowtail Reservoir 
area of Montana and Wyoming ; one crew was working in the Tuttle 
Creek Reservoir area in Kansas; and one party was surveying the Mis- 
souri Breaks area between Fort Peck and Fort Benton in Montana. In 
October a small crew was collecting pollen samples in western Ne- 
braska. In May, a small crew worked in the Fort Randall Reservoir 
area of South Dakota and a survey party conducted a reconnaissance of 
six proposed reservoirs in Kansas and Nebraska. During June, a crew 
was excavating in the Pony Creek area of Iowa; another crew had 
begun work on the James Diversion Project in South Dakota; one 
crew was at work in the Yellowtail Reservoir of Montana and Wyo- 
ming; three parties were working in the Oahe Reservoir; and four 
groups were excavating in the Big Bend Reservoir, South Dakota. 
One special crew was not in the field but was at work during June in 
the laboratory at Lawrence, Kans., studying the skeletal remains from 
sites in the Oahe Reservoir. 



Bureau of American F.thnology Report. 1963 



Plate i 




Walker Street site (Key School site), 9ME60, a buried Deptford camp on the Chattahoochee 
River, Ga. Overburden has been removed and the underlying camp levels are being 
excavated by units 10 feet square. River Basin Surveys. 




Probable house pattern showing at bottom of Deptford level. Shown here are indications 
of a subrectangular structure with supporting wall posts set in trenches. River Basin 
Surveys. 



Bureau of American Ethnology Report. 1963 



Plate 2 




Close-up view of the Sorenson site (24CB202) in the Biu- Horn Canyon within the Yellow- 
tail Reservoir area during excavation. Evidence of more than 7,000 years of occupation 
were uncovered in this small rock shelter. River Basin Surveys. 




View of the site (24CB203) at the confluence of Dry Mead Creek with the Big Horn River 
within the Yellowtail Reservoir area. Smithsonian Inslilution field camp can be seen 
adjacent to the excavation area. River Basin Surveys. 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 11 

Other fieldwork in the Missouri Basin during the year included 
14 parties from State institutions operating under cooperative agree- 
ments with the National Park Service and in cooperation with the 
Smithsonian Institution in the Inter- Agency Archeological Salvage 
Program. 

At the beginning of the year Kobert W. Neuman, assisted by John 
J. Hoffman and a crew of 10, was at work on the excavation of an 
early village of circular houses known as the Molstad site (39DW234:) ,^ 
about 8 miles south of Mobridge, S. Dak., on the right bank of the 
Missouri Kiver in Dewey County. This site will be subject to wave 
cutting at maximum pool level of the Oahe Eeservoir. Artifacts 
and architectural details recovered indicate that the site had been a 
small, fortified village of the very early period of circular house occu- 
pation often referred to as the La Roche. There were five houses 
within an oval stockade and one larger house outside the stockade. 
The stockade was surrounded by a dry moat 2.6 feet deep and had 
a single large loop bastion on one side. The entire stockade line and 
five of the houses were excavated, as well as the bastion and two cross 
sections of the moat. The people who occupied this site during the 
15th or 16th centuries were culturally very closely related to those 
who occupied the Potts Village, some 2 miles upstream, which had 
been excavated previously by crews from the Missouri Basin Project. 

A second field party in the Oahe Reservoir, also directed by Robert 
W. Neuman with the assistance of James J. Stanek and a crew of 10, 
was at work at the beginning of the year excavating the Swift Bird 
site (o9DW233), half a mile downstream from the Molstad site. 
This site comprised a group of two burial mounds of the Plains 
Woodland Period and a circular house depression that appears to 
belong to the La Roche Period. The burial mounds date from a 
period of some 1,500 or so years ago, while the house dates from 
about 500 years ago. Mound 1 was a dome-shaped tumulus 75 feet 
in diameter and 4 feet high. Several articulated bison skeletons lay 
on the mound floor as did numerous large, charred timbers. Below 
these was a burial pit containing several secondary human interments. 
Artifacts were few and largely found within the burial pit. In most 
respects this mound resembled those excavated at the Boundary 
Mounds site at the North Dakota-South Dakota State line. Mound 2 
was slightly smaller and had articulated bison skeletons, secondary 



1 Site designations used by the River Basin Surveys are trinomial in character, consisting 
of symbols for State, county, and site. The State is indicated by the first number, accord- 
ing to the numerical position of the State name in an alphabetical list of the United States ; 
thus, for example, 32 indicates North Dakota, 39 indicates South Dakota. Counties are 
designated by a two-letter abbreviation ; for example, ME for Mercer County, MN for 
Mountrail County, etc. The final number refers to the specific site within the Indicated 
State and county. 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

human burials, and a very few artifacts on the mound floor, but no 
burial pit. The circular house provided a minimal floor pattern with- 
out center posts and a small quantity of artifacts. This party also 
excavated Mound 3 of a series of five burial mounds at the Grover 
Hand site (39DW240) . That mound resembled Momid 1 at the Swift 
Bird site, including the burial pit. Eemains of 17 bison were re- 
covered from the mound fill and floor. A new site, the Stelzer 
(39DW24:2) , was tested. It is situated about a mile downstream from 
39DW240. Occupational levels and artifacts indicate that this may 
be a substantial camp site of Plains Woodland times. Neuman's two 
crews shared a smgle camp and completed their fieldwork on Sep- 
tember 2 after 12 weeks in the field. 

A third field crew in the Oahe Reservoir was directed by Dr. Wil- 
liam M. Bass, assisted by Jon Muller and a crew of six. Based in 
Pierre, this party utilized a caterpillar tractor and scraper to exca- 
vate large sections of the burial areas at the Sully site (39SL4), 
which is located approximately 20 miles northwest of Pierre, on the 
left bank of the Missouri River. It comprises the largest prehistoric 
village remains in the Missouri Basin and was excavated in previous 
years by Smithsonian Institution field crews. The large burial areas 
were not exhausted and, in order to get a sufficiently large sample of 
the physical remains of the people who had lived there some 250-400 
years ago, the current season's work was directed toward exhausting 
the burial areas. The heavy equipment was used to remove the over- 
burden above the graves. Each grave was then excavated by hand. 
During the first three seasons of work, 264 burials were excavated. 
This season an additional 293 were recovered, making a total of 557 
burials from this one village. Brief investigations at other sites pro- 
vided additional burials. At the Swan Creek site (39P01), exca- 
vated during a previous season by a cooperating institution, a single 
burial was obtained. At the Bleached Bone site (39HU48), 20 
burials were recovered and 8 were taken from the Second Hand site 
(39PO207). In addition, a good quantity of burial artifacts was 
recovered, correlating the burials directly with the village areas and 
providing cultural meaning for the skeletal remains. This party 
completed its fieldwork on August 30 after a season of 12 weeks. 

The fourth Oahe Reservoir party was directed by Dr. Alfred W. 
Bowers, assisted by William B. Colvin and a crew of 10. Based at 
Mobridge, S. Dak., this crew excavated 14 circular earth lodges in the 
Red Horse site (39C034) just west of the bridge from Mobridge and 
at the mouth of the Grand River. This was a moderately large, 
fortified earth-lodge village of the late period and probably dates 
in the 18th century. A large artifact yield as well as good architec- 
tural details resulted from the excavations. Bowers's crew also exca- 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 13 

rated a portion of the Davis site (39C014), some 200 yards west of 
the Red Horse site. There, a complex defensive system and a series 
of long rectangular houses were partly uncovered. Apparently there 
were at least two, and perhaps three, occupation periods represented, 
but time did not permit sufficient excavation to recover the whole 
story. The earliest occupation of the Davis site was several centuries 
earlier than that at the Red Horse site. Continuation of the work 
was planned for the next season. 

In the Big Bend Reservoir area, three field parties were at work 
at the beginning of the year and a fourth party was added during 
July. One of the parties was directed by Dr. Warren W. Caldwell, 
assisted by Richard E. Jensen and a crew of 11. They excavated at 
two sites. The Langdeau site (39LM209) had been a village of long- 
rectangular houses and 15 depressions were visible. Four of these 
house remains were excavated, and three long trenches were dug in 
an unsuccessful attempt to find a fortification system. The houses 
were 30-40 feet wide with no small structural posts at the ends. En- 
trances were to the south or southwest and floors were compact and 
stained with red ochre. Pottery found there is of the Anderson 
and Foreman types, suggesting relationship to the early rectangular- 
house period at the Dodd site near Pierre, but other artifacts were 
extremely exotic, including copper, shell, bone, and stone tools and 
ornaments. This crew's second excavation was at the Jiggs Thompson 
site (39LM208), located 9 miles north of Lower Brule in the loop Ox 
the Big Bend. This site had been a small village of 17 long- 
rectangular houses situated on a high terrace finger that was separated 
from the rest of the terrace by a moat 4.5 feet deep and 11 feet wide. 
Two houses were excavated, the moat was sampled, and numerous 
other test trenches were dug. The houses had been about 30 by 20 
feet with entrances to the south. They did not have end posts, but 
there were massive central support posts. Architecture and artifacts 
suggest a close relationship to the Langdeau site; both are in the 
Anderson-Foreman and Swanson traditions of early rectangular- 
house culture. This party completed its work on August 26 after 
11 weeks in the field. 

The second Big Bend party was also directed by Dr. Caldwell, with 
the assistance of Richard E. Carter. It consisted of a crew of nine. 
Excavations were carried out at a two-component site (39LM2) 
overlooking Medicine Creek some 8 miles northwest of Lower Brule. 
This had been a village of small, rectangular houses with ramp 
entrances to the south, minimal end support posts, and many cache 
pits. The remains of the first occupation were overlain by those of a 
village of square (or subrect angular) houses, 35 feet in diameter, 
which had four central support posts of the kind usually found in 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

late circular houses in the area. One house of each component, 
many cache pits, and several midden areas were excavated. Abundant 
pottery and other artifacts suggest that the earlier component relates 
to the Anderson and Over foci, while the later component was of the 
period of the Shannon Focus and similar to component C at the 
Talking Crow site. This party also sampled the Jandreau site 
(39LM221), 3 miles east of Medicine Creek in the same general area. 
Portions of two long-rectangular houses were excavated as were 
cross sections of the fortification moat. Ceramics recovered there 
suggest that the village may have been transitional between the An- 
derson Focus and the Thomas Riggs Focus and will date toward the 
latter part of the long-rectangular house period. In addition, minor 
tests were made at the Gihnan site (39LM226) and at site 39LM228 
in the Medicine Creek Bottoms. The latter proved to have been a 
rectangular-house village of Over Focus affiliation, while the former 
was a circular-house village of the Shannon Focus. After 11 weeks 
in the field this crew completed its assignment on August 26. 

A third party in the Big Bend Reservoir area, sharing a joint 
camp with Caldwell's two crews, was directed by Vernon R. Helmen. 
This crew of three was frequently assisted by members of Caldwell's 
parties during the 2 weeks of its work (July 16-27). Helmen and 
his associates provided their services on a volunteer basis, and Mi*s. 
Helmen made a useful study of the microecology of the flora of one 
earth lodge. The Helmen crew excavated one house in site 39LM223, 
a small village of the Shannon Focus. The circular house and several 
cache pits yielded Talking Crow and lona pottery. 

The remaining field party in the Big Bend Reservoir area was at 
work at the beginning of the year excavating the remains of Fort 
George (39ST202), a historic fur- trading post built in 1842 and 
operated briefly in opposition to the trading post of Fort Pierre 
Chouteau. The crew of eight was directed by G. Hubert Smith, 
assisted by Lee G. Madison, and was based in Pierre with the Bass 
party. Fort George was located on the right bank of the Missouri 
River some 15 miles downstream from Pierre. Remains of the log 
stockade, two blockhouses, and the interior buildings of timber were 
excavated and recorded. Artifacts were abundant and will, along 
with the architecture, provide a substantial picture of life at this 
early post, of which so little contemporary record remains. 

Two Missouri Basin Project field parties were at work at the begin- 
ning of the year in the Yellowtail Reservoir area in the Big Horn 
Canyon in Montana and Wyoming. Lionel A. Brown, with a crew 
of five, operated in the lower end of the reservoir from the Yellow- 
tail Dam south to the mouth of Dry Head Creek, a distance of some 
25 miles upstream from the dam. They excavated three large, dif- 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 15 

fuse, occupation sites and tested numerous rock shelters. Site 
24BH215 at the mouth of Black Canyon, 6 miles above the dam, was 
a stratified campsite with three levels of occupation. Artifacts were 
moderately abundant and included a few nondescript potsherds, 
corner-notched projectile points, and many scrapers, blades, and bone 
tools, but no evidence of structures. It appears to have been a camp 
intermittently occupied from a few hundred years ago to historic 
times. Site 24BH212 was a complex of occupations at the mouth of 
Bull Elk Canyon 18 miles above the dam. It contained six stone 
circles, two circles of shallow postholes, midden deposits, fireplaces, 
a profusion of scrapers and other small stone tools but very few pro- 
jectile points and no evidence of pottery. Five of the stone circles 
contained semicompacted floors, floor debris, and a central fireplace, 
and one had a midden deposit just outside the stone circle all empha- 
sizing the fact that they served the function of actual tipi rings. 
The circular arrangements of shallow postholes with a suggestion of 
floors indicate structures of temporary pole construction. Occupation 
vras shallow with only one level apparent except in one small section 
of the site where three levels were apparent. Artifacts are not very 
diagnostic but probably represent a period of three or four centuries 
before White contact. The third major site excavated by Brown's 
crew v/as located on the opposite (left) bank of the Big Horn River 
at the mouth of Dry Head Creek some 25 miles above the dam. 
There, four levels of occupation produced large quantities of bison, 
deer, and elk bone, numerous small stone artifacts, an elk bone flesher, 
numerous fire pits, and basin-shaped pits but neither pottery nor 
structures. Several rock shelters between Black Canyon and Dry 
Head were investigated and tested but none proved to contain worth- 
while occupational materials. This party returned to the Lincoln 
headquarters August 31 after 11 weeks in the field. 

Wilfred M. Husted was in charge of the second Yellowtail field 
party excavating a series of sites in the upper reaches of the reser- 
voir. W^orking from various campsites between the village of Kane 
at the extreme southern end of the reservoir to Barry's Landing, some 
20 miles to the north, this crew used boat, Jeep, carryall, and foot 
transportation to resurvey this portion of the Big Horn Canyon and 
excavate five sites. A rock shelter (48BH206) was sampled but not 
completed owing to difficulty of access. A large tipi ring site 
(48BH10) with 20 stone circles, on the left bank of Crooked Creek, 
was excavated. Five of the circles were dug and three of them 
contained central fireplaces as well as exterior fireplaces. One open 
campsite (48BH211) and several rock shelters were examined and 
tested but provided no useful archeological data. On the Wyoming 
side of the reservoir, a site at Barry's Landing (24CB201) was exca- 

716-004 — 64 3 



Ig BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

vated. It had superimposed hearths and roasting pits and numerous 
projectile points and scrapers. The artifacts represent the latter 
part of the Middle Prehistoric Period overlain by an occupation of 
the Late Prehistoric Period. A nearby rock shelter (24CB223) was 
excavated and furnished similar material. The Sorenson site 
(24CB202) , half a mile below Barry's Landing, was completely exca- 
vated with excellent results. Five levels of occupation extending 
from historic times back to the pre-Middle Prehistoric Period were 
delineated. Lanceolate projectile points in the lowest level (dated 
at 7,500-7,800 years ago) were overlain by materials of the Middle 
and Late Prehistoric Period and capped by a historic occupation. 
Materials included cordage, basketry, hide, bone tools, stone tools, 
roasting pits, and hearths. In the resurvey of this section of the 
canyon, 21 new sites were located, of which 18 will be flooded. 
Husted's party completed the season's work August 30 after 11 weeks 
in the field. 

A survey party directed by Oscar L. Mallory, consisting of a crew 
of three, made a detailed reconnaissance of the Missouri Breaks along 
the Missouri River from Fort Benton to the upper reaches of the 
Fort Peck Reservoir. Beginning at the Fort Benton end of the 
Breaks, this party utilized boats, horses, vehicles, and foot transpor- 
tation to locate 55 archeological sites within this 180-mile stretch of 
extremely rugged river country. Of these sites, 20 were campsites, 
21 were campsites with tipi rings, 2 were burials, 3 were bison-kill 
sites, and 9 were historic sites. Surface collections were made from 
most of these and two were tested. Artifact yield was minimal but 
enough to suggest a fairly long period of occupation and significant 
excavation potential in the area. 

The final Missouri Basin Project field party at work at the begin- 
ning of the year was directed by Carl F. Miller who, with a crew of 
nine, was at work in the Tuttle Creek Reservoir of northeastern 
Kansas. With headquarters in the town of Blue Rapids, Kans., this 
party investigated seven sites in the upper reaches of the reservoir 
and excavated one. This was the last chance to examine any of the 
threatened sites in this reservoir, as the water was already rising, and 
by the smnmer of 1963 any sites that were to be flooded would have 
been submerged. The Pislmey site (39MH2) received the attention 
of Miller's party most of the season and provided a single house 
structure, a portion of a second house, several cache pits, and a sub- 
stantial yield of artifacts. The houses at this site were square with 
rounded corners and the artifacts suggest a cultural position within 
the Central Plains Phase but with definite indications of influences 
from the south. Miller's party left the field on August 16 after 
working for a period of 9 weeks. 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 17 

Cooperating institutions active in the Missouri Basin at the begin- 
ning of the fiscal year induded six field parties representing five State 
agencies in Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, and Montana. Dr. Dee C. 
Taylor with a crew from Montana State University conducted a survey 
of portions of the shoreline of the Fort Peck Reservoir in east-central 
Montana, locating archeological sites that have been exposed by bank 
erosion along the shores of the reservoir. Marvin F. Kivett, assisted 
by Dr. Roger T. Grange with a crew from the Nebraska State Histori- 
cal Society, completed salvage excavations in the area of the Red Wil- 
low Reservoir in southwestern Nebraska. Dr. Preston Holder, as- 
sisted by Dr. Emily Blasingham and a crew of University of Nebraska 
students, completed excavation and testing of sites to be flooded in the 
Norton Reservoir area of northwestern Kansas. Dr. Carlyle S. Smith, 
assisted by Walter Birkby and a crew of students from the University 
of Kansas, excavated two sites, sampled several others, and completed 
salvage work in the Melvern Reservoir area of east-central Kansas. 
Dr. Carl Chapman and a crew from the University of Missouri con- 
tinued the surveying and testing of sites in the Kaysinger Bluff Res- 
<;rvoir area in west-central Missouri. A second crew tested a large 
series of sites in the Stockton Reservoir area of central Missouri. All 
these parties operated under agreements witli the National Park Serv- 
ice and in cooperation with the Smithsonian Institution in the Inter- 
Agency Archeological Salvage Program. 

The 1963 field season began with an archeological survey team under 
Lionel A. Brown, assisted by Lee G. Madison and Stephen H. 
Schwartz. This team began operations on May 6 and completed its 
work on May 29. It investigated the proposed area of the Almena 
Reservoir on Prairie Dog Creek, in northwestern Kansas, finding no 
archeological sites but recording one paleontological locality. The 
members of the party next went to the proposed area of the Herndon 
Reservoir on Beaver Creek in Rawlins Comity, Kans., where they 
recorded one archeological site. In Ellis County, Kans., on Big Creek, 
the proposed Ellis Reservoir was surveyed and two sites were recorded. 
The proposed area of the Fort Scott Reservoir in Bourbon County, 
Kans., was next surveyed and six sites were located. The next survey, 
made in Anderson County, Kans., found seven sites at the location of 
the proposed Garnett Reservoir. The final reservoir of the six sur- 
veyed was the Angus Reservoir in Nuckols County, Nebr., where two 
archeological sites were recorded. A total of 18 archeological sites and 
1 paleontological locality were recorded in 6 reservoir areas. 

On May 13 and 14, G. Hubert Smith and Oscar L. Mallory con- 
ducted a brief investigation of the site of the Fort Randall Military 
Post, near the Fort Randall dam in southeastern South Dakota. 
As an aid to the U.S. Corps of Engineers in developing this for public 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

use, Smith and Mallory pinpointed the significant cultural features 
and made recommendations for their development. 

On June 7 the Pony Creek field party began work in that part of 
Mills County, southwestern Iowa, where the Soil Conservation Serv- 
ice is constructing several very small reservoirs and terracing most of 
the adjacent valley area. Headquartered in the town of Glen wood, 
this party of eight, directed by Lionel A. Brown, had by the end of the 
year visited and tested six sites (three of which had not previously 
been recorded) and begun excavations in sites 13ML4 and 13ML18, 
both of which appear to be villages of rectangular (or square) houses 
of the Nebraska Aspect. 

On June 6 Dr. Elden Johnson of the University of Minnesota joined 
the staff of the Missouri Basin Project and spent 4 days in a brief 
investigation of the area of the James Diversion Project for detailed 
survey and excavation early in the next fiscal year. 

The single field party in the Yellowtail Reservoir area of Montana 
and Wyoming, directed by Wilfred M. Husted, consisted of a crew 
of seven which left Lincohi on June 11. This crew started in the upper 
reaches of the reservoir where Husted's party left off the previous 
season. By the end of the year they had completed excavation of a 
small rock shelter and were continuing investigations on downstream. 

In the Oahe Reservoir area of central South Dakota, three field 
parties were operating at the end of the year. Robert W. Neuman, 
in charge of a crew of eight, began work on June 11 at the Grover 
Hand site (o9DW240), a group of Woodland burial mounds on the 
right bank of the Missouri River some 9 miles below JMobridge. By the 
end of the year, INIound 1 at this site had been excavated. This mound 
contained a burial pit covered with timbers. Bison skeletons were 
found on the mound floor. 

The second Oahe party was directed by Oscar L. Mallory. With a 
crew of eight he began work on June 11 at site 39DW231, a presumed 
village or camp occupation site of the Plains Woodland Period that 
may be related to some of the burial mounds being dug by the Neuman 
party. The site is situated some 11 miles below IMobridge on the right 
bank of the Missouri River. Both the Neuman and Mallory crews 
camped at the Molstad ranch about a mile above the Grover Hand 
site, and both crews utilized 16-foot motorboats with 10-horsepower 
motors as their main means of transportation. This was necessitated 
by the high water of the Oahe Reservoir and the lack of roads in the 
area south of the Molstad ranch. 

The third Oahe party also began work on June 11 under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Alfred W. Bowers, who again joined the Missouri Basin 
Project staff for the summer, taking leave from his regular position 
at the University of Idaho. Dr. Bowers' crew of 10 camped at the east 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 19 

edge of Mobridge and started digging on the Davis site (39C014) at 
the west end of the Mobridge bridge. They had begun there the 
previous season and by the end of the year were well along with the 
excavations. They had also dug the last unexcavated lodge at the 
adjacent Eed Horse site (390034) that Bowers's crew excavated in 
the 1962 season. 

One historic-sites party was in the field at the end of the year, 
having begun work on June 14. This party, directed by G. Hubert 
Smith, was searching for some of the more obscure historic sites in the 
Big Bend Keservoir area, such as Loisel's Trading Post, Fort 
Defiance-Bouis, and the Red Cloud Agency. If they find any of these 
sites they will begin a program of excavations. By the end of the 
year Smith had devoted considerable time to searching records in 
various historical files both in Pierre and at Fort Pierre. 

Three crews excavating prehistoric sites in the Big Bend area also 
began work on June 14. Jolm J. Hoffman and a crew of 11 were at 
work at the end of the year on the series of sites, in the southeast cor- 
ner of Lyman County on the right bank of the Missouri some 20 miles 
below Pierre, known as the "La Roche Sites.'' There, each of several 
sites has been called "La Roche" and much interpretation has been 
based on a concept of "La Roche." Hoffman's party was to excavate 
each of the sites and endeavor to identify some one element as La 
Roche and correlate the others with it. By the end of the year ex- 
cavations were well under way in 39ST9, the site which W. H. Over 
many years ago designated as La Roche. 

The second Big Bend field party was directed by William J. Folan, 
who joined the Smithsonian Institution staff, for the summer season, 
from Southern Illinois University. This crew of eight camped with 
the Hoffman crew and was directmg its attention to the same problem. 
The two crews started together on the same site so that they would 
begin with the same orientation. By the end of the year Folan 's crew 
was ready to move its operations to one of the other related sites in 
the area. All the sites appear to represent villages of late circular 
houses, or at least have one component of this "La Roche" trait. 

The third Big Bend field party was directed by Richard E. Jensen. 
It consisted of a crew of 11 and was camped on the left bank of the 
Missouri in the "pocket" of the Big Bend, some 40 miles by road below 
Pierre. It was to conduct excavations in a series of circular-house vil- 
lages nearby. By the end of the year progress had been made in work 
on the remains of an extensive, diffuse village, 39HU213. Widespread 
test trenching and the excavation of cache pits, middens, and a multiple 
burial had been completed. 

Dr. William M. Bass of the University of Kansas, and an assistant, 
Walter Birkby of the same institution, joined the Missouri Basin 



20 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Project staff for the summer as temporary employees, in order to 
conduct laboratory research. Dr. Bass and his assistant analyzed a 
large quantity of skeletal material, excavated over the past several 
years by Dr. Bass, from several Missouri Basin sites in the Oahe 
Reservoir. Principal of these was the Sully site (39SL4) where 557 
burials have been recovered. Bass and Birkby were working in the 
new laboratory facilities at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. 

Cooperating institutions in the Missouri Basin at the end of the year 
included eight parties operating in five States. Dr. Dee C. Taylor 
and a Montana State University crew were continuing the shoreline 
survey of the Fort Peck Reservoir in east-central Montana, searching 
for and testing sites that had been exposed by bank erosion. Robert 
Gant and a University of South Dakota party were continuing a 
shoreline survey of the Gavins Point Reservoir in southeastern South 
Dakota, searching for and testing sites that had been exposed by bank 
erosion. Particular emphasis was being placed on the search for 
Plains Woodland and earlier sites. Both of these parties were con- 
tinuing work begun the previous season. Dr. Preston Holder, assisted 
by James Marshall and a crew of University of Nebraska students, 
was excavating the Glen Elder site in the Glen Elder Reservoir in 
Mitchell Comity, north-central Kansas, and was searching for and 
testing additional sites within that reservoir. Dr. Carlyle S. Smith, 
assisted by Jon Muller and a party of Kansas University students, 
began the survey and testing of sites in the area to be flooded by the 
Milford Reservoir in Clay County, north-central Kansas. Dr. Carl 
Chapman had three University of Missouri parties at work at the 
end of the year. One was a survey group locating and testing sites 
in the area to be flooded by the Hackleman Corners Reservoir in south- 
western Missouri. A second party was excavating sites in the Kay- 
singer Bluff Reservoir in west-central Missouri. The third party 
was digging sites in the Stockton Reservoir of west-central Missouri. 
Both of the latter were continuing work begun the previous season. 
Marvin F. Kivett, assisted by Dr. Roger T. Grange, Jr., and a Nebraska 
State Historical Society crew, surveyed two small reservoirs. Calamus 
and Davis Creek, in central Nebraska. Both surveys located only a 
few sites of doubtful archeological potential and it was recommended 
that no further work be done there unless material is uncovered during 
earth-moving operations for the construction of the two dams. 

The Missouri Basin Chronology Program had been in operation for 
51/2 years by the end of the year. Cooperation of nearly all the 
archeologists and archeological institutions in the Plains area con- 
tinued as in previous years, and leadership and direction of the pro- 
gram continued to be by the staff archeologists of the Missouri Basm 
Project. 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 21 

In October a Missouri Basiii Project team composed of J. J. Hoff- 
man and Lee G. Madison joined Dr. Paul Sears of Yale University, 
Dr. J. G. Ogden of Ohio Wesleyan University, and Dr. Harry A. 
Tourtelot of the U.S. Geological Survey m a trip to collect fossil pollen 
cores in the sandhills of northwestern Nebraska. The field trip was 
a part of the chronology program and a part of a continuing program 
of palynology designed to reconstruct prehistoric floral conditions 
for a portion of the Missouri Basin. Cores were collected at several 
of the fossil lakes in the area and will be analyzed by Dr. Ogden. 

Other chronology studies included a continuation of the dendro- 
chronology section mider the direction of Dr. Warren W. Caldwell, 
with the volunteer assistance of Plarry E. V/eakly. The carbon-14 
section continued to progress with the addition of 16 new dated 
samples of vegetal material, tested by the laboratory of Isotopes, Inc., 
of Westwood, IST.J. Robert W. Neuman continued to be in charge 
of this section of the program and submitted several samples for 
dating to the new carbon-14 laboratory at the Smithsonian Institution 
m "Washington, D.C. In addition, two samples were sent to the Uni- 
versity of Texas for analysis in its carbon-14 laboratory. 

The laboratory and office staff of the Missouri Basin Project devoted 
most of its full effort during the year to processing specimen materials 
for study, photographing and illustrating specimens, preparing speci- 
men records, and typing, filing, and illustrating record and manuscript 
materials. The accomplishments of the laboratory and office staff are 
listed in tables 1 and 2. 

Dr. Robert L. Stephenson, chief, devoted a large part of his time 
during the year to management of the overall Missouri Basin Project, 
including the office and laboratory in Lincoln, the several field activi- 
ties, and the preparation of plans and budgets. His individual arche- 
ological research and report writing was minimal during the year, 
but some further progress was made on the monograph "The Whitney 
Reservoir, Texas" and on analyses of specimens from his excavations 
at the Sully site (39SL4) in the Oahe Reservoir. He made final 
revisions on his manuscript "The Accokeek Creek Site : A Middle At- 
lantic Seaboard Culture Sequence" and submitted it to the University 
of Michigan for publication. He also revised a paper he read at the 
1962 meeting of the Society for American Archeology, entitled "Ad- 
ministrative Problems of the River Basin Surveys," for publication in 
American Antiquity. He continued to serve as chairman of the Mis- 
souri Basin Chronology Program; as assistant editor of "Current 
Research" in the Plains Area for American Antiquity; and, until 
December 1, as associate editor of the Plains Anthropologist. On 
December 1 he became editor of that journal. He also participated in 



22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the Visiting Scientist Program of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 
and lectured to student groups at Sutton and Sidney, Nebr. 

Dr. Stephenson attended the IQi/o Plains Conference in Pierre, 
S. Dak., in July and served as a panel member in a symposium on "The 
Salvage Program So Far." At the 20th Plains Conference in Lincoln 
on Thanksgiving weekend he served as local arrangements chairman 
and as chairman of a symposium on "Plains Clironology." During 
the period of December 12-21 he attended the "Management Develop- 
ment Program for Field Managers" of the U.S. Department of Agri- 
culture Graduate School, held on the Voorhis Campus of California 
State Polyteclinic College in San Dimas, Calif. He attended the 73d 
annual meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences m Lincoln on 
April 27 and the annual meeting of the Society for American Arche- 
ology in Boulder, Colo., on May 1-3. While at Boulder he participated 
in the meeting of the Committee for the Recovery of Archeological 
Eemains and reported on the year's activities of the Missouri Basin 
Project and on the prospects for the coming year. He wrote several 
book reviews for scientific journals, gave talks to various local civic 
organizations on the work of the Eiver Basin Surveys, and represented 
the Smithsonian Institution at special occasions at the invitation of 
local civic organizations. He served throughout the second half of 
the year on the organizmg committee for the INQUA meetings to be 
held in Boulder, Colo., in September 1965, and was named as one of 
the field conference organizers for a preconference field trip through 
the Plains area. 

Lionel A. Brown, archeologist, when not in charge of field parties, 
devoted most of his time to analyzing specmien materials he had 
recovered during the past year and to materials recovered by others 
in the Missouri Basin in previous years. He completed a major 
draft of a manuscript entitled "Archeology of the Lower Yellowtail 
Reservoir, Montana," which describes the work and material recovered 
from the several sites that he excavated and tested in that area during 
the summer of 1963. He completed a major draft of a preliminary 
manuscript entitled "Archeological Investigations in the Pony Creek 
Watershed, Iowa," which describes the work and reports the analyses 
of materials he recovered from that area of southwestern Iowa in 
the spring of 1962. This manuscript will be combined with the report 
of the work currently being done in that area to form an overall pub- 
lication on the Pony Creek researches. In the early spring he studied 
the specimens and field records from the Gillette site (39ST23) in 
the Oahe Reservoir, excavated by Donald D. Hartle of the Missouri 
Basin Project in 1957, and nearly completed the major draft of a 
manuscript covering those investigations. 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 23 

In July Mr. Brown addressed the Billings Archeological Society in 
Billings, Mont., on the subject "The Amateur Archeologist in the 
Salvage Program." During Thanksgiving weekend he attended the 
20th Plains Conference in Lincoln and presented two papers, "A 
Survey of the Pony Creek Watershed" and "Archeology of the Lower 
Yellowtail Reservoir." Both were published in abstract in the Pro- 
ceedings of the 73d Meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences. 
He attended the meetings of the Society for American Archeology 
in Boulder, Colo., on May 1-3. At the end of the year he was again 
excavating archeological sites in the Pony Creek area of Iowa. 

Dr. Warren W. Caldwell, archeologist, was in the field from the 
beginning of the year until the end of August. He devoted the re- 
mainder of his time to specimen and field-record studies concerning 
sites that he had excavated in previous years. Primary attention was 
devoted to the analyses (with Richard E. Jensen) of sites 39LM208, 
39LM209, and 39LM232, excavated last year in the Big Bend Reser- 
voir of South Dakota by Caldwell and Jensen. He completed the 
analytical studies and began a manuscript reporting the results. He 
also completed analyzing materials from, and prepared a major draft 
of a monograph on, "Investigations at the McKensey Village (39AR- 
201), South Dakota," a site that he excavated in 1960. In collabora- 
tion with G. Hubert Smith, he prepared and submitted for publication 
a handbook for the U.S. Corps of Engineers' Reservoir Series, entitled 
"Oahe Reservoir: Archeology, History and Geology." This was the 
fourth handbook in this series, prepared by the same authors. He also 
prepared a popular article on "Fortified Villages of the Dakotas," 
published in Missouri Basin Progress. He published two book re- 
views in the Plains Anthropologist and prepared several administra- 
tive and progress reports concerning the work of the Missouri Basin 
Project. 

Dr. Caldwell participated in the 19i/^ Plains Conference in Pierre 
in July and discussed his current fieldwork. He participated in the 
20th Plains Conference in Lincoln at the end of November, presenting 
a paper on "Investigations in the Lower Big Bend Reservoir, South 
Dakota" and also serving as a panel member on "Plains Chronology," 
presenting a discussion of "Dendrochronology in the Plains — Past 
and Present." He attended the Y3d annual meeting of the Nebraska 
Academy of Sciences and presented a paper, "Primus in Orbe Deos 
Fecit Timor or Ceramics ad Nauseam," that was published in abstract 
in the Proceedings of the meeting. His paper "Fortified Villages of 
the Northern Plains" was read in absentia at the annual meeting of 
the Society for American Archeology in Boulder, Colo,, on May 3. 
Tliroughout the year he continued to serve as chairman of the dendro- 
chronology section of the Missouri Basin Chronology Program, as con- 



24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

tributing editor for book reviews for the Plains Anthropologist^ and as 
collaborator for the Plains area for "Abstracts of New AVorld Archeol- 
ogy." He participated in the visiting scientist program of the Ne- 
braska Academy of Sciences, lecturing to student groups at Gretna, 
Nebr., on January 8. During the period from September to June, on 
annual-leave time, he served as part-time assistant professor in the 
Department of Anthropology at the University of Nebraska and 
taught a course on "The American Indian." At the end of the year 
he was in the Lincoln laboratory analyzing specimens from past field- 
work. 

John J. Hoffman, archeologist, when not in the field conducting 
excavations, devoted most of his time to laboratory analyses and prep- 
aration of reports resulting from his work of the past season. He 
completed the analyses of specimen materials and records of his 1962 
excavations at the Molstad Village site (39DW234) in the Oahe Reser- 
voir area and prepared a major draft of a manuscript on this work. 
He completed a short article on the "Molstad Village and the La 
Roche Sites" and submitted it to the Plains Anthropologist for publi- 
cation. By the time he returned to the field in June he was well along 
on a manuscript entitled "The Swift Bird Lodge (39DW233)." Li 
July, Hoffman attended the 191^ Plains Conference in Pierre and 
reported on his fieldwork during the season. At Thanksgiving, he 
presented a paper at the 73d annual meeting of the Nebraska Academy 
of Sciences in Lincoln entitled "Temporal Ordering of the Chouteau 
Aspect." The end of the year found him again in the field engaged 
in archeological excavations. 

Wilfred M. Husted, archeologist, while not in the field conducting 
archeological excavations, was at work in the laboratory analyzing 
materials and preparing reports on his activities in the field during 
the 1962 season and also on materials that others had collected in pre- 
vious seasons. He wrote a "Preliminary Report of the 1962 Archeo- 
logical Investigation in the Upper Yellowtail Reservoir," which will 
be combined with a study of his 1963 season's work in the same area 
so that there will be a comprehensive monograph on the archeology of 
that region. He also completed the laboratory analyses of, and pre- 
pared a major draft of a monograph on "The Brice (39LM31) and 
Clarkstown (39LM47) Sites, Fort Randall Reservoir." These two 
sites were excavated in 1954 by the late Paul L. Cooper. At the 20th 
Plains Conference, November 22-24 in Lincoln, he presented a paper 
entitled "Investigations in Upper Yellowtail Reservoir, Montana- 
Wyoming." 

Richard E. Jensen, archeologist, spent July, August, and June 
in the field conducting archeological excavations and the remainder 
of the year in the laboratory in Lincoln analyzing materials and 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 25 

writing reports. He prepared descriptions of the artifacts and fea- 
tures recovered from the Langdeau site (39L1M209) , the Jiggs Thomp- 
son site (39LM202), and the Pretty Head site (390I232), which he 
excavated in conjunction with Dr. Caldwell. They include various 
statistical analyses relative to sequential alinements and relation- 
ships to other sites. In July he gave a report of his current fieldwork 
at the 191^ Plains Conference in Pierre. During Thanksgiving he at- 
tended the 20th Plains Conference in Lincoln. On May 18, accom- 
panied by J. J. Hoffman and Dr. Stephenson, he attended an informal 
conference on Dakota pottery typology in Vermillion, S. Dak. He 
and Hoffman proceeded from Vermillion to the Big Bend Reservoir 
area to select campsites for the summer. At the end of the year he 
was again in the field excavating archeological sites in the Big Bend 
Eeservoir area. 

Oscar L. Mallory, archeologist, when not in the field was at work 
in the laboratory examining materials previously collected. He stud- 
ied the background data and analyzed the specimens obtained from 
the "Missouri Breaks" area of Montana and prepared a report on 
the work entitled "An Archeological Appraisal of the Missouri Breaks 
Region, Montana." He then began a detailed analysis of the unusual 
collection of perishable goods from the Mouat Cliff Burial site 
(24TE401) excavated last year by the Billings Archeological Society, 
in central Montana, near Hardin. He spent much of his evening and 
weekend time working on "A Comparative Cultural Analysis of Tex- 
tiles from McGregor Cave, Washington," his thesis for a master of 
arts degree at Washington State College. In April he served, with 
Robert W. Neuman, as adviser to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 
in conference with the local community developers of Mobridge, S. 
Dak., on a project to reconstruct an earth-lodge village in that area 
He presented a paper, "Survey of the Missouri Breaks Area," at the 
20th Plains Conference in Lincoln on Thanksgiving weekend. At 
the close of the year he was conducting archeological excavations in 
the Oahe Reservoir area. 

Robert W. Neuman, archeologist, when not in the field was mainly 
at work in the laboratory doing research on materials excavated by 
him in past years in the Oahe and Big Bend Reservoir areas. From 
October 6 to 13 he was on loan to the University of South Dakota to 
assist in salvage excavations at the Wolfe Creek ]\found site (39HT- 
201) in Hutchinson County, S. Dak. In the laboratory, he corrected 
galley proof on his monograph "The Good Soldier Site (39LM238), 
Lyman County, South Dakota," being published by the Bureau of 
American Ethnology as a River Basin Surveys Paper. He did re- 
search on materials from his Big Bend excavations and brought to 
near completion a manuscript on "Preceramic Occupations in the Big 
Bend Reservoir Area, South Dakota." He also served as chairman of 



26 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

the radiocarbon section of the Missouri Basin Chronology Program. 
He reported on his current fieldwork at the IQi/o Plains Conference in 
Pierre in July. He attended the 20th Plains Conference in Lincoln, 
November 22-24, where he served as a panel member in the sym- 
posium on "Plains Chronology," presenting a discussion of "Carbon- 
14 on the Plains— Past, Present and Future." In mid- April he and 
Oscar L. Mallory served as advisers to the U.S. Army Corps of Engi- 
neers in discussions with local community supporters of a project to 
reconstruct an earth-lodge village near Mobridge, S. Dak. On April 
27 he served as chairman of the Anthropology Section of the 73d 
amiual meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences in Lincoln and 
presented a paper entitled "A Brief Review of Anthropology in the 
Nebraska Academy of Sciences," that was published in abstract in the 
Proceedings of the meeting. This was the best attended and had the 
largest selection of outstanding papers of any of the meetings of this 
section of the Academy since its inception. He also attended the 
annual meetings of the Society for American Archeology in Boulder, 
Colo., May 1-3, where he presented a paper entitled "Check Stamping 
on the Northern Plains," that has been accepted for publication in 
American Antiquity. At the end of the year Neuman was conducting 
excavations in the Oahe Reservoir area. 

G. Hubert Smith, archeologist, spent July, August, and the last half 
of June conducting archeological excavations, and during the re- 
mainder of the year was in the Lincoln office analyzing and doing 
research on materials from historic sites in the Missouri Basin that he 
had excavated in pre\aous years. He completed a report, on the field- 
work done at the site of Fort George (39ST202) in the summer of 1962, 
and had a major draft of that manuscript ready for final typing at 
the end of the year. He continued with the preparation of the com- 
prehensive report on the site of "Like-a-Fishhook Village and Fort 
Berthold I and II (32ML2) , North Dakota." With Dr. Caldwell he 
prepared a popular booklet on "The Oahe Reservoir: Archeology, 
History and Geology," that was published by the U.S. Army Corps 
of Engineers in their Reservoir Series, of which this is the fifth. He 
also prepared a book re\'iew published in American Antiquity in 
April. 

Smith attended the I91/2 Plains Conference in Pierre in July and 
reported on his current fieldwork. During the Thanksgiving weekend 
he attended the Plains Conference in Lincohi, where he reported on 
"Excavations at Fort George, South Dakota." On January 10, he 
was the featured speaker at the meeting of the Yankton County His- 
torical Society in Yankton, S. Dak., where he gave an illustrated 
talk on "Salvage Archeology." On April 27 he attended the 73d 
annual meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences in Lincoln and 
presented a paper entitled "Etlmographic Contributions of Ferdinand 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 



27 



V. Hayden." He attended the iTth annual meeting of the Mississippi 
Valley Historical Association and took part in the historic sites com- 
mittee meeting of that group. He addressed the Kansas City Ar- 
cheological Society on "Historical Archeology m the Missouri Basin" 
on May 7, and on May 19 he gave an illustrated talk on "Historic 
Buildings of Nebraska" at the Nebraska State Historical Society in 
Lincoln. At the end of the year he was again in the field conducting 
investigations of historic sites in the Big Bend Keservoir. 

Table 1. — Specimens processed, July 1, 1962-June 30,1963 



Reservoir 


Number 
of sites 


Catalog 
numbers 
assigned 


Number of 
specimens 
processed 


Big Bend . _ . 


13 

24 
10 
13 

22 


4,354 
178 

2,978 
408 

1,749 


24, 196 


Missouri Breaks 

Oahe 


390 

22, 400 


Pony Creek , _ . . 


1,775 


Yellowtail . . _ _ _ 


3,038 






Site totals 


82 
2 


9,667 
11 


51, 799 


Collefitions not flspignfirl pits pnmhprp 


24 






Overall collection totals _ _ _ __ 


84 


9,678 


51, 823 







As of June 30, 1963, the Missouri Basin Project had cataloged 
1,391,219 specimens from 2,410 numbered sites and 60 collections not 
assigned site numbers. 

Specimens restored : Five pottery vessels and six vessel sections. 

Specimens donated to the Missouri Basin Project for comparative use : 
By the W. H. Over Museum, University of South Dakota, courtesy of Dr. Wesley 
R. Hurt— 75 pot rim sherds collected from 39GR1 (Scalp Creek site), 39WW7 
(Swan Creek site), and 39WW303. These sherds respresent eight pottery wares, 
namely: Akaska, Le Beau, Randall, Rygh, Scalp, Steamboat, Swan Creek, and 
Talking Crow. 

Table 2. — Record material processed, July 1, 1962-June 30, 1963 

MISSOUEI BASIN PROJECT 

Reflex copies of records 8,967 

Photographic negatives made 3,128 

Photographic prints made 13,712 

Photographic prints mounted and filed 7, 660 

Transparencies mounted in glass 66 

Kodachrome pictures taken in lab 72 

Cartographic tracings and drawings 38 

Illustrations 27 

Lettering of plates 12 

Profiles drawn 92 

Plate layouts made for manuscripts 18 



28 BUREAU OF A]VIERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Virginia. — During the period September 10-November 18, 1962, 
Carl F. Miller conducted excavations in four sites in the Smith Moun- 
tain and Leesville Reservoir areas. Data obtained indicate that the 
cultural range represented extended from the terminal phase of Late 
Archaic around 4000 B.C. to the Middle Woodland Period at about 
A.D. 500. One of the characteristic artifacts normally associated 
with such remains, namely, stone projectile points, was scarce, while 
ceramics and bone tools were rather plentiful. There were numerous 
portions and fragments from clay tobacco pipes. As a matter of fact, 
those particular objects were much more numerous than has been 
indicated by evidence from that general area. 

Mr. Miller returned to the Smith Moimtain Project area on May 
15, 1963, and from that date until the end of the fiscal year was 
occupied in the excavation of the Hales Ford site (44FR15). In 
the work there thirty-seven 10-foot squares were dug to a depth of 
5 feet ; 136 features and 1 partial burial were recovered. The burial, 
representing an early Middle Woodland Phase, was that of a male 
who was about 60 years of age at the time of death. Mortuary offer- 
ings consisted of two turtle-shell dishes. The use of turtle shells 
for dishes apparently was a well-established trait at that location. 
At least two new pottery types were found at the Hales Ford site, 
and they were apparently correlated to a similar textile-impressed 
type found in the John H. Kerr Reservoir area farther south on the 
Roanoke River. The latter, however, produced much less of this 
type than the Smith Mountain Reservoir. The significance of this 
will need to be determined by further studies in the laboratory. The 
projectile points recovered are sufficient in number to illustrate a 
developmental series. This also is true of clay pipes. The bone mate- 
rial was particularly well preserved, and several new types of arti- 
facts were recovered. Potsherds number into the thousands, and it 
will be possible to restore a number of vessels from them. No Euro- 
pean material was found at the site, wliich apparently was abandoned 
well before the "Wliite man's influence reached that part of 
Virginia. No evidence was obtained relative to habitations and con- 
sequently nothing is known of the type of dwelling used at that 
locality. 

The material from the combined work in the fall of 1962 and the 
spring of 1963 will give an excellent source of information about a 
fairly long period of occupation in the upper reaches of the Roanoke 
River. 

ARCHIVES 

The Bureau archives continued under the custody of Mrs. Margaret 
C. Blaker, archivist. She was assisted throughout the year by Miss 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 29 

Regina M. Solzbacher, and on a part-time basis by Miss Margaret 
V. Lee. 

During the week of September 30-October 6, Mrs. Blaker attended 
the annual meeting of the Society of American Archivists in Roches- 
ter, N. Y., and searched for early photographs of American Indians in 
the collections of George Eastman House, the Rochester Historical 
Society, and the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences. A con- 
siderable number of fine stereoscopic views of the 1870's and 1880's 
were located at Eastman House, and copies of them are currently 
being made for the Bureau collections. At the University of Roches- 
ter Library Mrs. Blaker examined the notebooks of Louis Henry 
Morgan that deal with his visits to the Seneca Indians, and the cir- 
culars containing the original information collected and used by 
Morgan in preparing his Systems of Oonsanguinity^ published by 
the Smithsonian in 1870. Microfilm duplicates of the circulars will 
be made available to the Bureau through the library's special col- 
lections division. 

On October 12-15 Mrs. Blaker attended the joint annual meeting 
of the American Indian Etlinohistoric Conference and the Iroquois 
Conference at Albany, N.Y., and examined photographic and other 
pictorial resources on the American Indian in the New York State 
Museum. On November 14-19 she attended the annual meeting of 
the American Anthropological Association in Chicago and examined 
pictorial resources in the Newberiy Library and the Chicago Natural 
History Museum. On May 20-21 she visited Carlisle, Pa., to see 
photographs in the collections of the Army War College and the 
Hamilton Library. Both of these institutions have albums of ex- 
cellent photographs of the students who attended Carlisle Indian 
school and of their parents, many of them distinguished chiefs, who 
visited the school. Arrangements for borrowing the albums for copy- 
ing are in progress. 

Ethnographic notes of the late Lyda Averill Taylor, on the Alabama, 
Choctaw, and Koasati, collected in Polk County, Tex., in 1936-40, and 
a partial draft of a manuscript on comparative southeastern ethnol- 
ogy, were received from John M. Goggin, to whom they had been 
given in 1960 by Walter W. Taylor. 

A ledger containing drawings of war scenes, apparently all drawn 
by the same Indian artist, was acquired. The book is imdated and 
the artist unidentified, but he was probably a Cheyemie, since the short 
written titles indicate that the winners of the contests depicted were 
Cheyennes. Cheyenne warfare with a number of different tribes is 
portrayed — Osage, Snake (Shoshoni), Pawnee, Ute, Crow, Shawnee, 
Sac and Fox, Navaho, and Pueblo. There are also a number of 
pictures of combat with the U.S. Army. Two pictures depict the 



30 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Cheyenne Indian "Horse Road in fight with General Miles near 
Red River," and another, the historic fight of the Cheyenne with 
Forsyth's scouts at Beecher's Island on September 17, 1868, in which 
Chief Roman Nose was killed. Another drawing depicts a Cheyenne 
battle with soldiers under Lieutenant Henley, 6th Cavalry, on Smoky 
Hill River, and one shows Indians running off cavalry horses at Fort 
Dodge, 1865. 

A sketchbook containing crayon and pencil drawings of Indian 
life on the Plains, made by a Cheyenne Indian named Buffalo Meat, 
while he was a prisoner at Fort Marion, Fla., about 1875 was received 
as a gift from Miss Julia Whiting of Middleburg, Va. 

A photograph of an oil painting of the Comanche chief Yellow 
Wolf, made in 1859 by Col. Arthur T. Lee, and a photograph of a draw- 
ing made by Yellow Wolf were received through the courtesy of 
Charles F. Hayes III, of the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences, 
Rochester, N. Y., which owns the originals. 

Negatives of four sketches of ^Missisauga Indians, three of Hurons 
and two of Creek Indians, all drawn by Basil Hall in 1827-28, were 
obtained from the Lilly Library, Indiana University, which owns 
the original drawings. 

An important collection of photographic negatives and prints, taken 
by Jesse Hastings Bratley in the period 1893-ca. 1903, while he was 
teaching at Indian schools in the West, was lent by Francis V. Crane, 
director of the Southeast Museum, Marathon, Fla. A total of 280 
copy negatives were made and added to the Bureau files. Most of the 
negatives relate to the Dakota Indians of Rosebud Reservation, S. 
Dak.; the Havasupai of Cataract Canyon, Ariz.; and the Hopi of 
Polacca, Ariz. There are also a few photographs of Salish Indians 
of Puget Sound, and of Cheyenne and Arapaho from Contonment, 
Okla. 

A series of 36 negatives taken at the mouth of Windy River, north- 
western extremity of Neultin Lake, southwestern Keewatin, Canada, 
in 1947 shows Caribou Eskimo and a few Cree Indians. The negatives 
include portraits; camp scenes showing food and hide preparation; 
and views of transport by canoe and on foot with pack and dog travois. 
They were made and donated by Dr. Francis Harper, Chapel Hill, 
N.C. Dr. Harper also donated five negatives showing Poosepatuck 
men and native fishing equipment, taken by him at the Poosepatuck 
Reservation, Mastic, Long Island, in 1909 and 1910. 

A series of 11 photographs taken at the Poosepatuck Resen'^ation, 
Mastic, Long Island, showing members of the Poosepatuck tribe, and 
views taken at the June meeting at Poosepatuck in 1912, were copied 
from an album of snapshots owned by Walter B. Rajoior, Patchogue, 
N.Y. Two photographs of White men's hunting camps having pal- 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 31 

metto-thatch stnictures built in the Seminole style were from the same 
album. 

Nineteen portraits of Jicarilla Apaches and views taken on the 
Jicarilla Eeservation near Dulce, N. Mex., ca. 1915-62, were copied 
from photographs lent by Dr. D. Harper Sims, Arlington, Va. 

Negatives of four views of the monument on the grave of the Choc- 
taw chief Pushmataha, in the Congressional Cemetei-y, Washington, 
D.C., were deposited by Dr. William C. Sturtevant. 

A photograph of a Shoshoni chief. Jack Edmo, and his family, 
taken about 1917, was donated by Mrs. Arthur White, Middleburg, 
Va. 

A collection of 90 Indian portraits from the studios of a number of 
late 19th-century commercial photographers was obtained through 
Carl Kussell, Orinda, Calif. Over 50 of the portraits are of members 
of various Dakota tribes; other tribes represented are Apache, Crow, 
Diegueno, Maricopa, Papago, and Yuma. 

A collection of approximately 675 photographic negatives made in 
the approximate period 1900-1920 has been acquired but is not yet 
cataloged in detail. The collection consists of studio and outdoor 
portraits, camp scenes, views of dances, and other subjects. Of the 
more than 25 tribes represented, the principal ones are: Apache, 
Arapaho, Assiniboin, and Gros Ventres ; Blackf oot, Cheyenne, Crow, 
Dakota, Eskimo, Hopi, Osage, Pawnee, Seminole, and Wichita. 

LIBRARY 

During the year 1962-63, work continued on the organization of 
the collection and its records under the supervision of Mrs. Carol 
Jopling in the Bureau of American Ethnology Library. 

When the library's maps were evaluated, several very old and rare 
ones were discovered. Among them were a Nicholas Visscher map of 
the Western Hemisphere, Novissinna et Accuratissima Totius Amer- 
icae, and Nova Belgica et Anglia Nova by W. J. Blaeu (Amsterdam, 
1635) . Of particular interest to the Bureau, however, was the Census 
of the State of California (1852) map and a quantity of other North 
American maps with linguistic and archeological annotations. 

Some fine books were given to the library, including a set by Sir 
Richard Phillips, A Collection of Modem and Contemporary Voyages 
and Tra/oels (London, 1805-) presented by Dr. Frank H. H. Eoberts, 
Jr. 

The librarian attended the Special Libraries Convention in Denver, 
June 9-14, 1963, and visited a number of libraries and museums having 
special collections on the North American Indian and Western history. 



32 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

The following statistics will serve to indicate some of the work 
conducted in the library : 

Reference questions answered 1,820 

Library users 1, 301 

Publications circulated 1, 071 

Loans to other libraries 151 

Volumes sent for binding 1,103 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editorial work of the Bureau continued during the year under 
the immediate direction of Mrs. Eloise B. Edelen. The following 
publications were issued: 

Seventy-ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1961-62. 

ii+29 pp., 2 pis. 1963. 
Bulletin 181. Isleta paintings, with intrwiuction and commentary by Elsie 
Clews Pai-sons. Edited by Esther S. Goldfrank. xTi+299 pp., 142 pis. 1962. 
Bulletin 182. River Basin Surveys Papers, No. 25. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., 
editor, xvi+447 pp., 110 pis., 65 figs., 20 maps. 1962. 

Archeology of the John H. Kerr Reservoir Basin, Roanoke River, Virginia- 
North Carolina, by Carl F. Miller. With appendix: Human skeletal re- 
mains from the Tollifero (Ha6) and Clarksville (Mcl4) sites, John H. 
Kerr Reservoir Basin, Virginia, by Lucile E. Hoyme and William M. Bass. 
Bulletin 184. The Pueblo of Sia, New Mexico, by Leslie A. White. xii+SoS pp., 

12 pis., 5.5 figs. 1962. 
Bulletin 185. River Basin Surveys Papers, Nos. 26-32, Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 
editor. xii-|-344 pp., 57 pis., 43 figs., 5 maps. 1963. 
No. 26. Small sites on and about Fort Berthold Reservation, Garrison 

Reservoir, North Dakota, by George Metcalf. 
No. 27. Star Village : A fortified historic Arikara site in Mercer County, 

North Dakota, by George Metcalf. 
No. 28. The dance hall of the Santee Bottoms on the Fort Berthold Reserva- 
tion, Garrison Reservoir, North Dakota, by Donald D. Hartle. 
No. 29. Crow-Flies-High (32MZ1), a historic Hidatsa village in the Garrison 

Reservoir area. North Dakota, by Carliug Malouf. 
No. 30. The Stutsman Focus : An aboriginal culture complex in the James- 
town Reservoir Area, North Dakota, by R. P. Wheeler. 
No. 31. Archeological manifestations in the Toole County section of the 

Tiber Reservoir Basin, Montana, by Carl F. Miller. 
No. 32. Archeological salvage investigations in the Lovewell Reservoir 
Area, Kansas, by Robert W. Neuman. 
Bulletin 188. Shonto: A study of the role of the trader in a modern Navaho 
Community, by William Y. Adams. xi-I-.329 pp., 10 pis., 3 figs., 3 maps, 12 
charts. 1963. 

Publications distributed totaled 17,722 as compared with 19,326 for 
the fiscal year 1962. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

The staff artist for the Bureau of American Etlinology, E. G. Schu- 
macher, prepared the illustrations to accompany 16 manuscripts to be 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 33 

published by the Bureau, some as entire bulletins and others composing 
bulletins in the Anthropological Papers and the River Basin Surveys 
Papers series. The work included the drawing or redrawing of maps, 
diagrams, charts, and other text figures, and effectively combining and 
mounting photographs, all covering the jEields of anthropology, arche- 
ology, and ethnology. Approximately 500 illustrations were prepared. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Dr. M. W. Stirling, Dr. A. J. Waring, and Sister Inez Hilger con- 
tinued as research associates. Dr. Wallace L. Chafe, linguist on the 
staff of the Bureau from April 4, 1959, resigned on August 20, 1962, 
to accept an associate professorship in the department of linguistics at 
the University of California in Berkeley. 

In addition to the usual extensive correspondence answering specific 
questions, many of which were of a technical nature, the Bureau pre- 
pared several bibliographies to provide reference material for which 
there has been recurring demand. Among those recently compiled, 
the following were printed by the multilith process : 

SILr-2, 3(1 rev., 6/63: Selected bibliography on arrowheads. 5 pp. 

SILr-105, rev., 7/62 : Selected bibliography on Cherokee customs and history. 

6 pp. 
SIL-174, rev., 6/63: Selected references on the Indians of Southeastern North 

America. Compiled by William C. Sturtevant. 17 pp. 
SIL-363, 4/63 : Bibliography of wild food plants of Canadian Indians. Compiled 

by F. R. Irvine. 13 pp. 

Other bibliographies prepared are in typescript. 

More than 100 specimens, both ethnological and archeological, were 
received by mail or brought to the office for identification and such 
information as could be provided by Bureau specialists. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director. 
Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary, Stnithsonian Institution. 



tTH, 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 06313 762 2