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Smithsonian institution. lUtreoii of etii iuiUkj ji . 

Klcvnitli iiiiinKil rciiiiit | (if tin: | Jiuii^aii otrtliiioliifuy | to tin- | 
siMictary (if the .Sinitli.soiiimi iiistitiitidii | 1XS9-'!M) | by | J. \V. 
rowell I ilirector | [ViKiiettcl | 

\Va.sliiiic;loM I fjiivcriiiiit'iit in'iiitiiif,' iitlicf | 1894 
« '. .\lvii. 55:! Ji)), 5(1 III 

Powell (.Iiilin Wesley). 

Kleveiitli aijiiiiiil report | of the | Biirefiu ofetlinolojiy | to tlie | 
secretary of the Smithsonian inHtitiition | 18Si)-'9(l | liy | ,1. W. 
I'owell I director | [Vignette] | 

Washington | government iirinting olliei- | IWll 

H^'. xlvii. 55:1 )i]i. 511 )il. 

ISMITII9UNHN INSTITITTION. lUimill 11/ ilhnulv\t!l.\ 

Eleventh annnal report | of the | Bnrean of ethnology | to the | 
secretary of the .Smithsonian institution | 1889-'90 | liy | ,J. \V. 
Powell I director | [Vignette] | 

Washington | government iirinting oflice | 1894. 

Ko. xlvii, 5.5:) p|i. 50 \i\. 

[Smithsonian institi'tio.n. Ilitrfnu uf I'thnulinjy.] 






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J. W^. F»OA\^KLL 






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Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology, 

Washington, D. C, July 1, 1/S<J0. 
8iR: 1 liave the honor to submit my Eleventh Annual Report 
as Director of the Bureau of Ethnology. 

The first part presents an ex])lanation of the plan and opera- 
tions of the Bureau; the second consists of a series of papers 
on antlu'opologic subjects, prepared by my assistants to illus- 
trate the methods and results of the Avork of the Bureau. 

Allow me to express my appreciation of your earnest support 
and \i)ur wise counsel relating- to the work under my charge. 
I am, with respect, yom* obedient servant, 

Hon. S. P. Langley, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 




Iiitroductiou .\xiii 

Publications XXIV 

Field work xxv 

Mound explorations xxv 

General field studies xxvi 

Work of Mr. \V. H. Holmes xxvi 

Work of Dr. W. J. Hoftiuan xxvi 

Work of Mr. Victor Mindeleft' XX Vll 

Work of Mr. James Mooney xxvii 

Work of Mr. Jeremiah Curtin...; xxix 

Work of Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt xxx 

Work of Mrs. M. C. Stevenson xxx 

Office work xxx 

Work of the Director xxx 

Work of Colonel Garrick Mallery xxxi 

Work of Mr. H. W. Henshaw xxxi 

Work of Mr. J. Owen Dorsey x.xxi 

Work of Mr. A. S. Gatschet xxxii 

Work of Mr. Jeremiah Curtin xx.xiii 

Work of Dr. W. J. Hoffman xxxiii 

Work of Mr. James Mooney XXXIII 

Work of Mr. W. H. Holmes xxxiv 

Work of Mr. J. C. Pilling xxxiv 

Work of Mr. J. N. B.Hewitt xxxv 

Work of Prof. Cyrus Thomas xxxv 

Work of Mr. H. L. Reynolds xxxv 

Work of Mr. Victor Mindeleff xxxvi 

Work of Mr. Cosmos Mindeleff xxx vi 

Work of Mr. DeLancey W. Gill xxx v[n 

Accompanying papers x.xxix 

Subjects treated xxxix 

The Sia, by Matilda Coxe Stevenson xxxix 

Ethnology of the Ungava district, by Liicieu M. Turner XLi 

A study of Siouan cults, by J. Owen Dorsey xuii 

Financial statement xi.vii 



Introduction 9 

Cosmogony 26 

Cult societies 69 

Theurgistic rites 73 

Kain ceremonial of the Snake society 76 



Theurgistic rites — Continued. 

Riiin eeremonial of the Giant society 91 

Four-night ceremonial of the Giant society for the healing of a sick hoy . . 97 

Kain ceremonial of the Knife society 101 

Society of the Quer'ranna 112 

Rain ceremonial of the Quer'ranna society 113 

Other societies 116 

Society of the Cougar 118 

Society of Warriors 121 

Songs 12a 

A rain song of the Shu'wi Chai'iin (Snake .society) 123 

■ A song of the Shu'wi Chai'iin (Snake society) for healing the sick 125 

A rain song of the Sko'yo Chai'iin (Giant society) 126 

A simg of the Sko'yo Chai'iin (Giant society) for healing the sick 127 

A rain song of the His'tiiiu Chai'iin (Knife society) 128 

Portion of a rain song of the His'tiiin Chai'iin (Knife society) 129 

A rain song of the Quer'riinna Chai'iin 130 

Prayer for sick infant 130 

Childbirth 132 

Mortuary customs and beliefs 143 

Myths 146 

The Coyote encounters disappointment 147 

The Coyote and the Cougar 154 

The Coyote and the Rattlesnake 156 

The Skatona .^ 157 


Introduetiou 167 

Fort Chimo and the snrrouuding region 167 

Climate 172 

Auroras 173 

Vegetation 178 

Animal life 174 

Mammals 174 

Birds 175 

The native inhabitants of the country — general sketch 175 

The Eskimo 175 

The Indians 181 

Special account of the people around Fort Cliinu) 184 

The Koksoagmyut 184 

Physical characteristics 184 

Diseases 187 

Marriage 188 

Children 191) 

Burial customs 191 

Religion 193 

Outdoor life 202 

Tattooing 207 

Clothing 208 

Dwellings 223 

Household articles 228 

Food and its preparation 232 

Tobacco and snuff 234 



Special account of the ijeople arouml Fort Chinio — t'outinueil. 
The Koksoagniyut — Continued. 

Means of transportation 235 

By water 235 

On land 240 

Weapons and other hunting iinpleuu'nts 246 

Huntiug 249 

Miscellaneous implements 252 

Amusements 254 

Art 259 

Story-telling anil folklore 260 

Origin of the lunuit 261 

The coming of the white people 261 

Origiu of living things on the earth and in the water 261 

Origin of the guillemots 262 

Origin of the raven 262 

Origin of the tjuadrangnlar spots on the loon's back 262 

Origin of the gulls 263 

( )rigiu of the hawks 263 

Origin of the swallow 263 

The hare 363 

The wolf 263 

Lice 263 

Origin of mosquitoes 264 

Story of the man and h is fox \v i fe 264 

The rivals 264 

The jealous man 264 

Story of the orphan boy 265 

The origin of the sun, moon, and stars 266 

Auroras 266 

The sky 266 

The winds 267 

The Neneuot or "Naskopie" 267 

Principal characteristics 267 

Clothing 281 

Preparation of the skins for clothing 292 

Dwellings 298 

Sweat houses 300 

Household uteusils, etc 300 

Toliacco and jiipes 302 

Means of transportation 304 

By water 304 

By land 1 308 

Weapons 312 

Hunting 316 

Miscellaneous implements, tools, etc 317 

Amusements 320 

Festi\als 322 

Folklore 327 

Story of the wolverine and the brant 327 

Story of the wolverine 327 

The deer and the squirrel - 328 

The young man who went to live with the deer 328 

The wolf's daughter going to seek her lover 330 

The devil punishing a liar 333 


Sjieeial account of the people around Fort Chimo — Coutinued. 

The Nenenot or " Naskopie" — Continued. 

A wolverine destroys his sister 333 

The ralibit and the Irog 334 

The widverine and tlie rock 336 

Creation of peojde by the wolverine and the uiuskrat 338 

Origin »f the wliitish spot on the throat of the martin 338 

The Indian and his be.aver wife 338 

The venturesome hare 340 

The spirit guiding a child left by its p;irents 342 

Fate of two Indian men 343 

The starving wolverine 345 

The starving Indians 349 


Chapter I. — Introduction 361 

Definitions of "cult" and "Siouan" 361 

Siouau Family 361 

Authorities 361 

Alphabet 363 

Abbreviations 364 

CiiAPTicR II. — Definitions 365 

Alleged belief in a Great Spirit 365 

Phenomena divided into human and superhuman 365 

Terms for "mysterious," "lightning," etc 366 

Other Omaha and Ponka terms 367 

Significance of personal names and kinship terms 368 

Myth and legend distinguished from the superhuman 368 

Chapter III. — Cults of the Omaha, Ponka, Kansa, and Osage 371 

Beliefs and practices not found 371 

Omaha, Ponka, and Kansa belief in a wakanda 372 

Seven great wakandas 372 

Invocation of warmth and streams 372 

Prayer to wakanda 373 

Accessories of prayer 373 

< )maha and Kansa expressions al)out wakanda 374 

Ponka belief alioiit malevolent .spirits 374 

An old Omalia custom 375 

The sun a wakanda 376 

Invocations 376 

The offering of tobacco 377 

The Ponka sun dance of 1873 378 

The moon a wakanda 378 

Berdaehes 378 

Stars as wakandas 379 

The winds as wakandas 380 

Invocation 380 sacrifice to the winds 380 

Osage consecration of my.stic fireplaces 380 

The Thunder-being a wakanda 381 

OmaLa and Ponka invocation of the thunder-being 381 

Thunder-being invoked by warriors 382 

Ictasanda custom 383 

Kansa worship of the thunder-being 385 


CllAPTKii III. — Cults of the Oiniilia, Punka, Kansa, antl Osage — Continued. 

Subterranean anil subaquatic wakandas 38(i 

The Indafinga 386 

Other Kaiisa wakandas 387 

Omaha invocations of the tra]), etc 387 

Fasting 390 

Mystic trees and plants 390 

Iila'e^^e 392 

Personal mystery decorations 394 

Order of Thnnder shamans 395 

Generic forms of decoration 397 

Siiecitic forms of decoration 398 

Coin and the huft'alo 403 

Other Omaha mystery decorations 403 

Kansa mystery decorations 405 

Omaha nikie decorations 407 

Omaha nikie customs 410 

(ioveru mental instrumentalities 411 

( )maha and Pouka taboos 411 

Fetichism 412 

Fetiches of the tribe and gens 413 

Omaha tribal feticlies 413 

Osage tribal fetiches 414 

Kansa tribal fetiches 415 

Personal fetiches 415 

Sorcery 41(5 

Jugglery 417 

Omaha and Ponka belief as to a future life 419 

Kansa beliefs respecting death and a future life 421 

Chaptku IV. — x<=iwere and Winnebago cults 423 

Authorities 423 

Term "Great Spirit " never heard among the Iowa 423 

The sun a wakanta 423 

The winds as wakantas 423 

The Thunder-being a wakanta 424 

Subterranean powers 424 

Subacjuatic powers 424 

Animals as wakantas 425 

Apotheoses 425 

Dwellings of gods 425 

Worship 425 

Taboos 426 

Public or tribal fetiches 426 

Symbolic earth formations of the Winnebago 427 

Personal fetiches 428 

Dancing societies 428 

The Otter dancing society 429 

The Red Medicine dancing society 429 

The Green Corn dance 429 

The Buflalo dancing society 429 

Xciwere traditions ■ 430 

Belief in a future life 430 

Chapter V.— Dakota and Assiniboin cults 431 

Alleged 1 lakota belief in a Great Spirit 431 

Riggs on the Taku wakau 432 


Chapter V. — Dakota and Assiniboin cults — Continued. 

Meaning of ' ' wakan-" 433 

Daimonism 433 

Animism 433 

I'lineipal Dakota gods 434 

Miss Fletelier on Indian religion 434 

Prayer 435 

Sacrifice 435 

ITso of paint in w orship 438 

The unktelii, or suliaquatic and subterranean powers 438 

Character of the uuktehi 438 

Power of the unktelii - 439 

Subordinates of the unktelii 439 

The my sterj- dance 440 

The miniwatii 440 

The waki"ya", or thunder-beings 441 

The armor gods 443 

The war prophet 444 

The spirits of the mystery sacks 445 

Takuskai).skai),the Moving Deity 445 

Tunkan or Inyan, the Stone god or Liugam 447 

Iiiyai) sa •. 448 

Mato tipi 448 

The sun and moon ; 449 

Naturffof concepts 449 

The sun dance 450 

A Dakota's account of the sun dance 450 

Object of the sun dauce 451 

Rules observed by households 451 

The ' ' u-ma-ne " • 451 

Rules observed by the devotee 452 

Tri'ies invited to the sun dance 452 

Discipline maintained 452 

Camping circle formed 453 

Men selected to seek the mystery tree 453 

Tent of preparation 454 

Expedition to the mystery tree 455 

Felling the tree 456 

Tree taken to camp '. . 457 

Raising the sun pole 457 

Building of dancing lodge 458 

The ucita 458 

Decoration of candidates or devotees 458 

Offerings of candidates 459 

Ceremonies at the dancing lodge 460 

The dance 460 

Candidates scarified 460 

Pieces of flesh offered 462 

Torture of owner of horse 462 

End of the dance 462 

Intrusive dances 46.S 

Captain Bourke on the sun d.iuce 464 

Herdaches 467 

Astronomical lore 467 

Day and night 467 


Chapter V. — Dakota aiid Assiuil)om cults — Continued. 

The dawn 468 

Weather spirit 468 

Hevoka 468 

The concept of Hevoka 468 

Hey oka feast 469 

Story of a Heyoka man 469 

Heyoka women 471 

lya, the god of gluttony 471 

Ikto, Iktomi, or Unktomi 471 

Caijotidai) and Hohnogica 47.3 

Anurjg-ite 473 

Penates 475 

Guardian spirits 475 

Beliefs about the buffalo 475 

Prevalence of the beliefs 475 

Origin of the buffalo 476 

The Tataijgnaskiyyai], or mythic buffalo 477 

The bear 477 

The wolf 477 

Horses 479 

Spiders '. 479 

Snake lore 479 

The double womau 480 

• Deer women 480 

Dwarfs or elves 481 

Bogs - 481 

Trees 482 

Customs relating to childhood 482 

Puberty 483 

Ghost lore and the future life 484 

Meaning of wanagi 484 

Assiniboin beliefs about the dead 485 

Ghosts not always visible 485 

Death and Imrial lore 485 

Why the Teton stopped burying iu the ground 486 

Importance of tattooing 486 

Ceremonies at the ghost lodge 487 

Good and bad ghosts 489 

I iiteri'ourse with ghosts 489 

(ihost stories 489 

The ghost husband 489 

The solitary tra\eler 489 

The ghost on the hill 489 

The Indian who wrestled with a ghost 489 

The man who shot a ghost 492 

Assiniboin beliefs al)out ghosts 492 

Prayers to the dead, including ancestors 493 

Metamorphoses and transmigration of souls 493 

Exhortations to absent warriors 493 

Mysterious men and women 493 

Gopher lore , 496 

Causes of boils and sores 496 

Results of lying, stealing, etc 497 

Secret societies 497 


Chapter V. — Dakota and Assiniboin cults — Continued. 

Feticliism 498 

Public or tribal fetiches 498 

Private or personal fetiches 498 

Ordeals, or modes of swearing 499 

Sorcery and j ugglery 439 

Omens 500 

Bodily omens 500 

Animal omens 500 

Omens from dreams 500 

Chapter VI. — Cults of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Sapona 501 

Authorities 501 

Alleged belief In a Great Spirit 501 

The great mystery a modern deity 501 

Polytheism 502 

Worship 502 

Fasting 502 

Sacrifice 502 

The Okipa 502 

The Dahpike 503 

Cult of the Yoni 505 

Absaroka fear of a white buftalo cow 505 

Mandan cults L 506 

Maudau divinities 506 

Guardian spirits 507 

Mandan belief about serpents and giants 507 

Thunder lore of the Mandan 508 

Astronomical lore 508 

Mystery objects and places of the Mandan and Hidatsa 508 

The mystery rock 508 

Dreams 510 

Oracles 510 

Fetiches 510 

Folklore 511 

Sor»ery 511 

Jugglery 512 

Ghost lore 512 

The future life 512 

Four as a mystic number among the Mandan 513 

Hidatsa ciilts 513 

Hidatsa divinities 513 

Animism 514 

Worship of the elements, etc 514 

Serpent worship -. 514 

Fetiches 515 

Tribal fetiches 515 

Personal fetiches 515 

Oracles 516 

Dreams 516 

Berdaches 516 

Astronomical lore 517 

Food lore 517 

F'our souls in each human being 517 

Sorcery 517 

Disposal of the dead 518 



C'HAPTEU VI. — t'ults oi'tlio Mamlaii, Ilidatsa, uud .'^apoua— Coutinued. 
Hidatsa cults — Continued. 

Hidatsa belief as to future existence .518 

Sajiona cults .518 

Ch.\pter A'II. — Concluding remarks 520 

Peet on Indian religious 520 

The author's reply 521 

t'ults of the elements 522 

The four quarters 524 

Symbolic colore 527 

Colors in personal names 533 

The eartli powers 534 

Earth gentes 534 

The fire powers 534 

Fire gentes 536 

The wind-makers 53(i 

Wind gentes .537 

Each quarter reckoned as three 537 

Names referring to other worlds 537 

The water powers 537 

Water ]ieople 338 

Cautiou.s and queries 538 

Composite names 539 

Personal names from horned beings 541 

Names derived from several homogeneous subjects or beings 542 

Return of the spirit to the eponym 542 

Functious of gentes and subgeutes 542 

The "Messiah craze" 544 

Ei)ilogue 544 



Pl. I. A view of Sia, sbowing a portion of village in iniuti H 

H. Plaza, Sia 10 

III. Sisters ; cleverest artists iu ceramics in Sia 12 

IV. Group of Sia vases li 

V. The Oracle 16 

VI. Stone house showing plaster on exterior 22 

VII. Stampers at work 24 

VIII. Pounders completing work 26 

IX. I-iir-ri-ko, a Sia fetich 40 

X. Personal adornment when received into the third degree of offi- 
cial membership in Cult society (A, Ko-shai-ri; B, Quer'riiuna; 

C, Snake society) 70 

XI. Hii'-cha-mo-ni liefore plume offerings are attached (J, Hii'-cha- 
mo-ni and official staff deposited for Sils'-sls-tin-na-ko; B, H;i'- 
cha mo-ni and ofBcial staff deposited for the snn; C, Hii'-eha- 
mo-ui and official staff deposited for the clond priest of the 
noi-th; D, Hii'-cha-mo-n' and official staff deposited for the 
clond priest of the west; E, Hii'-cha-mo-ni and official staff 

deposited for the cloud priest of the zenith) 74 

XII. Hii'-cha-mo-ni with plume offerings attached (/•', Hii'-cha-mo-ni 
deposited for the Sia women of the north and of the west; G, 
Hii'-cha-mo-ni offered to the clond women of the cardinal 
points; H, gaming block offered to the cloud people; /, Hii'- 
cha-mo-ni and official staff deposited for the snake ho'-naai-te 
of the north) 76 

XIII. Hii'-cha-mo-ni with plumes attached {A, deposited for cloud 

priest of the north; B, deposited for Ho-chan-ui. arch ruler of 
the cloud priests of the world ; f, deposited for cloud women 
of the north ; D, bunch of plumes offered apart from Hii'-cha- 
mo-ni; E, hunch of plumes offered apart from Hii'-cha-mo-ni).. 78 

XIV. Altar and sand painting of Snake society 80 

XV. Altar of Snake society 82 

XVI. Ceremonial vase 84 

XVII. Vice ho'-na-ai-te of Snake society 86 

XVIII. Altar and sand painting of Giant society (A, altar; B, sand 

painting) 90 

XIX. Altar of Giant society photographed during ceremonial 92 

XX. Ho'-na-ai-te of Giant society 94 

XXI. Sick boy iu ceremonial chamber of Giant society 96 

XXII. Altar and sand painting of Knife society 98 

XXIII. Altar of Knife society photograiihcd during ceremonial 100 

XXIV. Ho'-na-ai-te of Knife society 102 

XXV. Altar of Knife society, with ho'-na-ai-te and vice ho'-na-ai-te ou 

either side 104 

XXVI. Shrine of Knife society 108 




Pl. XX\'II. Shrine of Knife society 110 

XX VIII. Altar of Quer'riinna society 112 

XXIX. Altar of Querriinua society 114 

XXX. Ho'-na-al-te of Querriinna society 116 

XXXI. Sia uiask.s (J, masks of the K^-'su-na; B, mask of the female 

K;i-'sfl-na; C, mnsks of the Kfi-'sft-na) 118 

XXXII. Sia masks {D, masks of the Kil-'sfi-na; JC, masks of female 

Ka-'sd-na ) 120 

XXXIII. Prayer to the rising sun 122 

XXXIV. Personal atlorument when received into the third degree of 

official membership of Cult society {A, spider; B, cnngar; 
C, fire; D, knife and giant; E, costume when victor is 
received into society of Warriors ; F, hody of warrior pre- 
pared for hurial, only the face, hands, and feet being painted) 140 
XXXV. Ceremonial water vases; Sia (J, cross, emblematic of the rain 
from the cardinal points ; B, faces of the cloud men ; C, faces 
of the cloud women ; D, clouds and rain ; E, vegetation ; 

F, dragonfly, symbolic of water) 14ij 

XXXVI. View on Koksoak river 170 

XXXVII. Eskimo tent 226 

XXXVIII. Stone tobacco pipes 302 

XXXIX. Birchbark canoe, Nenenot. Koksoak River pattern 304 

XL. Nenenot snowshoe — "swallow-tail" SOX 

XLI. Nenenot snowshoe — "be;iver-tail" 310 

XLII. Nenenot snowshoe — " round-end" 312 

XLIII. Doll, Indian woman, full dress, Nenenot 326 

XLIV. Siouan tents (A, tent of jejequta; B, tent of Mazi-jinga (man 
in the sun); C, tent of Heqaga; D, tent of Kaxe-0a"ba'8 

father; E, tent of Hnpei|a, Sr., and Agaha-wacuce) 361 

XLV. Camping circle at the time of the sun dance 454 

XLVI. The dancing lodge 458 

XLVII. Scarilication of candidates (l,Ok^8kanazin; 2, Ptepakin waii) 460 

XLVIII. The sun dance 462 

XLIX. A suspended devotee 464 

L. The double woman 480 

Fig. 1. Sia women on their way to trader's to dispose of pottery 12 

2. Sia women returning from trader's with tionr and corn 13 

3. Panper IS 

4. Breaking the earth under tent 21 

5. Women and girls bringing clay 22 

6. Women and girls bringing clay 23 

7. Depositing the clay ,. 24 

8. Mixing the clay with the freshly broken earth 25 

9. Women sprinkling the earth 26 

10. The process of leveling 27 

11. Stampers starting to work 28 

12. Mixing clay for plaster 29 

13. Childish curiosity 30 

14. Mask of the sun, drawn by a thenrgist 36 

15. Diagram of the White House of the North, drawn by a theurgist. .. 58 

16. The game of Wash' kasi 60 

17. Sand painting, as indicated in Plate xxv 102 

18. Sand painting used in ceremonial for sick by Ant society 103 



Fig. 19. Sia doctress 133 

20. Mother with her infant four days old 142 

21. E,sklino grave 192 

22. Magic doll 197 

23. Belt of magic doll 198 

24. Tali-snian attached to magic doll 199 

25. Talisman 199 

26. Talisman 199 

27. Talisman 200 

28. Eskimo woman's annilet 201 

29. E.skimo birdskin caji 209 

30. Eskimo man's deerskin coat (front) 210 

31. Eskimo man's deerskin coat (back) 211 

32. Eskimo man's sealskin coat (front) 212 

33. Eskimo man'.s .sealskin coat (side) 213 

34. Eskimo woman's deerskin coat 214 

35. Eskimo woman's deerskin coat 215 

36. Eskimo woman's deerskin coat 215 

37. Eskimo woman's deerskin coat 216 

38. Eskimo woman's sealskin coat 216 

39. Eskimo woman's deerskin coat 217 

40. Back view of same 217 

41. Eskimo boots 218 

42. Eskimo shoes 219 

43. Ice shoes, Hudson strait Eskimo 219 

44. Long waterproof sealskin mitten 220 

45. Waterproof gnt frock 221 

46. Snow goggles - front 222 

47. Snow goggles — rear 223 

48. Deserted Eskimo snowhouses near Fort Chimo 224 

49. Soapstone lamp, Koksoagmyut 229 

50. Soapstone lamp, Koksoagmyut 229 

51. Soapstone laniji, Koksoagmyut 229 

52. Frame for drying mittens 230 

53. Soapstone kettle 230 

54. Soapstone kettle 231 

55. Wooden dish 231 

56. Sealskin bucket 232 

57. Sealskin cup 232 

58. Tobacco pouch 234 

59. Eskimo umiak 235 

60. Dog whip 244 

61. Bow, East Main Eskimo (back) 246 

62. Bow, East Main Eskimo (side) 246 

63. Arrow, East Main Eskimo 247 

64. Arrow, East Main Eskimo 247 

65. Arrow, East Main Eskimo 247 

66. Bow case, East Main Eskimo 248 

67. Hand spear for killing seals from kaiak, Koksoak 249 

68. Toggle head for hand spear 250 

69. Sealskin float 250 

70. Ivory snow knife, Koksoagmyut 253 

71. Back-scratcher, Koksoagmyut 253 

72. Ivory needle case, Koksoagmyut 254 

1] ETH II 



Fig. 73. Ivory ueetlle case, Koksoagm yut 254 

74. Sealskin needle cushion, witli thimble, Koksoagmyut 254 

75. "Cup and VimU," Koksoagmyut 256 

76. Football and driver, Koksoagmyut 256 

77. Dominoes, Hudson strait Eskimo 257 

78. Eskimo doll, man 258 

79. Eskimo doll, woman 258 

80. Eskimo doll, woman 259 

81. Eskimo dull, woman 259 

82. Eskimo violin 259 

83. Birds carved in ivory 260 

84. Human figure carved in ivory 260 

95. Indian medicine lodge 274 

86. Indian amulet of bearskin 275 

87. Indian buckskin coat, man's (front) 281 

88. Indian buckskin coat, man's (back) 282 

89. Detail of pattern painted on Indian garment 282 

90. Detail of pattern painted on deerskin robe 283 

91. Indian buckskin leggings 283 

92. Indian moccasins 284 

93. Indian mittens 285 

94. Beaded headband, Nenenot 286 

95. Man's winter coat (front) : 287 

96. Man's winter coat (back) 288 

97. Detail of ornamentation 288 

98. Man's winter coat, with hood 289 

99. Man's winter coat, witli hood 290 

100. Neuenot woman in full winter dress 291 

101. Sealskin headband, Nenenot 292 

102. Skin scraper (front), Nenenot 292 

103. Skiu Bcrajjer (side), Nenenot 292 

104. Skin-cleauing tool, Nenenot 293 

105. Skiu-cleauing tool (iron-bladed) Nenenot 294 

106. Paint stick, Nenenot 296 

107 296 

108. Paiut stick. Neuenot 296 

109. Paiut stick, Nenenot 297 

110. Paint stick, Nenenot 297 

111. Paint cup, Nenenot 297 

112. Paint cup, Nenenot 297 

113. Paint cup, Neuenot 298 

114. Nenenot Indian teut 298 

115. Wooden bucket, Nenenot 301 

116. Birchbark basket, Nenenot 301 

117. Birchbark basket, Nenenot 301 

118. Stone pestle, Nenenot 30i 

119. AVooden spoon or ladle, Neuenot 302 

120. Wooden spoon or ladle, Nenenot 302 

121. Wooden spoon or ladle, Neuenot 303 

122. Wooden spoon or ladle, Nenenot 303 

123. Stone tobacco pipe 304 

124. Pipe cleaner, Nenenot 301 

125. Spoon for applying grease to canoe 306 

126. Toboggan, Nenenot, side view 307 

127. Toboggan, Nenenot, from abore 307 



Fig. 128. Ncuenot suowshoe, single bar 308 

129. Xenenot suowshoe, single bar 309 

130. Snowsboe needle, Nenenot 310 

131. Wooden snowsboe, Little Whale river 311 

132. Bow, Nenenot 312 

133. Arrow, Nenenot 313 

134. Arrow, Nenenot 313 

135. Arrow, Nenenot 313 

136. Arrow, Nenenot 313 

137. Deer lance, Nenenot 314 

138. White wliale siiear. Little Whale river 314 

1.39. Point of white whale s])ear enlarged 314 

140. Reindeer snare, Xenenot 315 

141. Crooked knife, Nenenot 317 

142. Awl, Nenenot 318 

143. Snow shovel, Nenenot 318 

144. Ice scoop, Nenenot 318 

145 31!) 

146. Comb, with birchbark case and cleaner 320 

147. Boards for woman's hair 320 

148. Swimming board 321 

149. Fishhook and line 321 

150. Cup and liall, Nenenot 324 

151. Drum, Nenenot 324 

152. Drum, Little Whale river 325 

153. Rattle, Nenenot 326 

154. Target, reindeer, buck 326 

1.55. Target, reindeer, doe 326 

156. George Miller's personal mystery decoration 394 

157. A variant of Fig. 156 394 

158. Robe of Wanukige 395 

159. Tent of Wanukige 396 

160. Robe of Caqube 396 

161. Robeof jahe-!jap'6 397 

162. Generic decoration referring to night, etc 397 

163. Tent of A"pa"-ska, Sr 398 

164. Robe of A"pa"-ska, Sr 398 

165. Tent of Mazi-jinga (ghost vision ) 399 

166. A tent of Xikuil;ib^'-a" 399 

167. Another tent of Xiku*ib0a" 399 

168. Blanket of Cu5ia-ma"^i" 400 

169. Tent of x^sa" ; vision of a cedar 401 

170. Tent of j.esa" ; sun and rainbow vision 401 

171. Cornstalk decoration of the tents of Fire Chief and Waqaga 402 

172. Robe of Ni-((actage 403 

173. Dnba-ma"i|i"'s father's tent 403 

174. Ma"tcu-na"ba's tent 403 

175. Wacka"hi's tent 404 

176. Tent of an unknown Omaha 404 

177. Tent of j,ebi'a 405 

178. Tent of a Kansa ■who had an eagle vision 405 

179. Kansa decorated tent 406 

180. Kansa decorated tent 406 

181. Ma"ze-guhe's robe 406 



Fig. 182. Ma"ze-guhe's tent 407 

183. Diiba-ma"0.i"'s father's blanket 407 

184. Inke-sabe tent decoration 408 

185. Inke-sabe tent decoration 409 

186. Waqaga's robe 409 

187. Sacred tent in which the pole was kept 413 

188. Bear Butte, South Dakota 449 

189. The " u-ma-ne" symbol 451 

190. Eagle- wing flute 455 

191. The tent of preparation and the dancing lodge 459 

192. The ghost lodge 487 

193. The (/!atada gentile cinle 523 

194. The four elements, etc ,523 

195. Kansa order of invoking winds, etc 525 

196. Tsiou (Osage) order of placing the four .sticks, etc 525 

197. Pa"iika (Osage) order of placing the four sticks, etc 526 

198. Ka"se (Osage) order of circumambnlatiou 526 

199. Showing how the Osage prepared the scalp for the dance 526 

200. Omaha lightnings and the four quarters 527 




By J. W. Powell, Director. 


The prosecution of research among the North American 
Indians, as directed by act of Congress, was continued during 
the fiscal year 1889-'90. 

The general plan on which the work has proceeded is that 
explained in former reports. Briefly expressed, certain lines 
of investigation are confided to persons selected for and trained 
in their pursuit, and the results of their labors are presented 
from time to time in the publications of the Bureau provided 
for by law. A concise account of the woi'k on which each 
special student was actively engaged during the fiscal year 
appears below, but this account does not enumerate all the 
studies undertaken or services rendered by them, because par- 
ticular lines of research have been suspended in this, as in 
former years, in order to complete certain investigations 
regarded as of paramount importance. From this cause 
delays have been occasioned in the issue of several treatises and 
monographs, some of which are partly in type. 

The collaboration of explorers, writers, and students who 
are not and may not desire to be officially connected with the 
Bureau, is again solicited. Their contributions, whether in 
the shape of suggestions or of extended communications, will 
be gratefully acknowledged, and will always receive pro23er 


credit if published either in the series of reports or in mono- 
graphs or bulletins. 

The items of the rejiort are presented in three principal 
divisions. The first relates to the publications made ; the sec- 
ond to the work prosecuted in the field ; and the third to the 
office work, which mainly consists of the preparation for pub- 
lication of the results of field work, with the corrections and 
additions obtained from correspondence and from study of the 
literature relating to the subjects discussed. In addition, the 
accomjianying- papers are briefly characterized, and a sum- 
mary financial statement is appended. 


The publications actually issued during the year are as fol- 
lows : 

Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. It contains the 
introductory report of the Director, 35 pages, with accompa- 
nying papers, as follows: 

Ancient Art of the Province of Chiriqui, Colomliia, by Wil- 
liam H. Holmes; pp. 3-187, PI. i, Figs. 1-285. 

A Study of the Textile Art in its relation to the Develop- 
ment of Form and Ornament, by William H. Holmes; pp. 
189-252, Figs. 286-358. 

Aids to the Study of the Maya Codices, by Prof. Cyi'us 
Thomas; pp. 253-371, Figs. 359-388. 

Osage Traditions, by Rev. J. Owen Dorsey; pp. 373-397, 
one figure (389). 

The Central Eskimo, by Dr. Franz Boas; pp. 399-669, Pis. 
ii-x, Figs. 390-546. 

The work forms a royal octavo volume of lviii+657 pages, 
including a general index, and is illustrated by 546 figures in 
the text, 10 plates, and 2 maps in pocket. 

Two bulletins, viz : 

Bibliographj^ of the Muskhogean languages, by James Con- 
stantine Pilling, 8°, pp. i-v, 1-114. 

The Circular, Square, and Octagonal Earthworks of ( )hio, 


by Cyrus Thomas, 8°, pp. 3(>, with xi plates and 5 tig'ures in 
the text. 


The field work of the year reported on may be divided 
into (1) mound explorations and (2) general field studies, 
which during that time were directed chiefly to archeology, 
linguistics, mythology, and pictography. 


The Avork of exploring the mounds of eastern United States 
was, as in former years, under the superintendence of Prof. 
Cyrus Thomas. During this year he was unable to continue 
explorations in person, being engaged almost the entire time 
in preparing for i)ublication a final report on the work in his 
charge and a special bulletin with accompanying maps of 
archeologic localities. 

Mr. Henry L. Reynolds, one of his assistants, was occupied 
during the summer in exphiring the works in Manitoba, 
North Dakota, and South Dakota with special reference to 
their types and distribution. The results of this investigation 
were highly satisfactory, as the types within the area men- 
tioned were found to be unusually well defined in physical 
structure and contents. While 5Ir. Reynolds was thus 
employed he noted other archeologic remains and examined 
several, including the outlines of circles and animals formed 
by bowlders, and the ancient village sites on Missouri river. 
A full report of these investigations is embraced in the final 
report of Prof Thomas. Mr. Reynolds also made a visit to 
ceilain earthworks in Iowa and Indiana for the purpose of 
ascertaining their types. In the autunm he explored certain 
little-known mounds of South Carolina and Georgia. Two 
mounds — a large one on Wateree river, below Camden, South 
Carolina, and one on Savannah river, Georgia — proved 
especially interesting. The contents of the latter showed as fine 
specimens of every class of primitive art as have ever been 
found in the mounds of this country. 


Mr. James D. ]\Iiddleton, a regular assistant from the organ- 
ization of the mound division, was engaged during the month 
of July, 1889, in surveying- and making plats of certain ancient 
works of Michigan and Ohio. At the end of the month he 
resigned his position in the Bureau. 

Mr. James Mooney, although directly engaged in another 
line of research, obtained important information for the mound 
division in reference to the localities, distribution, and charac- 
ter of the ancient works of the Cherokees in western North 
Carolina and adjoining sections. 


In the autunm of 1889 Mr. W. H. Holmes was directed to 
take charge of the archeologic fieldwork of the Bureau. In 
September he began excavations in the ancient bowlder quar- 
ries on Piny branch, a tributary of Rock creek, near Washing- 
ton. A trench was canned across the principal quarry, wliich 
had a width of more than 50 feet and a depth in. places of 
10 feet. The ancient methods of quarrying and working the 
bowlders were studied, and several thousand si)ecimens wexe 
collected. Work was resumed in the next spring, and five 
additional trenches were opened across widely separated por- 
tions of the ancient quan-ies. Much additional information 
was collected, and many specimens were added to the col- 
lection. In June work was conunenced on another group of 
ancient quarries situated north of the new Naval Observatory, 
on the western side of Rock creek. Very extensive quarry- 
ing and implement-making had been earned on at this place. 
The conditions and jihenomena Avere almost identical with 
those of the Piny branch site. Subsequently an ancient soap- 
stone quarry near Tenleytown was examined. The ancient 
pitting coiTesponds quite closely with that of the bowlder 
quames, and the condition of the pits indicated equal age. 


Dr. W. J. Hoffman proceeded early in July to White Earth 
reservation, Minnesota, to collect and study the mnemonic and 
other records relating to the Mide'wiwin or Grand Medicine 


Society of the Ojil)wa. He had before spent two seasons 
with this tribe, and liad been initiated into the mysteries of the 
four degrees of the society, l)y which he was enabled to record 
its ceremonials, and this was desired by the Indians so that a 
complete exposition of the traditions of the Ojibwa cosmogony 
and of the Mide' Society could be preserved for the informa- 
tion of their descendants. Through intimate acquaintance 
Avitli, and recognition by the Mide' priests, Dr. Hoffman obtained 
all the important texts employed in the ceremony, much of 
the matter in archaic language, as well as the musical notation 
of songs sung to him for that purpose; also the birch-bark 
records of the society and the mnemonic songs on birch bark 
employed by the Mide' priests, together with those of the 
Jessakkid and Widjeno', two other grades of shamans. 

Dr. Hoffman also secured, as having connection with the 
general subject, a list of plants and other substances constitu- 
ting the materia medica of the region, the method of their prep- 
aration and administration, and their reputed action, the whole 
being connected with incantation and exorcism. 


Mr. Victor Mindeleff, between December 7 and January 20, 
examined the ruin of Casa Grande in Arizona, visiting also the 
localities at which Mr. F. H. Gushing worked while in charge 
of the Hemenway expedition. Plans and photographs were 
made during this exploration, and fragments of typical pottery 
were collected from the principal ruin -s-isited. Casa Grande was 
ascertained to be almost identical in character with the many 
ruins scattered over the valleys of the Gila and the Salado. 


On July 3, Mr. James Mooney proceeded on a third jour- 
ney to the Cherokee reservation in North Carolina, returning 
November 17. During this time he devoted attention chiefly 
to the translation and study of the sacred formulas used by 
the shamans, which had been obtained by him during a pre- 
vious visit. In this work he employed the most prominent 
medicine men, among whom were the writers of some of the 
original formulas, and obtained detailed explanations of the 


acc'Oiiipauying- ceremonies and the theories on which they were 
based, together with descriptions of the mode of preparing the 
medicine and the various articles used iu the same connection. 
He was also permitted to witness a number of these ceremo- 
nies, notedly the solemn rite known as "going to water." 
About 300 specimens of plants used in the medical practice 
were also collected, with their Indian names and uses, in addi- 
tion to the 500 previously obtained. These plants were sent 
to botanists connected with the Smithsonian Institution for 
identification under systematic names. The study of the Cher- 
okee plant names and medical formulas throws much liglit on 
Indian botanic clt>ssification and therapeutics. 

The study of the botany is a work of peculiar difficulty owing 
to the absence of any uniform system among the various 
practitioners. Attention was given also to the Ijall play, and 
several photographs of difterent stages of the ball dance were 
taken. In addition, one of the oldest men of the tribe Avas 
employed to prepare the feather wands used in the Eagle 
dance, the Pipe dance of the prairie tribes, and the Calumet 
dance spoken of by the early Jesuit writers, winch has l^een 
discontinued for about thirty years among the Cherokees. 
These wands were deposited in the National Museum as a 
part of the Cherokee collection obtained on various visits to 
the reservation. Much miscellaneous information in regard 
to mvths, dances, and other ceremonies was obtained. 

Mr. ]\Iooney undertook during the year a special study of 
aboiiginal geographic nomenclature for the purpose of preparing 
an aboriginal map of the old Cherokee country. With this 
object, a visit was made to the outlying Indian settlements, 
especially that on Cheowah river in Graham county. North 
Carolina, and individuals who had come from wideh' separated 
districts were questioned. The maps of the United States 
Geological Survey, on a scale of 2 miles to an inch, were 
used in tlie work, and the i-esult is a collection of more tlian 
one thousand Cherokee names of localities within the former 
territory of the tribe, given in the correct form, with the mean- 
ings of the names and whatever local legends are connected 
with tliem. In North Carolina every local name now known 


to the Cherokees, every prominent peak or rock, and every 
cove and noted bend in a stream having a distinctive name, 
have now been obtained. For Georgia and a portion of Tennes- 
see the names mnst be gathered chiefly from old Indians now- 
living in Indian territory. It may be noted that a,s a rule 
the Cherokee and some other tribes have no names for rivers 
or settlements. The name belongs to the district, and is applied 
alike to the stream and to the town or mountain situated within 
it. When the Indians of a villiage leave it the old name 
remains behind, and the village in its new location takes the 
name attached to the new district. Each district alonff a 
river has a distinct name, while the river as a whole has none, 
the whole tendency in the languag-e being to specialize. 

The last six weeks of the field season were spent by Mr. 
Mooney in visiting various points in North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, and Alabama, within the former 
limits of the Cherokees, for the purpose of locating mounds, 
graves, and other antiquities for an archeologic map of their 
territory and to collect from former traders and old residents 
materials for a historic sketch of the tribe. 



Mr. Jeremiah Curtin spent July and August 1-28, 1889, a 
various \points on Klamath river, from Orleans Bar to Martin 
Ferry, Humbolt county, California, in collecting myths and 
reviewing vocabularies of the "VVeitspekan and Quoratean lan- 
guages. From August 30 to September 10 he was at Blue 
lake and Areata, Humboldt county, California, engaged in 
taking down a Wishoskan vocabulary and in collecting infor- 
mation concerning the Indians of that region. Arriving in 
Round Valley, Mendocino county, California, September 16, 
he remained there till October 16, and took vocabularies of the 
Yukian and Palailmihan languages. From Round Valley he 
went to Niles, Alameda county, California, where he obtained 
partial vocabularies of three languages formerly spoken in that 
region. Of these one was spoken at Suisun, another was 
kindred to the Mariposan, a third was Costanoan. On October 
27 he an-ived in Redding, Shasta county, California, where he 
obtained a considerable addition to his material previousl}' col- 


lected, iu the form of myths and additions to the Palaihnihan 
vocabulary. Dm-ing this work he also visited Round moun- 
tain. He retm-ned to Washington January 10, 1890. 


From July 10 to November 9, 1889, Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt was 
engaged in field work. Until September 7 he was on the 
Onondaga reservation near Syi'acuse, New York, where he col- 
lected legends, tales, and myths and recorded them in the 
Onondaga vernacular. He also obtained accounts of the reli- 
gious ceremonies and funeral rites; recorded the terms forming 
the Ouondagan scheme of relationships of afiinitv and con- 
sanguinity; and collected valuable matter jjertaining to the 
Iroquois League and its wampum record. 

From September 1, to November 9 Mr. Hewitt was engaged 
on Grand River reservation in Canada, where he succeeded in 
obtaining the chants and speeches used in the Condolence 
Council of the League of the Iroquois. The religious Ijeliefs 
of the Iroquois not converted to Christianity were noted; plant 
and animal names were collected; many religious and gentile 
songs were reduced to writing, with accounts of the principal 
Iroquoian "medicines" in the vernacular of the several tribes. 
A Wyandot vocabulary was also written. 


Mrs. M. C. Stevenson left Washington in March, 1890, to 
study the Sia, Jemez, and Zufii Indians. She made Sia her 
first point of investigation, and found so much of ethnologic 
interest in that pueblo that she continued her work there to 
the end of the fiscal year, engaged in making a vocabulary 
and in studying the habits, customs, mythology, and medicine 
practices of the people. She was admitted to the ceremonials 
of the secret societies, and made detailed accounts of their cei'- 
emonies, the altars being photographed by her assistant, Miss 
Clark. Her studies form the basis of her paper in this volume. 


The Director was engaged during the year, as other duties 
permitted, in preparing a work on tlie characteristics and 


classification of the languages of the North American Indians, 
published in part in the Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau. 

Col. Garrick Mallery, U. S. Army, was occupied in con- 
tinued study of sign language and pictograph}-, with the col- 
lection and collation of additional material obtained by per- 
sonal investigation as well as by correspondence and by the 
examination of all accessible authorities. This work was 
performed with special reference to the jjrejiai-ation of a mono- 
graph on each of those subjects for early publication. That 
on pictography forms the greater part of the Tenth Annual 
Report of the Bureau, under the title " Picture- Writing of the 
American Indians." It is hoped that the monograjihs on sign 
language and pictography, having as their text the unequaled 
attainments of the North American Indians in those directions, 
may contribute to elucidate the similar exhibitions of evanes- 
cent and permanent thought-writing still employed in some 
other parts of the wiirld, or which now are only described in 
records or found on material remains. 

Mr. H. W. Henshaw was engaged during the fiscal year, 
in addition to his administrative duties, in assisting the Direc- 
tor in the final preparation of the linguistic map of North 
America north of Mexico, with the accompanying text, which 
are published in the Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau. 
He also commenced a final revision of a synonymy or diction- 
ary of Indian tribal names. 

Rev. J. Owen Dorsey completed his editorial work in con- 
nection with the publication of S. R. Riggs' Dakota-English 
Dictionary, which is now issued as volume vii of the series of 
Contributions to North American Ethnology. He also Avrote 
articles on the following subjects: Measures and valuing; The 
Dha-du-ghe Society of the Ponka tribe; Omaha dwellings, 
furniture and implements; Omaha clothing and jjersonal 
ornaments; Ponka and Omaha songs; The Places of gentes 
in Siouan camping circles; Winnebago folkloi-e notes; Teton 
folklore notes; Omaha folklore notes; The Gentile system 
of the Siletz tribes; and a Dakota's account of the Sun 
dance. He revised some of his Omaha and Ponka genea- 
logical tables previously prepared, and Ijegan the arrange- 


meut of Kansa tables of a similar i-haracter. He continued 
work on a monogTapli relating to Indian personal names, and 
completed the following lists, in which the Indian names pre- 
cede their English meanings: Winnebago, 383 names; Iowa, 
Oto, and Missouri, 520; Kwapa, 15, and Kansa, 604. He 
finished tlie preparation of his texts in the (jtegiha language, 
now published as volume vi of Contributions to North Ameri- 
can Etlmology, and corrected most of the proofs for the 
volume. He finished a collection of otiier Omaha and Ponka 
letters for publication as a bulletin of the Bureau. He began 
a paper entitled "A Study of Siuuau Cults," for which over 
forty colored illustrations Avere prepared by Indians under his 
direction. It treats of the cults of the Omaha, Ponka, Kansa, 
Osage, jjCiwere, Iowa, Oto, Missouri, Winnebago, Dakota, 
Assiniboin, Mandan, Hidatsa, and Sapona tribes. This paper 
appears in the present volume. From September to December, 
1889, he was occupied in procuring from George Miller, an 
Omaha who came to Washington foi- the purpose, additional 
myths, legends, letters, folklore, and sociologic material, 
grammatic notes, and corrections of dictionary entries, besides 
genealogical tables arranged according to the sub-gentesas 
well as the gentes of the Omaha tribe. 

Mr. Albert S. Oatschet during the whole year was engaged 
in office work. He finished his last draft of the "Klamath 
Grammar," a monograph on a higldy interesting aboriginal 
language of southwestern Oregon, making numerous additions 
and appendices, as follows: Idioms and dialectic differences 
in the language; colloquial form of the language; syntactic 
examples; complex synonymous terms, and roots with their 
derivatives. The typographic work on the grammar was 
terminated, the proofs and revises having all been read by 
the author. The last portion of the entire work, being the 
"Kthnogra])hic Sketch of the Klamath People," was then 
re\vritten from earlier notes with reference to the best topo- 
graphic and historical materials obtainable. Mr. Gatschet also 
drew for publication a map of the headwaters of Klamath river, 
the home of the tribes, on a scale of 15 miles to the inch, to 
form the frontispiece to the work. The whole constitutes 


volume II, parts 1 and 2 of Contributions to North American 
Ethnology, entitled "The Klamath Indians of Southwestern 

Mr. Jeremiah Curtin was engaged from January 10 to 
June 30, 1890, in arranging the myth material collected by 
him ill tlie held and in copying vocabularies. The Hupa, 
Qu(iratean, and Wishoskan vocabularies were finished and the 
Yaiian commenced. 

The office work of Dr. W. J. Hoffman consisted chiefly in 
aiTanging the material gathered by him during" the preceding 
three field seasons, and in preparing for publication the work 
entitled Tlie Mide'wiwin, or Grand Medicine Society of the 
Ojibwa, which appears in the Seventh Annual Report of the 
Bureau. During the first three months of the year 1890 a 
number of Menomoni Indians were at Washington on business 
connected with their tribe, and during that time Dr. Hoffman 
obtained from them a collection of facts relating tt) their 
mythology, social organization and government, and the gen- 
tile system and division of gens into phratries, together with 
many facts relating to theMita'wit, or Grand Medicine Society 
of this tribe. These are interesting and valuable, as some 
portions of the ritual explain doubtful parts of the Ojibwa 
phraseology, and vice versa, although the two societies of the 
Ojibwa and the Menomoiii difter gi-eatly in the dramatized 
portion of the forms of initiation. 

Mr. James Mooney, on his return from the field in Novem- 
ber, engaged in the elabttration of the Cherokee formulas 
obtained. Two hundred of these formulas, or about one-third 
of the whole number, were translated. In each case the 
transliteration from the original manuscript in Cherokee char- 
acters is given first, then follows a tran.slation following the 
idiom and spirit of the original as closely as possible, and, 
finally, an explanation of the medicine and ceremonies used 
and the underlying theory. About half of the whole number 
relate to medicine. The others deal with love, war, self- 
protection, the ball play, agriculture, and life conjuring. A 
preliminary paper on the subject, entitled "The Sacred For- 
mulas of the Cherokees," is incorporated in the SeA-enth Annual 

11 ETH 111 


Report of the Bureau. The Avhole collection will constitute a 
unique and interesting contribution to the aboriginal literature 
of America. All the words occurring in the fomiulas thus far 
translated have been glossed, with grammatic notes and refer- 
ences from the original texts, making a glossary of about two 
thousand words, a great part of which are in the archaic or 
sacred language. Several weeks were also occupied in the 
preparation of an archeologic map of the old Cherokee coimtry 
from materials collected in the field and from other informa- 
tion in possession of the Bureau. 

Mr. W. H. Holmes was chiefly engaged in the preparation 
of papers on the arts of the mound builders. Four elaborate 
papers have been iradertaken by Mr. Holmes, one on pottery, 
a second on art in shell and bone, a third on textile fabrics, 
and a fourth on pipes. Three of these papers were well 
advanced toward completion at the close of the fiscal year. 
In addition to this work he has prepared several papers relat- 
ing to his field explorations. These include a report on exca- 
vations in the ancient quartzite bowlder workshops and the 
soapstone quarries of the District of Columbia, and a rock 
shelter in West Virginia. 

Mr. James C. Pilling continued to devote such time as he 
could spare from other duties to the preparation of bibliog- 
raphies of the languages of North America. At the close of 
the fiscal year 1888-'89 the proof reading of the "Bibliography 
of the Muskhogean Language.s" was completed. Work was 
also begun on the Algonquian, by far the largest of those yet 
undertaken. IMuch of the material for this was already in 
hand, the collection having been graduall}' pursued during 
several preceding years, and the greater part of the work 
remaining consisted in assembling', arranging, revising, and 
verifying that material. August 16-22 were profitably spent 
by Mr. Pilling at the Lenox and Astor libraries and at the 
New York Historical Society, in New York, and at the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society, Boston Atheneum, and Boston 
Public libraries, in Boston, chiefly in verifynig and revising 
the material in hand. The first portion of the manviscript was 
transmitted to the Public Printer Noveml^er 15, 1889, and at 


the close of the fiscal year final proofs of about half of the 
volume were revised. 

From July 1 to July 10, 1889, Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt was 
engaged in collating and recording Iroquoian proper names, 
both of persons and places, as they occur in the narratives of 
the earl}" explorers of the pristine Iroquoian habitat, and of 
the historians of the people of that stock. Afterward, up to 
November 9, he ^vaa emploved in field work. On his return 
to the office, and until the end of the fiscal year, he was 
engaged in translating and annotating the myths, legends, and 
tales which he had previously collected in the field, and in 
translating and recording them for easy reference, with the 
object of verifying and explaining the matter so collected and 
com})aring it Avith the mythologic, ethnographic, and other 
antlu'opologic data found in the early French narratives of the 
New World, especially in the works of Champlain, Lafitau, 
Charlevoix, and in the Jesuit Relations. Much linguistic mate- 
rial has been obtained from the translations of the matter 
which Mr. Hewitt personally collected while engaged in field 

Prof. Cyrus Thomas was personally engaged during the 
entire year in preparing his report on the field work and col- 
lections of the preceding seven years. A paper giAnng the 
archeologic localities Avithin the mound area, together with a 
.series of accompanying maps, was conijdeted for publication 
as a bulletin of the Bureau, under the title "Catalogue of Pre- 
historic Works east of the Rocky Mountains. " His final report,, 
which requires nuich comparison and reference as well as study 
(jf the works explored and objects obtained, was written as rap- 
idly as was consistent with pro])er care and due regard for 
details. It will be incorporated in the Twelfth Aimual Report 
of the Bureau. 

Mr. Henry I.,. Reynolds, on his return from field duty, assisted 
Prof. Thomas in the prepai-ation of that part of his report and 
bulletin which relate to the works of those archeologic disti'icts 
which he had visited. He then resumed the preparation of a 
paper on the aboriginal use of metal. In Ma^^ he made an 
examination of the metallic specimens in the private and pub- 


lie archeologie collectious of New York, and iu June lie vis- 
ited Providence and Boston in search of certain rare histor- 
ical data relating- to the early life and customs of the North 
American Indians, in respect to the use of metal and to other 

Mr. Victor Mindeleff spent most of the year in preparing- 
a report on the architecture of Tusayan and Cibola, which 
forms part of the Eig-hth Annual Report of the Bureau. He 
also Avi'ote a report on the repairs and protection of the ruin of 
Casa Grande in Arizona, on Gila river, which was accom- 
panied by diagrams and plans and. a series of photographs, and 
contained a discussion of the architecture of this ruin, as com- 
pared with that of a ruin on Rio Salado excavated by the 
Hemenway expedition. 

During- the first four month.s of the fiscal year, Mr. Cosmos 
Mindeleff was occupied in revising- manuscript for publica- 
tion, and otherwise assisting Mr. Victor Mindeleff in the prep- 
aration of the paper on Pueblo architecture for the Eightli 
Annual Report, his own portion of the report having been pve- 
viously finished. In December, 1889, he commenced to exe- 
cute a series of maps, on which the location of all known ruins 
in the ancient Pueblo country will be plotted. The maps 
were in large part drawn, and the plotting- of the ruins was 
commenced. When completed, the maps will show the distri- 
bution of all ruins in that region, which are mentioned in liter- 
ature or known to explorers, and will he accompanied by a 
catalogue containing a description of eacli ruin and references 
to the literature relating to it, the whole forming an exhaustive 
record. It is intended to present this work in one of the future 
publications of the Bureau. 

During- the year the work of the modeling room was con- 
tinued, under the direction of Mr. Cosmos Mindeleff, and was 
confined almost entirely to the enlargement of the "duplicate " 
series," referred to in previous reports. The large model of 
Peiiasco Blanco, one of the Chaco ruins, reported last year as 
commenced, wns completed, cut into sections for convenience 
of shipment, and boxed. A duplicate of a model of the ]niel)lo 
of llano or Tewa, the original of which was made in 18S3, was 


finished and exchanged for the original in tlie National Museum. 
The original was condemned and destroyed, and a copy was 
made for the duplicate series. A duplicate was also made of 
a model of Sichumovi, and the original was put in order and 
added to the series. A duplicate of a model of the pueblo of 
Shipaulovi was also finished and added to the same series. The 
original model of Casa Blanca cliff ruin was withdrawn from 
the Museum, and a number of duplicate casts were made, one 
of which was finished and deposited in the Museum. Dupli- 
cates were also made of models of Great Elephant mound, 
Great Etowah movind^ and two others. In the later half of 
the fiscal year work was commenced on the duplication of two 
very large models, one of WalpI and the First mesa, the other 
of Mummy cave cliff" ruin. The original models, being very 
hurriedly made for the New Orleans Exposition and cast in 
plaster of Paris, had suffered considerably in transportation. 
An attempt was made to cast the models in paper, and in both 
cases the attempt was highly successful. The first duplicate of 
the Walpi model was completed and deposited in the National 
Museum in place of the original, which was destroyed. The 
finished model weighed about 500 pounds, instead of 2,500 
pounds, the weight of the original. The model of Mummy 
cave and a second copy of Walpi, for the duplicate series, 
were cast, but neither was finislu'd at the close of the year. 
Toward the end of the year work was commenced on two new 
models intended to illustrate a report by Mr. W. H. Holmes on 
his researches concerning- the archeology of the District of 

But one demand upon the duplicate series was made during 
the year. This was for a number of transparencies, to be 
exhibited as a part of the display of the United States at the 
Paris Exposition. Sixty of these large photographs on glass 
were sent, and two grand prizes were awarded for them. On 
the conclusion of the Exposition tlie transparencies were 
returned, and compensation for some damage suff"ered in trans- 
portation was made by the United States Commission. During 
the year, nine models, ranging in size from 2 feet square to 
14 by 5 feet, were finished; twelve models, including du])li- 
cate casts, were finished but not painted; and four addi- 


tioiial models were commenced, though nut finished at the end 
of the year. 

Mr. De Lancey W. Gill succeeded Mr. W. H. Hohiies in the 
charge of preparing and editing the illustrations for the jjubli- 
cations of the Bureau. The following' list shows the nunilter 
of drawings that were prepared under his supervision during 
the year for publication : 

Architectural drawings, drawiugs of iinmiids, iNirtbworks, aucient niius, etc... 102 

Maps, diagrams, and sections 64 

Objects of stone, wood, shell, bone, etc 377 

Total - 543 

These drawings were prepared from field surveys and 
sketches, from photograjihs, and from the objects themselves. 
Ko field work has been done directly by the art division 
during the year, although many valuable di'awings and photo- 
graphs were procured in Arizona- by Mr. Victor Mindeleft', and 
in the District of Columbia by Mr. W. H. Holmes. 

The photographic work remains under the able manage- 
ment of Mr. J. K. Hillers. The following statement shows 
the amount of Avork done in the laboratorA' : 







28 by 34..: 



28 by 34 

20 by 24 

14 by 17 

11 by 14 

8 bv 10 


20 by 24 


14 by 17 


11 bv 14 


8 by 10 



5 by 8 14 

5 by 8 



Photographs were obtained of Indians from sittings as fol- 














Three original contributions to ethnology accompany this 
report. All treat of the habits and customs, beliefs and insti- 
tutions of our native races, and thus traverse a large part of 
the field of ethnology, and their geographic extent is equall)' 
broad. One of the papers represents a portion of the results 
of long-continued researches among a distinctive people dwell- 
ing in pueblos amid the barren mesas and arid plains near the 
Mexican border ; and the vivid description of the beliefs and 
ceremonials of the people is introduced by a general account 
of their history, habitat, customs, and ethnic relations. The 
second contribution comprises a full account of the native 
tribes of the northern portion of the continent in the great 
Hudson Bay territory; it is a faithful record of painstaking- 
observations on the domestic life, manners, and ideas of a little, 
known element in our aboriginal population. The third 
memoir relates primarily to the beliefs and the institutions 
connected therewith prevailing in early days over the fertile 
plains of the interior. 

The several records, representing as they do a vast geo- 
graphic area, and covering as they do severally a considerable 
ethnic range, seem especially significant when broug'ht into 
juxtaposition and studied in the comparative way. Thus it 
becomes at once manifest that the diversity in domestic habits 
and every-day life is largely due to environment, that the 
mode of life of each people depends on local food supplies and 
the means of obtaining them, on climate and the means of 
resisting it, on the local fauna and flora, and on various other 
conditions residing- in physical geography ; and further 
research brings to lig-ht suggestive relations between these 
modes of life and the institutions and beliefs by which the 
respective ])eoples are characterized. 


The surveys and researches relating to the pvieblo of Sia 
were commenced by the late Col. James Stevenson in 1879 
and continued during 1887-88, his last year of field duty, until 


his work was interrupted l:)y failing health and subsequent 
death. This valued officer of the Bureau left copious notes, 
together with photographs and sketches, and a unique collec- 
tion of objective material. While voluminous and detailed, 
these notes were not reduced to a form adapted to publication. 

After Col. Stevenson's death his relict, the present author, 
undertook the digestion and arrangement of the notes for the 
press. This arduous task involved the examination of collec- 
tions and, since the notes were in some respects incomjjlete and 
the illustrative material defective, another visit to the field, with 
attendant exposure and hardship. The work was carried for- 
ward with indefatigable energy and zeal, and resulted in the 
accompanying report, which is a unique and exhaustive account 
of a decadent and rapidly changing people. Even since the 
observations were completed the inti'oduction of agricultural 
arts and the invasion of civilized influences have materially 
modified the aboriginal condition of the Sia; and this record 
must accordingly become a standard of reference concerning 
these people for all future time. 

The Sia of the present occupy a pueblo near the confluence 
of Rio Salado with Jemez river in New Mexico. In physical 
characteristics thej^ ri^emble the Indians of neighboring pueb- 
los, though distinctly separated by linguistic peculiarities. 
The present settlement is but the remnant of a once populous 
pueblo. The history of the Sia for several centuries may be 
derived in a general way from their traditions and myths, 
checked by the records of the early Spanish explorers. In 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the population was 
considerable, but the people suff'ered from intertribal warfare, 
and subsequently from the Spanish invaders. After several 
vicissitudes, the pueblo was destroyed by Cruzate, as recorded 
by Vargas, and in 1692 the Sia were brought under the influ- 
ence of mission rule. This influence is persistent, but it would 
appear that the imported belief is but a veneer thinly covering 
a primitive religion which survives to this day. 

The aboriginal belief and the cosmogony of which it forms a 
part represent the theistic concepts so characteristic of primi- 
tive peoples throughout this and other countries. Animals 


and plants, as well as inorganic objects, are endowed, in the 
minds of the believers, with supernatural powers; and some 
animal — in this case the spider — is regarded as the founder or 
progenitor of the matei'ial universe; and aboiit this nucleal 
concept the minor features of belief and ceremonial cluster. 

Several peculiar cult societies exist among the Sia. The 
ceremonial rites of these societies, which are performed for vari- 
ous purposes — such as healing the sick and bringing rain — are 
described in detail, and translations of songs and prayers used 
in connection with theurgic or sliamanistic rites are for the first 
time published. The mortuary customs are set forth fully, 
and an important part of the work relates to the rites con- 
nected with niarriage and childbirth, such information being 
obtainable only by a woman living in friendly sympathy with 
the Sia women, as Mrs. Stevenson was able to do. The fact 
that she shared the daily life and habits of the Sia people for 
long periods gave her indeed the inestimable advantage of 
fully comprehending their idiosyncracies and esoteric concepts, 
and enabled her to present details which otherwise would have 
been unobtainable. 

The full statement of belief and ceremonial among the Sia 
will undoubtedly be found of special ^iterest to students of 
primitive institutions, and even the casual reader can hardly 
fail to be impressed by the inherent e^'idence of accuracy and 
genuineness of the details now first made known, and both 
students and laymen ^\'ill undoubtedly be surprised at the 
elaborateness of religious and ceremonial detail among a people 
almost unknown and of whom only a remnant exists, their life 
rivaling in mystical features that of ancient nations as recorded 
in sacred and secular literature. 


From May, 1874, to September, 1884, Mr. Lucien M. 
Turner was engaged, with slight intermissions, under the 
direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, in 
the study of the Innuit and the tribes adjoining that people. 
He commenced with investigations in Alaska, and his later 
explorations, which were in Hudson Bay territory and which 


afforded the material for tbe present paper, oe-cupied more 
than two years. 

His chief point of observation was at Fort Chimo, in longi- 
tude 68° west of Greenwich and latitude 58° north, situated 
on the right bank of Koksoak river, from which the resi- 
dent Eskimo are called Koksoagmyut. Fort Chimo is 27 
miles by the above-mentioned river from Ungava bay, which 
gives its name to a large district, of which the eastern bound- 
ary is formed by the foothills on the western part of the 
coast range, this line being the western limit of Labrador. 

The author uses a classihcation, common in literatvire though 
not well founded, in which the Innuit are regarded as not 
Indian. While the term "Indian" is well understood to l)e 
an error as applied to any of the pre-C^olumbian inhaliitants 
of America, it is now too thoroughly estaljlished to be abol- 
ished; but recognizing the en-or, it must be used generally as 
applicable to all the tribes of the continent, and, indeed, of 
the heTiiisphere. Both the Innuit and the Aztec are as truly 
or as falsely North American Indians as are any of the tribes 
between the Arctic seas and jMexico, and the same designation 
must be applied to native Peruvians and Patagonians and all 
neighboring tribes. Disregarding this distinction, the Indians 
of the Ungava district, other than Innuit, are generally known 
as Nascopie, or Nascapee, a term of reproach imposed by the 
Montagnais, who, with them, form part of the great Algonquian 
linguistic family. The people call themselves Nenenot, a 
word of their language meaning true or ideal men. 

Mr. Turner presents exhaustive details with comparisons 
and contrasts concerning tlie K(_)ksoagmyut, who are exclu- 
sively littoral, and the Algonquian Nascopie of the interior. 
The customs of daily life, religious observances, mythology, 
arts, and folk lore of both peoples are set forth with orderly 
method, in spirited style and with abundant illustration, so 
that a vi-s-id picture of the distant hyperborean trilies is shown. 
It is also important to note that many errors made by earlier 
vs^riters, which have been repeated in ethnologic textbooks and 
have become commonlv accepted as facts, are now corrected. 
Instances of these current errors are that the Eskimo observed 


were not dwarfish Ijiit rather taller than the average Euro- 
peans, only one adult male being under five feet eight inches 
in height; that they are not dark except when sunburnt, 
bleaching to white in tlie winter ; also, that they never drink 
seal oil or whale oil, or indeed any oil uncombined with edible 
substances, except as laxative medicine, and never eat raw 
meat when they have the opportunity to cook it. In these 
respects, as in others, it is shown that they are not an abnor- 
mal part of mankind, and that their peculiarities chiefly arise 
from their environment. 


In May, 1871, the Reverend James Owen Dorsey commenced 
mission work, in the southern part of the region then called 
Dakota Territory, among the Ponka Indians. Actuated b}' 
an earnest desire to acquaint himself fully with primitive 
modes of thought and aided by a taste for linguistic study, 
he was led to acquire first the language and afterward the crude 
philosophy of these Indians. His work was continued until 
August, 1873, when it was interrupted b}- illness. In July, 
1878, he repaired to 'the Omaha Reservation in Nebraska for 
the purpose of increasing his fund of linguistic matei'ial; and 
here again his skill in linguistics and his sympathetic disposi- 
tion enabled him with signal success to span the chasm separ- 
ating primitive thought from the ideation of civilized men. 
Thus he was enabled to enter fully into the spirit of the insti- 
tutions and customs of the Indians of the plains. 

On the organization of the Bureau of Ethnology in 1879, 
Mr. Dorsey was formall}' attached to it, and has since been con- 
tinuously occupied in researches relating to the languages, 
institutions, and beliefs of the Indians of the interior, chiefly 
those of the Siouan and Athapascan stocks ; and he has become 
one of the foremost living students of our aboriginal languages, 
and, retaining in some measure his evangelical functions, he 
has been peculiarly fortunate in obtaining data relating to 
aboriginal beliefs. 

The term "cult," as used by Mr. Dorsey and most other 
students of the Indian, has come to include, not simply the 


system of beliefs, but also the coinnKjuly elaborate system of 
rites and ceremonials directly connected with and clustering 
about that belief; for, to the primitive mind, all systems of phi- 
losophy find a tangible basis in the material objects of every- 
day observation, and these objects thus come to play a more 
important role in the system than is the case in civilization; 
jirimitive religion involves a philosophy in which mystical 
meanings are ascribed to common things, and thereby the phil- 
osophic importance of the things is magnified. Thus the prim- 
itive cult is real and concrete, rather than ideal and abstract, 
and impinges not only on rules of conduct but on the multi- 
plicity of objects and experiences pertaining to daily life. This 
materialism of the primitive cult is an essential feature in the 
life of our aborigines, and is constantly to be borne in mind 
in dealing with their myths. 

The term Siouan has never been used in any form of liter- 
ation or pronunciation by the tribes to which it is now applied. 
It was adopted by reason of considerations explained in the 
Seventh Annual Report of this Bureau. The Siouan stock or 
family was one of the most extensive of the continent ; tribes 
belonging to it spread over a large area in the interior, stretch- 
ing from the Rocky mountains to the Mississippi and even to 
Lake Michigan, and nearly from the Saskatchewan to the Red 
River of the South. The Siouan peoples were, par excellence, 
the Indians of the northern plains, whose early habits and 
habitat were made knoAvn by many writers. 

The treatise presented herewith relates to the religious 
beliefs of the several divisions of the great Siouan family, and 
to the rites and ceremonies connected with these beliefs. 
These have a setting in the form of such descriptions of civic 
and other institutions, habits, customs, language, and pictog- 
raphy, designed partly to elucidate the relations of the cults 
more fully than is possible by abstract statement; and it is 
believed that the setting will be found not without use in 
shadowing forth the environment under which the cults were 

Wlfile certain of the materials were obtained from other 
authorities, as duly indicated in each case, the greater pnrt 


were obtained b}' Mr. Dorsey in person and at first hand 
from individual members of the several tribes. His thort>ugh 
linguistic skill enaljled him to take down each Indian's words 
in the original, and to translate expressions accurately without 
dependence on the untrustworthy medium of the interpreter; 
and his long experience in dealing with primitive ideas, 
together with his conscientious care and full sympathy with 
the tribesmen, have unc|uestionably enabled him to rejiroduce 
the Indian concepts and expressions with unsurpassed fidelity. 

Many important conclusions flowing from Mr. Dorsey's 
researches stand in tlie background of his essentially descrip- 
tive presentation, and remain for further elaboration in future 
publications. Some of the most interesting of these relate to 
the bases of Indian beliefs. In the primitive mind the object- 
ive and the subjective, or the physical cosmos and the psychic 
cosmos, blend; and if separated at all, the dividing line is far 
from the position assigned to it among ourselves ; the natural 
is small and meag-ei", and the mysterious, or mvstic, or super- 
natural, is large and overspreads most of the domain of 
experience and thought. Thus animals, plants, and even 
inorganic objects are supposed to possess mysterious qualities 
and powers, particularly when action or association is unusual 
or unexpected; and winds, thunder, and other manifestations 
of obscure or remote origin are doubly mysterious and some- 
times sacred. In this way the supernatural is brought ^ery 
near to the ego. As Mr. Dorsey expresses the fact, "It is 
safer to divide phenomena as they appear to the Indian mind 
into the human and superhuman, as many, if not most 
natural phenomena are uu'sterious to the Indian. Nay, even 
man himself may become mysterious by fasting, prayer, and 

The primitive character of Indian belief has long been 
recognized among students, and early in the history of the 
Bureau of Etlmology it was classed as the lowest of four 
theistic stages and designated hecastotheism. Now, hecast(.)- 
theism stands at one extreme of the course of the development 
of belief, while the deification of a sing-le omnipotent ])ower is 
perhaps the hig-hest expression of psychotheism, whicli stands 


at the other extreme of development. Accordingh' difiterent 
etlmologists ha\e perceived the incongTuity between the 
hecastotheistic concepts of the Indian and the monotheistic 
concept poj^nlarly ascribed to him tlu'ougli a curions series of 
misapprehensions ; and some, notably Col. Garrick ^Mallery, 
have denied the possibility of the existence of true mono- 
theistic beliefs among the primitive peoples of this and other 
countries. This conclusicin runs counter to the prevailing 
notion that the Indian recognizes a Great Spirit as a single 
omnipotent power, a notion crystallized in the literature of 
three centuries. The error involved in this notion with 
respect to the American Indian is not without parallel else- 
where ; indeed, similar errors have been made in the pioneer 
study of primitive peoples in nearly all parts of the world. 
Commonly the misapprehension may be traced to two causes : 
In the first place, the savage or barbarous belief, and the cere- 
monial in which the belief finds both root and fruit, are largely 
esoteric, or taboo to all but initiates, so that they are concealed 
with religious care from strangers ; and, in the second place, 
the friendly savage or barbarian, stimulated by the desire to 
conceal his most sacred things, and often aided by mimetic 
faculty, seeks to ingTatiate himself in the favor of the inquirer 
by making his answers conform to the unconsciously expressed 
feelings and desires of his interlocutor. For these, and per- 
haps other reasons, the pioneer student of primitive peoples, 
not realizing the working of the j)rimitive mind and tram- 
meled by the diversity of tongues, frequently deludes himself 
with the notion that he has discovered a primitive belief simi- 
lar to that of civilized man, when in reality he has discovered 
nothing but a reflection of the highly developed religion that 
warms his own heart and vivifies his own being; and it 
remains for later students, familiar with the language and 
perhaps admitted to the esoteric ceremonials, to set forth the 
actual character of the religious concepts held by the primi- 
tive men. 

Mr. Dorsey's conclusion with respect to the alleged belief 
in the Great Spirit is of special significance in that it is con- 
trary to his predilections and in that it extends to many tribes 


of the great vSiouau family. AVliile he is uiiwilliug to commit 
himself to a general denial of the prevailing notion, he has 
been forced to conclude that it requires considerable modifica- 
tion, at least so far as it relates to the Siouan tribes. 


Classification of expeiiclitures iiuidr from Ihc approprialion for North American ethnol- 
ogy for tlie fiscal ijeur endinij June 30, 1S90. 

Amount of appropriatiou , 1889-'9() *-tO. 000. 00 

July 1, 1889, balance from previcuis appropriations 13, 491. 22 

■' ' $53,491.22 

Services 33, 831. 17 

Traveling expenses 3, 958. 34 

Transportation of property 336. 43 

Field supplies 752. 84 

Goods for distribution to Indians 131. 36 

Instruments 5. 18 

Laboratory mateiial 51.28 

Books for library 756. 12 

Stationery aud drawing material 330. 45 

Illustrations for Report 637. 08 

Office i'urniture 392. 38 

Office supplies and repairs 206. 76 

Corresiioudence .70 

Specimens 18. 00 

Bonded railroad accounts forwarded to Treasury for settlement 50. 05 

Balance on hand to meet outstanding liabilities 12, 033. 08 

Total : 53,491.22 


11 ETII 1 






Introduction 9 

Cosmogony 26 

Cult societies 69 

Tlieurgistic rites 73 

Rain ceremonial of the Snake society 76 

Raiu ceremonial of the Giant society 91 

Four-night ceremonial of the Giant society for the healing of a sick 

boy 97 

Rain ceremonial of the Kuife society 101 

Society of the Quer'ranna 112 

Rain ceremonial of the Quer'r.-inna society 113 

Other societies 116 

Society of the cougar 118 

Society of Warriors 121 

Songs 123 

A rain song of the Shii'wi Chai'iin (Snake society) 123 

A song of the Shu'wi Chai'iin (Snake society) for healing the sick 125 

A rain song of the Sko yo Chai'iin (Giant society) 126 

A song of the Sko'yo Chai'iin (Giant society) for healing the sick 127 

A rain song of the His'tiiin Chai'iin(Knii'e society) 128 

Portion of a rain song of the His'tiiin Chai'iin (Knife society ) 129 

A raiu song of the Quer'riinna Chai'iin 130 

Prayer for sick infant 130 

Childbirth ■. 132 

Mortuary customs and beliefs 143 

Myths 146 

The Coyote encounters disappointment 147 

The Coyote and the Cougar 154 

The Coyote and the Rattlesnake 156 

The Sk;i tona 157 



Pl. I. A view of Sia, showing a portion of village in ruins 8 

II. Plaza, Sia 10 

III. Sisters ; cleverest artists in ceramics in Sia 12 

IV. Group of Sia vases 14 

V. The Oracle 16 

VI. Stone house showing plaster on exterior 22 

VII. Stampers at work 24 

VIII. Pounders completing work 26 

IX. I-iir-ri-ko, a Sia fetich 40 

X. Personal adornment when received into third degree of otticial 
membership in Cult society (A, Ko-shai-ri; B, Quer'-riiu-ua; 
C, Snake society 70 

XI. Hii'-cha-mo-ni before plume offerings are attached (.1, hii'-cha- 
mo-ni and official staft' deposited for Siis sis-tiu-na-ko; B, liii'- 
cha-mo-ni and official staif deiiosited for tlie sun; C, hii'-cha- 
mo-ni and official staff deposited for the cloud priest of the 
north; I), hii'-cha-mo-ni and official staif dei)o.sited for the 
cloud priest of the west; £, hii'-cha-mo-ni and official st.itf 

deposited for the cloud priest of the zenith) 74 

XII. Hii'-cha-mo-ni with plume ofterings attached (F, hii'-cha-mo-ni 
deposited for the Sia woman of the north and of the west; fl, 
hii'-cha-mo-ni oflered to the cloud woman of the cardinal 
points; H, gaming block oftered to the cloud people; /, hii'- 
cha-mo-ni and official staff deposited for the snake ho'-ua-ai-te 

' of the north) 76 

XIII. Hii'-cha-mo-ni with plumes attached (J, deposited for cloud of the north ; /J, deposited for Ho-chan-ni, arch ruler 
of the cloud priests of the world ; (', deposited for cloud 
woman of the north ; D, bunch of plumes offered apart from 
hii'-cha-mo-ni; E, bunch of plumes offered apart from ha'-cha- 
mo-ni) 78 

XIV. Altar and sand painting of Snake society 80 

XV. Altar of Snake society 82 

XVI. Ceremonial vase 81 

XVII. Vice ho'-na-ai-te of Snake society 86 

XVIII. Altar and sand painting of Giant society {A, altar; B, sand 

painting) 90 

XIX. Altar of Giant society photographed during ceremonial 92 

XX. Ho'-na-ai-te of Giant society 94 

XXI. Sick boy in ceremonial chamber of Giant society 96 




Pl. XXII. Altar and saml painting of Knife society 98 

XXIII. Altai- of Knife society photographed during ceremonial 100 

XXIV. Ho'-na-ai-te of Knife society 102 

XXV. Altar of Knife society, with ho'-na-ai-te and vice ho'-na-ai-te on 

either side 104 

XXVI. Shrine of Knife society 108 

XXVII. Shrine of Knife society 110 

XXVIII. Altar of Quer'-riiu-na society 112 

XXIX. Altar of Quer'-ran-na society 114 

XXX. Ho'-na-ai-te of Quer'-r;in-na society 116 

XXXI. Sia masks (A, masks of the KJi-'sfl-na; B, mask of female K^-'sfl- 

na ; C, masks of the Ka-'sil-na) 118 

XXXII. Sia masks {A, masks of the Ka-'sil-na; B, masks of female K^-'sft- 

na) 120 

XXXIII. Prayer to the rising sun 122 

XXXIV. Personal adornment when received into the third degree of offi- 

cial memhership of Cult society (A, spider ; B, cougar ; C, fire ; 
D, Knife and Giant; -E, costume when victor is received into 
society of Warriors; F, body of warrior prepared for burial, 

only the face, hands, and feet being painted) 140 

XXXV. Ceremonial water vases; Sia (A, a cross emblematic of the rain 
from the cardinal points; B, faces of the cloud men; C, faces 
of the cloud women ; D, clouds and rain ; E, vegetation ; F, 

dragonfly, symbolic of water) 146 

Fig. 1. Sia women on their way to trader's to dispose of pottery 12 

2. Sia women returning from trader's with flour and corn 13 

3. Pauper 18 

4. Breaking the earth under tent 21 

5. Women and girls bringing clay 22 

6. Women and girls bringing clay 23 

7. Depositing the clay 24 

8. Mixing the clay with the freshly broken earth 25 

9. Women sprinkling the earth 26 

10. The process of leveling 27 

11. Stampers starting to work 28 

12. Mixing clay for plaster 29 

13. Childish curiosity 30 

14. Mask of the sun, drawn by a theurgist ' 36 

15. Diagram of the White House of the North, drawn by a theurgist. 58 

16. The game of Wash kasi 60 

17. Sand painting as indicated in Plate xxv 102 

18. Sand painting used in ceremonial for sick by Ant society 103 

19. Sia doctress -. 133 

20. Mother with her infant four days old 142 

}Fi'-t'\^. i.;„..Mj ..., ■■izrer.' 

-. I • 


" ■.>. 



■>N;\H V,' ■ -P 


'h-<. • » 



By Matilda Coxb Stevenson. 


All remains of the once populous pueblo of Sia is a small group 
of houses and a mere handful of people in the midst of one of the 
most extensive rnius of the Southwest (PI. i) the living relic of an 
almost extinct people and a pathetic tale of the ravages of warfare 
and pestilence. This picture is even more touching than the infant's 
cradle or the tiny sandal found buried in the cliff in the canyon walls. 
The Sia of today is in much the same condition as that of the ancient 
cave and cliff dweller as we restore their villages in imagination. 

The cosmogony and myths of the Sia point to the present site as 
their home before resorting to the mesa, which was not, however, their 
first mesa home; their legends refer to numerous villages on mountain 
tops in their journeying from the north to the center of the earth. 

The population of this village was originally very large, but from its 
situation it became a target during intertribal feuds. A time came, 
however, when intertribal strife ceased, and the pueblo tribes united 
their strength to oppose a common foe, an adversary who struck ter- 
ror to the heart of the Indian, inasmuch as he not only took possession 
of their villages and homes, but was bent upon uprooting the ancestral 
religion to plant in its stead the Roman Catholic faith. To avoid this 
result the Sia fled to the mesa and built a village, but the foe was not 
to be thus easily baffled and the mesa village was brought under sub- 
jection. That these people again struggled for their freedom is evident 
from the report of Vargas of his visit there in 1692 : 

The jiueblo had beeu destroyed a few years before by Cruzate, but it had not been 
rebuilt. The troops entered it the next morning. It was situated upon the mesa of 
Cerro Colorado, and the only approach to it was up the side of the plateau l>y a steep 
and rocky road. The only thing of value found there was the bell of the convent, 
which was ordered to be buried. The Indians had built a new village near the ruins 
of the old one. When they saw the Spaniards approach they came forth to meet and 
bid them welcome, carrying crosses in their hands, and the chiefs marcliing at their 
heads. In this manner they escorted Vargas and his troops to the plaza, where arches 

'The .author mentions f^r.itefiilly the sh.ire of this work performed by her late hnsb.ind, Mr. James 
Stevenson, whose notes taken dnrin*; his hast year's work in the tiehl have been freely used by lier 
and whose life interest in the North ^imerican Indians has beeu her inspiration. 


10 THE SIA. 

iind crosses were erected, and good quarters provided them. He caused tbe inhab- 
itants to bo assembled, when he explained to them the objectof his visit and the man- 
ner in which he intended to punish all the rebellious Indians. This concluded, the 
usual ceremonies of taking possession, baptism and absolution, took place.' 

And tbe Sia were again under Spanish thraldom ; but though they 
made this outward show of submitting to the new faith, neither then 
nor since have they wavered in their devotion to their aboriginal re- 

The ruins upon the mesa, showing well-defined walls of rectangular 
stojie structures northwest of the present village, are of considerable 
magnitude, covering many acres. (PI. ii.) The Indians, however, 
declare this to have been the great farming districts of P6-shai-yan-ne 
(quasi messiah), each field being divided from the others by a stone 
wall, and that their village was on the mesa eastward of the present one. 

The distance from the water and the field induced the Sia to return 
to their old home, but wars, pestilence, and oppression seem to have 
been their heritage. When not contending witli the marauding nomad 
and Mexican, they were suftering the effects of disease, and between 
murder and epidemic these people have been reduced to small numbers. 
The Sia declare that this condition of affairs continued, to a greater or 
less degree, with but short periods of respite, until the murders were 
arrested by the intervention of our Government. For this they are 
profoundly grateful, and they are willing to attest their gratitude in 
every possible way. 

The Sia today number, according to the census taken in 1890, 106, 
and though they no longer suffer at the murderous hand of an enemy, 
they have to contend against such diseases as smallpox and diphtheria, 
and it will require but a few more scourges to obliterate this remnant 
of a people. They are still harassed on all sides by depredators, much 
as they were of old; and long-continued struggle has not only resulted 
in the depletion of their numbers, but also in mental deterioration. 

The Sia resemble the other pueblo Indians; indeed, so strikingly 
alike are they in physical structure, complexion, and customs that they 
miglit be considered one and the same people, had it not been discovered 
through philological investigation that the languages of the pueblo 
Indians have been evolved from four distinct stocks. 

Sia is situated upon an elevation at the base of which flows the 
Jemez river. The Kio Salado empties into the Jeniez some 4 miles 
above Sia and so impregnates the waters of tlie Jemez with salt that 
while it is at all times most unpalatable, in the summer season when 
the river is drained above, the water becomes undriukable, and yet it 
is this or nothing with the Sia. 

For neighbors they have the people of the pueblo of Santa Ana, 6 
miles to the southeast, who speak the same language, with but slight 
variation, and the pueblo of Jemez, 7 miles north, whose language, 
according to Powell's classification, is of Huotber stock, the Taiioan. 

' Davi.i. Spanish Conquest of New Mexico, 1869, pp. 351, 352. 


• V 

' ,v ' 





The Mexican town of San Tsidro is 5i miles above Sia, and there are 
several Mexican settlements north of Jemez. The Mexican town of 
Bernalillo is on the east bank of the Eio Grande, 17i miles eastward. 

Though Protestant missionaries have been stationed at the pueblo of 
Jemez since 1878, no attempt has been made to bring the Sia withiu 
the pale of Protestantism. The Catholic mission priest who resides at 
Jemez makes periodical visits to the Sia, when services are held, mar- 
riages performed, infants baptized, and prayers offered for the dead. 

The missions at Cia and Jemez -svere founded previous to 1617 and after 1605. 
They existed without interruption until about 1622, when the Navajos compelled the 
abandonment of the two churches at San Diego and San Joseph of Jemez. About 
four years later, through the exertious of Fray Martin do Arvide, these missions 
were reoccupied, and remained in uninterrupted operation until August 10, 1680. 
The mission at Cia, as far as I know, suft'ered no great calamity until tliat date. 
After the uprising of 1680 the Cia mission remained vacant until 1694. Thence on it 
has been always maintained, slight temporary vacancies excepted, up to this day. 
The mission of San Diego de Jemez was occupied in 1694 by Fray Francisco de Jesus, 
whom the Indians murdered on the 4th of June of 1696. In consequence of the up- 
rising on that day, the Jemez abandoned their country, and returned, settling on the 
present site of their puelilo only in 1700. The first resident priest at Jemez became 
Fray Diego Chabarria, in 1701. Since that date I find no further interruption in the 
list of missionaries.' 

The Sia are regarded with contempt by the Santa Ana and the Jemez 
Indians, who never omit an opportunity to give expression to their 
scorn, feeling assured that this handful of people must submit to insult 
without hope of redress. Limited intertribal relations exist, and these 
principally for the purpose of trafiic. 

Though the Sia have considerable irrigable lands, they have but a 
meager supply of water, this being due to the fact that after the Mex- 
ican towns above them and the pueblo of Jemez have drawn upon the 
waters of the Jemez river, little is left for the Sia, and in order to have 
any success with their crops they must curtail the area to be culti- 
vated. Thus they never raise grain enough to supply their needs, 
even with the practice of the strictest economy according to Indian 
understanding, and therefore depend upon their more successful neigh- 
bors who labor under no such difiBculties. The Jemez people have 
no lack of water supply, and the Santa Ana have their farming districts 
on the banks of the Kio Grande. Is it strange, then, that two pueblos 
are found progressing, however slowly, toward a European civilization, 
while the Sia, though slightly influenced by the Mexicans, have, through 
their environment, been led not only to cling to autochthonic culture 
but to lower their plane of social and mental condition ? 

The Sia women labor industriously at the ceramic art as soon as 
their grain supply becomes reduced, and the men carry the wares to 
their unfriendly neighbors for trade in exchange for wheat and corn. 
While the Santa Ana and Jemez make a little pottery, it is very coarse 
in texture and in form ; in fact, they can not be classed as pottery- 
making Indians. (PI. ili.) 

'The writer is indebted to Mr. A. F. Baurtelier for the information regarding the Catholic missions. 



As long as the Sia cau induce the traders through the country to 
take their pottery they refrain from barter with their Indian neigh- 
bors. (PI. IV.) The women usually dispose of the articles to the 
traders (Figs. 1 and 2), but they never venture on expeditions to the 
Santa Ana and the Jemez. 

Each year a period comes, just before the harvest time, when no 
more pottery is required by tlieir Indian neighbors, and the Sia must 
deal out their food in sucli limited portions that the elders go hungry 
in order to satisfy the cliildreii. When starvation threatens there is 
no thought for the children of the clan, but the head of each household 


YlQ. 1.— Sia womeu on their way to tlie trader's to dispose of pottery. 

looks to the wants of its own, and there is apjjarent iudift'erence to the 
svxtterings of neighbors. When questioned, they reply: "We feel sad 
for our brothers and our sisters, but we have not enough for our own." 
Thus, when driven to extremes, nature asserts itself in the nearest ties 
of consanguinity and the "clan" becomes secondary. At these times 
there are no expressions of dissatisfaction and no attempt on the part 
of the stronger to take advantage of the weaker. The expression of 
the men changes to a stoical resignation, and the women's faces grow 
a shade paler with the thought that in order to tiourish their babes 
they themselves must be nourished. And yet, such is their code of 
hospitality that fooil is always offered to guests as long as a morsel 







So like cliildreii are these same stoical and patient people that the 
tears of sorrow are quickly disjielled by the sunshine of success. Wlien 
their crops are gathered they hold their saints' day feast, when the 
Indians from near and far (even a few of the unfriendly Indians lend- 
ing their unwelcome presence) surfeit at their board. These public 
dances and feasts of thanksgiving in hoiKir of their patron saint, upon 
the gathering of theii crops, which occur iu all the Eio Grande 
pueblos, present a queer mixture of pagan and Christiau religion. The 
priest owes his success iu maintaining a certain influence with these 
people since the accessiou of New Mexico to the United States, by uou- 

FiG. 2. — Sia women returning from trader's with flour and corn in exchangp for pottery. 

interfeience with the introduction of their forms and dances into the 
worship taught by the church. Hence the Rio Grande Indians are 
professedly Catholics; but the fact that these Indians and the Mission 
Indians of California have preserved their religions, admitting them to. 
have been more or less influenced by Catholicism, and hold their cere 
monials in secret, practicing their occult powers to the present time, 
under the very eye of the church, is evidence not only of the tenacity 
with which they cling to their ancient customs, but of their cunning in 
maintaining perfect seclusion. 

When ]\Iaj, Powell visited Tusayan, in 1870, he was received with 
marked kindness by the Indians and permitted to attend the secret 

14 THE SIA. 

ceremonials of their cult. The writer is of the opinion that he was the 
first and only white man granted this privilege by any of the pueblo 
Indians previous to the expedition to Zuui, in 1879, by Mr. Stevenson, 
(jf tlie Bureau of Ethnology. 

The writer accompanied Mr. Stevenson on this occasion and during 
his succeeding investigations among the Zuili, Tusayan, and the Rio 
Grrande Pueblos. And whenever tlie stay was long enough to become 
acquainted with the people the confidence of the priestly rulers and 
theurgists was gained, and after this conciliation all efforts to be pres- 
ent at the most secret and sacred performances observed and practiced 
by these Indians were successful. Their sociology and religion are so 
intricately woven together that the study of the one can not be pursued 
without the other, the ritual beginning at birth and closing with 

While the religion of the Rio Grande Indians bears evidence of con- 
tact with Catholicism, they are in fact as non-Catholic as before the 
Spanish conquest. Their environment by the European civilization of 
the southwest is, however, slowly but surely eftecting a change in the 
observances of their cabalistic practices. For examiile, the pueblo of 
Laguna was so disturbed by the Atlantic and Pacific railroad passing 
by its village that first one and then another of its families lingered at 
theranch houses, reluctant to return to their communal home, where they 
must come in contact with the hateful innovations of their land; and so 
additions were made to render the summer house more comfortable for 
the winter, and after a time a more substantial structure supplanted the 
temporary abode, and the communal dwelling was rarely visited except 
to comply with the religious observances. Some of these homes were 
quite remote from the village, and the men having gradually increased 
their stock of cattle found constant vigilance necessary to protect them 
from destruction by the railroad and the hands of the cowboy; and so 
first one and then another of the younger men ventured to be absent 
from a ceremonial in order to look up some stray head of cattle, until 
the aged men cried out in horror that their children were forgetting 
the religion of their forefathers. 

The writer knew of but one like delinquent among the Zurii when she 
was there in 1886. A son of one of the most bigoted priests in the vil- 
lage had become so eager to possess an American wagon, and his atten- 
tion was so absorbed in looking after his cattle with a view to the accu- 
mulation of means whereby to purchase a wagon, that he dared to 
absent himself from a most important and sacred ceremonial, notwith- 
standing the current belief that for such impiety the offender must die 
within four days. The father denounced him in the strongest terms, 
declaring he was no longer his son. And the man told the writer, on 
his return to the village, " that he was afraid because he staid away, 
and he guessed he would die within four days, but some of his cattle 
had strayed off and he feared the cowboy." The fourth day passed 











and the man still lived, and the scales drojiped from his eyes. From 
that time liis religions duties were neglected in his eagerness for the 
accumulation of wealth. 

Thus the railroad, the merchant, and the cowboy, without this pur- 
pose in view, are effecting a change which is slowly closing, leaf by 
leaf, the record of the religious beliefs and practices of the pueblo 
Indian. With the Sia this record book is being more rapidly closed, 
but from a different cause. It is not due to the Christianizing of these 
Indians, for they have nothing of Protestantism among them, and 
though professedly Catholic, they await only the departure of the priest 
to return to their secret ceremonials. The Catholic priest baptizes the 
infant, but the child has previously received the baptismal rite of its 
ancestors. The Catholic priest marries the betrothed, but they have 
been previously united according to their ancestral rites. The Eomish 
priest holds mass that the dead may enter heaven, but prayers have 
already been offered that the soul may be received by Sns-sis-tiu-nako 
(their creator) into the lower world whence it came. As an entirety 
these people are devotees to their religion and its observances, and yet 
with but few exceptions, they go through their rituals, having but 
vague understanding of their origin or meaning. Each shadow on the 
dial brings nearer to a close the lives of those upon whose -minds are 
graven the traditions, mythology, and folklore as indelibly as are the 
pictographs and monochromes upon the rocky walls. 

An aged theurgist whose lore was unquestioned, in fact he was re- 
garded as their oracle (PI. v), passed away during the summer of 1.S90. 
Great were the lamentations that the keeper of their traditions slept, 
and with him slept much that they would never hear again. There are, 
now, but five men from whom any connected account of their cosmogony 
and mythology may be gleaned, and they are no longer young. Two of 
these men are not natives of Sia, but were adopted into the tribe when 
young children. One is a Tu^ayan; the other a San Felipe Indian. 
The former is the present governor, amiable, brave, and determined, 
and while deploring that his people have no understanding of American 
civilization, he stands second only to the oracle in his knowledge of 
lore of the Sia. The San Felipe Indian is a like character, and if Sia 
possessed a few more such men there might yet be a futm-e for that 

While the mythology and cult practices differ in each pueblo there 
is still a striking analogy between them, the Zuhi and Tusayan furnish- 
ing the richer held for the ethnographer, their religion and sociology 
being virtually free from Catholic influence. 

The Indian official is possessed of a character so penetrating, so dip- 
lomatic, cunning, and reticent that it is only through the most friendly 
relations and by a protracted stay that anything can be learned of the 
myths, legends, and rites with which the lives of these iieople are so 
thoroughly imbued and which they so zealously guard. 

16 THE SIA. 

The theurgists of the several cult societies, upon learning that the 
object of the writer's second visit to Sia was similar to that of the pre- 
vious one, graciously received her in their ceremonials, reveahug the 
secrets more precious to them than life itself. When unable to give 
such information as she sought they would bring forth their oracle (the 
aged theurgist) whose old wrinkled face brightened with intelligent 
interest as he related without hesitancy that which was requested. 

The form of government of all the pueblos is much the same, they 
being civil organizations divided into several departments, with an 
official head for each department. 

With the Sia (and likewise with the other pueblos) the ti'amoni, by 
virtue of his priestly office, is ex officio chief executive and legislator; 
the war priest (he and his vicar being the earthly representatives of the 
twin war heroes) having immediate control and direction of the militiiry 
and of tribal hunts. Secret cult societies concerning the Indians' rela- 
tions to anthropomorphic and zoomorphic beings are controlled each by 
a particular theurgist. The war chief, the local governor, and the mag- 
istrate as well as the ti'amoni and theurgists have each a vicar who 
assists in the official and religious duties. 

While the Zuiii priesthood for rain consists of a phirality of priests 
and a priestess, the priest of the north being the arch ruler, the Sia 
have but one such priest. With the Zuiii the archruler holds his office 
through maternal inheritance; with the Sia it is a life appointment. 
The ti'iimoui of Sia is chosen alternately from three clans — corn, 
coyote, and a species of cane. Though the first priest was selected 
by the mother Crt'set, who directed that the office shoidd always be 
filled by a member of the corn clan, he in time caused dissatisfaction 
by his action towards infants (see cosmogony), and upon his death the 
people concluded to choose a ti'amoni from thecoyote clan, but he proved 
not to have a good heart, for the cloud people refused to send rain and 
the earth became dry. The third one was appointed from the cane clan, 
but he, too, causing criticism, the Sia determined they would be obedient 
to the command of their mother trt'sPt, and returned to the corn clan in 
selecting their fourth ti'amoni, but his reign brought disappointment. 
The next ruler was chosen from the coyote clan, and proved more satis- 
factory ; but the people, deciding it was best not to confine the selection 
of their ti'amoni to the one clan, appointed the sixth from the cane 
clan, and since that time this office has been filled alternately from 
the corn, coyote, and cane clans until the latter became extinct. Tlie 
present ti'iiraoni's clan is the coyote, and that of his vicar, the corn. 
Their future appointments will necessarily come from these two clans, 
as practically they are reduced to these. 

The ti'amoni and vicar are appointed by the two war priests, the 
vicar succeeding to the office of ti'amoni. 

The present ti'amoni entered his office without having filled the subor- 
dinate place, his predecessor, a very aged man, and the vicar, like- 






wise old, liiivlng died about tlic saiue time. When tlie selection of a 
younger brother or vicar ha.s been made, the vicar to the war priest 
calls upon the incoming ruler, who accompanies him to the house of 
the appointee to All the office of vicar to the ti'iimoni. The younger 
war priest, followed by the ti'iimoni elect, who precedes the vicar, goes 
to the ancestral official chamber of the ti'amoni, where the elder war 
priest, the theurgists of the several cult societies, with their vicars, 
have assembled to be present at the instalhitiou of the ti'iimoui. The 
war priest arises to meet the party, and, with the ti'amoni immediately 
before him he says: " This man is now our priest; he is uow our father 
and our mother for all time; " and then addressing the ti'amoni he con- 
tinues: "You are uo more to work iu the fields or to bring wood, the 
theurgists of the cult and all your other children will labor for you, our 
ti'amoni, for all years to come; you are not to work, but to be to us as 
our father and our mother." " Good ! good ! " is repeated by the theur- 
gists. The war i>riest then presents the ti'amoni with the ensign of his 
office — a slender staff, crooked at the end and supposed to be the same 
which was presented to the first ruler by the mother Ut'set — the crook 
beiug symbolic of longevity. -Upon receiving the crook the ti'amoni 
draws the sacred breath from it and the war priest embraces him and 
sprinkles the cane with meal with a prayer that the thoughts and heart 
of CT'tset may be conveyed from the staft' to the newly-chosen ruler 
( Ct'set upon presenting this cane to the first ti'amoni of this world, gave 
with it all her thoughts and her heart), and now he, too, draws from the 
cane the sacred breath. The theurgists rise in a body, each one embrac- 
ing the ti'amoni and sprinkling meal upon the staff', at the same time 
drawing from it the sacred breath. The civil authorities next, and 
then the populace, including the women and children, repeat the em- 
bracing, the sprinkling of meal, and the drawing of the sacred breath. 

The following day all the members of the pueblo, including the 
children, collect wood for the ti'amoni, depositing it by the side of his 

The Sia are much chagrined that their present ti'iimoni (who is a 
young man) i^articipates in the hunts, works in the fields, and is ever 
ready to join iu a pleasure ride over the hills. This is not the tribal 
custom ; the ti'iimoni may have a supervision over his herds and fields, 
but his mind is supposed to be absorbed with religion and the interests 
of his people, and he never leaves his village for a distance, excepting 
to make pilgrimages to the shrines or other of their Meccas. This young 
ruler is a vain fellow, having but little concern for the welfare of his 
people, but he is most punctilious in his claim to the honors due him. 

The theurgists hold office for life, each vicar succeeding to the func- 
tion of his theurgist, who in turn appoints, with the approbation of the 
ti'iimoni, the member whom he thinks best fitted to fill the position of 

For the selection of the civil and subordinate military officers the 
11 ETH 2 



ti'iimoiii meets witli his vicar, and the war priest and vicar in tlie offi- 
cial cliaml)L'r of the ti'iimoiii, in tlie month of December, to discuss the 
several appointnieuts to be made; that of war chief and liis assistant, 
tlie governor and lieutenaut-goveruor, the magistrate and his deputy. 
After the names have been decided upon the theiirgists of the secret 
cult societies are notified and they join the ti'iimoni and his associates, 
when they are informed of the decision and their concurrence requested. 

i'lu. 3 Puiii)6r. 

This is always li-iveii. the coiisnltatioii with the theurgists being but a 
matter of courtesy. The populace then assemble, when announcement 
is made of the names of the new appointees. These ai)pointments are 
annual; the same party, however, may serve any number of terms. 

The war chief ]ierforms minor duties which would otherwise fall to 
the war priest. It is the duty of the war chief to patrol the town 
during the meetings of the cult societies and to surround the village 



with mounted guardsmen at the time of a dance of tlie Ka'-'su iia. A 
Mexican, especially, must not look upon one of these anthropomorphic 
beings. The war chief also directs the hunt under the instruction of 
the war priest aud vicar. It is not obligatory that he participate in 
the hunt; his vicar, as his representative or other self, may lead the 
liuutsmeii. The governor sees that the civil laws are executed, he 
looking after the more important matters, leaving the minor cases in 
the hands of the magistrate. He designates the duties of his people 
for the coming day by crying his commands in the plaza at sunset. 

Wizards and witches are tried aud punished by the war priest; and 
it has been but a few years since a man and his wife suffered death for 
practicing this diabolical craft. Their child, a boy of some twelve years, 
Fig. 3, is a pauper who at times begs from door to door, and at other 
times he is taken into some family and made use of until they grow tired 
of dispensing their charity. The observations of the writer led her to 
believe that the boy earned all that he received. Socially, held in con 
tempt by his elders, he seems a favorite with the children, though this 
unfortunate is seldom allowed the joy of childish sport. He is, how- 
ever, a member of one of the most important cult societies (the knife) 
belonging to its several divisions. 

The clans (ha-notc) now existing among these people are the 

Yii-ka Corn 

Shurts-un-na Coyote 

Ta-fie Squash 

Ha-mi Tobacco 

Ko-hai Bear 

Ti-ii'-mi Eagle 

There is but one member of the eagle, one of the bear, and one of the 
squash clan, and these men are advanced in years. There is a second 
member of the squash clan, but he is a Tusayan by birth. The only 
clans that are numerically well represented are the corn and coyote. 
There is but one family of the tobacco clan. 

The following are extinct clans: 

Sbi-kf- Star 

'fa-wac Moon 

O'-sharts Sun 

Tii'ne Deer 

Kurtz Antelope 

Mo'-kaitc Cougar 

Hen'-na-ti Cloud 

Shu'ta Crane 

Ha'-pan-fii Oak 

Ha'-kan-fii Fire 

Sha'-wi-ti Parrot 

Wa'pon White shell bead 

t'Zi-i Ant 

Yaun-fii Granite 

Wash-pa Cactus 

The writer could not learn that there had ever been more than twenty- 
one clans, and although the table shows six at the present time, it may 
be seen from the statement that there are virtually but two. 

Marrying into the clan of either parent is in opposition to the old 
law; but at present there is nothing for the Sia to do but to break 
these laws, if they would preserve the remnant of their people, and 
while such marriages are looked upon with disfavor, it is "the inevit- 
able." The young men are watched with a jealous eye by their elders 
that they do not seek brides among other tribes, and though the beauty 

20 THE SIA. 

of the Sia maidens is recognized by the other pueblo people, they are 
rarely sought in mariiage, for, according to the tribal custom, the hus- 
band makes his home with the wife; and there is little to attract the 
more progi'cssive Indian of the other pueblos to Sia, where the eager- 
ness to perpetuate a depleted race causes the Sia to rejoice over every 
birth, especially if it be a female child, regardless whether the child be 
legitimate or otlierwise. 

When a girl reaches puberty she informs her mother, wlio invites the 
female members of her clan to her house, where an informal feast is 
enjoyed. The guests congratulate the girl upon having arrived at the 
state of womanhood, and they say to her, " As yet you are like a child, 
but you will soon be united with a companion and you will help to in- 
crease your people." The only male present is the girl's father. The 
news, however, soon spreads through the village, and it is not long be- 
fore offers are made to the mother for the privilege of sexual relations 
with the girl. The first offers are generally refused, the mother hold- 
ing her virgin daughter for the highest bidder. These are not neces- 
sarily offers of marriage, but are more commonly otherwise, and are 
frequently made by married men. 

Though the Sia are monogamists, it is common for the married, as 
well as the unmarried, to live promiscuously with one another; the hus- 
band being as fond of his wife's children as if he were sure of the pa- 
ternal parentage. That these people, however, have their share of 
latent jealously is evident from the secrecy observed on the i^art of a 
married man or woman to j)revent the anger of the spouse. Parents 
are quite as fond of their daughters' illegitimate offspiing, and as 
proud of them as if they had been born in wedlock; and the man who 
marries a woman having one or more illegitimate children apparently 
feels the same attachment for these children as for those his wife bears 

Some of the women recount their relations of this character with as 
much pride as a civilized belle would her honest offers of marriage. One 
ot the most attractive women in Sia, though now a grandmother, once 
said to the writer: 

When I was young I was jiretty and attractive, and when I reached womanhood 
many offers were made to my mother for me [she did not refer to marriage, how- 
ever], but mj' mother knowing my attractions refused several, and the first man I 
lived with was the richest mau in the pueblo. I only lived with three men before I 
married, one being the present governor of the village; my eldest child is his daugh- 
ter, and he thinks a great deal of her. He often makes her presents, and she always 
addresses him as father when his wife is not by. His wife, whom he married some- 
time after I ceased my relations with him, does not know that her husband once 
lived with me. 

This woman added as an evidence of her great devotion to her hus- 
band, that since her marriage she had not lived with any other mau. 

These loose marriage customs doubtless arise from the fact that the 
Sia are now numerically few and their increase is desired, and that, as 




many of the clans are now extinct, it is impossible to intermarry in 
obedience to ancient rule. 

The Sia are no exception to all the North American aborigines with 
whom the writer is acquainted, the man being the active party in mat- 
rimonial aspirations. If a woman has not before beeu married, and is 
young, the man speaks to her parents before breathing a word of his 
admiration to the girl. If his desire meets with approbation, the follow- 
ing day he makes known to the girl his wish for her. The girl usually' 
answers in the affirmative if it be the will of her parents. Some two 
months are consumed in the preparations for the wedding. Moccasins, 
blankets, a dress, a belt, and other parts of the wardrobe are prepared 
by the groom and the clans of his paternal and maternal parents. The 
clans of the father and mother of the girl make great preparations for 

Flo. 4.— Creaking the e.arth under tent. 

the feast, which occurs after the marriage. The groom goes alone to 
the house of the girl, his ])arents having preceded him, and carries his 
gifts wrapped in a blanket. The girl's mother sits to her right, and to 
the right of this parent the groom's mother sits; there is space for the 
groom on the left of the girl, and beyond, the groom's father sits, and 
next to him the girl's father. When the groom enters the room the 
girl advances to meet him and receives the bundle; her mother then 
comes forward and taking it deposits it in some part of the same room, 
when the girl returns to her seat and the groom sits beside her. The 
girl's father is the first to speak, and says to the couple, "You must 
now be as one, your hearts must be as one heart, you must speak no 
bad words, and one must live for the other ; and remember, your two 
hearts must now be as one heart." The groom's father then repeats 



about the same, then the girl's mother, ami the mother of the groom 
speak in turn. After the marriage, which is strictly private, all the 
invited guests assemble and enjoy a feast, the elaborateness of the 
feast depending upon the wealth and prominence of the family. 

Tribal custom requires the groom to make his home with his wife's 
family, the couple sleeping in the general living room with the re- 
mainder of the family; but with the more progressive pueblos, and with 
the Sia to a limited extent, the husband, if he be able, after a time pro- 
vides a house for his family. 

The Sia wear the conventional dress of the Pueblos in general. The 
womeu have their hair banged across the eyebrows, and the side locks 




Fig. 5. — Women and girls bringing clay. 

cut even midway the cheek. The back of the hair is left long and done 
up in a cue, though some of the younger women, at the present time, 
have adopted the Mexican way of dividing their hair down the back 
and crossing it in a loop at the neck and wrapping it with yarn. The 
men cut their hair the same way across the eyebrows, their side locks 
being brought to the center of the chin and cut, and the back hair done 
up similar to the manner of the women. 

The children are industrious and patient little creatures, the boys 
assisting their elders in farming and pastoral pursuits, and the girls 
performing their share of domestic duties. A marked trait is their lov- 
ing-kindness and care for younger brothers and sisters. Every little 




gill has her own water vase as soou as she is ohl enough to accompany 
her aiother to the river in the capacity of assistant water-carrier, and 
thus they begin at a very early age to poise the vase, Egyptian fashion, 
on their heads. 

There is no employment in pueblo life that the women and children 
seem so thoroughly to enjoy as the processes of house building. (Fig. 
5.) It is the woman's prerogative to do most of this work. (Fig. 0.) 
Men make the adobe bricks when these are to be used. In 8ia the houses 
are adobe and small bowlders which are gathered from the ruins among 
which they live. It is only occasionally that a new house is constructed. 
The oldei' ones are remodeled, and these are always smoothly plastered 




Fill fi — WntiicTi :iiiil ;:llls iiiin^'iiit: 'liiy 

on the extei'ior and interior, so that there is no evidence of a stone wall. 
(PI. VI.) The men do all carpenter work, and the Sia are remarkably 
clever in this branch of mechanism, considering their crude implements 
and entire absence of foreign instruction. They also lay the heavy 
beams, and they sometimes assist in other work of the building. When 
it became known that the writer wished to have the earth hardened 
under and in front of her tents the entire female population appeared 
at the camp ready for work, and for a couple of days the winds 
wafted over the plain the merry chatter and laughter of young and old. 
The process of laying the tent floors was the same as the Sia observe 
in making floors in their houses. A hoe is employed to break the 



earth to about eight inches in depth and to loosen all rocks that may 
be found (Fig. 4). The rocks are then removed and the foreign earth, 
a kind of clay, is brought by the girls on their backs in blankets or tue 
square pieces of calico whicli hang from their shoulders (Figs. 5 and G) 
and deposited over the ground which has been worked (Fig. 7). The 
hoe is again employed to combine the clay with the freshly broken 
earth (Fig. 8); this done, the space is brushed over with brush brooms 
and sprinkled (Fig. 9) until the earth is thoroughly saturated for sev- 
eral inches deep. Great care is observed in leveling the floor (Fig. 10), 
and extra quantities of clay must be added here and there. Then 
begins the stamping process (Fig. 11). When the floor is as smooth 

Fig. 7 — Dopoqitinji tho rlay. 

as it can be made by stamping (PI. vii), the pounders go to work, each 
one with a stone flat on one side and smooth as a polishing stone. 
(PI. VIII.) Many such specimens have been obtained from the ruins in 
the southwest. When this work is completed the floor is allowed to 
partially dry, when plaster made of the .same clay (Fig. 12), which has 
been long and carefully worked, is spread over the floor with tlie hand, 
and when done the whole looks as smooth as a cement floor, but it is 
not so durable, such floors requiring frequent renovation. The floor 
may be improved, however, by a coating of beef's or goat's blood, and 
this process is usually adopted in the houses (Fig. 13), little ones watch- 
ing their elders at work inside the tent. 



Two men only are possessors of herds of sheep, but a few cattle are 
owned individually by many of the Sia. 

The cattle are not herded collectively, but by each individual owner. 
Sometimes the boys of different families go together to herd their 
stock, but it receives no attention whatever from the officials of the 
village so long as it is unmolested by strangers. 

The Sia own about 150 horses, but seldom or never use them as beasts 
of burden. They are kept in i)asture during the week, and every Sat- 
urday the war chief designates the six houses which are to fuinish 
herders for the round-up. Should the head of the house have a 
son sufficiently large the sou may be sent in his place. Only such 

ll.,. 8.— ili>.iHK 111,' il.i> uiUi 111. llL.-,lil.v Ijrukia c.utli. 

houses are selected as own horses. The herdsmen start out Saturday 
morning; their return depends upon their success in rounding up the 
animals, but tliey usually get back Sunday morning. 

Upon discovering the approach of the herdsmen and many of 
the women and children, too impatient to await the gathering of them 
in the corral, hasten to the valley to join the cavalcade, and upon reach- 
ing the party they at once scramble for the wood rats (Neotoma) which 
hang from the necks of the horses and colts. The men of the village 
are also much excited, but they may not participate in the frolic. From 
the time the herders leave tlie village until their return they are on the 
lookout for the Neotoma, whicii must be very abundant judging from 



the number gathered on these trips. The rats are suspended by a yucca 
ribbon tied around the necks of the animals. The excitement increases 
as the horses ascend tlie hill; and after entering the corral it reaches the 
highest point, and tlie women and children runabout among the horses, 
entirely devoid of any fear of the excited animals, in tlieir efforts to 
snatch the lats from their necks. Many are the narrow escapes, but 
one is seldom hurt. The women throw the lariat, some of them being 
quite expert, and drawing the horses near them, jiull the rats from 
their necks. Numbers fail, but there are always the favored few who 
leave the corral in triumph with as many rats as their two hands can 
carry. The rats are skinned and cooked in grease and eaten as a great 


The Sia have an elaborate cosmogony, highly colored with the heroic 
deeds of mythical beings. That which the writer here presents is sim- 
ply the nucleus of their belief from which spring stories in infinite 
numbers, in which every phenomenon of nature known to these people 
is accounted for. Whole chapters could be devoted to the experiences 
of each mythical being mentioned in the cosmogony. 

Ill the beginning there was but one being in the lower world, Sfls'sis- 
tinnako, a spider. At that time there were no other animals, birds, 




reptiles, or any livinjv creature but the spider. He drew a line of meal 
from north to south and crossed it midway from east to west; and he 
placed two little parcels north of the cross Hue, one on either side of 
the line running- noi'th and south. These parcels were very valuable 
and i^recious, but the peojjle do not know to tliis day of what they con- 
sisted; no one ever knew but tlie creator, Sus'sistinnako. After plac- 
ing the i)arcels in position, Sus'sistinnako sat down on the west side 
of the line running north and south, and south of the cross line, and 
began to sing, and iu a little while the two i)arcels accompanied him in 
the song by shaking, like rattles. The music was low and sweet, and 
after awhile two women appeared, one evolved from each parcel; and 

Fig. 10.— The procewa ui K a' liuu. 

in a short time people began walking about; then animals, birds, and 
all animate objects appeared, and Sus'sistinnako continued to sing 
until his creation was complete, when he was very happy and con- 
tented. There weie many people and they kept close together, and 
did not pass about much, for fear of stepping upon one another; there 
was no light and they could not see. The two women first created were 
the mothers of all ; the one created on the east side of the line of meal, 
Sus'sistinnako named tjt'set, and she was the mother of all Indians; 
he called the other Now'utset, she being the mother of other nations. 
Sus'sTstiiinako divided the people into clans, saying to certain of the 
people: "You are of the corn clan, and you are the first of all;" and 



to others he said: "Yon beloufi' to the coyote, tlie beai', the eagle 
people," and so on. 

After Sus'sistinnako had nearly perfected his creation for Ha'arts 
(the earth), he thought it would he well to have rain to water the 
earth, and so he created the cloud, lightning, thunder, and rainbow 
peoples to work for the peojile of lia'arts. This second creation was 
separated into six divisions, one of which was sent to each of the car- 
dinal points and to tlie zenith and nadir, each division making its 
home in a spring in the heart of a great mountain, upon whose summit 
was a giant tree. The Sha'-ka-ka (spruce) was on the mountain of the 
north; the Shwi'-ti-ra-wa-na (pine) on the mountain of the west; the 

Flo. 11.— Stampers starting to work. 

Mai'-chi-na (oak)— Qwerci/s w»tdMJate,varietyGambelii— on the mountain 
of the south; the Shwi'-si-niha'-na-we (aspen) on the mountain of the 
east; the Marsh'-ti-tii-mo (cedar) on the mountain of the zenith, and 
the Mor'-ri-tii-mo (oak), variety pungens, on the mountain of the nadir. 
While each division had its home in a spring, Sus'sistinnako gave to 
these people Ti'-ni-a, the middle plain of the world (the world was 
divided into three parts: Ha'arts, the earth; Ti'nia, the middle plain, 
and Hu'-wa-ka, the upper plain), not only for a working field for the 
benefit of the people of Ha'arts, but also for their pleasure ground. 

Kot wishing this' second creation to be seen by the people of Ha'arts 
as they passed about over Ti'nia, he conunanded the Sia to smoke, that 




clouds miglit ascend and serve as masks to protect the x^eople of Ti'nia 
from view of the inhabitants of Ha'arts. 

The people of Ha'arts made houses for themselves by digging holes 
in rocks and the earth. They could not build as they now do, 
because they could not see. In a short time the two mothers, tJtsgt 
aud Now'utset (the latter being the elder and largei-, but the former hav- 
ing the best mind aud heart), who resided in the uorth, went into the 
chita (estnfa) and talked much to one another, and they decided that 
they would make light, and said: "Now we will make light, that our 
people may see; we cau not uow tell the people, but to-morrow will be 
a good day aud day after tomorrow will also be a good day" — meaning 


Fig. 1-. — Mixing clay for planter. 

that their thoughts were good, and they spoke with one tongue, and 
that their future would be bright, and they added: "Now all is covered 
with darkness, but after awhile we will have light." These two women, 
being inspired by Sus'sistiuuako, created the sun from white shell, 
turkis, red stone, aud abalone shell. After making the sun they car- 
ried him to the east and there made a camp, as there were no houses. 
The next morning they ascended a high mountain anddroijped the sun 
down behind it, aud after a time he began to ascend, and when the peo- 
ple saw the light their hearts rejoiced. When far off his face was blue; 
as he came nearer the face grew brighter. They, however, did not see 
the suu himself, but a mask so large that it covered his entire bod v. 



The people saw thiit the world was large and the country beautiful, 
aud wiieu the women returned to the village they said to the people: 
"We are the mothers of all." 

Though the suu lighted the world in the day, he gave no light at 
night, as he returned to his home in the west; and so the two mothers 
created the moon from a slightly black stone, many varieties of a yel- 
low stone, turkis, and a red stone, that the world might be lighted at 
night, and that the moon might be a companion and a brother to the 
sun; but the moon traveled slowly, and did not always furnish light, 
and so they created the star people and made their eyes of beautiful 
sparkling white crystal, that they might twinkle and brighten the world 
at night. When the star people lived in the lower world they were 
gathered into groups, which were very beautiful; they were not scat- 

FiG. 13 Childish curiosity. 

tered about as they are in the upi)er world. Again the two women 
entered the chita and decided to make four luuises — one in the nortli, 
one in the west, one in the south, and one in the east — house in this 
instance meaning pueblo or village. When these houses were com- 
ph'ted they said, now we have some beautiful houses; we will go first 
to that of the nortli and talk much for all things good. Now'iitset said 
to her sister: "Let us make other good things," and the sister asked: 
"What things do you wish to make!" She answered: " We are the 
mothers of ;ill peoples, and we must do good work." "Well," rei)lied 
the younger sister, "to-morrow I will pass ar(mnd and see my other 
houses, and you will remain here." 

After flt'set had traveled over the world, visiting the houses of the 
west, south, and east, she returned to her home in the north and was gra- 
ciously received by Now'utset, who seemed happy to see her younger 



sister, and after a warm greeting she invited her to be seated. Xow'utsgt 
bad a picture wbicb sbe did not wisb tlie sistiM-s to see, and slie covered 
itwitb abhinket,aiid said, "(iuess wbat Ibave liere?" (pointing to tbe 
covered picture) " and wben you guess correctly I will sbow you." " 1 
do not know," said tlt'set and again tbe elder one asked, "Wbatdo 
you tbink I bave bereV and tbe otber replied, "I do not know." A 
tbird time U"t's6t was asked, and replied tbat sbe did not know, add- 
ing, " 1 wisb to speak straigbt, and I must tberefore tell you I do not 
know wbat you bave tbere." Tbcn Now'utset said, "Tbat is rigbt." 
After a wbile the younger sister said, " I tbink you bave under that 
blanket a picture, to which you will talk when you are alone." " You 
are rigbt," said tbe elder sister, "you have a good head to know 
things." Now'iitset, however, was much displeased at tbe wisdom dis- 
played by tJt'set. She showed tbe picture to tJt'set and in a little 
wbile Ut'sctleft, saying, "I will now return to my house and no longer 
travel; to-morrow you will come to see me." 

After the return of Ut'set to her home sbe beckoned to tbe Chas'ka 
(chaparral cock) to come to her, and said, " You may go early to- 
morrow morning to the house of the sun in tbe east, and then follow 
the road from there to bis home in the west, aad wben you reach tbe 
house in tbe west remain there until my sister comes to my house to 
talk to me, wben I will call you. " In the early morning tbe elder sister 
called at the bouse of tbe younger. "Sit down, my sister," said tbe 
younger one, and after a little time she said, "Let us go out and walk 
about; I saw a beautiful bird pass by, but I do not know where he 
lives," and sbe pointed to the footprints of the l)ird upon the ground, 
wbicb was soft, and tbe tracks were very plain, and it could be seen 
tbat the footprints were in a straight line from the bouse of the sun in 
tbe east to bis bouse in tbe west. "I can not tell," said tbe younger 
sister, "perhaps tbe bird came from the bouse in tlie east and has gone 
to tbe bouse in tbe west; i)erbaps be came from the house in the west 
and has gone to tbe bouse in the east; as tbe feet of tbe bird point both 
ways, it is hard to tell. What do you think, sister ? " "I can not 
say," replied tbe other. Four times IJt'set asked tbe question and re- 
ceived the same reply. The fourth time the elder sister added, "How 
can I tell ? I do not know wbicb is tbe front of tiie foot and wbicb is tbe 
heel, but 1 tbink tbe bird has gone to tbe bouse in the east." " Your 
thoughts are w)ong," replied the younger sister; "I know where the 
bird is, and be will soon be here;" and sbe gave a call and in a little 
while tbe Chas'ka came running to her from tbe west. 

The elder sister was mortified at her lack of knowledge, and said, 
"Come to my house to-morrow; to-day you are greater than I. I 
thought the bird had gone to the house in the east, but you knew where 
he was, and he came at your call ; to-morrow you come to me." 

On the moiTow the younger sister called at the bouse of the elder 
and was asked to be seated. Then Now'utset said, " Sister, a word 

32 THE SIA. 

with you; what do you thiuk that is!" poiutiiig to ti fif;ure eiivehipod in 
a blauket, with only tlie feet showing, whieli were crossed. Four times 
the(iuestion was asked, and eaeh time the younger sister said she coukl 
not tell, but finally she added, "I think the feet are crossed; the one 
on the right should be left and the left should be right." " To whom 
do the feet belong!" inquired the elder sister. The younger sister was 
prompted by her grandmother, Sus'sistinnako', the spider wonuju, to 
say, " I do not think it is either man or woman," referring to beings 
created by Sus's'stinnako, "but something you have made." The 
elder sister replied, " You are right, my sister." She threw the blanket 
oft", exposing a human figure; the younger sister then left, asking the 
elder to call at her house on the morrow, and all uight tj t'set was busy 
preparing an altar under the direction, however, of Sus'sistinenako. 
She covered tlie altar with a blanket, and in the morning when the 
elder sister called they sat together for a while and talked; then Ut's^t 
said, jiointing to the covered altar, " What do you think I have there!" 
No'v'utset replied, " I can not tell; I may have my thoughts about it, 
but I do not know." Four times Now'utsgt wiis asked, and each time 
she gave the same reply. Then the younger sister threw ofi" the blauket, 
and they both looked at the altar, but neither spoke a word. 

When the elder sister left, she said to fjt'set, " To-morrow you come 
to my house," and all night she was busy arranging things for the morn- 
ing, and in the morning tJt'set hastened to her sister's house. (She was 
accompanied by Sus'sistinnako, wlio followed invisible close to her ear.) 
Now'utset asked, " What have I there?" pointing to a covered object, 
and trt'set replied, " I can not tell, but I have thought that you have 
under that blanket all things that are necessary for all time to come; 
perhaps I speak wrong." "No," rei^lied JSTow'utset," you speak cor- 
rectly," and she threw off the blanket, saying, "My sister, I maybe 
the larger and the first, but your head and heart are wise; you know 
much; 1 think my head must be weak." The younger sister then said: 
" To-morrow you come to my house ;" and in the morning when the elder 
sister called at the house of the younger she was received in the front 
room and asked to be seated, and they talked awhile; then the younger 
one said: "What do you think I have in the room there!" pointing to 
the door of an inner room. Four times the (juestion was asked and 
each time Now'utset replied, "I can not tell." "Come with me," said 
tJt'set, and she cried as she threw open the door, "All this is mine, 
when you have looked well we will go away." The room was filled 
with the Ka'*suna beings with monster, heads which tJt'set had created, 
under the direction of Sus'sistinnako. 

Sus'sistiunako's creation may be classed in three divisions: 
1. Pai'-ii-ta-mo: All men of Ha'arts (the earth), the sun, moon, stars, 
Ko'-shai-ri and Quer'-ran-na. 

'Sfts'sistinnako is rt'fen-ed to both as father and mother, ho boin^' the pareut of all, and some- 
times as grandmother or the first parent. 


2. Ko'-pislitai-a: The cloud, lightuiug, thunder, rainbow peoples, and 

all animal life not included under the first and 
third heads. 

3. Ka'-'su-na: Beings having human bodies and monster heads, who 

are personated in Sia by men and women wearing 

After a time the younger sister closed the door and they returned to 
the front room, i^ot a word had been spoken except by the younger, 
As the elder sister left she said, "To-morrow you come to my house." 
Sus'sistinnako whispered in the ear of the younger, " To-morrow you 
will see fine things in your sister's house, but they will not be good; 
they will be bad." Now'iitset then said: "Before the Sun has left his 
home we will go together to see him; we will each have a wand on our 
heads made of the long white flutty feathers of the under tail of the eagle, 
and we will place them vertically on our heads that they may see the 
sun when he first comes out;" and the younger sister replied: "You 
are the elder and must go before, and your plumes will see the sun first; 
mine can not see him until he has traveled far, because I am so small; 
you are the greater and must go before." Though she said this she 
knew better; she knew that though she was smaller in stature she was 
the greater and more imi>ortant woman. That night Sus'sistinnako 
talked much to tTt'sgt. She said : " Now that you have created the 
Ka'*suua you must create a man as messenger between the sun and the 
Ka"suna and another as messenger between the moon and the Ka"suna. 

The first man created was called Ko'shairi ; he not only acts as cou- 
rier between the sun and the Ka"suua, but he is the companion, the 
jester and nuisician (the flute bsing his instrument) of the sun; he is 
also mediator between the people of the earth and the sun; when act- 
ing as courier between the sun and the Ka"suua and vice versa and as 
mediator between the i^eople of the earth and the sun he is chief for 
the sun; when accompanying the sun in his daily travels he furnishes 
him with music and amusement; he is then the servant of the sun. The 
second man created was Quer'riinna, his duties being identical with 
those of the Ko'shairi, excepting that the moon is his particular chief 
instead of the sun, both, however, being subordinate to the sun. 

After the creation, of Ko'shairi and Quer'riinna, tjt'set called Shu- 
ah-kai (a small black bird with white wings) to her and said: 

"To-morrow my sister and I go to see the sun when he first leaves 
his house. We will have wands on our heads, we will be side by side ; 
she is much taller than I; the sun will see her face before he sees mine, 
and that will not be good ; you must go to-morrow morning very early 
near the house of the sun and take a plume from your left wing, but 
none from your right; spread your wings and rest in front of the sun 
as he comes from his house." The two women started very early in 
the morning to greet the rising sun. They were accompanied by all 
11 ETH 3 

34 THE SI A. 

the meu and youths, carrying their bows and arrows. The elder woman, 
after they halted to await the coming of the sun, said: "We are here 
to watch for the sun." (The people had divided, some being on the 
side of Now'iitset, tlie others with tit' set). " If the sun looks first upon 
me, all the people on my side will be my people and will slay the 
others, and if the sun looks first upon the face of my sister all the i)eo- 
ple on her side wUl be her people and they will destroy my people." 

As the sun left his house, the bird Shu'ahkai placed himself so 
as to obscure the light, excepting where it jjenetrated tlirough the 
sjiaceleft by the plucking of the feather from his wing, and the light 
shone, not only on the wand on the head of the younger sister, but it 
covered her face, whi'e it barely touched the top of the plumes of the 
elder; and so the people of the younger sister destroyed those of the 
elder. The two women stood still while the men fought. The women 
remained on the mountain top, but the men descended into a 
grassy park to fight. After a time the younger sister ran to the park 
aTid cried, "This is enough; fight no more." She then returned to the 
mountain and said to her sister, "Let us descend to the park and 
fight." And they fought like women — not with arrows — but wrestled. 
The men formed a circle around them and the women fought hard and 
long. Some of the men said, " Let us go and part the women; " others 
said, " No ; let them alone." The younger woman grew very tired in her 
arms, and cried to her people, "I am very tired," and they threw the 
elder sister upon the ground and tied her hands; the younger woman 
then commanded her people to leave her, and she struck her sister with 
her fists about the head and face as she lay upon the ground, and in 
a little while killed her. She then cut the breast with a stone knife and 
took out the heart, her i)eople being still in a circle, but the circle was 
so large that they were some distance off. She held the heart in her hand 
and cried : " Listen, men and youths ! This woman was my sister, but 
she compelled us to fight; it was she who taught you to fight. The 
few of her people who escaped are in the mountains and they are the 
people of the rats ; " and she cut the heart into pieces and threw it 
upon the ground, saying, " Her heart will become rats, for it was very 
bad," and immediately rats could be seen running in all directions. 
She found the center of the heart fall of cactus, and she said, "The 
rats for evermore will live with the cacti ; " and to this day the rats 
thus live (referring to the Neotoma). She then told her people to re- 
turn to their homes. 

It was about this time that Shs'sistinnako organized the cult socie- 
ties, instructing all of the societies in the songs for rain, but imparting 
only to certain ones the secrets whereby disease is extracted through 
the sucking and brushing processes. 

For eight years after the fight (years referring to periods of time^ the 
people were very happy and all things flourislied, but the ninth year 
was very bad, the whole earth being filled with water. The water did 



not fall in raiu, but came in as rivers between the mesas, and continued 
flowing from all sides until the i>cople and all animals fled to the mesa. 
The waters continued to rise uutil nearly level with the mesa top, and 
Sus'sistinuako cried, "Where shall my people go"? Where is the road 
to the north, he looking to the north, the road to the west, he facing 
the west, the road to the south, he turning south, the road to the 
east, he facing east? Alas, I see the waters are everywhere." And 
all of his theurgists sang four days and nights before their altars and 
made many offerings, but still the waters continued to rise as before. 
Sus'sistinnako said to the sun: "My son, you will ascend and pass 
over the world above; your course will be from the north to the south, 
and you will return and tell me what you think of it." On his return 
the sun said, "Mother, I did as you bade me, and I did not like the 
road." Again he told him to ascend and pass over the world from the 
west to the east, and on his return Siis'sistinnako inquired how he 
liked that road. "It may be good for some, mother, but I did not like 
it." " You will again ascend and pass over the straight road from east 
to west," and upon the sun's return the father inquired what he thought 
of that road. His reply was, "I am much contented; I like the road 
much." Then Siis'sistinnako said, "My son, you will ascend each day 
and pass over the world from east to west." Upon each day's journey 
the sun stops midway from the east to the center of the world to eat 
his breakfast, in the center to eat his dinner, and midway the center to 
the west to eat his supper, he never failing to take his three meals 
daily, stopping at these particuhir points to obtain them. 

The sun wears a shirt of dressed deerskin, and leggings of the same, 
reaching- to his thighs; the shirt and leggings are fringed; his mocca- 
sins are also of deerskin and embroidered in yellow, red, and turkis 
beads; he wears a kilt of deerskin, the kilt having a snake painted 
upon it; he carries a bow and arrows, the quiver being of cougar skin, 
hanging over his shoulder, and he holds his bow in his left hand and 
an arrow in his right; he still wears the mask which X)rotects him from 
view of the people of the earth. An eagle plume with a parrot plume 
on either side, ornaments the top of the mask, and an eagle plume is on 
either side of the mask and one is at the bottom; the hair around the 
head and face is red like fire, and when it moves and shakes the people 
can not look closely at the mask; it is not intended that they should 
observe closely and thereby know that instead of seeing the sun they 
see only his mask; the heavy line encircling the mask is yellow, and 
indicates rain. (Fig. 1-i.) 

The moon came to the upper world with the sun and he also wears a 

Each night the sun passes by the house of Siis'sistinnako, who asks 
him: "How are my children above, how mauy have died to-day, and 
how many have been born to-day?" He lingers with him only long 
enough to answer his questions. He then passes on to his house in 
the east. 

36 THE SIA. 

Sus'sistinnako i)laceil a huge reed upon the mesa top and said: 
"My people will pass np through this to the world above." tJt'set led 
the way, carrying a sack contaiuing many of the star people; she was 
followed by all the theurgists, who carried their precious articles in 
sacred blankets, on their backs; then followed the laity and all ani- 
mals, snakes and birds; the turkey was far behind, and the foam of 
the waters rose and reached the ti^) ends of his feathers, and to this day 

Fig. 14 — Mask oi" the Sun, drawn by a theiirgist. 

they bear the mark of the waters. Upon reaching the top of the reed, 
the solid earth barred their exit, and tJt'set called 'Hi'ka (the locust), 
saying, " Man, come here." The locust hastened to her, and she told 
him that the eaith prevented their exodns. "You know best how to 
pass through the earth ; go and make a door for us." " Very well, 
mother," he replied, "I will, and I think I can make a way." He be- 
gan working with his feet, and after a time he passed through the 



earth, entering auotber world. As soon as he saw tlie worid, he re- 
turned to tJt'set saying, "It is good nl)ove." tJt'set then called the 
Tno' pi (badger), and said to him, "Make a door for us; the 'Si'ka has 
made one, but it is veiy small." "Very well, mother; I will," replied 
the badger; and after much work he passed into the world above, aud 
returning said, "Mother, 1 have opened the way." tlt'set is appealed 
to, to the present time, as father and mother, for she acts directly for 
Sfis'sistinnako, the creator. The badger said, "Mother, father, the 
world above is good." Ut'set then called the deer, saying to him, 
"You go first, and if you pass through all right, if you can get your 
head through, others may pass." The deer alter ascending returned 
saying, "Father, it is all right; I passed without trouble." She then 
called the elk, and told him if he could get his head through the door, 
all could pass. He returned, saying, "Father, it is good; I passed 
without trouble." She then had the buffalo try and he returned, say- 
ing, "Father, mother, the door is good; I passed without trouble." 

iD't'set then called the I-shits (Scarahfvtts) and gave him the sack of 
stars, telling him to i^ass out first with the sack. The little animal did 
not know what the sack contained, but he grew very tired carrying it, 
and he wondered what could be in the sack. After entering the new 
world he was very tired, and laying the sack down he thought he 
would peep into it and see its contents. He cut only a tiny hole, but 
immediately the stars began flying out and filling the heavens every- 
where. The little animal was too tiri'd to return to (Jt'set, who, how- 
ever, soon joined him, followed by all her people, who came in the 
order above mentioned. After the turkey passed out the door was 
firmly closed with a great rock so that the waters below could not fol- 
low them. When trt'set looked for her sack she was astonished to find 
it nearly empty and she could not tell where the contents had gone; 
the little animal sat by, very scared, and sad, and tJt'sft was angry 
with him and said, "You are very bad and disobedient and from this 
time forth you shall be blind," (and this is the reason the scarabieus has 
no eyes, so the old ones say). The little fellow, however, had saved 
a few of the stars by grabbing the sack and holding it fast; these 
trt's6t distributed in the heavens. In one group she placed seven stars 
(the great bear), in another three (part of Orion,) into another group 
she placed the Pleiades, and throwing the others far oft' into the 
heavens, exclaimed, "All is well!" 

The cloud, liglitning, thunder, and rainbow peoples followed the Sia 
into the upper world, making their homes in sjirings similar to those 
they had occupied in the lower world; these springs are also at the 
cardinal points, zenith aud nadir, and are in the hearts of mountains 
with trees upon their summits. All of the people of Tiuia, however, did 
not leave the lower world; only a portion were sent by Sus'sistinnako 
to lal)or for the jieople of the upper world. The cloud people are so 
numerous that, though the demands of the ijeople of the earth are great, 

38 THE RIA. 

there are always many passing about over Tinia for pleasure; these 
people ride on wheels, small wheels being used by the children and 
larger ones by the elders. In speaking of these wheels tlie Sia add: 
"The Americans have stolen the secret of the wheels (referring to 
bicycles) from the cloud people." 

The cloud jjcople are careful to keep behind their masks, which 
assume different forms according to the number of peojjle and the work 
being done; for instance, Ilen'nati are white Hoatiiig clouds behindwhich 
the people pass about for pleasure. He'iish are clouds like the plains, 
and behind these, the cloud people are laboring to water the earth. 
The water is brought from the si)nugs at the base of the mountains in 
gourd jugs and vases, by the men, women, and children, who ascend from 
tliese springs to the base of the tree and thence through the heart or 
trunk to the toj) of the tree which reaches to Ti'nia; they then ])ass on 
to the designated point to be sprinkled. Though the lightning, thun- 
der and rainbow peojjles of the six cardinal points ' have each their 
priestly rulers and theurgists of their cult societies, these are subor- 
dinate to the priest of the cloud people, the cloud people of each 
cardinal point having their separate religious and civil organizations. 
Again these rulers are subordinate to Ho'chJinni, arch ruler of the 
cloud people of the world, the cloud people hold ceremonials similar 
to the Sia; and the figures of the slat altars of the Sia are supposed to 
be arranged just as the cloud jieople sit in their ceremonies, the figures 
of the altars representing members of the cult societies of the cloud 
and lightning peoples. The Sia in performing their rites assume rela- 
tively similar jiositions back of the altars. 

When a priest of the cloud people wishes assistance from the thun- 
der and lightning peoples he commands their ti'iimonis to notify the 
theurgists to see that the labor is performed, he placing his cloud peo- 
ple under the direction of certain of his theurgists, keeping a general 
supervision himself over all. The people of Ti'nia are compensated 
by those of Ha'arts for their services. These offerings are placed at 
shrines, of which there are many, no longer left in view but buried 
from sight. Cigarettes are made of delicate reeds and filled with down 
from humming birds and others, minute quantities of precious beads 
and corn jwllen, and are offered to the priestly rulers and theurgists of 

The lightning peojjle shoot their arrows to make it rain the harder, 
the smaller flashes coming from the bows of the children. The thun- 
der people have hunjan forms, with wings of knives, and by flapping 
these wings they make a great noise, thus frightening the cloud and 
lightning peoples into working the harder. The rainbow people were 
created to work in Ti'nia to make it more beautiful for the people of 
Ha'arts to look upon ; not only the elders making the beautiful bows, 

'In this paper tlie words "cardinal points" are used to eij;nify north, west, south, east, zenith, 
and nadir. 



hut the chililreu assisting in this work. Tlie Sia have no idea how 
or of what the bows are made. They do, however, know that the war 
heroes traveled upon these bows. 

The Sia entered this world in the far north, and the opening tbrougli 
which they emerged is known as Shi-pa-po. They gathered into camps, 
for they had no honses, but they soon moved on a short distance and 
built a village. Their only food was seeds of certain grasses, and 
Crt'sf't desiring that her children should have other food made fields 
north, west, south, and east of the village and planted bits of her 
heart, and corn was evolved (though tJt'set had always known the 
name of corn, corn itself was not known until it originated in these 
fields), and trt'set declared : "This corn is my heart and it shall be to 
my people as milk from my breasts. " 

After the Sia had remained at this village a year (referring to a 
time period) they desired to pass on to the center of the earth, but 
the earth was very moist and tJt'set was puzzled to know how to 
harden it. 

She commanded the presence of the cougar, and asked him if he had 
any medicine to harden the road that they might pass over it. The 
cougar replied, " I will try, mother;" but after going a short distance 
over the road, he sank to his shouhlers in the wet earth, and he returned 
much afraid, and told tlt'set that he could go no farther. She then sent 
for the bear and asked him what he could do; and he, like the cougar, 
made an attempt to harden the earth; he had passed but a short dis- 
tance when he too sank to his shoulders, and being afraid to go farther 
returned, saying, "I can do nothing." The badger then made the 
attempt, with the same result; then the shrew (Sore-v) and afterward 
the wolf, but they also failed. Tlien Ut'set returned to the lower world 
and asked Sus'sistinnako what she could do to harden the earth so 
that her people might travel over it. Sus'sistinnako inquired, "Have 
you no medicine to make the earth firm? ITave you asked the cougar 
and the bear, the wolf, the badger and the shrew to use their medicines 
to harden the earth?" And she replied, "I have tried all these." Then, 
said Sus'sistinnako, "Others will understand;" and he told tJt'sPt to 
have a woman of the Ka'pina (spider) society to use her medicine for 
this xnirpose. Upon the return of trt'set to the upper world, she com- 
manded the ])resence of a female member of this society. Upon the 
arrival of this woman t)^t'set said, "My mother, Sus'sistinnako, tells 
me the Ka'pina society understands the secret how to make the earth 
strong." The woman replied, "I do not know how to make the earth 
firm." Three times tJt'set questioned the woman regarding the hard- 
ening of the earth, and each time the woman replied, "1 do not know." 
The fourth time the (piestion was put the woman said, "Well, I guess 
I know; I will try;" and she called together the members of the society 
of the Ka'pina and said to them, " Our mother, Sus'sistinnako bids 
us work for her and harden the earth so that the people may pass over 

40 THE SIA. 

it." The womau first made a road of flue cotton which she produced 
from her body (it will be remenibered that the Ka'piua society was 
composed of the spider people), suspending it a few feet above the 
earth, and told the people they could now move on; but when they saw 
the road it looked so fragile that they were afraid to trust themselves 
upon it. Then tjt'set said : " I wish a man and not a woman of the 
Ka'pina to work for me." A male member of the society then appeared 
and threw out the serpent (a fetich of latticed wood so jnrt together 
that it can be ex])anded and contracted); and when it was extended it 
reached to the middle of the earth. He first threw it to the south, 
then to the east, then to the west. The Na'pakatsa (a fetich com- 
posed of slender sticks radiating from a center held together by a fine 
web of cotton; eagle down is attached to the cotton; when opened it is 
in the form of an luiibrella, and when closed it has also the same form 
minus the handle) was then thrown upon the ground and stamped upon 
(the original Ka'pakatsa was composed of cotton from the spider's 
body) ; it was placed first to the south, then east, west and north. The 
people being in the far north, the Na'pakatsa was deposited close to 
their backs. 

The earth now l)eing firm so that the people could travel, ITt'sSt selected 
for the tl'amoni who was to take her place with the people and lead 
them to the center of the earth, a man of the corn clan, saying to him, 
"I, IJt'set, will soon leave you; 1 will retium to the home whence 1 came. 
You will be to my people as myself; you will pass with them over the 
straight road. 1 will remain in my house below and will hear all that 
you say to me. I give to you all my wisdom, my tlKJughts, my heart, 
and all. I fill your head with my mind." She then gave to her newly 
appointed representative a crooked staff as insignia of his oftice, saying, 
"It is as myself; keep it always." " Thank you, mother," he replied, 
and all the people clasped the staff and drew a breath from it. "I give 
to you all the precious things which I brought to this world [IJt'set 
having brought these things in a sacred blanket on her backj. Be sure 
to follow the one straight road for all years and for all time to come. 
You will be known as Ti'iimoni [meaning the arch-ruler]. I bid you 
listen to all things good, and work for all things good, and turn from all 
things bad." Hereplied: " Itis well, mother; I will do asyousay." She 
then instructed this ruler to make the I'iirriko ' (PI. ix) which was to 

' The I'arriko or ya'ya (mother) is an ear of coru which may be any color but must be symmetrically 
perfect, and not a grain must be raiasins. Ea^le and parrot plumes are placed in pyramidal form 
around the com. In order tliat the center featliers may be sufficiently long they are each attached to 
a very delicate splint. The base of tliis pyramid is formed of splints woven together with native cot- 
ton cord and ornamented at the top witli sheila and precious beads. A pad of native cotton is attached 
to the lower end of the corn. When the ya'ya is completed there is no evidence of the corn, whicli is 
renewed every four years when the old corn is planted. The ya'ya is made only by the tlieurgists of 
the cult societies, and continency must be practiced four days previous to the maliing of the I'.arriko, 
and an emetic taken eaeh of tlie four mornings before Itreaking fast for purificatitm from conjugal rela- 
tions. A ya'ya is presented liy tlu* thcurgiat to eacli oflBc.ial member, the little ones being apparently 
as appreciative and proud as tlieir elders of the honor conferred upon them. The I'arriko is the .Sia's 
supreme idol. The one given to the writer by the theurgist of the knife society is now iu the National 

Bureau of Ethnology. 

Eleventh Annual Report Plate IX 

Drawn by J- L Ridgway. 

1- AR- Rl - KO 


represent herself that they might have, herself always with them and 
know her always. Again tJt'set said : '' When yoii wish for anything 
make hii'chamoin and plant them, and they will bear your messages 
to your mother iu the world l)elow." 

Before Ot'set left this world she selected six Sia women, sending one 
to the north, one to the west, one to the south, one to the east, one to 
the zenith, and one to the nadir, to make their homes at these points 
for all time to come, that they might be near the cloud rulers of the 
cardinal points and intercede for the people of lla'arts; and tJt' set en- 
joined her people to remember to ask these women, in times of need, to 
api:)eal to the cloud people for them. 

The Sia alone followed the command of tJt'set and took the straight 
road, while all other pueblos advanced by various routes to the center 
of the earth. After flt'set's departure the Sia traveled some distance 
and built a village of beautiful white stone, where they lived lour 
years (years referring to time periods). The Sia declare that their 
stay at the white house was of long duration. Here parents suffered 
great distress at the hand of the tiiimoni, who, objecting to the increase 
of his people, for a time caused all children to be put to death. The 
Sia liad scarcely recovered from this calamity wlien a serious difficulty 
arose between the men and women. Many women sat grinding meal 
and singing; they had worked hard all day, and at sundown, when the 
men returned to the houses, the women began abusing them, saying: 
" You are no good ; you do not care to work ; you wish to be with women 
all the time. If you would allow four days to pass between, the women 
would care more for you." The men replied: "You women care to be 
with us all day and all night; if you women could have the men only 
every four days you would be very unhai)py." The women retorted: 
"It is you men who would be unhappy if you could be with the women 
only every four days." 

And the men and women grew very angry with one another. The 
men cried : " Were it ten days, twenty days, thirty days, we could re- 
main apart from you and not be unhappy." The women replied : " We 
think not, but we women would be very contented to remain away 
from you men for sixty days." And the men said: "We men would 
be happy to remain apart from you women for iive moons." The women, 
growing more excited, cried: "You do not speak the truth; we women 
would be contented to be separated from you ten moons." The men 
retorted: "We men could remain away from you women twenty moons 
and be very happy." "You do not speak the truth," said the women, 
"for you wish to be with us all the time, day and nrght." 

Three days they quarreled and on the fourth day the women sepa- 
rated from the men, going on one side of the pueblo, the men and boys 
gathering on the other side. All the women went into one chi-ta, the 
men into anotlier. The women had a great talk and the men held a 
council. The men and women were very angry with one another. 

42 THE SIA. 

The tiamoni, who presided over the council, said : "I think if you and 
the women live apart you will each be contented." And on the follow- 
ing morning he had all the men and male children who were not being 
nourished by their mothers cross the great river which ran by the vil- 
lage, the women remaining in the village. The men departed at sun- 
rise, and the women were delighted. They said: "We can do all the 
work; we understand the men's work and we can work like them." 
The men said to each other: "We can do the thii)gs the women did for 
us." As they left the village the men called to the women : "We leave 
you to yoiu'selves, perhaps for one. year, perhaps for two, and perhaps 
longer. For one year you may be happy to be apart from us. Per- 
haps we will be hap])y to be separated from you; perhaps not; we can 
not tell. We men are more amorous than you." 

Some time was required for the men to cross the river, as it was very 
wide. The tiiimoui led the men and remained with them. The women 
were compelled by the tiiimoni to send their male infants over the river 
as soon as they ceased nourishing them. For ten moons the men and 
women were very happy. The men hunted a great-deal and had much 
game for food, but the women had no animal food. At the expiration of 
the ten moons some of the women were sad away from the men. The men 
grew stout and the women very thin. As the second year passed more 
of the women wanted the men, but the men were jjerfectly satisSed 
away from the women. After three years the women more and more 
wished for the men, but the men were but slightly desirous of the 
women. When the fourth year was half gone the women called to the 
tiamoni, saying: "We want the men to come to us." The female 
children had grown up like reeds; they had no flesh on them. The 
morning after the women begged the tiamoni for the return of the men 
they recrosscd the river to live again with the women, and in four days 
after their return the women had recovered their flesh. 

Children were born to the women while they were separated from 
the men, and when born they were entirely unlike the Sia, and were a 
different people. The mothers, seeing their children were not like them- 
selves, did not care for them and drove them from their homes. These 
unnatui'al children matured in a short time, becoming the skoyo (giant 
cannibals). As soon as they were grown they began eating the Sia. 
They caught the children just as the coyote catches his prey. They 
made large fires between great rocks, and throwing the children in, 
roasted them alive, and afterward ate them. When parents went 
to the woods to look for their lost children, they too were caught by 
the giants and roasted. No one ever returned to the village to tell the 
tale. The Sia were not oidy devoured by the skoyo, but by thoseanimals 
who quarreled with their people at the time of the rupture between 
the Sia men and women, the angry animals joining the skoyo in their 
attacks upon the Sia. 

Although the children were destroyed whenever they ventured from 


tlieir homes the vigilance of some of tlie parents saved the race, and 
in spite of the numerous deaths the people increased, and they built 
many houses. Four years (referring to periods of time) the Skoyo and 
animals captured and ate the Sia whenever they left their villages, 
but the Sia were not always to suffer this great evil. 

The sun father determined to relieve the people of their trouble and 
so he became the father of twin boys. 

Ko'chinako, a virgin (the yellow woman of the north), when journey- 
ing to visit the center of the earth, lay down to rest. She was embraced 
by the Sun, and from this embrace she became pregnant. In four days 
she gave evident signs of her condition, and in eight days it was still 
more perceptible, and in twelve days she gave birth to male twins. 
During her condition of gestation her mother, the spider woman, was 
very angry, and insisted upon knowing the father of the child, but the 
daughter could not tell her; and when the mother asked when she be- 
came pregnant, she could not re])ly to the question, and the mother 
said: "I do not care to see the child when it is born; I wish to be far 
away." And as soon as the daughter complained of approaching labor 
the mother left, but her heart softened toward her child and she soon 
returned. In four days from the birth of the boys they were able to 
walk. When twins are born, the first-born is called Kat'saya and the 
second Kat'che. 

Ko'chinako named her first born Ma'-a-se-we and the second U'-yuu- 
yew?. These children grew rapidly in intelligence, but they always 
remained small in stature. One day they inquired of their mother, 
"Where is our father ?'' The mother replied, "He is far away; ask no 
more questions." But again they asked, "Where is our father?" And 
they received the same reply from the mother. The third time they 
asked, and a fourth time, when the mother said, "Poor children, 
your father lives far away to the east." They declared thty 
would go to him, but she insisted they could not; that to reach him 
they would have to go to the center of a great river. The boys were 
so earnest in their entreaties to be allowed to visit tlieir father, that the 
mother finally consented. Their grandmother (the spider woman) made 
them each a bow and arrows, and the boys started off" on their journey, 
traveling a hmg way. Upon reaching the river they were puzzled to 
know how to enter their father's house. While they stood thinking, 
their grandmother (the spider woman) appeared and said, "I will make 
a bridge for you." She spun a web back and forth, but when the bridge 
was completed the boys feared to cross it ; it appeared so frail. Then 
the grandmother tested the bridge to show them it was safe. They, 
being now satisfied, crossed the bridge and descended to the center of 
the river, and there found their father's house. The wife of then- 
father inquired of the boys, "Who are you, and where did you come 
from?" "We come to find our father." The woman then asked, "Who 
is your father?" and they answered, "The Sun is our father;" and the 

44 THE SIA. 

wife was angry and said, "You tell an untruth." She gave them a 
bowl of food, which was, however, only the scraps left by her children. 

In a little while the Sun returned home, llis wife was very indig- 
nant; "I thought you traveled only for the world, but these children 
say you are their father." The Sun replied, "They are my children, 
because all people are my children under my arm." This satisfied the 
wife, even though the children appealed directly to the Sun as father. 
When he saw the boys were eating scraps, he took the bowl, threw out 
the contents, and had his wife give them proper food. He then called 
one of his men who labored for him, and said, "Build me a large tire 
in the house," designating a sweat-house, " lined with turkis, and heat 
it with hot rocks," the rocks being also turkis. He sent the children 
into this house and had the door closed upon them. The Sun then or- 
dered water poured upon the hot rocks through an opening in the roof, 
but the children cooled the sweat-house by spitting out tiny shells from 
their mouths. 

When the Sun ordered the door of the sweat-house opened he was 
smprised to find the children still alive. He then had them cast into 
another house, which was very large and filled with elk, deer, antelope, 
and buffalo; he ijeeped through an opening in the wall and saw the 
boys riding on the backs of the elk and deer api:)arently very happy 
and contented. He then had them placed in a house filled with bear, 
cougar, and rattlesnakes, and he peeped in and saw the children riding 
on the 1 lacks of the bear and cougar and they were happy aiul not 
afraid, and he said, "Surely they are my children," and he opened the 
doors and let them out, and asked, "My children, what do you wish of 
me?" "Nothing, father," they replied, "We came only to find our 
father." lie gave to each of them a bow and arrows, and to each three 
sticks (the rabbit stick), which he told them not to use until they 
reached home for if they threw one, intending it only to go a little way it 
woidd go very far. Wlien they had jjroceeded on their journey but a 
short distance Ma'asewe said to U'yuuyewe, " Let us try our sticks and 
see how far they will go;" but U'yuuyewe refused, saying, "No; our 
father told us not to use them until our return home." Ma'asewe con- 
tinued to plead with his younger brother, but he was wise and would 
not yield. Finally Ma'asewe tlirew one of his, and it was going a great 
distance off, but he stopped it by throwing shells from his mouth. 

The mother and grandmother were delighted to see the boys again, 
and happy for all to be under one roof, but the boys, particularly 
Ma'asewe, were soon anxious to travel. They wished to try the bows 
their father had given them, and after they had been home four days 
they started on a hunt. The mother said to the boys: "Children, I 
do not wish you to go far; listen attentively to what I have to say. 
Away to the east is a lake where many skoyo and their animal com- 
panions live and when the sun is over the middle of the world these 
peoiile go to the lake to get water. They are very bad people and you 


must not go near tlie lake." Ma'asewe replied, "Very well, mother; 1 
do not care to go that way audi will look about near home." But 
when the boys had gone a little distance Ma'asewe said to his younger 
brother, "Let us go to the lake that mother talked of. " U'yuuyewe re- 
plied : "I do not care to go there, because our mother told us not to go 
that way;" but Ma'asewe importuned his younger brother to go, and 
U'yuuyewe rejilied, "Very well." They then followed the road in- 
dicated by their mother until the lake was discovered. 

It was now about the middle of the day, and Ma'asewe said "There 
are no people here, none at all; I guess mother told us a story; " but 
in a little while he saw a great wolf api>roaeh the lake; then they saw 
him enter the hike; he was thirsty, and drank; both boys saw him at 
the bottom of the lake and they exclaimed: "See! he looks pretty in 
the bottom of the lake." Ma'asewe said: "1 guess he will drink all 
the water; see, the water grows less and less." And when all the 
water was gone there was no wolf in the bottom of the lake and then 
the boys discovered the wolf on a low mesa, it having been only his 
reflection they had seen in the lake. The boys aimed their arrows at 
him, but they did not hit him and the wolf threw a large stick 
at them, but they bowed their heads and it passed over them. 
Ma'asewe said to U'yuuyewe : " I guess these people are those of whom 
mother spoke; see," said he, "this stick is the same as those given us 
by our father." The boys carried their rabbit sticks of great size and 
Ma'asewe aimed one of his at the wolf, who wore a shirt of stone which 
could be penetrated only at certain points. The wolf again threw a 
stick, but the boys jumped high from the ground and the stick passed 
under them. Ma'asewe said to U'yuuyewe, "Now, younger brother, 
you try. " U'yuuyewg had not used his arrows or sticks up to this 
time. He replied, " All right," and throwing one of his sticks he 
struck the wolf in the side, and the protective shirt was destroyed for 
the moment. Then Ma'asewe threw a stick, but the shirt of stone 
again appeared protecting the wolf. U'yuuyewe, throwing a second 
stick killed the wolf. Then Ma'asewe said, " Younger brother, the wolf 
is destroyed; let us return; but we will lirst secure his heart;" and 
with a stone knife he cut the wolf down the breast in a straight Hue, 
and t«ok out the heart, which he preserved, saying: "Now we will 
return to our home. " 

Upon their reaching home, their mother inqiured: "Where have you 
been, where have you been?" "We have been to the lake," said the 
boys. "My boys, you are fooling me." "No, we are speaking the 
truth." "Why did you go there?" Ma'asewe replied, "We wished 
very much to see the lake." The mother asked: "Did you not see any 
Sko'yo?" "Yes," said Ma'asewe, "we saw one; at least we saw a 
great wolf;" and the mother cried, "Oh, my boys, you are not good 
boys to go there." Then Ma'asewe told his mother that they had killed 
the wolf. At first, she refused to believe him ; but when Ma'asewe de- 

46 THE SIA. 

clared lie spoke the truth, the mother took the boys to her breast and 
said: "It is well, my children." lu a short time the boys started out 
on another tour. Before leaving home, they inquired of their mother 
where good wood for arrow shafts could be procured. "Far off to the 
north in a canyon is good wood for shafts, but a bad man sits in the 
road near by; this path is very narrow, and when one passes by he is 
kicked into the canyon by this bad man, and killed." Ma'asewe de- 
clared to his mother he did not care to go there, but he was not far 
from her eyes before he prevailed upon U'yuuyewe to accomi)any him 
to this canyon, saying: "Let us go where we can find the best wood." 

It required some persuasion from Ma'asewe, as U'yuuyewe at first 
declared he M'ould not disobey his mother. They traveled a long way 
ere reaching the bad old man, the cougar, but when they saw him they 
approached very cautiously, and Ma'asewe asked him if he could tell 
him "where to find good wood for ai-row shafts." "Yes, I know," re- 
plied the cougar; " down there is much," jjointing to the canyon below. 
Ma'asewe inquired, "How can I reach the canyon?" The cougar said, 
"Pass by me; this is the best way." Ma'asewe declared he must not 
walk before his elders, but the cougar insisted that the boys should 
pass in front of him. They were, however, determined to pass behind. 
Finally the cougar said, "All right." Ma'asewe asked him to rise 
while they passed, but he only bent a little forward; then Ma'asewe 
said, " Lean a little farther forward, the path is narrow ;" and the cou- 
gar bent his body a little more, when Ma'asewe placed his hands on 
the cougar's shoulders, pressing him forward, saying, "Oh! the way 
is so narrow; lean just a little more; see, I can not pass." U'yuuyewe, 
who was close to Ma'asewe, put both his hands on the cougar's right 
shoulder, while his brother placed his on the left, they saying to him, 
"Just a little farther forward," and, with their combined effort, they 
threw him to the canyon below, Ma'asewe crying out, " This is the way 
you have served others." The cougar was killed by the fall. 

The boys then descended into the canyon and gathered a quantity 
of wood for their arrow shafts. When their mother saw the wood she 
cried, "You naughty boys! where have you been!" Tliey replied, 
" We have killed the cougar. " The mother refused to believe them, 
but Ma'asewe declared they spoke the truth. She then embraced her 
children with pride and joy. 

Two days the boys were busy making shafts, to which they attached 
their arrows. Then Ma'asewe desired plumes for the shafts. " Mother," 
said he, "do you know where we can find eagle plumes'?" "Yes, I 
know where they are to be found. Away on the brink of a canyon in 
the west there are many plumes, but there is a very bad man there." 
Ma'asewe said, " Well, I do not care to go there. We will look else- 
where for plumes." But he had scarcely left the house when he urged 
U'yuuyew(5 to accompany him to the brink of the canyon. "No," said 
U'yuuyewe, " I do not care to go there. Besides the bad man mother 


spoke of, there are many other bears ; " but Ma'asewe finally persuaded 
U'yuuyewg to accompany liim. 

After a time Ma'asewe eried; "Sec, there is the house; younger 
brother, you remain a little way back of me, and when the bear passes 
by you aim your arrow at liim." Ma'asewe approached the house, and 
when the bear discovered the boy lie started after him. Just as the 
bear was passing U'yuuyewe he shot him through the heart. Ma'asewe 
drew his knife down the breast of the bear, and took out liis heart, 
cutting it into j)ieces, iireservlng the bits. " Now," said Ma'asewe, 
" let us hasten and secure the iilixmes." 

They found many beautiful feathers. Then, returning to the bear, 
they flayed him, preserving tlie lower skin of the legs with the claws, 
separate from the remainder of the skin. They tilled the body with 
grass and tied a rope around the neck and body, and Ma'asewe led the 
way, holding one end of the rope, he drawing the bear and U'yuuyewe 
holding the other end of the rope to steady the animal. As they ap- 
proached their home they cried, " Mother, mother, see ! " Their mother, 
liearing the cry, called, " What is it my children?" as she advanced to 
meet them, but when she discovered the bear she returned quickly to 
the house, exclaiming: "Let the bear go; do uot bring him here; why 
do you bring the bad bear here?" The boys, following their mother, 
said, " Mother, the bear is dead." 

The boys remained at home two days completing their arrows. Then 
Ma'asewe said to his mother, " Mother, we wish to hunt for deer. Our 
arrows are good and we must have meat." "That is good, my chil- 
dren, but listen. Away to the south lives an eagle in a high rock. 
She has two children. The father also lives there, and these parents 
are very large, and they eat all the little ones they find. Ma'asewe 
replied, "We will not go there." But he was no sooner out of his 
mother's sight than he declared they must go to the home of the 
eagle. After they had proceeded a little way they saw a deer, aiul 
Ma'asewe drew his bow and shot him through the heart. They cut 
the deer down the breast, drew the intestines, and, after cleansing 
them from blood, the boys wrapped them around their necks, arms, 
and breast, over their right shoulders, and around their waists. 
"Now," said Ma'asewe, "we can approach the house of the eagle." 
When the boys drew near the eagles flew to the earth. One eagle, 
catching Ma'asewe and flying far above the house, dropped him on a 
sharp stone ledge in front of his house. The stone was sharp, like the 
blade of a knife, and it broke the intestines of the deer, which pro- 
tected him from the rock, and the blood fell like rain. Ma'asewe lay 
still and the eagle thought he was dead. The mate then descended 
and caught tl'yuuyewe and, flying above her house, dropped him 
also upon the rock. He, too, lay perfectly still, and the eagles thought 
he was dead. "Now," said the eagles, "our children will be hapi)y and 
contented, for they have abundance of meat." In a little while these 
birds started off on a long journey. 

48 THE SIA. 

The young ones, having been informed by their parents that they 
were well provided with food, which would be found iu front of their 
door when hungry, went out for the meat. Ma'asewe and tJ'yuuyewe 
astonished them by speaking to them. They asked, "When will your 
mother return f The children rejilied, "Our mother will return in the 
forenoon." "When your mother returns will she come to this house?" 
"No," replied the young eagles, "she will go to the one above and come 
here later." "When will your father arrive?" "He will come a little 
later." "Will he come here?" they asked. "No; he will go to the 
honse above." Ma'asewe then destroyed the young eagles. After 
killing them he dropped them to the earth below. Upon the return of 
the mother she stood ui)on the rock above, and Ma'asewe aimed his 
arrow at her and shot her through the heart, and she fell to the earth 
dead; and later, when the father returned, he met with the same fate. 

Now, the boys had destroyed the bad eagles of the world. Then 
Ma'asewe said, "Younger brother, how will we get down from here? 
The road to the earth is very long," and, looking up, he said, "The road 
to the rock above is also very long." Presently Ma'asewe saw a little 
K^-ow-uch, or ground squirrel {Tamias striatus), and he called to him, 
saying, "My little brother, we can not get down from here. If you 
will help us we will pay you; we will give you beautiful eagle plumes." 

The squirrel planted a piuon nut directly below the boys, aud in a 
short time — almost immediately — for the squirrel knew much of medi- 
cine, a tall tree was the result. "Now," said the squirrel, "you have a 
good road. This is all right; see?" And the little animal ran up the 
tree and then down again, when the boys followed him. 

Upon their return home their mother inquired, "Where have you 
been?" and when they told her they had visited the house of the eagle 
she said, "You have been very foolish." At first she disbelieved their 
statement that they had destroyed the eagles; but they finally con- 
vinced her and she embraced her boys with pride. Tlie grandmother 
was also highly pleased. 

The boys remained at home only two days, Ma'asewe being impatient 
to be gone, and he said to his brother, " Let us go travel again." The 
home of the boys was near the center of the earth, Ko'chinako remain- 
ing here for a time after their birth. When the mother found they were 
going to travel and hunt again, she begged of them not to go far, for 
there were still bad people about, and Ma'asewe promised that they 
would keep near their home. They had gone but a short distance 
when they saw a woman (a sko'yo) approaching, carrying a large jiack 
which was secured to her back by strings passing around her arms 
near the shoulder. Ma'asewe whispered to his brother: "See! there 
comes a sko'yo." The boys stood side by side, when she apinoached 
and said, "What are you children doing here?" Ma'asewe replied, 
"We are just looking about; nothing more." The sko'yo passing her 
hands over the boys said, "What pretty boys! What pretty children! 


Come with inc to my bouse." "All right, we will go," Ma'asewe being 
the spokesiiiau. "Get into the pack on my back and I will carry you." 
When the boys were tucked away the sko'yo started for her home. 

After a time she came to a broad, level, grassy country and Ma'asewe 
called: "Woman! do not go far in this country where there are no 
trees, for the sun is hot and when there is no shade I get very sick in 
my head. See, woman," he continued, " there in the mountains are trees 
and the best road is there." The sko'yo called out, "All right," and 
started toward the mountains. She came to a point where she must 
stoop to pass under drooping limbs upon which rested branches, which 
had fallen from other trees. Ma'asewe whispered to tTyuuyewe, 
"When she stoojjs to pass under we will catch hold of the tree and 
hang there until she is gone." The boys caught on to the fallen timber 
which rested across the branches of the tree, and the sko'yo traveled 
on unconscious of their escape. When she had gone some tlistance 
she wondered that she heard not a sound and she called, "Children!" 
and no answer; and again she called, "Children," and receiving no 
answer she cried, "Do not go to sleep," and she continued to call, "Do 
not go to sleep." Hearing not a word from the boj's she shook the 
pack in order to awaken them, as she thought they were sleeping 
soundly. This bringing no reply she placed the pack upon tlie ground 
and to her surjjrise the boys were not there. " The bad boys ! the bad 
boys!" she cried, as she retraced her steps to look for them. " Where 
can they be! where can they be?" 

When she discovered them hanging from a tree she called, " You 
bad boys! why are you there?" Ma'asewe said, "No! woman; we are 
not bad. We only wished to stop here and see this timber; it is very 
beautiful." She compelled them to get into the pack and again started 
oft', saying to the children, " You must not go to sleep." The journey 
was long ere the house of the sko'yo was reached. She said, " 1 am 
glad to be home again," and she placed the pack on the floor, telling 
the boys to get out. " My children, I am very tired and hungxy. Run 
out and get me some wood for fire." Ma'asewe whispered to his younger 
brother, " Let us go for the wood." 

In a little while the boys returned with loads of wood on their backs. 
Pointing to a small conical house near by, she said, "Children, carry 
the wood there," and the sko'yo built a fire in the house and called the 
boys to look at it saying, " Children, come here and see the fire; it is 
good and warm." Ma'asewe whispered to his younger brother, "What 
does the woman want?" Upon their approach the sko'yo said, " See! 
I have made a great fire and it is good and warm; look in ;" and as the 
children passed in front of her she pushed them into the house and 
closed the door. She wished to cook the boys for her supper, and she 
smacked her lips with satisfaction in anticipation of the feast in store 
for her. But she was to be disappointed, as the boys threw shells from 
their mouths which instantly protected them from the heat. 
11 ETH i 

50 THE SIA. 

After closiug the door on the boys the woman went into her house 
and bathed all over in a very large bowl of yucca suds, washing her 
head first, and taking a seat she said to herself, "All is well. I am 
most contented and happy." The boys were also contented. The 
woman, thinking it was about time her supper was cooked, removed 
the stone which she had placed in the doorway and secured with plaster. 
The boys had secreted themselves in one side of the house, where they 
kept quiet. What she supposed to be their flesh was i'isa (excrement) 
which the boys had deposited thei'e. The woman removed this with 
great care and began eating it. (This woman had no husband and 
lived alone.) She said to herself, "This is delicious food and cooked 
so well," and again and again she remarked to herself the delicious flavor 
of the flesh of the boys. Finally Ma'asewe cried, "You are not eating 
our flesh but our i'isa," and she looked around but could see no one. 
Then U'yuuyewe called, " You are eating our i'isa," and again she 
listened and looked about, but could see no one. The boys continued 
to call to her, but it was sometime before she discovered them sitting 
in the far end of the room. "What bad boys you are," she cried, "I 
thimght I was eating your flesh." Tlie woman hastened out of the 
house and tickling her throat with her linger vomited up the ofi'al. 

She again sent the boys for wood, telling them to bring much, and 
they returned with large loads on their backs, and she sent them a 
second time and they returned with another quantity. Then she again 
built a fire in the small house and left it, and the two boys exclaimed, 
"What a great fire!" and Ma'asewe called to the woman, "Come here 
and see this fire; see what a hothouse; I guess this time my brother 
and I will die;" and the woman stooped to look at the fire, and 
Ma'asewe said to her, " Look away in there. See, we will surely die 
this time. Look! there is the hottest point!" he standing behind the 
woman and pointing over her shoulder, the woman bending her head 
still lower to see the better, said, "Yes; the fire is best ofl" there." 
"Yes," said Ma'asewe, " it is very hot there;" and the Sko'yo was filled 
with interest, and looked intently into the house. The boys, finally, 
inducing her to stoop very low so that her face was near the doorway, 
pushed her into the hot bed of coals, and she was burned to death. 

The boys rejoiced, and Ma'asewe said, " Now that the woman is dead, 
let us go to her house." They found the house very large, with many 
rooms and doors. In the middle of the floor there was a small circular 
door which Ma'asewe raised, and looking in, discovered that below it 
was very dark. Pointing downward, he said, "Though I can not see, 
I guess this is the most beautiful room. I think I will go below; per- 
haps we will find many good things." As soon as he entered the door 
he disapi^eared from sight and vanished from hearing. U'yuuyewP, 
receiving no reply to his calls, said to himself, " Ma'asewe has found 
many beautiful things below, and he will not answer me; 1 will go and 
see for myself." After entering the door, he knew nothing until he 


found himself by the side of his elder brother, and, passing through 
the doorway, the boys tumbled over and over into a lower world. 

When Ma'asewe reached this new world he was unconscious from 
the fall, but after a time he revived sufficiently to sit up, when he 
beheld U'yuuyewe tumbling down, and he fell by the side of Ma'asewe, 
who was almost dead, and Ma'asewe said, "Younger brother, why did 
you follow me?" After a while U'yuuyewg was able to sit up and 
Ma'asewe remarked: "Younger brother, I think we are in another 
world. 1 do not know where we are, and I do not know what hour it 
is. I guess it is about the middle of the day. What do you think?" 
IT'yuuyewP replied, "You know best, elder brother; whatever you think 
is right," and Ma'asewe said, "xVll right. Let us go now over the road 
to the house where the sun enters iu the evening, for I think this is the 
world where oixr father, the sun, returns at night." 

A little after the middle of the day Ma'asewe was walking ahead of 
U'yuuyewe, who was following close behind, and he said to his younger 
brother as he listened to some noise, "I believe we are coming to a 
village." W^hen they drew a little nearer they heard a drum, aud 
supposed a feast was going on in the plaza, aud in a little while they 
came in sight of the village and saw that there was a great feast there. 
All the people were gathered in the plaza. The chi'ta was a little Avay 
from the village and there was no one iu it, as the boys discovered 
when they approached it, and they ascended the ladder. Ma'asewe 
said, "This is the chi'ta. Let us enter." The mode of entering shows 
this chi'ta to have been built above ground. Upon invading the chi'ta 
they found it very large and very ijretty, and there were many fine bows 
aud arrows hanging on the walls. They took the bows and examining 
them said to one another, "What tine bows and arrows! They are all 
fine. Look," and they were eager to possess them. Ma'asewe proposed 
that they should each take a bow and arrows and hurry away, saying: 
"All the people are in the plaza looking at the dance, and no one will 
see us;" and they hastened from the chi'ta with their treasures. Ma'a 
sewe said, "Younger brother, let us return over the road whence we 

But a short time elai>sed when a man had occasion to visit the chi'ta, 
and he at once discovered footprints, and entering, found that bows 
aud arrows had been stolen ; hurrying to the plaza he informed the 
people of the theft, saying, "Two men have entered the chi'ta. I saw 
their footprints," and the people cried out, " Let us follow them," and 
ran over the road which the boys had taken. The boys had nearly 
reached the point where they had lighted when they entered this lower 
world when the people were close upon tliem. 

The little fellows had to run hard, but they held fast to their bows 
and arrows, and just as they stepped upon the spot where they had 
fallen when they descended, their pursuers being close upon them, a 
whiilwiud carried them up aud through the door and back into the 

52 THE SIA. 

house of the sko'yo. Ma'asewe said, "Younger brother, let u.s hurry 
to our mother. She must be sad. What do you think she imagines 
has become of us?" U'yuuyewe replied, "I guess she thinks we liave 
been killed." The boys started for their home. When they were still 
far from their house Ma'asewe asked, "Younger brother, where do you 
think these bows and arrows were made?" Holding them up befbre 
his eyes as he spoke, he said, " I think they are very fine." U'yuuyewS 
remarked, "Yes, they are fine." 

Ma'asewe then shot one of the arrows a great distance and it made 
much noise, and it was very beautiful and red. U'yuuyewe also shot 
one of his. "Younger brother," said Ma'asewe, "these are fine arrows, 
but thej^ have gone a great way." When they were near their mother's 
house, they again used their bows and were so delighted with the light 
made by the arrows that each shot another and another. The mother 
and grandmother, hearing the uoise, ran out of their house, and became 
much alarmed when they looked to Ti'nia and saw the flashes of light 
and then they both fell as dead. Previous to this time the lightning 
arrows were not known on this earth, as the lightning people had not, 
to the present time, let any of their arrows fall to the earth. When 
the mother was restored she was very angry, and inquired of the boys 
where they had found such arrows, and why they had brought them 
home. "Oh, mother," cried the boys, "they are so beautiful, and we 
like them very much." 

The boys remained at home three days, and on the fourth day they 
saw many he'ash (clouds, like the plains) coming and bringing the 
arrows the boys had shot toward Ti'nia, and when the cloud jjeople 
were over the house of the boys they began watering the earth ; it 
rained very hard, and presently the arrows began falling. IMa'asewe 
cried with delight, "See, younger brother, the lightning people have 
brought our arrows back to us, let us go and gather them." The cloud 
people worked two days sending rain and then returned to their home. 

Ma'asewe said to his mother, "We will go now and pass about the 
country." She begged of them not to go any great distance. " In the 
west," said she, "there is a very bad antelope. He will eat you." Ma'- 
asewe promised the mother that they would not go far, but when at a 
short distance from home he said to his younger brother, " Why does 
not mother wish us to go there?" pointing to the west. "Let us go." 
U'yuuyewe replied, "No, mother does not wish it." He was finally 
persuaded by Ma'asewe, and when near the house of the antelope the 
boys discovered him. There was neither gi-ass nor vegetation, but 
only a sandy plain without trees or stones. " I guess he is one of the 
people who, mother said, would eat us." U'yuuyewg replied, "I guess 
so." Then Ma'asewe said, " Let us go a little nearei-, younger brother." 
" You know what is best, " replied U'yuuyewg, " I will do whatever you 
say, but I think that if you go nearer he will run ofl." They couuciled 
for a time and while they were talking the little Chi'na (mole) came up 



out of his house aud said, "Boys, comedown into my house." "No," 
said they, "we wish to kill the antelope," aud Ma'asewe added, "I 
think you know all about him. " "Yes," said the mole, "I have been 
near him aud passed around him. " Then Ma'asewe requested him to 
go into his house aud prepare a road for them that the antelope might 
not discover their approach. And the mole made an underground 
road to the point where the antelope stood (the antelope facing west) 
and bored a wee hole in the earth over this tunnel, and peeping through 
he looked directly upon the heart of the antelope; he could see 
its pulsations. "Ah, that is good, I think," he exclaimed, and re- 
turning, he hastened to inform the boys. " Now, all is well, " said the 
mole; "j-ou can enter my house and approach the antelope." When 
they reached the tiny opening in the earth Ma'asewe looked u]) and 
said, "See, younger brother, there is the heart of the antelope directly 
above us; I will shoot first;" aud pointing his arrow to the heart of the 
antelope aud drawing his bow strongly he pierced the heart, the shaft 
being buried almost to its end in the body. " We have killed the ante- 
lope," cried Ma'asewe, "now let us return quickly over the under- 
ground road. " While the boys were still in this tunuel, the antelope, 
who was not killed immediately by the shot, was mad with rage and he 
ran first to the west to look for his enemy, but he could see no one; 
then he ran to the south and found no one ; then he turned to the east 
with the same result, and then to the north and saw no one, and he 
returned to the spot where he had been shot, and looking to the earth 
discovered the diminutive opening. "Ah," said he, " I think there is 
some one below who tried to kill me." By this time the boys were 
quite a distance from the hole through which the arrow had passed. 
The antelope thrust his left horn into the opening aud tore up the 
earth as he ran along above the tunuel. It was like inserting a knife 
under a ^jiece of hide; but he had advanced only a short distance when 
he fell dead. The youths then came up from the house of the mole aud 
cried out, "See! the antelope is dead." 

Ma'asewe said, "Younger brother! let us go and get the flesh of the 
antelope." IJ'yuuyewe remarked, "perhaps he is not yet dead. " The 
mole said, "you boys wait here; I will go and see if he still lives," and 
after examining and passing around him, he found that the body was 
quite cold, aud returning to the boys said, "Yes, boys, the autelope is 
dead." "Perhaps you do not speak the truth," said Ma'asewe, but 
the mole repeated "The antelope is dead." Ma'asewe insisted, how- 
ever, that the mole should again examine him and the little animal made 
a second visit. This time he di^iped his hands into the heart's blood of 
the animal and rubbed it all over his face, head, body, arms, and legs, 
for Ma'asewe had accused him of lying and he wished this time to 
carry proof of the death of the antelope; and returning to the boys he 
cried, "See, boys, I am covered with the blood, and I did not lie." Then 
Ma'asewe proposed that the three should go together; aud when they 

54 ■ THE SIA. 

reached the autelope, Ma'asewe cut the breast with his stone knife, 
l)assing the knife from the throat downwards. The boys then flayed 
the antelope; Ma'asewe cut the heart and the flesh into bits, throwing 
tlie pieces to the north, west, south, and east, declaring that hereafter 
the antelope should not be an enemy to his people, saying, "His flesh 
shall furnish food for my people. " Addressing the antelope he com- 
manded, ''From this time forth you will eat only vegetation and not 
flesh, for my i^eople are to have your flesh for food. " He then said to 
the mole, ''The intestines of the antelope will be food for you," and the 
mole was much pleased, and promptly replied, "Thank you; thank 
you, boys." 

The boys now leturned to their home and their mother, who, on 
meeting them, inquired, "Where have you been? You have been gone 
a long time ; I thought you were dead ; where have you been '?" Ma'asewe 
answered, " We have been to the house of the antelope who eats people." 
The mother said, " You are very disobedient boys." Ma'asewe con- 
tinued, "We have killed the antelope, and now all the giants who 
devoured our people are destroyed, and all the people of the villages 
will be happy, and the times will be good." 

After Ma'asewe and U'yuuyewe had destroyed the giant enemies of 
the world the people were happy and were not afraid to travel about; 
even the little children coirld go anywhere over the earth, and there 
was ciintinual feasting and rejoicing among all the villages. 

The Oraibi held a great feast (at that time the Oraibi did not live 
in their present pueblo); Ma'asewe and U'yuuyewg desired to attend 
the feast, and telling their mother of their wish, she consented to tbeir 
going. When they were near the village ot the Oraibi they discovered 
the home of the bee, and Ma'asewe said, " See, brother, the house of 
the bee; let us go in; I guess there is much honey." They found a 
large comb full of honey, and Ma'asewe proposed to his brother that 
they cover their whole bodies with the honey, so that the Oraibi wcnild 
not know them and would take them for i)oor, dirty boys; "for, as we 
now are, all the world knows us, and to-day let us be unknown." "All 
right!" said IT'yuuyewe, and they smeared themselves with honey. 
"Now," said the boys, "we are ready for the feast. It will be good, for 
the Oraibi are very good people." Upon visiting the plaza they found 
a large gathering, and the housetops were crowded with those looking 
at the dance. The boys, who approached the plaza from a narrow 
street in the village, stood for a time at the entrance. Ma'asewe 
remarked, " I guess all the people are looking at us and thinking we 
are very poor boys; see how they pass back and forth and do not speak 
to us;" but after awhile he said, "We are a little hungry; let us walk 
around and see where we can find something to eat." They looked in 
all the houses facing upon the plaza and saw feasting within, but no 
one invited them to enter and eat, and though they inspected every 
house in the village, they were invited into but one. At this house 
the woman said, ''Boys, come in and eat; I guess you are liuiigry." 



After the repast they thanked her, saying, "It was very good." Then 
Ma'asewe said, "You, woman, and you, man," addressing her husband, 
"you and all your family are good. We have eaten at your house; 
we give you many thanks; and now listen to what I have to say. I 
wish you and all of your children to go off a distance to another house ; 
to a house which stands alone; the round house off from the village. 
All of you stay there for awliile." The boys then left. After they had 
gone the woman drank from the bowl which they had usea, and, 
smacking her lips, said to her husband, "There is something very sweet 
in this bowl." Then all the children drank from it, and they found the 
water sweet, and the woman said, "Let us do the will of these boys; 
let us go to the house;" and, the husband consenting, they, with their 
children, went to the round house and remained for a time. 

Ma'asewe and U'yuuyewe lingered near the village, and the people 
were dancing in the plaza and feasting in their houses, when suddenly 
they were all transformed into stone. Those who were dancing, and 
those who sat feasting, and mothers nourishing infants, all were alike 
petrified ; and the beings, leaving these bodies, immediately ascended, 
and at once became the piuonero (Canada jay). The boys, returning to 
their home, said, "Mother, we wish food; we are hungry." Their 
mother inquired, "Why are you hungry; did you not get enough at 
the feast?" "No; weare very hungry and wish something to eat." The 
mother again asked if it was not a good feast. "Yes," said Ma'asewe, 
"bat we are hungry." The mother, suspecting something \\Tong, re- 
marked, "I am afraid you have been bad boys; I fear you destroyed 
that village before you left." Ma'asewe answered "No." Four times 
the mother expressed her fears of their having destroyed the village. 
Ma'asewe then confessed, "Yes; we did destroy the village. When 
we went to the feast at Oraibi we were all day with hungry stomachs, 
and we were not asked to eat anywhere except in one house." And 
when the mother heard this she was angry, and Ma'asewe continued, 
"And this is the reason that I destroyed the villlage," and the mother 
cried, "It is good! I am glad you destroyed the people, for they were 
mean and bad." 

When the boys had been home but two days their hearts told them 
that there was to be a great dance of the Ka'*suna at a village located 
at a ruin some 18 miles north of the present pueblo of Sia. The Ti'ii- 
moni of this village had, through his officials, invited all the people of 
all the villages near and far to come to the great dance. Ma'asewe 
said to his mother and grandmother (the spider woman), "We are going 
to the village to see the dance of the Ka"suna." They replied, "We 
do not care much to have you go, because you, Ma'asewe and U'yuuy- 
ew6, are both disobedient boys. When you go off to the villages you 
do bad things. At Oraibi you converted the people into stone, and 
perhaps you will behave at this village as you did at Oraibi." Ma'a- 
sewe replied, "No, mother, no! We go only to see the Ka"suna, and 
we wish to go, for we know it is to be a great dance; we wish very 

56 THE SI A. 

much to see it, and will not do as we did at Oiaibi." Finally, the 
mother and grandmother said, "If you are satisfied to go and behave 
like good boys we will consent." It was a long way off, and the boys 
carried their bows and arrows that their father, the sun, had given 
them. They had proceeded but a short distance from their home, when 
the sun told them each to get on an arrow, and the father drew his bow, 
shooting both arrows simultaneously, the arrows striking the earth 
near where the dance was to occur. The boys alighted from their ar- 
rows and walked to the village. Every oue wondered how they could 
have reached the village in so short a time. The boys stopped at the 
door of a house and, looking in, saw many people eating. They stood 
there awhile but were not asked in, and they passed on from door to 
door, as they had done at Oraibi, and no one invited them to eat. It 
was a very large village, and the boys walked about all day, and they 
were very angry. Discovering a house a little apart from the village, 
Ma'asewe said, "Let us go there," pointing to the house; "perhaps 
thei'e we may get food," and upon reaching the door they wei'e greeted 
by the man, woman, and children of the house, and were invited to eat. 
The boys were, as before, disguised with the honey spread over their 
bodies. After the meal Ma'asewe, addressing the man and woman, 
said: "You and your children are the first and only ones to invite us 
to enter a house and eat, and we are happy, and we give you thanks. 
We have been in this village all day and, until now, have had nothing 
to eat. I guess the people do not care to have us eat with them. Why 
did your tiJimoni invite people from all villages to come hej-e? He was 
certainly not pleased to see us. You (addressing the man and woman) 
and your children must leave this village and go a little way off. It 
will be well for you to do so." 

And this family had no sooner obeyed the commands of the boys 
than the people of the village were converted into stone, just as they 
were passing about, the Ka"suna as they stood in line of the dance, 
some of them with their hands raised. It was never known what be- 
came of the beings of the Ka"suna. Ma'asewe then said: "Younger 
brother, now what do you think?" U'yuuyewe replied, "I do not think 
at all; you know." "Yes," said Ma'asewe, "and I think perhaps I will 
not return to my house, the house of my mother and grandmother. I 
think we will not return there: we have converted the people of two 
villages into stone, and I guess our mother will be very unhappy." 
And again Ma'asewe said: " What do you think?" and U'yuuyewe re- 
plied, "I do n(jt think at all; you, Ma'asewe, you think well." Then 
Ma'asewe said, "All right; I think now I should like to go to see our 
father." " Well," said U'yuuyewe, "let us go to him." 

There was a great rainbow (Kash'-ti-arts) in ti'nia; the feet of the 
bow were on the earth and the head touched the heavens. " Let us be 
ofi'," said the boys. They stepped upon the rainbow, and in a short 
space of time the boys reached their father, the sun, who was in mid- 
heavens. The bow traveled fast. The sun saw the boys approaching 


on the bow and knew them to be his chiklren. He always kept watch 
over them, and when they drew near the father said, " My children, I 
am very happy to see yon. You have destroyed all the giants of the 
earth who ate my people, and I am contented that they are no more; 
and it was well you converted the people of the two villages into stone. 
They were not good people." Then Ma'asewe said: "Father, listen to 
me while I speak. We wish you to tell us where to go." "Yes," said 
the father, "I will; I know where it is best for you to make your home. 
Now, all the people of the earth are good and will be good from this 
time forth (referring to the destruction of the Sia by the cannibals). I 
think it will be well for you to make your home there high above the 
earth," ])ointiug to the Sandia mountain, "and not return to thepeoxjle 
of the earth," " All right, my father," replied Ma'asewe; " we are con- 
tented and happy to do as you say." 

Before leaving their jjeople Ma'asewe organized the cult societies of 
the upper world. These tiny heroes then made their home in the Sandia 
mountain, where they have since remained, traveling, as before, on the 

The diminutive footprints of theso boys are to be seen at the en- 
trance of their house (the crater of the mountain) by the good of heart, 
but such privilege is afforded only to the ti'iimoni and certain theurg- 
ists, they alone having perfect hearts; and they claim that on looking 
through the door down into the house they have seen melons, corn, and 
other things which had been freshly gathered. 

After the exi)iration of four years the ti'iimoni desired to travel on 
toward the center of the earth, but before they had gone far they found, 
to their dismay, that the waters began to rise as in the lower world, 
and the whole earth became one vast river. The waters reached nearly 
to the edge of the mesa, which they ascended lor safety. The ti'amoni 
made many offerings of plumes and other precious articles to ijropitiate 
the flood, 1)ut this did not stay the angry waters, and so he dressed a 
youth and maiden in their best blankets, and adorned them with many 
pi'ecions beeds and cast them from the mesa top ; and immediately the 
waters began to recede. When the earth was again visible it was very 
soft, so that when the animals went from the mesa they would sink to 
their shoulders. The earth was angry. The ti'amoni called the Ka'- 
pina Society together and said, "I think you know how to make the 
earth solid, so we can pass over it," and the theurgist of that order re- 
plied, "I think I know." The same means was used as on the previous 
occasion to harden the earth. The theurgist of the Ka'pina returning 
said, "Father, I have been working all over the earth and it is now 
hardened." "That is well," said the ti'amoni, "I am content. In four 
days we will travel toward the center of the earth." 

During the journey of the Sia from the white-hoiise in the north they 
built many villages. Those villages were close together, as the Sia did 
not wish to travel far at any one time. Finally, having concluded they 
had about reached the center of the earth, they determined to build a 



permanent home. The ti'iimoni, desiring that it should be an exact 
model of their house of white stone in the north, held a council, that he 
might gain information regarding the construction, etc., of the white 
village. "I wish," said the ti'iimoni, "td build a village here, after our 
white-house of the north, but I cannot remember clearly the construction 
of the lumse," and no one could be found in the group to give a detailed 
account of the plan. The council was held during the night, and the 
ti'amoni said, "To-morrow I shall have some one return to the white- 
house, and carefully examine it. I think the Si'sika (swallow) is a 
good man; he has a good head; and I think I will send him to the 
white-house," and calling the Si'sika he said: "Listen attentively; I 
wish you to go and study the structure of the white-house in the north ; 
learn all about it, and bring me all thedetails of the buildings ; how one 
house joins another." The Si'sika replied, "Very well, father; I will 
go early in the morning." Though the distance was great, the Si'sika 
visited the white-house, and returned to the ti'amoni a little after the 
sun had eaten (noon). "Father," said the Si'sika, " I have examined 








Fio, 15. Diagram tiftlie white liouse of tlie uorlli. drawu by a tlit-urgiHt. 

Lines indicate houses. 

a, Street. d, Doorwiiy of tlie north wind. 

b, Plaza. e, Tlie great cbita. 

c, Plaza. /, Cougar, mother of the nortli village. 

the white house in the north carefidly, flying all over it and about it. I 
examined it well and can tell you all about it." The ti'iimoni was pleased, 
for he had thought much concerning the white house, which was very 

He at once ordered all hands to work, great labor being required in 
the construction of the village after the plan laid down by the Si'sika. 
Upon the completion of this village, the ti'amoni named it Koasaia. 
It is located at the ruin some 2i miles north of the present site of Sia. 
(Pig. 15.) It is an accurate copy of a plan drawn by the theurgist who 
first related the cosmogony to the writer. 


The thenrgist explained that the cougar could not leave her post at 
the white stone village of the north ; therefore, the lynx was selected as 
her representative at this village. And no such opening as shown in 
d existed in the duplit-ated village, as the doorway of the north wind 
was ever in the north village. And the ti'iimoni, witli all his people, 
entered the large chita and held services of thanksgiving. Great was 
the rejoicing upon the completi(ui of the village, and the people planted 
corn and soon had fine fields. 

The Sia occupied this village at the time of their visit from Po'shai- 
yiinne, the quasi messiah, after he had attained his greatness, and 
when he made a tour of the pueblos before going into Mexico. 

Po'shaiyiinne was born of a virgin at the pueblo of Pecos, New Mexico, 
who became pregnant from eating two piiion nuts. The writer learned 
through Dr. Shields, of Archuleta, New Mexico, that the Jemez Indians 
have a similar legend. When want and starvation drove the Pecos 
Indians from their pueblo they sought refuge with the Jemez. Philol- 
ogists claim that the languages of the Pecos and Jemez belong to the 
same stock. Tlie woman was very much chagrined at the birth of her 
child, and when he was veiy young she cast him off and closed her 
doors upon him. He obtained food and shelter as best he could ; of 
clothing he had none but the rags cast off by others. While still'a 
little boy he would follow the ti'amoni and theurgists into the chita 
and sit apart by the ladder, and listen to their wise talk, and when 
they wished a light for their cigarettes Po'shaiyiinne would pass a 
brand from one to another. But no one ever spoke to him or tlianked 
him, but he continued to follow the wise men into the chita and to 
light their cigarettes. Even when he reached years when other youths 
were invited to sit with the ti'amoni and theurgists and learn of them, 
he was never spoken to or invited to leave his seat by the entrance. 

Upon arriving at the state of manhood he, as usual, sat in the chita 
and passed the light to those present. Great was the surprise when it 
was discovered that a string of the rarest turkis encircled his right 
wrist. After he had lighted each cigarette and had returned to his 
seat by the entrance, the ti'amoni called one of his men t(( him and 
said, "What is it I see upon the wrist of the boy Po'shaiyiinne; it looks 
like the richest turkis, but surely it can not be. Go and examine it." 
The man did as he was bid, and, returning, told the ti'iiinoni that it was 
indeed as he had supposed. The ti'iimoni requested the man to say to 
the youth that he wished to know where he obtained the turkis and 
that he desired to buy the bracelet of him. When the man repeated 
the message, Po'shaiyiinne said, " I can not tell him how it came upon 
my wrist, and I do not wish to sell it." The reply being delivered to 
the ti'amoni, he said to his messenger, " Eeturu to the youth and tell 
him I have a fine house in the north. It and all its contents shall be 
his in exchange for the bracelet." The people present, hearing the 
words of the ti'iimoni, regretted that he offered his house and all therein 

60 THE SIA. 

for the bracelet, but they did not say anything as they thought he knew 
best. The message being delivered to Po'shaiyiinne, he said, "Very 
well, I will give the bracelet for the house and all it contains." The 
ti'iinioni then called Po'shaiyiinne to him and examined tlie bracelet, 
and his heart was glad because he was to have the jewels. He then 
begged Po'shaiyiinne to be seated, saying, " We will play the game 

In playing the favorite game of Wash'kasi (Fig. 16), forty peb- 
bles form a square, ten pebbles on a side, with a flat stone in the 
center of the square. Four flat sticks, painted black on one side and 
unpainted on the other, are held vertically and dropped upon the 
stone. The ti'iimoni threw first. Two black and two unpainted sides 
faced up. Two of the painted sides being up entitled the player to 

Po-e/iai-yeut-rie^s t^^ mow 

a ooooooo 

7i •CL-mo-nib y-'-move "^ ^/^ more j< 


/'o-sJuu-yan- ■nei2'^riwy» 


Ti-a.-mo-ni's-J-'^mare Po-shai-yan-nc's 3''-^moyv, 

Fifi. 16. The game of Waai'liasi. 

move two stones to the right. Po'shaiyiinne then threw, turning ui) 
the four painted sides. This entitled him to move ten to the left. The 
ti'iimoni threw and three painted sides faced up. This entitled him to 
move three stones to the right. Again Po'sbaij'iinne threw and all the 
colored sides faced up, entitling him to move ten more. Tlie next 
throw of the ti'amoni showed two colored sides and he moved two 
more. Po'shaiyiinne tlirew again, all the colored sides being up ; then 
he moved ten. The ti'iimoni then threw and all four unpainted sides 
turned up; this entitled him to move six. Po'shaiyiinne threw and 
again all the painted sides were up, entitling him to move ten, which 
brought him to the starting point, and won him tlie game. 

The following morning, after the ti'iimoni had eaten, they went into 
the chita as usual; Po'shaiyiinne, following, took his seat near the 
entrance, with a blanket wrapped around him. When he approached 
the ti'iimoni to hold the lighted stick to his cigarette, the ti'iimoni's 
astonishment was great to find a second bracelet, of ko-ha(iua,^ upon 
the wrist of Po'shaiyiinne. Each bead was large and beautiful. The 

' Though it ia not mentioned in the story, it seems to be understood that these games were played 
for the houses, for had Po'shaiyiinne Icist the games he would have lost the houses 
^Ancient flat shell beads as thin as paper. 


ti'iimoni urged Po'shaiyiiuue not ti) return to his seat by tlie ladder, 
but to sit with them; but he declined, and then a messenger was sent 
to examine the bracelet, and the man's report excited a great desire in 
the ti'iimoni to secure to liimself this second bracelet, and his house in the 
west, with all that itcontained, was offered in exchange for the bracelet. 
This house was even finer than the one in the north. Po'shaiytinne 
replied that if the ti'jimoni wished the bracelet, he would excliange it 
for the house in the west. Then he was invited to be seated near the 
ti'amoni, who placed between them a large bowl containing six 2-inch 
cubes, which were highly polished and painted on one side. The 
ti'amoni said to Po'shaiyanne, "Hold the bowl with each hand, and 
toss up the six cubes. When three painted sides are up the game is 
won; with only two painted sides up the game is lost. Six painted 
sides up is equivalent to a march in euchre." Po'shaiyanne replied, 
"You first, not I. You are the ti'amoni; I am no one." "No," said the 
ti'iimoni, "you play first;" but Po'shaiyiinne refused, and the ti'amoni 
tossed up the blocks. Only two painted sides were up; Po'shaiyiinne, 
then taking the bowl, tossed the blocks, and all the painted sides 
turned up. Again the ti'amoni tried his hand, and three liaiuted sides 
faced up; then Po'shaiyiinne threw and the six jiainted sides were up. 
The ti'iimoni again tlirew, turning up two painted sides only; then 
Po'shaiyiinne threw, with his previous success. The ti'iimoni threw, 
and again two painted sides were up. Po'shaiyiinne threw, and six 
painted sides faced up as before, and so a second house went to him. 
The ti'iimoni said, "We will go to our homes and sleep, and return to 
the chita in the morning, after we have eaten." 

The following morning Po'shaiyiinne took his seat at the usual place, 
but the ti'iimoni said to him: "Come and sit among us; you are now 
more than an ordinary man, for you have two houses that belonged to 
the ti'iimoni," but Po'shaiyiinne refused and proceeded to light the 
stick to pass around for the lighting of the cigarettes. When he ex- 
tended his hand to touch the stick to the cigarettes it was discovered 
that he wore a most beautiful bracelet, which was red, but not coral. 
The ti'iimoni again sent an emissary to negotiate for the bracelet, offer- 
ing Po'shaiyiinne his house in the south in exchange for the red brace- 
let. Po'shaiyiinne consented and again a game was played. Four cir- 
cular sticks some 8 inches long, with hollow ends, were stood in line 
and a blanket thrown over them; the ti'iimoni then put a round pebble 
into the end of one, and removing the blanket asked Po'shaiyanne to 
choose the stick containing the pebble. "No, my father," said Po'- 
shaiyiinne, "you first. What am I that I should choose before you?" 
but the ti'jimoni replied, " I placed the stone; I know where it is." 
Then Po'shaiyiinne selected a stick and raising it the pebble was visi- 
ble. Po'shaiyiinne then threw the blanket over the sticks and placed 
the stone in one of them, after which the ti'amoni selected a stick and 
raised it, but no stone was visible. This was repeated four times. Each 

62 THE SIA. 

time tlie ti'anioiii failed and Po'shaiyauue .succeeded, and again the 
bouse in the south went to Po'shaiyanne. 

The next day when all had assembled in the chita and Po'shaiyanne 
advanced to light the cigarettes a bracelet of rare black stone beads 
was noticed on his wrist. This made the ti'amoni's heart beat with 
envy and he determined to have the bracelet though he must part with 
his house iu the east; and he offered it in exchange for the bracelet, 
and Po'shaiyanne accepted the offer. The ti'iimoni then made four little 
mounds of sand and throwing a blanket over them placed in one a small) 
round stone. Then raising the blanket he requested Po'shaiyanne to 
select the mound in which he had placed the stone. Po'shaiyanne said : 
" My father, what am I that I should choose before you ? " The ti'amoni 
replied, " I placed the stone and know where it is." Then Po'shaiyanne 
selected a mound, and the one of his selection contained the stone. 
The placing of the stone was repeated four times, and each time the 
ti'amoni failed, and Poshaiyanne was successful; and the hearts of all 
the people were sad when they knew that thishouse was gone, but they 
said nothing, for they believed their ti'amoni knew best. The ti'amoni 
said : " We will now go to our homes and sleep, and on the morrow; 
when we have eaten, we will assemble here." 

In the morning Po'shaiyanne took his accustomed place, entering 
after the others. Upon his offering the lighted stick for the cigarettes 
the people were struck with amazement, for on the wrist of Po'shai- 
yanne was another bracelet of turkisof marvelous beauty, and when 
the ti'amoni discovered it his heart grew hungry for it and he sent one 
of his men to offer his house of the zenith. Po'shaiyanne replied that 
he would give the bracelet for the house. This house contained many 
precious things. The ti'iimoni requested Po'shaiyanne to come and sit 
by him; and they played the game Wash'kasi and, as before, Po'shai- 
yanne was successful and the house of the zenith fell to him. 

The following morning, when the people had assembled in the chita and 
as Po'shaiyanne iiassed the stick to light the cigarettes, the ti'amoni 
and all the people saw upon his wrist another bracelet of large white 
beads. They were not like the heart of a shell, but white and trans- 
lucent. The ti'amoni could not resist the wish to have this rare string 
of beads, and he sent one of his men to offer his house of the nadir for 
it. When Po'shaiyanne agreed to the exchange, all the people were 
sad, that the ti'amoni should part with his house, but they said nothing 
and the ti'amoni was too much pleased with the beautiful treasure to 
be regretful. He had Po'shaiyanne come and sit by him and again 
play the game with the six blocks in the large bowl. The game was 
played with success on the part of Po'shaiyanne and he became the 
owner of the sixth house. 

On the following day when all were gathered in the chita the ti'amoni 
said to Po'shaiyanne: "Gome and sit with us; surely you are now 
equal with me, and you are rich indeed, for you have all my houses," 


MAGIC. 63 

but lie refused, only passing among- tlieurgists and people to offer the 
lighted stick for the cigarettes. When he extended his hand a bracelet 
was discovered more beautiful than any of the others. It was pink and 
the stones were very large. The ti'iimoni upon seeing it cried, "Alas ! 
alas ! This is more beautiful and precious than all the others, but all 
my houses and treasures are gone. I have nothing left but my people; 
my old men and old women ; young men and maidens and little ones." 
Addressing the people, he said: "My children, what would you think 
of yourti'iimoni should he wish to give you to this youth for the beauti- 
ful beads?" They replied, "You are our father and ruler; you are 
wise and know all things that are best for us;" but their hearts were 
heavy and sad, and the ti'iimoni hesitated, for his heart was touched 
with the thought of giving up his jieople whom he loved ; but the more he 
thought of the bracelet the greater became his desire to secure it, and he 
appealed a second time to his people and they answered: "You know 
best, our father," and the people were very sad, but the heart of the ti'ii- 
moui though touched was eager to possess the bracelet. He sent one of 
his men to offer in exchange for the bracelet all his people, and Po'shai- 
yiiune replied that he would give the bracelet for the people. Then the 
ti'iimoni called the youth to him, and they repeated the game of the 
four sticks, hollowed at the ends. Po'shaiyanne was successful, and the 
ti'iimoni said : " Take all my people ; they are yours ; my heart is sad to 
give them up, and you must be a good father to them. Take all the 
things I have, I am no longer of any consequence." "Xo,"said Po'- 
shaiyiinne; " I will not, for should I do so I would lose my power over 
game." The two remained in the chita and talked for a long time, 
the ti'iimoni addressing Po'shaiyiinne as father and Po'shaiyiinne call- 
ing the ti'iimoni father. 

After a time Po'shaiyiinne determined to visit all the pueblos, and 
then go into Mexico. 

He was recognized by the Sia at once upon his arrival, for they had 
known of him and sung of him, and they looked for him. He entered 
the chita in company with the ti'iimoni (the one appointed by tTt'set) 
and the theurgists. It was not until Po'shaiyiinne's visit to the Sia 
that they possessed the power to capture game. The men were often 
sent out by the ti'iimoni to look for game, but always returned without 
it, saying they could see the animals and many tracks but could catch 
none; and their ruler would reply: "Alas! my children, you go f(n' the 
deer and return without any ; " and thus they hunted all over the earth 
but without success. 

After Po'shaiyiinne's talk with the ti'iimoni, and learning his wish 
for game, he said: "Father, what have you for me to do?" And the 
ti'iimoni replied: "My children have looked everywhere for deer, and 
they can find none; they see many tracks, but they can not catch the 
deer." "Well," replied Po'shaiyiinne, "I will go and look for game." 
He visited a high mountain in the west, from whose summit he could 
see all over the earth, and looking to the north, he saw on the toj) of a 

64 THE SIA. 

great mountain a white deer. The deer was passing toward the south, 
and he said to himself, " Why can not the Sia catch deer ? " And look- 
ing to the west, he saw a yellow antelope on the summit of a high 
mountain. He, too, was passing to the south, and Po'shaiyiinne .said 
to himself, "Why can they not catch antelope?" And he looked to 
the south, and .saw on the great mountain of the south a sheep, which 
was also passing to the south, and he looked to the east, and there, on 
a high peak, he saw the buffalo, who was passing to the south ; and 
then, looking all over the earth, he saw that it was covered with rab- 
bits, rats, and all kinds of small animal.s, and that the air was filled 
with birds of every description. Then, returning to the ti'iimoni, he 
said : "My mother, my father, why do your children say they can catch 
no gamel When I first looked to the mountain of the north I saw the 
deer, and to the west I saw the antelope, and to the south the moun- 
tain sheep, and to the east the buffalo, and4he earth and air were filled 
with animals and birds." The ti'amoni inquired how he could see all 
over the earth. He doubted Po'shaiyiinne's word. Then Po'shaiyiinne 
said : "In four days I will go and catch deer for you." " Well," said the 
ti'iimoni, "when you bring the deer I will believe. Until then I must 
think, perhaps, you do not speak the truth." 

For three days the men were busy making bows and arrows, and 
during these days they observed a strict fast and practiced contiuency. 
On the fourth morning at sunrise Po'shaiyiinne, accompanied by Ma'a- 
sewe and tJyuuyewe, who came to the earth to greet Po'shaiyiinne, 
and the men of the village, started on the hunt. They ate before leav- 
ing the village, and after the meal Po'shaiyiinne asked: "Are you all 
ready for the hunt!" And they replied: "Yes; we are ready." Po'- 
shaiyiinne, Ma'asewe, and iJyuuyewg started in advance of the others, 
and when some distance ahead Po'shaiyiinne made a fire and sprinkled 
meal to the north, the west, the south, and the east, that the deer might 
come to him over the roads of meal. He then made a circle of meal, 
leaving an opening through which the game and hunters might pass, 
and when this was done all of the men of the village formed into a 
group a short distance from Po'shaiyiinne, who then played on his 
flute, and, holding it upward, he played first to the north, then west, 
then south, and then east. The deer came over the four roads to him 
and entered the great circle of meal. Ma'asewe and tiyuuyewP called 
to all the people to come and kill the deer. It was now before the 
middle of the day. There were many deer in the circle, and as the 
people approached they said one to another : " Perhaps the deer are 
large; iierhaps they are small." 

(The deer found by the Sia in this world are quite different from those 
in the lower world. Those in the lower world did not come to this 
world ; they are called sits' tii-ne, water deer. These deer lived in the 
water, but they grazed over the mountains. They were very large, 
with great antlers. The deer in this world are much smaller and have 
smaller antlers.) 


The circle was entered at the southeast, Ma'asewe passing aronndthe 
circle to the left was followed by half of the people, tlyuuyewii passing 
to the right around the circle, preceded the remainder. As soon as they 
had all entered Po'shaiyiinne closed the opening; he did not go into the 
circle but stood by the entrance. The deer were gradually gathered 
into a close group and were then shot with arrows. When all the deer 
had been killed they were flayed, and the flesh and skins carried to the 
village. As they passed from the circle Po'shaiyiinne said, " Now carry 
your meat home. Give your largest deer to the ti'anioni and the smaller 
ones to the people of your houses." After the Sia had started for their 
village Po'shaiyiinne destroyed the circle of meal and then returned 
to the ti'amoni, who said : " You, indeed, spoke the truth, for my people 
have brought many deer, and 1 am much pleased. On the morrow we 
will kill rabbits." The ti'iinioni informed the coyote of his wish for the 
rabbits, and in the morning a large fire was made, and the coyote spoke 
to the fire, saying: "We desire many rabbits but we do not wish to go 
far." He then threw meal to the cardinal points, zenith, and nadii', 
and prayed that the sun father would cause the small and large rabbits 
to gather together that they might not have to go a great distance to 
find them, for as he, the father, wished, so it would be, and Ma'asewe 
and the coyote sat down while the people gathered around the tire and 
passed their rabbit sticks through the flames. Then Ma'asewe directed 
them to start on the hunt. They formed into an extensive circle sur- 
rounding the rabbits, and a great number were secured. Some were 
killed by being struck immediately over their hearts. It was very late 
when the people returned to the village laden with rabbits. 

The ti'iinioni said: "Day after to-morrow we will have a feast." 
Po'shaiyiinne agreeing, said : " It is well, father." All the women 
worked hard for the feast. Half of their number worked for the ti'iinioni 
and half for Po'shaiyiinne. The ti'iinioni going alone to the house of 
Po'shaiyiinne, said: "Listen: to-morrow you will have the great feast 
at your house." Po'shaiyiinne replied: " No, father; you are the elder, 
and you must have it at your house." The ti'iimoni answered: " Very 
well, my house is good and large; I will have it there." 

In the morning, when the sun was still new, the ti'amoni had the 
feast spread — bowls of mush, bread, and meat; and he said to Po'shai- 
yiinne, who was present: "Father, if you have food bring it to my 
house and we will have our feast together." Po'shaiyiinne replied : " It 
IS well, father;" and, to the astonishment of all, Po'shaiyiinne's food im- 
mediately appeared. It was spread on tables;' the bowls holding the 
food being very beautiful, such as had never before been seen. The 
ti'iimoni told Ma'asewe to bid the people come to the feast; and all, in- 
cluding the most aged men and women and youngest children, were 
present. Upon entering the house they were surprised with the things 

' Thia reference to tables appears to evidence the fact that this portion of the coBmogony is of later 
date, and the whole paragraph savors of a coloring from Christian or biblical teaching. 
11 ETH 5 

66 THE SIA, 

they saw on Po'shaiyiinne's table, and all who could went to liis table 
in preference to sitting before the ti'amoni's. Even the water upon 
Po'shaiyaune's table was far better than that furnished by the ti'amoni ; 
and those who drank of this water and ate Po'shaiyiinne's food imme- 
diately became changed, their skins becoming whiter than before; but 
all could not eat from Po'shaiyaune's board and many had to take the 
food of the ti'iimoni, and they remained in appearance as before. 

After this feast, Po'shaiyiiune visited all the pueblos and then passed 
on to Chihuahua in Mexico. Before Po'shaiyanne left the Sia, he said 
to them: "I leave you, but another day I will return to you, for this 
village is mine for all time, and I will return first to this village." To 
the ti'amoni he said : "Father, you are a ti'amoni, and I also am one; we 
are as brothers. All the people, the men, the women, and the children 
are mine, and they are yours; and I will return to them again. Watch 
for me. I will return;" and he added, " In a short time another people 
will come; but before that time, such time as you may choose, I wish 
you to leave this village, for my heart is here and it is not well for an- 
other people to come here; therefore depart fiom this village before 
they come near." 

Upon entering the plaza in Chihuahua Po'shaiyanne met the great 
chief, who invited him to his home, where he became acquainted with 
his daughter. She was very beautiful, and Po'shaiyanne told the 
chief that he was much pleased with his daughter and wished to make 
her his wife. The chief replied : "If you desire to marry my daughter 
and she wishes to many you, it is well." Upon the father questioning 
the daughter the girl replied in the afQrmative. Then the father and 
mother talked much to the daughter and said : "To-morrow you will 
be married." The chief sent one of his oflBcials to let it be known to all 
the people that Po'shaiyanne and his daughter were to be united in mar- 
riage in the morning, and many assembled, and there was a great feast 
in the house of the chief. Many men were pleased with the chiefs 
daughter, and looked with envy upon Po'shaiyanne; and they talked 
together of killing him, and finally warriors came to the house of 
Po'shaiyanne and carried him off to their camp and pierced his heart 
with a spear, and his enemies were contented, but the wife and her 
father were sad. The day after Po'shaiyiinne's death he returned to 
his wife's home, and when he was seen alive those who had tried to 
destroy him were not only angry but much alarmed; and again he was 
captured, and they bound gold and silver to his feet, that after casting 
him into the lake his body should not rise; but a white fluffy feather 
of the eagle fell to him, and as he touched the feather the feather rose, 
and Po'shaiyiinne with it, and he lived again, and he still lives, and some 
time he will come to us. So say the Sia. Po'shaiyiinne's name is held 
in the greatest reverence; in fact, he is regarded as their culture hero', 

' The culture hero of the Sia hears a name similar to that of the corresponding prodigy among the 
Zuui. The same is true of other of their mythological beings. 


and he is appealed to in daily prayers, and the people have no doubt •>{ 
his return. They say: "He may come to-day, to-morrow, or perhaps 
not in our lifetime." 

Soon after Po'shaiyanne's departure ft-om Sia the ti'amoni decided 
to leave his present village, though it pained him much to give up his 
beautiful house. And they moved and built the present pueblo of Sia, 
which village was very extensive. The ti'amoni had first a square of 
stone laid, whirti is to be seen at the present day, emblematic of the 
heart of the village (for a heart must be, before a thing can exist). 
After the building of this village the aged ti'amoni continued to live 
many years, and at his death he was buried in the ground, in a rechniug 
position. His head was covered with raw cotton, with an eagle plume 
attached; his face was painted with corn ijolleu, and cotton was j)laced 
at the soles of his feet and laid over the heart. A bowl of food was 
deposited in the grave, and many hii'chamoni were planted over the 
road to the north, the one which is traveled after death. A bowl of 
food was also placed on the road. All night they sang and prayed iu 
the house of the departed ti'amoni, and early in the morning all those 
who sung were bathed in sirds of yucca made of cold water. 

There are two rudely carved stone animals at the ruined village sup- 
posed to have been visited by Po'shaiyiinne. These the Sia always 
speak of as the cougar, but they say, "In reality they are not the 
cougar, but the lynx, for the cougar remained at the white-house in the 

This cosmogony exhibits a chapter of the Sia philosophy, and though 
this philosophy is fraught with absurdities and contradictions, as is 
the case with all aboriginal reasoning, it scintillates with poetic con- 
ceptions. They continue : 

"The hour is too solemn for spoken words; a new life is to be given 
to us." 

Theirs is not a religion mainly of propitiation, but rather of sui)pli- 
cation for favors and payment for the same, and to do the will of and 
thereby please the beings to whom they pray. It is the paramount oc- 
cupation of their life; all other desirable things come through its 
practice. It is the foundation of their moral and social laws. Children 
are taught from infancy that in order to please the pantheon of their 
mythical beings they must speak with one tongue as straight as the 
line of prayer over which these beings pass to enter the images of 

It will be understood from the cosmogony that the Sia did not derive 
their clan names from animal ancestors, nor do they believe that their 
people evolved from animals, other than the Sia themselves. The 
Zuni hold a similar belief. The Zuui's reference to the tortoise and 
other animals as ancestors is explained in the " Religious Life of the 
Zuni ChUd." ' 

I am of opinion that closer investigation of the North American In- 

I Fifth Anu. Kept. Bu. Eth., pp. 539-.S53. 

fi8 THE SIA. 

dian will reveal that the belief in the descent of a people from beasts, 
plants, or heavenly bodies is not common, though their mythological 
heroes were frequently the offspring of the union of some mortal with the 
sun or other object of reverence. There is no mystery in such unions in 
the philosophy ofthe Indian, for, as not only animatebutinaninate objects 
and the elements are endowed with personality, such beings are not 
only brothers to one another, but hold the same kinship to the Sia, from 
the fact, according to their philosophy, that all are living beings and, 
therefore, all are brothers. This is as clearly defined in the Indian miud 
as our recognition ofthe African as a brother man. 

The spider is an important actor in Sia, Zurii,and Tusayan mythology, 
Sia cosmogony tells us the spider was the primus, the creator of all. 
Sus'sistinnako is referred to as a man, or, more properly, a being pos- 
sessing all power; and as Sus'sistinnako created first man and then 
other beings to serve his first creation, these beings, although endowed 
with attributes superior to man in order to serve him, can hardly be 
termed gods, but rather agents to execute the will of Sus'sistinnako 
in serving the people of his first creation. 

Sus'sistinnako must be supplicated through the mediator tTtsfit, 
who is present at such times in the fetich I'arriko. Ko'shairi and 
Quer'riinna appear for the sun and moon. The war heroes and the 
warriors of the six mountains of the world, the women of the cardinal 
points, and animals, insects, and birds holding the secrets of medicine, 
are present, when invoked, in images of themselves. The Sia can not 
be said to practice ancestor worship. While the road to Shipapo (en- 
trance to the lower world) is crowded with spirits of peoples returning 
to the lower world, and spirits of unborn infants coming from the lower 
world, the Sia do not believe in the return of ancestors when once they 
have entered Shipapo. While many of the kokko (personated l>y per- 
sons wearing masks) are the immediate ancestors of the Zuni, the 
Ka"suna of the Sia, also personated by men and women wearing masks, 
are altogether a distinct creation, and can not be considered to bear 
any relation to ancestor worship. 

The Sia, however, have something as appalling to them as the return 
of the dead, in their belief in witchcraft, those possessing this craft 
being able to assume the form of dogs and other beasts ; and they are 
ever on the alert when traveling about on dark nights, especially if the 
traveler is a man of wealth, as witches are always envious of the finan- 
cial success of others. They create disease by casting into the body 
snakes, worms, stones, bits of fabric, etc. Hair must be burned that 
it may not be found by wizards or witches, who, combining it with 
other things, would cast it into the person fi'om whose head it was cut, 
causing illness and perhaps death. There is, however, a panacea for 
such afflictions in the esoteric power of the theurgists of the secret cult 
societies. A man was relieved of pain in the chest by a snake being 
drawn from the body by au eminent theurgist during the stay of the 


writer at Sia. Such is the effect of faith cure in Sia that, though the man 
was actually suffering from a severe cold, his improvement dated fi'om 
the hour the snake was supposed to have been extracted. 


(Tt'si't, being directed in all tilings by Siis'sTstinnako, originated the 
cult societies of the lower world, giving to certain of them the secrets 
for the healing of the sick. 

The societies are mentioned in their line of succession, most of them 
having been named for the animals of which they were composed. 

The first society organized was the Ka'plna, which included only 
the spider people, its ho'-na-ai-te, ' or theurgist, being Sus'sistinnako 
himself; and as the members of tliis society were directly associated 
with Sfis'sistimiako, they knew his medicine secrets. 

Then followed the societies of the bear, cougar, badger, wolf, and 
shrew {Sorex). 

The his'tiiin ^ (knife) was composed of the cougar and the bear, these 
two societies being consolidated. Sus'sistinnako finding that the bear 
was always dissatisfied and inclined to growl and run from the people 
when they approached, decided to make the cougar first and the bear 
second, giving as his reason that when the i)eople drew near the cougar 
he sat still and looked at them ; he neither growled nor ran, and the 
people were not afraid ; he commanded their respect, but not their fear, 
and fiir this reason Sus'sistinnako united these societies that the bear 
might be second, and under the direction of the cougar. 

The next six societies organized were the snakes, composed of the 
snakes of the cardinal points, the snake of the north being Ska'towe 
(Plumed Ser])cnt), the west Ka'spanna, the south Ko'quaira, the east 
Quis'sera, the heavens Hu'waka, the earth Ta'ai. The Ska'towe (Ser- 
pent of the Xorth) and Ko'quaira (Serpent of the South) having special 
influence over the cloud people, have their bodies marked with cloud 
emblems; the Ka'spanna (Serpent of the West) and the Quis'sera (Ser- 
pent of the East) hold esoteric relations with the sun aud moon; hence 
their bodies are painted with the crescent. Hu'waka (Serpent of the 
Ueavens) has a body like crystal, and it is so brilliant that one's eyes 
can not rest upon him; he is very closely allied to the sun. The Ya'ai 
(Serpent of the Earth) has special relations with Ha'arts (the earth). 
His body is spotted over like the earth, and he passes about over 
Ha'arts until someone approaches, when he hastens into his house in 
the earth. 

The seven ant societies followed the snakes. The five animal soci- 
eties, the six snake societies, the first three ant societies, and the 

' Presiding officer of a cult society. 

^Thia society differed from the one of tiie same name .afterwards organized in the upper world; 
knife in the former referring to the implement used for domestic and other purposes, while the word 
in the latter indicates the arrows presented to Ma'asewe aud U'yuuyewS, the two war heroes, sons of 
the sun, hy their father. 

70 THE SIA. 

society of the eagle were given the secrets of the medicine for healing 
the sick, through the process of sucking, the ant alone receiving the 
secret of the medicine by brnshing; the last four societies of ants were 
instructed in the songs for rain only. The reason given for this di- 
vision is tliat only the first three ants produced irritation or swelling 
from their bites, the last four being peaceable ants. (Fig. 18). 

The next six societies were those of the birds of the cardinal points, 
zenitli and nadir. — The Ha'-te-e, Bird ot the North; Shas'-to, Bird of 
the West; Ma'-pe-un, Bii'd of the South; Shu-wa-kai', Bird of the East; 
Tia'mi, Bird of the Heavens (the eagle) ; Chas'-ka, Bird of the Earth 
(chaparral cock). While these six societies were instructed in the 
songs for rain, the eagle alone learned the medicine songs. It will be 
noticed that only such animals as were regarded as virulent were given 
the secrets of the medicine for healing the sick. All of the animals of 
the world were subordinate to tlie animal societies ; all of the snakes 
of the world were submissive to the six snake societies; all the ants 
and otlier insects were subject to the seven ant societies, and all the 
birds of the world to the six bird societies. 

The next society organized was the Ha'kan, fire. Sus'sistinnako, 
desiring to have fire tliat their food might be cooked, placed a round 
flat stone on the floor and attached a small sliarpened stone to one end 
of a slender round stick; he tlien called togetlier the ho'naaites of the 
cult societies, and the priestly rulers of the Sia and other Indians, re- 
questing each one in proper succession to produce fire by rubbing the 
circular stick between the liands upon the round flat stone. As each 
one attempted to make the fire, a blanket was thrown over him and the 
stone that he might work in perfect seclusion. All failing in their 
efforts (this work being performed in the daytime) Sus'sistinnako 
dismissed them. He then passed through three chambers, carrying 
the fire stone with him, and entering the fourth sat down and thought 
a long while, and after a time he attempted to make the fire and was 
successful. Sus'sistinnako then called in 0t's6t and her principal 
officer (a man of the Sia people), and handing her an ignited fire brand 
of cedar told her to light a fire, and this fire burued four days and nights. 
Ijt'set, obeying tlie command of Sus'sistinnako, requested her officer 
to place a ho'naaite of a snake society at the first door, the ho'naaite of 
the Hls'tiiin and his vice (the cougar and a bear) at the second and third 
doors, and to guard the inner door himself, thatnoonemight enter and 
see the fire. On the fifth day all the people discovered the smoke, which 
escaped from the chamber, and they wondered what it could be, for as 
yet they did not know fire. On the sixth inor: .ng Sus'sistinnako said 
to the officer of tJt'sPt, " I will now organize a fire society and I appoint 
you the ho'naaite of the society." On this same morning the ho'naaites 
of the cult societies and the priestly rulers of the Indians were called to 
the chamber to see the fire and fo understand it. Tlien the ho'naaite 
of the fire society carried some of the tire to the house of the ruler of 
the Sia. 


Ko'shairi received directly from the sun valuable medicine for rain, 
and so the songs of the Ko'shairi are principally invocations for rain 
to fructify the earth. 

Quer'riinna's office is similar to that of the Ko'shairi, though his 
dress is diffei'eiit, as he comes from the house of the moon and not the 
sun. Besides the songs for rain the sun gave him the secret of the 
medicine, which would not only make ha'arts but women pregnant. 

After the Sia, animals and Ka"suna entered this world, they being- 
led by the mother tlt'set, the Ka"suna were directed by tJt'set to go 
to the west and there make their homes. Before their departure, bow- 
ever, masks were made to represent them. (Jt'set sent Ko'shairi and 
Quer'riiuiia to the east, telling the former to make his home near the 
house of the sun and the latter to make bis house a little to the north 
of the sun's. It will ])e remembered that Sus'sistinuako sent the sun to 
this world before the advent of tbe Sia. Ko'shairi performs not only 
the office of courier between the sun and Ka"suua, but is also medi- 
ator between the Sia and the sun. (See PI. x.) 

Upon the departure of Ko'shairi and Quer'riinna, (Jt's6t organized 
two orders bearing their names, to wait upon the personators of the 
Ka'*sana whenever they should appear. The representatives of Ko- 
shai'ri and Quer'riinna are supposed to be the exact reproductions of 
the originals. The body of Ko'shairi is painted white and striped in 
black; that of Quer'riinua is half yellow and half white, dotted with 
black crescents. Thus we see stripes and i>articolors as indicative of 
the harlequin is of prehistoric origin. The hair of Ko'shairi is brought 
to the front and tied with painted black and white corn husks. The 
breech cloth is black cotton (PI. x A). Quer'ranna's hair is brought 
forward and tied to stand erect (PI. x B). 

Whenever the Ka"suna appear in Sia they are attended by the 
Ko'shairi and Quer'riinna, they waiting upon the Ka"suna, adjusting 
any of their wearing apparel which becomes disarranged, etc. They 
also play the fool, their buftoonery causing great merriment among 
the spectators. 

After ridding the world of the destroyers of the peo])le, Ma'asewe 
said 10 the ti'iimoni of Sia (tbe Sia were still living at the white house), 
"INow that I have killed the bad people of the world it is well to 
organize societies similar to those instituted by 0t'set in the lower 
world, and learn from the animals the secrets of medicine." It must 
be understood that all the animals were not bad. 

The lirst society originated by Ma'asewe was the His'tiiin or Knife. 
This society being first, because it was through the power of the knives 
or arrows given to the boys by the sun father that the enemies were 
destroyed; His'tiiin, in this case, meaning the knife or arrow of light- 

The next society originated was that of the cougar, then followed the 
societies of the bear, the skoyo (giant), the snake, and the ant. The 

72 THE SIA. 

ho'naaite of each society was furnished with medicine by the two war- 
riors, this medicine being bits of the hearts of the enemies destroyed; 
a portion of each heart being given to each ho'naaite. 

Ma'asewe then organized the Ope Society (Warriors), designating 
himself as the ho'naaite' of the society and his brother as its vicar, 
lie then appointed six men members of the society, to reside tor all 
time in the six high mountains of the workl, that they might look from 
the six cardinal points and discover bad people, and inform the Sia of 
an approaching enemy. These six men, in conjnnction with Ma'asewe 
and U'yuuyewe, guide the arrows of the Sia when contending with the 
enemy. It will be remembered it was stated in the "Sia Cosmogony" 
that Ma'asewe and U'yuuyewe went to reside in the interior of the 
Sandia mountain. 

When these societies had been formed, the animal societies assembled 
at the white house and taught the ho'naaites their medicine songs; 
previous to this, when the Sia were ill, they received their medicine 
direct from the animals, the animals officiating and singing. After in- 
structing the Sia in their songs, they told them to make stone images 
of themselves, that passing over the road of meal they might enter 
these images; and so the Indians are sure of the presence of the ani- 
mals. The beings pass over the line of meal, entering the fetiches, 
where they remain until the close of a ceremonial, and then depart over 
the line. 

The secret of the fire was not brought to this world, and the fire so- 
ciety was originated here in this way. The people grew tired of feed 
ing about on grass, like the deer and other animals, and they consulted 
together as to how fire might be obtained. It was finally decided by 
the ti'iimoni that a coyote was the best person to steal the fire from the 
world below, and he dispatched a messenger for the coyote. Upon mak- 
ing his appearance the ti'iimoni told of the wish of himself and his peo- 
ple for fire, and that he wanted him to return to the world below and 
bring the fire, and the coyote replied, "It is well, father; I will go." 
Upon reaching the first entrance of the house of Sus'sistiunako (it was 
the middle of the night), the coyote found the snake who guarded the 
door asleep, and he quickly and quietly slipped by ; the cougar who 
gnarded the second door was also asleep, and the bear who guarded the 
third door was sleeping. Upon reaching the fourth door he found the 
ho'naaite of the fire asleep, and, slipping through, he entered the room 
and found Sus'sistinnako also soundly sleeping; he hastened to the 

1 The ho'naaite, in this instance, is not, strictly spealiing, the theurgist, for the priest-doctor of the 
society of warriors practices surgery exclusively, such as extracting halls and arrows, while the 
theurgist has to deal with afflictions caused hy witchcraft and the anger of certain animals and in- 
sects, he acting simply as the agent of the prey animals. The functions of the ho'naaites of the 
Koshai'ri and Quer'riinna also diiier from those of the other societies. As these two societies received 
their sonf's and medicine directly from the sim. they are not entitled to the slat altars used in cere- 
moni.als and given by Ot'set to the societies in the lower world; only ho'naaites who practice 
through the power of the prey animals possess the sand paintings. The Warriors, Koshai'ri and 
yuerriinua, make their cloud emblems of meal. 


fire, and, lighting the cedar brand which was attached to his tail, hur- 
ried out, Sus'sistinuako awoke, rubbing his eyes, just in time to be con- 
scious that some one was leaving the room. " Who is there?" he cried ; 
" some one has been here," but before he could arouse those who 
guarded tlie entrance the coyote was far on his way to the upper world. 
After the organization of the cult societies the ti'amoni, influenced by 
tJt'set, commanded the cougar to make his home for all time in the 
north; the bear was likewise sent to the west, the badger to the south, 
the wolf to the east, the eagle to the heavens, and the shrew to the 


It is only upon acquaintance with the secret cult societies that one 
may gleau something of the Indians' conception of disease, its cause 
and cure. It is supposed to be produced almost wholly through one or 
two agencies — the occult powers of wizards and witches, and the anger 
of certain animals, often insects. Therefore, though some plant medi- 
cines are known to these Indians, their materia medica may be said to 
be purely fetichistic; for when anything of a medicinal character is 
used by the theurgist it must be supplemented with fetich medicine 
and magical craft. 

While there are thirteen secret cult societies with the Zuni, there are 
but eight in Sia, some of these being reduced to a membership of two, 
and in one instance to one. While the Zuni and Sia each has its 
society of warriors, the functions of these societies are somewhat dif- 

The cult societies of the Sia, as well as those of Zuni, have their 
altars and sand paintings ; but while each Zuni altar, with its medicines 
and fetiches, is guarded during ceremonials by two members of the 
Society of Warriors, this entitling the members of this society to be 
present at the meetings of all the cult societies, the Sia have no such 
customs. Their altars and fetiches are not protected by others than 
the theurgists and vice-theurgists of their respective societies. At the 
present time, owing to the depleted nimibers of the Society of Warriors 
of the Zuni, some of their altars have but one guardian. 

The Society of Warriors has for its director and vicar, like the ZuQi 
and the other pueblos, the representatives of the mythologic war 
heroes, who, though small in stature, are invulnerable. " Their hearts 
are large, for they have the heart of the sun." The head or director of 
a society is termed the elder brother ; the vicar, younger brother. 

When the cult societies invoke the cloud people to water the earth, 
the presence of certain anthropomorphic and zoomorphic beings having 
potent influence over the cloud people is assured by the drawing of a 
line of meal from the altar to the entrance of the ceremonial chamber, 

74 THE SIA. 

over which these beings pass, temporarily abiding in the stone images 
of themselves which stand before the altar. These beings are exhorted 
to use their mystic powers with the cloud people to water the mother 
earth, that she may become pregnant and bear to the people of Ha'arts 
(the earth) the fruits of her being. 

In order to obtain their services the Sia compensate them. Th*. 
hii'chamoni (notched stick), which is deposited to convey the message, 
invariably has plumes attached to it, these plume offerings being actual 
compensation for that which is desired. Other offerings are made, 
among which are gaming blocks, hoops for the cloud people to ride 
upon, and cigarettes filled with the down of humming birds, corn pollen, 
and bits of precious beads. (See Plate xi). 

Eagles are kept caged, and turkeys are domesticated for the purpose 
of obtaining plumes for these offerings. 

It is the prerogative of the ti'Jimoni to specify the time for the 
meetings of the cult societies, excepting ceremonials for the healing of 
the sick by the request of the patient or his friend. These meetings 
being entirely under the jurisdiction of the theurgist, who does not 
possess within himself the power of healing, he is simply the ageiit 
acting under the influence of those beings who are present in the stone 

The gala time is the beginning of the new year in December, when 
the cult societies hold synchronal ceremonials extending through a 
period of four days and nights, at which time the fetich medicines are 
prepared; and those possessing real or imaginary disease gather in 
the chamber of the society of which they are members, when the the- 
urgists and their followers elaborate their practices of mysticism upon 
their subjects. 

The cult societies have two ways of retaining their complement of 
members. An adult or child joins a society after being restored to 
health by a theurgist, and a parent may enter a child into a society, or 
a boy or girl having arrived at years of discretion, may declare a de- 
sire to join a society. 

In the case of a young child the paternal or maternal parent calls 
upon the theurgist and, making known his wish, presents him with a 
handful of shell mixture,' saying, " I wish my child to become a mem- 
ber of your society that his mind and heart may be strong." In the 
case of an elder boy or girl the clan is first notified, and the applicant 
then calls upon the theurgist and, presenting him a handful of the 
sheU mixture, makes known his wish. 

Most of the societies are divided into two or more orders, the more 
important order being that in which the members are endowed with 
the anagogics of medicine, except in the Snake Society, when the snake 

' Tbe sacred meal, or shell mixture as it is often nailed by the Sia, may be prepared by an adult of 
either ses; it is composed of co.arsely ground meal, i)owdered sliells, and turki.s. 




.-*s * 




order is essential. One mnst pass through three degrees before being 
permitted to handle the snakes. In the case of minors they can not be 
initiated into the third degree until, in the ho'naaite's judgment, they 
are amenable to the rigid rules. A person may belong to two or more 
of these societies. 

Women may be members of the various orders, excepting in the 
societies of the Snake, Cougar, or Hunters and Warriors. The Snake 
division of the Snake Society has no female members, and the societies 
of the Cougar or Hunters and Warriors are composed entirely of men. 
When one makes known his desire to enter a society he states to the 
theurgist which division he wishes to join. 

The objection to handling the snakes keeps the Snake division of this 
society limited, though the honor is much greater in belonging to this 
division. Upon entering the medicine older of any society the new 
member is presented with the fetich ya'ya by the theurgist, who must 
practice continency four days previous to preparing the fetich. 

The cult societies observe two modes in curing disease: One is by 
sucking, and the other by brushing the body with straws and eagle 
plumes. The former mode is practiced when Ka-nat-kai-ya (witches) 
have caused the malady by casting into the body worms, stones, yarn, 
etc. ; the latter mode is observed when one is afflicted through angry 
ants or other insects, which are thus drawn to the surface and brushed 

The medicine ceremonials of the cult societies are quite distinct from 
their ceremonials for rain. 

The only compensation made the theurgist for his practice upon 
invalids either in the ceremonial chamber or dwelling is the sacred 
shell mixture. It is quite the reverse with all other Indians with whom 
the writer is acquainted. The healing of the sick in the ceremonial 
chamber is with some of the peublos gratuitous, but generous compen- 
sation is required when the theurgist visits the house of the invalid. 

Continency is observed four days previous to a ceremonial, and an 
emetic is taken each morning for purification from conjugal relations. 
On the fourth day the married members bathe (the men going into the 
river) and have their heads washed in yucca suds. This is for phys- 
ical purification. The exempting of those who have not been married 
and those who have lost a spouse seems a strange and unreasonable 
edict in a community where there is an indiscriminate living together 
of the people. 

The ceremonials here noted occurred after the planting of the grain. 
Several of the ordinances had been held previous to the arrival of the 
writer. She collected suflflcient data, however, to demonstrate the 
analogy between the rain ceremonials of the secret cult societies, their 
songs bearing the one burden — supplication for rain. 

76 . THE SIA. 


The morning was spent by the ho'naaite (theurgist) and his vicar 
in the preparation of hii'chamoni' and plume offerings. The ha'cha- 
moni are symbolic of the beings to whom they are offered, the mes- 
sages or prayers being conveyed through the notches upon the sticks. 
These symbols frequently have her'rotuma (more slender sticks rep- 
resenting the official staff) bound to them with threads of yucca; Pis. 
XI and XII show an incomplete set of hii'chamoni before the plume 
oflerings are appended, which the Snake Society deposits when rain 
is desired; PI. xiii, specimens of hii'chamoni with plume offerings 

About 4 o'clock p. m. the ho'naaite and his younger brother were 
joined by the third member of the society, when the ho'naaite began the 
sand painting,'^ the first one being laid immediately before the ii'^chin 
(slat altar), which had been erected earlier in the day, and the second in 
front of the former (PI. xiv). 

Upon the completion of the paintings the ho'naaite deposited several 
long buckskin sacks upon the floor and the three proceeded to remove 
such articles as were to be placed before the altar. There were six 
ya'ya, four of these being the property of the ho'naaite, two having 
come to him through the Snake Society, and two through the Sjjider, 
he being also ho'naaite of the Spider Society, the others belonging to 
the vice ho'naaite and third member of the Snake Society. 

The ya'ya are most carefully preserved, not only on account of their 
sacred value, but also of their intrinsic worth, as the parrot plumes of 
which they are partially composed are very costly and difflcult to ob- 
tain, they being procured from other Indians, who either make journeys 
into Mexico and trade for these plumes with the Indians of that country, 
or The Indians on the border secure them and bring them for traffic 
among their more northern brothers. 

The ya'ya are wrapped first with a piece of soft cloth, then with buck- 
skin, and finally with another cloth; slender splints are placed around 
this outer covering and a long buckskin string secures the packages. 

After unwrapping the ya'ya the ho'naaite proceeds to arrange the 
fetiches. Three of the ya'ya are placed immediately in front of the 
altar upon a paralellogram of meal, which is always drawn at the base 
of the altars, and is emblematic of seats for the ya'ya. An image, 8 

' A member of a society is selected by tlie ho'naaite to collect the willow twigs from which the 
hii'chamoni are made. The ho'naaite arranges a bunch of bird plumes which the collector attaches to 
the limb of a willow, saying: "I have come to collect twigs for hii'chamoni and I pay you with these 
plumes." The tree to which the plumes are attached is not touched, but the one nearest to it. A 
stroke at the place where the twig is to be cut is made with an ancient stone knife and the twig is 
severed from the tree on a line at right angles with itself, the stick varying from four inches to a foot 
in length, according to the symmetry of the twig, which is divided by three cuts (these having first 
been indicated by the stone knife), leaving the selected portion with a pointed end which in cross 
section would show an equilateral triangle. 

'The Sia do not difler from the Zufii, Tus.ayan, and Navajo in their process of preparing sand iiaint- 
ings, the powdered pigment being sprinkled between the index linger and thumb. All these Indian 
artists work rapidly. 

Bureau of Ethnology. 

Eleventh Annual Report Plate XI 

Drawn by Mary Irvin Wright 



iiu'hes high, of Ko'chinako (Yellow Woman of the North) stands to 
the right of the ya'ya, and a wolf of red sandstone, its tail being quite 
the length of its body, which is 6 inches, is placed to the left of the 
ya'ya, and by the side of this wolf is a bear of black lava, and next an 
abaloue shell; two cougars of red sandstone, some 13 inches in length, 
are posted to the right and left of the altar; an antique medicine bowl, 
finely decorated in snake, cloud, and lightning designs, is placed in 
fi'ont of the three ya'ya; two finely polished adzes, 12 inches long, are 
laid either side of the medicine bowl, and by these two large stone 
knives; two ya'ya stand side by side in front of the bowl, and before 
each is a snake's rattle, each rattle having twelve buttons ; the sixth 
ya'ya stands on the tail of the sand-painted cougar; a miniature bow 
and arrow is laid before each of the six ya'ya; eight human images 
are arranged in line in front of the two ya'ya, these i-epresenting 
Ma'asewe, flynuyewe, and the six warriors who live in the six moun- 
tains of the cardinal points, the larger figures being 8 and 10 inches 
high and the smaller ones -4 and 5, the figure of the Warrior of the 
North having well defined eyes and nose in bas-relief. This figure is 
decorated with a necklace of bears' claws, a similar necklace being 
around its companion, a clumsy stone hatchet. Most of the images in 
this line have a fringe of white wool around the face, symbolic of clouds. 
In front of these figures are three fetiches of Ko'shairi, not over 4 or 5 
inches high, with a shell in front of them, and on either side of the shell 
there are two wands of turkey plumes standing in clay hcjlders, the 
holders having been first modeled into a ball and then a cavity made 
by pressing in the finger sufficiently deep to hold the wand. These 
holders are sun dried. In front of the shell is a cross, the only evi- 
dence discovered of an apparent influence of Catholicism. The cross, 
however, bears no symbol of Christianity to these Indians. The one re- 
ferred to was given to a theurgist of the Snake Society in remote times 
by a priest so good of heart, they say, that, though his religion was not 
theirs, his prayers traveled fast over the straight road to Ko'pishtaia; 
and so their reverence for this priest as an honest, truthful man led them 
to convert the symbol of Christianity into an object of fetichistic worship. 
The cross stands on a 6-inch cube of wood, and is so covered with 
plumes that only the tips of the cross are to be seen, and a small bunch of 
eagle plumes is attached pendent to the top of the cross with cotton 
cord. A bear of white stone, 5 inches long, is placed to the left of the 
cross and just back of it a tiny cub. A wolf, also of white stone, and 
5 inches in length, is deposited to the right of the cross. At either 
end of, and to the front of, the altar are two massive carvings in relief, 
in red sandstone, of coiled snakes. Bear-leg skins, with the claws, are 
piled on either side of the altar, and by these gourd rattles and eagle 
plumes, in twos, to be used by the members in the ceremonial. A neck- 
lace of bears' claws, with a whistle attached midway the string, having 
two tiuliy eagle plumes fastened to the end with native cotton cord. 

78 THE SI A. 

bangs over the north post of the altar. The ho'uaaite wear this neck- 
lace in the evening ceremony. The sacred honey jug (a gourd) and 
basket containing the sacred meal, a shell filled with corn pollen, a 
buckskin medicine bag, an arrow point, and an ancient square pottery 
bowl are grouped in front of the snake fetich on the north side of the 
altar, and to the north of this group are other medicine bags and tur- 
key feather wands, with bunches of flufi'y eagle plumes, tipped black 
and the other portion dyed a beautiful lemon color, attached to them 
with cotton cord. These wands are afterwards held by the women, 
who form the line at night on the north side of the room. A Tusayan 
basket, containing the offerings, consisting of liii'chamoni, each one 
being tipped with a bit of raw cotton and a single plume from the wing 
of a humming bird, with plumes attached upright at the base; HCr'ro- 
tume (staffs) ornamented with plumes, Ta'-wa-ka (gaming blocks and 
rings for the clouds to ride upon), Maic'-kiir-i-wa-pai (bunches of 
plumes of birds of the cardinal points, zenith and nadir), is deposited 
in front of the snake fetich on the south side of the altar, and beyond 
this basket are similar wands to those north of the altar, which are 
carried in the ceremonial by the women ou the south side of the room. 
Five stone knives complete the group. A white stone bear, 12 inches 
long, is placed in front of the whole, and a parrot is attached to the top 
of the central-slat figure. (PI. xv) Unfortunately, the flash-light photo- 
graph of the altar of the Snake Society made during the ceremonial 
failed to develop well, and, guarding against possible failure, the writer 
succeeded in having the ho'naaite arrange the altar at another time. 
The fear of discovery induced such haste that the fetiches, which are 
kept carefully stored away in different houses, were not all brought 
out on this occasion.' 

When the altar is completed the ho'naaite and his associates stand 
before it and suppUcate the presence of the pai'atamo and Ko'pish- 
taia, who are here represented by images of themselves, these images 
becoming the abiding places of the beings invoked. After the prayer, 
the ho'naaite and his vicar sit upon their folded blankets near the fire- 
place, where a low fire burns, and with a supply of tobacco and corn 
husks content themselves with cigarettes until the opening of the 
evening ceremony. 

By 9 o'clock the Snake society was joined in the chai-an-ni-kai (cer- 
emonial chamber) archaic, Su"-86r-ra-kai by the Kapina, it being the 
prerogative of the honaaite of one organization to invite other societies 
to take part in his ceremonies. They formed in line, sitting back of 
the altar; the honaaite being in the rear of the central slat figure, 
which symbolized the honaaite of the cult society of the cloud people. 
The other members were seated in the rear, as near as could be, of 

' The uncolored illustrations are from photographs by Miss May S. Clark, the interior views being 
by flash light. The writer is pleased to congratulate Miss Clark for having succeeded under the 
most trying circumstances. 

Jureau of Ethnology. 

Eleventh Annual Report Plate XUi 


Drawn by Mary Irvin Wnghl. 

ha'-cha-mo-N! with plumes attached. 



the corresponding symbolic figures of the cloud and lightning people. 
A boy of 8 years of age, who lay sleeping as the writer entered 
the room, was aroused to take his position in the line, and a boy of 4 
years, who had been sleeping upon a sheepskin, spread on the floor be- 
tween two of the women, was led from the room by one of them, as he 
had not entered the degree when he might hear the songs and see the 
making of the medicine Avater. 

The women formed right angles with the line of men, four sitting on 
the north side of the room and four on the south side. The elder 
female member sat at the west end of the line on the north side of the 
room. The men wore breechcloths of white cotton; the honaaite and 
the ti'iimoni wore embroidered Tusayan kilts for breechcloths. The 
liair was done up as usual, but no headkerchief was worn. The boy 
and men held oh'shie-kats (gourd rattles) in their right hands and 
hi'-shii-mi (two eagle plumes) in the left. 

The women were attired in their black wool dresses, the calico gown 
being discarded, and red sashes, wearing the conventional cue and 
bang. The neck and arms were exposed and the feet and lower limbs 
were bare. Each woman held two wands of turkey plumes in the 
right hand, and both men and women wore numerous strings of coral 
and kohaqua beads with bunches of turkis (properly earrings) attached 
pendent to the necklaces. 

The ceremonial opened with the rattle and song, the women accom- 
panying the men in the song. After a short stanza, which closed, as 
all the stanzas do, with a rapid manipulation of the rattle, the second 
stanza was almost immediately begun, when the vicar (PI. xvii) stand- 
ing before the altar shook his rattle for a moment and then waved it in 
a circle over the altar. He repeated this motion six times, for the car- 
dinal points, and returned to his seat before the closing of the stanza. 
The circle indicated that all the cloud people of the world were invoked 
to water the earth. 

On the opening of the third stanza all arose and the honaaite reach- 
ing over the altar took a yaya in either hand, he having previously 
laid his rattle and eagle plumes by the altar. This stanza was .sung 
with great vivacity by the men, who swayed their bodies to the right 
and left in rhythmical motion, while the women waved their wands 
monotonously. The movement of the arms of both the men and women 
was from the elbow, the upper arms being apparently pinioned to the 
sides; there was no raising of the feet, but simply the bending of the 

At the close of the stanza, which continued thirty minutes, the 
honaaite gave a weird call for the cloud people to gather ; all, at the same 
instant, drew a breath from their plumes and took their seats. A wo- 
man then brought a vase of water and gourd from the northeast corner 
of the room and placed it in front of the altar. (PI. xvi. ) In a moment 
the song was resumed, and the yiini-*si-wittani (maker of medicine 


water) proceeded to consecrate the water. Fie danced iu front of the 
altar and south of the line of meal, which had been sprinkled from the 
altar to the entrance of the chamber, raising first one heel and then the 
other, with the knees slightly bent, the toes scarcely leaving the floor; 
he held his eagle plumes in his left band, and shook the rattle with the 
right, keeping his upper arms close to his side, excepting when ex- 
tending his plumes toward the altar, which he did three times, each time 
striking the plumes near the quill end with his rattle as he shook them 
over the medicine bowl. He then waved his plumes toward the north, 
and giving a quick motion of the rattle iu unison with those of the 
choir, he drew a breath from the plumes as the fourth stanza closed, 
and in a moment the song was resumed. The three members of the 
Snake order then put on necklaces of bears' claws, each having attached, 
midway, a whistle. The yani'siwittiinfii, who had not left his place in 
front of the altar, danced for a few minutes, then dipped a gourd of 
water from the vase, raised it high with a weird hoot, and emptied it 
into the medicine bowl. A second gourdful was also elevated, and, 
with a cry, it was emptied into the cloud bowl, which stood on the sand- 
painting of the clouds. The third gourdful was emjitied into the same 
bowl, the raising of the gourd and the cry being omitted; the fourth 
gourdful was uplifted with a cry and emptied into the medicine bowl. 
The fifth gourdful was also hoisted with a cry, as before, to the snake 
honaaite to implore the cloud rulers to send their people to water the 
earth, and emptied into the cloud bowl. The sixth gourdful was raised 
with the call and emptied into the same bowl. The seventh gourdful 
was elevated with a wave from the south to the altar and emptied into 
the medicine bowl. The eighth gouidful was raised with a similar 
motion and emptied into the cloud l)()wl. The ninth gourdful was 
elevated and extended toward the east and returned in a direct line 
and emptied into the medicine bowl. The tenth gourdful was raised 
toward the west and emptied into the cloud bowl. The eleventh, 
twelftli, thirteenth, and fourteenth gourdfuls were lifted from the vase 
and emptied without being hoisted into the same bowl. The fifth stanza 
closed as the last gourd of water was poured into the bowl. In fllUng 
the medicine bowl the gourd was ))assed between two y^-ya. The 
woman returned the water vase to the corner of the room, and the 
yiini'siwittiinni lifted the bowl and drank from it, afterwards admin- 
istering a draught of the water from an abalone shell to each member, 
excepting the honaaite, who, after the yani'siwittiinni had resumed his 
seat in the line, passed to the front of the altar and drank directly from 
the bowl and returned it to its place. 

In the administering of the water the women were helped first, a 
feature never before observed by the writer iu aboriginal life. 

With the beginning of the sixth stanza the honaaite arose, and 
leaning forward waved his plumes over the medicine bowl with a weird 
caU, each member reijeating the call, the women exhibiting more cnthu- 

Bureau of Ethnology. 

Eleventh Annual Report Plate XIV 



siasm than the men in this particular feature of the ceremony. The 
cry, which was repeated four times, was an invocation to the cloud 
rulers of the cardinal ])oints to water the earth, and, with eacli cry, 
meal was sprinkled into the medicine bowl, each member being pro- 
vided with a small buckskin bag of meal or corn pollen, which had been 
previously taken from a bear-leg skin, and laid beside the altar. 
The members of the Snake Division sprinkled corn pollen instead of 
meal, the i)ollen being especially acceptable to the Snake honaaite, to 
whom many of their prayers are addressed. 

The preparation of the medicine water began with the opening of 
the seventh stanza. The ya'ni^siwittaufii danced before the altar, keep- 
ing south of the line of meal, and holding six pebble fetiches in either 
hand, which he had taken from two small sacks drawn from one of the 
bear-leg skins. He did not sing, but he kept time with the choir. Ex- 
tending his right hand toward the altar, he touched the two ft-ont ya'ya, 
and then, placing his hands together, he again extended them, and, draw- 
ing closer still to the altar, he dropped a fetich from his right hand into 
the medicine bowl with a weird cry to the Snake ho'naaite of the north 
to invoke the cloud ruler of the north to send his people to water the 
earth ; and after raising his hands above his head he again extended 
them toward the altar, and, leaning forward, dropped a fetich from his left 
hand into the cloud bowl. This was repeated four times with each bowl, 
witli petitions to the Snake ho'naaites of the north, the west, the .south, 
and the east to intercede with the cloud rulers to send their people to 
water the earth. Then, taking two large stone knives from before the 
altar, he struck them together, and, passing from the south of the line of 
meal to the north, he again brought the knives together. Eecrossing 
the line of meal, he dipped the knives into the bowl of medicine water 
and sprinkled the altar ; then, passing to the north of the line, he dipped 
the knives into the medicine water and repeated the sprinkling of the 
altar four times ; again, standing south of the line, he dipped the knives 
into the water, throwing it to the east, and, crossing the line, dipped 
them into the bowl and repeated the motion to the east, and resumed 
his seat at the south end of the line of men. The ho'naaite then leaned 
over the altar, and, dipping liis plumes into the medicine bowl, sprinkled 
the altar four times by striking the plumes on the top with the rattle 
held in the right hand. The song, which had continued for an horn- 
without cessation, now closed, and the men gathered around the tobacco 
which lay near the fire-place, and, making cigarettes, returned to tlieir 
seats and smoked. The boy ignited the fire-stick and held it for the 
men to light their cigarettes. He passed it first to the man at the north 
of the line. As each nuin took the first whiff of his cigarette he blew 
the smoke toward the altar and waved the cigarette in a circle as he 
extended it to the altar. After the smoke the song and rattle again 
resounded through the room, and at the close of a short stanza the man 
at the north end of the line cried out in a high tone and the women 
11 ETH 6 

82 THE SIA. 

gathered before the altar, and each, taking a pinch of meal from the 
meal bowl, sprinkled the altar and returned to their seats. The ya'ni- 
*siwittanni lifted the shell of pollen from before the altar, and, passing 
to the entrance and opening tlie door, waved his rattle along the line of 
meal and out of the door. After repeating the waving of the rattle 
he passed his hand over the line and threw out the pollen from his 
fingers, as offering to the Snake ho'naaite. Returning to the altar, he 
stood while the ho'naaite dipped his plumes into the medicine water 
and sprinkled the altar by striking the plumes with the rattle. After 
the ya'ni*siwittiiniii and ho'naaite had returned to the line, the cloud- 
maker (a member of the Spider Society), who sat at the north end, 
crossed the line of meal, and, liolding his eagle plumes and rattle in his 
left hand, lifted with his right the reed which lay across the cloud 
bowl, and, transferring it to his left, he held it and the plumes vertically 
while he prayed. The vice ho'naaite dipped ashes from the fire-place 
with his eagle plumes, holding one in either hand, sprinkled the cloud- 
maker for purification, and threw the remainder of the ashes toward 
the choir. During his prayer, which continued for eight minutes, the 
cloud-maker ai>peared like a statue. At the close of the prayer he 
dropped into the cloud bowl a quantity of to'chainitiwa (a certain 
root used by the cult societies to produce suds, symbolic of the clouds), 
and sprinkled with corn pollen the surface of the water, Avhich was 
already quite covered with it; then, taking the reed in his right hand 
and still holding it vertically, he began a regular and rapid movement 
with the reed, in a short time producing a snowy- white froth, which, 
under his dextrous manipulation, rapidly rose high above the bowl, and 
fell from it in cascades to the floor. The bowl stood on a cincture pad 
of yucca, a circle of meal symbolic of the heart or life of the water having 
been first made. The reed was never raised from the bowl during the 
stirring of the water. When the clouds were perfected the song ceased, 
and the cloud-maker stood the reed in the center of the suds, which 
now wholly concealed the bowl. He then rose, and, after holding 
his two eagle plumes in his left hand for a moment, he changed one 
to the right hand and began dancing before the altar; presently he 
dipped a quantity of suds from the base of the bowl with his two eagle 
plumes, and threw them to the north of the altar; again dipping the 
suds, he threw them to the south; continuing to dance to the music of 
the rattle and the song, he dipped the suds and threw them to the fire- 
place; dipping them again, he threw them to the earth, each time with 
an invocation to the cloud people. As he threw the suds to the earth 
two of the choir dipped their i)lumes into the bowl of medicine water 
and sprinkled the altar by striking the upper sides of the plumes with 
their rattles. The cloud-maker again dipjied up the suds, and, facing 
east, threw them toward the zenith ; he then dipped the suds and de- 
posited them in the center of the basket cojitaining the plume offer- 
ings; then waving his eagle plumes from north to south, he continued 


dauc'iiig, raisiug tirst one plume and then the other as he pointed them 
toward the altar. In a moment or two he dipped suds and threw them 
toward the women on the north side of the room, and dipping them 
again threw them toward the women of the south side; at the same 
time the male members reached forward, and, dipping their plumes into 
the medicine bowl, sprinkled the altar, each time ])etitioning the cloud 
people to gather. The cloud-maker then threw suds to the west; again 
he dipped the suds and threw them to the zenith, then to the altar; a 
portion was then placed on the front ya'ya; again he danced, for a time 
extending his eagle plumes and withdrawing them, and dipped the suds 
and threw them upward and toward the man on the north end of the 
line; at the same time the ho'naaite dipped his plumes into the medi- 
cine bowl and sprinkled the altar as heretofore described; and the 
cloud-maker dipped the suds, throwing them toward the vice ho'naaite, 
and, again dipping them, he threw them toward the ya'ni'siwittauDi; he 
then lifted suds and threw them to the west, then to the zenith, never 
failing to call the cloud people together. The ho'naaite, keeping his 
position back of the altar, dipped his plumes into the medicine water 
and sprinkled the members; again the cloud-maker lifted suds and 
threw them to the zenith; at the same time the second woman at the 
west end of the line on the north side dipped her wand into the medicine 
water, with a cry for the cloud people to gather; the cloud-maker then 
threw the suds to the west and the ho'naaite sprinkled the members 
with the medicine water, and the cloud-maker placed the snds upon the 
heads of the white bear and parrot; and stooping he stirred the suds 

The ti'iimoni lighted a cigarette from a coal at the fireplace and 
handed it to the cloud-maker, who stood the reed in the center of the 
suds before recei ving the cigarette ; he blew the first few whiffs over the 
suds and then smoked a moment or two and laid about one- third of the 
cigarette by the side of the cloud bowl. The song, which had continued 
almost incessantly for three hours, now ceased, and the cloud-maker re- 
turned to his seat in the line. The ti'iimoni sat by the lire and smoked, 
several joining him for a short time; but all soon returned to their seats 
in the line and continued their smoke. 

At the beginning of the succeeding song the two women at the east 
end of tlie south line danced before the altar and sprinkled it by strik- 
ing the wand held in tlie left hand on the toi) with the one held in the 
right. One of the women was frequently debarred taking part in the 
ceremony owing to the attention required by her infant, who was at 
times fretful. 

Two women from the east end of the north line joined in the dance, 
and then a third woman ft'om the south line ; three of the women formed 
in line running north and south; an aged woman at the west end of 
the south line daucetl, but did not leave her place at the end of the 
line. She pulled the young boy who .sat near her forward, telling him 

84 THE SIA. 

to (lauce. The dancers faced first the east, then the west, sprmkling 
the altar whenever they reversed, invoking the cloud people to gather. 
The boy was beautifully graceful, but the women were clumsy: one of 
them attemjited to force out the man at the north end; failing in this, 
a second woman tried Avith better success, and the man joined in the 
dance; this little byplay amused the women. The ho'naaite sprinkled 
the young man, who in turn sprinkled the ho'naaite. Before the close 
of the dance the aged woman at the west end of the south line joined 
the group of dancers and pulled the young man about, telling him to 
dance well and with animation. At 1:30 a.m. the women siwinkled 
the altar and returned to their seats, but the man and boy continued 
to dance and sprinkle the altar at inter val.s. The vicar placed the bas- 
ket of plume otferings on the line of meal, and collecting suds from the 
base of the cloud bowl deposited them in the ceutei- of the basket of 
plumes; and all the members dipped their plumes into the medicine 
water and sprinkled the altar; the man facing south and the boy 
north, then sprinkled toward the respective points, and passing down on 
either side of the meal line they sprinkled eastward, and crossing the 
line of meal the man s])rinkled to the north and the boy to the south, 
and they returned to the altar and danced for a time, the man remain- 
ing north of the line and the boy south. The sprinkling of the cardinal 
points was repeated four times. 

The dancers having taken their seats in the line the ya'ni'siwittanni 
removed tlie bowl of medicine water and placed it before the basket of 
plume oft'erings; then stooping, he took one of the ya'ya in his left hand 
and witli the right administered the medicine water from an abalone 
shell to the women first, the infant in the mother's arms receiving its 
portion; then to the boy and men. After each draft the hi'shjimi 
and wands were touched to the ya'ya and the sacred breath drawn 
from them; the ho'naaite was the last to be served by the ya'nitsiwit- 
tiinni, who in turn received the medicine water from the ho'naaite, who 
held the ya'ya while officiating. The ya'ni'siwittiiniii then left the 
chamber, carrying the ya'ya in his left hand and bowl of medicine 
water with both hands. When outside the house he sprinkled the six 
cardinal points, the water being taken into the mouth and thrown out 
between the teeth. 

The ho'naaite lifting the basket of plume offerings stooped north of 
the meal line and the ti'amoni and the younger member of the snake 
division stooped south of the line of meal. The necklaces of bears' 
claws had been removed and all but the ho'naaite's laid on a pile of 
bear-leg skins, he depositing his on the snake fetich at the north side 
of the altar. The two young men put on their moccasins and wi-apped 
around them their blankets which had served as seats during the cere- 
monial before advancing to meet the ho'naaite, who, while the three 
held the basket repeated a long litany, responded to by the two young 
men. The women laughed and talked, paying little attention to this 

Bureau of EThnolqdy, 

Eleventh Annual Report. Plate XVI 

Drawn by Mary M Mitchell 



prayer. At the conclnsion the ho'uaaite gave a bundle of lia'chaiuoui 
to the ti'iimoui and a siniUar one to his companion; he then gave a 
chister of plume ofterings to the ti'amoni and the remainder of the 
feathers to the companion. The offerings were received in the blanket 
thrown over the left arm; and eacli of the young men taking a pinch 
of shell mixture left the chamber to deposit them at the shrines of the 
Ko'pishtaia with prayers to the Snake ho'naaites: '' I send you hji'cha- 
moni and pay you h?r'rotunie, Ta'waka, maic'kuriwapai, I-"sa-ti-en 
(turkis and shell offerings) tjpt'r-we (the different foods) that you may 
be pleased aiid have all things to eat and wear. I pay you these that 
you will beseech the cloud-rulers to send their peoijle to water the 
earth that she may be fruitful and give to all people abundance of all 

As the bearers of the offerings left the chamber the ho'naaite played 
upon a flute which was quite musical ; and upon their return he re- 
ceived them standing in front of tlie altar, and north of the meal line; 
after a prayer by the ho'naaite the young men turned to the altar and 
the ti'amoni offered a prayer, which was responded to by the ho'naaite, 
who now sat back of the altar. 

The boy then made two cigarettes and, after lighting one, he handed 
it to the ti'amoni; the second he gave to the companion. After a feast 
of bread, stewed meat, and coffee, the ho'uaaite stooped before the altar 
and, taking the ya'ya from the tail of the sand-painted cougar iu his 
left hand, he pressed the palm of his right hand to the sand cougar, 
and drew a breath from it, and, raising the ya'ya to his lips, drew a 
breath from it, and chisped it close to his breast and passed behind the 
altar and, reaching over it, he moved the center one of the three ya'ya 
to the right, and substituted the one he carried, and resumed his seat. 
In a moment or two the ho'naaite removed the two large fetiches of the 
cougar to the back of the altar ; and the vicar prayed and touched the 
four cardinal points of the sand painting with pollen, and then placed 
the palm of his right hand to the sand-painted cougar and, after draw- 
ing the sacred breath, rubbed his hand over his body, when all the 
members hastened to press their hands to the sand-painting, draw the 
breath, and rub their bodies for mental and physical jjurification; dur- 
ing which time the ti'amoni sat back of the altar holding his eagle 
plumes with both hands before his face, and silently prayed. 

The remaining sand was brushed together from the fom- points by a 
woman with an eagle plume, and lifted, with the plume, and emptied 
into tlie palm of her left hand and carried to her home and rubbed over 
the bodies of her male children. 

The ya'ya were collected by their individual owners, who blew the meal 
fi'om the feathers and carefully inclosed them in their three wrappings. 
The four wauds of turkey plumes iu the clay holders concealed hii'cha- 
moni for Sus'sistinnako from the ho'naaite of the Spider Society; these 
were not deposited until sunrise, and then by such members of the 

86 THE I^IA. 

Spider Society as were designated by the lio'naaite. They were planted 
to the north, west, south, and east of the village, whence Po'shaiyiiniie 
departed, with prayers to tjt'set to receive the ha'chamoni for Sus'sis- 
tinuako, the Creator. After examining them (the spiritual essence) 
to see that they are genuine, she hands them to Sus'slstinnako. 

The ha'chamoni convey to those to whom they are offered messages 
as dear to the Indian understanding as any document does to the civil- 
ized mind. 

The following account of the iuitiation of a member into the thii'd 
degree of the Snake order was given the writer by the vicar of the 
Suake Society. 

1 was very ill with smalliiox caused l>y angry ants, and one night in luy dreams 
I saw many snakes, very many, and all the next day I thought about it, and I knew 
if I did not see the ho'uaaite of the Snake So<iety and tell him I wished to become a 
member of that body I would die. In two days I went to the house of the ho'naaite 
bearing my offering of shell mixture and related my dreams and made known my 
wish to be received as a nu-mber of the society. The man now ill with his heart 
notified the ho'naaite of the Snake Society that he wished to join the society. The 
ho'naaite sent for me and the other official member to meet him in the ceremonial 
chamber to receive the sick man, who, presenting the shell mixture to the ho'naaite 
informed him that he had dreamed of many snakes and knew that he must become a 
member of the society or die. 

' Such is the inij)ression made upon these people by dreams. This 
man will be a novitiate for two years, as it requires that time to learn 
the songs which must be committed to memory before entering the 
third degree. He continued : 

I was two years learaing the songs, during which time I passed through the 
first and second degrees. I then accompanied the ho'naaite and the members of the 
society to the house of the snakes, when I was made a member of the third degree. 

The ceremonials in which snakes are introduced are exclusively for 
the initiation of members into the third legree of the Snake division. 
These ordinances must be observed after the ripening of the corn. 

The day of the arrival of the society at the snake house (a log struc- 
ture which stands upon a mound some 6 miles from the village) ha'- 
chamoni are prepared by the ho'uaaite and the other members of this di- 
vision of the society; they are then dispatched by the ho'naaite to the 
north in search of snakes; and after the finding of tlie first suake the 
ha'chamoni are planted ; the number of snakes required, depending upon 
the membership, the ratio being equal to the number of members; there 
must be a snake from each of the cardinal points, unless the member- 
ship is less than four, which is now the case. There being but three 
members at the present time, only the north, west, and south are 
visited for the purpose of collecting snakes, but the members must 
go to the east and deposit ha'chamoni to the Snake ho'naaite of the 

The war chief notifies the people each day that they must not ^'isit 
the north, west, south, or east; should one disobey this command and 


Eleventh annual report pl. xvii 



be met by uuy member of the society lie would be made to assist iu the 
gathering of the snakes. 

An emetic is taken these four days for purification from conjugal rela- 
tions, and continency is observed during this period. The emetic is 
composed of the stalks and roots of two plants, which are crushed on 
a stone slab by the ho'naaite and mixed with water when he designates 
the member to j)lace it over the fire. It is drunk slightly warm. 

The decoction so constantly drank by the Tusayan Indians previous 
to their snake ceremonial is an emetic, and is taken for the same purpose, 
and m)t, as some suppose, to prevent the poisonous effect of snake bites. 
Medicine for the snake bite is employed only after one has been bitten; 
for this purpose the Sia use the plant Aplopapus spinulosus (Indian name 
ha'-ti-ni) in conjunction with ka'-wai-aite, a mixture of thepollon of edi- 
ble and medicinal plants. An ounce of the plant medicine is put into 
a quart of water and boiled; about a gill is drunk warm, three times 
daily, during the four days and the afflicted part is bathed in the tea, 
and wrapped with a cloth wet with it. An hour after each draught of 
the tea a pinch of the ka'waiaite is drunk in a gill of water. The pa- 
tient is secluded four days ; should one suffering from a snake bite look 
upon a woman furnishing nourisliment for an infant, death would be 
the result. The Zuiii have the same superstition. 

The fifth day a conical structure of cornstalks bearing ripe fruit is 
erected some 70 feet east of the log house, in a ravine parallel with the 
side of the house, and a sand painting is made by the ho'naaite on the 
floor of the house ; and when the painting is completed he takes his 
seat in the west end of the room (the entrance being in the east end), 
the male members of the society sitting on his right and left, and the 
women forming right angles at either end of the line. The novitiates 
are seated southwest of the sand painting, and all are necessarily close 
together, as the room is very small. 

The ritual begins with the rattle and song, and after the song the 
ho'naaite passing before the line of women on the north side takes a 
snake from a vase, and, holding it a hand's span from the head, ad- 
vances to the east of the sand painting (which is similar in PI. xiv, 
with the addition of two slightly diverging lines, one of corn pollen, 
the other of black pigment, extending from the painting to the 
entrance of the house), and lays it between the lines, with its head 
to the east. 

There are two vases in niches in the north wall near the west end (PL 
XXXV) ; one holds the snakes, and the other receives them after they 
have been passed through the ceremony. At the close of the prayer 
now offered, he says, "Go to your home; go far; and remain there con- 
tentedly. " He then sprinkles corn pollen ujion the snake's head, which 
rite is repeated by each member; the snake, according to the vice-ho'- 
naaite's statement, extending its tongue and eating the pollen, " the 
snake having no hands, puts his food into his mouth with his tongue." 

88 THE SIA. 

The snake is then placed arouiirt tlie throat and head and over the 
body of the novitiate. 

Though the snake can not speak, he hears all that is said, and when 
he is placed to the body he listens attentively to the words of the 
ho'naaite, who asks him to look npon the boy and give the boy wisdom 
like his own that the boy may grow to be wise and strong like himself, 
for he is now to become a member of the third degree of the Snake 
division of the society. The ho'naaite then prays to the snake that he 
will exhort the cloud rulers to send their people to water the earth, 
that she may bear to them the fruits of her being. 

The snake is not only implored to intercede with the cloud rulers to 
water the earth that the Sia may have abundant food, but he is 
invoked in conjunction with the sun-father in the autumn and winter 
to provide them with blankets and all things necessary to keep them 

Propitiatory prayers are not offered to the snakes, as, according to the 
Sia belief, the rattlesnake is a peaceful, and not an angry agent. They 
know he is friendly, because it is what the old men say, and their 
fathers' fathers told them, and they also told them that it was the 
same with the snakes in Mexico. "In the summer the snake passes 
about to admire the flowers, the trees and crops, and all things beau- 

The snake is afterwards placed in the empty vase, and the vice 
ho'naaite repeats the ceremony with a second snake, and this rite is 
followed by each member of the Snake division of the society. The 
ho'naaite then directs his vicar and another member of the society to 
carry the vases to the grotto (the conical structure outside) and the 
latter to remain in the grotto with the snakes; he then with a novitiate 
by his side passes from the house, and approaching the grotto stands 
facing it while the Aicar and other male members of the society form in 
line from east to west facing the north, the vice and novitiate standing' 
at the west end of the line. 

Those of the Snake division wear fringed kilts of buckskin with the 
rattlesnake painted upon them, the fringes being ti^jped with conical 
bits of tin. The ho'naaite's kilt is more elaborate than the others, the 
fringes having fawns' toes in addition to the tin. Their moccasins are 
of fine buckskin painted with kaolin. The hair is flowing. The body of 
the one to receive the third degree is colored black with a fungus found 
on cornstalks, crushed and mixed with water. The face is painted red 
before it is colored black, and a red streak is painted under each eye, sym- 
bolic, they say, of the lines under the snakes' eyes. A fluffy eagle plume 
is attached to the top of the head, and the face is encircled with down 
from the hawk's breast. The hands and feet are painted red, and the 
body zigzagged with kaolin, symbolic of lightning. The buckskin kilt 
is painted white, with a snake upon it, and white moccasins are worn 
(PI. X C). The other members of the society do not have their bodies 


painted, aud they wear their hair doue up iu the usual kuot and their 
feet bare.' They wear instead of the kilt a white cotton breechcloth. 
The women who da not take part iu the dance wear their ordinary 
cb'ess, the cotton gown being discarded. 

Upon the opening of the song and dauce the ho'naaite procures a 
suake at the entrance of the grotto and holding it horizontally with 
both hands presents it to the novitiate, who receives it in the same 
manner, clasping the throat with the right hand; the ho'naaite aud 
novitiate pass back aud forth north of the line from the grotto four 
times, now and then the novitiate allowing the snake to wrap itself 
around his throat. The ho'naaite then takes the snake and returns it 
to the man in the grotto. If there be a second novitiate he and the 
first one change places, and the ho'naaite inquires of the second whom 
he wishes for a father and companion ; the boy designates a member 
of the Snake division, and the chosen one is required by the ho'naaite 
to take his place by the side of the novitiate and accompany him to 
the grotto; he again receives a sufike which he hands to the boy and 
the former ceremony is repeated.' When the novitiates have concluded, 
each member of the Snake division takes his turn in jjassing back and 
forth four times with a snake, the snake being handed him by a com- 
panion member. The song and dance does not cease until each snake 
has been jiassed through the ceremony. Two of the novitiates, if there 
be two or more, if not, a uovitiate and a member, are requested by the 
ho'naaite to enter the grotto and receive the vases from the man in- 
side. These they carry to a cave about half a mile distant, and here the 
bearers of the vases take out each snake separately and placing it 
upon the ground say: "Go to your home; go far and be contented." 
The first snake is deposited to the north, the second to the west, the 
third to the south, and the fourth to the east; this is repeated until all 
the snakes are disposed of. The vases are then placed in the cave and 
the entrance covered with a large slab. The ho'naaite returning to the 
house takes the ya'ya from the tail of the sand-painted cougar and 
holding it in his left hand places the palm of his right hand to the cou- 
gar and draws from it a breath aud rubs his hand over his breast, after 
which all evidences of the sand-painting are soon erased by the mem- 
bers who hasten forward and rub their bodies with the sand that they 
may be mentally and physically purified. 

When Mr. Stevenson discovered that the Sia held ceremonials with 
snakes he induced the vicar of the suake society to conduct him to the 
locality for that special rite. Leaving Sia in the early morning a ride- 
of 6 miles over sand dunes and around bluffs brought the party, in- 
cluding the writer, to the structure known as the snake house, hid away 
among chaotic hills. Every precaution had been observed to maintain 

* All the figures show the feet as they are colored before the moccasins are put on. The red spot on 
the body designates the heart, the black spot on the figure of the member of the tire society indicate:* 
the coal which is eaten. The white around the face, arms, and legs is down from the breast uf the 

90 THE SIA. 

secrecy. The house is a rect'ingular structure of logs (the latter must 
have been carried many a mile) and is some 8 by 12 feet, having a rude 
fireplace; and there are two niches at the base ol&the north wall near 
the west end in which the two vases stand during the indoor ceremo- 
nial. Though this house presented to the visitors a forlorn appearance, 
it is converted into quite a bower at the time of a ceremonial, when the 
roof is covered and fringed with spruce boughs and sunflowers and 
the interior wall is whitened. Some diplomacy was required to persuade 
the vicar to guide Mr. Stevenson to the cave in which the vases are 
kept when not in use. A ride lialf a mile farther into chaos and the 
party dismounted and descended a steep declivity, wlien the guide 
asked Mr. Stevenson's assistance in removing a stone slab which rested 
so naturally on the hillside that it had every appearance of having 
been iilaced there by other than human agency. The removal of the 
slab exposed two vases side by side in a shallow cave. A small chan- 
nel or flume had been ingeniously made from the hilltop that the 
waters from ti'nia might collect in the vases. These vases belong to 
the superior type of ancient ])ottery, and they aie decorated in snakes 
and cougars upon a ground of creamy tint. Mr. Stevenson was not 
quite satisfied with simply seeing the vases, and determined if pos- 
sible to possess one or both; but in answer to his request the ^i car 
replied: "These can not be parted with, they are so old that no one 
can tell when the Sia first had them ; they were made by our people 
of long ago; and the snakes would be very angry if the Sia parted with 
these vases." Whenever ojiportunity aftbrded, Mr. Stevenson ex- 
pressed his desire for one of them ; and finally a council was held by the 
ti'iimoni and ho'naaites of the cult societies, when the matter was 
warmly discussed, the vicar of the Snake society insisting that the gift 
should be made, but the superstition on the part of the others was too 
great to be overcome. Mr. Stevenson was waited upon by the mem- 
bers of the council ; the ho'naaite of the Snake society addressing him : 
"You have come to us a friend; we have learned to regard you as our 
brother, and we wish to do all we can for you; we are sorry we can not 
give you one of the vases; we talked about letting you have one, but 
we concluded it would not do; it would excite the anger of the snakes, 
and perhaps all of our women and little ones would be bitten and die; 
you will not be angry, for our hearts are yours. " 

The night previous to the departure of the party from Sia the vicar 
of the Snake Society made several visits to the camp, but finding other 
Indians present he did not tarry. At midnight when the last Indian 
guest had left the camp he again appeared and hui-riedly said, "I will 
come again," and an hour later he returned. "Now," said he, "closely 
fasten the tent, and one of you listen attentively all the while and tell 
me when you hear the first footstep;" and he then took trom the sack 
one of the vases, he being in the meanwhile much excited and also 
distressed. He would not allow a close examination to be made of 

Bureau of Ethnology. 

Eleventh Annual Report- Plate XVIII 



the vasi', but urged the packing of it at once; be deposited a plume 
ottering iu the vase, aud sprinkled meal upon it and prayed while tears 
moistened his cheeks. The vase was brought to Waaliiugton and de- 
posited in the National Museum. 


About noon the ho'naaite, who was uude except the breechcloth, left 
his seat by the fireside in the ceremonial chamber, where his vicar had 
been assisting him during the morning in cutting willows and prepar- 
ing hii'chamoni, and proceeded to make a sand ijaiuting in the east 
end of the room, and when this was comjjleted he erected the slat altar 
(PI. XVIII a). During the preiJaration of the sand painting (b) the vicar 
remained at his post at work upon the ha'cliamoni. When the two 
female members, a woman and a little girl some 8 years of age, arrived, 
the ho'naaite took from the wall nine shabby-looking sacks, handing 
one to each person present, reserving two for himself and laying the 
remaining four to one side to be claimed by the other members of 
the medicine order of the society. These sacks contained the ya'ya, 
one of which, it is claimed, was captured from the Navajo by a former 
ho'naaite of this society, and this fetich is as precious as the others for 
the reason that it also represents tJt'sPt, the mother of all Indians. 

The five ya'ya were placed in line in front of the altar and on the sand- 
painting, and a miniature bow and arrow were laid before four of them, 
the captive one having none. Bear-leg s'kins with the claws were piled 
on either side of the altar, and upon these were laid necklaces of bears' 
claws, each necklace having a reed whistle suspended midway, two flufify 
eagle plumes, tipped with black, being attached to the end of the whistle. 
The medicine bowl was jjosted before the five ya'ya, the stone fetiches 
arranged abont the sand painting, and the clond bowl in front of the 
whole. The woman brought a trijile cupped paint stone near the altar 
and ground a black pigment, yellow ocher, and an impure malachite; 
these powders were mixed with water, aud the woman and girl painted 
the ha'chamoni, the child being quite as dextrous as her elder, and 
equally interested. 

While the ha'chamoni were being colored the ho'naaite was busy as- 
sorting plumes. He first laid thirteen turkey plumes separately upon 
the floor, forming two lines ; upon each plume he laid a flufty eagle feather, 
and then added successively to each group a plume from each of the 
birds of the cardinal points, turkey plumes being used instead of chap- 
paral cocks'. A low weird chant was sung while the ho'naaite and 
his vicar tied each pile of plumes together with native cotton cord, 
the ho'naaite waving eacli group, as he completed it, in a circle from 
left to right before his face. The woman at the same time made four 
rings of yucca, 1^ inches in diameter, some two dozen yucca needles 
having been wrapped in a hank and laid in a bowl of water. The 


cliild brought the hauk from the farther end of the room to the 
woman, who, taking a needle of the yucca, wound it four times around 
her thumb and index finger; then wrapping this with an extra thread 
of yucca formed the ring. When the four rings were completed 
the child took them to the paint stone, which the woman had removed 
to the far end of the room, and dipped them into the yellow paint and 
laid them by the woman, who tied three of the piles of plumes to- 
gether and afterwards handed the rings to theho'naaite, who added to 
each ring a plume fi'om the wing of a humming bird. These rings were 
offerings to the cloud children emblematic of the wheels upon wuich 
they ride over ti'nia. 

In attaching the plume oft'erings to the hii'chumoni, the latter are 
held between the large and second toes of the right foot of the men 
and woman. There were ten hii'chamoni to bear messages to the cloud 
rulers of the cardinal points — Ho'channi, high ruler of the cloud people 
of the world, Sus'sistinnako, tJt'sgt, and the sun, the extra bunches of 
jjlumes being tied pendent to those already attached to the ha'chamoni 
for Sus'sistinnako, Crt'set, and the sun. 

The ho'naaite placed the hii'chamoni and rings in a flat basket and 
set it before the altar in front of the cloud bowl, and posted a stuffed 
parrot upon the central slat of the altar. At this time the other official 
members appeared, and, iinwrapping their ya'ya, handed them to the 
ho'naaite, who stood them before the altar (PI. xix). The woman then 
brought a vase of water and gourd from the far end of the room, and 
the ho'naaite emptied four gourdfuls into the medicine bowl and then 
sprinkled corn pollen upon the water, and^ dipping his two eagle plumes 
into the bowl, he sprinkled the altar and offerings. He did not speak 
a word, but took his seat by the fire and began smoking, awaiting the 
hour for the evening ceremonial. The ho'naaite and vicar had their 
meals served in the ceremonial chamber, and after eating, the remainder 
of the basket of bread and bowl of meat was placed before the altar. 

The night ceremony opened with the ho'naaite (PI. xx) and his vicar 
dipjnng their plumes into the medicine water and sprinkling the altar and 
the food which had been placed before it; the ho'naaite then, sitting in 
front and to the north side of the altar, repeated a long prayer, suppli- 
cating Mo'kaitc, Cougar of the North, to intercede with the cloud people 
of the north to water the earth that the crops might grow ; Ko'hai, the 
Bear, to intercede with the cloud people of the west to water the earth 
that the crops might grow; a smilar invocation was made to the Tuo'pe, 
Badger of the South, Ka'kauna, "VVolf of the East, Tiii'mi, Eagle of the 
Heaven, and Mai'tubo, Slirew of the Earth. The vicar then gathered 
a bit of bread from the basket and of meat from the bowl and handed 
it to the ho'naaite, who left the house with the food in his left hand, 
holding his eagle plumes in his right; he cast the food to the animal 
Ko'pishtaia of the cardinal points, begging that they would intercede 
with the cloud people to come and water the earth; then, returning to 







the ceieiuouia] chamber, he stooped before the altar aud to the south 
side of the line of meal aud i)rayed to the Ko'inshtaia, closing with 
these words: "I have offered you food, our food, that you may eat, and 
I pray you to exhort the Ko'pislitaia of ti'nia [referriug to the cloud 
people] to come aud water the earth.'' The male members of the society 
each smoked a cigarette, aud afterwaid the bowl of stew and basket of 
bread were de])osited in the center of the room, and all gathered 
around and ate. The men then sat on either side of the i-oom and again 
indulged in a smoke, the womau aud girl sitting on the north side near 
the west end. After the cigarettes were finished the ^icar drew a 
fresh line of meal from the altar to the door situated on the south side 
and near the west end, and the members formed in line back of the 
altar. (An explanation of the drawing of the line of meal and the 
relative positions of the line of men back of the altar has already been 
given, and is applicable to the rain ceremonials of all the cult societies.) 
The woman took her seat on the north side of the room, near the altar, 
the little girl sitting opposite to her on the south side. 

The ho'naaite and the ti'amoni (the latter's position as ti'iimoui has 
nothing whatever to do with his relations in the cult societies in which 
he holds membership) wore white Tusayan cotton breechcloths elab- 
orately embroidered in bright colors ; the vicar's was dark blue and the 
others white cotton; each man held two eagle plumes and a gom-d 
rattle in the left hand. The woman and little girl wore their ordinary 
dresses, the high-neck calico gowns being omitted, aud they held a 
turkey wand tipped with fluffy eagle plumes dyed a lemon color, in 
either hand. 

The vicar gave a pinch of meal to the ho'naaite from the pottery 
meal bowl by the altar, who without rising ft-oni his seat sprinkled the 
altar. The song then opened to the accompaniment of the rattle, which 
had been transferred to the right hand, the eagle plumes still being 
held in the left, and keeping time with the rattle. Each stanza closed 
with a short and rapid shake of the rattle. (The writer noticed in the 
ceremonials of the cult societies of the Sia the absence of the pottery 
drum, which is such an important feature with the Zuiii and Tusayan.) 
With the commencement of the ritual the men from either end of the 
line moved to the fireplace, and lifting ashes with their plumes, depos- 
ited them before the altar and north and south of the meal line, and 
after dancing and gesticulating for a moment or two they again lifted 
ashes and sprinkled toward the altar, the under side of the plume held 
in the left hand being struck with the one held in the right; again 
lifting ashes one sprinkled to the north aud the other to the south, and 
passing down on either side of the nu^al line they sprinkled to the 
west, aud crossing they passed up the line and when midway one 
sprinkled to the north, the other to the south; again dipping ashes 
they sprinkled to the zenith and with more ashes they spiiukled to the 
nadir. This sprinkling of the cardinal points was repeated four times, 

94 THE SIA. 

and the men then retiuued to their seats. The second man from the 
north end of the line coming forward danced while the others sanj>' to 
the accompaniment of the rattle, each succeeding stanza following in 
quick succession, the dancer now and then varying the monotony of 
the song by calling wildly upon the cloud people to come and water the 
earth. The woman and child waved their wands to the rhythm of the 
song; the woman who held a sick infant much of the time occasionally 
fell asleep, but she was awakened by the vicar who sat near her, pass- 
ing his eagle jdumes over her face. Whenever the infant slept it was 
laid upon a sheepskin, seemingly unconscious of the noise of the rattle 
and song. 

When an especial appeal was to be made to tJt'set, the ho'imaite 
reached over the altar and took the Navajo ya'ya in his right hand 
and the one south of it in his left hand (he had deposited his eagle plumes 
by thealtai', but he held his rattle). All now stood, the ho'naaite ener- 
getically swaying his body as he waved the ya'ya, holding them out, 
then drawing them in as he appealed to Ut'sCt to instruct the cloud peo- 
ple to come and water the earth. This petition concluded, the ho'na- 
aite leaned over the altar, returning the ya'ya to their places, and the 
choir took their seats and smoked cigarettes of native tobacco wrapped 
in corn husks. In a few moments the song was resumed, when the 
woman sprinkled the altar with meal and passing to the west end of 
the room she lifted a vase of water, placing it on tlie line of meal, not 
far from the door, keeping time with the song with her two wands and 
moving her body up and down by bending her knees, her feet resting 
flrmly on the Hoor and over the line of meal; again the bowl was raised 
and moved about 2 feet forward, and she repeated the motion. The 
bowl was in this way moved five times, the last time being placed 
immediately before the basket of offerings. As she placed the bowl for 
the last time she waved the wand held in her right hand twice over 
the altar, when the song closed orly to begin again immediately. The 
ya'ni'siwittanni now appeared before the altar, north of the meal line 
ami danced, holding two eagle plumes in the left hand and rattle in 
the right. After a time, transferring the rattle to his left hand, he 
lifted a gourd of water from the vase and, holding it for a moment, 
waved it, before the altar and emptied it into the medicine bowl 
with an appeal to the cougar of the north to intercede with the cloud 
people that the earth might be watered; another gourdful immediately 
followed; he then took the rattle in the right hand and joined in the 
song, and danced. A third time he dipped a gourd of water, waved it 
toward the west with an exhortation to the bear of the west, and 
emptied it into the bowl, following this with another gourdful, when a 
weird call was given for the cloud people to come and water the earth. 
Again he danced and sang, and after a time a tifth gourdful was lifted 
and waved toward the south, with an appeal to the badger of the south, 
and emjitied into the bowl, when another gourdful f(dlowed, and 

Bureau of ethnologv 

fVr, Ul 

Pt cvF'lTM A",MU| Cippr.pT p\ 






dancing for a moment lie lifted auotlier goiirdful and emptied it into 
the medicine bowl, imploring tbe wolf of the east t(» exhort the cloud 
people to water the earth, when another gonrdful immediately followed. 
After dancing for a time a gonrdful was again dippeil and waved 
toward the altar, then ujiward, with a call upon the eagle of the heaven 
to invoke the cloud people to water the earth, and immediately another 
gourdfiil of water was emptied into the bowl. Again dancing awhile, 
a gonrdful was waved toward the altar and emptied into the bowl, 
with a call upon the shrew of the earth to implore the cloud people to 
water the earth, and again a gonrdful was emptied into the bowl. The 
song closed as the last gourd of water was poured into the bowl and 
the ya'ni'siwittauni resumed his seat. The woman returned the vase 
to the west cud of the room, and taking a small medicine bag from 
before the altar, she untied it and handed it to the ya'ni«siwittanni. 
The men and the girl then took similar bags from before the altar, 
and the song again began in a low tone to the accompaniment of the 
rattle. Each member, taking a pinch of corn pollen from his medicine 
bag, threw it upon the altar and into the medicine bowl, giving a j)ecu- 
liar cry, it being an invocation to the cloud people to gather and water 
the earth, the woman and child not failing to throw in their share of 
pollen, raising their voices to the highest pitch as they petitioned the 
cloud people to water the earth. All then jDroceeded to take meal from 
the meal bowl before the altar and throw it into the medicine bowl, 
continuing their entreaties to the cloud people to water the earth. Six 
times the meal was thrown into the bowl with invocations to the cloud 
people. They then returned to their seats, having first deposited the 
medicine bags before the altar. 

The ti'amoni took from a bear leg skin six small pebble fetiches, 
handing one to each man, wlio in turn passed it to the ya'ui'siwittiiniii. 
This recipient advanced to the front of the altar and danced to the 
music of the choir, and waving his left hand over the altar he dropped 
a fetich into the medicine bowl, at the same time waving the eagle 
plumes and rattle which he held in his right hand. After dancing 
awhile he dropped a fetich from his right hand into the medicine water, 
and, continuing to dance, he let fall the remaining four fetiches alter- 
nately from the left and right hand. Each time a fetich was dropped 
be gave a weird animal-like growl, which was a call upon the prey 
animals of the cardinal points to exhort the cloud x>eople to gather 
and water the eaith that she might be fruitful. He then leturned 
to his seat, but almost immediately arose and, standing for a moment, 
advanced to the fi'ont of the altar, stirred the medicine water with 
the eagle plumes he held in the left hand and sprinkled the offerings 
by striking the plumes on the top with the rattle, held in the right 
hand. The sprinkling was repeated four times while the cloud people 
were invoked to water the earth; as the plumes were struck the fourth 
time the choir stood and sang and the ya'ni'siwittanui again dipped 

96 THE SIA. 

this plumes into the medicine water aiid sprinliled the altar. The 
ho'uaaite then leaning' forward dipped his plumes into the water and 
sprinkled the altar with a weird call for the cloud people to gather and 
water the earth that she might be fruitful. Then each member repeated 
the sprinkling of the altar with a similar prayer, the little girl being 
quite as enthusiastic as the others, straining her voice to the utmost 
capacity as she implored the cloud people to gather. The men struck 
the plumes in their left hands with the rattles held in their right, and 
the woman and child struck the wand held in the left hand with the 
one held in the right. Each person repeated the sprinkling of the altar 
successively six times, with appeals to the animals of the cardinal 
jjoints. After each sprinkling the sprinkler returned to his place in 
the line. Thus the choir was at no time deticient in more than one of 
its number. At the conclusion of the sprinkling a stanza was sung 
and the altar was again sprinkled six times by each member; in this 
instance, however, the choir was grouped before the altar, the ho'uaaite 
alone being seated back of it absorbed in song. After the sprinkling 
the choir returned to the line and joined the ho'naaite in the chant and 
at its conclusion he sprinkled the altar four times. He did not leave 
his seat, but leaned forward and dipped his ]ilumes into the medicine 
water. The ti'iimoni then advanced fiom the south end of the line and 
the ya'ni'siwittilnfii from the north end and sprinkled toward the car- 
dinal points, by passing along the line of meal as heretofore described, 
the sprinkling being repeated twice. The ti'iimoni returned to his seat 
and the ya'ni'siwittaiini removed the bowl of medicine water, placing 
it before the fetiches and on the line of meal and stooping with bended 
knees and holding his two eagle plumes and a ya'ya in his left hand 
he administered the medicine water to all present, the gii'l receiving 
the tirst draught from an abalone shell. The woman was served next, 
some being given to the infant she held in her arms, the ho'naaite re- 
ceiving the last draught. Taking the ya'ya from the ya'ni'siwittiinni 
he drew it to his breast and then returned it to the ya'ni'siwittanni, 
he receiving it in his left hand and lifting the bowl with both hands 
he left the house and filling his mouth from the bowl threw the medi- 
cine water through his teeth to the cardinal points, and returning 
placed the bowl and ya'ya in position before the altar. 

The ho'naaite gathering the hii'chamoni in his left hand and taking 
a pinch of meal with his right, stooped before the altar and south of 
the meal line and offered a silent prayer, and, after sprinkling the altar 
and hii'chamoni, he divided the otferings, holding a portion in either 
hand. The ti'iimoni and a companion then stooped north of the line of 
meal and facing the ho'naaite, clasped his hands with their right hands, 
holding their eagle plumes in their left and responded to a h)W litany 
oft'ered by the ho'naaite, who afterwards drawing a breath from the 
plumes laid them upon the blankets over their left arms, the two men 
having wrapped their blankets about them before advancing to the 


ho'aaaite. They then left the ceremonial chamber aud walked a long 
distance through the darkness to deposit the offerings at a shrine of 
the Ko'pishtaia- The reniaining members talked in undertones until 
the return of the abseLt cbes, who, upon eutering the chamber, stood 
before the altar and oflered a prayer which was responded to by the 
ho'naaite. All the members then gathered before the altar and asked 
that their prayers might be answered. The woman and girl arranged 
bowls of food in line midway the room and south of the meal line and 
the feast closed the ceremonial at 2 o'clock, a. m. 



The night succeeding the ceremonial of the Sko'-yo Chai'-an (Giant 
Society) for rain the assembly began its ritualistic observances, which 
continue four consecutive nights, for the curing of the sick by the 
brushing process. During the afternoon a sand-painting was made in 
the east end of the room (compare sand-painting Giant Society, (PI. 
XVII16); ya'ya and stone fetiches were grouped upon the painting; a 
medicine bowl was placed before the ya'ya; bear-leg skins were depos- 
ited on either side of the fetiches and a white embroidered sacred Tu- 
sayan blanket was folded and laid by the bear-leg skins south of the 
painting. The five male members of the medicine division of the society 
had refreshments served early in the evening by the female members, 
and after supper the ti'amoni, who is a member of the medicine division, 
placed a bowl of stewed meat and a basket of bread near the painting; 
the remainder of the food was stored in the northwest corner of the room 
for future consumption. 

The five men formed in line back of the fetiches, the ho'naaite being 
the central figure; they had scarcely taken their seats, however, before 
the ti'iimoni brought a vase of water and a gourd from the west end of 
the room and set it before the sand-painting and returned to his seat; 
the ho'naaite, advancing, dipped six gourdfuls of water, emptying each 
one into the medicine bowl.' 

The ho'naaite then passing to the uortli side of the painting stooped 
with bended knees, holding in his left hand two eagle plumes, and 
repeated a low prayer; then, taking a small piece of the bread, he 
dipi)ed it into the stew and scattered it before the fetiches; and, taking 
more bread and a. bit of the meat, he left the ceremonial chamber and 
thi-ew the food as an offering to the animals of the cardinal points. 
The ti'amoni then returned the bowl of meat and basket of bread to the 
far end of the room. Upon the return of the ho'naaite his vicar spread 
the Tusayan blanket upon the floor, some 5 feet in front of the painting. 
He next sprinkled a line of meal from the edge of the blanket nearest 

' Female member.^ are never present at the ceremonial of brushing with straws and feathers, and 
therefore the ya'ya belonging to the woman and child were not to be seen on this occasion, and neither 
did the one captured from the Navajo appear. 
11 ETH 7 

98 THE SIA. 

the painting to the bear fetich, which stood foremost on the painting; 
thence across the blanket and along the floor to the entrance on the 
south side and near the west end of the chamber; again, beginning at 
the center of the blanket he sprinkled a line of meal across the blan- 
ket to the south edge, and beginning again at the center he sprinkled 
a line of meal to the north edge and continued this line to the north 
wall. Then beginning at the line ending at the south of the blanket, 
he ran it out to the south wall (these four lines being symbolic of the 
four winds), and placed the bowl of meal in front of the painting and 
north of the line of meal. The meal liaving become somewhat ex- 
hausted, the pottery meal bowl was replaced by an Apache basket, 
containing a quantity of fresh meal, ground by a woman in an adjoin- 
ing room, where a portion of the family had already retired. The bas- 
ket of meal was received from the woman by the ti'iimoni, who stood 
to her left side while she ground the corn in the ordinary family mill. 
The remainder of the contents of the pottery meal bowl was emptied 
into the Apaclie basket, the portion from the bowl being deemed suf- 
ficient in quantity to lend a sacred character to the freshly ground 
meal. The ho'naaite then fastened about his neck a string of bears' 
claws with a small reed whistle, having two soft white eagle plumes 
tied to the end, attached midway, which he took from a pile of bear-leg 
skins, having first waved the necklace around the white bear fetich, 
which stood to the front of the painting. Each member of the society 
then put on a similar necklace; two of the members fastened amulets 
around their upper right arms and two around their left arms. The 
ho'naaite rolled his blanket in a wad and sat upon it. The other mem- 
bers made similar cushions. The ti'iimoni, whose seat was at the south 
end of the line, crossed to the north side of the room, and taking a bit 
of red pigment rubbed it across his face and returned to his seat, each 
member rubbing a bit of galena across the forehead, across the face 
oelow the eyes, and about the lower part of the face. The paint was 
scarcely perceptible. It was put on to insure the singing of the song 
correctly. The ti'anioni again crossed the room, and taking from the 
north ledge a bunch of corn husks, he handed them to the man who 
sat next to him, who was careful to manipulate them under his blanket, 
drawn around him. The writer thinks that they were made into 
funnels, in which he placed tiny pebbles from ant hills. The vice-ho'- 
naaite, at the north end of the line, left the room, and during his ab- 
sence the ho'naaite, taking a bunch of straws which lay by the bear- 
leg vsldns, divided it into five parts, giving a portion to each one pres- 
ent. He reserved a share for the absent member, who returned in a 
short time, bearing the sick child in his arms, being careful to walk on 
the line of meal; he set the child upon a low stool placed on the broad 
band of embroidery of the blanket. (PI. xxi) The man then handed the 
basket of meal to the child, who, obeying the instructions of the vice- 
ho'uaaite, took a pinch and threw it toward the altar with a few words 

Bureau of EthnolqOy 

Eleventh Annual Report Plate XXI 



of prayer to Ko'pishtaia. The vicar then returned to his seat, aud the 
members, with eagle plumes and straws in their left hands and rattles 
in their right, begau the ritual; they were nine minutes singing the 
first stanza, which was sung slowlj' and iti very low tones, aud at its 
close each one drew a breath from the eagle plumes aud straws. The 
second stanza was sung louder ami taster. The monotony of the song 
was broken bj- an occasional animal-like call, w'hich was a request to 
the cougar of the north to give them power over the angry ants. The 
child was afflicted with a severe sore throat, caused liy ants having 
entered his body when he was iu the act of micturition upon their 
house, and ascending they located in his throat. After the second 
stanza the ho'naaite blew first on the right side of the child, then 
on his back, his left side, and his breast; the other members con- 
tinuing the song to the accompaniment of the rattle. When he took 
his seat, the ti'iimoni and the man who sat next to him each drew a 
breath from their eagle plumes and straws, aud dipping them into the 
medicine water, each one extended his plumes to the child, who drew a 
breath from them. The two men then resumed their seats. The ho'- 
naaite, again dipping his plumes in the medicine water, passed the ends 
through the ti'iimoni's mouth, and afterwards through the mouth of 
each member, the i)lumes being dipped eacli time into the bowl of med- 
icine water. The men were occujned a few moments in drawing some- 
thing from several of the bear-leg skins. All except the ho'naaite 
gathered around the altar, dancing and gesticulating in excessive ex- 
citement and blowing upon the whistles suspended from their neck- 
laces. They constantly dipped their eagle plumes into the medicine 
water, throwing their arms vehemently about, sprinkling the altar and 
touching the animal fetiches with their plumes, and then placing the 
plumes to the mouths, absorbing fron^ them the sa(;red breath of the 
animal. The ho'naaite with bowed head continued his invocations to 
the cougar of the north, seemingly unconscious of all that was going 
on about him. After maneuvering before the altar, the four men per- 
formed similar extravagances about the child, one of the men standing 
him in the center of the blanket, careful to place the boy's feet in di- 
agonal angles formed by the meal lines. Then the four left the room, 
carrying with them the material taken from the bear-leg skins. The 
ho'naaite did not cease shaking the rattle and singing during the ab- 
sence of the four, who visited the house of the sick boy to purify it. 
Upon returning to the ceremonial room they threw their arms aloft, 
waving their plumes above them aud then about the child, singing and 
growling, after which they resumed their seats in line with the ho'na- 
aite, and joined him in the song to the accompaniment of rattles. After 
a few moments these four men and the ho'naaite surrounded the 
boy; the ho'naaite standing at the northeast corner of the blanket, 
and the ti'amoni at the southeast corner, while the others formed a 
semicircle behind the boy. They all waved plumes and straws in their 

100 THE SIA. 

left hands over the invalid boy, and passed them simultaneously down 
his body from head to feet, striking the plumes and straws with rattles 
which they held in their right hands; and as the plumes and straws 
were moved down the boy's body ants iii any quantity were supposed 
to be brushed off the body, while in reality tiny pebbles were dropped 
upon the blanket; but the conjuration was so perfect the writer could 
uot tell how or whence they were dropped, although she stood close to 
the group and under a bright light from a lamp she had placed on the 
wall for the purpose of disclosing every detail. The tiny nude boy 
standing upon the white embroidered blanket, being brushed vrith the 
many eagle plumes, struck with their rattles by five beautifully formed 
Indians, was the most pleasing scene of this dramatic ceremonial. The 
brushing of the child with the plumes was repeated six times, and he 
was then backed off the blanket over the line of meal and set upon the 
stool, which had been removed from the blanket, and was afterward 
given a pinch of meal and told to stand and look at the ants which had 
been extracted from his body, and to sprinkle the meal upon them. 
After this sprinkling he resumed his seat upon the stool. The ho'na- 
aite stooped with bended knees at the northeast corner of the blanket 
and whisjtered a prayer and sprinkled the blanket. Each member 
with eagle plumes sprinkled the blanket with meal and carefully 
brushed together all the material which had fallen on the floor instead 
of the blanket, after which the ti'iimoni gathered the corners together, 
waved it over the child's head, and left the room with it. All sat per- 
fectly quiet, holding their rattles, eagle plumes, and straws in their 
right hands during the absence of the ti'amoni. Upon his return he 
waved the folded blanket twice toward the group of fetiches and 
toward himself, then passed it twice around the child's head, and finally 
laid it upon the pile of bear -leg skins at the south side of the painting. 
The child, who was iU and burning with fever, was led by the vice 
ho'naaite to the fetiches, which he sprinkled with meal, and was car- 
ried from the chamber and through an outer room to his mother at the 

The ho'naaite is not supposed to leave the ceremonial chamber 
throughout the four days and nights, as he must guard the animal 
fetiches and medicine. The other members are also supposed to spend 
much of the day and all of the night in watching the fetiches; but the 
writer is of the opinion that they all go to slec]) after the feast, which 
is enjoyed as soon as the child leaves the chamber. 

The only variation in the ceremonial on the second night was that 
the vicar dipped the bit of bread into the bowl of stew and scattered it 
to the animal fetiches, having previously lifted ashes from the fireplace 
and sprinkled the altar with them by striking the plume held in the 
left hand on the under side with the plume held in the right; then hokl- 
ing the plumes between his hands he repeated a long and scarcely 
audible prayer. After scattering the food to the animal fetiches, he 


dipped a piece of bread into the stew, left the house and threw the food 
to tlie cardinal points, as the ho'naaite had done the previous lught, 
and, returning, removed the bowl of stew and basket of bread to the 
northwest corner of the room. He then swept the floor with his two 
eagle plumes, beginning some 18 inches in front of the altar (the line of 
meal remaining perfect to this point) to the point where the blanket 
was to be placed, and then laid the blanket and made the meal lines, 
the change in the drawing of these lines being that the line was begun 
at the line of meal which extended in front of the altar and ran over 
the blanket to the entrance of the room ; then beginning in the center 
of the blanket, the line was extended across to the north wall, and 
again beginning in the center, a line was run across to the south wall. 
The writer mentions this deviation in the drawing of the meal lines, 
though she believes it was a mere matter of taste ou the part of the 
worker. Instead of the vice ho'naaite receiving the child at the outer 
entrance, the man who sat between him and the ho'naaite brought the 
child into the room, and he was led out by the ti'iimoni. Upon this 
occasion, and on the third and fourth nights, the child walked into and 
out of the room, an indication that he was in better physical condition 
than on the first night of the ceremony. The songs on the second night 
were addressed to the bear of the west instead of the cougar of the 
north. The child did not seem to move a muscle throughout the cere- 
mony, except when he stepped to his position on the blanket. 

The scenes on the third and fourth nights were coincident with those 
of the second, with a few variations. The man who sat between the 
ho'naaite and his vicar, dipped the ashes with his plumes and sprinkled 
the altar, and, returning to his seat, the vicar laid the blanket and 
sprinkled the meal lines in the same manner as on the previous night ; 
he also procured the child. When dancing before the altar two men 
wore bear-leg skins on their left arms, and two others wore them ou their 
right arms. It was noticed that the skins were drawn over the arms 
upon which the amulets were worn. Their dancing and incantations 
were even more turbulent and more weird than on the two former 

The songs the third night were addressed to the badger of the south 
and on the fourth to the wolf of the east. 


While the ho'naaite and his vicar sat during the morning making 
hii'chamoni they rehearsed in undertones the songs of their cult. The 
membership of this society consists at the present time of five men and 
two boys, and two novitiates, a man and a boy. 

The sun was far to the west when the members came straggling in 
and the ho'naaite proceeded to set up the slat altar (PI. xxii a). Then 
each man took from the wall a soiled buckskin sack. The well-wrapped 
ya'ya was first taken out and then other fetiches. After the ho'naaite 



Lad unwrapped his ya'ya he prepared the saud painting in front of the 
altar (PI. xxiib). The live ya'ya were stood on the line specially made 
for them and a miniature bow and arrow laid before each ya'ya. The 
ho'iiaaite then grouped fetiches of human and animal forms, then the 
medicine bowl containing water aud a basket of sacred meal. He 
then drew a. line of meal which extended from the slat altar to a dis- 
tance of 3 feet beyond the group of fetiches, his vicar afterwards 
assisting him with the additional fetiches. Two stone cougars 2 feet in 
length each were stood up on either side of the group. A cougar 12 
inches long, with lightning cut in relief on either side, and a concretion, 
were then deposited before the group. Bear-leg skins were piled high 

Fig. 17. — Sand painting as indicated in PI. kxv. 

on either side of the altar. The cloud bowl and reed were added, 
the two flat baskets of hii'chamoni and plume offerings shown in the 
sketch were afterwards deposited upon the backs of the cougars. 
AVhile this arrangement was in progress the minor members returned 
the powdered kaolin and black pigment to the ancient pottery vases, 
from which they had been taken to prepare the sand-painting. 

The ho'naaite consecrated the bowl of water by a prayer, and drop- 
ping ill the six fetiches he dipped his eagle plumes into the water and 
striking them on the toji with his rattle, sprinkled the altar; holding 
the plumes in the left hand and the rattle in the right, he sprinkled 
the cardinal points. The vicar formed a circle of meal, then sprinkled 







meal upon the eircle and placed a cincture pad of yucca upon it, and 
holding the cloud bowl high above his head, he invoked the cloud 
people of the north, west, south, east, zenith, and nadir, and of the 
whole world, to water the earth. The bowl was then set upon the pad 
and a reed 8 inches long laid across it from northeast to southwest. 
The vice ho'uaaite spread a small cloth and upon it reduced the bit of 
root which was to produce the suds to a powder, which he placed in 
a little heap in front of the cloud bowl. The ho'naaite, who had left the 
chamber, now returned with a parrot and a white stone bear 12 inches 
long; the bear was wrapped in a large fine white buckskin and the 
parrot was under the ho'naaite's blanket. These were deposited before 

the altar (PI. xxiii). 

The ho'naaite (PI. xxiv) 
stooped and, praying, 
sprinkled corn pollen upon 
the bear and parrot. The 
bear and the bird had 
eagle plumes attached to 
their necks with cotton 
cord. Those on the bear 
were on the top of the neck 
and those of the parrot 
hung under the beak. 
After the prayer the ho'na- 
aite lighted a cigarette of 
native tobacco and corn 
husk from a stick some 5 
feet long, held by a boy 
member, and puffed the 
smoke over the bear and 
l^arrot. He then extended 
the ci garette over the altar, 
afterwards waving it to the 
cardinal points. The vicar 
and boy sprinkled the bear 
and parrot with pollen from an abalone shell and the vicar dipped his 
eagle plumes into the medicine bowl and sprinkled them four times, then 
the altar, by striking the plumes with the rattle held in his right hand. 
The ho'naaite then puffed smoke into the cloud bowl and over the bear 
and parrot, and extended his cigarette to the cardinal points, and over 
the altar. The vicar lighted a similar (cigarette from the long stick held 
by the boy, and standing to the west of the altar blew smoke over it, the 
ho'naaite standing and smoking to the right of him. The vicar laid the 
end of his cigarette by the cloud bowl and to the east of the line of the 
meal. The shell of corn pollen was then placed back of the altar and the 

Fig. IS.^Sand painting used in ceremonial for sick by 
Ant Society. 

104 THE SI A. 

lio'iiaaite's eagle plumes aud rattle laid beside it; a prayer before tlie 
altar by all tlie members closed the afternoon ceremony. 

It will be noticed that the slat altar in PI. xxv differs from that in I'l. 
XXIII. Both belong to the Knife Society and may be seen hanging 
.side by side on the wall in the ceremonial chamber of the Quer'riinna, 
(PI. xxviii) which is also the official chamber of the Kuife Society. 
The second was made in case of failure of the first. The vicar of this 
society is also ho'naaite and only surviving member of the Ant So- 
ciety, and he, being anxious that the writer should see the sand ])aint- 
ing of the Ant Society, prepared the painting for this occasion instead 
of the ho'naaite (Fig. 17). He also drew her a sketch of the painting 
of Ant Society for ceremonial held for the sick, which is here intro- 
duced (Fig. 18). This last may be described as follows: 

a represents meal painting eml)lennitic of the clouds, h and c bear-leg 
skins laid either side of it. The remainder of imintiug is in sand. 
d: Ant chief clad in buckskin fringed down the arms and legs; he car- 
ries lightning in his left hand; his words pass straight from his mouth, 
as indicated by a line, to the invalid e, who sits at the opening of the 
ceremonial to the right of the painting. The ant chief speaks that the 
malady may leave the invalid. A song of this character is sung by 
the members of the society. The invalid then passes to the front of 
the altar and stands upon a sacred Tusayan blanket (position indicated 
by/ ), when the ho'naaite and other members o fthe society proceed with 
their incintations over him, imploring the prey animals to draw the 
ants to the surface of the l)ody. When the ants h^ve appeared and 
been brushed from the body then a song is addressed to the eagle g to 
come and feed upon the ants. When the ants have been eaten by 
the eagle the invalid will be restored to health. The two circular 
spots h represent ant houses. These, with the paintings of the ant 
chief and eagle, are gathered into the blanket upon which the invalid 
.stood and carried some distance north of the village and deposited. 
After the blanket has been taken from the chamber the meal painting 
is erased by the ho'naaite brushing the meal from each of the cardinal 
points to the center with his hand ; he then rubs the invalid's body with 
the meal, after which the members hasten to rub their bodies with it, 
that they may be purified not only of any physical malady but of all 
evil thoughts. 

When the writer entered the ceremonial chamber later in the even- 
ing food was being placed in line down tlie middle of the room. There 
were seven bowls, containing mutton stew, tortillas, waiavi, and hominy 
There was also a large pot of coffee and a bowl of sugar. The ho'na- 
aite, standing to the east of the meiil line, which extended from the 
altar to the entrance, repeated a long grace, after which one of the boy 
members gathered a bit of food from each vessel, and standing on the 
opposite side of the line of meal, handed the food to the ho'naaite, who 
received it in his left hand, having transferred his eagle plumes to the 


right. He tlieii left tlie house, and throwiug the food to the cardinal 
points, offered it to the animal Ko'pishtaia. with a prayer of interces- 
sion to the cloud jjcople to gather, saying: 

"Ko'pishtaia! Here is food, come and eat; Ko'pishtaia, Cougar of 
the North, receive this food; Bear of the West, receive this food; 
Badger of the South, we offer you food, take it and eat; Wolf of the 
East, we give you food ; Eagle of the Heavens, receive this food ; Shrew 
of the Earth, receive this food. When you eat, then you will be con- 
tented, and you will pass over the straight road [referring to the pass- 
ing of the beings of the ko'pishtaia over the line of meal to enter the 
images of themselves]. We pray you to bring to us, and to all peoples, 
food, good health, and prosperity, and to our animals bring good health 
and to our fields large cro^s; and we pray you to ask the cloud i)eople 
to come to water the earth." 

Upon returning to the ceremonial chamber, the ho'naaite, standing 
before the altai', prays to Ma'asewe, tJyuuyewe, and the six warriors 
of the mountains of the cardinal points to protect them Irom all ene- 
mies who might come to destroy their peace; and, standing at the end 
of the line of food, he offers a prayer of thanksgiving, holding his eagle 
plumes in his left hand. He then rolls his blanket into a cushion, sits 
upon it west of the line of meal and smokes a cigarette. The food 
having been brought in by the wives of the members, all present drew 
aroiind and enjoyed the feast. That the minor members felt at liberty 
to join with their elders was indicated by the way in which they pro- 
ceeded to help themselves. 

The war chief came into the room soon after the beginning of the 
meal, wrapped in a fine Navajo blanket, and carrying his bow and 
arrows. He stood in Iront of the altar, on the west side of the meal 
line, and prayed. The vice-ho'naaite administered to the war chief a 
draft of the medicine water which had been prepared in the after- 
noon, and then handed him the official staff of the society (a slender 
stick some 2 feet in length), which he held with his bow and arrows 
until the close of the ceremonial. The war chief sat for awhile at the 
south end of the room, and then left to patrol the town and to see that 
no one not privileged entered or came near the ceremonial chamber. 
After the meal was finished the three boys removed the bowls to another 
room, and, upon their return, one of them swept the middle of the tloor, 
destroying of the meal line, leaving but 2 feet of it undisturbed 
in front of the altar. This line, however, was renewed by the vice- 
ho'naaite, who carried two eagle feathers and the meal bowl in his left 
hand, while he sprinkled the meal with the right, not for the purpose 
of ftirni.shing a road for the beings of pai'atiimo and ko'pishtaia to pass 
over, for they had previously come to the images of themselves, but 
that the songs might pass straight over and out of the house. 

The men now indulged in a smoke. The writer never observed Sia 
boys smoking in these ceremonials or at any other time. The ciga- 

106 THE SIA. 

rettes were lighted from the long stick passed by one of the boys, and 
after smoking, the ho'naaite and his younger brother put on white cot- 
ton embroidered Tusayan kilts as breechcloths, which they took from 
a hook on the wall, those of the other members being plain white cotton. 
The ho'naaite now took his seat back of the altar and lighted a second 
cigarette from the long stick, blowing the smoke over the altar. This 
smoke was offered to Pai'atiimo and Ko'pishtaia, the ho'naaite saying: 
" I give this to you; smoke and be contented." He then administered 
medicine water to all present, dipping the water with a shell. The 
vice-ho'naaite, who received the last draft, drank directly from the 
bowl, and was careful not to leave a drop in it, after which the ho'na- 
aite removed the six stone fetiches from the bowl. The process of pre- 
paring medicine water is substantially the sTime with all the cult socie- 
ties, there not being iu Sia nearly so much ceremony connected with 
this important feature of fetich worship as with the Zuui and Tusayan. 
The six fetiches were returned to the buckskin bag and the ho'naaite 
resumed his seat behind the altar, the members and novitiates having 
already formed in line back of the altar, the official members each hold- 
ing two eagle plumes in the left hand and a gourd rattle in the right. 
After a short prayer by the ho'naaite, the boy lifted ashes from the 
fireplace with his eagle plumes and placed them near the altar and east 
of the meal line ; again he dipped a quantity, placing them west of the 
line of meal. As the chant opened, he stood west of the line and fac- 
ing the altar, and an adult member stood on the east side, and each of 
them held an eagle plume in either hand and a gourd rattle also in the 
right. The boy dipped with the plumes the ashes which lay west of 
the line of meal and the man those which lay east of the line, and 
sprinkled toward the north by striking the plumes held in the left 
hand on tlie underside with the plume held iu the right; again dip- 
ping the ashes, the boy sprinkled toward the west and the man toward 
the east; again lifting ashes, they passed to the south and sprinkled 
there; the boy then crossed to the east of the line of meal and the man 
to the west of the line, and when midway of the line the boy sprinkled 
to the east and the man to the west; then, dancing before the altar, 
they again lifted ashes and sprinkled to the north. When dancing, 
both eagle plumes were held in the left hand and the rattle iu the 
right. Ashes were again lifted and thrown twice toward the zenith 
and then thrown to the nadir. The sprinkling to the cardinal points, 
zenith and nadir, was repeated fifteen times in the manner described, 
This was to carry off all impurities of the mind, that it might be pure; 
that the songs would come jiure from the lips and pass straight over 
the road of meal — the one road. The man and boy having resumed 
their seats in the line, the vice-ho'naaite stood before the altar to the 
west side of the line of meal, shook his rattle ior a moment or two, 
then waved it vertically in front of the altar, invoking the cloud people 
to come; he then waved the rattle from the west to the east, repeating 


the weird exhortation, his body beiug kept in motion by the bending of 
his knees, his feet scarcely leaving the ground. The rattle was waved 
rliree times from the west to the east, and then waved toward the west 
and toward the altar, the east and to the altar; then, raising the rattle 
high above his head, he formed a circle. This waving of the rattle was 
rejjeated sixteen times. Previous to each motion he held the rattle 
perfectly still, resting it on the eagle plumes which he held in the left 

After the sixteenth repetition he waved the rattle over the altar. 
The song during this time is an appeal to the cloud people of the north, 
west, south, east, aud all the cloud peoples of the world, to gather and 
send rain to water the earth, that all mankind may have the fruits of 
the earth. The vicar then stood to the right of the ho'naaite, and the 
choir, rising, continued to sing. The ho'naaite, leaning over the altar, 
took two of the central ya'ya, one in either hand, and alternately raised 
them, keeping time with the song, now and then extending the ya'ya 
over the altar. The young novitiate held neither rattle or plumes. 
The boy at the east end of the line, having passed through two degrees, 
held his rattle in the right hand and in his left a miniature crook. The 
vicar who stood at the right of the ho'naaite and the man who stood 
to his left moved their rattles aud feathers in harmony with his motion, 
the three swaying their bodies back and forth and extending their 
arms outward and upward. About this time it was noticed that the 
boys at the east end of the line had fallen asleep, and it was more than 
the man who sat next to them could do to keep them awake, although lie 
was constantly brushing their faces with his eagle plumes. This little 
scene was something of a picture, as the boy whose shoulder acted as 
a support for the head of the other is the son of one of the most promi- 
nent aud richest men in the pueblo, the other boy being the pauper 
referred to. The stanzas in this song were nuich longer than any befoie 
heard by the winter, and each closed with a quick shake of the rattle. 
The song continued an hour and a quarter, when the singers took a few 
moments' rest, and again sang for thirty minutes; another few minutes' 
rest, and the song again continued. In this way it ran from half past 
9 o'clock until midnight. At its close one of the boys brought a vase 
of water and a gourd from the southwest corner of the room and 
placed it near the altar and west of the line of meal. The ya'ni'.siwit- 
taniii stood before the vase, and, lifting two gourdfuls of water, emptied 
them into the medicine bowl; emptying two gourdfuls, also, into the 
cloud bowl, he danced for a time before the altar, waving his plumes 
and rattle over it; he then emptied two more goiu-dfuls into the medi- 
cine bowl and two more into the cloud bowl, and resumed his dance. 
He did not sing while performing this part of the ceremony, but when 
emptying the water into the bowls he gave bird-like trills, calling for 
the cloud people to gather. Again he emptied two gourdftils into the 
medicine bowl and two in the cloud bowl; and after dancing a moment 

108 THE SIA. 

or two lie, poured two more gourdfuls into the medicine bowl and two 
into tlie cloud IjowI, and resumed the dance; again he emptied a gourd- 
ful into the medicine bowl and two into the cloud bowl; then he emptied 
three into the medicine bowl and drank twice from the bowl, after 
which he returned to his seat in the line, the boy restoring the vase to 
the farther corner of the room. Two small medicine bags were handed 
to each member from the altar, one containing corn pollen and the 
other corn meal of six varieties of corn : yellow, blue, red, white, black, 
and variegated. The bags were held in the left hand with the eagle 
])lumes, that hand being quiet, while the rattle was shaken with the 
right in accompaniment to the song. After singing a few minutes, 
pollen and meal taken from the medi(!ine bags were sprinkled into the 
medicine bowl. The choir did not rise and pass to the altar, but leaned 
forward on either side; and with each sprinkling of the meal and pollen 
a shrill call was given for the cloud people to gather; the ho'naaite, in 
sprinkling in his pollen, reached over the altar slats. The sprinkling 
of the pollen was repeated four times, the novitiiites taking no part in 
this feature of the ceremony, although they were i>rovided with the 
bags of pollen and meal. The ya'ni'siwittaniii danced before the altar 
and west of the line of meal without rattle or plumes, but continually 
hooted as he waved his hands wildly over the altar and dropped pebble 
fetiches alternately into the medicine and cloud bowls, until each bowl 
contained six fetiches; then, reaching behind the altar for his rattle and 
eagle plumes, he held an eagle plume and rattle in the right hand and 
an eagle plume in the left, and stirred the water and sprinkled the 
altar; then he stirred the water in the cloud bowl with the reed, and 
sprinkled the altar with it. The sprinkling of the altar from the medi- 
cine bowl and the cloud bowl was repeated six times. 

Aftei' each sprinkling a quick shake of the rattle was given. The 
ho'naaite then reached over the altar slats, taking a ya'ya in either 
hand, and all stood and sang. In a moment the man to the right of 
the ho'naaite leaned over the west side of the altar, and, dipping his 
plumes in the medicine water, sprinkled the altar; he repeated the 
sprinkling four times, and when the two ya'ya were returned to the 
altiir the ho'naaite dipped his eagle plumes into the medicine water, 
and sprinkled the altar by striking them on the top with the rattle 
held in the right hand. Each member then sprinkled the altar four 
times, with a wild exhortation to the cloud people, all apparently ex- 
hibiting more enthusiasm when sprinkling the altar than at any other 
time during the ceremonial. When the §ong closed two of the boys 
proceeded to prepare cigarettes, taking their places before the fireplace, 
and, tearing ott' bits of corn husks of the proper size, they made them 
pliable by moistening them with saliva. One boy matle his cigarettes 
of native tobacco, which he took from an old cloth hanging on the wall ; 
the other filled liis with commercial tobacco. As the boys made cigar- 
ettes they tied them with ribbons of corn husks, simply to keep them 

Bureau of ethnology 

Eleventh annual report pl. xxvi 



in shape until tlie smokers were ready. The remaining native tobacco 
was returned to the okl cloth and put in place upon the wall. About 
the time the boys had finished preparing the cigarettes, the vice- 
ho'uaaite took his seat on his wadded blanket, in trout of the cloud 
bowl and west of the line of meal. The man at the east end of the line 
dipped his eagle plumes into the ashes, holding a plume in either hand 
and striking the one held in the left hand on the under side with the 
plume held in the right, he sprinkled the head of the vicar, who was 
offering a silent prayer, and at the same moment the song opened to 
the accompaniment of the rattle. Previous to the vicar leaving the 
line, the ho'naaite removed a white fluffy eagle feather from one of the 
ya'ya, to which it had been attached with a white cotton cord, and tied 
it to the forelock of the vicar, who put into the cloud bowl the pow- 
dered root which was to produce the froth ; then dipping the reed into 
corn pollen he sprinkled the altar. He placed a pinch of x)ollen into 
the upper end of the reed, and, turning that into the water, he put a 
pinch into the other end, and touched the four cardinal points of the 
cloud bowl with the corn pollen, and made bubbles by holding the 
hollow reed in the center of the bowl and blowing through it. This 
operation lasted but a few moments, when he began stirring the water 
with the reed, moving it from right to left, and never raising the lower 
end to the surface of the water, producing a beautiful egg-like froth. 
Not satisfied with its rising high above the bowl, he did not cease 
manipulating until the suds had completely covered it, so that nothing 
could be seen but a mass of snowy froth; fifteen minutes of continual 
stirring was required to produce this effect. He then stood the reed in 
the center of the fi'oth, and holding an eagle i)lume in each hand 
danced before the altar vehemently gesticulating. He dipped suds 
with his two plumes and threw them toward the altar, with a wild cry, 
and again dipping suds he threw them over the altar to the north; a 
like quantity was thrown to the west, and the same to the south, the 
east, the zenith, and the nadir. He then dijjped a (juantity, and 
placing some on the head of the white bear and putting some over the 
parrot, he resumed his seat on the blanket and began blowing through 
the reed and beating the suds. In five minutes he stood the reed as 
before in the center of the bowl, then, dancing, he dipped the suds, 
placing them on the head of the bear and over the parrot; he then 
removed the remaining suds from the plumes by striking one against 
the other over the bowl (this ti'oth is always referred to by the Sia as 
clouds). During this part of the ceremony the choir sang an exhortation 
to the cloud peoples. A boy now handed a cigarette of native tobacco 
to the vicar, who puffed the smoke for some time, extending the cigar- 
ette to the north; smoking again, he blew the smoke to the west, 
and extended the cigarette to that point; this was repeated to the 
south and east; when he had consumed all but an inch of the cigar- 
ette, he laid it in front of the cloud bowl and east of the meal line. The 

110 THE SIA. 

choir did not cease singing during the smoking, and when the bit of 
cigarette had been deposited, the vicar transferred his rattle to his 
right hand, keeping time with the choir. When the song closed he 
left his seat in front of the cloud bowl and stood by the west side of the 
altar, and removing the eagle plume from his head returned it to the 
ya'ya and took his seat near the fireplace. Two of the boys then lighted 
cigarettes of native tobacco with the long flrestick, handing one to each 

In fifteen minutes the song was resumed and the man west of the 
ho'naaite dipped his eagle plumes in the medicine water and sprinkled 
the altar, repeating the sprinkling four times. In twenty-five ndnutes 
the song closed and the men enjoyed a social smoke, each man after 
ligliting his cigarette waving it towards the altar. In twenty-five min- 
utes the choir again sang, two boys standing in front of the altar, one 
on either side of the line of meal. The one on the west side of the line 
dipped his plumes into the medicine water and sprinkled the altar, and 
the one on the east side of the line dipped his crook into the medicine 
water and sprinkled the altar. They then dipped into the cloud bowl 
and threw the suds to the north ; dipping suds again the boy west of 
the line threw the suds to the west, and the one east of the line threw 
the suds to the east; again dipping medicine water they passed to the 
south and threw the water to that point, the boy west of the meal line 
crossed to the east, and the one on the east of the line of meal crossed 
to the west, and returning to the altar they dipped suds, the boy to 
the west of the line throwing suds in that direction, and the boy east 
of the line throwing suds to that point; again dipping the medicine 
water they sprinkled to the zenith, and dipping the suds they threw 
them to the nadir; then the boy on the west of the line crossed to the 
east, and the one on the east of the line crossed to the west, and thus 
reversing positions they repeated the sprinkling of the cardinal points, 
zenith and nadir, twelve times, dipping alternately into the medicine 
water and the cloud bowl. With the termination of the sprinkling 
the song ceased for a moment, and by command of the ho'naaite the 
boys, each taking a basket of hii'chamoni, which were resting on the 
backs of the cougar fetiches either side of the altar, stood in front of 
the altar, one on the west side of the meal line and the other on the 
east, and holding the baskets in tlieir left hands shook their rattles; 
they then held the basket with both hands, moving them in time to 
the song and rattles of the choir. The ho'naaite directed them to 
wave the baskets to the north, west, south, and east, to the zenith and 
the nadir; this they repeated twelve times and then deposited the 
baskets either side of the cloud bowl, and the vicar placed the bowl of 
medicine water two feet in front of the cloud bowl, on the line of meal, 
and taking one of the ya'ya in his left hand, he passed east of the line 
and, stooping low, lie stirred the medicine water with an abalone shell, 
and then passed his hand over the ya'ya and drew a breath from it. 





The man at the ^est end of the line of worshipers now came forward 
and the vicar gave hi. si a diink of the medicine water, then the man at 
the east end of the line received a draft. The boy who threw the 
suds with the plumes came uext, and followinsj; iiiin the boy (the 
pauper) who held the miniature ci'ook; thea the third boy advanced 
and drank; the man on the left of the ho'naaite following next, the 
ho'naaite came forward; he did not receive the water from the shell, 
but drank directly fi'om the bowl; the vicar holding the bowl with his 
right hand placed it to the ho'naaite's lips, the ho'naaite clasping the 
ya'ya, which was held in the left hand of the vicar ; he then taking the 
bowl with his right hand and clasping the ya'ya with his left, held it 
to the lips of the vicar, who afterwards left the room, carrying with him 
the remainder of the medicine water and the ya'ya. He passed into 
the street and, filling his mouth with the water, he threw a spray 
through his teeth to the north, west, south, and east, the zenith and 
the nadir and then to all the world, that the cloud people might gather 
and water the earth. In a short time he returned and placed the bowl 
and ya'ya before the altar. The shell was laid east of the line of meal 
and in front of the cloud bowl. A cigarette was then handed the 
ho'naaite and, after blowing the first few puffs over the altar, he 
finished it without further ceremony, and taking the two baskets of 
plume offerings in either hand he stooped with bended knees a short 
distance in front of the altar and west of the line of meal. The two 
minor members wrapped their blankets around them and stooped be- 
fore the ho'naaite on the opposite side of the meal line. The ho'naaite 
divided the ofterings between the two, placing them on the blanket 
where it passed over the left arm: these offerings were to Pai'iitamo 
and Ko'pishtaia, and were deposited by the boys at the shrines of 
Kopishtaia (Pis. xxvi and xxvii). Food was now broughti;! by the boy 
novitiate, and with the feast the society adjourned at 3 o'clock in the 


Tlie Society of the Quei-'riiuiui has a reduced membership of three — 
the ho'naaite, vicar, and a woman; and there is at the present tune a 
novitiate, a boy of 5 years. Three generations are represented in this 
society — father, son, and grandson. The elder man is one of the most 
aged in Sia, and, though ho'naaite of the Quer'ranna and vicar of the 
Society of Warriors, and reverenced by his people as being almost as 
wise as the "Oracle," his family is the most destitute in Sia, being 
composed, as it is, of nonproducing members. His wife is an invalid ; his 
eldest son, the vicar of the Quer'niTina Society, is a paralytic, and a 
younger son is a trifling fellow. The third child is a daughter who has 
been blind ft'om infancy; she is the mother of two children, but has 
never been married. The fourth child is a 10-year-old girl, whose time 
is consumed in the care of the children of her blind sister, bringing 
the water for family use, and grinding the corn (the mother and sister 
occasionally assisting in the grinding) and preparing the meals, which 
consist, with rare exceptions, of a bowl of mush. During the planting _ 
and harvest times the father alone attends to the fields, which are their 
main dependence ; and he seeks such employment as can be procured 
from his people, and in this way exchanges labor for food. Every 
blanket of value has been traded for u(mrishmeut, until the family is 
reduced to mere tatters for garments. For several years this family 
has been on the verge of starvation, and the meagerness of food and 
mental suffering tells the tale in the face of each member of the house- 
hold, excepting the worthless fellow (who visits about the country, im- 
posing upon his friends). Even the little ones are more sedate than 
the other children of the village. 

Nothing is done for this family by the clan. Close observation leads 
the writer to believe that the same ties of clanship do not exist with 
the Sia as with the other tribes. This, however, may be due to the 
long continued struggle for subsistence. Fathers and mothers look 
flrst to the needs of their children, then comes the child's interest in 
parents, and brothers and sisters in one another. No lack of self-denial 
is found in the family. 

The ho'naaite of the Quer'ranna is the oidy surviving member of the 
Eagle clan, but his wife belongs to the Corn clan, and has a number of 
connections. When the writer chided a woman of this clan for not 
assisting the suflferers she replied : " I would help them if I could, but 
we have not enough for ourselves," a confirmation of the opinion that 
the clan is here secondary to the nearer ties of consanguinity. The 
care of one's immediate family is obligatory; it is not so with the clan. 



Tlie house in wliicli this family lives is small iiud without means of 
ventilation, and the old man may be seen, on his retiu'u from his daily 
labors, assisting his invalid wife and paralytic sou to some point where 
they may have a breath of pure air. They are usually accompanied by 
the little girl leading her blind sister and carrying the baby on her back 
by a bit of an old shawl which the girl holds tightly around her. 

Always patient, always loving, is the old man to those of his house- 
hold, and the writer was ever sure of a greeting of smiles and fond 
words fi'om each of these unfortunates. Not wanting in hospitality 
even in their extremity, they invited her to join them whenever she 
found them at their frugal meal. 

The only medicine possessed by the Quer'riinna is se'-wili, which is 
composed of the roots and blossoms of the six mythical medicine plants 
of the sun, archaic white shell and black stone beads, turkis, and a 
yellow stone. 

The preparation of this medicine and that of the other cult societies 
is similar to the mode observed by the Zuiii. Women are dressed in 
sacred white embroidered Tusiiyau blankets, and they grind the medi- 
cine to a fine powder amid great ceremony. When a woman wishes to 
become pregnant this medicine is administered to her privately by the 
ho'naaite, a small quantity of the powder being put into cold water aud 
a fetich of Quer'riiuna dipped four times into the water. A dose of this 
medicine insures the realization of her wish; should it fail, then the 
woman's heart is not good. This same medicine is also administered at 
the ceremonials to the members of the society for the perpetuation of 
their race; and the ho'naaite, taking a mouthful, throws it out through 
his teeth to the cardinal points, that the cloud people may gather and 
seud rain that the earth may be fruitful. 


During the day ha'chamoni and plume offerings are prepared by the 
ho'naaite, and iu the afternoon he arranges the altar, which is quite 
different from those of the other cult societies, and makes a meal 
painting symbolic of clouds. Six fetiches of Quer'ranna are then 
arranged in line, the largest being about 6 inches, the smallest 3, the 
others gi-aduating in size ; a medicine bowl is set before the line of 
fetiches; antlers are stood to the east of the nxeal painting; and bas- 
kets of cereals, corn on the cob, medicine bags, and a basket of ha'cha- 
moni and plume offerings are arranged about the painting. PL xxviii 
shows photograph at time of ceremonial; PI. xxix, made iu case of 
failure of the tirst, shows the meal painting, symbolic of clouds, which 
is completely hidden in the first photograph, and illustrates more defi- 
nitely the feather decoration of the altar. The birds surmounting the 
two posts are wood carvings of no mean pretensions; the feathers by 
the birds are eagle i)lumes, and the bunches of plumes suspended from 
11 ETH 8 

114 THE SIA. 

the cord arc tail feathers of the female sparrow hawk {Faico sparverius) 
and the long-crested jay {Cyanocetta mucrolophn). 

The men and child have their forelocks drawn back and tied with 
ribbons of corn husks, the men- each having a bunch of hawk and jay 
feathers attached pendent on the left side of the head. They wear 
white cotton breechcloths and necklaces of coral and kohaqua (archaic 
shell heads).' The woman wears her ordinary dress and several coral 
necklaces, her feet and limbs being bare. 

Tlie ho'iiaaite, removing a bowl of meal from before the altar and 
holding it in his left hand, together with his eagle plumes and a wand, — 
the wand being a miniature crook elaborately decorated with feathers, — 
sprinkled a line of men-l ft-om the painting to the entrance of the 
chamber, f(n- the being of Quer'riinna to jiass over. 

The ho'naaite, his vicar, and the woman sat back of the altar, the ho'- 
naaite to the west side, tlie vice to his right, and the woman to the east 
side. At this time a child was sleeping near the altar. 

The ho'naaite filled an abalone shell with corn pollen and liolding the 
shell, his two eagle plumes, and wand in his left hand and rattle in the 
right, offered a long prayer to Quer'riinna to invoke thejdoud i>eople to 
water the earth, and sprinkled the altar several times with pollen. 
At the close of the prayer he handed the shell of pollen to the woman, 
who passed to the front of the altar and east of the meal line and 
sprinkled the altar with the pollen. The song now began, and the 
woman, retaining her position before the altar, kept time by moving her 
wand right and left, then extending it over the altar ; each time before 
waving it over the altar she rested it on the shell for a moment; after 
repeating the motion several times, she extended the wand to the north, 
moving it right and left, and after resting it on the shell she extended 
it to the west, and the wand was in this way motioned to the cardinal 
points, zenith and nadir. The waving of the wand to the points was 
repeated four times : and the woman then returned the shell to the ho'- 
naaite, who had at intervals waved his plumes and wand over the altar. 
At this time the child awoke, and making a wad of his blanket sat 
upon it between the ho'naaite and the vicar; the latter supplying the 
child M'ith a wand and rattle, he joined iu the song. 

The vicar being afflicted with paralysis could add little to the cere- 
mony, though he made strenuous efforts to sing and sway his palsied 
body. The group presented a pitiful picture, but it exhibited a striking 
Ijroof of the devotion of these people to the observance of their cult — 
the flickering firelight playing in lights and shadows about the heads 
of the three members, over whom Time holds the scythe with grim 
menaces, while they strained every nerve to make all that was possible 
of the ritual they were celebarting; the boy, requiring no arousing to 
sing and bend his tiny body to the time of the rattle, joined in the calls 

' The portraits of the ho'naaitos were made In secluded spots in the woods. The hair is not arranged 
as it is iu the ceremonials, fear of discovery preventing the proper arrangement and adornment with 
feathers. (PI. xxx.> 






upon the cloud people to gather to water the earth with as much enthu- 
siasm as his elders. 

The song- continued, with all standing, without cessation for an hour. 
The woman then brought a vase of water and gourd from the southwest 
corner of the room and i)laced it in front of the altar on the line of meal, 
and the ho'naaite took fi'om the west side of the altar four medicine 
bags, handing two to the man and two to the boy (pollen being in one 
bag and meal in the other), and giving the shell containing the pollen 
to the woman. She stood in front of the altar east of the line of meal 
swaying her body from side to side, holding her wand in the right hand 
and the shell in the left, keeping time to the rattle and the song. She 
emptied a gourd of water from the vase into the medicine bowl, implor- 
ing Quer'riinna to intercede with the cloud people to assemble; the 
ho'naaite then sprinkled se'wili into the medicine bowl; then the little 
boy sprinkled pollen into the bowl, invoking the cloud people to gather, 
and tlie vicar, with the same petition, sprinkled the pollen. The woman 
then emptied a second gourd of water, first waving it to the north, into 
the medicine bowl, with a call for the cloud people to gather; the 
ho'naaite again deposited a portion of the se'wili into the bowl anrl 
his vicar and the boy sprinkled in meal, with an apjieal to the cloud 
people; again the woman lifted a gourdful of water and waved it to- 
ward the west and emptied it into the bowl, invoking the cloud people 
to gather; and the others sprinkled corn pollen, the vicar and boy call- 
ing upon the cloud people to gather; the woman then waved a gourd 
of water to the south and emptied it into the bowl, and again the 
others sjn-inkled pollen, the vicar and boy repeating their petition; 
another gourdful was lifted and waved to the east and emptied into 
the bowl and the sprinkling of the pollen was repeated. The woman 
returned the vase to the farther end of the room (she ofliciated in the 
making of the medicine water, as the vicar, being a paralytic, was una- 
ble to perform this duty), and resumed her seat back of the altar; 
reaching forward, she removed two small medicine bags, and taking a 
pinch of pollen from one and a pinch of meal from the other, sprinkled 
the medicine water ; after repeating the sprinkling, she tied the bags 
and returned them to their place by the altar. The ho'naaite, dipping 
his plumes into the medicine bowl, sprinkled the altar three times by 
striking the top of the plumes held in the left hand with the rattle held 
in the right. The sprinkling was I'epeated three times by the others 
while the ho'naaite sang a low chant. All now rose, and the ho'naaite 
continuing the song, moved his body violently, the motion being from 
the knees; as he sang he extended his eagle plumes over the altar and 
dipped them into the medicine water with a call for the cloud people to 
gather; he then dipped the bird feathers attached to his wand into the 
medicine water with a similar exhortation; the boy dipped the feathers 
attached to his wand into the water, striking them with the rattle, call- 
ing upon the cloud people to gather and water the earth; the ho'naaite 

116 THE SIA. 

(lipped his eagle plumes twice cousecutively into tlie medicine water, 
invoking the cloud people to water the earth; and the vicar dipped his 
feathers into the medicine water, malving the most revolting souuds in 
his efforts to invoke the cloud people; the boy sprinkled with the invo- 
cation to the cloud people. The sprinkling was repeated alternately six 
times by each of the members, the ho'naaite pointing to the cardinal 
points as he continued his exhortation to the cloud people. After re- 
suming their seats they sang until midnight, when the ho'naaite placed 
the ends of his feathers into his mouth and drew a breath and the 
woman laid her wand to the east side of the meal painting. The cere- 
monial closed with administering the medicine water, the ho'naaite 
dipping it with a shell. Owing to the depleted condition of the society, 
the duty of depositing the hii'chamoni and plume offerings fell to the 
ho'naaite himself. 


In addition to the thirteen cult societies of the Zufn they have the 
society of the Kok'-ko, the mythologic society. 

It is obligatory that all youths become members of this society to in- 
sure their admittance into the dance house in the lake of departed 
spirits; first by involuntary and later by voluntary initiation. Females 
sometimes, though seldom, join this order. While the Sia mythology 
abounds in these same anthropomorphic beings, their origin is accounted 
for in an entirely different manner from those of the Zuui. The Ka'- 
*suna of the Sia were created by Ut's6t in a single night in the lower 
world.' These beings accompanied the Sia to tins world, and upon their 
advent here CTt'set directed them to go to the west and there make their 
home for all time to come. 

They are solicited to use their influence with the cloud people, and 
the dances of the Ka"suna are usually held for rain or snow. It is 
the prerogative of the ti'iimoni to control the appearance of the Ka'- 
'suna. When a dance is to occur, the ho'naaite of the Society of Quer'- 
ranna selects such men and women as lie wishes to have dance and holds 
a number of rehearsals, both of the songs and dances. Those who are 
the most graceful, and who have the greatest powers of endurance and 
the most retentive memories for the songs, are chosen to personate the 
Ka"suna regardless of any other consideration. Both sexes, however, 
must have been first initiated into the mysteries of the Ka'^suna. 

Previous to initiation the personators are believed by the Sia to be 
the actual Ka"suna. The instruction continues from four to eight days, 
and diu'ing this period continency must be observed, and an emetic 
drank by the married men and women each morning for purification 
from conjugal relations. 

Whenever the Ka"suna appear they are accompanied by their attend- 

1 There were other Ka"9ftna, however, wliich were id the upper world before the Sia carae. While 
the Sia cau not account for their origin they are also personated by them. 





aiits, tlie Ko'sliairi and Qiier'riiuiia, who wait upon tliem, attciidiiig to 
any disarranged apparel aud making the spectators merry with their 
witty sayings aud biittboneiy. 

The Sia have a great variety of masks, whicsh nuist be very old, judg- 
ing from their appearance, and the jiriest of the Quer'riinna, who has 
them in charge, claims for them great antiquity. Pis. xxxi aud xxxii 
illustrate some masks of the Ka"suna. 

When a boy or girl reaches the time wlien, as their fathers say, they 
have a good head, some ten or twelve years of age, the father first sug- 
gests to the ho'naaite of the Quer'ranna (if the father is not living then 
the mother speaks) that he would like his son or daughter to become 
acquainted with the Ka"sun a; he then makes known his wish to the 
ti'iimoni, and after these two have said, " It is well," he says to his 
child, "My child, I think it is time for you to know the Ka"suna," and 
the child replies, "It is well, father." The parent then informs the 
ho'naaite that his child wishes to know the Ka"suua, and the ho'naaite 
replies, "It is well." The next time the Ka"suna come he may know 

The ho'naaite prepares a meal painting for the occasion, covering it 
for the time being with a blanket. Upon the arrival of the Ka"suna 
the father aud child, and, if the child be a member of a cult society, 
the theurgist of the society, j^roceed to the ceremonial house of the 
(Quer'riinna. If the child possesses a fetich of the ya'ya he carries it 
pressed to his breast. Upon entering the ceremonial chamber the child 
aud attendants take their seats at the north end of the room near 
the west side, the ho'naaite of the Quer'ranna sitting just west of 
the meal painting, the boy to his right, and the parent next to 
the boy. The ti'amoni and ho'naaite of warriors are present and sit 
on the west side of the room and about midway. The Sa'iahlia (two of 
the Ka"suna) stamp about in the middle of the room for a time, then 
the ho'naaite leads the child before the meal painting, which is, how- 
ever, still covered with the blanket, and says to the Ka"suna, " A 
youth [or maiden, whichever it may be] has come to know you." The 
Ka'*suna each carry a bunch of Si)anish bayonet in either hand, and 
the child receives two strokes across the back from ea(;h of the Ka"suna, 
unless he be an oflicial member of a cult society; in this case be is ex- 
empt from the chastisement. A boy is nude excepting the breech- 
cloth; a girl wears her ordinary clothing. The ho'naaite, addressing 
the Ka"suna, says : " Now it is well for you to raise your masks that the 
child may see." One of the Sa'iahlia places his mask over the child's head 
and the other lays his by the meal painting, the ho'naaite having re- 
moved the blanket. The personators of the Ka"suna then say to the 
child : "Now you know the Ka"snna you will henceforth have only good 
thoughts and a good heart; sometime, i)erhaps, you will be one of us. 
You must not speak of these things to anyone not initiated." The mask 
is then taken from the child's head and laid by the side of the other, 

118 THE SIA. 

and the boy answers : "I will not speak of these things to anyone." 
The Ka"suna then rubs the meal of the painting upon the child, and 
those present afterwards gather around the paiuting and rub the meal 
upon their bodies for mental and physical jjurificatiou. The child de- 
posits the hii'chamoni presented to him by the ho'naaite at the shrine 
of the Quer'ranna at the base of the village and to the west. The 
bii'chamoni is composed of eagle and turkey plumes. The child says 
when depositing it, "I now know you, Ka"suna, and I pay you this 
hii'chamoni." The ho'naaite deposits a ha'chamoni for each member 
of the society at the shrine, which is in a fissure in a ro(;k, and after 
the deposition of the ha'chamoni the opening is covered with a rock and 
no evidence of a shrine remains. 


This society is nearly extinct, its membership consisting of the ho'- 
naaite (the oracle) and his vicar, the former being also ho'naaite of the 
society of warriors; though aged, he retains his faculties perfectly and 
performs his ofiicial and religious duties with the warmest interest. 

Previous to a hunt for game a two days' ceremonial is held by this 
society, and on the third morning ha'chamoni and plume ofi'erings are 
deposited by the vice ho'naaite. The cougar is appealed to, as he is 
the great father and master of all game; he draws game to him by 
simply sitting still, folding his arms, and mentally demanding the pres- 
ence of the game ; likewise when he wishes to send game to any par- 
ticular ijeoi^le he controls it with his mind and not by spoken words. 
Though the cougar sends the game it is the sun who gives power to the 
Sia to capture it. 

It is the prerogative of the ho'naaite of this society to decide upon 
the time for the hunt. Ha'chamoni are deposited to the cougar of 
the north, the west, the south, the east to convey the messages 
of the Sia. If a rabbit hunt is to occur a rabbit stick and an arrow 
point are deposited as offerings to the sun. The ofi'erings to the 
cougar of the zenith are deposited to the north and those to the sun to 
the east. If the hunt is to be for larger game an arrow point only is 
deposited to the sun. The hunt may occur very soon after these ofier- 
ings are made or not for some time, it being optional with the ho'naaite. 
He does not directly notify the people, but speaks to the war chief, who 
heralds his message. When annouucement has been made of the pro- 
spective hunt a fire is made at night on the east side of the village and 
the selected huntsmen form in a circle around it; here the night is spent 
making plans for the hunt, in epic songs, and story telling, and, like 
other Indians, the Sia recount the valorous deeds of the mythical beings 
and their people in low, modulated tones. The hunt occurs four days 
from this time, and coutinency is observed until after the hunt. On the 
fifth morning, if the hunt be for rabbits, the men and women of the 
village prepare to join in the chase by first having their heads bathed 

Bureau of Ethnology. 

Eleventh Annual Report Plate XXXI. 



, ^XXX XXX' 







%^ /f 



-^ X >C >^' 

' X X X X /^ 

XX X - X X 

/X^XX X xx 







in yucca suds and then donning their best apparel; only men hunt for 
the larger game. Babbits are hunted on horseback with rabbit sticks ; 
deer, on foot and with the rifle in preference to the arrow. 

A party of hunters which had been indicated by the war chief to 
hunt for deer and antelope left the village in the afternoon, the party 
being led by the xu-e war chief. The ti'amoni was a member of the 
party. The writer mentions this as it is unusual for a ti'iimoni to 
participate in the hunt, and it is claimed by the Sia that if their ti'ii- 
moni were not a mere boy he would observe the custom of his predeces- 
sors and decline to join in the hunt. The scarcity of game in this part 
of the country necessitated a three days' journey before any was 

Previous to the departure of the party the ho'naaite of the society of 
the cougar visited the house of each man who was to x)articipate in the 
hunt and embraced him, repeating a short prayer for success. The 
prayer was addressed iirst to the cougar, father of game, that he might 
send his children about the country, and afterwards to the sun to give 
power to the hunters to secure the game. The wives and relatives of 
the hunting party had been busy preparing food for them ; each man's 
wife looked carefidly after his personal needs. The wife handed the 
hunter's gun to him after he had mounted his horse, the unmarried man 
of the party having his gun handed him by his father. 

The huntsmen were absent thirteen days, and upon their return a 
member of the party was sent in advance as courier to notify the war 
chief. The news brought general delight to the villagers, particularly 
to the wives of the hunters, who at once commenced preparing for their 
arrival. They reached the river about sundown, and upon crossing 
were received by the vice ho'naaite of the society of warriors and the 
war chief, who offered prayers and sprinkled meal in thanksgiving for 
the success and safe return of the hunters who grouped on the bank of 
the river. The younger children of the returning party were also on the 
river bank to meet their fathers, who at once took their little ones on 
the horses with them and expressed much delight at again seeing them. 
The huntsmen then in single tile ascended the hill to the village, led 
by the vicar of the society of warriors and the war chief, the latter two 
being on foot, the war chief following the vicar. A man whose house 
was at the entrance of the plaza dropped out of the hie to go to his 
home, and by the time he had reached the door his wife was outside to 
receive his gun and other luggage which he bore; this was the only 
greeting between the husband and wife. After the horsemen had 
crossed the iilaza a second man entered his home, he being the vicar of 
the society of the cougar and son of the vicar of the society of warriors. 
The war chief then led the party until but one horseman remained, who 
u]3on reaching his home was assisted by the war chief in relieving 
himself and animal of their biu'den. Several of the women of the vil- 
lage embraced the ti'amoni after he had dismounted, who, however, 

120 THE SIA. 

seemed perfectly absorbed iu his infant daughter, his wife's greeting, 
like those of the other wives, being simply to take first his gun and 
then his other tra])S from his horse. 

The ho'naaite of the cougar society visited the houses of all the re- 
turned hunters, first entering the house of his vicar. The young man 
stood iu the center of the room and the ho'naaite embraced him and 
repeated a i)rayer of thanksgiving for his success iu the hunt and his 
safe return. The old man was then assisted to a seat upon a wadded 
blanket and the father of the hunter spread a sheepskin upon the floor, 
wool side down, and emptied the contents of the sack which was taken 
from the hunters horse upon it, which was nothing more than the 
desiccated meat and bones of an antelope. The aged man then took 
from his pouch a fetich of the cougar, about 3 inches long, and touching 
it to the meat of the antelope many times prayed most earnestly for 
several minutes. His prayers were addressed to the cougar, thanking 
him for his goodness in sending his children over the land that the Sia 
might secure them as payment to the cloud people for watering the 

In the next house visited the meat of the antelope was spread 
upon a bear's skin, the hair down. The skin of the antelope was folded 
lengthwise and laid by the side of the meat, and the skull and antlers 
placed at one end. The wife of the hunter laid over the skull many 
strings of coral, ko'haqua, and turkis beads, and afterwards spread a 
white embroidered Tusayan blanket over the carcass. A small bowl of 
sacred meal was deposited in front of the head. The aged no'naaite 
repeated a prayer similar to the one he offered in the first house, not 
omitting placing the fetich to the antelope; he then clasped his hands 
four times over the skull of the antelope and drew a breath, after which 
the hunter lighted a cigarette for the ho'naaite who blew the first whift 
over the antelope and extended the cigarette toward it. The ho'naaite 
repeated the prayer in the houses of the four successful hunters. The 
other two men were not overlooked, as he embraced them and repeated 
a prayer of thanksgiving for their safe return.' The war chief visited 
all of the houses, but did nothing more than sprinkle the antelope with 
corn pollen, drawing in a sacred breath from the game, puflBng the first 
whiff of his cigarette over it and extending the cigarette toward it. 

When the game is shot, the hunter dips his fetich into the blood, 
telling it to drink. The blood is often scraped from fetiches and drunk 
in a little water to insure gi-eater success in the hunt. There are speci- 
mens of such fetiches in Mr. Stevenson's collection in the National 
Museum. Some students, through their imperfectknowledge, have been 
led into the error of supposing from their new appearance that these 
fetiches were of recent manufacture. The game is kept in the houses 
of the hunters until the following morning, when it is taken to the cere- 
monial house of the ti'iimoni, the war chief deciding what day it shall 

' The aged lio'naaite has siuce died. 

Bureau of EthnoloOy. 

Eleventh Annual Report^ Plate XXXII 


:> \ • 

*i % 

i ■|# 




|n^, ,^ 





be distributed iimoug the ho'iiaaites of the several cult societies. It 
may be one, two, or three days after the return of the hunters. At the 
apimiuted time the ho'naaites assemble in the ceremouial house of the 
ti'iimoni, who divides the game, each ho'naaite carrying- his portion to 
his ceremonial chamber. About noon of the same day the members of 
the cult societies assemble in their respective ceremonial chambers and 
prepare ha'chamoni ; at the same time, if the society has any female 
members, they place the game in a pot and cook it in the fireplace in 
the ceremonial chamber, l.)ut if there be no female members certain male 
members are designated for this pur^jose. Toward evening tlie slat 
altars are erected, and the night is spent in songs and supplications to 
the cloud people to gather and water the earth. ITii'chamoni and the 
game are deposited before sunrise at four shrines — to the cougar of the 
north, the west, the south, and the east, that they will intercede for 
the cloiul people to gather and water the earth. Ha'chamoni are 
also deposited to the sun father that he will invoke the cloud i)eople 
to water the earth, and also that he will embrace the earth that the 
crops may grow. Others are deposited in the fields as payml;nt to the 
cloud people for the services requested of them. 


The Society of Warriors and the Knife Society have a ceremonial 
chamber in common; and in a certain sense these societies are closely 
allied, the former having had originally as its presiding ofBcers Ma'a- 
sewe and U'yuuyewg, the twin children of the sun, the latter society 
having derived its name from the arrows which were given by the sun 
father to the invulnerable twins, and with which they destroyed the 
enemies of the earth. Each of these societies, therefore, has a share 
in the initiation of a victor. 

The killing of an enemy is not safficient to admit a man into the 
Society of Warriors; he must return with such trophies as the scalp 
and buckskin apparel. The victor carries the scalp on an arrow until 
he draws near to the village, when he transfers it to a pole some 5 feet 
in length, the pole being held with both hands. The victor's approach 
is heralded, and if it be after the sun has eaten his midday meal he 
must not enter the village, but remain near it until morning, food being 
carried to him by the war chief. In the nioruiyg the Society of the 
Knife, followed by the Warriors and the male populace of the town, join 
the victor. An extended prayer is offered by the ho'naaite of the Knife 
Society, and then, addressing the spirit of the enemy, he says : " You are 
now no longer our enemy ; your scalp is here ; you will no more destroy my 
people." The ho'naaite of the Warriors and his vicar respond, "So ! So ! " 
The air is resonant the remainder of the day with the war song, there 
being occasional intermissions for prayers; and at sundown the ho'na- 
aite of the Warriors and his vicar, with the victor, bearing the pole and 
scalp between them, lead the way to the village, followed by the mem- 
bers of the society, and then tlie Knife Society, led by its ho'naaite and '. 

122 THE SIA. 

his vicar. After encircling the village from right to left, the party en- 
ters the ceremonial chamber, when the scalp is deposited before the 
meal painting, the ho'naaite of the Knife Society having prepared the 
painting and arranged the fetiches about it in the morning before going 
to meet the victor. The two large stone images of Ma'asewe and 
U'yiiuyewe, which are brought out only upon the initiation of a victor 
into the Society of Warriors, are kept in a room exclusively their own; 
these particular fetiches of the war heroes are never looked upon by 
women, consequently they have I'emained undisturbed in their abiding 
place a number of years, the exception being when all the fetiches and 
paraphernalia of the cult of the Sia were displayed in 1887 for Mr. 
Stevensoa's and the writer's inspection. The members of the Knife 
Society sit on the west side of the room and the Warriors on the east 
side, the ho'naaites of the societies sitting at the north end of either 
hue, each ho'naaite having his vicar by his side, and the victor by the 
side of the vicar of the Warriors; he does not join in the 'song, but sits 
perfectly still. At sunrise the scalp is washed in yucca suds and cold 
water by each member of the Knife Society, and the victor's hands are 
then bathed for the first time since the scalping, and he proceeds to 
paint his body. The face and lower jtortion of the legs are colored red 
and the remainder black, and galena is then spread over the greater 
portion of the face. The Knife Society wears white cotton embroidered 
Tusayau kilts and moccasins, and the Warriors wear kilts of uuorna- 
mented buckskin, excepting the fringes at the bottom and the pouch 
made from the buckskin apparel captured from the enemy. The victor 
wears the buckskin kilt, mocciisins, and pouch, and he carries a bow 
and arrows in his left hand, and the pole with the scalp attached to it 
in the right. Each member of the society also carries a bow and nrrows 
in the left hand and a single arrow in the right. The members of the 
Knife Society have gourd rattles in their right hands and bows and 
arrows in the left. The hair of all is left flowing. 

An arrow point is placed in the moutli of the victor by the ho'naaite 
of the Knife Society, and they all then proceed to the plaza, the mem- 
bers of each society forming in a line and the victor dancing to and 
fi'o between the lines, raising the scalp as high as the pole will reach, 
but he does not sing or speak a word. The numbers in the lines are 
increased by the men of the village carrying war clubs and firearms, 
keeping up a continual volley with their iiistols and guns until the 
close of the dance at sundown. The women are not debarred from 
exhibiting their enthusiasm, and they join in the dance. 

Upon their return to the ceremonial chamber the scalp is again 
deposited before the meal painting and the ho'naaite of the Knife Society 
proceeds with the final epic ritual which completes the initiation of the 
victor iu to the Society of Warriors, closing with these words: "You 
are now a member of the Society of Warriors," and he then reuioves 
the arrow point from the victor's mouth. The members, in conjunction 
with the victor, respond "Yes! Yes! " 


SONGS. 123 

The cotton shirt ami trousers are theu donned and the scalp is 
carried to tlie scalp-house (a cavity in the earth covered with a mound 
of stone) and deposited with food for the spirit of the departed enemy. 
Aj;ain retm'uing to the ceremonial chamber, fast is broken for the first 
time during the day, when a feast, which is served by the female rela- 
tives of the \ictor, is enjoyed. After the meal they go to the river and 
remove all evidences of the paint upon their bodies. Contiuency is 
observed four days. 

The few songs of the cult which the writer was able to collect are 
direct invocations for rain, or for the presence of zoomorphic beings in 
ceremonials for healing the sick, a few words sufficing for many unex- 
pressed ideas. The epic ritual of the Sia is so elaborate that much time 
and careful instruction are required to impress it upon the mind, and the 
younger men either have not the mind necessary for the retention of 
the ritual or will not tax their memories ; therefore the web of Sia myth 
and religion is woven into the minds of but few. 

The aged theurgists were eager to intrust to the writer the keeping 
of their songs, which are an elaborate record of the lives of their mythic 
heroes and of the Sia themselves. 

The Sia sometimes adopt the poet's license in their songs and alter 
a word ; for example, the iiiimeftn" "badger" is tuo'pi, but is changed 
iu the sko'yo song lor rain to tupi'na, because, they say, the latter word 
renders the stanza more rhythmical. And, again, different words are 
synonymously used. 

The his'tiiin and quer'ranna have each a similar song of petition for 
rain, this song having been given to the his'tiiin by the sun. It will be 
remembered that the name of this society indicates the knives or 
arrows of lightning given to the heroes by their sun fiither. 


1. Hgn'-na-ti 2. H6n'-na-ti shi'-wan-na 

He'-iish He'-iish shi-wan-na 

Pur'-tu-wlsh-ta Pur'-tu-wlsh-ta shi-wan-na 

K6w-mots Kow-mots shi'-wan na 

Kasli'-ti-arts Kash'-ti-arts shi'-wan-na 

Ka'-chard Ka'-cliard shi'-wan-na 

(1) TniHslation: — Hennati, white floating masks, behind which the 
cloud people pass about over ti'ni'a for recreation; He'ash, masks like 
the plains, behind which the chind people pass over ti'ni'a to water the 
earth; PCirtuwishta, lightning people; Kowmots, thunder people; 
Kashtiarts, rainbow people; Ka'chard, rain, the word being used in 
this instance, however, as an emphatic invocation to the rulers of the 
cloud i)eople. 

(2) Shi'wanna, people. 



Sha'-ka-ka shi'-wan-na 
Shwi'-ti-ra-wa-na shi'-wan-na 
Mai'-chi-na slii'-wan-iia 
Sliwi'-siui-ha-ua-we shi-wan-ua 
Marsh' ti-ta-mo shi'-wan-na 
Mor'-ri-ta-mo shi'-waiina 

Free translation: — An appeal to the priests of ti'nia. Let the white 
floatiug clouds — the clouds like the plains — the lightning, thunder, rain- 
bow, and cloud peoples, water the earth. Let the people of the white 
Heating clouds — the people of the clouds like the plains — the lightning, 
thunder, rainbow and cloud peoples — come and work for us, and water 
the earth. 
3. Sha'-ka-ka 4. 






Translation: — Sha'kaka, spruce of the north; Shwi'tirawana, pine of 
the west. Mai'china, oak of the south. Shwi'siuihanawe, aspen of the 
east. Marsh'titiimo, cedar of the zenith; Mor'ritiimo, oak of the nadir. 

(2) Shi'wanna, people. 

Free translation: — Cloud priest who ascends to ti'nia through the 
heart of the spruce of the north ; cloud priest who ascends to ti'nia 
through the heart of the pine of the west; cloud priest who ascends to 
ti'nia through the heart of the oak of the south; cloud priest who 
ascends to ti'nia through the heart of the aspen of the east; cloud 
priest who ascends to ti'nia through the heart of the cedar of the 
zenith ; cloud priest who ascends to ti'nia, through the heart of the oak 
of the nadir; send your people to work for us, that the waters of the 
six great springs may impregnate our mother, the earth, that she may 
give to us the fruits of her being. 

Though the trees of the cardinal points are addressed, the supplica 
tion is understood to be made to ]iriestly rulers of the cloud peoples of 
the cardinal points. 







5. Hgn'na-ti ka'-slii-wan-na 

ka'shi-wan-na (all people). 
Free translation: — All the white floating clouds — all the clouds like 
the i)lains — all the lightning, thunder, rainbow and cloud peoples, come 
and work for us. 

G. Sha'-ka-ka ka'shi-wan-na 

Shwi'-ti-ra-wa-na ka'shi-wan-na 

Mai'-chi na ka'shi-wan-na 

Shwi' si-ni-ha-na-we ka'shi-wan-na 

Marsh'-ti-ta-nio ka'-shi-wauna 

Mor'-ri-tii-mo ka'-shi-wauna 


Free translation: — 

Priest of the spruce of the nortli, send all your pooplo to work for us; 
Priest of tlie pine of the west, send all your people to work for \\a; 
Priest of the ouk of the south, seud all your people to work for us; 
Priest of the aspen of the east, send all your people to work for us; 
Priest of the cedar of the zenith, send all your people to work for us; 
Priest of the oak of the nadir, send all your people to work for us. 

7. Hen'-ua-ti ho'chiin-ui 

He'-iisli lio'-chiin-iii 

Pur-tu-wisli-ta ho'-cbiiu-ui 

Kow'-mots ho'-chiiu-ui 

Kash'ti-arts ho'-cliiin-ni 

Ka'-chard bo'-chan-ni 

Translation : — Ilo'cliiiuui, arch ruler of the cloud priests of the world. 

Free translation : — 
Ho'chiinni of the white floating clouds of the world ; 
Ho'chiinni of the dovids like the plains of the world (referring to the cloud people 

behind their masks) ; 
Ho'chiinni of the lightning peoples of the world; 
Ho'chiinni of the thunder peoples of the world; 
Ho'chiinni of the rainbow peoples of the world; 
Ho'chiinni of the cloud peoples of the world — send .ill your peoples to work for us. 

8. Sha-'ka-ka ho'-chiiu-ui 

Shwi'ti-ra-wa-ua ho' chjiu-ui 

Mai'-chi-ua ho'-chiiu-ui 

Shwi'si-ui-ha-ua-we ho'-chiiu-ui 

Marsh'- ti-tti-mo ho'-chiiu ui 

Mor'-ritii mo ho'chiin-ui 

Free translation: — 

Ho'chiinni of the spruce of the north; 

Ho'chiinni of the pine of the west; 

Ho'chiinni of the oak of the south ; 

Ho'chauni of the aspen of the east; 

Ho'chiinni of the cedar of the zenith ; 

Ho'chiinni of the o.ak of the nadir; send all your peoples to work for us, that the 

waters of the six great springs of the world may impregnate our mother the 

earth that she may give to us the fruits of her being. 



1. Ska'-to-we chai'-iin Quis'-s6r-a chai'-an 

Ka'-span-ua chai'-iin Hu'-wa ka-chai'-iin 

Ko'-quai-ra chai'-an Ya'-ai chai'-iin 

126 THE SIA. 

Translation. — Snake Society of the north, Snake Society of the west, 
Snake Society of the sonth, Snake Society of the east. Snake So- 
ciety of the zenith. Snake Society of the nadir, come here and work 
with us. 

2. Ho'-na-ai te Ska'-to-we chai'-an 

Ho'-na-ai-te Ka'-span-na chaiiin 

Ho'-na-ai-te Ko'-quai-ra chai'au 

Ho'-na-ai-te Quis-ser-ra chai'-an 

Ho'-na-ai-te Hn'-wa'-ka chai'-an 

Ho'-na-ai-te Ya'-ai chai'-iin 

An appeal to the ho'-naaites of the snake societies of the cardinal 
points to be present and work for the curing of the sick. 

3. Mo'-kaitc chai'-an Ka'-kan chai'-an 
Ko'-hai chai'-an Tiii'-mi chai'-an 

Tu-o'-pi chai'-iin Mai'tu-bo chai'-iin. 

An appeal to the animals of the cardinal points to be present at the 
ceremonial of healing. 

4. Ho'-na-ai-te Mo kaitc chai'-iin 

Ho'-na-ai-te Ko'-hai chai'-iin 

Ho'-na-ai-te Tu-o'-pi chai'-an 

Ho'-na-ai-te Ka'-kan chai'-iin 

Ho'-na-ai-te Ti ii'-mi chai'-iin 

Ho'-na-ai-te Mai'-tu bo chai'-an 

An appeal to the ho'naaites of the animal societies of the cardinal 
points to be present at the ceremonial. 


1. Cher-es ti mu ko wai' yii tu ai' ya mi wa wa Ish to wa 

Middle ol' the world door of shi'pa-po jiiy medicine is pre- Arrow ollight- 

below cioim, it is as my Ding 


ti'kii 'si mai ah kosh' te iin 

come to us echo 

2. Kai' nu a we eh sha ka ka ka' shi wan na ti ka' ru 'sin i ah 

Who is it "spruce of all your people your thoughts 


ti' kii *si mai ah 

come to us 

3. Kai' nu ah we he hen' na ti ka' ru 'sin i ah ti' ka *si mai ah 

W^ho is it " white tioat- your thoughts come to us 

ing clouds" 

ka' shi wan na ti ka' ru 'sin i ah ti' kii 'si mai ah 

all your people your thoughts come to us 




Kai' nu ah we eh 

he' iisli shi 'si 

ka' ru 'sin i ah 

ti' ka 'si mai ah 

Who is it 

'•clouds like the 

your thoughts 

come to US 

Kai' iiu ah we he 

ish to wa 

ka' rii 'sin i ah 

ti' ka 'si niai a,b 

Who is it 

"arrow of 

your thousbta 

como to me 

Kai' nu ah we eh 

ha' a 'si 'si' 

at "si ui ka' shi 

wau ua ti ka' 

Who is it 

"earth horizon" all your people your 


ru 'sin i ah ti' kit 'si mai ah 

thought. come to us 

Free translation.— We, the ancient ones, ascended from the middle 
of the workl below, throiigii the door of the entrance to the lower 
world, we hold our songs to the cloud, lightning, and thunder peo- 
ples as we hold our own hearts; our medicine is precious. (Addressing 
the people of ti'uia:) We entreat you to send your thoughts to us that 
we may sing your songs straight, so that they will pass over the 
straight road to the cloud priests that they may cover the earth with 
water, so that she may bear all that is good for us. 

Lightning people, send your arrows to the middle of the earth, 
hear the echo (meaning that the thunder people are flapping their 
wings among the cloud and lightning peoples). Who is it (the singers 
pointing to the north)"? Tlie people of the spruce of the north. All 
your people and your thoughts come to us. Who is it! People of 
the white floating clouds. Your thoughts come to us, all your people 
and your thoughts conie to us. Who is it (pointing above) "? People of 
the clouds like the plains. Your thought comes to us. Who is it? 
The lightning people. Your thoughts come to us. Who is it? Cloud 
people at the horizon. All your people and your thoughts come to 




.... wa'-mi 

mo'kai-ra ho'-na-wa-ai-te 

cougar theurgist 

. . ha ha . 

Sand painting 

1. Kai'-nu-a we eh 

Who is it 

nu-ro-wa-ah ka'-'si-ma-ah 

all is yours take away all disease 

2. Kai'-nu-a we eh ko'-hai-ya ho'-na-wa-ai-te 

Who is it bear theurgist 

nurowa-ah ka'-'si-ma-ah 

all is yours take away all disease 

3. Kai-nu-a we eh tu'-pi-na ho'-na-wa-ai-te 

Who is it badger theurgist 

uu-ro-wa-ali ka'-'si-ma-ah 

all is yours take away all disease 



4. Kai-nu-a we eh ka'-kan-na 

Wlio is it wolf 

nu-ro-wa-ah ka'-*si-ma-ah 

all is yours take away all disease 

5. Kai-uu-a we eh 

Who is it 

uu-ro-wa-ah ka'-*si-ma-ah 

all is yours take away all disease 

6. Kai-nu-a we eh 

Who is it 

uu-ro-wa-ah ka'-*si-ma-ah 

all is yours take away all disease 

Free translation. — Lion of the north, see the sand painting which you 
have given us (a voice is heard). Who is it? "The lion." lam but your 
theurgist; you possess all power; lend me your mind and your heart 
that 1 may penetrate the flesh and discover the disease. Through me; 
your theurgist, take away all disease. 

This appeal is repeated to each of the animals named. 













Corn pollen 


Corn pollen 


Corn pollen 


Corn pollen 


Corn pollen 


Corn pollen 


pass over the 


pass over the 


pass over the 


I>ass over the 


pass over the 


pass over the 













ti'tii-mi ka'-wash-ti-ma ko'-tu 

north spring of the north mountain 

po'-na 'si'-pin ko'-tfl 

west spring of mountain 

the west 

ko'wa tow'-o-tn-ma ko'-tu 

south spring of the south mountain 

ha'-na-mi ku'-chan ko'-tu 

east spring of mountain 

the east 

ti'-na-mi ko'-wa-tuma ko'-tu 

zenith spring of the zenith mountain 

nur'-ka-mi sti'-a-channa ko'-tu 

nadir spring of the nadir mountain 

Free translation — Corn pollen pass over the north road' to the spring 
of the north mountain, that the cloud people may ascend from the 
spring in the heart of the mountain to ti'nia and water the earth. The 
same is repeated for the five remaining cardinal points. 


Ho' hai hai ho' 

1. Yu'-wa ti'tit-mi ka'-wish-ti-ma sha' ka-ka ka'-shi 

There north spring spruce of the north all cloud 

wan na ha'-ti 

people where 

2. Yu' wa po-na-mi shwi'-ti-ra-wa-na ka'-shi wan na 

There in the west pine of the west all people 



' Here the singers sprinkle pollen to the north with an under wave of the hand. 




.ko'-wa-iiii "se-ya iiiai'i'hi-na ka'-shi. 


great oak of tlie south all 

. ua-mi 



aspeu of the cast 

. wan . . 





cedar of the zenith 


oak ot the earth 

ka'-shi wan 

all people 


ka'-shi wan na 

all people 

3. Yii'wa . 


na ha' ti 


4. Yu'-wa ha' 


^yan na ha 'ti 

people where 

5. Yu'-wa ti'-ua-mi 

There the zeaith 



6. Yu'-wa nur' ka-mi 

There earth 



7. Ho' hai bai ho' 

The Quer'rauna has the same song. 

Free Transhttion — 

1. Where are all the cloud people of the spring or heart of the spruce 
of the north? There in the north [the singers pointing to the north]. 

2. Where are all the cloud people of the pine of the west? There iu 
the west [the singers pointing to the west]. 

3. Where are all the cloud people of the great oak of the south? 
There in the south [the singers pointing to the south]. 

4. Where are all tlie cloud people of the aspen of the east? There 
ill the east [the singers poiutiiig to the east], 

5. Where are all the cloud people of the cedar of the zenith? There 
in the zenith [the singers pointing upward]. 

6. Where are all the cloud people of the nadir? There [the singers 
pointing to the earth]. 



1. Yu-wa. . - 



2. Yu-wa... 



3. Yu-wa... 


■4. Y^u-wa . . - 



5. Yu-wa . 


ah oh hai 
. ..ti'-i-ta 


e jir ha' ah oh hai e iir ' 
shi'-pa-po ni'-rua mo'-kaitc 


entrance to 
lower world 

ah oh hai 


ah oh hai 
. . -ti'-i-ta 


ah oh hai 


ah oh hai 


Ha' ah oh hai e iir 

aacended cougar man 

e iir ha' ah oh hai e iir 
shi'-pa-po ui'nia ko'-hai-ra ha'ro-*se 

entrance to ascended hear man 

lower world 

e iir ha' ah oh hai e iir 
shi'-pa-po ni'-nia tu'-pi-na ha'-ro-*se 

entrance to ascended hadger man 

lower world 

e iir ha' ah oh hai e iir 
shi'-pa-po ni'-ma ka'-kau-na ha'-ro-*se 

entrance to ascended wolf man 

lower world 

e iir ha' ah oh hai e iir 
shi'-pa-po ni'-ma ti-ii'mi ha'ro-se 

eutraiiee it* ascended eagle mau 

lower world 

ha' ah oh hai e iir 

11 ETH- 

> Can noi be translated. 

130 THE SIA. 

6. Yu-wa ti'-ita shi'-pa-jto ni'nia niai-tubo ha'-ro-*se 

There north entrance to ascended shrew man 

lower world 

All appeal to the animals of the cardiual points to intercede with the 
cloud people to water the earth. This song is long and elaborate. It 
begins by stating that their people, the cougar people and the others 
mentioned, ascended to ha'arts, the earth, through the opening, shi'- 
papo, in the north. It then recounts various incidents in the lives of 
these beings, with appeals at intervals for their intercession with the 
cloud people. 


Hen'-na-ti he'-iish O'-shats Ta'-wac Mo'-kaitc ko'hai Tu-o'-pi 

White floating clouds like sun moon cougar bear badger 

clouds. the plains 

Ka'kan Ti-a'-mi Mai-tu-bo Ma'-a-sewe Uyuuyew6 Sa'-mai-hai-a 

wolf eagle shrew elder war hero younger war hero name (if warrior of 

the north 

Shi'-no hai-a Yu'-ma-hai-a Ah'-wa-hai-a Pe'-ah-hai-a Sa'-ra-hai-a 

name of warrior name of warrior ot name of warrior of name of warrior name of warrior 
of the west the south the east of zenith of nadir 

Wai-ti-chan-ni ai-wanna-tuon-iii Shi'-wan-ua-watu-un hi-an-ye 

medicine water bowl cloud bowl ceremonial water vase I make a 

road of meal 

Hi'-ah -iir-ra hi'-amo-fii Hi-shi-ko-ya*sas-pa sho'-pok-ti-a-ma 

the ancient road the ancient road white shell bead woman whirlwind 

who lives where the sun 

Sus'-sis-tin-na ko ya'-ya ko'-chi-na-ko M6r'-ri-nako kur'-kan-nina-ko 

creator mother yellow woman of blue woman of red woman of the south 

the north the west 

Ka'-shi-na-ko quis-ser-ri-na-ko mu-nai-na-ko 

white woman of slightly yellow woman dark woman of the nadir 
tlie east of the zenith. 

Free translation. — White floating clouds. Clouds like the plains 
come and water the earth. Sun embrace the earth that she may be 
fruitful. Moon, lion of the north, bear of the west, badger of the 
south, wolf of the east, eagle of the heavens, shrew of the earth, elder 
war hero, younger war hero, warriors of the six mountains of the world, 
intercede with the cloud people for us, that they may water the earth. 
Medicine bowl, cloud bowl, and water vase give us your hearts, that the 
earth may be watered. I make the ancient road of meal, that my song 
may pass straight over it — the ancient road. White shell bead woman 
who lives where the sun goes down, mother whirlwind, father Siis'si- 
stiiinako, mother Ya'ya, creator of good thoughts, yeUow woman of the 
north, blue woman of the west, red woman of the south, white woman 
of the east, slightly yellow woman of the zenith, and dark woman of the 
uadii', I ask your intercession with the cloud people. 


While the Sia have great faith in the power of their theurgists, indi- 
vidually they make eftbrts to save the lives of their dear ones even 
after the failure of the theurgist. Such is their belief in the supplica- 



tioiis of the good of heart, that the vice-theurgist of the Snake Society, 
who is one of tlie writer's stauuchest fi'ieuds, rode many miles to solicit 
her prayers for his ill iufant. He placed in her hand a tiny package 
of shell mixture done up in a bit of corn husk, and, clasping the hand 
with both of his, he said : "Your heart being good, your prayers travel 
fast to the sun and Ko'pishtaia." He, then, in the most impressive 
manner, repeated the following prayer: 

(1) Ku-chor-pish-tai-a (2) Ku-chor-na-tii-ni (3) Ku' ti ot se a ta (4) Pai'- 
a-ta-moki-'channi (5) Ha'-mi ha'-notch (6) U-wamash-tafii (7) Ka'a- 
wiuck (8) Ya'-ya (9) IT-a-muts (10 Ka'a-wiuck (11) Sha'-mi winck 
(12) U-we-chai-ni (13) Ni na mats (14) fii to fii (15) «si tu ma ui to fii (16) 
Na' wai pi cha. 

Explanation of prayer by governor for his sick child. 

(1) Your thoughts and heart are united with Ko'pishtaia; you daily 
draw the sacred breath of life. 

(2) Your thoughts are great and pass first over the road to the sun 
father and Ko'pishtaia. 

(3) Our thoughts and hearts are as one, but yours are first. 

(4) A man of the world. j 

(5) Of the tobacco family. } Referring to the child. 

(6) You will be to the child as a mother, and the child will be as your 
own for all time to come; your thoughts will always be for one another. 

(7) The hearts of ourselves and the child be united and as one 
heart henceforth; those of us who pray for the child will be known by 
the child and the child by us, even though the child has not been seen 
by us ; we will know one another by our hearts and the child will greet 
you as 

(8) Mother. 

(9) Take the child into your arms as your own. 

(10) That the hearts of ourselves and the child's be united and as 
one heart; henceforth those of us who pray for this ctliild will be known 
by the child and the child by us ; though the child has not been seen 
by us, we will know one another by our hearts. 

(11) May he have a good heart. 

(12) May all good words come straight from his heart and pass over 
the straight road. 

(13) While he is growing from childhood to youth. 

(14) While he is growing from j'outh to manhood. 

(15) And may he be valued as he grows from manhood to old age. 

(16) May the child be beautiftil and happy. 

When one is ill from the heat of the sun he sprinkles corn pollen or 
meal to the sun, saying, "Father, I am ill in my head, it reaches my 
heart; I pay you with this meal; I give it to you as food, and will be 
thankftd to you to take away my malady." 

132 THE SIA. 


One of tbf most sacred and exclusive rites of tlu^ Sia is associated 
with diiklbirth. 

The aecoiichement here described was observed in May, 18',»0, at this 
pueblo. Upon discovering the woman to be in a state of gestation, 
the writer made every effort to obtain her consent, and that of the doc- 
tress and members of her family to be iiresent at the birth of the child. 
She keiit vigilant w.atch upon the woman and on the morning of the 
twenty-second learned that the event was imminent. 

Upon inquiring of the father of the women the same morning why 
he did not go to the tields, he replied, " I can only sit and wait for the 
little one to come; I must be with my daughter." He was busy dur- 
ing the day making beads of bits of shells, reducing them to the proper 
size by rubbing them on a Hat stone, afterwards piercing each piece by 
nutans of a rotary drill. The following day he sat weaving a band to tie 
liis grandson's hair. The woman worked as usual with her sewing and 
prei)ared the family meals. 

After the evening meal (which was some time before dark) on the 
li2d, the family, consisting of the parents of the woman to be confined, 
her husband and two boys of 8 and 9 years, gathered in the family 
living room (this room being 15 by 35 feet). It was evident that the 
woman was regarded with great consideration and interest, especially 
by her fond parents, who by the way, were foster parents, the woman 
being a Navajo. At the time of the removal of the Navajo to the 
Boscpie Bedondo, this ciiild was left by her mother in the pueblo of Sia 
and has since lived with her foster i)arents. 

On the evening of the 23d they gathered as before into the living 
room, which had been specially prepared for the event. A small quantity 
of raw cotton, a knife, and a string lay upon a shelf, and the infant's 
small, wardrobe, consisting of a tiny sheet of white cotton, pieces of 
calico and a diminutive Navajo blanket, which were gifts to the child, 
were laid on a table in the farther end of the room. The family sat in 
anxious expectancy. 

It is the woman's privilege to select her officiating ho'naaite theur- 
gist, and if her husband or father be a ho'naaite, or vicar of a cult 
society, she usually selects one or the other, otherwise she I'equests her 
husband to visit the ho'naaite of her choice and ask his services; in 
the absence of her husband her brother goes. The woman, holding 
shell mixture • in her riglit hand (when meal or shell mixture is used 
in connection with the dead it is held in the left hand), breathes four 
times upon it, that the expected child may have a good heart and walk 
over one straight road, and then hands it to the bearer of her message 
to be presented to the ho'naaite, this shell mixture being the only 
compensation received for his services. 

In this case the womixn chose her father. 

■ Shell mixture and sacred meal are synonymous. 




At 8 o'clock she was seized with the first stage of labor, and her 
mother at ouce made a tire in the fireplace, and a low, heavy stool, cut 
ft-oni a solid block, was placed iu trout of it. The womau took her seat 
upon the stool, with her back to the tire, wearing her cotton gowu, 
woveu dress aud belt, and a small blanket around her. 

The doctress (Fig. 19) aud sister of the woman's husband, who had 
been summoned, arrived almost immediately. The father aud husband 
removed their moccasins and the women had their legs and feet bare. 
The father took his seat upon a low chair in front of his daughter, the 
doctress sat to her left, clasping an ear of yellow aud purple corn, and 
the writer by the side of the doctress, holding a medicine-stone which 
had been given her some days previously by the doctress to be used on 
this occasion. The husband sat upon his wadded blanket against the 




I'lG. lit. Sia doclir.^.s. 

wall, and by his side were his two sons and his sister, she haviug with 
her an infant and a child some 2 years of age. The night was warm 
and the door of the room was left open. 

The ho'naaite laid three small buckskin medicine bags on the floor 
in front of him (one containing shell mixture, another the pollen of 
edible and medicinal plants, aud the third a plant medicine powdered), 
and, holding the quill ends of two eagle plumes between his hands, he 
repeated in a low tone the following prayer ; 

I'-i-wa-u-wak' nai'-she eh shau'-nai ha'-arts. Xai'she-eh pitouipina- 
mu-'sa. Na' wai-pi-cha u-wak. I-iwa u-wak', ua'-waii)iclia-u-wak. 

Mish'-'cha hatch-*se ko'-ta-wa oh-wichai-ni u-wak. Now'-a-muts 
Pi-to-ni p'i ua-mu-'sa. Ya'-ya ko'pish-tai-a ha'-arts shan' uai Nai'- 
sheeh u-wak', pi-to-ni pi-na mu-'sa. 

Na'-wai-pi-cha u wak. 

134 THE SIA. 

The unexpressed idea is tliat the child is to be received upon its sand 
bed, which is symbolic of the lap of its mother earth. That it will be 
as one without eyes, and it will not know its father's Ko'pislitaia. May 
the Ko'jjishtaia make its heart to know them. 

Free translation : " Here is the child's sand bed. May the child have 
good thoughts aTid know its mother earth, the giver of food. May it 
have good thoughts and grow from childhood to manhood. May the 
child be beautiful and happy. Here is the child's bed; may the child 
be beautiful and happy. Ashes man, let me make good medicine for 
the child. We will receive the child into our arms, that it may be 
happy and contented. May it grow from childhood to manhood. May 
it know its mother tJt'set, the Ko'plshtaia, and its mother earth. May 
the child have good thoughts and grow from childhood to manhood. 
May it be beautiful and happy." 

He then gave a pinch of the powdered-plant medicine to the woman 
for the good health of the woman and child, and her mother, lifting 
ashes from the fireplace with her right hand, deposited them upon the 
floor in front of the woman. The father, then, standing, dipped the 
ashes with his eagle plumes, holding one in either hand, and, striking • 
the under side of the plume held in the left hand with the one held in 
right, threw the ashes to the cardinal points. Each rime, after throw- 
ing the ashes, he jiassed the plumes down each side of the woman. 
When the plumes are struck the ho'naaite says: Mish"cha hatch"se 
kotawa ohwichaini n'wak — "Ashes man, permit me to make good 
medicine for the child." 

The ho'naaite discovers the diseased parts of the body through the 
instrumentality of ashes, and with the scattering of ashes to the car- 
dinal points, physical and mental impurities are cast from those pres- 
ent and the chamber is also purified. 

Again the sprinkling of the ashes was repeated, but instead of run- 
ning the plumes down each side of the woman, the ho'naaite held them 
in his right hand while he stood to the right of the woman and, point- 
ing the feather ends down, began at the top of the head and jjassed 
the plumes in a direct line in front and down the center of the body, 
with a prayer for the safe delivery of the child. At the close of this 
ceremony the doctress stood to the right side of the woman, and, pla- 
cing the tip end of the corn to the top of her head, blew upon it and 
passed that also in a straight line down the center of the body, with a 
prayer that the child might pass through the road of life promptly and 
safely. This was repeated four times, when the doctress returned to 
her seat. The ho'naaite then offered a short prayer and placed a pinch 
of medicine in the woman's mouth, after which he left the house and 
went to the end of the placita and sprinkled meal to the east, praying 
that the sun father might bestow blessings upon the child. In a short 
time the woman passed down the long room, apparently in considera- 
ble pain, but bearing herself with dignified composure. Her mother 


brought a cloth to the point where the ceremony had been held and 
emptied the contents (sand) upon the floor, and with her bands flat- 
tened the mound into a circle of 20 inches in diameter and some 5 
iuches deep. On this she laid a small black sheepskin, the sister-in- 
law placed a bowl of water upon coals in the fireplace, and the mother 
afterward brought a vase of water and gourd and set it by the side of 
the fireplace. A urinal was deposited beyond the center of the room, 
and still beyond was a vase of fresh water. The mother spread a wool 
mattress at the south end of the room and upon it a blanket, and in 
the center of the blanket a black sheepskin, and a wool pillow was laid 
at the head; a rich Navajo blanket was folded and laid by the side of 
this bed. Xow, all was in readiness and an early delivery was evi- 
dently expected. The woman would sit for a time either upon a low 
stool or a chair, and then pass about in evident j)ain, but no word of 
complaint escaped her lips; she was majestic in her dignity. But few 
words were spoken by anyone ; all minds seemed centered on the im- 
portant event to come. •' It was a sacred hour, too sacred for si)oken 
words, for Sus'sistinnako was to bestow the gilt of a new life." 

The whole aflair was conducted with the greatest solemnity. At 11 
o'clock the woman, whose sufl'ering was now e^ctreme, changed the small 
blanket which she wore around her for a larger one, which fell from her 
shoulders to the floor, and stood before the fireplace while tlie doctress 
standing behind her violently manipulated her abdomen with the palms 
of her hands. (The Zuni observe a very different mode of manipulation.) 
The ho'naaite, who no longer acted professionally, but simply as the 
devoted father of the woman, took his seat upon a .stool on the far side 
of the sand bed from the fireplace, the woman kneeling on the sand 
bed with her back to the fireplace and the doctress sitting on a low 
stool back of the woman. The woman clasped her hands about her 
father's neck and was supported at the back by the doctress, who, 
encircling the woman with her arms, pressed upon the abdomen.' The 
father clasped his hands around his knees, holding a stone fetich of a 
cougar in the palm of the right hand, and the sister-in law, standing to 
the left of the woman, placed the ear of corn to the to]) of the suflerer's 
head and blew upon it during the periods of pain, to hasten the birth 
of the child. The prayer that was blown into the head was supposed 
to pass directly through the passageway of life. After each paroxysm 
the woman rose and passed about the i-oom in a calm, quiet way. Some- 
times she would sit on a low chair; again she would sit in front of the 
fire toasting her bare feet, and then leaving the extremely warm room 

'After the religious services it is usual for the ho'naait* to absent himself, even tliough he be the 
woaian's husband or father; his remaining being an evitlenee of unusual devotion. '1 be mother-in- 
law may be pre.sent at childbirth, but not the father-in-law unless he be the chosen ho'naaite for the 
occasion, and his afl'ection for the daughter-in-law prompting hitu to remain, this, however, being verj' 
rare. "Should the expectaut mother fail to bend lier thoughts upon tlie event to come the child would 
not care to be Itoru and would lie still and die.'' It is rare for a Sia woman to die in childbirtli ; or for 
a child to be .stillborn. 

136 THE SIA. 

would walk about outside of the Louse. Tlie pains were very frequent 
for three hours, the longest interval being thirty minutes, the shortest 
thirty seconds, the average being ten minutes, the i>ains continuing 
from three to twenty minutes. Though her suffering was great, 
nothing more than a smothered groan escaped her lips. The doctress 
seemed perfectly ignorant and unable to render any real assistance. 

The only attempt made by the doctress to hasten the birth was au 
occasional manipulation of the abdomen, after which sh(> placed the ear 
of corn at the head of the woman, and after blowing upon it passed it 
down the middle of the body four times, as before, and the heating of 
the person by heaping a few coals upon the floor and putting upon 
them cobwebs, the woman standing over the coals while the mother 
held the blanket close around her feet. This failing in its desired 
effect, scrapings from one of the beams in an old chamber were i)laced 
on coals, the woman standing over the coals. It is claimed by the Sia 
that these two remedies are very old and were used when the world 
was new. After a time a third remedy was tried — the fat of a cas- 
trated sheei) was put on coals heaped in a small bowl, the woman also 
standing over this — but all these remedies failed. The woman occa- 
sionally assisted herself with a cn-cular stick 4 inches in length 
wrapped with cotton. After 2 o'clock a. m. the father became so 
fatigued that the sister-in-law, instead of blowing upon the corn, stood 
back of him and snpjiorted his forehead with her clasped hands. The 
ear of corn, when not in use, lay beside the sand bed. As the night 
waned the woman gradually became more and more exhausted, and at 
half past two the mother laid several sheepskins upon the floor and on 
these a blanket, placing two pillows at the head of this pallet, and 
then taking a pinch of meal from the bowl which was at the right side 
of the bed, which had been prepared for use after the birtli, put it 
into the right hand of the woman, who now knelt upon the sand bed, 
leaning upon her father's shoulder while he, in the deepest emotion, 
stroked her head. As the woman received the meal she raised her and the sister-in-law handed the ear of corn to the father, who 
held it between his hands and prayed, then running the corn from the 
crown of the woman's head tUtwu the body in a direct line and hold- 
ing it vertically while the woman sprinkled the meal upon it and 
prayed to trt'set that she might pass safely through the trials of parturi- 
tion. She was now so exhausted that she was compelled to lie on the 
pallet; twice she raised from the j)allet and took position for delivery. 

The two babies of the sister-in-law slept on blankets, and the two 
sons of the woman who had been sent from the room early in the even- 
ing had returned and were also sleeping on rugs. At 4 o'clock the 
parents, in alarm at the interrupted labor, sent for a prominent ho'na- 
aite, and the husband of the woman, who had left the room at the ap- 
proach of extreme labor. The husband, in company with the ho'naaite, 
soon appeared, the former removing both his moccasins, the latter the 


one fioiu lii.s liglit foot only. The newly arrived lio'naaite sent tlie sis- 
ter-in-law for a small bowl of water, and into this he sprinkled a pinch 
of me(li<-ine (a speeimen of this root was obtained) and then requested 
the woman to drink the water. It was with difficulty that she stood 
while she drank the medicine, and allowed the ho'naaite to practice his 
occult power, blowing upon the head and then blowing in a straight 
line down the center and in front of tlie body. The blowing was 
repeated four times, when the ho'naaite, standing back of the woman, 
put his arms around her, pressing hard upon the abdomen. After 
repeating a short prayer he replaced his moccasin and left the room, 
and the woman sank exhausted to her pallet, where she lay in a semi- 
conscious condition until half past 5 in the morning. 

Fetiches of Qner'riinna and of the cougar had been placed under 
her pillow and a third fetich (a concretion) in her right hand. The 
father kept a constant vigil, while the anxious mother moved quietly 
about seeking to relieve the woman by many little attentions. The 
mental agony of the parents was great, the more intense sufferer being 
the father, whose devotion to his daughter through her entire illness 
seemed without precedent. At half past 5 the woman opened her 
eyes and, raising herself, clasped her father's neck and made another 
great effort, and failing, she returned to her pallet, weeping from sheer 
discouragement. After a time the mother induced her to sit up and 
take food; a basket of waiavi and a piece of jerked meat which had 
been broiled over the coals in the same room were placed by the bed, 
when the mother hastened to another room for the corn-meal gruel she 
had prepared. (During the time this gruel is boiling it is dipped with a 
gourd and lield high ami poured back into the pot; after it is removed 
from the lire it is passed through this same process for some time. 
When it is ready to drink it is light and frothy. The mixture is com- 
posed of corn meal and water.) The woman ate quite heartily and 
drank two bowlfuls of the gruel. She had hardly finished her meal 
when she requested her father to hasten to his seat, and kneeling upon 
the sand bed she clasped his neck as before; the pain lasted but a 
minute and she returned to her bed. She was scarcely down, how- 
ever, when she jumped up and knelt beside the pallet, the child being 
born by the time the woman's knees had reached the floor, tlie birth 
occurring at half i)ast 6 o'clock. The excitement was gTcat, as the 
birth at this moment was a surprise. The father was too absorbed in 
his daughter to think much of the infant, but the old mother was 
frantic for fear the child would be smothered. The writer was called 
to hasten and rub the father's moccasin down the woman's back; the 
toe of the moccasin must be downward. This was to hasten the pas- 
sage of the placenta, which promptly followed. A sheepskin was with 
difticulty gotten under the child, and finally the skin was pushed for- 
ward as the woman raised herself, and the child was taken by the 
doctress. The woman stood while the doctress raised the child and 

138 THE SI A. 

the sistei'-iu-law tbe placenta four times to lier face, as she expressed 
the wish that the umbilical cord might be severed without dauger to 
the child. She then deliberately removed her belt and woven dress 
and walked to the bed which had been prepared for her and lay down. 

The husband of the woman gave an extra sharpening to the knife 
which had lain upon the shelf, and handed it to the doctress, who, first 
placing the child upon the sand-bed, tied the umbilical cord an inch 
and a quarter from the iimbilicus, and after cutting it removed the 
child, while the sister-in-law laid the placenta upon the sheepskin and 
swept the sands of the sand bed upon a piece of cloth, placing the latter 
on the back of one of the little boys. Taking half of the raw cotton 
from the shelf, she laid it on the placenta, with the wish that the um- 
bilicus might soon be healed ; and folding the sheepskin, she deposited 
it in a shallow bowl, and taking a pinch ot shell mixture in her right 
hand she carried the bowl from the house, followed by the boy. The 
sand and placenta were cast into the river; the woman saying, "Go! 
and when other women bear children may they promptly follow, " re- 
ferring to the placenta. 

To the doctress was brought a bowl of warm water, with which she 
bathed the child; then a bowl containing yucca and a small quantity 
of cold water and a vase of warm water were set by her, and after 
making a suds with the yucca she added warm water and thoroughly 
cleansed the child's head, and then bathed the child a second time, in 
yucca suds, and taking water into her mouth from the bowl, she threw 
a solid stream over the child for a remarkable length of time. The 
child was rubbed with the hand, no cloth being used in the bathing. 
The greatest care was observed in cleansing the infant, who was after- 
ward wrapped in a blanket and patted dry. During the bathing the 
grandparents, father, and brothers of the little one looked admiringly 
upon it, with frequent expressions of delight. The remaining portion 
of the umbilical cord was drawn through a wad of raw cotton, which 
was wiapped closely about it, and ashes were then rubbed over the 
child. The infant, a boy, weighed some 8 or 9 pounds, and its head 
was covered with a profusion of black silkj'hair; it had quite a percep- 
tible red mark covering the center of its forehead. It seemed brighter 
from its birth than children of civilized ijarentage, and when twenty 
days old was as observing as many of our children at two months. 

The cradle was brought forward by the grandfather, and the diminu- 
tive Navajo blanket spread over it. The tiny sheet was laid on the 
doctress's lap under the child. The writer was then requested to rise 
and receive the child; and as she held the little one wrapped in the 
sheet the grandfather offered a prayer of thanksgiving, and after 
sprinkling meal upon the writer gave her a ]>inch of it. She could not 
dream what was exi>ected of her, but she ventured to make four lines on 
the child's breast, and si)rinkled the remainder of the meal to the east. 
The venture was a happy one, for it was just right. The grandfather 


said: "The child is yours; I make it ii gift to you." The writer then 
returned the ehihl to the doctress, and the grandfather proceeded to 
arrange the cradle, which has a transverse ridge, provided with a niche 
for the neck. Two bits of calico, folded several times, were laid on the 
blanket, and on this a piece of white cotton. The infant was placed 
nude upon its bed, and a i)iece of white cotton was laid over it from the 
neck to the lower part of the abdomen, extending on either side of the 
body and passing under the arms, the ends of the cloth being folded 
over the arms and tucked in on the inner sides. The little sheet was 
laid over the child, and the blanket folded around it; and then it was 
strapped to the cradle, which was deposited to the left side of the 
mother, on a white sheepskin. The ear of corn which had been such 
an important element previous to the birth was laid by the right side 
of the child. The grandfather, taking his seat at the foot of the cradle, 
deposited before him the three medicine bags which had been used in 
the ritual previous to the birth, and, holding his eagle plumes in his 
right hand, repeated a prayer. Two loosely twisted cords of native 
cotton, which had been prepared by the father of the infant immediately 
after the birth of the child, were placed under the mother's pillow, to her 
right side ; these were afterwards tied around the ankles of the infant, to 
indicate that it was a child of Sns'slstinnako and that it might know this 
father. After the prayer the grandfather touched the head, either side 
and foot of the cradle, and the child's body, with a spear point of ob- 
sidian ; this was repeated four tnnes for strength of body, limbs, heart, 
and mind of the child; and the spear was passed over the mother's 
limbs and body for the same purpose. The grandfather then gave the 
child its first food by placing in his own mouth a pinch of a specially 
sacred and valuable medicine composed of the pollen of medicinal and 
edible plants and transferring it into the infant's mouth from his. He 
then placed a bit with his lingers in the mother's mouth. The medicine 
was given to the child that he might know all the medicines of the 
earth, and to the mother that her milk which was to nourish the infant 
might be good, so that the child's heart and mind would be good. 

No attention was given to the woman by the doctress for two hours 
after the birth, when a fi'esh gown was put on, the gown being changed 
every morning and evening for four days, the one worn in the evening 
having been washed and dried the same day. The sheepskin on the 
bed was changed daily. About 9 o'clock a. m. the grandmother prepared 
a bowl of tea made from freshly gathered cedar twigs steeped in water, 
and the woman drank two gourdtuls. This tea is constantly drunk for 
a designated period, which differs with different clans; some drinking 
it regularly for four months, others taking it but three, and some only 
two months. No water is drunk during the time this liquid is used, 
and continency is observed for the two, three, or four months; the hus- 
band, however, sleeps during this time in the same room, and in this 
particular case the husband slept by his wife's side. Should a woman 

140 THE SIA. 

break tlie coutiuency, au auimal would enter her abdomen and she 
would surely die, for so said the first mother of her clan. 

After tlie first draft of the tea the woman ate a hearty breakfast 
of tortillas, jerked meat, aud eorumeal gruel. Her female relatives 
and friends called to see her and the baby during the day, and she 
chatted as merrily as if nothing had happened. 

The Sia infant is nourished regularly from the time it is born; aud in 
this particular case the infant was nursed by a woman whose child was 
three months old, until the third morning, when the mother took it in 
charge. Though the door of the room could not be left open until the 
child should have passed out the fourth morning to see its sun father, 
and the two small windows being statioiiary, the most fastidious could 
have fi)und no fault with the purity of the atmosphere. The father of 
the woman scarcely left her during the four days. He sat by her bed- 
side, weaving garters, and showing her the tenderest care, and her 
mother did little else than look after the wants of the invalid and infant 
and admire and caress the latter. The woman's husband w:is absent 
all day working in the fields, but upon his return in the evening he 
could be found by his wife's side admiring the baby and saying pleas- 
ing words to the woman of his choice. The family all slept in tlie same 
room as usual with the addition the first two nights of the woman 
engaged to furnish nourishment to the child, who also had her infant 
with her. 

By half-past 4 on the fouitli morning the woman had donned her 
woolen dress and belt and sat upon the bed awaiting the arrival of the 
doctress, wiio soon came, and after a greeting handed ashes from the 
fireplace to the woman, who receiving the ashes in her right hand 
rubbed her legs and breast for purification, and then put on her moc- 
casins. The grandmother took the infant from the cradle and wrapping 
it in its blanket handed it to the doctress, while the father of the woman 
gave her the two stone fetiches from under her pillow, which she placed 
in her bosom. The doctress then took from the fireplace a bit of char- 
coal and jnit it into the woman's moutli that the cold winds might not 
enter through her mouth and congeal her blood and prevent its flow, 
for should this occur the woman would siu'ely die. The father then 
handed sacred meal to his daughter and the doctress, and again helping 
himself he gave some to the writer. The doctress led the way, carrying 
the infant in her arms and pressing to its breast the ear of corn which 
had played such an important part during parturition, and had since 
lain by the side of the child ; the woman followed, also carrying an ear 
of corn, a companion of the first ear (everything associated with life 
must have its dual, and " corn is life itself, for it comes from the heart 
of trt'set; were it not for the mother corn none could live." These two 
ears of corn are afterwards wrapped together and laid under the child's 
cradle, where they must remain until the next corn-planting time, when 
it is sown in two or four rows, apart from the main field, and when ripe it 

Bureau of Ethnology. 

Eleventh Annual Report Plate XXXIV 



is eaten by the child, wlio takes the nouri.shiiieut of tlie mother coi-ii as 
it draws the milk from its mother's breast). The writer followed after 
the woman and, passing a few feet to the right of the entrance after 
leaving the honse, they stood while the grandfather went from the door 
directly to the eastern gateway of his placita and stood facing east, 
where he was joined by the others, the doctress leading the way; she 
stooped at his right. The father of the infant was not present any of 
the time and the grandmother did not leave the house. The grand- 
father prayed and sprinkled meal to the east (PI. xxxiii); the mother 
then whispered a short prayer and sprinkled meal to the same point; the 
doctress afterward stooping until she almost sat upon the ground bared 
the child's head as she held it toward the rising sun and repeated a 
long prayer, and addressing the child she said, " I bring you to see 
your sun father and Ko'pishtaiai that you may know them and they 
you," At the close of the prayer she led the way to the house, and 
upon entering the woman sat on her bed with her legs extended and 
received the infant from the doctress, who laid the child across the 
mother's arms with its head to the east; the doctress then laying the 
ear of corn lengthwise on the child's breast requested the writer to hold 
the corn with her. The grandmother and the two boys stood to the 
left of the woman while the grandfather standing at the feet of the 
child offered a jirayer. The doctress then repeated the long baptismal 
prayer, naming the child.' 

She then placed the infant in the writer's arms, saying, "The child is 
named; it is yours." When the child was returned to her she washed 
its head in yucca suds, and bathed its body by again filling her mouth 
with water and spirting it over the child. It was afterwards rubbed 
with ashes, especially about its face, and the doctress gave it some 
warm water to drink by dipping her fingers into the vase and letting 
the drops fall from them into the infanfs mouth; the child smacked its 
lips in evident satisfaction; and it was then strapped to the cradle 
which was handed the doctress by the grandmother; and the child in 
the cradle was j)laced on the mother's lap, and she proceeded to nour- 
ish it. 

The grandfather brought an Apache basket containing a pyramid of 
meal and held it to the infant's face, then to the niother's, who blew 
upon the meal. The grandmother then blew upon it (that it might be 
blessed with the best thoughts of the breath of life) and, stooping, the 
grandfather held the basket with both hands while the doctress (Fig. 19) 
held it on the opposite side with her two hands, the grandfather whisper- 
ing a prayer and then retiring to the far end of the room. The doctress 
offered a silent prayer, and left the room without farther ceremony, 
carrying the basket of meal, which was a gift to her fi-om the infant, it 

'The doctress names all infants, one name iiHually serving the female through life, but the male 
may have a plurality of names: for example, upon his return after a long journey, or after bjiving 
performed some valorous deed his head is bathed in yucua suds by some female member of the cult 
society to which be belongs, or by a member of hia clan, when she bestows an appropriate name. 



being her ouly eompeusatiou for her services. The iiiotlier of the infant 
ate heartily and at half-past seven in the morning she walked fully 200 
yards from the house down a declivity, and on her return to the house 
was bathed for the first time since her confinement, she herself doing 
the bathing. 

Fig. 20 is the copy of a photograph of the infant the fourth morning 
after birth. 

The lochial discharge ceased after the fourth day, and from this time 
until the expiration of the nine days but one fresh gown was worn each 
day. The infant was bathed each of the first four mornings by the doc- 
tress, and afterwards by the grandmother until the tenth morning, 
when the mother bathed the child. The infant's bed was changed several 
times daily, the bedding being put upon the cradle a couple of hours 
after washing. The night of the fourth day the doctress came about 

I'lG, 2U. — Mother "vvitli Lur intautlour days old. 

9 o'clock and bathed the child; the ashes which had been applied to 
the child from its birth after each bath not being omitted. The fifth 
day the skin of the infant showed evidence of exfoliation, and the 
gTaudfather remarked, "When the new skin comes then all will be 
well." The sixth day the remnant of the umbilical cord was removed 
by lifting the raw cotton, and a finely powdered pigment of bluish-gray 
color was rubbed upon the umbilicus and a cotton cloth laid over it. 
When there is any apjiearance of supi^uration the mother milks a few 
drops from her breast ujjon the umbilicus and applies fresh pigment. 

Prof. F. W. Clark furnishes the following analysis of this pigment: 
"A slight amount is soluble in water, this consisting of sulphates of 


lime and inagiiesia. The main portion consists of a mixture of a 
hydrous carbonate of copper (presumably malachite) with a ferrugin- 
ous sand. The copper mineral dissolves readily in dilute acids and, in 
addition to the copper, contains traces of iron and of phosphoric acid. 
I'robably an impure malachite pulverized." 

Though the woman is considered an invalid and exempt from all 
household duties until the tenth morning after childbirth, she passes 
in and out of the house after the fourth morning and occupies herself 
sewing, not more than half of her time being spent in a reclining posi- 

The greatest attention was shown this woman and her child by her 
father, mother, and husband, the two men performing the most menial 
services for her and frequently waiting upon the infant. 


It was stated in a previous chapter that the Sia do not believe in a 
return of the spirits of their dead when they have once entered Shipapo. 
There was once, however, an exception to this. The story is here given 
in the theurgist's own words : 

" When the years were new and this village had been built perhaps 
three years, all the sx^irits of our dead came here for a great feast. 
They had bodies such as they had before death ; wives recognized hus- 
bands, husbands wives, children parents, and parents children. Just 
after sundown the sjiirits began arriving, only a few passing over the 
road by^ daylight, but after dark they came in great crowds and re- 
mained until near dawn. They tarried but one night; husbands and 
wives did not sleep together; had they done so the living would have 
surely died. When the hoiu- of separation came there was much weep- 
ing, not only among the living but the dead. The living insisted upon 
going with the dead, but the dead declared they must wait; that they 
could not pass through the entrance to the other world; they must first 
die or grow old and again become little children to be able to pass 
through the door of the world for the departed. It was then that the 
Sia first learned all about their future home. They learned that the 
fields were vast, the pastures beautiful, the mountains high, the lakes 
and rivers clear like crystals, and the wheat and cornfields flourishing. 
During the day the spirits sleep, and at night they work industriously 
in the fields. The moon is father to the dead as the sun is father to 
the living; the dead resting when the sun travels, for at this time they 
.see nothing; it is when the sun returns to his home at night that the 
departed spirits work and pass about in their world below. The home 
of the departed spirits is in the world first inhabited by the Sia." 

It is the aim of the Sia to first reach the intermediate state at the 
time the body ceases to develop and then return gradually back to the 
first condition of infancy ; at such period one does not die, but sleeps 

144 THE SIA. 

to awake in the spirit world as a little child. Many stories have come 
to the Sia by those who have died only for a time ; the heart becomes 
still and the lips cold and the spirit passes to the entrance of the other 
world and looks in, but it does not enter, and yet it sees all, and in a 
short time returns to inhabit its earthly body. Great alarm is felt 
when one returns in this way to life, but much faith is put in the stories 
afterwards told by the one who has passed over the road of death. 

A ho'naaite holds a corresponding position in the spirit world. 

When a death occurs any time before sundown, the body is buried 
as soon as it can be prepared for tlie grave; but if one dies after dark 
the body must not be touched until after sunrise, when it is bathed 
and buried as soon as ])ossible. It is usual for an elderly woman of 
the clan to bathe the body, cold water being used; the head is washed 
first in yucca suds. Sometimes, however, this method is deviated 
from, if the remaining wife or husband has a special friend in some 
other clan. In the case of the breechcloth he has worn during 
his last illness is not removed. The immediate relatives in consan- 
guinity and clan are present during the bathing and make the air hideous 
with their lamentations. The body is bathed on the bed upon which 
the party dies and here it remains until burial. Tlie mourners are 
seated around the room, no one being near the bed but the woman who 
prepares the body for burial. If the corpse be a female, after the body 
is bathed a blanket is laid across the abdomen and limbs and tucked 
in on either side, the upper portion of the body being exjiosed. 

The oflQcial members of the cult societies are painted after death, 
just as they were at their initiation into the society, the body Laving 
been previously bathed. The one exception to this rule — being the 
ho'naaite of warriors (PI. xxxiv) — will show the change. The painting 
is done by the ho'naaite or vicar of the society to which the deceased 
belonged. Corn pollen is sprinkled on the head. Female officials 
have only their faces painted. When a man is not an official, neither 
his face nor body is painted, but as each man or woman of his clan 
looks upon the body a bit of corn pollen is sprinkled in a line under 
each eye and on the top of the head. W^hile the body is being pre- 
pared for burial, the relatives who are present, amid lamentations, cut 
the apparel of the corpse, including his blankets, into strips and all is 
laid upon the body. After the Itody has been placed upon the blanket 
which is to wrap it for burial, if it be a man the wife places a quantity 
of food under the left arm, the arms hanging straight by the sides. 
If the wife, does not pei-form this office then some member of his clan 
acts in her place. In the case of the death of a woman a member of 
her clan places the food. Again a small quantity of food is placed 
under the left arm by the man who principally officiates in the wrap- 
ping of the body. This is sometimes done by the son of the deceased. 
The blanket is tirst folded over one side of the body and then the 
other; then the end next to the head is caught together just above the 


head and tied some little distance from the end, tassel fashion, -with a 
rope. The rope is fastened aronnd the throat of the corpse and then 
continued aronnd the body to the feet, and the blanket is tied below 
the feet to coiTespond with the head. Two men i^erform this service 
and alone carry the body to tlie grave and bury it without further 
ceremony, thougli the wailing and weeping is kept up in the house for 
a considerable time. 

If a husband dies the wife is bathed after the burial by a female 
member of her clan. This is done that the one remaining may be 
cleansed of much of her sorrow and be only a little sad. When a wife 
dies the husband is bathed by a female member of his clan. The bath- 
ing of the remaining husband or wife in ZuQi is done for a very differ- 
ent reason. When a child dies both the paternal and maternal pa 
rents are bathed; but children are not bathed when a parent dies. 

The fourth day after death, when the spirit starts on its journey to 
the lower world, after hovering around the pueblo in the meantime, 
a ceremonial is held by the society to which deceased belonged. If 
the person was not a member of one of the cult societies the family select 
the ho'naaite they wish to have perform the ceremony. A ha'chamoni 
which was made on the third day by the theurgist is deposited on the 
north road for the spirit to carry to its future home. A vase of food is 
deposited at this time to feed the spirit on its journey, and if any other 
pieces of clothing have been found they are cut and thrown over the 
north road. The clothing must never be deposited whole as the spirit 
of the clothing could not leave the body if it was in perfect condition. 

The road to the lower world, which is to the north (the dead return- 
ing to the world whence they came), is so crowded that the spirits are 
often in each other's way, for not only the spirits of the Sia pass over 
this road but the spirits of all Indians. The spirits of the dead are 
traveling to their first home and the unborn spirits are passing to the 
villages in which, after a time, they are to be born. 

Upon reaching the entrance to the lower world a spirit is met by two 
guards to the entrance, who say to them, " So you have come here," and 
the spirit rephes, "Yes." "Where is your credential?" inquires the 
chief guard, and the spirit shows his ha'chamoni, and the guard says, 
upon examining it, "Yes, here is your ha'chamoni to your mother, Sus'- 
sistinnako, that she may know you came promptly over the straight 
road; she will be pleased." If the spirit be not provided with ha'cha- 
moni it can not enter the lower world, but must roam about somewhere 
in the north. After examining the hii'chamoni, the guard says, "You 
may enter Shipapo and go to your mother in the lower world." The 
first one met by the spirit in the lower world is t)'t'set, who says, "You 
have come from the other world ? " and the spirit replies. "Yes." Then 
Crt'set says, " You bring a hii'chamoni ? " and the sjiirit replies, " Yes." 
" Let me see your ha'chamoni," and, after carefully looking over it, she 
hands it to Sus'sistinnako, who says, "Good! good!" and, pointing to 
11 ETH 10 

146 THE SIA. 

the dead relatives of tlie newly arrived spirit, she adds, "There, my 
child, are your relatives; go join them and be happy." When one has 
been very wicked in this world he is not permitted to enter the lower 
world even though he has a hii'chamoni. The guards at the entrance 
can read all hearts and minds, and they put such spirits into a great 
fire which burns in the earth below somewhere not far distant from 
Shipapo. The spirit is burned to death in this fire and can never know 
anything, as it is entirely destroyed. When ti'iimonis and ho'naaites 
have performed their duties in this world with unwilling hearts, it is 
known to the mother in the lower world, and when such men enter after 
death they are made to live apart, and alone, and without nourishment 
for a certain period of time, depending upon the amount of purification 
required. Some sit alone for two years ; others for five, and some for 
ten before the mother considers them worthy to enter into peace. 

The spirits of all animals go to the lower world; domestic animals 
serving the masters there as they did here. The masters would not 
always recognize them, but Sus'sistiunako knows the property of all. 
The spirits of the prey animajs return, and know their friends, in the 
lower world. A ha'chamoni is made for the prey animal when he is 
killed, and a dance and cei'emonial are held. The animal carries the 
ha'chamoni as his credential just as the spirit of the man does. 

The cloud people never die ; that is, no one, not even the oldest men's 
grandfathers ever knew of or saw a cloud person die. 


The writer gave but limited study while at Sia to myths not directly 
connected with their cosmogony and cult. The minds of several of the 
elder men are filled with the stories of the long-ago myth-makers, and 
they believe in the truth of these fables as they believe in their own 
existence, which is the cause, no doubt, for the absence of myth-mak- 
ing at the present time. It must be borne in mind, however, that 
these people have their winter tales and romances which they recog- 
niKC as fiction. The myths here recorded were recited to the 
writer in a most dramatic manner l>y the vicar of the Snake Society, 
these portions of the stories where the coyote snft'ers disappointment, 
and is cheated of his prey, giving special delight to the narrator. 

Thecoyoteseemstobe a despised though necessary object inthemythic 
world of the Indian of the Southwest. He is certainly not reverenced, 
nor is he a being for whom they feel terror. While he is the object of 
ridicule he is also often of great service. Through his cunning he 
supplied the Sia of the ui)per world with fire by stealing it from Sus'- 
sistiunako in the lower world. When the world was new, people were 
depilous except upon their heads. The coyote said (animals could 
communicate with men then) : " It is not well for you to be depilous," 
and from the pilous growth about his mouth and belly he clothed the 
pubes and axilla of the Sia. 



One day a shurtsuuua (coyote) was passing about and saw a hare 
sitting before his house, and the coyote thought, "In a minute I will 
catch you," and he sprang and caught the hare, who cried, "Man 
coyote, do not eat me; wait just a minute, I have something to tell you, 
something that you will be glad to hear, something you must hear." 
"Well," said the coyote, "I will wait." "Let me sit at the entrance of 
my house and I can talk to you," and, standing near, he allowed the 
hare to take his seat there. The hare said, ""What are you thinking 
of, coyote?" "Nothing," said the coyote. "Listen, then, to what I 
have to say; I am a hare, and I am much afraid of people; when they 
come carrying arrows I am very afraid of them, for when they see me 
they aim their arrows at me and I am very afraid, and oh ! how I trem- 
ble;" and suiting the action to his words the hare trembled violently, 
until he saw the coyote was a little off his gixard; at this instant the 
hare started off at a run. It took a moment for the coyote to collect 
his thoughts, when he followed the hare, but he was always a little 
behind; after running some distance the hare entered the house of his 
companion just in time to escape the coyote. The coyote upon reaching 
the house found it was hard stone and he became very angrj'. " Alas ! " 
cried he, "I was very stuxiid. Wliy did I allow this hare to fool me? 
I was so anxioiis to kill hirn ; I must have him. How can 1 catch 
him*? Alas! this house is very strong, how can I open it?" and he 
began to work, but after a while he cried, "The stone is so strong I can 
not open it." Presently the hare called, "Man coyote, how are you 
going to kill me?" "I know how I am going to kill you," replied the 
coyote, "I will kill you with tire." "Where is the wood?" cried the 
hare, for there was no wood at the house of the hare. " I will bring 
grass," said the coyote, "and set fire to it and the fire will enter your 
house and go into your eyes, nose, and mouth, and kill you." "Oh," 
said the hare, " the grass is mine, it is my food, it will not kill me; why 
wovxld my food kill me ? It is my friend. No, grass will not kill me." 
"Then," cried the coyote, "I will bring all the trees of the woods and 
set lire to them," and the hare replied, "all the trees know me, they 
too are my food, they will not kill me, they are my friends." The coy- 
ote said, "I will bring the gum of the piiion and set fire to it," and the 
hare cried, "Oh, now I am much afraid, I do not eat that and it is not 
my friend, " and the coyote rejoiced that he had discovered a plan for 
getting the hare. He hui-ried and brought all the gum he could carry 
and placed it at the door of the hare's house and set fire to it and in a- 
short time the gum boiled like hot grease, and the hare cried, "Now I 
know I shall die, what shall I do?" and the coyote's heart was glad. 
In a little while the hare called, "The fire is entering my house," and 
the coyote cried to him, " Blow it out ". At the same time, drawing near 
to the fire, he blew with all his might to increase the flame. "Oh!" 

148 THE SIA. 

cried the hare, "your moiitli is so close you are blowing tlic fire on to 
me, and I will soon die;" and the coyote put his mouth still closer to 
the fire and thought the hare must die; he blew with all his strength, 
drawing nearer in his eagerness to destroy the hare, until his face was 
very close to him, when the hai'e threw the boiling gum into the face 
of the coyote and escaped. The coyote's thoughts were now directed to 
the removal of the hot gum from his eyes and face. It was a long time 
before he could see anything, and his eyes were painful. When he real- 
ized thehare had again escaped him he cried, " I am very, very stupid ; " 
and he started off disgusted with himself, and was very sad. After 
traveling a long distance and crossing a mountain he came to a man 
(lynx) sleeping. The coyote was pleased to see the man, and thought, 
"Here is a companion. I guess the fellow has either worked hard all 
night or traveled much, for he sleeps soundly." And after thinking 
quite awhile, the coyote procured a slender round stick and thrust it 
into his stomach and twisted it very carefully to gather fat. The lynx 
still slept soundly. "I will tell my companion when he awakes," said 
the coyote, "that I have the fat of the deer on my stick," and he laid 
it to one side and began thinking. "Ah, I have a thought. In the old 
days my companion's mouth was not so large; it was small; I will make 
it as it was. His ears were not so large; I will make them as they were. 
His tail was not so long; I will shorten it. His legs and arms and body 
were longer; I will lengthen them;" and he worked and pressed about 
the mouth until it was reduced in size, ami .so he labored over the ears 
until they were small, and i)ressed the tail until it grew shorter, and 
then pulled the legs and arms and body until they were the proper 
length. After his work was completed the coyote thought, "This is 
well." Still the lynx slept, and the coyote called, "Companion!" but 
no answer ; the second time, " Companion ! " and no answer ; none coming 
to the third call, the coyote thought, " Why is it my companion sleeps 
so soundly? he must have traveled hard or worked hard all night," 
and again he called, "Companion!" and the lynx opened his eyes and 
looked about as one does when he has Just awakened, but did not 

When he discovered tliat he was unlike his former self he said 
nothing, but thought, "That coyote man has done this work." The 
coyote then bringing the stick, with the fat upon it, said, 'Companion, 
I wish much to talk with you; you have slept very soundly; I have 
brought you some fat from the deer; oat it; you will like it. I killed 
a deer the other day, and this is the reason I can bring you some fat;" 
and the lynx, thinking the coyote spoke the truth, ate the fat with 
much relish. When the fat had been consumed the coyote said, "Well, 
companion, what do you think of the deer fat?" but before the lynx 
made any reply the coyote added, "I lied to you; it is your own fat 
which I took from your stomach while you slept." The lynx at once 
became very sick and began vomiting. "I did not eat it," cried the 



lynx. "Yes, you <lid," said the coyote. "See, you cau not keep it;" 
■md the Ij'ux continued vomiting until all the fat had been thrown from 
his stomach. He was very angry with the coyote, and thought, "Some 
time I M'ill play the same trick upon you, man coyote." 

The two now separated, taking opposite roads; but in a short time 
the lynx returned and followed the coyote, aiming to keep close to him; 
but the coyote soon distanced the lynx, leaving him far behind; the 
coyote, however, did not know that the lynx was following him. After 
he had traveled a long distance he became tired and lay down to rest 
and sleep. After a time the lynx arrived, and finding the coyote 
sleeping, said: "Ah! ah! now I will play my trick;" and he called to 
the coyote, "Companion !'' and no answer ; again he called, " Companion !" 
and no answer; and the third and fourth calls brought no reply. The 
coyote was sleeping soundly. "He is surely asleep," said the lynx, 
and with a stick similar to the one employed by the coyote, he drew 
the fat from the coyote's stomach and placed it to one side ; he then 
proceeded to change the appearance of the coyote; he pulled upon the 
mouth until he made it project, audit was nuich larger than before; 
then he pulled upon the ears until they became long, and he lengthened 
the tail to twice its size, and he also stretched the body and the arms. 
When he had completed his work he cried four times to the coyote, 
"Companion!" The fourth time the coyote awoke, and the lynx said, 
"I have brought you some deer fat;" and the coyote was stupid enough 
to believe the story, and ate the fat, for he was very hungry. Then, 
said the lynx, "Man, what do you think? Do you think I have lied to 
you ? Well, I have lied to you ; for the fat is from your own stomach ;" 
and the coyote was very angry and vomited all that he had eaten. 
And he cried, " Man lynx, we are even ;" and in a little while they 
separated, taking opposite roads. 

The coyote traveled a great distance, and in the middle of the day it 
was very hot, and he sat down and rested, and bethought as he looked 
up to ti'uia, "How I wish the cloud people would freshen my path and 
make it cool ;" and in a little while the cloud people gathered above the 
road the coyote was to travel over, and he rejoiced that his path was 
to be shady and cool; but after he hiid traveled a short distance, he 
again sat down, and, looking upward, said, "I wish much the cloud 
people would send rain, that my road would be fresher and cooler." In a 
little while a shower came, and the coyote was contented and went on 
his way rejoicing; but in a short time he again sat down and wished 
that the road could be very moist, that it would be fresh to his 
feet, and almost immediately the road was wet as though a river had 
passed over it, and the coyote was very contented. 

But after going a short distance he again took his seat and said to 
himself, "I guess I will talk again to the cloud people;" and he said to 
them, "I wish for water over my road; water to my elbows, that I may 
travel on mv hands and feet in the cool waters ; then I shall be refreshed 

150 THE SIA. 

and happy;" and iu a little while his road was covered with the water 
and the coyote moved on; but after a time he wished for something 
more, and he sat down and said to the cloud people, "I wish much for 
water to my shoulders ; 1 will then be very happy and contented ;" and 
in a moment the waters arose as he had wished : but he did not go far 
before he again sat down and talked to the cloud people, saying, "If 
you will only give me water so high that my eyes, nose, mouth, and 
ears are alone above it I will be happy and contented; then my road 
will indeed be cool;" and his prayer was answered. 

But even this did not satisfy him, and after traveling a short dis- 
tance he sat down and implored the ch)ud people to give him a river 
that he might float o\cr the road, and immediately a river appeared 
and the coyote floated with the stream. He was high iu the mountains 
and wished to go below to the hare land. After floating a long distance 
he came to the hare laud and saw many hares a little distance oft", both 
large and small, and they were on both sides of the river. The coyote 
lay down as though he were dead (he was covered in mud), and lis- 
tened, and presently he saw a woman ka'wate (mephitis) approaching, 
carrying her vase and gourd; she was coming for water. Before the 
coyote saw the ka'wate he heard the gourd striking against the vase. 
As she drew near the coyote peeped at her and she looked at him and 
said: "Here is a dead coyote. Where did he come from"? I guess 
from the mountains above. I guess he . fell into the water and died." 
When she came closer he looked at her and said : " Come here, woman." 
"What do you wantf said the ka'wate. "I want you to be my com- 
panion," said the coyote. "I know all the hares and other small ani- 
mals well, and I guess in a little while they will all come here, and 
wJien they think I am dead they will be very happy." And the two 
talked nuich together and the coyote said: "Let ns be companions, 
what do you think about it?" "I have no thoughts at all," said the 
ka'wate. "I," said the coyote, "think we had better work together." 
And the ka'wate replied : " It is well." Then said the coyote : "Go and 
bring me four clubs; I want them for the hares." When the ka'wate 
returned with the clubs the coyote said : " Put them on the ground and 
cover them with earth." When this was done he lay upon them. 
Then said the coyote: "Gro and bring me the seeds from the patiiin." 
(A very tall grass: the seeds when ripe are black.) He put the seeds on 
his mouth, nostrils, eyes, and ears and scattered them over his body. 
This he did that the hares might think him dead and being eaten by 
worms. Then he said to the ka'wate: "Look around everywhere 
for the hares; when yon see them, say a coyote is dead; they will soon 
come to look at me and they will dance around me for joy because I am 
dead. Yon return with them, and wheu they dance tell them to look 
to the cloud people while they dance, and then throw your poison (me- 
phitic fluid) up and let it tall upon their faces like rain, and when it 
goes in their eyes they cau not see, for the poison of the ka'wate burns 



like I'ed pepper, and when tbej^ become blind we can kill them; you 
will take two of the clnbs and I will take two, one in either hand." 
When the ka'wate reached the hares she spoke to the hare chief. 
"Hare, listen; I saw a dead coyote over tha-e." "Whei'e?" cried the 
chief. "There by the river." "You are not lying"?" said the chief. 
"No; I speak the truth, there is a dead coyote." "What killed the 
coyote!" "I don't know what killed him, but I think he must have 
fallen into the water far above and was brought here by the river." 
And the chief communicated the news to all of his companions and 
they concluded to send one hare alone to see if the ka'wate spoke the 
truth. "Go quickly," said they to the hare, "and see if the woman 
speaks the truth." The hare hastened off, and when he reached the 
coyote he looked carefully all about and concluded the coyote had been 
dead some time, for he saw that the body was covered with worms, iind 
returning he told his people what he had seen, but some refused to be- 
lieve that the coyote was dead. It was decided to send another mes- 
senger, and a second hare was dispatched to see if the first one's story 
was correct. He returned with the same news and so a third and 
fourth were sent, and each came bearing the story that a coyote was 
dead and being eaten by worms. Then the hares decided to go in a 
body and see the dead coyote. The men, women, and children has- 
tened to look upon the dead body of the coyote, and rejoicing over his 
death they struck him with their hands and kicked him. There were 
crowds of hares and they decided to have a great dance. Now and 
then a hare would leave the grouii of dancers and stamp upon the 
coyote, who lay all the time as though he were dead, and during the 
dance they clapped their hands over their mouths and gave a whoop 
like the war whoop. 

After a time the ka'wate stepped apart from the group and said, "All 
of you hares look up, do not hold your heads down, look up to the 
cloud people while you sing and dance; it is much better to hold your 
heads up." All threw their heads back and looked to ti'ni'a. Then 
the ka'wate threw high her mephitic fluid, which fell like rain upon the 
faces and into the eyes of all the hares, and their eyes were on tire; all 
they could do was to rub them; they could not see anything. And the 
coyote quickly rose, and handed the ka'wate two of the clubs, keeping 
two himself, and they killed all of the hares ; there was a great number, 
and they were piled up like stones. Then said the coyote, " Where 
shall I find fire to cook the hares? Ah," said he, pointing across to a 
very high rock, "that rock gives good shade and it is cool; I will find 
the fire and cook my meat near the shade of the rock;" and he and the 
ka'wate carried all of the hares to this point and the coyote made a 
large Are and threw them into it. When this was done he was very 
warm from his work about the fire and he was also tired, and lie lay 
down close to the rock in the shade. He was now perfectly happy, and 
contented to be quiet, but only for a short time. He must be at work 

152 THE SIA. 

about something, aud lie said to the ka'wate, " What shall we do now ?" 
and she answered; ''Ido not know," then the coyote said, ''We will 
work together for something pretty; we will run a race and the one 
who wins will have all the hares." "Oh," said the ka'wate, "how could 
I beat you? your feet are so much larger than mine." " Well," said the 
coyote, '' I will allo^v you the start of me." The coyote made a torch of 
the inner shreds of the cedar bark and wrapped it with yucca thread 
and lighting it tied this torch to the end of his tail. The fire was 
attached to his tail to light the grass that he might see everywhere 
about him to watch the ka'wate that she might not escape him. He 
then said, " Woman, I know you can not run fast, you must go first 
and I will wait until you have gone a certain distance." The ka'wate 
started off, but when out of sight of the coyote she slipped into 
the house of the badger. At the proper time the coyote started with 
the fire attached to his tail. Wherever he touched the grass he set 
fire to it. The ka'wate waited for him to pass and then came out of 
the house of the badger and hastening back to the rock she carried all 
the hares to a high ledge, leaving but four tiny little ones below. The 
coyote was surprised in his run not to overtake the ka'wate. "She 
must be very quick," thought he. "How could she run so fast," and 
after passing around the mountain, all the time expecting to see the 
ka'wate ahead of him, he returned to the rock surely expecting to find 
her there. Not seeing her, he cried, "Where can the ka'wate be?" 

He was tired and sat down in the shade of the rock. " Why does 
she not come," thought the coyote; "perhaps slie will not return before 
night, her feet are so small; perhaps she will not come at all. Strange 
I have not seen her; she must be far off." The Ka'wate, who was just 
above him, heard all that he said. She watched him and saw him take 
a stick and look into the mound for the hares. (They had covered the 
hares before leaving the place.) He pulled out a very small one which 
he threw away. He then drew a second one, still smaller than the first, 
and this he also threw off, and again a third, and a fourth, each one 
smaller than the other. "I do not care for the little ones," he said, "I 
have many here, I will not eat the smaller ones," and he hunted and 
hunted in the mound for the hares, but found no more; all were gone, 
and he looked about him and said, "That woman has robbed me," and 
he was glad to collect the four he had cast away aud eat them, for he 
was very hungry. After his meal he looked about him and found the 
ka'wate's footprints on the rocks. He hunted everywhere for her, but 
he did not think to look above, and after searching a long time he be- 
came weary and laid down to rest. As he looked upward, he saw the 
woman sitting on the ledge of the i"ock with the hares piled beside her. 
The coyote was hungry for the hares, and he begged the ka'wate to 
bring him some, and she threw him down a very small one, and the 
coyote was angry with her and still more angry with himself, because 
he could not climb the rock ; she had gone where he could not go. The 


coyote \vas very aug'i'y when he parted from the ka'wate. After travel- 
ing a little way he saw a small bird. The bird was hopping about 
contentedly and the coyote thought, "What a beautiful bird, it 
moves about so gracefully. I guess I will work awhile with that 
bird," and drawing nearer to the bird, he asked, " What beautiful things 
are you working at ?" but the bird could not understand the coyote, and 
he could only stand and admire the bird. He saw the bird take out his 
two eyes and throw them straight up, like two stones, to ti'uia, and then 
look upward, but he had no eyes in his head; presently the bird said, 
"Come my eyes, come quickly, down into my head," and immediately 
the eyes fell into the sockets of the bird, and the bird was apparently 
pleased, and the eyes appeared much brigjiter than before. The coyote 
discovering how improved the bird's eyes were, he asked the bird to take 
out his eyes and throw them up that they might become brighter, and 
the bird took out the coyote's eyes and held au eye in either hand for a 
little while, then threw them to ti'nia, and the coyote looked upward, 
but he had no eyes, and he cried, "Come back, my eyes, come quickly," 
and the eyes fell into the coyote's head. He was delighted with the 
improvement in his eyes, and, thinking that they might be made still 
more brilliant and penetrating by throwing them up a second time, he 
asked the bird to repeat the performance. The bird did not care to 
work any more for the coyote and told him so, but the coyote persist- 
ently urged the bird to throw his eyes up once more. The bird, grow- 
ing a little angry, said, "Why should I work for you, coyote? No, I 
work no more for you," but the coyote was persistent, and the bird a 
second time took out his eyes, this time causing the coyote such pain that 
he cried. As the bird threw up the eyes the coyote looked up to ti'nia 
and cried, "Come my eyes 'come to me!" but the eyes continued to 
ascend and did not return. The coyote was much grieved and moved 
about slowly and awkwardly, for he could not see, and he wept bitterly 
over the loss of his eyes. 

The bird was very much annoyed to be thus bothered with the 
coyote, and said to him, "Go away now; I am tired of you, go off and 
hunt for other eyes, do not remain to weep and bother me," but the 
coyote refused to leave and begged and entreated the bird to find eyes 
for him. Finally the bird gathered gum from a pifiou tree and rolled 
two small bits between the palms of his hands, and, when they were 
round, he placed the two balls into the eye sockets of the coyote, who 
was then able to see, but not clearly as before, and these eyes, instead 
of being black like his other eyes, were slightly yellow. "Now," said 
the bird, "you can remain no longer." 

After traveling some little distance the coyote met a deer with two 
fawns; the fawns were beautifully spotted, and he said to the deer, 
"How did you paint your children, they are so beautiful?" The deer 
replied, "I painted them with fire from the cedar." "And how did 
you do the work?" inquired the coyote. "I put my children into a 

154 THE SI A. 

cave," answei-ed the deer, " and built a fire of cedar in front of tlie cave, 
and every time a spark flew from the fire it struck my children, making 
a beautiful spot." "Oh," said the coyote, "1 will do the same and 
make my children beautiful," and he hurried to his house and put his 
children into a cave and built a tire of cedar, and then stood ofl' to 
watch the fire. The children cried much, because the fire was very 
hot. The coyote tried to stop their cries by telling them they would 
soon be beautiful like the children of the deer. After a time their 
weeping ceased and the coyote thought his words had comforted them, 
but, in fact, the children were burned to death. When the cedar was 
consumed the coyote hastened to the cave, expecting to find his 
children very beautiful, but instead he found them dead; he was en- 
raged with the deer and ran fast to hunt her, but he could find her 
nowhere, and he returned to his house much distressed and much dis- 
gusted with himself for having been so easily fooled by the deer. 


When the world was new the coyote was very industrious. He was 
always at work passing around the world everywhere. He was never 
lazy, but his thoughts were not good. He visited one camp of people 
and told them he belonged to the Corn people; at another camp he 
said he belonged to the Knife people. Both times he lied. After a 
while the coyote told the cougar, who was the father of all game, that 
he would like to be a ho'naaite. The cougar replied, " When your 
thoughts are good, then you may become one. " "I guess the coyote is 
not lying, he has good thoughts now," and the cougar said to him, 
" Come in four days to me and we will make ha'chamoni." The coyote 
returned on the fourth day and worked eight days with the cougar 
preparing ha'chamoni. He was supposed to abstain during this time 
from food, drink, and smoking, and to practice continency. The cougar 
also fasted and practiced continency for the same period of time. Each 
night when it was dark the cougar said, "You, man coyote, now it is 
night, take this food which I give you and offer it to Ko'pishtaia." 
The first night the coyote returned with a contented heart, and upon 
entering the cougar's house he sat down. The second night after the 
coyote left the house with the food for Ko'pishtaia, he felt a little hun- 
gry, and he said to himself, " Last night I was not hungry, now I am hun- 
gry, alas ! I am afraid or T would eat this food. Why have I wished to be 
a ho'naaite! I have food here and I wish to eat it, for I am hungry and 
yet I am afraid." And so he argued with himself until he overcame 
all scruples and ate the food. " Non-," said he, "I am contented; I am 
no longer hungry;" and he returned to the cougar, pretending he had 
oflered the food to Ko'pishtaia, and so the remaining eight nights the 
coyote ate the food which was given him by the cougar to offer to 
Ko'pishtaia, but he said nothing of this to anyone. The cougar grew 


to be straight aud had no belly, but the coyote did not change in 
appearance, aud the sixth night the cougar began to suspect that the 
coyote was not making his offerings to Ko'pishtaia. The coyote told 
the cougar each night that he was contented and was not hungry. "I 
think you are a little sad," the cougar reijlied. "No, I am not sad; 
my stomach is strong," said the coyote, "I can fast eight days; I won- 
der that I am not a little sad. Why am I not hungry? I feel strong 
all the time that I am jjassiug about." 

On the seventh day the cougar and the coyote worked very hard all 
day making ha'chamoni, and when the work was completed the cougar 
taught the coyote the song which he would sing as ho'naaite of the 
Coyote Society. They sang all the eighth day and night and at the 
conclusion of the song the coyote was ordained a ho'naaite. Then said 
the cougar to the coyote, "Go now and kill a deer, and when you kill 
the deer bring the meat here aud we will eat," and the coyote said, "It 
is well;" and he went to hunt the deer. In the early morning the 
coyote saw a deer, but the deer ran fast, aud, though he followed him 
all day, he could not get close enough to catch him ; he did not cany 
arrows, but was to catch him with his hands, and at night the coyote 
returned worn out. While the coyote was absent the cougar thought, 
"I guess the coyote will be gone all day," and when evening came and 
the coyote was still absent he thought, "The coyote has not a good 
head or thoughts for a ho'naaite." When the coyote returned at night 
the cougar said, "Why have you been gone all day aud come back 
without a deer?" "I saw a deer," said the coyote, "early this morn- 
ing, aud I ran all day following him; I went very far and am tired." 
"Well," said the cougar, " why is it your head and heart cared to be a 
ho'naaite ? I gave you food for Ko'pishtaia and you, coyote, you ate 
the food that should have been given to Ko'pishtaia; this is why you 
did not catch the deer to-day. Had you given the food to Ko'pishtaia, 
instead of eating it, you would have caught the deer." The coyote 
thought much, but did not say a word. He slept that night in the 
cougar's house, and at dawn the cougar said to one of his own jjeople, 
"you go and catch a deer." "Well, be it so," said the companion, 
and he started for the deer before the sun was up. In a short time 
he saw one; it was very near him, and with one jump he spraug upon 
the game and caught it before the sun was yet up, and hurrying back 
to the house of his chief he said, "Here is the meat of the deer." 

The chief was much pleased and contented, but the coyote was very 
sad. All the companions of the cougar were happy and rejoiced. 
"Good, my son!" said the cougar, "I am much contented; we will pay 
the Ko'pishtaia with plumes; now we will eat the flesh of the deer." 
The chief ate first aud the others after him; he would not give any of 
the meat to the coyote, because the coyote's thoughts were not good. 
The chief enjoyed his food greatly, this being the ninth morning from 
the beginning of his fast. The cougar said to the coyote, "Tour 

156 THE SIA. 

tboiij;lits and heart are not good; you are no longer a ho'naaite; go! 
You will lieueeforth travel quickly over and about the world; you will 
work much, passing about, but you will never understand how to kill 
the deer, antelope, or any game ; I do not travel fast, but my thoughts 
are good, and when I call the deer they come quickly." Since that 
time the coyote is always hunting the deer, rabbit, and other game, but 
is not successful. 


The coyote's house was near the house of the rattlesnake. The 
coyote said to the snake, "Let us walk together," and while walking 
he said to the snake, "To-morrow come to my house." In the morn- 
ing the snake went to the house of the coyote and moved along slowly 
on the floor, shaking his rattle. The coyote sat to one side, much 
afi-aid; he became frightened after watching the movements of the 
snake and hearing the noise of the rattle. The coyote had a pot of 
rabbit meat cooking on the fire, which he placed in front of the snake, 
inviting him to eat, saying, "Companion, eat." "No, companion, 
I will not eat your meat; I do not understand your food," said the 
snake. "What food do you eat !" asked the coyote. " I eat the yel- 
low flowers of the corn," was the reply, and the coyote immediately 
began to look around for some, and when he found the pollen, the 
snake said, "Put some on the top of my head that I may eat it," and 
the coyote, standing as far off as i^ossible, dropped a little on the 
snake's head. The snake said, "Come nearer and put enough on my 
head that I may find it." He was very much afraid, but after a while 
became close to the snake and put the pollen on his head, and after 
eating the pollen the snake thanked the coyote saying, "I will go now 
and pass about," but before leaving he invited the coyote to his house: 
"Companion, to-morrow you come to my house." "Very well," said the 
coyote, "to-morrow I will go to your house." The coyote thought 
much what the snake would do on the morrow. He made a small 
rattle (by placing tiny pebbles in a gourd) and attached it to the end 
of his tail, and, testing it, he was well satisfied and said: "This is 
well;" he then proceeded to the house of the snake. When he was 
near the house he shook his tail and said to himself, "This is good; I 
guess when I go into the house the snake will be very much afraid of 
me." He did not walk into the house, but moved like a snake. The 
coyote could not shake the rattle as the snake did his; he had to hold 
his tail in his hand. When he shook his rattle the snake appeared 
afraid and said, "Companion, I am much afraid of yon." The snake 
had a stew of rats on the fire, which he placed before the coyote and 
invited him to eat, saying, "Companion, eat some of my food," and 
the coyote replied, "I do not understand your food; I can not eat it, 
because I do not understand it." The snake insisted upon his eating, 
but the coyote continued to refuse, saying, "If you will put some of 


the flower of the corn on my head I will eat; I understand that food." 
The snake quickly procured some corn pollen, but he pretended to be 
afraid to go too near the coyote, and stood otf a distance. The coyote 
told him to come nearer and put it well on the top of his head; but the 
snake replied, "I am afraid of you." The coyote said, "Come nearer to 
me; I am not bad," and the snake came closer and put the pollen on 
the coyote's head and the coyote tried to eat the pollen ; but he had 
not the tongue of the snake, so could not take it from his head. He 
made many attempts to reach tlie toi> of his head, putting his tongue 
first on one side of his uose and then on the other, but he could only 
reach either side of his nose. His repeated failures made the snake 
laugh heartily. The snake put his hand over his month, so that the 
coyote should not see him langh; he really hid his head in his body. 
The coyote was not aware that the snake discovered that he could not 
obtain the food. As he left the snake's house he held his tail in his 
hand and .shook the rattle; and the snake cried, "Oh companion! I am 
so afraid of you," but in reality the snake shook with laughter. The 
coyote, returning to his house, said to himself, "T was such a fool; the 
snake had much food to eat and I would not take it. Now I am very 
hungry," and he went out in search of food. 


The myth of the ska'tona (a monster plumed serpent) who, in the 
old time, ate the people, is familliar to every man, woman, and child of 
Sia. This serpent, who lived in the mountains, did not move to catch 
the people, but drew them to him with liis breath ; he never called but 
one person at a time, compelling each one to approach sidewise so that 
he could not be seen. The hand was usually grabbed, then the 
serpent would take the hand into his mouth and gradually devour his 








Introduction 167 

Fort Chimo and tlie surrounding region 167 

Climate 172 

Auroras 173 

Vegetation 173 

Auimal life 174 

Miunnials 174 

Birds 175 

The native inliabitants of the country — general stetcli 175 

The Eskimo 175 

The Indians 181 

Special account of the people around Fort Chimo 184 

The Koksoagmy ut 184 

Physical characteristics 184 

Diseases 187 

Marriage 188 

Children 190 

Burial customs 191 

Eeligion 193 

Outdoor life 202 

Tattooing 20" 

Clothing 208 

Dwellings 223 

Household articles 228 

Food and its preparation 232 

Tobacco and snutf 234 

Means of transportation 235 

By water 235 

On land 240 

Weapons and other hunting implements 246 

Hunting 249 

Miscellaneous implements 252 

Amusements 254 

Art 259 

Story-telling and folklore 260 

Origin of the Inuuit 261 

The coming of the white jieople 261 

Origin of living things on the earth and in the water 261 

Origin of the guillemots 262 

Origin of the raven 262 

Origin of the quadrangular spots on the loon's back 262 

Origin of the gulls 263 

Origin of the hawks 263 

Origin of the swallow 263 

11 ETII 11 161 


Special account of tlie people around Fort Chimo — Continued. 
The Koksoagmyut — Continued. 

Story-telling and folklore — Continued. Page. 

The hare 263 

The wolf - 263 

Lice 263 

Origin of mosquitoes 264 

Story of the man and his fox wife 264 

The rivals 264 

The jealous man 264 

Story of the orphan boy 265 

The origin of the sun, moon, and stars 266 

Auroras 266 

The sky 266 

The winds 267 

The Nenenot or " Naskopie " 267 

Principal characteristics 267 

Clothing 281 

Preparation of the skins for clothing 292 

Dwellings 298 

Sweat houses 300 

Household utensils, etc 300 

Tohacco and pipes 302 

Means of transportatiou 304 

By water 304 

By land 308 

Weapons 312 

Hunting 316 

Miscellaneous implements, tools, etc 317 

Amusements 320 

Festivals 322 

Folklore 327 

Story of the wolverine and the brant 327 

Story of the wolverine 327 

The deer and the squirrel 328 

The young man who went to live with the deer 328 

The wolf's daughter going to seek her lover 330 

The devil punishing a liar 333 

A wolverine destroys liis sister 333 

The rabbit and the frog 334 

The wolverine and the rock 336 

Creation of people by the wolverine and the muskrat , . - . 338 

Origin of the whitish spot on the throat of the marten 338 

The Indian and his beaver wife 339 

The venturesome hare 340 

The spiiit guiding a child left by its parents 342 

Fate of two Indian men 343 

The starving wolverine 345 

Till' starving Indians - 349 



Plate XXXVI. View on Koksoak River 170 

XXXVII. Eskimo tent 226 

XXXVIII. stone tobacco pipes 302 

XXXIX. Birchbark canoe, Nenenot, Koksoak river pattern 304 

XL. Nenenot snowshoe — " swallow-tail" . . - 308 

XLI. Nenenot snowshoe — ' ' be.aver-tail" 310 

XLII. Nenenot snowshoe — ''ronnd-eud" 312 

XLIII. Doll, Indian woman, full dress, Nenenot 326 

Fig. 21. Eskimo grave 192 

22. Magic doll 197 

23. Belt of magic doll 198 

24. Talisman attached to magic doll 199 

25. Talisman - 199 

26. Talisman 199 

27. Talisman 20O 

28. Eskimo woman's amulet 201 

29. Eskimo birdskin cap 209 

30. Eskimo man's deerskin coat (front) 210' 

31. Eskimo man's deerskin coat (back) 311 

32. Eskimo man's sealsk iu coat ( front) 212 

33. Eskimo miin's sealskin coat (side 213 

34. Eskimo woman's deerskin coat 214 

35. Eskimo woman's deerskin coat. . 215 

36. Eskimo woman's deerskin coat 215 

37. Eskimo woman's deerskin coat 216 

38. Eskimo woman's sealskin coat 216 

39. Eskimo woman's deerskin coat 217 

40. Back view of .same 217 

41. Eskimo boots 218 

42. Eskimo shoes 219 

43. Ice shoes, Hudson strait Eskimo 219 

44. Ijong waterproof sealskin mitten 220- 

45. Waterjiroof gut frock 221 

46. Snow goggles — front ' 222" 

47. Snow goggles — rear 223: 

48. Deserted Eskimo snowhouses near Fort Chimo 224 

49. Soapstoue lamp, Koksoagmy ut 229 

50. .Soapstone lump, Koksoagmynt 229 

51. .Soapstone lamp, Koksoagmynt 229 

52. Frame for drying mittens - 230 

53. Soapstone kettle 230 

54. Soapstone kettle 231 




Fig. 55. Woodeu dish 231 

56. Sealskin bucket 232 

57. Sealskin tup - . 232 

58. Tobacco pouch 234 

59. Eskimo Umiak 235 

60. Dog whip 244 

61. Bow, East Main Eskimo (back) 246 

62. Bow, East Main Eskimo (side) 246 

63. Arrow, East Main Eskimo 247 

64. Arrow, East Main Eskimo 247 

65. Arrow, East Main Eskimo 247 

66. Bow case. East Main Eskimo 248 

67. Hand spear for killing seals, from kaiak, Koksoak 249 

68. Toggle for hand spear 250 

69. Sealskin float 250 

70. Ivory snow knife, Koksoagmyut 253 

71. Back-scratcher, Koksoagmyut 253 

72. Ivory needle case, Koksoagmyut 254 

73. Ivory needle case, Koksoagmyut , 254 

74. Sealskin needle cushion, with thimble, Koksoagmyut 254 

75. "Cup and ball," Koksoagmyut 256 

76. Football and driver, Koksoagmyut 256 

77. Dominoes, Hudson strait Eskimo 257 

78. Eskimo doll, man 258 

79. Eskimo doll, woman 258 

80. Eskimo doll, woraau 259 

81. Eskimo doll, woman 259 

82. Eskimo violin 259 

83. Birds carved in ivory 260 

84. Human figure carved in ivory 260 

85. Indian medicine lodge 274 

86. Indian amulet of bearskin 275 

87. Indian buckskin coat, man's (front) 281 

88. Indian buckskin coat, man's (back ) 282 

89. Detail of pattern painted on Indian garment 282 

90. Detail of pattern painted on deeiskin robe 283 

91. Indian buckskiu leggings 283 

92. Indian moccasins 284 

93. Indian mittens 285 

94. Beaded headband, Nenenot 286 

95. Man's winter coat (front) 287 

96. Man's winter coat (back) ■. . . 288 

97. Detail of ornamentation 288 

98. Man's winter coat, with hood 289 

99. Man's winter coat, with hood 290 

100. Nenenot woman in full winter dress 291 

101. Sealskin headband, Nenenot 292 

102. Skin sciapiT (front), Nenenot 292 

103. Skin scraper (side), Nenenot 292 

104. .Skin-clcaniug tool, Nenenot 293 

105. Skin-cleaning tool (iron-bladed), Nenenot 294 

106. Paint stick, Nenenot 296 

107 296 

108. Paint stick, Nenenot 296 

109. Paint stick, Neuenot 297 



Fig. 110. Paiut stick, Nenenot 297 

111. Paint cup, Neuenot 297 

112. Paint cup, Nenenot 297 

113. Paint cup, Nenenot 298 

114. Nenenot Inilian tent 298 

115. Wooden bucket, Nenenot 301 

116. Birchbark basket, Nenenot 301 

117. Bircbbark basket, Neuenot .301 

118. Stone pestle, Nenenot 302 

119. Wootlen spoon or ladle, Nenenot .302 

120. Wooden spoon or ladle, Neuenot 302 

121. Wooden spoon or ladle, Nenenot 303 

122. Wooden spoon or ladle, Nenenot 303 

123. Stone tobacco pipe 304 

124. Pipe cleaner, Nenenot 304 

125. Spoon for applying grease to canoe 306 

126. Toboggan, Neuenot, side view 307 

127. Toboggan, Nenenot, from above 307 

128. Neneuot snowsboe, single bar 308 

129. Nenenot snowsboe, single bar 309 

130. Snowsboe needle, Nenenot 310 

131. Wooden snowsboe. Little Whale river 311 

132. Bow, Neneuot 313 

133. Arrow, Nenenot 313 

134. Arrow, Nenenot 313 

135. Arrow, Neneuot 313 

136. Arrow, Neuenot 313 

137. Deer lance, Neneuot 314 

138. White whale spear, Little Whale river 314 

139. Point of white whale spear enlarged 314 

140. Reindeer snare, Neuenot 315 

141. Crooked knife, Nenenot 317 

142. \wl, Nenenot 318 

143. Snow shovel , Nenenot 318 

144. Ice scoop, Nenenot 318 

145 319 

146. Comb, with birchbark case and cleaner 320 

147. Boards for woman's hair 320 

148. Swimming board 321 

149. Fishhook and line 321 

150. Cup and ball, Nenenot 324 

151. Drum, Nenenot 324 

152. Drum, Little Whale river 325 

153. Rattle, Nenenot 326 

154. Target, reindeer, buck 326 

155. Target, reindeer, doe 326 


By Ltjcien M. Turner. 
(Edited by John Murdoch.) 


Ungava bay is on the northern coast of old Labrador — the last great 
bight of the .strait between the ocean and the mouth of Hudson bay. 
Its chief atflueut is Kolisoak or South river, which is several hundred 
miles long and takes its rise in a picturesque festoouery of lakes looped 
through the highlands half way down to Quebec. 


Fort Chimo is in longitude 68° 16' west of Greenwich and latitude 
58° 8' north. The post is on the right bank of the Koksoak river, 
about 27 miles from its mouth. The elevation o f the level tract on 
which the houses are situated is but a few feet above high-water mark. 
The location was selected on account of its comparative dryness, and 
also because the river affords a safer anchorage in that vicinity than 
lower down. 

The early JVIoravian missionaries, long before established on the At- 
lantic coast, desired to extend their labors for the conversion of the 
Eskimo to their teachings. About the year 1825 a vessel ascended the 
Koksoak river for the purpose of selecting a new missionary station. 
Nearly opposite Fort Chimo is a beacon, yet standing, erected by the 
people of that vessel. Their reception among the natives was sucli 
that they gave a glowing account of it on their return. The Hudson 
Bay Company immediately took steps to erect a trading post upon the 
river, and a small party was sent in the year 1831 from Moose Factory 
to establish a trading post where the trade would appear to promise 
ftiture development. The men remained there, obtaining a precarious 
subsistence, as the vessel delivering them supplies visited that place 
only once in two years. Their houses were simple, consisting of a 
single structure for the official in charge, another for the servants, and 
two more for the storage of goods. A palisade was erected around the 



houses to prevent the intrusiou of the natives, Indians and Eskimo^ 
who were so lately at war with each other that the rancorous feeling 
had not subsided and miglit break out afresh at any moment without 
earning-. The remnants of the palisade were yet visible in 1882. The 
establishment of this trading jjost had a pacifying influence upon the 
natives, who soon found they could do better by procuring the many 
valuable fur beariug animals than by engaging in a bloody strife, which 
the traders always deprecate and endeavor to prevent or suppress. 
After many trials to establish an overland communication with the 
stations on Hamilton iulet, it was found to be impracticable, and in 1843 
the station was abandoned. 

John M'Lean, in a work entitled "Twenty-five Years in the Hudson's 
Bay Territory,'" gives an account of that portion of the country that 
came under his knowledge from the year 1838 to 1843. 

In the year 1866 the steamer Labrador was built and sent with a 
party to reestablish the post at Fort Chimo. Since 1866 the post has 
been a paying station, and in later years a good lu-oflt has been made. 

Fort Chimo is the chief trading station of the Ungava district. The 
Ungava district proper is the area embraced by the watershed whose 
outflow drains into Ungava bay. The eastern boundary is formed by 
the foothills on the west side of the coast range, which is the western 
limit of Labrador. This range has a trend northwest and southeast to 
latitude 60°, where it makes a somewhat abrupt angle and pursues a 
nearly north course, terminating with Cape Chidley and the Buttons, 
the latter a low group of islets some 7 miles north of the cape. 
The southern boundary is the " Height of Land," near latitude 55°. 
This region is estimated to be from 1,000 to 3,000 feet above sea level. 
The greater porti<m of it is comparatively level, and on its surface are 
innumerable lakes of various sizes, some of which are quite large. The 
Avestern boundary is not so well known in the southern part of the 
i-egion, as it has been seldom traversed. It seems to be a high eleva- 
tion extending toward the north-northwest, as numerous streams run 
from the southwest and west toward the central or Koksoak valley. 
Eskimo who have traversed the region many times report that the eleva- 
ted laud abrniitly ends near 58° 30', and that there is formed a wide 
swampy tract, estimated to be about 80 miles wide, which opens to the 
northeast and southwest. The northwestern portion of the district 
is a great area abounding in abrupt hills and precipitous mountains of 
various heights. These heights, estimated to range no higher than 
2,600 feet, terminate abruptly on the western end of the strait, and 
the mimerous islands in that portion of the water are, doubtless, peaks 
of this same range continuing to the noi'thwest. 

It will be thus seen that the district of Ungava is a huge amphi- 
theater opening to the north. The interior of the district is excess- 
ively varied by ridges and spurs of greater or less elevation. The 

■ Two vols, in one. Loudon, 1849. 


fartlier south one travels, tlio liiglier aud more irregularly disposed 
are the hills and mountains. These spurs are usually parallel to the 
main ranges, although isolated spurs occur which extend at right 
angles to the main range. The tops of the higher elevations are cov- 
ered with snow for the entire year. The summits of the lower ones are 
shrouded with snow as early as the Ist of September, and by tlie 1st 
of October the snow Hue descends nearly to their bases. The lower 
lands are full of swampy tracts, lakes, and ponds. 

The more elevated regions are totally destitute of vegetation, except 
the tripe des roches, which gives to the hills a somber coh)r, anything 
but inspiring. Fully three-fourths of the more elevated region is, with 
the exception of black lichens, barren rock. Everywhere is the evi- 
dence of long continued glacial action. The southern exposures of all 
the hills show the same character of wearing, and, in many instances, a 
tine polish on the rocks forming their bases. This smoothness extends 
nearly to the summits of the higlier peaks. These again are somewhat 
rougher and often broken into jagged, angular fragments, frequently 
of immense size. The more moderate elevations are usually rounded 
summits on whose higher portions may be found huge bowlders of rock 
having a dilierent character from that upon which they rest, proving 
that they were carried there by masses of ice in the glacial ages. The 
northern extremity of all the ridges and spurs indicate that the glacial 
sheet moved to the north-northwest, for these portions of the rocks are 
so jagged and sharp edged as to appear to have been broken but yes- 

The rivers of this district are numerous and several are of great size, 
although but two of them are navigable for more than 100 miles, aud 
this only for boats of light draft. 

The river usually known as George's river (Kan'gukiflua'luksoak) is 
the largest on the eastern side. This stream takes its rise about lat- 
itude 55° and pursues a moderately tortuous course nearly northward 
and falls into the eastern side of Ungava Bay. It has a wide bay-like 
mouth narrowing rapidly at the mouth proper. Swift rapids are formed 
here on account of an island near the center. Beyond this the river 
expands and has an average width of half a mile for a distance of about 
18 miles where the river bends eastward and forms rapids for over 
2 miles. It is navigable for the steamer Labrador only about 12 miles. 
Beyond the rapids it runs tolerably smooth aud deep for nearly 40 
miles and thence to the source is a series of i apids and falls, rendering 
Ijortages frequent, and making it utterly impracticable for even a heavy 
skiff to ascend beyond 70 miles from the mouth. Indians assert that 
high falls occur about 150 miles from the mouth of the George's river. 
The water is said to fall from a terrific height, almost perpendicularly, 
and it causes the ground to tremble so that the thundering noise may 
be heard for more than a day's journey from it. 

The tide at the mouth of George's river rises 53 feet, and at thti 


Anchorage, opposite the newly established station of Fort George, 
some 12 miles from its month, 42 feet. 

Wliale river is the next important river toward the east. Off the 
mouth of this river is a huge island, locally known as Big island. This 
high island extends parallel to the course of the river, and a reef, con- 
necting its upper end with the mainland, becomes dry at low water. 
The course of Whale river is not well known. About 40 miles up this 
stream it suddenly contracts and becomes a mere creek, forming the 
outlet of a large lake, whose jjosition is not satisfactorily determined. 
It is to the banks of this lake that certain families of the Indians re- 
pair for summer fishing. 

The next large river is the Koksoak. This stream is the largest in 
the district. It takes its rise from lakes situated on the plateau — 
the "Height of Land," — and pursues a course having a general 
direction north-northeast. On emerging ft'om the lake it is rather 
small, but forks aud unites again about 40 miles below. The current is 
is sluggish at the upper end, and the eastern branch is so narrow that 
the Indians have to part the overhanging alders aud willows to afford 
their canoes a passage. This branch is said to be the shorter way to 
the lake and is not so difficult to ascend, the eastern branch being 
shallow and containing a number of rapids. 

Below the junction of the branches the river rapidly becomes larger 
and contains several very high falls, below which the river flows north- 
west for a couple of hundred yards and then curves to the north-north- 
east for a distance of 5 miles. This portion is only about 700 feet wide. 
It then turns abruptly westward and rushes swiftly through a narrow 
gorge only 200 feet wide for a distance of about 7 miles. This course is 
noted for several rapids, through which a boat can not make its way 
without great difficulty. At the end of this 7-mile run the river again 
bends abruptly to the east, and continues that course with little north- 
ing until the last bend, some 65 miles below, is reached. At the lower 
end of the 7-mile run the ledges and reefs are too numerous to count. 
From this place to the mouth of the Larch river the Koksoak is ob- 
structed by islands, bars, and shoals. Below these, however, it 
becomes quite broad, until nearly opposite the high point or promontory 
below the mouth of the Larch (PI. xxxvi). From this locality it is mo- 
notonous till the last bend is reached, some 4 miles above Fort Chimo, 
where it suddenly turns to the north and pursues that direction to the 
sea with little variation. At the last bend, however, a large island, 
locally known as Big island, not only obstructs but ends navigation 
for boats drawing over 6 feet. Small boats, such as skiffs and native 
boats, ascend to the lower end of 7-mile run. The principal obstruc- 
tion to travel in any kind of vessel in the Koksoak from Big island 
to the mouth of the Larch river is the presence of two falls or rapids 
about 40 miles from Fort Chimo. 

The extreme rise and fall of the tide at the mouth of the river is 62 


feet 3 iuches. The usual rise and fall is from 8 to 12 feet less, clepeud- 
ing ou the stage of the I'iver. At Fort Cliimo the tide rises as much 
as 31 feet. The backwater is held iii check as far as the iipiier raiiids 
iu a commou stage of water, and during a high rise iu the mouth of 
June the water is "backed" some 3 miles beyond the upper rapids. 

The branches of the Koksoak river are few and unimportant. The 
larger tributary is the Larch river. It is a rapid and almost iiunavi- 
gable stream of variable depth, mostly shallow, and 100 to nearly 400 
yards wide. 

At about 40 miles from its mouth the Larch forks, the lower or 
southwest fork draining the eastern sides of the same mountains whose 
western slopes are drained by the Little Whale river. This southwest 
fork of the Larch river is quite small and scarely capable of being 
ascended, although it may, with great caution, be descended. This 
is the course followed by the Little Whale river Indians when they 
traverse the country to join the Naskopies of the Koksoak valley. 
The northwest branch of the Larch is still smaller and is reported to 
issue from the swampy tract of land iu about latitude 58° 30'. 

The next large river is the Leaf. Its mouth is about 34 miles north- 
west of Fort Chimo, and it flows into a peculiarly shaped bay named 
Tass'iyak, or "like a lake." The length of the river proi)er is estimated 
to be but 40 miles, flowing from a very long and narrow lake, having its 
longer axis extending southwestward and draining the greater part of 
the swampy tract lying in latitude 58° 30'. The southwestern portion 
of this tract is merely an area covered with innumerable small lakes so 
intimately connected by short water courses that it is difficult to 
determine whether water or land constitutes the greater part of the 
area. The rivers to the west are of less impoitance and drain the 
rugged area forming the northwestern portion of the district, or that 
part lying under the western third of Hudson strait. 

The x>rincipal portion of Hudson strait that came under my observa- 
tion is Ungava bay. This bay is a pocket-shaped body of water lying 
south of the strait and toward its eastern end. Soundings in various 
portions of this bay indicate a depth of 28 to 70 fathoms for the central 
area. The bottom appears to be uniformly the washings from the fresh- 
water streams. The extreme tides of Hudson strait tend to produce 
the most violent currents in this bay. Opposite the entrance of Leaf 
river bay is a whirlpool of considerable size, which causes much trouble 
to navigation. It is safe enough at high water but very dangerous at 

The large island known as Akpatok lies in such a position as to 
break much of the current along the south side of the middle of the 
strait, but to give additional force to the currents at either end. This 
island is abt)ut 100 miles long and has an average width of 18 miles. 
It is the largest island in the strait proper. 

The coast line of the northwest portion of the mainland is imperfectly 


known, as is the western coast forming the eastern shore of Hudson 
bay. Navigation in any portion of Hudson strait is attended with 
much danger, not alone from the tremendous energy of the tides but 
also from the quantity of ice to be found at all times. During the 
months of August and September the strait is comparatively free from 
large fields of ice, but after that date the harbors, coves, aud other 
anchorages are apt to be frozen up in a single night. 


The temperature is controlled by the direction of the wind. The 
warmest winds are southeast, south, and southwest during the sum- 
mer. The northeast winds bring (if backing) fog, rain, or snow; the 
north wind is usually cold and disposed to disperse the clouds. The 
northwest wind is always very cold in winter and chilly in summer. 
Westerly winds are moderate in winter and summer. The southerly 
winds are warm at all seasons if blowing hard, but very cold if blowing 
lightly in winter. I think the coldest light winds of the winter are 
from a point little west of south. They are doubtless due to the cold 
from the elevated region — the Height of Land. 

The greatest amount of cloudiness occurs in the spring and fall; 
rather less in July and August, and least during December, January, 
and Febiiiary. The average cloudiness for the entire year is not less 
than eighty-two hundredths of the visible sky. 

Sleet falls mostly from the middle of September to the beginning of 
December. Snow then succeeds it aud continues to be the only form 
of precipitation until the middle of April, when sleet and snow fall 
until the first rain sets in. The season of rain is very erratic. It may 
rain by the first of May, but rarely does. Snow falls every mouth in 
the year; the -d of July aud the 0th of August were the dates farthest 
apart for this form of preciiiitation. The character of the rain is usually 
moderate to hard for the summer showers; although several notable 
exceptions of abundant dashes occur during late June and all of July. 
The August and September rains are usually light to moderate, but 
often persistent for several days. The snowfalls are light to heavy in 
character, rarely, however, lasting more than twenty-four hours. The 
sleet is usually precipitated in severe squalls. The lower grounds are 
permanently covered with snow by the 1st of December, this covering 
remaining until the 10th of June. At the latter date only the heavier 
drifts and the snow of the ravines remain. It entirely disappears by 
the last of July at all elevations no higher than that of Fort Chimo. 

The higher hills retain snow until the last of August, but none is to 
be seen in the vicinity of Fort (Jhimo after that date. By the middle 
of September snow again covers the tops of the distant high hills. 

Fogs rarely occur so far inland as Fort (Jhimo. Those occiu'ring are 
in July and August. At times they are very dense; and, as they form 
during the earliest hours of the day, they are usually dissipated by 4 


to 7 a. 111. Wliile the ice is setting in the river, and driven back and 
foi'tb by tlie tides, huge vohimes of steam arise from the inky water 
and are spread over the land by the light winds prevailing at that sea- 
son. This moisture deposited on the bushes and trees forms a most 
beautiful sight. 


Aui'oras may be seen on most of the clear nights of the year. The 
month of June is, on account of its light nights, the only month in 
which an aurora is not observable. 


The northern limit of trees on the Labrador coast is in latitude 57°. 
Here the conifers are stunted and straggling. Beyond the coast range 
they attain a slightly higher altitiule and thence continue to a point 
about thirty miles north of the mouth of George's river. On the west- 
ern side of the mouth of this river the trees are pushed back 15 to 20 
miles from the sea. At the mouth of Whale river, the trees attain a 
height of 30 to 50 feet on the eastern (right) bank and within 2 miles 
of the shore. On the left bank the trees do not approach to within 10 
to 15 miles of the coast. At the mouth of False river they form a 
triangular extension and attain considerable size, due in great measure 
to the peculiar formation of a huge amphitheater whose north wall 
serves as an admirable protection against the cold winds from the bay. 
On the western side of False river the tree line extends in a south- 
westerly direction across the Koksoak and to the banks of the Leaf 
river nearly at its source from the large lake. From the south side of 
this lake the trees are very much scattered and attain inconsiderable 
size, scarcely fitted for other uses than fuel. 

A line from this lake southwest to the eastern shore of Hudson 
bay forms the northern limit of trees for the northwest portion of 
the region. The people (Eskimo only) who dwell north of this line are 
dependent upon the stunted willows and alders, growing in the deeper 
ravines and valleys having a southern exposure. Large pieces of wood 
are much sought for by the Eskimo of the northwest portion, for use 
in constructing their kaiaks, umiaks and paddles, as well as spear 
shafts and smaller requirements for which the distorted stems of wil- 
low and alder will not siifhce. 

South of the line given as the northern limit of trees the growth 
slowly attains greater size and extension of area. The timber north of 
the Height of Land is comparatively small, the spruce and larch rarely 
attaining a size gi-eater than 12 to 15 inches at the ground and rapidly 
tapering up for 2 feet or so above the surface. Above the height of 2 
feet the stems slowly taper and, in a few instances, produce symmet- 
rical steins for more than 15 feet. The trees growing within 40 miles 
of Fort Chimo seldom exceed 10 inches in diameter, and of the larger 


trunks the logs are selected tu form the material from which the walls 
of all the buildings at that place are constructed. 

The alders, willows, and a few other bushes attain a greater or less 
size, depending upon the situation and amount of protection afforded. 
I have seen as large stems of these shrubs growing within a mile of 
Fort Chime as I have seen at either Davis inlet or Eigolet. 

The flowering plants are sparsely scattered over the northern areas, 
and then only in most suitable soils. The ground remains frozen from 
the last of October — earlier some seasons — to the last of May, or even 
into the middle of June. The appearance of the annuals is sudden, 
and they rapidly attain their full size and quickly fall before the chill- 
ing winds of autumn. 


The marine mammals alone appear to be well known, but the number 

of cetaceans can certainly be increased above the number usually re- 
ported inhabiting the waters immediately bordering upon the region. 

The phocids are best known for the reason that off the shores of 
southeast Labrador the pursuit of species of this family is carried on 
each spring to an extent probably surpassing that anywhere else on the 
face of the globe. 

At the mouth of Little Whale river, the white whale is taken to the 
number of 500 each year, although the capture is steadily decreasing. 
The Indians here do the greater part of the labor of driving, killing, 
flaying, and preserving them. At Fort Chimo another station for the 
pursuit of white whales is carried on. Here the Eskimo do the driving 
and killing, while the Indians perform the labor of removing the blub- 
ber and rendering it fit for the oil tanks into which it is placed to put 
it beyond the action of the weather. The skin of the white whale is 
tanned and converted into a leather of remarkably good quality, espe- 
cially noted for being neai'ly waterproof. 

Of the land mammals, the reindeer is probably the most abundant 
of all. It is found in immense numbers in certain localities, and forms 
for many of the inhabitants the i>rincipal source of subsistence, while 
to nearly all the residents its skins are absolutely necessary to pro- 
tect them from the severity of the winter. 

The black, white and brown bears are common enough in their re- 
spective areas. The former rarely ranges beyond the woodlands, never 
being found so far north as Fort Chimo. The white bear is common in 
the northern portions bordering the sea and is occasionally found as far 
south as the strait of Belleisle, to which it has been carried on icebergs 
or fields of ice. Akpatok island and the vicinity of Cape Chidley are 
reported to be localities infested with these brutes. The brown or bar- 
ren-ground bear appears to be restricted to a narrow area and is not 


plentiful, yet is common euougli to keep the Indian in wholsome dread 
of its vicious disposition when enraged. 

Tlie smaller mammals occur in greater or less abundance according 
to the quality and quantity of food to be obtained. The wolves, foxes, 
and wolverines are pretty evenly distributed throughout the region. 
The hares are found in the wooded tracts for the smaller species and on 
the barren regions for the larger species. 

The actual residents were ascertained to be less than twenty species 
for the northern portion of the Ungava district. 

Of the actual residents the two species of the geuns Lagopus are the 
most abundant of all birds in the region, and form an important article 
of food for all classes of people inhabiting the district. The winter ex- 
erts an important influence on the smaller resident species. During the 
winter of 1882-83 the number of the four species obtained of the genus 
Acanthis was almost incredible. Tlieir notes might be heard at any time 
during that season, which was cold, though regularly so, and not spe- 
cially stormy. In the winter of 1883- 81 not a single individual was ob- 
served from the middle of November to the last of March. Tlie same 
remarks may well apply to the white- winged crossbill {Loxin leucoptera), 
which was very abundant the first winter, but during the last winter a 
very small flock only was observed and these were apparently vagrants. 

Among the water birds, certain species which were expected to occur 
were conspicuously absent. The character of the country forbids them 
rearing their young, as there is little to feed upon ; and only a few 
breed in the immediate vicinity of Fort (Jhimo. Among the gulls, 
Larus argentatus smithsoniamis is certainly the only one breeding in 
abundance within Ungava bay. Of the terns, the Arctic tern (Sterna 
pnradlsece) was the only one ascertained to breed in Hudson strait. I 
am not certain that they do breed there every year. Although I saw 
them in early July, 1883, under conditions that led me to believe that 
they were on their way to their nests, yet it was not until 1881 that a 
number of eggs were secured near that locality. 

Of the smaller waders, but two species were actually ascertained to 
breed in the vicinity of Fort Chimo, yet two or three other species were 
observed under such circumstances as to leave no doubt that they also 
breed there. 




The northern portions of the coast of the region undci consideration 
are inhabited by the Eskimo, who designate themselves, as usual, by 
the term "Innuit," people (plural of innuls, "a person"). That they 
have been much modified by contact with the whites is not to be doubted, 


and it is equally certain that their language is constantly undergoing 
modifications to suit the purposes of the missionary and trader, whO) 
not being able to pronounce the difficult guttural speech of these people, 
require them to conform to their own pronunciation. The region inhab- 
ited by the Iiinuit is strictly littoral. Their distribution falls properly 
into three subdivisions, due to the three subtribal distinctions which 
they maintain among themselves. The first sub division embraces all 
the luuuit dwelling on the Labrador coast proper and along the soutli 
side of Hudson strait to the mouth of Leaf river, which flows into 
Ungava bay. 

These people apply the term Su hi' ni myut to themselves and are thus 
known by the other subdivisions. This term is derived from Su hi' 
nuk, the sun, and the latter part of the word, meaning people (literally 
"those that dwell at or in"); hence, people of the sun, sunny side, be- 
cause the sun shines on them first. At the present time these people 
are confined to the seashore and the adjacent islands, to which they 
repair for seals and other food. South of Hamilton inlet I could learn 
of but one of these people. 

The Innuit of pure blood do not begin to appear until the missionary 
station of Hopedale is reached. Here a number of families dwell, 
although mostly at the instigation of the missionaries. Between this 
station and Hebron are several other Moravian missionary stations, at 
each of which dwell a greater or less number of pure Innuit. North 
of Hebron to Cape Chidley there are but few families, some seven in 
all, embracing a population of less than 40 souls. On the west side of 
Cape Cliidley, as far as the mouth of George's river, only about eight 
families live. These with the George's river Innuit comjtrise less than 
50 individuals. There is a stretch of coast bordering Ungava bay, 
from George's river to the Koksoak river, which is uninhabited. 

The Koksoak river people include only four or five families and num- 
ber less than 30 souls. The next people are those dwelling at the 
moutli of Leaf river, but they are more properly to be considered under 
the next subdivision. 

The exact number of the Suhinimyut could not be definitely deter- 
mined. They are subdivided into a number of small communities, 
each bearing a name compounded of the name of their home and 
myut, " the people of." 

The inhabitants of Cape Chidley are known as Ki lin'ig myut, from 
the word ki lin'ik, wounded, cut, incised, lacerated; hence, serrated, on 
account of the character of the rough rocks and mountains. 

The natives of George's river are known as Kan'gnkcJ'lua'luksoag- 
myut; those of the Koksoak river are known as Koksoagmyut. 

The second subdivision includes the Innuit dwelling on the area 
lying between the mouth of Leaf river, thence northward, and along 
the south side of Hudson strait. Tiieir western and southern limit 
extends to about latitude 60°. 


These Iiinuit are known by tlie other subdivisions as Ta hag myut. 
They apply the same term to themselves. The word is derived from 
Ta hak, a shadow; hence people of the shade or shadow as distin- 
guished from the Su hi' ni myut, or people of the light or sunshine. 
These people are but little influenced by contact with the white trad- 
ers, who apply to them the term " Northerners.'' Their habits and cus- 
toms are primitive, and many appear to be entirely distinct from the 
customs of their neighbors south and east. The character of the region 
in which they dwell is very rugged. Huge mountain spurs and short 
ranges ramify in every direction, forming deep valleys and ravines, 
along which these people must travel to reach the trading station of 
Fort Clumo of the TJngava district, or else to Fort George of the Moose 

The distance to the former is so great that only three, four, or five 
sledges are ainiually sent to the trading post for the purpose of convey- 
ing the furs and other more valuable commodities to be bartered for 
ammunition, guns, knives, tiles and other kinds of hardware, and to- 
bacco. Certain persons are selected from the various camps who have 
personally made the trip and know the trail. These are commissioned 
to barter the furs of each individual for special articles, which are men- 
tioned and impressed upon the mind of the man who is to effect the 
trade. The principal furs are those of the various foxes. Among them 
are to be found the best class of silver foxes, and wolverenes and wolves. 
Those to be sent are procured the previous winter, and when the snow 
falls in November or early December the line of sleds starts out for the 
trading post. The sled which represents the wants of the more west- 
ern of these Innuit speeds to where the second may be, and they repair 
to the place of meeting with the third, and thus by traversing the line 
of coast the arctic caravan is made up. Provisions are supplied by the 
• wayside, and when all is in readiness a southern course is traveled until 
the frozen morasses on the south of the hills are reached. Thence the 
course is toward Leaf river and across to Fort Chimo. By the last 
week of April or the first week of May the visitors are expected at the 
trading post. They usually bring with them about two-flfths of all the 
furs obtained in the district; indeed, the quantity often exceeds this 
amount. They seldom remain longer than the time needed to complete 
their bartering, as the rajiidly melting snow warns them that each day 
of delay adds to their labor in returning. 

The homeward journey is more ft-equently made along the coast, as 
there the snow is certain to remain longer upon the ground. It is not 
infrequent that tliese travelers experience warm weather, which detains 
them so long that they do not reach the end of theii- journey until the 
middle of the summer or even until the beginning of the next winter. 
Many of the Innuit wh© accompany these parties have never seen white 
men until they arrive at Fort Chimo ; women are often of the party. 
These people are usually tall and of fine physique. The men are larger 
11 EXH 12 


than the average white man, while the women compare favorably in 
stature with the women of medium height in other countries. 

They have quite different customs from those of their present neigh- 
bors. Their language is dialectically distinct; about as much so as 
the Malimyut differ from the Kaviagmyut of Norton Sound, Alaska. 
The Tahagmyut have a rather harsh tone; their gutturals are deeper 
and the vowels usually i-ather more prolonged. They are much given 
to amusement and still retain many of the old games, which the Suhi'ni- 
myut have forgotten or no longer engage in. Their dead are treated 
with no ceremony. They simply lash the limbs of the deceased to the 
body and expose the corpse to the elements, removing it, however, from 
immediate sight of the camp. Old and infirm people are treatetl with 
severity, and when dependent upon others for their food they are sum- 
marily disposed of by strangulation or left to perish when the camp is 

Women are held in little respect, although the men are very jealous 
of the favors of their wives, and incontinence on the part of the latter 
is certain to be more or less severely punished. The male offender, if 
notoriously persistent in his efforts to obtain forbidden favors, is 
usually killed by the injured lover or liusband. 

Gambling is carried on to such a degree among both sexes that even 
their own lives are staked iipon the issue of a game. The winner often 
obtains the wife of his opponent, and holds her until some tempting 
offer is made for her return. The only article theypossess is frequently 
wagered, and when they lose they are greeted with derision. The women, 
especially, stake their only garment rather than be without opportunity 
to play. The usual game is played with a number of flattened pieces 
of walrus ivory. On one side are a number of dots forming various 
crude designs, which have received names from their fancied resem- 
blance to other objects. These must be matched. The game some- 
what resembles dominoes, and whether it is original with these Innuit 
I was unable to conclude. They stoutly maintain that it originated 
with themselves. I suspect, however, it had its origin in the imitation 
of some one wlio had observed the playing of dominoes on board of 
some of the whaling vessels visiting these waters. 

For other amusements these Innuit indulge in a number of tests of 
personal strength, such as wrestling and leaping. 

Feasts are held at stated times in huge structures built of snow blocks. 
The exact signification of these feasts was not learned, owing to the 
limited stay these people made each year at Fort Chimo. Their dress 
consists of the skins of seals and reindeer. The sealskins are worn 
during rainy weather and by those who are in the canoe or kaiak. The 
skirts of their garments are ornamented with an edging of ivory pieces 
cut into a pear-shape, having a small hole pierced through the smaller 

These pieces of ivory, often to the number of many scores, give a 


peculiar rattle as the wearer walks along. Their boots are noticeably 
different from those made by the Koksoak river people, inasmuch as the 
soles are often made witli strips of sealskin thongs sewed on a false 
sole, which is attached to the under surfixce of the sole proper. The 
strijis of thong are tacked on by a stout stitch, then a short loop is 
taken up, and another stitch sews a portion of the remainder of the strip. 
This is continued until the entire under surface consists of a series of 
short loops, which, when in contact with the smooth ice, prevents the 
foot from slipping. This sort of footgear is not made in any other por- 
tion of the district. 

The third subdivision comprises the Innuit dwelling on the eastern 
shore of Hudson bay, between latitudes 53° and 58°. 

The number of these Innuit could not be definitely ascertained, as 
they trade, for the most part, at Fort George, belonging to the Moose 
district. Each year, however, a party of less than a dozen indiviuals 
journey to Fort Ghimo for the i)urpose of bartering furs and other val- 
uables. Those who come to P^ort Chimo are usually the same each year. 
In language they differ greatly from the Koksoak Innuit, inasmuch as 
their speech is very rapid and much harsher. Many of the words are 
quite dissimilar, and even where the word has the same sound it is not 
unusual that it has a meaning more or less different from that used by 
the Koksoak Innuit. As these jjeople have been long under the advice 
and teachings of the missionary society of London, it is to be expected 
that they, especially those nearer the trading statiou, are more or less 
influenced by its teachings. Their customs differ somewhat from the 
other Innuit, though this is due in a great measure to the impossibility 
of procuring the necessary food, and skins for garments, unless they 
are constantly scouring the plains and hills for reindeer or the shore 
for seals and other marine creatures. 

These people are called by their neighbors and themselves I'tivi' 
myut, Iti'vuk signifies the other, farther, distant side (of a portion of 
land); hence, the word Itivimyut means people of the other side. 
The northern Itivimyut are probably the most superstitious of all the 
Innuit dwelling in the region under consideration. 

Although the missionaries have devoted considerable energy to the 
work of converting these people, and though many of them profess 
Christianity, these professions prove on examination to be merely 
nominal. As soon as the converts are beyond the teacher's influence, 
they return to the shaman for guidance. 

In the spring of 1883 a party of these people visited Fort Chimo. 
A great number of the Koksoak people were ill, some 30 miles above 
the station. The visitors had among them a shaman renowned through- 
out the land. He, with the connivance of two or three of the people 
with whom he stopped, began some of the most astonishing intrigues 
to dispel the evil spirit afflicting the people. Several men were parted 
from their wives, and these were compelled to dwell with other men 


who were at the bottom of the conspiracy. Other couples had to flee 
fi'om that place to prevent being ilivorced, at least temporarily. After 
a time the visitors descended to Fort Chimo, and while the bartering 
was going on the shaman announced his conversion to Christianity, 
and vowed never again to return to practicing shamanism. On the 
return of the harried fugitives they passed the camp of the Koksoak 
river people, where they had a few days before been the guests, and 
stole their supplies of reindeer meat and other valuable property, even 
attempting to purloin a kaiak; and they had jiroceeded many miles 
thence before they were overtaken and compelled to relinquish the 
stolen property. They were seen some months after by some Tahag- 
myut, to whom they stated their fear of returning among the Koksoak 
people. A more plausible scamp does not dwell in those regions than 
this shaman, whose name is Sapa. His power over the spirit control- 
ling the reindeer is widely believed in and invoked by the other sha- 
mans, who feel incapable of turning the heads of the deer and thus 
compelling them to wander in the desired direction. 

Among these people only have I heard of a son who took his mother 
as a wife, and when the sentiment of the community comj)elled him to 
discard her he took two other women, who were so persecuted by the 
mother that they believed themselves to be wholly under her influence. 
She even caused them to believe they were ill, and when tliey actually 
did become so they both died. 

In former years the Innuit extended entirely around the shore of 
Hudson bay. Now there is a very wide gap, extending from the 
vicinity of Fort George, on the eastern coast, to the vicinity of Fort 
Churchill, on the western coast. At the present time the Innuit 
occupy the areas designated in these remarks. That they formerly 
extended along the Atlantic coast far to the south of their present 
limit is attested by an abundance of facts. 

The Innuit of the eastern shore of Hudson bay, the Itivimyut, 
informed me that the Innuit dwelling on the islands of Hudson bay, 
more or less remote from the maiidand to the east, are termed Ki'gik- 
tag'myut, or island people. They relate that those islanders have 
quite difl"erent customs from the mainland people, inasmuch as their 
clothing consists of the skins of seals and dogs, rarely of reindeer 
skins, as the latter are procurable only when one of their number 
comes to the shore to trade for such articles as can not be obtained on 
his locality. The spear, kaiak, bow and arrow are used, and they 
have but little knowledge of firearms. These people are represented 
as often being driven to greatest extremity for food. It is said that 
their language difl'ers considerably from that of their neighbors. 

The Innuit, as a rule, are peaceful and mild-tempered, except when 
aroused by jealousy. They are, however, quick enough to resent an 
insult or avenge an injury. They form a permanent attachment for 
the white man who deals honestly and truthfully with them, but 


if he attempts any deception or trickery they are certain to be ever 
suspicious of him, and it is difficult to regain their favor. 

Their courage and ability are not to be doubted, and when they are 
given a due amount of encouragement they will perform the most 
arduous tasks without complaint. 


The Indian inhabitants of this region may be divided into three 
groups, differing but slightly in speech, and even less in habits. 

(1) The Mountaineers, "Montagiiais" of the early Jesuit missiona- 
ries, roam over the areas south of the Hamilton inlet and as far as the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence. Their western linnts are imperfectly known. 
They trade at all the stations along the accessible coast. Many of them 
barter at Rigolet and Northwest river. 

In customs they differ little from the Indians to the north of them. 
Their means of subsistence are the flesh of reindeer, porcupines, and 
various birds, such as geese, ducks, ptarmigan, and grouse. 

The habits of the reindeer in this portion of the country are very er- 
ratic. They are often absent from large tracts for several years, and 
appearing in abundance when little expected. The scarcity of the rein- 
deer renders the food supply quite precarious; hence, the Indians rely 
much upon the flesh of the porcupine, hare and birds for their prin- 
cipal food. 

Their clothing is of the tanned skin of the deer when they are able 
to procure it. As nearly all the skins of the reindeer are used for gar- 
ments, few are prepared for other purposes ; hence the northern stations 
(Fort Chimo) furnish great numbers of these skins in the parchment con- 
dition to be purchased by the Mountaineers, who cut them into fine 
lines for snowshoe netting and other jjurposes. 

They procure the furs of marten, mink, fur beaver, muskrats, lynxes, 
wolverines, wolves, and foxes. A considerable number of black bears 
are also obtained by these Indians. By the barter of these furs they 
procure the articles made necessary by the advent of the white people 
among them. They are quiet and peaceable. Many of them profess a 
regard for the teachings of the Roman missionaries, who have visited 
them more or less frequently for over a hundred and fifty years. I was 
unable to obtain the term by which they distinguish themselves from 
their neighbors. That they are later comers in the region than the 
Innuit is attested by the bloody warfare formerly carried on between 
them, of which many proofs yet exist. The Mountaineers applied to the 
more northern Indians the term of reproach, " Naskopie." This word 
denotes the contempt the Mountaineers felt for the Naskopies when 
the latter failed to fulfill their promise to assist in driving the Innuit 
from the country. 

It was impossible to obtain a satisfactory estimate of the numbers of 
the Mountaineers. My stay in their vicinity was too short to learn as 
much about them as was desired. 


(2) The Indians dwelling to the southwest of the Ungava district 
difter rather more than the Mountaineers, in their speech, from the In- 
dians of the Ungava district. They average, for both sexes, slightly 
taller than the Naskopies. The men are spare, and have small limbs 
and extremities. The cheek bones are also more prominent, although 
this i.s partly due to the thin visage. The women are disposed to be 
stout, and in the older women there is a decided tendency to corpulence. 
The complexion, too, is considerably darker. The men wear long hair, 
usually cut so as to fall just upoa the shoulders. The hair of the women 
is quite heavy, and is worn either in braids or done up in folds upon the 
side of the head. 

In their personal habits they are much more tidy than their eastern 
relations. Their dress differs but little from that of their neighbors. 
The women dress in cloth made of material procured ftom the traders, 
and some of these appear respectable enough when so dressed. They 
have been so long in contact with the white people at Moose Factory, 
some of whom had brought their wives from home with them, that the 
women have imitated the dress of the latter. Certain of these women 
are skillful in working fancy articles. The men occupy their time in 
hunting and Ashing. The reindeer have in recent years become so 
scarce in the vicinity of Fort George that many of the Indians have left 
that locality and journeyed to the eastward, dwelling in proximity to 
the Naskopies. or even with them. 

Both sexes are mild and sedate, although the women are exceedingly 
garrulous when well acquainted. 

These Indians are often employed to assist in the capture of the 
white whale, which ascends the lower portions of the larger streams of 
that district. They are the only Indians whom I have seen eating the 
tlesh and blubber of these whales. The Naskopies will not tcmch it, 
declaring it to be too fat. The fins and tail are portions highly prized 
while they are helping render out the blubber of these whales at Fort 

A point of great dissimilarity between the Naskopies and the Little 
Whale river Indians is that the birch-bark canoe of the latter is much 
more turned up at each end, producing a craft well adapted to the 
swift currents of the rivers. The occupants are skillful boatmen, and 
will fearlessly face wind and wave that would appall the heart of the 
Naskopie. Sails are sometimes erected in a single canoe. At times 
two canoes are lashed together and a sail spread from a single mast. 
This double boat is very convenient for the traveler. These people 
are strongly addicted to the practice of polygamy; and while they are 
Christians externally, they are so only as long as they are within the 
reach of the missionary. 

Among those who had come to dwell in the Ungava district were 
several who had, because of the opportunity, taken two wives. The 
missionary, E. J. Peck, suddenly appeared among them as he was ou 


his way to Loudou. On learning of the conduct of the people he gave 
them a sound rating and besouglit them fo relinquish the practice. 
They assented, and sent the second wives away until the missionary 
was out of the country, and then they took them back. 

Girls are often taken as wives before they attain puberty, and for this 
reason they seldom have large families. Two, three, or four children 
form the usual number for each family. They are satisfied if the first 
child is a male; and to the mother who delivers only female children a 
term of contempt is often applied. The women appear to be well 
treated, and occasional laxity of morals is not noticed among them so 
long as it is not notorious. 

Their beliefs and traditions were not learned by me, on account of the 
presence of these people at Fort Chimo when other labors occupied my 
entire time. 

Their i)urchases are made with furs of the same kinds as those pro- 
cured in the Ungava district. The black bear is procured in great 
numbers by these Indians. They preserve the under lip, dressed and 
ornamented with beads and strips of cloth, as a trophy of their prowess. 

The harpoon used in striking the white whale of their rivers is an 
implement doubtless peculiar to those people, and much resembles that 
of the Innuit. 

(3) The third division of Indians includes those dwelling for the 
most part in the Ungava district. The total number of these Indians 
is about 350. They apply the term Ne n6 not — true, ideal men — 
to themselves, although known by the epithet Naskopie, which was 
applied to them by the Mountaineers of the southeastern portion of the 

They differ slightly in customs from their neighbors, but their speech 
is somewhat different, being very rapidly uttered and with most sin- 
gular inflections of the voice. A conversation may be begun in the 
usual tone, and in a moment changed to that of a whining or petulant 
child. It is impossible for the white man to imitate this abrupt inflec- 
tion, which appears to be more common among the males than the 
females. During ordinary conversation one would erroneously sup- 
pose, from the vehemence of gesture, that the speaker was angry. 
They are much more demonstrative than their neighbors, often shout- 
ing at the full strength of their voices when an ordinary tone would 
apparently suffice. That their voice is penetrating may be inferred 
from the fact that during quiet days it is not unusual for parties to con- 
verse from opposite sides of the Koksoak river, at Fort Chimo, where 
the river is nearly a mile and a half wide. 

As certain words are spoken in a voice scarcely louder than a whis- 
per, I did not believe it possible that they could understand each other 
at so great a distance, until I saw the people on the opposite shore 
doing what they were bidden by those with me. 

When the women get together it is amusing to observe the eagerness 


of the old crones endeavoring to make tlieir voices beard above the 
rest. The clerk, while trailing with them, often teases them until the 
entire number turn their voices ou him, and the ouly relief he has is to 
expel them all from the store and admit one or two at a time, while the 
remainder throng the windows and shout at the top of their voices. 

During the spring, when flocks of Canada geese are winging their 
way northward, the Indians will imitate their notes so closely that the 
birds do not discover the source until too late. Some of the party 
make one note, while the others imitate the other note. It seldom fails 
to beguile the geese to the spot. 

Owing to the impossiV)ility of getting a reliable person to teach me 
the language of these people I was able to procure but few words. 
The number obtained, however, is sufficient to prove that the people 
of this regioTi, excluding the Iniiuit and whites, belong to tlie Cree 
branch. The Mountaineers and Little Whale river Iiulians l)elong to 
the same stock, and the difference in their language is due wholly to 

The Indians and Innuit of this region are more or less directly in 
contact. At Fort Ohimo it is especially so. Here, as elsewhere, they 
do not intermix, an Indian never taking an Innuit wife or the Innuit 
taking a squaw for a wife. I knew of one instance where a Naskopie 
went to dwell with some Innuit camped near the mouth of the Kok- 
soak, but after remaining away for a few days he returned to his own 


The Eskimo with whom I was brought in contact at Fort Chimo were 
those belonging to that immediate vicinity. They term themselves 
Koksoagmyut, or people of the Koksoak or Big river. 

The peoijle who apply this name to themselves do not number more 
than a score and a half. There are but four families, and among these 
are some who belong to other localities, but now dwell with the Kok 
soagmyut. They consider themselves a part of the people dwelling as 
far to the north as the western end of Akpatok island, and to the east 
as far as (leorge's river. The Eskimo dwelling between those points 
have similar habits, and range indiscriminately over the hunting 
grounds of that locality, seldom going farther southward than the con- 
tinence of the Larch river or the North river with the Koksoak. 

Among these few natives now inhabiting the Koksoak valley we find 
the men to be above the stature usually ascribed to the Eskimo. All 
but one of the adult males are above 5 feet 8 inches. The smallest 
man is little more than 5i feet tall. All are well proportioned and pre- 
sent an exceptionally good physique. Tlie females are also well pro 
portioned, and, in fact, appear to compare well with females of civilized 


countries as far as their stature is concerned. The lower extremities of 
both sexes really are shorter than the general appearance would indi- 
cate, and thus the body is somewhat longer. The great individual 
variation in the i)roportional length of the legs is doubtless the result 
of the way infants are carried in the hood on the backs of the mothers. 
In this constrained position the limbs were obliged to conform to the 
shape of the body on which the child, in a manner, grew. While the 
limbs are not decidedly curved, yet they are not so nearly under the 
body as those of the whites. In walking, the inner edges of the feet 
often touch each other, and, in a manner, tend to cause the boots to 
slip outward on the feet. 

The head, hands, and feet appear fairly proportioned; although, as a 
rule, they have small liands and feet. The females have proportionally 
smaller feet than hands. The head may seem lai-ger than it really is, 
on account of the flattened features of the face. 

The average nose is large and tlat, and the prominence of this organ 
is often diminished by the wide cheeks and overhanging forehead. In 
most cases the chin projects less than the nose. The average face is 
round and flat, but there are exceptions, as I have seen one or two 
persons whose faces were a regular oval, and with the exception of the 
flat front, seen from a side view, were as well formed as one will meet 
among other people. 

The skin has the same differences of color as among white people. 
The greater number of people are moderately dark, but this depends 
very greatly on the season of the year. I have not seen any white 
people so much changed as these are by the exposure to the summer 
sunshine. In the winter they are confined to their huts and bleach to 
a lighter color. A couple of weeks' exposure renders them scarcely re- 
cognizable as the same persons. The young children are usually lighter 
than the adults, although some are quite dark. The hair is coarse, 
long and abundant, and always straight. 

The few half breeds seen at Fort Chimo are the young children of 
the male servants of the company, who have in two instances taken 
full-blooded Eskimo women for wives and who were married by the 
agent of the company. These children are quite pretty, the male fa- 
voring the mother and the girl resembling the father. With these, as 
with the children of natives, much depends on the cleanliness of the 
person. The soot and other filth accumulating on their faces and 
hands, seldom washed, of course modifies the appearance of the ex- 
posed portions of the body. Some of the girls would be attractive 
enough if a copious amount of water was used to remove the ridges of 
dirt which are too plainly visible. The hands are often much disfig- 
ured from numerous cuts and bruises, which, when healed over, leave 
a heightened scar of a whitish color quite different in color from the 
SuiTOunding tissue and often presenting an unsightly appearance. 

By the time puberty is attained the girls quickly change, and in a few 


years begin to show the result of their arduous life by the appearance 
of wrinkles, haggardness, and general breaking down, which, although 
it may progress slowly, is seldom recovered from. 

Like the rest of the Iniiuit, the Koksoagmyiit are usually peaceful 
and mild tempered. Among themselves affrays are of rare occuri-ence. 
Jealousy arouses the worst passions, and the murder of the offender is 
generally the result. When ai)erson becomes so bad in character that 
the community will no longer tolerate his presence he is forbidden to 
enter the liuts, partake of food, or hold any intercourse with the rest. 
Nevertheless, as long as he threatens no one's life, but little attention 
is paid to him. Should he be guilty of a murder, several men watch 
their opportunity to surprise him and put him to death, usually by ston- 
ing. The executioners make no concealnient of their action, and are 
supported by public opinion in the community. 

In the case of a premeditated murder, it is the duty of the next of 
kin to avenge the deed, though years may pass, while the murderer 
pursues his usual occupations undisturbed, before an opportunity 
occurs to the relative for taking him by surprise. Sometimes the victim 
is not overcome and turns upon the assailant and kills him. The man, 
now guilty of two murders, is suffered to live only at the pleasure of 
the people, who soon decree his death. That murder is not approved, 
either by the individual or the community, is well attested by the fact 
that the island of Akpatok is now tabooed since the murder of part of 
the crew of a wrecked vessel, who camjied on that island. Such a ter- 
rible scene was too much, even for them ; and now not a soul visits 
that locality, lest the ghosts of the victims should appear and suppli- 
cate relief from the natives, who have not the proper offerings to make 
to appease them. 

Aged people who have no relatives on whom they may depend for 
subsistence are often quietly put to death. When an old woman, for 
instauce, becomes a burden to the community it is usual for her to be 
neglected until so weak from want of food that she will be unable to 
keep up with the people, who suddenly are seized with a desire to 
remove to a distant locality. If she regains their camp, well for her; 
otherwise, she struggles along until exhausted and soon perishes. 
Sometimes three or four of the males retrace their steps to recover a 
lost whip or a forgotten ammunition bag. They rarely go farther than 
where they find the helpless person, and if their track be followed it 
will be found that the corpse has stones piled around it and is bound 
with thongs. 

An old woman at Fort Chimo had but one eye, and this was con- 
tinually sore and very annoying to the people with whom she lived. 
They proposed to strangle her to relieve her from her misery. The 
next morning the eye was much better and the proposed cure was 

Cases of suicide are not rare, considering the few jjeople of that 


locality. Pitching themselves from a clifif or i^roduciug strangulatiou 
are the usual methods. Sometimes a gun is used. Remorse and dis- 
appointed love are the only causes of suicide. 

A man discovered, during a period of great scarcity or food, that 
while he went in quest of food his wife had secretly stored away a 
quantity of fish and ate of them during his absence only. Coming 
home unexpectedly, he caught her eating and she endeavored to secrete 
the remainder. He quietly went out of the snow hut and blocked up the 
entrance. She inquired why he did so. His reply was for her to come 
out and she would discover why it was done. His tone was not at all 
reassuring. She remained within the hut and perished from starva- 
tion, knowing she would be killed if she went out. 

Instances are reported where, in times of great scarcity, families have 
been driven to cannibalism after eating their dogs and the clothing and 
other articles made of skins. Unlucky or disliked women are often 
driven from the camp, and such must journey until they find relief or 
perish by the wayside. < 


The principal diseases from which these people suffer are pulmonary 
troubles, chietly arising from their filthy manner of living in crowded 
huts, too ill ventilated to allow the escape of the odors emanating from 
their own bf)dies and from accumulations of slowly decomposing animal 
food. All openings must be closed as quickly as possible in order to 
economize the heat within, for when once chilled it is difficult to restore 
the house to the proper degree of warmth. An Eskimo would always 
prefer to erect a new hut of snow rather than pass the night in one 
which has been deserted for only a single night if the doorway has not 
been tightly closed with a block of snow. 

Within the walls, reeking with the exhalations of various putrid mat- 
ters, the people breathe and rebreathe the air filled with poisonous 
gases; so fully one-half of the P^skimo die of pulmonary troubles. The 
other prevailing diseases are those causing devitalization of the blood, 
such as scurvy. Sores break out on the shoulders, elbows, knees, and 
ankles. The ravages of these diseases iiroceed at an astonishing rate, 
soon carrying off the afflicted person. 

The means of relief usually employed are those which the shaman (or 
conjurer, as he is locally known) is able to effect by working on the im- 
agination of the sick, who is in this condition easily influenced. The 
will power of both the patient and shaman is stretched to its utmost 
tension, and as faith with them, as with many others of fairer skins, 
often produces more of the relief than the ministrations of drugs or 
drafts, the cure is effected, or else the shaman, like the physician, 
has not the devil on his side. 

The magnitude of the disease is generally measured by the amount 
of the patient's worldly wealth. 



A woman is married as soon after puberty as a male comes along 
who lias the requisite physical strength to force her to become his wife- 
Many of the females are taken before that period, and the result is that 
few children are born to sucli unions and the children are generally 

The ceremony between the couples is quite simple. The sanction of 
the parents is sometimes obtained by favor or else bought by making 
certain presents of skins, furs, and other valuables to the father and 
mother. The girl is sometimes asked for her consent, and, if unwilling, 
often enlists the sympathy of the mother, and the affair is postponed to 
a more favorable opportunity, or till the suitor becomes disgusted with 
her and takes somebody else. 

If the parents are not living, the brothers or sisters must be favora- 
ble to the union. There is often so much intriguing in these matters 
that tlie exact truth can seldom be ascertained. 

Where all obstacles are removed and only the girl refuses, it is not 
long before she disappears mysteriously to remain out for two or three 
nights with her best female friend, who thoroughly sympathizes with 
her. They return, and before long she is abducted by her lover, and 
they remain away until she proves to be thoroughly subjected to his 
will. I knew of an instance where a girl was tied in a snow house for 
a peiiod of two weeks, and not allowed to go out. She finally sub- 
mitted, and they returned with the other couple, who were less obstrep- 
erous, and doubtless went along to help their male friend and com- 
panion. The woman left her husband in the course of two or three 
weeks, and when he was asked about it he acknowledged that she had 
pulled nearly all the hair from his head and showed numerous bruises 
where she had struck him. This same woman was afterward tied to a 
sled to make her accompany the man she subsequently chose as her 
husband, who wished her to go to another part of the country. It was 
a lively time, some of the old women pushing her and persuading, the 
younger ones doing all in their power to obstruct her. (Jhildren are 
often mated at an early age, and I have known of several instances 
where two friends, desirous of cementing their ties of fellowship, engage 
that their children yet unborn shall be mated. In such instances the 
children are always recognized as married, and they are allowed by the 
parents to be so called. I knew a small boy of less than seven years 
who always addressed a girl of apparently a year older as his wife. 

The marriageable age of the female varies greatly, although puberty 
takes place early. I have known of a child of fourteen having children. 
I heard of a half-breed girl, on the Labrador coast, who became a 
mother a few months after the age of thirteen. 

Monogamy is generally the rule, but as there are so many counteract- 
ing influences it is seldom that a man keeps a wife for a number of 
years. Jealousy resulting from a laxity of morals produces so much 


disagreement that one or the other of the parties usually leave with 
little ceremony. 

In rare instances, where there is a compatibility of temper and a dis- 
position to coutiueuce, the pair remain together for life. 

Many of the girls bear children before they are taken for wives, but 
as such incidents do not destroy the respectability of the mother the 
girl does not experience any difficulty in procuring a husband. Ille- 
gitimate children are usually taken care of by some aged woman, who 
devotes to it all her energies and aft'ections. 

The number of children born varies greatly, for, although these Eski- 
mos are not a prolific race, a couple may occasionally claim parentage 
of as many as ten children. Two or three is the usual number, and 
many die in early childhood. 

When the family is prosperous the husband often takes a second 
wife, cither with or without the approval of the first, who knows that 
her household duties will be lessened, but knows also that the favors of 
her husband will have to be divided with the second wife. The second 
wife is often the cause of the first wife's leaving, though sometimes she 
is sent away herself. Three or four wives are sometimes attained by a 
pros]ierous man, and one instance was known where the head of the 
fiimily had no less than five wives. The occupation of a single snow 
house by two or three wives brings them into close intimacy and otten 
produces quarreling. The man hears but little of it, as he is strong 
enough to settle their difficulties withcnit ceremony, and in a manner 
better adapted to create respect for brute strength than affection for 

The females outnumber the males, but the relationship among the 
Koksoagmyut is now so close that many of the males seek their wives 
from other localities. This, of course, connects distant people, and in- 
terchange of the natives of both sexes is common. 

Separation of couples is effected in a simple manner. The one who 
so desires leaves with little ceremony, but is sometimes sought for and 
compelled to return. Wives are often taken for a period, and an ex- 
change of wives is frequent, either party being often happy to be re- 
leased for a time, and returning without concern. There is so much 
intriguing and scaudalmongering among these people that a woman 
is often compelled by the sentiment of the community to relinquish 
her choice and join another who has bribed a conjurer to decide that 
until she comes to live with him a certain person will not be relieved 
from the evil spirit now tormenting him with disease. 

The only way for the couple against whom such a plot has been laid 
to escape separation is for them to iiee to another locality aud remain 
there until the person gets well or dies, whereupon the conjurer declares 
it was their cohabitation as man and wife which afflicted the invalid. 
A designing woman will often cause a man to cast off the legal wife 
to whom he is much attached and come and live with her. In such in- 


stances the former wife seldom resents the intrusion upon her affections 
and rights hut occasionally gives the other a severe thrashing and an 
injunction to look to herself lest she be discarded also. The children 
of the cast-off woman are frequently taken by her and they go to live 
with hep relatives as menials on whom devolve the labor of severest 
kinds, she being glad to obtain the refuse of the hovel to support her 
life in order that her children may be well taken care of. 

Some wives are considered as very "unlucky" and a ^r trial are 
cast off to shift for themselves. A woman who has obtained the reputa- 
tion of being unlucky for her husband is eschewed by all the men lest 
she work some charm on them. 

In social relations the head of the family comes first, and the oldest 
son second, the other sons following according to respective ages. 

The sons of the first wife, if there be more than one wife, take pi'e- 
cedeuce over those of the second or third wife. It may be that a 
man has lost his first wife and takes another. The sons of these two 
are considered as those of one wife so far as their relation to each 
other is concerned. When the father becomes superauuated or his 
sons are old enough to enable him to live without exertion, the man- 
agement of affairs devolves on the eldest son, and to the second is 
delegated the second place. Each may be occupied in different affairs, 
but the elder alone chooses what he himself shall do. 

If the father live to a great age, and some of the men certainly at- 
tain the age of more than 80 years, he may have great grandchildren 
about him, and these never fail to show respect for their ancestor. 

All this family may dwell in a single tent, or in two or more tents. 
Where the leader directs, there they all repair, although each one 
who is at the head of a family may be left to employ himself as he may 
prefer. These sons, with their wives and children, form a community, 
which may have other persons added to it, namely, the jjersons who 
are related to the wives of the sons. There may be but one community 
in a locality, and this is locally known to the white people as the " gang" 
of the head man. 

Families whose members have decreased in number by death or by 
marriage may seek the companionship of one of these communities for 
protection. The new arrival at once acknowledges his dependence and 
is, in a manner, under the influence, if not control, of the leader of the 
community which he joins. 

A new born babe must not be washed until six or eight hours have 
elapsed. It is then placed to the breast and rarely gets any water to 
drink until old enough ,to help itself to it. 

The child may be named while yet in utero. There being no dis- 
tinctions for sex in names the appellation can scarcely be amiss. Sev- 
eral names may be acquired from the most trivial circumstances. Old 


names may be discarded and new names siibstitnted or certain names 
applied by certain people and not used by others. 

Love for offspring is of the deepest and purest character. I have 
never seen a disrespectful Eskimo child. Mothers and fatners never in- 
flict corporal punishment on their children, for these are early taught 
to obey, or rather they are quick to perceive that their parents are 
their protectors and to them they must go for assistance. Orphan girls 
are taken as nurses for small children, and the nurse so employed has 
seldom any trouble in controlling the child. 

Among young children at play the greatest harmony prevails. An 
accident resulting in sufficient harm to cause tears obtains the sympa- 
thy of all, who strive to appease the injured child by ofiters of the great- 
est share of the game, the little fellow often smiling with the prospec- 
tive i^leasure while the tears yet conrse down his begrimed cheeks. In 
a moment all is forgotten and Joyous shouts sound merrily as the 
chubby youngsters of both sexes redouble their exertion in playing 
football or building toy houses in the newly tallen snow, where, on the 
bed of snow within the wall of the hut, the doll of ivory, wood or rags 
rolled into its semblance, plays the part of hostess whom they pretend 
to visit and with whom they converse. 

Among the younger boys and girls, of 10 or 12, there is a great 
spirit of cheerful rivalry, to prove their ability to secure such food as 
they are able to capture. If they can procure enough to purchase some 
ammunition with which to kill ptarmigan they soon have a certain 
amount of credit. This enables them to provide some coveted luxury 
for their parents, who, of course, aid and encourage them to become suc- 
cessful hunters. Within the huts the girls display their skill by sew- 
ing fragments of cloth into garments for dolls or striving to patch 
their tattered clothes. 

The older boys look with contempt upon these childish occupations 
and, to show their superiority, often torment the younger ones until 
the father or mother compels them to desist. Pranks of various kinds 
are played upon each other and they often exhibit great cunning in 
their devices to annoy. These boys are able to accompany their eldei's 
on hunting trips and run ahead of the team of dogs attached to the sled- 


When a person dies the body is prepared by binding it with cords, 
the knees being drawn up and the heels placed against the body. The 
arms are tied down, and a covering of deerskin or sealskin is wrapped 
around the body and fastened. The nearest relatives on approach of 
death remove the invalid to the outside of the house, for if he should die 
within he must not be carried out of the door but thi-ough a hole cut in 
the side wall, and it must then be carefully closed to prevent the spirit 
of the person ft-om returning. The body is exposed in the open air 
along the side of a large rock, or taken to the shore or hilltop, where 



stones of diflfereut sizes are piled around it to prevent the birds and ani- 
mals from getting at it. (See Fig. 21.) It is considered a great offense 
if a dog be seen eating the tlesh from a body. In case of a beloved 
child dying it is sometimes taken with the people to whom it belonged 
if they start for another locality before decomposition has progressed 
too far. 

Fig. 21. Eskimo graTe. 

The dying person resigns himself to fate witli great calmness. Dur- 
ing iUness, even though it be of most painful character, complaint is 
seldom heard; and so great is fortitude that the severest paroxysms 
of pain rarely produce even a movement of the muscles of the coun- 

The friends often exhibit an excessive amount of grief, but only in 
exceptional instances is much weeping indulged in. The loss of a 
husband often entails great hardships on the wife and small children, 
who eke out a scanty living by the aid of others who are scarcely able 
to maintain themselves. 

These i>eo])le have an idea of a future state and believe that death 
is merely the separation of the soul and the material body. The spir- 
its of the soul go either up to the sky, " keluk," when they are called 
Kelugmyut, or down into the earth, "Nuna," and are called "Nuna- 
myut." These two classes of spirits can hold communication with each 

The place to which the soul goes depends on the conduct of the per- 
son on earth and especially ou the manner of his death. Those who 
have died by violence or starvation and women who die in childbirth 
are supjjosed to go to the region above, where, though not absolutely in 


want, they still lack many of the luxuries enjoyed by the Nunamyut. 
All desire to go to the lower region and afterwards enjoy the pleasure 
of communicating with the living, which iirivilege is denied to those 
who go above. 

If death result from natural causes the spirit is supposed to dwell on 
the earth after having undergone a probation of four years rest in 
the grave. During this time the grave may be visited and food offered 
and songs sung, and the oflering, consisting of oil and tlesh, with to- 
bacco for smoking and chewing, is consumed by the living at the grave. 
Articles of clothing may also be deposited near the grave for the spirit 
to clothe itself after the garments have disappeared in the process of 
decay. It is customary to place such articles as may be deemed of 
immediate use for the departed soul in the grave at the time the body 
is interred. Ammunition, gun, kaiak and its appurtenances, with a 
shirt, gloves, knife, and a cup from which to drink are usually so de- 
posited. The spirit of the dead man appropriates the spirits of these 
articles as soon as they decay. It is often said when an article be- 
comes lost that so-and-so (mentioning his name), has taken it. 

Some of the people prefer to expose their dead on the flat top of a 
high point extending into the water. The remains of others are placed 
along the shore and covered with rocks, while still others are taken to 
the smooth ridges on which may nearly always be found a huge bowlder 
carried by glacial action and deposited there. Here generally on the 
south side the body is placed on the bare rocky ridge and stones are 
piled around and upon it. \ 

While these people have but little fear of the dead man's bones they 
do not approve of their being disturbed by others. The Indians, how- 
ever, are known to rifle the graves of Eskimo to obtain the guns, cloth- 
ing, etc., which the relatives of the deceased have placed there. 

There are no such elaborate ceremonies pertaining to the festivals 
of the dead among the people of Hudson strait as obtain among the 
Eskimo of Alaska. 


Among these people there is no such person as chief; yet there is a 
recognized leader who is influenced by another, and this last is the con- 
jurer or medicine-man. These two persons determine among themselves 
what shall be done. It sometimes happens that slight differences of 
opinion on the proper course to pursue collectively will cause thera to 
go in diflerent directions to meet after a few months' separation, by 
which time all is forgotten and former relations are resumed. 

All the affairs of life are supposed to be under the control of si^irits, 
each of which rules over a certain element, and all of which are under 
the direction of a greater spirit. Each person is supposed to be at- 
tended by a special guardian who is malignant in character, ever ready 
to seize upon the least occasion to vork harm upon the individual whom 
11 ETH 13 


it accompanies. As this is au evil spirit its good offices and assistance 
can be obtained by propitiation only. The person strives to keep the 
good will of the evil spirit by offerings of food, water, and clothing. 

The spirit is often in a material form in the shape of a doll, carried 
somewhere about the person. If it is wanted to insure success in the 
chase, it is carried in the bag containing the ammunition. 

When an individual fails to overcome the obstacles in his path the 
misfortune is attributed to the evil wrought by his attending spirit, 
whose good will must be invoked. If the spirit prove stubborn and re- 
luctant to grant the needed assistance the person sometimes becomes 
angry with it and inflicts a serious chastisement upon it, deprives it of 
food, or strips it of its garments, until after a time it proves less refrac- 
tory and yields obedience to its master. It often happens that the 
person is unable to control the influence of the evil-disposed spirit and 
the only way is to give it to some person without his knowledge. The 
latter becomes immediately under the control of the spirit, and the 
former, released from its baleful effects, is able successfully to prose- 
cute the affairs of life. In the course of time the person generally re- 
lents and takes back the spirit he gave to another. The person on 
whom the spirit has been imposed should know nothing of it lest he 
should refuse to accept it. It is often given in the form of a bundle of 
clothing. It is supposed that if in hunting somebody merely takes the 
bag to hang it up the influence will pass to him. The spirit is sup- 
posed to be able to exert its influence only when carried by some ob- 
ject having life. Hence the person may cast it away for a time, and 
during that period it remains inert. 

Besides this class of spirits, there are the spirits of the sea, the 
land, the sky (for be it understood that the Eskimo know nothing of 
the air), the winds, the clouds, and everything iu nature. Every cove 
of the seashore, every point, island, and prominent rock has its guard- 
ian spirit. All are of the malignant type and to be propitiated only 
by acceptable offerings from persons who desire to visit the locality 
where it is supposed to reside. Of course some of the spirits are more 
powerful than others, and these are more to be dreaded than those 
able to inflict less harm. 

These minor spirits are under the control of the great spirit, whose 
name is "Tung ak." This one great spirit is more powerful than all 
the rest besides. The lesser spirits are immediately under his control 
and ever ready to obey his command. The shaman (or conjurer) alone 
is supposed to be able to deal with the Tung ak. While the shaman 
does not profess to be superior to the Tung ak, he is able to enlist his 
assistance and thus be able to control all the undertakings his profes- 
sion may call for. "^ 

This Tung ak is nothing more or less than death, which ever seeks 
to torment and harass the lives of people that their spirits may go to 
dwell with him. 


A legend related of the origin of the Tung ak is as follows: A father 
had a son and daughter whom he loved very much. The children fell 
ill and at last died, although the father did all in his power to alleviate 
their sufferings, showing his kindness and attentions to the last mo- 
ment. At their death the father became changed to a vicious spirit, 
roaming the world to destroy any person whom he might meet, deter- 
mined that, as his dear children died, none others should live. 

Tung ak visits people of all age.s, constantly placing obstacles in 
their pathway to prevent the accomplishment of their desires, and 
provoking them beyond endurance so as to cause them to become ill 
and die and go to live with him. Tung ak no longer knows his own 
children and imagines all persons that he meets to be his children. 
Famine, disease, and death aie sent abroad to search for these lost 

People at last began to devise some means of thwarting the designs 
of Tung ak and discovered that a period of fasting and abstinence 
from contact with other people endowed a person with supernatural 
powers and enabled him to learn the secrets of Tung ak. This is 
accomplished by repairing to some lonely spot, where for a greater or 
less period the hermit abstains from food or water until the imagina- 
tion is so worked upon that he believes himself imbued with the power 
to heal the sick and control all the destinies of life. Tung ak is sup- 
posed to stand near and reveal these things while the person is under- 
going the test. When the person sees the evil one ready to seize upon 
him if he fails in the self-imposed task to become an "Angekok" or 
gieat one, he is much fi'ightened and beseeches the terrible visitor to 
Spare his life and give him the power to relieve his people from mis- 
fortune. Tung ak then takes pity on him, and imparts to him the 
secret of preserving life, or driving out the evil which causes death. 

This is still the process by which the would-be shaman fits himself 
for his supernatural duties. 

The newly fledged angekok returns to his people and relates what 
he has seen and what he has done. The listeners are awed by the 
recitals of the sufferings and ordeal, and he is now ready to accom- 
plish his mission. When his services are required he is crafty enough 
to demand sufficient compensation, and fi'ankly states that the greater 
the pay the greater the good bestowed. A native racked with pain 
will gladly part with all of his worldly possessions in order to be re- 
stored to health. 

The shaman is blindfolded, or else has a covering thrown over his 
head to prevent his countenance from being seen during the incan- 
tation. The patient lies on the ground before him and when the shaman 
is worked up to the proper state of frenzy he pi'ostrates himself npon the 
afflicted person and begins to chase the evil from its seat. The patient 
often receives blows and jerks sufficiently hard to dislocate the joints. 
As the spell progresses the shaman utters the most hideous noises. 


shouting here and there as the evil iiees to another portion of the body, 
seeking a retreat from which the shaman shall be unable to dislodge 
it. After a time victory is declared ; the operator claims to have the 
disease under his control, and although it should escape and make 
itself again felt in the patient, the shaman continues until the person 
either gets well or dies. If the former, the reputation of the shaman 
is increased jiroportionally to the payment bestowed by the afdicted 
one. If he dies, however, the conjurer simply refers his failure to the in- 
terference of something which was beyond his control. This may have 
been the iniluence of anything the shaman may at the moment think 
of, such as a sudden api>earance in the changing auroras, a fall of 
snow, or a dog knocking down something outside of the house. If the 
people deny that the dog did the act, the shaman replies that the dog 
was the instrument in the hands of a spirit which escaped him. Any 
little incident is sufficient to thwart the success of his manipulations. 
If any person be the subject of the shaman's displeasure he or she 
must undergo some sort of punishment or do an act of penance for the 
interference. It is not unusual to see a person with the harness of a 
dog on his back. This is worn to relieve him or somebody else of 
a spell of the evil spirit. The tail of a living dog is often cut from its 
body in order that the fresh blood may be cast upon the ground to be 
seen by the spirit who has caused the harm, and thus he may be ap- 
Ijeased. Numei'ous mutilations are inflicted upon animals at the com- 
mand of the conjurer, who must be consulted on nearly all the important 
undertakings of life in order that he may manage the spirits which will 
insure success. 

The implicit belief in these personages is wonderful. Almost every 
person who can do anything not fully understood by others has more 
or less reputation as a shaman. 

Some men, by observation, become skilled in weather lore, and get 
a great reputation for supernatural knowledge of the future weather. 
Others again are famous for suggesting charms to insure success in 
hunting, and, in fact, the occasions for consulting the conjurer are prac- 
tically iimumerable. One special qualification of a good shaman is the 
ability to attract large numbers of deer or other game into the region 
where he and his friends are hunting. 

Some of these shamans are superior hunters and, as their experience 
teaches them the habits of the deer, they know at any season exactly 
where the animals are and can anticipate their future movements, in- 
fluenced greatly by tlie weather. Thus the prophet is able to estimate 
the proximity or remoteness of the various herds of stragglers from the 
main body of deer which were in the locality during the preceding fall 
months. These hunters have not only a local reputation but are 
known as far as the people have any means of communication. 

In order to cause the deer to move toward the locality where they 
may be desired the shaman will erect, on a pole placed in a favorable 



position, an image of some famous hunter and conjurer. The image 
■will represent the power of the person as conjurer and the various par- 
aphernalia attached to the image assist in controlling the movements 
of the animals. 

I obtained oneof these objects at Port Chimo. (Fig. 22.) It is quite 
elaborate and requires a detailed description. It is intended to repre- 

FlG. 23. Magic doll. 

sent a celebrated conjurer living on the eastern shore of Hudson bay. 
He occasionally visited Fort Chimo where his reputation as a liunter 
had preceded him. His name is Sa'pa. 

He is dressed in a complete suit of the woolen stuff called " strouds" 
at Fort Chimo, trimmed with black and with fancy tartan gartering. In 



the belt of polar-bear skin (kak-cung'-uut) (Fig. 23) are bung strings 
of colored beads and various amulets. These are, first, a wooden doll 
(Fig. 24) (luug'-wak, a little man) bung to tbe belt so tbat he faces out- 
ward and is always on the alert; then, two bits of wood (agowak) (Fig. 
25) to which hang strands of beads and lead drops ; next, a string of 
three bullets (Fig. 2G) to symbolize the readiness of the hunter when 
game apiiroaches ; and, last, a semicircular piece of wood ornamented 
with strings of beads (Fig. 27). 

This last is called the tu-a'-vitok, or hastener. The hunter holds it 
in his hand when he sights the game, and the tighter he grasps it the 

Flo,23. Belt of magic doll. 

faster he is supposed to get over the ground. It is supposed that by 
the use of this one may be able to travel faster than the wind and not 
even touch the earth over which he passes with such incredible speed 
that he overtakes the deer in a moment. The entire afiair, as it hung 
on the pole, was called tung wa'gn e'nog ang', or a materialization of a 
Tung ak. 

This object hung there for several days until I thought it had served 
its purpose and could now aftbrd to change ownership. The local con- 



jurer was thus compelled to invoke the assistance of another. I am 
happy to add that the deer did come, and in thousands, actually run- 
ning among the houses of the station. 

The shaman of the community possesses great influence over its 
members. He very frequently decides the course to be pursued by 
man and wife in their relations with each other, and, conspiring with 
some evil old woman who loves to show preference for a young man, he 
often decrees that husband or wife shall be cast off. 

If the person become ill the wife is often accused of working some 
charm on her husband in order that she may enjoy the favors of another. 

Fig. 25. Talisman. 

Fig. 24. Taliamau atta 
to niairic doll. 

Fig. 26. Talisman. 

A woman whose husband had recently died was espoused by another 
who soon after became violently ill. She nursed him with the greatest 
assiduity until he convalesced. At this period his mother, with the 
advice of some old hags, decreed that she had been the sole cause of 
her husband's illness and must leave the tent. Her things were pitched 
out and she was compelled to journey in quest of her relatives. 

Another illustration came under my notice. 

A widow was taken to wife by a Koksoak Eskimo. He was soon 
taken violently ill and she was accused by the shaman of being th«9 
cause of it, as the spirit of her deceased hu.sband was jealous. Unless 
she were cast off the Koksoak man would never recover. It was then 



also fduiid that unless the wife of another man should desert him and 
become the wife of a man who already had two of this woman's sisters 
as wives the sick man would die. The woman and her husband 
escaped divorce by fleeing from the camp. 

The shaman may do about as he pleases with the marriage ties, 
which oftener consist of sealskin thongs than respect and love. Many 

old hags have acquired great repu- 
tations for being able to interpret 
dreams. An instance of dream in- 
terpretation, which also illustrates 
how a person may acquire a new 
name, came under my observation. 
A woman, sitting alone, heard a 
noise like the rapping of someone 
at the door desiring admittance. 
She said, " Come in." So one ap- 
peared, and she inquired of the 
girl who acted as nurse for her 
child if anyone had knocked at 
the door. A negative answer was 
given. Further questioning of a 
white man, who was asleep near 
by, revealed that he had made no 
such sound. The woman knew 
that no man had died within the 
place and so his sijirit could not be seeking admittance. She went 
to an old woman and related the aflair, and was informed that it was 
the rapping of her brother, who had died suddenly some two years 
before. She must go home and prepare a cup of tea, with a slice of 
bread, and give it to the niu-se, as her brother, Nakvak (the one who 
died) was hungry and wanted food. She especially enjoined upon the 
woman that the girl must now be known as Nakvak (meaning "found") 
and that through her the dead would procure the food which, although 
it subserves a good purpose in nourishing the liviug, tends, by its ac- 
companying spirit, to allay the pangs of hunger in the dead. 

As I have already said, everything in the world is believed to have 
its attendant spirit. The spirits of the lower animals are like those of 
men, but of an inferior order. As these spirits, of course, can not be 
destroyed by killing the animals, the Eskimo believe that no amount 
of slaughter can realy decrease the numbers of the game. 

A great spirit controls the reindeer. He dwells in a huge cavern 
near the end of Cape Chidley. He obtains and controls the spirit of 
every deer which is slain or dies, and it depends on his good will whether 
the people shall obtain future supplies. The form of the spirit is that 
of a huge white bear. The shaman has the power to prevail upon the 
siiirit to send the deer to the people who are represented as suffering 

Fig. 27. Talisman. 



for want of food. The spirit, is informed that tlie people liave in no way 
oft'ended him, as the shaman, as a mediator between the spirit and the 
peoi)lo, has taken great care that the past food was all eaten and that 
last spring, when the female deer were returning to him to be delivered 
of their young, none of the young (or fcetal) deer were devoiued by the 
dogs. After much incantation the shaman announces that the spirit 
condescends to supply the people with spirits of the deer in a material 
form and that soon an abundance will be in the laud. He enjoins upon 
the people to slay and thus obtain the approval of the spirit, which loves 
to see good people enjoy an abundance, knowing that so long as the 
people refrain from feeding their dogs with the unborn young, the 
spirits of the deer will in time return again to his guardianship. 

Certain parts of the first deer killed must be eaten raw, others dis- 
carded, and others must be eaten cooked. The dogs must not be al- 
lowed to taste of the flesh, and not until an abundance has been ob- 
tained must they be allowed to gnaw at the leg bones, lest the guardian 
spirit of the deer be offended and refuse to send further suijplies. If 
by some misfortune the dogs get at the meat, a piece of the oftending 
dog's tail is cut off or his ear is cropped to allow a flow of blood. 

Ceremonies of some kind attend the cajjture of the first slain animal 
of all the more important kinds. I unfortunately had no opportunity 
of witnessing many of these ceremonies. 

As a natural consequence of the superstitious beliefs that I have de- 
scribed, the use of amulets is universal. Some charms are worn to 
ward ofifthe attacks of evil-disposed spirits. Other charms are worn as 
remembrances of deceased relatives. These have the form of a head- 
less doll depending from some portion of the garment worn on the up- 
per part of the body. 

As many of their personal names are derived from 
natural objects, it is usual for the person to wear a 
little image of the object for whicih he is named or a 
jiortion of it ; for example, a wing of the bird, or a bit 
of the animal's skin. This is supposed to gratify the 
spirit of the object. Strange or curious objects never 
before seen are sometimes considered to bring suc- 
cess to the finder 

Two articles selected from my collection will illus- 
trate different forms of amulets. The first. No. 3018, 
is a little wooden model of a kaiak. The other (3090, 
Fig. 28) was worn on the back of a woman's coat. It 
is a small block of wood carved into four human 
heads. These heads represent four famous conjurers 
noted for their skill in driving away diseases. The 
woman, who came from the eastern shore of Hudson's 
bay, was troubled with rheumatism and wore this charm from time to 
time as she felt the twinges of pain. She assui-ed me that the pain 

Flo. 28. Eskimo wo- 
man's amulet. 


always disappeared in a few hours when she wore it. It was with the 
greatest difficulty that I persuaded her to part with it. She was, how- 
ever, about to return home, and could get another there. 


The Eskimo acquire an extended knowledge of the country by early 
accompanying their parents on hunting trips, and as they have to rely 
upon memory alone, they must be observant and carefully mark the 
surroundings from all the views afforded. The faculty of memory is 
thus cultivated to an astonishing degree, and seldom fails, even in the 
most severe weather, to insure safety for the individual. I knew a 
native stick his ramrod in the ground among scattered stalks of grass 
which attained the height of the rod, yet after several hours he found 
the spot again without the least hesitation. Every rise of land, every 
curve of a stream, every cove in the seashore, has a name descriptive 
of something connected with it, and these names are known to all who 
have occasion to visit the place. Though the aspect of the land is 
entirely changed by the mantle of snow which covers all the smaller 
objects, a hunter will go straight to the place where the carcass of a 
single deer was cached many months before on the open beach. The 
Eskimo are faithful guides, and when confidence is shown to be reposed 
in them they take a pride in leading the party by the best route. In 
traveling by night they use the north star for the gviide. Experience 
teaches them to foretell the weather, and some reliance may be placed 
on their predictions. 

Their knowledge of the seasons is also wonderful. The year begins 
when the sun has reached its lowest point, that is, at the winter 
solstice, and summer begins with the summer solstice. They recognize 
the arrival of the solstices by the bearing of the sun with reference to 
certain fixed landmarks. 

The seasons have distinctive names, and these are again subdivided 
into a great number, of which there are more during the warmer 
weather than during the winter. The reason for this is obvious: so 
many changes are goiug on during the summer and so few during the 
winter. The principal events are the return of the sun, always a 
signal of joy to the people; the lengthening of the day; the warm 
weather in March when the sun has attained sufficient height to make 
his rays less slanting and thus be more fervent; the melting of the 
snow; the breaking up of the ice; the open water; the time of birth 
of various seals; the advent of exotic birds; the nesting of gulls, 
eiders, and other native birds; the arrival of white whales and the 
whaling season; salmon fishing; the ripening of salmonberries and 
other species of edibles ; the time of reindeer crossing the river ; the 
trapping of fur-bearing animals and hunting on laud and water for 
food. Each of these periods has a special name applied to it, although 
several may overlap eacli other. The appearance of mosquitoes, sand- 


flies, and horseflies are marked by dates auticipated witli considerable 
apprehension of annoyance. 

In order to sketch tlie annual routine of life, I will begin with the 
breakuig up of the ice in spring. The Koksoak river breaks its ice 
about the last of May. This period, however, may vary as much as 
ten days earlier and twenty days later than the date specified. The 
ice in Ungava bay, into which that river flows, must be free from the 
greater portion of the shore ice before the river ice can push its way 
out to sea. The winds alone influence the bay ice, and the character 
of the weather toward the head waters of the river determines its time 
of breaking. 

The Eskimo has naturally a keen perception of the signs in the sky 
and is often able to predict with certainty the effects of the preceding 
weather. When the season has sufBciently advanced all the belong- 
ings of each family are put together and transported down the river on 
sleds to where the ice has not yet gone from the mouth of the river. 
It is very seldom that the river ice extends down so far. To the edge 
of the ice the tent and dogs, with the umiak, kaiak, and other personal 
property, are taken and then stored on shore until the outside ice is 

The men wander along the beach or inland hunting for reindeer, 
ptarmigan, hares, and other land game. The edge of the water is 
searched for waterfowl of various kinds which appear earliest. Some 
venturesome seals appear. In the course of a few days the ice in the 
river breaks up and the shore ice of the bay is free; and if there is a 
favorable wind it soon permits the umiak to be put into the water, 
where, by easy stages, depending on the weather, the quantity of float- 
ing ice, and the food su^jply, the hunters creep alongshore to the object- 
ive point, be it either east or west of the Koksoak. Sometimes the party 
divide, some going in one direction and others in another. 

The men seek tor seals, hunting in the kaiak, the women and chil- 
dren searching the islets and coves for anything edible. As soon as 
the season arrives for the various gulls, eiders, and other sea birds to 
nest the women and children are in high glee. Every spot is carefully 
examined, and every accessible nest of a bird is robbed of its contents. 
By the 25th of June the people have exhausted the supply of eggs from 
the last situations visited and now think of returning, as the birds have 
again deposited eggs and the seals are becoming scarcer. 

The Eskimo arrange to assist the company to drive white whales 
when the season arrives. This is as soon as they appear in the river at 
a sufiflcient distance up to warrant that the measures pursued will not 
drive them out of the fresh water, for if they left they would not soon 
return. The date usually fixed u])on is about the 12th of July. The 
natives are summoned, and a large sailboat or the small steam launch 
is sent along the coast to the place where the people were expected 
to arrive the 5th of the month. The natives are brought to the 


wLaliug station, where they encamp, to await the setting of the nets 
forming the sides of the inclosure into which the whales are to be driven. 

The natives spear the whales in the pound, drag them ashore, skin 
them, and help take the oil and skins to the post, some eight miles 
farther up the river. 

The same natives who engaged in the whaling are employed to attend 
the nets for salmon, which arrive at variable dates from the 25th of 
July to the 1st of September. Two or more adult male Eskimo, with 
their relatives, occupy a certain locality, generally known by the name 
of the person in charge of that season's work. The place is occupied 
until the runs of the fish are over, when it is time for the natives to be 
ui> the river to spear reindeer which cross the river. 

This hunting lasts until the deer have begun to rut and the males have 
lost the fat from the small of the back. The season is now so far advanced 
that the ice is already forming along the shore, and unless the hunter 
intends to remain in that locality he would better begin to descend the 
river to a place nearer the sea. The river may freeze in a single night 
and the umiak be unable to withstand the constant strain of the sharp- 
edged cakes of floating ice. 

The head of the family decides where the winter is to be passed and 
moves thither with his party at once. Here he has a few weeks of rest 
from the season's labors, or spends the time constructing a sled for the 
winter journeys he may have in view. The snow has now fallen so that a 
snow house may be constructed and winter quarters taken up. A num- 
ber of steel traps are procured to be set for foxes and other fur-bearing 
animals. The ptarmigans arrive in large flocks and are eagerly hunted 
for their flesh and feathers. The birds are either consumed for food or 
sold to the company, which pays G^ cents for four, and purchases the 
body feathers of the birds at the rate of 4 pounds of the feathers for 
25 cents. 

The Eskimo soon consume the amount of deer meat they brought with 
them on their return and subsist on the flesh of the ptarmigan until the 
ice is firm enough to allow the sleds to be used to transport to the 
present camp meat of animals slain in the fall. 

The traps are visited and the furs are sold to the company in ex- 
change for flour, tea, sugar, molasses, biscuit, clothing, and ammuni- 
tion. Hunting excursions are made to various localities for stray bands 
of deer that have become separated from the larger herds. 

The white men employes of the company have been engaged in cut- 
ting wood for the next year's fuel, and the Eskimo with their dog teams 
are hired to haul it to the bank, where it may be floated down in 
rafts when the river opens. 

Thus passes the year in the life of the Eskimo of the immediate 
vicinity of Fort Chimo. Some of the Koksoagmyut do not engage in 
these occupations. Some go to another locality to live by themselves; 
others do not work or hunt, because it is not their uatui-e to do so. 


III all undertakings for themselves they deliberate long, with much 
hesitation and apparent reluctance, before they decide upon the line of 
action. They consult each other and weigh the advantages of this over 
that locality for game, and speculate on whether they will be afflicted 
with illness of themselves or family. When the resolution is finally 
made to journey to a certain place, only the most serious obstacles can 
thwart their purpose. 

At all seasons of the year the women have their allotted duties, which 
they perform without hesitation. They bring the wood and the water, 
and the food from the field, if it is not too distant, in which case the 
men go after it witli the dog teams. The women also fashion the skins 
into clothing and other articles, and do the cooking. After a hunt of 
several days' duration the husband's appearance is anxiously awaited, 
as is indicated by the family scanning the direction whence he is ex- 
pected. The load is taken from the sled or boat and the incidents of 
the chase recited to the ever ready listeners. 

In the early spring the women are busily engaged in making boots 
for summer wear. The skins of the seals have been prepared the fall 
before and stored away until wanted. The method of tanning the 
skins is the same for each species, differing only in its size and weight. 

Certain large vessels made of wood or metal, chiefly the latter, as 
they are easily procured from the traders, are used to hold a liquid, 
which is from time to time added to. When a sufiicient amount is 
collected it is allowed to ferment. During the interval the skin of the 
seal is cleansed from fat and flesh. The hair has been removed by 
shaving it off or by pulling it out. The skin is then dressed with an 
instrument designed for that purpose, made of ivory, deerhorn, stone, 
or even a piece of tin set in the end of a stout stick several inches 
long. The skin is held in the hand and the chisel-shaped implement 
is repeatedly pushed from the person and against a portion of the 
skin until that part becomes pliable and soft enough to work. It is 
further softened by rubbing between the hands with a motion similar 
to that of the washerwoman rubbing clothing of the wash. Any por- 
tion of the skin which will not readily yield to this manipulation is 
chewed with the front teeth until it is reduced to the required plia 
bility. xVfter this operation has been completed the skin is soaked in 
the liquid, which has now ripened to a suflScieut degree to be effective. 
In this it is laid for a jieriod lasting from several hours to two or three 
days. The skin is now taken out and dried. The subsequent oi>era- 
tion of softening is similar to that just described, and is final. It is 
now ready to be cut into the required shape for the various articles for 
which it is intended. If it is designed for boots for a man, the measure 
of the height of the leg is taken. The length and width of the sole is 
measured by the hand, stretching so far and then bending down the 
long or middle finger until the length is measixred. The width of one, 
two, or more fingers is sometimes used iu addition to the span. The 


length is thus marked niul the skin folded over so as to have it doubled. 
The knife used in cutting is shaped like the round knife used by the 
harness-maker or shoemaker. 

There is in our collection a wooden model of this form of knife (No. 
3022), which nowiulays always has a blade of metal. Formerly slate, 
flint, or ivory was used for these blades. 

Tlie instiument is always jmshcd by the person using it. The eye 
alone guides the knife, except on work for a white man, and then greater 
care is exercised and marks employed indicating the required size. 
This round knife is called I'llo. 

Another important duty of the women is taking care of the family 
boots, \^'llen a i)air of boots has been worn for some time, during a 
few hours in warm weather they absorb moisture and become nearly 
half an inch thick on the soles. When taken off they must be turned 
inside out and dried, then (shewed and scraped by some old woman, 
who is only too glad to have the work for the two or three biscuit she 
may receive as pay. Any leak or hole is stitched, and when the sole 
has holes worn through it, it is patched by sewing a i)iece on the under 
side. The thread used in sewing the boots is selected from the best 
strips of sinew from the reindeer or seal. 

Some women excel in boot-making, and at some seasons do nothing 
but make boots, wliile the others in return prepare the other garments- 
When the time comes in spring for making sealskin clothes, the women 
must not sew on any piece t)f deerskin which has not yet been sewed, 
lest the seals take ofl'ense and desert the locality which has been selected 
for the si)ring seal lumt, to which all the people look forward with long- 
ing, that they may obtain a sui)ply of food dill'erent from that which 
they have had during the long winter months. As there can be no 
harm in killing a deer at this season, the flesh may be used, but the 
skin nuist be cast away. 

As before stated, the entire family accompany the expeditions; and 
as the females are often the more numerous jtortion of the population, 
they row the umiak at their leisure, now and then stopping to have a 
few hours' run on shore and again embarking. While thus journey- 
ing they are at times a sleepy crowd, until something ahead attracts 
attentifm ; then all become aninuited, pursuing the object, if it be a half- 
fledged bird, until it is captured. Great amusement is thus afforded 
for the time, after which they relapse until some excitement again 
arouses them from their apparent lethargy. At the camp the men go 
in (pxest.of larger game, leaving the women and children, who search 
the shore for any living creature they may find, destroying all that 
comes in their way. Smoking, eating, and sleeping occupy them until 
they arrive at a locality where food is abundant. There they earnestly 
strive to slay all that comes within reach, and thus often obtaiTi much 
more than they require, and the remainder is left to putrefy on the 
rocks. The women do the skinning of the seals and birds obtained on 

Ti'iiNPii.l TATTOOING. 207 

this trip. This skins of birds are removed in a, peculiar luauiier. Tlie 
wings are cut ott' at the body, and through the incision all the flesh and 
bones are taken out. The skin is then turneil inside out. The grease 
is removed by scraping and chewing. The skin is dried and preserved 
for wear on the feet or for tlie purpose of cleansing the hands, which 
have become soiled with blood or other offal in skinning large game. 

When the season arrives for liunting the reindeer for their skins, 
with which to mak(! clothing for winter, the women help to prepare the 
flesh and bring the wood and water for the camp, while the men are 
ever on the alert for the herds of dt^er on the land or crossing the 
water. The women liang the skins ov(^r poles until the greater portion 
of the animal matter is dry, when they roll them \\{} and store them 
away until the party is ready to return to the permanent camp for the 
winter. Here the skins collected are carefully examined and suitable 
ones selected for winter garments. 

The skins arc moistene<l with water and the adherent fle.shy parti- 
cles are removed with a knife. They are then roughly scraped and 
again wetted, this time with urine, which is supposed to render them 
more i)liable. The operation is practically the same as that of tanning 
sealskins. The hair is, of course, left on the skin. When the skins 
are finally dry and worked to the required i)liability, they arc cut into 
shape for the various articles of apparel. The thread used in sewing 
is sim])ly a strip of sinew of the i)r()per size. The fibers are sei)arated 
by si)litting off a sullicient amount, and with the finger nail the strip is 
freed from all knots or smaller strands which would prevent drawing 
through the needle holes. The thread for this purpose is never twisted 
or ]>laited. The needle is oius ])rocur('d from the trader. Small bone 
needles, imitations of these, ar(^ sometimes used. In former years the 
bone needle was the oidy means of carrying the thread, but this has 
now, except in the rarest instances, been entirely superseded by one 
of metal. 

The thimble is simply a piece of stiff' sealskin sewed into a ring 
half an inch wide to slip on the first finger, and has the same name as 
that member. In sewing of all kinds the needle is pointed towaj-d the 
operator. The knife used in cutting skins is the same as that pre- 
viously described. Scissors are not adapted to cutting a skin which 
retains the fur. So far as my observations goes, scissors are used only 
for cutting textile fabrics ])rocured from the store. 

In the use of a knife women acquire a wondi^rous dexterity, guiding 
it to the desired curve with much skill, or using the heel of the blade 
to remove strips which may need trimming off. 


In former years the women were fancifully tattooed with curved 
lines and lows of dots on the face, neck, ami arms, and on the legs up 
to mid-thigh. This custom, however, fell into disuse because some 


slianiiin declared that a prevailing misfortune was the result of the tat- 
tooing. At present the tattooing is confined to a few single dots on 
the body and face. When a girl arrives at puberty she is taken to a 
secluded locality by some old woman versed in the art and stripped 
of her clothing. A small quantity of half-charred lamj) wick of moss is 
mixed with oil from the lamp. A needle is used to prick the skin, and 
the pasty substance is smeared over the wound. The blood mixes with 
it, and in a day or two a dark-bluish spot alone is left. The operation 
continues four days. When the girl returns to the tent it is known 
that she has begun to menstruate. A menstruating woman must not 
wear the lower garments she does at other times. The hind flap of her 
coat must be turned up and stitched to the back of the garment. Her 
right hand must be half-gloved, or, in other words, the first two joints 
of each finger of that hand must be uncovered. The left hand also re- 
mains uncovered. She must not touch certain skins and food which 
at that iiarticular season are in use. 


Like most Eskimo, the Koksoagmyut are clothed almost entirely 
in the skins ot animals, though the meu now wear breeches of mole- 
skin, duck, jeans, or denim procured from the trading store. Reindeer- 
skin is the favorite material for clothing, though skins of the dif- 
ferent seals are also used. The usual garments are a hooded ft-ock, 
of different shapes for the sexes, with breeches and boots. The latter 
are of various shapes for different weather, and there are many pat- 
terns of mittens. Rain frocks of seal en trail are also worn over the 
furs in stormy weather. Some of the people are very tidy and keep 
their clothing in a resiiectable condition. Others are careless and 
often present a most filthy sight. The aged and orphans, unless the 
latter be adopted by some well-to-do person, must often be content 
with the cast-off apparel of their more fortunate fellow-beings. 

The liair of the skins wears off in those places most liable to be 
in contact with other objects. The elbows, wi'ists, and knees often are 
without a vestige of hair on the clothing. The skin wears through 
and then is patched with any kind of a piece, which often presents a 
ludicrous appearance. 

The young boys and girls are dressed alike, and the females do not 
wear the garments of the adults until they arrive at puberty. It is a 
ludicrous sight to witness some of the little ones scarcely able to walk 
dressed in heavy deerskin clothing, which makes them appear as 
thick as they are tall. They exhibit about the same amount of pride 
of their new suits as the civilized boy does. They are now able to go 
oxit into the severest weather, and seem to delight in rolling around in 
the snow. 

Infants at the breast, so small as to be carried in the mother's 
hood, are often dressed in skins of the reindeer fawns. The garment 



for these is a kind of " conibiuation," the trousers and body sewed 
together aud cut down the back to enable the infant to get them on. 
A cap of calico or other cloth aud a pair of skin stockings completes 
the suit. 

Both men and women wear, as an additional protection for their feet 
in cold weather, a pair or two of short stockings, locally known as 
" duffles," from the name of the material of which they are made. 
These "duffles" are cut into the form of a slipper and incase the 
stockings of the feet. Over these are worn the moccasins, made of 
tanned and smoked deerskin. The Eskimo women are not adeiits in 
making moccasins; a few only can form a well-fitting pair. They 
often employ the Indian women to make them, and, in return, gi\c a 
pair of sealskin boots, which the Indian is unable to make, but highly 
prizes for summer wear in the swamps. 

The Koksoagmyut do not wear caps, 
the hood of the frocks being the only 
head covering. There is, however, in 
my collection a cap obtained from one 
of the so-called "Northerners," who 
came to Fort Chimo to trade. This 
cap (No. ;^242, Fig. 29) was evidently 
copied ft'om some white man's cap. 
The front aud crown of the cap are 
made of guillemot and sea-pigeon 
skins, aud the sealskin neckpiece also 
is lined with these skins, so that when 
it is turned up the whole cap seems to 
be made of bird skins. 

We may now proceed to the descrip- 
tion of the different garments in de- 

The coat worn by the men and boys, 
and by the girls until they arrive at womanhood, has the form of a 
loose shirt, seldom reaching more than 2 or 3 inches below the hips, 
and often barely covering the hips. The neck hole is large euougli to 
admit the head into the hood, which maybe thrown back or worn over 
the head in place of a cap. 

The Innuit of the southern shore of the western end of Hudson Strait 
often cut the coat open in front as far up as the breast (Figs. 30 and 
31, No. 3224). The favorite material for these coats is the skin of the 
reindeer, three good sized skins being required to make a full sized coat 
for a man. Coats made of light summer skins are used as under- 
clothing in winter and for the only body clothing in summer. The 
skin of the harp seal (Phoca grccnlandica) is also used for coats, but only 
when the supply of reindeerskin runs short, or when a man can afford 
to have an extra coat to wear in wet weather. It is not a very good 

11 ETH 14 

Fig. 29. Eskimo birdskin cap. 



material for clothiug, as the skin is roughly tanned, and no amount of 
working will render it more than moderately pliable. Figs. 32 and 33 
rei)resent a sealskin coat. These coats are often trimmed round the 
edges with fringes of deerskin li or 3 inches wide, or little pendants of 

Fig. 30. Eskiino man's ilcersliiii coat (front 

The collection contains eleven of these coats, Nos. 3221, 349.S-3500, 
and 3558 of deerskin, and Nos. 3228, 3533-3537 of sealskin. 

The peculiar shape of the woman's coat is best undcrsttjod by refer- 
ence to the accompanying tigiu'es (Figs. 34, 35, 30, 37 and 38). The 
enormous hood is used for carrying the infant. When sitting, the 
female usually disposes the front flap so that it will lie spread upon 
the thighs, or else pushes it between her legs, while the hind flap is 
either thrown aside or sat upon. 

It is not unusual for the women to display considerable taste in 
ornamenting their garments, using the steel-gray pelt of the harp seal 
to contrast with the black of the harbor seal, and so on. The edges of 
the hood and sleeves are frequently trimmed with skin from a dark 




colored young dog, or a strip of polar bear skin, whose long white hairs 
shed the rain better than those of any other mammal. 

It is not rare to lind loops of sinew or of sealskin attached to the 
breast or back of a woman's garments. These are for tying small arti- 
cles, such as a needle case or a suuff-bag, to the clothing for convenience 
and to prevent loss. 

A peculiar style of ornamentation is shown in Fig. 39 and 40, No. 
3005, a woman's coat from Fort (Jhimo. The front of the skirt is fringed 

Fig. :U. Eskimo man's deerskin coat (back.) 

with little lead drops, bean-shaped in the upper row and pear-shaped 
in the lower, and pierced so that they can be sewed on. These lead 
drops are furnished by the tradei> at the price of about a cent and a 
half each, in trade. Tlie trimming of this frock cost, therefore, about 
$4. The four objects dangling from the front of the frock are pewter 
spoon-bowls. Across the breast is a fringe of short strings of different 
colored beads, red, black, yellow, white, and blue. Jingling ornaments 
are much prized. 



The till tags from plug tobacco are eagerly sought for, perforated 
and attached in peudaut strauds 3 or 4 iuches long to sealskin strips 
aud thus serve the place of beads. I saw oue woman who certainly 
had not less than a thousand of these tags jingling as she walked. I 
have also seen coins of various countries attached to the arms and 
dress. One coin was Brazilian, another Spanish, and several were 

Fig. 32. Eskimo mau a sealakm ctiat (tront). 

Englisli. Coins of the jirovinces were quite numerous. These were 
all doubtless obtained from the sailors who annually visit the place, in 
exchange for little trinkets prepared by the men and women. 

The collection contains live of these coats, Nos. 3005, 3-'25-3U27 of 
deerskin, aud 3504: of sealskin. The last is a very elaborate garment, 
made of handsomely contrasted pieces of the skin of two kinds of 
seals, the harbor seal and the harp seal, arranged in a neat pattern. 

It is not common to come across a garment of this kind, as the 
skins of the proper or desired kinds are sometimes hard to obtain. 




The woman may be several years in getting tlie right Icind and may 
have ert'ected many exchanges before being snited witli the qnality and 
color. The darkest skins of the Ka sig yak (harbor seal) are highly 
prized by both sexes. The women 
set tlie higher value upon them. 
The men wear two styles of leg cov- 
ering, namely, breeclu>s like a white 
man's, but not open in front, and 
reaching but a short distance below 
the knees, or trousers ending in 
stocking feet. Sometimes in very 
cold weather these trousers may be 
worn under the breeches. Both 
breeches and trousers are very 
short-waisted. Long st^ickings of 
short-haired deerskin with the hair 
in are also worn. The women in 
winter wear breeches made of deer- 
skin ftxstened around the hips by 
means of a drawstring and extend- 
ing down the legs to where the tops 
of the boots will cover them a few 
inches. Some of the women wear 
trousers which reach only to the up- 
per part of the thighs and are con - 
tinuous with the boot which covers 
the foot, though in that case a pair 
of half-boots are added to protect 
the feet. The hips are covei'ed with 
breeches which descend low enough 
on the thigh to be covered by the 
leggings. This style of apparel for 
the lower jjortion of the body is 
often extravagantly patched with various colored pieces of white and 
dark strips of skin ft-om the abdomen and sides of the reindeer. 
When new and not soiled they are quite attractive and often contrast 
well with the tastefully ornamented coat. 

The long boots or leggings are removed when dirty work is to be 
done. Thus, skins to be scraped and dressed are held against the 
bare leg. 

The leggings also serve as pockets to hold various kinds of little 
things, like knives, tobacco, and so on. 

A person rarely owns more than a single pair of breeches; con- 
sequently I was unable to obtain any for the collection. 

The boots and shoes are of different materials and somewhat differ- 
ent patterns for different seasons of the year. All have moccasin 

Fio. 33. — Eakimo man'3 sealskin coat (side). 



soles of stout material turned np an inch or two all round tlie foot, a 
tongue covering the top of tlie foot, joined to a broad lieel band which 
passes round behind the ankle. Then the Iwgs are either made long 
enough to reach to the knee or else almost to the ankle. These half- 
boots are worn over the fur stockings in warm weather, or outside the 

Fio. 34. Eskimo woman's deerskrn coal. 

long boots in very severe weather. Indian moccasins are also worn, 

sometimes over a pair of inside shoes and sometimes as inside shoes. 

For thick wateri)roof soles the skin of the beaver or the harp seal is 

used. The former wears the better. White whale skin is also used 




for indoor shoes, or for shoes to be worn in cold dry weather; the slcins 
of the smaller seals are used, sometimes with the flesh side out and the 
bair in, sometimes with the grain side out. These thinner skins are 
comparatively waterproof if the black epidermis is allowed to remain 

Fig. 35. Eskimo woman'B deerskin coat. 

'. Eskimo women's deerskin coat. 

on. The beautiful creamy-white leather, made by allowing the skin to 
ferment until hair and epidermis are scraped off tog(!ther and then 
stretching the skin and exposing it to dry cold air, does not resist 
water at all, and can only be used for soles in perfectly dry weather. 
Buckskin soles are also used to enable the wearer to walk better 
with snowshoes on, as the feet are not so liable to slip or clog with 



snow as tliey would be if the footing were of sealskin. This lattei- has 
also another serious disadvantage. If it is very cold it does not permit 
the moisture from the feet to pass out as it freezes, rendering the boot 
stiff and slipjiery on the snowshoe, while the buckskin is i)orous and 
readily allows the moisture to escape. 

Fig. 37. Eskimo women's deerskin coat (back). Fro. 38 Eskimo wom.airs deerskin coat (aide). 

The tongue and heel band are generally made of tanned sealskin, 
contrasting colors being often used. The legs are of sealskin, with the 
hair on, or of reindeer skin. 

The figures lepresent a ]iair of sealskin boots with buckskin feet 
(Fig. 41) and a pair of half boots with wliite sealskin soles, black seal- 




skill tongue iind lieelstrap, aiul buckskin tops (Fig. 42). The tanned 
and smoked reindeer skin for these tops was purchased ft'oin the Nas- 
copie Indians. 

A peculiar style of shoe (Fig. 43), of -which 1 collected four pairs, is 
used by the so-called " ]!^"ortherners," who derive most of their subsist- 
ence from the sea in winter, and who constantly have to travel on the 
ice, which is often, very slippery. To prevent slipping, narrow strips of 

Fig. 39.— Eskimo woman's deerskin coat. Fig. 40. Backside of same. 

sealskin are sewed upon a piece of leather, which makes an uudersole 
for the shoe, in the manner shown in the figure. 

One end of the strip is first sewed to the subsole and the strip pushed 
up into a loop and stitched again, and so on till a piece is made big 
enough to cover the sole of the shoe, to which it is sewed. These ice 
shoes are worn over the ordinary waterproof boots. 

As 1 have already said, these boots are all made by the women. The 
role is cut out by eye and is broadly elliptical in shape, somewhat 
p.nuted at the toe and heel. The leg is formed of a single piece, so that 



there is but oue seam ; tlie tongue or piece to cover the instep may 
or may not be a separate piece. If it is, the leg seam comes in front; if 
it forms one piece with the leg piece, the seam is behind. When the 
leg is sewed up and the tongue properly inserted the sole is sewed on. 
It is tacked at the heel, toe, and once on opposite sides of the foot, to 
the upijer. The sewing of the sole to the upper is generally begun at 
the side of the seam and continued around. Perpendiciilar creases 
at the heel, and more numerously around the toes, take up the slack of 
the sole and are carefully worked in. The making of this part of the 
shoe is most difficult, for unless it is well sewed it is liable to admit 
water. The creases or " gathers " are stitched through and through 
with a stout thread, which holds them in place while the operation 
proceeds, and wliich besides has a tendency to prevent the gathers 
from breaking down. The heel, which comes well up the back of the 
boot, is stift'ened by means of several threads sewed perpendicularly, 
and as they are drawn shorter than the skin, they prevent the heel from 
falling and thus getting " run down.'' 

The seams of the boots, which are turned inside out during the opera- 
tion, are so arranged on the edges that one will overlap and be tacked 
with close stitches over the I'est of the seam. This is done not only for 
comfort when the boot becomes dry and hard while being worn, but also 
to take the strain from the stitches which hold the edges together. The 
value of a pair of boots depends much on the care bestowed in tanning 
and in sewing. 

The hands are protected by mit- 
tens of difterent materials. Fur or 
hair mittens are worn only in dry 
weather, as the hair would retain too 
much moisture. 

Among the Innuit the mammals 
are divided into two classes: the 
noble and the inferior beasts. The 
skins of the former are used, though 
not exclusively, by the men, while 
the latter may be worn only by the 
women. No man would debase him- 
self by wearing a particle of the fur 
of the hare or of the white fox ; the 
skins of these timid creatures are 
reserved for the women alone. Either 
sex may wear the skins of all other mammals, except at certain times, 
under restrictions imposed by superstition. 

The women wear mittens of hare or fox skin, with palms of sealskin 
or Indian-tanned bird's skin. Reindeer skin with the hair on is also used 
for mittens. The heavy skin from the body is selected for the sake of 
warmth. When these mittens are to be used when driving dogs the 
])alm is made of sealskin, to enable the wearer to get a firm grasp on 

Fig. 41. Eskimo boots. 


women's garments. 


the whip handle. The skin of the (leer's forelegs, which has hair of a 
different character from that on the body, also makes excellent mittens, 
specially suited for handling snow in huilding the snow lints. Mit- 
tens are sometimes fringed roniid the wrist with a strip of white 
bearskin to keep ont the wind. 

Fm. 42. Eskimo shoes. 

All mittens have such short thumbs that they are very inconvenient 
for a white man, who habitu- 
ally holds his thumb spread 
away from the palm, whereas 
the Innuit usually keep the 
thumb apposed to the palm. 
The wrists of the mitten also 
are so short that considerable 
of the wrist is often exposed. 
The sleeves of the jacket are 
generally fringed with wolf or 
dog skin to protect this ex- 
posed portion of the wrist. 

Similar mittens of black 
sealskin are also worn by the 
men during damp weather, or 
when handling objects which 
wfuild easily soil a pair of 
furred mittens. I have never 
seen a woman wear this kind 
of covering for the hand. It appears to be exclusively worn by the men. 

The men who engage in the late fall seal hunting protect their hands 
with waterproof gauntlets, which reach well up over the forearm. 
These keep the hands from being wet by the spray and by the drip 

Fig. 43. Ice-ahoea, Hudaon strait Eskimo. 



from the paddle. Fig. 44, No. 90074, represents one of these long 

mittens, made of black tanned 
sealskin, and edged with a strip 
of hairy sealskin over an inch 
wide. The back or upper por- 
tion of the mitten is made of 
a single piece of black skin, the 
edge of which is crimped and 
turned under to protect the An- 
gers. The palm is a sei>arate 
piece, joined to the back piece, and 
on it is a projecting part to form 
the inner half of the thumb. The 
outer half of the thumb and the 
under side of the forearm are 
made of a single piece, stitched 
to the palm jjortion and that which 
covers the back of the hand and 
arm, so that, including the edging 
of hairy skin, there are only four 
pieces of skin entering into the 
make of a pair of these mittens. 
They are worn only by the men, 
and only when they are engaged 
in work where the hands would be immersed in water during cold 
weather. As the skin from which they are made is the same as that 
used for water-tight boots, it is obvious that no moisture can touch 
the skin of the hand. 

For i)rotection from rain and wet they wear over their other clothes 
a waterproof hooded frock (Fig. 4.'>) made of seal entrails, preferably 
the intestines of the bearded seal [Erignathus harhatus). The intes- 
tines of animals killed in October are considered the best for this pur- 
pose. They then are not so fat and require less dressing to clean them. 
The contents are removed and they are filled with water and thor- 
oughly washed out. The fat and other fleshy matter adhering are re- 
moved by means of a knife used as a scraper. This being done, the in- 
testine is inflated with air and strung along the tojis of the rocks to dry. 
When dry it is carefully flattened and rolled into tight bundles, like a 
spool of ribbon, and laid away until wanted. 

When required for iise it is split longitudinally, and when spread 
open is of variable width from 3 to 5 inches, depending on the size of 
the animal. The edges of the strips are examined and any uneven por- 
tions are cut oft', making the strip of uniform width. There are three 
separate pieces in a garment — the body and hood as one and the sleeves 
as two. Sometimes the sleeves are made first and sometimes the body 
is sewed first, and of this latter portion the hood is first formed. Strips 

FiQ. 44. Long waterproof sealskin mitten. 




are sewed edge to edge with tlie exterior of the intestine to form the 
outside of the garment. The edge is turned down, so as to leave a width 
of a third of an inch, and turned to the right; the other strip is simi- 
larly folded, but turned to the left and laid on the other strip. Sinew 
from the back of a reindeer or from a seal is made into threads a yard 
or more in length and of the thickness of medium-sized wrapping 
cord. The needle is usually of a number 3 or 4 in size or of less diame- 
ter than the thread in order that the thread shall the more effectually 
fill up the hole made by the needle. The two strips are then sewed 
with stitches about nine to the inch, through and through, in a mau- 

Fir;. 45. Water)iro(>f pwtfrnck. 

ner, I believe, termed running stitches. When a sufficient length is 
obtained a tliird strip is added, and so on until the required number of 
Ijerpendicular strips form a sufficient width to surround the body. The 
outer edges are then joined and the body of the garment is complete. 
Portions are cut out and the hood assumes the desired shape, resem- 
bling a nightcap attached to the body of a nightgown. The sleeves are 
sewed in a similar manner and affixed to the body of the garment. The 
seams run perjiendiciilarly and not around the body in a spiral manner 
as in garments made by the natives of Alaska for similar purposes. 
The edge of the hood, the wrists, and the bottom of the garment are 



strenji'theiied by means of thiu strips of sealskin sewed ou the outside 
of those parts where they are most liable to be torn. The garment is 
worn dnring wet weather or while in the kaiak traveling on a rough sea. 
The bottom of the garment is tied around the hoop of the kaiak in 
which the wearer sits and thus effectually sheds the water from the 
body, except the face, and keeps it from entering the kaiak. 

Sometimes a drawstring closes the hood tightly around the face and 
prevents the sjjray from entering. The string is usually tied at the top 
of the hood, in which case it is rather difScult to untie. 

"When not iu use the material must be well oiled and rolled up or it 
will become so stiff' that it can not be worn until it has been relaxed by 
dipping in water. The sinew with which it is sewed swells when wet 
and tightens the seams. 

There is great diflerence in the length of the garments woin by the 
eastern and the western Eskimo as well as in the manner of arranging 
the strips of which they are made. The one worn by the people of 
Hudson strait scarcely reaches to the hips of the wearer and is long- 
enough only to tie around the hoop of the kaiak. The ones worn by 
the Eskimo of Northern sound, Alaska, falls to the knees, and those 
made by the Aleuts are so long that they interfere with the feet in walk- 
ing. The material prepared by the eastern natives is not so good, as 
it is coarser and stiffer than that of the sea lion (Emnatopias stclleri), 
used by the natives of Alaska. 

The weight of one of these garments when dry scarcely exceeds 6 or 
7 ounces. 

To protect the eyes from the glare of the snow, which is especially 
trying when the sun is still low in early spring, snow goggles are 
worn made to admit the light only through a narrow slit. (Figs. 46, 

Fig. 46. Snow gogglea — front. 

and 47.) Nos. 3186, 3187, 3188, 3189, 3190, 3191, 319L', 3193, 3197, 3198, 
3199, 3200, and 3201 in the collection show such snow goggles made of 
wood. A somewhat curved piece of wood is fashioned to fit the face 
over the eyes; a notch is fitted for the nose to rest in. The lower side 


is about half au inch tliick, foriiiiug a flat surface. The front is perpeu- 
dicular and blackened with soot or gunpowder mixed with oil and ap- 
plied to darken the front surface to absorb the light of the sun's rays. 
Above this is a ledge of half an inch projecting over the narrow longi 
tudinal slit through which the wearer may look. This projection is 
sometimes not blackened on the underside, and where wood is scarce it 
is left off altogether. Within, on the side next to the eyes, it is usually 

Snow-goggles — rear. 

gouged out to allow the eyelashes free movement. A piece of sealskin 
is afBxed at each end and either tied in a knot over the head to hold 
the wood in ijosition, or else a wider strip of skin is slit and one portion 
worn on the top of the head while the other fits the back of the head 
to prevent the goggles from ialling oft' when the wearer stoops down. 


The winter dwellings of the Eskimo of Hudson strait consist of the 
usual form of snow house. In this connection I may as well state that 
the popular impression that the snow house described by Arctic travel- 
ers is the only thing to be called an iglu is quite erroneous. The word 
"iglu"is as fully generic in the Eskimo language as the word "house" 
is in the English language. The correct term, as applied by the Eskimo, 
to the snow house used as a dwelling is " ig In ge ak " (Fig. 48.) 

The first requisite for a snow house is snow. It must be of sufticient 
depth and possess certain well-delined qualities. The snow may fall, 
but until it has acquired sufficient depth for the size of blocks required 
and firmness enough for strength to withstand the superposed weight of 
the structure it is useless. An instrument termed snowkiiife (punuk), 
shaped like a short sword, is used for the purpose of cutting the blocks. 
The Eskimo seeks a place where the insertion of the knife into the bed 
of snow will prove that the snow is in the proper condition. He must 



then cut out a block of a size conveuieut to be lifted. This is usually 
rejected as it may be irregular or brokeu. Additioual blocks, in size 
from 8 to 10 Inclies thick, 2 feet wide, and slightly more in length are 
cut by a motion much resembling the act of sawjug, cutting the depth 
of the blade. The knife then cuts the bottom off squarely and the 
block is lifted out, the builder standing where the first blocks were cut 
from. The blocks are arranged on the bank of snow around the pit in 
which the man stands. The first block usually is somewhat triangular 

Fig. 48. Ueserted Eskimo anow houses, near Fort Chimo. 

in shape for a purpose hereafter mentioned. The second block is cut 
out and placed near the first, the end clipped with the knife to allow 
the first joint to be close together. A third block is cut and placed by 
the end of the second. It will now be seen that the line of blocks is not 
straight, but curved concavely within. Additional blocks are cut and 
placed end to end with each other until the first one laid is reached. 
Here a longer block is cut to lay upon the inclined side of the triangu- 
lar-shaped block first used and so placed as to "break "the joints, and 
thus render the structure more stable. Additional blocks are placed 
on the first row, and as the operation proceeds it will be seen that the 
blocks lie in a spiral form, gradually drawing in as the structure rises, 
forming a dome-shaped wall of snow. The key block at the top is 
carefully cut to fit the aperture and inserted from the outside by the 
assistance of another person. All the joints are carefully stopped u\> 
with spawls of snow or with snow crushed between the hands and 
forced within the crevices. 
The floor of the snow house is the bed of snow from which the build- 

•'■LRNEn.l DWELLINGS. 225 

iiig material was takeu. The door is cut by taking blocks of snow 
from under the bottom row of the foundation blocks. A trench is 
made, and along the side of it the blocks are placed. An arched cov- 
ering of the material forms a sheltered passageway to the door. 

When the snow house is to be occupied for a considerable time the 
doorway may have walls of snow bIo(-ks i)iled as high as the shoulders, 
with the toji left oi)en. This shields the entrance from wind and drift- 
ing snow. Various forms of entrance are constructed, often very tor- 
tuous; and when made a refuge by the munerons dogs they are not 
pleasant paths along which to creep on hands and knees, for a panic 
may seize some cowardly canine and all the dogs struggle to get sud- 
denly out into the open air. Vicious animals often wait until a white 
man gets about half way through the entry and then make a sudden 
assault on him. 

The interior of the house is arranged according to the number of 
persons inhabiting it. 

A raised bed, on whicli to sit during the day and sleep during the 
night, is formed either by leaving a part of the snow-bank or else by 
bringing in blocks and arranging them as a solid mass. On this are 
spread bows of spruce, or dry grass, if obtainable, otherwise fine twigs 
of willow or alder, and over these heavy reindeer or bear skins are 
thrown. On these bed-skins are laid other softer skins of reindeer, 
with which to cover the person on retiring to sleep. A window is 
S(mietimes set in the side of the structure toward the sun. This is 
simi^ly a piece of thick, clear ice, from a lake, set in the wall of the 
dome. It admits light, although it is generally light enough daring 
the day within the snow-house unless the walls be built particularly 
thick, but great thickness in certain situations becomes necessary lest 
the winds and drifting snow wear away tlio sides of the structure, 
causing it to admit the cold or tumbledown. Around the outside of 
the hut is sometimes l)uilt a protecting wall of snow blocks, two or 
three feet high, to ])revent the drifting snow from wearing away the 
side of the dwelling. A storm of a single lught's duration is often 
sufficient to destroy a house. 

The interior walls, in severe weather, become coated with frost films 
from the breath, etc., condensing and crystallizing on the inside of the 
dome and often presenting by the lamplight a brilliant show f)f 
myriads of reflecting surfaces scintillating with greater luster than 
skillfully set gems. 

If the roof is not carefully shaped it is liable to cave in from the 
heat within softening the snow, esj)ecially in moderate weather, and 
then the entire structure falls. 

Where the owner of the house has considerable possessions which 
unist be protected from the dogs and the weather, a similar structure 
is prepared alongside of the dwelling and often connected with it by 
11 ETH 15 \ 


means of a coinmimicatiuj;' passage-way. An exterior opening may be 
made and closed witli a block of .snow. The larger articles, such a.s 
bags of oil and bundles of skins, are put inside before the walls are uj), 
if intended to be stored for some time. 

As 1 have slept in these suowhouses 1 can assert that, while very 
uncomfortable, they afford a protection which can not be dispensed 
with. When the doorway is open they soon become very cold, and 
when chised upon several i)ersous the heat becomes intolerable. Odors 
from the food remain long after the remnants are disposed of, and 
where one has been oc(nipied for a hjug period the accumulation of 
refuse becomes so great that a new structure is indispensable in order 
to get rid of it. All the work of the different members of the family 
is ])erf()rmed within the walls. The skins of animals are dressed and 
tanned there. The otfal of game and the hair from dressed skins 
mingle in one mass, which soon putreiies and creates such a stench 
that only an Eskimo with most obtuse sense of smell could inhabit the 

When spring comes the huts begin to melt and in the course of a 
few warm days fall down. If the weather is too inclement to permit 
a skill tent to be occupied, the first hole in the wall may be patched 
with a deerskin, but this will afford very limited protection from the 
cold of nights, for, however warm the days, the nights will, until late 
in Way, be so cold that only the older individuals withstand the 

When the structure falls, melted by sun or rain, the miserable 
occupants must erect temporary shelter of deerskin or cloth on the 
bare rocky ridges. Those too poor to own a skin tent have often but 
a blanket of deerskin, stretched t>ver throe or four ])oles, set to shelter 
them from the chilly northerly winds usually prevailing at that season. 

Here they must sojourn until the ice breaks from the shores of the 
coves and bays, enabling the hunters to jnocure seals from the sea. 
Along the shores one may often find camping sites of these poor wan- 
derers searching through the day for food and at night camping under 
the lee of a wall of rock with little other covering than that worn dur- 
ing the day and this often soaked with spray or rain. 

Improvidence and indolence result in the most cruer privations 
toward the end of winter. Many who are too weak and emaciated 
from lack of food to ])tirsue the chase to gain a living starve before 
reaching the sea and are left to perish. 

When the season is more advanced, and the weather warm enough, 
those who are industrious and provident enough to be the possessors 
of sealskin tents, move into them for the season. 

The skin tent (PI. xxxvii) is usually made of the skins of the largest 
square flii)iier seals, those too heavy for any other purpose or not nec- 
essary for other uses. 


The number of skins necessary to form a tent varies with the size 
required. Generally as many as ten to fifteen are used, and such a 
tent will accommodate a good sized family. 

The hair is seldom removed from the skin, which is simply stretched 
as it comes from the animal and freed from fat and fleshy particles. 
The edjifs are trimmed and a sufticient number of skins are sewed to- 
gether to form a length for one side of the tent. The lengtU of the in- 
dividual skins makes the height of the teut. A similar width is pre- 
l)ared for the opposite side. The two pieces meet at the rear of the 
structure and are there tied to the poles. A separate piece forms the 
door and may be thrown one side when a person enters or goes out. 
Tlic poles of the tent are arranged as follows: Two pairs of poles are 
joined near the ends with stout thongs and erected with tlie lower ends 
spread to the proper width, forming the ends of the tent, on which the 
ridgepole is laid. A single pole is now placed near each end of the 
ridgepole, resting on the upright pairs, to prevent lateral motion. 
Two more such braces are placed on each side and spread so as to give 
a somewhat rounded end to the tent. Near the middle of the ridge- 
pole is a pair f>f shorter poles leaning against it to prevent the weight 
of the sides from bending the ridgepole. It will be seen that eleven 
poles are necessary to support a long tent, as the skins are very heavy. 
The skins and poles can be transported when the umiak is able to 
carry them. 

In case of continued rains the skins are iilacec. so as nearly to meet 
over the ridge and additional skins cover the space left between the 
edges. When the tent is to be taken down the two widths are folded 
over, each by itself, and then rolled into a compact bundle by begin- 
ning at each end and folding toward the center, leaving sufiicient space 
between the rolls for a person to get his head and shoulders in. Two 
persons, one for each roll, now assist the carrier, who kneels, bows his 
head, and places the load on his head and shoulders. The two assist 
him to rise and the heavy load is taken to the iimiak and placed in the 
bottom for ballast. The shorter poles are first 'laid in on the ribs of 
the boat to keep the skins from the water should any seep through the 
seams. The second bundle of tenting is laid ou the first. 

The tent of skins is the usuarshelter during the season from the first 
raiii until a sufiicient fall of snow occurs in the early winter from which 
to construct an iglu gheak. 

The interior of the skin tent is necessarily quite roomy on account 
of the number of occupants. The farther end often has a stick of 
timber laid across the floor, and behind this is the bedding for the owner, 
his wives, and children. A man who is able to own a tent of this char- 
acter is also wr'althy enough to have two or more wives. Along the 
remainder ot the sides within lie the other occupants, either in groups 
or singly, dej)endiug ou the degree of relationship existing between 


tbeni. Guests and others temporarily abiding with the host are as- 
signed any portion of the tent that the host may choose to select, usu- 
ally, if great honor is to be shown, the ]ilace lately occupied by himself. 
The central portion is reserved for a fireplace for cookin.u, and heating 
purposes. In this structure is carried on all manner of work incidental 
to the season. The tent is taken from place to place by means of the 
umiak when the food supply of a locality is exhausted Or another re- 
gion promises greater abundance. 

All these summer occupations require a number of persons to success- 
fully iirosecute them, hence the number dwelling in one tent is not 
often detrimental, as the adults walk along the shore to drag the boat 
or relieve it from their weight. 

The owner of a tent is considered an important individual, and his 
favor is retained by every means. A period of illness may cause him 
to lose all his belongings and then on recovery he has to start life 
anew. Several seasons may elapse before a sufficient number of skins 
will be procured for him to make a tent, and this is immovable without 
a boat t<i transport it, for when a sled might be used for that purpose 
there is always enough snow from which to erect a shelter. 

During the winter the skins are stored away on posts erected for the 
purpose, or cm i)iles of rocks where the various species of snjallaiiimals 
will not destroy them by eating holes in the oily skin. Mice and ermines 
are very destructive to these skins, often causing sad havoc in a short 
time. By the spring the owner may be miles away from the scene of 
the ppevious autumnal hunt and be unable to go after the tent, which, 
with the summer rain and decay, becomes useless, imposing the severe 
task of collecting skins for a second tent. 

In former times these people inhabited permanent winter houses 
like those used by the Eskimo elsewhere, as is shown by the ruins of 
sod and stone houses to be seen in various parts of the country. 
These appear to have had walls of stone built up to supf>ort the roof 
timbers, with the interstices filled up with turf or earth. From the de- 
pression remaining in the inside of these ruins, the fioor seems to have 
been excavated to a greater or less depth. 

The present inhabitants relate that their ancestors dwelt in these 
huts, but can not explain why they were deserted, or why such 
structures are not erected at the present day. 


There is very little in these dweUiugs that can be called furniture, 
besides the bed places already referred to. The other articles requisite 
for housekeei'ing consist of a lamp of soapstone, kettles to hang over 
it, a frame suspended above the lamp for drying various articles, and 
sundry wooden bowls, buckets, and cups, besides similar vessels made 
of sealskin. 



The laniji (poqi'la), wliicli is the only source of heat and light in the 
suow house, is, roughly speaking, a large shallow bowl of soapstone 

Fig. 49. Soapstonfi lamp, Koksoagmynt. 

tilled with oil, which is burned by means of a wick of moss, arranged 
round one edge of the bowl. 
The material from which these lamps are made occurs in isolated 

Fig. .^0. Soapatono lamp. Kokfloajrrayiit. 

bowlders on the surface of the ground at various i)laces in the region. 
These bowlders are often of great size. 

The general form of these lamps, which will be best understood from 
the figures (Figs. 49, 50, 51), is nearly always the same, the variations 
being apparently due to the lack of material. The cavity for holding 
the oil varies in capacity, according to the size of the lamp, from half a 
pint to nearly three quarts. It is, however, never filled to the brim, 

Fig. 51. Soapalone lamp. KoksoasTn.vnt. 

for fear it should run over. The consumption of oil depends upon the 
number of wicks lighted at once, and also on the character of the 

The wick in general is prepared from a kind of moss, which 
grows in large patches close to the ground, the stalks rising perpen- 



dicularly, and the whole so matted to.nether that it may be cut into any 
desired form. From these patches pieces are cuit an inch or two wide, 
a third of an inch thick and two or three inches in length, and laid 

Fm. 52. Frame for ilrvin^ iiiitti'na. 

away to dry. When one of these is to be used the woman s(ineezes 
the fibers lo.nether with her teeth, trims it, and sets it in tlie oil, and 
lights it. The light from one of these wicks is nearly eqnal to that of 
an inch wick fed with a good (inality of kerosene. The heat is very great. 

Fui. .^:!. Soapstuut^ kettle. 

For cooking, a larger wiekiaused,or two of the smaller ones set side by 
side. Over the lamp is placed a frame for drying wet boots, mittens, 
and such things. Fig. 53 repre.sents one of these (No. 3048), which is 
a semicircle or bow of wood with tlie ends fastened to a straiglit piece 
of wood. Across these strands of sinew or sealskin forms a sort of net- 




ting havijig large mesbes. Ou this rests the article to be dried. Uu- 
der this is a support formed of two sharp-pointed pegs which are stuck 
into the snow forming the side of the hut. On the outer end of these 
is fastened, or laid across them, a piece of wood. The shape of the 
support is that of a long staple with square corners. In some instances 
the ]iegs form only a wide V-shape, and the frame for supporting the 
articles laid directly on this. A block of wood hallowed out to receive 
the convex bottom of the lamp is sometimes used to sui)port the latter. 
In former times cooking over these lamps was universally ])erfornu^d 
in kettles of soapstoiie, in which cooking was also done by putting 

Flu. 04. Suapstuuo kettle. 

heated stones into the water. These soapstone kettles are, however, 
quite sa])crsed('d by utensils of civilized manufacture. I, however, suc- 
ceeded in collecting two full-sized stone kettles, and one little one, made 
for a chihTs toy. The tigures (Figs. 53, 54) show the shape of these ves- 

Fia. 55. AVoudult dish. 

sels suificiently well. The handles are made of strips of whalebone. 
The larger kettle (No. 317".>) is nearly 13 inclies long, and will hold nearly 
a gallon. They were made of different capacities in former times, vary- 
ing from about a pint to a full gallon. 

Obkmg shallow dishes (pu ghu'-tak) for holding oil or food are carved 
fiom lurch knots. The figure (Fig. 55) represents a model of one of 



tliese. Buckets and cups of various sizes for holding water and other 
fluids are made of tanned seal skin sewed with sinew. The sides of the 
bucket are a strip of seal skin bent into a ring, 
with a round piece of seal skin sewed on for a 
bottom. Sometimes a seal-skin bail is added, 
or a wooden handle sewed to the lips of the 
cup, making it into a dipper (Figs. 5(i, 57.) 
Wooden baskets are made in a simiilar fashion 

strip of si)ruce 
wood is bent near- 
ly circular. The 
ends of the strip 
are fastened with 
fine iron wire. The 
bottom is a sepa- 
rate piece and has 
a rim or edge for 

■Pio. 50. Sealskin bucket. Tiu. 07. SL-alskin cup. ^^^Q UPPCr part tO 

set on, and is held in place by means of small wooden pegs driven 
through and into the bottom. 

The capacity of these vessels is seldom more than a couple of quarts, 
and generally less. They are principally used to ladle water into the 
cooking kettles. All these vessels of native manufacture are being 
rapidly displaced by tin cups and small kettles. 


Under certain conditions a great portion of their food is eaten raw, 
but it is invariably cooked when it conveniently can be. Frozen food 
is consumed in great quantities. I have seen them strip and devour 
the back, fat, and flesh from the body of a deer while the fibers were yet 
quivering. The entrails of many species of birds are taken from the 
body and, while yet warm, swallowed much after the manner of swallow- 
ing an oyster. The eggs which have been incubated to an advanced 
degree are as eagerly devoured as those quite fresh. 

The deer meat, killed the previous fall and frozen for three or four 
months, is cut into huge chunks and gnawed with as much satisfac- 
tion as though it was the finest pastry. On such occasions I have seen 
the person appointed to chop up the frozen meat scatter the pieces 
among the expectant crowd with as little ceremony as that of throwing 
ears of corn to the hogs in a pen. For a change the frozen pieces of 
meat are sometimes warmed or thawed before the fire. 

The blood of the deer is often mixed with the half-digested mass of 
food in the stomach of the animal, and the stomach, with its contents, 
with the ad(liti(m of the l)lood, eaten raw or boiled. Sometimes it is 
laid aside to ferment and then frozen and eaten in this condition. 


Strips of fat from a seal and the blood of the animal are put into a 
kettle and heated. The oily liquid is eaten with the greatest relish- 
Seal oil is used for food in about the same manner as we use syrups. 
Years of almost daily intercourse with these people have failed to show 
the ability of any person to drink seal or whale oil without illness 
resulting. They never drink pure oil under any circumstances, ex- 
cept as a laxative. The statement often made that these people 
drink oil as food is simply preposterous. Su(»h statements doubtless 
ai'ose from seeing other preparations of food having an abundance of 
oil upon them. Lean flesh is often dipped into oil and then eaten. If 
partaken of without oil in as great quantities as these people require, 
a torpid condition of the liver and alimentary canal results, and they 
thus employ the pure oil to relieve themselves. 

Vegetable food is little used except in the vicinity of the trading sta- 
tions. Those accustomed to the use of flour, bread, peas, beans, and 
rice ai'e very fond of them, and often express regret that they will be 
deprived of them when on their hunting expeditions. 

Native plants aiford little help as food. During the season when the 
various berries are ripe all the people gorge themselves. They have a 
special fondness for the akpik (RuJnis clnvniomorm). The sun scarcely 
reddens the side of these berries, locally known as "bake apple," be- 
fore the children scour the tracts where they grow, and eat of the half- 
ripened fruit with as nuich relish as the civilized boy does the fruit pur- 
loined from a neighbor's orchard. Other berries contribute their share 
as food. 

When on trips the women often gather a few green herbs and put 
them in a kettle of water and make an infusion in lieu of tea. They 
are fond of tea, coffee, and sugar. Molasses is eaten alone or with 
something dipped in it. 

The Eskimo drink often and astonishing quantities of water at a 
time. If the weather be very cold they often drink the water which 
has been heated on a fire, asserting that the hot water does not weaken 
them as much as cold water would do. 

When a seal has been killed and is being brought to camp, the 
hunter signifies his success from a distance, and those in camp raise a 
joyous shout. The animal is drawn ashore and skinned. The flesh is 
devoured raw as the jirocess goes on, or may be divided, certain por- 
tions being given the different persons. The blood is collected, antl 
when the meat is boiled it is mixed with the hot liquid and forms a 
nutritious dish, eagerly devoured by both adults and young. The 
children revel in this dish to a sacrifice of cleanliness. 

The feast is continued until the flesh has been devoured and the peo- 
ple gorged to their utmost capacity. Stories are told and general 
good humor prevails. The different species of fish which frequent the 
shallow waters of the bays are used as food. 




All the adults are addicted to the use of tobacco, both for smoking 
and chewing and in the fonu of snuif, although it is not everyone 
that uses tobacco in all three ways. 

The plug tobacco, used for smoking and chewing, is carried in a 
small pouch of seal skin attached to the belt, which keeps it from being 
dampened by perspiration or rain. Watches are also carried in the 
same receptacle. Fig. 58 (No. 74485) is such a bag, made of hairy 
seal skin. The edges alone are trimmed with lighter colored strips of 
seal skin. A string holds the mouth of tlie bag together after it is 
rolled up. A loop at one corner enables the bearer to affix it to his 
belt when traveling to avoid the necessity of opening the bag in which 
he usually carries such small things. 

Leaf tobacco is preferred for the preparation of snutt', but as this is 
not always to be had plug is often used. This is shredded up and 

FlQ. 58. Tobacni pnnch. 

dried, and when dry enough is reduced to a powder by inclosing a 
(juantity in a f )ld of seal skin and iiounding it with a stone or stick. 

Snuff is kept in a iiurse-sluipcd bag, closed at the moutli with a 
thong. To it is attached a little spoon made of ivory. Various forms 
of this implement are made. The general appearance is that of a com- 
mon spoon, of which the ends and sides of the bowl are cut off. At 
the end of the handle is a slight depression for containing the snuff, 
which is held firmly against the orifice of the nostril and inhaled by a 
sudden indrawing of the breath while the thumb of the other hand 
closes the opposite nostril. 

The old women appear more addicted to the use of snuff than any 
of the men. The effect of inhaling the strong snuff is quickly shown 
in the face. It seems to affect people more than the use of tobacco in 
any other way. 





The principal means of conveyance by water with the Eskimo of 
Hndson strait, is the nmiak, referred to by most writers as the woman's 
boat. Tliis appellation is not more applicable than wonld be the term 
family boat. The women nse the boat alone only on rare occasions, and 
then in qniet water and for short distances. Men are nearly always in 
it, and under the guidance of one of these, the boat is used for long 

Tlie form of the umiak, in the region under consideration, differs 
greatly ti-om that of the Eskimo of Bering sea. (See Fig. 59, from a 

Tlie size of the boat is variable according to the means of the builder 
and the size of the family to be conveyed in it. The length of the lieel 
is from 10 to 25 feet. Over all the length is 1 or 2 feet greater than on 
the keel. It Avill be thus seen that the ends are nearly perpendicular. 
It is dilhcult to determine at the first glance which is the bow and which 
the stern, so nearly alike are they. They only differ in the former be- 
ing somewhat wider at the upper edge or rail. 

Fig. 59. Eskimo umi.ik. 

The keel is a straight piece of wood hewed from a single stick, nearly 
4 inches square. The stem and stern posts are nearly abke, the latter 
having but little slope, and are cut from curved or crooked stems of 
trees. A tree may be found, which, when hewed, will form the stern- 
post and keel in one length. Otherwise the fore and aft posts have 
Ijlaces cut out for the insertion of the respective ends of the keel, and 
are fastened firmly by stout thongs of sealskin thrust through holes 
bored in the wood and ingeniously lashed. As the bottom of the 
umiak is Hat the sides of the bottom are formed of square rails of sufii- 
cient length and given the desired sjiread. They arc held at the ends 
by being joined to the keel. Crosspieces notched at the ends separate 
the bottom rails and are steadied in position by being notched so as 
to sit on the scpiare keel. On the ends of the crosspieces is laid a sec- 
ond rail which prevents them from rising and serves to strengthen the 
ends of the ribs, which are set alternately with the crosspieces of the 


keel. The rihs are attaclied to tlie lower or bottom rail by means of 
sealskin lashing. Along the iippcr ends of the ribs is placed a longer 
rail of smaller diameter and usually shaved round. This rail is usually 
set half its diameter into rounded notehes of the upper ends of the ribs 
and fastened by thongs. Within and below the top rail is a shorter rail, 
generally smaller than the upper, tied by thongs to the ribs and posts 
fore and aft. A wide board projecting several inches on each side of 
the stern serves as a seat for the steersman. The ends of the top rails 
are laid over this board and attached to it. A similar board is placed 
at the forward end or bow, but is, of course, longer as that end is the 
wider of the two. 

Three to five thwarts, serving as seats for the occupants, are placed 
at proper intervals, having their ends resting on the inside top rail. 
One of these thwarts also serves to steady the mast, which is stepped 
into the keel and lashed to the thwart. 

On the side of the boat and resting on the top rail are pieces of wood 
firmly lashed. A notch, or rowlock, is cut into them to serve as rests 
for the heavy oars. The oars are held into the notch by means of loops 
of stout thong, the ends of the loops passing each other, one from for- 
ward and the other from aft,, and through both of the loop ends the in- 
ner end of the oar is thrust. The loops serve to hold the oar when not 
in use, otherwise it would float away; yet the position of them allows 
the oars to lie alongside in the water. • The oars are heavy and as much as 
10 feet long for a large umiak. The women generally run the boat and 
are assisted by the younger men of the party who may not be walking 
along the shore. Two or more females sit side by side and if they be 
insufiQcient a third person ftices them and assists in the labor. It is a 
favorite place for a young man with his sweetheart. The steersman 
sits on the after board and attends to the helm and sail when the latter 
is in use. Tiie sail is a nearly square sheet of cloth spread by a yard 
across the top. The lower corners have each a rope which the helms- 
man holds. A fair wind only can be used to advantage as the oomiak, 
from its flat bottom, is unable to go to windward. With a breeze nearly 
aft they can be made to sail at a good speed. 

The covering of the umiak is made of skins of the largest seals. 
The skins are freed from hair and all adhering flesh and fat, and 
stretched to their utmost tension. 

They are then cut into the proper shape and sewed together. The 
edge of one skin overlaps that of the other and the lap is then tacked 
over the shorter edge and attached to the other skin so as to form two 
seams at each junction. 

Those portions which are to cover the bottom are sewed with special 
care, as the seams are liable to be strained in shoving the boat over the 
oars when it is taken from the water at each camp. When skins are 
sewed side to side in sutiicieut number to tit the length of the frame 


they arc lifted around it and temporarily placed in position. The 
snpcrtliious j^ortions arc cut out or additional ijieccs put in until it 
fits properly on the frame. Holes, 3 or 4 inches apart, are cut in the 
edges of the skin and stout thongs are passed through these and over 
the top rail to the inner rail. All the strength of the individual is now 
applied to draw the skin over the top rail. Being wet it readily stretches, 
and when the entire covering is drawn siittieiently tight the lashing 
around the rail is xiermanently fastened. The boat is then turned keel 
up to dry. If the skin has been properly cut and stretched it sounds 
like a drum when struck. 

When in use the greatest care must be exercised to prevent contact 
wilh rocks, but in shallow water it fretiueutly happens that a hole is 
cut in the skin of the boat, when the rent must be patched with a. piece 
of skin. During the winter months the umiak is placed on staging of 
posts to protect it from the ravages of mice and other animals. 

Journeys of considerable length are undertaken in these boats. A 
large family, or two or more families, may remove to a distance to try 
their fortunes. They always sto]) at night and during bad weather, 
and tlie journey is accomplished by easy stages. All the jjortable 
possessions of the family are taken in these boats, which are often 
loaded to such a degree that the older people have to walk along the 
shores and only go into the iimiak to relieve some one who desires to 
walk. Where the beach is good a tracking line is attached to the bow 
and those on shore drag the boat along. The dogs which accompany 
the party are sometimes harnessed and made to pull. The tracking 
line is called into requisition whenever a trip is made up a river to the 
hunting grounds for reindeer. 

The kaiak or skin canoe used by the Eskimo of Hudson strait be- 
longs to the Greenland type. It is quite ditt'erent from that used by 
the natives of Alaska. These boats vary from IS to 26 feet in length; 
the greatest width, one-third of the distance aft the hole where the 
rower sits, being one-seventh to one-ninth of the entire length of the 
kaiak. The ends are sharp, the prow much more acute than the 
stern. The bottom is quite flat and the frame for the keel and sides 
at the bottom is arranged similarly to that of the umiak. The prow 
is simjily an extension of the keel and slopes above the water to a 
height nearly double that of the stern. The slope of the stern is 
gradual and short. The side timbers at the bottom have the upper 
surface gouged so as to allow the lower ends of the nearly perpendicu- 
lar ribs to rest in the groove. Tlie ribs extend across the bottom, rest- 
ing on the side timber and keel. Their upper ends are inserted iu the 
upper raO, which extends the entire length of the kaiak. The upper 
rails are held apart by crosspieces of difterent lengths, according to 
position. On the top of these upper crosspieces is laid a piece which 
extends to the nose of the kaiak. A similar, but shorter one, is laid 


from the liole wliere the rower sits to the stern of the kaiivk. Tlw liole 
for lii.s body is placed between a pair of crossbars wliere the eijuilibriuiii 
will be best maiutalQed. The hoop of wood which outlines the hole is 
variable in shape, but resembles half of a short ellipse, the posterior of 
which is slightly curv'ed to tit the back of the rower. Just forward of 
the seat the upper surface of the canoe is somewhat elevateil by the 
curvature of the crossbars, and it thus enables the rower to have 
greater freedom for his limbs tlian lie otherwise would. This particu- 
lar part, the elevation just forward of him, alone resembles any portion 
of tlie kaiaks used by the Alaskan Eskimo, and of these, only the sub- 
tribes in the vicinity of Bering strait [and thence to Point Barrow. — ,t. 
M.] have that part of the kaiak so fashioned. With that exception the 
top of the Hudson strait kaiak is flat on the top. Just forward of the 
hatch, two or three stout thongs are sewed to the outer edge of each 
side of the boat and extend across the top. A similar thong is i)laced 
behind. Under these thongs are placed the paddle, also the spears, 
and other hunting gear. Small game is sometimes tied to these. 

The outfit, consisting of spears and their appurtenances, properly be- 
longs witli the kaialc Of these implements, there are ditterent kinds, 
depending on the game and the season of the year. As the kaiak is 
used only during the seasons of open water it is laid aside during the 

I remember an instance occurring ojjposite Fort Chimo. A kaiak 
had been left until the ice in the river was firm enough to enable the 
vessel to be brought over on it to the station. One day a woman de- 
clared that she could see a wolf tearing the skin from the frame. It 
was scarcely credited, but in the coiu'se of half an hour the wolf started 
across towards the i)ost. It was met and showe<l some disposition to 
attack, but was shot. I watched to see where the men went to look at 
the kaiak, and when they reached the itlace I was astounded that the 
woman could discern even the kaiak at such a distance. 

The .spear used for white whales and large seals consists of a wooden 
shaft of 6 or 8 feet in length, having a projection on the side, made of 
ivory and shaped like the fin of a fish. This fin shaped piece rests 
against the forefinger, while the remainder of the hand grasps the 
shaft. The lower end of the shaft termimites in a piece of bone or ivory 
of 1 to 1^ inches in diameter. (Fig. 07.) A socket is made in the end of 
the bone portion, and the wooden shaft is nicely fitted into it and fas- 
tened either by thongs or rivets. At the farther end of the bone head is 
a thimble-shaped hole gouged out, and into this a short piece of straight 
bone or ivory is fitted, having the ends so shaped that they will work 
smoothly into the hole at the end of the bone head of the spear. The 
farther end of this bone shaft is so shaped that it will work into the 
bone or ivory portion of the piece into which the spear point is fastened. 
The point is shown in the accompanying figure (Fig. 68) and is not 

TUKNEKi thp: kaiak. 239 

much varied iu general shape. There are two joints between the spear 
point and the bone shaft head. Tliis enables the spear-point to be- 
come easily detached when the game is pierced. If this were not so, 
the bone or ivory would soon break with the violent motions of the 
animal, and the implement would be rendered useless until repaired. 
Thongs connect the various parts together, also connecting them with 
the main shaft of the spear. A long line, usually left lying in a coil 
just in front of the hunter, gives ample scope for play until the animal 
is exhausted. If the sea is rough or the hunter unable to cope with 
the quarry, the Hoat, to be described below, is thrown over and the 
seal or whale allowed to take its course, the hunter following and en- 
deavoring to harass the animal as much as possible, giving it a stab 
with the hand spear whenever occasion otters. 

In addition to the whale or seal spear, the hand spear, float, and 
paddle, the kaiaker may have a wooden shaft, on the end of which are 
three prongs of barbed iron, each prong 8 to l(t inches long, and set in 
the form of a divergent trident. With this implement, small seals and 
the white-coated young are killed. Birds, too, are sometimes speared 
with this trident. 

The hand board, or implement with which certain spears are hurled, 
is a piece of wood of such shape that a description will give but little 
idea of its form. It is about 14 inches long, flat, and has a groove ou one 
side into which the rear end of t\w spear shaft rests, and is supported 
by the three fingers of the hand while the index tinger tits into a hole 
cut through the board, of the shape to accommodate that digit. The tip 
of the finger rests against the shaft of the spear. Other notches 
are cut along the side of the board to enable the three fingers to lie in 
position to give a firm grasp on the end or handle of the board. The 
thumb turns over so as to lie direi;tly on the spear, to steady it, while 
the other fingers give the spear the necessary straight motion when 
the arm is drawn back and raised nearly perpendicularly. When it 
reaches that position the motion is arrested and the fingers release the 
implement held along the groove. The hand board or thrower is retained 
and the spear recovered if the object has not been struck. If the 
aim was good the spear remains attached to the struggling animal, 
and the hand board is quickly placed under one of the thongs stretched 
across the top of the kaiak. The paddle is held in the left hand and 
ready for instant use. 

The paddle is quite heavy and of variable length, having long, nar- 
row blades, which are alternately dipped into the water. The use of 
the paddle requires some practice before one becomes accustomed to it. 
When in use the paddle rests on the edge of the hoop, forming the 
rim of the hatch, and moves along it in the motion of propulsion. 

As the paddle dips into the water the dripping often causes the 
clothing to become wet. To obviate this, these people use a piece of 


plaited rope or skin to slip nearly to the beginning of the blade. This 
causes the dripping to fall outside of the kaiak; and in cold weather is 
very necessary, unless heavy niittcus of tanned sealskin be worn. 

An implement used for hooking into the body of a sunken seal or 
whale is made in the following manner: A piece of wood is prepared 
about 8 feet long and three-fourths of an inch thick, having a width of 
an inch and a half. The lower end of this has a strong liook made of 
stout iron set into it. Along the inner edge of the wooden shaft two 
or three notches are cut. The end near the person has a V-shaped 
notch cut into it. This is used for all the purposes of a boat hook, and 
also to retrieve a sunken animal. A weight is attached to near the 
hook end to keep the shaft perpendicular in the water. A line of sufii- 
cient length is attached to it. The hunter has marked the locality, and 
with the liook "feels" the bottom for the game. When found tlie liook 
is jerked into the skin and the object brought to the surface. The 
staff is very necessary while the kaiak is being moved through nar- 
row channels among the ice fields. It is, in fact, available in many in- 
stances where the jiaddle would, from its length, be useless. The kaiak 
outfit would be incomplete without the hook. 

A young man starts out in life with a gun and ammunition with 
whicli to procure game. If he has the energy to become a successful 
hunter he will soon be able to make a kaiak, and thus procure the 
marine mammals whose skins will attbrd a covering for an umink and 
in the course of time additional skins for a tent. These possessions 
usually come in the order laid down, and when they are all jjrocured he 
is generally able to have others under his direction assist in transport- 
ing them from place to place; and thus he becomes the head of a gens 
or family, including his brothers and sisters with their husbands, 
wives, and chiklren. These usually move in a body wherever the head 
may dictate, and all their possessions accompany them on the journey. 
Brothers often live together and own the tent and umiak, the re- 
mainder of the household affairs being considered as individual prop- 
erty and not to be used by all without permission. 

Some of the men are too improvident to prepare these skins when 
they have the opportunity, and thus they are unable to own a kaiak, 
which ])revents them from providing themselves with the umiak and 
tent. These persons must live with others or dwell by themselves and 
pass a miserable existence, scarcely noticed by their fellows even dur- 
ing a season of abundance. 

The collection contains one full-sized kaiak, with all its fittings, and 
their models, including a toy kaiak cut from a walrus tusk. The model 
is just 9 inches long and quite perfect in form. The double-bladed 
paddle accompanying is made from the same material, and is six inches 


The universal means of transportation on land is the sled, drawn by 


(Idgs. The iimiilicr of do^s used to draw a sled Viiries according- (o 
the distance to be traveled, tlie cluiracter of tlic country, the condilion 
of tlie animals, and the weiglit of the load to be drawn. From one to 
t wen(y may be used. Tlie common team for general j)ni|H)ses i,s 
seven or nine animals. 

The method of coiistrnetiMi,^ sleds dilTers slij;htly in difil'erent ])arts<>l' 
the region, and then oidy where the material may Ixi dillicult to obtain 
or a heavy sled may not be needed. A tree of a siutable si/.e is 
selected, generally larch, because of its greater strength, although 
somewhat heavier than the s))ruce. 

It is necessary, for greater strength, that eac-h runnei- be of a single 
piece of timber. The length of the runner is from 12 to IG feet; the 
height varies from 10 to 13 inches. The piece mus; be as nearly free 
from knots and erossgrain as possible, for these defects render the 
wood very brittle during <!old weather. The runners are roughly hewn 
at the place where originally cut, and, when needed, they are brought 
to the temporary camping place of the Eskimo, and there dressed with 
plane and saw to the required form. The bottom of the runuer is 
usually iii to 3 inches thick, gradually becoming thinner by one-lialf an 
inch to au inch toward the top. This enables the sled to make a wider 
track at the bottom and encounter less friction of the runner sides 
against the snow crust. The curve at the forward end is long and 
very gradual. There may be as much as 3 feet of the curved i)art, 
which rises above the level of the lower edge of the runner. This 
enables the sled to creep easily over any obstructiou. The runners are 
now placed parallel, separated by a distance of 14 to 16 inches, and ou 
these are fastened crossbars 3 inches wide, of sufficient length to 
allow about an inch to project over the outer edge of each runner. 
Near the ends of these slats is cut a notch on each edge. Sometimes 
a hole is also bored through the slat between the uotches. These are 
for the purpose of fastening the slats to the runners. A sufficient 
number having been jjiepared, and placed 1 or 2 inches apart, they are 
now laid on the flat toj) of the runner. Holes are bored through the 
top of the runner to correspond with the holes and notches of the slats. 
Through these and over the slats a stout piece of heavy sealskin line 
is threaded, and so on through and over the slats and runner until it is 
firmly fastened. The line must be well soaked in water to render it 
flexible and allow it to stretch, otherwise; the Joints where it was tied 
would soon work loose. The line shrinks while drying, and draws as 
tight as though made of the best iron. No metal is used, for the 
reason that it would sua]) as easily as chalk during cold weather. 
The use of the thongs in binding the slats to the runners allows free 
<lom to the motion of the sled when passing over inequalities of sur- 
face, where a rigidity of the sled would soon cause it to break. The 
bottom of the runner is shod with irou brought by the traders for that 
11 ETH 10 


purpose. It is simply extra-wide hoop-irou and of a width to fit. It is 
fiistened on with screws, the heads of which are countersunk. 

Another kind of shoe is put on when traveling in very cold weather. 
A swampy track is searched for soil of half-decomposed vegetation 
and pure humus, as nearly free fi'om sand and gravel as possible. It 
must possess certain qualities or it may not have the requisite strength — 
much, I presume, as mortar often requires to be tempered with more 
or less lime or sand when it is too rich or too poor. The Eskimo tem- 
pers his mortar with the almost impalpable soil found under the larger 
spreading trees of the forest. It is the slowly decomposed vegetation 
fallen from branches and trunks. The manner of preparing it is as 
follows: A large kettle is partiallj filled with the material and heated 
to the boiling point, being constantly stirred, and while yet cool 
enough all coarse sticks, grass blades, jiebbles, etc., are carefully re- 
moved as the fingers discover them in working the mortar. The sled 
is turned over with the bottom of the runner ui). The mud is now 
applied by the hands, a couple of pounds being taken and pressed on 
the runner, which has previously been wetted. This process of adding 
to the runner is continued until it attains an additional depth of 3 or i 
inches and a width of 3 to 5 inches. It now resembles the rail of a 
stairway. When it has been thoroughly gone over to fill up any in- 
equalities the sled is set aside in order that the mud may freeze solid. 
The sled must be handled with care, as the least jar or jolt will break 
the "setting" mud. After it is frozen the owner takes a plane and 
planes it down to the proper shape and smoothness. It is somewhat 
difiicult to describe the shape in words, unless it be compared to the 
ui^per part of the T rail of a railroad inverted — neither rounded nor flat, 
but so fashioned as to give the best bearing surface with the least 
friction. When the plane has finished its work the color of the mud 
is a rich chestnut brown. The builder now takes water in his month 
and spirts it in a spray along the mud. As soon as the water touches 
the runner it must be spread evenly with a hand inca.sed in a mitten of 
reindeer skin, rubbing back and forth until the runner looks like a bar 
of black glass. The sled is then ready for use. Great care is necessary 
to avoid rocks or stones, as these cut the ]iolished mud and loiighen it. 
If a sudden lurch causes a portion of the iiiud to drop out the piece is 
frozen on again by means of water, or if crumbled a piece of ice is cut 
to the shape and caused to adhere by water freezing it to the runner. 

It is not often that one may find a sled shod with bone, as is the 
custom with the Eskimo farther north, and especially farther west. 
The only instance where I have seen bone used was by some of the 
people from the western extremity of Hudson strait. These had only 
a portion of the curve and a part of the runner shod with bone and 
pieces of reindeer horn, secured to the runner by means of i^egs. 

The greatest objection to the use of mud is that a few hours of 
warmth may cause it to loosen and render it worthless. The polish 


-suffers when traveling over rough ice, and especially where sand has 
drifted from some exposed bank to the surface of the snow. This 
caufees very hard pulling, and soon roughens the running surface of the 
sled. To repair such damage the native stops, at a convenient place, 
to obtain water, which is spirted on the runner and rubbed evenly 
until it acquires a thickness of one-eighth of an inch. This coating of 
ice may last for the entire day of travel where the "roads" are good. 

The harness for the dogs consists of two large nooses, placed one 
above tlie other. These are joined by two perpendicular straps of 4 or 
5 inches in length at a sufidcient distance from the end to allow the 
head of the dog to pass through so that one noose will lie along the 
back and the other between the forelegs. At the rear ends of the 
nooses is a long thong of the heaviest sealskin of variable length 
depending on the position or place the dog is to have in the team. 
The body harness is made of sealskin, with or without the hair on, 
stout canvas, or other material which may be convenient. Thin un- 
dressed sealskin makes the best harness, and is not so liable to chafe 
the neck of the animal. The trace attached to each dog is generally of 
stout sealskin thong cut three-eighths of an inch wide, and the corners 
are carefully ^jared until the trace in form resembles a hoop for a small 
keg. The trace varies from 10 to 30 feet in length, and is attached to 
a longer but much stouter thong of heavier sealskin or walrus hide 
prepared in the form described for the trace. The thong to which all 
of the traces of variable lengths are fastened is termed the "bridle." 
The bridle has, usually, apiece of ivory, called " toggle," at the end 
farthest from the sled. A few inches back of the toggle is a .shoi't 
piece of stout thong plaited in tlie bridle end. This thong has a slit 
cut in the farther end. It is passed through slits cut in the end of each 
trace and then looped on the toggle. It will now be understood that 
the traces all start from one place, but their ditterent lengths give dif- 
ferent positions to the dogs of the team so that they may move freely 
among rough pieces of ice without interfering with each other. This 
has some advantages, but it necessitates watching the traces as they 
are liable to catch around any iirojection above the surface. 

The bridles are also of varying lengths, from 15 to -10 feet. The rear 
end has two stout thongs plaited into it, forming a loop for each thong. 
These are known as. the " yoke," and are looped over toggles, one on 
each inner side of the runner. 

Any load to be carried on the sled is usually placed so as not to pro- 
ject much over the side, for in deep snow, with a crust too weak to sup- 
port the weight, it would simply act as a drag and seriously impede 
travel if not entirely stop it. The load must aLso be distributed to the 
best advantage along the sled so as not to have too great a weight at 
either the front or rear, although generally a heavier portion is placed 
behind to allow the sled to steer or follow. The runners are so low 


that the sled .seldom upsets unless tUe ice is very rough, iu which case 
it often requires two meu to attend to it, another to free the traces fi'om 
obstructions, and a fourth to lead or drive the dogs. A smaller num- 
ber render traveliuy under such conditions very tedious. 

The driver is always armed with a wliip (Fig. (!0). There appear 
to be as many kinds of whii)s as there are individuals using them. 
Each whip characterizes, in a manner, the person who makes it. A 

Fici. GO Dog whip. 

great amount of ingenuity is expended in preparing the lash, which is 
simply indescribable. The handle of the whip is from It to 11 inches in 
length and shaped souiewhat like the handle of a sword without the 
guard. A stout loop of thong is affixed to the stock above where the 
hand grasps it. This loop is thrown over the wrist to prevent the 
weight of the whip drawing the stock from the hand and also to retain 
the whip when it is allowed to trail behind. 
At the farther end of the stock a portion of the wood is cut out to 


allow the insertion of the end of the lash which is fastened by means 
of finer thongs. The bntt end of tlie lash is five-sixteenths of an inch 
thick and nearly 2 inches wide. It is composed of eight heavy thongs 
plaited in a peculiar manner, depending on the number of thongs used 
and the fancy of the maker. The thongs are plaited by inserting the 
end of each thong through a succession of slits cut at the proper dis- 
tance and so matted together that it is difficult to determine the "run" 
of the thong. The size decreases from the handle by dropping out a 
strand until at IS inches from the stock only four thongs are left, and 
these form a scjuare plait for a foot in length. This sqiiare form is suc- 
ceeded by only two thongs which make a flat plait of 2 feet in lengthy. 
At the end of this a siaiple piece of heavy thong completes the lash. 
The length of a whip may be as much as 35 feet, weighing .3 or 4 pounds. 
(Some of the natives accpiire a surprising dexterity with this formidable 
weapon, often being able to snip the ear of a jjarticular dog at a distance 
of the length of the whip. I have known them to snap the head from 
a ptarmigan sitting along the path of the team. Children practice 
with the whip as soon as they can manage it. 

Tlie Eskimo dog fears nothing but the whiplash. They attack each 
other with savage ferocity, and several dogs may be engaged in ter- 
rific battles, yet the swish of a whip or even a stick thrown hurtling 
through the air is sufficient to cause them to slink off" in abject terror, 
whining piteously in fear of the expected lash. 

Tlie weight or load put upon a sled may be as nuich as 1,200 pounds. 
The character of the road alone determines the weight, number of 
dogs, and rate of travel. The latter may average over a smooth sur- 
face f) miles hourly for twelve hours continuously, excluding the few min- 
utes given the dogs to "blow" (rest), etc. I knew nn iustancje where 
three men with empty sled and seven dogs traveled 94 miles in eighteen 
hours. I have gone 19 miles in three hours; and again I have known 
only 3 or 4 miles to be made in ten hours, through rough ice or deep, 
newly fallen snow. 

The disposition p.nd condition of the dogs chiefly determines the num- 
ber attached to the sled. With these animals there is the same differ- 
ence as is to be found in liorses or other beasts of draft. Some are 
energetic and well-behaved ; others as stubborn or lazy as is possible. 
Strange dogs in the team are liable to be pitched upon by all the otliers 
and with the long traces ensues such an entanglement of lines, dogs, 
and flying snow as is difficult to conceive. The good qualities of the 
driver are manifested by his ability in keeping the dogs in order ami 
showing promptness in separating them when quarreling. Fighting 
among the dogs can always be prevented bv the driver keeping the 
dogs in proper position. 




These people are now provided witli firearms, wliitdi liave entirely 
superseded the bow and arrow. 

The bow formerly used in this region appears to have been similar 
to the one obtained from a pai'ty of East Main Innuit, who made their 

way to Fort Chimo. This bow has accord- 
ingly been figured and described (Figs. 61 
and 02— 90137). 

It is made of larch wood and has a back- 
ing of eight double strands of twisted sinew. 
This sinew is in one piece sixteen times the 
length of the bow. One end is looped and 
passed over one "nock" of the bow and car- 
ried back and forth from nock to nock eight 
times. This backing has two turns of twist 
put in ft-oni the middle to increase its elas- 
ticity, and is lashed to the middle of the bow 
with a stout thong of reindeer skin. The 
. bowstring is of twisted sinew "with a loop at 
i each end. 

With this bow were seven arrows. Three 
3 of these are for shooting reindeer and wolves. 
^ They have an iron point set in a short fore- 

1 shaft of reindeer antler, and a wooden shaft 
I about 10 inches long (Fig. 63). Three more 
^ are pointed with large nails, one of which 
i has been beaten to a chisel-shaped point 
"l (Figs. 64 and 65). They are intended for 
" large game at short range, or for small 
I game, such as hares and ptarmigan. These 

six arrows are feathered with tlie tail feath- 
ers of the raven. The last arrow is a sim- 
ple shaft, without feathering or head, and is 
intended for small game, such as a wood 
hare crouching under a si^ruce tree, or the 
little red squirrel on the top of a low tree. 

In drawing the bow, the Innuit invariably 
hold the arrow between the middle two fin- 
gers of the right hand, and the string is 
drawn with all four fingers, and released by 
straightening them. 

The bow and arrows are carried in bow 
case and quiver fastened together and slung 
on the back. Fig. 06 represents a model (iSTo. 32.'>7) of such a l)Ow case. 
The bow case is made of buckskin and is of sutticient length to con- 




tain the bow, excepting the extreme end, which is left projecting 
convenience in handling. The case is tied around the bow at 
projecting end. The quiver is attached to 
the bow case and contains two models of ar- 
rows for shooting large game. The arrows 
are tipped with leaf shaped pieces of tin. 
They are feathered with portions of feathers 
apparently taken from the tail of a raven. 
The mouth of the quiver is also drawn up 
with a string to prevent the loss of arrows. 
I have not seen the Eskimo of Hudson stiait 
use such a cover for their bows and arrows, 
but the opi^ortuuities to observe them are 
very limited, as few are used. I am led to 
conclude that only the poorer individuals of 
either locality have the bow and arrow at 
the present day. 

I have already described the large harpoon 
used for striking white whales and large seals 
from the kaiak. A short-head spear (Fig 67, 
No. 90164) is used for dispatching wounded 
seals or white whales, or for killing white 
whales when they have been driven into a 
shallow arm of the sea when the tide ebbs 
and leaves them partly uncovered. It has a 
short wooden shaft with a fenule of ivory, 
holding a short ivory loose shaft, kept in place 
by thongs, on which is mounted a toggle head 
like that used on the big harpoon. Tlie line 
is either attached to the kaiak or to a small 
float made of the inflated intestine or skin of 
a seal. The toggle heads for these spears are 
made of ivory, and fitted with iron blades 
(Fig. 68). I have already referred to the 
large sealskin float in describing the kaiak. 

Fig. 60 (No. 3531) is such a large sealskin 
float or a va tuk. The skin is removed from 
the body by skinning around the gums and 
carefully taking out all the flesh and bones 
through this orifice. As the operation pro- 
ceeds the skin is turned back and at the 
completion of the work is inside out. The 
flesh side, now the exterior, is carefully 
scraped to free it from all fleshy matter. The 
hind flippers are cut oft' at the ankle and the 
skin either sewed or stoutly wrapped with p,„g 
thong. The fore flippers are usually left at- 


G^, 64, and 65. — Arrows. 
Main Eskiino- 





tacbed to the skin after the tlesh has been scraped from them. The 
skin is now inflated with air and hung up to dry. In a few hours it 
is turned with the hairy side out and again inflated 
for awhile. The mouth and all other openings in the 
skin are carefully sewed up. A large button of ivory, 
shaped much like a pulley, nearly 2 inches in diame- 
ter, is put where the mouth of the skin is and a por- 
tion of the skin carefully wrapped around it, thongs 
of sealskin tightening the moist skin in the groove of 
the mouthpiece. This piece has a hole aboixt one-third 
of an inch in diameter bored through it. The hind 
flipijers and tail have a stick of 2 or 3 inches in length 
placed within the skin and are then firmly bound 
around the stick, which serves to stop up any hole and 
also to furnish a handle by which to drag or hold the 
float. The hole in the mouth-piece is plugged with a 
stopper of wood. When the float is Manted for use 
the skin is inflated. When inflated the float has a 
diameter about two-thirds the length. If it is to be 
attached to a tracking line the float is I'astened by 
the stick, which is secured within the skin of the 
hind flippers and dragged backwards. The function 
of the float in this instance is to prevent the tracking 
line from becoming "fouled" among the rocks and 
stones of the beach along which the line runs in tow- 
ing a boat (or umiak). In a similar nniniier it is 
aflixed to the harpoon line used for large marine 
mammals, such as the white whale and the larger 
species of seals. This float not only retards the flight 
of the speared animal, but it serves to mark the spot 
where it sinks, for at certain seasons the seals sink 
as soon as they die. A speared animal always sinks 
more quickly tlian one shot dead with a ball, [jrobably 
because its struggles are more in'olonged in the first 
instance and exhaustion of breath is more complete. 

The hair of the animal whose skin is intended for a 

float is sometimes scraped oft' before the skin is re 

moved from the body, otherwise it may be left until 

the skin is partly dry and then be shaved off". The 

manner of loosening the hair is similar to that used 

by butchers of hogs, only that the boiling water is 

poured rm and a small patch of hair pulled oft' at a 

time, instead of submerging the entire animal. The hair from the green 

skin nuist be carefully pulled out or else the black scurf adhering will 

be detached and thus render the skin less nearly waterproof. 

The skins or bags used for holding oil and fat are prepared in a sim- 




Yhi. GO. Bow case 
East Maiu Eskimo. 




ilar iiiainier, excepting that tlu^ liair is left on the skin and the hairy 
side left within. The oil and fat arc jMit in the skin at theposterior end 
and it is then tied up like a float. Tlie 
largest sealskins are used for oilbags, 
and may contain as much as 300 pounds 
of fat or oil. 

When a sack of oil is sold the bag is 
usually returned to the seller, who again 
fills it with oil or converts the skin into 
bootlegs or soles. The leather ha\ing 
become thoroughly impregnated with 
the oil makes the best for wear, often 
resisting moisture for three or four 
days of continuous wet. 

Before leaving the subject of weap- 
ons and their accessories, I may men- 
tion No. 3069, a small pouch made of 
thick sealskin. The shape is somewhat 
like that of a leg of mutton. This is 
used for carrying gun caps. The neck 
is only large enough to permit one cap 
to fall out at a time. 


FlQ. fi7.— Hand spear for killing geals from 
kaiali : Koksoak . 

I have already referred briefly to the 
various metliods of taking seals, white whales, and other game, while 
describing the boats, spears, and other apparatus used in their pursuit. 

The most important hunt of the year, however, comes in the autumn, 
when the reindeer are migrating in large herds and crossing the rivers. 
The deer are wanted now for their flesh for food and their skins for 
clothing. Everything necessary for the chase is taken in the umiak, 
or, perhaps, a whaleboat, to a locality convenient to where the animals 
cross over. Here the tent ispit(■ll(^(l, and a eamj) is made. The hunt- 
ers scour the neighboring land for herds of reindeer, which are seen 
running about under the impulse to seek the opposite sex. As they 
arrive from difl'erent directions, those of one sex must cross the river. 
Since the females furnish the lighter skins for clothing, and the males 
the greater 'amount of meat and a heavier skin for various purposes, 
deer of both sexes are equally useful. 

A band of three or four, or as many as a hundred, may be sighted 
slowly winding their way through the openings of the timbered areas 
on the opposite side of the river. The native with telescope, or binocular 
in focus, observes their movements until they pause a moment on the 
bank, and then plunge quickly into the water, where they keep well 
together until the opposite shore is reached. Here, if iindisturbed, 
they will stand to allow the water to drip from their bodies, and then 
will walk slowly along to a convenient place to climb the bank and 



penetrate the strip of woods or bushes and emerge into the open coun- 
try beyond. As soon as the native sees the deer everything is put in 

readiness on the kaiak, and with 
iuick strokes ofthedouble-bladed 
I addle he is behind and below the 
ow terrified animals. They rear 
nd plunge in frantic confusion, 
ndeavoring to escape their most 
Ireaded foe. The hunter calmly 
Irives the herd through the water 
s the shepherd does his flock on 
1 uid. Those disposed to break 
way are rounded up and driven 
I ack. The greatest care must be 
xercised not to let the animals 
et below the kaiak, or they will 
wim faster with the stream than 
lie hunter can paddle. As there 
are, generally, two or more kaiaks, 
it is an easy matter for the men 
to drive the animals wherever 
they desire. When the camp is 
above, the deer are driven diag- 
onally across so as to make them 
flHfr.'' ( 'im come out near the camp. If the 

VKBtM' site is below, the animals are 

^^^m allowed to drop down to a con- 

^^r venient place. These maneuvers 

depend on the wind, as the sense 
of smell of the deer is very acute 
at this season, and the scent of the camp, if detected, would throw the 
animals into such terror that the greater number would escape. 

Fig 68.— Togglehead for lumd spear. 

Fig. 69.— Sealskin float. 

When near the place the hunter takes his deer spear, which is exactly 
like the one used by the ludians, and quietly stabs the animal in a 


vitfil spot, eudeavoring so to wound the beast that it will have only 
enough strength to enable it to attain the shallow water or shore, and 
not to wander off. Among the hundreds of times I have liad the 
opportunity to witness this, I uever knew a deer wounded with the 
spear to turn back to swim in the direction from which it came. They 
appear to dread the water, and stri\e most frantically to regain the 
land where, if nuntally wounded, they stand; the limbs gradually 
diverging to sustain their trembling body; the eyes gazing piteously 
at the foe, who often mocks their dying struggles, or pitches a stone 
at their quivering legs to make them fall. A convulsive struggle as 
the blood fills the internal cavity, a sudden pitch, and the life is gone 
without sigh or groan. As many of the herd as can be speared are 
quickly dispatched and the entire number secured if possible. It is 
supposed that the ones whicli return to the shore whence they came 
give the alarm and frighten other arrivals away from the starting- 
point. The hunters strive to prevent their return, and will often allow 
two, near the camp, to escajje iu order to pursue the retreating animal. 

Those which have been killed and ai-e lying iu the water are dragged 
on land and skinned. The pelt is taken off as that of a beef is when 
skinned by a butcher. The ears and the skin of the head are left on. 
The body is opened and the viscera are removed. The intestines are 
treed from the fat; the stomach is cleansed of the greater portion of its 
contents, and the blood which collected within the cavity is scooped up 
with the hands and ladled into that receptacle; and both are reserved 
for food. The heart and liver are taken to the camp, where they help 
to form a variety in the animal food of these people. Other portions of 
the flesh are also consumed. The sinew, which lies along the lumbar 
region just below the superficial muscles, is exposed by a cut, and with 
the point of a knife or tip of the finger loosened from its adherent flesh. 
One end, usually the forward end, is detached and a stout thong tied to 
it, and it is jerked from its attachment by a vigorous pull. It requires 
a strong i)erson to remove this tendon from the body of a lean animal. 
A stroke of the knife frees the wide layer of sinew from blood and 
particles of flesh. This is now laid aside for awhile, then washed to 
free it from the blood, which would stain it dark in color and also tend 
to diminish the strength of the fibers by rotting them. It is now spread 
out ami allowed to dry. The body is cut across the small of the back 
and laid aside. The head is severed from the neck and discarded if 
there be no portion of the horns which is needed to serve some purpose, 
such as a handle for a knife or other tool. If the head be that of a 
young deer it is often taken to the camx) and put into a pot and boiled 
in the condition in which it comes from the field. When cooked for a 
long time it becomes very soft; the muscles of the jaw being reduced 
to a semigelatiuous condition, which makes an excellent article of 

The t(mgue is invariably taken imt entire, and is considered the 


greatest delicacy, either frozen, raw or cooked, or dried and smoked. 
In fact a tongue from the reindeer is good at any time or condition. 

The hindquarters are sehlom separated, but are iilaced within the 
thoracic cavity, and either cached near the scene of slaughter or placed 
on the kaiak and taken to a spot where others are deposited from which 
supplies may be taken when the food for the winter is required. 

Here and there along the bank will be placed the body of a single 
deer, sometimes two or three, which have been killed too far from the 
present camp for the hunter to bring them home. These spots are 
marked or remembered by some visible surrounding, lest the deep 
snows of winter obscure the locality, and often the place can not be 
found when wanted. The cache in which the flesh is deposited is 
simply a few stones or bowlders laid on the ground and the meat put 
upon them. A rude sort of wall is made by piling stones upon the 
meat until it is hidden from the ravages of ravens, gulls, foxes, wolves 
and the detested wolverine. 

As soon as the hunter considers that the deer of that particular 
locality have ceased to cross, he will repair to another station and go 
through the same process. The deer which are first slain, when the 
hunting season arrives, and the weather is still so warm that the flies 
and decomposition ruin the meat, are reserved for supplies of dog food. 


I have already, in the earlier pages of this paper, refen-ed to various 
tools and implements. 

In addition to these, the Koksoagmyut have comparatively few tools. 

In former ages stone and ivory were fjishioned into crude implements 
for the pur])oses which are now better and more quickly served by in- 
struments of iron or steel. 

These people have now been so long in more or less direct contact 
with traders who have supplied them with these necessaries that it is 
rare to find one of the knives used in foryier times. Certain operations, 
however, are even to this day better performed with a knife made of 
ivory. The ice from the kaiak bottom or the sides ofthe boat may 
best be removed by means of an ivory knife, resembling a snow knife 
but shorter. The steel knife is always kei)t sharp and if so used would, 
(m the unyielding, frozen skin-covering of those vessels, quickly cut a 
hole. The PiSkimo living remote from the trading stations use a snow 
knife made from the tusk of a walrus or the main stem of the reindeer 

That steel or iron is deemed an imiu'ovemcnt on the former materials 
from which cutting instruments were made is shown by the crude 
means now employed. If the person has not a knife an unused spear- 
head, having an iron point, is often enqdoyed instead for skinning ani- 
mals and dressing the skins. 

Stone heads for weai>ons of all kinds have been discarded. Ivory 



spears lire at times used but these only m hcu the liuiitcr is close to tlie 

Some of the men have acquired considerable skill in fashioning iron 
into the reipiired shape. Tiiey eagerly stand around anyone who may 
be at work, and evince the greatest ciiriosity in anything 

The collection contains two of the snow knives referred 
to above. No. 30G7 is a large snow knife, made from the 
lower portion of the main stem of the horn of the male rein- 
deer. It is simply half of the split horn with the middle 
scooped out. The length is 12 inches. This form of instru- 
ment is used more especially to smooth down the inequali- 
ties of the blocks of snow after l)eing placed in position. 
No. 3140 (Fig. 70) is a large snow knife made 
of walrus ivory. It is 13 inches long and 
nearly 2 inches wide for the greater part of 
the blade, which terminates in a rounded 
point. The instrument has two edges, and in 
general appearances resembles a double-edged 
Uomau sword. The handle is cnt to fit to the 

Among other peculiar implements collected 
is one represented in Fig. 71 (No. 3555), which 
is a " back-scratcher." This instrument con- 
sists of a shaft made from a limb of a larch 
tree. It is 17 inches long and about tliree- 
fourths of an inch through, flattened to less 
than half an inch and tapering toward the 
end to be held in the hand. On the lower end 
is a dish-shaped piece of reinder horn, two and 
one-eighth inches long and seven-eighths of 
Sow Tiiife''^ an inch wide. Through the center of the 
Koksoagmyut. pjg^g ^f hom an obfoug hole has been cut for 
the insertion of the shaft or handle. The edges of the 
horn piece are sharp as can be made. This piece is one- 
third of an inch thick, and having the sharp edge up is 
convenient for thrusting down the back to scratch one's 
self in places where the hand could not reach on account 
of thick deerskin clothing. The Eskimo name of the in- 
strument is ku-m6-u-tik, or that which removes lice. 

The steel needles obtained from the traders are kept in 
a little ivory receptacle of various shapes, two of which ' scratchcr, koIc 
are shown in Figs. 72 and i6. 

This is hollow and lilled with any sphagnum moss. One end is per- 
manently closed by a wooden or ivory plug, held in by little pegs. The 
plug in tlie other end is easily taken out. The needle case is usually 



pierced to i-eceive a loop l)y which it may be liuiig to the belt or the 
Needles are also kept in a kiud of small eusliioii (Fig. 74) made of 

Fig. 72.— Ivory needle case. 

Fig. 73.- Ivory needle case. 

sealskin, elaborately ornamented with beads and stuffed with sphagnum 
moss. The cushion is perforated around the edge to receive the needles, 

which would not easily go 
through the tough skin. 
Accompanying one of 
these needle cushions in 
the collection is <me of 
the old-fashioned thim- 
bles such as are still used, 
although metal thimbles 
are i>referred, it is sim- 
ply a strip of sealskin 
sewed into a ring large 
enough to lit the forelin- 
ger, and is usually at- 

cushion by a thong with an ivory toggle on the end, to prevent the 
thimble from slipijing off. 

Small articles used in sewing, such as scraps of skin, needle cases, 
sinew thread, thimbles, etc., are carried in siua'l bags of deerskin, which 
are often elaborately ornamented with beads of various colors, like the 
specimen in the collection, No. 3047. 


Notwithstanding the fact that these people have had their lot cast 
upon the frozen shores of the sea, tliey appear happy and contented 
and loath to leave the land of their birth. Although it is a constant 

Fig. 74. — Sealskin needle cusbion, with thimble. 


struggle amidst the terrible storms of a region where for eight months 
iu the year the soil is frozen and the few warm days of summer bring 
forth a scanty vegetation, yet so strong is their love for these inhos- 
pitable shores that the absent pine for a return and soon lose their hold 
on life if they are not able to do so. 

During the intervals between the hunts and when food is still plen- 
tifiil, the Eskimo divert themselves with games of various kinds of their 
own. They are also quick to adopt other games which require outdoor 

Football calls out everybody, from the aged and bent mother of a 
numerous family to the toddling youngster scarcely able to do more than 
waddle under the burden of his heavy deerskin clothes. Wrestling 
among the men is indulged in for hours at a time. The opponents 
remove all their superfluous garments, .seize each other around the 
waist and lock haiuls behind each other's backs. The feet are spread 
widely apart and each endeavors to draw, by the strength of the arms 
alone, the back of his opponent into a curve and thus bring him oft' his 
feet. Then with a lift he is quickly thrown flat on his back. The fall 
must be such that the head touches the ground. Where the contestants 
are nearly matched the struggle may continue so long that one of them 
gives up from exhaustion. The feet are never used for tripping. Such 
a procedure would soon cause the witnesses to stop the struggle. 

The Eskimo and Indians often engage in comparative tests of their 
strength in wrestling. The Eskimo prove the better men iu these 
engagements. Throwing stones at a mark is a sport for the younger 
men, some of whom acquire surprising dexterity. 

If a pack of playing-cards can be obtained they engage in games 
which they have learned from the white people and teach each other. 
Small stakes are laid on the result of the game. The women appear to 
exhibit a greater passion for gambling than the men do. They will 
wager the last article of clothing on their persons till the loser appears 
in a nude condition before spectators. Then the winner will usually 
return at least a part of the clothing, with an injunction to play more 
and lose less. 

The young girls often play the game of taking an object and secret- 
ing it within the closed hand. Another is called upon to guess the con- 
tents. She makes inquiries as to the size, color, etc., of the object. 
From the answers she gradually guesses what the thing is. 

A favorite game, something like cup and ball, is played with the 
following implements: A piece of ivory is shaped into the form of an 
elongate cone and has two deep notches or steps cut from one side 
(Fig. 75). In the one next the base are bored a number of small holes 
aud one or two holes in the upper step. The apex has a single hole. 
On the opposite side of the base two holes are made obliquely, that they 
will meet, and through them is threaded a short piece of thong. To 
the other end of the thong is attached a peg of ivory, about 4 i)iches 



long. Tlie giiiue is that the person holding the plaything shall, by a 
dextrous swiug of the ball, catch it upon the ivory peg held in the hand. 
The person engages to catcli it a certain number of times in succession, 

and on failure to 
do so allows the 
opponent to try her 
skill. The skull of 
a hare is often sub- 
stituted for the 
ivory "ball," and a 
few perforations 
are made in the 
walls of the skull 

Fig. 75.— Cup and ball. Koksnagmyut. to receive the peg. 

It requires a great amount of i)ractice to catch the ball, as the string is 
so short that one must be quick to thrust the ])eg iu before it describes 
the jiart of a small circle. 

The children sometimes use a stick or other sharp-pointed instrument 
to make a series of straight lines iu the newly fallen smiw and at the 
same time repeat certain gibberish. This was at first very confusing 
to me, but a woman repeated the words 
and I guessed from her description 
where the idea sprang from. 

These people had heard of the teach- 
ings of the Labrador missionaries (Mo- 
ravians), all of whom are Germans, 
and as the Eskimo of that coast use 
the German numerals in preference to 
their own, the natives of that region 
have at some time repeated the names 
of those numerals to certain of the 
Hudson strait people and they have '1 
taught each other. 

The names of the German numerals 
as sounded by the Koksoagmyut are 
as follows. The numbers are one to 
fifteen, consecutively : 

Ai i ; chu v4i i ; ta lai i ; pi u' la ; pi 
li pi; ts^k si; ts^ pa; 4k ta; nai na; 
ts6 na; ai In puk; chu viii Iu puk; ta 
lak si na; pi iik' si na, and pi lip' si na. 

1 have already referred to the game 
of football as played by these iieople. 

Fig. 76 represents the football (No. 
it. The Eskimo are very fond of this game. All the people of every 
age, from the toddUng infant to the aged female with bended back, love 

Fig. 76. — rootliall and driver, 


307(1) and the whip for driving 




to uige the iii uk toi'ik, as the ball i.s termed. The size of the ball 
varies from 3 to 7 inches in diaiiieter. They liave not yet arrived 
at i)erfeetioii in making a sitherical form for the ball, bnt it i.s often 
an apple shape. It is made by taking a piece of buckskin, or 
sealskin, and cutting it into a circular form, then gathering the 
edges and stuffing the cavity with dry moss or feathers. A circular 
piece of skin is then inserted to fill the space which is left by the incom- 
plete gatherings. This ball is very light and is driven cither by a blow 
from the foot or else by a whip of peculiar construction. This whij) 
consists of a handle of wood 8 to 12 inches in length. To prevent it 
from slipping out of the hand when the blow is struck, a stout thong 
of sealskin is made into the form of a long loop which is passed over 
the hand and tightens around the wrist. To the farther end of the 
whip handle are at- 
tached a number 
of stout thongs of 
heavy sealskin. 
These thongs have 
their ends tied 
around the handle 
and thus form a 
number of loojis of 
12 to 20 inches in 
length. These are 
then tied together 
at the bottom in 
order to give them 
greater weight 
when the ball is struck by them. A lusty Eskimo will often send the 
ball over a hundred yards through the air with such force as to knock 
a person down. 

At Fort Chimo the game is played during the late winter afternoons 
when the temperature is 30° or 40° below zero. It is exciting and 
vigorous play where a large crowd joins in the game. 

Sometimes the ball is in the form of two irregular hemispheres joined 
together, making a sphere which can be rolled only in a certain di- 
rection. It is very awkward and xjroduces much confusion by its 
erratic course. Nos. 34G1, 3287, and 3460 are footballs of the pattern 
first described. 

The lunuit who come from the western end of Hudson strait, the so- 
called "Northerners," have a game which they play with sets of pieces 
of ivory cut into irregular shapes, and marked on one face with spots 
arranged in different patterns (Fig. 77). The number of pieces in a set 
varies from CO to 148. The name of the set is A ma zu' a \At, and 
somewhat resembles our game of dominoes. 

The game is played in the following manner: Two or more persons, 
11 ETH 17 


Str.iit Eskimo. 



according- to the mimber of pieces in the set, sit down and pile the 
pieces before them. One of the players mixes the pieces together in 
plain view of the others. "When this is done he calls them to take the 

pieces. Each person endeavors to obtain a 
half or third of the number if there be two 
or three players. The one who mixed up the 
l)ieces lays down a piece and calls his oppo- 
nent to match it with a piece having a simi- 
lar design. If this can not be done by any 
of the players the first has to match it and 
the game continues until one of the persons 
has exhausted all of the pieces taken by him. 
The pieces are designed in pairs, having 
names such as Ka miu tik (sled), Kaiak (ca- 
noe), Kale sak (navel), A ma zut (many), a 
tau sik (1), M;1 kok (2), Ping a sut (3), Si ta 
miit (4), and Ta li mat (5). Each of the 
names above must be matched with a piece 
of similar kind, although the other end of the 
piece may be of a dif- 
erent design. A Kam 
utik may be matched 
with an Amazut if 
the latter has not a 
line or bar cut across 
it; if it has the bar it ' 
must be nuitched with 
an Amazut. 

Fig. 78._E8kiino doU, man. rpj^j^ ^^^^ jg ^i^own 

to the people of the Ungava district, but those 
only who have learned it fi'om the Northerners 
are able to play it. The northern Eskimo stake 
the last article they possess on the issue of the 
game. Their wives are disposed of temporarily, 
and often are totally relintjuished to the victor. 
I have heard that the wives so disposed of often 
sit down and win themselves back to their former 

The little girls play with dolls like civilized 
children, and build little snow huts, where they 
have all their playtliings and play at keeping 
house. The collection contains eleven dolls, most 
of them elaborately and accurately dressed, as fiq. 79.— Eskimo doii, woman, 
shown by the illustrations (Figs. 7S, 79, 80. 81) and large (luantities of 
doll clothing. 

The only musical instrument which I observed among these people 




was a violin of their own manufacture, made, of course, in iiuitatiou 

of those tliey had seen used by tlie whites. Its form is sufficiently 

well shown by the figure (Fig. 82), and is 

made of birch or spruce, and the two 

strings are of coarse, loosely twisted sinew. 

The bow has a strip of whalebone in place 

of horsehair, and is resined with spruce 

gum. This fiddle is held across the lap 

when played. 

The old woman of 

whom I procured the 

instrument was able to 

play several airs — such 

as tlu^y sing among 

themselves. I was sur- 
prised at fhe facility 

with which slie made 

the various notes on 

such a crude imitation 

of a violin. 

Art is but slightly 
developed among these 
people. Their weapons 
and other implements 
are never adorned with 
carvings of animals 
and other natural ob- 
jects or with conven- 
tional patterns, as is 
the case in so great a degree among the Eskimo of Alaska. They are, 
however, not devoid of artistic skill, as is shown by the good taste 

80.— Eskimo doll, 

81. — E.skimo (loll, woman. 

Flii. 82. -Eskimo violin. 

often exhibited in the trimming of their garments, and also by tlie dolls, 
which I have already referred to and figured. 



•tioii also c.outiiius sevei 
sideiuble artistic merit. 

al small ivory carvings, which 
Among these, the small ob- 
jects, (Fig. 83), collected from 
the so-called Northerners, rep- 
reseiitvarious waterfowl cut from 
pieces of walrns ivory. The vari- 
ous sjiecies thus carved are loons, 
ducks, geese, sea pigeons, and 
niurres. One represents a female 
eider with two young mounted 
upon her back. It is readily 
discerned, in most instances, 
what position and action of the 
bird was intended to be repre- 
sented. The last shows in the 
plainest possible manner that 
the loon is just starting to swim 
from an object which has given 
it alarm. 

These carvings are fashioned 
from the tusks of the walrus or 
the teeth of various large mam- 
mals, and are simply tests of the 
skill of the worker, who prepares 
them as toys for the children. 
Notwithstanding the assertions 
of otliers, who claim to have 

Fig. 83.— Birds carved iu ivory. knowledge of it, I mUSt State 

that on no occasion have I seen or heard, while among these people, of 

these objects being usihT in any game. 

In addition to these we have a very 
artistic figure of a polar bear, and 
two liumau figures, 1-| inches long 
(Fig. 84), representing tattooed wo- 
men, and two carvings representing 
bags of oil. 


Like all other Eskimo, the Kok- 
soagmyut are exceedingly fond of 
story-telling. Sitting in the hut, en- 
gaged in their evening work, the old 
men tell what they have seen and 
Fid. R4.— Human figure, carvid in ivory, heard. The old womcu relate the his- 
tory of the i)eo])le of former days, de])ending entirely on memory, often 
interspersed with recitations apparently foreign to the thiead of the 


TnHNEii.1 POLK LORE. 2(ll 

legend. The youngei' inembeis sit witli staring eyes and eonnteiiances 
wliieh show their wondering interest in tlie narration. Far into the 
night tlie ilroniug tone of her voice continues reciting the events of the 
jKist until one by one the listeners drowsily drop to sleep in the jwsi- 
tion they last assumed. 

I was fortunately able to collect a number of these ancient legendary 
stories, some of them of considerable length. 

Origin of the Innuit. — A man was created froni nothing. It was 
summer and he journeyed until he found a woman in another land. 
The two became man and wife, and from them sprang all the people 
dwelling there. [It is extremely dillicult to get the native to go beyond 
the immediate vicinity in which he lives while relating these stories 
and legends. They invarialjly maintain that it was "here" that the 
event took place.] 

The Comiwj of the White People. — The Eskimo were on the vei'ge of 
starvation and had eaten nearly all their food. They saw that in a few 
more days death would come. The greatest Tungaksoak or great 
Tung ak determined toT)ring ixdief and prophesied that people having 
light hair and white skins would come in an immense luniak. He 
placed a young puppy on a chip and another on an old jsealskiu boot, 
and set them adrift on the water. The pujipies drifted in difiereut 
directions, and in the course of time the one on the chij) returned and 
brought with it the Indians. A long time after that, when the people 
had nearly forgotten the other puppy, a strange white object like an 
iceberg came directly toward the shore. In a few moments the puppy, 
now a man, announced that the people had come with many curious 
things in their vessel. The mau immediately became a dog. 

Orii/in of living things on the earth and in the water. — A long time ago 
a man who was cutting down a tree observed that the chips continued 
in motion as they fell from the blows. Those that fell into the water 
became the inhabitants of the water. Those that fell on the land be- 
came the various animals and in time were made the food of mankind. 
(This was the version given me by a person living at Fort (Jhimo.) 
Another person from farther west gave the following account of the ori- 
gin of the living things of the earth: Previous to a time when water 
covered the earth the people lived on such food as they could always 
find prepared for them in abundance. They did not know of any ani- 
mals at that time on the land or in the water. The water finally went 
away and the seaweeds became trees, shrubs, bushes, and grass. The 
long seaweeds were the trees and the smaller kinds became the bushes 
and grass. Tlie grass, however, was in some manner put in various 
l)lac('s by a walrus at a later date than the appearance of the trees. 

A woman who had lost her husband lived among strangers. As they 
desired to change the place of their habitation, they resolved to journey 
to another point of land at a distance. The woman who was dei)ending 
on charity had become a burden of which they wished to rid themselves. 


So they put all tlieir l)eloiigiugs into the umiak and when they were 
on the way they seized the woman and cast her overboard. She strug- 
gled to regain the side of the boat, and when she seized it, the other's cut 
oft' her fingers which fell into the water and changed to seals, walrus, 
whales, and white bears. The woman in her des^iair, screamed her de- 
termination to have revenge for the cruelty perpetrated upon her. The 
thumb became a walrus, the first finger a seal, and the middle finger a 
white bear. When the former two animals see a man they try to es- 
cape lest they be served as the woman was. 

The white bear lives both on the land and in the sea, but when he 
perceives a man revengeful feelings fill him, and he determines to de- 
stroy the person who he thinks mutilated the woman from whose finger 
he sprang. 

Origin of the (/uiUemots. — While some children were playing on the 
level top of a high clitf overhanging the sea, the older children watched 
the younger ones lest they should fall down the bluff. Below them the 
sea was covered with ice, and the strip along the shore had not yet 
loosened to permit the seals to ajiproach. Soon afterward a wide 
crack opened and the water was filled with seals, but the children did 
not observe them. The wiud was cold, and the children romped in 
high glee, encouraging each other to greater exertion in their sports 
and shouted at the top of their voices. The men saw the seals and 
hastened to the shore to put their kaiaks into the water to pursue 
them. At this the children increased their shouts, which frightened 
the seals till they dived out of sight. One of the men was angry, and 
exclaimed to the others, '<I wish the dift' would topple over and bury 
those noisy children for scaring the seals." In a moment the cliff 
tipped over and the poor children fell among the fragments of huge 
rocks and stones at the bottom. Here they were changed into guille- 
mots or sea-iiigeons, with red feet, .and even to this day they thus 
dwell among the debris at the footof cliifs next to the water of the sea. 

Origin of the raven. — The raven was a man, who, while other people 
were collecting their household property preparatory to removing to 
another locality, called to them that tliey had forgotten to bring the 
lower blanket of deerskin used for a bed. This skin in the Eskimo lan- 
guage is called kak. The man used the word so often that they told 
him to get it himself. He hurried so much that he was changed into 
a raven, and now uses that sound for his note. Even to this day when 
the camp is being removed the raven flies over and shouts "Kak! 
kak!" or, in other words, "Do not forget the blanket." 

Origin of the quadrangular spats on the loon's had;. — A man had two 
children that he wished might resemble each other. He painted the 
one (loon) with a white breast and sijuare spots oti the back. The 
other (raven) saw how comical the loon appeared, and laughed so much 
that the loon became ashamed and escaped to the water, where it 
always presents its white breast in order to hide the spots of the back 


wliit'li caused so mncli ridicule. The raven eluded the attempt to be 
painted in like manner, and stoutly refused to come near. 

Oriijin ofthc(/i(lln. — Some people in a boat desired to go around a 
point of land which projected far into the water. As the water there 
was always in a violent commotion under the end of the iioint which 
terminated in a high cliif some of the women were requested to walk 
over the neck of laud. One of them got out with her children in order 
to lighten the boat. She was directed to go over the place, and they 
promised to wait for her on the other side. The people in the boat 
had gone so far that their voices, giving the direction, became indis- 
tinct. The poor woman became confused and suspected they wanted 
to desert her. She remained about the cliff, constantly crying the last 
words she heard. She ultimately changed into a gull, and now shouts 
only the sound like "f/o over, goover, over, oye," etc. 

Origin of the hawks. — Among the peo^jle of a village was a woman 
who was noted for the shortness of her neck. She was so constantly 
teased and tormented about it that she often sat for hours on the edge 
of high ]3laces. She changed into a hawk, and now when she sees 
anyone she immediately exclaims, ''Kea! kea! kea! who, who, who 
was it that cried ' short neck ! ' " 

Origin of the swallow.— Some small children, who were extraordi- 
narily wise, were playing at building toy houses on the edge of a high 
clift near the village in which they dwelt. They were envied for their 
wisdom, and to them was given the name "Zirlugagnak," or, like a 
raven, which was supposed to know all the past and future. While 
these children were thus amusing themselves they were changed into 
small birds, which did not forget their last occupation, and even to 
this day they come to the cliffs, near the camps of the people, and 
build houses of mud, which they affix to the side of the rock. Even 
the raven does not molest them, and the Eskimo children love to 
watch the swallow build his iglugiak of mud. 

The hare. — The hare was a child who was so ill treated and abused 
by the other people, because it had long ears, that it went to dwell by 
itself. When it sees anyone the ears are laid down on the back, for, if 
it hears the shout of a person, it thinks they are talking of its long 
ears. It has no tail, because it did not formerly have one. 

The wolf was a poor woman, who had so many children that she 
could not lind enough for them to eat. They became so gaunt and 
hungry that they were changed into wolves, constantly roaming over 
the land seeking food. The cry of the mother may be heard as she 
strives to console her hungry children, saying that food in plenty will 
soon be found. 

Live are supposed to drop from the body of a huge spirit, dwelling' 
in the regions above, who was punished by having these pests con 
stantly torment him. In his rnge to free? himself the lice dropped 
down upon the people who condemned him to this ijunishment. 


Origin of mosquitoes. — A mau had a wife who was negligeut and 
failed to scrape his skiu clothing' properly when he returned from his 
expeditious. He endeavored to persuade her to mend her ways and 
do as a wife should do. She was again directed to remove the accu- 
mulated layer of dirt from the man's coat. She petulantly took the 
garment and cleaned it in such a slovenly way that when the husband 
discovered the condition of the coat he took some of the dirt from it 
and flung it after her. The particles clm.nged into mosquitoes, and now 
(in spring), when the warm days come and the women have the labor of 
cleaning clothes to perform, the insects gather around them, and the 
women are thus reminded of the slovenly wife and what befel her. 

Story of the man and his fox wife. — A hunter who lived by himself 
found when he returned to the place after an absence that it had been 
visited and everything put in order as a dutiful wife should do. Tliis 
happened so often with no visible signs of tracks that the man deter- 
mined to watch and see who would scrape his skin clothing and boots, 
hang them out to dry, and cook nice hot food ready to be eaten when 
he returned. One day he went away as though going oft' on a hunt, 
but secreted himself so as to observe the entrance of anything into the 
house. After a while he saw a fox enter. He suspected that the fox 
was after food. He quietly slipped up to the house and on entering 
saw a most beautiful woman dressed in skin clothing of wondrous make. 
Within the house, on a line, hung the skin of a fox. The man inquired 
if it was she who had done these things. She replied that she was his 
wife and it was her duty to do them, hoping that she had performed 
her labor in a manner satisfactory to him. 

After they had lived together a short time the husband detected a 
musky odor about the house and inquired of her what it was. She 
replied that she emitted the odor and if he was going to find fault with 
her for it she would leave. She dashed oft" her clothing and, resuming 
the skiu of the fox, slipped quietly away and has never been disposed 
to visit a man since that time. 

The following is a story obtained from Labrador: 

The rivals. — Between two men there existed keen rivalry. Each 
asserted himself to be the stronger and endeavored to prove himself 
superior to the other. One of them declared his ability to form an 
island whei-e none had hitherto existed. He picked up an immense 
ro(!k and hurled it into the sea where it became an island. The other, 
with his foot, pushed it so hard that it landed on the top of another 
island lying far beyond. The mark of the f()oti)rint is \isible to this 
day, and that place is now known as Tu kik' tok. 

The jealous man. — A man fell in love with two women and was so 
jealous of them that he would not permit them to look upon others, 
much less speak to them. The women finally wearied of the restric- 
tions iilaced upon them and resolved to desert the man. They fled 
along the coast until they were faint from hunger. At length they 


came upon the body ol' a whale cast on the shore. Here they deter- 
mined to dwell for a time. The man sought for the women in every 
possible ])luce with no success. A conjurer was consulted, and after 
much deliberation, he told the deserted man to journey to a place 
where he would find the carcass of a whale and to secrete himself in 
the vicinity and watch for the women. TTe started out accordingly 
and before long had tlie i^leasure of seeing the two women. They 
detected the mau hastening toward them and tried to secrete them- 
selves until he should get by. He seized one of them, however, and 
bound her with thongs. The other was less disposed to submit, and 
the mau put out her eyes to deprive her of the privilege of looking at 
any man. They remained about that locality for some time, and 
various animals of the land came to the carcass to feast upon the re- 
mains. The man caught a great number of foxes and other valuable 
furs and after a time returned to the camp whence he came. 

Story of the orphan boy. — A small boy, who had neither father, 
mother, nor any living relatives, was dwelling with some people who 
maltreated him in every way their fancy could suggest. He was kept 
in the entry way to the hut, like a dog, and was permitted to eat only 
of the skin of walrus when they had it to give him. At other times they 
would throw to him what they themselves would not eat. They for- 
bade him to have a knife with which to cut his food, and he was com- 
pelled to gnaw the bones like a dog. A little girl, the daughter of the 
head of the family with whom he lived, would secretly take to him a 
knife with which to divide the tough skin of the walrus. She also car- 
ried food of better quality to him when she could do so clandestinely. 
These kind attentions pleased him very much, and made him long for 
an opportunity to escape. But how was he to better his condition 
when the hand of everybody was raised against him on account of his 
treatment at home ? The little girl who had so often befriended him 
could not assist him to escape fi'om such a life. He endeavored to lay 
a plan, but it came to naught. There seemed no help for him. One 
night he abandoned all hope and threw himself cm the ground iu des- 
pair. While there he gazed at the bright moon, and the more intently 
his gaze was fixed upon it the more he thought he discerned the face 
of a man in it, and at last he cried to the mau to come and helj) him 
escape from his miserable life. The man came down from the moon 
and gave the poor boy a frightful beating, but the more he was beaten 
the larger he seemed to grow. After awhile he became so strong that 
he could handle a large rock as easily as he had hitherto handled a 
little stone. A large, round bowlder from the beach was no more to 
him than a bullet held in the hand of a strong man. 

The moon man then told the boy that he was large enough to take 
care of himself and do as he pleased with the people who had treated 
him so badly. With this the two parted, and the moon man went to 
Ills hole in the sky, while the boy walked along the beach picking up 


rocks and tossing them along the shore until the character of the water's 
edge was entirely changed. When the boy arrived at the hut it was 
daylight, for he had tarried so long on the beach testing his strength 
that the night had slipped away. 

The people were terrified when they saw to what enormous propor- 
tions the abused boy had grown. He became frenzied the instant he 
saw his former persecutors, and seizing first one and then the other in 
his hands dashed them against the rocks. The blood and brains ran 
in streams. One of the men, seeing his doom, begged for his life and 
promised his kaiak, spears, sled, and wife if he should be spared. The 
enraged boy continued the slaughter until only the little girl who had 
so often befi'iended him was left. She became his wife, and in the 
course of a few hours the man, whose name was Kou j6 yuk, became 
of a natural size again and passed his life in comfort. 

This story was obtained from a man from Labrador. The Eskimo 
assert that this occurred near Ohak (often pronounced Okak), now a 
missionary station. They show the rock, which a little imaginatiou 
gives the appearance of having dried blood and brains still upon it. 

The origin of the sun^ moon, and stars. — At a time when darkness 
covered the earth a girl was nightly visited by some one whose identity 
she could not discover. She determined to find out who it could be. 
She mixed some soot with oil and painted her breast with it. The next 
time she discovered, to her horror, that her brother had a black circle 
of soot around his mouth. She upbraided him and he denied it. The 
father and mother were very angry and scolded the pair so severely 
that the son Hed from their presence. The daughter seized a brand 
from the lire and pursued him. He ran to the sky to avoid her but she 
flew after him. The man changed into the moon and the girl who bore 
the torch became the sun. The sparks that Hew from the brand became 
the stars. The sun is constantly pursuing .the moon, which keeps in 
the darkness to avoid being discovered. When an eclipse occurs they 
are supijosed to meet. 

Auroras. — Auroras are believed to be tlie torches held in the hands 
of spirits seeking the souls of those who have just died, to lead them 
over the abyss terminating the edge of the world. A narrow pathway 
leads across it to the land of brightness and jdenty, where disease and 
pain are no more, and where food of all kinds is always ready in abun- 
dance. To this place none but tlie dead and the raven can go. When 
the spirits wish to communicate with the people of the eartli they make 
a whistling noise and the eartli people answer only in a whispering 
tone. The Eskimo say that they are able to call the aurora and con- 
verse with it. They send messages to the dead thi'ough these spirits. 

The sA-j/. — The sky is supposed to be an immense dome, of hard ma- 
terial, reared over the earth, long from east to west and shorter from 
north to south. The edges of the land and sea are bounded by high, 
precipitous sides, shelving outward or sloping inward to prevent any- 


tliiug' living ou tlie earth from going to the region beyond. There is 
the source of light and heat. The dome of the sky is very cold, and at 
times covered with crystals of frost which fall in the form of snow or 
frost films to the earth, and then the sky becomes clear. The clouds 
are supposed to be large bags of water, controlled by two old women 
who run with them across the sky, and as the water escapes from the 
seams it falls in the form of rain to the earth. The thunder is their 
voice and the lightning is their torch. If a spark falls from this ou 
anyone he dies and goes to the region above. 

The winds. — At each of the corners of the earth there dwells an im- 
mense but invincible spirit, whose head is many times larger than all 
the remainder of his body. When he breathes the wind blows and 
his breath is felt. Some breathe violent storms and others gentle 
zephyrs. The male spirits dwell at the north, northeast, northwest, 
and west. The females dwell at the remaining points, and each princi- 
pal spirit has innumerable intermediate and less powerful attendants. 


The Indians of the Uugava district are locally known as Naskopie, 
a term of reproach applied to them by the mountaineers (the Montagnais 
of the early Jesuit missionaries) during the earlier days when the 
former acted falsely in one of their concerted struggles with the Eskimo 
of the eastern coast. 

The name given to themselves is Nenenot, a word meaning true, or 
ideal red men. To the west of these people dwell a branch of the tribe 
along the east shore of Hudson bay. To the southeast dwell the moun- 

The western people differ greatly in customs and many words of 
their language from the Xenenots. The mountaineers differ but little 
in their customs, and only in speech as much as would be expected 
from the different locality in which they dwell. 

These three tribes havedistinct boundaries, beyond which they seldom 
wander. Of iate years, however, a gradual influx of the western people 
has poured into the Ungava district, due to the decrease of the food 
sui>ply along that portion of the eastern coast of Hudson bay. 

The Nenenots appear, from the best information I could obtain on the 
subject, to have been driven to their present location during the wars 
waged against them by the Iroquois in times long gone by and remem- 
bered only in tradition. 

They assert that their original home was in a country to the west, 
north of an immense river, and toward the east lay an enormous body 
of salt water. The former was supposed to be the St. Lawrence river 
and the latter to be Hudson bay. When they came to their present 
'place they say that they found Eskimo alone, and these only along the 
coast. They are a branch of the Oree stock, as their language clearly 


Many years ago war was waged upon tliem by the people whose 
name is remembered with terror even to this day. Most cruel atrocities 
were perpetrated, and in despair they fled from the land of their fathers, 
where they had lived as a numerous people, and were pursued by their 
merciless foes until but a remnant reached what is now known as the 
"Height of Land." 

Being now driven to a strange land, where they found numerous 
Eskimo on all sides, only a few years elapsed before they encroached 
too greatly ujion the land which the Eskimo had always held. Con- 
tention and struggles arose, culminating in a disijosition to tight, and 
in the course of time desultory warfare, carried on by single combat or 
organized raids. This lasted for many years, even after the advent of 
the white men as traders along the coast. Some of the battles were 
attended with great slaughter on both sides. The Eskimo seldom ven- 
tured far from the coast ou their raids, but fought bravely when at- 
tacked on their own ground. In most instances they outwitted the 
Indians by decoying them into ambush, and killing great numbers of 
them. Within the present century they have been more peaceably 
disposed toward each other. Since the arrival of the white men at 
various points along the coast these troubles have ceased, and the 
Indians and Eskimo are now on intimate terms; not that either party 
have any special regard for the new comers, but they have a mutual 
fear of each other, find the white man now engages their entire atten- 

In the early struggles the Indian found the Eskimo to be a sturdy 
opponent, possessed of greater endurance and perseverance than him- 
self. After the conclusion of the troubles tliey withdrew to their pres- 
ent haunts, and now wander indiscriminately over the land, although 
the Eskimo seldom ventures far into the interior unless it be along the 
valley of some large stream. They even camp alongside of each other, 
and aged Indian men and women, who have been left behind the parties 
of young people who are in quest of fur-bearing auimals during the 
winter months, are only too glad to have a camp of jolly Eskimo near 
at hand. With them they can live as parasites until their hosts are 
exhausted of supplies, or until they move to another locality to relieve 
themselves of the importunities of their unbidden guests. 

The Indian is not the physical suiierior of the Eskimo. It is true 
they are more expert on snowshoes, because the snowshoes belong to 
their mode of life. They are used by the Eskimo only when they can be 
])urchased by barter from the Indian. The Eskimo snowshoe is merely 
a rude imitation of the form used by the neighboring Indians. In the 
canoe the Indian is at home; so also is the Eskimo in the kaiak. which 
braves the severest weather and the roughest water, on which the In- 
dian would only gaze in dread and never venture. 

Ability to endure fatigue is less iu the hufian than the Eskimo, who 
ai;comi)lishes by i)atieiit persistence what tlie Indian desires to do iu a 



hui'jy. I have not observcil Iiuliaiis carry such heavy hiads as those 
boruc ou the shouhlois of Mskimo, who, with ease, ascended a hill of 
such abrupt steepness that an unencumbered person climbed it with 
difficulty. Several Eskimo men ascended this hill, each with a barrel 
of flour ou his shoulders. 

The Indian is able to withstand the ett'ect of cold as well as the 
Eskimo. The clothing of the latter is certainly better adapted to pro- 
tect against cold. In times of scarcity of food the Eskimo is able to 
go without food for a number of days and yet perform a considerable 
amount of physical labor, while the Indian would require food on the 
second or third day, and refuse to move until it had been furnished. 

In comparison with a white man under the same conditions the na- 
tives of either class would soon show signs of inferiority, and under 
prolonged exertion but few, even of the Eskimo, would endure the 
strain. The principal strength of these i)eople is shown in their suc- 
cess in the chase. 

The children are obedient to their parents, who seldom ever chastise 
them. Disrespect to parents is unknown, and in their intercourse with 
each other there are no cJashings during youth, ll^^ot until the .jeal- 
ousies awakened under the stimulus of their sexual instincts arouse 
their passions do they begin to show enmity and hatred toward each 

The males evidently exhibit jealousy to a less degree than the oppo- 
site sex. The men, after a protracted absence from each other, often 
embrace and shed tears of joy at meeting. The women are less demon- 

The number of children born exceeds the number of deaths. Mor- 
tality appeared to be low for the two years I was near these people. 
The prevailing diseases ai'e of the lungs and bowels. The lung dis- 
eases are induced by constant exposure to extremes of wet and cold 
and the inhalation of foul air laden with terebinthine odors, arising 
from the resinous woods used for fuel. Changes of the wind blowing 
in at the door cause the interior to become filled with smoke, which is 
endured rather than admit the cold air from without. 

Abstinence from fresh food for a long time, with dry meat only to 
subsist upon, is often broken by the sudden capture of deer. This 
affords an opportunity for gorging until tlie digestive organs are weak- 
ened and serious complications arise. It is quite probable that gluttony 
directly produces half of the illnesses that occur among these people. 
The insufficiency of clothing does not apparently influence health, as 
they seem utterly regardless of exposure, and hmg continued dwelling 
in the tents probably induces nearly, if not quite, all the other ills afflict- 
ing them. Indolent ulcers and scrofulous complications are frequent, 
but only in few instances are of such character as to prevent their fol- 
lowing their usual occupations. During illness they are stolid, and 
aijpear to suft'er intense pain without the twitching of a muscle. When 


death iipi>roaches it has but httle terror, and is awaited with iiuiifler- 

The remedies employed are only those afforded by the beating of the 
drum and the mumblings of the shaman, who claims to have control of 
the spirit which causes all disease and death. They are, however, 
firm believers in the efficacy of potions compounded by the white 
trader, who is fully as ignorant of the disease as the subject himself is. 
Often a harmless mixture of red ink, red pepper, ginger, or other pun- 
gent substance is given, with a nudtiplicity of confusing directions, be- 
wildering the messenger dispatched for relief, who, in repeating them, 
often makes mistakes and advises that the whole quantity be swallowed. 
The effect is sometimes magical, and the patient recovers. Powders 
are rubbed over the seat of pain and liniments swallowed with avidity. 
Strange as it may seem, they often report good effects, and rarely fail 
to ask for more of the same kind. Both sexes attain a great age — in 
some instances certainly living over seventy years. Some assert that 
they were well advanced in years before the white men came in 1827. 

The maxriage ceremony is simply a consent to live together, obtained 
by request if possible, and by force, if necessary. The man takes a 
wife as soon as he considers himself al)le to support one. When the 
ceremony is to be undertaken the consent of the girl's parents or near- 
est relatives is sought, and by holding out tempting inducements in 
the form of presents, the suitor wins them to his favor. The consent of 
the girl, if she has not yet been married is, of course, granted, if she 
desires to comply with the wishes of her relatives. If not, the pros- 
pective husband is informed that they can do nothing to turn her heart. 
The matter is understood, and in a short time she is taken forcibly to 
his or his father's tent. The tie binding the couple is very loose, and 
on the least provocation may be dissolved by either party. Continence 
on the part of either wife or husband is unusual, and only notorious 
incontinence is sufticient to cause the offender to be put away. Their 
sexual relations are very loose among theinseh'es, but their immorality 
is confined to their own people. To take a second, a third, or even a 
fourth wife, is not uncommon, but the additional wives are taken prin- 
cipally for the purpose of ijerforming labor imposed by the energy of a 
successful hunter. It is only he wealthy men who can afford a plurality 
of wives. The several wives often dwell in the same tent, but as jeal- 
ousies frequently arise they resort to fighting among themselves to 
settle their differences. The husband looks on calmly until matters 
go too far. When he interferes the women are sure of being soundly 
thrashed. A woman, however, often assails lier husband, and in some 
instances gives him an unmerciful i>ounding, much to the amusement 
of the bystanders, who encourage her to do her best. The man is a 
subject for ridicule for weeks afterwards. Either sex cau endure being 
beaten, but not being laughed at. They rarely forgive a white man who 
laughs at their discomfiture. An amusing incident occurred within a 


stoue's throw of Fort Oliiino. An Indian had liis clothing strii)ped 
from him by his enraged wife. She then tore the tent from the poles, 
leaving him naked. She took their property to the canoe, which she 
paddled several miles up the stream. He followed along the bank 
until she relented, whereupon their former relations were resumed, as 
though nothing had disturbed the harmony of their life. The man was 
so severely plagued by his comrades that for many days he scarcely 
showed his head out of the tent. Rivalry for the fiivor of a woman or 
man is occasionally the source of serious affrays. An instance was re- 
lated to me where two men sought the hand of a woman, and to settle 
which should have her, they determined to go in their canoes to the 
lake near by and fight with their deer spears. One of the men was 
killed and the other thereupon obtained the woman, who is now living. 

The sexes have their special labors. Women perform the drudgery 
and bring home the food slain by their husbands, fetching wood and 
water, tanning the skins, and making them into clothing. The labor 
of erecting the tents and hauling the sleds when on their journey dur- 
ing the winter falls upon them, and, in fact, they perform the greater 
part of the manual labor. They are considered inferior to the men, and in 
their social life they soon show the effects of the hardships they un- 

The females arrive at puberty at the age of 14 or 15, and are taken 
as wives at even an earlier age. So early are they taken iu marriage 
that before they are 30 years of age they often appear as though they 
were 50. Some of them are hideously ugly, and are so begrimed with 
smoke from the resinous wood used for fuel and with filth that it is 
purely guesswork to even approximate their age. The women appear 
to be exempted from the curse of Eve, and deliver their children with 
as little concern as is exhibited among the brutes. The child is not 
allowed to receive nourishment until the third day, and no water must 
touch its body. The infant is swaddled in wrappings of skins and 
cloths. Sphagnum moss is used next the body and changed every other 
day. They begin to walk at an early age, and this is, doubtless, the 
principal cause of the bowing of the legs so often observed. The girls 
are neglected and the boys given every advantage. The latter soon 
discover their importance and rarely fail to show their domineering 
ways to the other sex. 

It is quite rare that twins are born. It is not usual for a mother to 
have more than four children, although as many as six or eight may be 
born. As the paternal origin is often obscure, the person having that 
woman as wife at the time of the child's birth is supposed to be its 

The mortuary customs of the Naskopie were but imperfectly learned, 
for when a death occurred at the trading station the body was buried 
like a white man's. A shallow grave was dug in a sandy soil, as this 
offered less trouble in digging, and the body placed in a rudely con- 


structed cofflii iiud covered with dirt. A small branch from a tree was 
placed at the head of the grave, but with what siguiflcatioii I could 
not satisfactorily determine. I received the reply that the white men 
put something at the head of their graves, and so do the Indians. 

Away from the post the Indians suspend their dead from the 
branches of trees, if the ground be frozen too hard to excavate, and 
endeavor to return in the following summer and inter the body. A 
person who has distinguished himself among the people is often l)uried 
where the fire has been long continued within the tent and thawed the 
ground to a sufficient depth to cover the body. The tent is then re- 
moved to another location. The Indians have not that dread of a 
corpse which is shown so plainly among the Eskimo. The former have 
been known to strij» the clothing from recently deceased Eskimo, and 
it is not infrequent for them to appropriate the gun or other implement 
placed by the side of a dead Innuit. 

In response to my inquiry how they disposed of their dead in former 
ages, I obtained evidence that scaffold burial and suspension from trees 
were formerly practiced and that subterranean burials were introduced 
by the missionaries. 

The dead are mourned for according to the position they occupied in 
life, a favorite child often causing an alarming grief in the mother who 
mourns for many days, constantly bemoaning her loss and reminding 
the listeners of the traits in the child's nature so well remembered. 
The body is taken to the place of final rest by the friends, the relations 
seldom accompanying it. 

The life of these people is a constant struggle to obtain food and 
raiment. Nothing, however unimportant, is done without much delib- 
ation and repeated consultation with friends. 

They are also guided to a great extent by their dreams, for they im- 
agine thatin the night they are in direct conimuuication with the spirits 
which watch over their daily occupations. Certain persons obtain much 
renown in divining the dreams and these are consulted with the great- 
est confidence. The drum is brought into use, and during its tumult 
the person passes into a state of stupor or trance and in a few mo- 
ments arouses himself to reveal the meaning of the other's dream. 

Sui)erstition holds these people in its terrible sway and everything 
not under.stood is attributed to the working of one of the numerous 

Every object, however simple, appears to have its patron spirit, 
which, in order that it may perform its services for the welfare of the 
people, uurst be propitiated with offerings most pleasing and acceptable 
to it. The rule seems to be that all spirits are by nature bad, and 
must be propitiated to secure their favor. Each person lias a jiatron 
spirit, and these must always be placated lest misfortune come. These 
spirits assume an infinite variety of forms, and to know just what form 
it assumed when it intiicted its baneful effects, the shamans or medicine 


men must l)e. consulted. These are supposed to be in direct contact 
with sueli spirits. The spirit will appear ouly iu the darkuess of the 
conjuring house, and then permit itself to be appeased by some atone- 
ment made by the afflicted, Avhich can be made known only through the 
shaman. He alone indicates the course to be pursued, and his direc 
tious, to be explicitly followed, are often so confusing and impossible 
that the person fails to perform them. All these minor spirits are under 
the control of a single great spirit having its dwelling in the sky, a term 
as illimitable with those people as with ourselves. 

Each aniinal has its protective spirit, which is inferior to those of 
man. The soul, if such expression may be used, of all animals is inde- 
structible, and is callable of reappearing again and again as often as 
the roiiterial form is destroyed. There are spirits of beasts, birds, fishes, 
insects, and plants. Each of these has a home to which it returns after 
death, which is simply a cessation of that period of its material form, 
and each may be recalled at the will of the shaman. If an animal be 
killed it does not decrease the number of that species, for it still exists, 
although in a different form. 

The Canada jay is sujjposed to inform the various animals of the ap- 
proach of Indians, and these rarely fail to kill the jay wherev^^ound. 

A species of mouse is supposed to have such dread of man that it 
dies the instant it wanders near the track of a person. They often find 
these tiny creatures near the xiath, and believe them to be unable to 
cross it. 

As the dusk of eve draws near, the silent flitting of the common short- 
eared owl {A,sio accipitrinns), and the hawk owl {Surnia funeria), 
attracted by the sounds of the camp, creates direst confusion. The 
announcement of its presence causes the entire assemblage of peojile 
to be alert and hastily suspend some unworn garment, that the bird 
may perceive it and thus know that the people are not so poor in their 
worldly possessions as the spirit Wiq'-ti-qu may think; as it only 
annoys people who are too poor to have extra garments. As this 
short-eared owl frequents only the lower lands, the Indians assert that 
they are -compelled to select the higher points of land as their camping 
sites in order to escape from him. 

The shanmn, as I have already said, is believed to be able to control 
all these difterent spirits by his magic art, and to foretell the future, 
but he must be concealed from view while carrying on his mysterious 
performances. Hence a sjiecial structure must be erected in which the 
shaman goes through various contortions of body until in a state of 
exhaustion and while iu that weakened condition he fancies these 
things wiiich have such wonderful hold on the minds of the people. 

The tent (Fig. 85) is high and of small diameter. Every crack and 
crevice in the tent is carefully closed to exclude even the least ray of 

When within it, the shaman begins his operations by groaning and 
11 ETK 18 



gradually increasing the pitcli of voice until his screeching can be 
heard a great distance. The din of the drum adds confusion to the 
ceremony. This goes on until the shauiau announces the appearance 
of the spirit with whom he desires to commune. He impU)ies the spirit 
to grant the request, and in the course of time informs the people out- 
side that he has succeeded in securing the services of the spirit. All 
within becomes quiet and only whisperings are heard. 

The spirit promises to fulfill the obligation he has undertaken, and the 
conjuror throws over the tent and states the result of the interview. 
This result is always favorable, as his reputation depends upon its hap- 
pening. Any untoward circumstance, such as a person turning over a 
stone or breaking a twig from a bush while traveling, is sufficient cause 
to break the sjicll, and the blame can be laiil on the shoulders of such 

**«^iL|- MM • ■'•4 l^^kSt^^^- 

Fig. 85. — Indian medicine lodge. 

an offender. If the request be not granted within the stipulated time 
as announced by the shaman at the end of the ceremony, some one is 
certain to have' been the cause of displeasing the spirit, who now with- 
holds the favor until reparation for the offense is made. The conjurer 
is not slow to make some one do penance while he himself is gaining 
time, as he takes good care not to attempt anything out of season. 

When an Indian kills one of the larger and fiercer wild beasts it is 
customary to reserve a portion of the skin or other part of the body as 
a memento of the deed. 

These mementos are sacredly kept to show the prowess of the 
hunter and at the same time they serve as a token of the wealth i)ro- 
cured by bartering the pelt of the animal to the trader. The wolf, 
beax, and wolverine are considered worthy of remembrance, and of the 



Fig. 66. — Indiiin amulet of Iiearskin. 

first and last mentioned animals a claw or a tip of an car may serve as 
a souvenir. 

The under lip of the bear (Fig. SO) is the i)ortion preserved. The 
skin is cut ofl' and spread flat to dry. The flesh side of the skin is 
painted with powdered hematite 
mixed with water or oil. 

The ontei' edges or lij)s are orna- 
mented with a single row of many- 
colored beads. At the apex or mid- 
dle of the lip is attached a pendant 
in the form of a fish. The fish is 3 
or 4 inches long, made of cloth and 
has a row of beads extending around 
the entire circumference of the 
length of the body. 

Tliese mementos arc jnocurcd with 
great difirtculty from the hunter who 
has risked his life in the struggles 
attending the capture of the beasts, 
for the barren-ground bear of that 
region is not a timid creature like 
the black bear; and unless the 
hunter is well prepared for the ani- 
mal he would do well to let it alone. 

The occupations of the sexes are so numerous that a detailed account 
alone would suffice, as the various seasons have their regular routine la- 
bors besides those un(>xpectedly appearing. In the spring the Indians 
of both sexes come to the post of Fort Oliino to trade their winter's hunt 
of fur-bearing animals. About the middle of March word is brought 
that the camp of old men and women with a number of children, left 
from the parties scattered in all directions during the previous fall, are 
slowly approaching the post. They come by easy stages, camping 
here and there for a day or two, but striving to be near about the time 
that the earlier parties come in to trade. These latter straggle along 
from the middle of April to the last of May, those who had ascended 
the streams to the headwaters often not arriving until after the breaking 
of the ice in the river, which may be as late as the 15th of June. When 
they collect at the ]iost they have an opportunity to meet after a sepa- 
ration of mouths and enjoy a period of rest. The trading of their furs 
and other articles continues slowly until the parties have made their 
selections of guns, ammunition, tobacco, and cloths, a quantity of flour, 
biscuit, peas, beans, rice, and sugar. Molasses is purchased in enor- 
mous quantities, a hogshead of 90 gallons sufficing for only three or 
four days' trade. Other articles of varied character, from needles and 
beads to calico and cloth, are bought by the women. 

The parties receive the allowance given in advance fin- the prosecu- 


tion of the ensuing- winter's limit, after wliicli tliey are relied ou to raft 
down tlie supply of wood cut by the white men for the next winter's 
supply of fuel. This consumes the season until the middle of July. 
Stragglers are out even later. The men, meantime, select tlie locality 
where they will remain for the summer and fall. The winter is to be 
occupied in getting furs. Each head of a party announces his intended 
location and the i^arties gradually leave the post for their destination. 
Some of the Indians in former years were employed to assist the salmon 
fishing, but they proved to be unreli.ible, either through fear of the turbu- 
lent waters of the Koksoak or inattention to their task. They were 
easily allured from the nets by the appearance of any game, and as 
the tides in that river do not wait even for an Indian, serious losses 
resulted from carelessness. Hence their jjlaces in later years are filled 
by Eskimo, who are better adapted to the work. 

The various parties disperse in different directions in order that the 
entire district may afford its products for their benefit. The Indians 
know the habits of the animals in those regions so well that they are 
sure, if they go to a particular locality, to find the game they are in 
quest of. 

The reindeer provides them with the greater part of their food and 
the skins of these animals afford them clothing. 

Although their food consists of reindeer, ptarmigan, fish, and other 
game, the deer is their main i-eliance, and when without it, however 
great the abundance of other food, they consider themselves starving. 

The deer are procured in several ways, the principal of which is by 
the use of the lance or S])car. In the months of Septeiiil)er and Octo- 
tober they collect from various directions. During the spring the 
females had repaired to the treeless hills and mountains of the Cape 
Chidley region to bring forth their young on those elevations in early 
June or late May. After the young have become of good size the 
mothers lead them to certain localities whither the males, having gone 
in an opposite direction, also return. They meet somewhere along the 
banks of the Koksoak river, usually near the confluence of that river 
with the North or Larch. While thousands of these animals are con- 
gregated on each bank small herds are continually swimming back and 
forth, imiielled by the sexual instinct. The hair of the young animals 
is now ill excellent condition for making skin garments. The females 
are thin, not yet having recovered from the exhaustion of furnishing 
food for their young and material for the new set of antlers, whicli ap- 
pear immediately after the birth of the fawns. The skin is, however, 
in tolerable condition, especially in late October. The back of the 
male is now covered with a large mass of fat known as "back fat." 
This deposit is about 1 to 1.] inches thick by 2 feet broad and 20 inches 
king. Tlie males ar(^ full of vigor and in the best possible condition 
at this season, as the antlers have become dry and cease to draw upon 
the animal for material to supply their immense growth. 

Ti'KNEn.i Hunting. 277 

The huntiug" parties, always on the alert for the herds of deer which 
are hastening to the assembling place, follow them xiyt, and in the 
course of time conjecture at what point they will congregate. Here 
they establish camps and intercept the deer when crossing the streams. 
Tlie canoes are held in readiness, while the hunters scan the opposite 
hillsides for deer filing along the narrow paths through the forests and 
bushes towards the river bank. Arrived there, the deer, after a mo- 
ment's pause, eagerly take to the water, boldly swimming as they 
quarter down stream with the current. The animals swim high in the 
water, scarcely more than a third of the body immersed. They move 
compuctly, in a crowd, tlieir antlers appeai'ing at a distance like 
the branches of a tree floating with the current. The Indian crouches 
low and speeds for the canoe. Silently it is pushed into the water, 
and two or three rowers take their places within. Rapid but noise- 
less strokes given by sturdy arms soon bring the boat below and to the 
rear of the body of deer, who are now tiu-own into the greatest conster- 
nation as they perceive their most dreaded foe suddenly by their side. 
The deer endeavor to retreat, but the men are between them and the 
shore. The occupants of the canoe now drive the deer quartering up 
stream and toward the shore where the camp is situated. Should 
they, by some mistake on the part of the hunters, start downstream, 
they" are certain to l)e separated, and swim so rapidly that unless 
there be two canoes they will, for the most part, escape. If the 
herd is well kept together they may be driven at the will of the pur- 
suer. He strives to direct them to such spot that when the thrust 
with the spear is given only sufticient vitality will be left to enable 
the stricken animal to regain the shore. When the spear touches the 
vital part, the animal plunges forward and the instrumeut is withdrawn. 
A hurried thrust pierces another victim, until all the herd, if small, 
maybe slain. The wounded animal now feels the internal cavity filling 
with blood, and seeks the nearest land whereon its ebbing strength 
scarcely allows it to stand. A few wistful turns of the head to the 
right or left, a sudden spreading of its limbs to support the swaying 
body, a plunge forward — the convulsive struggles that mark the end. 
If the band is large, some generally escape. Some may be so wounded 
that they plunge into the bushes perhaps but a few yards and there 
lie and die, furnishing food for the beasts and birds of prey. 

The carcases of the deer are stripped of skins and fat and the viscera 
are removed. The fat is laid one side, that from the intestines being 
also reserved for future rendering. 

The skins are taken to the camps and piled up. Those which are not 
to be tanned immediately are hung over poles to dry, the flesh side 
turned upwards. 

The meat is stripped from the bones and taken to the tents, where it 
is exposed to the smoke and hot air over the tire and (piickly dried. 
Some of the Indians are so expert in stripping the flesh from the skele- 


ton that the exact form ov outlines of the animal are preserved in the 
process of drying. The drying tlesh acquires a very dark brown color 
from the smoke and blood left within the tissues. Certain portions of 
the dry meat, especially those from the flanks and abdominal walls, 
are quite palatable; they are cvisp, and have a rich nutty flavor. The 
intercostal muscles are also choice portions, while some of the flesh from 
the haunches is dry and nearly tasteless. The back fat is often dried 
and smoked, but acquires a. disagreeable rancid taste. 

The long bones are cracked and the marrow extracted. This sub- 
stance is the most highly i)rized portion of the animal, and in seasons 
of plenty the deer are often slaughtered for the marrow alone. The fat 
is placed in jjots or kettles and rendered over a fire. It is then jioured 
into another vessel to cool, and forms a valuable article of trade and a 
necessity for food, and is also required in the process of tanning the 

The bones containing the marrow are cracked and placed in a kettle, 
hung over a slow fire, and the substance melted. Tiie onarrow brings 
a higher price than the tallow, anil is esteemed a choice article of food. 
The heads are thrown to one side until the decomposing brain is wanted 
to bemixed with the semi-putrid li ver for the purpose of taiiuing the skins. 
When the flesh has dried sufficiently it is taken down and put into 
packages of about thirty pounds' weight each. These bundles are 
enveloped in the i)archment like subcutaneous tissue, and stored away 
until they are needed for food. A species of mold attacks the flesh if 
it is not frequently inspected and dried, but as it is harmless, it does 
not injure the meat. Indians for weeks at a time subsist entirely on 
this dried meat. They also have a season of plenty when the female 
deer and the bucks of less than two years are on their way to the Cape 
Chidley region. Here the females bring forth their young unmolested 
by the old bucks and also less annoyed by the myriads of mosquitoes 
which throng the lower parts of the country. 

The crossing place of the females and young bucks is at or near Fort 
Chiino at least each alternate year. About the 5th to the 10th of May 
the assembled Indians anxiously await the coming of the game. In 
the course of a few days the welcome cry of "Deer!" is heard, and the 
camp immediately becomes a scene of great excitement — men hurrying 
to get their guns and ammunition, woiuen shouting the direction of the 
game, and children running to the higher eminences to watch the herds. 

The men endeavor to occupy a narrow defile, wliere the herd will pass 
between the hills to the level land beyond. Some station themselves at 
the top of the ravine, while the swiftest runners hasten to the head of 
the defile to lie in ambush until the deer, urged from behind, lush past, 
to be met with a volley of balls from all sides. Panic seizes the ani- 
mals, and wherever they turn an Indian confronts them. Until the 
deer recover from their paralysis, and once more obey their instinct to 
escape, numbers of them stand quietly waiting to be slaughtered; 

turot:r.] hunting DEER. 279 

others walk unconcernedly aliour, seemingly deprived of the power of 
flight. The Indians hurriedly close upon them, and in a few uunutes 
the entire herd is destroj-ed or dispersed Iti all directions. 

The guns used on this occasion are the cheapest kind of muzzle-load- 
ing single-barreled shotguns. The balls used are of such size that they 
will drop to the bottom of the chamber. No patching is used, and a 
jar on the ground is deemed sufficient to settle the ball upon the pow- 
der. The employment of a ramrod would require too nnich time, as 
the Indian is actuated by the desire to kill as many as possible in the 
shortest time. They do not use the necessary care in loading their 
guns, and oft(>ii the ball becomes lodged in the chamber and the gun 
bursts when fired. When shooting downhill the ball often rolls out. 
It is surprising that so few fatal accidents occur. A quantity of pow- 
der is poured directly into the gun from its receptacle, the ball dropped 
down, and a cap taken from between the fingers, where it was placed 
for convenience. Hunters often practice the motions of rapid loading 
and firing. Tliey are remarkably expert, suri)assing the Eskimo in this, 
though the Eskimo is far the better marksman. 

A third method pursued is tlnit of snaring the deer. 

A plan adopted to capture deer in the winter is as follows: A herd 
of deer is discovered, and men and women put on their siiowshoes. 
The deer are surrounded and driven into a snowbank many feet deep, 
in which the affrighted animals plunge until they nearly bury them- 
selves. The hunters, armed with the lance, pursue them and kill them. 
This means of procuring deer is only adopted when the heixl is near a 
convenient sno\Ybank of proper depth. The snow falling in the winter 
collects in gullies and ravines, and only in seasons where there has been 
an abundance of snow will it attain suflicient depth to serve the pur- 

Smaller game, such as ducks, geese, ptarmigan, hares, rabbits, por- 
cupines, beavers, and an occasional lynx, afford variety of food. Ptar- 
migan are slaughtered by thousands. Hundreds of pounds of their 
feathers annually purchase small trinkets for the Indian women, and 
during this season it is unusual to see a w(niian without some feathers 
of these birds adhering to her clothing or hair. 

The women and men annually destroy thousands of the eggs and 
young of these birds. Rabbits and hares, too, fall beneath the arrow 
or shotgun. Porcupines are more common toward the sources of the 
streams falling into Hudson Strait. They are found in trees, from 
which they gnaw the bark and terminal portions of the branches for 
food. The [lorcnpine must be carefully cleaned lest the flesh be unfit 
for food. The hair and spines are removed by scorching or by pouring 
hot water over the body. 

Of the carnivorous mammals the lynx only is eaten, and this when 
other food is scarce. Bears are so rare that they form but an nnim- 


portaiit portion of the Indiau's diet. Wolverines, wolves, and foxes 
aie never eaten. 

Fish of various kinds are plentiful. The lakes and streams abound 
with salinon in summer, and trout, white fish, suckers, and a. few less 
common species are eagerly sought for food. Fish are caught with the 
hook or net. Fishing through holes in the ice affords an ample supply 
of fine trout, and the net set along the shore upon the disappearance 
of the ice is sure to reap a rich haul of white fish, suckers, and trout. 

In the preparation of the food little care is exercised to prevent its 
coming in contact with objectionable substances. The deer meat is 
laid upon the stones of the beach and particles of grit imbed them- 
selves in the substance. The flesh for cooking is often droi)ped into 
the vessels in which the tallow or marrow is being rendered. Neither 
children nor adults have any regular periods of eating, but appear to 
be always hungry. It is thus Tiot unusual to see a filthy child thrust 
its liand into the cooling fat to obtain a choice portion of meat as it 
settles to the bottom. 

The dry meat is often pounded into a coarse powder by means of 
stone or Tuctal pestles. The meat is placed upon a smooth, hard stone 
for this piu'pose. The ligaments are picked out, and when a sufticient 
quantity has been prepared it is put into baskets or bags and stored 
away for future use. The cracked bones from which the marrow was 
extracted are calcined and reduced to powder and used as an absorbent 
of the fiit from the skins in the process of tanning. 

The unborn young of the reindeer, taken from the mother in the 
spring, are considered a prime delicacy by Indians, as well as Eskimo. 
The eggs of various species of birds are eagerly sought for, and it mat- 
ters little whether they are fresh or far advanced in incubation. The 
embryo bird, with the attached yolk of the egg, is swallowed with 
infinite gusto. The Indian seldom eats raw flesh unless dried meat be 

Enough has been written concerning the reindeer to show that with- 
out it the very existence of the Indian would be imperiled. Uoth food 
and clothing, the prime necessities of life, are obtained from the 
animal, and its numbers do not seem to decrease with the mercaless or 
thoughtless slaughter. Hundreds of carcases are never utilized. I 
counted 173 carcases on one side of the river in going a distance of 
about 8(( miles, and when I came to their camj)s I saw incredible piles 
of meat and skins going to waste. The winter months are occupied 
by men in hunting the various fui-bearing animals, the princiijal of 
which are white, red, cross, and black or silver foxes, martens, minks, 
wolverines, wolves, nuiskrats, and beavers: these are abundant. Few 
lynxes and bear are obtained. A (considerable number of others are 
found in this region and aftbrd fine skins. 

Steel traps are generally set, various sizes of traps beingusedfor the 
difl'erent animals. A great number of otter and beaver are shot in the 



water. Deadfalls ('oiisistiiig of a log of wood set upon flgnre-4 triggers 
rarely fail to kill uiiuk and marten. The lynx is usually taken by means 
of a snare with the loop over a circle of low pegs surrounding the tongue 
of the flgure-4 set of triggers. The spring, usually a lithe sapling, 
is strong enough to lift the forelegs of the animal from the ground when 
the noose encircles its neck. 

The Indian conceives the wolverine to be an animal embodying all 
the cunning and mischief that can be contained in the skin of a beast. 
To its cunning is added great bodily strength, enabling this medium- 
sized animal to accomplish destruction appaiently much beyond its 

Every other animal in the 
forests where it dwells prefers 
to give it the i)ath rather than 
engage in struggle with it. 
When seized in a trap a wol- 
verine offers a sturdy resist- 
ance. Even a famished wolf, 
to my personal knowledge, will 
stand and look at it, but not 
attempt to cope with it. In. 
this particular instance, how- 
ever, the wolf may have con- 
sidered the predicament of the 
wolverine another means of 
strategy employed by that ani- 
mal to entrap the wolf, and so 
deemed it wise to remain at a 
respectful distance. 

Every form of torture which 
the Indian mind is callable of 
conceiving is iutlicted upon 
this animal when it is cap- 
tured. All manner of vile 
names and reproaches are ap- 
plied to it. Tlie Indian enjoys 
relating how he singed its fur 
off, broke its bones, and tor- 
mented it in many ways, as it 
slowly expired under his hand. 

Fig. 87 — Indian "buckskin coat, man's (front). 


The apparel worn by the Ungava Indians is quite distinct for the 
different sexes. The method of preparing the skins for the manufac- 
ture of garments is the same, but the forms of the gaiments for the 
sexes are so different as to require special consideration. 



The garments worn by the men differ somewhat according to the 
season of the year, for the extremes of climate are very great. The 

clothing of the men con- 
sists of a coat, breeches, 
leggings, moccasins, 
gloves or mittens, and cap 
or headdress. 

The coat consists of the 
skins of the reindeer 
tanned into a thoroughly 
pliable condition by the 
procress to be described 

The shape of the gar- 
ment worn ill summer 
(Figs. 87 and 88) is some- 
what similar to that of a 
frock coat, but without the 
tails. The back is cut 
from a single skin and the 
skirt cut up from below. 
Into this is inserted a 
piece of sufticieut width 
to allow movement of the 
lower limbs. The sides 
are from the second skin, 
sjilit down the middle of 
the back and sewed t(j the 
skin, forming the back of 
the garment. The back 

no. 88..-InJian buckskin coat, mau'8 (bark). ^^^^^ f^^^.^^^^ ^^^ COVCring 

for the top of the shoulders and extends to the collar seam. The 
side skins form the front and neck of the garment. The sleeves are 

made of a third skin, and fre- 
quently have a roll or cuft' to 
increase the length, if neces- 
sary. The collar is merely a 
strip of skin sewed to the 
neck. It is usually turned 
down. The front is usually 
open, and if made to be closed 
it is held in position by a belt 
^^mm^W^^fl^llf^WPfW^^^W^^^^VfVm or gaiuUly colored scarf of 

woolen or cotton purchased 

Fia. 89 Detail of pattern painted on Indian garments. ii i. i 

^ trom the trader. 

The seams of the clothing are always sewed with sinew like that 
used by the Eskimo. There are but two seams which run the entire 




length of the coat, and these are the side seams. The seaui at the 
skirt, the aruiliole, sleeve, and collar are the shorter ones. The coat is 
always more or less ornamented with extraA^ajjant painted designs. 
The colors and other materials used for painting these designs will be 
described in another connection, as well as the manner of applying 

The ijatterns of these de- 
signs will be best understood 
by reference to the figures, 
which show some of them in 
detail (Figs. 89, 90). 

Tlie colors used often pre- 
sent startling combinations 
of red, blue, yellow, and 
brown. The portions of the 
garments upon which these 
colors are placed aie the 
front edges of the opening 
of the coat, the wrists, and 
rings around tlie arms or 

sleeves the skirt and nvra- T'ig. 90. — Detail ofpattem painted on (leer.'iltinroljo. 

mid-shaped designs over the hips. The piece intended to widen the 

skirt behind is always entirely covered with a design of some kind. 

Over the outside of the 

seams a line of paint is 

always applied, nearly 

always of a red or brown 


Frequently a series of 
quadrate blotches or 
squares produced by 
variously colored lines 
runs from the apex of 
the piece inserted in the 
skirt to the collar. 

The length of the coat 
is such as to reach to the 
middle of the thigh. The 
coverings for the lower 
limbs and for the hips 
are quite distinct. Vov 
the hips the garment is 
a sort of breeches of 
which the legs are so 
short as only to cover 

the upper portion of the j.,o. s,i._i„diaD i,„„ i.Kgings. 

thigh. The breeches are held in place by n)eans of a drawstring In front. 



A pair of these breeches is nev^er ornainentt'fl with paint, as they are 
usually not exposed to view. 

A pair of leggings extends from the upper iiortion of the thigh to the 
ankles. The leggings (Fig. 01) are each made of a single piece some- 
what in the form of a narrow bag open at each end. They are held in 
position by means of a string attached in front and fastened to the 
ujijjer XKjrtious of the breeches. The seam is ou the outer side of the 
leggings and along it is sewed a strip of deerskin having the edges cut 
into fringe. The leggings are ])ainted in much the same fashion asthe 

The moccasins (Fig. 92) are rarely ornamented, except with beads on 
the tongue or else with a strij) of red, blue, or black cloth. 

In the construction of a moccasin the measure of the foot is taken if 
it is intended for a person of importance or if the maker attempts to do 
skillful work. The sole is cut" out first in the shape of a parallelogram. 
The edges are turned up and creases made around that portion of the 
deerskiu which surrounds the toes and a part of the side of the foot. 

Fig. 92. — ludian moccaaina. 

The creases are made perpendicular in order to take up a portion of 
the slack of the skin. They are held in position by a stout sinew thread 
run through each one and around to the other side to i^revent them 
from separating and thus " bagging " over the toes. This is the most 
particular part of the work and on these stitches depend the skill of 
the maker. The sides of the foot and heel are not creased as the heel- 
seam takes up the slack for the posterior portion of the moccasin. 

The tongue of the moccasin is a jjiece cut into a shape resembling 
that member with the tip of it over the toes. This is sewed to the 
edges of the creases, and between it and the creases is often sewed 
a narrow welt of skin or cloth. The superfluous edges of the slipper- 
shaped shoe are now trimmed off, aiul the top, or iiortion to cover the 
ankle, is sewed on. This portion is a long narrow strip of inferior 
skin of sufficient size to overlap in front and to come well above the 
ankles. It is left open like the tops of laced shoes. Just below, or at 
the edge of the tops, a long thong of deerskin is inserted through sev- 
eral holes, which allows it to pass around the heel and below the 



ankles, bringing the ends in trout over tlie tongue. The ends of the 
tops are laid carefullj- over one another and wrapped round by the 
ends of the thongs M'liich hold the moccasins on the feet. 

Certain portions of the skin make better footwear than other i)arts. 
The neck skin is too thick and stiff to allow the creases around the 
toes to be properly made ; the flanks are too thin; while the neck is 
useful f(jr the tongues, the sides for the bottoms, and the tianlvs and 
portions of the back, scarred by the grubs infesting the animal, for 
the tops and strings. 

Moccasins for young children often have a seam parallel with the 
toes and the creasing is thus obviated. Tliose for wearing in the tent 
or in the dry vicinity of the camp have no tops and are held to the 
foot by means of a drawstring. 

As most of the strain in 
walking comes upon the 
tongue, and this portion is 
usually oriuimented, it is 
necessary that it should be 
of a good quality of leather. 
A piece of black, blue, or 
red cloth is generally laid 
over the tongue for orna- 
ment. There is sometimes 
bead work on this portion, 
but as these people are not 
skillful in the art of dispos- 
ing the many colored beads 
they are not much Tised for 
that purpose. 

A single deerskin will 
make five to seven pairs of 
moccasins for an adult, and 
as they last but two or 
three weeks as many as fif- 
teen to twenty-five j)airs 
are necessary for each adult. 

The hands are jirotected with mittens (Fig. 93) made of smoked deer- 
skin. The skin is folded, and along the fold the shape of the mitten is 
cut so as to le.lve a part by which the two pieces are joined, and the 
edges formed in the cutting are sewed together. The thumb is made 
as follows: A tongue shaped piece is cut out of the palin and the base 
of that piece is left as the part to form the under or inner covering for 
the thumb. A x)iece is now trimmed that will fit the place cut out and 
the two parts sewed together. 

The thumb of the Indian is, as a rule, shorter than that of tlie white 
man, and a pair of native-made mittens are (piite uncomfortable imtil 


o;{.— Imliau mitteus. 



the tliumb portion has been recut and sewed. The wrists of tlie mit- 
tens are often gaudily ornamented with strips of red or black cloth. 
Designs of simple character, such as lines and cross lines producing 
lattice- work figures, are fre(iuently painted on the back of the mitten. 
Beads in rows and zigzag lines ornament t^^he wrist, and strands of 
beads are i)endant from the outside seams. The strands are often 
tipped with tassels of variegated woolen threads. The mittens intended 
for severe weather are often lined with the thin skin of a ftetal rein- 
deer, which has short, soft hair. Great exertion often causes the hands 
to perspire and moisten the hair, and this freezes the instant the mit- 
ten is removed from the hand, and is liable to freeze the fingers 
within it. 

Tlie head-dress of the men for flie summer is often a large cotton 
handkerchief wound turban-fashion around the head to jireveut the 
long hair from blowing over the face. These handkerchiefs are of the 
most gaudy patterns, and if they are not worn a simple thong of deer- 

FlG. 94. — Beadod lu-adbaud. Kt'Ucnot. 

skin serves the purpose. The girls and newly married wives often 
make bands of beads, some of which are (juite attractively designed, 
for their lovers or husbands. These bands are about an inch wide and 
several inches long. The ends are lengthened with strips of skin. The 
band is placed over the forehead and tied l>y tlie strings behind. These 
headbands are generally the most intricate designs of Ijcad work which 
these Indians display (Fig. 94). 

A cap of deerskin is often worn, ])ut it always seems to be in the way, 
and is used mostly in wet weather. A iiiece of stiff deerskin is some- 
times made into the shape of a visor of -a cap and worn over the eyes 
during the spring when the glare of the sun on tlie snow produces such 
distressing inflammation of the eyes. It is fastened to the head by 
means of straps tied behind. The greater part of the men prefer to go 
without head cov^ering. Some who are able and love a display of fancy 
colors have a cap made of red clotli and ornamented with beads worked 
into extravagant patterns. The cap is a liigh conical affair, and from 
the weight of beads upon it otten falls to one sule of the head. 




The winter (-out (Fifis. 05, 9(5) worn by the inales is of different 
pattern from that worn in .summer, and i.s made of .skin.s with the hair 

Two skins, one of which forms the back of the coat the other the 
front, are sewed by side seams runninjjf from the armpit to the bottom 
of the skirt. On tlie shoulder a^ .seam runs to tlie neck on each side, 
the back skin extendinj^ liij;li enough to form the neck while the other 
skin reaches to the neck in front. Here it is slightly cut ont or slit for 
a distance of several inches to allow the insertion of the head through 
the neck hole. 

Sometimes a v- 
.sliaped ])iece is in- 
serted into the slit at 
the fi'ont of the neck. 
To widen the skirts a 
similar shaped piece 
is let into the middle 
of the back skin ; or 
it may be put between 
the side seams for the 
same jiurpose. The 
bottom of the skirt is 
decorated. (Fig. 97.) 

At the back of the 
neck a i)iece about 8 
inches square is at- 
tached to the garment. 
This sometimes serves 
as a collar, and some- 
times it gives addi- 
tional protection by a 
double thickness to 
the sh(udders, very 
often the first part to 
feel the effect of the 
piercing winds. 

A few of the coats for winter have a hood attached to them (Fig. 98, 
99) sewed on the back of the neck, which when drawn over the head 
serves at once as cap and protection. 

The collar and hood ai-e invariably made from the skins on the sides 
of the head of the deer. If two or more head skins are required they 
are sewed into the form of the deer's head. Tlie collar is ornamented 
with fringes cut from the edges of the skin. Sometimes the inter.scap- 
ular protection is cut into three or four points, each one of which is the 
cheek skin of a deer, and sewed only a portion of the length, the re- 
mainder being left free and terminating with a series of l<mg strands or 
fringes. The sleeves of these garments have nothing 2>eculiar about them. 

Fig. O.'j. — Man's wintt-r coat (front). 



As the ludiau is always iu the vicinity of the herds of deer it is an 
easy matter for him to obtain the skins when in best condition, and 

from the finer skins su- 
perior garments are 
made. The shape of the 
Indian's coat is not so 
well adapted to afford 
in'otection as that of the 
Eskimo ; hence, the white 
men in this region invari- 
ably adopt the clothing 
of the latter in cold 

Indians eagerly accept 
any cast off garment 
which a white man has 
worn, and they often 
))rocnre the clothing of- 
fered for trade. Trouser.s 
are in much demand. 
Coats are deemed great 
prizes, especially in the 
wet seasons when the 
moisture would certainly 
ruin their own clothing 
by causing the hair to 
fall off or totally destroy 
the shape of the tanned 
For underclothing the Indian man uses an additional 
. . A ,- , . - suit of ordi- 
///.':^|■"■^;^^■^.Cy. •".-•.■ .•!:■:.•■.■'.■ nary clothing 

or else dons a 
shirt pro- 
cured from 
the trader. 
Drawers are 
rarely worn. 

That these 
people are lit- 
tle suscepti- 
ble to the ef- 
fects of cold 
may be in- 
ferred from 

Tig. 97.— Detail of ornamentation. the fact that 

1 have seen them come to the trading post of Fort Chimo in the mid- 

FlG. 96. — Man'fs winter coat (back). 

skill garments. 




(Up of winter when the tlicrinoniL'ter liad not registered higher than 20° 
below zero for weeks, with uo protection for their legs except a pair of 
old buckskin leggiugs so short that the bottom did not reach within 3 
or 4 inches of the dilapidated moccasins. The feet were, so far as 
could be ascertained, chietiy protected by a wrapping of old baling 
cloth covered with a pair of moccasins which no white man would have 
been seen wearing. I observed also that no additional clothing was 
purchased for the return trip. 

The garments worn 
by the women in the 
warmer season consists 
of thin dresses of calico 
purchased from the 
traders. Thin shawls 
serve to protect the 
head and shoulders. 
The feet are incased in 
moccasins. Some of 
the women are able to 
purchase dresses of 
cloth, and these are cut 
into a semblance of the 
dresses worn by the 
women of civilized 
countries. It is not 
rare to see a woman 
wearing a skirt made 
from the tanned skin 
of the deer. The lower 
portions of the skirt 
are often fancifully or- 
namented with lines 
and stripes of paint of 
various colors, extend- 
ing entirely around the 
garment. A piece of 

baling cloth is Otteu fig. 98— Man's wluter coat, witlihoncl. 

fashioned into a skirt and worn. 

The females appear to be less susceptible to the sudden changes of 
the summer weather than the men. At least they exhibit less concern 
about the thickness of their apparel. It is not unusual to see a woman 
whose only clothing appears to be a thin dress of calico. During the 
winter the women dress in the most comfortable skins (Pig. 100), blankets, 
shawls, comforts, leggings, and moccasins. During exceptionally severe 
weather, they appear as traveling wardrobes, doubtless carrying their 
all on their back, and in some instances ijresenting a most comical ap- 
11 ETH 19 



pearance as, loaded with clothing of most miscellaneoixs character, they 
waddle over the snow. The winter cap is similar to that worn by the 
men, but is not so peaked. It is an object on which they expend a 
great amount of labor. The material is usually a kind of cloth locally 
known as Hudson bay doth, either red, dark blue, light blue, or black. 
The caps of the men and women are usually made from the better 
grades of this cloth, wliile the dresses of the women and the leggings 
of the men are of the inferior grades. 

If the cap is to be all one color, in which case it is always red, the 
cloth is cut in two pieces only, and put together so as to produce a cup- 
shape. Sometimes 
live or six pieces are 
cut from two or three 
different colors of 
cloth and the strips 
sewed together. 
Over the seams 
white tape is sewed 
to set off the colors. 
In the center of the 
strip is a rosette, 
cross, or other de- 
sign worked with 
beads, and around 
the rim rows of 
beads variously ar- 

The body is cov- 
ered with a heavy 
robe made of two 
deerskins sewed to- 
gether. This robe 
is often plain, and 
when ornamented 
designs are painted 
only on the bottom 
of the skirt. These 
robes are always of 
skins with the hair 

Fig. 99.— Man's winter coat, with hood. The tlcsh sidc 

is often rubbed with red ocher while the extreme edge may be painted 
with a narrow stripe of the same mixed with the viscid matter ob- 
tained from the roe of a species of fish. The edge stripe of paint is 
always of a darker brown than the other colors ft-om the admixture of 
that substance with the earth. 
This garment is put upon the body in a manner impossible to describe 




and dirticTilt to uuderstand even when witnessed. It is held together 
by small loops of sinew or deerskin. A belt around the waist keeps 
it up. 

The women also wear iu winter a sleeveles.s gown reaching- little below 
the knees and as high as the chin. The sleeves are i)ut on separately, 
like leggings. They are usually made of red or black cloth. 

The gown is often extravagantly decorated with paint. The flesh 
side of the skin is rubbed with red ocher, on which are painted in de- 
scribable designs. A strip of deerskin dotted with beads borders the 
gown, and from the edge of the strip hang strings of these ornaments, 
terminating in variously colored tassels of thread. 

The leggings of the women differ 
from those of the men. They extend 
higher and the bottoms cover the tops 
of the moccasins. They are made of 
skin or cloth, the latter black or red. 
To cut out a pair of leggings requires 
skill. The cloth is doubled and then 
cut nearly in a circular form. A size 
suflicieut to fit the limb is sewed up 
leaving the crescent-shapeil remainder 
a flapping ornament. The "wings'' are 
often edged with cloth of a different 
color and on the outer border rows of 
beads complete the decoration. The 
two crescents are left free, and as the 
wind separates them they flap most 
fantastically. They are always worn 
so as to be on the outer side of the legs. 
The bottoms of the leggings are heavily 
loaded with numerous rows of fancy 

Moccasins are alike for both sexes. 

As additional protection from cold 
the shoulders are covered with a man- 
tle of soft skins from young deer. 
Blankets purchased from the traders 
are also sometimes thrown over the shoulders or around the waist. 

Children are clad like adults, excepting that their apparel is less 
carefully made and they often present a disgusting appearance, with 
their clothing glazed with filth and glistening with vermin. 

Infants usually have their garments made in the "combination" 
form. The cap forms a separate piece and is fitted so closely that it is 
not removed until the growth of the head bursts the material of which 
the cap is made. 

When traveling men and women smoke or snuff a good deal. To- 

FlQ. 100.- 

-Neneuot woman in full winter 



bacco auil a few other necessary articles are carried iu a bag Iviiowu as 
"fire bag." Tliese are made of cloth and trimmed with beads, and are 
often ([uite tastefully ornamented. 

The detailed figures which 1 ha\'e i)reseuted show much better than 
any description the designs used in ornamenting their clothing. Some 

Fig. 101. — Si'ixlskiu btiadbauil. Nfueiiut. 

of the patterns are rude copies of the designs found upon clieap hand- 
kerchiefs, scarfs, and other printed fabrics. 

I have already spoken of the headbands worked for the men by their 

wives and sweethearts. Such a 
headband, made of sealskin pro- 
cured from the Eskimo, is shown 
in Fig. 101 (No. 3449). The 
headband is used to supjiort the 
weight of a load carried on the 
back, relieving the strain on the 
shoulders and making it easier 
to breathe. The band passes 
over the forehead to the back, 
■where it is attached to the load. 
Various forms of these head- 
bands or portage straps are 
made. Sometimes a piece of 
birch bark is placed under the 
strap where it touches the fore- 
head. It is said that the bark 
does not become wet from the 
moisture induced by the se- 
vere exertion and thus burn the 

t'iis. 102.— Skin scraper 
(front). Kenenot. 

Fig. lo;i.— Skin scraper 
(back). Nenrnnt. 


Having now given a general description of the clothing of the Nene- 




not, 1 may proceed to describe the process of preparing the skins of 
which this clotliing is made. The skins of the deer, which are to be 
converted into buckskin and parchment, are laid to one side in a heap, 
just as they came from th? bodies of the animals or after they have 
gone through a process to be subsequently described. 

When tlie skins have laid in this heap for several days decomposi- 
tion sets in and loosens the hair so it will readily i)ull out. Wlien the 
pelt is ready for scraping it is thrown over a round stick of wood some 
3 or 4 inches in diameter and 3 or 4 feet long, one end of which rests 
on the ground while the other is pressed 
against the abdomen of the woman wlio 
is doing the work. Then she takes a 
tool like a spoke shave (Figs. 102, 103, 
!No. 3102) made from tlie radius of the 
deer, by cutting a slice off the middle 
part of the back of the bone, so as to 
make a sharp edge while the untouched 
ends'serve for handles, and with this 
scrapes off the loosened hair. 

The siiarp edge of the bone instru- 
ment coming against the hairs ])uslies 
or pulls them out but does not cut the 

The flesh side of the pelt is now 
worked to free it from particles of flesh 
and blood, together with as much of 
the moisture in the skin as may be 
hastily done, for if the person has a 
great number of skins to attend to she 
must work rapidly lest they decompose 
too much and putrefy. 

Where the hunter has great success 
in killing deer many of the skins are left 
untouched because there is no one to at- 
tend to them and they are thus wasted. 

When the pelts of the deer or other 
large animals have been taken from the 
carcass they are allowed to dry with r'"iw -stin-cieaniugtooi. Nenenot. 

the adherent flesh, fat, and ligaments until a convenient opportunity 
occurs to remove those portions from the skin, wliieh must be moistened 
to permit them to be more readily scraped off. If the fresh skins are 
to be cleaned immediately, tliey are operated upon in the same man- 
ner as those previously dried. All the skins of fur-bearing animals and 
those furnisliing skins for clothing and other must be scraped, 
otherwise they would soon be soiled by tlie infiltration of the fat among 
the hairs. 



To remove the adliereiit ijarticles on the flesh side of the skiu a pe- 
culiar instrument has been devised. The tibia, or large boue of the 
hind leg of the reindeer, is used for this purpose (Fig. 104). The pe- 
culiar shape of the bone renders it particulaMy well adapted to form a 
combination of saw. chisel, and gouge at the same time. The lower 
l)ortion of the bone is cut squarely off. A part 
of one side of the remainder is cut so as to leave 
one side (the inner side of the bone) in the shape 
of a chisel, having either a straight edge or else 
slightly rounded. On this edge are cut a num- 
ber of fine notches, which give the edge of the 
instrument a serrated form. Some of the bones 
liave a spatula-shaped piece of iron or steel cut 
with the serrations upon it and the metal piece 
set in the cavity of the bone. If the leg of a deer 
is not convenient a wooden handle shaped like 
the long handle of a mortising chisel is fashioned, 
and to it is affixed the metal point by meifns of 
stout lasliings (Fig. 105). Around the upper por- 
tion of the wooden shaft a notch or groove is cut, 
and in this is tied a stout thong in such manner 
as to form a loop to prevent the hand from slip- 
ping down the smooth bone when the blow is 

The manner ©fusing this instrument is peculiar 
and effective. The skin is thrown, with the flesh 
side up, over a stake 2 or 3 feet high driven 
firmly into the ground. The person kneels down 
before the stake, and when the skin is placed so 
as to afford a convenient portion to begin upon, 
an edge is taken between the fingers of the left 
hand and lifted slightly from the ground. A blow 
is given with the tool which separates the sub- 
cutaneous tissue, and by rightly directed blows 
this may be separated from the skin entire. 
The skin is then laid aside for further working. The subcutaneous 
tissue is washed and dried, after which it is used for a variety of pur- 
poses, such as coverings for bundles of dried meat and other articles. 

The skin is worked over with this instrument to free it fi'om a portion 
of its moisture and is now ready to receive the tanning material which 
consists of a mixture of putrefying brain, liver, and fat. They some- 
times soak the skin in wine, which is reputed to add greatly to the last- 
ing qualities of the leather, but the odor of that liquid lasts as long as 
the skin. 

The tanning material is laid on the flesh side of the skin in a thin 
layer and by rubbing with the hands it is well worked in. Several 

Fig. 105.— Skin-cleanint; too] 
iron-bladed. Neneiiot. 


hours or days elapse and the superfluous matter is scraped off. The 
skin is theu scraped and rubbed between the hands, the harder portions 
with a scraper resembling a small scoop, until all the skin is worked 
into a i)liable condition. If the skin is yet too oily a quantity of ]iow- 
dered chalk, cl;\v, calcined bone, or even flour, is thoroughly rubbed 
over it to absorb any fatty matter yet remaining. 

The skins having the hair on, for clothing, or those intended for 
buckskin, are treated in this manner. Those intended for parchment 
are simply rubbed with a quantity of fat, and then allowed to dry in 
that condition, being of a yellowish or pale glue color. 

Where a great number of skins have to be prepared, and some of the 
more energetic men have as many as two or three hundred buckskins and 
parchment skins for the spring trade, a constant application to this 
labor is necessary in order to prepare them in season. This, in a man- 
ner, accounts for the number of wives which an energetic or wealthy 
man may have in order that the products of the chase falling to his 
share may be promi^tly attended to. 

When the skins intended for sale are selected they are bundled up 
and covered with parchment skins or the subcutaneous tissue. 

The skins intended for use among themselves are generally inferior 
grades, such as those cut in the skinning process, or else obtain- 
ed in the earlier or the later part of the season. 

A species of gad fly infests the deer, puncturing the skin on both 
sides of the spine, and depositing within the wound an egg which in 
time is transformed into a grub or larva. These larviB attain the size 
of the first joint of the little finger, and at the opening of the spring 
weather work their way through the skin and fall to the ground, where 
they iindergo metamorphoses to become perfect insects. 

A single animal may have hundreds of these grubs encysted beneath 
the skin, which, on their exit, leave a deep suppurating canity, which 
heals slowly. The skin forming the cicatrices does not have the same 
texture as the untouched portions. 

When the skin is dressed it reveals these scars, and of course, the 
value of the skin is diminished according to their number. The In- 
dian often endeavors to conceal them by rubbing flour or chalk over 

The season when the skins are in the best condition is from Septem- 
ber to the middle of December. The freshly deposited eggs have not 
yet j)roduced larvaj of suflicient size to injure the skin, and the wounds 
produced by those dropping out in the month of May have healed and 
left the skin in condition. 

Certain skins intended for special purposes must be smoked. The 
process of smoking tends to render it less liable to injury from mois- 
ture. The pyroligneous vapors act as antiseptics and thus at least 
retard decomposition of those articles most exposed to wet. The tents 
and foot wear are always tanned with the smoke and this process is 



always subsequent to that of bringing the skins into the pHable. condi- 

The process adopted by these Indians in smoking the deerskins is 
as follow^ : The woods are searclied for rotten wood of a special 
character. It must be affected with a kind of dry rot which renders 
the libers of a spongy nature. Tliis is i)rocured and thoioughly dried. 

The skins to be smoked are 
selected and iwo of nearly 
tlie same size and condition 
are chosen, and sewed into 
the form of a bag with the 
Fig. lou.—p.-iiiit stick. Nenenot. hairy side within. Tlie after 

portions of the skin are suspended from a convenient pole and the head 
and neck jiortions left free or open. To the edges of these is sewed a 
cloth, usually a piece of baling cloth, and this is also left open. The 
rotten wood is placed in a pan or vessel and as it smol- 
ders, never burning into a blaze, the pale, blue, pungent 
smoke is allowed to ascend within the cavity of the 
deerskin bag. The (doth is merely to form a conduit for 
the smoke as the skin should not be too near the fire. 

As the process continues the skins are in.spected be- 
tween the stitches of the sewing and when the opera- 
tion has progressed sufdciently tliey are taken down. 
It will now be found that the surface has assumed a 
pale, clear biown color, the shade of which depends on 
the length of the exposure to the smoke. 

The cloth is removed and the skins are immediately 
folded, with the smoked side within, and laid away for 
several days to season. If, however, the skin be left to 
the influence of the air the coloring matter immediately 
disappears leaving it of a color only slightly different 
from what it was liefore it was smoked. 

The scars, made by the larvie of the insects, do not vm.Mn. 

"take" the smoke as well as the healthy portions and so present 51 
])itted or .scaly appearance. From the skins having an abundance of 
the scars are made the tents and inferior grades of moi;casins and the 

tops of the betterclass of foot- 

The paints used for decorating 
the buckskin garments are ap- 
Fio. 108.— Paiut. stick. Nenenot. plied by means of bits of bone 

or horn of a peculiar shape best understood from the figures (Figs. 


Tliosc witli two, three or four tines are used for making the compli- 
cMted jiatterns of parallel lines, .and are always made of antler, while 
the simple form is sometimes of wood. 




Fm. 110.— Paiut Rtiok. Nenencii. 

A block of wood with one or inure bowl-sliaped cavities cut iu it (Fig. 
Ill) serves to hold the mixed jiMints, especially when several colors are 
to be used in succession. 

Small wooden bowls 
are -also euii)l(>y<'<l. 
(Figs. 112-113.) 

The pigments used 

T ,. ,.,. Fig. ion Pnint stii-k. Xi-neuot. 

are procured trom (lif- 
erent sources. From the traders are obtained indigo in the crude con- 
dition or in the form of washing blue, vermilion in small buckskin bags, 
and a few other colors. An abundance of red earth occurs in several 

localities. The ftignients 
are reduced to the finest 
possilde condition and 
kneaded witli the lingers 
uutil ready for the addi- 
tion of water often mixed 
with a slight quantity of oil or tallow. A tiivorite vehicle for the paint 
is the prepared roe of a sucker {Cafasfomus) abounding in the waters of 
the district. The female fish are stripped of the mass of ova which is 
broken up in a vessel and 
the liquid strained through 
a coarse cloth. The color is 
a faint yellow which becomes 

, * -It riy-i it • t Fig. 111. — Paint cup. Nenenot. 

deeper with age. J he fluid 

is allowed to dry and when required for use is dissolved in watei-. It 
has then a semivi.scid consistence and in this condition is mixed with 
the various pigments. When a yellowish color is desired the flsli-egg 
prepaiatiou is applied alone. The albumen gives suflicicnt adhesive 

quality to the paint and produce a 
, rich glaze, giving a good cft'ect to 
the otherwise dull colors. 

The process of preparing the 
crude mineral colors is quite tedi- 
ous as the attrition is produced by 
rubbing the substance between two 
smooth stones, a little water occa- 
sionally being added to hold the 
Fig. 112 -Paiut Clip. Nenenot. paiticlcs together. The prepared 

jiaints are put in the vessels already described, and wlicn ready for use 
a (jiiantity is taken with the finger and placed in the i)alm of the baud 
while the other fingers hold the instrument by whicli it is to be ap- 
plied. The paint stick is carefully drawn through the thin layer of paint 
spread on the other palm and a quantity, depending on the thickness 
of the layer, adheres to the edges of the appliance and by a carefully 
guided motion of the hand the lines desired are produced. The eye 



alone guides the drawing, however intricate it may be. The artist fre- 
quently attempts to imitate some of the delicate designs on a gaudy 
bandana handkerchief or some similar fabric. The principal source of 
the hematite is a lake near the headwaters of George's river where it 

Fia. 113.— Paint cup. Nenenot. 

occurs as a mass of disintegrated rock along the margin. The water 
has by freezing split great quantities from the mass and when there is 
a strong wind from the opposite direction the water is often lashed into 
a blood-red foam. 


The Nenenot live, both in summer and in winter, in deerskin tent, 
(see Fig. 114), which are constrncted in the following manner: A snflfi- 

- 'H 

FlG. 114.— Nbuencit Indian tent. 

cient number of small poles cut from the woods are deprived of their 
branches and brought to the camp site. A location is selected and the 
poles are erected in a circle, with tops leaning toward the center so as 
to form a cone 10 to 14 feet in height, having a diameter at its base of 



from 10 to IS feet. The skius foriuiug the cover are those of the rein- 
deer, and those selected for this puri^ose are usually of au inferior 
grade. A sufficient number are sewed together to form a strip long 
enough to reach around the poles when set up. As the tents differ in 
size according to the number of people who occujjy them, the skins 
sewed together may be from eight to twelve. Tlie first strip is made 
for the lower x>art of tlie poles and is attached to them by means of 
strings fastened within. A second strip is made to go around the up- 
per part of the poles, and is, of course, correspondingly shorter. It is 
placed last so as to overlap the lower breadth and thus prevent rain 
and snow from blowing in. The door is usually made of one large skin 
or two smaller ones. It is tied to the poles at the upper corners and 
at the lower has a small log of wood as a weight to prevent it from 
flapping. The poles at the apex are not covered and through them the 
smoke from the fire built in the center within ascends and finds exit. 

The interior of the tent is arranged to suit the occupants. The floor 
is usually covered with tlie branches of young spruce, and when care- 
fully laid these form an admirable protection from the cold ground and 
a soft carpeting. 

The women who lay this flooring disjilay great taste, and certain of 
them are noted for their skill in disposing the branches. The center 
of the tent is reserved for the fire which is built there among a few 

The occupants arrange themselves according to the importance of the 
place they occupy in the family. The owner or head man is always to 
be found on the side opposite the fire. This is considered a place of 
honor, to which all guests who are to be complimented are invited to 
a seat. 

The other members of the group arrange themselves along the sides 
of the tent, and those who have been adopted into the family occupy 
positions next the doorway. 

Over the fire may be poles reaching across the tent, and on these will 
be suspended kettles and pots obtained from the traders. The cooking 
utensils are few in number, one vessel serving various purposes. 

The hunting gear and the skins of animals, together with the articles 
belonging to the females may be seen suspended from various ijortions 
of the interior. Around the edges are the blankets of deerskin, and 
those bought from the traders, lying in disorder. The outer edge of 
the interior is slightly raised above the center, and affords a convenient 
slope for those who desire to sleep. The occupants always sleep with 
theii' feet toward the fireplace, around which there is no brush, lest it 
be set on fire during sleep and destroy the tent. 

They have regular hours for sleeping, but as these are only for a period 
of short duration, it is not unusual to find half the inmates asleep at 
any time a tent is visited. 

The preparation of the food appears to go on at all times, and there 


are no regular hours for i)artakiiig of their meals, as each persou eats 
when convenient. The food is taken directly from the pot or kettle, 
and each one helps himself. Porks are not used, and the food is divided 
with a knife or torn with the fingers. 


The Neuenot are in the habit of taking steam baths, for which pur- 
pose they use a sudatory or sweat house, constructed as follows: A 
number of flexible poles of small size, usually willow or alder, which 
grow to sufficient size along the banks of the streams, are bent to form 
a hemispherical or dome shaped structure, which is covered with tent 
skins. A sandy locality is selected or one free from snow in winter, 
and a tierce fire is built. When it is well under way a mxmber of stones 
are thrown into the fire to heat. When the heat is sufticient the fii'e is 
removed and the structure is quickly erected over the hot stones and 
.some one from the outside fastens down the edges of the tenting with 
stones to prevent the loss of heat. A kettle of water previously i^laced 
within the bath house is used to pour over the stones, when heat 
rises to a suft'ocating degree and produces the desired perspiration. 
Water is not used to bathe in, though sometimes a slight quantity is 
poured upon the head only. The bather remains within the hut until 
the heat has nearly exhausted him. 

These baths are frequently taken, and often when he has just started 
on a journey the head of the family will be seized with a desire to have 
a bath. Everything must await this operation before the journey is 

An amusing incident occurred at Fort Ghimo in the spring of 1882. 
That season the reindeer were extremely numerous at that place, as they 
were crossing to go to the northeast to dro]) the fawns. Often when 
the herds or bands were panic stricken they rushed among the Indian 
tents, the houses of the station, and, in lact, everywhere, with yelping 
dogs and screaming women and children at their heels. An old man 
and wife were in the sweat house at a time when a very large drove of 
the deer, in their frantic endeavors to escape their jiursuers, headed 
directly for the bath. Some one screamed to the occupants to look out 
for the deer. The man and wife made their exit just as a score or more 
of the animals reached the spot. The man tore up the tenting of the 
bath house and whirled it in the air, while the old woman cut the most 
astonishing antics. The whole population witnessed the occurrence 
and did not lail to help increase the tumult. Signs of former sudatories 
are quite common along the paths where the Indians have traveled for 
many years. 


Each household is sui)])lied with sundry wooden vessels of various 
sizes (Fig. 115) which serve for buckets for holding water and for drink- 




Fig. 115. — AVooden bucket, Neneuot. 

ing cups. They are made of strips of thin boards out from spruce or 

from hirch trees, the wider strips being as muchassi.v inches wide and 

oue-third of an incli thick. They 

are steamed and bent into ovoid 

or circuhir forms and tlie ends 

of the strip overlapping. Then 

they are sewed with split roots 

from those trees. A groove is 

cut near the lower edge and into 

it is placed a dish-shaped ])iece 

of wood for a bottom. 
These vessels are identical in 

shape and function with those 

manufactured by the Yukon river Indians of Alaska. 

They also use berry-dishes or baskets like Fig. 1 16 made from the 

bark of the spruce 
peeled in the spring 
of the year. At this 
time the bark is 
quite flexible and 
may be bent into 
the desired shape. 
The corners are 
sewed with coarse 
roots from the same 
tree and the rim is 
strengthened by a 
strip of root sewed 
over and around it 
by means of a finer 

strand. These baskets serve a good purpose when the women are pick- 
ing berries, of which they are inordinately 

fond; and during that season it is a rarity 

to see a woman or man without a mouth 

stained the peculiar blue color which these 

berries impart. 
Baskets of this shape fretiuently have a 

top of buckskin sewed to them, closed with 

a drawstring, as shown in Fig. 117 {No. 

3485). Such things serve to hold trinkets 

and other small articles. 

Large objects are carried in bags, either 

long or basket-shaped, made of tlie skins of 

deer legs. The leg skins are scraped and fig. 117.— Birchbark basket. Nenenot. 

worked to a moderate degree of pliability and their edges sewed together 

until a suflttcient number have been joined to make the bag of the re- 

Birchbark basket, Nenenot. 



Tig. 118.— StoDe pestle, 

quired size. This bag is used to hold the clothing, furs, and other valu- 
ables. When on a trip they are invariably carried. If the journey be 
performed on foot the two ends are tied with a thong and the bag 
thrown over the shoulder. 

In preparing food stone pestles of various sizes were 
formerly used of the shape shown in Fig. 118. These 
pestles are now mostly out of date and superseded by 
cast-iron ones with steel faces, procured from the 
traders. The metal pounders, however, are so heavy 
that they are objectionable to people who have to 
make their burdens on the portages as light as pos- 

Spoons to lift pieces of floating meat from the hot 
liquor in which it is cooked, are made of reindeer 
antler and of wood. The pattern of these spoons is 
shown in the figures (Fig. 119). One shape (No. 3351, 
Figs. 120, 121, 122), was perhaps copied from a civil- 
ized ladle. Pots are suspended over the fire with pot- 
hooks of reindeer antler hung up by a loop of thong. These pothooks 
are also made of wood. 


Like all other Indians, 
these people are inordi- 
nately fond of tobacco 
for smoking, chewing, 
and snuft'; the latter, 
however, is used only by 
aged individuals, espe- 
cially the females, whose 

countenances show the ^'"' no— wooden spoon or ladle, Nenenot. 

effect in a maimer quite disgusting. The men consider a supply of to- 
bacco of as much importance as the supply of ammunition for the pros- 
ecution of the chase. The first 
request upon meeting an Indian 
is that you furnish him with a 
chew or a pipe full. Little satis- 
factory intercourse can be had 
with him until he is mollified by 
a gift of tobacco. The first thing 
that an Indian receives when ar- 
riving at the trading post is a 
The pint of molasses and the 
three or four hard biscuit (which have received the local name of 
'Canadian padlock," doubtless because they are so difficult to open), 
are of secondary consideration. When the spring arrivals are camped 

Fig. 120. — Wooden spoon or ladle, Nenenot. 

clay pipe and a i>lug of tobacco. 



Fig. 121.— Wooden spoon or ladle, Nenenot. 

at the station it is not unusual for several to contribute a number of 
plugs of tobacco and a gallon of molasses. These are boiled together 
and then water is added to the mixture. This villainous compound is 
drunk until a state of stupefaction ensues. The muddled creature 
under the intluence of that liquor seems like an idiot. The efl'ect is 
terrible and does not wear away for several days. The pipes used for 
smoking- are made of stone obtained from river pebbles, usually a fine- 
grained compact sandstone. The color of this stone varies from a dark 
reddish brown nearly the color _ 
of clotted blood to a lighter 
shade of that color. The red 
stones often have spots of every 
size and shape of a yellowish 
drab which form a strange con- 
trast with the darker colors. 
The darker the stone the less 
spotting it will have. The best 
of all the pipes and those most valued are of greenish sandstone having 
strata of darker colors which appear as beautiful graining when the 
pipe is cut into form and polished. 

Other pipes are of hard slate and very dark without markings. All 
the material is hard and the effect of the tire ^vithin renders them har- 
der and liable to crack if used in very cold weather. These pipes vary 
but little in shape (I have figured three — PI. xxxviii and Fig. 123 — to 
show the pattern), but there is considerable diflerence in size. The 
largest ones are made of the green stone, while the smaller ones are 
made of other stones. The 
stem is of spruce wood and is 
prepared by boring a small 
hole through the stick length- 
wise and whittling it down 
to the required size. It is 
from 4 to 8 inches long and is 
often ornamented with a band 
of many colored beads. 

The rough stone for a pipe ^'"- l^a-Woo.len spoon or ladle, Nenenot. 

is selected and chipped into crude form. The successive operations of 
wearing it down to the desired size are accomplished by means of a 
coarse file or a harder stone. The amount of labor bestowed upon a 
pipe consumes several days' time before the final polish is given. 

The value set upon these pipes is according to the color of the stone, 
as much as the amount of labor expended in making them. They are 
always filthy, partly on account of the bad quality of tobacco iised. 
The ashes and other accumulations within are removed by means of a 
bodkin-shaped instrument of bone or horn. The back of a broken horn 
comb is a favorite material for making a decorated pipe-cleaner (Fig. 



124). The orniiinentatioiis coiiisitit of cracit'onn and quadrate figures on 
the handle. The tobacco used for smoking is the commonest black 
plug of very inferior (xuality, soaked with molasses and licorice. This 
moist tobacco is cut into pieces and a coal of fire placed upon it. They 
IH-efer this (juality, and purchase the lighter and drier kinds only to 
serve as kindling for the darker sort. 

They do not know how to brew or ferment liquors of any kind, and 
as the importation of intoxicants is wisely prohibited, the native has no 
opportunity to indulge in his craving for liquors, the supply of which 
was plentiful in former years. A spruce beer is made by the servants 
of the company for the holidays, and a taste is sometimes given to a 



Fig. 123. — Stone tobacco pipe. 

Fkj. 124. — Pipe clc.incr. Ncnenot, 

favorite Indian, who is so easily affected that a pint of this mild beer 
will send him reeling and happy to his tent, where it soon becomes 
known that beer is to be had. The importunities for drink are now so 
fretiuent, that the barrel must be emptied of its contents in order to 
avoid the constant beggings for it. 



All the Indians of this region use birch-bark canoes, of the pattern 
shown in the figure (PI. xxxix, from a i>hotograph; the collection also 
contains six wooden models of these canoes). The style of canoe used 
by the Little Whale river Indians of the eastern side of Hudson bay 
has very much more sheer at the bow and stern than those used in the 


valley of the Koksoak. The cauoe of each individual difl'ei'S from others 
according to the personal taste or need of the maker. The requirements 
are that the caiioe shall be able to trausjiort himself and family, together 
with the household property, whenever it is desired to change camps. 
Some of the canoes are small, others large, often possessed by two or 
more individuals in common. 

These canoes are constructed in the following manner: Trees are 
selected which when split will afford a number of straight-grained 
slats free from knots. These slats are shaved to the required thick- 
ness and laid aside to season. They are 3 or 4 inches wide and less 
than one-third of an inch in thickness. The exterior or longitudinal 
strips are placed so that their edges will touch each other. The inside 
stiips or ribs are placed about their own width apart, and of course are 
placed at right angles to the longitudinal slats. They are thinner than 
the side strips and become almost like shavings at the bow and stern. 
The two layers of slats form a kind of shell upon which the skin of 
bark tits tightly. The first process with the bark is to free it from the 
outside scaling layers; the next is to soak it for several days in fresh 
water to soften it; otherwise, when dry it would crack like an eggshell. 
When it has macerated a sufficient time it is taken out and laid over a 
form of clay or other earth, which has previously been roughly molded 
to the shape of the interior of the canoe. The bark is now sewed along 
the edges of the strips with roots of the spruce tree. These are long 
and tough, and resemble splits of rattan when properly prepared for 
the purpose by splitting and shaving with a knife. Various sizes of 
these roots are used for the different portions. The threads are also 
soaked in water until they bec(jme so flexible that they may be tied into 
a knot without breaking. 

When the bark skin rudely conforms to the shape of the mold of 
earth, the rails or round strips of wood along the inner edge of the 
canoe are placed in position and the ends of the bark strips laid over 
it and sewed. A second rail is now laid upon the first and drawn 
down to it by means of the root thongs. A piece of wood is shaped for 
the bow and one for the stern and inserted in position, and the end 
seams of the canoe are sewed over these i>ieces. 

The interior is then ready for the longitudinal strips, which are placed 
at the bottom first and gradually built up on each side until the rails 
are reached. The ribs or transverse strips are next placed in position. 
Five or more crosspieces, or thwarts, are fastened to the side rails to 
give stiffness to the sides and to prevent collapsing, and they may be 
set either below or above the rail. The greatest care must be exercised 
to give to both sides of the canoe the same shape and to have the keel 
evenly balanced. This is rudely regulated by the eye during the process 
of construction. After all the strips are put in, the boat is allowed 
to season and dry. This causes the bark to shrink, and while drying 
the whole is frequently inspected to discover any splits or cracks in 

11 ETH 20 



the bark. Tlie Indian often wets the canoe, lest it dry too rapidly and 
split under the tension. When the form and make are satisfactory the 
seams are smeared with ai mixture of sjiruce gum (or I'esin bought from 
the traders'), mixed with seal oil to render it less easily broken. This 
mixture is while hot laid upon the dry surface with a small paddle. 

After the gum has sea-^oned for a day or so the canoe is put upon the 
water and tested for its speed and seaworthiness. All leaks and needed 
repairs are immediately attended to, and it is at length 
ready for use. 

Many persons have not the skill needed to construct 
a canoe, and they employ those who liave had experience 
and are known to build an excellent boat. 

There are two kinds of canoes in use among those In- 
dians, differing only in the shape of the stern and ]irow. 
The original form was nearly tiat along the rails and had 
the bow and stern but little turned up. Of later years 
intercourse with some of their neighbors has induced 
them to modify the neaily straight edge canoe into an 
intermediate shaiie between their own and that of the 
East Main Indians, whose canoes are very much turned 
U]), and are acknowledged to be far superior vessels to 
those of the Ungava Indians. 

As the forests in the vicinity of Fort Ohinio do not 
contain birch trees, and none are found until the head- 
waters of the Koksoak are reached, where they are too 
small to afford bark of suflQcieut size and thickness, the 
Indians are compelled to procure the bark from the 
traders, who imitort it from the St. Lawrence river and 
gulf stations to Fort (Jhimo. It comes in bundles large 
enough to cover a single canoe of moderate size. If a 
canoe is to be very large two bundles are required. The 
value of a black fox skin purchases a bundle of bark. 

During the spring months, while the weather is some- 
what Avarm, the men are engaged in preparing the strips 
and bark for the canoe which is to convey them up the 
river when the ice breaks and the river is open for navi- 

The paddle has a single blade with a handle scarcejy 
more than half the length of the paddle. It is irsed with 
I'm. i25.-spoon i'or))oth li.auds, the strokes being given on alternate sides as 

ai)pfying grease to ' c? c^ 

cai"'!. \i glides through the water. 

When it is necessary that a portage be made the voyager takes the 
canoe upon his shoulders by letting one of the center thwarts rest on 
the back of the neck. The hands are thrown backward to hold up the 
end of the canoe from the ground. A headband, such as I have already 
described, of birch bark or cloth, often fancifully ornamented with 




beads, fits over the foreheail and is attached to the sides of the eaiioe 
by means of thongs, whicli prevent the canoe from slipping off the 
shoulders as the porter quickly trav- 
erses the narrow pathway through 
the trees and bushes. The ground 
is often sb uneven and rough that 
long detours have to be made by the 
porter, while the rest of the party 
may go a shorter path to the place 
where the canomvill again be placed 
in the water. A jjart of the neces- 
sary equipments for a trip in a canoe 
are pieces of bark, root threads, and 
gum to repair any damage resulting 
from an accidental contact with a 
stone or snag. 

Without the birch-bark canoe the 
Indian would have difficulty in ob- 
taining his living, as it is even more 
necessary than the sled, and nearly 
as useful as the snowshoe. 

The paddles used with these ca- 
noes are about 5 feet long, having a 
blade about 30 inches long and 4J 
wide. The handle terminates in a 
sort of knob. Tlie paddle referred 
to, for applying the gum and grease 
to the seams of the canoe, has the 
shape of a flattened spoon with 
rounded bowl (Fig. 125). The gum 
is heated, and while hot is poured 
along the seams and pressed into 
the interstices of the stitches with 
the paddle. When a jiatch is to be 
applied over a fracture or broken 
place in the bark, it may be made 
to adhere by the sticky properties 
of the gum alone, if tlie distance to 
be traveled is not great. A fire is 
then made and the wax heated ; the 
piece of bark is edged with the gum 
and pressed firmly over the rent. 
A second coat is applied over the 
edges of the bark, after the first has 
become cold. A few minutes sufHce 
to repair an apparently alarming hole 

126. — Toboggan, NeBenot, 
side view. 

Flii. I27._Tuliog- 
gaii, Neneuol, 



For carrying loads over the suow all tlie Iiuliaus of this region use 
large sleds (Figs. 12(5, 127) called ta-bas-kan, which is a word e(iuiva- 
lent to the well kuowu name "toboggan." These sleds, as used among 
the Indians iinder consideration, differ very greatly in size according to 
the use for which they are designed. 

The method of construction is as follows: A tree is selected as free 
from knots as possible and two boards of less than au inch in thickness 
are hewed or split from it. These boards are further dressed to the 
required thickness and widtli. The final operation consists in shaving 

them down with a " crooked 
knife" to little more than half 
au inch in thickness. One 
edge of each board is then 
straightened and the two 
edges placed together. The 
length is rarely more than 
13 feet. The front end is 
steamed or heated in a kettle 
of hot water until tlie boards 
liecome flexible. The ends 
are turned up to the desired 
curve and then bent over at 
the end, where they are held 
m position by a transverse 
bar of wood. This bar is 
slightly concave on the side 
next the sled and gives the 
nose a curved shape. The 
curved portion of the front 
may rise as much as 18 inches 
above the surface over which 
the sled travels. At the 
place where the curve begins. a second transverse bar is placed, and 
at a distance behind it a third, fourth, and fifth bars are ftistened. 
Sometimes an additional bar is to be found on the upper side of the bot- 
tom. These bars are all fastened to the two bottom boards by means of 
thongs of par(;hment deerskin, and run through holes on the bottom 
boards. On the under side the thongs are let into places cut out between 
the two holes, so that the thongs will not be worn when passing over 
the snow. They are usually fastened in four places, one at each end of 
the bar and one on each side of the crevice between the edges of the 
two boards. From the nose of the first bar run a pair of very stout 
thongs or else twisted sinew, which are drawn tight enough to prevent 
the nose and ciu've from straightening out. From the end of the first 

Flu. 128. — Neuenot anowshoo. single bar. 







bar to the last one on the heel of the sled is run a stout twisted thong 
under the end of each bar, whifh there has a notch cut on the under 
side for the line to pass through. This line serves to strengthen the 
sides and prevent the two boards from slipping past each other when 
passing over inequalities of tlie ground. At the ends of the first bar 
and connected with the side lines are two long stout thongs of twisted 
skin, often 25 feet long. These are used as traces, by which the sled is 
dragged. The shape of the bottom is often fashioned after all the re- 
mainder of the work has been done. The width of the nose is rarely 
more than 9 inches; at the first bar it is about 14 inches and as much 
as 18 inches between the first and second bars. From the widest part 
to the heel it gradually narrows to a width of 5 co 7 inches. 

Two boards are used, as one of sufficient width could not be obtained 
from the forests of that region. Besides, a single board would certainly 
split, while two obviate this 
danger and render the sled less 
stiff. In ijassing over rough 
places the sled must bend to 
conform to inequalities or else 
it would break. In the con- 
struction of this vehicle the In- 
dian displays much skill and a 
perfect knowledge of the re- 
quirements of the case. The 
load is placed so as to dispose 
the weight on that portion which 
will bear chiefly on the ground. 
The great length of the sled en- 
ables the person to guide it 
more readily. 

When on a journey theyounger 
women and the men drag it 
along. When the men return 
to the station to trade they 
alone drag it. A small dog is 
sometimes hitched to it by a thong, but as the animal is so small and 
light, it affords but little assistance. The animal, liowever, would cer- 
tainly wander off in search of game along the track, and by being 
hitched to the sled is kept within bounds. 

All the household effects, consisting of tent, cooking utensils, cloth- 
ing, and otlier articles are placed on the sled when the people are 
changing camp. 

The Nenenot are skilled in the manufacture and use of snowshoes, 
of which four styles are used, viz: The "swallow-tail," "beaver tail," 
"round-end," and "single-bar" (Figs. 128, 120). The frame is of wood, 
nearly an inch wide and half an inch thick, usually in two pieces, joined 

Fig. 129 — Nenenot suowahoe. Biogle bar. 



by loug' lap splices wrapped with deerskin thongs, either at the sides 
or ends of the shoe. In the single-bar shoe the frame is on one slip, 
spliced at the toe. Birch is the favorite material for snowshoes, but is 
rarely to be liad except by those Indians who ascend the Koksoak to its 
headwaters, so that spruce and larch are generally nsed. 

The arrangement of the toe and heel bars of the snow- 
shoes will be best understood from the figures. They are 
usually placed within the frame, and set in nujrtises in the 
inner side of the frame, before the wrapping of the ends of 
the frames has been drawn together; otherwise the bars 
could not be placed in tlie holes to receive them. 

The netting is made of deerskin, with the hair removed, 
and allowed to dry into a condition usually known as parch- 
ment. This is cut into strips of variable width, depending 
on the particular use for which it is wanted. 

A needle of bone, horn, or iron (Fig. 130) is used for net- 
ting the snowshoes. The shape of the implement is flat and 
rounded at each point, to enable the needle to be used either 
backward or forward. The eye which carries the line is In 
the middle. Various sizes of needles are used for the dif- 
erent kinds of netting, of which the meshes dift'er greatly 
in size. 

The line is generally 10 to 20 feet in length, and when the 
netting is completed it somewhat resembles the seating of 
a cane-bottomed chair. Bach individual varies his work 
according to fancy, but as the netting between the bars is 
made of coarser line, more compactly woven, there is less 
difference there than at the toe or heel. 

The netting of the toe is of finer line and meshes than 
the middle or between the bars; while that between the 
heel bar and heel of the snowshoe is finest of all. 

The netting between the bars holds the joints of the 
frames where they lap over each other. 

The to(! and heel spaces of netting are held in place by 
the line passing under the threads which are wrapped 
around the bars from the netting between them, and again 
are fastened or slipped through loops of thread or line 
which are let through the frame of the snowshoe. 

Near the center of the toe-bar is a space left in the netting 
between the bars to admit the toes of the wearer and allow 
them free action while walking. This space is semicircular and is in- 
closed by several strands of line passing over the toe-bar and forming 
loops, which have the diagonal lines of the netting passed around them 
and drawn tight. 

The snowshoe is held to the foot by a wide buckskin thong attached 
at the semicircular space back of the toe-bar. The ends must be far 

Fig. lan.— Snow 
ahoe nt'edle, 






enough apart to admit the width of the foot as far as the toes, aud 
must be tlieii drawn down to prevent the foot from pushing too far 
forward and striking against the toebar. Tlie loop passing over the 
toes must be slaclc enough to allow free movement of the foot. When 
the strap snits the foot it is passed around the heel of the wearer and 
tied sufficiently tight to give ease aiul ecunfint. If too tight, the 
weight soon i)resses the tendou of the heel. If too loose, it drops down 
and the toe slips from under the toe band. 

The single-bar snowshoes are not much used, because they are some- 
what difficult to make. They are of two styles. One has the bar 
directly under the center of the foot. It is wide, and should be strong 
enough to sustain the weight of any wearer. The other style is where 
the single bar is at the front of the toes, which pattern differs from 

Fig. 131. — Wooden siiowsliue, Little Whale river. 

the "beaver-tail" style only in the absence of the heel bar. This 
pattern is considered the easiest of all to wear and walk in when once 
learned. The foot straps are exactly like those of the common kinds. 

The single bar in the middle of the snowshoe renders it a matter of 
great discomfort until one is accustomed t" it, as the straps are simply 
loops for the toe and heel. Tliis pattern has been already figured. 
The largest snowshoes measure as much as 28 inches across and 3 
feet in length. 

Some of the Indians acquire great expertness in the use of these snow- 
shoes, aud are able to run quite rapidly with them. The width of the 
shoes causes one to straddle widely to allow one snow.shoe to pass 
above and over the other. Care must be exercised that while bringing 
the rear foot forward the frame does not strike the ankle and produce 
a serious bruise. In ascending a hill the toe must elevate the snow- 



shoe to avoid a stumble. In descending the body must be thrown well 
back or a pitch heels over head ensiles, and sometimes the 
frames strike the back of the head. 

To put them on the feet the foot must enter the looj) from 
forward toward the rear, and when the loop is on the foot 
the latter must be turned within the loop and then passed 
under the toe band. 

Everybody wears snowshoes — men, women, and children. 
Without them travel in winter would be an impossibility, 
and as the capture of furs is made in winter and the ground 
to be hunted o\er must of necessity be of gxeat area, the 
snowshoe becomes a necessity as much as the canoe in sum- 

I collected two peculiar pairs of snowshoes, made of flat 
spruce boards(Fig. 131). Theyare shaped exactly like netted 
snowshoes of the "beaver tail" pattern, and the arrangement 
of the foot strap is the same as usual. 

They came from the Little Whale river Indians, who in- 
formed me that they were worn on soft snow. 

In the spring of the year, when the snow is rapidly melted 
by sun, the netted snowshoes become clogged with slush, 
rendering the weight very fatiguing. Wooden snowshoes 
are admirably adapted for that season of the year, and may 
be made in a few hours, while the netted ones require sev- 
eral days' assiduous labor. The Indians of the Koksoak val- 
ley do not iise the wooden snowshoes. 


In former times these Indians used the bow and arrow 
exclusively, but they have now nearly discarded these wea- 
pons for the guns which they procure from the traders. 

The bow and arrow is, however, still used to kill ptarmi- 
gan, hares, and rabbits. The bow (Fig. 132) consists of a 
piece of larch or spruce wood of 4 to 6 feet in length. It is 
only slightly narrower and thinner at the ends, and nearly 
an inch thick and an inch and a half wide at the central por- 
tions. But little ingenuity is displayed in the construction 
of these weapons. They have considerable elasticity, and if 
broken it is easy to obtain a piece of wood from the forest and 
fashion another. The string is a strand of de<'rskin, twisted 
or rolled. It is rare to find a bow that has a single string. 

The arrows are usually 2 feet or 30 inches long, and feath- 
ered with three ptarmigan feathers. (Figs. 133-136.) The 
head is usually an egg-shaped knob, terminating in a slender 
point which soon breaks off. 

This weapon is used for small game, as the cost of ammu- 
nition is too great to spend it upon game as readily procured 







by this cheaper method. The Indian is very expert in the use of the 
how and arrow, and is abU' to knock over a ptarmigan or crouching 
hare every time at 25 yards. The force witli which the arrow is pro- 
jected is astonishing. I have seen a ptarmigan rolled for many yards 
amid a perfect cloud of feathers when struck by the arrow. It often 
tears the entire side out of the bird. 

In former years the arrow did great execution among the deer iu 
the water or deep snow banks among which they floundered when 
driven into them by the Indian who, on snowshoes, was able to travel 
where the deer sank nearly out of sight. 

Fig. 133.— Arrow, 

Fig. 134.— Arrow, 

FlQ. 135. —Arrow, 

Fig. 136.— Arrow, 

Among the Indian boys it is yet a favorite amusement to shoot 
small birds with the bow and arrow Small crossbows also are used 
by children. They have doubtless been made after those brought by 
vsome white man. The children have great sport with these bows. 

The spear, already referred to, for killing the swimming reindeer, is 
shown in Fig. 137. The wooden shaft is 6 feet long, and the steel 
point, which is made of a tiat file beaten down to a quarter of an inch 
square, is 11 inches long. It is set into the end of the shaft and 
fastended by a whii)ping of sinew. 

The weapon is held by the hand in a manner peculiar as well as un- 
comfortable. The closed hand over the butt end of the weajion is so. 




placed as to have the lingers upward and the outside of the liand 
toward the poiut, this rather awkward grasp enables the person to let 
go of the weapon in case of threatened disaster resulting 
fi'oni a misdirected thrust. The collection also contains three 
models of deer spears, jSTos. 3205-3207. These are often 
also iised as arrows to shoot at larger game when the In- 
dian is out hunting ptarmigan, hares, and rabbits. A hun- 
gry wolverene or a famished wolf would x^rove trouble- 
some to kill with the blunt arrows. These models differ 

from the larger spear 
only in size. 

The Little Whale 
river Indians use a 
peculiar spear for kill- 
ing white whales. 
(Figs. 138,139). It is 
modeled after the Es- 
kimo harpoon, but has 
no "loose shaft," or 


Pig. 137 Deer 

lance, Nenenot. 

Fig. 138.— White whale spear, 
Little Whale river. 

FIQ. 139.— Point of white 
whale spear enlarged. 

rather, the fore shaft and loose shaft are in one piece, and has a circu- 
lar wooden disk fitted to the butt of the shaft, which takes the place of 
the bladder float, and serves to impede the motions of the animal when 




struck. Keiudecr autler is substituted for the ivory of the Eskimo 
weapon. The bhides arc of copper or iron and riveted in. These 
spears are 8 or 10 feet long. 

The snare (Fig. 140) forms one of the less important methods of 
procuring these animals. It is of pai'chment made from the skin of the 
reindeer cut into thin narrow thongs. Sevei'al of tliese strands, usually 
three, are ])laited together to form a layer; and of these layers three 
are plaited together to form the snare line. It often is made, however, 
of three single strands cut somewhat wider and creased so that they will 
lie well when the three are plaited. The more strands the greater the 

Fig. 140.— Reindeer snare. Nenenot. 

flexibility of the line, but as there must be a certain amount of stiif- 
ness to hold it in position the many strands must be woveu more 
tightly together. The length varies from 10 to 20 feet, and at the 
end is a loop formed by turning the strands back and splicing them. 
Through the loop the other end is passed, and the noose is made. 

When a herd of deer is discovered in a favorable locality the people 
of the vicinity are informed and hasty preparations are made. 

The effort is to cause the deer to pass through a narrow defile con- 
taining bu.shes. The snares are then placed in position by tying the 
free end of the line to a suitable tree and suspending the noose where 
the heads or antlers will become entangled. Some are placed so that 
when the foot is lifted the noose is carried along and tightens on it. 


The people surround the auimals, and at a given signal shout and 
create the greatest din, to confuse the creatures, which plunge toward 
the place where the snares are set. One or two hunters concealed in 
that locality appear suddenly and further confuse the now panic- 
stricken animals, which rush in every direction before their foes. They 
become immeshed iu tlie nooses and are held until their throats are cut 
or they are clicked by the cord. 

It frequently happens that two deer will be caiight in a single snare. 
The Indians assert that it is a most ludicrous siglit to witness two 
sturdy bucks caught by the antlers in a single snare. Tliey appear to 
accuse each other of the misfortune, and struggle terribly to free them- 
selves. In the animals whicli are strangled by the noose the congested 
blood distends the veins and renders the flesh very dark. 

Previous to the general useof guns the snaring method wasof greater 
importance than at the present day. Even now the Indian does not 
lose any opportunity of employing the snare. 

Some of the snares are made of tanned skin, which is softer and is 
often ornamented with strands of beads attached to the end of the line. 
Some of them are colored red, with a mixture of vermilion and hematite 
earths, thinned with water. 


I have already described the methods of hunting the reindeer and of 
capturing small game. 

The beaver is not plentiful in the Uugava district, and not until the 
headwaters of the Koksoak and the lakes near the source of George's 
river are reached are they to be found at all, excepting occasional 

The Indians have few of the skins of this animal to sell at the trading 
post of Fort Chimo. 

The methods of capture difi'er in some respects from those elsewhere 

The habits of the beaver are so well known that a statement of their 
manner of life is unnecessary. 

The food supply north of latitude 55° is so limited in quality and 
quantity tliat the scarcity of the animals is due entirely to the absence 
of the food necessary for their existence. 

When the dams and structures made by the beaver are discovered 
the people devise means to capture it. 

If it is convenient to get at the holes leading to the structure, which 
are always under water so deep that it will not freeze to the bottom, 
they are closed with a stick of wood and an opening made in the top of 
the hut. The animal is then caught by the hind legs or tail and lifted 
out. It seldom attempts to defend itself at first. As soon as the hunter 
can do so he jerks the animal out, and witli a blow on its lie.ul kills it. 
If he should pause for an instant from the time the hand is put on the 




animal until the death blow is given, that very instant he certainly 
will be bitten with teeth so sharp and powerful that the ungers may be 
suiiiped from the hand as though with a pair of shears. The wound 
thus inflicted is often very severe and difiBcult to heal, as the bite is 
not only cutting but crushing. 

Where the water can be drained from the pond or lake 
iu which the beavers' hut is built, the Indians often leave 
it high and dry by damming off the supply and allowing 
the water to drain away. As soon as the house is out of 
water the occupant emerges and is killed. Beavers are 
sometimes shot while sporting on the water during moon- 
light nights. 

Some of the animals are captured by means of a net of 
peculiar construction. This net is of fine deerskin thongs 
netted into a circle nearly 2 feet in diameter, with meshes 
about an inch square. The meshes in the outer row are 
threaded upon a stout thong of deerskin, in length about 
four times the diameter of the net. This thong is now tied 
at the ends, and over one end thus tied is slipped a ring- 
made of si^ruce root and wound with sinew to strengthen 
it. This ring is about an inch in diameter, only sufficient 
to allow freedom of the ends of the line. It is fastened 
to one of the meshes of the net in order to keep its place. 

Where the water is too deep and only a single beaver is 
in the lodge the net is carefully spread over the mouth of 
the exit so placed as to form a purse into which the head 
and neck of the animal will be thrust as it leaves the hut. 
The mouth of the purse now tightens from the ring slip- 
ping along the string, and thus strangles the animal or 
else causes it to drown as it struggles to escape from the 
tightening cord. 

The net is said to be a very effective means of capturing 
the beaver and will succeed when it has become too wary 
to be shot on the surface of the water. 

Tlie flesh of the beaver is considered valuable food by 
these ijeoiile. They prize it highly and prefer the flesh 
of the female to that of the male. 

Fig. 141.— Crooked 
kuife, Kenenot. 


One of the most important tools used by the Neuenot is the " crooked" 
knife (Fig. 141). These instruments are made from steel files or knife 
blades. They are of various sizes depending on the amount of material 
at hand. The Indian takes a piece of metal and giiiuls one side of it 
flat and smooth; the other is edged like a drawing knife. The blade is 
now heated and bent to the de.sired curve. Some are more bent than 
others and some have only the jwint bent to one side. The few left- 



handed persons have the bhide formed to suit themselves. It is set in 
a handle curved from the user and bent upward like the blade. At the 
end of the handle is generally to be found a thong on which a wooden 
button is placed for attachment to the belt, as no man ever goes off on 
a journey without this knife, however short may be the distance. 

The handle is held in the hand at right angles or across the body and 
invariable drawn toward the user. It is employed for all purposes of 
whittling or shaving wood and one would be surprised to observe what 
large strips will separate when started with this apparently frail blade. 

Fig. 142.— Awl. Nciienot. 

Fig. 143.— Snow shovel, 

Fig. 144 Ice-scoop, 


The strips and slats of canoes, paddles, snowshoes, and in fact every- 
thing that can be cut from wood, are made with this knife. It requires 
much skill to guide the blade so as to cut the wood evenly; and to this 
end the thumb, which is placed upon the outer extremity of the handle, 
must steady the blade. The strain of the blade upon the handle is 
very great, and it must be securely held by means of stout thongs 
wrapped around it. 

The crooked knife is a form of instrument in use among the Indians 
and Eskimo alike, and one of the few implements which those widely 
diflering people have in common. 


Awls (Fig. 142) are made of steel or iron. Tlie back or spring of a 
pocketkuife or a portion of a small file apficars to be the favorite mate- 
rial for forming them. They are usually chisel-shaped and have rectan- 
gular corners. The handle into which the metal is fastened is gen- 
erally of deer horn. The shape of the handle varies from a Y 
shape to that of a crescent. 

These tools are constantly required for piercing holes in the 
various woods used in manufacture. Articles of simple con- 
struction the Indian prefers to make for himself, rather than pay 
an extortionate price to the trader. H(» is able to accomplish re- 
markable results with rude tools of his own make. 

Snow shovels are made of wood and are much used, for dur- 
ing the winter, when the snows are constantly accumulating 
around the camps, the occupants necessarily remove some to 
form a pathway fi-om the door of their tent, and as snow forms 
an admirable i^rotection, it is thrown or banked up around their 
tents to prevent the wind from blowing under. In the spring 
nearly all the aged people carry one of the wooden shovels to 
clear away a path or as a help to walk while the slushy snow is 
so treacherous. Fig. 143 represents a common form of wooden 
snow shovel. These are often ijaiuted with vermillion or indigo. 

Fig. 144 shows a special form of snow shovel designed for 
cleaning the ice from the holes through which the people fish. It 
usually has a blade made from the brow antler or one of the -^ 
broad palms from the horns of the reindeer. The horn portion 
is attached to the wooden shaft or handle by means of thongs 
running through holes bored for that i>urpose. 

The ice-picks (Fig. 145) used in times gone by were pieces of 
reindeer horn or bone, shaped like a narrow mortising chisel and 
attached to staffs of wood. The chiscd or pick was fastened to 
the staff by means of stout thongs to prevent a side movement 
from the groove into which it was set. The upper end of the 
staff was at times shod with bone or horn so as to be available 
for a walking staff. 

The ice-pick of the present day has a piece of iron or steel 
substituted for the horn or bone; but, being heavy, it is not so 
often carried from place to place. An Indian will in an incredi- 
bly short time pierce a hole through 3 feet thickness of ice with lJ 
it. A white man can not equal them in this work. fiq.145. 

Combs for the hair are purchased fiom the traders. They are highly 
prized and are kept in little birchbark bags. For cleaning out the 
dirt which collects on the comb the tail of a porcupine is used. The 
needles or spines are picked out of the tail, leaving the stiff, coarse 
hairs, which serve the purpose of cleaning the ccmib quite well. This 
tail is usually appended to the comb-case. 



The natives sometimes make wooden combs like the one shown in Fig. 

146, in imitation of those inirehased. 
After a woman's hair has been combed half of it is collected on each 

side of the head and I'olled 
or wonnd up on small 
pieces of board (Fig. 147) 
similar in shape to the 
" winders " on which darn- 
ing or knitting cord is 
wrapped. Strands of 
beads are now placed 
upon these to hold the 
hair in place. 

A remarkable object is 
shown in Fig. 148. It is 
one of a pair of boards 
procured from one of the 
Little Whale river Indi- 
ans, by whom they are 
used to assist in swim- 
ming. One board is held 
in each hand and used as 
a paddle to push the 
swimmer along. Indians 
alile to swim are scarce. 
I have not seen these 
boards in use, and am not 
able personally to speak 
concerning their alleged 
The lish-hook shown in Fig. 149 has a barb of steel or iron. It is on 

the smaller hooks made of one of the ribs of the larger trout. 

Fig. 14G — Comb, with birckbark case and cleaner. 


The boys have no consideration for the females of their own age, but 

treat them as inferiors and lit 
for nothing but to be subjects 
of almost constant annoyance 
and persecution. When a 
number of boys collect they 
are sure to maltreat the wo- 
men, even those advanced in 
years, and appear to delight 
in any opportunity to sub- 
Fio. 147.— Hoards lor woman's hair. ject them to the rudcst luis- 

chief. If a woman ventures to iieep from the tent in summer a shower 








of water is ''e to be tiling' on lier by some boy. In winter snow- 
balling is equally annoying, and when parties of women go to the 
woods t" get fuel the i)aek oC boys is sure to waylay them as they 
return. If the boys ean separate the women their fun is complete; 
their dresses are torn and their bundles of fuel scattered. They often 
retaliate, however, and strip t lie clothing from some unfortunate boy 
who is compelled to return to camp in a nude condition, much to the 

Fig. 148. ^SwimDiinj; board. 

amusement of the peoi>le. This form of disgrace appears to be the most 
severe which can be mflu-ted ui)on a male; and the jokes to which he 
is afterward subjected keep him the object of ridicule for many days. 
Besides practical jokes upon women, running, jumping, wrestling, 
and practicing with the bow and other weapons suited to their age, ap- 
pear to be the principal amusements of 
the boys. The girls have never been 
observed to play at games of any kind. 
Their chief occupation is tokcc]>away 
from the boys. While walking out the 
girls generally toss stones or chips in 
the air and strive to keep at least two 
of them up at once. The Eskimo often 
practice this also, and, as it appears to 
be a general source of amusement 
among the Innuit, I suspect that the 
Indian borrowed it from them. Wres- 
tling appears to be the principal test 
for physical strength and severe con- 
tests often engage the stronger Individ 
uals. Tliey wrestle in the Eskimo 
fashion, and frequently indulge in 
trials of strength with these people. 
As would lie expected, the stronger 
Eskimo are always the victors. All these contests, whether among 
themselves or with the Eskimo, are carried on with the best of good 

11 ETU I'l 

riG. 149, 



Feasts are given now aud then to celebrate .success in bunting and 
similar achievements. 

In 1883 I was invited to attend a (east of furs to be given by one of 
the most energetic of the Indians. We repaired to the tents spread ou 
the top of a high wall of rock a few rods from my house. As I ap- 
proached the scene I observed a tent of different construction. It was 
nearly oval at its base and had a diameter of about 18 feet and a length 
oflabout 25 feet. The top was drawn to an apex resembling the com- 
mon roof of a house. The entrance to the structure faced southeast. 
On a pole, supported with one end on the apex of the tent and the-other 
resting on a post, were numbers of skins of various animals — wolves, 
wolverine, beaver, otter, foxes, and muskrat, together with a number 
of the finest reindeer skins. The sound of the drum was heard within 
the structure and as I approached the door the noise ceased. Ijiaused 
and was invited to enter. Immediately two old men next the drummer 
moved to one side and motioned me to sit down on the pile of deer- 
skins reserved for me. It was evident that tlie feast had been in prog- 
ress for some time. Around the interior of the structure grou^js of men 
were idly di.sposed, some reclining and others standing. Not a word 
was spoken for some time, and this gave me opportunity to look around. 
The floor was covered with boughs from the neighboring spruce trees, 
arranged with unusual care, forming a soft carpeting for those seated 
within. I saw a number of i)iles of deerskins and several small heaps 
covered with cloth. To break the silence I inquired if the drum was 
tired. A smile greeted the inquiry. Immediately an old man came 
forward, tightened the snare of the drum, and arranged the string, sus- 
pending it from one of the tent poles at the proper height for use. He 
then dipped his lingers into a vessel of water and sprinkled a few drops 
on the membrane of the drum-head to prevent it from breaking under 
the blows to be delivered. The performer then seized the drumstick 
with the right hand and gave the membrane a few taps; the transverse 
cord of twisted sinew, holding the small cylinders of wood attached to 
it, repeated the vibration with increased emphasis. A song was begun 
and the drum beaten in rythm to the monotonous chant of oho, oho, 
etc. Three songs with tympanic accompaniment followed. The songs 
appeared alike and were easily learned. In the meanwhile the guests 
were treated to a strange-looking compound which had lain hidden be- 
neath one of the cloths and is known as "pemmican." I was solicited 
to accept a piece. The previously assembled guests had either bi'ought 
their own bowls and saucers to eat fi-om or else ajjpropr ated those 
available. Not to be at a loss, one of the young men remarked that he 
would find one. From amoug the accximulated filth around one of the 
center poles supporting the strxicture a bowl was ]»roduced. Tlie man 
coolly took the handkerchief which was tied around his forehead to 
keep his matted liair from his face and wiped out tlie interior of the 


bowl, aud placing' a i)iece of the pemmican withiu it, handed it to the 
attendant whose duty it was to offer it to me. 

I, however, found it quite inedible. Other guests constantly arrived 
aud some departed, made happy by their share of this compound of 
I'ancid tallow and marrow with a due admixture of pounded dry meat 
of the reindeer. I soon departed, and attempted to take the remnant 
of the pemmican with me. This was instantly forbidden, and informa- 
tion given me that by so doing I should cause all the deer to desert the 
vicinity, and thus make the people starve. I explained that such was 
not my desire, and after wishing continued prosperity and enjoyment, 
I made my way out. I was then informed that the feast would con- 
tinue for a time, and wind up with an invitation to the women, who 
had hitherto been excluded, to come and eat the remnants left by the 
men. At the end of two days thereafter the feast concluded and a 
dance took place. In this performance there was nothing remarkable. 
The men sang songs and kicked up their heels, while the women 
shrugged their shoulders as they swayed their bodies from right to 
left, and assumed various other postures, although their limbs were 
apparently kept in a rigid position, occasionally uttei-ing their plaudits 
as the men made humorous compliments to their generous host. 

This feast was given by one who had been unusually successful in 
the caiiture of fiir-bearing animals, and, to prove his wealth, displayed 
it before the assemblage and gave a feast in consideration of his ability. 
Other feasts of a similar character occur, and differ from this in uo 
special feature. 

The principal source of amusement with the men is the game of 
draughts or checkers. While the men are in the tent or on the hillsides 
awaiting the approach of bands of deer their idle moments are employed 
over this game. Neither hunger nor the sight of game is sufficient to 
distract them, so intently are they absorbed. 

The game is played as in civilization, with only slight differences. 1 
am not aware that wages are laid upon its issue. Some of the men are 
so expert that they would rank as skillful players in any part of the 

Small boards that may be carried in the hunting bag are used on trips 
to while away the tedium of the long winter evenings with only the light 
of the flickering tire of the dry limbs of spruce. Far into the night the 
players engage, and are only disturbed when one of their tired com- 
panions starts from his sleep to relate a wondrous dream and have it 
expounded by the listeners, who sit aghast at the revelations. 

They also have a game corresponding to " cup and ball," but it is 
played with different implements from what the Eskimo use, as may be 
seen by referring to Fig. 150. The hollow cones are made from the 
terminal phalanges of the reindeer's foot. The tail tied to the end of 
the thong is that of a marten or a mink. The player holds the peg in one 
hand, and tossing up the bones tries to catch the nearest bone on the 



poiut of the peg. The object of the game is to catch the boue the 

greatest possible number of times. It is in no seuse a gambling game. 

The only musical instrument used by these people is the drum or 

tambourine, which is of the form shown in Fig. I.jI. These drums vary 

Flo. 150.— Cup-aud-ball, >fen™ot. 

in diameter from 22 to 26 inches, and are construcjted as follows: The 
barrel is made of a thiu slat of spruce, bent into a hoop, with the ends 

joined in a lap, spliced nearly 
a foot long, which length is 
sewed by four perpendicular 
seams. The stitches are made 
with deerskin thread put 
through perforations, near 
together, made with an awl. 
The next operation is to pre- 
pare for a head a thin rein- 
deer skin, which has been 

tanned. The skin is moist- 
ened and sewed so that all 
holes in it are closed. A nar- 
FiG. i5i.-i)ruiii,, j.,,^- hoopof a size to fit tightly 

over the barrel of the driun is made and the moist skin stretched over 
it. The edges of the skin are turned inward, and within this hoop is 
placed the barrel of the drum. 



A secoud hoop, two or three times as wide as the fii-st, is prepared 
and fitted over the barrel and head. It is pushed down as far as the 
ehistic-ity of the iiieiiihi-ane will allow, or about half the width of the top 
hoop. Through the outer hoop have been made a number of holes aud 
correspoudiug- but alternate holes made in the farther edge of the barrel 
of the drum. 

Through these holes a stout thong is threaded and passing from the 
edge of the barrel to the outer hooj) is drawn so tightly as to push tha 
inner hoop ahmg the outer (•.ircuHderenco of the barrel and thus tighten 
the membrane to the reciuircd degree. Tiie outer hoop now projects an 
inch or more beyond the membrane and thus protects it from injury by 
careless handling. 

Across the membrane is stretched a sinew cord on which are strung, 
at right angles to the cord, a number of ban-els made from the quills 
of the wing feathers of the willow ptarmigan. Across the underside 
of the membrane is stretched 
a similar cord with ()uills. 
These serve the purpose of a 
snare on the drum. The stick 
used for Ijeating the drum 
consists of a piece of reindeer 
horn cut so as to have a thin 
and narrow handle a foot in 
length and terminating in a 
knob more than an inch long 
and as thick as the portion of 
horn permits. The drum is 
suspended from the poles of 
the tent by means of thongs. 
The performer tightens the snares, and sprinkles a few drops of water 
on the drumhead lest the blows, cause it to split under the strain. 
Nothing is done, nothing contemplated without sounding the drum. 
It is silent only when the jieople are asleep or on a tramp from one 
locality to another. 

If a person is ill the drum is beaten. If a person is well the drum is 
beaten. If prosperous in the chase the drum is beaten; and if death 
has snatched a member from the community the drum is beaten to pre- 
vent his sjjLiit from returning to torment the living. 

The drumbeat is often accompanied with singing which is the 
most discordant of all sounds snpposed to be harmonious. 

The drums used by the Little Whale river Indians (Fig. 152, No. 
3223) differs greatly in construction from those made by the Ungava 
Indians. The size is rarely so great, seldom exceeding 22 inches. 
These drums have two heads or membranes fitted on the barrel and 
secured by means of a single hoop for each head. The two hoops are 
then connected by the tightening strings. 

-llnmi, J^itlle Whale river. 



The membranes are invariably made of deer skin in the parchment 
condition and not of tanned skins. The snares or thongs across the 
heads are finer and have pieces of wood instead of quills as "rattlers." 

The drnmstick is a piece of 
reindeer horn cut as before 
described; or else, as if to 
add to the din, a gun-cap 
box is pierced through from 
side to side and a few peb- 
bles or shot placed within. 
A stick is then inserted in 
the hole through the box 
and the whole covered with 
buckskin to prevent separa- 
tion of the lid and box. This 
makes a distracting noise. 
Rattles for the children (Pig. 153) arc made of a hoop of wood bent 
to a circular form and covered witli two heads or membranes. Within 
it are placed a few pebbles or shot, to produce a rattling sound when 

Fig. 153.— Kattle, Nenenot 

Fig. 1,^4. —Target, reindeer, buck. 

the membranes are dry. A cord attached to the circumference enables 
the rattle to be suspended from the tent-pole in front of the child for 
whose amusement it is intended. Uther toys are made for the children. 

Fig. 155.— Target, reindeer, doe. 

I)ut they were not easy for us to obtain. I'l. xliii represents a doll, 
dressed in a woman's full suit of clothes. The boys amuse themselves 
by shooting with blunt arrows at images of reindeer, bucks, does, and 
fawns, cut out of flat boards stuck up in the snow (Figs. 154, 155). 

Bureau of ethnology 

Eleventh annual report pl. xuii 




Duriug the long wiuter nights or duriug the periods of cold or in- 
clement weather in which the Indians may not venture out, they sit 
around the fire and relate storie.s intended for the iustruotiou as well 
as entertainment of the younger people. The older men have a great 
stock of stories, and many of the women are noted for their ability 
in entertaining the children, who sit, with staring eyes and open mouth, 
in the arms of their parents or elders. 

The following stories came to me dii'ectly and not through the 
medium of another white person, and probably I am the only white 
pers(m who has heard some of them. I have endeavored to give them 
as nearly in the fiu-ni of the original as the differences between the 
Englisli and the Indian languages will i)ermit. 

Story of the tvoherene and the brant. — A wolverene calling all the birds 
together addressed them thus: "Do you not know that I am your 
brother? Come to me and I will dress you in feathers." After having 
dressed them up he made wings for himself and said: "Now, brothers, 
let us fly." The brant told the wolverene, " You must not look below 
while we are flying over the point of land when you hear a noise 
below. Take a turn when we take a turn." 

The first turn they took the wolverene did not look below, but at the 
second turn they took, when they came over the point of land, the 
animal looked below when he heard the noise of the shouting Indians 
and down he came like a bundle of rags.' 

All the Indians ran up to him and exclaimed "There is a brant fallen 
down." One of the old Indian women got hold of him and began to 
pluck his feathers off', then to disembowel him. She of course .smelled 
the horrible stench and exclaimed, "This goose is not fit to eat as it is 
already rotten ! " She gave the carcass to one of the children to throw 
away. Another old woman came ujj and inquired, '-VN'here did you 
throw the brant goose to ? How could it be rotten f It is not long 
since it was killed." The former old woman replied to her, "Go and 
see, if you do not believe." She went and found nothing but the dead 

Story of the trolvertne. — A wolverene was running along the sea- 
shore and perceived a number of geese, brant, ducks, and loons sitting 
in the water a short distance off'. The wolverene addressing them said, 
"Come here, brothers. I have found a pretty bees' nest. I will give it 
to you if you will come on shore and have a dance.'' All the birds 
went on laud. The wolverene said, "Let us have a dance and I will 
sing. Shut your eyes and do not open them until we are done dancing. 
He began to sing, "A-ho'umu-hou-mu'-mu'-hum'." The last word was 

iWhen the IndianH perceive a flock of these brant they make a loud clamor, which frightens the 
birds BO much tliat they lose tlieir senses, fall to the in'ound and are thus killed. These birds are 
only seen in the spring migrations and then in great multitudes, while in the fall it is rare to see even 
a single individual, as they have a different return route than in spring. 


SO ofteu repeated (accompanied with tlie act of the wolverene snip- 
Ijing oft" the heads of the birds) that the loon opened one eye and saw 
the headless ducks kicking. The loon ran to the water and exclaimed, 
''Our brother has killed us! " The wolverene ran atter the loon but the 
loon dived under the water and came up a distance oft' and cried out, 
"A ho ho ho ho lio ho!" The wolverene screamed, "Hold your tongue, 
yon red-eyed fowl." The wolvei-ene returned to where the ducks had 
been killed; plucked their feathers oft' and cleaned tliern; })ut them 
into a large kettle and boiled them. 

While attending to the cooking he saw a whisky-jack (Us' ka tcon) 
(Ferisori'us canadensis) tlying about. The wolverene took a firebrand 
and threw it at the bird, exclaiming, "You will be telling on me, you 
long-tongued bird!" The jay flew away and told the Indians that 
"Our brother (wolverene) has killccl a lot of ducks and has them 
cooked," adding, "1 think he is sleepmg. I'll show you where he is if 
you will come." The Indians replied, "We will go, for we are very 
hungry." They went and fnund the wolverene asleep alongside the pot. 
The Indians ate all of the meat of the ducks. After they had tiuished 
the meat they put the bones back into the kettle and went away. The 
wolverene awakened after a time, took liis dish and said to himself, 
"Jsow, I shall have my dinner." He poured all the broth into his dish 
and found nothing but the bones remaining. In his surprise he said, 
"Surely, I have been sleeping a long time; the meat is all boiled away." 
The jay told him that he had told the Indians. The wolverene said, 
"Why did you tell'? you stupid bird; I was keeping a nice piece of fat 
for you.' You will not, now, get it for your iminidence." 

Tlic deer and the squirrel. — A reindeer called all the niaramals and 
birds together and announced that he would give luxnies to all of them. 
When he came to name the scjuirrel he inquired of the little ci-eature 
what name it would prefer. The squirrel re))lied that it would like to 
have the same name as the black bear. The reindeer smiled and in 
formed the squirrel that it was too small to have the name of the bear. 
The squirrel began to cry and wept so long that his lower eyelids 
became white. 

The young man who went to live with the deer. — A young man one 
morning told his old father that he had dreamed the night before that 
a deer had asked liim to come and live with them. The old father re- 
plied, "That is a good sign; you will kill many deer after that dream." 
The young man went away to hunt, and while out he saw a large herd 
of deer. A yf)uug doe from the band ran u]) toward him, and he was 
about to fire at her when she said to him, " Do not fire, for my father 
has sent me to you. I'lease put up your arrows." She came nearer 
and informed him that her father had sent her to ask him to come and 
live with the deer forever. 

iTho jay is well knuwD to be particularly fond of fat of any kind, hence the tempting morsel with- 
held was a source for future reflection. 


The yoiiug man inquired, " How could I live with you wben it is 
upon deer that I live! I live in a tent aud can not live outside. I can 
not live without lire. I can not live without water." The doe replied, 
" We have plenty of hre, water, and meat; you will never want; you 
will live forever. Your father will never want, as there will be enough 
deer given to him." The man consented to go with them. The doe 
pointed to a large hill and said, "That is oiu- home." She told him to 
leave his deerskin mantle, snowshoes, and arrows on the ground, but 
to keep the bow. As they were walking along they came to a big 
valley. She informed him that that was tlieir path. The two went 
toward t lie steep hillside and found the ground to be covered with deer. 
Some of the deer were frightened when they saw the man coming, and 
started to run. The doe's father said to the frightened deer, " Do you 
not ])ity the poor Indians who have to hunt for their living while we do 
not?" When the young man and the doe came up, tlie father of the 
doe addressed the young man, asking if he was hungry. The man re- 
plied, "Yes." The father then gave him a piece of nice meat and some 
fat. After the man had finished eating the father inquired, " Is your 
father also hungry?" The son replied, " Yes. " 

The old buck informed the young man that they would give the son's 
fatlicr some deer tomorrow. After the young man had slept out one 
night his father, in the morning, went out to look for bis son, but 
found only his mantle, snowshoes, and arrows, which had been cast 
aside the day before, aud also found the tracks in the valley leading to 
the home of the deer under the hill. The old man returned to his tent 
and told the other Indians that his son had gone away to live with the 
deer. The old man then said, "Let us make snares and we will yet 
take him, as he can not run as fast as the deer." The Indians prepared 
a number of snare nooses and went to the valley to set them among the 
bushes on the path. The father of the young doe saw what was going 
on in the valley and told the rest, "Let us go and give the old man 
some deer." He told the young man to come with them. The man re- 
plied that he could not accompany them, as he would be left behind in 
no time while they were running. Tlie old buck instructed the young 
man to keep among the rest of the deer and he would not be left be- 
hind them. All the deer then went out to the valley. The young man 
kept among them; and as they were going through the bushes he 
heard the shouts of the Indians who were concealed behind them. 
The deer saw the snares and some of the animals fell into the nooses 
and were caught. The remainder, with the young man, were soon be- 
yond the snares. The Indians began to kill the deer which had been 
taken in the nooses, and when they had finished they found they had 
not captured the young man. They consulted together and decided to 
search among the tracks of the escaped deer to ascertain whether his 
foot-prints were among them. They found his track and also the mark 
of his bow as he had dragged it along in the snow. 


Tlie young mail's father then said, "Let him go if he thinks he is 
able to live with the deer;" and the i>eop]e returned to their tents. 

The wolfs daughter going to seek her lover. — An old mother wolf one 
morning said to her daughter, "Ton must go and look for your lover or 
else we shall all starve to death, as your brothers can not kill any deer." 
The daughter inquired of her mother, " Who is my lover ? " The mother 
replied, "The otter is your lover. He lives in the water. If you go to 
the narrows t)f the lake you will find him." The daughter said she 
would go. So early in the morning she started oif, and as she was go- 
ing along the shore of the lake she saw an open hole in the ice, and 
in the water the otter was sitting. The wolf went up to the otter, but 
the otter swam away and was going to dive, when the wolf said, "Do 
not dive and go away. My mother says you are my lover." The otter 
asked, " How can I be your lover when I live in the water!" The wolf 
replied, "You can live on the land as well as in the water." The otter 
answered back, "I will not live on the land." The wolf retorted, " You 
will have to live on the land, and if you do not come out I shall smother 
you in the water." The otter said, "You can not smother me, for I have 
a number of holes made in the lake ice." The otter dove into the water 
and disappeared. The wolf began to howl dismally when the otter 
vanished. The wind began to blow and drifted the snow furiously. 
The snow fell into the otter's breathing holes and filled them with 
slushy snow, which soon froze and completely stopped all the holes in 
the ice but one where the wolf was sitting. This hole was kept clear 
of snow and ice by the wolf scraping it out as fast as it collected. 
Soon she heard the otter going to the holes for breath, but when he 
came near the hole where the wolf was sitting she could hear him 
snuffing- for air, and she stood with open Jaws ready to seize him when 
he should a^jpear. The otter was nearly exhausted, so the wolf went 
off a little distance, and the otter came up to the surface of the water 
nearly out of breath. He crept out of the water and rolled himself in 
the dry snow to take the water ott' of his coat of fiir and exclaimed to 
the wolf, " I will live with you; I will live with you." The wolf then 
addressed her lover and said, "Did I not tell you I would smother 
you?" The otter did not reply to this, but asked her, " Have you got 
a piece of line! (rive it to me, and I will go to catch some fish for you 
if you will go and prepare a tent." The wolf drew out a i)iece of fishing 
line and handed it to the otter. The otter went down into the same 
hole in the ice whence he had come. He was gone some time, and in 
the meantime the wolf was busy making the tent, which was completed 
before the otter returned. Soon after, however, the otter came back to 
the hole with a long string of fish which he had killed and had them 
all strung on the line. He left the string of fish in the hole in the ice 
with one end of it fastened to the ice. The otter rolled himself in the 
snow to remove the water from his fur, and then went to the tent to tell 
his wife to go and get the fish which he had left in the hole in the ice. 


The wolf weut and hauled up the Hue, wbich was full of tish, aud begau 
to devour so many that soon she could scarcely move. She hauled the 
remainder of the fish home to the tent. 

The otter was sleeping when she returned. 8he proceeded to clean 
the fish and put on a large kettle full of the tish to boil for supper. 
She then crept into bed with her husband, and the next morning she 
Avas delivered of a young otter and a young wolf. After the father and 
mother had taken their breakfast the latter sat with her head hanging 
down and seemed to be in a miserable mood. The otter inquired of the 
wife wolf, "What is the matter with you that you sit so quietly?" The 
wolf answered: "I wish I had some deerskins with which to make 
clothing for the children. How nicely I should dress them ! " The ot- 
ter replied: "Open the door and I will show you where I get the 
deer. " It was yet early, aud the otter went away to seek the deer. 
The otter saw a band of thirty deer, but had no gun with which to kill 
them, so he frightened them, and as they were running away he sprang 
at them each, aud jumped through them from end to end. He killed 
all of them in this manner and then rolled in the snow to cleanse him- 
self. After that was done he wended his way home, and on arriving 
informed his wife (for it was then a little after sunset) that on the mor- 
row she should go to bring home the deer he had killed, addiug that 
she could follow his track, and thus find them. The wife had a big 
pot of fish cooked for him when he returned, aud when he had finished 
his supper he weut to bed. As soon as the wife suspected her husband 
to be asleep she went after the deer, and by hauling four at a time she 
soon had them all brought, and laid them before the tent. When that 
was finished she went to bed. In the morning the otter told her to 
get up and make a fire, as she would have to go for the carcasses of 
the deer which he had killed the day before. The wife replied: "I 
have akeady brought them all home. " The otter asked her: "How 
could you bring them houie in the dark?" The wife answered: " Look 
out through the door if you do not believe me. " The otter looked and 
saw the thirty deer all piled ui) before the door. He turned and looked 
at his wife, but made no remark. The wolf asked him : " Why do you 
look at me, so hard ? " The otter said: "I was wondering how you 
could get them home in such a short time. " The wolf said : " Come, 
and take your breakfast, for you will have to help me skin the deer." 
After they had finished eating their breakfast they began to skin the 
deer, and soon had them done. The wolf told her husband to make a 
stage or scaffold for the meat, adding that she would clean the skins. 
The otter prepared the stage, which in a short time was completed. 
The meat was placed on the stage and the skins hung up to dry around 
the tent. They then went in to take their supper. The wife was not 
in a talkative mood, and soon went to bed. The next morning the 
wolf hung her head down, and the otter seeing her again in such mood, 
inquired what was the matter with her that she should be so quiet. 


The wolf replied: " I aui thinking of my poor father and mother and 
brothers ; I suppose they will all be starved to death. My old father 
told me to tell you to put a mark on the middle of the lake so they 
would know where I am. " The otter went to the middle of the lake and 
erected a pile as a mark by which the wolf's relations should knoTv it. 
The brothers of the otter's wife were on the hill looking for the mark 
set up by their sister's husband, and when they saw it they ex- 
claimed: "Our sister has saved us! our sister has saved us!" 
and ran back to their old father's home to give him the joyful in- 
telligence that they had seen the mark put up by the husbaad of their 
sister. The old wolf then told his family that they would go and seek 
their sister and daughter to live with her and her husband. They 
all went to the hill by the lake, and from the top of it they saw the 
mark, and from it they followed the track of the otter until they 
saw the tent in the edge of the woods. They exclaimed : "There is 
our sister's tent, for the deerskins are hanging outside. '' They raised 
such a joyful shout at the prospect before them, that the noise fright- 
ened some young otters (for the family had now become larger) which 
were playing outside. The little ones scampered in and hid them- 
selves behind their father's back. The father inquired, "What is the 
matter, that you are so frightened !" The little ones replied : "We 
are running from the Hunger" (for that was the name they applied to 
the wolves). The mother replied: "Perhaps they see my father, 
mother, and brothers coming." The otter told his wife to go out and 
see. She complied, and when she oitened the door they saw a row of 
gaunt wolves ; nothing but skin and bones. The newcomers immedi- 
ately fell to, and began to devour the meat which was on the stage. 
The otter's wife remonstrated, and said : "Do not be so greedy ; my 
husband is not a stingy man. I take my meals when he is sleeping, 
and pretend not to eat much during the day." They all went into the 
tent and tlie otter soon went to bed. When they thought he was 
asleep, they began to eat all the raw meat and tisli, and soon finished 
it. In the morning when the otter had awakened, he remarked to his 
wife: "I think yoirr brothers will make a fool of me." The wife 
asked: "What makes you think so?" The otter replied: "They 
look at me so hard, that I do not know where to turn my eyes. " After 
breakfast the otter and his wolf brothers went away to look for deer. 
They soon came upon a band of them, and the otter told the wolves 
to go and kill them. The wolves ran after the deer, but got only one 
of them. After the deer were frightened by the wolves, the otter 
sprang after the deer and soon killed every one of them in the same 
manner he had killed the others. He then cleaned himself in the dry 
snow and returned home. The wolves had started for the tent before 
the otter, so when the latter returned they asked the otter : " How 
many deer did you kill ?" The otter replied : "I killed all that were 
in the baud, " adding, " In the morning you will have to go for the 


deer. " So everything was got ready for an early start and they all re- 
tired to bed. When they awakened in the morning, one of the wife's 
brothers said to another : "Look at our otter brother; h(^ has a white 
mouth." The otter turned to his wife and said to her : "Didluot 
tell you that your brothers would make a fool of me?" The otter then 
took his two otter children in his arms, and told his wife that she 
would have to make her living as best she could, as he wouhl not live 
with her any more, that he was going away to leave her. He darted 
off to the lake, and disappeared under the ice, and was never seen 

The devil pioiishing a liar. — A bear (mackwh) had two young cubs 
which she did not want to let know that summer had come, but kept 
them in the den and would not let them go out. The young ones con- 
tinually inquired if the summer had come, and repeated the question 
every time the mother returned from the outside. She invariably an- 
swered, "No." Some days after she fell asleep, when she had returned 
from one of her trips, and while sleeping her mouth opened wide. The 
young ones said to each other: " Surely the summer is come, for there 
are green leaves in pur mother's mouth." The mother had told her 
children how beautiful was the summer time, how green the trees, how 
juicy the plants, and h(»w sweet the berries; so the cubs, imi)atieiit, 
while longing for summer that they might enjoy what was outside of 
their den, knew by the leaves in their mother's nuinth that she had de- 
ceived them. The older cub told the younger that they would .slip out 
at the top of the den and go out while their mother was yet sleeping. 
They crept out and found the weather so fine and the surroundings so 
pleasant that they wandered some distance off by the time she wakened 
from her sleep. She ran out and called loudly for her children, seem- 
ingly surprised, and exclaimed: '• My sons, the summer has come; the 
summer has come." The cubs hid when they heard their mother's 
voice. She called to them until nightfall. The older cub said to his 
bi'other: "I wish the devil (A-qan') would hear lier and kill her for 
telling us the summer had not come, and keeping us in the house so 
long when it was already pleasant outside." 

The mother bear soon screamed to her sons: "The devil has heard 
me and is killing me." 

The cubs heard the devil killing their mother with a stone, pounding 
her on the head. 

They became frightened and ran away. 

A wolverene destroys his sister. — A wolverene having wandered far, 
for several days without food, suddenly came upon a bear. The former, 
feeling very hungry, conceived the plan of destroying his larger prey 
by stratagem. The wolverene cautiously approached the bear and ex- 
claimed: "Is that you, sister!" The bear turned aroiind and saw the 
wolverene, but in a low tone, winch the wolverene did not hear, said to 
herself: "I did not know that J had a brother," so ran quickly away. 


The wolverene continued to scream: " Come here, sister, our father has 
sent me to look for you. You were lost when you were a little girl 
out picking berries." Thus spoken to, the bear approached the sup- 
posed brother, who informed her that he knew of a place, on the hill 
there, where a lot of nice berries were ready for eating, saying: "Do 
you not see the berries growing on that hill, sister?" The bear ans- 
wered: "I cannot see so great a distance." So the two went up the 
hillside where the berries grew. "When they arrived at the place, and 
it was some distance ott', the bear asked: "How is it that your eyes are 
so good?" The wolverene replied: My father mashed a lot of cran- 
berries into my eyes and put me into a sweat house." The bear said: 
"I wish my eyes were as good as yours." The wolverene answered: 
" I will make your eyes as good as mine if you will gather a lot of 
cranberries while I prepare a sweat house." The bear went to gather 
berries while the other prepared the house during her absence. The 
wolverene selected a stone having a sharp edge, wliich she concealed 
under the moss in the sweat house, while she procured a larger stone 
for the pillow. 

After the sweat hoiise was completed the wolverene cried out: 
"Sister, the sweat house is finished!" The bear returned, bringing a 
quantity of berries. They both went into the sudatory, whereupon 
the wolverene instructed the bear to lie with her liead upon the stone 
pillow, while he prepared the crushed berries to put in her eyes. He 
then said to her: "Now, sister, do not move; you may find the berries 
will hurt the eyes and make them very sore, but they will be better 
soon." The wolverene filled the bear's eyes full of the sour berries, 
which made her exclaim: "Brother, they arc making my eyes very 
sore." The wolverene answered : "You will find them the better for 
that. After I get your eyes full of the berries I will blow my breath 
on them." After the eyes of the bear were full of berries the wolver- 
ene said: " You are too good to be a sister," so he struck her on the 
head with the sharp-edged stone and cleft her skull between the eyes 
and killed her. 

The rabbit and the frog. — One day a rabbit was wandering among 
the hillsides, and at a short distance from him he observed a tent 
belonging to some Indians. Being timid he crept up to the side of 
the tent and peeped through a small hole, and saw inside of it a frog 
sitting near the fire. The rabbit seeing no danger accosted the frog 
thus: "Brother, what are you doing?" The frog replied : I am play- 
ing with the ashes. My brothers Iiave gone ott' hunting and I am here 
as I have a very sore leg <iud can not go far." The rabbit rejoined, 
"come with me and I will keep you?" The ft-og answered, " I can not 
walk as my leg is too sore." The rabbit ottered to carry the frog on 
his back. The rabbit took the frog and giving him a toss threw him 
on his back and said : " This is the way I will carry you." So they 
started for the home of the rabbit, where, upon arriving, the rabbit 


placed the frog inside of the teut while the former went out to look 
for something to eat. While seeking food the rabbit suddenly spied a 
smoke curling from among the willows which grew along the branch of 
the creek. He became frightened and started to run homeward exclaim- 
ing. " I have forgotten my crooked knife and I nuist go quickly to 
get it." (This part, or what the rabbit says to himself, is sung as a 
song; with an attempt at imitation of the rabbit's voice.) The rabbit 
ran hurriedly home and sprang into the tent, whereupon the frog ob- 
serving the fright of the other inquired, '' Brother, what is tlie matter 
that you are so excited ? " The rabbit answered, " I saw a large smoke." 
"Where is it?" inquired the frog. The rabbit replied, "It is from 
among the willows along the creek that runs near by." The frog 
began to laugh at the foolish fear of the rabbit and answered him that 
the smoke proceeded fi'oni the lodge of a family of beavers, and taunted 
the rabbit for being afraid of sucli a timid creature as a beaver when 
they are good to eat, adding that his own (frogs) brothers often carried 
him to the beavers' houses to kill them when they were out of food; 
although his brothers could never kill any of them. 

The rabbit was iileased to hear the frog was such a great hunter, and 
gladly olfered to carry the frog to the lodge of tlie beavers that some 
food could be procured. The frog accepted the ofler and was carried to 
the creek bank. The rabbit then built a dam of stakes across the 
stream and below the lodges in order that tlie beavers should not 
escape. The frog then directed the rabbit to break into the top of the 
lodge so that the frog might get at the beavers to kill them. While 
the rabbit was breaking into the lodge of the beavers, the frog pur- 
posely loosened some of the stakes of the weir below in order to allow 
the beavers to escape, hoi>ing that the rabbit would become angry at 
him for so doing. When the rabbit saw what mischief the frog had 
done, he took the frog and roughly shoved him under the ice into the 
water. This did not harm the frog as it could live under water as well 
as on land, but the rabbit did not know that, so he believed he had 
drowned his brother the frog. The rabbit then returned to his home, 
regretting he had acted so harsldy and began to cry for his brother. 
The frog in the meanwhile, killed all of the beavers and tied them 
together on a string, then slowly crawled to the rabbit's home with 
his burden on his back. The frog crept up to the tent but was 
afi-aid to enter so he began to play with the door flap of the tent to 
make a noise to attract the attention of the rabbit \vithin. Finally he 
cried out to the rabbit, " Brother, give me a piece of fire for I am very 
cold. " The rabbit did not recognize the tired, weak voice of his brother 
frog, and, afraid lest it be some enemy endeavoring to entice him from 
his home, picked up a piece of dead coal which had no fire on it and 
flung it outside. The frog then said, "Brother, there Is no fire on this 
piece and I can not cook my beavers with it. " The rabbit then ran out 
quickly and tenderly carried the frog inside, and immediately the latter 


began to moan and appear to suffer so much tliat the rabbit inquired 
what was the matter and asked if the beavers had bitten him. Tlie 
li'og said, "No, it was you who gave me such a hard push that you 
have hurt me in the side." The rabbit assured the frog that the injury 
was iiniutentionally caused. The frog tlien directed the rabbit to pre- 
pare and cook the beavers. The rabbit went out to fetcli them but he 
began to eat and did not stop until they were all devcmred. After hav- 
ing finished eating them the rabbit went for a walk. Ere long he 
noticed a huge smoke curling from the farther end of a valley and be- 
coming greatly frightened he exclaimed, "I have forgotten my crooked 
knife and I nmst go quickly to get it." He dashed into his door in a 
terrible state of mind. The frog coolly inquired, "What is the matter 
that you are so scared? " The rabbit said, "I have seen a great smoke 
at the farther end of the valley through which the creek runs." The 
frog laughed loudly at his fear and said, "They are deer; my brothers 
often had me to kill them, as they could not kill any, when we had no 
meat." The rabbit was delighted at that so he offered to carry the 
frog toward the place. The frog directed the rabbit to make a snow- 
shoe for the one foot of the frog. The rabbit soon had it made and 
gave it to his brother. The frog then said, "Carry me nj) towards the 
smoke." The rabbit slung the frog on his back and away they went in 
the direction of the deer. The frog then told the rabbit to stand in one 
idace and not to move while he (the frog) would work at the deer, and 
when he had finished he would call him up to the place. 

The frog killed all the deer in a very short time, skinned them, and 
stuck the head and neck of one of the deer into the snow so that it 
would be looking toward the place whence the rabbit would come. 
The frog then took the lungs of one of the deer and put it out to freeze. 
The cold turned the lungs white as tallow. The frog sLouted for his 
brother rabbit to come quickly. When the rabbit came bounding near 
he saw the eyes of the deer's head staring at him in a queer manner; 
he was so much alarmed that he exclaimed to the frog, "Brother, hesees 
me." The frog smiled and said, "I have killed him; he is dead; come 
on; I have a nice piece of fat saved for yoix." (It was the frozen lungs 
of the deer.) So he gave the rabbit a large piece and told him to eat 
it all and quickly, as it was better when frozen and fresh from the 
deer's back. The rabbit greedily swallowed large portions and did not 
observe the deception. After a time they built a lodge or tent for the 
night. Some few hours after the tent was made the frozen deer lungs 
which the rabbit had eaten began to thaw and it made the rabbit so 
violently ill that he vomited continually the entire night. The frog 
had served him this trick as a punishment for having eaten all of the 
beaver meat two days before. 

The wolverene and the rock. — A wolverene was out walking on the 
hillside and came upon a large rock. The animal inquired of the 
rock, " Was that you who was walking just now?" The rock reulied, 


"No, I can not move; hence I cannot walk." The wolverene retorted 
that he had seen it walking. The rock quickly informed the wolverene 
that he uttered a falsehood. The wolverene remarked, "You need not 
speak in that manner for I have seen you walking." The wolverene 
ran off a little distance and taunted the rock, challenging it to catch 
him. The wolverene then approached the rock and ha^•ing• struck it 
with his paw, said, "See if you can catch me." The rock answered, 
"I can not run but I can roll." The wolverene began to laugh and 
said, "That is what I want." The wolverene ran away and the ro(;k 
rolled after him, keeping just at his heels. The animal finally began 
to tire and commenced to jump over sticks and stones until at last the 
rock was touching his heels. At last the wolverene tripped over a stick 
and fell. The rock rolled over on him and ceased to move when it 
came upon the hind parts of the wolverene. The animal screamed, "Get 
off, go away, you are hurting me; you are breaking my bones." The 
rock remained motionless and replied, "You tormented me and had 
me run after you, so now I shall not stir until, some one takes me off." 

The wolverene replied, "I have many brothers and I shall call them." 
He called to the wolves and the foxes to come and remove the rock. 
These animals soon came up to where the rock was lying on the 
wolverene and they asked him, "How came you to get under the rock?" 
The wolverene replied, "I challenged the rock to catch me and it 
rolled on me." The wolves and foxes then told him that it served him 
right to be under the rock. They endeavored, after a time, to dis- 
place the rock but could not move it in the least. The wolverene theji/ 
said, ""^ell, if you cannot get me out I shall call my other brother, 
the lightning and thunder." So he began to call for the lightning 
to come to his aid. In a few moments a huge dark cloud came rush- 
ing fi'om the southwest, and as it hurried up it made so much noise 
that it frightened the wolves and foxes, but they asked the lightning 
to take off the coat of the wolverene but not to harm his flesh. They 
then ran away. The lightning darted back to gather force and struck 
the rock, knocking it into small pieces and also completely stripped 
the skin from the back of the wolverene, tearing the skin into small 
pieces. The wolverene stood naked, but soon began to pick up the 
pieces of his coat and told the lightning, "You need not have torn my 
coat when you had oidy the rock to strike. " 

The wolverene gathered up his pieces of coat and said he would go 
to his sister, the frog, to have her sew them together. He repaired to 
the swamp where his sister dwelt and asked her to sew them. She 
did so. The wolverene took it up and told her she had not put it 
together properly and struck her on the head and knocked her flying 
into the water. Ho took up the coat and went to his younger sister, 
the mouse. He directed her to sew his coat as it should be done. The 
mouse began to sew the pieces together and when it was done the 
wolverene carefully examined every seam and said, "You have sewed 
11 ETH 22 


it very well ; you will live in the tall green grass in the summer and in 
grass houses in the winter. " The wolverene put on his coat and went 

Creation of people by the wolverene and the muslcraf. — As a wolverene 
was wanderinjj along the bank of a river he saw a muskrat swimming 
in the edge of the water. He accosted the latter animal with the in- 
quiry, "Who are you? Are you a man or a woman!" The muskrat 
answered, "I am a woman." The wolverene informed her that he 
woidd take her for a wife. The muskrat replied, "1 live in the water; 
how can I be your wife f ' The wolverene told her that she could live 
on the land as well as in the water. Tlie muskrat went up on the bank 
to where the wolverene was standing. They selected a place and 
she began to prepare a home for them. They ate their suppers and 
retired. Soon after a child was born. The wolverene informed his 
wife that it would be a white man and father of all the white people. 
When this child was born it made a natural exit. In due time a second 
child was born which the wolverene decreed should be an Indian and 
the father of their kind. This child was born from its mother's mouth. 
After a time a third child was born, and the wolverene announced it to 
be an Eskimo and father of its kind. This child was born ah ano. In 
the natural course of events a fourth child was born, and the wolverene 
decided it to be an Iroquois and fatlier of its kind. This child was 
born from its mother's nose. After a time a fifth child was born and 
the wolverene decreed it should be a Negro and father of its kind. This 
child was born from its mother's ears. These children remained with 
their parents until they grew up. Their mother then called them to- 
gether and announced to them that they must separate. She sent 
them to difterent places of the land, and, in parting, directed them to 
go to the white men whenever they were in need of anything, as the 
whites would have everything ready for them. 

Orn/in of the whitish spot on the throat of the marten. — A man had a 
wife whom a marten fell in love with and endeavored to possess. 
Whenever the man would go away from his liome the marten would 
enter, sit by the woman's side, and endeavor to entice her to leave her 
husband and go to live with him. One day the man returned unex- 
ixictedly and caught the marten sitting by the side of his wife. The 
marten ran out. The man inquired of his wife what the marten wanted 
there. The woman replied that the marten was striving to induce her 
to desert him and become his own wife. 

The next time the man went off he told his wife to till a kettle with 
water and put it on the fire to boil. The man went outside and 
secreted himself near the house. He soon saw the marten go into the 

The man stole quietly to the door of the house and listened to the 
marten, which was talking to his wife. The man sprang into the house 
and said: "Marten, what are you doing here, what are you trying to 


do?" The man seized the kettle of hot water and dashed it on the 
breast of the animal. The marten began to scratch his bnrniug bosom 
and ran out into the woods; and because he was so severely hurt he 
now keeps in the densest forests, away from the sight of man. 

The Indian and his beaver wife. — One day an Indian was hunting 
along the bank of a stream and in the distance saw a beaver's house. 
In a moment he perceived a beaver swimming toward him. lie drew 
up and was on the point of shooting it when the animal exclaimed, 
"Do not shoot, I have something to say to you." The Indian inquired, 
"What is it you have to say?" The beaver asked him, "Would you 
have me for a wife?" The Indian replied, "I can not live in the water 
with you." The beaver answered, "You will not know you are living 
in the water, if you will follow me." The Indian further remarked that 
he could not live on willows and other woods like a beaver. The beaver 
assured him that when eating them he would not think them to be 
willows. She added, " I have a nice house to live in." The man re- 
plied, "My brother will be looking for me if I come in and he will not 
know where I am. The beaver directed the man to take off his cloth- 
ing and leave them on the bank and to follow her. The Indian did as 
he was instructed. As he was wading through the water he did not 
feel the water touching him ; so they presently began to swim and soon 
reached the home of the beaver. The beaver told him as she pointed 
ahead, "There is my home, and you will tind it as good and comfort- 
able as your own tent. " They both entered and she soon set before 
him some food which he did not recognize as willow bark. After they 
had slept two nights his brother became alarmed and went to search 
for him, and soon found his track. In following it up his brother came 
to where he had left his clothing on the bank of the stream. 

The brother was distressed at finding such things, so went sorrow- 
fully back to the tent thinking that his brother had been drowned, and 
so told the other Indians when he arrived. With a heavy heart he 
went to bed and in the morning he awakened and told his wife that he 
had dreamed his brother was living with a beaver. He told his wife 
to make some new clothing for the lost brother as he would go and 
seek the haunts of the beavers to discover his brother. The man occu- 
pied himself in making a pair of snowshoes, while the wife i^repared 
the clothing. The next day she had the clothing done and he directed 
her to make them into a small bundle as he would start on the search 
early the next morning. Other young men desired to accompany him 
on the search, but were advised to remain at home as their presence 
would j)revent him from reaching the beaver's retreat. Early in the 
morning he started ofl', taking the clothes and snowshoes with him. 
After some time he found the place where the beaver had her house 
and in which he suspected his brother to be living. He went to work 
to make a dam across the stream so as to decrease the depth of water 
around the beaver's house. The wife had borne two children to the 


husband by this time, and when the father had seen the water going 
from their liouse he told the chiklreu : "Your uncle is coming and he 
is certain to kill you." The water had soon gone down sufficiently to 
enable the man to cross the stream to where the house was situated. 
On arriving there he began pounding at the mud walls. The father 
told the children to go out or else the house would fall on them. The 
man outside quickly killed the two young ones. The wife knew she 
would soon be killed also, and after they had heard the deathblows 
given to their children she said to her husband, " If you are sorry that 
1 am killed and ever want to see me again, keep the right hand and 
arm of my body ; take off the skin and keep it about you." In a few 
minutes the brother had begun again to tear out the sides of the lodge. 
The husband told her to go out, and that his love for her would make 
him keep her right hand. She then went out and was quickly killed 
with a stick. When this was done and the husband had heard it all 
he was very sorry for his wife. Again the man began to destroy the 
rest of the house and soon had a large hole in the wall of one side. The 
husband then said to him, "What are you doing? You are making me 
very cold." The brother rej)lied, "I have brought some warm clothing 
for you and you will not feel cold." "Throw them in," said the hus- 
band, "for I am freezing." He put on the clothes, and while he was 
doing it the brother noticed the hairs which had grown on the other's 
back, but said nothing about it. The husband then sat in his house 
until the other was near freezing to death. The brother then said to 
hira, " Gome with me ; you can not stay here." The husband demanded, 
as a condition of returning, that the brother should never say anji;hing 
to him to make him angry if he went back. The brother promised 
him not to do so. They then Started to return, the brother taking the 
bodies of the children and mother on his back, the husband walking 
ahead. They soon arrived at the home of their people. The brother 
threw down the beavers and directed his wife to skin them. The hus- 
band of the beaver asked for the right hand and arm of the beaver 
who had been his wife. It was given to him. He got one of the other 
women to skin it, and told her to dry the skin and return it to him. 
Three nights after their return to their people a great many beavers 
were killed and a large kettle full of flesh was boiled for food. The 
people pressed the runaway brother to eat of the flesh of the beavers. 
He informed them that if it was the flesh of a female beaver he would 
not eat it. They told him that the flesh of the male beavers was all flu- 
ished long ago. They forced him to eat a large piece of meat, and when 
he had swallowed it they gave him more of it. The second piece was 
no sooner down his throat than a large river gushed from his side. 
The Indian jumped into the river, while the rest ran away in terror 
and, as these latter looked down the liver, they saw the man swimming 
by the side of his wife who had been a beaver. 

Thv venturesome hare. — A hare, which had lost his parents, lived 


with his graiidmother. One day, feeling very hungry, for they were 
extremely poor, he asked his grandmother if he could set a net to 
catch flsh. The old woman laughed at the idea of a hare catching 
fish, but to humor him, she consented, for she was indulgent to him 
because he was her only charge and looked forward to the time when 
he should be able to support her by his own exertions, and not to rely 
on the scanty supplies which she was able to obtain. These were very 
meager, as she was infirm, and tkeaded exposure. She then told him 
to go and set the net, but added that she had no fire to cook them 
with, even if he should catch any. The hare promised to procure fire 
if he caught the fish. He went to set the net in a lake where he knew 
fish to be plentiful. The next morning he went to the net and found 
it to be so full of fish that he was unable to take it up. He lifted one 
end and saw there was a fish in every mesh of the net. He shook 
out some of the fish and then drew out the net. Part of the fish were 
buried, and a large load taken home. He put the flsh down 
outside of the tent, and went in. He told the old woman to clean the 
fish and that he would go across the river to the Indians' tent and get 
the fire with which to cook them. The old woman was speechless at 
such proposed rashness, but as he had been able to catch so many flsh 
she refrained remarking on his contemplated project of obtaining fire in 
the face of such danger. While the old woman was cleaning the fish he 
went back after the net which he had j)ut out to dry on the shore of the 

He folded it iip, placed it under his arm, and ran to the edge of the 
river which was far too wide to jump over. He used his cunning and 
assembled a number of whales. These animals came puffing up the 
stream in obedience to his command. He ordered them to arrange 
themselves side by side across the stream so that he could walk across 
on their backs. He most dreaded the Indians, but jumped into the 
water to wet his fur. This being done he sprang from one whale to 
another until he was safe on the opi>osite shore. He then laid down in 
the sand and bade the whales to disperse. Some Indian children soon 
came playing along the sandy bank and saw the hare lying there. 
One of the children picked up the hare and started home with it. 
When the boy arrived and told how he had obtained the hare he was 
directed to put it in the iron tent (kettle) where there was a bright fire 

The child put down the hare, upon which an old man told the boy to 
kill the hare. The hare was terribly frightened, but opened a part of 
one ej-e to ascertain whether there was any place of exit beside the door. 
In the top of the tent he observed a large round hole. He then said 
to himself: "I wish a spark of fire would fall on my net." Instantly 
the brands rolled and a great spark fell on the net and began to burn 
it. The hare was afraid of the fire, so he sprang out of the hole in the 
apex of the tent. The Indians saw they had been outwitted by a hare, 


and begau to shout ami pursue the animal, which attained such speed 
that when he came to the bank of the river he liad not time to recall the 
whales. He gave an extraoi'dinary leap and cleared the entire expanse 
of the water. He examined the net and found the fire smouldering. 
On arrival at his own home he said to his grandmother: "Did I not 
tell you I would get the lire?" The old woman ventured to inquire 
how he had crossed the river. He coolly informed her that he had 
jumped across. 

The S'lnrlt ffiddiug a child left by its parents. — An Indian and his 
wife had but one cliihl, which was so infested with vermin that when 
the parents contemplated, going to the tents of some distant friends 
the father advised the mother to leave the child behind. The next 
morning after the mother had taken down the tent the little boy asked 
her " Mother, are you not going to put on my moccasins ? " the mother 
replied, " I shall put them on after I have put on my snow-shoes." The 
little boy said, "Surely you are not going to leave me!" Shesaid, "No;" 
but took hold of her sled and started off. The little boy cried out, 
"Mother, you are leaving me," and endeavored to overtake 'her in his 
bare feet; but the mother soon was out of sight. The little boy began 
to cry and retraced his steps to the tent place. There he cried until 
the spirit of a dead man came to him and asked, "Where is your 
mother?" The boy replied, "She has gone away and left me." "Why 
did she> leave youf" asked the old man. "Because I was so covered 
with lice," replied the boy. The spirit said it would remove all of the 
licei but three. So it began to pick them ofif. After this was done the 
sjjirit askett, "Where did your mother gof " The boy pointed out her 
track. The spirit then said to the boy, "Would you like to go to your 
mother?" The boy answered, "Yes." Thespiritput theboy onhisback 
and started iji the path made by the sled of his mother. After a wliile 
they came to a tree and in looking at it the boy saw a porcupine sitting 
among the branches. The boy greatly desired to have the animal. 
So he said, "Grandfather, I wish you would kill the porcupine." The 
old man answered, "It will make too much smoke for me to kill it." 
After a time they came across a hare which the boy again desired to 
have. To this the man assented. So he put the boy down in the snow 
and soon caught the hare and killed it. It was now becoming dark, 
so they made their camping place for the night. Tlie spiiit gave the 
boy the hare.and told him to cook it. After the meat was cooked the 
boy asked the old man what parts of the animal he preferred. The 
old man said "Give me tlie lungs and kidneys." The boy gave him 
those parts and consumed the remainder himself. They laid down 
to sleep and in the morning they again started on the sled track. 
About noon they came to the tents of the Indians, and among them 
was the tent of the father and mother of the little boy. The spirit 
place<l the boy down on the outside near the door of the mother's tent 
and told him to go in. The boy entered and saw his father and mother 


sitting near the fire. The mother in astonishment s.iid, "Husband, is 
this not our little boy whom we deserted at our late camp f The 
husband asked the boy, "Who brought you here?" The little boy an- 
swered, " My grandfather." The mother inquired, "Who is your grand- 
father?" The father asked, "Where is he now?" The boy replied, " He 
is sitting outside." The father asked his wife to look outside and see 
if any one was there. The woman did so and informed him that "I 
see some one sitting there, but I do not know who it is." The spirit re- 
plied, "You should call me somebody when you are no one to leave your 
child to perish." The husband directed his wife to invite the old man 
into the tent. 

The spirit declined to enter. The father then asked the son to tell 
him to come in. The boy went out and conducted the old man within 
the tent. The latter seated himself across the fire (this is intended to 
mean opposite the door but on the other side of the fire). They slept 
in the tent that night, and when the little boy awakened he found all the 
people preparing to snare deer. The people asked the little boy to ac- 
company them. He did so, and when he was ready to start he asked 
the old man what part of the deer he should bring home for him. The 
old man replied that he would enjoy the lungs better than any other 
part. The boy j)romised to bring a quantity for him on his return in 
the- evening. Toward evening the boy returned loaded with choice 
bits for the old man who had conducted him to his father and mother. 
While outside of the tent he called to the old man, saying that 
he had brought home some food for him. Hearing no reply he entered 
the tent, and not seeing the man he inquired of his mother where 
the person was. The mother announced that he had departed, but did 
not know where he had gone. It was late, but the boy resolved to rise 
early and follow his track. He was up at daybreak, and finding the 
track followed it until he observed the spirit crossing a large lake 
which was frozen over. The boy cried out to the old man to wait for 
him. The spirit awaited his approach. The boy said to him, " Why 
did you go away when I had promised you some choice food?" The 
spirit replied that it could not dwell among living i^eople, as it was 
only a spirit and that it was returning to its abode. The old man ad- 
vised the boy to return to his people. The boy did so, but the next 
morning the desire to see the good old man seized the boy, and again 
he started to find him. The other people then tied the boy to a tree 
and he soon forgot his benefactor. 

Fate of two Indian men. — Two Indian men who had gone off for the 
fall and winter's hunt were living by themselves. They were very un- 
successful in procuring furs and food, so that when the depths of win- 
ter had approached and the cold was intense they resolved to seek the 
camp of their friends. They were i)rovided with nothing but bows 
and arrows. The next morning they started off and tramped all day 
without seeing a li^'ing thing. They made their camp and lamented 


they had no food. They finally prepared to sleep, when one of them 
remarked to the other, "•To-night I shall dream of porcupines." They 
slept, and in the morning the one related that he had seen a lot of 
porcupines around the tent while he was dreaming. They determined 
to proceed, but the one finally thought if they would stop there for the 
day and succeeding night they would have all the porcupine meat they 
would want. They remained there that day, and in the middle of the 
night they were aroused by a noise which proved to be porcupines 
gnawing the bark from the tent poles. The one man said, "Slip out 
and kill some with a stick ;" but added, "Go out in your bare feet." 
He went out barefooted and killed two or three, and dashed back into 
the tent with his feet nearly frozen. He stuck his feet into the hot 
ashes and told the other man to bring in the animals. The other man 
did so, and began to pi-epare the flesh for cooking. They ate one of 
the porcupines, and by daylight were ready to begin their journey. 
They went idly along, shooting their arrows in sport at anything they 
could see. They continued this amusement until near sunset, when 
one exclaimed, "My arrow has struck something; see, it is moving." 
The other replied, " What can it be, when it is sticking only in the 
snow?" The other said he would try and find out what it was. He 
cautiously examined, and found when he began to dig it out that the 
arrow had entered the den of a bear. So they scratched away the 
snow and soon saw a long, black hair sticking out of the hole. He 
jumped back and. exclaimed, "It is some sort of animal with black 
hair." The other replied, " Let us try and get it out. It may be good 
to eat." They finally drove the bear out and soon killed it. They be- 
gan to skin it, wliich was soon done. One of the men then said, "It 
is too big and ugly to eat; let us leave it." The other, however, cut 
off a large piece of fat and put it on the sled. They then prepared 
their camp, and when morning came they started off and traveled all 
day. When night came they made their camp and soon had a huge 
fire burning. One of the men hung the piece of fat over the fire and 
the oil soon dripped into the fire. It created such a nice smell that 
one of them said, "Let us taste the fat; it may be good to eat." They 
tasted it and found it so good that they rateil each other soundly for 
being so foolish as to leave such nice flesh so far behind them. They 
resolved to return for it. So they returned for the carcass of the bear, 
which was far behind them, and as it had tasted so good they de- 
termined to lose no time in starting. They went immediately, although 
it was now dark and very cold. They came to the place where it had 
been left and discovered that the wolves and foxes had eaten all the 
meat, leaving nothing but the bones. They were very angry, and be- 
gan to lay the blame each on the other for having left it. They re- 
gretted they had left such meat for wolves and foxes. They de- 
termined to proceed to where they had camped the third time. On 
the way they became veiy thirsty, and, stopijiug at a creek to drink. 


they drauk so long that their lips froze to the ice of the water hole, 
and they miserably perished by freezing. 

The xUirving wolverene. — On the approach of winter a wolverene, 
which had been so idle dnring the summer that he had failed to store 
up a supply of pro^dsions for himself, his wife, and children, began to 
feel the pangs of hunger. The cold days and snowstorms were now at 
hand. The father one day told his wife that he would go and try to 
discover the place where his brothers, the wolves, were passing the 
winter and from them he would endeavor to procure some food. The 
wife desired him not to remain away long, else the children would starve 
to death. He assured her that he would be gone no longer than foiu- 
days, and made preparations to start early on the succeeding morning. 
In the morning he started and continued his journey until near night- 
fall, when he came to the bank of a river. On looking at the ice which 
covered its surface he descried a pack of wolves ascending the river at 
a rapid rate. Behind these were four others, which were running at a 
leisurely gait. He soon overtook the latter group, and was perceived 
by one of these old wolves, which remarked to the others, "There is our 
brother, the wolverene, coming." The animal soon joined the wolves 
and told them that he was starving, and asked for food. The wolves re- 
plied that they had none, but that the wolves in advance were on the 
track of some deer and would soon have some. The wolverene inquired 
where they would camp for the night. They told him to continue with 
them on the track of the others until they came to a mark on the river 
bank. The wolves, accompanied by the wolverene, continued their way 
until one of the old wolves called attention to the sign on the bank and 
proposed they should go up to it and await the return of the others. 
They went up and began to gather green twigs to make a clean floor 
in tlie bottom of the tent. This was no sooner done than the young 
wolves (the hunters) returned and began to put up the tent poles. The 
old wolves said they themselves would soon have the tent covering in 
place. The wolverene was astonished at what he saw and wondered 
whence they would procure the tenting and tire. The old wolves 
laughed as they observed his curiosity, and one of them remarked, 
''Our brother wonders where you will get the tent cover from." The 
wolverene replied, "I did not say that; I only said my brothers will 
soon have up a nice and comfortable tent for me." The wolves then 
sent him off to collect some dry brush with which to make a fire. 
When he returned the tent was already on the poles. He stood outside 
holding the brush in his arms. One of the wolves told him to bring the 
wood inside the tent. He entered and gave the brush to one of the young 
wolves (the leader of the hunters). The leader placed the brush in posi- 
ti<m to create a good fire, and while that was being done the wolverene 
wondered how they would start the fire. One of the old wolves re- 
marked, "Our brother wonders where and how you will get the fire." 
He made no reply, as oneoftheyoungwolves(theleader)tookui) akettle 


and went outside to get some snow to melt for water, and returned with 
it full of snow. He set the kettle down and sprang quickly over the 
pile of brush and it started into a blaze in an iustant. It was now 
an opportunity for the wolverene to wonder whence should come the 
supply of meat to boil. One of the old wolves said, "Our brother 
wonders where you will get some meat to cook for supper." One of 
the young wolves went out and brought in a brisket of deer's meat. 
As soon as the wolverene saw the meat he asserted that he did not 
wonder aboiat the source of the supply of meat, but that he only wished 
there was some meat ready for cooking. The meat was cut up and 
placed in the kettle and when it was ready it was served out. The 
choicest portions were selected for the wolverene and placed before 
him with the injunction to eat all of it. He endeavored to consume it, 
but the quantity was too great eveu for him. He, having finished his 
meal, was about to place the remainder on one of tlie poles when a 
wolf, observing his action, told him not to place it there or else the 
meat would change into bark. He then laid it down on a piece of 
clean brushwood and when he suspected the eyes of the wolves were 
not turned toward him he stealthily inserted the portion of meat be- 
tween the tenting and the pole. The wolves saw his action and in a 
few minutes the wolverene became very sleepy and soon retired. One 
of the wolves carefully displaced the meat from the pole, where the 
wolverene had put it, and thrust in its stead a piece of bark. In the 
morning when the wolverene awakened his first tliought was of the 
remnant of food. He reached up for it and found nothing but tlie piece 
of bark. The wolves were on the alert and one of them said, " Did I 
not tell you it would change into bark if you put the meat in that 
place?" The wolverene hung his head and answered, "Yes," and 
again laid down to sleep. By the time he awakened the wolves had a 
second kettle of meat cooked. They desired the wolverene to arise 
and eat his breakfast. Tlie leader told him to hasten with his meal, as 
he had discovered some fresh deer tracks. The wolverene thought he 
would watch how they broke camp and see where they put the tent- 
ings. He went off a few steps and while his back was turned the tent 
disappeared and he failed to discover where it was secreted. The /ini- 
mals then started off, the young ones taking the lead while the four 
old ones and the wolverene followed leisurely behind. After they had 
crossed the river the wolverene began to wonder where they would 
halt for the night. One of the old wolves told him they must follow 
the track of the leader and they would come to the sign made for the 
site of the camp. They continued for the entn-e day, but just before 
sundown they came across the bones of a freshly killed deer from which 
every vestige of meat had been removed, apparently eaten by wolves; 
so the wolverene thought he woiild stand a poor chance of getting a 
su]>per if that was the way they were going to act. The party con- 
tinued on the track and soon came upon the mark for the tent site. 


The wolverene was glad to rest, but sat dowu aud began to look aliead 
in the distance for the retiiruiug hunters. After a few minutes he 
looked around aud saw the tent standing there. The wolves then sent 
the wolverene lor dry brush, while they gathered green branches for 
the tent floor. He brought so small a quantity that it would not 
suflfice. The young wolves returned at the same time and they 
directed him to again procure some brush. When he returned he 
found they had stripped all the fat oft' of the deer meat, al- 
though, he had not seen them bring any when they I'eturued, and 
jdaced it around the inside edges of the tent. The brush was put 
down aud again the leader jumped over it and a bright, crackling Are 
started up. The wolves then said to themselves in a low tone of voice : 
"Let us go outside and see what our brother will do when he is left 
alone with the fat." They went outside and immediately the wolverene 
selected the nicest and largest piece of fat and began to swallow it- 
The wolves at the same moment inquired of him: "Brother, are there 
any holes in the tent cover?" His mouth was so full, in his haste to 
swallow the fat, that it nearly choked him. They repeated their in- 
quiry and the wolverene gasped out the answer, "yes." The wolves 
then said: "Let us go inside." The wolverene sprang away from the 
fat and sat down by the tire. They put on a large kettle of meat and 
soon had their supper ready. They gave the wolverene all the fattest 
portions they could find. Having eaten so juuch of the frozen fat he 
became so violently ill, when the hot food melted the cold fat in his 
stomach, that he vomited a long time, and was so weak that he became 
chilly and shivered so much that he could not sleep. He asked for a 
blanket, but one of the wolves placed his own bushy tail on the body 
of the wolverene to keep him warm. The wolverene shook it off and 
exclaimed: "I do not want your foul-smelling tail for a blanket." So 
the wolf gave him a nice and soft skin blanket to sleep under. When 
he awakened he announced his intention to retiu'n to his family, as they 
would soon be dead fi-oni hunger. One of the old wolves directed the 
younger ones to make up a sledload of meat for the wolverene to take 
home with him. The wolf did so, but made the load so large and long 
that the wolverene could not see the rear end of the sled. When it 
was ready they told him of it, and, as he was about to start, he requested 
they would give him some fire, as he could not make any without. 
The leader asked how many nights he would be on the journey home- 
ward. He answered, three nights. The wolf told him to lie down in 
the snow. He did so and the wolf jumped over his body three times, 
but strictly enjoined upon him not to look back at the sled as he was 
going along. The wolverene promised he would comply with his in- 
structions. After the animal had started and got some little distance 
from the camp of the wolves he thought of the peculiarly strange things 
he had witnessed while among those animals; and, to test himself, he 
concluded to try the method of making a fire. He stopped, gathered 


a quautity of dry brush and placed it as he had seeu the wolves arrange 
it. He then siirang over it and a huge blaze gave evidence of the 
power within him. He so astonished that he resolved to camp 
there. He melted some snow and drank the water and retired to rest, 
without having looked at the sled. The next morning he started early 
and made his camp before sunset, as he was very tired. He gathered 
some brush and made the fire by jumjiing over the pile of fuel. His 
supper was only some melted snow which he drank and retired. In the 
morning he started to continue his journey homeward and still had not 
seen the sled which he was dragging. As he was ready to start he 
was so coufldent of his ability to create lire that he threw away his 
flint and steel. He traveled all day until toward sunset he was so 
fatigued that he concluded to make his camp for the night. He was so 
elated with his newly acquired fixculty of making flre that he eagerly 
gathered a great quantity of dried twigs and branches, until a large 
heap was before him. He jumped over it, and turned round to see 
the flames creep up and watch the sparks fly. There was not a sign of 
a blaze or a spark to meet his gaze. He again jumped over it, and 
again, until he was so exhausted that he could not clear the top of 
the pile, and at last he knocked the top of it over, as his failing 
strength did not enable him to avoid it. The only thing left for him 
to do was to return for his flint and steel, which he had so exultiiigly 
thrown aside. The animal berated himself soundly for having done 
such a silly trick. Not having seen the sled he was surprised to find 
how quickly he regained the site of the camp of the previous night. 
Having recovered his flint and steel he returned, and soon had a flre 
started ; but it was now near daylight. He resolved to start on his 
journey as soon as he had some water melted for a drink. He began 
to think how quickly he had made the trip for his flint and steel, 
and concluded that the great length of the sled had been purposely 
made to cause him unnecessary fatigue, as it could not be so very 
heavy, or else that he must be extraordinarily strong. He determined 
to examine it, and did so. He could not see the farther end of the 
load. He flattered himself that he was so very strong, and concluded 
to continue his journey. He attempted to start the sled, and found 
he could not move it in the least. He upbraided himself for permitting 
his curiosity to get the better of his sense. He removed a i^ortion of 
dry meat and a bundle of fat, and made them into a load to carry on 
his back. He placed the remainder on a stage, and was about ready 
to start homeward to his wife and children, whom he believed must be 
by this time nearly dead from starvation. 

He put the pack of meat on his back and set out. That evening he 
arrived at his home, and as soon as his wife heard him her heart was 
glad. He entered and informed the family that he had brought home 
a quantity of meat and fat, and had procured so much as to be unable 
to carry it all at once. His wife begged him to fetch her a piece of 


meat, as she was nearly starved. He weut out and brought in a large 
piece of fat. The wife devoured such a quantity of it that she became 
very ill, and suffered all through the night. In the morning the wol- 
verene stated he would return for the meat which he had stored away 
the previous day. He started in the early morning, so as to return by 

As soon as the wolverene looked iipon the sled loaded with meat 
the spell was broken. One of the old wolves ordered the young wolves 
to go and destroy the meat and fat which the wolverene had left on 
the stage. They eagerly set out on the track of the sled, and soon 
saw the staging where the wolverene had stored the remainder of the 
food. When they came up to it they fell to and devoured all but a few 
scraps of it. The wolves then went away, and in a few hours the wol- 
verene returned. He saw what had happened and excJaimed : "My 
brothers have ruined me! My brothers have ruined me! " He knew it 
had been done because he had looked back at the sled, although 
strictly enjoined upon af)t to do so under any circumstance. He gath- 
ered up the fragments which the wolves had left and returned home. 
When he arrived there he informed his wife that his brothers had 
ruined him, because they had eaten all the meat which he had stored 
away while out hunting. 

Tlie starving Indians, — A band of Indians, who had neglected to store 
away a supply of food for a time of scai'city, were upon the point of 
starvation. An old man wht) lived at a little distance from the camp- 
ing place of the band, had wisdom to lay by a good store of dry meat 
and a number of cakes of fat, so that he had an abundance while the 
other improvident people were nearly famished. They applied to him, 
begging for food, but they were refused the least morsel. One day, 
however, an old man came to him asking for food for his children. The 
man gave him a small i>iece of meat. When the man's children ate 
this food they began to cry for more. The mother told her little boy to 
stop crying. He persisted in his clamor until his mother asked him : 
"Why do you not go to the old U' sets kwa ne po?" (the name means 
One whose neck wrinkles into folds when he sits down). This old 
man heard the mother tell her child to go to him, and muttered to him- 
self, "That is just what I want." 

The little boy went to the old man's tent door, and lifting aside the 
flap, said : " I want to come in.'' He weut in and the old man addressed 
the boy by his own name, saying : " What do you want, U' sets kwa ne po f 
in such a kindly voice that the boy felt assured. The boy said: "f 
am very hungry and want some food." The old man inquired in an 
astonished voice: "Hungry"? and your meat falling down from the 
stage !" The old man bade the boy sit down, while he went out to the 
stage and selected some choice portions and brought them into the tent 
and gave them to the boy. The old man then asked the boy if he had 
a sister. The boy said that he had a father, mother, and one sister. 


After the boy had finished eating, the old man directed the buy to 
come with him and see the meat stages. They went out and the old 
man said: "Now, go home and tell your father that all of this food will 
belong to you if he will give me his daughter." The little boy went 
home and repeated what the old man had said. The father signified 
his willingness to give his daughter in marriage to the old man. The 
boy returned to the old man and stated that his father was willing to 
give away his daughter. The old man immediately went out, took some 
meat and fat from the stage, and then cooked three large kettles of food. 
When this was done he selected a suit of clothing for a man and two 
suits for women. He placed the nicer one of the latter near his own 
seat, and the other two suits directly ou the opposite side of the fire- 
place (the place of honor in the tent). He then told the little boy to 
call all the Indians, adding: "There is your father's coat, your mother's 
dress, and your sister's dress. Tell your parents to sit where they see 
the clothing," pointing to the clothes intended for them, and the 
sister to sit near the old man, i>ointiiig to his own place. The boy ran 
out and apprised the people, together with his own relations. The boy 
returned to the old man's tent before the guests arrived. The boy's 
father came first, and the boy said : " Father, there is your coat." The 
mother then entered, and the boy said : " Mother, there is your dress." 
The sister then entered, and the boy pointed to the dress, saying: " Sis- 
ter, there is your dress." All the other Indians then came in and seated 
themselves. They took two kettles of meat and broke the fat into 
pieces and feasted until all was consumed. The old man helped his 
wife, her father, mother, and brother to the contents of the other kettle. 
When all the food was finished the old man said to the boy, "U' sets 
kwa u(5 po, go and set your deer snares." The old man went with him 
to find a suitable place. They could find only the tracks of deer made 
several days previously. They, however, set thirty snares and returned 
home. The next morning they all went to the snares and found a deer 
in each one. The peoi>le began to skin the deer and soon had a lot of 
meat ready for cooking. They began to feast, and continued until all 
was done. By this time a season of abundance had arrived. 






Chapter I. — Introduction 3(51 

Definitions of "Cult" and "Siouan" 361 

Siouau Family 361 

Authorities 361 

Alpliabet 363 

Abbreviations 364 

Chapter II.— Definitions 365 

Alleged belief in a Great Spirit 365 

Phenomena divided into human and superhuman 365 

Terms for "mysterious," "lightning," etc 366 

Other Omaha and Ponka terms 367 

Siguifieance of personal names and kinship terms 368 

Myth and legend distinguished from the superhuman 368 

Chapter III.— Cnlts of the Omalia, Ponka, Kansa, and Osage 371 

Beliefs and practices not found 371 

Omaha, Ponka, and Kausa belief in a wakanda 372 

Seven great wakandas 372 

Invocation of w;irmtli and streams . 372 

Prayer to wakanda 373 

Accessories of ])rayer 373 

Omalia and Kansa expressions about wakanda 374 

Ponka belief about malevolent spirits 374 

An old Omaha custom 375 

The sun a wakanda 376 

Invocations 376 

The oft'eriug of tobacco 377 

The Ponka sun dance of 1873 378 

The moon a wakanda 378 

Berdaches 378 

Stars as wakandas , 37!t 

The winds as wakandas 380 

Invocation 380 

Kansa sacrifice to the winds 380 

Osage consecration of mystic firejilaces 380 

The thunder-ljeing a wakanda - 381 

Omaha and I'onka invocation of the thunder-being 381 

Thnnder-bemg invoked by warriors ' 382 

Ictasanda cu.stom 383 

Kansa worship of the thunder-being 385 

Snbti-rraneau and snbaiinatic wakandas 386 

The inila«!lriga 386 

11 ETH li3 '^^ 


Chapter III — Contimxed. Page. 

Other Kansa wakandas 387 

Omaha invocations of the trap, etc 387 

Fasting 390 

Mystic trees and plants 390 

Ifa'efie 392 

Personal mystery decorations 394 

Order of thunder shamans 395 

Generic forms of decoration 397 

Specific forms of decoration 398 

Corn and the buflalo 403 

Other Omaha mystery decorations 403 

Kausa mystery decorations 405 

Omaha nikie decorations 407 

Omaha nikie customs 410 

Governmental instrumentalities 411 

Omaha and Ponka taboos 411 

Fetichism 412 

Fetiches of the tribe and gens 413 

Omaha tribal fetiches 413 

Osage tribal fetiches 414 

Kansa tribal fetiches 41& 

Personal fetiches 415 

Sorcery 416 

Jugglery 417 

Omaha and Ponka belief as to a future life 41& 

Kansa beliefs respecting death and a future life 421 

Chapter IV. — x'^i^®'"^ ^■^'^ Winnebago cults 423 

Authorities 423 

Term ' ' Great Sjiirit " never heard among the Iowa 423 

The sun a wakanta 423 

The winds as wakantas 423 

The thunder-being a wakanta 424 

Subterranean powers 424 

Subacjuatic powers 424 

Animals as wakantas 425 

Apotheoses 425 

Dwellings of gods 425 

Worship 425 

Taboos 42e 

Public or tribal fetiches 427 

Symbolic earth formations of the Winnebago 427 

Personal fetiches 428 

Dancing societies 428 

The Otter dancing society 429 

The Red Medicine dancing society 429 

The Green Corn dance 429 

The Buii'alo dancing society 429 

Xciwcre traditions 430 

I?elief in a future life 430 

C;(AiTER v. — Dakota and Assiniboin cults 431 

Alleged Dakota belief in a Great Spirit 431 

Riggs on the Taku wakan 432 

Meaning of wakan 433 

Daimonism 433- 


Chapter V — Contimied. Page. 

Animism 433 

Principal Dakota gods 434 

Miss Fletcher on Indian religion 434 

Prayer 435 

Sacrifice 435 

Use of paint in worship 438 

The nnlitclii, or subaquatic and subterranean powers 438 

Character of the unktehi 438 

Power of the unktehi 439 

Subordinates of the unktehi 439 

The mystery dance 440 

The miniwatu 440 

The Waki'iya", or thnnder-lnings 441 

The armor gods 443 

The war prophet 444 

The spirits of the mystery sacks 445 

Taknskai)skai), the Moving deity 445 

Tunkan or Inyan, the Stone god or Lingam 447 

I^yat) sa 448 

Mato tipi 448 

The sun and moon 449 

Nature of concepts 449 

The sun dance 450 

A Dakota's account of the sun dance 450 

Object of the sun dance 451 

Rules observed by households 451 

The " u-ma-ne " 451 

Eules observed by the devotee 452 

Tribes invited to the sun dance 452 

Discipline maintained 452 

Camping circle formed 453 

Men selected to seek the mystery tree 453 

Tent of preparation 454 

Expedition to the mystery tree 455 

Felling the tree 456 

Tree taken to camp 457 

Raising tlie sun pole ^ 457 

Building of dancing lodge 458 

TheUui'ita 458 

Decoration of candidates or devotees 458 

Offerings of candidates 459 

Ceremonies at the dancing lodge 460 

The dance 460 

Candidates scarified - 460 

Pieces of flesh offered 462 

Torture of owner of horse 462 

End of the dance 462 

Intrusive dances 463 

Captain Bourke on the sun dance 464 

Berdaches 467 

Astronomical lore 467 

Day and night 467 

The dawn 468 

Weather spirit 468 


Chaptkr V — Continued. Pa»e. 

Heyoka 468 

The concepts of Heyoka 468 

Heyoka feast 469 

Story of a Heyoka man 469 

Heyoka women 471 

lya, the god of gluttony 471 

Ikto, Iktomi, or U