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G-ivE N By 



LIBRARY CATALOGUE SLIPS. 

Smithsonian institution. Bureau, of ethnoloyy. 

Twelfth annual report' | of the | Bureau of ethnology | to the | 
a secretary of the Smith.soni.au institution | 1890-91 | by | J. W. 

■^ Powell I tlirector | [Vii;nette] | 

■g Washington | govcrument printing office | 1894 

x 8°. xlviii, 742 pp. 42 pi. 



Po'wrell (.John Wesley). 

Twelfth annual report | of the | Bureau of ethnology | to the | 
secretary of the Smithsonian institution | 1890-'91 | by | J. W. 
Powell I director | [Vignette] | 
Washington | government printing office | 1S94 
8°. xlviii, 742 pp. 42 pi. 
[Smithsonian institution. Bureau of ethnology.] 



Twelfth annual report | of the | Bureau of ethnology | to the | 
secretiiry of the Smithsonian institution | 1890-91 | by | J. W. 
Powell I director | [Viguette] | 

Washington | government printing office | 1894 

8°. xlviii, 742 pp. 42 pi. 

[Smithsonian institution. Bureau of ethnology.] 



TWEIJTH ANNUAL REPOKT 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



1.8D(I-'9 1 



DIKECTOR 




t i. i' 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1894 



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LHTTHR OF TRANSMITTAL 



Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology, 

Washhif/fon, D. C , Juhj 1, 1801. 
SiK: I have the honor to submit my tweh'th annual report 
as Director of the Bureau of Ethnology. 

The first j^art consists of an explanation of the jjlan of the 
Bureau and its operations during- the fiscal year 1890-'9l; the 
second part comprises an extended i)aper on the mound explo- 
rations of tlie Bureau of Ethnology, giving an example of the 
methods and results of the work of the Bureau relating to the 
important branch of archeology indicated. 

I desire to express my thanks for your earnest support and 
your wise counsel relating to the work under my charge. 
I am, with respect, your obedient servant. 




Hon. S. P. Langley, 

Secretarij of the Sinitlisonian Institution. 



CONTENTS. 



EEPORT OF THE DIRECTOR. 

Page. 

latioduction xxi 

Field work xxii 

Archeologic field work xxiii 

Researc-he-s by Mr. W. H. Holmes xxiii 

Work of Mr. Gerard Fowke xxvii 

Work of Mr. Heury L. Reynolds xx vii 

Work of Mr. Cosmos Mindeleff xx viii 

General iield work xxix 

Work of Mrs. M. C. Stevenson xxix 

Work of Dr. W. J. Hoftman XXIX 

Work of Mr. James Mooney xxx 

Office work xxxi 

Work of the Director xxxi 

Work of Col. Garrick Mallery xxxii 

Work of Mr. Henry W. Henshaw xxxii 

Work of Prof. Cyrus Thomas x.xxiii 

Work of Mr. W. H. Holmes xx.xiii 

Work of Rev. J. Owen Dorsey xxxiii 

Work of Mr. Albert S. Gatsohet xxxiv 

Work of Dr. W. J. Hofl'man xxxiv 

Work of Mr. James Mooney xxx v 

Work of Mr. James C. Pilling xxxv 

Work of Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt xxxv 

Work of Mrs. Matilda C. Stevenson xxxvi 

Work of Mr. Cosmos Miudeleft' xxxvii 

Work of Mr. Jeremiah Curtin xxx vii 

Work of Mr. De Laiuey W. Gill xxxvii 

Administrative work xxxviii 

Publications xxxviii 

Accompanying paper ou the mound explorations of the Bureau xxxix 

Financial statement xlviii 

ACCOMPANYING PAPER. 



REPORT ON THE MOUND EXPLORATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY, BY CYRUS 

THOMAS. 

' Page. 

Outline of this paper 17 

Preface 19 

Introduction 27 

V 



VI REPUET OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

Page 

Field operations 35 

Manitoba and tbe Dalvotas 35 

Minnesota 42 

Pipestone county 42 

Houston county 45 

Wisconsin 47 

Dane county 47 

Crawford county 47 

Vernon county 77 

Grant county 83 

Sbeboygan county 93 

Barron couuty 94 

Rock county 98 

Iowa 99 

Allamakee county 99 

Clayton county 108 

Dubuque county 108 

Wapello county 110 

Van Biiren county 112 

Lee county 112 

Illinois 112 

.loe Daviess county 112 

Pike county 117 

Brown county 118 

Adams county 120 

Callionn county 121 

Madison and St. Clair couuties 131 

Randolph county 134 

.Jackson county 141 

Alexander couuty 148 

Uu ion county 155 

Lawrence county 163 

Missouri 163 

Clark couuty 163 

Lewis county 167 

St. Louis county 167 

Cape Girardeau county 168 

Bollinger eounty 170 

Stoddard county 172 

Scott and Mississippi counties 183 

Butler county 193 

Arkansas 198 

Clay connty 198 

Greene coviuty 199 

Craighead county 200 

Poinsett county 203 

Mississiiipi county 219 

Independence couuty 224 

.lackson county 225 

Crittenden county .' 226 

St. Francis county 227 

Arkansas county 229 

Lee county 231 

Monroe county 233 



CONTENTS. VII 

Field operations — Contiiiiied. 

Arkansas — Continued. Pagp. 

Phillips county 2.33 

Desha county 237 

Drew county 239 

Lincoln county 241 

• Jefferson county 242 

Pulaski county 243 

Saline county 245 

Clark county 247 

Ouachita county 248 

Louisiana 250 

Mississippi • 253 

Coahoma county 253 

Sunflower county 258 

Washington county 259 

Yazoo county 260 

Adams county 263 

Union county 267 

Western Tennessee 278 

Lauderdale county 278 

Obion coiinty 279 

Kentucky 279 

Alabama 283 

I^auderdale county 283 

Madison county 285 

Marshall county 285 

Blount county 286 

Sumter county 286 

Elmore county 286 

Clarke county 289 

Barbour county 289 

Montgomery county 289 

Talladega county 290 

.Jefferson county 290 

Georgia 292 

Bartow county 1 292 

Habersham county 314 

Elbert county 315 

Richmond county 317 

South Carolina 326 

Kershaw district 326 

Florida 327 

St. Johns and Volusia counties 328 

North Carolina 333 

Caldwell county 333 

Burke and Wilkes counties 344 

Haywood county 346 

Buncombe .and Henderson counties 348 

Eastern Tennessee 351 

Sullivan county 351 

Carter county 3.54 

Cocke county 356 

.Jefferson county 357 

Eo.ane county 358 



VIII REPORT OF THE liUREAtl OF ETHNOLOGY. 

Field operations — Coutiniied. 

Eastern Tennessee— Continued. Pasje. 

Blonut and Monroe connties 366 

London county 390 

Meig.s county 404 

Rhea county 406 

West Virginia : 407 

Fayette county 407 

Kanawha county 410 

Putnam county 434 

Mason county 435 

Cabell county 438 

Ohio 440 

Knox county 440 

Hocking county 446 

Franklin county 449 

Brown county 451 

Coshocton county 457 

Licking county 458 

Perry county 470 

Ross county 471 

Pike county 489 

Pennsylvania 494 

Valley of the Monongahcla 494 

Warren county 499 

New York 503 

Madison county 503 

Chautamina county 505 

Niagara county 512 

Wyoming county 513 

Livingston county 514 

Michigan 516 

Archcologic areas and distrilmtion of types 521 

Primary iircheologic sections 521 

Archeologic districts of the mound area 529 

The northern section 530 

The Dakota district 530 

The Huron-Iroquois district 540 

The niinois district 550 

The Ohio district 561 

The Appalachian district 573 

The Central or Tennessee district 575 

The southern section 586 

The Arkansas district 586 

The Gulf district 590 

The Moimd-hnilders 595 

( ieneral observations 595 

Ditt'erent opinions 597 

Objections answered 610 

Other objections answered 625 

Inscribed tablets 632 

The historical evidence 645 

A comparison of the works of the Mound-builders with those of the Indians. 659 

Architecture of the Mound-builders 660 

Fortifications, etc 667 



CONTENTS. IX 

The Mouuil-bnildera — Continued. Page. 

Similarity in burial customs 671 

General resemblance in habits, customs, art, etc 680 

Links connectinj;- the Indians directly with the Mound-builders 688 

The Etowah mound — Stone graves 688 

Engraved shells, stone pipeH, copper articles, stone images 701 

Evidences of tribal divisions — Subsequent use of mounds by Indians 706 

Evidence of contact with modern European civilization found in the 

mounds 710 

Co[)per articles 713 

Other metals 712 

The Muskoki tribes 748 

General observations 722 



LLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 

Plate I. Plan of tho Vilas anil Flucke groups, Crawford couuty, Wisconsin. 72 

II. Plat of White's grouii, Vernon county, Wisconsin 82 

III. Elephant mound and surroundings, Grant county, Wisconsin 94 

IV. Plat of Eice lake group, Barron county, Wisconsin 96 

V. Ancient works near New Albiu, Allamakee county, Iowa 102 

VI. Map of Caliokia groui), Madison county, Illinois 134 

VII. Map of the western jiart of Madison county, Illinois 136 

VIII. Ancient works on Boulware's place, Clarke county, Missouri 168 

.IX. The De Soto mound, Jeil'erson county, and the Knapp mounds, 

Pulaski county, Arkansas 242 

X. Plat of the Knapp mounds, Pulaska county, Arkansas 244 

XI. Plat of the Carson mounds, Coahoma county, Mississippi 254 

XII. Mound J, Carson group, Coahoma county, Mississippi 250 

XIII. Mound i1, Carson group, Coahoma county, Mississippi 258 

XIV. Selsertown group, Adams couuty, Mississippi, and platform and 

mounds of the Selsertown group 264 

XV. View of the large mound, Etowah group 294 

XVI. Plan of the large mound, I^to wah group' 298 

XVII. Figured copper plate from mound c, Etowah group (human figure). 304 

XVIII. Figured copjier plate from mound c, Etowah group (bird figure) .. 306 

XIX. Pot from Hollywood mound, Georgia 318 

XX. Map of mound distribution : (In pocket.) 

XXI. Observatory Circle, near Newark, Ohio 320 

XXII. Fair Ground Circle, near Newark, Ohio 322 

XXIII. High Bank Circle, near Chillicothe, Ohio 324 

XXIV. Pipes from Hollywood mound, Georgia 328 

XXV. Plat of the valley of the Little Tennessee River, Blount and Mon- 
roe counties, Tennessee 366 

XXVI. Copy of Timberlake's map of Overhill Cherokee towns 368 

XXVII. Plat of group near Charleston, Kanawha county. West Virginia.. . 414 

XXVIII. Plan and sections of the Staats mound, Knox couuty, Ohio 440 

XXIX. Cemetery mound. Mount Vernon, Knox couuty, Ohio 444 

XXX. Newark -works. Licking county, Ohio 458 

XXXI. Fair Ground Circle, Newark, Ohio 460 

XXXII. Observatory Circle, Newark, Ohio 462 

XXXIII. Octagon, Newark, Ohio 464 

XXXIV. Square, Newark, Ohio 466 

XXXV. S(iuare of Hopeton works, Eoss county, Ohio 472 

XXXVI. Circle of Hopeton works, Ross county, Ohio 474 

XXXVII. Circle of Higli Bank works, Ross couuty, Ohio 476 

XXXVIII. Octagon of High Bank works, Ross county, Ohio 478 

XXXIX. Square of Liberty tawnship works, Eoss county, Ohio 482 

XL. Square of Baum works, Ross county, Ohio 484 

XLI. Pl.at of the "Angel mounds," near Evansville, Indiana 558 

XLII. Copy of Plate XI, " Brevis Narratio '' 652 

XI 



XII REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

l*age. 

Fig. 1. Elimg.ate monud, Souris river, Manitoba 35 

2. Eloiif^ate niouiids, Souris river, Mauitoba 36 

3. Turtle ligure, Hughes county, South Dakota 40 

4. Inclosnres and mounds, Pipestone county, Minnesota 44 

5. Mound vault, Houston county, Minnesota 45 

(i. Mound group near Madison, Wisconsin 46 

7. Walled vault iu mound Prairie du ( 'hien, Wisconsin 48 

y. Bird mound, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin ---. 48 

y. Section of mound and pit, pjairic du Chien, Wisconsin 49 

10. Silver locket from mound, Prairie du C'nien, W^isconsin 51 

11. Bracelet of silver from mound, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 51 

12. Silver brooch from mound, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 51 

13. Silver cross from mouu<l, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 52 

14. Earthworks near Eastman Crawford county, Wisconsin 52 

15. Plat of southwestern part of Crawford county, Wisconsin 53 

16. Mounds on NE. i Sec. 24, T. 8 N., R. 6 W., Wisconsin 54 

17. Mound ground at Hazeu Corners, Crawford county, Wisconsin .55 

18. Bird effigies at Hazen Corners, C'rawtord county, Wisconsin.. 56 

19. Quadruped etligy on Sec. 36, T. 8, R. 6 W., Wisconsin 59 

20. Group of bird effigies. Sec. 35, T. 8 N., R. 6 \V., AVisconsin 60 

21. Bird effigy, Sec. 35, T. 8 N., R. 6 W., Wisconsin 61 

22. Mounds on Slaumer's land, Crawford C(mnty, Wisconsin 63 

23. Conrtois group near Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 64 

24. Mound No. 6, Conrtois group, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 65 

25. Plan of mound No. 16, Conrtois group, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.. 65 

26. Mound No. 20 (section), Conrtois group, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.. 66 

27. Doiiseman mound (plan), Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 68 

28. Douseman mound (section), Prairie du Chien, W'isconsin 68 

29 The Polander group, Sec. 14,T.9N., R.6W., Crawford county, Wiscon- 
sin 70 

30. MoundNo. 3 (section), Polander group, Crawford county, Wisconsin. . 71 

31. MoundNo. 16 (horizontal section), Polander group 72 

32. Plan of the Armstrong group, near Lynxville, Wisconsin 74 

33. Plan of the Sue Coulee group, Crawford county, AVisconsin 75 

34 Copper spindles frem the Sue Coulee group Crawford county 76 

35. Mound group near Battle island, Vernon county, Wisconsin 78 

36. Plan of mound No. 4, Battle island, Vernon county, Wisconsin 79 

37. Copper plate from mound No. 6, White group (N. M. 88336) 81 

38. Section of mound No. 10, White group 81 

39. Obsidian implement fnmi mound No. 10. WTiite group 82 

40. Pot from mound No. 11, White group 83 

41.* Eftigy mounds near Cassville, Grant county, Wisconsin 85 

42. Lines of works near Cassville, Grant county, Wisconsin 86 

43. M(uind group Wyalusing, Grant county, Wisconsin 89 

44. Elephant mound, according to Middleton's survey in 1884 92 

45. Elephant mound, after Warner's figure 93 

46. luclosure near Sheboygan, Sheboygan county, Wisconsin 94 

47. Mound No. 1, Rice lake group 95 

48. Circular inclosnre near New Albin, A llam.akee county, Iowa 100 

49. Inclosure on Hay's farm, near New Albin, Allamakee couuty, Iowa.. 105 

50. Walled mound. Fish group, Allamakee county, Iowa 107 

51. Group near Peru, Dubuque county, Iowa 109 

52. Stone gorget, Dubuque county, Iowa 1 10 

53. Diagram of Indian battle ground, Wapello county, Iowa HI 

54. Mound group, Duuleith, Illinois 114 



ILLUSTRATIONS. XIII 

I'aj^e. 

Fig. 55. Vault iu mmiud No. 4, Uuulcith, Illinois 115 

.-)6. Section of mound No. 10, Dunloitli, Illinois llt> 

.57. Vault iu mound No. 15, Unulcitli, Illinois IHi 

,5K. Welch giouii, Brown county, Illinois H*^ 

59. Mound No. 1, See. 34, T. 10 S., R. 2 W., Calhoun county, Illinois 122 

60. Mound No. 4, Sec. 34, T. 10 S., R. 2 W., Calhoun county, Illinois 124 

61. Group of mounds on Sec. 31, T. 10 S., R. 2 W., Calhonn county 111 . . . 125 

62. Vertical section of mound No. 8, NE. i See. 31, T. IDS., R. 2 W., Illinois 127 

63. Vertical section of mound on SE. i Sec. 15, T. 10 S., R. 2 W., Illinois. l-i7 

64. Vertical section of mound No. 1, NW. i Sei. 2., T. 9 S., R. 2 W., Illinois. 128 

65. Vertical .section of mound No. 1, NE. i Sec. 27, T 10 S., R. 2 \V., Illinois. 130 

66. Wood river mounds, Madison county, Illinois 132 

67. Stone graves on Mill tract, Randolph county, Illinois 13o 

68. The De Frenne stone graves, Randolph county, Illinois 137 

69. Stone graves on blnft', Randolph county, Illinois 139 

70. Hut rings near the bank of Big Mary river, Illinois HO 

71. Pot from Jackson county, Illinois l"!- 

72. Vogelgrouji, Jackson county, Illinois 1** 

73. Spool-shaped ornament of copper 1*5 

74. Schlimpert mounds, Jackson connty , Illinois 146 

75. Section of mound on Schlimpert's place, Jackson county, Illinois - . . . 147 

76. Mounds on Hale's place, Jackson county, Illinois 118 

77. Skull from mound on Hale's place (side view) lol 

78. Skull from mound on Hale's place (front view) 152 

79. Bone plate from mound on Hale's place 153 

80. Catholic medal from mound on Hale's place 154 

81. Stone grave on Hale's place -- Ij^* 

82. Plat of works on Linn's place, Union county. Illinois lo6 

83. Mound A, Linn group (vertical outline) lo7 

84. Round pond niouuds. Union county, Illinois 160 

85. Copper plate hearing dancing figures, Uni(m connty, Illinois 161 

86. Mound group, Clarke county, Missouri 164 

87. The Ben Proffer mound. Cape Girardeau county, Missouri 168 

88. The Witting mounds, Cape Girardeau c ounty , Missouri 169 

89. The Peter Bess settlement, Bollinger county, Missouri 171 

90. The Lakeville settlement, Stoddard county, Missouri 173 

91. Stone pipe, Lakeville settlement 174 

92. County line settlement, Stoddard county, Missouri 174 

93. The Rich woods mounds, Stoddard county, Missouri 17t) 

94. Plan of mounds, Nos. 3, 4, .5, and 6, Rich woods mounds 177 

95. Section of mound No. 3 and adjuncts. Rich woods mounds 178 

96. Pin Hook ridge mounds, Mississippi county 184 

97. Baker's mound, Mississippi county, Missouri 1*^5 

98. Beck with's fort, Mississippi connty, Missouri 185 

99. Image v<'ssel from Beck with's ranch 188 

100. Bowl from Beck with's fort 188 

101. Water vessel from Beckwit's ranch, Mississippi county, Missouri 189 

102. Water vessel from Beck with's fort, Mississippi county, Missouri 189 

103. Gourd-shaped vessel from Beckwith's ranch, Mississippi county 190 

104. Owl image vessel from Beckwith's ranch 191 

105. Fish-shapeil vessel from Beckwith's ranch 192 

106. Meyer's mound, Scott county, Missouri 193 

107. Mound group near Harviell, Butler county, Missouri 194 

108. Power's fort, Butler county, Missouri 19 



XIV REPORT OF THE BUREAU OK ETHNOLOGY. 

Page 

Fig. lOU. .Suctiou of mound in Power's fort, Hiitler comity, ili.ssouri 196 

110. Effect of eiirtlKiuake of 1811 on mouud, Green county, Arkansas 199 

111. Webb group, Craighead county, Arkansas 201 

112. Monnd.s at Tyronza Btation, Poinsett county, Arkansas 204 

113. Section of mound N'o. 8, Tyronza station, Poiu.sett county, Arkansas.. 205 
11^. Section of mound No. 12, Tyronza .station, Poinsett county, Arkansa. 205 

115. Section of mounds, Tyronza station 206- 

116. Clay casts of ear of maize or Indian corn 207 

117. Clay floor of a tliree-room house 208 

118. Mode of lathing houses by Mound-builders 209 

119. The Miller mounds, Poinsett county, Arkansas 209 

120. Vertical section of mound No. 1, Miller group, Poinsett county 210 

121. Mound No. 9, Miljer group, Poinsett county, Arkansas 210 

122. Phin of mound No. 11, Miller group 211 

123. Plan of mouud No. 12, Miller group 212 

124. Plat of Thornton group, Poinsett county, Arkansas 213 

125. Plat of Taylor .shanty group, Poinsett county, Arkansas 214 

126. Mound No. 1, Taylor shanty grouji 215 

127. Section of mound No. 2, Taylor shanty group 215 

128. Section of mound No. 4, Taylor shanty group 217 

129. Plat of Pecan point -works, Missi-ssippi county, Arkansas 22C 

130. Image v.issel, Pecan point, Mississippi county, Arkansas 221 

131. Vessel ftom .Jackson mound, Mississippi county, Arkansas 223 

132. The Sherman mound, Mississippi county, Arkansas 223 

133. Engraved shell (Busiicon pervernum) from mound, Independence 

county, Arkansas 224 

134. Stone spool from moun<l, Jackson county, Arkansas 225 

135. Bradley mounds, Crittenden county, Arkansas 226 

13C. House site, St. Francis county, Arkansas 229 

137. Plan of Menard mounds, Arkansas county, Arkansas 230 

138. Imago pipe, Monroe county, Arkansas 233 

139. Image pipe, Monroe ceunty, Arkansas 234 

140. Imag9 pipe, Monroe county, Arkansas 235 

141. Image pipe, Monroe county, Arkansas 235 

142. Plan of Old Town works, Phillips county, Arkansas 236 

143. Pottery vessel from Old Town works 237 

144. Mound No. 3, Old Town works 238 

145. Ground plan and elevation of the Barney mound, Phillips county, 

Arkansas 238 

146. K'oger's mound, Phillips county, Arkansas 239 

147. Jlouud near Arkansas City, Desha county, Arkansas 240 

148. Old French fort, Desha county, Arkansas 241 

149. The Taylor mounds. Drew county, Arkansas 242 

150. Stone implement from Knapj) group 245 

151. The Hughes mound. Saline county, Arkansas 246 

152. An ornamented water bottle, Clark county, Arkansas 248 

153. Flat-bottomed jar, Clark county, Arkansas 248 

154. Monud group near Camden, Arkansas -.. 249 

155. Flat of Troy ville mounds, Catahoula parish, Louisiana 251 

156. View of mound No. 6, Troy ville mounds, Catahoula parish 252 

157 Omitted. 

158. Clarksdale works, Coahoma county, Mississippi 256 

159. Section of mound No. 1, Clarksdale works 257 

160. Vessel in form of a shell, Sunflower county, Mississii>pi 259 



ILLUSTRATIONS. XV 

Page. 

Fig. 161. Avoiulale mounds, W.ashiugton county, Mississippi 260 

162. Outline of inouud No. 1, ChanipliQ group, Vazoo county, Mississippi. 261 

163. Vertical section of mound No. 1, Cbanipliu group, Yazoo county 262 

164. Image ^•essel from Champlin mound, Mississippi 263 

165. Mound group in Union county, Mississippi 268 

166. Plan of mound No. 1, group in Union county, Mississippi 269 

167. Sections along south trench, mound No. 1, Union county, Missis- 

sippi 270 

168. Section along south trencli, mound No. 1, Union county, Missis- 

sippi 270 

169. Section along the northeast trench, mound No. 1, Union county 271 

170. Section along the northeast trencli, mound No. 1, Union county 272 

171. Section along the north trench, mound No. 1, Union county 273 

172. Section along the north trench, mound No. 1, Union county 274 

173. Silver plate with Spanish coat of arms; mound, Union county 275 

174. Fireplace in mound, Lauderdale, Tennessee 278 

175. Image vessel from mound, Obion county, Tennessee..' 279 

176. O'Byam's fort, Hickman county, Kentucky 280 

177. Mound No. 1, O'Byam's fort , 281 

178. Plat of Tally mounds, Jefterson county, Alabama 291 

179. Mound No. 2, Tally group (plan and section) 291 

180. Plat of Etowah group, copy of .Jones's plat, No. 1 294 

181 . Plat of Etowah grouji, copy of Whittlesey's figure No. 1 296 

182. Plat of the Etowah group (original) 299 

183. Large mound of the Etowah group 300 

184. Vertical section of mound o, Etowah group 302 

185. Plan of burials in mound c, Etowah group 303 

186. Figured copper plate from mound c, Etowah group 304 

187. Copper badge from mound c, Etowah group 305 

188. Copper ornament or badge from mound c, Etowah group 306 

189. Engraved shell, mound c, Etowah group 306 

190. Engraved shell, mouud c, Etowah group 307 

191. Bust from Etowah mounds 308 

192. Copper plate with bird figure; nu)und near Peoria, Illinois 309 

193. Section of the Rembert group, Elbert county, Georgia 316 

194. Plan of mound No. 1, Rembert groiip 317 

195. Vertical section, mound No. 1, Rembert group 318 

196. Upper horizontal section of Hollywood mound, Georgia 320 

197. Fragment of European pottery, Hollywood mound, Georgia 321 

198. Lower horizontal section of Hollywood mound, Georgia 321 

199. Pot from Hollywood mound, Georgia 322 

200. A painted vessel from Hollywood mound, Georgia 323 

201. Pot from Hollywood mound, Georgia 324 

202. Shell beads from Hollywood mound, Georgia 324 

203. Copper article from Hollywood mound, Georgia 324 

204. Shell beads from Hollywood mound, Georgia 325 

205. Pipe from Hollywood mound, Georgia 325 

206. Fragment of porcelain from Hollywood mound, Georgia 326 

207. T. F. Nelson mound, Caldwell county, North Carolina 334 

208. T. F. Nelson Triangle, Caldwell county, North Caroliiui 336 

209. Copper cylinder. Nelson Triangle 336 

210. Bracelet of shell and copper beads. Nelson Triangle 336 

211 . Iron celt from Nelson Triangle 337 

212. Part of iron blade, Nelson Triangle 337 



XVI REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

lace. 

Fig. 213. Engraved shell, Nelson Trhiiigh- 3;i8 

214. Engraved shell, Nelson Tiiauj;le 339 

215. Pipe, Caldwell county. North Carolina 339 

216. Pipe, Caldwell coiiuty, North Carolina 340 

217. Pipe, Caldwell eonnty, North C.nrolina 340 

218. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina 341 

219. Pipe, Caldwell county. North Carolina 341 

220. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina '341 

221. Plan of \V. 1). .Jones mound, Caldwell county. North Carolina 342 

222. R. T. Lenoir burial pit (plan), Caldwell county. North Carolina 343 

223. Ancient burial ground, Wilkes county, North Carolina 345 

224. Clay hearth (or fire-bed), Wilkes county, North Carolina 346 

225. Bogus article, Haywood county, North Carolina 347 

226. Bogus article, Haywood county, North Carolina 348 

227. Bogus articles, Haywood county. North Carolina 349 

228. Big mound, Haywood county. North Carolina .350 

229. Section of Connor mound, Henderccm county, North Carolina 350 

230. Plan of mounds on the Ilolston river, Sullivan county, Tennessee .. 351 

231. Copper spindle from mound, Sullivan couuty, Tennessee 352 

232. Plan of burials in mound, Sullivan county, Tennessee 353 

233. Stone pipe from mound, Sullivan county, Tennessee 354 

234. Plat showing ancient graves near Kingsport, Tennessee 355 

235. Section of grave No. 1, near Kingsport, Tennessee 3.56 

236. Section of grave No. 3, near Kingsport, Tennessee , 3.56 

237. Section of mound ou Fain's island, .left'erson county, Tennessee 35!^ 

238. Plat of mound groups on Long island, Roane couuty, Tennessee 359 

239. Diagram of mound No. 3, Long island, Roane county, Tennessee 360 

240. Image from mound No. 3, Long island, Roane county, Tennessee . , . 361 

241. Diagram of the H.agler mound, Roane county, Tennessee 364 

242. Diagram of the Hardin mound, Blount county, Tennessee 367 

243. Plat of the McMnrray mounds, Blount county, Tennessee 368 

244. Diagram of McMurray mound. No. 2 369 

245. Section of McMurray mound, No. 3 369 

246. Diagram of McMurray mound. No. 3 370 

247. Plat of Latimore and McSpaddin mounds (Citico group), Monroe 

county, Tennessee 372 

248. Vertical section, mound No. 1, Latimore group 372 

249. Vertical section of the Citico mound (McSi>addin, No. 4) 374 

250. Pl.an of burials in the Citico mound (McSpaddin, No. 4) 375 

251. Moccasin-shaped pot, Citico monnd 376 

252. Copper rattle or hawk's bell, Citico mound 376 

• 253. Bone needle, Citico mound 377 

254. Plat of the Bacon and McGee mounds, Blount and Monroe counties, 

Tennessee 377 

255. Plan of burials in McGee mound No. 2 - 378 

256. Plat of the Toco mounds, Monroe county, Tennessee 379 

257. Vertical section of the Big Toco mound, INIonroe county, Tennessee 380 

258. Plan of burials in the Big Toco mound, Monroe county, Tennessee.. 381 

259. Bone implement. Big Toco mound 382 

260. Bono implement. Big Toco mound 382 

261. Stone pipe. Big Toco mound 383 

262. Ornamented shell, Big Toco mound 383 

263. Stone implement, Big Toco mound - 383 

26t. Pot, Big Toco mound 384 



ILLUSTRATIONS. XVII 

Page. 

Flii. 265. Vertical section of Callaway mound, Monroe county, Tennessee 385 

266. Diagram of Callaway mound, Monroe county, Tennessee 385 

267. Water vessel, Callaway mound 386 

268. Water vessel, Callaway niouud 387 

269. Plat of the Niles ferry mounds, Monroe county, Tennessee 388 

270. Group two miles below Niles ferry 389 

271. Plat of mounds on the Click farm, Monroe county, Tennessee 390 

272. Horizontal section, Bat creek mound No. 3, Loudon county, Tennes- 

see 393 

273. Engraved stone from Bat creek mound No. 3, London county, Ten- 

nessee 394 

274. Mounds on ,Iohn Jackson's farm, Loudon county, Tennessee 395 

275. Mounds on .John Jackson's farm, Loudon county, Tennessee 396 

276. The Lenoir mounds, Loudon county, Tennessee 397 

277. Plan of burials in mound No. 1, Lenoir group 398 

278. Diagram of mound No. 2, Lenoir group 399 

279. Plan of burials in mound No. 2, Lenoir group 400 

280. Vertical section of mound No. 2, Lenoir group 400 

281. Horizontal plan of mound No. 2, Lenoir group 401 

282. Ornamental pot, mound No. 2, Lenoir group 401 

283. Shell ornament, mound No. 2, Lenoir group 402 

284. Shell ornament, mound No. 2, Lenoir group 402 

285. Pipe, mound No. 2, Lenoir group 403 

286. Plan of burials in mound No. 1, Frazier group, Rhea county, Tennes- 

see 406 

287. Huddlusou's Circle, Fayette county. West Virginia 407 

288. Singular stone heaps, Fayette county. West Virginia 408 

289. Stone heap with two cavities, Fayette county, West Virginia 409 

290. Section of stone heap with triangular cavity, Fayette county, West 

Virginia 409 

291. Enlarged plan of mound No. 1, and inclosure a, Kanawha county. 

West Virginia 415 

292. Section of mound No. 1, Kanawha county. West Virginia 416 

293. Spring Hill inclosure on enlarged scale, Kanawha county. West Vir- 

ginia 419 

294. Inclosure G, Kanawha county, West Virginia 421 

295. Inclosure I, Kanawha county. West Virginia 422 

296. Inclosure L, Kanawha county. West Virginia 423 

297. Inclosure K, Kanawha county. West Virginia 424 

298. A section of mound No. 21, Kanawha county, West Virginia 425 

299. Coj)per bracelet from mound No. 21, Kanawha county. West Virginiai 426 

300. Copp<T gorget, mound No. 21, Kanawha county. West Virginia 426 

301. Steatite pipe from Kanawha count.v. West Virginia 427 

302. Section of mound No. 31, Kanawha county. West Virginia 432 

303. Mound group, 1 mile west of Barboursville, West Virginia 438 

304. Section of the Hawn mound, Knox county, Ohio 411 

305. Plat and section of the area about the Staats mound, Knox county, 

Ohio 442 

306. Plan of Cemetery mound. Mount Vernon, Knox county, Ohio 444 

307. Section of Cemetery mound. Mount Veruou, Knox county, Ohio 445 

308. Works on the Davis place, Hocking county, Ohio 447 

309. Plan of the large work, Davis place, Hocking county, Ohio 418 

310. Ancient works near Dublin, Franklin county, Ohio 450 

311. Group of mounds. Brown county, Ohio 453 

12 ETH II 



XVIII REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

Page. 

Fig. 31 J. Stone grave, Browu rounty, ( >hio 455 

313. Section of a stone grave, Browu county, Ohio 456 

314. Mounds near Brownsville, Ohio 458 

315. Small inclosure, Newark grouj), Licking county, Ohio 460 

316. Levels along jmrallels at Newark, Oliio 467 

317. Ancient iuclosure, Licking county, Ohio 468 

318. Stone fort on Flint ridge, Licking county, Ohio 469 

319. Stone fort near Glenford, Perry county, Ohio 470 

320. Section of the Cryder mound, near Adelphi, Ross county, Ohio 471 

321. Small circle. Liberty township works, Ross county, Ohio 480 

322. Pyramidal uiouud, Bauui works, Ross county, Ohio 485 

323. Bone implement i)oint from Baum works 487 

324. Circle A, Seal township works 490 

325. Copy of Moorehead's station 241, PI. vi 492 

326. The Seri)eut mound, Adams county, Ohio 493 

327. Mound aud graves near MonongaluOa city, Pennsylvania 496 

328. Sccticm of Irvinetou mound, Warren county, Pennsylvania 500 

329. Pieces of silver from Irvineton mound, Warren county, Pennsylvania . .501 

330. Inclosure near Pittsfield, Warren county, Pennsylvania 502 

331. Ancient fort on Atwell farm, Madison county, New York 504 

332. Seat of ancient Onondaga town, Madison county. New York 505 

333. Old fort ue.nr Ellington, C'liautauijua county. New York 507 

334. Inclosure near Ellington, Chautauqua county. New York 509 

335. Inclosure on Dunn farm, Wyoming county. New York 514 

336. Rifle river fort No. 2, Ogemaw county, Michigan 517 

337. Map of the Huron-Iroquois district 541 

338. Elevation of large mound. Angel group 557 

339. Plat of large mound. Angel group 558 

340. Thevillage of Secotan 621 

341. Interior of hou.se of Virginia Indians 623 

342. Section of mound 11, Cook farm group, Davenport, Iowa 636 

343. Village of Pomeiock, from Brevis Narratio 669 

344. Pipe from Virginia 706 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



By J. W. Powell, Director 



INTRODUCTION. 

The prosecution of ethnologic researches among the North 
American Indians, in accordance with act of Congress, was 
continued during the fiscal year 1890-'91. 

The general plan on which the work was prosecuted in 
former years, and which has been explained in earlier reports, 
was continued in operation. A noteworthy feature of this plan 
is that the ethnologists who, as authors, prepare the publica- 
tions of the Bureau, personally gather the material for them in 
the field, supplementing this material by a study of all the con- 
nected literature and by a subsequent comparison of all ascer- 
tained facts. The continuance of the work for a ni;mber of 
years by the same zealous observers and students, who freely 
interchange their information and opinions, has resulted in their 
training with the acuteness of specialists, coiTected and gener- 
alized by the knowledge obtained from other authorities on the 
same or related specialties. 

General lines of investigation were adopted by the Director 
and the details were intrusted to selected persons skilled 
in their pursuits, the results of whose labors are published 
from time to time in the manner prescribed by law. A brief 
statement of the work on which each of these special stu- 
dents was engaged during the year, with its condensed result, 



XXII REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

is presented below. This, however, does not specify in detail 
all of the studies undertaken or services reudei'ed by them, 
as pai'ticular lines of research have sometimes been tempora- 
rily suspended, in order immediately to accomplish objects 
regarded as of paramount importance for the time. 

The present opportunity is embraced to invite again the 
assistance of explorers, writers, and stiidents who are not and 
may not desire to be officially connected with this Bureau. 
Their contributions, whether in the shape of suggestions or of 
extended communications, will always be gratefully acknowl- 
edged and carefully considered, and if published in whole or 
in part, either in the series of reports, monogi-aphs, or bulletins, 
they will receive proper credit. 

The items which form the subject of the present report are 
embraced in two principal divisions. The first relates to the 
work prosecuted in the field, and the second to the office work, 
which consists largely of the preparation for publication of the 
results of the field work, complemented and extended by study 
of the literature of the several subjects, and by correspond- 
ence relating to them. 

It is with profound pleasui'e that attention is called to this 
abstract of the work of the officers of the Bureau during the 
term of a single year. By long training, b}' great zeal, and by 
deep scientific insight, these gentlemen are now able to accom- 
plish results far beyond the expectations entertained when the 
Bureau was originally organized. The researches in this field 
have passed beyond the elementary stage, and the significance 
of the data being rapidly gathered becomes more and more 
apparent. 

FIELD WORK. 

At the close of the last fiscal year the specific exploration of 
the mound area of the United States ceased, except so far as it 
was found necessary to verify surveys and supply omissions. 
A large part of the results of this specific work, which had been 
continued for several past years, a})pears in the present volume. 
A plan of general archeologic field work was practically initi- 
ated by systematic explorations of the tide-water region in 



ADMINISTRATIVE EEPOET. XXIII 

the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia, and of the Ohio 
valley, which determined, among other points of interest, that 
the ascription of great antiquity to forms of stone implements 
of America, which have been hitherto classed with European 
paleoliths in age as well as in fabrication, was not substantiated 
by the ascertained facts. 

Careful exploration of the Verde valley in Arizona followed 
that previously made in other parts of the large southwestern 
region of the United States in which the presence of many ex- 
tensive ruins had given rise to fanciful theories. The data as 
classified and discussed show that the hypothesis of a vanished 
race enjoying high civilization, proposed to account for the 
architectm-e of the ruined structures, is umiecessary. 

The close attention hitherto given to Indian languages was 
continued, in recognition of the fact that some of them are fast 
passing beyond the possibility of record and study, and that 
the ethnic classification of all of the Indian tribes can be made 
accurate only through the determination of their linguistic 
divisions and connections. The study of aboriginal mythology 
and religious practices was also continued, with special atten- 
tion to the ghost dances and "Messiah religion," which have 
produced important consequences bearing on the problem of 
proper national dealing with the Indians. The misconception 
of Indian religious philosophy, which in fact presents rather 
apparent than actual antagonism to civilization as it is in the 
stage commonly traversed toward higher culture, has occa- 
sioned needless loss of life and treasure. 

The field work of the year is divided into (1) archeology 
and (2) general field studies, the latter being directed chiefly 
to religion, technology, and linguistics. 

ARCHEOLOGIC FIELD WORK. 
RESEARCHES BY MR. W. H. HOLMES. 

As previously announced, general exploration of the mound 
region was discontinued and archeologic field work was placed 
in the charge of Mr. William H. Holmes. During the summer 
of 1890 he began the work of archeologic exploration in the 



XXIV • REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

Atlantic coast states. The ancient quarries of quartzite IjowI- 
ders and of steatite within the District of Coliunbia were 
explored and extensive excavations were made. Tliis work was 
contiiuied tlu-oughout Jnly, and in August a quarry site near 
the new U. S. Naval Obsei-vatory, on a ndge overlooking Rock 
creek valley, was examined. The phenomena observed on 
this site were practically identical with those of Piney branch, 
described in the Eleventh Annual Report. A large area of 
bowlder beds of the Potomac formation, two or tlu-ee acres 
in extent, had been worked ovev to the depth of several feet by 
the aboriginal quaiTy men, and all available bowlders had been 
utilized in the manufacture of leaf-shaped blades. These were 
probably blanks, subsequently specialized as spear heads, 
aiTOw points, perforators, and related instruments. 

In August Mr. Holmes proceeded to the Mississipi valley 
for the purpose of reexamining some mound groups not 
previously explored with sufficient care. He spent a week in 
Grant county, Wisconsin, mapping the remarkable groups of 
effigy mounds for which that region is noted. Subsequently 
he visited Pulaski county, Arkansas, and made a survey of 
the Knapp mounds at Toltec station, whence he passed to the 
vicinity of Hot Springs, Arkansas, to examine the ancient 
novaculite quaiTies near that place. Apparently the early 
inhabitants had quarried this rock extensively, and had used 
it in the manufacture of spear heads, aiTOw points, and other 
articles. The pittings were on a large scale, surpassing even 
those of the District of Columbia quarries. These Avorks have 
generally been attributed by white settlers to Spanish gold- 
hunters of an early period. 

In.September and October Mr. Holmes resumed his explora- 
tions in the Distinct of Columbia and extended the work into 
the valley of the Potomac between Point of Rocks and Cum- 
berland, Maryland, and into the Ohio valley as far as Alle- 
gheny. A visit was next made to the eastern shore of the 
Chesapeake, and a very interesting Indian Adllage site on 
Choptank river, 2 miles below Cambridge, was examined. An 
ancient connnunity of oyster dredgers was once established on 
a bluff about 20 feet above tide level. Subsequently this site 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XXV 

was bm-ied to the depth of 20 feet by wiiid-di-iveu sand, and more 
recently the waves have encroached on the land, exposing 
a section of the bluff and its buried village site. The most 
important feature of this exposure was the section of an ossuary 
or burial pit 12 feet in diameter and 5 feet deep, which had 
been dug at the village site and filled with a mass of dis- 
connected human bones, all of which were in an advanced 
state of decay. These remains were not accompanied by ob- 
jects of art. 

In April Mr. Holmes made a jonmey to Bartow county, 
Georgia, and to Coahoma county, Mississippi, to make detailed 
observations on the great groups of mounds in these coun- 
ties. The principal mound in Bartow county belongs to the 
group known as the E^towah mounds, and is a sjilendid example 
of the work of the builders. In shape the great structure 
is a four-sided truncated pyramid, not wholly symmetric. 
It is 63 feet high, and measures about 175 feet across the 
nearly level top. The measurements of the four sides of the 
base are 380, 330, 360, and 350 feet. The slopes are steep, 
reaching in places 45 degrees, and are liroken by two decided 
eccentricities of configm-ation. On the south a teiTace from 
40 to 50 feet Avide sloj^es to the level of the base of the mound 
on the east, and ends in a nearly level platfoiiu about 45 feet 
square at the western end. The platform is about 20 feet 
lower than the mound, and does not appear to have had means 
of communication with its summit. This irregular terrace has 
been called a roadway, but it has more the character of an 
unfinished addition to the original mound. The other eccen- 
tricity is a graded way extending eastward from the summit 
of the mound, and which to all appearances is the real road- 
way to the summit. This way is 20 or more feet in width, 
though somewhat broken down by erosion, and has a slope of 
only 21 degi'ees. The great Etowah mound was doubtless 
the stronghold of the village, and its top was probably inclosed 
by a stockade. 

The Carson mounds in Coahoma county, Mississippi, form a 
group of unusual interest. There are four mounds of large 
size, two of them being oblong and having twin summits. The 



XXVI REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

highest has an elevation of 25 feet. Scattered about these 
larg-e mounds are nearly a hundred smaller ones from 
1 to 6 feet in height and from 10 to 200 feet in diameter, 
most of which, as the refuse indicates, represent house sites. 
The house floors were of clay, well smoothed on the upper 
surface, and the walls and possibly the coverings were also of 
clay, siipported by a framework of canes. The clay in many 
cases has been baked, but whether from design in building or 
through the burning of the structure surmounting the mound 
is not easily determined. There are numerous large pits about 
the border of the site, from which the earth used in building 
the mounds was apparentl}^ obtained. The area covered by 
the village is three-fourths of a mile by half a mile. 

In the spring of 1891 Mr. Holmes began a systematic 
exploration of the tide-water region in Maryland and Virginia, 
which included a study of the art remains and of the phe- 
nomena of shell banks and \'illage sites, as well as the map- 
ping of all sites which have interest to the historian and the 
archeologist. In this work he was assisted by Mr. William 
Dinwiddie, and for a short period by Mr. Gerard Fowke. 

Through documentary e\'idencc it is known that the tide- 
water region was occupied by tribes of Algonquin stock be- 
longing to the Powhatan confederacy. So thorough was their 
occupation of this country that along the water courses nearly 
every available site bears evidence of it and, in the salt and 
brackish sections of the water courses, shell banks (the kitchen- 
middens of this people) cover the shores in almost continuous 
lines. The sites were so numerous that a careful study of all 
was found to be impracticable, and it was decided to select 
for detailed examination a small number which are typical. 
On the Potomac the following localities were chosen for 
special study: The ^dcinity of Little falls at the head of 
tide water; the site of Smith's town of "Nacotchtank," now 
Anacostia; " Chapowamsie " island, at the mouth of the creek 
of that name; the site of the village of " Patawomeck, " on 
Potomac creek; the great shell mounds of Pope creek and 
the oyster-dredging stations about the mouth of Wicomico 
river. Many sites on the western shore of Chesapeake bay and 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XXVII 

on Patuxent river, also many village sites along the James, 
most of them mentioued and located by Capt. John Smith, 
were visited and examined. These include " Chesapeack," on 
Lynnhaven bay, Virginia; "Nandsamund," on Chuckatuck 
creek, west of Norfolk; Jamestown island; "Chawopo," 
"Paspahegh," and "Quiyoughcohanock," near Clearmont; 
"Weauock," on Eppes island, opposite City Point; and "Pow- 
hatan," just below Richmond. The art remains procured 
from these historic James river sites are identical in nearly 
every respect with the Potomac and Chesapeake relics, a fact 
which bears strongly on the question of the unity of the 
art ]iroducts and the identity of the peoples of the tide-water 
country. 

WORK OF MR. GERARD FOWKE. 

Mr. Gerard Fowke entered upon his duties as assistant 
archeologist on May 1, 1891. He began at once the explora- 
tion of James river valley, and at the close of the year was 
making excavations in an ancient cemetery near Gala, Alle- 
gheny county, Virginia. The object of that woi-k, aside from 
the usual archeologic exploration, was to determine from art 
products the western limits of areas occupied by the Algonquin 
tribes and the eastern limits of the various groups of peoples 
belonging further westward. 

WORK OF MR. HENRY L. REYNOLDS. 

Mr. Henrj" L. Reynolds was the only one of the former 
assistants in the Mound Division retained on the archeo- 
logic field woi"k. He was engaged during the early part of 
the last fiscal year in making examinations and resurveys of 
certain ancient works in Ohio, and in the spring of 1891 was 
sent to South Carolina to examine several important works in 
that state. Owing to severe illness, which terminated in his 
death (on April 17, 1891) while in the field, this last trip was 
not productive of scientific results. By the death of Mr. Rey- 
nolds the Bureau has lost a skillful and industrious member, 
and archeology an enthusiastic student. For some time pre- 



XXVIII REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

vious to his last trip, in addition to his other duties as assistant 
to Prof. Thomas, lie was engaged in preparing a paper on 
the prehistoric metallic articles of the mound area. 

WORK OF MR. COSMOS MINDELEFF. 

Late in November Mr. Cosmos Mindeleff was directed to 
proceed to the Casa Grrande, on Gila river in Arizona, and to 
examine that ruin with a view to its preservation as pro^^ded 
for by act of Congress ; also to prepare plans and specifications 
and make contracts for the work. He was furthei- tlirected to 
make an examination of the valley of Rio Verde, and collect 
data for a report on the archeology of that region. Owing to 
unforeseen delays the contracts for the Casa Grande work were 
not executed until May 15, 1891, and were not approved by 
the Secretary of the Interior imtil late in Jime. Subse- 
quently the time for the completion of the work was extended 
tw.o months. 

During his stay in the vicinity of the Casa Grande, Mr. 
Mindeleff made surveys of this structure and of the extensive 
ruin of which it forms a part, together with photographs, 
detailed plans, sketches, and notes, with a \-iew to a detailed 
report. Among other results of his examination he found that 
the ruin of this imposing- structure is now standing to within a 
very few feet of its height when built and occupied. 

Pending the execution and approval of the conti'acts for the 
Casa Grande work, Mr. Mindeleff made an examination of 
the valley of Rio Verde from its mouth to Camp Verde and 
beyond. This region had never been thoroughly examined, 
and it had been supposed that it would be found as rich in 
archeologic remains as the region about Camp Verde. Such, 
however, proved not to be the case. A chain of settlements was 
found extending from Camp Verde southward nearly to Fort 
McDowell, but the ruins are not so numerous as in the region 
immediately about Camp Verde. About 10 miles below the 
latter locality an extensive and well-preserved group of cavate 
dwellings was found. 

Throughout the whole Verde valley the buildings, now in 
ruins, were constructed of slabs of calcareous rock, or of 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XXIX 

river bowlders, or of both, and in construction, location, and 
ground plans are affiliated with the northern type rather than 
with the southern type, of which the best example is the Casa 
Grande on Gila river. Data for a report on the ruins in the 
valley of Rio Verde, and on the irrigating- ditches and the 
horticultural systems there pursued, were collected and have 
been prepared for publication. Mr. Mindeleff remained in the 
field until after the close of the fiscal year. 

GENERAL FIELD WORK. 
WORK OF MRS. STEVENSON. 

Mrs. Matilda C. Stevenson remained at the Pueblo of Sia, 
New Mexico, from July 1 to September 15, 1890. She was 
diligently engaged in completing her studies of the customs 
and mythology of the Sia Indians, desribed in the Eleventh 
Annual Report of this Bureau. She made their cosmogony 
and the rites of their secret cult societies special subjects of 
investigation, with the view of acquiring a clearer understand- 
ing of their mythology and religious practices. The data thus 
obtained are incorporated iii Mrs. Stevenson's memoir on the 
Sia in the last report of the Bureau. 

WORK OF DR. W. J. HOFFMAN. 

Dr. W. J. Hoffman in July visited the Menomoni reservation 
at Kesheua, the Objibwa reservation at Lac Court Oreille, 
Wisconsin, the Ojibwa reservation at La Pointe, and the Ottawa 
Indians at Petoskey, Michigan. At Keshena he attended the 
annual ceremony of the Mita'wit, or Grand Medicine Society, 
an order professing the powers of prophesy, the exorcism of 
demons, the cure of disease, and the ability to confer success 
in the chase. The ritual of initiation embraces the dramatiza- 
tion of the Menomoni cosmogony, the reception by the Indians 
from the Great Manito of the power of warding off disease and 
hung'er, and the instruction to candidates as to the proper mode 
of so living as to gain admission into the realm presided over 
by Naqpote (the wolf), who is brother of Manabush, the mediator 
between the Menomoni and the Great Manito. The initiation 



XXX REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

ceremonies are preceded by a mortuary ritual, lasting one entire 
night, in honor of the deceased member, whose place is filled 
later on by the initiation of a substitute. 

Investigations were made of the Menomoni ceremony to 
compare it with a similar ritual found among the Ojibwa. It 
appears that the Menomoni practices are offshoots from the 
Ojibwa, and that where the Ojibwa shamans repeat certain 
phrases in an archaic form of language as handed down to 
them, the Menomoni employ Ojibwa words and phrases, per- 
hiips to mystify the hearers, or, perhaps, because the ritual 
was obtained from the Ojibwa in that form. The mode of 
manufacture of the several kinds of mats luade by the Menom- 
oni was also examined, and typical specimens were secm'ed. 

On the completion of his work at the above reservations. Dr. 
Hoffman proceeded to La Pointe to inquire of the Ojibwa 
shamans concerning certain sacred birch-bark charts employed 
by them in the initiation of candidates into their society, 
and also to secure additional information relative to the expla- 
nation of pictographic cosmogony records. He then visited 
the Ottawa Indians on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, 
near Mackinaw, to ascertain whether the ceremonies of the 
Grand Medicine Society are still practiced by them. This 
body of Indians profess to have discontinued these rites, but 
assert that a band of the Ottawa, living farther southward, near 
Grand Traverse, adhere to the primitive belief and conduct 
annual ceremonies. 

WORK OF MR. JAMES MOONEY. 

Mr. James Mooney made a short visit in July to the moun- 
tain region of North Carolina and Tennessee, the former home 
of the Cherokees, foi- the purpose of collecting additional facts 
for a monograph on that tribe. In connection with the same 
work he had intended to visit the Cherokee nation in Indian 
ten-itory during the following winter, but in the meantime the 
"Messiah religion" had begun to attract so much attention 
that he was directed to investigate that subject also at the 
same time, as well as to gather more material bearing on the 
linguisdc affinities of the Kiowa tribe He left Washington 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XXXI 

on December 22, and proceeding at once to the Cheyenne and 
Arapaho reservation in Indian territory, wliere the ghost 
dances were in fnll operation, remained for several weeks study- 
ing the dances, making photographs, and collecting the songs 
used. This last was the most important part of the study, as 
most of the Messiah religion is embodied in songs, many of 
which go to the root of Indian mvthology. That religion is 
a remodeling of aboriginal beliefs as influenced by the ideas 
of Christianity lately imbibed from the white man, to be used 
for the utter confounding of the white man himself. It is in 
no sense a warlike movement. It is somewhat remarkable 
that the ghost songs in use by the various tribes are almost all 
in the language of the Arapahoes, the members of that tribe 
being the most active propagators of the new religion and 
their language being peculiarly adapted to music. 

He then proceeded to the Kiowa reservation, where lin- 
guistic and other materials were obtained by which it may 
become possible finally to classify that hitherto isolated tribe. 
Additional ghost-dance material was also collected. After 
revisiting the Cherokee nation, where several weeks were 
devoted to gathering information, especially in regard to the 
Indian geography of upper Georgia, he returned to Washing- 
ton early in April. 

In accordance with arrangements for the World's Columbian 
Exposition it was decided to make a tribal exhibit from one of 
the more primitive prairie tribes. The Kiowas were selected 
for the purpose and the work was assigned to Mr. Mooney, 
who then returned to their reservation. During May and 
June he collected a large variety of articles illustrative of the 
home life, arts, dress, and ceremonials of the tribe, and was 
still in the field at the close of the fiscal year. 

OFFICE WORK. 

The Director during the year devoted all the time he 
could spare from other official duties to the completion of 
a work on the linguistic families of North America. His 
effort to classify the North American languages so that the 
classification shall be of scientific value as M'ell as of practical 



XXXII REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

use, lias been explained at length in previous reports. Such a 
classification, when properly made, will constitute an indispen- 
sable preliminary to all accurate ethnologic work relating to 
this continent. The essay, Avith an accompanying linguistic 
chart, was substituted for anf)ther paper in the long delayed 
Seventh Annual Report of this Biu-eau. 

Col. GrARRiCK Mallery, U. S. A., during the year, when not 
occupied in special and occasional duties designated l)y the 
Director, was engaged in arranging for jniblication the mate- 
rial gathered by him during several previous years on the gen- 
eral theme of picture-writing. That title was used to embrace 
all modes of expressing and communicating thoughts and facts 
in a permanent form without reference to sound. Such modes 
of expression being at one time, if not still, independent of oral 
language, the study of their history, evolution, and practice 
may assist in the solution of some ethnic and psychic prob- 
lems, and may verify or modify some theories of anthropologic 
import. In the scheme of arrangement for publication the 
objective exhibition of mental concepts by the North American 
Indians has been classified with proper predominance, as it 
has exceeded in iutere.st all others known which have not 
passed beyond the boundaries separating ideograms and 
emblems from syllabaries and alphabets. In order to promote 
explanation and comparison, however, copies and descriptions 
of a lai'ge number of petroglyphs and other forms of picto- 
graphs found in Europe, Asia, Africa, Austi-alia, and in many 
islands, were collated. With the same object, still more earnest 
attention was directed to the synoptic presentation of illustra- 
tions from Mexico, Central America, and South America as being 
presumably more closely connected than is the eastern hemi- 
sphere with the similar developments found in the present area 
of the United States, whether inscribed on rocks with author- 
ship generally unknown or actually in cuiTcnt use among many 
of the Indian tribes. This work was incorporated in the Tenth 
Annual Report of this Bureau. 

Mr. Henrv W. Henshaw throughout the entire year devoted 
his time to administrative work and to continuing the prepara- 
tion of the Dictionary of Indian Tribes already described. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XXXIII 

Prof. Cyrus Thomas was engaged during the year chiefly 
in the preparation of his report on the exploration of the 
mound area of the United States, which appears in the present 
vohime, and in other office work necessary in connection witli 
the pubhcation of a bulletin entitled "Catalogue of Prehistoric 
Works East of the Rocky Mountains," printed during the 
fiscal year though not issued until after its close. He was 
also occupied in the preparation of maps for that bulletin and of 
illustrations for his general report. It was intended at first 
that the whole of that report should occupy two volumes as a 
part of the series of Contributions to North American Ethnol- 
ogy, but it was found convenient to divide it between the 
present volume and the bulletin mentioned. As this change 
of plan necessitated some modifications in the manuscript, the 
opportunity was embraced to incorporate additional data 
obtained through recent observations and coiTespondence. 

Mr. W. H. Holmes included in his office work the prepara- 
tion of papers on pottery, shell, textile fabrics, pipes, and other 
productions of the mound-building tribes, and the writing of 
reports on the numerous explorations made during the year. 
These reports have been bi'ought up to date and are on file. 
He has adopted the policy of prejiaring reports on field work 
for file as the work proceeds, and his assistants are expected at 
the close of each separate piece of exploration or unit of study 
to make a report relating to it of a sufficiently finished nature 
to serve the purposes of record and reference in case of their 
disability or separation from the office. 

Rev. J. Owen Doksey prepared the index to his monograph, 
"The (pegiha, Language — Myths, Stories, and Letters," and read 
the proof sheets of the second part of that volume, which has 
since been published as Vol. vi of Contributions to North 
American Ethnology. He resumed his work on the (|!!egiha- 
English dictionary, inserting many new words occurring in the 
texts, and referring to each new word by page and line. He 
devoted considerable time to the tribal synonymy of the 
Athapascan, Caddoan, Kusan, Siouan, Takilman, and Yakonan 
families; comparing authorities, writing historical sketches of 
the tribes, gentes, and villages of these linguistic families, and 

12 ETH III ~ 



XXXIV REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

rearraugiiig- all the material in order to make it ready for priut- 
ing. From December, 1890, to March, 1891, with the aid of a 
Kwapa delegate in Washington, he collected much information 
respecting the Kwapa (or Quapaw) tribe, a people closely related 
to the Omaha and Ponka, from whom they separated ^irior to 
1540. After March, 1891, he elaborated that material, which 
consists of about 150 personal names, aiTanged according to 
sex and gens, with the meaning of the name whenever attain- 
able, together with over 3,500 entries for a Kwapa-English 
dictionary, and several epistles and myths with grammatic and 
sociologic notes. This material was found to be of great assist- 
ance to him in the preparation of the (|3egiha-English dictionary 
and other papers. 

He also prepared for publication the following papers : A 
study of Siouan cults, illustrated with numerous sketches col- 
ored by Indians, which is incorporated in the Eleventh Annual 
Report; Omaha and Ponka letters, containing the (fJegiha 
epistles, which could not be published in Contributions to 
North American Ethnology, Vol. vi; an illustrated paper on 
Omaha dwellings, furniture, and implements; and a pajier on 
the social organization of the Siouan tribes. 

Mr. Albert S. Gatschet during the fiscal year was en- 
gaged in office work only. After completing the manuscript 
of the Ethnographic Sketch of his work, "The Klamath Lidians 
of Southwestern Oregon," which was published during the year 
as Vol. II, Part i, of Contributions to North American Ethnology, 
he read the proof of it, which occupied him until October, 18! >(». 
Later he was engaged in extracting, copying, and carding the 
vocabularies and other matter collected by him during the past 
ten years concerning the Tonkawe, the Hitchiti, the Shawano, 
Powhatan, and Creek Indians. A large number of personal, 
tribal, and local names of Indian origin were collected and 
partly explained in the intervals of the above work. 

Dr. W. J. Hoffman continued the arrangement and classifi- 
cation of material relating to the society of shamans of the 
(^jibwa Indians, which, together with numerous illustrations, 
was prepared for publication, and forms part of the Seventh 
Annual Report of the Bureau. Dr. Hoffman was also engaged 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XXXV 

in the arrangement of the Jata and sketches rehxting to the 
pictography and gesture hxnguage of the North American 
Indians, obtained by him during previous field seasons, to be 
incorporated in tlie -works of Col. Mallery on those topics. 

Mr. James Mooney devoted the earlier part of the fiscal 
year to the elaboratiiin of his Cherokee material, the tirst 
results of which, under the title of "Sacred Formulas of the 
Cherokees," has appeared in the Seventh Annual Report of 
the Bureau. He also prepared a short descriptive catalogue 
of his previous ethnologic collections from the Cherokee and 
began work on a paper indicating that the southern Atlantic 
states were formerly occupied by a number of Siouan tribes, 
if, indeed, that region was not the original home of the Siouan 
stock. In connection with this investigation, a closer study 
of the linguistic material from the Catawban tribes of Carolina 
confirms the statement, which has already been published by 
this Bureau, that tliey belong to the Siouan family. Mr. 
Mooney also at intervals assisted in work on the Dictionary of 
Tribal Synonymy. 

Mr. James C. Pilling continued Jiis bibliographic work 
throughout the fiscal year. At the date of the last report he 
was engaged in reading proof of the bibliography of the 
Algonquian languages. The volume has been published, com- 
prising 614 pages and 82 full-page illustrations, chiefly fac- 
similes of the title-pages of rare books, syllabaries, and other 
interesting bibliographic features. Among the special articles 
in it is one relating to the labors of the "Apostle" Eliot among- 
the Indians of Massachusetts, and more especially to his 
linguistic work. As this author was the earliest and the most 
noted of those engaged in this line of research, considerable 
space was devoted to him and his labors, and it was thought 
proper to issue the article in separate form. It is noted below 
under the heading of publications. Mr. Pilling has terminated 
his connection with the U. S. Geological Survey, and is now 
associated exclusively with the Bureau of Ethnology, his ap- 
pointment taking effect May 1, 1891. 

Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt has continued his work on the Tuskarora 
dictionary, the Tuskarora-English part being well advanced 



XXXVI REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

and till' Phiglish-Tuskarora part commenced. Much material 
for the compiLation of a com])lete grammar of the Tuskarora- 
Iroquoiau tong'ue was added to that previously acquired. 
For tliis ol)ject such anomalous, redundant, and defective verbs 
as have been recorded in the dictionary have been conjugated 
in all the derivative forms of which they are susceptible, a 
difficult but instructive task. Several regular verbs have also 
been conjugated to develop all their known derivative forms. 
The number of possible derivative forms of a regular verb in 
the several conjugations is estimated by Mr. Hewitt to i-each 
between 2,800 and 3,000. This enumeration is of interest, first, 
because it has been asserted by students of Indian languages that 
the number of ]iossible derivative forms of an American Indian 
verb is infinite, and, secondly, because it has been estimated 
that a Greek verb so conjugated would be represented by 
about 1,300 forms. 

He also paid special attention to grammatic gender. There 
are in the Tuskarora-Iroquoian tongue three genders, which he 
names the anthropic, the zoic, and the azoic, which are ex- 
pressed through the prefix pronouns only. In the anthropic 
gender alone sex distinctions are found, and hence there are 
masculine and feminine pronouns therein; but in the zoic and 
azoic genders, sex is not indicated. Hence, by the prefix pro- 
nouns, the objects of discourse are naturally classified into 
three genders. 

Mr. Hewitt continued making translations from the old 
French writers, Perrot, Lafitau, La Potherie, and others, of the 
notices and accounts of the beliefs, rites and ceremonies, super- 
stitions, and mythic tales of the Iroquoian peoples. These were 
collated as aids in explaining and elaborating the matter col- 
lected in the field by him personally. By adding their testi- 
mony to the evidence of etymology he forms the opinion that 
the Iroquoian cosmogony or genesis-myth originates in the 
personification of the elements, powers, processes, and the liv- 
ing creatures of the visible and sensible world. 

Mrs. Matilda C. Stevenson was engaged from the later 
part of September, 1890, to June 30, 18'J1, in preparing for 
publication the material collected at the pueblo of Sia, New 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XXXVII 

Mexico, during the preceding spring and summer, which is 
pubhshed in the Eleventh Annual Report of this series. 

Mr. Cosmos Mindeleff during the first five months of the 
fiscal year was occupied on the card catalogue of ruins 
referred to in the last annual report and in the compilati(in and 
preparation of maps showing tlie distribution of ruins in the 
southwestern part of the United States. This work was tem- 
porarily discontinued late in November, when he was ordered 
into the field as set fortli in preceding paragraphs. 

He also has remained in charge of the modeling room. 
Its force during the year was devoted exclusively to the "dupli- 
cate series," reference to which has been made in previous 
reports, and no new work was undertaken. Five models were 
added to the series, ranging in size from 16 square feet to 250 
square feet, and comprising the following subjects: Mummy 
cave cliif ruin, Arizona; Pueblo of Walpi, Arizona; Pueblo 
of Sechumovi, Arizona; Ruin of Penasco Blanco, New Mexico; 
and Pit of Nelson mound. This series is nearing completion, 
and tlie Bureau now has material sufiicient to form tlie nu- 
cleus of an exhibit, such as it is often called u]X)n to make, 
without disturbing its series of original models now deposited 
in the National Museum. It has also a small number of mod- 
els which can be drawn upon to supply the demand for such 
material for the purpose of exchange with colleges and other 
educational and scientific institutions. 

Mr. Jeremiah Curtin was occupied with ofiice work exclu- 
sively during the year. From July 1, 18110, until February 
1, 1891, he arranged and copied vocabularies which he had 
previously collected in California, namely: Hupa, Elmikan, 
Weitspekan, Wintu, Yana, and Palailmihan. He devoted the 
later months of the year to classifying and cojiying a large 
number of myths which he had collected among the Hupa, 
Ehnikan, and Wintu Indians. These myths are for the greater 
part connected with medicine, though some are creation myths 
and myths relating to religion and the origin of various tribal 
customs and usages. 

Mr. De Lancy W. Gill continued in charge of the work of 
jjreparing and editing the illustrations for publications of the 



XXXVIII REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

Bureau. The work done for the year eudiug June 30, 1891, 
was as follows: 

Drawings of objects and ethnologic specimens and miscellaneous 

dia.t;rams 422 

Ancient ruins, earthworks, and landscape drawings 1'53 

Maps « 47 



Total C02 

These di*awings were prepared from field surveys and 
sketches, fi-om photographs, and from the collections brouglit 
in bv the members of the Bureau. 

The photoo'raphic work remains under the able manage- 
ment of Mr. J. K. Hillers. Photographic negatives were 
secured from sittings of Indians representing the following 
tribes, ^^z, Sac and Fox, Seneca, Creek, and Cherokee. J^rom 
these negatives 129 prints were furnished. 

Admixistkative Work. — Until April 30, 1891, Mr. James C. 
Pilling was chief clerk of the Geological SiU'vey and performed 
similar functions for the Bureau of Ethnology; after Mr. 
Pilling's resignation from the Geological Sui'vey took etfect, 
his successor, Mr. H. C. Rizer, beginning with May 1, con- 
tinued to })erform the duties of chief clerk of the Bureau of 
Etlmologv. Mr. Jolm D. McChesney, the chief disbiu'sing 
clerk of the Geological Survey, continued to make disburse- 
ments and transact the fiscal business for the Bureau through- 
out the year. The duties of these officers have been performed 
in an eminently satisfactory manner, without compensation 
from the Bureau. Mr. W. A. Croftut, editor of the Geological 
Survey, has remained in charge of the editorial work of the 
Bureau, an exacting service which he also has performed for 
several years without compensation from the Bureau. In this 
work he has been efficiently aided by Mr. George M. Wood. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

The publications issued during the year are: 
(1) Contributions to North American Ethnology, Volume 
II, Part I. The Klamath Indians of Southeastern Oi'egon, by 
Albert Samuel Gatschet, a quarto volume of cvii-f-Tll pages 



ADMINISTRATIVE KEPOKT. XXXIX 

and map. This part includes an etlmographic sketch of the 
Klamath people, texts of the Klamath language with explana- 
tory notes, and a grammar of the Klamath language. The 
second part comprises the Klamath-English and English- 
Klamath dictionaries. It was in type at the end of the last 
fiscal year, but was not then received from the Public Printer. 
(2) Bibliographic notes on Eliot's Indian Bible and on his 
other translations and works in the Indian language of Massa- 
chusetts. This is an abstract from a Bibliography of the 
Algonquian Languages, by James Constantine Pilling, and 
forms pages 127-184 of the Algonquian Bibliography, which 
has since been issued. As separately issued these "Notes" 
constitute a royal octavo pamphlet of 58 separately numbered 
pages. Two hundred and fifty copies were printed and issued. 

ACCOMPANYING PAPER ON THE MOUND EXPLO- 
RATIONS OF THE BUREAU. 

In 1858, 1859, and 1860 the present Director of the Bui-eau 
of Ethnology was engaged in examining prehistoric mounds 
in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. At that time it was 
the prevailing opinion among archeologists that the mounds 
and other aboriginal earthworks of the eastern half of the 
United States are vestiges of a people more ancient and more 
advanced in culture than the tribes of Indians that occupied 
the continent at the time of the discovery by Columbus. 
Sharing these opinions, he began the preparation of a catalogue 
of mound-builders' arts, in the progress of which work many 
mounds were visited and a few excavated, and the catalogue 
grew from observations thus made in the field and from the 
examination of collections in various parts of the country. In 
the fall of 1859 certain mounds on the shore of Lake Peoria, 
in Illinois, were examined and skeletons were found in one of 
the largest, and with them works of art of various materials, 
especially of stone and pottery. At the bottom, with some 
articles of pottery, shells, stone implements, etc., an ornament 
was found made of copper skillfully cut in imitation of a 
spread eagle, with head turned to one side. Lying by the side 
of this were a few glass beads. These challenged attention, 



XL REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

and the question was necessarily presented to him, Did these 
ancient people have the art of making- glass ? Subsequently 
the coj)per ornament was more carefull}' examined, and it ap- 
peared to be made of rolled sheet copper, or if the sheet was 
made by hammering this was so deftly accomplished that 
every vestige of the process had disappeared, leaving only flat 
surfaces on both sides, with a uniform thickness of metal. If 
these articles were the work of the mound-ljuilders in pre- 
Columbian times, then the people must have possessed arts 
more advanced than those shown by the mound arts previously 
studied. Thus a suspicion arose as to the correctness of the 
prevailing opinion. 

National events interrupted the investigation, and carried 
the investigator into other fields of activity; but while cam- 
paigning in Missouri, Tennessee, and Mississippi, in t861-64 
he discovered and examined many other groups of mounds. 
In these new fields, also, most of the w^orks of art unearthed 
were of stone, bone, shell, and pottery, but in excavating a 
mound with stone graves, near Nashville, Tennessee, more 
glass beads were discovered and also an iron knife, very much 
rusted, which was afterward lost. At the time of this find his 
former suspicion became a hypothesis that the mounds from 
Avhich the glass, coppei-, and iron articles were taken were con- 
structed subsequent to the advent of the white man on this 
continent, and that the contents "gave evidence of barter 
between the civilized and savage races. 

When the Bureau of Ethnology was first organized the 
energies of its members were devoted exclusively to the study 
of the North American Indians, and the general subject of 
archeology was neglected, it being the dominant pm-pose and 
preference of the Director to investigate the languages, arts, 
institutions, and mythologies of extant tribes rather than pre- 
historic antiquities; but certain archeologists, by petition, 
asked Congress to so enlarge the scope of the Bm-eau as to 
include a study of the archeology of the United States, and 
thereupon, when the next app;-opriation was made, in Febru- 
ary, 1881, the act of Congress was modified by including the 
italicized words in the following extract: 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XIJ 

"Add to the paragraph appropriathig $25,000 for coii- 
tinuiug ethnoL:>gical researches among the North American 
Indians the following: 

" '■Five thouscDid dollars of which shall be expended in continuing 
archeological investigation relating to mound-builders and prehistoric 
mounds.'' " 

This change in the statute was a surprise to the Director, as 
he had not been informed that such a movement was on foot. 
In compliance with the terms of the statute the work of inves- 
tigating the mounds of the eastern half of the United States 
was at once organized, and Mr. Wills de Haas was placed in 
charge, as he Avas one of the men who had interested himself 
to have the investigation enlarged. Subsequently, in 1881, 
Mr. de Haas resigned, and Prof Cyrus Thomas was put in 
charge of the work, which he has ever since continued. The 
new line of researches thus inaugurated has led to the publica- 
tion of a number of papers in the reports of the Bureau, and 
now one more comprehensive than any of the rest is presented 
by Prof Thomas — a treatise which will be of interest, as it 
seems to disprove the attractive theory that the ancient tumuli 
of tlie eastern half of the United States are the remains of a 
people more highly cultured than the tribes of who were In- 
dians fovind by the white man, and who had vanished from the 
country anterior to the Columbian discovery. The problems 
raised in the mind of the present Director many years ago 
seem to have reached a solution. 

It is difficult to exaggerate the prevalence of this romantic 
fallacy, or the force with which the hypothetic "lost races" had 
taken possession of the imaginations of men. For more than 
a century the ghosts of a vanished nation have ambuscaded 
in the vast solitudes of the continent, and the forest-covered 
mounds have been usually regarded as the mysterious sep- 
ulchers of its kings and nobles. It was an alluring conjecture 
that a powerful people, superior to the Indians, once occupied 
the valley of the Ohio and the Appalachian ranges, their empire 
stretching from Hudson bay to the Gulf, with its flanks on 
the western prairies and the eastern ocean; a people with a 
confederated government, a chief ruler, a great central capital, 



XLII REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

a highly developed religion, with homes and husbandr}- and 
advanced textile, fictile, and ductile arts, with a language, per- 
haps with letters, all swept away before an invasion of copjier- 
liued Huns from some unknown region of the earth, prior to 
the landing of Columbus. These hypothetic semici^^lized 
autochthons, imagined to have been thus rudely exterminated 
or expelled, have been variously identified by ethnologists 
with the ancestors of the Aztecs or the Toltecs, the Mayas, the 
Colhuas, the Chichimecs, or the Pueblos, who have left no 
sign of their existence save the rude and feeble fortifications 
into which they fled from their foes, and the silent and obscure 
elevations in which their nobles found interment. 

Only about a hundred years have passed since scientific men 
became fully aware of these remarkaljle antiquities. They 
were first discussed by Dr. Franklin, Thomas Jeff'erson, Presi- 
dent Ezra Stiles of Yale C-ollege, Noah Webster, and their 
contemporaries, who advanced Aarious theories to account for 
the origin of the mounds. Fraukliu and Webster were inclined 
to attribute to De Soto and other Spanish explorers the few 
that had been found and described, but Webster afterward 
abandoned this theory and ascribed the mounds to the Indians. 
Dr. Benjamm S. Barton, in 1797, set tV)rth the conclusion that 
the mounds were not built by the living Indians or their pre- 
decessors, but by a people of higher cultivation, with established 
law and order and a well disciplined police. His work, "New 
Views on the Origin of the Tribes of America," seems, in fact, 
to have been the first publication of the theory of the "lost 



races." 



At the beginning of this century the students of American 
archeology received two important accessions. Rev. T. M. Har- 
ris, of Massachusetts, and Bishop Madison, of Virginia. Both 
of them traveled extensively in the mound region, and both 
were of scientific tastes and habits of mind. Bishop Madison 
saw in these antiquities no evidence of an art higher than or 
of tendencies diflerent from those of existing Indians, while Dr. 
Harris thought that they evinced proofs of skill and cultm-e 
implying the hand of a superior race and the influence of a 
hio-her civilization. 



ADMINISTRATIVE EEPOKT. XLIII 

Since the days of Harris and Madison the discussion of this 
subject has gone forward oA the hnes which their differences 
detiued. Those who hokl that the Indians did not buikl the 
mounds are far from agreeing- as to who did buikl them. Many, 
like Mr. John T. Short, author of "The North Amei'icans of 
Antiquity," follow Harris in the direction of the Toltecs, who, 
it is assumed, occupied the Mississippi basin prior to their 
appearance in the valley of Anahuac on the summit of the 
mountains of Mexico. Wilson, in his "Prehistoric Man," argues, 
on the contrary, that the Toltecs came from the south, and that 
the Aztecs went from the north after building our mysterious 
mounds. Dawson, in his "Fossil Man," holds that the mounds 
were built by the Tallegwi, a primitive people reconstructed 
from the traditions of the Delawares ; Lewis H. Morgan ex- 
pressed the opinion that the makers of the mounds were 
related to the Pueblo tribes of New Mexico; Squier and Davis, 
who, in their "Ancient Monuments," exercised a world-wide 
influence on this question partly because their conclusions 
were published under the powerful aiithority of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, set forth their views as follows : 

"We may venture to suggest that the facts thus far col- 
lected point to a connection more or less intimate between the 
race of the mounds and the semicivilized nations which for- 
merly had their seats among the Sierras of Mexico, upon the 
plains of Central America and Peru, and who erected the 
imposing structures which from their number, vastness, and 
mysterious significance, invest the central portion of the con- 
tinent with an interest not less absorbing than that which 
attaches to the valley of the Nile." 

But the assumption that the mounds scattered in-egularly 
over the face of this country from Florida to the Red River 
of the North were the work of a lost and nameless race, and 
that the deposits of Indian remains within them were the result 
of "intrusive burials," has been losing ground before recent 
evidence accumulated by archeologists. The spade and pick, 
in the hands of patient and sagacious investigators, have every 
year brought to light facts tending more and more strongly to 
prove that the mounds, defensive, mortuar}" and domiciliary, 



XLIV REPORT OP THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOfJY. 

which have excited so iinicli ciuMositv uud become the subject 
of so inauy liypotheses, were constructed by the historic Indians 
of our hind and their lineal ancestors. 

It is just to say that Schoolcraft, Gallatin, Lewis Cass, and 
Sir John Lubbock were ;dl along- inclined t( • attribute these 
ancient works to the Indians, and this opinion has also been 
entertained by Samuel G. Drake, Lucien Garr, Gen. M. F 
Force, Tln-uston, and (notably) Dr. J. H. McCulloh. 

Dr. W. H. Dall, in his translation of the Marquis de Nadail- 
lac's "Prehistoric America," says: "The Mound-builders were 
no more nor less than the immediate predecessors in blood aud 
culture of the Indians described by De Soto's chronicler and 
other early explorers — the Indians wlio inhabited the region of 
the mounds at the time of their discovery by civilized man." 

Yet, notwithstanding the ability and distinction of some of 
the advocates of this view and the reasonableness and cogency 
of their arguments, it is to be remarked that the theory that 
the mounds and other remains of antiquity are referable to 
mythical vanished races has always been the most popular, 
and to-day the followers of Bishop Madison are far less 
numerous than the followers of Dr. Harris. 

In the hope of adding enough evidence to tliat already in 
sight to enable ethnologists to reach the solution of the problem, 
the researches recorded in this volume were undertaken. 

The demonstration of the ftxllacy of Harris's fascinating 
theory, long cherished and fully accepted by most ethnologists 
and explorers, has a far wider scope than simply correcting 
the current conception of pre-Columbian conditions; it enables 
us to obtain a more accurate view of the historic Indians them- 
selves and to form some idea of the culture-status of their 
ancestry and of the lines of environment through which they 
have descended; to unify and expand the field of vision and to 
make useful investigations along a symmetric and homoge- 
neous ethnic plane instead of wasting- time in chimerical and 
sentimental speculations concerning the unknown. 

The mounds in which the dead were deposited are the most 
important among aboriginal relics, for they indicate, both in 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XLV 

construction and in contents, something- of the art, reHgion, and 
sociology of their occupants and builders. Articles found with 
the skeletons, such as implements, ornaments, and fetiches, 
many of them still in g-ood preservation, are full of biographic 
and ethnic signiiicance concerning the beliefs, habits, pur- 
poses, social condition and life historv of long- buried men and 
of the survivors who paid them funeral rites. 

These artificial mounds scattered throughout the United 
States are of many types. They are made of diiferent mate- 
rials. The}' are evidently designed for different purposes — 
mortuary, military, social. They are constructed in different 
forms. They evince different degrees of art. They have 
diverse contents, which apparently vary with the varying- ends 
in view and the various possessions available. 

Now as these tumuli are unnumbered and may fairly be 
said to be innumerable, it is obviouslv impossible that every 
mound can be scientifically examined and a complete correla- 
tion and coordination thus established. If it can be shown 
that some of the mounds and some of the other antiquities of 
all the difi"erent types and classes were made by Indians, or 
even by people having the same habits, beliefs, and culture- 
status as. the Indians, the infei-ence is justifiable that all are 
the work of the same race or one closely allied in culture. In 
fact, such an inference from such data is irresistible. Prof 
Thomas has made, in the paper herewith presented, a com- 
prehensive accumulation of these significant facts which seems 
to overwhelm all a priori theories of a "lost race" and to 
demonstrate inductively that all of these mounds were built by 
the people known to have built some of them or by other peo- 
ple of similar characteristics and of the same grade of culture. 

The explorations recorded in this paper were conducted in 
Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, 
Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New 
York, North Dakota, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Wisconsin, and West 
Virginia, and excavations have been made in more than 130 
counties. More than 2,000 mounds have been explored, 
including every known form, from the circular tumulus of the 



XLVI REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

north to the large truncated pyraniiil of the soutli, the stone 
cairn, the liouse site, etc., stratified and unstratified; and the 
coUaborators of the Bureau t>f Ethnology have collected au 
immense treasury of pottery, celts, pipes, gorgets, flint and 
bone implements, discoidal stones, copper articles, engraved 
shells and toys, and ornaments of many kinds, which will be 
invaluable to students of ethnology. 

Incidentally, as strongly pointing to the conclusions to 
which the explorations lead, Dr. Thomas introduces a summa- 
tion f)f testin:iony tending to show that the ruined cities of 
Palenque, Copan, and Uxmal were founded and built not by 
an extinct ancient race but b}' the ancestors of the sturdy 
Mayas who still possess Central America, and that the 
deserted pueblos and cliff-dwellings of New Mexico and Ai-i- 
zona are referable to the ancestors of the sedentary tribes who 
still cluster on the arid plains and mesas' of that section. If 
this be true it follows as a corollary that thev could not have 
constructed the mounds of eastern America in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. 

The ultimate conclusions resulting from the explorations 
chronicled in this volume may briefly be stated as follows : 

1. Nothing found in the mounds justifies the opinion that 
they are uniformly of great antiquity. 

2. The mound-builders comprised a number of tribes bear- 
ing about the same relations and having about the same cul- 
ture-status as the Indian tribes inhabiting the corresponding 
area when it was first visited by Europeans. 

3. The custom of removing the flesh before burial prevailed 
extensively among the northern mound-builders, and was not 
uncommon in the south. 

4. None of the mounds were built for religious or sacred 
pm'poses, but some religious ceremony was often performed 
at the burial, involving the use of fire, perhaps in cremation. 
There is no evidence that human sacrifice was practiced. 

5. In some southern districts, especially in the bottom lands 
of the lower Mississippi, it was customary to erect dwellings 
on low mounds, apparently artificial, and, when deaths oc- 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. XLVII 

cuiTed, to bury the remains in the earthen floors, burn the 
liouses, and heap mounds over the sites while the embers yet 
smoldered. These residences appear to have been constructed 
by setting upright sticks in the ground and wattling them by 
interweaving canes or twigs, then plastering- these rude walls 
with clay and thatching the roofs exactly as described by the 
early French explorers of the region. 

6. The contents of the mounds examined reveal in the 
builders a people who had attained about the same status in 
warfare, domestic customs, social conditions, and arts, as the 
Indians of the same neighborhood when first -sasited by white 
men. 

7. The construction of similar mounds over the dead has 
been practiced extensively in many localities since the com- 
ing of Europeans, as is demonstrated by the finding of silver 
and iron implements and religious emblems among the bones 
and ashes of the abandoned liearths. 

8. The explorations of the Bureau exhibit the fact that the 
mounds of the eastern portion of the United States cannot be 
distinguished from those of the western portion as belonging 
to a higher grade of culture, while there is abundant evidence 
that the western mounds have in part been erected and used 
by the Indians in historic times. The present Director has him- 
self seen two burial mounds in process of construction — one in 
Utah, on the Ijanks of the Santa Clara, near the town of St. 
George, constructed by a tribe of the Shoshonean family; the 
other built by the Wintun Indians in the valley of Pitt river, 
near the fish-hatching station on that stream. The evidence 
in favor of the Indian origin of the western structures has 
been so great and the facts have been so well known that 
writers have rarel}' attributed them to prehistoric peoples. 

S. The explorations of the Bureau herein recorded justify 
the conclusion that works of certain kinds and localities are 
attributable to specific tribes known to history. This makes 
it possible for the archeologist to determine, to a limited 
extent, certain lines of migration. For example, it seems to be 
proved that the Cherokees were mound-builders, and that they 
built most of the mounds of eastern Tennessee and western 



XLVIII 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 



Noi'tli Carolina, and probably those of the Kanawha valley of 
West Virginia. To the Shawnees may be ascribed the box 
or cist graves of stone and accompanying mounds in Kentucky, 
Tennessee, and northern Georgia. The stone graves in the 
valley of the Delaware are referable to the Delawares. There 
are facts enough to corroborate the inference that tlie ancient 
works in northern Mississippi were built chiefly by the Chicka- 
saws; those in the region of Flint river, in southern Georgia, 
by the Uchees; and a large portion of all those of the Gulf 
states by the Muskoki group. 

10. Finally, the links of evidence connecting the Indians 
and mound-builders are so numerous and well established as 
to justify archeologists in assuming that they were one and 
the same people. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

Clasaijication of expenditures made from the appropriation for North American Eth- 
iiolui/i/jfor the fiscal year ending June 30, 1S91. 

Amount of appropriation, 1890-'91, (act approved August 30, 1890) $40,000.00 

July 1, 1890, halaiK-e from previous appropriations 12,033.08 

Total 52,033.08 



Expenses. 


Amount. 


Expenses. 


Amount. 




$33,710.23 

2, 354. 76 

290.20 

115. 16 

310. 71 

93.54 
.30 

32.26 
352. 16 
309. 00 




$840.35 






439.96 




Office supplies and repairs 


193. 41 




Specimens 

Bonded railroad aoconnts forwarded 
to United States Treasury for set- 
tlement 

Balance on hand to meet outstanding 
liabilities 


174. 10 






Field suiiplies for distribution to In- 


42.70 








12,774.24 








Books for library 


52,033.08 


Stationery and drawing material 





ACCOMPANYING PAPER. 



12 ETH 1 



REPORT 

ON THE 

MOUND EXPLORATIONS 

OF THK 

BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. 

HY 

CYEUS THOMAS. 



CONTENTS. 



Pago. 

Outline of this pajier 17 

Preface 19 

Introduction 27 

Field opiTiitions 35 

Manitoba and the Dakotas 35 

Minnesota 42 

Pipestone county 42 

Houston county 45 

Wisconsin 47 

Dane county 47 

Crawford county 47 

Vernon county 77 

Grant county 83 

Sbehoygan county 93 

Barron county 94 

Rock county 98 

Iowa 99 

Allamakee county 99 

Clayton county 108 

Dubuque county 108 

Wapello county 110 

Van Buren county 112 

Lee county 113 

Illinois 112 

Joe Daviess county 112 

Pike county 117 

Brown county 118 

Adams county 120 

Calhoun county 121 

Madison and St. Clair counties 131 

Randolph county 134 

.Jackson county 141 

Alexander county 148 

Union county 155 

Lawrence county 163 

Missouri 163 

Clark county 163 

Lewis county 167 

St. Louis county _ _ 167 

Cape Girardeau county 168 

Bollinger county 170 

Stoddard county 172 

Scott and Mississippi counties 183 

Butler county 193 

5 



6 CONTENTS. 

Field t)per;itioiis — coutiuued. Page. 

Arkansas 198 

Clay county 198 

Greene county 199 

Craigbead county 200 

Poinsett county 203 

Mississippi county 219 

Independence county 224 

Jackson county 225 

Crittenden county 226 

St. Francis county 227 

Arkansas county 229 

Lee county 231 

Monroe county 233 

Phillipa county 233 

Deslia county 237 

Drew conuty 239 

Lincoln county 241 

Jcft'ersou county 242 

Pulaski county 243 

Saline county 245 

Clark county 247 

Ouachita county 248 

Louisiana 250 

Mississippi 253 

Coahoma county 253 

Sun flower county 258 

Washington county 259 

Yazoo county 260 

Adams county 263 

Union county 267 

Tennessee 278 

Lauderdale county 278 

Obion county 279 

Kentucky 279 

Alalianui 283 

Lauderdale county 283 

Madison county 285 

Marshall county 285 

Blount county 286 

Sumter county 286 

Elmore county 286 

Clarke county 289 

Barbour county 289 

Montgomery county 289 

Talladega county 290 

Jeft'ersou county 290 

Georgia 292 

Bartow county 292 

Habersham county 314 

Elbert county 315 

Richmond county 317 

South Carolina 326 

Kershaw district 326 

Florida 327 

St. Johns and Volusia counties 328 



CONTENTS. 7 

Field operations — continued. Page. 

North Carolina 333 

Caldwell connty 333 

Burke and Wilkes counties 344 

Haywood county 346 

Buncombe and Henderson counties 348 

East Tennessee 351 

Sullivan county 351 

Carter county 354 

Cocke county 356 

Jefferson county 357 

Eoaue county 358 

Blount, Monroe, and Loudon counties 366 

Loudon county 390 

Meigs county 404 

Eliea county 406 

West Virginia 407 

Fayette county 407 

Kanawha county 410 

Putnam county 434 

Mason county 435 

Cabell county 438 

Ohio 440 

Knox county 440 

Hocking county 446 

Franklin county 449 

Brown county 451 

Coshocton county 457 

Licking county 458 

Perry county 470 

Ross county 471 

Pike county 489 

Pennsylvania 494 

Warren county - 499 

New York 503 

Madison county 503 

Chautauqua county 505 

Niagara count}' 512 

Wyoming county 513 

Livingston county 514 

Michigan 516 

Archeological areas ;;nd distribution of types 521 

Primary archeological sections 521 

Archeological districts of the mound area 529 

The northern section 530 

The Dakotan district 530 

The lluron-Iroquois district 540 

The Illinois district 550 

The Ohio district '561 

The Appalachian district 573 

The Central or Tennessee district 575 

The southern section 586 

The Arkansas district 586 

The Gulf district 590 



8 CONTENTS. 

Page. 

The Mound-l)n ilders 59.> 

General observations 595 

Different opinions 597 

Objections answered 610 

Other objections answered 625 

Inscribed tablets 632 

The shale tablets 638 

The historical evidence 645 

A comparison of the works of the Mound-builders with those of the Indians. 659 

Architecture of the Mound-builders 660 

Fortifications, etc 667 

Similarity in burial customs 671 

General resemblances in habits, customs, art, etc 680 

Links connecting the Indians directly with the Mound-builders 688 

The Etowah mound — Stone graves 688 

Engraved Shells — Stone pipes — Copper articles — Stone images 701 

Evidences of tribal divisions — Subsequent use of mounds by Indians 706 

Evidence of contact with modern European civilization found in the 

mounds 710 

Copper articles 710 

Other metals 713 

The Muskoki tribes 718 

General observations 722 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 

Plate I. Plan of the Vilas and Flucke groups, Crawford county, Wisconsin. 72 

II. Plat of White's group, Vernou county, Wisconsin 82 

III. Elephant mound and surroundings, Grant county, Wisconsin 94 

IV. Plat of Rice lake group, Barron county, Wisconsin 96 

V. Ancient works near New Albin, Allamakee county, Iowa 102 

VI. Map of Cahokia group, Madison county, Illinois 134 

VII. Map of the western part of Madisou county, Illinois 136 

VIII. Ancient works on Boulware's place, Clarke county, Missouri 168 

IX. The De Soto mound, Jefferson county, and the Knapp mounds, 

Pulaski county, Arkansas 242 

X. Plat of the Kuapp mounds, Pulaski county, Arkansas 244 

XI. Plat of the Carson mounds, Coahoma couuty, Mississippi 254 

XII. Mound ft, Carson group, Coahoma couuty, Mississippi 256 

XIII. Mound d, Carson group, Coahoma county, Mississippi 258 

XIV. Selsertowu group, Adams county, Mississippi, and platform and 

mounds of the Selserto wn group 264 

XV. View of the large mound, Etowah group 294 

XVI. Plan of the largo mound, Etowah group 298 

XVII. Figured copper plate from mound c, Etowah group (human figure) . 304 

XVIII. Figured copper plate from mound c, Etowah group (bird figure) .. 306 

XIX. Pot from Hollywood mound, Georgia 318 

XX. Map of mound distribution (In pocket.) 

XXI. Observatory Circle, near Newark, Ohio 320 

XXII. Fair Ground Circle, near Newark, Ohio 322 

XXIII. High Bank Circle, near Chillicothe. Ohio 324 

XXIV. Pipes from Hollywood mound, Georgia 328 

XXV. Plat of the valley of the Little Tennessee river, Blount and Mon- 
roe counties, Tennessee 366 

XXVI. Copy of Timberlake's map of Overhill Cherokee towns 368 

XXVII. Plat of group near Charleston, Kanawha county, West Virginia. . 414 

XXVIII. Plan and sections of the Staats mound, Knox county, Ohio 440 

XXIX. Cemetery mound. Mount Vernon, Knox county, Ohio 444 

XXX. Newark works. Licking county, Ohio 458 

XXXI. Fair Ground Circle, Newark, Ohio "160 

XXXII. Observatory Circle, Newark, Ohio 462 

XXXIII. Octagon, Newark, Ohio 16^^ 

XXXI V. Sqnare, Newark, Ohio 166 

XXXV. Square of Hopeton works, Ross county, Ohio 472 

XXXVI. Circle of Hopeton works, Ross couuty, Ohio 474 

XXXVII. Circle of High Bank works, Ross county, Ohio 476 

XXXVIII. Octagon of High Bank works, Ross county, Ohio 478 

XXXIX. S(iuare of Liberty township works, Ross county, Ohio 482 

XL. Square of Baum works, Ross couuty, Ohio 484 

XLI. Plat of the ".Augel mounds," near Evansville, Indiana 558 

XLII. Copy of Plate XI, " Brevis Narratio " 652 

9 



10 ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page. 

Fig. 1. Elongate mound, Souris river, Mniiitolia 35 

2. Elongate niouuils, Souris river, Manitoba 36 

3. Turtle figure, Hughes county, South Dakota 40 

4. Inflosures and mounds, Pipestone county, iliuuesota 44 

5. Mound vault, Houston county, Minnesota 45 

6. Mound group near Madison, Wisconsiu 46 

7. Walled vault lu mound, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 48 

8. Bird mound, Prairie du Chieu, Wisconsin 48 

9. Sectiou of mound and pit, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 49 

10. Silver locket from mound, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 51 

11. Bracelet of silver from mound, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 51 

12. Silver brooch from mound. Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 51 

13. Silver cross from mound, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 52 

14. Eartlnvorks uear Eastman, Crawford county, Wisconsin 52 

15. Plat of southwest part of Crawford county, Wisconsin 53 

16. Mounils on northeast quarter of Sec. 24, T. 8 N., R. 6 W., Wisconsin .. 54 

17. Mouud group at Hazeu Corners, Crawford county, Wisconsin 55 

18. Bird eftigics at Hazen Corners, Crawford county, Wisconsin 56 

19. Quadruped effigy on Sec. 36, T. 8, R. 6 W., Wisconsin 59 

20. Group of bird effigies. Sec. 35, T. 8 N., R. 6 W., Wisconsin 60 

21. Birdeffigy, Sec.35,T.8N., R.6 W., Wisc(msiM 61 

22. Moun<ls on Slaumer's land, Crawford county, Wisconsin 63 

23. Courtois group uear Prairie du Chieu, Wisconsin 64 

24. Mound No. 6, Courtois group. Prairie du Chieu, Wisconsin 65 

25. Plan of uuiuud Xo. Ifi, Courtois group, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin ... 65 

26. Mound No. 20 (sectiou), Courtois group, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.. 66 

27. Dousemau mound (plan), Prairie du Chieu 68 

28. Dousemau mound (section), Prairie du Chien 68 

29. The Polander group, Sec. 14, T. 9, R. 6 W., Crawford county, Wisconsin 70 

30. Mound No. 3 (sectiou), Polander group, Crawford county, Wisconsin. . 71 

31. Mound No. 16 (horizontal section), Polander group 72 

32. Plan of the Armstrong group, near Lyuxville, Crawford county 74 

33. Plau of the Sue Coulee group, Crawford county, Wisconsin 75 

34. Copper sjiiudles from the Sue Coulee group, Crawford county 76 

35. Mouud group uear Battle isl.and. Veruou county, Wisconsin 78 

36. Plan of mound No. 4, Battle islaml, Vernon county, Wisconsin 79 

37. Copper plate from mound No. 0, White's group (N. M. 88336) 81 

38. Section of mouud No. 10, White's group 81 

39. Obsidi.iu implement from mouud No. 10, White's group 82 

40. Pot from mouu<l No. 11, White's group 83 

11. Effigy mouuds near Cassville, Grant county, Wisconsin 85 

42. Lines of works uear Cassville, Grant county, Wisconsin 86 

13. Mouud group near Wyalusing, Grant county, Wisconsin 89 

44. Elephant mouud, according to Middletou's survey in 1884 92 

45. Elephant mouud, after Warner's figure 93 

46. luclosure near .Sheboygan, Sheboygan county, Wisconsin 94 

47. Mound No. 1. Rico lake group 95 

48. Circular inclosure near New .Vlbiu, Allamakee county, Iowa 100 

49. luclosure ou Ilays's farm, near New Albiu, Allamakee county, Iowa.. . 105 

50. Walled mouud. Fish group, Allamakee county, Iowa 107 

51. Group uear Peru, Dubuque couut.v, Iowa 109 

52. Stoue gorget, Dubuque county, Iowa 110 

53. Diagram of Indian battle ground, Wapello cinuity, Iowa Ill 

54. Mound group, Dunleith, Illinois 114 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 11 

Page. 

Fig. 55. Vault in montKl No. 4, Dnnloith, Illinois 115 

56. Section of moiiiul No. 10, Dunli^ith, Illinois 116 

57. Vault in mound No. 16. Duuloith, Illinois 116 

58. Welch group, Browu couuty, Illinois 117 

59. Mound No. 1, sec. 34, T. 10, R. 2, Calhoun county, Illinois 122 

60. Mound No. 4, sec. 34, T. 10, R. 2, Calhoun county, Illinois 124 

61. Group of mounds on sec. 31, T. 10, R. 2 W., Calhoun couuty, lUiuois... 125 

62. Vertical section of mound No. 8, NE. see. 31, T. 10, R. 2 W., Illinois 127 

63. Vertical section of mound on SE. sec. 15, T. 10, R. 2 W., Illinois 127 

64. Vertical section of mound No. 1, NW. sec. 2, T. 9, R. 2 W., Illinois 128 

65. Vertical section of mound No. 1. NE. sec. 27, T. 10, R. 2 W., Illinois .... 130 

66. Wood river mounds, Madison county, Illinois 132 

67. Stone firaves on Mill Tract, Randolph county, Illinois 135 

68. The l)e Frenue stone graves, Randolph county, Illinois 137 

69. Stone graves on l)luff', Randolph county, Illinois .-... 139 

70. Hut rings near the bank of Hig Mary river, Illinois 140 

71. Pot from Jackson county, Illinois 142 

72. Vogel group, Jackson county, Illinois 144 

73. Spool-shajied ornament of copper 145 

74. Schlimpert mounds, Jackson couuty, Illinois 146 

75. Section of mounds on Schlimpert's place, Jackson couuty, Illinois 147 

76. Mounds on Hale's place, Jackson couuty, Illinois 148 

77. Skull from mound on Hale's place (side view) 151 

78. Skull from mound on Hale's place (front view) 152 

79. Bone plate from mound on Hale's place 153 

80. Catholic medal from mound on Hale's place 154 

81. Stone grave on Hale's place 154 

82. Plat of works ou Linu's pl.aee. Union county, Illinois 156 

83. Mound A, Linn group (vertical outline) 157 

84. Round Pond mounds. Union county, Illinois 160 

85. Copper plate bearing dducing figures, Union county, Illinois 161 

86. Mound group, Clarke county, Missouri 164 

87. The Ben Proifer mound. Cape Girardeau county, Missouri 168 

88. The Witting mounds, Cape Girardeau county, Missouri 169 

89. The Peter Bess settlement, Bollinger county, Missouri 171 

90. The Lakeville settlement, Stodilard county, Missouri 173 

91. Stone pipe, Lakeville settlement 174 

92. County line settlement, Stoddard county, Missouri 174 

93. The Rich woods mounds, .Stoddard county, Missouri 175 

94. Plan of mounds. No. 3 to No. 6, Rich woods mounds 177 

95. Section of mouud No. 3, and adjuncts. Rich woods mounds 178 

96. Pin Hook ridge mounds, Mississippi county, Missouri 184 

97. Baker's mound, Mississippi county, Missouri 185 

98. Beckwith's fort, Mississippi county, Missouri 185 

99. Image vessel from Beckwith's ranch 188 

100. Bowl from Beckwith's fort 188 

101. Water vessel from Beckwith's ranch, Mississippi county, Missouri . . . 189 

102. Water vessel from Beckwith's fort, Mississippi county, Missouri 189 

103. Gourd-shaped vessel from Beckwith's ranch, Mississippi county 190 

104. Owl image vessel from Beckwith's ranch 190 

105. Fish-shaped vessel from Beckwith's ranch 192 

106. Meyer's mound, Scott county, Missouri 193 

107. Mound group near Harviell, Butler county, Missouri 194 

108. Power's fort, Butler countv. Missouri 195 



12 ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Paga 

Fig. 109. Sectinu of mound in Power's fort, Butler county, Missouri 196 

110. Effect of earth(|uake of 1811 on mound. Green county, Arkansas 199 

111. Webb group, Craighead county, Arkansas 201 

112. Mounds at Tyronza station, Poinsett county, Arkansas 204 

113. Section of mound No. 8, Tyronza station, Poinsett county. Arkansas. . 205 

114. Section of mound No. 12, Tyronza station, Poinsett county, Arkansas. 205 

115. Section of mounds, Tyronza station 206 

116. Clay casts of ear of maize or Indian corn 207 

117. Clay floor of a three-room house 208 

118. Mode of lathing houses l)y Mound-builders 209 

119. The Miller mounds, Poinsett county, Arkansas 209 

120. Vertical section of mound No. 1, Miller group, Poinsett county 210 

121. Mound No. 9, Miller grouji, Poinsett county, Arkansas 210 

122. Plan of mound No. 11, Miller group 211 

123. Plan of mound No. 12, Miller group 212 

124. Plat of Thornton group, Poinsett county, Arkansas 213 

125. Plat of Taylor Shanty group, Poinsett county, Arkansas 214 

126. Mound No. 1, Taylor Shanty group 215 

127. Section of mound No. 2, Taylor .Shanty group 215 

128. Section of mound No. 4, Taylor Shanty group 217 

129. Plat of Pecan point ■works, Mississippi county, Arkansas 220 

130. Image vessel. Pecan point. Mississippi county, Arkansas 221 

131. Vessel from Jackson mound, Mi8sissii)pi county, Arkansas 223 

132. The Sherman mound, Mississippi county, Arkansas 223 

133. Engraved shell (Bust/con j)eii'(i«H»i) from mound, Independence 

county, Arkansas 224 

134. Stone spool from mound, Jackson county, Arkansas 225 

135. Bradley mounds, Crittenden county, Arkansas 226 

136. House site, St. Francis county, .Arkansas 229 

137. Plan of Menard mounds, Arkansas county, Arkansas 230 

138. Image pipe, Monroe county, Arkansas 233 

139. Image pipe, Monroe county, Arkansas 234 

140. Image pipe, Monroe county, Arkansas 285 

141. Image pipe, Monroe county, Arkansas 235 

142. Plan of Old Town works, Phillips county. Arkansas 236 

143. Pottery vessel from Olil Town works 237 

144. Mound No. 3, Old Town works 238 

145. Ground plan and elevation of the Barney mound, Phillips county, 

Arkansas 238 

146. Roger's mound, Phillips county. Arkansas 239 

147. Mound near Arkansas City, Desha county, Arkansas 240 

148. Old French fort, Desha county, Arkansas 241 

149. The Taylor mounds. Drew county, Arkansas 242 

150. Stone implement from Knapp group , 245 

151. The Hughes mound. Saline count}', Arkansas 246 

152. An ornamented water bottle, Clark county, Arkansas 248 

153. Flat-bottomed j ar, Clark county, Arkansas 248 

154. Mound group near Camden, Arkansas 249 

155. Plat of Troy ville mounds, Catahoula parish, Louisiana 251 

156. View of mound No. 6, Troy ville mounds, Catahoula parish 252 

157. Excavation No. 10, Carson group. Omitted. 

158. Clarksdale works, Coahoma county, Mississippi 256 

159. Section of mound No. 1, Clarksdale works 257 

160. Vessel in form of a shell. Sunflower county, Mississippi 259 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 13 

I'age. 

Fi(i. 161. Avoudale mounds, WasUiugtou conut.v, Mississippi 260 

162. Outline of mouud No. 1, Champliu group, Yazoo couuty, Mississippi- 261 

163. Vertical section of mound No. 1, Champliu group, Mississippi 262 

164. luiage vessel from Champliu mouud, Mississippi 263 

165. Mound group iu Tniou couuty, Mississijipi 268 

166. Plan of mouud No. 1, group iu Uuiou coiiuty, Mississipjii 269 

167. Sections along south trench, mouud No. 1, Union county, Missis- 

sippi 270 

168. Section along south trench, mouud No. 1, Union couuty, Missis- 

sippi 270 

169. Section along the northeast trench, mound No. 1, Union couuty 271 

170. Section along the northeast trench, mouud No. 1, Union county 272 

171. Section along the north trench, mouud No. 1, Union county 273 

172. Section along the north trench, mound No. 1, Union couuty 274 

173. Silver plate with Spanish coat of arms; mound. Union county 27."i 

174. Fireplace iu mouud, Lauderdale, Tennessee 278 

175. An image vessel from mouud, Oliion couuty, Tennessee 279 

176. 0'Byam"s fort, Hickman county, Kentucky - 280 

177. Mouud No. 1, O'Byam's fort 281 

178. Plat of Tally mounds, Jefferson couuty, Alaliama 291 

179. Mound No. 2, Tally group (plan and section) 291 

180. Plat of Etowah group, copy of Jones's plat. No. 1 294 

181. Plat of Etowah group, copy of Whittlesey's figure No. 1 296 

182. Plat of the Etowah group (original) 299 

183. Large mouud of the Etowah group 300 

184. Vertical section of mound c, Etowah group 302 

185. Plan of burials iu mouud c, Etowah group 303 

186. Figured copper jdate from mound c, Etowah group 304 

187. Copper liadgo from mound c, Etowah group .305 

188. Copper ornament or liadge from mound c, Etowah group 306 

189. Engr.aved shell, mounil c, Etowah group 306 

190. Engraved shell, mouud c, Etowah group 307 

191. Bust from Etowali mounds 308 

192. Copper plate witli bird ligure, mound near Peoria, Illinois 309 

193. Section of the Rembert group, Elbert couuty, Georgia 316 

194. Plau of mound No. 1, Rembert group 317 

195. Vertical section, mound No. 1, Rembert group 318 

196. Upper horizontal section of Hollywood monud, Georgia 320 

197. Fragment of European pottery, Hollywood mound, Georgia 321 

198. Lower horizontal section of Hollywood mound, Georgia 321 

199. Pot from Hollywood mound, Georgia (135197) 322 

200. A painted vessel from Hollywood nniund, Georgia 323 

201. Pot from Hidlywood mound, Georgia 324 

202. Shell beads from Hollywood mound, Georgia 324 

203. Copper article from Hollywood mound, Georgia 324 

204. Shell bea<ls from Hollywood mound, Georgia 325 

205. Pipe from Hollywood mound, Gecugia 325 

206. Fragment of porcelain from Hollywood mouud, Georgia 326 

207. T. F. Nelson mouud, Caldwell county. North Carolina 334 

208. T.F.Nelson Triangle, Caldwell county. North Carolina ,336 

209. Copper cylinder. Nelson Triangle 336 

210. Bracelet of shell and copper beads, Nelson Triangle 336 

211. Iron celt from Nelson Triangle 337 

212. Part of iron blade. Nelson Triangle 337 



14 ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Pag'. 

Fig. 213. Engraved slioll, Nelson TriaMj;le 338 

214. Engraved shell, Nelson Triangle 339 

21.J. Pipe, Caldwell county, N<irtU Carolina 33U 

216. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina 340 

217. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina 340 

218. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina 341 

219. Pipe, Caldwell county, Xorth Carolina 341 

220. Pipe, Caldwell county, North Carolina 341 

221. Plan of W. D. Jones mound, Caldwell county, North Carolina 342 

222. R. T. Lenoirhurial pit (plan), Caldwell county. North Carolina 343 

223. Ancient hurial gronu4l, Wilkes county, North Carolina 345 

224. Clay hearth (or fire-bed), Wilkes county, North Carolina 316 

225. Bogus article, Haywood county, North Carolina 347 

226. Bogus article, Haywood county. North Carolina 348 

227. Bogus articles, Haywood county. North Carolina 349 

228. Big mound, Haywood county, North Carolina 350 

229. Section of Couuor mound, Henderson county, North Carolina 350 

230. Plan of mounds on the Holstou river, Sullivan county, Tennessee . .. 351 

231. Copper spindle from mound, Sullivan county, Tennessee 352 

232. Plan of hurials in mound, Sullivan county, Tennessee 353 

233. Stone pipe from mound, Sullivan county, Tennessee 354 

234. Plat showing ancient graves near Kingsport, Tennessee 355 

235. Section of grave No. 1, near Kingsport, Tennessee 356 

236. Section of grave No. 3, near Kingsport, Tennessee 356 

237. Section of mound ou Fain's island, Jefferson county, Tennessee 358 

238. Plat of groups on Long island, Roane county, Tennessee 359 

239. Diagram of nu>uud No. 3, Long island, Roane county, Tennessee . . . 360 

240. Image from mound No. 3, Long Isl.and, Roane county, Tennessee 361 

241. Diagram of the Hagler motind, Roane county, Tennessee 364 

242. Diagram of the Hardin mound, Blount county, Tennessee 367 

243. Plat of the McMurray mounds, Blount county, Tennessee 368 

244. Diagram of McMurrtiy mound, No. 2 369 

245 Section of McMurray mound. No. 3 369 

246. Diagram of McMurray mound. No. 3 370 

247. Plat of Latimore and MoSpaddiu mounds (Cltico group), Monroe 

county, Tennessee 372 

248. Vertical section, mound No. 1 , Latimore group 372 

249. Vertical section of the Citico mound (ilcSpaddiu, No. 4) 374 

250. Plan of burials in the Citico mound (McSpaddin, No. 4) 375 

251. Moccasin-sh.aped pot, Citico mound 376 

252. Copper rattle or hawk's bell, Citico mound 376 

253. Bone needle, Citico mound 377 

254. Plat of the Bacon and McGee mounds, Blount and Monroe counties, 

Tennessee 377 

255. Plan of buri.als in SlcGee mound No. 2 378 

256. Plat of the Toco mounds, Monroe county, Tennessee 379 

257. Vertical section of the Big Toco mound, Monroe county, Tennessee. 380 

258. Plan of burials in the Big Toco mound, Monroe county, Tennessee.. 381 

259. Bone implement. Big Toco mound 382 

260. Bone implement. Big Toco mound 382 

261. Stone pipe, Big Toco mound 383 

262. Ornamented shell, Big Toco mouud 383 

263. Stone implement. Big Toco mound 383 

264. Pot, Big Toco mound 384 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 15 

Page. 

Fig. 265. Vertical section of Callaway raouud, Monroe county, Tennessee 385 

266. Diagram of Callaway mound, Monroe county, Tennessee 3S5 

267. Water vessel, Callaway mound 386 

268. Water vessel, Callaway mound 387 

269. Plat of the Niles ferry mounds, Monroe county, Tennessee 388 

270. Group two miles below Niles ferry 3^9 

271. Plat of mounds on the Click farm, Monroe county, Tennessee 390 

272. Horizontal section, Bat creek niouud No. 3, Loudon county, Tennes- 

see 393 

273. Kngraved stone from Bat creek mound No. 3, Loudon county, Ten- 

nessee 394 

274. Mounds on John Jackson's farm, Loudon county, Tennessee 395 

275. Mounds (Ui John Jackson's farm, Loudon county, Tennessee 396 

276. The Lenoir mounds, Loudon county, Tennessee 397 

277. Plan of burials in mound No. 1, Lenoir grou]) 39,s 

278. Diagram of mound No. 2, Lenoir group 399 

279. Plan of burials in mound No. 2, Lenoir group 400 

280. Vertical section of mound No. 2, Lenoir group 400 

281. Horizontal plan of moundNo. 2, Leuoir group 401 

282. Ornamental pot, moundNo. 2, Lenoir group 401 

283. Shell oruament, mound No. 2, Lenoir group 402 

284. Shell ornament, moundNo. 2, Lenoir group 402 

285. Pipe, mound No. 2, Leuoir group 403 

286. Plan of burials in moundNo. 1, Frazicr group, Rhea county, Tennes- 

see 406 

287. Huddlesou's Circle, Fayette county. West Virginia 407 

288. Singul ar stone heaps, Fayette county, AVest Virginia 408 

289. Stone heap with two cavities, Fayette county, West Virginia 409 

290. Section of stone heap with triangular cavity, Fayette county, West 

Virginia , 409 

291. Enlarged plan of mound No. 1, and inclosure a, Kanawha county, 

West Virginia 415 

292. Section of mound No. 1, Kanawha county. West Virginia 416 

293. Spring Hill inclosureon enlarged scale, Kanawha county, West A'ir- 

ginia 419 

294. Inclosure O, Kanawha county. West Virginia 421 

295. Inclosure I, Kanawha county, West Virginia 422 

296. Inclosure L, Kanawha county, West Virginia 423 

297. Inclosure K, Kanawha county, West Virginia 424 

298. A section of mound No. 21, Kanawha county. West Virginia 425 

299. Copper bracelet from mound No. 21, Kanawha county, West Virginia 426 

300. Copper gorget, mound No. 21, Kana-wha county, West Virginia 426 

301. Steatite pijie from Kanawha couuty. West Virginia 427 

302. Section of mound No. 31, Kanawha county, West Virginia 432 

303. Mound group, 1 mile west of Barboursville, West Virginia 438 

304. Section of the Hawu mound, Knox county, Ohio 441 

305. Plat and sectiou of the area about the Staats mound, Knox county, 

Ohio 442 

306. Plan of Cemetery mouud, Mt. Vernon. Knox county, Ohio 444 

307. Section of the Cemetery mound, Mt. Vernon, Knox county, Ohio .. . 445 

308. Works on the Davis place, Hocking county, Ohio 447 

309. Plan of the large work, Davis place, Hocking county, Ohio 448 

310. Ancient works near Dublin, Franklin county, Ohio 450 

311. Group of mounds. Brown county, Ohio 4,53 



16 ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page. 

Fio. 312. Stone grave, Bro wu county, Ohio 455 

313. Section of a stone grave. Brown county, Ohio 456 

314. Mounds near Brownsville, Licking county, Ohio 458 

315. Small iuclosure, Newark group. Licking county, Ohio 460 

316. Levels along jiaiallels at Newark, Ohio 467 

317. Ancient inclosnre, Licking county, Ohio 468 

318. Stone fort on Flint ridge, Licking county, Ohio 469 

319. Stone fort near Glenford, Perry county, Ohio 470 

320. Section of the Cryder mound, near .\dcli)hi, Ross county, Ohio 471 

321. Small circle, Liberty Township works, Koss county, Ohio 480 

322. Pyramidal mound, Baum works, Hoss county, Ohio 485 

323. Bone implement point, pyramidal mound, Baum works, Ross county, 

Ohio 487 

324. Circle A, Seal township works, Pike county, Ohio 490 

325. Copy of Moorehead's station 241, PI. VI 492 

326. The Serpent mound, Adams county, Ohio 493 

327. Mound and graves near Monongahela City , Pa 496 

328. Section of Irvineton mound, Warren county. Pa 500 

320. Pieces of silver from Irvineton mound, AVarren county. Pa 501 

330. Inclosure near PittsHeld, Warren county. Pa .'502 

331. Ancient fort on Atwell farm, Madison county, N. Y 504 

332. Seat of ancient Onondaga town, Madison county, N. V 505 

333. Old fort near Ellington, Chautau<iua county, N. Y 507 

334. Inclosnre near Ellington, Chautaui|ua county, N. Y 509 

335. Inclosure on Dunn farm, Wyoming county, N. Y 514 

336. Rifle river fort No. 2, Ogemaw county, Michigan 517 

337. Map of the Huron-Iroquois district 541 

.338. Elevation of the large mound, "Angel'' group 557 

339. Plat of the large mound, "Angel " group 558 

340. The village of Secotau 621 

341. Interior of house of Virginia Indians 623 

342. Section of mound 11, Cook farm group, Davenport, Iowa 636 

343. Village of Pomeiock 669 

344. Pijie from Virginia 706 



OUTLINE OF THIS PAPER. 



For the bcuetit of" those who clesire to learn the more iui]iortaut eonclusious reached 
in this treatise, without the necessity of a thorough examination of the entire re- 
port, an outline of them is here presented : 

(1) That the mouml-builders of the area designated consisted of a number of tribes 
or peoples bearing about the same relations to one another and occupying about the 
same culture-status as did the Indian tribes inhabiting this country when first visited 
by Europeans. 

(2) That the archeological districts as determiiied by the investigations of the 
mounds and other ancient remains conform, in a general way, to the areas occupied 
by the different Indian tribes or groups of cognate tribes. 

(3) That each tribe adopted several different methods of burial, these differences 
depending to some extent upon the relative position, soci.al standing, and occupation 
of the individuals. 

(4) The custom of removing the flesh before final burial prevailed very extensively 
among the mound-builders of the northern districts, and was not uncommon among 
those of the southern districts. 

(5) Very often some kind of religious ceremony was performed at the burial in 
which tire [ilayed a conspicuous part. Notwithstanding the common belief to the 
contrary, there is no evidence -whatever that human sacrifice in the true sense was 
practiced. It is possible that cremation may have been practiced to a limited 
extent. 

(6) In some of the southern districts, especially those of the valley of the lower 
Mississippi, where the bottoms are much depressed, it was the custom to erect dwell- 
ings on low mounds apparently constructed for this jjurpose, and, when deaths oc- 
curred, to bury the remains in the floor of these dwellings, burn the houses, and heap 
mounds over them before they were entirely consumed, or while the embers were yet 
smoldering. The houses in these districts ajjpear to have been constructed of up- 
right posts set in the ground, lathed with cane or twigs, aud plastered with clay, 
having the roofs thatched precisely as described by the early French explorers. 

(7) The links directly connecting the Indians aud mound-builders are so numerous 
aud well established that areheologists .are justified in accepting the theory that 
they are ime aud the s.ame people. 

(8) The statements of the early navigators aud explorers as to the habits, customs, 
social condition and art, of the Indians when first visited by Europeans are largely 
confirmed by discoveries in the mounds and other ancient works of our country. 
This is especially true as regards the discoveries made by this bureau in Arkansas, 
Georgia, and other southern states. They bear out, even to details, the statements 
of the chroniclers of Ue Soto's expedition and of the early French explorers of the 
valley of the lower Mississippi. 

(9) The evidence obtained appears to be sulficient to justify the con<lusion that 
particular works, and the works of certain localities, are attributable to jiarticnlar 
tribes known to history; thereby enabling the archeologist to determine in some 
cases, to a limited extent, the lines of migration. For example, the proof is appar- 
ently conclusive that the Cherokees were nionnd-builders and that to them are to be 

IL' ETII .; 17 



18 OUTLINE OF THIS PAPER. 

iittiibntodmost of tlie inouuds of eastern Tenuessee anil western Xortli Carolina; it 
also renders it probable that they were the authors of most of the ancient works of 
the Kanawha valley iu West Virginia. There are also strong indications that the 
Tallegwi of tradition were CheroUeesand the authors of some of the ])riucij)al works 
of Ohio. The proof is equally conclusive that to the Shawuees are to he attributed 
the box-shaped stoue graves, and the mounds and other works directly connected with 
them, iu the region south of the Ohio, especially those works of Keutucky, Tennessee, 
and uiirthern Georgia, and possibly also some of the mounds and stone graves iu the 
vicinity of Cincinnati. The stone graves in the valley of the Delaware and most of 
those in Ohio are attributable to theDeIawar(!s. There are sufficient reasons for be- 
lieving that the ancient works iu northern Mississippi were built chiefly by the 
Chickasaws, and those iu the region of Flint River, southern Georgia, by the Uchees, 
and that a large i)ortion of those of the Gulf states were built by the Muskokee 
tribes. 

(10) Tlie testimony of the mounds is very decidedly against the theory that the 
mound-builders were Mayas or Mexicans who Avere driven out of this region by the 
jtressure of Indian hordes and migrated to the valley of Auahuac or plains of Yuca- 
tan. It is also as decidedly against Morgan's theory that they were related to the 
Pueblo tri bes of New Mexico. It likewise gives a decided negiltive to the suggestion 
that the builders of the Ohio works were pushed south into the Gulf states and incor- 
porated into the Muskokee group. 

(11) Although much the larger portion of the ancient monuments of our country 
belong to prehistoric times, and some of them, possibly, to the distant past, yet the 
evidence of contact with European civilizatiou is found in so many mounds where it 
can not be attributed to intrusive buri.il and in such widely separated localities, 
tliat it must be conceded that many of them were built subsequent to the discovery 
of the continent by Europeans. 



PREFACE, 



As the following report is based almost exclusively upou the results 
of explorations carried on by the Bureau of Ethnology since 1881, it 
seems desirable to set forth briefly the plan adopted and the methods 
pursued. 

During the first season the archeological work of the Bureau was as- 
signed to Dr. Willis De Haas, but no definite and comprehensive plan 
of operations was adopted. In 18815 the Director organized a small divi- 
sion in the Bureau to which he assigned the work of investigating the 
mounds and other ancient monuments in the United States east of the 
Eocky mountains. This division was ijlaced under my charge with 
Dr. Edward Palmer, of Washington city; Col. P. W. Norris, of Norris, 
Michigan, and Mr. James D. Middleton, of Carbondale, Illinois, as regu- 
lar field assistants. Subsequently Dr. Palmer left the division, and 
Mr. John P. Eogau, of Bristol, Tennessee, was engaged in his place. 
The division suffered the misfortune of being deprived of the valuable 
services of Col. ISTorris by death, in January, 1885, while he was en- 
gaged in exploration. His enthusiasm for the work kept him in the 
field, although he was suffering from the disease which finally proved 
fatal. Mr. J. W. Emmert, who had been temporarily employed, was 
then engaged as a regular assistant. 

The following-named gentlemen have also been engaged for short 
periods in special fields: Mr. F. S. Earle and Mr. L. H. Thing, of Cob- 
den, Illinois; Mr. William McAdams, of Otterville, Illinois; Eev. J. P. 
McLean, of Hamilton, Ohio; Mr. Gerard Fowke, of New Madison, Ohio; 
Rev. Stephen D. Peet, of Clinton, Wisconsin ; Mr. Henry L. Reynolds, 
of "Washington City, and Rev. W. M. Beauchamp, of Baldwinsville, 
New Yoi'k. Mr. Rogan and Mr. Emmert having retired from the work, 
Mr. Fowke and Mr. Reynolds were appointed legular assistants. 

The results of the explorations and field work of the division and a 
discussion of results with special reference to the authors of the ancient 
monuments of the area exphn-ed are given in the present volume. 
Special papers relating to the collections made will be presented in 
future reports or bulletins. 

In attempting to formulate a systematic plan for a work of such 
magnitude as the exploration of the mounds, great difficulties were 

19 



20 PREB^ACE. 

eucouutered. The region occupied is vast, and the works are scat- 
tered over it in great numbers, not by hundreds only, but by thou- 
sands. It was at once perceived that to attempt a systematic and 
thorougli examination of them all, or even of a large number of theui, 
including surveys and mapping, would involve many years of labor and 
.the expenditure of a very large amount of money. Neither the force 
nor the money necessary for a work of such vast magnitude was avail- 
able, for the lines of research undertaken by the Bureau of Ethnology 
are necessarily many, and none may be unduly pushed at the expense 
of the others. On the other hand, to attempt the thorough investiga- 
tion of the mounds of any single distiict to the neglect of the area as 
a whole, could result only in a failure to comprehend the more impor 
tant problems connected with the mounds and their builders. More- 
over, it should not for a moment be forgotten that the mounds are fast 
being leveled by the encroachments of agriculture and under the stim- 
ulus of commercial enterprise. Archeologic relics of all kinds have 
attained a new value in recent >ears because of the great increase in 
the number of private collectors. Those who gather specimens merely 
for sale rarely preserve any data in connection with them, and, although 
i-elics gathered in this haphazard manner have a certain value as 
examples of aboriginal art or as mere curiosities, their scientittc value 
is comparatively small. As a consequence of the leveling of the 
mounds by the jdow and their despoiling by the relic hunter, oppor- 
tunities for acquiring a clear insight into the character and methods of 
mound-building and into the purpose of their builders, are rapidly 
diminishing. 

Chiefly for the above reasons a i)lan was adopted which comprises 
the advantage of thoroughness in the case of single mounds and single 
groups, and yet permits the work to be carried over a large area. No 
attempt has been made to exhaust the local problems of mound-build- 
ing by a complete examination of the works of any given section. 
Nevertheless, such mounds and grcjups as are believed to be typical of 
their class have been examined with care and thoroughness. By the 
method of a careful examination of typical structures in the various 
districts it is thought that the end aimed at has been secured — that is, 
the collection of data necessary to au understanding of the more gen- 
eral and important problems relating to the mounds and the mound 
builders. The exhaustive examination of many single groups and the 
study of local problems is left to the future. It is hoped that this 
important work may be undertaken largely by local societies whose 
resources, when inadequate, may be supplemented by state aid. 

The questions relating to prehistoric America are not to be answered 
by the study of its ancient monuments alone, but also by the study of 
the languages, customs, arts, beliefs, traditions, and folklore of the 
aborigines. If anj' of these monuments are the work of an extinct 



PREFACE. 21 

people, this tact can be satisfactorily determined only by a eompreben- 
sive study of the subject; if all are attributable to the races found 
occupying' the continent at the time of its discovery, the necessity for a 
broad scientific method is equally apparent. 

The most important question to be settled is, " Were the mounds 
built by the Indians?" If a careful examination and study of the 
antiquities should result in deciding it satisfactorily in the afflrmative, 
then the questions relating to the objects and uses of these ancient 
works would be merged into the stu^y of the customs and arts of the 
Indians. There would tlicn be no more blind groping by archcologists 
for the thread to lead them out of the mysterious labyrinth. The chain 
which links together the historic and prehistoric ages of our continent 
would be complete; the thousand and one wild theories and romances 
would be permanentlj' disposed of; and the I'clations of all the lines of 
investigation to one another being known, they would aid in the solu- 
tion of many of the problems which hitherto have seemed involved in 
complete obscurity. Should the result of the examination give a decided 
negative answer to the question, one broad field would be closed 
and investigation limited in the futme to other lines. In either case a 
gTeat step toward the ultimate solution of tlie problem would be taken 
and the investigations restricted within comparatively luirrow limits. 

The director of the Bureau of Ethnology was desu'ous, therefore, that 
this important question, the origin of the mounds, should if possil)le be 
detiuitely settled, as it is the pivot on which all the other problems . 
must turn. By following the plan adopted and using proper care to 
note the facts ascertained, without bias, not only would the facts bear- 
ing on this important question be ascertained, but the data would be 
preserved for the use of archeological students without prejudice to 
any thet)ry. 

Premising that accuracy as to details and statements, without regard 
to their bearing on any special theory, has been considered the chief 
and all-important point to be kept constantly in view in all the opera- 
tions of the division, the methods of work pursued (excei)t during the 
first year, when want of experience caused some of the details of accu- 
rate work to be omitted), have been substantially as follows: 

First, a full and correct descrii^tion of the groups examined, giving 
the topography of the immediate locality, the form, characters, and 
dimensions of the works and their relations to one another was written 
out, accompanied by diagrams and figures illustrating these descrip- 
tions. 

As a rule each mound explored ^\ as measured before being excavated, 
and, if it varied from the ordinary conical type, a figure of it was made. 
As the exploration proceeded the character and thickness of the strata 
and the exact positions of the skeletons and relics found in them were 
noted in a memorandum book. In many cases where there was prom- 



22 



PREFACE. 



ise of important tiud.s, outline flyiircis, both of the horizontal and verti- 
cal sections, were drawn on wliich the ))Osition.s of the skeletons and 
relics were marked as found. 

Every effort possible was made at the time oi collection to obtain all 
the facts in reference to each specimen. The assistants made full 
notes in the field and attached a number to eacli specimen before pack- 
inji; and shipping. Descriptive lists, with corresponding numbers, were 
forwarded with each shipment. All collections thus made were sent 
direct to the Bureauof Kthnology, ami there, after 1)eiugoi)ene<l, exam- 
ined and compared with the field catalogue, the numbers of the Bureau 
series were attached, and the collections forwarded to the National 
Museum, where the Museum mrmbers were placed ui)on them. After 
this a comparison was made, in most cases by the collectors themselves, 
to see that the memoranda, numbers, and articles agreed and were 
given correctly. The final catalogues contain not only the collector's. 
Bureau, and Museum numbers, wliich form checks ujion one another, 
but also the name of the article, the locality, the collector's name, and 
remarks indicating the conditions under which each was found. These 
particulars are, of course, incomplete for specimens i)urchased and 
donated. 

As an illustration, the headiiig of the columns and one line fi'om 
the general catalogue are given here: 



Col- , 

lee- [Bureau; Smitbso- 
tor'a I num- ' uian 
num- ' ber. | number, 
ber. 




Name of 
article. 



Locality. 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



Boat-sbaped 
pot. 



Lenoir group, Lou- 
tl o u county, 
Tennessee. 



.John W. Emmert. 



From mound Xo. 2. 
by skeleton Xo. 49. 



Two copies of this catalogue were made, one to be retained by the 
Bureau, the other to be transmitted with the specimens to the Secre- 
tary of the Smithsonian Institution, for use in the National Museum. 

Although the specimens are included in the general collection of the 
National Museum, they are so carefully marked and numbered that by 
reference to the catalogue any article can easily be found and the pre- 
cise locality ascertained from which it was obtained, with the attend- 
ant circumstances. In order to accomplish this, the collections made 
by the Bureau were retained until this accuracy was assured and the 
duplicate catalogues made out and compared. By reference to the fol- 
lowing report all the particulars known regarding them may be learned, 
also all the facts in reference to the works from which they were 
obtained. 

The number of specimens collected by the division since its organiza- 
tion is not less than 40,000. Among those procured by the field assist- 
ants, which constitute by far the most valuable portion, will be found 



PREFACE. 23 

not only almost every variety of material, form, and ornamentation 
hitherto obtained in the United States east of the Kooky Monntaiiis, 
bnt also many new and interesting kinds. 

The chief value of the work to archeologists, however, it is believed 
will be found in the descriptions of the mounds explored and groups 
examined and surveyed. In order that students of American archeol- 
ogy may have as complete illustrations as possible of groups and forms, 
not only are figures given but in numerous instances the complete field 
notes of surveys and measurements are added. 

The sections in which operations have chiefly been carried on are as 
follows: Southwestern Wisconsin and the adjoining sections of Minne- 
sota, Iowa, and Illinois; the northeastern and southeastern parts of 
Missouri; the western part of southern Illinois; the eastern part of 
Arkansas; certain points in northern and western Mississippi; the 
Kanawha Valley of West Virginia; eastern Tennessee, western North 
Carolina, and northern Georgia. Some work has also been done in 
northern Florida, New York, Ohio, the Wabash valley, Kentucky, 
western Tennessee, Alabama, southwestern Georgia, and the Dakotas. 
Hundreds of groups have been examined and in most cases surveyed, 
platted, and described. Over 2,000 mounds have been explored, includ- 
ing almost every known tyi)e of form, from the low, diminutive, circular 
burial tumulus of the north to the huge truncated earthen pyramid of 
the south, the embankment, the stone cairn, the house site, etc. Every 
variety of construction hitherto known, as well as a number decidedly 
ditierent in detail, have been examined. Some of the latter are very 
interesting and furnish important data. Particular attention has been 
paid to the mode of construction and methods of burial in the ordinary 
conical tumuli, because these furnish valuable evidence in regard to the 
customs of the builders and aid in determining the diflerent archeolog- 
ical districts. Many ancient graves and cemeteries and also several 
caches and cave deposits have been explored. 

Perhaps the most important portion of the collection from an archeo 
logical view is the pottery, of which some 1,500 specimens have been 
obtained, including most of the known varieties and several that are 
new in form and ornamentation. It is believed that this collection will 
be found to contain most, if not all, of the hitherto known types of tex- 
tile impressions and some that are unusual. As the history of each 
specimen is known and its genuineness unquestioned, the collection 
will be of great value to anti(iuarians. 

An unusually large number of polished and pecked celts has been 
secured, including every known pattern and variety yet found in the 
area investigated. Special value attaches to this collection of celts 
from the fact that it has been obtained mostly from mounds and hence 
affords a means of comparing true mound specimens with surface finds. 

The number of stone pipes obtained is proportionally great, inehid- 
ing a large percentage of the usual forms and some new ones. But the 



24 PKEI'^ACE. 

most important fact in relation to this part of the collection is, tliat it 
so supplements other collections that the archeologist is enabled to 
trace the evolution of the comparatively modern and historic form from 
the "Monitor," or supposed earliest mound pipe. Moreover the record 
(jf localities whence the pipes have been taken may indicate the geo- 
ffraphical line of this evolution. 

A number of copper articles, including nearly all the types hitherto 
known, are in the collection. In addition to these, among the new 
forms are specimens of two new types decidedly the uKjst important 
yet discovered. These were obtained from both mounds and stone 
graves. 

The collection of engraved shells obtained fi'om mounds probably 
exceeds any other in the country in number, variety, and impcn'tance. 

The specimens of textile fabrics and remnants of matting, though 
not numerovxs, are important and valuable. Among these is a large 
and wellpi'eserved specimen of each class found in a cave deposit 
where the burial could not have taken place more than a hundred 
years ago; yet they are of precisely the pattern and stitch found in the 
mounds and impressed on typical mound pottery. With the cloth and 
matting were also the bone implements used in weaving the former. 

The collection of chi^jped flint implements, stone axes, discoidal 
stones, gorgets, etc., is large. Among the stone articles are parts of 
three well-made stone images which must liave been nearly one-half 
life size. Bone implements, shell, etc., are in fair proportion. 

As it was important that the explorations should be carried on dur- 
ing the winter as well as the summer, it was found advantageous to 
work in the northern sections in the summer and move southward as 
the cold advanced. Each assistant at the close of the working year 
made a report of his operations during that time. These reports would 
have been incorporated as furnished, but, as in most cases they related 
to diflerent sections investigated during the same year, this would 
have prevented a systematic presentation of results, and hence the idea 
was abandoned, and the data obtained have been arranged geograph- 
ically by states and counties. This method, however, is subject to the 
objection that county lines are liable to frequent changes and seldom 
correspond with the natural lines which influenced primitive settle- 
ment. Notwithstanding this objection, the fact that these political 
divisions afford the only means of defining localities on the maps of the 
present day has governed in selecting the niethod for this report. 

Mounds are frequently described and illustrations introduced which 
are seemingly unimportant. The object of this will be apparent to every 
archeologist, for seemingly unimportant works att'ord tlie student a 
means of comparison and furnish him with valuable negative evidence 
which otherwise would not be available. Moreover, in the prei)aration 
of the report, I have proceeded upon the theory that no fact should be 



PREFACE. 25 

omitted, however trivial it may now appear, as a time may come wlieu 
it will supply needed evidence in arclieological investigations. 

The geographical order in which the report is arranged is as follows: 
First, the Mississippi valley proper, commencing with Minnesota and 
Wisconsin and proceeding southward; next, the Gulf States from Mis- 
sissippi eastward, after which follows the Appalachian district, includ 
ing North Cai'olina, eastern Tennessee, and West Yirgiuia, then Ohio, 
Pennsylvania, New York, and Michigan. 

The territory over which the explorations have been carried is large, 
and, fiom necessity, no one section has been exhaustively examined for 
reasons given above. Suffice it to say tliat the chief object kept con- 
stantly in view was the search for types. But this included types of 
form, of modes of construction and internal arrangement, of methods of 
burial, of contents, and of indications of uses, etc. 

The illustrations are original with a few exceptions. Those which 
are copied are chietiy from previous publications of this Bureau. A 
few, however, are fi"om the annual reports of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, the electrotypes being kindly loaned for this purpose. 

Before concluding this preface I wish to acknowledge the many favors 
the division has received both in prosecuting the field work and in pre- 
paring the report. We have been kindly received in all portions of the 
country to which our operations have extended, the citizens always 
showing a commendable desire to encourage our work and to give us 
all the information possible. Here and there permission to explore 
mounds has been refused, but such refusal has generally been based on 
valid reasons. 

To the assistants who have carried on operations in the field I extend 
thanks for the zeal and faithfulness with which their work was per- 
formed. I am also indebted to Mr. W. H. Holmes, Rev. W. M. Beau- 
champ, and Mr. Gerard Fowke; and also to Mr. Eeynolds for val- 
uable papers, and to Mr. James D. Middletou for the plats and results 
of the surveys made by him of works in Ohio and elsewhere. 

It is proper to state here that only a partial study of the articles col- 
lected has as yet been made. Papers by specialists, describing and 
discussing them, are being prepared and will appear hereafter, 

0. T. 



REPORT ON THE MOUND EXPLORATIONS OF THE 
BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



By Cyrus Thomas. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Before introducing the report of field work it will not be amiss to call 
attention to the various kinds of ancient monuments found in the area 
over which the explorations extended. 

It is somewhat strange that, notwithstanding the large number of 
works devoted wholly or partly to the antiquities of our country, which 
have appeared since the publication of the " Ancient Monuments," by 
Messrs. Squier and Davis, no attempt has been made to rectify their 
imperfect and faulty classification. Their division of these antiquities 
into " Constructions of Earth," " Constructions of Stone," and " Minor 
Vestiges of Art," is sufficient for practical purposes so far as it goes, 
and the same may be said of the division of the first class into " En- 
closures" and "Mounds." But their further classification into "En- 
closures for Defense," " Sacred and Jliscellaneous Enclosures," " Mounds 
of Sacrifice," "Temple Mounds," etc., is unfortunate, as it is based 
on su])posed uses instead of real character, and has served to graft 
into our archeological literature certain conclusions in regard to the 
uses and purposes of these various works that, in some cases at least, 
are not justified by the evidence. For example, there is not a particle of 
evidence that any inclosure was formed for religious or "sacred" uses, 
or that any mound was built for " sacrificial" purposes in any true or 
legitimate sense of the term. Yet author after author, down to the 
present time, has adopted this classification without jjrotest. It is only 
in some very recent works that objections to it begin to appear. 

Failure to correct this faulty classification is doubtless due to the dif- 
ficulties which lie in the way of satisfactorily grouping the variety of 
forms presented and to our imperfect knowledge of the uses and 
objects of these works. Xadaillac, after alluding to the various forms, 
remarks that " these facts will show how very difiicult, not to say im- 
possible, is any classification,"' a statement which anyone who 

iPreli. AmiT. Fn-nrli KiId. p. <)0-Eiik1- Eiln. p. 87. 

27 



28 MOUXIJ EX1'I.(M{ATI0.\.S. 

attempts a systematic ariaugemeiit will be disposed to accept as true. 
Any attempt in this direction ninst be, to a laiffe extent, arbitrary and 
a tentntivc arranffcmcnt. Notliinji' more than this is claimed for the 
classilication here presented, which is limited to the works of the area 
now under consideration. Were it not for the absolute necessity of 
gronjiinji' under designated heads in order to simplify tiie work, no 
attempt in this direction would be made at this time. 

It is undoubtedly desirable to adopt some arrangement agreeing 
with the European classification if this be possible, but a comparison of 
European anticiuities with those of North America will soon satisfy 
any one of its impracticability. The chronological arrangement into 
four classes, to wit. Paleolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron, is con- 
ceded to be ina|)plicable to America. Evidences of the two stone at;es 
may possibly yet be found, and a I'Opper age be substituted for the 
bronze, but the likeness will extend no farther. I may add tliat. per- 
sonally, I doubt very much if this classification into ages has been of 
any advantage to archeology. 

As the first step, all antifpiities of this region are considered as be- 
longing to three general divisions: 

(1) MonnmcntH, or local aiitiijnitics. — Those antiquities that are fixed 
or stationary, which necessarily i)ertain to a given locality or i)lace, as 
earthworks, stoneworks, cave dwellings, mines, quarries, etc. 

(2) Movable ant iqii it iex, or relics and remains. — Those which have no 
necessaiy connection with a given place or locality, such as imi)lements, 
ornaments, and other minor vestiges of art; also human and animal 
remains, etc. 

(3) Paleographic objects. — Inscriptions, picture writings, .symbols, etc., 
whether on fixed stones or transportable articles. 

Although this arrangement is confessedly an arbitrary one, it is 
adopted because it appears to be a practical working system by 
which the lines of distinction are somewhat rigidly drawn. Moreover, 
it is adapted to the two methods of investigation and study, viz, in the 
field and in the museum. 

THE FIXED OR LOCAL ANTIQUITIES. 

The fixed or local antiquities of the section under consideration con- 
sist chiefly of earthworks, stoneworks, cave deposits, mines and quar- 
ries, and might be classed under these heads but for the fact that some 
belong partly to one class and partly to another; for example, while 
most mounds are built entirely of earth, some consist wholly of stone 
and others are partly stone and partly earth; then there are other 
local antiquities which can not be properly classed under either of these 
headings. The nearest approach, therefore, which can be nuide to a 
satisfactory classification is to gronj) the individual monuments accord- 
ing to tyi)es of form and external cliaracters, reference being made to 
uses only where these are obvious. 



iiioMAs.i MOUNDS DEFINED. 29 

The variety of aucient works so far as form ;iii(l modes of I'oustruction 
are coueerned, is almost endless, but all may be iuehided, in a general 
way, under the following- primary headings, viz, Mounds, Refuse Heaps, 
Mural Works (such as inclosiu'es, embankments, etc.), Excavations, 
Graves and Cemeteries, Garden Beds, Surface Figures, Hearths or 
Camp Sites, Hut Kings or House Sites, and Ancient Trails. Besides 
these as belonging to sei)arate heads are Mines and Quarries, Cave 
Deposits, and Petroglyphs. 

MOUNDS. 

The term ''mound," as u.sed throughout this report, is limited to the 
artificial tumulus and is not intended to include walls, embaykmeuts, 
refuse heaps, or other works not usually classed as "mounds" in this 
country, though the lines of distinction between the examples which 
approximate each other in form are apparently arbitrary. 

The tumuli or mounds are the most common and most numerous of 
the fixed works, being found throughout the region under consideration, 
and, in fact, constituting the larger portion of most of the groups. 
The forms are so varied that it would tax the imagination to devise one 
that is not represented. There is probably one exception and a some- 
what remarkable one, as it is that wliich enters into the idea of a true 
pyramid. The form alluded to is the pyiauiid with true successive 
stages. There has been, it is believed, no mound found in the United 
States east of the Rocky Mountains, with successive stages running 
entirely around the structure. In other words, the form figured by 
Pidgeon in the frontispiece to his "Decoodah" as the type of the 
"ancient American battle mound," is without a representative in the 
United States. 

Although so varied, they may for convenience be arranged in four 
classes, as follows : Conical tumuli, elongate mounds, pyramidal mounds, 
and efdgy mounds. 

COXICAL TUMin.I. 

Under this head are placed all those rounded, artificial heaps or hil- 
locks which seem to have been cast up with so:uc special object in view — 
that is to say, are not such mere accunuilations of rubbish as the refuse 
heaps. The form is usually that of a low, broad, round-topped cone, 
but as at present found, is, in consequence of wear by tlie plow and 
the elements, often that of an irregular heap distinguished from the 
refuse heap only by internal evidences. 

Mounds of this type are the most common of our ancient monuments, 
being found throughout the region under consideration, sometimes iso- 
lated, but more usually in association with other works. There are, in 
fact, few groups of ancient works to be found where moun<ls of this 
kind are entirely wanting. 

They vary in size from a slight, scarcely perceptible swell in tlie sur- 
face of the ground to elevations SO or 90 feet high, and iiomOor 8 feet 



30 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

to 300 feet in diameter at the base. As a general rule the burial mounds 
are of this form. 

The term " conical," although used in its widest and most general 
sense, is scarcely broad enough to include all tumuli that are referred 
to this class. The circular or nearly circular base is the usual form, 
but oval and pear-shaped mounds, especially the former, are not rare. 
Some two or three of a crescent shape have lieen observed, but these 
are exceptional cases. There are also some irregular forms which must 
be placed in this class if we would avoid multiplying divisions in our 
classification to an unwarranted extent. These are mostly irregular 
heaps, similar to " refuse heaps," but which, as internal evidence shows, 
can not be properly placed in the latter category. 

As the further subdivision of the class must be determined chietly, 
if not wholly, by what the interior of the works presents, this part of 
the subject will be left for a subsequent chapter. However, it may be 
stated here that no attempt has been made to divide the conical tumuli 
into any fui'ther subclasses than burial mounds, and those not designed 
for burial puri^oses. 

ELONGATE OK WALL MOUNDS. 

This division is intended to include those singular elongate works 
which seem to be confined strictly to the effigy-mound district. The 
only characteristic which distinguishes them Irom the conical tj^ie is 
their walllike form; in fact many of them, as maybe seen by referring 
to Dr. Lapham's "Antiquities of Wisconsin," might very properly be 
called walls. This wall-like form is apparent even where the length 
is not great compared with the width; in other words, they seldom 
assume the oval shape. The width varies fi'om 20 to 40 feet; the le:igth- 
from .50 to 900 feet, though the height seldom, if ever, exceeds 4 feet. 
They appear to be simple lines of earth cast up from the adjoining 
surface, and are seldom used tor burial purposes, and even in these few 
cases it is evident the burial in them was a subsequent thought, their 
construction having no reference to this use. The object in buildiug 
them is yet an unsolved riddle. 

PYRAMIDAL MOUXDS. 

The typical form of this class is the truncated, quadrangular pyra- 
mid. In some examples these are so reduced in heiglit, compared with 
extent, as to assume the appearance of mere earthen platforms; others 
have a terrace extending outward from one or two sides. Although 
the mounds of this class are usually four-sided, some are circular or 
rounded, and a few pentagonal, but all are flat on top. The wearing 
by the plow and the elements has in most cases destroyed the sharp 
outlines of the original form, so that it is difficult, sometimes, to deter- 
mine this satisfactorily. In such cases the statements of the early 
observers become important. But few works of this class are found 
in the northern districts. 



THOMAS.] INCLOSURES AND WALLS. 31 

EIFIGY MOUNDS. 

These are the singular earthen structures designed to represent ani- 
mal figures, the human form, or some inanimate object. They are lim- 
ited almost exclusively to the Wisconsin district, the only known excep- 
tions being two or three in Ohio and two in Georgia. It is more than 
probable that most of those to which the name "Manmonnd" has been 
applied are really bird eftigies. 

Although not belonging strictly to the mound class in the restricted 
sense, yet, as being nearest allied thereto, we may arrange here the 
refuse heaps and house sites. 

REFUSE HEAPS. 

Although the ancient heaps of rubbish in America are composed 
chieHy of marine and fresh-water shells, the more comprehensive term 
refuse heap is given here, as under it may be placed not only the accu- 
mulations of shells but other heaps known as kitchen-middens and open- 
air workshops or accumulations of flint chips. The heaj) is distin- 
guished from the mound by the fact that the former is a mere accumu- 
lation of rubbish, while the latter is constructed with a specific design 
in view. 

HOUSE SITES AND HtTT KINGS. 

The works to which the latter of these names is applied are usually 
small rings or circles of earth from 1.5 to 50 feet in diameter, the inclosed 
area being more or less depressed. This name is given them because 
it is now conceded ^hat they are the remains of circular houses or wig- 
wams. In Arkansas and some other southern sections these rings ap- 
pear to be replaced by low, flattened, mostly circular mounds in which 
are found the indications or remains of houses which in most cases appear 
to ha\e been consumed by fire. To these and other similar remains, 
though not covered by mounds, the name •' house sites" has been applied. 

CAIRNS. 

With the exception of two or three efdgies and the accumulations of 
flint chips the only stone mounds found in the United States east of the 
Eocky Mountains are of the conical type. The term " cairn" is some- 
times applied to the smaller and more regular ones, though "mound" 
is the word usually employed in this country in referring to them. 

INCLOSURES, WALLS, ETC. 

The works included in this class are inclosures, usually formed by a 
more or less complete surrounding wall of earth or stone; lines of walls, 
sometimes single, sometimes in pairs forming parallels; embankments, 
and other mural works. 



32 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

INOLOSURES. 

In this class are included some of tlie most important and most inter- 
esting ancient monuments of our country. In form they are circular, 
square, oblong, oval, octagonal, or irregular. Those -which approach 
regularity in figure and symmetry in their parts are either circular, 
square, or octagonal, and with a few exceptions are found in Ohio an<l 
in the immediately adjoinining sections of Kentucky and Indiana, and 
in West Virginia. 

Of the irregular in form there are several tyi^es; some, especially 
those located on level ground where tlie space is ample, are irregularly 
circular and in most cases are flanked by a ditch. This form is common 
in the region bordering the northern lakes ; others, often of stone or 
stone and earth combined, are found on elevated points, the figure 
being determined by the boundaries or character of the area inclosed. 
Inclosures of this type arc frecjnently incomplete, a steeji bluff, river, 
or lake shore forming one or two of the sides. 

In this class are included a few works where there is in reality no 
wall, a ditch or line of picket holes alone marking the boundary. 

WALLS AND EMBANKMENTS. 

Double or j)arallel lines of walls are in most, if not all, cases connected 
with other works. Single lines of wall are mostly those of earth or stone 
built across the neck of some projecting bluff or promontory or across 
some i^eninsula formed by the bend of a river or curve in a lake shore. 
These are evidently works thrown up for defensive purposes, often to 
protect a temporary or permanent village. 

EXCAVATIONS. 

This term is usually applied to those basin-shaped or irregular, arti- 
ficial depressions often observed in connection with the more extensive 
groujis. It is api)arent in many cases that they have been dug with no 
other object in view than to obtain dirt with which to build a mound 
or construct a wall. But in other cases they have evidently been made 
for some specific purpose. 

CANALS AND DITCHES. 

Indications of what may be properly designated as " ancient canals" 
have been discovered at a few points, mostly in the south. 

Ditches are seldom found except in connection with inclosures or de- 
fensive works. Yet, a few instances occur where they seem to replace 
the walls of inclosures, one of the most important groups of the South 
being thus surrounded. 

PITS AND CACHES. 

Pits as a matter of course are excavations and in a strictly sj'stem- 
atic arrangement should be placed under that head, nevertheless as the 



THOMAS] GRAVES AND CEMETERIES. 33 

present object is to indicate the varions works by the terms wliich have 
come into use in this country, they are given seijarately. Tliey are fun- 
nel-shaped or deep, cup-shaped excavations, tlie depth being greater in 
proportion to the diameter than the ordinary basin- shaped excavations. 
Those works, to which the term is applied, appear to be of two classes : 
First, the holes or pits made in digging for flint, which are usually 
known locally as "Indian diggings," and which, as a matter of course, 
are irregular as to form and size; second, the regularly formed pits of 
but a few feet in diameter and depth, and used chiefly as places for 
secreting food and other articles, and hence often called "caches." 

GRAVES AND CEMETERIES. 

The ancient graves of the area under consideration in this report are 
of various types, nevertheless there are one or two of these which form 
such important factors in discussing the question of the origin and 
builders of our ancient monuments that it is proper they should be 
mentioned here. 

Oneof the most common and most important types is the " box-shaped 
stone gi'ave" or cist. This is in the form of an oblong ]3ox, constructed 
of unhewn stone slabs. Graves of this kind are found isolated, in 
groups forming cemeteries and also in mounds. 

Stone graves of other forms occur usually in mounds, but as these 
will be noticed hereafter it is unnecessary to describe them here. 

The term "cemetery" is, of course, used in its ordinary sense. 

GARDEN BEDS. 

These are certain surface indications, found chiefly in Michigan and 
Wisconsin, leading to the conclusion that the limited areas covered 
were formerly under cultivation. These indications are generally low, 
parallel ridges, as though made in planting corn in drills. They aver- 
age about i feet in width, and the depth of the space between them a 
few (6 to 8) inches. They are generally arranged in beds or plats. 

OTHER FEATURES. 

Fire beds or hearths are nothing more than the indications of local 
fires, found in mounds and in the ground. Camp-sites are usually indi- 
cated by marks of flre and other signs of temi)orary camps found near 
the surface of the ground. 

Ancient trails are sufficiently indicated by the name. 

Surface figures are outline figures of the human or animal form or of 
some object formed on the surface of the ground with pebbles or bones. 

Cave deposits are sufficiently indicated by the name. 

So far as ascertained the ancient mines of this country were limited 
to those of copper, flint, and other stone and mica. 
13 ETH 3 



FIELD OPERATIONS. 

MANITOBA AND THE DAKOTAS. 

Within the area embraeed by tW proviuce of Manitoba and the two 
states of Dakota five distinct types of prehistoric worlvS have been 
observed. First, the mounds of the Red river valley, extending from 
Grand Forks, North Dakota, down to Selkirk, Manitoba. Secondly, the 
mounds along the Souris river in Manitoba and North Dakota, and in 
Benson, Ramsey, and Walsh counties, North Dakota. Thirdly, the 
mounds along the Big Sioux river in southeast Dakota and Iowa asso- 
ciated with bowlder circles. Fourthly, the bowlder circles found upon 
the highest lauds of the Alissouri and James rivers and their tribu- 
taries, associated with bowlder outlines of animals. Fifthly, the house 
sites in the form of basin-shaped depressions found along the Missouri 
river from the mouth of the Niobrara to 10 miles north of Bismarck. 

Of the first class, namely, the mounds bordering the Red river of 
the North, there are but- few, scarcely more than twenty now visible. 
Those visited by the Bureau agent were in the vicinity of Grand Rap- 
ids, North Dakota, St. Andrews, and East Selkirk, Manitoba. All had 
been explored. They occur singly rather than in groups. The soil of 
which they are composed appears to be that of the surrounding laud. 
They are conical iu form, and none at present exceed nine feet in diam- 
eter, though originally, before they were cultivated and excavated, they 
were doubtless higher. Human burials were found in all. 

SOXIKIS RIVER MOXTNDS. 

Along the Souris river, in southwestern Manitoba and south of the 
junction of the South Antler, numerous mounds were discovered. They 
extend over an extensive area up the river, and it is not improbable that 
they may be found following the stream across the border into Dakota. 

# %(iiMiiii(iiiiiiiii(niimiiiiiiiiffliiiiiiiHiHiiMiii»»iiiMiiMimiiiiiiirti* '% 

,^^4«lllll|(illW|ll«ll(tlli|IIIIHIWlll«l*l«IIIIWIIIHIUIIIII1llllHIW!(li|ll«^ 

Fig. 1. — Elongate mound, Souris river, Manitoba. 

They occur in large groups, are conical in form, and range from 1 to 5 
feet iu height and from 30 to 40 feet in diameter. In their midst were 
seen the two forms of elongate mounds, one as shown iu Fig. 1, the 
other the ordinary oblong form. As the discovery of these mounds was 
incidental, and our assistant carried no instruments ui^ou the trip, no 

35 



36 MOUND EXPLOKATIONS. 

survey of any of the fjrouj^s could l)e madi-. Tlic cloiiffate iiiouiids or 
embankments lango from 1 to 2.V feet liigh and from 100 to 3(K) feet 
long. In the form showing expansi(ms or mounds at the ends, no per- 
ceptible difterence was noticed between the height of the mounds at 
the ends and the bank between them. They are composed of gravelly 
soil and in size are, as a rule, quite low and broad. Seven of these 
peculiar mounds were noticed just south of the Junction of the South 
Antler, within 1 mile of Sourisford post-offlce. Two or more of this 
form sometimes occur either in au imbricated position or at right 
angles to one another, as in Fig. 2. Their positions and appearance 
are such as to preclude the idea that they were used for defense. 

f%wi/w/li)illillil/!iiiiii«i||li/lllillllli)lliiiiiii, 



#'Wwi/w/li)llllllll/!liliii«Hlll/lllllllll|)llili||ii)illili|«#'% 

^|i|j((|l||IIW»llllllllllllllflll1lllWI|||(((|(/(|||l((IIIIIWII)|((ll«||/««|ll»#^^ 



^^%IIIW«l«llliilll«(|i|llllmil||ll|||i;(Wil(lHlm)iiiiMM|W!^% 



a. 



^ %((miiimMiiiiim.iiMiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiii iiniiiinMiii|iii|iii|iiinn(iiiHici||f^"^ 

^^^yMMIWIIIlmillllllltHIIIMIIIIIMIilllllllllllllnnllllHlnMiliwmiiMMlMlik'^ ^ 

b gs 



#% 

,# 



Fig. 2. — Elon^atf diouiuIm, Souris river, ilanitoba. 

Some are situated along the brink of the precipitous river bluff, while 
others lie farther inward upon the prairie level. The mounds or expan- 
sions at the extremities of one were dug into but without any result. 

Mounds of this character were also seen down the Souris river across 
the South Antler. Large numbers of them lie between that stream 
and the junction of the North Antler, li miles distant. They range 
from 2 to 8 feet in height. The larger ones had been explored by set- 
tlers. One, 5 feet high, situated near the left bluff of the South Antler, 
was composed throughout of the gravelly prairie soil, intermingled con- 
siderably with buffalo bones. The bones of four skeletons were found 
in a confused condition in a pit dug in the original surface of the ground. 
A catliuite pipe of the tubular variety, curving towards the base, and 
many pieces of broken pottery were found with them. These pottery 
fragments are ornamented with straight incisions, and are composed 
of a. mixture of clay tempered with Hue sand or pulverized granite. 

In another, 8 feet high, composed, like the last, of the gravelly prairie 
soil, the bodies or bones of five skeletons were found buried beneath 



THOMAS.] SOURIS RIVER MOUNDS. 37 

the original surface. They apijeared to have been origiually placed in 
a sitting- posture in a circle facing one another. The bones bore no 
signs of decay. The decayed remains of timbers were found just above 
them. Five catlinite pipes of the tubular variety, a polished sandstone 
tablet engraved on one side with the rude figure of a turtle, and two 
small clay cups about the size of an ordinary finger bowl, accompanied 
the skeletons. The pottery has an incised spiral ornamentation extend- 
ing all around the bowl and a corrugated rim. The composition is a 
mixture of clay with fine sand or pulverized granite. Quite a fresh 
piece of bark, apparently bearing the marks of a steel knife along 
one edge, was also found accompanying these remains. 

In front of the residence of Mr. Amos Snyder and near the junction 
of the North Antler with the Souris there is a mound 3J feet high. 
This, not having been previously disturbed, was examined by Mr. Key- 
nolds. He found the mound composed throughout of the uppermost 
prairie soil, very compact and hard, and the i-emains of a single skele- 
ton on the original surface of the ground. The bones, which were 
extremely well preserved, were disarticulated and piled together, as 
though interred after having been denuded of the flesh, and the cranium 
placed on top. Fragments of buflalo bones and pottery, similar in type 
to that above described, except that some of it was ornamented with 
straight parallel incisions, were found mingled among the earth. Also, 
three fine specimens of arrow heads of a light grayish flint and a por- 
tion of some polished implement of bone, ornamented with straight 
incised lines which appear to have been produced with a sharp steel 
knife. 

Another mound, 4 feet high, about 50 rods westward from the last, 
was opened the same day. A trench 3 feet wide was cut through it to 
the original surface, but no burial remains were found. Many broken 
buffalo bones, and pieces of pottery similar in description to those 
found in the other mounds, were intermingled in the earth throughout. 
A cross trench was abandoned for lack of time. 

Other mounds similar to these in appearance were seen on the oppo- 
site or right bank of the Souris river on the Eumball farm, 3 miles 
from Sourisford post-oflice. One situated near the dwelling is 3 feet 
high and 30 feet in diameter. It appeared to be composed, like those 
just described, of the soil of the surrounding land. Not ftir from the 
dwelling were also four oblong mounds, similar in form to that shown 
in Fig. 1. One of them measured 225 feet long and 24 feet broad. 
Their height is scarcely more than 1 foot above the siuTounding level. 

While at Grand Forks, North Dakota, it was learned from Prof. 
Henry Montgomery that elongate, conical, and connected mounds, 
resembling these in character, and containing specimens of the types 
found in the mounds of this region, exist in Benson, Eamsey, and Walsh 
counties. North Dakota. 



38 MOUNU EXPI-(JRATI(JNS. 

SIOUX KIVER MOUNDS. 

Aloiij;- the Big Sioux river, within Id miles south of Sioux Falls, aud 
priiicilially where the river forms the boundary line between Minne- 
haha, eouuty. South Dakota, and Lyon euuuty, Iowa, there are said to 
be about 275 mounds. Many of tliese our assistant visited. They 
were tbuud situated on both sides of the river in elusters or groups 
upon the highest points of the river hills, or upon the broad terraces 
of the valleys. One of the groups visited demands special attention. 
Jt is situated in the extreme northwest corner of Lyon county, Iowa, 
and compiises about 50 mounds of the simple conical type, averaging 
about 4 feet in height. In the midst of the mounds, at times touching 
the skirt of them, are seen stone rings, circular and obloug, made with 
the granite bowlders of the praiiie. It is evident that these mark the 
site of au old village, the circles and obloug outlines indicating the 
positions of the lodges, the skin coverings of which were held down 
by stones, AVith probably one or two exceptions every cirdeor oblong 
form preseuts a break, namely, a place about 3 or 4 feet wide where the 
continuity of the figure is broken by the absence of stones. This 
ai)pears to have been the entrance, and in most instances it is at the 
southeast, or the point most protected from the cold northwest winds. 
They average about 30 feet in diameter. The number of lodges consti- 
tuting the original village could not be counted, since about half of the 
group lies in a field, the original prairie sod of which has been disturbed 
l)y the plow of the settler and the stones utilized by him upon his farm. 
In the undistmbed portion they outnumber the mounds about three to 
one. The mounds are so intermingled with the stone figures as to show 
that the two were constructed by the same people. In some instances, 
where the stone circles nearly touch the skirt of a mound, the wash 
from the latter has covered the stones upon that side while those on 
theother side are fully exposed. This seems to indicate that the mounds 
had been constructed after the circles or lodges had been placed. These 
boulders are, as a rule, half imbedded in the jirairie sod, but this fact 
does not necessarily imjily great anti<iuity. Investigations had been 
made among these mouuds by Mr. F. W. Pettigrew, of Sioux Falls, but 
the result did not indicate that they were used for burial. 

About half a nule up the valley, on the same river terrace, theie is 
another large village site consisting of numnds and circles similar in all 
res]K'cts to those just described. Eachof these groups is upon a most 
beautiful aud expansive terrace peculiarly adapted for a permanent vil- 
lage. Groups of mounds, fewer in number and smaller in size, are to 
be seen in the vicinity upon the most commanding points of the river 
heights, and in these human interments have been discovered. These 
may therefore b(^ considered as tlie burial places of this peojde. 

About 10(1 rods to the south of the village remains above described 
there is an irregular earthen iuclosnre somewhat octagoniil in outline, 



THOMAs.i Bowlder circlks. 39 

formed by tbrowins' "P the, dirt from the inside. At one point it inter- 
sects ii iow monnd, seated npon tlie oiiginal surface, in whicli the owner 
of the land discovered a skek'ton. The inclosure embraces about 10 
acres, but no survey could be made at the time it was visited on account 
of the high corn crop that covered it. The group of mounds and stone 
circles above described has been accurately surveyed by Mr. P. W. I'et- 
tigrew, of Sioux Falls. 

BOWLDER CIRCLES. 

In addition to the bowlder circles above described there are some of 
another class, which, from all accounts, appear to be (juite common 
throughout the Dakota country. They differ from the others in that 
they are unaccompanied by mounds, and average as a rule only 
17 feet in diameter. The bowlders are much smaller and are scat- 
tered about irregularly instead of approximating a perfect circle like 
the others. They are, however, like these, half imbedded in the soil. 
Formerly they were doubtless much more common, but now they are 
found principally, if not altogether, upon the highest ridges or buttes 
overlooking the valleys. Those visited by the Bureau agent were sit- 
uated on Medicine Butte, near Blunt, South Dakota, and Snake Butte, 
G miles up the Missouri river from Pierre, South Dakota. They occupy 
the most commanding points of the buttes. In fact their locations are 
the very best in all those regions for grand, extensive views. No relics 
of any description are found about them, and everything seems to point 
to temporary occupation only. Their positions and character indicate 
that they are the sites of old teepees, and this is confirmed by the tes- 
timony of all the old Indians and "squaw men " who were questioned 
as to their origin. In former times, they say, bowlders were the chief 
means by which the Indians held down the skins of their lodges, and 
even now it is resorted to in some of their temporary camps. Each of 
these groups of stone circles is accompanied by the outline figure of an 
animal, made with such small bowlders as are available upon the site, 
and similar to those composing the circles about them. Like the lat- 
ter, they are half embedded in the ground. The figure accompanying 
the group upon Medicine Butte is a snake outlined with two rows of 
bowlders. These boulders vary in size, those of the body being larger 
than those of the tail, and that forming the nose or mouth larger than 
those forming the head. The curvature of the body, the head, and the 
eyes are all well defined. A sketch of this snake figure is given with 
others of the same type by Mr. T. II. Lewis in the American Anthro- 
l)ologist, vol. 9. His description is full and accurate. The figure ac 
com])auying the gronj) on Snake butte above Pierre is that of a turtle, 
the figure of which, with dimensions as ascertained by our assistant, is 
given herewith (Fig. 3). It is 15 feet in length, and 7 feet across the 
body, and is composed of 83 stones varying somewhat in size, though 
not as much so as those forming the snake above described. A num- 



40 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

ber of smaller stones, as seen in the fljiiiro, ran from the neck through 
tlie body, which probably was intended to rei>resent the " life line," thus 
}iivin}>' the fljiure a mythical sifiiiificance. This effij;y lay in a direction 
S. 38° E. and was situated not far from the bluff of the Missouri river, 
to which it lay parallel. Tepee remains, or stone circles, are to be 




Fig. 3.— Turtle figure, Hughes county. South Dakota. 

seen between it and the edge of the bluft, and on the other side, to the 
east, commencing about 150 feet to the south, is a long line of bowlders 
of similar description, which extend northerly fully i-'OO rods. In some 
places these stones are compact and set closely together, but towards 
each end they thin out by becoming farther and farther apart. At the 
north end this line terminates in a small heap of stones. This was 
torn down, and the earth beneath dug into, but without result. There 
are about 35 stone cii'cles in this group, and the turtle figure lies in 
the midst of them, as does also the line of bowlders just described. 
They are seen on both sides of it to a certain distance. Some are also 
to be seen ui)on the high crest of the butte. These circles are of the 
same dimensions as those seen on Medicine butte, but the stones did 
not seem to be so deejily buried, in fact, they were as nuich above the 
surface as could be expected. Ashes were found upon digging in the 



THOMAS.] HUT RINGS. 41 

center of one of the circles, though no sncli traces were seen in others 
that were examined here and upon Medicine Bntte. The animal fig- 
ures on each of these sites are poorly situated, and in each case there 
are circles that almost touch them. Indeed, their position with refer- 
ence to the latter is such as to make them seem incidental tt) the prior 
location of the tepees. If they were intended as objects of veneration 
and worship, as has been conjectured, there are sites in the immediate 
vicinity of each better adapted for such purposes — sites where the 
archeologist more naturally expects to find them. 

HUT RINGS. 

Many old village sites, resembling each other in every respect, are to 
be seen on either side of the Missouri river from the mouth of the 
Niobrara to about 10 miles above Bismarck. Unlike the house sites of 
this type in southeast Missouri and Illinois no mounds accompany them, 
though kitchen-middeus, resembling mounds, are seen among those 
farther up the river. Two of these village sites were examined by the 
agent of this Bureau near the towu of Pierre, South Dakota. They 
occupied the second terrace of the river and were indicated by numerous 
basin-shaped depressions, sometimes, especially in the larger cases, 
with a distinct rim or bank around the edge. They are, at present, 
from 1 to 2 feet deep and 75 feetiu diameter. Occasionally one is seen 
fully 4 feet deep and 75 feet in diameter. In some instances the en 
trance was indicated by a graded depression leading outward. At 
least fifty such hut rings were counted on each of these sites. It was 
apparent, however, that originally there were many more, for many had 
disappeared before the encroachments of the town. Numerous signs of 
former occupation abound, and refuse heaps are seen about almost 
every depression. Some of these refuse heaps were examined and 
found to consist chiefly of river loess, and to contain invariably much 
fragmentary pottery, discai-ded stone imi)leuients, and the broken bones 
of the buffalo and other food animals. Indications of fire were dis- 
covered in the center of the depressions or house sites. The ornamen- 
tation of the pottery is, as a rule, similar to that of the Mandans, except 
that it appears to be a trifle ruder. The characteristic incised lines of 
the Mandan pottery are constantly met with. The tempering material 
employed is also the same, it being a fine sUicious sand. Quite a large 
group of these remains is to be seen farther down the river at the mouth 
of Chappelle creek, accompanied by the remains of an earthen iuclosure. 
It was situated on the edge of the bank of the creek near its junction 
with the river. A distinct outside ditch was apparent on the side un- 
protected by the bank. It had a single entrance way and the interior 
was well tilled up with house sites of the above description. Tlie num- 
ber of these depressions within and without the fort indicate a much 
larger population than is known of any of the villages of the jNIissouri 
when first visited by whites. Another very large group, similar to these 



42 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

in every respect, is, a(;cording to Mr. J. C. Collester, of Eetlfiekl, South 
Dakota, to be seen at tlie mouth of tlie Moreau river. Tliese are doubt- 
less the remains of the Arikara village that was visited by Lewis and 
Clarke in their passage up the Missouri in 1802. The houses of the 
Arikaras were described by these explorers as circular dome-like struc- 
tures, the floor of which was about .'$ feet below the level of the sur- 
rounding land. But in house-building, as in the manufacture of pottery 
and other things, the customs of the Arikaras, though somewhat ruder, 
resembled those of the Mandans, and the similar remains farther n\^ the 
river may therefore be due to that people. Some are probably the re- 
mains of the Mandan villages described by Lewis and Clarke in 1802, 
and by Catliu in 1833. 

MINNESOTA. 

The only explorations made in this state on behalf of the Bureau 
were at and about the noted Pipestone quarry in Pipestone county and 
in the extreme southeastern county. 

PIPESTONE COUNTY. 

The only group known in this county is that in the vicinity of the 
sacred Pipestone quarry. 

A sketch and description of the locality as it formerly appeared, to- 
gether with an account of the Indian traditions relating to it, may be 
iound in Catlin's " North American Indians.'" These works consist of 
low mounds and an irregular inclosure in the vicinity of Pipestone. 

One of these mounds, which for convenience is designated No. 1, is 
of the usual low conical form, 28 feet in diameter and 3 feet high. An 
exploration revealed nothing but the dark, adhesive soil of which it 
was chiefly composed, and stone ti-agments, a few of which were catlin- 
ite, bearing traces of tool marks. No bones, ashes, or charcoal were 
observed. Possibly it was nothing more than a refuse heap. 

No. 2 is the mound represented in Catlin's sketch ^ of which he gives 
the history, and which, according to his statement, was built two years 
before his visit, pi'obably in 1836 or 1837. He does not give the diam- 
eter, but estimates the height at 10 feet. Nic(jllet saw and noted it in 
1838. Col. Norris noticed it in 1857, when, although apparently undis- 
turbed, it was but little over G feet in height. When he saw it again 
in 1877 it bore the marks of having been opened, and he then learned 
that a cranium and some of the weapons and trinkets deposited with 
the Indians buried had been unearthed and carried ofi^'. He found a 
perfoiated Ijear's claw and some glass beads among the angular frag- 
ments of rock lying in the excavation. Making a thorough excavation 
when he visited it in 1882 on behalf of the Bureau, he found near the 
center some decayed fragments of wood, one of them apijarently the 

' Vol. 2, p. 144. ' North American Indians, Vol . 2, p. 164, PI. 270. 



THOMAS.] PIPESTONE COUNTY, MINNESOTA. 43 

short, thick, perforated stock or liandlc of an Indian wliip. With the 
dirt of the nioiiud were ininyled many fragments of stoue. 

No, 3, composed of earth and auguhxr fragments of stone, was prob- 
ably a refuse heap from the diggings. 

Nos. 4 and 5, simihir to No. 3. 

No. (> is a conical tumulus on the bank of the creek about a hundred 
yards above the falls, and is feet high. Projecting throngli the sod 
was a stone slab 2 feet long, nearly as wide, and 9 inches thick, stand- 
ing nearly jierpendicular in the center; beneath it, lying flat, was 
another of similar form and size. Beneath the latter was a pile of 
broken stones, mostly ol' smaller sizes, among which were pieces of 
pipestone, badly decayed fragments of human and coyote bones, but no 
entire skeleton. In this were found charcoal and ashes, the only 
instance of their presence in any of the mounds at this place. They 
were underneath the pile of stones. A small stone drill was found 
with them. 

No. 7, which is nearer the cliff than No. fi, is about 30 feet in diame- 
ter and 4 feet high. It was but little else than a pile of angular stones. 

No. 8 is simply a bastiou-like enlargement of the large circular 
earthwork at one of its numerous angles (see No. 8, Fig. 4), about 4 
feet liigh. Nothing was found in it, not even the angular stones so 
common in the other mounds. 

No. 9 is a circular mound inside the earthwork, 20 feet in diameter 
and 4 feet high. In this was found a single skeleton lying at full 
length upon the right side, head north, on the original surface of the 
ground. It was covered with a layer or jiile of stones about 2 feet 
thick, and was so much decayed that the bones and even the teeth 
crumbled to dust when exposed to the air. No implements or orna- 
ments were found with it except a flint lance head, some arrow points, 
and two or three rude scrapers which were near the breast. 

No. 10 is merely an eidargcmcnt of the west horn of one of the circu- 
lar works lying east of the large inciosure, of which more particular 
mention is made hereafter. Its diameter was found to be 20 feet; 
height, 3 feet. Nothing of interest was found in it. 

CIRCULAR AND CRESCENT EAimiWOllKS. 

These interesting works are situated about 2 nules a little north of 
east from the quarry; a plan of them is given in Fig. 4. It is not cer- 
tain that (Jatlin saw tliese works, although they are situated near the 
great war trail from Flandreau and the pipestone quarry to the Minne- 
sota (formerly St. Peters) river. Nicollet, however, noted them in 
1.S38, and makes special mention of two circular inclosures, oi' " camps," 
as he calls them, estimating the circumference of one at 2,000 feet.' 

The shape of this inciosure, which appears to be the only complete 
one in the loc^ality is shown at «. The circumference, according to 

' Senate Report No. 237, 26tli Congress, 2d session, p. 14. 



44 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Col. Norris's measiirenieiit, is 2,.38() feet, tlic wall varying in height from 
a few iuclies to 4 feet. It has two well-marked and distinct oijenings, 
or gateways, one at the north, the other at the southeast, besides 
smaller and less evident ones. In the southern half is mound No. 9, 
heretofoi'e mentioned. 

The crescent-shaped embankments, which are roughly sketched in 
the figure, are about half a mile east of the large inclosure. They are 
simi)ly earth embankments of slight elevation and are possibly parts of 
unfinished works. 



jt. 



X 
*%-. 



Si-.. 



/ 



% 



\\ 




Smooth 







'■;?' 



Fig. 4. — luclosnres and mounds, Pipestone county, Minnesota. 

Nicollet's statement in regard to the works is as follows : 

After haviug recounoitered distinct marks of a buffalo path, we unexpectedly fell 
upon a circular breastwork of about 2,000 feet in circumference and sufficiently ele- 
vated to protect the bodies of those who are defeudiug themselves within. The 
principal entrance is still marked by the places where the chiefs or principal person- 
ages of the nation had their lodges, the situation of these always indicating not 
only the main access to the camp but also the direction whence the enemy was 
advancing. 

Two miles further on, accordingly, we met with another camp of a similar charac- 
ter. As the system of defense was on neither side more complicated than just 
described, it would seem that they had been erected during a long talk the result of 
which might lead to a war; whilst the small number of tumuli that are found 
within the breastwork would seem to imply that both parties remained in presence 
for some time, though there was no important battle fought. 

The Sioux have lost the reminiscences of these camps, and merely conjecture that 
they were occupied during the .settlement of difficulties between the Tetons and 
Yanktons. 

Col. Norris thinks he saw in 1842 the second inclosure mentioned by 
ificollet, but did not find it in 1882. 



HOUSTON COUNTY, MINNESOTA. 



45 



HOUSTON COUNTY. 

The extreme soutlicast corner of this county, which is also the south- 
east point of the State, is just north of the town of New Albin, Iowa, 
at the contluence of Winnebago creek with the Mississippi river. 
About 1 mile north of this point, upon the summit of a cliff rising 
vertically 400 or 500 feet from the eastern or Mississippi valley side, 
and barely accessible for a pedestrian up the steep and somewhat rocky 
slopes on the south, west, and north sides, three mounds were found 
and excavated, with the following results: 

No. 1, about 30 feet in diameter and 6 feet high, of the usual conical 
form, on the summit of the cliff, had already been opened suflicieutly to 
remove therefrom the skeleton of an Indian warrior, together with his 
gun, hatchet, etc. The excavation which had been made was still 
partly open, and extending downward only about half the depth of the 
mound. Digging down about a foot farther into the hard, lightcol 
ored earth, apparently a mixture of clay and ashes, a stone slab was 
encountered something over 2 feet long, something less in width, and 5 
inches thick, of the same kind of rock as that found in the cliff. 
This was lying Hat upon others of various sizes, which were placed 
edgewise, so as to form an oblong cist or cotHn, but so small that its 
contents, the decayed bones of an adult, were nearly in a heap, as 
though the skeleton had been folded and deposited after the flesh was 
removed. No implements or other vestiges of art were found. 




Fig. 5. — Mound vault, Houston county, Minnesota. 

No. 2. This interesting mound, situated about 50 feet south and 
somewhat down the slope from No. 1, is circular, about 25 feet in diam- 
eter and feet high. An excavation had been made in the top to the 
covering or top slabs of a stone vault or chamber which further explo- 
ration showed the mound to contain. The form of this vault is shown 
in Fig. 5. It was about G feet in diameter throughout, and before it 
was disturbed probably reached nearly or quite to the top of the 
mound. Some of the top rocks had been thrown down, and, with some 
small human bones, were lying on the slope of the mound. The floor 
of the inner area was filled to the depth of about 2 feet with charcoal, 
ashes, and split bones of animals, among which were found two roughly 
chipped scrai)ers or skinners. This accunmlatiou had not been dis- 
turbed by those who made the first partial opening above, and who, as 
was learned, had unearthed the skeleton of an Indian child, with some 
modern beads and other trinkets. 



46' 



MOUND EXI'LORATIONS. 



No. 3 is situated about 10(t feet uoitli but much below No. 1, and is 
about 20 feet in diameter and -i feet high. Nothing wliatever ol' inter- 
est was found in it. 

Nothing was observed in relation to these works differing irom the 
usual couieal mouuds found in this region except the yeeuliar com- 




FlG. G. — Mound group near Madison, Wisronsin. 

manding position they occupy aud tlie walled structure in No. 2. Of 
the numerous bluffs in this region no other affords such a clear and 
extensive view of the surrounding country as this. An unobstructed 
view of the Mississippi for a considerable distance above and below, 
also up the Little Iowa, Winnebago, and other streams, is here ob- 
tained. From this position can be seen the mouth of Itoot river on the 
west, aud on the east the deep-gorged Badaxe, and the last battlelield 
on which Black Hawk fought. It nuist therefore have always been a 
favorite lookout point or station 



THOMAS] EARTHWORKS IN WISCONSIN. 47 

Mound No. -! seeius to have been purposely built upon the, suiiuy 
slope of the clitif just below the summit, so as to be sheltered from the 
cold northwest winds and partly also from observation, while its oc- 
cupants had a nearly unobstructed fleld for observation and signals. 
Unlike the other mounds near it which were opened, it was composed 
wholly of the rock and soil taken from around it. Possibly it may 
have been used as a sentry post or signal station. The charcoal, ashes, 
and split bones of animals were doubtless the remains of the feasts 
and fires of the watchmen; the burial of a child iu the mound was 
intrusive and by modern Indians. Not a fragment of pottery was found 
at this lo(;ality, although within 10 miles of the pottery circle in Iowa, 
which will be noticed hereafter. 

WISCONSIN. 

The explorations in this State were confined chiefly to the southwest- 
ern counties, though brief visits were made to some other localities, 
where a few mounds were opened and some interesting groups sketched. 

DANE COUNTY. 

One group near Madison, which does not appear to have been no- 
ticed by other explorers, was examined. This is situated about 2 miles 
southeast of the capital and Just beyond the mounds near Lake Win- 
gra, described by Dr. Lapham. The woi'ks consist chiefly of earthen 
circles and ovals, which in some cases surround excavations, and are 
shown in the annexed Fig. G. As will be observed, with the exception 
of No. 8, which is a low mound, situated a short distance southwest of 
No. 7, they are in a single straight line running northwest and south- 
east. No. 1 is a double excavation, one portion oval, the other in the 
form of a horseshoe and surrounded by a ring of earth 1 foot high; 
depth of excavation from 3 to 6 feet. Nos. 2, 6, and 7 are low mounds, 
but the others, which are rings of earth, are about 5 feet high on the 
outside and 4 feet on the inside, the surface of the inner area being- 
raised about a foot above the surrounding level. The respective diame- 
ters are as follows: No. 2, 32 feet; No. 3, 34 feet; No. 4, 36 feet (great- 
est diameter) ; No. 5, 28 feet; No. 6, 2G feet; No. 7, 28 feet. No. 1 is 45 
feet long. No. 4 is not a complete circle, having a wide opening toward 
the southwest. 

These are certainly not the work of the white man, as they present 
nothing in common with his habits or customs. They appear now just 
as they did in 1844, except that some of those in the field at the north- 
west end of the row have since been nearly obliterated by the plow. 

CRAWFORD COUNTY. 

The first group of mounds of this county noticed here is found on the 
bluff just iibove the confluence of the Wisconsin and Mississippi rivers, 
and about 5 miles southeast of Prairie du Ghien. The blutt's at this 



48 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



point form a sharp promontory jutting out toward the west, with remark- 
ably steep and partially precipitous sides on the south and west, rising 
about 150 feet above the general level. This is capped by a sharp 
sandy ridge, rising in the central portion another hundred feet. On 
the crest of this ridge are four mounds, which may be numbered 1, 2, 3, 
and 4. Between 1 and 3 is a somewhat broad and flattened depres- 
sion, in which mound No. 2 is situated. The ridge beyond the point 
gradually descends toward the east, becoming broadened and flattened 
as it recedes. On this portion there are 10 small circular mounds in a 
single line. 




Fig. 7 Walled vault iu nioimd, Prairie du C'hicn, 'Wisconsin. 

Mound No. 1 (Fig. 7) was opened in 1876 by Judge Bronson, who 
ftmnd at the base of it some six or eight skeletons lying stretched out 
horizontally, and covered by a dry, light colored mortar, which had run 
between and incased the bones and even tilled some of the crania. As 
only the southern portion had been opened, the remainder was carefully 




Fig. 8. — Bird niound, rrairic du C'liicn. AViscon.'^in. 

explored. The dried mortar was very hard and difficult to dig through, 
but the pick soon struck some flat limestone rocks, which, when 
fully exposed, were found to be parts of a rough wall about 3 feet high, 
from the natural surface of the ground, and S feet long. In the oppo- 
site side of the mound, about 12 feet from this and parallel to it, was 
another similar wall. 

The ends of these walls are shown in Fig. 8. Between them on the 
natural surface had been placed side by side a number of skeletons 



THOMAS.) MOUNDS AT PRAIRIE DU CHIEN. 49 

lying flat and lengthwise, parallel with the walls. The heads of these 
are indicated by the row of little circles at the bottom. Immediately 
over these was the layer of mortar; next above this, between the walls 
and also over the vanlt forming the body of the mound, was a layer of 
very hard, light-colored clay mixed with ashes, but no charcoal. The 
top covering was of sand and soil to the depth of 18 inches. Before it 
was disturbed this mound was about 35 feet in diameter and 6 feet 
high. There was no evidence of Are, but much tending to show that 
the builders intended to incase the skeletons in a water-tight covering 
of mortar, which, when originally placed there, must have been suffi- 
cieiitly soft to run into all the interstices between the skeletons, these 
all being filled, as were also some of the crania. 

On the depressionof the ridge heretofore mentioned, between mounds 
1 and 3, is mound No. 2. This is an elfigy representing a bird (see Fig. 
8), the dimensions of which are as follows: Length of body, 42 feet, or 
total length, including the head and neck, 00 feet; of each wing, 42 feet; 
greatest width of body, 18 feet, and greatest elevation 3 feet. Several 
pits dug in it proved it to have been constructed wholly of the yellow 



FiQ. 9. — Section of mound and pit, Prairie du Chien. Wisconsin. 

sand and soil of the ridge. Xo bones or relics of any kind were found 
in it. The indications lead to the belief that it was carved out of the 
ridge, rather than thrown up, the wings still foiming the crest from 
which the head and body slope gradually in opposite directions. 

Mound No. 3 (Fig. 0) is a few paces to the west of No. 2 and on 
slightly higher ground. This was also partially explored by Judge 
Bronson in 1876, and, with the further examination by the Bureau 
agent, gave the following results : First, a covering of soil and sand a 
foot or more in depth (No. 5), next a layer (No. 4) of calcined human 
bones nearly 2 feet in depth, without order, mingled with charcoal, 
ashes, and reddish brown mortar (clay and sand), burned as hai'd as a 
brick. Immediately below this was a layer (No. 3) 1 foot thick of mor- 
tar consisting largely of sand burned to a brick-red color. Below this 
in the layer marked 2 were found the skeletons of 15 or 10 individuals 
without any arrangement, mingled with which were charcoal, firebrands, 
and ashes. The bones were charred and portions of them glazed 
with melted sand. The mass appears to have been fli-st covered with 
12 ETH 4 



50 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

soft mortar, which filled the spaces, and the burning done afterward. 
Scattered tliroaj;h the mass were lumps of clay apparently molded iu 
the hands, which the tire had converted into rude bricks. The bottom 
of this layer corresponded with the original surface of the gi'ound. 
Further excavation to the depth of '1 or 3 feet revealed a circular pit in 
the original soil (marked 1 in the figure) about feet in diameter, the 
bottom of which was covered an inch deep with fine chocolate-colored 
dust. The strangest fact regarding this pit is that, although the inter- 
mediate tilling between the 1-foot depth at the bottom and the layer 
above (the bottom of the mound proiier) was similar in appearance to the 
ordinary soil of the ridge, yet the under portion of it lemained arched 
over the 1-foot space beneath. It was probably hardened by the fierce 
fire above. 

Eleven paces west of this mound, situate i on the brow of the blufl', 
is No. 4, only 12 feet in diameter and 4 feet high. This mound, like 
the others, was built up chiefly of very hard material resembling mor- 
tar. In it was a single skeleton lying on its right side; placed in the 
form of a circle on the left hip were 140 shell beads. The left arm lay 
extended along the upper side; the knees were drawn up at right 
angles to the body. Although now so dry and hard, the mortar at 
some former time had made its way into and filled the skull and fitted 
neatly around the bones which were all well preserved and had not 
been disturbed since they were first placed there. Around the neck 
were VI shell beads and 5 small perforated sea shells. 

On the lower, broadened portion of the ridge, in its eastern exten- 
sion, as before I'emarked, is a row of ten small cii'cular mounds, which 
vary in height from 2 to 4 feet and in diameter from 19 to 32 feet. In 
addition to these there are also here two elongate mounds or embank- 
ments in a line with each other, their nearer ends being about 3 paces 
apart. The longest of these is 192 feet in length, the other 45 feet. 
Two of the circular ones were opened, in both of which were found 
some indications of their having been used for burial purposes, but in 
one only were any bones obtained. No relics of any kind were discov- 
ered. From the larger ones which had been jtreviously opened a num- 
ber of stone and copper implements were obtained. 

A short distance to the northwest of the foregoing group are traces 
of many circular mounds, some long earthworks, and etfigy mounds. 
In fact nearly the whole area of the valley of Prairie du Chieu town- 
ship appears to have been once literally dotted over with ancient 
works. Many of these are efligy mounds representing deer, bears, 
rabbits, etc., apparently in droves, sometimes with and sometimes 
without other works intermingled. But in all cases the etfigies are 
heading southwest, trending with the general course of the river iu 
this section. 

At the upper end of the prairie are a number of eflBgy mounds and 
long works as yet but little injured, wliile others in the fields are 



THOMAS.] 



RELICS WITH INTRUSIVE BURIALS. 



51 



nearly obliterated. Some of these have been opened and various relics 
obtained, mostly those accompanying intrusive burials. 

The greater number of a row of large circular mounds, situated ou a 
higli bottom between the old bayou and the river, have been removed 
to make way for buildings, railroad tracks, etc., this being the only 
part of the immediate area which is not overflowed when the water is 
very higli. Many articles of stone, copper, iron, and silver were found, 
but mainly fi-om intrusive burials, though obtained at or beneath the 
base. 

One large mound, 70 feet in diameter and 10 feet high, was still unex- 
plored. This was opened. It had been considerably defaced, especially 
on the western side. According to tradition it was a noted burial place 
of the Indians, which was certainly confirmed by the result. The 
surface or top layer was composed mainly of sand 
and alluvial earth to the depth of some 3 or 4 feet. 
Scattered through this in almost every part of the 
mound were found human skeletons in various 
stages of decay and in ditterent positions, but mostly 
stretched horizontally on the back. Mixed with 
these remains were fragments of blankets, clothing, 
and human liair; one copper kettle, three coj)per 
bracelets, one silver h)cket, shown in Fig. 10; ten 
silver bracelets similar to the one shown in Mg. 11, 
one having the word "Montreal" stamped on it; and 
another the letters "A. B.;" two silver ear-rings; six 
silver brooches similar to Fig. 12; one copper finger 
ring; one double silver cross (Fig. 13); one knife 
handle; one battered bullet, and one carved wooden 
pilje similar to those at present in use. In fact, the 
top layer to the depth of 3 or i feet seemed to be packed as full of skel- 
etons as possible without doubling them, and even that had been re- 
sorted to in some cases. 




Fig. 10.— Silver locket 
from mound, Prairie 
dii Cbien, Wiaconsin. 





Fig. 11, — Bracelet ul" silver i'rom nintiud, 
Prairie du Cliien. Wisconsin. 



Fig, 12. — Silver brooch from mound. . 
Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, 



Carrying the trench down to the original surface of the ground there 
was found, near the center, at the bottom, a single skeleton of an adult, 



52 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



in the last stages of decay, and witli it a stone skinner, stone drill, 
scraper, fragments of river shells, and fragments of a niaimuotli's tooth. 

Tlie earth below the thick up 
per layer was mixed with claj' 
and ashes or some other sub- 
stance evidently diiierent from 
the surrounding soU, but not 
so hard as the mortar-like ma- 
terial found in the mounds on 
the bluli'. 

The main road from Prairie 
du Chien to Eastman follows 
chieHy the old trail along the 
crest of the divide between the 
drainage of the Kickapoo and 
Mississippi rivers. Along this 
are a number of efiSgy mounds ; 
some of them in cultivated 
fields, but the larger number in 
the forest, the trees upon them 
being of the same size as those 
on the surrounding ground. 
Most of these, which are in part 
referred to in Mr. Strong's notes 
and figures,' were surveyed and 
platted. A plat of the south- 
west part of Crawford county 
showing the location of the 
groups mentioned is given in 
Fig. U. 

Fig. 13.— Silver cross from mound, Prairie duCliien. Wis. -r,, ... , . 

The farst group measured is 
situated about a quarter of a mile north of Eastman, on See. 18, T. 8 N., 
R. 5 W. These mounds lie west of the road, partly in the woods and 





Fig. 15 — Eartliworks near Eastman, Crawford county, AVisconsin. 

partly in the field. The group is in fact a series or chain of low, small 
circular tumuli extending in a nearly straight line northwest and south- 
east, connected together by embankments as shown in Fig. 15. They 
are on the top of the ridge. 



I Smithaoui.m Report of 1877, pp. 239-246. 



CRAWFORD COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



53 




Fig. U.— Plat of southwest part of Crawford county, Wisconsin. 



54 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Commeuciug with mound No. 1, at the southern end of the Une, the 
direction and distances from center to center and the diameters and 
heights are as follows : 



Number 
of mound. 


Courae. 


Distance. 


Diameter, 

nortli aud 

south. 


Diameter, 

east and 

west. 


Height. 






Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Feel. 


1 






22 
18 


25 

22 


3 
3 


1 to 2.. 


N.S?" W.. 


55 


2 to 3.. 


N.330W.. 


55 


19 


23 


3 


3 to 4.. 


If.250W.. 


56 


18 


22 


2* 


4 to 5.. 


N. 36° W. . 


56 


23 


24 


3 


5 to 6.. 


N.310W.. 


56 


22 


25 


3 


6 to 7.. 


N.34°W-. 


56 


20 


21 


24 


7 to 8.. 


N.430W.. 


53 


23 


27 


^ 


8 to 9.. 


N.360W.. 


56 


20 


18 


14 


9 to 10.. 


N.36°W.. 


57 


23 


25 


2 


10 to 11.. 


N.3»°W.. 


58 


27 


25 


2 


11 to 12.. 


N.30<'W.. 


5T 


22 


18 


1 



In the same section, at the village of Eastman (or Batavia), are the 
remains of two bird-shaped mounds, both on top of the watershed and 
both heading southward. 




Fig. 16. — Mounds on northeast quarter of Sec. 24, T. 8 X., R. 6 W., Wisconsin. 

About 2 miles from Eastman, in the direction of Prairie du Chien, 
just east of the Black River road, on Sec -'4, T. 8 N., K. G W., are three 
effigy mounds and one long mound, shown in Fig. 10. They are situ- 



THOMAS.] 



MOUND GROUP AT HAZEN CORNERS. 



55 



ated in a little strip of woods near the crest, but ou tlie western slope 
of the watershed and near the head of a coulee or ravine. 

This is the group which Mr. Strong represents in his Figs. 12, 13, and 
14.' The two effigies I'epresenting quadrupeds (bears) are headed to- 
ward the south, while the other (probably representing some swallow- 
tailed bird) is headed eastward; the long mound runs northeast and 



Mfxterri' Cam^^fery/ 





M0UN09 ON rARw o^ BG Thomas, 

EA3T..(*pa rov^^SMiP, CfiiW^f opo Co 

A/tSCONSiN 



Fig. 17.— MouDd group at Hazen Corners, Crawford county, Wisconsin, 

southwest. The dimensions of these are as follows: The total length 
of each of the quadruped figures is about 80 feet, greatest height about 
2 feet. The expansion of the wings of the bird ft'om tip to tip is 267 
feet; length of the body from top of the head to the tip of the longer 
branch of the tail, 110 feet ; height of the center of the body, 3 feet. 



' Smitbsonian Keport, 1877, p. 244^ 



56 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



As will be seen by reference to Mr. Strong's figures, these measure- 
ments differ considerably from his. This is due in part, but to no great 
extent, to the wearing down and consequent expansion since the date 
of his examination. 

The length of the loug^ mound is 120 feet, average width 15 feet, and 
height from 12 to 15 inches. 

HAZEN CORNERS OUOUP. 

The next group surveyed is situated on Mr. B. G. Thomas's farm, 



Sec. 36, T. 8 K, R. 6 W., at what 



is known as Hazeu Corners. The 
mounds are on the crest of the 
ridge heretofore mentioned and 
on both sides of the Black River 
road, 9 miles trom Prairie du Chleu. 
This is the group represented in 
Mr. Strong's Fig. 4. It is mostly 
covered with a growth of small 
trees, which confirms Mrs. Thom- 
as's statement that when her fam- 
ily first came to this place the ridge 
here was almost bare of trees. 

The main ridge runs a little east 
of north before reaching this point, 
but here it curves and branches, 
one branch running north, the other 
eastward. A few of the mounds 
are on the crest, the rest on the 
southern slope of the ridge that 
runs eastward and on the eastern 
slope of the main ridge close to the 
junction of the branches. 

The group consists of 24 mounds, 
1 quadruped, 3 birds, 13 long and 7 
round mounds, all of which, except 
two of the birds, are shown in the 
diagram (Fig. 17); the latter are 
shown in Fig. 18. 

The dimensions of mound No. 1 
(quadruped) are as follows: Total 
length, 98 feet; width over the 
shoulder to the fore foot, 41 feet; 
width of body between the legs, 27 
feet; width of fore leg near the 
body, 23 feet ; width of the hind leg 

near the body, 17 feet; distance between the legs at the "body, 32 feet; 

height at highest point, 3 feet. The natural curves of the animal's 

body are remarkably true to nature. 




THOMAS.l 



MOUND GROUP AT HAZEN COKNEKS. 



57 



The followiug- table gives the diineusions (length aud width of the 
loug and diameter of the roiiud mounds) of those numbered '2 to lil. 



No. 


Diameter 
or length. 


Width. 


Height.* 


KemarkB. 




Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 




2 


90 


13 to 18 


3 




3 


93 


15 to 15 


24 




4 


51) 


14 to 18 


^ 


This is the measure- 
meut of the part re- 


5 
6 


24 
31 




3 

2h 


maining. 




7 
8 


28 
102 




4 
3 




15 to 19 


9 


22 









10 
11 


110 
166 


14 to 17 
18 to 19 






2i 


12 


21 




o 




13 


28 




2i 
24 
3 




14 


21 






15 


136 


11 to 17 




16 


138 


14 to 18 


3 




17 


74 


12 to 16 


24 




18 


110 


13 to 18 


2 




19 


173 


18 to 22 


24 




20 


155 


13 to 18 


2 




21 


180 


16 to 23 


3 





* Approximate. 

The dimensions of bird mound (22) are as follows, commencing "with 
the end of the north wing : 

Feet. 

Width of north wing at tip 8 

Width of north wing between tip 

and curve 15 

Widtli of north wing at curve 18 

Width of north wing at body 35 

Width of body and tail 15 

Width of body at ;i to ! 17 

Width of neck, i to k 18 

Width of head, j) to g 15 

Widtli of south wing at body, k to I. 32 

Width of south wing at curve, m to o. 19 
Width of south wing between curve 

aud tip, at )• 14 

Width of south wing at tip 4 



Feet. 

a to 6 84 

i to c 44 

c to ri 27 

rf to e 100 

ctof 34 

etog 74 

ftog 108 

a to e 228 

eto/i 23 

c to i 16 

c to J: 15 

ctol 20 

c to «t 26 

c to H 36 

c to o 29 



This efflgy lies with head down hill, and the washing from the ridge 
has filled in between the body and the wings until they are probably 
lower aud narrower than when they were first built. The outline of 
the south wing is filled with this washing for a distance of 38 feet, and 
hence its dimensions here could not be accurately determined. It and 



58 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



tlie mounds numbered 17, 18, and 19 stand on the lowest ground of 
any of the group. It is about 3 feet high at the point c if the measure- 
ment is taken from the surface about the head, but only about a foot 
and a half if taken under the right wing. The surface of the vrings 
and body is rough and rounded, the slopes to the surface of the ground 
abrupt to the east and gradual to the west. The wings taper and 
decrease in height to the tips, but the body keeps its height and form. 

Mound No. 2,'3 (Fig. IS) is also in the form of a bird with outstretched 
wings. It lies to the southwest of li2, on top of the ridge, with the head 
lying crosswise of the highest point. 

Mound No. 24 is close to the right or east, on the high part of the 
ridge, extending in the same direction as 23. 

The outlines of both are clear and the slopes to the surface abrupt. 
The wings curve and taper and decrease in height to their tips, while 
the bodies of both preserve their height and form. They are covered 
by a thick growth of young trees. The dimensions of No. 23 are as fol- 
lows, commencing at the end of the left wing: 



Feet. 

« to i 94 

6 to c 37 



eta d 
<i to e 
cto/ 
e to iji , 
/ to .7 . 
a to e . 
e to fe 
c to i . . 



56 

90 

37 

72 

109 

240 

22 

23 

«to h 28 

cto J 25 

c to n 44 

e to 56 



Feet. 

Width of left wiug at tip 9 

Width of left wiug midway between 

tip and curve 18 

Width of left wing at body 25 

Width of body at tail 31 

Width of body at /i to i 29 

Width of neck at t to fc 25 

Width of head at end 24 

Width of right wiug at body 30 

Width of right wiug at curve 25 

Width of right wing midway be- 
tween curve and tip 18 

Width of wing at tip 7 



The measurements of mound 24, also commencing with the left wing, 
are as follows : 



Feet. 

a to ft 94 

J to c 35 

cto d 45 



dtoe. 
cto/. 
cto g . 
ftog 
ato e . 
c to A . 
c to i . 



95 

39 

71 

110 

230 

26 

23 

cto A: 22 

cto I 24 

to n 35 



Feet. 

c to 46 

Width of left wing at tip 6 

Width of left wing midway between 

tip and bend 18 

Width of left wing at bend 21 

Width of left wing at body 25 

Width of body at tail 23 

Width of body at 7i to 7 29 

Width of neck 27 

Width of head 23 

Width of right wing at body 25 

Width of right wiug at bend 23 

Width of right wing at tip 6 



THOMAS.l FOX-SHAPED EFFIGY. 59 

The nearest spring is some 300 or 400 yards northeast of the group 
at the foot of the ridge. 

Three of the round mounds of this group were explored, in each of 
which were found skeletons much decayed. In two of them no speci- 
mens, but in the other, on the original surface of the gTouud at the 
center, a small stone celt, some pieces of melted lead, and a regularlj- 
formed gunflint. These articles were close together and about 2 feet 
from the skeleton. 

Trenches were also cut through the long mouuds, which showed that 
the first 10 or 12 inches were of the ordinary vegetable mold, but the 
remainder to the original surface, of yellow clay. In one or two places 
small pieces of charcoal were observed, but nothing indicating burial. 
The result was the same in all the trenches. 




To ffazen's 



Fig. 19.— Quailrnpert effigy on Sec. 36, T. 8 N.. R. 6 W., Wisconsin. 

Northward of this group some 100 yards there is a mound in the 
form of a quadruped, probably a fox (Fig. 19), partly in the woods and 
partly in the field on the west side of the road. It is built on the crest 
of the ridge with the head to the south. The outlines of the body are 
clear, but those of the head are somewhat indistinct. It gradually 
decreases in height from the head, where it is about 18 inches, to the 
end of the tail and legs. It is in the same section as the mounds at 
Hazen Corners. The nearest water is the spring before mentioned. 

The ridge slopes to the east and west from the mound and also falls 
slightly to the north and south. A partial exploration has been made, 
but nothing save a good sized rock was dug out of it. 



60 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The measurements of this mound are as follows : 



Feet. 



Feet. 

Width of tail at body 17 

Width of tail at end 3 

Width of body at fore leg, k to ^j 21 

Width of body between legs 19 

Width of body at hiud legs 20 

Distance between legs at body, A' to I 31 

Distance between legs at toes, i torn. 50 

Tip of nose to fore leg, a to i 64 



Length of nose to end of tail, « to e. . 145 

Length of body, A to n 62 

Length of tail, h to e 35 

Length of fore leg 32 

Length of hind leg 30 

Width of fore leg at body, htok .... 18 

Width of fore leg at end 16 

Width of hind leg at body, I to n 19 

Width of hiud leg at end 13 

The tail is pointed and the ends of the legs are round. 

MOUNDS ON SECTION :!5, T. 8 N., E. 6 W. 

About a mile southward of Hazeu Comers on the Blake river road 

is a group of four 
bird-shaped and 
one long mound 
situated on the 
NE. of sec. 25, T. 8 
N., R. 6 W., at the 
cross roads. The 
efiQgy mounds are 
west of the road 
and the long one 
is east of it. They 
are all situated on 
the northern slope 
of the ridge not far 
from the top; the 
heads of the effigy 
mounds are, as 
usual, to the south 
and up the hill. 

Three of these ef- 
figies are of about 
the same form, the 
only diflerence be- 
tween No. 3 and 
the others being in 
the shape of the 
wings, which 
stretch nearly at 
I'ight nngles with 
the body instead 
of curving like the 
others. Their 
bodies are shorter 
than those at Hazen Corners; otherwise there is but little difference. 




THOMAS.] 



BIRD EFFIGIES. 



61 



The tops of all the mouiuls in tins f;TOui) are rounded and tlie slopes 
abrupt. Like the otheis they gradually narrow and descend to the tips 
of the wings. 

JSTo. 1 (Fig. 20) is about 3 feet high; No. 2, 3 J feet; No. 3, 2i feet; 
No. 4 (Fig. 21) 2J feet, and No. .5 (Fig. 20) (the long mound), 2 feet. 




Fig. 21.— Bird effigy, Sec. 3."), T. g N., K. 6 W., Wi.scousin. 

The dimensions of No. 1, commencing with the tip of the left wing, 
are as follows : 



Feet. 

fl to 6 82 

ft to c 28 

c to d 27 

<i to e .59 

« to e 161 

c to / 25 

c to g 56 

ftog 81 

ctoh 21 

c to i 20 

c to it 21 

ctol 17 

c to «i 24 

c to « 37 

c to o 36 

In No. 2, they are as follows : 

Feet. 

o toft 71 

6 to c 40 

ctod 48 

d to e - 74 

« to e 209 

cto/ 15 

c to (/ 54 



Feet. 

Width of left wing at tip 7 

Width of left wing midway between 

V)end and tip 21 

Width of left wing at body 26 

Width of body immediately under the 

wings 25 

Width of tail 20 

Width of head at the front 18 

Width of right wing at body 23 

Width of right wing at bend 21 

Width of right wing between bend 

and tip 17 

Widtli of right wing at tip 8 

Width of left wing at bend 22 



Feet. 

ftog 69 

c to ft 18 

c to i 29 

c to fc 22 

f to ; 18 

c to m 34 

to »i - 56 



62 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Feet. 

c to 54 

Width of left wing at tip 5 

Witlth of left wiug between tip and 

bend 17 

Width of left wing at road 18 

Width of left wing at body 23 

Width of body at butt of wings -11 

In Xo. 3, they are as follows : 

Feet. 

ato J 121 

* to c 98 

6 to d 28 

6 to e 56 

6to/ 18 

6 to </ 21 

6 to7( 17 

bto i 20 

Width of left wing at tip 4 

Width of left wing between tip and 
body -. 17 

Of No. 4, tlie measurements are : 



a to J 
6 to c . 
c to d . 
dto e 



Feet. 
. 88 
. 36 
. 39 
. 83 



a to e 214 



c to /. 
c to J 



24 

61 

c to 7i 22 

e to i ' 20 

c to fc 23 

c to / 25 

c to jii 44 

c to « 35 

c to 44 



Fc«t. 

Width of body at tail 23 

Width of right wiug at body 18 

Width of right wing at road 12 

Width of right wiug between bend 

and tip 15 

Width of right wing at tip 6 



Feet. 

Width of body at butt of wings 25 

Width of body near the end 26 

Width of head 20 

Width of right wing at body 25 

Width of right wing between body 

and tip 16 

Width of right wiug at tij) 5 

a to c 219 



Feet. 

Width of left wing at tip 7 

Width of left wing between tip and 

bend 18 

Width of left wing at bend 24 

Width of left wing at body 30 

Width of body at butt of wings. . . . 30 

Width of body at tail 22 

Width of neck at butt of wings 25 

Width of head at front 17 

Width of right wing at body 28 

Width of right wiug at bend 23 

Width of right wing between bend 

and tip 17 

Width of right wiug at tip 5 



No. 5, the loug mound, is 152 feet loug and 1!» feet wide at the 
north end, 22 in the middle, and 20 at the south end. 

The tips of the wings, the heads, and tails of the effigy mounds and 
the ends of the long monnd are rounded. 

These mounds do not appear to be included in those mentioned in 
Mr. Strong's paper. 

Mouxns ON slaumer's land. 

This is a small group consisting of but two mounds, an efiflgy, and a 
loug mound. They are situated west of the Black river road, just north 
(10 or 15 rods) of the line between Prairie du Chien and Eastman town- 
ships, on SW. i Sec. 35, T. 8 K, E. 6 W., on the top of the ridge in the 
woods. The ridge slopes from them to the east and west. The group 



COURTOIS GROUP. 



63 



is shown in Fij>'. 22. No. 1 (the long one) is 14:2 feet long, 21 feet wide 
at the north end, 20 in the middle, and 13 at the south end. It is about 
2 feet high and extends northwest and southeast. 

No. 2, the effigy, 410 feet 
south and a little west of No. 
1, is about 3 feet high, the top 
round, and the surface tolerably 
even, with highest point on the 
back ; the slopes to the east ab- 
rupt. It measures from — 

Feet. 

(I to 6 75 

6 to (■ 38 

ctorf 41 

dtoe 72 

c tof 36 

e to y 70 

ftoff 106 

cto ft 22 

c to I 20 

cto A- 24 

c to ; 26 

c to m 49 

c to n 42 

c to 45 

Width of left wing at tip 8 

AVidth of left wing between tip 

and bend 17 

Width of left wing at bend 21 

Width of left wing at body 23 

Width of body at end 20 

Width of body at butt of wings. .30 

Width of neek at butt of wings . 2H 

Width of head from p to q 31 

Width of head at end 14 

Width of right wing at body ... 24 

Width of right wing at bend ... 21 
Width of right wing between 

bend and tip 19 

Width of right wing at tip 7 

Expanse of wings, from a to e. . . 200 

The ends of the wings and body are roughly semicircular. 

THE COURTOIS GROUP. 

About 3 miles north of Prairie du Chien is a group of ordinary con- 
ical mounds situated on Sec. 12, T. 7 N., R. 7 W., the general plan of 
which is seen in Fig 23. The mounds numbered 1 to 9 are on a long, 
narrow, sandy swell, about 70 or SO feet wide, which runs north and 
south, and is just high enough to place them out of reach of the high 
water of the Mississippi; 
adjoining fields. 




the others, numbered 10 to 33, are in the 



64 



MOUND EXPLOKATIONS. 



No. 1. Circular in outline, rounded on top, 60 feet in diameter at the 
base and 3 feet lii^li. Made of black sandy loam. 

No. 2. An oblong, flat-topped mound; length, 60 feet; width, 35 feet, 
and height, 3 feet. As it was occupied in early times by the house of 
a Frenchman, and looks as though it had been plowed or graded down, 

the present form is 
probably not the ori- 
ginal one. 

No. 4. Similar in 
size and form to No. 
1 ; 5 feet high. A par- 
tial examination of 
this mound had pre- 
viously been made, 
when some specimens 
were found, but no 
particulars could be 
learned in regard to 
them. It consisted of 
three layers; first, a 
top layer, 2J ft. thick, 
of black sandy loam; 
next a thin stratum 
of silver sand, and a 
bottom layer, 2 feet 
thick, of dark muck, 
slightly mixed with 
sandy loam. The re- 
examination revealed 
nothing save a few 
fresh-water shells. 

No. 5. Conical, 40 
feet in diameter and 
3i feet high, had pre- 
viously been opened 
by a trench through 
it ti'om north to south. 
A further examina- 
tion brought to light 
some badly decayed human bones, which had been partially disturbed 
by the previous explorers, but enough remained in position to show 
that the bodies, or skeletons, had been folded when buried. These lay 
on the gravelly substratum of the ridge; hence it is presumed that 
the thin surface soil had been removed before burial. Nothing more, 
save a few decayed shells scattered here and there through the mound, 
was observed. 




COURTOIS GROUP. 



65 




No. (■>. Similar in size and form to No. 1; 4 feet high and composed 
througliont of dark sandy loam, similar to the surrounding- surface soil. 
The plan of this mouud, showing- the relative positions of the skeletons 
and articles discovered, is given iu Fig. 34, 

In the western side (at./'), about 
2 feet belo-R' the surface, was a 
small deposit of fresh water shells, 
but so far decayed that no speci- 
mens were saved. At e a folded 
adult skeleton was discovered, with 
head south and face west; under 
it lay a small stone perforator and 
above it a small arrow head. The 
bones were broken and very soft 
and the skull was crushed tlat; 
from the indications it would seem 
that they had been broken before ^"'- 24.-Mound No. e, courtois group, Prairie du 

- . , Cliien, Wis. 

burial. 

At d the original surface of the ridge had been excavated to the 
depth of a foot and over an area about 12 feet in diameter. In this 
layer were some 6 or 7 adult skeletons, all fohled, with the heads in 
various directions, but all so soft and badly decayed that none of the 
skulls could be saved. At g, near the eastern side, at the depth of 2 
feet, was part of an iron knife blade. 

Nos. 3, 7, 8, and 10 were found to consist of dark loam throughout, 
but furnished no specimens or any evidence of having been used as 
burial places. 
No. l(j is a very small and insignificant mound, scarcely exceeding 20 

feet in diameter and not more than a 
foot in height, though it has evidently 
been considerably worn down by the 
plow. Nevertheless it is important as 
presenting the characteristics of a 
somewhat peculiar class of mounds 
quite common in this State, but seldom 
met with elsewhere; for this reason 
the figures and details are given more 
fully than would otherwise be required. 
Circular in form, as shown by the 
plan given in Fig. 25, low, rounded, 
but somewhat flatfish, it was con- 
structed of material similar to the sur- 
rounding soil, and of the same character throughout, without any indi- 
cations whatever of stratification. A circular, basin-shaped excava- 
tion had first been made in the ground to the gravel, in this case to the 
depth ot 2 feet. The boundary of this excavated portion is indicated 
by the dotted circle. 
12 ETH .5 




Fia 25.— Plan of monnd No. 16, Courtois 
group, Prairii' du Chien, Wis. 



66 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

Four skeletons were found at tlu; points indicated in the figure, all 
lying Iiorizoiitally at full Iciigtii; L! side l)y side near the center on 
the gravel, with heads south aud faces up; 1 at the north side on 
th(! gravel, with head west and face northeast, aud the other on the 
south side, witli head to the east. No itn|)h'ni('nts or ornaments of any 
kind were ohscM'ved. It is in-obabh; tliat tuuiuli of this character are 
the burial places of the common people. 

No. 17 \*'as similar in every respect to No. 16 except that the excava- 
tion was only to tlie deptii of 1 foot, and that in it were S folded skele- 
tons in no regular order, heads being in all directions. On the margin 
of the excavation and rather above the natural surface of the ground 
was a brokcMi skull. 

No. 18, 20 feet in diameter and U feet high, unstratified, was com- 
posed of earth similar to the surrounding soil. Tiiere were no indica- 
tions tluit the origiiuil surface, had been hollowed out in this case, as in 
most of the otiu-rs of the group, nevertiieless '1 broken skulls were 
found a little south of the center at the depth of 3 feet, hence 1 foot 
below the original surface. A few feet northwest of the center, scarcely 
ii foot below tiie snrface of the mound, were .'? folded skeletons, and in 
the center another lying at full length, head west and face up. The 
height of the mouud had been reduced by plowing. 




Fig. 26.— Mount) Nn. 'JO (.section). Conrtois group, Prairif dii Chion. Wis. 

No. 19, 25 feet in diameter and 2 feet high, was similar to No. 18. 
Broken hunum bones were found in this tumulus to the depth of 
6 inches, and 3 folded skeletons at ditterent depths in no regular 
order of burial. But, what is somewhat singular, the skull in each 
case had been disconnected from and i)laced on top of the bundled 
bones of the skeleton. 

No. 20, 70 feet in diameter and 5 feet high. This mound, as will 
be seen by the section shown in Fig. 2(i, was stratified as follows: Top 
layer of .soil, 18 inches; next a hard mortar-like substance, or clay 
mixed with ashes, 2i feet; below this a layer of black, sticky, wet 
earth, 1 foot, and a bottom layer of sand 1 foot thick, extending to the 
gravel 1 foot below the original surface of the ground. On the west 
side, in the top layer, at the depth of from 9 to 12 inches, were 6 
folded skeletons, and at the head of each a siugle sandstone of con- 
siderable si/.e. Other human bones (Manured in the same layer at a 
dei>th of from G to 9 inches,' which had been disturbed by the plow. 
In this layer was also a small pile of lead ore, on it some burned 



' The measureinentB indicating the depth of skeletons iind articles are always to be understood to 
the upjHT surfacir tliereof from the top of the mound. 



TiioMAH.i COURTOIS GROUP. 67 

bones, lUiil oil these ;i folded skeleton witli tlic liead west, a lance bead 
by one slionldor, and a stone iniplcMnent near by. 

Near tiie center, in tins liardpaTi or mortar-like layer (No. li) iinnii'di- 
ately nnder layer No. 1, was a, folded skeleton wiMi h<?a(l east. l!y the 
head was a broken clay vessel. Directly nnder this, in layer No. . 'J, 
was a broken chiy pot. At the west side, iu the bottom or sand layer, 
was an (ixtended skeh'ton, head east, finder the body a, S|)earhead, 
and nnder the head a lew copper heads. Some cojjper beads were also 
fonnd around the ankles. 

No. 21. Sixty leet in diameter and .! feet IiIkIi. The; first stroke, of 
the spade brougl't to li};ht broken human lionets, which la,y close to tiie 
surface and appeared to have been disturbed by the plow, as they 
were not in r<'{;nlai' order. Near the center, a foot down, lay a folded 
skeleton with head west, and l)y it a broken i)ot. A little to tin; <!ast 
of the last, and .'5 feet down, was another skeleton stretched at full 
length, with the head and fa(r(! uj). Under the head wctro a few (;o|i])er 
b(;ads. South of this, and at the sanxi ih^iith, was a small c,op|iei' orna 
nient, and a short distance stnitheast of the center, also at the sami' 
depth, a tine lance hiiad. 

No. 22. Sixty feet in diameter and 5 feet hif;h. First foot, soil; tin- 
rest black, mncky eartir, with a, slif;ht admixture of sand. At the depth 
of 2 feet were seven skeletons, with heads in various directions, some 
stretched out with the faces up, others folded, also other bones. At 
tint center, about .'{ feet down, were a few rib bon(\s, ajijiarently the, 
remains of a skeleton, over which lay a- coj)per plate. At the same 
depth, a little south of the center, three silver beads were disctovered. 

Althouf;!) the excavation in this case, as in the rest of tlni moninls, 
was carried down into the gravel beneath, nothing was Ibninl below the 
depth indicated. 

No. 2(J. Sixty feet in diameter and ."> feet high. (Jomposed of earth 
similai' to the suri-oniuling soil. Near the center, 2 feet down, weie two 
folded skeletons, with the lictads northeast. At the heads were two 
])0t8, one with the mouth up, the other on its side, and in it a lumj) of 
lead or(!. Under one of the skulls were two perfoiated bear's tec^tli. 
Several soft sandstones were found in the south w(!stpoition, and nnder 
them some very so't luinnin bones, the remains of a l)ody buiied lieie. 

Southeast of thci mound, and almost adjoining it, is a long, narrow, 
l»ear-shap(t(l pile of dirt (not sh(»wn in the plat) ;ibout 10 fc<^t long, 10 
feet wide at the widest point and 2 feet high. A broad trench across 
the middle revealed nothing except the fact that it was composed of 
earth similar to the surionnding soil. 

No. 2.5. A small mound !•"> feet in diameter, 1 foot high, and of the 
same type as No. 10. In the exciavation originally made in the natural 
surface was a single skeh-ton stretched at full length, head southeast 
and face uj) and near by it a broken pot. 



68 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The surface of the field around the mouiuls is uneveu and looks as 
though thelatterhad been heaped up with dirt taken from about them, 
leaving irregular depressions. 

THK DOl'SEMAN MKIINll. 

A mound of the usual conical form, about a mile and a half north of 
Prairie du Chien, 75 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, situated on the 

land of Mr. n. L. Douse- 
man, was oi)eiied with the 
following result: It was 
composed throughout of a 
black sandy loam, like the 
surface soil of the field in 
which it stands, the mate- 
rial piobably coming from 
what seems to be an artifi- 
cial depression immediate- 
ly southeast of it. The an- 
nexed figure (Fig. 27) is a 
horizontal plan showing 
the relative positions of the 
skeletons and other things 
discovered therein. Fig. 28 
is a vertical section. About 
G feet east of the center (at 
h), and 2 feet below the sur- 
face, was a regularly built, solid, oblong pile of small rough salidstone 
and limestone fragments 2 feet long east and west, 18 inches wide, and 
15 inches high. Under it were portions of a human skeleton, but the 
skull was wanting; the bones were very soft and badly decayed. 




Flo. 27.— Douacman mnuinl (ulan). Prairie (h\ Chien. Wi.^. 





^^l^^^^S^l^^^S?^^^^^^?^^^?^^ 



Fig. 28.— Douscman luouml (section), Prairie du Cliien, Wis. 

North of the center, at c, 2 feet below the surface, was another j)ile of 
similar dimensions, but oval and hollow. At d was a third of similar 
size and form, and at e a foui'th. These three were regularly built of 
soft, coarse-grained sandstones, which bear indications of fire, though 
no charcoal or ashes were on or about them. No bones were seen in 
ov under either of these three piles or little vaults. Quite a number of 
shell beads were found some 10 or 12 inches below the surface, imme- 
diately under which was a folded skeleton /, head south, face west. Ee- 
mainsof two other skeletons wei'e found, one in the center at g, at the 
base of the mound. This was so completely decayed that fragments of 



TiiuMAs I THE VILAS MOUNDS. 69 

tlie skull oulj' were left. The other, at /(, 2 feet below the surface, 
was similarly decayed. 

rriK VILAS MOUNDS. 

This group, shown in Plate i, is a large oue, containing 56 mounds, 
and is situated on the area bounded by the Mississippi and Wisconsin 
rivers and the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Eailroad, ou Sees. 7 
and 8, T. 6 N., K. 6 W., about .'5 miles south of Prairie du Chien. They 
stand on the high sandy bank of the Wisconsin river, in a growth of 
small trees, some of them being Hush with the brink, some on a small 
table laud 10 or 1') feet higher than the others, and the rest on the gen- 
eral level of the prairie, all above high water. 

The river banks are about 40 feet higher than the usual water level, 
the slopes steep, the surface where most of the mounds are situated 
comparatively tlat, but to the northwest it rises in a small table some 
. 10 or 15 feet higher than the prairie that borders on the Mississippi 
river, and commands an extensive view of the bottoms. The soil is 
sandy and easy to work, although not deep nor very productive. The 
trees appear to be of recent growth. 

No. 48, S. 77° E. of 49, Oli feet long, extends east and west, and was 
intended to represent some kind of a quadruped, probably a bear. 
The eastern end at the time of examination was covered by a heavy 
growth of corn, and has been so plowed down that its form could not 
be fully ascertained. 

Nos. 23, 24, and 33 were carefully excavated, but furnished no indi- 
cations of having been used for burial purposes; nor were ashes, char- 
coal, or relics of any kind found in them; yet under each there was an 
excavation to the depth of a foot or more. They were composed ot 
dark, sandy soil. Others were examined, but nothing discovei'ed. 

THK POLAX'DUR GROUP. 

This group is about a mile up the Mississippi river from Lynxville, 
Crawford county, on Lot 2, Sec. 14, T. 9 N., R. 6 W., at the mouth of a 
deep, narrow ravine. 

The mounds are located partly on top of a narrow bench that runs 
around the foot of the blutt' to the northwest and partly on its western 
slope. One of them is in the bed of a small creek (now dry) that 
drains the ravine. A plan of the group is given in Fig. 29. They are 
mostly simple conical heaps of earth, although there are some long 
ones in the group. Two of the large ones, close to the foot of the slope, 
are connected by a long, low embankment, like those found on the 
Souris river in Manitoba. The majority of them are small and low. 
The bank upon which they staiul is probably 75 feet higher than the 
road that runs close to its foot on the west side. The bench is covered 
by a growth of trees, which the owner says have grown up within the 
last twenty-seven years. 



70 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Mouud Ni). 3, situated on the western slope of tlie bench, is conical 
in form, about 45 feet in diameter and 7 feet high. Commencing at 
the top, there was first a thin hiyer of vegetable mold 2 inches in 
thickness («, Fig. 30) ; next a layer, mostly of clay, sliglitly mixed with 
sand, which had probably washed from the blufts, 3i feet thick (c); 
below this a layer of clay, very hard, 18 inches {d); then a layer {b) 
of loose, fine, dry dust, which gave out a peculiar odor; and lastly, 

correspomling to 
the original sur- 
face of the ground, 
a thin layer, appar- 
ently composed of 
decayed vegetable 
matter (e). Be- 
neath this was an 
excavation about 
1 foot in depth, 8 
feet wide, and 12 
feet long. Owing 
to the slope on 
which the mound 
was placed, this 
had been cut into 
so as to make a 
level bed, on which 
the bodies were 
deposited. Here 
were twelve skel- 
etons — ten of ad- 
ults and two of 
children. The two 
children were in 
the northeast cor- 
ner of the pit; the 
bones were in con- 
fusion. Three of 
the adult skeletons 
were in the middle 
of the platform ; the bones were disarticulated, but those of each skeleton 
formed into a bundle. Two skulls and a few of the bones of the body 
were found between the children and the other three, one of the skulls 
lying on top of the other. In the south eud of the pit were three skulls 
in fragments and the remains of five skeletons in a confused heap. A. 
single skull, but no other bones with it, was found in connection with 
a few flat stones in the hard clay layer at the depth of 2 feet. 
Mound 9, 20 feet in diameter and between 2 and 3 feet high, stood on 




THOMAS. J 



THE POLANDER GROUP. 



71 



the same slope as the preceding and, like it, liad an excavation in the 
original surface of the grouud, but much smaller, the length being only 
4 feet, the width a little less, and the depth 1 foot. A foot from the top, 
near the center of the mound, lay a bundled skeleton, apparently an 
intrusive burial. Nothing was discovered in the pit except what were 
supposed to be decayed remains of two bundled skeletons. 

Mound 8, one of the smaller tumuli of the group, presented some 
marked variations from those described. The diameter was scarcely 
20 feet and height .'3 feet. In the central portion, 2 feet distant fi-om 
each other, were two stone graves, oval in outline, each 3^ feet long by 
3 feet wide, built up of cobblestones, and had probably been closed 
over dome-fashion at the top, though this portion had apparently fallen 
in. Over these, covering the tops about (> inches and filling the spaces 
between and each side of them, was a layer of surface soil, and cover- 
ing this a single layer of loose sandstones about 6 inches thick. lu 
one grave were two bundled skeletons; in the other, three. 




Fig. 30. — Mound No. 3 (section), Polander group, Crawford county. Wis. 

Mound 6, circular, 23 feet in diameter and 3 feet high, was con- 
structed as follows: Commencing at the top, there was first a layer, 2 
inches thick, of vegetable mold, then a foot of surface soil; next a sin- 
gle layer of rough stones of various sizes; next a layer of earth 1 foot 
thick. Immediately under the layer of stones, nearly in the center of 
the mound, were two folded or bundled skeletons, lying on some loose 
stones. These stones were found to be part of a wall lining a pit in 
the original .soil. This pit was 4 feet long by 3 feet bi'oad between the 
walls, which were of a single thickness of cobblestones, the sides 
somewhat fiaring, the corners nearly square, 18 inches deep, and sides 
lined entirely around with stones. Lying on the bottom were the skele- 
tons of three adults and one child, all folded. 

In mound No. 1 nothing was found save three good-sized stones. In 
No. 17 were three folded skeletons. In 29 there was a pile of stones 
somewhat in the form of an inverted cone, measuring 10 feet across the 
vipturned base and tapering to a point at the depth of 3 feet; a few 
coals lay on the upper surface. At the bottom of the mound, on the 
original surface of the ground, were a copper drill and an arrow point. 

Trenches were cut across the long mounds, but nothing observed, 
except that they were formed of loose surface soil. 

No. 4 measured 26 feet in diameter and 3 feet high. In the center 
was a kind of vault formed by a circular stone wall feet in diameter 
from outside to outside, and 4 feet inside, built in a pit dug in theorig- 



72 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



iual surface to the depth of a foot or 18 iiicbes. In this vault or grave 
was a skeleton very well preserved, doubled up and lying on the right 
side, at the dt^pth of 4 feet from the to]i of the mound. The vault was 
covered very carefully with flat limestones like those of which tlie wall 
was built. No implements, ornaments, or relics of any kind were found. 
Xo. 11 was about the same size as No. 1. Lying on the natural sur- 
face of the ground near the center were four large flat stones, placed 
so as to form a square. These bore distinct evidences of having been 
burned. In the area between tliem lay a single skeleton, folded and 
placed ou its side. There were coals and ashes immediately about and 
on the stones, but none in direct contact with the skeleton. 

Mound No. 12 was like No. 4 throughout, with stone vaidt and single 
skeleton, differing only in the fact that the skeleton was stretched out 

horizontally and that the covering 
of stones over the vault was less 
complete. 

No. 16, though a small mound 
only 17 feet in diameter and L*| feet 
liigh, presented some interesting 
features. It also contained an 
incomplete stone vault (Fig. 31), 
which, though only about 3i feet 
wide, and of the form shown in the 
figure, extended from the toi) of 
the mound down a foot or more 
below the natural surface of the 
ground. This contained a single 
skeleton in a half upright position, 
the head being only about U feet 
below the surface of the mound 
while the feet were down some 3J or 4 feet below the surface, or nearly 
2 feet lower than the head. The head was southwest, the feet north- 
east. Near the right hip was a discoidal stone. There were no traces 
of coals or ashes in this mound. 

No. 30 contained neither stones, vault, nor skeleton, the oidy things 
found in it were a few badly decayed Unio shells near the bottom. 




Fig. 31. — Mound No. 16 (horizontal section), Po- 
lander group. 



THE FLUCKE MOUNDS. 

This group, .shown on plat (PI. i) in connection with the Vilas 
group, is on the farm of Mr. Joseph Fliicke, 2 miles south of Prairie du 
Chien, and in the vicinity of the Vilas group. It contains twelve cir- 
cular mounds, the relative positions of which are shown in the figure. 
Of these, numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were opened with the following 
result : 

No. 1, 65 feet in diameter and G feet high, was composed of dark, 
sandy soil throughout, except near the bottom, where there were some 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. 



F LUCRE GROUP 




•« 



#9 



•7 



«6- »J 



PLAN OF THE VILAS AND FLUCKE GROUPS, CRAWFORD COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



THOMAS.) THE FLUCKE GROUP. 73 

very thin layers of black earth, but these were of limited extent, 
not reachlDg across the mound, and not exceeding 2 inches in thickness. 
Beneath the central portion was an excavation in the natural soil, 
about 12 feet in diameter and extending down to the yellow sand, a 
depth of something over a foot. On the bottom of this excavation 
were three skeletons, all lying iii a horizontal position. No. 1, on the 
back, head east, elbows out and haiids turned towards the head; near 
each hand was a fine, large obsidian spearhead, one of which is 9 
inches long. Near the head, on each side, were two spool-shaped arti- 
cles of copper. From the position in which these were found, relative 
to the head, it is presumed they had been used as ear ornaments- 
Skeleton 2 was lying close to and on the north side of No. 1, the bones 
much decayed; no relics with it. No. 3 lay with the head northeast. The 
bones were partially burnt and charred from the head to the hips and 
more or less covered throughout with charcoal and ashes. The skull 
was crushed to pieces and charred until it was black; near it were sev- 
eral large copper beads, or perhaps ear pendants, made of sheet cop- 
per rolled into the form of long cones, varying in length from three- 
fourths of an inch to an inch and a half. 

Mound 2 stands on the same elevation as No. 1. It measured about 
60 feet in diameter, and a little less than 6 feet high. This, like the 
other, had beneath it a slight excavation in the natural soil. In this 
were the bones (except the skull) of an adult, in a close, compact bun- 
dle; with them were some of the teeth, but no part of the skull. The 
flesh had evidently been removed before burial here. Near by was a 
single arrowhead, the only article found in the mound. 

Mounds 3 and 4, each 3 feet high, and respectively 42 and 36 feet in 
diameter, were similar in construction to 1 and 2, with the usual exca- 
vation beneath, but without any evidences of burial in them. 

No. 5, a beautiful mound measuring 68 feet in diameter and 7 feet 
high, stands on the same elevation as .1 and 2. In the center was a 
cu'cular or inverted conical mass of yellow sand and gravel, extending 
from the top of the mound to the depth of 3 feet. In this mass were 
the much decayed bones of a child. One side of the skull was colored 
by copper ; a small copper bracelet made of two pieces of slender copper 
wire twisted together and a coil of copper wire were found with the 
bones. As these are evidently of European manufacture this may 
have been an intrusive burial. At the bottom of the mound, in an 
excavation in the original surface, were other human bones, but so 
decayed that it was impossible to tell whether they belonged to one or 
two bodies. 

THE ARMSTRONG GROUP. 

This group, which is situated near the Mississippi, one-fourth of a 
mile below Lynxville, at the mouth of a deep and nari-ow ravine, and 
consists of eleven round mounds and one effigj^, is represented in 
Fii;-. 32. 



74 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Mouud No. 11, somewliiit oval iu foiiii, ineasuied 48 feet in diameter 
froui uurtli to soutli, 33 feet from east to west, and a little over i feet high. 
Near the center was a skeleton lying on a circular platform of stones. 
This platform or layer of stones was about .5 feet iu diameter and 
rested on the original surface of the gound. The skeleton was so far 
decomposed that it was impossible to determine precisely its position. 

No. 12 occupies the lowest point in the group and is only about 
200 yards from the river's edge, on a level about 20 feet above the usual 
water mark. It measured only 26 feet in diameter and 4 iu height, and 
was composed almost wholly of stones, packed so tightly that it was 




=^*»*«<\^*""««« 



,«*^sf!??!' 



Fig. 32. — Plan of the Armstrong group, near LvnsviUe, Crawford county. Wis. 

difBcult to remove them. The stones being removed to the depth of 2J 
feet, a layer of dark earth was reached, though still filled with stones. 
At the bottom of this layer, which extended downward 18 inches, was 
a mass of human bones so closely packed that but little earth was mixed 
with them. They occupied a space about 6 feet in diameter and rested 
on a platform or layer of stones which extended under the larger portion 
of the mound. As there were nine skulls, there were at least nine indi\nd- 
uals or rather skeletons buried here. Among the bones were two bear's 
teeth, a few bone articles, some fragments of pottery, a piece of deer's 
horn, and the claw of some bird. 

On top of the high bluff immediately back of this group is another 
larger group of mounds, some of which are efBgies. 



MOUND IN PHAIKIK DU CHIEN. 



This mound. which is situated just below Old Fort Crawford, and meas- 
ures (jO feet in diameter and nearly 5 feet in height, is noticed bere on 
account of the excavation beneath it. This was 12 feet in diameter, 



THOMAS.) 



THE SUE COULEE GROUP. 



75 




extending 5 feet below the original surface of the ground, and was filled 
with dark, sandy earth similar to that of which the mound was com- 
l)osed. No specimens of any kind, charcoal, ashes, or indications of 
burial were discovered. 

SUE COULKK GROUP. 

This group, a plat of which is given at A in Fig. 33, is situated near 
the Mississippi river at the month of the ravine known as " Sue Coulee." 
It consists of eighteen beautiful round mounds, standing on a level 
bench or table, some 30 feet high, which runs back to the bluff. They 
have been plowed over for about sixteen years. Several of them had 
been partially explored previous to the visit of an employe of this Bu- 
reau, but nothing could be learned of the result. 

At B, Fig. 33, is shown a cross section of Sue Coulee at a-b; 1 is the 
creek channel; 2, the table or bench on which the mounds are located; 
3, the bluff on the soutii 
side; and 4, the bluft" on 
the north side. 

Mound 1, 42 feet in di- 
ameter and 5 feet high, 
was composed of yellow, 
sandy soil similar to that 
of the surroumling sur- 
face, unstratified and no 
excavation l)eneath it. 
Near the center on the 
original surface were ten 
skeletons all i)iled to- 
gether, with their heads 
in almost every direction, 
the leg and arm bones 
crossing one another. 
Some stones were lying 
immediately on them. 
Among them was a very 
large flint spear head 
and some bear teeth. 

Mound 4, 44 feet in di- 
ameter and 4 feet high, 
was composed of the same yellow, sandy soil as No. 1. In the center 
lying on the natural surface, were three skeletons, two of them side by 
side, heads east, the third with the head northeast, the feet of the latter 
touching the feet of the other two, and all stretched at full length in a 
horizontal position. They were covered with stones as those in No. 1. 

Mound 9, but 30 feet in diameter and 2i feet high, was composed of 
darker earth than those ali-eady mentioned. A single skeleton, very 




Fig. 33 — Plan of the Sue Coulee group, Cr.awford county, 
Wis. 



76 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



J 



(1 



mucli decayed, probably of a comparatively young person, was found 
lying on the natural surface of the ground near the center of the mound. 
Some scattering pieces of charcoal were observed, but no stones. 

Mound 12, 48 feet in diameter and S feet high, was 
composed throughout of the yellow earth heretofore 
mentioned, but the portion extending from the depth 
of 3 to 5 feet was packed very bard and tight, nuich 
more so than that above or below it. No articles or 
indications of burial were observed. 

No. 16 is the middle one of the row (see Fig. 33) of 
five mounds running parallel to and on the side next 
the Mississippi. It measured 45 feet in diameter and 
4 feet in height. In the central portion, at the bot- 
tom, were eleven skeletons close together, with the 
heads in every direction; no implements or orna- 
ments accompanied them, but at some distance from 
them, and about a foot above the level at which the 
skeletons lay, was a large broken pot. At the bottom 
a pit had been dug to the depth of 3 feet in the natu- 
ral soil, in which were four skeletons, two lying with 
heads southeast and the other two, one a child, with 
heads northwest. Near the head of the former lay a 
copper plate. This is lOf inches in length and 2f 
inches in width at the widest part, a thin sheet less 
than one-twentieth of an inch thick, but slightly un- 
even. Near each end, on one side, are four rows of 
small, circular indentations (some of them entirely 
through), which must have been made with a metallic 
instrument, as is evident from the raised points on 
the opposite side of the plate. This lay just below 
the skull and near the under jaw. Near the hand of 
the same skeleton were two long, slender, square 
copper drills or spindles, one about 9 inches long and 
one-fourth of an inch thick, pointed at one end and 
chisel-shaped at the otlier; the other 7 inches long 
and pointed at both ends, shown in Fig. 34. Near 
the head of one of these skeletons was a thin, cup- 
shaped ornament of copper, ])robably part of an ear- 
pendant. 

Mound 7, which stands on the highest ground of any of the group, is 
quite symmetrical, <>0 feet in diameter and 8 feet high, and, with the 
exception of a column running down in the center, it consisted of 
yellow, sandy soil. The column, circular in outline, 5 to G feet in diam- 
eter, and composed of loose dark earth, extended fiom the highest 
central point to the original surface of the ground. The yellow earth 
immediately surrounding it was very hard. 



Fig. 34. — Copper spin- 
dles from the Sue 
Coulee group, Craw- 
ford county. Wis. 



THOMAS.; MOUNDS OF VERNON COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 77 

111 tliis coluiiiii, at the tlcptli of 5 feet from tlie toji, lay a mass of 
human boues about 2 feet thick which spread over the entire circuit 
of the pit. Although but slightly decayed, they were mostly broken 
into pieces; even the skulls were in fragments, and all were heaped 
together in such confusion that it was impossible to determine the 
number of individuals represented, but there could not have been less 
than 1(» or 12. 

Immediately below them a small copper spindle was discovered simi- 
lar to those already mentioned, and some split bear teeth with holes 
through them. At the bottom of the mound was a complete skeleton, 
lying at full length on the original surface, face up, head east, and 
arms by its side. Near the left hand lay a line copi^er ax, weighing 1 
pound !) ounces, a little over inches in length. By the side of this 
was a large round implement of chipped obsidian, and near the right 
hand were 67 small copper beads, a bear tooth, and the jaw bone and 
some teeth of a small quadruped. 

The respective distances of the mounds of this group from one another, 
measuring from center to center, are as follows: From 1 to 2, 365 feet; 
from 2 to 3, 88 feet; from 3 to 5, 88 feet; from 5 to 4, 210 feet; from 5 
to 6, 55 feet; from 6 to 7, 238 feet; from 7 to 8, 105 feet; from 8 to 9, 
108 feet; from to 10, 112 feet; from 7 to 12, 200 feet; from 12 to 11, 
180 feet; from 12 to 13, 90 feet; from 13 to 15, 95 feet; from 15 to 14, 
65 feet; from 15 to 16, 101 feet; from 16 to 17, 80 feet; and from 17 to 
18, 85 feet. 

During the grading of a street that runs by Old Fort Crawford in 
Prairie du Chien, in a rise near the fort, a number of skeletons were 
unearthed. One of these had been buried in a small canoe about 9 
feet long. Most of the skeletons lay with the head to the southeast; 
with some were brass or copper kettles with iron bails ; on the arm 
bone of some were bracelets made of thick copjier wire. Among the 
articles found was a fine catliuite pipe and one or two other stone 
pipes. 

VERNON COTTNTY. 

There are several inounds on the foot hills or lo\^•er benches of the 
bluffs in Sec. 15, T. 11 N., li. 7 W., in the extreme southwest corner of 
the county. The bluffs are very high and steep with a narrow strip 
of land between them and the Mississippi river, sloping, but not too 
steep to cultivate, the soil being very productive. A diagram shelving 
the relative positions of those examined is given in Fig. 35. 

No. 1,40 feet in diameter and 5 feet high ', unstratifled. Nearthe cen- 
ter, a foot and a half below the surface of the mound, was an irregular 
layer of burned sandstones, some flat and others irregular in form. 
Immediately beneath these lay some partially burned human bones, 

' Wlien no nit'iM'ence is made to tlit- form it is to be uDdLTStootl flint the mounds are of the simple 
i'oiiieal ty])e. 



78 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



and near them a single chipped stone hoe. A little northwest of the 
center, at the dejjth of 5 feet and apparently resting on the natunil 
snrface of the ground, were the remains of five folded skeletons, heads 
north and fiices west. Under one of these was a single perforated 
bear-tooth. Tlie skeletons had been covered with a mortar-like siili- 
stance which was dry and very hard. 

No. 2, 100 feet northwest of No. 1 (measnring from base to base), 7.5 
feet in diameter and 7 feet high. This was composed thronghout 
(except the surface layer) of blue clay mixed with sand, very hard aud 
tough. Large sandstones, weighing [from 10 to 100 pounds, occurred 
at all depths, but not placed witli any regularity or according to any 
percejjtible plan. At tlie depth of 8 feet, and hence slightly below the 
original surface of the ground and a little southwest of the center, were 







__^_ 

ffiss.rtn'Efi 




Fig. 35.— Mound group near Battle island, Vernon county, Wis. 

six folded skeletons, lying on the bottom with the heads east and faces 
north. As soon as they were uncovered the bones fell to jjieces so that 
uot even the skulls could be saved. The dirt immediately around them 
was wet and sticky. 

No. 3, 60 feet north of No. 2, 40 feet in duimeter and 3i feet high. 
The top layer, l.i feet in depth, cou.sisted of black, rich loam, the re- 
mainder of blue clay. The original soil had evidently been removed to 
the depth of a foot or more — in one portion to the depth of 2 feet — 
before burial. On the north side, not far from the margin, the clay, for a 
considerable space, was very hard and dry, immediately beneath which 
were some four or five folded skeletons, with heads, so far as could be 
determined, in various directions. Near the southeast margin, at the 
ilepth of 6 feet, lay six other skeletons at full length with heads in 
different directions. Under one of them were three bears' teeth. The 
owner in a previous examination found near the center, at the depth of 
15 or 18 inches, a long string of glass beads. 



white's group. 



79 



No. i, 300 feet north of No. 3, 05 feet in diameter and 4 feet hijih. 
At the depth of 4 feet eight skeletons were lying at full length on the 
natural surface of the ground, with heads east and tiices up. They lay 
on the natural slope of the bench, so that the heads were higher than 
the feet. Their relative positions are given in Fig. 36 (a horizontal 
section of the mound), the larger figures indicating adult skeletons 
and the small one that of ;i child. Under the one at the northern end 
of the row were several bear 
teeth, and near them and at 
the same depth lay the under 
jaw of some animal. At the 
head of each skeleton was a 
large, irregular piece of sand- 
stone. The composition of this 
tumulus was chiefly a mixture 
of sand and light yellow clay 
unstratifled. 

No. 5, 30 feet northwest of 
No. 4, was 80 feet in diameter, 
5 feet high, and more flattened 
on top than is usual with tumuli 
of this type. On the northern 
side, at a depth of 3 feet, two 
folded skeletons were discov- 
ered, under one of which were 
several copperbeads, and under 

all bears' teeth. About the center and near the bottom was a single 
skeleton also folded and under the head were several bears' teeth. In 
the southern side, at the depth of 5 feet, a single very fine lance head 
was discovered; no bones were near it. 

No. 6, 125 feet northwest of No. 5, 85 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, 
was composed of rich black earth interspersed with sandstones. Near 
the center, at the bottom, lay a single badly-decayed skeleton, over 
which was heaped an irregular pile of sandstones of various sizes. 

No. 7, 20 yards northwest of No. (i, 50 feet in diameter and 5i feet 
high, consisted chiefly of dry, yellow clay. In the northern side at the 
depth of 5 feet were three or four much decayed skeletons, apparently 
folded, with heads east and taces north and in the southern portion at 
the depth of 2 feet the fragments of a stone pipe. Under the latter 
was an irregular pile of burned sandstones; but no ashes or coals 
were discovered, from which fact it is inferred that the stones were 
placed here after having been subjected to fire. 

white's group. 

In the northwest corner of the county, in Sec. 28, T. 14 N., R. 7 W., 
on land owned by Mr. H. White, is a group of small circular mounds 




Fig. 36 — Plan of Mound No. 4, Battle island, Vernon 
county, Wisconsin. 



80 MOUND EXPLOKATIONS. 

extending in a nearly straight line along the margin of the sandy level 
known locally as "Sand Prairie," where :t descends to the lower bot- 
tom lands of Raccoon river. Tliis level extends to tlie bliifls about a 
half mile distant, which are here very high and ateep. A plan of the 
group is given in PI. it, from which it will be seen that it contains 22 
mounds of various sizes. 

No. 1 of this group, 35 feet in diameter and 3i feet high, was composed 
tiiroughout of black, sandy soil similar to that around it. Six inches 
below tlie surface, at the center, fragments of a red earthenware vessel 
were found, but so rotten that they fell to pieces on being handled. A 
little north of the center, at the bottom, lying on the natural sand 
stratum, were the remains of four skeletons, heads north. Another 
skeleton was found in the southern side at the same depth, folded, 
head south, face east; over the skull was a small lance head. 

No. 2, immediately north of No. 1, touching it at the base, was 45 feet 
in diameter and 3 feet high. It was composed throughout of earth 
similar to the surrounding soil. Five skeletons were found at various 
depths, from 2 to 4 feet. Some were lying at full length, others folded 
with heads in various directions, but were all so soft that none could 
be saved. 

No. 3, Kit) feet north of No. 2, 40 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, was 
not stratified. Tlie skeleton of a child was lying near the center at the 
depth of IS inches, head west. Under tlie head was a brass ornament 
wrapped in cotton cloth, and about the position of the breast the frag- 
ments of another metallic ornament, also a few glass beads. This skele. 
ton had evidently been incased in a wooden coffin of some kind, but 
whether of bark or boards could not be determined. In the southwest- 
ern side the skeleton of an adult was discovered at the same depth, 
folded, with head south. Nothing else was observed, save a few frag- 
ments of pottery near the surface. 

No. 4, about 100 feet uortheastof No. 3, measured 50 feet in diameter 
and 4 feet high, unstratifled. Nothing was discovered in this mound. 

No. (>, KJO feet northwest of No. 5, oblong, 50 feet in diameter north 
and soutli, and 4 feet high, was composed of black, sandy soil from the 
flelds. In the northern side, at the depth of 2 feet, were ten skeletons, 
some folded and others stretched out on theii' backs, heads in every 
direction. A little west of the center, at the depth of 4 feet, two more 
were found folded, with the heads west. On the skull of each of these 
was a thick copper plate, apparently beaten out of native copper witli 
rude implements. The larger, over the southern skull, represented in 
Fig. 37, is 8 inches long by 4i inches wide. About 6 inches above it 
was a fine large lance head. The other plate is nearly square, 4^ inches 
by 4;^ inches. The bones were so rotten and soft, except immediately 
uniler the copper plates, that none of them could be preserved. Fresh- 
water shells were scattered through the mound at various depths. 



white's group. 



81 



111 No. 7, 25 feet in diameter aud 3 feet high, nothing was discovered 
save a single slieleton near the northern edge, a foot below the surface, 
and a few fragments of pottery near the head. 

No. 8, diameter, 65 feet ; height, 6 feet ; nnstratifled ; disclosed 
nothing. 

No. 9, diameter, 60 feet; height, 5 feet; nnstratifled; contained 
nothing worthy of notice. 




Fig. 37. — Co])per plate from Mound No. 6, Wliltf's group (No. 8833d. National Museum). 



No. 



10, 50 feet 



in diameter and 4i feet high. A vertical section 



of this mound is shown in Fig. 38. The top layer, 2 feet thick, consisted 
of black, loose, sandy loam similar to the surrounding soil of the field. 
Six skeletons were lying in this near the center, some folded, others 
stretched at full length, heads in diflerent directions. The next or 
lower layer, 3 feet thick, and extending downward slightly below the 
original surface, consisted of red clay very largely mixed with sand. 
Skeletons were found in this at various depths. A little south of the 
center the original soil, below layer No. 2, had been hollowed out to the 




FiQ. 38.— Section of Mound No. 10, White's group. 

gravel. This excavation was about 7 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 1 foot 
deep. In it were the remains of a single adnlt skeleton, stretched at 
full length, face up, aud covered with a layer of hard black muck. The 
bones were nearly all gone, but their forms and positions could be 
traced. Under the skull was a flue lance head, and about 2 feet south, 
ill the same excavation, a magniflcent chipped implement of obsidian, 
represented in Fig. 39. 
12 BTH 6 



82 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



No. 11, touching No. 10 at the northeast, 50 feet in diaaieter and 4 
feet high, was composed chiefly of a dark, sandy soil, about 10 feet of the 
central portion being of yellow clay and sand mixed. In the S(juthern 
portion, at the depth of 2 feet, were two very soft, folded skeletons, 
heads west. A little southwest of the center, at the depth of 3 feet, a 
few human bones were found incased in hard, black muck or mortar- 
like substance, and immediately under them some copper beads. Near 
the center, at about the same depth, was a folded skeleton, with the 




Fig. 39.— Obsidian implement from Mound No. 10, White's gronp. 

head northeast, also incased in the hard, black muck. By the skull was 
a broken earthen pot and a bottle-shaped vase, short neck and flat bot- 
tom. The broken pot, which has been partially restored and is repre- 
sented in Fig. 40, is equal, if not superior in the quality of the ware, to 
any mound pottery discovered in the Mississippi valley. A jasper 
lance head was discovered a little north of the center near the base. 
The other mounds of the group, which are small, simple tumuli of the 
conical type, were not opened. Their sizes are as follows: 



No. 


Diameter. 


Height. 


• No. 

1 


Diameter. 


Height. 


12 


Feet. 
J 5 


Feet. 

4, 


17 


Feet. 
50 


Feet. 
4 


i:i 


;i5 


3 


18 


35 


2 


14 


25 


:{ 


19 


20 


2 


15 


20 


2 


20 


r.O by 35 


4 


16 


50 


H 


21 


40 


H 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. II 




PLAT OF WHITE'S GROUP, VERNON COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



TUd.irAS.l 



GRANT COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



83 



About halt' a uiilo south of No. 1 of this group, on Sec. 3.'5, same? 
towuship, stands an isolated mound of the same type, wliicli, upon 
opening, proved to be uustratitied, as most of the others already men- 
tioned. Diameter about 50 feet and height 7 feet. On the west side a 
few soft and badly decayed human bones were discovered at the depth 




Fig. 40. — Pot I'roui Mound K 



of li feet. On the east side similar bones were found at the depth of 4 
feet, and ou the southwest, at the same depth, the fragment of a large 
sea shell (Busycon per vers um). 

GRANT f:OXTNTY. 

On the blufits north of Sinepy creek are the remnants of two groups 
or lines of mounds. These were visited in 1880 by Col. Norris, and in 
ISltO a second visit was made. Such portions of the groups as have 
been subject to cultivation have entirely disai)peared. On the narrow 
promontory overlooking the river is a row of small conical mounds, com- 
posed largely of rough stones from the adjoining blutf. Five of these 
mounds were opened in 1880. All contained human bones, which in 
two cases were charred. 

Many of the bones in these mounds were disconnected and often 
broken as though deposited after the flesh had been removed, probably 
after exposure of the bodies ou scaftblds or after i^revious burial. 

On a second promontory, east of the first, across a deep ravine, is a 
group of works consisting of two effigy mounds and one oblong mound. 



84 



MOUND EXPLOEATIONS. 



Other oblong mounds, said to have been situated to the north of these, 
have been obliterated by the plow. The most southern of the efflgy 
mounds would seem never to have been finished. The body is represented 
by a well-rounded ridge, and the head and forelegs are i)resent, but only 
a trace of one of the hind legs appears. These mounds are in a forest 
and have not been disturbed by the wliites. The other animal figure 
is somewhat larger, the body being 'JO feet long. The legs are unusually 
long, the length from the toes to the back line being upwards of 40 feet. 
The head is merely a heavy rounded projection, and the tail is so ob- 
scure as to be barely traceable. 

WORKS NEAR CASSVII-I.E. 

About 1 mile soutli of Cassville the road traverses a bench or level 
bottom, which is seldom overflowed, extending fi-om the bluffs to a 
bayon, a distance of nearly 1 mile. Near this road on one side, when 
visited in 1880, were two lines of works, consisting of efhgy, circular, 
and elongate mounds, and on the other a single row of circular mounds. 
These, except 1 and 2, are shown in their respective forms and positions 
in Fig. 41. 



No. 


Length. 


Height. 


Shape. 


Remark B. 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 


Feet. 

10 by 20 

10 by 30 

90 

90 


Feet. 
3 
3 
4 
4 


Oblong 

....do 


Ordiuary eartb mound. 
Opeiu'd; notliinj; found. 
Probably represents an elk. 
Do. 


Effigy 

....do 






do 




150 

45 

72 by 84 

20 

120 by 84 


5 
3 

4 
2 
4 


Effigy 

Oblong 

Effigy 

Circular 

Effigy 


Lizard; head and body 9U feel, tail 60 feet. 
Ordinary earth mound. 
A well-fonued bird. 
Opened; nothing found. 
Probably an eagle. 



Nos. 12 to 15 are small circular and oval mounds on the eastern side 
of the road in a line south of the Eagle's head ; Nos. 16 to 28 the row 
of circular mounds on the west side of the road. The latter vary in 
diameter from 15 to 40 feet and in height fi-om 3 to 5 feet. Quite a 
number of these had previously been opened, and, as was ascertained, 
presented evidences of intrusive burials. 

Excavations were made in a number of the mounds of this and adja 
cent groups, but nothing was discovered save human bones in the 
last stages of decay. 

This locality was revisited in 1890, when slight traces of these works 
were seen. The railroad had been carried directly through the group 
and an immense gravel pit now occupies the site. About three-fourths 
of one of the bird figures remain and some shapeless hillocks mark the 
line of conical mounds. 



WORKS NEAR CASSVILLE. 



85 



Stone cairus containing fragments of decaying human bones were 
found on top of the adjacent bluti'; and upon the bank of the bayou near 
Cassville is a circuhir mound 40 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, in the 
base of which, beneath tlie hard earth, were four skeletons of adults in 
a much better state of preservation. 




Fig. 41. — Effigy mouods near Cassville, Grant ommty, Wisconsin. 

The large Dewey farm, now owned by Gen. Newberry, extending 
from 1 to 3 miles north of Cassville, is literally dotted over with mounds 
and other works. This was a favorite haunt of the modern Indians, 
who used these earthen structures as depositories for their dead, hence 
intrusive burials are very common here. In a number explored, of 
which only the bottom central core remained undisturbed, nothing was 
found except decaying human bones and very rude stone implements. 

A remarkable series <>f mounds is situated upon the bluffs about 3 



«6 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



miles north <>f Oii.ssx ille. These, remarks ^Fr. Holmes, may he taken 
as an illustration of the earthworks of this region. The bluffs are 
here upwards of 300 feet in height and are very abrupt on the margins 
overlooking the river. The horizontal beds of massive magnesian lime- 
stone outcrop along the 




brink, giving a series of 
gray escarped promon- 
tories, between which 
are notch-like recesses 
cutbythedrainage. The 
steep faces of the bluff' 
are without timber, but 
the recesses and the up- 
per surfaces are covered 
with forests; this, to- 
gether with the dense 
growth of underbrush, 
make exploration ex- 
tremely difficult. 

Between Muddy creek, 
which comes out of the 
bluffs at right angles 
to the river escarpment 
and the Sandy, a rivulet- 
emerging three-fourths 
of a mile farther south, 
there is a tongue of the 
plateaudivided into sev- 
eral parts at the outer 
end and connected by a 
narrow ridge with the 
main plateau. This out- 
standing mass is a mile 
in length and at the 
widest part not more 
than one-fourth of a 
mile wide. Mounds are 
found upon the main crest as well as upon most of the spurs. This 
distribution in groups was determined apparently by the topography, 
as will be seen by reference to the accompanying map. (Fig. 42.) 

The main lines of works occupy the crest of the i)rincipal ridge, 
which borders Muddy creek on the south. Beginning at the outer 
point we follow the curved ridge encountering fir.st six oblong mounds 
of the usual character, then a conical mound standing somewhat alone, 
and beyond this a series of eight conical mounds connected into a chain 
by low ridges. Traversing a distance of about 700 feet a second chain- 



>4 
I 



THOMAS.] WORKS NEAR WYALUSING. 87 

group is encoiiiitered, and at tlie eastern extremity of this lies the only 
effigy niouiid of the system so far as observed. East of this a broken 
series of oblong and chain mounds continues indefinitely. On the 
southern spurs of the promontory are three additional groups of cou- 
ical and oblong mounds following the crests of the ridges and termi- 
nating near the escarped points. 

All of these works are iu an excellent state of preservation. A few 
have been dug into by relic hunters. The two isolated conical mounds 
are of average size, being about 25 feet in diameter and between 3 and 
4 feet high. The oblong mounds are straight even ridges, ranging from 
80 to 125 feet in leugth and from 10 to 20 in width, and in height rarely 
exceeding 3i feet. 

The chain mounds are of particular interest. They have been built 
with much care and are wonderfully preserved. The cones average 
less than 20 feet iu diameter and are from 2 to 4 feet in height. The 
distance from center to center varies from 30 to 40 feet and the con- 
necting ridges of earth are about l(i feet wide and from 2 to 3 feet 
high. 

The most noteworthy member of the series is the eflflgy mound. It 
is perhaps more suggestive of the puma than of any other quadruped. 
This work is well preserved, but the loose vegetable mold of which 
it is composed does not admit of the preservation of more than a gen- 
eralized form, no matter to what extent the individuality of the original 
shape was developed. 

The full length of the figure may be given as 144 feet, although the 
tail is very indistinct toward the extremity. The head is toward the 
east and exhibits no other feature than a slight projection for the nose. 
The characters of the animal have received proper attention. The body 
is full and rounded and the extremities fall off gradually in width and 
height. The curves of the back and legs are well rendered, and the 
whole conception is presented with sufficient spirit. The distance from 
the toes to the back line is 36 feet. The body, at the point of greatest 
relief, is not over 3i feet high. 

The mounds of this group appear to be composed mainly of vegetable 
mold obtained on the spot. 

The conical mound, situated upon the very brow of the bluff, is 25 feet 
in diameter and 4 feet liigh. Abroad trench carried through it revealed 
only the decayed bones of a child, extended at full length beneath the 
central core of hard, diy earth. Pits sunk in the oblong mounds 
brought nothing to light. A number of circular mounds on the adja- 
cent blufl's was also opened, but nothing save decayed human bones 
was found in them. 

WORKS MKAK WYALUSING. 

Fom- excellent illustrations of the remarkable mound groups of Wis- 
consin are to be seen near Wyalusiug, a station on the Burlington and 



8H MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

Northern liailroiid. The village of Wyalusing is picturesquely situ- 
ated on a narrow strip of alluvial land between the Mississippi river 
and the blufl', which here rises abruptly in a single step to the height 
of 350 feet. These bluffs, as those elsewhere in Grant county, are the 
margin of a plateau which extends eastward from the escarpmeut. 
The margin of this plateau is cut by numerous streams and is for the 
most part too rugged for cultivation. In the marginal region the 
ridges separating the streams are ofteu narrow, but have rounded 
and somewhat level crests, which were favorite resorts of the mound 
builders. 

Upon the steep timbered bluff that rises above the village of Wya- 
lusing is found a line of earthworks following the crest of a nearly 
straight ridge. The principal work of the group is an animal eflflgy, a 
quadruped. It is of large size and is in an excellent state of preser- 
vation. Singularly enough it does not occupy the crest of the ridge 
which runs parallel to the river, but lies in a shallow depression in the 
slope between the crest and the margin of the steep bluff overlooking 
the village. The head is toward the south and the legs extend down 
the gentle slope toward the river. The form is perfectly preserved, 
the body is well rounded and the outline is everywhere distinct. So 
perfect is the preservation that the extension representing the ears or 
horns shows a slight parting at the outer end, and the two legs of each 
pair are separated by a shallow depression throughout their entire 
length. The feeling for correct form possessed by the builders even 
in this rude method of realization is indicated by the outline which 
defines the forehead, by the curves of the back and belly, and of the 
gambrel joints of the legs, as well as by the relief which expresses 
something of the rotundity and relative prominence of the parts. 
What additional details of form have been effaced by the lapse of 
time can not be determined. 

The length of the work from the forehead to rump is 115 feet; the 
length of the head is 47 feet; the distauce from the feet to the back, 
representing the full height of the figure, is 50 feet; the width of the 
body is 28 feet, and the width of the legs about 20 feet. The relief 
does not exceed oj feet at any point, the ears, uose, aud legs not 
exceeding half that. 

Some years ago Mr. D. W. Derby, an enthusiastic collector of mound 
relics, dug into the body of this eftigy about the locality of the heart, 
aud found human bones aud an earthen vessel about the size of the 
crown of an ordinary hat. The vessel had a flat bottom, but was so 
Itagile from decay that mi part of it could be preserved. 

liuiming api)roximately parallel with the greatest length of the ani- 
mal figure aud occupying the crest of the ridge is a row of oblong 
mounds. These vary from a straight line to accommodate themselves to 
the crest, and in orientation vary from S. 25° E. to S. 15 W. The largest 
one is 100 feet in length aud the shortest 60 feet. The width averages 



WOKKS NEAR WYALUSING. 



89 



about 20 fiH't and tbeheij,flit is in no case greater than .3i feet. On tlie 
rounded surfa<',e of the north eud of the ridge is a luimber of small 
circular depressions that may rei)resent old dwelling sites; others are 
seen on a level space about 100 feet north of the animal figure. The 
ridge terminates at the north in a rounded point and at the south in 
a long narrow one, and is con- 
nected with the chain of ridges 
on tlie east by a broad saddle; 
along this, and extending for an 
indefinite distance, is an almost 
continuous series of mounds most- 
ly of the oblong type. In the oldei' 
cultivated fields oidy traces of the 
works are found, but in the new 
ground, and in the wooded areas, 
the forms are fully preserved. 
There is no telling what was tbe 
original extent of these wonderful 
lines of mounds, or what their 
connection with the other series, 
the remnants of which are found 
ou nearly every part of the blufl's 
where tillage has not destroyed 
tliem. 

A second group of more than 
usual interest is located upon the 
promontory that overlooks the 
village on the north. This prom- 
ontory extends to the northward, 
as a narrow ridge with an uneven 
crest, to the residence of Mr. 
Derby and beyond. Its trend is 
parallel withtlu! river, from which 
it rises at an angle of 40 degrees 
or more. On the opposite side it 
falls oft' with abruptness to a 
little stream which runs to the 
southward and passes out at the 
north end of the village. From 
the railroad bridge at the cross- 
ing of the stream we ascend the 
point of the promontory by a series of slopes and cliffs to the height of 
about 200 feet; beyond this point the ridge extends to the northward 
and is narrow, and for about one-quarter of a mile nearly horizontal. 

Upon the level crest, which is forest covered, are four mounds; at 
the south are two conical mounds and at the north two mounds repre- 




FlG. 43.— Mound group near Wyalusing, Grant 
county. Wisconsin. 



90 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

sentiiifj;' auiiual.s, distributed as shown in Fifi. 4;5. All are in an excel 
lent state of preservation save where recent excavations conducted by 
Mr. Derby have niutihxted them. The southern mound was conical in 
shape and about 20 feet in diameter and G feet high. When Mr. Derby 
bejiau his excavations the eastern half of the cone was covered with 
roufjfh stone slabs obtained from the vicinity. In digging into the cen- 
ter of the mound four stones as large as a human head were found near 
the surface. At the depth of a foot a circle of stones was encountered, 
having a diameter of 4 feet; at a depth of about 2 feet the top of a cis- 
tern, 3^ feet in diameter, of well laid stones, was uncovered. This was 
3 feet deep and had been built upon the surface of the limestones of 
the bluff". The well was tilled with black earth, in which were found 
seven oblong shell beads, a copper celt of ordinary shape, and a red 
plpestone, platform pipe; outside of the well a flake of flint was found, 
and some curious lines of colored sand were observed. These seemed 
to radiate roughly from the center of the mound and were followed to 
the circumference by the explorers. Wide trenches were carried across 
the mound from east to west and from north to south. 

The second mound was much like the first and is still perfect, save 
for the sinking of a pit in the center. Nothing of interest was found. 
The present diameter is over 30 feet in the line of the ridge and some- 
what less across it. The height is 6 feet. 

A little over 100 feet to the north of this mound is the first animal 
moiind. The creature, possibly a bear, is represented as lying upon its 
side with the head to the south and the feet to the east. The body is a 
neatly rounded ridge 70 feet long and nearly 2.5 feet wide, and has a 
relief of nearly 4 feet. The head is about 30 feet long, the projection 
representing the ears being very slightly indicated and difficult to 
define. The low ridge representing the forelegs is straight, while that 
for the hinder ones is bent, thus defining the gambrel joint. The dis- 
tance from the toes to the back line is a little less than 40 feet. This 
figure is of the most frequently occurring type of etitigy works. 

The other effigy mound, 150 feet to the north, is of a form somewhat 
unusual. It is spread out upon the ridge, after the fashion of a lizard 
or alligator. The head is toward the south, and is merely a rounded 
projection of the body embankment. The tail at the opposite end is 
upwards of 35 teet long, but is very attenuated and indistinct toward 
the tip. The body is a rounded ridge 3 J feet high and less than 20 
feet wide, and the legs, extended to the right and left, are low embank- 
ments of earth, the forelegs being bent forward and the hinder ones 
backward, as shown in the illustration. 

Passing noith along this ridge, another series of mounds is encoun- 
tered. The first member is an oblong mound, about three-fourths of a 
mile beyond the residence of Mr. Derby. This is followed by a series 
of works in which are oblong, conical, and animal mounds, some of 
which are almost obliterated by the plow. 



THOMAS. I THE ELEPHANT MOUND. 91 

On tlie crest of the blufl', north of the last mentioned mounds and 
jnst south of the Wisconsin river, is a continuous straight line of 
mounds, all of which, except two, are elongate, embankment like struc- 
tures, giving to the line the appearance of an interrupted wall. Of the 
two exceptions one is oval and the other is an efiBgy mound, probably 
intended to represent an elk. Several of these mounds were o])ened, 
but in none, except the third from the south end of the line, was any- 
thing found. This is somewhat oval, 24 feet in diameter, and 4 feet 
high. In the center was a rude, irregular stone cofBn or vault of flat 
sandstones, so arranged around the single skeleton that a large one 
sufliced to cover it from animals. The bones were in the last stages of 
decomposition. 

The top of this bluff, for the distance of half a mile, is literally cov- 
ered with these works, which are uniformly placed so near the brink of 
the descent to the Mississippi as to present a clear cut outline, except 
where the view is obstructed by trees. As the position is a command- 
ing one, and as very few of the works were intended or used for burial 
purposes, it is diflicultto conceive of any other object the builders could 
have had in view in their construction than that of defense. But how 
they were made available for this i>urpose without encircling any area 
or without closing the numerous openings is difficult to understand. 

On the NW. i of Sec. 20, T. 6 N., K. 6 W., about 1 mile east of the 
works just mentioned, is another group of considerable interest. This 
consists of one continuous line of circular and effigy mounds, number- 
ing 3G in all. 

THK ELKI'IIANT Ml)l Nl). 

This effigy, of which so much has been said and written, is situated 
on the southeast quarter of Sec. 21, T. o X., R. W., in Blooniington 
towTiship, 4 miles south of Wyalusing. It lies on the right side, head 
south, in a depression between two drift sand ridges, in what is known 
as the Cincinnati bottom. This bottom extends from the bluff on one 
side to a large bayou on the other, and is just above the overflows of 
the Mississippi. Although the mound has been under cultivation for 
five years, the outlines are yet distinct. " By a hasty measurement," 
says Col. Norris, who incidcntiilly visited it while engaged by the Bureau 
in the northwest, " I made its entire length to the front of the head 13.5 
feet, the width across the body from 55 to 60 feet, the height varying 
from 3 to (i feet. I made a rude sketch of it on the spot with pencil, for 
the purpose of showing the so-called trunk as I saw it. There is a 
depression some 4 or 5 feet deep between the trunk and breast, and a 
kind of slight platform or apron-like extension on the upper or back 
part of the head, from 2 to 3 feet high, or half as high as the rest of 
the head. Whether the resemblance to an elephant, which arises 
almost wholly from the proboscis-like extension to the head, is due to 
intentional work done by the builders or has resulted from the drift- 
ing of the loose, sandy soil, of which it is mainly composed, is a ques- 



92 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



tioii difficult to decide. I can only say that 1 lepieseut it a.s I louud 
it." This sketch, which is not reproduced here, shows the trunk some- 
what distinctly as curved inward toward the fore legs. It is very 
doubtful whether this should be considered a part of the effigy. If 
both Mr. Warner and Col. Norris show correctly what they saw, the 
trunk was evidently a shifting line of sand. 




Fig. 44. — Elephant mound, according to Middleton's surrey in 1884. 

In November, 1884, Mr. Middleton was directed to call to his assist- 
ance a civil engineer and make a regular and careful survey of this 
mound for the purpose of modeling it for the New Orleans Exposition. 
This was very carefully done, and the result is shown in outline in Fig. 
44. His report in reference to it, as seen at that time, is as follows: 

" The ' Elephant mound ' is located on the southeast quarter of Sec. 
21, T. 5 N., E. C W., Bloomington township, in a long rectaDgular 
depression or rather eul de sac as shown in PI. iii, the level of which 
is a few feet only above high water. The immediate spot on which it 
stands is a little higher than the general level around it. For 1*00 
yards north the surface is even, with a slight rise to the foot of the 
bank. This bank is about 20 feet higher than the mound level. Going 
east along line a b (PI. in) the ground at first dips slightly, but rises 
a little as it approaches the foot of the bank, which is here about 30 
feet above the mound level. South towaixls c the surface is flat for 
more than COO yards. The bank on the west is about the same height 
as that on the east. About 200 yards south is an effigy mound, a bird 
with outspread wings, head south. Near by there are a number of 
round mounds placed in a line and two or three long mounds. 

"Plowing over it for a number of years has considerably reduced 
the height of the elephant effigy, and has rendered the outlines of por- 
tions of the head and back somewhat indistinct, but the body between 
the legs is quite plain. It is gently rounded on the surface, the high- 



THOMAS. 1 



MANITOWOC AND SHEBOYGAN MOUNDS. 



93 



est points teing at the hip, where it is nearly i feet high. Entire 
length, 140 feet; width across the body to the farther end of the hind 
leg, 72 feet; across the body between the legs, 55 feet; across the body 
and fore leg, 77 feet; across the neck, 40 feet; length of head from back 
to nozzle, 60 feet; width of hind leg at the body, 32 feet; at the foot, 
15 feet; length of hind leg, 22 feet; across the fore leg at the body, 28 
feet; at the foot 15 feet; length of fore leg, 28 feet." 




Fig. 45. — Elephant mound, after Warner's figure. 

Fig. 45 is another view of this mound, which is an exact copy, re- 
duced to half size, of the original manuscript pencil sketch by -Tared 
Warner, from which the figure in the Smithsonian Report for 1872 was 
made. 

SHEBOYGAN COUNTY. 



MANITOWOC AND SHEBOYGAN MOUNDS. 

There are some scattering mounds on the hills bordering the Sheboy- 
gan marshes on the north. These are usually isolated, simple conical 
tumuli, though some are in irregular groups on elevated situations. 

The only one opened (the rest had been previously explored) was 
situated on a sandy ridge half a mile north of the marsh and 100 feet 
above it. It was about 50 feet in diameter at the base and 5 feet high. 
After ijassing through 18 inches of surface soil the central mass was 
struck, which apiieared to be coHiposcd of earth mingled with firebeds, 
charcoal, ashes, and loose stones. Near the center of this mass, at the 
bottom of the mound, a large human skeleton in a sitting posture was 
discovered, apparently holding between its hands and knees a large 
clay vessel, unfortunately in fragments. These were covered over by 
an irregular layer of flat bowlders. Nothing else worthy of notice was 
found. 

About 2 miles west of this, on a bluff overlooking the marsh, was 
another mound of similar form and slightly larger, which had been pre- 
viously opened by Mr. Hoissen of Sheboygan. It was found literally 



94 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



filled, to the depth of 2i feet, with huiiiiui skeletous, many of which were 
well lireserved and evidently those of modern Indians, as with them 

were the usual modern weap 
ous and ornaments. Beneath 
these was a mass of rounded 
bowlders aggregating several 
wagon loads, below which were 
some 40 or 50 skeletons in a 
sitting posture, in a circle, 
around and facing a very large 
sea shell. This specimen, which 
with the other articles taken 
from this mound is in Mr. Hois- 
sen's collection, measures 21 
inches in length and 29 in cir- 
cumference at its greatest 
girth. 

Just south of the outlet of 
the marsh is a small, oval in- 
closure, with an opening at one end of some 4 or 5 feet. It consists of a 
single wall 3 feet high and a ditch about two feet deep (shown in Fig. 46). 



J 


V 




/ 


\ 



Fig. 46 Inclosure near SheboyKan. Slicboysan county 

Wisconsin. 



BARKON COUNTY. 



THE RICE LAKE MOUND.S. 



The only explorations in this county were around Eice lake. This 
group, a plat of which is given in PI. iv, is situated at Eice lake 
village, on sec. 10, T. 35 N., E. 11 W., about half a mile above Bed 
Oedar river. The land at this point is somewhat broken, and the 
area occupied by the group is cut bj- a small ravine that runs northeast 
to the lake. Some of the mounds are on gravely knolls, a few in the 
ravine, some on the slope up to the level which runs back to a ridge a 
quarter of a mile distant and some on this level. The location was well 
chosen for hunting, fishing, and procuring a supply of food, as game 
and fish are still abundant and wild rice formerly grew on the lake. 

The group consists of fifty-one mounds, chiefly of the ordinary coni- 
cal form. There are no eflBgies or long slender embankments in it. Two 
of the long type, however, were found at the other end of the village. 

The construction varies so little that few only will be described as 
samples of the rest, No. 1, for instance, as representing Nos. 24, 26, 35, 
39, 46, and 45. This stands in the bottom of a ravine about 10 feet 
above the water level and about 500 feet from the shore of the lake; 
diameter, 28 feet; height, 4 feet. The construction, as shown in figure 
47, was as follows, commencing at the top : First, a layer of dark vege- 
table mold {<(], 2 inches thick which had formed since the mound was 
abandoned, next, a layer {h) of sandy loam with a slight admixture of 
clay; third, the core (c), forming the central and remaining portion of 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWFLFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. HI 



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ELEPHANT MOUND AND SURROUNDINGS, GRANT COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



THE RICE LAKE MOUNDS. 



95 



the stnu'tiire and resting on the original surface of the gnlly. This 
consisted of clay mixed with sand and was veiy hard. It appeared to 
be composed of small, rounded masses about 16 to 18 inches in diame- 
ter and 6 to 10 inches thick, doubtless representing the loads deposited 
by the builders. Lying on the original surface of the ground, under- 
neath the core, were two skeletons (1 and 2) bundled, as was the case 
with nearly all found in this group. The buudUng was done by plac- 
ing the long bones together as closely as possible ai-ouud the ribs, the 
vertebral bones being placed here and there so as to render the bundle 
as compact as possible. Close to these were the charred remains of 
another skeleton (3) pressed into a layer scarcely exceeding an inch in 
thickness, but, as there were no signs of lire, ashes, or coals on the sur- 
face beneath, burning must have taken place before burial. As all the 
skeletons were under the core, and the small masses heretofore men- 
tioned showed no signs of disturbance, they must have been buried at 
one time. 

Mound 24 measured but 22 feet in diameter and 3 in height. It dif- 
fered from No. 1 only in containing four skeletons, none of them charred. 




Fig. 47 Mound No. 1. Rice lake group. 



Mound 20, but 25 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, contained four 
skeletons of the original burial and three of intrusive burial, as did also 
No. 35. 

In No. 46 there had been seven original burials, at the base of the 
core, as usual, one of a child, — no intrusive burials. 

No. 8, oval in outline, 36 feet long, 26 feet wide, and 5 feet high, 
differed from the others, as it lacked the core and layer of sandy loam. 
With the exception of the top layer of vegetable mold it consisted of 
yellowish clay mixed with sand, probably taken from the immediately 
surrounding surface. Six skeletons were found in it; the first, 3 feet 
south of the apex and at a depth of 2 feet. No. 2 a foot and a half 
south of the first. These two apjteared to have been buried at the 
same time, or nearly so, and most likely were intrusive burials. No. 3 
was at the bottom, on the original surface, under No. 1 ; No. 4 a foot 
northeast of 3; No. 5 two feet east of the last; and No. 6 a foot north 
of No. 5. The last four skeletons were probably the first interments 
in the mound, and appear to have been buried about the same time 
from the fact that they were bundled, and the bones clean and white, 
although so soft as to fall in pieces when exposed to the atmosphere. 

Mound No. 11, standing east of No. 8, is also oblong, 35 feet long, 



96 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

and 23 feet wide. The construction tlie same as the preceeding. There 
had been five original and five intrusive burials, the latter in the cen- 
ter at the depth of 3 feet, the others at the bottom of the mound, 
in the north end. All of the skeletons were bundled, those near the 
surface being in a bettei' state of preservation than these in the bot 
tom. A large pine stump was .standing over the latter, the roots of 
which had broken them up to a considerable extent. 

Mound 42, standing in the ravine, measured 27 feet iu diameter and 
4 feet high. The construction was found to be similar to that of ITo, 
1; first, the thin layer of vegetable mold; then sandy loam and the 
clay core; but here was a pit in the original .soil, rectangular in 
form, 3 feet long, 2 feet wide, and 1 in depth, the sides and ends flar- 
ing. In this mound there had been three intrusive and two original 
burials. Two skeletons of the former were in the southwest part, at the 
depth of 2 feet; the third in the center at the depth of 4 feet, a cut 
having been made in the top of the core to receive it. The material of 
the layer over it had a disturbed appearance; indicating that these 
were intrusive burials. 

Two other skeletons were found on the bottom of the pit, bundled as 
usual. The bones of these two are larger than those of any of the 
other skeletons of this group. Mounds numbered 41, 47, and 48 were 
so similar in every respect to 42 as to need no further notice. 

Mound 49 stands on the lower margin of the gravelly ridge south of 
the gully, 20 or 25 feet above the water level of the lake; its diameter 
being 2(i feet and height 5 feet. It was found to consist, except the top 
layer, of an unstratified mass of dark brown loam with a considerable 
mixture of sand and gravel, having the same appearance as the soil ol 
the ridge on which it stands; an occasional lump of clay, similar to the 
load masses heretofore spoken of, was observed. Under this main layer 
or body of the mound, near the center, was an oval pit, diameters 2 and 
2i feet, and 1 foot in depth. This mound furnished evidence as usual 
of both intrusive and original burials. The original burials were two 
adults in the pit; these, as also the skeletons of the intrusive burials, 
being bundled, an indication that the two peoples who buried here be- 
longed to the same race. Mounds 28 and 36 were similar throughout 
to Bo. 4y. 

GROUP ON SEC. 10, T. 35 N., R. 11 W. 

These mounds, which are on the opposite side of the lake from the 
preceding, are all of the round or conical type and are located on a 
point of land some 25 feet above and overlooking the lake and the other 
village just described. No. 8, one of the largest of the group, meas- 
ured 45 feet in diameter and 5 feet high. Commencing at the top, the 
first 3 feet was a layer of sandy loam; the remainder was a hard core 
of clay mixed with sand, made up of small masses, like those heretofore 
described. The latter rested on a layer, about an inch thick, of what 



Jsn^EAl' OF ETHNOLOGY 



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THOMAS.) THE RICE LAKE MOUNDS. 07 

seemed to be the decayed vegetable material of the original surface of 
the ground. A skeleton was discovered southeast of the center, only 
3 inches below the surface, bundled. Fragments of a skull were found 
near the center at the depth of 2 feet. Here there were evidences that 
a grave had been dug in the mound after it had been completed, and a 
body buried in bark wrappings, but all save these fragments of the 
skull had completely decayed. A third was at the same depth. Four 
feet east of the center was another at the depth of 3 feet, but the skull 
in this case was wanting from the bundle. In the apex of the central 
core, in which a cut had been made for its reception, was a fifth at a 
depth of 3J feet from the top and 6 inches in the core. No skeletons 
were found in the lower part of the mound, though at two points the 
earth was similar in character to that which results from decayed bodies 
and probably marked burial places. At the bottom of the mound, 
south of the center, was the only relic obtained, a copper drill or spin- 
dle, similar to that shown in Fig. 34; this is 7i inches long, a little over 
one-fourth of an inch square, and pointed at each end. When found it 
was upright. 

Mound 12, situated west of No. 8, in a thicket, measured 32 feet 
in diameter and 3i in height. The upper layer consisted of loose sandy 
loam, like the surrounding surface. Theremainder, of sand and clay, very 
hard, rested on the original surface of the ground. Under this was a 
pit, length 7 feet, width at one end 4 feet, at the other 5i, depth 2 feet, 
its walls perpendicular and bottom flat. Three bundled skeletons, the 
only ones found in the mound, were in this pit. With one were a few 
copper beads. 

Mound 14, standing 120 feet from the lake shore, measured but 26 feet 
in diameter and a little over 3 feet in height. The construction was 
similar to that of No. 8; first a layer of sandy loam, 1 foot thick, then 
the core, 2 feet thick; but in this case there was, immediately below 
the second layer, a stratum of charcoal 4 inches thick, covering an area 
C feet in diameter, and immediately below it a layer of burned earth 3 
inches thick and covering the same area. Underneath this, on the 
original surface, were the remains of three bundled skeletons partially 
burned. The remains of two logs, which had been nearly consumed by 
fire, could be traced in the layer of burned earth. They must have been 
about 6 feet long and 4 or 5 inches in diameter. They were parallel, 
within a foot of each other, and had evidently been laid on the earth 
covering the skeletons, but there were no indications of a wooden vault. 
The evidence seemed conclusive that the fire had been kindled here 
after the skeletons and logs were in place. The first skeleton was in 
the center under the two burned logs, and the indications were that it 
had been wrapped in birch bark, parts of which, although both wrap- 
pings and bones were charred, were obtained. The other two skeletons 
were north and west of this central one, and one of them showed but 
little of the effects of the fire, while the other was nearly consumed. 
12 ETH 7 



98 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

Southward, outside of this burned area, but under the core or layer, 
were two other skeletons, which seemed to have been buried at the same 
time as the other three. 

ROCK COUNTY. 

In 1886 Rev. S. D. Peet explored an efiBgy mound, probably repre- 
senting a turtle, in the group near the waterworks at Beloit. The 
results of this examination he reports in substance as follows: 

This mound was found by measurement to be 80 feet long, the length 
of the body and tail being equal, each 40 feet; the width of the body 
across the middle 15 feet, and across the ends 30 feet. 

Other parties had taken off the top before his examination. A broad 
trench running through the middle, lengthwise, was carried down to 
the original surface of the ground. Here he found 8 skeletons, bun- 
dled, lying on the original surface of the mound. The dirt over them 
showed evidences of fire, but was not baked. The particulars, which 
resemble closely those observed in another efligy of the same kind 
belonging to the same group opened by Prof. S. Eaton, maybe summar- 
ized as follows: First, the mound consisted of black loam; second, the 
earth was packed tightly about the bones; third, no gravel was found 
above the skeletons, but the original gravel of the bluff was immedi- 
ately below them, indicating that the top soil had been removed before 
burial; fourth, the bodies were laid on the surface and the material of 
the mound, scraped from the surrounding area, thrown over them ; fifth, 
the bodies or skeletons were evidently not interred in an extended posi- 
tion, for the bones of each individual were folded or heaped together, 
pieces of the skull in some instances resting upon them; they were 
probably "bundled" skeletons, buried after the flesh had been removed; 
sixth, there were no implements or ornaments of any kind with them; 
seventh, some of the bones were tolerably well preserved, others much 
decayed; and eighth, all of the skeletons were those of adults. 

The bones of each skeleton were in a separate pile or bundle, those 
of the lower extremities being doubled up along the trunk, but the 
skull in most cases placed on top. It is, therefore, evident that the 
burial had taken place after the flesh had been removed, probably by 
exposure on platforms or scaffolds — a custom which seems to have been 
followed by the mound-building clans of this section. Under one body 
there was a small layer of stones. These stones were burned, smoked, 
and cracked, as if they had been subjected to great heat. Two or three 
pieces of dirt were taken out which were flat on one side, as though 
the dirt had been wet and packed down upon bark and then left to dry 
out, or, possibly, a fire had been kindled upon it, so as to take the color 
out of it. It was diflicult to tell where the fire had been placed. Pieces 
of coal were scattered through the dirt and some of the bones showed 
signs of fire, though it was apparent that the bodies could not have 
been cremated. 



WORKS IN ALLAMAKEE COUNTY, IOWA. 99 



IO\WA. 

The exploratious made in this state ou behalf of the Bureau were 
confined to the counties bordering on or adjacent to the Mississipin 
river, and chiefly in the extreme northeastern section. 

Some of the works of this section evidently belong to the same type 
as those of Wisconsiti, eiiigy or figure mounds being found in one or 
two of the extreme northeastern counties of the state, showing that 
the tribes which reared the singular structures in Wisconsin were not 
limited geograiihically by the Mississippi, although they extended 
beyond it but a short distance and over a comparatively small area. 

As we proceed southward a change in the mode of construction and 
in other respects becomes apparent, indicating the presence of different 
tribes; yet there is sufficient resemblance in the two classes of works 
to indicate ethnic relationship, or at least that they belong to the same 
culture state. 

ALLAMAKEE COUNTY. 

This northeastern county of the state is bordered on the east by the 
Mississippi river, and much of it watered by the Little Iowa and its 
branches, all of which have worn deep channels through the Potsdam 
sandstone, which, whether remaining as castellated cliffs .300 or 400 
feet high or nmnded off to bold bluiis or terraced slopes, results in giv- 
ing the charming contour and sheltered valleys of a mountain region. 

I'OTTEKY CIHCI.H AND OTHEH WORKS. 

About 7 miles above New Albin, on the Little Iowa river, is an exten- 
sive group of earthworks, consisting of inclosures, lines of small mounds, 
excavations, etc., situated ou the farm of Mr. H. P. Lane, and repre- 
sented in PI. V. The largest Mork is an inclosure, marked A, and 
shown on a larger scale in Fig. 48, to which the name " pottery 
circle" has been apidied. It is situated on the margin of a bluff 
overlooking the Little Iowa river and an intervening bog beyond, prob- 
ably the former channel of the river. It is almost exactly circular iu 
form with clear indications of sti'aight stretches (not shown in the 
flgui'e), as though somewhat polygonal, the curve being broken on the 
eastern side, where it touches the brink of the bluff, is there made to 
conform to the line of the latter. The ends at the southeast overlap 
each other for a short distance, leaving at this point an entrance way, 
the only one to the inclosure. A ditch runs around the inside from 
the entrance on the south to where the wall strikes the bluff on the 
north, but is wanting along the bluff side and overlapping portion. 
The north and south diameter, measuring from center to center of the 
wall, is 251 feet; from east to west, 235 feet; the entire outer circum- 
ference, 807 feet; the length of the straight portion along the bluff, 



100 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



100 feet, and of the overlapping portion at the entrance, 45 feet. The 
wall is quite uniform in size, about 4 feet high and from 25 to 27 in 
width, and the ditch about 8 or 10 feet wide and from 1 to 3 feet deep. 
The entrance is 16 feet wide, but there seems to have been no ditch 
along this portion. On the north, adjoining the wall on the outside 




fr^m'i^im^'^'^'^i'wii'^m-' 



Fig. 48. — Circular inclosure near New Albin, Allamakee county. Iowa. 

and extending along it for about 100 feet, is an excavation, Fig. 48 
(see plan and section), 35 feet wide at the widest point and 3 deep. 

As this ground, including the circle, has been under cultivation for 
fifteen years, it would be supposed that the height of the wall is con- 
siderably less than originally, but this is doubtful. On the contrary, it 
is probable it was originally about 20 feet wide and not more than 3 



THOMAS.] EARTHWORKS AT NEW ALBIN. 101 

feet high, composed maiuly of yellowish-brown clay, obtained, in part 
at least, from the ditch, but that, during occupancy, the accumulation 
of numerous bones of animals used for food, stone chips, river shells, 
broken pottery, and dirt, and since abandonment the accumulation of 
sand, drifted by the winds from the crumbling- sandstone butte over- 
looking it, have not only filled the ditch, but elevated the whole inte- 
rior area and the wall 2 feet or more. This accumulation of sand is so 
great and so uniform over the adjacent plateau that fifteen years of cul- 
tivation has not reached the clay of the original natural surface, nor 
has it unearthed or penetrated to the bones, pottery fragments, and 
other refuse matter covering the original surface in the circle. 

Three trenches 4 feet wide were dug through this wall from side to 
side and down to the original soil. The first was run through the 
northern portion opjjosite the large excavation. Here was found, first 
a layer of sand about 1 foot thick; next, an accumulation of refuse 
material mixed with earth, forming a layer from 1 to 2 feet thick; and 
below this the original clay embankment 2 feet thick, resting on the 
original surface. A section of the ditch, embankment, and excavation 
at this point is shown in Fig. 48. The dotted line a h indicates the 
natural surface; Xo. 1, the original clay layer of the embankment or 
wall; iSTo. 2, the layer of earth and refuse material with which the ditch 
is filled; and 'So. .3, the top layer of sand. 

In No. 2 were found charcoal, ashes, fragments of pottery, fractured 
bones, etc. 

Trench So. 2, opened through the west side, gave a similar result. 
So. 3, in tlic southern i)art, across the lap of the walls and entrance 
way, varied in showing less clay and no distinct ditch. 

A broad belt of the inner area on the east side next the blufl^' wall 
was excavated and carefully examined. It was found to consist of the 
same kind of accumulations as No. 2 in the first trench, except that 
here the shells were more numerous and there were many burnt stones. 

SQUARE KARTHWdltK. 

i>, PL V, is situated at the southwest corner of the plateau, on the 
margin of the blnlf, facing west. It consists of a wall from 12 to 15 feet 
broad and 2 to 4 feet high, along three sides of a nearly regular par- 
allelogram. The length of the wall on the south is 175 feet, that on 
the east 150, with traces of a ditch on the outside; that on the north, 
200 feet. 

About 30 feet east of the northeast corner, which is the highest point 
adjacent to the work, and above the inclosed area, is an excavation now 
about 3 feet in depth. 

Within this square inclosure are three small mounds, which were 
opened with the following results : 

No. 1,30 feet long by 20 wide and 4 high, was found to consist of atop 
layer of loose sand 1 foot thick, the remainder of hard yellowish clay. 



102 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

In the latter were several flat sandstone fragments, and beneath them, 
on the original surfaceof the ground, a much decayed liuman skeleton, 
with a few stone chijis, Unio shells, and fragments of pottei-y. 

No. 2, 18 feet in diameter and 3 feet high, was mainly a loose cairn 
of sandstones, covering traces of human bones, charcoal, and ashes. 

No. 3, 15 feet in diameter and 3 feet high, a stone i)ile or cairn cov- 
ered with earth and heaped over a mass of charred bones, (diarcoal, 
ashes, aiul some fragments of pottery. 

This iiiclosure is about half a mile from the pottery circle, and, like 
it, well situated for defense, bnt not so well constructed and apparently 
more au(nent. 

THE OBLONG WORK. 

This is an oblong inclosure, situated south of the group just men- 
tioned, and just across an impassable slough, and is tlie one marked E 
in PI. V. It is on a sloping terrace at the foot of a bluff, which rises 
abruptly behind it to the height of 200 feet. The end walls run from 
this blurt' to the margiu of the slough, where thei-e is also another 
descent. Along this margin runs a connecting wall some 300 feet in 
length. The wall at the west end is ICO feet long; that at the east end 
175. The height varies from 1 to 3 feet and the width from 10 to 15 
feet. On the outside of each end wall is a washout, possibly marking 
the ditches from which the dii't to form the walls was taken. 



Extending southward from the pottery circle to the bluff' bank that 
margins the slough, a distance of about half a mile, and expanding at 
the southei'n end to an equal exteut, is a dry, undulating plateau. On 
the eastern half of this aiea are six parallel lines of mounds running- 
northeast and southwest (marked B in PI. v ), mostly circular in form, 
varying in diameter from 15 to 40 feet and in height from 2 to 6 feet. 
A few, as indicated in the figure, are oblong, varying in length from 50 
to 100 feet. The luimber in the group exceeds 100. 

An examination revealed the fact that, in addition to the mounds, 
much of the area between them was used as a burying place, and that 
scattered here and there between the graves were charcoal and ashes, 
stone chips, shells, etc. Both in the mounds and these graves there 
was a compact layer of hard, light-colored earth, having much the 
appearance of lime mortar, probably clay and ashes mixed together, 
which had undergone the action of fire. As the burials iu these inter- 
mediate spots were seldom over IS inches deep, the only soil above the 
hard layer which covered them was the sterile sand fibm the sandy 
butte marked C on the plate, while the mounds were uniformly covered 
with a layer of richest soil, although below this and covering the skel- 
etons was the layer of hard, light colored earth. 

A trench cut through the oblong mound of this group (No. 1) 
revealed near the center an oblong pile of loose sandstones, beneath 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 






TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. 

' 7J 



W^ 



3 













■ - ■■:'' Ml 









ANCIENT WORKS NEAR NEW ALBIN, ALLAMAKEE COUNTY, IOWA. 



THOMAS.) EARTHWORKS AT NEW ALBIN. 103 

which was found a crypt or rude stone coflSu about 6 feet long and 18 
inches wide, formed by first placing flat sandstones on the natural clay 
siu'face of the ground, theu other slabs edgewise at the sides and ends, 
and a covering of similar stones. Within this, extended at full length, 
witli the head nearly west, was the skeleton of an adult, but too iiiueh 
decayed for preservation. With it were some stone chips, rude stone 
scrapers or skinners, a Unio shell, and some fragments of pottery sim- 
ilar to those found in the ])ottery circle. 

THE SAND BUTTK. 

This prominent feature of the area (marked C in PI. v), which, by 
the eroding influence of wind and rain, has covered the plateau to the 
depth of a foot or more with sand since the works were constructed, is 
about 100 feet high at its northern end and 150 at the southern extrem- 
ity. On the narrow crest are three small circular mounds, in which 
were found human bones, fragments of pottery, etc. The same com- 
pact earth as found elsewhere was also encountered in these, showing 
them to be the work of the same pei>ple. 

WALLED VAULT. 

In the side of the eastern bluft', about half way down from the top, 
is a somewhat singular work (marked F). This is a room or vault 
about 11 feet square, excavated in the lace of the bluff and roughly 
walled up with flat sandstones. Although many of these stones are 
too large to be handled by an ordinary man, they were evidently 
brought by some means from the sand butte, and several are still on 
the top of the bluff above the vault. The back and most of the end 
walls are sustained by the bank, standing from 4 to 6 feet high, but the 
front, although built of the larger pieces, especially about the door- 
way, is only about half as high. A careful examination of the interior 
revealed nothing but charcoal, ashes, and decaying firebrands, which 
might possibly have resulted from the burning of a timber roof. 
The regularity with which the walls were built, and the square corners, 
aside from all other indications, suggest that this is of comparatively 
recent date, and the work of a difl'ereut people from those who con- 
structed the circle and mounds of the plateau. It was probably made 
by some white or half-breed trapper within the past two centuries. 

Among the results of the exploration of this interesting group may 
be noted the following: That, although human skeletons and bones 
were found in great numbers in the mounds and under the surface 
of the plateau, none were found within the pottery circle or nearer than 
liOO yards of it. Those found were sometimes ndngled promiscuously 
with charcoal and ashes, but were usually whole skeletons, frequently, 
but not always, lying horizontally near the natural surface of the 
ground, without any apparent system, except that they were uniformly 
covered with from 1 to 3 feet of very hard earth, seemingly mixed with 



104 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

aslies or >sometliiiig' of a similar nature and color, giving this covering 
the appearance of dried lime or mortar. 

Fragments of pottery were found in abundance in the circle, in the 
mounds, in the washouts, and in fact at almost every i)oint in the area 
covered by the grouj). Judging by the fragments, for not a single 
entire vessel was obtained, the prevailing forms were the ordinary 
earthen pot with ears, and a flask or gourd-shaped vase with a rather 
broad and short neck. The latter were the larger ones and were usually 
too thin for use in cooking, or even for holding liquids. The paste of 
which this pottery was made had evidently been mixed with pounded 
shells. The only ornamentation observed consisted in the varied forms 
given the handles or ears, and indentations or scratched lines. 

Nearly all the implements found were of stone, exceedingly rude, 
being little Ise than stone flakes with one sharp edge, many of which 
appear to have been resharpened and used as knives, scrapers, and 
skinners. Some had been worked into moderately fair perforators or 
drills for making holes in horn, bone, or shell, specimens of all these 
with holes having been found. 

The immense quantity of charred and fractured bones, not only of 
fishes, birds, and the smaller quadrupeds, such as the rabbit and fox, but 
also of the bear, wolf, elk, and deer, shows that the occupants of this 
place lived chiefly by the chase, and hence must have used the bow and 
arrow and spear; yet, strange to say, less than a dozen arrow or spear 
heads were found, and these so rude as scarcely to deserve the name. 
A single true chipped celt, three sandstones with mortar-shaped cavi- 
ties, and a few mullers or flat stones used for grinding or some sim- 
ilar purpose, were obtained. The specimens of other materials obtained 
consist of fragments of horn, evidently cut around by some rude instru- 
ment and then broken off at about a finger's length and possibly 
intended to be shaped into more perfect implements, or probably 
handles for knives. Several horn and bone punches and awls were 
also found, and among them one that is barbed, and another with a per- 
foration through the larger end. 

ANCIENT INCL08URK ON HAYS's FARM. 

On the farm of Mr. A. D. Hays, 2 miles southwest of New Albin, is 
the circular iuclosure shown in Fig. 49. This is situated on the lower 
bluff just above the point where the Little Iowa river enters the Mis- 
sissippi. The bluff here is about 100 feet higher than the bottoms 
which border these streams, and continues along the Mississippi for 
some distance at about the same height, with small circular mounds 
scattered over its surface ; but the plateau slopes gradually to the mar- 
gin of a deep ravine which enters the Little Iowa upon the western 
side. This area, including the circle, has been under cultivation for 
twenty-one years; but, notwithstanding the wear, the lines of the works 
were distinctly traceable throughout. 



INCLOSURE ON HAYs's FARM 



105 



The circle consists of three parallel ditches and two intermediate 
earthen walls. The inside ditch (before the works -were disturbed) was 
probably 5 or G feet deep and 12 feet wide ; the inner wall the same 
width; the middle ditch 4 feet deep and a little over 12 feet wide; and 
finally, the outer ditch 4 feet deep and about the same width as the 
wall. As will be seen from the figure, the inclosure is circular, with a 




y'^i^-^ 







Fig. 49 Inclosure on Hays's farm, near New Allun, Alhimakee county, Iowa. 

break on the side where it strikes the southern margin of the bluff 
overlooking the slough that runs into the Little Iowa river. The cir- 
cumference of the circle, exclusive of the break, is 990 feet, and the 
extent of the break along the bluff 225 feet. At the southeast an 
embankment some 10 or 12 feet wide and from 3 to 5 feet high runs 
down the crest of a narrow spur about 150 feet, gradually taueriug to a 



106 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

point. The slope on which this work is situated, like that at the pot- 
tery circle, is considerable, but very smooth and even. The location is 
a good one for defense and was in all probability selected by the ancient 
people who erected the works on this account. 

The most singular parts of the works at this place are three stone 
structures, to which the name " furnaces" has been applied by tlie peo- 
ple of this locality. One of these was found in a small mound within 
the inclosure (marked A in Fig. 49) and two not in mounds, outside 
and about 80 or 90 paces from the northwestern part of the circle. 
Light traces of those outside of the wall remain, while of that in the 
inclosed mound only about 1 foot of the wall was visible. But Mr. 
Hays, who has owned and occuiiied the land for twenty-one years and 
since it was first opened for cultivation, gave the following information 
in regard to them: The one in mound A, and the other, not shown in 
the figure, were each 18 feet long, each formed of two parallel walls 
about 3 feet high and .3 feet apart, composed of flat sandstones (yet to 
be seen close by), roughly laid up, and gradually drawn in near the top 
until one layer would cover the opening left in the top near that end. 
The inner stones stood fire well, as shown by the indications on them. 

Mound A in the circle is 24 feet in diameter, and now only about 1 
foot high. Fragments of pottery, stone chips, Uiiio shells, and pieces 
of bone are still abundant in and about the work, and especially among 
the stones in the mound. 

fish's mounds. 

These are situated on the lands owned by Mr. Fish, near the Missis- 
sippi river, a short distance below the point where the Little Iowa joins 
it. Those of one group are placed along the crest of a ridge running 
parallel with the river, and about one-fourth of a mile therefrom. They 
number about 30; circular in form, and varying from 20 to 40 feet in 
diameter. One singular feature was observed; those on the higher 
and sandy ground having a core of clay about the same size and form 
as those on the firm clay portion of the ridge, though to the latter a 
layer of several feet of sand was added, making them appear much 
larger and more recent than the others; yet upon opening the two 
classes, the contents, consisting of decaying human bones, fragments 
of pottery, and rude stone implements, showed no perceptible dili'er- 
ences. 

In one of the mounds opened two skeletons were found, lying hori- 
zontally side by side, facing each other. They were at the base of the 
hard clay core, which seemed to have formed a perfect roof, while the 
sand, upon a sharp ridge, formed the flooring, thus protecting them 
from moistiu-e and preserving them longer from decay than where less 
favorably situated; the skulls were obtained almost uninjured. 

Many mounds similar to these were found along the foothills of these 
rocky bluS's. 



THOMAS.] 



fish's cave. 



107 



Upon tlie terrace below these moiiiuls, where the railroad track has 
been graded lengthwise, was a line of comparatively large mounds, the 
remaining portions of which show that, although from to 15 feet 
high, and composed mainly of sand similar to that around them, they 
had a hard central core of clay mixed with ashes, from 2 to 4 feet high, 
under which was generally found at least one skeleton. Several stone 
hatchets, arrow and spear heads, and a. few copper chisels, were found 
by the first explorers. One of the mounds, 32 feet in diameter and 8 
feet high, contained a walled circular vault, represented in Fig. 50 ; 
this, like the stonework in the furnaces, did not have the true arch, 
but, as the main portion of it, which still remains standing shows, it 
was built of fiat stones, and gradually lessened in diameter as it rose. 




Fig. 50. — Walled mound, Fish group, Allamakee county, Iowa. 

being covered at the top by a single stone. It contained a single adult 
skeleton in a squatting posture, with which was a small earthen vase 
of the usual globular form. 

FI8H',S CAVE. 

This is simply a fissure in the vertical face of the sandstone bluff 
facing the Mississippi, about G miles south of New Albin, which by the 
action of the river or other means has been enlarged to a cave or rock 
house 40 or 50 feet long and 12 feet high. The elevation is so little 
above the Mississix^pi that it must be at least i)artially flooded during 
high water. The walls and ceiling are literally covered with rude etch- 
ings, representing quadrupeds, birds, turtles, bird tracks, totems, and 
symbolic or fanciful objects. These figures range in length from 2 or 
3 inches to 2 or 3 feet, and i^roportionally in width, and are cut into 
the soft rock from one-fourth to a full inch in depth, the width of the 
lines exceeding their depth. The width of these lines appears to have 
been increased by a crumbling process which must have gone on for a 
time after they were cut, but was checked by the formation of a dark- 
colored and hard crust over the surface, which now protects them.' 
The floor was covered to the depth of 2 feet with a mass of refuse mate- 
rial consisting of fish and other animal bones, fragments of pottery and 
stcne, charcoal, and ashes mingled with dirt. 



'A tracing of the figures was made and handed to Col. Garrick Mallery, for use in 
his study of Sign Language. 



108 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

CLAYTON COUNTY. 

The ancient remains of this county are chiefly effigy mounds or em- 
blematic works similar in character to those found in Wisconsin, and 
evidently attributable to the authors of those singular structures. So far 
as could be ascertained, these works are only found on the west side of the 
Mississippi, between Yellow river on the north and the Maijuoketa on the 
south and westward, a distance of some ten or twelve miles. As will 
be seen by reference to a map of this region, this small belt is directly 
opposite that portion of Wisconsin which seems to have been the chief 
home of the effigy mound-builders, where, as well as in this small por- 
tion of Iowa, they have left enduring evidences of a dense population 
or long occupancy, as the bluffs, the terraces, and even higher bottoms 
of the river subject to occasional overflow are alike dotted over with 
effigies and the usual accompanying small circular mounds and lines of 
earthworks. 

ELKPORT EFFIGY. 

This is situated on a bluff overlooking Turkey river near Elkport, 
about 10 miles west of the Mississippi, and is 120 feet long, nearly one- 
half its length consisting of an extremely elongated tail, which is in 
strong contrast with the short legs. It is probably intended to represent 
the otter. The gTcatest height of the body is 5 feet, the main portions 
of the extremities ft'om 2 to 3 feet, but the tail tapers to a point. 

There are many other interesting works along Turkey river and 
upon high bluft's above McGregor, notably effigies of antlered elks, 
uniformly in lines or groups heading southward. Unfortunately the 
sketches made of these were so defaced by subsequent exposure to a 
heavy rain as to render them valueless for reproduction. 

Near the town of Clayton is another ^roup of these works, which con- 
sists of an extended line of effigy and circular mounds. 

DUBUQUE COUNTY'. 

Near the town of Peru, immediately south of the mouth of Maquoketa 
creek, situated on a dry, sandy bench or terrace some 20 feet or more 
above a bayou which makes out from the Mississippi, is a group, 
mostly of small circular tumuli. As the relative positions may possi- 
bly furnish some aid to the archeologist in studying their several uses, 
a sketch of the group is given in Fig. 51. Fifty years ago, according 
to the old settlers, this ground was covered with a heavy growth of 
timber, which was removed for the purpose of cultivation; but the 
larger portion having afterwards been abandoned, most of the mounds 
are again covered with a young forest growth. A number were opened, 
but only detached portions of a skeleton were found, as a skull in one, 
a leg, arm, or other part in another, four or five adjacent ones appar- 
ently aggregating one entire skeleton. Some of these bones are 
charred and all are much decayed, indicating great age. Otherwise 



THOMAS. 1 



MOUNDS OF DUBUQUE COUNTY, IOWA. 



109 



nothing' peculiar was (observed in this group, except the arraugenient 
of the mounds, which is shown in the sketch. Nos. S-t, 35, 36, and 37 

are four oblong mounds, vary- 
ing in length from 40 to 110 
feet, and from 1^ to 4 feet in 
height. The inner portions 
were found to be of hard, com- 
pact earth, as is usual in this 
region. 

EAGLE POINT GROUP. 

This group is about 3 miles 
above Dubuque on the bluffs 
and terrace fi'onting the Mis- 
sissippi. The larger number 
of the mounds — about 70 — 
all of which, except two ob- 
long ones, are small and con- 
ical, are on a level terrace 
about 50 feet above high- 
water mark. On a bluff im- 
mediately west of these is a 
single embankment or mound 
about 300 feet long, 20 feet 
broad, and 3 feet high; and 
on Eagle point proper, imme- 
diately north, which is the 
point of a bluff some 200 feet 
high overlooking the river, 
are several low circular and 
two long mounds and a stone 
cairn. 

Eleven of the small circular 
mounds on the terrace were 
opened thoroughly, but noth- 
ing found in them except 
some charcoal, stone chips, 
and fragments of pottery. 
In an excavation made in the center of the long mound on the west- 
ern bluff two decayed skeletons were found. Near the breast of one of 
them were a blue stone gorget (shown in Fig. 52) and Ave rude stone 
scrapers; with the other, thirty-one fresh- water pearls, perforated and 
used as beads. 

An excavation was made in one of the long mounds on the point, and 
also in one of the circular ones. Both were found to be composed of a 




Fio. 51. — Group near Peru. Bnbuque county. Iowa. 



110 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



very liard feineiit or jdepaied eartli, which could be broken up only 
with the pick, when it ciuuibled like dry liuie mortar, and was found 
to be traversed throughout with flattened horizontal cavities. These 
cavities were lined with a peculiar black felt like substance, specimens 
of which were carefully preserved. There is scarcely a doubt that 
these cavities mark the spaces occupied by a body or bodies buried 
here, and it is possible that this felt like substance is the remnant of 
the fleshy portion of the bodies. An examination for the purpose of 
deciding this point will be made and reported hereafter. 





Flo. 52 Stone gor;;et, Dubuque county. Iowa. 



WAPELLO COUNTY. 

The diagram of the area between Eldou and lowaville along the Des 
Moines river, shown in Fig. 53, is constructed from a careful examina- 
tion of the ground 
and the statements 
of Mr. J. H. Jordan, 
who has resided 
here since the close 
of the Black Hawk 
war, and was th e In- 
dian agent to the 
Sacs audFoxes from 
the time of their re- 
moval thither after 
the war until Black 
Hawk's death, Sept. 
15, 1838. Between 
the two points 
named stretches the 
noted Iowa bottom, 
which is at least 2 
miles wide at the 
middle, about which 
point formerly stood 
the old agency; near 
the same point is the 
present residence of 
Mr. Jordan. The 
position of Black 
Hawk's grave, the 
race tracks, the mounds of the lowas, the mounds of the Pottowata- 
mies, and the place where the scaffolds for their dead stood are also 
indicated on the plat. 

This valley had long been a famous haunt for the Indians, but at the 
time of Mr. Jordan's first acquaintance with it was in possession of the 
lowas, whose main village was around the point where his house stands. 




MOUNDS NEAR lOWAVILLE. 



Ill 



The race course consisted of three parallel hard-beateu tracks nearly a 
mile in length, where the greater portion of the Iowa warriors were 
engaged in sport when surprised by Black Hawk and a large portion 
of them slaughtered, in 1830. After Black Hawk and his warriors had 
departed with their plunder the remaining lowas returned and bui'ied 



□ 
an . 

Q p tLDex 




Fig. 53 Diagram of Indian battle ground, Wapello county, Iowa. 

their dead in little mounds of sod and earth trom 2 to 4 feet high at 
the point indicated in the diagram. 

After the Black Hawk war the remnant of the lowas, by a treaty, 
formally ceded their rights in this valley to the Sacs and Foxes. Here 
this noted chief was buried, in accordance with his dying request, in 
a full military suit given him by President Jackson, together with the 
various memorials received by him from the whites, and the trophies 



112 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

won from tlie Indians. He was placed on his back on a puncheon 
slanting at a low angle to the ground, where his feet were sustained 
by another, and covered with several Inches of sod. Then a roof-shaped 
covering of slabs or puncheons, one end elevated and the other lowered, 
was placed above. Over all was thrown a covering of earth and sod 
to the depth of a foot or more, and the whole surrounded by a line of 
pickets some 8 or 10 feet high. Tlie subsequent stealing of his bones 
and their return to his friends have been recorded by the historian and 
poet, and need not be repeated here. 

VAN BUBEN COUNTY. 
MOUNDS NEAR l>OUIi. 

These mounds are some IS in number, circular in form, of rather 
small size, and placed in a nearly straight line upon the very crest of 
a remarkably straight and sharp ridge, 30 or 40 feet higher than the 
plateau upon which the town is built. 

One denoted No. 1, about 25 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, had 
been previously opened by Mr. Doud, and yielded two gray disks each 
4 Inches in diameter, a grooved stone axe and stone chips. 

No. 7, about 20 feet in diameter and 3i feet high, was explored and 
found, as usual, to contain a core of hard earth, but nothing else. 

No. 12, diameter 25 feet and height 4 feet, was found to contain, be- 
neath the hard core and lying on the original surface of the ground, 
decayed human bones and three fragments of dark colored pottery. 

No. 14, opened, nothing found. 

No. 15, same size as No. 12. In this, beneath a very hard core and 
lying horizontally on the original surface with head north, were the 
remains (scarcely more than traces) of a human skeleton. 

LEE COUNTY. 

Upon the bluffs near the junction of the Des Moines river with the 
Mississippi were many circular moirnds, most of which have been opened 
and numerous articles mostly of intrusive burials obtained therefrom. 
Several were opened by the Bureau agent, but nothing found in them 
save decayed human bones, fragments of pottery and stone chips. 

ILLINOIS. 
JOE DAVIESS COUNTY. 

Overlooking the city of East Dubuque (Dunleith) is a line of bluffs 
whose grassy slojies and summits are dotted over with ancient mounds 
of unusual symmetry, some of them above the usual size for this section 
of the country. The relative positions of these mounds to one another, 
to the bluffs, and to the river are shown in the diagram (Fig. 54). 



MOUNDS AT DUNLEITH. 



113 



The following list gives the respective sizes and a brief statement of 
the results of the explorations made in them. They are all of the usual 
conical form : 



No. 


Diameter. 


Height. 


Kemarks. 




Feet. 


Feet. 




1 


12 


3 


Stone cairn. Coals, ashes, etc. 


2 


42 


5 


Human bones. 


3 


43 


4 


Notliing found. 


4 


46 


8 


Contained a stone crypt . 


5 


70 


12 


Large skeleton, copper ornaments, etc. 


6 


40 


8 


Opened, but result unknown. 


7 


40 


4 


Do. 


8 


32 


5 


Human bones. 


9 


34 


4 


Opened, but result unknown. 


10 


20 


3 


Notliing fdund. 


11 


25 


;; 


Result unknown. 


12 


60 


9 


Vault and human Ijones. 


13 


43 


4 


Reopened, result given hereafter. 


14 


2.T 


3 


Skeletons. 


15 


45 


6 


Bones. 


16 


65 


10 


Vault found. 


17 


50 


8 


Opened, result unknown. 



Xos. 18 to 26, inclusive, form a line of nearly connected mounds, from 
30 to 50 feet in diameter and 4 to 7 feet high. 

A section of the bluff through the line of mounds No. 13 to No. 17 is 
shown in the lower part of Fig. 51, in which is seen the general slope 
of the upper area. 

No. 5, the largest of the group was carefully examined. Two feet 
below the surface, near the apex, was a skeleton, doubtless an intrusive 
Indian bm-ial. Near the original surface of the ground, several feet 
north of the center, were the much decayed skeletons of some 6 or 8 
persons, of every size, from the infant to the adult. They were placed 
horizontally at full length, with the heads toward the south. A few 
perforated TJnio shells and some rude stone skinners and scrapers were 
found with them. Near the original surface, 10 or 13 feet from the 
center, on the lower side, lying at full length upon its back, was one of 
the largest skeletons discovered by the Bureau agents, the length as 
proved by actual measurement being between 7 and 8 feet. It was all 
clearly traceable, but crumbled to pieces immediately after removal 
from the hard earth in which it was encased. With this were three 
thin, crescent- shaped pieces of roughly hammered, native copper, 
respectively 6, 8, and 10 inches in length, with small holes along the 
convex margin; a number of elongate copper beads made by rolling 
together thin sheets; and a chert lance-head over 11 inches long. 
Around the neck was a series of bear teeth, which doubtless formed a 
necklace; there were also several upon the wrists. Lying across the 
thighs were dozens of small copper beads, which perhaps once adorned 
12 ETH 8 



114 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



the fringe of a Imiitin^- shirt. These were formed by rolling slender 
wire-like strips into small rings. 

A partial exploration of Xo. -4 was made in 1857, revealing masses of 
burned earth and charred human bones mingled with charcoal and 
ashes. A further examination revealed, on the lower side, the end of a 




.VhticaZ Section on dotted line a •a 



Fig. 54.— Mound group, DunUiti, Illinois. 

double line of flat stones set on edge, about a foot apart at the bottom 
and adjusted so as to meet at the top in a roof-shaped arch or drain (for 
which it Mas probably intended). This extended inward nearly on a 
level, almost to tbe center, at which point it was about 3 feet beneath 
the original surface of the ground. Here a skeleton was discovered in 
a vault or grave which had been dug in the ground before the mound 



MOUND NO. 4 AT DUNLEITH. 



115 



was cast up. Over that ijortiou below the waist and the dislocated 
right arm, which was drawn below the waist, were iilaced flat stones 
so arranged by leaning as to support eacli other and prevent pressure 
on the body; no traces of fire were on them, yet when the upper por- 
tions were reached, although extended iu a natural position, they were 
but charred remains, scarcely traceable amid the charcoal and ashes 
of a fire that had nearly consumed them. 

It was apparent that a grave had flrst been dug, the right arm of the 
skeleton dislocated and placed beside it below the waist, and this part 
covered ; then the remainder burned to a cinder and over all a mound 
raised, which covered, iu addition thereto, a pile of charred human 
bones, charcoal and ashes. The mound, vault, and drain are repre- 
sented in Fig. 5.5. (1, outline of the mound; 2, the vault, and 3, the 
drain.) 

A partial examination was made of mound 'So. 13 in 1857, showing it 
to be similar to the preceding, so far as then explored. Further explo- 
ration brought to light a circle of stone slabs 10 feet in diameter, set on 




Fig 55.— Vault in Mound No. 4, Dunleith. lUinoia. 

edge at the natural surface of the ground. Within this circle, at the 
depth of 3 feet, were five skeletons, two of adults, two of children, and 
one of an infant. They were all lying horizontally side by side, heads 
south, the adults at the outside and the children between them. 

No. 15, except a roof or arched stratum 2 feet thick of prepared earth 
or mortar, so firm as to retain its form for several feet unsupported, 
was found to be an ossuary or heap of human bones in a promiscuous 
mass, many of them decayed. Only an ankle bone which had reunited 
after being broken was saved. 

The most interesting feature of the group was fouud in No. 16, a 
symmetrical mound 05 feet in diameter and 10 feet high. 

The first 6 feet from the top consisted, of hard gray earth, seemingly 
a mortar like composition, which required the use of the pick. This 
covered a vault built iu part of stone and in part of round logs. When 
fully uncovered this was found to be a rectangular crypt, inside meas- 
urement showing it to be 13 feet long and 7 feet wide. The four 
straight, surrounding walls were built of small unhewn stones to the 



116 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



height of 3 feet and a foot or more iu thickness. Three feet from each 
end was a cross wall or partition of like character, thus leaving a cen- 
tral chamber 7 feet square, and a narrow cell at each end about 2 feet 
wide and 7 feet long. This had been entirely covered with a single 
layer of round logs, varying in diameter from C to 12 inches, laid close 
together side by side across the width of the vault, the ends resting 
upon and extending to uneven lengths beyond the side walls. 



Mf' 



,''>* 



M 



4 



'rlfis. 



Fig. 56.— Section iif Muiiml No. 16, l>iinlLith niinoi.s. 

In the central chamber were 11 skeletons, <» adults, 1 children of dif- 
ferent sizes, and 1 infant, tbe last evidently buried in the arms of one 
of the adults, presumably its mother. They had all apparently been 
interred at one time as they were found arranged iu a circle in a sitting 
posture, with backs against the walls. In the center of the space 
around which they were grouped was a fine large shell, Busycon i)er- 
version, which had been converted into a drinking cup by removing 

the columella. Scattered around this 
were quite a number of pieces of bro- 
ken pottery. 

The end cells, walled off as hereto- 
fore stated, were nearly filled with a 
fine chocolate-colored dust, which, 
when first uncovered, gave out such 
a sickening odor that it was found 
necessary to suspend operations until 
the next day in order to give it time 
to escape. This dust may be the 
ashes resulting from burning the 
fleshy portions of the individuals liuried iu the central chamber. A 
bottle of it was saved for future examination. 

A vertical section of the mound and vault, lengthwise of the latter, is 
shown in Fig. .56. In this can be seen the end and partition walls of 
the vault, the cells, the skeletons, the ends of the logs forming the cover 
and the hard central mass of the mound. Fig. 57 shows the plan of 
the vault, the positions of the skeletons, and the projecting ends of the 
logs on one side. The covering consisted of oak logs, nearly all of which 
had been peeled and some of the larger ones somewhat squared by slab- 
bing oft" the sides before being put in place. The slabs and bark thus 
removed, together with reeds and twigs, had been laid over the logs 




Fici. 57. 



-Vault iu ^luuml No. 16, Duuleitlj, 
Illinois. 



THOMAS.) MOUNDS OF PIKE COUNTY. ' 117 

to fill the crevices. It was not possible to decide from the indications 
what kind of implement had been used in peeling and slabbing the logs. 
The larger logs extended a foot or more, irregularly, beyond the side 
walls. Over the whole vault had been sjiread layer after layer of mor- 
tar-like material evidently containing lime or ashes, a foot or more of 
ordinary soil, forming the outer or top layer, completing the mound. 
' Xo. 12 was opened some years ago by Dr. Campbell, who found in it 
a vault similar in character to the one described. 

PIKE COUNTY. 

On the spur of the ridge upon which the Welch mounds of Brown 
county, hereafter noticed, are situated, and about midway between 
them and Chambersbiug, in Pike county, is a group of circular mounds, 
possibly the work of another people than those who built the effigies. 

They are mainly on the farm of Mr. W. A. Hume, who assisted in 
opening eight of them, of which but two are specially noticed here. 

The first was 5 feet high and but 25 in diameter, of true conical form. 
It was composed of the usual hard ••burial earth" throughout, with 
nothing of interest at the 1 lottom ; but near the top, scarcely covered 
with earth, was found the skeleton of an adidt, doubtless an Indian 
intrusive burial. 

The other, situated on the point of a commanding bluff, was also 
conical in form. 50 feet in diameter and 8 feet high. The outer layer 
consisted of sandy soil, 2 feet thick, filled with slightly decayed 
skeletons, probably Indians of intrusive burials. The earth of the 
main portion of this mound was a very flue yellowish sand which shov- 
eled like ashes and was everywhere, to the depth of from 2 to 4 feet, as 
full of human skeletons as could well be stowed away in it, even to two 
and three tiers. Among these were a number of bones not together as 
skeletons, but mingled in confusion and probably from scaffolds or 
other localities. Excepting one, which was rather more than 7 feet 
long, these skeletons appeared to be of medium size and many of them 
much decaj'ed. Some feet beneath all these was a single skeleton of 
ordinary size, much decayed, and with it a bone and skull of some quad- 
ruped. 

The other mounds of the group are circular, varying in diameter 
fi'om 30 to 50 feet and in height from 4 to S feet. In the six opened the 
only things found were the bones of intrusive burials near the top and 
sides, with a few arrow points and rude, chipped stone implements, 
probably scrapers. 

From a line of ancient fire beds and kitchen heaps along a rivulet 
that runs into McGee creek, near these mounds, some pieces of bones, 
a number of rude stone implements and fragments of pottery were 
obtained. 



118 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

BROWN COUNTY. 

THE WELCH GROUr. 

This group, of which a plan is given in Fig. 58, is on the farm of Mr. 
Edward Welch, 3 miles west of Perry Springs station, Wabash and 

St. Louis Railroad, on a. 

^ narrow ridge some 200 

^ feet above the botti^m 

^ lands. It consists of six 

5| ,^ mounds (Nos.l to C in the 

plan) and a number of 
small saucer-shaped ba- 
sins surrounded by low, 
earthen ridges, doubtless 
the sites of ancient dwell- 
ings or wigwams. The 
latter are indicated on the 
plan by small circles. 

Mound No. 2, about 100 
feet in diameter and 8 feet 
high, had a very marked 
depression in the top. A 
l^it feet square carried 
down to the natural sur- 
face brought to light three 
fire beds at different 
depths. Numerous frag- 
ments of pottery, stone 
chips, pieces of sand-_ 
stone, which had been 
used as tool-sharpeners, 
and a flat sandstone 
^WmU'/ ueaily 2 feet square, on 
^- one side of which were sev- 
g ■ eral long, deep grooves, 

^^ jjrobably made in sharp- 

^^^ ening tools, were also 

found. 

No. 6 was also opened, 

but only disclosed the 

^'i m^" **** 'f " fact that it consisted of 

an outer layer of soil 1 
foot thick and the remainder, soil, clay, stone chips, and fragments of 
pottery commingled. 

As the land was in wheat at the time of examination, permission to 
make further excavations in the mounds was refused. 





THOMAS] ANCIENT WOHKS NEAR LA GRANGE. 119 

The dwelling sites vary considerably in size, some being as miicli as 
70 feet in diameter, and some of them 3 feet deep in the center after fifty 
years of cnltivation. 

Mound 'So. 4 is oblong in form, the longer diameter 165 feet and the 
shorter 90, lieight 1.3 feet; regularly truncated, with flat top, the length 
on top about 100 feet. 

ANCIENT WORKS NEAR LAGRANGE. 

These works are on the top of the bluff facing the Illinois river, 
just below the mouth of Crooked creek. The principal area occupied 
is the top of a si)ur flanked by a ravine on each side and extending 
back from the river with a level plateau. At the back, where the side 
bluff's cease to form a sufficient natural defense, an embankment has 
been thrown up. This extends a,cross the area fi'om one ravine to the 
other, measuring 597 feet in length, leaving a slope of 48 feet to a 
ditch 30 feet wide and 8 or 10 feet below the level of the plateau beyond. 
Immediately within the wall was evidentlj' the main village, as here 
are numerous saucer-shaped depressions or hut rings, and between 
these and the margin of the bluff in a nearly straight line are three 
mounds, one oblong, the others circular. With or witliout palisades the 
place must liave been easily defended in tliis direction. 

The only other assailable part of the bliift' is a sloping ridge extend- 
ing down toward the river on the left. This is fortified by an earthen 
wall, breast high, which follows the windings of the crest and which has 
a mound-like enlargement at each turn or change of slope. 

The length of the nearly level area from the rear wall to the oblong 
mound or embankment is 492 feet; thence to the mound which is 
on tlie very edge of the bluff the slope is marked and the distance is 
315 feet. There are other mounds outside of the fort on the point of a 
si>ur across the ravine to the right. 

A considerable collection of stone implements, mostly in fragments, 
was made at this place, gathered from the surface. Onhy four mounds 
were examined, as the remaining ones had been opened by others, who 
found a number of tine stone hatchets, pipes, arrowheads, gorgets, etc., 
mostly at the tops of the mounds. The dwelling sites are from 30 to 
50 feet in diameter and fi'om 1 to 3 feet deep. 

The four mounds opened yielded only liuman bones and a few fi-ag- 
nients of stone implements. 

In one, diameter 50 feet, height 15 feet, lay a human skeleton at the 
bottom, much decayed. 

In the second, diameter 40 feet, lieight 10 feet, were decaying bones, 
stone chips, and fragments of pottery. 

No. 3, diameter GO feet, height 15 feet, full of bones. 

No. 4, diameter .50 feet, height 15 feet, many bones. 

As all the human bones found in the last were near the surface, at 
the top or sides, they are presumably those of modern Indians, and the 
mounds may have been built for other than burial purposes. But those 



120 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

upon the blufl' to the right are jirobably all burial moiiuds. They are 
mainly of very hard prepared earth, and one of those explored was 
certainly a depository of skeletons removed from elsewhere. 

Upon the level bottom between the blntt' and a lake or bayou con- 
necting with the Illinois river, and about 2 miles south of Lagrange, is 
a small group of mounds, very interesting from the fact that here we 
see the pyramidal form so common in the south, but so rare in this 
northern region. 

The dimensions of these mounds are as follows (the numbers are 
given merely as means of designatmg them): 

No. 1, circular; diameter, 100 feet; height, .■> feet. 

No. 2, rectangular ; base, 108 by 117 feet; top. Ill by 30 feet; height, 
30 feet; regularly truncated; top level. 

No. 3, rectangular; base, 165 by 82 feet; top, 105 by 30 feet; height, 
24 feet ; regularly truncated ; top level. 

No. 4, circular; diameter, 96 feet; height, 15 feet. 

No. 5, circular; diameter, 33 feet; height, 6 feet. 

The size, form, appearance, and surroundings of these mounds seem- 
ingly indicate that they are the work of southern mound-builders. 

The neighboring bluffs are covered with the ordinary circular mounds, 
20 to 60 feet in diameter and 4 to 8 feet high. The tops of these had 
already been rifled of the intrusive burials of Indian skeletons, stone, 
and occasionally iron Implements and other modern articles. Further 
exploration of the hard central core of many of them revealed only 
decaying human bones and unimportant articles. But those on the 
bottom are of a very different tji'e from those on the bluffs, ami prob- 
ably are the work of a different people. The bottom on which these 
stand is subject to occasional overflows. Many acres of a dry, sloping 
terrace 2 miles south of this jioint are strewn with the finest lance and 
aiTow heads and other stone implements found in the valley of the Illi- 
nois river. Fragments of a better quality of pottery were also abun- 
dant, but no entire vessels were found. 

ADAMS COUNTY. 

Upon the east bank of the Mississippi opposite Canton, Missouri, is 
an irregular line of mounds, nearly all of which are circular and vary 
in diameter from 30 to 120 feet, and in height Iroml to 10 feet. Two 
of these were opened with the following result: 

No. 1, about 100 feet in diameter and 10 feet high, was composed ot^ 
first, a layer of soil 2 feet thick, the remainder of compact earth so hard 
as to require the use of the pick. At a depth of 1 foot in the latter, or 
3 feet from the top, was a much-decayed skeleton of ordinary size lying 
horizontally with the head toward the west, about which were some 
fragments of pottery. Nothing else of interest was found. 

No. 2, 60 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, was of similar construction, 
but nothing was found in it. 



THOMAS.] 



ANCIENT WORKS — CALHOUN COUNTY. 



121 



INDIAN GRAVE PRAIKIE. 

About 5 miles southeast of the preceding on the western shore of a 
small lake is a spot known as "Indian Grave prairie," which in former 
times was a ftivorite haunt of the Indians. It is a circular area contain- 
ing some 50 acres, rising about 5 feet above the surrounding lands, with 
a steep descent all around the margin, and is now a part of the levee. 
Mr. E. E. Thorn, who now occupies and cultivates it, says there is 
neither trace nor tradition of timber having ever grown upon it, but 
that he has found abundant evidence of long-continued occuijancy prior 
to its possession by white men. 

Excavations made in several oval-topped mounds brought to light 
nothing except the fact that they were composed nminly of sand like the 
surrounding soil, although decayed human bones are said to have been 
found in some of them. 

Three or four feet in depth of the bank fronting the lake is, in fact, a 
refuse heap mixed with charcoal, ashes, stone chips, and other evidences 
of long occuijancy. However, a single bone awl and some pieces of 
pottery were the only articles obtained by the Bureau assistant. 

A small image of iiottery, found while plowing near one of the mounds 
on this area, is in possession of one of the residents. 

CALHOUN COUNTY. 

This county is a long narrow belt of land lying between the Illinois and 
Mississippi rivers immediately above their junction. It consists chiefly of 
an elevated ridge from 250 to 300 feet high, flanked on each side by 
rich alluvial bottoms bordering the two rivers, its sides being cut by 
numerous deep ravines. The ujjland is irregular and broken, some of 
it too much so for cultivation, though the soil is rich. 

Mounds are comparatively numerous over this area, the larger por- 
tion being found on the uplands. 

The first group examined was one consisting of four mounds situated 
on theNW. ^, Sec. 34,T. 10S.,E.3W. These are placed along the top 
of a spur of the ridge, about ii.jO feet above the bottoms; the immediate 
position being flanked on the east and west by deep ravines. The fol- 
lowing table shows the respective sizes of the tumuli and their courses 
and distances from one another, commencing with No. 1 at the north- 
west end of the series and measuring from center to center: 



No. of 
mound. 


Bearings. 


Distance. 


Diameter. 


Heigbt. 


1 
l-to2 

2 to 3 

3 to 4 

4 to 5 

5 to 6 
6to7 
7to8 




Feet. 


Feet. 
55 by 33 

15 by 16 

40 

39 by 29 

28 by 20 

33 by 22 
61 by 34 

34 by 28 


Feet. 
4 

1 

6 

6 

4 

3i 

6 

4 


S.47°E 

S.75°30'E.... 
S.57°30'E.... 

S.45°E 

S.33°45'E.... 

S.25°E 

S.310E 


342 
310 
103 
94- 
71 
100 
120 



122 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The coustruction of No. 1, which .stands ou the highest point occu- 
pied by the group, proved to be very simple. Passing through the 
vegetable mold Fig. 59, e, .some 3 inches thick, a layer of earth d was 
reached which formed the mass of the mound, and was similar in char- 
acter to, the soil of the surrounding surface of the ridge. Under this 
M'as a pile of stones h resting on the original surface, 
exdept where excavated, the area covered measuring 
13 by 9 feet. Below this at g was an excavation in the 
original soil, 7 feet long by 2 feet wide, and a little more 
' than a foot deep. In the bottom of this grave was a 
single badly decayed skeleton lying at full length on 
its back. Over it was earth mixed with stones, which 
i filled the grave. There were no indications that bark 
'^ R or any other wrai)ping had been used. 

i- Mound JSTo. 2 was in fact nothing more than a single 
I layer of stones covering an area of about 16 feet in di- 
g ameter, placed here doubtless to shield from the wild 
I beasts the half dozen bodies or skeletons buried beneath 
i them. On top of the stones was a fire bed, showing 
■A that a fire had been built immediately after the stones 
3 were placed, as it lay on the stones but not on the mold 
"l which covered them. 

^ Mound No. 4 was found to consist — after passing 
« through the vegetable mold (e) — chiefly of yellow clay 
6 from the siu-rounding surface. This was interrupted 
3 only by two small heai)S of stone, as shown in Fig. 00 

(plan and section), / indicating the clay layer and g and 

1 /i. the stone heaps; »» is an excavation in the original 
". surface. In this grave, which was but little more than 
5 6 inches deep, was a single skeleton, I'esting on the 

right side, head noi-thwest. There were no indications 
of wrappings or other covering than earth. 

Mound No. 5, whicli stands ou the edge of the ridge, 
had been partially opened before. Its construction was 
similar to that of No. 1, except that the stone heap was 
smaller, and the form and arrangement of the grave be- 
neath different. This grave was nearly 6 feet by 5, and 
18 inches deep. Slab.s of limestone were set on edge around the sides. 
It contained a single skeleton, resting on the left side, accompanied by 
a shell needle, and surrounded by a quantity of light ash like sub- 
.stance almost filling the grave. The bones were slightly decayed and 
the skull was crushed. 

The next group examined is situated on the SB. J Sec. 29, T. 10 S., 
E. 2 W., on the main ridge, probably 300 feet higher than the river bot- 
toms. This consists of 12 mounds, two of which were excavated with 
the following results: 



THOMAS.] 



MOUNDS OF CALHOUN COUNTY. 



123 



Mound No. 1, between 3 ami i feet liigli, diameters 31 and 22 feet, 
is oval in outline and somewhat flattened. It proved to be a simple 
heap of earth covering a single grave or slight excavation, in which 
lay a single skeleton at full length on the back. 

Mound No. 2 of this group presented the same inetliod of construc- 
tion as No. 1. 

In Fig. CI is presented the plat of a group on the NE. ^ Sec. 31, T. 
10 S., E. 2 W., the laud of Mr. William I. Wilkinson. It consists of 
twelve mounds, situated on the top of a ridge some 200 feet above the 
river bottoms. They are all of the ordinary conical tj^ie, varying in 
diameter from 20 to 50 feet, and in height from 2 to 5 feet, as will be 
seen by reference to the following table (measurements from base to 
base). 



No. 


Bearing. 


Distasce. 


Diameter. 


Height. 






Feet. 


Feet. 
33 by 30 


Feet. 

4 


Ito 2 


N.SO^-W.. 


40 


30 by 26 


H 


2 to 3 


N.55J°W. 


41 


30 by 30 


3 


3 to 4 


N.84°W.. 


62 


33 by 31 


3J 


Ito 5 


K.80i<'W. 
N.8U° W. 
N.620W.. 


44 


32 by 29 
V> by 37 
28 by 21 




S to 6 


114 




6 to 7 


10 


4 


7 to 8 


N.41JOW. 
N.340W.. 


130 


50 by 20 
40 by 23 




8 to 9 


66 


5 


9 to 10 
6 to 11 


N.343°W. 
N.62°W.. 


.95 
55 


50 by 32 
35 by 24 


5i 
3 


7 to 12 


N.410W.. 


62 


20 by 20 


2 



No. 
No, 



. 1 13 on west edge of ridge. 
I. 2 is 40 feet from edge of ridg 



No. 2, 3 feet high, was nothing but a simple heap of earth covering 
five skeletons, two of which were bundled, the others stretched at full 
length. These lay at difterent depths, fi-om 1 to 3 feet, those at the 
latter depth being on the original surface of the ground. There was 
no excavation or grave beneath this mound. A Unto shell and two 
chipjied implements were found with two of the skeletons. 

Mounds Nos. 3, -4, 5, 9, and 11 were of the same type, the only differ- 
ence being that some of them contained but one skeleton, -while others 
contained two or four. 

No. 7, standing near the edge of the ridge, presented some slight 
variations from the six mentioned. In this, "which was I feet high, was 
found, at the depth of a few inches, a dark sticky mass about 2 feet in 
diameter and 1 foot thick, seemingly of burned animal matter, which con- 
tained fi-agments of bui-ned human bones, charcoal, and ashes. TJuder 
this was a layer of burned earth some 10 or 11 feet in diameter. Lower 
down and nearer the margin of the mound was another similar, but 
smaller, dark mass also mixed with burned human bones and charcoal. 
A single skeleton rested on the original surface, near the southwest 



124 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



edge of the tumulus. Two bird-shaped stoue pipes (Xos. 1347<)fi and 
134707) were taken from tlie layer of burnt earth and three chipped 
imiilements were also found in the same layer. 

No. 8, a section of which is shown in Fig. 02, also presents some vari- 
ations worthy of notice. In this figure, e is the surface accumulation of 
vegetable mold, 3 inches thick ; /' the yellow clay body of the mound, 
2 feet thick; /( a mass of burned clay; It a layer about 2 inches thick 
of dark, greasy earth; m an excavation in the original soil. The clay 
mass /( had been burned to a brick red, and in the center was as hard 
as a brick. The grave was about 6 feet long by 2J in width, and con- 





Fl«. CO.— Mound No. 4, Sec. 34, T. 10, R. 2, Calhoun oonnty, IlUnoia. 

tained the skeleton, probably of a female, lying on its back at full 
length. Immediately under the southwest end of the burned clay 
mass were the charred remains of three skeletons; and at g fragments 
of charred animal and human bones. 

A mound on the NE. \ Sec. 15, T. 10 S., E. 2 W., standing on the 
brink of a bluff, presented the following features: It measured a little 
over 4: feet high and 30 feet in diameter, and was composed entirely of 
clay from the surface of the ridge immediately to the west, as was 
apparent fi'om an excavation at this ]>oint some 2 feet deep. Contrary 
to the rule, this contained no covering of vegetable mold. The north- 
ern, eastern, and southern margins were strengthened by flat stones 
(see Fig. 03), probably to prevent washing, as the surface of the ridge 
sloped rapidly away in these directions. 

The important feature of the mound was the number of skeletons 



THOMAS.) 



MOUND? OF CALHOUN COUNTY. 



125 



found scattered through it, most of them intrusive and at various depths. 
The mode of burial was somewhat different from tlie usual custom in 
this region, though rescmbliug that in mouud No. 2 of the first group 
mentioned. The first three were in the eastern side at the depth of 12 
inches, lying at full length; the fourth at the depth of 9 inches, the 




bones of which had been charred before burial ; the fifth at the depth 
of 6 inches, bundled, lying on one flat stone and covered by another. At 
another point were three skeletons, at the depth of 9 inclies, one of them 
at full length, the other two bundled. Four other skeletons, at the depth 
of a foot, were lying at full length on one layer of stones and covered by 
another. Nine others were scattered through the mouud at various 
depths, some between stones and most of tliem bundled. 



126 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Underueath the mouiKl were two excavations in the original soil, 
the one marked a being but 2 J feet long, 2 feet wide, and 18 inches deep. 
In this were the bones of a single skeleton, but in such confusion as to 
make it evident they were buried after the desh had been removed. 
The other excavation, h, 7 feet longby 2 J wide and 2 J feet deep, contained 
a single male skeleton lying at full length, face up and head south. The 
bottom of the grave under this skeleton was covered with decayed 
vegetable matter to the depth of 2 or 3 inches. 

Several relics were found in this tumulus, all with the skeletons. 
These were as follows: Two arrow points, a banner stone (13477G); a 
broken pot (134772) with the skeleton in grave h; a stone celt (134775), 
a shell, a lot of bone beads (134770); a piece of lead ore (134773); and a 
grooved stone axe (134771). 

The next group examined, consisting of twenty mounds, is in the 
northwest quarter of Sec. 2, T. 9 S., E. 2 W., located along the narrow 
crest of a ridge rising frcmi 125 to 300 feet above the Illinois river. 
The distance from 1 to 20 (at the opposite ends of the line), following 
the bend, is above three-sevenths of a mile. The following table gives 
the courses and distances of the mounds from one another, measuring 
from center to center, and the size of each : 



Number. 


Direction. 


Distance. 


Diameters. 


Height. 


1 




Feet. 


Feet. 
65 by 45 

25 by 20 


Feet._ 
5 


1 to 2 


IJ".21°33'W... 


86 


li 


2 to 3 


N.230 39'W... 


313 


31 by 27 


2 


■i to 4 


N.50 02'E 


74 


39 by 32 


4 


4 to 5 


11.34° lO'E.... 


93 


55 


5 


5 to 6 


N. 19033'E.... 


45 


17 


3 


6 to 7 


X 


30 


20 by 17 
57 by 19 


1 


7 to 8 


N.UOOS'E--.. 


149 


3J 


8 to sta. a 
Sta. a to 9 


N.2° 03'E 

E 


512 
49 






40 by 25 
44 by 30 


7 


Sta. a to lO 


N.2° 40'E 


143 


5 


10 to 11 


N.2°31'W.... 


103 


38 by 30 


6 


11 to 12 


11.25° 23'W... 


58 


26 by 16 


2 


12 to 13 


N. 18° 37'W... 


72 


26 by 21 


2 


13 to 14 


N. 17°22'W... 


95 


31 by 22 


3i 


14 to 15 


N. 24° 29'W . . . 


42 


32 by 24 


3 


15 to 16 


N.26°53'W... 


93 


22 by 20 


2 


16 to 17 


N.22o50'W... 


99 


50 by 40 


7 


17 to 18 


N.I80 W 


86 


23 by 14 


2 


18 to 19 


lf.28°W 


190 


1 24 by 15 


21 


19 to 20 


N.38°08'W... 


149 


59 by 45 


9 



2^0. 1 stands on the southern end of the ridge, occupying the full 
width of the top, which is here about 125 feet above the river. The 
structure, po.sitions of skeletons, etc., are shown in Fig. C4, in whicli 
are presented vertical sections both of the length and width. 



MOUNDS OF CALHOUN COUNTY. 



127 



lu these, c is the surface sod, 2 inches thiclv; the remainder,/, down 
to the natural ground, consisted of yellow clay taken from the top of 
the ridge; g</, the line of the original surface; Xos. 1 to 10 skeletons, h, 
a small lire bed, and I; a flat stone resting on it. Skeleton 1, inches 
below the sod, lay at full lengthy face up, bead south; 2 and 3, at full 
length, faces up, heads northeast, at the depth of 10 inches; 4, on the 
original surface of the ridge, stretched out, bead northwest, face toward 
the river. The bones in this case were more decayed than those fur- 
ther up in the mound ; and near by was the fire bed, h also on the 
original surface. This was small, measuring but 2 feet in diameter, 




FlQ. 62 Vertical section of Mouml Xo. 8, NE. } Sec. 31, T. 10. P,.2 W., Illinois 



and not more than 2 inches thick; it was covered by a flat stone, Jc, 
which bore no indications of fire. S'o. 5, a skeleton at the depth of 9 
inches, face up, head southwest; 6, at the depth of 15 inches, head 
southwest, face down, an unusual position; 7, at a depth of 3 feet, 
bones in a heap with the skull on top, the heap resting on the natural 
surface. No 8, but 3 inches below the sod, at full length, face up, head 
southwest; 9 and 10, at the depth of 10 inches, heads northeast. 

Most of the burials in this mound seem to have been intrusive or 
made at different periods. A few shell beads with skeleton No. 1 were 
the only relics found. 




Fig. 63.— Vertical section cjf mouml on SB. J Sec. 15, T. 10, R. 2 W., Illinois 



Mounds 2 and 5 were constructed much like No. 1 ; the former con- 
taining no skeletons; the latter, which had been partially opened be- 
fore, containing several skeletons, three of which remained. These 
were intrusive, all at full length, faces up. 

Mound G was similar in construction to the preceding. Under the 
northern end and resting on the natural surface of the ridge was a 
fire bed some G inches thick and 3 feet in diameter, of charcoal, ashes, 
and burned human bones. Judging by all the indications Mr. Middle- 
ton, the explorer, concluded that the body or skeleton of a medium- 
sized person had been placed on the surface of the ridge, face up, head 



128 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



eastward, and a fire kiudled over tbe middle portion, cousuming the 
larger bones. The skull does not seem to have been affected by heat. 
Another fact worthy of notice is that the earth immediately over the 
bones showed no indications of fire. 

In the southern end of the mound lay another skeleton at full length 
on the surface of the ridge, with the head south. 

Mound 7 was not thoioughly explored because of a large hickory tree 
standing on it. The construction so far as it could be made out was as 
follows: 2 inches of sod, then the body of clay as usual: below this, 
resting on the surface of the ridge, was a layer of thoroughly burnt 
clay stretching nearly across the mound; this was covered with coals 
and ashes to the depth of 2 inches. Under this layer of burnt clay 
were the charred remains of a skeleton. The indications were that the 
body in this case had been buried in the flesh. 




Fio. 64— Vertical section nf Monnil No. 1, NW. Sec. 2, T. 9, K. 2 W., IlliDois. 

Another group examined is situated on the W. i of Sec. 2 and E. J 
of Sec. 3, T. 9 S., R. 2 W. This consists of 5 mounds varying in diam- 
eter from .30 to 60 feet and in height from .'i to feet; on the crest of a 
ridge as usual. 

All except one had been previously explored, ami in one of them a 
box-shaped stone grave found. 

No. 4, the smallest of the group, the one which had not been dis- 
turbed consisted of a top layer of vegetable mold and a body of clay 
as usual. Resting on the surface of the ridge near the center was 
a pile of flat limestones, which were iirobably brought from the 
eastern end of the ridge near by. This iiile covered a space 12 feet 
in diameter, being 2i feet high in the center. The spaces were filled 
with decayed vegetable material, and the outer stones bore indications 
of weathering as though the pile had remained uncovered for some 
time after it was built. At the northern base of the heap, partly sur- 
rounded by it, was a box-shaped stone grave 5 feet long and 2 feet wide. 
It was complete, having stones both at bottom and top, though the latter 
had fallen in. In it were two skeletons apparently of young persons, 
on their backs, but faces turned towards each other, heads east. They 
were surrounded by decayed vegetable or animal matter. Immedi- 



GROUP NEAE HAEDIN, CALHOUN COUNTY. 



129 



ately east of the center of the inoimd aud partially covered by the 
stone pile was a decayed skeleton lying at length on its back, head to 
the south. 

There are a number of grouijs on the western side of the county in 
the vicinity of Ilamburg, most of which have been explored; one, how- 
ever, appears to have been overlooked. This is located on the NW. ^ 
Sec. 1, T. 10 S., II. 3 W., on the crest of a ridge some 200 feet or more 
above the river level, and consists of six mounds. 

The dimensions of these are as follows : No. 1, diameters 01 by 23 feet; 
height, 4 feet. No. 2, diameters, .50 by 34: feet; height, 5 feet. No. 3, 
diameters, 00 by 37 feet; height, 6 feet. No. 4, diameter, 25 feet; height, 
4 feet. No. 5, diameters, 60 by 35 feet; height, C feet. No. C, diame- 
ters, 57 by 30 feet ; height, 3 feet. 

In No. 4 nothing was observed of interest except a small flre-bed on 
the natural surface of the ridge under the center of the mound. There 
were no indications of burials. 

The construction and contents of No. 5 were as follows: A layer of 
vegetable mold 3 inches thick ; then 2 feet of clay surface soil very hard 
and difficult to work ; under this, conforming to the shape of the mound 
and resting on the surface of the ridge, was a layer of earth about 9 
feet in diameter. This covered a mass of burnt clay 5 feet long, 3 feet 
wide, and 18 inches thick, which had been burned to a brick red and 
was in fragments. At the south end was a small heap of ashes which 
had probably been lakcd off the lire beds, and in the same locality 
but at the depth of IS inches, was a skeleton resting at fall length 
face up, in or under a small fire-bed. Judging ft-om the indications, 
clay had been placed over the middle part of the body on which a fire 
had been kindled. As the bones were not charred it is probable the 
flesh had not been removed before bvu'ial. In the northern part, at the 
depth of 3 feet, was another badly decayed skeleton. 

Mixed in the tire bed were a number of charred human bones ; p;irts 
of two skeletons, apparently intrusive burials, were found in the upper 
layer. 

Another group situated a short distance north of Hardin on the NE. 
i Sec. 27, T. 10 S., K. 2 W., stands on the margin of a bluff, about 200 
feet above the Illinois river. Directly in front of the mounds the bluff' 
breaks down perpendicularly for about 40 feet. 

The dimensions are as follows : 



No. 


Diameters. 


Height. 




Feet. 


Feet. 


1 


93 by 100 


19 


2 


47 by 26 


3 


3 


93 by 84 


le 


4 


25 by 21 


U 


5 


21 by 15 


2 



12 ETH- 



130 



MOUND EXPLOKATIONS. 



No. 1, the only oue of tlic group explored, proved to be very inter- 
esting. As will be seen by reference to Fig. 65, showing a vertical 
section, it is located on the very brink of the precipice. 

The upper portion («) to the depth of 14 feet was a single layer com- 
posed chiefly of yellow clay obtained from the surrounding surface of 
the bluff. Near the center, at the depth of 4 feet, was a horizontal 
bed (ft) of hard, gray eaith — apparently muck fro!n the river, 8 inches 
thick and covering an area about 20 feet in diameter, and three feet 
lower another bed (c) of burnt clay about the same thickness and 
extent as the preceding. Although particles of (;harcoal were mixed 
thi'ough the latter no ashes were observed on or about it. 

At the depth of 14 feet the top of what seems to have been the nucleus 
or original mound was reached, over which the heavy mass of clay had 
been cast at some subsequent period. Over this lay a thin covering of 




Fl(i. 65.— Vertical surtioii of Mouud No. 1. NE. Sec 



Illinois. 



white, ash-like material (//) not more than 2 inches thick and extending 
on all sides to the original base. This rested, for the most part, on a 
single layer of stones (mi), the latter lacking several feet of extending 
to the outer margin. Examining carefully the stones which formed 
this layer, evidences of weathering on the upper side were distinctly 
visible, showing that the mound must have remained undisturbed at 
this height for a considerable length of time. . The thin stratum of ash- 
like material seems to confirm this view as the decayed stems of grass 
found near the outer margin show that it was produced by burning a 
covering of grass which had probably grown over it. The dark spots 
(d and e) indicate two small fire beds resting on the layer of stones. 

Kemoving the stones and cutting a trench through the low, broad 
original mound or nucleus to the natural surface of the blulf, the con- 
struction was found to be as shown in the figure. By z is indicated 
an oval basin, 10 by 13 feet, lined throughout with a layer of stones (»;)? 
similar to those above. It was filled with the yellow surface soil of the 
ridge and covered with the layer of stones g g. The stones below also 
bore distinct marks of weathering, and were covered with a thin layer 



THOMAS.] ALTAR MOUND. 131 

of a white material like ashes mixed with decayed leaves and grass. 
Under these stones and resting on the natural surface of the ridge was 
a thin layer of decayed vegetable matter (>•). The slopes i i surround- 
ing the basin were of yellow clay similar to that of the thick upper 
layer of the mound. The dark spots /( and k indicate small fire beds. 

Partly under and partly in the bottom layer of decayed vegetable 
matter and exactly in the center of the mound was a single skeleton (o) 
lying on the back at full length, the feet to the south, but the head was 
wanting. Not a tooth or particle of the jaw or skull was to be found, 
though careful search was made. As all the other bones were well 
preserved and comparatively sound, except that the pelvis and some of 
the ribs were broken, it is presumed that the head must have been 
removed before burial. This is the second instance observed in which 
the head had been thus removed. The first was noticed at Pecan 
Point, Arkansas. 

Six feet south of the center of the mound was a small deposit of 
burned bones lying on the natural surface of the bhrff. Seven feet 
west ot the center, lying on the original soil, were the remains of an 
infant (s), which had been doubled up until the knees touched the 
chin, wrapped in a grass covering, and placed upon its left side. 

A seashell (Bnsycon perversicm) from which the columella had been 
removed, converting it into a drinking cup, which was at the right 
shoulder of the skeleton, and a fragment apparently of another similar 
shell, were the only relics found in the mound. The latter was in a 
stone box or cist 2^ feet square and 1 foot deep, resting on the natural 
surface of the ridge. Not a fragment of bone was found in this box. 

Another singular feature observed consisted of three small pits («, v, 
x) under the eastern base of the upper layer. These were tlu-ee holes, 
from 15 to 18 inches in diameter and 1 foot deep. One of them con- 
tained particles of rotten wood. There were several intrusive burials 
in the thick upper clay layer which presented nothing of special inter- 
est. 

It would seem from the facts and figure given that we have in this 
tumulus a specimen of the Ohio "altar mound" type, as what we have 
called the nucleus or original mound is in fact one of the so-called 
"altars" of the type described by Messrs. Squier and Davis. 

MADISON AND ST. CLAIR COUNTIES. 

On the line separating these two counties is the celebrated Cahokia 
group, which includes the giant structure known as the Cahokia or 
Monk's mound. 

In the fall of 1882 Mr. William McAdams was engaged by this Bureau 
to make an exploration and preliminary survey of this interesting re- 
gion, but his work was suddenly cut short at the end of a month by 
severe winter weather. 



132 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The first mounds visited were those on Wood river where it emerges 
fi'om the highlands and enters the bottom. This bottom, wliifh extends 
southward from Alton along the Mississippi, is generally known as the 
"American bottom." Many small mounds are found on the bluffs in 
this vicinity, as shown in the accompanying map. (Fig. 06.) An oval- 
shaped one some 5 feet iu height, situated on the sloping bluff betweeu 
the forks of the stream, was of a yellowish clay much more compact 
and tenacious than the loess of the bluff. At the depth of 5 or (i feet 
were the crumbling bones of a human skeleton. The body had evi- 
dently been buried extended, with the face upward. With the bones 
were some ashes, but none of the bones showed any indications of 
having been burned. No relics of stone or other material were found. 



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FUi. 06. — Wtiud river luoiiuds, iladisnn county, Illinois 



An adjoining mound on the west and of nearly the same size was 
opened, but i>reseuted nothing materially different from the first. Sub- 
sequently, however, in a small mound on the bluff above the railroad 
track, on the west sideofWood river, a human skeleton was discovered, 
at the depth of about 2 feet, much decayed; the skull, however, was 
preserved. 

On this bluff there had been, in times not very remote, numerous 
burials without the erection of mounds. Some of the bones were but a 
few inches beneath the surface of the ground. 

The next excavation of any importance was made in a mound on the 
bluff in St. Clair county, near the line between St. Clair and Madison 



THOMAS.] CAHOKIA MOUNDS. 133 

counties and nearly east of the Great Cahokia mound. This was con- 
ical in shape and formed a landmark for some distance around. At 
the depth of about 3 feet the earth, which was a yellowish clay, became 
dry and very hard and quite different in character from the loess of the 
bluff on which the mound stands. At the depth of about 12 feet a 
layer of ashes, nearly an inch thick, was disclosed, and a foot below 
this another layer of ashes a foot or more in thickness. Excepting some 
thin, flat pieces of sandstone there were no relics nor other remains, not 
even a portion of bone. Below the ashes the earth showed the effect 
of heat for a few inches, but seemed to be tlie undisturbed surface of 
the bluff. 

Near this mound the projecting point of the bluff has lieen changed 
to form a flat circular platform that might, in times past, have served 
for some aboriginal purpose, possibly an outlook or signal station, as 
it occupies one of the highest points and overlooks the whole plain of 
the Cahokia. Numerous excavations in this vicinity revealed the fact 
that at one time the top of the bluff had been a burying place, and 
from a small elevation in the loess, that might originally have been a 
mound of some dimensions — for the place is under cultivation — a toler- 
ably well-preserved skull was obtained. There were three entire skel- 
etons in the mound, the skulls of two being crushed. 

These burials were made by laying the bodies on their sides or backs, 
with the limbs straight. The form of the skull seems to be a common 
one on the bluff, but, as the explorer thinks, somewhat different from 
those found by him in the bottom or low lands. No relics of any kind 
were found with these bones. 

It is worthy of note that nearly all the relics found at the Cahokia 
group of mounds have been taken from the low ground between the 
mounds. The remarkable flndof pottery, implements, and shells made 
by Mr. McAdams in the winter of ISSl was in the low land a short dis- 
tance from the northeast corner of the great mound. The articles were 
nearly all taken from a square rod of ground. This has been to some 
extent Dr. Patrick's experience in making his tine collection of pottery. 

The real burial place of the builders of th e C!ahokia mounds probably 
is yet to be discovered. 

The bank of Cahokia creek during the occupation of the mounds was 
evidently more to the south than its present line along the eastern part 
of the grovxp. The old bank is still plainly visible, as shown in PI. 
VI. The low land between this old bank and the creek is now cov- 
ered with forest trees. All along this bank, which forms the edge of 
the plateau on which the mounds stand, are abundant evidences of 
occupation in remote times. In digging li or .'^ feet at almost any point 
along this bank indications of fireplaces are found, with numerous river 
shells, broken pottery, and kitchen refuse. As all the arable ground 
about the mound has been in cultivation many years, it is quite possi- 
ble that some of the burial places, which are usually quite shallow, have 



134 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

been destroyed, as pieces of human bones are very common in the 
plowed fields. 

The location, forms, and heights of the various mounds of the Cahokia 
gi'oup as given in theaunexed diagram (PI. vi) are from Mr. McAdams's 
survey and are believed to be strictly correct. The figures on or by 
the mounds indicate the height. 

The next excavations were made in the mounds at Mitchell, on Long 
lake. The principal digging was done in the base of the large mound 
through which the railroad tracks run. Bones and sea shells had been 
discovered here by some workmen in digging a trench through the base 
of the mound between two railroad tracks for the purpose of laying a 
water pipe to the lake. This ditch was reopened, then widened out, and 
the spot fully explored. There seemed to have been 4 or 5 skeletons of 
adults, which lay east and west. A great number of whorls of sea 
shells had been buried with them, probably taken out in forming drink- 
ing cups or water vessels. These shells are from a few inches to a foot 
or more in length and belong mostly to the genus Busycon. 

The mound from which these shells were taken was nearly square in 
shape, 100 paces on each of its sides, 25 or 30 feet in height, with a fiat, 
level summit. It is now, with the exception of a small portion in the 
center between two railroad tracks, obliterated, a part only of the base 
remainiug. 

In removing the western side of the mound a few years ago, to make 
a road aci'oss Long lake, many human remains were found and, with 
them, implements of stone, bone, and copper. The mound was composed 
principally of black dirt or soil, and wherever excavations were made 
in the base, at the depth of 3 or 4 feet, the original under soil of the 
surrounding praii'ie, a yellowish sandy loam, was reached. This is the 
mound fi'om which Mr. Henry R. Howland obtained the copper articles 
described and figured in his pajjcr in the bulletin of the Bufl'alo Acad- 
emy of Sciences, 1877. 

In addition to the maps already given, Mr. McAdams prepared a map 
of the western part of Matlison county, including one range of sections 
in the northern part of St. Clair county, showing the location and rel- 
ative positions of the various groups of mounds named. This map is 
shown (on a reduced scale) in PI. vii. 

RANDOLPH COUNTY. 
STONE GRAVES ON THE MILL TRACT. 

These are situated about half a mile north of Prairie du Eocher, on 
a long ridge that runs in a westerly direction nearly across the nar- 
row bottom of a small creek that flows through the village. This 
ridge, which is about 25 feet higher than the bottom land, descends 
gradually from the hills to the west, having a steep slope on each side. 
The soil is yellow, tenacious clay. The graves were on the rounded top, 



THOMAS.] 



STONE GRAVES, RANDOLPH COUNTY. 



135 



some little distance back of the poiut. All were of the usual box shape 
and all but one more than C feet long; some of them were so near the 
surface as to leave the tops exposed. The position of tlie head of the 
skeleton could easily be determined in all but three of them before the 
cover was removed, by the form of the grave, as the cists were wider at 
one end than the other, and somewhat coffin-shaped. They usually 
measured from 2 to 2i feet in width at the head, but only a foot or even 
less at the other end, the depth from a foot to 18 inches. In fact, it 
seems that in some cases the body must have been placed in position 
and the side and end stones fitted to it. In these cases slabs of lime- 
stone were first placed in the bottom of the excavation, as the i)ieces 
forming the sides and ends rested edgewise on these, usually two pieces 



a 




CreeK 









Koad to Pr>airi^ da RocKer 



Fig. 67.— stone graves ou Mill tract, KauUulpb couuty, Illiuuis, 

to a side and one at each end. Where the two pieces at the sides 
joined, there was a smaller jjiece thrust at right angles between them, 
the main projection being outward. The cover consisted of a single 
layer of these slabs, in some instances without breaking the joints, in 
others overlapping each other. In other cases the pieces forming the 
walls and ends appear to have been put into position before the bot- 
tom was lined. In some of them a single slab formed one side ; if 
more than one slab was used, they either overlapped or another was 
added to strengthen the joint. The stones were obtained from the 
hillside a few rods farther up the ridge. 

The bodies buried in these graves were covered to a depth of 3 or .3 
inches with the yellow clay of the ridge; the covering over the graves 
consisted of limestone. The respective positions are shown in Fig. G7. 



136 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

The positions of the V)oclies in the graves were as follows: 

Grave No. 1: Skeleton on the back at full length, head to the 
south, face uj). 

Grave No. 3: Skeleton on the back at full length. A small earthen 
pot was buried with it, but was so soft when found that it could not 
be moved before it had crumbled to i)ieces. 

Grave No. 4: Skeleton at full length on the back, head to the east, 
but face turned over toward the south. 

Grave No. G: Skeleton Imndled, but the skull in the east side of the 
cist with the face up. 

Grave No. 7: Skeleton at full length on the liack, head south, but 
face turned toward the west. 

Graves Nos. 8 and 9: Skeletons at full length on the back, faces up, 
heads to the south. 

Graves Nos. 11 and 2: Skeletons at full length on the back, heads 
east. 

With the exception of that in grave No. 0, the bodies appear to 
have been buried without removing the flesh. 

THE DE FRENNE STONE GRAVES. 

These graves are just outside of the limits of the village of Prairie 
du Eoch'er, on the steep point of a ridge of dry, yellow claj', which ter- 
minates at the junction of the two branches of the creek, about half a 
mile below the graves previously mentioned. The ridge at this point 
is about 30 feet higher than the road which runs along the side of the 
creek. 

Although a plau of the cemetery and a section of the ridge was 
obtained, as shown in. Fig. 6S, the respective positions of only a part 
of the skeletons can be given, as several of the graves had been opened 
by other parties. All the cists were built in the same manner as those 
heretofore described, and differed from them only in having the head 
and foot of the same width, and a few of them also contained more 
than one skeleton. Five of them— Nos. 21, 22, 23, 26, and 28— were 
graves of infants. The largest of these. No. 21, was only 15 inches 
long; the smallest. No. 26, only 9 inches long, 5 inches wide, and 4 
inches deep (inside measurement in all cases). Mrs. IVIorude, an old 
Belgian lady, who lives here, informed Mr. Middleton that when they 
were grading for the foundation of their house she saw skulls with 
the hail- still hanging to them taken from these graves. It is there- 
fore more than probable, and, in fact, is generally understood by the 
old settlers of this section, who derived the information from their 
parents, that these are the graves of the Kaskaskia and other Indians 
who resided here when this part of Illinois began to be settled by the 
whites. 

At the point of the hill the graves were but slightly covered with 
earth. In some instances this covering was not more than C inches 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. VII 




MAP OF THE WESTERN PART OF MADISON COUNTY ILLINOIS. 



tHOMAR.l 



STONE GRAVES, RANDOLPH COUNTY. 



137 



deep, but toward the back part of tlie cemetery it reached a depth of 
4 feet. This was probably due in part to washings. 

In grave No. 1 the skeleton lay at full length on its back, head west. 
The skull was saved in good condition. 

(JraveNo. 2: There were two skeletons in this grave, heads west, 
both at full length on the back. Both skulls were saved. 

Grave No. 4: Skeleton at full length on the back, head west. 

Grave No. G: This proved to be the largest grave in the cemetery 
measuring 6 feet in length, 5 in width, and IS inches in depth (inside 
measurements to be understood in all cases). As seen by reference to 
the diagram (Fig. G8), this grave occupies a central position in the 



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Flu. 68. — The De Freunt? .stone graves, Randolph county, Illinois. 

cemetery. It contained five skeletons, four of adults and one of an 
infant; one of the larger was that of a female. They all lay at fidl 
length on their backs, faces up, and heads north. 

Grave No. 7 : This contained two adult skeletons, both at full length, 
on their backs, heads east, but faces turned toward each other. Both 
skulls were secured in good coiidition. A clay muller was found with 
the skeleton on the north side and a stone muller with the other. 

Grave No. 9 : The skeleton, apparently of a female, at full length, 
face up. With it were four bone implements, one a tube, one an awl or 



138 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

perforator, one stoue chisel, one stone drill, a shell ornament, a stone 
imiilenient, the fragment of an unusually tine flint knife, some green 
paint, red paint, lead ore, and a chipped celt. 

Grave No. 10: Skeleton at full length on the back, face up, head east. 

Grave No. 14: Skeleton at full length on the right side, head east, 
face north. With it were six bone imi)lements, some shell spoons, and 
two shell pendants, the last from the sides of the head. 

Grave No. 16: Skeleton at fiill length on the back, face up, head 
west. With it were two earthen bowls by the head, and a single shell 
be^ in the right hand. 

Grave No. 18 : Tlie skeletoii in this grave api)eared to be that of a half- 
grown person. It was, as usual, at full length on the back, head east, 
face north. With it was a single quartz crystal, apparently from the 
region of Hot Springs, Arkansas. 

Graves Nos. 21, 22, 23: The skeletons in these graves all lay on 
their backs with heads east. A pot and shell spoon were found by the 
right cheek of the one in No. 23. The pot stood upright, with the spoon 
in it. 

Grave No. 24 : A single skeleton occupied this grave. It was, as 
usual, at full length on the back, head northwest. Two pots were by 
the head, one on each side, in an upright position. 

Grave No. 27 : In this grave there were two skeletons, at full length, 
heads northeast. Nine bone implements were found with them. 

Grave No. 29: A single skeleton and with it a pot. 

Grave No. 31 : A single skeleton and with it a piece of lead ore. 

No particulars were ascertained in reference to other graves which 
had been opened by other parties, except that all the skeletons were 
lying at full length, as those mentioned. 

STONE GRAVES ON THK BLUFF. 

These are situated on the bluff, just within the Eandolph county line, 
at the mouth of the flist large ravine on the road from Glasgow to 
Prairie du Rocher. They are probably the graves mentioned by Dr. 
Wislizeuus.' 

They are located more than 100 feet above the bottom lands, on the 
point of a narrow steep spur. The cliffs immediately south of them 
are perpendicular. Their respective positions, with sections of the 
spur, are shown in Fig. 09. 

As all but three of these graves had been opened previous to the 
visit of the Bureau agent, and nothing peculiar was observed, a detailed 
description is deemed unnecessary. In one of the three which was 
undisturbed the skeleton was bundled, in the other two they lay at 
full length, heads east, faces up. The skull of the bundled skeleton 
was in the east end of the grave. 

1 Traus. St. Louis Acad. Sci., Vol. I, p. 66. 



tHOMAS.j 



STONE GRAVES AT ROCKWOOD. 



139 



Southeast of Prairie dn Rocher, on the hhxtts, is auother cemetery of 
stone graves situated much as the one hist mentioned, and near by is 
a fine spring. Tliese had all been examined by i)revious exjdorers. 
The arrangement was found to be much like the last, one large grave 
with the others arouud it. 



^iScviiS 




Fm. 09. — Stone graves on liluff", RiUuloIi>h connty, Illinois. 



STONE GRAVES .\T liOCKWOoI). 

These are situated close to the village of liock wood on the land of Mr. 
Reed, on a high bench or terrace that stands about 75 feet above the 
bottom lands. 

The larger portion of them had been explored; some had been carried 
down by a caving of the bank near which they were placed and others 
removed to make way for foundations of houses. This must have been 
a very extensive cemetery, as the area over which the remaining graves 
extend is comparatively large. The surface, which was level originally, 
seems to have been rounded up somewhat, as though intended for a 
low, broad mound, but so nuich excavating had been done that no posi- 
tive conclusion could be reached on this point. 



140 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Tlie ,t;ravcs were of the usual box shape, and all those whirh remained, 
except one, measured 5 feet or more in length. The small one, which 
had not been disturbed, was 2 feet .square and IS inches deep, but in 
place of bones were four uninjured earthen pots. 

In addition to the works mentioned, the followiiiK' aiiti(iuitics are 
found in this county: 

MOUNDS. 

At Rockwood; at Prairie du Rocher; .'? miles south of Prairie du 
Rocher, on the Simjjsou place; on the Mndd place; above Old Lafay- 







Fig. 70. — Hut rings near the bank of Big Mary river, Illinois. 

etteon the Kaskaskia river; at Chester; 3 miles south of Sparta, along 
Big Mary river, and at Evansville. 

STONK CRAVES. 

At the Bluff ferry; 1 mile south of Rockwood; on the West fork of 
Degognia creek, 1 J miles from the bridge near the Brown farm ; 7 miles 
west of Sparta; 3 miles southeast of Sparta; on Henderson's place on 
Nine-mile creek west of Sparta; on William Cox'.s old place on the 
Kaskaskia river below the Mobile and Ohio railroad bridge, and on the 
Widow Boyd's jdace, 3 miles south of Baldwin. 



THOMAS.) SORRELS MOUND, JACKSON COUNTY. 141 

VILLAGE SITES. 

Tliree miles southeast of Sparta, on the left bank of Big Mary river, 
near the stone graves and nionnds mentioned above, are the hut rings 
shown in Fig. 70. These are situated upon a flat topped ridge about 
30 feet higher than the creek bottoms. They are low, with the irsual 
depression in the center, but the outlines are rather indistinct. Mr. 
Gault, of Sparta, who has long resided here, states that when he first 
moved to this section the Indians lived in houses or wigwams which, 
when decayed, left such remains as these. They hollowed out a shal- 
low circular cavity in the surface soil, then, standing poles around the 
margin of this basin, brought them togetlier at the top, and having cov- 
ered tliem with bark or other material — in other words, having con- 
structed wigwams of the usual circular form— covered them in whole 
or in part, especially the lower i)ortion, with earth. He also said that 
after a camj) was abandoned and the wood rotted away it left these 
rings of earth. Another of these camping places is situated 8 miles 
west of Sparta. 

JACKSON COUNTY. 
THE SOKREL8 MOUND. 

This is situated 1 mile directly north of Carbondale, on the upper 
level bordering a small creek, at the margin or break where the land 
descends to the lower level and has been in constant cultivation for 1.5 
or 20 years. It is now nearly circular in outline, a little over 150 feet 
in diameter, 3 feet high, and composed throughoxit of dark sandy loam, 
with a slight admixture of clay, similar to that of the siuTouudiug sur- 
face of the ground, without any indications of stratification. 

Two skeletons were discovered in the central portion at the depth 
of lii feet and about 10 feet apart. Both were closely folded and lying 
on the side, one with the head north, the other with the head south- 
west. Judging from, the manner in which they were folded it was evi- 
dent they were buried after the flesh had been removed, as it would 
have been impossible to press the bones so closely together with the 
flesh on them, nor could they have assumed this condition in conse- 
quence of the decay of the flesh and the pressure of the earth. 

Considerable pottery in fragments and varying in quality was found 
in and on the mound. Some of the pieces in the mound were so situ- 
ated in relation to one another as to indicate that the vessels of which 
they had formed parts had been intentionally broken before they were 
buried. Most of the pottery found in the mound was very rude and 
coarse, made of materials not well pulverized and but slightly burned. 
By putting the pieces together one of the vessels proved to be a small 
jar with a flat bottom and, although the form gives it a decidedly modern 
appearance, it is probably the rudest piece of pottery in the National 
Museum. It bears on the outside marks of the grass with which it was 



142 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



surroimrted before being burned. The chief interest which attaches to 
this rude specimen 'shown in Fig. 71) is its close resemblance in form 
and material to an undoubted specimen of Iroquois pottery in the 
National Museum and its marked contrast with the pottery usually 
found in this part of the immediate valley of the Mississipx^i. One 
other vessel of similar character and closely resembling it was obtained 
by Mr. Perrine from a mound in Union county, and aiioth<ir similar in 

form butof better quality was found 
by Dr. Palmer in eastern Arkan- 
sas; it is believed that these are 
the only ones of this type which 
have been found in the immediate 
valley of the iMississippi. The two 
found in southern Illinois are made 
of dark-colored clay, very slightly 
mixed with pulverized shells. 

On the surface of the mound 
were many small pieces of i^ottery 
which had probably been turned 
up by the plow, some of them 
undoubtedly attributable to the 
mound-builders. These were of 
much better quality than those 
found near the skeletons, showing 
some attempt at ornamentation; 
some bearing traces of the red coloring often observed in southern 
mound pottery. 

Arrowheads, fragments of flint and greenstone imi>lements, nodules 
of red and yellow paint, two bone awls, part of the carapace of a tor- 
toise, Unio shells common in the streams of this section, and fragments 
of deer's horn, Avere also found. 

MOUNDS NEAR AVA. 




Fig. 71. — Pot lium Jackson cuuuty, Illinois. 



Two of these, small and circular, were discovered on the land of Mr. 
Henry Thompson, 5 miles southeast of Ava. One of them, about 3 
feet high and 20 feet in diameter, contained two empty box-shaped 
stone graves of the usual form, but without cover or bottom. They 
measured 3 feet in length and 2.^ in width. In the other mounds nothing 
was found except a pile of stones thrown together without order or 
arrangement. They jjrobably formed a stone grave which had been 
disturbed, as the mound had previously been o])ened. 

On the bank of Rattlesnake creek, a short distance from the preced- 
ing, another small conical mound, which was thoroughly explored, 
revealed nothing except a small piece of charcoal. An ancient grave 
close by was excavated with a similar result. 

Three small circular mounds on Mr. Dempsey Williamson's place were 



THOMAS.] VOGEL GROUP. 143 

next examined. These are similar in size and form to those above 
mentioned, each being about 25 feet in diameter and 3 feet high. In 
one two empty stone graves without covering or bottom were found. 
They were about 10 inches below the surface, one of them 2 feet 3 
inches long by '2 feet wide and 16 inches deep. In the other was a 
single stone grave 2 feet 5 inches long, 20 inches wide, and 15 inches 
deep. This, like the others, was empty. In the third nothing was dis- 
covered but some flat stones. 

That these grav'es formerly contained human bones can not be 
doubted, but whether they were removed by explorers of modern 
times or not could not be determined. Though of such small size, it 
does not follow that they were used as depositories of children only, as 
it is not uncommon to find in the stone graves of southern Illinois 
adult skeletons crowded into as small a space as indicated by the 
measurements above given. 

THE VOGEL GROUP. 

This group, consisting of eleven mounds, is situated on the farm of 
Mr. Henry Vogel, about 3 miles from the following, both groups being 
in the Mississippi bottom near Fountain blufl'. The relation of these 
mounds to each other is shown in Fig. 72. 

The largest of the group, No, 1, is 12 feet high and 190 feet long by 
130 wide. A trench 15 feet long and 1 feet wide, through the central 
portion, was carried down 12 feet, to the original surface. Considerable 
broken pottery and also a number of animal bones, most of them split 
and broken, were found between 8 aud 11 feet from the top. At the 
depth of 11 feet was a bed of ashes mixed with earth aud charcoal. In 
this fragments of pottery and bones were more abundant than elsewhere. 

The surrounding land, which is subject to frequent overflows, is com- 
posed of a black waxy soil to the depth of 2 feet, and below this of sand. 
The mound was built entirely of this stiff waxy soil; at the depth of 12 
feet the sand was reached. A wild-cherry tree 6 feet 3 inches in cir- 
cumference, stands on the east end. On No. 2, which is 200 feet in cir- 
cumference and 4 feet high, there is a walnut stump 9 feet 6 inches 
in circumference. 

No. 3, about 150 feet southwest of No. 1, is 1 feet high aud 120 feet 
long by 75 in width. 

No. 4 is 250 feet in circumference and 6 feet high. In this a trench 
22 feet long was dug through the center. For most of the length it 
was carried down to a depth of 9 feet, or 3 feet below the original sur- 
face of the ground. Human bones in considerable numbers were found 
at various depths from 6 inches down to 6 feet. Below this no human 
bones were observed, but at the depth of 9 feet some animal bones were 
obtained. As many as 12 skeletons were unearthed, but only 1 whole 
skull was obtained. 



144 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



At the depth of 3 feet, and lyiug by a skeleton, were the spool-shaped 
copper ornaments shown in Fig. 73. At tlie depth of 5^ feet, imme- 
diately under a root about 2 inches in diameter, a small earthen pot 
was discovered near a skeleton. At the same depth, near the feet of 




Fig. 72. — Viigel group. Jackson county. lUinoie. 

another skeleton, were the skull and teeth of some large animal. 
At the depth of 6 feet, by the knee of a large skeleton, was a lozenge- 
shaped gorget of slatestone 4 inches long and li inches wide in the 
middle. Under the head of this skeleton was a whole shell and some 
pieces ; also a small curiously- wrought stone which was probably an 
ear ornament, as it was at the side of the head. The skull of the skele- 
ton, though damaged, was saved. 



THOMAS.] THE SCHLIMPERT MOUNDS. 145 

Fragnu'iits of potteiy, also a few shells ( Union), were scattered 
through the mouiid at various depths. The earth iu this mound was 
more sandy than that of those in the field, and was in alternate layers 
of blaek soil and sand. 

Mound No. 5 is a little north of west from No. 4, the bases of the two 
approaching within 10 feet of each other. This is about 180 feet in cir 
cumference and something over 5 feet high. On the sonthcrn part 
stands a walnut stumi) 10 feet in circumference, and on the north side 
an ash 7 feet in circumference. Two trenches were carried down 
about a foot below the original surfaceof the ground. At one point, oj 
feet below the surface, a skeleton lay immediately beneath roots from 
both trees. One of the roots from the walnut, although 12 feet from 
the stump, was 4 inches in diameter. At another point, at the depth 
of J: feet, were two small Hint implements, and a foot below this some 




Fiu. 73. — Spoul-aliaiKid urcameut of cupper. 

human teeth, but no bones, though by looking carefidly at the earth 
indications of the other parts of the skeleton, which had decayed, 
were discovered. 

GRO\'P OX SCHLIMPERT's PLACE. 

These mounds are situated on Mr. Joseph Schlimpert's land — the W. 
J of the NW. ^ of Sec. 22, in Fountain Bluff town.ship — and are located 
in reference to each other as shown in theanuexed plat (Fig. 71). The 
soil around them is of a black waxy character, from 1 foot to IS inches 
in depth, underlaid by sand. They lie near a slough which borders the 
farm on the north side, as shown in the plat. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,0, and 7 
are mounds. No. 8 a sink or excavation, and No. a platform or terrace. 

No. 6, cu'cular iu form, is 00 feet in diameter, a little over 4 feet high, 
and has growing on it several trees, the largest a hackberry 7 feet in 
circumference. It was excavated to and slightly below the original 
surface of the ground, but nothing was found except a f&\\ small sand- 
stones. The interesting feature of this mound is its internal structure, 
which will be understood by reference to the vertical section shown in 
Fig. 75. 

In the first place a central core of sand c appears to have been 
thrown up 40 feet in diameter at the top (1 to 2), and about 4 feet high. 
Around this apparently iu order to secure it, was placed a ring of the 
black waxy soil {bh), so as properly to round it off. The V-shaped de- 
pression in the top [d) measured 3 feet in diameter at the top and ex- 
12 ETII 10 



146 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



teiuleil downward about 2 feet. It was tilled with a mass of hard 
white sand. Over the whole was a layer of sand about 1 foot thick. 

The structure of this mound is suggestive of the so called " altar 
mounds" of Ohio. Squier and Davis speak in one place of an altar or 
altar-shaped mass of sand found iu a mound.' 








CJBa 



^% 



m 




Jit 

t 







Fia. 74. — Schlimpert mouuds, Jackson county, Tllinois. 

No. 7, 60 feet iu diameter and 5 feet high, was composed almost 
wliolly of the black waxy soil, with here and there small masses of 
sand. Nothing was found in it. 

No. 4 was composed entirely of sand except the top layer ; nothing 
was found in it. 

^ Ancient Monuments, p. 156. 



THOMAS.] MOUND WITH A SAND CORE. 147 

No. 5, a small mouud, was compo>sed wholly of sand ; No. 2, of the 
black waxy soil; No. 1, the largest of the group and somewhat oval in 
form — longest diameter, 110 feet; shorte.«t, 100 feet, about 8 feet high — 
bore a strong resemblance in its construction to No. 6. 

The central portion of the last was filled with black waxy soil mixed 
with sand containing particles of wood coal. The diameter of this por- 
tion was 44 feet. A few flint implements such as spear heads and 
arrow points were obtained from the surface of this mound. 

A very interesting feature of this group is the ijlatform or low, flat, 
rectangular uiound, marked No. 9 on the plat. This is about 100 feet 
long, 50 feet wide, and 2 feet high. It is quite level on top and stands 
on the edge of a low bench, so that the eastern side is somewhat higher 
than the western. The sides run a little west of north. 

A short distance northeast of mound No. 4 is a circular sink (No. 8 
on the plat), about 80 feet in diameter and li feet deep, which appears 
to be an artificial excavation. 



'^\v; 




Fig. 75. — Section of mouud oa Scblimpert's place, Jackson county, Tllinoi.s. 

Some small mounds on Big Muddy river, in Sec. 22, T. 10 S., K. 3 W., 
were also examined. 

No. 1 is about 75 feet in diameter, 4 feet high, and flat on top. At 
the depth of 4 feet, on the natural surface of the ground, but at dif- 
ferent points, were two skeletons of adults extended, with the heads 
west and faces up. Several layers of stone were jilaced over them, in 
fact the numnd, to the depth of 3 feet, was composed in great part of 
flat stones, some of which would weigii probably 150 pounds. The only 
relic found in this mound was a broken flint implement. 

No. 2, a quarter of a mile south of No. 1, although only 3 feet high 
and of the same diameter as the preceding, was largely occupied by 
stone graves. 

Grave No. 1, 2 J feet long and 9 inches wide, contained the badly 
decayed bones of a child. 

Grave No. 2, 3 feet long and 10 inches wide, also contained the bones 
of a child; badly decayed. 

Grave No. 3, 3J feet long and 1 foot wide, was occupied by the bones 
of an adult. There was no stone layer in the bottom of this cist. 

Grave No. 4 was 6 feet long and 1 foot wide; No. 5, 4 feet long and 1 
foot wide; No. 6, same size as No. 5, and No. 7, 2.J feet long and 1 foot 
wide; each contained the bones of a single adult. 



148 



MOUNU EXPLORATIONS. 



ALEXANDKK COUNTY. 
WDHKS ON hai.k's ri.ACK. 

About half a mile, below tlie littli^ village of Mill Creek, IJiiinn county 
(but just acrcss the eouuty line), a long ridge extending southeast ter- 
minates in the low ground in the angle at the junetion of Cooper with 
Mill creek. On the top of this ridge, at its lower terminus, are two or 
three low mounds and many stone graves, some of which had been pre- 
viously opened and pottery, bemads, and other articles taken from them. 
These appear to be in the midst of, or rather on, an immense refuse 



0-'- 



Sll#%!.. 






5% 



'''kit 






'"%:i 








Fig. 76. — MoTmds on Hale's place, Jackson county, Illinois. 

heap; in fact, the whole top of the ridge aiipears to be covered to a 
depth of from 3 to ti feet with an accumulation of tliiit chips, broken 
deer bones, broken ijottery, mussel shells, etc. Charcoal, burned lime- 
stone, and other evidences of fire are plentifully scattered throughout 
the mass. The locality M'ould jjrobably be better described as a 
" kitchen heap," averaging 4 or 5 feet in depth and covering several 
acres. 

The works and the grounds are shown in the annexed diagram (Fig. 
76). The Hue a a running across the ridge marks the boundary line at 



THOMAS] WORKS ON HALE's PLACE. 149 

this point between Union and Alexander counties ; and Mill creek b b the 
boundary line between Alexander and Pulaski counties. The remains 
are, therefore, at the point where these three counties meet, but in 
Alexander. The Hue e c represents the fence which separates the land 
of Mr. Hale on the right (Sec. 5, T. U S., R. 1 W.) from that o\\nied by 
Mr. Hileman on the left. The boundary of the refuse heap is desig- 
nated by the heavy shadings, the mounds by the Figs. 1, 2, and .3. No. 
1 is nearly square and some or 8 feet high; on it Mr. Hileman has 
built his dwelling house. No. 3 is a small pile of flint chips. No. 2 is 
irregular in outline, as shown in the figure, and about 4 feet high. 
Permissiou was granted to make excavations on the east side of the 
fence only. 

Mound No. 2, as before stated, is about i feet high. Its length was 
found to be about 100 feet and average width 40 feet. The direction 
of the length is a little west of north. The surface was covered with 
loose flat stones thrown out by former explorers who had made a par- 
tail examination. A trench about 5 feet wide was carried obliquely 
across the middle directly east and west. Scattered through the soil to 
the depth of 5 or inches were flint chips, fragments of stone and pot- 
tery and bits of bones. Lying lengthwise with the ditch, about 6 feet 
from the east end, was an open stone grave or cist, the side stones 
reaching to the surface of the mound but still in place. This we called 
by way of distinction " Grave No. 1." It was 3.i feet long and 14 inches 
wide (inside measurement). The top had been removed. The sides 
and ends were of limestone slabs from 1 to 2 feet long by 1 to IJ wide 
and from 1 to 2 inches thick. The contents of the grave had been 
removed by previous exi)lorers. 

Immediately west of this, and 1 foot below the surface, were four 
large, I'oughly worked flint implements. 

No. 2, immediately east of No. 1, had been partially rifled, but some 
bits of a skull and other bones and some small fragments of pottery 
were found in it. Below the bottom layer of stone, which was still in 
place, was a layer of charcoal and other evidences of fire; the char- 
coal stratum rested on a layer of rich black dirt about K* inches thick, 
which lay on the yellow clay 2 feet below the surftice. In this were 
some TJnh and turtle shells and bits of pottery. 

No. 3, immediately west of No. 1, was near the surface, but had been 
rifled. 

No. 4, by the side of No. 3, but at a lower level, feet long, 1 foot 
wide by 7 inches deep at the foot, and 14 inches wide by 12 deep at 
the head, had the boxing stones all in place, those of the cover laid on 
like shingles, beginning at the foot. This contained a single skeleton, 
stretched full length on the back, feet to the east; the head was sup- 
ported on deer horns. The skull was secured entire as were also most 
of the long bones. Two roughly di-essed flints were found near the 
head, and in the same locality a small perforated bone. 



l50 kouND Explorations. 

No. 5, above and just west of No. 4, and near the surface, measured 
but 2 feet and 10 inches in length. It had been disturbed and, besides 
the dirt, contained nothing but some small bones. 

No. G lay obliquely across the trench; the feet of the skeleton toward 
the southeast at the surface of the ground and uncovered. The bones 
were much decayed. Length of the grave, (ij feet. 

No. 7, just west of No. fi, parallel to it, and less than G inches from it, 
was 7 feet long; width, from 12 to 10 inches. 

No. 8 lay with head resting below the feet of Nos. G and 7 ; length, 6 
feet 9 inches. It was covered with several layers of thin flat stones, 
the lowest of which rested directly on the bones; skeleton at full length 
lying on the back. The skull was crushed l)y the weight of the stones 
tliat lay u]ion it. A few waterworn pebbles were noticed in this grave 
and also in No. 7. Signs of lire were observed immediately under the 
layer of stones forming the bottom, indicating that a fire had been 
kindlc<l here and the stones afterward laid on tlie ashes. Some bits of 
charcoal were mixed with the dirt in nearly all the graves. 

No. 9, immediately north of the east end of No. 8, formed in part by 
the same side stones and covered by the same slabs, was evidently the 
grave of an infant, being but 2J feet long by 14 inches wide. The bones 
were mostly decayed. Near the head in a triangular cavity between 
two stones was a quantity of peculiar pinkish material which contained 
bits of lead ore. At the foot were four or live roughly worked flints 
and as many smaller ones at the head. 

No. 10 was on the north side of No. 9, and very near it, and measured 
2^ feet in length ])y 9 in width. A few infant bones were found in it, 
but mostly decayed. Under these were two rough flints. 

No. 11, near the surface, contained the bones of a child that had not 
lost its first teeth. 

No. 12, also near the surface, contained an adult skeleton lying on 
the back with feet to the south; the skull was broken. A small pot, 
with handle on one side, stood near the back of the head. 

No. 13 was the grave of an infant, being 2^ feet long and 8 inches 
wide. This was under No. 5 and on the same level as No. 14. 

No. 14. — This was immediately below No. 8, the sides almost corre- 
sponding with the latter, and on the same level as No. 13, that is to 
say, 3 feet below the surface. Length, 5 feet 8 inches. Two fragments 
of fossil wood, placed near the neck of the skeleton, were the only ob- 
jects found. 

Below this grave was black soil several Inches thick, and then yellow 
clay. The latter lay 4 feet below the surface of the mound. The size 
of this grave and the small rounded skull render it probable that this 
was the resting place of a woman. 

Nos. 15 and 16. — No IG was on the same level as No. 14, but lay with 
its foot toward the head of the latter. It contained the remains of an 
adult. No. 15 lay in the same direction as and immediately above No. 



THOMAS.) 



STONE GEAVES ON HALE S PLACE. 



151 



16. It also contained the well-preserved skeleton of an adult, the wkiill 
of which was secured. 

No. 20, near the surface was 6 feet long and 10 inches wide at the 
head. This grave contained two skeletons the bones of which were 
very well i^reserved; they were lying sitle by side, the head of one a 
few inches nearer the end than that of the other. A quantity of red 
paint had been deposited near the chin of the one nearest the end while 
some flat, circular beads, made of mussel shells, placed between their 
breasts. 




Fm. 77. — Skull from monnd on Halo's place (side view). 

From about the foot of grave No. 20, trench No. 1 was carried through 
a kitchen lieap consisting of an immense number of Hint chips, showing 
charcoal, burned limestone, broken bones of animals, broken pottery, 
etc. This was 2^ feet deep here and rested on yellow clay. In a pros- 
pect hole sunk just west of the foot of grave No. 20, the clay i)roved 
to be only a layer less than a foot thick, resting on a layer of pure char- 
coal. There were no flints in either of these layers, but some broken 
bones, deer horns, and pottery were found in the charcoal stratum. A 
short distance west of this prospect hole, about 18 inches below the sur- 
face, the trench cut through some human bones that were not inclosed 



152 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



in stone cists; tlie femora aiid sliin liones were lying side by side and 
some fragments of tlie skull and lower jaw hones with tliein. 

Ahout 12 feet west of pit No. 1, in another iirosi)ect pit, tlie flint 
layer was from IJ to 2 feet thick and contained fewer bones and i)ot- 
tery; at a dei)th of about 3 feet were some pockets of charcoal but no 
continuous layer. 

A few graves were found immediately south of trench No. 1, from one 
of which, that of a child, were obtained some univalve shells that had 
been perforated and worn around the neck. This small grave, only 23 




Fig, 78. — Sknll from inmiiul on Ilnlc's ]»liice (front 



inches long by inches wide, contained some bits of a heavy mineral, 
perhaps pulverized lead ore. 

Another child's grave contained a single gasteiopod shell at the 
chin, another the skeletons of two children; the skull of the lower one 
of these two skeletons was jillt'd with ])ure lightcohned sand, the only 
sand seen in the mound. 

Trench No. 3 was run from near the northeast corner of thi' mound. 
Graves 1 and 2 of this trench had been disturbed. 

In grave 3 about a foot below the surface, the skeleton was well pre- 
served. Here a number of shell beads were obtained which had been 



THOMAS.] STONE GRAVES ON HALE's PLACE. 153 

worn around the waist. A skull and some other bones were found in 
the same grave at the feet of this skeleton. 

No. 4 lay directly below No. 3. From this was obtained a nearly 
perfect skull. It is small and the front narrow. (See Figs. 77 and 78.) 
This grave was one of the lowest tier, as it rested on the natural clay. 

No. 5 was also in the bottom layer. Near the head of the skeleton 
which this contained were two wooden trinkets in the form of elongate 
beads perforated lengthwise. They are about 1 inch long and half an 
inch thick and bear cojiper stains, rendering it probable they were 
originally covered with a thin plate of this metal. Their position near 
the head probably justifies the belief that they were used as ear pend- 
ants. 

No. 6 was on the same level as No. 5, and close by the side of it. 
There were no indications that this grave had been disturbed, yet the 
skull was standing upi-ight facing the feet, and 
directly in front of it, lying across the skeleton, 
were the femora and shin-bones. The lower 
jaw had been dislocated, and placed at the left 
side of the skull. The other bones were in their 
proper position. A long bone needle was stick- 
ing up above the jaw, and some flakes of copper 
marked with tlutiugs or ridges, like a piece taken 
fnmi this mound by Mr. Bankstone, were found 
scattered through the dirt. On the bottom of 
the grave, to the left of the skull and under the 
lower jaw, were the remains of some woven bark 
matting stained with copper, and near the elbow 
of the riglit arm was an oblong bead of wood 

, , .,, ■ I „ ■.,,,, Fig. 79.— Bone plate from 

coated with oxide ot copper similar to those mound ou Haies place. 
heretofore mentioned. 

No. 7 was near the surface of the mound. From it was obtained a 
very perfect skull and other bones; one femur is curiously deformed. 
No implements or ornaments accompanied the skeleton. 

No. 8 was about 1 foot below the surface with top open. This small 
grave, which was only 18 inches long and V2 inches wide, contained the 
bones of a single skeleton closely packed. The lower jaw, however, 
was missing. The skull was marked on both sides with copper stains. 

Trench No. 4 was run from near the southeast end of the mound, 
revealing two or three disturbed graves. In one of these was a skull 
with jaws open; in another the feet were lying in the wrong direction, 
the only case of the kind noticed. Near the head stood a small mug in 
the shape of some animal. Some thin i)lates of bone or turtle shell, 
each about 2 inches long, 1^ inches wide, very thin, a little cup-shaped, 
and drilled with four or more holes (see Fig. 79), were found lying 
closely packed together in a separate stone grave or box hardly a foot 
long. There was nothing else in the box. 




154 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 




Fig. 80.— Ciithnlic modal from inourd nn Ilalc'a jilacc 



In a jjrave a little to the west of this trench, near the surface, lay 
a skeleton stretched at full length. The skull was small and curiously 
flattened at the hack and lying face down. 

The northwestern end of this mound is its highest i)oint, but there 
were no burials in this portion. From the dirt thrown out of one of 
these graves was obtained the Catholic medal shown in Fig. 80. 

Subsequently to the exam- 
ination of the works on the Ilale 
l)lace above referred to, some 
further explorations were made 
in the large mound, which was 
not completely worked over by 
the agent who first visited it. 
Two additional trenches were 
carried through it, running 
north and south. These re- 
vealed the fact that the south 
side was composed of refuse 
matter, mostly flint chips, with some fragments of pottery, bones, deer 
horns, etc. In this part there were no stone graves. 

In a child's grave in the upper tier near the center of the mound was 

a small pot placed by the head of the skel- 
eton. In the same part of the mound, 3 
feet below the surface and immediately 
beneath a small walnut tree, was a stone 
coflin 7 feet long, of the usual width, which 
contained three skeletons. The heads of 
two of the skeletons had been separated 
from the bodies to which they belonged 
and laid side by side at the end of the cof- 
fin, and the other bones placed at the 
sides near the foot. The head of the third 
skeleton lay on the other skulls. (See Fig. 
81.) The head of this coffin, like most of 
the others in the mound, was toward the 
west. The three skulls were saved. One 
of them is somewhat broken, but was pre- 
served because of a singular protuberance 
on the top. In this coffin were some yellow 
paint, Unio shells, and two round stones, 
all lying near the upper skull. 
Several other graves were explored — all in fact which had not been 
previously disturbed, but nothing found except skeletons and a few 
river shells. 

INDIAN DIGGINGS. 

Not far from the little town of Mill Creek, and situated on Sees. 35 
and 30, T. 13 S., R. 2 W. are the so-called Indian Diggings. These 




Fig. 81. — Stone grave on Hale's place. 



THOMAS.) WORKS ON linn's PLACE. 155 

consist of numerous pits which have been dug at some distant day 
along tlie sides and on the tops of narrow ridges in quarrying the flint 
or chert found here. They are now partially filled up and covered by 
the forest growth no way differing from that about them. Scattered 
all over the ground in tlie vicinity of these pits are immense numbers 
of flint or chert nodules, nearly all of which are broken; two only were 
discovered that were unbroken. Several large flint implements were 
also found. 

There are several places in this neighborhood where the flint taken 
from these pits was manufactured into implements, as largo beds of 
flint chips of the same stone occur in which are many unfinished tools 
some of them showing good workmanship. 

In the same neighborhood as the preceding, on Sec. 30, T. 13 S., li. 1 
W., a number of stone graves were found and explored, but ijresented 
nothing difl'erent from those already described. However, a discovery 
was made here which deserves notice. 

In the immediate vicinity, in fact but a few feet from some of the 
graves, a stone pavement was discovered about a foot below the sur- 
face of the ground. When fully exposed by removal of the earth this 
proved to be level, nearly circular, and about 9 feet in diameter. It 
was composed of flat pieces of limestone so neatly and closely fitted 
together that it was difficult to find a place where the steel prod could 
be thrust down between them. These showed the effect of fire, some 
of them crumbling into lime when disturbed; mingled with and scat- 
tered through the earth which covered them were ashes, charcoal, and 
charred fragments of human bones. In this earth was also discovered 
a small clay pot. The graves and pavement are not in or near a mound, 
but on the highest point of a hill and in a cultivated field. 

A number of rude stone implements were found 07i the surface of the 
ground. There Is also one point on the farm where these discoveries 
were made, where the surface is covered with flint chips to such an 
extent that it is difficult to plow it. As the flint diggings are near by, 
it is probable that stone implements were manufactured here, many 
unfinished and imperfect specimens being scattered over the ground. 

UNION COUNTY. 
ANCIENT WORKS ON LINN's PLACE. 

The first published notice of these interesting works was given by 
Mr. T. M. Perrine, of Anna, Illinois, in the Smithsonian Eeport for 
1872.' 

They are situated in the southwest part of Union county (Sec. 30, 
T. 13 S., E. 2 W.), on the bottom land of the Mississippi, a mile or more 
fi'om this river. The immediate spot upon which they are located is a 
portion of the upper level of the bottom land, which is here some 10 or 
12 feet above the swamp land which surrounds it on the west and 

1 Pp. 418-420. 



156 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



nortliwest. Tliisarea, however, was overflowed in the great rise of 1844, 
and also in 1S82, the large numnd hereafter described being the only 
part not under water. A creek runs along the east and northeast, sep- 
arating the area from the bluff. The soil is a rich deep alluvium, under- 
laid by sand, with neither rock nor gravel in i)lace. 
Referring to the annexed plat (Fig. SiJ) made by Prof. Hull from a 




'=*«sftasas. 



%%Sj« 










*««£% 





'"•-«:?«;« 



5r«"^ 




V4 




careful survey taken by him during our visit, we see that a wall, start- 
ing on the west side of the creek at the east end of the inclosure, runs 
thence southward to the bend, a distance of 400 feet, where it cui'ves 
south westward 126 feet. From this point it runs almost directly west 
to the corner 1,168 feet; thence north 1,036 feet to the northwest cor- 
ner, thence east to the bank of the creek 500 feet, embracing in these 
boundaries about 28 acres. 



THOMAS.] 



WORKS ON LINN S PLACE. 



157 



The portion of the wall in the liekl, where it is much worn dowu, is 
uot more thau 2 feet high, wliile that part north of the fence and in the 
woods is from 4 to 5 feet high with indications of a ditcli along the in- 
side, though nothing of the Icind is observable in the field. The width 
in the field varies from -!0 to 25 feet, but is somewhat 
less in the woodland where not so much worn down. 
On this part there are a number of oak trees from 1 to 
2 feet or more in diameter. 

A rough outline figure of the large mound (marked a 
in the plat) as seen from the east at a distance of about 
300 yards is shown in Fig. 83. The little rise at e is a 
low flat mound composed chiefly of fragments of lime- 
stone partly calcined, situated a few yards immediately 
south of the large mound. The length of the eastern 
side of the large mound, from 1 to 2, is 160 feet; the 
height at a is 13 feet; at b ll.J feet and at m 12 feet. 
These letters, «, &, and m, also mark the places where 
pits were sunk during the first examination. The cir- 
cumference of the base is 544 feet. 

At rt, the highest point, a pit about 4 feet wide and 
10 feet long was sunk to the depth of 10 feet; some 
pieces of burnt clay, small fragments of human bones 
and flakes of flint were found scattered irregularly 
through it for the first 5 feet, but below this only sand. 

Three other jiits were sunk in the depressed portion 
(6). In the first, at the depth of 3 feet, a bed of light, 
dry ashes was discovered, nearly a foot thick but only 
a few feet in extent horizontally. In this were two 
i-ather large fragments of pottery, one inside of the 
other, as though they had been so placed originally. 
At the depth of 4 feet a pot with ears was found, 
mouth upward. It still retained, in part, its original 
reddish-brown color. 

Below this was a layer of sand similar to that found 
in pit a. Near the surface were some small irregular 
Xjieces of burnt clay. In the second pit, some 3 feet 
northwest of the first, nothing of interest was found until a depth of 
4 feet was reached. At this point a considerable quantity of charred 
grass and ashes was observed. 

In the third of these thi'ee pits a number of rather large irregular 
pieces of burned clay, similar to that already mentioned, were found 
near the surface. About 3 feet from the surface lay a flat rock of con- 
siderable size. A foot below this a layer of burned clay was encoun- 
tered, the upper surface of which was as smooth and even as pottery. 
This proved to be jiart of an arch, the central portion of which had 
been broken and thrown down. 




158 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

As the pit sunk by Mr. Perriiie was very near this i)oiut there can 
be no doubt that this was a j)ortiou of the arch he speaks of. He also 
speaks of a wall of stone. This was uot found, unless the large stone 
mentioned formed a part of it. 

This arch or dome of clay had evidently been spread over the surface 
of the mound when it had reached a height of 5 or 6 feet and over this 
dry grass and brush had been spread and burned. A large quantity 
of the charred grass and bits of wood-coal were found around the mar- 
gin of this arch as far as explored, making it apparent that the fire had 
been extinguished probably by throwing dirt upon it before the grass 
and brush were entirely consumed. Immediately below the arch we 
came upon a thick loose bed of ashes. 

In another pit the strata were as foUows: First, a layer of eartli with 
particles of charcoal mixed through it, 3 feet 8 inches ; next, a layer of 
burnt sand and clay with evidences of straw having been used, 3 
inches; then another layer of earth 1 foot 10 inches; then a second 
layer of burnt sand and clay 4 inches thick, with indications of straw; 
next, a layer of sand 5 inches ; then a third layer of burnt sand and clay 
3 inches (similar to the others); a layer of sand, 3 feet; and last a layer 
of ashes, 3 inches. 

But few things were found during these excavations ; still they are of 
some importance in our ettbrts to learn the method and object of build- 
ing this mound. They consist of burnt straw, grass, and charcoal found 
on the upper side of each layer of burnt clay, the clay itself showing 
evidence of having grass mixed with it. Possibly this admixture may 
have resulted from tramping the grass into the soft clay while spread- 
ing it over the siu'face previous to firing it. 

Fragments of burnt, cherty limestone, similar to that composing the 
little mound at the south end, marked c in Fig. 83, were found all through 
the second trench. Numerous fragments of pottery and several fi"ag- 
ments of human bones ; irregular pieces of burnt clay resembling brick ; 
a few fragments of river shells [Unio); and some rude flint implements 
were also found. Among the ashes at the bottom were some fragments 
of bone and pottery ; one of the pieces of bone was found in the concave 
side of a large fragment of pottery. At another jjoint in the same layer 
were fragments of pottery, bones, and shells. 

Firmly imbedded in the middle layer of burnt clay, was a broken 
pot and with it were pieces of bone. Three feet from the surface and 
above the upper layer of clay, another broken pot was obtained; this 
was filled with ashes, firmly packed and mixed with particles of char- 
coal. Under the second layer of clay was a small pot filled with sand 
with a thin layer of ashes on the top. At one point between the upper 
and middle layers of clay was a small bed of ashes mixe d with frag- 
ments of pottery, animal bones, and a piece of shell. In a small bed 
of ashes under the middle layer of clay were potsherds and some 
broken and split bones. 



TiiiiMAs.] MOUNDS ON ROUND POND. 159 

At a point between the upper and middle layers of flay, with frag- 
ments of iiottery, pieces of bone and charcoal, Avas discovered a iiiece 
of charred wood. 

Mound b, about 450 feet east of a, of the form shown in the plat, is 
190 feet long by GC in width, and 5 feet high. Two pits were dug in 
this and a few detached pieces of human bones found. 

Mound e is 100 feet in diameter and 9 feet high ; d, a little smaller 
and 6 feet high; e, about 150 feet in diameter and a little over 4 feet 
high; / and g are circular excavations outside of the wall; the for- 
mer 120 feet in diameter and 5 feet deep; the latter with the longer 
diameter 154 feet ; depth, 7 feet. Excavations made in the bottom of 
these indicate that they were artificially lined with a coating of stiff 
clay. At s is another sink, ajjparcntly artificial, but now partially 
filled with mold of decaying vegetation, leaves, etc. 

The "hut rings" or small circular depressions surrounded by slight 
earthen rings, indicated in Fig. 82 by little circles, are scattered irregu- 
larly over the wooded portion of the inclosiue, the number exceeding 
100. They vary in diameter from 20 to 50 feet, and in depth from 1 to 
3 feet and are often but a few feet apart. 

MOUND ON ItUNNING LAKE. 

Thi ' mound, or rather remnant of a mound, is near Running lake in 
the southwestern part of Union county. A part of it had been removed 
for filling purposes on the line of the Mobile and Ohio railroad, which 
runs near it. It appears to have been about 9 feet high, and t!0 feet in 
diameter and composed of sand, with the exception of 2 feet of top soil. 
At one point, about 2 feet below the surface, the leg bones of a single 
individual were found; no other bones were with them; at another and 
about the same depth were the bones of two feet and a deer's horn. 
Some pots and other implements were obtained from it by parties who 
had previously examined it. The jiarts of the skeleton found scattered 
through the mound appear to have been separated i^revious to burial. 

MOUNDS ON ROUND POND. 

These mounds are situated by the side of the public highway near 
the Reynolds ])lace 2 miles from the Mississippi river and on the bank 
of a little lake known as Round pond. Two of them are so close to- 
gether that one appears x>artially to overlap the other as shown in the 
accompanying sketch (Fig. 84). 

No. 1 is 40 feet in diameter, G feet high, and of the usual conical form. 
Two trenches near the middle carried down to the original surface 
showed it to be composed entirely of sand except the toj) layer of soil 
1^ feet thick, but no bones or remains of any kind were observed. 
The top had been nearly covered with graves, but they were empty, 
having been rifled of their contents by previous explorers. 



160 



MOUND EXPLOKATIONS. 







No. li is only about 25 t'cft in diiinieter iind .'J I'cet lii,i;li, anil, like the 
other, is coiriposed entirely of sand, except the toji layer. On the west 
side, near the middle, were two empty stoue graves (c c), each 7 feet 
long, 18 inelies wide, and abont 1 foot in depth, covered with a thin 
layer of soil. In the road where it crosses the connecting portions 

of the two mounds were 
three stone graves {a a 
a). These, like the two 
in the monnil, lay east 
and westjbut were much 
smaller, being only 20 
inches long, 10 inches 
wide, and 15 inches 
deep, and were at the 
surface of the ground. 
Two were empty, but 
in the other was a skel- 
eton doubled up, the 
skull and trunk lying 
on the left side, the 

Fig. 84. — Round pond mounds. Union county, Illinois. . i • i 

lower jaw touching the 
west end of the grave; the truuk was bent double, the backbone touch- 
ing the south side. Although confined in this narrow si)ace, this was 
the skeleton of an adult. 

A few flint specimens were picked up from the surface of the ground 
about the mounds. 

ANCIKNT GItAVE.S. 

These box-shaped stone cists are on a spur of the bluffs which b(juud 
the Mississippi bottoms in the NW. I Sec. 16, T. 13 S., E. 2 W. This 
spur is about 400 feet high, has steep sides and a narrow top. 

Grave No. 1, 2 feet under the surface, lay northeast and southwest; 
length, G feet; width, 2 feet; depth, 1 foot; bottom formed of two flat 
stones; each side of five similar stones and each end of two; the cover 
was in three layers, each formed of two rather thick flat stones. In 
the grave were two skeletons, an adult and a child, stretched at full 
length, faces up, and heads southwest. Under the skull of the adult 
were a bone needle and two stone implements. At the feet was a long- 
necked bottle-shaped vase. These remains were covered with very drj', 
yellow earth which well-nigh filled the grave. 

No. 2, 10 feet north of No. 1 , was of the same size and form, but the 
top in this case had fallen in. It was 3 feet under the surface, lay east 
and west, and contained one skeleton, at full length upon its back, 
head west, bones comparatively sound. Under and near the skull 
were a small, circular, shell ornament, bone awl, bone needle, and bone 
punch. Two small pieces of thin copper plate were discovered, but 
were so corroded and fragile that they fell into minute particles when 



THOMAS.] 



STONE GRAVES IN UNION COUNTY. 



161 



handled. This grave was very dry, and nearly full of a loo.se, dry, 
yellowish earth. 

Pour other stone graves were opened in .section 20, same township 
and range. These were ou a stony bench, east of the bottom, about 30 
feet high. They were of the same form and size as the others, but 
were only about 6 inches under the surface. These graves contained 
nothing but rotten bones. 

Another ancient cemetery is situated on the brow of a high, abrupt 
hill, NW. J Sec. 16, T. 10 S., E. 2 W., at the foot of which is the " Upper 
Blufl:' lake." The graves are of stone, similar to those mentioued. 
Quite a number had been previously opened by Mr. T. M. Perrine. 

Grave No. 1 contained the skeleton of an adult, extended, face up, 
head west. The cover to the cofQu, which had not been disturbed, 
was 2 feet below the surface. 

In this grave were one discoidal stone, one shell, and several pieces 
of copper plates. One of the latter, badly corroded, bears the impressed 
figure of a bird, similar to that 
shown further on in PI. xviii, but 
wanting the head; the other, 
bearing dancing figures, is fortu- 
nately but slightly corroded; it 
measures C by C^ inches, and is 
showu in Fig. 85. The latter 
plate was lying flat on the bottom 
rock of the grave at the left of 
the skull immediately above the 
shoulder. 

No. 2, only 2 feet long, was evi- 
dently the grave of a child, as 
indicated by the skeleton. In it 
was an earthen bowl. 

No. 3 contained all the bones 




FlQ.85.- 



-Copper plate bearing dascing figures. 
Union county, niiuois. 



of a full-sized adult, but they were piled together in a coffin only 2 
feet long. Most of them were quite firm, but the .skull was broken. 
With them was an earthenware pot with two handles or ears. 

No. i was the grave of a child and contained, besides the skeleton, 
two earthern vessels, one a small dish, at the head, the other, a bowl, 
at the feet. Over this grave stands a black oak 9 feet in circumfer- 
ence which has evidently grown there since the grave was made, as 
some of the largest roots ran into it. Immediately under the trunk 
was another grave which was partially explored through the large hol- 
low of the base. From it was obtained a broken dish. Upon one of 
the graves had been piled as much as a wagonload of stones. This 
was a few feet down the slope of the hill, and contained three skeletons 
and one long-necked water vessel. 

In the majority of the graves opened at this place the skulls were 
12 ETH 11 



162 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

broken. Although most of the stone coffins were from 5 to 7 feet long 
and the skeletons in them lying at full length, others did not exceed 2 
feet in length and 1 in width. In the latter the bones were in a con- 
fused heap, showing that the flesh must have been removed before 
burial. 

In section 20, same township, on land belonging to Mr. Joseph Hind- 
man, is another cemetery of stone graves. It is on a bench about 5(» 
feet above the creek bottom. Fifteen of these graves were examined. 
The bones in most of them were comparatively firm and well preserved. 

(irave No. 1, 2 feet 3 inches long and 18 inches wide, contaiucd all 
the bones of an adult and a water vessel. 

No. 2 contained only a few badly decayed bones. 

No. 3, 2i feet long and 15 inches wide, contained all the bones of an 
adult, rather firm but the skull broken. 

No. 4, 2 feet long, 18 inches wide, and 15 inches deep, contained the 
bones of an adult. 

No. 5, GJ feet long and 15 inches wide, contained a single, extended 
skeleton, head west, face up. 

No. 7, 2 feet 4 inches long, 2 feet wide, and 15 inches deep, was filled 
with bones, apparently of three adults, as there were three skulls; they 
were piled in without order. 

In grave No. 9, 5^ feet long and only 15 inches wide, were two ex- 
tended skeletons, quite firm, the skulls of which were secured. 

Nos. 6, 8, and 10 contained only badly decayed bones. 

No. 12, 5i feet long, 18 inches wide, contained one skeleton, extended, 
head west. Bones firm, but skull broken ; by the latter stood a small 
water jar. 

No. 13 was of the same length as No. 12, but only 1 foot wide (inside 
measurement in all cases) ; skeleton extended and bones badly decayed. 

No. 14, length 4i feet, contained the skeleton of a child, extended ; 
near the skull a small water jar and a bowl. 

No. 15, 6 feet long, 16 inches wide, contained a single skeleton, 
extended, head west, face up. 

The graves here were not so deep in the ground as those in section 
16, the tops of some of them being only 6 inches below the surface and 
the deepest only 18 inches. 

In the cemetery situated on the NW. + Sec. 16, T. 13 S., R. 2 W. 
is a circular stone grave south of the black oak tree. This grave, about 
5 feet in diameter, was formed by standing on end short slabs of stone 
around the circle. The sides of the grave were slightly flaring. There 
are some reasons for believing that this pertains to an earlier period 
than the other graves, though nothing positive on this point could be 
ascertained. 

The graves on the Ilindman place are only about half a mile from the 
Linn mounds, those on the Ilileman farm about 2 miles from them, and 



THOMAS] MOUNDS IN LAWRENCE COUNTY. 1G3 

those oil the liill 3 miles. It is possible, therelore, that the people who 
lived at the Linn farm and built the mounds and other works there 
buried their dead at one or more of those places. 

LAWRENCE COUNTY. 

It was ascertained by the Bureau a,i;eiit tliat some of the supposed 
mounds on the bluff or ridge opposite Viiiceiiiies, in which skeletons 
have been found are natural hillocks but used as burying grounds by 

the aborigines. 

hrown's mill mounds. 

These are on Embarrass river 6 miles west of Vinceniies, on the farm 
of Dr. r. E. Austin. There are but two in the giouj), one 4 and the 
other 6 feet high. Excavations to the base revealed nothing but sand, 
though stone implements and fragments of pottery have been plowed 
up here, some of which were obtained. 

MOUNDS NEAR RUSSELLVlLLE. 

These are situated near the bank of the Wabash about a mile south- 
east of the town on the farm of Mr. William Wise. One had been 
opened a short time before the Bureau investigation and a skeleton 
iound at the depth of 2 feet; a flat rock was lying over it, but no 
relics of any kind with it. Two others formerly stood near it, but have 
been removed. According to local information several skeletons were 
found at the bottom and with them two iron tomahawks, some pipes, 
some shells and glass beads, and parts of three pairs of beaded buck- 
skin moccasins. 

Another mound on the Lawrenceville road, about .3 miles southeast 
of Eussellville, had also been opened and several skeletons found about 
2 feet below the surface, with heads outward and feet toward the center. 
No articles of any kind were with them. 

Near the town of Eussellville formerly stood several mounds, but 
they were excavated in repairing the road. In these were found arrow- 
heads, a silver breast ornament, two iron tomahawks, a crescent shaped 
earring, two stone turtles, two copper kettles, a brass ring, and several 
skeletons, all at the bottom of the mound. 

MISSOURL 
CLARK COUNTY. 

Between Fox river and Sugar creek a sharp dividing ridge, about 
100 feet high, extends for a distance of nearly 2 miles, in a northwest- 
erly direction, from where these streams debouch to the open bottoms 
of the Mississippi. 

At an abrupt turn to the east, near the middle, there is a bold point 
much higher, capped by an ancient mound which is surmounted by a 



164 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



station of the U. S. Coast Survey. This is one of a line of circular 
mounds scattered irregularly along the crest of this ridge, as shown in 
the accompanying diagram (Fig. 86). These range in size ft-om 15 to 

50 feet in diameter at the 
base and from 2 to 6 feet 
high. The entire ridge is 
now covered with scatter- 
ing large red and white 
oaks and dense thickets. 

The following circular 
mounds, numbering fiom 
the south end of the line, 
were opened : 

No. 1,30 feet base, 3 feet 
high, in which were found 
only fragments of rude pot- 
tery. 

No. 2, very small; noth- 
ing found in it. 

No. 3, diameter 35 feet, 
height 5 feet. In the cen- 
tral part of this was a box- 
shaped stone coffin, or cist, 
2 feet wide and 7 feet long. 
This was covered by stono 
slabs, as usual, and thea 
with enough rougher ones 
to form a heap over it. 
Over this was hard earth 
which filled the interstices 
as though it had been a 
mortar when placed there. 
Over all was a foot or more 
of yellowish earth similar 
to that forming the ridge. 
In the coffin was the skel- 
eton of an adult, lying hori- 
zontally on the back, but 
too much decayed for re- 
moval. No stone imple- 
ments or other articles of 
any kind were with it. 
No. 4, a trifle smaller than No. 3, was opened by running a trench 
from the eastern side. For a distance of 15 or 10 feet only ordinary 
earth was encountered, with which the whole mound to the depth of 2 
feet appeared to be covered; then a layer of rough stones, charcoal, 




THOMAS.] MOUNDS IN CLAEK COUNTY. 165 

and ashes, with boues intermixed. In fact, the indications were that 
one or more bodies (or the boues) had been burned iu a fire upon the 
natural surface of the earth near the center; the coals and brands then 
covered with rou};ii stones thrown on without system to the depth of 
3 feet over a space 10 or 12 feet in diameter, and these covered with 
hard, light-colored earth. Only fragments of charred human bones 
and rude pottery and stone chips were found commingled with the 
charcoal and ashes of the fire. 

Several of the next (and larger) mounds had been previously opened 
by other parties. 

Nos. IG, 23, 25, and 26 were excavated, but nothing of interest was 
obtained from them. All except the last (No. 20) had a hard core in 
the center at the base, but this (No. 20) was composed wholly of ordi- 
nary earth similar to that about it, and was easily spaded to the bot- 
tom. 

ANCIENT WORKS ON J. N. BOULWARE'S PLACE. 

These are in Clark county, but near the line between it and Lewis 
county, and on the land of Mr. John N. Boulware, 10 miles north ot 
Canton. Ordinary circular mounds are found scattered along the blutts 
and terraces of the Mississippi for 7 miles southward from those here- 
tofore mentioned near Fox liver, to the group on Mr. Boulware's place. 
This group is on a bench or terrace, from 20 to 40 feet above the open 
bottoms of the Mississippi, and extending less than half a mile there- 
from to the bluffs, which rise nearly 100 feet higher. Of these, fifty-one 
are in a woods pasture from which the undergrowth has been removed, 
affording a fine opportunity for exploration. A diagram of this group 
is given in PI. viii. 

No. 4 was opened, and in it, near the top, were found the much 
decayed fragments of a human skeleton and some broken pottery encir- 
cled by a row of flat stones, set up edgewise and covered by others 
lying flat above them. Beneath these was a layer of very hard, light- 
colored earth, scattered through which were fragments of charred 
human bones, pottery, charcoal, and stone chips. 

No. 5 was examined, but nothing was found except a core of hard 
earth having the appearance of dried mortar, in which were patches of 
soft charcoal, fragments of pottery, and flakes of stone. 

The road runs near No. 50, and has cut away the eastern portion. A 
trench through the remainder brought to light the femora of an ordi- 
nary sized skeleton, but no trace of the other portions could be found. 
With this were some rude stone scrapers, fragments of pottery, char- 
coal, and ashes. 

No. 46 is aljout 00 feet in diameter and 6 feet high, conical and unu- 
sually symmetrical. A trench 6 feet wide was carried entirely across 
it. Tlie exterior layer, scarcely a foot thick, consisted of ordinary 
top soil; the remainder was unmistakably composed of dried mor- 
tar, iu which fragments of charred human bones, small rounded pieces 



166 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



of pottery, stone scrapers, aud fleshers were commingled with cliarcoal 
and ashes. 

As all the uionnds o])ened here presented this somewhat .singular 
feature, a very careful examination was made of this mortar-like sub- 
stance. It was found that there was a dift'erence between different por- 
tions in the same mound, sufficiently marked to trace the separate 
masses. This would indicate that the mounds had been built by suc- 
cessive deposits of mortar thus mixed with charred bones, etc., not in 
strata, but in masses. 

All the facts seem to indicate that the builders of these mounds 
burned their dead, and that possibly each family mixed together the 
charred remains, ashes, etc., forming one of these masses, 1 or 2 bush- 
els in amount, and then deposited it with others to form the central 
part of the mound. 

The following is a list of the mounds of this group, showing the size 
and form of each : 



No. 


Diameter. 


Shape. 


Height. 


Eeniarka. 




Feet. 




Ft. In. 






1 


33 


Circular .. 


3 






2 


30 


...do 


3 






3 


42 


....do 


3 6 






4 


45 


...do 


4 n 


Dug; human skeleton, fragments of pottery, etc. 




5 


54 


..-.do 


2 


Dug; hard earth like dried mortar. 




6 


46 


....do 


5 


Dug: ver}- hard light-colored earth; uo rem.ains. 




7 


45 


...do 


4 


Dug; no remains in the h.ard earth. 




8 


35 


....do 


2 6 






9 


30 


....do 


2 






10 


30 


....do 


2 6 






U 


00 


....do 





Dug; fragments of human bones and round piece 
tery in a matrix of dried monar. 


s of pot- 


12 


25 


....do 


2 






13 


20 


....do 


1 6 






14 


20 


. . . .do 


1 6 






15 


2n by 15 


Oblonj; .. 


1 G 






16 


75 by 20 


Wall- 
shaped . . 


2 






17 


35 


Circular . . 


3 






18 


15 


-••'io 


1 






19 


15 


....do 


1 6 






20 


54 


....do 


5 






21 


20 


....do 


2 






22 


60 


...do 


5 






23 


66 


...do 


6 






24 


- 35 


...do 


3 






25 


50 


.. do 









20 


50 


...do 


5 


Dug; only fragments of cluircoal, ashes, small 
pieces of bones and pottery. 


rounded 


27 


15 


...do 


2 






28 


30 


...do 


2 






29 


20 


...do 


1 ti 






30 


20 


...do 


1 







'SALT KETTLE POTTERY. 



167 



No. 


Diameter. 


Shape. 


Height. 


Kern arks. 




Feet. 




Ft. In. 




31 


20 


Cireiiliir .. 


1 6 




32 


20 


...do 


1 6 




33 


20 


...do 


2 




34 


21 


...dc, 


1 6 




35 


15 


...do 


1 6 




36 


23 


...do 


1 G 




37 


23 


...do 


1 C 




38 


22 


..do 


2 




39 


20 


...do 


2 




JO 


15 by 11 


Ubloug 


2 




41 


25 


Circular .. 


2 




42 


25 


...do 


2 




43 


45 


..do 


5 




44 


40 


...do 


4 


Dug; diird iiiortiir in aiipcarance. 


45 


20 


...do 


2 




40 


CO 


...do 


6 (I 


Dug; see descriptioD . 


47 


40 


...do 


4 


Dug; fuuDil only fraiiintnts of human Imnes, and pottery. 


48 


30 


...do 


3 6 




49 


50 


...do 


5 




50 


00 


..do 


5 


Dug; found human bonea. 


51 


45 


-do 


4 




52 




do 




Tliese four mounds are on the Mississippi bottoms, culti- 
vated over for fifty years and nuich flattened but aaid 

















to have resembled No. 51 in size and form. 


53 
54 
55 




. do 








...do 






...do 











Excavation, 75 liy 100 feet, 5 feet d<'ep; nearly full of water. 

LEWIS COUNTY. 

The only work examined in this county was a mound 2 miles north 
of Canton on the point of a bluff facing the Mississippi bottom. It is 
oblong, the longer diameter being 4(5 feet and the shorter 32 feet; 
height, (! feet. A trench thiough the middle resulted in bringing to 
light decayed human bones commingled with charcoal, ashes, a few frag- 
ments of rude pottery, and stone chips. These M'ere upon the natural 
surface near the center, covered, first with nearly 3 feet of hard earth, 
over this earth similar to the surrounding soil. Aii oak tree 3 feet in 
diameter was growing on the northern slope. 

The character of this mound and its contents connect it with those of 
Clarke county. 

ST. LOUIS COUNTY. 



' SALT-KETTLE rOTTERY. 



This is found near the Clifton Springs, 4 miles south of Kirkwood 
and about 10 miles southwest of St. Louis. 

Following a country road between the low rounded bluffs of a wind- 
ing valley, we cross the brook twice within a distance of 400 yards, and 
upon the point of a terrace, between these crossings, we fiud numerous 



1G8 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



fr.agments of pottery fully an iucli thick, beiiig tlie lieaviest ancient 
pottery yet discovered in this country. As may be seen by the form of 
specimen.s collected, the vessels were of unusually large size. No entire 
vessels, however, have been found, but the fragments show that tliey 
were low and shallow, like a salt pan or kettle, ami destitute of ears or 
bandies. 

As its popular name, "Salt-kettle pottery," indicates, it is generally 
supposed to have been used in making salt. 

A careful examina- 
tion of the pottery was 
made and the channel 
of the ])rook enlarged 
and deepened above 
and below, and a large 
drain made through 
the lowland beyond it, 
without discovering a 
fragment of the pot- 
tery or of the charcoal 
or ashes of any ancient 
fires. As no indica- 
tions of a change in 
the location of these 
springs or of the qual- 
ity of their waters, 
which are as near sul- 
phur as salt, were 
found, it is very doubt- 
ful whether the pot- 
tery was ever used for 
salt-making purposes 
here or elsewhere, as 
it was too heavy to carry without canoes, which could not have been 
used at this locality, or horses and wagons, which the pottery makers 
did not possess. Besides this, no traces of salt are observed on the 
fragments seen, and according to Prof. Collett, none has ever beeu 
found on them by chemical analysis. It is stated that at various local- 
ities in this valley, including one not remote from this point, crj^its or 
rude stone cofiQns containing human skeletons, weapons, and orna- 
ments of considerable interest have been found, but none were ob- 
served by the Bureau agent. 

CAPE GIRARDEAU COUNTY. 

THE BKN PROFFER MOUNDS. 

These are situated partly on the end of a high ridge, at the point 
where Bird creek unites with Whitewater river, and partly on the 
river bottom, as shown in Fig. 87. 




Flo. 87. — The Ben Profler mound, ('a\^(' Girarde.in oniinty, Missouri. 



GUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 












TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. VIU 


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ANCIENT WORKS ON BOULWARE'S PLACE, CLARKE COUNTY, MISSOURL 



THE BEN PROFFER MOUNDS. 



169 



No. 1, tlie largest, occupies a commaudiug positiou overlooking the 
valleys of both streams. Though not large, being only about 35 feet 
in diameter and 5 feet high, it is quite a conspicuous object, and lias 
some local notoriety. It is rounded with steep slopes that contrast 
strongly with the low flat outline of the small mounds of the valley 
below (at a a). A number of chert stones were observed embedded in 
its surface. No. 2 is forty paces from No. 1 in an open field ; it is 30 
feet in diameter by 2 in height. There are two piles of stone on it, but 
these were probably placed there recently to get them out of the way of 
the plow. Flint chips are scattered around it in considerable numbers. 




Fig. 88. — The Wittiii{^ mounds, Capo Girardeau county. Missouri. 

Nos. 3 and 4 are quite small and near to No. 1. The mounds in the bot- 
tom at a a are circular, qirite small, low, and flattened on top. They 
are probably the sites or foundations of former dwellings or wigwams. 

THE WITTING MOUNDS. 

These compose a small group on the farm of Mr. August Witting, 5 
miles west of Jackson, and seem to differ somewhat from the ordinary 
type. Their position is also peculiar, as they are near the top of the 
divide between Cane and Bird creeks and on the north slope of the hill, 
the only instance of this kind noticed. Their relative positions are 
shown in Fig. 88. Some two years ago a trench was dug through No. 



170 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

1, but no specimens or remains, except some broken stones, were found. 
A few sandstones ilnd chert fragments are still lying in the trench. 

The following measurements, though made in haste and without 
strict accuracy, are probably of sufficient value to be recorded here: 

No. 1: 40 feet in iliameter, 4J feet high. 

No. 2 : 55 feet nortliwest of No. 1 ; 35 feet iliameter, 2^ feet high. 
No. 3: 85 feet north of No. 1, and same distance from No. 2; .30 feet diair.fti-r, 2 
feet high. 
No. 4: 55 feet north and a little west of No. 3; 25 feet diameter, 2 feet high. 
No. 5: 55 feet northeast of No. 4; 35 feet diameter, 2^ feet high. 
No. 6: 80 paces southwest of No. 1 ; 20 feet diameter, li feet high. 
No. 7: 70 paces west of No. G: 20 feet diameter, 2 feet high. 

BOLLINGEK COt'NTV. 

This county lies west of fJape Girardeau county, and like the latter 
is nearly all high land, but the southern end extends a short distance 
into the swamps. In the southeast corner is one of the inclosed " set- 
tlements," which is here named after the owner of the land. 

THE PETER BESS .SETTLEMENT. 

This is situated 5 miles west of Lakeville, on the western bank of 
the Castor river, near where the line of the Cape Girardeau and State- 
Line railway crosses that stream. The " settlement," as these groups 
are locally named, is a small one, the embankment inclosing only about 
12 acres. With the exception of a small .strip on the east side, it has 
been under cultivation for forty years, so that the rings or residence 
sites have long since been obliterated. The wall extends entirely 
around the inclosure, excepting a small space at the northeast corner, 
where it is open toward the stream. A plat of it is given in Fig. 89, 
on which 1, 2, 3, etc., indicate mounds, a a embankments, and c c places 
where human bones were exposed. 

From the direction of the current of the river it seems f(uite possible 
that the wall once entirely surrounded the area, but that the northeast 
corner has been washed away. In the strip of woods on the eastern 
side the wall is a little over 3 feet high. In the field it is considerably 
worn down by the plow, but the line of it can still be easily traced. 
The land inside of it is fully 2 feet higher than that outside, and is so 
much richer that the owner says it yields 7.5 bushels of corn per acre 
in favorable seasons, while that outside yields but 50. Frequent traces 
of burned earth and ashes are seen in the fields, and great quantities 
of broken jwttery are scattered about. Where the land slopes a little, 
in the northeast and southeast corner (at c c), fragments of human 
bones have been washed out in considerable numbers. The large 
mound, No. 1, is situated a little north of the center of the inclosure. 
It is 150 feet across and about 10 feet high, nearly circular, but has 
been worn so much by forty years' tillage that its original outline can 
not be satisfactorily determined. An old log house and some out- 



THE PETER BESS 



171 



buildings occupy tbe nearly level top. In digging post holes some 
bones and pottery were found, but no excavations have been made in 
it deeper than 2 or 3 feet. 

Mound No. li, near the east wall, is circular in outline, 75 feet across, 
and 6 feet high. It has never been explored. 

Nos. 3 and G are quite small. A few stones have been plowed up on 
No. 3. In the same held, some little distance south of the inclosure, 
are two small mounds, Nos. 4 and 5. Mr. Bess stated that a few years 




Field. 



Field,. 



4 

J 




Fio. 89.— The Peter Bess settlement, Bollinger county, Missouri. 

ago, while plowing over No. 4, his plow struck something and on dig- 
ging down he found two stone coffins, each ctmtaiuing a skeleton. In 
one of them he found a gourd-shaped vessel, ornamented with red 
stripes and filled with lead ore so pure that he afterwards made bullets 
from a part of it. An examination of this mound confirmed Mr. Bess's 
statement, as the disturbed remains of the stone cists were found. 
These were of the box-shaped type. Portions of a skeleton, including 
a well-preserved lower jaw aud a few bits of painted pottery, were 
also discovered here. 



172 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

STODDARD COUNTY. 

Although this county lies whollj' within what is known as the " swamp 
region," the central portion of it consists of a high clay ridge or table- 
land which may be considered a spur ftom the Ozarks. This table- 
land is separated from the blufl's of Cape Girardeau and Bollinger 
counties to the north by a strip of lowland known as the Mingo swamp. 
During high water a portion of the overflow from the Castor reaches 
the Whitewater through tliis swamp. 

The county is bordered on the east by the Whitewater or Little river, 
which flows through an extensive tract of low, sandy swamp, which in 
places is as much as 20 miles wide. It is known to the people of 
Stoddard and Dunklin counties as the "East swamp," and the Bureau 
agent heard no other name for it. Mr. Potter, in his report,' refers to 
it as "West swamp" and "West lake" in his description of New 
Madrid and Sikeston ridge. This is confusing, since the name of " West 
swamj)" is given to a similar tract along the St. Francis, which forms 
the western boundary of the county. 

A little south of Dexter city the clay hills come to an end, and the 
divide between the East and the West swamps consists only of a low, 
sandy ridge. Under the local names of the " Rich woods " and the 
'•West prairie" this extends in a southerly direction to the state line. 
Through Dunklin county it is crossed by sloughs that impede travel 
during wet weather. The swamps in this county consist of parallel 
sloughs of no great depth, with low, sandy ridges between them, which 
are for the most part above overflow. They are crossed at intervals 
by lower places that are covered during high water, thus converting 
the higher portions into islands. A good many farms have been 
cleared up on these ridges, so that the swamps support a scattered pop- 
ulation. The sloughs are filled with a heavy growth of cypress {Taxo- 
dium (lisfichum) and Tui)elo gum {N^yssa tmiflora). On the ridges the 
timber is principally different species of oak and hickory and sweet 
gum (TAqukJamher styraeijiua). 

Earthworks of different kinds are very numerous throughout this 
county. Two settlements were examined during the preliminary visit, 
one near Lakeville, in the northern part, and the other in the extreme 
south, on the county line. 

Groups of small mounds are to be found along most of the little 
streams among the hills. Several were observed on the low ridges in 
the East swamp, south of the railroad. 

What is said to be the most extensive system of mounds in south- 
east Missouri is found 7 miles south of Dexter city, on that portion of 
the sandy divide between the swamps, which is known as the "Rich 
woods." There seems to have been, as is shown further on, no wall or 
ditch here, and there are few circular depressions or lodge sites. 

' CoDtributiouB to the Archaeology of Missouri (1880) pp. 5-8. 



173 

THE LAKEVILLE SETTLEMENT. 

This settlement or group of works, which is shown in Fig. 90, is 
located 2 miles south we st of the village of Lakeville, on a narrow but 
rather high east-aud-west ridge, between two cypress swamps. It 
consists of an inclosing wall, and includes mounds and hut rings. The 
inclosure is oblong, but when complete was probably rectangular; it 
extends, however, at each end into fields which have been cultivated so 
long that the traces of it are lost here. The central portion (that shown 
in the figure), extending east and west about 360 yards, is still covered 
by heavy timber and a thick growth of underbrush and briers. Here 
the walls and other works are uninjured. 




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Fig. 90 The Lakeville settlement, Stoddard county, Missouri. 

A wall extends along each flank of tlie ridge facing the swamp that 
borders the latter on either side. They are 200 paces apart and run 
nearly parallel to each other in an east-and-west direction. Slight 
enlargements at irregular intervals are seen, and there are a few short 
breaks, but these may have been made by rainwater which had accu- 
mulated on the inside. Whether these two lines were once connected 
by cr(jss-end walls, can not now be determined, but it seems quite 
pi-obable that such was the case. These walls, measured on the out- 
side, average about 3 feet in height, varying but little in this respect; 
but the inside has been so filled up by the garbage and debris of the 
village or otherwise that this portion is now within 1 foot of the top 
of the wall. 



174 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Nearly the whole si)ace between the walls is occupied by the hut- 
rings or circular dei)ression8. 
They are of the usual size, 20 to 
50 feet across, aud 1 to 3 feet deep. 
In all that were excavated, beds 
of ashes, contaiiiiu^ broken pot- 
tery, burned clay, bits of bone, 
mussel and turtle shells, etc, were 
found at the depth of from (! 
inches to 1 foot. In one of these, 
near the southwest corner of the 
wooded portion, the sandstone 
pipe shown in Fig. 91 was discov- 
ered. ¥lG. 91.— SluiR' pijn, LiikiA'iUi; fjutllelm-lit. 




SKTTLKMF.NT AT TIIK COUNTY LINE. 



This settlement, shown in Fig. 92, on which a a denote the county 
line between Stoddard and Dunklin counties, is situated in an oak 
opening on West prairie, 500 yards east of the Dexter and Maiden 
road. It borders on East swamp and is surrounded on the other three 

sides by a ditch {b b) 
that averages 10 feet 
wide and 3 feet deep. 
The dirt seems to have 
been thrown out about 
equally on each side, but 
there is nothing that can 
be called a wall or an em- 
bankment. The inclos- 
ure is 330 yards long by 
220 in width, and con- 
tains about 15 acres. 
Nearly the whole of this 
space is occupied by cir- 
cular depressions or hut- 
rings of the usual size 
and appearance, contain- 
ing the usual amount of 
ashes, broken pottery, 

Fig. 92. — County line settlement, Stoddard county, Missouri. boUeS etc. There are 

no mounds in the inclosure, but just outside, near the northwest cor- 
ner, is a low, circiUar one about i feet high and 100 or more feet in 
diameter. 




THE KICH WOODS MOUNDS. 



175 



RICH WOODS MOUNDS. 



These inouiids, shown in Fig. 93, arc locatetl 7 miles south of Dexter 
city on the road k-adiiig' from that phife to Maiden, and are doubtless 
the ones referred to in the Summary of Correspondenee, Smithsonian 
re- 
0. 



as 
Q. 










^ 



Report, 1879, 
ported by Mr. 
Smith. 

The low sandy ridge, 
known as the Rich 
Woods, is here between 
1 and 2 miles wide. The 
surface, which is quite 
level, stands generally 
about 15 feet above the 
ordinary water line of 
the swamp and is com- 
posed chiefly of sand. 
The swamp bordering it 
on the east is known 
here as East swamj). 
The margin of the gen- 
eral level, which breaks 
abru])tly down, as is 
usual with the banks of 
Western rivers, is some- 
what irregular, as shown 
in the figure, the inden- 
tations being numerous, 
yet the general course is 
almost directly north 
and south. The mounds 
are principally located 
along or near the mar- 
gin, the distance be- 
tween the extreme 
northern one of the 
group and the most 
southern being about 
1,600 yards, or a little less than 1 mile, and the greatest width of the 
belt occupied, about 500 yards. 

All of the mounds except No. 1 stand on the upper or general level. 
Nos. 1, 2, and 3, near the central part of the group, are large, varying 
in height from 20 to 26 feet, obscurely pentangular in outline and flat- 
tened on top. No. 3 forms, with 4, what may be called a composite 
mound. This appears to be the case also with 15 and 16 and with 23, 




176 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

24, and 25, ■wliicli will be described further on. No. (> is oval in shape, 
the diameter 200 by 110 and the height nearly 8 feet. There are some 
indieatious that it was formerly connected at its northern extremity 
with the double mound 3 and 4 by a graded way, though there are hut 
rings there now. Between this and No. 1 the ground suddenly descends 
to the lower level, as is seen by the abrupt bend in tlie hachured line 
marking the margin, which here makes a sudden turn to the west. 

No. 7, which lies directly west of No. 2, is tfie longest tumulus of the 
gi'oup, irregularly oblong in form, the diameters being 340 and 200 feet 
and height 15 feet, the top flat. Tlie south end is irregularly pointed, 
but this condition may have resulted wholly or in j)art from washing, as 
the surface has been in cultivation for several years and was for some 
years the location of a schoolhoiise. At the north end is an apron 6 feet 
high, extending northward about 00 feet. This is irregularly rounded 
at the extremity. It is possible, and, in fact, probable, that this was 
a regular oblong mound, with a rectangular apron, as are many mounds 
in eastern Arkansas. The top is perfectly level. No. 8, west of 7, is 
circular, flat on top, and about 7 feet high. 

No. 9, immediately north of 7, is peculiar in form, being a regular 
crescent, as shown in the plat, the distance between the tips of the 
horns about 75 feet, height feet. Nos. 10, 11, 12, and 14 are circular 
mounds, ranging from 8 to 12 feet high. Nos. 13, 17, 18, 19, 31, 32, 33, 
20,28,29,30,20,27,34 are small, circular mounds, varying from 1 to 4 feet 
in height. The shape of 22 is peculiar. It appears as if a broad ditch 
had been dug from the east side to the center. A large oak stump in 
the middle of this supjiosed ditch shows that it is certainly not a recent 
excavation. Possibly the mound was for some reason thrown up in 
this form. The figure is too small to bring out the evident difference 
between this and the crescent. 

No. 21, near the road, is of the ordinary conical form, 45 feet in 
diameter and 5 feet high. 

No. 15, about 230 paces northeast of 14, is a large, oblong, flat- topped 
mound, the length east and west 170 feet and width 110 feet, height 
nearly 11 feet. There is a graded way running east from this and curv- 
ing south to mound 16, which is circular and 6 feet high. 

Mounds 23 and 24 are oval in outline and of considerable size, the 
former measuring 223 by 180 feet and 8 feet high, the latter 213 by 112 
feet and 9 feet high. The line between their approximate ends is some- 
what higher than the surface of the surrounding area, and may be the 
remains of a connecting graded way. 

No. 3, the taUest of the entire group, is fully 25 feet high. It is con- 
ical in form and very steei), except on the side toward the ramp. This 
elevated way or ramp, commencing on the side some distance below the 
summit, descends regularly eastward to No. 4, which appears to be a 
landing or halting place rather than a true mound, and is, in fact, but 



THOMAS.] 



THE RICH WOODS MOUNDS. 



177 



an eulaifienieiit of tlie ramp or way at this point, with a Hat or level 
top. This rami> sciMiis to have extended to No. T), and, as before stated, 
to No. C, forming here a grand phitform. The hnt ring'.s which are so 
scattered around and over this immediate area are prol)ably the 
remains of a snbseqnent occupancy to that by the builders of the 
uKjunds. Mound (! presents more the ajipearance of an elongated plat- 



%. 



''^'>^"'imif^0'%. 






JV. 

A 




Fig. 94. — Pl.-in nf Mounds Xos. 'S. 4. 5, anil 6. Kicli 'Woiiils mounds. 

form than a true mound. A plan of these four mounds and the graded 
way, prepared from a careful survey, is given in Fig. 04, and a section 
of 3, 4, and 5 in Fig. !».5. 

As the surface of the area occupied is comparatively level it was 
thought best to make the survey of the group dependent upon one 
base and one auxiliary line. These in the reduction of the plat have 
been omitted. The base runs north and south, east of the group along 
the margin of tlie swamp, and makes three bends, on account of the 
changes in the direction of the margin of the upland and the obstruc- 
12 ETH 12 



178 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



tioiis wliic-li would have to be encomitc^red in 
tln^ attenijit to run a single stiaiglit line. The 
auxilian' line runs westward from station 40 on 
the chief base. The stations on these lines are 
numbered from 3.T to .58, respectively, No. .30 be- 
ing taken as the starting point, 3.5 simply in- 
^ dicating an after northern extension to connect 
I with mound 18. The positions of the mounds 
I nearest the.se bases are indicated by lines run- 
"1 ning at right angles therefrom. The other 
^ mounds more distant are located by courses 
I and distances fi'om those determined by means 
^ of the base lines. 

I Measurements are in all cases to the center 
'% of the mcmnd, hut ring, or other work, unless 
I otherwise expressly mentioned. The various 
" measurements made are shown in the following 
>5 tables. 

I Table i contains the measurements of the 
S chief base line; ii, those of the auxiliary line; 
° III, the positions of the moiu)ds by the ott'sets 
I from the base line; iv, the positions of the 
^ mounds by otisets from the auxiliary line; v, 
g the positions of the mounds as determineil by 
I lines from one to the other; vi, the courses and 
distances locating the hut rings; vii, the j)osi- 
tions of the excavations; viii, the sizes of the 
mounds; IX, the diameter of the hut rings; and 
X, the sizes of the excavations. In order to 
make a plat of the group, start from the center 
of Mound 17 and run a line 57 feet N. 88° WW E. 
This will locate Station 30, from which all the 
other stations and mounds can be determined. 



Table I. -BASE LIXE. 



Station. 


Bearing. 


Distance. 


Ketnarks. 


36 




Fait. 


Northern end of line offset for mound 17. 

Oftset for mound l.i. 

Offset for mound 16. 

Bend in line. 

Otfset for mound 12. 

Bend in line. 

Offset for mound 11. 

Offset for liutring 59. 

Offset for mound 5. 


36 to 37 . 

37 to 38 . 

38 to 39 . 

39 to 40 . 

40 to 41 . 

41 to 42 . 

42 to 43 . 

43 to 44 . 


S.1°22'E.... 

S. 1°22' E 

S.1°22'E .... 

S.4°00' E 

S.4°00' E 

S.23°49'E.... 
S.23o49'E.... 
S.23°49'E.... 


373 
137 
349 
414 
86 
59 
83 
91 



THE RICH WOODS MOUNDS. 
Table 1.— BASE LINE— Continued. 



179 



station. 


Bearing. 


Distance. 


Remarks. 






Feet. 




4-1 to 43 . 


S.230 49'E.... 


204 


Oftset for moun<l G. 


45 to 46 . 


S.230 49'E.... 


416 


Beginning of auxiliary line. 


46 to 47 . 


S.23°49'E.... 


71 


Offset for mound 1 . 


47 to 48 . 


S.23°49'E.... 


24 


Bend in line. 


48 to 49 . 


S.0O45'W.... 


280 


Offset for numiid 21 . 


49 to 50 . 


S. 0° 45' W . . . . 


238 


Offset for mound 22. 


50 to 51 . 


S. 0° 45' W . . . . 


336 


Ort'set for mound 27. 


51 to 52 . 


S. 0<= 45' W . . . . 


130 


Offset for mound 28. 


52 to 53 . 


S.U0 45'W.... 


477 


Offset for mound 29. 


53 to 54 . 


S. 0° 45' W . . . . 


35 


Southern end of line. 



Table II.— AUXILIARY LINE. 



46 to 55 . 


S.840 49' W... 


263 


Offset for mound 20. 


55 to 56 . 


S.840 49' W... 


302 


Offset for mound 2. 


56 to 57 . 


S.84°49' W.. 


581 


Offset for mound 7, 


57 to 58 . 


W 


434 


Offset for mound 8. 

• 





Table III.— OFFSETS TO itOUNDS ALONG THE BASE LINE. 



36 to 17 . 


S.880 38' W... 


57 


To station on mound. 




37 to 15 . 


8.88° 38' W... 


105 


To station on eastern end < 


f mound. 


38 to 16 . 


S.SSOSS'W... 


40 


To station on mound. 




40 to 12 r 


S.86°00' W... 


197 


Do. 




42 to 11 . 


S.86°00' W... 


101 


Do. 




43 to 59 . 


S.88O00' W... 


57 


To station in liut-riny. 




44 to 5 .. 


S.86O00' W... 


75 


To station on mound. 




45 to 6 . . 


S.86'=00' W... 


66 


To station on niirtliern one 


of mound. 


47 to 1 . . 


S.86°00' W... 


84 


To station on mound . 




49 to 21 . 


S.60O11' W... 


84 


Do. 




50 to 22 . 


S.66=ll'-W... 


131 


Do. 




51 to 27 . 


S.06°ll' W... 


140 


Do. 




52 to 28 . 


S.66°11'W. .. 


99 


Do. 




53 to 29 . 


S.660 11' W... 


11 i 


Do. 





Table IV.— OFFSETS TO MOUNDS ALONG THE AUXILIARY LINE. 



55 to 20 . 


S.5° 11' E 


125 


To station on mound. 


$6 to 2 .. 


N.5°11'"W ... 


79 


Do. 


57 to 7 . . 


N.5°ll'-W... 


46 


Do. 


58 to 8 . . 


S 


61 







Table V.— BEARINGS AND DISTANCES FROM MOUND TO MOUND. 



7 to 9 . . . 


N.3O00'W ... 


416 


To station on mound. 


9 to 10 . . 


N.28°35' E... 


227 


Do. 


12 to 13 . 


N. 56'^ 29' W . . 


147 


Do. 


12 to 14 . 


N.560 29'W .. 


343 


Do. 


29 to 30 . 


S.54°30' W... 


338 


Do. 


27 to 23 . 


N. 66° 00' W . . 


307 


Do. 



180 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

Table V.— BEARINGS AND DISTANCES FROM MOUND TO MOUND-Continned. 



Station. 


Bearing. 


Distance. 


Remarks. 






Feet. 






23 to 24 . 


S.49°50' W .. 


253 


To statiou ou muiiud. 




24 to 26 . 


S.54°29' W... 


226 


Do. 




24 to 25 . 


S.4o.';5' W.... 


190 


Do. 




15 to 32 . 


N.22°15' W .. 


214 


Do. 




15 to 31 . 


N. 75° 45' W . . 


312 


Do. 




15 to 33 . 


S. 70°15' W... 


510 


Do. 




15 to 18 . 


N. 140 15'W .. 


95 


Do. 




5 to 4. 


S. 39° 40' W . . . 


135J 


Do. 




4to 3 . 


S.84°00' W... 


152i 


Do. 




24 to 34 . 


S.88O00'W... 


150 


Do. 





Table VI.- 



-BEARINGS AND DISTANCES FROM THE MOUNDS AND HUT RINGS TO 
THE HUT RINGS. 



11 to 60 . 


S.22°30' W... 


44 


To station in hut-ring. 


60 to 61 . 


S.0°45' W.... 


27J 


Do. 


60 to 62 . 


S. 19° 15' E. . . . 


S9 


Do. 


60 to 63 . 


S. 40° 00' E . . . 


60 


Do. 


62 to 64 . 


S.52°00'W... 


41 


Do. 


62 to 65 . 


S.25°00' W... 


61 


Do. 


62 to 66 ■ 


S. 19°30'E.... 


35 


Do. 


5 to 67 . 


S.17oi6'W... 


60 


Do. 


5 to 68 . 


S.0°44'E 


83J 


Do. 


5 to 69. 


S.l°28' W.... 


115 


Do. 


5 to 70 . 


S.2°16'E 


143 


Do. 


4 to 71. 


N. 80° 19' W . . 


30 


Do. 



TABLE vn.— BEARINGS AND DISTANCES OF THE EXCAVATIONS FROM THE MOUNDS 



29 too.. 

30 to 6 . . 


S. 86J° W 

S. 69J° W 


140 
120 


To station in excavation. 
Do. 



Table Vm.— SIZES OP THE MOUNDS. 



No. 


Diameter. 


Height. 


Remarks. 






Feet. 




1 


150 


20 




2 


150 by 140 


20 




3 


185 


26 


Slopes steep. 


4 


150 by 140 

84 

266 by 109 






5 
6 




Extends north and south. 


74 


7 


339 by 200 


15 


iflas apron about 6 feet high at northern end 
^ extending fiO feet from base northward. 


8 


134 by 114 


H 


Crescent-shaped. 


9 

10 




6 
10 




130 by 125 


11 


44 by 48 


5 




12 


60 by 65 


8 





THE RICH WOODS MOUNDS. 

Table Viri.— SIZES OF THE MOUNDS— Continuod. 



181 



No. 


Diameter. 


Height. 


Remarks. 






Feet. 




13 


50 by 40 


1 




14 


124 by 96 


5 




15 


109 by 171 


lOJ 


Extends east and west. 


16 


75 


6 




17 


100 by 69 


4 


Extends northwest and soiitlieaat. 


18 


60 by 65 


3 


Circular. 


19 


60 




Estimated. 


20 


40 by 35 


3 


Circular. 


21 


45 


5 


Do. 


22 




H 

8 




23 


181 by 223 


Extend.s east and west. 


24 


213 by 112 


9 


Extends north and .south. 


25 


65 by 60 


5 


Circular. 


26 


78 


3i 


Do. 


27 


40 


4 


Do. 


28 


50 


4 ■ 


Do. 


29 


64 by 40 


3 


Do. 


30 


60 by 56 


34 


Do. 


31 


100 by 110 


3 


Do. 


32 


70 by 65 


H 


Do. 


33 


100 


3 


Do. 


34 


.60 


2i 


Do. 



Table IX.- DIAMETER OF THE HUT RINGS. 



No. 


Diameter. 


No. 


Diameter. 


No. 


Diameter. 


60 


22 by 29 


64 


27 


68 


28 


61 


28 


65 


24 


69 


24 


62 


29 


V 66 


21 


70 


25 


63 


29 


67 


27 


71 


34 



Table X.— SIZES OF THE EXCAVATIONS. 



Excavations. Diameter. 


Depth. 


Remarks. 




70 by 35 
55 


4 
3J 


Extends northeast and siuithwest. 
Circular. 


b 





The first examination of this interesting' group on behalf of the Bu- 
reau was made by Mr. Earle during his visit to this part of tlie state. 
Subsequently I visited them in company with Mr. Earle and Dr. Robert 
AJlyn, president of the Southern Illinois jS'ormal University. I found 
Mr. Earle's description and the plat he furnished quite correct, though 
the latter has been replaced by the more accurate survey made by Mr. 
Middleton; but descriptions and plats, though critically correct, fail 
to convey a true conception of this magniticent group. 

Exploring No. 1 (Fig. 9.']), which by a careful remeasureinent was 
ascertained to be 150 feet in diameter at the base and 20 feet high, we 



182 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

found it to consist of au external layer of surface soil, varying in depth 
from 2 to .'5 feet, and an inner core of hard clay. This inner core, which 
evidently constituted the original mound, consisted of dry compact 
clay so hard that an ax was used to cut it. It was almost as dry as 
powder and of an ash-gray color, having here and there as we de- 
scended the appearance of being slightly mixed with ashes. At the 
depth of 5 feet a broken pot-shaped Jar, of ware similar to that usual 
to this I'egiim, was discovered. At this point a few ashes and some 
slight indications of fire were noticed. The same dry hard clay con- 
tinued to the bottom of the pit (which was carried down to the depth 
of 17 feet), except one thin layer of sand about 6 inches thick at the 
depth of 10 feet. Other pits dug in the sides and near the base re- 
vealed ample evidence of fire, indicating that after the cential core was 
completed a quantity of brush and leaves had been burned over it, the 
coals and ashes sliding down, as it is quite steep, so that near the base 
a layer of charcoal several inches thick was formed. A thin layer of 
surface soil must have been thrown over it while burning, as consider- 
able quantities of charred leaves were found mixed with the charcoal. 
In one of the pits some human bones were discovered before reaching 
the clay, doubtless an intrusive burial. 

This mound, as will be seen by reference to the plat, is outside of the 
hachured line which represents the edge or break of the general level, 
and is some 6 feet lower and on the same level as the road and not more 
than C or 7 feet above the usual water level of the swamp. 

Pits were sunk in No. 22 to the original surface without finding any- 
thing of interest save some fragments of pottery. The height of this 
mound was found to be a little over 5 feet, and the composition, after 
passing through the surface soil, a uniform mixture of yellow clay and 
sand. On this mound is au oak stump 2 feet in diameter. 

Xo. 21 was examined with similar results, except that in it were found 
some small pieces of burned clay, flint chips, and traces of charcoal. 

No. 26 and a small tumulus west of it were found to consist wholly of 
sandy clay. A few fragments of human bones, small pieces of pottery, 
and some flint chips were discovered in them. 

An opening was made in the large mound No. 15 in a depression near 
tiie center where the height is between 9 and 10 feet. The pit was 
carried down to the original surface of the ground through yellow sandy 
clay. Nothing of interest was obtained. 

No. 32, a low mound but little more than 3 feet high, was, like most of 
the others, built of a mixture of sand and clay. It contained human 
bones and fragments of pottery, which were scattered irregularly through 
it. The ground was damp and soft, and most of the bones were soft, 
falling to pieces when any attempt was made to lift them up. We were 
unable to trace out a single complete skeleton or to find a whole vessel. 

Nos. 20, 30, and ,31 were also explored, but nothing of special interest 
was observed in them, the construction being the same and of similar 
material as those already referred to. 



THOMAS.] MOUND NO. 6. lod 

No. -sviis subsequently partially explored. A trench was carried 
down only to tlie dei)t]i of."< feet. Xotliinj^- was found in it at a greater 
depth from the surface than 3i feet. Near the foot of the niou7id and 
2 feet below the surface was a skeletou with the bones ratlier tirin; 
probably an intrusive burial, as they are not uncommon in this partic- 
ular locality. This was extended, head south; near it was a Unto shell. 
About li feet west of this skeleton and lying piuallel with it was 
another of smaller size, probably of a female; bones firm, but the skull 
broken when found. Near the skull was a bottle-shaped water vessel. 
Other vessels were found at different points and at the depth of only 1 
or 2 feet. 

About 2 feet down on the top and side of the mound were lunijis 
of burnt clay, which appear to be fragments of plastering with which 
the walls of a dwelling or other house had been coated. As further 
evidence of this is the following fact, given in the words of the last ex- 
plorer: ''In the top of the mound, in a small circular depression, I dug 
down about 2 feet, when I came to a sort of platform of burnt clay. It 
seemed to be made of irregularly shaped pieces, one side being smooth 
and the other rough. And what was peculiar, the smooth side was 
down. I did not dig enough to ascertain the extent of the platform." 

It is easy enough to account for the smooth side being down if we 
suppose it to have been (as we shall hereafter see there is reason for 
believing) plastering from the walls of a house, for when the l)uilding 
was burned it would not be unlikely that the stiff and thick coat of 
plastering should fall over in a sheet and that i)ieces of it should roll 
down the side of the mound. 

Numerous othcn' objects were discovered in this mound, as pieces of 
Unio shells, some of which had holes bored through them, and were ap- 
pareutly unfinished beads ; many fragments of pottery scattered promis- 
cuously through the outer layer, and quite a number of animal bones, 
from the skull of a deer down to the delicate boues of very small birds. 

Permis.sion could not be obtained to make further exploitation in this 
interesting and important group, nor to complete the excavation of the 
mounds partially examined. 

■ SCOTT AND MISSISSIPPI COUNTIES. 

In 1879 and 1880 the people in the neighborhood of Charleston, Mis- 
sissippi county, discovered that the pottery, in which the inounds of 
this region seem to have been unusually lich, had a considerable com- 
mercial value. A regular mining fever at once broke out and spread 
so rapidly that in some instances as many as twenty-five or thirty men, 
women, and children could be seen digging for pottery in one field at the 
same time. 

The specimens obtained were taken to Charleston and sold to the 
merchants, who in turn sold them to various museums, scientific insti- 
tutions, and relic hunters. It is said that this trade brought to town 
several thousand dollars. 



184 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Some 10 or 12 miles southwest of the battlefield of Belmont is one of 
the jK'culiar saiul lidgcs of this swauijty region, called I'in Hook ridge. 
Thi.s extends 5 or 6 miles north and sonth, and is less than a mile in 
width; both of its tapering ends hook round in a westerly direetiou, as 
shown in Fig. !)(>. There is abundant evidence here thiit the entire 
ridge was long iuhabited by a somewhat agricultural peojile, with sta- 
tionary houses, who constructed numerous and high mounds, which are 
now the only i)lace of refuge for the present inhabitants and their stock 
from the frequent overflows of the Mississippi. About one-halt Of the 
ridge is under cultivatiou ; the I'emaiiider is covered by a nati\e forest 
of oak, ash, gum, and other trees, which are as large upon these mounds 
and residence circles as elsewhere. 

baker's mound. 

This (No. 2 on the diagram) is situated nearly a mile southwest of 
Beckwith's Fort (marked No. 1, in Fig. 90), and herealter more fully 



^:Wm life, t> ^ al C> * 



1 1. ,, '- ■""■■■ 







Sy^li 




Flo. Ofi. — Pin Hook Ilid^xe mounds, Mississippi rounty. Missouri. 

described; it is circuhir in form, about 50 lectin diameter and 4 feet 
high. The peculiar feature of this mound is the mode of its construc- 
tion, which is shown in Fig. 07. The lower stratum, marked No. 2, 
consists of bluish swamj) muck mixed with ashes, which, as a matter of 
course, when deposited was soft and pliable as dough, though now so 
hard as to require the use of a pick to i)enetrate it. Instead of the top's 
being leveled as usual, it was depressed in the middle, so as to form a 
saucer-shaped basin, the rim on the south side being higher than on 
the opposite side, as the mound stands on a natural slope. This was 
filled with sandy loam (No. 1) and rounded over, completing the mouiul. 
Near the ui)per part of this sandy layer Mr. Baker, who had pre- 
viously opened it, found two skeletons, placed horizontally, with heads 



BAKERS MOUND. 



185 



uoitli, below which was ii hiycr of decayed skeletons, and with them a 
numl>er of vessels of pottery of forms usnal to this region. Several of 
these vessels which 
were discovered in 
this first excavation 
were fractured; yet 
Mr. Baker obtained 
thirty un i nj ured 
specimens. Further 
excavation in the 
hard bottom layer re- 
vealed the parts of 
several skeletons, a 
number of broken 

vessels, and also one small pot or cu]) with scalloped rim, and one bot- 
tle-shaped water vessel, which were obtained whole. A few rude stone 
scrapers were also found. 








Z Clay 



Yui. 97. — I5aki-i's incniDd. Mississippi coiiuty, Missouri. 



(JlIM TKEE MOUND. 



This is situated nearly to the east of the preceding, is circular in 
form, GO feet in diameter, and 8 feet high. It is No. 3, of Fig. 90, and 

stands on the crest of a low 
ridge fronting upon a cypress 
swamp. It was found to con- 
sist of five or six distinct lay- 
ers, as follows, counting from 
the bottom upwards: Layer 
No. 1, 30 inches of clear white 
sand, probably the natural 
crest of the ridge. No. 2, 10 
inches of dark colored, hard 
clay, through which were scat- 
tered fire-beds, charcoal, 
ashes, stone chiijs, fragments 
of pottery, and split animal 
bones. No. 3, 12 inches of yel- 
low sand, containing but few 
relics of any kind. No. 4, 8 
inches of hard gray mortar, doubtless made of blue muck and ashes 
mixed and covered with kitchen refuse similar to that found in No. 2. 
No. 5, 18 inches of loose gray sand, containing few relics; but all the 
central portion of this layer had been previously examined by others 
who found it and the top layer (No. 0) literally filled with decayed 
human bones and a number of wliole and broken vessels of clay. 




Fig. 98 — Beckwith's fort, Mississippi county, Missouri. 



1S6 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

IlKCKWrril's KOKT. 

TTiilf 11 mile iioitli of the last, niciitioiicfl inouiid, and uixiii tlie liigbest 
point of tlic bank IVonLin};' I'in llonU hayoii, is a rcniarlcahle cartht'ii 
inclosure (marked 1, in Pig. !••;), to wlilcli I lie, name Beukwitli's fort is 
given, after tliat of tlie owner. An cnlarj^ed view of this work is 
given in Fig. '.tS. 

As will be seen by reference to this figure, the inelosuic is nearly a 
semicirele in form, with the open base facing tlie swamj) or bayou. 
The length of this oi)en base from point to point of the w:ill (?»; to m) 
is 1,()U feet, and the circumference along the wall from m around to «, 
2,7(M) feet. The location was wisely chosen, as it is the only ])oint within 
anareaof many miles square wlu;re the natural surface of the ground 
was not coviu'cd by the great tlood of 18S:.'. The bank facing the 
swaiiip is here ipiite steep and fully .'!() feet high. 

Mounds Nos. 1, 5, and (5, and some small burial mounds not shown 
in the (igure, are so lu^arly in a line as to form a strong breastwork 
along this front, exce|)t about liOO feet opposite mound No. 2, where 
there is no embankment, mound, nor the marks of aneient dwellings; 
thus, as is usual in this kind of fort, leaving an o])en court adjoining 
one side of the gieat. llattoi)ped mound. 

The height and width of the wall vary at different points, in some 
])laces being as low as 2 feet, whiles at others it is frilly S feet high; in 
some places it is not more than l") feet wide, while at others it is ;3(t or 
more. 

I'unning close along tlie outside of the wall is a <litch varying in 
widtii IVoin 20 to 40 feet, and in depth from 4 to S feet, except where 
tilled up by Hoods and frosts, es])ecially the former, some of which may 
hav(* brok(!n through the walls to the great interior excavation. The 
area within the inclosure is almost entirely occupied by eartJiworks of 
one kind oi' another, those marked 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and being mounds, 
those marked a, b, and c being excavations, and the numerous small 
circles scattered over it the little sauc(U'-sliaped depressions siipjiosed 
to be house sites or hut rings. 

Mound No. 1 is situated in tlie extreme northern corner, where the 
wall ends on the bank next the swamp or bayou. It is 120 feet long 
from northwest to southeast, 100 feet broad, and about 10 feet higli at 
the liighcst point. The central portion of the top had been lowered, 
either originally or subsequently, by a circular depression about 1.5 feet 
in diameter and 2 feet deep. Permission to excavate could not be 
obtained. 

Mound No. 2, or the so-called Temi)le mound, is situated almost 
directly south of No. 1 and near the central portion of the area. Its 
northern base comes directly to the margin of the great excavation a, 
while but a short distance away, a little to the northeast, is the small 
crescent excavation h. The dimensions, as nearly as could be ascer- 
tained, are as Ibllows: Length on to[) (northeast and southwest), 105 



THOMAS.) JJECKWITH's FORT. 187 

feet; width, 105 feet; height, about 25 feet. Near each eud, on the flat 
toj), is a simcei -.sliapcd depression 3 to 4 feet deep, reaching to a heavy 
dei)()sit (in eacii) (if charcoal, ashes, bones, etc., resting uj)on a hiyer of 
earth .'5 or 4 inches thick, burned as hard as brick. Permission 
could not he obtained to make furtlier excavations in this mound. 

^Mound No. '■> is circuhir, 75 feet in diameter and S feet liigh, liaving 
a saucer-shaped depression on the top, ami below tliis a iire-bed, char- 
coal, ashes, etc., as usual. 

No. 4 is almost circular at the base, but square on the top, which is 
flat, each side measuring .'!0 feet. It is 15 feet high, the sides very 
steep and each bearing with the cardinal i)oints. It was doul)tless 
originally a regularly truncated pyramidal mound, the washings hav- 
ing rounded the base. 

No. 5 is au oval uiouud with sloping sides, 10 feet high and 90 feet 
across the top, which is flat. It was composed, in jjart at least, of 
black swiimj) mnd and l)lue <'Iiiy and had in it several tirc-bcds, beds 
of clay burned brick red, stone chijjs, Cnio shells, and fragments of 
pottery. 

No. (» is 75 by 100 feet a* base, 8 feet high, and now surmounted by 
the log house of the colored num who cultivates this portion of the 
extensive Beckwith plantation. 

Between 5 and (> is a long low mound not marked on the diagram, 
the surface of which was strewn with fragments of human bones, pot- 
tery, and stone chips. 

Excavation a is somewhat pear-shaped, the large end l)eing near the 
northeast corner and the curved side running along the northern wall 
for fully 1,000 feet. The width at the widest part is 320 feet and the 
greatest depth 10 feet, but the depth decreases with the width toward 
the southwest point. The most of it is now a bushy swamp, though the 
larger end is an o\)eu pond never dry. 

Excavation h is small, the length along the convex side not exceed- 
ing 200 feet, narrow and crescent shaped. It lies just beyond the eastern 
end of the large excavation, one of its horns touching the latter. 

Excavation c is in the southwestern part of the area, and now a rect- 
angular swam]), 300 feet long by 100 wide, 8 feet deep at the greatest 
depth, and seldom dry. 

IIOCSE SITKS Ol! HIT KINGS. 

These almost literally cover the remainder of the area, the only open 
space of any considerable size being the 200 feet square just east of the 
large mound (No. 2, Fig. 98). They are not confined to the natural 
level of the inclosure, as some are found on the level tojis of the mounds. 
They are circular in lorm, varying from .'!0 to 50 feet in diameter, 
measuring to the tops of their rims, which arc raised slightly above the 
natural level. The depth of the depression at tlic center is from 2 to 
3 feet. Near the center, somewliat covered with earth, are usually found 



188 



MOl'ND KXPLORATIONS. 



the baked earth, eharcoal, aud aslies of ancient fires, and around these 
and Ijeneatli tlie rims .sj)lit bones and fiesh-water sliells. Often mingled 
witli this refuse material are inde stone implements and fragmeuts of 
pottery. 

Tlie similarity in the size, form, and general appearance of these de- 
pressions and earthen rings to those of the earth lodges of the aban- 
doned Maiidan towns along the Missouri river, leaves no doubt that they 
mark the dwelling sites of the people who formerly occupied this lo- 
cality. 

Upon the top of the great mound, fully 35 feet above the bed of the 
adjacent excavation, stands a white oak tree 4 feet in diameter; also 




Fig. 99.— Image ve.ssel t'rum liLck\\itli s ranch. 



Fig. 100.— Buwl from Uetkwitb's I'ort. 



the stumjis of several others, little if any smaller. On the wall back 
of the excavation is another white oak 10 feet 9 inches in circumference, 
4 feet from the ground, also a sassafras 30 inches in diameter at breast 
height, and othertrees of similar dimensions. The annual growth-rings 
of several white oak and ash stumps on No. and other mounds near 
the house, were counted and ranged in number from 3.50 to 500 each. 
The following is a list of the whole or nearly whole clay vessels obtained 
from various openings made in the mounds and elsewhere on Pin Hook 
I'idge : 



1 image vessel (Fig. 100.) 
1 water Tessel with liuuiiiii lioad. 
1 water vessel with eagle head. 
3 water vessels with hooileil heads. 
1 flat opeu laui)!. 



1 double headed vessel. 
1 pot (already mentioned.) 
1 bowl with Up (Fig. 102.) 
Eleven others of various fonus. 



beckwith's ranch. 

HKCKWrm's RANCH. 



180 



Although tlie. aucieut works at this place are less tliaii 2 miles from 
the inelosure and other works just described, they are differently 




Fiu. 101.— Water vcssol from Bcrkwitli'8 raitrli, Mississipi>i county, "MiHsoori. 

occupied and appear to have been differently constructed. The area 
of the site is least subject to overflow of any in this region except the 
"Fort," but there is no trace of wall or ditch, nor is there a pyramidal 




Fir. 102.— Water vessel from Betkwith's fort, Mi.fsissippi coiintv. Mi.iaouri. 

mound in the group, the only works here being low, tlattish, circular 
mounds and long oval ones, resembling so closely the low, natural swells 



190 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

(if tlie level area as to require a iiraetical iiivestij;iiti()ii to ileterniine 
whether they are natural or artificial. They appear to belouj;' to two 
classes, those used for dwelliug sites and those used for burial pur- 
poses, the former lieiiig' the higher and the color of the surface layer 
darker than that of tlie other class. This darker color of the surface 
layer is probably due to the fact that immediately below it are found 
fire-beds with burnt earth, charcoal, aslics, and the bones of animals, 
(mostly split). There are seldom any human skeletons or entire vessels 
of pottery in the mounds of this class though the earth is tilled with 
fragments of broken vessels. In these tunuili, wliicli are so close 




Fig. 10:i. — Gourd-shapert vessel from Ifeckwith & ranch, Missja.sipj)i <-ounty. Missouri. 

together as sometimes to form an almost continuous ridge, are often 
found two or three, and sometimes even four, fire-beds in succession, at 
different depths, ranging from 1 to 4 feet down to the natural surface. 
The skeletons, among which were a luimber of clay vessels, were of 
medium size, lying at full length horizontally upon the back or side, 
without any apparent regularity as to direction, except so far as was 
necessary to avoid overlapping, which was seldom done in the same 
layer. The vessels were invariably placed by the side of or over the 
skull, which was often found indented or crushed. Many, and in places 
a majority or all, of the skeletons of a layer were without an accompany- 



THOMAS.). POTTERY FROM BECKWITIl's RANCH. 191 

ing entire vessel, but sekloiii without the fragments of a broken one 
where the entire one was wanting. 

As a rule, but one vessel was found to a skeleton, though occasionally 
two and even three were observed; but when this was the case they 
were of different forms and evidently intended for different purposes. 
Thus, if a long-necked water cooler was found on one side of the skull, 
the vessel on the other side, if any, would be a cup or basin or other 
food dish, and if a third were present it would be an effigy or orna- 
mented vessel placed at the crown or above it. No fire-beds, charcoal, 
or split bones of animals were found among the skeletons. 




'^ ij'y 



Fig. 104. — Owl image vessel from Eeckwith's raneb. 

The mounds of this class were often so low as to Ije scarcely apparbnt. 
Indeed, it is evident that the jieople who once occupied this locality 
buried their dead about 2 feet deep in the natural earth, and that the 
elevation of portions of their cemetery is the result of subsequent 
burials on the same site, as in such cases we found two or three layers 
of skeletons. 

At this place some 45 or 50 whole vessels were found of which the 
following were obtained for the Bureau, the owner of the place. Col. 
Beckwith, who assisted in the work, retaining the rest: 

1 water vessel, female image (Fig. 99). 

1 long-uecked water vessel with three legs (Fig. 101). 

1 water vessel, female image. 



i92 



MOUNI) KXPl.ORATIONS. 



1 goiird-Hliaped voHsel with animal head (I'if;. HW). 

1 owl image (Fig. 104). 

1 fisli-shapod l>(>wl (Fig. 10r>. » and lij. 

1 vessel with animal head. 

1 vesuel with human head. 

1 bowl with human head. 





Fl<i. 1U5. — Fisb-sliaix-d vosst'l fniiii Ili-tkwitirs raiicli. o. view: h. plan 

1 .shell-shaped bowl. 
1 pottery ornament. 
1 pottery ornament. 
Seventeen other vessel.s, besides 5 pottery mnllers and some stone iiniilonienta. 

MEYERS Morxns. 

These, 2 in iiuiiib»^i'. are .situated ou the county road from Cairo, Illi- 
nois, by way of Bird's Point, to Charleston, about midway between the 



THOMAS. I 



THE MEYERS MOUNDS. 



193 




two jioiuts. Tliey are im tlie highest ground in that immediate section 
ami fronting a cypress sw'amp. One is doubk- or terraced, and the 
other much h)\ver and oval in outline. The latter is 73 feet long, 50 
feet broad, and 10 feet high, sides straight, but the ends rounded and 
flat on top, where Mr. John ^Meyers, the ow7ier. has placed his dwelling 
house. The large one (Fig. 106) consists of a higher portion or mahi 
part, which is pyramidal in 
form, .W feet square on the level 
top, and 25 feet high, and a 
level terrace 63 feet long, 50 
feet broad, and 15 feet high, 
extending northward. 

A regular ancient cemetery 
which had been worked over by 
jn-evious explorers, was found 
about 100 yards east of the 
main works. The area around 
the large mound, to the extent 
of several acres, except a small 
spot on the north side near the 
swamp, was formerly thickly 
covered over with small circu- 
lar depressions or house sites, but these are now mostly obliterated by 
cultivation. 

Several low mounds in the vicinity had been so thuroughly upturned 
as to be now barely traceable. As a. matter of course nothing was 
found in these but the fragments left by others; but in excavations 
made in other parts of the farm several vessels and images of pottery 
of the character and designs common in this section were obtained. 
No indications of a surrounding wall were observed. 



PLAN 



5 EC T 10 M 

FHi. 106. — Meyera' mound, .Scott county, Missouri. 



BUTLER (lOUNTY. 

Along the railroad from St. Louis to Iron mountain few mounds were 
observed, but from there to Toplar blurt' they are nuuu'rous on the low 
valley lauds, almost always circular in form, from 30 to .50 feet in diam 
eter, and from 3 to 4 feet high. So far as they have been opened, little 
else has been found in them than decaying human bones, often com- 
mingled with charcoal and ashes, and occasionally fragments of pot- 
tery. 

Four ot this class found on the bottoms of Big Black river, about 2 
miles above Poplar blutt', were exidored. They, like many others of 
similar appearance, are on land subject to overflow at ordinary high 
water. All are circular and some of them very flat, those excavated 
being the highest and situated in the midst of a dense growth of 
swamp oak, ash, elm, and other timber growing on the mounds the 
same as elsewhere. 
12 ETH 13 



194 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Moniid No. 1 measured but Ho feet iu diameter and 4 feet in lieigbt. 
Nothing was found in it except a hard, central, or inner core of lijilit- 
colored clay which, when thrown out, ai>i)eared like dry usortar nuxcd 
with charcoal, ashe.s, and stone chips. No traces of hones or iiulica- 
tions of burial were ob.served. 

No. 2,30 feet in diameter, 4 feet hijih; resembled No. 1 in internal 
arrangement and contents. 

No. 3, 40 feet in diameter and 4 feet high; gave the same results as 
1 and 2. 

No. 4, similar in size, differed from the others only in the fact that 
at the bottom, in the center, was found a busliel or more of charcoal 
and ashes. 

In Fig. 107 is presented a group of this character near ITarviell, 
which is given as a type of the groups of this class of mouiids which 



•.>A,:>„A„„ 




Fig. 107 Mound group near Harviell. Butler county. Missouri. 

literally dot all the land iu this region except the cypress swamps. 
They are uniformly circular, seldom exceeding 50 feet in diameter, or 
4 feet in height. 

The seven of this group marked 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 0, and 7 and quite a 
number of other groups were excavated, the uniform result being to 
And the main portion composed of very hard clay with charcoal and 
ashes mixed in greater or less ([uantities and frequently, but not always, 
fragments of very rude pottery and rude stone .scrapers or skinners. 

roWEIi's FORT. 

This is an ancient inclosure, connected with other works on the farm 
of Mr. Power, on alow ridge which runs between Little Black river 



POWER S FORT. 



195 



and Cypress swamp, near the Eii)ley county line. A plat of the group 
is given in Fig. 108, from which it will be seen that it consists of a quad- 
rangular (nearly square) inclosure with embankments or walls on three 
sides, and an outside ditch along the entire length of the walls, an 
excavation at each western corner outside, aiul four mounds on the 
interior area. The western wall, which runs exactly north and south, 
is 750 feet long and, as it is still covered by the original forest growth, 


















-^>. 



2!'i 

• ,1; 
ll! 

u; 
■if 
"i 

I 
1], 



"• -«£= 
^»l#^^- 







Fig. lOS.- -Power's fort. Butler cimiity. Mis.souri. 



is quite distinct. The ditch, which runs along the outside is also very 
distinct, being from 3 to 5 feet deep and about twice as wide. The 
nortli«rn and southern walls and ditches in the cultivated area are 
almost obliterated: still they can be traced throughout from where they 
connect at tlie corners with the western wall, to the undisturbed 
extremities near the swamp. The northern line measures 762 feet and 
the southern 744. 



19fi 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The excavation coimecting with the ditch near tlie southwest corner 
(«) is about 150 feet h>ug, 100 feet wide and l."> feet deep at the lowest 
jtoint. The excavation at tlie northwest corner {!>) is somewliat longer, 
rather narrower, and not quite so deej), but both always contain water. 
The four inonnds in the inclosnre are located as indicated at 1. 2, 3 
and 4, 'So. 1, which is the largest, being nearly 150 feet long, north and 
! south, 120 feet broad at base, and 20 feet high. The 

length and width have evidently been increased and 
the height lowered by the continued cultivation of 
fifty years. A thorough examination of this was 
made and the construction found to be somewhat 
jieculiar, as will be seen by reference to Fig. 100, 
which shows a vertical section through the length. 
The bottom layer (1) is a circular platform about 
100 feet in diameter and 2 feet high, formed of yel- 
low sand similar to the original surface beneath and 
around it. 

The next layer, marked 2, is only inches thick 
and consists of dark blue, adhesive day, or muck, 
from the swamp; which has become very hard. It 
was strewn with burnt earth, charcoal, ashes, frag- 
ments of split bones and pottery, stone chips and 
Vnio shells. The next layer (3) is 8 feet thick at the 
central point of what apjjears to have been the orig- 
inal mound, of which it was the top stratum. But 
it is not uniform, and, although showing no distinct 
strata, was not all formed at one time, as in it there 
were, at dift'erent depths, at least three distinct fire- 
beds of burnt earth and heavy accumulations of 
ashes, charcoal, and charred animal bones. 

In this layer, a little south of the center, were 
found the charred fragments of long poles and small 
logs, all lying horizontally, and also a post (a), prob- 
ably of locust wood, inches in diameter and .5 feet 
long, still erect, but the upper end shortened by fire 
and the lower end haggled off by some rude imple- 
ment. 

The layer marked 4 is an addition to the original 
jdan. At this stage the occupants or builders, for 
some reason, made an addition to the original mound, extending it 
northward some 40 feet, apparently in this wise: the lower layer was 
built on the north end itrecisely as in the original mound and of the 
same height; then the layer corresponding to No. 2 of the original 
mound, which is No. 4 in the figure, was built up of bluish clay irregu- 
larly mixed with fire-beds, ashes, charcoal, yellow sand, and (calcined 
bones to the height of No. 3 and somewhat overtopping it. Having 



t 



& 
<£ 



THOMAS,] POWERS FORT. 197 

thus obtiiined the desired form, layer Xo. 5, (! feet thick, chiefly of dark 
swainij-muck, was heaped over the original mound and addition. But 
this layer was probably formed by additions made to it from time to 
time, as it presents considerable variety in the appearance of the ma- 
terial and also contains large masses of yellow sand, charcoal, ashes, 
fragments of pottery, and charred bones, among which were found the 
head of a deer and of an elk, with portions of the charred horns still 
attached. Jfauy rude stone knives, scrapers, and perforators, a few 
rude lance-heads and fragments of a better class of pottery were scat- 
tered through it. Northwest of the center, in this layer, were some 
charred timbers lying horizontally and one post (b) standing erect, re- 
sembling the timber post found in No. 3. 

The external layer, 4 feet thick, and of a heterogeneous character, 
was apparently formed of various sized masses of bluish clay, yellow 
sand, and charcoal combined. 

Mound No. 2 is much smaller than No. 1, not exceeding 100 feet in 
diameter and 6 feet in height, and is flat on top. It consisted of four 
layers, the first or upper stratum of sandy soil, 2 feet thick, mixed with 
fiagmcnts of pottery; the second, about the same thickness, chiefly 
yellow sand, with patches of blue clay, charcoal, ashes, fragments of 
pottery, and human bones mostly unbroken but soft as pulp; the third, 
6 inches thick, was made up of blue clay and fragments of pottery; 
and the fourth, 18 inches thick, of yellow sand, well filled with decayed 
human bones, though some of them were ]dump and soft. Scattered 
among them were charcoal and ashes. 

Mound No. 3, also flat on top, 80 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, was 
without regular layers; but the base was found to be composed chiefly 
of yellow sand, containing fire-beds, patches of bones, charcoal, ashes, 
fragments of pottery, etc. 

Mound No. 4 resembled No. 3 in form, size, composition, and contents. 
Fragments of pottery, stone chips, lance-heads, scrapers, and perfor- 
ators were scattered over the area of the inclosure, and at one point 
there was an almost solid deposit of them. 

Mound No. 5, standing outside the inclosure in a grove of large oak 
timber and dense underbrnsh, is 40 feet in diameter and 8 feet high, 
circular and symmetrical in form. An opening 6 feet in diameter and 3 
feet deep had been made in the top so long ago that oak saplings have 
since grown np in it. Further excavation revealed nothing but the 
fact that it was composed of four jiarallel, horizontal' strata, the flrst 
or top one of yellow sand 1 foot thick, the second, 1 foot of dark muck, 
the third, 4 feet of yellow sand, and the bottom, 1 foot of dark muck. 



'As a general rule tbronfjtoiit this part of the Report "horizontal" wheu applied 
to strata is to be understood in the stri(jt sense of the term and as implying that the 
stratum does not conform to the curve or contour of the mound. 



I'Jb MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



ARKANSAS. 



Although explorations were made in other parts of this state, much 
the linger portion of the iincient works referred to :ire in the north- 
eastern part, or, iu other words, the lands bordering the Mississii)pi and 
lower Arkansas and the area drained by the White and St. Francis 
rivers. This area, if extended southward so as to include Desha and 
Chicot counties, is known as the Mississippi alluvial region of Arkansas. 
With the exception of (Jrowley's ridge, which breaks its monotonous 
uniformity, it consists chiefly of broad bottom lands interrupted in 
jtlaces byswamjjs, sloughs and wet prairies, thiough whicii, or separat- 
ing which, are generally low, broad swells or ridges (as they are called, 
though of but few feet in height) of rich sandy loam heavily timbered. 

( "rowley's ridge, whicli runs through (ireen. Craighead, Poinsett, and 
St. Francis counties, forming the divide between the waters of White 
and St. Francis rivers, terminates in I'iullijis county just below the city 
of Helena. The top, throughout its entire exteut in Arkansas, is com- 
posed for the most part of siliceous clay and marl of (|naternary date, 
usually resting on a bed of waterworn gravel. JSumerous springs of 
good cool water flow from beneath this gravel bed along the eastern foot 
of the ridge near ITelena. Most of the bottom lands are overflowed 
during high water. 

CLAY COrNTY. 

This, the extreme uortheastera county of the state, is comparatively 
level and is drained by the St. Francis river on the east. Cache river 
in the center, and F.lack river on the west. These rivers are bordered 
by low, flat, bottom lands heavily timbered and subject to overflow. 
Between Black and Cache rivers is a low ridge, which extends south- 
westward through several counties. Between the Cache and St. Fran- 
cis rivers is a still more pronnnent and wider elevation, which is the 
beginning of Crowley's ridge. 

The only group of mounds examined in this county is situated, in the 
immediate \icinitv of Corning, the county seat, on a sandy ridge that 
rises some -!0 feet above the cypress swamj) flanking it on the east. 

A few of these were measured and opened with the following results: 

No. 1, oblong, measured 90 feet in length by 65 in width at the base 
and 11 feet high. About 20 feet of the north end had been removed by 
the townspeoijle. The only things of interest observed were fire beds 
of swamp muck, charcoal, ashes, stone chips, and a few charred bones. 
An examination of the remaining portion revealed nothing additional 
except the indicaticms of long-continued occupancy and the fact that it 
had been built up by successive layers. 

No. '2, oblong, 40 by 35 feet at base and 5 feet high, was explored 
with sinnlar results. 

No. 3 measured 100 by 80 feet at base, but the lieight could not be 
determined, as it had been partially removed for grading the railroad 



THOMAS.] 



EFFECT OF AN EARTHQUAKE. 



199 



trai-k. From the iiiniiber of decayed huuiau bones and fragments of 
pottery found iu the remaining- jjortion, it i(< supposed to be the prin- 
cipal burial place of the mound-builders who occupied the village 
located here. 

The small circular mounds were composed chiefly of sandy soil simi- 
lar to that of the surrounding surface, but the fire beds, burned clay, 
stone chips, and bones discovered in them render it evident that they 
had been used as dwelling sites and that the custom of burying in the 
floor of the cabin had 1)ceii followed here to some extent. 

GREENK COINTY. 




^# ^'*\ "|l"."l'l IWIII" ■ 



^B!i»^^ 



Fie. 



no. — Effect of earthquake of 1811 on mound, 
Greene countv, Arkansas. 



The topographical features of this county are very similar to those 
of Clay county, its eastern bimndary being the St. Francis river, which 
through this and the two counties south is a continuous lake-like 
swamp, being the section known as the " Sunken lands of the St. Fran- 
cis." The western portion consists of the flat Cache river lands, 
partly black sandy levels and 
partly wet post-oak flats. Be- 
tween the lowlands of the two ex- 
tremes and occupying a large por- 
tion of the area, is Crowley's 
ridge," with its sandy lauds. 

On the plantation of Mr. Rob- 
ert Law, 9 miles east of Para- 
gould, fronting the cypress bor- 
ders of the St. Francis lake, is 
a group of interesting mounds. 
They are chiefly iu a forest of oak, 
ash, gum, and other heavy timber. 
The spot they occupy is in the " Sunken land region," or that section 
so terribly shaken by the great earthcpiake of 1811. 

At this particular locality the sand ridge and cypress swamp seem 
still to retain their original relative elevations, but the ridge is so cut 
up with trenches, narrow ridges, sinkholes, and "blow-outs" of flue 
sand as to render the original size and even number of these mounds 
very uncertain. There are some indications of a surrounding wall, 
though not sufticient to justify the positive statement that there ever 
was (uie. 

The largest mound, which is flat on top, measured 120 feet long by 
72 feet broad on top, 192 by 145 at the base and 25 feet high. Several 
medium-sized trees are still standing on it, and there is evidence of 
larger ones having been overturned, possibly during the earthquake, 
or by some previous or subsequent severe windstorm. Be this as it 
may, the effects of the eartluiuake are still visible in this artificial 
structure, after a lapse of eiglity years, iu two very distinct and 
pecidiar fissures, as shown in Fig. 110. These are from -1 to 6 feet deep 



200 ■ MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

and fully as wide, j)artially disclosing the character of the mouml, per- 
mission to explore it being refused by the owner. 

THE ISABCOCK MOUNDS. 

The small group bearing this name consists of but two mounds, sit- 
uated in Sec. 3(i, T. 16 N., R. 2 E., of the fifth principal meridian, in the 
southeast corner of the county on a low ridge between Cache river and 
a cypress swamp. 

Mound 1 is of the ordinary round or conical form, 65 feet in diameter 
and 7 feet high, composed chiefly of earth shuilar to the surrounding 
soil. About halfway down from the top was found a thin layer of 
burnt clay reaching from 2 feet east of the middle to the western 
margin, which did not conform horizontally to the curve of the mound, 
but to the level of the ground on which the mound stands. A few 
inches above this layer were two small deposits of burnt claj'. It is 
doubtful whether they were burnt where they were found, there being 
no coals or ashes about them and the earth in contact with them show- 
ing no indications of heat. They were scircely more than a foot S(piare 
and 3 inches thick. 

Two skeletons found were probably intrusive burials, as they were 
placed only ll2 and 16 inches below the surface. The most interesting 
thibg observed in -this simple, ordinary mound was the size of some of 
the supposed "load masses." jSTear the bottom, in the central part, 
the clayey portion increased and the mottled appeaiance, supposed by 
mound explorers to be due to the deposits of individual loads, became 
quite distinct and some of these masses were apparently too heavy 
loads for even two persons, as they were .5 feet across the face and from 
a foot to 20 inches thick. 

The other mound had already been opened. 

CRAIGHEAD COUNTY. 

The topographical features of this county are much the same as 
those of Greene, the only important difference being that its area em- 
braces a larger proportion of the lowlands of the St. Francis valley. 

According to Col. Norris, who visited the northeast part of the county, 
the entire region along this part of the St. Francis lake is so cut up 
with sink holes, "blow-outs," sand hillocks, aud trenches (trending 
northeast and southwest), the effect of earthquakes, that the ancient 
works are scarcely traceable except in certain favored localities. One 
of these he found at Carpenter's landing on the St. Francis lake, 12 
miles east of Brooklyn. Even this sandy ridge is much marred by the 
eflects of the earthquake but there are irnmistakable evidences that 
this locality was occupied in former times by a large mound-builder's 
village and cemetery. A long line of circular and oblong mounds — 
some nearly square and flat on top — is still traceable in what is now a 
swamp back of the ridge. 



THE WEBB GROUP. 



201 



Several of these, mncb shattered by the earthquake, were exainiued 
aud others uuiiijured were opened. All were formed of irregular layers 
of swamp muck ou which were fire-beds, charcoal, ashes, fragmeuts of 
pottery, and charred animal bones, as is usual in this region. 

In a conical mound ou the ridge, at the depth of 3 feet from the top, 
was the skeleton of a child not more than 3 feet long, aud by the side 
of the skull a dark scalloprimnied basin, and close to it another vessel, 
light colored. At the bottom, on tlie natural surface of the ground, Mas 
a fire-bed. The main body of the mound was composed of gray loam, 
such as that of the soil around it, but the top was covered with a layer 
of soft, yellow sand, -'0 inches thick at the center, aud thinning out 
each way. 

A small circular mound, l!.") feet in diameter and 7 feet high, found on 
Cane island in St. Francis lake, was explored. This had a rather mod- 




FlG. 111.— Webb firoiip, Craigbi^ail county. Arkansas. 



ern appearance and had evideutly been built up at iutervals. Passing 
through a top stratum of gray, sandy soil, something over a foot thick, 
the exjjlorer reached a layer of charcoal and ashes about 6 inches thick, 
covering an area of about*! feet in diameter, in which were the charred 
fragments of animal bones. Next below this was a layer, 2 feet thick, 
of sand so loose as to shovel like ashes. This lay ou a fire-bed of similar 
size, and at least a foot in depth of charcoal, in which were decayed 
firebrands. This was, in tact, a coalpit in which were several bushels 
of excellent charcoal, but little ashes and no bones. About a foot or 
so below this was another similar charcoal bed. Not a particle of clay, 
mud, or a piece of stone or pottery was seen in any i^art of the mound. 
The grou]i shown in Fig. Ill is situated in the southern part of the 
county, on Sec. 16, T. 13 Is., E. 5 E., ou the land of Mr. Jasper Webb, 
about 10 miles southeast of Jouesboro. 



202 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

No. 1, tlie largest of tlie group, is .S.') feet long by 75 Itroad on the 
flat top and 1.'! feet liigli: but being oecupied as a graveyard eould not 
be explored. 

No. 2, eonical in form, measured about IM feet iu diameter at the 
base and very nearly 20 feet liigli. It was examined but revealed noth- 
ing of interest. 

No. 3, eonical in form, (i5 feet in diameter and 7i feet liigli, contained 
four skeletons, but so far decayed that they could only be partially traced. 
One was near the center at a depth of 5 feet, another on the west side 
'3 feet below the surface. Two feet and a half below the latter was a 
broken pot with some badly decayed shells in it. Pottery was discov- 
ered at all deiiths from inches to (»i feet below the surface and in all 
conditions from unbroken vessels to those in fragments. All the whole 
vessels were sitting right side up and in most cases near the surface; 
those lower down were generally in fragments. Some jiarts of the 
mound appeared to be entirely barren of sjiecimens while in other jiarts 
several were found near together. In one place on the south side, in a 
space of 3 feet square by 2 feet deep, were five pots. Thirty-four speci- 
mens of the Bureau collection are from this mound. 

Mound No. 4 was but partially explored, the work being stopped by 
water rising in the trenches. In this were two skeletons and a number 
of clay vessels. With one of the skeletons were six pots. 

None of the specimens found in this mound were buried more than 
2 feet deep and some of them were within (J inches of the surface. This 
tumulus is situated close to a shmgh and is surrounded by water in 
times of great freshets. 

There are a few places near these mounds elevated about a foot above 
the surrounding land. One near mound No. 1 was examined and at 
the depth of a foot charcoal and fragments of very firm pottery were 
discovered; but further examination was stopped by the water which 
rose in the trenches. 

Mound No. 5 (not shown in the tigure), circular-, rounded on top, 40 
feet in diameter and 2i feet high, was composed entirely of sand and 
unstratifled. Although it stands on low, wet ground, graves had been 
dug in the natural soil, or excavations made before it was built, as re- 
mains and specimens were found at the depth of ii feet below the sur- 
face of the mound. 

Compaiatively few human bones were discovered and these so badly 
decayed th it none of them could be saved, but the number of pottery 
vessels was unusually large, over forty being found in the mound. 
Usually these vessels were in groups or nests; that is to say, from two 
to four would be found together, though occasionally one would be by 
itself; and as a general thing the mouths were up. The ware is through- 
out of very inferior quality, usually thin and Imperfectly burned. It 
consists of cooking pots, some with ears and some without, and some 
showing evidences of usage; long-necked water bottles, gourd-shaped 



THOMAS.] 



MOUNDS AT TYRONZA STATION. 



203 



water vessels; bowls, one large with a flariug rim; dipper or skillet 
shaped vessel with short handles; two clay pipes, etc. 

A limestone celt, lance head, and arrow point were the only stone 
implements discovered iu it. Some coals and ashes, rough, burned 
stones, and lumps of burned clay were observed. 

I'liINSETT COl'NTY. 

The topography of this county is throughout similar in every re.spect 
to that of Craighead county which lies iiiiuiediatcly north of it. It 
has the same dividing ridge, the same low Hat belt and the same bound- 
ing streams. 

TYl!l)N7.A STATIOX. 

This is a mere siding about 1 mile east of the i)oint where the Kan- 
sas City, Springfield, and Memphis railroad crosses the Tyronza river, 
constructed as a ineans of access to a large and valuable gravel bed 
underlying the sandy ridge, which is something less than a mile wide 
at this point and between 3 and 4 miles long. Although the summit of 
this ridge is from 10 to 15 feet above the swamj) around it, only the 
tops of the larger and higher ancient mounds upon it remain above 
the water during the heavy <>\ crUows of the Mississippi river. Fig. 
112 shows the relative jiositions of tlie mounds and their relation to 
the railroad. 

Th(^ following list gives the numbers, the shape, diameter at the 
base, and the height of each of the mounds shown in the figure and 
remarks in regard to the contents of those exjjlored. 



Shape. 



Diameter. Height. 



Reujarks. 



Feet. 
Circular - - - . V20 

do 1011 

....do 70 

...do 

...do 

Obloilf; UlOh.v 

Circular .... 
....do 



Feet. 



10 


....do 


11 


....do 


12 


....do 


13 


...do 


14 


.. -do 


15 


....do 


16 


....do 



. . . .do 



IJU 
100 


6 


40 


3 


7.5 


5 


80 


S 


100 


li 


liO 


3* 


BO 


3 


90 


4 


40 


2 


50 


3 


100 


4 


m 


7 


120 


« 1 



Fhittoppt'd. Loii^ occupied by a bouse. 
Used as a cemetery by the wliites. 
Jinin's and t'raiinicnts of pottery. 

An<;ient lire-bed, asbes. and bones. 

Found notliin<;. 

Two tiers of lirebeds and ashets. 

Opened tborouglily, tindini; the burneil 4lay and plaster 

for the tloor and walls of n (Iwt^Uing 12 by V.i feet. 

Fig. U3 sbows vertical section. 
Cut away by the railroad men ; dotted with redtir''beda, 

black partb above tbeni filled with human bones and 

pottery. 
Charred remains of a dwelling seemingly about 12 feet 

square. 
Partly cut away by railroad men 

asbes. and i)ntterv. 
Kuins of dwelling; Fig. 114 shows a vertii 
Fire-bed and clay burned to a brick red. 
I>o. 
Uo. 
Tut lie woods ciintaiued three tiers of fire-beds and in the 

upper, 2 feet from the surface, one skeleton ami pot. 
Contained two lire-beds, ashes, and bones. 



Fire-beds, charcoal, 
al section. 



204 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Three other siiuihvr mound.s were seen in the woods but not excavated. 

Fig. 115 is a representation of the face of the cut made by the rail- 
road in the gravel pit; or, in other words, a vertical section of tlie ridge 
to the depth of from o to 6 feet below the normal surface; also of the 
mounds ou the line of the section. The length of the section show n in 




^'>Sm 



^'k- f \ '^*«^ 






VJ 

•# 



the figure is 1,100 feet. The heights, distances, and iu fact all the fig- 
ures given are from actual careful measurements. 

It will be seen from this, that not only were the mounds occupied as 
dwelling sites, but that the entire ridge, so tar as the cut for the rail- 
road extends, and to the depth of from 2 to 3 feet, has, scatteied 
through it, burnt clay beds which in Arkansas are sure marks of house 
sites. The short, heavy, black, horizontal dashes mark the locations of 



MOUNDS AT TVRONZA STATION. 



205 



flre-beds or indicatious of fire, as beds of aslies, charcoal, etc.; the 
cross-hatched, or shaded, short, liorizoiital daslies represent the burnt 
day beds, some of whicli formed the hard floors of dwellings and some 
the fragments of plastered walls which have fallen over when the dwell- 
ing was bnrned, as appears to have been the case in most instances. 
The positions and relations of these beds, as shown in the fignre, make 
it evident that upon the site of one bnrned dwelling another was usually 
constructed, not infrequently a third, and sometimes even a fourth, 
the remains of each being underlaid and usually overlaid in part by very 
dark, adhesive clay or muck from the adjacent excavations whicli are 
found in the swamp as well as upon the ridge, and contain water and 
occasionally tish. 



Fig. 113. — Section oI'Mouud No. 8, Tn roiiza station, T*oin.-;ett t'onuty, Arkansas. 

The peculiar black color of these beds is chiefly in consequence of the 
large proportion of charcoal with which they are mixed, some of it 
doubtless the flue particles of burned grass and reed matting with 
which the caliins appear to have Ijeen thatched. In and immediately 
beneath these are found the deposits of human skeletons, pottery and 
other relics. 

In mound A (Fig. 115), and at the second red clay bed from the top 
was found a water vessel which is neatly ornamented with red figures, 
and in the next bed below an image vessel. 

On the bottom hearth t)f mound B was a layer of what had the 
appearance of hand-molded brick, well burned, and as red and hard 
as modern brick. These bricks, as a matter of course, were irregular 
in form and proportion, but seemed to have been intentionally formed 



. . l. ..iajl | Hl l HJ]MH I 4 I IJ,U i yimiUllH».Jl| l| H„[.illMI |.WWJ)| I ^UflJ^|jj4)|H lTtr^ 



Fl(i. 114. — Si^ction of Mound K(i. 1'.!, Tyronza stati<in, I'oinst^tt county, Arkansas. 

before burning. Upon this floor, commingled with the burned plaster, 
w'hich had formed the walls of the dwelling and which still showed the 
casts of cane, brush, and grass, were found balls or rounded masses of 
burned clay, containing the remarkably clear and distinct casts of small 
ears of maize (Fig. 116). This is judged from the casts to be the variety 
known in the South as the "gourd seed corn," which has the outer end 
of the grain very thin. Of these A is the original clay with the grain 
impressions in it; B is a cast of another i)iece showing the reverse of 
the impressions. 

Mound No. 8 is circular, 80 feet in diameter at the base, o feet high, 
and quite flat on top. It contained two beds of burned claj-, indicating 
two successive dwellings. 



206 



MOUND KXPLORATIONS. 



In No. 12, a vertical si-ctioii of wliicli iw shown in Fig. Ill, were 

found the ruins of a dwelling, the ])lnn of whirh, so far as it could be 

made out, is jiivcn in Fig. 117. Tliere seems to have been three rooms 

(rt, l>;uu\ (I), each as iieailysciuarc as the builders were eai)ab]eof niakiuf; 

it, the tioor consisting of a layer of clay, burned 

wlieii formed. The floor of room a was in ])ieees, 

soinew hat as iei>resented in the figuie. 

The Moor of room l> was snioitth chiy, hardened and 
partially burned. The sizes of these rooms were as 
follows: «, II feet f> inches front by 12 feet 2 inches 
back; /;, II feet 7 inches front by 11 feet !) inclu-s 
back; '/. 12 feet .'i inches front, the part remaining, G 
feet back, but showing indications of about (J feet 
more, making the depth about 12 feet. 
The black dots along the lines of the walls indii^ate 

2 the ui»right ]iosts which supi)orted the roof and to 
i which the reed lathing for holding the jilastering 
i was attached. KeiuaiTis of a sutbcient number of 
i. these ])osts were found to show how far apart they 
J were placed, which api)ears to have been a little less 
\ than 2 feet. 
- From the burned Iragments of the walls found it 

3 would seem that the cane lathing was worked in be- 
\ tween fiie i)osts, as shown in Fig. 118, and was held 
? in i)osition l)y interwoven twigs until the i)laster was 
i applied, both inside and out. The semicircular tig- 
■i ures (c V <■) are supi)osed to reiueseut fireplaces. The 
" l)ack room (<h may or nniy not ha\-e l>een square. 

As will be seen further on, the floor of another 
dwelling, sonu^what sinnlar in form to the one here 
shown, was discovered at another point (see Fig. 13(J). 
In digging away the gravel bank uumerons skele- 
tons wer(> discovered, usually in a deposit of swamp 
mud, charcoal, and ashes, either immediately beneath 
or just above the layer of the hearth and burned plas- 
tering of the ancient dwellings. All the indications 
go to confirm the theory that the dead were interred 
in a deposit of day, swamj) mud, or charcoal and 
ashes, or a. ndxture of them, either in or immediately beneath tlie dwell- 
ings, which were flien burned over them. Frequently several skeletons 
of. different sizes were found in these places as tliongh mend)ers of a 
family; but wiiether they were all interred at one tinu' t)r were buried 
there one sit a. time, as they died, is not clear, as the evidence seems to 
l)oint to botli methods, and perhaps both were practiced. But there 
cau be no doubt that it was a custom among the mound-builders of 
this section to si>read a layer of fresh eartli upon the charred remains 




It' 



THOMAS] 



mound-builders' dwellings. 



207 




of one dwelling, often wiiilr yet smouldering, to the depth of 1, 2, or 3 
feet, and subseciuently use it iis the site of another dv.clliin;, and some- 
times even a third, tliiis 
increasing the height of 
the mound; each lay- 
er becoming the burial 
jdace of some, at least, 
of the occupants of the 
dwellings destroyed. 
In this way many, if not 
most of the smaller and 
medium-sized tumuli of 
this region, then as now 
subject to overflow, 
have been built up. A 
great majoi'ity of the 
mounds of this charac- 
ter in this region are 
now and always were 
subject to overflow; but 
no instance is known 
where the large, flat- 
topiied mound of a 
group is not now above 
all ordinary floods. Al- 
though the latter also 
contain tire l)cds, these 
are not so common as 
in the smaller ones, 
from which we may ]ici- 
haps justly conclude 
that the people realiz 
ing their situation, 
built up more rapidly 
one 1 ar ge cen tral 
mound above the floods as a site for several dwellings or a large com- 
nuuial hf)use, as well as a refuge for the villagers in times of floods. 




r Iiidiilll I 



Mir. I. Kit .MOUNDS. 



This group, whicli is shown in Fig. ll!t, is situated in Sec. Ut, T. 10 
N., E. 6 E. on hind owned by ^Ir. ^^'il]iam Davis on the west side of the 
St. Francis river. 

The large mound, No. 1 (luoliably in ]>art a natural formation) and 
part of the surrounding lands are under cultivation; the rest of the 
groirp is yet in the forest, which consists of oak, pecan, cottonwood, 
hackberry, haw, gum, and hickory trees and scattering stalks of cane. 



208 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

Tlie bottom land is a black, sticky soil, very rich, iirodiicing fine crops 
of cotton, corn, and tobacco. Mounds 1, 2, and .3 remain uncovered 
during overflows, the re.st being submerged to the depth of 3 or 4 feet 
or more. Quantities of potsherds, broken stone irai)lenients, burned 
clay, bones, and arrowheads are plowed up every season and are 
scattered over the surface of the large mound and fields. 

Mound No. 1, if in fact it be throughout an artificial structure, is long, 
flat-toi)p('d. though not level, and irregular in form, the greatest length 
being about flOO feet and the greatest width about 225 feet. The height 

varies from i feet at 
the northern en<l to 12 
at the southern (see 
vertical section, Fig. 
120). 

At »h( Fig. 11!») there 
is a considerable de- 
pression, as though it 
had not been filled up 
at this point or had 
been washed out, this 
portion being raised 
only 2 feet. On the 
surface at c and d are 
two small m o ir n d s 
about 3 feet high and 
20 feet in diameter, 
composed of hard 
clay. The soil is 
sandy and quite 

Fig. 117. — Clay floor of a three room house. I'ich 

Although designated a mound, this may be in part a natural forma- 
tion, possibly the remnant of a former ridge which has been swept away 
by the overflows; but that the height has been artificially increased at 
the southern end can not be doubted, though permission to dig here 
was not granted, as this dwelling and other houses were located here. 

Jfo. 2, near the north end of No. 1, is about 110 feet in diameter and 
18 feet high ; conical and symmetrical. The surface layer proved to be 
a sandy soil and quite different from that of the woodland in which it 
stands, which is black and sticky. Several large trees are growing on 
the sides and near the top. 

No. .3 is 60 yards from No. 2, oval and fiat on top; diameter nortli 
and south, 105 feet, east and west 75 feet, and lu'ight 12 feet. 

No. 4 is about 50 yards east of No. 3, 25 feet in diameter, 3 feet high, 
and circular. In this little mound was a mingled mass of human bones 
in every conceivable position, covering an area of about 10 feet in 
diameter. All the skulls were soft and in pieces. Among the bones 




THOMAS. ] 



THE MILLER MOUNDS. 



209 



were several whole earthen vessels aud numerous frag-mcnts of pottery 
This is the ouly one of the group examined in wliich neither charcoal 
nor ashes were found. 

No. 5 is 40 yards southwest of No. '.i, diameter 'JO feet, height 2 feet. 

No. 6 is 70 yards west of No. 3, diameter 40 feet, height 3 feet. About 
2 inch(^s of the top consisted of vegetable soil. Under this was a 
layer of burnt clay extending across the mound, but not reaching the 




"^"^■"■-.ll/l 



OJi!iJlii!'-:-ii^ ^■■^■A/ ■■■'.■■A :\W 

Fig. 118.— Miide of latliinii honsea by Moimd-buihUTs. 

margins. This was not in a compact layer, but consisted of broken 
fragments bearing the imprint of grass and twigs and in some jilaces 
the casts of split cane. In most cases the smooth side was down. The 
layer conformed to the surface of the ground and not to the curve of the 
mound, and in the central portion was 
slightly depi'essed. Below this, as far as 
the excavation extended (water stopping 
the work) was dark muck. Immediately 
below the burnt clay were four small ash 
beds on the same level. On and immedi- 
ately below the large layer of burnt clay 
were several wliole earthern vessels, two 
water bottles, two pots, and three bowls, 
and in the clay bed a large number of frag- 
ments of pottery. 

No. 7, 100 yards west of No. 2, stands on 
low, wet ground with water all around it; 
diameter 00 feet, height 5 feet. After ])ass- 
ing through a toj) layer of vegetable mold 
some 2 or 3 inches thick an unusually heavy 
layer of burnt clay, some 15 feet in diame- 
ter, was reached, which, in the center, 
measured 18 inches thick, but thinning out 
toward the margin, where it consisted of 
scattering fragments. The middle portion 
of the underside curved slightly upward, where it pressed upon a layer 
of ashes immediately below it. This layer of clay had the appearance 
of having been made by laying down irregularly shaped chunks of burnt 
12 ETH U 




Fig. 119,— The Miller mounds, Poin. 
actt county, Arkausaa. 



210 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



clay, some of tlieni very bard, and filling in between them witb smaller 
pieces. Although not solid, it seems that it was intended it should be 
as compact and smooth on top as it could be made with such material- 

Under this was a layer of ashes some 2 or 3 inches thick; below 
this, dark muck or sticky clay. Other small ash beds were also found- 
Eight pots were found in the large burnt clay layer, two of them at 
the bottom of the layer by the side of an adult skeleton which lay in a 
horizontal i^osition. 

No. 8, 35 yards south of No. 7, measured only 20 feet in diameter and 
2 feet in height. This, like the preceding, was comi)osed chiefly of the 



=_(J 



Fig. 120. — Vt^rtical section of mound No. 1, Miller j;roup, Poinsett county, Arkansas. 

black, sticky soil or muck of the swamp areas around the group. A 
trench across it revealed nothing except a layer of burnt clay, about G 
inches tliick, occupying about two-thirds of the area of the mound 

No. 9 is only about 15 feet southwest of No. 8, diameter 30 feet, 
height, 4 feet; circular, and flat on top; a large pecan tree stands on 

the northeast slope. The top 
layer, 6 inches thick, consisted 
of loose, sandy soil, followed by 
a layer of burnt clay, quite hard, 
9 inches tliick; the rest of the 
mound to the original surface of 
the ground consisted of black 
muck. 

Fig. 121 is a plat of this mound 
showing the relative positions 
of the articles found in it: 1, a 
chipped celt at the depth ' of 6 
inches; 2, a folded skeleton, 
head east, at the depth of 6 
inches, and by the side of it a 
pot; 3, another skeleton at the 
depth of 9 inches, and by its side 
a bowl; 4, a clay disk at the 
depth of 6 inches; 5 and 6, two folded skeletons, depth 2i feet, heads 
west; 7 and 8, two folded skeletons, depth 18 inches, heads east, with 
a bowl by the side of one and a jug by the other; 9 and 10, folded skele- 
tons with jug and pot; 11, a pottery disk at the depth of 2 feet; 12, stone 
disk at 18 inches; 13, 14, and 15, folded skeletons, heads southeast, 
depth 2^ feet, by them a three-legged jug, a bowl and pot; 16 and 17, a 
jug and bowl at the dei)th of 3i feet, no skeletons with them ; IS, a single 
bowl, very small, depth 1 foot. A bone punch was also found here. 




. 121. — Mound No. 9, Miller group. Poinsett 
county, Arkansas. 



1 Measurements of depth are always to the upper side of the article mentioued as it lies in the mound. 



THOMAS] MOUND NO. 11, MILLEK'S GROUP. 211 

Some of the clay vessels were quite soft at the time they were foniid, 
but the larger number were strong, well made, and of comparatively 
good material. Fragments of pottery, broken stone, clay, ashes and 
charcoal were found at various depths. The bones of the .skeletons 
were soft and fell to pieces as soon as they were uncovered. 

Fo. 10, a small, circular mound, 3 feet high, was made up of several 
irregular layers as follows: First a top layer of soil 3 inches thick; be- 
low this a layer of burnt clay similar to that of the other mounds, 
about 5 inches thick ; next, a foot of soil similar to that of the surround- 
ing surface; and the remainder, to the original surface of the ground, 
a mixture of ashes, burnt clay, and soil. At the center of tliis was a 
couvsiderable bed of ashes occupying its entire thickness, in which lay 
a single skeleton and with it four pots, two of them under the head of 
the skeleton. 

No. 11, 20 feet west of No. 10 ; diameter 35 feet, height 3i feet ; circular. 

A broad trench was cut through it, carrying away the larger portion 
to the original earth. In Fig. 122 the positions of the articles found 
are marked. After passing through a 
very thiu layer of surface soil a bed of 
hard-burned earth 4 inches thick was 
reached which covered the greater por- 
tion of the mound; the remainder con- 
sisted of black muck from the bott<>m 
lands around ; at the depth of 5i feet, 
or 2 feet below the original surface of 
the ground, was a layer of ashes and 
charcoal. Quantities of broken mussel 
shells, charcoal, potsherds and chunks of 
burned clay were found at various fk,. i22.-piaii 7f mounirNo. ii, MiUor 
depths. groui). 

At 1 lay a very soft folded skeleton, head north, 2 feet below the 
surface; by the head a single earthen pot. Pots 2 and 3, and a bowl 
(4), were all immediately under the usual layer of burned earth. Nos. 
5 and 6 — clay pipes — were discovered at the depth of 2^ feet; 8, a pot, 
at the depth of 2 feet; a clay pipe (not shown in the figure) at the 
depth of IS inches. 

Several pieces of burned clay bearing the impressions of split canes 
were secured. These probably were pieces of plastering from the walls 
of a dwelling which stood here and was destroyed by fire. The layer 
of burned earth or clay mentioned was quite hard. It was full of the 
impressions of grass and twigs, and looked as though grass and clay 
had been mixed together. Some small trees, varying from G inches to 
a foot in diameter, stood on the top and sides of the mound. 

No. 12, 25 feet southwest of No. 11, diameter 25 feet, height, 3 feet; 
circular; was composed of black, sticky nuick, except a layer of burned 
clay 9 inches thick which covered the top. 




212 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 




Fig. 123.— Plan <if Mounil Nci. 12. Miller firoup. 



Fig. 12.'5 shows t\w positions of tlie following articles found in it. 
Nos. 1 and li, pots at the depth of 9 inches, or immediately under the 
bed of burned clay; 3, clay disk, depth, 9 inches; 4, a folded skeleton, 
head north, depth, 1 foot, with a pot on each side of it; 5, a pot, depth, 

2 feet; 0, a soft skeleton and 
a pot, depth, 2 feet; 7, a 
broken bowl at the depth of 
I'i feet; 8, a bowl at a depth 
of '2 feet; 9, 10, 11, three 
skeletons, heads in different 
directions, at the depth of 2 
feet; 12, a clay pii>e immedi- 
ately under the top layer of 
burned clay. 

^lost of the pottery in this 
mound was very soft, hence 
it was only with great care 
that the A'essels could be 
taken out whole. The bones 
were so wet and soft that 
they went to pieces when 
handled . Several small, 
hardwood trees, such as backberry, hickory, jtecan and walnut, grew 
on the mound, but none exceeded or 8 inches in diameter. Soft mus- 
sel shells, chunks of burned clay, charcoal, burned stones, ashes and 
fi'agmeuts of charred cane were found at various depths. 

rHOHNTON (iROLP. 

This group is situated in T. 11 IS., K. 6 E., on the east bank of Little 
river, about 3 miles above its junction with the St, Francis. 

The bottom land on which the mounds stand, although under culti- 
vation, is low and subject to overflow. The plan of the group is given 
in Fig. 121. 

Fragments of ^lottery, broken stone implements, mussel shells, stone 
chips, broken bones, and chunks of burned clay are scattered over a 
I)ortion of the ground. A clay pipe was the only whole article that re- 
warded a careful search of the surface. 

Owing to continued rains aud abundance of water but two mounds 
of the above group were examined and very little of interest found in 
them. 

The lollowing list gives the respective sizes aud forms of the mounds 
of this group : 

No. 1. Seventy-live feet long north and south, 65 feet wide, and 2 
feet high. 

No. 2. Ninety feet long north and south an 40 feet east and west. 

No. 3. Thirty feet in diameter and 2 feet high. 



THOMAS. 1 



TAYLOR SHANTY GROUP. 



213 



No. 4, 25 feet across the widest point and 2 feet liigli. 

No. 5, apparently double, 75 feet long north and south, 35 feet across 
at the widest point, and 3 feet high. 

No. 6, 50 feet long east and west, 30 feet wide, and 2 feet high. 

No. 7, which is but 20 feet in diameter and 2 feet high, was opened 
and found to consist throughout of sandy soil like that in the field 
around it. It was full of ashes, charcoal, burned clay, broken mussel 
shells, fragments of pottery, and stone chips. A soft, folded skeleton, 
with head north, was found on the northern side at the depth of 18 
inches; under it was a discoidal 
stone. A few large fragments 
of pottery, very soft, were at the 
center near the surface. The 
clay pipe heretofore mentioned 
was found on the surface of this 
mound. 

No. 8, diameter 35 feet and 
height 2 feet, is situated in -.i 
depression, and at the time of 
examination was surrounded by 
water. 

In No. 9, which is 25 feet in 
diameter and 3 feet high, was a 
folded skeleton at the depth of 1 
foot, with head south ; no relics 
of any kind with it. 

THK TAYLOR SHANTY GROUP. 

This group, shown in Fig. 125, 
is situated in the southern part 
of T. 11 N., R. 6 E., on the right 
bank of the St. Francis river, 
about 3 miles below where the 
Kansas City, Fort Scott and 
IMemphis railroad crosses this 
stream. This part of the county 
lies within the bounds of what 
are known as the " Sunken lands 
of the St. Francis river;" hence 
the present condition is proba- 
bly ([uite different from what it was previous to 1811, though it must 
have abounded in swamps and sloughs as far back as the time of De 
Soto's visit. The laud on which the mounds stand is subject to over- 
flow, and in 1882, 1883, and 1884 was inundated to the depth of 10 or 
12 feet, only the tops of the highest mounds remaining uncovered. 

Mound No. 1, shown on a larger scale in Fig. 12C, is at this time but 




-Plat of Thornton group, Poinsett county, 

Arkan.s.iw. 



214 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

a remnant of what it was, tlie overflow and wash of the St. Francis 
river having worn away a considerable portion of it. The length at 
present is 150 feet, greatest width 75, and height C feet, the top flat. 
On this were two small mounds shown at a and h, each about 2(5 feet 
in diameter and 2 feet high. Trenches 20 feet wide were dug through 




Fm. 125.— Plat of Taylor Shanty group, Poinsett comity, Arkansas. 

these small mounds to the depth of 5 feet. In that (c d) ruuuiug 
through the little mouud «, seven skeletons of adults were found, all 
extended and lying ou their backs, and with each (save two) were two 
earthen vessels lying near the skulls, in most cases a bowl aud jai-. 
With one of the exceptional cases was one vessel ; with the other, three. 
At one poiut two skeletons were lying close together side by side, but 



THOMAS.] 



MOUND NO. 1. 



215 



with the feet of one to the head of the other. Shells and animal bones 
were observed ; of the latter those of the deer were the most common. 
Burnt clay and ashes were scattered through the earth, but not in beds. 

In the trench (e f) running through mound h were also several skele- 
tons, all lying horizontally, at full length, each with one or more earthen 
vessels close by it; with one 
there were four, two at the 
knees and two at the head. In 
one of the pots found in this 
trench were a number of small 
animal bones. At the deptli of 
2 feet was a bed of burnt clay 
and immediately beneath it a 
bed of charcoal and ashes, in 
which was found a single clay 
pipe. 

Mound No. 2 lies a few feet 
north of No. 1, and is somewhat 
oval in outline; north and south 
diameter, 41 feet; east and west 
diameter, 58 feet; and height, 
5 feet. It was covered with a 
dense growth of cane, and a 
large tree had grown on the top 
near the center, but, having 
fallen, its trunk lay buried in 
tlie top of the mound and was covered with vegetable mold to the depth 
of 2 inches. 

The construction of this mound as shown in Fig. 127, which repre- 
sents an east and west cross section, is as follows, commencing at the 
top: First, a top layer of soil, a, 3 inches thick; next, a layer of burnt 
clay, ft, 15 inches thick in the central portion and thinning out to the 
margins, smooth on top, but rough beneath, with the usual indications 




Fig. 126. — Mound No. 1, Taylor Sbanty group. 




Fig. 127. — Section of luounu No. 2, Taylor Shanty group. 

of admixture with straw and twigs. Immediately under this was a 
continuous layer of ashes and charcoal (c), equal in extent to the layer 
of burnt clay above it and about 2 inches thick. The remains of partly 
burned cane were found mixed through it; also fragments of pottery 
and burned stones. Under this were layers of burnt clay, e and /, 8 
inches thick, placed as shown in the figure, with a thin layer of ashes 



216 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

between their oveilappiii}^ edges. Tliere were uo indications of grass 
or twigs in tlie clay of these layers, as in that of the uit))er one, b. 
Beneath these was another horizontal and continuous layer of fine coal 
and ashes, </, about 2 inches thick. Tiiis had the appearance of burnt 
cane, as Iragments of cane partially l)urned were found in it. Under 
this was still another layer of burnt clay (/;) ecjual in extent to those 
above it and, like them, horizontal. Its upper side was coni]>aratively 
smooth and flat. lu the central i)ortion it was rather more thsin a foot 
thick, but thinning out toward the margins. This had been cut at m 
in a north and south direction for the purjiose of burying a single indi- 
vidual, whose skeleton was found immediately below at 2. This layer 
appears to have been solid, and contained no indications of grass or 
weeds. Near the northern edge, at d, were a small bed of gray ashes, 
quite a quantity of coals, fragments of pottery and stones, and among 
them human bones slightly discolored by the ashes, but not burned. 
This dex)osit was some 4 or 5 inches thick, covering an area about 6 
feet in diameter and lying chiefly in the layer g. Immediately under 
this burnt clay was a layer {/) of gray, waxy soil about 1 foot thick, 
horizontal,' exteiuling over the area of the mound, and of nearly uni- 
form thickness throughout. On the south side of the mound in this 
layer, at «, was a small bed of ashes. Next and last, resting on the 
original surface of the ground, was another layer of burnt chiy (o) 
some 7 inches thick in the center. This, to all appearances, had been 
burned where it lay; nevertheless it was in fragments, and indications 
of grass and twigs to a very limited extent were observed in it. It is 
possible, therefore, that it may have been plastering from a house. 

Skeletons and fragments thereof were fimnd as follows: Bones (3) in 
the ash heap at </; skeleton lying at full length (1) in the layer of earth 
»■; M'ith this was a red-striped earthen bowl close to the head. No. 2 
was in the same layer as No. 1, but judging by the indications was 
buried subsequent to it, as the latter lay immediately under the undis- 
turbed portion of the clay layer (/(), while 2 was under the opening which 
had evidently been made in the clay layer for its reception. This 
burial had taken place previous to the deposit of the layer of ashes, g, 
as this had not beeh disturbed. By the side of the latter, near the 
head, stood a water bottle and a bowl containing shell beads. Three 
skeletons (4, 5, and 6) lay at the bottom, on the original surface of the 
ground. By No. 4 Avas an earthen canteen ; by 5, a red and white striped 
water bottle; and by G, a bowl. 

A wide mouthed water bottle and some human bones were discovered 
near the surface of the mound at 7, but these appear to have been 
brought up from some deejier position by the roots of the tree men- 
tioned when it fell. A spoon-shaped clay vessel was buried in the ashes 
at d, and scattered through tiie dirt of the mound were fragments of 

* Horizuutal, when used iu this connectimi. implit-a that the hed or stratum does not correspond with 
the curve or vertical contour of tlic mound, but is level, or horizontal. 



MOUND NO. 4. 



217 



pottery, fresb-water shells, aiul animal bones, chiefly of the deer and 
raccoon. 

Mound 3 is a small circular tumulus, standing near No. 2 on the west, 
14 feet in diameter and 2 feet high. Being nearly covered by water 
it was not explored. 

Mound i is about <!(> feet from the margin of No. 2; diameter 66 feet, 
height nearly (i feet. The construction was as follows, commeucing 
at the bottom and going up : The line a a in Fig. 
128 indicates the original surface of ground; h, a 
layer of burnt clay, which lay chiefly on the right 
side, extending only a short distance to the left of 
the center, averaging about 5 inches in thickness. 
The impressions of grass and weeds were very 
abundant in it. The toj) was much smoother than 
the underside. The soil immediately beneath 
showed, to the depth of 2 or 3 inches, the eft'ect of 
heat, from which it would seem that the clay was 3 
burnt on the spot where it lay. -5 

00 

•Overlapping the northern end of this layer was a i 
bed of ashes and coals (<•) a little beyond the cen- | 
ter of the mound. This covered an area about 6 § 
feet in diameter and was about 10 inches thick ^ 
where deepest. Over tliis was a nearly horizontal | 
layer {d) of clean surface soil, stretching entirely ^ 
across the mound. On this lay a thin stratum (e) f. 
of burnt cane, but little more than an inch thick, § 
ou which, or rather in which, not far from the cen- o 
ter, were the remains of a few fires, marked by the - 
ash bed (/'). Over the layer of burnt cane {e) was 3 
a thick layer of surface soil, marked </, including ^ 
aud covering the bed of ashes (/). Over this was | 
a second layer of black, loose soil {h), 13 inches 
thick, in which at /, lay a small bed of burnt clay, 
occupying an area about 5 feet in diameter, cov- 
ered by a layer of ashes extending somewhat be- 
yond its margins. Next above was anotlier layer of 
burnt clay (/), 15 inches thick in the central portion, 
but thinning out to the margins, as shown in the 
figure, and covering an area of 3() by 27 feet. This 
was composed of chunks of burnt clay that ap- 
peared to have been placed on top of the mound, and the crevices tilled 
up with smaller fragments. 

Three skeletons were found in tiiis mound; first (1), that of a person 
under medium size in the layer of soil ((/), immediately on the stratum of 
burnt cane. It lay at full length face uii, head east; the bones were 
very soft and the skull was nuich flattened, but not crushed. Near the 
head stood two clay vessels, a water bottle, and a bowl. Under the skull 



218 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



and part of tlie neck was a kind of pillow of burnt clay 13 inches long, 
10 wide, and 3 thick. Although showing the form, the moisture had so 
affected it that it cruinbh-d on exposure. The corners were rounded and 
the form was api)roi>riate to the use to which it was applied. 

The second skeleton (2) was in the bottom of the mound ou the origi- 
nal surface of the gionnd and partly covered by the ash bed c, though 
not charred. It lay extended, face up and head southeast, resting on a 
clay pillow similar to that already described. Near the right shoulder 
was a. jvater bottle and close to it a bowl. The bottle stood erect and 
was about two-thirds full of water, which had probably soaked in during 
an overflow. 

The third skeleton (3) was in the southern part of the mound in the 
ash bed (/), and, though resting on the layer of burnt cane, the bones 
were not charred. It lay horizontally, the head resting on a clay pil- 
low, as the others, and near it stood a water bottle and bowl ; with these 
was .also a chii)ped celt. 

Mound 5 s.tands 25 feet north of 4, measuring from base to base, and 
is similar in size and form to 3. On it is a black walnut stump, IG feet 
in circumference. No. 6, 35 feet east of No. 2, is circular; diameter 26 
feet, height 3 feet. No. 7, 45 feet west of 4, is somewhat oval ; diameter 
52 and 01 feet, height 6 feet. Although neither of these three was 
explored, burnt clay was observed near the surface of each. 

No. 8 is 127 feet north of 7; diameter 50 feet; height about 3 feet. 
Two feet below the surface was a water bottle in the form of a tish, and 
near it a bowl. Nothing else was observed, except a few ftesh water 
shells, fragments of pottery, and a few coals. 

The positions and sizes of the remaining mounds of the group, which 
were not excavated, are given in the following table: 



No. 



10 

11 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 


Position. 


Form. 


Diameter. 


Height. 


100 feet northwest of No 8 




Feet. 
55 

30 

83 by 30 

75 by 25 

35 

150 by 112 

87 by 44 

Part only. 

10 

30 


Feet. 
4 

2 

2i 

3i 

3 



5 

3 

1 

34 


200 feet northwest of No 9 


do 


93 feet northeast of No. 9 . ., _ 

90 feet north of No. 11 


(Double) oblong .. 




25 feet south of No. 13 


Nearly square 


75 feet south of No. 13 

125 feet south of No 15 




80 feet east of No. 15 


.do 


15 feet west of No. 16 


. do 







Other mounds which presented little of interest may be briefly men- 
tioned as follows: 

One in Sec. 9, T. 12 N., E. 2 E., conical, GO feet in diameter and 2ifeet 
high, except the southeast quarter, which was raised a foot higher. 
Under the latter portion at the depth of 3 feet, was a single skeleton 
lying at full length, face up, head east. Fragments of pottery, shells, 
ashes, coals, bones, stones and burned earth were scattered through it. 



THOMAS.] PECAN POINT, MISSISSIPPI COUNTY. 219 

One on See. 35, T. 12 N., R. 2 E., conical, 3.5 feet in diameter and 4 
feet liigb, was situated on low wet land. Two folded skeletons occm'red 
at the depth of 2 feet, and the usual amount of fragments of pottery, 
shells, coals, etc. 

One in SVV. i Sec. 26, T. 12 N., R. 2 E., 75 feet in diameter, U feet high, 
circular and nearly flat on top. Near the center, at a depth of 2.J feet, 
lay a bed of ashes covering an area about 5 feet in diameter. A lit- 
tle to the north of this bed, at the same depth, were four folded skele- 
tons, without order as to direction, and a little north of them another 
fire bed, to the right of which at the depth of 3 feet, was another skele- 
ton, lying at full length, head west. Shells, stones, bones, fragments 
of pottery, etc., were scattered through it. 

One near the preceding, 25 feet in diameter and nearly 3 feet high, 
composed of dark brown loam, similar to the soil around it, contained 
only the usual mixture of shells, coals, ashes, etc. This and the one 
.preceding it are subject to overflow, and like many of the others, prob- 
ably most of the low circular ones were house sites. 

A conical and unusually steep mound on the SW. ^ Sec. .32, T. 11 N., 
R. -4 E., which had been partially explored, was examined. It was com- 
posed of the sandy soil of the bottom land on which it stands, and 
covered with a layer of dark vegetable mold, about 9 inches thick. Two 
large poplars (tulip trees), each about 3 feet in diameter, stand on the 
northern slope. A folded skeleton, accompanied by three clay jjots, 
was found near the apex at a depth of 1 foot under an old stump, and 
another at the deptli of 9 inches, accompanied by three pots. Burned 
human bones occurred at three x>oints, two at a depth of 2 feet and 
one at the depth of 5 feet. Fragments of pottery, stones, and mussel 
shells were scattered through the earth. In the center, at the base, was 
a hard layer of sand, several feet in extent aiul 2 feet deep. Under it 
lay five folded skeletons, all i)laced in the same direction. 

A third mound in the same locality, about 200 yards from the last 
and similar in form ,and size, was i^artially explored. A badly decayed 
skeleton, with head west and accompanied by a small water jug, was 
discovered at a depth of 18 inches, and another at a depth of 2 feet, by 
which stood a pot and bowl. Another pot and another bowl were also 
found. 

MISSISSIPPI COUNTY. " ' ' 

This county, wliich is bounded on the east by the Mississippi river 
and on the west by the Tyronza and Little rivers, is low and flat 
throughout, and the northern, middle, and western portions much cut 
up by lakes, bayous, and cypress swamps. 

PECAN POINT. 

This is one of the most elevated points which the Mississippi, in its 
many bemls and windings, has left as a part of its west bank along 



220 



MOUND KXl'LORATIONS. 



tliis portion of its course; yet it is but ii iilf^li hank. Nearly a mile 
northwest ol' tiie prc^scnt landing' at tiiis ))lac(', is an oblonj^, oval-topiied 
mound, 150 I'eet long, north and soutli, by .SO broad at the base and 15 
feet hi{;h- Tliis is on the southern bank of a bayou where tlie river 
probably ran when it was built. As it is covered with modern graves 
of nejiro((s and whites no excavations were alloweil to be made in it. 
The i)eoi)l(M)f the neighborhood state that in digging graves tliey bi'ing 
up the remains of as many jieople as th(\y bury. 

lint tJKi ciii(^f jioint of inter(!st at tliis ]dace, is tlie old cemeteiy fir 
burying ground of the ancient mound-builders, which lies immediately 
<'ast of tlu^ mound mainly along the slough. 

A i)lat of tiie htcality is gi\('n in Fig. llii); m indicating th<^ mound, 
and tlu^ space <; surrounded by the dotted line, the cemetery. 

Although 7nany individuals are buried in mounds, and, in this sec- 
tion, in th(i dwelling sites, yet it is evident from the indications of long 



Burial Place 1 



N 



Cultivated Field 




I'otnt 



Fl(i. 120. — Pint of Pecan jxiint works, Minnisaippi county. Ark:iusii.s. 

occupancy and a nunuMoiis population, in many localitie.s, that a large 
l)ortion ol' (lie dead must have been buried elsewhere. Occasionally 
these burying grounds can be found. In the present case the cemetery 
furiiisluis th(^ chie.l' eviileiu'.e that there was formerly an extensive vil- 
lage here. It is po.ssible the moumls and other works nuiy have been 
swejitawayby the Mississijipi changing its bed; jwssibly they never 
existetl. 

The usual nmde of burial here was horizontal — at full length upon 
the backer side, in a bark coflin jilaced from 1 to 3 feet below the .sur- 
face. There are, however, <!X<'eptions to this mode, as some are placed 
with the face down, some with the legs drawn up, or, in other words, 
folded, some in a sitting or squatting posture; bnt this last is usually 
where a grouj) of various sizes, as of a family, are found huddled to- 
gether around somt^ rare and highly pri/.ed object. There is no uni- 
formity as to the direction in which they were jilaced, either in regard 
to tiie points of the compass or their relation to one another. It was 



THOMAS.] 



FULL FACE VESSELS. 



221 



under circumstances of this kind tbat the, vessels representing the 
human head, one of which, shown in Fig. 130, was found here. 

Usually in the graves of the horizontal skeletons there was found 
with ea(.'h a pot, bowl, or jug near the head, at the feet, or by the hips; 
often two and sometimes all three with one skeleton, but it was seldom 
that two vessels of the same kind or intended for the same use were 
with one skeleton. The human headed vessels were not together, but 
adjacent to each other, and, although the large one (shown in Fig. 130) 
was encircled by skeletons, none was nearer than 2 or 3 feet of it. In 
some places there were as many as three or four tiers of burials, the 
lower tiers being considerably deeper than the average mentioned. 




Flo. lao.— Imago veasel, Pecan point, Mississippi county, Arkansas. 

Scattered through this cemetery were fire-beds, ashes, charcoal, 
burned stones, and mussel shells from G inches to 2 feet below the sur- 
face. The fire beds were layers of burned earth from (i inches to a 
foot thick and usually about 10 feet in diameter, with ashes and char- 
coal on and under them. Skeletons without accompanying relics were 
sometimes found near these fire beds. 

Figures of some of the interesting and rare forms of clay vessels 
obtained at this place have been published. 

In the central portion of this county, back of Osceola, there is a 
group of mounds on Frenchman's bayou, G miles west of Golden Lake 
post-ofBce. 

These are all of the simple, ordinary, conical type, the highest not 



222 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

exceeding 8 feet elevation. The plow and previouH explorers bad cut 
them to pieces and all the valuable specimens had been removed. A 
large number of pieces of clay, burnt to a brick-like substance, were (ob- 
served together with ashes, animal bones and mussel shells, indicating 
that most of them were house sites. 

JACKSON MOl'NDS. 

These are situated on the farm of Mr. B. F. Jackson, on the Little 
river cut off, about 16 miles northwest of Osceola. 

No. 1, oval in form, i feet high, and the longest diameter 60 feet, was 
partially occupied by the graves of three white persons, but permission 
to dig so as not to disturb these was obtained. Three pits were carried 
to the original surface. The first passed through ti top layer of black 
surface soil 2i feet thick, then a layer of burnt clay 10 inches thick, and 
below this a layer of charcf)al and ashes 6 inches deep. Here, associ- 
ated with the charcoal and ashes, was a skeleton, with jjots at each side 
of the head. 

In the second pit the results were much the same, except that in this, 
below the skeleton a hard floor of well-burnt clay was encountered, 
which was covered with 2 feet of ashes, in which were some specimens 
of pottery, but no skeleton or bones. 

In the third the layers passed through were as the first, but no skel- 
eton was found. 

The other mound (there were but two mouiids in the group) was some- 
what higher than No. 1, but so occupied by modern graves that no ex- 
amination of it could be made. 

About -30 yards from this, immediately under the surface of the 
ground, commences a level floor of hard clay, which, so far as examined, 
was burned to a brick red, and varied from «• inches to nearly 2 feet 
in thickness. This layer extended more or less continuously over an 
area almost or quite 300 feet square. As a part of it is covered by a 
dwelling and outbuildings, and permission to examine only certain 
portions was given, it was not i)0ssible to determine the extent of the 
spaces thus continuously covered. Breaking through this at the points 
where digging was allowed, the Bureau explorer discovered, in each 
case at the depth of from 1 to 3 feet, skeletons and jiottery. In one 
place two skeletons of adults were found a few feet apart, and close 
by one of a child. With each adult skeleton were five pots, and with 
the child one pot and two toy vessels; all were more or less embedded 
in ashes, but the bones were not charred. 

Several separate house sites were found in which ashes and broken 
pottery occurred. One of the vessels found here is represented in Fig. 
131. This was beneath the clay floor. 

Mr. It. B. Evans visited this county on his archeological tour in 1881, 
in behalf of the Chicago Times. He describes a mound on the land of 
a Mr. Sherman, at the head of Young's lake, midway between Osceola 



THOMAS.] 



THE JACK80N AND SHERMAN MOUNDS. 



223 



ami Pitmau's landiug. The special reasous for calliiif;- attention to it 
here are because of the reference made by Mr. Evans to the supposed 
brick discovered in it, and the peculiar form of the mound, shown in 
Fig. 132, copied from the Times of April 9, 1881, which, as will be seen 
elsewhere, is almost identical with one observed by Col. Norris in 
Phillips county, Arkansas (see Fig. 145). 




riG. 131.— Vessel from Jackson mounils, Mississippi couuty. Arkansas. 

The dimensions given areas follows: Altitude of the first terrace 
11 feet, width 12tt feet, length 158 feet; altitude of second terrace 3 feet 
7 inches, width CO feet, length 93 feet; altitude of third terrace 6 feet, 
width 63 feet, length 78 feet. 




Fig. 132 The Sherman nioiinfl, Mississippi county, Arkansas. 

Digging into the top he found, near the surface, fragments of burned 
clay, which increased in amount a little farther down, where they formed 
a layer apparently over the upper terrace. These lumps of burned 
clay, which he supposed to be brick, are evidently the fi-agments of 
plaster from the walls of a dwelling, as they were, in some cases, marked 
with the fluting elsewhere mentioned as occurring in the mounds of 
Arkansas. 



224 



MOUND EXPLORATIUNS. 
INDEPENDENCE COUNTY. 



The surface of this county is broken and hilly, and is crossed from 
the northwest to the southeast by White river. The Oil Trough bot- 
tom in the southwest part, where the mounds mentioned are situated, 
is a rich alluvial tract lying along the west side of White river. 




Fl(!. 133.— Engraved shell {Biisi/con perversum) from inuuud, IiuU-pendence couuty, Arkans.l8. 

The only works reported in this county are two mounds near Akron 
and 9 miles northwest of Jacksonport. 



THOMAS] ARKANSAS. 225 

Tlie first of these is about 300 feet in diameter, 7 feet high and cir- 
cular in outline. It is covered over with the graves of the townspeople 
to its very skirts, and hence could not be disturbed. It was ascer- 
tained, however, that in digging the graves numerous articles had been 
found, among them a very fine specimen of 7i/rs7/t'oHjjeri'ers!MM, engraved, 
which was obtained from Mr. M. A. Mull, of Jacksonport, for the Na- 
tional Museum, and is shown in Fig. 133. A figure or image of some 
kind made of cliiy was taken out at the same time and sold to Messrs. 
Dodd, lirown & Co., of St. Louis, Mo.; also a number of shell beads 
which were obtained by the Bureau. 

The second mound is much smaller, being only about 4 feet high and 
50 feet in diameter. One foot below the surface a 6-inch stratum of 
bui-nt clay was encountered, then 5 inches of ashes and charcoal. The 
base was composed of clay and sand. Only a few broken vessels and 
some fragments of pottery were obtained. 

JACKSON COUNTY. 

On the farm of Mr. Rindman, a mile and a half north of Jacksonport, 
on a narrow strip of land bordering a slough, are evidences of an ancient 
settlement. These consist of three small mounds and patches of burned 
clay, or " brick-like substance," as the explorer terms it, immediately 

under the surface of the surrounding soil. 

An examination of this burnt clay showed it .. 

to be in patches, forming a layer from 6 to 10 

inches thick, much of it bearing the inijjres- 

sions of grass, roots, and cane; occasionally ^ 

mud-daubers' nests, burnt as hard as a brick, 

were found still sticking to it, from which it fio. 134.— stone spool from mound, 

is evident that it had formed the plastering •^"'='^'"" '^''™'^' ^'^''^'^^■ 

of dwellings. 

The mounds varied from 15 to 25 feet in diameter, and from 18 to 36 
inches in height. In one, at the bottom, was a hard burnt clay floor, 
very smooth, covered with ashes; in another, some broken ])ots with 
ashes, and in the third only ashes. 

One mile east of Jacksonport, on the banks of White river, there 
stood, until last year, a mound, but it was carried away by the flood, 
which also washed off the top soil from the land for a considerable 
space around it, revealing fragments of pottery, bones, stone imple- 
ments, and much burnt clay scattered about in patches. 

In a mound, 5 feet high and about 30 feet in diameter, 6 miles south 
of Newjiort, on the farm of Mr. G. E. Stevens, two skeletons were found 
lying in opposite directions, face down, and with them two small stone 
spools, one of which is shown in Fig. 134, marked with copper stains; 
also a shell pin, and a clay pipe. 
12 ETH 15 




226 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 
CUtTTKNDKN ("OT'NTV. 



The topnjTrapliical feiiture.s of this county ai'c similar to those of 
Mississippi county, wiiich Joins it on the north. Tlie works in it which 
were examined are situated 1 mile from Oldliam (formerly Bradley's 
landing), uear the Mississijipi river, on land belonging to the Bradley 




•,! / 


i 


9 
o 


if 




a 


''i . 


1 


1 


■■' iC 


) 


1 

in 


. 


\ 


O 

fa 



tSi- 



estate. A view of part of the group is given in Fig. 135. Unfortu- 
nately the explorer's reiiort on these interesting works is very brief. 

The land is not now subject to overflow, but an examination of the 
portion outside of the fluid shows that a stream formerly ran here and 
that then it was probably subject to occasional inundation, as, where it 



THOMAS.] ARKANSAS. 227 

has not been disturbed by tlu' plow, tlic strata of sand and vegetable 
remains are quite distinct. Tlie IMississipjii is one-fourtli of a mile dis- 
tant; tlds land seems therefore to have been made since the river ran 
by the field. The old river bed is probably the former channel of the 
Wa]>panoke creek which now runs some distance back of the field in 
which the mounds are situated. Many of the trees on this land are 
5 feet in diameter and 80 feet high. The human and other remains 
found in this field are from 3 to 5 feet deep. The mounds occupy the 
highest point and the greater the distance from them the deeper are 
the remains, as would be the case with deposits made by overflows. 

The mounds had already been worked over, so attention was turned 
to the house sites scattered over the area, around them. A number of 
these had also been previously exaudned, but several remained undis- 
turbed. As an almost universal rule, after removing a foot or two of 
toj) soil, a layer of burnt clay in a broken or fragmentary condition 
would be found, sometimes with impressions of grass or twigs, which 
easily crumbled but was often hard and stamped apparently with an 
imi)h'mcnt made of split reeds of comparatively large size. This layer 
was in places a foot thick and frequently burned to a brick red or even 
to clinkers. 

Below this, at a depth of 3 to 5 feet from the surface, were more or 
less ashes, and often inches of charred grass, immediately covering 
skeletons. The latter were found lying in all directions, some with the 
face up, others with it down, and others on the side. With these were 
vessels of clay, in some cases one, sometimes more. 

From the excavations made here about seventy whole vessels and 
numerous fragments were obtained; also rubbing stones, hammer 
stones, celts, cupped stones, horn and bone implements, etc. 

ST. FRANCIS COUNTY. 

The surface of this county is (|uite level, with the exception of Crow- 
ley's ridge, which runs through the western ])ortion north and south. 
Piast of the ridge is the broad region of alluvial lands of the White 
and Mississippi rivers. 

About 4 miles southeast of Forest i-ity, and near Crow creek, some 
singular remains were discovered, called by the people of the neighbor- 
hood the "Old Brick House," or "Fort," from the quantity of brick- 
like material or burnt clay found there. These appear to be house sites. 
There are three of them, rectangidar in form, the larger one 30 feet 
long by 10 feet wide, consisting of a floor of burned clay 8 inches thick. 
The outer edges consisted of broken fragments forming ridges and pre- 
senting the appearance of being the remnants of a clay wall which had 
fallen down during the destruction of a building by fire. The area 
occupied is about 2 leet higher than the surrounding level. Immedi- 
ately below the clay floor was a layer of ashes 6 inches thick, and below 



228 MOUND EXPLURATIONS. 

this black loam. Some largo trees are growing on tliesc sites, one a 
poplar (tulip tree^'3 feet in diameter and 100 feet high. 

The other stinares have been more or less obliterated ])y a roadway 
made thnmgh them. Some years ago a large oak on one of them was 
blown down, revealing the bones of a skeleton, some pottery, and a pipe. 

Near by is a mound 10 feet high, oblong in shape and flat on top, the 
width of the ujiper surface 'M feet. It consisted of tliiee strata, the 
first or top layer of soil about 10 inches thick ; next a layer of yellow 
clay 1 foot thick, and tlie remainder, to the bottom, white clay. No 
relics or evidences of its having been used for burial purposes were 
observed. 

tUOOK'.S MOUND. 

This is situated on the farm of Capt. W. J. (Jrook, 10 miles southeast 
of Forest city and near the bank of Tunic creek. It is oval in form, 
408 feet long, 1.50 feet wide, and 1.5 feet high, flat on top. 

Thorough examination was not allowed by the owner, as it is the 
only retreat for his farm stock in time of high water. Three small pits 
revealed the fact that the first or top layer of loam was ahcnit 1 foot 
thick ; next below this a layer of ashes of variable depth ; the remainder, 
to the base, consisted of clay. It had been very deeply plowed and a 
skeleton or two and some pots taken out. 

I.AKK AXDEKSON MOUNDS. 

This group of mounds is on the bank of Lake Ander.sou or Mud lake, 
some 2 miles northeast of Forest city. The largest one is oblong in 
form, flat on top, with unusually steep sides; height, V2 feet; width on 
top, 30 feet. Permission to excavate it was refu ■ ed because of the own- 
er's wish to utilize it in times of freshets. Two small circular mounds 
on the immediate bank of the hike were composed of loam, clay, ashes, 
and burnt, brick like material, mingled in a confused mass by the tramp- 
ing of cattle in times of liigh water. 

A short distance from these were patches of Ijurut clay, slightly 
raised above the natural surface of the ground. But thej- had been so 
badly cut up by the passage of vehicles, the public road crossing di- 
rectly over them, that nothing satisfactory could be ascertained in 
reference to their original form or condition. 

REMAIN.S ON THE IIOBERT ANDERSON 1 AlOI. 

These are on the bank of the St. Francis river, 2 miles northeast of 
those last mentioned. 

At this place, on the immediate bank of the St. Francis river, is a 
projecting point, which was formerly much larger, but has been cut 
away by the river until but a few feet of the projecting portion remain. 
During this process of wearing away, many skeletons, much pottery, 
and numerous stone implements have been washed out. The point now 



'In the South the name *' poplar " in universally applied to the tulip tree — Tjiriodendron tulipi/era. 



THOMAS.] 



ARKANSAS. 



229 



])resents the appearance sliowii in Fig. 1.%, tlie squares indicating the 
remains of houses. In tliis, 1 is tlie St. Francis river; 2, 2, parts of the 
floors of two rooms or houses, the rest having been washed away; 3, a 
coniph'te square or house floor. These squares are composed, as usual, 
of a hiyer of brick-like substance, with the impressions of grass and 
twigs in it. The edges are all higher and have a thicker layer of this 
material than the inner areas. The surface soil has been washed away, 
leaving these hard floors naked. Tliis layer of burnt clay, except at 
the edges, is usually about S inches thick. Immediately beneath it is 
a layer of charcoal and ashes, of about the same thickness, and beneath 
this black loam. No. 4 in the flgnre indicates the public road, and 5, a 
small clear space between the square and the river. 

Two small circular mounds near by were partially examined. Per- 
mission for fiu'ther work in them cimld not be obtained. In one were 




Pio. 13fi.— HonsB site, Sf. Fn 



■(unity. .\rknn8.is. 



found burnt clay and ashes commingled, the body of the mound below 
this consisting of sand. The other contained no buint clay or ashes, the 
to]) layer, ."> feet thick, being black loam, the remainder yellow clay. 



ARKANSAS COITJV'TY. 



One of the most remarkable mounds in this state is that called ''the 
Menard hill" (a, Fig. 137, which is a plat of the group), on the farm of 
Mr. ]Sr. Menard, 7 miles west of Arkansas post. Its peculiarity con- 
sists in its unusual steepness, being, according to Dr. Palmer's measure- 
ment, 50 feet high and only 150 feet in diameter at the base. It is 
flanked by two wings, indicated at h and r. The larger of these wings 
is 150 feet long, CO feet wide, and 20 feet high; the smaller is 75 feet 
long and 7 feet high. 

A slight examination of the main mound, carried down oidy to the 
depth of 10 feet, showed that it was comixised of a mixture of sandy 



230 



MOUND EXPI,OUATIONS. 



loam, decayed vegetable! matter and clay, but there can be scarcely a 
doubt tliat the central core is hard clay which has ]u-eserv(Hl its form. 
An opiMiing was made in tlie lai's'cr wing near the toji. After jiass- 
ing thi'ough a foj) layer of sandy loam inches thick, a layta' of buint 
clay oC the sanu^ thic^kness was reached. Immediately below this was a 
layer of l)urnt matting 3 inclu^s thick, .s<;attered through which were 
grains of patched corn. In an <)|)ciiing ])revionsly made on the o]>])ii- 




.v\\\\ i|if////;;'^. 



W 

'#^' 






^'^''wmmBm 







Jft.-.|P^i^ 






0%. 



%»*■- 




Fkj. l:i7.— Plan of Meiijinl miniiiils, Arkansas rnnnty, Arkansas. 

site side of the same wing a thick layer of burnt clay was encountered 
and a number uf broken pots were found. 

The small liattoiiped mounds <1 <l <i, none of which are nu)re than '^ 
feet high, are jirobably house sites. They consisted of a top layer of 
.Soil, next a layer ol' burnt clay, and below tiiis ashes, in which were 
skeletons and pottery. It was in these house sites that Dr. Taliuer 



THOMAS.) • AH KANSAS. 231 

iiinde the, largtt fiiKl of ])oltciv incxions to his coniicctioii witli the. 
IiiucMii of Ethnology. 

As Dr. Palmer's report of his previous work has not been ]nil)lishe(l, 
I copy from it his remarks in rej;ard to this group: 

I found (hat thi« imomikI (the Menard Iiill) liad liei'ii jireviously iln^ into, and I 
learned that a metal croHs was found l feet below the surface. A field of 20 acres 
surroiinds rt, in whicli ari' nnnicrons nMnuins of ancient dwellinfjs. In tliese, ashes 
wc^re ilis<^ov('T(Ml under .1 liiycr of liunit clay, which I jn'csnme formed the roofing of 
the dwellings. Closi^ to (under} tlie ashes a skeleton was nsually found with from 
one to three jiieces of jiottery liy the side of tln^ skull. 

The most iuiportaut ri^sult of tlie exploration was (indinf; the, nnnains of a larf^e 
house. Ahout 2 i'rrt nniUfP the surfa(•<^ was a thick layer fd' linrut day, which prob- 
aldy formeil tin: roof. In tiaclnj; out the <ircunifereme a liard clay lloor was found 
beneath, and between the two several iuidies of ashes, hut no skeletons. There were 
a }?reat many pieces of l)rokeu dislu^s so situatcil as to lead one to believe they were 
on to]) of tli(^ house at (he time it was burned. When restored most of thesi: ves- 
sels jiroved to lie lirisin-sliapeil howls. 

hKK COirNTY. 

Tin; to|>ogra))hi(al features of litis county are very siiiiirar to those of 
St. Franeis county, wliicli joins it on tiie nortli. 

(;1!I';ki:'s moiinii. 

This is a very regular, olilong tiiinctited or ll;it-toii])e<l nioinul, situ- 
ated uiton tlie ](oint of a second or iippei- teitttct! of the L'Anguilh'- 
river 2 miles above its couthience with tlie St. Francis. It is I'ectaugu 
lar, measuring on the top 87 feet in length and .51 feet in width and is.'io 
feet high; the sloite of the sides is very stee]), being iibout 4.5°. 

A shaft sunk in it near one end some years ago revealed, as is statetl 
by the parties who made the. exploration, the stump of a small tree and 
a stake, 4 or 5 feet long iietir the bottom, the former growing in the 
natural soil. Layers of swaniit Jiuid and fire beds were found iitirn^gu- 
lar distances thrrjugh the whole depth. 

Permis.sion to make fiirtln^r (exploration was not obtained. 

an(:ij:nt ijwki.mni; srrss ant) cemktkuies. 

A careful examination was made of the bluffs and valleys both of the 
L'Angiulle and St. Francis rivers al)ove their contluence for a distance 
of fully 20 miles, from which it wa.s found that scarcely a terrace or 
hillock was without evidences of ancient occupancy, such as brick-red 
tire-beds, charcoal, a.shes, etc., indicating camps or dwellings. 

For more than fifty years the Priest and Forest farms, where these 
evidences ajtpear in greatest abundance, have been noted for the 
amount of ancient pottery of superior quality frequently unearthed in 
cultivating the land tind recently by relic hunters. Qiiiti! anumberof 
whole vessels of this pottery were obtained by the Bureau. 



232 MOUND EXI'I-ORATIONS. 

Tlierc is usmilly snilicinit simcc lictwecii tlic hliiffs and the ii'rcjfular 
line <>(' liilloclvs, wliicli slope oft Ironi thcni to tiie lower hottoiiis, for ii 
loadwiiy. The upper or highest portion of each hilloek seems to have 
heen occupied as a dwclliui;' place until the acenmnlation of dark earth, 
lire-beds, anil refuse material has reached a depth of from '2 to 10 feet, 
which gradually thins out with the slope in all directions. Shafts and 
trenches in thesis disclosed the fact that Un\ material is in irregular 
layers or patches, in which are intermingled (tharcoal, charred bones of 
animals, as well as many split bones not charred, also the never absent 
stone ehi])s, rude scrapers, and other imi)lemeiits. Occasionally one or 
nu)re human skeletons are tound, always beneath a tire-])ed and 
usually aecompani(Hl by pottery. These are generally in low, oblong- 
mounds, where the peculiar color of the earth indicates their presence, 
and tlui ul)l)(^rmost ones are at a slight distance below the surface. 
There are oft«'n two or three tiers of skeletons, apiiarently dei)osited 
without any other system than simjjly to avoid overlai)ping and so as 
to arrange them parallel with each other and at full length. 

The crania, which are not crushed, vary greatly, both in size and 
form, but arc usually of the brachycephalic type. Occasionally one is 
found which shows very distinctly the etfeets of artiticial compression 
of the front. 

Many of the skeletons observetl had only fragments of i)ottery by the 
side of the cranium; some had a vessel, usually a water bottle; others 
a cup, bowl, or other oi)en-mouthed vess(d, ami, ])erhaps, in addition, a 
human or animal ettigy. 

Col. Norris, who made the explorations in this locality, says that he 
" rarely fouiul more than three vessels with one skeleton, and one of 
them was always a water bottle. They were usually, but not always, 
found in the proper positiou to contain water, food, or other presents 
for the dead. I found a number of the bottles closed with stoppers 
made of clay, some of the latter in the form of mullers, and others 
simply rounded off and made to tit; but uo relic of any kind iu these 
bottles; while, on the contrary, ixdishing stones, shells, bones of birds, 
and red paint were frequently found in cups, basins, and other open- 
mouthed vessels. Although so similar in general form and tinish, there 
are often such marked peculiarities in the tinish, color, or ornamentation 
of vessels of neighboring villages but a mile or two apart as to enable 
a close observer to readily distinguish them. For instance, the Forest 
and Priest farms extend less than '2 miles each, yet any person, by close 
observation could soon learn to distinguish the pottery found at one 
extremity from that obtained at the other." 

At one point the skull of a skeleton was found crushed beneath ten 
platters, seven of which were placed edgewise above it on one side and 
three, slightly differing iu form, on the other. Most of them, however, 
fell to pieces on being removed. 



THOMAS. 1 



ARKANl^AS. 



233 



MONROF, COUNTY. 

'So explorations were made in tliis county, but two large stone pipes 
were obtained, shown in Figs. 138, 13!t, 140, and 141, wliicharerepoited 
to have been found in the upper part of a large truncated mound near 
Clarendon. 

Tlie former (Figs. 138-140) is of quartzite, smoothed and partially pol- 
ished, 8 inches high to the top of the head, 7 inches long and 3 inches 
thick. It represcTits a kneeling, naked individual; Fig. 138 is a side 
view; Fig. 139 a front view, and Fig. 140 a view of the top of the head 
showing the carving. The latter (Fig. 141) is of a species of white 




FiQ. 138.— Image pijii-. i\i 



■tiimty, Arkansas. 



marble, polislied, 4 inches high, 4i long and 2^ thick, a squatting figure 
with pipe bowl in the lap. There is no doubt as to their authenticity 
and that they were obtained as reported. 



PHILLIPS rOTTNTY. 



Several miles of the lower portion of the St. Francis river valley are 
included in this county. In portions of this stretch, especially opi)osite 
Phillips bayou, the river, in cutting into the high bottom, is constantly 
unearthing ancient pottery and Lumau bones, many of tlie latter being 



234 



MOUND EXI'LOKATIONS. 



in such a state of preservation as to indicate that tbey, as well as many 
found on the west side above the bayou, pertain to a comparatively 
modern period. It is even stated by some of the oldest settlers of the 
locality tliat when first oc<-ui)ied by the whites it was not an unusual 
thins to plow up fragments of bark boxes or coffins, together \^■ith 
bones and pottery. 

OLD TOWN WORKS. 

■ These fire situated on a snndy ridge between the Mississippi river 
and Old Town lake, at the point Avhere they make their nearest ap- 

proiic.h to each other and near the 
ancient outlet of the latter, which is 
now closed by the levee. They con- 
sist of earthen walls or embank- 
ments, mounds, and the saucer- 
shai)ed depressions sui)posed to be 
house sites, as shown in Fig. 142. 
The works to the left, marked «, con- 
sist of an inclosing wall surrounding 
a space somewhat in the forip of a 
quadrant of a circle; a large, trun- 
cated, pyramidal mound with ter- 
race (No. 3 in the figure) and other 
smaller conical or oval mounds and 
numerous saucer-shaped house sites. 
Those at the right must have been 
very extensive, but have been to a 
large extent removed for the pur- 
pose of forming the levee. 

The preservation of the wall 
around the western works is largely 
due to the fact that it has, in part, 
been utilized as a portion of the 
levee. 

No. 1, at the right and forming a 
part of the group marked b, is the 
remnant of a wall which extended fi-om the old bank of the river 400 
feet diagonally toward the head of the former outlet of the lake and 
terminated in a small rectangular inclosure 15 by 30 feet. 

Whether this wall and inclosure are wholly the work of aborigines 
or partly of the whites is a question the Bureau assistant was unable 
to decide, but thought the latter view j)Ossible, judging from the size 
and rectangular form of the work. According to local tradition they 
were built by Moscosa and the remnant of De Soto's army while pre- 
paring their brigantines for the descent of the Mississippi river. 

Much of mound No. 2 has been removed for levee purposes, but 
traces of the edges still remaining prove it to have been 000 feet long 




I'll, 



Ilk. 



THOIMAS.] 



ARKANSAS. 



235 



and about 200 broad at its greatest widtli and oval in form. Its height, 
however, was only some 8 or 10 feet. It appeared from information 
obtained that it eontained from one to three tiers of skeletons and that 
several hundred vessels of clay have at different times been taken 
from it. From the excav.ations made by the Bureau assistant in the 
remnants it was ascertained that it was bnilt of the surrounding soil, 
with the usual admixture of tirebeds, charcoal and ashes. Several 
skeletons were unearthed and some vessels obtained, one of which is 
shown in Fig. 14.'). These skeletons were uniforndy buried at full length 
upon their backs or sides without legard to the cardinal iH)iiits and a 
numberof them inbark coffins, which were unmistakably of cypress and 
in noway differing from others found neai' the surface and supposed to 
he intrusive Imrials of modern Indians. In one of these was a water bot- 
tle close bv the side of the skull. 





Fig. 140 Image pipe, Monroe 

county, Arkansas. 



Fic. 141. — Tlu.age pipe, Muuroi- cuiiniy, Ark.uisas. 



Mound No. 3, in the large inclosure (o), is a truncated jiyramid, nearly 
square, !>C feet long by 80 in width at the base; the first or lower plat- 
form is 4 feet high, and forms a terrace 30 feet wide on two connecting 
sides of the mound proper; tliis rises 8 feet above this terrace, and is 
50 by CO feet at its base and 20 by 30 feet on the tlat top. It is shown 
in Fig. 144 restored {a the elevation and h the ground plan). Excava- 
tions were made, but nothing of interest was revealed. 

There was, as usual, a space fronting this mound destitute of the 
circular house sites. Excavations in the house sites revealed the usual 
fire-bed, charcoal, and fragments of pottery. 



BARNEY MOUND. 



This singular and interesting earthwork is shown in Fig. 145, a 
the ground plan and h the elevation. As will be seen, it consists 
of an oval platform constricted near the middle so as to appear like two 
conjoined, une(pial circles, the larger of which is surmounted by an oval 



236 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



truncated mound. The platform averages througliout about 15 feet 
high, the diameter of the smaller end being about 200 feet and of the 
larger .338 feet. The mound rises about 20 feet above the platform or 
terrace and is flat on top, its larger diameter here being 108 feet. 

The whole is entirely surround- 
ed, as shown in tlie figure, by 
a ditch varying in depth from 10 
to 15 feet and in Midth from 50 
to 75 feet. 

Excavations made at points 
on the summit and sides, both 
of the mound proper and jilat- 
form, brought to light ])atches 
or beds of clay burnt to a brick 
red. 

ROGER'S MOUNDS 

This is the name given to a 
group a nnle distant from the 
Barney mound, just descril)ed. 
The mounds are all of the ordi- 
nary conical or oval form, except 
the largest one of the group, 
which is flat on top and sur- 
mounted near one end by an- 
other small hemispherical 
mound, as shown in Fig. 146. 
This is oval in outline, the 
longer diameter (at the base) 
247 feet, and the shorter nearly 
200 feet ; height of the platform 
or terrace 20 feet, the longer 
diameter on the toj) 150 feet, and 
the shorter !»0. The little mound 
on the top is about 50 feet in 
diameter, 5feet liigh,and round- 
ed ott" in the ordinary form. On 
the terrace are the ruins of a 
modern house and barn overgrown by brush and small trees. A very 
heavy tire-bed was found iuimediately below the surface of the upper 
mound ; others were also found at various points on the terrace and on 
the sides of the main mound. 

Near the surface of another luound, the next in size, was a bed 
of clay burned to a brick red, and so hard that it could not be cut 
with a spade, but had to be undermined and taken out in blocks like 
irregular bricks. A j)ortion of this was removed and an excavation 




ARKANSAS. 



237 



made thronsh charcoal, aslics, and Hakes of iiioitar bmned to a hriglit 
brick red, but retaining tlie casts of the stems of grass and cane. Two 
feet below this was another tire-bed. 



UESHA COUNTY. 

This county, which lies along the Mississippi and includes the mouths 
of Arkansas and White rivers, is embraced in the Mississippi alluvial 
region of the state. 

Fig. 147 represents a mound situated on a level bottom 1 mile north 
of Arkansas city. It is 1(18 feet long, 72 feet wide on top, and 12 feet 
high. There is a slope of about 35 feet at the east end, produced by a 




Fio. 143 Pottery vessel from Old Towu works. 

slide which carried down some of the upper level. During the over- 
flow of 1SS2, which was of unusual height, the top of this mound was 
never less than .5 feet above the water. It has, on this account, been 
utilized as a biu'ying ground by the citizens of Arkansas City, where 
they bring their dead in boats in times of overflow. 

A conical mound at Walnut lake station, 40 feet in diameter and 8 
feet high, was composed wholly of sandy loam. Fig. 148 represents 
an ancient fort on what is known as the " Turner Place." It is near 
the Arkansas river, which formerly ran within 400 yards of this forti- 
fication. Although evidently constrncteil by whites its history is 
unknown to the people of that section, who have the usual tradition of 
its being the work of De Soto and his army. It was probably built 



238 



MOUND ICXPLORATIONS. 



by the rrencli to protect a tiiuling- i)Ost. As cdntirmiitory of this 
theory there is a ridge near by on wliich are found the indications of 
houses such as were built by the whites. 





1 








to 








m 






oujx 






L-tf/Z 







L 



Fig. 144 Mmmd No. 3, Old Towu works. 



Trees a foot through were cut from it twenty-two years ago; but Dr. 
Pahner was informed by Mr. Bezzell, who lives near by, tliat thirty-six 
years ago the trees now growiTig on the new-made lauds aloug the river 
some of which are 3 feet in diameter, were small saplings. 



&i 







Fig. 145. — Ground plan and elevation of tbc Barney mound, Phillips county, Arkansas. 

The fort is square, measuring 150 yards ft-om side to side. On the 
we.st side extends a graded or covered pathway a distance of 250 yards, 
ending near the former bank of the' river. The height of the wall of the 
fort is at present -1 feet. In one corner, as shown in the figure, is a hole 
6 feet deep sujjposed to be the site of the magazine. 



THOMAS.] ARKANSAS. 239 

The articles picked up liere froiii time to time iind found iu the pro- 
cess of cultivatiug the soil belong both to the days of the first settle- 
ment of the county and to very modern times. They are thimbles, 
])il>cs, biokcn dishes, parts of pistols and guns, pieces of silver coin, 
probably used as gun-sights, a Chinese coin, a toy pistol of stone, arti- 
cles of Indian (U-igin, stone bullet molds, etc. The remains of an old 
forge were uncovered here a few years ago. 

THE WYENN MOUNDS. 

This is a group of mounds situated on the bank of Wound lake, 16 
miles from the present mouth of the Arkansas river. The large one is 
18 feet high, oval in form, flat on top, and 130 feet long, exclusive of 
the apron-like appendage at one end, which is 140 feet long, CO feet 
wide, and 3 feet high. As this is used as a graveyard it could not be 
explored nor was permission granted to examine the others which are 
small and of the usual conical form. 



Fig. 146. — Ko^jcr's raouiul, Phillipg comity. Arkansas. 
CHOCTAW MOUND. 

This is a small circular mound, 10 feet high and 40 feet in diameter, 
situated at the junction of Choctaw bayou and Walnut lake. It was 
found by excavation to consist of a top layer of sandy loam 1 foot thick 
and the remainder, to the base, of hard tough clay. No charcoal, ashes, 
or other evidences of occupancy or use, save a few fragments of iiottery, 
were discovered in it. 

Near this point there are evidences of two ancient trails running in 
different directions. 

DREW COUNTY. 
THE TAYLOU MOUNDS. 

This interesting group is located on the land of Dr. J. M. Taylor, 4 
miles west of Winchester railroad station. A view showing the larger 
portion of the group is given in Fig. 149. It consists of several com- 
paratively large mounds, of the usual conical form, several small 
mounds, and numerous slight elevations which are supposed to be 
bouse sites. Th^re is one large mound, with flat top and terrace, not 
shown in the figure, which is 30 feet high. The others range from 5 to 
14 feet in height. 

Along the left margin of the field, not shown in the tigure, is a row 
of what are believed to be artifical ponds made by removing the dirt 
for the mounds. 



240 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The mounds and bouse sites had been o]H'ned and rifled of their 
treasures previous to tlie visit of tlie Bureau a<;ent ; liut lie was for- 
tunate in obtaining from the owner of the property, Dr. Taylor, several 
fine specimens of pottery taken out of them. Some of these have been 
figured by Mr. Holmes. 











V;- K> ')'■ 



THE TILLER MOUND. 

This mound, of the ordinary conical form, !) feet high and rather less 
than 50 feet in diameter, is situated on the farm of Mr. J. T. Tiller, 2J 
miles southwest of Winchester station. It was found, by the thorough 
excavation made, to be composed of sandy soil similar to that of 
the surrounding ground, with a single, heavy layer of human bones, 
pottery, etc., closely packed in a confused mass. This layer was struck 



AKKANSAS. 



241 



at the dei)th of 1 foot from the surface of the inoiuid and jdoved to be 
something over 2 feet thick in the center but thinner toward the mar- 
gins. 

The skeletons lay in every direction and without any noticeal)le order; 
in many cases the bones of one body lay across those of another. It 
was diiiftcult, in fact impossible in some cases, to trace the difterent 
skeletons. Fifty-eifiht skulls were observed and suHicient bones to cor- 
respond therewith. The pots and other vessels of clay were scattered 
irregularly through the deposit, but always near to and apparently 
associated with some cranium. Xear one head were four pots, close by 
another two pots and a pipe, and one or more by others. Several mus- 
sel shells were obtained, generally near the heads, and two turtle shells 




Fig. 1J8.— (IM Freiicli Fort Deslia, Arkansas. 



were discovered inside of a pot, but no burnt clay, charcoal, or ashes 
were found in or about the mound. Twenty-three whole vessels, a num- 
ber of pipes, shells, animal bones, etc., were obtained here. 



LINCOLN COUNTY. 



A mound on the farm of Mr. Felix Smith, and another on the farm 
of Mr. J. I). Adams, both in E. 7 "W., were examined and f(mnd to be 
composed of a top layer of loam and the rest of hard, stiff clay. No 
burnt clay, charcoal, ashes, fragments of pottery, or bones were ob- 
served in either. One was 7 feet high and 90 feet in diameter, the other 
20 feet high and !)0 feet in diameter. 

Another grouj) of small, conical mounds is situated near Heckatoo, in 
which biu'ut clay or brick-like material was observed, usually about 18 
12 ETII 10 



242 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



inclies imdci' the soil. Broken pottery iiud some rude stoue iuipleineuts 
were also foiiud ; but a thorough examiuation was not allowed, as the 
field was covered with cotton. 

.TEFFKRSON COUNTY. 



A uiouiul on land belonging to the estate of Mr. Suuggs, 1 mile south 

(if Garrettson's lauding, 
was explored. This was 
composed wholly of sand 
except the thin layer of 
surface soil. No speci- 
men of any kind nor any 
indications of life or use 
were discovered in it, yet 
its form and appearance 
were such as to show 
clearly that it was artifi- 
cial. Height, 10 feet; 
diameter, 40 feet. 

A group of three fine 
conical mounds, some- 
thing over a mile north 
of Linwood station, was 
visited, but as they were 
covered with graves jjer- 
mission to excavate them 
could not be obtained. 
Tlie average height is 
about 15 feet, the three 
being very nearly of the 
same size and form. 

A short distance from 
these, on the Houson 
farm, are two other tu- 
nuili of similar form, one 
25 and the other 30 feet 
high, but being also cov- 
ered with graves, dig- 
ging was prohibited. 

Excavations for the 
graves do not appear to have brought to light any pottery, bones, or 
burnt clay. 

THE CLAYTON MOUNDS. 

This group, situated on the lands of Hon. Towell Clayton, in Sec. 36 
T. C S., K. 7 W., and 1« miles southeast of Pine Bluft', cousistsof four 




BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL, IX 



^iV^* ,>-' '-?' 



«?" 



mp'f 



H'- 1/ 



lo- ^'■^-'■^'»*'% 




THE DE SOTO MOUND, JEFFERSON COUNTY, ARKANSAS. 








THE KNAPP MOUNDS, PULASKI COUNTY, ARKANSAS. 



THOMAS.] ARKANSAS. 243 

mounds. The most interestiiifi: of these is obloug in shape, rectangu- 
lar, 125 feet long exclusive of the terrace or apron-like extension, 65 
feet broad, and 30 feet high, and resembles the following, shown in 
Plate IX. It is used by the neighborhood as a burying ground, and 
hence could not be disturbed. 

THU 1>K SOTO MOUND. 

The mound, which is shown in PI. ix, is on the laud of Mr. II. G. 
De Priest, 13 miles southeast of Pine Blufi'and 2i miles northwest of 
the Clayton mound, which it resembles in form but exceeds in magni- 
tude. It is 60 feet high at the west end, but somewhat less at the end 
to which the terrace is attached; the top, which is flat, as represented 
in the figure, is 144 feet long by lit) in width (exclusive of the terrace) ; 
back of the mound (from the house) is a large excavation, now a pond, 
ft'oni which the earth was taken for its construction. A part of the top 
is planted in forest trees; the rest is in cultivation. 

It is known in this locality as the "De Soto mound" from (uirrent 
tradition that this distinguished explorer camped here for some time. 

PULASKr COUNTY. 
THE KNAPP MOUNDS. 

These works form, without doubt, the most interesting group in the 
state, and, in fat't, one of the most important in the United States. A 
plat of the group and surrounding wall is given in PI. x, and a sketch 
in PI. IX. They are situate<l on the tarm of Mr. (xilbert Knapp and 
directly on the east bank of JNIound lake, a crescent-shaped bayou,»16 
miles southeast of Little Rock. 

As seen by reference to the plat, the area inclosed by the wall is 
oblong, or somewhat oval, the length north and south about 170 rods, 
and width east and west, 80 to 85 rods, containing 85 acres. The wall 
appears to have formed the defense on three sides, the lake being 
relied on for protection on the fourth. 

The lake is 3 miles long and about one-fourth of a mile wide. The 
field, in which the group is situated, is from 2 to 6 or 8 feet above 
average water level, and has been under cultivation for more than thirty 
years. The surrounding earthen wall reaches 5 or 6 feet in height 
where best preserved, but where most reduced by cultivation is about 
obliterated. It is a little over a mile in length and starts at the very 
margin of the lake on the south, circles around the field, and comes 
to the lake again on the north side. It is broken in three places, as 
shown on the plan. In two places deep trenches, probably of artificial 
origin, pass through the wall. They contain water for the gxeater part 
of the year. The other opening is not complete and may have been 
cut for a roadway by the whites. The curve of the northern half of 
the wall is very even, but near the middle portion there is a slight re- 



244 MOUNl) EXPLORATIONS. 

verse cnrvc some linndreds of" feet in leiifrth and tlie soutliern sefjmeiit 
is (luite uneven. 

In 1844, tli(^ periled of the greatest overflow known in this section, 
these mounds were clear of the water, and it is said that many people 
came here for safety, bringing their household eft'ects and stock with 
them. 

The largest mound {a, IM. x.) is 48 feet high, 'JSU feet long from 
north to south, and 150 feet wide. The nearly level summit is about 50 
feet wide by !K) long. The whole surface is densely covered by forest 
trees and undergrowth. The slopes are even and rather steep, about 
35 or 40 degrees. It stands in front, a little to the right, in Plate ix. 
Permission was given tiy the owner to sink a shaft into tliis mound. 
After descending 10 feet the clay became so hard that the work was 
abandoned. The first 2 feet v>nssed through consisted of vegetable 
mold, in which were some aniiiuvl bones and fragments of jiottery ; then 
8 feet of sandy loam mixed witli clay, the i)roportion of clay increasing 
until at this depth it became wholly clay, exceedingly hard and tough. 
A tunnel was carried in the side for 10 feet with a like result. No 
brick-like substance was ft>und in it anywhere. 

Mound b, the second in size, is oblong and slightly rectangular in 
outline. The slopes are gentle, save where interfered with by the plow, 
which has encroached upon the base at the sides and ends. The base 
measures about 175 by 200 feet, and the height is 38 feet. A shaft 8 
feet square and 10 feet deep was sunk in the top, showing the first 2 
feet to be a black, waxy clay or muck, and the rest of the distance 
a yellow, greasy clay. Nothing was observed except two fine quartz 
crystals 2 feet beneath the surface and some fragments of pottery. 
The top is about 80 by 100 feet in extent, and has been used as a 
garden for a number of years. Fifty feet from the base is a shallow 
depression about 200 feet long and 150 in width which is now over- 
grown with trees and underbrush. This contains water during a part 
of the year and may have been excavated by the ancient inhabitants 
to contain a water supply. 

Mounds c, d, and e lie to the southeast of the large one. The largest 
of these (c) is 12 feet high, about 100 feet long and 90 feet broad at the 
base. A shaft 11 feet deep was made in the center of it. For the first 
4 feet it passed through sandy loam, with here and there a piece of 
pottery and an animal bone; at the depth of 5 feet, in yellow sand 
which continued for 3 feet, was a broken pot; at a depth of 7 feet the 
sand became very wet and continued so to the bottom. Nothing else 
was found. 

Mound d is 5 feet high, about 100 feet long, and 75 feet wide at the 
base. In four i)laces were patches of burnt clay, doubtless the remains 
of former dwellings; in five other places were deixisits of ashes and 
human bones, but no burnt clay. These were generally li or 2 feet 
below the point reached by the plow in cultivating the soil. In these 



ARKANSAS. 



245 



pl.ices a few stone implements were obtained, one of which is shown 
in Fig. loO; also a small ('atliolic medal of copper. Ten other mounds, 
in most cases A'ery much reduced by the i)low, -were observed. The cir- 
cular mounds range from 2 to 10 feet in height, and from 25 to 100 feet 
in diameter, and the oblong ones ai-e from 40 to 350 feet in length. All 
bear evidence of having been used as residence sites, as pottery, stone 
tools and the refuse of chipijed stonework are found associated with 
them. 

THinAUI.T MOI'NDS. 

On the farm of Mr. J. K. Thibault, 8 miles southeast of Little Rock, 
are a number of small mounds averagiug only about a foot and a half 
in height and IS feet in diameter. These belong to the class "house 




n 



KJ 



, Yui. i^v. — .^uiiii iiiijikMuent from Kiiapp group. 

sites," as examination showed that, under a top layer of soil 1 foot thick, 
a layer of burnt (day was always to be found ; immediately beneath this 
a layer of ashes with which human remains and ])otterj' were iisually 
associated. 

They had been partially rifled of their contents by the owner of the 
ground, who, however, kindly donated most of the specimens to the 
Bureau, some of which arc represented in Mr. Holmes's papers. 

SALINE COUNTY. 



On the farm of Mr. J. D. f'hidester, 3 miles southeast of Benton, is a 
space of about 10 acres covered with house sites in which are the usual 
layers of burnt clay, ashes, human bones, etc. They however had 
abeady been explored. 



246 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



IIlHiHES MOrNI>. 



This work, a sketch of which is j;iveii in Fig. 1.51, is situated on the 
farm of Mr. George Hughes, .'5 miles southwest of Benton and within 
100 yards of Saline river, though the bank was formerly within .50 feet 
of it. Some low mounds, probably house sites, formerly surrounded it, 
but they have been removed. In these were skeletons, ])ottery and 
stone implements under ashes and burnt clay. 




The large work yet remaining consists of two parts, the mound 
proper, which is somewhat circular and a wing or extension on one side. 
The former is 25 feet high, tlat on top, 124 feet in diameter at the base 
and 31: on the top. The wing, which runs northeast, is about 120 feet 
long, 80 teet broad at the point where it joins the mound and 54 at the 
northeast end, the height varying from 10 to 12 feet. 



THOMAS.) ARKANSAS. 247 

A shaft, 10 feet deep, in tlie center of the mound reached the hard 
core without bringing to light any relics, clay, ashes or bones. At 
several places on the top and sides of the wing, layers of burnt clay were 
found at the depth of 2 feet from the surface and, under each, a layer 
of ashes and charcoal. At four poiiits charcoal and ashes occurred, 
but without the layer of burnt day. No human remains or indica- 
tions of them were observed. 

CLARK COUNTY. 
WORKS ON SAUNK BAYOI'. 

According to tradition, when this section was first visited by the 
white settlers, the Indians were discovered hei-e making salt. They were 
driven away by the whites, who, for many years, made salt here, and 
during the war the Confederate government utilized the saline waters 
for the same piu'pose. 

There are numerous salt wells and remains of evaporators and also 
several round mounds of small size. Those explored were very similar 
to one another; in each was a top layer of soil, then a layer of burnt 
clay, and beneath this, ashes. One, about 3 feet high, consisted of a 
top layer of loam 2 feet thick, then 4 inches of burnt clay, and beneath 
this 5 or 6 inches of ashes. In the last were parts of a skeleton and a 
bowl. 

The strata in another mound, about 4 feet high, were as follows: Top 
layer, 2 feet of black soil; next, 5 inches of burnt clay, and below this, 
8 or 9 inches of ashes, resting on a hard clay floor IJ inches thick and 
5 feet in diameter. Specimens of this floor were obtained. 

THK TRIUGS MOUNl>. 

This is a small mound on the farm of Mr. W. A. Triggs, 4 miles north- 
west of Arkadelphia, on the bank of Caddo creek. It was partially 
washed away by the overflow of the creek, bringing to light two layers 
of burnt clay, ashes, and human bones, together with pottery and stone 
implements. The Bureau agent was fortunate enough to find it in this 
condition, and before the things had been carried away. Among the 
specimens of pottery found here are the foUowiug : 

Fig. 152, an ornamented water-bottle, one of the finest specimens of the kind ever 
ohtained. 
Fig. 153, a flat-bottomed, jar of unusual shape, partly broken. 

Another mound on the same farm was examined. This was 9 feet 
high with a wing on one side 6 feet high, and another on the opposite 
side 4 feet high. Three excavations in the main portion showed it to be 
composed entirely of loam, without a trace of fire, burial or relics of any 
kind. Two feet under the surface of the wings were traces of ashes 
and burnt clay. 

Two others opened were composed entirely of ashes and yellow clayj 
no relics. 



248 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



OITACHITA COUNTY. 

The only explorations made in this county were of some groups near 
Camaen. 

About 3 miles north of Camden, in Sec. 9, T. 13 S., K. 17 W., on the 
Piles plantation, is a grou]) consisting of one large and two small 
mounds. It formerly contained another, which has been dug away to 
aid in filling a railroad embankment. The plantation on which they 
are situated has been in cultivation for thirty years or more. The soil 
is a reddish, sandy loam, not very productive, and subject to occasional 




:. 



V 




Fir.. 152. 



-An ornamented water bottle, Clark county, 
Arkansas. 



Fm. 153.— Flat-bottomed jar, Clark 
county, Arkansas. 



overtlows. Broken bones, small pieces of pottery, broken stone imple- 
ments, and mussel shells lie scattered over the surface. A few pitted 
stones, a number of arrowheads, a pestle or two, and a stone celt were 
also found on the surface. 

A plat of the group and its immediate surroundings is shown in Fig. 
154. As will be .seen by this, the largest of the three mounds stands 
on the bank of a small slough. It is oblong, and nearly flat on top, 12 
feet high, length on the top, east and west, 70 feet, and width GO feet. 
Abutting against it on the ea.st end is a long, apron-like extension run- 
ning out for 175 feet, 100 feet wide, and 4 feet high. Both mound and 
terrace aic composed of sandy loam, but the latter is much harder and 



ARKANSAS. 



249 



firmer than the former. As the mound is used at the present time for a 
burying phiee, permission was granted to sink only a single shaft in it, 
which revealed nothing worthy ot notice. 

Monnd No. 2, situated about 200 yards south of the large mound (No. 
1), is circular in form, 2 feet high, and 25 feet in diameter. A thorough 




Fig. 154. — Mound group near Canulen, Arkansas. 

excavation showed that the upper portion to the depth of 14 inches con- 
sisted of sand similar to that of the surrounding surface, and the remain- 
der to the depth of 9 inches, of rich black loam. In the latter were three 
much decayed skeletons, the head of one toward the east, that of an- 
other north, and that of the third west. No relics of any kind were 



250 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

observed, tbougli some fragments of ))ottery were picked up from the 
surface, which liad probably beeu turned out by the plow. 

No. 3, about the same size as No. 2, though carefully explored, re- 
vealed nothing wortliy of notice. 

Another conical mound near this group, 35 feet in diameter and 3J 
feet high, was also examined. It was eomposed of loose, black loain, 
through which were scattered fragments of pottery and mussel shells. 
In the south side, at a depth of 2i feet, was a fire bed ab(mt 10 feet in 
diameter and 6 inches thick. This was covered with ashes, charcoal, 
fragments of pottery, and nuissel shells. In the south side, at the 
depth of 3 feet, was a single skeleton, by which lay a broken clay pipe. 
An oak tree, 3 feet in diameter, stands on this mound. 

About 150 feet east of the last mound is a small cii'cular tumulus 
with a flat top. This was composed throughout of very hard, dry, yel- 
low clay, but contained no indications of burial, no evidences of fire, nor 
relic of any kiud. This is somewhat remarkable, as the form and ma- 
terial render it more than probable, judging by what has been ascer- 
tained in regard to the mounds of this state, that it was built for a 
house site, and hence, according to the rule, shcmld liave contained fire- 
beds and ashes. Possibly it was the site of a baracao or storehouse, or 
was built for a house site, but not used. 

LOUISIANA. 

The explorations in this state were confined to Washita, Catahoula, 
and Tensas parishes. 

THE PARGOID GROUP. 

This group, located in Washita ])arish, consists of two mounds situ- 
ated on a point of land between Washita river and Chauvin bayou. 
The laiger one, about 28 feet high and flat on top, has had the sides 
cut away to obtain material for repairing the road that runs by its base. 
From this (as permission to explore it was refused) it was ascertamed 
that it consists of several strata ; first, a top layer, 2 feet thick, of black 
sandy soil, next 15 inches of yellow sand and black loam intermixed; 
then 18 inches of black sandy loam; next 2 feet of yellow sand, and 
below this, yellow sand and black loam intermixed. In the last were 
some pieces of pottery. The layers on the opposite side diftered some- 
what from the order and thickness given, though the material was the 
same. 

The smaller mound is conical in form and only 6 feet high. 

Evidences of house sites were found in the siu-rounding area, such as 
beds of burnt clay and ashes. 

TROYVILLK MOUNDS, CATAHOULA PARISH. 

This interesting group, a plat of which is given in Fig. 155, is located 
at the junction of the Tensas, Washita, and Little rivers, where the 
three unite to form Black river, and consists, as shown in the plat, of 



THOMAS. 1 



LOUISIANA. 



251 



six moiiuds, au inclosing wall or embankment, and artificial jionds and 
canals. 

The wall wliicli incloses the area on the south and west is very 
nearly or quite 1 mile in length, and at the points where least disturbed 
from 7 to 8 feet high and 20 to 25 feet wide. The inclosed area contains 
about 100 acres. 

The large mound (1), which is near tlie center of the inclosure and about 



I 



I 




300 yards from Black river, was originally about 250 feet long, 160 
feet wide at base, and probably <iO feet high, though persons who saw it 
before it was disturbed say it was 75 feet high, with a nearly sharp 
summit. At i^resent it is so gashed and mutilated, having been used 
during the war as a place for rifle i)its, that its original form can 
scarcely be made out. It is now iH feet high, 270 feet long, and ISO 
feet wide. The top can be seen back of the house in Fig. 156. From the 



252 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



gashes in tlio side, one of wliit-h is L'5 feet deep, it could be seen that it 

was comi)()sed chiefly of red and yellowish clay. In one of these cuta 

was exposed a layer of charred cane 1 foot thick extending back into 

the mound. 

Fig. 1.5G shows mound 6. This is 1.5 feet high, 90 feet long, and 75 

feet wide. Two excavations made in it proved it to be conii)osed of a 

very hard, greasy 
clay. 

Mound Xo. 5 is 
200 feet long, 90 
feet wide, and 8 
feet high, and cov- 
ered with modern 
graves. In dig- 
ging these, skele- 
tons and pottery 
are frequently 
thrown out. 

M(nin(l No. 4 is 
nearly destroyed, 
but according to 
local information 
was originally UO 
feet high. 

Mounds U and 3 
are also nearly 
destroyed. Num- 
bers 8, 8, 8, 8 indi- 
cate four artificial 
ponds \\hich were, 
and to a certain 
extent are still, 
connected with 
each other and 
with the bayou on 
the southwest by 
canals which are 
still from 10 to 12 
feet wide and 5 feet 
deep. 
As the bayou connects with the river 3 miles below, it is apparent 

that canoes could reach the inclosure by this route. 
Two conical mounds, one 12 and the other 7 feet high, are situated on 

the plantation of ^Nlrs. Brisco, in Tensas parish, i miles southeast of St. 

Joseph ; but as they are occupied, one as a graveyard and the other 

as a rainwater cistern, they could not be excavated. 




THOMAS.) 



MISSISSIPPI. 253 



MISSISSIPPI. 
COAHOMA COUNTY. 

Col. P. W. Norris, who visited this sectiou of the state, thinks that 
at some forinor period the Mississi^jpi river ran 6 or 8 miles soutliward 
from Friars point, and then returned to wliero the present channel cuts 
across the bend westward toward Old Town. Along the eastern bank of 
the old channel, on the plantation of the Carson brothers, G miles 
south of Friars point, is an interesting group of mounds and earth- 
works. The illustrations are by Mr. Holmes, who subsequently visited 
the group. 

The general plan of these works is shown in PI. xi. In the north- 
west is an inclosure surrounded by an earthen wall and a ditch. Nos. 
a to/ are mounds. There are also several excavations. The area em- 
braced in the plat is about 1 mile east and west and something over half 
a mile north and south. 

The inclosure fronts west for a distance of 738 feet on a cypress 
swamp, i^robably an open bayou or one channel of the Mississippi 
when these works were constructed. It is in the form of a x)arallelo- 
gram, the wall on three sides measuring 1,173 feet long, and embrac- 
ing an area of about 5 acres. This wall is from 15 to 30 feet wide at 
the base, and from 3 to 5 feet high. A ditch is distinctly traceable 
along the whole length of the outside, but it is not exhibited on the 
plate. 

Within this area, a little northwest of the center, is a circular mound 
(«), 192 feet in diameter at the base, 15 feet high, and 66 feet across the 
nearly flat top. There appears to have been originally a platform some 
5 or 6 feet high, on which the mound proper was built. Several exca- 
vations made in the top and on the sides showed that it was composed 
of earth from the bottom land, probably obtained from the excavation 
near the southeast corner of the inclosure. A number of flre-beds of 
burnt clay were found near the summit and at different elevations 
throughout the mouud. Charcoal, ashes, and fragments of pottery 
and stone were also discovered, but no bones. It is i^robable, there- 
fore, that these spots mark the sites of houses. 

Some slight elevations noticed within the inclosure were not ex- 
plored but are shown on the plate. 

Just outside of the southwest comer is an artificial excavation 
about 100 feet in diameter, but now partially filled and converted into a 
bog. 

Mound 6, shown in detail in PI. xii, is double. There are at the bot- 
tom indications of anoval platform, probably 10 feet high, with a length 
of 240 feet at the base. On this, two truncated cones, which occupy the 
entire length, but not the entire width of the jilatform, rise jointly for 
18 feet, and above the union rise separately 8 feet higher. The entire 



254 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

hei},'lit of the mound fioiu the natural stirface of the land is tliciefore 
36 feet. The tones are level on top, the one being 42 feet in diameter 
at this point and the other 48. On this mound, near the top of the 
northern cone, stands a thrifty black oak, 5 feet in diameter. 

Little excavating was done in this mound and nothing of interest 
found, except the ever present fire-beds of burnt clay, stone chips, and 
fragments of pottery. 

Mound <• is oval and rounded on top, 210 feet long, 150 broad at the 
base, and 16 feet high. This mound and several smaller ones near 
it are so nearly masses of flre-beds, burnt clay, fragments of stone and 
pottery, together with more or less charcoal and ashes, as to indicate 
clearly that they are the sites of ancient dwellings thus elevated by 
accumulation of material during long continued occupancj\ 

Mound (1, PI. XIII, the finest of the group, is roughly pentangular and 
very symmetrical, level on the top, 25 feet high (including the platform), 
310 feet in diameter at the base, and 210 feet across the top. Besides 
the broad, sloping platform, 5 feet high, on which the mound rests, there 
is near by, almost adjoining, a small mound which, as in many other 
groups, forms a kind of appendage to the large one. This is about 100 
feet long, 75 feet wide, and 8 feet high, rounded on top. 

Not only are beds of hard burned clay (the fragments of which show 
the casts of cane and grass running through it) abundant upon the 
surface and sides of the mound, but are also found in the wells and 
cisterns and in other excavations made in digging cellars and for the 
foundations of buildings. It is evident from this that it was u.sed as a 
dwelling place or as a location for a temple or some other public build- 
ing. 

Mound e is double and similar in almost every respect to h. The 
platform is 5 feet high and 120 by 80 feet on top. Near the toi> of 
one cone is a red oak tree, 4 feet in diameter, and near the top of the 
other a black oak, 6 feet in diameter. In the depression between the 
two cones a partially decayed skeleton was found in digging a grave 
for a person now interred there. This skeleton was under a bed of 
burnt clay, and other similar beds are found near the surface of the 
sides and summit. 

Mound /is oval, rounded on top, 150 feet long by 75 feet wide and 
between 5 and 6 feet high, differing but little from several others not 
shown on the plat. A thorough examination of this mound revealed 
the fact that from base to summit it was composed of burnt clay, mud, 
or alluvial earth in irregular layers formed of lumps or little masses 
burned to a brick red or actually melted into slag. Much of the top of 
this mound is a deposit resembling mud or clay plastering, from which 
the sustaining canes and timbers had been burned out, leaving their 
casts. It seems evident, therefore, that mud-walled and perhaps par- 
titioned dwellings, stood here which were destroyed by fii-e. 



THOMAS.] MISSISSIPPI. 265 

EXCAVATIONS. 

The places from which a part at least of the dirt was takeu that was 
used to form the mounds are shown by the uneveuuess of the surface 
of the ground immediately around them. But there are several excava- 
tious which must have furnished a large portion of the material for this 
purpose. They are still so deep as to form swamps, bogs, or open 
ponds, some of the last being well stocked with tish. 

During all the excavations made and digging done by the present 
proprietors, who have made all the improvements there are on the 
l)lantation, but few skeletons have been unearthed and no whole vessels 
of pottery found. Still, it is possible that more extensive explorations 
of the small mounds may reveal these, but the owner will not allow them 
to be disturbed. 

The solid material of which the mounds are composed, together with 
their numerous tire beds or patches of burnt clay, are so well calculated 
to withstand the erosion of the elements in a region but little subject 
to frosts, that the lapse of time has had but little eft'ect upon their appear- 
ance. Still, the rounding off of the parts not protected by tire-beds, 
the boggy character of the excavations, and the considerable accumula- 
tion of soil upon the works suggest that the town of the mound-builders 
located here was upon the bank of the Mississippi when this I'iver flowed 
in its ancient channel, but was abandoned when it changed its bed. 

The more recent works at Old Town, built apparently by people hav- 
ing the same customs, seem to favor this supposition. 

THE DICKERSON MOUNDS. 

On the Dickerson farm, 4 miles east of Friars jioijit, is another interest- 
ing group of mounds. These are situated on the dry, gravelly bank of 
the Sunflower river. There is no inclosure, but several fields of the farm 
are literally strewn with stone chips and fragments of ancient pottery, 
and upon long oval hillocks are found numerous fragments of human 
bones. 

The Sunflower is here scarcely a creek during low water and its 
gravelly banks are high above the floods; yet the mounds are mostly 
oblong or oval and flat on top, like those found on the bottoms subject 
to overflows. They are built as usual of the material from adjacent 
ground, which, being gravel instead of clay or mud, rendered the out- 
lines of the beds of burned clay distributed through them more distinct 
than usual. Most of them seem to have been the sites of dwellings, the 
same as those upon the bottoms; yet on the intermediate areas are 
saucer-shaped depressions, indicating that the earth lodge so common 
farther north had been in use here. 

Of the numerous mounds explored only one was found to be a true 
cemetery of the ancient inhabitants. This was, as usual, one of the 
least conspicuous of the group. The first tier of skeletons was barely 



25fi 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



covered and the vessels, which are usually a little higher than the skele- 
tons, were broken into fragments, only one whole one being found in 
this tier. The next tier was about 2 feet below the first and the bones 
more decayed. Eelatively fewer vessels were found and these so badly 
broken that but two bowls were obtained entire. The third tier was 
2 feet below the second, or 5 feet from the top, and slightly below the 
original surface of the ground. 

As less than a hundred skeletons were found here, there are doubt- 
less other burying places in this group, but there are so many modern 
burials in these mounds that it was impossible to sink a pit without 
disturbing the skeletons of whites and negroes. 




Fig. 158. — Clarksdale works, Coahoma county, Mississippi. 

At Clarksdale on the Sunflower river, is a group consisting of 
an inclosure and six mounds. The plan of these works is presented in 
Fig. 158. At B is a semicircular inclosure fronting the river, the sur- 
rounding earthen wall partially obliterated by the plow, though suffi- 
cient remains to trace satisfactorily the line. The length following the 
curve, as ascertained by pacing, is 2,001 feet; the height where least 
disturbed is from 3 to 5 feet. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 are mounds; No. 
6 a wash-out, revealing a cemetery; No. 8, house sites, and in the south- 
west corner at the end of the wall an excavation. 

The largest and most interesting of the mounds is No. 1 (Fig. 159), 
situated within the inclosure and directly on the bank of the river, so 
that the slope of the west side of the mound is continuous with the 
slope of the bank. It is rectangular in form, consisting first of a plat- 



MISSISSIPPI. 



257 



form 5 feet higb, which forms the base, projecting as a uarrow terrace 
on all the sides except that next the river. 

Above this rises the mound proper, 20 feet high, 153 feet long at the 
base, and nearly 100 feet wide. The top is flat and level and on it now 
stands the village church, but formerly there stood on it a little conical 
nionnd 5 feet high and 25 feet in diameter, consisting as is stated 
almost wholly of burnt clay, 
charcoal, ashes, and fragments 
of pottery, beneath wh ich were 
found a fine scallop-edged, 
double-eared pot and a skele- 
ton. Every observable por- 
tion of this mound bears evi- 
dence that the mode of con- 
struction and doubtless the 
use made of it were the same 
as of those at Carson's plan- 
tation, though this group is 
ajiparently less ancient. 

The other four mounds (2, 
3, 4, and 6) are small, and of 
the ordinary conical form ; No. 
7 is but slightly elevated, and 
scarcely deserves to be called 
a mound. 

Ko. 4, though the smallest 
of the group, jjroved to be in 
some respects the most inter- 
esting. It is circular, 20 feet 
in diameter, and 3 feet high, 
and little more than a heap of 
ashes. A trench through it 
showed that it consisted of 
ashes, charcoal, and charred 
animal bones, also abundant 
stone chips and fragments of 
pottery, but no entire vessels. 
There was still sufficient 
strength in the ashes to 
roughen the hands, aifect the color of the boots, and be detected by 
the sense of smell ; but this, though less frequent, is not unusual in the 
heavy fire beds of this region. 

Human bones having been found in grading a roadway through the 

low, gravelly banks of a washout at No. (J (Fig. 158), trenches were cut 

in both banks. Human bones, so hard as to be cut with diiScailty by 

the spade, were found throughout the 50 feet in length of the trench, 

12 KTH 17 




258 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

both above and below the road {(t, a, u), but the heaviest deposit was 
above the road on the north side, where they formed nearly a solid layer 
of skeletons searcely a foot below the surfaee. So many entire skele- 
tons were traceable that it is evident it was not a depcisitof bones ti-om 
scaffolds, but a burial of bodies en masse with little regard to regu- 
larity. No weapons, charcoal, ashes, or pottery were found with them, 
and, although tradition gives us no inHnination in regard to them, it is 
probable that the burials were c,omi)aratively modern. 

Mound 7, close to the bni-ial jdace mentioned, was also a depository 
of the dead, differing from the former more in character and contents 
than in apparent age. The main i)ortion of this low, dark colored 
mound or slightly elevated si)a<'e was covered by a residence and 
small garden, but along a few feet of its vacant northern edge some ex- 
cavations were made. Tlie skeletons were nearly 3 feet below the 
surface in a single tier, lying liorizontally, but without uniformity as to 
direction. Except the better preservation of the skeletons, the mode 
of buwal and accompaniments and everything found in this mound were 
in all respects similar to the (Md Town burials. But the pottery, of 
which only two entire vessels were obtained, like that from Dickersou's 
mound, is lighter colored and thinner than usual. 

A coarse clay pipe, donated by Mr. John Clarke, the owner of this 
]noperty, was found in an extensive line of house sites marked by 
patches of buint clay at No. S (Fig. 158). In the excavations made 
among these house sites a small stone mortar, a rude celt, and two very 
tine ones, also many fragments of pottery, a number of fleshers and 
scrapers were obtained. 

The largest excavation at this place is situated at the southwest cor- 
ner of the inclosure. From this, in all probability, was obtained the 
material for building the large mound (No. 1). 

During the researches made through i)ortions of the counties of 
Coahoma, Bolivar, and Sunflower, for a distance of some 30 miles 
south of Clarksdale, a large number of ancient dwelling sites were 
found, having the ai)pearance, before being disturbed, of low, flatfish 
mounds. ]\lany were opened and uniforndy found to be mere liea])Sor 
patches of l)urnt clay, ashes, and the dirt accumulated during occu- 
pancy, covered by a thin layer of top soil. 

.SUNFLOWER COUNTY. 

Not far from the shoals of Sunflower river, and in tlie midst of a cane- 
brake, a mouml of considerable size was discovered. The dimensions, 
as nearly as could be determined, are as follows: Length, 125 feet; 
greatest width, about KM) feet; and height to the summit of its cone, 
25 feet. The apex is near the eastern end, and is surmounted by a 
white oak 6 feet in diameter. 

Along the stee]i side of the eastern end was the outcro])ping of a 
bed of burnt clay in small masses or lumx)S, and below it some very 



s 
o 




MISSISSIPPI. 



259 



light colored fragincDts of pottery. Almost the first spadeful of earth 
revealed deeaying fragments of human bones. Tracing these horizon- 
tally mider the roots of the oak and under the clay bed, a skull was 
reached, resting on a broken platter-shajied vessel, and by the side of 
it a pot with a scalloped edge, a broken water bottle with female head 
on the top of the neck, a pottery tube, and a dipper in the form of a 
shell shown in Fig. 100. The portion of the platter which had been 
broken out to allow room for the neck of the bottle was wanting. 

Another excavation was made in the top of the terrace near the 
middle of the nionml. After cutting through a layer of brick-red chiudvS 
of burnt clay some 4 or "> inches thick, a layer of dark colored earth 
something over a foot in dejith was reached. Immediately beneath this 




Flii. itjO. — Vusse'l iu form of it abell, Siiuliowur eoiiuL^v, Miusissippi. 

was a medium-sized human skeleton lying horizontally on its right side. 
Near the skull were a broken water vessel and fragments of other ves- 
sels. 

WASHINGTON (U)ITNTY. 



THIC AVONDAI.K JIOUNDS. 

This group, which is shown in Fig. 1(51, is located ou the plantation of 
Mrs. P. J. Sterling, 1^ miles east of Stoneville and t) miles from Gran- 
ville. The land on which they are built is a rich, level bottom, subject 
to overdows. 

The mounds, as shown in the tigure, are arranged somewhat in a 
semicircle. The largest, which is used as a graveyard by the whites, is 
30 feet high, tlat on top, and oval in form, nearly 200 feet long and about 
175 broad. To the west of it is a depression of about 3 acres, from 
which it is probable the material was taken to build this mound. The 
second is 15 feet high and is covered with graves of colored i>eople. 

Numerous fragments of pottery and lumps of burnt clay, containing 
impressions of cane and grass, were tound near the surface of the small 
mounds. 



260 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Cutting- ii trench through No. 4 (the one at the extreme left of the 
figure), tliere wasri'achcd first, a layer of sandy loam ISinches thick, then 
2 feet of burnt clay, next a layer of charcoal aiul aslies 18 inches thick, 
and thence to the base hard clay. No human boues or evidences of 
burial were observed. 











YAZOO COUNTY. 



THE CJIAMPLIN MorNl>S. 



This group, consisting of four mounds, is situated about the center of 
the county, 2 miles north of Yazoo City and 2 miles east of Yazoo river. 
The mounds stand on low, swampy land, about half a mile from the 
bills, and during the flood of 1882 were surrounded by water. One of 



MISSISSIPPI. 



261 



theui is an irregular oval of comparatively large size, the other three 
are conical anil smaller. 

The large nionnd is of the form shown in Figs. 162 and 163, the first 
giving tlie contour of the base, the other a vertical section through the 
middle, lengthwise. The dimensions were found by careful measure- 
ments to he as follows: Length at base, from north to south, 106 feet; 
width of base at a a (Fig. 162), .W feet; at h />, m feet; at d d, .38 feet; 
height at a (Fig. 163), 14 feet; at h, S feet, and at d, 11 feet. It was 
explored thoroughly down to the 

original surface, and found to k 

be composed throughout of dark 
earth, similar to the surrounding 
soil of this swamp region, yet 
there ai'e no excavations or de- 
pressions immediately around it 
from whi<'h the earth for building 
it could have been taken. 

In the southern portion, at the 
depth of .3 feet 6 inches, were 
three adult skeletons about on 
the same level (No. 1, Fig. 163), 
all extended at full length. One 
lay with face up and head north; 
about the neck and wrists were a 
number of shell beads. Another 
lay also with face up, but head to 
the west; ch)se by the head was 
a nicely polished celt. The other 
lay on the left side, with the head 
north; by the head was a polished 
celt and immediately in front of 
the face a small water bottle. 

At 2, an adult skeleton lay ex- 
tended on the left side, with head 
south. The earth immediately 
around it was burned hard, the 
bones also .showing signs of fire. 
Mixed with this burned earth 
was a considerable quantity of charcoal and ashes. 

At 3, same depth as 2, was the skeleton of a very young 
relics were found with this or 2. 

At the bottom of the mound, at the point marked 4, were the remains 
of six skeletons. These had doubtless been buried after the llesh wag 
removed, as the bones of each had been taken apart and placed in a 
heap, the parts of one skeleton forming one heap. Among the rib 




Flii 



]6'J. — Outline of mound Xo. 1, Champliii ;irniip 
Yazoo county, ilississipiti. 



child. No 



262 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



bones of one were a. few beads made of niiiinte shells. Nothing was 
fonnd with cither of the otlier live. 

Immediately under the surface of the moujid at 5 was a single pol- 
ished celt. At 0, 3 feet from the top, lay an iulult skeleton extended <jn 
the back, head east; no lelics weic fonnd with it. At 7, on the same 
level, was another adult skeleton lying in the same position as the last 
mentioned ; on the breast was a polished celt. At 
8 were the Ixmes (»f another, separated and placed 
in aheap, asthose previously lueiitioned, with a num- 
ber of shell beads scattered among them. These 
were at the depth of 18 inches. At fl lay the skel- 
g etoM of an adult, at the depth of 3 feet, extemled on 
I tl I e back, head west; nothing with it. 
■^ No. 10 indicates the position of an adult skeleton 
>;. at a dei>tli of -t feet 6 inches. This was also ex- 
g tended on the back, witli the head east. The earth 
g about it was unusually hard, making it impossible 
^ togcttheboues out iu good condition, yet the skull 
d. is sufticient to show the form, which indicates 
I frontal pressure and backwai'd elongation to an 
~ unusual extent. 

I No. 11, three adult skeletons extended, with faces 
3 up and heads east. These were lying side by side 
■^ at the bottom of the mound on the natural surface of 
5 the ground, and immediately over them a covering 
I of bark, apparently of the red oak. Tliis consisted 
tS of a single layer of wide pieces. Nothing else was 
S found with them. 

s In the northern end of the mound, immediately 
s under the .surface at the highest point, 12, was a 
f small, red clay vessel (Fig. 161). The earth of this 
"^ nortlu-rn ])ortiou, to the depth of 3 feet, contained 

1 the remains of several skeletons (13), both of adults 

2 and children, which were so far decayed that their 
respective positions could not be determined; nor in 
fact was it possible to ascertain the exact number 
of them. Scattered among the bones were several 
celts, different lots of beads, and one small pot. 

No. 14 indicates the position of two adult skele- 
tons, at a depth of -1 feet, one extended on the right side, head north, 
the bones of the other separated and placed in a iiile. Around the 
neck of the former were a number of shell beads. 

No. 15 was the skeleton of an adult, at a depth of 9 feet, extended 
on the right side, head east; nothing with it. 

Nos. 17 and IS, two skeletons of adults found at a d('i)th of U) feet; 
bones separated and placed in piles. No relics with them. 



m .' 



THu.MAS.) 



MISSISSIPPI. 



263 



None ot'tlio burials in this inouiid were in inclosiires or coffins of any 
kind, except the two instances where bark coverinj;' was used, as already 
mentioned. 

All the skeletons referred to as having no relics buried with them 
had the heads compressed in the manner described. The others, those 
with ornaments or imi)lemeuts accompanying them, had heads ot the 
usual type. Although this fact seems to indicate that individuals of 
two different tribes were buried here, it seems evident that they be- 
longed to the same era, as there were no indications that the mound 
had been disturbed after it was completed. 

Mound No. 2 stands l,3(t(> feet cast of the large one and is a regular 
cone, 58 feet in diameter and 13 feet high. The main body was com- 
posed of dark swamp soil like that of the 
surrounding land, but at the bottom was 
a central, conical core of yellow clay, 12 
feet in diameter and 3 feet high. The 
nearest point where the clay of which it 
is comjiosed could have been obtained 
is half a mile away. About 3 feet be- 
neath the apex were a few human teeth 
and slight traces of other bones, with 
which were associated a few beads made 
of deer horn. Immediately below the 
surface, on one side, an ornamented watei 
bottle was discovered. On the toj) of the 
central day core lay a small lied of coals 
and ashes some 2 or 3 feet in diameter, 
which contaiiu'd a number of burned 
mussel shells. 

Mound No. 3, about 700 feet from No. 2, is oval in outline, rounded 
on top, 35 feet long nortli and south, 27 feet wide, and 3 feet high. This 
was not explored. 

No. 4, which is 275 feet due soutli of No. .'>, is sindlai' in form and 
size to the latter. It was explored and found to be composed through- 
out of dark, swamp soil. Nothing was discovered except a few coals. 




Fici 



Hii — Image vessel from Cliamplin 
mound, Miaaissippi. 



ADAMS COUNTY. 

The only mounds examined in this county arc those forming the 
noted Selsertown group. Dr. Palmer made a hasty visit to them in 1884; 
subsequently, in 1887, Mr. Middleton made a careful survey of them. 
The description and figures here given are from Mr. Middleton's report. 

These works, a general plan of which is shown in PI. xiv, 1, consist at 
present of a large, circular, flat topped mound, and three others of 
auialler dimensions, standing upon an elevated platform, a little over 
20 feet liigh and 5 or G acres in extent. They are situated in the hill 
country of the northern part of the ccmnty and some (i or 7 miles from 
the Mississippi bottom. 



2(14 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

The topographical features of this section are similar to those of other 
counties horilering on this portion of the river, consisting of the bot- 
toms along the Mississippi and the uplands which extend back from 
tliese and form the general surface of the state. The western border 
of these uplands, where they join the bottoms, terminates in somewhat 
abrupt descents to which the term "bluft's'" has been applied. In Adams 
county the bottoms are from 1 to 3 miles wide north of Natchez, which 
is the only jjortiou of the county it is necessary to refer to. About a mile 
above Natchez the Mississipi>i river, bending eastward, strikes the foot 
of the bluft's, hugs them for a short distance below, and again recedes. 

The general level of the uplands, some 200 or 2.50 feet above the 
bottoms, is broken by the valleys of numerous creeks and their 
branches, through which the water of the upper area tinds its way to 
the Mississipjji. Among the smaller streams of this immediate section 
is one known locally as Dunbare creek, which runs westward to the 
Mississippi. The ccnintry about the headwaters of this creek, where 
the little streams which form its branches have cut ravines, is some- 
what rough and broken up into ridges, spurs, and knolls. It is here that 
the works mentioned are situated, about a mile northwest of the site 
of the old village of Selsertown, 7, miles a little west of north from 
Washington, and 2 miles northwest of the railroad station (Stanton). 

As will beobserved byreference to PI. xiv, 1, the platform, or oblong- 
elevation on which the mounds stand, is located on a rather narrow 
ridge which, starting from the higher level on the east, slopes down- 
ward gradually but irregularly toward the west, fading out in an 
expansion on the lower level of the creek valley a little southwest of 
the i)latform. On the north is the valley of a small creek lunning 
westward; on the south is aiu)ther luxrrow valley or ravine in which is 
a small branch of Dunbare creek, running southwest. This ridge, as 
will be seen by reference to the ligure, is quite irregular as to its sur- 
face, course, and form. Coming westward from the eastern extremity 
the line of highest elevation bends southward by //, terminating appar- 
ently in a spur, which was not followed out. 

Following the line of the load, the descent — i to A-, from the upper 
level h to the lower level g, of the ridge — is about 40 feet and somewhat 
abrupt. From I- to the platform, the top of the ridge, with the excep- 
tion of the rise at /, is nearly level lengthwise — that is to say, along 
the line of the road. The rise at / is an elongate oval knoll, fiom 12 
to 15 feet high, and of the comparative size shown in the figure. As it 
is beyond all question a natural formation, no special measurement of 
it was made. 

At the point occupied by the platform there is a sudden bend and ex- 
pansion of the ridge, though the crest is near the south margin, the line 
running inside (north) of, but near, the southern edge of the platform. 

Altliough the term "platform" has been used here to indicate this 
somewhat remarkable elevation on which the mounds are placed, Mr. 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. XIV 



\ 



^^^^iiii"'V&;i^|!^ 






,^,,^^#f^\ i \'N I 



# 



^%^ 



iM®>- " ■^s 







SELSERTOWN MOUND GROUP, ADAMS COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI. 



\ |l"l' /' AX.ilij. W;l!»'«inll',!iillllllii;i»llilil««n \ I II 



1 



WW»f 4, 



"' ,»*^ 



1!f|f#' 



SccUon on h^u? ti t> 



PLATFORM AND MOUNDS OF THE SELSERTOWN GROUP. 



A 



THOMAS.] MISSISSIPPI. 265 

Middleton and Dr. Palmer express the opinion very confidently that 
it is chiefly a natnial formation. This is based upon the following 
facts: The sudden bend and enlargement of the ridge at this point; 
the fact that natural knolls, or mound like elevations, are not uncom- 
mon on the ridges of this section, as for example, the one near by at 
/; and the evidence obtained by excavating, which, so far as it was 
carried, sustains this view. They think it quite probable that the orig- 
inal form was artificially modified, so as to make the top more uniforndy 
level and the margins more abrupt than they were formed by nature. 

At the eastern end of this platform, descending northward, is an old 
washout or gully. The surface contour, running east and west, across 
the platform, the mounds, and this gully from I to m is shown in the 
section at A, and that running north and south from p to q at B; a 
section of the ridge at *• to « is shown at C. 

The shape and piesent condition of the platform and the mounds on 
it are shown in PI. Xiv, 2. The extreme length from base to base varies 
but slightly from 700 feet; the greatest width, which is near the west 
end, is about .^30 feet; width at the east end, 330 feet. The extreme 
length of the surface area is about 590 feet; the width near the west 
end, 400 feet. The height varies from 21 to 45 feet, the northern and 
northwestern portion standing higher above the base or general slope of 
the ridge than the southern and eastern. The surface is comijaratively 
level, though there are some depressions in the central portion, from 
which it is probable dirt was taken to be used in building the nuiunds. 

Although the base has a somewhat regular outline, the margin of the 
upper surface is so cut and gashed by sharp gulleys and indentations 
as to give scarcely any indications of its original form. 

The surface has been under cultivation for many years, but the slopes 
of the sides are covered with thick growths of cane, locust, sedge, and 
briars. The soil, which is sinnlar to that of the surrounding area, con- 
sists of loam and red clay, mixed somewhat with sand, which, though 
apparently adhesive, wears away rapidly under the action of water 
where the surface is abraded and the vegetation removed. The two 
chief gullies, the one at the northwest corner and the other near the 
southeast corner, which have evidently been formed by washing, are 
probably largely due to the fact that they are the lines of drainage and 
are the points long used as the places of ascent and descent for per- 
sons, teams, and stock. 

There are at present four mounds on this elevated area, though, 
according to Squier and Davis', there were formerly eleven. Of the 
four which remain, one is placed, as these authors state, about the 
middle of each end, that is, at the east and west margins. The 
other two are placed near the middle of the north and south sides. Of 
the other seven, no satisfactory traces were found by Mr. Middleton, 
but Dr. Palmer, who visited them three years before, thought he saw 



'Anc. Mon., j>. 118. 



266 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

indications of other stiuctuies at points around the marjjin, but was 
inclined to the opinion tliat tliese were, house sites, as fragments of pot- 
tery aud pieces of burnt clay, often with fluted impressions made by 
s])lit reeds, were found in abuudance at sui'li i)oints. But neither 
found any traces of a central mound, anil the disposition of those 
which remain would indicate that this central space was left unoccujned. 
The wearing of the mound seems also to forbid the idea of a central 
tumulus, as it was here the surface water seemed to collect. 

The surfiice of the platform is strewn with fragments of pottery. On 
and about the smaller mounds down the northein slope, es])ecially in 
the gullies or washouts, jjrobably brought down li"om the top, are num- 
erous fragments of burnt clay. This burnt clay is not in the form of 
bricks, nor at any point arranged in or used to form a wall. That on 
the slopes and in the gullies on the north side has certainly been 
brought down from the ui)pcr surface. It is mostly of a brickred color 
and bears impressions of the split cane stamp, of which mention has here- 
tofore been made. These have probably been taken for the impressions 
of fingers, an error which would have been easily corrected by observ- 
ing that the curvature is outward instead of inward, as would have been 
the case if made by the fingers. Running through it, on what was the 
inner side, are the im])ressions of twigs and giass stems. It is in every 
respect similar to that observed in Arkansas, and is evidently the clay 
which formed the plastering of the houses, as mentioned by the French 
explorers, which, at the destruction of the houses by fire, was liurned 
to the condition in which it is now found. 

The largest of the four mounds, the one to which writers have gener- 
ally referred, is that marked e at the western end of the platform. It 
is nearly circular in form, truncated l)ut somewhat rounded ou top, the 
slopes tolerably steep. The diameter at the base is 1-15 feet; the diiim- 
eter of the top averages 7lJ feet (the upper surface being somewhat oval) ; 
height, 31 feet. It has been ijartially exjdored, but the result is not 
known with certainty. The last examination was made on behalf of 
Dr. Joseph Jones, of New Orleans, but it does not appear that he was 
at any time present while the excavation was going on. The depth 
reached was only 15 or 10 feet. This mound has, ar some former time, 
been under cultivation, but owing, perhaps, to its steepness has been 
abandoned to briars and locust trees. 

The next largest mound is the one marked/, at the eastern extremity 
of the platform. It is somewhat irregular in form but approaches in 
outline a semi-oval, the base resting on the margin of the platform, 
with whicli tlie eastern side of the mound forms a continuous slope. It 
is possible that cultivation of its surface and wearing away at the east- 
ern end has somewhat changed the original form. The top is flat but 
irregular, the height varying from 5 to 8 feet. The diameter of the 
base east and west is 110 feet; the greatest diameter north and south, 
near the east margin, is about 3 feet less. 



THOMAS] . MISSISSIPPI. 267 

The Dther two mounds (g and /(), situated near the iiiiddle of the 
north an<l south margins are circular, quite small, the one marked fi 
measuring but 38 feet in diameter and 2 feet high ; the other, marked li, 
22 feet in diameter and 1 i feet high. Both have been under cultiva- 
tion, which has brought to light a layer of burnt clay near the top of 
each, showing them to be of the same type as the h)w domiciliary 
mounds of Arkansas. 

UNION (BOUNTY. 

The grtmp of mounds here figured ( Fig. 1(!5) is located in tln^ southern 
part of [Jiuou County, Mississippi, on the SE. ^ of Sec. 12, and XE. .{ 
of Sec, 13, T. 8 S., R. 2 E. 

There are fourteen mounds belonging to the group, twelve of which 
are together, the other two (not shown) being one east and the other 
west, aboiithalf a mile from the large mound, which is the most prom- 
inent of the group. 

The general level of the tield is about .50 feet above the creek bot- 
toms to the north and south, which are overflowed at every hard rain. 

Before the soil had been cultivated an embankment could be traced 
around the twelve central mounds which was about 2 feet high and 10 
feet across at the base, with a ditch on the outside entirely around. 
The ditch was mostly and in some places entirely filled up. At pres- 
ent no trace of it remains and the embankment can be seen only for a 
few rods on the west and noi'th sides, where it has not been plowed 
over. It was cut through in several places and showed no trace of 
wood. This, however, is not positive evidence that no palisades ex- 
isted, for it may have Iteen washed down farthei' than the posts would 
have been sunk, the area being uuich worn by drains. The earth form- 
ing it is the same as the surrounding soil, and was probably thrown 
inward from the ditch. 

Before the land was cleared timber as large as can be found in the 
country grew up to the ditch on the outside while inside that limit noth- 
ing grew but brush and small trees. The largest one on the embank- 
ment, cul3 in 1842, showed l)y its growth-rings that it was 52 years old. 
This would give a period of not more tlian a century in Avhich timber 
has been growing on the motinds. 

Dense can ebrakes still exist within a few miles, which no doubt 
abounded in game, and in the creeks near at hand large fishes are 
caught in considerable numbers. The soil in this field, though now 
about worn out by careless tillage, was formerly very fertile. 

A pond of 5 or acres begins at the western line of the embankment. 
The earth put into thelarger mound was jirobably taken from this point, 
as all the different sorts of earth used in the mounds are to be found in 
the tield or adjacent swamps. 

The line of the wall is shown as it was traced out by Mr, Parks, the 
first permanent .settler of the country, ami nmy not be con-ect, espe- 



268 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



cially on the soutberu line. Tlie, southeast corner should be at least 
100 feet farther .south, or else the line should change its direction at 
.some point as it does on the northern side. As laid down here it runs 
over mounds 8 and 10. From tlie cont^iur of the ground it is probable 
that the bearing should be a little more to the soutli from both the 




Fig. 165. — Mound group in Union comity, Mississippi. 



southea.st and the southwest corners, and tliat the change in dirpction 
should take place south of mound 10. 

Beginning at the northwest corner its sides measure from station to 
station as numbered 792, 957, 1,930, 1,505, and 1,937 feet. 



THOMAS. I 



MISSISSIPPI. 



269 



lu the space iuclosed by mounds 3, 4, and 1) is a cemetery, as shown 
by the bones and numerous ft-agments of pottery plowed up. Some 
arrow-points, beads, and a number of pitted stones were found scattered 
about on the surface. The arrow-points are all small and chipped from 
water-worn pebbles of jasper, which occur in considerable quantities. 
With one skeleton exluinied here were found an inm jiipe, «ome silver 
ornaments, copper beads, wrought nails, and a piece of glass. 

The large mound is a flat-topped quadrilateral, with the longer axis 
nearly north and south. At the bottom, the sides, beginning with the 
southeast, measure 153, 210, 177 and 234 feet; on the top 87, 124, 94 
and 119 feet. From these measurements it mil be seen that the slope 
of the sides is not uniform 

and that they are quite dif- -XV** 

licult to ascend. On the 
northeast side is a graded 
M'ay, 20 feet wide at the toj) 
and running out4.5 feet from 
the base. This figure (20 
feet) iirobably represents its 
original width on top along 
the whole length, though it 
is now nuich worn down. 
The height of the mound is 
27 feet. 

The numbers of tlie small 
mounds refer, for the first 
eight, to the order in which 
they were opened. In every 
case the dirt was removed 
down to the original soil 
and far enough outwardly 
to make it certain that the 
limit of the mound was reached. Trenches, varying in width from 6 
to 10 feet, were carried to tlie center, then run to the edge in another 
direction and space cleared out about the center sufficient to show that 
nothing of interest remained. "Surface" refers to the original soil 
beneath the mound, and "center" to the line directly down from the 
highest point. All the mounds except the first have been plowed over 
until they are probably 3 to 5 feet lower than when built. 

Mound 1, located nearly west of the large mound, was the most 
prominent of the smaller ones. The first trench in this was made from 
the soutnh side. (See Figs. 166, showing plan of trenches, and 167, 
and 168 showing sections of south trench.) 

Sixteen feet from the center, resting on the surface, was a mass of 
loose, cloddy dirt measuring 3J by 2 feet and extending 3J feet up. It 
was such a condition as would result from a small coffin's decaying and 




Fig. 166. — Plan of mound Xo. 1, group in Union county. 
Hississippi. 



270 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



letting the earth above it fall in, though careful seaicli failed to show 
any traces of wood. On the bottom were found a sknll, lying face 
upward, some bones of the arm and neck, and the head of a femur, all 








Fig. 167 Sectiuns along oouth trt^ncli, mouud Nu. 1, Vuinn county, Miasiasiiipi, 

SO badly decayed as to crumble almost at a touch. The teeth showed 
that it had been a person not over middle age. A'ery flue i>article.s of 
galenite were adhering to tlie skull and to the earth in contact with it. 



. •^M'^U'-'-cT'O^^, Vuu.''■■:".l4■ 



y- 



' .^ 



V^ 






't/A 









f'le. 



Fig. 168. — Sectiou altmg south trench, uiouud Xo. 1, Union county, Mississippi. 

A number of shell beads, some the entire shells of a small marine species 
others cut from a large shell and drillefl, lay with the skull. The frontal 
bone was saved; it showed no depression at the root of the nose, and 



THllMAS.J 



MISSISSIPPI. 



'271 



one orbit was lower than the other, probably the result of an injury. 
The small size of the burial place, the ])ositiou of the bones and the 
galenite sticking to the skull go to show that only the skeleton had 
been buried. 

Lying west of these bones, in the hard dirt, was a scapula belonging 
to a larger person than the last, along with other bones too badly de- 
cayed and broken to tell what tliey were; also a few shell beads. At 
10 feet from the center and 4 feet from the surface was a small pile of 
ashes with the dirt slightly burnt below, showing that a fire had been 
made when the mound had reached that stage and afterwards covered 
up before the place bad been disturbed. Three feet above the surface 
at the center, in hard dirt, was a badly decayed skull of an old person, 
and one cervical vertebra. Lying on the original surface at the center 
were some fragments of thick, red pottery and ai small amount of 
charcoal. Six inches above the bottom a thin seam of red clay was 
continuous for 3 or 4 feet around the center. 




Fig. 1H9.— Section along the northeast trench, mound No. 1. Union county. 

The next trench was run in from the northeast (see Figs. 169 and 170). 
Twenty-one feet from the center there was a depression of 6 inches where 
soil had been removed down to underlying red clay which was so hard 
as to be difficult to loosen with a pick. In this clay two holes, marked 
(a, Fig. 170, and h, Fig. KiD), had been dug 6 feet apart, one north of the 
other. Each was a foot across and 3 feet deep, rounded at the bottom, 
and filled with a shiny gray ooze. In the one to the south was found a 
piece of skull bone, in the northern one nothing but the soft mud or 
slime. Fourteen feet from the center were two similar holes, one 14 
inches across and 3 feet deep, the other 3 feet south of it of thesame depth 
and 18 inches across. One is sliown at c. Fig. 109. No traces of bones 
were found in these. They were iilled with the same gray dirt as the 



272 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



first two, though it was not quite so wet. The dirt for 2 or 3 feet above 
all these holes was much looser than that at the sides, as if something 
had been placed over them which afterward gave way. Eleven feet 
from the center the surface rose to its natui'al place, making a stei) of 
11 inches, showing that the depression was not carried on a level. 

On the south side of this trench, 5 feet from the surface, were three 
graves, 11, 7, and 4 feet, respectively, from the center. Each was filled 
with loose dark dirt and surrounded by a mass of very hard clay, which 
showed no marks of burning, but seems rather to have been packed 
wet and allowed to dry before being covered over. In the first, which 
was 2 feet long and 18 inches across, no signs of bones apjjcared; in 
the second were the bones of the right forearm and the lower extrem- 
ities, which were in their proper position and lay with the feet toward 
the southwest. Under the head of the right femur was a piece of rib, 




Fig. 170. — Section along the northeast trench, mound No. 1, Union county. 

and under the middle of it the right half of a lower jaw, with the wis 
dom tooth just through the bone. The femur measured 17 inches and 
the tibia was not flattened. A few drilled shell beads, some large, 
others small, were found with the bones of the ai'm. 

In the last grave were traces of wood, probably the remains of bark 
wrapping, which fell to dust on being touched. This grave lay toward 
the southeast, intersecting the second one at about 4 feet from the edge 
of the trench. Each was 2 feet across. 

The peculiar arrangement of the dirt in this mound led the explorer 
to run another trench from between the north and northwest. (Figs. 
171 and 172.) Eighteen feet from the center, 2 feet from the surface, were 
some small fragments of bones and a few human teeth. Fifteen feet 
from the center, on the same level, were fragments of a skull and teeth, 
all too decayed for handling. A foot above these were the bones of 



THOMAS.] 



MISSISSIPPI. 



273 



the arm and leg of another person broken np and laid in a pile. 
Twelve feet from tlie center, 4 feet from the surface, were fragments of 
a very thin skull with particles of galenite adhering to them. Eight 
feet from the center was a hole sunk afoot into the original soil and 
filled with loose black dirt and ashes, in which were traces of unbnrnt 
wood. From this hole a layer of unmixed ashes from 1 to (J inches in 
thickness reached 6 feet to the south and west, sometimes on the sur- 
face and again several inches al)ove it. Five feet from the center, 8J 
feet from the surface, was the outer whorl of a conch shell. 

A trench was next run in from the west. Eighteen feet from the cen- 
ter was a layer of ashes, 6 feet in diameter, IS inches from the surface 
at its middle point and curved upward toward every side, or, in other 
words, dished. Lying on this was the lower part of the skeleton of a 
medium-sized man, with the feet toward the north. No bones of the 







Fig. 171. — Section along tlie north trencb, nionml No. 1, Union county. 



pelvis or parts above were found, although the leg bones were well pre- 
served. Three feet above the surface the skeleton of a large, strougiy- 
built man lay extended at full length with the face up, the head 
toward the east and about six feet from the center. The skull was ob- 
tained almost entire. Under it were thirteen water-worn quartz peb- 
bles. The femur measured 18J inches. There was no clay or hard dirt 
packed around the frame nor any evidence that a lirt^ had been made 
where it lay, although the leg bones had fine charcoal sticking to them. 
The humerus was perforated near the elbow. 

The arrangement of the dirt in this mound indicates that the origi- 
nal mound was much smaller than it is now and that the skeleton em- 
bedded in the ashes was at the center. Afterward the mound was added 
to on the eastern side. A glance at the sections figured makes this 
l)laiu. 

12 ETH 18 



274 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



The leiiticulai' masses show that the dirt had been carried in 
baskets or skins and tlirowii iu without any attenii)t at stratification in 
the older part of the luouud. Tliese masses were from 12 to LS inches 
across and from 4 to G inches tliick. The lower side, as they lay in tlie 
mound, Avas always darker in color than the upper side. Occasionally 
a little charcoal or a fragment of bone or pottery occurred iu the 
mound. 

Nothing was found iu mound 2 except a small piece of pottery of 
very neat design that had probably been dum])ed in with the dirt. 
This mound was made up of soil lying close at hand and tlie dirt was 
in layers of regular thickness, as though it had been spread wheu 
dejiosited. On the southeast edge Avas a layer of mingled dirt and 
charcoal, Oi feet across, from 2 to 4 inches in thickness; a large amount 
of broken pottery was found scattered through it, but no ashes. This 
lay partly a foot below the top of the ground and partly on the surface. 




FiQ. 172.— Sectum along the north treneli, mound No. 1, Union county. 



At a distance of 75 feet west of the center of mound 3 was a fire- 
place, on the original surface, covered with a foot of dirt that had 
washed down from the mound. The mingled ashes, charcoal, and dirt 
measured 5 feet across and 15 inches thick at the middle, running out 
to a thin edge and packed ^•ery hard. Along with pieces of pottery and 
animal bones was a piece of iron that had apparently been a brace for a 
saddle bow. This was 8 inches under the top of the ashes and below 
most of the pottery found. 

Sixty feet from the center appeared a layer of gray clay, from 1 to 3 
inches thick. It was continuous under as much of the monnd as was 
removed. In the trench on the west side was found one blade of a pair 
of scissors. Three feet above the surface at the center was an ash bed 
6 inches thick iji the middle, feet in diameter, curving upward or dish- 
shaped and ruuuiug to an edge on every side. It rested directly upon 



THOMAS.) MISSISSIPPI. 275 

dirt that had been dumped like that in the first mound, and was in very 
thin layers as though many successive deposits had been made and 
spread out. Within an inch of the bottom was a small piece of green- 
isli glass, apparently broken from a glass bottle. Resting upon the 
ashes, though of less extent, was a mass 12 inches thick of charcoal, 
dirt, ashes, and broken jyottery, in which lay an inm knife and a 
thin silver plate stamjied with the Spanish coat of arms. Fig. 173. 
At the top was a thin layer of charcoal where a fire had been extin- 
guished; this was at a lower point than had ever been reached by the 
plow. Tliere was a want of conformity between this mass and the sur- 
rounding dirt, which shows it may have been of later origin; that the 
mound had been opened aftei' its completion and afterward restored to 
its former shape; but the bed of ashes was undoubtedly as old as the 
mound itself, so that, although the iron knife and silver plate offer no 
positive proof as to age, the piece of glass is strong evidence that the 
mound was constructed after its Imihlcrs liad dealings with the whites. 
It maybe remarked here that this group is located in the area occupied 
by the Chickasaws. 

At about 40 feet from the center the dirt began 
to show the same arrangement of dumping as was 
seen in mound 1. 

Mound 4 was made throughout of a heavy gray 
clay, such as forms the ground to the north of it. 
The embankment ran, according to local belief, 
directly over tliis mound; it was, therefore, closely 
examined for any signs of palisades, bnt without 
success; nor is there now the slightest indication 
here of either wall or ditch. A small amount 
of mingled dirt and charcoal appeared at what 
seemed to be the center of the mound, but this was 
evidently thrown in at the time it was built tt) help F'h- ns-siucr piiitc, with 

/.I* Spauisli coat of arms; 

1 ' mound. Uniou county. 

Mound 5, not shown in the figure, is outside the 
indosure to the east. A wide trench through it exposed thu'teen skulls 
with a few fragments of other bones. They were all within 10 feet of 
the center and arranged in three layers, the first on the surface, the 
second nearly 2 feet above, and the third at about the same distance 
above that. The skulls belonged to persons of different ages, from the 
child whose first teeth were beginiung to a])pear, to the aged individ- 
ual whose teeth were worn to the gums. With the oldest was a burnt 
clay pipe, the only relic found in the mound. The bones were put in 
without regaid to position; a skull and a rib, for examiile, or a femur 
and a jawbone lying together. The mound was of the same dirt as the 
surrounding soil, except a deposit of gray clay a foot thick and 3 feet 
across at the center, about half of it lying behjw the original surface. 
Only one skull found here was in a condition to be preserved; all, how- 
ever, were of one shape and that very like the modern Indian skull. 




276 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

Mound 6, like mound 4, was on the su]>i)osed line of embankment. 
No trace of wood in the mound or of a ditcli outside could be seen. It 
was formed of dirt gatliered elose around. Probably ludunds 4 and G 
were at a break in the embankment forming a passagewiiy through it. 

Mound 7 showed at 55 feet east of the center a layer of gray clay, 
nowhere more than an inch in tliickness, which ran 18 feet, then gave 
way for 9 feet to a layer of black soil, after which it reai)i)eared and was 
found under all the remaining ])art excavated. The dirt showed the 
sanu' marks of dumjiiug as in nu)uuds 1 and 3, and is of different colors, 
though all from around the mound. More charcoal and burnt dirt was 
found in tins than in any other mound opened, but it seems to have been 
thrown in simply because it was convenient, being scattered here and 
there in small ])atclies. 

Thirty-five feet from the center and 3 feet from the surface in mingled 
ashes, dirt, and charcoal, with a few decayed bones, were a number of 
fragments of i)ottery, i)ieces of one vessel \vhi<h was broken before 
being covered. The whole was inclosed in very hard clay. It does not 
seem to have been a grave, but rather a place used for cooking. 

Twenty-one feet from the center and 5 feet from the surface was a 
tibia lying east and west; 5 feet west of it was a skull. Both were too 
soft to be removed. No bones were found between them, but both 
belonged to one individual whose body had been ])]aced in a bed of gray 
sand and surrounded by ashes, chairoal, swamp mud, and burnt clay. 
It seems to have been an intrusive burial. Two feet southwest of the 
skull was a decayed femur; no other bones were with it. 

All the dirt about the center of this mound was ^•ery wet and heavy, 
and was brought from the swamp to the northeast. The arrangement 
and material of the mound show that dirt had been carried in from 
different places at the same time. Occasionally a layer of one material 
could be traced 3 or 4 feet, and then be lost in some other. 

Mound S was built partly on the slope of the ravine to the west. A 
layer of gray clay, averaging 4 inches in thickness, had been spread on 
the surface and the mound built u]>on it. The bottom of the mound on 
the western side sloped upward toward the center, following the inclina- 
tion of the surface. Twenty-four feet from the center began a deposit 
of sticky mud from the creek bottom, which measured 2 feet in thick- 
ness at the center. The remainder of the mound was composed of about 
equal parts of this bottom mud and the soil near by, dumped in without 
any order or regularity. At the center, near the top of the mound, was 
a deposit of yellow sand ■'{ feet across in very thin curved layers, about 
4 inches thick at the middle and curving to an edge at the sides. 
Under this was a hole a foot across and the same in dei)th, having a 
bottom of hard blue claj' and tilled with ashes, black dirt, and charcoal. 

Near the center were some shreds of a coarse woven cloth. Six feet 
north of the center, in the original soil, was a hole 18 inches across and 
14 in<ihes deep, the sides burnt hard as brick, filled with charcoal and 



MISSISSIPPI. 



277 



dirt. Seven feet northeast of the center was a similar but smaller hole. 
The gray layer at the bottom was undisturbed over both these spots, 
showing that the mound was built after this part of the field had been 
occupied. 

.. The swamp mud ran out at 30 feet north and northeast of the center. 
Twenty-two feet from the center, toward the noi-th, a deposit of gray 
clay, varying from a few inches to 4 feet in thickness, began and reached 
nearly to the edge of the mound. The dumped dirt ended at 60 feet 
from the center. 

The field being in cultivation, none of the other mounds could be 
opened, except one, and there was nothing about that to indicate that 
it would repay investigation. 

If the large mound be considered a place of residence, the most prob- 
able theory, it is not plain what use was made of the smaller ones. It 
is evident that those within the inclosure, with the e.xception of the 
first one opened, were not intended or used for burial purposes. 

EXPLANATORY NOTES. 

The courses and distances of the line of wall, as traced and located 
by the old settlers, are as follows, comiueucing at station 1, the north- 
west corner : 



From 
station. 


Bearing. 


Distance. 


lto2 .. 
2to3 .. 

3 to 4 . . 

4 to 5 . . 
B to 1 . . 


8.830 E 

S.740 E 

S. 70 45' W - . . 
N. 770 45' W . 
N.loE 


Feet. 
792 

957 

1,930 

1,505 

1,937 



The smaller mounds were located by bearings from the center of the 
/arge mound, but the distances to all except 11 and 12 were measured 
from the .south corner; for 11 and 12 the measurements were from the 
north corner. Mounds 5 and 13 are not shown on the plat. 



Mound 
No. 


Bearing. 


Distance. 


Diameter. 


Height. 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 


N.880W .... 

S.IOJOE 

S. 34JOB 

S.53JOE 

S.80°E 

S.580W 

s.eejoE 

S.230E 

S. 23 JOE 

S.9JOB 

N.24JOW... 

JJ.2J0E 

N.70OW.... 


Feet. 
352 

165 

1056 

891 

i mile. 
792 
330 
l.l.W 
693 
990 
891 
561 

J mile. 


Feet. 

64 

100 

120 

54 

.M 

28 

120 

120 

150 

100 

120 

90 

Plowed 
level. 


Feet. 
14 

4 

6 

2 

4 

3 

7 

6 

7 

8 

4 

3 





278 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Pond, N. 75° W. Dirt for the large mound was probably taken from 
the (!xcavation which begins at the wall. 

The passageway or ramp that extends from the top of the large mound 
to the ground is at the middle of the northeast side, beginning 79 feet 
from the east corner, and on the line of the base of the mound is 4(J feet 
wide. It is 20 feet wide at the top of the mound, and extends outward 
45 feet from the base of the mound, with the corners at the bottom so 
rounded that they are 20 feet within tlie lines of the sides. 

Figs. 107 (A and F) and 108 show the sides and end of the south 
trench •, Fig. 167 A, the left or west side of the trench, and F, the north 
end; Fig. 168, the right or east side. In these 1 is surface soil; 2, gray 
clay; 3, red clay; 4, red soil in lumps or masses; ^f, position of skull; b, 
position of pottery, and h, grave going a foot into the wall. 

Figs. 100 and 170 show the sides of tlie northeast trench, same mound ; 
Fig. 10!), side toward northwest; and Fig. 170, side toward southeast. 
The numbers indicate the strata as follows: No. 1, red, top soil mixed 
with clay; 2, yellow, bluish, and gray clays and dark soil mingled in con- 
fusion; .'^, gray clay from the swamj); 4, red soil in lens-shaped masses; 
5, dark soil in lens-shaped masses, a indicates a grave sunk in the 
original soil to the depth of 3 feet, filled with shining gray mud and 
containing part of a human skull; /* and <• similar pits. H, O, L, three 
graves 5 feet above the original surface extending southward. 

Figs. 171 and 172 represent the sections of the northwest trench, same 
mound; Fig. 171, east side; Fig. 172, west side. The numbers indicate 
the layers as follows: 1, top soil; 2, gray clay; 3, red clay; 4, red soil 
in lumps or small masses; 5, black soil in lum])S or small nmsses. 

TENNESSEE. 
LAUDERDALE COUNTY. 

On the farm of Mr. Marley, 8 miles northwest of Ripley, are a number 
of small mounds, most of which had been dug over thoroughly. Ouly 

one small one remained undisturbed. 
In this was found an old walled 
iireiilace. circular in form, 3 feet high 
and about 1 foot thick, the inside 
half full of ashes. Back of this (out- 
side) was a semicircular wall, also 
of burnt clay, 3 feet high and about 
1 foot thick. The annexed figure 
(174) gives an idea of the form and 
relation of these walls. The com- 
plete circle A represents the wall 
around the fireplace, and B the semi- 
circular outer wall, which was on the 
north side and originally may have been higher, as it reached the sur- 
face of the ground. The little circles C C! are two very smooth circular 
appendages or lumps of burnt clay on the wall. Close to this tireidace 
were two broken dishes mixed with the burnt clay. 




Fig. 174. — Fireplace ill nionud. Lauderdale, Teiiu. 



TENNESSEE. 



279 



OBION COUNTY. 



REF.LFOOT I.AKIC MOIXDS. 



Around Reelfoot lake are several groups of nionnds, mostly of small 
size. About half a mile southwest of Idlewilde four low uiouuds, not 
exceeding 2 feet in height, were examined. Below the top soil was a 
layer several inches thick of ashes and charcoal, in which were inussel 
shells, bones of birds, fishes, and quadrupeds; also, stone implements 
and fragments of pottery, but no burnt clay. 

At the crossing, on the northwest boi 
der, another group of somewhat laigei 
mounds was visited, but only one could 
be opened; it was composed entirely ol 
clay and contained no relics. 

A small group on Grassy island was 
also examined. One of these, circular in 
form and 8 feet high, was thoroughly ex 
plored, yielding a rich return for the laboi 
spent upon it. It consisted chiefly ot 
dark vegetable mold without any indica 
tious of layers. Fifteen skeletons were 
unearthed; eight of them were una( 
compauied by anything except ashes and 
cliarcoal. By the others, vessels and im 
plements were discovered as follows 
By one, a stone spade and two pots ; bj 
another, two pots; by another, a drinking 
vessel in the form of a kneeling female, 
shown in Fig. 175, and two pots, one in- 
side of the other; by the fourth, three pots; and by three others, one 
pot each. Another vessel was found embedded in a mass of ashes 2^ 
feet thick, in which were also bird, flsh, and quadruped bones, more or 
less charred. Several stone implements were also found scattered 
through the mound. 

Another mound of this group, feet high, was excavated and found 
to consist entirely of sandy loam. Nothing was discovered in it. 

Two other mounds on the opposite shore of the lake, conical in form 
and about 7 feet higli, yielded a similar result. 




Flo. 175.— Image vessel from mound, 
Obion county, Tennessee. 



KENTUCKY. 



While nearly all of southeastern Missouri below Cairo is level and 
subject to overflow during great floods, the bottoms on the Kentucky 
side opposite are usually narrow and the river skirted or directly 
flanked by bluffs, mainly of yellow clay, rising from 100 to 400 feet 
above it. These are cut by many creeks and rivulets, thus forming 



280 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



numerous headlands, easily rendered defensible, a number of which are 
occai)icd by ancient earthworks. Of tlie five of these visited the most 
interestiiij^ is in llicliman county, about 3 miles west of Oakton, and 
known locally as O'Byam's Fort. 




Fig. 176. — O'Bvam'a fort, Hickman countv, Kentucky. 



This work, illustrated in Fig. 176, is, as is usual in this region, upon 
the best position for defense in that immediate section, being located on 
the extreme point of a bluff some 50 feet high and almost vertical at 
its southern end. It consists of an inclosing wall and ditch, mounds, 
excavations, and hut rings. 

The length of the wall and ditch from <i around to b, following the 



THOMAS.] KENTUCKY. 281 

irregular curve, is very nearly 600 paces, or about 1,800 feet. There is 
no wall along the steep blutt" facing east and south. Of these outlines the 
southern end is so steep as to render ascent impracticable; the eastern 
slope is almost equally so; the northern line was well defended by em- 
bankment and ditch, and for the remainder of the circuit the embank- 
ment follows the edge of the high bottom, including in the line the iso- 
lated hillock c. Mound 3, in the extreme southeast corner, is in a fine 
position for observation and to prevent any attempted ascent at this 
corner, the most accessible point on the unwalled line of the bluffs. 

Tlie best, if not tlie only, ford of O'Byam's creek in this vicinity is a 
rock or gravel bar where the road crosses at the lower end of the 
bluff. 

In the plan of these works (Fig. 17C), 1, 2, and 3 are mounds within 
the inclosure and 4 a mound outside; r, a natural mound or little hil- 
lock ; d, a cemetery, and e eee c excavations. The small circles, which 
continue northward 
beyond the wall, are 
small saucer- shaped 
depression s marki n g 
the sites of ancient 
dwellings. 

Mound No. 1, as 
shown upon the plan 
ofthe works, extends 
fully halfway across 
a narrow portion of f,,,. ivt.-MoiuuI No. i, o'Byam's lurt. 

the bluff", and is a. 

true flat-topped or truncated mound (Fig. 177) in all respects similar in 
appearance to and possibly of the same age and built by the same peo- 
ple as those across the Mississippi, which are now the oidy refuge of 
white men and their stock during floods. But as this and the other 
mounds on this side of the river are on high places, beyond the reach 
of the greatest flood, the object in view in building them could not have 
been to escape inundation. 

It is very nearly a true circle 78 feet in diameter on the top and so 
steep on all sides that, althougli 23 feet high, it has a base of only 125 
feet and lias been covered and surrounded by a heavy growth of oak, 
ash, and other timber. It stands on the margin of the ui3i)er level. 
A number of white persons have been buried on the summit, so that 
entensive explorations could not be made; nevertheless enough was 
ascertained to jirove it to be composed chiefly of yellow clay, but in 
successive layers and containing flre-beds of clay burnt to a brick-red 
color. These flrebeds differed from those usually seen, in that, while 
some were made of irregularly shaped little masses, api)ioximately the 
size of an ordinary brick, and well burned before being laid down, each 
mass leaving an impression in the earth when removed, others were red 




282 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

upon the top only, tlie color gradually diminishing toward the under 
side as thoiigli burned by long-continued fires. The masses were proba- 
bly the broken i>lastering of upright walls, wliile the other layers 
were parts of the hard clay floor. Charcoal, ashes, and the charred 
bones of animals were found with these flre-beds. 

UlT UlNCiS. 

With the exception of a small open court south of No. 1 the entire 
area of that jjortion of the inclosure or fort upon the bhiff, much of 
the bottom, and also of the adjacent bluft's on the north and east, are 
literally covered by these small, circular depressions surrounded by 
earthen rings, indicating a considerable population. 

Pits were dug in many of these, but only the usual fire-lieds, 
charcoal, ashes, fragments of pottery, broken animal bones, and rude 
stone implements were found. 

EXCAVATIONS. 

The excavations for the mounds in this place are within the inclo- 
sure and on the side of the bluff, those near mound No. 1 being as 
clearly defined and as unmistakable as though but of recent date. 

CEMKTEUY. 

Mound No. 2 is said to have been once used for burial purposes, 
but the skeletons and accompanying relics have been removed to 
make place for graves of modern times. At d, near mound 3, was 
f(mnd a small elevation, less than 30 feet square, which had not been 
disturbed, and proved to be a true ancient cemetery. There was but 
one tier of skeletons in it, at the depth of 2 feet from the surface. Only 
11 were found, lying in all directions and without any apparent sys- 
tem, except that they were not doubled upon each other. All 
seemed to be skeletons of adults. Some vessels were with them, but 
never more than one with a skeleton. Among the specimens discov- 
ered here was a clay rubber or muller. 

Mound No. 2 is oblong, 80 by 50 feet and 5 feet high. No. 3, nearly 
round, 50 by 40 feet and 4 feet high, was opened, but nothing was found 
in it. No. 4, circular, GO feet in diameter and 5 feet high, was bj)ened 
and found to be com])osed of yellow clay and soil mixed; no relics or 
specimens in it. 

On what axe known as McOard's bluffs, 3 miles below O'Byam's Fort, 
is another grouji of low mounds, fire-beds, fragments of stone imple- 
ments, broken pottery, and other evidences of an ancient village, but 
there is no inclosing wall. 

PECULIAK CONICAL MOUNDS. 

Here and there among the ancient works of this region are certain 
conical mounds, sometimes in groups or irregular lines and on the high 



THOMAS.] ALABAMA. 283 

ridges, Avhich differ so materially from those .already mentioned as to 
lead to the belief that tliey are the work of a different people. Tliey 
range in size from 30 to 80 feet in diameter and from 4 to 10 feet in 
height, but are all trne circular mounds and more than usually sym- 
nu'trioal in form. By excavations made in them it was ascertained 
thaf they are composed almost entirely of tine, soft, molding sand, un- 
stiatifled and without any intermixture of clay or other material; nor 
were there any fire-beds, ashes, charcoal, or vestiges of art, or indica- 
tions of burial iii them, save here and there an occasional rude stoue 
scraper. 

While the material of the other mounds of this region is evidently 
from the earth immediately about them, tliese circular mounds are 
formed of a very fine molding sand from some unknown source. 

A few mounds were observed in Ballard county about 5 miles above 
Cairo, but no special cxamiuatioii of them was made. 



ALABAMA. 
LAUDERDALE COUNTY. 

This, the extreme northwestern county of the state, is bounded along 
its entire southern margin by the Tennessee river. The works described 
are situated on or near the north bank of this river. 

STAFFORD MOT'Nn. 

This is an elongate oval mound, located a little over a mile south 
of Floreuce on the farm of Mr. S. C. Stafford, some 35 or 40 yards from 
the river bank. It is 8 feet high, flat on top, the length on toi>, north 
and south, 85 feet, and at the base about 125 feet; width about half 
the length. 

A trench 10 feet wide and 15 feet long was dug in the northern end, 
the remainder of the upper portion having been much disturbed. When 
the trench had been extended southward the distance of 15 feet a layer 
of burnt clay was encountered at the depth of 2 feet, the 2-foot layer 
above it consisting of sandy soil. Immediately under the clay was a 
layer of ashes. Immediately under this was the much-decayed skele- 
ton of a half-grown person lying on its side. At the back of the head 
was a wide-necked, bottle-shaped water vessel, tipped sidewise; by the 
side of it lay a stone disk wliich had apparently been tised as a cover 
to the vessel. At each side of the head stood a small x)ot. Here 
the clay layer was between 4 and 5 inches thick and below this was a 
layer of ashes and charcoal 3 inches thick. The charcoal in this layer 
was burned from small sticks and brush. A few inches from the head 
of the skeleton mentioned was a piece of charred wood firmly fixed in 
the earth, apparently the remains of a post. A few inches from the 
skeleton at the outer edge of the burnt clay, on the east side, were 



284 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

piecesof pottery somewhat resembling tile. The soil being removed, 
it was found that the clay bed and layer of ashes gave out toward the 
northwest, at the end of 7i feet in this direction. About 4 feet south 
of the skeleton mentioned was a hearth of burnt clay, on which was a 
thick layer of ashes. This hearth was in the form of au irregular 
square, 2i feet in diameter axid 2 inches thick ; near by were a few 
fresh- water shells. A few inches over 7 feet south of the skeleton and 
at the same depth the mucb-tlecayed skeleton of a child, face down 
and head northward, with a jiot at each side of the head. Here M^as 
another corner of the clay bed. By working westward along the edge 
for the distance of a little over 7 feet another skeleton was found nearly 
turned to dust; by it was only one i>ot, and near it another fireplace 
like the one before described. All the corners of what appeared to 
have been the floor of a house were worked out; then the middle of 
the square, which contained nothing but the top soil, the clay bed, and 
ash layer were removed to the sandy loam of the base. When the 
trench had been extended southward to a point about 32 feet from the 
south end a layer of burnt cane 2^ feet below the surface of the mound, 
but little more than an inch thick, was discovered, covering an area 
about G feet in diameter. The canes were in very small pieces. Near 
the middle of the mound, at the depth of 8 feet and apparently on the 
original surface of the ground, was a burnt-clay hearth or fireplace, 
about 2i feet in diameter, circular in form, and covered with a layer 
of ashes. Two cylindrical pieces of charcoal about 3 inches in diameter 
were found in the earth just outside of the fireplace on the west side, 
probably the remains of posts. Twenty feet from the south end, at the 
depth of O.J feet, was a layer of ashes, charred grass, and sticks, about 

2 inches thick and covering a circular space about C feet in diameter. 
Scattered through the earth of the mound were fragments of pottery, 
animal bones, flint chips, and a few stone imi)lements. The mound is 
overflowed by the greater freshets of the Tennessee river. 

DOUGLASS MOUNDS. 

Near lock No. 10 of the Mussel Shoals canal survey, about 12 miles 
east of Florence, are two mounds on the Douglass farm. They are 
about half a mile from the river on an elevated hill overlooking the 
valley. The two are about 50 feet apart, each 30 or 35 feet in diameter, 

3 feet high, and composed throughout of red clay, which extends some- 
what below the original surface of the ground. Here and there just 
below the surface of one were rude flint hoes, arrow points, and lance 
heads; near the surface of the other were four large rude stone imple- 
ments. No skeletons, burnt clay, ashes, or charcoal Avere found in 
either. 

The country immediately about the Mussel Shoals was occupied by 
Cherokees when the first whites settled here. This area has long been 



THOMAS.] ALABAMA. 285 

noted for the iminber of worked and partially worked flint implements 
which have been found scattered over it. As the stone from which 
they are manufactured is found at this place, this will doubtless 
account for their abundance here. 

MADISON COUNTY. 

Near Whitesburg, on the north bank of tlie Tennessee river, is a long, 
narrow sliell heap, between 400 and aOO yards in length and about '.] or 
4 feet high ; at present it is only a few yards in width, but was probal)ly 
wider in former times, as a portion on the river side appears to have 
been carried away by the freshets. 

The residents of the place say that many skeletons, stone implements, 
and pottery vessels have been washed out of it. Three badly decayed 
skeletons were found at one point about IS inches below the surface; 
near l)y were ashes and some broken stones, as though marking the 
site of a temporary lireplace or camp tire. A thick layer of shells cov- 
ered these skeletons. Another skeleton was discovered at the depth 
of 3 feet, aud near it ashes and broken stones, as in the other case; a 
third lay only G or S inches below the surface; a fourth near the river 
had been partly washed away; a broken pot stood by the side of it. 

Numerous pieces of pottery, arrowheads, stone implements, and a 
copper bead were scattered among the mussel shells. Not only has 
this bank been disturbed bj' floods, but at one time large buildings 
stood on it, which were carried away by high water. 

The fact that a i)ortion of the shells forming this heap bear the marks 
of fire suggested the thought that they had been heated by the Indians 
to compel them to open. A great number of sjdit, water-worn stones 
were scattered through the l»ank to the dcjith of 3 feet, sometimes 
loosely and without order, but tiequeutly in such relation as to indicate 
an intentional arrangement; in this case they were accompanied by 
ashes, as though marking the places where fires had been built for 
cooking i)urposes. 

MARSHALL COUNTY. 

About 1 mile west of Giintersville is a cave known as Hampton cave. 
Its floor is covered to the depth of 4 feet with fragments of human 
bones, ejirth, ashes, and broken stones. This fragmentary condition of 
the deposits is chiefly due to the fact that they have been repeatedly 
turned over by treasure-hunters. , Much of this deposit has been hauled 
away in sacks for fertilizing the land. The number of dead deposited 
here must have been very great, for, nothwithstanding so much has 
been removed, there is yet a depth of 4 feet, chiefly of broken human 
lioiies. A tine specimen of the copper, spool-shaped ornament sup- 
posed to have been worn in the ear was obtained here by Mr. James 
P. Whitman, who kindly presented it to the bureau. 



286 MOUND KXI'LOKATIONS. 

BLOUNT COUNTY. 

A cave in this comity coiitainiTijiliiimaii rciuaiiis is worthy of notice. 
The remains in this case were deposited in troughs, or canoe-shaped 
coffins, differing in this resi)ect from any that have been mentioned. 
Tliis, wliich is known as Cramp's cave, is 15 miles south of Blountville. 
In the back part is a large ci-evi(;e, where it is stated tlie bodies were 
deposited in the coffins. The pUice is certainly well adapted for secur- 
ity from wild animals, as a few stones would suffice to close this room 
or crevice; moreover, it is much the driest portion of the cave. Per- 
sons who saw the remains at the time they were found state that they 
were in a good state of ])reservation ; that the troughs were covered 
with matting made of bark or cane and Ixmnd around with withes or 
bark. Among the things found with them were wooden bowls' and 
trays. Portions of one or two of these troughs were forwarded to and 
received by the Smithsoniau Institution. Although the place had been 
thoroughly worked over the Bureau agent succeeded, after careful 
search, in finding part of a^ wooden bowl and some pieces of a trough. 
The troughs or cofiins were evidently sections of hollow trees or had 
been hollowed out. 

SUMTEE COUNTY. 
CEDAR HUMMOCK GROUP. 

In Sec. 5, T. 17 N., II. 1 E., of Stephen's meridian, in what is known 
locally as "Cedar hummock," with a creek on the west and a slough on 
the east, is a grouxi of seven mounds. Tlie hummock land on which 
they stand is about 10 feet above low water. The mounds are circular, 
from 35 to 50 feet in diameter and from 3 to 4 feet high. The brown 
sand of which they are chiefly composed has been taken from the soil 
immediately around them, leaving depressions which are yet distinct. 

In one of the three smaller mounds, at the depth of 2 feet, a small 
quantity of ashes was found, and with tliem fragments of animal bones; 
with these exceptions, nothing but the brown sand was observed in the 
smaller mounds. 

In one of the four larger, at the de pth of one foot, was a single skeleton, 
and by the thigh a stone implement; in another, at the depth of 3 feet, 
was a single skeleton resting on a thin layer of charcoal and ashes, and 
by it a few pieces of broken pottery; the third presented precisely the 
same particulars as the second; in the fourth, at the depth of 1! feet, 
lay a single skeleton. 

These skeletons were invariably in the center of the mound, lying at 
full length, but the heads in different directions, one toward the south- 
west, another toward the northeast, and two toward the northwest. 

ELMORE COUNTY. 

Six miles north of Montgomery is Jackson lake, in which there is an 
island surmounted, on one side, by a mound of considerable size. This 



THOMAS.] ALABAMA. 287 

island is subject to overflow, but tlie top of tlie mound stands at all 
times high above tlie water. The length of the upper surface along 
the lake side is 130 feet; on this side the height, measuring down the 
steep slope, is 50 feet, while on the opposite side it is but lli feet 
perpendicular. Clro^^■ing on the ui)per surface are some large trees, 
among which are two jioplars (tulip), one 3i and the other 4J feet in 
diameter, and a j)ine 3 feet in diameter. 

A X'it 8 feet square sunk in tiie center through sandy soil, reached, 
at the depth of 5 feet, a quantity of ashes, near which were four i-.kulls ; 
two on each side. The larger bones of the four skeletons appear to 
have been laid across each other very irregularly. With these remains 
were some shell beads, shell pins, and a piece of copper. Some frag- 
ments of pottery were scattered through the earth covering tlie bodies. 

MOUNDS AND II(»USIC ItlSMAINS NEAli COOSA lUVEli. 

On tlie west banlc of tlm Coosa river, about a mile above wheie it is 
joined by tlie Tallapoosa, are numerous evidences of a former aborigi- 
nal village. These consist of fire beds marking the location of houses 
or wigwams, human remains, animal bones, fragments of pottery, etc. 
Many of these remains have been brouglit to light by the falling away 
of the bank occasioned by the encroachment of the river. 

The adjoining field not being jilowed to the river bank leaves a strip 
of land undisturbed, in which the indications of dwellings, consisting 
chiefly of clay or fire-beds, usually about 5 feet across, and ashes, are 
most apparent. 

The first one of these examined was about a foot below the surface. 
Here, in tlie earth and ashes, wore numerous pieces of pottery, mostly 
parts of a very flat dish of unusual form, many mussel shells, animal 
bones, piece of a gun barrel, a glass bead, iron nails, knife blade, pieces 
of brass, and copper ornaments. It is evident, therefore, that this is the 
site of a comparatively modern Indian village. 

The second was some 30 feet from the first and IS inches below the 
surface. This, being at the bank, was partly washed away, only a i)art 
of a fire-bed and of a skeleton being left. On the one arm bone that 
remained was a brass bracelet made of drawn wire. This skeleton lay 
near the ashes, as usual. 

A third and fourth were also examined with similar results, charred 
cobs and corn, pieces of pottery, animal bones, brass bracelets, etc., 
being found. There are no mounds here. 

I'ARKEU MOUNDS. 

These are situated on the bank of the Coosa rivei', near its junction 
with the Tallapoosa. 

One of them, about 50 feet in diameter and 2 feet high, which had 
been plowed over for years, contained two skeletons, which lay at the 
de2>th of less than a foot below the surface and about 5 feet apart, one 



288 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

with the head soutli and the otlier with the head west. On the hreast 
of the smaller, which was that of a child, lay a small shell gorget; with 
the other were several bone iinijlemeiits. The mound throughout was 
eomposed of sand mixed Mith ashes. 

The other mound, some 400 yards southwest of the first, is about 00 
feet in diameter and 8 feet high. The first two feet from the top were 
chiefly sand, the remainder, to the bottom, clay. No ashes, coals, ves- 
tiges of art, or bones were found in it. 

l>I,n I'OHT .lACKSoN WoItKS. 

These are also near the Jiun-tion of the Coosa and Tallajjoosa rivers 
jiud mark the site of one of the oldest Creek towns of which we have 
any account. It is also the site of a victory gained by Gen. .Tackson 
over these Indians. It was here that the old French fort, Toulouse, 
stood. After its abandonment and decay. Fort Jackson was built on 
tlie same spot. The banks of both rivers are caving in rapidly, so that 
now the space between them does not exceed 300 yards; in fact, most 
of the site of the fort has been washed away. The mound still remains 
and also sonu> of the old house sites, supposed to be the -.lork of the 
Creek Indians. 

The earth to the north, .south, and east of the mound was found upon 
examination to be full of flre-beds or remains of houses, and the same was 
probably true of the western area, which has been washed away. 

At the west end the mound is 125 feet across and nearly or quite 45 
feet high; the east side is lower, and has a long slope extending about 
95 feet to the base. It has been examined at various times by curiosity- 
hunters, and several articles of European manufacture obtained. As 
the owner was absent during the visit of the Bureau agent, permission 
to make further exploration in it was refused. 

To the southeast and north is a tield of three acres, which has been 
cultivated for many years and is thickly strewn over with fragments of 
pottery, charcoal, pieces of human bones, mussel shells, and fragments 
of burnt clay, evidently turned up from the tire beds or house remains 
which lie below the surface. A few, however, were discovered which 
lay below the reach of the plow. One of these was found undis- 
turbed at the depth of 3 feet below the surface. Ilere was a much de- 
cayed skeleton lying at full length with the head toward the west; and 
by it stood a large earthen pot, in which were a few shell beads, and 
a mussel shell. A quantity of ashes also lay near the head. At 
another point, 2 feet below the surface, probably marking the site of 
another house, there was a layer of ashes 1 foot thick, in and near which 
were fragments of pottery, animal bones (deer and fish), and mussel 
shells. Another of these remains, at the depth of 3 feet, was marked 
by a similar pile of ashes, by which lay a skeleton with the head toward 
the east. Xear it was a brass kettle containing glass beads, brass 
buckles, brass rings made from wire, and bell buttons. Another, one 



Tii.iMAs.l ALARAMA. 289 

foot below the surl'ace, yielded arrowheads, celts, stone disks, pottery 
disks, sinootliiiig' stones, fragments of elay pipes, long shell beads, and 
small glass beads. Among the ruiiiiS of another, 18 inehes below the 
snrfaee, was a single skeleton with the head west ; near it, on one side, 
a pile of ashes, and on the other two large pots, one over the other, and 
in the lower one some animal bones, fragments of a turtle shell, mussel 
shells, and shell beads ; here were also found two shell gorgets, four 
shell pins, some shell and glass beads mixed together, charred berries, 
shell siMxins, charred seeds, lumps of blue coloring material, two celts, 
part of a brass plate, a bone punch, etc. At aiiother point the remains 
presented the following series : After removing 10 inches of soil, a layer 
of burnt clay 5 inches tlnck was reached, then a clay hearth. This 
hearth was on a thick layer of ashes. The burnt-clay layers in these 
remains varied from 5 to 10 inches in thickness. In some they were 
entirely wanting, ashes only being present. 

CLAllKE COITNTY. 

Four and a half miles east of Gainestown, on the north bank of the 
Alabama river, in Sec. 2, T. 5 K., E. 4 E. of Stephen's Meridian, is 
French's hmding, the supposed site of old Fort Mauvilla. Not a ves- 
tige of the old fort now remains and the mound that once stood here 
has been carried into the river, and the so-called "burying ground" 
has nearly all disapjieared, a strip only about 20 feet wide remaining. 

At one place a foot below the surface in the break of the bank, where 
the wearing away is going on, were three skeletons in compact bundles, 
which nurst have been buried after the flesh had rotted off or been re- 
moved from the bones. At another point, about 30 feet distant from 
those mentioned, were two other similar deposits at the same depth 
and arranged in the same way. Fragments of pottery occurred here 
and there in the soil. 

BABBOUE COUNTY. 

The following and some of the previous notices are given simply be- 
cause they may possibly aid in locating some of the old Indian villages. 

At the St. Francis bend of the (Jhattahoochee river, li miles northeast 
of Eufaula, is an elevated bank of sandy soil on which it is said an old 
Creek town was once located. Although paitially washed away by the 
river, there are sufficient remains of fire-beds, fragments of pottery, 
human bones, and stone implements to confirm the tradition. 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 

Nine miles southwest of the city of Montgomery and situated on the 
bank of the Alabama river is a grouj) of five mounds. One of these, 
8 feet high and 50 feet in diameter, was composed entirely of clay, in 
which, at the depth of 2 feet, lay a single skeleton; no vestiges of 

12 ETH 19 



290 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

art with it. Another, fousidciably smaller, was comiiosed wholly of 
brown sand, scattered throngh which were some fragments of pottery 
and broken animal bones. The third, about CO feet in diameter and 
nearly 10 feet high, was covered to the depth of a foot with brown sand. 
The remainder was sharp, yellow, river sand; nothing was fonnd in it. 
The fourth, which is slightly larger than the third, was covered ^nth a 
layer of brown sand 18 inches thick, the remainder of clay to the base. 
In the clay, at the depth of 2 feet, lay a single skeleton. Nothing else 
was discovered. 

TALLADEGA COUNTY. 

Four miles southeast of Talladega is Cragdale, on the bank of Talla- 
dega creek, the site of a former Creek settlement. Dr. W. Taylor 
says that when lie came to this place with his father, he being then 
but a boy, many of the Indian houses were still standing. He also 
says that it was a custom of these Indians to bury in the corners of 
their houses, not more than IS inches or 2 feet below the floor; that he 
had freqxiently examined these dei)osits and found with the bones shell 
beads, carved shell ornaments, pottery, and sometimes as many as 
three skeletons in a place, and occasionally as many as three corners 
thus occupied. He also says the Creeks frequently used mussel-sheUs 
for spoons. 

JEFFEKSON OOUNTY. 

Near Jonesboro is a small group of mounds on the plantation of Mr. 
K D. Talley, Sec. 8, T. 19 S., E. 4 W., of the Iluntsville meridian. The 
valley of the small creek that flows along the northern and eastern 
sides of the fleld in which the group is located is quite wide at this 
point, the round, knob like hills which form its boundary standing at 
quite a distance from the mounds. 

The surface of the fleld immediately around the mounds is compara- 
tively flat, pitching in a steep bank to the water, a few feet north of 
mound No. 1. (Fig. 178.) Northeast of this mound the surface has the 
appearance of having been dug or more probably washed out by the 
creek. East of mound 3 is what might be called the first bottom land, 
about 4 feet lower than the surface of the field. This point is above the 
overflow of the small creek, while farther down the valley the land is 
frequently inundated and had been under water a short time previous 
to examination. 

A plat of the group is given in Fig. 178. No. 1, is an oblong mound, 
measuring 30 feet east and west, and about 4 feet high at the highest 
point. A few small pine and hackberry trees have grown on the sides 
since it was built. It is made of the same red, sandy soil as that found 
in the fleld in which it stands. Only a few coals and a shovelfirl of 
ashes were found in it, which had probably been thrown there at the 
time it was built ;ind may have been scraped up from the surface of 
the fleld with the rest of the material for the mound, but in hunting the 



THOMAS. 1 



ALABAMA. 



291 



field over for any specimen that iniglit have been washed out or plowed 
iTp no ash beds were seen, nor did any of the tenants of the land remem- 
ber plowing' throuoh sucli beds. 




Flo. 178. — Plut of Tally mutiudu, Jelierson county, Alabama. 




PLAN. 



Sbction cm LiAiz aurb. 

Fig. 179.— M(juncl No. 2, Tally group (plan and acction). 

No. 2 (shown in Fig. 179) has the appearance of an oval platform 
with a small mound on one end of it. The longer diameter of the base 



292 MOUND EXPLOKATIONS. 

of the platform is about 140 feet, the greatest width 100 feet, and the 
height 5 feet. Tlie licight of the upper mound, wliich is on the smaller 
end of the platform, is 7 feet, the diameter of the tiatteued top 30 feet. 
Its western slope is continuous with that of the platform. The figure 
shows the ground plan and the section through a h. Tlie upper mound 
has been considerably torn up by treasure hunters, but scattered over 
the toi> was a large quantity of burnt clay, much of which bore the 
impression of a stamp made apparently of split cane. A trench length- 
wise through the platform showed that the top layer consisted of 
4 feet of red, sandy soil, evidently taken frtmi the surface of the sur- 
rounding field; the remainder, to the original surface of the ground, of 
pure river sand. The upper mound was composed of sandy soil down 
to the platform, and hence it is reasonable to conclude that it was 
built at the same time the upper layer was ])laced on the platform. No 
bones, ashes, charcoal, or vestiges of art were observed in any part. 

No. 3 is a circular mound, about llO'feet in diameter at the base and 
60 feet across the top, which is fiat ; height, 8 feet. A trench across it 
through the center showed that it was constructed of sandy soil from 
the surrounding field. In the central portion, about half way down, 
was a layer of clear river sand 3 iijches thick and about 5 feet in 



i 



diameter. Nothing else was found iii it. 



GEORGIA. 

The ancient works of this state, so far as known and examined, have 
been so thoroughly and ably described by Col. C. C. Jones, in his 
"Antiquities of the Southern Indians" and in his other works, that it is 
unnecessary to allude to any except such as received special attention 
by the Biu'eau of Ethnology. 

BARTOW COUNTY. 
ETOWAH GROUP. 

This deservedly celebrated group, situated close to the north bank of 
Etowah river, on the farm of Mr. G. II. TumUn, 3 miles southeast of 
Cartersville, has been repeatedly described and figured; in ftict, as I 
shall attempt hereafter to show, there is good reason for believing that 
it includes one of the mounds specially mentioned by the chroniclers of 
De Soto's expedition. 

As the group, its several works, and the relics which have been 
found in and about the mounds are of great archeological interest, and 
possibly furnish the key to some troublesome historical questions and 
archeological puzzles, I will give in this connection some of the descrip- 
tions by other writers, that the reader may have all the facts before 
him and thus be enabled to draw his own conclusions in reference to the 
questions which are suggested by these remains. 



TH0MA8.] GEORGIA. 293 

The first published notice of these works (unless they are referred to 
by the chroniclers of I)e Soto's expedition) is that by Bev. Elias Cor 
uelius,' and is as follows: 

I have but oue more article of curiosity to mention under this division. It is one 
ot those artificial mounds wliicli occur so frequently in tlie western country. I have 
seen many of them and read of more, hut never of one of such dimension as that 
which I am now to describe. 

It is situated in the interior of the Cherokee Nation, on the north side of the 
Etowee, vulgarly called the Hightower river, one of the branches of the Koosee. It 
stands ujiou a strip of alluvial lauil called river bottom. I vi.sited it in company with 
eight Indian chiefs. Tlie first object which excited attention was an excavation 
alxmt 20 feet wide and in some parts 10 feet deep. Its course is nearly that of a 
semicircle, the extremities extending towards the river, which forms a small elbow. 
I had not time to examine it minutely. An Indian said it extended each way to the 
river, and had several nnexcavated parts, which served for passages to the area 
which it incloses. To my surprise I found no enbankment on either side of it. But 
I did not long doubt to what place the earth had been removed; for I had scarcely 
l)roceeded 200 yards when, through the thick forest trees, a stupenduous pile met 
the eye, who.se dimensions were in full proportion to the intrenchment. I had at the 
time no means of taking an accurate admeasurement. To supply my deficiency 1 
cut a long vine, which was preserved until I had an oi)iiortunity of ascertaining its 
exact length. In this manner I found the distance from the margin of the summit 
to the base to he 111 feet. And, judging from the degree of its declivity, the per- 
pendicular height can not be less than 7.5 feet. The circumference of the base, 
including the feet of three parapets, measured 1,114 feet. One of these parapets 
extends from the base to the summit, and can he ascended, though with difficulty, 
on horseback. The other two, after rising 30 or 40 feet, terminate in a kind of 
triangular platform. Its top Is level and, at the time I visited it, was so completely 
covered with weeds, bushes, and trees of most luxuriant growth that I could not 
examine it as well as I wished. Its diameter, I judged, must be 150 feet. On its 
sides and summit are many large trees of the same description and of equal dimen- 
sions with those around it. One beech tree near the top measured 10 feet 9 inches in 
circumference. The earth on one side of the tree was 31 feet lower than on the 
opposite side. This fact will give a good idea of the degree of the mound's declivity. 
An oak, which was lying down on one of the parapets, measured at the distance of 
G feet from the butt, without the bark, 12 feet 4 inches in circumference. At a short 
distance to the southeast is another mound, in ascending which I took 30 steps. Its 
top is encircled by a breastwork 3 feet high, intersected through the middle with 
another elevation of a similar kind. A little farther is another mound, which I had 
not time to examine. 

On these great works of art the Indians gazed with as much curiosity as any white 
man. I inquired of the oldest chief if the natives had any tradition respecting them, 
to which he answered in the negative. I then requested each to say what he sup- 
posed was their origin. Neither could tell, though all agreed in saying, "they were 
never put up by our people." It seems probable they were erected by another race 
who once inhabited the country. That such a race existed is now generally admitted. 
Who they were and what were the causes of their degeneracy or of their exteruiina- 
tion no circumstances.have yet explained. But this is no reason why we should not, 
as in a hundred other instances, infer that existence of the cause from its effect, 
without any previous knowledge of its history. 

In regard to the objects which these mounds were designed to answer, it is ob- 
vious they were not always the same. Some were intended as receptacles for the 
dead. These are small and are distinguished by containing human bones. Some 

' Billiman's American Journal of Science and Art, Ist Ser., Vol. I (1818), pp. 322-324. 



294 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



may have been designed as sites forpnldic hnildings, wliether of a civil or lelifjions 
kind, and others no doubt were constructed lor the purposes of war. Of this last 
description is the Etowee mound. In proof of its suitableness for such a i)uriio8e I 
need only mention that ihi: Cherokees, in their late wars with the Creeks, secured 
itssmuimit by pi<kets and o(cni)ied it as a place of protection for hundreds of their 
women and children. Gladly would 1 have spent a day in examing it more minutely, 

but my roiijpanions, 
unable to a]>preeiate 
my motives, grew im- 
patient, and I was 
obliged to withdraw 
and leave a more per- 
fect observation and 
descrijition to some 
one else. 

This account is 
particularly valu- 
able, as it relates 
to the couditiou 
and appearance of 
these works before 
they were dis- 
turbed by the 
plow. We also 
find in this ac- 
count some items 
of interest which 
had disappeared 
before the works 
were visited and 
described by the 
more modern ob- 
servers. 

The description 
byCol.G.O.Jcmes' 
is the best we tiud 
hitherto pub- 
lished. I there- 
fore give it here in 
full, together with 
a reproduction of 
his illustration 

Fig. 180.— Plat of Etowah group, copy of Jones's plat No. 1. (Fig. ISO) : 

Viewed as a whole, this group is the most remarkable within the confines of this 
state. These mounds are situated in the midst of a beautiful and fertile valley. 
They occujiy a central jxisition in an area of some 50 acres, bounded on the south and 
east by the Etowah river, and on the north ami west by a large ditch or artificial 




■Antiquities of tlie Southern Indians, p. 136. 



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THOMAS.) GEORGIA. 295 

canal, which at its lower end communicates directly with the river. This moat (G 
G, PI. I), at present, varies in dei)th from 5 to 2.5 feet, and in width from 20 to 75 feet. 
No parapets or earth walls ai)pear iipou its edges. Along its line are two reservoirs 
(D D) of about an acre each, jio.ssessing an average depth of not less than 20 feet, 
and its upper end expands into an artificial pond ( P) elliptical in form and somewhat 
dee])er than the excavations mentioned. 

Within the inclosure formed by this moat and the river are seven mounds. Three 
of them are preeminent in size, the one designated in the accompanying plan (PI. i) 
by the letter A far surpassing the others both in its proportions and in the degree 
of interest which attaches to it. 

To the eye of the observer, as it rests for the first time upon its towering form, it 
seems a monument of the past ages, venerable iu its antiquity, .solemn, silent, and 
yet not voiceless — a remarkable exhibition of the power and industry of a former 
race. With its erection, the moilern hunter tribes, so far as our information extends, 
had naught to do. Composed of earth, simple, yet impressive in form, it seems cal- 
ctilated for an almost endless duration. The soil, gravel, and smaller stones taken 
from the moat and the reservoirs were expended in the construction of these tumuli. 
The surface of the ground, for a considerable distance around the northern bases, 
was then removed and placed upon their summits. Viewed from the north, the val- 
ley dips toward the mounds so that they appear to lift themselves from out a basin. 

The central tumulus rises about fi5 feet above the level of the valley. It is en- 
tirely artificial, consisting wholly of the earth taken from the moat and the excava- 
tions, in connection with the soil collected around its base. It has received no 
assistance whatever from any natural hill or elevation. 

In general outline it may be regarded as (inadrangular, if we disregard a slight 
angle to the south. That taken into account, its form is pentagonal, with summit 
admeasurements as follows: Length of the northern side, 150 feet; length of eastern 
side, 160 feet; Length of southeastern side, 100 feet; length of southern side, 90 feet, 
and length of western side, 100 feet. Measured east and west, its longest apex dia- 
meter is 225 feet; measured north and south it falls a little short, being about 220 
feet. On its summit this tumulus is nearly level. Shorn of the luxuriant vegetation 
and tall forest trees, which at one time crowneil it on every side, the outlines of this 
mound stand iu bold relief. Its angles are still sharply defined. The established 
approach to the top is from the east. Its ascent was accomplished through the in- 
tervention of terraces rising one above the other — inclined planes leading from the 
one to the other. These terraces are 65 feet in width, and extend from the mound 
toward the southeast. Near the eastern angle, a pathway leads to the top; but it 
does not appear to have been intended for very general use. May it not have been 
designed for the priesthood alone, while assembled upon the broad terraces the wor- 
shipers gave solemn heed to the religious ceremonies performed upon the eastern 
summit of this ancient temple? 

East of this large central mound — and so near that their ilanks meet and mingle — 
stands a smaller mound, about 35 feet high, originally quadrangular, now nearly 
circular in form, and with a summit diameter of 100 feet. From its western slo])e is 
an easy and immediate communication with the terraces of the central tumulus. 
This mound is designated in the accompanying plate by the letter B. Two hundred 
and fifty feet in a westerly direction from this mound, and distant some 60 feet in a 
southerly direction from it, is the third (C) and the last of this immediate group. 
Pentagonal iu form, it possesses an altitude of 23 feet. It is uniformly level at the 
top, and its apex diameters, measured at right angles, were, respectively, 92 and 
68 feet. 

East of this group, ami within the inclosure, is a chain of four sepulchral mounds, 
(F F F F), ovoidal iu shape. Little individual interest attaches to them. Nothing, 
aside from their location iu the vicinity of these larger tumuli and their being within 
the area formed by the canal and the river, distinguishes them from numerous earth 



296 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



mounds scattered here and tliom tlir(iiif;li tin' length and l)readtli of tlieEtowali and 
Oostenaiila valleys. 

The artificial elevation E, lying northwest of the central gronp, iKremarkal>le for 
its juperficial area, and is completely surrounded by the moat which at that jjoint 
divides with a view to its inclosure. The slope of the sides of these tumuli is just 
such as wonld he assumed by gradual accretions of earth successively deposited in 
small ijuantities from above. 

The summits of these mounds, and the circumjacent valley for miles, have been 
completely denuded of the original growth which overspread them in rich ])rofusion. 
The consequence is, these remarkable remains can be readily and carefully noted. 

Without comiiieuting- at jireseut upon this clesciii)tion, I give Col. 
Charles Whittlesey's account as found in the Smithsonian Report for 
1881,' together with his illustration No. 1. (See Fig. 181.) 




Fig. 181.— Plat of Etowah group, copy of AVhittlesev'.s fiffiin- No. 1. 



THE GKEAT MOUND ON THE ETOWAH RIVER, GEORGIA. 

Not having seen a detailed description of this mound I made a visit to it in behalf 
of the Wesrern Reserve Historical Society, in May, 1871. It stands upon the north 
bank of the Etowah, about 2 miles below where it is crossed by the Chattanooga and 
Atl.anta railway, near Cartersville. Its form, size, and elevaticm are singular and 
imposing. It occupies the easterly point or angle of a large and luxuriant river 
bottom, a part of which is subject to inundations. The soil is a deep, rich, black 
loam covering several hundred acres, which has been cultivated in corn and cotton 
since the Cherokees left it, about forty years since. 

I was compelled, by bad weather, to make the survey in haste. The bearings were 
taken with a prismatic compass, the distances measured by pacing, and the elevalSons 
obtained with a pocket level. They are, therefore, subject to the corrections of future 
surveyors. Its base covers a space of about 3 acres, and stands .at a level of 23 feet 
above low water in the river. In great floods the water approaches near the mound 
on the west, but lias not been known to reach it. The body of the mound has an 
irregular figure, as shown in the plan. It is longest on the meridian, its diameter in 

' Pp. 624-027. 



THOMAS.) GEORGIA. 297 

that ilirection being about 270 feet. Ou the top is a nearly level area of about an 
acre, the average height of which is 50 feet above the base. A broad ramj) or graded 
way (1) vrinds upward from the plain, around the south face of the mound, to the area 
ou the top. 

Like some of the pyramids of Kgypt it has two smaller ones as tenders: one on 
the south, C ; another to the southeast, B; each about 100 feet distant, their bases 
nearly square, and of nearly equal dimensions. If they were not in the shadow of 
the great mound they would attract attention for their size and regularity. The 
ground at 15 is 3 feet higher than at C. All of them are truncated. The mound C 
is not a perfectly regular figure, but approaches a square with one side broken into 
three lines. Its height above base is 18 feet. The bearing of its western side is 
north 10 degrees west, and the length on the ground 47 paces, having been somewhat 
spread out by plowing around the foot. Ou the east is a ramp, with a slope of 1 to 
2 degrees, which allows of ready ascent by persons on foot. 

The slopes of all the mounils are very steep and quite perfect, in some places stOl 
standing at an angle of 45 degrees. B is a regular truucated pyramid, with a square 
base about 106 feet on a side, two of the laces bearing 5 degrees west of the merid- 
ian. Its elevation is 22 feet. There is no ramp or place of ascent which is less steep 
than the general slopes. Towards the southeast corner of the surface of B is a 
sunken place, as though a vault had fallen in. 

The iiroprietor has managed to cultivate the summitsof all the mounds, regarding 
the group in the light of a contiuual injury by the loss of several acres of ground. 
Most of the material of the mounds is the rich black mold of the bottom land, with 
occasional lumps of red clay. The soil on their sides and summits produces corn, 
cotton, grass, vines, and bushes in full luxuriance. The perimeter of the base of the 
great mound is 534 paces. As the ground had lieeu recently plowed and was soaked 
with a deluge of rain, a ])ace will represent little more than 2 feet. I give the cir- 
cumference provisionally at 370 yards. The area ou the top is like the base, oblong 
north and south, but its figure is uiore regular. Its perimeter is 231 paces. 

From the center of the pyramid C a line on the magnetic meri<liau passes a few 
feet to the west of the center of the platform on the summit of A. Its sides are 
nowhere washed or gullied by rains. Prior to the clearing of the land, large trees 
flourished on the top and on the slopes. I estimate its mass to contain 117,000 cubic 
yards, which is about four-fifths of the Prussian earth-monument ou the field of 
Waterloo. 

At the base the ramp is 50 feet broad, growing narrower as you ascend. It curves 
to the right, aud reaches the area on the top near its southwest corner. Twenty- 
five years since, before it was injured by cultivatiira, visitors could easily ride to 
the summit on horseback along the ramp. From this spot the view of the rich valley 
of the Etowah towards the west, aud of the picturesque hills which liorder it ou 
either side, is one of surpassing beauty. 

About 300 yards to the north rises the second terrace of the valley, composed of 
red clay aud gra^•el. Near the foot of it are the remains of a ditch, inclosing this 
group of mounds in an arc of a circle, at a distance of about 200 yards. The western 
eud rests on the river, below the mounds, into which the high waters back up a con- 
siderable distance. 

It has been principally filled up by cultivation. The owner of the premises says 
there was originally an embankment along the edge of the ditch on the side of the 
pyramids, but other old settlers say there was none. If the last statement is cor- 
rect, a part of the earth composing the mounds can be accounted for by the ditch. 

Its leugth is about one-fourth of a mile, aud it does not extend to the river, above 
the mounds. Near the upper cud are two oblong, irregular pits, 12 to 15 feet deep, 
from which a part of the earth of the mounds may have been takeu. The diameter 
of the pits varies from 150 to 200 feet, and the lireadth from 60 to 70. The ditch is 
reputed to have been 30 feet wide and 10 feet deep. Two hundred yards to the 



298 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

nortbeaet of A are the remains of four low iiiouimIh within the ditch near the large 
pits. Fivo huudrud yards to the northwest, on the edge of thi^ second terrace, is a 
mound which is yet 8 feet high, although it has been industriously plowed over 
more than thirty years. 

The place clioseu by the mound-builders in this case for the location 
of their village is, as usual, one adapted to easy cultivation and withal 
one of real beauty. 

The river, which reaches the base of the hills above and below, here 
makes a bend to the south, while tlie line of hills curves toward the 
north, leaving a broad, fertile bottom some 3 miles long east and west 
and a mile or more in breadth. The mounds are visible from the hills 
throughout the entire circuit, rendering it easy to give notice of the 
approach of an enemy from any <piarter on this side of the river. 

There is little doubt, therefore, that while one object in view in 
selecting this locality was to obtain land close at hand suitable for cul- 
tivation, another was, as intimated by Rev. Elias Cornelius, security 
and means of defense against the attacks of enemies. The general plan 
of the works, from an examination anil survey made in person, assisted 
by Mr. Kogan, in 188.5, is given in Fig. 182. It will be seen from this 
figure that the works at present consist of a broad, surrounding ditch, 
flanked at two points by large excavations, six included and one out- 
side mound, though it is apparent from the descriptions of previous 
visitors heretotore given and what is hereafter stated that these are not 
all the works which formed parts of this extensive village. 

The ditch, starting at n, on the east, 310 feet from the river and 1,140 
feet from the nearest ])oiiit of the large mound, runs northwest, gradu- 
ally curving westward and southward so as to form an almost complete 
semicircle, and striking the river below at p, about 870 feet from the 
nearest point of the large mound. The distance from m to p direct is 
about 775 yards, and the length of the ditch from h to p, following the 
curve, about 1,060 yards. The greatest width of the area, that is, from 
the river to the margin of the large excavation r, is about iBO yards, 
the area inclosed being about 56 acres. Whether the ditch ever 
reached the river on the east can not be determined from present iudi- 
cations. There is still a sliglit depression, or swale, south of the termi- 
nation, shown at m, but this does not reach the bank. Nevertheless, 
the plan of the works seems to require connection with the river at this 
point, and that this was the case may be assumed. It is probable that 
there was here a bridge or arrangement for crossing the ditch, and also 
that it was quite narrow here to prevent the too rapid influx of water 
from the river. A crossing point tippears to have been at «-, where the 
ditch enters the large reservoir or basin. The dotted lines in the plat 
(Fig. 182) along the break at i indicate the portion filled up by the pres- 
ent and preceding owners in order to make a crossing for a road at 
this point. As it approaches the large excavation r, it suddenly ex- 
pands and increases in depth, being at the cross section 1-2, 95 feet wide 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. XVI 



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PLAN OF THE LARGE MOUND ETOWAH GROUP. 



THOMAS.] 



GEORGIA. 



299 



and 14 feet deep. At the point of counection with the excavation, «', it 
suddenly Jiarrows to 12 or 11 feet, and the dejjth is not more than half 
of what it is a few feet above. It is evident that a dam was thrown 
across at this point, as some of the stones used were still in place when 
I examined it, and quite a number had fallen down into the large exca- 




■00 CM wo 



•OO ?00 800 



Fig. 182.— Plat of the Etowah (,'roiiii (oiigiual). 

vation. It is probable that this was connected with a fish-trap of some 
kind, and that advantage was also taken of the near approach of the 
sides to throw a wooden bridge across the ditch. 

The large excavation (r) embraces an area of about 3 acres; it is not 
uniform in depth ; in fact, a considerable portion of the central area is 



300 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

but slightly excavated aud but little lower tliau the original surround- 
ing surface; the remainder is about the same depth as the expanded 
l)ortion of the ditch immediately above. The portion of the ditch ex- 
tending from this basin to the outlet of the other, marked /, has never 
been plowed over and has suft'ered but little change fiom its original 
condition ; here it is about 40 feet wide and 15 feet deep. The excava- 
tion / is correctly represented in the figure; it is over li acres in extent 
and is 17 feet deep at the deepest point, the eastern side, where the 
bank or margin is almost perpendicular, a fact which seems to forbid 
the idea of great antiquity. The remainder of the ditch to the river 
has been plowed over and hence its sides are much worn down; never- 
theless the depth is some 8 or 10 feet, and the width at x y 68 feet. 
The distance from .s- to }> 'S 1,070 feet. Its entrance to the river has 
been closed by the present owner to keep out the backwater. There 
are no indications at any point that there ever was an embaukmejit on 
either side, the material taken out having doubtless been used in build- 
ing the mounds. East and north of the large mound is a considerable 
depression from which, in all probability, additional material was ob- 





FiG. 183.— Large mound of the Etowab group. 

tained. The outer margin of this depression is indicated by the shaded 
line. As the small mounds d, e, and / are in this depression, it is prob- 
able they were built subsequent to the construction of the larger ones. 

The larf/e mound, a. — This is truly a grand and remarkable structure, 
being exceeded in size in the United States, judging by the cubical 
contents, only by the great Cahokia mound. All the descriptions of it 
which I have seen fail to note the important fact that the broad road- 
way wliich ascends it on the south side does not reach the top, falling 
short in this respect by 20 feet perpendicular and about 30 feet slant 
height. This fact is apparent from the views of it given in our Fig. 
183 and PI. xv, the latter from a photograph. 

A careful survey of it was made in 1884 by Mr. Victor Mindelefi' for 
the purpose of prei)aring a model for the Exposition at New Orleans. 
A plat drawn to an exact scale, with heights, measurements, etc., is 
given in PI. xvi. From this it will be seen that the highest point, c, 
is C6i feet, assuming the northwest corner, which is Mr. Mindeleff's 
zero, as the base, liut from personal inspection aud what has been 
discovered in regard to the other two mounds near it, I am satisfied the 



THciMAs.i GEORGIA. 301 

original surface of the groiiiul wtis somewhat higher than that around 
it to the north and east as it now appears. The level at the southwest, 
which is 3 feet higher than the northwest corner, is probably very near 
that of the original surfiice of the ground. Assuming this as the base, 
and taking the average of the heights of the top, the true elevation is 
found to be 61 feet. The length of the slope a little north of the south- 
west corner, which is very steep, forming an angle of 45 degrees, is 86 
feet; this gives within a few inches the same result as the preceding 
calculation. The slope here is considerably steeper than at any other 
point and indicates that the body of the mound is largely composed of 
clay, a question which could easily be determined by digging; but per- 
mission to do this has not as yet been obtained. The longest diameter, 
including the roadway {a to h, PI. xvi), is 380 feet; the diameter at 
right angles to this (from c to (1) is 330 feet, and the area of the base a 
little less than 3 acres. The lengths of the sides of the top, which is 
somewhat quadrilateral, are as follows: From A: (northwest corner) to I 
(southwest corner), 180 feet; from I to m, 170 feet; from m to «, 176 
feet; and from n to k, 164 feet; the offset at j; from the line connecting 
on aTul n is about 1.5 feet. The area of the top is, therefore, about seven- 
tenths of an acre. The length of the roadway along the slope from c 
to h, Fig. 183), is 205 feet, the width varying from 37 to 56 feet; the 
height at its upper terminus (h, Fig. 183) above the base is a few inches 
over 40 feet. There is at the upper terminus a level space which formed 
the uppermost of the terraces into which this roadway was originally 
divided, of ^\hich some indications yet remain. 

From these dimensions it is easy to calculate with ai^proximate cer- 
tainty the cubical contents of the mound, which we find to be, including 
the roadway, about 4,300,000 cubic feet, or 159,200 cubic yards. It 
therefore exceeds slightly in volume the entire wall of Fort Ancient, in 
Ohio,' and exceeds Col. Whittlesey's calculation by about 42,000 cubic 
yards. 

The ramp, or straight, steep roadway on the east, terminating at d 
(Fig. 183), is not very apparent at present, though it is evident that 
the slope here has been lengthened intentionally, and that an addition 
has been made to this side for some definite purpose; but it must have 
been too steep for any other jiurpose than descent. Possibly it was an 
earlier roadway than that on the south, which was abandoned and 
partially removed when the latter was built. 

Mound c. — Although this mound is described by Col. Whittlesey as 
somewhat square, with aroadwayou the east side, Ifind theoutline to be 
more rounded and but slight indications of the eastward extension. 
The circumference of the base is 375 feet, and the average diameter of 
the nearly flat top exactly 60 feet; the height, measured from the sur- 
rounding surface of the ground, is about 18 feet, but the true height 

" Science, toI. 8, 1886, p. 540. 



302 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



above the original siuface was found, when it was excavated, to he 
only 15 feet. 

In excavating this mound Mr. Eogan, who did this part of the work, 
ran a trench G feet wide in from the south side, going through the hard 
clay slope until he struck the inner circle, whence he continued widen- 
ing until he had gone over the entire area within the surrounding slope, 
carrying the excavation down at all points to the original surface. 

Continuing the excavation in this way until a complete exploration of 
the mound had been made, the construction was found to be as rejire- 
sented in Fig. 1 84, which shows a vertical section. The entire surround- 
ing slope was of hard, tough, red clay, which could not have been 
obtained nearer than half a mile; the cylindrical core, GO feet in diam- 
eter, and extending down to the original surface of the ground, was 
composed of three horizontal layers, the bottom layer. No. 1, 10 feet 
thick, of rich, dark, and rather loose loam; the next, No. 2, 4 feet 
thick, beaten (or trami)ed) clay, so tough and hard that it was diffi- 
cult to penetrate it even with a pick; and the uppermost. No. 3, of sand 
and siu-face soil, between 1 and 2 feet thick. 




Fio. 184.— Vertical sectioc of mound c, Etowah group. 

Nothing was found in the layer of clay. No. 2, except a rude clay 
pipe, some small shell beads, a piece of mica, and a chunkee stone. 
The burials were all in the lower layer (No. 1), of dark, rich loam, and 
chieily in stone cists or coffins of the usual box shape, formed of stone 
slabs, and distributed horizontally, as shown in Fig. 185, which is apian 
of this lower bed. 

Grave a, a stone sepulcher, 2i feet wide, 8 feet long, and 2 feet deep, 
was formed by placing steatite slabs on edge at the sides and ends, and 
others across the top. The bottom consisted simply of earth hardened 
by fire. It contained the remains of a single skeleton, lying on its 
back, with the head east. The frame was heavy and about 7 feet long. 
The head rested on a thin copper plate ornamented with im[)ressed 
figures; but the skull was crushed and the plate injured by fallen 
slabs, lender the copper were the remains of a skin of some kind, and 
under this coarse matting, apparently of split cane. The skin and 
matting were both so rotten that they C(nild be secured only in frag- 
ments. At the left of the feet were two clay vessels, one a water bottle 
and the other a very small vase. On the right of the feet were some 



GEORGIA. 



303 



mussel and sea shells and immediately under the feet two conch shells 
{Busyeon perversum) partially tilled with small shell beads. Around 
each ankle was a strand of similar beads. The bones and most of the 
shells were so far decomposed that they could not be saved. 

Grave h, a stone sepulcher, 4 feet long, 2 feet wide, and l.J feet deep, 
differed from a only in size and the fact that the bottom was covered 
with stone slabs. The skeleton was extended on the back, head east. 
On the forehead was a thin plate of copper, the only article found. 

Grave c, also a stone sepulcher, 3.J feet long, li feet wide, and li feet 
deep, the bottom being formed of burnt earth. Although extending 
east and west, as shown in Fig. 185. the bones had probably been dis- 
connected and interred without regard to order, the head being found 
in the northeast corner with face to the wall, and the remaining por- 
tions of the skeleton in a promiscuous heap. Tet there was no indica- 
tion of disturbanceafter bur- 
ial, as the coftin was intact. 
Placed in the heap of bones 
was a thin plate of copper 
that had been formed by 
uniting and riveting to- 
gether smaller sections. 
(See PI. XVIII.) Some of the 
bones found in this grave w | 
were saved. 

Grave d^ a small sepulcher 
only 1| feet square by 1 foot 
deep, contained the remains 
of an infant ; also a few small 
shell beads. The slabs form- 
ing the sides and bottom of 
this grave bore very distinct 
marks of fire. 

Grave e consisted simply of a headstone and footstone, with the 
skeleton of a very small child between them; head east. On the wrists 
were some very small shell beads. The earth on the north and south 
sides had been hardened in order to form the walls, a strong indication 
that the mound had been built up to this height and a pit dug in it. 

Grave/, also a stone sepulcher, was (5 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 
IJ feet deep, with a stone bottom. Skeleton with the head north. 
There were several pieces of copper about the head, which, together 
with the skeleton, were wrapped in a skin. The head rested on a large 
couch shell {Busyeon iH-rvcrsum)^ and this on the remains of a coarse 
mat. Shell beads were found around the neck and also around each 
wrist and ankle. On the right was a small cup and on the breast an 
engraved shell. The copper had preserved a portion of the hair, which 
was saved ; portions of the skin and matting were also secured. Im- 




Fkj. 185. — rian of burials in mound c, Etowaii jiroup. 



304 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



mediately under It was anotber stone grave or eoftin, .'J feet long, li feet 
wide and deep, extending north and south. Tln^ liead of the skeleton 
was towiird the north, but the feet were doubled back under the frame 
in order to get it in the allotted space. Tlie only things fouml with 
this skeleton were some beads around the neck. 

At<7the remains of a child 
were found without any 
stones about them. Some 
shell beads were around the 
neck and wrist, and an en- 
graved shell on the breast. 
Grave h was a stone cist 
li feet square and 1 foot 
deep, stone slabs on the 
four sides and top, but the 
bottom consisted simply of 
earth hardened by fire. This 
contained only a trace of 
bones and presented indi- 
cations of at least partial 
cremation, as all around the 
slabs, outside and inside, 
was a solid mass of charcoal, 
and the earth was burned 
to the depth of a foot. 

Grave i, a stone cist 4J 
feet long, li feet wide and 
deep; bottom of earth ; con- 
tained the remains of a 
skelet(m restingon theback, 
headnorth, andfeetdoubled 
back so as to come within 
the cofiflu. On the breast 
was a thin plate of copper, 
5 inches square, with a hole 
through the center. Beads 
were found around the 
wrists, and rather more than 
a quart about the neck. 
Atj were the remains of 
a small child, without stone surroundings; under the head was a piece 
of copper, aud about the neck aud wrists a number of shell beads. 

These graves were not on the same level, the top of some being but 2 
feet below the clay bed (No. 2), while others were from 2 to 3 feet lower. 
All the articles alluded to as obtained in this mouud were forwarded at 
once to the Bureau of Ethnology, and are now in the National Museum. 




Fig. 18(j — Figured copper plate from mound < 
Etowah group. 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. XVII 




^'-^^ 4^^ 





e-> 



FIGURED COPPER PLATE FROM MOUND c, ETOWAH GROUP IHUMAN FIGURE). 



THOMAS. I 



GEORGIA. 



305 



Examiuing them somewhat carefully siuce their reception, 1 And there 
are really more copper plates anioiij;' them than at first supposed. 
Those which were not too much broken to determine the exact form and 
size are as follows : 

(1) A human figure with wings, represented in PI. xvii. This is 17 
inches long and 9 inches wide. A portion of the lower part, as shown 
by the figure, is wanting, probably some 3 or 4 inches. There is a break 
across the middle, but not sufldcient to interfere with tracing out the 
design. A crown piece of the head ornament is also wanting. This 
plate was found in grave a. 

(2) Also a human figure, found in the same grave; is shown in Fig. 
186. Length, 16 inches; width, 7^ inches. 

(3) Figure of a bird (PL xviii). This is imperfect, as part of tlie head 
and of theouter margin of the wings are 
wanting. Length, 13i inches; width, 
7A inches. This plate shows indubita- 
ble evidence of having been formed of 
smaller pieces welded together, as the 
overlapiiing j)ortions can be easily 
traced. It has also undergone repairs ; 
a fracture, commencing on the left and 
running irregularly halfway across the 
body, has been mended by i)lacing a 
strip of copper along it on the back 
and riveting it to the main jjlate; a 
small piece has also been riveted to 
the head, anil the head to the body; 
several other pieces are attached in 
the same way. The rivets are small 
and the work neatly done. This was 
found in grave c. 

(4) An ornament or badge of some 
kind found in grave h is shown in Fig. 187. The two crescent-shaped 
pieces are entirely plain except some slightly impressed lines on the 
portion connecting them with the central stem. This central stem 
throughout its entire length and to the width of six-tenths of an inch is 
raised, and cross strips placed at various points along the under side, 
for the purpose of inserting a strip of bone, a part of which yet remains 
in it and is seen in the figure where the oblique strips meet. The most 
inijjortant and interesting fact presented by this specimen is the evi- 
dence it furnishes that the workman who formed it maile use of me- 
tallic tools, as the cutting in this case could not possibly have been 
done with anything except a metallic implement. A single glance at 
it is sufdcient to satisfy any one of the truth of this assertion. Length 
of the stem, 9 inches; width across the crescents, 7i inches. 

12 KTH 20 




Fl«. 18 



-Copper bailjio from mound c, 
Etowah ^roTip. 



308 



MOUNU EXPLORATIONS. 




Fig. 188.— Copper ornament or badge from 
monnd c, Etowali group. 



(5) I'aitofan oriiiiiuent similtir to No. 4. These plates, especially 
No. 4, appear to be enlarged patterns of that seen behind the head in 
PI. XVII. 

(6) An ornament or badge, shown in Fig. 188, found under the head 

of the skeleton in grave a. It is imper- 
fect, a narrow strip across the middle 
and a portion of the tip being Inissing. 
As shown in the figure, it measures 
around the outer border 19 inches, and 
across the broad end 3.J inches. The 
six holes at the larger end, in which the 
remains of strings can be detected, indi- 
cate that it was, when in use, attached 
to some portion of the dress or fastened 
on a staff. 

(7) A fragment from the larger end of 
a piece similar to the preceding. At- 
tached to this is a piece of cloth. 

In addition to the foregoing there are 
a number of small fragments, probably 

broken from these plates or parts of others; but so far I have been un- 
able to tit them to their proper places. 
An examination of the supposed skin shows beyond question that it 

is animal matter and prob- 
ably part of a tanned deer 

hide. The matting appears 

to be made of split canes. 
The shell represented in 

Fig. 189 is the one obtained 

in grave g. The one shown 

in Fig. 190 is that found in 

gi-ave/. 

In one of the low mounds 

was subsequently found the 

bust shown, in Fig. 191. 

It has been carved from a 

coarse marble, and shows 

(ionsiderable art. The face 

had been split off, but with- 
out injury. The length of 

the fragment shown in the 

figure is 11 inches. 

I shall not attemjit, at 

present, to speculate upon 

these singular specimens of art further than to call attention to one or 

two facts which appear to bear upon their age and distribution. 

We notice the fact, which is apparent to every one who inspects the 




Fig. 189. --Engraved shell, mound c, Etowah group. 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. XVIII 




FIGURED COPPER PLATE FROM MOUND C, ETOWAH GROUP 'BIRD FIGURE). 



GEORGIA. 



307 



flgnres, that in all their leading features the desigus are suggestive 
of Mexican or Central American work; yet a close inspection brings 
to light one or two features which are anomalies in Mexican or Central 
American designs; as, for example, in PI. xvii and Fig. 186, where the 
wings are represented as rising fi-om the back of the shoulders. 
Although we can find numerous figures of winged individuals in 
Mexican designs (they are unknown in Central American), they always 
carry with them the idea that the individual is partly or completely 
clothed in the skin of the bird. This is partly carried out in the cop- 
l)er plate, as is seen by the bird bill over the head; the eye being that 




Fm. 190.— Eugravcil sli. 



iiuinl f, P^towali group. 



of ihe bird a-nd not of the man. But when the wings are observed it 
is at once seen that the artist had in mind the angel figure with wings 
rising from the back of the shoulders — an idea wholly foreign to Mexi- 
can art. 

Another fact worthy of note in regard to the two chief plates repre- 
senting human figures is that there is a combination of Central Ameri- 
can and Mexican designs; the graceful limbs and the ornaments of the 
arms, legs, waist, and the headdress are Central American, while the 
rest, with the exception possibly of what is carried in the right hand, 
is Mexican. 



308 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



That tliesc i>late.s are not wholly the work of the Indians found in- 
habiting the .southern sections of the United States, or of their direct 
ancestors, is admitted. That they were not made Ijy an abcniginal 
artisan of Central America or Mexico of ante-(Jolumbian times, I think 
is probable if not from the designs themselves, from the apparent evi- 
dence that the work was done in part with hard metallic tools. 

(2) Plates like those of this collection have been found, so far as I can 
ascertain, only hi northern Georgia and northern and southern Illinois. 
The bird figure represented in Fig. 192, obtained by ]\Iaj. Powell, 
Director of the U. S. Geological Survey, from a mound near Peoria, 
Illinois, is introduced here for comparison with the bird tigures found 
in the Etowah mound. 




Fl(i. 101.— I>u3t from Etowah niumuls. 



Another was obtained from an ordinary stone grave in Union 
county, Illinois, by Mv. Thing, while engaged by the Bureau of Eth- 
nology. From a similar grave at the same i^lace he also obtained the 
plate represented in Fig. 85. Fragments of another similar plate were 
taken by Mr. Earle from a stone grave in a mound in Alexander county, 
Illinois. All these specimens were re(-eived by the Bureau of Ethnol- 
ogy, and are now in the National Museum. 

I can not enter at iireseut into a discussion of the questions raised by 
the discovery of these engraved shells, nor is it necessary that I should 
do so, as Mr. W. H. Holmes has discussed somewhat fully these de- 
signs in the Second Annual Iteport of the Bureau of Ethnology and 
I have ventured in "The Story of a Mound of the Shawnees in pre- 



GEORGIA AND ILLINOIS. 



309 



Columbian times," to suggest a. possible explanation of their presence 
in the interior regions. I nuxy add that these figured copperplates and 
engraved shells present a problem very difficult to solve, as is evident 
from the following facts : 

(1) A number of the designs bear too strong resemblance to those of 
Mexico and Central America to warrant us in supposing this similarity 
to be accidental. (2) The fact that some of them were found in con- 
nection with articles of European manufacture is unquestionable. (3) 
The indications of Eurojieau workmanship are too evident to be over- 
looked, (i) The evidence that some of the engraved shells can be 
traced to the Indians is well-nigh conclusive. 

Movnd h. — This was examined by sinking a shaft 12 feet square in 
the center to the original soil, which was reached at the (lci>tli of 1!) 
feet from the top. Nothing was found indicating burials. The top 
layer to the depth of 2 feet consisted 
chiefly of white sand; next, 9 feet of red 
clay; then, 2 feet more of white sand: 
and, lastly, 6 feet of dark saudy loam 
to the origii.\al surface of the ground. 

About the center of the shaft were 
the remains of four posts, two being 
parallel with the other two. They were 
2 feet apart one way and C feet the 
other; that is to say, they stood at the 
corners of a parallelogram 2 feet wide 
and 6 feet long, and were in a compar- 
atively sound condition, about (! inches 
in diameter and extended 4 feet below 
the surface of the mound. They were 
proljably the remains of some compar- 
atively modern structure. The plow 
had taken off the tops to the depth of 
several inches. In the lower sand stratum tlie breast bone of a turkey 
and several bones of a bear were discovered. 

Here and there throughout the 9-foot stratum were iiatches of dark 
red clay from 18 inches to 2 feet in diameter, that had been hardened by 
fire. The dimensions of this mound, which is in the form of a truncated 
four-sided pyramid, quite regular and steep, are as follows: The longer 
diameter of the base 130 feet, the shorter 120 feet; the longer diameter 
of the level to]> 90 feet, the shorter 81 feet; the height in tlie center 19 
feet, though if measured from the surrounding surface this would be in- 
creased by 5ome 3 or 4 feet. 

Subsequently a thorough examination was made of mound </, which 
stands about 450 yards north of the large mound and, as will be seen 
by reference to the plat (Fig. 182), outside of and some distance beyond 
the ditch. It is a low, conical tumulus, rounded on top, 192 feet in cii'- 
cumference at the base and 4i feet high. 




Fir,. 192.— CopjiiT phite with bird figure; 
mound near Penria, Illinois. 



310 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

The construction of the mound, commencing at the bottom and going 
upward, is as follows: First, a layer '2 feet thick of dark red clay rest- 
ing on the original surface of the ground ; mixed and scattered through 
this layer was a considerable (quantity of pure charcoal, also water- 
worn bowlders, all thoroughly burned; next above and Ijing on this a 
2-inch stratum of river sand which had been burned, and, lastly, the 
remainder of the mound was finished up with clay of a deep red color 
without any admixture of ashes or charcoal, though the bottom portion, 
which rested immediately on the sand, presented some indications of 
heat. This layer was so hard that it was difficult to penetrate it. 

In the 2-inch sand stratum were two small pieces of very distinctly 
glazed Y)ottery and lying at the bottom of the mound, on the natui'al 
surface of the ground, a piece of unglazed, ornamented pottery and a 
broken clay pipe. 

The bright red clay of this mound is similar to that in the land 
around it, while the darker variety is like that found a quaiter of a 
mile away. 

An examin.ation was also made of the strip of land on the east side 
of the mounds and along the north bank of the Etowah river. This 
land, it is proper to remark, has been under cultivation for many years. 
This examination was made by sinking pits, ftom 5 to 7 feet square 
and from 2 to 4i feet deep, at various placigs over the area, carrying 
them down in all cases to what appeared to be the second and undis- 
turbed natural layer. 

The variation in the depth of the top layer is due in part to overflows 
from the river, the soil in some places having been washed out and 
deposits made in other places by this agency. But the examination 
made shows this layer over the entire area, to be, in the main, one 
vast refuse heap, as it is composed of sandy loam, ashes, red clay, frag- 
ments of pottery, charcoal, and (jther reluse matter. In some places 
the appearance of the red clay shows that it has been dropped here 
in "batches" of a half bushel or less; in other places it is in a con- 
tinuous mass, forming a layer; moreover, it must be borne in mind that 
it does not belong here, but was broirght from a distance of nearly or 
quite half a mile, the nearest point where it could be obtained. 

This made earth is literally full of mussel shells, terrapin shells, animal 
bones, small fragments of pottery, with jiatches of charcoal and ashes 
scattered through the mass. The i)ottery and animal bones were broken 
into minute fragments. Among the animal bones (no human bones 
were found here) are many of the bear and hundreds of the turkey. 
Waterworn bowlders were also found scattered through this deposit 
and in every case showed very distinctly the action of Are. 

In some instances the charcoal found was in cylindrical pieces 3 or 4 
int'hes long, but never more than 3 inches in diameter. These were evi- 
dently sections of pine saplings. In the bottom of one of the shafts 
were two post holes sunk into the natural soil beneath to the depth of 



THOMAS.] GEORGIA. 211 

18 inches. These holes, which were 16 inches in diameter, had perfectly 
smooth sides and were filled with i)iue saud. The two were 12 inches 
apart. 

At the bottom of another shaft, 4 feet below the present surface of 
the ground, were discovered some partially burned corncobs. These 
were in a little heap and completely surrounded by charcoal, which has 
doubtless assisted in their preservation. 

This refuse layer extends some distance west of the three mounds. 

Mound d. — This is located about 150 yards due east of the large 
mound and is one of those marked J^ in Jones's figure. It is circular in 
form, the diameter of the base about 50 feet, and, although it shows ex- 
ternally a height of only 4 feet above tlie surrounding ground, by exca- 
vation it was found to be in fact 9 feet high above the original surface 
on which it was built, the land around it having been raised by deposits 
from overflows and debris. The excavation was carried to the bottom, 
5 feet below the present surface of the ground, there being no indication 
that a pit had been dug. At the depth of about 14 inches below the top 
of the mound a layer of partially burned clay from 2 to 3 inches thick 
was reached, the smooth side down. The impressions of twigs and grass 
could be seen running through it. This rested on a layer of packed ashes 
8 inches thick, which was literally filled mith mussel shells and animal 
bones, but so burned aud packed that it was difScult to drive a pick 
through the mass. Next below this was a stratum in which were pieces 
of charcoal, next a layer of dark red clay 2 feet thick, and lastly a 
bottom layer, 2 feet thick, of rich loam. This last layer was crowded 
with fragments of pottery and decayed animal bones, among which was 
noticed the head of a squirrel. Here were found one bone implement 
and some pieces of mica. 

Mound e. — One hundred feet north of the preceding is another mound, 
oval in form and roimd topped, 00 by 80 feet in diameter and 6 feet high 
above the surrounding ground, but in fact 10 feet high above the 
original surface on which it was built. The stratification, commencing 
at the bottom and going upwards, was found to be as follows: First, a 
layer 1 foot thick of dark red clay resting on the original surface, inter- 
mixed with which was charcoal ; then 1 foot of muck and charcoal ; 
next, 2 feet of bright red clay ; then 2 inches of sand ; next, 1 foot of 
charcoal and ashes ; then ;J feet of bright red clay ; next, 1 foot of clay 
burned almost as hard as a brick ; and lastly, a top layer of soil G inches 
thick. In tlie bottom layer were a number of fragments of pottery, 
and in the 1 foot layer of charcoal and ashes a piece of a polished celt 
and a small worked stone. The 3-foot stratum of bright red clay could 
not be distinguished fiom a natural deposit; in fact would have been 
taken as such but for the layer of charcoal and ashes below it. The 
burned clay layer was so hard that it could scarcely be broken up with 
a pick. The mound showed evidences of heat throughout. No traces 
of human or animal bones were noticed in it. 



312 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



TIIK I'AUHOT M(IUNI). 



This single inouud is located near the, north bank of Etowah river, 
34 miles west of Oartersville, on a level bottom under cultivation. It 
is oval in form, rounded on top, its longest diameter (east and west), at 
base, being G5 feet and greatest width 48 feet; height, 8 feet. It con- 
sisted chiefly of pure yellow clay; first a top layer 5 feet thick of soft 
clay; then a layer from 1 to 2 inches thick of pure sand, and below this 
to the natural surface yellow clay. No relics or indications of fire were 
seen. 



THE EDWARDS MOUND. 



This is situated on the south side of Etowah river, directly opposite 
the Tumlin mounds. It is on a level bottom, 100 feet from the river, oval 
in form, 80 feet long at base, by 55 in width, 8 feet liigh, and flat on 
top. 

An excavation of this mound showed the surrounding slope to be 
constructed entirely of yellow clay and distinct from the central portion, 
resembling in this respect mound No. 3, of the Tumlin group. The 
central portion was made by filling in with sand and red and yellow 
clay, witli here and there a small l>atch of gravel ; but wherever the 
gravel occurred the earth was burnt around it, and it also showed the 
action of fire. No human or other remains were observed. 



THE LEAT MOUND. 



This is 3 miles west of Oartersville and within a few feet of the Cher- 
okee railroad, on bottom land about 35 or 40 feet above low-water mark. 
It is oval in form and flat on top; circumference of the base, 240 feet; 
longer diameter of the top, 53 feet; shorter diameter, 35 feet; height, 
4^ feet. In the construction of this mound it appears that the original 
surface of the ground was first leveled and on this a layer, consisting 
of red clay, sand, and ashes, 18 inches thick, was placed ; then it was 
finished ofl' with yellow clay to the top. 

In addition to the preceding the following mounds in this county 
were examined, but, presenting nothing novel or very interesting, will 
be very briefly noticed: 

THE BEN AKERMAN MOUND. 

This is situated on the farm of Mr. Benj. Akerman, 7 miles west of 
Oartersville, on the east side of Etowah river. It stands on the margin 
of a terrace overlooking the narrow valley of the river, is of the ordinary 
coni(^al form, diameter 38 to 40 feet, height 4 feet, but it Las been plowed 
over for several years. The strati licatiftn was as follows : A top layer 
of soil an inch or two in thickness; then, below this, a layer 3 feet thick 
of dark red clay, with spots here and there through it of charcoal, ashes, 
and burned clay and sand, or, in other words, small fire beds; below 
this, a foot and a half of bright red unburned clay; anil last, resting on 



THOMAS.] GEORGIA. 313 

the original soil, a, layer, about an iuch thick, of mussel shells. In the 
thick layer of dark clay, near the center, was a single limestone slab 
standing on end; immediately over this the clay was thoroughly burned. 
It is perhaps worthy of notice that this clay had the api)earance of hav- 
ing been sun-dried before being burned; from which it is inferred that 
a jwi'tion of the top was added sometime after tlie main body of the 
mound was built, and that the stone was planted at this time. At the 
bottom of this thick layer, in the center, was about a quart of charred 
corn (maize) and corn-cobs. Nothing else was found. 

THE CONYERS MOUND. 

This is situated on the farm of Mr. Conyers, in the southeastern part 
of the county, on Euharlee cieek, is somewhat oval, the longer diameter, 
98 feet, shorter G8 ; height, 7 feet. The stratification was as follows : 
First, a top layer G inches thick, of soil; next, a layer, 4| feet thick, of 
red clay mixed with dark soil, with charcoal and ashes scattered 
through it. In the top of this layer, at the center, was a curious basin- 
shaped fire-bed, 12 inches deep at the center and 2 feet in diameter. 
The next layer, C inches thick, consisted of i)ure white sa-nd, and, last, 
a layer, IJ feet thick, of loam resting on the original surface of the 
ground. No indications of burial or articles were observed. 

THE ROWLAND MOUNDS. 

These are located on the south bank of Etowah river, about 3 miles 
southeast of Cartersville. The group consists of three mounds and a 
cemetery ; the largest is somewhat irregular in form, the longer diame- 
ter 150 feet, the shorter 140, the whole height 20 feet, but the height 
of the artificial portion 15 feet, I'ounded on the top. One-half of this 
was dug away; but finding neither specimens nor skeletons, no further 
investigations were made, but the strata being more numerous than 
usual are considered of suflicient interest to be metitioned here. First, 
a top layer, G inches, of soil; then, 3| feet of yellow clay mixed with 
sand; then, one foot of sand and ashes; next, 2 feet of sand; then, 1 
foot of ashes ; then, 3 feet of yellow clay ; next, 1 foot of sand and ashes ; 
and lastly, resting on the natural earth, a uniform level layer of red 
clay, 3 feet thick. The whole i-ested on a natural elevation about 5 
feet high. This elevation probably extended, when the mound was 
built, over the entire bottom, but has been worn away by frcfpient 
overflows. An occasional fragment of pottery was found here and there 
in the different strata, but no other relics were observed. The rather 
heavy layers of sand and ashes indicate that the mound was built by 
successive additions made at widely separated periods. 

The cemetery lies to the east of the mound near the bank of the river. 
A somewhat careful exploration of this was mnd<>, but it was found 
that a considerable jjortiou of it had been washed away by the frequent 



314 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

overflows. This conclusion is Ijaseil upon tlie fact that a portion of the 
area has been washed out to the depth of 2 to 2i feet, leaving exposed 
layers of stones like those fotind under skeletons in the remaining 
graves, and numerous fragments ot human bones. 

At one point were three skeletons lying extended side by side on 
their backs, heads east. They lay at a depth of 2i feet under the sur- 
face, and rested on a single layer of water- worn bowlders which tbrmed 
the bottom of the grave. The stones had the appearance of having 
been heated and then dipped into cold water. At the head of the grave 
was a medium-sized bowl. Resting on the faces was an iron boi'iug 
implement and hammer; around the neck of the middle skeleton were 
the remains of a strand of small shell beads. Between the skeletons 
were found a broken soapstoue pipe, a piece of mica, and fragments of 
pottery. 

At another point was a single skeleton, doubled up and resting on 
the left side. This was 2 feet below the surface, resting on a layer of 
stones similar to those in the other grave. 

Not far distant, on the farm of Mr. Lewis Sams, three other mounds 
were exannned, with the following results: No. 1, circular in form and 
round on top, circumference of base 152 feet, and height ."> feet, was 
found to be simply a mass of yellow sand with shells mixed through it. 
Part of a human upper jaw was found, but this was probably acciden- 
tally put in while building, as there were no indications of burial. At 
the bottom in the center was a bed of charcoal 6 inches deep and 2 
feet in diameter. 

No. 2, circular and flat on top; circumference of the base, 142 feet; 
diameter of the top, 12 feet; height, 3 feet. Built entirely of sand, 
without stratification, but with shells intermixed, no ashes, coals, relics, 
or remains in it. 

No. 3, circular and round on top; circumference of base, 111 feet; 
height, 3 feet; composed entirely of sand. 

HABERSHAM COUNTY. 

But one mound in this county was examined. This is situated on the 
farm of Mr. Patton Jarrett, in the western part of the county, on the 
south bank of Tugalo river, one-fourth of a mile above the mouth of 
Toccoa creek. It is conical in form, the base almost exactly circular, 
precisely 100 feet in diameter, and a little over 14 feet high. The owner 
would permit no further examination than could be made by sinking 
one shaft. Nothing further than the stratification was ascertained, 
which is as follows: (1) top layer, 2| feet of soil similar to that of the 
surrounding surface, but with a quantity of charcoal scattered through 
it; (2) a layer 1 inch thick of charcoal; (3) 6 inches of dark clay or 
muck; (4) 2 feet of sandy loam; (5) 6 inches of bright red, very hard, 
clay, apparently sun-dried; (6) 4 feet of dark, rich loam, with a little 
charcoal scattered thiougli it; (7) 6 inches of dark clay or muck; (8) 6 



THOMAS] (GEORGIA. 315 

iuches of sandy loam; (9) 2 feet of dark, rich loam; and, lastly, resting 
on the original surface, 2 feet of river sand. In the sixth and ninth 
layers were a few fi-agments of pottery. 

ELBEKT COUNTY. 

THE REMBERT MOUNDS. 

These monnds were visited by Bartram in 1773, who thus describes 
them : 

These wonderful labors of the ancients stand in a level plain very near the bank 
of the river ; now 20 or 30 yards from it ; they consist of conical mounts of earth 
and four square terraces. The great mount is in the form of a cone about 40 or 50 feet 
high, and the circumference of its base 200 or 300 yards, entirely composed of the 
loamy rich earth of the low grounds ; the top or apex is flat ; a spiral path or track 
loading from the ground up to the top is still visible, where now grows a large, beau- 
tiful spreading, red cedar. There appear four niches excavated out of the sides of 
this hill, at different heights from the base, fronting the four cardinal points. These 
niches or sentry boxes are entered into from the winding path and seem to have 
been meant for resting places or lookouts. The circumjacent level grounds are 
cleared and planted with Indian corn at present and I think the proprietor of the 
lands, who accompanied us to this place, said that the mount itself yielded above 
100 bushels in one season.' 

In 1848 George White (author of White's Statistics of Georgia) vis- 
ited this group, in regard to which he remarks as follows : 

The large mound corresjionds exactly with Bartram's description of it, with this 
exception, that the sides and summit are covered with a growth of cane and several 
large trees. The smaller mounds have been almost destroyed. Capt. Rembert has 
excavated the smaller mounds and found human skeletons, jars, pipes, beads, breast- 
plates, stone hammers, hatchets, arrowheads, etc. Some of tliese are now in our 
possession and are really objects of curiosity.^ 

If these descriptions were correct at the time they were made, very 
decided changes have taken place in the appearance of tlie works since 
then. The group, consisting of 2 mounds, is situated on the farm of 
Mr. Z. A. Tate, near the bank of the Savaniuih river, 4 miles above the 
mouth of Broad river. They stand on the level bottom, one 130 and 
the other 320 feet ft-om the bank of the river. This bottom extends 
several miles north and south, and three-fourths of a mile back from 
the river to the hills. As will be seen by reference to Fig. 193, which 
shows a section, north and soutli, of the area, there are 2 "washouts" 
flanking these mounds. The one on the north (a), commencing at the 
river, extends a fourth of a mile back in a southwest direction, covering 
an area of 7 or 8 acres. This appi'oaches within about 200 feet of the 
large mound (b). The one on the south (c) also commences at the river 
and extends back southeastward only a few hundred feet beyond the 
mounds and runs within a few feet of them. These excavations are 
denominated " washouts " because the present owner of the land, Mr. 
Tate, remembers when they were made by high water. Nevertheless, 

' " Travels," pp. 324 to 325. ' Statistics of Georgia, p. 230. 



316 



MOUISTD EXPLORATIONS. 




judging from i)reseiit appearances, there are reasons for believing tliat 
^ at least a portion of tbe earth used in the construc- 

tion of the mounds was obtained here, lea\'ing depres- 
sions, and that, during high water, when the land was 
overflowed, as is frequently the case, channels were 
washed out from them to the river. The soutli mar- 
gin of the southern " washout" is fully 4 feet higher 
than the land on which the mounds stand. 

Mound No. 1. — This, which is much tlie larger of 
the two, stands 130 feet from the river l)ank, and is, 
exclusive of the ramp or projection, an exact circle 
151 feet in diameter, nearly fiat on top, and 30 feet 
high at the highest point (north side), but only 27 
feet near the south side. The diameter of the top is 
about 70 feet. The plan of the ramp or rather exten- 
sion, as it seems to be, is shown in Fig. 194. The 
vertical outline of the mound, with a section of the 
shaft, is presented in Fig. 195. The right or south- 
ern end of this shows the slope of the extension. 
This has an average width on top of 20 feet. 

The mound is covered with trees such as sugar- 
berry, walnut, hickory, and oak. One sugarberry is 
C feet in circumference (at stump height); a walnut, 
5 feet; a hickory, 3| feet; and an oak, 10 feet. The 
shaft was carried down to the bottom. The first foot 
was of soil {(i), then 7 feet of dark sandy loam {h), next 
li feet of thoroughly burned yeUowish clay and sand 
(c), with a large percentage of ashes. This layer had 
the appearance of having been put down and pai'ked 
while wet and then burned; it was so hard that it 
was difdcult to break it. Next 3 feet of black earth, 
also packed {d); then 8i feet of pure sand (e); and 
last, resting on the original surface, feet of hard 
bluish muck (/). All of these layers, except the bot- 
tom one, had charcoal, mica, fragments of pottery, 
and animal bones scattered through them, but the 
last were so far decomposed that none of them could 
be saved. 

As fragments of pottery and animal bones were 
found in spots, together with ashes and other indica- 
tions of flre, it is probable these were fire beds where 
cooking had been done. All that portion of the shaft 
below the layer of burned clay was so very dry that 
when turned up it would crumble to dust. It is pos- 
* sible that the bottom layer of blue "muck " is partly 

the original soil, as it is much like the sui'rounding soil, and that a part 




THOMAS] GEORGIA. 317 

of tbe surrounding surface has been washed away since the mound was 
built. 

Mound No. 2 (not shown in the figure) stands about 40 feet west of 
the base of No. 1. It is oblong in form, 58 feet long north and soiith, 
41 feet wide, and <i feet high. A large shaft had been sunk in the 
middle by some previous explorer, hence investigations were confined 
to the eastern aud western sides, which presented one or two peculiari- 
ties. With the exception of the top layer of soil, 1 foot thick, the 
remainder on the east side con- 
sisted of river sand, with particles 
of charcoal iiiid vegetable matter 
mixed through it, while on the west 
it was composed of small masses 
of red clay and dark earth. In 
this, at the depth of 2^ feet, were ' 
thebonesof a single adult skeleton. 
These were packed together in a 
space 2 feet square aud 18 inches 
deep; the skull was placed face 
down and all the other bones piled 

, ., _ Til , -, FnJ. 194. — I'laii of mound No. 1, Rembert i;rour. 

about it. Immediately over the 

bones was a layer of red clay 2 inches thick, burned hard. Hesting on 
this layer were the remains of a pretty thoroughly burned fire. A few 
fragments of pottery and a small clay pipe were found. 

RICHMOND COUNTY. 

While this report was being jjrepared Mr. Henry L. Reynolds, one 
of my assistants, was sent to certain points in Georgia and S(mth Caro 
lina to make examination of some works to which my attention had 
been called. The result of this examination is given in the following- 
report, made by him. This includes the Hollywood mound of Rich- 
mond county, Georgia, which proved to be of unusual interest, and the 
McDowell mound, Kershaw county, South Carolina. 

THE HOLLYWOOD MOUND. 

There are two mounds situated in a bend of the Savannah river, 
in Richnioiid county, Georgia, .3 miles east from Hollywood, a small 
flag station on the Georgia Central railroad about 10 miles below 
Augusta and 5 miles above Silver blulf. This latter, which is ou the 
South Carolina side, seems to me, after a special investigation of this 
question, to be the most probable site of the ancient town of Cuti- 
fachiqui, where l)e Soto and his army were so generously entertained. 

The mounds are situated on the lowest river land, which is annually 
subject to inundation. The overflows of the Savannah are very destruc- 
tive, particularly at this point. Cattle are drowned, the rich riparian 



318 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



crops arc destroyed, and the farmers impoverished. At such times 
these mounds arc the only hmd visible above a broad expanse of water, 
and it is this fact which has given rise to the tradition among the peo- 
ple of the vicinity that they were thrown up by some former owner of 
the proi)erty to serve as places of refuge for his cattle during these 
inundations. A quarter of a mUe to the uorth of the mounds near the 

river bank is an extensive shell heaji, com 
posed chieriy of the shells of Unio. Upon 
Ihe larger of the two mounds a simple barn 
has been, erected. This mound appears to 
have been originally of the pyramidal type, 
but since its surface has suffered so greatly 
from the cattle that have been penned in 
upon it and the washing occasioned by floods, 
its original character, as well as whatever 
smaller physical features it may have pre- 
sented, is now almost entirely lost. 

Mound No. 2, the one excavated, is in an 
adjoining held, the property of a gentleman 
of Augusta, Georgia. It is 280 feet due north 
of No. 1, is conical in form, 10 feet high, and 
70 feet in diameter. Though originally sur- 
mounted by a small log baru, which a former 
flood removed to a point at its base, the 
mound had evidently remained unmolested 
since that time, for several small cottonwood 
trees, as well as consideiable underbrush, 
were growing ujjon it. 

The excavation was conducted as follows : 
First two trenches, each 10 feet wide, were 
cut crcsswise thi'ough the center, one north 
and south, the other east and west. These 
were carried down to the bottom, and in 
some places to the original pure micaceous 
soil that underlies the mixed loam of the 
surrounding field. The segments that re 
mained were then cut down several feet be- 
yond the radius that covered the interments 
found in the trenches. In this manner the 
mound was thoroughly excavated and all its buried contents exposed. 
The mound is stratified, or, in other words, constituted of two differ- 
ent kinds of soil, the upper being strictly sandy micaceous loam, 3 feet 
thick; the lower a hard, compact vegetable earth, taken from what is 
commonly called in the south " crawfish land." This rested at the bot- 
tom upt)n 9 inches of a very black and rich vegetable mold, permeated 
throvighout with innumerable small pieces of burnt pottery, charcoal, 




& 



a 






BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. XIX 




POT FROM HOLLYWOOD MOUND, GEORGIA. 



THOMAS.) GEORGIA. 319 

shell, mica, chipped flint, and charred and decayed bones too small for 
ideutiflcatiou. The surface of this black mold appeared to be the origi- 
nal surface upon which the mound was built. 

All the interments lay within the lower division of the mound. The 
absence of burial in the upper division, the different character of the 
earth, and the presence of fragmentary pottery (N. M.^ 13.')278-84) 
unlike that found in the subsoil, seems to indicate a subsequent addi- 
tion. It also seems to indicate that the original builders or others who 
succeeded them were disjiosed to utilize these their old tombs for some 
purpose in connection with floods, for this additional earth seems to 
have been cast upon the mound to increase its elevation. 

It will also be seen from the sectional diagram that there were two 
general series of interments which comprise the find, or rather the im- 
portant contents of the mound. The lowermost of these contained 
specimens either resting on the black mold at the bottom or within a 
foot and a half above it, and the upi)er from a foot to 2 feet below the 
line separating the two strata, or from 4 to 5 feet below the surface of 
the mound. Fire played some part in the ceremony of burial, for hearth 
remains of burnt earth and ashes were seen with each series of burials. 
These burials were made before the subdivision was finally completed; 
in other words, they were not intrusive, for there was no disturbance 
of the soil above them. 

Scattered indiscriminately throughout the soil composing the upj)er 
division of the mound were the following articles: One stone chisel (K. 
M. 135271), one stone celt, eight small pieces of white and blue glazed 
European crockery (N. M. 135279), many small fragments of Indian 
ware, and five pieces of old-fashioned rudely wrought iron nails much 
oxidized (N. M. 135280). These appeared to have been thrown up with 
the earth in the construction of this part of the mound. 

In the subsoil the hearth A (Fig. 190, which shows a horizontal sec- 
tion) was first discovered almost touching the line of division. It was 
of reddish burnt earth, covered with pure wood ashes and a small (quan- 
tity of charcoal. It was 5 feet in diameter, 2 feet thick, and rested at 
the bottom on fine sand. Adjoining it on the southeast lay a large 
citlinary pot (N". M. 135205), indicated on the diagram (Fig. 196) as No. 
1, the rim being 10 inches below the line dividing the lower from the 
upper strata and 3 feet 10 inches below the surface of the mound. 
Decomposed animal matter was found in the bottom mingled with 
scattered particles of black and white ashes. One foot and a half east 
from pot No. 1, on the same level, lay another pot, 2 (N. M. 135209), 
having inside of it another pot (N. M. 135208). In consequence of their 
inferior composition, badly decayed condition, and the i^ressure of the 
hard superincumbent earth, these vessels were so badly injured that 
they fell apart when taken out. Almost alongside of the last, on the 
same level, lay another, 3 (N. M. 135211), inside of which was an 



1 " N. M. " in this connection signifies " National Museum " number. 



320 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



inverted ])ot (N. M. 135210). Decayed animal matter, a few bone 
beads, a fragment of the tootli of .some animal, and some .scattering 
charcoal cinders were found in the bottom. In the earth alongside of 
these pots wa.s found a i>iece of iron (N. M. 135275). Directly south 
of pot No. 1, on the same level, Ofeet distant, lay another pot, 4 (N. M. 
135212). In the earth surrounding it were found pieces of white 
European porcelain (N. M. 135279, Fig. 197). East of this last, 6 feet 
distant, lay a small pot, 5 (N. M. 135198). The rims of these two pots 
appeared to be about on the same level. Not far from pot No. 5 
were the decayed remains of a repouss<'' Hgured copper plate (N. M. 
135226) so thin and brittle that it was with difficulty that it could 




Flu. 106.— Ujiper horizontal .section of Hollywood raound, Georgia. 

be handled without breaking. Alongside were the faint indications of 
human burial, as seen in small pieces of decayed bone and human 
teeth. Between these last and those indicated by the figures 1, 2, 3 
was a scant line of decayed bone, so scant and decayed that it was 
imjiossible to tell whether or not it was human. Traces of tire were 
seen about these bones. North of these traces of bone, and immediately 
under the line of pots Nos. 1, 2, 3, were three small upright timber 
molds, varying from 1 to IJ feet long. No traces of the timbers 
remained. Apparently lying on the dividing line between the two 
strata, 1-1 feet northwest of the center, was the fragment of an old 
drawing knife (N. M. 135201). A rude old iron nail, very much ox- 



El'REAl' OF KTHNOLOOY. 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. XXL 




OBSERVATORY CIRCLE NEAR NEWARK O. 

ScftJe, J50 feet lo 1 inch, or 1 1800 

Canti>ur [nierril 1 fool 

Surveyed in 1891 



GEORGIA. 



321 



dized, was found on the surface of tlie subsoil, 3 feet deep and V2 feet 
southwest of the center. Another rude though sharp-pointed ancient 
iron nail was found not far from the last, but 8 inches below the sur- 
face of the subsoil. A small piece of green glass was found 3 inches 
below the surface of the subsoil, in the 
southeast segment and east of the hearth. 
Restiug on the sand that seemed to stretch 
over the entire area beneath these pots 
and the Are bed between them were the 
pots indicated by Nos. (5 (PI. xix, N. M. 
1351!)2) and 7 (N. M. 135200). A large 
bowl (N. jVI. 1351!t9) was found inside of 
pot 'So. G, and by the side of the two ves- 
sels, at the bottom, were the scanty re- 
mains of some fabric. Two feet 8 inches from the surface of the mound 
were the remains of decayed timber, which ran down about 1.^ feet to 
the east of the pot at 6, almost touching its eastern rim. It is not uu- 




. 197.— Fragment of Euroiiean pottery, 
Hollywood mounil, Georgia. 




Kh;. IIIH.— l^nwfi- linrizoiital scx'tinii of HoUywodil iikiuikI. (icorgia. 

likely that this was the remnant of some [)ost planted on the surface 
of the mound by some of its white owners. 

Alongside of the northwestern edge of the hearth A was a line of 
decayed bones, which, from the small pieces of skull and two or three 
teeth that remained, were found to be human. Though in the very 
12 ETH 21 



322 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

last stages of decay, the remains were so remarkably meager as to 
give the impression tliatall the bones of the Ixxly conkl not have been 
buried. The soil about all the bones found in this upper layer was 
absolutely free from any trace of animal or vegetable matter, which leads 
to the opinion that the bones were- buried after having been denuded 
of flesh. A pot, No. 8 (N. M. 1.S5193), lay close to the skull remains 
thus found. Like pots 1, C, and 8, it had a small hole in the bottom, 
but had another sounder pot (N. M. 135200) jjlaced within it. Seven 
and a half feet to the northeast of the tire bed, on a level apparently 
5 inches lower than that of the pots heretofore described, lay jjotNo. 15 
N. M. 135213. Near it to the northeast were the remains of human bones 
(No. 10). 




Fig. 19(1.— Pot Irom Hollywood mound, Georgia (135197). 

In the lower division, as in that last described, all the articles 
seemed to be clustered about a hearth (B Fig. 198, which shows a 
lower horizontal section) and on the same general level. Here most of 
the human remains were found, but, like those in the upper burial, only 
the merest traces were observed. The conditions of this locality are 
very conducive to decay. Decayed and meager as they were, sutticient 
evidence was had in the case of each skeleton to show that it was 
human, such as the presence of teeth and certain identifiable bones. 

The hearth B, which in some places was 10 feet in diameter, was sit- 
uated wholly southwest of the center. Its composition was peculiar. 
It consisted of four layers of pure white ashes each one-half inch thick, 
separated by red burnt earth averaging an inch in tliickness. Ashes 



BHi 




XXII 



FAIRGROUND ClRCLt. NEAR NEWARK. 
Scale ISO feet to 1 inch, or I 1800 
ContoiLT Intemal 2 feei 
Surweyed m 1891 



GEORGIA. 



323 



formed tlie bottom as well as the topmost layer. The heartli rested ou 
the curious blaek mold at the bottom. This black mold did not pene- 
trate to the north and east border of the mound, but lay only over an 
area of which this hearth was the center. 

Southwest of the hearth B and in connection with the remains of 
skeleton No. 2 was pot 9 (N. M. 13.jltt7), a l)ottle standing on a tripod 
of human heads, shown in Fig. 199. As traces of fire were noticed 
above this pot and skeleton, there seems to have been more than one 
ceremony attendant upon the burial of these articles. The pot 10 (N, 




Flii. 201J,— A ])aintei1 vessel from Hollywnnil innimd. rVeorjria. 

M. 1.'>j194), whicli was found at the foot of this skeleton, seemed to have 
had originally a wooden cover, for in the earth taken from the top some 
small traces of decayed wood were noticed, and in the earth about it 
lay a clay pipe (N. M. 135223). Northeast of pot No. 9, and also near 
the fire bed, was a long-neck jar, 11 (N. M. 13529.T). (See Fig. 20O.) 
At its western base lay the pipes (N. M. 13.^210, 135218, 135219, 
135220, 135221, 135222), five typical forms of which are shown in PI. 
XXIV. Pipe 3a and 3& (13521(5) was carved from soapstone ; the remainder 
are of clay. Adjoining these articles on the northeast and on the same 



324 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



level were pots 12, 13, and 14 (X. M. 1351!»«, 135204, 137215), and 6 
inches below tbe former lay a copper ax liead (X. M. 135228) wrapped 
iu cloth aud incased in bark. 




Fig. 201. — Pot from Hollywooit njnund. (ieorsia. 

Three or 4 feet west of these, lying against each other, were two other 
pots, 10 and 17 (N. M. 135202, 135203). No. 10 (Fig. 201) was found lying 
on its side upon the black mold at the bottom, and beneath it, as if the 




Fig. 202.— Shell heads from Htillywoud mound. Georgia. 

pot were placed on top of them, were the fragments of thin and very brit- 
tle plates of copper (X. M. 135227), bearing Mexican figures in relief, some 
flakes of mica, and decayed pieces of unidentified shells. The copper 




Fig. 203.— Copper article from Hollywood mound. ( M-orgia, 

had been originally first wrapped in some kind of leather, then iu fine, 
rush matting, and the whole incased in bark. Beneath No. 17, which 
was also lying ou its side, was a beautiful biconcave disk of quartz 



iil'LiK.Vr in-' KTUXOLOCY 



rWKLKTM ANNV.VL KF.Pl)R'r. PL. Will 




HIGH BANK CIRCLE. NEAR CH I LLICOTHE. O 

ScaJe. 150 feet to 1 mch. or 1 1800 

Contour Interval 1 foot 

Sorveycd m 1891 



GEORGIA. 



325 



(N. M. 13n2(iO). Beneath this last, 3 or 4 inches deeper, and lying on the. 
bhuk mold at the bottom, were two copper celts (N. M. 135229) wrapped 
in cloth together and incased on both sides in bark. Accompanying 
this were several large pieces of mica. There were scarcely more than 
a handful of decayed bones iu connection with these objects, identifiable 
only by the help of a few human teeth. 
About the neck bones of skeleton 3, which lay 13 feet northwest of 




Fig. 204.— Shell bead.s Irnm linllyw i junuDd, Geor^i.i 

the center, were found a lot of shell beads (X. M. 135247, Fig. 202), 
and below these, a foot to the south, another lot of shell beads (N. M. 
135242), a lot of perforated shell disks (N. M. 135248), the copper- 
sheathed ornament of wood (N. M. 13525(5) shown in Fig. 203, and a 
lump of galenite. 

Immediately north of the remains last described, on the same level 
and about 15 feet northwest of the center, lay the bones and teeth of 




Fro. 205. — Pipe friiiii llullywoutl iiimind, (ieorgia. 

what seemed to be another skeleton (No. 8). With it were found the 
lot of shell beads (N. M. 135233) shown in Fig. 204, a copper ax or 
celt incased in wood (N. M. 135232), the decayed remains of the colu- 
mella of the Bt(,sycon perrerximi, and a lump of soggy glauconite. 

Nothing was found with skeleton No. fl, which lay southwest of the 
fire bed and near to skeleton 2 on the south, except a pipe (N. M. 
135224). 




326 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

Skeleton No. 5 lay about 2.3 feet west of the center, alino.st on the 
black mold at the bottom, and near its head were found a pipe (N. M. 
135l'17), representing the head of an owl (Fig. 205) ; one 
decayed shell ornament, three stone celts, five discoidal 
stones, an anomalous stone implement, and a lump of 
glauconite. The apparent remains of another human 
burial were seen to the east of the hearth (skeleton No. 
C), and near the teeth was discovered a well- shaped stone 

Fio. 206.— Fragment CClt. 

Holly woMi'n.oum" ^ pipc (N. M. ].'?o225) was found in the earth two feet 
Georgia. j^, ^J^g ,.„„ti, ^j- Ijeartll B. 

The piece of blue porcelain (N. M. 135279) shown in Fig. 206 was 
found 4 feet southwest of the center and (! feet beneath the surface of 
the mound. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 
KERSHAW DISTRICT. 

Mcdowell mouxd no. i. 

The Wateree river is at present washing away the western end of a 
large mound situated on its left bank on the McDowell farm, i miles 
southwest from Camden, South Carolina. It is a large, oblong struc- 
ture, which, after repeated plowings and floods is now reduced to 10 
feet in height. Its major axis is 154 feet, and minor axis 115 feet. 
Three smaller mounds are yet to be seen almost adjoining it on the 
north and east, all of which it is said, were, formerly encircled by a low 
earthen wall, no trace of which, however, is now visible. 

In exploring it a trench 10 to 15 feet wide and (JO feet long was run 
lengthwise through the mound in a northwest and southeast direction, 
which was connected also with a north and south trench 15 feet wide, 
coming from near its southern edge towards the center. 

This mound was not used as a place of burial, the scattered frag- 
ments of human bones that were found being rather accidentally 
thrown up with the earth than remains of deliberate interments. The 
investigation has not succeeded in demonstrating the use for which 
• it was constructed: possibly it was a domiciliary mound. 

So.ne fragmentary human bones, Uuio shells, and the bones of deer 
were found scattered indiscriminately here and there through the earth 
at a depth of from 1 to 2 feet. They manifested but little sign of 
decay. A foot and a half below the surface, 3 feet east of the center, 
were the remains of a hearth or fire-bed about 9 feet in diameter. A 
similar fire-bed 4 feet in diameter lay at the same dei)th 15 feet south of 
the center. In the south trench, 6 feet from the center and 3 feet 
deep, was a small flre-bed, alongside of which were small piles of shells 
and charred corncobs. The molds left by four posts which had decayed 
away were met with a short distance east of the center IJ feet below 



THOMAS.] SOUTH CAROLINA. 327 

tlic smfiice. The two northernmost ran down ])erpendicularly 4i feet, 
and at the base of the southernmost, o fei't deep, was a pile of burnt 
corncobs li feet in diameter and 3 inches deep. Other smaller piles 
of these charred corncobs were found here and there through the mound 
at various depths, the deepest ])eing 8 feet. No other feature of inter- 
est could be discovered in connection with them. West of the northern 
post hole, near its base, had been placed a small rude pot of the texture 
similar to the fragments found in the vicinity. It was found crushed 
in completely, with a few black coals and conch shells within it. 
Four feet to the northeast of this, on the same level, lay a i)ile of six- 
teen shells (N. M. 1337(i3). Two small pieces of human bones were 
also found in the vicinity. 

Twenty-five feet south of the center, at a depth of 5 feet, a large fire- 
bed resting on sand was encountered, directly beneath which, in vertical 
succession, were three others, the lowermost being 8i feet deep. A pile 
of charred corncobs and a pile of shells were found adjoining these 
hearths on the north at the depth of (5 feet. All the shells found thus 
in piles in this mound were of the same kind and uniform in size. In 
the earth directly over these fire-beds were found a piece of ])erforated 
sheet copper (N. M. 135701) and a broken pipe (N. M. 135759). Forty- 
two feet east of the center, at a depth of 4- feet, four post holes were in 
a line north and south, but they could not be traced deeper than from a 
foot to a foot and a half Immediately below the center, 9 feet deep, 
there was a i)ile of wood ashes mixed with black coals, IJ feet in 
diameter. Near by lay a small pottery disk and a small piece of bone 
from a human arm. 

McDf)WELl, HOUND Ki>. 2. 

This is a small mound lying about 30 rods northeast of the one last 
described. It has been so materially reduced by the plow and the fre- 
quent floods of the river that it is at present only 2 feet high. A trench 
was carried through it north and south, 1 feet deep and 11 feet wide, but 
nothing was found except the remains of a perpendicular post, 1 foot in 
diameter, a little to the south of the center. The post was indicated by 
the charcoal in the mold and al>out '2 feet of decayed wood at the bot- 
tom. It appeared to be either of cottonwood or sassafras. Scattered 
promiscuously through the earth of this mound were fragments of pot- 
tery similar to that taken from mound No. 1. A small discoidal stone 
was found. 

FLORIDA. 

Some work was done in this state by Mr. Kogan, but nothing deemed 
worthy of notice was observed except the construction and contents of 
two mounds, which are briefly described as follows: 

The Job Smith mound, situated in the extreme southern part of 
Alachua county and 1 mile north of Watcahootee, on cleared hummock 



328 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

land aud surrounded on all sides by hummocks, was (composed entirely 
of sand. A considerable amount of cliarcoal was found scattered 
irregularly through it, but there were no indications of stratification. 
It is circular in form, a little less than 3 feet high, and about 42 feet in 
diameter. 

In the north half six skeletons were found at the bottom, aU extended, 
heads west, aud each lying on the right side. They had evidently been 
laid on the surface of the ground and the mound heaped over them. 
Around or about the head of each was a small quantity of red paint. The 
bones were so far decayed that they crumbled to pieces on attempting to 
remove them. The skeleton lying nearest the center, though not above 
the ordinary height, was an exceedingly stout and large-boned frame. 
No implements or vestiges of art of any kind were observed. 

Another mound near the center of Alachua county, 3 miles southeast 
of Gainesville, ' situated on a high hummock on the land of Mrs. Peter 
G. Snowdon, was examined. This was composed of white sand, with 
small quantities of charcoal and ashes scattered here and there through 
it. Trees of considerable size were growing on it, one a hickory 18 
inches in diameter. The mound was circular, but flat on top, 4J feet 
high, and 71 feet ia diameter. Close to the base, along the north side, 
ran a trench from which the material of which it was built was probably 
taken. 

Exploration brought to. light the fact that a level platform about 1 
foot high had first been formed, on which skeletons were placed aud the 
mound then built over them. 

Thirty-seven skeletons, or rather the parts of thirty-seven skeletons, 
pieces of pottery, and a few decomposed conch shells {Bunycon perrer- 
sum) were discovered. The condition in which the bones were found 
showed that all the bodies, or possibly the skeletons after the flesh had 
been removed, had been buried in the following singular manner: The 
head was first taken oft" and placed in an upright position and the rest 
of the body or frame then disjointed and placed around and upon it. 
One of the skulls had a hole through it which might have been made 
by an ordinary rifle ball. It had entered the center of the top of the 
head and passed out immediately behind the right ear. The hole 
through which it entered was not ragged, but clean cut. The fragments 
of pottery were so placed as to make it clear that the vessels had been 
broken before burial. 

ST. JOHNS AND VOLUSIA COUNTIES. 

The following interesting account of some mounds in these counties 
has been kindly furnished the Bureau by Dr. W. H. Dall, from notes 
made during a tY\\) to Florida in 1885 : 

MOUNDS AT SATSUMA AND ENTKRPRISE. 

" Having an opportunity during my absence of visiting the celebrated 
shell mound at Old Enterprise, on Lake Monroe, I availed myself of it 



BUREAU OF ETHN' 



TWELTTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. XXIV 




PIPES FROM HOLLYWOOD MOUND, GEORGIA. 



THOMAS] FLORIDA. 320 

ill order to satisfy my curiosity in regiird to certain points conuectcd 
with its construction. In tbis examination I developed certain facts 
which seem worthy of being put on record, as they will, to some extent, 
modify the inference in regard to the construction of these mounds 
which might be drawn from the admirable monograph of Wyman. 

"It will be understood, of course, that my remarks relate only to 
the particular mounds which I have examined, though perhaps they 
may prove of wider application. 

" The present state of the mound at Old Enterprise is one of dilapi- 
dation. It is situated on land belonging to the De Bary estate and is 
fenced in, but the material is used in fertilizing orange groves and 
making shell walks, and, by the owners, or with their permission, 
probably two thirds of the mound have been carted away. The work 
of destruction at all events gives an excellent section of the mound 
down to its very foundations, and, however deplorable it may be on 
other grounds, was certainly a great help to me in determining its 
structure. 

" The mound is smaller than Wyman's frontispiece would lead one 
to believe, a misconception which has been brought about unintention- 
ally by the artist, and which might have been remedied by jnitting a 
huuuin figure in the foreground. Though it has extended about 150 
feet along the lake shore, its width at right angles to that direction 
could not have exceeded 50 feet and was probably less. The margins 
were originally so steep as to be difdcult to scale, except by the path 
intended for ascent, but only a few yards of the original slope now 
remain, and this will soon be dug away. The mound is situated just to 
the eastward of the point where a considerable stream enters the lake, 
forming the outlet of the beautiful Green Sulphur spring which lies a 
few rods inland. North of the mound a triangular piece of swamp ex- 
tends from near the stream, which its apex nearly reaches, to a little 
bay 400 or 500 yards to the eastward, where the base of the triangle 
may be a hundred yards in breadth or more. It is too soft to cross, 
and full of saw palmetto, reeds, etc., growing in hummocks separated 
by water and semifluid mud. This swamp is being cleared and drained 
and will soon cease to exist, but, as the mound originally stood, must 
have nearly isolated it from firm ground and formed an excellent defense 
against attack from that direction. Moreover, in this swamp lived the 
mollnsks whose shells have been so important in the construction of 
the mound. 

"Westward from the mound and northwestward from the swamp lies 
an orange grove and some woods; the land gradually rising from the 
lake. The soil is composed of a Liyer 2 or 3 feet thick of beach sand, 
humus, and an admixture of muddy matter derived from the swamp, 
which was once more extensive in this direction. The surface of the 
ground is covered with shells from the mound, which have arrived 
there in three ways. Some have been carte<l-over and spread about as 
a fertilizer; much has been washed along the shore by storms and 



330 MOUND EXPLOKATIONS. 

thrown up by the waves im the banks, and some of the shells, particu- 
larly the moi-e perfect ones, are so round and light that they ha\'e sim- 
ply been blown by the wind from the sides of the mound, scattered for 
a mile or two over the surface near the sandy beach, but not carried 
inland further than open spaces would permit a brisk breeze to blow. 

'• Deep trenches have been dug in the orange grove to drain the 
ground between the rows of trees. Into these trenches a certain mim- 
ber of the shells from the surface have been blown or have fallen. 
Beside these, however, at a depth of 2 or 3 feet from the surface is a 
layer of mud full of shells of all sorts, and which appears to be a west- 
ward extension of the present swamp. This marl and mud appeared 
to be about 2 feet thick in most places and rested on a hard eolian 
sandstone resembling the phosphatic rock of western Florida in appear- 
ance, but much younger in age, full of recent land shells, and in which 
Pourtales and Wj'man both found human bones imbedded at Rock 
island in Lake Monroe. 

"Behind the sand of the beach a Httle lagoon was originally formed, 
in which gradually accumulated the mud from decaying vegetation 
brought down by the streams or growing on the spot. Here flourished 
the UnioH, Vivijxira.s, etc., and in time formed a bed of nurd and marl. 
Upon this the wind blew sand from the. beach, and in this way the dry 
land has grown. The marl in position is rather soft, but when well 
drained it becomes very hard, almost forming a stone. The shells in 
it are just as they died, large and small, mostly in good condition, 
except the Unios, which are more perishable than the univalves, and 
always less perfect. The Tivijjaras are thin and light, but very strong, 
and a layer of them will sustain a weight of 150 jjounds without break- 
ing. Owing to the air they contain they are very buoyant, and a com- 
pact layer 4 inches thick spread over the soft mud of the swamp will 
sustain the weight of a man, a fact which I personally tested. Besides 
the whole shells, there is a large amount of broken and decayed shelly 
matter. The large AmpuUuriax are very fragile and may have been 
broken up, but at all events are very rare in the marl. I saw no per- 
fect ones. 

"The shore and bottom of the lake near the mound, and as far as 
could be observed into the deep water, are composed of clear sharp 
sand, attbrding no food or resting place for moUusks, and neither dead 
nor living ones are found in it, except such as may have been washed 
from the mound. The mound itself probably stands partly on the 
original sea beach and partly on the swamp. 

" The way in which its materials have been scattered about prevented 
the attainment of certainty in the matter, but the above suggestion 
accords with what was observed. About two-thu'ds of the mound has 
been dug away nearly to the level of the beach. In 184:8 the bluft, 
where the storms had washed away the lakewaid slope, was 15 feet 
high. The summit of the mound was about 5 feet higher, and on it an 



THOMAS I FLORIDA. 331 

early settler built a small house, which at one time served to accommo- 
date the occasional travelei-. All traces of this are now gone and, in 
fact, the part of the mound on which it stood is believed to have been 
entirely dug away. The nearly vertical face from which excavations 
have been made ort'ers an excellent means of inspecting the structure 
of the mound. The sides and base are buried in a talus almost exclu- 
sively composed of Mnparafieorgiuna, Lea, which have weathered out 
of the general mass, and owing to their form and strength have re- 
sisted decay. To the casual visitor this talus would give the idea that 
the mound was composed of clear Vivqxira shells, which would be a 
very erroneous notion. After clearing away the talus it was evident 
that the body of the mound is formed of mud and marl resembling 
tliat previously described as underlying the orange grove and which I 
am convinced was brought to the spot from the swamp to build the 
mound. Land from the beach would be liable to be washed or blown 
away at any time and the marl was but a few yards away. The main 
mass, especially toward the base of the mound, is composed of this 
material un stratified, a'nd by the percolation of lime water rendered 
almost as hard as stone. At about half the hciglit of the mound slight 
indications of stratification are apparent; here and there small layers 
of clean shells, Yivlpara or Ampullaria, are visible, an inch or two 
thick and a yard or two long in section, as if the shells from a repast 
had been thrown out. Bits of charcoal, occasional fish, and other 
bones are more .abundant as we ascend. I did not succeed in finding a 
single artificial article of aboriginal origin in all the exposed area and 
talus after a careful search. About 2J feet below the surfiice, in the 
compact material, I found one or two pieces of glass which had been 
subjected to the action of fire, and which by age had become beauti- 
fully iridescent. It had been originally quite thin and of pale green- 
ish color, like that used for cheai> looking glasses, such as are used in 
Indian trade. ,It may, however, have been a relic of the early white 
settlers before referred to, though the depth to which it was buried is 
adverse to this idea. 

" I collected of the rough material composing the mound, about 4 feet 
below the surfiice, enough to fill a box such as holds 100 cigars. This 
weighed about 5i pounds, and 4i i)()uudsof itwere broken up, the con- 
tained sheUs were sorted and identified, with the following result, the 
identifiable shells of each species ])eiiig counted : 

Fivipara georgiana, Lea .313 

Melania etowaheiisis, Lea 1011 

Amiiicola, sp. iudet 1 

Unio bucklei/i, Lea (valves) 30 

Unio ( valves) 5 

Ameria scalaris, Jay 4 

Glamlhia triincata, Say 1 

Helix ( Polygyra) auriformin, BUI 1 

ZonUea minuscula, Binuey 13 



332 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

Zonitcs arborca, Say 1 

Zonites ( Conulus) chersina, Say 1 

Pupa conlracta, Say 2 

I'lqni rupicola, Say ; ■ --- 1*4 

" Total, 13 species and 495 specimens of mollusks, beside!? a fragment 
of marine shell (a Cardium) too small to identify, several fish scales, 
two pieces of fish bones, and one piece of manimalian bone unidentifi- 
able. The shells tabulated all live in the vicinity at the present time, 
but are not abundant, owing to the drying up of the swamp or other 
causes. At suitable localities about the lake they are believed to be 
abundant as ever at the proper season, i. e., midsummer. Oi all the 
above mentioned, only the Vivipani and Unio have ever been consid- 
ered edible. Most of them are far too miiuite for food. The Ampul- 
larias (A. depresaa, Say), which, as before stated, are not disseminated 
through the mass, but found assembled iu small patches, were there- 
fore probably gathered elsewhere, perhaps at no great distance, and 
those in the mound are doubtless only relics of dinners. Tlie assem- 
blage is just what we might expect in a fiuvial marl, and a similar assem- 
blage would doubtless be found in a similar mass of the marl from the 
orange grove. 

"My conclusion, therefore, is that the mound was artificially con- 
structed as a post of observation (for which it is otherwise peculiarly 
well situated), a dwelling site, fortification against attack or flood, or 
for some other purpose requiring a dry or elevated site. That the build- 
ing up, after high- water mark was passed, was intermittent, and the 
materials supplemented by kitchen midden matters and that the gradual 
elevation continued until about the time it was abandoned. 

"The theory that it is solely derived from the relics of dinners, etc., 
seems untenable for the following reasons: (1) The character of the 
main mass of which it is composed as above described ; (2) the original 
steepness of the sides, too great to have been the unintentional result 
of throwing out small quantities of empty shells; (3) the improbability 
that the builders would squat in a marsh or on a beach subject to over- 
flow until their refuse had built them a dry site in spite of themselves; 
(4) the small area of the top, which renders it highly improbable that 
the dinner refuse of all who could sit on it could have made such a 
mound in many centuries; (5) and lastly, the fact that a material simi- 
lar to that of which the mound is composed is close at hand and otters 
no ditficulties to anyone desiring to get it. I should add that Mr. Le 
Baron, an engineer who contributed to the Smithsonian Report of 1882 
an interesting list of mounds observed by him in Florida, came, on 
other grounds, to a similar conclusion with regard to this mound. 

THE SAT.SUMA MOUND. 

"This mound is situated on the bank of the St. Johns river, about 20 
miles south of Palatka, near a small, new settlement called Satsuma. 



THOMAS! NORTH CAROLINA. 333 

I did not visit it, but fxaiiiiued a large scow load of material brought 
from it to Palatka for shell walks, etc. I was informed that it was 
about 25 feet high and 100 feet long along the bank, with a swamp 
behind it. 

"An examination of the material showed a similar assemblage of spe- 
cies, many of which could not have been gathered for food or any prac- 
tical use. The consolidated material was also like that at Enterprise, 
and I was led to suspect from these facts that the Satsuma mound, 
might have l)een like the former, artificially constructed of mud from 
an adjacent swamp. 

" The question having been recently discussed as to the use by exist- 
ing residents of Florida of the fresh water shells of the region for food 
and it having been incidentally stated by Wyman that the Florida 
" crackers " eat the TaJudina ( Viv'qmrn), and Unio^ I made careful inqui- 
ries among this class of peojile during my stay and found that none of 
them had ever heard of eating Viripara and only in one case had Unio 
been tasted, and then as a matter of curiosity, which was so well satis- 
fied that the old man said that ' if the Lord would forgive him for that 
one he would never try another.' 

"The error appears to have arisen from the fact that both the marine 
and fresh-water spiral shells are called ' conchs ' Ijy these people, and 
the marine shells are not unfrequently used for food like ' winkles ' in 
Great Britain ; so that Wyman was led to believe that both were com- 
monly eaten, which is certainly not the case." 



NORTH CAROLINA. 

CALDWELL COUNTY. 

THE PATTERSON GRADING. 

This work is situated near Patterson, in the northwest part of the 
county and dose to the Yadkin river. It is a terrace or jjlatform partly 
natural and partly artificial, extending out from the steep terminus of 
a low ridge, which here descends at an angle of about 45 degrees. The 
artificial portion extends out from the natural terrace about 68 feet, 
the height being 7 feet. A trench was cut half way across it, proving it 
to be composed chiefly of waterworn bowlders, and red and yellow clay, 
with charcoal intermingled. Here and there pieces of mica were found ; 
at the depth of 2.J feet from the top and 6 feet from the edge was a pol- 
ishing or whetstone, and at another point the fragment of a soapstone 
vessel with rudely carved figures on it, proving beyond question that 
the terrace is in part, at least, artificial. 

THE T. V. NELSON MOUND. 

This mound, so insignificant in appearance as scarcely to attract any 
notice, but hiding beneath the surface such important mementoes of the 



334 



MOUND EXrhORATIONS. 



past, was locatt'd on the farm of Rev. T. F. Nelson, in the northwest 
part of the county, and about a mile and a half southeast of Patterson. 
It stood on the bottom land of the Yadkin, about 100 yards from the 
river, and was almost a true circle in outline, ."^S feet in diameter, but 
not exceedin};; at any point IS inclies in height. The thorough excava- 
tion made, in which Mr. Eogan, the Bureau agent, was assisted by Dr. 
J. M. S])ainhour, of Lenoir, showed that the original constructors had 




ill'/ If 

mi 












first dug a circular pit about 38 feet in diameter to the depth of 3 feet 
and there placed the dead, some in stone cists and others uiiinclosed, 
and afterwards covered them over, raising a slight mound above the pit. 
A plan of the pit, showing the stone graves and skeletons as they ap- 
peared after the removal of the dirt and before being disturbed, is 
given in Fig, 207. 



THOMAS] NORTH CAROLINA. 335 

No. 1 is a stone grave or vault staudiiig exactly in the center oftliis 
large pit, but in a small circular pit evidently made for this special pur- 
pose, extending down 3 feet below the bottom of the larger one. This 
vault, built of cobblestones around a standing skeleton, was madeS feet 
in diameter at the base, carried up perpendicularly for 4 feet and then 
narrowed so as to be covered by a single soapstone slab at the top. 
On the top of the head of the skeleton, which was found still standing, 
though much decayed, were several plates of cut mica, the only arti- 
cles accomijanying it. 

The skeletons in Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, <>, 7, 8, 9, and 1(», though walled 
around in a similar manner, were in a squatting posture on the bot- 
tom of the large pit.' With skeleton No. 2 was one small celt; with 
No. 3 a discoidal stone; with No. two celts, and over No. 9, but in- 
side the vault, a pitted stone. 

Nos. 11, 12, and 13 are three skeletons found in a S(|uatting position, 
with no wall around them and unaccomj)anied by relics of any kind. 
Nos. 14 and 15 were lying horizontally at full length, also anincloscd. 
With the former were pieces of broken pipes and with the latter one 
celt. No. 10 was an uninclosed "squatter" of unusually large size, not 
less than 7 feet high when living. Near the mouth was an entire soap- 
stone pipe; the legs were extended in a southwest direction upon a bed 
of burnt earth. 

The faces of all the squatting skeletons were turned away from the 
standing, central one. 

At A was a considerable quantity of black paint in little lumps, 
which appear to have been molded in the hull of some nut. B indicates 
a cubical mass of waterworn bowlders built up solidly and symmetri- 
cally, 24 inches long, 18 inches wide, and 18 inches high, showing no 
indications of fire, without ashes or bones on or around it. 

On the contrary, the stones built around the bodies bore more or 
less evidence of fire, having been blackened by smoke in places, and 
the earth immediately around them was considerably hardened by 
baking. The bones v)f the skeletons also showed indications of heat. 
Scattered throughout the mound were small pieces of pottery and char- 
coal. 

THE T. F. NELSON TRIANGLE. 

This is the name applied to an ancient triangular burying ground 
on the farm of Rev. T. F. Nelson, and located about 75 yards north 
of the mound just described. 

It is simply a burial pit in the form of a triangle, the east and west 
sides each 48 feet long, and the southern base 33 feet, the depth vary- 
ing from 2| to 3 feet. The top was not mounded up, but level with the 
surrounding surface. The apex, which points directly north, extends 
within 3 feet of the bank of the Yadkin river, the height above the 
usual water level being about 12 feet. A plat of the triangle, show- 
ing the position of the burials in it, is given in Fig. 208. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 



336 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



5, 6, 7, 8, aud 9 indicate the positious of single skeletons lyiuf? liorizon- 
tally on their backs, their heads resting east or northeast. With No. 2 
was a broken soapstone pipe; with Nos. 5 aud one small polished 
celt each. N^os. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 were buried in stone vaults 




Flu. -08. — X. F. Nelson Triaiij^lL-, CaldwuU county, Korth 
Carolina. 



Fm;. -UU.— Cojjper cylinder, 
Nelaon triangle. 



similar to those in the mound; 10, 12, 13, aud 15 being in a sittiug 
posture unaccompanied by any article. Nos. 11 and 11 indicate graves 
containing two skeletons each extended horizontally one above the other, 
the lower ones of smaller stature than those above, with the faces up. 




Fl(i. 21U. — IJnioelct of .sbfll aud coplier beads. Xelsuu TriaUL'Ie. 

and very heavy stones placed on tjie extended arms aud legs, fastening 
them down. The ui>per skeletons, of larger stature and face down, 
were resting on those below. No articles were found with them. Near 
No. 12 was about a peck of singular, pinkish colored earth. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



337 



In the northeast part of the triangle, at A, were ten or more bodies 
in one grave or group, which ajiju-ared to have l)een buried at one time, 




ff\ 






'^' r 



m^ 



:/' <' 



M^ 



I' 



^■^ 



,'«6.; i/i:J)- 






M 



\m 



Flu. 211. — I;ou celt from Nelson triangle. 

the chief or principal personage of the fjroup resting- horizontally on his 
face, with his head northeast and his feet southwest. Under his 
bead was the large engraved shell shown in 
Fig. 213; around his neck were a number of 
large-sized shell beads; at or near his ears 
lay five elongate copper beads, or rather 
small cylinders, varying in length from 1^ to 
4^ inches, and in diameter from one-fourth 
to half an inch, part of the leather thong on 
whicn they had been strung yei remaining 
in them. These are made of thin pieces of 
copper cut into strips and then rolled to- 
gether J that the edges meet in a straight 
joint on one side. The copper looks as 
though it had been rolled into sheets and 
not hammered (Fig. 209). A piece of cop- 
per was also under his breast. His arms 
were bent, the hands resting about 1 foot 
from each side of his head. Around each 
wrist were the remains of a bracelet com- 
posed of copper and shell beads alternating, 
as shown in Fig. 210. At his right hand 
lay four iron implements, one of which, a 
roughly hammered celt or chisel, is shown 
ill Fig. 211 ; another piece, some 6 or 7 inches 
long and about 1 inch wide, is evidently part 
of a sword blade or knife (Fig. 212j ; another, 
part of a jiunch or large awl, with a portion 
of the horn handle yet attached. Under his 
left hand was another engraved shell, the 
concave surface upward, and tilled with shell beads of all sizes. 
12ETH 22 



ly 



t i»l iioii bladf, Nt'l.soii 
triangle. 



;5;}8 



MOLND EXPLORATK )NS. 



Arnuiid and iiartly over this skeleton, witli tlieir heads near his, 
were nine others. Under the heads of two of these skeletons, lying 
within a foot of the head of the tirst, were also several engraved shells, 
on*^ of wliicli is shown in Fig. 214.- Scattered over and among the 
bones of these ten or more skeletons were nnmerons polished celts, 
discoidal stones, copper arrow points, pieces of mica, lumps of paint, 
black lead, stone pipes, etc. Some of the forms of the pipes frcjm this 
and the other burial jdaces in this locality are shown in Figs. 21.5-220. 




KlH. 2ia.— EusiMvi-.l shell Ni-lsou tiiiinglf. 



THE W. IJAVICNI'ORT .TUNES M(H'XI_). 

Two miles east of Patterson, near the north bank of the Yadkin 
river, running out from a low ridge to the river bank, is a natural ter- 
raci' about 12 feet high, with a level area of about an acre on top, and 
slo])ing on tlie sides at an angle of 4.'t degrees, on which, according to 
tradition, there was formerly an Indian village. About 200 yards east 
of this, on the second river bottom or terrace, there was a low, circular 
mound .'12 feet in diameter and not more than 1 foot high, on the laud 
of Mv. W. Davenport Joues. This mound was found upon investiga. 
tion to cover a circular pit of the same diameter and 3 feet deep, the 
margin and bottom being so well defiued as to leave no doubt as to the 



NoKTH CAROLINA. 



339 



limits of the pit; in fact the bottom, wliich was of clay, hail been baked 
hard by lire to the depth of 2 or 3 inches. The pit was filled with soil 
and loose yellow clay similar to the snrface soil aronnd the monnd cov- 
ering twenty-six skeletons and one stone heap in the relative positions 
shown in Fig'. 221. Some of the skeletons were inclosed in vaults 
formed of cohble stones. 




Fig. 214. — Eugniveil shell, Nelsuii triangle. 

No. 1, squatting', walled in witli water-woi-u bowlders ; the face turned 
to the west; no implements or ornaments. 

No. 2, sitting' with the face toward the center, two celts at the feet, and 
immediately in front of tlie tace a cone-shaped piece of hard pottery 
paste. 




Fig. 215. — Pipe, ('aldwell county. North Carolina. 

No. 3, sitting with face toward the center; several celts at the feet. 
No. 4, horizontal, with the head southeast; several celts at the feet. 
No. 5, horizontal, with the head toward the center; celts at the feet. 
No. 6, sitting with the face toward the center; beads around the neck, 
a Unio shell on top of the head with the concave surface down, a conch 



340 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



shell (Basycon perversum) in front of and near the face, and celts at the 
feet. 

No. 7. Sitting facing the center ; celt.s at the feet. 

No. 8. Very large, lying on the left side, partially drawn up; walled 
in with bowlders; no implements. 

No. 0. Horizontal, face down, liead toward the center; a i)ot (with- 
out ears) on the head ; celts and discoidal stones at the feet. 




Fk;. 210.— ript-, Ciiklwfll coimty, Jsortli Caroliua. 

No. 10. H(nizontal, face up, feet towards the center; a pot with ears^ 
over the face, st(nie implements at the feet. 

No. 11. Horizontal, head southeast, arms extended, and a bracelet of 
copper and shell beads around each wrist; shell beads around the 
neck; face up, with food (aip (without handle) at the right side of the 
head. 

No. lli. Horizontal, lying on the back, head southeast; beads around 
the neck, a hook or crescent-shaped piece of copper on the breast, and 




Fig. 217.— Pine. C;(1'Iwh-11 <ipiiuty, Nmtli Caruliua 

a pipe near the face ; one. hand near each side of the head grasping coni- 
cal copper ornaments (eardrops) and a bunch of hair. 

No. 13. Horizontal, lying on the back, head southeast; copper and 
shell beads around the neck and wrists, a hook or crescent-shaped piece 
of copper on the breast; food cu]) (with handle) lying on its side with 
the mouth toward the face of the skeleton ; a pipe near the mouth and 
two celts over the head. 

No. 14. Horizontal, lying on the back, head northeast, arms extended, 
and hands resting on shells. 



NOHTH CAROLINA. 



341 



No. 15. Horizontal, on the back, head west, knees drawn n]> to the 
chin ; stone implements at the feet. 
No. 16. Too much decayed to determine the position. 
No. 17. Four skeletons in one grave, horizontal, with feet toward the 




Fig. 218, — I'ljif, (';ililu.'ll .oiilitx, Niiilli Ciiniliiui. 

west and large stones lyinji' <>n the le,iis boh)wthe knees. No iin]ile- 
raents with them. 

No. 18. Two skeletons in one grave, with heads west, faces do\^^], 
knees drawn uj); no implements. 

No. 19. Horizontal, on the back, head east; no implements. 




Firj. 21:i.— I'i|i.' r:ilcl«rll ,-.iiiiiH N.itlh I :.n.liii.i 

No. 20. Sitting, walled in with bowlders, face toward the east, a large 
stone lying on the feet (this iiniy have falh'ii from tlie wall); no imple- 
ments. 

No. -1. Sitting, walled in with bowlders. Over the head, but under 
the caiJStone of the vault, was a h;indful of Hint arrowheads. 




i'hi. ■j-Jll.-I'il..' (\il.l«.'ll cciHiiH, N.irlli (\in,liii;i. 

No. 22. Doubled up, witli head between the feet. 

A on the diagram indicates a solid oval-shaped mass of bowlders, 32 
inches long, 22 inches wide, and 24 inches high, resting on the bottom 
of the i>it. There were no ashes, charcoal, or other sign of fire about it. 

Broken pottery, mica, galena, charcoal, red and black paint, etc., 



342 



MOTTND KXPLORATIONS. 



were found scattered in small (luaiititiestliroiifili the earth which filled 
the pit. The skeletons weie so badly decayed that very few hones 
could be saved. 



H. T. I.KNOIH lil'UIAl. PIT. 



This is a circulai- burial pit, similar to those alrea<ly described, but 
without any rounding' u]) of the suiface. It is located on the t:iiin of 
Mr. Rufus T. Lenoir, about !> miles iKothcast of Lenoir and nearly a 
mile west of Fort Defiance. 



W 




■■©© 





Fig. 221. — Plan of W. T>. .Tonea mouiiil. Caldwell county, Norib Carolina. 

A diagram showing the relative positions of the graves or burials is 
given in Fig. 222. 

It is on the first river terrace or bottom of Buftalo creek, and about 
200 yards from this stream, which empties into the Yadkin about half a 
mile southwest of this ])oint. Tills bottom is subject to overflow in 
time of high water. 

The pit, which is 27 feet in diameter' and about 3i feet deep, is almost a 
jjerfect circle and well marked, the margin, which is nearly perpendic- 



THOMAS. J 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



343 



iilar, and the bottom being" readily traced. The dirt in this case, as in 
the others, was all thrown out. 

No. 1, a bed of charred or rather burnt bones occupying a space cJ 
feet long, 2 feet wide, and 1'2 inches deep, the bones so thoroughly 
burned that it was impossible to determine whether they were human 
or animal. Beneath this bed the yellow sand was baked to the depth 
of 1 or 2 inches. Under the bones was a shell with two holes through it. 

No. 2, a skeleton in a sitting posture, face northeast, a pipe near the 
mouth and a polished celt over the head. 




Fin. 222. — 11. T. Li-noir Imrial pit (plan), CaUlwell county, North Carolina. 



No. 3, sitting skeleton, facing east, with shell beads around the neck 
and also around the arms just below the shoulders. 

No. 4, horizontal skeleton, lying on the back, head east and resting 
on the concave surface of an engraved shell. Conch shell {Bunycoii 
perversHm) at the side of the head, and copper and shell beads around 
the neck. 

No. 5, horizontal, head northeast, shell beads around the neck, and 
two discoidal stones and one c<'lt at the feet. 



344 MOUND EXPLORATKJNS. 

No. (i, a comnmnal grave coiitaiiiiiig 25 skeletons iu two tiers, buried 
without auy appareut regularity as to direction or relative position. 
Thirteen of the 25 were flatheads, that is, with the head artificially com- 
pressed in front. Scattered throughout this grave, between and above 
the skeletons, were polished celts, discoidal stones, shells, pieces of 
mica, galena, fragments of pottery, and one whole pot. Arf)und the 
necks and wrists of some of the skeletons were also shell beads. There 
were a great many bones in this grave, and possibly more than 25 
skeletons, but this was the number of skulls obs(M-ved. 

No. S, an irregular layer of waterworn bowlders, about 4 feet square. 
On the top was a bed of charcoal, about 3 inches deep, on and partially 
imbedded in which were three .skeletons, but showing no indications 
of having been biu'ned. Scattered over these skeletons were discoidal 
stones, one saucer, shells (one of which is engraved), pipes, shell beads, 
and pieces of pottery. 

No. 9, a grave containing three skeletons lying horizontally on their 
backs, two with their heads east and the one between them with the 
head west. They lay close together, and were unaccompanied by 
implements or ornaments. 

No. 10, horizontal, on the right side, head north, with stone imple- 
ments in front of the face. 

No. 11, doubled up, top of the head south, shell beads around the 
neck, and celts at the feet. 

No. 12, a grave containing seventeen skeletons, seven of which had 
compressed heads; two of the number, children. Two of the adult 
heads were resting on engraved shells. In this grave were four pots 
and two food cups, the handle of one of the latter representing an 
owl's head, that of the other an eagle's head. One of the small pots 
was inside a larger one. Scattered among the skeletons were also 
shell beads, polished celts, discoidal st(nies, paint, etc. 

THE SIlKliUII. MOUND. 

This is A small mound, 38 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, located on 
the farm of Sion J. Sherril, 3.^ miles east of Lenoir. It was composed 
of yellow clay and coarse yellow sand. Nothing else except a very 
small quantity of charcoal was observed. 

BURKE AND WILKES COUNTIES. 

A conical mound 320 feet in circumference and 7 feet high, situated 
on the farm of Mrs. J. E. Collet, in the northern part of Burke county, 
■was explored, but aside from the yellow sand and yeUow clay of which 
it was chiefly composed, nothing was found in it except some remnants 
of charred straw and cane. These were scattered in small quantities 
through the mound. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



345 



ANCIENT CEMETERY. 

Oil the farm of Mr. Charles Hunt in the central part of Wilkes 
county, is what appears to be a small, ancient cemetery, and probably 
the site of a camp or temporary village. It is about 3J miles east of 
Wilkesboro on the second bottom or terrace of the Yadkin river and 
differs from the burial places just described in having no large pit, the 
graves being separate and independent of each other. The diagram 
given in Fig. 223 shows the relative positions of the graves and small 
pits. 

No. 1, a grave or oval-shaped pit 2 feet long and 18 inches wide, the 
top within S inches of the surface of the ground, the bottom 2A feet 




1 



W" m^o 



^v3E 










■a? 



,.#. 
.>i{(^^^^ 



•^^^t or ^oyrer JJottotn,' 



Fill. 22^. — Ancient burial ground, AVilkea county, Kortli Caroliiui. 

below it. This contained the remains of a doubled skeleton, which 
were surrounded by charcoal; some of the bones were considerably 
charred. In the pit were some fragments of pottery, a few flint chips, 
and a decayed tortoise shell. 

No. 2, a grave 2 feet wide, feet long, and 5 feet deep. It con- 
tained quite a quantity of animal bones, some of them evidently those 
of a bear, also charcoal, mussel shells, and one bone implement, but no 
human skeleton. • 

No. 3, a grave of the same size and depth as No. 2, containing ani- 
mal bones, broken pottery, and some charcoal. 

No. 4, a grave, the size, depth, and contents the same as the preceding. 



346 



MOUNU EXPLOKATIONS. 



No. 5, a circular pit 2 feet in diameter aiid li feet deep. This eoii- 
tained a very large i)()t in wliicli were some animal bones. It was on 
its side and crushed. 

No. n, a pit 2i feet deep and 2 feet stjuare, witli a bed of charcoal in 
the bottom inches deep. On this bed was a layer of flint chips, and 
on the chips a (piantity of broken pottery, animal bones, a discoidal 
stone and a bone imi)lement. 

No, 7, a grave similar to those described. 

No. 8, a large grave containing three skeletons lying at full length 
upon the riglit side, witli the heads a little east of north. These are 
marked a, b, c in the diagram. Between « and b, and in front of the 
face of a, was a mass of mussel shells; at the head and back of a were 
a number of animal bones. Between a and b, opposite the pelvis, was 
a large broken pot. The right arm of c was extended forward and 
upward, the left arm vesting across the head, a white flint chip grasped 
in the hand. The head of this skeleton was resting on a piece of a 
broken pot, and in ftont of the face, at the distance of a foot, was also 
part of a pot containing a stone fi'agment and some animal bones. 




Fig. 22-1. — Clay hearth (or tire-bed), Wilkes county, Nttrth Carolina. 

Under the legs of the three skeletons, the head extended in front of 
the legs of c, was the skeleton of a bear. In front of r were three 
broken pots containing animal bones. 

No. 9, a basin-shaped flrebed, or bed of burnt clay, 8 inches thick. 
A section of this bed is shown in Fig. 224, b, b, b, the bed of burnt clay 
and sand 8 inches thick, the material evidently placed here and not a 
part of the original soil. The basin, a, was filled with ashes, the depth 
being 12 inches, and the diameter from 1 to 2, 2 feet 3 inches; from 1 to 
,i, and 2 to 4, each 1 foot and C inches. 

No. 10, a bed of mussel sliells 3 inches thick and 3 feet in diameter, 
lying on aflat bed of burnt earth 3 inches thick. 

No. 11, a pit 5 feet deep and 3 feet in diameter, filled with animal 
bones, nuissel shells^ and broken pottery. 

There was no mound over any of tliese graves or the pit. 



HAYWOOD COrNTV. 



An article in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great 
Britain and Ireland for .Tune, 1882, in regard to some singular works of 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



347 



art foniul in Haywood couuty, having excited tlie curiosity of our anti. 
(^narians, Mr. Eniniert was sent into that region to procure, if possible, 
some specimens of this singular class of articles and to ascertain 
whether they were ancient or modern. After considerable difficulty he 
was entirely successful in his effort. He ascertaiued that these articles 
were made from tlie soapstone found in that region by some persons 
who had learned how to give them the appearance of age. This is 
done by placing them, after being carved, in running water which is 
tinctured with iron, as most of the streams in that region are. As a 
proof of the correctness of his statement Mr. Emmert liad the same 
])arties who stated they bad made some articles 
for Mr. Valentine make ([uite anund)er of sim- 
ilar articles for the Bureau. Some of these are 
represented in Pigs. 225, 226, and 227 a, h. 



IIIK Hl(i MOUND. 



This mound, of which a section through the 
length is shown in Fig. 228, is near Waynes- 
ville. It is oblong in form and flattened on 
top; the length of the base, 188 feet; width, 
about 70 feet; height at a, 12i feet, and at b, 
10 feet. 

Pits were sunk at a and h to the original 
surface, through dark earth mixed with sand, 
uniform in character and showing no indica- 
tions of stratification. Near the top in both 
pits were found several fragments of soapstone 
vessels, and at the bottom of pit 2 one celt, 
one shark's tooth, and several fragments of 
pottery, but no human remains or indications 
of burial. 

JIOIND XKAK 1:I(I1LAXD CREEK. 

This is situated on a ridge half a mile ft'om 
Eichland creek and 2 miles from Waynesville. 
It is apparently double, 70 feet long, 30 feet 
wide, and 3i feet high at each end, but consid- 
erably lower in the middle. At the bottom, ^" 
under the highest point of the west end was a 
bed of dark earth in which were the remains of two skeletons lying at 
lull length side by side. With these were found seven arrow heads, 
one rude stone axe with a hole drilled through it, one polishing stone 
of iron ore, two broken stone gorgets, and a small lot of mica. Under 
the highest point of the east end was a similar bed of dark earth in 
which were the remains of one skeleton, also stretched out at full 
length. By this were three flint knives or scrapers and a clay pipe. 




(lilLLijJ--^*^- 



—I ^us irtide Ha\u»od 
ounty, North Carolina. 



348 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

BUNCOMBE AND HENDERSON COUNTIES. 

Some mounds in and along the borders of these two counties were 
explored which jiresent some characteristics worthy of notice. 

MOl'ND ON I.YTI.K's FARM. 

This mound is near Cane creek, Henderson county, iu a held of bottom 
land owned by Mr. A. Lytic. It measured 48 feet from east to west, 38 
feet fi-om north to south, and 8 feet hif;h. The oval sha])e is possibly 
due iu part to the fact that it has lon<;' beeu plowed over iu one direc- 
tion. It was built of yellow saud throughout, showing no stratification 
except a single layer of coal and ashes, .'i inches thick, just above the 
original surface of the ground. 

THE CdNNKR M(irNI>. 

This m(tund, located on the farm of Mrs. Kebecca Conner, 1 mile from 
the preceding, is 6 feet high, 44 feet in diameter, round, and forms 




Fig. 226. — BngiLs artirle. Haywood cnnnty, Xortli Cirolin.-i. 

a symmetrical cone. Small trees were growing on it. It was found to 
contain what, to all appearances, were the remains of a charcoal pit. 
In the center had been placed pine poles, as shown in Fig. 229, and 
burned to charcoal and ashes. The diameter of the base of this conical 
heap was 16 feet, the height nearly 6 feet, the sides sloping regularly to 
the apex. The interior portion consisted of ashes and small coals, mixed 
with earth, in which were found sonic burnt bones and two perforated 
stones. 

All the mound, except the coal bed, consisted of red clay. It stood 
on a ridge about half a mile from the creek, on hard, gravelly soil, which 
bore- no indications of having been disturbed before building the 
mound.' 

'Attention is called here to a statement by Haywood (Nat. and Aborig. Hi.st. Tenn., p. 234). Speak- 
inj; of the iuhabitant.s of lower East Tennessee he says: '- The former inhabitants appeared to have 
lived in houses whii-li. on tlie outside, seemed to be the color of a bl.-icksmith's coalpit. The houses 
■were made by settiu;; nj* jtoles and then digginj: out the dirt and covering the poles with it. They 
were round anil generally alumt 10 feet in diameter." 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



349 



IIIK ALKXAM>i;i! MOUNDS. 

No. i is ou till' farm of Mr. J. B. Alexauder, on the same creek, 
but 2 miles above the oue last mentioned. It is on an elevated level 
one-foartli of a mile from the creek, in an old field which has been 
plowed over for si.xty years. At tlie time explored it Mas only 2 feet 
high at the highest point and but 30 feet in diameter. The old settlers 
.say it was formerly considerably higher, and that there was a ridge oi' 
raised roadway 200 feet long, running from it directly toward the creek. 
This is represented at present only by a line of red clay. It was 
entirely removed without finding any specimens or any indications of 
burial, but after reaching the natural surface of the ground a circu- 




,L,nis jirticles, Hayw il toiinty, Kortli Carolina. 



lar pit, 12 feet in diameter, was discovered, which had been dug to the 
depth of 4 feet in the original red clay. This was tilled to the top 
with ashes and charcoal, but no traces of bones could be discovered, 
though careful search was made for them. The mound was composed 
entn-ely of red clay. 

No. 2, half a mile from No. 1, diameter 52 feet, height feet and hemi- 
spherical in form, was covered with trees some of which were IS inches 
in diameter. 

This mound was composed of three layers : a top stratum of red clay 
between 3 and 4 feet thick, next a layer of charcoal about 3 inches 
thick, running entirely across from side to side and following the curve 



350 



MOUNU EXl'LOKATIONS. 



of tlie surface, and last a layer of dai-k-colorcd earth exteiidiuf; to tlie 
original snrfaee. In the bottom layer, lying on the original surface, 
were five skeletons. By the side of one of these were sixteen white quartz 
knives, one small stone pipe, and several arrowheads. At another 
point were a stone gorget, a large celt, and some arrowheads. 

The sixteen white quartz implements must have been made by one 
individual, as they are all of the same kind of stone, of the same form, 
and show the same workmanship. 

MOUNI> <>i\ KUANANOA UnKK, liCNCOMliK < OINTV. 

This mound is about -i miles from Asheville, on the bottom laud, not 
more than 100 yards from the river, is circular, 80 feet in diameter, and 
9 feet high. A wide trench cut throug^i it from side to side and down 
to the natural soil brought to light the fact that it was built partly of 
stone and i)artly of earth. The core or central portion, to the height 




iiiouimI, H;i_\uuM(l ((luuty. North Carolina. 



of 4 feet above the original surface and covering a space about 30 feet 
in diameter, was built of irregular blocks of stone, heaped together 
without order or plan. The renminder of the mound was made of 
dark surface soil. The top layer of earth being removed down to the 




Flu. 229.— Section ol' Cmiinr iiiiiiiiiil. Ueiiileisiiii <iiutity. Nurtli Carolina. 

rock pile, the entire surface of the latter was found to be covered with 
charcoal and evidences that it had been burned here. Among the coal 
were numerous joints of charred cane. The stones were all removed, 
but no remains or relics, save a few arrowheads, were discovered. 



THi: riiiiosH Mocxii 



This mound is on the farm of Mr. J. B. 
creek, IJuncombe county. It is located 
in diameter at the base, and -1 feet high, 
were found in it. Its composition was a 
inches thick, of red clay similar to that 
curve of the mound and entirely coveri 
earth which rested on the original soil. 
carried fi-om the creek, a mile distant. 



Throsh, H miles from Hominy 

on a ridge, is circular, 33 feet 

Xo remains or vestiges of art 

s follows: First, a top layer, 18 

around it, conforming to the 
ng the bottom layer of black 

The latter had evidently been 



TENNESSEE. 



351 



EAST TENNESSEE. 



SULLIVAN COUNTY. 



MOUNT>S <1X IIOLSTIIN RIVER. 



Tliere are two iiiouiuls on Hol.ston river about 10 miles east of Bristol, 
lu Fig. 230 a plat aud section of tiic. area on wliii'li they are located are 
given. In the plat (A) No. 1 is the mound on the north side of the 
river; No. 2, the monnd on the south side. At B is shown a section 
running' northwest and southeast through the mounds (1 and 2) on the 
upper level, 3 the lower level or river bottom, and 4 the river. 

Mound No. 1, which is on the north side of the river, was found when 





B. 

Fk;. 2;{U — Pliui of muuuds ou tbu Holstou liver, Sullivau county, Tt^iinesaee. 

measured to be 22 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, circular in form, 
and composed of red clay and sand. 

Eesting on the original surface of the ground near the center was a 
stone vault shaped somewhat like a beehive. It was constructed en- 
tirely of water- worn bowlders and arched over the top by shortening 
and drawing iu the courses. lu this was a single sitting skeleton. It 
was evident that the body, or more likely the skeleton, had been set 
down in this place and the vault built around it. Lying on the bead 
was the long copper spindle shown iu Fig. 231. It is 11 inches long, 
one fourth of an inch in diameter at the thickest part, and appears 
to liiive been roughly hammered out of native copper with some rude 
implement. Immediately under the lower jaw were two small copper 
drills or awls with portions of the deer-horn handles still attached to 
them; near the head a small pile of flint chips and by the k'nees a long 



352 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

flint knife. The bones were so decayed that most of thcni crumbled to 
pieces as soon as exposed to tbe air. 

Mound No. 2 stood on tbe soutb side of the river opposite to No. 1 
and about the same distance from tbe stream as tbe latter. It was cir- 
cular in outline, rounded on top, 38 feet in diameter at tbe base, and 5 
feet high. On the top was a pine stump 14 inches in diam- 
eter, tbe tree having been cut down about thirty years ago. 
The excavation which was begun atthe margin soon reached 
a walls feet high and about a foot thick, built of stones taken 
from the bed of the river. This was followed and found to 
be an almost perfect circle 14 feet in diameter, in which, when 
the earth was cleared away, were discovered twelve small, 
beehive-shaped vaults built of stones of the same kind as 
g those in the wall. One of these was exactly in the center, 
" the other eleven being idaced in a circle around it and about 
I equally spaced, as shown in Fig. 232. The bottom of the 
^ area within the circular wall, which corresponded with the 
I natural surface of the ground, was covered to the depth of 
p 3 inches with charcoal and the graves or vaults were built 
I on this layer. In each vault were the remains of a single 
<» sitting skeleton, all of adults. In the center vault a number 

of shell beads were found around the neck of the skeleton 
•Q a and near the mouth the fine stone pipe shown in Fig. 233. 

i This pipe is made of fine-grained syenite and highly polished. 

s No articles were found with any of the other skeletons. 

■9 Each of tbe two last mentioned mounds is on the bench or 

Z upper bottom and about one fourth of a mile from the river. 

1 This locality is said to have been for a long time an Indian 
" camping ground, which seems to be confirmed by the fact 
s that the surface of the ground is thickly strewn with flint 

2 chips and fragments of pottery. Tradition says that the In- 
dians once had a great battle here, and that one party buried 
their dead in mound No. 2 and the other party buried theirs 
on the opposite side of the river, Avhere there is still a great 
mound of river stones. 

Mound No. 3 (not shown in the plat) is also on the Holstou 
river, 2 miles above those just described. This mound, 
which resembles No. 2 in several respects, was circular, 60 
feet in diameter, and nearly 5 feet high. The original surface 
of the earth had first been covered over with charcoal to the depth of 
3 inches, then the bodies or skeletons laid on it and each walled up 
separately with river stones; these were then covered over with a layer 
of black earth 18 inches thick, and on this was spread a layer of sand 
over a foot thick and on this was a thin layer of surface soil. On one- 
half of the circular layer of charcoal were six skeletons walled up sep- 
arately as before stated, but so thoroughly decayed that only one skull 



THHRIAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



553 



could be saved. The other side of the mouud had uothiug in it except 
a fine stoue pipe somewhat similar to that shown in Fig. 233, which was 
on the bed of coals some 10 or 12 feet from the nearest skeleton. Near 
the head of one of the skeletons were some beautiful arrow-heads, shell 
beads, a polished celt, and two perforated stones. 

ANCIKNT GRAVES NEAR KINGSPORT. 

A plat showing the locality of these and some other works noticed is 
given in Fig. 234. In this d and e are five graves covered with piles of 




FlG.2:i2. — I'hiii of luiriaLs in nioutid. SiilUvan county, Teunessee. 



stone; c, the site of old Fort Patrick Henry, built in 177.S; at/, on the 
opposite side of the river, is an ancient graveyard, some of the graves 
being covered with stones, others with earth; a.t a is a waste pit in 
Cherokee Island, full of broken pottery, bones, etc. The graves at e 
are on the old Birdwell farm, about amileabove the head of Long Island. 
They are in the top and near the break of a higli bluff which here over- 
looks the river. The pile on each was oval in outline, measuring about 
14 feet in length, 9 feet in width, and 18 inches high, composed of })roken 
limestone. The pit of one, which for convenience is designated No. 1, 
appears to have been nearly equal in extent to the pile of stones over 
it and about 2i feet in depth. A longitudinal section is shown in 
12 ETH 23 



354 MOUND EXPJLOKATIONS. 

Fig. 235. a a denote the surface level; 1, soil to the depth of 8 inches; 
2, red clay 2 feet thick ; 3, black earth, charcoal, and ashes 3 inches thick. 

A longitudinal section of the other, or No. 2, shows that the layers 
were the same in character and about the same in thickness as those 
of No. 1, but the extent of the pit in this case was much less than the 
pile of stones over it, the length being only S feet and the width in pro- 
portion. No indications of burial were found in either, and had it not 
been for the layer of black earth, charcoal, and ashes at the bottom, 
and the fact that flint chips were found in this layer, we might con- 
clude that uo pit had been dug here, especially as its outline was not 
distinctly marked. The layer of surface soil under the piles of stone 
indicates that these were placed there long after the pits were filled up. 

The graves at d, one-fourth of a mihi below those at r, were found to 
be similar in covering, size, and character to the latter, except some; 
slight peculiarities in one of them, which is designated as grave No. 3. 
fu this the stones were not only iiiled over the surface, but extended 
down some distance into the grave, as shown in Fig. 236. These must 




Flu. 233.— Stoue pipe from mouud, SuUi\:m coimty, Tennessee. 

have been pounded in, as they were so tightly packed that it was diffi- 
cult to remove them. It was limited at the sides by natural ledges of 
1 imestone, which sloped towards each other, as shown in the figure. The 
usual layer of dark earth, charcoal, and ashes was at the bottom. In 
this were fouud some sheets of mica, fourteen arrowheads, one stone 
gorget, and one small copper rod or awl about 4 inches loug, some frag- 
ments of a soapstone vessel, and a bun]) of red paint. 

Nos. i and 5 were precisely similar to No. 1 at e. Some arrowheads, 
flint chips, and lumps of black ore were found in the coal bed of No. i. 

As there was nothing in either of these graves or pits indicating 
burial, it is difficult to imagine the object in view in digging them. 
Other similar graves not opened are on the opposite side of the river, 
marked /on the plat. 

CARTER COUNTY. 

There is an ancient cemetery on the north bank of Watauga river 
just above the mouth of Buffalo creek. In 1880 a skeleton was found 
partially exposed, the river having washed away a part of the bank. 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



355 



It lay at the depth of 3 feet, the head turned towards the southeast ; with 
it were four arrowheads, several shell beads, and many small fragments 
of pottery ; most of the latter about the head. Quite a- number of skele- 
tons were subsequently exposed by the high water and others in the 
profess of digging a road through the grounds. 

The burial ground, on which many broken stone axes, arrow points, 
and other stone implements have been found, but which has been jnetty 




i'lG. 234. — Plat showing ancient graves near Kingsport, Tennessei' 



thoroughly worked over, is about one mile and a half below old Fort 
Watauga, mentioned by Haywood as the Watauga settlement. It is 
now on the farm of Mr. John S. Thomas and near the house where John 
Sevier and Tipton had their fight over the " State of Franklin." 

On Gap creek, about 4 miles from the fort, are two caves in a rocky 



356 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 




-Section of grave No. 1, near Kingsjioit, 
Tennessee. 



ridge whieL borders tlie creek on the east. One of these is compara- 
tively small, and can be entered only by a narrow, perpendicular descent 
of 10 feet. Here and there are places where the floor is covered with 
loose earth mixed with (charcoal and ashes. During a rather hasty 
examination the explorer found in this debris a broken stone gorget, a 
spearhead, and some shell beads, but no indications of burial. 

COCKE COTTNTY. 

But (Mie mound in this county was examined. This is on Vincent 
island, Pigeon river, and is about 200 feet long and varies from 4 to 6 

feet in height; it- was formerly 
about 50 feet wide, but a long 
strip off one side has been washed 
away by the river. The general 
appearance is that of a refuse 
heap. 

Although the entire mound was 
removed, no skeletons or signs of burial were discovered ; but near the 
center and close to bottom was a somewhat singular collection contain- 
ing the following articles: Thirty-three celts, mostly polished; frag- 
ments of pottery and of soap- 
stone vessels ; four arrowheads; 
four stone gorgets ; two discoidal 
stones; one broken clay pipe; 
two grooved stone axes; one 

stone pestle ; four stone ham- fig. 236.— section of grave No. S, near Kingsport, 

mers; two large pitted stones; Tennessee. 

one unfinished stone tube; a steel-blade case knife of a peculiar pat- 
tern, and one porcelain ( f) bead. 

The presence of the knife and bead in this collection is difiBcult to 
account for, iiidess we suppose the whole to be a comparatively modern 
deposit, which is probably the fact. 

THE RAMSEY MOUND. 

On the north bank of French Broad river, immediately opposite the 
Franklin Railroad station, on the land o'f Mr. A. Ramsey, are the remains 
of a once large and imposing tumulus known as the Ramsey mound. 
It is mentioned by Haywood, who remarks in regard to it as follows: 

There is a mound ou the French Broad river, 1 milo above the mouth of Nola- 
chucky, on the east side of the French Broad, 30 feet high. There is an acre of 
ground on the top.' 

At present only a small part of it remains, the rest having been 
washed away by the river, which has gradually encroached upon it. 
Mr. Ramsey, who has resided on the fiirm for fifty-five years, says the 
mound once extended to what is now the center of the river, a distance 
of 250 feet, and was 20 feet high, if not more. The exact dimensions 




< Nat. and Aborig. Hist. Tenn., 1823. p. U6. 



THOMAS.] TENNESSEE. 3f)7 

can not now be ascertained, but it is affirmed that the area of the level 
top was at least an acre and that it was cviltivated as a garden. If this 
be coriect it must have been a very large and important tumulus, prob- 
ably 250 feet in length by 175 in width. What adds to the interest 
attaching to this work is the fact that, running around it in the form of 
a semicircle, and about 300 yards from it, is a series of large pits, twelve 
in number and somewhat evenly spaced. The dimensions can not be 
definitely ascertained, as they are now nearly filled up. They were 
probably 100 feet or more in diameter, and, according to the statement 
of citizens, fully 20 feet deep. Possibly they are the spots from which 
the material for building the mound was obtained. 

JEFFERSON COtlNTY. 

Some explorations were made in this county, but the examinations 
were hasty and incomplete. The agent was, at the time of his visit, 
simply on a prospecting tour, expecting to return to those works which 
he thought worthy of special investigation. 

Two mounds were discovered immediately below Taylors bend of the 
French Broad river, 9 miles east of Dandridge. One of these, on the 
north side of the river, stands on a level bottom about. WO feet from the 
river bank. It is circular in outline, 120 feet in diameter and 12 feet 
high. Trenches were cut through it, but no evidence of burial or relics 
of any kind were revealed. The other mound is about half a mile above 
the preceding, south of the river, on the farm of Mr. John B. Stakely. 
It stands on the level bottom about 200 feet from the river; is similar 
in form to the other, but smaller, the diameter being 95 feet and height 
a little less thaii 5 teet. The ground on which it stands is subject to 
overflow, and the mound itself has been entirely covered with water 
more than once. A wide trench was carried through it and down to 
the original soil, but neither skeletons nor relics were found; nor any 
indications of burial. The whole body of it was composed of dark, 
sandy soil like that of the ground around it. At the bottom, resting 
on the natural surface, was a layer of sticky yellow clay, 3 to 1 inches 
thick, which appeared to underlie the entire mound. The nearest 
place where this pipe clay is found is a ridge about a mile distant. 

There is an ancient burial ground about one-fourth of a mile above, 
but on the opposite side of the river from the last mentioned mound. 

There is a mound on the south side of French Broad river op])osite 
Swans island, about 3 miles above Dandridge. It stands on the lower 
bottom which borders the river, about 200 yards from the latter. There 
are traces of an old "trail" leading from it across the ridges for a dis- 
tance of 3 miles to some stone graves near a creek. The largest trees 
along the trail are marked, but the marking extends up and down the 
trees according to the old method of blazing routes instead of across 
them, as is now usual. If these marks bear any relation to the trail and 
graves, it is probable that all are the work of modern Cherokees. 



358 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



MOUNM) ON KAIN's island. 

This mound is situated ou the lower end of Faiu's ishuid, in French 
Broad river, about 3 mile.s southwest of Dandridge. It stands on the 
extreme lower end of the island, not more than 300 feet from the water's 
edge. As a shaft had been sunk in tlie center by a previous explorer 
a broad trench was cut on each side. In the first or southern one six- 
teen skeletons were unearthed, but in the northern one nothing was 
found. Near the east end of the first was a series of fire bt^ds, one 
below another. The uppermost, which lay near the surface of the 
mound, was about 3 feet in diameter, and each succeeding one was a 
little wider than the one above it, so that the bottom one, ^5 feet below 
the first, measured 6 feet in diameter. All were circular and slightly 
basin-shaped or dished, and consisted of burnt clay, with layers of 
ashes between them. There were five in all. Below the last lay a 
mass of pure ashes, packed very hard, which extended downward some 
3 feet to the bottom of the mound. The earth immediately under this 
bed of ashes was burned to a hard crust t« the depth of 5 or 6 inches. 

Fiji'. 237 is given to show the fire-beds {«) and the ash-bed (b) imme- 
diately below them. 

The skeletons were, in most (sases, lying at full length, with heads in 
various directions, though none toward the south. Only one or two 




Fig. 237. — Section of nioimil uu Fains island. Jeflferaon county, Tennessee. 

were folded. They were at all depths, from 2i to 5 feet ; one lay near 
the bottom, at the depth of 8 feet and close to the mass of ashes under 
the fire beds. 

With this skeleton were five celts and some shell ornaments; the 
skull was also obtained. The mound appeared to be composed almost 
entirely of dark, sandy soil, with here and there a small streak of lighter 
colored earth running through it. 

There is an ancient burial ground on the south side of the river, 
opposite the mound, which has not been examined. 



ROANE COUNTV. 

The first works examined in this county are on Long island, in the 
Holston river, which is from 3 to 5 miles long and varies iu width fi'om 
one-fourth to 1 mile. It lies nearly east and west, the course of the 
river at this point being fiom a little south of east to a little north of 
west. The western portion, near the lower point is low bottom land; 



TENNESSEE. 



359 



the middle and npper portions are considerably liijiiier, rising some 40 
to 50 feet above low wat<'r. A plat of the island, showing the respec- 
tive positions of the nineteen mounds on it, is given in Fig. 238. These, 
as will be seen by the figure, are arranged in three groups, the group 
a containing five mounds, being near the extreme lower or western 
point on the lowest land of the island; group 6, also containing five 
mounds, near the middle; and group c, containing nine mounds, near the 
upper or eastern end, the two latter groups being on the higher land. 
The mounds are numbered from 1 to 10, though all these numbers do 
not appear in the figure. 

Mound 1 of group a (the one next the northern branch) is by far the 
largest, being about 160 feet from east to west, 90 feet north and south, 
and IS feet high. It is known as the Brakebill mound, and was par- 
tially explored by Rev. E. O. Dunning on behalf of the Peabody 
Museum. As Mr. Johnson, the owner, has since built a corn house on 
it, permission could not be obtained to make further explorations in it. 






Htver ^^f^G^ 




Jiottorrv Lan^. 



Fio. 238. — Plat of groups on Long island, Koane i-nuuty. Tennessee. 



Mounds 2 and 4, being covered at the time with growing corn, were 
not disturbed. 

Mounds, measuring 93 feet from north to south, 105 feet east and west, 
and 5 feet high, having been under cultivation for sixty years and 
partially examined by a previous explorer, is considerably lower than it 
originally was. 

The body of the mound was composed of dark, sandy soil similar to 
that of the surrounding surface of the island, with numerous small 
patches of yellow clay scattered through it without any apparent order 
or arrangement. In it were five skeletons near the original surface of 
the ground, arranged as shown in Fig. 239. In the center, at«, was a 
large, boat-shaped vessel of clay, 9 feet long, 4 feet wide in the middle, 
but tapering to each end, and about 15 inches deep. This vessel, which 
was probably only sun-dried, was watersoaked to such an extent that it 
crumbled into minute fragments when an attempt was made to remove 
it. It lay northwest and southeast and contained an adult skeleton 



360 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



lying- at full length with the head northwest. Fn the vessel, near the 
head of the skeleton, was the stone image represented in Fig. 240. 
This, which represents a squatting figure, is 14J inches high and is 
carved out of stone. At each of the points marked /), /;, /(, /;, corre- 
sponding with the cardinal points, was a sitting skeleton facing toward 
the center. With the one at the north was a clay pipe and two dis- 
coidal stones; lying by the feet of the one at the east was a large 
shell, and with the one at the south were two polished celts, one of 
which was broken. 

Mound 5, nearest the lower point of the island and within 50 feet of 
the watei^'s edge and of the ordinary conical form, measured 00 feet in 
diameter and 5 feet high, the liighest point being toward one side. 

One foot from the top was a layer 
!r|^ of burnt clay from 3 to 4 inches 

thick, spreading horizontally 
over the entire area of the 
mound, reaching the surface all 
around. It did not conform to 
the curve of the mound, but 
extended horizontally. At sev- 
eral points on its surface, or 
mixed with it, were small piles 
or spots of charcoal and ashes. 
The body of the mound, both 
above and below this layer, con- 
sisted of dark, sandy soil. 

In the central portion, close 
to the bottom, lay the remains 
of four skeletons, but so far de- 
composed that it was impossible 
to determine their positions. 
Mound 11, as will be seen by 
reference to Fig. 238, is one of group c, situated on the higher grouud. 
Diameter, 05 feet ; height, a little over 7 feet. This, as proved to be the 
case with all those on the high ground examined, was composed entirely 
of very hard, compact, red clay. 

About the center, at the depth of 2^ feet, was a badly decayed skel- 
eton which must have been doubled up or bundled. There was no dark 
colored earth about the bones, as is usually the case, the red clay being 
packed about them as hard as in any other portion of the mound. Di- 
rectly under this, but at the bottom of the mound, resting on the natu- 
ral surface of the ground, were two other skelet<ms lying at full length, 
side by side, with heads toward the west. The bones of these were in 
a much l)etter state of preservation than of the one nearer the top. With 
them was some red paint and near their heads one spear point and two 
small discoidal stones. The earth immediately surrounding these two 




Fu; 239.— Diagram of luouiid Nii. 3, Lon^: island, 
Koane t-ounty, Teiint'sftee. 



TENN?:SSEE. 



361 



skeletons was dark and loose, all the rest of the mound being composed 
of red clay, so haid that we had to use the pick to loosen it. 

Mound 12, measured 52 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, and like 
the preceding consisted chiefly of red clay closely packed and very 
hard. In the center, at the depth of 3 feet, was a horizontal layer of 
mussel shells about 1 foot thick, covering a circular area feet in 
diameter. The shells composing this layer were packed in dark-colored 





Fig, 240.— Image liom ininmil No. 3, Long ijiland, lioane county, Tennessee. 

earth and must have been carefully placed by hand, as they were in 
tiers, all with the concave side downward.' Underneath the layer of 
shells the earth was very dark and appeared to be mixed with vegeta- 
ble mold to the depth of 1 foot. At the bottom of this, resting on the 
original surface of the ground, was a very large skeleton, lying horizon- 
tally at full length. Although very soft, the bones were suflQciently 

'The same thing, as I learn from Dr. Patrick, of Belleville. 111., was observed in a mound which 
formerly stood on the site of East St. Louis. These, however, as appeared from the specimen shown 
me, were sea shells, mostly univalves. 



362 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

distinct to allow of a careful measurement before attempting to remove 
them. The length from the base of the skull to the bones of the toes 
was found to \h\ 7 feet 3 inches. It is probable, therefore, that this in- 
dividual when living was fully 7^ feet high. At the head lay some 
.small pieces of mica and a green substance, probably the oxide of cop- 
per, though no oruament or article of copper was di.scovered. This 
was the only burial in the mound. 

By reference to the plan of the group (Fig. 238), it will be observed 
that Nos. 12, 13, 14, and 15 form the arc of the circle. They are regu- 
larly spaced, the distance from the base of one to the base of the next 
being about 100 feet. No. 11 is about 200 feet from No. 12. 

No. 14, 05 feet in diameter and 7 feet high, was next explored by cut- 
ting a trench 12 feet wide from side to side through the center down to 
the original soil. This was composed of hard, red clay, with here and 
there, from the depth of 1 to 3 feet, a small spot of very dark earth, 
which contained decayed mussel shells. At a depth of 3^ feet, near 
the center, lay 2 skeletons very near each other, one with the head 
toward the east, the other with the head toward the west, with dark 
colored earth and some shells packed about them. Nothing further 
was discovered until near the bottom, where a bed of shells was 
reached. The shells in tliis bed were closely packed together in the man- 
ner of those in mound No. 12, This bed or layer was circular in out- 
line, about 12 feet in diameter and 1 foot tliick, and c(nitained a smaller 
proportion of dirt than that in No. 12. The layer beneath this, resting on 
the original soil, consisted of dark colored earth in which, lying immedi- 
ately under the center, of the shell bed, were 2 skeletons. But these 
were so far decayed that their exact position could not be determined. 
Near their heads were two arrow points, twi) rude celts, and one dis- 
coidal stone. 

Mound 15, 04 feet in diameter and 7 feet high, presented in some 
respects a remarkable contrast to those just described. For a depth of 
5 feet it, like the others, consisted of hard, red clay; under this was a 
dark layer which spi-ead over the entire area of the mound and seemed 
to be filled with skeletons; in fact, the entire bottom was apparently a 
mass of bones. All the earth above them being carefully removed, it 
became apparent that there was no I'egularity or order of burial, but 
that the bones were heai>ed together in a confused mass, it being im- 
possible to trace out the iudi\-idual skeletons. Many of the bones were 
broken and often three or four skulls piled together. They belonged to 
l>ersoiis of all ages, from the young diilil to the aged. 

The number of persons buried here was estimated at 53, as that was 
the number of skulls found. All must have been deposited at one time 
and hence after the flesh had been rem< >ved. The remains were jirobably 
gathered from other temijorary depositories and brought here to be 
buried in one common grave. 



THonus.] TENNESSEE. 363 

Mound 1(), 40 feet iu diameter aud 5 feet high, was simihir to No. 15, 
except that iu this there were only twelve skeletons. 

Mound 1 7, similar iu size and coustructiou to No. 16, contained at 
the bottom 4 sl^eletous, much decayed; no relics with them. 

Mound IS, 3S feet in diameter and 4 feet high, was composed through- 
out of red clay ; not even a change in color was noticed until the bottom 
was reached. Here, in the center, was a hearth of burnt clay and 
ashes about 5 feet in diameter and 5 or 6 inches thick. This layer or 
bed of burnt clay was level on the top, and the ashes wliich lay on it 
had some pieces of charcoal scattered through them. 

As already stated, all the mounds of the higher ground of the island 
explored were made of red clay packed very hard, and the skeletons 
found iu them were in an advanced stage of decay, with the exceptiou 
of those in mound No. 15, where, although in a confused heap, they 
were much better preserved. It will be observed also that the skele- 
tons found on the low bottom land were in better condition tliau those 
found in the red clay mounds of the uplands. It is surmised from this 
fact that the higher land foruu^d at first the whole island, the lower 
point being a subsequent addition, and that the mounds on the former 
l)ortion are much older than those on the lower point. 

Some 2 or 3 acres of the lower point, which was washed bare during 
the flood of April, 1886, is covered with fragments of pottery, broken 
arrowheads, flint chips, broken celts, etc. At one point the soil was 
all washed ott' down to the hard ground, exposing a floor of burnt 
clay about 30 feet square aud 1 foot thick. In this could be distinctly 
seen the charred ends of posts which had been set in the ground. An 
examination of some of these proved them to be red cedar. They had 
been set into the grouiul through the burnt clay to the depth of about 
3 feet and some of them were still comjiaratively sound ; all were burnt 
off' at the top. Unfortunately the exjilorer neglected to note at the time 
their respective positions. 

MOUND ON THK UAGI.ER KAKM. 

This stands on the lower bottom aljout 100 feet from the river bank 
and 8 miles down the river from the preceding groups. It is imme- 
diately oi)posite an island on one hand and a spur which ruus down 
from the hills on the other. A broad level bottom extends along the 
river above the mound for half a mile and for 2 miles below it, but is 
very narrow where the mound stands. 

Although quite large, beiug 142 feet in diameter and 11 feet high, it 
is of the round conical type aud quite symmetrical. At the depth of 2 
feet was a layei of burnt clay from 6 to 8 inches thick, extending over 
the whole mound, not horizontally, as usual, but conforming to the curve 
of the upper surface. It must, therefore, have formed the upper layer 
of the mound when it had reached this stage of its construction. 



364 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Immediately below this skeletons begau to appear and contiuued to be 
found until a depth of 5 feet was reached ; below this depth there were no 
more indications of burial. When the bottom was reached it was seen 
that a ditch had beeu dug in the original soil 1 foot deep and 2i feet wide, 
running east and west and traceable for 12 or 13 feet. At two points, 
as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 241, were lateral extensions run- 
ning off at right angles on each side; these could be traced only for a dis- 
tance of 4 or 5 feet. Fourteen skeletons were discovered, none of which 

were at a greater depth than 5 
feet, and all were below the layer 
of burned clay, which did not ap- 
pear to have been disturbed. All 
of these skeletons were lying hori- 
zontally on their backs, at full 
length, and the heads of all, ex- 
cept that of No. 1, toward the 
north, as indicated in the figure, 
which shows the respective posi- 
tions of the skeletons and the 
ditch below. With skeleton No. 
1 were two relics, a fine spear- 
head and a soapstone pipe ; with 
No. 5, a fine polished celt and 
two small discoidal stoues; with 
No. 12, a singular stone tube, 
some small arrowheads, one dis- 
coidal stoue.and a beaver's tooth. 
All the specimens were found about the heads of the skeletons. 

On the farm of Mr. K. H. Evans, 6 miles below Long island and 2 
miles above the Hagler farm, are seven mounds, and 4 miles further 
down, on the lands of Mr. G. B. Johnson, five. 

MOUNDS ANI> ANCIENT CEMETERY ON THE LEK FARM. 

The farm of Mr. M. G. Lee, lying on the north side of Clinch river, 
about 14 miles above Kingston, contains about 1,200 acrevS, mostly 
beautiful level land, denominated here " first and second bottoms." 
The west side of this extensive farm is bounded in part by White Oak 
creek. A mile above tlie mouth of the creek the land is considerably 
higher along the river bank than it is farther back. This ridge or high 
ground rises somewhat as it nears the point where the creek enters 
the river. lu times of high water the river breaks around the upper 
end of the high ground and flows back of it until it reaches the creek, 
but in April, 1886, the water rose to an unprecedented height and swept 
entirely over this higher ground, washing oft" the sandy soil in some 
places to the depth of several feet, exposing a number of graves and 
showing that here was an ancient cemetery. 




Fig. 241. — Diagram of the Hagler mound, Koaiie 
county, Tennessee. 



THOMAS] 



TENNESSEE. 365 



The locality was visited immediately after this occurrence. The dark 
soil had all been washed away, leaving the hard yellow sand exposed. 
On the highest point of the rise could be seen a large number of skele- 
tons, some still resting in their graves, but more washed out and scat- 
tered over the surface, or the bones drifted here and there in heaps. 
Several days were spent in examining this interesting spot and exca- 
vating the graves from which the skeletons had not been removed or 
washed out. All that could be determined was that they had been 
buried horizontally in comparatively shallow graves dug in the original 
soil for their reception. There was no regularity as to direction, some 
heads being east, some west, some north, and others south. The area 
covered was about 2 acres. Scattered over this were small broken 
stones, arrowheads, flint chips, fragments of pottery, etc. 

Mound No.l, about 55 feet in diameter and 3J feet high, stood on a 
slight elevation about one-fourth of a mile from the river, but some- 
what nearer the creek. It had been plowed over for many years, bring- 
ing to the surface human bones, some of which were lying on the top 
when examined. 

The entire mound was removed, revealing some large flat stones 
near the surface. The earth about these was dark and loose, while the 
remainder consisted of hard red clay. Nothing further of interest was 
observed. It is api>arent, therefore, that the skeletons which were 
plowed up must have been near the top of the mound, which could not 
have been more than 6 or 7 feet high. 

Between mound No. 1 and mound No. 2, there is quite a depression, 
so much so that water frequently stands here. As this mound (No. 2) 
had never been plowed or disturbed, it retained its full proportions, 
being GO feet in diameter, 10 feet high, and conical m form. At the 
depth of 2i feet was a layer of rather large, flat limestone rocks, extend- 
ing horizontally in all directions to the margin of the mound. Imme- 
diately beneath these stones lay twenty-five skeletons so close to them 
that several of the skulls and other bones were crushed by them. Some 
of the stones were quite large, but all of them about 4 or 5 inches thick 
and some with the edges nicely squared, probably by the natural fracture, 
as there were no traces of tool marks on them. The entire mound con- 
sisted of red clay, but that portion above the stone platform was loose 
and easily worked. About a foot above the bottom another bed of 
similar stones was leached, but this covered an area only 7 feet in 
diameter. Immediately under it, lying upon the original surface of the 
ground, were five skeletons, slightly covered with earth, over which the 
stones were laid. It is possible that after the first burial a small mound 
may have been thrown up and that a considerable interval elapsed 
before the second burial. That all the skeletons in a layer were depos- 
ited at one time can not be doubted. The clay between the upper and 
lower layers was so hard that it required the use of picks to break it 
up. The skeletons in the lower layer were much decayed and crushed 



366 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

by the weight of the stones resting on tlieni. No order as to position 
appeared to liave been observed in eitlier layer. No relics save a few 
arrow points and discoidal stones were discovered. 

Mound 3, 70 feet in diameter, 15 feet high, and conical in form, was 
also explored. At the depth of 3 feet were eight skeletons so far de- 
cayed that it was impossible to determine their exact jjositions, except 
that they lay at about the same level. Near the bottom, though a lit- 
tle above the natural surface of the ground, were three other skeletons 
lying about 5 or (> feet from each other. These were in a much better 
state of preservation than the eight near the top. There were no 
stones over the skeletons as in mound 2, nor were any relics found with 
them nor in the mound. 

Immediately below the mouth of White Oak creek is Jones island, 
on which it is said a mound formerly stood which has been washed 
away by the tloods. The locality was visited, and tlK)Ugh no traces of 
the mound could be seen, large quantities of broken pottery, flint chips, 
and other evidences of former occupancy were observed. 

One mile below this place, on the south side, are two large mounds 
situated on the point of a ridge which runs close to the river. They 
are covered with heavy timber. 

BLOtTNT, MONROE, AND LOUDON COUNTIES. 

The valley of the Little Tennessee from where it leaves the Smoky 
mountains, which form the boundary between North Carolina and Ten- 
nessee, to where it joins the Tennessee river in Loudon county, is 
undoubtedly the most interesting archeological section in the entire 
Appalachian district. 

The numerous groups of mounds and other ancient works which are 
found along the valleys of the principal stream and its tributaries, 
appear to be intimately related to one another and are so evidently the 
work of one people that it is deemed unwise to arrange them by coun- 
ties; moreover, this would confuse the reader, hence it is thought best 
to vary the usual rule in this instance and describe the groups in the 
order in which they follow one another, commencing with the one 
situated nearest the point where the river leaves the mountains, 
thence moving down the stream to its junction with the Holston. In 
order that the reader may understand the relation of these groups, a 
map of the area embraced is given in PI. xxv, on which they are 
located. As this map is copied from one made by the geograi^hical 
division of the IT. S. Geological Survey from i-ecent surveys, and the 
groups located by a special survey made under the Bureau of Ethnology 
for this purpose, it may be relied upon as being more than usually 
correct. 

The river, after winding its way through the mountain gorges, enters 
a beautiful valley about half a mile wide and perfectly level to the 
foot of the Chilhowee mountains, to which it runs parallel for several 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



367 



miles. The ttrst bottom as we descend is knowu as the Hardin farm. 
On this is a tumulus now named the Hardin mound. This is located 
north of the river about 5 miles above the mouth of Abrahams creek, 
and nearly opposite the mouth of Tallassee creek. (No. 1, PI. xxv.) 
It is of the usual (conical form, measuring 120 feet in diameter and 
7 feet high. In this was a single adult skeleton near the center at 
the depth of 2 feet, lying on its back, head east, and arms spread 
out as indicated at a in Fig. 242. Lying at the right hand were a 
stone pipe and a polished celt; at the left hand, a stone pipe and 
nine arrowheads; at the feet, a large pot broken in pieces. On the 
skeleton, chiefly around the neck, legs, and arms, were 1,039 beads, 
mostly shell; 384 of 
them were of large 
size; a few were 
fresh-water pearls. 
The bones crumbled 
to pieces as soon as 
an attempt was made 
to remove them. No 
other skeletons or in- 
dications of burial 
were found; but at 
h, b, h, h, resting on 
the natural surface 
of the ground, were 
four little piles of 
burnt clay, one at 
each of the points 
indicated, forming a 
square. These were 
rounded at the base, 
running to a sharp 
point at the top ; di- 
ameter at the base, 2 feet, and height 2 feet. Some coals and ashes 
were about each, sliowing that the burning had been done after they 
were placed in position. There is scarcely a doubt that these remains 
mark the site of the old Cherokee town Tallassee. In order that the 
reader may understand the reason on which this assumption is based, 
a facsimile of Henry Timberlake's map made in 1762 is inserted here. 
(PI. XXVI.) By referring to this as we proceed in our description of the 
groups along the Little Tennessee river, the reader will see the close 
correspondence in locality of the Cherokee towns with these groups. 

THE m'MURRAY mounds. 

These mou!ids, four in number, are some 5 or 6 miles lower down than 
the preceding, the first, as we descend, being on the south side of the 




Fin. 243 — Diagram vi' the- llardiu mound, Blount comity, TeuueBsee. 



368 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



river, on the farm of Mr. Boyd McMurray, the others on the north side, 
on the farm of Mr. Samuel McMurray. (No. 2, PI. xxv.) A plat of the 
area, showing the relative positions of these mounds is given in Fig. 243. 
The direction from the point a directly opposite the mouth of Abrahams 
creek, to mound No. 1, on the Boyd McMurray farm, is S. 86° W. and 
distance 1,450 feet; from mound No. 1, to the point 6, on the north bank 
of the river, N. 53° W., 1,270 feet; from h to center of mound No. 2 on 
the Samuel McMurray farm, N. 76° W., 745 feet; from No. 2 to No. 3, 
N. 790 w., .520 feet; from No. 3 to No. 4, N. 79° W.,335 feet, the meas- 
urements always being from center to center. Mound No. 1 is 288 feet 
from the river bank; No. 2 is 173 feet; No. 3 is 258 feet; and No. 4 is 
108 feet. 

Mound 1, circular in form, 4 feet high, and with an average diameter 
of about 100 feet, was examined by cutting a broad trench through the 
center from side to side and down to the origiiial soil. No indications 
of burial were observed nor was anything of interest found, except a 
large fire-bed. This was on the original surface of the ground exactly 




Fig. 243.— Plat of the McMurray mounds, Blount county, Tennessee. 

at the center of the mound. It consisted of a layer of burnt clay 
between 7 and 8 feet in diameter and from 4 to 6 inches thick, and was 
covered with ashes; encircling the margin was a row of water- worn 
stones. Over this bed was a layer of clay 1 foot in thickness; the 
remainder of the mound was composed of dark loam like the surround- 
ing soil. 

Mound No. 2, which is circular, measured 110 feet in diameter and afew 
inches less than 5 feet in height. In excavating this a trench was first 
run in from the south side; before reaching the center a stone grave 
or cist was found of the usual box shape. This contained an adult 
skeleton, much decomposed. A trench was then carried in on the north 
side, and at about the same distance from the edge was another 
cist of the same character; also containing a single skeleton. At the 
center, lay four uninclosed skeletons in an extended position on the 
original surface; two with their feet toward the south, the other two, 
whose heads were nearly touching the heads of this pair, having their 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. XXVI 




LOCATION OF THE. 

OVERHILL CHEROKEE TOWNS 

made by 
HENRY TIMBEKLAKE 

,J6^ 



COPY OF TIMBERLAKE'S MAP OF OVERHILL CHEROKEE TOWNS. 



TnoMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



369 



feet toward tlie iiortli. The reinaindei- of the mound, which was com- 
posed throughout of yelh)w sand, except si little black earth about 
each skeleton, being cleared away, five other uninclosed skeletons were 
unearthed, which were found in the positions shown in Fig. 244. A 
few arrowheads, two polished celts, and some Hint chips were found at 
different points in the mound, but none were with any of the skeletons. 

It was learned from Mr. 
McMurray that mound 
No. 4 was partially ex- 
plored several years ago, 
and that several stone 
graves, such as tnose in 
No. 2, were found in it. 
This was probably by 
Eev. E. O. Dunning, on 
behalf of the Peabody 
Museum. Similar graves 
occur in considerable 
numbers in the field 
about the mounds, espe- 
cially in the vicinity of 
No. 3; the side stones in 
many cases being visi- 
ble above the surface. 
These are indicated by 
the dotted line about 3 
on the plat (Fig. 243). Several were explored but nothing found in 
them, except decaying skeletons. 

Mound No. 3 st<)od on the first bottom, in a beautiful level meadow, 
about 250 feet from the river. Its form was an ellipse, measuring 150 
by 122 feet, the longer axis being east and west; height 12 feet, but 
considerably reduced by the i)low. A thorough excavation showed its 
composition, mode of construction, and contents to be as follows: The 




Fid. 244 Diagram of McMurray njouud, No. 2. 



>m3mmiu^v^immm:^ 




Fig. 245. — Section of McMurray mound, No. :{. 

toi) portion, to the depth of 5 feet (except a circidar space in the center), 
consisted of dark, sandy soil, mixed with pieces of broken pottery, flint 
chippings, and charcoal. This layer, which was beneath the slight 
outer covering of recent vegetable mold, did not extend down the 
curve of the mound toward the base, but was horizontal on the under 
side, as shown at h, Fig. 245, which rei)resents a section of the moand. 
12 ETH 24 



370 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Immediately below this was a horizontal layer of ehareoal (c c), 4 to 6 
iuches thick, extending horizontally over nearly the entire area of the 
mound at this height, except where interrupted at the center by the 
conical mass {a a). The coals composing this layer were of cane and 
small boughs and very closely packed. The earth next under it was 
very hard for a depth of several inches. From this layer {d d) down to 
the natural surface of the ground the m(mnd was composed of dark earth 
similar to that in the upper layer {b b), and in this part were found all 
the skeletons hereafter mentioned, with the exception of No. 34. Ex- 
tending down through the center trom the top was a conical mass (« «) 




Fig. 246.— Diagram of McMurray mound, Ko. 3. 



8 feet in diameter at the top and 4 at the bottom, composed of alternate 
layers of burnt clay and ashes. The clay layers were quite hard and 
slightly dished, and some of them a foot thick. The layers of ashes 
each measured 4 or 5 inches. As these beds were undoubtedly burnt 
in places it is plain they were made as the mound was built up. Occa- 
sional small fire-beds at various depths in the entire layer {d d) bear out 
this opinion. 

In Fig. 24(i, which is a horizontal section or plan of the mouiul, are 
shown the skeletons in their respective positions. All these, except 



THOMAS.) TENNESSEE. 371 

Ko. 34 — tlie skek'toii of ;i cliild — were below tlie charcoal bed (c c) (Fig. 
-45) and 7 orS leet below the top of the iiiouiid. The area occupied by 
them was couiparatively small, probably not more thau cue-fifth of that 
covered by the mound. They were more crowded, and more nearly on 
the same level thau is u.sual in a mound of this size. In some cases 
they lay touching one another; for example, Nos. 18 to 22 were so 
close together that ]S"os. 19, 20, and 21 had tube omitted from the figure. 
They were lying face up at full length, with arms in natural position 
by the sides, except three (Nos. 13, 15, and 16), whose arms were turned 
back so as to bring the hands to the head. By referring to the figure 
it will be seen that nearly every ojie has the head to the east; five be- 
ing toward the south and two or three toward the north. There were 
in all thirty-six, only eight of which were accompanied by any relics 
worth mentioning. Every pot that was found stood near the head of a 
skeleton; the beads and ornamented shells were about the neck or rest- 
ing on the breast; the pipe, stone knife, and drilled celt were al! at the 
head of No. 22; the celts and discoidal stoues were generally found 
about the bones of the hands. 

By reference to the diagram it will be seen that No. 32 lay near the 
central shaft, and fully as deep in the mound as any other skeleton ; 
with this was an iron chisel, lying on the breast; the beads about the 
neck of the skeleton were so placed in relation to the chisel (which 
was perforated at one end) as to lead to the belief that all of them had 
been suspended on one cord. 

The following is a list of the articles obtained from this mound: 
With skeletou No. 9, one. iK)t au<l two oniaiiifuted .sliolls. 

With skeleton No. 16, one pot, one ornameuted shell, one discoidal stone, and beads. 
With skeletou Nt>. 18, two pots. 

With skeleton No. 22, one pipe, one Hint knil'e, one drilled celt. 
With skeleton No. 2(!, one pipe (steatite), one eelt, two discoidal stones. 
With skeleton No. 27, one pipe (ornamented), two celts, one chipped Hint imple- 
ment. 
With skeletou No. 32, one i>erforated iron chisel, one discoidal stone, and beads. 
A cemetery, consisting chiefly of stone graves, lies inunediately 
about this mound. Twelve of these were opened and found to be formed 
of slabs of slate stone, arranged in the usual box-like shape; each con- 
taining a single .skeleton. The remains at this point probably mark 
the locality of the old Cherokee town Chilhowey, not shown on I'l. xxv. 
Proceeding down the river to the mouth of Mulberry creek we find 
here on the south side of the river indications of a village site. These 
consist of fragments of pottery, broken stone imj)lements, fire-beds, etc. 
But there is no jnound here. This is the \illage site No. 3, on the plat 
shown in PI. xxv, and corresponds with "llalfway-Towu" of Timber- 
lake's map. (PI. XXVI.) 

THK LATIMOKE GHOUP. 

Moving on down the river, the next group reached is on the farm of 
Mr. Latimore, on the south bank, immediately above the mouth of 



372 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Citico creek. This is the ii])])er and outlyiug portion of the group nnm 
bered i in PI. xxv. A plat of the entire group is given iu Fig. 247, 
which includes the McSpaddin mounds just below the creek. To show 
the relation of the two groups and tlieir immediate surrouTidings it may 
be stated that this group consists of three mounds standing on the level 
top of a spur which is about 150 feet higher than the bottom lands. 




Fig. 247. — Plat, of Latimore and McSpaddin mounds {Citico group), Monroe county, Tennessee. 

The courses and distances between different points are as follows 

(Fig. 247): 

From a, the junction of Citico creek with the river, to h, at the foot of the spur, 
S. 10° E., 1,476 feet. 
From i to mound No. 1, S. 38° W., 310 feet. 
From mound No. 1 to mound No. 2, S. 45° W., 143 feet. 
From mound No. 2 to mound No. 3, N. 10° W., 108 feet. 
From b directly to the river hank, 310 feet. 
Measurements hetweeu the mounds are in all cases from center to center. 




Fig. 248 — Vertical section, mound No. 1. Latimore group. 

Mound No. 1 was slightly oval in form, 70 feet in diameter and a 
little over 8 feet high. A thorough exploration was made, bringing to 
light a confused heap of human bone.s near the center, at a depth of 
from 2 to 3 feet. In this heap, which was as compact as it could well 
be of such material, were eleven skulls, indicating that at least 11 
skeletons (for the flesh must have been off when deposited) had been 



THOMAS.] TENNESSEE. 373 

buried here. All the bones were so much decayed that only one skull 
coukl be saved. Five feet farther down, near the original surface and 
immediately under this pile of bones, was a horizontal layer, or rather 
floor, of rough river stones, but no traces of coal or ashes. It was 
circular, with a diameter of 20 feet. (See vertical section in Fig. 248.) 
Mound No. 3 was 90 feet in diameter and S feet high. It as well as 
No. 1 were composed of red clay. Two skeletons were found near the 
center, at a depth of less than 2 feet. Nothing else of interest was 
observed. 

THE M<^,SPADDIN MOUNDS. 

This section of the group, but a short distance from the preceding, 
and on the same side of the river, is on the farm of Mr. T. T. McSpad- 
din, just below the mouth of Citico creek. It consists of five mounds, 
located as shown in Fig. 247, bearings and distances as follows: 

From c, at the junction of the oreek with the river, to rf, on the west hank of the 
river, N. 22° W., 444 feet. 

From d to Mound No. 4, S. 63° W., 538 feet. 

From Mound No. 4 to MoTiud No. 5, N. 68° W., 1,896 feet; the jioint on this line 
where it crosses the ri.se to the second bottom is 5.50 feet from No. 5. 

From Mound No. 5 to the point in the gap marked f, S. 24° W., 793 feet. 

From e to Mound No. 6, S. 66° W., 724 feet. 

From Mound No. 6 to Mound No. 7, N. 65° W., 215 feet. 

From Mound No. 7 to Mound No. 8, S. 39° W., 1,270 feet. 

The dotted line shows the old channel of the creek, now dry; its 
nearest point to Mound No. -4, is 208 feet; from the same mound to the 
nearest point on Citico creek as it now runs, is 480 feet. The second 
bottom is 10 feet higher than the first. The spur and hill, which seem 
to have been cut off from its point in past geological time, are of con- 
siderable height. Behind these is an area of level land on which 
Mounds No. 6, 7, and 8 are situated; No. 8 is at a considerable dis- 
tance from the others, and beyond a ravine. The distance from No. 4 
to No. S, by way of the gap is about three-fourths of a mile. 

Mound No. 4, known locally as " Citico mound," is the largest, not 
only of this group, but of the entire section. In shape it resembles 
the half of an egg divided lengthwise, being broadest and highest 
nearer one end, sloping thence by regular, somewhat curved lines. The 
length is 220 feet; greatest breadth, 184 feet; greatest height, 14 feet. 
It may possibly have been flat on top originally, but no satisfactory 
evidence of this can be had; in fact, its present form seems to be that 
which it has had from the beginning, so far as can be judged from an 
examination of its structure. As is shown in the plat, it is located 
on the first bottom of the Little Tennessee, and, though often sur- 
rounded by water in times of flood, was never known to be covered. 
For a space of 6 or 7 acres around it the soil is strewn with fragments 
of pottery, flint chips, broken stones, animal bones, charcoal, and other 
refuse. Great numbers of shell beads have been picked up here, and 
human skeletons have occasionally been plowed up or washed out by 



374 MOUND EXPLORATION'S. 

liij;h water. There is a good view of tiie valley for 2 or 3 miles down 
the river from the top of the iiiouud. Oil the second bottom, <iOO yards 
northwest of this, is Mound Xo. 5, somewhat circular in form, 20 feet 
in diameter, and 2i feet hij;h. Immediately back of this is a hitih 
ridge teriniiiating- in a clitf almost i)eri)endi<'nlar on tlie side facing the 
creek. 

The other mounds, Nos. 6, 7, and S, are on a high level back of the 
ridge. There is a deej) gajt, about (>(» yards wide, through this ridge 
directly between Nos. 5 and G, thus affording an easy passageway from 
one grou]> to the other. 

The first of this group explored was Xo. 0, which is circular in form, 
about 80 feet in diameter and 8 feet high, and composed entirely of red 
clay. The plow had thrown out 1 skeleton ami penetrated to 2 other.s, 
which were found near the surface, but so badly decayed that no part 
of them could be preserved. 

No. 5 was also composed of red clay, but no sign of burial was 
observed, nor were coals, ashes, or anything else of interest found in it. 

The large mound, No. 4, was thoroughly overhauled to the base. At 
the highest point, G inches below the surface, was a bed of burned clay, 
circular in form, about G feet in diameter and 1 foot thick, and burned 
so hard as to be very difficult to break uj). First, three trenches were 



Fig. 249.— Vertical section <il the Citico inounil (MeSpaddin, No. 4). 

run in from the margin of the mound from the north, south, and west 
sides intersecting at this clay bed. In cutting these, quite a number 
of skeletons were unearthed, some within 2 feet of the surface, others at 
a deiith of feet, at which depth a bed of yellow sand, slightly mixed 
with clay and firmly ])acked, was reached; this lay on the original sur- 
face of the ground, and extended over the whole area covered by the 
mound. No skeletons were found in this lower layer or under it. By 
cntting the trenches in the way described the clay bed was left un- 
broken until its extent and relation to what lay around it had been 
ascertained. It was then found that, instead of there being a single 
clay bed, this was the top one of a series of five. The one in question 
was level; the others were saucer shaped, iis shown at a a, Fig. 249, 
each extending upward and outward to the slope of the mound, each 
succeeding one larger than the one above it, the lowest measuring 12 
feet in diameter. Alternating with them were layers of ashes; each 
resting on its corresponding layer of clay. About 3i feet below these 
was another layer of red clay {h h) burned very hard, circular in out- 
line, saucer shaped, and 3 inches thick. This did not run out to the 



TENNESSEE. 



375 



inaigiii, though its diiiiiietcr was about 20 feet. Skeletons wprc found 
both above and bidow it, and some rest directly upon it. 

The remainder of the mound was then removed, the result being that 
91 skeletons were unearthed from the respective positions shown in 
Fig. 250, which is a plat of the mound showing the plan of burials. 
As will be seen from this figure, nearly all of the skeletons were 
stretched out at full length without legard to direction. None of 
these were inclosed, but the earth on which each rested was very 
hard to the depth of 1 or 2 inches, and those lying on the clay bed, /W(, 
had more or less coal and ashes about them. Traces of rotten wood 
were found immediately over some of tliem, and with one (No. 52) was 




Fig. 2an._Pla[i iif burials in tin- Citii'o mounil (McSiiaililin, Nn. J). 

a j)iece of solid pine a foot or more in length. This was at a depth of 
5i feet. Most of the articles found were lying close by the skeletons. 
The bones were so nmch decayed that but few whole skulls could be 
obtained. 

The following list shows the depth and ])osition of most of the skele 
tons and the articles found with them: 

No. 4, depth 4i feet, face downward ; 2 broken pots. 
No. 5, depth 7 J feet, face up; 1 broken i)ot. 
No. 6, depth 5 feet, facedown; 1 broken pot. 
No. 9, depth Si feet, face up ; 1 broken pot. 
No. 10, depth 3.V feet, faceup; 2 broken pots. 
No. 13, depth 7 feet, face up; 1 broken pot. 



37G 



MOUND EXPLORATIOXS. 



No. 16, 



No. 17, 
No. 18, 

No. 21, 
No. 22, 
No. 23, 
No. 24, 
No. 25, 
No. 26, 
No. 31, 
No. 33, 

No. 34, 

No. M, 
No. 30, 
No. 41, 
No. 44. 



depth 7i feet, face up, witli hamls resting ou tlie breiist and ell)ows thrust 
outward. By this skeleton lay 1 polished discoidal stone, 1 stone i)ipe, 1 
hrokeu pot, 1 roiigh discoidal stone, and 1 engraved shell iua.sk. The sknll 
was preserved. 

depth 3 J feet, faceuj); 1 liroken pot. 

in a sitting i)Osture; hy it 2 polished celts, 5 arrowheads, .'lud sonic Hint 
nodules. 

depth 4 feet, face up. arms e.xtended, 1 unbroken jmt. and 1 ]iedislicd celt. 

depth 3i feet, face up; 1 polished celt. 

legs doubled up, but lying on its back. 

hands folded on the breast. 

squatting posture, with feet doubled under the body. 

depth 7i feet, face up; 1 pot and 2 polished celts. 

depth SI feet, face up ; 1 broken pot and 1 polished celt. 

depth 5A feet, face up; by it 1 polished celt and 1 engraved shell. Tlic skull 
was saved. 

depth 6 feet, sitting i>osture; by it 2 broken jiots, 1 nicely poILsheil stone 
chisel, 1 discoidal stone, and 1 stone gorget. 

depth JS feet, face up; 2 polished celts; .skull preserved. 

deiith 4 feet, face up; 1 polished celt. 

1 engraved shell. 

de]ith 8 feet, face up ; 4 polished celts. 





1 pot, Citie 



moiuitl. 



Fig. 252.— C'lppiT rattle or hawk's 
l)rll. Citico iiioiuiil. 



No. 46, depth il feet, fiice up; 1 discoidal stone .anil 1 broken pot 

No. 51, dei>th 4+ feet, face up; 1 broken pot. 

No. 55, depth S} feet, face up ; 1 polished celt. 

No. 57, depth 6i feet, face up. By this were 1 Ijowl, 1 shell mask, 2 shell jiins, 2 bone 

awls or punches, and a number of shell beads. 
No. .58, depth 5i feet, face up ; 3 bone implements. 
No. 59, depth 7i feet, face uj). AVith this were 2 shell gorgets, 1 broken engraved 

shell, 1 shell ornament, 1 shell pin, 1 bear's tooth, and 1 discoidal stone. 
No. 62, depth 5 feet, face up. With it a lump of red paint, .a lot of shell beads. 4 

shell jiins, 1 bear's tooth, 1 discoidal stone, and 1 ornamented pot. 
No. 63, depth 7 feet, face up. By it 1 broken vessel with image head. 
No. 66, depth 3^ feet, face up. This was the skeleton of a child, and with it were 

found 1 moccasin-.shaped pot (shown in Fig. 251), 4 copper sleigh-bells ir 

rattles, 1 of which is shown in Fig. 252, and a lot of shell lieads. This was 

buried toward the side of the mound. 
No. 68, depth 8| feet, face up. By this lay 3 shell pins and 1 ornamented pot. 
No. 71, depth 6i feet, face up. With it were 4 shell pins, a lot of Shell beads, i 

lump of red paint, and 1 ornamented bowl. 
No. 79, depth 5 feet, face up. Skeleton of a child. With it 1 .shell ma.sk or gorget, 

1 engraved shell, a lot of shell beads, 2 shell pins, ami a luni]i. .appariMitly 

of lime mortar. 



TENNESSEE. 



377 



No. 81, depth S feet, face up. With it 2 perfect oruamented pots, 2 shell pins, a lot 

of shell beads, and a lumji of red paint. 
No. 89, depth ii feet, face up. Skeleton of a child. With it 1 jjot, 1 engraved shell 

gorget, 13 shell pins, 1 plain shell gorget, and 846 shell beads. 
No. 90, depth 2^ feet, face up. With it the bone needle shown in Fig. 253. 




Fig. 2.')3. — Bone ncedlo, Citico mound. 

Mound No. 8.--Tliis was almost perfectly circular, 55 feet in diame- 
ter, aud betNYeen 8 and 9 feet high. It was composed entirely of red 
clay, aud contained nothing but two skeletons, wliicli lay at full length, 
side by side, on the original soil at the center of the mound. 

The two clusters just described -*the Latimore and JVIcSiKiddin 
mounds — form the groui) marked 4 on PI. xxv, and correspond in loca- 
tion with the Cherokee town Settacoo of Timberlake's map (PI. xxvi). 

THK BACON AND m'gEE MOUNDS. 

About 4 miles below tlu^ group last described, and a short distance 
from the little town 
of Mountainville, are 
two mounds; one on 
tlie north side of the 
river, on the land of 
J. L. Bacon, theother 
on the south side, 
nearly opi^osite, on 
the land of Mrs. Ann 
McGee. These be- 
long to the group 
marked 5 on PI. xxv. 
A plat of the area on 
which they are sit- 
uated is given in Fig. 
254. As will be seen 
from this, tlienarrow 
valley is bounded on 
both sides, at this 
point, by high ridges, fig- 254.- 
The courses and dis- 
tances between the i^oints indicated on the plat are as follows : 

From a, on the north bank of the river, where the bliift' comes to the stream, to 6, 
also on the north bank. S. 40° W. 840 feet. 
From h to mound No. 1, N. 15-^ W. 428 feet. 

From h to c, a point on the north bank of the river, S. 82^ W. 700 feet. 
From c to d, a point on the south bank, due south .about 3.^0 feet. 
From d to mound No. 2 on the McGee farm, S. 12° W. 685 feet. 




■Plat ot the B.acon and McGee mounds. Blount and Monroe 
rountics, Tennessee. 



378 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Mound No. 2 (on McGee farm). — This mound, w1ul-1i is an ellipse 70 
by 55 feet in its twn diameters and about 5 feet liigli, was comjwsed 
throuoliont of red elay, w liicli luust have been brought not less than 
half a mile, this being the distance to the nearest point at whieh it 
could have been obtained. The soil (»f the surrounding area is a rich 
dark loam, the subsoil sandy. 

The whole mound was j-emoved, witli the result indicated in Fig. 
255. Thirteen whole skeletons were discovered in the positions shown, 
generally with their heads westward, all lying on their backs, ami all. 
except No. 1, with their arms by their sides; No. 1 had them extended 
right and left. 

At c lay twelve skulls on the same level, 3 feet below the surface 
of the mound, touching each other, with no other bones in connection 







Fig. 255.— Plan of buriiils in McOee mound. No. 2. 

with or immediately about them. At b, a little west of the center, 
and resting on the original surface, was a rough wall, about 2 feet 
high, built of slate stones; circular in form, inclosing a space about 9 
feet in diameter. The dirt inside being cleared away, twelve skulls 
and a large number of long and other bones were discovered. Eleven 
of the skulls were lying close together on one side, as shown in the 
figure, the other lying alone on the opposite side, but each entii-ely 
disconnected from the other parts of the skeleton to which it belonged. 
The other bones were much broken and mingled together in a promis- 
cuous mass. West of the wall and near the west end of the mound 
were five more skulls lying together, ami amid other bones, marked a 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



379 



in the lignre. The ])ottoiii of the inckisiirc, which corresponded with 
the original surface of the ground, was covered for an incli or two with 
coals and ashes, on which the skulls and other bones rested. But 
neither coal nor ashes were found outside of the wall. Ail the skeletons 
and other remains outside of the wall lay a foot or more above the 
original surface of the ground. 

Th(^ following articles were obtained from this mound : Witli skeleton 
No. 4, 1 ornamented pot; with No. 1, 1 polished stone ornament, 1 
stone pipe, 7 arrowheads, a small lot of copper beads, 1 shell gorget, 
2 pcrf(n-ated shells, and the fragment of a bone imiilement. The slculls 
of Nos. 1 and 7 were saved. 

As there are evidences about the McGee mound, on the south side of 
the river, of a somewhat extensive ancient village, and the locality cor- 
responds exactly with tlie site of Chote,"the "metropolis" and sacred 




^"^^^1^^^ 






Fir;. '25^. — I'lat. of tin- Tin-n iiiouuds, Monroo county. Tennessee. 

town of tlie Overkill Oherokei\s, there can be scarcely a doubt that the 
remains found here pertain to that town. Mound No. 1, on the north 
side of the river, is near the point where Timberlake locates an old fort 
built by Mrginiaus. It was not examined. 

The mound and village site marked No. (> on J'l. xxv, immediately 
below the preceding, ai'e at the point where Timberlake locates the lit- 
tle town Tennessee, which gives a name to a great river and an impor- 
tant state of the Union. 

THIO TOIO IMOUNDS. 



Continuing our course down the Little Tennessee, we come next to 
the Toco mounds, partly on the lands of Mr. J. L. Johnson and Mr. ( 'al- 
laway, south of the river and just above the mouth of Toco creek and 
partly below the mouth of the creek. These mounds are arranged in 
two groups, one cnnsistiug of live mounds, situated above Toco creek, 



380 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



iind tlie other cousistirijjof three mounds, situated some distauTie behjw 
it, as shown in Fig. 25(5, which indicates the respective positions of the 
works. The upper one of these groups is tlie same as No. 7 on PI. xxv, 
and corresponds witli Toqua on Tiniberlalce's map (PI. xxvi). The 
lower group is No. 8 of PI. xxv and corresponds with Tommotley of 
Timberlalie's map (PI. xxvi). 

From a, a point ou the south bank of the river opposite the I'xtreme upper point 
of C'allaway ishind, to ft, .a point on the south bank directly north of mound No. 1, 
isN.60" W., 1,470 feet. 

From 6 to mound No. 1, known as the " Big Toco mound," S., 310 feet. 

From mound No. 1 to Mound No. 2, known as tlic " Callaway mound," S. 40'^ E., 
320 feet. 

From mound No. 1 to the three small mounils, Nos. .3, 4, Jind vt, which are now 
nearly obliterated, S. Te-^W., about 800 feet. 

From the Callaway mound to tMfe foot of the ridge, S., 600 feet. 

From the point h to the mouth of Toco creek, about 600 yards. 

The north side of the river is bordered by high bhififs thrcnighout the 
area shown by the diagram. No. 6 is a small mound <>n the top of a 
bluft' oi^posite the mouth of Toco creek. 

From the mouth of Toco creek to the mouth of Swiimp creek, along the bank of 
the river, 1,050 feet. 
From c, at the mouth of Swamp creek, to mound No. 9, S. 48*^ W;, 850 feet. 
From mound No. 9 to mound No. 8, N. 65° W., 620 feet. 
From mound No. 8 to mound No. 7, S. 30° W., 327 feet. 




Fl3. 2)7.— Vorti lal section of the Big Toco mound, Monroe county. Tennessee. 

At moimd No. 9 the swamp is about 250 feet wide and so wet that 
the mound is often surrounded by water. 

Mound No. 1, which is known locally as the " Big Toco mound,'' is 
an oval, 154 by 138 feet, the longer axis being east and west. Height 
at west end, 24 feet; at east end, 18 feet; top flat, but sloped toward 
the east, the descent at this end being much more gradual than at the 
other. The length of the flattened top was 94 feet; greatest breadth, 
78 feet. The north, west, and south slopes are very steep. 

The elevation as seen from the south is shown in Fig. 257. 

This mound was built chiefly of the dai-k sandy soil around it, which 
continued uniform to the depth of 9 feet. Here a hiyer of hard yellow 
earth was encountered, which continued to the original surface of the 
ground. Eunuing through this upper layer of dark sandy soil were 
numerous streaks or thin layers of yellow sand and also of burnt clay, 
the latter accompanied by coals and ashes. These layers were found 
from within 2 feet of the top down to the depth of 9 feet. It was 



TENNESSEE. 



381 



notireable that many of the skeletons, all of which were discovered in 
this upjier layer, though immediately surrouuded by loose earth, had 
directly over them a layer of thin burnt clay, usually broken up. 

A little northwest of the center of the mound, at the depth of 2 feet, 
commenced a series of hearths or fire-beds of burnt clay, with layers 
of ashes between them, placed one below another, much like those 
found in the large Citico mound heretofore described. These alternate 




Fig. 258. — Plau of burials in the Big Toco niouud, Monroe county, Tennessee. 

beds continued down to the depth of 6 feet, increasing in diameter. 
There were no skeletons in this series of fire-beds. (See a, Fig. 257.) 

In several of the other layers of burnt clay (not the central series) 
were the remains of burnt stakes which had been driven into the sur- 
face of the mound when at these respective heights and the top por- 
tion burnt off, leaving unburnt the part in the eai'th. In some cases 
these had rotted out, leaving only the impressions of the wood and bark ; 



382 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



in otliers, where partially cbiirred, the remains were distinct. Some of 
these were observed within 3 feet of tlie snrface; others at the depth of 
6 feet, and at intermediate depths. There was always aronnd the place 
where these had stood a bed of coals and ashes, and in some of them 
pieces of charred human bones. 

Fifty-seven skeletons were discovered in this mound, the relativf' 
positions of which are shown in Fig. 2.58. None were nearer the top 
than i feet, and none, except ^'o. 49, at a greater depth than 7 feet; 
all, except Nos. 29 and 49, lay in a horizontal position, with heads in 
various directions, as shown in the figure. 





Pig. L'59. — Bone impleiuent, Big Toco mound. 

Quite a number of clay vessels were discovered, mostly pots, which 
had crumbled to pieces; some of them seemed to be perfect while in 
position, but were so thoroughly soaked with water tliat they fell to 
pieces as soon as an attempt was made to remove them. Nevertheless 
by digging carefully around and heating those which appeared whole 
a few were saved unbroken. Most of the celts were near the heads 
of the skeletons. Sometimes, where twoheads were close together, the 
celt or celts were placed midway between them, either intentionally or 




Fui. 2G(i. — iloue iniiiU-iiu-iit, llij; Toco mound. 

accidentally, in which case it was imijossible to decide which skeleton 
they were birried with. 

In every case where ajar or other clay vessel aceonqianied a skel- 
eton it was near the head, either by the side of the skull or back of it. 
In most instances where beads were found they were about the neck 
and breast. 

By reference to Fig. 258 the reader will observe that skeleton 49 is 
nearthecenter of the mound; that immediately around it are eight other 
skeletons (Xos. 13, 14, 1.1, 40,45,40,47, and 48), with their heads turned 
nearly or directly toward it. About the head of 13 were the following 



TENNESSEE. 



383 



si)ecimens: A polished celt; ;i small discoidal stoue; three boue iuiple- 
inents, one of whlcli is shown in Fig. 2.50, the other two of the form 
shown in Fig. 200; a stone pipe (Fig. 2G1), shaped much like those in 





I'lij. -01 SluliB ]»iin', l>iLi 'I'dcn moUBd. 



Firi. 2ti'.'.— Oriiaincnteil shell, Bij; Tihii inoiind. 



usage; and the 



use at the present day, and bearing evidence of Ion 

ornamented shell shown in Fig. 2(i2. With ISo. 49, chi/pHy about the 

head, were the following articles : Three polished celts; the stone imple 




Fig. 263. — Stone implement, Big Toco mouud. 



meut shown in Fig. 263, finely polished; a small water bottle; a large 
spearhead ; a soapstone pipe (the bowl and handle had been made in 
one piece, but the stem in this case was broken off and the end ground 



384 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



to admit a oane stem): the pot shown in Fiy. 204; an enormous shell 
mask, the largest, perhaps, ever found in a mound; two small orna- 
mented shells; twenty-nine bone jiunches or needles, similar to that 
represented in Fig. 253; thirty-six arrowheads, and some very large 
shell beads. The bone implements were found by tlie right hand, which 
lay close to the right thigh bone; the rest of the articles were about 
the head, except the shell beads, which appear to have been around the 
body,about the hi^is; they were in two rows close side by side. 




Fig. 2G4.-Pot, Big Toco moumi. 

Articles found by the other skeletons were as follows: 

Skeleton 4, two polished celts and one discoidal stone. 

Skeleton 5, one polished celt. 

Skeleton 8, one polished celt, one snapstonc pipe, one ornamented shell, and one pot. 

Skeleton 9, two polished celts. 

Skeleton 17, one polished celt. 

Skeleton 18, two polished celts, one stone pipe, two pots, two engraved shells and 

one shell-ornament, and a number of shell beads. 
Skeleton 22, two polished celts. 
Skeleton 24, one polisheil celt. 

Skeleton 26, two polished celts, three discoidal stones. 
Skeleton 27, one polished celt. 
Skeleton 28, two polished celts, one pot. 
Skeleton 31, two polished celts. 
Skeleton 33, two polished celts, two pots, one engraved shell, three shell ornaments, 

and a number of shell Vieads. 
Skeleton 34, three polished celts. 
Skeleton 36, one discoidal stone. 

Skeleton 37, one ])olishcd celt, one stone pipe, one engraved shell. 
Skeleton 41, one polished celt, one stone pipe, one pot, one engraved shell, one shell 

ornament. 
Skeleton 51, one ornamented shell, one flint implement, a number of shell beads. 
Skeleton 52, one ornamented shell, one shell mask, one shell gorget. 

Skeleton No. 29 was buried in a perpendicular position, head down- 
ward, and rock piled on the feet, as shown in Fig. 25S. The top of the 
head rested on the hard stratum at the d«j)th of 9 feet from the top of 
the mound. 



THOMAS. 1 



TENNESSEE. 



385 



TIIK CALLAWAY IIOINII. ^ 

Mound No. 1!, known as tlie Callaway uiound, stands on the level 
bottom, is conical in form, 93 feet in diameter, and (i feet high. The 
soil of 8 or 10 acres around this and the Big Toco mound is very black. 
This seems dne to a large intermixture of charcoal. Indeed, it seems 
almost impossible to step without treading on coals, fragments of 




Fig. 265.— Veriical scctiun of Calljiway mouml. Mo 



county. 



pottery, broken arrow-heads, shells, and Hint chips. About half way 

between the mound and the river, tlie ground rises about 2 feet above 

the usual level, and then breaks off abruptly toward the river. On 

this little elevation, for a space of r>() or (;0 feet in diaTueter, is a bed 

of burnt clay, the top 

portion broken up by J^ 

the plow. It is nuR'-h 

liarder a foot or two 

under the surface than 

it is on top. 

Possibly it was here 
the people of the vil- 
lage were accustomed 
to burn their pottery. 
The mound was found 
to be composed of loose, 
dark, sandy soil, simi- 
lar to that around it. 
Lying on the surface or 
top, immediately under 
the grass, were frag- 
meats of human bones, 
such as ])ieces of the 
arm aud leg bones, 
pieces of the skull, jaw 
bones, teeth, etc. These 
had doubtless been 
brought up by the plow, as the mound had been cultivated for fifty 
years, and was considerably worn down. In tlie central portion, at 
the depth of about IS inches, was a level bed of burnt clay and coals 
(1, Fig. 265), which represents a vertical section of the mound looking 
north (2 indicates the position of the skeletons at the bottom). This 
varied from 2 to 3, or more, inches in thickness, and covered an area of 
about IS by 20 feet. 
12 ETH 25 




Fig. 2GG. — Diagram of Callaway mound, Monroe county, Tennessee. 



386 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



Fourteen skeletons were discovered in this mound, all lying' extended 
in a horizontal position, but with their heads in different directions, as 
shown in Pig. 266. Some of the burials took place subsequent to the 
formation of the tire bed, as a few of the skeletons were above it or 
resting on it. jSTos. 1 and 2 were lying face up, heads southwest, at a 
depth of 18 inches. No. 3 lay -with the head to the uorthwest, about 
20 inches below the surface of the mound; about the Avrists and hands 

were some small shell beads, 
but none about the neck, 
where they are usually found. 
Xo. 4 was lying on its back, 
head to the south ; No. 5 with 
the head to the southwest. 
No. C was about the center 
of the mound a nd at the depth 
of 3 feet, head northeast. It 
was much better preserved 
than those nearer the toi). 
A few small shell beads were 
lying about the neck and 
breast. No. 7 was lying lace 
up, head northeast, left hand 
by the side, but the right 
arm bent upward so as to 
bring the hand above the 
head. By this hand was the 
water vessel shown in Figs. 
207 and 26S, made to repre- 
sent an owl. The peculiarity 
of this si^ecimen is found in 
the feather marks which or- 
nament the back or portion 
representing the wings. The 
markings, instead of being 
like those on the Zuiii or Pu- 
eblo pottery — although the 
vessel is precisely of the pat- 
tern made by the Pueblo 
tribes — are of the strictly 
Mexican type. This vessel 
was close to the skull, aud 
almost touching tlie right hand. At each side of the head was a large 
sea shell (Bnsycon jHTversum), one of them IS inches long, the circum- 
ference at the widest part 22 inches. About tlie neck and breast were 
several hundred shell beads. Skeleton No. 8 was lying in tlie same po- 
sition ami about the same depth as No. 7. Near the right hand were 




Vui. *J67. — Water A-essel, CuUaway iiinmnl. 



TENNESSEE. 



387 




five somewhat singular arrow points or drills, .some of which are appar- 
ently unfinished. No. 9, somewhat isolated, lay north of those last men- 
tioned, with head directly east; depth from the surface, 3 feet. Near 
the northeast corner of the first pit, a stone wall, or rather a row of 
stone slabs set on edge, was encountered, which further investigation 
and a thorough removal of the dirt sliowed to be an oval vault (see 
Fig. 2(i(J) 10 feet long and 8 feet broad. This wall, com])osed of slabs 
of slate rock set on edge, 
was about 1 foot high, the 
top at the highest point 3 
feet below the top of the 
mound. The bottom was 
completely covered with a 
layer of slate slabs, as 
closely fitted together as 
the tin worked edges would 
admit of. Resting on this 
ttoor wevc four skeletons, 
as shown in Fig. 266 (Nos. 
10, 11, lii, and 13), the heads 
north and northeast. With 
skeleton No. 11 were som<' 
fragments ( )f copper-stained 
wood and some pieces of 
micar Skeleton No. 14, out 
side of the vault, lay with 
the head northeast. 

Mounds 7, 8, and 9 really 
form a separate group and 
probably, as above stated, 
mark the site of a village 
distin(!t from the one on the 
east of Toco creek. Nos. 7 
and 8 are on a terrace some 
25 feet above the water 
level, but No. 9, as before 
remarked, is in a swale 
drained by the little rivulet 
known as Swamp creek. 
All are of small size. 

Nos. 7 and 8 consisted chiefiy of yellowish Sandy soil from the ad- 
jacent surface ; for the first 2 feet from the top this was packed so hard 
as to require the use of a pick. In No. S, at a depth of 2i feet, lay the 
skeleton of a child in the last stage of decay; about the head were 
several shell beads. Mound No. 9, similar in construction, contained 
four skeletons lying at a depth of 5^ feet, sind very nearly in the center 









-WatiT vessel, Callawav iiioiiiul. 



388 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



of tlic iiiuuikI. Witli thciri wus ii liirj^e discoidal mortar stone, 
ing else of interest was observed iu any of them. 



Noth- 



THE I'ATE MOUND. 



On the north side <if the Little Tennessee, a short distance above 
the mouth of Mne Mile creek, and nearly opposite Old Fort Loudou,is 
a single conical tumulus known locally as the Pate mound. 

It is small, being only 4 feet high, with a diameter of 45 feet. Its 
stratification was as follows: At the top, a layer of vegetable mold 
about 4 inches thick; next, 3 feet of damj) red clay; lastly, a layer of 
loose, dark clay, 8 inches thick, resting on the original soil. The lower 
portion of this bottom layer, to the thickness of an inch, increasing in 
the center to nearly 6 inches, was much darker than the other part. 
Six feet from the center, at a depth of three feet in the layer of red 
clay, lay a single folded skeleton. In the lowest layer, resting on the 
original surface, were three other skeletons extended horizontally, with 
faces ui). With these were .some mussel shells and a stone chisel. 

The village site on the opposite (south) side of the river (No. 0, PI. 
xxv) corresponds with Toskegee, of Timberlake's map, located iu the 
immediate vicinity of Fort Loudon. 



THE NILES KERRY MOUNDS. 



This group, consisting of three mounds, is situated on the north side 
of the Little Tennessee, opposite the mouth of Tellico river and close 

to Siles's ferry, at the cross- 
ing of the old Federal road. 
Fig. 269 shows their posi- 
tion. Nos. 2 and 3, which 
are comparatively small 
and of the usual conical 
type, stand on a timbered 
ridge which comes to the 
river immediately below 
the old blockhouse oppo- 
site Fort Loudon. No. 1 is 
a very large mound, stand- 
ing on the second bottom, 
about 400 feet from the 
river. A single shaft was 
suTik part way down in 
it some years ago by Dr. 
Palmer, but it has never 
been thoroughly explored. 
It is flat on top, 10 or 11 feet high, and about 300 feet in diameter. The 
Bureau agent, expecting to return to the group the following season, 




-I'lut of the Nilea ferry mouuda. Mourue cuuuly, 
Teuuessee. 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



389 



took no other notes tlian the courses and distances of the mounds from 
one to another and from the river. 

From a, opposite the iiioutli of the Tellico river, to h, on the uortli l>;ink of the Lit- 
tle Teuucssee, N. 3r>>3 W., 300 feet. 

From /) to mound No. 1, N. 30*^ E., 410 feet. 

From mound No. 1 to mound No. 2, S. 74° E., 1,200 feet (pjiced). 

From mound No. 2 to mound No. 3, S. 75° E., 550 feet. 

This group is No. 11 on the phit given in PI. xxv. 

Two miles below tlie preceding, on the south side of the river, is a 
group of three mounds, sliown in Fig. 270. Xo. 1, conical, 53 feet in 
diameter and 5 feet high, 
aud No. 3, similar but 
somewhat larger, were 
excavated and found to 
consist of hard, yellow 
clay. In the former a few 
fragments of human bones 
were found, and in the lat- 
ter two skeletons. Partly 
on the land about tlie 
mound and partly on the 
island are the indications 
of a former village. This 
is the site of Timberlake's 
Mialaquo, and is thegroup 
marked 10 on PI. xxv. 

It is necesjsary now to notice some other groups in Monroe county 
before continuing our course down the river, as the next group in this 
direction is in Loudon county. 







MMMm 



%&m^ 



Fig. 270 — Group 2 idiIuh below I^iles'a terry. 



MOUNDS IN TELLICO PLAIN.S. 



These, twelve in number, are located along the Tellico river in the ex- 
treme southern part of the county, in the little basin like valley known as 
Tellico plains. Mound No. 11, on a high ridge on the east side of the 
river, measured 40 feet in diameter and feet high. It was com^josed 
of the following strata: First, below the thin stratum of vegetable 
mold and decayed leaves, was a layer of red clay to the depth of 3 feet; 
next, a layer of dark earth varying in thickness from (5 inches to 1 foot, 
but conforming to the curves of the mouiid. In this dark earth were 
small deposits of sand and gravel, which were probably brought front 
the river, each deposit being about a load for one person. Below this 
dark stratum was another layer of clay, reaching to and resting upon 
the original surface of the ground. In this, next to the original sur- 
face, were two large lines of rotten wood, evidently the remains of two 
logs. These were S or 9 feet long, lying parallel to one another, and 6 
feet apart. Between them, also resting on the original sm-face of the 



390 



MOUND KXPLORATIONS. 



ground, was a single skeleton, lying at full length, head south and feet 
north, the same direction as the h)g's, but so far decayed that the bones 
crumbled to pieces when handled. There may have been a covering of 
bark or brush, but nothing was observed to verify such conclusion. 
Nothing else worthy of notice wiis discovered. 

Nos. 8 and were explored, but were found to l)e nothing more than 
hea])s of yellow clay with a fire-bed near the top of each. As they were 
oidy about 40 feet in diameter and from 4 to 5 feet high, they may have 
been house sites. 

No. 10, 6 feet high and 48 feet in diameter, was also composed of yel- 
low clay, except a limited area, a few inches thick, next the original 
surface in the center. Here there was a sudden change to dark, loose 
earth, covering a space about ii feet in diameter and extending l)elow 
the original surface. 

This being removed, a circular pit was revealed a little over 3 feet 
deep, rounded at the bottom and 4 J feet in circumference. This had 
probably been filled with some sirbstance which had decayed. 

MOl'NDS ON THE CLICK I-AK.M. 

This small group, consisting of three mounds, is situated on the Tel- 
lico river, 8 miles above its mouth, on the Click farm. Fig. 271 is a 

diagram showing their posi- 
tions. The inver runs south 
about 70 degrees east from a 
short distance above the 
mounds to the mouth of a 
small branch below, then 
bends to about south 30 de- 
grees east. There is no level 
bottom laud on either side ex- 
cept a few acres on which 
mound No. 3 stands. Nos. 1 
and 2 on the north side are on 
the point of a high ridge. All 
three are hemmed in on all 
sides by high bluffs and ridges. 
From No. 1 to No. 2 the dis- 
tance is 170 feet; from No. 3 to the river bank, 290 feet. All are small, 
Nos. 1 and 2 being about 3 feet high, and No. 3 nearly obliterated. 

LOTTDON COUNTV. 

Returning t<i the Little Tennessee, we continue our course down the 
river. 

MOUNliS AHOl'T MOlKiANTON'. 

Next below the group represented in Fig. 270 are some mounds on 
both sides oi' the river, in the vicinity of tlw little village of Morganton; 




. 271 . — Phtt of ninuuds on the Click farm, Mouroe 
i-ouiitA", Tfuncsaei'. 



THOMAS.] TENNESSEE, 391 

tliey arc inaikod No. 13 ou PI. xxv. There are two on the north siile 
of the river, ou the Cobb farm, near Baker's creek, and three on the 
south side, on the Tipton farm. 

Two of those on tiie south side were examined. They stand on the 
second bottom, about 200 yards from the river and 90 feet apart. In 
one, G4 feet iu diameter and 7 feet high, composed throughout of red 
clay, were four badly decayed skeletons, at the bottom. The original 
surface of the grouml on which they lay was thinly covered with coals. 
The other mound was similar iu every respect to the first, except that 
it contained but two skeletons. 

Another mound near Morgantou (not given in the plat), but situated 
ou Mr. Samuel Lane's farm, close to Baker creek, was examined. This, 
which measured 48 feet iu diameter and 4 in height, stood on the bot- 
tom or lowest level of the valley, about 200 feet from the creek. The 
composition, conimeiicing at the top, was as follows: First a foot of 
yellow clay, then a stratum of dark rich earth S inches thick, and last 
a bed of lighter colored earth extending down to and resting on the 
natural surface of the ground. 

Below the last layer, excavated in the original soil, was an oblong- 
pit 8 feet long, 5 feet wide, and 1 foot deep. Resting ou the bottom of 
this pit were two adult skeletons with heads to the east. Near the 
head of one were eight arrow points. The bottom of the pit, previous 
to the deposit of the bodies in it, had been covered to the depth of 2 or 
3 inches with coals and ashes. The remainder of the pit to the level 
of the natural surface of the ground was tilled with- very dark colored 
earth. 

THE BAT CREEK MOINDS. 

Two miles below Morgantou, on the west side of the Little Tennessee 
river. Bat creek joins this stream. Both above and below the mouth of 
this creek there is a pretty level valley, extending back from the river 
at some points half a mile to the base of the steep hills which border it. 
Immediately in the angle where the creek joins the river is a compara- 
tively lai'ge mound, and on the opposite or west side of the creek are 
two other mounds (Nos. 2 and 3). The first is on the bottom land, the 
others ou a level terrace some 20 or 30 feet higher than the first bottom 
or lowest valley level; the latter are about 100 feet distant from one 
another, measuring from center to center. 

These (No. 14 on PI. xxv) are on land owned by Mr. M. M. Tipton, 
but are different from those previously mentioned, which are about 2 
miles farther uj) the river. 

Mound 1, measuring 108 feet in diameter and S feet in height, was 
composed wholly of very dark soil, containing a great many small shells ; 
these were in fact so abundant in places as to present the appearance 
of a shell heap. This condition continued to the depth of 3i feet to a 
layer of hard yellow sand; under this the remainder of the mound to 
the original surfiice, except a central, circular area 2 feet in diameter. 



392 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

consisted of dark earth siuiilar to that of the top layer. The central, 
circuhir core consisted of a series of burned chiy beds or hearths, alter- 
nating with layers of coals and ashes. These extended downward from 
the layer of yellow sand to the bottom of the mound. A few charred 
animal bones occurred in some of the layers of ashes; nothing else of 
interest was observed. 

On the east sicfe of the river, directly opposite this mound, is an 
ancient village site where the soil is very dark and has scattered through 
it in abundance specimens of broken pottery, flint chips, and other evi- 
dences of occupancy. In several places little circles of burnt stones 
may be seen lying on 1)eds of ashes. 

On mound 2, 44 feet in diameter and 10 feet high, stood a blackoak 
tree 3 feet in diameter. It was comj^osed throughout of hard red clay. 
At the depth of oh feet was the skeleton of an adult in a horizontal 
position, with the head east and the arms close by the sides. The earth 
immediately about the bones was of a dark greenish color and about 
the breast were two metal buckles, one of them having a fragment of 
leather or hide still adliering to it. On the leg bones were still to be 
seen fragments of buckskin and a metal button, the latter sticking fast 
to the bone. 

Whether or not this was an intrusive burial could not be determined, 
though the uniform composition of the mound and the size of the oak 
growing above seems to be against this supposition; nevertheless, the 
further discoveries made show that it was subsequent to the original 
burials and not in accordance with the original plan. 

At a depth of a little over 4 feet, and immediately under this skele- 
ton, the top of a stone wall was reached; this was found by further 
excavation to be a vault 8 feet square, built up of rough, flat limestone 
rocks to the height of 5 feet above the original soil on which it rested. 
On the inside, about half way down, were seven skeletons, numbered, 
for convenience, 2, .'5, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. No. '2 was the skeleton of a 
child, horizontal, with the head to the east; Nos. 3 and 4 lying together 
with the head north, one of which was a child's skeleton, with small 
beads about the head; Nos. .5 and were in a sitting posture in the 
northeast corner, and around the neck of one were many small shells 
and large shell beads; Nos. 7 and 8 were lying in the center with the 
heads close together and crushed by large flat stones which lay on 
them. Nothing more was found in this vault until the bottom was 
reached, where nine more skeletons were discovered, much decayed, and 
lying in all directions, seemingly thrown in without any care. 

Mound 3 was of small size, measuring but 28 feet in diameter and 5 
feet in height. Some large sassafras trees were standing on it, and the 
owner, Mr. Tipton, stated that he had cut trees from it forty years ago, 
and that it had been covered by a cluster of trees and grapevines as 
Io7ig ago as the oldest settler in the locality could recollect. At the 
time the excavation was made there was an old rotten stump yet on 



TENNESSEE. 



393 



the top, the roots of which ran down to the skeletons. It was com- 
posed throughout, except about the skeletons at the bottom, of hard 
red clay, without any indications of stratification. Nothing' of interest 
was discovered until the bottom was reached, where nine skeletons were 
found lying on the original surface of the ground, surrounded by dark 
colored earth. These were disposed as sho'mi in Fig. 272. No. 1 
lying at full length with the head south, and close by, parallel with it, 
but with the head north, was Xo. 2. On the same level were seven 
others, all lying close side by side, with heads north and in a line. All 
were biidly decayed. No relics were found with any but No. 1, imme- 
diately under the skull and jaw bones of which were two copper brace- 
lets, an engraved stone, 
a small drilled fossil, 
a copper bead, a bone 
implement, and some 
small piccesof polished 
wood. The earth about 
the skeletons was wet 
and the pieces of wood 
soft and colored green 
by contact with tfie 
copper bracelets. The 
bracelets had been 
rolled in something, 
probably bark, which 
crumbled away when 
they were taken out. 
The engraved stone 
lay partially under the 
back part of the skull 
and was struck by the 
steel prod used in prob- 
ing. This stone is shown in Fig. 273. The engraved characters on it 
are beyond question letters of the Cherokee alphabet said to have been 
invented by George Guess (or Sequoyah), a half-breed Cherokee, about 
1821. 

MOUND <IN A HIGH CLIFF. 




rici.272.- 



-Horizoitt.ll section, Bat creek mound, No, 3, Loudon 
countv. Tennessee. 



On top of a high cliff overlooking thei'iver, on the opposite side and 
a little above the Tipton group above mentioned, on the land of Mrs. 
Blankenship, is a mound 30 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, which 
at the time of exploration was covered with small trees. At the depth 
of 1 foot the top of a stone wall was encountered, which was shown by 
farther excavation to be an irregularly circular vault about 10 feet in 
diameter, which rested on the original surface of the ground. The red 
clay which filled this vault or small inclosure was covered by a layer 
of flat stones. At the bottom were six skeletons lying extended on 



394 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

anotiier layer of flat stoues, which coveicd the l»ottom of this vault. 
Four of the.se lay with the heads north, aud two, au adult and a child, 
with heads east. Over this stone floor, previous to burial, had been 
spread a thin layer of coals and ashes. 

One mile above the Tipton gioup mentioned, about 1 7iiile back from 
the river, ou high, level upland, was found another mound 54 feet in 
diameter and 6 feet high. In the center of this mound, 2 feet below 
the top, were the bones of two skeletons lying in a pile, most of them 
broken and apparently buried after the flesh had been removed. A 
little north of the center was a straight stone wall about 10 or 12 feet 




Fig. 273 Eugraved stoDc from Bat creek mound No. 3, London county, Tennessee. 

long, 2 feet high, aiul a foot or more in thickness. This was not on the 
original surface of the ground, but extended down from 2 to 4 feet 
below the top. 

MOnND.S AT PARKS FERRY (JACKSON's FKRRY ON THE PLAT). 

These are situated 10 miles east of Lenoir's at a crossingof the Little 
Tennessee known as Parks ferry. The group (No. 15, PI. xxv) con- 
sists of four mounds and five stone graves. Three of the former, which 
may be numbered 1, 2, and 3, were on the second bottom. No. 4 being 
on a high terrace and in the forest. 

Mound 1 measured 44 feet in diameter and 7 iu height. At the depth 
of 18 inches, near the center, was a ])artially decayed skeleton in a sit- 
ting posture, without the usual dark earth about it. Continuing the ex- 
cavation, the explorer passed through a layer of rather dark, hard clay 
to the dei)th of 4 feet, reaching a layer of sticky yellow clay about 3 
inches thick. This, instead of conforming to the curve of the mound, 
■was horizontal, as though it had been at one time the top, but did 
not reach the outer surface by about a foot and a half. Below this, to 
the natural surface of the ground, was a layer of lighter earth than the 
clay above it. A little to the north of the center of the base was a 
ciicular pit, 4 feet in diameter, which had been dug into the original 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



395 



soil to the depth of 4 feet. At the bottom of this ^yere the bones of a 
chikl lying in a bed of wet ashes 4 or 5 inches thick. The rest of the 
pit above this bed was filled with very dark, loose earth, similar to that 
l)roduced by decayed vegetable snbstance. Scattered through this 
dark earth were lumps of some green substancie which crumbled to 
dust on exposure to the air. 

Mound 2 was .32 feet in diameter and only 2 feet high, and consisted 
throughout of light colored earth, similar to the surrounding soil. 
Small bits of charcoal were scattered through it, but no indications of 
burial. Beneath it, at the center, was a pit in the native soil similar 
to that in No. 1, but only 3 feet deep. This was filled with very dark 
earth. 

Mound .3 was similar in size and every other respect to No. 2. 

Mound 4 was 35 feet in diameter and 4 feet high. Around it were 
depressions from which it is evident the earth was obtained to build it. 
Bits of charcoal were scattered all 
through the red clay of which it was 
composed. In the center, at the 
depth of 2 feet, was a single prostrate 
skeleton with the head to the north- 
east. Near the head M'ere a fine 
steatite pipe, some flint chips, a flint 
drill, and a small celt. There was, 
as usual in this group, a circular pit 
in the native soil about 4 feet across 
and 3 feet deep, in the bottom of 
which lay a folded adult skeleton, 
surrounded by charcoal and ashes 
and a few fragments of steatite ves- 
sels. 

A short distance from this grouiJ, 
at the upper end of Jackson's island, there are seven shell heaps, some 
of which are 60 feet in diameter, though rising but little above the gen- 
eral surface of the ground, yet by digging into them they were found 
to extend downward to the depth of from 3 to 4 feet. In these were 
several stone pestles, chipped flints, and other refuse material. 




Fig. 274 — Moimd.s on John Jacksoo's farm, 
Loiulnn county, Tennessee. 



MOUND.'* OX THE .TACKSON FAR.M. 



About the mouth of the Little Tennessee is a series of mound groups, 
mostly of the ordinary conical form, and of comparatively small size. 
The first of the series represented in Fig. 274 is on the upper end of the 
Jackson farm, 4 miles from Lenoir's station, and is No. 10, PI. xxv. 

The river at this point is deep and sluggish. A small creek enters 
it from the ea.st side, flowing through a, narrow bottom between high 
parallel ridges. Mound No. 2 is in the bottom, close to the creek and 
about half a mile from the river. It measured 60 feet in diameter and 



396 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS 



*^^S^''/lll 



..««ii&'' 



^Hsiam 



4 feet in lieiglit, and was coniposed tlirouglioiit of red clay, scattered 
through wliich were gravel and small stones and a few fragments of 
human bones. 

Mounds Nos. 1 and 3are on opposite sidesof the creek, each on ahigh 
ridge. No. 1, about the same size as No. 2, had been explored. No. 3, 
46 feet in diameter and 3J feet high, was thoroughly excavated. Like 

No. 2, it consisted 
wholly of red clay. 
At the depth of 1 
foot was a skeleton 
lying with head 
to the south and 
nmch decayed. 
At the head a 
fine steatite pipe. 
Nothing else was 
found. 
Lower down the 




Jackson's fa r m 
and the land ot 
the Lenoir Manu- 
facturing Com- 
pany, isthe group 
i-epresented in 
Fig. 275. The fol- 
lowing is a sum- 
mary of the re- 
sults of the exploration made here. The letters a, b, c, d mark the 
points on the river from which courses and distances to the mounds 
were taken to form the plat, which is drawn to a scale, 1 — 18000. 



river, 
line 



near the 
between 



FlQ. 275. — Mounda on John Jackson'.'^ farm, Loudon county, Tennessee. 



No. 


Diameter. 


Height. 


Composition. 


Remarks. 




Pert. 


Feet. 






4 


(>0 


2i 


Red clay 


Neither .skeletonH nor relics. 


(1 

' 7 

S 


7:; 

45 
4.'i 


12 
3 


....do 


Four skeletons at Itottoni : no relics. 

In each a I't^w IVaynients of human bones; 


....do 


.-..do 










nothing else. 


9 


45 


3 


..-.do 




10 


43 


3 


----do 




11 
12 


65 
48 


5 

34 


- do - . . . 


F»uu' skeletons at the bottom : no relics. 

A few human bones at the bottom. ■ 


. . . do 



A few mounds of this group had been previously explored by other 
parties. This is No. 17, PI. xxv. 



TKNNESSEE. 



397 



The mouuds at and about the point where the Little Tennessee joins 
the Holston consist, as will be seen by reference to Fig. 276, of some 
three or fonr minor groups and several single mounds. These (with 
the exception of those on the point of Lenoir's island, which are num- 
bered separately) are numbered consecutively from 1 to IG. Although 




these mounds are indicated on PI. xxv, the groups are not numbered 
there, as the locations compared with Fig. 276 will serve to identify 
them. 

The island contains about 200 acres, and its surface, which is level, 
is about 15 feet above the ordinary stage of the river. The banks are 
steep and have heavy timber and much cane growing along them. On 
the northern or lower end are two mounds. No. 1, which was found to 
be very symmetrical, the base almost an exact circle 100 feet in diameter 
and 6 J feet high, was thoroughly worked over. lu it were found foui'- 



398 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



teen skeletons, as sliown in the cliagiani (Fiji;, '■i'i'i)- The top layer, 
about IS inches thick, consisted of dark sandy soil, scattered througli 
which were numerous fragments of pottery, shells. Hint chips, and bits 
of charcoal. Next below this was a layer, about 4 inches thick, of yel- 
low clay, thoroughly burnt and very hard. This conformed to the 
curvature of the mound, extending all around to the base, and entirely 
covering the nucleus which formed the original mound. Below this, 
and forming the nucleus, was a layer of dark, sandy soil, similar to 
the outer stratum, which extended nearly to the base and rested on a 
horizontal layer of burned clay, which covered the original surface of 
the ground to a depth of -t or .5 inches. All the skeletons were ftmnd 
resting horizontally on, or a few inches alxjve, this bottom layer of 

burnt clay or cement: 

Xo. 1. with the head 
north; about the neck 
were several blue glass 
beads. 

Nos. 2 and 3, lying side 
by side, with heads west. 
Nos. 4 and 5, lying side 
by side, with heads east 
and feet close to the feet 
of 2sos. 2 and .3. 

No. 6, the skeleton ot 
a child, lying apart from 
the others, with head 
south; about the neck 
were a number of beads, 
and around the arm 
bones two iron bracelets. 
Xos. 7, 8, 9, and 10 
were lying side by side, 
touching one another, with heads to the west ; with the.se were some 
sheets of mica and a stone knife. 

No. 11 was the skeleton of a child, lying ai)art from the others, head 
southwest; there were no ornaments wath it. 
Nos. 12, 13, and 14 were lying side by side, with heads southwest. 
Mound No. 2, like No. 1, is on the northern end of the island, but it 
differs in one very important respect from any other mound so far ob- 
served in this region. It lias annexed to it a broad and extended ter- 
race of the form shown in Fig. 278, A being the mound proper and B 
the annex or terrace. It is termed "annex," because it is evident that 
the mound was first completed and the terrace added afterwards, and 
not built uji with and as a part of the mound. 

The mound is circular, lOS feet in diameter, flat on top, and nearly 
11 feet high. The terrace, which is level on top and 8 feet high, widens 




Fig. 27' 



[•Ian iif burials in mmunl No. 1, Lenoir group. 



THOMAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



399 



mt'- 



as it exteudK fioiu the inouml, and then gradually uarrows uutil it 
comes to a point which coincides with the lower point of the island; 
its length is 570 and greatest breadth 380 feet. 

An exi)lanation of the plan followed in working over this mound is 
given, as it will illustrate the method adopted in regard to the others 
of which figures are given. First stakes were set on the outi-r margin 
exactly at the four cardinal 
points by compass. Then on a 
large jiasteboard a line was 
drawn representing the outline 
of the base. The exploration was 
then made by cutting successive 
parallel trenches from east to 
west entirely across it. When- 
ever a skeleton was found it was 
carefully cleaned before an at- 
tempt to remove it was made, 
and its position noted as accu- 
rately as possible on the paste- 
board. The result in this case 
is shown in Fig. 279. 

Theconstruction of this mound 
was much like that of No. 1, on 
the Jackson farm, the chief dif- 
ferences being thai in this case 
there were three layers of burnt 
clay instead of two, and there 
was a shaft extending down from 
top to bottom, filled with alter- 
nate layers of burnt clay and 
ashes, as shown in Fig. 280. 

The central shaft, which was circular, 8 feet in diameter at the top 
and 4 at the bottom, extended from the top layer of dark soil down to 
the original surface of the earth. It consisted of a succession of fire 
beds, the clay of one layer having been placed upon the accunuilated 
ashes and coals of the one below it. 

The remains of quite a number of posts were found; these had evi- 
dently been set perpendicularly in the surface of the mound when the 
clay stratum d d formed the covering. Some of these were nearly or 
quite 18 inches in diameter, others not more than 6; they were all about 
on the same level. The upper ends of all were charred, showing that they 
had been burned oft"; hence no estimate of their original height could 
be made. The portion remaining varied from 2 to 3 feet in length, prob- 
ably showing the depth to which they were inserted in the earth of the 
mound. The lower ends of the larger ones were cut off scjuare, but it 
was not x^ossible to decide by the marks what kind of a tool had been 
used. Fig. 281 shows their relative positions. At a they were placed 




Fig. 278.— Diagram of mound No. 2, Lenoir jo'oup. 



400 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 



in a circle, with a large one in the center, the circumference containing 
twenty-three, somewhat regularly spaced. The diameter of this curcle 
was about 20 feet, with the door or entrance probably at 1. On the 
other (juarter, near the central shaft (rf), the positions of the posts around 




Flu. 279. — Plan of burials in luoiiud No, 2, Lenoir group. 

h indicate, an irregular triangular structure of some kind. On the oppo- 
site side there seems to have been, judging by the remains of posts, a 
small oval structure (e). 




9 




Fui. 280. — Yerticul section of mouml No. 2, Lt-noir group. 

a a, the top layer of dark sandy soil, slmiljir to that around the mouud, 1^ feet thick. 

bh, a, thin layer of burnt yellow clay or cement, from 3 to 4 inches thick. 

c c, dark sandy soil, 2K feet thick. 

d d, a, second layer of burnt clay, 3 inches. 

f e, dark sandy soil, 11 fict thick. 

//, a third layer of burnt clay, 3 inches thick. 

g (J, <lark, mucky soil, resting on the original surface of the ground. 

h, the central shaft of alternate layers of burnt clay and ashes. 

an, remains of upright cedar posts. 



T1K).MAS.] 



TENNESSEE. 



401 



Sixty-seven skeletons were discovered, all in the lowest layer {(/) of 
(lark mucky earth and all except two lying horizontally at full lenj;th. 
Although pointing in various directions, as shown in Fig. 279, which 




.0..'. 




JTlG. 281. — Horizontal plan of iiionud 'No, 2, Lenoir yroup. 

represents their respective positions, it will be noticed that most of 
them have their heads toward the center of the mound. No. 11 was in 
a sitting or squatting posture, and No. 4G folded up, lying on the right 
side. The bones of the left leg of No. 27 were wanting. 




Fui. 282.— (JruauRiiliil p. 4, uioiunl .No. 2. Lcuoir ;;roiip. 

The appearance of a number of these skeletons indicated the follow- 
ing method of burial. The body of the deceased was covered with a 
layer of cane or brush; over this was spread clay or cement in a plas- 
tic state, and upon this a fire was built. 
12 ETii 2G 



402 



MOUND EXPLOKATIONS. 



The ])ot,s were jiciieially found at the head of tlie skeleton, but the 
hue ornamented one (Fig. 282) was lying on the breast of No. 7, while 

a flint knife, some red paint, and wampum 
beads were about the head. The pipes 
were generally close to the head. In one 
or two cases they lay with the boues of the 
hand. The large shells were always on the 
breast or close to the neck, indicating that 
they had been worn attached to a cord 
about the neck, on which shell beads were 
strung. The shell ornaments (like that 
shown in Fig. 2S3) were in every case at 
the sides of the head, and, as not one was 
found with a skeleton without finding its 
counterpart, it is assumed tliat they were 
ear ornaments. The long pointed shell or- 
naments, such as that shown in Fig. 284, 
were always found at the back of the head, 
as though they were used as hair orna- 
ments. 

The following is a list of specimens from this mound, showing the 
particular skeleton with which each was found: 

Shell heads, from skeleton No. 2. 
Large shell, from skeleton No. 3. 

Very fine ornamented pot, flint knife, red paint, wampum l>eads, from skeleton 
No. 7. 

Two Hue pots, from sl<eletou No. 10. 

Beads and shell ornament, from skeleton No. 11. 

Large shell beads, three copper ornaments, ttom .skeleton No. 12. 

Pipe (Fig. 28.5), from skeleton No. 20. 

Eleven arrowheads, from skeleton No. 24. 

Large flint spearheads and wampum beads, from skeleton No. 25. 




Fig. 283.— Shell ornament, mound No 
2. Lenoir group. 




Flo. 284. — Shell ornament, mounU No. 2, Lenoir group. 

Large pipe and hone implements, from skeleton No. 29. 

Shell ornaments, from skeleton No. 34. 

.Shell ornaments, from skeleton No. 3.5. 

Shell ornaments, from skeleton No. 36, 

Flint knife and broken red pipe, from skeleton No, 37. 

Six polished felts, red stone implement, and two steatite pipes, from skeleton No. 39. 

Hone implements, from skeleton No. 41. 

Two engraved .shells, from .skeleton No. 43. 

Two engraved shells (fine) and shell ornament, from skeleton No. 44. 

Pot, from skeleton No. 45. 

Fine shell, double pot, long pot, and moceasin-sbaped pot, from skeleton No. 49. 

Large arrowhead, from skeleton No. 50. 



-HoMAs.l TENNESSEE. 403 

Fine pot, steatite pijn', shell oruameiits, stouo ax, rlay oniauieuts, skull, and two 
•Useoidal stonos, from skeleton No. 53. 

Two discoidal stones, oelt, two steatite pipes, and a pot, from skeleton No. 61. 

Two spearheads and two large beads, from skeleton No. 62. 

Flint knife, iron chisel, large di.sfoidal stone .-ind skull, from skeleton No. 63. 

The terrace coimecteil with thi.s luoiind, and already described, was 
oidy partially explored, further work being prevented by high water. 
In a single trench, 24 feet long and 10 feet \vide, cut lengthwise in the 
center to the original surface, 9 skeletons were discovered. The first 
was that of a cljild at a depth of 18 inches; the bones were badly 
decayed and unaccompanied by relics of any kind. The other 8, all 
adults, were found at the depth of 7 feet, close to the bottom, and iu a 
mu<'h better state of i>reservation than that of the child. With them 
were three whole pots and a few broken beads. 




1- II.. :!85. — Pipe, mound No. 2, Lenoir group. 

The island was overflowed in 1887, the year the exploration was 
made, to a depth of 10 or 12 feet, the highest water, with one exception, 
ever known here. 

Mounds 13 and 14, in the bottom between the two creeks opposite 
the mouth of the Little Tennessee, were explored and both found 
to be composed Ihioughout of red clay. They were of the ordinary 
conical form, the former 54 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, the latter 
46 feet in diameter and 2 feet liigh. In the center of the former, at the 
base, was a single skeleton resting on a circular layer of ashes--, about 4 
feet in diameter and 2 inches thick, which had been spread on the orig- 
inal surface of the ground. Nothing was found in No. 14. 

By reference to the plat (Fig. 276) it will be seen that there are nine 
mounds (Nos. 1 to 9) on the point between the Ilolstou and the Little 
Tennessee. They are situated on a low ridge in groups of three. 

No. 4, 42 feet in diameter, .3i feet high, was excavated, and, like all 
the upland mounds in this section, consisted wholly of red clay. It 
contained neither skeleton nor relic. 

No. 1, measuring 45 feet in diameter and 2 feet high, is situated ou 



40-4 xMOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

the brow or highest point of tiie ridge, where it breaks off toward the 
Little Tennessee. The body of the mound consisted of red clay, except 
ininiediately in the center, where there was a cii-cular bed about 6 feet 
in diameter, of darker coh)red earth, which was quite loose, the other 
part of the niouud beinsr very hard. This loose eartli did not cease at 
the original surface of the ground, but continued downward to the 
deptli of 4 feet; the pit into which it extended was circular and at the 
bottom were the remains of a single skeleton. With these remains 
were a line steatite pipe, one large spearhead, seven arrowheads, one 
long polished stone, and some red and black paint. 

Nos. 5 and were oi)ened and found to consist as usual of red clay 
with a few human bones in each. 

Nos. 7, 8, and had been examined previously. 

Want of time prevented any further examination duiing this visit of 
tliis interesting group. Subsequently some other mounds not desig- 
nated on the x)hit were examined. 

One of these, lying between tlie Little Tennessee and Holston, near 
their junction and connected with a group of three, measured 38 feet in 
diameter and feet in height. It was surrounded on the east and west 
by depressions from which it is ]n'obable the eartli was taken to form 
it. Two large Idack-oak trees were growing on it. At the depth of 
1 foot a small pile of human bones was discovered. These were all 
broken, and had evidently been placed here after the tlesh was removed. 
The entire mound was composed of red clay and contained nothing of 
interest. 

There arc two mounds on top of a high bluff in what is known as Hall's 
bend, on the south side of the Tennessee river, opposite Lenoirs island 
(Nos. 15 and 10, Fig. 270). One of these, 26 feet in diameter and 3 feet 
high, and surrounded by a ditch about a foot in depth, was explored. 
A foot below the top a layer of Hat stones extending over the inound 
was reached. Below this the remainder, to the bottom, consisted of dark 
soil. A circular pit 3 feet in diameter and 2 feet deep extended into 
the native soil; in this were two adult skeletons in a sitting posture, 
side by side, pressed closely one against the other in consequence of 
the small space. At the head of one was a fine marble pipe, and at the 
bottom among the leg bones of the skeletons were several rude arrow 
points. The earth in the pit was very dark and unctuous. 

MEIGS COUNTY. 
THE ]\rANDI!EWS MGIINDS. 

This little group, consisting of but two mounds, is on the farm of Mr. 
Jose})h McAiidrews, in the southwestern part of tlie county, 1 mile from 
Hrittsville, and stands on the terrace or upland bordering the river bot- 
tom. 

Mound 1, which stands a short distance from a creek, is elliptical in 



THojus.] TENNESSEE. 405 

outline, 49 by 30 feet, the longer axis north and south, and a little over 
7 feet high. A broad trencli carried through it, down to the original 
soil, showed its construction to lie as follows: 

First, a top layer 12 inches thick of soil similar to that of the surface 
about the mound; nest a layer, 18 inches thick, of red clay mixed with 
gravel; and lastly, a central core, 5 feet thick, of dark, rich looking 
earth, with much charcoal scattered through it. This core, which was 
conical and rounded, was but 17 feet in diameter. It contained nothing 
of interest except a single stone grave, built of steatite slabs. This 
was at one side of the center, partly in the central mass and partly 
in the clay. It was 4 feet long, 2 wide, and 1 deep. In it lay a single 
adult skeleton, folded, with head south. Although there was a top 
covering of steatite slabs, the cist was filled with earth and the bones 
were far gone into decay. A fire had been kindled on tlie top slabs ; 
this had left a small bed of ashes a foot in diameter and 2 inches 
thick, in which were a few pieces of charred sticks and the jiartially 
calcined bones of some small animals. The bones of the inclosed 
skeleton showed no signs of flre. The mound, which has been plowed 
over for a number of years, was formerly surrounded by a ditch, traces 
of which are still visible; this appears to be unusual in this section. 

Mound No. 2, circular, 38 feet in diameter and 8 feet high, is situated 
about one-fourth of a mile northeast of No. 1, on a high terrace. 

A trench through th(» central portion brought to light nothing of 
miiortance, except the fact that it was composed of dark-red earth 
similar to that around it. The bones of a human skeleton were found 
at a depth of 3 feet. They were heaped together, in wliicli position 
they may have been buried, or else they were the remains of a body 
that had been buried in a sitting or squatting posture. As the earth 
was loose above them, it may have been an intrusive burial. There 
were x>articles of charcoal scattered through the dirt. 

The chief interest in this mound arises ft-om the fact that it appears to 
have been a signal station. At least, it is a iwint well adapted to this 
purpose, as it commands a fine view of the opening in the ridges some 
G miles to the ncnthwest, through which the Hiawassee flows into the 
Tennessee. Directly in front of this opening, in the month of the 
Hiawassee, is a large island containing Tietween .500 and GOO acres. On 
the bead of this is a large mound about 35 feet high. This latter 
locality seems to have been a place of much imjiortance to the people 
who erected these structures, probably where they assembled for feast- 
ing, consultation, or ceremony. A flre signal at No. 2 could easily be 
seen from this place. 

Two other mounds, on the farm of Mr. T. J. Watkins, in the same 
part of the county, were examineil, but presented nothing of interest. 
They were both unstratified, and composed throughout of red earth 
like that on which they stand. One was circular, 32 feet in diameter 
and 4 feet high; the other oval, 40 by 20 feet, and 5 feet high. 



406 



MOUNU EXPLORATIONS. 



UHEA COUNTY. 



TIIK FHAZIKl! MOUNDS. 



The two inouiul.s <',oini)osiii{;- this groiij) are on the farm of Mr. Sam- 
uel Frazier, north of the Tennessee river, in the southern part of the 
county, 3 miles south of Washington. They are located on tlie second 
bottom, about one-fourt h of a mile from the river. 

Mouud No. 1, circular in outline, was only 30 feet in diameter and •> 
feet high. This was thoroughly worked over and f(jund to be comijosed 
throughout of red clay, and to contain ten stone cists, placed as shown 
in Fig. 28(!. These were made of thin slabs of limestone, with bot- 
tom and covering of 
the same. They dif- 
fered somewhat from 
the usual form, being 
from 20 to 24 inches 
square and from 12 to 
24inchesdeep. Each 
contained the bones 
of a single skeleton, 
in most cases of ad- 
ults. In every in- 
stance, the head was 
at the bottom, the 
other bones being 
placed around and 
above it. All the 
space not occuj)ied 
by the bones was 
filled with dirt. No 
relics were found. 

As will be observed 
by reference to the 
figure, the graves were confined to the southeastera portion of the 
mound. Those nearest the center were about a foot below the surface 
of the mound, while the stones of those nearest the margin were par- 
tially exposed. This was jtrobably owing to the mound's having been 
considerably worn down. 

Mouud No. 2, which stands 40 feet from No. 1, is also small, being 
but 27 feet in diameter and 3 feet high. It had been opened by other 
parties, and, according to report, found to contain stone gTaves similar 
to those in No. 1. This was verified by an examination, as the bottom 
and side pieces of a number of them were found still in place. These 
were scattered throughout the mound, and their number must have 
been considerable. 

These small cists will probably recall to the minds of archeologists 




FlQ. 286. — Plan of burials io mound No. 1, Frazier group, Rhea 
eouuty, Teuueasee. 



WE8T VIRGINIA. 



407 




JuuUlil//,, 






^ 

## 






tlie so-called "pigmy grave.s" about Sparta, ill tiie same state, which 
excited so much interest and surprise many years ago, when they were 
discovered. 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

FAYETTE dOUNTY. 

THE HUDDLESON INCLOSl'RR. 

This work, situated on the farm of Mr. A. Iluddleson, across the 
Kanawha river from Mount Carbon, is shown in Fig. 287. It consists 
of an inclosure circular in 
form 1,34-1 feet in circumfer- 
ence, or about 430 feet in 
diameter, and is located on 
smooth bottom laud above 
the overtlows of the river. 
The surrounding wall, which 
consists of earth like the 
surface soil about it and a 
mixture of mussel shells 
similar to those now found 
in the Kanawha river, was 
formerly some 3 or 4 feet 
high, but has been reduced 
by long cultivation to a mere 
trace. 

At a is an ash pile 4 feet 
high surmounted by a long 
Hat rock. At h was found a 
box-shaped stone cist at the 
depth of 1 foot below the 
surface. Eude stoiie hoes, 
tlint lance and arrow heads, flsh darts, and other stone implements 
were found scattered over the ground. 

Kock etchings are numerous u]3on the smooth rocks near the princi- 
pal fords of the river. Most of these are covered by water during the 
freshets. Others are found in the niches or long narrow clefts in the 
rocky ditt's. Although rude representations of men and animals and 
some probably symbolic tigures are common here, none were observ'ed 
superior to or essentially difl'erent from those of modern Indians 

KOlK tIRCLES, 



'"A 



% 



^01 



%. 



^^ 



l*w€ 






.-# 



Fio. 287— Huililli-soDs Circle, Fayi-tlf 
Virginia. 



rouDty. West 



On the summits of nearly all of the prominent bluffs, spurs, and 
high points of this region are heaps of large angular stones. Fnlike 
the loose cairns of the plains of the northwest and elsewhere, these 



408 



MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 




appear to h.ave been systcinatically coiistnietcd for solium ])articular 
purpose, with a eircular well-like space in the middle. 

First, the earth (unless the phice selected is a bare rock) is removed 
to the solid rock fonndntion and an approximately level space from 10 
to 30 f('(^t in diameter formed. Centrally on this was placed a lay<'r of 
tiat stones, with the best edge inward, around a circle about 3 feet in 
diiiineter. Upon the outer edj;e of these, others 
were placed with their outer edges resting upon 
the prepared foundation running entirely around 
th(f circle. Then another inner layer with the 
best edge inward and the thinner edge resting 
on the outer layer, the stones of one layer break- 
ing joints with those below, as far as the size 
and form would admit of it. Outside of the 
inner row and with the edges resting on it other 
circles were added, until a diameter ranging 
from 20 to 50 feet, or even more, was attained; 
thus often extending upon the slo]niig earth not 
removed in forming the foundation. The last, 
or outer circle, usually consisted of but a single 
layer, over which earth was thrown, being some- 
times heaped up until it equaled in contents 
one-half the rock pile. The height of these piles 
was found to vary from i to S feet, in one oi' two 
instances reaching 10 feet. But in all cases the 
circular space or opening in the center continued 
to the top the same diameter as at the bottom, 
somewhat resembling the so-called " wellholes " 
of the early western pioneers. 

Many of the stones used in these heaps have 
evidently been obtained by rude quarrying in 
the stratified cliffs, often half a mile distant. 
Some of them measure from 4 to G feet in length, 
half as wide, and of a thickness which renders 
them so heavy as to require ft-om two to four 
stout men to handle them. Beneath the some- 
what upturned edges of many of these stones in 
the different layers are frequently found the 
decayed (and often charred) remains of human 
skeletons, usually horizontal, with the head or 
feet (generally the latter) toward the central " wellhole." With these 
were generally found fragments of coarse pottery, rude, but very large 
celts; also lance aud arrow heads, and occasionally rude clay or stone 
pipes, but rarely, if ever, stone hoes or other agricultural implements. 
All the cavities of the heap not originally used for burial are filled with 
earth or mortar, often well baked by fire. 




I 



THOMAS. J 



WEST VIRGINIA. 



409 



As typical of these heaps, Fig. 288 a h is giveu, showing- one of the 
most perfect observed, which was thoroughly examined, carefully 
measured aud sketched. At a it is shown as it appeared before being- 
opened; at h is a vertical section showing the central cavity or "well- 
hole." This heap was found upon a rocky spur of Mount Carbon at 
the height of fully 1,000 feet above the river level, a point overlookiug 
the valley of tLe Kanawha, and from which the latter could be dis- 
tinctly seen for several miles both above and below. It measured 42 
feet in diameter at the base and 6 feet <S inches high on the inside of 
the well, which was in the center, and a trifle less than o feet in 




Fig. 289. — Stone heap with two caMties, Fa_^ ettt fOulit,>, ^\ est ViiKiDi-i- 



diameter throughout. Although open at the top at the time it was 
examined and containing only an accumulation of decayed bones and 
rubbish, there were stones out of place and scattered about it sufttcient 
in number to have finished it out and capped it over as indicated by 
the dotted lines in the figure. Whether- they were used to complete it 
as indicated by these dotted lines is a matter of conjecture only. 

Although rock heaps of this class generally have but one "wellhole" 
in them, we occasionally meet with one having two, as shown in Fig. 
289. As a rule these piles are much less perfect than those shown in 
the figures, most of them being in a more or less disturbed condition. 




Fig. 290. — Section of stoue heap with triangular eavity, Fayette county, West Virginia. 

A somewhat different type of these heaps from that described is 
occasionally observed, especially on the sharp, rocky ridges. A section 
of one of these is shown in Fig. 290. These, which have a triangular 
cavity, were undoubtedly burial places, and were not built up with the 
care bestowed upon the others. 

ANCIENT STONE WALL I'PGN MOUNT CARBON. 

About 1,000 feet above the town of Mount Carbon are heavy and valua- 
ble veins of coal. Some hundreds of feet above these are the remains 
of an ancient stone wall, the tortuous course of which can be followed 



410 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

along the steep face of the mountain fully a mile, then across its sharp 
summit and a like distance upon the other slope. It is said that it can 
be traced fully as much farther in such a manner as to connect the ends, 
and thus inclose a large area of tlie liigher portion of the mountain. 
Little of this wall is now in place, it rarely being more than 1 or 2 feet 
in height, but the line of flat rocks strewn over a space of many feet 
in width, and often far down the mountaiu slope, indicates material 
largely in excess of that in an ordinary stone-wall fence. When dis- 
covered by the early white rovers of this region, something more than 
a century ago, many portions of it were, as attirmed both by history and 
tradition, intact and 5 or G feet wide and high, although amid timbers 
as large as found elsewhere upon the mountaiu. 

KOCK CIRCLE. 

On Armstrongs creek, half a mile above its junction with the Ka- 
nawha, are the remains of an interesting rock heap inside of a circle. 
The latter is fully 100 feet in diameter, and after the removal of mate- 
rial therefrom for nearly a half mile of stone fence is still 15 to 20 feet 
wide and 3 to 5 feet high. Central within this are the remains of what 
the oldest living white men and the early records and traditions of this 
region represent as having been a rock heap 25 or 30 feet in diameter 
at the base and 10 feet high, and similar to that shown in Fig. 288, 
except that the cap or cover was still in place when first observed. 
The explanation of this is supposed to be found in the fact that there 
was a passageway large enough to admit a man extending from the 
outside to the inner space. 

KANAWHA ClOUNTT. 

CLIFTON WORKS. 

The Kanawha, as is usual with streams in hilly sections, meanders 
between bluffs, leaving a bottom now on this side and then on that. 
Such places have ever been the chosen haunts of the aboriginal tribes. 
A typical one of these bottoms is on the south side of the river, on 
which the present village of Clifton is located. Excavations made 
here for cellars, walls, and other purposes seldom fail to bring to light 
human bones, fragments of pottery, stone implements, and other evi- 
dences of i)revious occupancy. Sexeral days were spent in making 
excavations here, finding marked uniformity in the earth and its con- 
tents. The sandy soil, which extends to the depth of 4 and 5 feet, was 
found to be literally filled with charcoal, ashes, fragments of pottery, 
entire and broken stone implements, etc. Although resembling in 
character a refuse heap, it is probably a village site or cami)ing ground, 
occupied continuously, or season after season for a long time, by a band 
of aborigines, but so far back in the past that the entire area was 
overgrown with the largest timber of the valley when first visited by 



THOMAS.) WEST VIRGINIA. 411 

■white men, nearly a century and a. half ago. Comniiugled with these 
relics, at a depth of from 3 to 4 feet, were found several medium-sized 
skeletons in various stages of decay. All were lying extended on the 
back or side, but in no regular order in respect to each other or the 
points of the compass. With some of these were quite a number of 
large beads (probably used as rattles), made by cutting short sections 
of the leg bones of small animals and bones of birds. These, one bone 
fishhook, and several bone bodkins, found near the surface, are but 
slightly decayed, and are probably the work of Indians. 

ROCK WALL. 

Between the Kanawha river and a branch of Paint creek is a high, 
ii-regular ridge, something more than 1,000 leet above the village of 
Clifton. The end near the village widens out suddenly in the form of 
a short paddle. The comparatively level top, surrounded on all sides 
by steep bluifs, offered a position easily defended. The more sloping 
front, which was the only assailable point, was defended by a stone 
wall running along the brow from the eastern to the western bluff, 
a distance of 2C0 paces, or nearly SOO feet. As but little of it is now 
standing, its original dimensions can not be accurately determined; 
but judging by the quantity of flat stones still in place and strewn 
along the hillside below the wall, and the statements of persons who 
saw it when but little injured, it must have been at least 5 or G feet 
high and constructed like an ordinary stone fence. There is no trace 
of a gateway in it, nor are there any indications that a wall ever existed 
across the narrow neck behind the paddle-shaped expansion. 

BEOWNSTOWN WORKS. 

On the site of this village, just below the point where Len's creek enters 
the Kanawha, are traces of an ancient earthen inclosure. Being more 
or less covered with dwellings and other structures and almost entirely 
worn away, it was impossible to trace the wall with sufficient accuracy 
to plat it, but it probably inclosed some or 8 acres. It is said that a 
part of it was utilized for defense by the early white settlers. In the 
streets and gardens and in the washed bank of the river numerous 
relics have been found similar to those observed at Clifton. It is also 
said that certain brass ornaments have been discovered here associated 
with stone implements and decayed human bones, but none of these 
were seen. 

len's creek mounds. 

There are a number of mounds in the deep valley of this creek, of 
which one only was opened, and this because of its peculiar situation, 
being located where the valley is so narrow as scarcely to allow a road- 
way between the creek and the bluff. Although scarcely 20 feet in 
diameter at the base and fully 7 feet high, and otherwise peculiarly 



412 MOUND EXPLORATIONS. 

modern in appearance, it bears on its top a beecli stump 30 inches in 
diameter. The material was yellow clay, evidently brought from an ex- 
cavation in the hillside nearby. Onthe natural surface, near the center, 
lying horizontally on their backs, heads south, were the skeletons of 
six adults and one child. All were thoroughly charred and without any 
earth intermingled with them, but covered with ashes and several 
inches of charcoal and brands. It is evident that the tire was smothered 
before it had fully burned out. Three coarse lance-heads and a fish 
dart were found amid the bones of the adults, and at the neck of the 
child three copper beads made of thick wire bent in a circular form. 

ELK RIVEli WORKS. 

On the opposite side of Elk river and 1 mile north of Charleston there 
is a circular inclosure 200 feet in diameter, the wall, after many years' 
cultivation, being still from 3 to 4 feet higher than the nearly obliter- 
ated ditch which runs along the inside of it. From this ditch the sui'- 
face rounds up a foot or so and continues at this height all over the 
central area. The inside of the wall is quite steep, while the outside 
slopes off very graduallj' except on the north side, which runs close to 
the face of a rocky cliff. The only opening or gateway in this wall is 
on the east and is guarded by a conical mound 50 feet in diameter and 
5 feet high. Strewn over the top of this mound were numerous frag- 
ments of flat stones, many of which were marked with circular pits. 
The removal of these only disclosed others, which were miugled with 
very hard yellow clay, charcoal, ashes, stone chi2)s, and fragments of 
rude pottery. Near the center and 3 feet below the top of the mound 
a decayed human skeleton was found, lying horizontally in a very rude 
box-shaped stone coffin. Beneath this were other flat stones, and under 
them charcoal, ashes, and baked earth, overlying the charred remains 
of at least three or four other skeletons. These, judging by what 
remained of them, must have been laid on the natural surface of the 
ground with the heads eastward. 

Four miles farther up Elk river, on the summit of a low pass, over 
which ran an ancient trail, was a small conical mound 30 feet in diam- 
eter and 5 feet high. This had previously been opened to the depth of 
3 feet, and, as was afterward learned, a human skeleton and tifteeu or 
twenty coi>per beads found. Carrying the excavation down to the 
natural surface a single, nuich decayed, adult skeleton was discovered, 
but nothing else. 

Two miles above the preceding is a group of small conical mounds 
from '2 to 3 feet high and from 20 to 30 feet in diameter. Some of these 
were opened, but nothing of interest observed except that on the nat- 
ural surface of the earth beneath them was always found a layer of 
charcoal and ashes, among which were fragments of bones. 

Midway between these and the one in the pass is a group of five 
mounds. One of these, 50 feet in diamete