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Full text of "Annual report of the City Engineer"



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[Document 52 — 1882.] 




CITY OF mmm boston. 



ANNUAL REPOKT 



OP THE 



CITY ENGINEEE 

J ^ 

FOR THE YEAR 1881. 



Office of the City Engineer, City Hall, 

Boston, February 25, 1882. 

To the Honorable City Council: — 

In compliance with the sixth section of the ordinance 
relating to the Engineer's Department, the following report 
of the expenses and operations of the department for the 
year 1881 is respectfully submitted. 

The duties of the City Engineer may be classified under 
the following heads ; — 

A. — Those pertaining to the City Engineer's Department 
proper, which consist in the superintendence of the filling of 
new streets and of districts, in the care and maintenance 
of bridges, in designing and superintending the construction 
of new bridges, retaining-walls, city wharves, etc., and in 
miscellaneous work called for by committees of the City 
Council. (City Engineer's Department.) 

B. — Superintendence of the Sudbury River, Cochituate, 



2 'City Document No. 52. 

and INIystic Water Works, including charge of new con- 
structions for these works. (Water Works.) 

C. — Charge of the construction of a system of intercept- 
ing and outlet sewers. (Improved Sewerage.) 

D. — Charge of the eno-ineerins: work in connection with 
the Back Bay and other proposed parks. (Parks.) 

The expenses incurred under the head C, are paid wholly 
from a special appropriation, under the charge of the Joint 
Special Committee on Improved Sewerage. 



(A.) — City Engineer's Department. 

The following is a statement of engineering expenses from 
January 1, 1881, to January 1, 1882 : — 

Amount expended from department appro- 
priation for 1880-81 .... $6,567 01 

Amount expended from department appro- 
priation for 1881-82 . . . . 19,711 64 



Total expended from department appropria- 
tions ....... $26,278 65 

Amount expended from special and other 

appropriations . . . . . 2,88755 



Total $29,166 20 



Condition of department appropriation : — 

Amount of appropriation for financial year 

1881-82 $28,000 00 

Amount expended to January 1,1882 . 19,711 64 



Unexpended balance, January 1, 1882 . $8,288 36 



From special appropriations : — 

Broadway extension — 

Pay-rolls and incidentals . . . $1,958 95 

CommonAvealth-avenue extension — 

Pay-rolls and incidentals . . . 928 60 

Total $2,887 55 



. $24,225 


50 


100 


57 


296 


93 


259 


44 


1 

47 


37 


120 


89 


725 


26 


253 


59 


69 


30 


179 


80 


. $26,278 


65 



Eeport of City Engineer, 



CLASSIFICATION OF EXPENSES. 

Salaries of City Engineer, assistants, draughts- 

mea, transitmen, levellers, roclmen, etc. 
Engineering instruments and repairs of same 
Drawing paper and materials . 
Stationery and printing stock . 
Reference books, maps, photographs, and 

frames ...... 

Prinfino; and bindins^ .... 

Travelling expenses, including horse-keeping 

Incidental expenses and small supplies 
" Blue Process " printing and materials 
Committee expenses .... 

Total ..... 

The number of persons employed and paid from the de- 
partment appropriation was, on the first of January, 1881 
(including the City Engineer), 22. The present number is 
23. The operations of the department for the year, together 
with such general information relating to the various works 
and structures, finished and in progress, as is thought to be 
of interest, are given in the following statements : — 



BRIDGES. 

There have been no new tide-water bridges built during the 
year, and, with the exception of the Mt. Washington-avenue 
and Broadway bridges, no very extensive repairs have been 
made upon the old ones. 

Two new street bridges have been completed, — the Bea- 
con-street bridge, over the Park water-way, and the Blake- 
more-street bridge, over the Boston & Providence railroad, at 
Mt. Hope station, West Roxbury. A bridge on Common- 
wealth avenue, over the Park water-way, is in process of con- 
struction, and the bridge over the Boston & Albany railroad, 
on the Broadway extension, is .not yet completed. In the 
Back-Bay park the foundations for the arch bridge on Boyls- 
ton street, over the Park water-way, are completed ; the Bos- 
ton & Albany railroad bridge, over the Park water-way, is 
practically completed, and work upon the Beacon-entrance 
bridge, over the Boston & Albany railroad, is now being 
actively prosecuted. 



4 City Document No. 52. 

The ordinary repairs upon the tide-water and inland 
bridges have, as for several past years, been made b}' day's 
labor. 

The Committee on Bridges have retained the services of 
Mr. S. S. Lewis, as superintendent of repairs on the tide- 
water ])ridges, paying him for his services at the same rate 
as last year, but allowing him $2.25 instead of $2.00 per day 
for carpenter's labor. 

Mr. J. W. Leatherbee was again the successful competitor 
for furnishing the spruce lumber required for the tide-water 
bridge repairs for the year, and has furnished 314,(>9^ feet 
B.M., at his contract price for 1881 of $16.40 per M., and 
17,092 feet B.M., for $13.90 per M., his contract price for 
1880. 

During the year nine of the tide-water bridges have been 
painted by day's labor, under the direction of Mr. A. H. 
Townsend as foreman. The paints and other materials were 
furnished by Messrs. Dexter Bros., under contract. The 
total cost of labor was $1,986.30; of materials, tools, etc., 
$887.17. 

The total cost of ordinary repairs made under the direction 
of this department upon the tide-water bridges, has been 
$31,178.02. 

The system of making the repairs of the inland bridges 
(in charge of the Superintendent of Streets) by day's labor, 
under the supervision of this department, has been continued 
during the past year at his request. 

The total cost of the repairs upon these bridges has been 
$4,984.20. 

By vote of the Committee on Bridges of 1880 this depart- 
ment was authorized to })repare rec()rd-l)ooks for each of the 
superintendents of the tide-water bridges that have draws, 
the ol)ject being to have the superintendents keep a daily 
record of all vessels passing through the draw-ways, time 
of their passage, name, etc. The books were furnished 
and the records commenced Jan. 1, 1881, and from this 
record monthly and yearly reports have been made to this 
department and are kept on file. An abstract from these re- 
ports, showing the number of vessels passing through the 
several draw-ways, will be found in Appendix A. 

The usual annual examination (required by Section 5 of the 
ordinance relating to the City Engineer's de})artment) of all 
bridges within the city limits, open to team and foot travel, 
has been made, and the results of this examination respect- 
ing the condition of the bridges as to safety and need of re- 
newal or repairs, are given in the succeeding pages. 

The following is a list of the bridges inspected. The total 



Report of City Engineer. 5 

number is two more than last vear ; the bridg^e on Beacon 
street over the outlet to the Back-Bay park pond and the 
Blakemore-street bridge having been added. Those marked 
with an asterisk are over naviijable waters and are each fur- 
nished with a draw : — 



I. — Bridges wholly supported by Boston. 

Ashland street, Ward 23, over Boston & Providence 
Railroad. 

Athens street, over N.Y. & N.E. Railroad. 

Beacon street, over outlet to Back-Bay Park Pond. 

Berkeley street, over the Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Berkeley street, over Boston & Providence Railroad. 

Blakemore street, over Boston & Providence Railroad, 

Ward 23. 
*Broadway, over Fort Point Channel. 

Brookline avenue, over Muddy river. Ward 22. 
*Charles river, from Boston to Charlestown. 
*Chelsea (South), over South Channel, Mystic river. 
*Chelsea street, from East Boston to Chelsea. 

Columbus avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 
*C()mmercial Point, or Tenean, Ward 24. 
*Congress street, over Fort Point Channel. 

Dartmouth street, over Boston & Albany and Boston & 
Providence Railroad. 
*Dover street, over Fort Point Channel. 
*Federal street, " " " " 

Ferdinand street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Huntington avenue, over " " " 

*]Malden, from Charlestown to Everett. 
*Meridian street, from East Boston to Chelsea. 

Mill-dam, over Back Bay sluices. 
*Mt. AYashington avenue, over Fort Point Channel. 

Newton street, over Boston & Providence Railroad. 

Public Garden, foot-bridge. 

Shawmut avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Swett street, east of N.Y. & N.E. Railroad. 

Swett street, west of N.Y. & N.E. Railroad. 
*Warren, from Boston to Charlestown. 

West Chester park, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

West Chester park, over Boston & Providence Railroad. 

Winthrop, from Breed's Island to Winthrop. 



6 City Document No. 52. 



n. — Bridges of which Boston supports the Part 

WITHIN its Limits. 

*Cambridge street, from Brighton (Ward 25) to Cambridge. 

Central avenue, from Ward 24 to Milton.' 
*Clielsea (North), from Charlestown to Chelsea. 
*Essex street, from Ward 25 (Brookline) to Cambridge. 
*Granite, from Dorchester (Ward 24) to Milton. 

Longwood avenue, from Ward 22 to Brookline. 

Mattapan, from Ward 24 to Milton. 

Milton, • " '< " " " 
*Neponset, " " " *' Quincy. 
*North Beacon street, from Ward 25 to Watertown. 
*North Harvard street, from Ward 25 to Cambridge. 

Spring street, from West Roxbuiy (Ward 23) to Dedham. 

* Western avenue, from Ward 25 to Cambridge. 

* Western avenue, from Ward 25 to Watertown. 



III. — Bridges of which Boston pays a Part of the 

Cost of Maintenance. 

Albany street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 
*Canal, from Boston to Cambridge. 

Dorchester street, over Old Colony Raih'oad. 
*Prison Point, from Charlestown to Cambridge. 
*West Boston, from Boston to Cambridge. 



IV. — Bridges supported by Railroad Corporations. 

1st. — Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Brighton avenue. Ward 25. 
Harrison avenue. 
Market street. Ward 25. 
Tremont street. 
Washington street. 



2d. — Boston & 3Iaine Railroad. 



Mystic avenue. 
Main street. 



3d. — Boston (& Providence Railroad. 



Beach street, Ward 23. 
Bellevue street. Ward 23. 



Report of City Engineer. 

Centre street, or Hog Bridge, Ward 23. 
Centre and Mt. Vernon streets, Ward 23. 
Dudley avenue, Ward 23. 
Park street, Ward 23. 
Sharon street, Ward 23. 

4th. — Boston, Revere Beach <& Lynn Railroad. 
Everett street. 



5th. — Eastern Railroad. 



Mystic avenue. 
Main street. 



6th. — J^ew York & New England Railroad. 

Broadway. 

Dorchester avenue. 

Fifth street. 

Forest Hill avenue, Ward 24. 

Fourth street. 

Harvard street, Ward 24. 

Norfolk " " " 

Norfolk " " " 

Second street. 

Silver street. 

Sixth street. 

Third street. 

Washington street. Ward 24. 

7th. — Old Colony Railroad. 

Adams street. 

Ashmont street and Dorchester avenue. 

Cedar Grove cemetery. 

Commercial street. 

Savin Hill avenue. 



Recapitulation. 

I. Number wholly supported by Boston . . 32 

n. Number of which Boston supports the part with- 
in its limits . . . . . .14 

HI. Number of which Boston pays a part of the cost 

of maintenance .*.... 5 

IV. Number supported by Railroad Corporations : — 

1. Boston & Albany ...... 5 

2. Boston & Maine ...... 2 



8 City Document No. 52. 

3. Boston & Providence 

4. Boston, Revere Beach & Lynn 

5. Eastern ..... 

6. New York & New England 

7. Old Colony . 



'&' 



7 
1 
2 
13 
5 



Total number . . . . . .86 



1. — BRIDGES WHOLLY SUPPORTED BY BOSTON. 

ASHLAND-STEEET BrIDGE (OVER BoSTON & PROVIDENCE 

Railroad, Ward 23). 

This is a modern iron-bridge, of excellent construction, 
and is in good condition. It will require painting the coming 
season, and will need new roadway sheathing. The abutment 
masonry should also be repointed. 

No repairs have been made upon it during the past year. 

Athens-street Bridge (over New York & New Eng- 
land Railroad). 

Also an iron bridge of modern construction, and now 
in good condition, — the wood-work having l)een mostly re- 
newed, and the entire bridge painted the past year. 

Total cost of repairs, $141.77. 

Beacon-street Bridge (over Outlet of Back Bay Park 

Pond) . 

This structure was in process of construction at the date 
of the last annual report, and a general description of it was 
then given. It was so far completed that it was opened for 
travel August 17, 1881. 

The amount paid to Ross & Lord, the contractors for the 
masonry substructure and appurtenant work, was $37,120.82. 

The amount paid for the iron bridge, which was of the or- 
dinary deck pattern, and the wrought-iron water-pipe, both 
of which were furnished by David H. Andrews, of the Bos- 
ton Bridge Works, under his contract, was $4,746.05. 

The masonry, consists of two abutments and a central 
pier of Quincy and Gloucester granite, is of the most sub- 
stantial character, and is built upon a spruce pile and timber 
platform foundation. The water-ways, spanned by the l)ridge, 
are each 20 feet in width, and the portions of them adjoining the 



Eeport of City Engineer. 9 

central pier are depressed so that the park pond can be entirely 
drained when required. The depressed portion is about 
one-third of the width of each water-way. The floors of 
the Avater-ways are paved with rectangular granite blocks. 

The work was enclosed by a cofler dam, on the water-side, 
which cut the sea-wall forming the northerly boundary of the 
Mill-dam. On the other sides the earth was sufficiently im- 
pervious to keep out the tide-water, although the excavation 
was carried on, in the central portion of the site, to a depth 
of more than three feet below mean low water. 

In carrying on this work it was necessary to remove a 
section of the Mill-dam and its retaining-walls ; and as the 
manner of its construction at this point may be of interest, 
and valuable for future reference, the following description 
of it is given : — 

The ]Mill-dam was b egun about th e„xear 1818, and com- 
pleted in 182LJ In consists, in this location, of two parallel 
waHsT^ithllieir faces al)out 50 feet apart. The walls are 
built of Roxl)ury pudding-stone, laid dry and very loosely. 
They are each 6 feet wide at the bottom and 3 feet wide at 
the top, and are ballasted with small stones, the ballast having 
a width of 8 feet at the bottom of the walls, and tapering to 
nothing at the top. 

The northerly wall is built on a grillage of white-pine tim- 
ber, which rests upon the mud 1 ft. 9 in. below low water, 
and consists of three courses ; the lowest course of 
12'' X 12'' timbers, four in number, covering a width of 6 
feet, and extending longitudinally under the wall, is covered 
by a course of 9" X 9" timber, lain traversely about 9" apart, 
and another course of five 12" X 12" timbers, laid longitudi- 
nally, completes the grillage. 

The courses are trenailed together with oak trenails, 1|" 
square, one trenail in every other liearing. 

The southerly wall has only two courses of timber in its 
grillage, the lower one, 12" X 12", laid longitudinally, and 
the upper, 9" X 9", laid transversely. 

Between the walls the filling to a height of S^ feet above 
the grillage, is flats mud ; a layer of 5 feet of sand covers 
this mud, and is itself covered by 11^ to 2 feet of road mate- 
rial. 

The whole height of the masonry is 15 feet, and, consider- 
ing the length of time the wall has been built, that it had 
under it from 6 to 8 feet of mud, and that its average section is 
but -^Q of its height, it has stood remarkably well, although 
on the water side it had been for some years previous to the 
wideninof of Beacon street in a chronic state of disinteerration. 



10 City Document No. 52. 

Berkeley-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany 

Railroad) . 

This bridge is apparently in no worse condition than it 
was last year. It has been strengthened in every practicable 
way, and no further improvement can l)e made upon it. It 
is one of those structures Avhich, while it cannot 1)e said to be 
dangerous, is still an improper structure for an important 
thoroughfare like Berkeley street. 

The abutments are built of Roxbury stone, laid dry, and 
very loosely put together. 

A constant supervision of this bridge is necessary, and as 
soon as it develops any signs of weakness it should be 
rebuilt. 

The iron-work has been painted and the roadway sheath- 
ing patched, at a cost of $217.27. 

Berkeley-street Bridge (over Boston & Providence 

Railroad) . 

During the year the iron-work has been painted and the 
roadway sheathing patched. 

The bridge is now in good condition. 
Total cost of repairs and painting, $425.50. 

Blakemore-street Bridge (over Boston & Providence 

Railroad, Ward 23). 

This is a new iron bridge, with granite abutments and 
wing-walls, which has not yet been opened for travel, as the 
fillino- of the connectino- street at one end has not been com- 
pleted. It is fully described under the head of " Miscellane- 
ous work and constructions." 

* Broadway Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

The decay of the wood pavement on the column section of 
this bridge, between the draw and Lehigh street, rendered it 
necessary either to repave this section with wooden blocks or 
to replace the cast-iron plates forming the roadway flooring 
with a wooden floor, having a plank-wearing surface. So 
much trouble had been experienced from the expansion of the 
wood pavement on this bridge in freezing weather, that it 
was deemed advisable to remove it from this section. The 
cast-iron plates and longitudinal iron floor-beams were there- 
fore taken off and soki, and a hard-pine floor and floor- 
beams sul)stituted. The wearin<x-surface consists of two- inch 
spruce, as on most of the other bridges. 



Kepokt of City Engineer. 11 

It was intended to do this work by contract, but after pre- 
paring specifications and advertising the work, no proposal 
was received that it was deemed for the advantage of the city 
to accept. The lowest proposal was $3,517, and the old 
materials. All the proposals were therefore rejected by the 
Committee on Bridges, and the work was done by day's 
labor, under the direction of this department, with the fol- 
lowing result : — 

Cost of materials and labor . . $4,008 00 

Old materials sold .... 3,356 44 



Net cost of work . . . 651 56 

Attention has been called in previous reports to the bad 
condition of the draw-pier, due to the ravages of worms upon 
the spruce sheet-piling, but as no change for the worse has 
been noticed, the pier will probably last for some time longer. 

The entire bridge will require repainting the coming season, 
otherwise it is not anticipated that more than the ordinary 
repairs will be necessary. 

The laud under the bridge, between Lehigh street and the 
channel, has been leased to the Boston & Albany Railroad 
Company for five years, at an annual rental of $800. 

Total cost of repairs, $5,083.62. 

Brooexine-a VENUE Bridge (over Muddy River). 

This bridge is in fair condition and has required no repairs. 
If the covered channel for Muddy River should be built this 
year its continuance would be no longer necessary. 

* Charles-river Bridge (from Boston to Charles - 

TO^^TS^) . 

The pavement has been temporarily repaired and put in 
fair condition, but more extensive repairs upon it will be re- 
quired this year. 

The draw track-timbers have been strensthened, the 
quarters for the superintendent's assistants have J^een en- 
larged to accommodate an additional man, and the usual 
repairs made. 

Total cost of repairs, $1,719.19. 

Chelsea Bridge (South) (over South Channel 

Mystic River). 

A fire in the work-shop connected with the superintend- 
ent's office,. caused probably by the spontaneous combustion 



12 City Document No. 52. 

of some painter's rags, occasioned a damage of $350 to 
the building, on tlie night of July 27. In making repairs 
accommodation was provided for an additional assistant. 

The bridge has been painted, the draw sheathed, and the 
pavement on the solid filling, between this bridge and the 
Chelsea Bridge (North), put in good order. 

The filled portion of this avenue has been placed in charge 
of the Paving Department. 

Total cost of repairs, $2,047.84. 

* Chelsea-street Bridge (from East Boston to 

Chelsea). 

The usual repairs have been made and the bridge painted. 
The draw is in poor condition although some repairs have 
been made upon it. 

The fixed part of the bridge is in good condition. 

Columbus-avenue Bridge (over Boston & Albany 

Railroad). 

One end of the iron sidewalk truss, on the southerly side 
of this bridge, encroached upon the land of an abutter, and 
a compromise was effected between the city and the party who 
owned the land, by which a portion of the truss was re- 
moved, so that better access could be had to the estate. 

Ordinary repairs have been made, and the bridge is now 
in good order. 

Total cost of repairs, etc., $325. fi2. 

* COMIMERCIAL PoiNT, OR TeNEAN BrIDGE (WaRD 24), 

Has received only trifling repairs, and is noAv in fair con- 
dition. 

Total cost of repairs, $7.88. 

* Congress-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

The draw has been provided with a new under-floor in the 
roadway, and the sidewalks have been replanked. The 
whole bridge has been repainted, the concrete sidewalks 
resurfaced, and other repairs made. The centre pivot-bear- 
ing has been examined and found in better condition than 
was expected. A new centre pivot-bearing will, however, 
be provided as a reserve in case of accident. 

The bridge is in good condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $5,023.96. 



Eeport of City Engineer. 13 



Dartmouth-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany and 
Boston & Providence Railroads). 

This bridge has not required any repairs during the year, 
and is now in good order. 



* Dover-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

Only the usual repairs have been made on this bridge, 
and, -with the exception of needing painting, it is in good 
condition. 

* Federal-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

For several years a suit, brought by Mr. W. P. Hunt, 
against the cit}^ to determine the title to certain portions of 
the flats occupied by this bridge and its appurtenent struct- 
ures, has been pending in the courts. A decision has been 
reached by which Mr. Hunt's title to the flats in question is 
affirmed. 

This decision rendered necessary the removal of the 
superintendent's office to the draw pier, as it stood upon the 
area belonging to Mr. Hunt. No settlement has yet been 
made for the flats occupied by the bridge. 

In addition to the ordinary repairs upon the roadway and 
draws the draw-pier has been entirely replanked. Although 
the bridge is now in fair condition extensive repairs will 
soon ])e required upon the roadway floor. 

total cost of repairs, $4,019.93. 

Ferdinand-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany 

Railroad). 

All the iron-work of this bridge has been repainted, and 
the roadway floor has been renewed. The bridge proper is 
in fair condition, but the bulkhead adjoining it, to which 
attention has been called in previous reports, is unsafe. 

Total cost of repairs, $792.73. 

Huntington- A VENUE Bridge (over Boston & Albany 

Railroad). 

This bridge has been newly sheathed, and some slight 
repairs have been made upon it. It is in good condition. 
Total cost of repairs, $250.64. 



14 City Document No. 52. 



* Malden Bridge (from Charlestown to Everett) . 

Ordinary repairs have been made upon this bridge, and it 
has also been painted. It is in good condition. 
Total cost of repairs, $383.25. 

* Meridian-street Bridge (from East Boston to 

Chelsea). 

The draw has been thoroughly repaired by recalking and" 
sheathing the roadway floor and laying new sidewalk planking. 

The bridge and buildings have l)een painted and the road- 
way pavement repaired. The roadway floor, the pavement, 
and the sidewalk bulkheads are in poor condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $2,633.44. 

Mill-Dam Bridge (over Back-Bay Sluices). 

As this bridge will soon be discontinued, the building of 
the new bridge beyond it rendering it unnecessary when the 
filling of the Back Bay is completed, no repairs have been 
made upon it. 

*Mt. Washington-avenue Bridge (over Fort Point 

Channel) . 

A special appropriation was made by the City Council, at 
the request of the Committee on Bridges, for replacing the 
old and badly-decayed floor of this bridge with a new one. 

The work was done by contract ; Young & Ryan, the lowest 
bidders for the job, being the contractors. 

The new floor consists of hard-pine planks, six inches in 
thickness, planed on all sides and jointed. It is calked and 
covered with a coating of asphaltum, one-quarter of an inch in 
thickness ; a bed of paving-gravel, six inches in depth, upon 
which is laid a granite block pavement, completes the work. 

The concrete sidewalks were repaired and resurfaced at 
the same time. 

The total cost of the entire work was $9,937.G1. 

Shortly after the contract for the foregoing work was let, 
a petition was presented to the City Council from the Stand- 
ard Sugar Refinery and others, requesting the widening of 
the draw-ways. After some delay an appropriation of |6,500 
for this purpose was madft by the City Council. A license 
from the Harbor Commissioners havinij been obtained, the 
width of the draw-ways was increased from thirty-seven feet 
and ten inches to forty-two feet, and a corresponding increase 
in length was made to the draw. 



Kepoet of City Engineee. 15 

The work was done mostly by day's labor, and cost 
$6,450.54. 

In addition to the special work previously mentioned, the 
draw has been newly sheathed, a new buoy-stone and buoy 
provided, the buildings have been painted and smaller re- 
pairs made ; so that the entire bridge is now in excellent con- 
dition. 

Total cost of ordinary repairs, $1,379.66. 

Newton-street Bridge (over Boston and Providence 

Railroad), 

This bridge has been sheathed and painted, and is now in 
good condition. The a])utments need repointing. 
Total cost of repairs, $261.11. 

Public Garden Foot-Bridge. 

The stone masonry of this bridge and its approaches should 
be repointed ; otherwise the bridge is in good condition. 

Shawmut-a venue Bridge (over Boston & Albany 

Railroad) 

Has been sheathed and thoroughly repainted, and is now 
in good order. 

Total cost of repairs, $622.65. 

Swett-street Bridges (over South-Bay Sluices). 

The southerly bridge has been sheathed and its sidewalks 
and fences have been repaired. Both bridges have been 
painted, and are in fair condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $238.85. 

* Warren Bridge (from Boston to Charlestown). 

The condition of this bridge has not changed materially 
since last year. A very full report of its condition was then 
made, and during the year it has been carefully watched and 
temporary repairs made upon it when required. 

Much more extensive repairs are needed, but in view of 
the existing uncertainty as to the action of the City Council 
in relation to additional bridge communication between the 
city proper and Charlestown, it has not been deemed advisable 
to attend to any repairs not absolutely necessary for the con- 
venience and safety of the travel. 

The total cost of repairs, the largest items of which were 
repairing the pavement and sheathing the draw and northerly 
draw-pier, was $2,144.58. 



16 City Document No. 52. 



West Chester Park Bridge (over Boston & Albany 

Kailkoad). 

A trial is being made on this bridge of several kinds of 
paint to determine their comparative ability to resist the 
action of the smoke and steam from locomotives. The 
bridge has been sheathed and is in good order. 

Total cost of repairs, $167.76. 

West Chester Park Bridge (over Boston & Provi- 
dence Railroad). 

All the iron and wood work of this bridge has been 
thoroughly painted and the roadway resheathed, and it is 
now in excellent condition. 

Winthrop Bridge (from Breed's Island to Winthrop) . 

No repairs, except patching of the sheathing, have been 
made on this bridge. It is in fair condition. 
Total cost of repairs, $24.08. 



II. — BRIDGES OF WHICH BOSTON SUPPORTS 
THE PART WITHIN ITS LIMITS. 

* Cambridge-street Bridge (from Ward 25 to 

Cambridge). 

The roadway planking has been renewed and the bridge 
painted. It is in fair condition. 
Cost of repairs, $781.40. 

Central-avenue Bridge (over Neponset River, Dor- 
chester Lower Mills). 

The sheathing has l)een patched : but no other repairs 
have been made. Partial painting of the structure will be 
necessary the coming season. 

Cost of repairs, $7.88. 

*CiiELSEA Bridge (North) (from the Mystic 'River 
Corporation's Wharf to Chelsea). 

The city's portion of this bridge is in good' condition. 
The running parts of the draw will re(piire some repairs the 
coming season. 



Eeport of City Engineer. 17 

The draw has been sheathed, a new boat purchased, and a 
horse to replace the old one, worn out in the service, has 
been provided. 

Cost of repairs, $434.44. 



* Essex-street Bridge (from Ward 25 to Cambridge). 

A small office has lieen built for the accommodation of 
the superintendent, and some few repairs have been made. 
New Samson-posts for the draw have been recently put up. 

The brido^e is in fair condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $309.19. 

* Granite Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton). 

The roadway has been replanked and temporary repairs 
on the remainder of the structure have been made. The 
entire upper portion of the bridge will require renewal 
the coming season. Several of the piles are also in bad con- 
dition and will require renewal. 

The draw is in fair order. 

Cost of repairs, $214.41. 

Longwood-avenue Bridge (from Ward 22 to Brook- 
line) . 

This bridge is in good condition, and has required no 
repairs during the past year. 

Mattapan Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton). 

Only slight repairs have been made upon this bridge. It 
is a weak structure, but is in fair condition. 
Cost of repairs, $88.50. 

Milton Bridge (from Ward 24 to Melton). 

Xo repairs have been made on this bridge. 
It is in fair order. 



*Neponset Bridge (from Ward 24 to Quincy). 

Only ordinary repairs have been made. The bridge is in 
excellent condition. 

Cost of repairs, $188.64. 



18 City Docujient No. 52. 

* North Beacon-street Bridge (froji Ward 25 to 

Watertown). 

Upon this bridge the floor planking has been entirely 
renewed, and niany of the old floor-stringers have been 
replaced by new ones. 

The bridge is in fair condition. 

Cost of repairs, $1,405.74. 

* North Harvard-street Bridge (from Ward 25 to 

Cambridge) 

Has required no repairs except the renewal of the sheathing, 
and is now in good order. 
Cost of repairs, $223.78. 

Spring-street Bridge (from Ward 23 to Dedham). 

This is a stone arch bridge, and it is in good order. 
Repairs to the amount of $19.89 have been made. 

* Western-avenue Bridge (from Ward 25 to Cam- 

bridge). 

The roadway of this Ijridge has been sheathed ; a small 
building, to replace an old one, has been built for the super- 
intendent, and some slight repairs have been made. . The 
bridge is now in fair condition. 

Cost of repairs, $409.24. 

* Western- avenue Bridge (from Ward 25 to Water- 

town). 

For several years attempts have been made by the city to 
induce the town of Watertown to cooperate with it in re- 
buildins: this bridii'c ; but so far Avithout success. 

The draw- way is at a bad angle with the river channel, 
and causes OTeat annovance to vessels passino- throui>li it as 
well as to the team travel, from dehiy during the necessarily 
slow passage of the vessels. 

In July a portion of the retaining- wall, about 20 feet 
in length, adjoining the abutment on the abattoir side, fell 
into the river. It has l)een rei)laced by a pile and timber 
bulkhead, at the joint expense of the city and abutters. 

The bridge is in safe condition ; but the stone abutment 
cannot be considered in stable condition, as it overhangs its 
base. Althougli it may stand for some time longer it ought 
to be rel)uilt. 

Cost of repairs, $280.54. 



Keport of Cixr Engineer. 19 

III.— BRIDGES FOR MAINTENANCE OF WHICH 
BOSTON PAYS A PART OF THE COST. 

Albany-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany Rail- 
road). 

This bridge has been for several years in bad condition, 
being very much deteriorated by rust. The abutments are 
badly cracked, and have moved out of position. 

The retaining-wall adjoining the abutment, and connecting 
it with the retaining-wall of the Broadway extension, will 
have to be rebuilt probably this year. The rebuilding of 
the abutments cannot be much longer postponed, and if 
these are rel^uilt a new bridge would probaljly be required, as 
the old one is not worth putting back again if it was once 
removed. 

The cost of repairs made upon the bridge was $167.26. 

* Canal Bridge (from Boston to Caivibridge ) . 

* Prison-Point Bridge (from Charlestown to Cam- 

bridge) . 

* West-Boston Bridge (from Boston to Cambridge) . 

These three bridges are in fair condition. (See report of 
the Commissioner for Boston, City Doc. No. 15, 1882.) 

Dorchester-street Bridge (over Old Colony Rail- 
road). 

Thorough repairs have been made upon this bridge. The 
wood-work was entirely renewed, and the iron-work was 
then cleaned and painted. 

New wood-work was substituted for the old in every place 
where it was needed. The bridge is now in good condition. 

Cost of repairs, $677.93. 



IV. — BRIDGES SUPPORTED BY RAILROAD COR- 
PORATIONS. 

The bridges included under tliis head are in good order or 
fair condition, and require no special mention. 



20 City Document No. 52. 



MISCELLANEOUS WORK AND CONSTRUCTIONS 

IN 1881. 

Alford-street Sea-Wall. 

The work upon this wall, and the fence and plank sidewalks 
connected with it, were fully described in the last annual report. 
It was completed and a final estimate made May 16, 1881. 
The total amount paid to the contractor, Charles T. Derry, « 
was $3,759. 

Blakemore-street Bridge. 

Plans and specifications for the abutments for an iron bridge 
on Blakemore street, over the Boston & Providence Rail- 
road, near Mt. Hope station, were made in April. 

The work was advertised for proposals in May, and a con- 
tract for it was made with Joseph Ross, of Ipswich, the 
lowest responsible bidder. 

The abutments, with their wina-walls and a retaining-wall 
70 feet in length, connected with the westerly abutment, are 
built of Quincy granite. 

The faces of the abutments and wing-walls are regularly 
coursed rub]:>le-work with courses of nearly even rise, and 
the retaining-wall is irregularly coursed rubble-work. The 
bridge seats, parapets, and retaining-wall coping are cut 
stones of the usual patterns. 

The easterly abutment, with its wing-walls, is 110 feet in 
length, 30 feet 2 inches in height, 10 feet of which is founda- 
tion, and it averages in thickness 7^ feet. 

The w^esterly abutment is 71) feet in length from the face of 
the retaining-wall connected with it to the end of the wing- 
wall, 25 feet 2 inches in height, 5 feet of which is foundation, 
and it is of the same average thickness as the easterly abut- 
ment. 

The retainin":-wall averages 17 feet in heio-ht al)ove the 
foundation, and has an average thickness of 5 feet. 

The foundation is stepped on sloping ground and is 3^ feet 
in depth. The retaining-wall carries a wooden rail fence with 
iron standards. 

The masonry was commenced May 26, and completed 
November 1, 1881, at a total cost of $17,435.25. This 
amount was $421 less than the price bid for the work, on 
account of a reduction in the amount of masonry caused by a 
change in the plans. 

A contract for the iron bridge was made September 6, 



Eeport of City Engineer. 21 

with D. H. Andrews, the lowest bidder, for the sum of 
$3,698. 

The brido-e consists of two main cfirders, of the riveted 
triangular pattern, placed 26 feet apart, and carrying plate- 
iron floor beams, which overhang for the sidewalks. The 
length of the main girders is 71 feet, of the floor beams, 40 
feet. • The work of erection was commenced Jan. 31, 1882, 
and is now completed. 

The amount paid to the contractor was $3,746.46. 

A contract for the fences was made with the Manley & 
Cooper Co., of Philadelphia, and they are now in process of 
erection. The fences are wrought iron, of an ornamental 
pattern, and strongly connected with the bridge structure. 

Broadway Extension (over the Boston & Albany 

Eailroad). 

The work upon this extension and the bridge has been 
actively prosecuted during the year, and is now in a forward 
state of completion. 

Between Harrison avenue and Washington street wooden 
bulkheads have been built on l^oth sides of the street, where 
they were required for the purpose of retaining the lilling. 
On the northerly side the bulkhead is 260 feet in length and 
about 7 feet in height. It is built of creosoted spruce 
piles and planks, has iron anchor rods, and is ballasted with 
broken l)ricks and small stones. It cost $1,079.57. On the 
southerly side the l)ulkhead is 150 feet in length, of about 
the same height, and is constructed in a similar manner to the 
bulkhead on the northerly side ; but the spruce piles and 
planks are not creosoted, and the bulkhead is ballasted with 
oyster-shells. It cost $519.32. Both bulkheads were built 
by day''s labor. 

After the completion of the bulkheads, and a new sewer to 
replace one destroyed by the northerly bulkhead, this portion 
of the extension was filled to a sub-grade in readiness for 
paving. 

The abutments for the bridge over the Boston & Albany 
Railroad, and the retaiuing-walls connected with them, are 
practically completed ; the setting of the parapets and fur- 
nishing of a small jjortion of the gravel filling being all the 
work that remains to be done to complete the contract of 
John Cavanaoh & Co. The amount paid to these contractors 
is $59,717.09^. 

Work upon the bridge, which is under contract to David 
H. Andrews, has been greatly delayed by his inability 



22 City Document No. 52, 

to procure iron from the rolling-mills in time. It is, 
however, now being i)ushed very rapidly, and the erection 
of the timber false works upon which the iron-work will be 
put together will soon be completed. A saving of $3,000 
was eli'ected in the cost of this bridge by rejecting all the bids 
received under the first advertisement and readvertising the 
Avork. 

The buildino;s which were on the line of the extension are 
being rapidly demolished, and filling is being stored on the 
portion of the extension between Harrison avenue and Wash- 
ington street, so that the street can be graded without delay 
when the removal of the buildings will permit it. 

Commonwealth-avenue Extension. 

The filling of this avenue and the adjacent streets and 
territory has been continued during the past year, not only 
under the old contracts and agreements of 1880, but also 
under new contracts and agreements made during the year 
1881. 

April 27, 1881, a supplementary agreement, similar in 
terms to the agreement of 1880, was made between the City 
of Boston, the Boston Water Power Co., the Trustees of the 
Beacon-street lands, the Executors of the will of D. N. 
Skillings, and A. A. Marcus, for the filling, jointly, of the 
territory bounded by West Chester Park, the location of the 
Boston & AUmny Railroad, the fifty-foot street adjoining the 
easterly side of the Beacon entrance of the Back Bay Park 
and Beacon street. Contracts were made with the Boston & 
Albany Railroad Company by the several parties to this 
aOTcement for the fillino^ of the entire area, including all 
streets and passage-ways. The city's contract was made i\Iay 
26, 1881. 

Work under these several contracts was commenced soon 
after they were executed, and at the present time the whole 
territory described in the agreements of 1880 and 1881 
before referred to is filled to grade 12, except a channel left 
for the tidal fiow to and from the park l)asin. This channel 
cannot be filled until the new channel through the park is 
completed. Several of the streets within the territory are 
filled to grade, and the filling of others is now in prog- 
ress. 

The quantity of gravel deposited upon the whole territory, 
to and including January 4, 1882, was 194,205 car-loads, 
amounting to 76,184 squares. Of this amount the approxi- 
mate estimates show that there have been de})osited — 



Keport of City Engineer. 23 

Upon land of the Boston & Albany K.R. Co., 1,813 squares. 

" " " Boston Water Power Co., 20,452 " 

" " " Trustees Beacon-st. Lands, 11,513 " 

" '' " Trustees Park Entrance" 5,306 " 

" of A. A. Marcus, & Exr's D. N. 

Skillings . . . . 589 " 

" Back Bay Park .... 8,919 

" Commonwealth ave. and adjacent sts., 27,592 " 



Total 76,184 " 

All the gravel delivered during the past year has been 
brought from the bank of the company in Newton, near 
Riverside Station. 

March 29, 1881, a contract was made with Trumbull & 
Cheney, for building the abutments for the bridge over the 
park water-way, at the crossing of Commonwealth avenue. 
These a1)utments are each about 166 feet in length, including 
wing-walls, and are 13 feet 9 inches in height between the 
platform foundation and top of bridge seat. The masonry is 
built upon a spruce pile and timber platform, which also 
covers the space 50 feet in width between the abutments. 
Across each end of the platform a line of 4-inch tongued and 
grooved sheet-piling was driven, to prevent any current from 
undermining the flooring which forms the bottom of the 
water-way. 

The masonry is built of Cape Ann granite, has an ashlar 
face, and is laid in "Flemish" bond with a rubble-stone 
backing. 

The contractors completed this work November 9, and 
the amount paid them under the contract was $27,974.69. 

November 5, a contract was made with Cook, Rymes & 
Co., for an iron bridge, of the deck pattern, consisting of 
9 girders, 57 feet in length, and an average height of 4 ft. 3 in., 
covered with a timber and plank flooring. 

The time for the completion of this contract was February 
1st, but, owing to the contractors having been unexpectedly 
delayed in obtaining their material, the Joint Special Com- 
mittee on Streets has extended the time for completion to 
April 1, 1882. 

The contract price for the bridge erected in place is 
$9,729.70. 

Deer-Island Wharf. 

A contract was made May 26, 1881, with Young & Ryan, 
for extending the Ferry wharf, in Shirley gut. The deposit 
of material by the currents has rendered nefiessary a periodi- 



24 City Document No. 52. 

cal extension of this Avharf. The present extension was 
located after consultation with tlie Harbor Commissioners, 
and is 104 feet in length, measuring from the end of the last 
extension ; and is in a direct line with it. The new wharf is, 
however, 120 feet in length, as 16 feet of the old one was 
removed ; and it is 15 feet in width for a length of 104 feet, 
and 20 feet in width f(;r the remainder of its length of 16 
feet at the channel end. 

It is a spruce-pile wharf, with hard-pine caps, and floor- 
stringers covered with a spruce-plank flooring. 

Tt is provided with oak fender-piles at the end and on the 
side used as a landing-place for the ferry-lwat. 

The work was completed June 30, and cost $1,521.37. 

East Chester-Park Extension. 

A contract was made May 9, 1881, with the New York & 
New England Railroad Company for filling the extension of 
East Chester park from Albany street to Boston street. The 
work was begun June 15, and completed October 25, 1881. 
The contract price was $3.50 per square, and the total 
amount paid to the company was $31,130.42. This amount 
included the cost of constructing drains across the street 
where needed. 

April 27, 1881, a contract was made with Trumbull & 
Cheney for building two stone piers for supporting the per- 
manent bridge of the New York & New England Railroad 
over this street. The abutments for this l)ridge were built 
in 187G, and the street is now spanned by a wooden truss- 
bridge, which was not intended as a permanent structure, 
the purpose being to construct, eventually, an iron deck 
bridge of three spans. The piers are built of granite, with 
a foundation 5 feet wide, 28|- feet long, and 5 feet deep be- 
low the orade of the street. On this foundation are two 
courses of cut granite, each 1 foot 6 inches high. The tops 
of these piers are at a grade of 3 feet above the grade of the 
street, and they are to be surmounted by iron columns, on 
which the bridge girders are to rest. The piers were com- 
pleted in September, and the amount paid the contractors 
was $1,200. 

Huntington- Avenue Extension. 

June 29, 1881, a contract was made with the Boston & 
Albany Railroad Company for filling the extension of Hunt- 
ington avenue from Camden street to Parker street. Work 
was begun July 1(5, and ended August 18, 1881, although 
the street was not filled to its full width throughout its whole 



Report of City Engineer. 25 

length, as permission had not been ol)tained from all of the 
abutters to slope the tilling upon their lands. 

There were deposited on the street 11,177 car-loads of 
gravel, amounting to 4,633 squares. The price paid was 
$4.25 per square, and the total amount paid the contractors 
was $19,690.25. 

South-Bay Dam. 

This dam, the construction and use of which was fully 
described in the last annual report, was completed June 9, 
1881. 

The tilling of the gap in the dam with stone ballast up to 
the top retained the water on the enclosed mud-flats at a 
depth of 2 feet during the summer, and relieved, to a great 
extent, the nuisance caused by their former exposure at low 
tide. 

A recent inspection of the dam shows that it will be nec- 
essary, before warm weather, to place additional ballast in 
the gap, the upper portion of it, for about 18 inches in depth, 
having been carried away by the ice, thereby causing the 
flats to be left bare at low tide. 

The wood portion of the dam appears to be in good con- 
dition. 

The total cost of the work was $4,451.92. 

Ix General. 

The usual amount of work of a miscellaneous character 
has been done during the year. Under this head may be 
classed surveys and soundings of the Public-Garden pond, 
and an estimate of cost of improving the bottom ; estimates 
of cost of repairing wharf at Deer Island ; plans and esti- 
mates of cost of bridging the B. & A. R.R., at the Cam- 
bridge-street crossing, at Brighton ; plans and estimates of 
cost of retaining-wall at end of St. Charles street ; measure- 
ments of gravel and other tilling material at various places, 
for Board of Health, and numerous estimates for various 
plans of a new In'idge between the city proper and Charles- 
town, etc. 

In the draugh ting-room, in addition to the large amount 
of copying, tracing, blue printing, and revising plans which 
has been done, plans and specifications have been made for 
the building of the followino^ new iron brido^es : — 

Broadway Extension, over B. & A. R.R. 

Blakemore street, over B. & P. R.R. 

Boston & Albany R.R. Bridge, over Park water-way. 

Commonwealth Avenue Bridge, over Park water-way. 



26 City Document No. 52. 

Plans have also been made for the alterations of the side- 
walk truss of the Columbns-avenuc Bridire, for lenjjthenino: 
the Mt. AYashinijton-avenuc draw, and for much of the 
machinery and iron work connected with the engines and 
boilers of the Improved Sewerage Pumping-station. 

The inspection of such of the above work as has been 
completed or in progress has also been done by ]Mr. John 
E. Cheney, designer and principal draughtsman, and his 
assistants. 



B. — WATER-WOKKS. 

Sudbuiy River, Farm Pond, and Lake Cochituate. — On 
the 1st of January, 1881, the water in the reservoirs on the 
Sudbury river stood as follows : Reservoir No. 1 was 2.48 
feet below the top of the flash-l)oards ; Reservoir No. 2 was 
5.70 feet below the crest of the dam, and Reservoir No. 3 
was 11.47 feet below the corresponding point. Reservoir 
No. 2 fell until January 8, when it was 11.8 feet below 
the top of the flash-boards. During January and February 
the reservoirs were tilling, and Reservoirs Nos. 1 and 2 were 
overflowing on February 13, and Reservoir No. 3 on March 6. 

Water was allowed to waste continually at Dam No. 1 until 
July 16. The water surfaces of the reservoirs above tide- 
marsh level on the flrst day of each month, from August to 
November, were as follows : — 



August 1 . . , 

September 1 . . . 

October 1 . . , 

November 1 . . . 

In November it was discovered that the 48-inch pipe con- 
nectinij Reservoir No. 2 with the gate-chamber at Dam No. 1 
had been disconnected. In December Reservoir No. 1 was 
emptied and the pipe repaired. Reservoir No. 3 was drawn 
upon for the city's supply during August, September, and 
October, and on October 24 it was practically empty. During 
November and December it has been fllling, and is now, Jan- 
uary 1, only 3 inches below the crest of the dam. On 
January 1, 1882, Reservoir No. 1 was 147.85 ; Reservoir No. 
2, 167.43 ; and Reservoir No. 3, 174.98 feet above tide-marsh 
level. 

In October last the "cucumber taste" in our water supply 
was found to originate in Farm pond (see report of Prof. 



No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


159.02 


159.86 


173.22 


158.40 


158.96 


168.21 


157.55 


160.80 


161.44 


156.38 


162.78 


159.76 



Report of Citt ENorNEER. 27 

Eemsen, City Doc. No. 143, 1881), and, as the water in 
the reservoirs above the pond was good, but could not be 
brought to the city without being contaminated in its passage 
through it, a temporary channel was made near the shore, 
from the terminus of the supply conduit on the north-westerly 
shore of the pond to the main conduit leading to Chestnut- 
Hill reservoir. For this purpose Farm pond was drawn down 
as low as possible. The channel, which was constructed in 
14 days, is 4,750 feet in length. For 3,740 feet it is a 
channel 5 feet deep, 12 feet in width at the bottom, with side 
embankments of earth, 3 feet in width at the top, and side- 
slopes generally of 4 to 1 . 

For about 560 feet the channel is in mud, or partially so, 
along the north side of the Boston & Albany R.R. embank- 
ment ; this portion is made partly of sheet-piling, and is 
partly a flume, 9 feet wide, supported by transversal frames. 

During the year the Sudbury-river water-shed has yielded 
26,876,000,000 gallons, equal to a daily average of 73,633,- 
900 gallons, and the Sudbury-river works have furnished 
9,036,700,000 gallons for the supply of the city, divided as 
follows : — 





Amount sent to 
Chestnut-Hill Reservoir. 


Amount sent to 
Lake Cochituate. 


Total. 


January . 


. 814,800,000 




814,800,000 


February . 


. ti80,300,000 




680,300,000 


March 


. 853,600,000 




853,600,000 


April 


. 810,700,000 




810,700,000 


May 


. 960,100,000 




960,100,000 


June 


. 941,700,000 




941,700,000 


July 


. 911,200,000 




911,200,000 


August 


. 730,700,000 




730,700,000 


September 


. 731,500,000 




731,500,000 


October . 


. 429,300,000 




429,300,000 


November 


. 321,700,000 


191,400,000 


513,100,000 


December 


. 472,100,000 


187,600,000 


659,700,000 


Totals . 


. 8,657,700,000 


379,000,000 


9,036,700,00 



Average daily amount furnished was 24,758,100 gallons. 

Lake Cochituate was 8.74 feet below hio^h-water mark on 
Januarv 1, 1881. On March 12 it had filled to within 6 
inches of high- water mark, and waste commenced at the out- 
let dam. This waste continued, with a few interruptions, 
until the middle of July, when the lake was drawn upon for 
the supply of the city. This draft gradually lowered the 
lake's surface, until December 12, when it was, at grade, 



28 City Docuiment No. 52. 

127.03, or 7.33 foet l)elow hioh-water. At the present time 
(January 1) it is 128.27 feet above tide-marsh level. 

Mystic Lake. — eTanuar}' 1, 1881, Mystic lake was 3.16 
feet below the top of the conduit, and temporary pumping 
machinery was lieing used to furnish the snp])ly for the city. 
On January 17 the lake had risen so that the pum})s were 
stopped, and February 17 the lake was full, and wasting at 
the dam. Waste was continued, Avith few interruptions, 
until the beginning of August. September 1 the surface of 
the lake was 5.52 feet above tide-marsh level; October 1, 
4.35; November 1, 3.10; November 28, 2.60; December 
1, 2.77 ; and January 1, 1882, 5.77, or 1.23 feet below high- 
water mark. 

Consumption. — The average daily consumption from the 
combined works, for each month, has been as foUow^s : — 





From Sudbury and 
Cochituate Works. 


From Mystic 
Works. 


Total. 


January . 


. 32,121,900 


8,756,500 


40,878,400 


February 


. 31,607,900 


9,428,700 


41,036,600 


March . 


. 27,531,700 


7,042.800 


34,574,500 


April 


. 28,146,200 


6,420,700 


34,566,900 


May 


. 29,307,600 


6,502,900 


35,810,500 


June 


. 30,059,200 


6,556,700 


36,615,900 


July 


. 33,885,300 


6,906,400 


40,791,700 


August . 


. 34,472,200 


7,011,700 


41,483,900 


September 


. 34,801,500 


6,587,100 


41,388,600 


October . 


. 32,871,200 


6,195,400 


39,066,600 


November 


. 27,519,800 


7,870,400 


35,390,200 


December 


. 29,860,400 


7,056,900 


36,917,300 


Average 


. 31,020,200 


7,194,700 


38,214,900 



The consumption from the Sudbury and Cochituate Works 
shows a large increase over that of tiie year 1880 (4,520,- 
200 gallons per day). About 2,000,000 gallons of this is 
due to the supply of East Boston, which was drawn from 
the Mystic Works in 1880. 

The total consumption shows an increase of 2,327,000 
gallons per day, or ^.b per cent, over that of 1880. 

The daily average consinni)tion per head of population 
has been 95 gallons from the Sudbury and Cochituate works, 
81 gallons from the Mystic Avorks, and 92 gallons from the 
coml)ined supplies. 

During the year about 110,000,000 gallons were drawn 



Repoiit of City Engineer. 29 

from the Mystic supply for the use of the Sudbury and Co- 
chituate works. East Boston was supplied from the Mystic 
Works from Noveml^er 14 to December 14, and also on sev- 
eral other occasions during the 3^ear, when the Cochituate 
supply mains have been shut ofl' for repairs, etc. 

Highland High-Service Works. 

The average daily quantities of water pumped by the high- 
service engines at the Highland station, during each month, 
are as follows : — 



January, 


2,445,000 


July, 


2,459,000 


February, 


2,550,300 


August, 


2,488,500 


March, 


2,224,000 


September, 


2,561,600 


April, 


2,243,000 


October, 


2,548,000 


May, 


2,301,000 


November, 


2,312,600 


June, 


2,377,700 


December, 


2,369,000 



The daily average for the year has been 2,407,500 gallons, 
an increase of 2^ per cent, over that of the year 1880. The 
small percentage of increase is accounted for by the fact that 
the hose consumption for lawn purposes w^as smaller than 
usual, and that the present winter has thus far been unac- 
companied by any severe cold. 

During the year surveys, plans, and estimates have been 
made for removing the high-service pumping-works from 
their present location in Roxbury to Chestnut-Hill reservoir, 
and for a reservoir, and the necessary force and supply-mains, 
to connect with the })resent reservoir on Parker Hill. 

Deer Island Fire Service. 

Special fire-service works have been built, for the better 
protection of the Public Institution buildings on the Island. 
These works were rendered necessary by the loss of head 
caused l^y the change of supply from the Mystic to the Sud- 
bury and Cochituate system, and consist of a Knowles' fire- 
pump, having 20-inch steam and 10-inch water cylinders, with 
24-inch stroke, which is connected with the distribution-pipes, 
and with supply reservoirs on the island, in such a manner 
that, in case of fire, the Avater-pressure upon the fire-hydrants 
can be maintained at from 80 to 100 pounds. 

The supply reservoirs, in connection with the main supply- 
pipe, furnish the water for the pump, the reservoirs or cis- 
terns, two in number, having a storage capacity of 150,000 
gallons. The larger of these reservoirs, with a capacity of 



30 City Document No. 52. 

120,000 gallons, was liiiilt during the past summer. It is 
50 feet iu diameter, 9 feet deep, "svith side-walls and bottom 
of cement concrete, and is covered by a conical wooden roof. 
The water-level of the reservoirs is at about the level of the 
surroundino" 2:round. 

The work has been done by the expenditure of about 
$3,300, the unskilled labor having been supplied by the 
inmates of the institutions. 



Mystic- Valley Sewer. 

An act of the Legislature, approved May 13, 1881, re- 
quired the city to cease discharging sewage or other polluting 
matter from this sewer into the lower Mystic pond, except 
under certain conditions as regards its purification, which it 
was impractica])le, if not impossible, to compl}^ with. The 
constitutionality of this act was doubted by the city ; but it 
was, after various trials in the courts, decided by the Supreme 
Court to be constitutional, and an injunction was issued to 
l^revent the further discharge of the sewage into the pond. 
It was agreed by the city's counsel, and that of the town of 
Medford, petitioners for the injunction, that if the city would 
erect certain works for the treatment of the sewage, the 
injunction should not be enforced. 

In accordance with this agreement a tract of land, of 5y^^ 
acres area, was taken, December 5, 1881, from the Boston & 
Lowell Railroad Company. The land is in the town of Win- 
chester, near Bacon's crossing, and adjoining the railroad, 
as well as the line of the sewer. 

A system of settling and natural downward filtration Avorks 
was .adopted, and has been partially carried'out, with com- 
paratively good results. The works consist of a steam- 
engine and centrifugal pump, which lift the sewage from the 
sewer and dischari^e it into scttliui^: tanks, from Avhich it 
runs through an open trench, excavated in gravelly soil, 
1,250 feet, to the sewer, which it again enters, and is then 
discharged into the lower Mystic pond. In its course 
through the trench it runs through a series of brush filters, 
which remove ouich of the material which has not been de- 



posited in the settling tanks. Nearly one-third of the 
amount pumped fails to reach the end of trench, as it sinks 
into the soil during its passage. 

The works are very expensive to maintain, and the same, 
if not a better, result could be accomplished on land near the 
outlet of the Lower Mystic pond ; the expenses of pumping 
could be avoided if this land (;ould he used, as the sewer if 
extended about 3,500 feet would discharge naturally at the 



Keport of City Engineer. 31 

grade of the land. Authority to take hiiid for this purpose, 
and also for other modifications of the Act of 1881, has been 
asked for by the city, and the matter is now pending in the 
Lesfislature. 



"O' 



SUDBURY-ElVER BaSIN No. 4. 

As the result of the investigations made for the purpose of 
determining the best site for a new storage-basin on the Sud- 
bury river, for which, and also for the purchase of the land 
when determined, an appropriation of $55,000 was made by 
the City Council in the fall of 1880, a report was made to 
the Water Board on the 14th of May, 1881, in which I rec- 
omended Basin No. 4, of the preliminary Sudbury-river 
surveys, as the most desirable to construct. The examina- 
tions were confined principally to the sites of Basin No. 4 
and Basin No. 7, of the original surveys, and a very large 
number of borings were made upon the sites to determine the 
nature of the ground. Surveys were also made of the lands 
which would be flowed at the sites of both these basins, and 
the Water Board bonded the land on each before any choice 
was made. 

After the selection of Basin No. 4 a new and more careful 
survey was made of the various parcels of land which had 
been bonded, in order that accurate deeds might be made. 

Although the report recommending the construction of 
Basin No. 4 was made to the Water Board May 14, and 
by it transmitted to the City Council, an appropriation for 
its construction was not made until August 8. The amount 
of this appropriation was $394,000. The site of Dam No. 4, 
which makes this Imsin, is on Cold Spring brook, in Ashland. 
It is about 4,500 feet from the confluence of the brook with 
Sudbury river, and the basin behind it will extend about 6,000 
feet towards Hopkinton. The ordinary flow line of the new 
basin will be 215 feet above tide-marsh level. Its extreme 
depth at the dam is to be 45 feet, its estimated capacity is 
1,100,000,000 gallons. The area of the land acquired for 
the basin, for iiowage, and for marginal fVicilities, is 263 
acres. The location of the dam is underlaid by a bed of 
granite rock, on which it is expected to start the foundation 
of the structure at a depth varying from 20 to 30 feet below 
the natural surface of the o-round. 

Although the position of the ledge had been determined 

with sufficient accuracy by the borings, still there was enough 

uncertainty with regard to its character to render it advisable 

■ to build the lower portion of the dam by day's labor. This 

method of doing the work was approved by the City Council, 



32 City Documej^t No. 52. 

and the Water Board was authorized to proceed with the 
construction in this manner. Work bej^an September 22. 

The season ])eing ah'eady advanced no attempt was made 
to do any portion of the masonry. A convenient road was 
built to the centre of Ashhmd, buildings were erected for an 
office, blucksmith-shop, tool-houses, staldes, etc., and the 
entire ground to be covered by the dam was cleared of loam, 
muck, and all stones which interfered with the proper removal 
of perishable material. The amount of muck removed from 
the meadow was very large, and the stones taken from the 
side-hills will furnish a considerable amount of material 
which can be used in the construction of the rubble masonry. 
The work of preparation is now completed and the masonry- 
work can be commenced early in the spriug. The force 
employed, which in October was 88 men and 26 horses and 
oxen, was iucreased, in December, to 142 men and 44 horses 
and oxen. The work is to be suspended as soon as the 
weather becomes too severe to continue it to advantasfe. 
The amount expended up to January 1, 1882, is as fol- 
lows : — 

For borings, examinations, and surveys . . $3,544 54 

For construction ...... 19,342 46 

The whole force employed at the dam was, from November 
21 to December 6, transferred to the work then being done 
at Farm pond on the temporary channel. 

Owing to the magnitude of the work, it is expected that 
three seasons will be necessary to complete it. 

Miscellaneous. 

A trial has been made in the Charlestowm District of the 
Deacon system of preventing waste of water. The results 
ol)t!iined were very satisfactory, the sources and amounts of 
the difl'erent classes of waste were clearly indicated, and a 
large reduction in the consumi)tion was etfected in the sec- 
tions where the trial was made. A special report upon this 
subject will be made to the AVater Board. 

A branch track has been built from the Boston & Lowell 
Railroad to the Mystic pumi)ing-station for the transporta- 
tion of coal and other sup})lies. The surveys and plans for 
this track were made by this dei)artment. 

During the year the 40-inch, 3()-inch, and 30-inch mains 
have been connected by a 30-inch pipe, in Francis street. 
This completed the work done under the appropriation for 
the new 48-inch main. 



Eeport of City Engineer. • 33 

The total cost of the 48-mch and 30-inch mains was $269,- 
092.26, or $10,907.74 less than the amount appropriated for 
purchasing the castings. 

The distributing mains of the city have been extended 
about 7^ miles. 



C— IMPROVED SEWERAGE. 

It has been evident to me, ever since my accession to my 
present office, as it must also have been to my predecessor, 
that this great work could not be completed for the amount 
of the original estimates and appropriations. 

The unforeseen difficulties, and the expense attending the 
overcoming of them, have been, from the beginning, much 
greater than it was possible to anticipate. In addition to 
this, changes in the character and size of the machinery and 
structures, which were made in accordance with the results 
of the experience with similar systems in European countries, 
ajid the increased cost of all lal^or and materials used in con- 
struction, have contributed to swell tiie cost of the work to 
a sum far beyond the estimate as originally made. 

It has not been possible until recently to estimate with 
any approach to accuracy what the additional cost of com- 
pleting the new system of sewerage would be. Several of 
the contracts, amountino- in the ao-o-reoate to more than a 
million of dollars, were in the hands of contractors who 
could not })rol)al)ly complete them, but the city's interests 
were best subserved by allowing them to go as far as they 
could before decisive action was taken. 

In three of these cases, during the past year, matters have 
finally culminated in the city's taking possession of the work, 
which has been relet for much larsjer sums than the original 
contract prices, or has been carried on by day's labor to com- 
pletion. 

As it is, therefore, now practicable to state with sufficient 
accuracy the amount which will be required to complete the 
system as originally designed, it is the intention of the Joint 
Special Committee having the supervision of this work to 
submit such a statement to the City Council at an early day. 

During the year, at all points Avhere the work was being 
prosecuted by the city, excellent progress has been made, 
notwithstanding the difficult nature of the ground in which 
most of it was being l)uilt. 

There are now a]>out eleven miles of main and branch 
intercepting sewers completed, and connected with the pump- 
ing-station. 



34 • City Document No. 52. 

A large part of the sewerage of West Roxbury, Rox])ury, 
the Back and South Bay districts is intercepted l)y these 
sewers. 

The Leavitt engines, and machinery at the pumping-sta- 
tion, are nearly ready for use, and in a short time the 
system can be in operation so as to relieve the South and 
Back bay, and Charles river, from the larger proportion of 
the sewage now discharged into them by the city sewers. 
The sewage cannot probably be discharged at jNIoon Island 
for two years at least ; but it would not, in the opinion of 
those most competent to judge of the matter, create any 
nuisance if discharged into Dorchester l)ay for that length 
of time. 

The Improved Sewerage System has cost, to January 1, 
1882, including the preliminary surveys, $2,396,960.68, 
and the interest upon this sum would amount, at 4 per cent., 
to $95,878.42 per annum. This seems a large investment to 
allow to lie idle for two years, and not accomplish, even 
partially, the purpose for which it was made, as it might do 
if the sewage can be dischai'ged into Dorchester bay without 
detriment to the public health. 

The total amount which has been ap]iropriated for the 
Improved Sewerage works is $3,753,000.00. The gross 
expenditure to January 1, 1882, including that for prelim- 
inary surveys, has been $2,396,960.68, as above stated, 
leaving a balance of $1,356,039.32. 

The appended extracts from the report of Mr. E. C. Clarke, 
principal assistant engineer of the Improved Sewerage Sys- 
tem, will show, in detail, the progress of the work during 
the year, and also much other information of interest : — 

The followinof tabulated statement shows tlie leno'th of sewers com- 
pleted January 1, LSHl, the number of feet built since that date, and the 
total length constructed at the present time. 

The title and location of each section is given, and also the name of 
the parties by whom it was built. 

Tills statement is followed by a more detailed account of the work on 
such sections as have been in process of construction during the past 
year, and of other work in connection with the general scheme. 



36 



City Document No. 52. 



TABTJtiAR STATEMEIVT OF PROGRESS — 



Section. 



1. Main . 

2. Main . 

3. Main . 

4. Main . 
4^. Main . 

5. Main . 

6. Main . 

1. Weat Side 

2. West Side 

3. West Bide 

1. East Side 

2. East Side 

1. Stony Broolj 

2. Stony Brook 

1. Soutli Boston 

3. Soutli Boston 

4. South Boston 
Roxtiury Canal 

Pumping-station 

2. Outfall Sewer . 

3. Outfall Sewer . 



Locality. 



In Camden st., from Huntington ave. to Tremont st 

In Camden st., from Tremont st. to Washington st 

In Washington st. and E. Chester park, from Camden st. to Albany st. 

In E. Chester park extension, from Albany st. to Magazine st. ... 

In E. Chester park extension, from Magazine st. to Clapp st 

In Clapp and Mt. Vernon sts., from E. Chester park to O. C. R.R. . 

In Mt. Vernon st. extension, from O. C. R.R. to Old Harbor point . . 

In Camden, Falmouth, Dalton, and Hereford sts., from Huntington 
ave. to Beacon st 

In Beacon St., from Hereford St. to Charles st 

In Charles st., from Beacon st. to Cambridge st 

In Albany St., from E. Chester park to Dover st 

In Albany St., Lehigh st., and O. C. R.R. freight-yards, Federal st. . 

In Tremont and Cabot sts., from Camden st. to Ruggles st 

In Cabot, Hampshire, Elmwood, Ruggles, and Tremont sts., about 
Stony Brook 

In Ninth st., from H st. to N st 

In Von Hillern St., Locust St., Washington ave., and Hyde st., from 
Mt. Vernon st. to Dorchester ave 

In Dorchester ave., from Hyde st. to B st 

In Albany st. and E. Chester park, from Northampton st. to Rox- 
bury Canal 

Connecting Main Sewer and Filth-Hoist, and Engine Wells, and Salt- 
water Conduit 

Tunnel under Dorchester Bay, from O. H. Pier to Squantum Neck 
(excavation) 

Squantum Neck to Moon Island 

Totals 



Report or City Engineer. 



37 



IMPROVED SEWERAGE COaFSTRTJCTIOIV. 



Size in feet and inches. 



7 ft. 8 in 

8 ft. 5 in 

8 ft. 5 in 

9 ft 

9 ft 

(9 ft ) 

i 10 ft. 6 in j 

10 ft. 6 in 

4 ft. 9 in. X 5 ft. 6 in. . . 

( 4 ft. 9 in. X 5 ft. 6 in 
( 4 ft. X 4 ft. 6 in. . . 

4 ft. X 4 ft. 6 in. ... 

6 ft. 8 in 

5 ft. X 3 ft. 6 in. . . . 

4 ft. 8 in 

(4ft. 6 in 

? 2 ft. X 3 ft 

( 15-in. pipe 

3 ft. 2 In 

(6 ft 

J 4 ft. 9 in. X 5 ft. 6 in- 
( 4 ft. 6 in. X 3 ft. . . 

4 ft. 9 in. X 5 ft. 6 in. . 

I 4 ft. 6 in 

left 

(10 ft. 6 in 

{9 ft 

( 5 ft. 6 in 

7 ft. 6 in '. . 

11 ft. X 12 ft 



Length 
in feet. 



1675.5 

1390.5 

1795. 

2506.5 

1894. 

3381. 

4088. 

4282. 

5043. 

1832. 

4524.5 

2340. 

2135. 

4500. 
2717.5 

3739. 
3350. 

620. 

602. 

7004. 
5989. 



Biiilt prior 
to Jan. 1, 

1881. 



65408.5 



1675.5 

1390.5 

1795. 

2321. 

1894. 

3381. 

4088. 

4282. 
4923. 
1832. 
4524.5 

2135. 

2200. 
2717.5 

3739. 
3350. 



332. 

2398. 
200. 



49178. 



Built Jan. 
1, 1882. 



1675.5 

1390.5 

1795. 

2506.5 

1894. 

3381. 

4088. 

4282. 
5013. 
1832. 
4524.5 
650. 
2135. 

4500. 
2717.5 

3739. 
3350. 

620. 

507. 

5913. 
600. 



57113.5 



Built by 



P. J. Condon. 

P. J. Condon. 

John Cavanagh. 

Charles Linehan and City. 

City. 



Hoblitzell, Condon, and 
Hoblitzell, and City. 

Clinton Beckwith, and J. V. 
Quackenbush. 



City. 

City. 

Thos. McCann. 

A. H. Delameter &Co., and 
B. A. Malone. 

City. 

Myles Tierney. 

City. 



Stephen Connolly & Co. and 
City. 



Charles Linehan. 



Hoblitzell, Condon, and 
Hoblitzell and City. 



City. 

City. 

R. A. Malone. 

W. C. Poland & Son. 



38 City Document No. 52. 



Section 4, ]Main Seavek. 

At the bej2:innin<i: of hist year there remained but about 180 feet of 
this sewer to build, and it was expected that the section would be 
finished early in the season. The contractor began work IMay 2, and 
early in Au<::ust there still remained about 40 feet to build, with no 
prospect of its early completion. As the terms of the agreement under 
which the city obtained the land for extending East Chester park re- 
quired that the roadway over the sewer should be filled, graded, and 
fenced before January 1, 1882, it was considered necessary, prepara- 
tory to this work, that the sewer should be at once cleaned and linished. 
Accordingly, under a provision of the contract, the city assumed control 
of the work, August 9, 1881. The sewer on the line of the proposed 
street was cleaned, pointed, and calked within 20 days thereafter, 
and, by October 21, the remaining poilions were built, the trench back- 
filled, and the whole section completed. A side entrance and boat- 
chamber, at the corner of Swett street, afford convenient facilities for 
visiting this sewer. 

Section 4^, Main Seaver. 

This section was built by the city during the season of 1879 and 1880, 
and an account of it was given in the last annual report. As there 
stated, the sewer is built in East Chester park extension, in gravel, 
filled over beds of mud, from 15 to 100 feet deep. Most of the mud 
was displaced by the gravel, and the sewer was supported by 2>iling- 
To provide for slight movements, the sewer was constructed of wood ; 
and to allow for further settlement, where hard bottom was too deep 
to be reached by piles, the vertical diameter of the sewer at such 
points was somewhat increased. A recent examination shows the 
wisdom of this method of construction. Settlements of the gravel have 
occurred, which, though slight, would have been sufiicient to destroy a 
structure wholly of masonry. Beyond some irregularities in grade, and 
a slight cracking of the interior lining of concrete or brick, no injury 
has been caused, and this section is ready for sei'vice. 



Section 2, Stony-Brook Sewer. 

Work on this section, designed to intercept all the Roxbury and West 
Roxbury sewage which now fiows into Stony brook, and so into the 
Back bay, progressed steadily from the beginning of the year until the 
completion of the various branches in August. 

The work was done by the city, under Mr. II. A. Carson, as superin- 
tendent, and the jjortions built last year comprised 1,700 feet of 2X3 
feet oval brick sewers, in Ruggles, Cabot, and Treraont streets, and 
about 625 feet of 15-inch vitrified pii)e sewer in Culvert and Vernon 
streets. During the early winter the sewers, which were from 14 to 19 
feet bcdow the surface, were built chiefly by tunnelling from shafts or 
pits about 1(1 feet apart. In two cases, at Tr(;mont street and at Ruggles 
street, the work was built iumiediately below the bed of Stony brook, 
without interfering with its fiow. The present outlets of the existinj^ 
city sewers were retained, to act as overflows for storm-water, and 
were protected by double sets of tide-gates, set in chambers built just 
back of the outlets. Six of tliese chambers, with 12 gates, were built. 

All of the intercepting sewers of this section unite at the corner of 
Cabot, Ruggles, and Hampshire .streets, where the fiow of sewage is 
regulated by the ajjparatus shown on a plate in last year's repoi't. 



Plate. I . 

city of boston. 

improved sewerage. 

Tide Gate Chamber. 

JAN. 1882. 



Scale of Fclt. Scale of Metbes. 



I Q t Z O 



CAST IRON GATE FRAME 




Hctir Elevation 



C - 




Section EF 




-B 



Section AB 



A - 




Section CD 






<b 






In 






I 

i 












o 

k 




«9 




Eepoet of City Engineer. 39 



Section 2, West-Side Sewer. 

The greater pai't of this section, in Beacon street, was built during 
the season of 1878. Portions, however, of the sewer, varying in length 
from 27 to 57 feet, were omitted, where-the city sewers crossed the line 
of the work at Berkeley, Dartmoutli, and Fairfield streets. These por- 
tions have been' built during the past summer, at a time when most of 
the neighboring liouses were vacant, and the least inconvenience would 
be caused. At these points the .storm-water outlets of the city sewers 
have generall}' been raised about two feet and carried over tiie inter- 
cepting sewer. Tide-gate chambers, each containing a double set of 
new tide-gates, have been placed on the line of each outlet. The con- 
nections of these sewers, and, also, of the one in Hereford street, with 
the intercepting sewer, have also been made ; and the general arrange- 
ment of these connections is shown on the accompanying plate. 

As will be seen, the sewage in the city sewer first enters a 12-inch 
opening, which can be closed, if necessary, by a cast-iron flap-valve. 
After passing through a 12-inch pipe, the sewage enters a regulating 
chamber thn)Ugh a cast-iron nozzle. 

This nozzle is circular, 12 inches in diameter, at its upper end, and 
rectangular, 20 X 6 inches, at its orifice. In front of the orifice plays a 
cast-iron valve, moved by a float in a tank set in the floor of the chamber. 
The water in the tank stands at the same elevation as that in the inter- 
cepting sewer, a 4-inch ii-on pipe connecting one with the other. The 
apparatus can be adjusted so that the valve will begin to close the 
orifice and cut ofi" the flow of sewage when the water in the intercejjt- 
ing sewer reaches any desired depth. The sewage flows around the 
tank and enters the intercepting sewer through a second 12-inch pipe. 



Section 2, East-Side Sewer. 

This section comprises the sewer extending in Albany and Lehigh 
streets, and across the Old Colonj' switch-yard, from Dover street to 
Federal street. Work began at the Dover-street end early in September. 
Situated, as this sewer is, in filled land, near the water, its construction 
presents many difficulties. The loose stone walls, on either side of 
Dover street, aff"orded direct communication between the trench and the 
bay. Many old walls, docks, and other obstacles have been met with, 
and construction by tide- work only has been possible. 

The trench is excavated throucrli beds of dock-mud and loose fillinof, 
and the sewer has generally required piling to supjiort it. 

To lessen the number of piles required, and the chance of injury oc- 
curring through movements of the soil, the sewer consists of a shell of 
wood, () inches thick, spiked or treenailed, and lined with'2 inches of 
strong Portland cement concrete. 

In passing under the switch-yard of the Old Colony Railroad it will 
be necessary to support over forty lines of rails, and to build the work 
under them by methods of tunnelling. 

As the character of this work could not be definitely ascertained 
beforehand, and may need to be varied to suit circumstances, it was 
thought impracticable to let it out by contract, and it is being done by 
the city, under Mr. H. A. Carson as superintendent. 

RoxBURY Canal Sewer. 

The purpose of this sewer is to take from the Hampden, Albany, and 
Northampton street districts, the Roxbury sewage which formerly 
emptied into Roxbury canal, and, after the canal was filled, was carried 
by a temporary box sewer to the present outlet in the retaining-wall 



40 City Document No. 52. 

across the canal. This section of work has been completed by the city 
durinj2: the past season. 

It consists of a -ii-feet sewer, extending in Albany street from the 
corner of Nortliam})ton street to East Chester park, at which point the 
Park sewer is intercepted ; thence the intercojjter, increased to 6 feet in 
diameter, extends about 200 feet to its outlet, following the north side 
of East Chester i:»ark. The work also comprises a bell-mouth, a tide- 
gate chamber, a pair of double tide-gates, and a regulating chamber, 
with apparatus to control the flow into the intercepting sewer. The ac- 
companying plate shows the general form of chamber and gates placed 
before all outlets not already eliectively protected. 

Salt-Water Conduit. 

This conduit connects the wells of the engine-house with the sea. Its 
chief purpose is to bring salt water to be used in the condensers of the 
pumping-engines. It will also furnish an ample suj^ply of sea water to 
the pumps at any time when the flow of sewage may not be suflicient 
for maintaining a flushing velocity in the tunnel. The salt-water conduit 
is circular, b^ feet in diameter, and extends from the southerly side of 
the engine-house about 270 feet to and through an extension of the 
present dock wall. Its bottom is 6 feet below low water, so that it will 
be full at all stages of the tide. It is now being constructed through 
running sand, yielding much water, and its trench requires side sheeting 
and end bulkheads of double tiers of tongued and grooved 4-inch planks. 
An iron sluice-gate has been provided for this conduit, and grooves for 
stop-planks have been placed at each end of it. 

Pumping-Station. 

Operations at this point, conducted by the city, under Mr. S. H. Tarbell 
as superintendent, have been continued throughout the year. The 
foundations for the engines and the engine-house have been completed, 
and the two engines, furnished by N. F. Palmer, Jr., & Co., are set up 
and nearly ready for service. 

The two additional engines to be furnished by the successors to Henry 
R. Worthington are now building in New York, but have not yet been 
delivered. A contract for furnishing the cast-iron force mains, to connect 
the pumps with the tank sewer, was made April 13, 1881, with A. li. 
McNeal, of Bui'lington, New .Jersey, and deliveries were made during 
November and December of the same year. 'I'he contract covered about 
323 tons of straight 48-inch pipe, and about 104 tons of special castings. 
About 30 tons of other j^ipe, for use about the engine and boiler houses, 
were obtained IVom tJie same concern. These pipes were inspected and 
tested at the ibundery by a city inspector, and ni^arly all of thera are now 
laid in place and jointed. The connection between the force mains 
and tiie tank sewer is made at a granite masonry connection chamber, 
now nearly completed. This chamber is ;">! feet long inside, rests on a 
foundation bed of concrete, 24 inches thiclv, and has walls 21 feet high, 
and from 4 to 7i feet thick. The walls contain 102 dressed stones, which 
were obtained from the ("ape Ann fJranite Co., under a contract dated 
August 16, 1881. There are to be two 6X7 leet iron sluice-gates, for 
controlling the flow of sewage into the tank sewers, and grooves for 6 
sets of stop-planks have been providetl to iacilitate repairs to the 
chamber and fjates without interferino; with tiie flow of sewage. A 
temporary opening, witli woodtui grooves for stop-pl:iiiks, lias l)t'en left 
in the noithei'ly wull of tliis chamber, to afl'ord a sluice-way through 
which, before the completion of the rest of the work, water can be 
pumped into Dorchester baj', under any head, sliould this prove 
necessary in order to test the pumps, or for otiier puri)oses. Hard-pine 



Eepoet or City Engineer. 41 

timber, suitably dressed, has been procured for the various stop-planks 
needed, and they will be fitted by the city at the pumping-station. 
Dressed granite stones for the engine-house and boiler-house foundations, 
and the salt-water conduit, were furnished by I. A. Sylvester and the 
Cape Ann Granite Co., under contracts dated March, 1881, and April, 
1881, covering 92 and 46 stones, respectively. 

Suitable foundations for a boiler-house, to contain five boilers with 
their pits, flues, heaters, tanks, pumps, etc., have been constructed, and 
two of the boilers are in place. Two additional boilers are to be fur- 
nished by Kendall & Roberts, of Cambridgeport, under a contract dated 
May 12, 1881, at a cost of $18,850. The foundation walls for a coal- 
house, and a chimney, have also been built by the city during the past 
season. This chimney rests upon a foundation of masonry, 8 feet 3 
inches thick and 26 feet square at bottom. The depth of masonry below 
the floor line is 1-4 feet 6 inches, and the height above the floor line is 
134 feet 9 inches. The flue is 5 feet 6 indies in diameter, and the total 
cost of chimney, including foundation walls, was about $6,000. 

A contract for furnishing and putting in place 11 iron sluice-gates, 
with all their attachments, including steam-engines and hydraulic lifts 
for operating some of them, was concluded December 3, 1881, with the 
Coflin Valve Co., of Boston. Eight of these gates, 4 b\' G feet each, are 
for the openings to the jiump-wells of the four pumping-engines. Two 
gates, 6 by 6 feet each, are to govern the flow of sewage in the filth-hoist, 
and one, 4 by 4 feet, is to control the admission of salt water from the 
salt-water conduit. The gates are all to be furnished and set in place 
by April 1 of the present year. 

Temporally frame-houses, clapboarded and painted, have been' erected 
over the engines now in place, and upon the site of the boiler-house. 
These permit work at these points to progress during the winter, and 
will suffice as protection against weather until the permanent structures, 
designed by the City Architect, shall have been built. 

Other buildings for cement-sheds and store-houses have been built as 
required. For protection against fire, a hydrant has been placed in the 
vicinity of the buildings, a fire-alarm box is established at the pumping- 
station, and a line of telegraph, about a mile long, has been built, to 
connect the station with the nearest engine-house in Dorchester. 



o 



Section 1, Outfall Sewer. 

This section, commonly called Old-Harbor pier, consists of a pier ex- 
tending 1,200 feet from the pumping-station, out to and including the 
west shaft of Dorchester-bay tunnel. Work upon it has progressed 
slowly during the past year, and it has only now reached that stage of 
completion which will permit building the tank-sewer which the pier is 
designed to support. The northerly break-water wall of ballast and 
heavy rip-rap is finished. 

The gravel pier has been filled to grade 18, up to within about 100 
feet of the tunnel shaft; its southerly slojie is ballasted and partly rip- 
rapped, and the cut-stone retaining-wall, at the easterly end of the pier, 
is three-quarters built. 

In all, about 7,000 tons of rip-rap, 6,000 yards of ballast, 40,000 yards 
of gravel, 460 piles, and 900 yards of masonry have been put in place 
during the past year. 

Section 2, Outfall Sewer. 

This section, commonly called Dorchester-bay tunnel, extends about 
7,000 feet under Dorchester bay, to Squantum neck, in Quincy, and is 
worked from three shafts, about loO feet deep. At the beginning of the 
year the westerly shaft was full of water. 



42 City Document No. 52. 

The woi'k of pumping out this shaft began January 17, and within 
a few dnys thereafter it was cleared of water. A heading was driven 
for 100 ieet and then stopped, pending the securing of the shaft with 
brick-work. From February 22 to May 16 was consumed in lining 
the shaft, from its bottom up to the iron cylinder forming its top. After 
]\Iay 15 excavation was resumed, and has continued without interrup- 
tion throughout the year. The heading has now advanced 832 feet from 
the shaft. 

At the middle shaft excavation in both directions has continued with 
regularity during the year, and the east and the west headings are 
respectively distant 1,621 and 1,417 feet from the shaft. Power-drills, 
driven by compressed air, have been used for excavating at these 
points. 

From the east shaft westwardly excavation progressed with reasonable 
rapidity until August 18, at which time the heading had advanced 
1,126 feet. At this point a considerable increase in the quantity of 
water met with, and a lack of pumijing capacity for dealing with it, 
rendered it advisable, in the opinion of the contractor, to suspend 
operations in this direction and complete this portion of the tunnel from 
the east heading of the middle shaft. A brick bulk-head was, accord- 
ingly, built across the drift, to diminish the flow of water, and operations 
at this point, since August, have been confined to trimming the excava- 
tion, preparatory to putting in the brick lining. The distance between 
the two headings to be excavated is now about 87 feet, and it is ex- 
pected that they will meet by the middle of February, 1882. Eastwardly 
from the east shaft excavation continued until April 29, when the 
drift previously excavated from the east portal was reached. Since that 
date the lining of this portion of the tunnel, about 900 feet in length, 
has been completed from the shaft to the portal, with the exception of 
a short distance at either end occuj^ied by pumps and an engine. 

The delivery of four million bricks, to be used in lining the tunnel, 
contracted for under an agreement with Stoddard & Hellier, of Bangor, 
Me., was comijleted during the year. The bricks cost $8 a thousand, 
and this price being favorable for the city, they were also used in build- 
ing the structures at the pumping-station. A second contract was made 
with the same parties for two million more bricks, to be delivei'ed during 
the coming season. A considerable quantity of cement has been pur- 
chased by the city, under competitive bids, at prices somewhat under 
the market rates. Eight thousand casks of Rosendale cement, at $1.37 
per cask, were obtained from F. O. Norton, of New York, under an 
agreement dated October, 1881. 

The very low temperature which prevailed from the beginning of the 
year to the middle of February caused ice to form to an unusual thick- 
ness in Dorchester bay, and caused considerable damage and expense, 
through the difficulty experienced in conveying fresh water, coal, and 
other supplies, to. the shafts. 

No fatal accident has occurred at the tunnel during the year, which is 
an unusually fortunate circumstance, considering the natui'e and magni- 
tude of the work. 

To recapitulate, the following table shows the amount of tunnel- 
work done and remaining to be done on Jan. 1, 1882: — 

Tunnel excavated from west shaft eastward 
'* " middle " westward 

" " " " " eastward 

" " " east •' westward 

" " " 4' " eastward 

Total excavated 5,913 



832 


feet 


1,417 


i< 


1,621 


<c 


1,126 


( t 


917 


it 



Eeport of City Engineer. , 43 

To be excavated between east and middle shaft ... 87 feet. 

west " " " . . . 1,004 " 



Total to be excavated 1.091 " 

Length of tunnel lined with brick-work, 844 feet. 

Section 3, Outfall Sewer and Moon Island Reservoir. 

Work on this section was discontinued just before the beginning ot 
the year, on account of the severity of the weather, and the harbor was 
frozen to an extent which prevented vessels reaching the wharf until 
the middle of February. At this time supplies for building a railroad 
began to arrive, and by April 8 the road was in working order, and 
earth was drawn out upon it. At. the westerly end of this section, on 
Squantum neck, about 400 feet of 11 X 12 feet sewer have been built 
during the season, making 600 I'eet now completed ; also a portion of the 
chamber connecting the tunnel with the outfall sewer. 

At the easterly end of the section, on Moon Island, portions of the 
outfall and discharge sewers, and of the outfall chamber, have been 
built. A quantity of ballast, rip-rap, and cut stones have also been 
delivered. 

Miscellaneous. 

"Work, under the contract with Chas. Linehan, for filling a roadway 
over the route of Section 3, South Boston sewer, on Hyde street, 
Washington avenue, and Von Hillern street, was completed during the 
season, and a final estimate was given August 5, 1881. 

Dorchester avenue, on the line of the intercepting sewer, was re- 
paved for one-half of its width,. including the sidewalk, by Horatio 
Gore & Co., under an agreement dated March 24, 1881. 

The price paid was fifty-five cents a yard for street paving, and ten 
cents a foot for setting edgestones and surfacing sidewalks. 

The testing of all cement used by the department or by contractors 
has formed, as heretofore, a branch of ofiice-work. Cement has also 
been tested for use upon the Water Works, Stony Brook Improvement, 
and Back-Bay Park. In all 6,199 tests have been made during the year, 
and, as a result of them, 15,010 bbls. of cement have been accepted and 
1,575 rejected. 



D.— PARKS. 

For the purpose of emljodying in this report a complete 
record of the work of this department for the past year, the 
followinof statement made to the Park Commissioners is re- 
printed from their annual report : — 

" Filling. 

" At the beginning of the year there was an uncompleted 
contract with the Boston & Albau}' Railroad Company, for 
the tilling of the boundary road between Longwood entrance 
and Huntington entrance. The work was begun July 1, 



44 City Document No. 52. 

1880, and was finally completed Jan. 27, 1881. The total 
amount of material delivered was 13,197 squares. The con- 
tract price was $3.45 ])er square. 

''The sujjplementary contract made by your Board, Nov. 
4, 1880, for the tilling of the roadway between Huntington 
entrance and Boylston street, was completed May 2(y, 1880. 
The total amount of material delivered under this contract 
was 10,260 squares. The contract price was $3.20 per 
square. 

"Under an arrangement Avith the Boston & Albany Rail- 
road Co., made shortly after the completion of the supple- 
mentary contract, 12,120 squares of tilling have been de- 
livered upon the park. The material was used to widen the 
roadway between the Beacon-entrance bridge and also the 
Lono^wood entrance, for gradinof around the Stonv-brook 
gate-chamber and on the roadway near the chamber. This 
work wtis completed Dec. 19, 1881. The price paid per 
square was $3.20. 

"The tilling of the Beacon entrance, under the contract 
made April 29, 1880, has not been prosecuted to any extent 
during the past year, the amount delivered being only 2,072 
squares. This work cannot l)e completed to advantage until 
the construction of the retainino-walls l)etween Common- 
wealth-avenue and the Beacon-entrance bridges ; and the 
contract now in force did not contemplate the filling above 
grade 17. 

"Bridges. 

" Boylston- Street Arch Bridge, over Park Water- Way. 

"The foundations and al)utments, to a height of 3.2 feet 
below the apparent springing line, have been com[)leted. A 
contract for two additional courses, aggregating 1 ft. 3 in. in 
height, has been made, and the delivery of the stones, under 
this contract, is practically completed, as only a few con- 
demned stones remain to be replaced. The work of laying 
these two courses of stones is to be at once commenced, if 
favorable weather should prevail. 

" Contracts have also l)een made with C. J. Ilall, of Belfast, 
jNIaine, foi" tiie red-granite voussoirs of both faces of the arch, 
and with the Cape Ann Granite Co., of Gloucester, Mass., 
for the seam-faced voussoirs to comi)lete the faces of the arch. 
The stones are to be furnished in time to commence the work 
of laying as soon as the season opens. 

"The centring for the arch is completed, and is stored in 
readiness to l)e placed in position as soon as the weather will 
permit. It was not deemed advisable to set up this centring 



Keport of City Engineer. 45 

in the fall, althoiiob it was completed, for the reason that the 
ice, which could not he prevented, except at large expense, 
from forming around and between the supports, would prob- 
ably- have damaged the structure, and any work which had 
been laid upon it could not have been [)roperly ]:)rotected 
during the winter. 

" Beacon- Entrance Bridge, over B. & A. B.B. 

" The foundations of the abutments and wing-walls of this 
bridge are completed, and have been for some time awaiting 
the delivery of the ashlar work for the abutments. As a 
measure of economy, and also to save time, it was decided to 
use the stones from the Beacon-Hill reservoir for this work ; 
but, as the bottom courses of the reservoir were also to be 
used for the bottom courses of the abutments, the removal 
and storing of the stones was necessary until these bottom 
courses could be reached in the process of taking down the 
reservoir. These courses have very recently been delivered . 
A side track has been laid by the B. & A. R.R. Co., so that 
the stones could be transferred from the point of delivery, on 
the north side of the railroad, to the south side, where they 
were needed first, and the work of buiklinoj the abutments 
has been commenced, and Avill l)e prosecuted whenever the 
weather will permit. 

"" The plans for the iron bridge will be finished in a short 
time, it being the intention to have the bridge completed as 
soon as the abutments are in readiness to receive it. 

^^ Boston & Albany Raihoad Bridge, over Park Water- 
Way . 

''The abutments and piers for about one-half of this bridge 
are completed, and the Avork upon the remainder is now 
being prosecuted l)y the contractors at night as well as day. 
The iron bridge is completed, except that the girders are not 
in the positions they will occupy when the masonry is fin- 
ished. The girders for two tracks rest upon the portions of 
the abutments and piers already completed, and the girders 
for the third track are upon timl^er trestle-work. Trains 
have been running over them for more tlian a month. It is 
expected that the masonry will be finished within six' weeks. 

" Beacon-Street and Co7nmonwealfh-Avenue Bridges. 

"The Beacon-street bridge, huilt under the direction of the 
Committee on Paving, was completed August 17, 1881, and, 
in connection with it, the temporary dam which enables the 



46 City Document No. 52. 

excavation of the Park water-way to be prosecuted without 
iiiterru})tion by the influx of the tide. As an additional pre- 
caution against flooding from this cause, the coft'er-dam used 
by the contractor for building this bridge has been allowed 
to remain, and will be kept intact until the excavation be- 
tween Beacon street and the B. & A. II. R. is completed. 

"The Commonwealth-avenue bridge abutments, built under 
the direction of the Committee on Streets, were completed 
Nov. 9, 18yl, and a contract for the iron bridge was made 
Nov. 5, 1881 ; the terms of the contract requiring its comple- 
tion on or before the first of February. It has, however, 
been impossible for the contractors for the bridge to olitain 
the material with which to construct it, although, finding it 
useless to attempt to obtain the iron from American mills, 
their order for it was placed in England immediately upon 
the award of the contract. It is not now expected that the 
bridge will be in place before the first of April. 

" Excavation of Water- Way. 

" This work has been actively prosecuted on the portion of 
water-way between Beacon street and the B. & A. R.R , 
since the com}iletion of the Beacon-street bridge. 

" Teams and a wire-rope machine excavator have been used ; 
and the Avork has been practically completed between Beacon 
street and Commonwealth avenue. It is the intention to have 
the excavation flnished by the time the railroad l)ridge is 
done ; but the limited capacity of the machine with which 
most of the work is necessarily done, as the bottom is too soft 
in -most places for teams to work, may prevent its completion 
at the intended time. 

" The steam-dredg-e and scows to be used for the excavation 
of the water-way in the portion of the park south of the 
railroad are now being built. The dredge is to be completed 
and ready for use on or before IVIarch 10, and the scows are 
beinff framed in the l)uildin2: on Alhanv street which has been 
used for the construction and storage of the centring for the 
Boylston-strcet arch bridge. 

" Covered Channel of Stony Brook. 

"There remain of this work 1,200 feet of the conduit to 
complete, and the su])erstructure of the gate-chamber. The 
conduit is being l)uilt at the rate of about 80 feet \)vv day ; 
the gate-chamber superstructure cannot be built to advantage 
until spring. 

"The conduit being of wood, work upon it has been prose- 
cuted in winter as well as summer, and the early comi)letion 



Repoet of City Engineer. 47 

of this entire work will remove the only remaining obstacle 
to the prosecution of the excavation and grading within the 
limits of the park." 

The table giving the number of vessels passing through 
the draw-bridges controlled by the City of Boston, during the 
year 1881, will be found in Appendix A. 

The table showing the width of draw-opening in the 
bridges over tide-water in this city is given in Appendix B. 
The openings have all been remeasured for this report. 

HENRY M. WIGHTMAN, 

City Engineer. 



48 



City Docibient No, 52. 



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