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Full text of "Annual report of the City Engineer"








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[Document 53 — 1883.] 



CITY OF ^^ BOSTON. 




ANNUAL REPORT 



CITY ENG-INEEK 



FOR THE YEAR 1882. 



Office of the City Engineer, City Hall, 

Boston, February 23, 1883. 
To the Honorable City Council: — 

In compliance with the sixth section of the ordinance 
relating to the Engineer's Department, the following report 
of the expenses and operations of the department for the 
year 1882 is respectfully submitted. 

The duties of the City Engineer may be classified under 
the following heads : — 

A. — Those pertaining to the City Engineer's Department 
proper, which consist in the superintendence of the filling of 
new streets and of districts, in the care and maintenance 
of bridges, in designing and superintending the construction 
of new bridges, retaining- walls, city wharves, etc., and in 
miscellaneous work called for by committees of the City 
Council. (City Engineer's Department.) 

B. — Superintendence of the Sudbury River, Cochituate, 
and Mystic Water Works, including charge of new con- 
structions for these works. (Water Works.) 



2 City Document No. 53. 

C. — Charge of the construction of a system of intercept- 
ing and outlet sewers. (Improved Sewerage.) 

D. — Charge of the engineering work in connection with 
the Back Bay and other })roposed parks. (Parks.) 

The expenses incurred mider the liead C, are paid wholly 
from a special appropriation, under the charge of the Joint 
Special Committee on Improved Sewerage. 

(A.) — City Engineer's Department. 

The following is a statement of engineering expenses from 
January 1, 1882, to January 1, 1883 : — 

Amount expended from department appropria- 
tion for 1881-82 $8,112 76 

Amount expended from department appropria- 
tion for 1882-83 22,996 84 



Total expended from department appropria- 
tions $31,109 60 

Condition of department appropriation : — 

Amount of appropriation for iinancial year 

1882-83 $32,000 00 

Amount expended to January 1,1883 . . 22,996 84 



Unexpended balance, January 1, 1883 . . $9,003 16 



CLASSIFICATION OF EXPENSES. 

Salaries of City Engineer, assistants, draughts- 
men, transitmen, levellers, rodmen, etc. . $28,505 S8 
Engineering instruments and repairs of same . 228 65 
Drawing-paper and materials . . . 323 12 
Stationery and printing-stock . . . 335 97 
Reference-books, maps, photographs andframes, 142 00 
Printing and binding . . . . . 131 73 
Travelling expenses, including horse-keeping, 

etc 725 89 

Incidental expenses, furniture and small sup- 
plies ....... 363 38 

" Blue Process " printing .... 173 03 

Committee expenses . . . . . 179 95 

Total $31,109 60 



Report of the City Engineer. 3 

The number of persons employed and paid from the de- 
partment appropriation was, on the first of January, 1882 
(inckiding the City Engineer), 23. The present number is 
20. Tiie operations of the department for the year, together 
with sucli oeneral information relating to tiie various works 
and structures, finished and in progress, as is thought to be 
of interest, are given in the following statements : — 



BRIDGES. 

"With the exception of Granite bridge, a comparatively 
small structure, none of the tide-water bridges have required 
very extensive repairs during the year. 

Several inland bridges in process of construction at the 
date of the last annual report, have been completed. These 
comprise the bridge on the Broadway extension over the 
Boston & Albany railroad, the Commonwealth avenue and 
Boston & Albany railroad bridges over the Park water-way, 
and the Beacon-entrance bridge over the Boston & All^any 
railroad. 

Work upon the Boylston-street arch bridge is now being 
prosecuted; the arch proper is . completely turned, and the 
spandrel walls are rapidly apju'oaching completion. 

The system of making the repairs upon the tide-water and 
inland bridges by day's labor has been continued as for 
several past 3xars. 

The services of Mr. S. S. Lewis as superintendent of re- 
pairs of the tide-water bridges were retained by the Com- 
mittee on Bridges. His compensation was fixed at $150 per 
month, to include the furnishing of a team and all ordinary 
tools. 

Carpenters have been paid $2.50 per day and laborers 
$2.00. 

The spruce lumber required for repairs has been furnished 
by Mr. John W. Leatherbee, the lowest bidder and con- 
tractor for the past six years. Under his contract for 1881, 
he has furnished 14,497 feet B. M. at $16.40 per M., and 
under his contract for 1882, 256,751 feet B. M. at $15.90 
per M. Other material used in making repairs has been 
purchased of various dealers at the lowest market rates. 

The painting of the tide-water bridges has been done by 
day's labor, under the supervision of Mr. A. H. Townsend, as 
foreman, from June 21st to Jul}^ 21st, and Mr. E. B. Perry 
from the latter date until Oct. 14th. 

The foreman was paid $3.50, painters $2.25 and $2.50, 
and laborers employed for cleaning $2.00 per day. The 



4 City Document No. 53. 

paint-stock was furnished by Dexter Brothers, the lowest 
bidders. Total cost of hibor, $3,017.13; materials, tools, 
etc., $940.55. 

The total cost of ordinary repairs on tide-water bridges 
made under the direction of this department was $31,959.33. 

All rei)airs made upon the inland bridges, in charge of 
the Superintendent of Streets, have been made by day's 
labor, under the direction of this department. Advantage 
has been taken of favorable contracts made for the supply of 
materials for the repair of the tide-water bridges to procure 
supplies for inland-l)ridge repairs at same prices. The total 
cost of repairs on inland bridges was $3,124.87. 

The records of the number of vessels passing through 
the draw-ways, time of passage, name, etc., have been kept 
by the superintendents of the several bridges in the same 
manner as last year. These monthly returns have been 
tabulated, and a summary will l)e found in Appendix A. 

The usual annual examination (required by Section 4 of 
Chapter 17 of the Revised Ordinances) of all bridges within 
the city limits, open to team and foot travel, has been made, 
and the resvilts of this examination respecting the condition 
of the bridges as to safety and need of renewal or repairs, 
are given in the succeeding pages. 

The following is a list of the bridges inspected. The 
total number is two more than last year. Three have been 
added to the list and one removed. The three added are 
the Commonwealth avenue. Beacon entrance, and Broadway ; 
the one removed was the Beacon street, for which the new 
bridge over the outlet of the Park pond has been substi- 
tuted. The old bridge has been torn up and its site filled 
with gravel. 

In the list those marked with an asterisk are over naviga- 
ble waters, and are each provided with a draw : — 

I. — Bridges wholly supported by Boston. 

Ashland street. Ward 23, over Boston & Providence 

Railroad. 
Athens street, over N.Y. & N.E. Railroad. 
Back-Bay park, over Boston & All)any Railroad. 
Beacon street, over outlet to Back-Bay ]:)ark pond. 
Berkeley street, over ])Oston & Albany Railroad. 
Berkeley street, over Boston & Providence Railroad. 
Blakemore street, over Boston & Providence Railroad, 

Ward 23. 
*Broadway, over Fort Point Channel. 
Broadway, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 



Report of the City Engineer. 5 

Bi'ookliiie avenue, over Muddy river, Ward 22. 
*Charles River, from Boston to Charlestown. 
*Chelsea (South), over South Channel, Mystic river. 
*Chelsea street, from East Boston to Chelsea. 

Columbus avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 
*Commercial Point, or Tenean, Ward 24. 

Commonwealth avenue, over outlet to Back-Bay park pond. 
*Con2fress street, over Fort Point Channel. 

Dartmouth street, over Boston & Albany and Boston & 
Providence Railroad. 
*Dover street, over Fort Point Channel. 
*Federal street, over Fort Point Channel. 

Ferdinand street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Huntington avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 
*Malden, from Charlestown to Everett. 
*Meridian street, from East Boston to Chelsea. 
*Mt. Washington avenue, over Fort Point Channel. 

Newton street, over Boston & Providence Railroad. 

Public Garden, foot-bridge. 

Shawmut avenue, over Boston & Al])any Railroad. 

Swett street, east of N.Y. & N.E. Railroad. 

Swett street, west of N.Y. & N.E. Railroad. 
*Warren, from Boston to Charlestown. 

West Chester park, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

West Chester park, over Boston & Providence Railroad. 

Wiuthrop, from Breed's Island to Winthrop. 



II. — Bridges of which Boston supports the Part 
WITHIN its Limits. 

*Cambridge street, from Brighton (Ward 25) to Cambridge. 

Central avenue, from Ward 24 to Milton. 
*Chelsea (North), from Charlestown to Chelsea. 
*Essex street, from Ward 25 (Brookline) to Cambridge. 
*Granite, from Dorchester (Ward 24) to Milton. 

Longwood avenue, from Ward 22 to Brookline. 

Mattapan, from Ward 24 to Milton. 

Milton, from Ward 24 to Milton. 
*Neponset, from Ward 24 to Quincy. 
*North Beacon street, from Ward 25 to Watertown. 
*North Harvard street, from Ward 25 to Cambridge. 

Spring street, from West Roxbury (Ward 23) to Ded- 
ham. 
*Western avenue, from Ward 25 to Cambridge. 
* Western avenue, from Ward 25 to Watertown. 



City Document No. 53. 



III. — Bridges of which Boston pays a Part of the 
Cost of Maintenance. 

Albany street, over Boston & Albany Eailroad. 
*Canal, from Boston to Cambridge. 

Dorchester street, over Old Colony Railroad. 
*Prison Point, from Charlestown to Cambridge. 
*West Boston, from Boston to Cambridge. 

IV. — Bridges supported by Railroad Corporations. 

Ist. — Boston (& Albariy Railroad. 

Brighton avenue. Ward 25. 
Harrison avenue. 
Market street. Ward 25. 
Tremont street. 
Washington street. 

2d. — Boston & Maine Railroad. 

Mystic avenue. 
Main street. 

3d. — Boston S Providence Railroad. 

Beech street. Ward 23. 

Bellevue street. Ward 23. 

Canterbury street. Ward 23. 

Centre street, or Hog Bridge, Ward 23. 

Centre and Mt. Vernon streets, Ward 23. 

Dudley avenue, Ward 23. 

Park street. Ward 23. 

4th. — Boston f Revere Beach ^ & Lynn Railroad. 
Everett street. 



5t]i. — Eastern Railroad. 



Mystic avenue. 
Main street. 



6th. — New York & New England Railroad, 

Broadway. 

Dorchester avenue. 

Fifth street. 

Forest Hill avenue, Ward 24. 



Report of the City Engineer. 7 

Fourth street. 

Harvard street, Ward 24. 

Norfolk " " " 

Norfolk " " " 

Second street. 

Silver street. 

Sixth street. 

Third street. 

Washington street, Ward 24. 

7th. — Old Colony Railroad. 

Adams street. 

Ashmont street and Dorchester avenue. 

Cedar Grove cemetery. 

Commercial street. 

Savin Hill avenue. 

Eecapitulation. 

I. Number wholly supported by Boston . . 35 
H. Number of which Boston supports the part with- 
in its limits ...... 14 

in. Number of which Boston pays a part of the cost 

of maintenance . . . . . .5 

IV. Number supported by Railroad Corporations : — 

1. Boston & Albany ...... 5 

2. Boston & Maine .2 

3. Boston & Providence ..... 7 

4. Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn .... 1 

5. Eastern ....... 2 

6. New York & New England .... 13 

7. Old Colony 5 

Total number ...... 89 



1.— BRIDGES WHOLLY SUPPORTED BY BOSTON. 

Ashland-steeet Bridge (over Boston & Providence 
Railroad, Ward 23). 

This bridge has been painted and the roadway has been 
sheathed. The almtments have needed repointing for the 
past two years ; otherwise the bridge and abutments are in 
excellent condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $442.74. 



City Document No. 53. 



Athens-street Bridge (over New York & New Eng- 
land Railroad) 

Has not required any repairs, and is in good order. 



Beacon-entrance Bridge (over Boston & Albany Rail- 
road). 

This is a new iron bridge of the deck pattern, and was 
completed September 30th, although not yet opened for 
public travel. The abutments were built of stones from 
the Beacon-Hill reservoir. The entire structure is of the 
most substantial cliaracter. A more detailed description of 
it is given in my report to the Park Commissioners. 



Beacon-street bridge (over Outlet of Back Bay Park 

Pond). 

No repairs have been made upon this bridge during the 
past year. It will require painting, and probably sheathing, 
the coming season. 

Berkeley-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
Railroad) . 

Although this is a bridge of insufficient strength for the 
travel of the thoroughfare upon which it is h>cated, no 
change for the worse has been observed in it, and it is appa- 
rently in good order. The only repairs required were upon 
the roadway sheathing. 

Total cost of repairs, $101.75. 



Berkeley-street Bridge (over Boston & Providence 

Railroad.) 

The wearing surface of the roadway has been renewed and 
the hard-pine under-floor recalked. 

The under-floor showed signs of decay, confined princi- 
pally to a small amount of rot on the edges of some of the 
planks. All rotten wood was removed, and the floor left in 
good condition. 

The iron-work and other portions of the bridge are in 
good order. 

Total cost of repairs, $1,029.16. 



Report of the City Engineer. 



Blakemore-street Bridge (oyer Boston & Providence 
Eailroad, Ward 23). 

This is a new iron bridge with granite masonry, abutments 
and wing-walls. The bridge was completed at the date of 
the last annual report, but had not been opened for travel, 
as the tilling of the approaches had not been done. The fill- 
ing was completed early in the year, and the Ijridge has been 
open to travel since. 

It will probably require painting this year ; otherwise it is 
in excellent condition. 



* Broadway Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

The principal repairs made during the year consisted in 
renewing the roadway sheathing, recalking the under-floor 
of the draAv, and painting. 

The tim1)er floor built last year to replace the iron plate 
and wood-pavement flooring of the column section on the 
Boston side of the channel has given good satisfaction, and 
has not required any expenditure for repairs. 

The iron plate and wood-pavement floor on the column 
section on the South Boston side of the channel has, as here- 
tofore, given considerable trouble, on account of the expan- 
sion of the wood blocks, caused by frost. 

To remedy this difficulty rows of the blocks have been 
taken out at intervals of about one hundred feet, and their 
places filled by planks fitted in such a way as to permit the 
expansion of the pavement without its being raised in waves, 
as has usually been the case. 

The remedy has proved successful so far as to prevent the 
former stoppages of travel from this expansion of the pave- 
ment in frosty weather ; but the wooden blocks are neverthe- 
less a source of annoyance, expense, and possible danger, 
and have proved extremely undesiraljle as a road surface for 
a bridge structure, either of iron or wood. 

The timber curbing in the gutters of the wood pavement 
section is rotten, and must be renewed soon. The under- 
floor of the concrete sidewalks is in bad condition, and will 
require more or less repairs the present year. The floor of 
the draw-pier will also require renewal to a considerable ex- 
tent. 

The sheet-piling of the draw-pier, to which attention has 
been called in previous reports, on account of its worm-eaten 
condition, has not shown any change for the worse. 

The substructure of the bridge has been painted for about 



10 City Document No. 53. 

three-fourths of its length with red lead. The remainder of 
it and the superstructure should be painted in the spring. 
Total cost of repairs, $4,841.94. 

Broadway Bridge (over the Boston & Albany Rail- 
road). 

The abutments and retaining- walls were ready to receive 
this iron bridge early in the year. There still remained some 
grading of the approaches to be done by the contractors, 
Messrs. John Cavanagh & Co., and this work was tinally 
completed by the city in connection with its own filling out- 
side the lines embraced by the contract. A final settlement 
was made with the contractors Sept. 16, 1882; the total 
amount paid was $64,228.50. 

The iron bridge was completed by Mr. D. H. Andrews, 
the contractor, in April, about three and one-half months 
behind the contract time. 

The cost of the iron bridge was $29,366.80, exclusive of 
the fences. The fences were furnished and erected by the 
Manly & Cooper Company, of Philadelphia, at a cost of $1,860. 

Brookline-avenue Bridge (over Muddy River). 

This small timber bridge will be destroyed on the com- 
pletion of the Muddy-river covered channel, a work now in 
progress and probably to be completed the present year. 

It is in safe condition and has cost nothing for repairs. 

* Charles-river Bridge (from Boston to Charles- 
town). 

The condition of the draw of this bridge is not such as 
could be wished in view of the much larger amount of travel 
which will probal)ly go over it on account of the reconstruc- 
tion and widening of Warren bridge. The draw foundation 
is in very poor condition, and although all the work Avhich 
could ])e done to any advantage while the draw was in use 
has been done, much more is required to make the founda- 
tion what it ought to be for a structure of this kind. 

As soon as the recoirstructed Warren bridge is opened for 
travel, so that this bridge can be out of use for a time with- 
out great inconvenience, an entirely new draw foundation 
above the piles should be built. 

The draw has received two severe blows in nearly the 
same place from passing vessels, and one girder is bent con- 
siderably. If it should be struck again with so much force' 
as in cither of the other cases it would probably be disabled. 



Eepoet of the City Engineer. 11 

If the draw is to be retained, — a measure of somewhat 
doubtful expediency if the foundation is renewed, — steam- 
power should be applied for moving it oft' and on, and also 
as an aid to vessels passing through the draAv-way. 

The bridge, as a whole, may be said to be in fair condition. 

Total cos't of repairs, $2,438.05. 

* Chelsea Bridge (South) (over South Channel, 
Mystic River). 

Only the usual small repairs have been made upon this 
bridge, and it is now in good condition. 
Total cost of repairs, $314.76. 

* Chelsea-street Bridge (from East Boston to 
Chelsea). 

The draw to this bridge was replanked early in the year, 
but no other repairs have been made upon it. The fixed 
portion of the bridge is in good condition and the draw is in 
good enough condition for street travel. If the draw had to 
be opened frequently for the passage of vessels it would soon 
require extensive repairs or entire renewal ; but as it is 
seldom or never opened, although always kept in condition 
for use, it is probable that it will answer its purpose for some 
time to come. 

Total cost of repairs, $149.90. 

Columbus- AVENUE Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
Railroad). 

The roadways have been replanked. The bridge needs 
painting, but is otherwise in excellent condition. 
Total cost of repairs, $81.40. 

*COMMERCIAL PoiNT, OR TeNEAN BrIDGE (WaRD 24). 

The plank flooring of this bridge has been entirely renewed 
the past season, and the structure is now in good order. 

COMMONWEALTH-A VENUE BrIDGE (OVER AVATEE-WAY, BaCK 

Bay Park.) 

This new iron bridge was completed by the contractors, 
Messrs. Cook, Rymes, & Co., in May. 

It is an iron-plate girder bridge of the deck pattern, and 
cost, exclusive of the fence, $9,803.59. 

It has not been opened for public travel, as the Common- 



12 City Document No. 53. 

wealth-avenue extension is not completed. The bridge has, 
however, been in use for the passage of gravel trains during the 
filling of the avenue and adjacent lands. 

No fences have yet been placed ui)on the bridge, as it was 
thought desiral)le to aAvait the ado})tion of some style of fence 
by the Park Commissioners for the portions of the Beacon 
entrance, which require fencing, and then make the bridge 
fences of a similar pattern. 

The bridge is a thoroughly substantial structure, and has 
shown no signs of weakness under the unusual strains caused 
by the passage over it of the gravel trains and heavy engines 
which draw them. 

* Congress-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

A new centre-pivot bearing, by which the weight of the 
draw is carried upon flat steel-plates 12| inches in diameter, 
has replaced the steel friction-roll centre-bearing, which was 
not only considerably worn, but was unsatisfactory in its 
action. The new centre-bearing woi-ks well ; the old one will 
be retained for use in case of accident. 

The planking on the sides of the water-ways, which was 
badly worn by the passage of such large numbers of vessels, 
has been partially renewed with planks of greater thickness ; 
this work should be continued and completed the coming 
season. 

Under the direction of the Harbor and Land Commis- 
sioners the channel has been dredged to a depth of sixteen feet 
below low-water as far as the In'idge. As there are but twelve 
feet in depth at low water in the draw-wa^'s and above the 
bridge, vessels drawing more than this amount may acci- 
dentally get caught in the draw-way. The sixteen-foot depth 
should be continued to such distance above the bridge as to 
render such an occurrence impossible, as the stoppage of 
travel over this bridge causes the greatest inconvenience to 
the large traffic over it to and from the railroad freight-yards 
and steamship-docks on the South Boston side of the channel. 

The machinery for turning the draw has been kept in good 
repair, and the bridge, as a whole, is in good condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $3,554.45. 

Dartmouth-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany and 
Boston & Providence Railroads). 

The iron-work above the floor has been painted, and the 
roadways sheathed. The In-idge is in good order. 
Total cost of repairs, $761.10. 



Report of the City Engineer. 13 



* Dover-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

The draw-way of this bridge was narrower than the law 
required by more than a foot. It has been made the full 
legal width of thirty-six feet at the level of high water. 

Two of the main trucks under the draws have been re- 
moved on accoi'.ut of wear, and two spare trucks substituted 
for them. The old trucks have been put in order, and are 
ready for use when required. 

The roadways of both draws have been sheathed, and the 
entire bridge painted. It is now in good condition. 

Total cost of repairs, §3,248.08. 

* Federal-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

The sides of the draw-ways of this bridge have been 
trimmed off so as to make the opening the full legal width 
of thirty-six feet. 

The bulkheads at the ends of the draws have been rebuilt 
with new timber, a considerable amount of repaving has 
been done in the bridge roadway, and the machinery for 
working the draws has been thoroughly repaired. 

For a wooden bridge that is growing old its condition is 
fair, — the floor is known to he badly decayed in places, and 
the draws will not last many more years. 

Total cost of repairs, $3,040.07. . 

Ferdinand-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
Railroad). 

The roadway has been sheathed, and the bridge proper is 
in good condition. The bulkhead referred to in last year's 
report is still in an unsafe condition, nothing having been 
done to improve it. 

Total cost of repairs, $51.26. 

Huntington-a venue Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
Railroad) 

Is in good order, no repairs have been made upon it the 
past year. 

*Malden Bridge (from Charlestown to Everett). 

A small section of this bridge rests upon an old timber 
crib, which it was found impracticable to drive piles through 
when the bridge was lebuilt in 1875. This section has settled 
somewhat, but not enough to require any work to be done 



14 City Document No. 53. 

upon it yet. The cross-ti miners, which transfer tlie weight of 
the draw to the centre pivot, are badly bent. With the ex- 
ception of these defects the bridge is in good order, although 
only slight repairs have been made. 
Totafcost of repairs, $80.32. 

* Meridian-street Bridge (from East Boston to 
Chelsea). 

The turning-gear, tracks, and wheels of the draw have 
been put in good order, and a small amount of paving has 
been done on the bridge. 

The plank floor, bulkheads, and railing of the fixed por- 
tion of the l)ridge are in poor condition. 

Total cost of "repairs, $451.32. 

*Mt. Washington-avenue Bridge (over Fort Point 

Channel) . 
The draw-pier has been strengthened at one end, and will 
require similar work at the other end in the spring. The 
draw has been sheathed twice, and the entire bridge has been 
painted. It is now in good condition. 
Total cost of repairs $2,164.52. 

Newton-street Bridge (over Boston & Providence 

Railroad). 
The abutments have been repointed. No other repairs 
have been made. The bridge is in good order. 

Public Garden Foot-Bridge. 

The stone masonry of this ]>ridge has needed repointing 
for several years ; otherwise the bridge is in good condition. 

Siiawmut-avknue Bridge (over Boston & Albany 

Railroad). 

The roadway has been newly sheathed, and the concrete 
sidewalk has been repaired to a slight extent. The bridge 
is in excellent order. 

Total cost of repairs, $283.97. 

Swett-street Bridges (over South-Bay sluices). 

The northerly bridge has been sheathed and the sidewalks 
on both put in order. The al)utmcnt Avings, Avhich are of a 
temporary character, show some signs of weakness ; other- 
wise the bridges are in fair condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $185.85. 



Eeport of the City Engineer. 15 

* Warr"en Bridge (from Boston to Charlestown) . 

Only the most necessary repairs have been made on this 
bridge, owing to the uncertainty of its future as an avenue 
of travel. The action of the City Government in granting 
the appropriation for widening and reconstructing the bridge 
will render any further large expenditure in the way of 
repairs unnecessary. 

There are two particulaly w'eak piles in the bridge, which 
may do service until the new structure is completed, but 
they will require careful watching in the meantime. 

During the year the pavement has been extensively 
patched, the concrete sidewalk resurfaced, and the usual 
minor repairs made. 

The general condition of the brids^e is very poor. 

Total cost of repairs, $1,870.25. " 

"^ West Chester Park Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
r Railroad) 

^ Is in good order ; no repairs have been made upon it during 
the year. 

West Chester Park Bridge (over Boston & Provi- 
dence Railroad). 

The roadway sheathing has been patched and the trusses 
cleaned. The bridge is in good order. 
Total cost of repairs, $51.68. 

Winthrop Bridge (from Breed's Island to Winthrop) . 

The under floor has been recalked, the roadway sheathed, 
and railing painted. One of the main piles, near the centre 
of the bridge, has mysteriously disappeared. The bridge 
has been strengthened at this weak point and is now in good 
condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $987.45. 

II. — BRIDGES OF WHICH BOSTON SUPPORTS 
THE PART WITHIN ITS LIMITS. 

* Cajubridge-street Bridge (from Ward 25 to 

Cambridge). 

The buoy has been reset, the draw newly sheathed, and 
the Superintendent's house repaired. The bridge is now in 
fair condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $253.46. 



16 City Document No. 53. 



Central-avenue Bridge (over Neponset River, Dor- 
chester Lower Mills). 

With the exception of new roadway sheathing, no repairs 
have been made on this bridge. It will require painting the 
comino- season ; but is in other respects in excellent condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $128.69. 

* Chelsea Bridge (North) (from the Mystic River 

Corporation's Wharf to Chelsea) 

Is in excellent condition, and only ordinary repairs have 
been made upon it during the 3^ear. 
Total cost of repairs, $420.16. 

* Essex-street Bridge (from Ward 25 to Cambridge). 

The portion of this bridge maintained by Cambridge has 
been rebuilt during the past year. The draw is of the leaf 
or lifting pattern, and the half on the Boston side was old 
and in poor condition. Advantage was taken of the stoppage 
of travel over the bridge by Cambridge to substitute a new 
leaf for the old one on the Boston side of the channel. The 
roadway of the bridge was also newly sheathed. The under- 
floor of the roadway was found in much poorer condition 
than was anticipated, considering that it has been down but 
four years and consists of hard-pine plank, calked and paid. 
It was rotten in many places, and although repaired to some 
extent was in such condition that entire renewal would be 
cheaper in the end than thorough repair. The floor will 
probably be safe for a few years, but will require careful 
watching. No reason is known for the early decay of this 
floor ; an examination of other bridge-floors, similarly con- 
structed and much older, shows them to ])e in good condition. 
That the timber of which it is composed might not have been 
sufficiently seasoned ; that it was made from trees from which 
the sap had been drawn, or that it was overheated in trans- 
portation, furnish the only reasons which have been suggested 
for its failure. 

Total cost of repairs, $2,860.62. 

* Granite Bridge (from Ward 24 -To Milton). 

This bridge has been rebuilt above the pile-"\vork with new 
materials. The draw has l^een repaired, and the entire bridge 
is now in good condition. 

The repairs consisted of splicing three defective piles, 



Report of the City Engineer. 17 

putting on new girder-caps at a lower grade than the old 
ones in all the bents of piles ; a new hard-pine floor, 4 inches 
thick, calked and paid, and covered with 2-inch spruce ; and 
a new sidewalk, 5 feet wnde, on one side of the bridge. The 
draw was also replanked, and the approach to the bridge 
newly fenced. All of the work was done by the repair-gang, 
under the immediate supervision of Mr. Lewis, the foreman. 

The portion of the bridge in Milton was rebuilt, on sub- 
stantially the same plan, mider the direction of the Road 
Commissioners. 

Total cost of repairing Boston's portion, $2,350.93. 



LoxGwooD-AVExuE Beidge (feom Ward 22 TO Brook- 
line) 

Is in fair condition ; no repairs have been made upon it the 
past year. 

Mattapan Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton). 

A w^eak structure, in fair condition ; no repairs have been 
made during the past season. 

Milton Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton)'. 

Slight repairs have been made on the sidewalks. It is 
probable that the floor is somewhat rotten, as it is old, but 
no signs of weakness have been noticed. A careful exami- 
nation of it will be made early in the season to determine its 
condition. The iron-work needs painting ; otherwise the 
bridge is apparently in good condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $7.27. 

*Neponset Bridge (from Ward 24 to Quincy). 

Only small repairs have been required. The bridge is in 
good order. 

Total cost of repairs, $93.86. 

* North Beacon-street Bridge (from Ward 25 to 
Watertown). 

A new railing is needed on this bridge ; otherwise it is in 
fair condition. No repairs have been made upon it the past 
year. 



18 City Document No. 53. 



* North Harvard-street Bridge (from Ward 25 to 

Cajibridge.) 

The dolphin on the down-stream side of the bridge was 
damaged by vessels, and has been repaired, so that it is now 
in fair condition. The contemplated dredging operations 
in the vicinity of this bridge by the United States Govern- 
ment will render the dolphin useless as soon as they are 
done, and it should then be replaced by a buoy. It will 
probably be a constant source of expense until that time, 
owing to its exposed position and careless use by vessels. 

The sheathing on the bridge roadway has been patched, 
and the counterbalance of the draw increased in weight. 

The bridge is now in good order. 

Total cost of repairs, $284.25. 

Spring-street Bridge (from Ward 23 to Dedham) 

Is a stone arch bridge in good order ; no repairs have been 
required. 

* Western-avenue Bridge (from Ward 25 to Cam- 

bridge). 

The roadway of this bridge has been newly sheathed, a new 
buoy put in place, and the superintendent's building repaired. 
The bridge is now in good condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $274.07. 

* Western- avenue Bridge (from Ward 25 to Water- 

town) . 

Attention has been called in last year's and several former 
reports to the obstruction to navigation caused by the bad 
position of this draw in reference to the channel. It re- 
mains in the same condition as last year, and will probably 
continue to do so until the Watertown authorities are im- 
pressed with the necessity for a change in its location. 

The draw is often twisted and racked by passing vessels, 
and the shafting has l)cen removed and straightened twice 
during the year from this cause. 

The sheathing and part of th eunder-floor have been renewed, 
but the abutment remains in the unstable condition reported 
last year. The bridge proper and the draw are in fair con- 
dition. 

The total cost of repairs, $304.70. 



Report of the City Engineer. 19 



III. —BRIDGES FOR MAINTENANCE OF WfflCH 
BOSTON PAYS A PART OF THE COST. 

Albany-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
Railroad). 

The bad condition of this bridge and its abutments was 
fully described in last year's report. No special change for 
the worse in the condition of this structure has been noted. 

The retaining-wall between the westerly abutment and the 
Broadway extension will have to be rebuilt in connection with 
the raising of the grade of Albany street at its junction with 
the extension. The abutments of the bridg-e ought to be re- 
built at the same time to avoid closing the street to travel 
more than once. If this work is done a new bridge will 
probably become necessary, as the old one is not worth 
putting back again if removed. 

* Canal Bridge (from Boston to Cambridge) . 

* Prison-Point Bridge (from Charlestown to 
Cambridge). 

* West-Boston Bridge (from Boston to Cambridge) . 

The Canal and Prison-Point bridges are in fair condition. 
The West Boston bridge will require somewhat extensive re- 
pairs the coming season. (For further details, see report of 
the Commissioner for Boston, City Doc. No. 15, 1883.) 

Dorchester-street Bridge (over Old Colony 
Railroad) 

Has required no repairs, and is in good condition. 

IV. — BRIDGES SUPPORTED BY RAILROAD 
CORPORATIONS. 

The main truss of the Ashland-street bridge, over the 
Shawmut branch of the Old Colony Railroad, is out of line 
and grade, and looks overloaded. Beech-street bridge, on 
the Dedham branch of the Boston & Providence Railroad, is 
old and poor, and is supported by temporary props from the 
road-bed. A new iron bridge has replaced the old wooden 
bridge on Canterbury-street, Ward 23, over the Boston & 
Providence Railroad . 

The remaining bridges, supported by railroad corporations 
given in the list, are in good order or fair condition, and 
require no special mention. 



20 City Document No. 53. 



MISCELLANEOUS WOEK AND CONSTRUCTIONS 

IN 1882. 

Atlantic-avenue Sidewalk. 

When this avenue was built, wherever it crossed the head 
of a dock a retaining or sea-wall was constructed on a line 
24 feet from the line of the avenue ; the sidewalk was built 
on pile-work which extended to within 4 feet of the line. 
On the line of the avenue across all of the docks an oak-pile 
and hard-pine timber fender-guard was built. 

The sidewalk and fender-guard thus constructed aggre- 
gates 1,450 feet in length, and have been thoroughly recon- 
structed and repaired during the past season. 

The work consisted principally in building new fences, 
outside bulkheads, and renewal of plank flooring where it 
was rotten. The floor was found in good condition except in 
a few places, a result undou])tedly to be attributed to the fact 
that it was creosoted or treated with "dead oil" vapor at the 
time it was laid. Although the treatment was very imper- 
fect, as the creosoting process had at that date (1869-70) 
been but a short time in use in this city, yet, without it, 6 
inch spruce-plank, covered with 18 inches of gravel as this 
was, could not have lasted probably for more than one-half of 
the number of years which have since elapsed. 

The total cost of the stock and carpenters' work for the 
repairs was $2,143.62. 



D-STREET Extension. 

Under this head is included all the work done by the Old 
Colony Railroad Comixuiy, to fulfil its contract with the city, 
dated Dec. 28, 1881, and also the building of a culvert or 
passage-way under and across the raih'oad from E street to 
Ames street. 

The railroad company's contract required the building of 
granite-masonry abutments on the lines of D street Avhere it 
crossed the railroad, the building of an iron bridge upon them 
to carry the railroad over the street, the building of retaining- 
walls wherever it was necessary to prevent the flliing of the 
road-bed from encroaching upon land not owned b}'^ the com- 
pany, and in general all the work necessary to give the city 
a clear headway of 13 feet above grade 10, city base, under 
the railroad on the lines of D street extended. The work 
was to be completed Nov. 15, 1882, and the city was to pay 
for its proportion of the cost, $45,000. 



Report of the City Engineer. 21 

The work has been very actively prosecuted by the railroad 
company during the past year, and it was practically com- 
pleted on Nov. 22d. A final estimate and payment Avas made 
Feb. 12th of this year. 

The masonry of the abutments and retaining-walls is of the 
most sul:»stantial character, fully up in most respects to the 
standard of such work as done by the city, and the entire 
improvement has been carried on by the compauy's officials 
apparently with the desire to do the best possible work of 
the class required without reference to the fact that the terms 
of the contract might permit them to make it less expensive. 

The grading of D street and its extension, to conform to 
the bridge built ijy the railroad company, is the only work 
now remaining to be done to render this much-needed avenue 
available for public travel. 

While the work under the railroad company's contract was 
in progress, a petition was presented to the City Council for 
the construction of a passage-way under and across the rail- 
road between E street and Ames street. The petition was 
favorably considered, and an appropriation of $600 was made 
to construct a timber passage-way. It was afterwards deemed 
desirable l^y the Committee on Streets to have a more per- 
manent structure built, and a further appropriation of $600 
was obtained. 

The structure, as built, consists of an arched passage-way or 
culvert 4 feet 6 inches wide, and 7 feet high, constructed 
entirely of hydraulic cement concrete. The foundations ex- 
teud through several feet of mud to hard clay, and for them 
American cement concrete was used. Above the foundations 
the structure consists principally of English Portland cement 
concrete. Two or three hundred dollars could be advanta- 
geously spent in improving the approaches to this passageway, 
and in making provision for lighting it with gas at night. 

East Boston Ferries. 

By request of the Board of Directors of these ferries, sur- 
veys, plans, estimates, and specifications were made for 
building new slips on the Boston side of the North ferry. 
Plans were also made for a new foundation and spring for 
the shore end of the southerly drop. 

The city's lot at this ferry is very narrow, rendering a 
radical change in the form of the slips and piers a necessity 
if provision was made for the dockage of two boats at the 
same time. The form of pier desired for the sides of the 
slips was decided upon by the Board of Directors ; and 
in the plans and specifications for the work furnished by 



22 City Document No. 53. 

this department every provision that could be made for in- 
creasing their strength and durability was adopted. The 
outside pier of eacli slip consists of two rows of oak-piles, 
the inner one sheathed Avith maple-planks four inches in 
thickness, placed vertically and securely treenailed to oak 
girders bolted to the piles. The piles of the outer row Avere 
strongly connected together by lines of oak-girders bolted to 
them. 

The centre pier consists of two rows of piles, the piles of 
each row being connected together by oak-girders. Both 
faces of the centre pier were sheathed with maple planks in 
the same manner as the faces of the piers opposite to them. 
The piles of every row were chained together at their tops 
with heavy iron chains. 

Base-lines and grades for the work were given by this de- 
partment ; but the construction was in charge of a competent 
inspector, appointed by and under the direction of the 
Board of Directors. 

St. Charles-street Eetaining-Wall. 

In June, plans and specifications were prepared for build- 
ing a retaining-wall on the line of the Boston & Albany Rail- 
road across the end of St. Charles street. 

Proposals for doing the work were received July 13th, 
but, being greatly in excess of the estimated cost, they were 
rejected, and the work readvertised, proposals being received 
the second time July 27th ; again the price was considered 
too high, and it was decided to do the work by day's labor. 
Work was begun at once, and completed on November 24th. 

The wall has a foundation of spruce piles, driven 3 feet 
apart lengthwise of the wall, by 2 feet 6 inches and 3 feet 
apart in the other direction. They were driven at an incli- 
nation to the vertical of 1 inch in 12 ; the tops were cut ofi' at 
grade 3 feet 6 inches above city base. A foundation course 
of concrete masonry 3 feet 6 inches in depth, 11 feet wide on 
the l)ottom, and 8 feet on top was built on the piles surround- 
ing them to a depth of (> inches below their tops. The con- 
crete was mixed in the proportion of one part cement to two 
parts of sand and five of gravel, Portland cement being 
used for a shell of one foot in thickness on the outside of the 
mass, and llosendale cement for the interior. The top of the 
concrete is six inches below the surfiicc of the earth in front. 
On this is a wall of granite masonry, laid in cement, feet 6 
inches wide on the bottom, 3 feet (J inches wide on top, and 
11 feet 1 inch high, surmounted by a cut-granite coping 1 
foot 8 inches hiffh. The wall is ballasted with broken con- 



Eeport of the City Engineer. 23 

Crete. The granite and broken concrete were brought from 
Beacon-hill reservoir. On top of the wall is a close board- 
fence 5 feet high. 

The lowest bid received for doing the work Avas $4,790. 
Its cost by day's labor was $3,074.01. 



West Rutland square and Durham-street Retaining- 
Walls, and Foot-Bridge over Boston & Providence 
Railroad. 

These walls are located, one on each side of the Boston & 
Providence Railroad, at the ends of West Rutland square 
and Durham street, these streets being in line with each 
other. 

,The work was advertised at the same time as the St. 
Charles-street wall, with the same results ; no satisfactory 
bids being received, it was therefore decided to do it 
by day's labor. It was begun immediately, and is now com- 
pleted. The foundation of each wall consists of spruce piles, 
spaced 3 feet by 2 feet 6 inches apart, driven at an inclination 
to the vertical of 1 in 12, and cut off at grade 4 feet above 
city base. On the piles is a mass of concrete 7 feet wide and 
4 feet 6 inches high, mixed and deposited in the same manner 
as at St. Charles street. On the concrete is a wall of e:ranite 
masonry laid in cement, 5 feet 6 inches wide on the bottom, 
3 feet 6 inches wide on top, and 9 feet 5 inches high, with a 
coping on top 1 foot 5 inches high ; the whole is surmounted 
by a close board-fence 5 feet high. Buttresses were built on 
the backs of the walls so as to give sufficient foundation for 
the iron foot-bridge which has been erected. The wall was 
ballasted with broken concrete. The granite and broken 
concrete were brought from Beacon-hill reservoir. 

The iron foot-bridge over the Boston & Providence Rail- 
road at this point is a through bridge, and rests upon iron 
piers built upon the retaiiiing-walls. The piers are made of 
wrought-iron posts, thoroughly braced together, and are 10 
feet 10| inches high. The tops of the piers, which are on a 
level with the floor of the bridge, are reached by stair- 
ways 'from each side of each street-. These stairways are of 
wrought-iron, excepting the stair treads, which are of hard- 
pine. 

The trusses of the bridge, two in number, are of the 
riveted bowstring type, have eight panels each, and are 69 
feet 7 inches long over all, and 10 feet deep at centre. 

Cross floor-beams of 8-inch channel-iron are riveted to 
the trusses at their panel-points, and on these rest hard- 



24 City Document No. 53. 

pine stringers 3 inches by 8 inches, whicli support a flooring 
of 1 J-inch hard-pine phmk, phmed and rabbetted. 

The lower hiteral system is of angle iron, and the top 
chords are braced together for four panels at centre of bridge. 
The strain from the top bracing is transferred to the lower 
lateral system by special vertical bracings placed one panel 
each side of centre of bridge. 

The stairways, piers, and bridge are provided with gas- 
pipe railings, connected to cast-iron posts and to the bridge 
trusses. 

The bridge was furnished and erected by the Boston 
Bridge Works, D. H. Andrews, Engineer, and cost $2,370. 

The cost of the retaining-walls was $7,227.21. The lowest 
bid received when advertised was $9,497.73. 

Falmouth-street Filling. 

Work was begun on September 1st, by the Boston & Al- 
bany Railroad Co., on the tilling of Falmouth street, between 
Newton street and West Chester park. The material was 
brouo^ht from Newton where the Railroad Co. were makinof 
some changes in the location of their tracks. Work was 
stopped on November 16th, on account of the exhaustion of 
the source of supply of earth, but was resumed on January 
25th, with gravel from Riverside. The work is not yet com- 
pleted. There were deposited to January 1, 1,539 squares of 
filling, at a cost of $3.20 per square. 

Paving-Yaed Wharf at Charlestown. 

The bulkhead forming one side of this wharf has been for 
some time in a dilapidated condition. It became necessary 
the past season either to rebuild the old bulkhead or build a 
new one outside of it. The latter alternative was adopted, 
and a new bulkhead was constructed, partly with old oak 
piles from the Mt. Washington-avenue bridge and partly 
with new spruce piles. The space between the old and new 
bulkheads was then filled with ashes. 

Tyler-street Retaining-Walls. 

The raising of the grade of Tyler street, in connection with 
the extension of Broadway, involved the building of retain- 
ing walls on both sides of the street, on the rising grade. 
These walls were built by day's labor, and the stone used 
was furnished from the Beacon-hill reservoir. The wall on 
the northerly side of the street is about 100 feet in length, 
and that on the southerly side about 40 feet. 

The cost of the work was $2,987.36. 



Keport of the City Engineer. 25 

In General. 

A considerable amount of Avork of a miscellaneous char- 
acter has been clone during the year. Under this head may 
be classed surveys and estimates of quantities of materials 
required for filling the Prison-Point flats for the Board of 
Health ; plans for extending and relocating one pier on the 
easterly side of the South ferry, East Boston side ; plans and 
specifications for a new tank for East Boston ferries ; estimates 
of cost of raisino- o-vades of Beacon street and Brookline 
avenues, to avoid grade crossings of the Boston & Albany Rail- 
road ; plans, estimates of cost, and models of various methods 
of providing increased bridge facilities between Boston and 
Charlestown ; repairs of pile-work and capping of South 
Paving-yard wharf, etc. 

In the draughting-room the usual large amount of work of 
a general character, such as copying, tracing, blue-prinlirsg, 
and revising plans, has been done. Plans and specifications 
for the following work have also been made : — 

Beacon Entrance bridge over Boston & Albany Railroad, 
Back Bay park. 

Foot-bridge over Boston & Providence Railroad at West 
Rutland square. 

New centre for Congress-street brido-e draw. 

New centre for West Boston bridge draw. 

Iron-work, etc., connected with the engines and boilers, 
and their foundations, at Improved Sewerage pumping-sta- 
tion. 

All inspection of the above work, both in the shops and 
during erection, has been done by Mr. John E. Cheney, 
designer and principal draughtsman, and his assistants. The 
erection of the Blakemore-street, Common wealth- avenue, 
and Broadway-extension iron bridges was under the same 
supervision. 

B. —WATER-WORKS. 

Sudhury-River Reservoirs, Farm Pond, and Lalce Co- 
chituate. — On January 1, 1882, Reservoirs Nos. 2 and 3 
were full ; Reservoir No. 1 was empty, the water having 
been drawn off for the purpose of repairing the 48-inch pipe 
leading from Dam 2 to the gate-chamber at Dam 1. On 
January .3, Reservoir No. 1 commenced to fill, and on Janu- 
ary 11 water was flowing over the crest of the dam. All of 
the reservoirs remained full until July 1. During July and 
August Reservoir No. 2 was lowered very rapidly, and on 
September 3 it was practically empty. Reservoir No. 3, which 



26 City Document No. 53. 

had also been falling during the month of August, continued to 
fall until September 22, when its surface was 7.48 feet below 
the crest of the dam. Reservoir No. 1 was drawn upon for 
the city's supply from July 26 to August 5, about 160,000,- 
000 gallons being taken for that purpose, lowering its surfsice 
about four feet. Since the latter date no water has been 
drawn from this reservoir, except the 1,500,000 gallons per 
day which are allowed to run mto the river. 

During the month of September rain-fall amounting to 
8.74 inches raised the surface of Reservoir No. 2 about 
11.5 feet. 

During the month of October, and until November 24, 
w^ater for the city's supply was drawn from Reservoir No. 2, 
and Reservoir No. 3 was allowed to fill. At the latter date 
Reservoir No. 2 was 11.41 feet, and Reservoir No. 3 was 
2.20 feet below the crests of their dams. From November 
24 to December 27 water was drawn from Reservoir No. 3, 
and its surface lowered 5.97 feet. Reservoir No. 2 during 
the same time had risen 12.12 feet. At the present time, 
January 1, 1883, Reservoir No. 1 is 154.66 feet; Reservoir 
No. 2, 165.65 feet; and Reservoir No. 3, 167.96 feet above 
tide-marsh level. 

From January until the middle of April the water in Farm 
pond was kept at about grade, 146.00, in order that the 
water from the reservoirs might be run through the tempo- 
rary channel. Since April 20 the pond has been kept at or 
near 149.25. 

Lake Cochituate, on January 1, 1882, was 128.27 feet above 
tide-marsh level, or 6.09 feet below high water ; on Febru- 
ary 21 the lake was so full that waste was begun at the out- 
let-dam. 

The lake remained at or near high-water mark until June 8, 
after which time it gradually fell, and on December 22 it 
reached the lowest point during the year (126.25), 5.22 feet 
above the conduit invert. 

Mystic Lake. — At the beginning of the year 1882 the 
lake was full, and it remained at or near high-water mark 
until the hrst of July. During July and August the surface 
fell, and on Septeml)er 11 it was 2.4 feet above tide-marsh 
level, or 11 inches above the top of the conduit; October 1 
it had risen to grade, 4.15 ; November 1, 5.42 ; December 1, 
5.43 ; and January 1, 1883, 6.02 feet above tide-marsh 
level . 

Consumption. — The average daily consumption from the 
combined works, for each month, has been as follows : — 



Report of the City Engineer. 27 





Sudbury nnd 
Cochituatc Works. 


Mystic Works. 


Total. 


January 


. 32,151,100 


7,816,200 


39,967,300 


February 


. 34,662,300 


7,937,300 


42,599,600 


March . 


. 32,256,300 


6,573,700 


38,830,000 


April . 


. 30,827,000 


5,946,100 


36,773,100 


May . . 


. 28,738,000 


5,793,600 


34,531,600 


June 


. 33,178,400 


6,664,400 


39,842,800 


July . 


. 30,992,600 


6,881,400 


37,874,000 


August . 


. 34,149,300 


6,912,200 


41,061,500 


September . 


. 31,691,600 


5,964,100 


37,655,700 


October 


. 31,563,800 


6,011,300 


37,575,100 


November . 


. 31.318,700 


5,577,400 


36,896,100 


December 


. 32,352,800 


6,877,600 


39,230,400 


Average . 


. 31,970,800 


6,574,400 


38,545,200 



The consumption from the Sudbury and Cochituate works 
shows an increase of about 3 per cent, over that of the year 
1881, while that of the Mystic works shows a decrease of 
about 8.5 per cent. About one-half of this decrease was due 
to a reduction in the amount furnished from those works for 
the supply of East Boston. The total consumption shows 
an increase of 330,300 gallons per day, or about one per 
cent, over that of 1881. 

The daily average consumption per head of population has 
been 91 gallons from the Sudbury and Cochituate works, 77 
gallons from the Mystic works, and 88 gallons from the 
combined supplies. 

Of the 11,669,300,000 gallons consumed on the Sudbury 
and Cochituate works, the Sudbury-river works have fur- 
nished 7,735,200,000 gallons, as follows : — 

January, 595,000,000 July, 646,900,000 

February, 975,700,000 August, 655,800,000 

March, 1,002,300,000 September, 308,900,000 

April, 781,200,000 October, 570,300,000 

May, 502,800,000 November, 572,300,000 

June, 491,800,000 December, 632,200,000 

Average daily amount furnished, 21,192,300 gallons, or 
66.3 per cent, of the total consumption. 

All of the above quantity has been sent from Farm pond 
to Chestnut-Hill reservoir, none having been sent to Lake 
Cochituate during the year. 



28 City Docujient No. 53. 



High-Service Works. 

The average daily quantities pumped at the Highland 
station duriuff each month are as follows : — 



January, 


2,711,800 


July, 


3,023,000 


February, 


2,733,000 


August, 


3,014,000 


March, 


2,552,000 


September, 


2,779,670 


April, 


2,575,100 


October, 


2,673,500 


May, 


2,792,000 


November, 


2,698,030 


June, 


3,040,580 


December, 


2,839,000 



The daily average for the year has been 2,786,545 gallons, 
an increase of 15.7 per cent, over that of 1881. 

At the East Boston pumping-station the daily average 
amount pumped has been 422,540 gallons. 

Waste of Water. 

Mention is made in my last annual report of the trial in 
the Charlestown District of the Deacon system of preventing 
waste of water. A full statement of the results of this trial 
is given in my last report to the Water Board. These results 
show that a very large percentage of the water supplied to 
the city is wasted, and that the prevention of this waste is 
possible at a reasonable cost. The subject is so fully con- 
sidered in the report above referred to, that I only allude to 
it here for the purpose of calling especial attention to facts 
and figures in relation to a matter which I consider one of the 
most important for the consideration of the City Council. 

Mystic-valley Sewer. 

The treatment of the sewage from the Mystic valley, in the 
manner described in my last report, has been continued during 
the year with as nuich success as could be expected. 

On July 15, at my request, the work, which no longer re- 
quired the direct supervision of this department, was placed 
in charge of the superintendent of the iMystic AVorks. 

The clianofc of le2:islation asked for last winter, in order to 
reduce the cost of maintenance of the present expensive sj's- 
tem of pumping, and to accomplish other improvements for 
the purification of the loAver IVIystic pond, was not obtained. 
An attempt should be made to procure it at the earliest op- 
portunity. 

Sudbury-river Basin, No. 4. 

The M ork on the dam for this basin was continued, although 
to a small extent, during the winter months, but was resumed 
more actively in the spring. 31,000 cubic yards of loam and 



Report of the City Engineer. 29 

perishable materials have been removed from the site of the 
embankment. 19,300 cubic yards of trench excavation, ex- 
tending to the underlying bed-rock which forms the foundation 
of the masonry, were removed during the year. This excava- 
tion was made to a greater depth than was indicated by the bor- 
ings, and was somewhat dela^^ed by the blasting of a large 
number of heavy boulders, wdiieh could not be removed by 
other methods ; the shaping of the upper surface of the ledge 
required also considerable time and labor. 1,727 linear feet 
of trench were thus excavated, leaving 326 feet undone. The 
concrete structure forming the centre wall of the dam and 
the support for the discharge-pipes is completed for 1,383 
linear feet of trench, and partially so for 100 feet, leaving 
244 feet of open trench in which the masonry work remains to 
be done. 7,218 cubic yards of concrete have been laid, and 
the upper face of the wall has been plastered with double 
layers of" Portland cement mortar. 

The roll-way and a portion of the overflow are built, and 
the foundation of the gate-house is completed to the surface 
of the ground. In all, 2,286 cubic yards of stone and brick 
masonry (exclusive of concrete) have been laid. 

18,500 cubic yards of the dam embankment are in place, 
and about 20,000 cubic yards of loam have been piled up ready 
for removal. In accordance with an arrangement between 
the Boston Water Board and the Park Commissioners, 
the road-bed for a spur track connecting the Hopkinton 
Branch railroad with the valley of the Cold Spring brook 
has been graded, and will be used for removing the loam ex- 
cavated from the basin to the Back Bay park. This track 
will be extended from time to time to cover the whole area 
to be cleaned. 

The cost of construction of Basin 4, to Jan. 1, 1883, in- 
cluding the cost of plant on hand, is $162,469.35. The cost 
of removal of loam, including cost of steam-excavator, and of 
grading 2,900 feet of track, is $10,963.92. 

There were, on an average, during the summer and fall, 
225 men and 30 horses employed on the work. At present 
there is a small force at work finishing the excavation of the 
trenches and quarrying stone for rubble masonry. 

For reasons given in my last report to the Water Board , I 
am of the opinion that it would be advantageous to the city 
to finish this work as it has heretofore been conducted, — by 
day's labor. 

Miscellaneous. 

Plans have been made showing the results of survej^s and 
borings during the month of March, in the vicinity of the 



30 City Document No. 53. 

present dams at the outlet of Lake Coehituate, for the pur- 
pose of determining the most suitable location for a new dam. 

About 120 feet of 48-inch pipe have ])een laid near Com- 
monwealth avenue, under the channel of the pond in the Back 
Bay park. The pipe is supported by a pile foundation con- 
sisting of spruce piles driven in pairs at distances apart of 5^ 
feet crosswise and about 6 feet lengthwise of the trench, and 
capped crosswise with 10 X 10-inch spruce caps 8 feet 6 inches 
long. The sides of the trench in which the pipe is laid, are 
composed of 4-inch tongued and grooved sheeting. 

All of the gates and hydrants connected with the distribu- 
tion system of the City proper have l)een located, and new 
and more accurate plans, on a scale of 100 feet to an inch, 
have been made, showing the actual location of all the water- 
pipes, gates, hydrants, etc. 

The distributing mains of the Sudbury and Coehituate 
works have been extended about seven miles during the 
year. 

C — IMPROVED SEWERAGE. 

In last year's report I stated that the appropriation then 
available for this work was insufficient to complete it in 
accordance with the original plan, as modified by subsequent 
additions and alterations. A little later I submitted to the 
Committee on Improved Sewerage an estimate of the further 
sum needed, and the reasons why it was required. 

This statement was incorporated by the committee in their 
request made to the City Council April 17, 1882, for an 
additional appropriation of $1,500,000. This amount hav- 
ing been voted by orders dated May 12, 1882, is now avail- 
able for the prosecution of the work. I am happy to say 
that the cost of construction during the past year, and the 
present condition of the work, give every assurance that the 
appropriation is now ample to cover all reasonable expense of 
completing the system in a substantial manner in accordance 
with the plans. Satisfactory progress towards completion 
has been made during the past year. A detailed account of 
it will be found in Mr. Clarke's report. I shall therefore 
merely present a brief summary of the present state of the 
work, and of what is required to complete it. 

A natural division of the whole system is into four prin- 
cipal parts, viz. : — 

1. The main and intercepting sewers which convey the 
sewage of the city to the pumping-station. 

2. The pumping-station at which the sewage is raised. 

3. The outfall sewer by which the sewage is conveyed 
from the pumping-station to Moon Island. 



Report of the City Engineer. 31 

4. The reservoir at Moon Island in which the sewage is to 
be stored, and from which it is to be emptied into the sea 
during the early ebb-tide. 

1. About three-quarters of all the intercepting sewers, 
which it is proposed to build within the city, are practically 
tinished and in condition for service. By the simple raising 
of valves, already built into the city sewers, near their out- 
lets, the sewage from the greater part of the city could now 
be diverted and made to flow to the pumping-station. Ex- 
tensions of these sewers are now in progress, and can be 
continued as required, without interfering with the use of 
portions already luiilt. These extensions will, in the future, 
almost without exce})tion, be built in crowded thoroughfares 
and in filled land, where very many unforeseen obstacles will 
be encountered, requiring constant variations in location and 
in methods of construction. 

It would not be wise, and is not necessary, to hurry this 
work ; and, to accomplish it successfully, without serious in- 
convenience to abutters and the public, will require that it 
shall be entirely within the control of the city, and be man- 
aged by city superintendents. 

2. The pumping-station, also, is practically in condition 
for service. The sewage could now be raised at this point 
without interfering with the erection of permanent buildings 
and other minor details of work which are yet to be done. 
It was supposed that the interests of the city would be best 
served by the use of the sewers and pumps now completed, 
to divert the sewage of the city from those points where it 
is most troublesome into Dorchester bay, where, in the 
opinion of those most competent to judge of the matter, its 
temporary discharge would create no nuisance. Appre- 
hension of danger to certain districts, however, arose, and 
the following act was obtained from the Legislature, May 
26, 1882; — 

Be it enacted by the Senate and Honse of Ee2Jresentatives in General 
Court assenMed, and by authority of the same, as folloivs : — 

Section 1. No part of the contents of the main sewer now or here- 
after to be constructed, running south-easterly from the direction of 
Charles river, in the city of Boston, shall be discharged at or near the 
shore of the Calf Pasture, so called, in Dorchester bay, or at any place 
in Boston harbor, or vicinity, except at Moon island. The supreme 
judicial court, or any justice thereof, upon the jietition of not less than 
ten taxable inhabitants of the city of Boston, may restrain, by injunction 
or otherwise, any violation of the provisions of this act. 

It will be seen that the act is prohibitory, and that the 
sewage can be discharged nowhere except at Moon island. 



32 . City Document No. 53. 

The Leavitt pumping-engines were first started July 26, 
1882, and have each been run for short periods at intervals 
since. AVhilc it has, of course, been impossilde to fully test 
them with sewage, it may be said that, in the opinion of ex- 
perts, from observation of their appearance and performance, 
they will amply fulfil all requirements as to capacity, duty, 
and durability, and will prove to be admirably adapted to 
their work. 

By the terms of the contract under which they were fur- 
nished it was stipulated that the contractors should maintain 
the engines and repair any defects which might be developed 
in running them during a probationary period of twelve 
months after their completion. Also, that the city might re- 
tain, during that time, five per cent, of the contract price, 
to guarantee the performance of said requirements. As the 
efiect of the act, just cited, was to postpone indefinitely the 
beginning of said period of probation, it was thought for the 
interest of the city to release the retained percentage and 
obtain in its place a bond by which the contractors, in con- 
sideration of said present release, agreed to extend the 
period of probation to January 1, 1885, and to return said 
percentage, on demand from the city, at any time within said 
period, should any contingency arise to require it. This 
arrangement was concluded October 12, 1882, and is thought 
to innure to the advantage of both parties. 

3. Fair progress has been made during the past year in 
constructing the outfall sewer from the pumping-station to 
Moon island. From the pumps to the tank-sewers the force- 
mains are already in place. The tank-sewers which connect 
these with the tunnel under Dorchester bay are partly con- 
structed, and can be finished during the coming season. 
The tunnel will be completed early in the summer. It is 
entirely excavated, and nearly the whole of it is now 
lined with brick-work. It is a matter for congratulation that 
this piece of work has been successfully accomplished. 
While it would not have been attempted had there l)een 
doul)ts of its feasibility or that difliculties Avould be en- 
countered which could not be surmounted, yet such work, 
from its nature, is always somewhat uncertain, and, until the 
last foot is penetrated, there are possibilities of meeting 
demoralized rock, open seams, excessive amounts of water, 
etc., which may cause serious delay and expense. These 
contingencies ))eing now impossible, the tunnel may be said 
to be an assured success, and to aflbrd the best and most 
economical route for reaching the point of discharge. From 
the end of the tunnel the outfall sewer has been constructed 
towards Moon island, as far as is considered at present ex- 



Report of the City Engineer. 33 

pedient ; should it be thought wise to permit further time for 
settlement of the embankment from Squantum to the island 
before building the permanent masonry structure on it, a 
temporary conduit can be built during the coming year, so 
as not to delay the use of the system. 

4. The new contractors have prosecuted the construction 
of the reservoir on Moon island with great energy durino- the 
past year, and there is every assurance that the structure will 
be put in condition for service during the coming season, 
although the completion of muior portions of the work may 
extend into next year. The outlet sewer section, through 
which the sewage accumulated in the reservoir, will be dis- 
charged at high-tide into the current setting out of the har- 
bor between Moon and Long islands, is yet to be built. 
Plans and specifications for it are prepared, and it is expected 
that it will be contracted for in March or early April of this ' 
year. It is not certain that it can be wholly built during the 
present season ; but the use of the rest of the system need 
not be delayed until its completion. 

From the foregoing statements it will be seen that the in- 
tercepting system of sewerage is at present in condition for use 
up to and including the point w^here the sewage is raised 
high enough to be discharged into the outer harbor, and that 
beyond this point it can probably be put iij condition for use 
w ithin a year. Extension and perfection of the system may 
continue for a year or two longer. The work, as a whole, 
and in its parts, is known to be durable and efficient, and no 
doubts are entertained that it will accomplish the good results 
which have been claimed for it. 

The total appropriation for improved sewerage is $5,253,000. 
The gross expenditure to Jan. 1, 1883, including that for pre- 
liminary surveys, has been $3,389,104.07, leaving a balance 
of $1,863,895.93. 

Below are given extracts from the report of Mr. E. C. 
Clarke, principal assistant-engineer of this work, wdiich relate 
in detail the operations of the past year, and items of interest 
connected with them. 

Extracts from Mr. Clarke's Report. 

The following is the customary annual statement, showing, 
in tabulated form, the different sections of sewers already 
built or in process of construction, with the size and extent 
of each, the lengths built prior to and during the past year, 
whether done by contract or otherwise, and the builder's 
name. 



34 



City Document No. 53. 



TABUliAR STATEMENT OF PROCJRESS — 



Section. 



1. Main 

2. Main 

3. Main 

4. Main 
4^. Main 

5. Main 

6. Main 

1. West Side 

2. West Side 

3. West Side 

1. East Side 

2. East Side 

3. East Side 

4. East Side 

1. Stony Brooli 

2. Stony Brook 



1. South Boston 

3. South Boston 

4. South Boston 

6. South Boston 
Roxbury Canal . 

Chester Park . , 
Pumping-Station . 

1. Outfall Sewer . , 

2. Outfall Sewer . , 

3. Outfall Sewer . , 



Locality. 



In Camden St., from Huntington ave. to Tremont st 

In Camden St., from Tremont St. to Washington st 

In Washington St., and E. Chester park, from Camden st. to Albany st. 
In E. Chester-park extension, from Albany st. to Magazine st. ... 
In E. Chester-park extension, from Magazine st. to Clapp st 

In Clapp and Mt. Vernon sts., from E. Chester park, to O.C. R.R. . 

In Mt. Vernon-st. extension, from O.C. R.R. to Old Harbor Point . . 

In Camden, Falmouth, Dalton, and Hereford sts., from Huntington 
ave. to Beacon st 

In Beacon St., from Hereford st. to Charles st 

In Charles st., from Beacon st. to Cambridge st 

In Albany St., from E. Chester park, to Dover 8t 

In Albany st., Lehigh St., and O.C. R.R. freight-yards, to Federal st. . 

In Federal St., from O.C. R.R. freight-yards, to Summer st 

In Atlantic ave., from Summer st. to Belcher lane 

In Tremont and Cabot sts., from Camden st. to Ruggles st 

In Cabot, Hampshire, Elm wood, Ruggles, and Tremont sts., about 
Stony Brook 

In Ninth st., from H. st. to N. st 

In Von Ilillern st.. Locust st., Washigton ave., and Hyde St., from 
Mt. Vernon st. to Dorchester ave 

In Dorchester ave., from Hyde st. to B. st 

In Dorchester ave. and Foundry st., from B. st. to First st 

In Albany st. and E. Chester park, from Northampton st. to Roxbury 
Canal 

In E. Chester park, from Albany st. to Harrison ave 

Connecting M.nin Sewer and Filth-Hoist and Engine- Wella and Salt- 
Watcr Conduit 

From Pumping-Station to Dor. B.ay Tunnel 

( Excavation 

Tunnel imder Dorchester Bay < 

( Brick lining 

Squantum Neck to Moon Island 

Totals 



Eepoet of City Engineer. 



35 



OIPROVED SEWERAGE COWSTRHCTIOIS. 



Size in feet and inches. 


Length 
in feet. 


Built prior 

to Jan. 1, 

1882. 


Built Jan. 
1, 1883. 


Built by 


7 ft. 8 in 


1675.5 


1675.5 


1675.5 


P. J. Condon. 


8 ft. 5 in 


1390.5 


1390.5 


1390.5 


P. J. Condon. 


8 ft. 5 in 


1795. 


1795. 


1795. 


John Cavanagh. 


9 ft 


2506.5 


2506.5 


2506.5 


Charles Linehan and City. 
City. 


9ft 


1894. 
3381. 


1894. 
3381. 


1894. 
3381. 


(9ft ) 


no ft. 6 in \ 


Hoblitzell, Condon, and 
Hoblitzell and City. 


10 ft. 6 in 


40S8. 


4088. 


4088. 


Clinton Beckwith, and J. V. 
Quackenbush. 


4 ft. 9 in. X ft. 6 m. . 


4282. 


4282. 


4282. 


City. 


<4ft. 9in. X5ft.6in. ) 
H ft- X 4 ft. 6 in. . . ) 


5043. 


5013. 


5013. 


City. 


4 ft. X 4 ft. 6 in . . . . 


1832. 


1832. 


1832. 


Thomas McCann. 


5 ft. S in 


4524.5 


4524.5 


4524.5 


A. H. Delameter & Co., and 
R. A. Malone. 


( 5 ft. X 4 ft ) 

> 5 ft. X 3 ft ) 


2331.5 


650. 


2331.5 


City. 


2 ft. 8 in. X 4 ft. 6 in. . 


2108. 




2108. 


City. 


2 ft. 8 in. X 4 ft. 6 in. . 


2032. 




250. 


City. 


4 ft. 8 in 


2135. 


2135. 


2135. 


Myles Tierney. 


( 5 ft. X 4 ft. 6 in. . . ) 

, 2 ft. X 3 ft [ 

15 in. pipe ) 


4500. 


4500. 


4500. 


City. 


3 ft. 2 in 

(6 ft ) 


2717.5 
3739. 


2717.5 
3739. 


2717.5 
3739. 


Stephen Connolly & Co., 
and City. 


( 4 ft. 6 in. X 3 ft. . . ) 


Charles Linehan. 


4 ft. 9 m. X 5 ft. 6 in. . 


33.50. 


33.50. 


3350. 


Hoblitzell, Condon, and 
HobUtzell and City. 


3 ft. X 5 ft 


2820. 




600. 


City. 


4 4 ft. 6 m ) 

left i 


620. 
725. 


620. 


620. 
725. 


City. 


4 ft. 6 in 


City. 


(10 ft. 6 in ) 

J 9ft \ 


602. 
1250. 


507. 


602. 

Partial. 

818. 


City. 
City. 


( 5 ft. 6 Ln ) 

Double 8 ft. X 16 ft. . . 


Abt. 10 ft. 6 Ln 


(7004.) 


(5913.) 


(7004.) 




7 ft. 6 in 


7004. 


844. 


5012. 


R. A. Malone. 


11 ft. X 12 ft. 


5989. 


600. 


1322. 


W. C. Poland & Son and 
C. W. Parker & Co. 




74335. 


52044.5 


63212. 









36 City Document No. 53. 

An examination of the foregoing table shows that a con- 
siderable amount of sewer construction has been completed 
during the past year, and that extensions of the intercepting 
sewers located in the streets of the city proper have been 
chiefly constructed by the city under its own superintendents. 

This is due to the fact that such construction is now 
confined to crowded thoroughfares, in which peculiar man- 
agement is required to prevent serious obstruction to travel 
and the business of abutters, and also because these opera- 
tions being principally carried on in filled land, beds of 
dock-mud, old walls, wharves, and other obstacles are con- 
tinually encountered, which require a frequent variation in 
the methods of construction, which could not be foreseen and 
provided for in the specifications of a contract. This will be 
understood from the following account in detail of the opera- 
tions during the year upon difierent sections of the work. 

Section Two, East Side. 

This section extends from Dover street through Albany to 
Lehigh street, at which point it enters private land, and 
crosses the freight and switch yards of the Boston and Albany 
and Old Colony Railroad Companies to Federal street near the 
bridge. In Albany and Lehigh streets are the tracks of the 
Albany street Freight Railway Co., which are used by the 
stone and lumber yards on Albany street, but especially by 
the Hinckley Locomotive Works, to convey locomotives to 
and from their shops. Itwas considered questionable whether 
these tracks could be maintained for service during building 
operations. In the railroad yards are about forty lines of rails 
in constant use, which it was very important should not be 
disturbed. The whole section traverses filled land, underlaid 
by beds of mud from 5 to 20 feet deep below the liottom of 
the sewer, Avhich is itself several feet lielow the level of low 
tide. The sewer is oval, 5 feet high, and required piling 
for its support. It was built partly of wood, lined with two 
inches of concrete, and partly of brick-work resting on a solid 
cradle of wood six inches thick. At difierent points ob- 
structions in the shape of old walls and wharves were en- 
countered, which admitted sea-water freely to the trench, so 
that, as a rule, work could only progress during low stages 
of the tide. 

As stated in last year's report, work began on this section 
in Septeml)er, 1881. Travel upon the streets was not inter- 
rupted, and with considerable difiiculty the freight railway 
tracks were supported and maintained. As it would have been 
impossible to have had an open trench through the Albany 



Eeport of the City Engineer. 37 

and Old Colony yards without interfering with their traffic, 
operations at this point were carried on entirely below the 
surface. The tracks were supported by stringers, and the 
spaces between them floored over. By the use of special 
machinery all the earth excavated and refilled, as well as all 
materials for construction, were conveyed by tracks suspended 
below the floor. The trench was well braced, and its sides 
protected by lag sheeting, which, together with the piles 
driven to support the sewer, were all put in place without 
encroaching upon the surflice. It is believed that not a 
single train was delayed, nor any inconvenience caused by 
these operations. 

A large regulating apparatus, similar to the one of which 
a plan was given in the report for 1880, was put in this 
section. The chamber containing it is located on Albany 
street, just north of Dover street. The apparatus will con- 
trol the flow of the entire east-side intercepter above this 
point, thus doing away with the necessity of separate small 
regulators for each city sewer. By this means, during heavy 
rain-storms, the amount of water coming from the higher dis- 
tricts of the central and northerly portions of the city can be 
reduced to any extent, and the sewer left free to receive rain 
from the districts south of Dover street, where the cellars 
are apt to be inundated at such times. At this section con- 
nections are made with the Osw^es^o-street and Harvard-street 
main city sewers, and also with the Dover-street sewer. The 
former two outlets have been supplied with chambers con- 
taining new tide-gates, similar to those shown in last year's 
report. 

Dover-street Connection. 

According to the usual practice in such cases, the Dover- 
street sewer would have been connected with the intercepter 
at or near the point in Albany street where their two loca- 
tions intersect. But it was found, in examining the city 
sewers with reference to our connections with them, that the 
main in Dover street was not in condition to be intercepted 
at an}' point west of Harrison avenue. Between that street 
and its outlet it is a rectangular wooden structure, 5X6 feet, 
located on the north side of the street, close to a stone retain- 
ing-wall, and surrounded by loose stone ballast. It is con- 
siderably broken, so that the tide-water, which follows the 
wall and ballast, has free access to the sewer at high tide, and 
would flow into the intercepting sewer and so reach the 
pumps. From Harrison avenue westwardly the sewer is of 
brick, and is believed to be tight. A set of tide-gates are 
already built at this point. Accordingly, the connection was 



38 City Document No. 53. 

made with the brick-sewer west of the tide-gates, and a three- 
feet oval brick branch sewer built from this point to convey 
the sewage to the intercepting sewer at x\lbnny street. The 
distance is about 575 feet, and some difficulty was ex- 
perienced in tinding a practicable line free from old walls 
and wharves and the ivater which follows them. The sewer 
was finally located on the line of the southerly sidewalk, on 
which side are no permanent buildings, so that the minimum 
of inconvenience was caused, and travel on the street was 
not impeded. The w^ork was done during June, July, and 
August, and is now complete in condition for service. 

Section Three, East Side. 

This section extends in Federal street, from near the bridge, 
to the beginning of Atlantic avenue at Summer street, a dis- 
tance of 2,108 feet. The street is occupied by double horse- 
railroad and single freight-railway tracks, and beneath its 
surface are one sewer, two water, and two gas pipes. Beds 
of mud extend from 5 to 20 feet below the bottom of the new 
sew^er and dock-walls, and timber structures were frequently 
encountered. A location on the east side of the street was 
found to be most practicable, and the sewer was built by 
methods which left the roadway open for travel. By flooring 
over the trench at intervals, passages were maintained 
through the excavating machine to the yards and wharves 
bordering Fort-Point channel. The freight-railway tracks 
were shifted towards the centre of the street, and were used 
during the day for the passage of horse-cars in one direction. 
Bricks, cement, and other materials were piled on the outer 
edges of both sidewalks where they would cause least incon- 
venience, and always so as to leave a clear passage-way four 
feet wide. Endeavors were made to cause the least possible 
annoyance to corporations and individuals ; and, in general, 
these etforts seemed to be appreciated and reciprocated by 
the public, so that complaints were rare. The work was 
chiefly built during the autumn, and consists of an oval 
sewer 4 feet 6 inches by 2 feet 8 inches in diameter, with an 
8-inch brick arch and 2-inch brick invert, resting on a solid 
plank cradle 4 inches thick, supported for a part of its length 
on piles. Connections have been made with the Federal- 
street and Summer-street city sewers, and chambers with 
new tide-gates built to protect these connections. 

Section Four, East Side. 

This is a continuation of the preceding section. Construc- 
tion of it began in November, and, unless the season should 



Eeport of the City Engineer. 39 

prove unusually severe, may be continued throughout the 
M^hiter. It extends in Atlantic avenue from Summer street 
to Belcher lane. The sewer is oval, 4 feet 6 inches by 2 feet 
8 inches in diameter. It is located on the westerly side of the 
street, near to the centre line of old Broad street before the 
widening. It was hoped that, hy adopting this location, the 
head and side walls of many of the docks which formerly 
extended to Broad street would be avoided, and also the tide- 
water which would be sure to follow such structures. Al- 
though this hope has not been fully realized, it is probable 
that less serious obstacles have been met with than would 
have been found on the easterly side of the avenue, and the 
filling being less recent is more compact and more impervious 
to water. The location adopted may interfere somewhat 
with the traflfic of the large warehouses on the same side of 
the avenue ; but, by using special precautions, a clear passage- 
way for teams has thus far been maintained, and no reason- 
able causes for complaint have been given. This section will 
intercept the Congress-street, Pearl-street, and Central-wharf 
sewers, and by its subsequent extension furnish the outlet for 
the sewage from the east side of the north end of the city to 
Hanover street. 

Chester-park Sewer. 

As stated in last year's report, a section of sewer, called 
Roxbury-caiial sewer, was built to intercept all the sewage 
which formerly flowed into Roxbury canal above East Chester 
park. The city sewer in Chester park that was thus inter- 
cepted was a three feet square wooden box, somewhat out of 
shape, and had settled, probably on account of the building 
of the main sewer near to and below it, so that it was a little 
lower at Albany street than the new sewer with which it con- 
nected. In the interest of good sewerage for the district it 
was thought best to at once extend a brick sewer to replace 
the present wooden one between Albany street and Harrison 
avenue. This has l)een done T)y an arrangement with the 
Sewer Department. Work began in September, and was 
completed by the end of the year. The sewer is circular, 
4 feet 6 inches in diameter, about 730 feet long, and is sup- 
ported on piling for three-quarters of its length. It connects 
at its east end with a bell-mouth connection chamber, and at 
its west end with brick sewers in Harrison avenue and in 
Chester park west of the avenue. 

Section Five, South Boston. 

This is an extension from Section 4, which ended on Dor- 
chester avenue, just south of the Old Colony Railroad. Two 



40 City Document No. 53. 

routes from this point, by which to reach Foundry street, 
were considered. By one, the sewer, turning to the left 
through private land, passed under the road-beds of the Old 
Colony and N.Y. & N.E. Railroad Companies, and then under 
the freight yard of the former company. The other, keeping in 
Dorchester avenue, passed under both railroads, and turned 
into Foundry street at its junction with the avenue. The 
latter route, though somewhat longer, was tinally adopted, 
as avoiding land damages and possible injury to buildings. 
Considerable ditficulty was encountered in passing under the 
abutments of the bridge on Dorchester avenue, over the 
N.Y. & N.E. Railroad. These were underlaid by running 
sand, and the northerly abutment, Avhich had been built with- 
out mortar, had to be taken down over the sewer. The 
bridge, however, was not endangered, nor was travel over 
it interrupted. The sewer is of brick, oval, 5 feet high. 
Where it passes under the N.Y. & N.E. tracks its shape 
has been somewhat altered, keeping the top arch lower, so 
that if it ever should be desirable to lower the road-bed for 
a few feet under the bridge, this can be done without inter- 
fering with the sewer. AVork on this section began in Sep- 
tember, and will probably continue during the winter. The 
city sewers intercepted by it are those in B street, Fourth 
street, and First street. 

Salt-water Conduit. 

This structure at the pumping-station, 5^ feet in diam- 
eter, designed to bring salt water to the condensers and 
pumps, has been completed during the 3'ear, and is ready 
for service, except for a little dredgiiig, which must be done 
in the dock in front of its jnlet. 

Main and Intercepting Sewers. 

To this account is charged the expense of maintaining, at 
intervals, a small force, consisting of a foreman, one car- 
penter, and four laborers, who take care of the sewers 
already built, maintain the tide-gates in a state of maximum 
efficiency, clean and slush penstocks, flushing-gates, and 
other iron-work, remove gravel which gets into the sewers 
around man-hole covers, and construct any minor details of 
Avork omitted for any cause when the sewers were built. It 
was found necessary, for the convenient and safe working 
of the penstocks and flushing-gates already 1)nilt into the 
sewers, to provide them with counterbalancing apparatus. 
Eight sets of these were furnished by Cook, Rymes, & Co., 



Keport or THE City Engineer. 41 

of Boston, under a contract dated Jan. 12, 1882, and they 
Avere put in place by the party aboA^e referred to. In all, 
this party has been employed about eight months during the 
past year. 

Filth-hoist. 

This necessary part of the system, situated at the end of 
the main sewer, and through which the sewage flows before 
reaching the pumps, has been completed, and put in condi- 
tion for service during the past year. The foundations and 
chambers, extending from 17 feet below low tide to 18 feet 
above that elevation, were chiefly built during 1881. Last 
summer the superstructure, consisting of a granite-stone 
building, 30 by 37 feet, was erected, under the supervision 
of the City Architect. Two iron penstock gates, 7 feet by 6 
feet 6 inches each, have been built in place. These serve to 
divert the flow^ of sewao-e through the screens on either side 
of the structure, leaving the other free for examination or 
repairs. They can be protected in front by stojj-planks, for 
which grooves are provided. The gates are counterbalanced, 
and are Avorked up and down by hydraulic pressure from the 
city water main, acting through cylinders and pistons. This 
pressure is sufficient to move them freely ; but to start them, 
when down with a head of water against them, an hydraulic- 
force pump has been added, by which the initial pressure can 
be increased to any extent. Behind each gate are a pair of 
screens, or fllth-cages, formed of vertical bars of iron, with 
one-inch spaces, through which the sewage Avill flow, and by 
which dead animals, pieces of cloth, wood, and other solid 
matters likely to clog the pump-valves, will be intercepted. 
The cages are counterbalanced, and are raised for the re- 
moval of their contents, and again lowered by steam-power. 
Steam has been brought under ground from the boiler-house 
for this purpose. A pair of steam radiators will keep the 
building Avarm in Avinter. The cages, with their engines and 
gearing, Avere furnished and put in place by the Coffin Valve 
Co., under a contract dated Feb. 20, 1882. 

Pumping— station. 

A considerable part of the work for the year has been per- 
formed at this locality, Avhich properly includes the tilth- 
hoist just referred to. Under the direction of the City 
Architect work has begun on constructing the permanent 
buildings, including engine, boiler, and coal-houses. These 
are built chiefly of granite block stone obtained from the old 
Beacon-Hill reservoir. This department paj's the city from 



42 City Document No. 53. 

$5.00 to $7.00 a yard for the stoiie, and also pays for its con- 
veyance to Old-Harlior Point. The coal-house is already 
built and roofed in, needing only its windows and internal 
fittings to make it complete. The walls of the boiler-house 
are about finished, and those of the engine-house will be soon 
started. For re-dressing the stones, a yard and sheds, con- 
necting with a spur-track of the Old Colony Railroad, are in 
operation. Two additional steel boilers, making four in all, 
have been furnished and set in place by Kendall & Roberts 
of Caml)ridgeport. The four boilers have been connected to 
form one battery, and, with their pipes, have been suitably 
covered. Two i3air of double-acting feed-pumps are in 
place and connected, also two double-acting salt-water pumps 
for pumping salt-water for the condensers from the salt-water 
conduit into a tank. The boiler-house, with all its apparatus, 
may be said to be in running order. 

In the engine-house the two Leavitt engines have been put 
in complete condition for service, and each of them has been 
run sufficiently, with pure water, to demonstrate their effi- 
ciency. They have been protected from the danger of rust 
and are waiting the time for actual work. The foundations 
for the Worthington engines and pumps have been completed, 
and these machines will be put in position during the coming 
year. A large bilge-pump, for clearing the galleries and 
pump-wells of the engine-house, is in place, and has been 
utilized during the year to keep the main and intercepting 
sewers free from water by pumping all which leaks into 
them. 

Nine cast-iron gates, with their hoisting-engines and gear- 
ing, have been set in place here during the past year. They 
were furnished by the Coffin Valve Co., under a contract 
dated December 3, 1881. Eight of them, 6 feet 3|^ inches by 
4 feet 9^ inches, control the flow of sewage to the pump-wells 
and one, 3 feet 9^ inches square, admits salt-water from the 
salt-water conduit. To warm the engine-house and machinery 
and prevent water of condensation forming on the engines, a 
s^^stem of steam-pipes and radiators has been put in by the 
Walworth Manufacturing Co., at a cost of about $1,300. The 
48-inch cast-iron force-mains, which arrived last winter, and 
which connect the Leavitt pumps with the tank-sewers at the 
pipe-chamber, have been laid in place and jointed during the 
past season, xlbout 180 hard i)ine stoi)-})lanks, of diflerent 
sizes, for use in the pipe-chamber and about the various gates 
and wells, have been fitted, ironed, and painted or oiled, ready 
for use. The salt-water conduit has been completed, and the 
portiou of sea-wall at its end is built. Further extcMisions of 
this wall and the wharf outside of it remain to be constructed. 







Ji 



Report of the City Engineer. 43 

The channel connecting the city dock at this point with the 
main ship channel of Dorchester bay became somewhat 
shoaled with mud during the year, and was dredged, without 
cost to the city, down to twelve feet below low water, by the 
Old Harbor Pier Co., under the provision of their contract, 
b}^ which the channel is to be maintained without charge 
until the completion of the pier now ])uilding by them for the 
city. About 12,000 yards of gravel tilling has been received 
from the Old Colony Railroad, and used in grading about the 
pumping-station grounds. A telephone-wire now connects 
the pumping-station with City Hall and several department 
yards in the city. 

Section One, Outfall Sewer. 

On this section, commonly called Old-Harbor Pier, ex- 
tending from the pumping-station to the tunnel, work has not 
progressed as rapidly as could have been desired. The con- 
tractors have completed the sea-wall at the outer end of the 
pier by building 226 yards of cut-stone masonry and 324 
yards of concrete. They have also put in place during the 
season 4,060 yards of filling, 1,915 yards of ballast, 4,367 
tons of rip-rap, and 180 piles. Except immediately about 
the tunnel-shaft, the pier is filled to about grade 18, and 
about 36,000 yards of filling are needed to complete it. The 
stone pipe-chamber at the westerly end of the pier was fin- 
ished by the city early in the year, and a temporary wooden 
sluice-way from it constructed, which was used to discharge 
water while testing the Leavitt engines. 

In July the city l)egan l)uilding the tank-sewers, to extend 
about 1,250 feet, from the pipe-chamber to the tunnel shaft, 
and about 800 feet of the lower half of this structure was 
completed and protected by the end of the season. Two 
machine concrete mixers have been procured, and will be used 
next season. The general character of the tank-sewers will 
be understood from the accompanying plate. As will be seen, 
they consist of a monolithic structure of concrete, forming two 
conduits, each 16 feet high by 8 wide. The bottom portion, 
up to the straight walls, is formed of Rosendale cement, sand, 
and pebbles, in the proportion of each, respectively, of 1, 2 
and 5. Above this elevation, for the outer side- walls, the 
same proportion is maintained ; but the cement used is a mix- 
ture of 1 part Portland and 2 parts Rosendale. For the con- 
crete forming the centre wall and arches only Portland cement 
is used. The best Rosendale, and very fine ground, sloAv-set- 
ting Portland cements were procured for the work. The con- 
crete is rammed thoroughly in courses which are bonded to- 



44 City Document No. 53. 

gether. Man-holes of brick, and low dams to intercept street 
detritus, will be built at intervals of about 300 feet. The 
arches are tied, as shown, by l|-inch Avrought-iron rods, 
spaced five feet apart. 

These sewers are to have gates at their ends, so that the 
sewasre can be turned through either or both of them. 



o 



Section Two, Outfall Sewer. 

This section includes Dorchester-bay Tunnel, and extends 
under Dorchester bay from Old-Harbor Pier to about the 
middle of Squantum Neck, a distance of 7,004 lineal feet. 
Fair progress has been made during the year ; and, as none 
of the uncertain contingencies always affecting this class of 
work are now to be feared, there is no doubt of the success- 
ful completion of the tunnel during the coming summer. At 
the beginning of last year 87 feet remained to be excavated 
between the east and middle shafts, and 1,004 feet between 
the middle and west shafts. At the former point the head- 
ings met January 24, and at the latter June 22. No appre- 
ciable error in alignment or elevation was found to exist, which 
was very satisfactory, considering the difficulties experienced 
in transferring lines 160 feet down shafts filled with steam- 
pipes, causing heated currents of air and incidental errors of 
refraction. Lining the excavation with brick- work began 
March 10, and has continued with little delay since. Pro- 
jecting portions of rock have been trimmed off, so that a 
solid brick lining, twelve inches thick, laid in courses, is 
always obtained. The shape and size of the excavation is quite 
irregular. In places considerable rock has to be trimmed 
ofi', so that the lining may be built to its proper line and 
thickness ; at other points there are cavities outside of the 
lining large enough to hold a cart. All spaces between the 
linins: and the sides of the rock excavation are solidlv filled 
with masonry, principally brick-work. The amount of back- 
ing thus required to make solid work averages about three- 
quarters of a yard per lineal foot. Jan. 1, 1883, 1,994 lineal 
feet remained to be lined, or about 28 per cent, of the whole 
tumiel, besides portions of two shafts. At the average rate 
of progress, this will be completed by June of the present 
year. 

The maximum amount of water noted flowing into the 
tunnel was about ()4,000 gallons per iiour. This, however, 
has now decreased to about 52,000 gallons, owing, perhaps, 
to some silting of the crevices in the rock through which it 
comes. In putting in the lining, iron pipes are built into the 
brick-work wherever necessary, to furnish outlets for the 



Report of the City Engineer. 45 

water, Avhich would otherwise wash out the mortar. These 
pipes can eventually be plug-ged or capped. It is not ex- 
pected that in this manner the water will be prevented from 
entering the tunnel when empty, since the head at such 
times, as shown by a pressure gauge, is about 60 pounds per 
inch, or sufficient to force it through a brick wall, however 
carefully laid. But when in use the head of the sewage 
inside the tunnel will be in excess of that of the water out- 
side, and, the pressure being outwards, no leakage inwards 
will occur. 

Some experiments were made to determine to what extent 
the porosity of the brick lining could be destroyed by silting 
from without. An iron pipe, extending up one shaft, was 
connected at its lower end with the pipes built through the 
brick-work, and water containing clay, cement, and fine saw- 
dust, was forced outside of the lining. The finer portions of 
these materials came through the lining, and in places the 
leakage was materially reduced. Holes of apparent size were 
calked with lead. By this means the leakage into the in- 
clined portion of the tunnel, about 800 feet long, was reduced 
from about 2,200 gallons an hour to about 500. It was not 
considered practicable, however, except at considerable ex- 
pense, to thus materially reduce the quantity of water coming 
in ; and, in view of its slight importance in respect to the use 
of the tunnel, the attempt was given up. A large mining 
pump is to be provided at the east shaft, by which the 
tunnel can be cleared of water at any time in the future, 
should it prove necessary. At present, to economize in 
pumping, the completed portion of the tunnel, east of the 
middle shaft, has been isolated by means of a thick masonry 
bulkhead, and allowed to fill with water. 

To ensure the good quality of all bricks and cement used 
in building the tunnel the contract provides that these ma- 
terials shall be purchased from the city at fixed prices. The 
delivery of the two million bricks, furnished the city by Stod- 
dard & Hellier, under. their contract of May 21, 1881, was 
completed during last year. Another million was obtained 
from the Brewer Brick Co., of Bangor, under a contract 
dated August 1, 1882, and three million more have been con- 
tracted for, and in part delivered, by the Bay State Brick 
Co. Cement has been purchased from F. O. Norton, of New 
York, and VYaldo Brothers, of Boston, In all, to January 1, 
1883, there has been used in building the tmmel, 5,310,000 
bricks, and 15,573 casks of cement. 

But one serious accident has occurred on this section dur- 
ing the past year, which was the falling of a cage with a man 
on it, at one of the shafts. The man recovered sufficiently 



46 City Document No. 53. 

to return to work, but soon after died, whether as a result of 
his previous injuries Avas not ascertained. 

Section Three, Outfall and Moon-island Reservoir. 

The contractfor this section of work was relet Dec. 28, 1881, 
to C. W. Parker & Co., and has been prosecuted with energy 
since. Active operations began January 25, and have 
continued throughout the year. Inckided in the contractor's 
plant were one steam-shovel, two steam-dredges, and three 
locomotives. On Squantum Neck 844 feet of 11X12 feet of 
outfall sewer are now built ; also, a chamber connecting this 
sewer with the end of Dorchester-bay Tunnel. At the same 
point a connection has been built for the future high-level 
sewer, should one ever be needed. The walls of this chamber 
form foundations for a house, and it will furnish an opportunity 
for putting in and taking out boats and the ball to be used in 
flushing the tunnel. From Squantum to Moon island, a dis- 
tance of nearly a mile, the embankment for carrying the out- 
fall sewer has been partly constructed, and protected on its 
sides with ballast and riprap. In places this embankment 
is thirty feet high, and has been filled nearly to grade. The 
mud under a portion of it has been displaced at points, but 
not so generally as was anticipated. As an experiment, 
an attempt was made to hasten this action by exploding 
dynamite cartridges under the embankment. No results of 
magnitude were obtained ; but the experiment demonstrated 
the resistance of the mud to displacement and the probable 
stability of the embankment. 

At Moon island two low discharge sewers, 8X8|^ feet and 
8X12 feet, respectively, and the outfall server, 11X12 feet, 
have been nearly completed ; also, an outfiill chamber, turbine 
well and engine, boiler, and coal-house foundations. The 
easterly wall of the sewage reservoir is finished and the 
northerly wall nearly so ; portions of the other retaining and 
division walls have been built. 

Beginning with last year, the practice has been followed of 
constantly taking photographs, by the cheap dry-plate i)ro- 
cess, of all points of interest in connection with this con- 
tract. These not onl}^ furnish an interesting record of the 
l)rogress of construction, and the methods and machinery 
used, l)ut may prove of great value as aftbrding indisputable 
evidence to be used in any })ossible future disagreement with 
the contractors concerning the character or condition of the 
work at any time. Heliotype reproductions of tAvo of these 
photographs are given, merely as affording a good general 
idea of the character and magnitude of the work. 



Eeport of the City Engineer. 47 

The work done at this point during the past year includes 
the furnishing and putting in place of about 117,000 yards of 
earth, 7,000 yards of Imtlast, 22,000 tons of riprap, 2,200 
yards of brick masonry, 8,600 yards of rubble masonry, and 
3,000 3'ards of concrete. The value of this, in round num- 
bers, is $250,000, of which nearly $50,000 is retained by the 
city as security (in addition to the bond) for the satisfactory 
completion of the whole contract. The stones for the cut- 
stone masonry used on this section arc furnished by the 
city, and are obtained from the Cape Ann Granite Co., under 
a contract dated Dec. 14, 1881. 

One fatal casualty has occurred at this point during the 
year. , 

Office and Miscellaneous. 

The cement-room has been kept busy testing all cement 
purchased by the city, or procured by contractors for use on 
the work. Dealers, being now acquainted with the rigorous 
character of these tests, rarely offer any but superior articles, 
and in some instances manufacturers select and grind especial 
qualities for this department. 20,365 barrels of Rosendale 
cement purchased hj the city have been tested and accepted, 
and 3,183 barrels of Portland cement. For contractors, 
13,375 barrels of Rosendale cement have been accepted. 
1,000 barrels of Rosendale, and 849 of Portland cement have 
been tested for the Park Department, and 50 of Portland for 
the covered channel. Tests have also been made for the 
water-works, and a few for private parties who wished to 
avail themselves of the city's facilities in this respect. Two 
lots of Portland cement, and four of Rosendale, submitted 
during the year, have failed to come up to our standard. 
Experiments on the transverse strength of concrete were 
made to determine the proper proportions to be used in 
building the tank-sewers. Various other experimental tests 
have also been made. 

The branch office at Squantum has been maintained during 
the year, and will be necessary until the completion of the 
reservoir and tunnel. Office work at this point and at the 
main office in the city has included the preparation of plans 
and contracts for future work, makino- calculations, working 
up estimates and force accounts, keeping books, etc. Drafts- 
men are at present employed upon a full set of record plans, 
in detail, to furnish a complete record of all work built in 
connection with the system. 



48 City Document No. 53. 



D.— PARKS. 

For the purpose of makino: this report a complete record of 
the Avork of this department, the followins; statement, which, 
with tlie exception of some slight omissions and additions, 
was made to the Park Commissioners, and printed in their 
report to the City Council, is given : — 

''Filling. 

"The filling of the territory between Beacon street and the 
Boston & Albany Railroad, under the contracts of April 29, 
1880, and May 26, 1881, which was in progress at the be- 
ginning of the year, was completed November 24, with the 
exception of a small amount, wdiich cannot be done until other 
work on the park is farther advanced. The several owners 
of the land tilled have accepted the work, with the under- 
standing that the railroad company shall furnish any tilling 
that may be hereafter needed to complete the work, at the 
same price as heretofore. 

" There have been no payments during the year for filling 
on the park under the contract of April 29, 1880 ; the amount 
done has been small, and cannot be accurately stated until the 
completion of the final estimate and apportionment, work on 
which is now in progress. 

"Under an arrangement with the Boston & Albany Railroad 
Company, 3,107 squares of filling have been deposited on 
the westerly boundary road, between the Beacon-entrance 
Bridge and Boylston street, of which amount 222 squares 
were brought from a point on the line of the railroad just 
west of the Newton station; the balance, 2,885 squares, has 
been brought from the company's bank at Riverside, since 
the completion of the filling north of the railroad. 

"In May 341 squares of filling were de})osited by the same 
company, for the purpose of closing the opening in the 
easterly boundary road left for the flow of water into and out 
of the i)ark. 

" The price paid per square for the filling is $3.20, the same 
as last year. 

''Beacon-entrance Bridge over B. & A. R.R. 

"The foundations of the abutments and wing-walls of this 
bridge were completed in 1881. The masonry above the 
foundations was commenced on Jan. 5, 1882, and completed 
June 12. The abutments and wing-walls were constructed 
entirely from stone from the Beacon-Hill reservoir. 



Report of the City Engineer. 49 

"A contract was made, May 5, 1882, with David H. 
Andrews for building and erecting the iron bridge. He 
completed his contract September 30. 

" The grading of the approaches has been so far completed 
that the bridge is in use for teaming purposes, and it is 
proposed to run the gravel trains over it, for completing the 
unfilled portions of the approaches on the north side of the 
railroad. 

^^ Boston & Albany Railroad Bridge over Parh Water-way. 

"The work of building the piers, abutments, and wing- 
walls of this bridge, which was under contract to I. A. 
Sylvester, was finished March 20. 

"The iron bridge, a portion of which had been temporarily 
placed on timber trestle-work, was put in its proper position 
on the masonry, and the work upon it completed March 
26. 

"Since the completion of the city's portion of the bridge 
the railroad company has widened it, making a five instead 
of three-track bridge. The entire bridge-seat is now occu- 
pied, and the structure has a more finished appearance. 

^^ Boylston-street Arch Bridge, over Park Water-way. 

" Considering the complicated nature of the structure, satis- 
factory progress has been made upon it. The erection of the 
centring was commenced April 10 and completed June 16. 

" Owing to delay in the delivery of the stones for the faces 
of the arch, the setting of them was not commenced until 
July 20. The work has been actively prosecuted since that 
date, and the arch proper has been completed. The spandrel- 
walls and backing for the wing- walls and "tourelles," on the 
easterly side of the bridge, have been completed, and when 
the weather is suitable similar work on the westerly side of 
the bridge is now being done. 

"The brick portion of the arch is four feet in thickness at 
the springing line and two and one-half feet at the crown, and 
in its construction 700,000 bricks were used. 

"The extrados of the arch has been coated with asphalt, to 
prevent percolation of water through the brick-work. 

^^Commonwealth-avenue Bridge. 

"This bridge was built under the direction of the Com- 
mittee on Streets, as it is the street-bridge carrying Common- 
wealth avenue over the park water-way. 

" The abutments and wing-walls were completed at the date 



50 City Document No. 53. 

of the last report, and the iron superstructure was under con- 
tract to be finished on or before February 1. Owing to de- 
lay on the part of the contractors the bridge was not finally 
completed until May 27. 



^^ Excavation of Water-ivay. 

"The work of excavating and forming the shores of the 
water-way through the Beacon Entrance of the park, which 
was in progress at the beginning of last year, was continued 
during the spring, and completed as far as the Boylston-street 
arch bridge. May 19 the old channel crossing the boun- 
dary road between the railroad and the Boylston entrance was 
closed by filling it with gravel, and the flow of water since 
that date has been through the new water-way. 

"The steam-dredge was launched March 17, and four 
scows soon afterwards. The dredge began work April 15, 
and was kept constantly employed until December 2, when 
work was stopped by ice forming in the l^asiu and preventing 
the movement of scows. Since that date the dredge and 
scows have had such repairs made upon them as were ren- 
dered necessary by the season's service, and are ready for 
work as soon as the ice breaks up in the spring. 

"The work of the past season has consisted in excavating 
and forming the shores of the new channel southerly from 
Boylston street. When the material excavated was gravel, 
it was used for building an eml)ankment on the shore line of 
the channel, while the mud excavated was deposited in the 
rear of this embankment. In this manner about 4,000 
linear feet of shore line has been formed, and the channel 
between the banks excavated to grade 0. 

"The dredging plant has proved itself to be both efficient 
and economical. The cost per cubic yard, dredged and put 
in place, averages less than 20 cents. The efficiency of the 
dredging plant could be increased by the use of a small tug- 
boat for moving the scows. Plans for a boat of this kind are 
in progress, and will soon be submitted to your Board for 
approval. 

'^Embankment Wall. 

"Under this head is included the retaining- walls between 
the Commonw^ealth-avenue and Bcnicon-entrance bridges, 
and between the Beacon-entrance and Boylston-street arch 
bridges, also the retaining-walls adjoining the Boylston- 
street arch. 

"The wall between Commonwealth-avenue and Beacon- 



Keport of the City Engineer. 51 

entrance bridges is completed, with the exception of the 
parapet. 

"The foundation of the wall between the Beacon-entrance 
and Boylston-street arch bridges has been built to grade lines, 
3 feet below the proposed surface of the ground in front of 
the wall. 

"The foundations for portions of the walls adjoining the 
Boylston-street arch bridge were built in connection with 
the arch foundations. 

"The wall is built upon one general plan, the foundations 
consisting of pile-work to grade 7, and hydraulic cement 
concrete to grade lines, 3 feet below the ground surface, in front 
of the wall. The wall proper is built of seam-faced granite, 
irregularly coursed, and backed with rubble- work. It has a 
curved batter on the face, and the parapet is to have a cop- 
ing of red granite. 

^^ Granite Curb and Fence. 

"The granite curb to carry an iron fence, which is to form 
the street boundary around the section of the Beacon-entrance 
between Commonwealth avenue and Beacon street, and 
between Commonwealth avenue and the railroad, has all been 
delivered by the contractor. 

"The foundations for the posts which support the curb are 
completed. 

"The posts are about 11 feet apart, and each has a hydraulic 
cement concrete foundation resting upon four piles. 

"The total length of curb is 1,476 feet, and of this 1,220 
feet have been set. The setting of the remainder will be com- 
pleted within a few weeks, and the whole will then be in 
readiness for the iron fence. 

^^ Grading and Loam. 

"In August work was begun on grading the slopes between 
the drive-ways and the shores of the water-way. The portion 
of the Beacon-entrance between Beacon street and Common- 
wealth avenue has been graded to the sub-grade, so that the 
slopes are ready for putting on the loam. Between Com- 
monwealth avenue and the railroad the slope on the easterly 
side of the water-way is ready for loaming, while on the other 
slopes considerable work has been done. As soon as spring 
opens the whole of the Beacon-entrance will be ready for the 
loam, the grading of the slopes being now in progress when 
the weather permits. 

"In order to obtain the large quantity of loam needed for 
the park, the construction of a spur-track, leading from the 



52 City Document No. 53. 

Hopkinton Branch Railroad into the ncAV water-works basin 
No. 4, in Ashland, was decided upon. 

" The length of the spur-track from the railroad to the valley 
of the basin is 7,139 feet, and the length of track required in 
the valley is 4,626 feet. The grading of the road-bed was 
commenced October 9, and completed November 18. The 
location required 600 feet of trestle-work, which was com- 
menced October 26, and as portions of it were 30 feet in 
height, and the work was several times interrupted for want 
of tim])er, it was not completed until December 28, too 
late for track-laying, as the ground was frozen to quite a 
depth. 

" Arrangements have been made with the Boston & Albany 
Railroad Company for transporting the loam from Ashland 
to the park, and 20,000 cubic yards are now piled beside 
the track road-bed in the valley. 

" A contract has been made for the rails to be delivered on 
or before February 15, and the ties have been secured. As 
soon, therefore, as spring opens, the track can be completed, 
and the transportation of the loam commenced. 

" Covered Cha7inel of Stony hrook. 

" The wooden conduit connecting the gate-chamber with 
Charles river was so far completed on July 2 that the water 
of Stony brook was allowed to run through it instead of 
into the park. 

" The large automatic-acting wooden gates, to control the 
height of water in the park, and permit the flow of Stony 
brook into it in time of freshets, were hung and adjusted by 
September 5. The iron sluice-gate, to control the tlow of 
salt-water into the park, through the wooden conduit, has 
also been completed, and the setting of it was finished 
December 9. 

" Work upon the gate-house superstructure was prose- 
cuted during the late fall and early winter, and the walls 
are completed and ready for the roof. 

''With the exception of the roof, doors, and windows, and 
other small details in connection with the gate-chamber 
superstructure, the work of liuilding the "Covered Channel 
of Stony brook" is now completed. 

" Covered Channel of Muddy river, 

" The length of this channel, if built on the line originally 
proposed, Avill be about 3,300 feet. The work was begun 
October 2, and 1,369 feet in length are now completed. 

" It is built mainly of wood in a similar manner to the 



Eeport of the City Engineer. 53 

covered channel of Stony brook, but is much larger, and 
has a cement concrete key at the crown of the arch. The 
concrete key was adopted, as the crown of the arch was above 
the line of mean high water, and would be liable to decay ii 
made of wood. The form of the conduit is elliptical. It is 
11 feet in height and 9 feet in width. 

" Under the Boston & Albany Railroad location, for a 
length of 129 feet, the conduit is built entirely of hydraulic 
cement concrete ; the section of the mass of concrete through 
which it runs measures 13 feet wide and 15 feet high. 

" As far as built the conduit rests every^^here on sand or 
gravel ; but, w4th the exception of the bottom and top, it is 
surrounded by peat. There has been less change of form 
than was expected to occur, considering the size of the con- 
duit and character of material iu which it is built. 

^^ In General. 

" The building of a wharf on the river side of Beacon street, 
and the dredging of a channel to it from the river, have largely 
reduced the cost of delivery of stone required for the various 
structures in the park by substituting delivery by water for 
that by rail. 

" A storage-yard has been established at the Westland 
entrance. An area 100 ft. X 116 ft. has been enclosed by 
a high board-fence ; one side of the area is occupied by sheds 
for the storage of tools and machinery which would be in- 
jured by exposure to the weather ; an office for a time- 
keeper, who acts as store-keeper, has been located in one 
corner, and the remainder of the area is used for general 
storage purposes. 

"In addition to the supervision of the above work, surveys 
and complete plans showing the area of land taken from each 
owner by the proposed Improvement of Muddy river, and 
surveys and plans of East Wood island and land for parkway, 
purchased for East Boston park ; also, surveys and plans of 
estates adjoining the Bussey Farm and Arnold Arboretum, 
and record plans of the land taken for park purposes in this 
locality, have been made for the Commissioners." 

The table giving the number of vessels passing through 
the draw-bridges controlled by the City of Boston, during the 
year 1882, will be found in Appendix A. 

The table showing the width of draw-opening in the 
bridges over tide-water in this city is given in Appendix B. 
The openings have all been re-measured for this report. 

HENRY M. WIGHTMAN, 

City Engineer. 



54 



City Document No. 53. 















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57 



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