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Full text of "Annual report of the City Engineer"

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[Document 55 — 1884.] 




CITY OF S^»i BOSTON. 






SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL EEPORT 



CITY ENGIINEEE, 

FOR THE YEAR 1883. 

(J 



Office of the City Engineer, City Hall, 

Boston, February 25, 1884. 
To the Honorable City Council: — 

In compliance with the sixth section of the ordinance re- 
lating to the Engineer's Department the following report of 
the expenses and operations of the department for the year 
1883 is respectfully submitted. 

The duties of the City Engineer may be classified under 
the following heads : — 

A. — Those pertaining to the City Engineer's Department 
proper, "svhich consist in the superintendence of the filling of 
new streets and of districts, in the care and maintenance of 
bridges, in designing and superintending the construction of 
new bridges, retaining-walls, city wharves, etc., and in mis- 
cellaneous work called for by committees of the City Coun- 
cil. (City Engineer's Department.) 

B. — Superintendence of the Sudbury River, Cochituate, 
and Mystic AYater Works, including charge of new construc- 
tions for these works. (Water Works.) 

C. — Charge of the construction of a system of intercept- 
ing and outlet sewers. (Improved Sewerage, or Main 
Drainage.) 



2 CiTT Document No. 55. 

D. — Charge of the engineering work in connection with 
the Back Bay and other proposed parks. (Parks.) 

The expenses incurred under the head C, are paid wholly 
from a special a[)])ropriation, under the charge of the Joint 
Special Committee on Improved Sewerage. 



(A.) — City Engineer's Depart31ent. 

The following is a statement of engineering expenses from 
January 1, 1883, to January 1, 1884 : — 

Amount expended from department appropria- 
tion for 1882-83 $7,933 22 

Amount expended from department appropria- 
tion for 1883-84 21,91128 



Total expended from department appropriations, $29,844 50 
Condition of department appropriation : — 

Amount of appropriation for financial year, 

1883-84 $32,000 00 

Amount expended to January 1, 1884 . . 21,911 28 

Unexpended balance, January 1, 1884 . . $10,088 72 



Classification of Expenses. 

Salaries of City Engineer, assistants, draughts- 
men, transitmen, levellers, rodnien, etc. 

Engineering instruments, and repairs of same . 

Drawing paper, and materials for plans . 

Stationery and printing stock, note-books, etc., 

Eeference-books, maps, photographs and 
frames ....... 

Printing and binding ..... 

Travelling expenses, including horse-keeping, 
etc. ........ 

Incidental expenses and small supplies . 

Furniture, cases for plans and books 

Committee expenses ..... 

" Blue Process " printing .... 

Total ....... 



The number of persons emploj^ed and paid from the de- 
partment appropriation was, on the first of January, 1883 



$27,134 50 




142 


56 




369 


60 




266 


82 




268 


21 




97 


92 




767 


97 




240 


89 




457 


00 




84 


75 




14 


28- 


$2 


,844 


50 



Report of City Engineer. 3 

(including the City Engineer), 20. Tiie present numlier is 
19. Tlie operations of the department for the year, together 
witli such general information relating to the various works 
and structures, finished and in progress, as is thought to be 
of interest, are given in the following statements : — 



BRIDGES. 

The rebuilding of the Warren bridge has been the most 
extensive work in progress in connection with the tide-water 
bridges, during the year. The work done upon the other 
tide-water and inland bridges has been confined to the or- 
dinary and necessary repairs. 

The system of making these repairs by day's labor has 
been continued as for several past years. 

Mr. S. S. Lewis w^as employed by the Committee on 
Bridges as superintendent of repairs on the tide- water 
bridges, upon the same terms as last year. The pay of 
carpenters and la1)orers was also the same as last year. 

Mr. John W. Leatherbee was again the lowest bidder for 
the spruce lumber required for repairs, and he was awarded 
the 3'early contract, for the seventh consecutive time. 

Under his contract for 1882 he has furnished 6,768 feet 
B.M., at $15.90 per M, and under his contract for 1883, 
279,181 feet B.M., at $15.75 per M. 

The painting of such of the tide-water bridges as required 
it has been done by day's labor, under the supervision of 
Mr. E. B. Perry, as foreman. This work was commenced 
June 4, and continued to Oct. 20, during which time nine 
bridges w^ere painted. The rates of pay of the foreman, 
painters, and lal)orers were the same as last year. Paint- 
stock was furnished by Charles Richardson & Co., the 
lowest bidders. Total cost of labor was $2,690.55 ; of ma- 
terials, tools, etc., $824.74. 

The total cost of ordinary repairs on the tide-water bridges, 
as made under the direction of this department, was $28,- 
426.29. 

The system adopted several years ago, and since continued, 
of making the repairs of the inland bridges (in charge of 
the Superintendent of Streets) by day's labor, under the super- 
vision of this department, has been found more satisfactory 
than former methods. The bridges are kept in better order, 
and any defects are more readily ascertained and remedied 
than was customary under the periodical examinations re- 
quired by the section of the ordinances relating to the 
duties of this department in connection with these structures. 



4 City Document No. 55. 

The materials needed for these repairs are usually pur- 
chased at the contract rates for similar materials used in 
the repairs of the tide-water bridges, and a considerable 
savino; is thus effected. 

The total cost of repairs on the inland bridges has been 
$7,170.91. 

The records of the numl)er of vessels passing through the 
draw-ways, time of passage, kind of vessel, etc., as kept by 
the superintendents of the several tide-water bridges, have 
been tabulated, and the totals are given in the summary, 
which will be found in Appendix A. 

The usual annual examination (required by Section 5 of 
the ordinance relating to the City Engineer's department) of 
all bridges within the city limits, open to team and foot 
travel, has 1)een made, and the results of this examination 
respecting the condition of the l)ridges as to safety and need 
of rencAval or repairs, are given in the succeeding pages. 

The following is a list of the bridges inspected. The 
total number is two more than last year. The two added to 
the list are the Boylston-street arch bridge, in the Back Bay, 
and the foot-bridge over the Boston & Providence Railroad, 
at West Rutland square. 

In the list those marked with an asterisk are over naviga- 
ble waters, and are each provided with a draw : — 

I. — Bridges wholly supported by Boston. 

Ashland street, Ward 23, over Boston & Providence 
Railroad. 

Athens street, over N.Y. & N.E. Railroad. 

Beacon Entrance, Back-Bay park, over Boston & Albany 
Railroad. 

Beacon street, over outlet to Back-Bay park pond. 

Berkeley street, over Boston & Albany Raih-oad. 

Berkeley street, over Boston & Providence Raih'oad. 

Blakemore street, over Boston & Providence Railroad, 
Ward 23. 

Boylston street, over outlet to Back-Bay park pond. 
*BroadAvay, over Fort Point Channel. 

Broadway, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Brookline avenue, over ^luddy river. Ward 22. 
*Charles river, from Boston to Charlestown. 
*Chelsea (South), over South channel, Mystic river. 
*Chelsea street, from East Boston to Chelsea. 

Columbus avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 
*C()mmercial j)oint, or Tenear^, VA'ard 24. 

Commonwealth avenue, over outlet to Back-Bay park pond. 
•Congress street, over Fort Point Channel. 



Eeport of City Engineer. 5 

Dartmouth street, over Boston & Albany and Boston & 
Providence Railroad. 
*Dover street, over Fort Point Channel. 
*Federal street, over Fort Point Channel. 

Ferdinand street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Huntington avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 
*Malden, from Charlestown to Everett. 
*Meridian street, from East Boston to Chelsea. 
*Mt. Washington avenue, over Fort Point Channel. 

Newton street, over Boston & Providence Railroad. 

Public Garden, foot-bridge. 

Shawmut avenue, over Boston & All^any Railroad. 

Swett street, east of N.Y. & N.E. Railroad. 

Swett street, west of N.Y. & N.E. Railroad. 

* Warren, from Boston to Charlestown. 

West Chester park, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 
West Chester park, over Boston & Providence Railroad. 
West Rutland square, over Boston & Providence Railroad. 
Winthrop, from Breed's Island to Winthrop. 

II. — Bridges of which Boston supports the Part 

WITHIN ITS Limits. 

•Cambridge street, from Brighton (Ward 25) to Cambridge. 

Central avenue, from Ward 24 to Milton. 
*Chelsea (North), from Charlestown to Chelsea. 
*Essex street, from Ward 25 (Brookline) to Cambridge. 
*Granite, from Dorchester (Ward 24) to Milton. 

Long wood avenue, from Ward 22 to Brookline. 

Mattapan, from Ward 24 to Milton. 

jSIilton, from Ward 24 to Milton. 
*Neponset, from Ward 24 to Quincy. 
*North Beacon street, fr'om Ward 25 to Watertown. 
*North Harvard street, from Ward 25 to Cambridge. 

Spring street, from West Roxbury (Ward 23) to Ded- 
ham. 

* Western avenue, from Ward 25 to Cambridge. 

* Western avenue, from Ward 25 to Watertown. 

III. — Bridges of which Boston pays a Part of the 

Cost of Maintenance. 

Albany street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

* Canal, from Boston to Cambridge. 
Dorchester street, over Old Colony Railroad. 

*Prison Point, from Charlestown to Cambridge. 
*West Boston, from Boston to Cambridge. 



6 City Document No. 55. 

IV. — Bridges supported by Railroad Corporations. 

1st. — Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Brighton avenue, Ward 25. 
Harrison avenue. 
Market street, Ward 25. 
Treniont street. 
Washington street. 

2d. — Boston & Maine Railroad. 

Mystic avenue. 
Main street. 

3d. — Boston <& Providence Railroad. 

Beech street. Ward 23. 

Bellevue street, Ward 23. 

Canterbury street. Ward 23. 

Centre street, or Hog Bridge, Ward 23. 

Centre and Mt. Vernon streets, Ward 23. 

Dudley avenue, Ward 23. 

Park street. Ward 23. 

4tli. — Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn Railroad. 
Everett street. 



5th . — Eastern Railroad. 



Mystic avenue. 
Main street. 



6th. — New York & N'ew England Railroad. 

Broadway. 

Dorchester avenue. 

Fifth street. 

Forest Hill avenue. Ward 24. 

Fourth street. 

Harvard street, Ward 24. 

Norfolk " '< 4* 

Norfolk " i^ ii 

Second street. 

Silver street. 

Sixth street. 

Third street. 

Washington street, Ward 24. 



Keport of City Engineer. 7 

Itli . — Old Colony Railroad. 

Adams street. 

Ashiiiont street and Dorchester avenue. 

Cedar Grove Cemetery. 

Commercial street. 

Savin Hill avenue. 

Recapitulation. 

I. Number wholly supported by Boston . . 37 

II. Number of which JBoston supports the part with- 
in its limits . . . . . .14 

III. Numl)er of which Boston pays a part of the cost 

of maintenance ...... 5 

IV. Number supported by Railroad Corporations : — 

1. Boston & Albany ...... 5 

2. Boston & Maine ...... 2 

3. Boston & Providence ..... 7 

4. Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn ... 1 

5. Eastern ........ 2 

6. New York & New England . . . .13 

7. Old Colony . 5 

Total number . . . . . .91 

I.— BRIDGES WHOLLY SUPPORTED BY BOSTON. 

ASHLAND-STREET BrIDGE (OVER BoSTON & PROVIDENCE 

Railroad, Ward 23). 

No repairs have been made on this bridge during the 
year. The abutments need repointing, otherwise the struct- 
ure is in good condition. 

Athens-street Bridge (over New York & New Eng- 
land Railroad). 

The fences will require rebuilding the present season. The 
bridge is, in other respects, in good order, and has not re- 
quired any repairs. 

Beacon-entrance Bridge (over Boston & Albany Rail- 
road) . 

This bridge is used only for the team travel on work con- 
nected with the Back Bay park. Ornamental wrought-iron 
fences have been erected upon it during the past year at a 
cost of $3,750. 



8 City Document No. 55. 

The entire structure is in excellent condition, and has not 
required any repairs. 

Beacon-street Bridge (over Outlet of Back-Bay Park 

Pond) . 

The roadway has been newly sheathed, and the bridge is 
now in good condition, except that it will require painting 
during the coming year. 

Total cost of repairs, $171.(51. 

Berkeley-street Bridge (oyer Boston & Albany 

Railroad) . 

This bridge has been mentioned in former reports as 
beinif a structure of insufficient strength for the trav-el of the 
thoroughfare upon which it is located. It has been strength- 
ened at various times to the fullest extent practicable, and is 
now in fair condition for such a weak structure. No repairs 
have been made upon it during the past year, but two of the 
braces connected with the upper chords of the trusses have 
been recently broken by teams, and will have to be replaced 
at an early day. 

The bridge is subject to a constant supervision by this de- 
paitment ; and, although it may last for some time longer, it 
shoidd be rebuilt as soon as it develops any signs of danger- 
ous weakness. 

Berkeley-street Bridge (over Boston & Providence 

Railroad). 

Only slight repairs have been made upon this bridge ; the 
concrete covering of the sidewalks is, however, badly 
cracked and broken, and will soon require renewuig. 

Total cost of repairs, $11.58. 

Blakemore-street Bridge (over Boston & Providence 
Railroad, Ward 23). 

All of the iron-work of this bridge has been thoroughly 
painted, and the entire structure is in excellent condition. 
Total cost of repairs, $214.12. 

Boylston-street Bridge (over Back Bay Water-way). 

This is an ornamental arch bridge, built of brick with red 
and seam-faced granite ends. It was completed Nov. 12, 



Report of City Engineer. 9 

and has been used since for the passage of gravel and loam 
trains, and the ordinary teaming purposes connected with the 
park work. For more details of its construction, etc., refer- 
ence may be had to my report to the Park Commissioners. 



*Broadway Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

More extensive repairs were required on this bridge than 
it received, as the appropriation for repairs of tide-water 
bridges was not sufficiently large to warrant any expendi- 
ture which could be postponed to another year w^ithout 
serious detriment to the structure. 

The painting commenced last year has been finished, the 
plank surfaces of the roadway have been renewed, and the 
timber fenders around the screw piles at each end of the 
draw-span have been thoroughly repaired. 

The plank surface of the draw-pier is in bad condition, the 
timber curbing in the gutters needs renewal, and the side- 
walks, for the whole length of the bridge, will require repairs 
the coming season. 

The wood pavement of the column section of the South 
Boston side of the channel has given less trouble from ex- 
pansion by frost than usual. The method adopted for 
remedying this difficulty, and described in the last report, 
has continued to serve its purpose so far as to prevent inter- 
ruption to the travel over the bridge roadway. 

Total cost of repairs, $4,729.72. 



Broadway Bridge (over the Boston & Albany Rail- 
// road) . 

No repairs except the sheathing of one roadway have been 
required ; the l)ridge is in excellent condition. 
Total cost of repairs, $172.84. 



Brookline-avenue Bridge (over Muddy River). 

The construction and putting in use of the covered chan- 
nel for Muddy river, through Brookline avenue to Charles 
river, has rendered this bridge unnecessary. It has already 
been partially destroyed, and the channel beneath a portion 
of it filled. Early in the spring the remainder of the struct- 
ure will be removed, and the space between the abutments 
solidly filled. 



10 City Document No. 55. 

* Charles-River Bridge (from Boston to Charles- 
town). 

Attention Avas called in last year's report to the unsatis- 
factory condition of the draw foundation of this bridge, and 
the rebuilding of it was recommended as soon as the new 
Warren bridge should be so far completed as to be available 
for use. 

The delay in the completion of the new Warren bridge 
will probably render it advisable to postpone the rebuilding 
of this foundation until another season, but as its unequal 
settlement, and consequent necessary increase of power to 
move the draw, has been a growing evil, it is now almost 
beyond the power of a horse to operate it. 

Under these circumstances the application of steam-power 
at an early day has become a necessity, and it is proposed 
to transfer to this bridge the engines and machinery in use 
for moving the old Warren-bridge draw as soon as it can be 
spared. 

The ordinary repairs have been made on the bridge during 
the past season, and. it has been painted. It is in fair con- 
dition. 

Total cost of repairs, $1,832.52. 

*Chelsea Bridge (South) (over South Channel, 
Mystic River). 

No extensive repairs have been required upon this struct- 
ure, and it is in good condition. 
Total cost of repairs, $675.25. 



* Chelsea-street Bridge (from East Boston to 

Chelsea). 

The draw of this bridge has, in past years, seldom been 
opened for passage of vessels; but during the year 1883 it 
has been opened (juitc a number of times. It Avas, therefore, 
necessary to make (juite extensive repairs on the turn-table 
and foundation of the draw, before it was in proper condition 
for use. The draw-piers were also strengthened and re- 
l)aired, and the roadAvays, both of the draw and iixcd })ortion 
of the bridge, roplanked. 

The draw is narrow, old, and in poor condition; and, if it 
is to be used to any extent, will have to be rebuilt. 

The fixed portion of the bridge is in good order. 

Total cost of repairs, $1,956.62. 



Keport of City Engineer. 11 

Columbus-avenue Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
Railroad). 

The roadways have been sheathed, and the under floor re- 
newed to some extent. It was expected when this work 
was done that the new sheathing would last until spring, 
when it will be necessaiy to remove all the wood-work, and 
clean and paint the iron-work. As the wood-work is in poor 
condition, a large part, if not the whole of it, will have to be 
renewed. 

Total cost of repairs, $290.68. 

*COMMERCIAL PoiNT, OR TeNEAN BrIDGE (WaRD 24), 

Is in good condition ; no repairs have been needed. 

Commonwealth-avenue Bridge (over water-way, Back- 
Bay Park). 

This bridge is not used for public travel, as the extension 
of the avenue upon which it is located has not yet been pre- 
pared for use as a thoroughfare. 

Iron fences, similar in design to those on the other por- 
tions of the Beacon entrance to the Back-Bay park, have 
been erected, and the bridge is completely inorder for travel. 

*Congress-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

The replanking of the sides of the water-ways commenced 
last year has been continued and completed. 

Both ends of the draw-})ier have also been repaired and 
strengthened. 

The floor of the draw-pier is quite badly decayed, and will 
need extensive repairs the coming season. The bridge 
should also be painted. 

The necessity for continuing certain dredging operations, 
carried on under the direction of the Harbor and Land Com- 
missioners, to a point above the bridge was referred to in the 
last report. To some extent the unsatisfactory condition of 
this work, so far as it aflects the use of the bridge, has been 
remedied. 

The westerly channel has been dredged to a depth of sixteen 
feet below mean low water, and a channel of this depth, and 
flfty feet in width, has been excavated, as far as the Federal- 
street bridge. The easterly channel at the bridge has not l)een 
improved in this manner, and the danger of the interruption 
to travel over this important thoroughfare, by a vessel acci- 



12 City Document No. 55. 

dentally grounding in the draw-way, still exists, as there is 
but twelve feet of water at low tide ; and, Avith the utmost care 
on the part of the superintendent, a heavy draft vessel may 
get into this channel. It is to l)e hoped that some action will 
be taken l)y the Harbor and Land Commissioners to remedy 
this difficulty ; and, as their attention has been called to it by 
this department, it is probable that it will be at an early day. 

The continued development for commercial purposes of 
the reclaimed Hats areas on the South Boston side of the 
channel increases largely the travel over this bridge, and 
an effort has ))een made during the past year by the man- 
agement of the N.Y. & N.E."^ Eailroad Co. to have the 
"Northern-avenue" bridge constructed, to provide additional 
facilities for the accommodation of this travel, and also a 
shorter route to the commercial sections of the city proper. 
It is evident that this ncAv thoroughfare will have to be 
constructed before many years if the travel between these 
sections continues to increase ; and it is an open question 
whether or not it is needed now. 

The number of vessels passing through the drawways of 
this bridge is also constantly increasing, the Avhole number 
for 1883 being 18,999, while for 1882 it was but 17,877. 

The large traffic carried on both over and through this 
bridge renders the expense for repairs quite large. In ad- 
dition to the repairs made the past year the lloor of the 
draw-pier will have to be renewed to a large extent, and the 
bridge thoroughly painted the coming season. 

Total cost of repairs, $5,068.42. 

Dartmouth-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany and 
Boston & Providence Kailroads) 

Is in good order. Repairs during the year have been 
confined to resheathing roadway and painting railings. 
Total cost of repairs, $77.43. 

*Dover-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

Only the ordinary repairs to the draw, roadways, and 
machinery have been made, and the bridge is in good con- 
dition. 

Total cost of repairs, $737.16. 

*Federal-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

Two new trucks have been provided to replace those nearly 
worn out ; otherwise the usual repairs only have been made. 



\ 



Eeport of City Engineer. 13 



The condition of the bridge and appurtenances has not 
apparently grown worse from that of hist year, and, for an 
old structure, it is in fair condition, showing no signs of 
weakness that could not be expected to appear with continued 
use. 

Total cost of repairs, $1,374.34. 



Ferdinand-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
Railroad) . 

This bridge presents a somewhat incongruous appearance, 
on account of the number and different patterns of the 
trusses which compose it ; but it is safe, and in fair condition. 

The wooden bulk-head adjoining the bridge, the bad con- 
dition of which has been mentioned in a number of previous 
reports, has been i-econstructed with spruce piles and timber, 
and is now in safe condition. It will last for a number of 
years ; but it is to be regretted that a proper retaining-wall 
was not built instead. 

Total cost of repairs on the bridge, $122.95. 



Huntinqton-a VENUE Bridge (over Boston & Albany 

Eailroad). 

The main girders of this bridge have been painted, and the 
roadway sheathed. It is now in good order. 
Total cost for repairs, $718.74. 



*Malden Bridge (from Charlestown to Everett). 

The draw has been raised at the centre, and is now oper- 
ated with less difficulty ; but the cross timbers are not strong 
enough to convey all of its weight to the centre pivot, and it 
will undoubtedly, in a short time, be as difficult to move as 
before. The draw-roadway has been sheathed, and the sides 
of the water-way repaired. 

The buoy-stones, from which the buoj^s had became de- 
tached, have been taken up from the bottom of the channel 
and placed upon the piers. New buoys and chains should 
be attached to them, and they should then be replaced in time 
for use upon the opening of navigation. The bridge, as a 
whole, is in fair condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $565.16. 



14 City Document Xo. 55. 

*MERIDIA]Sr-STREET BuiDGE (FROM EaST BoSTON TO 

Chelsea.) 

This bridge h:is been painted, the draw-roadway sheathed, 
and the fences, for its whole length, qnite extensively re- 
paired. 

The fences and bulkheads to which they are attached arc 
very rotten, the concrete sidewalks are in bad condition, and 
the cobl)le-stone jiavement of the roadway is almost untit for 
travel. The bridge-floor is known to be very rotten in 
places, but its condition, as a whole, cannot be positively 
ascertained W'ithout uncovering it, an expensive operation, 
unless it is to be rephiced by a new floor. It is evident that 
the flxed portion of the structure needs such extensive 
repairs that to make them would amount to a practical re- 
building of the superstructure ; and, unless this is to be 
done the coming season, only such repairs as may be neces- 
sary to keep it in fair running order should be made. 

Total cost of repairs, $1,389.05. 

*Mt. Washington-avenue Bridge (over Fort Point 

Channel). 

The northerly end of the draw-pier has been repaired and 
strengthened, the draw-roadway resheathed, and the entire 
bridge painted. It is now in fair condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $2,341.22. 

Newton-street Bridge (over Boston & Providence 

Railroad) 

Is in good order. No repairs have been made upon it. 

Public Garden Foot-Bridge. 

The stone masonry of this structure has needed repointing 
for several years ; the bridge is otherwise in good condition. 

Shawmut-avenue Bridge (over Boston & Albany 

Kailroad) . 

Only slight repairs have been made, but the bridge is in 
good order. 

Total cost of repairs, $8.80. 



Swett-street Bridges (over South-Bay sluices). 

The southerly bridge has been resheathed, and some 
slight repairs have been made on the northerly one. 



Report of City Engineer. 15 

The abutment wings are in poor condition, and should be 
repaired the coming season ; with this exception the bridges 
are in fair condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $162.31. 



* Warren Bridge (from Boston to Charlestown). 

This bridge has been kept in safe condition for travel dur- 
ing the year, and has been in part replaced by the new 
structure now in process of construction. A full description 
of the new bridge is given under the head of "Miscellaneous 
"Work and Constructions, 1883." 
. Total cost of repairs, $864.94. 



West Chester Park Bridge (over Boston & Albany 

Railroad). 

All of the iron- work has been cleaned and painted, and the 
roadway-sheathing has been renewed in places. A 24-inch 
water-pipe has been laid across the bridge between two of its 
girders. The entire structure is in good order. 

Total cost of repairs, $494.02. 



West-Chester Park Bridge (over Boston & Provi- 
dence Railroad) 

Has been thoroughly repaired and painted. An additional 
water-pipe and also a gas-pipe have been laid in the central 
division of the bridge. 

To accommodate these pipes one of the horse-railroad 
tracks has been removed from the central and placed in the 
easterly roadway. 

Total cost of repairs, $1,289.81. 



West Rutland-square Foot-Bridge (over B. & P. R.R.) 
Is in excellent condition, and has required no repairs. 

WiNTHROP Bridge (From Breed's Island to Winthrop) . 

Only trifling repairs have been needed upon this structure, 
and it is now in good condition. 
Total cost of repairs, $3.00. 



/V 16 "^ City Document No. 55. 

V 

II.— BRIDGES OF WHICH BOSTON SUPPORTS 
THE PART WITHIN ITS LIMITS. 

•Cambridge-street Bridge (from Ward 25 to 
Cambkidge). 

A short time previous to the annexation of Brighton (Jan- 
uary 12, 1874) the main portion of this bridge was thor- 
oughly repaired. Since that time no extensive repairs have 
been made upon it, although the draw-pier has been entirely 
rebuilt. 

The draw w\as not rel)uilt at the time the main structure 
was so thoroughly repaired, and is now very old, and not 
worth repairing. 

The main bridge and draw are in poor condition, and should 
be rebuilt the coming season. The Cambridge portion of the 
bridge was rebuilt and widened several years ago. 

Total cost of repairs, $241.24. 



Central-avenue Bridge (over Neponset River, Dor- 
chester Lower Mills). 

The iron-work of this bridge has been painted under the 
supervision of this department, the town of Milton paying its 
portion of the cost. The bridge is in good order. 

Total cost of repairs paid by Boston, $156.08. 

•Chelsea Bridge (North) (from the Mystic River 
Corporation's Wharf to Chelsea) 

Has been painted, its draw sheathed, and small repairs made. 

On Octol)er 2 the draw was so seriously damaged by the 
drifting of a schooner against it that it required thirty-six 
hours' continuous work before travel could be resumed over 
it. The accident Avas due to the breaking of the schooner's 
lines after the draw had been opened for her passage through 
it, and while she was still attached to the buoy. 

Total cost of repairs, $1,271.22. 

*ESSEX-STREET BRIDGE (FROM WaRD 25 TO CAMBRIDGE). 

Only slight repairs have been made upon this bridge. 
The roadway requires sheathing, as soon as the weather will 
permit. Otherwise the structure is in fair condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $43.11. 



Eeport of City Engineer. 17 

* Granite Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton) 
Has been painted, and is in excellent condition. 



Total cost of repairs, 

Long wood-avenue Bridge (from Ward 22 to Brook- 
line ) . 

The city's portion of this bridge has been replanked, and 
is in good condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $291.21. 

Mattapan Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton) 

Has been strengthened by placing a 12-in. X 14-in. 
hard-pine timber, extending from abutment to abutment, 
under the centre of the drive-way. A new roadway floor has 
been laid and the iron- work of the bridge painted. 
Total cost of repairs paid by Boston, $236.54. 

Milton Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton). 

The wood floor of this bridge has been renewed, the side- 
walks replanked, and the railing painted. It is in good 
condition. 

Total cost of repairs paid by Boston, $1,298.30. 

*Neponset Bridge (from Ward 24 to Quincy). 

The iron-work and fences have been painted and the road- 
wav sheathed. The bridg-e is in good order. 
Total cost of repairs, $291. 

*NoRTH Beacon-street Bridge (from Ward 25 to 
Watertown) 

Was thoroughly repaired by the town of Brighton just 
before annexation, and has had only the ordinary repairs re- 
quired by wear since. Every portion of the bridge is now in 
poor condition, except the railing, which was renewed the 
past year as a matter of necessity. It would not be a meas- 
ure of economy to expend upon it any more money for 
repairs ; the entire bridge should be rebuilt during the com- 
ing season. The town of Watertown has rebuilt its portion 
of the bridoje during? the past year. 

In addition to the new railina: the draw has been sheathed 
and other slight repairs made. 

Total cost of repairs, $541.15. 



18 City Document No. 55. 



*NoRTH Harvard-street Bridge (from Ward 25 to 
Cambridge). 

As anticipated, the dredging operations of the United 
States government have removed the dol])hin below this 
bridge, and it will be necessary to set a buoy in place of it. 
The bridge has been sheathed, the railing and building 
painted, and it is now in good order. 

Total cost of repairs, $401.52. 



Spring-street Bridge (from Ward 23 to Dedham) 

Is a stone arch bridge in good condition, and has required 
uo repairs. 



* Western-avenue Bridge (from Ward 25 to Cam- 
bridge). 

Only ordinary repairs have been made upon it, and it is 
now in good order. 

Total cost of repairs, $115.48. 



* Western-avenue Bridge (from Ward 25 to Water- 
town). 

Extensive repairs have been required upon this bridge. 
The draw has been entirely rebuilt, a large number of new 
stringers placed in the bridge, the draw-pier repaired, and 
braces placed against the overhanging al)utment. 

The town of Watertown repaired its portion of the bridge 
in a similar manner ; so it is to be presumed that no change 
will be made in the position of the draw-way for several 
years. 

The difficulty experienced by vessels in passing through 
the draw-way has been mentioned in several annual reports, 
and it had been hoped that the town of Watertown would 
cooperate with the city in remedjMng this difficuit}'^ when ex- 
tensive repairs on the bridge became necessary. 

It has not, however, seen fit to do so, and the bridge must 
continue in the future as in the past to be the worst one in 
the city for the passage of vessels. 

Total cost of repairs, $2,078.67. 



Eepout of City Engineer. 19 



III. —BRIDGES FOR MAINTENANCE OF WHICH 
BOSTON PAYS A PART OF THE COST. 

Albany-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
Railroad.) 

This l)rid<2:e and its abutments have been for several years 
in bad condition. 

The iron-work of the bridge is so badly deteriorated that 
its condition would not be sufficiently improved by cleaning 
and painting it to warrant the cost of doing the work. 

The abutments are also badly cracked, and have been moved 
from their positions by the pressure of the earth-filling of 
the street. 

There is no remedy for this condition of the bridge and 
abutments except their reconstruction ; and, although no ma- 
terial change for the worse has been noticed during the year, 
it is not probable that they can be retained in service much 
longer with safety to the pul)lic travel. 

The roadway floor of the bridge has been renewed and its 
sidewalks replanked during the year. 

Total cost of repairs, $641.76. 

*Canal Bridge (from Boston to Cambridge). 

*Prison-Point Bridge (from Charlestown to 
Cambridge). 

*West-Boston Bridge (from Boston to Cambridge). 

The Canal and Prison-Point bridges are in fair condition. 
The sidewalk planking of the Canal bridge has been re- 
newed, and the ordinary repairs made upon it and also upon 
the Prison-Point bridge. 

A section about seventy feet in length of the West-Boston 
bridge has been rebuilt. The bulkheads, draw-piers, and 
pavement will require extensive repairs the coming season. 
(For further details see report of Commissioner for Boston, 
City Doc. No. 19, 1884). 

Dorchester-street Bridge (over Old Colony 
Railroad) 

Is in good condition ; it has required no repairs but the 
sheathing of the roadway. 
Total cost of repairs, $68.17. 



20 City Document No. 55. 



IV. — BRIDGES SUPPORTED BY RAILROAD 
CORPORATIONS. 

The Ashmont-street bridge, on the Shawmut branch of the 
Old Colony Railroad, mentioned in last year's report as being 
in bad condition, has been repaired by rel)uilding one wing- 
wall, extending the opposite one, renewing the diagonal truss, 
and adding floor-))eams extending entirely across the track. 
It is now in fair condition. Beech-street liridge, on the 
Dedham branch of the Boston & Providence Railroad, is old 
and in poor condition. Attention was called to it in the last 
report, but no improvement has been made. 

Norfolk-street bridge, on the New York & New England 
Railroad (the northerly one of two bridges on the same 
street), is in dangerous condition. 

The bridge on Commercial street, Dorchester, on the Old 
Colony Railroad, has been rebuilt during the year, and one 
truss of the Cottage Farm bridge, on the Boston & Albany 
Railroad, has been rebuilt. These two bridges are in good 
condition. 

The bridge on Centre and Mount Vernon streets, on the 
Dedham Branch of the Boston & Providence Railroad, has 
long been a local nuisance on account of the roadway pitching 
in the opposite direction from the grade of the street, and 
holding the water in a pool after every rain. It is a defect 
easily remedied, and should be attended to. 

Other bridges supported by railroad companies, and given 
in the list, are in good order or fair condition, and require 
no special mention. 



MISCELLANEOUS WORK AND CONSTRUCTIONS 

IN 1883. 

Broadway-Extension Retaining- Walls. 

Before the extension of Broadway over the B. & A. R.R. 
could be raised to its grade the retaining- walls on Albany 
street and Way street, adjacent to the extension, required to 
be either rebuilt to the propcrgrade or their tops built up to it. 

The ap})ro})riation was so nearly exhausted that it was de- 
cided to rel)uild only the portion of the Albany-street retain- 
ing-wall adjoining the retaining-wall of the approach to the 
bridge, and between it and the abutment of the Albany-street 
bridge. The retaining-wall upon the other side of Albany 
street, and the wall on Way street, it was thought advisable 



Report of City Engineer. 21 

to build up to grade, using the old walls as foundations for 
the new portions. 

For the foundations of the portion of the Albany-street 
Avail, which was entirely rel)uilt, new piles were driven, and 
capped with Portland cement concrete. 

The new Avail AA'as built Avith a face of stone from the 
Beacon-Hill Reservoir, and the stone from the old Avail Avas 
used for backing. The topping-out of the old Avails Avas also 
done Avitli the Beacon-Hill Reservoir stone. The Avails Avere 
capped Avith cut-stone capping, upon Avhich Avooden fences 
Avith iron standards Avere built. 

All of the Avork Avas done by day's labor, as it was im- 
practicable to do it by contract. 

Total cost to January 1st Avas $4,603.60. 

COMMONAA^EALTH-AVENUE EXTENSION. 

The filling of CommouAvealth avenue and adjacent lands 
was completed November 24, 1882, with the exception of a 
small amount Avhich could not be done until the Avork on the 
park Avas farther advanced. As stated in the last annual re- 
port, the several oAvners of the land filled accepted the Avork, 
with the understanding that the railroad company should 
furnish any material that might thereafter be needed to com- 
plete the filling, at the same price as before. The entire fill- 
ing has since been completed, Avith the exception of a small 
amount on the park. The gravel banks and filled territory 
have been measured, and the amount of filling upon each lot 
computed. The total amount of filling delivered upon the 
Avhole territory to November 24, 1882, according to the 
bank measurement, was 102,001 squares; but owing to a 
disagreement Avith Messrs. Fuller & Whitney, engineers for 
the parties other than the city, for Avhom the Avork Avas done, 
as to the apportionment of the filling, the amount to be 
charged to each party cannot be stated. 

Since the acceptance of the filling, as above described, 
there ha\'e been deposited on the territory 2,208 squares. 

During the year the railings on the CommonAvealth-avenue 
bridge haA^e been erected, so that the bridge can be thrown 
open to travel as soon as the approaches are put in order. 



Falmouth-street Filling. 

The filling of this street, begun in 1882, Avas completed 
March 23, 1883. The total amount of filling deposited Avas 
3,007 squares. The price paid Avas $3.20 per square. 



22 City Document No. 55. 



Ferdinani>-street Bulkhead. 

The bulkhead adjoiiiino; the bridge over theB. & A. R.R., 
and ojiposito the end of Fayette street, has been for several 
years in a dilapidated condition. 

Attention lias been called to it in the annual re})orts for 
several past years, and the recommendation made that the 
wooden bulkhead be replaced by a retaining-wall extending 
from the buildings to the bridge abutment. 

In June the condition of the bulkhead became dangerous, 
and estimates were submitted to the Paving De[)artment of 
the cost of building a retaining-wall and filling the approach 
to the bridge, and also an estimate of the cost of replacing 
the wooden bulkheiid by a new one. It was decided to build 
a new pile and timber bulkhead, as the Paving Department 
appropriation was too small to warrant the more expensive 
construction of the wall. 

The work was done by day's labor at a cost of $743.96. 



Franklin-street Foot-Bridge (over Boston & Albany 

Railroad). 

The bridge is located on the easterly side of Franklin 
street, and passes over the tracks of the Boston & Albany 
li.R. at AUston station. It is intended to accommodate foot 
travel to the station from a large section on the northerly 
side of the railroad. 

The foundations for the bridge were advertised, and pro- 
posals for doing the work were received, Novemljcr 2, 18«3. 

The party to whom the work was awarded failing to ap- 
pear and sign the contract it was decided to do the work by 
day's labor. 

Work was commenced at once, and the foundations were 
completed in December. These foundations consist of four 
small piers with Portland-cement concrete bases and heavy 
granite cap-courses, the granite caps of the piers under the 
main })ier-posts being bolted down to plate? bedded in the 
concrete. The granite used was obtained from the Beacon 
Hill reservoir. 

The superstructure of the In'idge consists of two coml)ined 
piers and stairways and a through span, all of wrought-iron. 
'i'he bridge and its piers and stairways are built on a continu- 
ous line, parallel to the street line, the piers being 30 feet 
long and 8 feet wide on centres. The stairs on each pier are 
divided by a landing into two equal flights, and are made 
with wrought-iron riseis and hard-pine treads. The trusses 



Report of City Engesteer. 23 

of the bridge, two in number, are of the riveted bowstring 
type, have each eight panels, and are 70 feet 7 inches long 
over all and 10 feet deep at centre. They are placed 8 feet 
apart on centres. 

Cross floor-beams of 8-inch channel iron are riveted to the 
trusses at their panel points, and on these rest hard-pine 
stringers 3 inches by 8 inches, which sup})ort a flooring of 
11-inch hard-pine plank, planed and rabbeted. The lower 
lateral system is of angle iron, and the top chords are braced 
together for four panels at centre of bridge. The strain 
from the top bracing is transferred to the lower lateral sys- 
tem by special vertical bracings placed one panel each side of 
centre of bridge. The stairways and span are provided with 
railings of 2-inch gas-pipe connected to cast-iron posts and 
to the main trusses. The superstructure was furnished and 
erected by the Boston Bridge Works, D. H. Andrews, en- 
gineer. 

The cost of the entire work was $3,500. 

Gallop's-Island Wharf and Storehouse. 

In August, plans and specifications for a wharf and store- 
house for infercted cargoes at Gallop's Island, were made for 
the Board of Health. As soon as a license to build the wharf 
could be obtained from the Board^of Harbor and Land Com- 
missioners, work upon these structures was commenced. 

Separate contracts for the labor, piles, etc., were made, 
and the construction was actively prosecuted by the labor 
contractor, jNIr. Josiah Shaw. 

The structures, as built, consist of a substantial wharf, T 
shaped, about 275 feet long, and 12 feet wide, with a pier-head 
60 feet long, and 20 feet wide. At each end ()f the pier-head, 
50 feet from it, and on line with its face is a dolphin, making, 
with the pier-head, a length of 160 feet, for vessels to lay to 
while discharo-ino; or loadinf]^. 

The storehouse is a substantially built wooden structure 
400 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 15 feet high. It rests upon 
cement concrete block foundations, has hard-pine sills and 
principal floor-timbers, the frame being otherwise of spruce. 
It has four large doors, and a liberal supply of windows, and 
is clapboarded and painted. 

The wharf is continued for its full width to the main door 
of the storehouse, about 40 feet from high- water mark, and 
a double track railroad of 21 feet gauge is laid from the pier- 
head to a turn-table in the centre of the building. A single 
track railroad is laid the whole length of the storehouse. 
Four platform cars constitute the railroad equipment. 



24 City Document No. 55. 

At one end of the storehouse a smoke-room, for disinfectinsT 
purposes, is partitioned off, in which are racks for receiving 
the goods, and keeping them from contact with the floor 
during the fumigating process ; ample provision is also made 
for ventihition when required. 

The entire Avork was completed about the 20th of October, 
and accepted by the Board of Health. The total cost was 
$7,876.13. 

IIUNTINGTON-AVENUE EXTENSION. 

Under an agreement Avith the Boston & Albany Railroad 
Co., for filling this avenue from Parker steeet to Longwood 
avenue, there were deposited 8,101 squares of gravel, at a 
cost of $3.50 per square. This work was begun on May 30 
and completed on October 9. Previous to tilling, culverts 
were built across the avenue where it crosses the canal be- 
side Parker street, and the old channel of Stony brook. 

On March 8th filling was begun by carts upon the portion of 
the avenue northerly from Longwood avenue. The filling 
was chiefly clay, and was furnished by various persons in small 
amounts ; the price paid was $2 per square, measured in the 
carts. The total amount furnished in this Avay was 1,256^%^^ 
squares ; the filling was made to a sub-grade, and afterwards 
covered with gravel by the B. & A. U.K. Co. 

On June 13th a contrac.t was made with Patrick McCarty 
for grading to a sub-grade the portion of the avenue between 
LoniTWood avenue and Tremont street. The contractor was 
required to remove all loam and deposit it upon the Back- 
Bay park, and then grade the avenue to a sub-grade, 15 
inches below the established grade ; all surplus earth, other 
than loam, to be deposited upon the portion of the avenne 
north of Longwood avenue. This work was completed, and 
the final estimate made on September 10th. The total quanti- 
ties excavated were 1,659 cubic yards of loam, and 4,270 
cubic yards of other material, the price paid for each item 
being 27^ cents per cubic yard. 

On November 15th a contract was made "with Michael 
Mahan, for building fences on each side of the avenue, from 
LoniTwood avenue to Tremont street. The contract was com- 
plete(lon December 14h,. The amount paid was $380.02. 

On November 15th a contract was made with Hugh Nawn, 
for surfiicing the roadway from Longwood avenue to Tremont 
street. This contract has not been completed. 

Rebuilding Warren Bridge. 

An appropriation of $400,000, to cover the cost of re- 
building the Warren bridge, and of widening its approaches. 



Report of City Engineer. 25 

was made by the City Council of 1882, at the close of the 
year. The Joint Special Committee of 1883, having this 
rebuilding in charge, decided to do the work by day's labor, 
and considerable progress was made by this department in 
the preparation of specifications for materials, etc., for doing 
the Avork in this manner. 

The City Council overruled the action of the committee, 
and ordered the work to be done by contract, as had been 
customary on all constructions of this character. 

New specifications were prepared, and the work advertised 
for proposals. 

The contract for the fixed part of the bridge, and for work 
pertaining to the Cochituate water-pipes, was awarded to 
Young, Ryan, & Hayes, the lowest bidders, for the sum of 
$229,807.46 for the bridge, and $8,687.73 for work in con- 
nection with the water-pipes. Their contract is dated June 
30th. Subsequently, a contract for building the two iron 
draws was awarded to David H. Andrews, of the Boston 
Bridge Works, for the sum of $17,425. 

The bridge, when completed, is to be eighty feet in 
width, with sidewalks on each side ten feet in width, leaving 
sixty feet for the roadway. 

It is to be built upon the same general plan as the principal 
pile bridges recently constructed, with an oak pile substruct- 
ure, and hard-pine superstructure. 

The iron draws are of the slide or mitre pattern, similar 
in design to those of Dover-street bridge ; but instead of 
running off upon opposite sides of the channel, they will 
both move off upon the Charlestown side. The oljject of 
this arrangement is to facilitate the use of the draws by the 
application of steam machinery to move them, and to avoid 
having duplicate sets of machinery upon each side of the 
channel. 

The contracts provide that the work shall be done in such 
a manner as not to interrupt travel on the old bridge until 
one half of the new bridge shall be ready for use. The work 
was so far completed on December 31 that the eastern half 
of the new bridge was opened for travel. It was so late in 
the season when the new section of the bridge was opened 
that it was not deemed advisable to tear up the re- 
mainder of the old bridge during the winter, and an ar- 
rangement was made with the contractors by which all 
work which would interfere with the travel over the old 
portion, was suspended until March 1st. By one of the condi- 
tions of this arrangement, the time for the completion of 
the work was extended to July 1, 1884. 

The work of rebuilding the bridge is nearly two-thirds 



26 City Document No. 55. 

completed, and all work pertaining to the water-pipes is 
practically finished ; the new pipe has been in use since 
November 16. 

The work in connection with the water-pipes consisted in 
the laying in a trench across the channel of a new siphon, 
of 24-inch pipe, enclosed in a timber siphon box. The 
depth of water above the siphon is twenty feet at low tide. 
Connecting with it is a line of 20-inch pipe extending the 
whole length of the bridge. 

The siphon was successfully lowered into position on 
Saturday, September 29, 1883. Navigation being neces- 
sarily suspended from Thursday morning, September 27th, 
at 7 o'clock, till Saturday night, September 29, at 8 o'clock. 

The total amount paid to the contractors for the bridge to 
January 1, was $115,459.39 ; to the contractors for the 
draws to the same date, the sum of $7,405.63 has been 
paid. 



IN GENERAL. 

The usual amount of work of a miscellaneous character 
has been done during the year. 

Under this head may l)e classed plans and estimates of 
cost of proposed culvert through embankment of Boston & 
Lowell Kailroad, near foot of Elm street, Charlestown, aud 
also an estimate of cost of extending the Elm-street sewer 
to the second channel of Mystic river ; plans and estimates 
for retaining-wall and steps on Webster street, Charlestown ; 
plans and estimates of cost of building a bridge and raising 
Franklin street, Brighton, so as to carry it over the B. & A. 
R.ll. ; estimates of cost of repairs on city's wharf on Rox- 
bury canal, leased to Ham & Carter; measurements of 
gravel and other filling material at various places for the 
Board of Health, etc. 

In the draui2:htin2j-room, in addition to the usual ]ar*xe 
amount of work of a general character, such as copying, 
tracing, blue printing, ami lettering })lans, which has been 
done, plans and specifications for the following structures 
and work have been made : — 

Iron draws for new A\'arren bridge. 

Franklin street foot-bridge, over B. & A. R.R. at Allston 
Station. 

Steel boilers for Mystic Piunping-stafion. 

Wrought-iron water-pipe for West Chester-park bridges. 

Iron fences for Back-Bay pjirk. 

House and office for new Warren ])ridge. 



Report of City Engineer. 27 

Iron-work, etc., connected with engines and boilers at 
Main Drainage Pumping-station. 

Any inspection of tlie above works which has been re- 
qnired, either in the shops or during erection, has been done 
by Mr. John E. Cheney, designer and principal draughts- 
man, and his assistants. 

B. — WATER-WORKS. 

Sudhury-River Reservoirs, Farm Pond, and Lake Co- 
chituate. — On January 1, 1883, Reservoirs Nos. 1, 2, and 
3 were respectively 4.63, 1.47, and 7.28 feet below high- 
water mark. On February 26 they were all full, and water 
was wasted at Dam No. 1. This waste was continued until 
July 1st. During the month of July water was drawn from 
Reservoir No. 2 for the supply of the city, in consequence 
of which its surface fell rapidly, and on August 1st this 
reservoir was practically empty, and has so remained up to 
January 1st of this year. 

Reservoir No. 3 was drawn upon on July 19th, and its 
surface gradually fell from that date until December 8th, 
when the reservoir was empty. 

Advantage has been taken of the low state of these reser- 
voirs to deepen the shallow flowage and to remove a large 
amount of loam and muck. 

^^'ater was drawn from Reservoir No. 1 for the supply of 
the city from March 21st to May 10th, since which date the 
only use made of this reservoir has been to supply the one 
and one-half million gallons per day which is allowed to run 
in the river. This draft has lowered its surface so that, at 
the present'time (January 1st), it is 4.86 feet below the top 
of the stop-planks. 

Farm pond Avas kept at about grade 149.25 until August 
1st. On September 1st it had fallen to 148.11 ; October 
1st, 147.25. On November 1st it had risen to 147.80, and 
remained near grade 148 until December 9th. During 
December it was again lowered, and on December 31st it 
stood at grade 146.08, the lowest point reached during the 
year. 

Lake Cochituate, on January 1, 1883, was 126.29 feet 
above tide marsh level, or 8.07 feet below high-water mark. 
It remained near that point until February 17th, after which 
date it gradually tilled ; and from May 24th to 28th, water 
was wasted at the outlet dam. 

Since June 1st there has been an almost constant fall of 
the lake surface ; and, at the present time (January 1, 1884), 
the water is onlv 3.21 feet above the conduit invert, or 10.12 



28 



City Document No. 55. 



feet below high-water mark. During the month of Novem- 
ber temporary pumpiiig-machinery was erected at the hike, 
and since November 27th, water has been pumped from the 
lake into the conduit. During the year plans have been pre- 
pared for a new dam at the outlet of the lake. 

Mystic Lake. 

Mystic lake was 0.98 feet below high-water mark on 
January 1st, 1883. 

On January 22d waste was commenced at the outlet dam, 
and was continued, with slight interruptions, until June 4th. 

There was a constant fall of the lake surface during: the 
months of June, July, August, and September, and on Oc- 
tober 1st, it was 7.34 feet below high-water mark. The lowest 
point reached during the year was on October 23d, -when the 
water was but 3.28 feet above the bottom of the conduit. 

During the remainder of the year it remained at about the 
same level ; and, on January 1st, 1884, it was 3.45 feet above 
the conduit invert, or 7.72 feet below high-Avater mark. 

In October, the temporary pumping-machinery at the lake 
was placed in position, preparatorj' to raising the water into 
the conduit, when a sufficient supply could not be obtained 
by gravitation ; but the pumps have not yet been used. 

A section of the conduit, about 150 feet in length, which 
was found to be badly distorted and in an unsafe condition, 
has been removed and replaced by a new and stronger struct- 
ure. 

Consumption. 

The daily average consumption of water from the com- 
bined works has been as follows : — 



January . 

February 

March . 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August . 

September 

October . 

November 

December 



From Sudbury and 
Cochituate Works. 

34,715,500 
32, GOO, 700 
34,110,700 
30,617,600 
32,169,500 
33,419,200 
36,774,000 
37,141,000 
33,645,000 
29,575,800 
28,839,300 
30,174,200 



From Mystic 
Works. 

8,369,600 
7,714,650 
7,737,300 
6,171,150 
6,319,100 
6,912,550 
7,307,550 
7,261,500 
5,846,300 
5,497,250 
5,930,600 
6,771,500 



Total. 

43,085,100 
40,405,350 
41,848,000 
36,788,750 
38,488,600 
40,331,750 
44,081,550 
44,402,500 
39,491,300 
35,073,050 
34,769,900 
36,945,700 



Averaofes 



32,836,900 7,093,500 39,930,400 



Report of City Engineer. 29 

The consumption from the Sudbury and Cochituate works 
shows an increase of 2.7 per cent., and that of the Mystic 
works, 7.9 per cent, over that of the year 1882. The con- 
sumption of the iirst nine months shows a hirge increase, 
when compared with the corresponding months of the pre- 
vious year, while the remaining months exhibit a decrease. 
This reduction in the consumption is due to the saving 
effected by the stoppage of waste, and to the effect of the 
cautionary notices issued on account of the low state of the 
supply. 

The daily average consumption per head of population 
has been 91 gallons from the Sudbury and Cochituate works ; 
82.5 gallons from the Mystic works ; and 89.5 gallons from 
the combined supplies. 

The total consumption of the Sudbury and Cochituate 
works has been 11,985,469,600 gallons, of which amount 
the Sudbury-river works have furnished 8,4^5,000,000 gal- 
lons, or 70.5 per cent., as follows : — 





Amount sent to 
Chestnut-Hill Keservoir 


Amount sent to 
Lake Cochituate. 


Total. 


January . 


. 733,400,000 




733,400,000 


February. 


. 597,800,000 




597,800,000 


March 


. 634,700,000 


17,200,000 


651,900,000 


April 


. 535,700,000 


967,900,000 


1,503,600,000 


May 


. 613,800,000 


260,000,000 


873,800,000 


June 


. 631,600.000 




631,600,000 


July 


. 754,300,000 




754,300,000 


August . 


. 640,900,000 




640,900,000 


September 


. 467,100,000 




467,100,000 


October . 


. 483,300,000 




483,300,000 


November 


. 580,500,000 




580,500,000 


December 


. 536,800,000 




536,800,000 


Totals . 


. 7,209,900,000 


1,245,100,000 


8,455,000,000 


Daily av. 


19,753,200 


3,411,200 


23,164,400 



High-Service Works. 

At the Highland pumping-station the average daily quan- 
tities pumped during each month have been as follows : — 



Januaij, 


3,158,500 


July, 


3,281,000 


February, 


3,093,910 


August, 


3,168,000 


March, 


3,238,500 


September, 


2,538,900 


April, 


2,949,410 


October, 


2,332,000 


May, 


3,081,150 


November, 


2,348,770 


June, 


3,273,080 


December, 


2,398,500 



30 City Document No. 55. 

The daily average for the year has been 2,904,990 gallons, 
an increase of 4.3 per cent, over that of 1882. 

Daring the early portion of the year there \vas a large in- 
crease in the consumption when compared with the previous 
year, while during the fall months the prevention of waste 
and scarcity of water reduced the consumption so that the 
amount pumped in October, November, and December was 
about l^% less than during the same months of 1882. 

Waste of Water. 

Since the date of my last annual report very great progress 
has been made in preventing the waste of water. The 
organization, by the present AVater Board, of the Division of 
Inspection and Waste, and the systematic work which has 
been done already, prove that the i)revention of waste to the 
extent of keeping the amount consimied within reasonable 
limits is entirely practicable. The details of the operations 
of this system of inspection and the appliances used in con- 
nection with it are so fully given in the reports of the Water 
Board to the City Council, dated September 6 and December 
G, 1883 (City Documents Nos. 122 and 173) that it would be 
superfluous for me to repeat them in this report. It should, 
however, be stated that the results accomplished, as shown 
by those reports, are not of a temporary nature ; the rate of 
consumption has steadily decreased, and it may fairly be 
assumed that the coming season's woi'k, with a force now 
trained to its duties, and the application of a large number of 
the Deacon and recording meters, as guides to, and checks 
upon, the inspection and waste, will accomplish a reduction 
of the consumption to the rate, or below it, of sixty gallons 
per head of population per day. 

My STIC- Valley Sewer. 

Experiments of various kinds with different forms of ap- 
pliances have been made during the year to ascertain, if 
possible, whether a more satisfactory treatment of the 
sewage for the removal of its impurities than that already in 
operation was practicable. The matter is, however, still 
under consideration, no conclusion having been yet reached 
by the W^ater Board as to the adoption of any of the methods 
which have been pr()})osed or tried. 

The city is still limited to its present location for the 
treatment of the sewage, as the legislation which has been 
asked for in previous years to enable it to al)an(lon the ex- 
pensive system of pumping has not been obtained, nor has 



Report of City Engineer. 31 

any movement been made the present 3'ear to obtain it. 
The scheme for extending the sewer to a point near the out- 
let of the lower Mystic pond, and utilizing land in that 
vicinity for its disposal in connection with a dam at the out- 
let of the pond, and the use of the pond for flushing purposes, 
had the indorsement of such eminent engineering authority 
as Mr. E. S. Chesbrough ; but, under present legislative 
enactments, it is impossible of accomplishment. 

The tanneries which discharge their refuse into the sewer 
are many of them increasing in capacity, and increased facili- 
ties lor pumping will soon be required. If the city was 
forced, in order to protect its water-supply from contamina- 
tion, into taking care of this refuse at the time the sewer 
was built, the question arises. Is it obliged to take the addi- 
tional quantity that any future extension of the tanneries 
may produce? If it is the burden will soon become a much 
more serious one than at present, and some action should be 
taken to determine this question before any further large 
expenditure is incurred. 

Farm-Pond Conduit. 

The pile and timber work for the trestle from which the 
gravel to form an embankment to enclose the masonry con- 
duit is to be dumped, and which is to constitute the founda- 
tion for the conduit across the pond, when the tilling is done, 
was placed under contract in October. 

In my report to the Water Board, dated December 1, 
which forms a portion of the Board's report of December 6 
to the City Council (City Doc. 173) the condition of the 
work at that date was given, and also other information in 
relation to the matter, which it is unnecessary to duplicate in 
this report. 

During the winter the work has been continuously prose- 
cuted by the contractor, Mr. Geo. H. Cavanngh, but the rate 
of progress has not been sufficiently rapid to complete the 
contract at the time agreed upon, February 1. It has, 
however, been carried on with sufficient rapidity to keep it 
in advance of the filling now under contract. 

The contract for doing the filling was let, January 17, 
1884, to Messrs. Parker & Sylvester, the only bidders for 
the work who complied Avith the terms of the proposal. 
Their price is 47 cents per cubic yard, but they allow the 
Water Board 3 cents per cubic yard for the use of its steam- 
shovel. 

Messrs. Parker & Sylvester have commenced work. 

Their plant consists of a narrow-gauge railroad track from 



32 City Document No. 55. 

the gravel-pit to and across the trestle, two locomotives, and 
twenty-nine dump-cars. The weather since the work w^as 
commenced has been very unfavorable, and the progress 
made has not, therefore, been as satisfactory as desired, but, 
with the advent of better weather, and by running the plant 
at night as Avell as by day, it is hoped that the filling will be 
completed in time to build the masonry conduit the coming 
season. No contract for the masonry conduit has yet been 
made, nor can it be until the filling is either completed, or 
nearly so. 

Basins Nos. 2 and 3. 

The condition of the work of deepening the shallow-flow- 
ajre and removiuii: loam and muck from these basins is given 
in the report hereinbefore referred to (City Doc. 173, 1883). 
Since the date of that report the work in Basin 2 has been 
practically completed, so far as the deepening of the shallow 
flowajfe is concerned. 

The work was stopped in both basins in December on ac- 
count of the cold weather rendering its further prosecution 
impracticable except at too great expense. 

In Basin 3 the work was commenced so late in the season 
that a comparatively small portion of it was completed, 
although o-ood progress was made for the time it was carried 
on. It is not expected that operations can be resumed in 
this basin until late in the coming season, as it w^ould be in- 
judicious to draw olF the water, except as the demands of the 
city's consumption require it. 

Basin No. 4. 

At the date (December 1) of my last report to the Water 
Board the work upon the dam had been stopped for the 
winter, and the only work in progress was the removal of 
loam and muck. During the winter such of this Avork as 
could be done l)y the railroad plant has been in progress, 
and large quantities of these materials, which had been 
placed in piles convenient for loading into cars with the 
steam-shovel, have been transported either to the waste dump 
or to the Back-Bay park. No other work of any conse- 
quence has been carried on except the crushing of stone for 
use in the spring. 

As the report to which I have referred gave a full account 
of the work which had been accomplished, a repetition of it 
is unnecessary. The statements therein contained that 
" it is evident, from the quantity of work yet to be done, 
that it cannot be accomplished for the sum remaining, even 







I 



I' 
I 



S 



S 






S s 






^ 



Report of City Engineer. 33 

if the strictest economy was exercised," referring to the un- 
expended balance of the appropriation, and that "the cost of 
tlie dam is considerably in excess of the original estimates, 
but owing to the non-receipt of the construction accounts 
since August 15, it is not possible to estimate with any de- 
gree of accuracy the probable cost of the work remaining to 
be done,"' require some further explanation, which the receipt 
of the data referred to enables me to make. 

The construction accounts referred to in the above quota- 
tion from my report of December 1, to the Water Board, 
were received a few days before that date but after the re- 
port was written and too late to be made available as a basis 
for an estimate of the deficiency which would probably arise 
before the completion of the work. The figures of cost of 
the various items of work at the basin show the extravagant 
and incompetent management of its affairs, and as soon as a 
proper tabulation of the results could be made a statement 
of them was made to the Water Board. It was evident that, 
unless the work could be more economically and efliciently 
conducted, a deficiency in the vicinity of $100,000 would 
result. 

A change in the management of affairs at the basin has 
been made by the Water Board, a new superintendent ap- 
pointed, and the former one relegated to the duties of an 
engineer. The new superintendent has the advantage of a 
long experience and familiarity with large works, and it is to 
be expected that the work will be hereafter more economi- 
cally conducted. 

On Feb. 1, of a total appropriation of $650,000 for the 
construction of this basin, $469,741.19 had been expended. 

Miscellaneous . 

The 48-inch main from Chestnut-Hill Reservoir has been 
extended from the junction of Beacon street with Brookline 
and Brighton avenues, through Commonwealth avenue to 
West Chester park, a distance of 2,178 feet. It has been 
connected in \Vest Chester park with the 40-inch main in 
Beacon street, and the 30 and 36 inch mains in Tremont 
street. The connecting mains in West Chester park are 
30-inch, between the 48 and 40 inch, and 24-inch between 
the 48 and 30 and 36-inch. 

A new 20-inch main and 24-inch siphon pipe have been 
laid across the new Warren bridge, to replace the old East 
Boston supply main, which had to be removed on account of 
the rebuilding of the bridge upon a partially different loca- 
tion. 



34 City Document No. 55. 

On the Mj'Stic works, three new steel l)oilers have been 
constructed to replace four iron ones condemned as not Avorth 
repairs to make them serviceable, and a section of 150 feet in 
length of the conduit has been rebuilt, as it was in danger- 
ous condition. 

The regular work pertaining to the engineering and super- 
intendence of the Water-Works has been largely increased by 
the foregoing special work and constructions, and the addi- 
tions to the pipe system have been larger than for several 
past years. About nine miles of distributing mains have 
been laid, and 121 tire hydrants established during the 
year. 

In East and South Boston about two miles of G-inch pipes 
have been replaced by 12-inch, to provide better water facili- 
ties in case of fire. 

C. —IMPEOVED SEWERAGE. 

MAIN DEAINAGE WORKS. 

Although all of the work contemplated and provided for, 
by the appropriation for constructing an improved s^'stem of 
sewerage, is not yet completed, and will not be till the end 
of the present season, if so soon, yet construction was 
sufficiently advanced on the first of last January to permit 
the works being put in operation to relieve the most serious 
nuisances which the S3'stem was designed to remedy. At 
present the whole of the sewage which formerly was emptied 
into Stony brook. Back Bay, Charles river as far north as 
Cambridge street and Fort Point Channel, is, instead, 
discharged into the outer harbor, near jNloon island, at a 
point about five miles distant from the city proper. 

Extensions of the intercepting sewers are now in process 
of construction, by means of which nearly all of the remainder 
of the city sewage can be removed to the same point of 
discharge. 

In former reports of the Engineer, and elsewhere, have 
been given statements of the general plan and purpose of 
the works. To avoid misapprehension, it may be useful to 
repeat here very l)riefly just what the new system is designed 
to accomplish, and the methods cn)i)h)yed for the purpose. 

The j\lain Drainage Works are designed to remedy two 
serious evils in the old system of sewerage: first, the 
damming up by the tide of the city sewers, by Avhich, during 
the greater part of the day, they were converted into 
stagnant cesspools; and, second, the discharge of scAvage on 
the borders of the city to cause nuisances in the immediate 
vicinity of population. 



Report of City Engineer. 35 

The system is not designed to prevent Avet cellars, by 
receiving the water due to heavy rains ; no sewers or pumps 
which it would l)e practicable to build would be of sufficient 
capacity for that purpose. Incidentally, the new system will 
aftbrd consideral)le relief during moderate storms, and is 
arranged to especially relieve the districts which suffer most 
at such times. Nor will the new works, by themselves, 
constitute an entirely efficient system of sewerage for the 
city, nor completely remedy the defects existing in the old 
system. While the new sewers provide outlets through 
which, independent of the tide, a continuous flow may bo 
maintained in the old sewers, such of the latter as may be 
miable, by reason of defective size, shape, or conditicm, to 
convey sewage matters promptly to their outlets, while 
rendered less dangerous by the new works, can not be 
considered satisfactorily efficient until their defects shall 
have been remedied. Evils due to defective house- plumbing, 
also, will not be remedied by the new works, except that 
the pipes will not hereafter be subjected to the action of 
gases compressed by the daily filliug of the city sewers. 

Brietly stated the Main Drainage Works consist of a 
number of intercepting sewers, which encircle the city near 
its borders, into which the old city sewers empty. The 
former outlets of these city sewers are sealed by tide-gates, 
which exclude tide-water, but open during rain-storms to 
discharge any excess of water beyond what the intercepter 
can receive. Automatic regulating a[)paratus control the 
amount of water which is admitted to the intercepter from 
different sewers. The several intercepting sewers unite in a 
large main sewer, which conveys the sewage to the pump- 
ing-station on the sea coast, at Old Harbor Point, in Dor- 
chester. 

In order to receive the flow from the city sewers the 
intercepting sewers are placed very low, being generally 
considerably below the level of low water. For the sake of 
economy in building and in pumping, the gradients are very 
flat, being less than three feet to a mile. The resulting 
velocit}^ of flow in the sewers is from two to four, or more, 
feet a second, and flushing-gates are provided at half-mile 
intervals, by means of which the sewers can be scoured clean 
when necessary. 

At the pumping-station the main sewer, 10^ feet in 
diameter, has reached a depth of about 14 feet below low 
water. At this point the sewage passes first through the 
filth-hoist, so called, in w^hich are screens which intercept 
rags, pieces of wood, and other solid matters which might 
clog the pumps. Thence the sewage passes to the pump 



36 City Document No. 55. 

wells, and is elevated by the pumps about 35 feet, or high 
enough to flow, by gravitation, to the reservoir at Moon 
island, which itself is high enough to discharge its contents 
at about the time of high water. 

To raise the sewage, four pumping-engines are provided, 
and all of them are at present in condition for service. Each 
is of a nominal capacity of 25,000,000 gallons a day. Two 
of them, designed by E. D. Leavitt, Jr., are very economical 
in the use of steam, and, therefore, one of these will be con- 
tinually in use, and will be of ample capacity to pump the 
entire daily flow of sewage, when there is no rain. Although 
they have not been fully tested, as yet, there is little doubt 
that, without running at an undue rate of speed, they will 
develop a capacity of 35,000,000 gallons a day, each. The 
other two engines, built by the successors to Henry R. Worth- 
ington, although of nearly equal capacity, were much cheaper 
in first cost, but require nearly double the amount of coal to 
run them. They will, therefore, be reserved for occasional 
use, as auxiliary power in time of rain or thaw. 

Steam is furnished by four steel boilers of 250 horse-power 
each ; one of them being sufficient in ordinary use, to supply 
one engine together with the necessary feed, injection, and 
bilge-pumps, the engines which work the gates and filth- 
cages, and also the steam-heating apparatus. In the coal- 
house, provision is made for storing about 3,000 tons of 
coal. 

The permanent buildings at the pumping-station are not 
built by this department. Temporary wooden structures 
were erected to protect the engines and l)oilers, and will be 
removed when the stone buildings are completed. 

In the future an annual appropriation will be required to 
maintain the sewers, pumping-station, and reservoir, to pay 
for coal and miscellaneous supplies, and the wages of engi- 
neers, firemen, and other employes, who will run the pumps, 
or otherwise care for the works. The cost of this for one 
season was included in the estimate for construction, and 
will be paid from the appropriation for Improved Sewerage. 
This is necessary because the organization to be effected 
depends on a knowledge of the pur})()ses and methods of con- 
struction, and the latter may be modified to meet any re- 
quirements developed by a use of the works. 

After having been elevated by the pumps the sewage 
passes from the force mains into what are called the tank 
sewers. These are two, 8 X 1(5 feet conduits, about 1,200 
feet long, each, contained in a monolithic structure of con- 
crete, protected by an earth embankment, and extending out 
to and includins: the west shaft of the tunnel. 



Report or City Engineer. 37 

A depth of eight or more feet is always maintained in these 
sewers, and the resulting velocity of flow is so slight that 
road detritus, or other comparatively heavy matters, are de- 
posited before reaching the tunnel shaft, and, being retained 
by low dams, can be removed when necessary. 

From the easterly end of the tank sewers the sewaofe 
descends the west shaft about 150 feet to the tunnel by 
"which it passes under Dorchester bay. As some misappre- 
hension of the purpose in building the tunnel exists, it may 
be well to say that it was built simply because it furnished 
the shortest and cheapest route for reaching Moon island, and 
also allowed the use of the most available and best site for 
the pumping-station. Had any of the land routes to Moon 
island which were considered been adopted, the sewer 
would have been much longer and more expensive, large 
sums would have been paid for land-damages, and, in any 
case, the crossing of Neponset river would have necessitated 
a short tunnel. 

Before deciding on the tunnel various plans for building 
instead tubes laid in trenches on or near the surface of the 
harbor bottom were considered, and were rejected as being 
little cheaper, and much less permanent and safe. The tunnel 
was located at its present depth that it might pass wholly 
through solid rock, thus doing away with possible contingen- 
cies arising from meeting with beds of quicksand or other 
material difiicult to excavate. 

From the bottom of the west shaft, for about 6,100 feet, 
to the east shaft, near Squantum shore, the tunnel is nearly 
level ; thence it rises by an incline about 900 feet long to its 
end .on Squantum neck. In cross-section the tunnel is 
circular, 7^ feet in diameter, and, as it is always full, the 
velocity of the piesent ordinary flow of sewage is somewhat 
less than one foot a second, and light deposits are liable to 
occur. In time of rain, however, the four pumps can main- 
tain a velocity of over 31 feet a second, or sufficient to scour 
out any sludge which may have settled in it. Flushing-gates 
have been provided at the end of the tank sewers, by means 
of which their contents can at any time be suddenly turned 
into the tunnel so as to produce a strong scouring action. 
As an additional precaution a large mining pump is to be 
permanently located at the east shaft so that the tunnel can 
be emptied and examined, or cleaned, if found necessary. 

Across the flats separating Squantum neck and Moon 
island an embankment is built to carry the outfall sewer 
from the former to the latter place. For about 4,000 feet of 
this distance the emljankment is underlaid by beds of mud. 
Although, except at a few points, but slight- settlements 



38 City Doctbient No. 55. 

occurred, nnd it is doubtful if further ones "svill be noticed, it 
■was thouiifht best to oinit the masonry sewer for the present 
from this part of the embankment and construct in its phicc, 
for temporary use, n wooden liume coimecling with the sewer 
Jit each end. This answers its purpose very well, will 
probably keep in good condition for ten or more years, and 
is described in Mv. Clarke's report. 

At Moon island the outfall sewer connects with a masonry 
reservoir having an area of about five acres and capacity for 
storing about 25,000,000 gallons of sewage, or more than 
double the ordinary flow during the interval between high 
tides. This reservoir is divided by partition walls into four 
portions, either of which can be filled or emptied independ- 
ently of the others. The whole reservoir is so located that 
it can be enlarged to double its present area when found 
necessary. In my last year's report Avere given photograi)hs 
showing the state of construction at this point at that time. 
Herewith is presented another showing a portion of the 
reservoir as nearly completed Avith the gate-houses partly 
erected. These are now finished. Their chief purpose is to 
protect the gates and the machinery for operating them. 
Twenty iron gates are in place, and control the flow of 
sewage from the outfall sewer into the reservoir, and from 
the reservoir into Ioav discharge sewers, Avhich convey it to 
the outlet at a short distance from the island. 

The scAvage is discharged shortly after high Avater, Avhen 
there is a good current setting seaAvards. Float experiments 
show that it passes by the Western Avay, betAveen Long and 
Rainsford islands to Black rock channel, between Geoi-ge's 
and Lovell's islands, and so out to the vicinity of the BreAV- 
ster islands, about five miles from the point of discharge. 
When first discharged its eflect in discoloring the Avater and 
its course seaAvards is plainly marked. Several attempts 
have been made to follow it in a tug-boat, but at about a 
mile from the outlet the dilution is so great that its color is 
entirely lost, and its presence cannot be detected. It seems 
probable, therefore, that the expectations of those persons 
who foreboded injury to the harbor channels and neighboring 
shores, as the result of discharging scAvage at this point, are 
not likely to be realized. 

Although the Avorks are now in successful operation much 
remains to be done during the ensuing season in order to 
complete the system as proposed, such as ballasting road- 
Avays and placing coping about the j'eservoir ; building 
dwellings for the men who must reside at Moon island, and 
constructing at the same place systems of fresh-water supply 
and salt-water distribution for flushing purposes ; construct- 



Report of City Engineer. 39 

ing the east shaft pumping apparatus and its appurtenances ; 
doing grading and soiling at the pumping-station, and build- 
ing dwellings and shops at the same place ; extending the 
"svest side intercepting sewer to Prince street and the South 
Boston sewer to H street, and many other items of work. 

The total amount expended for constructing an im})roved 
system of sewerage to Feb. 1, 1884, as shown by the Audi- 
tor's exhibit, is $4,664,410.25. There remains of the appro- 
priation, to be expended for further work, $588,583.75. 

Below are given extracts from the report of the principal 
assistant-engineer of this work, describing more in detail the 
operations of the past year. 



EXTRACTS FRO^I MR. CLARKE'S REPORT. 

Herewith is submitted (pp. 40-41) the customavy tabulated state- 
ment, siiowing the length of sewers completed January 1, 1883; the 
number of feet built since that date, and the total length constructed 
at the present time. 

The title and location of each section are given, and also the name of 
the party by whom it was built. 

This statement is aoeomiaaiiied by a more detailed account of such 
sections as were built last year, and of other matters of interest con- 
nected with the drainage system. 

From the statement it appears that about 12 miles of main, inter- 
cepting, outfall and outlet sewers were completed by January 1, 
1883, and that about 4 miles were added during the past year. The 
length remaining to be built, exclusive of rebuilding old sewers, to 
complete the system as proposed, is about 1^ miles. 

Kone of the intercepting sewers built last year were let out by con- 
tract, but all were constructed by day's labor under the superintendence 
of Mr. H. A. Carson. This is necessary on account of the conditions 
under which the work is done. The sewers are all built in crowded 
thoroughfares, where it would be impracticable to compel a contractor 
to iurnish facilities for travel, and, as sea-walls, wharves, beds of mud, 
and other unforeseen obstacles are constantly met, requiring frequent 
modifications in methods of building, full and explicit specitications for 
contract-work could not be drawn. 

Section 4. East Side. 

This section extends in Atlantic avenue from Summer street to Cen- 
ti-al wharf, and intercepts the sewers formerly discharging at Summer, 
Congress, and Peai-1 streets, Belcher lane, and Centi'al wharf. Work 
beg;.n on this section in November, 1882, and continued through the 
winter and to completion in September. 1883. The sewer is oval, 4 ft. 
6 in. X 2 It. 8 in., with 8-inch brick walls occasionally supported by a 
timber cradle. ]\Iany old obstructions were encountered, and for j)art 
of the distance the tide-water found free access to the trench. The in- 
clination of the sewer is 1 in 2,000, and its bottom is about two feet below 
the elevation of mean low water. 

The sewage from all of the sewers intercepted on this section is now 
discharged at jMoon island. All of the old outlets were maintained and 
protected by double sets of tide-gates. A special set of very large gates 
was also built into the Clinton-street sewer, which serves as an over- 



40 



City Docuiment No. 55. 



TABl'IiAR STATKMEIVT OF PROGRESS — 



Section. 



1. Main 

2. Maia 

3. Main 

4. Main 
4^. Main 

5. Main 

6. Main 

1. "West Side . 

2. "West Side . 

3. "West Side . 

4. West Side . 
Brimmer Street 

1. East Side . . 

2. East Side . . 

3. East Side . . 

4. East Side . . 

1. Stony Brook . 

2. Stony Brook . 

1. South Boston 

2. South Boston 

3. South Boston 

4. South Boston 

5. South Boston 
Roibury Canal 

Chester Park . 
Dover Street . . 
Pumping-Station 

1. Outfall Sewer . 

2. Outfall Sewer . 

3. Outfall Sewer . 
Outlet Sewer . 



Locality. 



In Camden St., from Huntington ave. to Tremont st 

In Camden st., from Tremont st. to "Washington st 

In Washington st. and E. Chester park, from Camden et. to Albany st. 

In E. Chester park extension, from Albany st. to Magazine st. ... 

In E. Chester park extension, from Magazine st. to Clapp st 

In Clapp and Mt. Vernon sts., from E. Chester park to O. C. R.R. . 

In Mt. Vernon st. extension, from O. C. R.R. to Old Harbor Point . 

In Camden, Falmouth, Dalton, and Hereford sts., from Huntington 
ave. to Beacon st 

In Beacon St., from Hereford st. to Charles st 

In Charles St., from Beacon st. to Cambridge st 

In Charles St., from Cambridge st. to Leverott st 

In Charles, Pinckney, and Brimmer sts., from Beacon st. to Revere st. 

In Albany st., from E. Chester park to Dover st 

In Albany St., Lehigh St., and O. C. R.R. freight-yards to Federal st. 

In Federal st., from O. C. R.R. freight-yards to Sumitker st 

In Atlantic ave., from Summer et. to Central wharf 

In Tremont and Cabot sts., from Camden st. to Ruggles st. 

In Cabot, Hampshire, Elmwood, Ruggles, and Tremont sts., about 
Stony Brook 



In Ninth st., from H st. to N st 

In Lowland and Ninth sts., from Hyde st. to H st 

In Von Hillern st., Locust St., Washington ave., and Hyde st., from 
Mt. Vernon st. to Dorchester ave 



In Dorchester ave., from Hyde st. to B st 

In Dorchester ave. and Foundry St., from B st. to First st 

In Albany st. and E. Chester park, from Northampton st. to Roxbury 
Canal 



In E. Chester park, from Albany st. to Harrison ave. 
In Dover St., from Albany st. to Harrison ave. . . . 



Connecting Main Sewer and Filth Hoist, and Engine Wells and Salt 
Water Conduit 



From Pumping Station, to Dorchester Bay Tunnel , 
Tunnel under Dorchester Bay 



Brick Sewers, 1,938 ft. 

Squantum Neck to Moon Island { Wooden Flume, 4,196 ft. 

Discharge Sewers, l,0u3 ft. 



From Reservoir to Outlet 



Totals 



Eepoet of City Engineer. 



41 



IMPROVED SEVTERAGE COIVSTRUCTIOIV. 



Size in feet and inches. 


Length 
in feet. 


Built prior 

to Jan. 1, 

1883. 


Built Jan. 
1, 1884. 


Built by 


7 ft. Sin 


1675.5 


1675.5 


1675.5 


P. J. Condon. 


8 ft. 5 in 


1390.5 


1390.5 


1390.5 


P. J. Condon. 


8 ft. 5 in 


1795. 


1795. 


1795. 


John Cavanagh. 


9 ft 


2506.5 


2506.5 


2506 5 


Charles Linehan and City. 
City. 


9 ft 


189-1. 
3381. 
40SS. 


1894. 
3381. 

4088. 


1894. 
3381. 
4088. 


(9ft ( 


flO it. 6in \ 

10 ft. 6 in 


Hoblitzell, Condon, and 
Hoblitzell and City. 

Clinton Beclcwith and J. V. 
Quackenbush. 


4 ft. 9 in. X 5 ft. 6 in. . 


4282. 


4282. 


4282. 


City. 


( 4 ft. Sin. X 5 ft. 6 in. 
)iU.X 4tt.6in. . . 


5043. 


5013. 


5013. 


City. 


4 ft. X 4 ft. 6 in 


1832. 


1832. 


1832. 


Thomas McCann. 


3 ft. X 4 ft. 6 in 


2150. 




1600. 


City. 


S 2 ft. X 3 ft ( 

; 3 ft. X 4 ft. 6 iu. . . ) 


1600. 




1600. 


City. 


5 ft. 8 in 

j 5 ft. X 4 ft ) 

1 5 ft- X 3 ft \ 


4524.5 
2331.5 


4524.5 
2331.5 


4524.5 
2331.5 


A. H. Delameter & Co. and 

R. A. Malone. 
City. 


2 ft. 8 in. X 4 ft. 6 in. . 


2108. 


2108. 


2108. 


City. 


2 ft. 8 in. X 4 ft. 6 in. . 


2990. 


250. 


2990. 


City. 




2135. 


2135. 


2135. 


Myles Tierney. 


( 5 ft. X 4 ft. 6 in. . . ) 

{ 2 ft. X 3 ft 

( 15 in. pipe ) 


4500. 


4500. 


4500. 


City. 


3 ft. 2 in 

3 ft. X 4 ft. 6 in 


2717.5 
3370. 


2717.5 


2717.5 
200. 


Stephen Connolly &s Son 

and City. 
City. 


( 6 ft ) 


3739. 


3739. 


3739. 




{4 ft. 9 in. X5ft. 6in. J 
{ 4 ft. 6 in. X 3 ft. . . ) 


Charles Linehan. 


4 ft. 9 in. X 5 ft. 6 in. . 
3 ft. X 5 ft 


3350. 
2820. 


3350. 
600. 


3350. 
2820. 


Hoblitzell, Condon, and 

Hoblitzell and City. 
City. 


) 4 ft. 6 in 

j 6 ft 


620. 
725. 


620. 
725. 


620. 
725. 


City. 


4 ft. 6 in 


City. 


2 ft. X 3 ft 


575. 


575. 


575. 


City. 


(10 ft. 6 in ) 

1 9 ft 


602. 


602. 


602. 


City. 


( 5 ft. 6 in ) 


8 ft. X 16 ft 


2500. 


1636. 


2500. 


City. 


7 ft. 6 in 


7160. 


5012. 


7160. 


R. A. Malone. 


11 ft. X 12 ft 1 

6 ft. X 6 ft 1 

8 ft. 6 in. X 8 ft. and ( 
8 ft. 6 in. X 12 ft . .J 


7137. 


1322. 


7137. 


W. C. Poland & Son and C. 
\V. Parker & Co. 


10 ft. 10 in. X 12 ft. . . 


1177. 




1177. 


Boynton Bros. 




86719. 


64605. 


82969. 









42 City Docuiment No. 55. 

flow to discharge storm-water from the Central-street district. The 
Central-wharf sewer extends clear across the city, and hasa second out- 
let in the Eastern Railroad yard. A dam was, therefore, Iniilt at the 
summit of this sewer to jirevent tide-water flowing through it from 
Charles river into the east-side intercepting sewer. 

Sectiox 4. West Side. 

This sewer extends in Charles street, from Cambridge to Leverett 
streets, a distance of 2,150 feet. It is oval, 4 ft. G in. x -^ It. in diam- 
eter, and has an inclination of 1 in 2,000. It intercepts the sewers in 
Cambridge, Fruit, Livingstone, and Poplar streets, and also the drains 
from the County Jail and General Hosj)ital. It is of brick, 8 inches 
thick, and usually requires a timber cradle support. Work began on 
this section in May, 1S83, and at present it is finished. The work 
presented the usual difliculties met with in excavating through tilled 
land in the way of old obstructions and the free access of tiile-water. 
By a rather curious coincidence, for a distance of about 500 feet, the re- 
mains of an old wharf or bulkhead was found, with longitudinal rows 
of piles within the trench in such positions that, by cutting them oft' at 
the proper elevation, they served as a support for the sewer, in the 
place of new piles, -which would otherwise have been necessary. 

At the junction of Cambridge and Charles street a large automatic 
regulating aparatus, similar to the one shown in the Engineer's rei)ort for 
IbSl, was constructed. The excavation in which the chamber for this 
apparatus was built was about 30 feet square, but, by flooring over 
the top of the excavation, and supporting the various lines of street- 
railway tracks at that jDlace, travel was not impeded, all building opera- 
tions being carried on below the surface of the street. 



Brimmer-street Sewer. 

This sewer collects all of the sewage flowing westward from Beacon 
hill, and conveys it to the intercepting sewer at the corner of Beacon and 
Brimmer streets. For the sake of economy and simplicity the old outlets 
of the Revere, Pinckney, and Mt. Vernon street sewers have been al)an- 
doned, and the storm-water from these sewers, as well as that from the 
Beacon and Chestnut street sewers, is discharged at a single outlet, pro- 
tected by tide-gates, at Back street. 

Portions of the Beacon, Mt. Vernon, and Brimmer street sewers, which 
were too low, and otherwise defective, were rebuilt. The new sewers 
are oval, and vary from 2X3 feet to 3 ft. X 4 ft. 6 in. in diameter. 
The inclination is about 1 in 1,000. A small automatic regulating appa- 
, ratus controls the flow into the intercepting sewer. At Beacon street, 
connection has also been made with tlie sewer which crosses tlie Public 
Garden draining the Church-street distiict. Work on this section began 
in May, 188:5, at a season when, it was supposed, most of the neighbor- 
ing residents would lie out of town, anil the least inconvenience would 
be caused. The total length of sewei's built was 1,G00 lineal feet, and 
the section was completed by November, 1883. 

Section 5, South Boston. 

This section extends in Dorchester avenue and Foundry street from 
the Old Colony Raili-oad to First street, a distance of about 2,820 feet. 
As stated in last year's report, work on it began in September, 1882, and 
was continu(!d thi-ough the winter. The sewer is oval, five feet high. 
The usunl dilliculties were encountered in building it, but no piling was 
required although a timber cradle was used for most of the way. The 



Eeport of City Engineer. 43 

sewers intercepted by it are those which formerly emptied into South 
bay and Fort Point channel, at B, Fonrth, and First streets, and that in 
Dorchester avenue. Double tide-gates were built to protect all of these 
outlets. About twelve months were consumed in building this section. 

Section 2, South Boston. 

This section extends from the Old Colony Railroad at Hyde street, 
through Lowland and Ninth streets extended, to H street. From H to 
N streets, in Ninth street, the intercepting sewer was built during 1877 
and 1878. Since that time operations in this district have been sus- 
pended pending negotiations for the extension westwardly of Ninth 
street, which olfercd the onl\^ feasible route for the sewer. This exten- 
sion was laid out last fall. There still remained to be obtained a right 
of way for a distance of about GUO feet between the end of the sewer in 
H3'de street and Lowland street. After negotiations with the owners 
of the land they agreed to give to the city an easement, in a strip 40 
feet wide, through their property on the line of Lowland and ll3'de 
streets extended, the onh' consideration being the grading, by the cit)% 
of a roadwa}- over the sewer. 

AVork began on this section in November, 1883, and has continued 
through the winter. Where the sewer crosses marsh land on the line of 
Lowland street extended, considerable trouble was experienced from 
tide-water. The storm and high tide during the night of December 30, 
1883, wrecked the excavating apparatus, and caused some expense and 
delay. Where Ninth street extended crosses the beach, between 
Old Harbor and G streets, it is necessary to fill an embankment before 
buikling the sewer. The sewer is 4 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft. in diameter, and 
will intercept the sewage which now discharges at Vale and Vinton 
streets, and will finally conduct the whole sewage from the south side 
of South Boston to the pumping-station. 

Miscellaneous Work. 

Tn addition to the above, many minor items of construction have been 
ac -omplished in the cit}- during the past year. These have included the 
putting in of connections and tide-gates for many of the city sewers 
tributary to intercepting sewers built severul years ago, by contract, at 
a time when it was not practicable to connect the city sewers with them. 
A small force, consisting of a foreman, one car])enter, and four laborers, 
has been constantly employed in caring for the sewers, cleaning out 
deposits, painting and slushing iron-work, insjjecting and adjusting tide 
gates, etc. The Committee on Public Lands, having set ott"forthe use 
of this department two lots of land belonging to the city, between East 
Chester park and Swett street, the force above alluded to was kept busy, 
during such times as it was impracticable to work in the sewers, build- 
ing fences and sheds on the land thus obtained, so as to provide a safe 
place for storing machinery, supplies, and materials belonging to this 
dejjartment. 

The Boston & Providence R.R. Co., having requested permission to 
enter a drain from their round-house and turn-table pit into the main 
sewer, such permission was accorded, on their giving an agreement to 
discontinue said drain at any time when so requested, and also releasing 
to the cit}- the right to maintain the main sewer under their location at 
Camden street, — a right which had not previously been obtained. 

Filth-Hoist. 

Some minor alterations and additions have been made, during the 
past year, to this structure, and it is now in satisfactory working order. 



44 City Document No. 55. 

Since pumpino^ began, January 1, the cages have been raised several 
times a day. The average daiiy yield from them amounts to less than 
a cubic 3-ard, and consists chiefly of rags with scraps of paper, lumps 
of fat, half lemons, pieces of wood, and a few miscellaneous articles. 
The mass is not especially offensive, and can be easily disposed of. 

Pumping-Station. 

The two Worthington pumping-engines, for storm duty, have arrived 
and been set up ready for service, during the past year. One of them 
has been run occasionally since January 1, whenever the amount of 
water received from the sewers, due to rain or melting snow, exceeded 
the capacity of the high-duty Leavitt engines. These latter iiave been 
kept clean during the year, and have been turned over periodically and 
run with salt-water occasionally, in order to keep them in good condi- 
tion. Some alterations in the governing gear of these engines is to be 
made to enable them to run more slowly. As it is the)' cannot conven- 
iently be run at a less rate than ten revolutions per minute, which is 
more than sufficient to pump the present dry weather flow of sewage 
during the day, and necessitates their being stopped occasionally, espe- 
cially at night, to allow the sewage to accumulate. The average daily 
amount of sewage pumped since January 1 has been over 20,000,000 
gallons. 

The boiler-house has been completed and roofed during the past year. 
One boiler furnishes sufficient steam for ordinary use, including steam 
heating for the engine-house and filth-hoist. Six coal bins with a com- 
bined capacity of about 3,000 tons of anthracite coal have been con- 
structed in the coal-house. They are built entirely of 2 X 6 inch spruce 
planks planed to an even thickness and spiked flatwise on each other, a 
similar construction to that used for grain elevators. The coal-house 
floor is of concrete. Iron cars, for bringing coal from the bins to the 
boilers, are used, and suitable scales and turn-tables are provided. 
Timber and lumber have arrived for building an elevated coal-run, 
which will be supported on a trestle, about 17 feet high, from the wharf 
to the coal-house and upon the tops of the bins, within the house. 

To light the buildings a 150 light gas machine, of the Walworth 
Manufacturing Co.'s make, has been put in, and the buildings piped for 
it. This is much more convenient than kerosene lamps would be, and 
much cheaper than it would have been to have brought coal-gas from 
the nearest main of the Dorchester Gas Co. 

The permanent structure tor the engine-house, which is built under 
the sole direction of the City Architect, is not yet completed, but it is 
hoped that it will l)e finished during the coming summer. 

The dock, wall, and wharf, bordering the dredged channel, have 
been extended about 160 feet during the past season, and some dredg- 
ina: in front of the wall has been done. 



Section 1, Outfall. 

This section, commonly called Old Harbor Pier, has been put in con- 
dition for service during the past year. The j^ier extends from the 
pumping-station about 1,300 feet into Dorcliester bay up to and in- 
cluding the west tunnel-shaft. The pier is built of gravel to ab ii t 
eight feet above mean high water, and is protected on its sides by 
ballast and rip-rap, and at its end by a cut-stone sea wall. It sujiports 
the tank sewers, shown by a sketch in last year's report, which convey 
the sewage from the force mains to the tunnel. 

These sewers were partly built during 1882, and were completed 
last year. They are constructed wholly of concrete, the total amount 



KEroRT OF City Engineer. 45 

of it being- over 12,000 cubic y<'inls. A l.ars^e part of the stone used 
came from tlie tunnel excavation, being lightered to the spot from the 
middle shaft, and passed through a stone-cru.-her. The concrete 
was made by machine mixers into which the stone, cement, and sand, 
in proper ))roportions, were continuously shovelled. 

Around the tunnel-shaft was built a chamber of brick, concrete, 
rubble and cut-stone masonry, containing gates and grooves for 
stop-planks. A gate-house will be built above this structure during 
the coming summer. The gates are about seven feet high above the 
floor, and maintain a depth of eight or more feet in the taidv sewers. 
These gates can be tripped suddenly, by machinery, so as to flush the 
tunnel. Immediately about the shaft is a wrought-iron cage, to 
prevent any bulky object which might fall into the tank sewers from 
reaching the tunnel. 

The sewers are covered to a depth of three feet on top with a gravel 
embankment, the material for which has been brought by the Old 
Colon}' llailroadover their spur track, extending to the ])umping-station. 
So slow a velocity of flow is maintained in the tank-sewers that con- 
siderable deposits of sludge accumulate in them. It is ex])ected 
that there will not be so much of it in the future. The large amount 
which has reached the pumping-station since January 1 is probably 
due to tiie fact that the old city sewers were, many of them, half 
filled with deposits, wdiich have been washed out into the intercepting 
sewers. The best method of disposing of this sludge has not yet been 
determined. 



Section 2, Outfall. 

This section comprises Dorchester-Bay Tunnel, which extends under 
the harbor from Boston to Squantum. It is now practically com- 
pleted, and sewage has been flowing through it since January 1. 
During the past year 1,994 feet of tunnel was lined with brick-work, 
as was also the upper half of the west shaft, the loAver half having 
been bricked up during the previous year. The middle shaft has been 
abandoned, its only purpose having been to facilitate construction. 
The arch of the tunnel, where it passes under this shaft, was made 
three feet thick, and a counter-arch two feet thick was built over it to 
resist upward pressure, in case the tunnel should ever be filled 
suddenly, after having been pumped out for any purpose. The shaft 
was not filled, but near its top an arch was built to prevent any 
heavy substance ever falling down it. 

The east shaft was lined with brick-work. A sump, or well-hole, 
seven feet deep, was built under it, from which to pump in case it 
should at anj' time be necessary to empty the tunnel. Pairs of cast- 
iron beams were built into this shaft at intervals of 10 feet. To 
these are bolted two sets of iron guides, extending from the top of 
the shaft to its bottom. One set of these will hold in jdace the rising 
column of the puiup, to be put in at this point, and the other set will 
serve for an elevator to be used in visiting the i)ump and tunnel. 

The completion of the tunnel required the removal of all elevators, 
pumps, pipes, etc., used in constructing it, and the closing up with 
masonry of all pump-wells, except the one at the east shalt before 
referred to. This work was attended with considerable anxiety, as the 
piunping capacity at the three shafts was but little more than was 
necessar}' to control the flow of water into the tunnel. 

The finishing and removals Avere successfully accomplished by sys- 
tematic and careful management. The last shaft to be cleared was the 
east shaft, and it was necessary to isolate it from the rest of the tunnel 
by a timber bulkhead, behind which the water entering the tunnel 
accumulated while the pumps and their appurtenances were being 



46 City Document No. 55. 

removed. By tlie time tlie shaft was clear the tunnel was two-thirds 
full of water. Tlie bulkhead was so made and fastened in i)lace that, 
on trii)pin^ a catch, it fell apart in three pieces, which were hauled out 
by ropes attached to them. 

The total leii;»'th of tunnel through which the sewafje flows is 7,160 
feet. Of tliis distance 149 feet is in the west shaft, 6, 088 feet is nearly 
horizontal l)etween the east and west shafts and 923 feet is in tiie incline 
leadino; from the bottom of the east shaft to the end of the tunnel on 
Squantum neck. 

In all 7,416,000 bricks and 23,377 barrels of cement were used in 
building the tunnel. 

Section 3, Outfall. 

This section extends from the end of the tunnel at Squantum neck to 
the reservoir on Moofi island, a distance of over a mile. At the connec- 
tion between the tunnel and outfall sewer is built a subterranean 
chamber through which the sewage passes from the former to the latter 
coniluit, and from which also branches a short section of large sewer, to 
serve as a connection for a future high-level intercepting sewer should 
such a system ever be adopted. The chamber is covered with a sub- 
stantial brick buililing. The floor of tlie building is supported by iron 
beams, and a flight of stone steps leads to the sewers below. Tlie roof is 
exceptionally strong, and to it is hung an iron track, with a traveller 
and blocks capable of lifting five tons. This is to handle a seven-foot 
flushing-ball, in case one should ever be passed through the tunnel in 
order to clean it. 

To the easterly shore of Squantum neck the sewer was constructed 
chiefly in rock excavation, and is built of brick and concrete. It is 
11X12 feet in internal diameter. The embankment from Squantum neck 
to Moon islam! has been substantially completed during tlie past year. 
It averages 2,') feet high, is 20 feet wide on top, and about 120 feet at its 
bottom. Up to six feet above mean high water the slopes are protected 
by ballast and rip-rap, about 20,000 yards of the forn)er, and 54,000 
tons of the latter material having been put in place for this purpose. 

For about 4,100 feet the embankment is underlaid by beds of mud. 
For this distance the masonry sewer has been omitted, for the present, 
and a temporary wooden tlume has been instead constructed. It was 
built under an arrangement with the contractors, Messrs. C. W. Parker 
& Co., by which they furnished all labor and machiuer}', and the city 
furnished all materials. The flume is located southerly from and out- 
side of the emljanknient. It is supporteil on jjiles, in bents 10 feet 
apart, generally with three piles to the bent. In all about 1,300 piles 
weie driven, some of them to a depth of 40 feet. 

The flume projjcr consists of a square wooden box, six feet in diame- 
ter. Its sides, top, and bottom are formed of Canadian white pine, three 
inches thick, planed all over. The planks, except a single lilliiig-in 
course on each side, were all of even width, so as to allow breaking 
joint. They were grooved on each edge, and also on their ends for 
li X 5-iueh splines. The box was surrounded, at intervals of 3 feet 
4 inches, by sijuare frames of spruce timber, tenoned together and 
tighten(;<! with bolts and wedges. 

'The pine and spruce were fitted at the mills, so as to go together 
Avith the least possible further fitting. As much as 250 feet in length 
was assembled and spiked in a single day. After completion the 
whole was given one coat of cheap paint. The total cost of the flume 
was a little under ten dollars per lineal foot. 

Moon Island Reservoir. 

During the past season the contractors, Messrs. C. W. Parker & Co., 
made very satisfactory progress in building this structure, and by the 



Report of City Engineer. 47 

end of the year it was in condition for service; so that, since Jan. 1, 
tlie se\vao;e has been stored in it during eacii tlood tide, and lias l)een 
emptied irona it into the harbor twice every day at the time of high 
water. A part of tlie cut-stone coping for the reservoir walls i)as not 
yet been set in place, and ccmsiderable grading of slopes and ballasting 
of roadways remains to be finished the coming season. 

Twenty-one iron sluice-gates, with their shafiing and gearing, for 
controlling the How of sewage from the outfall-sewer into the reservoir 
and from the reservoir into the discharge-sewers, were fui-nished and 
set in place by James S. Newell & Co., under a contract dated July 12, 
1883, for tiie sum of $12,175. 

To furnish motive j)ower for working the gates, and for other pur- 
poses, there is provided both a turbine and a steam-engine. Tiie former 
is a " Hercules " turbine, 21 inches in diameter, ami was furnished by 
the Ilolyoke JNIachine Co., who also su])plied the shafting, geaiing, 
pulleys, etc., for it and for tlie engine. The turbine takes water fi'om 
the outl'all-sewer or from the reservoir and di'ains into the disclnirge- 
sewers. Under ordinary circumstances it furnishes ample i)ower lor 
all necessary operations at no expense, and requires no attention be- 
yond opening and shutting the gates leading to it. These were furnished 
and set up i)y the Collin Valve Co., of Boston. 

The engine, which will probably seldom be used, is of 30 horse- 
power, and was obtained from the Bay State Co., of Erie, Pa., through 
Hill, Clark, & Co., of Boston, for the sum of $521. To furnish steam 
for the engine, and also for heating purposes in winter, two upright, 
tubular boilers were obtained from E. Hodge & Co., of East Boston, 
for the sum of $485 each. 

To protect the engine, boilers, gates, and other Tnachinery, and fur- 
nish cover for the men attending to them, suitable brick buildings were 
erected at tin's point during the past summer. 'J'he principal one of 
these, called the Long Gate House, extends lor 575 feet along the front 
of the reservoir. It is 10 feet wide and 10 feet high inside, and has 
14 inch hollow walls. Under it are the gates, and within it is the 
shafting and machinery for operating them. Connecting with this 
building, at the north-easterly corner of the reservoir, is another con- 
taining engine, boiler, and coal rooms. A chimney 40 feet high is 
also built. The buililings are all roofed with 14-oz. copper, furnished 
and put on for $33.70 a scjuare. by H. Riley's Sons, of Bt)St(jn. 

The buildings are heated in winter by systems of steam-piping, 
furnished and put in by Braman, Dow, & Co., of Boston, at a cost of 
$913. Light is furnished by a GO-light gas-machine, supplied Ijy the 
Walworth Manufacturing Co., who also did the requisite piping for it. 

A brick reservoir, with a capacity of 75,000 gallons, for storing fresii- 
water, was built near the reservoir. This is filled by rain-water from 
the elevated part of the island, caught in ditches and conveyed b}' pipes 
to the reservoir. The reservoir is connected with a rotary pump in the 
engine-house, and it is intended to force the water to a small reservoir 
on the top of the hill, which will furnish a constant supply under 
pressure for any buildings on the island. 

The same pump connects by another pipe with salt-water in the 
harbor, and a system of salt-water distril)ution, Avith frequent hydrants, 
is to be built about the reservoir. This will be used for washing 
down the reservoir and its adjacent galleries. 



Outlet-Seweu Section. 

This section includes that portion of the discharge-sewers beyond the 
reservoir, and by it the sewage is conveyed to the outlet, at which it is 
emptied into the harbor. The section was let, under a contract dated 



48 City Document No. 55. 

April 7, 1883, to Boynton Bros., of Boston, and was completed by them 
in .lanuary of tlic present year. 

Tlie work built consists of double sewers of brick and concrete 
masonry, 10 feet 10 inches high by 12 feet Avide each inside, which 
extend from the reservoir about COO feet out into the harl)or. The 
bottoms of the sewers are 1.5 feet above low water. The arches, 12 
inches thick, were laid with llosendale cement mortar and the inverts, 
and sides with Portland cement mortar. In each sewer are three large 
vent-holes, to relieve the arch from any pressure of air due to a suc- 
cession of waves entering the sewers. 

The immediate outlet consists of a cut granite pier-head laid in 
mortar. In this are chambei's containing grooves for gates and stop- 
planks. The stones forming the pier-head are quite large, in order to 
withstand waves and ice. Several of them weighed about eight tons 
each. JNIost of the horizontal joints are dowelled, and the vertical 
joints of the coping-stones are secured by gun-metal cramps. 

The sewers are covered by an earth embankment, with its side slopes 
protected b}' ballast and riprap. This embankment >cunstitutes a pier 
extending into the harbor, and its top is ballasted and surfaced for a 
roadway. Near the end of the pier was built a strong wharf, about 40 
feet square, suppcnted on oak piles. This is used for landing coal and 
other supplies for the works. 

To fac.-ilitate construction on this section the site of the work was 
enclosed by building about 1,100 feet of coffer-dam around it. The dam 
consisted of two rows of spruce piles, 10 feet apart, the piles in each 
row being spaced 6 feet on centres. Inside the piles wei'e rows of 4- 
inch tongued and grooved sheet planks. The dam was tied across 
with iron bolts, and was filled with earth. When pumpeil out it proved 
to be very tight, and enabled the work inside it to proceed without in- 
terruption. After the sewers were built and covered the dam was cut 
down to the surface of the embankment slopes. 

The total cost of this section was $96,260. 



D.— PARKS. 

For the purpose of making this report a complete record of 
the work of this department, the foUowing statement, which 
was made to the Park Commissioners, and printed iii their 
report to the City Council, is given : — 

"Back Bay. 

''Filling. 

" The arrangement made with the Boston & Albany Railroad 
Company for tilling has been continued during the year, and 
under it a!)0ut 17,865 squares of material have been delivered. 
The portions of the work where most of the tilling has been 
done are the approaches to Boylston bridge, the shores of the 
water-way between the bridge and the Stony brook gate-cham- 
ber, and tiie southerly side of the boundary road, between the 
bridge and cross-road. The tilling at these points is practi- 
cally completed, and the slopes towards the water-way are 
ready for loaming. 



if) 



y- K 




Report of City Engineer. 49 

"The price of all the filling paid for the past year has been 
$3,20 per square, the same as that of the year before. 

^^ Grading and Loaming. 

" At the date of the last annual report the grading of Bea- 
con Entrance between Beacon street and the Boston & Albany 
liaib'oad was nearly completed. Early in the spring this 
Avork was finished, and it was expected that the loam from 
the water-works Basin 4, at Ashland, would be brought in 
season to cover the graded portions, and do such planting as 
could properly be accomplished. 

" Changes made by the Water Board in the management 
of the work at Basin 4, and the adoption of a broad-gauge 
railroad plant for the completion of the dam, rendered alter- 
ations of the trestle-work already constructed on the spur 
track for the transportation of loam a necessity, for the eco- 
nomical conduct of the building of the dam. These altera- 
tions consumed a great deal of time, and it was not until 
November 7th that the first train-load of loam was delivered. 
Since that date, with the exception of stoppages caused by 
snow-storms, the delivery of loam has been continuous, and 
2,617 squares have been deposited on Back Bay at various 
points convenient for future use. 

" The cost of the loam, under the several agreements with 
the railroad companies and others, is about one dollar per 
cubic yard, delivered on the ground. This cost is much 
lower than it would be possible in any other way to obtain 
loam of equal quality, and in so Inrge quantity as required. 
It wnll take a large part of next season to deliver the amount 
needed, some 70,000 or 80,000 cubic yards ; but it would be 
desirable to transport to the city as much as can be obtained 
during the season, as a considerable quantity will be required 
on the Muddy River Improvement. The Joint Standing 
Committee on Streets, of the City Council, has authorized 
the delivery of such an amount of this loam as will be suf- 
ficient to cover the areas to be planted on the Common- 
Avealth avenue extension, and the trains are now depositing 
it as nearly as possible on the sites upon which it is wanted. 

" The graded areas of Beacon Entrance have been covered 
w^ith a layer of clayey material six inches in thickness, and 
brought up to the finished grade with loam al)out two and 
one half feet in depth. Piles of compost have been made at 
convenient points, in readiness for use when planting can be 
begun in the spring, and a large number of plants and shrubs 
have been delivered, heeled-in, and protected for the winter 
by tempoi-ary board fences. 



50 City Document No. 55. 

^^ Excavation of Water-ioay. 

" Although the dredging plant made ,i good record as re- 
gards efficiency and cost of work for the year 1882, it was 
thought that it couUl he made more efficient hy the use of a 
small tug-boat for moving the scows. Plans for such a boat 
having been submitted to and approved by your Board, the 
construction was begun early in the spring, and April 17th 
the boat Avas launched, and soon afterwards placed in service. 
It has been, as anticipated, a very valuable auxiliary in the 
performance of the dredging work. 

"The same method of forming the ^vater-way has been 
pursued this year as that originally adopted; but, as all of 
the available gravel has l)een dredged, the railroad company 
will have to be depended u[)on for the amount needed to 
complete the shore lines of the channel. 

"About 3,200 feet of shore line have been formed during 
the year, and the channel between the banks excavated to 
grade 0. The total amount excavated by the steam-dredge 
was 61,384 cubic yards. 

*' Boylston Bridge. 

" The laying of the spandrel walls, and backing for the 
wing-walls and * tourelles,' was continued during the winter, 
and early in the spring this portion of the work was com- 
pleted. Active and continuous work upon the parapet and 
wMng-walls was prosecuted whenever there was stone enough 
on hand for the purpose. There have been numerous and 
vexatious delays in the receipt of the red granite grout and 
coping needed for the wing-walls and parapet-walls, and the 
progress on these portions of the structure has not been satis- 
factory. They were, however, so far completed as to per- 
mit the striking of the centring of the arch on Nov. 12th. A 
slight settlement at various points of the arch was noticed 
after this operation Avas performed, but no movement which 
would in any way affect the stability of the arch. Consider- 
ing the complicated character of this structure, the inequality 
in the nature of the foundations, and the comparative flatness 
of the arch, a more successful conii)letiou of the work could 
not have been anticipated. 

''Beacon Entrance Bridge. 

" This bridge was com})leted, with the exception of the 
fences, late in the year 1882. A contract was made with 
Messrs. Smith & Lovett, of Boston, to build and erect the 



Eeport of City Engineer. 51 

fences, in accordance with a design furnished by Mr. H. H. 
Richardson, the consulting architect. These contractors have 
tinished their work as far as the incomplete condition of the 
stone-work will permit. Two stone posts will have to be 
built on the westerly side of the bridge before the fence on 
that side can be attached at the ends, as designed. 

''Embankment Wall. 

" The location and a description of the method of construc- 
tion of the retaining-walls included under this head were 
given last year. With the exception of portions of three of 
the wing-walls of Boylston bridge all of these walls are 
complete. 

"Red granite has been largely used, in connection with the 
seam-faced, for the faces of all the walls built this season; 
but it has been difficult to obtain it as rapidly as desired, 
the capacity of the quarry being small and its location, at 
Otter Creek, Mt. Desert, being inaccessible except for small 
vessels, a sufficient number of which the contractor was una- 
ble to charter. If the red granite had been delivered as re- 
quired the walls would have been completed during the past 
season ; but it is now expected that they will be finished early 
in the spring. 

''Granite Curb and Fence. 

" The 2;i'anite curbs and fences formingr the boundaries 
around the open areas of Beacon Entrance have been set, and 
connections made with the fences on Beacon street and Com- 
monwealth avenue brido^es. In makinof these connections 
granite posts were used at the ends of the bridges, at the 
division lines between the two railed fences on the curbs, and 
the three railed fences of the bridges. These posts were 
recently completed, and the setting of the sections of the 
fences adjoining them finishes this work, except at the con- 
nection with the foot-bridge to be built over the B. & A. 
R.R. 

"Covered Channel, Stony BrooJc. 

" The work upon the walls of the gate-chamber was done 
very late in the fall and early in the winter of 1882, and, 
although precautions were taken to protect the portions built 
from injury by frost during the winter, it was found in the 
spring that portions of the walls would have to be relaid. 
After this work was done the roof was put on, and the build- 



52 City Document No. 55. 

ing completed as far as it is desirable until the work on Back 
Bay is further advanced. 

"Since January 1st the operation of the improved system 
of sewerage has diverted the larger portion of the seAvage 
from the brook. 



"Covered Channel, Muddy River. 

"This channel, a description of which is given in the last 
annual report, is completed. A location on the line origi- 
nally proposed Avas secured by negotiation with the Boston 
& Koxbury iSIill Corporation, and, although the time con- 
sumed in completing this arrangement was the occasion of 
much delay in prosecuting the work, the wooden conduit sec- 
tion was finished before the advent of severe cold weather. 
Work upon the gate-chamber and connection conduit between 
this chamber and the Back-Bay water-way was continued 
until January 9th. 

" The stone for the gate-chamber is being cut at the site of 
the work, and will be ready for setting as soon as required in 
the spring. 



" BussEY Park and Arnold Arboretum. 

" The rei)airing of the old cottage on South street for an 
oflBce, and the l)uilding of the storage-yard connected with it, 
were completed in August. 

" The final location of the driveway through the park, con- 
necting Centre and South streets, was determined, and the 
grading of the drive-way was begun with a small force, which 
was increased as the work required, until about fifty men and 
twenty teams were employed. The length of the drive-way 
is about 2,600 feet, and it is 40 feet in width. 



"West Roxbury Park. 

" An engineering party Avas organized in June to make a 
com})lete topographical survey of the land included in and 
closely adjoining this park. An office was estal)lishcd in the 
Ellicott House, and the surveys have been actively prosecuted 
during the past summer and fall. The outside work has 
been practically completed, and the plan is nearly so. The 
extension of the park boundaries, as authorized by vote of 
the last city government, will involve the continuance of this 
work during a portion of the next season. 



Eeport of City Engineer. 53 



"Dorchester Point, South Boston. 

" The surfsice of the upland has been graded to some extent 
by fiUino- in the depressions and old cellars with earth pur- 
chased from several parties. The whole amount of filling 
used was 47 ly^ squares, and the price paid was $3.50 per 
square, cart measurement. 

"A complete topographical survey and plan of the land 
taken, and also of the tlats between the Point and Castle 
Island, have been made for the use of the Landscape Archi- 
tect Advisory, Mr. F. L. Olmsted. 

" Wood Island Park, East Boston. 

" A topographical survey and plan have been made of the 
upland and tlats embraced in this purchase. 

" Charles Kiver Embankment. 

"One of the docks on this property has been filled, at no 
cost to the city, with waste material from the Improved Sew- 
erage and cellar excavations. 

"A careful series of borings have been made on the line of 
the pioposed sea-wall, and record plans made of them. Pre- 
liminary sketches of the wall, for the purpose of estimating 
the quantities of material required for its construction, have 
been prepared, and estimatei? of the cost of this work and 
the filling can be furnished when desired by your Board." 



The table giving the number of vessels passing through 
the draw-bridges controlled by the City of Boston, during 
the year 1882, will be found in Appendix A. 

The table giving the number of vessels passing through 
the draw-bridges controlled by the City of Boston during 
the years 1881, 1882, and 1883, will be found in Appen- 
dix B. 

The table showing the widths of draw-openings in the 
bridges over tide-water in this city is given in Appendix C. 
The openings have all been remeasured for this report. 

HENRY M. WIGHTMAN, 

City Engineer. 



54 



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CONTENTS CITY ENGINEER'S REPORT, FOR 1883. 



A. — City Engineek's Department 
Classification of Expenses 
Bridges .... 

Adanl^ street 

Albany street 

Ashland street 

Ashniont street and Dorchester avi 

Athens street 

Beacon Entrance Back-Bay park 

Beacon street 

Beach street .... 

Bellevue street 

Berkeley street, B. & A. R.R. 

Berkeley street, B. & P. R.R. 

Blakemore street . 

Boylston street, Back-Bay park 

Brighton avenue . 

Broadway .... 

Broadway, over Fort Point Channel 

Broadway, over B. & A. R.R. 

Brookline avenue . 

Cambridge street . 

Canal ..... 

Canterbury street . 

Charles River 

Chelsea (North) . 

Chelsea (South) . 

Clielsea street 

Cedar-Grove Cemetery . 

Central avenue 

Centre street, or Hog Bridge 

Centre and Mt. Vernon streets 

Columbus avenue . 

Commercial Point, or Tenean 

Commercial street 

Commonwealtli avenue . 

Congress street 

Cottage Farm 

Dartmouth street 

Dorchester avenue 

Dorchester street 

Dover street 

Dudley avenue 

Essex street . 

Everett street 

Federal street 

Ferdinand street 

Fifth street . 

Forest-Hill avenue 

Fourth street 

Franklin-street foot-bridge 

Granite 



2 


3 


7 


. 5. 19 


. 4, 7 


. 7, 20 


• 4,7 


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. 6, 20 


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. 4,8 


. 4,8 


. 4, 8 


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. 4,9 


. 4, 9 


. 4, 9 


. 5, 16 


. 5, 19 


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. 4, 10 


. 5, 16 


. 4, 10 


. 4, 10 


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. 5, 16 


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. 6, 20 


. 4, 11 


. 4, 11 


. 7, 20 


. 4, 11 


. 4, 11 


20 


. 5, 12 


6 


. 5, 19 


. 5, 12 


6 


. 5, 16 


6 


. 5, 12 


. 5, 13 


6 


6 


6 


22 


. 5, 17 



62 



City Docujient No. 55. 



Bridges, — continued. 
Harvard street 
Harrison avenue . 
Iluntinjiton avenue 
J.ongwood avenue 
^lain street . 
Maiden .... 
IMarket street 
Mattapan 
Meridian street 
JMilton .... 
Mt. Washington avenue 
Mystic avenue 
Keponset 
Newton street 
Norfolk street 
North Beacon street 
North Harvard street . 
Park street . 
Prison Point 

Public Garden, foot-bridge 
Savin-Hill avenue . 
Second street 
Shawniut avenue . 
Silver street . 
Sixth street . 
Spring street . 

Swett street, east of N.Y. & N.E. R.R 
Swett street, west of N.Y. & N.E. R.li 
Third street .... 
Treniont street 
Warren .... 

Washington street 
Washington street, Ward 24 
Western avenue, to Cambridge 
Western avenue, to Watertown 
West Boston 

West Chester park, over B. & A. R.R 
West Chester park, over B. & P. R.R 
West Rutland square . 
Winthrop ..... 
Miscellaneous Work and Constructions in 1883 
Broadway extension, retaining-walls 
Commonwealth avenue, extension 
Falmoutii street, filling 
Ferdinand street, bulkhead . 
Franklin street, foot-bridge . 
Gallop's island wharf and storehouse 
Huntington avenue, extension 
Rebuilding Warren bridge 
In general 
B. — Wa'm.r-Wouks . 

Sudl)ury-river reservoirs. Farm Pond and Lake 

Mystic Lake 

Consumption 

High-service works . 

Waste of water . 

Mystic Valley Sewer 

Farm Pond Conduit . 

Basins Nos. 2 and 3 . 

liasin No. 4 

Illustration. — Transverse section of Dam No 
land, showing Gate-house 

Miscellaneous . 



4, in 



Cochituate 



Contents. 



63 



-sewers from Moon 



C. — Improved Sewerage . 

Main drainage works 

Illustraiion. — View of Moon-Island 1 

Extracts from Mr. Clarke's report 

Secti(m 4, cast side 

Tabular statement of progress improved sewerage 

tion 
Section 4, west side 
Brimmer-street sewer . 
Section 5, South Boston 
Section 2, South Boston 
Miscellaneous work 
Filth-hoist . 
Pumping-station . 
Section 1, outfall . 

" 3', 
Moon-Island reservoir 
Outlet-sewer section 
lUustrntion. — Section through outle 

Island Eeservoir 
D. — Parks .... 
Back Bay . 

Filling . 

Grading and loaming 

Excavation of water-way 

Boylston bridge 

Beacon-entrance bridge 

Embankment wall . 

Granite curb and fence 
Covered channel of Stony brook . 
Covered channel of Muddy river . 
Bussey park and Arnold Arboretum 
West Roxbury park 
Dorchester Point, South Boston . 
Wood Island park, East Boston . 
Charles-river Embankment . 
Appendix A. — Draw-tender's report, 1883 . 

B. — " " 1881-82-83 

*' C. — Showing width of draw-openings . 



construe 



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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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