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Full text of "Annual report of the City Engineer"



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[Document 54 — 1885.] 



CITY OF i_,..l BOSTON. 




EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



CITY ENGINEEE, 



FOR THE YEAR 1884. 



Office of the City Engineer, City Hall, 

Boston, February 20, 1885. 
To the Honorable City Council : — 

In compliance with the sixth section of the ordinance re- 
latins^ to the Engineer's Department the following report of 
the expenses and operations of the department for the year 
1884 is respectfully submitted. 

The duties of the City Engineer may be classified under 
the following heads : — 

A. — Those pertaining to the City Engineer's Department 
proper, which consist in the superintendence of the tilling of 
new streets and of districts, in the care and maintenance of 
bridges, in designing and superintending the construction of 
new bridges, retaining-walls, city wharves, etc., and in mis- 
cellaneous work called for by committees of the City Coun- 
cil. (City Engineer's Department.) 

B. — Superintendence of the Sudbury River, Cochituate, 
and Mystic Water Works, including charge of new construc- 
tions for these works. (Water Works.) 

C. — Charge of the construction of a sj^stem of intercept- 
ing and outlet sewers. (Improved Sewerage, or iSIaia 
Drainage.) 



2 City Document Xo. 54. 

T>. — Charge of tlic engineering work in connection witli 
the Back Bay and other ]iroj)08e(l paiks. (Parks.) 

The expenses incurred under the liead C, are paid wholly 
from a special appropriation, under the charge of the Joint 
Special Committee on Improved Sewerage. 

(A.) — City Engineer's Department. 

The following is a statement of engineering expenses from 
January 1, 1884, to January 1, 1885 : — 

Amount expended from department appropria- 
tion for 1883-84 $7,828 24 

Amount expended from department api)ro})ria- 

tionfor 1884-85 21.971 39 



Total expended from departmentappropriations, |29,799 (33 

Condition of department appropriation : — 

Amount of appropriation for financial year, 

1884-85 $32,000 00 

Amount expended to January 1, 1885 . . 21,971 39 



Unexpended balance, January 1, 1885 . . $10,028 Gl 

Classification of Expenses. 

Salaries of City Engineer, assistants, draughts- 
men, transit-men, levellers, rod-men, etc. . 

Engineering instruments and repairs of same . 

Drawing })aper, and all materials for making 
plans ....... 

Stationery, })rinting stock, note books, post- 
age, etc. ...... 

Kefeience library, binding books and photo- 
gra})hs of work ..... 

Printing ....... 

Travelling expenses (including horse-keeping, 
re[)airs on vehicle, etc.) .... 

New buggy ....... 

Furniture, cases for plans and l)ooks 

Blue Process printing (including cost of 
new apparatus) ..... 

Incidental expenses, and all other small sup- 
plies ....... 

Total 



$26,899 
127 


75 
55 


355 


59 


292 


03 


319 
79 


23 
12 


726 
225 
338 


49 
00 
50 


204 


51 


231 


8Q 


$29,799 


63 



Eeport of City Engineer. 3 

The miiiibcr of persons employed and paid from the de- 
partment appropriation was, on the tirst of January, 1884 
(inchiding the City Engineer) , 19. Tlie })resent number is 
20. The operations of the department for the year, together 
with such j2:eneral information rehiting to the various works 
and structures, finished and in pi-ogress, as is thought to be 
of interest, are given in the followinai: statements : — 



BRIDGES. 

During the past year four of the tide-water bridges have 
been cither wholly or partially rebuilt; these were the War- 
ren, iSIeridian street, North Beacon street and Cambridge 
street. 

One new inland l)ridge, the Franklin street foot-bridge over 
the Boston and Albany R.R. at Allston, has been built, and 
the Boylston street arch-bridge over the Back Bay Park 
water way in process of construction at the date of the last 
report, has been completed. By an arrangement made be- 
tween the Boston & Albany R.R. Co. and the City, iron 
bridges, with granite masonry al)utments and wing-walls, 
have been constructed at the railroad crossings on Brook- 
line avenue and Beacon street. These structures are built 
by the railroad corporation, and it also assumes the cost of 
them. The plans for the structures and the workmanship 
on them are subject to the approval of this department. 

The repairing of the tide-water bridges has been done by 
day's labor under the supervision of this de})artment. Mr. 
8. S. Lewis was retained as superintendent of repairs by the 
Committee on Bridges, a position he has now held for five 
years. His compensation was the same as last year ; the car- 
penters were paid $2.50 per day, and the laborers $2.00 per 
day. 

The spruce lumber required for repairs was furnished hy 
Mr. John W. Leatherbee, who was again the lowest bidder, 
making eight consecutive years that he has obtained the 
contract. 

His contract price for 1883 was $15.75 per M. and for 
1884 $15. per M. Under his 1883 contract he has furnished 
9,614 feet B.M., and under his 1884 contract he has fur- 
nished 254,189 feet B.M. A supplementary contract was 
made with him for 116,621, feet B.xM., of kyanized spruce; 
the price paid was $24.10 per M. delivered on cars. 

The paintinir of the tide-water bridges has been done by 
day's labor, Mr. E, B. Perry being employed as foreman, as 
for the two previous years. The rates of pay of the foreman, 



4 City Document No. 54. 

painters and laborers, were the same as last year. Work 
was commenced June 18th, and continued until Oct. Gth, 
during which time seven l)ridges were painted and several 
others had considerable work done upon them. Paint stock 
Avas furnished by Dexter Brothers, the lowest bidders. Total 
cost of labor was $2,252.50 ; of materials, tools, etc., $G78.16. 

The total cost of ordinary repairs on the tide-water bridges 
as made under the direction of this department, was 
$30,340.34. 

During the several years ]iast the repairs of the inland 
bridges (in charge of the Su[)erintendent of Streets) have 
been done by day's labor, under the supervision of this de- 
partment. On Sept. 22, hist, the Superintendent notified me 
that he would attend to these repairs, and since that date he 
has done so. 

The total cost of the repairs made under the direction of 
this department upon the inland bridges, to Sei)t. 22, was 
$3,467.09. 

The records of the number of vessels passing through the 
draw-ways, time of passage, kind of vessels, etc., as kept by 
the superintendents of the several tide-water bridges, have 
been tabulated, and the totals are given in the summary, 
which will be found in Appendix A. 

The usual annual examination (required by Section 5 of 
the ordinance relating to the City Engineer's department) of 
all bridges within the city limits, open to team and foot 
travel, has been jnade, and the results of this examination 
respecting the condition of the bridges as to safety and need 
of renewal or repairs, are given in the succeeding pages. 

The following is a list of the bridges inspected. The 
total number is two more than last year : three additions 
have been made, viz. : — the Franklin street foot-bridge, over 
the Boston & All)any Railroad at Allston station, the bridge 
on Beacon street, and the bridge on Brookline avenue, over 
the same railroad ; one has been taken from the list, the 
Muddy River bridge on Brookline avenue, which has been 
removed and the opening spanned by it tilled with earth. 

In the list those marked with an asterisk are over naviga- 
ble waters, and are each pi'ovided with a draw : — 

I. — Bridges wholly supported by Boston. 

Ashland street, "Ward 23, over Boston & Providence 

Railroad. 
Athens street, over N.Y & X.E. Railroad. 
Beacon Entrance, Back-Bay park, over Boston & Albany 

Railroad. 



EEroRT or City Engineer. 5 

Beacon street, over outlet to Bank-Bay pond. 

Beacon street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Berkeley street, over Boston & Albany Eailroad. 

Berkeley street, over Boston & Providence Railroad. 

Blakeniore street, over Boston & Providence Railroad, 
AVard 23. 

Boylston street, over outlet to Back-Bay pond. 
*Broadway, over Fort Point Channel. 

Broadwa}^ over Boston & All^any Railroad. 

Brookline avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad, Ward 
22. 
*Charles river, from Boston to Charlestown. 
*Chelsea (South), over South Channel, Mystic river. 
*Chelsea street, from East Boston to Chelsea. 

Colinnbus avenue, over Boston & All)any Railroad. 
*Commercial Point, or Tenean, "Ward 24. 

Commonwealth avenue, over outlet to Back-Bay pond. 
*Congrcss street, over Fort Point Channel. 

Dartmouth street, over Boston & Albany and Boston & 
Providence Railroads. 
*Dover street, over Fort Point Channel. 
*Federal street, over Fort Point Channel. 

Ferdinand street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Franklin street foot-bridge, over Boston & Albany Rail- 
road. 

Huntington avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 
*Malden, from Charlestown to Everett. 
*Meridian street, from East Boston to Chelsea. 
*Mt. Washington avenue, over Fort Point Channel. 

Newton street, over Boston & Providence Railroad. 

Public Garden, foot-bridge. 

Shawmut avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Swett street, east of N.Y. & N.E. Raih-oad. 

Swett street, west of N.Y. & N. E. Raib-oad. 
* Warren, from Boston to Charlestown. 

West Chester park, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

West (Chester park, over Boston & Providence Railroad. 

West Rutland square foot-bridge, over Boston & Provi- 
dence Railroad. 

Winthrop, from Breed's Island to Winthrop. 

II. — Bridges of avhich Boston supports the Part 
WITHIN ITS Limits. 

*Cambridge street, from Brighton (Ward 25) to Cambridge. 

Central avenue, from Ward 24 to .Milton. 
*Chelsea (North), from Charlestown to Chelsea. 



6 City Document No. 54. 

*P"ssex street, fVoin AVard 25 (Brookline) to Caml)i-i(lge. 
*Gi'!inite, IVoni Dorchester (AA'ard 24) to Milton. 

Loiiuwood avenue, from Ward 22 to Brookline. 

Mattai)an, from Ward 24 to oMilton. 

Milton, from AVard 24 to Milton. 
*Xeponset, from AVard 24 to Quiney. 
*North I'jeaeon street, from AA'ard 25 to AA'atertown. 
*Nortli Harvard street, from ^^'ard 25 to Cambridge. 

Spring street, from AVest Koxl)ury (AVard 2o) to Ded- 
ham. 
*AA^estern avenue, from AA'ard 25 to Cambridge. 
*AVesteru avenue, from AVard 25 to AVatertown. 

III. — Bridges of which Boston pays a Part of the 
Cost of Maintenance. 

Albany street, over Boston & Albaii}^ Railroad. 
*Canal, from Boston to (Cambridge. 

Dorchester street, over Old Colon}^ Railroad. 
*Prison Point, from Charlestown to Cambridge. 
*AVest Boston, from Boston to Cambridge. 

IV. — Bridges supported by Railroad Corporations. 

1st. — Boston (,€' Albany Raihoad. 
Brighton avenue, AA'ard 25. 
Harrison avenue. 
Market street, AA^ard 25. 
Tremont street. 
AVashington street. 

2d. — Boston & Maine Hailroad. 
Mystic avenue. 
Main street. 

3d. — Boston & Providence Railroad. 

Beech street, AVard 23. 

Bellevue street, AVard 23. 

Canterbury street, AVard 23. 

Centre street, or Hog Bridge, AA'ard 23. 

Centre and Mt. Vernon streets, AVard 23. 

Dudley avenue, AVard 23. 

Park street, AVard 23. 

4t]i. — Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn Railroad. 
Everett street. 



Refort of City Engineer. 

5th. — Eastern Railroad. 



jNIystic avonue. 
Main street. 



6tJt, — ]\few YorJc & New England Railroad. 

Broadway. 

Dorchester avenue. 

Fifth street. 

Forest Hill avenue, Ward 24. 

Fourth street. 

Harvard street, "Ward 24. 

Norfolk " " " 

Norfolk " " " 

Second street. 

Silver street. 

Sixth street. 

Third street. 

Washinorton street. Ward 24. 



7th. — Old Colony Railroad. 

Adams street. 

Ashmont street and Dorchester avenue. 

Cedar Grove Cemetery. 

Commercial street. 

Savin Hill avenue. 

Recapitulation. 

I. Number wholly supported by Boston . . 39 

II. Number of which Boston supports the part with- 
in its limits ...... 14 

III. Numl)er of which Boston pays a part of the cost 

of maintenance ...... 5 

IV. Number supported by Railroad Corporations : — 

1. Boston & Ali)any ...... 5 

2. Boston & Maine 2 

3. Boston & Providence ..... 7 

4. Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn ... 1 

5. Eastern 2 

6. New York & New England . . . . 13 

7. Old Colony 5 

Total number ...... 93 



/ 



City Document No. 54. 



I. —BRIDGES WHOLLY SUPPORTED BY BOSTON. 

ASHLAND-STREET BrTDGE (oVER BoSTOX & PROVIDENCE 

Railroad, Ward 23). 

The abutments of this bridoe have needed repointing for 
several years. The bridge slioiild be sheathed and new 
wheel guards provided the coming season ; otherwise it is in 
good condition and has not required any repairs during the 
year. 

Athens-street Bridge (over New York & New Eng- 
land Railroad). 

This bridge has been stripped of its w^ood-work and the 
iron girders have been cleaned and painted. Those portions 
of the wood-work which were sufficiently sound were re- 
placed and new stock Avas used for the remainder. 

The fences were also painted and the entire bridge is now 
in good order. 

Total cost of repairs, $269.83. 



Beacon-entrance Bridge (over Boston & Albany Rail- 
road). 

This bridge is in charge of the Park Commissioners and is 
not yet opened for public travel. It is in good condition. 



Beacon-street Bridge (over Outlet of Back-Bay 

Pond). 

The iron-work needs painting, and new sheathing will be 
required the coming season. No repairs have l)een made 
upon the structure by this department during the year, and 
with the exception noted is in good order. 



Beacon-street Bridge (over Boston and Albany Rail- 
road) 

Is l)eing built by the Boston & Albany Railroad Company 
under the supervision of this department. 

'i'lic abutments, Aving-Avalls and iron-work portion of the 
bridge are comi)leted and the wood-work will be finished in 
a short time . " 



Report of City Engineer. 



Berkeley-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany Rail- 
road). 

Attention bus been called in former reports to tbe insuffi- 
cient strengtb of tbis bridge for tbe travel of tbe tborough- 
fare upon which it is located. It requires careful supervi- 
sion in order that any signs of dangerous weakness may be 
detected and provision made at once for tbe removal of 
defective portions. 

Tbe tioor timbers have been in use for many years, and 
although they Avere put in good condition in lH78, when tbe 
bridge was extensively repaired, the flooring should be re- 
moved and the timbers and hangers carefully examined tbe 
coming season. 

Total cost of repairs, $120.47. 

Berkeley-street Bridge (over Boston & Providence 

Railroad) 

Is in fair condition. The iron-work, pnrticularly over the 
main tracks of tbe raib'oad, should be cleaned and painted. 
Total cost of repairs by the department, $478.70. 

Blakemore-street Bridge (over Boston & Providence 
Railroad, Ward 23). 

The masonry of the abutments should be repointed, other- 
wise the bridge is in good condition. No repairs have been 
made upon it the past season. 

BoYLSTON-STREET Bridge (over Back Bay Water-way). 

Tbe spandrel and wing-walls of this bridge have been com- 
pleted since the last report. 

The entire structure has been cleaned and pointed and is 
in excellent condition. 

Tbe Park Commissioners have charge of tbis structure, 
which is used at present onl}^ for raih'oad and teaming pur- 
poses in connection with tbe park work. 

*Broadway Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

The draw-pier has been repaired by renewing its plank 
surface, and the floor stringers where necessary. The face 
of the pier on the channel side has also Ijeen partially re- 
planked. The roadway has been newly sheathed where re- 
quired, and slight repairs have been made on the sidewalks. 



10 City Document No. 54. 

The wood pavement on llio column section on the South 
Boston side of the channel has been a source of considerable 
trouble on account of its expansion by freezing when saturated 
with M'ater. Twice the pavement has been so much dis- 
turbed as to necessitate closino^ the bridge to travel, and once 
it was in such bad condition that the travel was maintained 
at considerable risk. The preventive measures ad()[)ted and 
described in the report for 1882 have proved inadequate to 
remedy the difficulty, and as the pavement is badly broken 
up and the timl)er gutters are in bad condition, it is recom- 
mended that the iron Hoor and wood j^avement be removed 
and replaced by a timber floor with plank wearing surface 
similar to that on the column section of the Boston end of 
the bridge. 

The sidewalks on the draw, and also on the spans ad- 
joining the draw, are in poor condition and will require 
renewal at an early date. 

Total cost of repairs, $4,131.72. 

Broadway Bridge (over the Boston & Albany Rail- 
road) 

Is in good condition with the exception that it needs 
painting. One roadway has been sheathed. 
Total cost of repairs, $134.98. 

Brookline-avenue Bridge (over Boston & Albany 

Railroad) . 

This is a new iron bridge with granite abutments and 
wing-walls and was constructed by the Boston & Albany 
Railroad Company under the supervision of this department. 

It is practically comi)letcd but not o})en for travel, as the 
roadway filling and surfacing is unfinished. 

*Ciiarles-River Bridge (from Boston to Charles- 
town). 

Quite extensive repairs have been made upon portions of this 
bridge. The draw has been provided with a new under floor, 
the sides of the water-way have been partially replanked, 
the surface of the easterlv ])ier has been wholly replanked, 
and a building, together with the machinery for moving the 
draw by steam-power, are now in process of erection. 

The draw foundation continues to settle, and one set of 
rail stringers rests upon wedges which have to be fre(jucntl3^ 
adjusted. The engine and machinery formerly used on the 



Eepokt of City Engineer. 11 

AVarren Bridg-e have been transferred to this bridge. Some 
mo(iitication of the niaehinery was necessary to iit it for use 
in moving this draw, and the arranijemcnt is considered a 
temporary one as it is supposed that radical changes will be 
required in the bridge in a short time. The necessity for 
having at times greater power to move the draw than a horse 
could furnish made the application of steam-power un- 
avoidable. 

The side bulkheads, roadway and sidewalk pavements are 
in ])oor condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $3,866.70. 



*Chelsea Bridge (South) (over South Channel Mystic 

Kiver) . 

This l)ridge has been painted, the draw sheathed and small 
repairs made, and is now in good condition. 
Total cost of repairs, $1,521.14. 



*Chelsea-street Bridge (from East Boston to 
Chelsea) 

Has been painted and small repairs made. 

The fixed portions of the bridge are in good condition. 
The draw is very narrow and old, and is seldom used for the 
passage of vessels ; it is, however, kept in running order by 
renewing at intervals the decayed or weak portions, and by a 
continuance of this process it can probably be kept in safe 
condition for some years. 

Total cost of repairs, $258.28. 



Columbus-avenue Bridge (over Boston & Albany 

Railroad). 

The wood-w^ork of this bridge has been entirely removed 
and the iron work thoroughly cleaned and painted. 

The portions of the wood-work which were in good condi- 
tion have been replaced, and new material has been used for 
the remainder. 

There are two guys from an adjacent telegraph pole wdiich 
are attached to the upper chord of two of the main trusses ; 
these guys should be removed, as such attachments should 
not be permitted. 

The bridge is now in excellent condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $1,731.67. 



12 City Document No. 54. 



*COMMERCIAL PoiNT, OR TeXEAN BrIDGE (AVaRD 24), 

Is in fair coiulition. The roadway has been newly sheathed 
and slioht re))airs made to the draw. 
Total cost of repairs, $158.16. 



Commonwealth-avenue Bridge (over Water-avay, Back 

Bay) . 

The iron-work needs painting, otherwise the bridge is in 
good condition. It is not yet used for public travel, as the 
grading of the avenue has not been completed. No repairs 
have been made upon it the past year. 



*C0NGRESS-STREET BrIDGE (OVER FoRT PoINT ChANNEL) 

Has been painted,, the draw-piers have been replanked and 
newly stringered with kyanized sprnce lumber, the draw 
sheathing removed twice, one boiler thoroughly repaired, and 
the usual minor repairs made. 

The fender piers are in poor condition, and a number of 
spur-shore piles need refitting. The fences were put in fair 
condition before they were painted, but they will need further 
repairs in a short time. 
/ Total cost of repairs, $6,G35.61. 



Dartmouth-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany and 
Boston & Providence Railroads). 

With the exception of resheathing the roadwa}' no repairs 
have been made. 

The bridge is in good condition. 
Total cost of repairs, $317.48. 



*Dover-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

The draw roadways have been resheathed and kyanized 
spruce lumber has been purchased for planking one pier. 

This Avork should be done in the spring and some other 
small I'cpairs made. 

I'he bridge is in fair condition. 

Total cost of repairs, including new lumber for pier, 
$1,425.02, 



Report of City Engineer. 13 



•Federal-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

The repairs on this bridge have consisted in sheathing the 
draw roadways twice, painting the buildings, and renewing 
and strengthening certain portions of the wood-work of one 
nia.n truss of eacii draw. 

The new trucks purchased last 3'ear have been put in use, 
and the old ones are being repaired. 

Both of the draws are in bad condition ; during the sum- 
mer unusual signs of weakness were noticed, and it became 
necessary to make quite extensive repairs upon the trusses. 
Much more extensive repairs will be required to keep the 
draws in safe condition for use another year. The tixcd por- 
tions of this bridge are also in poor condition. It was built 
originally in 18:^7-8, rebuilt and widened in 1857-8, and 
aofJiin rebuilt and widened in 1872-3. Piles driven at each 
ot these dates remain in use, and a large part of the tloor 
laid in 1857-8 is still in place although in veiy poor condi- 
tion. 

The sidewalk and roadway pavement and the fences re- 
quire frequent repairs to keep them in safe order. 

The bridge, as a whole, is in such poor condition that 
it would be better economy to replace the present wooden 
draws with new ones of iron, and re'new such portions of the 
lixed portion as require attention, than it would be to keep 
them in repair for another year. 

The new draws when built should occupy the full width 
of the bridge, instead of being ten feet narrower as at present, 
and it would be desirable to apply steam-power to one of 
them if not both. It will not be necessary, in case these im- 
provements are made, to stop travel over more than one-half 
of the width of the bridge at a time. 

Total cost of repairs, $2,175.37. 



Ferdinand-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany 

Railroad) . 

Xo repairs have been made upon this structure by this 
department. It is in fair condition. 



Franklin-street Foot-Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
Railroad at Allston Station) 

Is in good order. No repairs have been made. 



14 City Document No. 54. 

HUNTINGTOX-AVENUE RlUDGE (oVER BosTOX & ALBANY 

liAILKOAl)) 

Is in ii'ood condition. No rcpuirs have l)een made by 
this doi);u-tnicnt. 

*Malden Bridge (from (vIIarlestowx to Everett). 

The under floor of the draw roadway has been partially 
renewed and re-covered with new sheathing, the draw-pier 
rcpaii'cd and the bridge painted. The concrete sidewalk is 
not in o-odd order although it has been temporarily repaired. 
It should be renewed in the spring. 

The draw is an old structure and defective in the design 
of some portions of it, but is in fair condition. The fences 
Avill need repairs in a short time. 

Total cost of rc[)airs, $1,687.92. 



* Meridian-street Bridge (from East Boston to 
Chelsea) . 

This In'idge Avas in such poor condition that it was deemed 
advisable to rebuild rather than repair it. 

An appropriation of $57,000 was made by the City 
Council for the purpose of rel)uildingand widening the struct- 
ure from 39 to 50 feet, and the work was advertised for 
proposals in August. A contract was made with the lowest 
bidder, Mr. Wm. A. Kenrick, of Boston, on August 23. The 
bridge was closed to all through-travel Oct. 2, and o})cned 
for foot passengers Nov. 18, and for teams Dec. 8. 

In addition to widening the bridge from 39 to 50 feet, the 
old part has been nearly all rebuilt above the pile-caps. The 
draw has been raised three feet, otherwise no change has 
l)een made in it. The bridge adjoining the draw at each end 
has been built to a cori'csponding height, and slopes to the 
grade of the old bridge at the rate of one and one-half feet 
per one hundred. 

By raising the draw the difficulty in moving it, due to the 
formation of ice upon the wheels and track in winter, is 
o))viated, the track being now above any ordinary tide. 

Hard-[)ine timber has been used in all renewals of and 
additions to the structure with the exception of the bridge 
floor, for the larger portion of which kyanized si)ruce planks 
Avere speciKed and used where the delay in fuinisiiing them 
did not render necessary the substitution of hard-[)ine. The 
bridge floor is covered with a layer of Trinidad asphalt one- 



Report of City Engineer. 15 

fourth of an inch -thick, over which is ])hicecl a layer of coal- 
tar concrete one and one-half inches thick ; a layer of paving 
gravel about live inclies in tiiickness, upon which is laid a 
granite l)lock pavement, completes the roadway. The old 
curb-stones were reset, and the sidewalks when coiupleted 
are to be of coal-tar concrete. The work was not sufficiently 
advanced before the commencement of extreme cold weather 
to warrant the covering of tlie sidewalk planking with the 
tar concrete, and this woik has been postponed until warm 
weather. 

The bridge now has two sidewalks, each 7 feet in width, 
and a roadway 36 feet in width. A doul)le track for horse- 
cars has been laid the entire length of the fixed ]:)ortion of 
the bridiie, Init over the draw a sino;le track has been sub- 
stituted for the former double track. By this arrangement 
it is now possible to keep snow upon the draw when there 
is sleighing, and teams can go over it without crossing a, 
railroad track. 

The contract price for the work was $38,098.64, and $35 
per M. for new stringers to replace old ones. When the 
bridge was stripped the stringers were found in much M^orse 
condition than had been anticipated, and a larger number of 
new stringers were required than had been estimated upon. 
The cost of the work will therefore exceed the amount as 
shown by the estimate when the contract was awarded, but 
will be, at least, $6,000 less than the original estimate and 
appropriation. 

In connection with this improvement the wharf upon Avhich 
the office and stable were located has been rebuilt and en- 
larged, and repairs amounting practically to a renewal of 
the track and wheels of the draw have been made. 

The amount paid on account of work done to January 
1, was $34,138.34, but, as a final settlement has not yet 
been made with the contractor, the total cost cannot be 
given. 

Total cost of ordinary repairs, $421.13. 



*Mt. Washington-avenue Bridge (over Fort Point 

Channel). 

A new fence has been built on one side of this bridge, the 
draw has been newdy sheathed and the bridge painted. The 
remainder of the fence is in poor condition and will soon 
require rebuilding ; otherwise the entire structure is in good 
order. 

Total cost of repairs, $1,445.23. 




Ifj City Document No. 54. 

Newtox-street Bridge (over Boston & Providence 

Hailroad) . 

The roadway needs sheathing, and the iron-work painting. 
No repairs hav e been made the past year. 

Public Garden Foot-Bridge. 

A special report was m;ide to the Committee on Common 
and Public Grounds on May 21st, stating that the wood- 
work of this bridge was in such a general state of decay as to 
require renewal. The estimated cost of doing this work, 
together with the pointing of the masonry of the abutment 
and piers, Avas given at $800. 

No repairs of any account have been made upon the bridge 
since the al)()vc date, and tlie wood-work is in very bad and 
unsafe condition. 



Shawmut-a VENUE Bridge (#ver Boston & Albany 

Railroad) . 

The roadway has been sheathed. The bridge is in good 
condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $176.45. 



Swett-street Bridges (over South-Bay Sluices). 

No repairs have been made upon these bridges. 
The abutment wings are in poor condition, otherwise 
these structures are in fair condition. 



* Warren Bridge (erom Boston to Charlestown). 

The Avork of rebuilding Warren Bridge, which was com- 
menced in 1883, has been completed in accordance with the 
dcscri[)ti()n given in the report for last year. A convenient 
l)uilding for the use of the Superintendent and his assistants, 
with boiler-room attached, has been built at an expense of 

$2,4oy.oo. 

The draws are of the mitre or retractile pattern, and are 
two in number. 

They are placed side by side, occupying, with the excep- 
tion of 7 feet space between them, the entire width of the 
main bridge, which is 80 feet. 




DRAWS IN Warren bridge, boston. 

1885. 



Eeport of City Engineer. 17 

At tlie draws the roadway of the main bridge is divided 
into two, each 24 feet 1) in. wide in the clear, one of which 
roadways, togetlier with a sidewalk, is carried hv each draw. 

Each draw is composed of two non-continuous })lato-girder 
spans, one of which bridges the channel through the liridge, 
and the other, extending back Iroin the channel, over the 
draw foundation, is supported on the same by trucks placed 
upon steel rails. 

When the draw is in position for travel the span over the 
channel is supported at the front end on beariugs provided 
on the main bridge, the other end being attached to, and 
supported by, rear span by means of a pin connection. 

AVhen the dniw is in motion or run off, the front end of 
the channel-span is supported by susi)ension-rods passing 
over Samson-posts on rear span, to the back end of this 
span, proper counterbalances of cast-iron being provided 
where necessary. 

When the channel through the bridge is to l)e opened for 
the passage of vessels each draw is run back on the rails 
provided on the draw foundation, until it occupies a position 
at one side of the channel, the line of motion being at about 
45° with the centre line of the bridcre, and 1)oth draws beino; 
run to the same side of channel. 

The accompanying view of these draws shows one draw in 
position for travel, and the other run back to give open 
channel through the bridge. 

The motive power for the draws is steam, in addition to 
which attachments for either hand or horse power are pro- 
vided, to be used in case of accident to the steam plant. 

Steam is furnished from two boilers located in the bridge 
superintendent's building on the bridge pier, one boiler being 
kept in reserve. Steam from the l)oiler is brought in a cov- 
ered pipe to the engine-house, which is located on the draw- 
founda'tion, between the two draws. In the basement of the 
engine-house are two double-cylinder reversing engines, one 
for each draw, the unequal travel of the draws, made neces- 
sary by a slight skew of the channel thnnigh the bridge, 
requiring the running of the draws independently of each 
other. 

The engines are so arrang-ed that, in case of accident to 
either, the other can be used for running the draws in turn. 

Each engine is connected, b}^ means of a line of shafting, 
to a horizontal drum located under the draw, the shaft of the 
drum being placed at right angles Avith the line of motion of 
the draw, and the middle of the drum l)eing on a line pass- 
ing through the centre of gravity of the draw, as referred to 
its line of motion. On either side of the drum is placed a 



18 City DocUiViENT No. 54. 

sheave, the distance between the sheaves bein<r a little greater 
than the total movement of the draw. Wire-rope is con- 
nected to the drum, and passes over each sheave to a point 
on the draw, where it is connected to it by an adjustable 
fastening. 

By turning" the drum the draw is moved. 

The starting, reversing, and brake levers for the engines, 
are situated in the channel end of the engine-house, and in 
its upper story, the floor of which is at about the same grade 
as the roadway of the bridge. 

From his position at these levers the engineer operates 
and controls the draws, and has full view of their movements 
and (he passage of vessels through the bridge. Each draw 
is provided with a latch which can only be operated from 
inside the engine-house. 

The weight of a draw is about 90 tons, and it can be easily 
moved at the rate of 60 feet in 20 seconds, and be stopped at 
will while at this rate of speed. 

A steam capstan for assisting vessels through the bridge, 
is situated on the bridge pier, and is supplied with steam 
from the before-mentioned boilers. 

The draws, and the machinery for working them, were 
built from designs furnished by this department. 

The draws were built by the Boston Bridge Works, the 
machinery by Cook, Rymes, & Co., Charlestowu, the boil- 
ers by the Atlantic Works, East Boston, and the steam cap- 
stan by the American Ship Windlass Co., Providence, R.I. 

The whole api)aratus works well, and gives general 
satisfaction. 

The water-way for vessels through the bridge, and the 
piers above and below, are faced with plank placed verti- 
cally, and extending six feet below low water, thereby turn- 
ing the current in the direction in which the vessels are to 
be moved, and allowing? them to l)c moved easily. In build- 
ing the bridge it wiis impossible to provide a passage-way in 
the direct course of the current. 

The work of completing the portion of the bridge near 
the passenger-station and entrance to the freight-yards of 
the Fitchbiu-g Railroad was delayed by the desire of that 
corporation to avoid the inconvenience of cutting off the 
entrance to the freight-yard during the rebuilding. As 
finally arranged, the work in front of their premises was 
done by the railroad, at an increased cost to tlu; city. The 
final settlement has not yet been made with the railroad. 

The payments on account of the work, including land 
damages, and all payments to January 1, 1885, have been 
$367,720.08. 



Report of City Engineer. 19 



West Chester-park Bridge (over Boston & Albany 

Railroad.) 

The road way has been sheathed, the under floor will soon 
reqiiiie renewal, and the concrete sidewalks are in poor 
condition. 

Advantage should be taken of these necessary repairs to 
change the longitudinal crown of the bridge, and of the 
approaches to an easier and more natural curve. This can 
be done now at a small expense, as but one building has been 
erected adjoining the bridge. 

Total cost of repairs $159.01. 

West Chester-park Bridge (over Boston & Provi- 
dence Railroad). 

No repairs have been made, and the bridge is in good con- 
dition. 



West Rutland-square Foot-Bridge (over Boston & 
Providence Railroad) 

Should be painted next season. It is in good condition, 
and no repairs hav^e been made. 

Winthrop Bridge (From Breed's Island to Win- 

TIIROP). 

The sidewalk has been rebuilt, and small repairs made. 
The roadway will need sheathing early in the spring. 
Total cost of repairs $140.52. 

II. — BRIDGES OF W^HICH BOSTON SUPPORTS 
THE PART WITHIN ITS LIMITS. 

*Cambridge-street Bridge (from Ward 25 to 
Cambridge). ^ 

The portion of this bridge maintained by the City of Bos- 
ton has been relniilt. 

The old bridge was entirely removed, and replaced with a 
new one built with oak-piles, hard-pine tinil)er, hard-pine 
lower floor, with spruce sheathing. The width was increased 

1 The bridge was closed to travel from September 19 to October 20. 



20 City Docuiment No. 54. 

from 24 to 31^ feet, the new draw, however, being the same 
width as the old one, namely, 21 feiet. One sidewalk, 5 feet 
wide, has been provided, and the same style of draw as the 
old one, has been built. 

The work of rebuilding was let to Alexander Mclnnis, the 
lowest bidder, for $4,24!Kt)5. 

Totalcostof the work, including inspection, etc., $4,465.91. 

Total cost of ordinary repairs, $228.35. 



Central-avenue Bridge (over Neponset River, Dor- 
chester Lower Mills). 

A part of the roadway has been sheathed. The sidewalk 
floor will need attention. The bridge is in good condition. 
Total cost of repairs paid by the City of Boston, $78.41. 



*Chelsea Bridge (North) (from the Mystic River 
Corporation's Wharf to Chelsea). 

The roadway has been sheathed, and the usual small re- 
pairs made. The bridge is in good condition. 
Total cost of repairs, $448.82. 



*Essex-street Bridge (from Ward 25 to Cambridge). 

The roadway has been sheathed, and small repairs made. 
The fences are in poor condition, and should be rei)laced in 
the spring. The under-tloor is not in the best condition, but 
will probably last a few years longer. The draw and draw- 
pier are in good condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $504.30. 



*Granite Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton). 

The roadway has been sheathed, and small repairs made. 
The bridge is in good condition. 
Total cost of repairs, $150.02. 



Long WOOD- A VENUE Bridge (from Ward 22 to Brook- 
line) . 

No repairs have been made by this department. The 
brid2:e is in fair condition. 



Report of City Engineer. 21 



Mattapan Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton). 

No repairs have been made. The bridge is in fair con- 
dition. 

Milton Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton). 

Only trifling repairs have been made, and the bridge is in 
good order. 



*Neponset Bridge (from Ward 24 to Quincy). 

The roadway has been sheathed, and small repairs made. 
The flaps to the draw are in poor condition, and the draw- 
piers require small repairs ; otherwise the bridge is in good 
condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $429.37. 



*NoRTH Beacon-street Bridge (from Ward 25 to 
Watertown). 

The part of the bridge maintained by the City of Boston 
has been rebuilt throughout, of substantially the form and 
dimensions of that replaced. The part of the bridge main- 
tained by Watertown was rebuilt last year. 

In rebuilding, oak piles, hard-pine timbers and floor- 
plank, and spruce sheathing or wearing-surface of roadway, 
was used. A sidewalk 5 feet wide was built, and a small 
pier provided for the convenience of passing vessels. 

The work of rebuilding was done by Messrs. Young, 
Ryan, & Hayes, for $4,784.88. The bridge was closed to 
travel from the 2d to the 28th day of October. 

Total cost of the Avork, including inspection, etc., 
$5,002.70. Total cost of ordinary repairs, $2.50. 

*NoRTH Harvard-street Bridge (from AYard 25 to 

Cambridge ) . 

The city of Cambridge repaired the portion of the bridge 
which it maintains, and closed it to travel while so doing. 
Advantage of this was taken, and the half of the draw main- 
tained by Boston was rebuilt, and the bridge put in good 
condition. The draw-])ier was repaired, and a buoy has 
been set in place. The bridge is in good condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $1,748.11. 



22 City Document No. 54. 

Sprixg-stkeet Bridge (from Ward 23 to Dedham) 
Is in good condition. Ko repairs have been made. 

* Western-avenue Bridge (from Ward 25 to Cam- 
bridge) . 

The roadway has been sheathed, and small repairs made 
on the draAv. The bridge is in fair condition. 
Total cost of repairs, $436.20. 

*Western-avenue Bridge (from Ward 25 to Water- 
town). 

Only small repairs have been made, and the condition of 
the bridge remains as reported last year, namely, the abut- 
ment in bad condition, and the bridge safe for travel, but 
extremely inconvenient for the passage of vessels. 

Total cost of repairs, $66.27. 



III. — BRIDGES FOR MAINTENANCE OF AVHICII 
BOSTON PAYS A PART OF THE COST. 

Albany-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
Railroad). 

The condition of this bridge was fully described last year ; 
no change for the better has occurred. During 1883 exten- 
sive repairs were made which gave an opportunity to examine 
the condition of the iron-work. At that time it was not in 
such condition as to absolutely condemn the structure as 
dangerous, but it is approaching that point, and it should l)e 
strip[)ed and carefully examined during the coming season. 
No repairs have been made. The condition of the abutments 
has been described in previous reports. They are in very 
bad condition. 

*Canal Bridge (from Boston to Cambridge). 

*Prison-Point Bridge (from Charlestown to 
Cambridge). 

*Wkst-Boston Bridge (from Boston to Cambridge), 

In charge of Commissioners. See City Doc. No. 8, for 
report on their condition. 



Report of City Engineer. 23 



Dorchester-street Bridge (over Old Colony 
Railroad) . 

No repairs have been made. The bridge is in fair con- 
dition. 



IV. — BRIDGES SUPPORTED BY RAILROAD 
CORPORATIONS. 

Norfolk-avenue Bridge, on the New York & New Eng- 
land Railroad, reported in dangerous condition last year, has 
been rebuilt. 

Beech-st. Bridge, and the bridge on Centre and Mt. Ver- 
non sts., over the Boston & Providence Railroad, remain in 
the bad condition reported last year. 

On the Boston & Albany Railroad, Harrison-ave., Wash- 
ington-st., and Tremont-st. bridges are rapidly deteriorating 
for want of proper cleaning and painting. On the Old Col- 
ony Railroad, Comniercial-st. bridge trusses have no side- 
bracing, and the trusses of Adams-st. bridge are sagged out 
of line and level. On the Boston & Providence Railroad, 
Centre-st.,orHogg bridge, needs painting and general repairs, 
and the fences on Dudley st.. Beech st., Park st., and Mt. 
Vernon st. are in bad condition. On Dorchesier-st. I)ridge, 
on the New York & New England Railroad, a very weak 
splice in a stringer Avas noticed. 

Other bridges supported by railroad companies, and given 
in the list, are in good order or fair condition, and require 
no special mention. 

A wooden foot-bridge over the Boston & Providence Rail- 
road, connecting the two parts of Camden st., was built some 
years since, presumably by the railroad. The supports of 
the bridge are within the lines of the railroad location. The 
steps leading to the bridge are within the lines of the street, 
which is only laid out, as such, to the railroad location on 
each side. The bridge is a temporary structure, and it was 
sup})osed that it would be allowed to remain but a short time. 
It has not been removed, and is used to a considerable extent 
by the puljlic. It already shows signs of deterioration, and 
should be carefully looked after. 



24 City Document No. 54. 



MISCELLANEOUS WORK AND CONSTRUCTIONS 

IX 1«84. 

Atlantic-avenue Sidewalk. 

The sidewalk on the water side of Atlantic avenue be- 
tween the solid wharves, is a pile structure, l)uilt in 18()l)-70. 
The portion between the Eastern packet pier and T wharf, 
about 220 feet in length, and 24 feet in width, has been re- 
built above the stringers. It is covered with k^anized spruce 
plank G inches thick, then from 8 to 12 inches of gravel, and 
paved with brick. 

Total cost, not including the brick paving, $1,919.78. 

Raising Grade or Brookline avenue and Beacon 

STREET. 

On July 15 the B. & A. R.R. Co. began work on the bridge 
on Brookline avenue to span its tracks. This bridge has 
been completed, and the one on Beacon street nearly so. 
The company began filling on Brookline avenue, August 
27, and continued until October 13, when the breaking of 
the Muddy-river conduit occurred, by which two men lost 
their lives. The conduit having been repaired, the work of 
tilTi>3g was resumed December 4, and continued until Janu- 
a+"y 21, when it was discontinued on account of the work 
being done I)y the sewer department not being far enough 
advanced to allow of the completion of the filling. On Octo- 
ber^ 4 the 48-inch main water-pipe on Beacon street was 
broken by the dropping of a large block of granite which 
was being lowered into its i)lace in the westerly al)utment of 
the new bridge being built \)y the B. & A. R.R. Co. over its 
tracks. The break occurred at 9.30 A.M., and the water 
was not shut off until 11.30 A.M. The escaping water 
washed away the road-bed so that all travel on the railroad 
was stopped 'from 9.30 A.M. to 12.30 P.M. 



Bulkhead at Fiiist and Q streets, South Boston. 

Plans and s[)ecitications for a pile bulkhead on East First 
street, near Q street, were made, and the work of building 
the wooden structure was let to Mr. F. G. Whitcomb, the 
lowest bidder. The bulkhead is about 350 feet in length, 



Report of City Engineer. 25 

and from 9 to 18 feet in heiuht. It is built with spruce 
piles and plank, and is anchored to a row of piles driven in 
the rear with li-inch iron rods. The bulkhead is ballasted 
with broken stone from the Dorchester-bay tunnel of the 
Main Drainage Works. 

Cost of wooden bulkhead .... $1,81460 
" movino: ballast 1,594 50 



Total cost $3,409 10 

Proposed New Bridge to Cambridge. 

The design shown in the accompanying plate is for a bridge 
across the Charles river, opposite West Chester park, Bos- 
ton, and between the Harbor Commissioners' lines on either 
side of the river, a distance of about 2,155 feet. 

The bridge is to be 70 feet wide, excepting at the draw, 
wdiich is to be 50 feet wide. 

Conmiencing at the Harbor Commissioners' line, at the 
Boston side of the river, the bridge, for a distance of al)out 
200 feet, is to be a wooden-pile structure, with stone paving, 
it l)eing thought best, in view of the probability of the 
extension of the Charles-river embankment, to cover the 
space to be occupied by it by a structure of a somewhat 
temporary character. 

From the end of this 200 feet of pile bridge to the Harbor 
Commissioners' line on the Cambrido-e side of the river the 
bridge Mill consist of iron spans supported on stone piers, 
and the bridge will be a deck-bridge, with the exception of 
the draw, which will have two main trusses above the floor. 

The proposed grades and elevations of the roadway of the 
bridge are as follows : — 

Feet. 

At Beacon street opposite West Chester park . .17 

At 300 ft. from Beacon street, .33 ft. rise per 100 ft. 18 
Then about 100 ft., 3.00 ft. rise per 100 ft. . . 21 

Then about 166 ft., 2.70 ft. rise per 100 ft. . . 25.5 

Then level at 25.5 for about 1,600 ft. 
Then about 196 ft., 2.30 ft. per 100 ft. fall to . .21 

at the Harbor Commissioners' line at the Cambrido-e side. 

The general piers will be of stone masonry on pile founda- 
tions, the piles to be cut off at 3 feet below low water, and 
to i)e enclosed by sheet-piling. 

The top of the coping of the piers will be at grade 13 



26 City Document No. 54. 

feet, and stone bearing-blocks will be placed under girder- 
bearings, bringing the lowest point of the iron-work of the 
main girders at grade 16 feet. 

The draw foundation will be circular in shape, and of 
stone masonry, resting on afoundaticm of piles filled between 
w'ith cement concrete, the concrete extending to hard bottom. 
The piles and concrete are to be encased in a curb of sheet- 
piling. 

The fixed spans of the bridge will be generally in alternate 
spans of about 75 feet and 105 feet, 75 feet of the longer 
span to be carried b}^ independent girders, supported by 
cantilevers from adjacent spans. - 

The iron-work of each fixed span will be made up of four 
main girders carrying iron floor-beams and projecting 
brackets for the support of the sidewalks, the whole to be 
thoroughly braced and connected, and provided with proper 
expansion-joints. 

The main girders Avill be of the plate-girder type, and will 
vary in depth from 5 feet to 8 feet, the under side of each 
girder being arched 3 feet. 

The flooring of the.entire roadway will consist of hard-pine 
stringers supporting two courses of spruce plank; the under 
course to be 4 inches thick, treated by the kyanizing process, 
and the upper course to be 2 inches thick. 

The sidewalks will be made of hard-pine stringers, carry- \ 
ing a walk of white-pine plank, or tar concrete, as may be 
desired, the walks to be guarded by heavy cast-iron curbs, 
{)rovided with draining scuppers. 

llailinffs for the sidewalk are to be of wrought-iron, M orna- 
mental pattern. 

The draw, which is to span two clianncls, each 30 feet 
wide, Avill have two main trusses of the i)in-connected ty[)e, 
and will be carried on a wrought-iron turn-table of improved 
construction. It is to be o))erated by steam-power ; and a 
suitable building for the machinery, and for quarters for the 
bridge men, is to be provided. 

The clear head-room between the water at grade 12 feet, 
and the under side of the bridge will range from 4 feet at pier 
to 7 feet at mid span. Under the draw this head-room will 
be increased to 12 feet. 

The special features of this design may be mentioned as 
follows : — 

General low elevation of the roadway of the bridge and 
consequent easy grades on it and its approaches. 

The location of the iron-work of the bridge practically be- 
yond the reach of high water. 

The head-room under the bridge ; this being such as to 



EeresEi) NEW mma: 'm ^AMfMim}E.'^^--\m'A^i^u. 







-ELEVATION Or 105.58 FEET SPAN: 






'ffiSS^ffijwL 



-GCNEKAL CROSS SECT/ON.- 



Report of City Engineer. 27 

give free passage for row and racing boats at all stages of 
high water. 

The construction of the iron-work of the fixed spans. The 
iron is mostly concentrated in a few heavy nienibers, which 
are readily inspected, cleaned, and painted. The number of 
adjustable members is reduced to a minimum. 

It is believed that, for the conditions here required for a 
bridge, this type of construction would be stifFer under loads, 
and could be ke|)t in good order with less attention and ex- 
pense than a skeleton structure, with its large number of 
small and adjustable parts, and more or less com[)licated 
joints. 

Commonwealth-avenue Extension. 

The final estimate of filling under the contracts of April 29, 
1880, and May 2(j, 1881, was made May 7, 1884. The total 
amount deposited on ComnKmwealth avenue, Brookline avenue, 
Ipswich and Jersey streets, was 39,8041 squares at $3.20 per 
square. As this filling was done under an agreement with 
OAvners of the adjoining lands, a statement of the amount of 
filling upon the lands of each party is here given. 

Public park. Back Bay .... 10,458| squares. 
Commonwealth avenue and adjacent 

streets 39,804^ " 

Boston Water-Power Co. . . . 26,32(i| 

Trustees Beacon-street lands . . . 12,544 " 

" Park-entrance lands . . . 11,6741 " 

A. A. Marcus, and Executors D. N. Skill- 

linijs 688 " 



Total 101,495| " 

January 22, the B. & A. R.R. Co. began to dump loam on the 
avenue, this loam being brought from Basin 4, Ashland. 
The total amount of loam deposited on the avenue was 1,496 
squares. 

The spreading of this loam upon the areas to be planted 
was l)egun June 9, and completed November 28. 

The manner of treating the ground was the same as that 
followed upon the Back-bay park, viz. : the ground was first 
graded to a sub-grade and then covered with a layer of 
marsh-mud brought from the park, to a depth of six inches ; 
this was covered with a coating of oyster-shell lime, and then 
the loam was spread to a depth of 2 feet. 



28 City Document No. 54. 



Copley-square Curb. 

A contract, dated December 1, 1883, was made with P^mery 
& Small, for furnishing and laying a granite ciirl)ing around 
Copley square. 

The curbing is 18 inches deep, and is 10 inches Avide. The 
outer fiicc is cut on a curve of 8 inches radius, and all ex- 
posed surfaces are of 8-cut work. 

The curbing is laid on a continuous foundalion of concrete 
3 feet deep and 2^ feet wide, composed of American hy- 
draulic cement, sand, and broken stone, in the proportion of 
1,2, and 5. 

The curbing was cut during the winter months, and laid 
early in the spring of 1884, being completed May 19th. 

The length of the curbing is 823 feet, and the cost of the 
work was $3,394. 

Dalton-street Filling. 

Under the agreement with the B. & A. R.R. Company, 
before referred to (Commonwealth-ave. Ext'n, p. 27 j, that 
company began tilling Dalton street on January 11th, and 
completed the same on November 25th. The total amount of 
tilling deposited on the street was 1,924 squares, at $3.50 per 
square. 

East Boston Ferries. 

Estimates, detailed plans, specifications, and contract for 
rebuilding the slips, building a wharf, and a foundation for a 
drop for the South Ferry, Boston side, have been furnished. 
Lines and grades have been given for the construction of the 
work ; but it has not been superintended by this dei)artment. 

Plans have also been made for a partial rebuilding of the 
slips of the South Ferry on the East Boston side 

HuKtington-a venue Extension. 

The contract made with Hugh Nawn, in 1883, was com- 
])leted, and the final estimate made on December 20, 1884. 
The portion of the avenue between Tremont street and Long- 
Avood avenue was inmiediately opened to travel. The Met- 
ropolitan ]I.R. Co. have laid their tracks through the whole 
length of the extension, and have been running cars over it 
since September 29th, although the part of the avenue 
between Longwood avenue and Barker street has never been 
opened to travel, and is not in a safe condition for travel. 



Report of Citt Engineer. 29 



IN GENERAL. 

The usual larg'e amount of work of a miscellaneous charac- 
ter has been done during the year. Under this head may be 
classed the following : — 

Plans, Specifications, and Inspection. 

For JNIachinery for new draws for Warren bridge. 
Repairs of boiler-room, Mystic Pumping-station. 
Wrought-iron water-pipe, Brookline-avenue bridge. 
New raising-gear, Prison-point draw. 
Remodelling of park building, City Point. 
Gates for Muddy river gate-house. 

Gates for Dam No. 4 and Farm Pond, Boston Water 
Works. 

Specifications and Inspection. 
Brookline-avenue bridge, over Boston & Albany R.R. 
Beacon-street bridge over Boston & Albany R.R. 

Inspection during Erection. 
For New^ Steel boilers, Mystic Pumping-station. 
Franklin-street foot-bridge, AUston. 

Plans and Specifications. 
For Sumner-street foot-bridge. East Boston. 

Miscellaneous iron-work. Main Drainage Pumping-station. 
Propagating house, W^est Roxbury park. 
Telford road, Humboldt avenue. 
Paving on West Boston bridge. 

Inspection at Shops. 
For East shaft puraping-machinery, Main Drainage Works. 

Designs. 
For New bridge to Cambridge. 

Laying out of Massachusetts avenue. 
Park gate-house and shelters. 

Estimates. 
For Iron bridge. Back Bay. 

Railroad bridge over I3rook street. 

Abolishing grade crossings of Old Colony R.R. at Dor- 
chester avenue and Dover street. 
Enlarging the dock at Fort-Hill wharf for the Board of 
Heahh. 



30 City Document No. 54. 



B. —WATER -WORKS 

Sudburi/-river Reservoirs, Farm Pond, and Lake Co- 

cJiiluate. 

On Jaiuiaiy 1, 1884, reservoirs Nos. 2 and 3 on the Sud- 
bury river were entirely empty, Reservoir No. 1 and Farm 
pond contained but a small supply, and Lake Cocliituate was 
ten feet below high-water mark or but 3.21 feet above the 
conduit invert, and temporary pumping machinery was in 
operation to turnish a supply to the city. A heavy rain 
and thaw between the 8tli and 12th of the month quickly 
tilled the reservoirs on the Sudbury river, so that on the 30th 
of January Reservoirs Nos. 1 and 2 were full and overflowing, 
and on February 8, Reservoir No. 3 reached high-water mark. 
Lake Cocliituate rose slowly during the month ot January, 
and pumping from the lake into the conduit ceased on the 
14th, but during the month of February 1,094,300,000 
gallons were sent to the hike from the Sudbury river, and its 
surface rose rapidly, so that on March 1 , water was wasted 
at the outlet dam. 

From March 1 to August 15 all of the reservoirs re- 
mained at or near hio^h-water mark. Reservoir No. 2 fell 
ra[)idly from August 15 to October 15, being drawn upon 
for the city's supply, and on the latter date was practically 
empty; water was then drawn froni Reservoir No. 3, and on 
November 23 its surface was 3.88 feet below the crest of the 
dam. 

Reservoirs 2 and 3 filled during the month of December, 
and on December 22 both were full and waste was com- 
menced at dam No. 1. 

Lake Cocliituate fell slowly from August 1 to November 
24, when its surface was 4.40 feet below high water. 
Since December 23 the lake has slowly risen and is now, 
January 1, 1885, 2.93 feet below high-water mark. 

Farm pond was kept full until the middle of Juh' when its 
surface was lowei'ed about 2.5 feet to grade, 14().50, where it 
has since remained. 



Mystic LalxB, 

]\Iystic lake was 7.72 feet below high-water mark on Jan- 
uary 1, 1884, but it filled during the month and waste was 
commenced on January 2G, and continued without inter- 
ruption until June 8. 



Report of City Engineer. 



31 



The lake remaiticd full uutil September 1, after which 
date its surface fell, and during the month of November stood 
about 3.50 feet below hvj\\ water. In December the lake 
aijain filled, and on December 23d waste began at the outlet 
and has continued to the present time. 



Co)isnmj)(iO)i. 

The daily average consumption of water from the com- 
bined works has been as follows : — 





From Sudbury and 
Cochituatc Works. 


From Mystic 
Works. 


Total. 


January . 


. 32,162,300 


8,019,100 


40,181,400 


February 


. 24,598,000 


6,349,500 


30,947,500 


March . 


. 23,711,900 


6,337,100 


30,049,000 


April 


. 21,505,700 


5,242,100 


26,747,800 


IVIay . 


. 23,708,500 


5,<S00,C00 


29,508,500 


June 


. 26,184,600 


6,245,600 


32,430,200 


July . 


. 25,409,000 


6,312,300 


31,721,300 


August . 


. 25,065,200 


6,088,400 


31,153,600 


September 


. 26,389,500 


6,411,150 


32,800,650 


October . 


. 25,022,850 


5,834,200 


30,857,050 


November 


. 22,954,250 


5,119,700 


28,073,950 


December 


. 24,234,800 


6,330,800 


30,565,600 


Averages 


. 25,090,500 


6,209,700 


31,300,200 



The daily average consumption from the Sudlniry and 
Cochituate works has been 23.6% less than during the year 
1883, and that of the jMystic works 9% less. "The daily 
average consumption from the combined works has been 
8,630,200 gallons or 21.6 per cent, less than during the year 
1883, and smaller than that of any year since 1877. 

The daily average consumption per head of population has 
been 68 gallons from the Sudbury and Cochituate works, 71 
gallons from the Mystic works and 06.6 gallons from the 
combined supplies. 

The total consumption of the Sudbury and Cochituate 
works has been 9,183,112,300 gallons, of which amount the 
SucU)ury river works have furnished 6,110,600,000 gallons, 
or 66.5 per cent., as follows : — 



32 



City Document Xo. 54. 



Amount sent to Amount sent to 

Chetitmit-Uill Kosorvoir. Lake Cucliituatc. 



eJiuuinry . 

Februarv . 

]\Iaivh ^ . 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

Sei)teml)cr 

October . 

November 

December 

Totals . 
Daily av. 



1)97,000, UOO 
2();3,4()O,O00 
312.500,000 
228,«O0,O00 
208,400,000 
414,500,000 
480,100,000 
406,100,000 
442,200,000 
432,900,000 
363,900,000 
432,500,000 



1,094,300,000 



168,400,000 

152,000,000 
1,600,000 



Total. 

697,000,000 
1,359,700,000 
312,500,000 
228,800,000 
268,400,000 
582,900,000 
582,000,000 
407,700,000 
442,200,000 
432,900,000 
363,900,000 
432,500,000 



4,694,300,000 1,416,300,000 6,110,600,000 
12,825,900 3,869,700 16,695,600 



Highland High-Service Works. 

At the Highland pumping-station the average daily quanti- 
ties pumped during each month have been as follows : — 



January, 


2,482,000 


July, 


2,415,000 


Fel)ruary, 


2,352,800 


August, 


2,306,000 


March, 


2,370,500 


September, 


2,589,000 


April, 


2,191,700 


October, 


2,453,000 


May, 


2,329,000 


November, 


2,366,850 


June, 


2,648,950 


December, 


2,510,500 



The daily average for the year has l)een 2,418,000 gallons, 
a decrease of 16.8 per cent, from that of the year 1883. 



Waste of Water. 

The work of preventing the waste of water throughout the 
city which was connnenced during the year 1883 has been 
continued during the past ^'"ear and there has been a steady 
reduction in the consumption. The saving efl'ected is shown 
by the following table, which gives the daily average con- 
sumption per inhal)itant during the past two years on the 
Sudbury and Coyhituate works : — 



Repoet of City Engineer. 



33 





Consumption - 
per head, p 
1883. 


-Gallons, 
er day. 
1SS4. 


Saving effected. 

Gal. per head. Percent- 

per day. af<e. 


Januaiy 


97.8 


88.4 


9.4 


9.6 


February . 


92.0 


67.5 


24.5 


26.6 


March 


95.8 


65.0 


30.8 


32.1 


April . . . . 


85.8 


58.8 


27.0 


31.5 


May . 


89.8 


64.6 


25.2 


28.1 


June . 


93.3 


71.2 


22.1 


23.7 


July . 


102.4 


68.9 


33.5 


32.7 


August 


103.2 


67.7 


35.5 


34.4 


September . 


93.2 


71.1 


22.1 


23.7 


October 


81.9 


67.3 


14.6 


17.8 


November . 


79.6 


61.5 


18.1 


22.7 


December . 


83.0 


64.9 


18.1 


21.8 


Averages . 


91.. 5 


68.0 


23.5 


25.6 



It will be seen from the above that the daily average con- 
sumption for the past year has been 68.0 gallons per inhabit- 
ant, a reduction of 23.5 gallons, or 25.6 % from that of the 
previous year. Sixty-three Deacon meters were purchased 
early in the year, and as soon as the weather would permit 
were placed in service. The total number of meters in use 
is now sixty-nine ; these have been in constant operation 
during the past season, and the results obtained by their use 
have been very satisfactory. 

A number of leaks have been discovered and repaired in 
the street mains and services, and the meters have shown the 
districts where the services of the house-to-house inspectors 
could be used to the best advantage. The system will be 
more effective when sidewalk stopcocks shall have been 
placed on the service pipes, and as 5,000 of these have been 
ordered, the work of setting them will be begun early in the 
spring. 



Mystic- Valley Sewer. 

The treatment of the sewage from the tanneries in the 
Mystic valley has been continued under the same system as 
for the two previous years. 

In consequence of the increase in the quantity of sewage, 
the works have been extended. Two additional settling 
tanks of larger size and improved design have been built, and 
a new ditch about 1,400 feet in length excavated between 
the tanks and the discharge outlet. Experiments have been 
made during the year with a large Farquhar low-pressure 



34 City Document No. 54. 

filter to dotcnniiio the ]iracticability of filtering the sewage ; 
but the expcriiiKMits have not thus tar been successful. 

Experiments have also been made to determine the prac- 
ticability of utilizing the sewage for agricultural purposes. 
The results obtained seem to show that the material obtained 
from the settling tanks has some value for this purpose, and 
all of the land available at the pumping-station has been 
graded in readiness for further experiments during the com- 
ing year. 

Faem-Pond Conduit. 

At the date of the last annual report the w^ork of construc- 
tion was in progress on two contracts. Mr. G. H. Cavanagh 
was building a pile and timber trestle across the pond, and 
Messrs Parker and Sylvester were filling into the pond fi-om 
the trestle on the line of the conduit. 

Mr. Cavanagh's contract was completed on A]:)ril 24, at a 
cost of $26,054.35 and Messrs. Parker and Sylvester com- 
pleted the filling on August 29, having deposited 59,010 
cubic yards of material at a cost of $27,672.70. On August 
20 a contract was made with G. M. Cushing of New York 
for building a conduit 3,760 feet in length between the upper 
and lower gate-houses. 

Work to the amount of about $10,000 has been done 
under this contract, and the contract will be completed during 
the comino; season. 

Basin No. 4. 

The work upon this reservoir has so far advanced that the 
reservoir will be partially filled during the coming spring. 

The work remaining to com{)lete the reservoir consists of 
between 10,000 and 12,000 cubic yards of material in the 
embankment of the dam, the superstructure of the gate- 
chamber, the wash-wall on the inner slope of the dam, soiling, 
etc. 

The work will l>e finished during the present year. 

Miscellaneous . 

The bridging of the Boston and Albany Railroad, at Brook- 
line avenue, and the consequent raising of the grade of the 
street between Beacon street and Burlington avenue, necessi- 
tated the raising of a 40-inch supj)ly main. The pipe was 
raised and supported by a pile trestle 990 feet in length. 
The trestle has also been used by the railroad comi)any in 



Report of City Engineer. 35 

fillinjr the street. The water is to be carried over the bridije 
in two wrought-iron pipes 28 inches in diameter. The 48- 
inch main in Beacon street will he raised in a simiUir manner 
during the coming season. 

The distributing mains of the Sudbury and Cochituate 
works have been extended about 11.3 miles and 4,300 feet or 
4 and 6-inch pipes have been replaced by pipes of larger 
diameter. 

On the Mystic works 4,600 feet of the wrought-iron and 
cement pipe have been replaced with cast-iron mains. 

C— IMPROVED SEWERAGE. 

MAIN DRAINAGE W^ORKS. 

By January 1, 1884, the greater portion of the Main 
Drainage works was in such a state of completion as to 
permit its use for disposing of the sewage from a large part 
of the city. Since that date the then unfinished portions of 
the intercepting sewers have been built, and the system as 
contemplated ma}^ be said to be practically completed. 

A little work in connection with alteration of some old 
sewers and house-drains to adapt them to connect with the 
intercepting system is yet under way. The grounds and 
roadways at the pumping-station and at Moon Island will 
require some work during the coming season, and dwellings 
for employes are yet to be erected. In the appended 
extracts from Mr. Clarke's report will be found a brief state- 
ment of the work Avhicli has been done during the past 3'ear, 
and I shall principally confine myself to an account of the 
working of the system since it has been in operation, and of the 
results derived from it so far as they have been noted. 

The new system was designed and built in order to do 
away with two evils, inherent in the old system. 

These were : 

First. The daily damming up by the tide of the common 
sewers, so that for much of the time there was no current in 
them and the air was compressed and driven to find an outlet 
by the house-drains and other openings. 

Second. The discharge of the sewage, to cause nuisances, 
at many points on the shores of the city in the immediate 
vicinity of population. 

The first of these evils has been corrected by the new 
system. The old sewers now have a continual flow indepen- 
dent of the stage of tide, as is known by frequent observations, 
and also from the testimony of drain-layers, who formerly 
were only able to enter house pipes into the sewers when 



36 City Document Xo. 54. 

the latter were empty at low-water, but now can make such 
connections at any time. 

The new S3'steni has also remedied the second evil. From 
the moment that any of the city sewers were connected with 
an intercepting-sewer, its sewage, which had before discharged 
at the old outlet, was diverted, and has since been conveyed 
to Moon Island and emptied into the outer harbor at that 
point. 

During the ])ast year, therefore, nearly all of the sewage 
produced in the city south of Charles River has been dis- 
charged at Moon Island. During heavy rains or freshets, 
"when more water was flowing in, the old sewers than could 
be pumped, the sur|)lus has escaped through tide-gates at 
the old outlets. This occasional and temporary discharge 
of dilute sewage at the old outlets has not, apparently, 
caused any nuisance. Examinations and inquiries concerning 
the condition of the shores and docks at the sewer outlets 
have shown that in places where the water used to be contin- 
ually foul it has become pure, bad odors have ceased, and 
iish have returned to points where none had been seen for 
years. It has been generally remarked that the bad smells 
which for several years have, at times, been prevalent over 
the South End and Back Bay districts were not noticed last 
summer. 

It has never been claimed for the new system that it would 
dispose of all rain-watei- during storms, or prevent flooding 
of cellars which are below tide-level. An attempt was made, 
however, to partially relieve the flooding of cellars by ad- 
mitting more rain-water from sewers draining low districts, 
than from those draining areas where the cellars and base- 
ments are above hiixh-water. The most trouble from flooding 
has heretofore been experienced in the districts drained by 
the Dover-street, Dedham-street, and Church-street sewers ; 
accordingly these sewers were connected with the intercept- 
ing sewers by large openings which are never closed. 

This plan has met with marked success. No cases of flood- 
ing durino; rain-storms or at hiji^h tide in those districts have 
been reported since the sewers Avere connected, and many 
cellars which used often to be filled several feet dee[) with 
water are known to have been perfectly dr}'^ during the past 
year. 

The main and intercepting sewers have been inspected on 
foot, or by floating through them in boats, and have been 
found to be in good condition. The atmosphere in them is 
reasonaI)ly pure and their sides are generally clean. Their 
inclinations are very Hat, there being but from two to three 
feet fall in a mile, but the sewage flows with sufficient ve- 



Eeport of City Engineer. 37 

locity to prevent deposits aeciimuhiting. Most of the city 
sewers, when intercepted, were found to contain deposits of 
sewaiio sludge varyino- from a few inches to several feet deep. 
This sludge has all gone into the intercepting sewers and has 
been conveyed to the puini)ing-station. 

The tilth-hoist, at the lower end of the main sewer, has 
been in continual operation during the past year. At this 
place, all matters of an inch diameter and upwards, contained 
by the sewage, are screened out and removed. The average 
daily yield of the cages is about 16 cubic feet. During rain- 
storms this amount is sometimes increased tenfold on 
account of the cleaning out of deposits which have lodged in 
the city sewers. For a time these matters were buried, but, 
as the quantity proved to be too great to make this a satis- 
factory disposition of them, a small press was procured by 
which the surplus water is pressed out of them, after which 
they are burned under the boilers in the pumping-station 
boiler-room. This is a safe and expeditious way of getting 
rid of them and does not appear to injuriously aliect the 
fires. 

The permanent buildings at the pumping-station have been 
completed during the year, and the temporary wooden struct- 
ures, which protected the engines, have been removed. Some 
floors and inside finish are yet to be put in place. The two 
high-duty Leavitt pumping-engines and the two storm-duty 
^^^)rthington pumping-engines are in condition for efficient 
service, and all of them have been run more or less during 
the year. An}^ one of them is able to pump the ordinary flow 
of sewage, and they have a combined capacity of about 
125,000,000 gallons a day, raised 35 feet high. Under or- 
dinary circumstances one of the Leavitt engines is kept run- 
ning, and easily controls the flow of sewage. Should it rain, 
and additional pumping capacity be needed, the second 
Leavitt engine is, by preference, started ; if still more capac- 
ity is needed one or both of the Worthington engines are 
started. When the amount of water arriving by the sewer 
decreases the Worthington engines are first stopped. No 
defect has been noticed in the i)erformance of any of the 
engines or pumps. The average daily amount of sew;ige 
pumped in dry weather has been about 23,500,000 gallons. 

The amount of sewage pumped is, probably, over 15 per 
cent, in excess of that due to the city water supply of the dis- 
tricts whose sewage is intercepted. The excess comes from 
several sources. Amonsf these are : the Jamaica Pond Aque- 
duct water ; private water supplies of dwellings, breweries, 
and other manufacturing establishments ; soil water, which 
leaks into sewers and house-drains : salt-water used in sugar 



38 City Document No. 54. 

refineries and all other places, and tide-water which leaks 
into some of the old sewers. A large quantity of this tide- 
water comes from the Central-street sewer and its branches, 
'i'hcse sewers are in had condition, and should be rebuilt, as, 
also, should the C^anal-strcet sewer and some of its branches, 
which arc too low to be properly intercepted. The new tide- 
gates, put at the outlets of the old sewers, work in a satis- 
factory manner, and the amount of water which leaks through 
them is insignificant. The gates, however, require constant 
care to keep them in good condition. 

The boiler-house, boilers, feed and other pumps, coal-house, 
bins, coal-room, wharf and other appurtenances of the pump- 
ing-station seem to satisfactorily fulfil the purposes for which 
they were designed, so far as can be determined by their use 
for the past year. The various offices, sheds, store and 
dwelling-houses at the pumping-station stand principally upon 
leased land adjoining the city lot. These buildings must soon 
be removed, and it will be necessary to build some permanent 
dwellings for the employes. It is expected that a lot of 
land near to the pumping-station can he acquired for this 
purpose. 

The deposit-sewers, which convey to the west shaft of the 
tunnel under Dorchester l)ay tho sewage received from the 
force mains of the pumps, accom])lish very fully the pur- 
pose for which they were built. They are over 1,200 feet 
long, and were purposely made very large in order that the 
flow through them should be very sluggish and matters in 
suspension should be deposited before reaching the tunnel. 
All of the sludge which was emptied from the city sewers 
into the intercepters passed through the pumps and settled 
to the bottom of these deposit sewers. Fully 2,000 cubic 
yards of sludge were thus intercepted, and nothing l)ut the 
lightest kind of flocculent inud remained in suspension long 
enough to reach the tunnel. In the last annual report it was 
stated that the best means of disposing of the sludge accumu- 
lated in the deposit-sewers had not yet been ascertained. 
Since then a method has been devised and put in operation 
by which the sludge is made to flow through pi})es from the 
deposit sewers into a large tank built on a pile foundation 
beside the channel to the pumping-station. Scows are laid 
alongside the tank, and upon opening the gates in its side the 
sludge fiows into the scows and is carried outside of the bar- 
ber and dumped. 

As the tuimel is 140 feet under Dorchester bay, and is 
always full, it cannot be examined, but it is known to be 
unobstructed. This is ascertained by measurements of the 
loss of head required to pass known quanities of sewage 



Report of City Engineer. 39 

through it in certain times. For the first few months of 1884, 
before many of the city sewers were intercepted, a compara- 
tively small amount of sewage was pumped, especially at 
night. At such times the velocity of flow through the tunnel 
was very slight, often less than half a foot a second. At 
present the ordinary velocity of flow is generally less than 
one foot a second. As the sewage takes from two to four 
hours to pass through the tumiel, at these slow velocities, 
slight deposits doubtless occur there. 

The tunnel was not regularly flushed until after it had 
been in use for eight months. At that time it was estimated 
that about two feet deep of soft sludge had been deposited 
in it. It Avas then flushed by pumping with the four pumps 
simultaneously by which means a velocity of 3^ teet a second 
was maintained in it for some hours. A quantity of sludge 
was thus flushed out and washed down to the reservoir. 
Similar flushing is now resorted to about once in two weeks, 
tide-water being supplied to the pumps when the quantity of 
sewage is insuflicient. 

Although it is probable that by such methods the tunnel 
can be kept reasonably clean, it does not seem to me to be 
safe to leave it with no possible means of access. As has 
been stated in former reports a large mining-pump capable 
of emptying the tunnel in 48 hours has been purchased and 
is to be set up at the east shaft, ready for use in any emer- 
gency. As the tunnel can first be filled with clean salt- 
water, this water can be pumped into Dorchester bay with- 
out causing any ofi'ence. Should any emergency arise which 
makes it advisable to empty the tunnel, during that operation, 
the sewage of the city must be permitted to empty at the old 
sewers outlets, unless the special statute, which prohibits its 
being even temporarily pumped into the sea at Old Harbor 
Point, can be repealed. 

The outfall-sewer, from Squantum to Moon Island, is in 
good condition. That portion of it which consists of a tight 
wooden flume, supported on piling outside of the embank- 
ment, shows no signs of weakness, but is considered a tempo- 
rary expedient and, after some years, when the emliankment 
shall be safe from any further settlement, should be replaced 
by a masonry sewer. 

The reservoir has proved to be of sufficient size for present 
needs. It will hold 25,000,000 gallons and, as the sewage is 
only stored for about 10 houi-s, between the end of one dis- 
charge and the beginning of another, the total dail>' storage 
capacity, not including that of the sewers, is about 60,000,000 
gallons. Under ordinary circumstances the basins seldom 
fill to more than one-half their depth. No difficulty has been 



40 City Document No. 54. 

experienced in keeping the basins reasonably clean. A thin 
deposit of light mud accumulates on the bottom, which is 
easily swept into the discharge-sewers. Incrustations, or 
organic matter, which form on the sides are washed off l)y 
jets of salt-water from hydrants provided for the purpose. 
The machinery for opening and closing the gates works well, 
and the buildings seem to answer the purpose for which they 
were designed. It will be desirable to erect on the island 
some dwellings for the workmen emi)loyed there. 

The eft'ect of discharging the whole sewage of the city at 
this one })oint has been watched with great interest. Beside 
other waste products, each day's supply of sewage contains 
over 200 tons of fecal matter. The outlet sewers extend 
about 500 feet into the sea and between the embankment 
. covering them and the island is a cove of still water. A foot 
or more of sludge has been deposited in this cove by eddies. 
To the south of the outlet, for a distance of about 1,000 
feet, an inch deep of mud is a])t to accumulate on the beach 
between low and half-tide levels. This latter deposit is, from 
time to time, washed away by the waves. No trace of the 
sewage has been noticed on other jxarls < f Moon Island, nor 
on any other of the shores or islands of the harbor. 

By the expenditure of $25,000, a bulkhead can be built 
which will prevent the return of the sewage to the points 
now affected by it. It is also possible that sufficient relief 
may be afforded l)y some gates which have just been 
placed at the outlet-sewer's mouths. Although the reservoirs 
have been emptied at about the beginning of ebb-tibe, the 
low discharge and outlot-sewers themselves were only 
emptied slowly as the tide fell. The action of the gates, 
before referred to, will be to retain the last million gallons 
of sewage, containing the scourings of the reservoir, until 
the succeeding time of discharge, during the early eb])-tide. 
Some odor of sewage is noticed about the outlet during 
discharge. Probably this cannot be avoided. The color of 
the sewage can be plainly seen as it joins the current on its 
way out of the harbor. After advancing about a mile, and 
before reaching Ilainsford Island, it becomes so diluted that 
its presence can no longer be detected, although it is known 
that it travels souje three miles farther. 

Complaints that the smell of the sewage has been perceived 
by residents of Squantum Head have been investigated. On 
three days only, when the wind was blowing in that direction, 
was the odor said to have been noticed. It' it was noticed, 
it probably • was due to the deposits in the cove before 
referred to, and it is hoped that all cause for complaint can 
be removed. 



EEroRT OF City Engineer. 41 

The expenditures for 1884 amounted to $745,389.77, 
which, with previous payments, makes a total expenditure of 
$5,168,45().01 and leaves a balance from the appropi-iation 
of $84,543.1)9. 

EXTRACTS FROM MR. CLARKE'S REPORT. 

The followinofis the customary annual statement, showino^, hi tabular 
form (pj). 42-43). the diflerent sections of sewers, with the size and 
extent of each, the length built prior to and during the past j'ear, 
whether done by contract or otherwise, and the builder's name. 

The table is final, in so far as sewer construction contemplated when 
the work was first designed, and covered by the appropriation made for 
it, is concerned. The table shows that 92.50.5 lineal feet of sewers 
have been built during the past year, and that to complete the whole 
main drainage system has required the building of a total length of 
about 17. .5 miles of sewers. Of these about 9 miles have been built by 
contract and about 8.5 miles by d.ay's labor under superintendents 
selected by the City Engineer. Some account, in detail, of the work 
done during the past season is herewith submitted. 

Section 5. West Side. 

This sewer, which forms a part of the West Side intercepter, extends 
from Charles street to Causeway- street, passing through Leverett, 
Brighton, and Lowell streets, a distance of 1,773 lineal feet. The sewer 
is oval, 4 feet 6 inches high and 2 feet 8 inches wide, between 
Causeway and Minot streets, and 3 feet wide between Minot and 
Charles streets. The arch is of brick masonry, 8 inches thick, and 
the bottom consists of a 4-inch wooden cradle lined with 4 inches 
of brick work. The city sewer in Lowell street, which was a large flat- 
bottomed Avooden scow, was too low to be intercepted. It was accord- 
ingly abandoned, and all branch sewers and house drains were con- 
nected directly with the intercepting-sewer. To facilitate making these 
connections the intercepting-sewer was located exactly on the line of 
the old sewer. The top planks of the latter were removed, but its side 
timbers were retained, and the new sewer was built between them. 
The flow of sewage was maintained duiMng construction, through 
channels above the floor of the old sewer but below the bottom of the 
new one, which was supported on timber saddles. Six-inch slants 
were built into the new sewer to facilitate any future new house drain 
connections; they are 25 feet apart on each side of the sewer. 

Two new tide-gate chambers, each with a double pair of tide-gates 
were built on this section. One of them was on the Leverett and the 
other on the Lowell street sewer. Work on this section began Feb- 
ruary 12, and continued to its completion on June 15. The total cost o£ 
the sewer was $32,744.78. 



42 



City Document No. 54. 

TABrii.VR STATEnEXT OF PROGRESS- 



Section. 



1. 


Main . • 


2. 


Main 


3. 


Main 


4. 


Main 


ih 


Main 


5. 


Main 


6. 


Main 


1. 


West Side .... 


2. 


West Side . . . . 


3. 


West Side . . . . 


4. 


West Side .... 




Brimmer Street . . 


5. 


West Side . . . . 


6. 


West Side .... 


1. 


East Side 


2. 


East Side 


3. 


East Side 


4. 


East Side 


1. 


Stony Broolt . . . 


2. 


Stony Brools . . . 


1. 


South Boston . . . 


2. 


South Boston . . . 


3. 


South Boston . . . 


4. 


South Boston . . . 


5. 


South Boston . . . 




Roxbury Canal . . 




E. Chester Park . 




Dover Street . . . 


Sundry City Sewers re- 
built 



Pumping-Station . 

1. Outfall-Sewer . . . 

2. Outfall-Sewer . . . 

3. Outfall Sewer . . . 
Outlet-Sewer . . . 



Locality. 



In Camden St., from Huntington ave. to Treraont St 

In Camden st., from Tremont st. to Washington st 

In Washington st. and E. Chester park, from Camden st. to Albany st. 

In E. Chester park extension, from Albany st. to Magazine st. . . . 

In E. Chester park extension, from Magazine st. to Clapp st. ... 

In Clapp and Mt. Vernon sts., from E. Chester park to O.C. R.R. . 

In Mt. Vernon st. extension, from O.C. R.R. to Old Harbor Point . 

In Camden, Falmouth, Dalton, and Hereford sts., from Huntington 
ave. to Beacon st 

In Beacon St., from Hereford st. to Charles st 

In Charles St., from Beacon st. to Cambridge st 

In Charles St., from Cambridge St. to Leverett st 

In Charles, Pinckney, and Brimmer sts., from Beacon st. to Revere st. 

In Brighton, Leverett, and Lowell sts., from Charles st. to Cause- 
way sts 

In Causeway St., from Lowell st. to Prince st 

In Albany st., from E. Chester park to Dover st 

In Albany st., Lehigh St., and O. C. R.R. freight-yards to Federal st. 

In Federal st., from O. C. R.R. freight-yard to Summer st 

In Atlantic ave., from Summer st. to Central st 

In Tremont and Cabots sts., from Camden st. to Ruggles st 

In Cabot, Hampshire, Elmwood, Ruggles, and Tremont sts., about 
Stony Brook 



In Ninth St., from H st. to N st 

In Lowland, Burnham, and Ninth sts., from Hyde st. to H st. . . . 

In Von Hillern St., Locust st., Washington ave., and Hyde st., from 
Mt. Vernon st. to Dorchester ave 



In Dorchester ave., from Hyde st. to B st 

In Dorchester ave. and Foundry St., from B street to First st. . . . 

In Albany st. and E. Chester park, from Northampton st. to Roxbury 
Canal 



In E. Chester park, from Albany st. to Ilarrison ave. 
In Dover St., from Albany st. to Harrison ave 



Connecting Main Sower and Filth-Hoist, and Engine- Wells and Salt- 
Water Conduit \ 



From Pumping-Station, to Dorchester Bay Tunnel 
Tunnel under Dorchester Bay 



Brick Sewers, 1,038 ft. 
Squantum Neck to Moon Island . . . . ] Wooden Flume, 4,19(5 ft. 

Discharge Sewers, 1,003 ft. 



From Reservoir to Outlet 



Totals , 



Report of City Engineer. 

I>IPROVEI> SE^^'SRAGE: COIVSTRUCTIOIV. 



43 



Size in feet and inches. 



7 ft. 8 in 

8 ft. 5 in 

S ft. 5 in. X 5 ft. 8 in. . 
9ft 



Length 
in feet. 



9 ft. 



9 ft. . . . 

10 ft. 6 in. 



10 ft. 6 in. 



4 ft. 9 in. X 5 ft. 6 in. , 

Uft. 9in. X5ft. 6in. ) 
M ft- X 4 ft. 6 in. . . i 

4 ft. X 4 ft. 6 in 

3 ft. X 4 ft. 6 iu 



I 2 ft. X 3 ft 

( 3 ft. X 4 ft. 6 in. . . 

( 2 ft. 8 in. X 4 ft. 6 in. 
M ft- X 4 ft. 6 in. . . 

2 ft. 8 in. X -5 ft. . . . 



5 ft. 8 in. 



S 5 ft. X 4 ft } 

I 5 ft- X 3 ft ( 

2 ft. 8 in. X 4 ft. 6 in. . 

2 ft. 8 in. X 4 ft. 6 in. . 



4 ft. 8 in 

f4ft. X 4 ft. 6 in. . . ] 
r> It. X 4 ft. 6 in. ■ ' 
2 ft. X 3 ft. . . 
1.5 in. pipe . . . 

3 ft. 2 in 



•;! 



3 ft. X 4 ft. 6 in. . . . 

(6ft 

]4 ft. 9 in. X-5ft. 6 in. 
( 4 ft. 6 in. X 3 ft. . . 

4 ft. 9 in. X 5 ft. 6 in. 
3 ft. X 5 ft 



I 4 ft. 9 in. 

I 6 ft. . . 



4 ft. 6 in. . 
2 ft. X 3 ft. 



' 10 ft. 6 in. 
9ft.. . . 
5 ft. 6 in. 



8 ft. X 16 ft. 
7 ft. 6 in. . 



11 ft. X 12 ft 

6 fti X 6 ft 

8 ft. 6 in. X 8 ft. and 
8 It. 6 in. X 12 ft. 

10 ft. 10 in. X 12 ft. . 



1675.5 

1390.5 

18.56.5 

2505. 

1894.5 

3381. 

4088. 

4282. 
5043. 
1832. 
2186. 
1456.5 

1775. 
1796. 
4524. 

2331.5 
2176. 
2983. 
2135. 

4229. 

2717. 
3374.5 



3352. 
2810. 



7.34. 

588. 

2245. 

640. 

2518. 
7160. 



92351.5 



Built prior 
to Jan. 1, 

1884. 



1675.5 

1390.5 

1856.5 

2505. 

1894.5 

3381. 

4088. 

4282. 
6013. 
1832. 
1400. 
1456.5 



4524. 

2331.5 
2176. 
2983. 
2135. 

4229. 

2717. 
200. 



3.352. 
2810. 

620. 

734. 



2518. 
7160. 



7137. 



Built Jan. 
1, 1885. 



1675.5 

1390.5 

1856.5 

2505. 

1894.5 

3381. 

4088. 

4282. 
5043. 
1832. 
2186. 
1456.5 

1775. 
1796. 
4524. 

2331.5 
2176. 
2983. 
2135. 

4229. 

2717. 
3374.5 

3739. 

3352. 
2810. 

620. 

734. 

588. 

2245. 

640. 

2518. 
7160. 

7137. 

1177. 

92351.5 



Built by 



P. J. Condon. 

P. J. Condon. 

John Cavanagh, 

Charles Linehaa and City. 

City. 

Hoblitzell, Condon, and 
Hobitzell and City. 

Clinton Beckwith and J. V. 
Quackeubush. 

City. 

City. 

Thomas MeCann. 

City. 

City. 

City. 

City. 

A. H. Delameter & Co. and 
R. A. Malone. 

City. 
City. 
City. 
Myles Tierney. ■ 

City. 



Stephen Connolly & Son 

and City. 
City. 

Charles Linehan. 



Hoblitzell, Condon, and 

Hoblitzell and City. 
City. 

City. 

City. 

City. 

City. 

City. 

City. 

R. A. Malone. 



\V. C. Poland & Son and 
C. W. Parker & Co. 

Boynton Bros. 



44 City Document No. 54. 



Section 6. West side. 

This pection forms the upper portion of the west-side intercepting- 
sewer, and extends in Causeway street from Lowell street to Prince 
street, a distance of 1,79() lineal feet. Causeway street is. one of the 
most crowded thoroughfares of the city. It contains two linos of track 
for horse-railroad cars, and one for freight cars. On its north-westerly 
side are the depots of three railroads with no outlet for their passengers 
and freight except into this street. The tracks of auother railroad cross 
the street. The territory traversed by the street is all made land, con- 
sisting of loose mateiials filled U])on a mud bottom. 

It was with considerable apprehension of trouble that work was 
begun on this section in the middle of last June. The most difficult 
feature of the work was the necessity of so conducting it that travel 
should not be seriously impeded. Owing to the skill and care of the 
Superintendent, Mr. Carson, and his subordinates, and to the appliances 
used for handling the earth and other materials, the whole sewer was 
built within four months, without closing any portion of the street to 
travel, and with ihe minimum of inconvenience to the public. At street 
crossings and entrances to railroad yards, work was cai'ried on below 
timber platforms, or bridges, which replaced the street surface. The 
manner in which the work was conducted reflected great credit upon 
those in charge of it, and elicited encomiums from the railroad officials 
and others most nearly aliected by it. No complaints of injury to 
private interest were received, and unavoidable inconvenience was 
accepted with great good will. In crossing the Boston and Maine Rail- 
road tracks the excavating machine, with its engine, was so elevated 
as to leave head rooiri for the passage of trains. 

The sewer is oval, and was designed to be 4.f> feet high and 3 feet 
wide. As a precaution it was built 6 inches higher so that, should 
slight unequal settlements occur, the bottom may be brought to its true 
grade without lessening the desired size of sewer. 

The sewer is built of brick, resting on a timber cradle. Its inclina- 
tion is I foot in 2,0()n, and at its upper extremity its bottom is about 4 
feet above low-water, which is the highest elevation of any portion of 
the intercepting-sewer system. 

Many of the city sewers in Causeway street were too low to be inter- 
cepted. They were, accordingly, abandoned, and their house-drains 
were connected immediately to the intercepting-sewer. The sewers in 
cross streets were, with two exceptions, high enough to be intercepted. 
These exceptions were the Friend-street and the Canal-street sewers. 
The former was rebuilt at a higher elevation from Causeway street to 
Traverse street. Although but 510 feet long, it consisted of a rectan- 
gular wooden scow, 3.6 X 3 feet in dimensions, being much too large 
for the amount of sewage which it was intended to convey. It was re- 
constructed by j)lacing a 12-inch vitrified pipe within it, near its top, 
and packing around and below the pii)e with gravel. 

The Canal-street sewer is a lai'ge re(;tangnlar wooden scow 4 X 4 feet 
in diameter. Its bottom is at about the elevation of mean low-water, 
and it is seldom free from consideraliie deposits of sludge. To have 
designed the new sewer system, with a view to intercepting this sewer, 
would iiavo necessitated lowering the main and int(!rcei)ting sewers, 
throughout their whoU; extent, al)out four feet, and would also have 
required that the whole body of sewage should be lifted four teet higher. 
As the additional expense so incurred, would have beiMi many times 
that of rebuilding the city sewer, it was intended to leave it for the 
present, expecting that it would some day be rebuilt at a higher eleva- 
tion and could then be intercej)ted. 

So much complaint, however, was received concerning the nuisance 
created by this sewer, at its outlet, that it was thought best, as a pallia- 











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Report of City Engineer. 45 

tive measure, to cut ofFtlie old outlet, and to connect the sewer, near its 
top, with the intereeptinsj-sewer. This metliod, wiiile it keeps out tide- 
water and permits a constant flow of sewage, does not prevent the 
aocunmhition of deposits, and renders its occasional removal more 
dillieiilt. There seems to be no remedy for this state of affairs except to 
rebuikl the sewer and some of its branches. 



Section 2. South Boston. 

This section extends, in Lowland street and Ninth street, from the Old 
Colony R.R. at Hyde street to H street, a distance of 3,374.5 lineal feet. 
Worlc began on it in November, 1883, and continued throuohout the 
winter and to completion in August, 1884. 

Between Old Harbor street, and G street, for a distance of about 800 
feet the sewer crossed a beach which was several feet below the eleva- 
tion of high tide. No coffer-dam or other protection was used in this 
place, but construction was carried on only when the tide was down. 
When the sea rose it overflowed and filled tlie trench. When the tide 
went down the water in the trench was let oft' to the jjumps at the pump- 
ing-station, tiirough the connecting intercepting sewer, and work was 
again resumed. The sewer was built by the city imder Mr. H. A. 
Carson as Superintendent. It is of brick o X 4.5 feet in diameter. Its 
total cost was $44,707.37. 

Miscellaneous Construction. 

In addition to the foregoing certain minor items of sewer construction 
have been accomplished during the past year. The Nashua-street 
sewer, formerly discharging at Alinot street, lias been diverted and 
turned into the west side mtercepter at Lowell street, b}' building 281 
feet of sewer in Minot street. The Fruit-street sewer, which was too 
low to be intercepted, was rebuilt and raised for a distance of 48'J feet, 
east of Charles street; 212 feet of the Livingstone-street sewer and 197 
feet of the Endicott-street sewer were similarly rebuilt. So also was a 
sewer in Mt. Vernon street. 

Repairs have been made to several city sewers into which tide water 
was found to leak freeh'. Among the sewers so repaired were those ia 
Otis place. Chestnut street, Alantic avenue, and Albany street. 

During the past season the main and intercepting sewers have been 
ventilated at their man-holes by the method indicated on the accom- 
panying plate. New ventilating covers were provided of the iiattern 
shown. The perfoi-ations are quite large, so that they are not liable 
to become stopped up. As an additional precaution the holes taper 
considerably, being larger below than they are on top. To prevent 
I'oad detritus and miscellaneous rubbish from falling into the sewers, 
catch pails are susjJended below tlie covers to receive whatever may fall 
through the holes. The pails are of galvanized iron, well coated with 
tar; they can be lifted out, emptied and replaced, as occasion demands, 
These new covers and pails were put in the man-holes during the autumn, 
and no defect in this method of ventilation has yet been observed. The 
air in the sewers (never very oftensive) has been improved without any 
complaint of oflence from the man-holes, having been received. It is 
thought that if similar methods of ventilation should be adopted for the 
city sewers the amount of sand and dirt wliich now falls into them 
through their man-hole covers, and thus reaches the main drainage 
sewers, would be much lessened. 

The new city sewer in Uurginville, just east of the N. Y. and N. E, 
Railroad has been connected with the main sewer, and a chamber con- 
taining regulating apparatus to control the flow from the former sewer 
has been built. 



46 City Document No. 54. 



Pumping-Station. 

A consi(leral)lc amount of work has been done at this point, (hiring the 
past year. The permanent stone engine-house, built untler the super- 
vision of the City Architect has been completed, with the exception of a 
little finish, and tlie temporary wooden structure which has served to pro- 
tect the engines lias been taken down and removed. The lower galleries 
in the engine-house and the floor aliout the Worthington engines were 
paved with brick by this department. The floor of the boiler-house has 
also been paved, and a track laid in front of the boilers on which to run 
the coal-cars. The pockets or bins in the coal-house have been altered 
and strengthened, and scales for weighing the coal have been provided. 
A trestle supporting a coal run has been built which extends from the 
coal-house out to and upon the wharf. This trestle is 27 feet high and 
301 feet long. It is 10 feet wide throughout most of its length and 20 
feet wide at its extremity where the coal is unloaded from the vessels. 
The trestle was painted with two coats of metallic paint. 

The roadway extending 4,000 feet across Calf Pasture marsh, from 
the Old Colony Railroad to the pumping-station, has been put in good 
condition and the spur track, which for some years has been located 
there, has been removed. The road was ballasted with twelve inches 
of road metal of material which had been excavated from the tunnel 
and was brought in scows from the middle shaft. The road was 
surfaced with gravel brought from Moon Island. 

The dwelling and store-house, formerly occupied by the contractor 
for building the tunnel, has been altered and refitted and is now used 
as a dwelling and boarding-house by the superintendent and other 
employes at the engine-house. The large store-house near the wharf 
has been shingled and put in good condition for storing the engine to 
be set up at the east tunnel shaft. 

The grounds and banks about the pumping-station have been graded 
and loamed. For this purpose 5,779 cubic yards of loam, excavated and 
stored while building the reservoir, were brought from Moon Island 
and 3,15iicubic yards were purchased from the Old Colony Railroad and 
delivered in cars by them. For surfacing roadways and walks about 
the pumping-station, 62o cubic yards of gravel were brought from Moon 
Island. 

Section 1, Outfall. 

This section, commonly called Old Harbor Pier, has been finished 
during the past season. 'The last man-holes on the deposit sewers have 
built, and the banks covering the sewers have been graded, loamed and 
seeded. The ballasted slope on the south side ot the embankment, 
which was in rough condition, has been neatly finished. An ornamental 
brick shaft-house, designed by the City Architect for the west shaft, has 
been built in place. 

The deposit-sewers, have verj' thoroughly accomplished their function 
of arresting suspended matters and preventing them from reaching the 
tunnel. Manj' of the city sewers contained large deposits of sludge 
which were emptied into the intercepting-sewers as soon as connection 
was made lietween them. This sludge was carried by tlie intercepting 
and main sewers to the pumping-station, where it jiassed through the 
pumps and force mains and setlleil to the bottom of the deposit-sewers. 
Comparatively heavy matters, such as gravel and sand, settleil almost 
at once at the west end of the sewers; road detritns was cariied a little 
farther, and only a very light semi-fluid precipitate was found at the 
easterly or farther end of the sewers. 

The easiest and least expensive way of cleaning out this deposit was 
long considered. Finally the following plan was adopted. A large 



Eeport of City Engineer. 47 

wooden tank was built near the end of the pier, just outside of its south 
slope, about 120 feet from the sewers. It is supported on piles, its floor 
being 3 feet above high-water and 1 foot below tlie bottom of the sewers. 
One end of the tank is connected with the deposit-sewers by two 6-inch 
iron pipes ; the other end is connected with the chamber about the west 
tunnel shaft bj- a 1-J-inch pipe. By means of stop-planks tlie surfixce of 
water is made to stand a foot or two higher in the deposit sewers than it 
does in the shalt-chamber. Circulation is thus established from the de- 
posit-sewers through the G-inch pipes into the tank, and thence through 
the I'J-inch pipe to the shaft, and a part of the sewage goes to the tunnel 
through this by-pass. 

The 6-inch pipes leave the deposit sewers near their bottom, and the 
sewage which enters the pipes draws sludge along with it and again de- 
posits it in the still water of the tank. The dimensions of the tank are : 
width, 10 feet; height, 15 feet; length, 50 feet. It will hold about 160 
yards of sludge, it has, on its seaward side, three gates with cast-iron 
nozzles, 12 inches in diameter, projecting from them. When the tank is 
full of sludge a scow is laid alongside it and the nozzles are connected 
with the interior of the scow by canvas tubes. The gates are then 
opened antl the sludge Hows from the tank into the scow. 

In order to draw down to the 6-inch pipes the sludge which has been 
deposited at the upper ends of the sewers scrapers are used. These 
consist of floating rafts, made of 12-inch hollow iron tubes, to the bot- 
toms of which are hung wooden aprons a little less in width than the 
sewers. The aprons are weighted so that their lower edges, which are 
provided with broad iron teeth, sink somewhat into the sludge. The 
current in the sewers carries the whole apparatus down stream and the 
sludge is scraped and flushed before it. 

Section 2, Outfall. 

On this section, commonly called Dorchester Bay Tunnel, work 
during the past year was limited to some removal of machinery, 
structures and rubbish, from about the shaft. Rock formerly excavated 
from the tunnel and deposited about the middle shaft has been dug out 
or dredged and utilized as ballast on other portions of the work. The 
pump to be set up at the East shaft has been stored pending some 
arrangements in regard to the site it is to occup}^ 

As the tunnel has been full of sewage during the whole year it could 
not be entered for examination. To ascertain whether permanent 
deposits of sediment were accumulating in it some tests have been 
made. These tests were based upon the following laws : — 

The flow through the tunnel is produced by the difference in water 
level at its two ends ; 

The amount of this difference is a measure of the resistance which the 
tunnel oflers to the flow of sewage ; 

[f the tunnel is paitly obstructed by deposits, the resistance, and also 
the diflerence in water level at its two ends, will be greater than if it is 
clean. 

The tests showed that some deposits accumulated in the tunnel during 
dry weather, when the volume of sewage pumped is slight and the flow 
through the tunnel is correspondingly sluggish. When, however, the 
velocity of flow is greatly increased, by running four pumps at the same 
time, these deposits are removed. The tests are not sutiicientl}" exact 
to prove that the tunnel is absolutely clean after flushing, but they do 
show that the residuum left in it, if any, is insignificant in amount. 



48 City Document No. 54. 



Section 3, Outfall, and Moon Island Resekvoir. 

During the past season the contractors for this section, Messrs. C. W. 
Pariier «& Co. iiave finished about all oftlie work recjuired under their 
contract. This work has included conii)leting the laying of cut-stone 
coping on tlie reservoir, grading emijankments and roadways, loaruing 
and seeding down slopes antl otlier miscellaneous items. 

In addition to wiiat was done by tiie contractors a small force has 
been employeii by the city for doing sundry items of work not covered 
by the contract. The most imi)ortant of these are as follows : — 

Tiie wooden Hume between ISquantuni and Moon Island has received 
a lecond coat of paint and has been tiglitcned at all places where it 
leaked. All pile braces broken by the ice, last winter, have been re- 
placed and the tlume is now in very good condition. 

A rotary force-pump was set up in the engine-Iiouse, early in the year, 
and was used for washing down the reservoir. Its suction-pipe extended 
to a well sunk in the beach near low- water mark, from which salt-water 
can be drawn at all stages of the tide. About 2,000 feet of -l and 6 inch 
force-pipe have been laid to and within the reservoir basins, and 2o hy- 
drants have been connected at convenient points. 

This rotary pump has not proveil satisfactory, and has been returned 
to the parties who furnished it, they agreeing to retund the money paid 
for it; a contract for a new pump has been made with the Deane Pump 
Co. For procuring a fresh-water supply, a ditch has been formed and 
sodded, surrounding the elevated portion of the island, to catch the rain- 
water flowing from it, and conduct it into the large cistern built last 
year. A smaller cistern has been built on the top of the hill, and con- 
nected with the engine-house b\' a 2-inch pipe. 

It was found that, after each semi-daily discharge from the reservoir, 
about 4 feet in depth of sewage was held back by the title in the low 
discharge and outlet sewers. This sewage escaped slowly as the tide 
fell. The current being sluggish at low water, some of the sewage 
found its way to the beaches and tlats in the immediate vicinity of the 
outlet, and suspended matter was deposited there. To obviate this evil 
two large wooden gates, each 9 X 12 feet, have lately been put in near 
the outlet, and hereafter, the discharge from the sewers will be stoj>ped 
at the same time as that from the reservoir. The machinery and littings 
for these gates were furnished by the Collin Valve Co., lor the sum of 
$■125. A wooden building has been erected over these gates, and a 
more permanent and substantial one would be desirable. 

The original design of the works contemplated two G X 6 feet iron pen- 
stock gates at the end of the outfall-sewer which brings the sewage to 
the reservoir. As these would not be essential to the proper working 
of the sewer until the reservoir should be extended in size, a saving has 
been made by substituting for them two small wooden gates, which will 
sullice for all present needs. 

Kecoriling-gauges have been provided which register, continuously, the 
height of sewage in the upper and lower sewers. By these records it 
can be learned whether the night workmen have been vigilant and have 
strictly complietl with their instructions in regard to opening and clos- 
ing the dilfereiit sewer-gates. 

The force employed by the city has also done much miscellaneous 
work, such as removing old buildings, clearing grounds, grading, build- 
ing roadways and fences, sodding, etc. 

liy the ordinary dry weather How of sewage the reservoir is lilled less 
than halt full between the tinu'S of discharging it, and at all times, thus 
far, it has proved to have ample siz(!. The temporary wooden Hume was 
designed with reference to the nominal capacity of the pumps, which is so 
much exceeded in practice that, when all four pumps are running, a 
combination of conditions (including negligence on the part of the 



Report of City Engineer. 49 

employe's at Moon Island), is possible which might overload the flume 
and injure it. The probability of such an accident occurring can be 
avoided by putting in at the reservoir gate-house a gauge, recording 
the height of sewage at the conection chamber at Squantum, or by 
establisiiing teleplionic connection between the pumping-station and 
Moon Ishiud. 

The discharge of the reservoir is begun from one to one and a halt 
hours after high water, the exact time depending upon the height ot 
the tide. The bulk of the sewage is discharged within about one-halt 
hour, after which the basins are washed by the rapid discharge into 
them of large volumes of sewage previously stored in the upper sewer. 
This cleansing operation is assisted by laborers who stir up with 
scrapers any sludge which may have accumulated at tlie back of the 
reservoir. The sides of the reservoir are, from time to time, washed 
down with streams from the hydrants before referred to. Not much 
smell is noticed from the reservoir itself. 

The sewage is discharged from the outlet with great velocity, which 
carries it out into favorable currents. Being lighter than the sea water, 
it remains at the surface, and after half an hour covers an area more 
than half a mile in diameter. The limits of this sewage are plainly 
marked both by its color and because the sewage contains enough 

frease to still its waves. Dilution takes place very rapidly, so that one 
our after its discharge nearly every trace of the sewage has disap- 
peared. At this time it is in the channels of the lower harbor where 
are swift currents, and it still has from three to four hours to go out 
with the tide. 



D. — PARKS. 

For the purpose of making this report a complete record of 
the work of this department, the following statement, which 
was made to the Park Commissioners, and printed in their 
report to the City Council, is given : — 

Back Bay. 

(Jravel Filling. — There have been no written contracts made for 
filling during the past year, but a final settlement has been made for the 
woi'k done under the contract of April 29, 1880. The amount paid was 
$9,208.32. The total amount of filling paid for by the Park Department 
under this contract was 10,459 squai'es. 

During the year a considerable amount of gravel has been required for 
grading around the Boylston Arch, and for forming the shores of the 
water-way. This gravel has been furnished by the Boston & Albany 
Railroad Company, as it has been needed, for $3.50 per square. The 
amount used was 7,111 squares. 

Grading and Loaming. — The transportation of loam from the water- 
works. Basin 4, at Ashland, was continued until September 22, and there 
have been delivered 77,659 cubic yards of loam and 12.093 cubic yards 
of muck. This latter has been composted with 468 cords of stable manure, 
in readiness for use on the g^rounds. 

As early in the season as it was practicable the grading of the slopes 
and areas to be covered with loam was commenced, and this material was 
delivered by the cars as close to the prepared areas as it could be. The 
rehandling of a large amount of the loam was in this way avoided, and, 
by extending the railroad tracks entirely around the park on the boun- 



50 City Document No. 54. 

dary roads, the loam not required for use during the past season has been 
piled at points convenient tor future disposal. 

The areas now gi-aded and h)anied for planting comprise 329,000 
square feet, or 24% of the surface, wiiieh is to be treated in this manner; 
of this area 114, QUO square feet have already been planted. 

In eoimeetion with this work the Joint Standing Committee on 
Streets authorized the grading and loaming of the open areas on the 
Commonwealth avenue extension. The plans for this grading have 
been furnished by Mr. Olmsted, and the work has been completed in 
accordance with them. 

The excavation of the marsh to the established grades has been con- 
tinued, and 227,000 square feet, or 27% of the whole area, has been 
excavated and resodded at the new grades. 

Excavation of Water-Way. — The dredging plant, consisting of the 
dredge, tug-boat, and five scows has been in continuous use during the 
season. 

The excavation of the water-way and the foi'mation of its gravel 
shores have been actively prosecuted, and 15,500 linear feet, or 58% of 
the whole length, are completed. The mud and other materials dredged 
from the water-ways have been used to fill the low areas to be flooded 
in times of freshets, and in other places where it could be used to ad- 
vantage. 

The area of the channel now excavated comprises 823,000 square feet, 
or 65% of the whole. 

The total amount of material handled by this plant during the year 
was 70,891 cubic yards, of which 62,621 cubic yards were dredged from 
the water-way. The cost per cubic yard was IS-^-q cents. 

BoyUton Brvige. — At the beginning of the year this structure was 
incomplete, so far as the wing and spandrel walls were concerned ; but 
the arch was finished and the centring had been sti'uck. A sufficient 
quantity of the red granite grout was obtained in the spring to build the 
unfinished portions of the walls; the stone-work and brick intrados have 
since been cleaned and pointed, and the entire structure, together with 
the connecting embankment and wing-walls, is now completed. 

Granite Curb and Fence. — The curb around the triangular area at 
the junction of Commonwealth avenue and Jersey street has been set, 
and the area surroimtled by it has been graded and covered with loam 
ready for p hinting. The railing around the planted areas on the Beacon 
Entrance has been jjainted. 

Covered Channel, Stony Brook. — This work was completed in 1883, 
with the exception of some minor details pertaining to the gate-chamber. 
These details, such as windows, floor-gratings, etc., it is not desirable to 
complete \mtil the work on Back Bay is further advanced, when the 
building can be better protected from malicious damage. 

The gatc-chamljer and conduit have b(!en in constant use since their 
(•onq)letion in providing for the flow of Stony brook and regulating the 
height of water in the basin, and fulfil perfectly the objects of their con- 
struction. 

Covered Channel, Muddy River. — A des^cription of this cliannel is 
given in the report for 1883. The wooden conduit section was completed 
in the fall of 1883, and was immediately used to convey the flow of Muddy 
river to the Charles-river basin, it was continuously in use until the 
13th of Octoljcr, 1884, when the accident happenetl which has rendered 
its use since undesirable. 



Report of City Engineer. 51 

The conduit was in perfect condition until the latter part of July, 
when the Sewer Department commenced building a sewer in Brookline 
avenue, on its northerly side, and within a few feet of the side of the 
conduit. 

The trench for this sewer was not braced in such a manner as to 
properly protect the conduit from injury, nor was the bracing left in, in 
most parts of it, and no care was taken in backfilling it: as a result of 
these operations, tlie entire length of the wooden conduit section of the 
Muddy-river channel in this avenue was injured by spreading, on 
account of the practical removal of its side support. 

Although the attention of the Sewer Department was called to this 
matter, and a change was made by it in the manner of doing the work, 
the change was not sufficient to prevent the injury, although it served to 
modify it. 

When this conduit was built it was expected that some change of form 
would take place if the grade of the avenue was ever raised, and its 
section was made such as to provide for it without serious injury ; but it 
was not anticiiDated that the opei'ations of another dejiartment would so 
injure the structure as to ^practically destroy its ability at certain points 
to resist the additional pressure of the tilling. 

The length of the injured section is about 2,345 feet, and of this about 
300 feet have been repaired, and the remainder temporarily braced, at a 
cost of $5,758. The cost of repairing the remainder will be about $15,- 
000, and an appropriation will have to be made for tliis purpose, and for 
completing the work on the gate-chamber, and for filling the right of 
way across the land of the Boston and Roxbury JNlill Corporation. 

The substructure of the gate-chamber was completed in October, and 
the connection conduit between the gate-chamber and the Back Bay 
water-way lias also been comjileted as far as practicable. 

The work of building the superstructure was conmienced on October 
24, and it is now substantially completed. This building was designed 
by City Architect Vinal, and is constructed of brick and sandstone. 

BussEY Park and Arnold Arboretum. 

The principal work done at this park during the jjast season has been 
in connection with the drive-way connecting Centre and South streets. 
After the grading and drainage were completed, and the road-bed was 
ready for ballasting, it was found that there was not stone enough on the 
ground or in the old walls to complete the work. By permission of the 
Harvard College authorities an old quarry on the Bussey farm, outside 
the limits of the jjark, but conveniently near to it, was I'eopened, and 
from it a sufficient quantity of stone has been obtained to complete the 
drive-way and adjacent walks. 

The length of the drive-way which has been completed is 2,690 feet, 
and of the walks, 4,970 feet. 

The equipment for road-building consists of a steam-engine and stone- 
crusher, two grooved rollers, a water-cai't, etc. ; and, unless more work 
is to be done the next season than has been laid out for the past, it will 
not be necessary to increase it. 

During the winter a small force is kept to work in the quariy, and 
the walls and gate-posts at the Centime and South street ends of the com- 
pleted drive-way are being built. 

West Roxbury Park. 

The topographical survey of this park has been completed and a plan 
made. The work has been very thoroughly done, and has taken more time 
than was anticipated ; but the advantage of ha\irg an accurate and reli- 
able plan will fully compensate for the time and money expended in 
makinof it. 



52 City Document No. 54. 

In addition to making the topographical suvvej' and ])lan, survej's and 
plans liavo been made of a number of estates, and permanent boundary 
posts and lots have been located and set wherever the property lines were 
not well defined by other landmarks. 

A small force of laborers has been employed in doing the grading 
for the new shelter buildings, i)reparing ground for a nursery, and cut- 
ting down fruit and other objectionable trees. 

shelter buildings have been ei'ected at different points in the park. 
One is located on Scarborough Hill, one on the high ground near the 
junction of Glen road with Blue Hill avenue, and another near the junction 
ot (jleu road with Walnut avenue. The buildings are each 4U It. X 20 
ft. and were built by day's labor from a design turnished by Mr. H. H. 
Richardson. 

A propagating-house, 36 ft. X 5-4 ft., has been built on the Thomas 
estate, in close proximity to the mansion-house, which is now occupied 
in part as the office of the Landscape Architect Advisory, Mr. F. L. 
Olmsted, and his assistants, and in part as a residence by his principal 
assistant, Mr. Fischer. An area of about one acre adjoining the propa- 
gating-house has been prepared for a nursery. 

Marine Park, South Boston. 

The building on the Smith estate, formerly occupied as a studio, has 
been removed from its position at the water edge to a location on P 
street, between Broadway and Fourth street, and has been practically re- 
built, so as to provide a waiting-room and shelter for ladies and children. 

The unsightly places caused by the removal of buildings have been 
filled and graded, so that the grounds are now safe as well as sightly. 
The low, sandy portion of the grounds between Fifth and Sixth streets, 
and extending to the beach, has been covered with clayey material ; 
and in the sprmg, by rolling, will be smooth and easy to walk and play 
upon. 

In all 1,966 j*„ squares of clayey material and gi'avel have been depos- 
ited upon this park, at a cost of $3.50 per square, cart measurement. 

A temporary fence has been erected on the proposed street line of the 
park, and the old plank benches have been distributed throughout it for 
the convenience of visitors. 

Wood-Island Park, East Boston. 

A contract was made September 20, 1884, with Mr. John F. Barry, 
to fill the drive-way from Bennington street to the Revere Beach Rail- 
road. Mr. Barry commenced work on September 24, and has tlclivered 
and deposited in place 5,819 squares of hlling between that time and 
January 1, at his contract jjrice of $3.35 per square, bank measurement. 

The drive-way is 100 feet in width, and has been tilled in such a man- 
ner as generally to retain the slopes upon the land of the city. A 
wooden sluice-w'ay was built through the drive-way, to prevent damage, 
or a nuisance which might be caused by damming the tidal estuary 
crossed by the drive-way. 

Plans are now being prepared for bridging the Revere Beach Rail- 
road, and estimates of cost can be submitted when required by your 
Board. 

CHAKLES-RlVER EMBANKMENT. 

In June an application was made to the State Board of Harbor and 
Land Conunissioners for a license for the construction of the sea-wall, 
and for doing the other work recjuired in connection with this im- 
provement. 

Some questions arose in relation to tlie compensation for land and 
for displacement of tide- writer, and also in regard to the end conuec- 



Keport of City Engineer. 53 

tions of the sea-wall, which Avere not finally settled until December. 
Althouo^h late in the season it was deemed advisable to advertise the 
work tor proposals, to be received on December 16. At that date 
seven projwsals were I'eceived, ranging from $153,635, the lowest, to 
$265,700, the highest. 

A contract was made with the lowest bidders, Messrs. Parker & 
Sylverter ; and, although it was not anticipated that they would com- 
mence the work before spring, they now propose to begin in a very 
short time, if the weather will permit. 

The work consists of building a sea-wall from the southei'ly side of 
Canal bridge to the northerly side of West Boston bridge, on tlie lines 
defined in chapter 92 of the Acts of the Legislatuie of 1884, of building 
boat-landings or ])iers at the two angles of the wall between the 
bridges, of filling the areas enclosed by this wall, and of removing to or 
below low-water mark the existing walls and filling where they project 
beyond the lines of the new wall. 

The wall is to be built of granite masonry laid in mortar. The foun- 
dation is to be generally a wooden platform ; but, where the surface of 
the ledge-rock is too high to allow a pile foundation, split stone, or 
other suitaljle masonry foundation, is to be substituted. 

Compensation for tide-water displacement is to be made by dredging 
the filling required from the Charles-river basin at places acceptable to 
the Board of Harbor and Land Commissioners, it being understood that 
the Board will designate areas from which gravel can be obtained. 

The table giving tiie number of vessels passing through 
the drawbridges controlled by the Cit}'^ of Boston, during 
the year 1884 will be found in Appendix A. 

The table giving the number of vessels passing through 
the drawl)ridges controlled by the City of Boston during 
the years 1881, 1882, 1883, and 1884, will be found in Ap- 
pendix B. 

The table showing the widths of draw-openings in the 
bridges over tide-water in this city is given in Appendix C. 
The openings have all been remeasured for this report. 

HENRY M. WIGHTMAN, 

Cii^ Engineer. 



54 



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CONTENTS CITY ENGINEER'S REPORT, FOR 1885. 



A. — City Exgixeer's Department 
Classification of Expenses 
Bridges .... 

Adams street 

Albany street 

Ashland street 

Ashmont street and Dorchester i 

Athens street 

Beacon Entrance Back-Bay park 

Beacon street, over outlet to Back-Bay park 

Beacon street, over B. & A. R.R 

Beach street .... 

Bellevue street 

Berkeley street, B. & A. R.R. 

Berkeley street, B. & P. R.R. 

Blakemore street . 

Boylston street, Back-Bay park 

Brighton avenue . 

Broadway .... 

Broadway, over Fort Point Channel 

Broadway, over B. & A. R.R. 

Brookline avenue, over B. & A. R.R. 

Cambridge street . 

Camden street 

Canal . 

Canterbury street 

Cedar Grove Cemetery 

Central avenue 

Centre street, or Hog bridge 

Centre and Mt. Vernon streets 

Charles Kiver 

Chelsea (North) . 

Chelsea (South) . 

Chelsea street 

Columbus avenue 

Commercial Point, or Tenean 

Commercial street 

Commonwealth avenue 

Congress street . 

Dartmouth street 

Dorchester avenue 

Dorchester street 

Dover street 

Dudley avenue 

Essex street . 

Everett street 

Federal street 

Ferdinand street . 

Fifth street . 

Forest-Hill avenue 

Fourth street 

Franklin-street foot-bridge 

Granite 





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62 City Document No. 54. 

Bridges, — continued. paqs 

Harvard street ......... 7 

Harrison avenue . . . . . . . . . 6, 23 

Huntington avenue . . . . . . . . 5, 14 

Longwood avenue . . . . . . . . 6, 20 

Main street . . . . . . . . . . 6, 7 

Maiden . . . . . . . . . . 5, 14 

Market street ......... 6 

Mattapan . . . . . . . . . . 6, 21 

Meridian street 3, 5, 14 

Milton 6, 21 

Mt. Washington avenue . • . . . . . 5, 15 

Mystic avenue . , . . . . . . .6,7 

Neponset . . , . . . . . . . 6, 21 

Newton street . . . . . . . . . 5, 16 

Norfolk street 7, 23 

North Beacon street . . . . . . . 3, 6, 21 

North Harvard street . . . . ... . .6,21 

Park street 6, 23 

Prison Point 6, 22 

Public Garden foot-bridge . . . . . . . 5, 16 

Savin-Hill avenue ........ 7 

Second street ......... 7 

Shawiuut avenue . . . . . . . . . 5, 16 

Silver street ......... 7 

Sixth street .......... 7 

Spring street . . . . . . . . . 6, 22 

Swett street, east of N.Y. & N.E.R.R 5,16 

Swett street, west of N.Y. & N.E.R.R 5,16 

Third street .......... 7 

Tremont street . . . . . . . . . 6, 23 

Warren 3, 5, 16 

Illustration. — Draws in Warren bridge . . . . 16 

Washington street . . . . . . . . 6, 23 

Washington street, Ward 24 ..... . 7 

Western avenue to Cambridge . . . . . . 6, 22 

Western avenue to Watertown . . . . . . 6, 22 

West Boston 6, 22 

West Chester park, over B. & A. R.R 5, 19 

West Chester park, over B. & P. R.R 5, 19 

West Rutland square, foot-bridge ever B. &P. R.R. . . 5, 19 

Winthrop 5, 19 

Miscellaneous Works and Constructions in 1884 . . 24 

Atlantic-avenue sidewalk ....... 24 

Raising grade of Brookline avenue and Beacon street . 24 

Bulkhead at First and streets. South Boston ... 24 

Proposed new bridge to Cambridge ..... 25 

Illustration, do. — Plan, elevation, and cross-section . 26 

Commonwealth-avenue extension ..... 27 

Copley-square curb ........ 28 

Dalton-street filling ........ 28 

East Boston Ferries ........ 28 

Huntington-avenue extension ...... 28 

In general .......... 29 

B. — Water Works 30 

Sudbury-river reservoirs. Farm Pond and Lake Cochituate, 30 

Mystic Lake ......... 30 

Consumption ......... 31 

Highland high-service works ...... 32 

Waste of water ......... 32 

Mystic Valley Sewer ........ 33 

Farm Pond Conduit ........ 34 

Basin No. 4 .......... 34 

Miscellaneous ......... 34 



Contents. 



63 



C. — Improved Sewerage ..... 
Main drainage works .... 
Extracts from Mr. Clarke's report 
Section 5, west side .... 
Tabular statement of progress of improved 

struction ..... 
Section (i, west side .... 
Section 2, South Boston 
Miscellaneous constructions 
Illustration. — Man-hole cover and floating 
Pumping-station ..... 
Section 1, outfall ..... 



3, 



J). — Parks 

Back Bay ...... 

Gravel filling .... 

Grading and loaming 
Excavation of water-way 
Boylston bridge .... 

Granite curb and fence . 

Covered channel of Stony brook . 

Covered channel of Muddy river . 

Bussey park and Arnold arboretum 

West Koxbury park .... 

Marine park, South Boston . 

Wood Island park, East Boston . 

Charles-river embankment . 
Appendix A. — Draw-tender's report, 1883 . 

B.— " " 1881,82,83 

" C. — Showing width of draw-openings 



sewerage 



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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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