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Full text of "Annual report of the City Engineer"

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NINETEENTH 



ANNUAL REPORT 



CITY ENGINEEE, 



FOR THE YEAR 



1885. 




/ 



BOSTON: 
ROCKWELL AND CHURCHILL, CITY PRINTERS, 

No. 39 ARCH STREET. 

1886. 



[Document 41— 188G.] 




CITY OF mmm BOSTON. 



NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



CITY ENGINEEE. 



FOR THE YEAR 1885. 



Office of the City Exgineee, City Hall, 

Boston, January 25, 1886. 

To the Honorable City Council: — 

In compliance with the seventh section of the ordinance re-? 
lating to the Engineer's Department the following report of 
the expenses and operations of the department for the year 
1885 is respectfully submitted. "^ 

The duties of the City Engineer may be classified under 
the following heads : — 

A. — Those pertaining to the City Engineer's Department 
proper, which consist in the care and maintenance of 
bridges, in designing and superintending the construction 
of new bridges, retaining-walls, city wharves, etc., and in 
miscellaneous engineering work called for by the City 
Council. (City Engineer's Department.) 

B. — Superintendence of the Sudbury Eiver, Cochituate, 
and jSlystic Water-Works, including charge of new construc- 
tions for these works. (Water-Works.) 

C. — Charge of the construction of a system of intercept- 
ing and outlet sewers. (Improved Sewerage, or Main 
Drainage.) 



2 City Document No. 41. 

D. — Charge of the enghieering work in connection with 
the Back Bay and other proposed parks. (Parks.) 

The expenses incurred under the head C, are paid wholly 
from £1 special appropriation. 

(A.) — City Engineer's Department. 

The following is a statement of engineering expenses from 
January 1, 1885, to January 1, 188G ; — 

Amount expended from department appropria- 
tion for 1884-85 $8,076 56 

Amount expended from department appropria- 
tion for 1885-86 . . . . . 21,729 79 



Total expended from departmentappropriations, $29,806 35 
Amount expended from special appropriations, 1,639 50 



$31,445 85 



Condition of department appropriation : — 

Amount of appropriation for financial year, 

1885-86 $30,000 00 

Amount expended to January 1, 1886 . . 21,729 79 



Unexpended balance, January 1, 1886 . . $8,270 21 

Classification of Expenses. 

Salaries of City Engineer, assistants, draughts- 
men, transit-men, levellers, rod-men, etc. 

Engineering instruments and repairs of same . 

Drawing paper, and all materials for making 
plans ....... 

Stationery, printing- stock, note-books, post- 
age, etc. ...... 

Reference library, binding books, and photo- 
graphs of work ..... 

Printing ....... 

Travelling expenses (including horse-keeping, 
repairs on vehicle, etc.) .... 

Furniture, cases for plans and books 

Blue process-printing ..... 

Incidental expenses, and all other small sup- 
plies ....... 

Total 



$27,831 


59 


241 


70 


266 


53 


191 


58 


223 


24 


84 


34 


646 


50 


67 


50 


77 


26 


176 


11 


$29,806 35 



Report of City Engineer. 3 

The miniber of persons employed and paid from the de- 
partment appropriation was, on the first of January, 1885 
(including the City Engineer), 20. The present number is 
20. The operations of the department for the year, together 
with such general information relating to the various works 
and structures, finished and in progress, as is thought to be 
of interest, are given in the following statements : — 



BRIDGES. 

During the past year no new bridges have been built, and 
the work done has been the general care, inspection, and 
supervision of the tide-water bridges. 

The new city charter went into effect June 26, and His 
Honor the Mayor placed the bridges, formerly under the 
control of the Committee on Bridges, in charge of this de- 
partment, pending the adoption of an ordinance making pro- 
vision for them. 

These bridges are now in charge of this department. 

The following is a statement of the expenses of the Bridge 
Department from January 1, 1885, to January 1, 1886 : — 

Amount expended from department appropria- 
tion for 1884-85 $13,478 76 

Amount expended from department appropria- 
tion for 1885-86 . . . . . 65,374 23 



Total expended from department appro- 
priations $78,852 99 

Amount of appropriation for financial year 

1885-86 .... $72,000 00 

Proceeds of old material sold 

from Broadway Bridge, 

added by order of City 

Council .... 4,407 95 



76,407 95 
Amount expended to January 1, 1886 . . 65,374 23 

Balance unexpended January 1, 1886 . $11,033 72 



City Document No. 41 



Tabic showing- Expenditiires on the Tide-Water Bridges 
for the Year 1N85. 



Name of Bridge. 



Broadway Bridge 

Oambridge-st. Bridge 

Charles-river 

Chelsea Bridge (North) 

" " (South 

Chelsea-st. Bridge 

Oommcrcial-Point 

Congress-st , 

Dover-st 

Essex- St , 

Federal-st , 

Granite 

Maiden 

Meridian-st 

Mt. Washington ave 

Neponset 

No. Beacon st 

No. Harvard st 

Warren Bridge 

West ave. Bridge to Cambridge . 
" " " Watertown 

Winthrop Bridge , 

Incidental Expenses , viz. : — 

Salary Supt. Repairs 

Sundry expenses 

Total expenditures 1885 . . . 



Regular Expenses, 

Salaries, Fuel, 

and all small 

Supplies. 



$4,158 13 

349 n 
4,097 G-2 
1,810 77 
2,483 64 

532 81 

50 00 

4,080 12 

3,740 71 

421 33 
3,554 72 

202 90 
1,680 50 
2,315 89 
3,834 59 

405 12 
76 00 

342 03 
5,306 13 

344 11 
75 00 

265 00 



Repairs, 
Lumber, Iron- 
work, Painting, 
and Labor. 



$11,189 19 

52 39 

4,444 76 

680 74 

398 94 

218 89 

2,083 03 

3,085 22 

1,241 03 

5,053 54 

56 19 

658 13 

401 47 

1,693 23 

931 23 

116 16 
951 73 
255 92 



LTotal.T 



$15,347 32 

401 56 
9,142 38 
2,491 51 
2,882 48 

761 70 
50 00 
7,363 15 
6,825 93 
1,662 26 
8,608 26 

259 09 
2,338 63 
2,717 36 
5,527 82 
1,336 35 
76 00 

458 19 
6,257 86 

600 03 
75 00 

906 15 

1,800 00 
963 96 



^78,852 99 



The total cost of repairs made iiiider the direction of this 
department dnrin<v the year 1885 was $34,^81.48. 

The repairs have mostly been done by days' labor. Mr. 
S. S. Lewis has been employed as Superintendent of Kepairs, 
a position which he has now held for six years. 

The spruce lumber required has been furnished by Mr. 
John W. Leatherbce, the lowest bidder, makini^ nine con- 



Report of Cixr Engineer. 5 

secutive 3'eavs that he has obtained the contract. The price 
paid was $15 per M., and he has furnished 259,307 feet 
B.M. under his contract for 1885. 

Painting has also been done by days' hd)or. Mr. John J. 
Maguire was employed as foreman. Work was commenced 
June 15, and continued until October 20, during which time 
seven bridges were painted, and others had some work done 
upon them. 

Paint-stock was furnished by Charles Richardson & Co., 
the lowest bidders. 

Total cost of labor, $2,497.25; of materials, tools, etc., 
$541.41. 

The anfiual examination of all bridges within the city 
limits, open to team and foot travel, required by both old 
and new oi'dinances, has been made, their condition, as 
to safety and need of renewals or repairs, together with an 
account of the repairs during the past year, so far as they 
have been made by this department, are in the following 
pages. Repairs on the inland bridges have been made by 
the Paving Department since Sept. 22, 1884. 

The existing regulations for the ):)assage of vessels through 
draw-bridges have been posted on the several bridges, as re- 
quired by law. 

The records of the numlier of vessels passins; through the 
draw-ways, time of passage, kind of vessels, etc., as kept by 
the draw-tenders of the several bridges, have been tal)ulated, 
and the totals are given in the summary which will be found 
in Appendices A and B. 

A list of widths of openings for vessels in all bridges pro- 
vided M'ith draws in the city will be found in Appendix C. 
The widths of the openings have been lately measured. 

The following is a list of bridges inspected. The number 
remains the same as last year. 

In the list those* marked with an asterisk are over naviga- 
ble waters, and are each provided with a draw : — 



I. — Bridges wholly supported by Boston. 

Ashland street. Ward 23, over Boston & Providence 
Railroad. 

Athens street, over X.Y. &N.E. Railroad. 

Beacon Entrance, Back-Ba\', over Boston & Albany Rail- 
road. 

Beacon street, over outlet to Back-Bay pond. 

Beacon street, over Boston & Albanv Railroad. 



6 City Document No. 41. 

Berkeley street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Berkeley street, over Boston & Providence Railroad. 

Blakeniore street, over Boston & Providence Railroad, 
AVard 23. 

Boylston street, over outlet to Back-Bay pond. 
*Broadway, over Fort Point Channel. 

Broadway, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Brookline avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 
*Charles river, from Boston to Charlestown. 
*Clielsea (South), over South Channel, Mystic river. 
*Chelsea street, from East Boston to Chelsea. 

Columbus avenue, over Boston & Alliany Railroad. 
*Connnercial Point, or Tenean, Ward 24. 

Commonwealth avenue, over outlet to Back-Bay pond. 
*Congrcss street, over Fort Point Channel. 

Dartmouth street, over Boston & Albany and Boston & 

Providence Railroads. 
*Dover street, over Fort Point Channel. 
*Federal street, over Fort Point Channel. 

Ferdinand street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Franklin street foot-bridsfe, over Boston & Albanv Rail- 
road. 

Huntington avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 
*Malden, from Charlestown to Everett. 
*jMeridian street, from East Boston to Chelsea. 
*Mt. Washington avenue, over Fort Point Channel. 

Newton street, over Boston & Providence Railroad. 

Public Garden foot-bridge. 

Shawmut avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Swett street, east of N.Y. & N.E. Railroad. 

Swett street, west of N.Y. &N.E. Railroad. 
* Warren, from Boston to Charlestown. 

West Chester park, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

West Chester park, over Boston & Providence Railroad. 

West Rutland square foot-bridge, over Boston & Provi- 
dence Railroad. 

Winthrop, from Breed's Island to Winthrop. 

II. — Bridges of which Boston suppohts the Part 
WITHIN ITS Limits. 

*Cambridge street, from Briahton to Cambridge. 

Central avenue, from Ward 24 to Milton. 
*Chelsea (North), from Charlestown to Chelsea. 
*Essex street, from Ward 11 (l^rookline) to Cambridge. 
*Granite, from Dorchester, Ward 24, to Milton. 

Longvvood avenue, from Ward 11 to Brookline. 



Eeport or City Engineer. 7 ♦ 

Mattapan, from Ward 24 to Milton. 

Milton, from Ward 24 to Milton. 
*Neponset, from Ward 24 to Qiiincy. 
*Nortli Beacon street, from Brighton to Watertown. 
*North Harvard street, from Brighton to Cambridge. 

Spring street, from West Roxbury to Dedham. 
* Western avenue, from Briahton to Caml)ridg:e. 
*Western avenue, from Brighton to Watertown. 



III. — Bridges of which Boston pays a Part of the 
Cost of Maintenance. 

Albany street, over Boston & Albany Eailroad. 
*Canal, from Boston to Cambridge. 

Dorchester street, over Old Colony Railroad. 
*Prison Point, from Charlestown to Cambridge. 
*West Boston, from Boston to Cambridge. 



IV. — Bridges supported by Railroad Corporations. 

1st. — Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Brighton avenue, Brighton. 
Harrison avenue. 
Market street, Brighton. 
Tremont street. 
Washington street. 

2d. — Boston & Maine Railroad. 

Mystic avenue. 
Main street. 

3d. — Boston & Maine Railroad y Eastern Division. 

Mystic avenue. 
Main street. 

4th. — Boston & Providence Railroad. 

Beech street. Ward 23. 

Bellevue street, Ward 23. 

Canterbury street, Ward 23. 

Centre street, or Hog Bridge, Ward 23. 

Centre and Mt. Vernon streets, Ward 23. 

Dudley avenue. Ward 23. 

Park street, Ward 23. 



S City Document No. 41. 

5th. — Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn Railroad. 
Everett street. 

6th. — ISfew York & New England Railroad. 

Broad ^va3^ 

Dorchester avenue. 

Fifth street. 

Forest Hills avenue, Ward 24. 

Fourth street. 

Harvard street, Ward 24. 

Norfolk " " " 

Norfolk " " " 

Second street. 

Silver street. 

Sixth street. 

Third street. 

Washington street, Ward 24. 

7th. — Old Colony Railroad. 

Adams street. 

Ashmont street and Dorchester avenue. 

Cedar Grove Cemetery. 

Commercial street. 

Savin Hill avenue. 



Recapitulation . 

I. Number wholly supported by Boston . . 39 
H. Number of which Boston supports the part with- 
in its limits . . . . . . 14 

in. Number of which Boston pays a part of the cost 

of maintenance. . . . . • . 5 

IV. Number supi)orted by Railroad Corporations : — 

1. Boston & Albany ...... 5 

2. Boston & Maine 2 

3. " " Eastern Div 2 

4. Boston & Providence ..... 7 

5. Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn ... 1 

6. New York & New Eniiland . . . . 13 

7. Old Colony . . " 5 

Total number . . . . . .'93 



Eeport of City Engineer. 



I. —BRIDGES WHOLLY SUPPORTED BY BOSTON. 

ASHLAND-STREET BrIDGE (OVER BoSTON & PROVIDENCE 

Railroad, Ward 23). 

The under-floor of this bridge is in poor condition, and the 
abutments are in need of repointing. The bridge should be 
painted and the' repairs above-indicated made during the 
coming year. 

Athens-street Bridge (over New York & New Eng- 
land Railroad) 

Is in good condition ; it was put in good order in 1884, 
and no repairs have been made during 1885. 

Beacon-entrance Bridge (over Boston & Albany Rail- 
road) . 

This bridge is in the Back Bay, and is not open to public 
travel. It is in oood condition. 

Beacon-street Bridge (over Outlet of Back-Bay 

Pond) 

Has been painted and otherwise repaired, and is in good 
order. 



Beacon-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany Rail- 
road). 

The bridge and abutments are completed, but the ap- 
proaches have not yet been filled to grade, consequently the 
bridge is not open for travel. 

Berkeley-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany Rail- 
road). 

No repairs of importance have been made during the year, 
and the recommendation made last yeiw is repeated, namely, 
that the flooring be removed and the stringers and the hang- 
ers on which they rest be carefully examined and renewed 
wherever found necessary. 

The whole bridge is a much weaker structure than would 
now be built, and it will have to be rebuilt before many 
years. 



10 City Document No. 41. 



Berkeley-street Bridge (over Boston & Providence 

Railroad). 

The iron-work has been painted and the roadway sheathed. 
The structure is in fair condition. 



Blakemore-street Bridge (over Boston & Providence 
Railroad, Ward 23) 

Is in fair condition. It should be painted during the coming 
season. 

Boyt.ston-street Bridge (over Back Bay Water-way). 

This is a masonry l)ridge ; it is within the limits of the 
Back Bay, but it is not yet used for public trav-el. It is in 
good condition. 

*Broadway Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

The principal repairs made on this bridge have been the 
carrying out of the recommendations made last year, namely, 
the removal of the floor of the South Boston column section, 
and building in its place a floor of wood. The wood paving, 
cast-iron floor-plates, and II beams on which the floor-plates 
rested, have been removed, and a floor similar to' the one 
previously built on the Boston side of the channel has been 
built in its place. 

The total cost of the work was $9,941, and old material, of 
the value of $4,407.95, was sold, and the proceeds added to 
the appropriations for bridges, by order of the City Council. 

In addition to the repairs before stated new floors of hard 
pine were laid on the sidewalks of the draw and the adjoining 
100-feet spans. 

The bridge was closed to team travel on August 3 and re- 
opened on September 12. 

In addition to the above repairs one 100-foot span has 
been sheathed, and the usual minor repairs made. , 

The bridge and its draw-[)ier are in fair condition. It 
should be painted next year. Total cost of repairs, $11,189.19. 

Broadway Bridge (over the Boston & Albany 
Railroad) . 

This bridge has been painted and the roadway sheathed. 
It is in good condition. 



Report of City Engineer. 11 



Brookline-a VENUE Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
Railroad). 

This bridge lias been only recently opened for travel, and 
IS in good condition. 

*Charles-river Bridge (from Boston to Charles- 
town). 

The building and apparatus for moving the draw, which 
was in an incomplete condition at the date of the last 
report, Avas completed early in the year, and has been in con- 
stant use since. It has given good satisfaction, and the draw 
can be moved much quicker than by the old method. The 
apparatus for warping vessels is in constant use, and mate- 
rially shortens the time during which the bridge is closed to 
travel for passing vessels. The engine, however, is not 
powerful enough to do the work easily, and the arrangement 
for moving the draw by means of a manila-rope is not an 
economical one for continuous use. 

The whole arrangement was designed with the idea that it 
Avas to be a temporary expedient, and machinery on hand 
was utilized for the purpose. This machinery can be much 
improved upon. 

The foundation of the draw continues to settle, requiring 
adjustment from time to time ; but slight settlements do not 
prevent the use of the draw. The trucks under the draw 
have been put in order, and the under-floor of the draw 
renewed. 

The westerl}^ draw-pier has been repaired in part, and the 
roadway from the draw to the Boston end repaved. 

The pier requires further repairs, and the fender is in bad 
condition. 

The dwellino:-house on the bridg^e has been condemned 
and sold. 

The question of an elevated bridge on this site has been 
agitated for some years, and only the most necessary repairs 
have been made. If the bridge is to be kept in use in its 
present form extensive repairs will be required. 

Total cost of repairs, $4,444.76. 

*Chelsea Bridge (South) (over South Channel, Mystic 

River). 

The draw has been sheathed and some slight repairs made. 

There is a very offensive discharge from a sewer under the 

bridge, and nearly under the draw-tenders' quarters. The 



12 City Document No. 41. 

amount of discharge has been greatly increased this year by 
the construction of the sewer, which turns the discharge, 
formerly producing a nuisance at the head of the dock, to 
this (jutlet. In the warm weather a serious nuisance is 
made. 

The bridge should be painted next year, and it is probable 
that the draw will require a new under-floor. The bridge is 
in fair condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $398.94. 



*Chelsea-street Bridge (from East Boston to 

Chelsea). 

The iron-work of the turn-table has been put in order, 
and slight repairs made. Considerable repairs will be re- 
quired next year. At present the bridge is in fair condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $218.89 



COLUMBLS-A venue BrIDGE (OVER BoSTON & ALBANY 

Railroad) . 

The roadways have been sheathed, and the bridge is in 
good condition. 

The telegraph pole guys mentioned in the last rci)ort have 
not been removed. 



*Commercial Point, or Tenean Bridge (Ward 24). 

No repairs have been made. The fences are poor, and the 
bridge should be painted. 

The bridge is in safe condition. 

Commonwealth-avenue Bridge (over outlet, Back- 
Bay Pond). 

This bridge is in the Back Bay, and is not open for public 
travel. It is in need of painting. 

*Congress-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

The under floor of the draw has been calked, the draw 
sheathed twice, and ordinary repairs made. The piles of 
the fender-guard, reported last year to be in bad condition, 
have not been replaced. These repairs should no longer be 
neglected. As a whole, the bridge is in fair condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $2,683.03. 



REroKT OF City Engineer. 13 

Dartmouth-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
AND Boston & Providence Railroads) 

Is now being repainted and sheathed. It is in good con- 
dition. 

*Dover-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

The northerly draw-pier has been replanked both on its 
top and on the face of the water-way, and the southerly pier 
should be similarly repaired next year. The trucks have 
been thoroughly repaired, the draws sheathed, and the usual 
small repairs made. The bridge is in good condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $3,085.22 

*Federal-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

Estimates were submitted one year ago for a thorough 
repairing of this bridge and for replacing the present 
wooden draws with others of iron ; an alternative estimate 
was also made of the expense of certain repairs which 
were deemed absolutely necessary to the safe use of the 
bridge. 

The sum of $3,000 required for the necessary repairs 
was included in the appropriation for l)ridges, but was 
stricken out at its final passage, and the repairs were paid 
for from the regular appropriation. 

The weakest parts of the main trusses in the draws have 
been strengthened, the floors taken up and relaid with new 
stock, and limited repairs were made to the floor-l)eams. 
Two trucks have been rebuilt, the paving reset on a con- 
siderable part of the bridge, and the uuder-floor examined 
wnth more care than would have been possible otherwise. 

The draws and fences have been painted. The trusses 
and floor-beams of the draws are now much decayed, and 
fences and floor of the fixed part are also in poor condition. 

The report for last year says : "The bridge, as a whole, is 
in such poor condition that it would be better economy to 
replace the present wooden draws with new ones of iron, 
and renew such portions of the fixed portion as require 
attention, than it would be to keep them in repair for 
another year." 

The repairs made during the last year have not changed 
the force of the statement. If the brido;e is continued in 
use another year, it probably will cost an amount equal to 
that expended this year for repairs and the public will be 
considerably inconvenienced. 

Total cost of repairs, $5,053.54. 



14 City Document No. 41. 



Ferdinand-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany 

Railroad). 

Repairs have been made by the Paving Department, and 
the bridge is in fair condition. 



Franklin-street Foot-Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
Railroad at Allston Station). 

It is in good condition. It should be painted next year. 

HUNTINGTON-AVENUE BrIDGE (oVER BoSTON & ALBANY 

Railroad). 

It is in good condition. It has been replanked and painted 
by the Paving Department. 

*Malden Bridge (from Charlestown to Everett). 

The concrete sidewalk on this bridge has been relaid, two 
buoys set, and small repairs made. The bridge will require 
1^/ some repairs during the next year. 
/\^ The draw is old, and will need some repairs. The fender- 

guard has been l)adly damaged, and the draw-piers need 
strengthening and planking both on their tops and on the 
face of the water-way. 

Total cost of repairs, $(558. 13. 

*Meridian-street Bridge (from East Boston to 
Chelsea). 

This bridge was rebuilt last year, and a description of the 
work done was given in the last annual report. 

The final settlement with the contractors was made in 
April. The entire cost of the work being $51,699.40. 

Only slight repairs have been made during the year. 

Total cost of repairs, $401.47. 

*Mt. Washington-avenue Bridge (over Fort Point 

Channel). 

A portion of the fence has been rebuilt, the draw sheathed 
twice, a new boat provided, and the bridge painted. The 
bridge is in good condition. Total cost of repairs, 
$1,693.23. 



lO 



Report of City Engineer. 15 

Newton-street Bridge (over Boston & Providence 

Railroad) . 

Repairs have been made by the Paving Department. The 
roadway has been sheathed, a new fence built, and the l^ridge 
painted. 

The bridgre is in good condition. 

Public Garden Foot-Bridge. 

This bridge is in a dangerous condition. It was built in 
1867, and the wood-worlv has never been renewed, except 
where worn by the tread of feet ; it is very rotten. Reports 
and estimates for repairing it have been made from time to 
time, but only the most trifling repairs have been made. 

Shawmut-avenue Bridge (over Boston & Albant 

Railroad) 

Has l)een painted, and is in fair condition. 

Savett-street Bridges (over South-Bay Sluices). 

These bridges were built in 1875, as it was supposed, for 
a temporary purpose. They have outlived the time origi- 
nally proposed to the designers as necessary to be provided 
for, and will soon need extensive repairs. 

The wings have been repaired and the bridges planked. 
They are in a safe condition. 

* Warren Bridge (from Boston to Charlkstown.) 

This bridge was rebuilt in 1883-84, is in good condition, 
and continues to give satisfaction. 

The draws have been sheathed twice, the boilers painted, 
and other repairs made. 

The whole cost of the rebuilding and widening to date has 
been $371,781.58. 

Total cost of repairs last year, $951.73. 

West Chester-park Bridge (over Boston & Albany 

Railroad). 

The iron-work has been painted and the roadway sheathed. 
The concrete sidewalks are in poor condition. 

The recommendation made last year is repeated. " Advan- 
tage should be taken of these necessary repairs to change the 



16 City Document No. 41. 

longitudinal crown of the bridge, and of the approaches to 
an easier and more natural curve. This can be done now at 
a small exj)ense, as but one building has been erected adjoin- 
ing the bridge." 

West Chester-pakk Bridge (over Boston & Provi- 
dence Railroad). 

The bridge has been sheathed, and is in good order. 

West Rutland-square Foot-Bridge (over Boston & 
Providence Railroad) . 

This bridge needs painting, otherwise is in good condition. 

WiNTHROP Bridge (from Breed's Island to Winthrop). 

The roadway has been sheathed and the rail painted. 
The bridge is in fair condition. Total cost of repairs 
$641.15. " 



II. — BRIDGES OF WHICH BOSTON SUPPORTS 
THE PART WITHIN ITS LIMITS. 

*Cambridge-street Bridge (from Brighton to 
Cambridge). 

This l)ridge was rebuilt in 1884, and has received only 
tritling repairs. It is in good condition. 
Total cost of repairs, $'52.39. 

Central-avenue Bridge (over Neponset River, Dor- 
chester Lower Mills.) 

This bridge has been sheathed. It is badh^ in need of 
cleaning and painting, otherwise it is in good condition. 

*Chelsea Bridge (North) (fro:m the Mvstig-river 
Corporation's Wharf to Chelsea). 

The lloor near the wheel-guard and the sides of the water- 
way under the draw are in need of repairs. 

The approaches to the draw have been replanked, both 
upper and under plank ; the draw has been sheathed and 
other small repairs made. 

Total cost of repairs, $080.74. 



Report of City Engineer. 17 

*ESSEX-STREET BrIDGE (FROM WaRO 1 1 TO CAMBRIDGE). 

The bridge has been sheathed, one side-rail built new, the 
other rei)aired, and both painted. A portion of the sidewalk 
has been rebuilt. The under-floor was patched, and although 
it is not in good condition, yet it will hist for some years 
longer. The remainder of the sidewalk will soon require 
attention, and son)e of the timbers under it will need to be 
replaced. 

Total cost of repairs, $1,241.03. 

*Granite Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton). 

The rail has been painted, and trifling repairs made. The 
bridge is in good condition. 
Total cost of repairs, $5G.19. 

Longwood-a VENUE Bridge (from Ward 11 to Brook- 
line). 

Repairs have been made by the Paving Department, and 
the brida"e is in fair condition. It is a trustle-bridcfe, and 
some of the posts, which are set in the ground, are showing 
signs of decay. It will undoubtedly be replaced by a new 
structure when the Riverdale Park-way (which it crosses) 
is built. 

Mattapan Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton). 

This bridge is in fair condition. 

Milton Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton). 

This bridge is in good condition, with the exception of the 
floor of a portion of it, which should be repaired. 

*Neponset Bridge (from Ward 24 to Quincy). 

The draw has been painted, and the roadway sheathed. 
The part of the bridge supported by Boston is in good 
condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $931.23. 

*NoRTH Beacon-street Bridge (from Brighton • to 
Watertown) . 

This bridge was rebuilt in 1884, and is in excellent con- 
dition. No repairs have been made. 



18 City Document No. 41. 

*NoRTii Harvard-street Bridge (from Brighton to 

Cambridge). 

This bridgo was thoronp:lilv repaired in 1884. It has 
been sheathed and some small rei)airs made. It is in good 
condition. 

Total cost of repairs, $110.10. 

Spring-street Bridge (from Ward 23 to Dedham). 
This is a stone arch bridge. It is in good condition. 

*Western-avenue Bridge (from Brighton to Cam- 
bridge). 

This bridge has l)een sheathed, and is in fair condition. 
Total cost of repairs, $255.92. 

*Western-avenue Bridge (from Brighton to Water- 

toavn) . 

The bridge proper is in safe condition for pnl)lic travel, 
but extremely inconvenient for passing vessels. A portion 
of the abutment has recently fallen, and the rest of it is in a 
pecarious condition. It will be necessary to rebuild the 
abutment durin<r the coming year. 

No re[)airs have been made on the bridge : the temporary 
repairs to the abutment have cost about $100. They have 
been made since December 15, the date to which the accounts 
for the past year are made up. 



III. — BRIDGES FOR MAINTENANCE OF WHICH 
BOSTON PAYS A PART OF THE COST. 

Albany-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
Ralroad). 

A 8[)ecial report dated j\Iay 1, 1885, Avas made on the 
condition of this bridge. It was pai-tially stripped for the 
purpose of ascertaining the facts upon which the report was 
based, and it has remained in a dismantled condition since 
theii. The roadway is in use for teams, but the sidewalks 
are not used. 

The matter of relxiilding the bridge has been referred to 
the City Government of 1880. 



Report of City Engineer. 19 



*Canal Bridge (from Boston to Cambridge). 

*PRisoN-roiNT Bridge (from Charlestown to 
Cambridge). 

*\Vest Boston Bridge (from Boston to Cambridge). 

These three bridges are in the care of coiiiniissioners, who 
make an annual rejjort to the City Council. The expense of 
maintenance is borne equally by the two cities. 

Canal, or Cragie's Bridge, as it is usually called, was re- 
built in 1874 for the greater part of its length. It was orig- 
inallv built al)out 1808, and was extensively repaired 
1852. 

There is a small portion of the original structure which 
has not been affected by either of these rebuildings, nor by 
repairs which have been made at other times. This part of 
the bridge is in poor condition, and should receive immedi- 
ate attention. The i)iles and stringers are overloaded, and in 
danger of failure. 

This condition has been a cause of some anxiety to the 
commissioners who have taken measures to make the neces- 
sary repairs. The draw-pier and fender-guard are in need 
of repairs, which it is intended to make in the spring. 

The draw is in good condition, and the arrangements for 
passing vessels are excellent. 

West-Boston l)ridge is showing signs of weakness from 
old age. The side bulkheads and sidewalks from the draw 
to the Cambridge end are in bad condition, and it is intended 
to rebuild them the coming year. 

The guide-caps of the piles, Avhich are of white pine, are 
slowly giving wa}', and it will be necessary to do consider- 
alile work upon them soon. The draw and draw-pier are in 
good condition. 

Prison-point bridge is in fair condition, and the usual re- 
pairs only will be needed. Its style of draw is not adapted 
for winter use, it being necessary to remove the snow before 
vessels can be passed. 

The water-way is inconveniently situated, with respect to 
the water-way across the Eastern Division of the B. & M. 
R.R. just below it. 

The construction of large wdiarves above this bridge, and 
their use during all seasons of the year, together with the 
large and increasing amount of heavy teaming across the 
bridge, will necessitate the reconstruction of the bridge and 
draw before many years. 



20 City Document No. 41. 

For further particulars sec report of Commissioners, City 
Doc. No. 12, 1880. 

Dorchester-street Bridge (over Old Colony 
Railroad). 

Tlie Old Colony Railroad, by agreement, pays four-fifths 
' the 001 
condition. 



of the cost of maintenance of this biidije. It is in ffood 



IV.— BRIDGES SUPPORTED BY RAILROAD 
CORPORATIONS. 

The bridoi;e on Mt. Vernon and Centre streets, over the 
Boston & Providence Raih'oad, which was reported in bad 
condition last }ear, has been repaired, and the private foot- 
bridge over the same road, at Camden street, has been taken 
down. Beech-street and Dudley-street bridges, over the 
Dedham branch of the same road, are in bad condition, and 
there is danger of serious accident in each case. 

Bridges on Harrison avenue and Washington street, over 
the Boston & Albany Railroad, are very much wasted by 
rust. The Tremont-street bridge, over the same road, has 
been cleaned and painted, but its strength has been sensibly 
diminished by rusting. 

Adams-street bridge, over the Old Colony Railroad, is in 
poor condition as reported last year. 

The other bridges supported by railroad corporations, and 
given in the list, are in fair condition, and require no special 
mention. 



Report of City Engineer. 21 



MISCELLANEOUS WORK AND CONSTRUCTIONS 

IN 1885. 

COMMONWEALTII-AVENUE EXTENSION. 

The loamcd areas on this avenue, between West Chester 
park and Biookline avenue, were sowed to grass in the 
spring. 

Deer-Island Steamboat Wharf. 

The wharf is situated on the northerly side of the land- 
ing of the East Boston Ferry-boats, at the South Ferry, 
Boston side. It is built of piles, hard-pine timbers, and 
spruee covering with a berth for the steamer, made by 
utilizing the old ferr}^ slip and adding to it with new oak 
piles. The contractors were Hayes & Buike, of Boston, and 
the sum paid them was $2,899.70. The total cost of the 
wharf, including tilling, paving, fences, drop, etc., was 
$4,99L39. 

Huntixgton-a venue Extension. 

The portion of this avenue between Parker street and 
Longwo(jd avenue, which was filled in 1883, having settled 
below grade, it was filled to grade during the spring. 

Gravel Avas dumped near Parker street by the B, & A. 
R.R. Co., and a force of men and teams was eniployed to 
distril)ute it. The work was begun on March 28 and 
completed May 12. The total amount of gravel delivered 
was 470 squares, at $3.50 per square. 

The culvert under the avenue, at the crossing of the old 
channel of Stony brook, was repaired, it having been 
damaged by the settlement of the filling. 

Fences were built on both sides of the avenue, a contract 
for this work having been made with W. H. Keyes. The 
length of fence built was 3,790 linear feet, at 16^ cents per 
foot. 

The portion of the fence opposite the land of the Sewall 
& Day Co., on the easterly side of the avenue, was built by 
that company, and the city paid them the same price per 
foot as was paid the contractor. 

Mt. Bowdoin-Green Curb. 

A contract, dated Nov. 15, 1884, was made with Emery & 
Small for furnishing and laying a granite curbing around Mt. 
Bowdoin Green, in Dorchester. 



22 City Document Xo. 41. 

The curbing is IG inches deep and 9 inches wide ; the outer 
face is cut on ji curve of 5 inches radius, and all exposed 
surfaces are six-cut work. 

The curbing is laid on a foundation consisting of cement 
concrete piers, 3 feet long, 2^ feet wide, and 3 feet deep, 
l)laced under each joint of the curbing ; the spaces between 
the piers being tilled Avith broken stone or coarse gravel. 

A three-inch tile-drain is laid in the bottom of the trench. 

The curl)ing was cut during the winter months, and was 
laid as soon as the frost would aHow in the spring, being 
coiupk'ted May 28, 1885. 

The length of the curbing is 615 feet, and the cost of the 
work was $2,195. 

TeINITY-TrI ANGLE CuRB. 

A contract, dated June 25, 1885, was made Avith Emery 
& Small, for furnishing and laying a curbing around Trinity 
Triangle. 

The curbing is similar to that laid around Copley square, 
and is laid on a continuous foundation of cement concrete, 
3i- feet deep and 21 feet wide. 

The work was completed Sept. 8, 1885. 

The length of the curbing is 310 feet, and the cost of 
the Avork was $1,457. 



Sewer at Glover's Corner, Dorchester. 

In the early fall this department was requested by the 
Board of Heahh to prepare plans and specifications for a 
sewer to abate a nuisance near (i lover's Corner, in Dorchester. 
As this would be accomplished by building a portion of the 
intercepting sewers eventually to be built along the whole 
water-front of Dorchester, it seemed the wisest plan to do 
this, rather than to build a sewer not adapted to the wants 
of the future. 

When the plans were nearly finished, the Board of Health 
■was relieved from the necessity of further action in the mat- 
ter; the City Council j)la('ing the consti'uction of a sewer at 
this place under the charge of the Superintendent of 
Sewers. 



Eeport of City Engineer. 23 



IN GENERAL. 

The usual larjie auiount of work of a miscellaneous charac- 
ter has heeu done during the year. Under this head may bo 
classed the following : — 

Plans, Specifications, and Inspection. 
For wrought-iron water-pipe, for Beacon-street bridge. 

Plans and Specifications. 

For Sumner-street foot-bridge, East Boston. 
Wooden pier for Marine park, City Point. 
Foundations for Garrison Statue. 

Addition to Water-Works Store-house, Federal street. 
Dumping-scow, for Main Drainage Works. 
Miscelhuieous iron-work. Main Drainage Pumping- 

station. 
Buildings in Franklin park. 

Designs. 
For Proposed iron pier. Marine park. 

Plan and Estimate. 

For Repairing dam across South Bay. 
Bulldiead at City Point. 

Taking of portion of Lincoln wharf for Ferry Depart- 
ment. 

Estimates. 

For Wood Island bridge, East Boston. 

Boylston-street bridge, over B. & A. R.R. 
Culvert on Linden Park street extension. 
Eebuilding Albany-street bridge over B. & A. R.R. 
Tunnel on Sumner street. East Boston. 

Plan and Maps. 

For Park Commissioners' Reports for 1884 and 1885. 

In addition to the above, many record plans have been 
made, and a large amount of copying, tracing, and " blue 
printing" has been done. 



24 City Document No. 41. 

B. — WATER-WORKS. 

Sources of tSiqiply. 

The supply of water, dnrino; the past year, in the different 
storaijc reservoirs has l)ccn abundant and cfcnerallv^ of ijood 
qualit3^ 

The reduction of the consumption, caused by the preven- 
tion of waste, and the favorable season, has kept the storage 
reservoirs nearer high-water mark than for a number of 
years, thus preventing the growth of vegetation in the areas 
of shallow tlowage. 

Reservoir No. 4, which has been in process of construction 
for the past four years, is now practically completed. During 
the past year the embankment has been com{)leted, the 
superstructure of the gate-house built, and a slope-wall laid 
on the inner face of the dam. The completion of this reser- 
voir adds tive million gallons per day to the available supply 
from the Sudbury-river works. 

The reservoir covers an area of 102 acres in the valley of 
Cold Spring brook, and will contain when full about 
1,300,000,000 gallons. The dam is 1,857 feet in length, 
54 feet in height above the meadow, and 83 feet above the 
bed rock at its highest i)oint. The top of the dam is 20 
feet in width, and is 221 feet above tide-marsh level. It has 
an outside slope of 2^ to 1, an inside slope of 1^ to 1 
to a berme 6 feet wide, at grade 208, and l.(J5 to 1 below 
that point. The inner slope above the berme is covered with 
paving, 15 inches thick, laid on 12 inches of broken stone; 
below the bei'me the slope is riprapped. 

The dam contains a centre or core-wall of concrete, which 
extends across the valley, and down to the bed rock. 

This wall is eight feet thick at the base, three feet at 
the top, and contains 20,900 cubic yards of cement con- 
crete. 

The inside face of the wall is covered with a half-inch 
coating of Portland cement mortar, subsequently covered 
with a wash of pure cement. 

The dam is coniposed of 248,500 cubic yards of gravel 
and clay, which were spread in eight-inch layers, watered 
and rolled. 

The eate-house is built at the intersection of the brook 
and the centre-line of the dam. Its foundation of concrete 
and rul)ble-masonry extends to the bed-rock, 21 feet 
below the grade of the lower influent pipe. It contains 
two influent and one effluent chambers, so arranged that 
water can be drawn from the reservoir at diflcrent depths. 



Report of City Engineer. 25 

There arc two outlet and two inlet pipes, each four feet in 
diameter. 

The outlet pipes are laid six feet apart on centres, at the 
grade of the lowest part of the basin. The inlet pij)es are 
situated in the same vertical })lane, one pii)e 21 feet 
al)ove the other ; just outside the gate-chamber masonry, 
the lower pipe diverts to the left, and the upper \npe diverts 
to (he right, in order to reach their respective chambers, 
which are situated side by side. 

A water-way connects the basin with the effluent chamber 
at a grade five feet below high-water mark. 

An overHow and Avaste-way, 30 feet in width, is situ- 
ated at the extreme easterly end of the dam. When the 
reservoir is full (he least depth of water will be eight feet, 
and the depth at the dam 4^ feet. 

I'he cost of the reservoir and dam to Jan. 1, 1886, is 
$772,420.73, exclusive of land damages, which amounted to 
$2(),772.02. 



Consumpiion. 

The daily average consumption of water from the com- 
bined works has been as follows : — 



From Siidbnry and From iljstic 

Cocliiliiate Works. Works. Total. 

January . . . 2(5,7 11, 900 7,855,400 34,567,300 

February . . 31,847,400 10,019,500 41,866,900 

March . . . 27,697,200 8,487,500 36,184,700 

April ... 22 720,500 6,042,600 28,763,100 

May . . . 22,168,400 5,605,700 27,774,100 

June . . . 27,214,800 6,594,200 33,819,000 

July . . . 26,606,200 6,513,300 33,119,500 

Augu.st . . . 24,()8(),400 6,047,600 30,734,000 

September . . 26,493,600 5,931,900 32,425,500 

October . . . 24,945,500 5,914,900 30,8(0,400 

November . . 21,942,800 5,710,300 27,653,100 

December . . 24,724,900 6,356,700 31,081,600 



Averages . . 25,607,200 6,737,400 32,344,600 

The daily average consumption from the Sudbury and 
Cochituate works has been 2.1 per cent, more than during 
the year 1884, and from the Mystic works 8.5 per cent, 
more. 

The daily average consumption per head of population has 
been as follows : — 



72.4 


gallons. 


G8. 


(( 


71.2 


it 



26 City Document No. 41. 

SiKlbiirv and Cochituate supply . 
Mystic supply ..... 
Total supply .... 

Farm-Pond Conduit. 

The construction of the conduit across Farm pond has 
been in progress during the ])ast season, Init the contractor, 
G. INI. Cushing, of New York, having failed to conii)lcte his 
work within the time called for 1)}' the contract, the Avork 
was seized by the Water Board on Dec. 3. 

The total length of the conduit is 3,760 feet. On Dec. 
1, when the work closed for the season, 3,550 feet of the 
conduit trench had been excavated, the masonry conduit was 
coinj)leted for a length of 3,100 feet, and 2,(i40 feet of the 
embankment were linished. Riprap was placed on 2,400 
feet of the embankment, leaving 1,3G0 feet to be completed. 
The work will be tinished early in the coming season. 

New High-Service AVorks. 

On December 22, 1884, an order for a loan of $76G,000, 
for the construction of new high-service works, was passed 
by the City Council. During the month of January surveys 
and investigations were made with reference to determining 
the most advantageous site for a reservoir, and a contract 
was made with A. H. McNeal, of Burlington, N.J. , for 2,lt20 
tons of pipes and special castings, required for the force and 
supply mains. 

Negotiations were entered into Avith the firm of II. R. 
Worthington, of New York, for two pumping-engines Avith 
boilers and fittings, and on May 19 a contract was signed 
for furnifshing them in accordance Avith s))eciHcations ]irepared 
by this department. The Corporation Counsel, on Oct. 24, 
gave his opinion that the contract Avas not A^alid unless it was 
ratified by the City Council, Avhich ratification the Council 
refused . 

On June 15 the Mayor sent a conununication to the City 
Council recommending further examination of the proposed 
plan lor new high-service Avorks, and on July 2 an order 
was passed by the City Council authorizing the appointment 
of a commission to examine and report upon the question. 
On July 13 L. F. Rice, 8. P>. Stebbins, and L. Foster Morse, 
were ajjpointed as meml)ers of this commission, and on 
Aug. 31 they submitted the result of their investigation 
(City Doc. 122, 1885). The recommendations of this com- 
mission were considered and concurred in by Jos. P. Davis, 



Report of City Engineer. 27 

A. Fteley, and E. C. Clarke, who acted as consulting en- 
gineers. 

On Sept. 14 the act of the Legislature authorizing the 
construction of the works was accepted by the City Council, 
and on Sept. 18 the laying of the supph^ main, between Fisher 
Hill and Parker Hill reservoir, was commenced. 

Plans and specifications for the construction of Fisher-Hill 
reservoir having been prepared, proposals for doing this 
work were received on Sept. 29, and on Oct. 7 the contract 
was signed by Moulton & O'Mahoney, of Lawrence, Mass. 
Work on the reservoir was began on Oct. 10 and continued 
until Dec. 31. Seventeen thousand cubic yards of loam 
have been removed from the site of the reservoir and piled 
up for future use. 

The work of pipe-laying, which was done by the Superin- 
tendent of the Eastern Division, stopped for the season on 
Dec. 9 ; the total amount laid was 5,282 feet of 24-inch, and 
1,327 feet of 30-inch pipe. 

Tests of Boilers at Mystic Pumping-Station. 

In order to determine the efficiency of the boilers put in 
service in June, 1884, a careful trial was made on February 
9 and 10, with the following results. 

The test was conducted in the following manner : — 

On the morning of the 9th, boilers Nos. 2 and 3 were 
supplying steam for Engine No. 3, which was pumping the 
city's supply. At 10.18 A.M. the engine was stopped, the 
fires under the boilers drawn, and the ash-pits cleaned. At 
10.30 A.M. new fires were started under both boilers, the 
steam-pressure at the time (as shown by the gauges) being 
27 lbs. in boiler No. 2, and 29 lbs. in boiler No. 3. At 
10.50 A.M. the engine was started, and run continuously 
until 11.12 A.M., February 10, when it was stopped, the 
boiler-pressures at that time being the same as when the fires 
were lighted, viz., 27 and 29 lbs. 

All of the wood and coal used during the trial was carefully 
Aveighed on tested scales. The water fed to the boilers was 
carefully weighed, and also measured by a 2-inch Worthing- 
ton meter placed upon the boiler feed-pipe. Half-hourly 
observations were taken of the height of the water in boilers, 
steam-pressure in boilers, temperatures of steam, feed-water 
and iiases in fiue. 

The height of the water in the boilers at the beginning of 
the trial was carefully noted, and the water left at the same 
elevation when the trial ended. 

The boilers are of the horizontal, return tubular type, with 



28 



City Document No. 41. 



external furnaces. They are 78 inches in diameter, 17 feet 
in length, and each boiler contains 151 tubes of 3 inches, 
outside diameter. The boiler shells are 



tube sheets ^-inch steel. 



of j'g-inch steel, 



Grate surface each 7 feet by G feet, for botl 
boilers ..... 

Heating surface in both boilers 

Ratio of grate surface to heating surface 

Duration of trial .... 

Average steam-pressure . 

" temperature of steam 

" " " gases in flue 

" " " feed- water 

Total amount of wood used . 

Fuel equivalent at 40 % . 

Total coal used .... 
" fuel used .... 
" ashes drawn from grates 

Unburnt coal in ashes 

Total combustible .... 
" weight of water fed to boilers 

Water evaporated per lb. of coal at ob- 
served temperature and pressure . 

Equivalent evaporation from and at 212°, 

Water evaporated per lb. of combustible 
at observed temperature and pressure . 

Equivalent evaporation from and at 212°, 

Fuel burnt per hour .... 

Fuel burnt per hour per sq. ft. of grate 
surface ...... 

Water evaporated per hour . 

Water evaporated per hour per sq. ft. of 
grate surface ..... 

Water evaporated per hour per sq. ft. of 
heating surface ..... 



84 sq. ft. 
4,102.8 
1 to 48.8 
24 hours 22 min. 
44 lbs. 
286.6° Fah. 
344.2° " 
. 115.6° " 
633 lbs. 
253 " 
19,235 " 
19,488 " 
1,463 " 
" 
18,025 " 
190,986 " 

9.8 '' 
11.035 " 

10.596 " 
11.931 " 

800 " 

9.52 " 

7,837 " 

93.33 " 
1.91 " 



Mystic- Valley Sewer . 

The treatment of the sewage from the tanneries, by the 
removal by settling tanks of the heavier portions of the 
suspended matter, has been continued during the year. The 
engine and boiler have been thoroughly repaired, and the 
pump replaced by a new one of the same pattern. 



Report of City Engineer. 29 



C — MAIN DRAINAGE. 

The working of the INIain Drainage System has been gen- 
erally satisfactory during the past year, and no serious de- 
fects in the design have been developed. 

From the beginning of the year until June 2G the system 
was operated under the direction of the Committee on Im- 
proved Sewerage ; since that time, by order of His Honor 
the Mayor, the works have been in charge of the City En- 
gineer, j\Ir. Eliot C. Clarke, the ])rincipal Assistant En- 
gineer in charge of the works resigned on May 20, 1885, to 
devote his entire attention to his duties as Chief Engineer 
for the Massachusetts Drainage Commission. 

No sewers have been built during the year, and the 
table in the last report gives the total sewer construction 
to date. 

At the beginning of the year the area connected with this 
system was about 0.2 square miles, and at the end of the 
year 7.9 square miles, being au increase of 27 per cent. 
This increase is largely due to the connection to the system 
of the Dorchester-brook sewer, which takes drainage from 
about 1^^ square miles of territory in Roxbury and Dor- 
chester. 

The average daily amount of sewage pumped since the 
works were fairly in operation is shown as follows : — 

Daily Avcra<;e of Sewage. Pumped in gallons. 
1S84. • 1885. 

January . . . . 39,01(),276 

February .... 25,777.360 45,593,905 

March .... 32,437,379 35,095,506 

April 29,949,356 28,700,863 

May 25,121,056 30,306,228 

June 26,712,298 29,931,484 

July 25,900,400 29,642,964 

Auo-ust .... 31,674,621 36,996,434 

September .... 28,412,431 28,761,290 

October .... 27,601,557 31,476,179 

November .... 27,501,283 38,917,253 

December . . . . 30,883,501 32,894,281 



Average .... 28,379,040 33,874,575^ 

The sewage has been pumped da}' and night throughout 
the year, the maximum amount pumped in twenty-four hours 
being 98,842,000 gallons. 

1 Increase of 19.4 per cent, over daily average of 1884. 



30 City Document No. 41. 



Maix and Intercepting Sewers. 

The tide-gates, regulators, flushing and penstock gates, and 
all other machinery and iron-work connected with these 
sewers, have been periodically inspected and painted, the 
tide-gates being inspected alter each storm. The gravel and 
sand collecting in the upper ends of the intercei)ting sewers 
are flushed along them to convenient places for removal by 
the men employed on this division of the works. 

Pumping-Station. 

The following table shows the performance of the engines 
at the pumping-station during the year 1885 : — 



Report of City Engtneer. 



31 



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5: o" co" 

r^ ^ ^ 



r-i »M f-H 

CO Ci^ co_ 

c-r cT co" 

CO 1-^ o 

•^ I-H I-- 

of CT r-T 

1- c» 



lO >o >0 kO 



-t CO o 



P^ a <5 3 



a a 



O ^ Q 

















C' 


.— 


-p 






























O CO 






o 


to 


00 


-* 










o 






1— 






T-. 




OD 


,—1 


1 . 


f^r 


o 










































































































































































■^ r-1 


'-' 










'"' 






tH 


'-' 


2 



if o 

a-2 






_ i 60 

"■a g 

>a O) to" 

— C SO 

C t; C3 

S = V 



?■'=> to 

~ a) a 

c O 3 

a..- ti) 
« o ,3 



s o m 
P-5 S 



H - o 

o >. 



32 City Document No. 41. 

Cost of Pumping. 

Salaries $15,077 00 

Fuel G/J74 00 

Oil, waste, and packing . . . . 1,338 00 

Water-rates 951 00 

Kuhber valves 355 00 

Gasoline 416 00 

Kenewals, repairs, and small supplies . . 7G6 00 



Total $26,477 00 

Cost per million gallons lifted one foot liigli, $0,059. 

Pu3iping-Engine Tests. 

On March 24, 25, and May 1, 2, 1885, tests were m:ide to 
ascertain the duty of Engine No. 3, and the efficiency of the 
boiler used in connection with it. The tests were made, under 
the direction of the City Engineer, by members of his staff. 

The engine tested is one of the high-duty engines designed 
by jNlr. E. D. Leavitt, Jr., on general specifications prepared 
by Mr. J. P. Davis, when City Engineer. It was built by 
the Quintard Iron Woi'ks, of New Yoik. A description of 
the engine and l)oilers has already been printed in previous 
reports, in the history of the Main Drainage Works, and in 
the Journal of the Association of Engineering Societies, 
and will not be repeated here. Steam was furnished by 
Boiler No. 2. 

The intended duration of each test was twenty-four hours. 

The method of making the tests was as follows : steam 
was raised in the boiler until the pressure was sufficient to 
run the engine. The fires were then drawn, the ash-pits 
carefully cleaned, and new fires were started. It was desired 
to determine the quantity of water j)umped, by actual meas- 
urement, in the reservoir at Moon Island ; and since stopping 
the eno^ine would have caused large fluctuations of level in 
the connecting sewers, and so prevented accuracy of measure- 
ment, it was decided to keep the engine running at a con- 
stant rate. This was done by furnishing the engine with 
steam from Boiler No. 3 until a few minutes after the new 
fires were started, when, by operating the valves rapidly and 
simultaneously. Boiler No. 3 was shut oflT, and the engine 
took steam from No. 2, thus beginning the engine test. The 
enfjine counter was read at the instant the test bc£;an, and the 
other necessary observations were taken. The steam press- 
ure was increased from about 70 pounds, at the start, until it 
reached 100 pounds, at which it was kept constant until near 



Eeport of City Engineer. 33 

the end of trial, when the fires were burned as low as 
possil)le, the steam pressure dropping in consequence. 
When the pressure and height of water in the boiler were 
the same as at the beginning of the experiment, the final 
observations were taken, and the fires were drawn. The 
refuse was then spread upon the floor to cool. The unburnt 
coal was picked from the ashes and weighed. This weight 
(averaging less than one per cent, of the total coal) was 
deducted from the gross amount of coal charged. The valve 
between Boilers No. 2 and No. 3 is supposed to have been 
tight ; but, to avoid increasing the duty by any leakage, the 
pressure in the latter was kept lower than in the former. 

The height of the sewage in the pump-well was determined 
by a float-gauge, tested before each trial ; the load on the 
pump by a mercurial gauge, attached to the force-main of 
another engine. This gauge represented the height in the 
pipe-cham!)er at the end of the force-mains, and, to get the 
actual pressure pumped against, it was necessary to add the 
friction in the force-main used. During the second test the 
actual pressure against which the pumps were working was 
measured by the elevation of the surface of water in a box 
at the top of a pipe connected with the force-main a few feet 
from the pump. A comparison of this gauge with the mer- 
curial one gave a correction for friction in the force-main to 
use with the first test. 

Dry Cumberland coal from the Pocahontas mine was used 
during the trial. It was fed to the boiler from a car holding 
about 1,200 pounds. During the first test the car and con- 
tents were reweighed at the end of each half hour, and dur- 
ing the second test after each firing. 

The steam pressures at the boiler and the pressures and 
vacuum at the engine were determined by Bourdon gauges, 
which had been previously tested. 

The temperature of the steam was taken by a thermome- 
ter inserted in the main steam-pipe within a few feet of the 
boiler. This thermometer was broken, so that readings could 
not l)e taken during the second test. 

The barometer was an aneroid placed in the engine-room. 

The quantity of water fed to the boiler was measured in 
the following manner : a barrel, holding about 150 gallons, 
was placed upon a tested platform-scale, and supplied with 
cold water from the Cochituate main, and also with con- 
densed water from the reheaters and steam-cylinder jackets. 
During the second test the exhaust steam from the boiler 
feed-pump was condensed in a small barrel placed above the 
weighing-barrel, into which it was drawn from time to time. 

After havino; been wei<rhed the water was run into a larsre 



34 City Document No. 41. 

till), from Avhich the feed-pump drew its supply. The meas- 
urement of the feed-water was ehecked by a Worthinuton 
water-meter placed between the feed-pump and the feed- 
water heater. 

To ascertain approximately the amount of water returned 
from the cylinder-jackets and reheaters the amount of cold 
Avater used was measured during the second test l)y a meter 
placed on the Cochituate supply. 

About seven hours after the beginning of the first test a 
small leak was discovered from a safety-valve on the boiler 
feed-pipe between the pump and the hat-water meter. After 
being discovered, the water leaking was caught and returned 
to the feed-pump tub. For a period of about fourteen hours 
the leakage was weighed, and the rate so determined was 
used to make a correction for the time before the leak was 
discovered. The total amount of this correction was (550 
pounds. 

On the second test all pipe connections with feed-pipes, 
boilers, and engine, except those in use, were disconnected, 
to avoid all chance of error from leakage. 

Temperatures of the feed- water Avere taken l)efore and 
after i)assing through the feed- water heater by means of 
thermometers inserted in the feed-pipe. 

A thermometer in a tube partially filled Avith oil was in- 
serted in the flue to ascertain the temjjerature of the gases 
beyond the feed-Avater heater, and on the second testa similar 
thermometer Avas placed in the flue between the boiler and 
heater. 

Throughout the trials half-hourly observations Avere made 
of the engine counter, pressure of steam at engine and boilers, 
vacuum in condenser in inches of mercury, height of water 
in boiler, height of water in tub holding feed-pump supply, 
water-meters on boiler feed-pipe and cold-Avater pipe, 
barometer, temperature of steam, temperature of gases in 
flue, and temperature of engine-room. Fifteen-minute i-ead- 
ings were taken of the force-main and pump-well gauges, 
and readings of the feed-water thei'mometers every ten 
minutes. 

Temperatures of the external air and indicator diagrams 
from the steam-cylinders Avere taken hourly. 

A large number of observers Avere employed, and care Avas 
taken to secure accuracy in all of the observations. The 
more important records Avere also taken ind(>pendently by 
assistants of Mr. Leavitt. 

Ko calorimeter tests Avere made to ascertain the quality of 
the steam. For the j)ui-poses of calculation it has been as- 
sumed that all of the water Avas evaporated into dry steam. 



Report of City Engineer. 



35 



Record of Two Duty Tests to Engine Xo. 3 (Leavitt) 
AT THE Boston Main-Drainage Works. 



1. Date of trials 

2. Time of beginning trial 

3. Duration 

4. Total revolutions 

5. Revolutions per minute 

6. Displacement of pumps per revolution. 

7. Distance from of gauge down to sew- 

age in pump-well 



8. Height of sewage in pipe-chamber, as 
given by mercurial gauge, graduated 
to give equivalent heiglit of column 
of fresh water 



9. Pressure in force-main near the pump, 
as indicated by column of fresh water 
at temperature 55° F 



First Test. 



Mar. 24, 25, '85. 

lO.OG A.M. 

24h. 43m. 

19,526. 

13.17. 

226.19 cu. ft. 

11.68 ft. 
25.76 ft. 



10. Correction of mercurial gauge for fric- 
tion in force-main, from data furnished 
by comparison of No. 8 and No. 9. . . . 



11. Total lift 

12. Weight of fresh water per cubic foot. . . 

13. Total weight of dry coal consumed . . . . 

14. Duty of engine as developed by the 

trials : — 



1st trial 



2d trial 



19526 X 220.19 X 37.80 X 62.42_ 
83T07 

19372 X 226.19 X 42.43 X 62.40 



94.78 
15. Mean pressure of steam in boilers 



16. Mean pressure of steam in main steam- 
pipe near engine 



17. Mean vacuum in condenser. 



0.36 ft. 
37.80 ft. 
62.42 lbs. 
8,307 lbs. 



125,450,000' 



99.4 lbs, 



28.1 ins. 



Second Test. 



May 1, 2, 1885. 

10.31 A.M. 

24h. Urn. 

19,372. 

13.42. 

226.19 cu. ft. 

15.48 .ft. 

26.55 ft. 
26.95 ft. 



42.43 ft. 
62.40 lbs. 
9,478 lbs. 



122,400,000 
98.6 lbs. 

96.1 lbs. 
28.0 ins. 



^ To reduce this duty on the first trial to the usual standard, it is necessary to make a cor- 
rection lor the coal used to supply steam to the feed-pumps. Assuming the duty of the feed- 
pump to be 10,0U0,0U0, the corrected duty of the purapiug-engine is 122,500,000. 



36 



City Document No. 41. 



18. Mean atmosplieric pressure by barometer, 

19. " temperature of air in engine-room 

20. " *' of external air 

21. Total volume of sewage pumped by 

plunger displacement 

22. Total volume of sewage pumped, as 

actually measured 

23. Average slip of pumps 

24. Indicated borse-power, as determined 

by the measurement of two sets of 
cards for each trial 

25. Horse-power in sewage lifted, pump 

measurement, no allowance for slip. 

26. Work done by pump in per cent, of 

indicated horse-pow^er 

27. Coal burned per hour per indicated 

horse-power 



First Test. 



30.18 ins. 
G7.5 deg. 
31.7 deg. 

33,038,000 gals. 

30,224,000 gals. 
8.5 per cent.' 

251.5 H. P. 

212.9 H. P. 

84. 6G per cent. 

1.33 lbs. 



Second Test. 



29.81 in3. 
75.2 deg. 
40.G deg. 

32, 778,000 gals. 

31,256,000 gals. 
4.6 per cent 

290.2 H. P, 

243.5 H. P. 

83.90 per cent. 

1.35 Ibsi 



1 At the end of the first test it was found that two of the rubber discharge-valves had been 
torn oft', whicfi accounts for the large slip. A study of tlie question indicated that this would 
liot raatci'ially iittcct the duty, a view which is corroborated by the uniform n^laiion between 
the indicated and the actual horse-power in the two tests. The loss of action in the pumps, 
when the valves were less worn, was about 2.b per cent. 



Kecord of Two Tests of Boiler No. 2, at the Boston 
Main-Drainage Works, made in Connection with 
Engine Tests. 

Reported in the form recommended by the Committee of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers. 



1. Date of trial 

la. Time of beginning trial 

2. Duration of trial 

Dimensions and Proportions 

3. Grate surface 

3a. Area of least draught 



First Test. 



Mar. 24, 25, 1885. 
9.58 a.m. 
24h. 51m. 



45.5 sq. ft. 
5.50 " " 



Second Test. 



May 1,2, 1885. 
10.25 a.m. 
24h. 9im. 



45.5 sq. ft. 
5.50 " " 



Report of City Engineer. 



37 



4. Water-heating surface 

5. Super-heating surface 

5a. Heating surface in feed-water heater 

6. Eatin of water-heating surface to grate 

surface 



Av'ERAGE Pressures. 

7. Steam pressure in boiler by gauge . . 

8. Absolute steam pressure 

9. Atmosplieric pressure by barometer. 

Average Temperatures. 

11. Of external air 

13. Of steam 



First Test. 


Second Test. 


1,82G. sq. ft. 


1,S2G. sq. ft. 


G. " " 


G. " " 


934. " " 


934. " " 



14. Of escaping gases before passing feed- 
water heater 



14a. Of escaping gases after passing feed- 
water heater 



15. Of feed-water before passing heater, 
loa. Of feed-water after passing heater. . 
lob. Of Cochituate water 



Fuel. 

18. Dry coal consumed 

iQ rp , , {■ ■, f 1st test, 4.32 lbs. 

19. Total refuse dry I 2j "497 << 

20. Total combustible (weight of coal, 

item 18, less refuse, item 19) 



21. Dry coal consumed per hour. . . . 

22. Combustible consumed per hour 

Water. 



26. Total weight of water pumped into 
boiler and apparently evaporated . 



40-1 

99.4 lbs. 
114.2 lbs. 
30.18 ins. 

31.7 deg. 
339.0 deg. 



183.5 deg. 
96.5 deg. 
145.1 deg. 



8,307 lbs. 
5.2 per cent. 

7,875 lbs. 
334.3 lbs. 
316.9 lbs. 



86,783 lbs. 



40-1 

98. G lbs. 
113.2 lbs. 
29.81 ins. 

40.6 deg. 

439 deg. 

194.2 deg. 

120.7 deg. 
1G4.1 deg. 

46 deg. 

9,478 lbs. 
5.2 per cent. 

8.981 lbs. 

392.3 lbs. 

371.8 lbs. 

98,780 lbs. 



38 



City Document No. 41. 



26a. Clieck on above measurement by 
meter measurement 



33. 



34. 



266. Per cent, less by meter 



26c. Feed-water taken from Cocliituate 
main, meter measurement 



28. Equivalent water evaporated into 

dry steam from and at 2I2°F., 

f Including feed-water heater 

\ Excluding " " .... 

29. Equivalent total heat derived from 

fuel in Britisli tliermal units, 
f Including feed-water heater. . . . 
\ Excluding " " .... 

30. Equivalent water evaporated into 

dry steam from and at 212° F. 

V r Including f.w.h 

per hour <^ ,, i i- x- i 

^ ( Excludnig t.w.h 



Economic Evaporation. 

31. Water actually evaporated per 

pound of dry coal, from a(;tual 
pressure and temperature 

32. Equivalent water evaporated per 

j)ound of dry coal from and at 

f Including f.w.h 

\ Excluding f.w.h 



212° F. 



Equivalent 
l)0und of 

at 212° F 



water evaporated per 
combustil)le from and 

Including f.w.h 

diny: f.w.h 



f Includ 
\ Exclut 



Commercial EvAroRATioN. 

Equivalent water evaporated per 
pound of dry coal, witii one-sixth 
refuse, at 70 pounds gauge-press- 
ure, from temi)erature of 100° 
F. = item 33 multiplied by 

.f. C Including f.w.h 

( Excluding f.w.h 



0.7240 



Rate of Comhustion. 

'Dry coal actually burned i>er square 
foot of grate surface per hour 



First Test. 



85,640 lbs. 
1.3 per cent. 



100,668 lbs. 
96,329 lbs. 



89,093,971 
85,828,387 



4,051 lbs. 
3,876 lbs. 



10.45 lbs. 



12.12 lbs. 
11.60 lbs. 



12.78 lbs. 
12.23 lbs. 



9.26 lbs. 
8.87 lbs. 



7.35 lbs. 



Second Test. 



96,620 lbs. 
2.2 per cent. 

78,836 lbs. 



112,115 lbs. 
107,571 lbs. 



100,064,140 
05,816,600 



4,641 lbs. 
4,453 lbs. 



10.42 lbs. 



11.83 lbs. 
11.35 lbs. 



12.48 lbs. 
11.08 lbs. 



9 05 lbs. 
8.68 lbs. 



8.62 lbs. 



Report of City Engineer. 



39 





First Test. 


Second Test. 


36. 


' Consumption ~] Per sq.ft. of grate 








of dry coal surface 


8.36 lbs. 


9.80 lbs. 


37. 


p e r h o u r. , Per sq.ft.of water- 
Coal assum- j heating surface. 








0.208 lbs. 


0.244 lbs. 


38. 


ed witli one- Persq. ft. of least 








|_ sixth refuse. J area for draught. 


69.1 lbs. 


81.1 lbs. 




Rate of Evaporation. 






39. "Water evaporated from and at 212° 








F. ; per sq. ft. of heating-surface 








per hour, excluding f.w.h 


2.12 lbs. 


2.44 lbs. 


40. 


' Water evapo- " 


Per sq. ft. of grate 








rated per 
hour, from 


surface 


74.1 lbs. 


85.1 lbs. 










temperat u r e 








*1- . 


of 100° F., in- 


Per sq. ft. of water- 
heating surface. 






to steam of 


1.84 lbs. 


2.12 lbs. 




70 lbs. gauge- 










])re?sure, ex- 








42. 


cluding feed- 


Per sq. ft. of least 








water heater. 


area for draught. 


613.0 lbs. 


704.2 lbs. 




Commercial Horse-power. 






43. C 


)n the basis of 30 lbs. of water per 
hour evaporated from tempera- 
ture of 100° F. into steam of 
70 lbs. gauge-pressure (jrz 34^ 






HJ.B 


lbs. from and at 212°) 








( Including f.w.h 


117 H.P. 


134 H.P. 




1 Excluding f.w.h 


112 H.P. 


129 H.P. 



The logs of the tests are shown iu the tables following : 



Log of First Test of Leavitt Eiigiuc and Boiler at the Main Drainage Pnniping-Statlon, Boston, Marcli 2+ and 25. 188r. 





































QOANTITT OF V 


•"'"■" 








W.TEI, E,*ro» 


ATBD 






— 




























onw. 


«M.B. 




By wclglil 


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4 


, 


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7 


. 


« 


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1, 


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IS 


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,» 


«. 


»4 


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«« 


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., 


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111. 


sl 


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i 




! 


1 

1 


i 


1 








1 


1 




6| 


1 






g 


li 


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1 


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5 






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io 


r 


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u 


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■f 




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»i 


a. 


1 


1 

f 


: 


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If! 

Jll 


1 


1 

1 


1 


is 

< 


1 
1 


1 
P 


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II 


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5 


B 


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fl 


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il 


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4^ 


p 


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■sl 


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M.«h M. 






E™ 


nboVc 


Si 


i.b.. 


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DCS. r. 


Dtg.F. 


D«g.F. 


Des. F. 


Dtg. F. 1. 


e-F. 


Dtg. F. 


Lb.. 


a'.° 


Cubic 


Lb.. 


u,. 


Lb,. 


K... 


Lb.. 


Lb.. 


Lb.. 


P.... 


Lb.. 


Lb,. 








«ro. 


icro, 


""■ 







_:::_ 
















— 














•-^ — 
































10 




OTO 


30 31 


320 


T7 


118 




^m" 6 




23 


' 1.3.5 








1 




0.32 


1302 






.62 


320..3 






O5S.03.1 
0W.3J0 


31, 


23.,. 




"'! 


1° 




2... 


30.3. 


3.32 


81 


lis 




li! 1 


0.6 


2o" 




2(10,202 


' 31 


' i,«8 


1,023.8 




0.32 


1,862 




' 1,831 


'.II 


2,0.0.0 


m 


11.30 ■■ 


zz 


881 


2i,»0 




"Z 


101 




:: 


r 


:" 


110 


142 




1,2 C 


;.5 




1.2 


200.333 


21 


1,2.1.2 


: 3,105.0 
4.408.2 


2.322 


0.32 


1,1.2 


1,381 
1.2S5 


3,192 
4,477 


.6 


2,061.1 
1,65L6 


1,058.0 


l.» " 


6«,S13 


: 


"™ 




,1..6 


102 




E 


i 


E 


04 


E 




E : 




31 


128 


200,420 
200,446 


20 


1,.27.3 


8,440,0 
0,867.3 


2,40. 


67 


113. 


;:: 


0.945 
11,418 


..8 


1,860,- 


1,876.3 


!.M •■ 


IW3.107 


m 


2S.7S 




;;■.» 


1.1 


1 

1 


23. 


»" 


3.1 


;; 


137- 




10. 


3.6 


■38'' 


130 


290.510 


■' 




15,824,9 


2,372 


0.4. 


1,23. 




15,065 


.63 




1,736.7 


IZ "■■ 


.>fi..298 


1 


^M 




,1.33 


«, 


i 


Uii 


3.0 


111 


14, 




173 




." 


120 


200,561 


2. 


I*,.- 


■ IS^U.i 


.,!« 


,.07 


71. 




iwsa 


.» 


-..^, 


>.«7.6 


H.30 •■ 


OM.osa 


3W 


35.70 






100 


= 






340 


18 


140 




1.6 


' 




207 


200,601 


30 


1.801.7 


20.4,0.- 


2,391 


.6 


'■ 


1.001 


20,084 


.50 


2,054.1 


1.TO0.2 


6.00 " 


oas,OT« 


300 


25.75 




11.23 


101 


t 


■2B.0 


30.21 


340 


85 


141 




177 


* 


33 


202 




3, 


2,296.1 


.•2,,, 5.3 




0.51 


1.190 






.55 


2,650.0 




Z "■■ 


665.471 

eo:..Bc- 

0M.25B 
M0.M8 
OflT.MS 


z 


7-1 




11.26 


100 


1 
1 


28,0 


80.22 


84. 


1.7 


1« 




18:i 1 


".5 




2'23 


200,740 
2B0.70S 


I 


1,881.7 
1,308.8 


28,422.0 


2,106 
2,411 


E 


'E 


2,35. 


28,155 
28,648 


To 


2.352.7 
3,050.6 
2,461.3 


2,,548.6 


1.00 ■• 


607,437 


3,3 


2S.I6 




11.33 


DU 


_g 


271 


30.21 


330 


1.3 


143 









20 


60 


200,702 


■3. 


l,4B9wl 


32,052.8 


i.m 


1.8. 


203 


032 


33,427 


.62 


2,252.7 


' ,J30. 


!.M •■ 


067,830 


30> 


«6 




11.40 


z 


4 


286 


soil 


310 


84 


153 




1.8 





J8.3 


100 


290.8-21 
290,853 


2. 


i,oa6.g 


34,938.7 


3,530 


0.37 


1.318 




34,050 


.66 


2,252.7 


2,262. 


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Log of Second Test of IjCavitt Eng:inc and Boiler at the Main Drainage Pumping-Station, Boston, May I and 2, 1885 



Hil 



l»l 






ZTi' 



rrr 



Report of City Engineer. 41 

The rubber valves used in the pumps began to require re- 
newal early in the season, after a term of service which 
proved them to be well adapted to the work required of 
them. xVs the annual cost of renewing- these valves Avill be 
quite large, various qualities of rubber are now being tested 
in the pumps, for the purpose of establishing an economical 
standard. 

The pumping plant, as a Avhole, is in excellent condition. 

The apparatus for ventilating the sub-galleries of the en- 
gine-house, and the sewers leading to it, is working well. 

A [)owerful press has been placed in the lilth-hoist, where 
it is used for compressing and drj'ing the materials raised 
from the sewers by the screen-cages. The materials thus 
treated are afterward burned under the boilers. The tem- 
porary floors and galleries in the engine-house and filth-hoist 
will be replaced by permanent structures, designs for which 
are now in preparation. 

A small force of men has been employed during the sea- 
son grading, soiling, seeding, and putting in order the 
grounds about the station. 

After the lot of land for the proposed dwellings for em- 
ployes was purchased, the surplus gravel from the pumping- 
station grounds was removed to it, and the grounds thus 
cleared covered with soil. Eai'ly next season it is expected 
that the grading will be finished, and the grass well started 
on all parts of the grounds. A 4-inch water-j)ipe has been 
laid to the wharf, to supply the tow-boat, and two hydrants 
have been set for additional protection to the wooden struct- 
ures about the station. 

A swinging platform has been l)uilt at the wharf-end of 
the coal-run, and a fence has been built on each side of the 
roadway leading to the station. 

Deposit Sewers. 

These sewers, located beyond the pumping-station, in- 
tercept the heavy matter that might otherwise find its way 
into the tunnel and possibly clog it. The total amount of 
deposit received in them to Jan. 1, 188(5, was 4,400 cubic 
yards, consisting, for the most part, of sand, ashes, gravel, 
paper pulp, and burnt match-ends, nn'xed with a small })ro- 
portion of rags and sticks and enough fecal matter to cause 
it to be oflensive. A large amount of this material had 
collected in the sewer before it had been determined how to 
dispose of it. 

The method of removino- the sludije is as follows : The 
deposit is first scraped and flushed to the lower end of the 



42 City Document No. 41. 

deposit-sewers by means of a scrnpiiiir-machine moved by 
the current. At this point the dc[)osit is l)rought to the 
mouth of a jiipc, throui>h which it is carried by a strong 
current to a large wooden tank on the ed<2:e of the channel. 
When a sufficient quantity has been carried into the tank 
the flow is stopped, and the contents of the tank emptied into 
a scow, which is towed outside the harljor and dumped. 
Since the opening of Dorchester Bay, in the spriug, 2,000 
cubic yards have been thus removed. The apparatus has 
sufficient capacity to remove a little more than double the 
amount of deposit received, and the removal of that first 
accumidated is therefore necessarily slow, but will be ac- 
complished during the coming season. 

In attempting to remove the deposit by hand labor it was 
found that the men shovelling it soon l)ecame temporarily 
blind from the efiects of the gases liberated. 

Of the different methods considered for removing this 
deposit that now employed has the advantage of transport- 
ing it under water until it is ready to be loaded into the 
scow, thereby preventing a possible nuisance if the deposits 
were hoisted out of the sewer and handled on the surface in 
the open air. The method used will also permit of the con- 
tinuous cleaning of the sewers and the steady employment of 
labor. 

The scow now- used to carry the sludge from the de[)osit 
sewers out to sea Avas fitted for temporary use only, and in 
cold weather it works in a very unsatisfactory manner. 
Designs have been made for a dump-scow specially ada|)ted 
to this work, and it is the intention to build it during the 
comino- season. 



Tunnel. 

The tunnel has been frequently flushed by running the 
four ]ium[)s simultaneously for several hours. During two 
flushings, on August 28 and Sei)tcml)er 25, 1885, careful 
measurements were taken of the volume of sewage flowing, 
the difference of levels of the sewage at the two ends of the 
tunnel, and all other data re(juii'ed to determine its capacity. 
The results show that up to the time of the last measure- 
ment the ca})acity of the tunnel had not a[)prccial)ly dimin- 
ished. 

A considerable amount of the grease contained in the 
sewage pas.sing through the tunnel rises into and collects in 
the cast shaft. Ninety tons of this grease have ' recently 
been removed from the shaft, and repeated attempts have 
been made to clarify it, but without success. 



Keport of City Engineer. 43 

The pump for tho tunnel is still stored, and it is prohable 
that it will not be needed for use for some time. The necessary 
foundations sliould, however, he huilt soon, so that if needed 
the pump could be speedily put in use. 

Flume. 

The temporary wooden flume between S(]uantimi and 
Moon Island shows no signs of deca}". Under a poition of 
it, al)out 100 feet Ions:, the piles settled from 1 inch to 
3^ inches, although the load on them was the same carried 
since the opening of the works. The flume has been raised 
to its original position and means taken to prevent further 
settlement. 

The flume was desiirned with reference to a flow throus^h 
it oi 100,000,000 gallons in 2-4 hours, this being the normal 
capacity of the four sewage-pumps. 

An automatic electric apparatus has been placed in the 
connection chamber at Squantum, which records on a dial at 
the gate- house at Moon Ishmd the pressure on the upper end 
of the flume. Connection by telephone has also been made 
between the two places, and a man is stationed at the former 
during storms. 

Reservoir and other AA'orks at Moon Island. 

The grounds have l)cen graded and old buildings removed. 

To facilitate the daily cleaning of the reservoirs, 21 auto- 
matic gates have been constructed and placed between the 
G-feet gallery and the reservoirs : they are used in coimection 
with the outlet and inlet gates, and give very satisfactory 
results. 

For cleaning the walls of the reservoir salt-water jets are 
used, these being furnished by a Deane pump, which was set 
up and piped l)y the force employed on the works. Power 
for this ])ump is usually furnished by a turbine wheel 
operated l)y the sewage, but steam-power is provided for 
use when necessary. 

A boarding-house and several other buildings at the Island 
were purchased from Messrs. C. W. Parker & Co. The 
boarding-house is now^ used for the accommodation of the 
em])loyes but it makes a very unsatisfactory dwelling in cold 
weather. 

After each discharge of the sewage the deposits on the 
bottom of the reservoir ai'e washed into the discharge-sewers. 
AYhen this washing is finished, about four feet in depth of 
sew^age, loaded Avith de})osits, is in the outlet-sewers, the dis- 
charge of which is prevented by the height of the tide. As 



44 City Document No. 41. 

the tide ran out, this sewage foi'inorly flowed sluggishly out 
witii it, and the slow currents which pass the outlet at the 
lower stages of the tide caused it to lodge on the flats and 
beaches in the immediate vicinity of the outlet. This evil 
was partially remedied by providing two large wooden gates 
to close the sewers near their outlets when the discharge 
from the reservoir is sto])ped. These gates retain the wash- 
ings of the basins until the next discharge. They have 
operated in a satisfactory manner throughout the year, and 
hive diminished the amount of the deposit on the shore 
near the outlet. Although the amount of deposit has been 
reduced by the use of the gates above mentioned, there is 
yet in warm weather a considerable odor at low tide from it. 
This can be prevented by the construction of a sea-wall, 
plans for which have been made. 

The roadway, nearly a mile in length, between Squantum 
and jNIoon Island, has been fenced on both sides. 

A brick gate-house has been built over the outlet gates, 
under the direction of the City Architect. 

The portion of the embankment between Squantum and 
Moon Island, in which the permanent sewer was not built, 
continues to settle at a decreasing rate. The settlement, as 
shown by instrumental observations, was from one to two 
inches during the past year. 

The amount expended in 1885, from the appropriation for 
the construction of the works is $109, 270. 53, of which $14,- 
973.21 were expended for maintaining the works Ironi Janu- 
ary 1, to May 1, 1885. The total appropriation to date is 
$5,388,000; total cost of the works to January 1, 188G, 
less the amount received from the sale of old machinery, etc., 
$5,27(),()77.3() ; balance unexpended, $111, 922. ()4. 

The avu'tlahle balance is a smaller sum than this on account 
of amounts due contractors. 

A separate appropriation of $50,000 was made for the 
maintenance of the works during the year beginning May 1, 
1885. Of this the amount spent to Januarj- 1, 188(5, is $35,- 
838.81. 

Soil-AVateu Investigations. 

Soon after the inception of the Main Drainage AVorks, 
fears were expressed that it would lower the soil-water in 
the Back-Hay district below the tops of the ])iles supporting 
the buildings. It was thought that this would be caused by 
the shutting out of the tide-water from the sewers, and by 
the low level, at which the sewage in both connnon and in- 
tercepting sewers would be maintained by an unintenu[)ted 
flow of the sewage to the })um[)ing-station. 



Report of City Engineer. 45 

In March, 1878, 20 pipes were driven in different parts of 
the Back-Bay district, and in them the height of the soil- 
water was measured. 

In the corresponding month of the past year, after the 
Main Drainage AVorks had been in operation for more than 
a year, the level of the soil-water was again measured, and 
from measurements taken in eleven pipes, which were all 
that could be found of the original twenty, the average level 
was found to be about an inch higher than in 1878. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

The Main Drainage Works were designed to intercept and 
dispose of the sewage from a population of 800,000, and also 
an amount of water equal to a rainfall of ^-inch in twenty- 
four hours, in the low level district to be drained (see History 
Boston Main Drainage Works, 1885.) To complete the design 
it will be necessary to double the pumping capacity of the 
works. At the present time the pumping plant has a surplus 
capacity equal to al)out three times the present ordinary dry- 
weather flow of sewage, and this surplus capacity is utilized 
to prevent the flooding of cellars, etc., in low districts dur- 
ing; storms at high tide. 

The area connected with the Main Drainage System is 
being rapidly increased, and a large proportion of this in- 
crease in area drained is in districts of the city which are 
intended to be drained at some future time by a "High Level 
Sewer," connecting with the main system at Squantum. The 
brook-water and street drainage from these districts cannot 
be taken into the main sewer without taxing the works be- 
yond their capacity, and the brooks now emptying into it 
from certain districts should be provided with independent 
outlets. 

The water from house-roofs taken into the sewers will still 
further increase the amount to be pumped, and to this may 
be added the ground-water entering the city sewers through 
leaks in them and their connections, this last amount depend- 
ing upon the care with which the city sewers are built and 
maintained. 

In deciding upon the system to be pursued in sewering 
different districts of the city these matters should receive 
careful consideration, as not only the cost of the sewers to 
be built is involved, but also that of increasing the main 
system, and of the daily pumping. 

It has been found that large quantities of salt-water used 
for manufacturing purposes are discharged into the sewers ; 



46 City Document No. 41. 

in one instance the daily amount so discharged being esti- 
mated at 1,000,000 gallons, or 3^ per cent, of the average 
daily amount of sewage pumped. In this instance the water 
is turned into the sewers so hot as to make it impossible to 
enter them for repairing and cleaning. 

During the past season one manufacturer has voluntarily 
provided an outlet into the sea for the salt-water to be used 
by him, his attention having been called to the evils to be 
caused by discharging it into the sewer. 

I would recommend that the City Council take such action 
as may be necessary to prevent such use of the sewers in the 
future, and to remedy like evils already existing. 



D. — PARKS. 

For the purpose of making this report a complete record of 
the work of this department, the following statement, which 
was made to the Park Commissioners, and printed in their 
report to the City Council, is given : — 



Back Bay Improvement. 

Grading and Loaming. — The work of excavating the marsh to the 
established grade has been continued. 

In doing this work the sods were removed, the mud excavated, and 
the sods I'elaid. A portion of the proposed marsh-meadow, which 
had been filled with dredged materials, was also sodded. The total 
area of marsh-meadow graded and sodded is now 3.57,000 square feet, or 
43 per cent, of the whole. The muck excavated from the marsh, 
together with a large amount dug from the channel by the dredging- 
machine, was used in grading the slopes between the driveways and 
the shore of the water-waj". These slopes were afterwards covered 
with loam and compost and are ready for planting. 

The total area now graded and loamed for planting is 435,000 square 
feet, or 32 per cent, of the whole area to be treated in this manner. 

The greater part of the area graded in LS84 has been planted during 
the past season, making the total area planted 315,000 square feet, or 
23 per cent, of the whole. 

Gravel Filling. — The Boston & Albany R.R. Co. has furnished, 
during the year, the gravel required for grading the driveways and 
forming the shores of the water-way, the total amount delivered being 
3,594 squares, and the price paid $3.50 per square. 

Excavation of Water-way. — Dredging was resumed on April 15, 
and continued until December 17, the total quantity of material 
dredged during the year being 51,419 cubic yards. This amount is less 
than that of the previous year, the working season having been shorter, 
and the work more difficult to do. 

The ccjst was about 23 cents per cubic yard, including the cost of all 
repairs, no allowance being made for the cost and depreciation in value 
of the plant. 

There is charged to dredging the cost of handling considerable mate- 
rial, which could not be measured, and is, therefore, not included in the 



REroRT OF City Exgineer. 47 

above amount of work done, and also the cost of towing scows loaded 
by hand with suds and other material. 

The area of water-way excavated to grade is now 1,043,000 square 
feet, or i^'J per cent, of tl)e whole, and the length of shore line com- 
pleted is 18,100 lineal feet, or G« per cent, of the whole. 

]Jrii-e-icays. — The drive-way from Parker street to Commonwealth 
avenue has been graded, curb-stones have been set, gutters jjaved, and 
the catch-basins and (h'ains constructed. 

The blue-stone edgings and posts for enclosing the tree spaces on the 
northerly side of the drive have been purchased, and are on the ground, 
but have not as j-et been set. 

The total length of curb-stone set is 4,138, lineal feet, and tiie area of 
gutters paved 1,87G^ square yards. 

Miscellaneous. — Temporary wire fences have been constructed 
around such portion of the planted areas as needed protection. 

The various structures are in good condition, with the exception of 
the granite curb which supports the iron I'ailing around tiie phmted 
areas in the IJeacon Entrance; a portion of this has settled out of shape, 
and will have to be reset before sidewalks are built. 

The structures for controlling the flow of the Avater in Stony brook 
and the Back-bay basin have satisfactorily performed the work for 
which thev were designed. 

On February 10 an unusual freshet occurred in Stony brook, and on 
the 2.5th of November a severe easterly storm caused the tide to rise to 
a height greater than it has attained for several jears. On neither 
of these occasions was there any serious damage done to the slopes 
around the basin. 

A sewer has been built b}' the Sewer Department in Marlborough 
street, and connected temporarily with the Stony-brook conduit, 
with the understanding that early iu next season this sewer, together 
with one-in Newbury street, which was connected with the conduit in 
1884, antl the sewer in Huntington avenue, shall be connected witli the 
Main Drainage System. 



Covered Ciiaxxel of Muddy River. 

The conduit which was damaged as described in the last annual re- 
port has been thoroughly repaired, and in December the flow of Muddy 
river was again turned through it, and the connection with the Back- 
bay basin closed. 

The conduit across Brookline avenue, which is intended to connect 
Muddy liver with the Back-bay basin, is uncompleted, the land 
needed for that purpose not having been obtained. This work, to- 
gether with the retaiuing-wall required, should be done during the 
cumin": season. 



BussEY Park. 

Owing to the small amount of the appropriation for this park less 
work has been done during the past year than in previous years. A 
small force was employed iluring the early part of the year at tlie quarry 
on Bussey street, getting out stone for use on the drive-ways. The 
dri\e-way to the top of the open hill has been partially graded. 

Stones for granite gate-posts at the entrances to the drive-way already 
built liave been cut, and the posts at the South-street entrance have 
been built. 

Wire fences have been placed on the boundaries of the park where 
there were no fences previously. 



48 City Document No. 41. 



Frankux Park. 

A small force was employed in the early part of the year in removing 
fruit and otlier unsiglitly tn;es. 

The "Sewall house," on liiue Hill avenue, having been leased for a 
Refectory, a water-pipe was laid for tlie introduction of city water, and 
a sanitary Iniihiing for men was built. 

Tlie " Williams house," at the corner of Williams and ^Yalnut streets, 
was lilted up for a Refectory and a waiting-room, and a sanitary build- 
ing for men was built near it. 

Two diinking-fountains were erected in the field in rear of the 
car-station on Blue Hill avenue, and about 1,400 lineal feet of pipe 
laid to connect them with the city pipes. 

In August work was begun on tiie erection of a retaining-wall to sup- 
port the "Overlook," near Walnut street and Glen roatl, the stone for 
this wall being obtained from the old fence walls in the vicinity and 
from the field in front of it. 

The boulders were I'emoved from an ai'ea of about 20 acres, and the 
holes filled with loam. 

A small force has been kept constantly erl^lo3-ed in the nursery and 
propagating-house since the completion of the latter. 

All the cellars where buildings have been removed have been filled 
and the grounds about them cleared up. 



Charles-river Embankment. 

Work was commenced upon this improvement by the contractors 
about April 1, and continued at a rapid rate until about the middle 
of September, from which time until the closing of work for the 
winter its progress was somewhat slow, on account of the want of an 
additional appropriation to carry it on. 

About 1,800 lineal feet of pile foundation, 1,G00 lineal feet of wall 
below coping, with the filling behind it, and 800 lineal feet of coping 
have been completed, comprising work to the value of about $11:^,000. 

To complete the work will requii-e about 400 lineal feet of j^ile foun- 
dation, 650 lineal feet of wall, with filling back of it, and 1,4.30 lineal 
feet of coping. 

As the contractors have considerable material on hand for the Avork, 
it can be rapidly carried to completion as soon as the weather permits 
in the sj^ring. 

Marine Park, City Point. 

In June the filling deposited during the previous year was levelled 
off and rolled. 

In August plans and specifications were prepared for a temporary 
wooden pier, to extend in a south-easterly direction from the foot of 
Fifth street, and on October 23 a contract was made with lienjamin 
Young for building the pier for the sum of $10,900. This pier is to be 
30 feet wide and 1,1(U; feet long; the foundation for 304 feet at the 
shore end is to be of spruce piles, anil for the balance of oak piles, the 
whole to be thoroughly brac(;d. The lloor is to be of hard pine planed ; 
there is to be a railing on both sides and across the outer end, and seats 
are to be built along the railing. The elevation of tiie fioor will be 
about ten feet above mean high water. 

Tiie storm of Noveml)er 2-') damaged the old bulkheads which 
protect the shore, and this damage has been repaired. All of these 
structures are in a decayed condition, and will need continual repairs 
for their maintenance. 



Report of City Engineer. 49 



Wood Island Park. 

The contract Avith John F. Barry for filling the pai'kway was closed 
on January 2-4, 1885, and under that contract 6,085^^^ squares of filling 
deposited, at $3.35 per square. 

This did not comjjlete the filling to the full width of the parkway, 
the appropriation for this park having been exhausted. 

Under an agreement with the Boston & ]\laine R.R. Co., filling was 
commenced on October 23 by that company. 'Jhe parkwa}' was 
graded to its full width, and tiie work completed on December 3. 
The total amount of filling deposited under this latter agreement was 
1,842 squares, at .$3.35 per square. 

After the completion of the filling, trenches five feet in width and two 
feet three inches in depth were dug on the curb-line for the whfde 
length of both sides of the parkway. These trenches were filled with 
two feet of loam underlaid by six inches of clay. 

The ground is ready for the planting of trees in the spring. 
The total amount of loam delivered was 1,268 cubic yards, at $1.00 
per yard . 

The clay was found upon the ground. 

The table giving the number of vessels passing through 
the drawbridges controlled by the City of Boston during the 
year 1884 will be found in Appendix A. 

The table giving the number of vessels passing through 
the drawbridges controlled by the City of Boston during the 
years 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884, and 1885, will be found in 
Appendix B. 

The table showing the widths of draw-openings in the 
bridges over tide-water in this city is given in Appendix C. 
The openings have all been remeasured for this report. 



It is a painful duty to have to record, in this report, the 
death of my predecessor, Mr. Henry M. Wiffhtman, who 
died, after a short iUness, on April 3, 1885. The following 
page exhibits ))riefly his official connection with the city. 
By his death the city lost a most efficient and valuable official 
and a puljlic-spirited citizen. With his former subordinates, 
and those who knew him socially or professionally, there will 
always remain the memory of his genial manliness, his 
honesty, and his disinterested devotion to the city he served. 
The works which he executed will serve as monuments testify- 
ing to his professional ability. 

WILLIAM JACKSON, 

City Engineer. 



B* 



..J llU.w,,UUJa III II 



Honvy At* Wigfttiiiait< 

Member American Society Civil Engineers, 
Member Boston Society Civil Engineers. 






BORN AT BOSTON, JAN. 5, 1840. 



i 



EDUCATED AT BRIMMER AND ENGLISH HIGH SCHOOLS. 

ENTERED CITY ENGINEER'S OFFICE, 1857. 

ENGINEER FOR BACK BAY COMMISSIONERS, 1864. 

RESIDENT ENGINEER AT CHESTNUT HILL RESERVOIR, FROM FEBRUARY, 
1866, TO NOVEMBER, 1870. 

ASSISTANT CITY ENGINEER FROM JUNE, 1870, TO APRIL, 1880. 

CITY ENGINEER FROM APRIL, 1880, TO APRIL, 1885. 



DIED APRIL 3, 1885 



Aged 45 years. 



APPENDIX. 



52 



City Document No. 41. 






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54 



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56 



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CONTENTS CITY ENGINEER'S REPORT FOR 1885. 



A. — City Engineer's Department 
Classification of Expenses 
Bridges .... 
Statejient of Expenses . 
Table of Expenditures . 

Adams street 

Albany street 

Asliland street 

Aslimont street and Dorchester a 

Athens street 

Beacon Entrance Back-bay park 

Beacon street, over outlet to Back-bay 

Beacon street, over B. & A. R.R 

Beach street 

Bellevue street 

Berkeley street, B. & A. R.R. 

Berkeley street, B. & P. R.R. 

Blakemore street . 

Boylston street, Back-bay park 

Brigliton avenue . 

Broadway .... 

Broadway, over Fort Point Channel 

Broadway, over B. & A. R.R 

Brookline avenue, over B. & A. R.R. 

Cambridge street . 

Camden street 

Canal .... 

Canterbury street. 

Cedar Grove Cemetery 

Central avenue 

Centre street, or Hog bridge 

Centre and Mt. Vernon streets 
• Charles River 

Chelsea (North) . 

Clielsea (South) . 

Chelsea street 

Columbus avenue 

Commercial-point, or Tenean 

Commercial street 

Commonwealth avenue 

Congress street 

Dartmouth street . 

Dorchester avenue 

Dorchester street . 

Dover street. 

Dudley avenue 

Essex street . 

Everett street 

Federal street 

Ferdinand street . 

Fifth street . 

Forest-Hills avenue 

Fourth street 

Franklin-street foot-bridge 

Granite 



park 



Pagb 




2 




2 




3 




3 




4 


8, 


20 


7, 


18 


t 


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I 


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1 


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6, 9 


7, 


20 




7 


6,9 


6, 


10 


6, 


10 


6, 


10 




7 




8 


6, 


10 


6, 


10 


6, 


11 


6, 


16 




20 


7, 


19 




7 




8 


6, 


16 




7 


7, 


20 


6, 


11 


6, 


16 


6, 


11 


6, 


12 


6, 


12 


6, 


12 




8 


6, 


12 


6, 


12 


6, 


13 




8 


7, 


20 


6, 


13 


7, 


20 


6, 


17 




8 


6, 


13 


6, 


U 




8 




8 




8 


6, 


14 


6, 


17 



60 



City Document No. 41. 



Bridges, — continued. 

Harvard street . 

Harrison avenue 

Huntinjiton avenue 

Longwood avenue 

Main street 

Maiden 

Market street 

Mattapan . 

Meridian street . 

Milton 

Mt. Washington avenue 

Mystic avenue . 

Neponset . 

Newton street 

Norfolk street 

North Beacon street . 

North Harvard street 

Park street 

Prison-point 

Public Garden foot-bridge 

Savin-Hill avenue 

Second street 

Shawmut avenue 

Silver street 

Sixth street 

Spring street 

Swett street, east of N.Y. & N.E. R.R 

Swett street, west of N.Y. & N. E. R.R 

Third street 

Treniont street . 

Warren 

Washington street 

Washington street, Ward 24 

Western avenue to Cambridge 

Western avenue to Watertown 

West Boston 

West Chester park, over B. & A. R.R. 

West Chester park, over B. & P. R.R. 

West Rutland square, foot-bridge over B. 

Winthrop ...... 

Miscellaneous Works and Constructions 

Commonwealth-avenue extension 

Deer Ishind steamboat wharf 

Huntington-avenue extension 

Mt. Bowdoin Green curb . 

Trinity triangle ..... 

Sewer at Glover's corner . 

In general . 
B. — Water- Works . 

Sources of supply 

Consumption 

Farm Pond Conduit . 

New high-service works 

Test of boilers at Mystic Pumping-Station 

Mystic-valley sewer .... 
C. — Main Drainage 

Average daily amount sewage i)umped 

Main and intercepting sewers 

Pumping-Station .... 

Statement of operations at the Main Drai 
Station tor the year 1885 

Cost of pumping 

Pumping-engine tests 



& P 



R.R 

1884 



Pun 



pinj 



Contents. 



61 



Main Drainage, — continued. 

Kecord of two dut^-tests to Engine No. 3 (Leavitt) 

Record of two tests of boiler No. 2 

Log of the duty-tests . 

Deposit sewers . 

Tunnel .... 

Flume .... 

Reservoir and other works at Moon Island 

Soil-water investigations 

Miscellaneous 

D. — Parks 

Back-bay improvement 

Grading and loaming . 

Gravel filling 

Excavation of water-ways 

Drive-ways . 

Miscellaneous 
Covered channel, Mudd}' river 
Bussey park 
Franklin park 
Charles-river embankment . 
Marine park, City Point 
Wood Island park 
Appendix A. Draw-tenders' report, 1885 

B. " •' " 1881, 82, 83, 84, 85 

" C. Showing width of draw-opening . 



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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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