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Full text of "Annual report of the City Engineer"

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ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT. 



TWENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL EEPORI 



CITY ENQINEEE 



BOSTON, 



FOR THE YEAR 1893. 



Printeti for tfjc BepartmEnt. 




BOSTON: 

ROCKWELL AND CHURCHILL, CITY PRINTERS. 
1894. 



ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT. 



TWENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OITT ENGTT^RF.TR, 



tSIilliam |:uhs0n, 



City Engineer. 




BOSTON: 

ROCKWELL AND CHURCHILL, CITY PRINTERS. 
1894. 



^m!mmf^::^!^mmmiam 



ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT. 



TWENTT-SEYENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



CITY ENGII^EEE, 



BOSTON, 



¥0n THE ySAE, 1898. 



rtnteli tax t|je iicpartment, 




BOSTON: 

ROCKWELL AND CHURCHILL, CITY PRINTERS. 
1894. 



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Engineering Department, City Hall, 

Boston, February 1, 1894. 

Hon. Nathan Matthews, Jr., 

Mayor of the City of Boston : 

Sir : In compliance with the Revised Ordinances the fol- 
lowing report of the expenses and operations of the depart- 
ment for the year 1893 is submitted : 

The report of this department may be classified under the 
following heads : 

A. — The examination and supervision of structural re- 
pairs of bridges, the designing and superintending the con- 
struction of new bridges, retaining-walls, city wharves, etc., 
and in miscellaneous engineering work called for by the City 
Council. 

B. — Charge of the engineering work in connection with 
the Sudbury-river, Cochituate, and Mystic Water-Works, 
including charge of new constructions for these works. 

C. — Charge of the construction of a system of intercept- 
ing and outlet sewers. 

D. — Charge of the engineering work in connection with 
the parks. 

E. — Charge of the engineering work, except for Sewer 
Division, in connection with the Street Department. 

The expenses incurred under the head " C " are paid wholly 
from a special appropriation. 



City Document No. 10. 



The following is a statement of engineering expenses from 
February 1, 1893, to January 31, 1894 : 

Amount of department appropriation for 

1893-94 $42,000 00 

Amount expended from department appro- 
priation for 1893-94 .... 41,999 91 



Unexpended balance .... $0 09 



Statement of Expenditures, Department 
Appropriation. 

Object of expenditures : 

Salaries of City Engineer, assistants, 
draughtsmen, transitmen, levellers, rod- 
men, etc $38,820 89 

Engineering instruments and repairs of same, 184 72 

Drawing-paper, and all materials for mak- 
ing plans 300 72 

Stationery, printing-stock, note-books, post- 
age, etc. ...... 363 03 

Printing 339 22 

Reference library, binding books, and pho- 
tographs of works 402 22 

Travelling expenses (including horse-keep- 
ing, repairs on vehicles, etc.) . . 891 44 

Telephone service ..... 186 00 

Furniture cases for plans and book, etc. . 120 25 

Blue-process printing . . . „ 142 90 

Incidental expenses, and all other small sup- 
plies 248 52 

Total $41,999 91 



Engineering Department. 



Abolishment of Grade Crossings. 



Dover-street Bridge. 



Expenditures from July, 1893, to January 31, 1894. 


Advertising ...... 


$112 30 


Draw-tender ...... 


362 25 


Detention of vessel ..... 


155 08 


Engineering ...... 


1,087 25 


Inspection ...... 


620 00 


Inspector's shanty ..... 


46 00 


Lighting ....... 


147 73 


Lumber ....... 


237 02 


Lumber removing at Blacker & Shepard'a 




wharf ...... 


150 00 


Masonry piers, Boynton Brothers, contrac- 




tors 


37,256 07 


Printing 


32 47 


Kent of C. A. Dodge's wharf 


47 50 


'« Blacker & Shepard's wharf . 


40 00 


Signs 


5 72 


Temporary water-pipe .... 


1,633 56 


Water-pipe box, foundation 


981 08 


Total 


$42,914 03 


Allston Bridge. 




Appropriation, City of Boston . 


$90,000 00 


Boston & Albany R.R. Co 


40,000 00 




$130,000 00 


Iterm of Expenditure, from February 1, 1893, to January 


31, 1894. 




Advertising ..... 


$17 67 


Buildings, miscellaneous repairs 


400 77 


" H. A. Jordan, care of same 


50 00 


Concrete walks, Simpson Brothers 


789 83 


Engineering and inspection 


119 50 


Iron fence ..... 


412 44 


Labor, Street Department 


2,504 56 


" Wm. Scollans 


234 00 


" Wm. H. Ward 


100 17 


Carried forward. 


$4,628 94 



4 City Document No. 10, 

Broughiforivard, $4,628 94 

Land damages : 

Luther M. Merrill . . $6,000 00 

Cyrus Dupee . . . 750 00 

G. A. Wilson and H. W. Jordan, 400 00 
F. A. & C. W. Davis . . 5,500 00 



Paving, Daniel Sullivan 
Water-rates 



Expended previous to January 31, 1893 . 
Total 

Total appropriation and revenue 
Expended by City of Boston, $85,403 94 
" " Boston & Albany 

R.R. Company, 40,000 00 



12,650 00 

333 44 

48 50 


$17,660 88 
67,743 06 


$85,403 94 


$130,330 18 


125,403 94 


$4,926 24 



Balance February 1, 1894 



Rebuilding Bridges to Watertown. 

Appropriation, Western avenue and North 

Beacon street $18,000 00 

Items of Ex])enditure^ February 1, 1893, to Jan- 
uary 31, 1894. 

Inspection $182 00 

Labor and stock : 

Boston Roofing and Paving Co. $41 70 
Miller & Shaw . . .133 59 

Benj. Young . . . 81 19 



Miscellaneous ..... 

Printing ...... 

D. H. Andrews, contractor for iron draw 
Benj. Young, contractor for pile bridge 

Expended previous to January 31, 1893 
Total 

Total appropriation .... 
Expended to January 31, 1894 . 

Balance February 1, 1894 . 



256 

3 

15 

4,625 

5,607 


48 
95 
21 
00 
12 


$10,689 
283 


76 
57 


$10,973 33 

$18,000 00 
10,973 33 


$7,026 


67 



Engineering Department. 



Statues. 
Robert G. Shaw Monument. 



Appropriution, Robert G. Shaw monument, 

Item of expenditure : 
Norcross Brothers, first estimate on base 

and pedestal ...... 

Expended previous to January 31, 1893 


$19,500 00 

$6,460 00 
28 40 


Total 

Appropriation ...... 

Expended to January 31, 1894 . 


$6,488 40 

$19,500 00 

6,488 40 


Balance February 1, 1894 . 

iMrROVED Sewerage. 
Total appropriations ..... 


$13,011 60 

$6,222,240 93 



Statement of Expenses from February 1, 1893, to February 
1, 1894. 
Object of expenditure ; 



General oflice expenses 






$9,224 57 


Brighton sewers 






16,046 64 


Charles- river pollution 






40 00 


East shaft, roadway 






4,454 91 


Flume, removal 






1,722 00 


Flume, West End connection 






364 75 


Miscellaneous construction 






165 00 


Moon-island reservoir 






58,304 04 


Sections 5 and 6, east side I 


nterceptinc 




Sewer .... 




500 00 


Section 6, Dorchester Interceptii 


ig Sewer 


22,901 83 


" 7, " 


" 


17,108 56 


" 8, 


" 


10,786 62 


" 9, " " 


(( 


10 51 


" 3, Outfall Sewer . 




17,682 34 


" 3C " " . . 


• 


22,118 97 




$181,430 74 


Loans negotiated (less $67,- 






500 transferred) . . $6, 


155,500 0( 


) 


Revenue .... 


66,7 


40 9S 




Total .... 




. $6,222,240 93 


Carried forward. 




$6,222,240 93 



6 City Document No. 10. 

Brought forward, 

Expended previous to Feb- 
ruary 1, 1893 . . 16,027,206 31 

Expended from February 1, 

1893, to February 1, 1894, 181,430 74 



Balance, February 1, 1894 . 



$6,222,240 93 



6,208,637 05 
$13,603 88 



Improved Sewerage Construction, 1893. 

Tables showing the cost of the sewer sections in progress 
during the year 1893, and other miscellaneous work. 



General Office Expenses. 



Items of expenditure : 






Salaries ..... 


. 


$7,053 26 


Engineering instruments and repairs . 


106 72 


Drawing-paper and materials for 


plans 


51 73 


Stationery and printing stock 




41 26 


Travelling expenses . 




525 89 


Printing .... 




22 Q>i 


Telephone service 




120 00 


Board and shoeing of horse 




201 50 


Blue-process printing 




41 25 


Sundry small supplies 




112 02 


Office rent 




896 00 


Eubber clothing 




52 26 


Total. 


$9,224 57 


Brighton ^ 


5EWERS. 




Item of expenditure : 






Labor rolls 




$16,046 64 


Expended previous to 1893 


Pollutioi 


4,574 29 


Total. 


$20,620 93 


Charles-river 


vr. 


Items of expenditure : 






Engineering expenses 


. 


$40 00 


Expended previous to 1893 


, . 


982 63 


Total .... 


$1,022 63 



Engineering Department. 



East Shaft, Roadway. 

Items of expenditure : 
Perkins & White, contractors . . . $3,987 41 

Inspection ...... 467 50 



$4,454 91 
Expended previous to 1893 ... 3 63 



Total $4,458 54 



Flume Removal. 



Items of expenditure : 
Hugh Farrell, contractor 
Advertising 
Inspection 



Expended previous to 1893 
Total 



Flume, West End Connection. 

Items of expenditure : 

Labor $280 92 

Inspection ...... 70 00 

Miscellaneous 13 83 



$1,400 

4 

317 


00 
50 
50 


$1,722 00 
28 45 


$1,750 45 



$364 75 
Expended previous to 1893 . . . 2,743 90 



Total $3,108 65 



Miscellaneous Construction. 

Items of expenditure : 
Labor at Moon Island .... $100 00 

Rent of land 65 00 



$165 00 
Expended previous to 1893 . . . 987 04 



Total $1,152 04 



City Document No. 10. 



Moon-island Reservoir. 



Items of expenditure : 






C. W. Parker & Co., contractoi 


•s 


$17,500 00 


Land damages : 






William H. Reed . 


$23,G88 40 




Paul Butler 


8,199 86 




Boston Asylum & Farm 






School 


8,833 34 




Ellen L. & Caroline E.Hunt, 


39 40 




Stephen Ellis . 


43 04 


40,804 04 



Total 



$58,304 04 



Sections 5 and 6, East Side Intercepting Sewer. 

Item of expenditure : 
J. S. Brownrig, damages .... $500 00 

Expended previous to 1893 . . . 91,873 26 



Total 



$92,373 26 



Section 6, Dorchester Intercepting Sewer. 

Items of expenditure : 
Bricks 
Car-fares . 
Cement 
Coal 

Drain-pipe 
General supplies 
Hardware 
Labor 
Lumber . 
Miscellaneous 
Piles and labor on same 
Rent of machinery 
Rubber clothing 
Sand and gravel 
Teaming . 
Tools 



Expended previous to 1893 
Total 



$2,912 09 


21 


00 


1,836 


59 


993 


05 


316 


30 


174 


64 


92 


75 


12,162 


44 


1,013 


94 


81 


75 


1,177 


20 


737 


66 


76 


60 


1,001 


42 


271 


50 



32 90 



$22,901 83 
22,224 57 

$45,126 40 



Engineering Department. 



Section 7, Dorchester Intercepting Sewer. 



Items of expenditure : 










Advertising $18 75 


Brick 








2,695 63 


Cement 








910 90 


Coal 








412 98 


Drain-pipe 








173 56 


General supplies 








277 18 


Hardware 








112 10 


Insurance . 








125 00 


Labor 








9,875 54 


Lumber . 








363 81 


Piles, and labor on same 








989 80 


Printing . 








13 68 


Rent of machinery . 








272 00 


Rubber clothing 








92 40 


Sand and gravel 








653 87 


Stationery 








10 51 


Teaming . 








88 50 


Tools .... 








22 35 




$17,108 56 


Expended previous to 1893 

Total 


260 50 


$17,369 06 



Section 8, Dorchester Intercepting Sewer. 

Items of expenditure : 
Advertising 
Bricks 
Cement 
Coal 

Drain-pipe 
Filling . 
General supplies 
Granite stone . 
Insurance . 
Labor 
Lumber . 

Piles, and labor on same 
Printing . 
Rent of machinery 
Rubber clothing 

Carried forioard, 



$18 


75 


1,712 


00 


876 


96 


89 


18 


103 


97 


200 


00 


73 


03 


60 


00 


125 


00 


4,474 


35 


876 


07 


1,339 


20 


13 


03 


15 


00 


43 


85 


$10,020 39 



10 City Document No. 10. 

Brought forward. 
Sand and gravel . . . . . 

Teaming ....... 

Expended previous to 1893 

Total. 



Section 9, Dorchester Intercepting Sewer. 

Item of expenditure : 
Stationery ...... 

Expended previous to 1893 

Total 

Section 3, Outfall Sewer. 
Items of expenditure : 
Inspection ...... 

Labor ....... 

Land damages : 

Lillie B. Titus . . . $2,634 85 

Paul Butler . . . 6,000 00 

Boston Asylum and Farm 

School .... 8,833 33 

17,468 18 

Miscellaneous ...... 2 50 

Teamins 30 00 



$10,020 39 
604 23 
162 00 


$10,786 62 
28,290 97 


$39,077 


59 


EWER. 

$10 

43 


51 
20 


$53 71 


$75 00 
106 &^ 



$17,682 34 
Expended previous to 1893 . . . 94,394 94 



Total $112,077 28 



Section 3C, Outfall Sewer. 
Items of expenditure : 
Perkins & White, contractors . . . $6,776 44 

Inspection ... . . 347 75 

Laud damages : 

Boston Asylum and Farm 

School . . . $8,833 33 

Paul Butler . . . . 6,000 000 



14,833 33 

Miscellaneous ...... 161 45 



Carried fonvard, $22,118 97 



Engineering Department. 11 

Brought forward, $22,118 97 

Expended previous to 1893 . . . 73,12f> 93 



Total $95,245 90 

BRIDGES. 

" The inspection of the highway bridges for the annual 
report of their safety and completeness has been made, and 
as usual, besides the highway bridges, all such bridges as 
the Public Garden footbridge and the bridges in the parks 
have also been inspected." 

The widths of all openings in bridges for the passage of 
vessels have been measured as usual. 

In the list, those marked with a star (*) are over nav- 
igable water, and are each provided with a draw. 

I. — Bridges wholly supported by Boston. 

Agassiz Road, in Back Bay Fens. 

Allston, over Boston & Albany Railroad, Ward 25. 

Ashland street, over Providence Division, N.Y., N.H., & 
H. R.R., Ward 23. 

Athens street, over New York & New England Railroad. 

Audubon road, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Beacon Entrance, Back Bay Fens, over Boston & Albany 
Railroad. 

Beacon street, over outlet to Back Bay Fens. 

Beacon street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Berkeley street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Berkeley street, over Providence Division, N.Y., N.H., 
& H. R.R. 

Blakemore street, over Providence Division, N.Y., N.H., 
& H. R.R. 

Bolton street, over New York & New England Railroad. 

Boylston street, in Back Bay Fens. 

Boylston street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

*Broadway, over Fort Point Channel. 

Broadway, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Brookline avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Byron street, over Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn Rail- 
road. 

*Castle Island, from Marine Park, South Boston, to Castle 
Island. 

*Charles River, from Boston to Charlestown. 

*Chelsea (South), over South Channel of Mystic River. 

* Chelsea street, from East Boston to Chelsea. 



12 City Document No. 10. 

Columbus avenue, over Boston &, Albany Railroad. 

*Commercial Point, or Tenean, Ward 24. 

Commonwealth avenue, in Back Bay Fens. 

*Congress-street, over Fort Point Channel. 

Cottage-street foot-bridge, over flats, East Boston. 

Cornwall street, over Stony Brook, Ward 2o. 

Dartmouth street, over Boston & Albanv Railroad, and 
Providence Division, N.Y., N.H., & H. R.R. 

*Dover street, over Fort Point Channel. 

* Federal street, over Fort Point Channel. 

Fen bridge, Back Bay Fens. 

Ferdinand street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Franklin-street footbridge, over Boston & Alban}^ Rail- 
road. 

Gold street, over New York & New England Railroad. 

Huntington avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Irvington street footbridge, over Providence Division, 
N.Y.,N.H., &H. R.R. 

*L street, over Reserved Channel, South Boston flats. 

Leyden street, over Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn Rail- 
road. 

Linden Park street, over Stony Brook. 

*Malden, from Charlestown to Everett. 

*Meridian street, from East Boston to Chelsea. 

*Mount Washington, over Fort Point Channel. 

Neptune road, over Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn Rail- 
road. 

Newton street, over Providence Division, N.Y., N.H., & 
H. R.R. 

Public Garden footbridge. 

Shawmut avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Stony Brook, Back Bay Fens. 

Swett street, east of New York & New England Railroad. 

Swett street, west of New York & New England Railroad. 

*Warren, Boston to Charlestown. 

West Chester park, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

West Chester park, over Providence Division, N.Y., 
N.H., & H. R.R. 

West Rutland-square footbridge, over Providence Divi- 
sion, N.Y., N.H., &H. R.R. 

Winthrop, from Breed's Island to Winthrop. 

II. — Bridges of which Boston Supports the Part 
WITHIN ITS Limits. 

*Cambridge street, from Brighton to Cambridge. 
Central avenue, from Ward 24 to Milton. 



Engineering Department. 13 

*CheIseii (North), from Charlestown to Chelsea. 

*Essex street, from Ward 25 (Brookline) to Cambridge. 

*Granite, from Dorchester, Ward 24, to Milton. 

LoDgwood avenue, from Ward 22 to Brookline. 

Mattapan, from Ward 24 to Milton. 

Milton, from Ward 24 to Milton. 

*Neponset, from Ward 24 to Quincy. 

*North Beacon street, from Brighton to Watertown. 

*North Harvard street, from Brighton to Cambridge. 

Spring street, from W. Roxbury to Dedham. 

* Western avenue, from Brighton to Cambridge. 

*Western avenue, from Brio-hton to Watertown. 



III. — Bridges of which Boston pays a Part of the 
Cost of Maintenance. 

Albany street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 
*Canal, from Boston to Cambridge. 

Dorchester street, over Old Colony Division, N.Y., N.H., 
& H. R.R. 

Everett street, over Boston & Albany Railroad, Ward 25. 
*Harvard, from Boston to Cambridge. 
*Prison Point, Charlestown to Cambridge. 
*West Boston, from Boston to Cambridge. 

IV. — Bridges supported by Railroad Corporations. 
1st. — Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Cottage Farm Bridge, Brighton. 
Harrison avenue. 
Market street, Brighton. 
Tremont street. 
Washington street. 

2d. — Boston & Maine Railroad, Western Division. 

Mystic avenue. 
Main street. 

3d. — Boston & Maine Railroad, Eastern Division. 

Mystic avenue. 
Main street. 

4th. — Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn Railroad. 
Everett street. 



14 City Document No. 10. 

5tli. — New York & New England Railroad. 
Broadway. 
Dorchester avenue. 
Fifth street. 

Morton street, Ward 24. 
Fourth street. 
Harvard street, Ward 24. 
Norfolk street, Ward 24. 
Norfolk street, Ward 24. 
Second street. 
Silver street. 
Sixth street. 
Third street. 
Washington street, Ward 24. 

6th.— NY., NH., & H. R.R., Old Colony Division. 

Adams street. 

Ashmont street and Dorchester avenue. 

Cedar Grove Cemetery. 

Commercial street. 

Savin Hill avenue. 

7th. — NY., NH., & H. R.R., Providence Division. 
Beech street. Ward 23. 
Bellevue street, Ward 23. 
Canterbury street. Ward 23. 
Centre street, or Hog Brido^e. 
Centre and Mt. Vernon streets. 
Dudley avenue. 
Park street. 

Recapitulation of Bridges. 

I. Number wholly supported by Boston . . .55 

II. Number of which Boston supports the part within 

its limits ....... 14 

III. Number of which Boston pays a part of the cost 

of maintenance ...... 7 

IV. Number supported by railroad corporations : 

1. Boston & Albany 5 

2. Boston & Maine, Western Division ... 2 

3. " " Eastern Division ... 2 

4. Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn .... 1 

5. New York & New England . . . .13 

6. N.y.,N.H., &H. R.R., Old Colony Division . 5 

7. " " Providence Division . 7 

Total number Ill 



Engineering Department. 15 

Agassiz-road Bridge (in Back Bay Fens). 

This bridge was built in 1887, of brick and stone masonry. 
It is maintained by the Park Department, and is in good 
condition. The settlement of the surroundino- filled territory 
leaves the bridge high, and causes cracks to open in the 
joints of the edgestone and parapet. These do not in any 
way affect the strength of the bridge. 

Albany-street Bridge (over the Boston & Albany 
R.E.) 

The original structure was built in 1856-57 ; was rebuilt 
in 1867-68, and again in 1886-87. It is maintained in part 
by the city of Boston and in part by the Boston & Albany 
R.R. It is in good condition. 

Allston Bridge (over the Boston & Albany 
R.R., Ward 25.) 

This is an iron bridge on stone abutments, built in 1892. 
It is maintained by the city of Boston, and is in good con- 
dition . 

ASHLAND-STREET BrIDGE (OVER THE PROVIDENCE DIVISION, 

N.Y., N.H., & H. R.R., Ward 23). 

The present structure is of iron, and was built in 1875. 
The ironwork has been painted, and the bridge is in good 
condition. The wooden fences are very old and begin to 
look shabby. 

Athens-street Bridge (over New York & New 
England R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, and was built in 1874. It is in 
good condition. 

Audubon-road Bridge (over Boston & Albany R.R.). 

This is a new bridge, not yet opened to travel. (See 
page 145.) 

Beacon-entrance Bridge (in Back Bay Fens, over 
Boston & Albany R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, and was built in 1881-82. It is 
maintained by the Park Department, and is in good con- 
dition. 



16 City Document No. 10. 



Beacon-street Bridge (over outlet of Back Bay). 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1880-81, It is in good 
condition. 

Beacon-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany E.E.). 

This is an iron bridge. It was built in 1884-85, and was 
widened in 1887-88. It is in sjood condition. 



Berkeley-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge ; the present structure was built in 
1891. The bridge is in good condition. 



Berkeley-street Bridge (over Providence Division, 
N.Y.,N.H., &H. R.R.). 

Parts of this bridge are in poor condition. The under 
floor is old and decayed ; the concrete sidewalks are poor ; 
it was long since necessary to strengthen the span over main 
tracks with wooden beams, and it should be taken up and 
renewed. Nothing has been done toward rebuilding this 
part of the bridge for the benefit of the railroad, as was pro- 
posed at one time, the railroad to bear a proportion of the 
expense. The southerly sidewalk has been rebuilt, and the 
ironwork underneath it has been painted. The under floor 
is not in good condition, but will last a year or two longer. 

Blakemore-street Bridge (over Providence Division 
N.y., N.H., &H. R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge ; it was built in 1881-82. It has 
been painted, and is in good condition. 

Bolton-street Bridge (over New York & New Eng- 
land R.R.). 

This is a wooden bridge, built in 1889. It is in good 
condition. 

Boylston-street Arch Bridge (in Back Bay Fens). 

This is a stone arch bridge, built in 1881. It is in good 
condition. There are open joints in the parapet caused by 
the settlement of the adjoining filled land. 



Engineering DeparTxMent. 17 

BOYLSTON-STREET BrIDGE (OVER BoSTON & ALBANY R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge on stone abutments. It was built 
in 1886-88. Plans and estimates have been made for a 
permanent railing for this bridge, but it has not yet been 
erected. 

The floor-beams and all ironwork under the floor is very 
rusty. It has never been painted since the bridge was 
erected. The bridge should be stripped of woodwork, and 
the ironwork thoroughly cleaned and painted. 

Broadway Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

This is an iron bridge. It was built in 1869-71, and 
the draw and its foundation were rebuilt in 1874-75. The 
bridge has been temporarily strengthened so as to allow 
electric cars to use it. For details of this work see page 
164. The changes have made' it an unsightly structure not 
creditable to the city in appearance ; the two 100-ft. spans 
should be rebuilt at least. The draw and draw founda- 
tions are in good condition and present a creditable appear- 
ance ; the remaining parts of the bridge are old and patched, 
and should be replaced by a more modern structure. I 
understand that the New York, New Haven, & Hartford 
Railroad Company are anxious to have that portion of the 
bridge over their tracks rebuilt at their expense. 

I would recommend, when this is done, that the whole 
bridge be reconstructed, with a paved roadway, and that the 
entire cost of doing that part of the work desired by the 
railroad company be contributed by them towards the re- 
building of the whole structure. 

Broadway Bridge (over Boston & Albany R.R.). 

This bridge is of iron, and was built in 1880-81. The 
fence is in bad condition and the ironwork of the bridse is 
rusty. It is a low bridge, and many engines pass under it 
daily, in consequence the ironwork underneath is always in 
bad condition. 

Brookline-a VENUE Bridge (over Boston & Albany R.R.) . 

This bridge is of iron, and was built in 1884. It is in 
good condition. 

Byron-street Bridge (over Boston, Revere Beach, & 
Lynn R.R. ). 

This is a wooden bridge; it was built in 1889. It is in 
good condition. 



18 City Document No. 10. 

Cambrtdge-steeet Bridge (from Brighton to 
Cambridge ) . 

This is a wooden pile bridge with a wooden leaf-draw. 
The city maintains the part within its limits. It was rebuilt 
in 1884 ; the draw was rebuilt and the passageway for vessels 
widened to thirty-six feet in 1891. The bridge is in good 
condition ; the draw-pier has been repaired, but it is too 
short to accommodate the larger class of vessels that the 
widening of the draw-way allows to pass through the 
bridge. 

Canal or Craigie's Bridge. 

This is a wooden pile bridge, with wooden turn-table 
draw\ The city pays one-half of the cost of maintenance. 
The bridge was originally built in 1808, was rebuilt in 1852, 
and again rebuilt and widened in 1874. The bridge is in 
the care of a commission, consisting of one comniissioner 
from Boston and one from Camliridge. The up-stream 
fender on the Cambridge side has been rebuilt in a substan- 
tial manner ; the sides of the waterway through the draw 
have been securely fastened in place. A new boiler has 
been provided for the engine used for turning the draw. 
The draw is old for a wooden structure, and should be 
thoroughly overhauled and kept in the best condition in 
order to safely carry electric cars. 

Castle-island Bridge (from Marine Park to Castle 
Island) . 

This is a temporary wooden foot-bridge, built in 1892. 
It connects the Marine Park with Castle Island, and is 
furnished with a draw, so that, if desired by the United States 
authorities, the island can be cut oflF from the shore. It is in 
good condition. 

Central-avenue Bridge (over Neponset Eiver, Dor- 
chester Lower Mills). 

This is an iron bridge, and was built in 1876. The city 
maintains the part within its limits. No repairs of importance 
have been made. The bridge should be stripped and painted, 
and the woodwork renewed. 

Charles-river Bridge (from Boston to Chaelestown). 

This is a wooden pile bridge, with an iron draw. The 
original bridge was built in 1785-86; the present structure 
was built in 1854-55. The draw was built in 1870. 



ENGmEERING DEPARTMENT. 19 

The bad condition of this bridge was set forth in the re- 
port for 1892. Only the most necessary repairs have been 
made, and its condition has steadily deteriorated. An ap- 
propriation has been made for rebuilding in some manner, 
and on some location not yet determined. The bridge is in 
a dangerous condition. 

Chelsea Bridge, North (from Mystic River Cor- 
poration Wharf to Chelsea). 

The city maintains the part within its limits. The original 
structure was built in 1802-3 ; the present structure was 
built in 1880, except the draw, which was built in 1873. 
The draw should be rebuilt in connection with the work of 
rebuilding the South bridge over the same channel. It 
should be thoroughly repaired and inspected during the 
time that team travel is suspended on it, on account of the 
raising of the southerly draw. 

Chelsea Bridge, South (over South Channel, Mystic 
River) . 
This is a pile bridge, with an iron draw. The original 
bridge was built in 1802-3, and the present structure in 
1876-7. The work of rebuilding this bridge, and raising 
the grade for the purpose of abolishing the grade crossings 
on the tracks of the Boston & Maine Railroad, has been 
commenced. The work is in charge of the railroad. 

Chelsea-street Bridge (from East Boston to 
Chelsea). 
This is a wooden pile bridge ; was originally built in 
1834; was rebuilt in 1848, and again in 1873, and the 
present draw was built in 1868. This bridge has been 
closed to travel since March, 1894. Plans have been made 
for rebuilding, and contracts for doing the work will shortly 
be made. 

Columbus-avenue Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge. It was originally built in 1876- 
77. The bridge is in good condition. It is still made an 
anchorage for telegraph-pole guys, which should be re- 
moved. 

Commercial-point or Tenean Bridge (Ward 24). 

This is a wooden pile bridge with a wooden leaf-draw. 
It was originally built in 1883, and the present structure 



20 City Document No. 10. 

was built in 1875. No repairs of importance have been 
made. The draw is in poor condition, and should be rebuilt 
at once. 

Commonwealth-avenue Bridge (in Back Bay Fens). 

This is an iron bridge ; it was built in 1881-82. It is in 
good condition. 

Congress-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

This is a wooden pile bridge, with an iron turn-table draw 
on a stone masonry foundation. It was built in 1874-75. 
The engines, boilers, shafting, and gearing are worn from 
long service, and require extensive repair. The under floor 
of the bridge should be thoroughly repaired. It should be 
uncovered so that its condition can be ascertained, and it is 
probable that it will require an entirely new floor under the 
roadway and sidewalk. There is a large number of piles 
that from the grade of the bridge are above the highest tide, 
these are rotten, and require repairs. 

Cornwall-street Bridge (over Stony Brook, 
Ward 23). 

This is a small wooden bridge, l)uilt in 1892. It is in 
good condition, except that the outlets for water are insuffi- 
cient. The bridge is at the foot of the grade at either end. 

Cottage-Farm Bridge (over Boston & Albany R.R.). 

The widening of Commonwealth avenue at this point 
necessitated the rebuilding of this bridge. By arrangement 
in settlement of damages with the railroad corporation, the 
city is to build and hereafter maintain a new bridge of the 
full width of the avenue. The present structure is a 
wooden bridge in fair condition. The new bridge is in pro- 
cess of construction. 

Cottage-street Footbridge (over Flats, East 
Boston) . 

This is a wooden pile bridge, built in 1889 for foot travel 
only. The ice has broken and torn off" many of the cross 
braces on the pilework, and steps have been taken to re- 
place them. The structure is of a light and temporary 
character, and requires all its parts to be kept in good con- 
dition. 



Engineering Department. 21 



Dartmouth-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany and 
Providence Division of N.Y., N.H., & H. U.K.). 

This is an iron bridije. It was built of wood in 1869, 
and the present structure was built in 1878-79. It is in 
good condition. 

Dorchester-street Bridge (over Old Colony Division, 
N.Y., N.H., &H. E.R.). 

This is an iron bridge. It was built in 1869. The bridge 
is principally supported by the N.Y., N.H., & H. Railroad. 
The bridge was repaired during the past summer by the rail- 
road company. 

Dover-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

This bridge was originally built in 1805, was rebuilt in 
1858-59, and again in 1876. It is in process of rebuilding 
in connection with the abolition of grade crossings on the 
N.Y., N.H., & H. Railroad. (See page 29.) 

Essex-street Bridge (from Brighton to Cambridge). 

The city maintains the part within its limits. This is a 
wooden pile bridge, with a wooden leaf-draw, and was orig- 
inally built in 1850 ; the draw was rebuilt in 1891. It is in 
passable condition only, and will require rebuilding at an 
early date in any event. 

Everett-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany R.R., 
Ward 25). 

This is an iron bridge. It was built in 1891, by the Boston 
& Albany Railroad, under the grade-crossing act of 1890. 
The railroad maintains the structure of the bridge, and the 
city the approaches and the wearing surface of the roadway. 
It is in good condition. 

Federal-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

This bridge was originally built in 1827-28 ; was rebuilt 
in 1872-73 ; and the present structure, which is a wooden 
pile bridge with a double iron draw, was built in 1891-92. 
It is in good condition, and only ordinary maintenance repairs 
have been made u})on it. 

Fen Bridge (Back Bay Fens). 
This bridge was built in 1891-92. It is in good condition. 



22 City Document No. 10. 

Ferdinand-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge. It was originally built in 1864-65 ; 
and was strengthened in 1877. The present structure was 
built in 1892. The abutments have been painted, and the 
bridge is in good condition. 

Franklin-street Footbridge (over Boston & Albany 
R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, and was built in 1883. This 
bridge will be taken down preparatory to building a subway 
under the railroad on its site. (See page 29.) 

Gold-Street Bridge (over New York & New England 
R.R.). 

This is a wooden footbridge, built in 1890. An appropri- 
ation has been made to replace this footbridge with an ordi- 
nary highway bridge. No work has yet been done upon it. 

Granite Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton). 

The city maintains the part within its limits. This bridge 
was originally built in 1837. It is a wooden pile bridge, 
with a wooden leaf-draw. The draw-piers are maintained by 
the town of Milton. The floor of the draw has been planked 
with hard-pine plank of the same thickness as the spruce 
which it replaced. The additional and unnecessary weight 
is a great disadvantage in working the draw. All such draws 
are carefully balanced when built, and worn-out parts should 
be simply replaced by new ones of the same material. 

Harvard Bridge (from Boston to Cambridge). 

This is an iron bridge, and was built in 1887-91, with an 
iron turn-table draw. The city pays one-half of the cost of 
maintenance. The bridge is in the care of a commission, con- 
sisting of one commissioner from Boston and one from Cam- 
bridge. The bridge is in good condition, and has required 
only ordinary repairs of maintenance and some few changes 
in the electrical apparatus for moving the draw. This appa- 
ratus gives entire satisfaction, and electricity has proved to 
be the best motive power that could be found for the service 
required. 



Engineering Department. 23 

HUNTINGTON-A VENUE BrIDGE (oVER BoSTON & ALBANY 

R.R.). 
This is an iron bridge. It was built in 1872, and tlie 
abutments were rebuilt in 1876-77. The abutments have 
been painted, and the bridge painted. The bridge is in good 
condition, but the surface should be regulated so as to conform 
to a proper grade of the approaches. 

Irvington-street Bridge (over the Boston & Albany 
R.R.). 

This is an iron footbridge, built in 1892. It has been 
painted, and is in good condition. 

L-street Bridge (over Reserved Channel, South 
Boston ) . 

This is a wooden pile bridge with an iron sliding draw. 
Congress street, which forms one approach to it, has not yet 
been put in order, and the bridge is open only to foot 
travel. It is in good condition. 

Leyden-street Bridge (over Boston, Revere Beach, & 
Lynn R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1889. It has been painted, 
and is in good condition. 

Linden Park-street Bridge (over Stony Brook). 

This is a wooden bridge, built in 1887. It is in fair con- 
dition. A new retaining- wall has been built on one side of 
the brook, and a new bearing is given to the truss, one 
panel from the end, at the corner of the bridge. 

Longwood-avenue Bridge (from Ward 22 to 
Brookline). 

The city maintains the part within its limits. The pres- 
ent structure was built in 1877. This is a wooden bridge, 
on wooden posts set in the ground. The posts which cai-ry 
the bridge are decaying near the surface of the ground. 
They should be put in order. The bridge is in poor con- 
dition. The construction of Riverdale park, which the 
bridge crosses, will hasten the removal of this bridge, which 
is only a temporary structure. 



24 City Document No. 10. 

Malden Bridge (fkom Charlestown to Everett). 

The original bridge was built in 1787. The present 
structure was built in 1875, and the draw built in 1892. 
The draw-piers are old, weak, and entirely too short; the 
fender is in ruinous condition. The fences are old and 
rotten. The paving is poor in places; only the most 
necessary maintenance repairs have been made. 

Mattapan Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton). 

The city maintains the part within its limits. This is an 
old iron bridge. It is in a dangerous condition, and should 
be replaced by a stone bridge. Nothing has been done to 
this bridge, and the report of last year is repeated. 

Meridian-street Bridge (from E. Boston to Chelsea). 

This is a wooden pile bridge, with a wooden turn-table 
draw on a pile foundation. The original structure was 
built in 1858. It was rebuilt soon afterward. It was 
widened and rebuilt as at present, in 1864, excepting the 
draw, which was built in 1875-76. The draw is old for a 
wooden structure, and requires constant care. The draw- 
piers are in bad condition and should be thoroughly repaired. 

Milton Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton). 

The city maintains the part within its limits. The original 
structure is very old. It w^as widened in 1871-72; the 
older part of this bridge was built of stone, and the widening 
is an iron structure on stone columns. The bridge is in fair 
condition. 

Mt. Washington-avenue Bridge (over Fort Point 
Channel) . 

This is a wooden pile bridge with an iron draw. It was 
built in 1854, and was rebuilt in 1870-71. The draw-pier 
is in poor condition, and is so low that it is covered with 
water at every high course of tides. This is the only draw 
of importance in the city that is moved by hand power. 
The paving is in poor condition ; the bridge as a whole is in 
only passable condition, and it requires extensive repairs. 

Neronset Bridge (from Ward 24 to Quincy). 

The city maintains the part within its limits. The origi- 
nal structure was built in 1802 • the present in 1877. The 



Engineering Department. 25 

draw is too heavy to be handled by hand, and it should be 
replaced by a turn-table draw. The bridge is in feir con- 
dition. 

Neptune-road Bridge (over Boston, Revere Beach, & 
Lynn R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge. It was built in 1887-88. It is 
maintained by the Park Department. It needs painting, 
otherwise it is in good condition. 

New^ton-street Bridge (over Providence Division, 
N.Y.,N.H., &H. R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, and was built in 1872. No repairs 
have been made, and it is in good condition. 

North Beacon-street Bridge (from Brighton to 
Watertown). 

The city maintains the part within its limits. This is a 
wooden pile bridge with a wooden leaf-draw. The original 
structure was built in 1822 ; the present structure in 1884. 
No progress has been made toward rebuilding the draw, so 
as to allow room for larger vessels to pass, for which pur- 
pose an appropriation has been made. It is in fair con- 
dition. 

North Harvard-street Bridge (from Brighton to 
Cambridge). 

The city maintains the part within its limits. This bridge 
was originally built in 16(32, and was rebuilt in 1879. The 
draw was rebuilt in 1891. The bridge is in good condition 
with the exception of the abutment, to which attention has 
been called in previous reports. 

Prison-Point Bridge (from Charlestown to Cambridge). 

The city pays one-half of the cost of maintenance. This 
bridge was originally built in 1833, and the present structure 
was built in 1876-77. It is a wooden pile bridge, with an 
iron leaf-draw. This bridge is in the care of a commission, 
consisting of one commissioner from Boston and one from 
Cambridge. The bridge is in passable condition. The draw- 
bridge is not convenient either for the passage of vessels 
or for laud travel. It is raised with difficulty, works very 
slowly, and is not in line with the centre of the channel. 
It will be necessary to rebuild it on a different plan before 



26 City Document No. 10. 

many years, in case the effort to close the river to vessels 
is not successful. 

Public Garden Footbridge. 

This is an iron bridge. It was built in 1867, and was 
thoroughly repaired in 1887. The floor is worn and needs 
renewal ; otherwise it is in good condition. 

Shawmut-a VENUE Bridge (over Boston & Albany R.R.). 

This is an ironr bidge, and was built in 1871. The bridge 
needs painting, and the concrete sidewalks require repairs. 
Attention has been called in several previous reports to the 
fact that the electric-wire poles of the West End Street Rail- 
road are so placed as to make an unsightly bend in the orna- 
mental parapet ; nothing has been done to remedy this 
defect. 

Spring-street Bridge (from Ward 23 to Dedham). 

This is a stone bridge. The city maintains the part within 
its limits. The bridge is in good condition. 

Stony-brook Bridge (Back Bay Fens). 

This is an ornamental brick, arched bridge, with stone 
facings, built in 1891-92. It is in good condition. 

SWETT-STREET BrIDGES (OVER SoUTH BaY SlUICES). 

These are wooden bridges, and were built in 1875. They 
are temporary structures and in poor condition. The bulk- 
heads that support the adjoining sluices are very much out 
of shape, and may require repairs at any time. The road- 
ways of these bridges have been kept in safe condition, but 
as bridges they are of but little account or value. 

Warren Bridge (from Boston to Charlestown) . 

This is a wooden pile bridge, with a double iron draw. It 
was originally built in 1828, and the present structure was 
built in 1883-84. The sidewalk on the down-stream side 
and the draw-piers are in poor condition. Only ordinary 
repairs have been made ; the bridge is generally in fair 
condition. 

Western-avenue Bridge (from Brighton to Cambridge) . 
The city maintains the part within its limits. The original 



Engineering Department. 27 

structure was built in 1824, the present structure was built 
in 1879-80, the draw was rebuilt in 1891. The roadway, 
draw, and draw-pier are in good condition ; the draw-pier 
is too short. 

Western-avenue Bridge (from Brighton to 
Watertown). 

The city maintains the part within its limits. This is a 
wooden pile bridge, and was built in 1824, the abutment was 
rebuilt in 1886, and the bridge was rebuilt in 1892 and 1893. 
The new bridge was opened for travel May 4, 1893. It is 
in good condition. 

West Boston Bridge (from Boston to Cambridge). 

The city pays one-half of the cost of maintenance. This 
is a wooden pile bridge with wooden turn-table draw. The 
bridge was originally built in 1792-93, was rebuilt in 1854, 
and repaired in 1871. This bridge is in care of a commission, 
consisting of one commissioner from Boston and one from 
Cambridge. This is a poor and weak old bridge, but is 
kept in as good condition as is possible. If it were not for 
good care, it could easily become a very dangerous structure ; 
no extensive repairs or renewals have been made. 

West Chester-park Bridge (over Boston & Albany 
R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, and was built in 1876. The fences 
and ironwork require painting. For the past ten years 
recommendations have been made that the surface of this 
bridge and its approaches be regraded, so as to remove the 
very awkward grades which have existed since the construc- 
tion of the bridge and the grading of the street. The recent 
consolidation of several city departments into the present 
Street De))artment so far simplified matters, that the change 
has been accomplished. 

The bridge was stripped of its woodwork, and the iron- 
work was cleaned and painted, such old hard-pine stringers 
as were sound were replaced, and the surface of the bridge 
moulded to the required form by additional woodwork, and 
replanked. The sidewalks were rebuilt of the full width of 
the sidewalks on the street, or 15 feet in width in place of 
12 feet. The stone parapet was taken up and reset in cement 
mortar to the new grade, and the new stone required by the 
change in sidewalk furnished. The sidewalks are laid with 
coal-tar concrete. 



28 City Documext No. 10. 

The street railroad was relald mostly with new material to 
the new grade, and the street was regraded and macadam- 
ized, the edgestones reset, and the brick sidewalks relaid, 
from Newbury street to Boylston street and beyond. 

The grades adopted were such as to cause no damage to 
adjoining real estate. The bridge was in such condition as 
to require stripping and painting, and the special work of 
the railroad at the corner of Boylston street was worn out. 
This intersection was in bad condition from settlement, and 
was about one foot below the established grade. 

The cost of the work on the bridge and parapet was 
$5,118.71, and the cost of resurfacing West Chester park 
and the adjoining streets was $4,081.95. 

West Chester-park Bridge (over N.Y., N.H., & H. 
R.R., Providence Division). 

This is an iron bridge, and was built in 1876. It has 
been stripped of woodwork, the ironwork painted, the 
woodwork renewed, and the bridge put in good condition. 



West Rutland-square Footbridge (over Providence 
Division, N.Y., N.H., & PI. R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge. It was built in 1882, and is in 
sood condition. 



Winthrop Bridge (from Breed's Island to 

WiNTHROP) . 

This is a pile bridge, without a draw. It was originally 
built in 1839, was rebuilt in 1851, and extensively repaired 
in 1870. The bridge is old, and is in only fair condition. 



Everett-street, East Boston, and Cedar Grove 
Cemetery Bridges. 

Of the bridges wholly supported by railroad corpora- 
tions, Everett-street bridge, over the Boston, Revere Beach, 
& Lynn Railroad, is in process of rebuilding, on account of 
double-tracking the road, and the bridge in Cedar Grove 
Cemetery has been replaced by an entirely new structure. 

The remaining bridges require no special mention. 



ENGINEERING DeFAETMENT. 29 



MISCELLANEOUS WORKS AND CONSTRUCTIONS 
IN 1893. 

Beravick-paek Footbridge (over Providence Div- 
ision, N.Y., N.H., & H. R.R.). 

Plans and specifications have been prepared for additions 
to the retaining-wall across the end of Berwick park, and 
for a wall across the end of Follen street ; these walls to be 
used as supports for a proposed footbridge over the rail- 
road. The iron span of the Franklin-street footbridge at 
Allston will probably be utilized in the work. 

Broadway Bridge (over Fort-Point Channel). 
See page 164. 

Cottage-Farm Bridge (over Boston & Albany R.R.). 

Plans and specifications for extension of the present 
northerly and southerly abutments, and for a retaining-wall 
on the northerly line of Commonwealth avenue, between 
the northerly abutment and Essex street, have been pre- 
pared and bids invited for doing the work. Bids are to be 
opened February 8, 1894. 

Dover-street Bridge. 

In accordance with the provisions of a decree of the 
special commission for the alteration of the grade crossing 
of the old Colony Railroad and West Fourth street, the city 
of Boston was directed to rebuild Dover-street bridge. 

Plans and specifications for four masonry piers were pre- 
pared, and the contract for building them, and for removing 
the greater part of the old bridge, awarded to Boynton Bros. 
The work has been completed. A contract for building a 
fender-guard has been awarded to Alex. Mclnnis. Since 
the closing of the street to travel, a temporary footbridge 
has been maintained and passages for foot-travel provided 
on either side of the channel. 

Plans for the draw foundation and fender pier, and for 
the steel superstructure of the bridge are being i)repared 
and it is expected that all the work to be done by the city 
in connection with the abolition of the grade crossing will 
be completed early in the coming fall. 



30 City Document No. 10. 

East Boston Ferries. 

In accordance with an order from the City Council, this 
department has made an examination of all the drops of the 
East Boston Ferry, and found that the southerly drop on 
the Boston side at the North Ferry and the drops at the 
East Boston side of the North Ferry were in a dangerous 
condition, and should be replaced at once ; and others should 
be 2;radually replaced with new drops. 

Plans and specifications were made late in the year of 
1892 for changing the location of the head-house, and re- 
building two ferry piers at the Boston landing of the North 
Ferry, as stated in the last annual report. 

A contract for doing the work was made with Benj. 
Young, of Chelsea, May 1, 1893, and was completed Octo- 
ber 25, 1893, at a cost for contract work of $18,421.86. 

Farragut Statue. 

The foundation for this statue at Marine Park, South 
Boston, was l)uilt under the direction of this department, by 
Perkins & White, at a cost of $700. 

Grade Crossings. 

Plans have been prepared for abolishing grade crossings 
on the lines of the Boston & Albany and Boston & Maine 
railroads in East Boston ; on the New York & New Eng- 
land R.R. in South Boston, and for the Dorchester ave. 
crossing of the N.Y., N.H., & H. R.R. 

Harcourt-street Retaining- Wall. 

A contract was made January 5, 1894, with John S. 
Jacobs & Son for building a retaining-wall across the end of 
Harcourt street, from plans prepared by this department. 

Parkway Bridge (over Stony Brook). 
See page 148. 

Rapid Transit. 

In compliance with your directions, studies and estimates 
were made for a route for an elevated railroad through the 
city and the following report was made October 9, 1893, of 
the assessed valuation of property affected along routes for 
an elevated railroad in accordance with an Act entitled, " An 
Act to provide for Rapid Transit in Boston and Vicinity," 



Engineering Department. 



31 



passed by the Legislature of 1893, with a subway below the 
proposed railroad and a bridge to Charlestown. 

The estimates for the elevated railroad have been made on 
two different routes, one (Route No. 1) as far as possible 
through private property, and the other (Route No. 2) as 
far as possible through existing streets, — the estimates for 
each plan being still further modified by estimating for 
different Avidths of way from Causeway street to Court 
street. 



Route No. 1 (A). 

Franklin Park to Fitchbiirg Depot. 

60-ft. street. Causeway street to Sudbury street ; 80-ft. street, Sudbury 
street to Court street ; taking 25 ft. wide. Court street to Franklin park 
(except at stations) . 





Value of build- 

ings interfered 

with. 


Value of 
land taken. 


Value of build- 
ings interfered 
with and land 
taken. 


Franklin park to Grove Hall 


$32,500 


$18,640 


$51,140 


Grove Hall to Guild row . . 


185,500 


84,928 


270,428 


Guild row to Concord st. . . 


32:3,400 


126,501 


448,901 


Concord st. to Dover st. . . 


286,400 


128,130 


414,530 


Dover st. to Warrenton st. 


249,800 


132,087 


381,887 


Warrenton st. to Boylston st. 


354,300 


334,695 


688,995 


Boylston st. to Winter st. . . 


1,311,100 


1,619,636 


2,930,736 


Winter st. to School st. . . 


478,700 


1,119,964 


1,598,664 


School St. to Court st. . . . 


553,400 


1,552,100 


2,105,500 


Court St. to Causeway st. . . 


926,800 


1,262,067 


2,188,867 




$4,701,900 


$6,377,748 


$11,079,648 


ROUTI 


. No. 1 (B). 







Franklin Park to Fitchbiirg Depot. 



50-ft. street from Causeway street 
Sudbury street to Court street, 
Franklin i^ark. 



Franklin park to Grove Hall 
Grove Hall to Guild row . 
Guild row to Concord st. . 
Concord st. to Dover st. . 
Dover st. to Warrenton st. 
Wan-enton st. to Boylston st, 
Boylston st. to Winter st 
Winter st. to School st. 
School St. to Court st. . 
Court St. to Causeway st, 



to Sudbury street ; 80-ft. street from 
taking 25 feet from Court street to 





Value of build- 
ings interfered 
with. 


Value of 
land taken. 


Value of build- 
ings interfered 
with ana land 
taken. 


$32,500 


$18,640 


$51,140 




185,500 


84,928 


270,428 




323,400 


125,501 


448,901 




286,400 


128,130 


414,530 




249,800 


132,087 


381,887 




354,300 


334,695 


688,995 




1,311,100 


1,619,636 


2,930,736 




478,700 


1,119,964 


1,598,664 




553,400 


1,552,100 


2.105,500 




886,700 


1,151,561 


2,038,261 


$4,661,800 


$6,267,242 $10,929,042 



32 



City Document No. 10. 



Route No. 1 (C). 
Franklin Park to Fitchburg Depot. 
3-ft. street, Causeway street to Sudbury street ; 80-ft. st 
street to Court street (in private property) ; 25 feet, 
street to Franklin park. 

Value of build- 
ings interfered 
with. 



Value of 
land taken. 



Franklin park to Grove Hall 
Grove Hall to Guild row 
Guild row to Concord st. 
Concord st. to Dover st. . 
Dover st. to Warrenton st 
Warrenton st. to Boylston st 
Boylston st. to Winter st. 
Winter st. to School st. 
School St. to Court st. 
Court St. to Causeway st. 



$32,500 
185,500 
323,400 
286,400 
249,800 
354,300 

1,311,100 
478,700 
553,400 

1,082,900 



$18,640 

84,928 

125,501 

128,130 

132,087 

334,595 

1,619,636 

1,119,964 

1,552,100 

1,340,384 



reet, Sudbury 
taking Court 

Value of build- 
ings interfered 
with and land 
taken. 

$51,140 

270,428 

448,901 

414,530 

381,887 

688,995 

2,930,736 

1,598,664 

2,105,500 

2,423,284 



$4,858,000 $6,456,065 $11,314,065 

Route No. 2 (A), Alley Route. 

Franklin Park to Fitchburg BejJot. 

60-ft. street. Causeway street to Sudbury Street. 



Franklin park to Guild row 
Guild row to Concord st. . 
Concord st. to UjDton st. . 
Upton St. to Dover st. . . 
Dover st. to Warrenton st. 
Warrenton st. to Boylston st, 
Boylston st. to Winter st. . 
Winter st. to School st. 
School St. to Court st. . . 
Court St. to Hanover st. . 
Hanover st. to Causeway st. 





Value of build- 
ings interfered 


Value of 
land taken. 


value ot Duim- 
ings interfered 
with and land 


wun. 




taken. 


. . $92,948 


$78,592 


$171,540 


. 


322,600 


120,473 


443,073 




85,700 


85,905 


171,605 




125,300 


61,835 


187,135 




226,700 


65,479 


292,179 




518,900 


283,821 


807,221 


. 


744,100 


1,208,850 


1,952,950 




377,700 


998,861 


1,376,561 




553,400 


1,552,100 


2,105,500 


. 


142,400 


169,591 


311,991 




463,300 


443,885 


907,185 



5,653,048 $5,073,892 $8,726,940 



Route No. 2 (B), Alley Route. 
Franklin Park to Fitchburg Depot. 
50-ft. sti-eet, Causeway street to Sudbury street. 
Value of build- 



Franklin park to Guild row , 
Guild row to Concord st. . 
Concord st. to Dover st. . , 
Dover st. to Warrenton st. 
Warrenton st. to Boylston st. 
Boylston st. to Winter st. . . 
W^inter st. to Court st. . . , 
Court St. to Fitchbui'o: station 



ings interfered 
with. 

$92,948 
272,600 
261,000 
226,700 
518,900 
744,100 
931,100 
534,600 



Value of 
land taken. 

$78,592 

102,973 

165,240 

65,479 

288,321 

1,208,850 

2,550,961 

411,567 



Value of build- 
ings interfered 
with and land 
taken. 

$171,540 

375,573 

426,240 

' 292,179 

807,221 

1,952,950 

3,482,061 

946,167 



$3,581,948 $4,871,983 $8,453,931 



Engineering Department. 



33 



Route No. 2 (C), Alley Route. 

Franklin Park to Fitchburg Depot. 

80-ft. street from Causeway street to Scollay square. 





Value of build- 
ings interfered 
with. 


Value of 
land taken. 


Value of build- 
ings interfered 
with and land 
taken. 


Franklin park to Guild row . 


$92,948 


$78,592 


$171,540 


Guild row to Concord st. . . 


272,600 


102,973 


375,573 


Concord st. to Dover st. . . 


261,000 


165,240 


426,240 


Dover st. to Wai*renton st. 


226,700 


65,479 


292,179 


Warrenton st. to Boylston st. 


518,900 


288,321 


807,221 


Boylston st. to Winter st. . . 


744,100 


1,208,850 


1,952,950 


Winter st. to Court st. . . 


931,100 


2,550,961 


3,482,061 


Court St. to Fitchburg depot 


682,800 


731,275 


1,414,075 



$3,730,148 $5,191,691 



!,921,839 



Estimate of Cost of Double-Track Elevated Railroad 

STRUCTURE FROM FiTCHBURG DePOT TO COLUMBIA STREET. 

The following are estimates for a double-track elevated 
railroad structure from Causeway street to Franklin park, 
and also for a subway on the line of the proposed elevated 
railroad, passing under the existing streets from Hollis street 
to Court street : 

On the section between School street and Pleasant street, 
the structure is estimated for sustaining the superstructure 
for two additional tracks at a higher grade. 



Fitchburg Depot to School street, 4,075 feet, at $47 
School street to Pleasant sti-eet, 3,850 " " $51 
Pleasant street to Columbia St., 19,350 " " $47 



Stations (14) 



27,276 feet. 



. $191,525 
. 196,350 
. 909,450 

$1,297,325 
. 320,000 



$1,617,325 



New Bridge near Warren Bridge to Charlestown. 

The following is an estimate for a new bridge near Warren 
bridge to Charlestown, with approaches, the value of the 
land and buildings interfered with by the approaches being 
taken at the assessed valuation : 



34 



City Document No. 10. 



(100 Feet Wide.) 
Assessed Value of Land and Buildings Required for Approaches. 



Fitchburg Depot . 
Opposite to depot 
Charlestown side . 


Land. 

. $38,500 

24,000 

20,000 

1,600 

4,750 


Buildings. 
$24,300 

8,700 
3,400 
7,000 

$43,400 


Total. 

$62,800 

24,000 

28,700 

5,000 

11,750 






$88,850 


$132,250 


132,250 




$1,132,250 



Subway under Elevated through Mason Street. 

If the land underneath the elevated raih'oad is finished as 
a subway through the congested district from Court street to 
Hollis street, it will cost : 

Hollis street to Court street, 3,700 feet long, with hang- 
inof sidewalks : 



Excavation, 95,000 cubic yards, at $1.25 
Rubble masonry, 23,950 cubic yards, at $11 
Street bridges and all street changes 
Entrances and exits at street corners (extra for) 
Sewerage of subway .... 
Lining with white bricks 
Fences and sidewalks along subway are 3,100 > 

2,000 

Laying track complete .... 
Surfacing subway ..... 



Contingencies 



$118,750 
263,450 
35,000 
10,000 
12,000 
30,000 

62,000 

22,000 

8,000 

$561,200 

56,800 

$618,000 



Paved roadway under Elevated through Mason Street. 

If the land underneath the elevated railroad is finished as 
a paved street, the cost would be about $325,000. 

If finished as a walk covered with asphalt, from Franklin 
park to School street, and paved roadway from Sudbury 
street to Causeway street, the cost would be about $225,000. 



Engineering Department. 



35 



Length of Routes. 



Fitchburg Depot to Lowell st 
Lowell St. to Sudbury st. 
Sudbury st. to Court-House 
Court-House to School st. 
School st. to Boylston st. 
Boylston st. to Eliot st. 
Eliot St. to Pleasant st. 
Pleasant st. to Columbia st. 





"A" 


«B" 


Private Property. 


Alley Route. 


t. . 1,100 


1,100 




1,500 


1,500 




900 


950 




525 


525 




2,400 


2,400 




450 


450 




1,000 


1,000 




19,350 


19,350 



27,225 



27,275 



In the above estimates the assessed values of all the lands 
taken, of all buildings interfered with, are taken, except in 
two instances, viz. : On both Routes No. 1 and No. 2 the 
Tremont Theatre building is assessed for $119,600, and the 
amount allowed for land taken and the buildings together is 
$95,220 ; and on Route No. 1 the assessed value of the 
Quincy House buildings is $300,000, and the amount allowed 
for land taken and buildings together is $180,000. 

No allowance has been made for collateral damages either 
where the route runs through private property or through or 
across existing streets. 

Note. — For the information of those who desire to 
estimate the collateral damages the following tables showing 
the assessed value of property abutting on the several routes, 
where these routes pass through existing public ways, are 
appended : 

EOUTE No. 1. (A, B, AND C.) 

Value of Buildings and Land fronting on Streets through which Route 
passes. 

Buildings. Land. 

Blue Hill ave $99,700 $68,900 

Cliflfst 10,500 12,700 

Masonic Temple 100,000 461,000 

Mason st 408,300 420,700 

Court sq 632,900 2,149,200 

Causeway St., Fitchburg Depot to Lowell st. 262,000 630,800 

$1,413,400 $3,743,300 



36 City Document No. 10. 

Route No. 2 (A). 
Vahte of Buildings and Land fronting on Streets through which Boute 



Franklin park to Warren st 

Moreland and Warren sts 

Cliff St 

Westminster st 

Newland st. (between Worcester and Spring- 
field) 

Village st 

Tamworth st 

Mason st 

East side Province st 

North-east side Court, between Brattle and 
Franklin ave 

East side Court sq 

Hemenway building • . . 

Tremont row, Howard to Pemberton sq. . . 

On Sudbury st 

East side Hawkins st 

Causeway st., Fitchburg Depot to Lowell st. 



Buildings. 


Land. 


$259,300 


$460,300 


31,000 


7,900 


66,600 


64,200 


84.800 


32,300 


8,100 


3,900 


237,600 


163,200 


115,100 


248,300 


772,400 


3,522,500 


173,300 


395,000 


140,500 


665,900 


331,400 


910,700 


218,500 


347,500 


161,500 


1,611,200 


141,200 


393,900 


181,000 


277,500 


262.000 


630,800 



$3,184,300 $9,725,100 



Route No. 2 (B). 
Value of Buildings and Land fronting on Streets through ivhich Boute 



Buildings, 

Franklin park to Warren st 

Moreland st. to Warren st 

Cliff st 

Westminster st 

Newland St., between Worcester and Spring- 
field sts 

Village st 

Tamworth st 

Mason st 

East side Province st 

North-east side Court, between Brattle and 
Franklin ave 

East side Court sq 

Hemenway building 

Tremont row, Howard to Pemberton sq. . . 

On Sudbury st 

East side Hawkins st 

Causeway st., Fitchburg station to Lowell . 



$259,300 


$460,300 


31,000 


7,900 


66,600 


54,200 


84,800 


32,300 


8,100 


3,900 


237,600 


163,200 


115,100 


248,300 


772,400 


3,522,500 


173,300 


395,000 


140,500 


665,900 


331,400 


910,700 


218,500 


347,500 


161,500 


1,611,200 


172,500 


535,600 


181,000 


277,500 


262,000 


630,800 


$3,215,600 


$9,866,800 



Engineering Department. 



37 



Route No. 2. (C). 

Value of Buildings and Land fronting on 
Route passes. 



Moreland to Warren sts 

Cliff St 

Westminster st 

Newland St., between Worcester and 

Springfield 

Village st 

Tamworth st 

Mason st 

East side Province st 

North-east side Court st., between Brattle 

and Franklin ave 

East side Court sq 

Hemenway building 

Tremont row, Howard to Pemberton sq. . 

On Sudbury street 

East side Hawkins st 

Causeway St., Fitchburg Depot to Lowell 

st 



Streets through tvhich 



Buildings. 


Land. 


$259,300 


$460,300 


31,000 


7,900 


66,600 


54,200 


84,800 


32,300 


8,100 


3,900 


237,600 


163,200 


115,100 


248,300 


772,400 


3,522,500 


173,300 


395,000 


140,500 


665,900 


331,400 


910,700 


218,500 


347,500 


161,500 


1,611,200 


100,500 


219,900 


181.000 


277.500 


262,000 


630,800 



$3,143,600 $9,551,100 



Egbert G. Shaw Monument. 

All the work on this monument has been completed in 
place with the exception of the marble and bronze tablets. 
It is expected that the latter will be received from the de- 
sio^ner durin» the comino; summer or fall. 



Teredo Navalis. 

During this season the Teredo Navalis or ship-worm has 
been found in the waters of Boston Harbor, in one place 
doing extensive damage. 

Heretofore it has been taken for granted that these waters 
were too cold for this very destructive animal, although it 
has always been abundant on the southern coast of New 
England. 

The Eastern Dredging Company had two large scows 
built last season in Bath, Me. The hard-pine timber was 
cut somewhere up on the Altamaha river, Ga., where it was 
sawed, and whence it was floated down the river and 
shipped to Bath. 

In the spring the scows were brought to Boston, where 
they were measured. They were taken down to the mouth 
of the harbor, beyond Boston Light, on or about the 27th 
of May, 1893, for dredging, and were used there during the 
summer. 



38 City Document No. 10. 

In October, or early November, they began to leak ; but 
by that time the owners suspected that something serious 
was the matter, and the one in the worst condition was 
brought up the harbor. It was found pretty thoroughly 
bored through by the Teredo JVavalis, and had to be re- 
planked. 

Another scow was then brought up, and was found rid- 
dled through, though not so badly, by the Teredo. 

Samples taken from the planking of the second scow may 
be seen in this office. 

It has also been reported in smaller numbers in two other 
places, but the damage done was not very great. It has 
not been discovered in any structure belonging to the city. 

Its active season is the latter part of the warm weather, 
and it is proposed to make further search for it during 
1894. 

Trials of Steam Fire Engines for Boston Fire 
Department. 

In compliance with a request of the Board of Fire Com- 
missioners of September 21, 1893, a series of tests have 
been made of the different types and sizes of the steam fire- 
engines in use in the Fire Department, for the purpose of 
determining, as nearly as practicable, their capacity and 
efficiency under the conditions actually occurring at fires. 

Incidentally, tests were made of the comparative efficiency 
of 21-inch and 3-inch fire-hose, of the discharging capacity of 
the fire-hydrants, and of the efficiency of the water-tower. 
The tests were made under the immediate supervision of 
Assist. -Eng, Dexter Brackett, and the method of conducting 
the tests was as follows : 

All of the tests were made at the Water Department yard 
on Albany street. The engines tested were connected with 
and drew their supply from a Post hydrant located in the 
yard, and connected with the 12-inch main in Albany street 
by an 8-inch main 240 feet in length. 

The water-pressure at the hydrant was about 42 lbs. when 
the engines were not drawing. 

The hydrant has an inside diameter of 6| inches, with three 
outlets for hose connection, two of 4|^-inch diameter and one of 
21^-inch diameter, each outlet having an independent valve. 

The steamers were connected with one of the 4|-inch out- 
lets by means of the ordinary 4-inch suction-hose, and with 
one or two exceptions, of which special mention is made 
hereafter, all valves on the supply-main and hydrant were 
kept wide open during the trials. 



Engineering Department. 39 

Frequent pressures were taken by means of a gauge con- 
nected with a piezometer which was coupled to the hydrant 
nozzle and to which the suction-hose was connected. 

All water used in the boilers was carefully weighed and 
the quantity checked by meter measurement. All coal used 
by each engine was weighed, but no attempt was made to 
obtain the amount of ashes or unburnt coal. All gauges used 
were carefully tested by means of a Crosby gauge tester and 
the readings corrected when necessary. The hose used was 
new Callahan jacket hose having nominal diameters of 2|- 
and 3 inches, but the actual inside diameters were 2.65 and 
3.30 inches. 

The length of hose used during the tests was usually 500 
feet for each line except when using the large Siamese 
nozzle, in which case lines 200 feet in length were used. 
During some of the first tests made the lengths of the lines 
were 400 feet. 

At the Lincoln-street fire the average length of the 71 
lines of hose used was 530 feet and at the Tremont Temple 
fire it was 500 feet. 

Standard smooth nozzles were used in all tests, with a 
single exception, when a test was made to show the compara- 
tive efficiency of smooth and ring nozzles. The quantity of 
water discharged by the steamers was calculated from ob- 
servations of the pressure, made by means of gauges at- 
tached to piezometers at the base of the play pipes using the 
well-established formula deduced from the experiments of 
Mr. J. R. Freeman. The experiments of Mr. Freeman, 
which were made with great care and covering a great variety 
of patterns of nozzles as well as a large range of pressures, 
proved that by carefully conducted observations the dis- 
charge from any of the standard nozzles can be determined 
within one-half of one per cent. 

Careful measurements were made of the diameters of the 
nozzles, and in nozzles of the same nominal diameter there 
was found a variation of .014 of an inch. 

The engine tests were conducted in the following manner : 

Steam was first raised in the boiler to a pressure at which 
the engine could do practical service ; the fire was then 
drawn and a new fire started with weighed fuel. As soon as 
the steam pressure began to rise the engine was started, and 
run with, as nearly as possible, a uniform steam and water 
pressure. 

Changes in the conditions were made at periods of from 
fifteen to thirty minutes, either by changing the sizes of the 
nozzles, the steam pressure, or the length or size of the lines 
of hose, the object of the tests being to ascertain the quantity 



40 City Document No. 10, 

of water which each engine was capable of throwing upon a 
fire in continuous service, and not the quantity which might 
possibly be discharged through a short line of hose or an 
open butt for one or two minutes. 

Observations of the steam and water pressures at the en- 
gine were made every minute, and of the water pressure at 
the nozzles every thirty seconds. In the tables giving the 
results of the trials averages of these observations are given. 

All coal used under the boilers and all water fed to the 
boilers were carefully weighed. Pressures were taken on the 
supply-main at the base of the hydrant, on the 2^-inch out- 
let of the hydrant and at a piezometer attached to the 4^-inch 
outlet with which the suction-pipe from the engine was con- 
nected. 

These pressures were taken to show the loss of pressure by 
friction in the hydrant and the available pressure in the 
steamer suction. In the tests of Engines Nos. 27, D, 36, 
and 15 pressures were also taken at the suction chamber of 
the engine. 

Calorimetric measurements of the amount of moisture in 
the steam furnished by the different types of boilers were 
made on Engines No. 27, No. 15, and No. 23. 

Indicator cards were taken from the steam cylinders of 
Engine D and Engine No. 15. 

The number of revolutions made by the engines were 
electrically recorded by an instrument made by an employee 
of the Fire Department. 

Each revolution of the engine closed a circuit and was 
recorded on a paper tape. By the use of a stop watch the 
number of revolutions per minute was easily and accurately 
determined. 

In order to obtain information in regard to the effect of a 
hydrant supply as compared with drafting, tests were made 
of Engines No. 43 and No. 36 taking water from a large 
box which was floated in the dock alongside of the Water 
Department wharf. The box w^as supplied with fresh water 
from a hydrant in the yard. 

Tests have been made of Amoskeag engines of four sizes, 
three sizes of Clapp and Jones engines, and two sizes of en- 
gines of the Silsby pattern. These comprise the patterns 
and sizes of engines which are now in general use by the 
department. 

Table No. 1 gives the general dimensions of these engines, 
and the statements and tables appended to this report give 
in detail the results of all the trials. 



Engineering Department. 



41 



Table No. 1. 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


lO. 


11. 


Style 

OF 

Engine. 


i 

1 


!5 
1 


1 


h 


It 

.11 




1 


M 
III 


1- 

5^ 


1 

11 










Lbs. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


Gals. 


In. 


Sq. ft. 


Amoskeag . . 


36 


664 


1890 


6,950 


6.136 


4.005 


8.00 


498 


31.5 


101. 


Amoskeag . . 


D 


619 


1886 


7,150 


6.8S8 


4.249 


8.00 


562 


30.5 


85. 


Amoskeag . . 


14 


354 


1870 




7.662 


4.40 


7.90 


594 


31.75 


74. 


Amoskeag . . 


27 


415 


1872 


7,085 


7.651 


4.50 


7.89 


619 


32.0 


86.5 


Clapp & Jones 


43 


566 


1893 


.... 


6.988 


4.376 


7.00 


525 


29.5 


86.0 


Clapp & Jones 


21 


567 


1893 


6,475 


6.998 


4.375 


7.00 


524 


29.5 


86.0 


Clapp & Jones 


7 


531 


1890 


6,940 


8.50 


5.00 


7.00 


691 


32.0 


112.0 


Clapp & Jones 


15 


2162 


1893 


7,970 


9.005 


5.49 


8.00 


957 


35.5 


140.5 


Silsby .... 
Silsby .... 
Silsby .... 


42 


2159 


1893 












32.5 


174. 


23 
33 


976 
813 


1890 

1888 


7,625 










36.0 
36.0 


225. 










229. 















Engine No. 36. 

Calculated capacity at 300 revolutions per minute 498 
gallons. Tested November 8, 1893. 

The engine was started at 1.14-40 P.M., with steam at 
60 lbs. 

From 1.14-40 P.M. until 2.29-30 P.M., or 74 minutes 50 
seconds, water was forced through two 500-foot lines of hose 
and discharged through two l|-inch nozzles. The steam 
pressure during the greater portion of this time was from 
60 to 80 lbs. ahd the average water pressure at the engine 
130.9 lbs., with a discharge of 562 gallons per minute. The 
engine was shut down for 4 minutes 35 seconds for the pur- 
pose of changing the size of nozzles and removing the 
strainer in the suction-pipe, as there was a loss of from 3 to 
4 lbs. pressure between the hydrant and the suction chamber 
of the pumps. The engine was then run for 42 minutes 35 
seconds with a steam pressure of 106.3 lbs., water pressure 
at the engine 128 lbs. with a discharge of 579 gallons per 
minute through nozzles 1^-inch and l|-inch diameters. 

After the removal of the suction strainer the pressure in 



42 City Document No. 10. 

the suction chamber of the engine was practically the same 
as at the hydrant. A run of 8 minutes 20 seconds was then 
made using 500 feet of 2^-inchhose with a ll-inch discharge 
nozzle, followed by a run of 16 minutes using the same length 
of 3-inch hose with a ll-inch nozzle. 

During the first run with a water pressure of 244.5 lbs. at 
the engine the average water pressure at the nozzle was 
82.5 lbs., while during the second run the water pressure at 
the engine was about 40 lbs. less, but 14 lbs. more at the 
nozzle. 

The engine was then stopped, the fire drawn, and the size 
of the two exhaust pipes reduced from li-inch to i|-inch 
diameters by plugging with wedges. The engine was again 
started at 3.58 P.M., pumping through two lines 500 feet of 
2|^-inch hose connected by a Siamese coupling with a l|-inch 
nozzle. 

Under these conditions a water pressure of 147 lbs. at the 
engine was maintained for 9 minutes 15 seconds discharging 
564 gallons per minute. The 1^-inch nozzle was then re- 
placed by two nozzles, 1^-inch and l|^-inch diameters, and 
the engine run for 17 minutes 30 seconds with a water pres- 
sure of 136.4 lbs. at the engine discharging 596 gallons per 
minute. 

On November 14th a second trial of this engine was made, 
drafting the water, with a lift of from 10 to 12.5 feet instead 
of taking the supply from the hydrant under a pressure of 
35 lbs. 

For 62 minutes 20 seconds water was thrown from two 1|^- 
inch nozzles through 500-foot lines of hose, with an average 
steam pressure of 90 lbs., water pressure at the engine 111.4 
lbs., at the nozzles 46.2 lbs., with a discharge of 512 gallons 
per minute. 

A li-inch nozzle was then substituted for one of the IL- 
inch nozzles and the engine run for 28 minutes, giving an 
average steam pressure of 78.5 lbs., water pressure at the 
engine 110.8 lbs., and at the nozzles 35 and 46 lbs., with a 
discharge of 512 gallons per minute. With two lines 
siamesed using a l|-inch nozzle a discharge of 575 gallons 
per minute was maintained for 9 minutes with a nozzle 
pressure of 65.7 lbs. 

A comparison of the two tests of this engine seems to in- 
dicate that with the same steam pressure the water pressure 
at the engine will vary directly as the hydrant or supply 
pressure is increased or diminished. 

On the first trial the openings through the grate were so 
large that a large quantity of coal was wasted and grates 
with smaller spaces between the bars were substituted before 
the second trial. 



Engineering Department. 43 

JGu§:ine Relief D. 

Calculated capacity at 300 revolutions per ininute 562 gal- 
lons. Tested November 6^ 1893. 

The engine was started at 1.23-40 P.M., and after running 
4 minutes with one 500-foot line of 2|-inch hose with a 
1^-inch nozzle a second 500-foot line with a l|^-inch nozzle 
was added, and with the exception of one minute when one 
line was shut oif to stop a leak at a coupling these conditions 
were continued for 89 minutes 20 seconds with an average 
steam pressure of 77.5 lbs., water pressure at engine 118.3 
lbs., and water pressures at nozzles 39 and 51.2 lbs., with a 
discharge of 561 gallons per minute. 

Three-inch hose was then substituted for 2|-inch hose on 
one of the lines and a run of 18^ minutes was made, using 
a 1^-inch nozzle on the 3-inch line and a l|-inch nozzle on 
the 2|^-inch line. 

The 3-inch hose with the larger size nozzle gave the larger 
nozzle pressure and a discharge about 30 per cent greater 
than the same length of 2i-inch hose. From 3.16 to 3.26 
P.M. the nozzle on the 2^-inch hose gave the larger pressure, 
probably caused by the partial closing of a valve on the dis- 
charge of the 3-inch line. With a l^-inch nozzle connected 
with a single line of 3-inch hose 500 feet in length the dis- 
charge was about 478 gallons, while the same nozzle siamesed 
from two 500- foot lines of 2 1 -inch hose gave a discharge of 
533 gallons per minute. 

With two 200-foot lines siamesed into a l|-inch nozzle a 
discharge of 674 gallons per minute, with a nozzle pressure 
of 51.7 lbs., was maintained for 8 minutes 5 seconds. 

Indicator cards showing the pressure in the steam cylin- 
ders were taken at intervals of about 10 minutes, and from 
these observations the folio wins; results have been deduced. 



1.35 312 

1.45 324 

1.55 318 

2.15 306 

2.25 303 

2.35 318 

2.43 350 

2.49 324 

3.14 322 

3.39 260 

4.00 306 



Total 


Horse 


Per cent, of 


indicated 


power, 


indicated 


horse 


pmnp 


horse 


power. 


measurement. 


power. 


29.35 


26.0 


88.6 


35.00 


29.8 


85.2 


34.26 


30.0 


87.5 


29.71 


25.8 


87.0 


28.88 


24.9 


86.3 


32.12 


28.6 


89.0 


42.43 


26.1 


61.5 


34.90 


30.5 


87.5 


26.50 


25.8 


97.3 


38.99 


33.6 


86.2 


34.24 


32.5 


95.0 



44 City Document No. 10. 



Engine No. 14. 

Calculated capacity at 300 revolutions per minute 594 gal- 
lons. Tested October 25, 1893. 

From 1.15 to 1.52-30 P.M., or for 37 minutes 10 seconds, 
two lines of 2i-inch hose each 400 feet in length, with \\- 
inch nozzles, were used, with an average steam pressure of 

79.2 lbs., average water pressure at the engine 108.5 lbs., 
and at the nozzles 46.5 lbs., giving a discharge of 512 gallons 
per minute. By closing a gate on the supply main the press- 
ure at the hydrant was reduced from 38 to 18 lbs. for 12 
minutes with a reduction of 5 lbs. in the boiler pressure, and 
the water pressure at the engine was reduced 16 lbs. 

A run of 52 minutes was then made using two 400-foot 
lines of hose, with nozzles ]l^ and \\ inches in diameter. 
Under these conditions the average steam pressure was 

78.3 lbs., water pressure at the engine 104.8 lbs., and the 
discharge 528 gallons per minute. With a single line of 
hose 600 feet in length, with a 1^-inch nozzle, 325 gallons 
per minute were discharged. Two 500-foot lines of 2^-inch 
hose with Siamese coupling and a 1^— inch nozzle gave a 
pressure of 45 to 49 lbs. at the nozzle and a discharge of 
about 490 gallons per minute. 

Using two 200-foot lines of 21-inch hose with a l|-inch 
nozzle, a discharge of between 575 and 600 gallons per min- 
ute was maintained for a short time, but the steam pressure 
could not be maintained while running at this speed. 

Engine No. 27. 

Calculated capacity at 300 revolutions per minute 619 gal- 
lons. Tested October 24, 1893. 

The test was commenced at 1.23-30 P.M., using 1^ and 
1\ inch nozzles with 500-foot lines of 2^-inch hose. 

These conditions were maintained for 41^ minutes, the 
average steam pressure during this time being 62.7 lbs., 
the water pressure at the engine 110.3 lbs., and at the nozzles 
34 and 43.2 lbs., with a discharge of 520 gallons per minute. 
A run of 37^ minutes was then made with the same lengths 
of hose and two li-inch nozzles. Trouble was experienced 
in maintaining the steam pressure, and at 2.42-45 P.M. the 
engine was stopped for 6| minutes for the purpose of clean- 
ing the fire. 

The engine was then run for 55| minutes, pumping 
through a single line of hose with a 1^-inch nozzle. Under 
these conditions the average steam pressure was 79.8 lbs., 



Engineering Department. 45 

the water pressure at the engine 187.7 lbs., at the nozzle 
57.7 lbs., with a discharge of 1556 gallons per minute. Two 
trials were then made using a l|-inch nozzle siamesed from 
two 200-foot lines of 2J-inch hose. 

In both instances a discharge of 600 gallons per minute 
was maintained for a few minutes, but the steam pressure 
could not be maintained. As in the case of Engine No. 23, 
tested October 30, an examination showed that there were 
leaks around the tubes in the upper head of the boiler which 
cut off the draft. 

These were repaired and a second test was made on 
November 3, 1893. 

Second test of Engine 27. 

The engine was started at 1.06 P.M. After pumping for 
19^ minutes through two 500-foot lines of 2i-inch hose with 
li-inch nozzles discharging during the last 16^ minutes 587 
gallons per minute, a 1^-inch nozzle was substituted on one 
of the lines, and these conditions were maintained for an 
hour. 

At 2.12 P.M. a change was made in the fireman, and in 12 
minutes the pressure of steam dropped from 85 lbs. to 30 
lbs., necessitating the shutting off of one of the lines for 4 
minutes. 

Fireman No. 1 took charge of the fire and ran until 2.41 
P.M. 

At 2.39-30 P.M. 1^-inch nozzles were placed on both lines. 

After 2.41 P.M., Fireman No. 2 being in charge of the 
boiler, the steam pressure dropped from 80 to 20 lbs. in 9 
minutes and the engine was shut down. A change was 
again made in the fireman, and from 2.51-15 to 3.08-50 P.M. 
the average steam pressure was 104.7 lbs., the water pres- 
sure at the engine being 134 lbs., at the nozzles 40.7 lbs., 
with a discharge of 596 gallons per minute. 

Three-inch hose was then substituted for 2^-inch in one 
line, and a test was made which well illustrates the benefit 
derived from the use of the larger-sized hose. With hose of 
the same length and nozzles of the same diameter the pres- 
sure at the nozzle of the 3-inch hose was 15.7 lbs. greater 
than at the nozzle of the 2J-inch line, and the discharge was 
about 20 per cent, greater. 

This test was followed by a run of 16| minutes, using a 1^- 
inch nozzle siamesed from two 500-toot lines of 2^-inch 
hose. 

During this time 566 gallons per minute were discharged, 
and an average steam pressure of 75.5 lbs. was maintained. 



46 City Document No. 10. 

With a nozzle If inches in diameter connected with two 
200-foot lines of 2^-inch hose a discharge of 700 gallons per 
minute was maintained for about 12 minutes, but the boiler 
would not continue to supply steam in sufficient quantity to 
maintain the speed required, which was from 340 to 360 
revolutions per minute. 

Calorimetric tests of the amount of moisture in the steam, 
ade during the first trii 
1.63 per cent, moisture. 

Engine No. 43. 

Calculated capacity at 300 revolutions per minute 525 
gallons. Tested October 20, 1893. 

The engine w\as started at 12.54 P.M., using two 400-foot 
lines of 2^-inch hose with li-inch nozzles. At 1 P.M. a 
piezometer coupling attached to the discharge outlet on the 
steamer blew ofl' and 4 minutes were lost in reconnecting 
hose. 

The engine was then run for 48 minutes with a steam pres- 
sure of 73.2 lbs., with water pressure at the engine of 115.7 
lbs., and at the nozzles 54.7 lbs. With the same lengths of 
hose and li-inch and 11-inch nozzles a run of about an horn- 
was then made. 

The lengths of the lines of hose was then increased from 
400 to 500 feet and two li-inch nozzles used for 26 minutes 
50 seconds, giving an average steam pressure of 75.2 lbs., 
water pressure at the engine 122.5 lbs., and at the nozzles 
50.7 lbs., equal to a discharge of 536 gallons per minute. 
The test was finished with a run of 24 minutes using a 1^- 
inch ring nozzle on one line and a ll-inch smooth nozzle on 
the other. In this case the smaller nozzle discharged the 
greater quantity of water, although the nozzle pressure was 
greater at the ring than at the smooth nozzle. 

On November 16th a test was made to determine the 
capacity of this engine when drafting from a tank. The 
water was raised from 12.5 to 13.5 feet and delivered through 
500-foot lines of hose. Nozzles 1^ inches in diameter were 
used during the run of 26 minutes 10 seconds, interrupted 
for 2 minutes 10 seconds by the breaking of an oil-cup con- 
nection on the steam-pipe. 

During the first half of the run the steam pressure was 
98.2 lbs., the water pressure at the engine 93.1 lbs., and at 
the nozzles 38.5 lbs., while during the latter portion of the 
run the steam pressure was 87.5 lbs., the water pressure at 
the engine 87.1 lbs., and at the nozzles 33.5 lbs. 

During the above tests the engine did not work smoothly 



Engineering Department. 47 

nor efficiently, and it was discovered that air was leak- 
ing into the suction through the relief valve. After 
this had been stopped a 16-minute test was made with 
the same nozzles and lengths of hose, and with a steam pres- 
sure of 109.3 lbs., the water pressure at the engine was 116.5 
lbs., and at the nozzles 47.2 lbs., discharging 517 gallons 
per minute. With nozzles 1^ inch and 1| inch in diameter 
the results were as follows: average steam pressure 105.9 
lbs., water pressure at the engine 112.4 lbs., at the nozzles 
37.5 and 48.2 lbs., discharging 547 gallons per minute. 

With 1,000 feet of 2^- inch hose and a ll-inch nozzle 60.2 
lbs. nozzle pressure was given, with a water pressure of 215.7 
lbs. at the engine. With the same length of hose and a 1^- 
inch nozzle, the nozzle pressure was 43 lbs. and the discharge 
308 gallons per minute. 

Engine No. 21. 

Calculated capacity at 300 revolutions per minute 524 gal- 
lons. Tested November 9, 1893. 

This engine is a duplicate of Engine No. 43. The first 
test was made with two lines of 2^-inch hose each 500 feet 
in length, with nozzles 1\ and 1\ inches in diameter. For a 
few minutes a steam pressure of 100 lbs. was maintained, but 
it fell rapidly, and after a run of 14^ minutes one line was 
shut off for 3 minutecs in order to raise the steam pressure. 
The second line was again let on and for 48 minutes 35 
seconds the average steam pressure was 89.4 lbs., the water 
pressure at the engine 124.7 lbs., with a discharge of 575 gal- 
lons per minute. Two 1^ inch nozzles were then used for 
41 minutes, the average steam pressure being 90.7 lbs., the 
water pressure at the'engine 140.2 lbs., at the nozzles 60 lbs., 
with a discharge of 582 gallons per minute. A second trial 
of 24 minutes 10 seconds, using 1^-inch and l|-inch nozzles, 
was then made, during which a very uniform steam pressure 
of 112 lbs. was maintained, giving a water pressure at the 
engine of 138 lbs. and a discharge of 607 gallons per minute. 
Three short runs were made using a l^-inch nozzle ; in the 
first case 2^-inch hose was used, in the second trial 3-inch 
hose fitted with a bushing of the size of 2|-inch couplings, 
in the third test 3-inch hose with 3-inch couplings. 

The tests resulted as follows : 









Steam 


Water 


Water 


Discharge 








pressure 


pressure 


pressure 


per 








in 


at 


at 


minute. 








boiler. 


engine. 


nozzle. 










Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Gallons. 


24-inch hose 






107.9 


221.4 


75.5 


407 


3 " " 


24-inch coupli 


ings 


114.9 


219.5 


101.5 


472 


3 " " 


3 " 


" 


118.8 


217.5 


105.0 


479 



48 City Document No. 10. 

With two 500-foot lines of 2^-inch hose siamesed into a 
1^-inch nozzle the average steam pressure during a run of 11 
minutes 25 seconds was 102.3 lbs., the water pressure at the 
engine being 152.8 lbs., and at the nozzle 68 lbs., with a dis- 
charge of 576 gallons per minute. 

Engine No. 7. 

Calculated capacity at 300 7'evolutions per minute 691 gal- 
lons. Tested October 19, 1893. 

The engine was started at 1.26-20 P.M. and run until 

2 P.M. with a steam pressure of 51 lbs., water pressure at 
the engine 98.4 lbs., using two 400-foot lines of hose with 
l|-inch nozzles. 

The steam pressure was then raised to 70 lbs., and with 
the same conditions of hose and nozzles for 19 minutes the 
water pressure at the engine was 124.2 lbs., and at the 
nozzles 57 lbs. 

A l|-inch nozzle was substituted on one line, and during 
a period of 24 minutes, with steam at 65.2 lbs., the water 
pressure was 119.6 lbs. at the engine and the discharge was 
581 gallons per minute. 

The steam pressure was then raised to 85 lbs., and for 45 
minutes an average water pressure of 147 lbs. was main- 
tained at the engine, giving a discharge of 640 gallons per 
minute. 

With a l|-inch nozzle, using two 200-foot lines of 2|^-inch 
hose, a discharge of 725 gallons per minute was maintained 
for 9 minutes, and with a 2-inch nozzle the discharge for 
12 minutes was at the rate of 697 gallons per minute. 

Engine No. 15. 

Calculated capacity at 300 revolutions per minute 957 gal- 
lons. Tested November 13, 1893. 

This engine is a type of the largest capacity engines in 
use in the city. Daring the first test of 64 minutes 10 
seconds' duration three 500-foot lines of hose were used, two 
of them 2i^ inches in diameter with l|-inch nozzles, and one 

3 inches in diameter with l|-inch nozzle. 

With a steam pressure of 107.4 lbs., pressures of 53.5 lbs. 
were obtained at the li-inch nozzles and 55.7 lbs. at the 
l|^-inch nozzle, giving a total discharge of 900 gallons per 
minute. 

The engine was shut down for 26 minutes to repair a 
broken boiler feed-pipe. Four lines were then attached, and 
with three 1^-inch nozzles and one 1^-inch nozzle the dis- 



Engineering Department. 49 

charge was 978 gallons per minute. With three 200-foot 
lines of 2| hose siamesed into a l|-inch nozzle, and a 500-foot 
line of 3-inch hose supplying a l^-inch nozzle, the average 
steam pressure for 11 minutes 50 seconds was 98.2 lbs., with 
the water pressure at the engine 96.6 lbs,, giving a dis- 
charge of 1,022 gallons per minute. 

Three 200-foot lines of 2^-inch hose and one 450-foot 
line of 3-inch hose siamesed into a 2-inch nozzle gave for 12.V 
minutes, with a steam pressure of 95.3 lbs., a discharge of 
989 gallons per minute. Indicator cards showing the pres- 
sure in the steam cylinders were taken at frequent intervals, 
from which the horse power developed has been calculated. 



Time. P.M. 


Revolutions 
per minute. 


Total indi- 
cated horse 
power. 


Horse power, 

pump 
measurement. 


Per cent, of 

indicated 

horse power. 


1.38 


294 


84.86 


64.9 


76.5 


1.48 


300 


84.15 


60.9 


72.4 


1.57 


304 


85.88 


60.9 


70.9 


2.05 


294 


Missed 






2.20 


262 


59.75 


41.2 


69.0 


2.27 


294 


83.21 


57.8 


69.4 


3.00 


315 


61.68 


40.2 


65.1 


3.09 


326 


79.46 


47.7 


60.0 


3.14 


348 


85.05 


47.6 


56.0 


3.21 


336 


85.98 


53.2 


61.9 


3.27 


330 


59.41 


43.9 


74.0 


3.45 


346 


83.90 


54.4 


64.9 


3.50 


334 


74.55 


46.3 


62.2 


4.10 


332 


84.31 


56.0 


66.4 



Calorimetric tests of the amount of moisture in the steam 
gave an average of 1.80 per cent, moisture. 

Engine No. 42. 

Tested October 26, 1893. 

For about one hour water was discharged from two l^-inch 
nozzles, using 400-foot lines of 21^-inch hose. 

The averages for 50^ minutes were : steam pressure 78.9 
lbs., water pressure at engine 101.6 lbs., at the nozzles 46.5 
lbs., with a discharge of 515 gallons per minute. Substitut- 
ing a 1^-inch nozzle on one line a run of 37 minutes 50 
seconds, with an average steam pressure of 74.5 lbs., gave a 
water pressure at the engine of 102.2 lbs., at the nozzles 
38.0 and 48.5 lbs., with a discharge of 550 gallons per 
minute. With a 500-foot line of 3-inch hose with a li-inch 
nozzle the water pressure at the engine for 91^ minutes was 



50 City Document No. 10. 

86.4 lbs., at the nozzle the pressure was 71 lbs., and the dis- 
charge 395 gallons per minute. With l|-inch nozzles, the 
same sizes used during the first test, but with one 3-inch and 
one 2i^-inch line of hose, the lines being 100 feet longer than 
before, a 12-minute run gave an average steam pressure of 
71.2 lbs., water pressure at engine 96.8 lbs., and a discharge 
of 502 gallons per minute. 

Using a 1^-inch nozzle with 500 feet of 3-inch hose 441 
gallons per minute were discharged with a nozzle pressure 
of 40 lbs. 

With 500 feet of 2^--inch hose and a 11-inch nozzle the 
pressure at the nozzle was 48.5 lbs., giving a discharge of 327 
gallons per minute for 10 minutes. With the same length 
of 3-inch hose with same pressure at the engine the discharge 
was about 30 per cent, greater and the nozzle pressure 20 
lbs. more. 

The test concluded with a run of 11 minutes, using one 500- 
foot line of 21-inch hose with a 11 -inch nozzle, and one 500- 
foot line of 3-inch hose with a ll-inch nozzle, and in this 
case the pressure at the l|-inch nozzle was 4.5 lbs. larger 
and the discharge 30 per cent, more than from the 2^-inch 
hose. 

Engine No. 23. 

Tested October 30, 1893. 

The first run was made using 500-foot lines of hose and 
1^-inch nozzles. For 27^ minutes the average steam pressure 
was 72.8 lbs., water pressure at the engine 104.0 lbs., and at 
the nozzles 41.5 ll)s., with a discharge of 484 gallons per 
minute. 

Run No. 2 with the same lines of hose, but with l|-inch 
and 1^-inch nozzles, gave for 37 minutes an average steam 
pressure of 55.2 lbs., water pressure at engine 86.4 lbs., 
nozzle pressures of 27.5 and 32.75 lbs., and a discharge of 
460 gallons per minute. 

During this run difficulty was experienced in maintaining 
the steam pressure, and at 2.26 P.M. one line of hose was 
shut oiF and for about 30 minutes one 500-foot line of 2|^- 
inch hose was used with 1^-inch nozzle. For 141 minutes 
of this time the average steam pressure was 53.0 lbs., water 
pressure at the engine 124.1 lbs., water pressure at the noz- 
zle39.75 lbs., and for the last 12i^ minutes the average steam 
pressure was 65.4 lbs., water pressure at the engine 157.4 
lbs., and at the nozzle 51.25 lbs. 

Another attempt was made to use two lines with \\ and 
1| inch nozzles, but in 10 minutes the steam pressure 
dropped from 70 to 35 lbs., and the engine was shut down 



Engineering Department. 51 

and the fire drawn from under the boiler. After washing 
out the tubes a new fire was built and another attempt made 
to run the engine under the same conditions, but the steam 
pressure could not be maintained above 60 lbs., and after 
running for 40 minutes the trial was ended. 

An examination and water-pressure test of the boiler made 
after the trial showed that there were leaks around the tubes 
in the upper head of the boiler. These leaks cut off the 
draft so that steam could not be made in sufficient quantity. 

These leaks were repaired and a second trial was made on 
November 1. 

2d Test of Engine 23. 

Two 500-foot lines of 2i-inch hose with nozzles 1| inch 
and 1^ inch in diameter were used. The engine ran for 49 
minutes, when it was disabled by the breaking of a small 
tooth in one of the rotary cams in the steam cylinder. 
During a period of 43^ minutes the average steam pressure 
was 91.4 lbs., water pressure at the engine 136.6 lbs., and 
the discharge 590 gallons per minute. With the same con- 
ditions of hose and nozzles the steam pressure was from 35 
to 40 lbs. more than could be obtained at the previous trial. 

Engine No. 33. 

Tested October 31, 1893. 

This engine was a duplicate of Engine No. 23. For 4 
minutes 40 seconds two 500-foot lines of 2^-inch hose with 
l|^-inch nozzles were used. The average steam pressure be- 
ing 88.4 lbs., water pressure at engine 139.69 lbs., and at 
the nozzles 60 lbs., discharging 582 gallons per minute. A 
11-inch nozzle was then substituted on one line and for 21 
minutes, with the average steam pressure at 79.7 lbs., the 
water pressure at the engine was 141.1 lbs. and the dis- 
charge 612 gallons per minute. 

With 500-foot lines of hose and two l^-inch nozzles an 
average steam pressure of 70.7 lbs. was kept up for 41 1 
minutes, giving a water pressure of 127.6 lbs. at the engine 
and 42.5 lbs. at the nozzles, with a discharge of 611 gallons 
per minute. At 2.27-30 P.M. a coupling on the pump re- 
lief pii)e broke and the test was interrupted for 171- minutes 
while temporary repairs were being made. A run of 17 
minutes 20 seconds was then made with hose and nozzles the 
same as before the accident, the average steam pressure being 
78.9 lbs., water pressure at the engine 120.2 lbs., at the 
nozzles 40.2 lbs., with a discharge of 594 gallons per minute. 

Three-inch hose was then substituted for 231-inch on one line 



52 City Document No. 10. 

and for 19^ minutes the average steam pressure was 82.6 
lbs., the water pressure at the engine 124.5 lbs. Although 
the nozzles were of the same size the gauge upon one showed 
a pressure 14.5 lbs. larger than the other and a discharge of 
14 per cent, greater in favor of the 3-inch hose. 

At 3.27-30 P.M. the engine suddenly stopped while run- 
ning at the rate of about 800 revolutions per minute, and 
on examination two of the teeth of the rotary steam-cam were 
found to be broken in a similar manner to those of Engine 
No. 23. 

Test of the Water-Tower. 

A test of the Hale Water-Tower was made on November 
17, water being supplied to the tower by Engines 15, 43, 
and Relief D. 

Water pressures were taken at the steamers, at piezom- 
eters attached to the hose connections on the tower, at a 
gauge connected with the supply-pipe at the base of the 
tower and at the nozzle. 

In order to make the nozzle gauge accessible for taking 
the pressures, the tower was not raised, and in actual service 
the pressures at the base of the tower and at the steamers 
would be about 25 lbs. more than the tigures given in the 
tables in order to obtain the same effective pressures at the 
nozzle. 

The trial developed the fact that there was a great loss of 
pressure due to the friction through the 3^-inch hose between 
the base of the tower and the nozzle. With a 2-inch nozzle 
discharging 1,000 gallons per minute with a pressure of 57 
lbs. at Uie nozzle a pressure of 107 lbs. was required at the 
base of the tower, and in some instances there was a friction 
loss of 80 lbs. between the base of the tower and the nozzle. 

Under these conditions an excessive pressure was required 
at the engines to give effective pressures at the tower 
nozzle. 

If we assume two engines each connected to the tower by 
two 300-foot lines of 2|-iuch hose, a water pressure of 100 
lbs. at the engines would give a pressure of but 30 lbs. on the 
2-inch nozzle with the tower raised, and a discharge of 725 
gallons per minute. 

With a l|-inch nozzle the pressure would be about 40 lbs., 
with a discharge of 625 gallons per minute. 

An experiment was made to show the effect of connecting 
one line from a steamer to the tower with a second line 
supplying a li-inch nozzle. The small differences between 
the pressures at the steamer and the piezometer connections 



Engineering Department. 53 

at the tower show that the greater part of the amoimt 
pumped by the steamer was discharged from the 1^-inch 
nozzle. 

Changes are now being made in the tower to increase its 
efficiency, and it is proposed to make a second test alter the 
improvements have been made. 

The accompanying table gives the details of the test made 
on November 17. 

Capacity of Hydrants. 

During all the tests, except when drafting, the engines 
were attached to a Post hydrant which was located at the 
end of an 8-inch pipe, 240 feet long, connected with a 12-inch 
main in Albany street. 

The hydrant, as before described, had an inside diameter 
of 6| inches, a 6-inch rubber valve, and three outlets for 
hose connections, each controlled by an independent valve. 
Two of these outlets were 4| inches, the other 2^ inches in 
diameter. 

Pressures were taken on the 8-inch pipe at the base of the 
hydrant and on a piezometer attached to the steamer suction, 
in order to determine the loss of pressure in passing through 
the hydrant. 

These experiments show that the friction loss in the hy- 
drant was 4 lbs. for a discharge of 500 gallons per minute 
and 16 lbs. for a discharge of 1,000 gallons, also that a large 
proportion of the total loss is in the outlet valve. 

During the trial of the water-tower, all three of the en- 
gines used were for a portion of the time connected with this 
Post hydrant, and the lowest pressure taken at the piezometer 
coupling was 20 lbs., showing that hydrants of this pattern 
will furnish an ample supply for three steamers. Owing to 
the lateness of the season, the experiments on the capacity 
of hydrants were not completed and no tests were made of 
the friction loss in the 2|^-inch reducers which are used on 
the engine suctions. 

Friction in Hose. 

The experiments were not conducted with special reference 
to obtaining information on this point, but in general they 
confirm the more careful experiments made by Mr, John R. 
Freeman and reported in a paper presented by him to the 
American Society of Civil Engineers. 

Experiments were, however, made to show the comparative 
value of 2^-inch and 3-inch hose and the effect of using 2^- 
inch couplings on the 3-inch hose. 



54 City Document No. 10. 

Table showing the comparative efficiency of 2i-inch and 
3-inch hose. Lines in all cases 500 feet in length. 



Number 
of ex- 
periment. 


Diameter of 
discharge 
nozzles. 


Water 
At 
steamer. 


pressures in lbs. 

At nozzle. 
S-in.hose. 2^in.ho8e. 


Discharge in 
3in. hose. i 


1 gallons. 
!^-in. hose. 


1 


Uin. 


128.1 


55.0 


39.2 


347 


293 


2 


Uin. 


124.5 


57.5 


43.0 


355 


307 


3 


Uin. 


96.8 


50.7 


38.5 


268 


234 


4 


Uin.) 

n in. r 


110.9 


44.0 


44.5 


311 


251 


5 


Uin.) 
U in. 1 
Uin. 
U in- 


90.4 


41.2 


36.7 


301 


228 


6 

7 


217.5 
221.4 


105.0 


75.5 


407 


, hose. 

. couplings. 


8 
9 


Uin. 
U in- 


219.5 
204.0 


101.5 
96.5 


.... 


._„ r3-in. 
460 


hose, 
i.couplings, 


10 


U in. 


158.6 


71.0 




395 




11 


Uin. 


151.6 


68.2 




387 




12 


Uin. 


224.0 




74.7 


.... 


405 


13 


Uin. 


157.4 




51.2 




335 


14 


Uin. 


151.1 


.... 


48.7 


.... 


327 


15 


Uin. 


124.1 




39.7 




295 



In the first three experiments given in the above table, two 
lines of hose each 500 feet in length were attached to a 
steamer, and nozzles of the same diameter attached to each 
line. 

With the same pressure at the steamer, the pressures at 
the nozzles on the 3-inch lines of hose were from 12 to 15 
lbs. greater than on the 2|^-inch lines. In the fourth and 
fifth experiments, 1^-inch nozzles were used on the 3-inch 
hose and 1^-inch nozzles on the 21-inch. It will be noticed 
that the etfective pressure at the 1^-inch nozzle on the 3-inch 
hose was as large as at the l^-inch nozzle on the 2|-inch hose, 
while the discharge from the nozzles on the 3-inch hose was 
between 20 and 25 per cent. more. 

A comparison of experiments 6 and 8 shows the eifect 
of using 21-inch couplings on 3-inch hose, and it will be 
noticed that with the same pressure at the engine, the nozzle 
pressure is about 5 lbs. less when using the 2 1 -inch coup- 
lings, or for a 500-foot line of hose about ^ lb. loss at each 
2A^-inch coupling when discharging 475 gallons per minute. 

"The loss of pressure per 100 feet in the different sizes of 
hose is approximately as follows : 

250 gallons 300 gallons 

per minute. per minute. 

2i in. hose .... 13 lbs. 18 lbs. 

3-in. hose, 2J-in. couplings . 8 lbs. 10.7 lbs. 

3-in. hose, 3-in couplings . 8 lbs. 10.5 lbs. 



Engineering Department. 55 

The advantage of using 3-inch hose is illustrated by the 
following example : with a steamer using a line of hose 600 
feet in length, with a 1^-inch smooth nozzle discharging 
300 gallons per minute, a quantity none too large for the 
needs of the present fire-service, a water pressure of 150 lbs, 
at the steamer would be required if 2|-inch hose were used, 
while with 3-inch hose the same results would be attained 
with a pressure of 105 lbs. at the steamer. 

The advantage of the use of 2^-inch couplings would be 
that no time would be lost in attaching reducing couplings 
or in finding hose of the needed size, while the loss of pres- 
sure due to the 2|-inch couplings would be insignificant in 
ordinary use. 

Without doubt the 3-inch hose is not so easily handled on 
ladders or in buildings, but great benefit could be derived 
by using from 300 to 500 feet of 3-inch hose from the 
steamer, with one or two lengths of 2|-inch hose attached 
for the hoseman's use. 



General Results and Conclusions. 

The following tables, condensed from the tables giving 
the details of the tests, show, in a convenient form, the 
results obtainable from the different steamers tested. 

Table No. 2 o-ives the length of the trials, average steam 
and water pressure at the engine, the quantities pumped, 
coal used, water evaporated, etc. 

Table No. 3 gives the results obtained by each engine 
under different conditions of steam pressure, length of hose, 
diameter of nozzles, etc., with the time during which the 
engine was operated under those conditions. 

It will be seen from an inspection of column 9 of Table 
No. 2 and column 4 of Table No. 3, that engines Nos. 36, D, 
21, 43, and 15 equalled or exceeded their calculated capac- 
ity at 300 revolutions per minute for runs of from 35 to 89 
minutes, and that the average amount pumped per minute 
by Engines 21, 36, and 43, for the whole time while the 
pumps were working, was in excess of their calculated 
capacity. 

The tests also show that the smallest-size engines in use 
in the department are capable of delivering through 500- 
foot lines of hose two good fire streams, and that the large 
size Clapp & Jones engines will deliver from 900 to 975 
gallons per minute, equal to three good 1^-inch streams. 

It must be remembered that in all cases the engines 
tested drew their water-supply from a hydrant under a 
pressure of from 30 to 40 lbs., and that the steamers of the 



56 City Document No. 10. 

same class would not bo able to deliver as powerful streams 
if obliged to draft their supply. 

This statement is verified by the results of tests of En- 
gines 36 and 43. 

I wish to call your attention to the desirability of using 
two lines of hose with Siamese connections in cases where 
the steamers are so located that lines more than 500 feet in 
length are required to reach a fire, or where very powerful 
streams are needed. 

Take the case of Engines 36 or 21, the smallest size in 
use by the department, with a single line of 21^-inch hose 
800 feet long, a water pressure of 150 lbs. at the engine 
would give, with a 1^-inch nozzle, a pressure of but 30 lbs. 
at the nozzle, while the same engine pressure, using two 
lines of the same length siamesed into a 50-foot line with a 
l|-inch nozzle, a nozzle pressure of 55 lbs. would be ob- 
tained. In the first case, the discharge would be about 250 
gallons per minute, and the stream would not be effective 
above the third stor}^ while in the latter case a stream dis- 
charging 425 gallons per minute would be available 80 feet 
above the ground. 

The results given in regard to the coal burned and water 
evaporated by the boilers confirms what was noticed during 
the trials, viz., that steam was more easily made and main- 
tained by the Clapp & Jones boilers than by those of the 
Amoskeag engines. 

The evaporation per pound of coal from and at 212 degrees 
varied from 2.26 lbs. in the case of Engine No. 36 to 5.87 
lbs. for Engine No. 43. 

The slip, or loss through the valves and pistons of the 
pumps, varied from 3 to 8 per cent, of the calculated dis- 
placement of the pump plungers. 

Engines Nos. 36 and 43 showed a loss of about 5 per cent, 
when taking their supply from the hydrant, and 8 per cent, 
when drafting. 

The question is sometimes raised as to whether the supply 
of water at the hydrants is sufficient for the supply of the 
steamers. 

It seems to me that the engineers would have more posi- 
tive information on this point, if a combined pressure and 
vacuum gauge were attached to the suction chamber of all 
engines. This plan has been adopted in Detroit with good 
results. 

The statements, which have been made on a previous 
page, in regard to the advantages of using 3-inch hose, are 
applicable in the consideration of the desirability of placing 



Engineering Department. 57 

3 or 4 inch iron stand-pipes on the outside of all high build- 
ings for the use of the Fire Department. 

A considerable number of these pipes have been placed 
upon buildings by i)roperty owners, but they are not under 
the control of the Fire Department, are sometimes not 
furnished with proper hose connections, often are not put 
up in connection with tire-escapes, and are not as efficient 
an aid to the department as they should be. 

These stand-pipes should be erected under the supervision, 
and be placed under the inspection and control, of the Fire 
Department. 

The appended tables give full details of the experiments, 
and, as much care was taken to avoid errors in the obser- 
vations, it is thought that they will have much value for the 
purpose of comparison with future records of a similar 
character. 

I desire to extend my thanks to the members of the Fire 
Department, who have given me many valuable suggestions 
and great assistance during the progress of the trials. 



Engineering Department. 



59 





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II 



60 



City Document No. 10. 



Table No. 3. 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


6. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


1 

3 


Cal. 
Capacity 
at 300 
Revo- 
lutions. 


Time. 


Total 

Discharge 

per 

Minute. 


i 

o 

1 


Length 

of 
Lines. 


Diameter 

of 
Nozzle. 


Discharge 

Minute 

each 
Nozzle. 


Average 
Steam 

Pressure 

in 

Boiler. 


Average 
Water 
Pressure 

at 
Engine. 


^ 


Gallons. 


Min 


Sec. 


Gallons. 


Feet. 


Inches. 


Gallons. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


36 


498 


74 


50 


562 


2 


j 500 
1 500 


".. 


281 ) 
281 i 


70.0 


130.9 


36 


498 


42 


35 


579 


2 


( 500 
\ 500 


■■u 


278 1 
301 ( 


106.3 


128.0 


36 


498 


17 


30 


596 


2 


( 500 
i 500 


■'u 


310 ) 
286 ( 


123.7 


136.4 


36 


498 


16 




460 


1 


*500 


u 




100.7 


204.3 


36 


498 


9 


15 


564 


2 


( 500 
/ 500 


Siaraesed 


.... ( 
.... i 


103.3 


147.1 


36 


498 


8 


20 


425 


1 


500 


n 




111.4 


244.5 



498 
498 
498 



62 


20 


28 




15 


05 


9 





562 


89 


20 


562 


18 


30 


562 


15 


40 


562 


8 


50 


562 


8 


05 


562 


7 


10 



594 


52 




594 


37 


10 


694 


24 


50 


594 


13 


30 


594 


12 





562 

478 



674 
353 



DRArTINO TBOM TANK. 



Siaraesed 



2 


I 500 
i 500 


2 


( 500 
i 500 


1 


500 


2 


( 500 
) 500 





j 500 
i 500 


2 


i*500 
i 500 


1 


*500 


2 


( 500 
i 500 


2 


I 200 
I 200 


1 


500 



2 


I 400 
1 400 


2 


I 400 
} 400 


1 


600 


2 


I 500 
} 500 


2 


( 400 
) 400 



Siaraesed 



Siaraesed 

n 



278 
250 



90.0 
78.5 
112.0 
123.6 



72.6 
87.6 
80.0 



79.2 
78.2 



■ Three-inch hose. 



Engineering Department. 



61 



Table No. .3. — Continued. 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 




Cal. 




Total 
Discharge 








Discharge 


Average 


Average 




Capacity 






Length 


Diameter 


per 


Steam 


Water 


n 


ut 300 


Time. 




of 


of 


Minute 


Pressure 


Pressure 


'A 


Revo- 




Minute. 


o 
6 

!2i 


Lines. 


Nozzle. 


each 


in 


at 


» 
Z 


lutions. 








Nozzle. 


Boiler. 


Engine. 


1 


Gallons. 


.,„ 


Sec. 


Gallons. 


Feet. 


Inches. 


Gallons. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 




594 


9 


30 


427 


2 


I 400 
I 400 


"u 


213.5 ) 
213.5 j 


67.8 


67.4 




594 


7 




580 


2 


( 200 
1 200 


Siamesed 
IS 


::::i 


63.5 


80.7 




594 


6 


15 


460 


2 


( 450 
\ 550 


Siamesed 
14 


:::: ! 


62.6 


107.3 




594 


4 


30 


506 


2 


I 400 
\ 400 


^^^ 


253 ( 
253 \ 


52.8 


109.7 




594 


3 


15 


477 


2 


i 500 
1 500 


Siamesed 


. . . . \ 
. . . . i 


69.0 


116.4 




594 


3 




575 


2 


( 200 
1 200 


Siamesed 

li 


: ; : : ! 


45.0 


80.0 



619 
619 
619 
619 
619 



55 
41 


45 
30 


37 


30 


15 


20 


6 





356 
520 



1 


500 


2 


\ 500 
\ 500 


2 


( 500 
I 500 


2 


( 200 

; 200 


2 


I 200 
; 200 



Siamesed 



Siamesed 

IS 



79.8 


116.7 


62.7 


110.3 


70.4 


110.8 


84.5 


119.5 


86.7 


90.8 



Second Trial. 



619 

619 
619 
619 
619 
019 
619 
616 



41 


10 


18 




17 


35 


16 


30 


16 


20 


11 


50 


11 


20 


7 


20 



594 
640 
596 



604 
576 



2 


I 500 
\ 500 


2 


)*500 
\ 500 


2 


( 500 
/ 500 


2 


S 500 
} 500 


2 


( 500 
\ 500 


2 


( 500 
\ 500 


^ 


j 500 
\ 500 


2 


) 500 
1 500 



n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


Siamesed 


n 


n 


n 






u 


U 


u 



29S.I 
293.! 



290 } 
314 ( 



78.7 
82.0 
104.7 
97.5 
75.5 
93.3 
72.5 
79.4 



142.7 
128.1 
134.0 
148.4 
154.7 
147.8 
147.1 
131.3 



■ Three-inch hose. 



62 



City Document No. 10. 

Table No. 3.— Continued. 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 




Cal. 












Discharge 


Average 


Average 




Capacity 




Discharge 




Length 
of 


Diameter 


Minute 


Steam 


Water 


p- 


at 300 


Time. 


? 


of 


Pressure 


Pressure 


y, 


Revo- 




Minute. 


a 


Lines. 


Nozzle. 


each 


in 


at 




lutions. 




Hi 






Nozzle. 


Boiler. 


Engine. 


S 




















^ 


Gallons. 


Min 


Sec. 


Gallons. 


1 


Feet. 


Inches. 


Gallons. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


43 


525 


57 


30 


577 


2 


J 400 
1 400 


■'.i 


303 ( 
274 i 


70.8 


116.7 


43 


525 


48 




556 


2 


S 400 
1 400 


•'u 


278 I 
278 \ 


73.2 


115.7 


43 


625 


26 


50 


536 


2 


) 500 
/ 500 


"., 


268 \ 

268 i 


75.2 


122.5 


43 


525 


20 


10 


535 


2 


( 500 
\ 500 


U Ring 


263 ; 
272 ( 


72.9 


133.5 



525 
525 
525 
525 
525 

524 
524 
524 
524 



16 




13 


50 


12 


40 


11 


20 


3 


45 



48 


35 


41 




24 


10 


11 


25 


10 


45 


8 


15 


8 


10 


7 


30 


5 


10 


3 


40 



517 

547 

435 

467 
304 

575 
582 
607 
576 



472 
407 
479 
277 
294 



Dkapting from Tank 



2 


S 500 
\ 500 


2 


S 500 
1 500 


2 


( 500 
) 500 


2 


( 500 
\ 500 


1 


1,000 



217.5 I 
217.5 I 



109.3 


118.5 


105.9 


112.4 


87.5 


87.lt 


98.2 


93.lt 


113.3 


205.7 



500 
500 



500 
500 



t500 
500 

*500 
500 



'■u 


■'.. 


"u 


Siamesed 
li 


"u 


n 


n 


u 


u 


u 



89.4 
90.7 
112.0 
102.3 



124.7 
140.2 
138.1 
152.8 
127.0 



114.9 


219.5 


107.9 


221.4 


118.8 


217.5 


42.2 


109.1 


44.0 


117.4 



* Three-inch hose. 

t Air leaking into the suction through the relief valve. 

j Three-inch hose fitted with 2J-inch couplings. 



Engineering Department. 



63 



Table No. 3. — Continued. 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


1 


Cal. 
Capacity 
at 300 
Revo- 
lutions. 


Time. 


Total 
Discharge 

Minute. 


i 

2 


Length 
Lines. 


Diameter 

of 
Nozzle. 


Discharge 

per 

Minute 

each 
Nozzle. 


Average 

Steam 

Pressure 

in 
Boiler. 


Average 

Water 

Pressure 

at 
Engine. 


9i 








o 












o 


















H 


Gallons. 


Min 


Sec. 


Gallons. 


|Zi 


Feet. 


Inches. 


Gallons. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 




691 


45 




640 


2 


( 400 
/ 400 


"'n 


338 ( 
302 \ 


85.1 


147.0 




691 


33 


40 


504 


2 


( 400 
\ 400 


"u 


252 ) 
252 i 


51.0 


98.4 




691 


24 




581 


2 


I 400 
1 4U0 


''.. 


306 ) 
275 j 


65.2 


119.6 




691 


19 




563 


2 


( 400 
1 400 


"u 


281.5 ( 
281.5 \ 


70.0 


124.2 




691 


12 




697 


2 


( 200 
\ 200 


Siamesed 
2 


: : : : i 


61.4 


86.7 




691 


9 




725 


2 


( 200 
/ 200 


Siamesed 
13 




89.8 


123.4 



64 


10 


35 


35 


12 


30 


11 


50 


4 


50 



50 


30 


37 


50 


14 


20 


12 




11 




10 




9 


20 


7 


40 


4 


20 



3 


( 500 
^*500 
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4 


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4 


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i 200 
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4 


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i 500 
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2 


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550 
441 
502 
529 

327 
395 
387 
527 



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2 



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2 


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1 


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2 


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275 
350 
275 

235 
236 
271 
236 



426 
323 



257.5 , 
257.5 I 



228 
301 



74.5 
86.6 
71.2 



101.6 

102.2 

143.4 

96.8 

90.4 

151.1 
158.1 
151.6 

88.7 



* Three-inch hose. 



64 



City Docuiment No. 10. 



Table No. 3. — Concluded. 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 




Cal. 

Capacity 
at 300 
Revo- 
lutions. 


Time. 


Total 

Discharge 

per 

Minute. 




Length 
Lines. 


Diameter 

of 
Nozzle. 


Discharge 

MuTute 

each 
Nozzle. 


Average 
Steam 

Pressure 

in 
Boiler. 


Average 
Water 
Pressure 

at 
Engine. 


o 

1 


Gallons. 


Min 


8ec. 


Gallons. 


Feet. 


Inches. 


Gallons. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


23 

23 
23 
23 

23 





37 

27 
14 
.12 

10 


30 

30 
25 

■ ■ 


460 
484 
295 
335 
470 


2 
1 
1 


( 500 
} 500 

S 500 
1 500 

500 

500 

I 500 
} 500 


11 

n 
ij 


245 ) 
215 i 

242 ) 
242 \ 

251 ( 
219 i 


55.2 
72.8 
52.9 
65.4 
44.6 


86.4 
104.0 
124.1 
157.4 

82.3 



|.3| 



Second Trial. 

2 I 5 500 I U I 
'^ I ( 500 I IJ I 



41 


30 


21 




19 


30 


17 


20 


S 


40 


4 


40 



611 

612 
662 
594 
403 

582 



2 


I 500 
\ 500 


2 


\ 500 
1 500 


2 


( 500 
) *500 


2 


) 500 
1 500 


1 


500 


2 


( 500 
\ 500 



305 
285 



305.5 f 
294 i 



297 
297 



70.7 
79.7 
82.6 
78.9 



136.6 

127.6 
141.1 
124.5 
120.2 
207.8 
139.6 



' Three-inch hose. 



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68 



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69 













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74 



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City Docoient No. 10. 











41 min, 30 sec. 

Average steam pressure, 62.7 lbs. 
Average water pressure, 110.3 lbs. 
Line No. 1, 34.0 lbs. = 273 galls. 
Line No. 2, 43.2 lbs. = 247 galls. 
Total, 520 galls. 






37 min. 30 sec. 

Average steam pressure, 70.4 lbs. 
Average water pressure, 110.8 lbs. 
Line No. 1, 43.5 lbs. = 248 galls. 
Line No. 2, 43.5 lbs. = 248 galls. 
Total, 496 galls. 




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80 



City Document No. 10. 






2 1 

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Engineering Department. 



81 



iill 






II 



IM C^ (M Cl IM 



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82 



City Document No. 10. 













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Engineering Department. 



83 







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mm 






si 


















































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C^g 


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II 






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20 min 
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go 5 5 p a 



84 



City Document No. 10. 






•-3 


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sec. 
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, 38.5 1 
38.6 1 
galls.! 


sec. 
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, 33.5 1 
, 33.5 1 
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, > 














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Engineering Department. 



85 



3 3" 

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a fe « g gs 
















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Engineering Department. 



97 











27 min. 30 sec. 

Average steam pressure, 72.8 lbs. 
Average water pressure, 104 lbs. 
Line No. 1, 41.5 lbs. = 242 galls. 
Line No. 2, 41.5 lbs. = 242 galls. 
Total, 484 galls. 


37 min. 

Average steam pressure, 55.2 lbs. 
Average water pressure, 86.4 lbs. 
Line No. 1, 27.5 lbs. = 245 galls. 
Line No. 2, 32.7 lbs. = 215 galls. 
Total, 460 galls. 


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City Document No. 10. 

















4 min. 40 sec. 

Average steam pressure, 88.4 lbs. 
Average water pressure, 139.6 lbs. 
LineNo. 1,60 lbs. = 291 galls. 
Line No. 2, 60 lbs. = 291 galls. 
Total, 582 galls. 


21 min. 

Average steam pressure, 79.7 lbs. 
Average water pressure, 141.1 lbs. 
Line No. 1, 61.2 lbs. = 294 galls. 
Line No. 2, 46.2 lbs. = 318 galls. 
Total, 612 galls. 


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102 City Dcuoment No. 10. 



Tremont Street Subway. 

Quite a large amount of preliminary work has been clone 
in connection with the proposed subway. The subject has 
been carefully considered, and details have been sufficiently 
worked out to determine its practicability. Plans and pro- 
files of different routes have been made, together with a 
number of sketches of stations, entrances, etc. An approxi- 
mate estimate of cost of construction has been prepared in 
considerable detail, involving a consideration of existing 
sewers, water pipes, foundations, etc. An estimate of land 
to be taken and buildings interfered with was also made. In 
connection with this work 32 plans and sketches were made. 



HALE WATER TOWER, NO. 2. TESTED NOVEMBER 17, 1893 Conclu 

















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Engineering Department. 103 



[FROM THE CITY ENGINEER'S REPORT TO THE BOSTON 
WATER BOARD.] 

Corrosion of Pipes by Electrolysis. 

During the year 1892 a number of leaks in lead service- 
pipes were found which were caused by electrolytic action 
due to underground currents of electricity induced by the 
street-railway system. 

The pipes were decomposed on the exterior surface and 
presented a pitted appearance. Most of the cases were dis- 
covered in the immediate vicinity of the power-station of the 
West End Railroad Company, where the quantity of current 
is naturally largest. 

As the use of electricity for motor power is constantly 
increasing, and as the destruction of our water mains and 
services would be of incalculable injury to our city, an 
investigation has been begun into the causes and extent of 
the difficulty, with the view of taking the necessary measures 
to preserve the pipes, both lead and iron, from further 
injury. This investigation has been placed in the hands of 
Messrs. Stone & Webster, electrical engineers, and the 
results of their preliminary study indicate that decomposi- 
tion of the pipes is going on, but that, generally, it may not 
be apparent for some years. 

The cases which have so far been discovered have been 
where the quantity of electricity in the ground was large ; but 
we have no proof that the same action is not taking place 
more slowly all over the city. The investigations show that 
there is a constant current of electricity flowing through the 
earth toward the power-station, and that the intensity of the 
current varies continually with the amount of power used. 
As these currents must unavoidably pass into and out of the 
water-pipes by way of the earth, and as electrolytic action 
follows in a greater or less degree, it is more than probable 
that the gradual decomposition of our pipes is taking place. 

Whether this corrosion of decomposition is sufficient to 
seriously afiect the pipe system has not yet been determined, 



104 City Document No. 10. 

and I recommend that the investigations be continued during 
the present year. I would also recommend that test-pits he 
dug for the examination of the pipes in ditferent parts of the 
city, particularly in the immediate vicinity of the West End 
power-station, and if evidence of corrosion of the pipes is 
discovered I would recommend that the pipes be drained by 
means of heavy copper conductors connected with the power- 
station. 

The following is a preliminary report from Messrs. Stone 
& Webster : 

Boston, Januaiy 31, 1894. 
William Jackson, Esq., (My Engineer : 

Sir : In accordance with your request we have entered upon a care- 
ful investigation of the subject of the coiTosion of water jsipes and 
mains by electi'olysis, and beg to submit the following preliminary 
report : 

A longer time for experimental work, and a season of the year at 
which the pipes are more freely accessible, are necessary to place us in 
a position to report fully on the extent of the difficulty, and to make 
definite recommendations as to its remedy. 

This report presents briefly to your consideration the following 
points, and contains an appendix which includes various data obtained 
by us, together with a somewhat detailed discussion of the same. 

The points considered in this report are as follows : 

First. The evidence showing injury by corrosive electrolysis to 
underground iron and lead piping for water, gas, and telephone cables 
in Boston and elsewhere. 

Second. The nature of this injury to pipes as developed by experi- 
mental tests in the laboratory. 

Third. The existence of the necessary conditions, electric and other- 
wise, in the soil of Boston, to produce electi'olysis in pipes laid therein. 

Fourth. The proof that these electric conditions are due to the 
return cm-rents by way of the earth, arising from the electric service of 
the West End Street Railway Company. 

From these we shall show that the inference that serious corrosion 
may be proceeding from this cause is almost unavoidable, while, how- 
ever, distinctly pointing out that the evidence is still insufficient for 
decisive judgment. 

Finally, while we are not yet j^repared to suggest a practicable and 
complete remedy, we shall point out methods by which the trouble has 
been somewhat lessened in certain instances. 



The Evidence of Injury. 

The action of electi'olysis is to corrode the pipes, chiefly at the sur- 
faces where the electric current leaves them. This corrosion is not 
uniformly distributed over the surface, but is quite irregular, usually 
producing deep pits. Its tendency is, therefore, to accelerate the nat- 
ural rate of decay of the pipes, the rate of corrosion being greater as 
the current flowing out of the pipe is greater. 

The evidence of injury to water and gas mains by electric action 
would, therefore, naturally be expected to take two forms : one, the 
very premature giving out of pipes in localities where the conditions 
were such that especially large currents flowed out from the surface of 



Engineering Department. 105 

the pipes ; the othei', the increase of rate of i*enewals and repairs in 
the entire system, so far as exposed to the electric cui-rents. 

Evidence of the first soit would presumably be the earliest to develop 
itself, and we shall quote some instances. Evidence of the second sort 
would appear only iu tlie course of years, and the evil might have as- 
sumed serious proportions before this class of evidence became convinc- 
ing. We have been able to secure very little such evidence. 

It should be clearly apprehended that the injury to the pipes, if going 
on at all, is of a very insidious character, consisting, as stated, nierely 
in an acceleration of the natural decay of the pipes. This acceleration 
might be seriously large and yet not become apparent for a term of 
some years, when the trouble would suddenly begin to assume very 
large proportions. The absence of extensive direct evidence of de- 
struction must not, therefore, be interpreted as proving the absence of 
the action. The amount of direct evidence, although not yet large, is 
sufficiently disquieting. 

Of actual giving out of water-pipes in Boston, apparently through 
electrolysis, the only instances which we are able to cite are those of 
lead service-pipes in the vicinity of the power-station of the West End 
Street Railway Company on Albany street. At the time that these 
pipes were discovered, the subject was not under careful investigation, 
and the reasonable supposition that electric currents played a consider- 
able part in their destruction was not put to test by critical inspections. 

Of the destruction of lead piping in general by electrolytic action 
underground, we have abundant and indisputable evidence in the cor- 
rosion of the lead sheaths of telephone cables. In one case, the sheath 
of a new cable was destroyed within six weeks of laying. The amount 
of the injury, its nature, and the methods successfully adopted for its 
partial removal, show conclusively that it was due to electric currents 
traversing and escaping from the lead covering on their way between 
the electric cars and the power-station of the West End Street Rail- 
way Company, in the same way that they presumably do from water- 
pipes. 

From several cities other than Boston, owing possibly to more 
favorable conditions for the development of trouble, injury of a serious 
nature has been reported respecting water and gas mains. We have 
information, reliable in character, showing electi'olytic injury of water- 
pipes in Peoria, 111., and Cambridge, Mass., and of iron mains in Nor- 
walk, Conn., — the trouble being serious in all cases. 



Pipe-Tests. 

In order to get an idea of the probable character of the electrolytic 
action upon the water-pipes and the rapidity with which it might be 
taking place, a number of tests were made at our laboratory upon com- 
mercial specimens of pipe, under conditions similar to those to which the 
city piping is exposed. 

The pijjes were grouped in paii's as shown by the table of pipe-tests, 
and each pair in a separate box of moist sand sprinkled with a small 
quantity of common salt. 

In this resi^ect they were practically under the conditions of pipes 
buried in the streets, since the moist earth usually contains common 
salt and other salts either from the tide water or from the surface 
drainage. 

Measured cun'ents of electricity at constant pressure were then caused 
to flow for noted times from one pipe to the other of a pair. Thus one 
pipe would show the action when the current flowed out of the pipe 
into the earth {i.e., when the pipe was electrically positive with respect to 
the earth around it) ; the other would show the efi"ects when the current 



106 City Document No. 10. 

flowed fi'om the earth into the pipe (i.e., when the pipe was negative 
relatively to its surroundings) . 

The common salt in the water by its electi'olysis yields chlorine at the 
surface where the curi-ent of electricity leaves the pipe. This corrodes 
the pipe rapidly. At the surface where the current enters the pipe the 
product formed by the electrolysis has but little corrosive action. 

This well-known fact was borne out by these experiments, which 
developed, moreover, a point of great practical importance ; namely, 
that the corrosion took place largely in a localized manner. That is, 
the pipes became deeply pitted in spots instead of corroding uniformly 
over tlie surface. 

Although the difference of potential between every pair was the same, 
the currents were of various magnitudes corresponding to the degree of 
moisture and quantity of salt in solution. 

Consequently, this must be taken into consideration, in comparing the 
effect of electrolysis on joipes in different boxes ; for with pipes of the 
same material, the losses are directly proportional to the magnitudes of 
the currents. After reweighing at the end of 100 hours, the tests wei'e 
continued for 50 hours more on all the specimens except Nos. 13 and 14. 
'The positive pij^es were all badly pitted, so that the amount lost as 
determined by weighing before and after the run is not a true measure 
of their deterioration. 

To make this more evident, pipe No. 13, which had lost but 7.6 per 
cent, in weight, was turned down for half its length, to the bottom of 
the deepest pit, and the loss in weight was then found to be, for the 
whole pipe, 63 per cent. This shows, of course, that owing to the for- 
mation of pits the coiTOsion has gone in s])ots to about eight times 
the depth that it would have gone if it had been uniform over the 
surface. 

This is a true measure of the electrolytic action, for the strength of a 
pipe is determined by the strength at its thinnest part, v/hich leaves the 
pipe but 37 per cent, of its original value. 



Tarred Wrought- Iron Pipe No. 13. 

Length 1 foot 

Diameter 1 inch 

Original weight 694.7 grams 

Loss of weight after 100 hours 53.2 " 

Average current 0.739 amp. 

Average voltage 12.96 volts 

Weight of iron turned off in i length .... 19 LD grams 
Weight of iron j^ipe equivalent to pipe in present con- 
dition 257.7 grams 

Present value in per cent, of original .... 37 per cent. 

After running one hundred and fifty houi's, four other ii-on pipes, Nos. 
1, 5, 9, and 11, were similarly treated, and the results tabulated below. 
The positive lead pijies were all so deeply pitted that it was impossible 
to turn them down. They showed even more marked deterioration, 
however, than the "tvrought-iron pipes. 



HAI.E WATER TOWEB, HO. a. TESTED NOVBMBEB 17, 1893. 



— 











— 








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200 


63.5 










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68.2 










































63.8 


2.00 


31.6 


747 
















106.7 
80.3 
82.6 
90.8 

113.7 
94.0 

67.5 


106.2 

115.2 
138.6 
168.7 
143.7 


296 
274 
279 


200 
200 
200 
200 


81.0 










200 
200 


62.6 










































63.0 

62.7 
68.6 
60.0 
85.0 
102.6 
108.5 

111.'2 
119.0 
120.4 
160.0 
90.0 
104.5 

38.6 
83.8 
86.6 
100.5 


2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 

2.279 
2.279 
2.279 
2.279 


42.8 

41.4 
36.0 
31.3 
25.6 
46.2 
51.2 
64.0 
69.2 
62.9 
63.1 
80.5 
78.0 
47.2 
55.1 

20.0 
29.8 
38.4 
38.2 




30 
30 
60 






















































































































10 

27 

40 
41 
42 
46 
49 
50 
56 

58 


60 
60 

60 
30 
30 

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200 

200 
200 
200 
200 

200 
200 
200 


83.1 
71.6 

107.9 
112.3 
116.6 
113.2 


200 
200 
200 
200 

200 
200 
200 

200 


72.0 
82.0 

70.2 

93.0 
109.3 
112.8 
118.0 
































































































10 








































































































































































































































05 


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260 
250 
250 
260 




1.131 
1.131 
1.131 


49.2 
64 8 
08.0 
70.1 


305 
310 


600 
500 
600 

600 

600 


109.1 
114.5 
117.5 

li 

106.0 

89.3 
91.0 
103.6 


109.6 
113.9 
106.0 
108.1 
116.7 

26.2 

35.7 
36.6 


99.1 

I22.C 
143.2 
150.1 
148.3 

76.1 
101.0 


230 
268 
292 


300 
300 




1141 


E 


302 


800 
800 

800 
800 


106.3 
115.3 

118.2 
69.1 


904 




112.0 
109.6 
116.6 
109.2 


165.2 












86.0 
86.0 

82.6 
87.0 
84.6 
78.8 
90.0 
90.0 
67.0 

08.2 


86.0 
127.2 

124.3 


246 
276 


962 




30 
30 
60 
40 
SO 

60 
40 

30 

30 


25.5 
24.1 

27.0 


29.6 
27.3 
27.0 
28.3 


26.2 
24.1 
23.1 












977 




174.0 
181.2 
169.2 
175.7 

143.2 


246 
262 






200 


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1,022 




200 


U8.6 
147.4 


















29.1 

24.6 

29.1 
26.6 

33.1 


29.0 


32.2 

42.3 

28.2 

















































260 
250 
260 
250 




1.209 
1.269 
1.259 
1.259 


19.9 
44.4 
46.0 
49.3 


210 
316 
318 

332 




300 




1.263 

1.268 
1.263 


62.9 

26.8 
25.6 


348 

244 
343 


987 
















::: 






















845 




109.6 
102.6 


260 


200 
200 


103.1 


200 


99J 


200 
200 
200 


86.7 
93.0 
104.7 


200 
200 


89.0 
94.0 
102.8 


108.T 
105.0 




1,030 








































































HAIE WATER TOWER, 


NO. 2. TESTED NOVEMBER 1 


7, 1893.- 


-Continued. 
































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16 
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82.1 
30.1 
26.1 
26.1 


84.0 
31.3 
24.0 
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23.1 
24.1 


99.5 
99.2 
113.5 
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72.3 

86.0 
78.2 

90.0 

86.0 
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82.8 

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164.7 
170.0 
166.6 
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122.6 
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600 

500 

600 
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102.2 
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117.0 
105.7 

87.0 
108.8 
107.6 

91.6 
103.3 
97.9 

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138 












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84.7 






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25 
26 
26 
30 
84 
36 
36 
37 
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30 
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30 
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30 
30 
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107.7 
109.2 
123.3 
96.0 




1169 


126.3 
161.8 
146.1 
150.1 


398 


300 
300 

300 




1.263 
1.263 
1.263 


60.8 


368 
346 


800 

800 
800 


45.2 
46.0 


1193 














1266 














1028 




230 












743 




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42.6 
39.0 


32.2 


































717 




































680 


























































60.1 
99.1 
140.1 
145.1 

158.6 
146.1 
166.8 
162.4 
192.6 
207.6 


362 


260 


89.9 








200 
200 
200 


72.2 
96.3 


67.5 
82.0 
96.6 
97.8 


2.279 
2.279 


14.0 
28.2 
33.5 














































707 
















































33.1 
82.6 
39.1 


34.2 
84.6 
40.0 


29.7 
88.3 
























117.1 
129.8 


294 


200 
200 


99.8 
103.9 








360 
860 


100.7 
102.1 












































1,098 
























































































200 
200 
200 
200 


119.8 
108.8 
118.1 
117.3 


40.0 
86.0 


2.00 
2.00 


20.6 

61.2 
61.4 


603 


















































330 

874 
418 


260 
260 

250 
260 


86.2 
116.7 
116.2 

92.2 
89.1 
87.6 
56.3 
45.4 








998 




36.1 


36.0 


32.2 
28.2 
80.6 
























148.6 
147.2 
142.6 
140.4 
146.2 


268 
268 


200 
200 
200 
200 


118.6 
108.6 








360 
360 
360 

360 


120.9 
109.6 
118.6 
118.6 
89.7 










































































































































1,013 


























































897 














































898 












































200 
200 


61.7 
49.2 


666 




8.6 


88.0 


31.2 










































666 


















































473 








' 



















































Engineering Department. 107 

Table showing True Extent of Deterioration caused by Electrolysis. 



Number of pipe 

Length 

Diameter 

Original weight in grams 

Loss of weight in 150 hours 

Average current 

Average voltage 

Weight of pipe equivalent to pipe 
in present condition 

Present value in per cent, of origi- 
nal 



1 


5 


9 


1 ft. 


1 ft. 


1 ft. 


2 in. 


1 in. 


1 in. 


1,565.3 


693.0 


638.0 


39.7 


172.8 


202.2 


0.253 


1.420 


1.472 


12.37 






850.6 


169.6 


199.6 


54.3 


24.5 


31.3 



11 
1 ft. 

1 in. 
695.0 
129.2 
0.946 



161.2 
23.2 



In these tests data have been accumulated which may prove of further 
value later in a discussion of the relative merits of diiferent kinds of 
piping, but which we are not now prepared to enter upon. 

In the experiments, in order to save time, it was necessary to use cur- 
rents of electricity larger than could be expected to occur, except under 
unusual conditions, in practice. This, however, does not affect the gen- 
eral character of the electrolytic action, but only its rate, the amount of 
electrolysis being proportional to the current. 

The corrosion and disintegration of the sheaths of the telephone cables 
by electrolysis underground was of the same general character as that 
in the lead pipes tested in the laboratory. 

Existence of Necessary Condition for Electrolysis, 

If we could ascertain by direct means whether currents of electricity 
were flowing from the earth into the pipes or from pipes to earth, how 
large these currents were, and how they were distributed over the pipe 
surface, we should then have a direct means of estimating the injury 
done to the pipes ; but these three points are from the nature of the 
case very difficult, if not impossible, of even rough determination. It 
is essential, therefore, to proceed indirectly by showing that the under- 
ground electrical conditions in the city are such as either to render 
destructive electi-olysis likely, or to render it unlikely. We have done 
so as follows : 

By extended tests we have shown that the distribution of electrical 
pressure in the earth in Boston is such that there must be a continual 
and at times sti'ong flow of electricity through the earth from nearly all 
parts of the city toward the West End Power-Station on Albany street. 

Inasmuch as iron water and gas mains are imbedded broadcast in 
the soil, and are relatively much better conductors than the soil, bulk 
for bulk, a portion of these currents must traverse the pipes ; and since 
there is no metallic connection between the pipes and the railway 
returns, the current must enter and leave the pipes by way of the earth. 
Wherever the current thus enters or leaves a pipe it is accompanied by 
electi-olysis at that point, the amount of the electrolysis being propor- 
tional to the current. This produces corrosion, but chiefly where the 
current leaves the pipe. 

Admitting, then, the conclusion just di-awn that currents must enter 
and leave the pipes, and since this process is nearly continuous 
throughout the day, the inference is unavoidable that corrosion is con- 
tinually going on, and in the same measure as the current. This infer- 
ence is confirmed by multijjlied tests, which show that the piping is 
almost everywhere at a potential different from the earth around it, and 
from the nearest railway tracks. 

Under such conditions currents must be flowing either to or from the 



108 City Document No. 10. 

pipes. These differences are, moreover, not constant, but subject to 
continual momentai-y fluctuation, which add to the certainty of the flow 
of currents. 

The demonstration of the continual flow of current through the earth 
to the power-station was made by measuring the difference between the 
electrical pressure in the water-piping at a point near the station, and 
at other distributed points. These outlying points showed always 
higher pressures than the one near the station. The diftereuce amovuited 
in one case to more than 15 volts in 4,000 feet. Similar measurements 
were made between the outlying points themselves. 

It is evident that by taking a siifficient number of points and of 
pressure observations between them, an equipotential map — that is, 
a map showing lines of equal pressure diff'erence relatively to the 
power-station — might be drawn ; but while such a map would possess 
some value, we have not yet thought ourselves justified in incurring 
the expense of running the necessary number of overhead lines in the 
city. 

It is, perhaps, not superfluous to add that the substances which give 
the soil its conductivity are chiefly the various salts which are in solu- 
tion in the water of the soil. Earth itself, when perfectly dry, is a very 
poor conductor ; water when pure is also an exceedingly bad conductor. 
Moist earth is usually a comparatively good conductor, not. however, 
because of the conductivity of the water itself, but because the water 
holds in solution common salt and other salts which make it a conductor, 
these being derived either from the soil, from surface drainage, or from 
the sea, much of the soil beneath Boston being moistened by tide water. 

There are, therefore, present in the soil of Boston not only the elec- 
tric current necessary to produce electrolysis, but the materials which 
will upon electrolysis produce corrosion of iron and lead. 

Cause of the Underground Electric Current. 

The above-mentioned measurements of pressure-difference between 
various points aff"ord convincing jjroof that these pressures are due al- 
most exclusively to the return curri^nts of the West End Street Railway. 
For not only are the pressures found to be distributed about the power- 
station in the way which would be anticipated, but they show fluctua- 
tions from hour to hour, and even minute to minute throughout the day, 
whi(>h, when plotted as curves, show the characteristic form of the 
power load at the station, being nearly zero in the early morning hours, 
and having four maxima; namely, at about 8 A.M., (3, 8, and 11 P.M. 
This point is very clearly illustrated by tests made on January 8d and 
4th, 1894, to show the difference of potential between the water-pipes at 
different points in the city. By means of rubber-covered copper wires 
the water-pipes at Foster's wharf and Summer street were connected 
with the water-pipes at the corner of Harrison avenue and Bristol 
street, near the power-station of the West End Street Railway. 

Continuous readings of the difference in potentials were taken for 24 
hours, and the results show admirably the periodic fluctuations corre- 
sponding to the amount of travel on th'e railroad. (See plates 1 and 2.) 

If any evidence of the source of these currents and pressures were 
necessary, this would be incontestible. 

Stmimary. 

It seems from the preceding discussion that the direct evidence is 
good, although not yet ample ; that injury has been wrouo;ht upon iron 
and lead pipes buried in the earth ; this injury being the direct result of 
corrosion arising from the passage of the return currents of an electric 
street-railway into or out of the pipes. 



P.M. A.M. 

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Engineering Department. 109 

It seems further to be almost incontestably shown that the under- 
ground conditions in Boston are such that electric curi'ents, presumably 
of considerable magnitude, pass into and out of the pifiesby way of the 
earth, and with the imavoidable accompaniment of electrolysis and cor- 
rosion. 

It remains to be shown whether this coiTosion is or is not, under ex- 
isting conditions, a serious factor in lessening the life of the piping 
system as a whole or of any part of it in particular. 

Upon this most important subject we feel that the points previously 
made in this report would certainly not wai'rant a hopeful view. They 
would rather incline one toward the opinion that serious corrosion may 
be now proceeding ; but we must strongly call attention to the fact that 
it has been impossible, thus far, to acquire sufficient reliable informa- 
tion to warrant a decision. 

The matter is under further investigation. 



Remedy. 

As to remedy it is clear, of course, that were the return railway cir. 
cuit to be confined to channels provided for it, the trouble would cease 
This it is impossible to do with a railway system in which the cars give 
up their return current to the uninsulated rails as now. However good 
the conductivity of the copper return lines provided, the current will 
divide between them and the earth, the fraction going back by earth 
being to that going back by the copper lines as the earth (;onductivity is 
to that of the lines. Now, the earth conductivity is at least fairly good, 
so that the amount of copper required in returns becomes enormous to 
reduce the earth currents to small amounts. Railway systems which do 
not ground the return have not proved successful for various reasons. 

To remove the difficulty with telephone cables, the New England 
Telephone & Telegraph Company has laid a special copper return along 
the affected part of the cable, and thence by a heavy overhead line back 
to the power-house. This, together with the pi'actice by the West End 
Street Railway Company of making the trolley-wire positive, has 
proved lai-gely successful. 

It is feasible because the number of these cases to be dealt with is 
comparatively small, so that the expense is not intolerable. 

A similar suggestion respecting certain portions of the water-main 
system was offered by us in February, 1893. 

The larger and better distributed such a system of special copper re- 
turn from the water-pipes is, the less danger from electi'olysis ; but the 
great outlay for copper involved is prohibitive beyond a certain limit. 
VVhether within this limit the electrolysis can be reduced to an unimpor- 
tant amount is by no means yet demonstrated. The data is still so 
incomplete as not to warrant a positive mference. 

(Signed) Stone & Webster. 



Sources of Supply. 

The rainfall during the year 1893 was above the average 
of the last twenty years, bat on account of the unequal dis- 
tribution of the rainfall the amount of water in store in the 
reservoirs was reduced to a smaller amount than during any 
year since the Sudbury-river works have been in use. 



110 City Document No. 10. 

The rainfall and quantities collected on the several water- 
sheds were as follows : 

Sudbury. Cochituate. Mystic. 

Rainfall in inches . 48.225 45.28 44.20 

" collected in 

inches . 21.774 17.65 19.687 

Daily average yield 
of water-shed in 
gallons . . 77,963,300 15,862,000 25,192,500 

The quality of the water has continued to be good, the 
only noticeable change being in an increase in color of the 
water of the Sudbury and Cochituate supply. This has been 
caused by the use of a larger proportion of Sudbury-river 
water. 

Reservoir No. 1. — With the exception of a few days dur- 
ing the iirst week of January, no water was wasted over the 
dam until February 8. 

Water flowed over the crest of the dam continuously from 
this time until June 6, when waste ceased and the amount 
passing the dam from the latter date to January 1, 1894, has 
been only the daily flow of one and one-half million gallons 
required by law. 

The lowest point reached by the reservoir was 155.11, or 
4.18 feet below the top of the flash-boards on November 27, 
1893. 

Reservoir JVb. 2. — The water in this reservoir remained 
at or near high- water mark until the first of July. During 
the month of July the water surface was lowered nearly 
seven feet, and in the months of August and September it 
was from five to six feet below high-water mark. In Octo- 
ber and November the quantity in store was still furth r re- 
duced, and on December 1 the water was 12.7 feet below 
high water, the lowest point reached during the year. 

Reservoir No. 3. — This reservoir was drawn down to 8 
feet below the crest of the dam during the mouth of January, 
but on February 13 water began to waste over the dam and 
continued until the first of June. 

Water was taken from this reservoir for the supply of the 
city from May 24 to August 3, and at the latter date the sur- 
face of the reservoir was 17.89 feet below the crest of the 
dam. 

It was again drawn upon on September 26, and on October 
23 the reservoir was practically empty. It remained empty 
until December 1, when it began to fill, and on February 1 
the water-surface was 2.68 feet below the crest of the dam. 



Engineering Department. Ill 

JResei^oir JVo. 4. — On January 1, 1893, the water in Res- 
ervoir No. 4 was 20.99 feet below high-water mark. On 
March 23 the reservoir was full and water began to waste 
at the overflow. 

The reservoir was kept full until August 3, when the 
gates were opened, and during August and September 
1,293,800,000 gallons were drawn from the reservoir for 
the suppl}^ of the city, lowering the water in the reservoir 
35 feet. The outlet gates were closed from September 26 
to October 27, when they were again opened, and on 
November 17 the reservoir was emptied. 

The outlet gates have been closed since December (3, and 
ut the jn-esent time, February 1, the water surftice is 29.45 
feet below high- water mark. 

Farm Pond. — The avernge height of the water in this 
pond has been 148.82 feet above tide-marsh level, and the 
surface has not varied more than 11 inches from that 
height during the year. 

The Framingham Water Company has drawn from the 
pond 103,000,000 gallons. 

Lake Oochituate. — Lake Cochituate was about six feet 
below high-water mark on January 1, 1893, and did not fill 
until April 22. 

A small quantity of water was wasted at the outlet dam in 
May, and about June 1 the lake began to fall. There was a 
gradual lowering of the water surface from June 1 to Octo- 
ber 27, when it was 6.6 feet below high- water mark, and it 
remained at about the same level during the months of No- 
vember and December. 

In October the water in the lake was but little above the 
top of the aqueduct, and for the purpose of maintaining the 
supply to the city in case of a continued drought, a temporary 
pumping plant was erected at the gate-house capable of 
pumping 20,000,000 gallons per day into the aqueduct. 
The engines and pumps were placed in position, housed, 
and put in readiness for use, but the lake did not fall so as 
to require their use. 

For the purpose of purifying the water of Pegan brook 
before it enters the lake, three filter-beds have been built 
near the mouth of the brook, into which the water of the 
brook is pumped and allowed to percolate through the sand 
into the lake. The beds have a combined area of about 4 
acres, and are from 6 to 12 feet above the surface of the 
lake. They are surrounded by banks 5 feet high, and the 
two upper beds have underdrains of 8-inch vitrified pipe, 
laid about 100 feet apart, at a depth of 8 feet below the 
surface of the beds. 



112 City Document No. 10. 

For the purpose of retaining the water of the brook, a dam 
8 feet in height was built, having a centre of 4-inch tongued 
and grooved sheet piling, upon which a centre wall of concrete 
was built. 

The embankment is of gravel 10 feet wide on top, with 
slopes of two horizontal to one vertical. The water is 
pumped on to the beds by means of a 25-horse power 
Hoadly engine, and two 6-inch centrifugal pumps delivering 
the water through about 1,000 feet of 12, 8, and 6 inch pipe. 
The cost of construction exclusive of land damages was 
$12,585.11. The works have been in operation since 
June 25, but from September 11 to November 3 no water 
was pumped, as the flow of the brook was so small that it 
percolated through the dam or evaporated. 

Dudley pond was drawn off to reinforce the lake during the 
month of November. 

No water has been received in the lake from the Sudbury 
river during the year. 

Water has been drawn from the different reservoirs as 
follows : 

Reservoir No. 1. 

February 10 to April 13, I December 2 to 31. 

inclusive. 



Reservoir No. 2. 

May 23. I August 22 to September 14. 

August 4 to 20. I September 16 to 25. 

Rf.servoirs Nos. 2 and 3. 



January 1 to February 9. 
April 14 to May 11. ^ 
May 13 to 21. " 



May 25 to August 3. 
September 26 to December 1. 



The heights of water in the various storage reservoirs on 
the first day of each month are given below. 



Engineering Department. 



113 





Reseevoirs. 


Farm 
Pond. 


Lake 

COCHITU- 
ATE. 




No.l. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


No. 4. 




Top of 
Flash- 
boards. 

159.29 


Top of 
Flash- 
boards. 

167.12 


Crest 

of 
Dam. 

175.24 


Crest 

of 
Dam. 

215.21 


High 
Water. 

149.25 


Top of 
Flash- 
boards. 

134.36 


January 1, 1893 

February 1, " 

March 1, " 

April 1, " 

Mayl, " 

June 1, " 

Julyl, " 

August 1, " 

September 1, " 

October 1, " 

November 1, " 

December 1, " 

January 1, 1894 


157.44 
157.31 
157.76 
158.15 
147.83 
146.93 
156.40 
156.43 
156.20 
155.57 
155.40 
155.16 
155.55 


163.04 
159.46 
166.08 
166.12 
166.11 
167.17 
166.46 
160.17 
161.55 
161.45 
157.50 
155.30 
160.17 


171.58 
167.05 
175.50 
175.52 
175.54 
175.37 
174.02 
168.02 
167.79 
166.21 
158.65 
158.20 
168.53 


194.22 
197.04 
204.64 
214.62 
214.44 
214.81 
215.05 
215.07 
201.42 
179.72 
179.77 
170.51 
178.83 


148.63 
148.75 
149.28 
149.31 
149.50 
148.89 
148.85 
148.50 
148.53 
148.31 
148.39 
148.39 
148.74 


128.41 
127.58 
129.50 
133.38 
134.51 
134.12 
133.24 
131.68 
130.60 
128.95 
128.30 
127.53 
127.94 



Aqueducts and Distributing Reservoirs. 
The Sudbury-river aqueduct has been used 361 days. 



and 



has delivered 11,737,900,000 .sallons into the Chestnut Hill 
and Brookline reservoirs. The Cochituate aqueduct has 
been used 356 days, and delivered 5,623,532,500 <jallons. 

The distributing- reservoirs are in good order. The over- 
flow at the East Boston reservoir, which was constructed of 
flagging and brick, and was badly cracked by settlement or 
frost, has been replaced l)y a 12-inch pipe thoroughly em- 
bedded in Portland cement concrete. 



Reservoir No. 6. 

This reservoir, which has been in process of construction 
during the past four years, has been practically completed, 
and is now being filled. It is situated on Indian brook in 
the towns of Ashland and Hopkinton, and has a capacity of 
about 1,500,000,000 gallons. 

The dam across the valley is about 1,500 feet in length, 
and consists of an earth embankment with a centre core wall 
of concrete extendins: to the bed rock. This core wall is 8 



114 City Docuivient No, 10. 

feet in thickness at the base, and 3 feet at the top, and is plas- 
tered on its upstream side with a very carefully applied coat- 
ing of Portland cement one-half inch in thickness. A thick 
coating of Portland cement mortar, mixed in the proportion 
of one part cement to one part of sand, was put on to the 
concrete, rubbed to a uniform thickness and left rough. 
Over this was smoothly spread with trowels a coat of neat 
Portland cement, which was thoroughly worked in order to 
make a perfectly water-tight surface. 

The embankment is 20 feet wide on top. The inner or 
reservoir slope is two horizontal to one vertical, with a berme 
6 feet in width 13 feet below the top of the embankment. 
This slope is riprapped below the berme, and from the berme 
to the top of the embankment is paved. The outer slope is 
covered with loam, and has a gutter running longitudinally 
about half-way down its face to prevent washing of the banks 
by rain. Above this gutter the slope is 2 to 1, and below 
2i to 1. 

The body of the embankment is composed of sand and 
gravel, deposited in thin layers, watered, and well compacted 
by rolling. Next the core wall, on the upstream side, the 
material was selected so as to aid in securing a water-tight 
dam. 

Two gate-houses have been constructed in the dam in 
which the delivery pipes are so arranged that the water can 
be drawn from different levels, and if desired discharged into 
filter beds. 

For further information concerning work on this reservoir 
and other work in connecti(m with additional supply, see the 
following report of Desmond FitzGerald, Resident Engineer : 

South Framixgham, Mass., Januaiy 1, 1894. 
William Jackson, Esq., City Engineer: 

Dear Sir : I submit herewith a brief report of engineering work ac- 
complished during the past year by the Additional Supply force. 

At Basin No. 6 the building of the core wall was resumed on May 1, 
and on May 10 the first gravel was delivered. The dam was built up 
from grade 270 to the top, by the end of the year, and is practically 
completed, although the paving is not yet done. The riprap extending 
from the berme to the inner toe is in place, and the broken stone above 
the berme, forming the footing-course for the paving, has been placed 
so that the basin can now be filled. The contract for laying the riprap 
and paving was awarded to John Berry on September 19. The removal 
of the loam from the basin and the treatment for shallow flovvage were 
completed before the end of the season. October 2 a small section of 
stripping, remaining near the dam, was let to A. Saucier. 

The loam for the Boston Park Department was all removed, and the 
tracks taken out of the basin. 

Mr. N. S. Brock, Assistant Engineer, has had charge of Basin 6. 



Engineering Department. 115 



Work done at Basin 6 in 1893. 



5,564 cubic yards concrete. 
4,196 square " cement plaster. 



04,170 cubic 


' embankment. 


20,000 " 


" stripping. 


3,670 " 


" stone crushed. 


1,574 " 


" sand screened 


4,522 " 


" riprap. 


1,504 " 


" ballast. 


12,000 " 


" loam hauled. 



Gravel for the embankment was taken this year from a new gravel 
pit on the westerly side of the basin. 

Surveys in connection with Basin No. 5 have been continued. Prop- 
erty and seizure lines have been run out, and plans have been made in 
connection with changes in the roads. Early in the year plans and 
specifications were completed for the dam, andon July 17 a contract was 
awarded to Moulton & O'Mahoney for building the dam for $454,729.90. 
Since that time the plans have been modified to harmonize with the 
work contemplated by the State for a metropolitan system. Owing to 
delays caused by negotiating with Southboro', in regard to changes in 
roads, no work has yet been done. 

Early in January, 1893, some studies and sui-veys were made in con- 
nection with the projjosed Natick Sewerage plans. In February a filter 
scheme for Pegan brook, Natick, was devised, which was carried out in 
June, and is now in successful operation. The water of the brook is 
pumped onto shallow beds, and is filtered before passing into the lake. 

Studies have been continued during the year on many matters con- 
nected with the Sudbury supply, such as drainage of the swamps, and 
the possible construction of other basins. 

Plans and specifications have been prepared for constructing filter 
beds on the brooks draining Marlborough. 

Very truly yours, 
(Signed) Desmond FitzGerald, 

Resident Engineer. 

High-Service Pumping-Stations. 

The engines and boilers at the Chestnut Hill station are 
in good condition. The daily average quantity pumped was 
15.4 per cent, more than in 1892. During the month of 
July Engine No. 1 pumped 10,451,500 gallons per day, and 
for the entire year the pumps delivered about 21 per cent, 
above their rated capacity. 

The foundations for Engine No. 3 were completed in 
April. The engine is now being shipped from the works in 
New York and will soon be erected by the contractor. A 
contract was made on April 18 with the Atlantic Works to 
furnish a Belpaire fire-box boiler for use with the new engine. 
The table on page 128 shows in detail the work done by the 
pumping-engines and boilers during the year. 

Engine No. 1 was run 4,512 hours, 

pumping 1,860,811,915 gallons. 



116 City Document No. 10. 

Engine No. 2 was run 4,162J hours, 

pumping 1,649,918,185 gallons. 

Total amount pumped . . . 3,510,730,100 

" coal used. . . 4,210,241 lbs. 

Percentage, ashes and clinkers . 7.6 

Average lift in feet . . . 126.71 

Quantity pumped per lb. of coal . 859.6 gallons. 

Daily average amount pumped . 9,618,400 " 

On account of the large increase in the quantity pumped 
one boiler was not sufficient to easily supply steam for 
pumping, lighting, and heating the buildings, and a tempo- 
rary boiler has been placed in the boiler-house for use in 
connection with the two old boilers. 



Cost of Pumping 
Salaries ..... 

Fuel 

Repairs 

Oil, waste, and packing 

Small supplies .... 



$11,745.25 

9,159.58 

814.97 

593.37 

88.13 



Total $22,401.30 

Cost per million gallons raised one foot high, $0.05 

Cost per million gallons pumped to reservoir, $6.38 

At the West Roxbury pumping-station the daily average 
quantity pumped was 96,900 gallons, an increase of 5.5 per 
cent, over the amount pumped in 1892. 

At the East Boston station 402,400 gallons per day have 
been pumped for the supply of the high-service district, and 
24,000 gallons per day for the Breed's island high service. 

The pump used for the Breed's island service is in poor 
condition, and should be replaced by a new pump. 

Mystic Lake. 

On January 1, 1893, the surface of the lake was 1.50 feet 
below high-water mark. During the month of January the 
water-surface gradually fell, and on February 7 was 4.15 feet 
below high water. Copious rain and melting snow quickly 
filled the lake, and from February 9 to June 7 water was 
wasted over the dam. During the summer and fall the lake 
surface fell, and on October 23 it was 8.90 feet below high 
water. The temporary pumps were used at the lake to raise 
the water into the conduit from October 19 to November 4. 

During November and December the lake filled slowly, and 
on January 1, 1894, was 3.15 feet below high water. 



Engineering Department. 



117 



Advantage was taken of the low water in the lake to remove 
about 14,000 cubic yards of loam from the section of the 
lake near the mouth of the Abbajona river, and depositing it 
in the shallow coves. 

Mystic-Valley Sewer. 

The quantity of sewage pumped and chemically treated 
durintr the year was 126,226,000 gallons, an average of 
361,700 gallons per day. 

The table on page 130 gives the monthly quantities of sew- 
age pumped, aluminum used, coal burned, etc. 

Mystic Conduit and Reservoir. 

The conduit has been cleaned and is now in good condition. 

Recommendations made in previous reports in regard to 
repairs at conduit screen chamber and at reservoir have not 
been carried out and are now renewed. 



Mystic Pumping-Station. 

There has been a large increase during the past year in the 
quantity pumped, and it has been necessary to run all of the 
pumps at times to maintain the supply. 

Engine No. 1 was used 1,070| hours 

pumping ..... 
Engine No. 2 was used 4,323^ hours 

pumping .... 
Engine No. 3 was used 8,358| hours 

pumping .... 
Total amount pumped 
Total amount coal consumed . 
Percentage, ashes and clinkers 
Average lift in feet 
Quantity pumped per lb. of coal 
Average duty of engines per 100 lbs 

coal, no deductions 
Daily average amount pumped 



223,963,200 gallons. 

968,212,000 " 

2,882,304,000 " 
4,074,479,200 

9,188,000 lbs. 
10.5 
149.36 
443.5 gallons. 

55,239,700 ft. lbs. 
11,163,000 gallons. 



Cost of Pothping. 
Salaries 

Fuel .... 
Repairs 

Oil, waste, and packing 
Small supplies 



$10,968 70 

18,790 47 

3,608 28 

674 50 

187 01 



Total 



$34,228 96 



118 City Document No. 10. 

Cost per million gallons raised one foot high . $0,056 

Cost per million gallons pumped to reservoir . $8 40 

The table on page 129 shows in detail the work done by the 
engines during the year. 

Engine No. 1, which was the first of the well-known type 
of Worthington compound duplex pumping-engine ever built, 
has been thoroughly overhauled and put in repair during the 
year. 

The steam cylinders were rebored and the pistons fitted 
with St. John's packing. The United States metallic pack- 
ing, which had been in use on the piston-rods for nineteen 
years, was after some small repairs replaced as good as new. 
New piston-rods were placed in the low-pressure cylinders, 
the steam-valves reset, and other repairs made, for details of 
which see report of Superintendent. 

A 250-light dynamo and 18-horse power Armington and 
Sims engine have been placed in the engine-house. 

On December 30 a contract was made with the Blake 
Manufacturing Company for an additional engine to be 
placed in this station. 

It is to be built from designs of Mr. E. D. Leavitt, and is a 
compound beam and fly-wheel engine operating two differen- 
tial plunger-pumps. The capacity of the pumps will be 
about 10,500,000 gallons per 24 hours. It is expected that 
this engine will be ready for service before the end of the 
present year. 

Consumption. 

The daily average consumption for the year was as fol- 
lows : 

Sudbury and Cochituate Works . . 47,453,200 gallons. 
Mystic Works 10,742,500 

Total combined supplies . . 58,195,700 " 

an increase of 13.8 per cent, from that of the previous year. 

The consumption during each month for the past seven 
years is given by the table on page 138. 

The following table shows the consumption per capita for 
tlie past two years : 



Engineering Department. 



119 



Consumption. 



January 
February 
March . 
April . . , 
May . . 
June . . 
July . . . 
August . . 
September 
October . 
November 
December 

Average 



Consumption in 
Gallons per Capita. 



86.4 
91.3 

89.9 



106.3 
104.5 
104.8 
103.1 
95.4 
100.7 



1893. 



123.7 
117.6^ 
111.4 
104.1 
99.0 
100.4 
110.6 
108.3 
105.5 
104.2 



Consumption in 
Gallons per Capita. 



ISOa. 1893. 



80.4 
84.0 
80.8 
73.9 
74.2 
81.6 
85.8 
77.9 
76.2 
74.3 
73.3 
82.9 



111.5 
103.7 
91.9 
76.9 
76.7 
81.5 
80.6 
77.6 
71.8 
75.7 
75.0 
90.9 



Combined 
suppliks. 



Consumption in 
Gallons per Capita. 



85.1 

89.7 

84.0 
83.7 
93.4 
101.7 
98.5 
98.4 
96.6 
90.4 



96.1 



84.4 



On June 29 a small section of the Charlestown district, 
containing a population of about 2,400, was connected with 
the Cochituate high service. 

The consumption per capita was larger than in any year 
since the works were built. 



Loss OF Head. 

In order to have a continuous record of the water pres- 
sures in the mains at different points throughout the city, six 
recording pressure gauges have been placed in fire-engine 
houses. 

These, with four gauges previously established, furnish a 
record which is of great value in determining the necessity 
for larger mains, and in case of excessive draft upon the 
supply for fires or other causes the available pressure at all 
times is accurately recorded. 

The table on page 144 gives the results shown by these 
gauges. i V^ 

Distribution. 

On the Cochituate works 15.96 miles of pipe were laid, and 
10 miles purchased of the Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Company 



120 City Document No. 10. 

were connected with our system. About two miles of pipe 
have been abandoned, and the total now connected with the 
system is 560 miles. 

No large mains have been laid during the year, and noth- 
ing has l)een done in the improvement of the supply for tire- 
service by the replacing of old mains with new ones of larger 
size. 

Seventeen hundred feet of the 6-inch flexible pipe crossing 
the channel between Moon and Long islands has been 
relaid, it having been frozen and burst during the winter. 
Pipes have been laid from Long island to Rainsford island, 
3,600 feet of 4-inch pipe on the islands, and 2,200 feet of 
3-inch wrought-iron pipe across the channel. 

The distribution system of the Mystic works has been ex- 
tended 4.3 miles and 5.36 miles have been relaid, generally 
with pipe of larger size. The length of mains now con- 
nected with these works is 164.8 miles, of which 39.1 miles 
are maintained by the city of Boston, the remainder being 
under the control of other municipalities. 

Two hundred and forty-nine hydrants have been estab- 
lished in the Cochituate and 83 in the Mystic works, making 
the total number now in use on the combined supplies 7,348. 

Contracts have been made for pipes for an additional 30- 
inch main in Dorchester avenue and D street from Swett 
street to Congress street for the improvement of the supply 
in South Boston, and for an additional main to reinforce the 
present supply for the Brighton district. 

Pipes for an additional force main, 36 inches in diameter, 
between the Chestnut Hill Pumping-station and Fisher Hill 
reservoir, and for the extension ot the 24-inch low service 
main in Dorchester are on hand and the mains will be laid 
during the coming season. 

Twenty-five contracts for rock excavation were made dur- 
ing the year. Two hundred and sixteen petitions for main 
pipe extensions were reported upon in regard to grade of 
street, size of main, and cost of laying. 

The pipe laid during the year has been measured, the 
gates and hydrants located and plotted on the plans. 

The records from the four pumping-stations, the lakes, 
reservoirs, the Mystic sewer, and the returns from the pipe 
foundries, etc., have been carefully recorded. 

Appended to this report will be found the usual tables of 
rainfall, consumption, yield of water-sheds, etc. 



BOSTON WATER WORKS. / 

Diagl'am showing the rainfall and daily avei-fege Consumption 

foi'each i-nonth. 

Yearly Anragei sho^n thus 


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Engineering Department. 



120 



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652,700 
688,900 
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130 



City Document No. 10. 



Table showing Work done at 3IysUc Sewage Pumping- Station during the 
Tear 1893. 



a . 



< 



Gallons. 



Lbs. 



Lbs. 



C3 AS 



January . 
February . 
March . . 
April . . . 
May . . . 
June . . . 
July . . . 
August . . 
September 
October . . 
November 
December . 



Totals 



12,135,000 
12,336,000 
16,371,000 
11,573,000 
11,746,000 
10,244,000 
8,966,000 
7,224,000 
8,212,000 
8,493,000 
8,490,000 
10,436,000 



31,210 
29,610 
36,030 
29,300 
31,395 
27,800 
24,050 
18,845 
20,495 
23,155 
«14.220 



40,250 
37,470 
43,680 
39,980 
43,150 
41,960 
39,060 
32,320 
33,000 
31,920 



126,226,000 



459,964 



391,500 
440,600 
528,100 
413,300 
405,000 
341,500 
298,900 
314,100 
283,200 
274,000 
292,800 
347,900 



361,700 



1 August 20th to 27th repairing engine. 

» November 5th to 14th no sulphate of alumina used. Supply-pipe being repaired . 



Engineering Department. 



131 



statement of Operations at the West Roxbury Pumping- Station for the 
Year 1893. 



1893. 


a 


i 


1^ 


It 


|l 


11 


1 = 

r 


i 


Month. 


Hours. 


Min. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Pounds. 


Per cent. 


Feet. 


January . . 


218 


00 


3,265.950 


105,400 


136.2 


23,975 


19.7 


135.85 


February . 


195 


00 


3,002,550 


107,200 


142.0 


21,150 


19.3 


134.15 


March . . . 


170 


00 


2,401,875 


77,500 


134.4 


17,875 


19.5 


133.50 


April . . . 


139 


00 


1,931,700 


64,400 


135.8 


14,225 


18.7 


134.23 


May ... . 


175 


00 


2,502,675 


80,700 


153.3 


16,325 


19.1 


137.05 


June . . . 


214 


00 


3,049,425 


101,600 


158.0 


19,300 


20.6 


137.34 


July. . . . 


310 


00 


4,150,950 


133,900 


159.0 


26,100 


21.4 


138.45 


August . . 


290 


00 


3,830,775 


123,600 


162.0 


23,650 


20.8 


138.72 


September . 


242 


30 


2,994,825 


99,800 


158.7 


18,875 


20.2 


138.52 


October . . 


257 


00 


3,132,450 


101,100 


159.0 


19,700 


20.1 


139.05 


November . 


225 


00 


2,562,975 


85,400 


148.1 


17,300 


20.6 


139.40 


December . 


217 


00 


2,531,700 


81,700 


134.1 


18,875 


20.7 


138.02 


Totals and 
averages, 


2,652 


30 


35,357,850 


96,900 


149.0 


237,350 


20.1 


137.02 



132 



City Document No. 10. 



Statement of Operations at the East Boston Pumping -Station for the Tear 
1893. 




Engineering Department. 



133 



Rainfall in Inches and Hundredths on the Sudbury River Water-shed for 
the Tear 1893. 



1893. 


i 
1 


3 


1 


r. 

< 


i 


i 

>-3 


"3 

1-3 


1 
< 


1 


1 

O 


u 

M 
i 

1 


1 


1 


0.930 


0.295 














0.270 






0.370 






















3 

4 




0.335 


0.415 


0.130 


3.950 




0.425 


1.615 
0.430 
0.115 




0.060 


0.755 


1.430 


5 






0.680 


6 


0.935 


0.590 




0.360 


0.050 


0.275 


0.515 


0.095 




8 

9 


0.490 


1.170 


1.390 


0.340 






0.040 


0.005 




0.410 


























12 

13 


0.015 
0.010 


1.610 


0.625 


0.025 


0.505 


;« 


0.145 


0.035 








0.020 


















0.790 






15 


0.120 




0.980 


0.670 












0.185 












0.625 








17 

18 

19 




1.190 
0.055 






0.055 


0.230 


0.060 
0.865 


0.030 






1.640 


0.175 




0.005 


0.040 










1.140 
0.120 


















22 

23 

24 

25 


0.040 
0.085 


1.840 

0.205 
0.310 


0.220 


0.050 
0.065 


0.985 
0.010 


0.385 
0.065 

0.205 
0.275 


0.925 


0.035 
0.035 


2.260 


0.695 


0.065 


27 








0.210 




28 


0.280 


0.595 




0.365 




0.095 


0.495 


0.080 


0.855 


0.555 


0.055 










31 


0.020 












0.010 










0.150 


Totals . 


2.925 


8.195 


3.670 


3.605 


6.610 


2.380 


2.570 


5.415 


1.735 


4.065 


2.195 


4.860 



Total rain 
Framingham 



fall during the year, 48.225 inches, being an average of two gauges, located at 
and Asliland . 



134 City Document No. 10. 

Rainfall in Inches and Hundredths at Lake Cochituate for the Year 18 93. 



1893. 


1-3 




1 


< 


i 


a 

3 
1-5 




3 

< 




1 

1 
O 


1 
§ 

1 


1 

i 


1 

2 


0.79 


0... 






2.94 








0.29 






0.33 


3 . 




0.32 








02 














4 ... 




0.16 


0.09 












0.07 


0.68 


1.41 
0.90 




. . 








0.34 


1.59 
1.55 
0.08 




6 


0.86 


0.57 




0.23 




0.23 


0.49 


0.06 




8 


0.51 


0.98 


1.21 


0.82 






0.04 








9 

10 










0.38 




























12 






53 








0.10 


0.03 








0.04 


13 


0.02 


1.33 




0.01 


0.44 


0.83 








14 . 








98 






15 


0.08 




0.99 


0.65 














018 




16 


1.29 
0.11 


0.29 


0.01 
1.21 




0.54 






1.66 


18 




88 






0.03 










19 














25 






05 


20 




0.24 




























0.04 
0.20 


1.06 


















22 

23 

24 


0.09 


1.57 

0.37 
0.29 


0.04 


1.38 


0.31 
0.10 


0.58 


0.01 
0.02 

0.06 


1.86 


0.69 


0.08 


25 

26 




0.12 






0.13 
0.08 




27 








0.17 


0.62 
















28 .... 




45 












0.77 


0.53 




29 


0.24 






0.06 


0.01 




0.08 


0.46 


0.10 


07 


























































Totals . 


2.61 


7.26 


3.13 


3.21 


5.45 


2.75 


2.40 


5.86 


1.76 


3.74 


2.08 


5.03 



Total rainfall during the year, 45.28 inches. 



Engineering Department. 135 

Rainfall in Inches and Hundredths at Mystic Lake for the Year 1893. 



1893. 


i 

a 


fa 


1 


"E 
p. 
< 


1 


'^ 


>? 
^ 


< 


1 
m 


i 


I 
1 


! 




0.99 


0.23 






















2 






















3 

4 




0.35 


0.13 


0.04 


3.68 


0.07 


0.22 


1.63 
1.21 
0.19 


0.68 


O.IO 
0.05 


0.70 


1.42 


6 

7 


0.30 


0.52 




0.19 


0.04 


0.30 


0.33 


8 








24 






03 








9 

lO 


0.50 




1.05 




















11 


























12 




1.27 


0.27 


0.01 
45 


0.48 


0.28 


0.06 


0.03 








0.06 


13 

14 




1.20 


0.03 




15 


0.08 




0.89 


0.33 










0.02 
0.52 


0.05 


0.18 




16 

17 ... . 


1.60 


28 






1 36 


18 




1.40 
0.20 


0.03 
0.17 


1.20 
0.02 

0.15 


0.05 




0.36 
0.18 


0.18 
0.04 








19 

20 

21 


0.14 




0.03 


0.07 


22 

23 

24 

25 

26 


0.02 
0.07 


1.75 

0.29 
0.30 


0.03 


1.27 


0.94 
0.07 

0.14 


0.25 


0.03 
0.05 

0.06 


2.25 


0.86 


0.11 


27 








0.19 


0,35 
















28 




0.34 












0.45 


0,45 




29 

30 


0.27 




0.01 


0.02 






0.02 


0.38 


0.11 


0.10 


31 


03 


















0.09 


























Totals. . 


2.26 


7.50 


2.55 


3.37 


6.26 


2.10 


2.04 


5.41 


2.01 


4.10 


2.25 


4.35 



Total rainfall during the year, 44.20 inches. 



136 



City Document No. 10. 



Rainfall Received and Collected, 1893. 







SUDBUET. 


COCHITUATB. 


Mystic. 


Month. 


1 


SI 
1" 


.i 

go 


1 


•a 


^•1 


1 


J 






Inches. 


Inches. 


Per 

cent. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Per 

cent. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Per 
cent. 


January 
February 
March . 
April . 
May. . 
June . 
July. . 
August 
Septembe 
October 
Novembe 
Decembe 


r . 


2.925 
8.195 
3.670 
3.605 
6.610 
2.380 
2.570 
5.415 
1.735 
4.065 
2.195 
4.860 


0.773 
2.485 
5.789 
3.668 
5.143 
0.759 
0.282 
0.322 
0.187 
0.395 
0.550 
1.421 


26.44 
30.32 
157.74 
101.75 
77.81 
31.88 
10.96 
5.95 
10.75 

.,. 

25.07 


2.61 
7.26 
3.13 
3.21 
5.45 
2.75 
2.40 
5.86 
1.76 
3.74 
2.08 
5.03 


0.64 
2.55 
4.12 
2.42 
1.83 
0.75 
0.38 
0.77 
0.42 
1.09 
1.00 
1.68 


24.53 
35.14 
131.74 
75.65 
33.52 
27.22 
15.85 
13.16 
23.93 
28.78 
48.36 
33.42 


2.26 
7.50 
2.55 
3.37 
6.26 
2.10 
2.04 
5.41 
2.01 
4.10 
2.25 
4.35 


0.752 
2.143 
4.521 
2.718 
4.420 
1.040 
0.473 
0.684 
0.411 
0.551 
0.709 
1.265 


33.27 
28.58 
177.31 
80.66 
70.61 
49.52 
23.17 
12.64 
20.45 
13.43 
31.53 
29.07 


Totals an 
average 


d 

s, 


48.225 


21.774 


45.15 


45.28 


17.65 


38.99 


44.20 


19.687 


44.54 



I 



Engineering Department. 



137 





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138 



City Document No. 10. 



Table showing the Temperature of Air and Water at Various Stations 
on the Water-Works. 











Tempkbattjkb of Air. 


Temperature of 
Water. 


1893. 


Chestnut Hill Reservoir. 


Framingham. 


Brookline 
Reservoir. 


Mystic 
Engine- 
House. 




a 
1 
1 


a 

'a 


1 


a 
1 

1 


3 

.a 
a 


1 


i 


a 


January . . 






54.0 


-7.0 


18,8 


52.0 


-11.0 


16.5 


37.0 


34.4 


February 








49.5 


-2.0 


26.0 


50.0 


-4.0 


24.5 


36.3 


35.0 


March . . 








54.5 


7.0 


32.9 


55.0 


3.0 


31.3 


35.9 


34.6 


April . . 








69.0 


19.0 


44.6 


71.0 


16.0 


43.8 


43.7 


42.3 


May . . . 








90.5 


36.0 


57.7 


89.0 


31.0 


56.8 


54.9 


54.4 


June . . 








93.0 


44.0 


67.3 


93.0 


42.0 


66.5 


66.7 


67.6 


July . . . 








93.5 


50.0 


71.7 


93.0 


49.0 


70.0 


72.3 


72.1 


August . 








94.0 


49.5 


70.4 


93.0 


46.0 


69.3 


72.3 


72.9 


September 








84.5 


40.0 


59.2 


79.0 


36.0 


57.8 


66.2 


66.4 


October . 








80.0 


27.5 


54.2 


77.0 


24.0 


52.6 


58.0 


57.8 


November 








68.0 


12.0 


40.6 


64.0 


9.0 


38.8 


43.7 


48.3 


December 








54.0 


-7.0 


29.0 


54.0 


-8.0 


27.2 


37.0 


36.4 



Engineering Department. 139 

SUMMARY OF STATISTICS. 
REPORT FOR 1893. 

Boston Water-Works, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, 
supplies also the cities of Somerville, Chelsea, and Everett. 

Population by census of 1890 : 

Boston 448,477 

Chelsea • . . . 27,909 

Somerville ....... 40,152 

Everett 11,068 

Total 527,606 

Date of construction : 

Cochituate Works 1848 

Mystic " 1864 

By whom owned. — City of Boston. 

Sources of supply. — Lake Cochituate, Sudbury river, and 

Mystic lake. 
Mode of supply. — Sixty-five per cent, from gravity works. 
Thirty-five " " pumping " 

Pumping. 

Cochituate. Mystic. 

Builder of pumping 

machinery . . Holly Co. H. R. Worthington. 
Description of coal used : 

a Kind . . Bituminous. Bituminous, 

c Size . . . Broken. Broken. 
e Price per gross 

ton, in bins . $5.30, $5.00, $4.45, $4.35, 

$4.75 $4.12, $4.20, $4.36 

/ Per cent, of ash, 7.6 10.5 

Cochituate. Mystic. 

Coal consumed for year, in 

lbs 4,210,241 9,188,000 

Total pumpage for year, in 

gallons . . . 3,510,730,100 4,074,479,200 

Average dynamic head, in 

feet .... 126.71 149.36 

Gallons pumped per lb. of 

coal .... 834.3 443.5 

Duty in foot-lbs. per 100 

lbs. of coal . . . 88,118,600 55,239,700 

Cost of pumping figured on 

pum ping-station expenses, 

viz. : . . . . $22,401.30 $34,228.96 



140 



City Dociuvient No. 10. 



Cost per million gallons 
raised to reservoir 

Cost per million gallons 
raised one foot hi^h 



$6.38 
$0.05 



Consumption. 

Estimated population . 441,400 

Estimated No. of consumers, 435,000 

Total consumption, gallons, 17,320,427,300 
Passed through meters . 4,252,830,000 
Percentage metered . . 24.5 

Average daily consumption, 

gallons .... 47,453,200 

Gallons per day, each in- 
habitant . . . 107.4 
Gallons per day, each con- 
sumer .... 109.1 
Gallons per day to each tap, 712.6 

Distribution. 

Mains. 



Mtstic. 

$8.40 
$0,056 

127,300 

126,000 

3,921,019,200 

701,372,910 

17.9 

10,742,500 

84.4 

85.3 
479.6 



Kind of pipe used, < 

Sizes .... 
Extended, miles . 
Total now in use . 
Distribution-pipes less 

than 4-in., length, 

miles 
Hydrants added . 
Hydrants now in use 
Stop-gates added . 
Stop-gates now in use 



Kind of pipe used. 

Sizes . 
Extended, feet 
Service-taps added 
Total now in use . 
Meters added 
Meters now in use 
Motors and elevators in 
use . . . . 



Cast-Iron. 



CocHiTUATE. Mtstic. 

Cast-iron, Wrought- 

Iron, and Cement. 

48 in. to 4 in. 30 in. to 3 in. 

17 4.3 

560.04 164.8 



Services. 
Lead. 



2.11 


5.5 


189 


83 


6,042 


1,306 


296 


138 


6,206 


1,937 


s. 


Lead and 




Wrought-Iron. 


to 6 in. 


^ in. to 4 in. 


37,881 


23,100 


1,512 


810 


66,586 


22,398 


134 


26 


4,046 


461 



539 



21 



Engineering Department. 141 



C. 

BIPROVED SEWERAGE. 

The work of extending the Improved Sewerage System 
has been continued as fast as the limited appropriation would 
admit, and the following is a brief review of the work done 
during the past year. 

The condition of the appropriation on Feb. 1, 1894 was 
as follows : 

Net appropriation $6,222,240 93 

Total expenditures 6,208,637 05 



Unexpended balance Feb. 1, 1894 . . $13,603 88 

Dorchester District Sewer. 

Excellent progress has been made on the Dorchester In- 
tercepting Sewer, 2,650 linear feet having been completed 
during the year. The work has been done entirely by day 
labor and embraced parts of Sections 6, 7, and 8. During 
the summer months construction has been carried on in the 
low marsh land, while in cold weather the sewer was built 
in a deep cutting. The sewer is of brick, 4 feet 6 inches in 
diameter, laid on an inclination of 1 in 2,500. The Avork in 
general presented no features of particular interest. 

To complete the Dorchester Intercepting Sewer to Granite 
avenue, 800 linear feet of sewer, a siphon, etc., at Davenport 
brook, and the connections at Gramte^ve^i^g^^^i to be 
built, ihis work will cost $20,000 in a tew months. When 
it is completed the Intercepting Sewer can be utilized as far 
as Granite avenue, and the very offensive common sewer, 
now entering the Neponset river at that point will be inter- 
cepted, and its sewage carried to Moon Island. 

Above Granite avenue, it will be necessary to build 3,600 
linear feet of sewer, at a cost of $45,000, to connect with 
Section 10, Dorchester (already built in Adams street, from 
Baker's court to Butler street). The sewage of Milton 
Lower Mills can then be carried down the intercepting 
sewer. There will still remain 1,400 linear feet of sewer 
to be constructed to reach Central avenue ; this latter work 
is almost entirely in rock and will cost $25,000. This work 
is all very necessary, the pollution of the Neponset river 
at Granite avenue is evident to all, and the need of better 



142 City Document No. 10. 

sewerage facilities for the thickly-settled districts about 
Milton Lower Mills and Central avenue is unquestionable. 

Outfall Sewer. 

Since the date of the last annual report Section 3 C, Outfall, 
has been entirely completed by the contractors, Messrs. 
Perkins & White. The work done in 1893 comprised trim- 
ming up the slopes of the embankment, grading, surfacing 
the street, and building the fence. 

In March 1894, the contractor, Hugh Farrel finished the 
work of removing the temporary wooden flume which has 
carried the sewage from Squantum to Moon Island from the 
opening of the present Improved Sewerage System until 
November, 1892, when the sewer in the embankment was 
completed. 

The flume at its easterly end, had served as a protection 
to the embankment, from the action of the waters of Quincy 
bay, and upon its removal it was found necessary to lay rip- 
rap for a distance of 900 feet along the foot of the slope of 
the embankment. This work was done by Messrs. Perkins 
& White, at a cost of $1,875. 

The contractors for building the embankment from the 
Squantum shore to the east slope of the tunnel have made 
fair progress and but little work remains to be done. 6,300 
yards earth filling have been deposited in place, 953 cubic 
yards rip-rap and 730 cubic yards ballast have been laid. 



Engineering Department, 143 



[FROM THE CITY ENGINEER'S REPORT TO THE BOARD OF 
PARK COMMISSIONERS.] 

The Fens. 

Filling. — The land needed for widening Tremont en- 
trance on its easterly side has been acquired ; filling was 
purchased from various parties and the land graded. The 
amount of filling was 5,937 cubic yards. 

The completion of the new Administration building on 
Audubon road having made the use of the temporary yard 
and buildings at Westland entrance unnecessary, these 
buildings were removed and the grounds graded and 
planted. 

Roadway and Walks. — Austin Ford & Son, under a 
contract dated January 9, 1893, delivered 2,262 lin. feet of 
curbstone at $1.53 per lin. foot. This has all been set ex- 
cept the portion on the easterly side of Tremont entrance, 
where the filling has recently been done. The roadway 
from Huntington avenue, through Tremont entrance and 
along the Fenway to Brookline avenue, has been surfaced. 
There remains to be done a short section of roadway on the 
easterly side of Tremont entrance and the walk from Tre- 
mont entrance to Fen bridge to complete the Fens, with 
the exception of the part north of Beacon street, and the 
buildings at the yard near Audubon road. 

Electric Lighting. — On October 7, a contract was made 
with the Boston Electric Light Company for lighting the 
Fens. Under this contract the company is to furnish 45 
arc lights of 2,000-candle power each, and is to lay under- 
ground cables for the same, and furnish and erect the 
lamp-posts. The work was begun on December 1, but is 
not yet finished. 

Miscellaneous. — The floor of the Charlesgate bridge has 
been renewed and the gates in the Stony brook gate-chamber 
repaired. 

Stony Brook and Muddy Eiver Covered Channels. 

These channels remain in the same condition as they were 
a year ago, except that a portion of the Muddy-river conduit 
has been cleaned of deposit. The damaged section of this 
conduit should be rebuilt at once. The brook channels in 



144 City Document No. 10. 

the town of Brooliline have been improved recently, and the 
amount of water liable to be discharged into this conduit is 
much greater than formerly. 

The Riverway. 

Filling, Grading, and Loam. — The work of filling and 
grading is substantially completed, with the exception of the 
section north of the channel. The Boston & Albany Rail- 
road Company delivered 58,730 cubic yards of gravel at 70 
cents per cubic yard. On December 5, a contract was made 
with James Killian for doing the filling required north of the 
channel, and on Audubon road between Brookline avenue 
and Beacon street. This work is now in progress. 

The work of transporting loam from Basin 6, of the Boston 
AVater Works, under the contract with the Boston & Albany 
Railroad Company, has been completed. The total amount 
of loam delivered was 24,945 cubic yards, at a cost of 
$23,963.94. 

In addition to the above, 1,778 cubic yards of loam were 
•purchased from other parties, at a cost of $1,500. 

A contract was made on March 24, w^ith Moulton & 
O'Mahoney for distributing the loam delivered by the rail- 
road company. The work has been finished, and the amount 
of loam moved by them was 22,480 cubic yards, at the price 
of 25 cents per cubic yard. 

Bridges. — The Bellevue-street bridge has been com- 
pleted. This is a masonry arch carrying the driveway and 
walks over the water-way. The foundation is of concrete, 
the face- walls of seam-faced granite, and the coping of red 
granite ; the arch is of brick above, and of granite below the 
surface of the water. The width of the bridge at a right 
angle to the line of the drive is 47 feet, and the span 44 feet. 
The arch is segmental in form, the radius being 23 feet and 
the rise 15 feet. The springing line is at grade 2.5 above 
city base, or 8.5 feet below the surface of the water. The 
cost of the bridge was $14,460.89, one-half of which was 
paid by the city of Boston and one-half by the town of 
Brookline. 

The l>ridge on Tremont street has also been finished. It 
has a length on the line of the channel 'of 170 feet, and a 
span of 15 feet, the arch having a radius of 7.5 feet. The 
character of the work is the same as that of the Bellevue- 
street bridge. Cost, $23,755.50; one-half paid by Boston. 

Foot-hridges neai' Bernier Street. — Two bridges connect 
the Parkway near Bernier street with the walk on the Brook- 
line bank of the river near the railroad station. One of 



Engineering Department. 145 

these bridges is over the bridle-path and is entirely in 
Boston ; it is a semicircular arch of 38 feet 4 inches span 
and 14 feet width to outside of parapets. The foundations 
are of concrete and the exposed face-walls of seam-faced 
granite ; the arch is of brick, the face brick being buff 
colored ; the coping is of red granite. The grade of the 
easterly approach to the bridge is about 9 feet higher than 
the westerly approach, and the connection is made by steps 
leading from the top of the bridge to the lower walk. 

The bridge over the channel has a span 52 feet, the radius 
of the curve of the arch being 31 feet 9 inches. The 
masonry is of the same character as that of the bridge over 
the bridle-path, except that the face-brick work is of red 
brick, and there is to be an iron railing instead of a masonry 
parapet. Both of these bridges were built under a contract 
with Leavitt, Dailey, & Crockett, dated March 20, 1893. 
One-half of the cost of the bridge over the channel was paid 
by the town of Brookline ; the balance of this, and the whole 
of the cost of the bridge over the bridle-path, was paid by 
the city of Boston. 

These bridges were built under the direction of Mr. A. H. 
French, C.E., engineer for the Brookline Park Commis- 
sioners. The working plans were prepared by Mr. French, 
in consultation with this Department, from designs furnished 
by Messrs Olmstead, Olmstead, & Eliot, and Shepley, 
Rutan, & Coolidge. 

Bridle-path Bridge. — On October 23, a contract was 
made with Johnson Brothers for the erection of a bridge 
over the channel to connect the bridle-path on the easterly 
side with Audubon road. Work on this bridge is now in 
progress. 

Auduhon-road Bridge. — This bridge is over the Brook- 
line branch of the Boston & Albany Railroad. It is a plate 
girder deck bridge, of a span of 87 feet and a width of 100 
feet. It is on a slight skew. The abutments are of granite 
ashlar masonry with foundations of concrete ; they were 
built under a contract with Jones & Mcehan, dated January 
13. The work is nearly finished. 

The ironwork of the superstructure was erected by the 
Boston Bridge Works, at a cost of $8,636.40. 

A wooden floor has been laid on the roadway, under a 
contract with Josiah Shaw, at a cost of $1,352.60. 

The sidewalk floors and the railing have not been built. 

Retaining-ioalls. — Walls four feet in height and of a 
combined length of 543 feet have been built on outer line 
of the Parkway in front of four estates, between Long- 
wood avenue and Francis street. These walls were built by 



146 City Document No. 10. 

James Killian, under a contract dated June 26, at a cost of 
$4,771.63. 

Drainage. — Drains and catch-basins have been built for 
collecting the surface-water from the drives, walks, and 
slopes. The water is discharged into the channel. There 
have been built 49 catch-basins and 3,750 lin. feet of drains. 

Surfacing Drives, Ride, and Walks. — Owing to delay in 
completing the filling and grading, work was not begun on 
the surfacing until August, w^hen a large force was transferred 
from the Street Department to this work. Before winter 
set in, the gutters were paved and the drive and ride sur- 
faced from the Fens to Tremont street. But little has been 
done on the walks. The area of gutters paved was 5,800 
sq. yards; of drive surfaced, 23,948 sq. yards; and of ride 
surfaced, 16,000 sq. yards. There were purchased from 
various parties 6,710 cubic yards of stone for Telford found- 
ation, and a large amount of stone found on the ground was 
also used for this purpose. There were also purchased 
4,025 tons of crushed stone. 

Ten thousand two hundred and twelve tons of stone were 
purchased during the year and delivered at the crusher at 
the Fens. About 6,000 tons of this stone was used, after 
being crushed, at Muddy river, and the balance used at the 
Fens or stored in piles for future use. The prices paid have 
been $1.00 to $1.25 for stone for foundations; $1.80 and 
$1.90 per ton for crushed stone ; and 60 cents to 89| cents 
per ton for stone delivered at the crusher. 

The driveway was open to travel, as far as Tremont street, 
on November 26, and about the same time the driveway on 
the Brookline side, between Tremont street and Chestnut 
street, was opened, thus giving a continuous park drive from 
Beacon street nearly to Jamaica pond. 

Administration Building. — This building was completed 
early in the season, and is now occupied as the headquarters 
for the Fens, Muddy river, and Leverett park. 

Leverett Park. 

Grading. — Work under the contract with Moulton & 
O'Mahoney is still in progress. The chain of ponds in the 
ground to be occupied by the Natural History Society have 
been completed, also Willow pond and Ward's pond. A 
large amount of work has been done by the park force along 
the line of the brook, but much remains to be done. 

There is also some heavy grading work to be done in con- 
nection with the changing of the location and grade of 
Perkins and Chestnut streets. 



Engineering Department. 147 

Bridgefi. — Three small bridges of masonry and one cul- 
vert on the line of the brook have been built under the con- 
tract with Kelly & O'Hearn, dated Aug. 27, 1892. These 
are small structures, and serve to carry walks and a drive 
over the brook. They were built under the direction of 
Mr. A. H. French, C.E., engineer for the Brookline Park 
Commissioners, they being on the boundary line between 
the city and town. One-half of the cost was paid by the 
city, its payment amounting to $5,587.23. 

Drainage. — Two thousand three hundred and four lin. 
feet of drains and twenty-nine catch-basins have been built 
for collecting surface-water, and discharging it into the chan- 
nel or upon the surfiice of the ground, where it can be done 
without injury. 

One thousand one hundred and fifty lin. feet of drains, 
with nine gates and three manholes, have been built for con- 
trolling the flow of water in the small ponds. 

Surfacing Roads, Walks, and Ride. — The gutters have 
been paved, the roadway ballasted and covered with crushed 
stone for a distance of about 1,800 feet southerly from 
Tremont street, but owing to the coming on of winter the 
work was not finished. A crusher has been set up at the 
ledge on the line of the drive, about 2,000 feet southerly 
from Tremont street, and the work of quarrying and crush- 
ing the stone is now in progress. It is intended to use this 
stone on the Parkway, between Tremont and South streets. 

Miscellaneous. — A considerable area has been planted. 
About 1,000 lin. feet of 6-in. water-pipe have been laid con- 
necting with the main pipe of the Jamaica Pond Aqueduct 
Company, and two stand-pipes erected for supplying water 
for road-sprinkling. 

Jamaica Park. 

Grading. — Work under the contract with Saucier Bros, 
is still in progress, but is very near completion. The old 
buildings on the line of the Parkway, on the easterly side of 
of the pond, with the exception of two, have been removed. 
The unoccupied grounds on the westerly side of the pond 
have been cleared, the cellars filled, etc. 

Water-pipes. — Water-pipes have been laid along the 
Parkway by the Water Department, for supplying abutting 
estates with city water ; also pipes have been laid for utiliz- 
ing the water of Jamaica pond for road-sprinkling and for 
supplying the ponds in Franklin Park. The latter pipes 
have been laid at the expense of the Park Department, and 
the length laid is 700 lin. feet. 



148 City Document No. 10. 



Arborway. 



Grading. — The section between Pond street and Centre 
street is being graded by Saucier Bros., in connection with 
the grading at Jamaica park. 

On February 27 a contract was made with Andrew Car- 
berry for grading the park drive and ride on the easterly side 
of the Arboretum. The work was completed, but as additional 
filling was necessary, another contract was made with him, 
on November 1, for excavating the trafiic road on the same 
section of Arborway. This work is now in progress. 

On December 12, 1892, a contract was made with Newell 
& Snovviing for doing the earth grading required on the sec- 
tion between Washington and Forest Hills streets. This 
work has been completed, the amount paid the contractors 
being $7,907.64. A ledge on this section is now being 
removed by the Department force. 

Drainage. — The contract for building the drain to carry 
the water of the brook which comes from west of Pond street 
to the Arboretum having been abandoned, a new contract 
for completing the work was made on June 19, with H. P. 
Nawn. The work has been finished at a cost, including the 
amount paid the first contractor, of $13,961.44. 

Bridge over Stony Brook. — On April 10, a contract was 
made with William L. Miller for building a temporary bridge 
to carry the Arborway over Stony brook. The bridge is of 
wood. The abutments are of vulcanized spruce piles, 
spaced three feet apart, and covered on the back with 3-in. 
vulcanized hard-pine plank. 

Anchor piles were driven 15 feet back from the abut- 
ments, with which they were connected by ^-in. iron 
rods. 

The floor of the bridge is of 8 x 16 in. vulcanized hard- 
pine stringers, covered with 4-in. vulcanized hard-pine and 
2. in. spruce plank. The span of the bridge is 26 feet, and 
the length on the line of the brook 222 feet. The work was 
completed at a cost of $4,284. 

Water-pipes. — Water-pipes, both for city water and for 
Jamaica Pond water, have been laid between Pond and 
Centre streets and between Washington and Forest Hills 
streets. The length of pipe laid for the Park Department 
was 1,425 feet of 8-in. pipe and 1,400 feet of 10-in. pipe. 

Surfacing Drive^ Ride, and Walks. — A small amount of 
surfacing has been done near the Centre-street entrance to 
the Arboretum, in addition to the portion done in 1892. 
The ground at this point has been graded by the Depart- 
ment force. 



Engineering Department. 149 

dorchesterway. 

Grading. — A contract was made on February 20 with 
John Cavanagh & Co. for grading a portion of the Dor- 
chesterway. A small amount of work remains to be done 
under this contract. 

On the same date a contract was made with Collins & 
Ham for filling the remaining portion as far as the Old 
Colony Railroad. This work is still in progress. 

Surfacing Drive and Walks. — Work was begun late in 
the fall near Five Corners, but nothing was brought to 
a finish before work was stopped on account of cold 
weather. 

^RNOLD Arboretum. 

The work of construction at the Arboretum during the 
year has been the excavation of the channel for the brook 
from the outlet of the covered drain near Centre street, and 
the completion of the culvert under the drive on the line of 
this brook, the excavation for the brook near the foot of 
the northerly slope of Bussey hill, the completing of the 
grading of the top of Bussey hill, and the grading of the 
slopes adjoining the line of Arborway. 

Franklin Park. 

Drives, Rides, and Walks. — The roadway of the Circuit 
drive and of the Morton-street entrance have been finished 
and were opened to travel on November 12. The walks in 
the vicinity of Circuit drive are nearly finished. The length 
of this drive is 2^^ miles. 

Schoolmaster Hill. — The roof of the Shelter has been 
covered with tiles, under the direction of the City Architect, 
and granolithic walks have been constructed in the Shelter, 
arbors, and bowers. 

Scarhoro' Pond. — The excavation of this pond has been 
completed, except such as may be needed at the connection 
between it and the pond near Abbotswood. The total 
amount paid the contractors for this work was $24,067.44. 
When filled to the summer level, this pond will have an area 
of 7 acres and a depth of 8 feet, but provision is made for 
maintaining the depth at 4 feet in the winter, when the pond 
is used for skating ; at the outlet near Morton street there is 
a chamber provided with stop-plank for regulating the height 
of the water ; there is also a gate, by the opening of which 
the pond can be entirely emptied. 

Bridges. — There are two bridges across Scarboro' pond. 
The one supporting the Circuit drive has been finished. It 



150 City Document No. 10. 

was built by Johnson Bros., under a contract dated June 5, 
and cost $10,864. This bridge is an elliptical arch of 30 
feet span and 6 feet three inches rise. The width of the 
bridge at right angles to the line of the drive is 57 feet. 
The abutments consist of a facing of granite ashlar backed by 
American cement concrete. The face-walls above the water 
level, and the voussoirs of the arch, are of seam-faced 
granite ; the interior of the arch is of brick ; the coping is 
of Braintree red granite. 

The other bridge supports a footpath, and is also an ellip- 
tical arch, the span being 40 feet, the rise 8 feet 3 inches, 
and the width between parapets 10 feet. On each corner 
there are bays, semi-octagonal in plan. The face-work is of 
quarry-faced Roxbury stone, and the coping is to be of red 
granite. The arches are to be of brick. The bridge has 
been built by the employees of the Park Department. 

Ellicott Cottage. — This building is located just west of 
Ellicott Arch, and is intended for the accommodation of 
those using the Ellicottdale playground. It contains toilet, 
dressing, and bath rooms, and a room for checking cloth- 
ing and other articles. It is being built by Charles H. 
Dodge under the direction of Messrs. Rotch & Tilden, archi- 
tects. 

A water-pipe has been laid by the Water Department 
from Forest Hill street to this building. It will be necessary 
to build a sewer from the building to the Washington-street 
sewer before it can be used. 

Propagating -house and Nursery. — As the temporary 
propagating-house was located on the line of Circuit drive, it 
was necessary to remove it. A new house was therefore built 
on a portion of the proposed Nursery ground. It consists 
of a head-house 53 X 24 feet, containing heating-apparatus, 
potting-floor, storage-rooms, etc. Adjoining this, on the 
southerly side, are two glass houses, each 45 X 20 feet. A 
4-in. water-pipe has been laid from Morton street to this 
building. 

A small force has been employed during the winter in 
clearing the Nursery grounds of boulders. 

8eaver Street. — Work was begun early in the season on 
the section of Seaver street between Blue Hill avenue and 
Maple street, and on September 1, a contract was made 
with H. P. Nawn for the grading of the remaining portion 
of the improvement of the street. The work is now in 
progress. 

Miscellaneous. — The number of sheep is now 150. In 
the fall 90 were sold. 

The following table shows some of the principal items of 



Engineering Department. 



151 



work completed at Franklin park. It is not a complete 
statement, as much of the work done cannot be classified. 



Driveways completed 

Walks completed . 

Ride completed 

Gutters paved 

Curbstone set 

12-in. water-pipe laid 

6 -in. water-pipe laid 

4-in. water-pipe laid 

Hydrants 

Drinking-fountains 

Watering-trough for horses 

2 ft. 9 in. brick drain 

2 X 2 ft. 6 in. brick drain 

2-ft. brick drain 

18-in. pipe drain . 

15-in. pipe drain . 

12-in. pipe drain . 

10-in. pipe drain . 

8-in. pipe drain 

6-iu. pipe drain 

4-in. pipe drain 

4-in. agricultural tile drain 

3-in. agricultural tile drain 

2-in. agricultural tile drain 

IJ-in. agricultural tile drain 



Total drains . 

Manholes 

Catch-basins and inlets 

Culverts 

Open channel for brook. 

Gate vv ays 

Bridges 

Boundary-wall 

Buildings 

Flag-staff . 

Area of ground finished 



99,3,50 sq. yds 
58,220 " 
10,500 " 
20,099 " 



or 6J miles. 

or 8^ " 

or I of a mile. 

9,000 lin. ft. 

200 " 

4,135 " 

1,578 " 

8 

8 

1 

706 lin. ft. 

180 " 

859 " 

3,140 ^' 

2,895 " 

2,023 " 

1,954 " 

9,625 " 

155 " 

190 " 

2,570 " 

3,520 " 

26,783 " 

26,771 " 



81,371 lin. ft. 

53 
157 
1 
2,300 lin. ft. 
2 
3 
4,468 lin. ft. 
5 
1 
250 acres. 



Franklin Field. 

The contract for excavating the drainage ditch around the 
northerly and easterly sides of the field was abandoned by 
the contractor and the work was completed by a force em- 
ployed by the day. The same force has also finished the 



152 City Document No. 10. 

construction of the under-diains and catch-basins in the 
meadow land. The meadow has been cleared of trees, 
stmiips, and boulders, and the old ditches filled. The stone 
removed has been broken and piled on a portion of the up- 
land, to be used for constructing drives and walks. The 
meadow has been ploughed, and it is intended that the 
ground shall be cultivated during the coming summer and 
seeded to grass in the fall. 

A small area of the upland was prepared for cricket-play- 
ing by the Boston Cricket Club, at its own expense, and 
was considerably used during the season. 

The following table is a statement of the work done for 
the purpose of draining the meadow, the area of which is 
about forty-three acres : 



Drainage ditch . 


3,530 lin. ft. 


2-ft. brick drain 


1,300 


15-in. pipe drain 


977 


12-in. pipe drain 


976 


10-in. pipe drain 


1,501 


4-in. agricultural tile drain. 


185 


2-in. agricultural tile drain . 


G,9(i9 


1^-in. agricultural tile drain. 


44,028 


Total 


59,466 lin. ft., or ll-\ miles. 


Manholes .... 


6 


Catch-basins 


9 



Dorchester Park. 

No work has been done at this park during the year. 
A topographical survey is now being made for the use of 
the Landscape Architects in preparing plans for laying out 
the park. 

Marine Park. 

Filling and Grading. — The filling done under the con- 
tract with Perkins & White, dated September 10, 18;iO, has 
been completed. The total amount deposited was 404,691 
cubic yards, at 53 cents per cubic 3^ard. The regrading of 
the shore south of Broadway, under the contract with Per- 
kins & White, dated April 27, 1892, has been finished, at a 
cost of $10,246.95. 

Siirfacing Drive and Walhsi. — On April 24, a contract 
was made with Perkins & White for furnishing paving-blocks 
for the drive along the shore between Broadway and Sixth 
street. Under this contract 60,256 were delivered, at 



Engineering Department. 153 

$41.25 per thousand. Another contract was made with the 
same parties on May 17 for furnishing crushed stone. This 
work is nearly completed. 

One thousand four hundred and ninety-two square yards 
of gutters have been paved, 1,148 linear feet of drains laid, 
and nine catch-basins built for draining this section. The 
portion of the wooden pier crossing the drive is now being 
removed, and the drive will be finished early in the coming 
season. 

In June the Farragut statue was erected opposite the foot 
of Broadway, and the ground around it put in order. 

A plank-walk fifteen feet wide has been built from Broad- 
way to the Castle-island bridge, and the electric lamps which 
were along the shore from the end of First street have been 
relocated along this walk. 

The painting of the iron pier has been finished. 

Castle Island. 

All of the old buildings on the island, except the hospital 
and the building formerly occupied by the commander of the 
garrison, have been removed. 

A water-pipe has been laid from Q street across the upland 
and flats to the island and a drinking-fountain erected. 
Provision is also made for another fountain. 

A shelter tent was purchased, and, during the warm 
weather, was pitched on the sloping ground east of the fort. 



Wood Island Park. 

Drainage. — On July 3, a contract was made with Burnett 
Bros, for constructing drains and catch-basins for carrying 
off the surface-water from the playground. The work was 
completed October 18, at a cost of $3,045.18. 

Another contract was made with Edward F. Brigham on 
December 5, for building drains, to convey the sewage from 
the buildings. This work is nearly finished. 

Grading. — On October 2, a contract was made with 
O'Connor & White for doing all the excavation required for 
grading on the upland. This work is now in progress. 

Buildings. — Contracts were made on October 30, with 
Charles H. Dodge for building the Athletic Field House at 
the boys' playground and with Joseph Ross for building a 
section of the bath-house. These buildings will be com- 
pleted early in the season. They are being erected under 
the direction of the architects, Messrs. Sturms & Cabot. 



154 City Document No. 10. 



Charlesbank. 

Men's Gymnasium. — The use of the grounds for skating 
was continued until February 15, 1893, when the weather 
became so warm that ice could not be maintained. The 
total attendance to that date, during the skating season, was 
17,143, an average of 745 per day; of this number, 5,118 
attended during February. 

The gymnasium remained closed from February 15, to 
April 21, and during this time the grounds and apparatus 
were put in thorough repair. Some slight changes were 
made in the grounds, and a hydrant was placed by the Water 
Department for use in sprinkling the cinder track and for 
flooding the grounds in winter. 

The gymnasium was opened for the season on April 21, 
and from May 22, to November 1, it was open evenings 
until 9 o'clock. From April 21, to December 2, the gym- 
nasium was open for gymnastic and athletic exercises 180 
days, with a total attendance of 154,907, an average of 861 
per day. 

The grounds were not used from December 2, to January 
13, when they were opened for skating. The attendance 
during 7 days in January, the only days when ice was avail- 
able for skating, was 15,540, an average of 2,270. The 
largest attendance on one day was on January 14, when 
5,166 were admitted. This is the largest number ever ad- 
mitted to the grounds in one day. 

There were four accidents during the year, but none of a 
serious nature. 

Women's Gymnasium and Girls' Playground. — These 
were opened on May 15, and closed on October 31. They 
were in charge, as heretofore, of the Massachusetts Emer- 
gency and Hygiene Association. The report of this associa- 
tion gives all matters of interest concerning the work here. 
During the warm weather an awning was stretched over the 
framework which supports the gymnastic apparatus. 

Charlestown Heights. 

The grading of the grounds has been finished, and they 
have been planted or seeded ; granite steps have been built 
where required on the hillside and the walks have been 
surfaced. 

A building for the accommodation of the public is now 
being erected, under the direction of the architects, Messrs. 
Walker & Kimball. With the completion of this building 
this park will be entirely finished. 



Engineering Department. 155 



Charlestown Playground. 

Nothing has been done at this ground during the year 
except to supervise the dumping of ashes and earth, a large 
amount of which has been delivered without charge to the 
department. 

At the present rate of filling it is probable that the entire 
area will be filled by the spring of 1895. 

The drains which formerly discharged into the old mill- 
pond have been connected with a new sewer in Alford street, 
thus abating a very great nuisance. 

Miscellaneous. 

Surveys have been made of the land taken for a park at 
the North End, and a plan, showing lines and grades of the 
present surface, has been prepared for the use of the Land- 
scape Architects. 

Surveys have been made of three alternative lines for a 
proposed parkway to connect the Arboretum and Franklin 
park with the proposed reservation at Muddy pond woods. 



156 City Document No. 10. 



E. 



[FROM THE CITY ENGINEER'S REPORT TO THE STREET 
DEPARTMENT.] 



Sm ; I herewith submit the following report of the work 
done under my direction for the Street Department during 
the year 1893 : 

The following are the principal items of work done : 

Block stone paving on a concrete base laid with pitch 
joints, 569.5 square yards, at an average cost of about $4.75 
per square yard. 

Block stone paving on a gravel base laid with pitch joints, 
1,816.5 square yards, at an average cost of about $3.50 per 
square yard. 

Block stone paving on a gravel base with gravel joints, 
24,583.8 square yards, at an average cost of about $3 per 
square yard. 

Trinidad sheet asphalt on a concrete base, 7,361.3 square 
yards, at an average cost of about $3.75 per square yard. 

Sicilian rock asphalt on a concrete base, 2,734.5 square 
yards, at an average cost of about $3.75 per square yard. 

Edgestones set, 15,765 linear feet. Brick sidewalks laid, 
11,124 square yards. Flagging crosswalks laid, 847 square 
yards. 

The following is a statement of the streets paved, for 
which plans were made, lines and grades given, and the 
work supervised : 

Arch Street. — From Milk street to Franklin street was 
resurfaced above the old concrete base, with Trinidad 
asphalt, by the Barber Asphalt Company. The surface re- 
moved was asphalt. 

Beacon Street. — From Tremont to Bowdoin street was 
paved with granite blocks, with pitch joints, on a gravel 
base. The surface removed was macadam. The edgestones 
were reset and brick sidewalks put in order; contractor, 
F. H. Cowin & Co. Two new catch-basins were built, one 
on Somerset street and one on Beacon street. 

Beacon Street. — From Gloucester street to Massachusetts 
avenue was paved with Trinidad asphalt by the Barber As- 
phalt Company. The concrete base was laid by the Metro- 
politan Construction Company, and edgestones and sidewalks 



Engineering Department. 157 

put ill order by F. H. Cowin & Co. The surface removed 
was macadam. 

Bennington /Street, East Boston. — From Marion to Chel- 
sea street was paved with granite blocks on a gravel base. 
The edgestones were reset and brick sidewalks put in order. 
The surface removed was macadam. Contractors, Doherty 
& O'Leary. The street railroad was relocated, and the 
edgestoues set on new lines. Three new catch-basins were 
built. 

Carver Street. — From Eliot to Pleasant street was paved 
with granite blocks on a gravel base. The edgestones and 
sidewalks were put in order. The surface removed was 
cobble pavement. Contractors, F. H. Cowin & Co. 

Condor Street, Bast Boston. — From Border to Meridian 
street was paved with granite blocks on a gravel base. The 
edgestones and sidewalks were put in order. The surface 
removed was macadam. Contractors, Doherty & O'Leary. 

Cove Street. — From South to Kneeland street was paved 
with granite blocks on a gravel base and the edgestones and 
brick sidewalk put in order. The old cobble-stones were 
removed by J. J. Sullivan, and the remainder of the work 
was done by the Street Department. The surface removed 
was cobble pavement. 

Dwight Street. — From Tremont to Shawmut avenue was 
paved with natural rock sheet asphalt by H. Gore & Co. 
The concrete base was laid by the Metropolitan Construc- 
tion Company. The surface removed was macadam. One 
new catch-basin was built. 

East Sixth Street, South Boston. — From K to L street 
was paved with granite blocks on a gravel base, and the 
edgestones and sidewalks were put in order. The surfoce 
removed was macadam. Contractors, H. Gore & Co. 

Exchange Street. — From State street to Dock square was 
paved with granite blocks with pitch joints on a concrete 
base. The old granite paving blocks were removed by J. 
J. Sullivan. The concrete base was laid by the Metropoli- 
tan Construction Company, and the paving and brick side- 
walks were laid by F. H. Cowin & Co. 

Fay Street. — From Dover street to Harrison avenue was 
put in order for paving with natural rock asphalt on cobble- 
stones. On account of the lateness of the season, before the 
sewer and gas pipes were put in condition, the asphalt was 
not laid. Contractors, H. Gore & Co. The edgestones and 
brick sidewalks were put in order. 

Fulton Place. — From Fulton to North street was paved 
with granite blocks on a gravel base, and the edgestones 
and brick sidewalks were put in order. The surface re- 



158 City Document No. 10. 

moved was cobble pavement. Contractors, James Grant & 
Co. 

Lehigh Street. — From Albany street to South street was 
paved with granite blocks on a gravel base, and the edge- 
stones and sidewalks were put in order. The surface 
removed was cobble-stone paving. The tracks of the 
Albany-street freight railroad were rebuilt, and regraded to 
allow more head room under Broadway bridge than before. 
Four new catch-basins were built and the location of five 
others changed. 

Kemble Street. — From Gerard street westerly 318 feet 
was paved with granite blocks on a gravel base ; edgestones 
were set and gravel sidewalks built. The surface removed 
was gravel. Contractors, Doherty & O'Leary. 

Market Sti-eet. — From Merrimac street to Portland 
street was paved with granite blocks on a gravel base ; and 
the edgestones and brick sidewalks were put in order. The 
surface removed was macadam. Contractors, H. Gore & Co. 

Maverick Street. — From New street to Border street was 
paved with granite blocks on a gravel base, and the edge- 
stones and brick sidewalks were put in order. The surface 
removed was cobble pavement. Contractors, Doherty & 
O'Leary. 

Mystic Avenue. — From Main street to Boston & Maine 
Railroad bridge was paved with granite blocks on a gravel 
base. The edgestones and brick sidewalks were put in 
order. The surface removed was macadam. Contractor, 
P. Brennan. 

JVew Street, East Boston. — From Maverick street south- 
erly 281 feet was paved with granite blocks on a gravel 
base, and the edgestones and brick sidewalks were put 
in order. The surface removed was cobble-stone paving. 
Contractors, Doherty & O'Leary. 

North Hudson Street. — From Hull street to Snow Hill 
street was macadamized. The gutters were paved, edgestones 
were set, and the sidewalks were paved with brick. The 
surface removed was gravel. Contractor, D. N. Pay son. 

Park Street, Charlestown. — From City square to Warren 
street was paved with granite blocks on a gravel base. The 
street was widened, and the work of paving is not quite com- 
plete on account of the unfinished condition of new build- 
ings. The street railroad was regraded. The edgestones 
were reset and brick sidewalks were put in order. Surface 
removed was granite-block paving. Contractor, P. Bren- 
nan. 

Parmenter Street. — From Hanover street to Salem street 
was paved with Trinidad asphalt by the Barber Asphalt 



Engineering Department. 159 

Company. The concrete base was laid by the Metropoli- 
tan Construction Company. The former surface was a so- 
called asphalt pavement. The sidewalks were in good 
condition. 

Rutherford Avenue, Charlesiown. — From Allen street to 
Cambridge street was paved with granite blocks on a gravel 
base, and the edgestones and brick sidewalks were put in 
order. The surface removed was macadam. One new catch- 
basin was built. The contractor was John Turner & Co. 

South Eden Street, Charlestoivn. — From Hancock square 
to Kutherford avenue was paved with granite blocks on a 
gravel base ; the edgestones and brick sidewalks were put 
in order. The surface removed was cobble-stone pavement. 
Contractors, John Turner & Co. 

South Margin Street. — From Pitts street to Prospect 
street was paved with granite blocks on a gravel base. The 
old cobble stones were removed by J. J. Sullivan and 
the work of paving was done by the Street Department. 
The edgestones and brick sidewalks were put in order. Two 
new catch-basins were built. 

Spring Lane. — From Washington street to Devonshire 
street. This lane has been discontinued as a way for teams, 
and is used for foot travel only. It was regraded and paved 
with Hastings' compressed asphalt blocks, laid on a con- 
crete base. The base was laid by the Metropolitan Con- 
struction Company, and the paving was done by J. Turner 
& Co. The surface removed was a granite paved roadway 
with brick sidewalks. One new catch-basin and one drop 
inlet were built. 

Wedey Street, Charlestown. — From Sullivan street to 
Pearl street was paved with granite blocks on a gravel base. 
Edgestones were set and the brick sidewalks were put in 
order. The surface removed was cobble pavement. Con- 
tractor, P. Brennan. 

W. Broadway, South Boston. — From Gardner place 150 
feet easterly was paved with natural rock asphalt on a con- 
crete base, by H. Gore & Co. The surface removed was 
granite block pavement. Edgestones were reset and the 
brick sidewalks were put in order. 

The work of properly adapting the grades of street rail- 
roads to the surface of the street has taken much time and 
labor. The success of new pavements depends upon this 
being carefully done, and it cannot be properly done with- 
out also arranging the grades for paving, even if the paving 
is not done at the same time. Grade plans have been pre- 
pared and given to the railroads in the following cases : 



160 City Document No. 10. 



Norfolk Suburban Street Eailway. 

River Street. — From Hyde Park line to Blue Hill 
avenue. 

West End Street Railway. 

Battery Street. — At the North Ferry. 

Boylston Street. — From Arlington to Exeter street. 

Boylston Street. — From W. Chester Park to Bothnia 
street. 

Bennington Street. — From Marion to Putnam street. 

Bennington Street. — From Putnam to Chelsea street. 

Broadway Extension. — From Harrison avenue to Lehigh- 
street bridge. 

Beacon Street. — At West Chester park. 

Causeway Street. — At Merrimac square. 

City Square, Gharlestown. — Partly built. 

Dartmouth Street. — From Boylston street to Huntington 
avenue. 

Bast Eighth Street. — From old Harbor to Hamlin street. 

Huntington Avenue. — From north of West Chester park 
to 2,950 feet south of Gainsborough street. 

Lehigh Street. — From Albany to South street. 

Park Street, Charlestown. — From City square to Joiner 
street. 

Scollay Square. 

Washington Street. — From Essex street to Boylston 
square. 

Miscellaneous Work. 

The following miscellaneous work has been done : 

Sewall-Street Extension. — Plans and estimate for retain- 
ing-wall. 

The wall has been built by the Street Department Force. 

Howell Street, Dorchester. — The filling has been measured 
and two small retaining-walls were constructed. 

Washington Street, West Roxbury. — Plans for a retain- 
ing-wall, with two sets of entrance steps were made, and 
the construction supervised. 

West Chester Park. — Bridge over Boston & Albany 
Railroad, and approaches were regraded. (See special re- 
port, p. 27.) 

Bushnell- Street Extension. — Plan for construction made. 

L Street. — Between First street and bridge. A phin for 
a wooden fence on the bulkhead was made, and the work 
supervised. The work was done by the Street Department ; 
also, plans were made for iron fences on two retaining-walls 



Engineering Department. 161 

on the same street. The iron fence was built by George W. 
McLauthlin & Co., at a cost of $276. 

Congress Street. — From A street to L-street bridge. A 
plan for a plank sidewalk and fence was made. The work 
was begun by the Bridge Division of the Street Department, 
and was unfinished at the close of the working season. 

Athens Street and I Street. — Plans showing condition of 
old so-called asphalt pavement have been made. 

Surveys, plans, and estimates for improving and paving 
the following streets have been made : 

Adams Street, Dorchester. — An estimate of cost of re- 
taining-wall at Cedar Grove cemetery. 

Battery Street. — North Ferry. 

Ruth Street. — East Boston. 

East Street. — South to Federal street. 

Savoy Street. 

Pemberton Square. 

Warren Street, Charlestown. — From Winthrop to Soley 
street. 

Vine Street, Charlestoivn. — From Tufts to Moulton 
street. 

Mason Street. — From Tremont to West street. 

Beacon Street. — From Charlesgate East to Charlesgate 
West. 

E. Ninth Street. — Old Harbor to H street. Surveys, 
plan, and estimate for plank sidewalk and fence were made. 

Dorchester Avenue. — Near Washington street (Dorches- 
ter Lower Mills) . Estimates were made of the cost of build- 
ing two retaining-walls. 

A very large number of preliminary estimates have been 
made for paving and improving streets. 

New Streets. 

In September four contracts were made by the Street 
Department for building streets, under the provisions of 
chapter 323 of the Acts of the Legislature of 1891, as 
amended by chapter 418 of the Acts of 1892, by which the 
entire expense of construction is borne by the abutters. In 
these streets, sewer, gas, and water pipes, with house connec- 
tions to the sidewalk, are laid in advance of the street con- 
struction. 

Batavia Street. — Al)out 936 feet long ; this street was 
built by James Grant & Co., at a total cost of $7,809.39. 

Miner Street. — About 319 feet long; is still incomplete, 
the construction of two retaining-walls delaying the work 



162 City Document No. 10. 

until the winter prevented its completion. The work is sub- 
stantially completed with the exception of rolling and finish- 
ing the roadway. A retaining-wall was built next to the 
Brookline branch of the Boston & Albany Eailroad, at the 
end of the street, and another against the back-yard of a 
house, where the right to slope the filling could not be ob- 
tained. These walls w^ere built by John Sutherland, and 
cost $1,298.35 and $875.90, respectively. 

Bay State Road. — From Raleigh street to Sherborn 
street, 1,389 feet long, and 

Deeijield Street. — From Commonwealth avenue to 
Charles river, 572 feet long, are still incomplete. The con- 
tractor is James Killian. These two streets have a macadam 
roadway with gravel sidewalks. Batavia and Miner streets 
have a Telford base with brick sidewalks. 

Commonwealth Avenue. — Work has been carried on 
during the entire year, on the construction of Common- 
wealth avenue. The contract for filling one roadway be- 
tween Brookline and Brighton avenues, hj the Boston Con- 
tracting Company, was completed in September, 1893. 

The "total amount of filling deposited, under the contract, 
was 161,119 cubic yards. For 46,640 cubic yards of this 
amount, 491^ cents per cubic yard was paid, amounting to 
$23,086.80." Under the modification of the contract, dated 
October 1, 1892, 114,832 cubic yards of filling was delivered 
at 37 cents per cubic yard, for transportation, loading, and 
unloading, amounting to $42,487.84, the city buying the 
filling directly from the owners of the gravel bank. In July 
the contract was extended to include about 30,000 cubic 
yards of material to be deposited near Cottage Farm bridge, 
on space that had been acquired by the city since the date of 
the original contract. Including the sum of $7,000 paid the 
contractors, by order of the City Government, to reimburse 
them for extraordinary losses on account of displacement of 
material in the hollow near Cottage Farm bridge, the whole 
amount paid to the contractors was $72,444.03. 

In April a contract was made with Robert A. Davis for 
})uilding a section of the Telford foundation of the northerly 
roadway, about 1,500 ft. long, between Brookline avenue 
and Granby street. This is a heavy Telford road. The 
city furnished edgestones and granite blocks for gutters. 
The contract did not include furnishing broken stone for the 
surface, or the labor upon it. The amount paid under this 
contract was $15,010.37. 

In July a similar contract was made with F. H. Cowin 
& Co., for building the continuation of the same roadway 
for 1,700 feet, and within about 300 feet of Cottage 



Engineeeing Department. 163 

Farm bridge. The amount paid under this contract was 
116,207.07. 

The broken stone for the completion of this road was fur- 
nished by the Massachusetts Broken Stone Company, and 
delivered on the road. Including the construction of the 
very large intersection at the crossing of Commonwealth 
avenue and Beacon street, which was built by the Paving 
Division, the total quantity of stone delivered by the Massa- 
chusetts Broken Stone Company was 9,330 tons. The 
price paid was $1.90 per ton, amounting to $17,728.80. 

Placing and rolling this stone was done by the men and 
steam-rollers of the Paving Division. 

A contract was made in July with John T. Scully, for 
building a wooden bulkhead on the northerly side of the 
avenue near Cottage Farm bridge, for the purpose of re- 
taining the filling and in place of an expensive retaining- 
wall. The cost of this work was $850. 

In November a further contract was made with the Boston 
Contracting Company, after public advertisement, for fur- 
nishing and delivering about 65,000 cubic yards of filling on 
the remaining width of the avenue between Brookline avenue 
and St. Paul street. Work was not commenced on this con- 
tract until January 15, 1894, and but a small quantity of 
filling was deposited before February 1. The contract price 
is 41 cents per cubic yard, measured in the bank. 

The work done on the avenue during the year may be 
summarized as follows : 

The northerly roadway between Brookline avenue and St. 
Paul street has been filled and the road built as far as Cot- 
tage Farm bridge, and the filling has been commenced for 
the southerly roadway. The design of the avenue provides 
for two roadways, — the northerly one 45 feet wide, the 
southerly one 35 feet wide, with a central loamed space 33 
feet wide. The northerly sidewalk is to be 15 feet wide, 
with a planting space 10 feet wide between the sidewalk and 
the roadway. The southerly sidewalk is 10 feet wide with 
a planting space 12 feet wide. Gas, water, house sewer, 
surface-water drain, and telegraph-poles are all placed in the 
side planting spaces and under the sidewalks. 

When houses are built, they can be connected to any of 
these without breaking up the street. 

During the winter, material for Telford base has been ac- 
cumulated on the ground in readiness for work in 1894, and 
soundings have been made for the construction of the bridge 
over the Boston & Albany Railroad at Cottage Farm station. 



164 CiTr Document No. 10. 

Broadway Bridge (over Fort Point Channel.) 

All of the floor-beams of the fixed spans on this bridge 
have been strengthened by the addition of hard-pine timber. 
In each of the spans adjoining the draw a hard-pine truss 
has been erected, to which the floor system has been attached, 
and the spans over Lehigh and Foundry streets have been 
strengthened by hard-pine stringers resting on timber trestles 
in the street below. This work was done by William L. 
Miller, under a contract dated September 30, 1893. 

The table showing the total length of public streets in 
Boston, and the areas of the various classes of pavement, 
has been corrected to February 1, 1894. 



Engineering Department. 



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166 City Docujvient No. 10. 



WIDTHS OF DRAW-OPENINGS. 

The table showing the widths of draw-openings in the 
bridges over tide-water in this city is given in Appendix A. 
The openings have all been remeasured for this report. 

Respectfully submitted , 

William Jackson, 

(Jity Engineer. 



CITY ENGIJS^EERS. 

1850-1893. 



E. S. CHESBROUGH, M. Am. Soc. C. E., 
Nov. 18, 1850, to Oct., 1855. 

(Died August 18, 1886.) 

JAMES SLADE, 

Oct. 1, 1855, to April 1, 1863. 

(Died August 25, 1882.) 

N. HENRY CRAFTS, 

April 1, 1863, to Nov. 25, 1872. 

JOSEPH P. DAVIS, M. Am. Soc. C. E., 
Nov. 25, 1872, to March 20, 1880. 

(Resigned March 20, 1880.) 

HENRY M. WIGHTMAN, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 
April 5, 1880, to April 3, 1885. 

(Died April 3, 1885.) 

WILLIAM JACKSON, M. Am. Soc. C. E., 
April 21, 1885, to present time. 

(167) 






168 



City Document No. 10. 



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Over Miller's River 
Over Fort-point Channel 
Ward 25 to Caml)ridge . 
Boston to East Cambridge 
Boston to Charlestown 
Charlestown to Chelsea . 

East Boston to Chelsea . 

Ward 24 . . .* 
Over Fort-point Channel 


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Over Miller's River 
Ward 25 to Cambridge . 
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Canal. .... 
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" (Chelsea side) . 
Commercial-point 
Congress-st. (Boston side) . 
" (So. Boston side) 


Dover-st. .... 
Eastern R.R. . 

Essex-st. .... 
Federal-st .... 
Fitchburg R.R. . 



Engineering Department. 169 

1— i:7it^OOXi O'^O'*i3<»OcCC0OOi0'^a<«O^OO<MI>-C0OO 



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170 City DocuiiEXT No. 10. 



APPENDIX B. 



City of Bosto7i, Revised Ordinances, 1892. 
CHAPTER 12. 

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT. 

Section 1. The engineering department shall be under the 
charge of the city engineer, who shall be consulted on all matters 
relating to public improvements of ever}' kind where the advice 
of a civil engineer would be of service ; shall, unless otherwise 
specially provided, take charge of the construction of all public 
works of the city which properly come under the direction of a 
civil engineer ; shall, except as to sewers, perform all engineering 
services, and make all examinations and prepare all statements, 
plans, specifications, and contracts which any department may 
need in the discharge of its duties ; shall, upon being notified 
by the superintendent of streets, supervise all repairs on the 
bridges of the city used as highways which affect the safety of 
the structures, and shall, when required by the mayor or by any 
oflBcer or board in charge of a department, measure the work 
done by contract for the city, and certify to the result of such 
measurement. 

Sect. 2. Said engineer shall in his annual report include a 
report of the safety and completeness of all ponds, basins, and 
reservoirs under the charge of the water-supply department, and 
of all bridges within the city limits used as highways. 



Engineering Department. 



171 



appe:n^dix c. 



Engineering Department, Property Schedule, Main Office, 



1 horse. 

2 carriages. 

1 sleigh. 

2 harnesses. 

3 robes. 

Instruments for drawing. 
Instruments for surveying, as 

follows : 

2 temple transits. 

5 Buff & Berger transits. 
5 Gurley transits. 

I Stackpole transit. 

3 Temple levels. 

4 Buff and Berger levels. 

5 Gurley levels. 

II Boston rods. 

4 New York rods. 

3 Ti'oy rods. 

Cases for plans and books. 

Reference Library, 968 vols. 



9,022 Plans Engineering Works, 

loose. 
14 vols. Plans Engineering 

Works, bound. 
Photographs of Engineering 

Works. 
Apparatus for blue-printing. 
1 microscope. 
1 mercurial barometer. 
1 aneroid barometer. 
1 holosteric barometer. 
1 set hydrometers. 
1 hygrometer. 

1 pair field-glasses. 

2 typewriters. 

2 dynamometers. 
1 peutagraph. 
1 calculating-machine. 
1 volt meter. 



172 City Document No. 10. 



APPEOTDIX D. 



Elevations referred to Boston city base. (The city base is 0.64 ft. below- 
mean low tide.) 

Feet. 

0.00 City base. 

15.66 Highest tide, April, 1851. 
15.33 Coping of dry dock, Charlestown Navy Yard. 
12.04 Greatest elevation of high tide per U.S. Tide Table, 

August 3, 1894 (11.4 -j- 0.64) = 12.04. 
10.44 Mean high water. 
7.94 Least elevation of high tide per U.S. Tide Table, March 

1, 1894 (7.3 + 0.64) z= 7.94. 
2.94 Greatest elevation of low tide per U.S. Tide Table, April 

27, 1894 (2.3 +0.64) = 2.94. 
0.64 Mean low tide. 
— 0.96 Lowest elevation of low tide per U.S. Tide Table, 
January 22, 1894 (— 1.6 + 0.64) = —0.96. 
5.00 Piles cut off for building. 

9.91 Water-works base (approx. tide marsh level). 
9.82 South Boston base. 
' — 4.98 Cambridge city base. 
0.38 South Boston Flats base. 

1 Cambridge city base ia 4.98 ft. below Boston city base. 



Engtneeeing Department. 



173 



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CONTENTS REPORT ENGINEERING DEPART- 
MENT FOR 1893. 



[General index to contents Ensrineering Department Reports, 1867-1892, will be found in 
lieport of February 1, 1892.] 

PAGE 

A. — Engineering Department ... 1 

Statement of Expenses, Engineering Department 2 

" " " Abolisliment grade crossings, Dover- 
street bridge 3 

" " " Allston bridge 3 

" " " Improved sewerage 5 

" " " Rebuilding bridges to Watertown .. 4 
" " " Statues — Robert G. Shaw, Monu- 
ment 5 

Bridges inspected 11 

' ' wholly supported by Boston 11 

" of which Boston supports the part within its limits .... 13 

" " " pays a part of the cost of maintenance, 13 

" supported by railroad corporations 13 

" " " " «' Boston & Albany R.R., 13 
" " " " " Boston & Maine K.R., 

W. Div 13 

" " " " " Boston & Maine R.R., 

East. Div. . 13 

*' " " " " Boston, Revere Beach, 

& Lynn R.R 13 

'• " " " " New York & New 

England R R 14 

" " " " " N.Y.,^N.H.,&H.R.R., 

Old Colony Div. . . 14 
N.Y.,N.H.,&H.R.R., 

Prov. Div 14 

" Total number (111) 14 

Bridges 11 

Agassiz road, Back-bay fens 15 

Albany street, over B. & A. R.R 15 

Allston, over B.& A. R.R. . 15 

Ashland street, over Prov. Div. N.Y., N.H., & H. R.R 15 

Athens street, over N.Y. & N.E. R.R 15 

Audubon road, over B. & A. R.R 15 

Beacon entrance, Back-bay fens 15 

Beacon street, over outlet to Back-bay fens 16 

Beacon street, over B. & A. R.R 16 

Berkeley street, B. & A. R.R 16 

Berkeley street, Prov. Div. N. Y., N.H., & H. R.R 16 

Blakemore street, over Prov. Div. N.Y., N.H., & H. R.R. . . 16 

Bolton street, N.Y. & N.E. R.R 16 

Boylston street. Back-bay fens 16 

Boylston street, B. & A. R.R 17 

Broadway, over Fort-point channel 17 

Broadway, over B. & A. R.R 17 

Brookline avenue, over B. & A. R.R 17 

Byron street, B., R.B., & L. R.R 17 

Cambridge street 18 

Canal or Craigie's .... 18 

Castle-island footbridge 18 

Cedar Grove Cemetery 28 

(175) 



176 City Docxjment No. 10. 



Bridges, Continued. page 

Central avenue, over Neponset river 18 

Charles river 18 

Chelsea (North) 19 

Chelsea (South) 19 

Chelsea street.. . 19 

Columbus avenue, over B. & A. R.R 19 

Commercial Point, or Tenean 19 

Commonwealth avenue. Back-bay fens 20 

Congress street ^ 20 

Cornwall street, over Stony brook 20 

Cottage-street footbridge 20 

Cottage Farm, over B. & A. R.R 20 

Dartmouth street, over B. & A. R.R., and Prov. Div. 

N.Y., N.H., & H. R.R ,- 21 

Dorchester street, over Old Colony Div. N.Y., N.H., & H. 

R.R 21 

Dover street 21 

Essex street 21 

Everett street, over B. & A. R.R 21 

Everett street, over B., R.B., & L. R.R 28 

Federal street 21 

Fen bridge. Back-bay fens 21 

Ferdinand street, over B. & A. R.R 22 

Franklin-street footbridge, B. & A. R.R 22 

Gold-street footbridge, over N.Y. & N.E. R.R 22 

Granite to Milton , 22 

Harvard to Cambridge 22 

Huntington avenue, over B. & A. R.R 23 

Irvington-street footbridge, over Prov. Div N.Y., N.H., & 

H. R.R 23 

L-street bridge 23 

Leyden street, B., R.B., & L. R.R 23 

Linden-park street, over Stony brook 23 

Longwood avenue 23 

Maiden 24 

Mattapan 24 

Meridian street 24 

Milton .'. 24 

Mt. Washington avenue . . 24 

Neponset 24 

Neptune road, over B., R. B., & L. R.R 25 

Newton street, over Prov. Div. N.Y., N.H., & H. R.R 25 

North Beacon street ... 25 

North Harvard street , 25 

Prison point 25 

Public Garden footbridge 26 

Shawmut avenue, over B. & A. R.R 26 

Spring street 26 

Stony brook. Back-bay fens 26 

Swett-street bridges (over south bay sluices) 26 

Warren . . 26 

Western avenue to Cambridge 26 

Western avenue to Watertown 27 

West Boston 27 

West Chester park, over B. & A. R.R 27 

West Chester park, over Prov. Div. N.Y., N.H., & H. R.R., 28 
West Rutland-square footbridge, over Prov. Div. N.Y., N.H., 

&H.R.R 28 

Winthrop . 28 

MiSCELLANEOnS WoRK AND CONSTRUCTION IN 1893 : 

Berwick-park footbridge , 29 

Broadway bridge (over Fort-point channel) . 29, 164 

Cottage Farm bridge 29 



Engineering Department. 177 



MiscELLANEOcs WoRK, ETC., Continued. page 

Dover-street bridge 29 

East Boston ferries 29 

Farragut statue 30 

Grade crossings 30 

Harcourt-street retaining-wall 30 

Parkway bridge (over Stony brook) 148 

Rapid transit 30 

Route No. 1, Franklin park to Fitchburg depot 31, 32, 35 

Route No. 2, Alley Route, Franklin park to Fitchburg 

depot .... 32,33,36,37 

Estimate of cost of double track elevated railroad struct- 
ure from Fitchburg depot to Columbia street 33 

New bridge near Warren bridge to Cliarlestown 33 

Subway under elevated through Mason street 34 

Paved roadway under elevated through Mason street... 34 

Length of routes 35 

Robert G. Shaw, monument , 37 

Teredo Navalis 37 

Tremont street, subway 102 

Trials of steam fire-engines for Boston Fire Department 38 

Engine No. 7 41, 48, 59, 63, 90 

"14 41,44,59,60,61,74 

"15 41,48,59,63,92 

'• 21 41,47,59,62,86 

" 23 41,50,51,59,64,97 

" 27 41,41,45,59,61,76 

" 33 41, 51, 59, 64, 100 

"36 41,59,60,65 

" 42 41, 49, 59, 63, 94 

" " 43 41,46,59,62,82 

D, relief 41,43,59,60,71 

Test of the water tower 52, 102 

Capacity of hydrants 53 

Friction on hose 53 

General results and conclusions 55 

- Water-Works 103 

Aqueducts and distributing reservoirs 113 

Basin 6, work done during 1893 115 

Consumption 119 

Corrosion of pipes by electrolysis , 103 

The evidence of injury . 104 

Pipe tests 105 

Existence of necessary condition for electrolysis 107 

Cause of underground electric current 108 

Summary 108 

Remedy ,' 109 

Distribution 119 

Farm pond Ill, 113 

High-service pumping-stations 115 

Lake Cochituate Ill, 113 

Loss of head 119 

Mystic lake 116 

Mystic-valley sewer 117 

Mystic conduit and reservoir 117 

Mystic pumping-station 117 

Reservoir No. 1 110, 112, 113 

" 2 110,112,113 

" 3 110,112,113 

" 4 111,113 

" 6 113 

Sources of supply 109 

Table showing daily average consumption of water in gal- 
lons from the Cochituate and Mystic works 121 



178 City Document No. 10. 

B. — Water- Works, Continued. page 

Table showing division of Sudbury-river water, 1885-93 122 

" " amount of water diverted from Sudbury river 
to Lake Cochituate and Chestnut-hill res- 
ervoir ; amount wasted ; amount of flow in 
river; percentage of rainfall collected, etc., 
1875-1893 123 

" " amount of water drawn from Mystic lake ; 
amount wasted ; amount of rainfall col- 
lected in lake ; percentage of rainfall col- 
lected, etc., 1876 to 1893; water-shed of 
lake, 17,200 acres 126 

«' " amount of water drawn from Lake Cochit- 
uate ; amount wasted ; amount of rainfall 
collected in lake ; amount received into 
lake from Sudbury river; percentage of 
rainfall collected, etc., 1852-1893; water- 
shed of lake, 12,077 acres 124 

" " the average monthly and yearly heights above 

tide-marsh level of the water in the lakes 
and reservoirs of the Boston Water-Works, 127 

" " operations at the Chestnut-hill pumping- 

station for 1893 128 

" " operations and work done at the Mystic 

pumping-station for 1893 129, 130 

" " operations at West Roxbury pumping-station 

for 1893 131 

" " operations at East Boston pumping-station 

for 1893 132 

" " rainfall in inches and hundredths on the Sud- 
bury-river water-shed for the year 1893 133 

" " rainfall in inches and hundredths at Lake 

Cochituate for the year 1893 134 

" " rainfall in inches and tiundredths on the 

Mystic-lake water-shed for the year 1893. . . 135 

" " monthly rainfall in inches during 1893 at 

various places in Eastern Massachusetts. . . 137 

" " rainfall received and collected, 1893 136 

" " the temperature of air and water at various 

stations on the Water- Works 138 

" " summary of statistics, report for 1893 139,140 

C. — Improved Sewerage, or Main Drainage 141 

Appropriations and expenditures 141 

Dorchester : 

Sections 6, 7, 8 141 

Outfall sewer : 

Section 3, C U2 

D. — Parks 1^3 

Arborway 148 

Bridge over Stony brook 148 

Drainage 148 

Grading 148 

Surfacing drive, ride, and walks 148 

Water-pipes 148 

Arnold Arboretum 149 

Castle Island 153 

Charlesbank • 154 

Men's Gymnasium 154 

Women'sGymnasium and Girls' Playground 154 

Charlestown Heights 154 

Charlestown Playground 155 

Dorchesterway 149 

Grading 149 

Surfacing drive and walks 149 



Engineering Department. 179 

D.— Parks, Continued. page 

Dorchester Park 152 

Franklin Park 149 

Bridges 149 

Drives, rides, and walks 149 

EUicott cottage 150 

Propagating-house and nursery 150 

Scarboro' pond 149 

Seaver street 150 

Schoolmaster hill 149 

Miscellaneous 150 

Franklin Field 151 

Janaaica Park 147 

Grading ' 147 

Water-pipes 147 

Leverett Park • 146 

Bridges 147 

Drainage 147 

Grading, 146 

Surfacing roads, walks, and drives ... 147 

Miscellaneous 147 

Marine Park 152 

Filling and grading 152 

Surfacing drive and walks 152 

Stony-brook and Muddy-river covered channels 143 

The Fens ... 143 

Electric lighting 143 

Filling 143 

Roadway and walks 143 

Miscellaneous 143 

The Riverway 144 

Administration building 146 

Audubon-road bridge 145 

Bridges 144 

Bridle-path bridge 145 

Drainage 146 

Filling, grading, and loam 144 

Footbridges near Bernier street 144 

Retaining-walls 145 

Surfacing drives, rides, and walks 146 

Wood-Island Park 153 

Buildings ••• 153 

Drainage 153 

Grading 153 

E. — Street Department 166 

Arch street, Milk to Franklin street 156 

Beacon street, Tremont to Bowdoin street 156 

" " Gloucester to Massachusetts avenue 156 

Bennington street, East Boston, Marion to Chelsea street.. 157 

Carver street, Eliot to Pleasant street 1 57 

Condor street. East Boston, Border to Meridian street 157 

Cove street. South to Kneeland street 157 

Dwight street, Tremont street to Shawmut avenue 157 

East Sixth street, South Boston, K to L street 157 

Exchange street, State street to Dock square . 157 

Fay street, Dover to Harrison avenue 157 

Fulton place, Fulton to North street 157 

Kemble street, from Gerard street westerly 318 feet 158 

Lehigh street, Albany to South street 158 

Market street, Merrimac to Portland street . 158 

Maverick street, East Boston, New to Border street 158 

Mystic avenue, Charlestown, Main street to B. &. M. R.R. 

bridge 158 

New street, East Boston, Maverick street southerly 281 feet, 158 



180 City Document No. 10. 



E. — Street Department, Continued. page 

North Hudson street, Hull to Snow Hill street 158 

Park street, Charlestown, City square to Warren street. . . . 158 

Parmenter street, Hanover to Salem street 158 

Rutherford avenue, Charlestown, Allen to Cambridge street, 159 
South Eden street, Charlestown, Hancock square to Ruther- 
ford avenue 159 

South Margin street, Pitts to Prospect street 159 

Spring lane, Washington to Devonshire street 159 

Wesley street, Charlestown, Sullivan to Pearl street 159 

West Broadway, South Boston, from Gardner place 150 feet 

easterly 159 

New streets 161 

Batavia street 161 

Bay State road 162 

Commonwealth avenue 162 

Deerfield 'street 162 

Miner street. 162 

Miscellaneous 160 

Broadway bridge (over Fort-point channel) 164 

Table showing lengths and areas of paving, on accepted 

streets 165 

City Engineers, 1850-1893 167 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Electrolysis : Diagrams showing difference in potential between the 
water-pipes on Summer street at corner of South street, and Harri- 
son avenue at corner Bristol street, Jan. 3 and 4, 1894, distance 

between points 4,300 feet 108 

Water-works : Additional Supply Basin No. 6, Ashland, general plan 

of dam 114 

Water-works : General view of Dam 6, showing down-stream side 114 

Water-works: " " " " " water-side 114 

Water-works : Table showing rainfall and daily average consumption 

for each month 120 

Water-works : Table showing the heights of Sudbury-river reservoirs, 
Farm pond, Cochituate and Mystic lakes, and the rainfall on the 
Sudbury-river water-shed during the year 1893 122 



APPENDICES. 

Appendix A. Showing width of draw-openings 168 

B. City of Boston Revised Ordinances, 1892, Chapter 12, 170 

C. Engineering Department, property schedule, main 

office 171 

D. Elevations referred to Boston city base 172 

E. List of Engineering Department Reports, 1867-1892 . . 173 



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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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