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Full text of "Annual report of the City Engineer"




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■^ i^i /,6 7 STONE & WEBSTER. 

^5^H BOOK No /S^ 

SECTION /// ~ 

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT. 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 



CITY ENGINEER, 



BOSTON, 



FOR THE YEAR 1894. 



Printetj for ti^e DEpartment. 






BOSTON : 

ROCKWELL AND CHURCHILL, CITY PRINTERS. 
18 9 5. 



Engineering Department, City Hall, 

Boston, February 1, 1895. 

Hon. Edwin U. Curtis, 

Mayor of the City of Boston : 

Sir : In compliance with the Revised Ordinances the fol- 
lowing report of the expenses and operations of the depart- 
ment for the year ending January 31, 1895, is submitted : 

The report of this department may be classified under the 
following heads : , 

A. — The examination and supervision of structural re- 
pairs of bridges, the designing and superintending the con- 
struction of new bridges, retaining walls, city wharves, etc., 
and in miscellaneous engineering work called for by the City 
Council. 

B. — Charge of the engineering work in connection with 
the Sudbury-river, Cochituate, and Mystic Water- Works, 
including charge of new constructions for these works. 

C. — Charge of the construction of a system of intercept- 
ing and outlet sewers. 

D. — Charge of the engineering work in connection with 
the parks. 

E. — Charge of the engineering work, except for Sewer 
Division, in connection with the Street Department. 

The expenses incurred under the head "Care paid wholly 
from a special appropriation. 

A. 

The following is a statement of engineering expenses from 
February 1, 1894, to January 31, 1895 : 



2 City Document No. 10. 

Amount of department appropriation for 

1894-5 135,000 00 

Transferred from reserved fund . . 1,300 00 



$36,300 00 



Amount expended from department appro- 
priation for 1894-95 .... 36,299 60 



Unexpended balance .... $0 40 



Statement of Expenditures, Department 
Appropriation . 

Object of expenditures : 

Salaries of City Engineer, assistants, 
drauo-htsmen, transitmen, levellers, rod- 
men, etc. . 

Engineering instruments and repairs of 
same ....... 

Drawing-paper, and all materials for mak- 
ing plans ...... 

Stationery, printing-stock, note-books, post- 
age, etc. ...... 

Printing ....... 

Reference library, binding books, and pho- 
tographs of works ..... 

Expenses of Charlestown Bridge Committee, 

Travelling expenses (including horse-keep- 
ing, repairs on vehicles, etc.) 

Telephone service ..... 

Furniture cases for plans and books, etc. . 

Blue-process printing .... 

Incidental expenses, and all other small 

supplies ...... 325 06 

Total $36,299 60 



$31,425 


06 


329 


81 


482 


55 


381 


35 


230 


76 


482 


80 


1,300 


00 


880 


28 


186 


00 


128 


11 


147 


82 



Engineering Department. 



ABOLISHMENT OF GRADE CROSSINGS. 

Dover-street Bridge. 

Expenditures from February 1, 1894, to February 1, 1895. 

Steel superstructure (D. H. Andrews) . $38,098 72 
Draw foundation and fender pier (J. P. 

Einond and P. F. McDonald) . . 25,583 00 
Koadway paving and sidewalks (James Grant 

& Co.) 7,381 35 

Engineering 1,965 75 

Fender guard (Alex. Mclnnis) . . . 1,585 00 
Inspection of masonry, piling, and erection 

of steel superstructure .... 1,498 59 

Fences (D. H. Andrews) .... 1,340 3fi 
Draw-turning gear and brakes . . . . 1,317 80 

Gates for dra^\"(P. J. Dinn) . . . 1,060 00 
Labor on draw-pier, pulling piles, draw- 
house floor, labor on wharf, etc. (Nay 

& Ellis) 933 30 

Draw-tender 788 25 

Electric motor for draw .... 744 00 
Lumber, etc., for pier . . . . 717 00 
Draw-landing and wedges .... 682 24 
Granite stones for piers (J. E. Lambert) . 480 00 
Rent (Blacker & Shepards, wharf for pas- 
sageway) 480 00 

Passageway for foot travel (labor and stock, 

Thomas Keyes) 392 21 

Electric lighting 359 99 

Building fences, gates, stairs, covering 
water-pipe, water-closet draw-tender's 

house (Thomas Keyes) .... 320 69 

Machinery for draw . . . . 197 00 

Iron- work 123 12 

Stairs on pier (Thomas Keyes) . . . 114 10 

Plumbing water-closet (D. J. Kinnally) . 107 10 

Advertising ...... 104 87 

Printing 96 25 

Pavement (James Grant & Co.) . . 9150 

Labor, etc., on dolphin (B. F. Nay cfe Co.), 43 28 

Borings (B. F. Smith & Bro.) . ' . . 35 00 

Iron-work (Miller & Shaw) ... 2765 

Teaming (F. E. AVhitcomb) ... 8 00 

$86,676 12 

Expended previous to February 1, 1894 . 42,914 03 

$129,590 15 



City Document No. 10. 



Allston Bridge. 



Appropriation, City of Boston, $90,000 00 
Apjivopriation, Boston & 

Albany R.R. Co. . . 40,000 00 

$130,000 00 

Items of Expenditure from February 7, 1894, to Febru- 
ary i, 1895. 

William Decoster (land dam- 
ages) .... $4,500 00 
Josiah Rhodes (labor) . . 8 23 



$4,508 23 



Expended previous to Febru- 
ary 1, 1894 . . . 85,403 94 



,912 17 



Total appropriation and revenue . . $130,330 18 

Expended by city of Boston . $89,912 17 
'* " Boston & Albany 

R.R. Co. . 40,000 00 



129,912 17 



Balance transferred to Street Improvement, 

Ward 25 $418 01 



Franklin-street Tunnel, Brighton. 
Appropriations $12,396 '56 

Items of Expenditure from June, 1894, to Febmary 1, 1895. 

Jones &Meehan (contractors), $10,539 93 

Boston & Albany R.R. Co. 
(supporting tracks, and flag- 
men) .... 

Inspection .... 

E. B. Badger & Sons (copper 
gutters) .... 

Simpson Brothers (stone 
Avalk) .... 

Printing and stock 

Advertising .... 

Wooden fencing . 



869 14 




421 50 




250 00 




231 80 




32 40 




27 20 




24 59 






$12,396 56 





Engineering Department. 5 

Statues. 

Robert G. Shaw Monument. 

Appropriation, Robert G. Shaw monument, $19,500 00 

Items of expenditure : 
Norcross Brothers, second 
estimate on base and 
pedestal . . . . |5,440 00 

Expended previous to Febru- 
ary 1, 1894 . . . 6,448 40 



11,928 40 



Balance February 1, 1895 . . . $7,571 60 



John Boyle O'Reilly Monument. 

Appropriation, from Phillips Street-Fund, 

Income $3,500 00 

Items of expenditure : 
Foundation (Perkins & 

White) .... 
Curbing, cut granite (Cape 

Ann Granite Company) 



Balance February 1, 1895 



Rebuilding Bridges to Watertown. 

Appropriation, Western avenue and North 

Beacon street . . . . . $18,000 00 

Transferred August 1, 1894, to Franklin- 
street tunnel, Brighton .... 1,500 00 



$375 00 
625 00 


1,000 00 




• 


$2,500 00 



$16,500 00 



Items of Expenditure, February 1, 1894, to 
February 1, 1895. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts : 

Displacement of tide-water . $10 31 

Expended previous to Febru- 
ary 1, 1894 •. . . 10,973 33 

10,983 64 



Balance February 1, 1895 . . . $5,516 36 



6 



City Document No. 10. 



Improved Sewerage. 
Total appropriations .... 



;,375,404 96 



Statement of Expenses from February 1, 1894, to February 

1, 1895. 
Object of expenditure : 



General office expenses 


$6,451 22 


East Shaft, roadway .... 


639 00 


Miscellaneous ..... 


327 76 


Section 6, Dorchester Intercepting Sewer 


455 36 


( ( Y " " '' 


20,034 83 


(( 3 (( (( (( 


471 35 


(( () (( <( <( 


37,532 04 


3, Outfall Sewer . . . . 


17,603 18 


3C, "".... 


15,603 17 




$99,117 91 


Loans negotiated (less $67,- 




500 transferred) . . $6,308,664 03 




Revenue 66,740 9.^ 




Total 


$6,375,404 96 



Expended previous to Feb- 
ruary 1, 1894 . . $6,208,637 05 

Expended from February 1, 

1894, to February 1, 1895, 99,117 91 



6,307,754 96 



Balance February 1, 1895 . 



$67,650 00 



Improved Sewerage Construction, 1894. 

Tables showing the cost of the sewer sections in progress 
during the year 1894, and other miscellaneous work. 



General Office Expenses. 
Items of expenditure ; 
Salaries 
Office rent 

Travelling expenses . 
Telephone service 
Sundry small supplies 
Engineering instruments and repairs 
Drawing-paper and materials for plans 

Carried forioard^ 



$4,807 90 
821 33 
291 15 
150 30 
119 69 
81 45 
75 02 

$6,346 84 



Engineering Department. 

Brought forward, 
Rubber clothing . . . . . 

Blue-process printing .... 

Printing ....... 

Stationery and printing-stock 

Total 

East Shaft, Roadway. 

Items of expenditure : 
Inspection ...... 

Labor (Perkins & White) 



Expended previous to 1894 

Total 

Miscellaneous. 

Items of expenditure : 

New York & New England Railroad (Dam- 
ages to abutments at Dorchester-avenue 
crossing) $327 76 

Expended previous to 1894 . . . 3776 



Section 3, Outfall Sewer. 

Items of expenditure : 
Land da ma ires : 

Lillie B. Titus . . $15,603 18 
Henry W. Hunt . 2,000 00 



$6,346 


84 


39 


28 


37 


19 


19 


28 


8 


63 


$6,451 


22 


$179 


00 


460 


00 


$639 


00 


4,458 


54 


$5,097 


54 



Total $365 52 



$17,603 18 
Expended previous to 1894 . . . 112,077 28 



Total $129,680 46 



Section 3C, Outfall Sewer. 

Items of expenditure : 
Land damages : 

Lillie B. Titus $15,603 17 

Expended previous to 1894 . . . 95,245 90 

Total $110,849 07 



City Document No. 10. 



Section 6, Dorchester Intercepting Sewer. 



Items of expenditure ; 
Gravel ....... 

Labor ....... 

Land damages : 

First Baptist Church Society of Dor- 
chester ...... 

Miscellaneous ..... 



$34 36 
109 75 



300 00 
11 25 





1455 36 


Expended previous to 1894 


45,126 40 


Total 


$45,581 76 


Section 7, Dorchester Intercepting Sewer. 


Items of expenditure : 




Bricks ...... 


$2,304 40 


Cement ....... 


812 28 


Coal 


748 11 


Drain-pipe ...... 


183 14 


General supplies ..... 


271 32 


Granite stones ..... 


53 00 


Hardware . . ' . 


239 21 


Labor ...... 


11,262 15 


Lumber ...... 


579 26 


Masonry walls (Davenport brook) 


1,214 50 


Miscellaneous ..... 


386 21 


Piles, and labor on same . 


450 00 


Rent of machinery .... 


627 07 


Rublier clothing .... 


99 75 


Sand and gravel .... 


612 52 


Teaming . . ' . 


191 91 




$20,034 83 


Expended previous to 1894 


17,369 06 


Total 


$37,403 89 


Section 8, Dorchester Intercepti 


NG Sewer. 


Items of expenditure : 




Cement ...... 


$150 00 


Drain-pipe ..... 


37 50 



Candied forward^ 



$187 50 



P^NGINEEKINO DEPARTMENT. 



Brought forward. 
Granite stones . 
Gravel 
Hardware 



Expended previous to 1894 
Total 



$187 


50 


89 


00 


100 


00 


94 


85 


$471 


35 


39,077 


59 


$39,548 


94 



Section 9, Dorchester Intercepting Sewer. 



Items, of expenditure: 












Bricks 


$5,224 08 


Car-fares . 


, 








8 


00 


Cement 


. 








3,103 


25 


Coal 


, 








393 


14 


Drain-pipe 


. 








481 


78 


General supplies 


. 








692 


03 


Hardware 


, 








465 


07 


Insurance 


, 








260 


00 


Labor 


, 








17,418 


16 


Lumber . 


, 








1,706 


40 


Piles, and labor on 


same 








4,409 


35 


Rent of land 


, , 








60 


00 


Eubber clothing 


, 








187 


55 


Sand and gravel 


. 








2,218 


98 


Teaming . 


• 








904 


25 






$37,532 


04 


Expended previous 


to 1894 


53 


71 


Total 


$37,5>5 


75 



BRIDGES. 

The inspection of the highway bridges for the annual 
report of their safety and comj^leteness has been made, and 
as usual, besides the highway bridges, all such bridges as 
the Public Garden foot-bridge and the bridges in the parks 
have also been inspected. 

The widths of all oj)enings in bridges for the passage of 
the vessels have been measured as usual. 

In the list, those marked with a star (*) are over navi- 
gable water, and are each provided with a draw. 

Twelve bridges have been added to the list as printed last 
year. These are park and parkway bridges which have 



10 City Document No. 10. 

been built within two years, and not before added. Cottage 
Farm bridge, formerly maintained by the Boston & Albany 
Railroad Company, is now maintained by the city. 

I. — Bridges wholly supported by Boston. 

Agassiz bridge, in Back Bay Fens. 

Allston, over Boston & Albany Railroad, Ward 25. 

Ar1)orway bridge, over Stony brook. 

Ashland street, over Providence Division, N.Y., N.H., & 
H. R.R., Ward 23. 

Athens street, over New York & New England Railroad. 

Auduljon road, over Boston & All)any Railroad. 

Beacon Entrance, Back Bay Fens, over Boston & Albany 
Railroad. 

Beacon street, over outlet to Back Bay Fens. 

Beacon street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Berkeley street, over Boston & AIl)any Railroad. 

Berkeley street over Providence Division, N.Y., N.H., & 
H. R.R. 

Bernier street foot-bridge (in the Riverway). 

Bernier street foot-bridge (over Muddy river). 

Berwick Park foot-bridge, over Providence Division, N.Y., 
N.H., &H. R.R. 

Blakemore street, over Providence Division, N.Y., N.H., 
& H. R.R. 

Bolton street, over New York & New England Railroad. 

Boylston street, in Back Bay Fens. 

Boylston street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Bridle Path in the Riverway, over Muddy river. 

*Broadway, over Fort Point channel. 

Broadway, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Brookline avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Byron street, over Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn Rail- 
road. 

*Castle island foot-bridge, from Marine park. South Bos- 
ton, to Castle island. 

*Charles river, from Boston to Charlestown. 

*Chelsea (South), over South channel of Mystic river. 

*Chelsea street, from East Boston to Chelsea. 

Columbus avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Commonwealth avenue, in Back Bay Fens. 

*Commercial point, or Tenean, Ward 24. 

*Congress street, over Fort Point channel. 

Cottage Farm, Brighton. 

Cottage-street foot-bridge, over flats, East Boston. 

Cornwall street, over Stony brook, Ward 23. 



Engineering Department. 11 

Circuit Drive, over Scarboro' pond in Franklin park. 

Dartmouth street, over Boston & Albanv Kailroad and 
Providence Division, N.Y., N.H., & H. R.R. 

*Dover street, over Fort Point channel. 

EUicott arch, in Franklin park. 

*Federal street, over Fort Point channel. 

Fen bridge, Back Bay Fens. 

Ferdinand street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Forest Hills entrance, in Franklin park. 

Gold street foot-1)ridge, over Xew York & New England 
Railroad. 

Huntington avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Irvinoton-street foot-bridge, over Providence Division, 
X.Y., N.H. &H. R.R. 

*L street, over Reserved channel. South Boston flats. 

Leverett pond foot-bridge, in Leverett park. 

Leyden street, over Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn Rail- 
road. 

Linden Park street, over Stony brook. 

*Malden, from Charlestown to Everett. 

Massachusetts avenue (formerly West Chester Park), over 
Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Massachusetts avenue ( formerly West Chester Park), over 
New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad. 

*Meridian street, from East Boston to Chelsea. 

*Mount Washington, over Fort Point channel. 

Neptune road, over Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn Rail- 
road. 

Newton street, over Providence Division, N.Y., N.H., & 
H. R.R. 

Public Garden foot-bridge. 

Scarboro' pond foot-bridge (in Franklin Park). 

Shawmut avenue, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

Stony brook. Back Bay Fens. 

Swett street, east of New York & New England Railroad. 

Swett street, west of New York & New England Railroad. 

* Warren, Boston to Charlestown. 

West Rutland square foot-bridije, over Providence Divi- 
sion, N.Y., N.H., & H. R.R. 

Winthrop, from Breed's Island to Wiuthrop. 

II. — Bridges or WHICH Boston supports the Part within 

ITS Limits. 

Bellevue street, in the Riverway, over Muddy river. 
Brookline avenue, in the Riverway, over Muddy river. 
*Cambridge street, from Brighton to Cambridge. 



12 City Document No. 10. 

Central avenue, from Ward 24 to Milton. 
*Chelsea (north), from Charlestown to Chelsea. 

* Essex street, from Ward 25 (Brighton) to Cambridge. 
Foot-bridge near Bernier street, in the lliverway, over 

jMuddy river. 

*Granite, from Dorchester, Ward 24, to Milton. 
Longwood avenue, from Ward 24, to Brookline. 
]\Iattai)an, from Ward 24 to Milton. 
;Milton, from AVard 24 to Milton. 
*Neponset, from Ward 24 to Quincy. 

* North Beacon street, from Brighton to Watertown. 
*North Harvard street, from Brighton to Cambridge. 
Spring street, from West Roxbury to Dedham. 
Tremont street, in the Riverway, over Muddy river. 
*Western avenue, from Brighton to Cambridge. 

* Western avenue, from Brighton to Watertown. 

III. — Bridges or avhich Boston pays a Part of the Cost 
OF Maintenance. 

Albany street, over Boston & Albany Railroad. 

*Canal, from Boston to Cambridge. 

Dorchester street, over Old Colony Division, N.Y., N.H., 
& H. R.R. 

Everett street, over Boston & Albany Railroad, Ward 
25. 

*Harvard, from Boston to Cambridge. 

*Prison Point, Charlestown to Cambridge. 

*West Boston, from Boston to Cambridge. 

IV. — Bridges supported by Railroad Corporations. 

1st. — Boston (& Albany Railroad. 

Harrison avenue. 
Market street, Brighton. 
Tremont street. 
Washington street. 

2d. — Boston S Maine Railroad, Western Division. 

Mystic avenue. 
Main street. 

3d. — Boston S Maine, Eastern Division. 

Mystic avenue. 
Main street. 



i 



I 



Engineering Department. 13 

4th. — Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn Railroad. 
Everett street. 

5th. — J^eio York & New England Railroad. 

Broadway. 
Dorchester avenue. 
Fifth street. 

Morton street, Ward 24. 
Fourth street. 
Harvard street, Ward 24. 
Norfolk street, Ward 24. 
-Norfolk street, Ward 24. 
Second street. 
Silver street. 
Sixth street. 
Third street. 
Washington street, AYard 24. 

6th. — JSfeio York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, 
Old Colony Division. 

Adams street. 

Ashmont street and Dorchester avenue. 

Cedar Grove cemetery. 

Commercial street. 

Savin Hill avenue. 

7th. — NY., N.H, S H. R.R., Providence Division. 

Beech street. Ward 23. 
Bellevue street, Ward 23. 
Canterbury street. Ward 23. 
Centre street, or Hog bridge. 
Centre and Mt. Vernon streets. 
Dudley avenue. 
Park street. 

Recapitulation of Bridges. 

I. Number wholl}" supported by Boston . . 65 

II. Number of which Boston supports that part 

within its limits . . . . . 18 

HI. Number of which Boston pays a part of the 

cost of maintenance ..... 7 

IV. Number supported by railroad corporations : 
1. Boston & Albany ..... 4 



14 City Document No. 10. 

2. Boston & Maine, Western Division . . 2 

3. " " Eastern Division . . 2 

4. Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn Railroad . 1 

5. New York & New England Railroad . . 13 

6. N.Y., N.IL, & H. R.R., Old Colony Division, 5 

7. " " Providence Division, 7 

Total number 124 

Agassiz-road Bridge (in Back Bay Fens). 

This bridge was built in 1887, of brick and stone masonry. 
It is maintained by the Park Department and is in good 
condition. The settlement of the surrounding filled terri- 
tory leaves the bridge high, and causes cracks to open in 
the joints of the edgestone and parapet, but does not in 
any way afiect the strength of the bridge. 

Albany-street Bridge {over the Boston & Albany R.B.). 

This is an iron bridge ; the present structure was built 
in 1886-87. It is maintained in part by the city of Boston 
and in part by the Boston & Albany Railroad Company. 
The iron-work above the floor was painted one coat in 1891, 
but below the floor no painting has been done since the 
bridge was erected ; the lower portion is therefore very rusty 
and should be painted the coming season. There are two 
wire guys attached to the top chord of the bridge which should 
be removed. 

Allston Bridge {over the Boston & Albany R.R., Ward 25). 

This is an iron bridge built in 1892 ; it is in good condi- 
tion, but will need painting next year. 

Arborway Bridge (over Stony Brook, in Parkway, near 
Forest Hills Station). 

This is a wooden bridge resting on abutments of vulcan- 
ized spruce piles. The stringers and under planking are of 
vulcanized hard-pine. It was built in 1893, and is main- 
tained by the Park Department. 

Ashland-street Bridge {over Providence Division, N. Y., 
JSr.H., i& H. R.R., Ward 23). 

The present structure is of iron, and was built in 1875. 
The iron-Avork is in good condition. The wooden fences 
are very old and unsightly. 



Engineering Department. 15 

Athens-street Bridge {over New York & JSTeiu 
England Ji.Ii.). 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1874. It should l)e painted. 

Audubon-road Bridge {over the Boston S Albany R.R.). 

This bridge was built in 1893, with the exception of the 
sidew^alk flooring and the iron railings ; these w^ere put in 
last year, and the bridge is now ready for use. It has not, 
however, been opened to travel, owing to the unfinished 
condition of the approaches. The railings w^ere erected by 
the Boston Bridge Works, under an agreement dated April 
9, 1894, and the wooden flooring was put on by Thomas 
Keyes, under an agreement dated April 16, 1894. 

Beacon entrance {in Back Bay Fens, over Boston & 
Albany R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, and was built in 1881-82. It is 
maintained by the Park Department. There are signs of 
cars scraping the under side of the bridge, and it is known 
that the bridge has settled badly on account of the com- 
pression of the mud under the tilling. Otherwise it is in 
good condition. The bridge will be raised during the com- 
ing season. 

Beacon-street Bridge {over Outlet of Back Bay) . 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1880-81. It is in fair con- 
dition. 

Beacon-street Bridge {over Boston & Albany R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1884-85, widened in 1887- 
88, and the central roadway further widened in 1890 for the 
convenience and at the expense of the West End Street 
Railway Company. The portion above the floor needs 
painting; otherwise the bridge is in good condition. 

Bellevue-street Bridge {over Muddy River, in the Parkway). 

This is a segmental masonry arch of 44 ft. span and 15 ft. 
rise. The foundation is of concrete, the face walls of seam- 
faced granite, and the arch of brick. It was built in 1893, 
by the Park Departments of Boston and Brookline, and is 
maintained jointly by them. 



16 City Document No. 10. 

Bernier- street Foot-bridge {over Bridle Path, in Riverway) . 

This is a semicirculiir masonry arch of 38 feet 4 inches 
span. The foundations are of concrete, the exposed face walls 
of seam-faced granite, and the arch is of brick, the fsice brick 
being' l)iitf-colored. It Avas built in 1893, and is maintained 
by the Park Department. 

Beimier-street Foot-bridge {over Muddy River^ . 

This is a segmental masonry arch of 52 feet span and 14 
feet rise. The foundations are of concrete, the exposed face 
walls are of seam-faced granite, and the arches of brick. It 
was built in 1893 by the Park Departments of Boston and 
Brookline, and is maintained jointly by them. 

Berkeley-street Bridge {over Boston & Albany R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1891, and is now in good 
condition. The iron railing which was put up in 1892, and 
apparently needed, received but a single coat of paint. It 
should be painted again, as it begins to show signs of rust. 
The temporary railing at the north-easterly corner of the 
bridge should be replaced by a more permanent fence. The 
abutments have been repointed and are now in a fair con- 
dition. 

Berkeley -street Bridge {over Providence Division, N^.Y., 
JSr.H., & H. R.R.). 

This bridge has been reported for a number of years to be 
in bad condition, and only such repairs as seemed absolutely 
necessary have been made. During the past year one of the 
columns supporting the sidewalk was knocked dowai by a 
freight car. Fortunately no serious damage was done. It 
serves to show, however, that at any time the bridge is liable 
to be thrown down, and that serious damages ma}^ result. The 
railroad company have for many years desired to have this 
structure replaced by one with stone piers instead of iron 
columns, and it is recommended that negotiations be entered 
into with the railroad company looking to the building of a 
proper bridge at this point, before it becomes necessary to 
put a new floor on the present structure, which cannot be 
delayed more than a year or two longer. 

Berwick-park Foot-bridge {over Providence Division, JV. Y., 
JSr.'ff.,(& ff. R.R.). 
(See page 31.) 



Engineering Department. 17 

Blakemore-street Bridge (over Providence Division, N'.Y., 
JSr.H., <& H. R.E.). 

This is an iron bridge. It was built in 1881-82, and is in 
good condition. 

Boltonstretl Bridge (over JVe?r Yor?v S Neiv England 

R.R.). 

This is a wooden bridge, built in 1889. The fences should 
be painted and sanded. 

Boylston-street Arch Bridge {in Bach Bay Fens). 

This is a stone arch bridge, built in 1881. It is in good 
condition except that there are open joints in the parapet 
caused by the settlement of the adjoining filled land. These 
joints should be repointed. 

Boylston-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany R.JR.). 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1886-88. The iron-work 
below the floor has' never been painted since the In-idge was 
erected. It is now in a very rusty condition, and the recom- 
mendations made to the Street Department in Octol)er last 
are here renewed, that the wood-work be stripped off and 
the iron thoroughly cleaned and painted. At the time the 
bridge was built, only a temporary wooden fence was put up. 
During the past year an iron railing has been erected by the 
Boston Bridge Works, at a cost of $1,094. The abutments 
and adjoining retaining-walls are in good condition. 

Broadway Bridge (over Fort Point Channel). 

This is an iron bridge. It was built in 1869-71, and the 
draw and its foundation were rebuilt in 1874-75. The 
bridge was temporarily strengthened so as to allow electric 
cars to use it in 1893. The draw and draw foundations are 
in good condition and present a creditable appearance ; the 
remaining parts of the bridge are old and patched and should 
be rebuilt. No repairs of importance have been made dur- 
ing the year. 

Broadway Bridge (over Boston & Albany R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1880-81. The location of 
this bridge over the railroad tracks leading to the round- 
houses is such that locomotives are standing beneath it a 
large part of the day ; for this reason the iron-work below 
the floor requires frequent painting. Although this bridge 



18 City Document No. 10. 

was painted in 1892 with a single coat of red-lead, the 
coming season should not be allowed to pass without the 
under part being again cleaned and painted. The fence of 
the l)ridge is in poor condition, and should be repaired, 
portions of the lower rail being entirely rusted away. This 
bridge presents a good example of the evil of allowing guy- 
lines to be attached to bridges. A long guy from a tele- 
phone pole has been secured to the top of one of the end 
posts, and the post selected is the one which, owing to the 
sharp skew of the bridge, receives the least support from 
the portal bracing. If the wire on one side of this pole 
should be cut or broken from any cause, the strain brought 
on this particular end post by the guy might be sufficient to 
seriously injure the bridge. Permits should not be given to 
attach guys to bridges, and where already given they should 
be revoked. 

Bridle-path Bridge, in the Riverivay {over Muddy River). 
(See page 107.) 

Brookline-avenue Bridge {over Boston & Albany R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1884. This bridge has 
been cleaned and painted and a new flooring put in. It is 
now in good condition. There^ is a guy attached to one of 
the top chords of this bridge, and as the truss has no top 
lateral bracing there is nothing to prevent the chord being 
thrown out of alignment. 

BrooMine-avenue Bridge {over Muddy River ^ in the 
Riverway) . 

This is a semicircular masonry arch of 15 feet span. The 
abutments and face walls are of granite, resting on a pile and 
timber foundation. The face walls are of seam-faced granite. 
The arch is of brick. It was built in 1892 by the Park 
Departments of Boston and Brookline, and is maintained by 
them jointly. 

Byron-street Bridge {over Boston, Revere Beach, <& 
Lynn R.R.). 

This is a wooden bridge, built in 1^89. The nests built 
under the bridge by the English sparrows should be removed, 
as the bridge is likely to be set on fire by sparks from the 
locomotive. The bridge is in good condition. 



Engineering Department. 19 

Camhridge-street Bridge (from Brighton to Cambridge). 
This is a wooden pile bridge with a wooden leaf draw. 
The city maintains the part within its limits. It was re- 
built in 1884; the draw was rebuilt in 1891. Electric cars 
now run over the bridge. The draw-pier is too short to 
accommodate the larger class of vessels that the widening of 
the draw-way allows to pass through the bridge ; otherwise 
the l)ridge is in good condition. 

Canal or Craigie^s Bridge. 

This is a wooden pile bridge, with wooden turntable draw. 
The city pays one-half of the cost of maintenance. The 
bridge was originally built in 1808, was rebuilt in 1852, and 
again rebuilt and widened in 1874. The bridge is in the 
care of a commission, consisting of one commissioner from 
Boston and one from Cambridge. The sides of the water- 
way for the passage of vessels through the bridge have been 
planked with 3-inch spruce. A bulkhead near the draw has 
been rebuilt. A weak point near the Cambridge end of the 
bridge has been strengthened, fences have been repaired, the 
draw sheathed, sidewalks repaired, and other ordinary re- 
pairs made by the aid of the men employed on the bridge. 
The flooring of the sidewalks near the Cambridge end and 
the bulkhead are in bad condition, and will be rebuilt next 
seasbn. 

Castle Island Foot-i>ridge {from Marine Park to Castle 

Island) . 

This is a temporary foot-bridge, built in 1892. It con- 
nects the Marine park with Castle island, and is furnished 
with a draw, so that, if desired by the United States author- 
ities, the island can be cut oif from the shore. It is now in 
good condition. 

Central-avenue Bridge (over JVeponset River, Dorchester 
Lower Mills). 

This is an iron bridge, and was built in 1876. The city 
maintains the part within its limits. The bridge should be 
stripped and painted, the wood-work renewed, and the abut- 
ment pointed. 

Charles-river Bridge (from Boston to CharlestownJ . 
This is a wooden pile bridge with an iron draw. The 
present bridge was built in 1854-55 ; the draw was built in 
1870. The bridjre has been strengthened in order to make 



20 City Document No. 10. 

it safe for light team travel, the brick sidewalks have been 
put in good condition, and the fence and buildings have been 
painted. The draw and draw foundation are old and poor, 
and estimates have been made for strengthening the same : 
the easterly draw-pier is too short for the vessels now using 
it, and the end of the pier is in a dangerous condition. 

Chelsea Bridge North (from Charlestown to Chelsea). 

The Boston & Maine Railroad will reconstruct this bridge 
within about one hundred feet of the draw, chanofinor the 
grade in connection with the work of abolishino: the ffrade 
crossings on the ISIystic wharves. This will leave practi- 
cally nothing of the part of the present bridge but the draw. 
The draw^ is a wooden stiTicture, built in 1873. It is the 
oldest wooden draw in the city, and is in such condition 
from old age and decay that it may be disabled at any time. 
The samson posts are decayed and settled at the base, and 
are also rotten at the tops. The cross-bracing between the 
tops is decayed, and the outer trussed beams of the bridge 
itself are also in bad condition from decay. The draw is in 
constant use by electrics, and is warped and settled so that 
the roadway presents a very weak appearance. 

It is a worn-out structure and is in a dangerous condition. 
The work of the railroad will be done in such a manner that 
team travel between Charlestown and Chelsea over this 
bridge will be stopped for a considerable time, beginning 
about the first of May, 1895, Foot-passengers and electrics 
will continue to use the draw, but provision can be made for 
electrics by an extension of the temporary bridge now in 
use, and the entire work of replacing the draw can be done 
at this time with a minimum of expense and inconvenience to 
the City, the Boston & Lynn Railroad, the Boston & Maine 
Railroad, and the general public. If so built, the entire 
structure from Charlestown to the Chelsea line will have 
been renewed at one time, and should require no further re- 
newals or repairs to the great inconvenience of the public 
for the next twenty years. 

Chelsea Bridge^ South (over South Channel, Mystic 

River) . 

This is a pile bridge, with an iron draw. The original 
bridge was built in 1802-3, and the present structure in 
187(i-77. The work of rebuilding this bridg-e and raising the 
grade for the purpose of abolishing the grade crossings on 
the tracks of the Boston & Maine Railroad has been com- 
menced. The work is in charge of the railroad. 



Engineering Department. 21 

At present the bridge is in safe condition, and only abso- 
lutely necessary repairs have been made upon it during the 
last year. 

CheUea-street Bridge {from East Boston to Chelsea). 

This is a new pile bridge, with a new iron swin^ draw, 
and was rebuilt last year. The original bridge was built in 
1884 : was rebuilt in 1848, and again in 1873, except the 
draw, which was built in 1868. (See page 38.) 

Circuit-drive Bridge {over Scdrboro' Pond, in Franklin 

Park). 

This is an elliptical masonry arch of 30 feet span and G 
feet 3 inches rise. The abutments are of orranite ashlar 
backed by concrete ; the face walls are of seam-faced granite 
and the arch is of brick. It was built in 1893, and is main- 
tained by the Park Department. 

Columbus-avenue Bridge {over Boston S Albany R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1876-77, The iron-work 
below the floor is somewhat rusty, otherwise the bridge is in 
good condition. As reported last year, "it is still made an 
anchorage for telegraph-pole guys," which should be re- 
moved. 

Commercial Point or Tenean Bridge ( Ward 24). 

This is a wooden pile bridge, with a wooden leaf draw. 
The present bridge was built in 1875. The fences and draw 
are in poor condition and should be rebuilt at once, and the 
bridge floor should be renewed. Fences have been painted. 

Commonwealth-avenue Bridge {in Back Bay Fens). 

This is an iron bridge. It was built in 1881-82. The 
sidewalks have been planked. It is in good condition. 

Congress-street Bridge {over Fort Point Channel). 

This is a wooden pile bridge, with an iron turntable draw 
on a stone foundation, and was built in 1874-75, The under 
floor of the bridge should be thoroughly repaired. It should 
be uncovered so that its condition can be ascertained, and it 
is probable that it will require an entirely new floor under 
the sidewalk and roadway. The upper part of the pier 
should also be uncovered and examined, and will probably 
need extensive repairs. The landings of the draw need re- 



22 City Document No. 10. 

building. The sidewalk, bulkhead, and fencing is poor and 
several of the piles are rotten at the top. The centre pivot 
of the draw was examined last summer and found to be in 
good order. The track, wheels, and other portions of the 
turntable are badly worn and require constant attention. 
Extensive repairs are needed to put the draw in condition to 
meet the heavy service it is called upon to perform. The 
engines have been overhauled and two new steel boilers 
have been put in during the year. The wood-work at the 
ends of the draw is badly split and should be repaired. 

Cornwall-street Bridge (over Stony Brook, Ward 23). 

This is a small wooden bridge, built in 1892. It is in 
good condition, except that the outlets for water are insuffi- 
cient, the bridge being at the foot of the grade at either end. 

Cottage Farm Bridge, Brighton. 
(Seepage 39.) 

Cottage-street Foot-hridge {over Flats, East Boston). 
This is a wooden pile bridge, built in 1889 for foot travel 
only. The crossbracing, which was broken off by the ice, 
has been replaced ; some of the planking has been renewed, 
and the bridge is in good condition. 

Dartmouth-street Bridge {over B. <& A. R.R. and Prov- 
idence Division, JSf.Y., JSf.H., d* H. R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1878-79. It is in good 
condition excepting the wooden boxing around the ends of 
the floor-beams. This is in bad shape, in some places hav- 
ing entirely fallen off, and in others being in a very dilap- 
idated condition. The network of wires which have been 
placed on this bridge disfigure it badly and should be re- 
moved. 

Dorchester-street Bridge {over Old Colony Division, J^.Y., 
JSr.H., & H. R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1869. It is principally 
maintained by the railroad company, and was repaired in 
1893 as thoroughly as it could be without building new 
girders. 

Dover-street Bridge {over Fort Point Channel). 
(See page 40.) 



Engineering Department. 23 

Ellicolt-avch Bridge {in Franklin Park). 

This is a semicircular masonry arch of 17 feet 6 inches 
span. It was built in 1889, and is maintained by the Park 
Department. 

Essex-street Bridge {from Brighton to Cambridge). 

The city maintains the part within its limits. This is a 
wooden pile bridge, with a wooden leaf draw, and was origi- 
nally built in 1850; the draw was rebuilt in 1891. This is 
an old bridge and is in poor condition. Steps have been 
taken by the City Council, in connection with the city of 
Cambridge, looking toward building a new bridge in another 
location. Meanwhile this bridge should h& watched and kept 
in safe condition. 

Everett-street Bridge {over B. & A. R.B., Ward 25). 
This is an iron bridge, built in J 891, by the Boston & 
Albany Eailroad. It is in good condition. 

Federal-street Bridge (over Fort Point Channel) . 

This is a wooden pile bridge, with a double iron draw, and 
was rebuilt in 1891-92. The upper part of the bridge 
should be painted and the damage to the gate by teams 
hauling snow should l>e made good. It is in good condi- 
tion. 

Fen Bridge {in Back Bay Fens). 

This bridge was built in 1891-92. It is in good condi- 
tion. 

Ferdinand-street Bridge (over Boston & Albany B.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1892. It is in good con- 
dition. The fence on the north-west retaining-wall adjoining 
the bridge should be put in good order and [)ainted. It was 
never properly repaired after the damage caused by the 
burning of the oil-house in the railroad yard. 

Forest Hills-entrance Bridge (in Franklin Park). 
(See page 113.) 

Gold-street Foot-bridge {over Reio York & New 
England R.R. ) . 

This is a wooden foot-bridge, built in 1890. An appro- 
priation has been made for building a new bridge for team 
travel on this site. 



24 City Document No. 10. 

Granite Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton). 

This is a wooden pile bridge with a wooden leaf draw. The 
city maintains the part within its limits. The bridge was 
originally built in 1837. The sidewalk plank will need at- 
tention ; otherwise the bridge is in fair condition. Both 
draw-piers are maintained by the town of Milton, and the 
up-river pier has been rebuilt and lengthened. 

Harvard Bridge {from Boston to Cambridge') . 

This is an iron bridge with an iron turntable draw, and 
was built in 1887-91. The bridge is in the care of 
two commissioners, one appointed from Boston and one 
from Cambridge, and the expense of maintenance is borne 
equally by each city. The roadway of the bridge for its 
entire length was sheathed in July, 1894. The surface of 
the sidewalk is badly cracked and should be repaired. As 
the contractors who put down the asphalt are under a 
guarantee to maintain these walks in a satisfactory condition 
for five years, it is recommended that they be called upon 
to make good their guarantee. With the exception of the 
fences, which were painted in 1893, no painting has been 
done to the iron-work of this bridge since its erection in 
1889. Parts of the bridge are now badly rusted^ and should 
be painted this year. If this work is done at once, the iron 
carefully cleaned of rust and thoroughly painted, it will be 
better for the bridge, and can be done mvich cheaper than if 
delayed for a year or two when the rust has eaten into the 
iron so deep that the strength of the structure is perma- 
nently reduced and the labor of cleaning greatly increased. 
The masonry piers and the wooden draw-pier are in good 
condition. 

Huntington-avenue Bridge (over Boston & Alhanij B.R.). 

This is an iron bridge. It was built in 1872, and in 1&76- 
77 the abutments were rebuilt and the bridge widened by 
the addition of two new girders. The bridge is in fair con- 
dition, excepting the wooden fence, several of the posts of 
which are badly decayed. As it is proposed to regrade 
Huntington avenue this year, the recommendation made in 
this report for several j^ears past should be carried out, and 
the surface of the bridge and its approaches made to conform. 

Irvington-street Foot-bridge (over iV. Y., JSf.H., & H. B.B.). 

This is an iron foot-bridge, built in 1892. It is in good 
condition. 



Engineering Department. 25 

^ L-street Bridge {over Reserved Channel, South Boston). 

'j^^is is a wooden pile bridge with an iron retractile draw. 
It was ^^Liilt in 1892. At the time of the last annual report 
the brid*"'^ had been opened to foot travel only. It was in- 
fo rni a Ih-^o'^^"^^ ^o team travel on June 4, 1894. It is in 
gfood condit.^o"' 

Leverelt-^^^^ Foot-bridge {in Leverett Parh). 
(See page 109.) 

Leyden-street Bf^^9^ {over Boston, Revere Btach, t£* 
Lynn R.R. ) . 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1889. It is in fair condi- 
tion. 

Linden Park-street Bridge {over Stomj Brook). 
This is a wooden bridge^ built in 1887. It is in fair con- 
dition. 

Longwood-avenue Bridge {M^n Ward 22 to BrooMine). 

The city maintains the P^^'t within its limits. The 
present structure was built '« 1877. It is a wooden bridge, 
on wooden posts set in the ground. The ground under the 
bridire has been re^raded. The bridge is in poor condition. 
The "construction of River-*ale park, which the bridge crosses, 
will hasten the removal oi" this bridge, which is only a tem- 
l)orary structure. 

Maiden Bridge {f-'om Charlestown to Everett). 

The present structure was built in 1875 and the draw in 
1892. The brid<j^ — '^^ been painted, the waterways repaired, 
an' ot'^,- ^^al( repairs made. The draw runs hard, and it 
should be adjusted. The fender-guard, fences, and sidewalk 
are in very poor condition ; the draw-piers are old, weak, 
and are too short. 

Massachusetts-avenue Bridge, formerhf West Chester Park 
{over Providence Division, N. Y., JSF.II., S II. R.R). 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1876. It is in good con- 
dition. 



26 City Document No. 10. 

Massachusetts-avemie Bridge, formerh/ West Chester Farh 
{over Boston & Albany R.R.). \ 

This is an iron bridge. It was built in 1876. It*' was 
thoroughly repaired in 1893 with the exception of the w Q^den 
fences r ^>^'th fences are somewhat decayed, and tha^t on the 
westerly side has been pulled out of line by a tele^j'raph pole 
which is attached to the girder. On both sides of this bridge 
poles carrying about fifty wires have been erected on the 
o-irders ; andas other means are available ^or supporting 
these wires, the bridge should be relieved ot this unnecessary 
strain. 

Mattapan Bridge (from Ward 24 to Milton). 

The city maintains the part within it§ limits. This is an 
old iron Inndge and is in a dangerous condition, and it should 
be replaced by a stone bridge. No repairs have been made 
except to patch the roadway plank.' 

Meridian-street Bridge {from Z'ast Boston to Chelsea). 

This is a wooden pile bridge, with a wooden turntable 
draw on a pile foundation. The Original structure was built • 
in 18r)8. It was re1)uilt soon afterwards, and was widened 
and rebuilt in 1884, excepting th« draw, which was built in 
1875_7G. The draw is old for i wooden structure and re- 
quires constant care. The draw-purs are in poor condition ; 
the concrete sidewalk needs repass ; the bridge has been 
painted and the water ways repaved The electric cars 
beo-an running over the bridge December 11, 1894. 

Milton Bridge {from War^ 24 to Milton). 

The city maintains the part withb its limits. The original 
structure is very old. It was widened a 1871-72. The older 
part of this bridge was built of stone,und the widening is 
an iron structure on stone columns. N% --»iairs have been 
made, and the bridge is in fair condition. v ► «' 

Mt. Washington-avenue Bridge {over Fort Point Channel). 

This is a wooden pile bridge with an iron draw. It was 

, built in 1854, and rebuilt in 1870-71. The draw-pier is in 

poor condition, and it is so low that it is covered with water 

at every high course of tides. 

This is the only draw of importance in the city that is 
moved bv hand power. The pavement is in poor condition, 
and the fender-^uard is old and weak. The draw-ways and 



Engineering Department. 27 

ends of the pier have been repaired, and the bridge has been 
painted. 

Neponset Bridge {from Ward 24 to Quincy) . 

Tlie city maintains the part within its limits. The original 
structure was built in 1802, and the present one in 1877. 
The draw is too heavy to be handled by hand, and should be 
replaced by a turntable draw. The Boston end of the bridge 
has a new six-inch deck. The latches and piers need repairing 
and the iron dj-aw needs painting. 

Neptune-road Bridge {over Boston, Revere Beach, & 
Lynn R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1887-88, and is maintained 
by the Park Department. It has been painted and is in 
ofood condition. 



o 



Newton-siveet Bridge {over Providence Division, K.Y., 
JSr.H., & H. R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1872. It is in good con- 
dition, excepting the concrete sidewalks, which should be 
resurfaced. 

North Beacon-street Bridge (from Brighton to Watertown). 

The city maintains the part within its limits. This is a 
wooden pile bridge with a wooden leaf draw. The original 
structure was built in 1822, and the present one in 1884. No 
progress has been made toward rebuilding the draw so as to 
allow room for larger vessels to pass, for which purpose a 
partial appropriation has been made. The deck is in poor 
condition. 

North Harvard-street Bridge {from Brighton to Cambridge). 

The city maintains the part within its limits. This bridge 
was originally built in 1662, and was rebuilt in 1879. The 
draw was rebuilt in 1891. The fence on the bridge needs 
repairing, and the abutment is in poor condition, to which 
attention has been called in previous reports; otherwise 
the bridge is in good condition. 

Prison Point Bridge {from Oharlestown to Cambridge) . 

The city pays one-half of the cost of maintenance. This 
bridge was originally built in 1833, and the present .structure 
was built in 1876-77. It is a wooden pile bridge, with an 



28 City Document No. 10. 

iron leaf draw. The bridge is in the care of commission- 
ers, consisting of one commissioner from Boston and one 
from Cambridge. It is in poor condition. The house oc- 
cupied by the draw-tender has been papered and painted 
inside by the draw-tender. Only ordinary repairs, such as 
planking and sheathing, have been made on the bridge. The 
draw is in bad condition and needs a thorough repairing. 
The question of abolishing the grade crossing on the Boston 
& Maine Railroad, which adjoins the bridge, is under dis- 
cussion. If this should be accomplished by carrying the 
highway over the railroad, it would involve tlie rebuilding 
of the bridge. For this reason only such repairs have been 
made as were absolutely necessary for safety. 

Public Garden Foot-bridge. 
This is an iron bridge. It was built in 1867, and was 

• • • 

thoroughly repaired in 1887. In fair condition except the 
floor, which needs an entire renewal. 

Scarboro' Pond Foot-bridge {in Franklin Park). 

This is an elliptical masonry arch of 40 feet span and 8 feet 
3 inches rise. The face-work is of quarried face Roxbury 
stone and the arch is of ])rick. It was built in 1893, and is 
maintained by the Park Department. 

Shaivmut-avenue Bridge {over Boston (£• Albany R.R.). 

This is an iron bridge, built in 1871. The sidewalk on 
the westerly side of the bridge has been repaired and a new 
coal-tar surface put on. The girders under the walk have 
been painted. The whole under portion of this bridge, how- 
ever, needs painting. The report of last year in regard to 
the unsightly bend in the ornamental parapet caused by the 
electric wire pole of the West End Street Railway Company 
still remains true. 

Spring-street Bridge {from Ward 23 to Dedham). 
This is a stone bridge. The city maintains the part 
within its limits. It is in good condition. 

Stony-brook Bridge {Back Bay Fens). 
This is an ornamental brick, arched bridge with stone 
facings, built in 1891-92. It is in good condition. It is 
maintained by the Park Department. 



Engineering Department. 29 

Sivett-street Bridges (over /South Bay Sluices). 

These are wooden bridges, and were built in 1875. They 
are temporary structures and are in poor condition. The 
bulkheads that support the adjoining sluices are very much 
out of shape, and may require repairs at any time. The 
roadways of these bridges have been kept in safe condition, 
but as bridges they are of but little value. 

TremoTit-street Bridge {over Muddy River). 

This is a semicircular masonry arch of 15 feet span. 
The foundation is of concrete, the abutments of "rranite 
ashlar backed with concrete. The side walls are of seam- 
faced granite, and the arch is of brick. It was built in 1893, 
and is maintained by the Park Departments of Boston and 
Brookline. 

Warren Bridge (froTYi Boston to Charlestoicn) . 

This is a wooden pile bridge, with a double iron draw. 
The present structure was built in 1883-84. The sidewalk 
on the down-stream side and at the entrance to Fitchburij 
Railroad yard, and the draw-piers and the block-stone pave- 
ments, are in poor condition. The ends of the draAv need 
attention, and about sixty feet of the fence near the Cause- 
way-street end of the bridge has been so damaged by teams 
dumping snow that it should be rebuilt. The bridge has 
been painted and ordinary repairs have been made. 

^^^ estern-avenue Bridge {from Brighton to Cambridge). 

The city maintains the part witin its limits. The present 
bridge was built in 1879-80, and the draw in 1891. The 
fences and some of the spur-shore piles are in poor condition. 
The draw-pier is too short. Only small repairs have been 
made. 

Westei'n-avenue Bridge (from Brighton to Watertoicn). 

The city maintains the part within its limits. This is a 
wooden pile bridge, with an iron draw, and was rebuilt in 
1892-93. It should be painted. 

West Boston Bridge {from Boston to Cambridge) . 

This bridge is in the care of two commissioners, one from 
Boston and one from Cambridge. The city pays one-half 
of the cost of maintenance. This is a wooden pile bridge, 
with a wooden turntable draw. The bridge was originally 



30 City Document No. 10. 

built in 171)2-93, was rebuilt in 1854, and repaired in 1871. 
This is an old, weak bridge, but is kept in as good condition 
as possible. This bridge, with Canal and Prison Point 
bridges, is in the care of the same commission, and they are 
kept in usable condition only by the constant care and per- 
sonal supervision given them by the commissioner from 
Cambridge. The under plank of the draw has been partly 
renewed, part of the waterway on side of the pier has been 
replanked, spur-shores and braces have been bolted and 
spiked to the piles to keep the bridge in line. The whole 
length of the bridge under the planking of the roadway has 
been examined, and strengthened where necessary. The 
bulkhead at the Boston end of the draw, which has been a 
source of trouble for some years, has been rebuilt. The work 
was done between 1 A.M. and 3 A.M., on Sunday, without 
interruption to travel. The ordinary repairs, such as sheath- 
ing the draw, repairing fences, renewing plank on piers, 
paving, etc., have been attended to. Much of this work 
has been done by the draw-tender and his assistants. 

West Hatland-square Foot-bridge {over Providence Division, 
]Sr.Y.,N.H., '(&H.R.R.). 

This is an iron foot-bridge, built in 1882. The stair-treads 
are badly worn and should be renewed. The sidewalks in 
Rutland square at the foot of the stairs are too low and 
should be regraded. 

Winthro]) Bridge {from Breed's Island to Winthrop). 

This is a pile bridge, without a draw. It was originally 
built in 1839, it was rebuilt in 1»51, and was extensively 
repaired in 1870. This bridge was damaged by ice during 
the winter and will require extensive repairs. Estimates 
have been made for making a solid causeway, with a culvert, 
in place of the bridge. This scheme is entirely feasible, 
and at a moderate cost. 

Bridges wholly supported by Railroads. 

The bridges over the Boston & Albany Railroad main- 
tained b}' that company are in a good or fair condition, and 
require no special report, with the exception of the Washing- 
ton-street bridge. In 1891 new girders were placed under 
the roadway, and this portion of the bridge is in good con- 
dition. It was thought at that time that the girders support- 
ing the sidewalks, although badly rusted, would be safe for 
a few years more. Since that time the corrosion has con- 



Enginkering Department. 31 

tinued so rapidly that now large areas of the web plates 
have disappeared from the girders located on the curb lines, 
and it is impossible to make a reasonable estimate of the 
strength of the remaining part. The load coming on the 
weakest of these girders has been increased the past year 
by the addition of a second line of gas-pipes. As this bridge 
is on one of the principal streets of the city, and liable at 
any time to have a crowd of people on the sidewalks, it can- 
not be considered in a safe condition. It is therefore recom- 
mended that the railroad company be notified to rebuild the 
sidewalk portions at once. 

The remaining bridges require no special mention. 

MISCELLANEOUS WORK AND CONSTRUCTION IN 

1894. 

Berwick Park Foot-bridge, over Providence Division, 
New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad. 

Plans and specifications for a retaining-wall on Follen 
street, and additions to the present retaining-wall on Ber- 
wick park, were prepared, and on June 21 a contract for 
doing this was concluded with Quimby & Ferguson for the 
sum of $8,200. These retaining-walls form the supports of 
an iron foot-bridge similar to that over the railroad at Irvins:- 
ton street. The iron stairways and piers were furnished 
by the Boston Bridge AVorks, at a cost of $1,200. The iron 
span is that formerly used at Franklin street, Allston; it 
was taken down, moved, and erected at Berwick park by the 
Boston Brido;e Works for the sum of 



Boylston-street Bridge, over Boston & Albany 
Railroad. 

Iron railings have been erected on this bridge, and on one 
of the street retaining-walls. The work was done by the 
Boston Bridge Works from plans and specifications prepared 
by this department. 

Charles-river Bridge. 

This l)ridge, which was closed to team travel on account of 
its dangerous condition, has been temporarily strengthened 
for the passage of light teams and foot travel. Plans and 
specifications were prepared and a contract was made August 
31, 1894, with Trumbull & Ryan for doing the work. The 
bents of piles where the bridge Avas out of line were stiff- 
ened by spur-shore piles and cross-bracing ; three new bents 



32 City Document No. U). 

of piles were driven and capped, several bents were re- 
capped, additional stringers were put in, the fences and side- 
walk bulkheads were repaired, and other small repairs made, 
at a cost of $2,909.94. Some additional work on top of the 
bridue was done by the Bridge Division of the Street De- 
partment. 

Charles-river Watershed in West Eoxbury. 

In compliance with the following order of the City Coun- 
cil, dated May 6, 1893, " that the City Engineer be and he 
hereby is requested to make surveys and plans, and furnish 
estimates, for draining the Charles-river watershed in West 
Roxbury," the following report was made : 

The district comprises that part of West Roxbury which 
drains naturally into Charles river, and in devising a plan 
for the drainage of this territory it is also necessary to in- 
clude with it Hyde Park, Dedham, and Milton. The city 
has already built an extension of the main drainage system 
through a part of Dorchester, which will probably be com- 
plete as far as Lower Mills early next year, and it is ex- 
pected that it will at once be extended as far as Central 
avenue. 

This branch of the main drainage system was designed to 
take the drainage from the district under consideration, and 
I recommend that it be continued through Hyde Park to 
Weld street. West Roxbury, as shown on the accompanying 
plan, and that a system of sewers be built in the streets 
substantially as shown on said plan. 

At present only the street sewers, shown in red, about 
11^ miles, need be built. 

The estimated cost of the proposed system is as follows : 

51,239 feet of sewer, from Central avenue to 

Weld street $388,201 

4,200 feet (Germantown branch) . . . 8,810 



$397,011 
Engineering and contingencies . . . 39,701 

COD • 



$436,712 
Land damages ...... 32,000 



;,712 
11 J miles street sewers .... 166,000 



Total $634,712 



EXGINEEHIXG DePAUT.MENT. S'6 

The surface dniinaae should be excKided from this system 
and taken care of by the existin<; watercourses. 

The foUowing is the report from Assistant Engineer Mr. 
F. A. Mclnnes: 

Boston, December 10, 1894, 
William Jackson, Esq., Cily Engineer: 

Dear Sir: I herewith submit a report, with phms and approximate 
estimates, on the sewerage of that portion of West Koxbui-y now unpro- 
vided with sewers. 

The need of proper sewerage facilities for that part of West Roxbury 
sloping towards the Cliarles river and Mother brooiv is beyond question, 
and needs no further comment. The; best method of disposing of the 
sewage, however, admits of more discussion. Obviously, the most in- 
expensive method would be to discharge the crude sewage directly, 
either into the Charles or into Motiier brook. Neither of these methods 
can be seriously considered. In the ease of the Charles, the fact that 
several towns farther down-stream take their water-supply from the 
banks of the stream is prohibitive, wliile the people living along Mother 
brook and the Neponset would not tolerate a discharge into those streams. 
To connect with the Metropolitan sewerage system in Newton is out of 
the question by reason of the enormous cost. Filtration through land! 
would involve jmniping and might affect injuriously the Brookline 
water-supply. Two courses of action remain which are more wcrthy of 
consideration. The first is to bring the sewage to a common point and 
thence pump it over the divide into the West lloxbury trunk sewer near 
Highland avenue, whence it would flow by existing sewers to Moon 
island. The second is to construct an intercepting sewer down Mother 
brook and the Neponset to the Doi'chester intercepting sewer at Central 
avenue, thus enabling the sewage to flow by gravity to Moon island. 

The plan of pumping over the divide, while undoubtedly much 
cheaper in first cost, cannot be recommended as a permanent "solution 
of the question. The existing sewers in Roslindale and -Jamaica Plain, 
which would be utilized, were not designed to receive sewage from out- 
side the Stony-brook drainage area, and the inevitable growth of popu- 
lation on the Charles-river slope of West Roxbury would soon necessitate 
their reconstruction or duplication at great cost. 'i'his plan also in- 
volves greater running exi^enses. Furthermore, it would be difficult 
and costly, though possible, to connect the Roslindale sewer with the 
high-level sewer, which is designed to be built to relieve the present 
improved sewerage system. For present needs a temporary pumping 
plant might be established near the railway, with a force main to carry 
the sewage to Mt. Vernon street, a distance of about 8,7<)U feet, with a 
lift of 74: feet This, however, seems an unwise expenditure, for any 
temporary arrangement of this kind must soon be superseded by a per- 
manent one. Every argument for better sewerage facilities for West 
Roxbury applies with e(]ual, and in some cases greater, force to Ded- 
ham, Hyde Park, and Milton. The intercepting sewer down Mother 
brook, etc., is the natural outlet for these towns, and it seems reason- 
able to expect that concerted action might be had wiih them. Milton 
has already taken definite steps towards a system of common sewers, 
while the people of Dedham and Hyde Park are keenly alive to the 
imperative need of better sewerage facilities, and they realize tiiat action 
must be taken at once in the matter. Of the present population to bq 
served by the Mother-brook intercepting sewer, less than 25 per cent, 
are in the city of Boston, while in iy;30 it is estimated that 4G per cent, 
will be in the present area of Boston. 

Another argument in favor of the outlet via Mother brook, etc., is the 



34 City Document No. 10. 

fact that connection can be easily made with tlie high-level sewei*, as 
will he more fully explained later in this report. 

The Dorchester intercepting sewer (now almost complete to Milton 
Lower Mills), in anticipation of the action here recommended, was de- 
signed large enough to take the part of the sewage of Dedham. Hyde 
I'ark, and Milton, which naturally drains into Mother brook and the 
Neponset. 

In view of these facts, the outlet via Mother brook has been decided 
ujjon, and careful surveys have been made of the route to be followed. 

In designing the sewers no allowance has been made for storm water, 
— it being assumed that the natural watercourses will be improved for 
that purpose. Whenever po.ssible permanent under-drains, emptying 
into the luitural wateniourses, have been placed under the sewer, and 
consequently but a slight allowance has been made for ground Avater. 
The probable population in the year 193U has been estimated and made 
the basis of maximum flow. The population in 19;3() of the parts of 
Newton and Brookline served by the proposed sewer was estimated at 
8,(;00. The population in 1930 on the Charles-river slope of West 
Roxbui-y was estimated at 24,500 (present population about 2,400) ; 
Dedhanrs population in 1930 Avas estimated at 18,000, of whom 15,300 
would use the sewer; Hyde Park's at 35,000, of whom 28,000 would 
use the sewer; and Milton's at 18,000, of whom 5,000 would use the 
sewer. The sewage of 24,000 people in Dorchester would also enter at 
Mattapan. 

In computing the maximum flo\v, 130 gallons in twenty-four hours 
was allowed for each person in Newton, Brookline, Dedham, West 
Koxbury, and Milton, and 162 gallons for each person in Hyde Park 
and Mattapan, — the higher rate was adopted for Hyde Park and Matta- 
pan because of their more nearly urban character. Branch sewers, 
draining small areas and the ujjper pai-t of the intercepting sewer, were 
desijrned with double the capacity called for above. 

The maximum capacity required at different i)oints is as follows : 

Maximum Flow, 1930. 

Below Gardner street 3.53 c.f.p.s. 

" Spring street ...... 3.89 " 

" Washington street . . . . . 6 75 " 

Mill Lane street 9.15 " 

Readville street 10.80 

•' Central Park avenue .... 13.05 " 

*' Metropolitan avenue .... 15.55 " 

Mattapan station 20.80 

Above Central avenue 23.80 *' 

The original design oCthe Boston improved sewei'age system contem- 
plated the construction of a high-level sen cr Avhich should drain the 
portions of the city above grade 40 and flow by gravity to Moon island. 
The Neponset-valley branch of this sewer presents no engineering difli- 
culties ; it would tap the Mother-brook intercepting sewer at Central 
Park avenue and could take the whole flow at that point. 

In view of the relief to be aff"orded by the high-level sewer, which it 
is assumed must of necessity be built before 1930, it is unnecessai-y to 
give the Mother-bro<jk sewer the capacity required for the estimated 
flow at that date. 

In estimating the flow to be taken by the high-level sewer, 101 gal- 
lons per head in twenty-four hours was used This sewer will run 
uniier a head for a considerable distance, the Avholc ])ipe being filled 
irrespective of the flow. If designed for tlie maximum flow, the veloc- 
ity at times would be insuflicient to prevent deposits, and frequent 



Engineering Department. 



35 



flushing; would be necessary by emptying the sewer. The smaller flow 
of lUl fjallons may be expected to prevail for a part of almost every 
day. Thus conjputed, the quantity which will be taken from the 
Mother-brook sewer at Central Park avenue by the high-level sewer is 
9.26 e.f p.s., leaving 3.79 c.f.p.s. to overflow into the low-level sewer 
at times of maximum flow. As it is improbable that the high-level 
sewer will be built until long after the flow at Central Park avenue 
reaches ;3. 71) c f.p.s., it was decided to give the intercepting sewer a 
capacity of 8^ c.f.p s. when flowing up to the normal flow line, the 
ultimate capacity being much more. 

The following table shows the capacity below Central Park avenue, 
as designed : 



Central Park avenue . 
Metropolitan avenue . 
Mattapan Station .... 
Above Central avenue 



Est. total maxi- 
mum flow in 19:J0, 
c.f.p.s. 



13.05 
15.55 
20.80. 
23.80 



Quantity which 
high-level eewer 
will take, c.f.p.s. 



9.26 
10.31 
10.31 
10.31 



Leaving for 

low-level sewer, 

c.f.p.s. 



3.79 

5 24 

10.49 

12.49 



Central Park avenue . 
Metropolitan avenue. . 

Mattapan Station 

Above Central avenue 



Normal capacity for 
which low-level sewer 
was designed, c.f.p.s. 




Ultimate capacity of 

low-level sewer flowing. 

full, c.f.p.s. 



About 13.5 

13.5 

21.2 

" (21.2) 
" (*26.2) 



* Short section on steeper grade. 

The normal flow line of the 2 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. 7 in. sewer was considered 
to be 1 ft. G in. above the water-line, and of the 3 ft. X 3 ft. 1 in. sewer, 1 ft. 
9 in. above the water-line. 

Note. — It may be possible to take more of the Hyde Park sewage into 
the high-level sewer; the estimate is decidedly on the safe side. 

Provision is made in the design for an overflow into Mother brook 
below East Dedham, for use in emergency, such as an extraordinary 
flow, or when the sewer below needs repairs. Inexpensive flushing- 
gates have been provided at short intervals. The course of the sewer 
is shown on the accompanying plan. During the survey, diflferent 
routes presented themselves, and in some cases a route other than the 
one chosen is worthy of consideration. This is notably the case be- 
tween Hyde Park and East Dedham, where the south side of Mother- 



36 City Document No. 10. 

brook may prove to be the best location. The grade and sizes of sewer 
are siiown on the profile. 

The intercepting sewer, as designed, is low enough to sei-ve all parts 
of the territory considered which are likely to be inhabited, except cer- 
tain low areas near Readville and beyond. To make the intercepting 
sewer deep enough to serve these areas would greatly increase the 
costs. 

In the estimate of cost, the lack of precise knowledge of the rock 
profile is the chief element of uncertainty. No borings were made, but 
a careful examination of surface indications was relied upon. An under- 
drain was estimated throughout. 

To extend the Dorchester intercepting sewer to Central avenue from 
its present terminus at Baker's court will cost $28,000. As this exten- 
sion is now necessary, and must be soon constructed, its cost is not 
included in the following table showing estimated cost of the Mother- 
brook intercepting sewer from Central avenue to Weld sti'eet, in West 
Roxbuiy. 



36 

brook 
are si 

The 
of the 
tain 1( 
sewer 
costs. 

In t 
profih 
a care 
drain 

To. 
its pr( 
sion i 
includ 
brook 
Roxbi 



LOWER MILLS 



TAPAN 



HYDE PARK 



EAST DEDHAM 



WEST ROXBURY 




PROFILE OF PROPOSED MOTHER BROOK INTERCEPTING SEWER 



CITY OF BOSTON - ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 



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Engineering Department. 



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38 City Document No. 10. 

The amount of land damages is uncertain, but may be roughly es- 
timated at $32, 000, bringing the total cost up to $408, 712. 

The study for the street sewers in West Roxbury was made in less 
detail. The sewers included in the estimate are shown in red on the 
plan, and they will sei've all parts of the district whi(!h are now so 
thickly settled as to require sewerage, and are so designed that they 
can, eventually, be extended to all pai'ts of their respective drainage 
areas. The cost of an under-drain has been included for each sewer. 
In length the system aggregates 11.5 miles, and the estimated cost is 
$166,000. 

In conclusion I wish to acknowledge the services of L. F. Cutter, of 
this office, who was intrusted by me with the task of Avorking out the 
scheme here presented. 

(Signed) F. A. McInnf.s, 

Assistant Engineer. 

Chelsea-street Bridge. 

A contract was made August 20, 1894, with B. F. Nay & 
Co., for rebuilding the pile-bridge draw foundation and pier. 
The driving of the piles was begun September 17, and the 
bridge will be completed early next year, at a cost for con- 
tracir work of $15,241.53. 

A contract was made September 6, 1894, with the Boston 
Bridge Works for building the steel and iron draw. The work 
will be completed early next year at a cost of |8,4(i0. The 
turning gear and rack was furnished l>y Miller & Shaw. 
The sheathing of bridge and draw was done by the Street 
Department. 

The bridge is built on the location of the old bridge, and 
is 344 feet long and 30 feet wide between fences, having one 
6-foot sidewalk. The grade of the curb at the draw is 19 
feet above city base, being 3 feet higher at the draw than the 
old brido:e. The orrade descends from the draw at the rate 
of 3 feet per 100 ; this necessitated raising the grade of the 
Chelsea abutment, which was done by the city of Chelsea. 

There are two draw-openings of 36 feet each. 

The bridge is supported on bents of oak piles 16 feet 
apart, with hard-pine caps and stringers. The deck of the 
bridge is of 4-inch hard-pine with 2-inch spruce sheathing. 
The sidewalk is of 3-inch hard-pine planks. 

The draw is of the centre-bearing type, and consists of two 
lines of plate-girders 4 feet 6 inches deep, and 113 feet 3^ 
inches lono; over all. The ends of the girders when in 
motion are supported by suspension rods passing over sam- 
son posts, and the whole weight of the superstructure is 
transmitted to centre hy means of two cross-girders attached 
to a centre casting which is hung to the centre pivot by 6 
wrought-iron suspension bolts 2^ inches in diameter. The 
centre pivot is 8 J inches in diameter, and turns upon two 



Engineering Department. 39 

hardened steel discs. The steadyin<y drum is 24 feet in 
diameter, and consists of two curved pieces of 15-inch I- 
heam, each piece bein^^ in length about one-quarter of the 
circumference of the drum circle. The drum is supjjorted 
by 30 cast-iron wheels IS inches in diameter and ."i-iiu-h face, 
running on a cast-iron track secured to the wooden founda- 
tion. 

The flooring of the draw has hard-pine stringers, 4-inch 
kyanized spruce lower plank and 2-inch spruce sheathing. 
Adjustable end bearings are provided for supporting the 
ends of the draw when closed. 

The following i<! a copy of the license to rebuild, granted 
by the Secretary of War : 

Whereas, B}' section 3 of an act of Congress, approved July 13, 
1892, entitled "An act niakinfr appropriations for the construction, re- 
pair, and preservation of certain public works on rivers and harbors, 
and for oilier purposes," it is declared that it shall not be lawful to con- 
struct by authority of the legislative act of a State any bridge, not 
already authorized by law, over a navigable water of the United States 
■wholly within the limits of such State, without the approval of the 
Secretary of War of the location and plans of such l)ridge : 

And tvhereas, I he c\ty oi Boston, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
having authority under an act of the Legislature of the State of Massa- 
chusetts to construct a bridge over Chelsea creek, at Chelsea street, in 
Boston, in said State, has submitted plans of the same : 

Noiu therefore. This is to certify that the location, and the plans of 
said bridge' which are hereto attached, are herel.^y approved by the 
Se(;retary of War, sul)ject to the following condition : 

That the Engineer Officer of the United States Army, in charge of the 
district within which the bridge is to be built, may su|)ervise its con- 
struction, in order that the said jilans shall be comjjlicd with. 

(Seal.) 

Witness my hand this 7th day of May, 1894. 

Signed) Joseph B. Dok. 

Acting Secretary of War. 

Cottage Farm Bridge, over the Bo.«iTON & Albany 

Railroad. 

The abutments of this bridge have been extended to pro- 
vide for a new bridge of a width equal to that of Common- 
wealth avenue at this point, and a retaining-wall built on 
the northerly line of Conmionwealth avenue, between the 
northerly abutment and Essex street. 

The plans and specifications for this work were prepared 
by the Engineering Department, and the work done by 
Leavitt, Daily, & Crockett, for the sum of $40,21^.80. 



40 City Document No. 10. 



Dorchester-avenue Grade Crossing. 

Three different plans, with maps and estimates, have heeii 
pie))ared for abolishing the present danoerous crossing at 
grade of Dorchester avenue by the New Yoik, New Haven, 
& Hartford Railroad. 

The plan approved by the Board of Aldermen and now 
awaitinir lejiislative action, involves a new location of the 
raih"oad for a considerable distance. Leaving the present rail- 
road location at a point near the South Boston depot, the 
proi)osed line avoids the present crossing of Dorchester ave- 
nue by keeping to the west, and crossing Swett street about 
600 feet west of the avenue ; then turning to the left it crosses 
Boston street and Dorchester avenue, joining the old loca- 
tion of the railroad at Mt. Vernon street, Swett and Bos- 
ton streets, and Dorchester avenue, aitcl carried over the 
railroad. 

Dover-street Bridge. 

In accordance with the provisions of a decree of the 
special commission for the alteration of the grade crossing 
of the Old Colony Raili-oad and West Fourth street, the city 
of Boston was directed to rebuild Dover-street bridge. 

The bridge as rel)uilt consists of four fixed spans and one 
draw span, with masonry piers for the fixed spans, and a 
cement concrete pier for the draw span. 

The masonry piers are four in number, and rest upon foun- 
dations of piles and cement concrevte. The bottom of Fort 
Point channel, over which the bridge is built, is comi)osed 
of a moderately soft chiy overlaid by mud. From 2 feet 
to G feet of the mud was dredged from the ai-ea to be occu- 
pied by the piers, and spruce foundation piles driven in two 
sets. The first set, or low-grade piles, were cut off at grade 
— 9 feet for piers 1 and 2, and grade — 10 feet for piers 
3 and 4. The second set or high-grade piles were cut off' at 
grade — 2 feet for all piers. 

After the piles were driven and cut oft', a curbing of sheet 
piling was constructed around the space to be occupied by 
the concrete foundation, and filled with I^ortland cement 
concrete to grade 0. Below grade — 2 the concrete was 
deposited in the water through iron chutes ; above this point 
it was deposited while the curbing was free from water, and 
was carefully rammed and levelled to form a good bed for 
the lower course of masonry. The concrete was made of 
one part Portland cement, two parts of sand, and five parts 
of broken stone or pebbles — all parts by measure. 

Above grade the piers are made of granite, laid in 



Engineering Department. 41 

mortar made of one part Portland cement and two parts 
sand. The courses in the pier are 2 feet thick. The lower 
course of each pier is made of two lines of stretchers, 
with closure stone at each end of course. The beds of 
this course are dressed or split to lay not more than 1-inch 
joint, the builds dressed to lay ^-incli joint, and the vertical 
joints to lay ^-inch joint for one foot from the face of pier, 
and 1-inch to 2-inch joints for the balance of the joint. 

The second course from the foundation is made of headers 
extending the entire thickness of the pier. The courses be- 
tween the header course and coping are of ashlar masonry, 
laid in " Flemish bond," with special bond and stones at 
ends of pier. Stretchers are not less than 23 inches wide 
where the piers are 4 feet thick, and not less than 24 inches 
wide where thickness of pier exceeds 4 feet. 

Vertical joints for 1 foot from face of pier, and the beds 
and builds of all stones are dressed to lay ^-inch joints. The 
backs of the stretchers are quarry split. Pier faces of the 
stones are quarry faced and pitched to line. 

The spaces in the middle of the pier, between the 
stretcher courses, were filled with concrete of the same kind 
used in the foundation. 

Coping courses are 2 feet thick and 5 feet wide, rough 
hammered on top. 

After the completion of the [)ier the sheet curbing was cut 
otf at about grade — 6 feet. 

The foundation piles of the draw-pier are of spruce, and 
were driven and cut off in two sets in a manner similar to 
these of tiie masonry piers ; the low-grade piles being cut off 
at grade — 10 feet, and the upper-grade piles at grade -|- 3 
feet. 

The sheet curliing around the piles enclosed a space 47 
feet square, with secondary lines of sheeting across the 
corners, to give an octagonal shape to the base of the pier. 

The curbing was built with its upper wale timl^ers at 
grade 4- 6 feet, and was filled with Portland cement con- 
crete to this grade. 

The concrete below grade — 2 feet was deposited in the 
water through chutes, and above this grade it was deposited 
in layers, while the curbing and forms were free from water. 

From grade -|- G feet to its top, the pier is in the form of 
a truncated cone, and is made of concrete, with the exception 
of a coping ring of granite G feet wide and 21 inches thick, 
and two pedestal stones in the middle of the pier. 

The concrete used in the pier was of the same proportions 
as that used in the pier for fixed spans. 

A ring of steel channel-beams, 34 feet in diameter, was 



42 City Document No. 10. 

imbedded in the concrete 3 feet 6 inches from the top of the 
pier. 

The fender-pier at the draw was partially rebuilt, and a 
])ile fender-guard built on the down-stream side of the 
bridire, from the draw-channel to the Boston end of the 
bridge. 

The bridge superstructure consists of four steel-plate 
girder deck-spans, and a steel-plate girder deck draw-span. 
The bridge is GO feet wide over all, this width being divided 
into two sidewalks 10 feet wide and a roadway 40 feet wide. 

Spans 1, 2, and 3, on the Boston side of the draw-channel, 
are HO feet lons^ between bearings, and span 4, on the 
South Boston side of the draw-channel, 61 feet 8 inches 
long; each plan has four main plate girders spaced 15 feet 
on centres, and 8 feet deep in spans 1, 2, and 3, and 7 
feet 9 inches deep in span 4, the depth being measured 
from out to out of flange anijiles. 

Floor-beams are l)uilt beams and rest on the upper flanges 
of the girders. 

Roadway and sidewalk stringers are steel I-beams riveted 
to floor-beams. 

Roadway plank of fixed spans is 6-inch har(l-])ine, 
planed on heart side to an even thickness, jointed and fast- 
ened to hard-pine nailing ])ieces on stringers with 10-inch 
steel-wire spikes. The plank is painted with a preservative 
preparation, put on hot, and covered with four thicknesses 
of roofing felt laid in roofing pitch On this roofing felt a 
mixture of sand and road pitch, from f inch to 1 inch thick, 
is laid. 

The surface of the roadway is of granite blocks, from 6 
inches to 6^ inches deep, laid on a thin bed of sand, with 
joints filled with pebbles and road pitch. 

The sidewalk plank of fixed spans is 3-inch kyanized 
spruce plank, and is covered by a walk with a pebble and 
road-pitch base, and a 1-inch thick asphalt surface. 

The draw is a deck swing span, with rim-bearing turn- 
table, and is 60 feet wide over all and 168 feet 6 inches long 
on centre line of roadway. The main girders of the draw- 
span are two in number, 9 feet deep over turntable, 4 feet 
deep at ends, and 163 feet 4 inches long over all. They are 
placed 36 feet apart on centres. Floor-beams, sidewalk 
brackets, and cross girders at turntable are j)late girders. 
The turntable is rim-bearing and 34 feet in diameter. There 
are two plate girder drums, one on the draw and one on the 
foundation pier, each drum being 3 feet 6 inches deep, and 
fitted with a planed and coned cast-iron track. The pier 
drum rests on cast-iron shoes bolted to the pier. The 



Engineering Department. 43 

wheels are 3() in number, 27 inches diameter, and 7^ inches 
face. 

The roadway and sidewalk stringers of the draw flooring 
are of hard-[)ine, the under course of roadway floor is 4-inch 
kyanizod spruce, the upper course 2-inch spruce, and the 
sidewalk plank 2-inch white-pine. 

The draw is moved by an electric motor, which is operated 
from a controller attached to one of the sidewalk railings. 
The draw can also be turned by a hand lever, connecting 
with the same jjearing to which the electric motor is attached. 

The entire structure was designed by this department, 
and the work done by the following-named parties : 

Masonry piers ..... Boynton Bros. 
Fender-guard ..... Alex. Mclnnes 

Foundation and fender-pier . . . Perkins & White 

Steel superstructure, railing, and wooden 

flooring ..... Boston Bridge Works 
Roadway paving and asphalt sidewalks . J Grant & Co. 
Draw machinery ..... Miller & Shaw 
Electric motor and wiriiio" . . General Electric Co. 



East Boston Ferries. 
Ferry-boat "East Boston" 

A contract was made withD. D. Kelley & Son, August "2'1, 
1894, for lowering the deck of the ferry-boat ''East Boston," 
and the work was begun November 12, 1894. The ends of 
the boat were lowered 18 inches, and the centre of the boat 
was raised 4 inches. A new deck was put in of 4-inch hard- 
pine, calked and graved. The fender-guard was repaired, 
the ceiling wedged, and the upper part of the outside of the 
boat was calked. The work was all done while the boat 
was afloat, and it was completed January 31, 1895. The 
cost of the contract work was $5,884.27. 

A^e/i' Drop. 

A. contract was made August 3, 1894, with Josiah Shaw, 
of Somerville, to build a new ferry drop in accordance with a 
plan and specifications furnished by this department. The 
new drop is placed on the southerly side of the Xorth Ferry, 
East Boston, to take the [)lace of an old drop reported as 
being dangerous in the last annual report. The contract 
price was $5,868. 



44 City Document No. 10. 



New Tank. 

A new tank for supporting the new drop was built by J. 
M Brooks, of East Boston, under his accepted proposal, 
dated Se[)tember 10, 1894. Plan and specifications were fur- 
nished bv this department. The cost of the tank was 

$1,881.24. 

John Boyle O'Reilly Statue. 

The work of preparing the foundation for this statue has 
been done under the direction of this department, and con- 
tracts made for furnishin<i- the i>ranite base, curbing, and 
seats. 

Municipal Docks. 

In compliance with a request from His Honor the Mayor 
an estimate has been made of the cost of constructing^ a 
system of municipal docks at East Boston. 

Various plans have been proposed, all of which contemplate 
a considerable number of large docks adapted for the accom- 
modation of modern steamships. 

The data available is incomplete, and therefore for the 
purposes of the estimate it has been assumed that no ledge 
would be encountered and that the docks could be so located 
that no extraordinary difficulties would be met with in con- 
structing foundations for sea-walls. Upon these assumj)tions 
the estimated cost (exclusive of |)aved roadways, tracks, and 
buildings) of constructing sea-walls and filling the docks and 
the land necessary for approaches and storage, and for teams 
and railroads, would be about $7,oOO,000' per 10,000,000 
square feet, estimatiiig filling at 40 cents per cubic yard and 
sea-walls at $70 per linear foot. 

The following is an estimate for utilizing a portion of the 
Bird Island flats, which belong to the city, as a beginning of 
the proj^osed municipal dock system. 

The plan contemplates the closing of the present channel 
between East Boston and the fiats and the taking of several 
of the existing Avharves. The estimated cost (exclusive of 
roadways, buildings, etc.) for constructing two piers, to be 
1,000 feet in length by 2.50 feet in width, with a filled area 
300 feet in depth at the head of the docks for roadway, 
storage of cars, etc., with no allowance for land damages, is 
$850,000. 

The assessed value of the land and docks which it would 
be necessary to take is $138,000. 




EJVGIJVEERriWG UEf^R TJVrEJVT 

SKETCM SHOMVIJVG PROfOSEn L0CJ>^TI02\r 

nocKS ojv niRD isLAj^n rz^^Ts 

Sc^/.£: 2.00 /^-r.=^ //N. 



\ \ 



Engineering Department. 45 



Preston-street Culvert. 

In October, 18'J4, by request of the Superintendent of 
Streets, plans and estimates were made for a stone culvert 
with brick arch at Preston street, Dorchester. The con- 
struction of this culvert was afterwards supervised. It was 
built at a cost of $700. 

Stony-brook Improvement. 

The improvement of Stony brook, from the Hyde Park line 
to a point 400 feet below Mt. Hope street, was completed 
during the past year by Messrs. Blake & Page, in accord- 
ance with their contract. The work consisted in widenins: 
the old channel below Ashland street to a bottom width of 
10 feet, with side slopes of 1 J to 1, and in lowering the bed 
of the brook to a uniform grade of 0.6 foot in 1,000. The 
maximum cutting on the centre line below Ashland street 
being 2.4 feet ; the culvert at Mt. Hope street was under- 
pinned, and the Ashland-street culvert rebuilt. From Ash- 
land street to the Hyde Park line a strip of land 30 feet wide 
was taken by the Board of Aldermen, and the old channel of 
the brook straightened and improved in conformity with the 
part below, a grade of 0.6 per 1,000 being maintained through- 
out ; the maximum cutting on the centre line was 5.0 feet; 
the work extended over a total distance of 2,800 feet. Above 
the Hyde Park line the brook has been improved to some 
extent, and the bottom lowered to meet the new conditions 
below. 

Teredo Navalts. 

In the report for 1893, a short account was given of the 
appearance of the Teredo Navalis in the waters of Boston 
Harbor. The succeeding winter apparently destroyed the 
entire colony, as no survivors were found, and none were 
reported in any part of the harbor. 

The actual damage done to the property of the Eastern 
Dredging Company was about one thousand dollars. 

Tunnel, Franklin Street, Brighton. 
(Allston Subway.) 

Undei' Boston & Albany Railroad. 

This subway takes the place of the foot-bridge formerly 
crossing the railroad tracks at the Allston station. The 
complete plan of the subway included inclined approaches 



46 City Document No. 10. 

along Franklin street from (^ambridge street on the southerly 
side of the railroad, and from Lincoln street on the northerly 
side of the railroad, and also a side approach by stone steps 
at the southerly end of the subway proper. It was found 
that the original appropriation was not sufficient to build 
the inclined approaches, and plans were prepared for their 
addition at some future time. 

The subway under the tracks is about 120 feet long and 
is 9 feet wide and 7 feet 9 inches high. The side walls are 
of Roxbury stone laid in Portland-ceraent mortar, and rest 
upon American-cement concrete foundations. The side 
walls are lined with white enamelled brick with base and 
top courses of brown brick, an air-space being left between 
the side walls and brick lining. The floor is of granolithic 
paving laid on a heavy foundation of cement concrete. 
Drainage is provided by a system of catch-basins and pipes 
connecting with a pipe sewer about 500 feet long extending 
to the main sewer in Franklin street. 

The entrance to the subway at its southerly end is from 
one side by a flight of stone steps, and at its northerly end 
a temporary flight of steps is provided in line with the pro- 
posed inclined approach. The roof of the subway supporting 
the railroad tracks is made of 12-inch steel I-beams weigh- 
ing 40 lbs. per foot, filled between with concrete arches 
built upon |-inch thick curved steel plates. Lead strips ^V 
inch thick were placed between the plates and beam flanges, 
and the joints thoroughly calked from below. It was 
believed that these, with the concrete filling, would make 
water-tight joints ; but that part of the roof under the present 
railroad tracks soon became leaky, and small copper gutters 
connecting with the air-space behind brick lining were placed 
under all beams. 

The subway is lighted by incandescent electric lights. 

The work, with the exception of the granolithic walk, was 
done by Jones & Meehan, and the granolithic walk was laid 
by Simpson Brothers. 

The subway was opened on November 1, 1894, and the 
amount expended for same was $12,396.56. 



Engineering Department. 47 



B. 

[from the city engineer's report to the boston 
water board.] 

Sources of Supply. 

The rainfall during the year 1894 vvas much below the 
average, and in consequence the supply of water in the dif- 
ferent storage reservoirs was reduced to a very small amount. 

The rainfall and quantities collected on the several water- 
sheds were as follows : 





Sudbury. 




Cochituate. 


Mystic. 


Rainfall in inches 


39.74 




39.08 


39.24 


" collected in 










inches 


16.182 




12.99 


14.40 


Daily average yield 










of water-shed in 










gallons 


57,937,800 


11 


,(574,000 18, 


429,500 



Reservoir No. 1. 

Grades, If. W., 161.00; Tops of Flash-boards, 159.29 and loS.41 ; Crest of Bam, 157.54. 

Area, Water Surface, 14.3 acres ; Greatest Depth, 14 ft.; Contents beloio 161.00, 

376,900,000; Below 159.29, 288,400,000 gals. 

The surface of this reservoir was about 2 feet below the 
crest of the dam on January 1, 1894, and no water was 
wasted until February 23. VVith the exception of four daj's 
in April, water was wasted over the dam from February 23 
until May 7, when the flash-boards were placed upon the 
dam. On May 'IQ the reservoir was full, and waste began 
over the flash-boards, continuing until June 13. 

The flash-boards were removed on November 8, and waste 
occurred from November 8 to Deceinl)er 3, from December 
16 to 22, and on December 27 and 28. 

This dam is in good condition. 

lieservoir No. 2. 

Grades, IT. W., 168.00; Tops of Flash-boards, 1 67 .12 and 166.49; Crest of Dam, 165.87. 

Area, Water Surface, 134 acres ; Greatest Depth, 17 ft. ; Contents heloto 168.00, 

508,300,000 ; Below 1 67.12, 529,860,000 gals. 

This reservoir was 7 feet below the level of the top of the 
flash-boards on .January 1, 1894. On February 23 the water 
level reached the crest of the dam, and the reservoir remained 



48 City Document No. 10. 

full unfil the middle of June, when it was drawn upon for 
the supply of the city, and on July 17 it was 7 feet below the 
tlash-l)oaids. During August and September water was run 
into the reservoir from Reservoirs 4 and G, raising the water 
surface about 2 feet, and in November and December it was 
gradually filled so that on January 1, 1895, the water sur- 
face was about 1 foot below high water. 
The dam is in good condition. 

Heservoir No. 3. 

Grades, ET. W., 177.00 ; Crest of Dam (no Flash-boardx), 176.24. 

Area at 177.00, 253 acres; Contents below 177.00, 1 ,'J24,fi00,000 gallovs. 

Area at 176 24, 248 acres ; Contents below 175.24, 1,081,600.000 gals. 

Greatext Depth, 21 ft. 

On February 1, 1894, this reservoir was 2.(i8 feet below 
high-water mark. On February 21 waste began over the 
dam, and continued during the greater portion of the time 
until June 6. On July 18 the surface had fallen to 168.42, 
or 6.82 feet below the crest of the dam. On November 8 
the reservoir was again full, and has continued at or near that 
point to the present time. 

The dam is in good condition. 

Reservoir JSfo. 4. 

Grades, H. W., 215.21; Tops of Flash-boards, 216.21 + and 214.89; 

Crent of Dam, 214.23. 

Area, Water Surface, 167 acres ; Greatest Depth, 49 ft.; Contents below 216.21, 

1,416,400,000 gals. 

On February I, 1894, this reservoir was 29.45 feet below 
high-water mark. It was .gradually filling during March, 
April, and May, and reached high-water mark on June 6. 

On July 17 it was drawn upon for the supply of the city, 
and on September 11 the reservoir was practically empty, 
and the outlet gate was closed. Since November 1 it has 
been gradually filling. 

The dam is in good condition. 

Reservoir No. 5. 

Work upon the construction of the dam was commenced 
on April iO by the contractors, and has been prosecuted 
throughout the year. About two miles of new highway have 
been built to replace a road cut otf by the dam. Surveys 
have been made and plans and specifications are now being 
prepared for removing the shallow flowage in the reservoir 
from the dam to Southboro'. It is proposed to leave the 
shallow flowage on the Marlboro' branch of the reservoir, 
which is at a higher level, until next year. 



% 
% 



Engineering Department. 49 

The following report of Desmond FitzGerald, resident 
en<rineer, gives further information in regiivd to the work on 
this reservoir, as well as other matters connected with addi- 
tional supply : 

South Framingham, Mass., January 1, 1895. 
WiLi lAM Jackson, Esq., City Engineer: 

Df.ar Sir: The following brief report of engineering work for the 
A ear 1.S94 on Additional Supply is submitted. Basin No. 6 was suffi- 
ciently completed on January 1 to be put into service, and furnished the 
city with water during the summer. It was filled in the spring, and as 
ihe water rose the riprap was added on the up-stream slope. Later in 
the season the walk on top of the dam was added, and the slope on the 
down-stream side sodded and seeded. The dam and basin may be said 
to be entirely completed, although the filter-beds in connection with 
Gate-house Mo. 2 have only been fairly commenced. 

The branches and gates for the distribution of the water have, how- 
ever, been placed in position. On the last day of April the taking 
plans were filled for Basin No. 5. 

They covered 228 separate parcels of land, and the descriptions 
required 151 sheets of legal cap. The final locations of all the roads 
have been determined. There are 1.66 miles of road to be raised, 5.8 
miles to be rebuilt, and SA'6 miles to be discontinued. The work of 
cross-sectioning the entire basin is now under way. 

On April 10 Moulton & O'Mahoney began work on Basin No. 5, and 
have made excellent progress. The stripping under the dam has been 
completed, the trenches excavated, and the core-wall laid on its founda- 
tions for about half the length of the dam. In the centre of the valley 
the rock was found to be of very poor quality, as was expected, and the 
excavations were carried out deeper than the plans called for. The 
three 48-inch pipes in the Gate-house have been laid and covered with 
rubble masonry, and the foundations for the overflow carried across the 
bed of the stream and completed to grade 190. The following table 
shows the materials handled : 

Soil stripping . . . 29,794 cubic yards. 

Earth excavation . . . 36,548 " " 

Rock excavation . . , 14,607 " " 

Concrete masonry . . 3,348 " " 

Rubble "... 6,410 " 

Brick "... 21 " 

Range work "... 164 " " 

Dimension "... 84 " " 

Plastering " . . . 1,207 square " 

Early in the spring plans and specifications were prepared for 
building about two miles of new highway below the dam to replace a 
i-oad cgt oft' by the dam. Berry Bros, secured the contract on June 7, 
and work began on June 18, and was completed on November 16. The 
following is a table of quantities : 

November 24, 1894. 
Fourth and final estimate of work done and material furnislied on two 
roads in Framingham and Southboro, by Berry Bros., under their con- 
tract dated June 7, 1894 (199-1894-27) : 



50 City Document No. 10. 



27,245 cubic yards Earth excavation, Item " a," at $0.19 


$5,170 55 


o55.4 " " Rock " . . 11 " j^" " ] 25 


094 25 


287 " " Split stone Masonry, " " c," " 7.25 


2,080 75 


459.4 " " Dry rubble " " " ti," " 3.75 


1,722 75 


113.2 " " Paving in mortar " " e," " 3.50 


396 20 


35.75 " " Concrete . . " " ^^" «> 425 


151 94 


662.85 rods . Stonewall . . " " "gr," " 3.75 


2,448 19 


Total 


$12,670 63 


Very truly yours, 




(Signed) Desmond FitzGerald, 


Resident 


Engineer. 


Reservoir No. 6. 





Grade/i, IT. W., 296.00; Top of Flash-boards, 295.00; Crest of Dam, 294.00. 
Estir)iated Area, 186 acres; Estimated Contents, 1,630,300,000 gals. 

This reservoir was so nearly completed that it was used 
for the storage of water during the spring of 1894. 

There was not sufficient rainfall to completely fill the 
basin, but the surface rose to within 2.25 feet of the high- 
water mark. During September and October water was 
taken from this reservoir for the supply of the city, and its 
surface was lowered about 18 feet. The outlet gate was 
closed on November 30, and on December 81 the water had 
risen to 278.78. The riprap on the up-stream slope of the 
dam has been completed, the down-stream slope sodded and 
seeded, and a walk made on the top of the dam. 

In the fall it was found that a dam on a stream near the 
head of the reservoir had been rebuilt by the owners of the 
land, thus flowing a large swamp. The dam and about forty 
acres of land above have been taken for the purpose of re- 
moving the dam and deepening the brook. 

The dam is in good condition. 

Whitehall Pond. 

Elevation, H. W. 327.91; Bottom of Gates, 317.78. 
Area at 327.91, 601 acres; Contents between 327.91 and 317.78, 1,256,900,000 gals. 

On January 1 the surface of the pond was 2.97 feet below 
high water. During the spring it rose, and on June 4 was 
326. S2 or 1.09 below high water. On September 19 it had 
fallen to 324.35, and on October 25 to 322.40. 

During October, November, and December it remained 
near this height, rising during the latter month to 323.23 on 
December 31. About 10,000,000 gallons per day were 
drawn from the pond from August 17 to 21, and from Sep- 
tember 13 to October 18. During the remainder of the year 
no water was drawn from the pond except to supply Wood 
Bros.' shoe factory. Plans and specifications for a new dam 
at the outlet of the pond are now being made. 



Engineering Department. 51 

Cedar Sivamj). — Surveys have been made for the taking 
of hmd, and phms and specifications have been prepared for 
the draining of the swamp. 

Farm Pond. 

Grades, IT.W. 749.2.5; Low Water, 146.00. 
Area at 149.15, ISO acren; Contents heticeen 149.26 and 146.00, 165,500,000 gals. 

No water was taken from this pond for the supply of the 
city. The surface of the pond was about .50 I)elow high- 
water on January 1, 1894. On P^ebruary 21 it reached high- 
water mark, and remained at or near that point until June 
14. The lowest point reached was 148.17 on September 1(), 
and on December 31 it was 148.79, or .46 feet below high- 
water mark. 

The Framingham Water Company has drawn 117,000,000 
gallons from the pond during the year. 

Lake Cocliitiiate. 

Grades, FI.W. 134.36: hivert Aqueduct, 121.03; Top of Aqueduct, 127.36. 
Area, Water Surface, at 134.36, 7 So acre.i; Contents between 134.36 and 127.36; 

1,515,180,000; between 134.36 and 1-J5.03 , 1,910,2^0,000 gal.s. 

Approximate Contents between 134.36 and 121.03, 2,447,000,000 ouls.; Between 

134.36 and 117-03, 2,907,000,000 gals. 

The dam is in good condition. 

On January 1 the surface of the lake was 6.42 feet below 
high-water mark. On March 13 water was turned into the 
lake from the Sudbury river, and on April 1 it was 1.76 
below high water. On May 1 the lake was practically full, 
and it remained near high-water mark until the middle of 
June, after which its surface gradually fell until December 10, 
when it reached the lowe.>^t point during the year, 126.10 
above tide-marsh level, or 8.26 below high water. Since that 
date it has risen slightly, and is now, February 1, 7.46 below 
high-water mark. The beds for filtering the water of Pegan 
brook have been in use during the greater portion of the 
year, and 192,447,000 gallons of water have been pumped 
on to the beds. No difficulty has been experienced in the 
operation of the beds during the winter. , 

Water has been drawn from the difierent reservoirs as 
follows : 

From 7 A.M.Jan. 1 to 1 P.M. M.ir. 15 from Reservoir No. 1. 

" 1,2.3. 
" 2, 3. 
" " 2. 

" 2, 3. 
" 3. 
" 2, 3. 
" 3. 
" 2, 3, 



1 


P.M. 


Mar. 15 " 


' 11 


A.M. 


April 10 


11 


A.M. 


April 10 " 


' 11 


A.M. 


May 19 


11 


A.M. 


May 19 " 


' 11 


A.M. 


May 21 


11 


A..M. 


May 21 " 


' 2 


P.M. 


May 23 


2 


P.M. 


May 23 " 


'11. 


30 A.M. 


May 2() 


11.30 A. M 


May 26 ' 


' 7 


A.M. 


, June 1 


7 


A.M. 


June 1 ' 


' 2 


P.M. 


June 4 


2 


P.M 


. June 4 ' 


' 11 


A.M. 


June 11 



52 



City Document No. 10. 



From 



11 


A.M. 


June 


11 to 


11 


A.M. 


June 


20 


11 


A.M 


June 


20 " 


7 


AM. 


July 


18 


7 


A.M 


July 


18 " 


3 


A.M. 


Aug. 


24 


3 


A.M. 


A us. 


24 " 


7 


A.M. 


Aug. 


25 


7 


A.M. 


Aug. 


25 " 


3 


P.M. 


Sept 


7 


3 


P.M. 


Sept 


7 " 


3 


P.M. 


Sept 


10 


3 


P.M. 


Sept 


10 " 


3 


P.M. 


Oct. 


30 


3 


P.M. 


Oct. 


30 " 


3 


P.M. 


Oct. 


31 


3 


P.M. 


Oct. 


31 " 


1 


P.M. 


Nov. 


2 


1 


P.M. 


Nov. 


2 " 


12 


M. 


Nov. 


17 


12 


M. 


Nov. 


17 " 


7 


A.M. 


Nov. 


20 


7 


AM 


Nov. 


20 " 


3 


PM. 


Nov. 


21 


3 


P.M. 


Nov. 


21 " 


1. 


20 P.M. 


Nov. 


22 


1.20 P.M. 


Nov. 


22 " 


3 


P.M. 


Nov. 


23 


3 


P.M. 


Nov. 


23 " 


3 


P.M. 


Nov. 


27 


3 


P.M. 


Nov. 


27 " 


3 


P.M 


Dec. 


1 


3 


P. M . 


Dec. 


1 " 


11 


A.M. 


Dec. 


3 


11 


AM. 


Dec. 


3 " 


7 


A.M. 


Jan. 


1 



2, 


3. 


2. 




2, 


3. 


2. 




2, 


3. 


2. 




1, 


2. 


No 


flow 


9 




2, 


3. 


3. 




2. 




No 


flow 


2, 


3. 


2. 




2 


3. 


1. 





The heights of the water in the various storage reservoirs 
on the first clay of each month are given below : 







Reseevoiks. 


Farm 
Pond. 


White- 
hall 
Pond. 


Lake 

COCHIT- 
UATB. 




No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


No. 4. 


No. 6. 




Top of 
Flash- 
boards. 


Top of 
T'hish. 
boards. 


Crest 

of 
Dam. 


Crest 

of 
Dam. 


Top of 
Flash- 
boards. 


High 
Water. 


Hish 
Water. 


Top of 
Flash- 
boards. 




159.29 


167.1-2 


175.24 


215.21 


295.00 


149.25 


327.91 


134.36 


January 1, 1894 




155.55 


160.17 


168.53 


178.83 




148.74 


.... 


127.94 


February 1, " 




155.05 


160.61 


172.32 


185.92 


259.33 


148.98 




127.59 


March 1, 




157.87 


166.12 


175.54 


192.70 


268.42 


149.27 


.... 


128.22 


April 1, 




' 157.71 


166.01 


175.40 


204.81 


281.52 


149.32 




132.60 


May 1, 




157.75 


166.02 


175..39 


211.39 


288.26 


149.50 


326.700 


134.13 


June 1, " 




159.56 


167.24 


175.54 


214.60 


291.08 


149.39 


326.800 


134.24 


July 1, 




! 159.12 


162.92 


172.62 


215.26 


292.66 


149.03 


326.435 


133.24 


August 1, " 




j 158.52 


162.02 


169.29 


207.36 


292.68 


148.66 


325.812 


131.59 


September 1, " 




157.86 


162.57 


170.92 


191.63 


292.54 


148.34 


324.900 


129.88 


October 1, 




15^.46 


162.94 


170.95 


185.54 


283.30 


148.19 


323.680 


128.14 


November 1, " 




157.34 


164.08 


172.77 


187.55 


274.23 


148.34 


322.570 


126.74 


December 1, " 




157.69 


164.55 


175.40 


191.90 


275.29 


148.49 


322.445 


126.27 


January 1, 1895 




156.50 


166.00 


175.24 


196.18 


278.84 


148.79 


323.230 


126.28 



Aqueducts and Distributing Reservoirs. 

The Sudburj'-river aqueduct has l)een in use 343.7 days, 
and has delivered 11,450,600,000 gallons into Chestnut Hill 
Reservoir and 9(52,200,000 gallons into Lake Cochituate. 



Boston Water Works. 

Diagi'am showing the heighfs of Sudbu/y RiVeK ReservoiKs Nos. (, 2 and 3. FaK 
Pond and Cochituafe- and Mystic Lakes duWng the yeai^ 18 34-. 


n 






t/onua/'y. 


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Boston Water Works. 

Diagi'am showing fhe J-iaights of Sudbui'y RiVeK Resei'voii-^ Nos. 4- and &. and 
the Rainfall on fhe Sudbt^y RrVeK Wafer 5hed dui'i'ng fhe yecic' /894-. 







F ■ 



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Engineering Department. 



53 



The Cochituate Aqueduct has been used 361.5 days, and 
delivered 5,520,092,100 gallons. Both aqueducts have been 
cleaned during the year. 

The distributing reservoirs are in good condition. 

High-Service Pumping-Stations. 

The daily average quantity pumped at the Chestnut Hill 
station was 8.12 per cent, more than in 1893. 



Engine No. 1 was run 4,401 hours 

55 minutes, pumping . 
Engine No. 2 was run 4,C42 hours 

20 minutes, pumping . 
Engine No. 3 pumped . 
Total amount pumped 
Total amount coal used . 
Percentage ashes and clinkers . 
Average lift in feet 
Quantity pumped per lb. of coal 
Daily average amount pumped 



1,864,913,005 gallons 

1,927,061,540 

3,856,050 

3,795,830,595 

4,637,660 lbs. 
. 7.4 
126.18 

818.59 gallons 
10,399,500 



Table VII. on page 78 shows in detail the work done by 
the eno;ines and boilers. 



Cost of Pumping. 



Salaries 

Fuel . . . . 

Repairs 

Oil, waste, and packing 

Small supplies 

Total . 



Cost per million gallons raised one foot high 
" " " " pumped to reservoir 



$15,150 


31 


7,929 


59 


548 


48 


842 


59 


660 


81 


$25,131 


78 


$0,052 


6.62 



Engine No. 3. 

Engine No. 3 has been in process of erection during the 
year, and was started for the iirst time on December 3. 

The work of lagging and painting the engine is now being 
done, and the work will soon be completed. This engine, 
shown on accompanying plates, possesses several novel 
features. 

It has been built by the Quintard Iron Works, of New 



54 City Document No. 10. 

York, from designs furnished by E. D. I^icavitt, of Cani- 
bridjre, Mass. 

It is a triple expansion, three-crank rocker engine, with 
pistons 13.7, 24,375, and 39 inches in diameter and (i-foot 
stroke. The cylinders are vertical and inverted, and are 
carried together, with valve gear, on an entablature suj)- 
ported by six vertical and six diagonal columns. 

The steam and exhaust valves are gridiron slides, vs^orked 
by cams on a horizontal shaft, which is driven by gearing 
from the crank shaft. The cut-oft' of the high-pressure 
cylinder is regulated by the governor through the agency of 
a hydraulic cylinder, which advances or retards the cut-off 
cam by means of a s[)iral sleeve ; the cut-off's of the other 
engines are fixed. The steam passes into the high-pressure 
cylinder through a separator forming a part of the inlet side- 
pipe. After expanding in this cylinder it passes through a 
tubular reheater to the intermediate cylinder, and thence 
through another similar reheater to the low-pressure cylinder. 
The reheaters have steam of boiler pressure, or 185 [)ounds 
per square inch, on the inside of the tubes, and the working- 
steam on the outside. 

All the cylinders are steam-jacketed on the heads and l)ar- 
rels, the low-pressure cylinder with steam at 100 pounds and 
the others at 185 pounds. The jackets and reheaters using 
steam of boiler pressure are drained back to the boilers, 
while the low-pressure cylinder jacket and the working- 
steam side of the reheaters are drained by automatic traps 
discharging into the feed-water heater. 

The eno;ine cross-heads work on oroides cast in the vertical 
columns. The motion is transmitted from the cross-heads 
by links to beams or rockers carried in pedestals on the bed- 
plate of the engine. From these beams the connecting-rods 
work off" in one direction and the pump links in the opposite 
direction, but inclined at an angle of about 30 degrees from 
the horizontal. The leverage of the various pins in the 
beams is such that the stroke, which is six feet in the case of 
the steam pistons, is reduced to four feet for the pump plung- 
ers, which is also the amount of the double throw of the 
cranks. The crank-shaft has three cranks set at angles of 
120 degrees, the low-pressure crank leading, followed by the 
intermediate and high-pres?ure cranks. 

The shaft is carried in four adjustable four-box pedestals, 
with overhung end cranks. Between two of these pedestals 
is the fly-wheel, and between the other two the gear for 
driving the cam-shaft. There are three double-acting in- 
clined pumps, having })lungers 17.5 inches in diameter and 
of 4 feet stroke. The pumps are seated on foundations at a 




VERTICAL SECTION THROUGH INTERMEDIA' rECVLINDER. 






54 

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b) 

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p- 

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Boston V^TeR4M3RKS. 
High Service Pumpinc- Encinc No. 3. 



£c<r/« </ Panfr 



'\ T.'T II II IF II i;itVVt 




54 



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Engineering Department. 55 

lower level than those for the engines, the pump chambers 
being tied to the engine bed plate by horizontal girders, as 
well as by the pump cross-head guides, which are inclined 
30 degrees from the horizontal. This peculiar arrangement 
of inclined pumps was found necessary to suit existing con- 
ditions of engine-house, pump-well, etc. 

The pump bases, or suction chambers, six in number, one 
for each end of each pump, are connected together, and the 
bases of each pump are connected b}'^ a separate suction- 
pipe. 

The lower or working pump chamliers are surrounded by 
annular spaces throughout their height, forming vacuum 
chaml)ers. 

The upper pump chaml)ers contain the delivery nozzles, 
and above these are the air chambers, all six of the latter 
being connected by pipes. Each end of each pump has one 
suction and one delivery valve, consisting of a number of 
rigidly connected rings covering annular openings in the 
valve seats. The speed necessary for the required duty 
capacity of 20,000,000 gallons per 24 hours is 50 revolutions 
per minute, but the engine has been designed to run easily 
at 60 revolutions. The head pumped against is 128 feet, or 
about 55 pounds per square inch. 

Each pump contains one suction and one delivery valve, 
each about three feet in diameter. The use of these large 
valves, together with the phenomenally high speed, is made 
possible by the method of working the pump valves, which 
is the invention of Prof. Riedler, of the Royal Polytechnic 
School, of Berlin, Germany. This invention ccmsists in clos- 
ing each valve positively at just the moment of reversal of 
stroke by means of the levers and rods shown in the cuts. 

After closing the valves the mechanism moves out of the 
way, leaving the valves free to open automatically. This is 
the first engine of the type built in this countr\% ])ut they 
are no novelty abroad, being in use at many water-works, 
notaldy those of London, Berlin, Hamburg, Leipzig, Buda- 
Pesth, Breslau, Rotterdam, Heill)ron, Manheim, jNIulhausen, 
etc., at some of which places speeds of 75 revolutions per 
minute are attained. 

The condenser is of the surface type, having 1,410 square 
feet of tube surface, with water passing through the tubes. 

The condensing water is taken from one of the upper 
pump chambers, and after passing through the condenser is 
delivered into the force main. A butterfly valve in one of 
the pump discharge-pipes permits the quantity of condensing 
water to be easily regulated. The air-pump is of the single- 
acting bucket type, 24 inches diameter and 12-inch stroke, 



56 City Document No. 10. 

situated directly below the condenser, and worked by an 
arm on one of the pump valve gear rocker shafts. 

Steam for the engine is furnished by a Belpaire fire-box 
boiler having two separate furnaces and a common com])us- 
tion chamber. The boiler is 34 feet 4 inches in length, 
with a least internal diameter of shell of 90 inches. The 
tubes are 201 in number, 3 inches in diameter, 16 feet 
long. The feed water, before entering the boiler, passes 
through a Green Economizer, where it is heated by the 
escaping gases from the boiler. 

To accommodate the new boiler an addition has been made 
at the rear of the boiler-house at a cost of $3,597.25. 

At the West Roxbury pumping-station the daily average 
quantity pumped was 121,500 gallons, an increase of 25.4 
per cent, over the amount pumped in the previous year. 

At the East Boston station 385,000 gallons per day have 
been pumped for the supply of the high-service district, and 
30,800 gallons per day for the Breed's Island high service. 

Mystic Lake. 

Grades, II. W., 7.00; Invert of aqueduct, — 4.77; Contejits bttween 7.00 and l.SO, 
442,000,000 gallofin. ' 

On January 1, 1894, the lake surface was 3.15 feet lielow 
high water. On January 19 it had risen to grade 5.70 above 
tide-marsh level, and the stop-planks were removed from the 
dam. Waste continued from January 19 to 22, and from 
January 26 to Ma}^ 3. 

Additional stop-planks were then placed on the dam, and 
during the month of May the lake remained near high-water 
mark. 

Waste occurred over the dam from May 21 to June 8, 
after which date no waste was permitted except at the con- 
duit waste way and at the fish way, which was finally closed 
on June 20. During July the lake surfiice fell from 5.46 to 
2.35, and on August 31 the water was 8.42 feet below high 
water and but 2.75 feet above the conduit invert. 

The temporary pumps used to raise the water into the 
conduit were then started, and the surface of the lake con- 
tinued to fall until, on October 10, it was 12.08 feet below 
high water and 1.90 feet lower than any previous record. 

On November 1 the water surface had risen to grade — 3.72, 
and on November 15 the use of the temporary pumps at 
the lake was discontinued. On December 1 the lake sur- 
face was at grade 0.67, and on January 1, 1895, at grade 
3.35. As the old engines and pumps which were in use at 
the lake were of insufficient capacity and badly worn, two 
new 60 H.P. enofines and boilers and an 18-inch centrifugal 



Engineeking Department. 



57 



|)ump have been purchased. A pile foundation and wooden 
frame oniiine-house, 65 ft. X ^^^ ft., has been built, and the 
new pump and one of the engines placed in position and con- 
nected with the conduit. 

The dam at the outlet of the lake is in good condition. 

Mystic-Valley Sewer. 

During the year 1894, 116,908,000 gallons of sewage was 
pum}ied and chemically treated with sulphate of aluminum. 

Table XL, on page 82, gives the monthly quantities of 
sewage pumped, coal and aluminum used, etc. With the 
completion of the North Metropolitan Sewer, which will 
occur during the present year, the operation of the plant will 
be discontinued. 

Mystic Conduit and Reservoir. 

The conduit has been twice cleaned during the year. 

In the annual reports for the past three years necessary re- 
pairs have been recommended at the conduit screen chamber, 
and as they have not yet been carried out the recommenda- 
tions are renewed. 



Mystic Pumping-Statiox, 
1 was used 3,337f hours, 



Engine Xo. 

pumping . . . . . 

Engine Xo. 2 was used 2,585 hours, 

pumping . . . ... 

Engine Xo. 3 was used 7,518^ hours, 

pumping ..... 
Total quantity pumped 
Daily average quantity pumped 
Total quantity of coal burned . 
Percentage ashes and clinkers . 
Average lift in feet . . . \ . 

Quantity ]3umped per lb. of coal 
Average duty of engines per 100 lbs. 

coal, no deductions 



731,942,300 gals. 

531,822,000 " 

2,487,654,400 " 
3,751,418,700 " 
10,277,900 " 
8,763,800 lbs. 
11.2 
148.62 
428.1 gals. 

53,057,500 ft.-lbs. 



Cosi 

Salaries 

Fuel .... 

Repairs 

Oil, waste, and packing 

Small supplies 


' OF Pumping. 


. 111,242 27 

19,175 62 

1,576 30 

784 36 

146 10 


Total . 


$32,924 65 



58 City Document No. 10. 

Cost per million gallons raised one foot high, $0,059 

" " " " pumped to reservoir, 8.777 

Table YIII., on page 79, shows in detail the work done by 
the engines during the year. Work upon the new engine 
for this station has been in progress at the works of the G. F. 
Blake JNIanufacturing (Company during the year, and the en- 
gine is now nearly ready for erection. On October 30, a 
contract was made with Mack & Moore for building an ad- 
dition to the engine-house and for the necessary foundations 
for the engine. 

Work under the contract was begun about November 1. 
The engine foundation is now nearly completed, and it is ex- 
pected that the erection of the engine will be commenced by 
April 15 and completed during the year. 

Consumption. 

The daily average consumption for the year was as fol- 
lows : 

Sudbury and Cochituate Works . . 46,500,000 gals. 
Mystic Works 10,282,100 " 

Total for combined supplies . . 56,842,100 " 

a decrease of 1,353,600 gallons, or 2.3 per cent, from that of 
the previous 3^ear. One cause of the decreased consumption 
was the warmer winter of 1893-94. The mean temperature 
for the month of January, 1893, was 10 degrees lower than 
for January, 1894. The consumption of the months of Jan- 
uary, Febraaiy, and March, 1894, was 473,372,500 gallons 
less than for the corresponding months of the previous year, 
equivalent to 1,296,900 gallons per day for the entire j'ear. 
The decrease is also due in a considerable measure to the de- 
pression in business, as the quantity of water sold by meter 
measurement averao-ed 400,000 gallons per day less than in 
1893. 

On account of the insufficiency of the Mystic supply, all 
of the Charlestown District lying east of Cambridge street 
was supplied from the Cochituate works from 3.30 P.M., 
of September 12, until the end of the year. The following 
table shows the consumption per inhabitant for the past two 
years : 



Engineering Department. 



59 



Cuusuniption. 





r 

Cochituate. 


Mystic. 


Combined Supplies. 


Month. 


Consumption in 
Gallons per Capita. 


Consumption in 
Gallons per Capita. 


Consumption in 
Gallons per Capita. 




1893. 


1894. 


1893. 


1894. 


1893. 


1894. 




123.7 
117.6 
111.4 
104.1 

99.0 
100.4 
110.6 
108.3 
105.5 
104.2 

99.3 
106.9 


108.1 

109.6 

99.7 

88.9 

92.6 

101.4 

110.3 

104.0 

98.2 

95.0 

94.8 

97.5 


111.5 
103.7 
91.9 
76.9 
76.7 
81.5 
80.6 
77.6 
71.8 
75.7 
75.0 
90.9 


91.9 
95.4 
83.0 
79.0 
82.1 
96.4 
93.3 
81.8 
94.3 
80.1 
81.3 
92.8 


120.9 

114.5 

107.0 

98.1 

94.0 

96.1 

104.0 

101.5 

98.0 

97.8 

93.9 

103.3 


104.5 




106.5 




96.0 


April 

Mav 


86.7 
90.2 




100.3 


July 


106.5 


AugUBt 

September 


99.0 
97.6 
92.6 


November 


92.7 
96.7 






Average 


107.5 


99.8 


84.4 


87.6 


102.4 


97.4 



Distribution. 

On the Cochituate works, 17.88 miles of pipe were laid and 
5.13 miles ai)andoned, making a net increase of 12.75 miles, 
and a total of 572.8 miles now connected with the system. 

About three miles of the pipe which was abandoned was 
formerly connected with the Jamaica pond supply, and was 
located in streets where there were mains connected with the 
Cochituate system. The work of laying a new 36-inch force 
main from the Chestnut Hill pumping-station to Fisher Hill 
reservoir has been completed during the year. 

The portion of the new 20-inch main for the supply of 
Brighton, which is in the town of Brookline, 3,446 feet in 
length, was laid by the superintendent of the Brookline works. 

The relaying of the 20-iiicli low service and the 12-inch high 
service mains on Dover street, between Albany street and 
Dorchester avenue, caused by the change of grade and reliuild- 
ing of Dover-street bridge, has been practically completed. 

The raising of the grade and abolition of grade cross- 
ings on Chelsea street, between Medford street and the 



60 City Document No. 10. 

city of Chelsea, made necessary a relocation of the mains 
supi)lying Chelsea and East Boston. For a leno-th of about 
1,400 feet a 30-inch main has been • substituted for the 24- 
inch and 20-inch mains supplying East Boston, and a 24-inch 
main sul)stituted for the 16-inch main supplying Chelsea. 
These new mains have hoen laid outside the street location, 
on the property of the Boston & Maine Railroad Company. 

The distributing mains connected with the Mystic works 
have been extended 6.89 miles, and 10.. 33 miles have been 
relaid, in most cases with pipes of larger diameter. The 
total length now in service is 173.7 miles. 

There has been an increase of 175 in the numl)er of 
hydrants connected with the Cochituate works, making a 
total now in use 6,217. 

On the ]\Iystic works 148 hydrants have been added, and 
the total now connected with the works is 1,435. 

Two hundred and lifty-five petitions for main pipe have 
been reported upon, and 30 contracts for rock excavation 
have been made. Various profiles have been made, levels 
taken, and grades and lines furnished for the main i)ipe lay- 
ing. All pipe laid has been located and plotted on the 
plans. 

Corrosion of Pipes by Electrolysis. 

The investigations of the effect of electrolysis upon the 
water-pipes have been continued during the year, under 
the supervision of Messrs. Stone & Webster, and in brief 
the results arrived at are as follows : 

1 . In certain places throughout the city electi'olytic action 
is taking place, and pipes have already been more or less 
injured and are subject to premature decay. 

2. The many excavations which have been made about 
the city for the purpose of inspecting the pipes have given 
only negative results, revealing no marked action, and yet 
not proving that the natural decay had not been accelerated 
by electrolysis. 

3. Action of a serious nature is confined to special locali- 
ties, where, owing to certain conditions of the railwa}'' system, 
abnormal currents are flowing through the earth, but as a 
whole, the action has been reduced to so small an amount 
that it is now diflScult to detect. 

4. In the places where action is found special precautions 
in provision of return feeders, and connections Avith the 
piping system by the Street Railway Company, will ordinarily 
reduce the difficulty to a small amount . 

5. It is impracticable to entirely eliminate electrolytic 



Engineering Department. 61 

action, but by a constant insj)ection of the water system as a 
whole, with a view of locating points where difficulty is 
liable to occur, and applying such remedies as are well 
known, the danger can be reduced to a minimum. 

6. The action at any one point is liable to increavse or 
decrease temporarily from various causes, and tests made at 
any one locality at any specified time give no reasonable 
assurance that the same condition of affairs will exist for any 
considerable length of time. 

7. A very small dift'erence in potential, as little as one- 
thousandth of a volt, will cause electrolytic action. 

8. Measurements of small diflerence of potential between 
water-pipes and the adjacent earth are of value principally in 
indicating the direction of flow of electric current rather than 
amount, and are not entirely reliable unless special jirecau- 
tions in measurements are taken. 

This is on account of the battery action, thermal effects, 
and other disturbing influences. 

9. The most i)ractical way of reducing the liability of 
injury to pipes to a minimum is l)y detecting the places 
where action is occurring, through a carefully organized 
system of inspection and tests, and requiring the Railway 
Company to provide suitable return conductors or make 
proper connections with pipes or rails where it is found that 
such action exists. 

10. Special provision can be made for measuring the 
flow of current from certain pipes to the ground, and, by 
devices of this sort installed at various places throughout the 
city, the most reliable information can be obtained in regard 
to the quantity of current flowing away from the pipes in 
any particular section, and a determination made of their 
actual rate of deterioration. 

The following is Messrs. Stone & Webster's report in 
detail : 

William Jackson, City Engineer, Boston, Mass. : 

Sir: In accordance with your request, we hare, during the past year, 
continued the investigation which was coninieiiced some two years ao-o 
to determine the extent of the corrosive action of electric currents upon 
tlie pipes of the water system in the city of Uoston, and beg to submit 
the following: 

It has been our purpose during the past year to conduct such tests and 
experiments as would enable us to determine as definitely as possible 
the extent of the injury which has been dont; up to the present time, and 
also to predict, if possible, how long a time would probably elapse before 
damage of a serious nature would result to Llie piping system as a whole 
from electrolytic corrosion, if allow(!d to conliimc at its present rate. 

It was clearly set forth in our report of a year ago that currents of a 
considerable magnitude were found to be flowing from place to place, 
through the earth and along the water pipes, but no definite conclusions 



62 City Document No. 10. 

had at that time been readied as to the extent of damage already done 
and the rate at which it was progressing. 

Tiie results whi(!h have been obtained during the past year enable us 
testate (|uite positively that up to the present time the ett'ect upon the 
piping system as a whole has not been serious in the city of Boston, 
although in other places where we have conducted tests during the past 
year, we have found that rapid decay was occurring, clearly due to elec- 
trolytic action. The reason of the slight action which has been found 
here is, primarily, that the street railway system is comparatively well 
equipped with return wires which conduct the greater jjart of the current 
back to the power-station without serious damage to the piping system. 

Measurements of Potential of Piping System. 

During the last year a large number of readings have been taken of 
the ditference of potential between the hydrants and the adjacent 
ground, and it has been found that this difference, which was formerly 
in many cases quite large, has been reduced to a comparatively small 
amount in nearly all parts of the city. 

The marked change in tliis respect over the tests made during the 
previous year shows that the flow of current from the pipes must have 
been materially reduced, and that the Railway Company are continually 
impi'oving their system l)y bonding the rails and providing new return 
wires to the jDower station. 

Some difficulty has been experienced in the investigation of this sub- 
ject on account of the fact that changes in the return system of the 
Street Railway Company are made so frequently that difference of 
potential between pipes and surrounding earth in any particular locality 
frequently varies widely from time to time, and thus prevents any sys- 
tematic study of the action which is taking place at a point where a con- 
siderable difference of potential is once discovered. 

During the tests of a year ago, the greater part of our measurements, 
which were made for tlie purpose of determining the potential differences, 
were taken between the pipes, or the hydrants connected with the pipes, 
and the rails; but a careful study of the conditions convinced us that 
tests of this sort are uni-eliable, and consequently all measurements made 
during the past year have been taken between the pipes and the earth in 
their immediate vicinity. 

The |)ractical way in which the measurements have been made is illus- 
trated in I'late I., where it will be seen that a rod is inserted in the 
hydrant box, and a metallic connection upon the bottom of this rod 
touches tiie ground in the vicinity of the pipe, while the other pole of 
the measuring instrument is placed in contact with the metal of the 
hydrant, the valve stem usually being used for this purpose 

In course of the investigation some question arose as to whether the 
true difference of potential between a pipe and the surrounding earth is 
obtained by a measurement of this sort, and in oi'der to decide this ques- 
tion as definitely as possible, the following readings were takfu at sev- 
eral 2Joiuls where excavations had been made throughout the city : 

First. The actual diffei'ence of potential between the pipi's and the 
ground immediately surrounding them, which is, of course, the meas- 
urement desired, was observed. 

Second. The difference of potential between the pipe and the surface 
of the ground was observed. 

Third. The difference of potential between the pij)ing system and 
the earth at the base of the nearest hydrant box was mi-.isured in the 
way described. 

In the twelve places where satisfactory observations were inide the 
potential between the pipes and the surface of the ground, and also the 



PLATE I 




Stone 8:Webs t e r. 



Engineering Department. 68 

})otential between the pipes and the earth at the base of tlie liydrants, 
was found always to have the same sign as the potential between the 
pipes and the ground immediately surrounding them. 

This would seem to prove conclusively that the method regularly 
adopted gives the correct polarity of the reading, and approximately 
the correct value. 

TJie object of the various measurements which were made of the 
differences of potential was principally to determine the polarity, and 
the ditt'erences so obtained are to be considered of value as indicating 
the direction rather than the amount of current Howing. 

Man}- measurements were taken in the city proper, and also in South 
Boston, East Boston, and Charlestown. The work was begun in Jan- 
uary, 1894, and over 700 different hydrants have been visited and ai)OUt 
900 observations made. In many places the same liydrants have been 
frequently visited, to determine whether or not considerable changes in 
jjotential diflerence took place from time to time. 

The results of these tests are on file, but we have not thought it neces- 
sary to insert them in this report, as the polarity at difi'erent 2)oints is 
indicated on the accompanying map, which shows the location of positive 
and negative hydrants throughout the city. The heavy full line shows 
a positive polarity, indicating a flow of current from the pipes to the 
ground, with consequent electrolytic action. The broken line shows a 
negative polarit}- at some observations and positive at others, and, being 
thus subject to change, it may be safely concluded that serious action is 
not going on in the district where such a state of affairs exist. 

The results of these tests show that the theoretical assumption in re- 
gard to the existence of a clearly defined danger district is not borne 
out in practice, and that in a city where reasonable provision for the 
return of current to the power-station has been made, the effect of elec- 
trol3tic action, though slight, is widely distributed. 

In the immediate proximity of the power station most of the pipes 
were found very decidedly negative to the surrounding earth. 

Pipes at points far remote from the powei'-station in a few places 
were found very decidedly positive, due in some cases to the fact that the 
railwa}- return circuit is not sufficiently large, or is otherwise defective ; 
and in others, to the fact that the piping system is not unilormly contin- 
uous in the direction of the power-station, and the return current has a 
tendency to follow it as far as possible, and then leave it for the earth. 

From the observations ma<le it has been shown that the potential and 
the polarity of the piping system in many places is continually chang- 
ing, even when the quantity of current returned remains substantially 
the same. 

This is due : 

First. To the degree of moisture in the soil from time to time, which 
affects the electrical I'esistance of the earth as a whole. 

Second. To the influences of electrically poor joints in the piping 
system. 

Third. To the fact that lines of piping are not continuous from all 
parts of the city in a direct line to the power-station, on which account 
there is a tendenc^y for the current to go across from one pipe to 
another, and the amount of current which so flows depends to a consid- 
erable extent upon the condition of the soil, which is sul)ject to cliange. 

Fonrlli. To tlie fact that the copper wires which bond tlie rails some- 
times become corroded at the joints and affect the resistance of the 
return circuit, particularly where no supplementary wire is used. 

Fifth. To tlie changes in the return system made !)}• the Street Rail- 
way, from time to time, which, even if at points remote from the loca- 
tion of hydrants tested, make considerable dilferences in the potential 
obsei'ved. 



64 City Document No. 10. 



Difference of Potential required to Produce Electrolysis. 

The difference of potential obtained in the observations just described 
varies from 0.6 to .000.5 volts, the average being perhaps about .02 
volts. 

It was formerly supposed that a difference of from 1 to 2 volts was 
I'equired to produce eleetfolytic decomposition, but recent scientific in- 
vestigations have been made which prove conclusively that a very small 
difference of potential is sufficient to cause electrolytic action. 

As this question of amount of difference required for the pi'oduction 
of electrolytic effects was an important one, we thought it desirable to 
conduct a series of tests with a view of determining, as definitely as pos- 
sible, the minimum potential requisite. 

For this purpose three cells were made up with electrodes of bright 
sheet iron immersed in a dilute solution of common salt. 

The plates of the first cell (A) were subjected to an electromotive 
force of .01 volts; of the second cell (B) to an electromotive force of 
.002 volts, while the third cell (C) was not connected at all to the 
source of electrical supply, and was only used to observe the rate at 
which the natural rusting of the iron would take place. 

The method of procedure was to immerse all the electrodes at one 
time, and after ten minutes to test for iron in the solution by means of 
ferricyanide of potassium. Then to test again, from time to time, and 
to note which cells showed the strongest reaction. 

Three independent tests wei"e made, all giving the same results, 
which were as follows : 

Table showing Reaction in Test for Iron in the Electrolyte. 



Time after immersion. 


Cell (A) .01 volt. 


Cell (B) .002 volts. 


Cell (C) volts. 


10 minutes. 


Trace. 


Trace. 


Kone. 


20 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


Trace. 


30 


Strong. 


Distinct. 


Just visible. 


60 


Strong. 


Strong. 


Slight. 



From the above investigation it is obvious that an electrcmiotive 
force, even so low as .002 volts, is sufficient to cause injurious action 
from electrolysis. 

• 
Floto of Electric Currents throiigh Pi2nng System . 

During the first year of our investigation into the matter of electro- 
lytic action we secured abundant evidence that large currents were 
almost continually flowing through various parts of the piping system, 
and the question arose immediately as to the amount of damage that 
such ciu'rents were doing. 

The tests made during the past year have confirmed the results ob- 
tained at first, and we have therefore thought this matter of sufficient 
importance to make it an object to conduct special laboratory tests to 
determine the probable extent and nature of injury resulting from this 
cause. 

In this citj' no well-defined case of serious trouble from the passage 
of currents through the pipes themselves has been discovered, although 
some difficulty from electrical disturbances has been reported when 
making connections to the main water-pipe upon Dover street, near the 
South Boston bridge. But tests have so far revealed nothing of note. 
In other cities we have found serious action resulting from this cause 
at points where anything in the nature of an electrically insulated joint 
occurs. 

Plate III. shows a section of pipe which was examined under our 







A 

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IEngineeuing Department. Go 

direction in a city where considerable trouble had been experienced from 
electrolytic action. This particular jjicce of pipe was situated at a dis- 
tance of sonu! two miles from the nearest electric 2)ower-station, and it 
so haji})ened that the tendency of the current was to How from the ad- 
jacent lailway system to Section A, and thence to 15, in the direction of 
the power-house. At X there was a rubl)er gasket, and under the bolt 
heads were cotton washers, so that Section A was electrically insulated 
fnmi S(H'tion B. This made it necessary for the current to pass from 
the inner sui lace of A to the water, and then back again to the surface of 
B, in order to get flround the joint. 

When we first noticed the rul)ber gasket, this condition of allairs was 
expected ; and, ui)on inspecting the inside of the pipe, it Avas found that 
the inner surface of A was covered with scales, and pitted in many 
places to a depth of 1-1 C of an inch, while the inner surface of ]> was 
as clean and smooth as upon the day it was first laid. 

As the current flowing through this pipe was not large — jirobably 
not amounting, on an average, to more than a fraction of an ampere-^ 
it seemed probable that in many places tr()ul)le might occur even in a 
leaded bell and spigot joint, where, through corrosion or other cause, the 
electrical connection was poor; and even to a greater extent in pipes 
where cement joints were used. 

We have slmwn l)y experiment that the action of a current flowing 
through piping with cement joints, as shown by Plate IV., is exactly' simi- 
lar to the action on the joint with the rubber gaskets described above, 
except that a portion of the current leaves the outside of the l>ipe and 
passes through the earth around the joint. This was impossil)le where 
the joint came within a manhole, as in the case just mentioned. 

It may be well to state, however, in this connection, that where 
cement joints an; used throughout a piping system, the breaks in the 
electrical continuity are so frequent that tlie pipes do not act to any 
great extent as conductors, so that very little current flows. 

With regard to lead joints, we have conducted several experiments to 
determine whether or not an injurious action would be caused if the 
curi-ent flowing through the pipe should be comparatively large. 

The first test was conducted on a section of cast-iron pipe, made up 
with lead joints, as sliown in Plate V. This was placed in a box of sand, 
with the two ends projecting, and filled with water. 

A current of yO(» amperes entered at the point marked -}- , and left at 
point marked — . The current was allowed to pass for aI)out nine 
hours; then it was shut off for about thirty-six hours; then allowed to 
flow again for nine hours; and so on. 'J'wo hundred amperes was a 
large current for the size of the jiipe, and it was suflicient to heat it 
perc(!ptibl3', es))ecially at the joints. 

After this current had llowed for 7f) hours, making a total amount of 
14,000 ampere hours, the pipe was removed and examincMl. The inside 
of th<; ]iipe showed no marked corrosion, but the water had Itecome very 
turbid, indicating electrical action. On the outside the rust was marked 
at the points II; also, slight rust was pn^seut on sonu; other parts. 

The I'ust at the jioints R is accounted for from the fact that a. portion 
of the current left tlie pipe at those points and passed around the joint 
through the moist sand. 

This .shows that if a large cuiTcnt is flowing longitudinall}- in an iron 
pipe, even Avith good joints, an injurious action is likelj' to occur at the 
joints. 

Another and quicker method used for showing the same thing was 
adopted in the following test: 

Tlie api)aratus for this test consisted of two systems of iron ])ip- 
ing, made as in Plate V. Both of these were fille<l with water and 
sup])orted liy a wooden frame. 

A current of about 200 amperes was passed at intervals Ihi-ough one 



(}() City 1)(10ument No. 10. 

of tlie systems ol" pipin<2;. No (•urrcnt was passed llii-ou<^Ii llio oilier; 
and Iroin time to time samples of water were tak(!ii siiiuiltanooiisly from 
both pipes. In this way we are able to com])are tlu; rale at wiiicli the 
water in eaeh i)ipe l)e(^ame turbid. 

The experiment was sto])ped after 4,700 ampere hours of current had 
passed. The diflerence in the samples, while not beini;^ striking, was so 
well marked that there was no mistakino" that- tlu; i)ij)e with the eurrent 
passing througli was rusting the more rapidly. 

From this test it is evident that tlu; tlow of an electric (airrent along an 
iron pipe will increase the rate of decay of the pipe to some extent. 

Signs of Elcctrohjtic Aciio7i. 

In carrying on such investigation as this it was at once recognized 
that it would be of great advantage to be able to note definitely whether 
the pipes which are submitted to us for inspection have been acted upon 
electricallv, or are simply corroded from natural causes. With this in 
view, a stud}^ of tlie characteristic appearance, of both lead and iron 
pipes, when subjected to electrol^-sis, Avas undertaken in order to dis- 
cover, if possible, signs by which the polarity of the pipes could be 
known in cases where the action had not been suiliciently energetic to 
produce the well-known pitting marks. 

Samples of l)oth lead and iron pipes were obtained for these tests 
from the Water Department. These pipes had lieen removed from the 
streets and were somewhat corroded. Several i)a,irs of each of these 
were placed in damp sand, and a current of about one ampere was passed 
from one to another, thus making one ])ole of eiu-h pair positive to the 
sand an<l the other negative. This current was maintained for about 
three weeks diu'ing nine hours of each (\ny, and occasional inspections 
were made, with the following results : 

Lead Vipcft. 

Both pipes of each pair were originally somewhat corroded, and a 
small amount of scale adhered to the surface. When the positive pipe 
was taken out and examined after a few days' run, a mass of sand, about 
a quarter of an inch in thickness, adhered to it; and the particles of this 
sand were appai-ently cemented together with black and with salts of 
lead. Upon scrainng olf this outside coating of sand, jiurplish brown 
salts of lead couUl be seen adhering to the surface of the ])ipe, and after 
current had been jiassed through the pipe for a sufticient length of time 
the well-known pit-marks were observed. The negative electrode, 
when removed from the sand, was clean, of a grayish coloi', and with 
little or no sand adhering to it, and of jn-acticall)'^ the same ajjpcarance 
as a similar pipe buried in sand and entire!}' free from electrolytic action 
of any sort. 

The above distinctions between the positive and negative electrodes, 
while not clearly delinod in all cases, were suHicientl3nnarkc(l to enable 
us to determine pretty definitely Avhether or not a pipe was subjected to 
electrolytic action, if "inspection were made immediately after the pipe 
was removed from the ground. 

Iron Pipes. 

In the case of the iron pipes, the indications were less marked. Tlie 
pipes were originally covered with a fine incrustation of sand, the 
particles of which were very firmly cemented together. A\'hen the pipes 
were insjjected after a few days' run, the only tiling observed was that 
the scale ci-acked oil" more easih' where electrolytic action had taken 
place than wliere no action wliatever was jiresent; but there was no 
clearly defined diflerence between the negative and positive pipes, and 



T 



Scale ]'A"']. 



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PLATE VI 



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Stone &Webster 




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Scale IJ4"-1 



PLATE Vn 




Stone &^Wl3 s t e 



Engineeuinc; Dki'autment. 67 

;i.s ;i whole the results obtained were not sufticiently definite to w;iiT;int 
a (U'tfiinination as to wliedier or not iron i)ipes which are slightly cor- 
roded have been subjected to electrolytic inlluences. 

HaU; of DclcrioriUioii, due to Elcctruli/sis. 

In j)la('e.s where elec-trolytic action is slowly takini:; place on ac(;ount 
of the ell'ect of the return currents from the Street Railway system, it is 
important to determine as accurately as jjossible the actual rate of decay 
due to this cause. 

Wheriithe action is marked, occasional insi)ections will, of course, give 
a rough idea of this; but iu the majority of places throughout the city 
of IJoston deterioration is not taking place rapidly enough to make this 
])racticable, so that it seemecl desirable to devise some means of actually 
determining the rate at which tiie metal is being taken away from any 
])articular length of pipe. Witli this in view, the iipparatus shown in 
riate VI. was devised. 

This consists of a wooden box (A) of aljout 7 feet in length, fdled with 
tar, and placed around the service-pipe (S) beneath the surface of 
the street. Upon the outside of this box is fastened a sheath of lead 
(L) whose (!ntire surface is of known relation to the surface of the pipe 
(S). From the load sheath, and also from the pipe, wires are led 
through the tube (C) to a jwiut (I>) at the surface of the street, where 
they are available for connection with an ammeter or voltmeter, as 
desired. 

All flow of current aw;iy from the pii)e (S) throughout the distance 
where it is insulated by the box (A), is of course jirevented; l)ut if the 
terminals of the wires at (U) are connected together through an am- 
meter, the tendtiiicy, of courses, will be for the current which would 
naturally leave the pipe (S) to flow up the wire (X) and back by way 
of the wire (Y) to the lead sheath, and thence from the sheath to the 
ground. 

Several devices of tiiis sort were installed at various places througli- 
out tiie city and measurements of current taken, but as the apparatus 
was not put in use until late in the fall, the heavy snows during the win- 
ter have prevented satisfactory results. 

in other places where we have installed apparatus of this sort, and 
especially in cities when; electrolytic action is taking place at a rajnd 
rate, it has been fouinl that quite relial)le measurements as to the 
(juantity of current flowing away from a pipe coukl be obtained, and as 
a given ijuantity of current deposits a certain amount of metal in a 
given space of time, it has been possible to determine quite accurately 
the rate at which the pipe submitted to test is undergoing deterioration. 

We have recently devised a piece of apparatus, which is illustrated in 
I'late VII., for obtaining even more satisfactory results than could be ob- 
tained from the api)aratus illustrated in IMate Vl., and if the tests in this 
city are to be continued, we should advise that devii^es of this sort he 
installed at various places througli the city, and that frequent measui'e- 
ments of the flow of cmrent be made. 

The apparatus consists simi)ly of two insulating Joints (A) and (B). 
with a lengtii of service-pii)e, say, ten feet, between them. Wires from 
each sid(! of each of these insulating Joints are carried to the surface of 
tiie street. I3y the insertion of a delicate ammeter between the wires 
(c) anil (d), a measurement (»f tiie (juantity of current flowing from the 
main to the service-pipe can be obtained, and if the wires (a) and (b) arc 
left disconnected, this measurcmeut gives approximately the quantity 
current flowing away from the section (A-I)) to the earth, and enables 
one to determine roughly the rate of deterioration. 

Uy connecting the wires (a and b) together, and leaving the ammeter 
as shown, connected with wires (c and d) a measurement can be olj- 



i^S City Document No. 10. 

tainotl of tlio quantily of ciirreiit llowiiii^ away from tlie entire length 
of servic-e-i)ii)e. 

Tlie (juestion will probably be asked wliether or not the current llow- 
iug through tlie water in the pipe is not sullituent to vitiate the results, 
even although an iiisulatetl joint in the metal itself is inserted. 

In re[)ly to this we would say, that the resistance of the ammeter and 
leads is so small in comparison with the resistance of the water, that for 
practical i)urposes it may be said that all the current flowing from the 
main into the service pipe will pass through the ammeter (II) ^and be 
there recorded. 

(Signed) Stone & Weusteu. 



(Jknekal Condition of the Works. 

The coniplelioii of Reservoir No. (! lui.s increased the daily 
capacity of the Sudlniry and Cochitiiate supply about 4,000,- 
000 gallons, and the safe ea])a('ity of tht^ works in a year of 
extreme drought is now about 41,500,000 gallons. 

As the daily average consumption during the past year 
was 40,5(i0,000 gallons, it is evident that there is a liability 
that the supply may l)e insutficient l)efore Reservoir No. 5 
can ])c com})leted. The consumption from the INIystic works 
is now al)out 11,500,000 gallons per day, an amount far in 
excess of their capacity. Even during the past year, which 
was not exceptionally dry, 40,000 people in the Charlestown 
district were su})plied from the Cochituate works for nearly 
four months, and Mystic lake was drawn to such a low ])oint 
by the teni})orary pumps that the (juality of the water was 
atfccted by the iiiHltration of salt water from the Lower 
Mystic lake. 

Although the completion of Reservoir No. 5 will raise the 
safe total ca})acity of all the sources of supply to G1,")0(),000 
gallons })er day, it is evident that the daily consumption, 
which is now about 57,000,000 gallons, will soon be in excess 
of the yield of our sources of su})ply. 

Another consideration is the question of the necessity of 
abandoning the ^Mystic snpjdy on account of the difficulty in 
preserving the ])urity of the water. The annual rei)orts 
for the past fifteen years have reiterated the statement that 
the quality of the water from this source is constantly de- 
teriorating, and that it is not practical)le, on account of the 
large po})tUation residing on the water-shed, to make any 
permanent improvement in the (|tiality. As the Mystic supply 
cannot be abandoned until an additional sujjply is obtained, 
and as the construction of Reservoir No. 5 will conqAete the 
develoi)ment of the Sudbury-river siq)})ly, it is evident that 
immediate ste})s shotild be taken to procure an additional 
sui)ply sufficient to meet the requirements of the city for 
future years. 



Enginekiung Dri'autment. (39 

In con.so(|ucnc*c of the greiit iiicictisc in the liiiih-.scrvicc 
L()nsiuni)ti()M the sup})ly uiiiins from Fisher Hill licservoir 
:uul in tlu^ Ixoxhury District are inudeqiuite to furnish ji, siip- 
|)ly without an excessive loss of heud. At times the; Parker 
Hill Reservoir has been nearly emi)tie(l, and residents on the 
hiiiher land have been entirely deprived of their sup[)ly. 

To remedy this difficulty the laying of a 48-inch main has 
])een recommended from the junction of Fisher Hill avenue 
and Boylston street to the corner of Huntington avenue and 
Heath street. At this })oint the main will l)e divided, a 42- 
inch main continuing through Huntington avenue and IJoyl- 
ston street for the sup})ly of the city proper, with a connection 
at Wait street for the sui)i)ly of Parker Hill Reservoir; the 
other branch, 'M\ inches in diameter, to l»e carried through 
Heath street and across the lvt)xbury district. 

Tiic new pum})ing-engines at the Chestnut Hill and Mystic 
stations will furnish sufficient pumping ca})acity to meet the 
rccjuirements at those stations for the next tive years. 

At the East Boston station all of the pumps nw in need of 
repairs, and a new })um}) siiould l)e purchased for the use of 
the Breed's Island service. 

The relaying of the old tul)erculated mains with pipes of 
Itirger size and the laying of new su])i)ly mains has not kept 
pace with the growth of the city for the j)ast few years. 
About 10 miles of the new and cnhirged mains whicli have 
been recommended to your Board since 1891 still remain to 
be hiid, and I recommend that the work l)e pushed as fast 
as j)ossible. From three to four miles of the ohl 4-inch and 
(I-inch })i[)e and from 100 to 200 of the old pattern Boston 
hytlrants should be replaced each year, to meet the demantls 
for better fire protection. 

A])])ended to this re})ort will l)e found the usual tables of 
rainfall, c()nsumj)tion, etc., for the i)ast year, and in addition, 
tal)les are given of the rainfall, rainfall collected, and [)er- 
centage collected on the Cochituate water-shed since 18(13, 
on the Sudbury-river water-shed since 1875, and on the 
]\[ystic water-shed since 1878. These will 1)e found valuable 
for future reference. 



70 



City Document No. 10. 



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o 


o 


o 


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o 


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ft 


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CO 


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■^ 




CO 


■^ 


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Tp 




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c^* 










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ft 


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CO 




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o 








CO 






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CO 


































wt 


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CO 


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CO 






^ 




CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


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CO 


CO 


CO 




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H 




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CO 








CO 


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t3 

a 
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CO 


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CO 


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co" 


CO 


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CO 




CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


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o 


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X 




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CO 




cr 


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CO 






wT 


r-^ 


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co^ 


co_ 


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l-^ 






oo 


o 




pi^ 


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o" 


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co" 


rS 


^ 


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^ 


^ 


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rT 








CO 




CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


-■o 


CO 


CO 




o 


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o 


o 


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o 


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o 


o 




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CD 


o 


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sc 




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at) 








CO 




CD 


-f 


CI 


co" 


o 


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CO 






QO 


o 


o 












CO 




a> 








X 


-* 




^ 


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CO 


CO 


































fH 


o 


CO 


CD 




o 




c-l" 












CO 






"* 


-c 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CI 


CI 


CO 


CO 






; 










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60 




« 


























a 




H 


















^ 








a> 




S5 




>» 














z> 




o 


0) 

s 






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-5 




^ 
« 

s 


5, 


>> 


i 


_>. 


si) 
<5 


-D 

a. 

'Jri 


3 
o 

CJ) 

o 


a 

o 

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3 



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pj 








0) 


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ci 



12 



o^ 



5.'o 



a =. 

3 D 

1-3 02 



°5 



BOSTON WATER WORKS. 

Diagi'^m showingthe rainfall and daily average Consumption 
foi'each month. 



yearly /4yerages shown fhus 




l>N(:iNKKi;iNO DkI'ARTMKNT. 



71 



« 


^ 


^ 


•^ 


w 


?> 


< 


-o 


H 





';^ 









o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


3 


o 


^^ 


o 


o 


o 












o 


o 


o 


o 


o 










5 




o 


o 








^-> U 




o 


o 


o_ 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o_ 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 
















































o 


o 


o* 






o 


o 


o* 


o" 


o 




o 


cT 








^ a o 




o 


o 


o 






o 


o 


•o 


o 


o 




o 


o 








h|^ 


^ 


o 


o_ 




*^ 


'^ 


■o 


CO_ 


CO 






o 




« 


o 


o 






l>l 


-T 






CD 


■o 








c/T 




t* 


o" 


o 


o 




43 = 

^t5 










CI 


c-i 




CD 










CO 


s^ 


o 




•r 


'^ 


o 


o> 


o> 


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oo 




^ 


o 


o> 






rH 


i 


o 


9 






























r-t 


^ 


o 


» 






























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C-I 


CO 










o 


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o 


o 








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o^ 


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o 


o 


o 


o 








o 


o 


o 


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ar 






o 


o 


o_ 


o_ 








o 


o_ 


o 


o 


c-r 






^2 








o' 


o' 




o 








o 


cT 


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o' 








^ 






o 


o 


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o 


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o_ 


c-i^ 








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3 






oT 




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c-r 








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CO 


c5 


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o~~ 


o 


1 






o 


fc 


O 


o 


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o 


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o 


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o 








o 




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o 


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o 


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o 




-^ 




o 






«3 1^ 




o_ 


o_ 


o 


o_ 


o 




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o 


o 




o 


o 


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o 


CO_ 


« 


-^ "rf) 


2 


o" 


o* 


o 


o" 


o" 


o" 


o 


ciT 


o 


o 


cT 


cT 


cT 


cT 




_ a oi 




o 




o 




o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 




o 




o 




^ 


o 


^ 


oi_ 


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CD 








CO 


CO_ 






^ 


Oi^ 


f— 


IN 




kT 




co" 






co- 


o" 


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co- 


cf 






t^ 










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o> 






CO 


Gl 


CO 


CO 


oo 


^ 


n_ 


o> 


o 


CTi 


ca 


co 


o 


C3> 


CB 


ol 


CO 






t^ 


































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f-i 










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o 


o^ 


o^ 


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o 


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o 


^ 








-«-3 S- 




o 


o 


o 


o 


o 






o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 












o 


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o_ 


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o 


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o 


o_ 


o 












































_ a a> 


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o" 


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o" 


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cT 


tS 


cT 










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O 


o 


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Ol 


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H £^ 


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co^ 


m_ 


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^ 




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o 


o 




o 


cC 


00 




CD 




oo' 


to 




o 


o 




yj 








CD 


CI 


I— 


T)1 


05 




o 


CO 






o^ 


o_ 




'-'■ 1^ 


CO 


CO 


«o 


CO 


CO 


t^ 


<» 


CO 


00 


o 




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CD^ 


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f-H 


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s. 


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o 


o 














co" 


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C'l 




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o 


o 


o 
















<r 


o 






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o_ 




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CO 


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cJ" 








^5 


to 






-* 


■ra 


^ 


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o 












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c 


o 


o 


o 


o 


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o 


(3, 


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o 


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o 


o 




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o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 






o 


o 


o 


o 








o 


o 




o 


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o 


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c? 


o_ 


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c 


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o 


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M 




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cf 


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to 




CO 












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co 


f-H 








o 


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t- 




t- 


t- 


l- 


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o 


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o 


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o 


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o 




o 




o 


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o 


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o_ 


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f"^ 




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74 



City Document No. 10. 



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75 





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Engineering Department. 



77 



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cc 


to 




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ir 


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CO 


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in 


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Js 


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O 


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§ 


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1 


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ID 


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to 


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CO 


CO 


00 


OS 


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f-l 


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to 


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1 




<M 




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on 


CO 


CO 


t^ 


to 


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^ 














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pni! SniiKaq .loj 



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in ,-. r_ rt 



cocococococococo 



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Is 



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■HJC^O^eOOiCRC-J «D<D 

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00 00 00 00 



t— CO CO I— 



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JO jnnouiB aSBiBAB Xjibq; 



CO 00 00 co^ o t-^ 
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CO M CO CO 



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2 s J s a 

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3 g< o o <u 

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o A 



Engineering Department. 



79 



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e 



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o 









































o 


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001 Jad sputiod 




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to 

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1 


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cr 


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p 


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to 




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d 


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2 


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JO pnnod jad 




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k 




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psdmnd .Ciijuon^ 


Ci 


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CO 


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00 


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in 


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to 


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c 


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c 








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o 





CO 


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» 


s 


to 


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c 


« 





». 


in 


cl 





c5 




JO jnnotuB 


s 


cf 


o^r 


cf 


01 


cf 


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c» 


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c 


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s 


-* 


CC 


g 


n 

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t— 


c^ 










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CO 


01 







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5 


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to_ 


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to 


1- 

r-l 


d 











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c 


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c 





























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to_ 




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c 






















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3: 


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OCT. 




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p. 


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c 


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E-< 1 - 








•0 




CO 


CO 


lO 





-1; 


CO 


CO 













K 




to 








c 


01 







CO 


CO 




50 - 






P< 


t5 






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CO 


to 


to 


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CO 






CO 






^ 




















^ 












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1 


3 

a 


2 


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!2; 


fi 







80 



City Document No. 10. 



TABLE IX. 

Statement of Operations at the East Boston Pumping- Station for the Year 

1894. 







Engine No. 2 






Engine No. 3 




Total amount of coal 
consumed. 


K 
C3 
m 


1894. 


□ 

S 

3 

3 3 


p2 

hi 

3§s 


6 

% 

■3 


a 
"S. 
S 
3 
p. . 

« a 


^2 

3 


c . 


i 

2 

a) 
% 
>, 

'3 
ft 

Gallons 
25,400 


. 
si 

!| 


Month. 


Brs. 


M. 


Gallons. 


1 
Gallons 


Hrs. 


M. 


Gallons. 


Pounds. 


Per ct. 


Jan. . 


276 


50 


11,362,540 


366,500 


56 


50 


787,020 


30,800 


19.1 


Feb. . 


276 


05 


11,847,640 


423,100 

1 


55 


20 


793,440 


28,300 


32,960 


18.7 


March, 


266 


25 


11,453,960 


369,500 


63 


15 


915,000 


29,500 


30,740 


18.9 


April . 


297 


55 


12,327,140 


410,900^ 


64 


40 


925,080 


30,800 


34,260 


18.7 


May . 


269 


00 


10,921,820 


352,300 


64 


20 


912,240 


29,400 


30,040 


18.8 


June . 


255 


25 


10,538,080 


351,300 


80 


25 


1,119,660 


37,300 


31,960 


18.9 


July . 


292 


50 


12,422,060 


400,700 


88 


00 


1,275,840 


41,200 


34,310 


18.7 


-Aug. . 


283 


50 


12,034,120 


388,200 


68 


50 


973,860 


31,400 


32,550 


18.7 


Sept. . 


264 


10 


11,154,220 


371,800 


64 


05 


940,500 


31,400 


30,370 


18.9 


Oct. .- 


309 


25 


12,709,900 


410,000 


60 


15 


891,060 


28,700 


34,200 


18.7 


Nov. . 


293 


20 


11,637,360 


387,900 


57 


20 


812,160 


27,100 


32,400 


19.0 


Dec. . 


313 50 


12,123,160 


391,100 

1 


62 


00 


900,240 


29,000 


36,050 


19.1 


Totals, 


3,399 


05 


140,532,000 


385,000 


785 


20 


11,246,100 


30,800 


390,640 


18.9 



JTote. — Engine No. 1 was not run during 1894. 



Engineering Department. 



81 



TABLE X. 

Statement of Operations at the West Roxbury Pumping- Station for the 

Year 1S94. 



1804. 


in 

a 
■ft 

o 


1-6 

IS. 
o 


CS o 


Quantity pumped 
per lb. of coal. 


Total amount of 
coal cousumed. 


o 

la 

PO 


a 

a 

> 
< 


Month. 


Hours. 


Min. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Pounds. 


Per cent. 


Feet. 


January . . 


275 


00 


3,229,275 


104,200 


139.8 


23,100 


20.3 


136.26 


February . 


25.-? 


30 


3,198,000 


114,200 


140.6 


22,750 


20.0 


135.82 


March . . . 


259 


30 


3,152,400 


101,700 


138.9 


22,700 


20.4 


136.36 


April . . . 


255 


30 


3,090,150 


103,000 


153.2 


20,175 


20.2 


135.66 


May ... . 


320 


00 


4,001,700 


129,100 


165.4 


24,200 


20.9 


136.82 


June . . . 


364 


30 


4,700,925 


156,700 


170.3 


27,600 


18.6 


136.95 


July. . . . 


424 


00 


5,377,875 


173,500 


166.2 


32,350 


19.4- 


137.70 


August . . 


321 


30 


4,022,175 


129,700 


172.8 


23,275 


16.5 


137.53 


September . 


315 


00 


3,865,500 


128,900 


176.5 


21,900 


16.0 


136.42 


October . . 


292 


00 


3,183,450 


102,700 


166.0 


19,175 


15.0 


137.21 


November . 


285 


30 


3,059,550 


102,000 


153.4 


19,950 


17.5 


137.01 


Decembef . 


316 


00 


3,470,100 


111,900 


143.4 


24,200 


18.0 


136.95 


Totals and 
averages , 


3,6S2 


00 


44,351,100 


121,500 


157.6 


281,375 


18.7 


136.72 



82 



City Document No. 10. 



TABLE XI. 

Table showing Work done at Mystic Sewage PuTnping- Station during the 

Year 2SS4. 



January . 
February . 
March . • 
April . . . 
May . . . 
June . . . 
July . . . 
August . . 
September 
October . . 
November 
December . 



1894. 



ITrs. Min. 



471 
474 
548 
497 
433 
511 
490 
527 
472 
f08 
496 
498 



Totals 5,931 



00 









Gallons. 



,585,000 
,291,000 
,091,000 
,759,000 
,389,000 
,610,000 
,778,000 
,255,000 
,154,000 
,263,000 
,693,000 
,040,000 



116,908,000 



Lbs. 



24,060 
24,785 
29,440 
22,476 
21,600 
25,060 
23,150 
23,855 
18,225 
20,975 
21,390 
19,350 



274,365 



Lbs. 



29,150 
29,500 
33,200 
29,800 
25,650 
17,300 
25,950 
29,500 
28,800 
29,900 
29,300 
29,700 






»a^ ® s s 



Gallons. 



342,300 
367,500 
390,000 
371,000 
322,700 
320,300 
292,600 
298,500 
281,200 
319,400 
334,200 
368,000 



337,750 



334,000 



Engineering Department. 



83 



TABLE XII. 

Rainfall in Inches and Hundredths on Sudbury River Water-shed for 

ike Year 1894. 



1804. 


a 

3 
n 
a 




a 


5 


>> 


a 
a 
>-> 


>> 

3 


3 
60 

3 


u 

» 

s 

2 

a 
CO 


-§ 




§ 
> 


u 

V 

.0 

s 
s 

ft 






0.025 






















2 






















0.515 


3 . . • . 










0.420 


0.210 
0.290 


0.700 
0.045 






0.605 




4 


n oa?. 




0.375 


0.110 


0.005 




0.045 
0.085 






0.460 






6 








0.290 
0.005 








0.190 


1.260 




S 
















0.200 


0.080 
1.645 


0.375 

0.280 




9 






0.010 


0.890 








0.145 




10 




0.730 


0.675 


11 

12 . ... 


0.135 
0.055 


0.030 




0.025 


0.100 




















0.875 


13 




1 295 


0.095 
0.160 


1.625 








0.210 
0.140 
0.030 










U 

15 


0.020 


0.865 






0.250 


0.050 
0.350 


0.730 


0.150 


. 


16 

17 


0.220 








0.075 








18 . 




0.310 
















0.110 




19 


0.145 






0.615 














20 


0.245 










0.760 


1.755 






21 






0.075 


0.160 
0.040 

0.325 


0.280 


0.460 


0.090 
0.500 






0.395 . . . 


o> 












03 


0.460 




0.830 


0.030 
0.785 
0.080 
0.025 


0.170 












24 

25 . 


0.845 
0.800 








0.150 


0.255 


26 - 


0.145 


0.060 








1.670 




27 


1.160 




2.490 


28 . 
























29 

30 . . . 


1.7B5 




0.175 




1.545 




0.195 




0.090 


0.760 


0.100 




31 








0.445 






























Totals . 


4.090 


3.910 


1.435 


3.415 


4.235 


1.155 


3.255 


2.030 


2.635 


5.345 


3.425 


4.810 



Total rainfall during the year, 39.740 inches, being an average of two gauges, located at 
Fratningham and Ashland. 



84 



City Docibient No. 10. 



TABLE XIII. 

Rainfall in Inches aud Hundredths at Lake Cochituate forthe Year 1894. 



1894. 


u 
S 

a 

as 


a 

3 
u 


P 

a 


~ 1 


>> 


o 
a 

3 


"a 


3 
3 
< 


M 
e 

2 

m 


M 
3 

u 
O 


C 

a 

> 

1 


(U 

.a 

a 






0.02 






















f) 










0.02 














0.49 


3 












0.45 
0.01 


0.22 
0.23 


0.71 
0.05 






0.54 












0.33 
0.01 


0.16 
0.29 




5 

6 


0.04 
05 


0.21 


0.01 


0.10 


0.64 


■ ■ '1 
1.46 




















0.16 


0.16 








9 




63 




1.03 








0.08 
1.53 


0.64 


0.(54 


n 


0.17 


0.02 






0.08 








0.84 


13 

14 




1.31 


0.08 


1.42 






0.14 


0.29 
0.03 


0.06 


0.92 . 


0.17 




15 




0.85 


0.13 










16 


24 








0.14 








17 

18 

19 


0.14 


0.34 
22 


• • • 






0.26 




0.04 
1.29 


0.26 
1.62 




0.10 
0.02 




21 

29 , 






0.03 


0.22 


0.86 


0.79 


0.86 




0.33 




23 

24 






0.65 


0.26 


0.66 
0.08 


0.02 


0.57 
1.24 




... 


1.37 


0.01 
0.16 




25 

98 , 


0.42 


31 




0.23 


27 


1 27 






















2.18 


28 


























29 

30 


1.62 


. . . 


0.24 




1.13 
50 




0.21 




0.07 


0.60 


0.10 






























Totals . 


3.95 


3.89 


1.16 


3.27 


3.70 


! 1.61 


3.61 


2.57 


2.27 


5.14 


3.53 


4.38 



Total rainfall during the year, 39.08 Inches. 



Engineering DErARTMENx. 



85 



TABLE XIV. 

Rainfall in Inches and Hundredths at Jfysiic Lake for the Tear 1894. 



180>. 


a 
a 
1^ 


SI 

B 




<1 




c 
3 


"5 


a 

9 
< 


u 

a 

V 


C 

o 
O 


C 
o 

a 

!» 
O 


3 

a 

o 




1 . 




. . . 






















2 


























3 . 












0.16 
0.02 


0.38 


0.44 
0.06 






0.77 


44 


4 




. . . 


. . . 


0.39 










5 


. . . 


0.21 






0.24 






. . . 




0.52 






6 


0.10 




. . . 




0.32 




. . . 


. . . 


0.06 


. . . 


1.59 




7 


0.07 




. . . 




. . . 


0.20 




. . . 




. . . 


. . . 




8 




03 














34 








9 


. . . 




1.03 


. . . 




. . . 


0.29 




0.16 


. . . 




10 . 




0.78 


0.03 
0.01 










0.86 


0.02 


1.70 


0.35 


47 


11 .... 














12 


0.21 






















0.81 


13 




0.95 






. . . 






0.17 






. . . 




14 






0.10 


1.73 






0.01 


0.02 


0.08 


1.36 


0.18 




15 




0.86 








16 


0.32 


0.06 








. . . 


. . . 








. • • 


17 


















0.44 




0.16 




18 




0.29 






















19 


0.23 








1.33 






. • . 






0.02 




20 ... . 




0.19 












0.68 


1.58 








21 


. . . 




0.02 




0.34 


0.34 


0.67 


. • . 


0.23 




22 




. . . 




0.12 


. . . 




0.80 


. . . 










23 


. . . 




0.63 




0.05 
















24 


. . . 


. . . 




0.18 


. . . 




0.81 












25 


0.40 








0.94 




0.69 








0.09 


0.25 


26 




. . . 


0.06 




0,04 










1.30 






27 


1.20 


. . . 


. . . 




. . . 




. . . 


. . . 




0.02 




2.00 


28 








0.03 


















29 






0.18 




1.30 
















30 


1.40 










0.09 


. . . 




. . . 


0.10 




31 










0.62 










0.52 






Totals . 


3.93 


3.31 


1.09 


3.48 


5.18 


0.72 


3.45 


2.52 


2.52 


5.58 


3.49 


3.97 



80 



City Document No. 10. 



c^ 








. 


OS 


o> 


«~ 


00 


1^ 


■# 


00 


O: 


(N 


to 


•* 


tys 


t^ 




« 


IN 




et 


o 


t— t 


IN 


to 


OS 


OS_ 


-f 


k-^ 


CO 


to 




a 1 


O 


^ 


ci 


OS 


C/3 


OS 


CO 


d 


d 


c-i 


d 


-* 




o 1 


•v 


CO 


•* 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 




^ 1 




























1 


^ 


^ 


lO 


c« 


to 


,, 


oo 


to 


^, 


c> 


o 


■^ 


00 




^ 


cc 


00 






o 


cs 


r-^ 


•^ 


to 


« 


CO 




UO 
CO 




° 1 


•>3< 


■* 


■* 


■<1< 


■>* 


CO 


"*" 


•* 


^ 


^ 


■* 


CO 






CO 


<M 


00 


CO 


^ 


OS 


-^ 


to 


^ 


a> 


CO 


d 


OS 




> 




■^ 






■^ 


-^ 


to 


^ 


CO 


■^ 


CO 


^ 


o 




o 
125 


CO 


co' 


CO 


co" 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 




1 


o 


Oi 


to 


T** 


-f 


00 


CO 


oo 


CO 


"co" 


Cl 


to 


CO 




^ 1 




^ 


l- 




o 




OS 


CO 


to 


c« 


q 


■* 


CO 
d 




^ 1 


ui 


*^ 


>o 


>« 


to 


■o 


•^ 


>o 


d 


d 


d 


CO 




1 


c« 


o 


cr> 


~ 


o 


C-I 


k- 


-* 


,„ 


CI 


OS 


CO 


to 




•s 






-tP 


<N 


o 






q 


..-5 






q 


ci 




a) 


d 


iri 


ci 


IN 


c-i 


IN 


>-<" 


CO 


•-< 


C^ 


ci 


CO 




CO 
































-t* 


<M 


lO 


J_ 


^ 


C-1 


_p 


^~ 


,^ 


CO 


CO 


Cl 


00 




ti 


o> 






>c 


■N 




-N 


1- 


OS 






q 


ci 




^ 


'"' 


(N 


IN 


c4 


ci 


IN 


^ 


^ 


IN 


"' 


'' 


d 






C-l 


O 


^ 


^ 


CO 


,„ 


_p 


CO 


^ 


to 


to 


o 


o 






CO 


C4 


co" 


to 

CO 


CO 


CO 


M 


C-T 


q 
co" 


o 
ci 


CO 


o 

CO 


CO 




•-s 
































^ 


O 


-* 


^ 


o 


(N 


^ 


-1 


cs 


~oo 


^ 


,, 


1 1^ 




3 




<N 




to 


o\ 




CO 


>b 




CO 




co_ 






r-! 


rH 


e4 


■-H 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


1 00 

1 d 




•^ 


























1 






^ 


O 


cc 


o 


^ 


00 


_,, 


-* 


^. 


"^ 


,_ 


to 


CO 




>, 


CO 








c; 




c^; 






Cl 




CO 


cs 






■^ 


^ 


■* 


co" 


■*" 


UO 


T 


■^ 


CO 


ci 


'a' 


■* 


■^" 






CO 


lO 


to 


,_ 


-* 


CO 


o 


-t 


^^ 


^ 


OS 


o 


Cl 




Pi 




u: 


oc 


^ 


C-; 




to 


to 


I'; 


to 


Cl 


l^ 


co" 




CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


(N 


oi 


IN 


ci 


CO 


CO 




< 




























ji 


^_^ 


to 


CI 


to 


-1" 


cs 


to 


cs 


C-1 


t- 


o 


t. 


CO 






-t 


TT 








o 








CO 


01 


c^ 


to 






'"' 


^ 


"^ 


"" 


'"' 


'"' 


d 


d 


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d 


^ 


^^ 


^ 






^ 


^_, 


<» 


o> 


^_^ 


^ 


-t 


OS 


M 


OS 


u'^ 


o 


^ 




XI 


c 


C 


d 


oc 


oc 


c^ 


o 


o 


CI 


o 


to 


o 


s 




a 


c^ 


C^ 


co" 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


ci 


CO 




f^ 


























CO 






CO 


»o 


115 


UT, 


o 


CO 


c: 


OS 


-f 


CO 


^ 


o 


to 




a 


c- 


o 


l'- 


c 


C-' 


cs 








c 


o 


ci 


§ 




^ 


CO 


CO 


c^ 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


Cl 


CO 




i-s 


























CO 


























<: 






























b 


jj 




























c 




































































e4 

o 
















c 
.2 






^ 1 


I c 

3 "a 
: c 

3 a 


> 






I 


c 

3 -1 


i 




1 


i 


a 


it 
a 
'E. 
g 


V 

3 

i 

3 


i 

1 

c 


' IS 
I 1 


3 ^ 

\ 1 

^ i 
, c 


) "aS 
3 & 

3 «*-( 
1 O 

5 2 
a> 






'I 


1 1 


3 -J 


5 ^ 

3 - 
5 "c 

^ f- 


J J 




r j; 


>i 


□ 

o 
§ 


1 


5 -5 

3 - 

5 15 




* > 



Engineering Department. 



TABLE XVI. 

Table showing the Temperature of Air and Water at Vaj-ious Stations 
on the Water- Works. 



Temperature of Air. 



Temperature of 
Water. 



ISOl. 


Chestnut Hill K 


eservoir. 


FiamiDgham. 


TJrookline 
Reservoir. 


Mystic 
Engine- 
House. 




E 

3 

a 

a 


E 

a 


c 
a 


a 
a 

r 


a 

3 

a 




Mean. 


§ 


January . 








56.5 


0.0 


28.9 


54.0 


-6.0 


26.7 


37.2 


36.2 


February 








52.5 


-10.0 


25.9 


49.0 


-14.0 


24.2 


36.9 


35.8 


March . . 








70.5 


17.0 


41.8 


69.0 


15.0 


40.6 


40.8 


38.0 


April . . 






, ' 80.5 


18.0 


47.5 


79.0 


16.0 


45.8 


45.6 


43.7 


May • . . 






. 1 89.0 


34.5 


59.3 


88.0 


30.0 


57.7 


59.7 


58.9 


June . . 








97.0 


41.5 


69.7 


95.0 


40.0 


69.3 


66.5 


66.9 


July. . . 








105.5 


50.0 


75.9 


98.0 


47.0 


74.2 


74.5 


75.9 


August . 








92.5 


42.0 


69.1 


90.0 


40.0 


67.2 


73.2 


72.4 


September 






■ 


90.0 


40.0 


65.2 


90.0 


31.0 


63.8 


68.2 


67.2 


October . 








76.5 


32.5 


52.8 


76.0 


28.0 


51.3 


57.2 


53.8 


November 








6J.0 


11.0 


36.6 


64.0 


8.0 


35.2 


43.8 


41.5 


December 








55.0 


5.0 


30.4 


62.0 


0.0 


27.7 


37.6 


36.1 



88 



Cixr Document No. 10. 



H I 





» ■ 


00 


-* 


,^ 


e^ 


1^-, 


« 


to 


CO 


o 


OJ 


oo 


cc 


OD 








ire 






to 


<D 




1— ' 


rH 














en 


o 


CO 






to 


-Y 






t~. 


«•> 


»o 


o> 


to 


00 


C) 


CO 


IM 


no 


o> 




^ 


l^ 


^ 




r^\ 


.** 
















w 






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o >. 








































Bs 








































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a 


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o 


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en 


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to 








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Cl 




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rfl 






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u 








a> 
































g 


CO 


oc 


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CO 


lO 


IM 


t' 


to 


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Cl 




s 






























































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a 










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H 








































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i 


00 


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r: 


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cc 


i 


to 


CO 


00 


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o 



Engineering Department. 



89 



r-l 


>n 


'f 


o 


CO 


^ 






_f, 












WD 








l^ 


"1* 




-r 






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lO 






CO 




00 


» 


Ol 


(M 


•."5 


CO 


,—1 


,—1 


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1^1 


T 


,-H 




CO 


































UO 




Ol 


o 


o 


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CO 


























o 










"I* 


o 




o 






«-^ 


o 


^H 


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CO 


1^ 






j^ 






o 




OD 


1^ 












^ 


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CO 


O 


til 


n 


^ 


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^__, 


Ol 


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o 


o 




















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1— 










f—i 




o 


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CO 


11 


M 


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M 


o 


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IN 


UO 


CO 




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d 


CO 


O 


n 


to 


CO 


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CO 


CO 




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00 








c-l 


1 - 


1— 








cc 




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f 


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'^ 


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CO 


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CO 


o 


00 


CO 


113 


CO 






o 


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^ 




















1— 






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^ 










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n 


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3 


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ei 


o 


to 


a> 








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o 


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o 


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CO 


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o 


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ro 


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CO 


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^ 


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to 




cc 




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o 


to 


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IN 


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a 




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f-i 






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90 



City Document No. 10. 



TABLE XA^III. 

Rainfall Collected, in Inches, on Cochituate Water-shed, 1863 to 1894. 



Year. 


>> 

a 
3 

c 
a 

"-5 








a 
1.44 


4) 

□ 
S 

i-s 
0.67 


"3 
2.97 


p 

SB 

3 
< 

1.51 


u 
o 

a 

o. 
a) 
CB 

0.98 


u 

<o 
.o 

o 
t5 
O 

1.32 


u 

<o 

a 

> 
o 

2.65 


Z 

a 
ft 

2.17 


2 
o 
H 

26.88 




1803 , 








1.93 


3.11 


3.71 


4.42 


6.78 


1864 . 








2.39 


1.56 


4.05 


2.65 


1.62 


0.49 


0.41 


0.68 


0.49 


1.43 


1.25 


1.33 


18.35 


3.01 


18G5 . 








2.15 


1.74 


4.66 


2.70 


4.70 


0.34 


0.46 


0.47 


0.45 


0.70 


1.00 


1.13 


20.50 


2.08 


1866 . 








0.73 


2.84 


1.76 


1.63 


1.29 


1.10 


1.20 


0.64 


1.34 


0.93 


0.99 


1.56 


16.01 


4.11 


1867 . 








1.10 


5.24 


3.50 


2.87 


2.20 


0.65 


0.59 


2.10 


0.31 


1.02 


1.10 


1.12 


21.80 


4.02 


1868 . 








1.22 


1.12 


3.84 


3.48 


6.17 


1.59 


0.45 


1.18 


1.85 


0.95 


1.96 


1.17 


24.98 


4.43 


1869 . 








1.82 


1.84 


3.31 


2.49 


2.20 


1.07 


0.74 


0.58 


1.10 


2.37 


1.30 


3.17 


21.99 


4.79 


1870 . 








4.71 


3.93 


3.38 


6.87 


1.66 


0.97 


0.53 


0.41 


0.86 


1.11 


0.88 


0.77 


26.08 


2.91 


1871 . 








1.03 


2.28 


2.53 


1.58 


2.00 


0.87 


0.43 


0.85 


0.39 


0.69 


1.30 


1.21 


15.16 


2.36 


1872 . 








1.15 


0.93 


1.41 


3.08 


1.10 


1.49 


0.14 


1.32 


1.70 


1.69 


2.00 


1.21 


17.22 


4.85 


1873 . 








3.09 


1.57 


3.89 


6.09 


2.66 


0.45 


0.62 


1.40 


0.78 


2.04 


1.86 


2.68 


27.13 


4.84 


1874 . 








3.55 


2.19 


1.84 


3.19 


2.78 


1.96 


0.95 


0.92 


0.53 


0.52 


0.58 


0.51 


19.52 


2.92 


1875 . 








0.13 


2.92 


2.66 


3.15 


1.39 


1.48 


0.25 


0.62 


0.60 


1.19 


1.96 


1.22 


17.57 


2.66 


1876 . 








1.09 


1.78 


5.19 


4.20 


1.43 


0.51 


0.84 


0.29 


0.88 


0.49 


1.85 


0.99 


19.54 


2.50 


1877 . 








1.20 


1.37 


6.81 


3.24 


2.04 


0.92 


0.65 


0.67 


0.46 


1.16 


2.69 


1.96 


23.17 


2.94 


1878 . 








3.25 


3.97 


5.40 


2.86 


1.66 


0.76 


0.47 


0.84 


0.29 


0.73 


2.07 


4.04 


26.34 


2.33 


1879 . 








1.29 


2.32 


3.30 


4.48 


1.40 


0.77 


0.33 


0.95 


0.61 


0.60 


0.72 


1.04 


17.81 


2.49 


1880 . 








1.47 


2.24 


1.79 


1.57 


0.44 


0.06 


0.33 


0.23 


0.24 


0.49 


0.83 


0.61 


10.30 


1.29 


1881 . 








1.19 


2.23 


5.66 


1.79 


1.26 


1.31 


0.16 


0.09 


0.23 


0.18 


0.84 


1.40 


16.34 


0.66 


1882 . 








1.84 


3.00 


3.67 


0.93 


1.55 


0.62 


0.06 


0.07 


0.97 


0.84 


0.58 


0.92 


15.05 


1.94 


1883 . 








0.84 


1.59 


2.04 


1.66 


1.26 


0.07 
18.15 


0.02 
12.60 


0.07 
15.89 


0.62 
15.68 


0.59 
21.04 


0.41 

28.82 


0.94 
31.15 


10.11 


1.30 


Am'ts forward 


37.17 


49.77 


74.40 


64.93 


42.25 


411.86 


65.21 



Engineering Department. 



91 



Rainfall Collected, in Inches, on Cochituate Water-shed, 1S63 to 1894, 

Concluded. 



Tear. 


3 

a 
a 

37.17 


3 

2 
,5* 




< 


>> 

a 

a 

42.25 


a> 
a 

3 
•-= 

18.15 


"5 
*^ 

12.60 


3 
3 
< 

15.89 


01 

a 
© 

a. 

o 
ai 

15.68 


u 

o 

o 

o 


4) 

a 

> 
1 


a 

a 
u 


a 
o 
H 


•* 


Am'ts forward 


49.77 


74.40 


64.93 


21.04 


28.82 


31.15 


411.85 


65.21 


1S84 










1.84 


2.86 


4.67 


4.00 


1.39 


0.67 


0.26 


0.61 


0.13 


0.34 


0.62 


1.82 


19.21 


1.34 


1885 










1.90 


2.00 


2.21 


2.36 


1.61 


0.43 


0.00 


0.33 


0.25 


0.79 


2.05 


1.64 


15.57 


1.37 


1886 










2.28 


7.93 


3.51 


2.52 


1.09 


0.18 


0.25 


0.14 


0.30 


0.42 


1.20 


2.10 


21.92 


1.11 


1887 










4.06 


4.34 


4.70 


3.36 


1.35 


0.82 


0.72 


1.33 


0.64 


0.49 


0.70 


0.96 


23.47 


3.18 


1888 










1.13 


2.77 


4.76 


3.45 


2.37 


0.53 


0.47 


0.94 


2.31 


2.57 


4.21 


5.46 


30.97 


6.29 


1889 










4.50 


1.85 


2.08 


2.17 


1.20 


1.18 


1.63 


3.43 


1.79 


1.91 


2.95 


3.26 


27.95 


8.76 


1890 










1.92 


2.04 


5.87 


2'23 


1.85 


1.41 


0.33 


0.46 


1.40 


3.40 


1.49 


2.11 


24.51 


5.59 


1891 










6.26 


6.62 


8.03 


4.31 


0.88 


0.77 


0.50 


0.72 


0.76 


0.79 


0.83 


1.60 


32.07 


2.77 


1892 










3.18 


1.64 


3.12 


0.90 


2.03 


0.49 


0.33 


0.56 


0.60 


0.57 


1.09 


0.84 


15.35 


2.06 


1893 










0.64 


2.55 


4.12 


2.42 


1.83 


0.75 


0.38 


0.77 


0.42 


1.09 


1.00 


1.68 


17.65 


2.66 


1894 










1.27 


1.69 


2.55 


2.15 


0.91 


0.45 


0.38 


0.41 


0.46 


0.66 


0.92 


1.14 


12.99 


1.91 


Totals. . . 


66.15 
2.07 


86.06 
2.69 


120.02 
3.75 


94.80 
2.96 


58.76 
1.84 


25.83 
0.81 


17.85 
0.56 


25.59 
0.80 


24.74 
0.77 


34.07 
1.06 


45.88 
1.43 


53.76 

1.68 


6.53.51 
20.42 


102.25 


Averages . 


3.19 



92 



City Document No. 10. 



X 


•^ 






H 


« 


X 






f« 






S 


<5 


^ 




M 


'^ 


< 


g 






H 


^ 




*"^ 








f 








« 




«5 



t^ 



55 


in 


00 


00 


r~ 


-* 








Cl 


t^ 


Cl 


Cl 





CO 


Cl 











CO 


3 






.^ 


>o 






r-f 


00 






l_ 




■^ 










e^ 




r-< 


r-1 




Cl 




rH 










f-H 










a 1 






































S >> 






































S3 






































>> 






































00 





■i* 


^ 


^ 





Cl 


t- 


■* 


>n 


00 


CO 


<o 


CO 


ej> 


Cl 


o> 


t- 


C3 






^ 








^ 






*o 






<» 




Cl 






00 


CO 


-* 


•<* 


N 


05 


>ra 


CO 


** 


CO 


CO 








■»«• 






■^ 


c« 


r-i 






































6 


o 























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CO 


o> 


05 


00 


« 


<o 


00 


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cr> 




f^ 


-^ 






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t. 




l_ 






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00 





















































Cl 




























o 


. 























■* 


o> 


H* 


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^ 


00 





Cl 


05 


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^ 


CI 










00 







00 





00 


t» 


-f 




cr. 


n 




<N 


C^ 


■V 


CI 


^ 






-* 




d 


-* 


Cl 


CO 


CO 








o 























00 


^ 


-* 


CO 


to 


CO 


CO 


CO 


o 


to 


*? 


<^ 


(M 




1^ 












Cl 


m 


CO 





■* 


-* 


•^ 


-ft 


to 


to 


o 


o< 


(N 


f-H 


CJ 




00 


Cl 






■*T 


CO 




Cl 


Cl 












o 























CO 





00 


CO 


•* 


Cl 


00 


00 





CO 


fil 






t^ 














t. 






t- 


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lO 


■^ 




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Cl 




r-t 




a> 








cc 






































till 


o 























00 





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^ 


Cl 


CO 


to 





I- 


^ 






-i* 




t^ 
















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CO 




Cl 


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to 


(N 












Cl 








rH 
















>, 


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to 


to 


^ 





^ 


o> 


CO 


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t- 


I- 


f_4 








f_^ 


^ 


c» 


t-. 




ci 


10 





1-, 


00 


CO 


CO 


o> 


rf 


3 


O) 










Cl 


Cl 










CO 






Cl 








1-5 






































a 

3 
•-5 


o 























to 


00 


^_, 


00 


t~- 


to 


00 


Cl 


to 


m 


^ 


-f? 


t- 


n 


CI 


'^ 





-f, 











CO 


,_t 




CO 


00 


■>* 


« 






IM 


« 




Cl 


Cl 




CO 




^ 


Cl 


CO 


« 










o 























CO 


00 


Cl 


^ 


o> 


OJ 


to 








CJ 


C3 


-3; 


t^ 


1— 






<o 












J-i 










t^ 






































































d 






_. 


























00 


CO 


^ 


Cl 


•0 


^ 





t- 





n 









^ 




00 




t^ 


00 


00 


t^ 








l~. 


Ci 
















<o 


(M 


00 






o> 




<o 




Cl 





CO 


Cl 







OS 




<! 






































-a 


























■* 





00 


J^ 


Cl 





Tf 


to 





CO 


2 




00 


>0 





CI 


CO 


■<* 


50 








t— 


■^ 


r-, 


o> 


l_ 


OD 


^ 







•<>• 




-r 


«o 




■* 









o> 






to 


00 


d 


00 





































































00 


00 


>o 


00 


Tjl 


o> 


o> 


CO 


CO 


f^ 






o> 


J^ 





to 


^ 


O! 


t- 


-* 


>n 


Cl 


Cl 


OD 


to 


to 





































































Cl 





































00 


01 








M 


to 


CO 


^ 


o> 




l^ 






,H 












r-. 










t- 


to 




l_ 








































•-5 






































X 






































•«I 






































H 






































fH 










































^ 














^ 










to 


t-. 


m 















































00 


s 








00 




00 


CO 


"^ 


rH 


in 


iil 


rt 


iil 


iil 


|ii 





Engineering Department. 



93 



•»1< 


r-l 


n 


O) 


GO 


CO 


CO 


o> 


o 


I-H 


to 


00 


CO 


I-l 


o 


lO 












CO 


00 


00 


m 


>o 


CI 


t- 


1» 


-* 


IN 


00 














IN 


IN 














»o 




on 


•* 


■^ 


<M 


^ 


t- 


00 


•* 


to 


o> 


^ 


co 


o 


CO 


o> 


IN 




1^ 






lO 






■^ 


uo 


t-. 


Ol 




o» 


CO 


t^ 


3 


CO 


« 


CO 


•* 


CO 


■>!• 


■>!• 
















CO 


































n 


oo 


« 


^ 


t- 


to 


•^ 


I3> 


IN 


>« 


__l 


•* 


^ 


m 


i« 












o 


»o 


to 






o 


r-t 




to 


*t< 


5 


CO 


■^ 


M 


CO 




(M 








•'J' 




l— 






§ 



































00 


-t 


o 


^ 


o 


^ 


•* 


o> 


o> 


o 


ei 


IN 


'Jl 


^_, 


■* 


o> 


^ 










^ 


CO 


o> 


o 


o 




_( 


00 


to 


00 


us 


IN 






« 




IN 


IN 




o 








■* 


IN 


tH 




-V 


c» 


la 


^ 


o 


■* 


^ 


o> 


to 


^ 


o 


e^ 


oo 


00 


00 


^ 




1^ 


^ 










T-« 










00 




US 


t- 




CO 






l-< 




r-t 




■» 


CO 


f-t 








00 




00 


•a 


■* 


o> 


•« 


t' 


o 


(N 


■* 


CO 


o> 


I-l 


o> 


o 


CO 


^ 






j^ 




Ift 






to 


to 


f-l 


la 


f-i 


CO 


o 


CO 


o 






■* 










« 


CO 


IN 










a> 




to 


IM 


to 


to 


00 


00 


^ 


o> 


o 


a> 


tr- 


^ 


IN 


^ 


o 


CO 




o 


s 


CO 


•^ 




!N 


I-H 


ira 


CO 


■* 


•*^ 


CO 


'-' 


us 


^ 


00 


^ 


to 


o 


o 


^ 


IN 


__l 


a> 


<N 


^ 


lO 


OJ 


•<1" 


us 


o 






o 


.o 


o 


"-• 


CO 


<N 


'^ 


■^ 


'-' 


<31 


lO 


o 


^ 


^ 


o 


^ 


^ 


CO 


■# 


lO 


CO 


OO 


IH 


rH 


•<* 


CO 


IN 


en 


00 


c« 


1^ 






^ 




>ra 


1^ 


o 


t^ 


o> 


O 


>o 


«~ 


t-^ 


CO 


CO 


<N 






1-1 




CO 


tl> 




CO 


t- 




r-l 






o 


































to 


oo 


CI 


>o 


t- 


o 


o 


« 


o> 


Oi 


00 


I-l 


tn 


to 


^_, 


t- 






f^ 


l^ 








,_, 








^ 




^r 






CO 


CO 


CO 


-* 


-* 


■* 




us 


CO 


CO 


lO 


CO 


CO 




iH 
































oo 


CO 


^ 


^ 


to 


CO 


CO 


CO 


^ 


o 




iC 


t- 


oo 


-* 


•* 


wY 






«o 






T_, 


t-. 


(» 


cr 




o 


«s 


m 




























































I-l 






^ 




^ 


o 


00 


Oi 


^ 


en 


o 


^ 


o 


(3) 


CO 


^ 


^ 


^_ 


o 


oo 








CO 


c^i 


T-. 


f'l 


,-, 


^^ 




to 


»o 


^ 


05 


cx> 


f^ 












o 






o 








CO 




IN 


Ol 






























CO 




CO 


o> 


CO 


■* 


CI 


CO 


00 


o 


^ 


-^ 


a> 


>o 


^ 


lO 


O 


CO 






:? 






t^ 




OD 


CO 




,-H 


00 


IfJ 


CO 
























































I-l 








c, 




>n 


o 


IN 


00 


I-" 


to 


<N 


lO 


o 


o 


00 


to 


iO 


CO 


CO 


o 


,-4 


,_4 




,_, 










IN 


IN 




to 


s 








CJ 


CO 












IN 


00 










































































I-l 





rH d CO 



CO OO CO CO 00 CO 



oo CO CO oo CO 



94 



City Document No. 10. 






^9 




s 


,_! 








O 


,^ 


in 


o 


O 


in 


in 


in 






^ 






















































CO 




Tf 


to 




to 
















C4 


o 




CO 


CO 




OJ 




OJ 


w 


t. 


O 


1^ 


CO 


in 


o> 


-<* 


o 


r-1 


»n 


CO 


CO 


r-t 


,H 


01 


•* 


OI 


CO 


CO 










»-» 


l-H 


»-t 


r-t 


iH 




r-t 


rH 


t-( 


»-t 


f-t 


















o 


iH 


Ha 














































^^ 














































. 


o 


to 


00 


^ 


a 


t- 


05 


■* 


O 


in 


in 


in 


in 


lO 


O 




o 


o 


























































■<» 










r— 


I-* 




t- 










Tf 


Ol 


o 






Ol 




iH 


to 


o 


>o 




3 


t. 




00 


tX 


Oi 


"M 


(^ 


CO 


CO 




i_ 


o 


CO 




f^ 


00 








H 


•^ 






■* 




•* 






tH 


■<» 


■* 




in 


Tjl 


m 


■^ 


■* 


^ 




ro 


■* 








o 


t- 


■^ 


00 


00 


to 


O 








o 


in 






in 












t> 


















































00 








OJ 






T-H 


I— 


05 




CO 




CO 






00 


00 






fi 


o 


CO 


o 


to 


Tf 


(^^ 


CO 


(N 


CO 


m 


IM 


Til 


CO 




CO 


in 


?3 


*"* 


•<» 


■* 


CO 


CO 






-* 


CO 


-K 


(M 


in 


^ 


»- 


o 


in 


in 


in 


o 


in 


o 


o 


o 


o 




m 


CD 


.H 


^ 
























































i^ 










o 




to 














■c* 




O 


t^ 


•^ 


o 


o 


^^ 


O) 


r-l 


rj< 


" 


T-l 


C-l 


to 


■^ 


IM 


^■^ 


CO 


*"* 


CO 


m 


C4 


» 


§ 


■<» 




o 


^ 


.n 


t- 


05 


O 


in 


■a< 


o 


o 


in 


in 


in 


o 


in 


o 


o 


o 


U5 


in 


^ 


o 
















































t) 






>» 


^ 






ai 


O 


to 


-* 


o 








IM 


in 


oo 


rH 


o 


CO 


o 


"^ 


O 


■* 


n 


00 


to 


O 


CO 


<N 


IM 


in 


e^ 


m 


CO 


IM 


■"ai 


■^ 


o 


CO 


'"' 


•^ 


m 


in 


^ 










^ 






^ 


^ 








m 




in 




o 


o 


O 


in 


in 


OJ 


lO 
















































P. 




«c 






cc 


CD 


CD 


t- 


in 


00 


"* 


Cl 










CO 








CO 


=>. 


OQ 


CO 


T» 


o 


" 


" 


*"* 


<M 


GO 


" 


o 


'~' 


IM 


" 


CO 


■* 


to 


IM 


o» 


i-i 


OJ 


to 


OT 










^ 


m 












in 






in 


in 


in 


in 


o 


in 


o 


to 


IM 


S 
<1 






















































lA 


o 


CO 


to 




to 


i—i 








1— ' 




i~- 










■^ 


o 


*^ 


CO 


to 


to 


■* 


*"* 


" 


o 


'^ 


I- 


•* 


in 


to 


1* 


CO 


-f 


-* 


m 


OJ 


s 


<* 










^ 












in 


in 


in 




in 


o 


o 


m 


o 


o 


in 


F-l 


o 


X 






































•— 












Ol 


o> 




C-1 


CO 




to 














T 












t* 


•^ 


CO 


a> 


0^) 


(N 


CO 


to 


(M 


'^ 


<M 


CO 


*"* 


CO 


CO 


*"* 


00 


<M 


CO 


T* 


OI 


CO 


^ 


CO 








.n 










^ 




in 




in 




in 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


in 


o 


I-t 
















































!>> 








1— 






to 




^ 


c» 












t— 


t- 




rH 


GO 




•-S 


to 


C) 


(N 


CO 


CO 


(N 


in 


*"* 


C^ 


CO 


IM 


•^ 


IM 


IM 


IM 


OJ 


CO 


O) 


Ol 


^~' 


5 


0< 
















^ 








in 




in 


in 


in 


o 


o 


in 


o 


in 


CO 


in 
















































o 








lO 


CO 


in 


o 


T-" 


^ 


■* 


Ol 












in 


CO 








M 


(N 


CO 


o 


'"' 


'^ 


CO 


in 


^ 


CO 


CO 


OI 


^^ 


-* 


c< 


in 


o» 


in 


to 


■* 


to 


CO 
























in 


lO 


lO 


in 




in 


o 


o 


in 


M5 


J^ 


•* 


















































IM 


i—t 






t— 




o 


00 




-* 
















(» 






CO 




<5 


n 


^ 


CO 


o 


^ 


CO 


<N 


i-t 


■^ 


^ 


CO 


IM 


>* 


t< 


CO 


o< 


CO 


o 


CO 


CO 


s 


ej 


^* 














O 






o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


.ra 


in 


in 


o 


o 


in 


o 


•* 












































g 




TJ" 


CO 


to 


F-* 


CO 










o 


CD 


01 
















'^. 




s 




,^ 






i£5 




lO 




I-) 


•^ 


f-l 


CO 


1* 


to 


<N 


t- 


CO 


^ 


03 


iH 


oo 


■* 


s 














































g 


O 


CO 


CO 


IM 

in 


o 


to 
to 


to 


to 


in 


CO 


o 

IM 


g 


in 

CD 


in 
to 


§ 
in 


CO 


o 

14 


in 

Oi 


o 

s 


to 
to 


CO 
OJ 


« 


^ 


o 


in 


CO 


CO 


■* 


■^ 


CO 


to 


CO 


to 


. 


CO 




CO 




CO 


<» 


CO 


00 




a 

a 


§ 


g 


o 

IN 


<N 

n 


00 


to 
in 


tc 


o> 


o 


m 
o 


o 


to 

CO 


i 


o 
in 


o 

CO 


§ 


o 

o 


o 






to 


i 


Cl 


■^ 


CO 


>a 


(M 


CO 


in 


m 


(M 


in 


-^ 


to 


o 


" 


o 


Ol 




in 


Ci 


•>* 


^ 




B 






































■ 






m 














































Ml 


H 














































t^ 






































• 




CS 


fc4 

> 




^ 


CO 


t- 


00 


a> 


o 




s 


?^ 


Jrl 


in 


to 




00 


CO 


8 


s 


OJ 


s 


OJ 


H 


< 




s 


s 


00 


00 


00 


en 

r-t 




s 




OJ 


a 


s 




^ 


s 


S 


r^ 


tH 









Engineering Department. 



95 



18 


a 


-* 


«o 


.ra 


in 


CO 


CO 


CO 


3 


,_« 


00 


t^ 


CD 


CO 


o 




,_ 


1^1 




















































1- 


'"• 








CO 


-* 




CO 








»-l 


-11 


CO 


IM 


c-i 


O 


I—' 


lO 


CO 




f>i 


I— 1 


l-H 


e-i 


r-1 


o 


l-H 


r-l 


o 


1— I 


rH 


O 


f-t 


to 


t- 


m 


r-l 


IH 


r^ 


f^ 


CO 


CI 


o >. 










































■^ 




S3 














































^"= 
















































00 


00 


>- 


^ 


in 


IM 


m 


■M 


oo 


tC 


CO 


in 


^ 


o> 


CO 






































































1* 


I— 


*— 


i.t 


*-i 


r-l 


t— 










o 


05 


CO 


I- 


^H- 




?o 


CI 


o 


o 


n 


•n 


o 


CO 


IM 


o 


CO 


,—1 


CO 


00 


IM 


.4> 


in 




CD 


j^ 




^ 




^ 


ci 


ir 






Oi 


CO 


















IM 


CO 




CI 


<N 




<N 


r-l 


5 






^ 






^ 


.n 


C-> 


CO 


^ 


in 


o 


11 








^ 




^, 




^ 








6 


































































o 


00 


^H 




o 


t— 


a> 


CO 


^ 


<N 






« 


" 


o 


IN 


" 


o 


o 


" 


O 


o 


" 


e-j 


^ 


" 


in 


CO 


*"* 


o 


o 


l-H 


rH 


CO 


'^ 




00 


00 


J_ 


IM 


in 


-n 


ei 


IM 


"* 


(M 


CO 


^_^ 


to 




^ 






Mt 










g 






































































CO 


«- 








CI 


lO 




CD 


•» 


iz; 


o 


"^ 


<N 


p« 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


(M 


iH 


o 


•* 


eo 


<M 


o 


•^ 


o 


'^ 


oi 
CI 


^ 




(S 


1^ 


r^ 


^ 


CO 


^ 


^ 


_l, 


^_J 


« 


a-. 


O 


o» 


.-, 
































































C5 


t-" 








'-I 


'-' 








t— I 


in 


IM 






l-H 


O 


CO 


CI 




<D 


OS 




O 


" 


o 


f-i 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


CO 


IM 


rji 


o 


o 


o 


O 


^ 


o 




00 


oo 


CO 


^ 


CO 


CO 


o 


o 


t— 


CD 


o> 




^ 


















. 




















































CO 












in 


r-* 












■^ 


r- 


CO 


CO 


.-( 


C^ 




•* 


OQ 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


O 


o 


"^ 


'"' 


O 


o 


o 


o 


d 


OO 


d 


ti 


CO 


CO 


as 


CO 


in 


-^ 


Ml 


en 


o 


00 


m 


ro 


IM 
































































3 


1— 


t~ 






t- 




CI 






T 


-t 






CO 


O 


IM 


IM 


in 


CO 


CO 


CO 


in 


<5 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


IM 


O 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 




CO 


OS 


o 


O) 


^ 


in 


CO 


'f 


CO 


o> 


^ 


CD 


1* 


































































s 














•^ 


r-i 






I— 1 














CO 








CO 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


*"* 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


CO 


d 


•-s 


_J 


CO 


^^ 


CO 


CO 


CO 


o 


CO 


CO 


Ol 


o 


o 




(X 


00 






m 




























































CO 


















1- 






0-. 


t- 


t- 




t- 


00 


» 


l-H 


o 


T-i 


o 


o 


o 


c< 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


"^ 


o 


o 


o 


o 


d 


CD 


d 




o 


^_, 


C-l 


t- 


t^ 


^ 


^' 


-* 


CO 


oo 


CO 


in 


en 


(M 








.n 
























































ce 


r~* 




■^ 


** 






• - 






CO 








CTi 






o 




*-• 


'* 


00 


= 


S 


l» 


c^ 


fl 


<M 


" 


o 


" 


IM 


" 


i-l 


IM 


'^ 


" 


<M 


*"* 


CI 


" 


(N 


*o 


^ 


T* 


ci 




« 


CO 


IM 


^ 


o> 


t» 


Ol 


1^ 


o 


in 


eo 


^ 


IM 


CO 


^ 






























































0< 

<1 




CD 


l-H 


CO 






CO 


"^ 


CO 




r-i 


M 






^ 


IM 






CO 




o 


s 


o 


o 


■^ 


C) 


m 


IM 


" 


" 


IM 


■* 


CO 


CO 


-* 


■* 


IM 


CO 


■^ 


*"■ 


CO 


CI 


- 


co' 




<M 


^ 


o 


to 


CO 


^__, 


IM 


-f 


CO 


(M 


in 


IM 


CO 




CO 


ro 
































































CI 


u^ 


c^ 


r-l 


-f 


•-' 




CO 


I— 






r-l 


1— 


CO 


-r 


en 


-f 


l^ 


C-. 


o 


o 


IS 


CI 


t~ 


00 


o 


TJI 


IM 


t— 


in 


CM 


CO 


IM 


CO 


in 


in 


cq 


o 


i. 






rr; 


^ 












































o 














































^ 






^ 


m 


Ol 


IM 


CO 


IM 


^ 








«■> 






































































,"" 






iri 




t^ 


(5) 




CO 




t— 






•n 


C-l 


o 




o 


O 


-»< 


-in 


o 




fn 


C^ 


(N 




CO 


(N 


IM 


IM 


CO 


" 


•* 


<M 


^- 


•* 


eo 


"^ 


(N 


in 


*"* 


(N 




cb 


ci 




^ 


^ 


-t 


CO 


C. 


O 


o 


CO 


^ 


in 


^ 


co 






































































*~* 


'"' 


l"" 


CI 


IM 




t~" 


C-1 




l-- 


C^ 


CO 


CO 


00 


ro 




CO 




I— 


c* 


s 


^ 


-i 


o 






CO 




IM 


o 


c« 


<=■ 


" 


IM 


o 


■* 


'"' 


I* 


<N 


in 


cc 


o 


rH 




ci 


PS 








'.' 






































■< 


























































































bo 


! ^ 










































3 


2 

> 


1 


in 


to 


t- 


CO 


O 


O 


f-l 


■M 


CO 
















,^ 


f^l 






H 
































oo 


a» 










1 


S 




s 


i^ 


s 




IH 




i^ 


t^ 




1-1 


IH 


IH 


iH 




00 
l-H 


CO 


I-* 


CO 
r-l 







96 



City Document No. 10. 



TABLE XXII. 

Percentage of Rainfall Collected on Sudbury River Water-shed, 
1875 to 1894. 



Year. 


a 

3 

n 

03 


3 
0) 


1 

a 
3 


p. 

<; 

162.9 


1 

59.5 


9 

a 
s 
•-s 

24.0 


16.0 


1 

1= 
< 


1 

s 

<v 
m 


a 
o 
o 
O 


o 

s 

o 


u 

XI 

a 

o 

ft 


in 

a 


.So 


1S75. 






7.6 


76.5 


76.5 


12.8 


10.4 


23.8 


46.5 


110.7 


44.9 


16.0 


1876. 






62.7 


54.2 


106.5 


135.4 


73.5 


18.8 


3.6 


42.0 


6.9 


18.6 


32.6 


22.3 


48.2 


10.1 


1877. 






36.5 


206.9 


102.7 


120.3 


67.0 


42.5 


12.2 


5.9 


31.9 


13.2 


42.2 


264.4 


57.9 


11.7 


1878. 






57.3 


66.5 


133.4 


48.5 


260.2 


22.5 


77 


12.2 


21.5 


14.3 


41.6 


89.0 


52.6 


12.9 


1879. 






50.4 


77.4 


80.9 


114.1 


125.8 


18.8 


7.1 


10.8 


12.9 


15.e 


13.2 


19.0 


45.3 


10.3 


1880. 






56.0 


74.9 


73.9 


65.0 


50.0 


14.2 


5.0 


5.3 


8.6 


4.8 


19.9 


11.0 


31.9 


5.4 


1881. 






13.3 


53.6 


124.6 


133.4 


49.0 


42.8 


21.0 


19.4 


13.0 


11.2 


16.7 


34.9 46.6 


15.4 


1882. 






37.2 


85.2 


191.2 


82.1 


45.5 


54.9 


8.7 


b.'.' 


6.0 


25.7 


31.5 


24.5 


45.9 


9.2 


1883. 






21.2 


43.0 


161.4 


126.3 


40.0 


21.6 


7.7 


19.1 


10.4 


5.9 


19.5 


'9.7 


34.1 


7.9 


1884. 






34.9 


72.5 


143.1 


111.8 


53.0 


20.9 


10.9 


9.8 


8.9 


6.0 


11.4 


31.9 


50.5 


9.3 


1885. 






46.8 


56.4 


262.1 


86.9 


68.4 


25.7 


7.8 


6.0 


14.7 


11.8 


33.3 


77.0 


43.4 


8.9 


1886. 






40.9 


123.2 


101.7 


151.1 


42.9 


23.9 


6.3 


4.1 


7.0 


8.0 


25.0 


36.6 


49.5 


6.2 


1887. 






88.8 


95.3 


104.4 


106.0 


154.5 


26.9 


5.5 


7.2 


14.5 


12.0 


23.8 


29.6 


56.7 


8.5 


1888. 






45.3 


88.3 


95.9 


188.3 


60.3 


28.7 


14.9 


10.9 


23.2 


71.4 


65.9 


100.6 


62.2 


30.4 


1889. 






92.4 


116.4 


100.9 


71.4 


53.3 


40.3 


12.6 


61.2 


30.9 


51.6 


53.3 


127.3 


58^ 


33.2 


1890. 






88.4 


70.3 


84.0 


122.3 


46.8 


4S.3 


7.8 


6.1 


13.2 


38.6 


174.7 


33.5 


50.9 


2.3.1 


1891. 






76.7 


107.3 


122.7 


106.0 


51.7 


18.9 


7.8 


6.1 


14.7 


9.8 


17.0 


26.3 


55.8 


8.9 


1892. 






57.0 


50.1 


85.9 


181.1 


40.2 


26.8 


90 


11.3 


13.9 


19.2 


20.7 


76.9 


39.3 


11.8 


1893 . . 






26.4 


30.3 


157.7 


101.7 


77.8 


31.9 


11.0 


5.9 


10.8 


9.7 


25.1 


29.2 


45.2 


8.6 


1894. 






30.2 


40.8 


278.2 


82.9 


35.4 


62.6 


8.8 


18.4 

280.4 
14.0 


9.8 
283.2 
14.2 


12.5 

383.7 

19.2 


42.1 
756.0 
37.8 


26.5 

1180.9 

59.0 


40.7 
959.8 

48.0 ! 

I 


12.0 


Totals. . 


970.0 


1589.1 


2587.7 
129.4 


2297.5 
114.9 


1454.8 


615.0 


191.4 
9.6 


259.8 


Averages . 


48.5 


79.5 


72.7 


30.7 


13.00 



Engixekking Department. 



97 



X 



H 


Si 






h^ 


"=i 


» 


s 


< 


S 


H 






►>^ 




8 





















•o 


s 


lO 




■« 


m 


»n 






o 


1« 


























5 














11 

^3 


f^ 


c^ 










Ol 


to 


t- 


o 


o> 














■^ 














,_ 




c^ 


to 


rH 


o 


tc 


CO 


f-H 


CO 


'j! 


<6 


^ 














rH 


f-i 




















IN 




•*-i 


















































.1-1 












xn 








o 






ira 


2 


_C0 








































o 


CO 


^ 


03 


1-H 




















r-t 






*T 


t"" 










,_l 




,-t 






o 


to 


to 


o 


o 


k^ 


Ol 


•^ 


OJ 


CO 


3 




o 


CO 


CO 


■* 


CO 


CO 


■* 


•» 


•^ 


















"t" 


H 




















































o 






>« 


K5 
















o 


o> 


o 

ft 








































CO 








(N 


a> 






CO 


»o 


Cl 






-* 


T-l 








"^ 


TJ- 


CO 


M 


CO 


(N 


M 


'S' 


IN 


^ 


CO 


o 


IN 


■^ 


CO 


^ 


-:)< 


CO 


s 


CO 






































r^ 


_J, 


|2i 


















to 












3 




o> 










o> 






Ol 


o 


CO 








to 




to 


IM 








o 


<N 


■^ 


CO 


'"' 


*"* 


n 


<o 


-* 


CO 


to 


la 


" 


»« 


■^ 


IN 


CO 


9. 


CO 






























,- 


,n 






•o 


•n 


















IN 




tK 




o» 


•* 


CO 


CO 








to 




OJ 








OJ 


*^" 






00 


















I'- 




O 


■* 


o 


e^ 


c-i 


*"* 


o 


(N 


m 


CJ 


CO 


■* 


CO 


CO 


-* 


t-i 


tH 


ire 


to 


CO 


















,n 








.n 






.o 






lO 


OJ 
















o 


IN 




o 




o 






o 










. o< 






rp 


1— 1 


CO 


•^r 






a> 










^H 










=2 


CD 


CO 


" 


■^ 


<N 


cc 


*"* 


o 


*"* 


IN 


" 


" 


■* 


CO 


c^ 


c-1 


IN 


cj 




n 






















iO 
















in 


to 


a 
<1 








































lO 


■^ 


« 


o 


o 


<» 


OD 


O) 




o> 










00 




»n 




o 


•^ 


lO 


CO 


o 


'~' 


o 


■^ 


■o 


CO 


^ 


to 


CO 


CO 


CO 


■« 


O 


oi 


00 

to 


•* 






















,r. 




lO 


to 




>o 






m 


.n 


>. 














CI 


■* 










to 














•o 


CO 








t- 






1— 










I-H 




1^ 




rH 




"-5 


CO 


N 


"^ 


c<> 


e^ 


<N 


CO 


IN 


CO 


to 


IN 


« 


IN 


CO 


IN 


IN 


CO 


5 


CO 


























to 












O 


■N 




















-t 
















c^ 


CO 








o> 


■* 




o 




to 


-* 














•— ' 










3 






rH 


to 


c^ 


l-H 


•.^ 


■^ 


t-H 


IN 


IN 


CO 


CO 


■>* 


^ 


IN 


o 


I-l 


CO 


►^ 






























































>n 








1(5 






.n 


tH 










































C8 


CO 




o 


Oi 




UO 


o 


cn 


a> 










•^ 












o 


'"' 


d 


IN 


-* 


CO 


IN 


CO 


Cl 


*"■ 


uo 


■* 


to 


IN 


ta 


to 


IS 


to 


CO 






















.n 


















3 










































fl 


t— 


o 






f-t 


•* 




•^ 








to 




r-l 


00 










<1 




rl< 


M 


'^ 


(M 


n 


CO 


CO 


IN 


■* 


M 


CO 


<N 


CO 


o 


CO 


CO 


o 


CO 


^ 

2 






















>« 








in 






.o 


■fl" 






























o 


lO 


Oi 






OS 




-* 




■^ 




C-1 


I-« 






f— ' 




to 










■^ 


t— 


d 
















T-t 


M 


lO 


iO 


e^ 


to 


to 


•* 


C4 


r-t 


CO 


CO 


S 




















































,n 
















UO 


UO 






..o 


■N 


^ 
^ 




























t* 


















to 




o 


o 




rH 




C4 
















N 


o 


IN 


•>»• 


CO 


•* 


CO 


to 


CO 


'^ 


•* 


CO 


t-H 


CO 


la 


CO 


t- 


CO 




■*■ 






















.n 




Iffl 


lO 


■o 


•o 






o 


CO 


c 

d 
















CO 








o 
















o 










to 






CO 












»rt 






Ift 




o 


'^ 


<N 


>o 


O 


M 


•<* 


•* 


to 


lO 


-* 


X5 


IN 


to 


■* 


(N 


CO 


■* 


•* 


a 








































< 






































9 






































13 


2 
2 










^ 


ri 








to 


(_ 


00 


o> 


o 


,J 


■N 


CO 


"# 


3 


^ 








































00 


CO 


S 


s 


2 


c« 


CO 








s 






ii^ 




f-l 









98 



City Document No. 10. 



TAULE XXIV. 

Rainfall Collected, in Inches, on Mystic Water-shed, 1878 to 1894. 



Year. 


u 

3 

a 

CS 


a . 
B 

3.97 


4.91 


<i 
2.21 


a 
2.16 


o 
a 

3 
•-5 

0.78 


"a 
0.48 


3 
bo 

3 

1.11 


.o 
S 

£ 

o 
GQ 

0.56 


o 
.o 
o 

O 
0.71 


S 
B 
o 

1.75 


C 

o 

s 


"5 

o 


3 3 


1878 


3.55 


3.63 


25.82 


2.86 


18"?i 










1.21 


2.33 


3.31 


3.97 


1.95 


0.97 


0.54 


0.70 


0.48 


0.34 


0.45 


0.69 


16.94 


2.06 


1880 










1.70 


2.54 


1.95 


1.50 


0.96 


0.51 


0.67 


0.54 


0.45 


0.36 


0.44 


0.59 


12.21 


2.02 


1881 










0.82 


2.14 


6.79 


2.17 


1.51 


2.05 


0.87 


0.35 


0.31 


0.29 


0.50 


0.87 


18.67 


1.82 


1882 










1.37 


3.03 


4.19 


1.16 


1.85 


0.81 


0.35 


0.22 


0.53 


0.58 


0.39 


0.57 


15.05 


1.68 


1883 










0.70 


1.43 


1.88 


1.63 


1.20 


0.52 


0.30 


0.22 


0.18 


0.39 


0.42 


0.44 


9.31 


1.09 


1884 










1.49 


3.89 


5.42 


3.85 


1.48 


0.85 


0.58 


0.60 


0.23 


0.27 


0.35 


1.17 


20.18 


1.68 


1885 










1.79 


1.81 


2.05 


2.03 


2.18 


0.86 


0.47 


0.54 


0.34 


0.68 


2.41 


2.39 


17.55 


2.03 


1886 










2.31 


7.70 


3.91 


3.24 


1.27 


0.55 


0.41 


0.25 


0.32 


0.38 


0.88 


1.43 


22.65 


1.36 


1887 










3.16 


3.61 


3.60 


3.75 


1.89 


1.27 


0.87 


1.35 


0.48 


0.57 


0.71 


0.91 


22.17 


3.27 


188S 










1.43 


3.32 


4.28 


3.27 


2.88 


0.84 


0.39 


0.54 


1.31 


2.74 


5.04 


5.08 


31.12 


4.98 


1889 










4.51 


1.83 


1.60 


2.27 


2.18 


1.89 


1.33 


2.05 


1.06 


1.21 


2.49 


3.06 


25.48 


5.65 


1890 










2.07 


2.23 


5.37 


2.93 


3.00 


1.92 


0.43 


0.46 


0..58 


2.61 


1.95 


2.49 


26.04 


4.08 


1891 










6.29 


5.97 


7.21 


3.43 


1.40 


1.01 


0.42 


0,44 


0.42 


0.58 


0.56 


0.87 


28.60 


1.86 


1892 










2.49 


1.76 


3.03 


1.33 


2.10 


1.17 


0.66 


0.49 


0.56 


0.45 


1.07 


0.87 


15.98 


2.16 


1893 










0.75 


2.14 


4.52 


2.72 


4.42 


1.04 


0.47 


0.69 


0.41 


0.55 


0.71 


1.27 


19.69 


2.T2 


1894 










1.37 


1.87 


3.05 


2.27 


1.31 


0.91 


0.49 


0.38 


0.36 


0.58 


0.91 


0.90 


14.40 


1.81 


Totals 


37.01 


51.57 


67.07 


43.73 


33.74 


17.95 


9.73 


10.93 


8.58 


13.29 


21.03 


27.23 


341.86 


42.53 


Averages . . . 


2.18 


3.03 


3.95 


2.57 


1.98 


1.06 


0.57 


0.64 


0.51 


0.78 


1.24 


1.60 


20.11 


2.50 



Engineering Department. 



9y 



TABLE XXV. 

Percentage of Rainfall Colleded on Mystic Water-shed, 1878 to 1894. 



Year. 


'3, 

3 

a 


a 

3 
.Q 


3 






a 

3 

>-> 




3 
3 


a 
.a 

a 

a 

a. 
« 


u 

a> 

o 

ts 

o 


a 

o 


a 




SO 

2 3 


1878 . 






62.6 


69.2 


125.0 


38.6 


322.9 


29.6 


13.5 


14.8 


17.7 


14.3 


30.8 


74.9 


47.8 


14.9 


1879 . 






66.6 


85.4 


93.9 


85.3 


104.9 


24.5 


22.6 


12.8 


29.7 


44.2 


16.2 


18.6 


48.0 


20.1 


1880 . 






64.9 


60.1 


78.4 


68.8 


47.3 


34.3 


9.2 


14.7 


31.7 


13.5 


22.9 


23.8 


35.5 


13.5 


1881 , 






14.2 


58.9 


101.5 


141.1 


50.7 


29.9 


33.3 


51.9 


14.1 


13.6 


14.3 


26.3 


44.5 


23.9 


1882 . 






24.8 


64.8 


168.4 


55.0 


40.4 


38.6 


14.9 


20.8 


6.3 


30.0 


22.2 


25.5 


38.4 


12.3 


1883 . 






26.1 


46.7 


84.8 


65.9 


33.5 


31.8 


10.8 


25.7 


12.1 


7.2 


21.1 


14.7 


29.8 


10.3 


1884 . 






31.5 


63.9 


127.3 


121.2 


50.2 


18.3 


15.5 


12.4 


33.5 


9.9 


17.4 


25.6 


45.5 


14.0 


1885 . 






37.1 


53.3 


174.5 


58.8 


55.3 


19.6 


22.8 


9.2 


23.7 


12.2 


38.2 


113.6 


39.4 


13.6 


1886 . 






36.6 


107.3 


101.9 


154.3 


43.0 


35.5 


11.1 


7.8 


10.7 


13.4 


21,7 


29.7 


49.7 


10.7 


1887 . 






60.2 


80.8 


72.0 


81.3 


112.0 


47.3 


13.2 


27.1 


32.0 


18.7 


23.4 


25.6 


47.8 


20.3 


1888 . 






35.2 


101.3 


82.5 


115.2 


56.6 


38.1 


17.5 


8.8 


15.3 


55.3 


73.6 


96.4 


54.8 


22.7 


1889 , 






81.8 


98.2 


70.2 


63.0 


46.9 


57.0 


15.8 


52.2 


22.5 


33.7 


44.1 


107.0 


50.6 


27.3 


1890 . 






75.6 


66.0 


80.4 


121.8 


47.6 


56.9 


19.0 


12.7 


15.6 


29.5 


141.2 


53.5 


52.8 


22.1 


1891 . 






100.7 


117.6 


118.7 


109.0 


57.0 


22.8 


13.3 


11.3 


19.3 


12.1 


21.7 


25.6 


60.3 


13,3 


1892 . 






55.0 


58.5 


75.7 


163.6 


37.5 


28.3 


25.7 


10.2 


27.7 


24.3 


23.1 


75.2 


40.9 


19.2 


1893 . 






33.3 


28.6 


177.3 


80.7 


70.6 


49.5 


23.2 


12.6 


20.5 


13.4 


31.5 


29.1 


44.5 


15.6 


1894 . 






34.8 


56.5 


280.1 


65.4 


25.3 


125.8 


14.2 


15.1 


14.3 


10.5 


26.0 


22.7 


36.7 


12.9 










































Totals . . 


841.0 


1217.1 


2012.6 


1589.0 


1201.7 


687.8 


295.6 


320.1 


346.7 


355.8 


589.4 


787.8 


767.0 


286.7 


Averages . 


49.5 


71.6 


118.4 


93.5 


70.7 


40.5 


17.4 


18.8 


20.4 


20.9 


34.7 


46.3 


45.1 


16.9 



100 



City Document No. 10. 



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Engineering Department. 



101 



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CO 00 00 CO 00 



102 City Document No. 10. 

SUMMARY OF STATISTICS. 

REPORT FOR 1894. 



Boston Water- AYorks, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, 
supplies also the cities of Somerville, Chelsea, and Everett. 

Population by census of 1890 : 

Boston 448,477 

Chelsea 27,909 

Somerville 40,152 

Everett 11,068 



Total 527,606 

Date of construction : 

Cochituate Works 1848 

Mystic "... . . . 1864 

By whom owned. — City of Boston. 

Sources of supply. — Lake Cochituate, Sudbury river, and 

Mystic lake. 
Mode of supply. — Sixty-five per cent, from gravity works. 
Thirty-five " " pumping " 

Pumping. 

Cochituate. Mystic. 

Builder of pumping 

machinery . . Holly Mfg. Co., H. R. Worthington. 

and Quintard 
Iron Works. 
Description of coal used : 

a Kind . . Bituminous. Bituminous, 

c Size . . Broken. Broken. 

e Price per gross 

ton, in ]um . $4.40, $4.52 $4.45, $3.85, 

<|po. '0, ^0.^0 
/ Per cent, of ash, 7.4 11.2 

Cochituate. Mystic. 

Coal consumed for year, in 

lbs 4,637,660 8,763,800 

Total pumpage for year, in 

gallons .... 3,795,830,595 3,751,418,700 
Average dynamic head, in 

feet . . . . 126.18 148.62 

Gallons pumped per lb. of 

coal .... 818.6 428.1 

Duty in foot-lbs. per 100 

lbs. of coal . . . 86,459,300 53,057,500 



Engineering Department. 



1J3 



Cost of panipin£r fisfnred on 
piiniping-statiou expenses, 
viz. : . . . . 

Cost ]ior million gallons 
raised to reservoir 

Cost per million gallons 
raised one foot hish 



COCHITUATE. 

,131.78 

$6.62 

$0,052 



Consumption. 

Estimated population . 466,500 

Estimated No. of consumers, 460,000 

Total consumption, gallons, 16,994,405,800 
Passed throuirh meters . 4,077,196,000 



Percentage metered . 

Average daily consumption, 
gallons .... 

Gallons per day, each in- 
habitant 

Gallons per day, each con- 
sumer .... 

Gallons per day to each tap, 

Distribution 
Mains. 

COCHITUATE. 

Cast-Iron. 
. 48 in 



24.0 

46,560,000 

99.8 

101.2 

679.2 



Mystic. 

$32,924.65 

$8,777 
$0,059 

117,400 

116,000 

3,752,970,500 

735,110,000 

19.6 

10,282,100 

87.6 

88.6 
442.1 



Kind of pipe used, < 

Sizes .... 
Extended, miles . 
Total now in use . 
Distribution-pipes less 

than 4 in., length, 

miles 
Hydrants added . 
Hydrants now in use 
Stop-gates added . 
Stop-gates now in use . 

Kind of pipe used, < 

Sizes . 
Extended, feet 
Service-taps added 
Total now in use . 
Meters added 
Meters now in use 
Motors and elevators ii 
use . 



Mystic. 

Cast-iron, Wrought- 
Iron, and Cement, 
to 4 in. 30 in. to 3 in. 

12.75 6.9 

572.80 173.7 



1.7 

175 

6,217 

193 

6,359 



Services 

Lead. 

f in 



to 6 in. 

49,841 

1,970 

68,556 

291 

4,337 

540 



4.7 
148 

1,446 
156 

2,138 

Lead and 

Wrougbt-Iron, 

^ in. lo 4 in. 

18,436 

859 

23,257 

33 

494 

21 



104 City Document No. 10. 

C. 

IMPROVED SEWERAGE. 

The work of extending the Improved Sewerage System 
has been continued as fast as the limited appropriation would 
admit, and the following is a brief review of the work done 
during the past year : 

The condition of the appropriation on February 1, 1895, 
was as follows : 

Net appropriation . . , . . $6,375,404 96 
Total expenditures 6,307,754 96 



Unexpended balance February 1, 1895 . $67,650 00 

The following is a report of the work done : 

Dorchester Intercepting Sewer. 

The Dorchester Intercepting Sewer is now aljout com- 
pleted to Milton Lower Mills, a distance of 150 feet remain- 
ing to be built in Butler street. The work has been carried 
on by day labor with a force of experienced men, who have 
been steadily employed in this department since 1890. A 
force account, carefully kept during the past sunmier, shows 
that the work has been economically done. 

During the year 3,950 linear feet of sewer was con- 
structed, completing Sections 6, 7, and 8. At the crossing 
of Davenport brook special construction was necessary, 
owing to the high grade of the Intercepting Sewer, the bed 
of the brook and the water line of the sew^er being about on 
the same level. The sewer was made of 42-inch iron pipe, 
and the brook carried under it by a siphon culvert with a 
total area of waterway (under the sewer) of 130 square feet. 
Substantial al)utments of masonry were built, forming the 
side walls of the culvert and supporting the ends of the 
pipes, and a centre pier was constructed as an additional 
support for the pipes. Wooden bulkheads extend up and 
down stream from the abutments to contine the banks of the 
brook. 

An overflow into Davenport brook with tide-gates was 
also built at this point. The common sewer in Granite 
avenue has been intercepted, and the sewage from a large 
area in Dorchester which formerly discharged into the Ne- 
ponset river, causing a serious nuisance, now flows to Moon 



IO\(ilM:KlilN(! I)EI'AIiTMK\T. lOi) 

isliind. 'Hu) (irjiuito-avcimc coinnion scwor was carriod 
iiiulcr the Iiilcrccptinu' Sewer hy a si[)li()ii, and will ho used 
a.s an overllow which is controlled \)y a iviiulator and lide- 
<:;atos. 

Section !•, Doiehcster, extends iVoni Granite avenue 
throuuh marsh land alonii" the northerly location line of the 
Old Colony Railway to l'>utler street, a distance of ;'>,(;()() 
feet. 'I'he sewer is of 1 trick, ei>a-shaped, o feet X 4 
feet, the urade heinu' 1 in 2,000. In this section soft 
hiMlti of unid were encountered, and piles were driven i'or a 
foundation to depths varyinu' from <S feet to H() feet for 1,400 
feet in lenuth of the sewer. Care nnist be exercised if, at 
any future tinie, the low land is tilled over or ne;ir the sec- 
tions of sewer supported uj)<)n piles, and any unequal side 
pressure from the tilling must l)c avoided. 

Outfall Sewer. 

The end)ankinent, from the Squantum shore to the east 
shaft of Dorchester J>ay tuimel, h:is Iteen completed to u;rade 
IK); furnishing a roadway, thorougldy protected by ballast 
and ri[)rap, from the shaft to the mainland. 



[()() City Document No. 10. 



D. 

[FROM THE CITY ENGINEER'S REPORT TO THE BOARD OF 
PARK COMMISSIONERS.] 

The Fens. 

Drwefi and Walks. — Tlie drive on the easterly side of 
the Treniont entrance and tlie walk near the water between 
Tremont entrance and Fen bridire have l)een surfaced, and 
the stone-crushinp; |)lant, which for several years has been 
located at this entrance, was removed and (he machinery sold 
early in the season ; also the several small buildinfr:s which 
were located here have been removed, and the grounds 
graded, loamed, and seeded to grass. 

Electric Liglding. — The work of laying undei'ground 
wires and erecting lamps, begun in 18!)o, was Hnished and 
the Fens lighted for the first time on April 27, As this was 
the first instance in this city where underground Avires were 
laid for street or park lighting, a brief description of the 
Avork may be of interest. 

Tar-coated wrought-iron pipes 1^ inches in diameter were 
laid 18 inches below the surface. At points where there 
were abrupt changes of direction and at the foot of each 
lamp-post cast-iron boxes were placed, so that the cable can 
be removed and replaced or connections made without it 
being necessary to dig up the gi'ound. Wherever there are 
loops in the line of the cal)le 2-inch pipes were laid in order 
that two cables could be drawn through them. When the 
pipes were laid, a small wire was drawn through them, to be 
used for drawing through the larger cable. 

The cable is « inch in diameter, and is composed of a No. 
4 B. & S. gauge copper wire, first covered with rubber and 
then with lead. This was drawn through the pipes and lamp- 
posts to the top of the lamp. 

The lamp-posts are of the ordinary city pattern and are 
set in Portland-cement concrete. The supports for the hoods 
are of wrought-iron pipe iiranching from the cap of the posts 
in such a manner that the cable can be readil\' drawn up 
through them. The cable is not exposed at any point until 
the hanging board of the lamp is reached. 

The lamps are 2,Q00-candle power arc lamps. The num- 
ber on the Fens is 45, and the length of calde 18,893 feet. 
In addition to the arc lamjis, fi incandescent lamps of 32- 



ENGiNi:i;i;rN(i Department. 107 

caiidK' power have heen placed uiuUm- llie St()iiy-I)r()()k hridiie 
tor li<j,litiiiii' the walks. 

'IMie i:;i'onii(ls are well li<;lited, Imt pi't)bal)ly some addi- 
tional lights will 1)0 re<juired when the trees are tully 
grown. 

John Jiojjle (/Iteilly /Statue. — A foundation has heen 
huilt tor this statue on the triangle of the junction of lioyl- 
ston road and the Fenway, ;ind a curl) set around the site. 

Covered Channels of Stony Brook and Muddy River. 

These remain in the same condition they were a 3'ear ago. 
Some slight repairs have been made to the gates in the 
Muddy -river gate-chamber. 

I wish to again call attention to the necessity of rebuilding 
the damaged portion of the Muddy-river concluit. 

River WAY. 

Grading. — Considerable grading has been done tluring 
the year, chietly on the left bank of the stream, between it 
and the railroad and Audubon road, also around the Bridle- 
path bridge. 

The work of tilling Audubon road, under tlie contract with 
James Killian, dated December 5, 1893, has been finished, 
there having been deposited 36,844 cul)ic yards, at 4U cents 
per cubic yard. 

Drives, Hide, and Walks. — The drive and ride were 
practically completed in 1893, with the exception of Audu- 
bon road, but owing to the lateness of the season some work 
remained to be done in the spring. Owing to the short time 
in which the filling was allowed to settle before the surfac- 
ing was done, the surface, in a few [)laces, is now so much 
below grade that it will require reconstruction in the near 
future. The walks along the bank of the river have been 
surfaced. 

Plantations. — All of these, except those near the Admin- 
istration building, have been loamed, manured, and planted. 

/>'rid(jes. — Tlie sidewalk on Audubon bridge has been 
laid, the railing built, and the iron-work [)ainted, thus com- 
l)leting this structure. 

The Bridle-path bridge, built under a contract with John- 
son Brothers, dated October 23, 1S1)3, was tinished on August 
13, at a cost of $32,300. The working plans for this bridge 
were made from designs furnished by Messrs. Olmsted, 
Olmsted, c^ Eliot, and Shepley, Rutan, & Coolidge. 

The bridge supports a bridle-[)ath across the waterway and 
walks on either side of the latter. It is 28 feet wide to out- 



108 City DocuiMent No. 10. 

side of paiapclw, with wiiig-Nvalls at each corner llaring at 
angles of GC> degrees. The piers lest on a [)hittbrni con- 
structed of spruce piles c:ipi)ed with 10-inch X lO-inch 
spruce caps crosswise of the channel and covered with 4-ineh 
spruce plank. The ends of the phitform are protected by 
1-inch sheet piling. Tlie ])iers are 30 feet apart and extend 
ah^ig the channel sutticiently to sui)port the hanUs and the 
walks ; the total length of the piers with their wing-walls is 
100 feet. The grade of the platform is 2.5 al)ove city base, 
and the tops of the piers are at grade 15.5. The piers are of 
granite laid in courses, with a cut granite coping on top from 
which the arches spring. 

The central arch is elliptical in form, with a si)an of 30 
feet and a rise of 9 feet 6 inches. The side :irches which 
span the walks are semicircles 15 feet in diameter. The 
width of the piers at the springing line is 4 feet <S inches ; 
the spandrels between the arches are })ierced by semicircular 
openings of a diameter of 15 feet and springing from the 
same grade as the other arches. This longitudinal arch is 
also carried back 2 feet into each abutment to form recesses 
for seats. The openings through the spandrels are to afford 
passages to connect with the foot-bridge to be built across 
the channel, to connect the walks on either side. The abut- 
ments at the end of the bridge have concrete and pile founda- 
tions, the piles being cut oil" at grade 8 and having their tops 
imbedded in the concrete to a depth of one foot. 

The face-work of the bridge above grade 15.5 is of seam- 
face granite, laid as three-headed work, with a belt course of 
red granite 8 inches thick, 2 feet 8 inches l)elow the top of 
the parapet, and with red granite coping. The soffits of the 
arches, except the face voussoirs, are laid with 12-inch X li- 
inch speckled brick. All of the groins are laid with the 
same brick cut and ground to shapes. The remainder of the 
arch-work is of common brick, the thickness of the central 
arch beins: 24 inches and of the side arches 20 inches. The 
spandrels are filled solid with concrete, so that the top of the 
bridge is drained to the abutments. The whole of the top 
of the bridge was covered with cement, then washed with 
cement-wash, and then covered with tarred roofing-paper 
and tar. 

Buildinf/s. — A tool-house and shelter has been erected 
near Bernier street, under the direction of the architects, 
Messrs. Shcpley, Rutan, & Coolidge. It is a circular build- 
ing 24 feet in diameter ; the basement and the piers support- 
ing the roof are of seam-face granite. The basement is to be 
used as a tool-room, and contains bins for the storage of 
material for the repair of walks, etc. The building stands 



P^N(iiNEi:iax(i Dei'artment. loO 

oil sl()i)in<!: uiound t>o lli:it the lloor above the hartciuont ifs on 
a level with the walk ; this floor, which is iiiteutled for a 
shelter for visitors, is of asphalt, and Is covered hy a roof 
snpported on stone i)icrs ; the roof is covered with tiles, and 
scats are i)rovided. 

Electric Luihlhyj. — Under the contract with the Bos- 
ton Electric Light Coni))any for lighting the Fens, such 
further extensions of the lighting along the Parkway as the 
commissioners should rotjuire were to I)e provided uj)on the 
same terms. 

On Kiverway there have heen 7,4oo feet of cable laid and 
lU lamps erected ; and in addition 1 incandescent lamp has 
heen placed under the Bridle-ptith l)ridge. These lamps 
were first lighted on June 1(5. 

Leverett Park. 

Gnidi)!'/. — The work to l»e done under the contract with 
Moulton oi CMahoney, dated Xovemher 2<S, 1891, was com- 
pleted early in the year, and on Ai)ril 27, 18!J4, a new con- 
tract was made with the same firm for doing such additional 
grading as was recjuired aiid for building walls on Perkins 
and Chestiuit streets. The grading has been completed. 

The ledge on the line of the drive has been excavated and 
the stone from it used in surfacing roads and walks, and 
building walls and culverts. The stone-crusher which was 
set up for crushing stone from this ledge has been removed. 

The sloj)e above the wall on the line of the Nickerson 
estate has l)een graded and loamed and a fence erected on 
the top of the baid^. 

Practically all of the grading on this park is completed. 

Jjj'idfjes and Culrerts. — Abridge has been built on the 
line of a fo()t-})ath across the outlet of the.cove on the east- 
erly side of Leverett pond. The bridge is a segmental arch 
of 24 feet span and 5 feet 5 inches rise ; the width to out- 
side of parapets is 18 feet 4 inches. The abutments are of 
concrete, faced with granite : the exi)osed face-work is of 
seam-face granite ; the arch is of l)rick and the coping of red 
granite ; the arch is 2 feet thick, covered with cement and a 
waterproof covering of tar and paper. The bridge was built 
by J. I). Fallon &'Company, at a cost of |9,313.6(). 

The working plans were made from designs of the land- 
scape architects, and Messrs. Shepley, Rutan, & Coolidge, 
architects. 

Seven small culverts were built on the streams connecting 
the various ])onds. 

UetainuKj -walls and Ste})^. — Two walls of rustic masonry 



110 City Documknt No. 10. 

were built by the (lepiirtnient I'orec on the slope above the 
cove on the i^a.steily side ol" Leven^tt pond. The ui)per wall 
supports the bridle-*p:ith, while the; lower wall supports a 
walk alon<>: the base ot" the up})er wall. 

The walls built under tlie contract with INIoullon i& 
O'Mahoney have i)een finished, witii the exceptioji of the 
cement toj) and the j^ointing. These walls are of Uoxbury 
stone, and vary in height from 4 feet to 14 feet, the total 
length of the several sections being 1,3(58 feet; they serve to 
sui)})()rt Perkins street on its lower side and the banks on 
the upper sides of Perkins and Chestnut streets. 

On April 20, 1<S*J4, a contract was made with James 
Killian for the construction of a wall on the easterly line of 
Chestnut street 351 feet in length, and also for a wall on the 
line of the Parkway adjoining the Nickerson estate 523 feet 
in leniith. This work has l)een com[)leted at a cost of 
$9,327^.06. 

Mr. Killian has also built parapet walls and furnished and 
set coping on the walls l)uilt on the northerly side of Perkins 
street. This work is nearly finished. 

Steps to the number of 300 were furnished by the Cape 
Ann Granite Company at a cost of $3,576. These have 
I)een set by the department force in places on the walks 
where they were needed. 

Drainage and Water-jjipes. — All of the drains and 
catch-l)asins required for this park have been built. 

The lowering of the grade of Perkins street necessitated 
the lowering of the water-mains in that street. This work 
was done by the Water Dei)artment at the expense ot the 
Park Department. An 8-inch pipe was also laid frosn the 
jiumping-station through Chestnut and Perkins streets to 
Jamaicaway, it l)eing a portion of the main for supplying 
water for the ponds in Franklin Park. 

Drives, Hide, and Walks. — The drive from Pond ave- 
nue, near Willow pond, to Perkins street was surfaced early 
in the season, and opened to travel on «Tune 1. On the same 
day Perkins street was closed for the purpose of lowering 
the grade of this street and also of Chestnut street. The 
change of grade of Perkins street involved cutting down the 
street at one point 13 feet. Both streets were widened at 
the same time to a minimum width of 45 feet. Chestnut 
street was closed on July 2, and was reopened on October 
15. Perkins street was so far finished as to be opened to 
travel on December 20. 

The drive from Tremont street to the entrance near Wil- 
low pond was not opened until Noveniber 18 on account of 



Knoineeimno Dki'autment. 1 1 1 

tlio delay caused l>y cutting throuirh the ledoe, which re- 
quired tiie I'cMiioval of 7, ()!>(! cul)ic yards of rock. 

The Bridle-path and a large part of the walUs have been 
tinishcd. 

An Aveling t*c Porter compound stciun road-roller was 
purcliascd in the spring for use on this park. 

/*l(/nfafio)is. — About 1'2 acres have been prepared for 
planting, of which about 8 acres have been planted. 

Eleclvic Li(jhtin(j. — The electric lights wei'c turned on 
for the first time June 2i). There are 34 lamps'and 14,500 
feet of cable. 

Jamaica 1'ark. 

Grading and Walh. — The work done by Saucier Bros., 
under their contract dated January 16, 1893, was completed 
on May 19, 1894, and there was paid them $32,r)04.3(). 
The work done under this contract was the grading of all 
that portion of the park on the easterly side of the pond, 
excepting Pine Bank, from Perkins street to Prince street, 
including the widening of Pond street and the excavation of 
a cove on the shore of the pond nearly opposite Eliot street ; 
it also included the grading of the part of Arborway be- 
tween Prince and Centre streets, so far as the excavated 
material on the work would allow, and the building of a 
slope wall 920 feet in length along the Pond-street shore. 

The north-westerly shore of the pond has been graded, 
from a [)oint opposite Chestnut street nearly to Prince 
street, with gravel excavated from Perkins street. 

Retaining-walls of a total length of 9H0 feet have been 
built around the cove before mentioned. 

A tlight of steps has been built leading from Perkins 
street opposite Chestnut street to Pine Bank. 

Drainage and Water-pipe. — The necessary catch-basins 
and (h-ains for the easterly side of the park have been built. 

The water-pipe leading to Franklin Park has l^een laid 
through the whole length of the P;irk way from Perkins street 
to Prince street. 

Drives, Ride, and Walks. — The drive from Perkins 
street to Pond street was finished and opened to travel on 
June 1, and that along Pond street to Prince street was 
openc^l on June 10. The ride and the walks in this section 
of the park have all been surfaced, with the exception of the 
border walk between Perkins and Pond streets. 

Plantations. — All of the areas to be planted have been 
graded and loamed in I'eadinc^ss for planting in the spring. 

Eledric Lighting. — Twelve lamps have i>een erected and 



112 City Document No. 10. 

4,3H0 feet ot" cuhle l.-iid. Tlu^ lig'lits wore tunictl on on 
Anjxust 17. 

Miscellatieofis. — Woi'U has been l)egun on the alteration 
of the (Iwelling-houso at Pine Bank under the direction of 
the City Architect to a(hipt it for use as a refectory. 

A new boat has been purchased for the use of the police. 

The buildings on the Parkinan estate have been removed, 
and the Ice Company buildings on Prince street arc now 
beins: removed. 

Al)ont 100 lineal- ieet of seats for llu; use of skaters have 
been made. There has l)ecn skating on the pond 11) days 
during the year, and skating could have been enjo^'ed on 
many othei- days if funds had been available for caring for 
the ic(^ Th(> police estimated the total attendance at 
10!»,000. 

Arborway. 

Gradinr/. — The section between Prince and Centre 
streets was graded under the contract with Saucier Bros., 
already referred to. The section between Centre and South 
streets was piirtially graded under a contract with Andrew 
Carberry, dated November 1, 1<S1);'>, at a cost of $8,400.28. 
The balance of the grading was done by the department 
force and l)y contractors for furnishing labor by the day. 

Drainage a vd Water-pipes. — A culvert G feet X <) feet 
in section and 168 feet in length was built across the Park- 
way on the line of the brook which drains the Arboretum 
meadow. 

All of the catch-basins and drains required on the whole 
length of Arborway have I)een Iniilt, except those on the 
traffic road l>etween Centre and South streets, and on the 
section between South and Washington streets. 

The water-pipe for Franklin Park has been laid between 
Prince and Centre streets and between Washington and 
Forest Hills streets. 

Drives, Ride, and Walks. — The main drive and the ride 
have been surfaced for the whole length, except between 
South and \\^ishingtoh streets, it being impracticable to do 
any work on this section until thc^ work of raising the grade 
of the railroad has been completed. 

The drive was opened to travel on October 7. But little 
work has been done on the surfacing of the walks. No sur- 
facing has been done on the traffic roads. 

Electric LiriJitinr/. — Twenty-two arc lamps have been 
placed on ArI)orway, and 8,152 feet of cable laid. These 
lamps were first lighted on August 17. 



EN(!rNEERING DEPARTMENT. Wii 



Arboretum. 

The land near the jiinetion of Centre and Walter streets 
has been cleared and graded, and the boundary wall is now 
being extended around it- 
Surveys have been made of the land belonging to Harvard 
College lying south of Bussey street, with reference to the 
contemplated addition of it to the Arl)oretum. 

West Koxbury Parkway. 

Preliminary surveys were made for three different lines of 
Parkway between the Main Park System and the Stony- 
brook reservation. Accurate surveys for the laying out of 
the section from the Arboretum to Weld street were made, 
and also of that portion of the Parkwa}^ laid out by the 
Metropolitan Park Commission between Weld street and 
Anawan avenue. Topographical surveys are now being 
made of the whole length of this Parkway. 

Franklin Park. 

Forest Hills Entrance. — On April 2o a contract was 
made with Charles H. Dodge for building the bridge which 
is to carry the Parkway over the traffic road leading from 
Forest Hills street to the Morton-street entrance to Forest 
Hills cemetery. This bridge has been completed with the 
exception of the cleaning and pointing of the m:isonry. The 
bridge is 126 feet in length, at a risht ano;le with the Park- 
way, and is a segmental arch of 45 feet span and (3 feet rise, 
the springing line being 12 feet above the grade of the road 
beneath. All face-work is of seam-face granite, except the 
coping and ca})-stones, which are of red granite, and the in- 
terior of the arch. The ashlar is laid as three-headed work. 
The foundation and backing are of cement concrete. The 
soffit of the interior of the arch is of light-colored brick, 
while the remainder of the arch is of common brick, the arch 
being 2 feet 8 inches thick. A staircase connects the walk 
over the bridge with the walk along the traffic road beneath. 
The slopes of the banks are supported by retaining-walls on 
the lines of the traffic road. Across the Parkway over the 
bridge the masonry i>iers for a gateway have been built. 
This gateway is to have three openings, — one each for i\\o. 
drive, the ride, and the walk. The piers at the sides of the 
gateway are connected with the parapets of the bridge, so 
that the whole forms one structure. At one side of the gate- 
wa}' there is a recess with a drinking-fountain and seats. 
The contract price for the bridge is $50,920. 



114 City Document No. 10. 

The traffic road and the Parkwa}' over the bridiie are now 
beinii" iiraded. The ledge at the junction of the Pai'kway 
with the Circuit drive is being removed, and the stone will 
be used for surfacing the Parkway. The drains and catch- 
basins are also being built. 

Searer Street. — The work of grading under the contract 
with II. P. Nawn, dated September 1, 1S9;), was completed 
on January 22, at a cost of $34,023.58. Another contract 
was made with Mr. Nawn for the removal of a portion of the 
ledge near Blue Hill avenue, the stone to be carted to the 
stone-crusher on the park, and when crushed to be carted 
back to Seaver street. Under this contract there were re- 
moved 3,221 cubic yards of rock, at a cost of $6,345.37. 

The drive and walk within the lines of Seaver street, as 
laid out by the Street Commissioners, have all been sur- 
faced, the surface-drains and catch-basins built, and the 
water-pipe relaid. The street was opened to travel through- 
out its whole length on Deceml)er 24. 

The street has a width of (50 feet, divided into a driveway 
40 feet wide, a tree space 10 feet wide, and a sidewalk 10 
feet wide. 

A portion of the walk on the park, parallel with Seaver 
street, remains to be surfaced ; also the entrance road oppo- 
site Elm Hill avenue. 

Ellicoti Cottage. — For the drainage of this building, it 
was necessary to build a sewer 2,2()0 feet in length, of 6-incli 
Akron pipe, through the park and Keyes street to Washing- 
ton street. The grade being slight, a tiush tank was built 
just outside the building, for flushing the sewer. The build- 
ing is, as yet, provide(l with no method of lighting at night, 
and as no gas mains are near it will probably l)e necessary 
to use electricity. 

Refectory. — This building is in process of erection under 
the direction of, and in accordance with, plans made by Messrs. 
Hartwell & Richardson, architects. The foundations are 
completed, and work is begun on the superstructure. The 
wall supporting the terrace in front of the building is being 
built of rustic masonry by the department force, and is 
nearly finished to the grade of the walk. 

Water-supjjly . — It having been determined to obtain from 
Jamaica pond a supply of water for the ponds on Franklin 
Park, and for sprinkling the drives on the Parkway, pipes 
have been laid on a portion of the Parkway, as before de- 
scribed. Recently work has been begun on the construction 
of a reservoir on Hagborne hill, which will have a capacity 
of 883,000 gallons, with the surface of the water at grade 
168 feet above city base. It is expected that this will fur- 



Knoineerin(! Depaktaient. 115 

nish a week's supply in the driest weather. It is not in- 
tended to use the water for drinkinir. 

J^ft/('())is. — On April 21 a donation of 12.S pigeons, 
includiuii- a great variety of the most popular kinds, was 
received from the estate of the late Edmund Quinc}', through 
Dr. H. P. Quincy. They have I)een placed in a loft prei)ared 
for them in the ui)per part of the projjagating house at the 
Nursery, where they have attracted a great deal of at- 
tention. 

Electric Light.inr/. — Nineteen arc lamps have been placed 
in the Playstead district and 16 on Seaver street. The lights 
were first used on Sei)tcml)er 22, 

MiscelJaneona. — The shee}) now number 188, 73 having 
been sold in the ftUl. 

Two buildings containins: water-closets have been erected 
near the Columl)ia-strect entrance to the })ark. 

Scarboro' pond has been drawn down to its winter level, 
and the ))ond near Abbotswood has been tilled, as heretofore, 
for skating; but owing to the proximity of the much larger 
and better place for skating at Franklin Field, these smaller 
areas have been but little resorted to this winter. 



Franklin Field. 

The work of grading and seeding the meadow was finished 
in 8epteml)er. On Noveml)er 2(i the water from the brooks 
was turned on to the field, flooding it to a depth of about 18 
inches in the lowest part. The first skating Avas on Decem- 
l)er 24, and since that date the field has been resorted to by 
great numbers of people whenever the ice was in good con- 
dition. There has been skating on 20 days, and the total 
number of visitors on those da^^s, as estimated by the police, 
has been about ()(),000. 

Dorchester Park. 

A topographical survey of this park has been made. Two 
small buildings containing water-closets have been built. 

I)orc;hesterway . 

The filling between Buttonwood street and the railroad 
being done under the contract with Collins & Ham, dated 
February 20, 1893, is still in progress. 

The drive and walks south of the northerly line of Pond 
street, and those at the junction of the Parkway and But- 
tonwood street, have been finished. 



11(5 City Document No. 10. 



Sthandway. 



Filling. — A dump \v:is opened in February for receiving 
niateritil excavated from the land near the Institution for the 
Blind. During the year there have been delivered between 
I and M streets ()7,11<^ cubic yards of filling, cart measure- 
ment, at 30 cents per cul)ic yard. 

As the amount of dredging which should be done on the 
flats in front of the Strandway, between II and (^ streets, is 
much larger than the space to be filled, it will not be 
economy to jiurchase filling, except such as can be used for 
forming the beach, or as a top-covering for mud filling after 
the latter is in place. 

.Plans are nearly completed for grading the section of the 
Strandway east of H street. 

Marine Park. 

Pier. — That portion of the wooden pier between the 
refectory and the site of the new head-house has been re- 
moved, and a plank-walk laid in its place. 

Filling. — On July 27 a contract was made with AVilliam 
L. jNIiller for filling that portion of the park between the 
shore and the iron pier. This work is now in progress. 

Drive and Walks. — The drive along the shore from the 
foot of Sixth street to the Castle-island bridge, and the 
entrance from Q street opposite Broadway, have been sur- 
faced. The walk along the drive from Broadway to Sixth 
street has also been surfaced. 

Drainage and Watei'-pi/pe. — Catch-basins and drains for 
draining the drive have been built. A water-pipe has been 
laid from Sixth street to the entrance to the pier and two 
hydrants set. 

Electric Lighting. — Two thousand six hundred and 
eighty-three feet of underground cable have been laid, and 
four arc lamps erected on the portion of the park south of 
Broadway. The lamps were first lighted on September 5. 

Building. — A l)uilding is being erected at the approach 
to the pier, under the direction of the City Architect. It is 
to contain a waiting-room for the public, toilet-rooms, a 
restaurant, and rooms for the police and workmen. In the 
rear of it there are to be 508 dressing-rooms for l)athers. 
It is expected that this building will ])e completed ready for 
use during the coming season. 

Miacellaneons. — The old wharf, left by a former con- 
tractor, was repaired, and a shelter built on the outer end of 
it ; this was intended for use in connection with the boating 
service. 



ENGiNEEiiiN(i Department. 117 

A flau-statr was ereoted near the Famiitiit statue, and tiie 
ilag was raised for the first time on Memorial day with 
appropriate eereinonies hy the Fanagut Naval Veterans 
Assoei:ition. 

Castle Island. 

The only work done here daring the year, heyond the care 
of the grounds and buildings, has l)een the placing of 15 
elei'tric arc lamps. 

As the location of these could be but temporary, overhead 
wires were run to them. They were first lighted on July 3. 

Wood Island Park. 

Grading. — The work under the coutraet with O'Connor 
and AVhite, dated October 2, 181)3, was completed on De- 
cember 8, at a cost of $33, 706. 84. This work included all 
of the loam stripping and excavation required ; the material 
excavated, however, was not sufficient to do all the filling 
needed ; therefore, l)efore the drives and a portion of the 
walks can be surfaced and the grounds fully made use of, 
additional filling will have to be obtained ; this can be 
advantageously done by dredging from the liats within the 
park property. 

Dndncuje and Water-jiipes. — The sewers for draining the 
two l)uildino;s were completed on March 26, at a cost of 
$1,!»21.30. 

A water-pipe has been laid from Neptune road to supply 
the field-house and men's gymnastic ground, and six hydrants 
htivebeen set, four of them being wnthin the gymnastic ground. 

BuildiiKj.^. — The section of the bath-house which was 
being built a year ago has been completed. This building, 
so far as built, contains a waiting-room, a locker-room, and 
a toilet-room. It has been connected with the sewer, but 
has not as yet been supplied with water, as the grounds near 
it have not been graded. 

The Field-house has been finished. This building is for 
the use of men and boys only, although during the present 
skating season women and girls have been alloAved to use a 
portion of it ; this can l)e readily done in winter, as the 
locker-room and small toilet-room adjoining it are not other- 
wnse in use when the gymnasium is not in operation. 

The building is of one story, 130 feet long by 26 feet 
wide ; there is a waiting-room and toilet-room for men and 
boys, a room for the sui)erintendent of the gymnasium, a 
large dressing-room provided with 170 lockers, for the con- 
venience of those using the gymnasium, and a bath-room. 



11.S City Document No. 10. 

with shower and needle baths ; there is also a boiler-room, 
the buildinjr being warmed throughout by hot water. 

The building is lighted by incandescent electric; lights. 

lioth of these buildings were built under the direction of 
Messrs. Slui-gis c^ Cabot, architects, 

Gijmnaslic Ground. — On October 10 a contract was 
made with the Van Dorn Iron Company of Cleveland, Ohio, 
for the erection of an iron fence around this ground and for 
the frames for the gymnastic ai)i)aratus. The fence has been 
erected and the frames are on the ground ready for erection 
as soon as the frost leaves the ground. 

SJxat'uni, — The gyn)nasium and playgrounds have been 
Hooded during the present winter, and there has l)een skating 
on 25 days, the attendance, as estimated by the police, being 
about 8»s,000. The Field-house has been opened on days 
when there was skating. 

Charlestown Heights, 

The building for the accommodation of the public has 
been finished, and only needs lighting to be ready for use. 
This building is of two stories, with a cellar under a portion 
of it, which contains the heating-apparatus. The Hrst story 
contains toilet-rooms for both sexes, a room for the person 
in charge, and rooms for the police and workmen. There is 
a tool-house adjoining the main building. The second story 
is an open shelter, a Ixind-stand being located on that portion 
towards Bunker Hill street. 

The building was built under the direction of iNlessrs. 
Walker &. Kimball, architects. 

Four electric arc lights have been placed upon the grounds 
and 50 settees purchased. 

Charlestown Playground. 

Nothing has l)een done at this ground durinir the year 
except to supervise the dumping of ashes and earth. 
A considerable area of the ground is now^ tilled. 

Charlesbank . 

Men's Gymncuium. — During the winter months the 
grounds have been used for skating when the weather was 
favorable. The number of days on which there was skating 
was 22, and the average attendance on those days was 2,911. 

The gymnasium was closed on March 1, and the appa- 
ratus and grounds put i i thorough repair. It was reopened 
on May 18, and closed November 30. During the season it 
was open for gymnastic and athletic exercises on 155 days, 



Priuuipal items of work completed on tlie several I'arkg to January 31, 189S, 





Main Park ^System. Mabinb Park Btbtkm. 


Cbarlealtank. 










"~ 




FeiiB. 

87,600 eq. yds 

4 miles 

30,600 aq. yds 

3.4 miles 

14.000 aq.yda 

1.1 milua 

10,900 eq.yda 

32,945 1 ill. ft 

10,020 lin. ft 


lliverwft}-. 

23.948 Bq. yds 

1.2 miles 

12,900 »q. yd! 

17,509 eg. yde 

1.2 miles 

5,836 »q. yd. 

1,165 lie. ft 


'park. 


■"S!" '^"""-'- 


Arnold 
Arboretum. 


Franklin Dorchest«r. 
Park. 1 way. 


Marine 
Park. 


Oasile 
Island. 


Park. 


Height.. Field. 


Totals. 


Diiveways completed . . j 


23,760 »q. yd. 

1 .2 miles 

10,307 aq. yds 

1.0 miles 

12,000 sq. yds 

0.0 mile 

5,335 sq. yds 

2,028 lln. ft 


13,244 sq. yds 

0.7 mile 

9,734 sq. yd. 

9,361 sq. yds 

0.7 mile 

3,485 sq. yd. 


25,070 sq. yds 

1.3 miles 

1,166 sq. yds 

0.1 mile 

17,020 sq. yds 

1.2 miles 

7,194 sq. yd. 


30,388 sq. yds 

2.1 miles 
16,138 sq. yds 

4.2 miles 


1 13.572 sq. yd.. 4,620 sq. yds. 


17,685 sq. yds 

0.5 mile 

2,694 sq. yds 

0.3 mile 










339,887 sq. yds. 

18.7 miles. 

169,970 «q. yds. 

23.9 mile.. 

81,781 sq. yds. 

5.86 mllea. 

75,861 Ki. yds. 

60,361 lln. ft. 


Walks completed . . . . j 


66,075 sq. yds 

9.T miles 

10,500 sq. yds 

0.7$ mile 

22,936 sq. Ids 

9,630 lin. ft 

200 lln. ft 


1,883 sq. yds. 
0.3 mile. 




14,432 sq. yds 
I.5imlloa 




4,041 sq. yds 
0.4 mile 








Rliie rorapleled j 












~ 


8,069 sq. yds 


785 sq. yd«. 
808 lin. ft. 


2,321 sq. yd. 
































1,020 lln. ft 


523 lin. ft 
3,197 lln. II 


















2,767 lln. ft. 
7,216 lin. ft. 
5,467 lln. ft. 
















17 lln. ft 
27 lin. ft 




50 lln. (1 




8 in. . 














118 lln. ft.! 






















44 




^ 












2 


2 


5 


J 






* 








1 


1 






Watering trough forlioreos. 
Brick drains, 4 ft. 6 in. . . 














19 
















































706 lln 
• 180 lln 
2,150 lln 
4,728 lln 
6,139 lln 
5,065 lln 
8,011 lln 
39,100 lln 

4.912 lln 
190 lln 

2,995 lln 

9.913 lln 
39,214 lln 
79,580 lln 

201,428 lln 


ft. 
ft. 
ft. 

ft. 
ft. 
ft. 
ft. 
ft. 
ft. 

n. 
ft. 
ft. 
ft. 
ft. 






























1,300 lln. ft. 

977 lln. ft. 
976 Un. ft. 
1,501 lln. ft. 
245 lln. ft. 

185 lln. ft. 


2ft 01 




























Fipti draiuB, 18 in. . . 
" " 15 m 






812 lln. ft 


















561 lin. ft 
196 lln. ft 
139 lln. ft. 
409 lln. ft. 
2,581 lln. ft. 

3,109 lln. ft. 
1,647 lln. ft. 
8,639 lln. ft. 


223 lln. ft 
684 lln. ft. 
182 lin. ft. 

328Un ft 


762 lln. ft. 
350 lin. ft. 
474 lln. ft. 
418 lln. ft. 


243 lin. ft. 

603 lln. ft. 
1,863 lin. ft. 
1,386 lin. ft. 
1,320 lln. ft. 




















612 lln. ft. 












■• ■• '»'» 






294 lln. ft. 
4,102 lin. ft. 












6,832 lln. ft. 
263 lln. ft. 


3,056 Un. ft. 


2,641 lln. ft. 


»,-48 lin. ft. 
2,515 lin. ft. 


766 tin. ft. 






1,469 lln. ft. 








































g 












3,065 lln. ft. 
2,363 lln. ft. 
3,410 lln. ft. 
13,091 lln. ft. 


3,520 lln. ft. 

26,783 lin. ft. 

27,170 lln. ft. 

84,753 lin. ft. 

1 

69 

186 

2,300 lin. ft. 

13,865 lin. fl. 


766 lin. ft. 


1,373 lln. ft. 




1,469 lln. ft. 














1,317 lin. ft. 


6,969 lln. ft. 
44,028 lln. ft. 
69,711 lln. ft. 

7 

3,530 lln. ft. 


im. 










3,425 lln. ft. 
10,066 lln. ft. 


Tolaldrnios 


9,164 lin. ft. 


4,288 lln, ft. 


4,948 lin. ft. 


1,994 lln. ft. 


Manholes . 

Catcb-bofilus and inlets . . 


10 
107 


2 
69 


' 


6 
18 


36 


63 


1 
6 


11 




19 


13 


10 


138 

679 


Elecliic-llght cable .... 
Electric lights 


18,893 lln. ft. 


7,433 lln. ft. 


14 600 1- ft' ^ ■»"<<•■ f 
















63 


12 






10 


38 


■ 13 




4 






Bridges and culverts* . . . 


8 


» 


12 




^ 


860 lin. ft. 




1 iron pier. 


• 


2,228 lln. ft. 


2 






40 








B iidi "! 


1 


3 


1 








1.5 acres. 


1 
15,4 acres. 




3.4 seres. 


42 acres. 




n t^fl 










Area of ground finished . . 


108 acre.. 


33 acres. 


41 acres. 


13.2 acres. 


10.6 acres. 


165 acres. 




10 acres. 


2.4 acres. 


773.5 acres. 


Ratal QiDg. will I 


688 lln. It. 


543 lln. ft. 


2,343 Un. ft. 




























1 2,821 sq.yds. 
1 0.2 mile. 
3,112 lln. ft. 


3 
1,345 lln. ft. 










> 


1 




1 
































2,821 sq. yds. 
























0.2 mile. 




























* Eight of these hridges arc partly to Bivukllnc. 



Engineering Department. 119 

with a total attciulancc of 1(10, 590, or a daily avcraiic of 
1,036, an increase of 17,5 over the previous year. 

On ai'comit of the removal of the old I)uilding preparatory 
to the erection of a new one the gynniasiuin was not open in 
December. 

A new buildini:: is now being erected under the direction 
of the City Architect, which will atford much larger ac- 
connnodations and provide facilities for dressing, bathing, 
etc., which facilities are a necessity for the success of a 
gymnasium. 

Only one accident occurred during the year : a boy was 
struck l)y the Ifi-pound shot, he having carelessly run across 
the ground reserved for shot-throwing ; his ankle was 
broken. In the future it will be well to have the spaces de- 
voted to putting the shot enclosed by fences. 

Women's Gjjmnamun and GirW Playground. — These 
were reopened on May 21, and closed on October 31. As in 
|)revi()us years, they were in charge of the iNIassachusctts 
Emei'genc}^ and II>^giene Association, whose report to the 
Park Commissioners contains ail matters of interest con- 
cerning the work. 

The building at this ground having proved inadequate for 
the puri)ose for which it was designed, an addition is now 
being built which will doul)le the accommodations and fur- 
nish facilities for bathing and dressing which have been 
wanting in the past. Walker & Kimball, architects, have 
charge of the work. 

Miscellaneous. — The grounds other than the gymnasiums 
are in good condition, except that the promenade along the 
river has become worn and should be resurfaced. 

North End Park. 

Early in the year the old buildings were removed, and on 
July 12 a contract was made with William L. Miller for the 
removal of the old wharves, etc. This work was finished 
on September 20, at a cost of $3,400. Plans are now being 
prepared for the construction of that })()rtion of the park 
between Charter and Commercial streets. 

Brighton Playground. 

A survey was made of this ground for the purpose of 
detcj'mining its area and 1)oundaries. 

The a{)pended table shows the pnncipal items of work 
completed to date on the several parks, so fiir as it is practi- 
cable to tabulate them. 

A large amount of other work has l)een done, which it is 
impossible to classify. 



120 City Document No. 10. 



E. 

[FKOiM THE CITY ENGINEER'S REPORT TO THE STREET 
DEPARTMENT.] 

The following is a report of the work done under my 
direction for the Street Depiirtnient during the year 18*J4. 
The foUowing tire the principal items of work done : 

Block-stone paving, on a concrete hasc, hiid with jiitch 
joints, 12, 341). 5 square yards, at an average cost of al)()ut 
$4.75 per square yard. 

Block-stone paving, on a gravel base, laid with pitch 
joints, 5,410 square yards, at an average cost of al)Out 
$3.50 per square yard. 

Block-stone paving, on a gravel base, with gravel joints, 
34,617 square yards, at an average cost of about $3.00 per 
square yard. 

Trinidad sheet asphalt, with a binder course of asphaltic 
cement concrete, on a concrete l)ase, 4,577.6 square yards, 
at an average cost of about $3.75 per square yard. 

Sicilian rock asphalt, on a concrete base, 2,392.5 square 
yards, at an average cost of about $3.75 per square yard. 

Edgestone set, 48,678 lin. ft. ; brick sidewalk laid, 17,119 
square yards; flagging crosswalk laid, 2,361 square yards. 

The following is a statement of the streets paved, for 
which plans were made, lines and grades given, and the 
work supervised : 

Albanij Street. — From Broadway to Lehigh street was 
paved with old granite ])locks on a gravel l)ase ; the blocks 
used were the best of those removed from Charles street ; 
the street was sub-graded and the gutters removed by P. 
F. Lonergan ; the paving, resetting of edgestone, and relay- 
ing of brick sidewalks was done by the Paving Division. 
The surface removed was macadam. 

Arlington Street. — From Beacon to Marlborough street 
was paved with vitrified brick on a concrete base ; the street 
was sub-graded by J. J. Sullivan, the gutters removed b}' 
James Dolan ; the concrete base was put down and street 
paved l)y The Interstate Vitrified Brick and Paving Com- 
pany, of Xew Jersey, at their own cost. The edgestones 
were reset and the brick sidewalk relaid by James Grant & 
Co. The surface removed was macadam. 



Enginkkkino DeI'AUTMENT. 121 

Atisd'ji Sired (Ch;irle.sto\vn). — From Wjishiiigton street 
to Fitclilmr^" Ruilioad crossiiii:' w:is paved with granite 
blocks on a liravel base ; the sub-grading was done by the 
Paving Division. The street was paved, the edgestones 
reset, the brick sidewalk and the crosswalks rclaid by John 
Turner & Co. The surface removed was old granite blocks. 

JJ((rtou Court. — From Barton to Brighton street was 
paved with Trinidad asphalt, with a l)inder hiyer of asphal- 
tic cement concrete on the existing c()l)ble-ston(! i)aven]ent, 
by the Barber Asi)halt Paving Company. 

JJIiie Hill Arenue. — From Dudley street to 80 feet north 
of Dalmatia street was paved with hirgc granite blocks on a 
gravel base ; the sub-grading was done by the Paving 
Division. From Dudley to Moreland street the street was 
paved, the edgestone reset, and the brick sidewalks and 
crosswalks relaid l)y the Paving l^ivision. 

From ^Nloreland street the paving was done by D. N. 
Payson. Two new catch-basins were built on the easterly 
side, one at Stafford street and one at Devens street. The 
surface removed was macadam. 

JJowker Street. — From Chardon to Sudbury street was 
paved with large granite blocks on a gravel base, with [)itch 
joints. The old pavement was removed and the street was 
sub-graded by the Paving Division. The street was paved, 
the edgestones reset, and the brick sidewalks relaid by 
James Grant & Co. The West End Street Railroad Com- 
pany, by agreement, paid for an amount of paving ecjuiva- 
lent to the area previously occupied by their tracks. The 
pavement removed was cobble-stone. 

Cambridf/e Street. — From Joy street to P>()wdoin square 
was paved with large granite blocks on a concrete base, with 
pitch joints; the old block pavement was removed, and 
sul)-grading done by S. c^ U.J. Lombard; the blocks and 
material excavated l)ecame the property of the conti-actor. 
The concrete base was put down by the Metropolitan Con- 
struction Company, the street was paved, the edgestones 
reset, and the brick b'idewalks and granite flagging cross- 
walks relaid by II. Gore & Co. The \Yest End Street 
Railway Company agreed to i)ay for the work done between 
the rails of their tracks, which work was done in a similar 
manner to the rest of the street, l)y H. Gore & Co. The 
pavement removed was old granite blocks. 

Causeway Street. — From west side of Nashua to east 
side of Haverhill street was paved with large granite blocks 
on a concrete Imse ; the sub-grading was done by the Paving 
Division, the concrete base was laid by the Metropolitan 
Construction Company, the street was paved, the edge- 



122 City Document No. 10. 

stones reset, and the l)nck sidewalks and granite flagging 
crosswalks relaid by J. Grant t^ Co. 

There were four new catch-basins built on the north- 
erly side of the street. The pavement removed was old 
oranite blocks. The roadway was widened on the northerly 
side about 10 feet, by removing the old bric-k sidewalk, and 
using the space in front of the new Union Station for a side- 
walk ; the roadway was also improved by removing one of 
the West End Railway tracks between Portland street and 
Canal street and moving the other track over to the 
northerly curb. A granolithic sidewalk was laid in front of 
the old Lowell Station by the Warner 11. Jenkins Com- 
pany. 

Chambers Street. — From Green to Poplar street was 
resurfaced with Trinidad asphalt on the old cobble-stone 
pavement by the Barber Asphalt Paving Company. The 
surface removed was old Trinidad asphalt. 

Chapman Street (Charlestown). — From Austin street to 
Rutherford avenue was paved with large granite blocks on 
a gravel base, the bed was prepared by the Paving Division, 
the street was paved, the edgestones reset, and the brick 
sidewalks and flagging crosswalks relaid by J. Turner & Co. 
The pavement removed was old granite blocks. 

Charles Street. — From Pinckney to Cambridge street, on 
the westerly side, except in front of the Eye and Ear In- 
firmary, was paved with large granite blocks laid with ))itch 
joints on a concrete base ; the old pavement was removed and 
the street sub-graded by P. O'Riordan and by the Paving 
Division. The best of the old blocks were used on Albany 
street, from Broadway to Lehigh street. The concrete base 
was laid by the Metropolitan Construction Company. The 
paving, including the westerly track of the West End Street 
Railway, the edgestone resetting, the brick sidewalk and 
granite flagging crosswalk relaying was done by F. H. 
Covvin. The West End Street Railway by agreement paid 
for the work done in their track. It was intended to pave 
the street in front of the Eye and Ear Infirmary with 
Sicilian rock asphalt, but on account of unfavorable weather 
the work had to be postponed ; this part of the street was 
made passable l)y putting in crushed stone temporarily. 
The pavement removed was old granite Idocks. 

Charier Street. — From Hanover to Unity street was sur- 
faced with ;U inches of Trinidad asphalt and binder on the 
cobble-stone base by the Barber Asphalt Paving Company; 
the cobble-stone I)ase was regulated, the edgestones reset, 
and the brick sidewalk and flagging crosswalks relaid by James 
Grant & Co. The former pavement was cobble-stone. 



ENGINEEUlNCi DEPARTMENT. 123 

Court tSf/uare. — Tlie easterly and southerly i-oadways^ 
were resiirtaeed with Tr'michid asphalt and hinder on a eon- 
crete h-Ane by the Barber Asphalt Pavinu: Company. The 
old concrete base havinjj:; been found to be poorly i^raded, 
and it not being deemed expedient to relay the same, con- 
siderable extra work had to be done in order to shape the 
binder so as to give a ))roi)er crown to the street, 

CommonweaUh Avenue. — From Arlington street to Mas- 
sachusetts avenue, see page 131. 

Dartmoufh Slt-eet. — From Boylston street to Newl)ury 
street was paved with Trinidad asphalt on a concrete base 
by the Barl)er Asphalt Paving Com[)any. The sul)-grading 
was done by J. J. Sullivan; the concrete base was laid by 
the Metropolitan Construction Company. The edgestonc 
was reset in'^part and the l)riclv sidewalk relaid by II. Gore 
cVc Co. The original intention was to pave the street from 
curb to curb with as[)halt, but the West End Street Railway 
was allowed to pave with granite blocks between the rails of 
their track, until the horse cars now running there are re- 
placed by electrics. The former surface was macadam. 

Derne Street. — From Hancock to Temple street was 
paved with Hastings asi)halt blocks on a base of crushed 
stone, by J. Turner & Co. The sub-grading was done, the 
edgestone was reset (north side), and the brick sidewalk 
(north side) was relaid by ,) . Turner & Co. The cobble-' 
stone, old edgestone, and material excavated became the 
property of the contractor. On the southerly side of the 
street the State House Commissioners put in a combination 
granite curb and gutter and a irranolithic sidewalk. One 
catch-basin was rebuilt at the corner of Hancock street. The 
former pavement was cobble-stone. 

East EiylitJi Street. — From Old Harbor to G street 
(north side) and G to H street, on both sides of the railroad 
track, was paved with large granite l)locks on a gravel base. 
The sub-grading was done by the Paving Division, and the 
street paved, edgestones reset, brick sidewalk and Hagging 
crosswalks relaid by H. Gore & Co. The .former surface 
was macadam. 

East Second Street. — From I to K street was paved with 
large granite blocks on a gravel base ; the sub-grading was 
done by the Paving Division, and the street paved, edgestonc 
reset, l)rick sidewalk and flagging crosswalk relaid by II. 
Gore & Co. The former surface was macadam. 

Essex Street. — From Harrison avenue to Kingston street 
was paved with large granite blocks on a gravel base, with 
pitch joints; the sub-grading was done by the Paving Di- 
vision, and the street paved, edgestone reset, brick sidewalk 



124 City Docuiment No. 10. 

and tliiiigin<>' frosts walk relaid, by Dohcrty & CLeaiy. The 
foniKT pavement was old granite blocks. The street was 
widened to a uniform width of fifty feet. 

Essex Street. — From Kingston to South street was 
paved with large granite blocks on a gravel base, partly with 
pitch joints and partly with gravel joints. The sub-grading 
was done l)y the Paving Division, and the edgestone reset, 
brick sidewalks and flagging crosswalks relaid, by A. A. 
Libby & Co. The former pavement was old granite blocks. 
This street was widened to a uniform width of fifty feet. 

Faj/ Street. — From Dover street to Harrison avenue 
was surfaced with Sicilian rock asphalt on the existing cob- 
ble-stone pavement, by H. Gore & Co. This work was com- 
menced in 1.S93. (See report of Superintendent of Streets 
for 185)o.) 

Harrison Arenue, — From Beach to Essex street; from 
Beach street 200 feet toward Essex street was paved with 
large granite blocks on a concrete base with pitch joints. 
The rest of the street was paved temporarily until the West 
End Street Railway can ol>tain and put in new special work. 
The concrete base was put in l)y the INIetropolitan Construc- 
tion Company ; the rest of the work was done by the Paving 
Division. The work done was necessitated by the widening of 
the avenue. The former pavement was old granite l)locks. 

Lewis-Street Extension. — From North to Moon street 
was paved with granite blocks on a gravel base. The sub- 
grading w^as done by the Paving Division, and the paving 
was done, edgestone set, brick sidewalk and flagging cross- 
walks laid, by P. W. Hernon. One new catch-basin was 
built at the corner of North street. This extension was laid 
out in 1893. 

Mason Street. — At Boston and Bijou theatres was sur- 
faced with Sicilian rock asphalt on cobblestone base with 
binder, by H. Gore & Co. The base was regulated, the 
edgestone reset, and the brick sidewalks relaid by Paving 
Division. The former pavement was cobble-stone. 

Massachusetts Avenue. — The southerly roadway, from 
Washington to Albany street, was to have iteen surfaced 
with Sicilian rock asphalt on a concrete base by H. Gore & 
Co., but only about 275 feet from Washington street was 
laid, when the weather became so unfavorable on account of 
the lateness of the season, that work had to be suspended. 
The excavating to sub-grade and removing of gutters was 
done l)y J. J. Sullivan. The concrete was put down by the 
Metropolitan ( Construction Co. ; the edgestones reset and 
the brick sidewalk relaid by H. Gore & Co. A granolithic 
sidewalk in front of the City Hospital building was laid by 



EnOINEEUINO DErARTMENT. 125 

Simpson Bros. The centre [):uk\vay was extended about 130 
feet to within IG feet of Albany street, and a driveway was 
built across it opposite the entrance to the Hospital. The 
uncompleted roadway between Washington street and Ilai-ri- 
son avenue was made passable by covering the concrete with 
crushed stone ; the part between Harrison avenue and Albany 
street was closed to travel, and the concrete covered with 
sea-weed to j)i-otect it from the frost. Nine new catch-l)asins 
were built between Harrison avenue and Albany street, — 
four on the northerly roadway and five on the southerly road- 
way, — and one was rebuilt at the corner of Albany street. 
The former surface was macadam. 

Park Street and City Square, CharJefttotoi. — The pav- 
ing- on this street, which was not com|)leted in 1893, was 
finished in April of the present year. 

Pemherton Square. — In front of the new Court House 
was surfaced with Sicilian rock asphalt on a concrete base, 
by II. (lorc & Co. In the southerly corner, where the teams 
of Houghton & Dutton are loaded, the square was paved 
with large granite blocks on gravel base with pitch joints, by 
J. Grant & Co. The concrete base was laid by the Metro- 
politan Construction Company. The excavation to sub-grade 
was done by the Paving Division ; the old gutter paving re- 
moved by J. Dolan ; the edgestone reset by J. Grant & Co. ; 
a granolithic sidewalk was laid on the westerly side of the 
square, and on part of the easterly side, by Simpson Bros. ; 
and five new catch-lxisins were built. The former ))avement 
was macadam. The old planting space in the square, con- 
taining four trees, was removed, the edgestone in front of 
the Court House was laid out in a circular arc, very nearly 
concentric with the edgestone (>n the opposite side of the 
roadwa}', making a roadway about 3(5 feet wide ; at the back 
of the sidcnvalk was placed a curb of special design, between 
which and the l)uilding it is intended to make a grass plot. 

RutJi-Slreet Exleniiion. — This way or foot-path is in East 
Boston, and serves to connect AVebster street and Marginal 
street, which are parallel streets, about 240 feet ai)art, but 
with a ditfereiice of level at this point of about 4.5 feet. The 
extension is about 138 feet long and 11^ feet wide. It con- 
sists of 7 flights of artificial stone steps connected by plat- 
forms of the same material. An additional tlight of 13 steps 
connects I>righam sli'cct with Ruth street. The artificial 
stone work Avas done b}' Simpson Bros., at a cost of 
12,122.93. The iron railing and fence work was furnished 
by G. T. McLauthlin & Co., and cost $554.97. The exca- 
vation, foundatious, stone retaining-walls, and wooden fences 
were furnished by the Street Department. This is the first 



12() City Document No. 10. 

example of the use of " artiticiiil stone" on any considerable 
scale that the city has yet made. It is used here for walks, 
stei)s, and retaining-walls. It makes a tine-looking Job, and 
thus far the experience has been satisfactory. 

Wica Street. — From Kneeland street to the angle was 
paved with large granite l)locks on a gravel base, by the 
Paving Division. About o^O s(|uare yards of the old cobble- 
stone were removed by J. Dolan, the rest by the Paving Di- 
vision. The edgestone, brick sidewalks, and crosswalks 
were relaid by the Paving Division. One new catch-basin 
was built. The former ])avement was cobble-stone. 

]Vas/ii)i(jfon Street. — From Essex to Eliot street was 
|)aved with large granite blocks on a concrete base with pitch 
joints, by II. Gore & Co. The old block paving was re- 
moved to Commonwealth avenue beyond Harvard avenue, 
by O. Doherty. The sub-grading was done by the Paving 
Division, and the edgestone reset, brick sitle walks and 
granite flagging crosswalks relaid, by H. Gore & Co. 

The Werii End Street Railway, by agreement, paid for the 
work done between the rails, which work was done in a sim- 
ilar manner to the rest of the street. Two new catch-basins 
were built. The former pavement was old granite blocks. 

Grading Street-Railway Tracks. 

The work of i)roperl_y grading street-raihvay tracks to fit 
a permanent surface of the street has been continued. This 
requires much lal)or, and it seems proper that the railway 
company should bear a portion of the cost of so doing. This 
has been arranged by requiring a survey of the street surface, 
with levels, to be made by the railroad engineers in all cases 
where street construction work has not been ordered by the 
Street Department. The grades for the tracks are then 
established and blue-prints of the working plans are fur- 
nished the railroads. 

The following tracks have been graded : 

West End Street Railway. 

Bowdoin Street. — From AVashington street to Geneva 
avenue. 

Cambridge Street. — From Joy street to Bowdoin square. 

(Jameway Street. — From Billerica through Haverhill 
street. 

Centre Street. — From Cediir to Pynchon and Cedar to 
Eliot square. 

Centred Square. — East Boston. 

Charles Street. — From Pinckney to Cambridge street. 



KNOlNEERINd DePAUTMI^.NT. 127 

Clurendoii Slreet. — Across Coniinonwealth avenuo. 

Comtitoiiwealth Avenue. — From Hcncon street to Cottage 
Farm hridire and St. Paul sti'eet to near Malvern street. 
I Dnrimouth >S(reef. — From l)0}lston to Ncwhury street 
and across Commonwealth avenue. 

Dover Street. — From 200 feet west of Alljan}^ street to 
Dover-street hridire. 

Eagle Street. — From junction of Lexington street to new 
car-house. 

Mssex Street. — From Harrison avenue to Kingston street. 

Harrison Avenue. — From Essex to Beach street. 

Ihintington Avenue. — From 2,950 feet south of Gains- 
borough to 'Fremont street. 

Lexington Street. — From Meridian to Clarion street. 

Lexington Street. — From Eagle to Prescott street. 

Meridian Street. — From Central square to Chelsea street. 

Prescott Street. — From Lexington to Saratoga street. 

Tremont Street. — At Huntington avenue. 

Wan-en Street. — From Elm Hill avenue to Brunswick 
street. 

Washington Street. — From Boylston to Hoi lis street and 
Boston & Albany Railroad bridge to Warrenton street. 

West Fourth Street. — From Dover-street bridge through 
Dorchester avenue. 

Norfolk Suburban Street Railway. 

Ht/de Park AveJiue. — From Hyde Park line to Forest 
Hills. 

QuiNCY & Boston Street Railway. 

Neponset Avenue. — At Neponset bridge. 

Surveys, plans, and estimates for improving and paving 
the following streets have I)een made; construction not yet 
commenced : 

Albany Street. — From old East Springtield to Northamp- 
ton street. 

Arlington Street. — From Marlborough through Common- 
wealth avenue. 

AsJi Street. — From Oak to Nassau street. 

Austi7i Street. — From P'itchburg R/iilroad crossing to 
I'rison-point bridge. 

Bartlett Street. — From AVashington street aI)out 500 feet 
westerly. 

Bennington Street. — From Wordsworth to Saratoga street. 

Chelsea Street. — From Ben ni no-ton to Saratoga street. 



128 City Document No. 10. 

Coiigrefifi Street. — From Atlantic avenue to Congress- 
street hridire. 

Court Avenue. — And Corn Hill court. 

Dartmouth Street. — From Warren avenue to Columbus 
avenue. 

Harrison Avenue. — From Beach to Knceland street. 

Harrison Avenue. — From Dudley to Warren street. 

Harrison Avenue. — From East Springfield to Northamp- 
ton street. 

Massachusetts Avenue. — From Washington to Albany 
street (northerly roadway). 

Merchants Roir. — From State to South Market street. 

Milk Street. — From Washington to Congress street. 

JVorthampton Street. — From Harrison avenue to Albany 
street. 

JVorth Mavfjin Street. — From Cooper to Stillman street. 

Norway Street. — From Massachusetts avenue to Fal- 
mouth street. 

Oxford Street. — From Beach to Essex street. 

State Street. — From Merchants low to India street. 

Washington Street. — From Hollis to Boston & Albany 
Railroad bridge. 

Water Street. — From AYashington to Devonshire street. 

Miscellaneous Wokk. 

Essex and Lincoln Streets. — On February 7, 1894, a 
contract was made with A. A. Elston to take down the old 
building standing upon the widening of the above-named 
streets, and upon the estate of John Farlow, for the sum of 
$1,425, which work was satisfactorily completed. 

West End Street Railroad Co. — The tracks of the above 
compan}' were removed from the following streets, and the 
cost of repaving the same with granite blocks on a grave! 
base with pitch joints was paid by the comi)any. Measure- 
ments of the areas of paving, to be so paid for, were made 
and returned. 

Boivker Street. — From Chardon to Sudbury street. 
Broad, Street. — From Wharf to Franklin street. 
Fleet Street. — From Hanover to Connnercial street. 
Foundry Street. — From Division to W. Fourth street. 
Franklin Street. — From Broad through Congress street. 
HigJi Street. — From Engine-house to Oliver street. 
Milk Street. — - From Oliver to Congress street. 
Oliver Street. — From High to ^Nlilk street. 

Surveys and plans were made for work upon the following 



Engineerino Detartment. 1211 

streets; grades and lines were given, ])ut the work of con- 
struction was not supervised l>y this department : 

Darlmoutli Street. — From Tremont street to ^^'^arren 
avenue was paved with old granite blocks from Dover and 
Albany streets ; a plan was [)rcpared and lines and grades 
given for paving, resetting cdgestoncs, relaying brick side- 
walks and (lagging crosswalks, the work Iieing done by the 
Paving Division. The West End Street Railway tracks 
were not rcgraded. The former surface was macadam. 

Tiiftfi Street. — From Kingston to Lincoln street was 
repaved with granite blocks, gravel base. A i)lan was pre- 
pared and lines and grades given. The work of paving the 
roadway, resetting the edgestone, relaying the brick side- 
walks and (lagging crosswalks, was done by the Paving 
Division. 

llutJierford Avenue. — From Devens to Chapman street 
was paved with granite blocks on gravel base. A plan was 
made and lines and grades given. The work of paving, 
resetting edgestones, relaying brick sidewalks and flagging 
crosswalks, was done by the Paving Division. The former 
surface was macadam. One new catch-basin was built and 
three old ones I'cbuilt. 

TJiomj)son Street. — From Main to AVarren street was 
macadamized. A plan was made and lines and grades 
given. The work of macadamizing, resetting edgestones, 
relaying brick sidewalks, was done in' the Paving Division. 
The former pavement was cobble-stone. 

PhiX)ps Street {Charlestoivn). — Was paved with gi-anite 
i>locks on gravel bed. A plan was prepared and lines and 
grades given. The work of paving the roadway, resetting 
edgestones, relaying brick sidewalks, was done b}'^ the 
Paving Division, The former pavement was cobble-stone. 

Charles Street. — From Main to Bunker Hill street was 
paved with large granite blocks on a gravel base ; lines and 
grades were given. The work of paving the roadway, re- 
setting the edgestone, relaying brick sidewalks, was done by 
the Paving Division. The former surface was col)ble-stonc. 

Sprar/ue Street. — From Princeton to Bunker Hill street 
was macadamized. The edgestone was set, cobble gutters 
and l)rick sidewalks were laid bv the Paving Division. The 
former pavement was gravel. 

Oak Street. — From Washington street to Harrison ave- 
nue was paved with granite blocks on a gravel base. A 
plan was prepared and lines and grades given. The work of 
paving roadway, resetting edgestone, relaying brick side- 
walks and llaiririniz" crosswalks, was done bv the Pavinir 



130 City Document No. 10. 

Division. 'I'lu! t'oniu'i- pnvonicni vv:is blocks. 'iiul cobble-stone 
mixed. 

Utica Street. — From Kneeland to Beach street was 
paved with granite blocks on a gravel base. A plan was 
made and lines and grades given. The work of paving the 
roadway, resetting cdgestonc, and relaying brick sidewalks 
was done by the Paving Division. The former pavement 
was old granite blocks. 

Oonr/ress Street. — From A street to L-street l)ridge. The 
work on the plank sidewalk and fence, which was begun last 
year, has l)een completed. 

Bushnell Street (called Peahody Square). — A plan was 
made showing the present and proposed location of trees ; a 
plan and specification was also prepared for a circular park 
curb, and lines and ij;rades i>iven for setting the same. The 
work was done by the Paving Division. One catch-basin 
and one drop inlet built. 

Vale Street. — From Dorchester street to Mercer street. 
Cross section and an estimate were made for filling the above 
to orade, and lines and grades given for tilliuij the same. 

Preliminary estimate's were made for repairing or rebuild- 
ins: ninety streets. 

New Streets. 

During the early part of the season of 1894 three streets, 
viz.. Miner street. Bay State road, and Deerfield street, 
which were reported last year as uncompleted, were finished. 
The following streets have been contracted for, under the 
provisions of Chap. 323 of the Acts of the Legislature of 
1891, as amended by Chap. 418 of the Acts of 1892; the 
entire expense of construction is borne by the abutter, and 
sewer, gas, and water pipes, with house connections to the 
sidewalk, are laid in advance of the street construction : 

Arimdel Street. — From Beacon to Mountfort street, 
about 271 feet long, is practically completed at a total cost of 
$1,843.45. For itemized prices and quantities, see table 
accompanjnng this report. The contractors w^ere II. Gore 
& Co. It is a 6-inch macadam street. 

Ivy Street. — From St. Mary to Mountfort, not including 
the Audubon-road intersection, is about 772 feet long. 
This contract, which was awarded to J. Grant & Co., is not 
yet completed, and there remains to be done the spreading 
of the binder, watering, and rolling. It is a 6-inch 
macadam street. 

Mountfort Street. — From Audubon road to Ivy street, 
is about 427 feet lonij. This street was constructed by H. 



Engineering Department. 131 

Gore & Co., at a cost of $2,549.93. It is ii 6-inoh 
inacaclain street. 

yeidmry Street. — From Charlcsgate West to Brookline 
avenue, about 1,271 feet in length, was built by F. II. 
Cowin & Co., at a total cost of $10,386.93. This is a G-inch 
macadam street. 

Parker Street. — The contract for constructing and reffu- 
lating this portion of this street from Huntington avenue to 
\\'estland avenue, al)out 1,687 feet long, was awarded to 
Messrs. Doherty & O'Leary. The work is not y^t finished. 
It is to be a Telford roadway, the base to be 10 inches, and 
the l)r()ken stone 6 inches, in thickness. 

St. Germain Street. — The contract for building St. Ger- 
main street, from Massachusetts avenue to Dalton street, 
about 749 feet long, was awarded to Qulmby & Ferguson, 
but on account of the lateness of the season they were al)le 
to do only the tilling to sub-grade. This is to be a Telford 
roadway, the base to be 8 inches, and the broken stone to be 
6 inches, in thickness. 

Boyhton Street. — A contract for filling the Boylston- 
stroet extension, from Boylston road to Brookline avenue, 
about 2,070 feet in length, was awarded to J. O'Brien on 
December 1, 1894, at the rate of $0.62|- per cubic yard, 
measured in the bank. The order of laying out requires a 
gravel roadway with gravel sidewalks. 

Commonwealth Avenue. 

This avenue now extends under one name from the Pub- 
lic Garden to the Newton line, a total length of 5.59 miles, 
it having been extended from the Chestnut Hill Reservoir 
gale to the Newton line, where it connects with a new avenue 
bearing the same name, which, like the part in Boston, is 
only partially ccmipleted. This avenue extends through the 
heart of Newton, a farther distance of four miles. 

Connnonwealth avenue in Boston varies in width from 120 
t<» 200 feet, and is laid out partly as a parkway, in the care 
of the Park De|)artment, partly as a highway, Avith heavy 
teaming ruled ofi" by order of the Board of Aldermen, and 
partly as an ordinary highway. It was formed of portions 
of streets formerly bearing different names, with widenings 
and extensions made at different times. The extension of 
the avenue from Beacon street has been under construction 
for the last eleven years, during which time about one 
million two hundred and sevent^^-five thousand dollars has 
l»een expended upon it. A large amount of work has been 
done upon every part of it, excepting the most recent 



13*2 City Document No. 10. 

extension, and a large amount yet remains to he done to 
complete the enterprise. 

The following is a short account of what has already been 
done, together with a statement of its present condition and 
an ap])roximate estimate of the cost of completion : 

Beginning at the Public Garden in Boston, the first sec- 
tion, extending to Beacon street, a distance of 1.44 miles, 
was taken by the Park Commissioners, under Chap. 300, 
Acts of 1893, as a parkway. This section is uniformly two 
hundred feet wide. The part of it between the Public Gar- 
den and Massachusetts avenue has two roadways and a 
central planting space. The northerly roadway is thirty-five 
feet wide between curl)S ; the southerly roadway is thirty-five 
feet between curbs ; the central planting space is one hun- 
dred feet wide, with a gravel walk in the centre eighteen 
feet wide, and the sidewalks, each, fifteen feet wide. The 
roadways have been rebuilt this season in a thorough man- 
ner with Telford stone. The work was done by the Street 
Department for the Park Department. The excavation of 
the old surface was let in eight contracts. The stone for the 
Telford foundation was furnished by ten«contractors and by 
the Street Department, and was set by four contractors. 
The old gutter blocks were removed by two contractors, and 
new ones were furnished by. two contractors and from the 
city paving yards, and were set in place by four contractors. 
The edgestones were reset, where necessary, and the side- 
Avalks repaved in part by two contractors. Broken stone for 
the macadam surface was furnished by two contractors, and 
from two city crushers. Steam-rollers were furnished from 
the Street and Park Departments and from contractors ; the 
maximum numl)er used was six. Gravel for gutter paving 
was furnished by the Street Department, and the broken 
stone was received and spread, and all miscellaneous work 
required to connect the various contracts was done, by the 
regular force of the Street Department. Platform scales 
were set up on the work, and all Telford and macadam ma- 
terials were received by weight. The broken trap rock was 
weighed on cars. 

Each roadway has two gutters, three feet in width. The 
Telford road has a base of Roxbury conglomerate eight and a 
half inches thick, thoroughly rolled, and a surfece of broken 
stone four and a half inches thick after rolling. Between 
Arlington and Fairfield streets, the surface is trap rock from 
Salem and Waltham, furnished by the Massachusetts Broken 
Stone Company. From Fairfield to Gloucester street, on 
the northerly roadway, the surface. is Roxbury conglomerate 
from Humboldt avenue, furnished by H. P. Nawn, and the 



Engineeimng Department. 133 

roiiiainin<j: blocks aic- .surfaced with Koxhury conijflosiicralc 
from Ihe Treniont and Codinan street ledges, mixed indis- 
criminately. No binding material, except stone screenings, 
was used, and on each section the screenings were of the 
same material as the broken stone. The intersections of 
cross streets were put in good order, and the street railways 
on Clarendon and Dartmouth streets were rebuilt with en- 
tirely new material, and Clarendon street was paved with 
granite blocks. 

The total area of gutter paving was 7,446.7 sq. yds. The 
total weight of Telford base stone used was 11, 8(H). 64 tons, 
on 30,025.4 sq. yds., or 786.44 lbs. per sq. yd. The weight 
of trap rock macadam used was 7,467.36 tons, on 20,313 sq. 
yds., or 735.23 l])s. per sq. yd. The total weight of Rox- 
bury stone macadam used was 4,211.08 tons on 11,842 sq. 
yds., or 711.21 lbs. per sq. yd. The result in weight of 
stone indicates that a considerably thicker road was actually 
Iniilt than was intended. The surface was kept at grade, 
and whatever settlement was caused by the weight of the 
heavy rollers was made good by additional broken stone. 

The intersections of cross streets are built on a Telford 
base only in the continuation of the avenue roadways ; the 
balance of the intersections were surfaced with broken stone 
and rolled. The quantity of broken stone used on them could 
not be exactly determined, and it was assumed that one- 
half the regular thickness was applied. The work was begun 
on July 30, 1894, and completed on November 20, 1894. 
The total cost of work on this section was $84,373.10, less 
$9,600 allowed for old materials removed; making the net 
cost $74,773.10. 

The remainder of this section is irregularly laid out, and 
is connected with the Back Bay Fens. 

The next section, from Beacon street to Cottage Farm 
bridge, is .79 mile in length and 160 feet in width; it is 
laid out in the following manner : Commencing on the south- 
erly line sidewalk, 10 feet; planting space, 12 feet; roadway, 
35 feet ; grass and electric railroad, 33 feet ; roadway, 45 
feet; planting space, 10 feet; and sidewalk, 15 feet. The 
tilling on this section by the Boston Contracting Company, 
and their successors, the Fidelity and Deposit Company, of 
Maryland, was conq)leted on September 23, 1893. The total 
quantity of material delivered was 57,675 cubic yards, at 
$0.41 per yard, amounting to $23,646.75. 

Telford stone was accumulated during the preceding win- 
ter, and the southerly roadway between Beacon street and 
Cottage Farm bridge was built during the year 1894 by the 
regular force of the Street Department. A fence and wooden 



134 City Document No. 10. 

sidewalk on the southerly side was built by the carpenters of 
the Bridge Division of the Street Department ; the gutters 
were paved by contract. The roadway is a Telford load, 
with a base ten inches thick, and six inches of Roxl)ury stone 
macadam. The northerly roadway was built in 1893 in the 
same manner, except that the macadam is trap rock. This 
section is practically completed to within three hundred 
feet of Cottage Farm bridge. The sewers, gas and water 
pipes, are laid in the side planting spaces. 

The abutments of the bridge were built during the year. 
By arrangement with the Boston & Albany Railroad 
these abutments are built partly in the railroad location, 
and the part of the bridge which was formerly maintained 
by the railroad will hereafter be maintained by the city. 
The central abutment and the bridge have not yet l)een 
built. 

Essex street connects with the widened avenue on the 
northerly side, so as to render considerable tilling necessary 
to make even a temporary connection. The plan, as ar- 
ranged by the Board of Surve}^ contemplates ultimately- 
elevating Essex street and crossing the Grand Junction 
Railroad by a bridge ; but it will be necessary to make a 
temporary grade of about 6 per cent, crossing the track at 
grade, in order to keep the street open until the Board of 
Survey plan is carried out. 

Westerly from the bridge to Brighton avenue the sec- 
tion is 160 feet in width and the distance is .69 mile. For 
about 1,000 feet westerly from the bridge, through the 
marsh, there has been an excessive settlement ©f filling with 
a large displacement of mud ; only one temporary roadway 
has l)een built here. An unexpected settlement took place 
at this point, requiring some 16,000 cubic yards of surplus 
filling, for which the contractor was paid an extra sum of 
money. The filling on this section was completed on 
August 9, 1894, and while it is probable that settlement 
will continue for some years, it is probable that a fair street 
surface can be maintained. There ai-e no sewers, gas, 
water, or surface drain pipes laid in the "marsh section," ex- 
cept the large main water and gas pipes. The remainder of 
the section to Brighton avenue has one roadway completed. 
This is a Telford road of Roxbury stone of the same thick- 
ness as those east of the bridge, and was built by the Street 
Department in 1894. The remaining roadway (on the 
southerly side) has been built to sul)-grade of gravel, with 
the intention of finishing it with gravel as a soft road suita- 
))le for fast driving. 



EN(iiNi:EKiN(i Department. 135 

The width, plan, and disposition of water, "as, and sewer 
pipes is tlu^ same as in the section east of tlie Cottage Farm 
i)ridij:e. A eonsi(U'rahU' amount of work on sidewalks, loam 
spaces, and fences remains to be done. 

The section between ]>righton avenue and Warren street 
is .88 mile long and 200 feet wide. It is laid out with 
three roadways, a saddle-path, three grass plots, and tw^o 
sidewalks ; the width of each and their order, commencing on 
the southerly side, as follows : Sidewalk, 10 feet; grass plot, 
10 feet; roadway, 2(5 feet; grass plot, 29 feet; central road- 
way, 50 feet ; saddle-path, 20 feet ; grass plot, 9 feet ; roadway, 
26 feet; grass plot, 10 feet; sidewalk, 10 feet. The cen- 
tral roadway has been built and has been in use for several 
years. It was necessary to raise its grade for about 1,200 
feet in length to fit the new grade adopted ; the amount of 
this change in grade is from to 1 foot, in vertical height. 
The sub-grading is completed on a large part of this section, 
and the construction of the two side roads has been com- 
menced. The side roads are to be of lighter construction 
than in the preceding section, the depth being for Telford 
base 8 inches, for macadam, 4 inches. The sewer and sur- 
face drain work on this section is substantially finished, and 
there are nearly enough paving-blocks on the ground for 
the gutters. These blocks came from the section of the 
avenue taken by the Park Commissioners, with the under- 
standing that $0,500 is to be paid for them when funds are 
available. 

The section bet\veen Warren street «nd Chestnut Hill 
avenue is 200 feet wide and 1.07 miles long. This is an 
uneven and ro(;ky section, with two sidewalks, 7.5 feet wide, 
and a roadway 50 feet wide winding irregularly through the 
location ; it was l)uilt some years since. On September 15, 
1884, in the Board of Aldermen, it was " Ordered, That the 
Board adopt the plan and profile for constructing Massachu- 
setts avenue, in the Brigjiton District, as prepared by Henry 
^I. Wightman, City Engineer, dated September 11, 1884, 
and deposited in the office of the said City Engineer, the 
said plan being a modification of a plan of said avenue 
designed by Frederick L. Olmsted. It being understood 
that the construction of said avenue shall be substantially in 
accordance with said plan. Passed." 

The plan referred to has disappeared, but a cojiy exists. 
The road built does not exactly follow the plan, and no de- 
sign has been adopted for the treatment of the remainder 
of the 200-feet location. A plan has recently been made 
which collects all the information concerning this section 
that is availal)le, including the streets contemplated by 



136 City Document No. 10. 

the l^oai'd of Siuvcy, aiitl the grades considered or adopted 
hv them, and on this has been sketched a i)lan for building 
a"series of side roads, and rough estiniati^s have been made 
of the cost of completing the roads in accordance therewith. 
There will remain large areas of uneven land with high 
ledges between these roads, which, from their bold character, 
and the tine views from their sunnnits, may be ornamentally 
treated, if desired. It would seem desirable that JNIr. Olm- 
sted should complete his design, and that this portion of 
the avenue should be built in accordance with it. 

The remaining section between Chestnut Hill avenue and 
the Newton line is .72 mile long, and has been laid out as 
an ordinary highway. The plan provides for two roadways, 
three grass plots, and two sidewalks, disi)osed of as follows : 
Beginning at the southerly side : sidewalk, 10 feet ; grass plot, 
5 feet; roadway, 40 feet; grass and electric road, 25 feet; 
roadway, 25 feet; grass plot, 5 feet; sidewalk, 10 feet. 

The estimated cost of completing the avenue from Beacon 
street to the Newton line, as outlined above, and exclusive 
of the cost of sewers and surfjice drains, and including land 
damages, is $556,598 ; or about $400,000, excluding the 
extension recently made beyond Chestnut Hill avenue, and 
provided that material is transferred from section to section. 
The estimates by sections are appended : 

Estimated cost to complete the construction : 

Beacon street to Warren street . . $188,405 00 
Warren street to Chestnut Hill avenue . 164,157 00 
Chestnut Hill avenue to Newton line ., 99,685 40 
Bridge at Cottage Farm, cost to complete, 60,159 00 
Chestnut Hill avenue to Newton line, land 
damages, estimated by Street Commis- 
sioners 44,191 00 



Total $556,598 00 

Fifteen per cent, for engineering and contingencies has 
been added in each section. 

This estimate contemplates charging the section between 
Warren street and Chestnut Hill "avenue with $22,920 for 
earth tilling to be received from the section between Chestnut 
Hill avenue and the Newton line, and crediting the tirst- 
named section with $9,000 for rock to be used on the other 
sections. 

Plans have I)een made showing the ditferent methods of 
constiuction at dillerent sections of the avenue, and also a 



Enginekking Department. 



137 



proposed method of conn)leting the iivciiue from AVarren 
street to Chestnut Hill avenue. 

The following:: tal)Ie ishows the .sums heretofore approjjri- 
ated and expended upon the avenue : 




Sidewalk Plans. 

A set of plans was made for the Street Department some 
years ago. The design was to show on one plan all pave- 
ments, gutters, sidewalks, street railways, and crossings, 
edgcstones, all sewer and water pipes, and, in fact, all struct- 
ures as they exist upon or under the surface of the public 
streets. The custody of these plans was turned over to 
this department in 1892, and a certain amount of work has 
been done each year toward l)ringing them up to date. The 
amount of work which the availal)le force of the office can 
do each year is so small that most of the plans are hopelessly 
behind. They had not been recently corrected when they 
were turned over to us, and they are further behind now than 
they were then. Imperfect as they are, they are constantly 
consulted, and they can never perhaps be made absolutely 



138 City Doci^ment No. 10. 

correct, as many streets in the olden- parts of the city con- 
tain structures of wiiich there; is no record. Under the 
present regulations it is possible to oblige all parties or cor- 
porations, having authority to use the public streets, to file 
plans of their structures, and it is a work of compilation to 
gather all the information into one plan of record. Until re- 
cently, it was necessary to gather most of this information 
from the street itself. 

Unless means are provided by which more work can be 
done than is possil)le to do under the present conditions, the 
usefulness of these plans will diminish nipidly, and it will 
soon become a waste of effort to do anything upon them. 
An inspection of these plans has recently been made, and 
the following summary of their luunber and condition is 
given : 

City Proper. 

Of this division of the city there are 50 sectional plans, 
on a scale of 50 feet to an inch. The plans are nearly worn 
out, and as nothing has been done on them for many years, 
they are incomplete, and arc incorrect in many particulars. 
These plans are used constantly. New plans should be made 
on a scale of 30 feet to an inch, similar to the Roxbury and 
Dorchester sectional plans. This would increase the number 
of plans from 50 to about 150. 

Qlmrle&toimi. 

Of this division of the city there are 30 sectional plans, 
upon a scale of 30 feet to an inch. The set is incomplete, 
as 10 plans were either never made or have been lost. The 
plans are in good condition, so far as they go; but for sev- 
eral years nothing has been done upon them. 

East Boston. 

Of this division of the city there are 37 sectional plans, 
upon a scale of 10 feet to an inch. Seven plans have either 
never been made or have been lost, and there are no plans of 
Breed's Island. The plans are in good condition. 

South Boston. 

Of this division of the city there are 39 plans, upon a 
scale of 40 feet to an inch. Eleven plans required to com- 
plete tiie set have never been made. The plans are in good 
condition. 



E^CINKHUINO DeI'AKTMENT. 139 

Roxburi/. 

Of tliitj (li\isi()n of llic city there arc 7t) plans, upon a scale 
of 40 feet to an inch. Two phms are missing, and 12 addi- 
tional plans are requiied to complete the set. Tu'cnty-five of 
these |)lans are very much worn and should i)e replaced. With 
the exception of the missing plans, this set is correct to Jan- 
uary, 18!»5. 

DorcJieMer . 

Of this division of the city there should he 215 [)lans in 
the complete set. One hundred and six of the plans have been 
made, and are in good condition. 

This district is growing rapidly ; many new streets have heen 
built since the [)lans were made, and many calls are made for 
the plans not yet made. These plans are upon a scale of 40 
feet to an inch. 

Wefit Roxhury. 

Of this division of the city there are 84 sectional i)lans, 
upon a scale of 40 feet to an inch. The plans are in good 
condition, but nothing has been done upon them for some 
years. About oOO })lans would be required to complete the 
set, l)ut as portions of this district are thinly settled, 100 
additional plans would probably be sutEcient for the next ten 
years. 

Bri(jlilon. 

Of this division of the city there are no sectional plans. 
There are 81) rolled plans, showing most of the princii)al 
streets, but nothing has been done upon these plans for many 
years. Sectional plans should be made of this district, the 
plans being made as needed. To make the comi)lete set 
120 plans would be required, upon a scale of 40 feet to an 
inch. 

Siiminary . 

The Roxbury set has been brought \\\> to January, 1895, 
and some work has been done upon the South Boston and 
Dorchester sets. Each sheet, when corrected, is marked 
correct to the proi)er date in pencil. The remaining sheets 
have not been corrected for four years certainly, and it is 
unknown just when they were last corrected. 

To maintain these i)lans in proper condition, a draughts- 
man and one assistant should be employed to take charge 
of them, to know all alwwt them, to be responsible for their 
safe-keeping, to attend to people who desire to consult 
them, and to give their whole time to their correction. In 
one year, with the aid of such help as can be given by the 
remainder of the force in the winter, enough pro^jress can be 



140 City Document No. 10. 

made to determine wluit the cost of keeping up such a set of 
phins will be, and it should then be settled whether it is 
worth while to continue to do so or not. The pay of a 
draughtsman and assistant, competent to do this work, at 
present rates, need not exceed $1,600 per annum. 



WIDTHS OF DRAW-OPENINGS. 

The table showing the widths of draw-openings in the 
bridges over tide-water in this city is given in Appendix A. 
The openings have all been remeasured for this report. 

Respectfully submitted, 

William Jackson, 

Cili/ Enfjlneer. 



CITY e:n^gineers. 

1850-185)4. 



E. S. CHESBHOUGH, M. Am. Soc. C. E., 
Nov. 18, 1850, to Oct., 1855. 

(Died August 18, 18SG.) 

JAiMES SLADE, 

Oct. 1, 1855, to April 1, 1863. 

(Died August 25, 1882.) 

N. HEXKY CRAFTS, 

April 1, 18(;3, to Nov. 25, 1872. 

JOSEPH P. DAVIS, U. Am. Soc. C. E., 
Nov. 25, 1872, to March 20, 1880. 

(Resigned March 20, 1880.) 

HENRY M. WIGHTMAN, M. Am. Soc. C. E., 
April 5, 1880, to April 3, 1885. 

(Died April 3, 1885.) 

WILLIAM JACKSON, M. Am. Soc. C. E., 
April 21, 1885, to the present time. 

(141) 



142 



City Document No. 10. 






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144 City Documknt No. 10. 



APPENDIX P>. 



City of Boston.! Revised Ordinances., 1S02. 
CHAPTER 12. 

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT. 

Section 1. The engineering department shall be under the 
charge of the city engineer, who shall be consulted on all matters 
relating to public improvements of every kind where the advice 
of a civil engineer would be of service; shall, unless otherwise 
specially provided, take charge of the construction of all public 
works of the city which properly come under the direction of a 
civil engineer ; shall, except as to sewers, perform all engineering 
services, and make all examinations and prepare all statements, 
plans, specifications, and contracts which any department may 
need in the discharge of its duties ; shall, upon being notified 
by the superintendent of streets, supervise all repairs on the 
bridges of the city used as highways whicli affect the safety of 
the structures, and shall, when required by the mayor or by any 
otHcer or board in charge of a department, measure the work 
done by contract for the city, and certify to the result of such 
measurement. 

Sect. 2. Said engineer shall in his annual report include a 
report of the safety and completeness of all ponds, basins, and 
reservoirs under the charge of the water-supply department, and 
of all bridges within the city limits used as highways. 



Engineering Department. 



145 



xlPPENDIX C. 



Engineering Depautment PuoPERTy, Schedule Main Office, 



1 horse. 

2 carriages. 

1 sleigh. 

2 harnesses. 

3 robes. 

Instruments for drawing, 
lustruments for surveying, as 

follows : 

2 Temple transits. 

5 Buff & Berger transits. 
5 Gurley transits. 

I Stackpole transit. 

3 Temple levels. 

4 Buff and Berger levels. 

5 Guiley levels. 

II Boston rods. 

4 New York rods. 

3 Troy rods. 

Cases for plans and books. 

Reference Library, 1,012 vols. 



9,406 Plans Engineering Works, 

loose. 
14 vols. Plans Engineering 

Works, bound. 
Photographs of Engineering 

Works. 
Apparatus for blue printing. 
1 microscope. 
1 mercurial barometer. 
1 aneroid barometer. 
1 holosteric barometer. 
1 set hydrometers. 
1 hygrometer. 

1 pair field-glasses. 

2 typewriters. 

2 dynamometers. 

1 peutagraph. 

1 calculating-machine. 

1 volt meter. 

1 comptometer. 



14(> City Document No. 10. 



APPENDIX D. 



Elevations referred to Boston city base. (Tiie city base is 0.61 ft. below 
mean low tide.) 

Feet. 

0.00 City base. 

15.66 Highest tide, April, 1851. 
15.33 Coping of dry dock, Cljarlestown Navy Yard. 
12.24 Greatest elevatiou of high tide per United States Tide 

Tables, August 22, 1895 (11.6+0.64)i=12.24. 
8.14 Least elevation of high tide per United States Tide Tables, 

February 19 and March 20, 1895 (7.5+0. 64)=8.14. 
2.64 Greatest elevation of low tide per United States Tide 

Tables, May 16, 1895 (2.0+0.64)=2.64. 
— 1.16 Least elevation of low tide per United States Tide Tables, 

October 19, 1895 (—1.8+0.64)= —1.16. 
0.64 Mean low tide. 
5.00 Piles cut off for building. 

9.91 Water-works base (approx. tide marsh level). 
9.82 South Boston base. 
' — 4.98 Cambridge city case. 
0.38 South Boston Flats base. 

' Cambridge city base is 4.98 ft. below Boston city base. 



Engineering Department. 



147 



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CONTENTS REPORT ENGINEERING DEPART- 
MENT FOR 1894. 



[General index to contents Engineering Deparlment Reports, 1867-1S92, will be found in 
lieport of February 1, 18i»2.] 

PAGE 

A. — Encinkerinc. Departmknt 1 

Statk.ment ov Expenses, Engineering Department 2 

" " " Al)olis-liment grade crossings, Dover- 
street bridge 3 

" " " Allston bridge 4 

" " " Franklin-street tunnel, Brigliton ... . 4 

" " " Improved sewerage G 

" " " Rebuilding bridges to Watertown. .. . 5 
" " " Statues — Robert G. Shaw, Monu- 
ment 5 

J. Boyle O'Reilly, Monu- 
ment 5 

Bridges inspected 9 

" wholly supported by Boston 10 

" " " " railroads 30 

" of which Boston supports the part within its limits .... 11 

" " " pays a part of the cost of maintenance, 12 

' ' supported by railroad corporations 12 

Boston & Albany R.H., 12 
" •' " " " Boston & Maine R.R., 

W.Div 12 

" " " " '* Boston & Maine R.R., 

East. Div 12 

" " " " " Boston, Revere Beach, 

& Lynn R.R 13 

" " " " " New York & New 

England R R 13 

N.Y.,N.H.,&n.R.R., 

Old Colony Div. ... 13 
N.Y.,N.H.,&H.R.R., 

Trov. Div 13 

Total number (124) 14 

Bridges 14 

Agassiz road, Back-bay fens 14 

Albany street, over B. & A. R.R 14 

Allston, over B. & A. R.R 14 

Ashland street, over Prov. Div. N.Y., N.II., & II. R.R 14 

Athens street, over N.Y. & N.E. R.R 15 

Audubon road, over B. & A. R.R 1.5 

Beacon entrance. Back-bay fens 15 

Beacon street, over outlet to Back-bay fens 15 

Beacon street, over B. & A. R.R 15 

Bellevue street, over Muddy river, Parkway 15 

Bernier-street foot-bridge, over Bridle patii, Riverway 1(5 

Bernier-street foot-bridge, over Muddy river 1(> 

Berkeley street, B. & A. R.R IC 

Berkeley street, Prov. Div. N.Y., N.H., & H. R.R IC 

Berwick-park foot-bridge, over Prov. Div. N,Y., N.II., & II. 

R.R IC. 31 

(U!>) 



150 City Document No. 10. 



Buincr.s. rnvlinued. taoe 

r.liikemore siri'ot, over Trov. Div. NY., N.II., & IT. R.Tl. .. 17 

Bolton 8troet, N.Y. & N.E. Il.U 17 

Hovlston strcH't, Back-biiy fens 17 

Boylston street, B. & A. R.R 17, J'.l 

Bridle p;ith, over Muddy river in llivervvay IS 

Broadway, over Fort -point channel 17 

Broadway, over B. & A K.U 17 

Brookline avenue, over B. & A. U K 18 

Brookline avenue, over Muddy river, in Parkway IS 

Byron street, B., R B., & L. R.U 18 

Cambridge street ' i) 

Canal or Craigie's 10 

Castle-island foot-bridge I'J 

Central avenue, over Neponset river 10 

Charles river 19, H I 

Chelsea (North) 20 

Chelsea (South) '-^r> 

Chelsea street 21, 88 

Circuit drive, over Scarboro pond in Franklin Bark 21 

Columbus nvenue, over B. & A. K.R 21 

Commercial Point, or Tenean 21 

Commonwealth avenue, Back -bay fens 21 

Congress street 21 

Cornwall street, over Stony brook 22 

Cottage-street foot-bridge 22 

Cottage Farm, over B & A. K.li 22, 30 

Dartmouth street, over B. & A. K.R., and Prov. Div. N.Y., 

N.H., & H. R.H 22 

Dorchester street, over Old Colony Div. N.Y., N.H., & 11. 

R.R 22 

Dover s-treet 22, 40 

EUicott arcli, in Franklin Park 23 

Essex street 23 

I^verett street, over B. & A. R.R 23 

F'ederal .street 23 

Fen bridge, Back-bay fens ^3 

Ferdinand street, over B. & A. R R 23 

Forest Hills entrance, in Franklin Park 23 

Gold-street foot-bridge, over N.Y. & N.E. R.R 23 

Granite to Milton 24 

Harvard to Cambridge 21 

Huntington avenue, over B. & A. R.R 24 

Irvington-street foot-bridge, over Prov. Div. N.Y., N.H., & 

n. R.R 24 

L-street bridge 25 

l>everett pond, foot-bridge in Leverett Park 25 

Leyden street, B., R.B.,"& L. R.R 25 

Linden park street, over Stony brook 25 

Longwood avenue 25 

Maiden 25 

Massachusetts avenue, over Prov. Div. N.Y., N.H., & H. 

R.R 25 

Massachusetts avenue, over B. & A. R.R 26 

Mattapan 26 

Meridian street 26 

Milton 26 

Mt. Washington avenue "^^ 

Neponset 27 

Neptune road, over B., R B., & L R.R 27 

Newton street, over Prov. Div. N.Y., N.H., & H. R R 27 

North Beacon street 27 

Nortli Harvard street 27 

Prison Point 27 



Enginekuino Dei'autment. 151 

Bridoks, contitiited. r\tiE 

I'ublic Garilen foot-l)riilge 28 

Sciirboro I'ond, foot-bridge in Fninklin Park 28 

Hbawtmit avenue, over IJ. & A. H.U vy 

Spring street 28 

Stony brook, Hack-bay fens 28 

Swett-street bridges (over soutii i)ay sluices) 2<j 

Treinont street, over Muddy river 2'J 

W arren v<j 

Western avenue to Cambridge 2'.» 

Western avenue to Watertown 2!) 

West Boston v<j 

West Ciiester Bark. (See Massachusetts avenue.) 

West Uutland-square footbridge, over I'rov. Div. N.Y., N.I I. 

& II. R R 30 

Wintiirop 3(j 

MlSCKLLANEOUS WoKK AND CoNSTUUC flON IX 18!)4: 

Berwick-park foot-briilge 31 

Boylston-street bridge, over B. & A. R.ll 31 

Charles-river bridge 31 

Charles-rivir water-shed in West Roxbury 32 

Chelsea-street l)ridge 38 

Cottage Farm bridge 3<) 

Dorchester-avenue grade crossing 40 

Dover-street bridge 40 

East Boston ferries 43 

Ferry-boat, East Boston 43 

New drop 43 

New tank 44 

John Boyle O'Reilly statue 44 

Municipal docks 44 

I'reston-street culvert 45 

Stony-brook improvement 45 

Teredo Navalis 45 

Tunnel, Franklin street, Brighton, AUston subway under 

B. & A . R. K 45 

B — Wat KK- Works 47 

A(iueducts and distributing reservoirs 52 

Consumption 58 

Corrosion of pipes by electrolysis (JO 

Ditference of potential required to produce electrolysis . 6t 

Flow of electric currents through piping system 04 

Measurements of potential of piping system (>2 

Rate of deterioration due to electrolysis G7 

Signs of electrolytic action, lead and iron pipe (iO 

Table showing reaction in test for iron in the electrolyte, G4 

Distribution 5'J 

Farm poml 51 

High-service pumping-stations 53 

Lake Cochituate 51 

Mystic lake 5(5 

Mystic-valley sewer 57 

Mystic conduit and reservoir 57 

Mystic i)uni ping-station 57 

Reservoir No. 1 47, 52 

" 2 47, 52 

" 3 48, 52 

" 4 48,52 

" " 5 4s 

" <! 50,52 

Sources of supply 47 

Table showing (laily average consumption of water in gal- 
lons from the Cochituate and Mystic works 59, 70 



152 City Document No. 10. 

B. — WxTEn-Woitiiii, continued. i'A<iE 

Table showing diversion of Suilbury-rivcr water, 1S87-94. . . 71 

" " amount of water diverted from Suiil)ury river 
to Lake Cochituate and Cliestniit-liill res- 
ervoir; amount wasted; amount of How in 
river; pertentage of rainfall collected, 
etc., 1875-1894 74 

" " amount of water drawn from Mystic lake; 
amount wnsted; amount of rainfall col- 
lected in lake; percentage of rainfall 
collected, etc., 187G to 1894; water-shed 
of lake, 17, ^(jO acres 70 

" " amount of water drawn from Lake Cochit- 
uate; amount wasteil ; amount of rainfall 
collected in lake ; amount received into 
lake from Sudbury river; percentage of 
rainfall collected, etc, 1852-1893; water- 
shed of lake, 12,077 acres 72 

" " the average monthly and yearly heights in 
feet above tide-marsh level to whiuh water 
would rise at different stations on the Bos- 
ton Water Works 77 

" " operations at the Chestnut-hill pumping- 

stati<m for 1894 78 

" " operations and work done at the M^'stic 

pumping station for 1894 79-82 

" " operations at West lloxbury pumping-station 

for 1894 81 

" " operations at East Boston pumping-station 

for 1894 80 

" " rainfall in inches and hundredths on the Sud- 

bury-river water-shed for the year 1894 ... 83 

" " rainfall in inches and hundredths at Lake 

Cochituate for the year 1894 84 

" " rainfall in inches and hundredths on the 

Mystic-lake water-shed for the year 1894. . 85 

" " monthly rainfall in inches during 1894 at 

various places in Eastern Massachusetts . . 86 

" " the temperature of air and water at various 

stations on the Water-Works 87 

" " rainfall in inches on Cochituate water-shed, 

1863-1894 88 

" " rainfall collected in inches on Cochituate 

water-shed, 1863-1894 90, 91 

" " rainfall, percentage collected on Cochituate 

water-shed, 1863-1894 92 

" " rainfall in inches on Sudbury-river water- 
shed, 1875-lf(94 94 

" " rainfall collected in inches on Sudbury-river 

water-shed, 187.i-1894 95 

" " rainfall, percentage collected on Sudbury- 
river water-shed, 1875-1894 96 

" " rainfall in inches on ]\Iystic water-shed, 1878- 

1894 97 

'« " rainfall collected in inches on Mystic water- 
shed, 1878-1894 98 

" " rainfall, percentage collected on Mystic 

water-shed, 1878-1894 99 

" " yield of Sudbury-river Avater-shed, 1875-1894 ; 

area of water-shed used, include Avater 

surfaces 100 

Cieneral condition of the works 68 

Whitehall Pond 50 

Summary of statistics, report for 1894 1U2 



EnOINEEUING DErAUTMENT. 153 

C. — Imi>I!(>vi:i> Skwkuaoe, ok Main Dkaixa«;e 104 

Appropriations iind exijonditures 104 

Dorcluster : 

Si'ciions (5, 7, 8 104 

Outli.U Sfwcr 10.> 

1). — Takks IOC 

Arborway 112 

Drainage and water-jjipcs 11'- 

Drives, riile, and walks 112 

Kioctric ligliting 112 

r.rading 112 

Arhort'tnni 1 i;i 

Hrighton riavgrouiid 1 !'•> 

Oastle Island 117 

Chark'shank 1 LS 

Men's Gyninasiuni 1 1 'S 

Women's Gymnasium and Girls' Playground 1 1'J 

Charlestown Hei<ihts 1 lf( 

Charlestown Playground I l.S 

Dorchester Park 115 

] )orchester\vay 1 I "> 

Franklin Park 113 

Electric lighting 115 

Ellicott cottage 114 

Fort St Hills entrance II ^^ 

Pigeons 115 

Kef ectory 114 

Seaver street 114 

Water supply 114 

Franklin Field 115 

Jamaica Park HI 

Electric lighting Ill 

Drives, rides, walks Ill 

Gra<ling and walls Ill 

Plantations Ill 

Water-pipe and drainage Ill 

Leverett Park ■ 109 

Bridges and culverts 1 09 

Drainage and water-pipes 110 

Drives, rides, walks 110 

Electric lighting Ill 

Grading. ; 109 

Plantations Ill 

lletainingwalis 109 

Marine Park 1 1 '> 

Building Hlj 

D rives and walks 1 H> 

Drainage and water-pipes HI! 

I-^lectric lighting 111! 

Filling 11() 

North End Park 1 19 

Stony-brook and Muddy-river covered channels 107 

Strandway 116 

Filling 1 1<; 

The Fens lOG 

Electric lighting 10(5 

Drives and walks 10(5 

The liiverway 107 

Bridges 1 07 

Buildings 108 

Drives, rides, walks 107 

Electric lighting lO'.t 

Grading 107 

Plantations 107 



154 City Document No. 10. 

D. — Pakks, continued. page 

Wi'st Roxhury Parkway 1 1 ;^ 

Wood-Ishin.l Park 117 

15uil lings 117 

1 )r;»iiiHge and water-pipes 117 

Grailiiig 117 

Gymnastic ground 118 

Skating 118 

E. — StRKET DKl'AKrMKNT I'iO 

Albany street, Broadway to i.ehigli street 120 

Arlington street, Beaeou to Marlboro' street PiO 

Austin street, C'harlestown, Washington street to Fitch- 
burg Railroad Crossing 121 

Barton eourt, Barton to Brighton street 1j!1 

Blue Hill avenue, Dudley street to 80 feet north J)alma- 

tia St ." 121 

Bowker .-treet, Chardon to Sudbury street 121 

Cambridge street, Joy street to Bowdoin square 121 

Causeway street, west side Nashua to east side Haverhill 

St. 121 

Chambers street, Green to Poplar street. 122 

Chapman street, Charlestown. Austin st. to Rutherford ave. 122 

Ciiarles street, Pinckney to Cambridge street 122 

Charter street, Hanover to Unity street 122 

Court square, easterly and southerly roadways lL'3 

Commonwealth avenue, Arlington st. to Massachusetts av. 12;^ 

Dartmouth street, Boylston to Newbury street 123 

Derne street, Hancock to Temple street 123 

East Eighth street, (Jld Harbor to G street 123 

P^ast Second street, I to Iv street 123 

Essex street, Harrison avenue to Kingston street 123 

Essex street. Kingston to South street 124 

Fay street, Dover street to Harrison avenue I'^i 

Harrison avenue, Beach to Essex street 12 t 

Lewis-street Extension, North to Moon street 12-t 

Mason street, at Boston and Bijou Theatres 124 

Massachusetts avenue, southerly roadway Washington 

to .\lbany street 124 

Park street and City square, Charlestown 125 

Pemberton square, front of Court House I'o 

Kuth-st. Extension to connect Webster and Marginal sts. 125 

Utica street, Kneeland to Angle 126 

Washington >treet. Essex to Eliot street 12(j 

Grailing street-railwav tracks 126 

West End \ 126 

Norfolk Suburban 126 

Quincy & Boston 12i! 

New streets 1 30 

Arundel st'-eet 130 

Boylston street 131 

Commonwealth avenue 131 

Ivy street 1 30 

Mountfort street 130 

Newbury street 131 

Parker street 131 

St. Germain street 131 

Survevs, plans ami estimates, miscellaneous streets 127, 12x 

Sidewalk plans 137 

City Proper 13'< 

Charlestown 138 

East Boston ] 38 

Souih Boston 138 

Roxbury 13!) 

Dorchester 139 



Engineering Department. 155 

E — Strekt Dei'aktmbut, continued. faue 

West Roxbury 139 

Brighton 139 

Summary 139 

CiTv Kngineeus, 1850-1894 141 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Charles-river water-shed in West Roxbury. Plan and profile showing 
route of proposed Mother Brook Intercepting Sewer and proposed 

street sewers 36 

Dover-street bridge, foundation pier for draw 40 

Diaiiram showing proposed location of docks on Bird Island flats 44 

Park Department: Table showing principal items of work completed 

on the several parks to January 3 1 , 1895 118 

Water works. Electrolysis : 

Plate 1 .^ 62 

Plates 3, 4, 5 64 

Plates 6,7 66 

Water-works : High-service Pumping-engine No. 3, Chestnut Hill 

Pumping-station, diagrams 54 

Water-works : High-service Pumping engine No. 3, boiler 54 

Water-works : Map showing polarity of hydrants 62 

Water- works : Table showing rainfall and daily average consumption 

for each month 70 

Water-works : Tables showing the heights of Sudbury-river reservoirs, 
Farm pond, Cochituate and Mystic lakes, and the rainfall on the 
Sudbury-river water-shed during the year 1894 52 



APPENDICES. 

Appendix A. Showing width of draw-openings 142 

B. City of Boston Revised Ordinances, 1892. Chapter 12, 144 

C. Engineeringv Department, property schedule, main 

office 145 

D. Elevations referred to Boston city base 146 

E. List of Engineering Department Reports, 1867-1894 . . 147