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ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMISSIONER GENERAL 
OF IMMIGRATION 



TO THE 



SECRETARY OF COMMERCE AND LABOR 



FOR THE 



FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1911 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFPICE 

1812 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMISSIONER GENERAL 
OF IMMIGRATION 



TO THE 



SECRETARY OF COMMERCE AND LABOR 



FOR THE 



FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1911 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1912 



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REPORT 

OF THE 

COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Department of Commerce and Labor, 
Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization, 

Washington, July 1, 1911. 

Sir: It has been customary in reporting to you at the close of 
each fiscal year the work of tliis Bureau to deal with the subject of 
immigration largely in the abstract and from an impersonal point of 
view. Tliis is natural, but tends to make uninteresting the dis- 
cussion of a very interesting subject. In tliis report I shall endeavor 
to portray the work, aside from its strictly statistical features, in a 
concrete and humanly in terestmg manner and to illustrate with actual 
experiences several phases of the subject. A work dealmg so largely 
in human beings ought to be susceptible of a presentation in which 
the human element predominates. It is hoped that you and others 
who may read this report may find its perusal quite as interesting 
as I have found its preparation. 

The human drama of the control of immigration is duplex; and 
attention must not be so focused upon the individuals' sorrows and 
joys that daily are given birth or forever laid to rest m the regular 
course of enforcmg this law as to obscure the fact that the law is 
far-reaching in its ultimate effects and that its close application and 
proper enforcement may mean progress and its lax enforcement 
retrogression to many American communities, indeed to the Nation. 
Nowhere else is there a better illustration of the axiom that the 
individual must often suffer that the community may benefit; that 
there must be temporary individual inconvenience in favor of the 
general permanent convenience. So, I repeat, the drama is a double 
one. And the difficulty of enforcing the law is increased through 
the constant necessity to insure that neither element shall be 
allowed to overshadow the other; that proper weight in each instance 
shall be given the personal and the public interests, respectively; 
that personal suffering shall be prevented but only so far as is con- 
sistent with the pubhc interest under the law. Tliis is no easy task. 
Mistakes are sometimes made, but the constant effort is to reduce 
them to the minimum. 

Another special feature of this report is "General administra- 
tion," to wliich one portion (p. 167) is devoted exclusively, with fre- 
quent illustrations throughout the report consisting of specific cases. 

It has been customary to present in tliis report from year to year 
suggestions as to legislation. Except that there is again presented, 
as Appendix I hereof (pp. 175-213), the draft of a new immigration 



4 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

law, a codification of all existing laws regarding immigration and 
Chinese exclusion, with various proposed amendments, which formed 
an important part of last year's report and was extensively com- 
mented upon therein, only a few references to amendatory legislation 
are made herein. The proposed measure would be omitted but for 
the fact that I have reason to beUeve the subject of improving the 
law is likely to be quite generally discussed during the ensuing twelve 
months, with a resulting demand for the Bureau's views. 

The Bureau and Immigration Service proper are engaged in en- 
forcmg the immigration and Chinese-exclusion laws. The body of 
tliis report, therefore, is devoted to a discussion of that work. The 
Naturalization and Information Divisions and Sei-vices are under the 
supervision of their respective chiefs, whose reports are submitted 
herewith as Appendixes II (pp. 217-243) and III (pp. 247-258). 
The contents of the former need not be discussed here, but the sub- 
ject covered by the latter requires some comment. 

By section 40 of the immigration act authority was given the 
Commissioner General to establish a "division of information," the 
duty of such division to be " to promote a beneficial distribution of 
aliens admitted into the United States among the several States 
and Territories desiring immigration." Congress specified the manner 
in which this "beneficial distribution" should be promoted, thus: 

Correspondence shall be had with the proper officials of the States and Territories, 
and said division shall gather from all available sources useful information regard- 
ing the resources, products, and physical characteristics of each State and Terri- 
tory, and shall publish such information in different languages and distribute the 
publications among all admitted aliens who may ask for such information at the 
immigrant stations of the United States and to such other persons as may desire the 
same. When any State or Territory appoints and maintains an agent or agents to 
represent it at any of the immigrant stations of the United States, such agents shall, 
under regulations prescribed by the Commissioner-Genei'al of Immigration, subject 
to the approval of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, have access to aliens who 
have been admitted to the United States for the purpose of presenting, either orally 
or in writing, the special inducements offered by such State or Territory to aliens 
to settle therem. 

It is gratifying to observe from the report of the division that 
considerable progress has been made in the past year toward carry- 
ing out the intent of Congress with regard to cooperation between 
the States and Territories desirmg immigration and the Federal 
authorities, looking to the furnisliing to admitted aliens of informa- 
tion respecting the opportunities afforded by different sections to 
those wlio desire to take up land. 

That Congress intended that two methods should be followed in 
furnishmg information and thereby promoting a "beneficial distri- 
bution" is evident from the plain language of the statute, viz, (1) 
the collection, by correspondence and otherwise, of useful informa- 
tion regarding the resources, etc., of difterent sections, and fur- 
nishing same to admitted aliens and others desiring it, and (2) by 
the States and Territories placmg representatives at immigrant 
stations to advise aliens orally or in writing of the opportunities 
offered by the various sections. "Beneficial distribution," m the 
light of the origin and history of the law, undoubtedly means a 
distribution that wall benefit both the alien and the locality to 
which lie goes; another purpose, incidental rather than immediate, 
being the benefiting of congested localities (cities) to which the alien 
is induced not to go. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 5 

That it is desirable that sparsely settled districts shall secure good 
settlers all must admit. That it is even more important that the 
further concentration of aliens in localities already overcrowded 
shall be prevented is not quite so generally understood, but is con- 
ceded by all who have studied the subject with any degree of care. 
This latter phase of the "distribution of aliens" has received such 
extensive consideration at the hands of philanthropic organizations 
and others more or less directly interested in an almost unrestricted 
immigration that I believe it will be. of interest and profit briefly to 
point out some of the particulars in which the arguments of its 
supporters are fallacious and would if put into practice tend rather 
to injure than to help the interests of both the immigrants them- 
selves and the localities. 

Various organizations are struggling ydih this "problem" of 
putting the alien "where he is needed" and preventing his settling 
in colonies in the large cities and centers of industry, to which places 
most immigrants of to-day wish to go. Some of these organizations 
are purely of a business nature. Others are, or pretend to be, 
patriotic or philantliropic in their purposes. vStill others combine 
two or all three of these features. In their actual and avowed 
purposes, they range all the way from combinations of ticket agents, 
money lenders, and labor agencies working to a large extent for the 
benefit of the steamship companies and employers of cheap unskilled 
labor (mentioned more m detail at p. 119), or labor agencies on the 
IMexican border engaged in procuring Mexican peons and distributing 
them tliroughout the West and Southwest, to the State and municipal 
organizations conducted bona fide and from high, pure motives, but 
often incidentally producing some of the same eftects as the selfish 
organizations. 

These various schemes for distribution in the broad sense are 
subject to several practical difficulties which are often overlooked 
by those who deal with the matter from the theoretical viewpoint 
only, viz: 

1. If it ever was feasible to devise a complete, eflacient plan for the 
general distribution of aliens, it is probably now too late to stem 
the tide which has set toward certain localities where alien nucleus 
colonies have been established, constituting additional reasons why 
the new immigrants are drawn to them. 

2. Even though a certain number of aliens may be "distributed," 
they will not remain where placed unless the arrangement coincides 
with their desires and unless physically and mentally adapted to 
their new surroundings, as a large percentage of those who now 
insist on herding in the cities never will be. 

3. Distribution is not now, if it ever was, the real remedy for the 
evils which admittedly result from immigration; although, doubtless, 
if some far-reachmg plan could have been devised years ago it might 
have alleviated or postponed some of those evils, at least in their 
local manifestations as observed in the congested centers, and, 
doubtless, also, some slight good eft'ect may be expected to result 
incidentally from the efforts exerted to induce settlers to locate in 
agricultural districts in the manner specified in the law above quoted. 

4. As a matter of fact, in the present condition of the immigration 
business (for it has become a business in the fullest sense of that term), 
I am mclmed to believe that our difficulties m the aggregate, viewing 



6 REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

the matter from a national standpoint, are increased rather than 
reduced by the various schemes— private, charitable, and public — 
that are being operated or advocated and advertised for the general 
distribution of aliens. 

The fourth point above stated needs some further consideration. 
So far as transoceanic immig.ration is concerned, the greatest benefici- 
aries are the steamship lines; with respect to Mexican peon labor, the 
large employers and labor agencies. Any plan for the distribution of 
alien laborers, if carried out, must have a tendency to increase immi- 
gration and confer additional benefits u])on the beneficiaries mentioned. 
If the distribution affects the aliens at the time of importation, and 
extends the field in which they may be placed at a wage sufficient to 
afford a bare existence, the demand for additional numbers is 
increased directly. The theory upon which most of these plans rest, 
that there is an almost unlimited demand for common labor in this 
country, is now, and has been for some time, unwarranted by the 
facts. It is true, of course, that such concerns as railway lines, 
constructing contractors, meat-packing houses, and the like, using 
large numbers of unskilled laborers, are always glad to have a surplus 
on hand, so as to be in position to keep wages at the minimum; but 
the demand in this direction is too frequently created by the refusal 
of the employers to pay a living wage or to furnish steady employ- 
ment to be a reliable indication of actual conditions. It is also true 
that at certain seasons of the year, when crops are being harvested, 
there is a heavy demand for farm labor in the West; but such labor 
is expected to have some knowledge of farm work, is wanted only 
for limited periods, and, except in few instances, can not be employed 
by the year or even for a season. In recent years this temporary 
demand for an increased number of farm hands has been met in various 
ways — in some localities by the farmers offering exceptional induce- 
ments, thereby securing the services of laborers usually employed in 
other industries, such laborers going back to their regular employment 
after receiving a high wage for a short period on the farms. Because 
the farmer needs additional help during certain periods, it does not 
follow that the country should be flooded with cheap foreign labor 
which during the greater part of the year is forced to accept a wage 
that affords only a bare subsistence, tending to reduce the American 
standard of wages and living. In reference to the willingness of 
certain agencies to employ new immigrant laborers rather than those 
who have been here for a considerable time, also as to the bad 
economic conditions prevaihng among many alien workers in the 
congested districts of New York City, see what is said in the report 
of the commissioner of immigration for New York (p. 152). 

This so-called problem of distribution, in so far as it relates to 
others than settlers (i. e., those who desire to acquire land), will, it 
seems to me, be solved by the natural law of supply and demand, 
assuming, of course, that the aliens are fit subjects of distribution, 
as otherwise artificial means could have no lasting effect. Thus, if 
it is true that our large centers are congested with people who are 
barely able to eke out an existence, while on the other hand there is 
a scarcity of labor in other sections, the demand should be suffi- 
ciently insistent to produce such an ofl'er of wages antl working 
conditions as woukl inffuence those m the congested districts to 
take advantage of it; for, after all, the average wage earner, if 



REPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 7 

unencumbered, has but little preference between different sections, 
providing wages are made an inducement; but just so long as the 
demand is met by importing cheap labor from abroad this congestion 
must continue, and while the demand wdll in a way be supplied that 
result will be brought about only to the ultimate disadvantage or 
utter destruction of that kind of living and wages which we have 
been so proud to term the "American standard." 

STATISTICS OF IMMIGRATION.! 

Immigration for the past fiscal year was 878,587, which is less 
than the total for the preceding year (1,041,570) by 162,983 aliens. 
The decrease is confined to the last eight months of the year, Novem- 
ber havmg shown an influx of 10,696, December 9,230, January 13,881, 
February 15,154, March 55,058, April 37,016, May 38,183, and June 
34,006 less than the same months, respectively, of the previous year; 
whereas July recorded 6,935, August 18,797, September 16,312, and 
October 8,197 more, respectively, than the corresponding months of 
the fiscal year 1910. 

In addition to the 878,587 aliens of the immigrant class above 
mentioned, 151,713 of the nonimmigrant class entered — a total of 
1,030,300. Departures during the year embraced 518,215 aliens, 
295,666 of whom were of the emigrant and 222,549 of the nonemigrant 
class. The net gain in population by immigration, therefore, was 
512,085, as compared with 817,619 for the fiscal year 1910 and 543,843 
for 1909. With this preliminary statement of the chief totals, it 
seems desirable to discuss the more interesting details of the statistics. 
Some of the tables do not require any comment ; others are referred 
to hereinafter. 

The tables correspond numerically and in arrangement with those 
presented in the last report. Figures for the Philippines are pre- 
sented at the bottom of each table, the Chief of the Bureau of Insular 
Affairs havmg again courteously cooperated with this Bureau, to the 
end that all the msular possessions may be represented and the tables 
show immigration to the United States as an entirety, and thereby be 
made more valuable for reference and citation. 

In Table I the year's work is concisely summarized. This table 
shows arrivals and departures of aliens of the immigrant and non- 
immigrant and the emigrant and nonemigrant classes, the number 
rejected, and the number expelled after entermg the country; also 
the arrivals and departures of citizens. Notwithstanding the fact that 
immigration has decreased by 162,983 aliens, the rejections in 1911 
were 22,349, as agamst 24,270 m 1910; so that the ratio of rejections 
to admissions has increased 0.1 per cent (i. e., 2 per cent of the 
applicants were rejected in 1910, wliile 2.1 per cent were excluded in 
1911). In the former year 2,695 aliens were arrested and expelled 
from the country; in the past year 2,788, an increase of about 2.8 
per cent. 

1 In the classification of aliens the terms (1) immigrant and emigrant, and (2) nonimmigrant and non- 
emigrant, respectively, relate (1) to permanent arrivals and departures, and (2) to temporary arrivals 
and departures. In compiling the statistics under this classification the following rule is observed: 
Arriving aliens whose permanent domicile has been outside the United States who intend to reside 
permanently in the United States are classed as immigrant aliens; departing aliens whose permanent 
residence has been in the United States who intend to reside permanently abroad are classed as emigrant 
aliens; all alien residents of the United States making a temporary trip abroad and all aliens residing 
aljroad making a temporary trip to the United States are classed as nonemigrant aliens on the outward 
journey and nonimmigrant on the inward. 



8 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Tables II to IV show the net increase or decrease of population 
by arrival and departure of aliens, comparing the fiscal years 1910 
and 1911 by months, by countries, and by races. In the past fiscal 
year 878,587 immigrant aliens and 151,713 nonimmigrant aliens, 
a total of 1,030,300, were admitted, and during the same period 
295,666 emigrant aliens and 222,549 nonemigrant aliens, a total of 
518,215, departed from the United States, The net increase in pop- 
ulation by immigration, therefore, has been 512,085. From this 
number, however, to arrive at an absolutely correct conclusion, it 
would be necessary to deduct the number of naturalized citizens of 
the United States who have left tliis country for permanent residence 
abroad, and it is impossible to obtain from existing records figures 
in relation to them. The net increase for 1910 was 817,619, or 305,534 
more than that for the past year. 

Table VI gives the occupations of aliens entering and leaving the 
country, segregated into professional, skilled, and miscellaneous. Of 
common, unskilled laborers, 175,674 (155,996 immigrant and 19,678 
nonimmigrant) entered, and 237,046 (173,952 emigrant and 63,094 
nonemigrant) departed, as against arrivals of members of the skilled 
trades aggregating 177,676 (148,892 immigrant and 28,784 nonimmi- 
grant) and departures of the same aggregating 69,020 (33,473 emigrant 
and 35,547 nonemigrant). These figures should be compared with 
those shown in the same table in the last report, which were as follows : 
Unskilled laborers arriving, 239,026 (214,300 immigrant and 24,726 
nonimmigrant) ; unskilled laborers departing, 131 ,672 (89,393 emigrant 
and 42,279 nonemigrant); skilled laborers arriving, 163,789 (138,570 
immigrant and 25,219 nonimmigrant); skilled laborers departing, 
51,942 (21,574 emigrant and 30,368 nonemigrant). 

The second series of detailed tables, numbered VII to XII a, covers 
immigrant aliens admitted and emigrant aliens departed, and fur- 
nishes with respect to each, in consecutive order, items of interest 
and importance. These are the most important tables, as they deal 
with the true immigrant and the true emigrant, economically the 
most interesting of the classes statistically recorded. Data regarding 
sex, age, literacy, financial condition, how passage was paid, and 
whether coming to join a relative or friend are given in Table VII 
with respect to admitted aliens; while there are given in its coun- 
terpart, Table VII a, data regarding sex, age, and how long in the 
United States with respect to emigrant aliens leaving the country. 

Of the total number of immigrant aliens admitted (878,587), 
714,709 were between the ages of 14 and 44, while 117,837 were under 
14 and 46,041 were 45 or over. The figures for the preceding year 
were: Total admitted, 1,041,570; aged 14 to 44, inclusive, 868,310; 
under 14, 120,509; 45 and over, 52,751. 

Of those admitted, 182,273 (122,735 males and 59,538 females) 
could neitlier read nor write and 2,930 (1,496 males and 1,434 females) 
could read but not write. These figures do not include any aliens 
less than 14 years of age. In the year 1910, 253,569 of those admitted 
could neither read nor write and 4,571 could read but not write, a 
total of 258,140 illiterates, against a total of 185,203 for the past year, 
a decrease of 72,937. This may be more correctly presented, however, 
by saying that of those admitted in 1910 over 14 years of age 
(921,061), 258,140, or 28 per cent, were illiterate; of those admitted 



REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 



9 



in the past year over 14 years of age (760,750), 185,203, or 24.3 per 
cent, were illiterate 

The total amount of money shown to inspection officers by arriving 
aliens was $29,411,488, or an average of about $33 per person. There 
is no way of determining what portion of this consisted of money 
sent applicants by relatives or friends in this country. Of those ad- 
mitted, 531,557 showed amounts of less than $50 each, whereas 121,- 
125 were able to show $50 or over each, so that of those able to give 
ocular demonstration of the possession of money, namely, 652,682, 
about 82 per cent had in their possession less than $50 each. 

Of the aliens entering, 586,904 claimed to have paid their own 
passage, while 281,718 admitted that their passage had been paid by 
relatives and 9,965 admitted that their passage had been paid by 
persons other than relatives. Thus, even according to the not alto- 
gether reliable information on this subject furnished by applicants, 
it appears that over 33J per cent of the total number admitted were 
assisted to reach this country. In 1910 those assisted amounted to 
25 per cent. 

With respect to emigrant aliens. Table VII a shows that a total 
of 295,666 (238,922 males and 56,744 females) departed during the 
past year. Concerning 49,080 of these it has been impossible to keep 
a record of the period they had lived in the United States, as they left 
across the Canadian border. It is shown, however, that 15,889 were 
less than 14, 248,021 v,^ere from 14 to 44, and 31,756 were 45 years 
of age or over; 201,294 had resided in the United States less than 5 
years, 35,323 from 5 to 10 years, 4,990 from 10 to 15 years, 2,438 from 
15 to 20 years, and 2,541 over 20 years. 

The series constituted by Tables XVII, XVII a, XVII b, and 
XVIII deals with aliens refused admission and returned from the 
ports and aliens apprehended within the country and deported on 
departmental warrants. They must be discussed in some detail. 

From Table XVII it will be seen that during the year there w^ere 
turned back at the ports 22,349 aliens, or about 2.1 per cent of the 
total number applying for admission. The following comparative 
statement as to principal causes of rejection is inserted for conven- 
ience, carrying out a similar illustration that has been given in pre- 
vious reports: 



Cause of rejection. 



1906 



1907 



1908 



1909 



1910 



1911 



Idiots 

Imbeciles 

Feeble-minded persons 

Insanity (including epileptics) 

Likely to become a public charge, including paupers 

and beggars 

Afflicted with contagious disease 

Afflicted with tuberculosis 

Physically or mentally defective 

Criminals 

Prostitutes and other immoral women 

Procurers of prostitutes 

Contract laborers 



92 



7,0f.9 
2,273 



205 

30 

2 

2,314 



29 



189 

6,866 
3,822 



341 

18 

1 

1,434 



20 

45 

121 

184 

3,741 

2,847 

59 

870 

136 

124 

43 

1,932 



18 

42 

121 

167 

4,458 
2,308 
82 
370 
273 
323 
181 
1,172 



16 

40 

125 

198 

15,927 
3,033 
95 
312 
580 
316 
179 
1,786 



12 
26 
126 
144 

12,048 

2,735 

111 

3,055 

644 

253 

141 

1,633 



_ Table XVII a furnishes a useful comparison, by causes of rejec- 
tion, concerning aliens debarred during the years 1892 to 1911, inclu- 
sive. Table XVII b deals with a separate phase of the rejections 



10 REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

caused by the necessity for sometimes refusing residents of foreign 
contiguous territory the privilege of entering for alleged temporary- 
purposes. It will be noted that a total of 423 such rejections have 
occurred. 

The arrests and deportations of aliens are shown by Table XVIII. 
Those arrested and deported are segregated into the three general 
classes, "Deportation compulsory witliin 3 years," "Deportation 
compulsoiy without time limit," and "Pubhc charges witliin 1 year 
after entry, from subsequent causes;" and under each general 
classification are shown the specific causes for deportation. The 
second general classification is now possible for the first time, result- 
ing from the abohshment by Congress in the white-slave act of 
March 26, 1910, of the three-year limitation so far as ahens of the 
sexually immoral class are concerned. Deportations of tliis new 
class amounted to 71. The total number of warrants of deporta- 
tion issued was 2,788, compared with 2,695 in the year 1910. All 
but 9 of these deported aliens were of the mandatorily excludable 
classes. The excepted 9 were deported by the aliens' consent, the 
cause of distress having arisen subsequent to entiy. Of the 2,708 
aliens falling under the first-mentioned heading, 1,151 were members 
of the excluded classes at time of entry, 857 had become public 
charges from certain specified causes existing prior to entr\^, 129 
had become prostitutes after entry, and 555 had entered without 
inspection. Of those falling under the second heading, 52 were 
immoral women, 11 were procurers, and 8 were aliens supported 
by the proceeds of prostitution. It will be noted that so far the 
country has benefited to a limited extent only from the far-reaching 
provisions of this excellent piece of legislation, but it is apprehended 
that the benefits, both direct and indirect, will increase steadOy with 
the lapse of time. 

The matter of appeals and applications for entry under bond is 
covered by Tables XIX and XIX a. Section 25 of the immigration 
act provides that "the decision of any two members of a board [of 
special inquiry] shall prevail, but either the alien or any dissenting 
member of the said board may appeal through the commissioner of 
immigration at the port of arrival and the Commissioner General of 
Immigration to the Secretary of Commerce and Labor." During 
the year 8,433 appeals from excluding decisions of boards were passed 
upon, 2,858 of the aliens being admitted outright and 1,368 on 
bond, while in 4,075 cases the decisions of the boards were affirmed 
and 132 appeals remained open at the close of the year. There 
were 68 appeals taken by board members from admitting decisions, 
in 39 of wliich the aliens were admitted outright, in 4 they were 
admitted on bond, and 25 of these appeals were sustained and the 
aliens rejected; also, in 210 instances ahens apphed for _ admission 
under bond (without taking appeal), 154 of the applications being 
granted and 56 denied. 

Table XX is a compilation of figures covering alien seamen reported 
by masters of vessels as having deserted. They are known to be very 
inaccurate. For the past three years it has been impossible to obtain 
from the stearashij) lines accurate information concerning deserters. 
The decision of the Supreme Court in the Taylor case (207 U. S., 120) 
and the fact that a suit in which it was attempted to enforce the 
payment of head tax on account of deserting seamen was decided 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 11 

adversely to the Government tend to encourage noncompliance 
with the provisions of rule 22 of the immigration regulations. The 
very serious nature of this matter is illustrated by the wholesale 
violations of law discovered in the case of the Hellenic Transatlantic 
Steam Navigation Co. In that case the immigration officers at New 
York, acting in conjunction with the United States attorney's office 
in Brooklyn, obtained very substantial results both as regards fines 
and imprisonments in connection with an investigation of the unlaw- 
ful bringing to the port and landing of aliens placed upon the articles 
of the ship as employees, as set forth in the report of the commis- 
sioner at New York (p. 149). 

In adcUtion to the showing of this table, it should be stated that 
during the year over 30,000 Chinese seamen have come into the ports 
of the United States on merchant vessels, and many desertions have 
occurred. Moreover, Table XXI shows 528 stowaways brought to 
United States ports during the past year as compared with 474 for 
the precechng year. A bill (H. R. 32441) was introduced at the last 
session of Congress which, if enacted into law, will go a long way 
toward the abatement of these grave evils, especially if it should be 
merged into the measure proposed by the Bureau last year and again 
presented as Appendix I hereto. (See the method of effecting the 
merger shown on pp. 184-185 and explained on p. 205.) 

The amount of head tax collected on account of aliens who entered 
during the year is shown by Table XXII. Of the aliens admitted, 
913,880 were taxable, the sum collected being $3,655,513. The cor- 
responding figures last year were 1,041,242 and $4,164,966. By 
referring to the financial statement (p. 166), it will be seen that of 
the appropriation of $2,575,000 made for conducting the service for 
the year, $2,277,311.78 was spent. Very distinctly has the immi- 
gration act become a revenue producer, the balance between the 
amount collected and the amount appropriated being $1,080,721. 



12 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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(aaWMOEH^a;z;oOMw5HM<;2&H Hph 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



13 



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bo a) 



i-i(M-t^i-i"^a300'^f 



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looc^ooo'— ir^co.-HOOOT-i 



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14 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 






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KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



15 





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16 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table IV. — Net Increase or Decrease of Population by Arrival and Depar- 
ture OF Aliens, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911, bt Races ok Peoples. 



Race or people. 



African (black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Moravian 

(Czech) 

Bulgarian, Servian, and 

Montenegrin 

Chinese 

Croatian and Slovenian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, and 

Herzegovinian 

Dutch and Flemish 

East Indian 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south 

Japanese 

Korean 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Ruthonian (Russniak) 

Scandinavian (Norwegians, 

Danes, and Swedes) , 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Spanish-American , 

Syrian , 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (except Cuban). 

Other peoples 

Not specified 



Total. 



Admitted in and departed 
from Philippine Islands 



Admitted. 



Immi- 
grant 
aliens. 



6,721 
3,092 

9,223 

10,222 
1,.307 

18, 982 
3,914 

4,400 

13,862 

517 

57,258 

9,779 
18,132 
66, 471 
37,021 
91,223 
40,246 
30,312 
159,638 

4,575 
8 
17,027 
19,996 
18,784 
12 
71,446 

7,469 

5,311 
18,721 
17, 724 

45,859 

25, 625 

21,415 

8,068 

1,153 

5,444 

918 

2,248 

1,141 

3,323 



878,587 



2,946 



Nonim- 
migrant 
aliens. 



183 

522 

704 
4,350 
1,403 
3,038 

177 

2,807 

58 

28, 873 

1,056 

6,001 

15,243 

1,933 

3,333 

10,242 

6,941 

16, 469 

1,915 

3 

435 

2,620 

3,681 

5 

2,991 

903 

512 

1,400 

1,361 

11,054 
7,480 
1,654 
4,687 
1,821 

525 
87 

767 
1,174 

321 



151,713 



7,248 



Total. 



9,805 
3,275 

9,745 

10,926 
5,657 

20,385 
6,952 

4,577 
16,669 
575 
86, 131 
10, 835 
24,133 
81,714 
38, 954 
94,556 
50,488 
37,253 
176,107 

6,490 
11 
17,462 
22,616 
22,365 
17 
74,437 

8,372 

5,823 
20, 121 
19,085 

56, 913 
33, 105 
23,069 
12,755 
2,974 
5,969 
1,005 
3,015 
2,315 
3,644 



1,030,300 



10, 194 



Departed. 



Emi- 
grant 
aliens. 



913 
999 

1,208 

6,472 
2,716 
13, 735 
2,234 

935 

1,689 

75 

9,432 

4,219 

3,400 

15,243 

11,134 

6,401 

3,300 

14,209 

62,009 

3,351 

41 

2,430 

18, 975 

319 

1 

31,952 

1,388 

5,230 



3,838 

8,036 

3,083 

15,561 

2,518 

374 

1,173 

1,633 

255 

344 

862 

25,540 



295,666 



Nonemi- 
grant 
aliens. 



2,392 
312 

583 

2,228 
4,349 
3,738 
5,444 

578 

3,673 

177 

41,978 
2,586 
6,631 

16,645 
3,285 
4,036 

12,989 
9,859 

31,288 
4,982 
13 
1,130 
6,866 
1,485 
42 
8,526 
2,105 
1,878 
3,598 
1,515 

13,588 

9,367 

3,580 

4,299 

1,826 

988 

657 

807 

1,569 

957 



222, 549 



8,696 



Total. 



3,. 305 
1,311 

1,791 

8,700 
7,065 
17,473 
7,678 

1,513 

5,362 

252 

51,410 

6,805 
10,031 
31,888 
14,419 
10,437 
16,289 
24,068 
93, 297 

8,333 
54 

3,560 
25,841 

1,804 

43 

40,478 

3,493 

7,108 
12,037 

5,353 

21,624 
12,450 
19, 141 
6,817 
2,200 
2, 161 
2,290 
1,062 
1,913 
1,819 
25,540 



518,215 



9,592 



Increase 
(+)or 
decrease 



+ 6,500 
-I- 1,964 

+ 7,954 

-1-2,226 

- 1,408 
+ 2,912 

- 726 

+ 3,064 
+ 11,307 



323 

-f 34,721 

+ 4,030 

+ 14,102 

+ 49,826 

-f 24,535 

+ 84,119 

+ 34,199 

+ 13,185 

+ 82,810 

- 1,843 

- 43 
-f 13,902 

- 3,225 
+ 20,561 

- 26 
+ 33,959 
-f 4,879 

- 1,285 
+ 8,084 
-I- 13,732 



35,289 

20,665 

3,928 

5,938 

774 

3,808 

1,285 

1,953 

402 

1,825 



- 25,540 
-f 512, 085 



602 



REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



17 



Table V. — Intended Future Permanent Residence of Aliens Admitted and 
Last Permanent Residence op Aliens Departed, Fiscal Year ended June 
30, 1911, BY States and Territories.' 



state or Territory. 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District, of Columbia. . 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska .' 

^Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Peimsylvania 

Philippine Islands 

Porto Rico 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 1 

Outside United States . 
Unknown 2 



Total. 



Admitted. 



Immi- 
grant 
aliens. 



992 

312 

2,651 

451 

25,587 

5,083 

23,055 

1,117 

1,643 

6,466 

616 

3,885 

1,718 

76, 565 

8,482 

8,829 

3,653 

765 

1,952 

4,897 

5,315 

70,811 

29,633 

17, 169 

332 

11,243 

3,861 

4,996 

919 

5,883 

46,782 

722 

260, 278 

351 

5,175 

35,719 

945 

4,794 

114,922 

16 

1.291 

9,406 

216 

3,209 

689 

19,902 

3,114 

2,459 

1,020 

10,040 

6,050 

14.613 

1,395 



Nonim- 
migrant 
aliens. 



94 

126 

1,163 

48 

3,928 

431 

1,815 

102 

298 

3,223 

101 

674 

106 

5, 733 

637 

578 

256 

66 

425 

239 

378 

7,357 

2,978 

1,321 

66 

786 

310 

355 

115 

268 

4,288 

86 

27,419 

40 

269 

2,447 

91 

393 

7,589 

6 

557 

1,035 

27 

245 

72 

2,053 

167 

205 

147 

1,298 

363 

916 

128 

67,895 



151,713 



Departed. 



Emigrant 
aliens. 



257 

102 

270 

129 

8,211 

1,S20 

5,007 

343 

374 

3,103 

128 

1,422 

2';2 

21,157 

3,595 

844 

587 

159 

016 

438 

1,072 

13, 889 

6,233 

3,106 

158 

3,636 

1,018 

658 

274 

866 

13,083 

190 

71,046 

63 

203 

15, 1.31 

149 

1,129 

50, 722 

4 

401 

1,706 

31 

201 

124 

926 

981 

401 

441 

2,619 

2,890 

3,928 

373 



49.080 



295,666 



Nonemi- 
grant 
aliens. 



129 

126 

218 

41 

5,978 

849 

2,280 

62 

201 

2,419 

78 

2,059 

216 

8,974 

953 

788 

246 

96 

441 

303 

441 

11,268 

3,848 

2,424 

86 

1,461 

884 

448 

137 

394 

4,581 

120 

33,044 

72 

390 

5,269 

40 

782 

14, 271 

9 

374 

1,454 

39 

273 

95 

321 

401 

259 

221 

2,163 

833 

1,269 

266 

108, 155 



222, 549 



1 For permanent residences of aliens arriving in and departing from the Philippine Islands, see Tables 
IX, IX A, XIV, and XIV A. 

2 Left United States via Canadian border. Figures reported by Canadian Government. 

17581°— 12 2 



18 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table VI. — Occupations of All Aliens Admitted and Departed, Fiscal Year 

ENDED June 30, 1911.' 



Occupation. 



Admitted. 



Immi- 
grant 
aliens. 



Nonim- 
mifrrant 
aliens. 



Departed. 



Emi- 
grant 
aliens. 



PROFE.SSIONAL. 



Actors 

Architects 

Clergy 

Editors 

Electricians 

Engineers (professional) 

Lawyers 

Literary and scientific persons. 

Musicians 

Officials (government) 

Physicians 

Sculptors and artists 

Teachers 

Other professional 



Total professional. 



SKILLED. 



B akers 

Barbers and hairdressers 

Blacksmiths 

Bookbinders 

Brewers 

Butchers 

Cabinetmakers 

Carpenters and joiners 

Cigarette makers 

Cigar makers 

Cigar packers 

Clerks and accountants 

Dressmakers 

Engineers (locomotive, marine, and stationary). 

Furriers and fur workers 

Gardeners 

Hat and cap makers 

Iron and steel workers 

Jewelers 

Locksmiths 

Machinists 

Mariners 

Masons 

Mechanics (not specified) 

Metal workers (other than iron, steel, and tin) . . 

Millers 

Milliners 

Miners 

Painters and glaziers 

Pattern makers 

Photographers 

Plasterers 

Plumbers 

Printers 

Saddlers and harness makers 

Seamstresses 

Shoemakers 

Stokers 

Stonecutters 

Tailors 

Tanners and curriers 

Textile workers (not specified) 

Tinners 

Tobacco workers 

Upholsterers 

W atch and clock makers 

Weavers and spinners 

Wheelwrights 

Woodworkers (not specified) 

Other skilled 



1,020 
350 

1,001 
174 

788 

1,856 

298 

439 

1,332 

306 

429 

469 

2,093 

1,420 



12,035 



965 

278 

1,034 

194 

235 

2,025 

524 

365 

580 

059 

680 

296 

1,104 

973 



207 

70 

284 

51 

136 

359 

55 

79 

369 

150 

159 

215 

470 

279 



9,972 



2,883 



645 

533 

573 

27 

79 

465 

90 

2,350 

6 

1,270 

48 

4,850 

794 

878 

108 

458 

62 

471 

112 

151 

920 

2.313 

1,180 

390 

146 

58 

1.113 

1,725 

631 

48 

88 

206 

198 

205 

45 

365 

774 

552 

311 

1,231 

56 

229 

95 

457 

45 

76 

486 

49 

78 

1,744 



490 

552 

429 

21 

34 

379 

134 

1,742 

3 

276 

11 

2,265 

490 

289 

67 

178 

70 

504 

71 

33 

748 

652 

852 

4,726 

53 

36 

43 

11,045 

393 

15 

43 

82 

61 

82 

25 

209 

860 

449 

178 

1,931 

27 

490 

87 

1,030 

38 

50 

458 

12 

42 

718 



Total skilled 148.892 



2S.7S4 



33.473 



» For occupations of aliens arriving in and departing from Philippine Islands, see Tables XI and XI A. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION, 



19 



Table VI. — Occupations of All Aliens Admitted and Departed, Fiscal Year 
ENDED June 30, 1911 — Continued. 





Admitted. 


Departed. 


Occupation. 


Immi- 
grant 
aliens. 


Nonim- 
migrant 
aliens. 


Emi- 
grant 
aliens. 


Non- 
emigrant 
aliens. 


MISCELLANEOUS. 

Agents 


1,057 

248 

1,066 

176,003 

9,709 

959 

214 

155,996 

414 

10, 800 

107, 153 

8,019 


1,386 

608 

222 

14,346 

3,787 

256 

287 

19,678 

713 

10,729 

14,775 

5,103 


212 

120 

150 

6,518 

11,560 

131 

145 

173,952 

HI 

5,315 

9,235 

3,234 


1 716 


Bankers 




Dravmen, hacJimen, and teamsters 


320 


Farm laborers 


8,928 

6,404 

228 


Farmers 


Fisiiermen 


Hotel keepers 


354 


Laborers 


63,093 
1 021 


Manufacturers 


Merchants and dealers 


13,501 
17 466 


Servants 


Other miscellaneous 


7,070 




Total miscellaneous 


471,638 


71,890 


210, 683 


121 155 






No occupation (including women and children) 


246,022 


41,067 


40,408 
8,219 


53,926 


Unknown i . 










Grand total 


878,587 


151,713 


295,666 


222,549 





1 Left United States via Canadian border. Figures reported by Canadian Govenunent. 



20 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table VII. — Sex, Age, Literacy, Financial Condition, etc., of Immigrant 



Race or people. 



African (black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Mora- 
vian (Czech) 

Bulgarian, Servian, 
and Montenegrin. . . 

Chinese 

Croatian and Slove- 
nian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, 
and Herzegovinian. 

Dutch and Flemish. . 

East Indian 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south) 

Japanese 

Korean 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian (Russ- 
niak) 

Scandinavian (Nor- 
wegians, Danes, 
and Swedes) 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Spanish- American 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (except 
Cuban) 

Other peoples 



Number 
admitted. 



Total. 



Admitted in Philip- 
pine Islands 



6,721 
3,092 

9,223 

10,222 
1,307 

18,982 
3,914 

4,400 

13,862 

517 

57,258 

9,779 
18, 132 
66,471 
37,021 
91,223 
40,246 
30,312 
159,638 

4,575 
8 
17,027 
19,996 
18,784 
12 
71,446 

7,469 

5,311 
18,721 

17,724 



45,859 

25,625 

21,415 

8,068 

1,153 

5,444 

918 

2,248 

1,141 
3,323 



878,587 



2,946 



Sex. 



Male. 



4,086 
2,643 

5,214 

9,485 
1,124 

13,466 
2,762 

3,809 

8,778 

511 

32,980 

6,645 
10,254 
37,629 
34, 105 
48,935 
21,283 
22, 522 
116, 244 

1,409 



10,473 

11,640 

12,423 

7 

42,339 

4,843 

4,228 

16,280 

11,375 



28,757 

14, 798 

13,173 

6,405 

747 

3,609 

830 

1,471 

625 
3,150 



Fe- 
male. 



570,057 



2,456 



2,6.35 
449 

4,009 

737 
183 

5,516 
1,152 

591 

5,084 

6 

24,278 
4, 134 
7,878 

28,842 
2,916 

42, 288 

18,963 
7,790 

43,394 
3,166 
8 
6,554 
8,356 
6,361 
5 

29,107 
2, 626 
1,083 
2,441 

6,349 



17,102 

10,827 

8,242 

1,663 

406 

1,835 

88 

777 

516 
173 



490 



Age. 



Under 

14 
years. 



593 
205 

1,748 

339 
112 

1,587 
685 

175 

3,096 

9 

9,920 

977 

3,403 

11,680 

1,106 

21,835 

2,871 

2,900 

21,171 

300 

1 

1,382 

3,096 

4,111 

2 

7,691 

1,238 

365 

969 

855 



4,127 

4,510 

2,534 

913 

169 

673 

34 

322 

139 
95 



117,837 



625 



14 to 44 
years. 



5,867 
2,783 

7,003 

9,689 
1,049 

16,889 
2,950 

4,127 

9,862 

504 

41,835 

8,617 

12,843 

50,197 

35, 485 

63,674 

35,512 

26, 293 

128,617 

4,184 

7 

15,331 

15,901 

12,946 

9 

62, 148 

5,765 

4,668 

17,394 

16,542 



39,923 

19,042 

18,224 

6,699 

885 

4,536 

858 

1,768 



3,175 



714,709 



45 
years 
and 
over. 



261 
104 



194 
146 



506 
379 



904 

4 

5,503 

185 
1,886 
4,594 

430 
5,714 
1,863 
1,119 
9,850 
91 



314 

1,000 

1,727 

1 

1,607 

466 

278 

368 

327 



1,809 

2,073 

657 

456 

99 

235 

26 

158 



46,041 



2,195 



Literacy, 14 years and over. 



Can read 

but can 

not write. 



Male. 



Fe- 
male. 



19 



12 

4 
18 
59 

8 

202 

16 

7 
57 



299 
3 
21 



585 
4 
1 

58 



313 



775 



1,496 1,434 



Can neither 
read nor write. 



Male. 



950 
673 



2,761 
50 

3,347 
42 

1,599 

140 

256 

206 

21 

740 

1,330 

6,995 

6,453 

2S6 

1,204 

50,143 

79 



4,580 
1,042 
6,424 



12,479 
2,506 
1,326 
5,894 

5,070 



48 

58 

2,613 

993 

12 

1,346 

424 

16 



1,618 



122,735 



Fe- 
male. 



258 



36 

210 
79 

1,132 
40 

198 

98 

1 

147 

19 

331 

1,368 

1,241 

10,304 

148 

491 

18, 198 

868 

5 

3,429 

827 

2,650 



9,101 

1,226 

320 

1,044 

2,862 



36 
51 

1,472 

177 

10 

958 



59,538 



335 



105 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 21 

Aliens Admitted, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911, by Races or Peoples. 



Money. 


By whom passage was paid. 


Going to join 


- 


Aliens bringing— 


Total 






Other 






Neither 






amount 

of money 

shown. 


Self. 


Relative. 


than 
self or 


Relative. 


Friend. 


relative 

nor 
friend. 


$50 or 


Less than 






relative. 






over. 


$50. 
















770 


4,671 


$147,591 


5,113 


1,391 


217 


4,365 


686 


1,670 


294 


2,295 


112,729 


2,732 


345 


15 


2,506 


508 


78 


1,301 


4,975 


340,391 


5,587 


3,589 


47 


7,733 


1,317 


173 


600 


8,781 


283,998 


9,393 


797 


32 


4,615 


5,359 


248 


401 


813 


82,902 


706 


499 


102 


675 


279 


353 


1,106 


15,252 


403,780 


15,589 


3,278 


115 


14,457 


4,142 


383 


1,741 


991 


149,437 


2,631 


1,256 


27 


2,193 


323 


1,398 


336 


3,525 


122,495 


3,917 


474 


9 


3,114 


1,143 


143 


3,546 


4,693 


687,619 


8,028 


5,670 


164 


9,928 


3,102 


832 


209 


280 


26, 484 


474 


33 


10 


126 


43 


348 


20, 129 


18,874 


3,429,139 


35,982 


19,908 


1,368 


38,574 


10,185 


8,499 


1,288 


6,798 


323,564 


5,886 


3,452 


441 


6,463 


2,892 


424 


5,656 


5,621 


986,919 


11,446 


6,108 


518 


12,822 


2,144 


3,166 


16,907 


27,049 


3,624,057 


41,884 


23,626 


961 


53,309 


9,414 


3,748 


3,044 


31,106 


1,306,582 


34,570 


2,379 


66 


27,025 


9,572 


424 


6,962 


39,069 


1,968,244 


38,982 


51,949 


292 


87,117 


2,774 


1,332 


6,705 


25,910 


1.722,842 


25,477 


14,396 


373 


34,662 


3,252 


2,332 


4,876 


19, 756 


1,035,954 


24,237 


5,826 


249 


23,446 


5,814 


1,052 


12,239 


110,201 


3,642,466 


112,465 


46,439 


734 


151,188 


7,120 


1,330 


2,419 


1,705 


186,640 


600 


3,872 


43 


3,883 


259 


433 


5 

652 


27 
13,006 


823 
336, 807 




8 
7,688 




8 
16,056 






9,' 259' 


so' 


89i' 


80 


1,988 


12,934 


531,353 


12,623 


7,323 


50 


16,966 


2,711 


319 


1,085 


8,870 


234,108 


11,035 


7,454 


295 


7,977 


1,026 


9,781 


11 
2,572 




1,800 
1,532,334 


10 

45,852 


2 
25,370 




7 
66,624 


4 
4,143 


1 


55,298' 


224" 


679 


934 


4,216 


200, 175 


4,508 


2,381 


580 


5,304 


1,360 


805 


388 


4,221 


148,458 


4,258 


1,040 


13 


3,900 


1,236 


175 


1,339 


15,339 


499,254 


15,936 


2,495 


290 


12,171 


5,808 


742 


360 


15,560 


398,998 


14,077 


3,589 


58 


15,230 


2,180 


314 


6,448 


31,814 


1,679,191 


33,315 


11,449 


1,095 


32,920 


10,483 


2,456 


7,930 


9,984 


1,575,009 


17,332 


8,010 


283 


17,966 


4,847 


2,812 


1,186 


16, 574 


499,236 


16,320 


5,059 


36 


19,481 


1,726 


208 


2,320 


3,598 


376,202 


5,826 


1,279 


963 


3,737 


1,699 


2,632 


716 


90 


155,479 


693 


338 


122 


322 


191 


640 


1,002 


2,927 


230,436 


3,808 


1,628 


8 


4,667 


004 


173 


112 


719 


35,379 


846 


67 


5 


542 


328 


48 


886 


741 


143,949 


1,582 


626 


40 


1,535 


450 


263 


434 


421 


83,784 


804 


312 


25 


620 


156 


365 


228 


2,853 


104,880 


3,055 


253 


15 


2,145 


1,042 


136 


121,125 


531,557 


29,411,488 


586,904 


281,718 


9,965 


716,379 


111,213 


50,995 








1,645 


1,206 


95 


1,171 


83 


1,692 












22 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



23 



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^^6^ 



24 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table YIIb. — Conjugal Condition of Immigrant Aliens 
[Abbreviations: S., single; M., married; W., widowed; D., divorced.] 



! 


Males. 


Race or people. | 


Under 




14-44 


years. 




45 years and over. 




(total). 1 


S. 


M. 


W. 


D. 


Total. 


S. 


M. 


W. 


D. 


Total. 




202 
111 

880 

18.3 
94 
8.37 
322 

94 

1,509 

7 

4, 990 

500 

1, 592 

5, 859 

641 

11,073 

1,409 

1,512 

11, 303 

144 


2,750 
1,417 

2,710 

3,138 

503 

6,545 

1,711 

2,487 
4,521 
290 
10,044 
3,762 
5,141 

19. 524 
23, 152 

22. 525 
10, 194 
12,872 
51, 748 

904 


913 
1,039 

1,365 

5,9.30 
379 

5,609 
453 

1,145 

2,146 
187 
8,981 
1,282 
2, 310 
9, 717 
9, 900 

12,479 
2,019 
7,291 

40,818 
284 


20 
15 

21 

69 

7 

43 

21 

7 
28 
15 

228 
23 
68 

144 
55 

254 

118 
87 

389 
4 


1 

.... 

"2' 
"'4 

"0" 

8 

'ih' 
3 

.... 


3,689 
2,471 

4,097 

9, 1.37 

889 

12, 2,'-)7 

2,186 

3,6.39 

6,097 

498 

25, 257 

5, 007 

7, 525 

29, 393 

33, 107 

35, 273 

18,934 

20, 250 

98, 955 

1, 193 


13 
2 

12 

3 
9 
11 
38 

2 
63 

'"285' 
6 
111 
220 
20 
45 
183 
108 
197 


105 
53 

193 

155 
127 
351 
190 

08 

398 

3 

2, 130 

08 

745 

1,911 

2.-)9 

2, 207 

555 

591 

5,505 

68 


17 
3 

26 

7 
5 
10 
26 

6 

49 

1 

308 

13 

145 

236 

12 

3.33 

144 

61 

391 

3 


"2 

"1 

"2 
3 

"h' 


1.35 
58 

231 

165 
141 
372 
254 

76 

512 

4 

2,724 

87 

1.003 

2,370 

297 

2,593 

882 

760 

6,153 

71 




Bohemian and Moravian 
(Czech) 


Bulgarian, Servian, and 




Croat ian and Slovenian. . . 


Dalmatian, Bosnian, and 


Dutch and Flemish 




Finnish 




















Lithuan ian 


001 

1,528 

2, 132 

2 

3,820 

621 

176 

510 

443 

2,080 

2, 270 

1,278 

480 

92 

353 

16 

165 

66 

68 


7,294 
3,521 
5,340 

'24,'i99' 
2,191 

1,285 
7,355 
5,907 

22,200 

7,994 

5,247 

3, 822 

472 

2,306 

472 

871 

360 
1,600 


2,294 
5,809 
3,095 
3 
13, 175 
1,743 
2,498 
8, 009 
4,728 

3,405 

3,524 

0, 207 

1,082 

117 

791 

316 

328 

1.51 
1,374 


43 
59 

198 
1 

144 
30 
30 
45 
20 

55 
55 
32 
38 

3 
44 

6 
11 

1 
7 


".3' 
2 

"2 
"3 

6 

2 
"2 

1 


9, 031 
9,452 
9,2.35 
4 
37, 520 
3, 904 
3,813 
15, 472 
10. 001 

25, 791 

11,575 

11,480 

5,544 

592 

3,141 

794 

1,210 

513 
3,041 


14 
12 
81 

"'26' 

13 
13 

145 
113 
4 
49 
11 
7 
2 
12 

2 
1 


156 
607 
772 
1 
910 
202 
223 
274 
252 

025 

700 

381 

229 

47 

85 

18 

69 

37 
37 


11 
40 
203 


"i" 


isi 

660 
1,056 

1 
992 
257 
242 
297 
273 

878 










Polish 


54 1 2 

33 .... 

12 .... 

8 2 

8 .... 

101 7 






Russian 


Ruthenian (Russniak) . . . 

Scandinavian (Norwe- 
gians, Danes, and 
Swedes) 




145 .... 1,018 

24 1....! 409 

25 .... 303 


Slovak 


Spanish 


Spanish- American 


5 !.... 
20 1.... 


63 
112 
20 
96 

46 
41 


Turkish 


Welsh 


15 .... 

7 .... 

3 .... 


West Indian (except 
Cuban) . . .. 


Other peoples 




Total 


60,248 


300,506 


180,996 


2,450 


61 


484,013 


1,868 


21,427 


2,510 28 


25.833 





> None widowed or divorced, and only 22 married, as follows: Dutch and Flemish, 1 ; F.nglish, 2; ITebrew, 
1; Italian (north), 1; Italian (south), 8; Magyar, 1; Mexican, 3; Polish, 1; Scandinavian,"2; Slovak, 2. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 



25 



Admitted, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911, by Races or Peoples. 
[Abbreviations: S., single; M., married; W., widowed; D., divorced.] 



Females. 


Single females. 


Under 




14-44 


years. 






45 years 


and over. 


14-21 
years. 


22-29 
years. 


30-37 
years. 


38-14 


(total). 2 


S. 


M. 


W. 


D. 


Total. 


S. 


M. 


W. 


D. 


Total. 


years. 


331 


1,537 


558 


83 




2,178 


23 


56 


47 




126 


516 


596 


236 


89 


91 


157 


134 


21 




312 


1 


24 


21 





46 


78 


47 


16 


1 


862 


1,825 


1,042 


38 


1 


2,906 


3 


140 


98 




241 


988 


550 


144 


46 


156 


144 


391 


17 




552 


1 


15 


13 




29 


68 


42 


7 


2 


18 
750 


17 
2,631 


137 

1,884 


6 
116 


"i' 


160 
4,632 


■""3' 


3 

84 


2 

47 




5 
134 


11 

1,.388 


4 
82S 






259 


58 


263 


336 


396 


32 




764 


7 


65 


53 




125 


141 


91 


30 


15 


81 


315 


107 







488 


2 


10 


10 




22 


106 


121 


43 


12 


1,527 


1,263 


1,875 


24 


3 


3,105 


18 


256 


118 




392 


484 


418 


107 


66 


2 
4,924 


1 
8,120 


5 
8,071 






6 
16,578 












1 

2,330 








383 


4 


345 


1,483 


949 


2 


2,779 


2,927 


1,568 


725 


477 


2,719 


795 


35 


1 


3,550 


10 


61 


20 


1 


98 


1, 266 


1,023 


266 


86 


1,811 


2,876 


2, 296 


139 


7 


5,318 


109 


461 


309 


4 


883 


1,.325 


790 


381 


198 


5,821 


12, 340 


7,966 


460 


38 


20, 804 


224 


1,153 


841 


6 


2,224 


5, 735 


3,090 


1,394 


576 


405 


1,270 


995 


46 


1 


2, 318 


2 


77 


54 




133 


656 


410 


98 


20 


10,762 


17,682 


9, 930 


744 


45 


28, 401 


28 


1, 070 


1,417 


6 


3,121 


11,552 


4.199 


725 


142 


1,402 


14, 200 


2,180 


198 




10, 578 


203 


365 


413 




981 


6,538 


5, 273 


1,579 


469 


1,388 


2.705 


3,250 


88 




6,043 


21 


201 


1.37 




359 


1,155 


90(i 


295 


82 


9,868 


12,529 


16,527 


605 


1 


29,062 


110 


2, 033 


1,553 




3,697 


6,813 


3, 508 


1,150 


330 


15G 

1 

721 


279 

2 

4,239 


2,712 

5 

1,387 






2,991 

7 

5,700 


1 


16 


3 




20 


190 


53 

1 

1,541 


8 


6 








74 




3 


63 


07 




133 


2,284 


260 


64 


1,567 


3,055 


3,101 


269 


24 


6,449 


4 


154 


181 




340 


1,951 


607 


246 


74 


1,979 


1,133 


2,303 


275 




3,711 


22 


241 


408 




671 


626 


261 


164 


33 


"3,' 805' 


2 

17,550 


3 

6,082 






5 
24, 628 












1 
12, 136 








395 


1 


19 


288 


307 




615 


4,081 


748 


142 


617 


946 


815 


40 




1,801 


21 


89 


99 




209 


562 


247 


73 


32 


189 


222 


582 


49 


2 


855 




20 


16 




36 


84 


73 


36 


3 


453 


1,016 


871 


35 




1,922 


5 


40 


16 




61 


520 


300 


70 


17 


412 


4,533 


1,216 


131 


1 


5,881 




29 


25 




54 


3,327 


981 


124 


18 


2,041 


11,417 


2,578 


131 


6 


14, 132 


161 


428 


342 




931 


5,016 


4,077 


1,399 


509 


2,234 


4,598 


2, 722 


143 


4 


7,467 


147 


495 


413 




1,055 


1,298 


1,804 


935 


313 


1,256 


4,050 


2,496 


192 




6,738 


2 


103 


142 




248 


3,119 


681 


111 


26 


427 


467 


659 


29 




1,155 


15 


84 


54 




153 


154 


171 


02 


16 


77 


173 


105 


13 


2 


293 


11 


12 


13 




36 


71 


54 


13 


15 


320 


590 


602 


143 




1,395 




39 


84 




123 


366 


139 


23 


10 


18 


32 


29 


3 




64 




1 


5 




6 


14 


6 


3 


2 


157 


314 


235 


9 


.... 


558 


9 


32 


21 




62 


74 


116 


67 


35 


73 


244 


136 


15 




395 


11 


16 


21 




48 


76 


88 


39 


18 


27 


69 


63 


2 




134 




9 


3 




12 


34 


22 


7 


2 


57, 589 


137, 604 


87,901 


4,989 


142 


230, 696 


1,541 


10, 316 


8,328 


23 


20,208 


73,054 


40,804 


12, 692 


4,252 



s None widowed or divorced, and only 5 married, as follows; Dutch and Flemish, 1; English, 1; Hebrew, 
1; Italian (south), 1; Mexican, 1. 



26 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



27 



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28 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 













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BEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



29 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAX, OF IMMIGRATION. 



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■"J" 






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45,160 

41,182 

1,017 

3,154 
469 
3,148 
6,042 
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72,640 

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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



31 



1,459 

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27,053 

1,396 
1,615 
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32 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



t>. '-HO •C^rH 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION". 



33 



^r -lO < i-Ht>- '-^ 'Occcoasos^D^-ti-H •'^rosco -co 'i-^iooo -^ a>^ 



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34 



REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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37 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 



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43 



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KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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EEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENEEAL. OF IMMIGEATION. 



45 



C^—l .(N • .rH 



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EEPOKT OF COMMISSIONEE GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



47 



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59 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 









r^oc or»-'M^-*^'»'r^^-^'-<u^»-''^)-^M <-< 



c^r CO o "1* co"»oac o rfirroo t^co c^ t^oJo o c^I-^c^rco coooT'-' — > ! re 

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64 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XIII. — Sex, Age, Literacy, Financial Condition, etc., of Nonimmigrant 



Race or people. 



African (black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Mora- 
vian (Czech) 

Bulgarian, Servian, 
and Montenegrin... 

Chinese 

Croatian and Slovenian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, 
and Herzegovinian.. 

Dutch and Flemish . . . 

East Indian 

English 

Finnisli.... 

French 

(ierman 

(ireek 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south) 

Japanese 

Korean 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian(Russniak). 

Scandinavian (Norwe- 
gians, Danes, and 
Swedes) 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Spanish- American 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (other 
than Cuban) 

Other peoples 

Total 

Admitted in Philip- 
pine Islands 



Num- 
ber ad- 
mitted, 



3,084 
183 

522 

704 
4,350 
1,403 
3,038 

177 

2,807 

58 

28, 873 

1,050 

6,001 

15, 243 

1,933 

3,333 

10, 242 

0,941 

10, 409 

1,915 

3 

435 

2,020 

3,581 

5 

2,991 

903 

512 

1,400 

1,301 



11,054 

7,480 

1,054 

4, 087 

1,821 

525 

87 

707 

1,174 
.321 



151,713 



7,248 



Se.x. 



Male. 



2,063 
165 

278 

656 
4,300 
1,127 
2,179 

161 

2,102 

56 

18,705 

599 

3,644 

9,070 

1,830 

2,091 

4,004 

5,685 

14, 403 

1,691 

3 

311 

1,435 

2,121 

1 

2,032 

032 

382 

1,237 

1,100 



6,485 
4,780 
1,089 
3,020 
1,209 

399 
75 

527 

695 
281 



103,349 



6,942 



Age. 



Female. 



1,021 
18 



48 
50 
276 
859 

16 

705 

2 

10, 108 

457 

2,357 

6,167 

103 

1,242 

6, 178 

1,256 

2,006 

224 



124 

1,185 
1,460 
4 
959 
271 
130 
163 
201 



4,569 
2,700 

505 
1,007 

612 

126 
12 

240 

479 
40 



48,304 



'-'"f'"a4t0 44,«yf,fs 

^^ years *"^ 
years, o"^"'^ 



154 
3 

23 

12 

09 

02 

264 

4 
198 



2,178 

41 

326 

1,077 

50 

394 

257 

319 

743 

28 



33 
327 

485 



230 
62 
32 
74 
71 



325 
403 
121 
331 
220 

00 
9 

54 

110 
10 



2,644 
164 

448 

665 
3,253 

1.264 
2,362 

156 

2,323 

55 

21,017 

989 

4,672 

11,954 

1,808 

2,596 

8.830 

6. 139 

14,219 

1,737 

2 

386 

2,085 

2,546 

4 

2.595 

703 

420 

1,251 

1,230 



9,905 
5,670 
1,443 
3, 631 
1,282 

417 
70 

503 

802 
287 



9,171 122,713 



286 
16 

51 

27 

1,028 

77 

412 

17 

286 

3 

5,678 

26 

1,003 

2.212 

75 

343 

1,155 

483 

1.507 

150 

1 

16 

208 

550 

1 

166 

1.38 

54 

75 

60 



764 
1,407 
90 
725 
319 
48 
8 
150 

196 

18 



1,446 



Literacy, 14 years and over. 



Can read 

but can not 

write. 



Male. 



Fe- 
male. 



10 







1 




2 






1 


4 




1 




2 


5 


1 




5 


1 


2 


1 




. 2 




1 


1 




6 


2 



22 



Can neither 

read nor 

write. 



Male. 



Fe- 
! male. 



487 
21 



186 
447 
194 
32 

61 

26 

3 

40 

2 

43 

132 

207 

141 

29 

287 

4,863 

45 



89 

87 

527 



509 
286 
100 
323 
446 



7 

172 

85 

6 

77 

9 

3 

19 

77 



1,389 



214 
2 



36 



17 
134 

37 
206 

28 

44 
723 

40 



61 

96 

464 



243 
109 
36 
28 
99 



2,930 



16 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 65 

Aliens Admitted, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911, by Races or Peoples. 



By whom passage was paid. 




Going to join- 



Relative. 



1,415 
70 

359 

225 
1,023 

830 
2,065 

105 

1,205 

14 

10,845 

530 

2,041 

8,490 

1,190 

2,563 

7,102 

3,964 

11,368 

477 

1 

365 

1.948 

1,868 

2 

2,421 

588 

371 

678 

883 



5,947 

2,890 

1,402 

1,771 

471 

296 

32 

319 

479 
143 

78,762 



Friend. 



268 
25 



351 
915 
449 
189 

49 

622 

8 

3,480 

366 

582 

2,013 

418 

244 

897 

1.329 

1,425 

338 

1 

51 

422 

102 

1 

322 

176 

87 

450 

272 



2,507 

993 

174 

608 

96 

47 

27 

122 

132 
76 

20, 734 



442 



Neither 
relative 

nor 
friend. 



1,401 



63 

128 

2,412 

118 

784 

23 
980 
36 

14,548 

160 

3.378 

4,740 

325 

526 

2,243 

1,648 

3,676 

1,100 

1 

19 

250 

1,611 

2 

248 

139 

54 

272 

206 



2,600 

3,597 

78 

2,308 

1,254 

182 

28 

326 

563. 
102 

52,217 



6.357 



Ad- 
mitted 

in Phil- 
ippine 

Islands. 



17581°— 12- 



66 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 














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68 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



•ddojna iBiox 



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pws apjBA odti,;) 
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70 



RF.PO-RT OF rOMAriSSTONEE riENF.TiAI, OF IMMTGRATION. 



ooo i-<eo lOOO coo-* -^ M 'Xttcowo 



•jcloma Jaqio 



-a 



■mopsn];>j pa^in/^ 



•odojn^ in ^oJimx 



•pUBIJi)Zl!,A\g 



■uapaA^s 



•spuBisi ouv 
-oiBg pae £kuv.^^ 
Suipnioui 'uiGdg 



•ajiduia ireissny^ 



•Tjiueranoa 



•spUBisx ajozy 
poB apjaA adej 
gujpnpm 'iBgmjoj 



•iEA\JO>I 



•spuBiJaiija^i 



■tJtmpj'Bg pUB ji]! 

-oig Suipnpui '^i^ii 



•aoaaJO 



•ajiduia HEinjao 



•EOISJOO 

Sinpn|oui 'aou^jj 



■Jtreninaa 



•ojSonainoj^ puB 
'BiAjag 'BUBSinji 



•luniSpii 



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■Buisnv 



s« 



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p, CO 

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£ 3 cs 

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KEPOrt of commissioner general of immigration. 



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72 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



•spatJisi ouiddj 
-ins. raojj pajjtjdaa 



I ^ 






—ICO 


CO 



OS C. <M U5 



■^ OS -.£> • -< 



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■*(N'* QOOO^eOlO t^OStO lOOOS 
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COr-lt-l ^ -H 



rH.-l (N 



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o -JS r- -T" » 

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O -J* M f OS 



"saujunoo aaqjo 



h- to o t^Tpr^-^t^ Qooco (>-*H^^ OOOSU3CO 



•saiBJS paiinn 



fOrt OSM— I 



—I CON lO 



•saipui li?aA\. 



ouauiv mnog 



•ooixaj^i 



COOOO w 



C^ — ICOI^OO— I --Oco^^ »o 



CO(N(N h-C<lr-H 



Cv| -^ >o C^ CO M 



t>- -^ »-< f-H f-l CO 



•■Bouam V itijjuao 



•Bouamv 



r-i lO GO CO CO 



fOCO -fNINO^ 



4 to »OC0»O to O t^ OS to OS 



csost-h oDcjor^osco -fi-H-i* i-Ht^o co-ft^oc^co 
>o -^ CI OS — < i-H - — "' 



■^ fH CO ''f t*" 



•pagpads lou 

'spUBlSl OtJtOBJ 



p U B 'BIUCUI 
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t^ lo o -r OS 
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REPOTJT OF fOMMTSSTONER GENERAL OF TMMTGRATION. 



t- ■-(f "^ 00 Ol ^ CO Oi O »-( 



GO -n* CO lO OS i-H 



Ol •-< O t^ O C5 "^ CO 05 05 



w -^ CO : 



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74 



PiEPOBT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 




o oD C'l o O C"! ^« '-"M c-i cc --C. r- o 'O Q M o cc 00 oi -f c^i O --' cc r^ OJ Tf r^ 
oito -t< 1-H r*»o MCi o r^-^ t^*-- CO ^ ri CO i^'X; t- i:--.cci- cc w ^ c 



tOGCtO"— '05C0"t<C0'-HC0i0»-<'-^Oi'»'00OC'IC-J 



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cc GC re cc a. 



C) t- r- 00 t^ "^ K t^ 

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I-, ^1 o t* O t- *0 -t« o o 



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OOtO*-i-^GOOO&0'-'rCC;»GC'MfOC; 



oTt-raToc o t^-— ' »o lo CO 



lo -^ I ^ r-i to o a: 



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;o-rrco c--rtxcoai':^c-iq;Cjcc 



»C -^ O O GO 



ic o: oc ::r X '— o ». 



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--tc-^ t— r^o f-icjooi—co t—O'— t=^0»cco»C'— <»c 



OGC»-^QCCfCC;i— "Cl'wC-ICOOOCOO-fO'J 



^SS-'S 



1— I 1-- C^l O CO CI « '-' '-*''. 






irt^^^O«040C0t^C^OOW?DCCC^O"^r-^0l^'— 1>— icocoooo 

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cioiO'-Hr^oO'^co^O'-'OOccoiC'i'-Hr-io^oo ccc O'— ot 



GCC 

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t-^ 00 a:* »o ■-*^ (M lO >o I- c-i o T-- CO 00 '-♦ t— a; cj to <: 

rt-r.-Tc-r'-H i-I-^io -r oi »o Tj^o o CO CO oo o -^^ 



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'-tcot-ici'-o'^cor^t 
■ — 1 CO oC' iM CO c; t 

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00 O GO »0 -— ' to C 1 C^l ^ ' 



oi--»oMi^oiocoai-t^o^^o^^ocooioi^iocoS^£2^::^r'^£; 

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00 n- --C O L'j OJ rr CO rj- to 

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CN O (M »C <-' TT rM (TJ ^ 



^ o ^ to 



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OQ'-*.— (t^tM-rfi— icOCOiOt-^tOtOCifMrot _ -- --__ 

CO r- Oi »0 CO 'M 00 O 00 IM 'I* --* to I>- O CI O CO CO CO- Oi t^ CO -^ 



oort^-i^t^c-'i^n^ss^^ir^Lz^js^r^'sr^^s^^Sissss^^^^t^ss^^ 



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CI 00 TT cc; :o »c oC' CI '^ — 

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^^ ^ tC -^ .-H CO <— ' i-T ^ 



T*«OS'HO>C^t^'^OcOCO^-^cOC3COCOCDCT>t--^rt^C1;^0>OCOCO OOO CO 

r^tooit^oiO'^coaiOOtococOQOr-ccoci'-H^jocociooQO^co ^o -^ 
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CO C<l "<1< CI O: t 



CI ^ Cl CD CI CI CI --H -O' 5? GO t-^ »-" ■* w to 



,— I t^i— it-COCOClCI i-HCI 



CI JO ^'^ Oi Oi O -^ CO 



C^l,— lOi— ii— iCOCOM^t— ■^ClOOCICO lOOO'-HO'OtOGOasC'OOOO? f^>— ' f^ 

cotooiOicococjO— 'oo-1*coc^oo»-loCQCl^toc^Cl^^coc^o co;to co <x co co to 
coT-HiocicDci'^o^ajXJ.-Ho^cDOcDaj-** cocDt^^coco oio to i^ -n- cr. c- 



ro to O: X' CO CD CO ' 



• O"— t-^ ^ 



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1— < 1— « to to CJ CI »0 •-« f-t CI 



OtOC«— 't^ tOCICO-H 



n'tocoi— icjoocic^<5JOoociociaix-rco^o:>r^»0'-<ot:-^-co '-^ci go 
anocD'-<tocicicooscicoc?io2'^i-igiooo^'^'-;^»ocO'-<t^ cD-,j;- oc 



i-« CO CI t^ ^ 



eoo5'*"^ioxociio» 



t-'^fOClcD'^^t' 
t^o-rot— cOCOt^ 

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o'cfcTi-H 



- X CO I — * 



^ 00 CD O to 00 - . _ 

r^OiOCici^cocDt-^ 



a0toci05t-*citocico--^t^c0coco»-ii— tt--.-' 

"--»— '^ Oi-— 'OiCOt-OO'— '■^Cir*'— ir-i:D ._-,— -. 

oocoocot^i-^cocococo cor-ci'-*o:c>icopiX 



00 '-H 00 o CI cih-cO'-'r^O'^tNooco ci 



lOto^T'— 'OiClXco^>-^"- 
— - - CI — ' CI -^ r- 



OCaCIOiCOOtOI— ■^C^ OCO 



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ci D 

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^=.2j:g 



£ ft f- 



^ s 'K x: ■§ ?; o rt ■" '" 5 5 "^ ■ 



BF.PORT OF COMMTSSIONEE GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 75 

Table XVI. — Total Immigration each Year, 1820-1911. 



Period. 


Number. 


Period. 


Number. 


Year ended Sept. 30— 
1820 


8,385 
9,127 
6,911 
6, .354 
7,912 
10,199 
10,837 
18,875 
27,382 
22,520 
23,322 
22,633 
60, 482 

58, 640 
65, 365 
45, 374 
76, 242 
79, 340 
38,914 
68,069 
84,066 
80, 289 
104,565 
52,496 

78,615 
114,371 
154,416 
234,968 
226,527 
297.024 
310,004 

59,976 

379,466 
371,603 
368, 645 
427,833 
200,877 
195,857 
112,123 

191,942 
129,571 
133, 143 
142,877 
72, 183 
132,925 
191,114 


Year ended June 30— Continued. 

1865 


180,339 


1821 


1866 


332,577 


1822 


1867 


303, 104 


1823 


1868 


282, 189 


1824 


1869 


352, 708 


1825 


1870 


387,203 


1826 


1871 


■321,350 


1827 


1872 


404, 806 


1828 


1873 


459, 803 


1829 


1874 


313,339 


1830 


1875 


227,498 


1831 


1876 


169, 986 


Oct 1 1831, to Dec. 31, 1832 


1877 


141,857 




1878. . . 


138, 469 


1833 


1879 


177,826 


1834 


1880 


457,257 




1881 


669, 431 


1836. 


1882 


788,992 


1837 


1883 


603,322 


1838 


1884 


518,596 




1885 


395,323 


1840. 


1886 


3.34,240 


1841 


1887 


490, 109 


1842. 


1888 


54(i,889 


Jan 1 to Sept 30 1843 


1889. 


444.427 


Year ended Sept. 30— 
1844 . . 


1890 


455,302 


1891 


560,319 


1845 .. . . 


1892 


579, 663 


1840 


1893. 


439,703 


1847 


1894 


285,631 


1848. 


1895 


258,536 


1849 


1896 


343,267 


1850 


1897. 


230, 832 


Oct. 1 to Dec. 31, 1850. 


1898 


229, 299 




1899 


311,715 


1851 


1900 


448,572 


1852. 


1901 


487,918 


1853. 


1902 


648, 743 


1854 


1903 .. . .. 


857,046 


1855 


1904 


812, 870 


1856. 


1905 


1,026,499 


Jan. I to June 30, 1857. 


1906 


1,100,735 


Year ended June 30 — 


1907. 


1,285.349 


1858 


1908 .- 


782,870 


1859 


1909 


751,786 


1860 


1910 


1,041,570 


1861 


1911 

Grand total 


878,587 


1862 

1863 




28, 772, 880 


1864 







70 Rl-ypOUT C)V COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Tablk XVII.— Aliens Dkbarrkd kuom ExTERrxo the United States, 





.2 

o 
'■a 


B 


i 

a 

S 
6 




11 


? 

o 

t 

1 

1 

1 

3 


Loathsome or dangerous 
contagious diseases. 




1 

3 

03 

Ph 




3 

S. 

05 
a> . 

■" 

2 

>. 

"a! 
13 


Rare or ppoplp. 


i 

ft 


"1. 
u a 


1 

"m 

a 
■2 


a 
a 



3 
> 
as 


2 

S3 



! 

§ 

•Si 













1 
1 




3 


8 
91 

12 

32 

35 

41 

3 

3 
3 

105 
36 
20 
17 

105 
86 

228 
34 
48 

384 
34 
76 
40 
48 

175 
3 

24 
46 
36 

15 
10 
41 
6 
4 
249 
14 




5 
2 

1 

3 
49 
2 




1 


167 
193 

57 

500 
57 
136 

7 

51 

37 

536 

828 

54 

350 

542 

1,258 

998 

414 

172 

1,926 

10 

101 

126 

842 

610 

72 

96 

296 

236 

135 
342 
135 

82 
3 
284 
65 
20 

12 
254 






'1 






Bohemian and Moravian 
(Czech) 






1 










Bulgarian, Servian, and 












1 
1 
3 






Chinese 
















22 








2 


2 


2 

1 














Dalmatian, Bosnian, and 






1 
1 








"2 

5 

32 

26 


1 

8 

150 

28 

1 

15 

17 

15 

39 

28 

5 

34 

2 

4 

5 

31 

6 

1 

5 

5 

3 

5 

20 

2 

1 

1 
3 


















1 
1 
15 

2 
7 
7 
4 
7 

10 
3 

11 






















English 


1 


1 


U 


10 


11 


2 
1 
1 

1 

...... 

"■3 




1 




French 


1 
1 


.... 

1 
9 
1 


5 
13 

1 

16 
10 

5 
26 


.... 

2 
5 
1 

1 


5 

8 
1 

10 

22 

4 

9 




1 
2 






Hebrew 


1 


1 

1 


.... 


Irish 








4 


6 










2 






1 


3 

1 
6 
8 


1 
2 






1 






4 

7 
3 








Mexican 


3 


.... 
1 


1 


4 


5 


1 


Polish 








1 

1 
2 






















Russian 
























2 

4 
4 
2 


. 1 








Scandinavian (Norwegians, 
Danes, and Swedes) 






2 
4 
1 


10 
6 
4 


2 
2 


4 
5 




3 

1 


Scotch 




2 

1 


Slovak.. 










1 






Spanish-American 
























1 




1 










Turkish 










Welsh 






4 




1 








4 
















2 
38 








Other peoples 












1 


1 




4 








12 














Total 


26 


126 


33 


111 


15 


96 


2,152 


78 


505 


9 


35 


12,004 




Debarred from Philippine 

















15 











29 



















REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911, by Races or Peoples and Causes. 



77 






a o oj ^ 

•£>> g 

O C3 C3 cj 

c S o 

OQ 



70 
1 

14 

16 

34 

102 

8 

41 

119 

419 

41,1 

70 

,96 

819 



CO 
15 
192 
11 
32 
'31 
60 

44 
37 
80 
10 
1 
36 



3 

55 

3,055 



115 



11 

9 

8 

138 



46 

41 

86 

1^ 

26 

35 

139 

1 

8 

8 

110 

50 

6 

68 

73 

30 

11 
29 
21 
80 

"u 

3 

12 



03 c3 



2 o. 

e 



17 


30 


2 


1 


12 


20 


21 


32 


23 


59 


77 


81 


12 


21 


9 


12 


47 


63 



28 



57 



s§ 



2.53 






'31 S 



k5 « o 



27 



285 
319 



749 
769 
298 
39 

91 

89 

862 

1,433 

103 

626 

1,021 

1,963 

1,999 

793 

400 

3,579 

80 

248 

274 

1,242 

1, 133 

107 

238 

466 

394 

275 
557 
301 
201 
15 
669 
92 
52 

21 
473 

22,349 



198 



78 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table XVII a. — Aliens Debarred and Aliens Deported after Entering, 

1892-1911, BY Causes. 





.3 

'3 

3 


Debarred from entering. 


Year ended June 30— 




i 


■6 

■s 

i 


ft 


a 
o 

ft 
3 


1 
§ . 

M.2 

D 


3 
o ^ 

U 
if 

l§ 


to 

c 
.2 

I 


1| 
§8 


Surgeon's certificate of 
defect mentally or 
physically which may 
affect alien's ability to 
earn a hving. 


1 

1 
B 

o 


1892 


579,663 
439, 730 
285,631 
258,536 
.343,267 
230,832 
229,299 
311,715 
448,572 
487,918 
648,743 
857,046 
812, 870 
1,026,499 
1,100,735 
1,285,349 
782,870 
751,786 
1,041,570 
878,587 


4 








17 
8 
5 




sn 




1,002 
431 
802 
1,714 
2,010 
1,277 
2 9fil 




932 


1893 


3 

4 

1 


1 




XI 




518 


1894 










15 




553 


1895 










694 


1896 








10 

6 

12 

19 

32 

16 

27 

23 

33 

92 

139 

189 

159 

141 

169 

111 




""'e" 

8 
5 
15 


2 

1 

258 

348 

393 

309 

709 

1,773 

1,560 

2,198 






776 


1897 


1 

1 
1 

I 

7 
1 
16 
38 
92 
29 
20 
18 
16 
12 










328 


1898 










417 


1899 








....1 21599 

....| 2,974 

.... 2,798 

3 944 




741 


1900 










833 


1901 










327 


1902 










275 


1903 










5,812 
4,798 
7,898 
7.069 
6,866 
3,710 
4,402 
15,918 
12,039 




1,086 


1904 










1,501 


1905 










1,164 


1906 








2,273 !.... 
3 822 




2,314 
1,434 


1907 










1908 


45 
42 
40 
26 


121 
121 
125 
126 


25 
26 
29 
33 


2,900 
2,382 
3,123 
2,831 


31 

56 

9 

9 


870 

370 

312 

3,055 


1,932 
1 172 


1909 


1910 


1786 


1911 


1 336 









Debarred from entering— Continued. 




Year ended 
June 30— 


a a> 
B-a 

8 

< 


o 

03 '3 
^ C3 
^-ft 

-.= 3 . 

— O+J 
g P 

« c« £; 

■a c 3 

C 3 ft 


< 


•3 
.3 
3 

o 


s 

o 

Cm 


2 
< 


Prostitutes and females 
coming for any im- 
moral purpose. 


Aliens who procure or at- 
tempt to bring in pros- 
titutes and females 
for any immoral pur- 
pose. 


k 

ao 

ft 

3 
CO 


C 
t3 


l.l 

•- 3 


1 

C3 

X3 

■3 



c 

T3 

4) 

a 


1892 




23 


26 
12 
8 
4 






80 


! 






2,164 

1,053 

1,389 

2,419 

2,799 

1,617 

3,030 

3,798 

4,246 

3,516 

4,974 

8,769 

7,994 

11,879 

12,432 

13,064 

10,902 

10,411 

24,270 

22,349 


637 


1893 
















577 


1894 












2 








417 


1895 






1 






1 






177 


1896 


















238 


1897 






3 

79 

82 

2 

50 


1 

2 

8 

4 

7 

9 

51 

35 

44 

205 

341 

136 

273 

580 

644 








1 






263 


IS98 












1 






199 


1899 




















263 


1900 










7 

3 

3 

13 

9 

24 

30 

18 

124 

323 

316 

253 










356 


1901 


















363 


1902 


















465 


1903 






9 
38 
19 


1 

"3 

5 
10 

6 
24 
134 
57 


.... 

1 
1 

"2 

"5" 










547 


1904 






3 
4 
2 
1 
43 

181 
179 
141 








779 


1905 










394 
122 
160 
190 
413 
819 
605 


845 


1906 


180 
134 
168 
206 
315 
359 








676 


1907 






...... 

5 


60 
272 
81 
59 
27 


995 


1908. . . 


88 
138 
296 
549 


54 
34 
34 
116 


2 069 


1909 


2 124 


1910 


2,695 


1911... 


2 788 







REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



79 



Table XVII b. — Permanent Residents of Foreign Contiguous Territory 
Applying for Temporary Sojourn in the United States Refused Admission, 
Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911, by Causes. 



Cause. 


Canadian 
border. 


Mexican 
border. 


Boston, 
Mass. 


Alaska. 


Total. 


Feeble-minded 




4 
1 
1 
37 
1 
252 
4 






4 


Epileptics 


1 






2 


Insane persons 






1 


I>oatlisome or dangerous contagious diseases 


1 






38 


I'rofessional beggars 






1 


Paupers, or likely to become public charge 


10 


1 




263 


Contract laborers 




4 


Accompanying aliens (under sec. 11) 






1 

1 


8 


Under IG years of age and unaccompanied by parent. . . 






1 


Assisted aliens 




15 

47 
21 

4 
2 




15 


Criminals 


3 
3 






50 


Prostitutes and females coming for any immoral purpose. 






24 


Aliens who procine or attempt to brmg in prostitutes 
and females for any immoral purpose 






4 


Under passport provision, see. 1 


1 






3 


Under provisions of Chinese-exclusion act. . . 


5 




5 












Total 


19 


39(5 


6 


2 


423 







80 



KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



S2 

I 
n 

.9 

& 

b 

M 

i 

o 

a 
o 

S 


>> 

i-i 

o 
"3 

a 

la 

■s 

■a 

a 
"3 

"S 
S2 

a 

2 


•ij}ua JO auiij IB sassB(j 
papnpxa sjaqraara jbiox 






a 






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OC 






c^ m (M -H c>j "O 
mwc^ Chirac 


S 


2|"2S.3g'^ 


•sasneo jaqio 




































- 


- 






- 


- 


- 


4 


•I -jas 
'uoisiAojd :nodssBd japu^^ 




































M 


•asodjnd i^jorauii 
XutJ joj saiBuia; jo sa;n) 
-ijsojd ui auuij oj iduiaj 
-JB JO ajnooid oii.w suaiiv 






F-H tH 












« 


00-^ 


C< 


^^ 




c^csn<-H 


•asodind 
IBjomtni Aun joj Suimoo 
saiBuiaj ' puB ba^njusojj 


M — Cl -T C> C> -< 


*~* 


•J 


^„^^o-^ 


-"s" : 


•sjsiqojBuv 




















































sjsitnBaiioj 
























-' 


























•SIBUIUIJJO 


-'-' 






IM 


-' 




-M 


« oior* t^ ^ 




-H -<M 1 


•:)uajBd Aq 
paiuBduioooBun 'Xjjua jo 
auii} jB aSB JO sjBaA 91 japufi 


•» 








" 








" 


t^ 


ON 




PJ 












sjajoqBj lOBJ^uoo 





















" 


«M« 




(N 








(N 




•aSjBqo 
oiiqnd B auiooaq oj ip^tiq 


C^ »0 CO 




•sjadnBj 




















































•sJB33aq iBuoissajojj 




















































a p 


•sjaqjo 


•^ 






-' 




































'^ : 


bHABj; 








'^ 










































•BinoqoBJx 




'-' 




•^ 




-' 






-* 








(N 












" • 


•(snoiSBj 
-uoo) scsojnojaqnx 




c^ 
















N CJ — ' — 1 CI 










"^ 


— M J 


•iliuBsut JO sjioBjjB z P^q 
aABij JO 'sjBdX 9 uiqiiAi 
auBsai uaaq 9ABq ''auBsuj 








^ 


c^ 




<N 


■^•C^.-l-O 




'^ 


'^ 






O-O- • 


■sji^danda 






















•* 














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•papuira-eiqaaj 






















-' 














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saiioaqtni 






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r-<-H 








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! 


5 

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c 
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1 

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1 


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1 

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c 

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ci 

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0; 


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REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OE IMMIGRATION. 81 



«o-CrJ iMr^-a-t^c^rfTOMj-v 


2 






















































C<1 












1" 


r 






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g 






















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o 


























OS 


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3 
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ci 
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3 


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3 
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a 

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3 
1 


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o 

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17581°— 12 6 



82 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 





•spuBisi auiddiiiiid mojj pajjodaci 










•^ 






































•MBj Tiinido emddiimtl jo nonBIojA 












































•noissjnruioo amddtiiqj 'oOi IOB Xq 
pajinbaj sb j8;si38i oj pairej oqM asainqo 














































SS 
22 

SB 

Hi 

3 c3 o 


•sasnBO ju9nb 
-asqns inoj; saSjBq.i oqqnd [B^ox 






















M— • 






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CO 






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N 






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-< 






















•^ITinBj JO sjaqraani ^uapuadaa: 






























- 












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-Bjuoo snojaSuBp jo 'araosq^Bo^ 






















— — 












- 






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-aj JO ^q pa:tJoddns ajB oqM. suaqv 


























N 


CA-< 


^^-H 




•asodjnd iBJonmit XnB joj 
sajBcnaj jo sajnit^sojd lii Suuq 
oj iduiaj;B jo ajfioojd oqAi snajiv 


























CO 


COfl 




CI — < 




•asodjnd iBjorarai Auv joj 
3tnraoo sai^raaj pu^' sa}n;!isoj<j 












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S3 $] 2§S» =g^|gSg§g§5g355 


•noiioadsai inoqijAV paja^ug 




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JO Xq pa;joddns aje oqM suaqy 






















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CO-HCO — — ■«• 


- : 


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^ 






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CO 


oocomio — oi->i<.-itoo5-<eo 


a 
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1 


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sasntjo jaqjo 


: : : - 






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■suonipuoo iBOisXqd 


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00 


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'OM.^owt^oo'Vto 


TT'V 


•XoOToSajj 






















PJ-H 










- ; 


Loathsome 
or danger- 
ous conta- 
gions dis- 
eases. 


•sjaqio 








-^ 












(N 




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^eo 






•(snoiSB^uoo) 
siso[riojaqnx 




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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



83 



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84 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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86 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table XX. — Deserting Alien Seamen, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911, by 

Ports. 



New York, N. Y 1,723 

Boston, Mass 483 

Philadelphia, Pa 1, 144 

Baltimore, Md 163 

Portland, Me 14 

New Bedford, Mass 6 

Norfolk, Va. 91 

Savannah, Ga 147 

Key West, Fla 2 

Tampa, Fla 63 

Pensacola, Fla 217 

Mobile, Ala 234 

New Orleans, La 264 

Galveston, Tex 294 

San Diego, Cal 18 

San Francisco, Cal 414 



Portland, Oreg 238 

Seattle, Wash 277 

Gulfport, Mi.ss 275 

Charleston, S. C 139 

Pascagoula, Miss 106 

Newport News, Va 92 

Los Angeles, Cal 50 

Port Arthur, Tex 43 

Brunswick, Ga 22 

Wilmington, N . C 18 

Eureka, Cal 14 

Jacksonville, Fla 34 

Femandina, Fla 9 

Total 6, 594 



Table XXI. — Alien Stowaways Found on Board Vessels Arriving at Ports 
OP the United States, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911, by Ports. 



New York, N. Y. 

Boston, Mass 

Philadelphia, Pa- 
Baltimore, Md... 

Portland, Me 

Norfolk, Va 

Savannah, Ga 

Key West, Fla... 

Mobile, Ala 

New Orleans, La. 
Galveston, Tex... 



274 

14 

49 

27 

3 

2 

1 

1 

6 

11 

15 



San Diego, Cal 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Portland, Oreg 

Seattle, Wash 

Gulfport, Miss 

Newport News, Va. 
Los Angeles, Cal . . . 
Port Arthur, Tex.. 
Femandina, Tla 



3 

44 

27 

32 

2 

10 

2 

1 

4 



Total. 



528 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 87 

Table XXII. — Agreement between Alien Arrivals and Head-Tax Settle- 
ments, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911. 

Immigrant aliens admitted 878, 587 

Nonimmigrant aliens admitted 151, 713 > 

Aliens debarred 22, 349 

Aliens from Porto Rico, Hawaii, and Guam 2, 439 

Died 372 

Erroneous head-tax collections 1, 659 

Head-tax payments pending from previous year 65, 735 

1, 122, 854 

Exempt from head-tax payment, as follows: 

In transit 37, 416 

One-year residents of Cuba 7, 914 

One-year residents of British North America 42, 047 

One-year residents of Mexico 20, 539 

Exempt under rule 2 (d) 10, 619 

Government officials '. 1, 042 

Arrivals in Hawaii 4, 939 

Arrivals in Porto Rico 3, 336 

Aliens debarred 22, 349 

150, 201 
Head-tax payments pending at close of year 58, 773 

208, 974 

Aliens on whom head tax was paid ^ 913, 880 

Amount of head tax collected during year $3, 655, 513 

I One alien arrived prior to March, 1903, upon whom $1 head tax was collected; 2 aliens arrived prior 
to July 1, 1907, upon whom $2 each was collected; 913,877 were taxed at $4 each. 



88 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table XXIII.— Passengers Departed from the 

[In the absence of law requiring masters of vessels departing from the United States for foreign countries 
to deliver to collectors of customs returns of all passengers embarking on such vessels, reliance is had 
upon the courtesy of the agents of steamship and packet lines for information on the outward passenger 
movement. It is probable, however, that the departures given embrace the entire passenger move- 
ment from the United States to foreign countries.] 





Ports of departure and 
destination. 


AUens. 




Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Line of ves.selR. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


North German Lloyd.. 
United Fruit Co 


From Baltimore, Md., to — 
Bremen 


2,681 
12 


2,116 
7 


565 
5 


162 


2,519 
12 


462 
12 


2,219 


British West Indies 

Total, Baltimore 

From Boston, Mass., to— 
Glasgow 




2,693 


2,123 


570 


162 


2,531 


474 


2,219 


Allan 


1,095 

97 

414 

84 

7 

111 

54 

4,249 

1,662 

243 

42 

65 

1,224 

18 

70 

201 

558 

98 

904 

235 

146 

112 

111 

120 

420 

2,074 

10 

3 

4,336 

6 

801 


631 

44 

374 

80 

7 

78 

22 

2,185 

604 

132 

32 

50 

1,116 

10 

55 

103 

498 

75 

851 

218 

99 

112 

70 

75 

269 

1,169 

7 

3 

3,450 

5 

275 


404 
53 
40 
4 


97 
7 

19 
2 


998 

90 

395 

82 

7 

98 

48 

3,886 

1,615 

178 

30 

51 

1,164 

15 

68 

185 

525 

89 

896 

225 

129 

112 

105 

106 

379 

1,921 

9 

3 

4,158 

6 

785 


383 
34 

4 

i 

40 

1,335 

199 

8 

3 

36 

3 

201 

8 

21 

2 

112 
111 
120 
146 
492 
5 

""i95 

1 

226 


712 

63 

410 

84 

7 

110 

14 

2,914 

1,463 

235 

39 

65 

1,188 

18 

67 

"hhb 

98 
883 
235 
144 

""274 

1.582 

5 

3 

4,141 

5 

575 




Londonderry 


Austro- American 


Naples 




Patras 




Trieste 




Azores 


33 

32 

2,064 

1,058 

111 

10 

15 

108 

8 

15 

98 

60 

23 

53 

17 

47 


13 

6 

363 

47 

65 

12 

14 

60 

3 

2 

16 

33 

9 

8 

10 

17 


Cunard 


Fishguard 




Liverpool 




Queenstown 


Fabre 


Delgado 




Genoa 




Messina 




Naples 




Palermo 




Azores 


Leyland 


Liverpool 


Navigazione Generale 
Italiana. 


Genoa ... 


Messina 




Naples 




Palermo 




Azores 


Plant 


Canada 


United Fruit Co 


British West Indies 

Costa Rica 


41 

45 

151 

905 

3 


6 

14 

41 

153 

1 


White Star 


Genoa 




Liverpool 




Gibraltar.. . . 




Messina 




Naples 


886 

1 

526 


178 

ie 




Palermo 




Queenstown 








Azores 


1,392 


861 


531 


143 


1,249 


162 


1,230 




Total, Boston 

From Canada (Atlantic 
seaports) to— 
Bristol 




20,962 


13,560 


7,402 


1,355 


19,607 


3,848 


17,114 


Allan 


28 

198 

8 

1,489 

61 

24 

32 

6 

1,946 

1 

61 

44 

12 

12 

556 

169 

38 

2 


15 

137 

7 

1,174 

48 

23 

29 

6 

1,527 

43 

34 
10 
9 
381 
142 
25 
2 


13 
61 

1 

315 

13 

1 

3 


7 
13 

58 

5 


i 

21 

185 

8 

1,431 

56 

24 

32 

6 

1,849 

1 

57 

43 

11 

12 

518 

157 

35 

2 


■ 28 
84 
3 

155 
19 

"'"312 

1 
25 
19 

1 

7 

213 

18 

4 


"iu 

5 
1,334 
42 
24 
32 
6 
1,634 

36 

25 

11 

5 

343 

151 

34 

2 




Glasgow 




Havre 




Liverpool 




London 


Canada 


Hamburg 




Rotterdam 


Canadian Pacific 


Glasgow 




Liverpool.. . . 


419 
1 

18 
10 
2 
3 
175 
27 
13 


97 

4 

1 

1 

38 

12 
3 




London 


Canadian Xorthorn 


A vonmouUi 




Bristol...^ 


Cassandra 




Dominion 


Do. 




Liverpool 


Donaldson 




Koyal 






Bristol 


Satumia 


Glasgow 








London 


1 

1 
21 
788 
53 


1 
1 

14 
645 
40 






1 
1 

21 
741 

SO 


is 

4 


1 
1 

8 
784 
53 


Thompson 










Liverpool 


7 

143 

13 


47 

3 




London 


Victorian 


Liverpool ... 




Total, Atlantic sea- 
ports of Canada. 




5,551 


4,313 


1,238 


289 


5,262 


006 


4,645 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER, GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 



89 



United States, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911. 

[In the absence of law requiring masters of vessels departing from the United States for foreign countries 
to deliver to collectors of customs returns of all passengers embarking on such vessels, reliance is had 
upon the courtesy of the agents of steamsliip and packet lines for infonnation on the outward passenger 
movement. It is probable, however, that the departures given embrace the entire passenger move- 
ment from the United States to foreign countries.] 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


1,930 


860 


1,070 


508 


1,422 


1,558 


372 


4,611 


2,976 


1,635 


670 


3,941 


2,020 


2,591 


18 


10 


8 




18 


18 




30 


17 


13 




30 


30 




1,948 


870 


1,078 


508 


1,440 


1,576 


372 


4,641 


2,993 


1,648 


670 


3,971 


2,050 


2,591 


627 


262 


365 


136 


491 


401 


226 


1,722 


893 


829 


233 


1,489 


784 


938 


89 


41 


48 


32 


57 


47 


42 


186 


85 


101 


39 


147 


81 


105 


8 


3 


5 


8 






8 


422 

84 

7 

117 


377 
80 

7 
84 


45 
4 


27 
2 


395 

82 

7 

101 


4 
2 


418 






84 
















7 


6 


6 




3 


3 


1 


5 


33 


16 


115 


272 


126 


146 


9 


263 


249 


23 


326 


148 


178 


15 


311 


289 


37 


3,889 


1,895 


1,994 


627 


3,262 


2,346 


1,543 


8,138 


4,080 


4,058 


990 


7,148 


3,681 


4,457 


959 


371 


588 


161 


798 


321 


638 


2,621 


975 


1,646 


208 


2,413 


520 


2,101 
















243 

42 

65 

1,273 


132 

32 

50 

1,151 


111 
10 
15 

122 


65 
12 
14 
98 


178 

30 

51 

1,175 


8 
3 

43 


235 
















39 


49 














65 


35 


14 


38 


11 


7 


42 


1,230 
















18 
76 


10 
57 


8 
19 


3 

7 


15 
69 


3 


18 


6 


2 


4 


5 


1 




6 


73 


603 


196 


407 


36 


567 


603 




804 


299 


505 


52 


752 


804 




10 


3 


7 


9 


1 


5 


5 


568 


501 


67 


42 


526 


13 


555 


2 
14 


1 
7 


1 
7 


& 






2 
12 


100 

918 


76 
858 


24 
60 


11 
21 


89 
897 


23 


100 


1 


2 


895 


69 


65 


4 


8 


61 




69 


304 


283 


21 


18 


286 




304 


19 


11 


8 




19 




19 


165 


110 


55 


17 


148 


2 


163 


58 
89 


58 
63 






58 
83 


58 
89 




170 
200 


170 
133 






170 

188 


170 
200 




26 


6 


67 


12 




127 


93 


34 


2 


125 


127 




247 


168 


79 


16 


231 


247 




636 


245 


391 


113 


523 


592 


44 


1,056 


514 


542 


154 


902 


738 


318 


1,783 


889 


894 


361 


1,422 


812 


971 


3,857 


2,058 


1,799 


514 


3,343 


1,304 


2,553 


62 


18 


44 


1 


61 


57 


5 


72 

3 

6,125 


25 

3 

4,307 


47 


2 


70 

3 

5,545 


62 
"i,'346 


10 
3 


1,789 


857 


932 


402 


1,387 


1,145 


644 


1,818 


580 


4,785 
















6 
1,730 


5 
760 


1 
970 


""i79 


6 
1,551 


1 
436 


5 


929 


485 


444 


163 


766 


210 


719 


1,294 


2 

548 


2 
411 






2 
263 


i 


""460 


2 
1,940 


2 
1,272 






2 
1,512 


2 
250 




137 


285 


668 


428 


1,690 


12,645 


6,145 


6,500 


2,420 


10, 225 


7,162 


5,483 


33, 607 


19, 705 


13,902 


3,775 


29, 832 


11,010 


22,597 


3 


1 


2 


3 




3 




31 


16 


15 


10 


21 


31 




225 


64 


161 


19 


206 


207 


18 


423 


201 


222 


32 


391 


291 


132 


78 


17 


61 




78 


78 




86 


24 


62 




86 


81 


5 


494 


298 


196 


121 


373 


264 


230 


1,983 


1,472 


511 


179 


1,804 


419 


1,564 


10 


7 


3 




10 


10 




71 


55 


16 


5 


66 


29 


42 


10 


7 


3 


7 


3 




10 


34 

32 

6 

2,905 


30 

29 

6 

1,993 


4 
3 


7 


27 

32 

6 

2,596 


""977 


34 
32 
















6 


959 




466 


493 


212 


747 


665 


294 


912 


309 


1,928 


17 


8 


9 


3 


14 


17 




18 


8 


10 


3 


15 


18 




23 


16 


7 


6 


17 


15 


8 


84 


59 


25 


10 


74 


40 


44 


52 


34 


18 


1 


51 


40 


12 


96 


68 


28 


2 


94 


59 


37 
















12 
40 


10 
24 


2 
16 


1 


11 

40 


1 

21 


11 


28 


15 


13 




28 


14 


14 


19 


492 


213 


279 


48 


444 


435 


57 


1,048 


594 


454 


86 


962 


648 


400 


65 


26 


39 


12 


53 


46 


19 


234 


168 


66 


24 


210 


64 


170 
















38 
6 


25 
5 


13 
1 


3 


35 
6 


4 


34 


4 


3 


1 




4 




4 


6 


3 


2 


1 


1 


2 


3 




3 

1 

1 

21 

857 


2 

1 
1 

14 
689 


1 


1 


2 

1 

1 

21 

764 


3 

13 

16 


i 




















1 
















7 
168 


93 


8 


69 


44 


25 


46 


23 


12 


57 


841 


5 


3 


2 


4 


1 




5 


58 


43 


15 


7 


51 




58 


2,537 


1,224 


1,313 


483 


2,054 


1,809 


728 


8,088 


5,537 


2,551 


772 


7,316 


2,715 


5,373 



90 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers Departed from the United 





Ports of departure and 
destination. 








Aliens 










Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Cla 


ss. 


Line of vessels. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


By land 


Via Canadian border sta- 
tions to— 


80,792 


58,561 


22,231 


7,734 


73,058 


80,792 






From Canada (Pacific sea- 
ports) to— 
Australia, New Zea- 
land, and Pacific 
islands. 
Hongkong 


Canadian - Australian 
Royal Mail. 

Canadian Pacific 


347 

196 
10 


239 

173 

7 


108 

23 
3 


13 

5 
1 


334 

191 
9 


266 

49 
6 


81 

147 
4 




Kobe 




Nagasaki 




Shanghai 


13 
33 
249 


7 
30 
165 


6 
3 
84 


1 

1 
15 


12 
32 
234 


13 
27 
215 


6 
34 




Yokohama 




Australia.. . 




Total, Pacific sea- 
ports of Canada. 

From Galveston, Tex. , to — 
Honduras 




848 


621 


227 


36 


812 


576 


272 


Galveston & Central 
















American Banana Co. 
North German Lloyd . . 


Bremen 


901 
15 
10 
5 
2 


699 
12 
10 
5 
1 


202 
3 


69 


832 
15 

2 


170 
8 
10 
5 
2 


731 

7 


Norway & Mexico Gulf. 


Christiania 


United Steamship Co . . 


Cuba 


Wolvin 


Mexico 






Not stated 




1 






Total, Galveston 

From Honolulu, Hawaii, 
to— 
Australia 




933 


727 


206 


69 


864 


195 


738 


Canadian - Australian 


78 

19 

10 

1 

11 

183 

6 

752 

242 


48 
19 

8 

7 

104 

5 

672 

195 


30 


12 


66 

19 

10 

1 

11 

158 

6 

730 

238 


45 
1 

3 

135 
5 

66 
8 


33 

18 

10 

1 

8 

48 

1 

686 

234 


Royal Mail. 


Hongkong 




Kobe 


2 

1 

4 

79 

1 

80 

47 


25 

22 

4 




Nagasaki 




Yokohama 


Canadian Pacific 

Pacific Mail 


Pacific islands 

Australia 

Hongkong 




Kobe 

Nagasaki 




Shanghai 


7 
547 

5 
107 
283 

1 

1,494 


3 
106 
197 

2 

1,080 


1 

120 

2 

1 

86 

1 

3 

414 


6 

2 

1 

42 


7 
541 

5 
107 
281 

5 

1,452 


3 

37 
5 
15 
1 
1 
5 
234 


4 

510 

92 

282 

"1,260 








Pacific islands 


Toyo Kisen Kaisha 


Hongkong 

Kobe 




Nagasaki 




Shanghai 




Yokohama 

Total, Honolulu 

From Key West, Fla., to— 
Cuba 




3,751 


2,879 


872 


114 


3,637 


564 


3,187 


Peninsular & Occiden- 


6,190 
72 


4,769 
27 


1,421 
45 


597 


5,593 
72 


1,291 
23 


4,899 
49 


tal. 
Sailing vessel 


British West Indies 

Total, Key West 

From Knights Kev, Fla., 
to— 
Cuba 






6,262 


4,796 


1,466 


597 


5,665 


1,314 


4,948 


Peninsular & Occiden- 


310 
999 


216 
789 


94 
210 


70 


303 
929 


269 
999 


41 


tal. 
By land 


Via Mexican border sta- 
tions to— 
Mexico . . 




From Miami, Fla., to- 
British West Indies 

Do 


Peninsular & Occiden- 
tal. 
Tramp 


277 

528 
861 


208 

447 
695 


69 

81 
166 


10 

14 
39 


267 

514 
822 


132 

33 
365 


145 

495 
496 


Sailing vessel 


Do 




Total, Miami 




1,666 


1,350 


316 


63 


1,603 


530 


1,136 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
States, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911 — Continued. 



91 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Nura- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
j'ears. 


14 
years 
"and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 

years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


90,768 


63,580 


27, 188 


18, 370 


72,398 


90, 768 




171,560 


122, 141 


49, 419 


26, 104 


145, 456 


171,560 




163 

84 
21 
3 
32 
34 
133 


129 

54 
7 
1 

14 
16 
82 


34 

30 
14 
2 
18 
18 
51 


10 

22 

2 
1 
1 
8 
20 


153 

62 
19 
2 
31 
26 
113 


138 

70 
21 
3 
32 
23 
99 


25 
14 

ii 

34 


510 

280 
31 
3 
45 
67 

382 


368 

227 

"14 

1 

21 

46 

247 


142 

53 
17 
2 
24 
21 
135 


23 

27 
3 
1 
2 
9 

35 


487 

253 

28 

2 

43 

58 

347 


404 

119 
27 
3 
45 
50 

314 


106 

161 
4 

ii 

68 


470 


303 


167 


64 


406 


386 


84 


1,318 


924 


394 


100 


1,218 


962 


356 


23 

399 

G 

45 

12 

1 


16 

167 
5 

28 
11 

1 


232 
1 

17 
1 


2 

02 

1 
7 
1 


21 

337 
5 

38 
11 

1 


23 

272 
6 
45 
12 

1 


127 


23 

l,.30O 
21 

55 
17 
3 


16 

866 

17 

38 

16 

2 


434 
4 

17 
1 

1 


2 

131 
1 

7 
1 


21 

1,169 

20 

48 

16 

3 


23 

442 
14 
55 
17 
3 


858 

7 








486 


228 


258 


73 


413 


359 


127 


1.419 


955 


464 


142 


1,277 


554 


865 


80 

6 

1 

3 

14 

208 
7 

514 

205 
6 
6 

252 


61 
4 

2 

4 
113 

5 
385 
163 

1 

4 
130 


19 
2 
1 
1 

10 

95 

2 

129 

42 

5 

2 

122 


4 

1 

3 

2 
23 

"ioo 

9 

2 

2 

144 


7G 
5 

1 


64 
5 


16 
1 
1 
3 
3 

27 

""348 
195 

2 

151 


158 

25 

11 

4 

25 

391 

13 

1,266 

447 

6 

13 

799 

5 

160 

396 

4 

14 
2,353 


109 

23 

8 

2 

11 

217 

10 

1,057 

358 

1 

10 

557 

3 

140 

247 

2 

4 

1,.569 


49 

2 

3 

2 

14 

174 

3 

209 

89 

5 

3 

242 

2 

20 

149 

2 

10 

784 


16 
1 

3 

2 

48 

""122 

13 

2 

2 

150 

i3 

113 
1 
5 

593 


142 

24 

11 

1 

23 

343 

13 

1,144 

434 

11 

649 

5 

147 

283 

3 

9 

1,760 


109 
6 

U 

316 

12 

232 

18 

6 

7 

138 

5 

53 

2 

3 

14 

443 


49 
19 
11 
4 


12 

185 

7 

414 

196 

4 

4 

108 


11 

181 

7 

166 

10 

s 

101 


11 

75 

1 

1,034 

429 

6 

661 


53 

113 

3 

9 

859 


34 

50 

2 

2 

489 


19 

63 

1 

370 


13 
111 

5 

551 


40 
2 
3 

308 


38 

1 

2 

9 

209 


15 
112 

1 

""6.50 


107 
394 

1 

"i,'9i6 


2,339 


1,449 


890 


970 


1,369 


814 


1,525 


6,090 


4, 328 


1,762 


1,084 


5,006 


1,378 


4,712 


6,848 
33 


4,644 
17 


2,204 
16 


558 
12 


6,290 
21 


3,810 
4 


3,038 
29 


13,038! 9,413 
105 44 


3,625 
61 


1,155 
12 


11,883 
93 


5,101 
27 


7,937 
78 


6,881 


4,661 


2,220 


570 


6,311 


3,814 


3,067 


13,143| 9,457 


3,686 


1,167 


11,976 


5,128 


8,015 


4,709 
252 


2,652 
92 


2,057 
160 


91 
25 


4,618 
227 


4,684 
252 


25 


t 
5,019 2,868 

l,251j 881 


2,151 
370 


98 
95 


4,921 
1,156 


4,953 
1,251 


66 


793 

237 
52 


411 

121 
31 


382 

116 
21 


30 

32 
11 


763 

205 
41 


705 

128 
20 


88 

109 
32 


l,070j 619 

765 568 
913 726 


451 

197 

187 


40 

46 
50 


1,030 

719 
863 


837 

161 
385 


233 

604 
528 


1,082 


563 


519 


73 


1,009 


853 


229 


2,748 


1,913 


835 


136 


2,612 


1,383 


1,365 



92 REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers Departed from the United 





Ports of departure and 
destination. 


Aliens. 




Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Line of vessels. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 

years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 




From Mobile, Ala., to — 
Christianla 


4 

1 


3 

1 


1 




4 

1 


4 

1 










Panama 






Hubbard Zemuiray 
Steamship Co. 


Santo Domingo 

Honduras 


2 
33 


2 
20 






2 
31 


2 
33 




13 


2 


Nicaragua 


Orr Laubenheimer 


British Honduras 

Guatemala 


23 

3 

12 


12 
2 
8 


11 

1 
4 


5 


18 
3 
12 


23 
3 
12 




Not stated 


Not specifled 




Total, Mobile 

From New Bedford, Mass., 
to— 
Cape Verde Islands 

From New Orleans, La., 
to— 
Nicaragua 




78 


48 


30 


7 


71 


78 




Tramp 


277 


260 


17 


6 


271 


17 


260 




Bluefields 


155 
33 
32 

8 

11 

13 

1 

2 

2 

93 

1 

17 

4 

497 

1 

35 

123 

133 

24 

386 

55 

720 

10 

77 

5 

3 

6 


132 
29 
21 
5 
6 
10 
1 
2 
2 
63 

ii 

1 

400 

33 

1 

23 

86 

91 

23 

261 

44 

664 

5 

51 

4 

2 

3 


23 
4 

11 
3 
5 
3 


3 

i 


152 

33 

32 

8 

11 

12 

1 

2 

2 

88 

1 

15 

3 

452 

43 

3 

29 

113 

113 

24 

342 

54 

695 

6 

70 

5 

3 

6 


151 

8 

8 
11 
2 

12 

1 

17 

2 

290 

45 

4 

35 

123 

133 

17 

368 

55 

720 

10 

77 

5 

3 

6 


4 

33 
24 

ii 

1 

2 

2 

81 

2 

207 

18 




Havre 


Compagnie Generale 
Transatlantique. 


Do 


Liverpool 


London 


Navagazione Generale 


Genoa 


Greece 




Messina 








Naples 








Palermo 


30 

1 

6 

3 

97 

12 

3 

12 

37 

42 

1 

125 

11 

56 

5 

26 
1 
1 
3 


5 

2 

1 
45 
2 
1 
6 
10 
20 

44 

1 

25 

4 

7 


Oteri 


Cuba 




Honduras 


Spain 


Seville 


Southern Pacific Co 


Cuba 




Guatemala 




Honduras 




Panama 


United Fruit Co 


British Honduras 

Costa Rica 




Cuba 




Guatemala 




Honduras 




Panama 




Spanish Honduras 




Christiania 




Mexico 


Wolvin 


Do 




Total, New Orleans. . 

From New York, N. Y., 
to— 
Cherbourg. . . 




2,495 


1,974 


521 


177 


2,318 


2,103 


392 


American 


3,725 

612 

9,047 

3 

6 

720 

5 

8,476 

2,569 

28 

3,156 

617 

4 

4,075 

22 

2,087 

239 

5, 635 

13 

189 

65 

77 

1 


3,182 

487 

8,425 

1 

6 

349 

5 

6,212 

1,108 

23 

2,806 

558 

3 

3,777 

20 

2,025 

231 

4,596 

10 

79 

51 

41 

1 


543 

125 

1,222 

2 


90 
31 
448 


3,635 

581 

9,199 

3 

6 

671 

5 

8,029 

2,479 

27 

3,020 

599 

4 

3,965 

2^ 

2,062 

238 

5.267 

13 

183 

62 

71 

1 


482 

308 

978 

3 

6 

720 

5 

2,806 

810 

i4 

2 

90 

"'"'i97 

24 

624 

2 

189 

45 
30 

1 


3,243 

304 

8,669 

"5,' 670 

1,759 

28 

3,142 

617 

2 

3,985 

22 

1,890 

215 

5.011 

11 

20 
47 




Plvmouth 




Southampton 




Cuba 


Atlantic Fruit Co 


British West Indies 

London 


Atlantic Transport Co. . 


371 


49 




Anchor 




2,264 

1,461 

5 

350 

59 

1 

298 

2 

62 

8 

1,039 

3 

110 

14 
36 


447 

90 

1 

136 
18 

""iio 

25 

1 
3t)8 



3 

6 




Londonderry 




Messina 








Palermo 


Austro-American 


Gibraltar 








Palermo 




Patras 








Trieste 




,\lexan(iria 


Bermuda Atlantic 




Steamship Co. 
Booth 


Brazil 




British West Indies 

Santo Domingo 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 93 

States, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911 — Continued. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer 
age. 
















4 

1 
5 
6 
103 
1 

47 
4 

48 


3 
1 
3 
6 

71 
1 

27 
2 

28 


1 





4 
1 
5 

6 
91 

1 
37 

3 
44 


4 
1 
5 
6 
101 
1 

47 
4 

48 




















5 
4 

70 
] 

24 
1 

36 


3 
4 

51 
1 

15 

20 


2 




5 
4 

60 
1 

19 

32 


5 
4 

68 
1 

24 
1 

36 


2 


2 






19 


10 


32 


12 


2 


9 

1 

16 


5 

1 
4 


20 
2 
20 


10 
1 

4 




141 


94 


47 


20 


121 


139 


2 


219 


142 


77 


27 


192 


217 


2 


19 


11 


8 


11 


8 


4 


15 


296 


271 


25 


17 


279 


21 


275 


251 
3 
3 
2 


198 
2 
1 


53 
1 
2 
2 


23 
2 


228 
3 
3 


249 

3 

2 


2 

3 


406 

36 

35 

10 

11 

16 

1 

2 

3 

120 

2 

36 

4 

1,943 

74 

14 

271 

338 

263 

123 

731 

209 

3,273 

17 

168 

6 

15 

18 


330 
31 
22 

5 

6 

12 

1 

2 

3 

78 

1 

19 

1 

1,.307 

56 

11 

190 

247 

195 

83 

522 

163 

2,509 

5 

106 

4 

11 

9 


76 
5 

13 
5 
5 
4 


26 

2 

4 


380 

36 

35 

8 

11 

12 

1 

2 

3 

90 

2 

32 

3 

1,744 

70 

13 

255 

318 

238 

118 

666 

198 

3,106 

12 

148 

5 

14 

16 


400 

ii 

10 
11 
2 

i 

20 
2 

36 

2 

1,609 

74 

14 

271 

338 

263 

104 

695 

209 

3,273 

17 

168 

6 

15 

18 


6 
36 
24 


3 


2 


1 


3 






3 


14 






1 




















2 


1 
27 

1 
19 


1 
15 

1 
8 






1 

2 

1 

17 


1 

8 

1 

19 


i9 






2 


12 


25 


42 

1 

17 

3 

636 

18 

3 

81 

91 

68 

40 

209 

46 

764 

12 

62 

2 

4 

9 


30 

4 

1 
199 

4 

1 

IG 

20 

25 

5 

65 

11 

167 

5 

20 

1 

1 

2 


100 


11 


2 


2 


1,446 

29 

10 

236 

215 

130 

99 

345 

154 

2,553 

7 

91 
1 

12 
12 


907 
23 
10 
167 
161 
104 
60 
261 
119 
1,845 

55 

9 

6 


539 
6 


154 
2 


1,292 

27 

10 

226 

205 

125 

94 

324 

144 

2,411 

6 

78 

ii 

10 


1,319 

29 

10 

236 

215 

130 

87 

327 

154 

2,553 

7 

91 

1 

12 

12 


127 

\2 

18 


334 


69 

54 

26 

39 

84 

35 

708 

7 

36 

1 

3 

6 


10 
10 

5 

5 
21 
10 
142 

1 
13 

1 

\ 


i9 

36 


5,650 


3,955 


1,695 


432 


5,218 


5,466 


184 


8,145 


5,929 


2,216 


609 


7,536 


7,569 


576 


2,353 
873 

2,818 
137 
16 

1,940 


1,320 

562 

1,833 

84 

15 

763 


1,033 

311 

985 

53 

1 

1,177 


483 

96 

690 

3 

""iie 


1,870 
777 

2,128 

134 

16 

1,824 


1,315 
549 

1,242 

137 

16 

1,839 


1,038 

324 

1,576 

""'ioi 


6,078 

1,48.5 

12.465 

140 

22 

2.660 

5 

13,013 

4,779 

32 

3.431 

656 

8 

4,499 

33 

2,254 

260 

6,953 

19 

4,717 

361 
22J 


4,502 

1,049 

10, 258 

85 

21 

1,112 

5 

8.609 

2,244 

24 

2,947 

580 

4 

3,956 

29 

2,119 

243 

5,287 

13 

1,956 

301 
131 

1 


1,576 

436 

2,207 

55 

1 

1,548 


573 

127 

1,138 

3 

""i65 


5,505 

1,358 

11,327 

137 

22 

2,495 

11.499 

4,205 

28 

3,061 

602 

8 

4,215 

28 

2,190 

244 

5,885 

19 

4,591 

353 
198 

1 


1,797 

857 

2,220 

140 

22 

2,559 

5 

5,901 

1,926 

68 

6 

307 

""334 

37 

1,249 

8 

4,717 

331 
102 

1 


4,281 

628 

10,245 

""'ioi 


4,537 

2,210 

4 

275 

39 

4 

424 

11 

167 

21 

1,318 

6 

4,528 

296 

147 


2,397 

1,136 

1 

141 

22 

1 

179 

9 

94 

12 

691 

3 

1,877 

250 
90 


2,140 

1,074 

3 

134 

17 

3 

245 

2 

73 

9 

627 

3 

2,651 

46 

57 


1,067 

484 

3 

234 

36 

""i74 

5 

39 

15 

700 

""120 

5 
20 


3,470 

1,726 

1 

41 

3 

4 

250 

6 

128 

6 

618 

6 

4,408 

291 
127 


3,095 
1,116 

54 

4 

217 

""i37 

13 

625 

6 

4,528 

286 
72 


i,442 

1,094 

4 

221 

39 

""267 

11 

30 

8 

693 

10 
75 


4,404 

2,535 

8 

484 

76 

4 

543 

4 

135 

17 

1,666 

6 

2,761 

60 
93 


1,514 

574 

4 

370 

54 

""284 
5 

64 

16 

1,068 

""i26 

8 
26 


7,112 

2,853 

32 

3,363 

656 

2 

4,192 

33 

1,920 

223 

5,704 

11 

30 
122 



94 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers Departed from the United 



Line of vessels. 



Clyde. 



Compagnie Generalo 

Transatlantique. 
Greek 



Cunard . 



Fabre. 



Hamburg- American . 



Ports of departure and 
destination. 



From New York, N. Y. 
to — Continued. 

British West Indies.. 

Colombia '■ ■ . 

Santo Domingo 

Havre 



Hellenic 

Holland- A merican 

Italia 

Lamport & Holt. . 
La Veloce 



Lloyd Brazileiro. 
Lloyd Italiano . . 



Calamate 

Patras 

Piraeus 

Fishguard 

Fiume 

Genoa 

Gibraltar 

Liverpool 

Madeira 

Naples 

Queenstow-n 

Trieste 

Villefranche 

Alexandria 

Algiers 

Santo Domingo 

Genoa 

Havre 

Lisbon 

Marseille 

Messina 

Naples 

Palermo 

Piraeus 

Villefranche 

Azores 

Cherbourg 

Genoa 

Gibraltar 

Hamburg 

Naples 

Palermo 

Plymouth 

Spain 

Bermuda 

British West Indies. . . 

Colombia 

Costa Rica 

Cuba 

Haiti 

Mexico 

Panama 

Piraeus 

Boulogne 

Plymouth 

Rotterdam 

Genoa 

Messina 

Naples 

Palermo 

Argentina 

Brazil 

British AVest Indies... 

Uruguay 

Genoa 

Messina 

Naples 

Palermo 

Piraeus 

Brazil 

British West Indies... 

Genoa 

Messina 

Naples 

Palermo 

Piraeus 



Aliens. 



Num- 
ber. 



Sex. 



221 
32, 370 



.642 

4 
3 



Male. 



130 
27, 470 

3 

13 

308 

4,333 

4,219 

242 

39 

14,892 

4 

5.679 

570 

4ti2 

If 

3 



8,965 



43 

380 

34G 

32 

, 830 

,694 

107 

249 

4 

21 

3 It 

119 

71 

34( 

95 

4 

308 

,315 

397 

62 

.873 

329 

33 

,895 

361 

631 

504 

17 

16 

.023 

67 

,478 

199 

4 

113 

109 

484 

451 

,497 

871 

4 



313 

215 

253 

26 

25. 56' 

4,260 

149 

174 



180 

94 

50 

211 

79 

4 

218 

4, 162 

247 

39 

9.88 

232 

29 

2,589 

316 

4 

379 

8 

14 

1,779 

5 

3,01(1 

153 

4 

81 

61 

392 

40: 

4,871 

763 

4 



Fe- 
male. 



91 
4,900 



14 

1,910 

1,511 

61 

8 

4,995 

5 

693 

952 

72 

29 

3 



124 
165 

93 

6 

8,269 

434 

18 

75 
2 

15 
136 

25 

21 
134 

16 



90 
153 
150 

23 
2,986 

97 

4 

306 

45 
157 
125 



244 
10 

462 
46 



32 
48 
92 
44 
626 
108 



Class. 



Under 

14 
years. 



19 
1,039 



189 

534 

15 



689 

2 

160 

2' 

14 

3 



260 



3'. 
17 
12 
3 
1.202 
1(^5 
3 
3 



34 
29 

20 
2 

539 
45 



29 

16 

257 

36 



14 
years 
and 
over. 



Cabin. 



202 
31,331 

3 

13 

317 

6.054 

5,196 

288 

47 

19, 198 

7 

0,212 

1,495 

520 

42 

5 

16 

5 

1 

1 

8 

136 

1 

9,382 

4 

3 



32 



216 
6,490 



3 

54 

5,112 

107 

53 

22 

5,471 

6 

609 

262 

49 

45 

6 

16 

5 



208 



405 

363 

334 

29 

32,634 

4,529 

164 

246 

4 

20 

294 

lis 

63 
316 

91 

274 

4.286 

377 

-lO 

12.334 

284 

32 

2,817 

350 

590 

448 

17 

16 

1,956 

67 

3,341 

196 

4 

108 

108 

455 

435 

5,240 

835 

4' 



14 

380 

153 

21 

5,402 

158 

8 

249 

4 

21 

316 

118 

71 

346 

95 

4 

308 

281 

281 

62 

2,58' 

109 

2 

170 

40 

263 

136 

10 

221 

7 

221 

17 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 95 

States, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911 — Continued. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
"and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


24 


21 


3 


1 


23 


20 


4 


64 


46 


18 


3 


61 


52 


12 


2 
154 


2 
130 






2 
143 


'""i42 


2 
12 


2 
375 


2 
260 






2 


""358 


2 


24 


11 


115 


.30 


345 


17 


7,985 


4,970 


3,015 


2,299 


5.686 


4,509 


3,476 


40,355 

3 

13 

3a5 


32,440 

3 

13 

319 


7, 915 


3,338 


37,017 

3 

13 

322 


10,999 

3 

60 


29,356 
3 




















10 


13 


11 


2 


8 


5 


6 


7 


16 


13 


275 


8.760 


5,864 


2,896 


420 


8.340 


8.016 


744 


15,003 


10,197 


4,806 


609 


14, 394 


13,128 


1,875 


980 


515 


465 


702 


278 


207 


773 


6,710 


4,734 


1,976 


1,2.36 


5,474 


314 


6,396 


253 


102 


151 


58 


195 


205 


48 


556 


344 


212 


73 


483 


258 


298 


65 


31 


34 


8 


57 


63 


2 


112 


70 


42 


8 


104 


85 


27 


13,647 


8,914 


4,733 


1,951 


11,696 


6,802 


6,785 


33, 534 


23, 806 


9,728 


2,640 


30,894 


12,333 


21,201 


19 


2 


17 


1 


18 


18 


1 


28 


6 


22 


3 


25 


24 


4 


2,280 


926 


1.354 


298 


1,982 


1,875 


405 


8,652 


6,605 


2.047 


458 


8,194 


2,484 


6,168 


1,571 


844 


727 


320 


1,251 


636 


935 


3,093 


1,414 


1.679 


347 


2,746 


898 


2,195 


179 


76 


103 


60 


119 


127 


52 


713 


538 


175 


74 


6.39 


176 


537 


170 


59 


111 


21 


149 


170 




215 


75 


140 


24 


191 


215 




590 


589 


1 




590 


590 




596 


592 


4 


1 


595 


596 




76 


32 


44 


3 


73 


76 




92 


39 


53 


3 


89 


92 




15 


13 


2 




15 


15 




20 

1 
1 
14 


17 

i 

11 


3 

1 




20 

1 
1 
14 


20 
7 


i 
















1 


6 


3 


3 




6 


6 




3 




7 


196 


96 


100 


12 


184 


163 


33 


346 

1 

10, 694 


206 

1 

9,506 


140 


26 


320 

1 

9,848 


226 
""630 


120 

1 


1,052 


541 


511 


586 


466 


422 


630 


i,i88 


846 


10.064 
















4 
3 
12 


4 
3 
5 






4 
3 
11 


12 


4 


















3 


12 


5 


7 


1 


11 


12 




7 


1 




143 


73 


70 


86 


57 


71 


72 


580 


386 


194 


118 


462 


85 


495 


2,469 


1,136 


1,333 


129 


2,340 


2.469 




2,849 


1,351 


1,498 


146 


2,703 


2.849 




1,171 


514 


657 


94 


1,077 


1,094 


77 


1,517 


767 


750 


106 


1,411 


1,247 


270 


49 


37 


12 


3 


46 


41 


8 


81 


63 


18 


6 


75 


62 


19 


15,119 


8,564 


6,5.55 


5,161 


9,958 


9,242 


5,877 


48,955 


34, 131 


14, 824 


6,363 


42,592 


14,644 


34,311 


1,363 


597 


766 


358 


1,005 


845 


518 


6.057 


4,857 


1,200 


523 


5,. 534 


1,003 


5,054 


23 


16 


7 


12 


11 


7 


16 


190 


165 


25 


15 


175 


15 


175 


1,641 


848 


793 


68 


1,573 


1,641 




1,890 


1,022 


868 


71 


1,819 


1,890 




3 




3 




3 


3 




1 


2 


5 




7 


7 




16 


9 


7 


3 


13 


16 




37 


15 


22 


4 


33 


37 




1,234 


746 


488 


30 


1,204 


1,234 




1,550 


926 


624 


52 


1,498 


1,550 




284 


202 


82 


6 


278 


284 




403 


296 


107 


7 


396 


402 


1 


203 


142 


61 


7 


196 


203 




274 


192 


82 


15 


259 


274 




2,138 


1,238 


900 


48 


2,090 


2,138 




2,484 


1,450 


1,034 


78 


2,406 


2,484 




117 


98 


19 


4 


113 


117 




212 


177 


35 


8 


204 


212 




1 




1 




1 


1 




5 


4 


1 




5 


5 




408 


307 


101 


18 


390 


408 




716 


525 


191 


52 


664 


716 




108 


64 


44 


58 


50 


85 


23 


4,423 


4,226 


197 


87 


4,336 


366 


4,057 


1,234 


583 


651 


244 


990 


1,191 


43 


1,631 


830 


801 


264 


1,367 


1,472 


159 


202 


92 


110 


9 


193 


202 




264 


131 


133 


11 


253 


264 




12,549 


8,120 


4,429 


2,256 


10,293 


4,676 


7,873 


25,422 


18,007 


7,415 


2,895 


22,527 


7,263 


18, 159 


124 


69 


55 


52 


72 


88 


36 


453 


301 


152 


97 


356 


197 


256 


7 


5 


2 


4 


3 


1 


6 


40 


34 


6 


5 


35 


3 


37 


417 


247 


170 


263 


154 


136 


281 


3.312 


2,836 


476 


341 


2,971 


306 


3,006 


45 


31 


14 


28 


17 


12 


33 


406 


347 


59 


39 


367 


52 


354 


560 


397 


163 


84 


476 


452 


108 


1,191 


871 


320 


125 


1,066 


715 


476 


433 


318 


115 


76 


357 


359 


74 


937 


697 


240 


132 


805 


495 


442 


4 


3 


1 




4 


3 


1 


21 


11 


10 




21 


13 


8 


10 


6 


4 


2 


8 


9 


1 


26 


20 


6 


2 


24 


16 


10 


252 


129 


123 


137 


115 


132 


120 


2,275 


1,908 


367 


204 


2,071 


353 


1,922 


8 


5 


3 


6 


2 




8 


75 


62 


13 


6 


69 


7 


68 


831 


476 


355 


380 


451 


317 


514 


4,309 


3,492 


817 


517 


3,792 


538 


3,771 


35 


24 


11 


25 


10 


15 


20 


234 

4 

244 


177 

4 

173 


57 


28 


206 

4 

222 


32 

""m 


202 
4 


131 


92 


39 


17 


114 


116 


is 


71 


22 


43 


29 


16 


13 


14 


15 


20 


9 


138 


77 


61 


15 


123 


82 


56 


89 


51 


38 


62 


27 


30 


59 


573 


443 


130 


91 


482 


51 


522 


25 


13 


12 


23 


2 


2 


23 


476 


420 


56 


39 


437 


12 


464 


426 


232 


194 


322 


104 


51 


375 


5,923 


5,103 


820 


579 


5,344 


133 


5,790 


93 


55 


38 


75 


18 


1 


92 


964 

4 


818 
4 


146 


111 


853 
4 


11 


953 

4 



96 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers Departed from the United 





Ports of departure and 
destination. 


Aliens. 




Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Line of vessels. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Lloyd Sabando 


From New York, N. Y., 
to— Continued. 


865 

170 

2 

4,277 

924 

25 

6 

21 

1 

130 

9 

3,564 

1 

1,630 


629 

135 

2 

3,772 

817 

19 

6 

14 

92 

9 

3,419 
1 

1,210 


236 
35 


53 
1 


812 

169 

2 

4,135 

883 

24 

6 

21 

1 

125 

9 

3,526 

1 

1,561 


221 

""240 

11 

7 

6 

21 

""m 

'""820 
""383 


644 

170 

2 

4,037 

913 

18 

i 

9 

2,744 

1 

1,247 






Milan 




Naples 


505 

107 

6 


142 

41 

1 








Argentina 








British West Indies.... 
Do 


7 

1 

38 


5 






Cuba 




Patras 


gation Co. 




145 


38 


Colombia 

Genoa 


Navigazione Generale 


420 


69 


Gibraltar 






336 

8,271 

841 

2 


298 

7,410 

735 

2 


38 
861 
106 


8 
152 
30 


328 

8,119 

811 

2 


2 
311 
36 


334 

7,960 

805 

2 








Palermo 




Azores 


New York & Cuba Mail. 


London 








British Guiana 

British West Indies 

Cuba 


3 

398 

4,590 

1 

8 

1,240 

39 

33,592 

965 

1,203 

137 

176 

10,529 

235 

3 

629 

494 

33 

28 

2 

267 

1,049 

103 

39 

533 

99 

5 


3 

207 

3,411 

6 

865 

36 

24,656 

588 

867 

96 

157 

9,593 

201 

3 

452 

438 

31 

11 

1 

212 
525 
59 
28 
282 
45 
3 






3 

376 

4,304 

1 

8 

1,150 

39 

31,363 

905 

1,159 

135 

169 

10, 270 

225 

3 

613 

486 

33 

27 

2 

257 

972 

96 

36 

512 

94 

5 


""392 
3,497 

8 

1,097 

39 

4,268 

923 

597 

109 

10 

725 

10 

""629 

is 

2 


3 

6 

1,093 

1 

""i43 

'29,' 324 
42 
606 
28 
166 
9,804 
225 
3 

""494 
33 
10 




191 

1,179 

1 

2 

375 

3 

8,936 

377 

336 

41 

19 

936 

34 


22 
286 

90 

"2,229 
60 

44 
2 

259 
10 




Danish West Indies. . . 
Santo Domingo 


North German Lloyd. . . 


Boulogne 

Bremen 












Gibraltar 












Palermo 

Piraeus 






177 

56 

2 

17 

1 

55 
524 

44 

11 
251 

54 
2 


16 
8 

i 

10 
77 
7 
3 
21 








\lexandria 




Algiers 


Pacific Mail Steamship 

Co. 
Panama R. R. Co 




Panama 


203 64 


Quebec Steamship Co. . 
Red Cross 




1,043 
103 

15 
238 

57 


6 

24 

295 

42 

5 






British Guiana 

British Vi'est Indies 

Danish West Indies . . . 

Santo Domingo 

Dutch Guiana 


Red D 


Prench V»'est Indies . . . 

Brazil 

Santo Domingo 

Dutch West Indies 


25 

10 

1 

40 

102 

19,760 

17 

153 


i-i 

10 

26 

76 

15,203 

14 

100 


11 




21 

10 

1 

39 

% 

18,897 

17 

151 


10 
10 


15 




1 

14 

26 

4,557 

3 
53 


6 
863 

2 


1 

40' 

102 


Red Star 




2,902 

3 

152 


16,858 
14 

1 








Dover 




Liverpool 




Venezuela 


2 
37 
26 
188 
4 
21 
53 
25 
411 
334 
102 
249 
251 


1 
21 
16 
119 

3 

41 
13 
199 
1S6 
91 
167 
182 


1 

16 

10 

69 

1 

2 

12 

12 

212 

148 

11 

82 

69 


3 

7 

3 

30 

17 
1 
7 

17 


2 
37 
23 
181 
4 
21 
50 
25 
381 
317 
101 
242 
234 


2 
37 
21 
188 
4 
21 
53 
23 
411 
321 
101 


5 



2 

is 

1 


Royal Dutch West In- 
dian Mail. 


London 

British Guiana 

British West Indies. . . 
Danish West Indies. . . 
Dutch Guiana 




Haiti 


Royal MailSteam 


Southampton 


Packet Co. 


Bermuda 




British We.st Indies. . . 
Coloml)ia . . 




Cuba 


213 36| 
239! I2I 




Panama 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
States, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911 — Continued. 



97 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


236 


118 


118 


147 


89 


120 


116 


1,101 


747 


354 


200 


901 


341 


760 


27 


15 


12 


21 


6 


2 


25 


197 

2 

5,047 


150 

2 

4,192 


47 


22 


175 

2 

4,526 


2 
""496 


195 
2 


770 


420 


350 


379 


391 


256 


514 


855 


521 


4,551 


797 


725 


72 


51 


746 


5 


792 


1,721 


1,542 


17S 


92 


1,629 


16 


1,705 


10 


8 


2 


3 


7 


5 


5 


35 


27 


S 


4 


31 


12 


23 


6 





6 


2 


4 


6 




12 


6 


6 


2 


10 


12 




52 


38 


14 





52 


52 




73 


52 


21 




73 


73 




5 


4 


1 


5 




5 




6 


4 


2 


5 


1 


5 


1 


418 


243 


175 


52 


366 


418 





548 
9 


335 
9 


213 


57 


491 
9 


548 


9 


130 


91 


39 


69 


61 


102 


28 


3,694 

1 
2,329 


3,510 

1 
1,600 


184 


107 


3,587 

1 

1,915 


922 
""657 


2,772 
1 


699 


390 


309 


345 


354 


274 


425 


729 


414 


1,672 


4 

36 


4 
24 






4 
13 


4 
5 


si 


4 
372 


4 
322 






4 
341 


4 

7 




12 


23 


50 


31 


365 


1,558 


761 


797 


626 


932 


704 


854 


9,829 


8,171 


1,658 


778 


9,051 


1,015 


8,814 


134 


91 


43 


99 


35 


26 


.108 


975 


826 


149 


129 


846 


62 


913 


1 

10 


1 
5 






1 
10 


io 


1 


3 
10 


3 
5 






3 
10 


io 


3 


5 




5 






2 


1 


1 




2 




2 


5 


4 


1 




5 




5 


694 


398 


296 


23 


671 


694 




1,092 


605 


487 


45 


1,047 


1,086 


6 


4,674 


3,238 


1,436 


261 


4,413 


3,757 


917 


9,264 
1 

22 


6,649 
18 


2,615 

1 
4 


547 


8,717 

1 

22 


7,254 
22 


2,010 
1 


14 


12 


2 




14 


14 






1,038 


629 


409 


61 


977 


1,024 


14 


2,278 


1,494 


784 


151 


2,127 


2,121 


157 


82 


43 


39 


1 


81 


82 




121 


79 


42 


1 


120 


121 




15,244 


8,606 


6,638 


5,723 


9,521 


8,087 


7,157 


48,836 


33,262 


15, 574 


7,952 


40,884 


12,355 


36,481 


3,967 


2,203 


1,764 


172 


3,795 


3,890 


77 


4,932 


2,791 


2,141 


232 


4,700 


4,813 


119 


2,109 


1,003 


1,106 


303 


1,806 


1,949 


160 


3,312 


1,870 


1,442 


347 


2,965 


2,546 


766 


191 


89 


102 


8 


183 


191 




328 


185 


143 


10 


318 


300 


28 


25 


15 


10 


20 


5 


10 


15 


201 


172 


29 


27 


174 


20 


181 


3,072 


1,533 


1,539 


898 


2,174 


1,795 


1,277 


13,601 


11,126 


2,475 


1,157 


12,444 


2,520 


11,081 


• 41 


24 


17 


32 


9 


4 


37 


276 

3 

2,672 


225 

3 

1,658 


51 


42 


234 
3 

2,572 


14 
"2,454 


262 
3 


2,043 


1,206 


837 


84 


1,959 


1,825 


218 


1,014 


100 


218 


103 


72 


31 


35 


68 




103 


597 


510 


87 


43 


554 




597 
















33 
75 


31 
31 


2 
44 


i 


33 
74 


64 


33 


47 


20 


27 




47 


46 


1 


11 


9 


3 


6 


3 


6 


9 




11 


4 


7 


3 


8 


11 




5,572 


3,666 


1,906 


691 


4,881 


5,455 


117 


5,839 


3,878 


1,961 


701 


5,138 


5,658 


181 


7,171 


3,321 


3,850 


250 


6,921 


7,171 




8,220 


3,846 


4,374 


327 


7,893 


8,214 


6 


123 


61 


62 


22 


101 


123 




226 


120 


106 


29 


197 


226 




50 


37 


13 


5 


45 


44 


6 


89 


65 


24 


8 


81 


59 


30 


302 


161 


141 


77 


225 


224 


78 


835 


443 


392 


98 


737 


462 


373 


48 


30 


18 


17 


31 


36 


12 


147 


75 


72 


22 


125 


93 


54 


8 


5 


3 


3 


5 


4 


4 


13 


8 


5 


3 


10 


4 


9 


1 
13 


1 
6 






1 
13 


1 
11 


2 


1 
38 


1 
20 






1 
34 


1 
21 




7 




18 


4 


17 


6 


6 






6 


6 




16 
1 

60 


16 

4i 






16 

1 

53 


16 

1 

60 








1 

19 


7 




20 


15 


5 


6 


14 


20 






57 


47 


10 




57 


57 




159 


123 


36 


6 


153 


159 




8,212 


4,355 


3,857 


2,914 


5,298 


4,268 


3,944 


27,972 


19,558 


8,414 


3,777 


24, 195 


7,170 


20,802 


48 


31 


17 


1 


47 


36 


12 


65 


45 


20 


1 


64 


39 


26 


525 


238 


287 


24 


501 


525 




678 


338 


340 


26 


652 


677 


1 


1 
3 


1 
1 






1 
3 


1 
3 




1 

5 


1 
2 






1 
5 


1 
5 




2 




3 






80 


49 


31 


13 


67 


80 




117 


70 


47 


13 


104 


117 




31 


24 


7 


3 


28 


31 




67 


40 


17 


6 


51 


52 


5 


224 


166 


58 


24 


200 


224 




412 


285 


127 


31 


381 


412 




2 


2 




2 




2 




6 


5 


1 


2 


4 


6 




30 


26 


4 


5 


25 


30 




51 


45 


6 


5 


46 


51 




13 


11 


2 




13 


13 




66 


52 


14 


3 


63 


66 




6 


4 


2 




6 


6 




31 


17 


14 




31 


29 


2 


3,512 


1,789 


1,723 


119 


3,393 


3,512 




3,923 


1,988 


1,935 


149 


3,774 


3,923 




350 


212 


138 


20 


330 


344 


6 


684 


398 


286 


37 


647 


665 


19 


73 


60 


13 


4 


69 


73 




175 


151 


24 


5 


170 


174 


1 


1,059 


563 


496 


37 


1,022 


1,0.56 


3 


1,308 


730 


578 


44 


1,264 


1,269 


39 


355 


262 


93 


17 


338 


341 


14 


606 


444 


162 


34 


.572 


580 


26 



17581°— 12- 



98 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers Departed from the United 





Ports of departure and 
destination. 


Aliens. 1 




Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Line of vessels. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 




From New York, N. Y., 
to— Continued. 
Libau 


2,912 

3,088 

2, 667 

1,423 

2,442 

7 

1.923 

2,379 

468 

7 

19 

1 

1,081 

ISO 

52 

79 

1 

270 

136 

10 

135 

9, 680 

104 

2,294 

377 

19 

116 

10,890 

2,656 

1,035 

3,723 

10,160 

9 

64 

1 

267 

3 


2,108 

2,529 

1,327 

814 

1,179 

6 

1,761 

2,056 

329 

6 

19 

1 

1,000 

102 

34 

50 

1 

155 

86 

10 

93 

8,219 

73 

1,876 

227 

12 

61 

7, 432 

2,370 

770 

1,369 

7,879 

2 

32 

""i96 

1 


804 
559 

1,340 
609 

1,263 

1 

162 

323 

139 

1 


262 
186 
112 

78 
84 

32 

99 
34 


2,650 

2,902 

2,555 

1,345 

2,358 

7 

1,891 

2,280 

434 

7 

19 

1 

1,052 

131 

51 

72 

1 

252 

127 

10 

127 

9,262 

96 

2,232 

361 

19 

110 

10,442 

2,602 

981 

3, 660 

9,870 

7 

i 

242 
3 


414 
129 
588 
109 
690 

12 

8 
3 

'""i68 

146 

47 

79 

1 

270 

136 

10 

135 

288 

104 

805 

235 

16 

95 

4,446 

205 

620 

666 

2,746 

9 

43 

1 

21 

3 


2,498 
2,959 
2,079 
1,314 
1,752 

7 

1,923 

2,367 

460 

4 
19 

1 
913 

4 

5 

"9,392 

"i,'489 

142 

3 

21 

6, 444 

2,451 

415 

3,057 

7,414 

"""2i 

""'246 








€hristiania 




Christiansand. . . 




Copenhasen 




Genoa 




Messina. . 




Naples 




Palermo 




Genoa 




Naples 




Palermo. 








Spanish ports 


81 
48 
18 
29 


29 
19 
1 

7 




Cuba 




Mexico 




British West Indies. . . 
Venezuela. . 




United Fruit Co 


British West Indies. . . 
Colombia 


115 
50 


18 
9 




Costa Rica 




Panama . 


42 
1,461 
31 
418 
150 
7 

55 

3,458 

286 

265 

2,354 

2,281 

7 

32 
1 

71 
2 


8 
418 

8 
62 
16 

6 

448 
54 
54 
63 

290 
2 
64 

25 


Uranium 


Rotterdam. 




Panama 


White Star 


Cherbourg. 




Genoa. 




Gibraltar.. . . 




Holyhead 




Liverpool 




Naples . . . 




Plymouth . . . . 




Queenstown 




Southampton 




Villefranche . . 




Alexandria... 




Algiers 




Azores... 


Wilson. 


Hull.... 




Total, New York 

From Norfolk, Va., to — 
Mexico 




362, 561 '285, 305 


77,256 


14,a58 


347, 703 


72. 791 


289,770 


Norway-Mexico Gulf. . . 


1 




1 




1 


1 




From Philadelphia, Pa., 
to— 
Canada 


Allan 


122 

53 

865 

4,647 

230 

28 

4 

186 

2 

14 

32 

1,097 

131 

76 

2,891 

60 

46 

100 

4 


92 

29 

839 

3,305 

60 

15 

3 

183 

2 

14 

25 

733 

95 

71 

2,521 

48 

36 

44 

1 


30 

24 

26 

1,342 

170 

13 

1 

3 


2 

12 

300 

4 

7 


122 

51 

853 

4,347 

226 

21 

4 

186 

2 

14 

31 

1,060 

126 

73 

2,745 

59 

41 

95 

3 


34 

41 

180 

618 

65 

28 

4 

i 

29 

214 
34 
17 

302 
6 

""'ioo 

4 


88 

12 

685 

4,029 

165 

""186 
1 

14 

3 

883 

97 

59 

2,589 

54 

46 




Glasgow 




Naples 


American 


Liverpool 




Queenstown 


Atlantic Fruit Co 


British West Indies... 




Naples 








Trieste 


::::;:.;;.... 


Booth 


Brazil 


7 

364 

36 

5 

370 

12 

10 

56 

3 


1 

37 
5 
3 
146 
1 
5 
5 
1 


Hamburg-American 

Italia 


Hamburg 


Genoa 








Naples 




Palermo 




Trieste 


Red Star 


Antwerp 




Dover 






United Fruit Co 


British West Indies 


70 
7 


32 
5 


38 
2 


6 
2 


64 
5 


60 
7 


10 




Total, Philadelphia. . 




10,665 


8, 1.53 


2,512 


537 


10,128 


1,744 


8,921 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 99 

States, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911 — Continued. 



Citizens. 








Total. 








Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin 


Steer- 
age. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin 


Steer- 
age. 


441 


236 


205 


386 


55 


127 


314 


3,353 


2,344 


1.009 


648 


2,705 


541 


2,812 


452 


264 


188 


285 


167 


81 


371 


3,54( 


2,79; 


747 


471 


3,069 


210 


3,330 


2,079 


1,075 


1,004 


742 


1,337 


653 


1,426 


4,746 


2,402 


2,344 


854 


3,892 


1,241 


3,505 


861 


470 


391 


353 


508 


219 


642 


2,28^ 


1,28^ 


1,000 


431 


1,853 


328 


1,956 


2,365 


1,224 


1,141 


764 


1,601 


915 


1,450 


4,807 


2,403 


2,404 


848 


3,959 


1,605 


3,202 


2 


2 




2 






2 


t 


J 


] 


^ 


7 
1,927 




9 
2,054 


131 


77 


54 


95 


36 




131 


2,054 


1,838 


216 


127 




247 


133 


114 


226 


21 


4 


243 


2,626 


2,189 


437 


325 


2,301 


16 


2,610 


103 


56 


47 


85 


18 


A 


99 


57] 


385 


186 


11£ 


452 


12 


559 


7 


6 


1 




7 


i 


4 


14 


12 


2 




14 


6 


8 


19 

1 

30 


19 

1 

25 






19 

1 
18 


is 


19 

1 
12 


38 

2 

1,111 


38 

2 

1,025 






38 

2 

1,070 


"ise 


38 










2 


5 


12 


86 


41 


925 


15 


10 


5 


2 


13 


u 


1 


165 


112 


53 


21 


144 


160 


5 


2 


2 






2 


2 




54 


36 


18 


\ 


53 


49 


5 


22 


16 


6 


6 


16 


22 




101 

1 
889 


66 

1 

544 


35 


13 


88 

1 

846 


101 
1 

889 




619 


389 


230 


25 


594 


619 




345 


43 




414 


273 


141 


12 


402 


414 




55C 


359 


191 


21 


529 


550 




7 
140 


7 
93 






7 
123 


7 
140 





17 
275 


17 
186 






17 
250 


17 

275 




47 


17 


89 


25 




1,054 


579 


475 


808 


246 


221 


833 


10,734 


8,798 


1,936 


1,226 


9,508 


509 


10, 225 


214 


153 


61 


9 


205 


214 




318 


226 


92 


17 


301 


318 




2,201 


1,043 


1,158 


184 


2,017 


1,940 


261 


4,495 


2,919 


1,576 


246 


4,249 


2,745 


1,750 


457 


170 


287 


47 


410 


424 


33 


834 


397 


437 


&3 


771 


659 


175 


58 


22 


36 


1 


57 


58 




77 


34 


43 


1 


76 


74 


3 


509 


267 


242 


33 


476 


425 


84 


625 


328 


297 


39 


586 


520 


105 


10,883 


6,370 


4,513 


1,976 


8,907 


7,260 


3,623 


21,773 


13,802 


7.971 


2,424 


19,349 


11,706 


10,067 


1,260 


505 


7.55 


199 


1,061 


904 


356 


3,916 


2,875 


1,041 


253 


3,663 


1,109 


2,807 


999 


636 


363 


126 


873 


754 


245 


2,0.34 


1,406 


628 


180 


1.854 


1.374 


660 


4,365 


2, 183 


2,182 


861 


3,504 


1,584 


2,781 


8,088 


3,552 


4, .536 


924 


7,164 


2,250 


5,838 


4,225 


2,697 


1,528 


623 


3,602 


2,845 


1,380 


14,385 


10,576 


3,809 


913 


13,472 


5, .591 


8,794 


29 


11 


18 


3 


26 


29 




38 


13 


25 


5 


33 


38 




238 


105 


133 


13 


225 


226 


12 


302 


137 


165 


77 


225 


269 


33 


8 


2 


6 




8 


8 




9 


2 


7 




9 


9 




167 


93 


74 


67 


100 


67 


ioo 


434 


289 


145 


92 


342 


88 


346 


4 


1 


3 




4 


4 




7 


2 


5 




7 


7 








204,938 


117,179 


87,759 


42,876 


162,062 


136, 376 


68,562 


567,499 


402,484 


165,015 


57,734 509,765 


209,167 


358,332 
















1 




1 




1 


1 




37 


23 


14 


7 


30 


15 


22 


lo9 


115 


44 


7 


152 


49 


110 


20 


13 


7 


5 


15 


19 


1 


73 


42 


31 


7 


66 


60 


13 


23 


11 


12 


22 


1 




23 


888 


850 


38 


34 


854 


180 


708 


2,418 


1,096 


1,322 


665 


1,753 


1,717 


701 


7,065 


4,401 


2, 664 


965 


6,100 


2,335 


4,730 


133 


,50 


83 


23 


110 


67 


66 


363 


110 


253 


27 


336 


132 


231 


40 


23 


17 


4 


36 


40 




68 


38 


30 


11 


57 


68 




5 


3 


2 




5 


5 




9 


6 


3 




9 


9 




3 


1 


2 


3 






3 


189 


184 


5 


3 


186 




189 
















2 
14 

69 


2 

14 
52 






2 
14 

66 


1 
65 


1 




















14 


37 


27 


10 


2 


35 


36 


11 


17 


3 


4 


757 


366 


391 


191 


566 


579 


178; 


1,854 


1,099 


755 


228 


1,626 


793 


1,061 


57 


22 


35 


22 


35 


43 


14] 


188 


117 


71 


27 


161 


77 


111 


4 


3 


1 


4 






4 


80 


74 


6 


7 


73 


17 


63 


512 


303 


209 


359 


153 


104 


408 


3,403 


2,824 


579 


505 


2,898 


406 


2,997 


14 


8 


6 


10 


4 


13 


1 


74 


56 


18 


11 


63 


19 


55 


1 
593 


"'"2i6 


1 
383 


1 
51 






1 

18 


47 
693 


36 
254 


11 
439 


6 
56 


41 

637 


'""675 


47 


542 


575 


18 


37 


10 


27 


1 


36 


37 




41 


11 


30 


2 


39 


41 




10 


5 


5 


1 


9 


10 




10 


5 


5 


1 


9 


10 




192 


140 


52 


10 


182 


192 




262 


172 


90 


16 


246 


252 


10 


5 


4 


1 




5 


5 




12 


9 


3 


2 


10 


12 




4,898 


2,318 


2,580 


1,381 


3,517 


3,457 


i,44i; 


15,563 


10,471 


5,092 


1,918 


13,645 


5,201 


10,362 



100 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers Departed from the United 





Ports of departure and 
destination. 


.\liens. 




Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Line of vessels. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Allan 


From Portland, Me., to— 
Glasgow 


59 
589 
131 
554 
593 


48 
449 

99 
459 
306 


11 
140 
32 
95 
287 


2 
34 

14 
40 
55 


57 
555 
117 
514 
538 


18 

220 

7 

72 
233 


41 
369 
124 
482 
360 




Liverpool 


Robert Reford 


Do 




London 


White Star Dominion. . 


Liverpool 




Total, Portland 

From Porto Rico to— 

Havre 




1,926 


1,361 


565 


145 


1,781 


550 


1,376 


Compagnie Geneiale 
Transatlantique. 


26 
58 
9 
115 
182 
46 
32 
5 

60 

8 

317 

169 

79 

76 

3 

15 

111 

171 

1 

223 

450 

15 

102 

285 

78 

1 


15 
40 

8 

67 

114 

30 

11 

3 
45 

5 
231 
110 
55 
56 

2 
13 
62 

'1 

153 
315 
13 
85 
188 
62 

1 


11 
18 

1 

48 
68 
16 
21 

2 
15 

3 
86 
59 
24 
20 

1 

2 
49 
45 


8 

8 

1 

21 

17 

4 

6 

1 

3 

2 

43 

25 

5 

10 

1 

1 

16 

23 


18 

50 

8 

94 

165 

42 

26 

4 

57 

6 

274 

144 

74 

66 

2 

14 

95 

148 

1 

188 

403 

15 

94 

252 

71 

1 


26 

45 

3 

95 

120 

12 

32 

2 

21 

6 

188 

116 

41 

55 

3 

12 

71 

128 

1 

142 

256 

6 

92 

285 

71 

1 


is 

6 
20 
62 
34 

3 

39 
2 
129 
53 
38 
21 

3 

40 
43 

si 

194 
9 
10 

7 


Spain 


Cuba 




Danish West Indies. . . 

Santo Domingo 

French West Indies. . . 
Haiti 




Panama 


Compagnie Generate 
Transatlantique de 
Barcelona. 


Genoa 


Marseille 


Spain 




Cuba 




Mexico 




Uruguay 


Hamburg 


Hamburg 




British West Indies 

Danish West Indies. . . 

Santo Domingo 

Haiti 




Cuba 


70 
135 
2 
17 
97 
16 


35 
47 

8 

33 

7 


Pinillos ... . . 


Santo Domingo 

Cuba 




Spain 


Red D 


Venezuela 


Sailing vessel 


Dutch West Indies 

Santo Domingo 

Total, Porto Rico 

From Providence,R.I.,to— 










2,637 


1,811 


826 


325 


2,312 


1,830 


807 





94 

4 
% 


3 
61 

1 
57 


3 
33 

3 
39 


3 

29 

32 


3 
65 

4 
64 


24 

24 


6 
70 

4 
72 




Azores 


Sailing vessel 


Cape Verde Islands 

British West Indies . . . 

Total, Providence. . . 

From San Francisco, Cal., 
to— 
Shanghai 


Tramp 






200 


122 


78 


64 


136 


48 


152 


Oceanic 


26 

60 

169 

2,635 

128 

40 

24 

1 , 593 

38 

23 

45 

140 

. 6 

418 

64 

76 

1,568 

137 

42 

75 

2,020 


21 

4(3 

137 

2, .523 

107 

41 

14 

1,404 

26 

17 

40 

121 

4 

369 

57 

67 

1,509 

108 

31 

54 

1.701 


5 

14 

32 

112 

21 

5 
10 
189 
12 

6 

5 
19 

2 
49 

7 

9 
59 
29 
11 
21 
319 


.3 

1 
50 
10 

3 

76 
2 

2 

6 

1 
18 

2 
58 
15 
16 

7 

10 
205 


26 

57 

168 

2,585 

118 

43 

24 

1,517 

36 

23 

43 

134 

5 

400 

62 

18 

1,553 

121 

35 

65 

1,815 


26 
32 
60 

306 
32 
10 
22 

385 
21 
22 
5 
74 
6 

190 
13 
59 

168 
18 
16 
62 

829 


28 

109 
2,329 
96 
30 
2 
1,208 
17 
1 

40 
66 

■■■■228 
51 
17 
1.400 
119 
26 
13 
1,191 




Tahiti 


Pacific Mail 


Society Islands 

Hongkong 




Kobe 




Nagasaki . . . . 




Shanghai 




Yolvohama 




Chile 

Costa Rica 




Guatemala 




Mexico 








Panama 




San Salvador. 


Toyo Kisen Kaislia 


Society Islands 


Kobe 




Nagasaki 




Shanghai 




Yokohama 






Union 


New Zealand 


242 

98 


194 
90 


48 
8 


16 


226 
98 


121 
37 


121 
61 




Society Islands 




Total, San Francisco. 




9,673 


8,681 




992 


501 


9.172 


2. .520 


7.153 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 101 
States, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911 — Continued. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


4 
40 

2 
64 
200 


2 
35 

1 
33 
130 


2 

5 

1 

31 

70 


1 
2 

36 

53 


3 

38 

2 

28 

147 


12 

i.5 

117 


4 
28 

2 
49 
83 


63 
629 
133 
618 
793 


50 

484 
100 
492 
436 


13 

145 
33 

126 
357 


3 

36 
14 

76 
108 


60 
593 
119 
542 

685 


18 

232 

7 

87 
350 


45 
397 
126 
531 
443 


310 


201 


109 


92 


218 


144 


166 


2,236 


1,.5C2 


674 


237 


1.999 


694 


1,542 


10 
25 
6 

40 

484 

13 

14 

1 

2 

2 

86 

92 

19 

24 


5 
13 
4 
30 
296 
10 
8 
1 
1 

4? 
59 
11 

7 


5 
12 

2 
10 

188 
3 



3 

6 
1 
5 
72 
2 
5 


7 

19 

5 

35 

412 

11 

9 

1 

1 

2 

49 

79 

15 

21 


10 
23 
6 
29 
136 

i-i 

2 

74 
52 
16 
21 


2 

ii 

348 
13 

i 

2 

12 

40 
3 
3 


36 

83 

15 

155 

666 

59 

46 

6 

62 
10 
403 
261 
98 
100 
3 

95 

142 

383 

1 

645 

1,281 

21 

148 

330 

92 

5 


20 

53 

12 

97 

410 

40 

19 

4 

46 

7 

278 

169 

66 

63 

2 

63 

83 

271 

1 

416 

822 

18 

100 

222 

75 

3 


16 

30 

3 

58 

256 

19 

27 

2 

16 

3 

125 

92 

32 

37 

1 

32 

59 

112 


11 
14 

2 
26 
89 

6 
11 

1 

4 

2 

80 
38 

9 
13 

1 
17 
20 
51 


25 

69 

13 

129 

577 

53 

35 

5 

58 

8 

323 

223 

89 

87 

2 

78 

122 

332 

1 

515 

1,107 

21 

121 

295 

84 

4 


36 

68 

9 

124 

250 

12 

4(') 

2 

21 

8 

262 

168 

57 

76 

3 

46 

92 

240 

1 

316 

487 

12 

138 

330 

84 

5 


is 

6 

31 

410 

47 

4 


1 


1 


41 

2 


39 
33 
8 
17 


37 
13 
4 
3 


141 
93 
41 

24 


80 
31 
212 


50 
21 
145 


30 
10 
67 


16 

4 
28 


64 
27 
184 


34 

21 
112 


46 

10 

100 


49 
60 
143 


422 
831 
6 
46 
45 
14 
4 


263 
507 
5 
15 
34 
13 
2 


159 

324 

1 

31 

11 

1 
2 


95 
127 

ig 

2 
1 

1 


327 
704 
6 
27 
43 
13 
3 


174 

231 

6 

46 

45 

13 

4 


248 
600 

i 


229 

459 

3 

48 

108 

17 

2 


130 
174 

27 

35 

8 

1 


329 

794 

9 

10 

8 


2,509 


1,549 


960 


445 


2,064 


1,069 


1,440 


5,146 


3,360 


1,786 


770 


4,376 


2,899 


2.247 


12 

83 
5 
4 


7 

41 

5 

3 


5 

42 


3 


12 

80 

5 

1 


3 

3 


12 

80 

5 

1 


18 

177 

9 

100 


10 

102 

6 

60 


8 
75 

3 
40 


3 

32 

35 


15 

145 

9 

65 


27 

27 


18 

150 

9 


1 


3 


73 


104 

59 
63 

243 
2,227 

138 

116 
68 

498 
19 
39 
42 

139 
12 

416 
33 
40 
1,009 
61 
11 

231 

304 
1 

105 
18 


56 


48 


6 


98 


6 


98 


304 


178 


126 


70 


234 


54 


250 


33 
38 

136 
1,593 
63 
58 
31 

270 
14 
29 
35 

107 
7 

315 
30 
27 

706 
40 
5 

120 

164 

80 
13 


26 

25 

107 

634 

75 

58 

37 

228 

5 

10 

7 

32 

5 

101 

3 

13 

303 

21 

6 

111 

140 

1 

25 

5 


2 
15 
19 
175 
15 
20 

7 
95 

4 

1 
12 

33 

2 
3 

77 
16 
3 

27 
59 

io 


57 
48 

224 
2,052 

123 
96 
61 

403 
19 
35 
41 

127 
12 

383 
31 
37 

932 
45 
8 

204 

245 

1 

95 

18 


58 
59 

224 
1,116 

129 

110 
55 

445 
13 
39 
19 
95 
11 

300 
15 
35 

665 
47 
9 

231 

229 

1 

69 

18 


1 
4 
19 
1,111 
9 
6 
13 
53 
6 

23 

44 
1 
116 
18 
5 
344 
14 
2 

75 

36 


85 

123 

412 

4,862 

266 

162 

92 

2,091 

57 

62 

87 

279 

18 

834 

97 

116 

2,577 

198 

53 

306 

2,324 

1 

347 

116 


»4 

84 

273 
4,116 

170 
99 
45 
1,674 
40 
46 
75 

228 
11 

684 

87 

94 

2,215 

148 
36 

174 
1,865 

""274 
103 


31 
39 

139 

746 
96 
63 
47 

417 
17 
16 
12 
51 
7 

150 
10 
22 

362 
50 
17 

132 

459 

1 

73 

13 


2 
18 
20 
225 
25 
23 

7 
171 

2 

4 

3 
18 

1 
51 

4 
61 
92 
32 
10 
37 
264 

26 


83 

105 

392 

4,637 

241 

139 

85 

1,920 

55 

58 

84 

261 

17 

783 

93 

55 

2,485 

166 

43 

269 

2,060 

1 

321 

116 


84 
91 

284 
1,422 

161 

126 
77 

830 
34 
61 
24 

169 
17 

490 
28 
94 

833 
65 
25 

293 

1,058 

1 

190 
55 


1 

32 

128 

3,440 

105 

36 

15 

1,261 

23 

1 

63 

110 

1 

344 

69 

22 

1,744 

133 

28 

13 

1,266 

""i57 
61 


5,892 


3,914 


1,978 


595 


5,297 


3,992 


1,900 


15,565 


12,595 


2,970 


1,096 


14,469 


6,512 


9,053 



102 REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers Departed from the United 





Ports of departure and 
destination. 


Aliens. 




Num- 
Ijer. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Line of vessels. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Bank 


From Seattle, Wash., to— 
Hongkong 


8 

S3 
40 
98 
26 
2 


8 
Sii 
40 
95 
22 






8 
83 
40 
98 
26 

2 


2 

ii 

2 
2 


8 
81 
40 

87 
24 




Yokohama 






Blue Funnel 


Hongkong 








Do 


3 
4 
2 






Kobe 




Shanghai 




Tientsin 




Yokohama 


5 

95 

468 

10 

8 

531 

509 

78 

414 

9 

2 


4 

90 

42G 

10 

5 

430 

507 

72 

360 

8 

1 


1 
5 
42 

3 

101 
2 
6 
54 
1 
1 


i 

4 
2 

22 

i 

8 


5 

94 
464 

8 

509 

509 

77 

406 

9 

2 


3 
4 
12 
1 
8 
180 

4 

36 


2 

91 

456 

9 

■'351 

509 
74 

378 
9 
2 


Nippon Yusen Kaisha. . 


Hongkong 


Kobe 




Moji 




Shanghai . 




Yokohama 


Ocean. ... 


Hongkong 




Do 




Kobe 




Moji. 




Nagasaki 




Shanghai 




Yokohama 


247 


226 


2i 


4 


243 


9 


238' 




Total, Seattle 

From Tampa, Fla., to— 
Cuba 




2,633 


2,387 


246 


42 


2.591 


274 


2,359 




296 


251 


45 


17 


279 


62 


234 




British West Indies 




Cuba 


6 


6 






6 




6 




Total, Tampa 








302 


257 


45 


17 


285 


62 


240' 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL, OF IMMIGRATION. 103 
States, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911 — Continued. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


1 

1 

5 

54 

16 

17 

9 

40 

52 

58 

11 

17 

199 

128 

5 

125 

5 

1 

3 

35 


1 

1 

5 

43 

7 

7 

4 

25 

44 

34 

7 

10 
128 
125 
2 
83 
3 

3 

20 






1 

1 

5 

51 

13 

16 

9 

33 

47 

32 

2 

14 

138 

128 

3 

92 

3 

1 

3 

28 


1 

21 

15 
16 

46 

37 
27 
2 
17 
116 

i 

53 

3 

18 


i 

5 

33 
1 

1 
9 

15 

31 
9 

83 

128 

4 

72 

5 

1 

a 


9 
84 
45 

152 
42 
19 
9 
51 

147 

520 
21 
25 

730 

637 
83 

539 
14 
3 
3 

282 


9 

84 
45 

138 

29 

7 

4 

29 

134 

460 
17 
15 

558 

632 
74 

443 
11 
1 
3 

246 






9 
84 
45 

149 
39 
18 
9 
38 

141 

496 
10 
22 

648 

637 
80 

497 
12 
3 
3 

271 


1 
2 

32 

17 
18 

49 

41 
39 
3 
25 
296 

5 

89 

3 

27 


8 










82 










45 


11 
9 

10 
5 

21 
8 

24 
4 
7 

71 
3 
3 

42 
2 
1 


3 
3 

1 

is 

5 

26 
9 
3 
61 

2 

33 
2 


14 
13 
12 
5 

22 

13 

66 

4 

10 
172 
5 
9 
96 
3 
2 


3 
3 
1 

is 

6 

30 
11 

3 

82 

3 

42 
2 


120 

25 

1 

9 

2 

106 

487 

18 

""434 

637 

78 

450 

14 

3 


15 


7 


36 


11 


255 


788 


552 


236 


168 


620 


373 


415 


3,421 


2,939 


482 


210 


3,211 


647 


2,774 


38 
31 
37 


11 
16 
22 


27 
15 
15 


18 
13 
13 


20 
18 
24 


17 
31 
35 


21 
2 


334 
31 
43 


262 
16 

28 


72 
15 
15 


35 
13 
13 


299 
18 
30 


79 
31 
35 


255 

8 


106 


49 


57 


44 


62 


83 


23 


408 


306 


102 


61 


347 


145 


363 



104 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table XXIII. — Passenger.s Departed from the United 

RECAPITULATION. 



Aliens. 



Num- 
ber. 



Sex. 



Ffi- 
maie. 



Age. 



Under 

14 
years. 



14 
years 
and 
over. 



Class. 



Cabin. 



Steer- 
age. 



BY PORT.S. 



Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Canada (Atlantic seaports) . 
Canada (border stations) .. . 
Canada (Pacific seaports) . . 

Galveston, Tex 

Honolulu, Hawaii 

Key West, Fla 

Knigbts Key, Fla 

Mexican border stations 

Miami, Fla 

Mobile, Ala 

New Bedford, Mass 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N. Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Portland, Me 

Porto Rico 

Providence, R. I 

San Francisco, Cal 

Seattle, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 



Total . 



2,123 
13,560 
4.313 

58,561 

621 

727 

2,879 

4,796 

216 

789 

1,350 

48 

2(i0 

1,974 

285,305 



8, 153 

1,361 

1,811 

122 

8,681 

2,387 

257 



570 

7,402 

1,238 

22,231 

227 

206 

872 

1,466 

94 

210 

316 

30 

17 

521 

77,256 

1 

2,512 

565 

826 

78 

992 

216 

45 



162 2,531 

1,355 19,607 

289 5,262 

7,734 73,058 

36 812 

69 864 

114 3,637 



597 

7 

70 
63 

7 

6 

177 

14,858 



537 
145 
325 
64 
501 
42 
17 



518,215 



400,2941117,921 



5,665 

303 

929 

1,603 

71 

271 

2,318 

347, 7a3 

1 

10, 128 

1,781 

2,312 

136 

9,172 

2,591 

285 



474 

3,848 

906 

80,792 

576 

195 

564 

1,314 

269 

999 

530 

78 

17 

2,103 

72, 791 

1 

1,744 

550 

1,830 

48 

2,520 

274 

62 



2,219 
17,114 
4,645 



272 

738 

3,187 

4,948 

41 



1,136 



260 

392 

289, 770 



8,921 

1,376 

807 

152 

7,153 

2,359 

240 



27,175 491,040 



172, 485 



345,730 



Steamships 435,484 

Sailing vessels 940 

By land 81 , 791 



340,218 

726 

59,350 



1910 380, 418 

1911 l518, 215 



95,266 

214 

22,441 



19,332 416,152 

39 901 

7,804 73,987 



279,896100,522 
400,294117,921 



22,942 
27, 175 



90,300 

388 

81,791 



345, 178 
552 



357,476 
491,040 



141,789 
172, 485 



238,629 
345, 730 



TOTAL PASSENGERS 





Cabin passengers. 


Year ended 
June 30— 


Under 12 years of age. 


12 years of age and over. 


Total 
cabin. 




Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


1890 


5,297 
5,604 
5,717 
5,503 
7,622 
5,828 
5,111 
6,418 
10,315 
7,646 
7,757 
6,965 
8,235 
8,544 
8,798 
13,008 
13, 489 
11,200 


4,099 
3,756 
3,706 
3,727 
4,834 
3,812 
3,780 
4,624 
7,443 
6,326 
5,277 
4,994 
6,112 
6,231 
6,060 
8,336 
8,181 
7,581 


9,396 

9,300 

9,423 

9,2.30 

12,456 

9,640 

8,891 

11,042 

17,758 

13,972 

13,034 

11,959 

14,347 

14,775 

14,858 

21,344 

21,670 

18, 781 


66,120 

65,056 

61,703 

57,904 

70,864 

64, 887 

54,533 

76, 106 

87,041 

84,853 

91,308 

99,432 

109, 469 

119,287 

125,340 

130,276 

136,981 

136,781 


30,359 
32,692 
33,966 
27,995 
38,611 
38,366 
31,130 
41,099 
51,096 
49,739 
53,770 
57,293 
60, 797 
67, 146 
74,471 
73,273 
78, 130 
89,238 


96,489 

97,748 

95,729 

85,899 

109,475 

103,253 

85,663 

117,205 

138, 137 

134,592 

145,078 

156, 725 

170,266 

186, 433 

199,811 

203,549 

215,111 

226,019 


105,885 
107, 108 
105, 152 

95,129 
121,931 
112,893 

94,554 
128,247 
155, 895 
148.564 
158,112 
168,684 
184,613 
201,208 
214, 669 
224, 893 
236,781 
244,800 


1891 


1892 


1893 


1894 


1895 


18981 


1899 


1900 


1901 


1902 


1903 


1904 


1905 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909. . 





1 For 1896 and 1897 no figures are available. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



105 



States, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911 — Continued. 

EECAPITULATION. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 1 Age. 


Class. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 
14 

years. 


14 

years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


1,948 


870 


1,078 


508 


1,140 


1,576 


372 


4,641 


2,993 


1,648 


670 


3,971 


2,0.50 


2,591 


12,645 


6,145 


6,500 


2,420 


10,225 


7,162 


5,483 


33,607 


19,705 


13,902 


3,775 


29.832 


11,010 


22,597 


2,537 


1,224 


1,313 


483 


2,054 


1,809 


728 


8,088 


5,. 537 


2,551 


772 


7,316 


2,715 


5,373 


90,768 


63,580 


27,188 


18,370 


72,398 


90,768 




171,560 


122, 141 


49,419 


26,104 


145,456 


171,560 




470 


303 


167 


64 


406 


386 


84 


1,318 


924 


394 


100 


1,218 


962 


356 


486 


228 


258 


73 


413 


359 


127 


1,419 


955 


404 


142 


1,277 


554 


865 


2,339 


1,449 


890 


970 


1,369 


814 


1,525 


6,090 


4,328 


1,762 


1,084 


5,006 


1,378 


4,712 


6,881 


4,661 


2,220 


570 


6,311 


3,814 


3,067 


13,143 


9,457 


3,686 


1,167 


11,976 


5,128 


8,015 


4,709 


2,652 


2,057 


91 


4,618 


4,684 


25 


5,019 


2,868 


2,151 


98 


4,921 


4,953 


66 


252 


92 


160 


25 


227 


252 




1,251 


881 


370 


95 


1,156 


1,251 




1,082 


563 


519 


73 


1,009 


853 


229 


2,748 


1,913 


835 


136 


2,612 


1,383 


1,365 


141 


94 


47 


20 


121 


139 


2 


219 


142 


1 1 


27 


192 


217 


2 


19 


11 


8 


11 


8 


4 


15 


296 


271 


25 


17 


279 


21 


275 


5,650 


3,955 


1,695 


432 


5,218 


5,466 


184 


8,145 


5,929 


2,216 


609 


7,536 


7,569 


576 


204,938 


117,179 


87,759 


42,876 


162,062 


136,376 


68,562 


567,499 

1 

15,563 


402,484 
"i6,'47i 


165,015 

1 

5,092 


57,734 
""i,'9i8 


509,765 

1 

13,645 


209,167 

1 

5,201 


358,332 


4,898 


2,318 


2,580 


1,381 


3,517 


3,457 


1,441 


10, 362 


310 


201 


109 


92 


218 


144 


166 


2,236 


1,562 


674 


237 


1,999 


694 


1,542 


2,509 


1,,549 


960 


445 


2,064 


1,069 


1,440 


5,146 


3,360 


1,786 


770 


4,376 


2,899 


2,247 


104 


56 


48 


6 


98 


6 


98 


304 


178 


126 


70 


234 


54 


250 


5,892 


3,914 


1,978 


595 


5,297 


3,992 


1,900 


15,505 


12,595 


2,970 


1.090 


14,469 


6,512 


9,053 


788 


552 


236 


168 


620 


373 


415 


3,421 


2,939 


482 


210 


3,211 


647 


2,774 


106 


49 


57 


44 


62 


83 


23 


408 


306 


102 


61 


347 


145 


263 


349,472 


211,645 


137,827 


69,717 


279,755 


263,586 


85,886 


867,687 


611,939 


255,748 


96,892 


770,795 


436,071 


431,616 


258,328 


147,901110,427 


51,286 


207,042 


172,509 


85,819 


693,812 


488,119 205,693 


70,618 


023,194 


262,815 


430,997 


124 


72 52 


36 


88 


57 


67 


1,064 


798 


266 


75 


989 


445 


619 


91,020 


63,672 27,348 


18,395 


72,625 


91,020 




172,811 


123,022 


49, 789 


26.199 


146, 612 


172,811 




342,600 


201,9.50140,650 


57,847 


284, 753 


254,251 


88,349 


723,018 


481,846 


241,172 


80, 789 


642,229 


396,040 


326,978 


349,471 


211,644137,827 


69,717 


279, 7,54 


263, 585 


85, 886 


867,687 


611,938|255,748 


96,892 


770, 794 


436,070 


431,616 



DEPARTED, 1890-1909. 



Passengers other than cabin. 


Total 
















Under 12 years of age. 


12 years of age and over. 


Total other 


passengers 
departed. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


than cabin. 


8,698 


7,532 


16,230 


83,110 


32,914 


116,024 


132,254 


238,139 


9,268 


6,004 


15,272 


89,034 


35,092 


124,126 


139,398 


246,506 


9,999 


5,969 


15,968 


96,834 


38,602 


135,436 


151,404 


256,556 


8,352 


5,444 


13,796 


88, 315 


33,384 


121,699 


1.35,495 


230,624 


15,798 


9,307 


25,105 


112,941 


52, 794 


165,735 


190,840 


312,771 


17,257 


10,612 


27,809 


123,845 


64,951 


188,796 


216,665 


329,558 


10,001 


5,789 


15,790 


78,621 


36,446 


115,067 


130,857 


225,411 


8,836 


6,447 


15,283 


78,061 


34,417 


112,478 


127,761 


256,008 


13,906 


9,095 


23,001 


78,230 


36,268 


114,498 


137,499 


293,394 


10,968 


8,042 


19,010 


96,797 


42,353 


139,150 


1.58,160 


306,724 


12,067 


8,2.56 


20,323 


99,966 


48,359 


148,325 


168,648 


326,760 


13,395 


9,082 


22,477 


132,894 


51,206 


184, 100 


206,577 


375,261 


18,249 


13,086 


31,335 


209,191 


83,065 


292,256 


323,591 


508,204 


22,104 


15,335 


37,439 


210,270 


87,234 


297,504 


334,943 


536,151 


16,591 


11,144 


27,735 


179,869 


74,464 


254, 333 


282,068 


496,737 


25,704 


16,203 


41,907 


214.997 


88,085 


303,082 


344,989 


569,882 


63,751 


27,430 


91,181 


378,246 


168,478 


546,724 


637,905 


874,686 


30,249 


17,400 


47,649 


199,851 


94,152 


294,003 


341,652 


586,452 



106 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table A. — Japanese Applied for Admission, Admitted, Debarred, Deported, 
AND Departed, Fiscal Years ended June 30, 1910 and 1911. 



Applications for admission 

Admitted 

Debarred from entry.. 

Deported after entry , 

Departures 



Continen- 
tal U. S. 



2,687 

2,598 

89 

178 

5,024 



Hawaii. 



1,.561 

1,527 

34 

1 

2,355 



Continen- 
tal U. S. 



4,328 

4,282 

46 

174 

5,869 



Hawaii. 



2,193 

2, l.')9 

34 

2 

2,464 



Table B.^ — Increase or Decrease op Japanese Population by Immigration 
AND Emigration, Fiscal Years ended June 30, 1910 and 1911, by Months. 





Continental United States. 


Hawaii. 


Month. 


Admitted. 


Departed. 


Increase(-i-) 

or de- 
crease (—). 


Admitted. 


Departed. 


Increase(+) 

or de- 
crease ( — ). 


1909-10. 
July 


187 
228 
227 
223 
198 
168 
150 
187 
153 
325 
302 
250 


298 
221 
266 
597 
1,319 
477 
248 
239 
380 
286 
481 
212 


- Ill 
+ 7 

- 39 

- 374 
-1,121 

- 309 

- 98 

- 52 

- 227 
+ 39 

- 179 
+ 38 


131 

125 

135 

105 

128 

149 

160 

91 

96 

99 

144 

164 


172 
346 
268 
202 
128 
103 
93 
101 
222 
174 
245 
301 


- 41 




-221 


September 


-133 




- 97 








+ 46 




+ 67 




- 10 


March 


-126 


April 


— 75 


May 


-101 




-137 






Total 


2,598 


5,024 


-2,426 


1,527 


2.355 


-828 






1910-11. 
July 


388 
346 
354 
326 
401 
303 
233 
232 
418 
349 
433 
499 


302 
366 
318 
618 
1,136 
959 
300 
295 
424 
517 
329 
305 


+ 86 

- 20 
+ 36 

- 292 

- 735 

- 656 

- 67 

- 63 

6 

- 168 
+ 104 
+ 194 


130 
174 
125 
189 
233 
175 
186 
117 
199 
184 
184 
263 


308 
325 
191 
232 
160 
133 
98 
87 
190 
245 
277 
218 


-178 




-151 




- 66 


October 


- 43 


November. 


+ 73 


December . . 


+ 42 


January 


+ 88 




+ 30 




+ 9 


April 


- 61 


May 


- 93 


June 


+ 45 






Total 


4.282 


5,869 


-1,587 


2.1.59 


2,464 


-305 







KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



107 



Table C- 



-OccupATioNS OP Japanese Admitted and Departed, Fiscal Years 
ENDED June 30, 1910 and 1911. 





1910 


1911 


Occupation. 


Continental 
United States. 


Hawaii. 


Continental 
United States. 


Hawaii. 




Ad- 
mitted. 


De- 
parted. 


Ad- 
mitted. 


De- 
parted. 


Ad- 
mitted. 


De- 
parted. 


Ad- 
mitted. 


De- 
parted. 


Actors 


27 
21 
28 
24 

162 

109 
95 

291 
68 

288 

695 

85 


14 

18 

68 

41 

83 

42 

551 

687 

116 

260 

889 
48 


7 
15 

S 

11 
12 


1 

8 
1 
4 
9 
8 


16 

20 

51 

56 

101 

87 

388 

304 

52 


13 
24 
56 
41 
151 
66 
669 
564 
145 


26' 

2 

21 

81 

8 

4 

55 

2 


3 




15 


Government offlcials... . - . 


8 


Teachers 


8 




10 


Clerks 


13 




354 


Merchants . 


36 

1 
10 

130 
5 


37 
2 
5 

727 

8 


107 


Restaurant and hotel keepers 


1 


No occupation, including women and 
children 


2.400 
75 


1,188 
21 


217 
3 


353 




3 






Total nonlaborers according to 
rule 21j 


1,893 


2,817 


235 


810 


3,550 


2,938 


419 


875 








9 

7 

8 

59 

77 

260 

5 

165 

90 

25 


18 

17 

11 

49 

161 

612 

5 

1,159 

112 

63 


1 
7 
4 
2 
9 
1,069 
1 

36 
133 

30 


2 
3 
1 

8' 

1,384 

'""ii2' 

6 
29 


22 
19 
13 
57 


24 
35 
18 
160 


2 

7 
3 

7 


5 




8 


Tailors 


4 


Other artisans. . ... 


10 


Cooks 






281 
13 

208 
63 
56 


994 

12 

1,094 

149 

445 


1,466 


609 


Gardeners. 






40 
125 
90 


863 




49 


Not stated 


41 






Total laborers according to rule 
21j 


705 


2,207 


1,292 


1,545 


732 


2,931 


1,740 


1,589 






Total 


2,598 


5,024 


1,527 


2,355 


4,282 


5,869 


2,159 


2,464 





Table D. — Statistics op Immigration and Emigration op Japanese, Collected 
BY THE United States Government, Compared with those Reported by the 
Japanese Government, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911. 



From Japan. 


Reported 

by 
Japan. 


Reported 

by U. S. 


To Japan. 


Reported 

by 
Japan. 


Reported 

by U. S. 


To Hawaii 


2,438 
3,540 


2,364 
3,776 




3,260 
5,469 


2 459 


To continental U. S 


From continental U. S 

Total. 


5,461 






Total 


15,978 


16,140 


2 8, 729 


1 7,910 









1 Embarked within the year. 



2 Debarked within the year. 



108 REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



109 






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112 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table 1. — Summary of Chinese Seeking Admission to the United States, 
Fiscal Years ended June 30, 1906-1911, by Classes. 





1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


Class alleged. 


i 

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< 


a 


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< 


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a) 



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a 

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a 
13 
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Q 


United States citizens 


915 
7 
431 
060 
121 

391 
39 
16 
12 

135 
5 


80 

'is' 

54 

14 

34 
5 


929 
23 
765 
733 
112 

510 

122 

10 

6 

22 

17 


77 
8 
19 
52 
15 

77 
6 
1 

■"4" 


1,609 

37 

883 

773 

216 

800 
157 
13 
23 
83 
24 


127 
2 
30 
55 
11 

128 
3 

"2 


2,530 

98 

950 

947 

292 

1,242 
101 
27 
14 
82 
52 


254 

2 

3 

20 

19 

237 
6 


16 
10 


2,109 
110 

1,037 
869 
228 

1,029 
268 
83 
24 
145 
48 


490 
14 
12 
31 
29 

332 

31 

3 

1 

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5 


1,639 

80 

1,113 

1,092 

199 

559 

213 

52 

32 

87 
41 


■'84 


Wives of United States citizens 
Returning laborers 


5 
19 




33 


Other merchants 


28 


Members of merchants' fam- 


259 




25 






















Miscellaneous 


23 




39 






Total 


2,732 


205 


3,255 


259 


4,624 


364 


6,395 


564 


31 


5,950 


969 


6 


5,107 


692 







EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENEEAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



113 



1 

g. 

5 






If 


1,960 

89 

1.132 

1,149 

249 

146 

708 

247 

53 

35 

87 

80 


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17581°— 12- 



114 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table 3. — Chinese Claiming American Citizenship Admitted, Fiscal Year 
ENDED June 30, 1911, by Ports. 



Port. 



Seattle, Wash 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Boston, Mass 

New York, N. Y.. 



Total continental United States. 
Honolulu, Hawaii 



Grand total 

BY WHOM ADMITTED. 



Inspection officers . 

Department 

Courts 



Foreign- 
bom 
children 

of 
natives. 



7 
126 
15 



1-18 
25 



159 

13 

1 



Native bom. 



No record 

of 
departure 
(known as 
"raw na- 
tives"). 



Record of departure 
(known as "returning 
natives"). 



Status as na- 
tive born de- 
termined by 

U.S. 
Government 
previous to 

present 
application 
for admis- 



118 

607 

259 

2 



1.047 



Status not 
previously 
determined 



45 

145 



196 
153 



349 



340 
9 



Total. 



181 

879 

280 

2 



1,342 
243 



1,.')85 



1,557 

27 

1 



Table 4.— Appeals to Department from Excluding Decisions under Chinese- 
Exclusion Laws, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911, by Ports. 



Action taken. 



San 
Fran- 
cisco, 

Cal. 



Seattle, 
Wash. 



Hono- 
lulu, 
Hawaii. 



Boston, 

Mass. 



New 
York, 
N. Y. 



Total. 



Pending at close of previous year 

Appealed 

Total 

Disposition: 

Sustained (admitted) 

Dismissed (rejected) 

Withdrawn or disposed of by means other than 

departmental decision 

Pending at close of current year 



19 
453 



472 



85 
235 



114 

38 



38 
575 



613 



111 
314 



l.U 
.■|4 



Table 5.- 



-Disposition of Cases op Resident Chinese Applying for Return 
Certificates, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911. 



Class. 


Appli- 
cations 
submit- 
ted. 


Primary dispo- 
sition by officers 
in charge. 


Disposition on 
appeal. 


Total 
number 
of certifi- 
cates 
granted. 


Total 
number 
of certifi- 
cates 
finally 
refused. 


Pend- 
ing. 


Departed 

before 
decision, 
with- 
drawn, 
dropped, 
etc. 


Grant- 
ed. 


Denied. 


Su.s- 
tained. 


Dis- 
missed. 


Native bom 


956 
1,236 
1,247 


743 
1.002 
1,149 


104 
142 
44 


7 
9 

4 


32 

38 

4 


749 
1,011 
1,153 


95 
129 
45 


67 
62 
31 


45 


Exempt classes 


34 
18 






Total 


3,439 


2,894 


290 


20 


74 2, 913 


269 


160 


97 







REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 115 

Table G. — Action Taken in the Cases of Chinese Persons Arrested on the 
Charge of Being in the United States in Violation op Law, Fiscal Year 
ended June 30, 1911. 

CASES BEFORE UNITED STATES COMMISSIONERS. 

Until order of deportation or discharge: 

An-e8ts 869 

Pending before hearing at close of previous year 113 

Total 785 

Disposition: 

Died, escaped, and forfeited bail 9 

Discharged 106 

Pending before hearing at close of present year 118 

Ordered deported 552 

After order of deportation: 

Ordered deported 552 

Awaiting deportation or appeal at close of previous year 48 

Total 600 

Disposition: 

Escaped 1 

Deported 436 

Awaiting deportation or appeal to United States district courts at 

close of present year 42 

Appealed to United States district courts 121 

CASES BEFORE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURTS. 

Until order of deportation or discharge : 

Appealed to United States district courts 121 

Pending before trial at close of previous year 123 

Total 244 

Disposition : 

Forfeited bail 5 

Discharged 47 

Pending before trial at close of present year 75 

Ordered deported 117 

After order of deportation : 

Ordered deported 117 

Awaiting deportation or appeal to higher courts at close of previous year. . 9 

Total 126 

Disposition : 

Escaped 3 

Deported 82 

Awaiting deportation or appeal at close of present year 9 

Appealed to higher courts 32 

CASES BEFORE HIGHER UNITED STATES COURTS. 

Until order of deportation or discharge: 

Appealed to higher United States courts 32 

Pending before trial at close of previous year 8 

Total 40 

Disposition : 

Discharged 3 

Pending before trial at close of present year 31 

Ordered deported ". 6 



116 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

After order of deportation : 

Ordered deported 6 

Awaiting deportation at close of previous month 17 

Total 23 

Disposition: 

Escaped c 5 

Deported 4 

Awaiting deportation at close of present year 14 

RECAPITULATION OF ALL CASES. 

Arrests CC9 

Pending at close of previous year, including those awaiting deportation or 
appeal 321 

Total 990 

Disposition : 

Died, escaped, and forfeited bail 23 

Discharged 156 

Deported 522 

Pending at close of present year, including those awaiting depor- 
tation or appeal 289 

SUMMARY OF ACTION TAKEN IN THE CASES OF CHINESE ARRESTED, FISCAL YEAR 
ENDED JUNE 30, 1911, BY MONTHS. 





3 

<-> 


< 


P. 
a 


o 
O 


o 


i 


i 


i 


^ 

s 


P. 

< 






o 

E- 




56 
3 

15 
26 


82 

m 

47 


64 

2 

15 

25 


62 

1 

16 

40 


49 

4 

15 

59 


79 

2 

13 

30 


57 


34 


42 

3 

12 

36 


34 

I'i' 

15 


67 

4 
6 
17 


43 
4 
9 

89 


669 




23 




21 

77 


6 
61 


156 




522 







There were 321 cases pending at close of fiscal year 1910 and 289 
cases pending at close of fiscal year 1911. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



117 



Table 7. — Chinese Arrested and Deported, Fiscal Years ended Jltne 30, ]!)()8- 
1911, BY Judicial Districts. 





1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


Judicial district. 


Arrests. 


Deporta- 
tions. 


Arrests. 


Deportar 
tions. 


Arrests. 


Deportar 
tions. 


Arrests. 


Deporta- 
tions. 




2 




8 
1 
2 

1 


6 
1 
1 




1 






New Hampshire 








Massachusetts 






1 




4 
1 

.-s 

20 
3 
5 


1 


Comipcticut 










Northern New York 

Southern New York 


67 


9 


63 

1 

i 28 

3 

1 


11 
4 
10 


36 
5 

4" 

1 

2 
1 

1 
8 
4 
6 
1 
2 


15 
3 
6 



12 


Western New York 


8 




1 






1 






2 






Western Pennsylvania 






1 






Middle Pennsylvania 














New Jersey 






14 

1 
5 


















3 
2 
2 


2 




District of Columbia 










South Carolina 












Eastern Virginia 














Northern Cieorgia 






1 




1 






Southern Florida 


1 
1 










Middle Alabama 




1 
3 












Northern Mississippi 














Southern Mississippi 












1 
4 
2 


1 


Eastern Louisiana 






3 




8 


6 




Western Tennessee 










Middle Tennessee 




1 












Northern Ohio 




2 
1 
17 




1 




1 
1 
27 
1 
2 
1 




Southern Ohio 


1 
2 




1 






Northern Illinois 




22 


1 


13 


Southern lUuaois 






1 


Eastern Michigan 


12 




18 


2 


3 
21 
7 
1 
1 


2 
6 




Western Michigan 






Muuiesota 










Western Wisconsin 1 














Eastern Wisconsin j 




5 


3 








North Dakota 






1 

1 
1 




South Dakota 














Eastern Missouri 


4 
3 




2 


1 


7 


7 




Western Missouri 


2 
1 




Nebraska 


1 
2 

1 


1 

1 






8 
3 

1 


4 


Idaho 


2 
1 
2 


13 


7 




Montana 


1 


1 


Wyoming 


1 
2 








Kansas 




6 
3 

18 
5 










Eastern Washington 


1 

12 

4 

1 

2 

68 

25 




5 

8 
8 


1 
4 

2 


1 
5 
1 




Western Washington 

Oregon . . 


5 
1 


21 

1 
1 


7 




Nevada 




Utah 


1 

43 
26 




1 
29 
19 

1 

302 

93 

32 

18 








Northern California.. . . 


19 
41 


8 
49 


13 
20 


23 

172 

1 

85 

56 

8 

4 


13 


Southern California 


135 


Colorado 


1 


Arizona 


307 

95 

1 

1 

4 

275 

1 


250 
41 

5 

1 


215 

89 

42 

4 


170 

116 

40 

3 


349 
73 
29 
18 


74 


New Mexico . . 


65 


Northern Texas 


9 


Southern Texas 


3 


Eastern Texas 




Western Texas 


87 


207 


211 ! 


272 


226 
1 

1 , 
25 1 


157 


168 


Oklahoma 




Eastern Arkansas 








3 
30 






Hawaii 


9 


1 


3 




8 


5 








Total 


912 


477 


836 


665 


977 


825 


669 


522 



SOURCES OF AND INDUCEMENTS TO IMMIGRATION. 

Considerable space has been devoted in previous reports to this 
important and interesting subject. It has been shown that (1) the 
sources of our immigration have undergone a decided change in recent 
years, one which is of great significance to the country and its people, 
and (2) much of the immigration which we now receive is artificial, 
in that it is induced or stimulated and encouraged by persons and 



118 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAT. OF TMMTORATTON, 

corporations whose principal interest is to increase the steerage- 
passenger business of their hnes, to introduce into the United States an 
over-abundant, and therefore cheap, supply of common labor, or to 
exploit the })()or ignorant immigrant to then' own advantage by loaning 
liim money at usurious rates; or, as now so frequently happens, in the 
organized and systematized state of the business, a comoination of 
the three elements, so that money lenders and ticket agents abroad, 
the transportation companies, and the labor brokers and large em- 
ployers ot common labor here each receive their portion of the benefits 
and j)roceeds. Meanwhile the alien and the country suffer — the 
alien by being thrown into new and untried conditions, not conducive 
to his health or happiness, under circumstances which place him at 
a serious disadvantage by reason of being loaded with debt, which, 
unless promptly settled, multiplies with interest, and which he knows 
must soon destroy his own or his family's property mortgaged in 
security; and the country by having its standards of labor, wages, 
and Uving not only temporarily low ered but permanently injured — and 
who can question the economic axiom that injury to its wage-earners 
is a direct injury to a country? 

The best illustration of the change in the source of immigration is 
given by the figures contained in Table III (p. 14). Formerly a very 
large part of our immigration came from the Teutonic and Celtic 
countries of northern and western Europe. During the past year only 
202,391 immigrant aliens came thence, as follows: Belgium, 5,711; 
Denmark, 7,555; France, 8,022; German Empire, 32,061; Nether- 
lands, 8,358; Norway, 13,950; Sweden, 20,780; Switzerland, 3,458; 
England, 52,426; Ireland, 29,112; Scotland, 18,796; Wales, 2,162. 
Only about 23 per cent of the entire immigration came from these 
countries. We are now% and for some time have been, securing the 
bulk of our new blood from the Iberic and Slavonic countries of 
southern and eastern Europe and from the western part of Asia. 
About 65 per cent came from those sections in the past year — from 
Italy, 182,882, or over 21 per cent; from (principally southern) 
Russia, including Finland, 158,721, or about 18 per cent; from Austria, 
82,129, or about 9 per cent; from Hungary, 76,928, or nearlv 9 per 
cent; from Greece, 26,226, or about 3 per cent; from Turkey inlEurope 
and adjoining principalities, 21,655, or about 2.5 per cent; from 
Turkey in Asia, 10,229, or nearly 1.2 per cent; from Portugal, 8,374, 
or about 1 per cent, and from Spain, 5,074, or nearly 0.6 per cent. 
In 1910, 20 per cent; in 1909, 19 per cent; in 1908, 21 per cent; in 
1907, 18 per cent, ami in 1906, 19 per cent of our immigration came 
from the Teutonic and Celtic countries of northern and western 
Europe; and 68 per cent, 67 per cent, 64 per cent, 74 per cent, and 72 
per cent, respectively, from southern and eastern Europe and western 
Asia. 

Another fact which tends to accentuate the seriousness of tliis 
change in race is the habit of most of the new immigrants to colonize 
and thus discourage distribution and even and quick assimilation. If 
it were not for this latter circumstance, possibly there would be less 
cause for apprehension, at least for some years to come, regarding 
the racial effect of immigration; for perhaps what we may now term 
the "American race" can assimilate, without deleterious result, a 
large proportion of people of different racial type, provided the assimi- 
lation be spread throughout the country, so that no ])articular com- 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 119 

munity would have to absorb more than its own share. But it is a 
condition, not a theory, which confronts the country; and, no plan 
having yet been devised which affords a practical and far-reaching 
system of distribution of present-day imnugration, it behooves us to 
give serious attention to the question whetlier the influx of these 
foreign racial elements should not be materially reduced. 

I do not wish to be understood as expressing any opinion regard- 
ing the merits or deficiencies of the respective divisions of the human 
family to which allusion has been made. I would not pretend to do 
so. The contention is merely that what might be termed the main 
stock of our population is a combination of the Teutonic and the 
Celtic; and, even conceding that a liberal infusion of the other bloods 
mentioned would be harmless, or perhaps helpful, if accomplished 
evenly through general distribution, conditions are not, and in all 
probability can not be made, such that the admixture can be con- 
trolled as to place, and therefore it is expedient for us to regulate the 
volume of the mfusion. 

Section 2 of the immigration act excludes aliens who have been 
induced or soHcited to migrate by offers or promises of employment, 
or in consequence of agreements, oral, written, or printed, express or 
implied, to perform labor in this country of any kind; and the spirit 
and intent of sections 4-7 is opposed to induced or artificial immi- 
gration, sections 4-6 dealing specifically with ''contract labor" and 
section 7 prohibiting persons and corporations engaged in trans- 
porting aliens to the United States from soliciting, inviting, or 
encouraging immigration. That much of the present immigration is 
artificially stimulated and induced may be illustrated by a brief 
statement of several concrete cases (typical of a great many others) 
which have come to the Bureau's attention in the regular course of 
business during the past year: 

Case of Radejf and 8 companions. — These Bulgarians arrived at 
Boston, and so testified as to indicate that their migration had been 
induced in violation of law. They were en route to Chicago, and 
there was strong suspicion that a labor agent of that city had been 
responsible for their migration. Investigation there showed that only 
one of them had a friend and that the addresses of alleged friends 
presented by the others were fictitious either wholly or to the extent 
that they referred to the office or residence of the labor agent. Most 
of the addresses were wholly fictitious. Their testimony was very 
evasive and unsatisfactory, and it was not difficult to conclude 
from the record that they were attempting to enter in violation 
of the spirit and intent of the statute. They were all deported. 

Case of Ivanoff and 1^.1^ com'panions. — These Bulgarian laborers 
arrived at Portland, Me., and were also bound for Cliicago, the 
evidence raising the suspicion that another labor agent there was 
interested. They had various addresses of alleged friends, all of 
which, however, were written in the same hand, and tliis and other 
features of the case justified the conclusion that they were from the 
same locality and were going to the same person. Some paid their 
own passage, others were assisted by a relative, and still others 
borrowed money at rates of interest varying from 8 to 80 per cent. 
While it was impossible to elicit by cross-examination definite proof 
of a contract, yet consideration of the entire record led to the Delief 



120 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

that their migration was induced in violation of law, and they were 
accorflingly deported. 

Case of Mitroudis and. 10 companions. — This party of Greek laborers 
from Turkey arrived at New I'ork. A Greek who had lived in this 
country before came on the ship with them, and the evidence justi- 
fied the conclusion that statements and promises he had made 
regarding employment in this country ha(l led them to migrate. 
They claimed to be bound for New York, but it was ascertained that 
in fact they were going to Attleboro, Mass., where it was asserted a 
countryman conducting a boarding house was to take care of them. 
An investigation conducted at Attleboro indicated that, aside from 
the fact of their immigration being induced and encouraged, it would 
not be advisable to permit them to proceed to that place, which was 
already overcrowded with low-grade aliens. It seemed quite clear 
that they had been brought here to be exploited by those who had 
unscrupulously encouraged them to leave their native place. They 
were ck^ported. 

Case of Bodek and 9 comj^anions. — These were Polish laborers who 
had been enabled to migrate by borrowing money and who were 
going to alleged relatives and friends in New Jersey. The testimony 
was evasive and contradictory. They all insistetl that no assurance 
of employment had been held out, and most of them denied having 
even communicated with their relatives or friends ; nevertheless the 
record showed that all of them were fully advised of the existence 
of employment for them in the place to wliich they were going. On 
the whole record, the decision was reached that they ought to be 
deported. 

Case of Krikoroff and 16 companions. — These Armenian laborers 
arrived at New York, en route to Riverside, Cal., giving the names 
of relatives or friends said to be residing there. A countryman 
had recently been in their native village and instructed them how to 
proceed in order to enter the country and to obtain employment in 
a cement works at Riverside. Most of them had borrowed money 
with which to pay their passage, the rates of interest being usurious, 
and in some instances their homes having been mortgaged as security. 
There was reason to believe that the cost of their passage would be 
gradually deducted from their pay, this fact indicating that some one 
connected with the cement works was responsible. With the excep- 
tion of four, they were ordered deportetl, as careful consideration of 
the circumstantial as well as the testimonial evidence fully justified 
the conclusion that their migration had been induced and encouraged. 

Case of Mustapha and 8 companions. — These Turkish laborers 
arrived at Philadelphia, going to Providence, R. I., and Peabod^/-, 
Mass. In this instance it was found possible to develop direct evi- 
dence of unlawful inducement. A Turk who had lived in this 
country for a long time and who was engaged in contracting for 
construction work told a fellow countr;vTnan who had worked for 
him and who lived in Philadel])lua that if he would send him some 
Turkish laborers he could use them, and tins second person pro- 
ceeded to correspond with people in liis native town, which corre- 
spondence resulted in the commg of the 9 laborers. They were of 
course deported. 

The Mexican peon laborer has for many years constituted a problem 
in Iximself. There always has been a considerable influx of these 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 121 

people across the Mexican border. Some of them remain, but the 
great majority, after working in the United States for several months, 
return to Mexico for a period of rest, and later reenter, and so on 
indefinitely. Formerly tliis class of labor was used principally on 
the railroads and in the mines in the arid portions of the Southwest, 
where perhaps it met an economic condition demanding laborers 
who could stand the heat and other discomforts of that par- 
ticular section. The peon makes a satisfactoiy track hand, for 
the reasons that he is docile, ignorant, and nonclannish to an extent 
wliich makes it possible that one or more men sliall quit or be dis- 
charged and others remain at work; moreover, he is willing to work 
for a low wage. In recent years the peon has been used not only 
in the arid sections but throughout the entire Middle West and 
almost as far north as the Canadian border. In the sections into 
which he recently has been introduced there is no particular climatic 
or economic reason for employing him in preference to others, and 
doubtless he displaces other laborers who could do the work equally 
well or better, but who might demand a lugher wage. 

Tliis class of immigration is induced, in a sense, and it is exploited 
to a considerable extent by labor agencies and others. The peons 
come to the border in a practically destitute condition and claim 
that they are looking for work. Generally they do not seem to have 
any definite idea as to just where they will go. The labor agencies 
are ready to take them immediately on admission and furnish them 
free transportation and maintenance en route to interior points 
where work awaits them. The maintenance, and in some instances 
the transportation, is charged against them. The labor agencies 
also charge a fee for furnisliing the employment. These charges are 
deducted from their wages under arrangements mth the employing 
concerns and turned over to the labor agencies. The agencies 
reap an enormous profit, all of wliich it will be noted is paid by the 
laborer. For instance, an investigation recently made shows that 
one such agency places about 1.3,000 peon laborers annually, the 
average charge for the service being $6 a man. TMs concern's gross 
receipts, therefore, are about $78,000 per annum. The expenses of 
maintenance in these cases will average about $1 per man. Tliis 
leaves an annual net profit of $65,000 for the agency. The possi- 
bifity of profit necessarily tends to encourage the agencies to 
stimulate immigration and to extend the field in wliich such labor 
is employed and to put it to work in preference to labor of other 
kind theretofore employed in the territoiy newly encroached upon. 

The matter above described has been receiving my most careful 
attention, as well as that of the supervising inspector of the Mexican 
border. Several plans have been suggested and adopted tentatively 
at difl'erent times with a ^aew to fix upon some method by wliich 
stimulation of this immigration may be stopped. Clearly it is con- 
trary to the spirit of the law that aliens should be persuaded to 
immigrate (principally because they are willing to work and to live 
more cheaply than other common laborers) by what amounts to an 
imphed promise of employment, such impHcation growing out of the 
knowledge, dissermnated by various means among the lower classes 
of Mexico, that employment can be obtained if the laborers cross 
the border and apply to one of these agencies. The bickering and 
quarreling occurring between the representatives of the various 



1^2 REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

agencies at El Paso became so serious that the super\asing mspector 
adopted rules intended to effect as complete and vigorous a control 
of the matter as possible. Those rules have been in force since the 
first of the calendar year, but, as the revolutionary movement in 
Mexico has been in progress a great part of that time, they have 
not yet been sufficiently tested to ascertain just what their effect 
may be expected to be. Meantime tlie supervising inspector and 
the Bureau are endeavoring to formulate other and more extensive 
plans for the control of this regrettable situation. 

Another phase of stimulated and induced immigration wliich has 
engaged my very particular attention during the past year arises out 
of the pecuHar situation concerning labor in the Hawaiian Islands. 
For many years there have been two demands going up from that 
island Territory, sometimes distinct and sometimes merging into 
each other, viz, (1) for the introduction of wliite settlers and laborers 
with the idea of Americanizing the islands, and (2) for the introduc- 
tion of cheap labor, American or European if possible, but cheap 
labor of some kind, in order that the principal industiy of the 
Territory, the raising of sugar, may be carried on "successfully." 
Two organizations in particular have been engaged in these projects, 
viz, the territorial board of immigration, a body organized under an 
act of the leo;islature to stimulate immigration in accordance vnih 
section 6 of the Federal immigration statute, allowing Territories to 
encourage the settlement therein of foreigners, and the Hawaiian 
Sugar Planters' Association. 

In December, 1910, acting under your instructions, I made a 
visit to the Hawaiian Islands for the purpose of conducting some 
investigations at first hand regarding certain allegations and com- 
plaints wliich had come before the Department with, respect to the 
importation of laborers, their treatment after importation, and 
aUied subjects. Under date of January 25, 1911, I submitted to you 
a detailed report supported by various exhibits; but it seems proper 
to recite here, in very brief form, the conclusions at wliich I arrived 
with regard to the more important questions covered by my investi- 
gation. That investigation, I may add, was conducted with an eye 
single to the procurement of facts concerning the importation of 
laborers, the wages paid, and the conditions of Hfe offered in the 
islands. 

The sugar planters are either insincere in their declared desire to 
Americanize the islands or else their efforts are at cross-purposes with 
their ambition. If the people of Plawaii, and the sugar planters in 
particular, wish to bring the islands up to the actual stanthird of an 
American Territory, some substantial inducement must be offeretl 
to labor, for both field and mill work, in the way of increased wages 
and better working conditions. Wages should not, of course, l)e 
increased beyond a point where the business of raising sugar can be 
conducted profitably; but it is evident that a considerable increase 
can be made and the planter still receive a good return on liis invest- 
ment. The standards of living of the American, and of the Eurtmean 
also, are very much higher than those of the Oriental, the Porto 
Rican, or the Filipino. This difference between what is required to 
content the American as distinguished from the other laborers men- 
tioned has of itself a strong tendency to set so low a standard of 
wages and living as to discourage the Americanization of the islands. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 125 

I am satisfied that no. extensive beneficial results will flow from the 
work of the territorial immigration board until it receives cooper- 
ation of such a kind and degree from the employers of labor as will 
make it worth while for the European inckiced by the board to come 
to the islands to remain there. This is proved by the fact that 
many of the Spaniards, Portuguese, and Russians who heretofore have 
been imported by the board under the exception to the Federal 
statute have remained on the islands onl}'^ a very short time, some of 
them only long enough to obtain funds from relatives abroad or 
friends on the mainland with which to make the comparatively short 
voyage to San Francisco, where better wages and living conditions 
await them. 

The Bureau's attitude with respect to the importation of aliens for 
settlement in the Territory is this : So long as care is exercised in the 
selection of the people and they are morally, mentally, and physically 
fit to enter under the law, there is no objection to their introduction; 
but it believes that, in view of the conditions existing in Hawaii 
(which were mentioned in detail in my report of January last, but 
which can not be repeated here for lack of space), no one who has 
the permanent interest of the Territory at heart should encourage 
the introduction of Asiatics or of diseased or pauperized European 
settlers. 

ALIENS WITH PHYSICAL, MENTAL, AND MORAL DEFECTS. 

Heretofore Congress has in the various laws restricting immigra=- 
tion confined its efforts largely to the exclusion of the physically, 
mentally, and morally unfit. The exceptions to this general rule 
consist of those measures which, for reasons of public policy and 
economy, exclude Chinese laborers, alien contract laborers, and 
aliens who are likely to become a charge upon the public (this latter 
nearly approximating and often merging into the question of physical, 
mental, and moral fitness), and, by international arrangement, super- 
vise the entry of Japanese and Korean laborers. Still more can be 
done, and, as indicated in the report for 1910, ought to be done in tlie 
near future. It is of prime importance now and always that the 
struggle in which a nation must constantly be engaged to maintain 
at a high level the physical, mental, and moral welfare of its citizens 
shall not be rendered difficult or seriously complicated by the entry 
into its midst of the physically, mentally, or morally unsound, for 
whose existence it is not accountable and whose reclamation or 
regeneration is a matter for which their native countries are and 
ought to be responsible. In this particular branch of the control and 
restriction of immigration, therefore, the Government can hardly go 
too far; and, although we have been advancing yet we have not 
gone far enough. 

One of the most useful provisions of the present statute is section 
9, by which a fine of $100 is assessed against any steamship line that 
brings to a United States port an alien afflicted with a loathsome or 
dangerous contagious disease, or with tuberculosis, or with idiocy, 
imbecility, or epilepsy. During the past year such fines were assessed 
in 246 cases, the aggregate amount being $24,600, of which $23,700 
was on account of the first, $100 on account of the second, and 
$800 on account of the third class, respectively. It is believed this 



124 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

statute would be much more eflective, however, if the amount of the 
line were made considerably larger — sufiiciently large to compel the 
transport ation comj)ames as a measure of self-protectiou to use greater 
care in the medical inspection of embarking passengers. The fine 
should also be made to cover cases of insanity, a class omitted from 
the present statute probably by inadvertence. 

It will be observed from Tables XYH and XVIII (pp. 76, 80) 
that it was found necessary during the past year to return to the 
country of origin 8,707 aliens who were physically, mentally, or 
morally bolow the statutory standard; that of these, 7,309 were ex- 
cluded at the ports, divided into 2,846 with very grave physical defects, 
308 witii very grave mental defects, 3,055 with physical or mental 
defects not so serious but affecting ability to earn a living, and 1,100 
morally defective; also that 1,458 were arrested and expelled from 
the country, divided into 278 physically, 667 mentally, and 513 
morally defective. 

Jn 1910, 6,612 aliens physically, mentally, or morally below the 
standard were returned, 5,034 of whom were rejected at the ports and 
1,578 arrested and deported. The 5,034 constituted over 20 per 
cent of the total number refused admission that year. The 7,309 
defectives rejected at the ports during the past year constitute over 
32 per cent of the total number debarred. This increase of 12 per 
cent indicates that greater success is attending the efforts to prevent 
the landing of those unfit morally, mentally, or physically to enter 
the country, and demonstrates that the general increase in the ratio 
of rejections to admissions (from 2 per cent in 1910 to 2.1 per cent 
in 1911) relates to classes quite generally conceded to be peculiarly 
undesirable. 

The law is both rigid and far-reaching concerning aliens physically 
and mentally defective. This is a fact not generally understood and 
appreciated. Not only does the statute inhibit the entry of aliens 
afflicted with a loathsome or a dangerous contagious disease or tuber- 
culosis, or certain defmitely specified mental defects, and of those 
who, because of physical or mental disabilities of a minor character 
combined with the other circumstances surroundmg their cases, are 
reasonably to be deemed likely if landed to become public charges; 
but, since the passage of the act of 1907, there has existed a new and 
broader class of aliens excluded on the ground of physical and mental 
defects, viz, those who are found to be and are certified by the exam- 
ining surgeon as being mentally or physically defective in a degree 
not placing them within the aforementioned classes, but such mental 
or physical defect being of a nature which may affect ability to earn 
a living. The administration of this law is as difficult as it is 
important. Of the total number shown by the statistical tables to 
have been rejected for very grave physical causes, viz. 2,846, the 
specified causes of exclusion were tuberculosis m 111 cjises and 
loathsome or dangerous contagious diseases in 2,735 cases. In 1910 
the corresponding figures were 3,128, 95, and 3,033. 

A mental defect is especially serious, both for the present and for 
the future, the latter oecause of the frequency with which such 
defects are transmitted by parents to children. Table XVII shows 
that in the past year 308 aliens afflicted with serious mental defects 
were turned back at the ports — an accomj)lishment of itself justify- 
ing the cost of the medical inspection, although the burden thereof 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION, 125 

ought to rest more than it does on the steamship companies. These 
are divided into 12 idiots, 111 insane, 26 imbeciles, 33 epileptics, and 
126 feeble-mmded. In 1910 the figures were 16 idiots, 169 insane, 
40 imbeciles, 29 epileptics, and 125 feeble-minded — 379 all told. 
Attention is directed to what is said by the commissioner at New 
York in regard to "feeble-minded" immigrants (p. 147). 

Of the class (new since the passage of the act of 1907) above de- 
scribed, 3,055 were rejected during 1911, compared with 312 in 1910. 
The figures concerning the last-mentioned subdivision, however, by 
no means represent the total number of applying aliens certified as and 
found to be so afflicted, for a considerable portion of the 12,004 shown 
by Table XYII to have been rejected as likely to become a public 
charge were excluded on the additional ground of being mentally or 
physically defective. It sometimes happens that the facts and cir- 
cumstances of the case, considered in conjunction with such a cer- 
tificate, show an alien to be likely to become a public charge, and 
exclusion occurs on that ground; and in other instances the cer- 
tified condition, considered sometimes with and sometimes without 
regard to the facts and circumstances of the case, is found to consti- 
tute an additional and wholly separate ground for exclusion; while 
in many instances rejection occurs on both grounds. It is nec- 
essary only to read the law to appreciate how comprehensive is 
this comparatively new legislation. If the alien has a defect which 
■will interfere with liis ability to support himself, the law requires 
that he shall be kept out of the country. Considerable complaint 
emanates periodically from certain quartere regarchng what is con- 
sidered to bean excessive exclusion on the ground ''likely to become 
a public charge." Analysis of the cases, however, will show that 
many of those popularly believed to have been excluded solely for 
that reason were, as a matter of fact, excluded under the new provi- 
sion just described, or upon both grounds. Where the exclusion 
occurs on both grounds, it is not an easy matter properly to classify 
the cases in the statistical reports; and the figures representing those 
"likely to become a public charge" and those "mentally or physic- 
ally defective" should be considered together. 

It is particularly difficult to detect at the ])orts the criminal and 
sexually immoral classes. Naturally, they spare no pains to conceal 
their identity and to deceive the inspectors. Table XVII shows, 
however, that 644 "criminals," 253 immoral women, 141 procurers 
of women, and 5 persons supported by the proceeds of prostitution 
were rejected in 1911; and Table XVIII records 90 "criminals," 345 
immoral women, 53 procurers, and 24 aliens suppoi-ted by proceeds 
of prostitution apprel;,ended within the country and deported. Of 
these classes, therefore, there were removed to the countries of origin 
1,555, compared with a total of 1,580 for the preceding year and 1,138 
for 1909. 

That the amendatory act of 1910 removes from the immigration 
act of 1907 the three-year limitation w4th respect to the time within 
which deportation may be effected, in so far as the law relates to 
sexually immoral classes, has been held by several courts, including a 
circuit court of appeals, during the course of the year, and the con- 
stitutionality of the provision has been upheld wherever brought in 
question. Of the deportations above mentioned, 71 were cases affected 



126 KEl'OKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

by this amendatory legislation, in whicli deportation could not have 
occurred prior to the passage of the new act. With the lapse of time 
this measure will become even more valuable, both as an actual remedy 
for existing conditions and in its deterrent effect. Heretofore immoral 
women and those dealing in them have known that if entry to the 
country could be effected and detection avoided for three years con- 
tinuance of the residence was assured; now they will gradually be 
made to realize that the country never can become a safe harboring 
place for such people, which, aside from any consideration of the value 
of extending the power to expel in the sense that it may affect the 
number of arrests actually made, ought to tend materially to reduce 
the number of sexually immoral aliens entering the country. 

Altogether very satisfactory progress has been made with the 
work, regarding what is commonly called the white-slave traffic. 
Numerous prosecutions have been instituted, and success in convicting 
the guilty has been quite general. In fact, the Bureau believes that 
the foundation has been very thoroughly laid for doing practically 
all that can properly be expected of the Federal Government in con- 
nection with a matter of this kind, which in many of its ramifica- 
tions is of more immediate interest to the States and cities than to 
the General Government, 

The white-slave traffic act of June 25, 1910, oidy very indirectly 
relates to the business of this Bureau. So far oidy a negligible num- 
ber of the reports which keepers of houses of ill fame having alien 
inmates are required by section 6 of said act to make have been filed 
with the Bureau; but as several prosecutions have been instituted 
by the Department of Justice because of the failure of keepers to 
comply with this provision it is anticipated that the number filed 
will increase rapidly. 

In closing the discussion of this subject, attention is again inci- 
dentally directed to a recommendation urged by the Bureau for 
several years past that section 1994 of the Revised Statutes be so 
amended as to remove all doubt regarding the citizenship status of 
an alien woman who marries an American citizen, especially if such 
w^oman is a member of any of the immoral classes whose entry is 
inhibited by law. 

ALIEN CONTRACT LABORERS. 

From Table XVII (p. 76) it will be seen that during the last 
fiscal year 1,336 alien contract laborers were debarred from entering 
the United States, as compared with 1,786 in 1910. Table XVIII 
(p. 80) shows that during the past year 21 alien contract laborers 
were arrested within the country and deported; in 1910, 78 were so 
deported. Because of the care with which the aliens usually are 
coached, great difficulty attaches to the discovery of these cases. 

Every effort is made, though under many difficulties, to prosecute 
those who seek to bring in contract ]al)orers. There are given here 
brief synopses of some of the larger or more interesting cases in which 
prosecutions have been instituted or attempted, compiled from the 
last two years' work. 

Case of Vassilios Nicolaou. — This Greek proprietor of a shoe-shine 
establishment, Easton, Pa., in connivance witli a brother, a money 
lender in Greece, induced the father of one Demitrios Kurjiambalis 
to send the boy to this country, with the understanding that he 



EEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENEEAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 127 

would work in the shoe-shine parlor for one year in payment of his 
passage. The money lender, to insure himself against the boy's 
desertion, also compelled the father to give a promissory note to 
cover passage. The boy was told that he would be put at light 
employment in a barber shop, and the father was assured that his 
son would be well taken care of. The boy was carefully cautioned 
as to the answers he should make to the immigration officers at 
Ellis Island, and was then shipped to the United States under the 
alias Demetri Nicolaou and the allegation that he was going to a 
brother, the shoe-shine establishment proprietor above mentioned. 
The latter was also instrumental in securing the admission in vio- 
lation of law of four other boys under circumstances quite similar 
to those narrated above. 

Nicolaou was indicted for conspiracy to violate section 4 of the 
immigration act, but when the case came to trial was acquitted by 
the jury. 

While the prosecution was under way, the five boys had been 
able to liberate themselves from the control of the padrone and 
establish themselves in lucrative employment, and it was shown that 
they were intelligent and altogether desirable lads; hence, the Depart- 
ment did not deport them, feeling that they were the innocent vic- 
tims of a nefarious conspiracy and that their remaining in the country 
under the new conditions in no way violated the spirit of the law. 

Case of Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. — An agent of this 
association, who it seems was employed to recruit laborers in the 
Philippines, induced two aliens to come to Hawaii from Macao, 
China, and was charged with having induced still another to come 
under similar circumstances. When the matter was brought to the 
attention of the association by the United States attorney on the 
basis of a report made to him by the inspector in charge at Honolulu, 
the association disclaimed having given any instructions to the agent 
to recruit labor elsewhere than in the Philippines, but admitted their 
responsibility for his acts, asserting, however, that one of the aliens 
had been sent under a mistake as to his nationality or some other 
misapprehension. 

The case was compromised by the association paying a fine of 
$2,000, a sum sufficient to cover the statutory penalty in the two 
cases for which responsibility was admitted; and, as by this arrange- 
ment the Government was saved the trouble and expense of prose- 
cuting, it was regarded as altogether satisfactory. The aliens were 
deported. 

Case of L. Ascliaffenburg . — This man, then a resident of Henderson, 
La., was instrumental in the importation of five Italians in violation 
of the contract-labor law. The aliens were arrested and their depor- 
tation deferred pending the institution of suit. There were several 
delays covering a period of almost two years, and the defendant 
meantime committed suicide. 

Case of Chris Graher and Peter Schrag. — These two farmers of North 
Dakota each imported three laborers from Canada. The aliens were 
arrested and deported by the Department, and suit was instituted 
against the importers, who pleaded guilty and were sentenced to pay 
a fine of $3 each. 

Case of San Benito Land and Water Company. — The foreman of 
this concern, accompanied by a Mexican interpreter, crossed the 



128 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

river at Brownsville and induced one Ramon Zepeda and his three 
sons to enter the United States and take employment with the com- 
pany at $1 per day. They entered at a remote point -without inspec- 
tion. Subsequently the father on returning from a visit to Mexico 
was questioned at Brownsville, and the facts regarding the violation 
of law ascertained. He was held to appear as a w^itness, and war- 
rants were issued for the three sons. The latter somehow learned 
that they were wanted by the authorities and escaped, returning to 
Mexico; whereupon the father was deported and the effort to lay a 
foundation for prosecution abandoned. 

Case of George Pirrie. — Pirrie, who is ])roprietor of a large sheep 
ranch near Helena, Mont., formed a habit of obtaining sheplierds 
from Scotland. It was alleged that he thd not treat liis employees 
any too well, and the consecjuence was that information regarding 
his illegal acts soon reached the Immigration Service. As is so often 
the case with contract laborers, the men imported were very desirable 
people. Information was gi'adually gathered regarding 20 separate 
cases, in only a few of wliich, however, v/as it possible to obtain con- 
vincing legal evidence. Wlien Pirrie found that the Government 
had discovered his operations, he ofi'ered to compromise by paying 
$2,500. It was deemed wise to accept this offer. 

Case of Tropenas Steel Co. — Sixteen aliens were induced to come 
to the United States by this concern, located at New Castle, Del. 
Deportation proceedings were instituted against them. AiTange- 
ments were made to bring a criminal suit against Alexandre Tropenas, 
the head of the company, whereupon he fled to Europe, negotiating 
from there tlu-ough his attorneys for a settlement of the case upon a 
money basis. The United States attorney expressed the opinion 
that no such arrangement should be entered into unless Tro])enas 
was willing to pay the full amount of the penalty prescribed by 
section 5, viz, $16,000. Apparently Tropenas preferred to remain in 
Europe than to return to this country under such conditions, and the 
matter is now in such shape that he can immediately be proceeded 
against should ho at any time return. 

Case of Max Schlemmer. — This man was indicted at Honolulu for 
violation of section 4 in bringing to Laysan Island 23 aliens under 
agreement to perform labor, and also under section 8 for lanchng the 
said 23 aliens wdthout permitting their inspection. The aUens were 
arrested and, with the exception of 5, were deported, the latter being 
detained for use as witnesses. When the case came to trial Schlem- 
mer pleaded poverty, and the court appointed an attorney to defend 
him. Finally the jury returned a verdict of not guilty; thereupon 
the 5 detained ahens were deported. 

Case of Hamilton- Ehret. — This Enghshman conducted a hairdress- 
ing establishment in Pittsburgh. Being unfortunate in the matter 
of retaining expert liairdressers, he advertised in a London paper. 
Among the responses received was one from a man named Elu-et. 
In the residting correspondence arrangements were perfected for the 
importation of Ehret vAi\\ the understanding that he would enter 
into a written contract on arrival at Pittsburgh for 21 months at a 
salary of $22 per week and 3 per cent of his "intake." Ehret proved 
an exceptionally expert hairdresser and ingratiated himself into the 
favor of Hamilton's customers to such an extent tliat many of them 
insisted that he should serve them. Ehret and Hamilton disagi'eed, 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 129 

threatened each other with deportation and prosecution under the law 
they had conspired to violate, but eventually concluded to renew their 
contract for another year, attaching thereto a clause providing that 
Ehret would not set up an independent establisliment in Pittsburgh 
for at least a year after its termination or violation. Ehret broke 
the contract and set up an independent shop. Hamilton applied 
to an equity court for an injunction. Ehret defended on the ground 
that the original contract was void, being in violation of law, and that 
the second contract was tainted with fraud. The county judge held, 
however, that the original contract was not void because it was shown 
that labor of Uke kind unemployed could not be found here at the 
time the alien was imported. Meantime suit was instituted against 
Hamilton by a third party to recover for his own benefit the $1,000 
penalty. To this charge Hamilton's attorney decided to have him 
plead guilty, he and his client probably feeling that it was worth 
more than $1,000 to get his dangerous competitor out of the country 
and thinking that pleading guilty to the charge would place the 
Department in a position where it would be loath to do otherwise 
than deport Ehret. Finally the $1,000 penalty was recovered by 
the tliird party, and meantime the injunction which had been issued 
for one year expired. These several unusual occurrences consumed 
so much time that the tliree years within which the Department is 
authorized to deport an alien expired, and it was finally decided, in 
view of the peculiar features and particularly as it was quite evident 
that hairdressers of the skill and experience of Ehret were by no 
means plentiful in this country at the time of his importation, that 
the deportation proceedings should be abandoned. 

Case of Kaplanis brothers. — As this case illustrates well the padrone 
system, it is stated in some detail. George Kaplanis, of Kansas City, 
Mo., was an assistant foreman and interpreter on the Rock Island 
Railroad. He had a brother, Stephanos, in Patras, Greece, who 
cooperated with him by inducing laborers to migi-ate, furnishing them 
transportation and sending them to George with the assurance that 
they would be given work in railroad gangs. They imported a large 
number of men; cjuite positive evidence was obtained in 40 to 50 cases. 
The affidavit of one of the men quoted below shows %vith sufficient partic- 
ularity the plan under which they operated. After exhaustive investi- 
gation by an immigrant inspector, a prosecution was finally perfected, 
resulting in the conviction of George Kaplanis on a charge of con- 
spiracy with a sentence of six months in jail and the assessment of a 
fme of $500 and costs, making the money consideration about $1,500. 
A number of the aliens were arrested and deportetl, and a few who 
were used as witnesses in the case were for this and other reasons 
allowed to go at large. 

State of Illinois, City of Chicago, County of Cook: 

Aristides Margaritis, being duly sworn, deposes and says: I was born in Loutraki, 
Greece; am thirty-five years old, married, and my wife and three children are in 
Greece. In Greece my occupation was that of a farmer. In our province in Greece 
a man named Stephanos Kaplanis made a reputation for sending men to the United 
States, and I went to Corinth, his native city, with two townsmen of mine, Demetrios 
K. Laskas and Demetrios Athanasion Panaghi, to find him. We met him in the 
public market and asked him regarding the United States and the conditions of work 
there. He told us that he had a brother in Kansas City who was a boss on a railroad. 
' ' If you go to my brother, he will give you steady work at $1 .65 per day on the railroad 
on which he is a boss." We told him that we had no money to go, and he said to us, 

17581°— 12 9 



130 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

"I will give you your steamship tickets at 550 drachmae each if each of you will give 
me a mortgage on his property, and I will send you under a guaranty that you will 
not be deported (turned back) by reason of any eye or other disease, as I have fixed 
things with the steamship company which goes to New Orleans and not to New York. 
I will also send you under a guaranty to work for my brother at $1.65 per day, and I 
am sure that in two or three months time you will pay off your debts. You can pay 
the money to my brother in Kansas City, as it is all the same." 

We accepted his projiosition, and I myself and the aforesaid Laskas and Panaghi 
ten days later signed contracts at Corinth; the contracts were signed, gi\'ing our 
property (farms, lands) as a mortgage, stated we, each of us severally received 550 
drachmae in cash, when in truth and in fact we did not receive a cent in cash, and 
in addition we paid 12 drachmae each as fees to the notary and for recording the 
mortgages. Three days later we went to Patras with Stephanos Kaplanis and he gave 
us three steamship tickets on the Austro-Americana Line to Kansas City via New 
Orleans. I and the aforesaid Panaghi were booked under our correct names; Laskas 
however assumed the alias George Lambrou, because, as Stephanos Kaplanis told us, 
the ticket he gave to Laskas had been sent to him by his brother for another fellow 
who did not wish to leave for the United States. We left Patras on November 7, 1907, 
and reached New Orleans on December 4, 1907 (Greek calendar), on the steamer 
Eugenia. While in Patras, Stephanos Kaplanis gave us the address of his brother 
George Kaplanis, at 511 West Fifth Street, Kansas City, Mo., and instructed us when 
we were examined by the immigration authorities that we ourselves paid for our 
steamship tickets and that we did not know what work we would perform in the 
United States; he also wrote to his brother to expect us. ^^'hen we reached Kansas 
City, George Kaplanis placed us to work on the Rock Island Railroad the day following 
our arrival there.- We worked 13 days, and then we were stopped. From the wages 
of each one of us George Kaplanis took S5.50 for a Government tax, as he called it, and 50 
cents additional from each one of us for a suit of clothes, which he said he had made a 
present to the roadmaster. He was fooling us with false promises that he would again 
place us to work, and I left. Laskas and Panaghi are still in Kansas City. Stephanos 
Kaplanis, now in Greece, was in the United States before in j^artnership with his 
brother George. About a year and a half ago, by an understanding of copartnership 
with his brother George, Stephanos went to Greece and is acting as an agent in sending 
laborers to his brother George. They are both robbing the poor people, because the 
steamship tickets cost only 235 drachmae, and they receive mortgages in consideration 
for steamship tickets binding the mortgagors for 550 drachmae. Under promises and 
guaranteed work made to all they bring into the United States, they induce the poor 
immigrants to hypothecate their lands to them. A month before I came to the 
United States John Economou, Spiros M. Contis, and George Pappas (Papadopoulos) 
came to the United States on the steamship Sophia under identically the same con- 
ditions with regard to agreements and promises of work. George and Stephanos 
Kaplanis have brought into the United States about 80 natives of our province under 
exactly the same circumstances they brought us over. I know many, but they are 
all in Kansas City. I will think and send you the names. I now reside at 131^ West 
Madison Street, city. 

Case qfPolychronopoulos hi'others. — Tliis case in all essential particu- 
lars is similar to that of Kaplanis brothers and arose in the same 
section of the country. The prosecution has not yet been com- 
pleted and is still pending before the court in the western district of 
Missouri. 

Case of TJieodoropulos brothers. — Tliis also is similar to the Kaplanis 
case, but, so far as the CAddence has been developed in tlie investigation 
in Nebraska, does not seem to involve the importation of any large 
number of aliens. The e\adence was turned over to the United States 
attorney, and the Theodoropulos brothers and another partv have 
been indicted for conspiracy, the trial to occur in October next. 

Case of Lamhropuhs brothers. — One of these brothers is located at 
Johnstown, Pa., where he conducts a shoe-shine establishment, and 
tlie other near Patras, Greece. Tlicir ]>lan of oj)erati(nis was similar 
to that of the Kaplanis brothers, cxcej)t that they (k^alt altogether 
in boys of a suitable age to be put to work shining shoes. The case 
first came to the attention of the immiirration oilicials throujrh the 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 131 

institution of a suit by private parties on two counts in an effort to 
recover for their own benefit S2,000 in accordance with sections 4 
and 5 of the immigration act. The immigration officials worked up 
eight separate cases against the defendant, warrants were issued 
for the arrest of the boys, and they were detained as witnesses. 
The result of the suits was that the private parties recovered $1,500 
by compromise and the Government $2,000. The question of bring- 
ing criminal prosecution for conspiracy was submitted to the United 
States attorney, but the evidence secured was deemed insufficient 
for that purpose. 

Case of Lewis Hayes. — Hayes, a farmer of Aureha, Iowa, while on 
a visit to Denmark, contracted \\itli one Pedersen to employ him for 
a year for $20 per month and board, prepaid Pedersen's passage, and 
furnished him with money to show the immigration officers at 
New York. He brought his family with him, and, not being satisfied 
with the treatment received from Hayes, left him and became des- 
titute. The case was brought to the attention of the immigration 
officials. Pedersen and his family were taken into custody and 
ordered deported. Suit was instituted against Hayes for the col- 
lection of the statutory penalty, and eventually an offer of compro- 
mise in the sum of $500 was accepted. 

Case of Manistee ^Vatch Co. — Twelve aliens were arrested and 
deported on the ground that they had been induced to enter this 
country in violation of law by this company, located in Manistee, 
Mich. The evidence was largely circumstantial, but there was no 
lack of moral certainty that the aliens were subject to deportation. 
On referring the matter to the United States attorney, however, he 
concluded that it would be useless to institute suit on the evidence 
in hand, and apparently there was no way by which that evidence 
could be strengthened. 

Case of N. J. Rich Knitting Co. and Standard Knitting Co. — The 
Bureau first obtained information regarding this matter from the 
business agent and corresponding secretary of the United Trades 
and Labor Council, of Cleveland, Ohio, his letter indicating that there 
was likelihood that for some time knitting firms had attempted to 
import aliens. Later it was ascertained that two foreign knitters 
had been brought in, and they were arrested and eventually deported. 
All of the evidence obtained in connection with the investigation was 
submitted to the United States attorney. The latter held, however, 
that it was not sufficient to establish the cormection between the 
man supposed to be the agent of one of the companies with such 
company, and further that it was " insufficient in reference to the item 
of showing that other skilled labor was unemployed in the United 
States at the time of the aUeged violation of the act." 

Case of the Grant Bros. Construction Co. — This company was 
engaged in constructing a line of railroad in Arizona and importetl 
from Mexico 45 common laborers for emj^loyment in such construction 
work. Civil suit was instituted for the collection of the penalty 
prescribed by section 5, and, although a vigorous, long-drawn-out 
defense was made, the Government's contentions were sustained both 
in the lower court and in the supreme court of Arizona, the fine 
assessed being $45,000 and costs amounting to $.3,500. This was a 
notable victory for the Government. 



132 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Tlie Lace-MaJcers case.— This case concerns particularly the firm 
of Oppenheimcr & l^ery, of New York. Incidentally, it is of interest 
to various other lace-making firms. By an exception to the re- 
cent tarifT act the lace manufacturers were privileged to import 
free of duty for a limited time a new style of levers lace machinery. 
A number of the manufacturers have availed themselves of this 
privilege, and consequently a considerable demand for experienced 
levers hands has grown up. In several instances upon proper proofs 
these concerns have been permitted to take advantage of the excep- 
tion to the contract-labor law in favor of the importation of foreign 
skilled labor when labor of like kind vmemployed is not available 
here. In the Oppenheimer & Levy case, however, the contention is 
that importations have been made of employees who do not belong 
to this particular class of skilled help and who, therefore, are not 
within the exception. The case is now pending in the southern 
district of New York, the several aliens who were arrested in connec- 
tion therewith having been released upon recognizances pending the 
outcome of the suit. 

The Firth Carpet Co. case. — This case was described in the annual 
report of the Bureau for the fiscal year 1909, as follows: 

The Firth Carpet Co. case arose at Firthcliffe, N. Y., in July, 1908. The report of 
the immigrant inspector who investigated the allegation that the company had been 
importing laborers from abroad was regarded as justifying the issuance of warrants for 
the arrest of 111 aliens. Upon carefully considering the evidence the Bureau and 
Department reached the conclusion that in 58 of the 111 cases it was not shown that 
the aliens had been imported contrary to the spirit and intent of the statute, and that 
in the remaining 53 cases the evidence was sufficient to justify holding that some of the 
aliens had been imported contrary to the spirit of the statute and that others were 
dependent upon those so imported. In view of the opinion of the Attorney General, of 
March 20, 1907, that under the act of 1903 aliens imported to perform labor in this 
country can not be deported unless an enforceable contract exists, although the 
importer may be prosecuted without the existence of such a contract, it was found 
necessary to direct that warrants of deportation should be executed only in the cases of 
5 of the imported aliens, but the entire record of the transaction was placed in the 
hands of the United States attorney with request that the company be prosecuted. 

The final outcome of the matter was that the Department con- 
curred in a recommendation submitted by the United States attorney 
for the southern district of New York as the result of a careful and 
detailed consideration of all the evidence that an oVier of compromise 
on the basis of a cash payment of $10,000 be accepted. 

JAPANESE IMMIGRATION. 

The discussion of this subject will be aided by referring to the 
last proviso of section 1 of the immigration act and to the Presi- 
dent's ])roc]amation of March 14, 1007, and the definition of the 
term "Japanese or Korean laborer, skilled or unskilled," contained 
in rule 21 of the immigration regulations.' The law and proclama- 
tion, soon after their passage and publication, respectively, were 
supplemented by a general understanding with Japan, which con- 
teini)lated that the Japanese Gover?unent sliould issue passports to 
the continental United States only to such of its subjects as are non- 
lal)orers or arc laborers who, in coming to the continent, seek t(» 
resume a formerly accpiired domicile, to join a parent, wife, or child 
residhig therein, or to assume active control of an already ])ossessed 

> See pamphlet Immigration Laws and Regulations, edition of May 4, 1911, pp. 5,41. 



EErORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMTORATION. 133 

interest in a farming enterprise located in this country. Tlierefore, 
the three classes of laborers entitled to receive passports arc "former 
residents," "parents, wives, or children of residents," and "settled 
agriculturists." With respect to Hawaii, the Japanese Government 
of its own volition stated that, experimentally at least, the issuance 
of passports to members of the laboring classes proceeding to that 
Territory would be limited to "former residents" and "parents, 
wives, or children of residents." The Japanese Government has 
continued to exercise a careful supervision over the emigration of its 
laboring class to Canada and Mexico. 

Numerous important facts covering this interesting phase of immi- 
gration for the past year are presented in Tables A-F (pp. 106-110). 
Table A shows that there has been an increase in the number of Japa- 
nese admitted both to the continent and to the Territory of Hawaii. In 
order to draw accurate conclusions, however, the figures shown by 
said table should be compared also with those for 1908, the first year 
the arrangement became operative, in which year 9,544 Japanese were 
admitted to continental United States and 8,694 to Hawaii, with 
643 debarred at the ports of the former and 60 at the ports of the 
latter. In 1910 the corresponding figures were 2, .598, 1,527, 89, and 
34, wliile those for 1911 are 4,282, 2,159, 46, and 34, respectively. 
Therefore, the number of Japanese admitted to the mainland and 
Hawaii, respectively, in 1911 was about 45 and 25 per cent of the num- 
ber for the year 1908, and about 65 and 41 per cent, respectively, 
more than the number shown for 1910. 

Table B furnishes for the guidance of anyone interested in follow- 
ing this subject in detail a means of comparing the immigration and 
emigration of Japanese in 1910 with that of the past year by months. 

Table C gives occupations of Japanese who have entered and left 
the country, segregated into nonlaborers and laborers. Of the latter 
class, to which the most interest attaches, only 732 were admitted 
during 1911 to continental United States, while 2,931 departed, as 
against 705 entering and 2,207 leaving in the preceding year; the 
figures for Hawaii are 1,740 and 1,589 against 1,292 and 1,545, 
respectively. 

A comparison of the records of Japanese immigration and emigra- 
tion kept by the Bureau with similar records compiled by the Japanese 
Government is given in Table D. The variation between this and 
other tables is partially explained by the fact that this table is com- 
piled from recoids of embarkation and debarkation, whereas the others 
relate to entries and departures recorded at United States ports. 
Nevertheless, the figures covering departures from Japan kept by the 
Japanese officials so nearly agree with those kept by the officials of 
the Bureau that the difference calls for no particular notice. 

Table E shows that during the past year 4,328 Japanese applied 
for admission to continental United States, of whom 4,282 were 
admitted and 46 debarred. Of the total number applying, 4,179 
were and 149 were not in possession of proper passports. Of the 
4,179 holding proper passports, 4,090 were found on examination to 
belong to the classes entitled by the understanding to receive pass- 
ports, and the remaining 89 were found on examination not to fall 
within such classes. The 4,090 entitled to passports consisted of 
1,146 former residents, 2,185 parents, wives, or children of residents, 
and 759 new arrivals, who were nonlaborers. The 89 in possession of 



134 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMTGRATTON. 

passports, although apparently not entitled thereto, were found to be 
laborers and not to be former residents, parents, wives, or children of 
residents, or settled agriculturists. Of the 4,328 applying for admis- 
sion, 2,419 were males, while 1 ,909 were females. Of those applying 
for atlmission on the claim of relationship, 8 were ''parents" and 512 
were "children," while 1,665 were "wives" of residents. Of the 
passports presented, 2,202 gave the holders' occupation as of a non- 
laboring character, 140 gave such occupation as laboring, and 1,837 
failed to state occupation. This table also fm-nishes other interesting 
pertinent details regarding the passports and the aliens presenting 
them, which it is not necessar}' to emphasize in the text. 

Information similar to the above regarding the Territory of Hawaii 
is supplied by Table F. During the year 2,193 Japanese applied at 
Honolulu, 2,159 of whom were admitted and 34 debarred. All but 
6 of the 2,193 applicants had passports. Of the 2,187 holding pass- 
ports, 2,069 were entitled thereto under the definitions set forth in 
the table and 118 were found upon examination not to fall within 
such definitions. Of the 2,069 entitled to passports, 413 were former 
residents and 1 ,656 were parents, wives, or children of residents. The 
118 not entitled to passports consisted of 2 laborers and 116 nonlabor- 
ers who were neither former residents nor parents, wives, or children 
of residents. 

CHINESE EXCLUSION. 

In discussing this always extremely interesting and important sub- 
ject and commenting on the statistics relating particularly thereto 
contained in Tables 1-7 (pp. 112-116), I deem it appropriate to offer 
some special observations drawai from experience in enforcing the 
statutes, which, strangely enough, have been called "exclusion laws," 
notwithstanding they so often fail to exclude those clearly within 
their inhibitions. 

Table 1 gives a comparison between the number of Chinese who 
sought admission under the various claims permitted by the law_ dur- 
ing the years 1906-1911, inclusive. In the past year 5,107 Chinese 
were admitted, as compared with 5,950 in 1910, 6,395 in 1909, 4,624 
in 1908, 3,255 in 1907, and 2,732 in 1906; the admissions for the past 
year being 14 per cent less than for the preceding year, 20 per cent 
less than for 1909, 10 per cent greater than for 1908, 56 per cent 
greater than for 1907, and 87 per cent greater than for 1906. In the 
past year 692 Chinese were deported, as against 969 in the preceding 
year, 564 in 1909, 364 in 1908, 259 in 1907, and 205 in 1906; so that 
the ratio of deportations to admissions is approximately 3 per cent 
less for the past year than for 1910, 4 per cent greater than for 1909, 
5 per cent greater than for 1908, 5 per cent greater than for 1907, 
and 6 per cent greater than for 1906. 

Table 2 is so arranged as to account for every a])])lication for admis- 
sion by Chinese and show the disposition thereof, })reliminary and 
final, and the number ])ending at the close of the year. New appli- 
cations to the number of 5,796 were made during the 3^ear and 139 
were pending from the previous year, a total of 5,935 to be considered. 
Of that number 4,997 were admitted by the inspectors at the ]H)rts 
and 110 were admitted by the Department on api)eal, a total of 
5,107, while 692 were de])orted and 136 remain ])ending. During 
the past year the exclusive jurisdiction of the immigration oflicials in 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 135 

these matters has been upheld by the courts, no Chinese having been 
released under writs of liabeas corpus. The recompilation by ports 
given at the bottom of Table 2 shows that 3,468 Chinese arrived at 
San Francisco, 929 at Seattle, 621 at Boston, and 689 at Honolulu, 
the balance being scattering cases at ports of less imjjortance. 

Of the "section 6'' exempt classes, 671 applied for admission (a 
slight increase over the year 1910), of whom only 53 were deported. 
The applicants were made up of 249 merchants, 247 students, 35 
teachers, and 53 travelers, together with 87 officials who are for con- 
venience placed in this class. On January 14, 1911, the Department 
promulgated a regulation (Department Circular No. 220) having in 
view the prompt admission of Chinese of the exempt classes, with 
respect to whom some fact or circumstance, not actually establishing 
fraud, makes it impracticable to land on identification, the Govern- 
ment to be secured by a bond and the case to be further investigated 
in due course and the bond canceled if the applicant is found to be 
bona fide a member of the exempt classes. While this regulation 
became operative about five months ago, its liberal terms have been 
availed of in only 29 instances. So far as it is yet possible to reach 
any conclusion regarding this matter, the lack of use for or interest 
in the new measure seems to substantiate the view, so often expressed 
in these reports, that ])ractically all the Chinese of these classes whose 
cases are without doubt genuine are landed with no appreciable delay; 
that the cases in which delay in landing, or deportation, has occurred 
are actually of a fraudulent character. Perhaps no better illustration 
could be given, not only of the perpetration of fraud in connection 
with section 6 cases, but of the naive and philosophical manner in 
which the unla^vful business is handled, than that afforded by three 
letters addressed by a "steerer" located in Hongkong to a fellow 
conspirator residing in Brooklyn, N. Y., v.diich recently were obtained 
in connection with the investigation of a case pending at Boston, the 
material parts of which read as follows: 

Hongkong, China, July 16, 1910. 

My Dear Chin Gin: Your letter of the 1st day, 5th month, as well as the check for 
$100 in Hongkong currency, has been duly received. It was a pity that Chin Kwan, 
after having been examined and cross-examined several times, was denied and ordered 
to be deported to the country whence he came. That you wasted $500 in gold was 
indeed a pity, but there was no help for it. The only way is to take the matter phil- 
osophically and imagine that you have worked a year without pay. It is expected 
that Chin Kwan will arrive in Hongkong within eight or ten days. On his arrival I 
shall turn over the $100 to him for his household expenses. Since we undertook to 
guarantee his safe landing, my partners and I must share the loss and refund him $200, 
and then consider the matter closed. More than that amount we can not pay. It 
was stipulated in the covenant that in case landing is denied to the guarantee for 
causes other than trachoma, such causes must be attributed to the acts of God, and the 
guarantor can not be held accountable; but if admission were refused on account of 
trachoma, then, as orally agreed between us, the guarantor must refund the sum of 
$200 for the benefit of the guarantee. I am willing to be bound by the contract. 

You wrote me that in case a guarantor could be found for Ah Lung, he then would 
be allowed to follow his own will and pleasure and go to America. 

I have recently heard that the prevailing price for insuring an immigrant's safe 
landing from Hongkong to San Francisco is about $1,300. I have also heard that 
Ah Kow, son of Chin Wing Yit, has been negotiating in Canton for a guaranty of his 
admission into the United States, but whether a satisfactory conclusion has been 
reached or not I do not know. 

It will be seven or eight months before the consul will issue the certificate, which la 
entirely dependent upon the results of the examinations. 

Lee Sing Ng. 



136 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Hongkong, China, November 27, 1910. 

My Dear Chin Gin: As requested by you, I have delivered your letter to Chin 
Kwan. He has compelled me to pay him an indemnity of $200. As Mr. Yung Chee 
Ying haa flatly refused to share the loss, you see I shall have to be the only loser. 

Lin See Hin, my second son-in-law, obtained a certificate from the American consul 
some time ago. In the beginning I intended to send him to America, making New 
York the port of his entry, but unfortunately he was deceived by the guarantor, who 
charged him $200 for insuring his safe landing in San Francisco. It is expected that 
he will sail within a month. It is hard to raise so much money, but it is reasonable, 
after all. Since Ah Lung is but poorly educated, it is difficult to procure a certificate 
for him from the consul. He is his own enemy because he hates school. * * * 

Lee Sing No. 



Kin Moo Year, 11th Month, 27th Day. 
[November 28, 1910.] 

My Dear Chin Gin: Lee Lung, son of Lee Dip Ngin, persisted in going to the 
United States by smuggling across the Mexican border; but I dissuaded him from 
taking such a course, inasmuch as he had no certificate of residence. * * * 

Having obtained the consent of his mother and also yours, I accompanied Ah (Mr.) 
Lung to Hongkong on the 17th instant and got his student's certificate from the Amer- 
ican consul. * * * Since Ah Lung had $200 deposited with Lai Chong Hing, your 
mother instructed me to use that deposit for his case, which, however, required a 
good deal more; in view of this shortage, I asked Ah Lung to go home and get $600, 
which I am not sure would be within his power. If he can not do so, I shall finance his 
passage and arrange for him to take the Empress, sailing on February 10 for New York. 

You wrote me the early part of the year, advising me to have some one guarantee 
Ah Lung's admission. I have, therefore, arranged with Ling Sin Foo, of Hongkong, 
for the sum of $1,350, paying one-half in advance, including passage, to insure his 
safe landing in New York City> where Ling Sin Yen, of Hip Chung Wing, will take 
care of the case. If, however, admission is denied, that sum of money will be refunded. 
Should Ah Lung not be able to procure the full amount, then I, as a relative, will 
finance him. Upon Ah Lung's safe arrival in New York City I shall request Mr. 
Dip Ngin to remit the balance. Please say to Mr. Dip Ngin that we intended to con- 
sult him before any action was taken. * * * As Ah Lung is able and healthy, he 
can easily obtain employment in New York. So there is no reason for worry. 

It is likely that Lim Bin, son of Lim Yock Lung, may sail with Ah Lung for New 
York. Since Ah Lung has the student's certificate, he can pay several times $10 less. 

I inclose herewith Ah Lung's photograph so that one may get acquinted with the 
general outline of his face. I take the case not for gain, but out of love and affection 
for a relative. 

Should you see Mr. Chan Kew, please tell him to send me his address so that I can 
have him take care of those immigrants with certificates. As newcomers wish to be 
"New York merchants," it is necessary that the cooperation of a New York merchant 
be obtained. If Mr Chan Kew can give the addresses of some of his friends, it will 
be welcomed. The sum of $60 in gold will be paid upon arrival. It is important 
that you should remember this. 

Lee Sing Ng. 

It must be perfectly apparent even to the lay reader who has not 
the advantage of the Bureau's constantly accumulating experience 
that the above letters relate to transactions which, from the point of 
view of our statutes, are illegal and nefarious, but which, from the 
Chinaman's point of view, are a matter of ordinary everyday business. 
In fact, those conspiring doubtless commend themselves and each 
other for their efforts to place clansmen or countrymen in a position 
to obtain lucrative employment as laborers by pretending that they 
are members of the exempt classes. 

Another good illustration of the cunning manner in which frauds 
are perpetrated is this: A Chinaman claiming to be a merchant and 
expressmg a desire to visit and travel in this countiy in connection 
with extensive importations of American goods which his iirm pur- 
posed making, secured a certificate as a traveler and had it visaed 
oy an American consular oflicer. Soon thereafter he called upon 



REPORT OF COMMTSSTONER GENERAL OF TMMTGRATTON. 137 

said officer and advised him that the certificate had been destroyed 
in a (ire at his store. The occurrence of the fire and destruction of 
the certificate were estabhshed to tlie satisfaction of tlie oflicer, 
whereupon lie issued a second certificate, bearing the same number 
as the original certificate and marked "duplicate." The original 
certificate had not been destroyed, but was used by the applicant to 
secure entiy at San Francisco. The duplicate was turned over to 
another Chinaman, by whom the photograph attached under seal 
was bleached out and a photograph of himself printed on a thin film 
pasted over, the impression of the seal being forced through from the 
back by pressure, and the word "duplicate" eradicated with an acid. 
That Chinaman proceeded to Seattle, there presented the altered 
certificate, and answered in a clear, convincing manner all questions 
propounded. He, too, was landed. So far tlie Bureau has not been 
able to discover the whereabouts of either of these persons, although 
it has been demonstrated tliat they perpetrated the fraud in the 
manner described. 

Table 2 also shows that 1,1.3,5 domiciled merchants applied for 
readmission, which with 14 such cases pending from the {)revioas 
year made 1,149 considered, 1,092 of wliom were admitted and 3.3 
deported, while 24 remain pentUng. This is an increase in apjilica- 
tions compared with 1910 of about 26 per cent. Of those claiming 
to be "minor sons of merchants," 423 entered during the year — about 
one-twelfth of the total admissions — and 249 alleged members of 
said class were deported. 

Many members of the last-mentioned class that succeed in pro- 
ducing evidence apparently crechble are mere coolies imported by 
the steerers and dealers to be placed at work in laundries and else- 
where. This fraud is practiced usualh^ in one of two ways — (1) a 
laborer, who is really the father of the 3'oung man to be imported, sets 
up a false claim of mercantile status, by connivance with the firm 
in which he asserts membership, and establishes such claim by per- 
jury and deceit; or (2) a "father," who is really a merchant and 
member of or conniving with some firm which does a side business of 
importing coolies, is selected and a story of simple details is concocted 
in which the "father," "son," and substantiating witnesses are 
carefully coached. Such frauds frequently are detected, but in many 
instances are so cunningly devised and carried out that they do not 
come to the knowledge of the officials, if at all, until long after their 
perpetration. One phase of the system amounts practically to tem- 
porary slavery, or at best peonage ; for every coolie so imported must 
work out the cost, often amounting to more than a thousand dollars. 
This is also true of the "sons of natives," mentioned later. 

An interesting case, which it happens illustrates in itself both of 
the above-mentioned varieties of fraud, is that of Jew Quan Look, 
recently investigated in the New Orleans district. This C'hinese boy 
applied for a return certificate as a domiciled merchant. The evi- 
dence secured estabhshed, at least to a moral certainty, that when 
he had obtained admission to the United States in 1909 as the minor 
son of an alleged merchant of Chico, Cal., he was not that man's son 
nor was the man a merchant. On being landed, he remained in San 
Francisco for a few days, never visited Cliico at all, and then came 
east to a small town in Arkansas, where he entered the employ, as 
clerk, porter, etc., of a firm of Chinese merchants. Investigation at 



138 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIORATTON. 

Chioo failed to develop any information regarding the whereabouts of 
the alleged father, notwithstanding the fact that he had established 
by the statutory e\'idence his connection with the firm at the time of 
the boy's entry. 

A case which furnishes a striking and interesting illustration of 
the lengths to which a real father will go to get his son into the United 
States is that of Fong Goon Ilin. This boy's father, Fong Get, a 
well-known and highly res])ected laundryman of Newark, X. J., 
took a deal of ])ains and spent considerable money in an effort to bring 
the boy from China, via Canada and Jamaica, to the United States. 
He not only set up a claim of being a merchant, but proved such claim 
b}'' the detailed testimony of three white witnesses — one more than the 
law requires. Investigation, however, showed conclusively, by the 
testimony of nine white witnesses, of equal standing with the three 
and better situated to have personal knowledge of the facts, that 
Fong Get was a laundrjnnan, regularly engaged in laboring pursuits. 
In the course of the investigation a number of letters were obtained, 
all of which were addressed to Fong Get at the laimdiy in which he 
worked, and some of the more interesting of which, relating partic- 
ularly to the attempted fraud, are here reproduced: 

To Cousin Quock Mun: 

Last year at one time I received |1,500 from you, and another time $150, a total of 
$1,650. You wanted me to deliver $400 to Jok Quons;, and the balance is $1,250. 
if you want me to deliver it to anybody, I wish you will write me and I will do as 
you advise. There is still $150 that Jok Quong has not drawn. Your son, with 
Foo Yee, will leave here on the 8th month, 12th day, on the Empress ship, for Bermuda. 
They made an arrangement with Fong Moo Non, your grandfather's cousin, to guar- 
antee to bring your son over from Bermuda to New York for $400 in gold. If your 
eon, Cho Goon, and Foo Yee arrive at Bermuda, you must make arrangement with 
Foo Jik to get $400 to send to Bermuda to deposit with Fong Ok Goon, your grand- 
father's cousin, so that he will get him into the United States without fear of not being 
paid and without delay. Perhaps Fong Shu Ngar will come on the same boat with them 
to Bermuda. Tell Gen Jung to get some money ready to send over and deposit with 
Ok Goon, your grandfather's cousin, so it will be easy to fix the way for Fong Shu Ngar. 
My folks are all very well. I wish you prosperitv. 

S. T., 1st year, 7th month, 29th day. 

Gen Hoxg. 

[Stamped:] Hongkong, firm of Mon Fook Hung: name of sender, Fong Mwn Yung. 



To Honorable Father: 

I am very well now. You sent me the evidence, telling me what answern to give 
to the questions; I gave it to the teacher to send back to you, and she told me she 
sent it by the last boat, but I do not know whether you have received it yet or not. 
The teacher has returned from vacation but has not received any letter from you; 
if you did receive the evidence, please answer, so it Avill not worry me. I have not 
received many letters from you lately, and I don't know why. In your last letter 
you said that the Christian man was on vacation, and I do not know if he has returned 
yet or not; if he has returned and you have received my c\idence, I wish yoii would 
have him take up the matter as soon as possible; and if you can not do anything, I 
wish you would send me back to China. I am in good health, bo you need not worry. 

8th month, 23d day. 

Cho Goon. 

[Stamped:] Fong Cho Goon. 



To Honorable Father: 

I received your letter telling me to have one or two photographs taken so that you 
can have a native paper fixed up for me, but 1 do not know what style will be jiroper, 
a large photograph, a small one, or half length, and whether my hair fhould be cut 
in American or Chinese fashion; please write me and let me know. If I have my 
photograph taken right away, I am afraid it will not be proper for use in this way. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 139 

If the native paper is quicker, have one made out, but be sure to do whatever is safe. 
Mr. Mo Shuk, grandfather's cousin, said he has another way, so he can fix me to go 
OB a rapid steamer, and he knows the lawyer can fix it that way. That ship sails on 
the 15th day, American date. If you can fix up the native paper I will come in 
through a proper port of entry, but if you can not I will come on the rapid steamer later. 
I am in good health, so there is no need to worry. 

S. T., 2d year, 1st month, 13th day. 

FoNO Cho Goon. 

[Stamped:] Fong Cho Goon. 



To Honorable Father: 

I am here in good health. Mr. Mo Shuk has often heard that I want to go to China, 
but he does not think that I want to go back to China; he thinks I want to go to Canada, 
and he has been '"pumping" me about it, and he said that if I want to go to Canada 
he will ask you to send some money, so that I could go to Canada and stay there for 
several years, and then go to China and return, but I do not know if what he said is 
true or not. He is going to Canada in the 4th month, which is still a few months away, 
and if you can't fix it for me to come to the United States I would like to go to Canada 
with him in the 4th month. So I will wait until the 4th month, and if you can't get 
me into the United States please send me some money to go to Canada, but if you 
don't want me to go to Canada please send some money so I can go to China, ^^'hat 
is your opinion? Please write to me about it. 

S. T., 3d year, 1st month, 20th day. 

Sent by son: Cho Goon. 

February 17, 1911. 

The boy eventually reached the port of New York, but, of course, 
was rejected, on the above-mentioned evidence, which fortunatel}", 
in this instance, came into the possession of the off^icials. It is inter- 
esting to note, from the above letters, that the feasibility of various 
schemes was discussed, including a claim of nativity, smuggling by 
stowing away on a "rapid steamer," and entry through Canada at an 
additional expense of $500 for head tax. Finally it was decided to 
have the father qualify as a "merchant." 

A class covered by Table 2 to which particular attention should be 
called is "wives of United States citizens." Such women are admit- 
ted upon the theory, not that they are citizens (for not being of a 
race members of which may be naturahzed they can not acquire 
citizenship by the indirect means of marriage), but that their hus- 
bands, being citizens, are entitled to the care and companionship of 
their foreign wives. Of these "wives," 89 applications were consid- 
ered, 80 being admitted and 5 deported. The claim is a favorite one 
un^fbr which to import Chinese slave women and girls, who bring an 
exceedingly high price in this country for use in houses of ill fame — 
from $2,500 to $4,000 each. But this is not the only method adopted 
in this nefarious but exceedingly profitable business. For instance, 
in December last a party of stowaways was captured after being 
surreptitiously landed at San Francisco from the steamship Man- 
churia, such party consisting of 8 males and 7 females. The men were 
coolies of the lowest and most ignorant type, and the women were 
bein^ brought in for sale as slaves. These 7 females ranged in 
age from 14 to 21, and it appeared from their testimony that they 
had been coaxed or forced aboard the vessel, some at Hongkong and 
others at Yokohama. The entire party was stowed away in the hold 
of the vessel, and was kept supplied with food and water by some 
person or persons on board. The 15 aliens were deported, and pro- 
ceedings have been instituted looking to the prosecution of the 
parties implicated in the smuggling. 



140 REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 

The class "United States citizens" needs further segregation and 
explanation. This may be found in Table 3. Under the Constitulion 
and naturalization laws alien free white persons and persons of African 
nativity or descent are entitled to become United States citizens by 
naturalization. ^Mongolians are not allowed this ])rivilege. Yet we 
liave a large and constantly increasing body of citizens of the Chinese 
race. The Supreme Court, in the Wong Kim Ark case (169 U. S., 
649), held that "a child born in the United States, of parents of 
Chinese descent, who, at the time of his birth, are subjects of the 
Emperor of China, but have a ])ermanent domicile and residence in 
the United States, and are there carrying on business, and are not 
employed in any diplomatic or official capacity under the Emperor of 
China, becomes at the time of his birth a citizen of the United States," 
and it has been considered under a very (perhaps unnecessarily) 
broad application of this construction that any Chinese person who 
can prove birth here must be regarded as a citizen. And section 1993 
of the Revised Statutes is to the effect that "all children heretofore 
born or hereafter born out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United 
States, whose fathers were or may be at the time of their birth 
citizens thereof, are declared to be citizens of the United States." 
The "citizens" enumerated in Table 3, therefore, fall into two general 
classes— (1) those of native birth; (2) those born abroad of native- 
born parents. Of the 1,585 admitted (amounting to nearly 31 per 
cent of the total admissions for the year), 1,412 were of the first and 
173 of the second division. In 1910 the figures were 1,328 and 781, 
respectively. The 1,412 belonging to the first division are segregated 
further into 12 of whose claimed departure from this country there 
was no record (technically known as "raw natives"), and 1,400 of 
whose departure there was a record (technically "returning natives"). 
Of the latter, status had been determined previously in 1,051 and was 
determined for the first time in 349 cases. The number of Chinese 
adjudicated natives for the first time, i. e., actually turned into citi- 
zens, was 534, compared with 1,295 for the previous year and 1,617 
for tlie year 1909. Table 2 shows that 80 alleged wives of natives were 
admitted, compared with 109 in 1910 and 98 in 1909. To complete 
this matter of simultaneously admitting to residence and to citizen- 
ship, on the claim of birth, persons who can not acquire citizenship 
by naturalization, it is necessary to consider here the discharj^ by 
United States court commissioners and courts of Chinese arrested 
within the country on the charge of unlawful residence, data con- 
cerning wliom is shown by Table 6. During the past year 156 Chinese 
so arrested were discharged, practically all on the claim of birth in the 
United States. The corresponding figures for 1910 and 1909 are 190 
and 189, respectively. 

The total of the above statistics relating to "native born," "foreign- 
born children of natives," and "wives of natives" allowed entry to or a 
continuance of residence in the country is 4,268, or an average of 
1,422 per year. The past three years have been fairly normal. There 
is little reason to believe that, unless some new law should be passed, 
there will be any material change in the near future excent in the direc- 
tion of a natural increase, in an ever multi])l\ing ratio, hy birth or al- 
leged birth in China of "sons" of these citizens. Therefore, it is not 
difficult to conclude that, in the natural course of events, there ^vill be 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 141 

an addition to our Chinese population, from this source alone, during 
the next decade of 14,220. If we allow an average of three sons (a very 
moderate estimate in the light of experience) for each native who 
thus enters, we must increase said amount by 42,660. It ought to be 
remembered particularly in this connection that the "minor-son" 
evil is of almost equal extent for the present, although it is not, per- 
haps, susceptible to so rapid a natural ratio of increase, and does not 
involve the serious element of citizensliip. It is not necessary to 
attempt a prognostication looking further to the future ; nor would 
it be a very safe or certain field for speculation, for, while most of 
these Chinese are young men, allowance would have to be made for 
deaths and departures, and, as the calculation moved into future gen- 
erations, the ratio of increase, ever multiplving, would become exceed- 
ingly intricate and correspondingly of an approximate nature. 

Table 4 should be compared with the tables of the same number in 
the reports for 1909 and 1910. In 1909 the Department considered 
409 appeals in Chinese cases, sustaining 51 and dismissing 24.5, while 
83 were withdrawn or disposed of otherwise than by departmental 
decision and 30 remained pending at the close of the fiscal year. The 
corresponding fi.gures for 1910 are 674, 58, 368, 210, and 38, respec- 
tively, and for the past year 613, 111, 314, 134, and 54. Therefore, in 
1909 the decisions of the officers at the ports were confirmed by the 
Department in all but about 12.5 per cent of the cases actually 
appealed, in 1910 the corresponding ratio was 8.5 per cent, and in 
1911 it was 18.1 per cent. 

Table 5, as heretofore presented, covered only the departure and 
return of registered Chinese laborers. As the number of laborers 
reentering the country is given in Table 2, and as it becomes necessary, 
in view of the adoption about a year ago of regulations (rules 13, 15, 
and 16) to permit of the preinvestigation of not only laborers but 
exempts and natives, to furnish data regarding such preinvestigations, 
this table is adapted to furnishing statistics covering the operation of 
the said new regulations. No plan ever inaugurated in the enforce- 
ment of the exclusion laws has given more general satisfaction than 
this one. It will be observed that 3,439 applications were submitted, 
divided into 956 natives, 1,236 exempts, and 1,247 laborers; of which 
the officers at the ports of proposed departure granted 2,894 and 
denied 290; that of those denied 94 appealed, 20 of the appeals being 
sustained and 74 dismissed by the Bureau; so that during the year 
return certificates were refused in 269 cases (divided into 95 natives, 
129 exempts, and 45 laborers), and granted in 2,913 cases (divided 
into 749 natives, 1,011 exempts, and 1,153 laborers); appeals with- 
drawn or otherwise disposed of, 97, and remaining pending, 160. 

Tables 6 and 7, compiled from statements furnished by United 
States marshals concerning Chinese arrested on judicial warrants, 
require the following comment in addition to what has been said in 
discussing Table 3: During the year 669 Chinese were so arrested, 
compared with 977 for the previous year. There remained pending 
from the ])revious j^ear 321 cases, so that the total number of cases 
under consideration during the past year was 990. Of these, 23 died 
or escaped, 156 were discharged, 522 were deported, and 289 cases 
remain pending. Table 7 shows the districts in which the 669 arrests 
were made and compares the figures with those for the preceding three 



142 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

years. The majority of the arrests, as w:i,s the case for several pre- 
ceding years, occurred in districts on or immediately adjoining the 
land boundaries, and therefore were of Chinese who had recently 
entered surreptitiously. As in 1908, 1909, and 1910, about 89 per 
cent of the arrests were of this kind of Chinese. The comparative suc- 
cess attained in securing orders of deportation (covering about 52 
per cent of those arrested) is due to the fact just mentioned. Experi- 
ence has demonstrated that usually little good and a great deal of 
harm results from arresting Chinese found in the interior of the 
country with no tangible documentary evidence of their right to be 
here. As a rule the courts will not bother wdth such cases otherwise 
than on appeal, the law making it discretionary whether the warrant 
of arrest shall be obtained from a court or a United States commis- 
sioner. Therefore, with rare exceptions, the cases must be tried 
primarily before a commissioner. If such official decides adversely 
to the defendant, the latter has the statutory right of appeal to a 
district court; but, for some inexplicable reason, the law does not give 
the Government such an appeal in the event the decision is favorable 
to the defendant. 

Another undue advantage enjoyed by the Chinese under the 
present arrangement is the fact that the trial before a district court, 
"on appeal" from a commissioner's decision, is, as a matter of fact, 
no appeal at aU, but a complete second opportunity to establish his 
case. No matter, therefore, how weak or contradictoiy the evidence 
offered before the commissioner may have been, the Chinese defendant 
goes before the court with the privilege of introducing anything he 
pleases, and usually after a long delay during which the opportunities 
for manufacturing evidence and coaching witnesses have been 
almost unlimited. So appreciative are the Chinese of this boon that 
frequently they deliberately fail to make out any case at all before 
the commissioner, especially where their claims are so palpably 
fraudulent that a considerable opportunity must be had in order to 

Erepare the witnesses. Usually the claim in such a case is American 
irth. If Chinese are arrested in the proximity of the boundaries, 
generally there is either evidence or a strong suspicion that they have 
recently been smuggled in; if they are arrested in the interior, no 
such evidence or suspicion exists. It is only occasionally that a 
Chinaman arrested in one of the large interior cities having a con- 
siderable Chinese population can be deported. The Government can 
do no more than show that the defendant is a Chinese laborer and 
has not a certificate, and must depend upon its ability to break dovm. 
by cross-examination the testimony of witnesses carefidly coached 
for the purpose of proving American birth. The difficulties are 
accentuated by the unwillingness, frequently encountered, of United 
States commissioners to follow the decisions of the courts, including 
the Supreme Court, to the effect that the burden rests upon a Chinese 
arrested under the exclusion act, whether he claims citizenship or not, 
to prove lawful residence. As an illustration, the folloudng opinion 
expressed by a United States commissioner in deciding such a case 
is quoted : 

In my opinion, the Government has failed to make out sutRcient proof a<>:ainst this 
man to convict him. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 143 

And no amount of argument and citation of court decisions showing 
where the burden of proof lay could change this opinion; although 
in this instance the testimony oflfered by the Government tended 
strongly to prove that the defendant was unlawfully within the 
United States and that offered by defendant was anything but a 
satisfactory establishment of his claim when considered by anyone 
the least versed in Chinese methods of fabricating evidence. Under 
the above-recited circumstances it readily can be understood that 
arresting Chinese within tlie interior too frequently results in con- 
verting them into American citizens, usually by a flagrant miscar- 
riage of justice, to make it worth while to attempt to deport the very 
large numbers who have in the past entered unlawfully and estab- 
lished themselves in the ''Chinatowns" of our large cities. 

In the report for 1910 mention was made of the Wong You case 
(176 Fed., 933), in which the district court, northern district of New 
York, held that Chinese who enter surreptitiously are subject to 
arrest and deportation under the statute dealing generally with the 
immigration of aliens, and to the fact that said very beneficial deci- 
sion had been reversed by the circuit court of appeals (181 Fed., 313). 
The Supreme Court of the United States has granted a writ of cer- 
tiorari to review the decision of the circuit court of appeals, and, as 
that writ is only rarely issued, the Bureau is encouraged to believe 
that the final result will be favorable to the Government's contention. 
The importance of securing a decision favorable to the Government 
is well illustrated by the statement in the report of the United States 
commissioner of immigration for Canada (p. 159) that 5,330 Chinese 
paid the head tax (of $500 each, making a total of $2,665,000) and 
were admitted to Canada during the past year. 

The foregoing review of the situation discloses some causes for 
congratulation and optimism, but many more reasons for feeling that 
the present statutes are wholly insufficient to maintain the long and 
frequently avowed policy of excluding from this country laborers of 
the Chinese race. Recent years have witnessed a remarkable im- 
provement in the administration affecting this matter, and possibly 
the methods have been brought as nearly to an ideal point as may be 
expected under the adverse and trying circumstances. Therefore, 
I believe that it can not reasonably be expected that there will be any 
diminution in the immigration of Chinese, but that it must be realized 
and conceded that, unless some change is made in the law, such 
immigration will constantly increase in the future. 

Copies of the certificates of residence issued under the registration 
acts of 1892 and 1893 are on file in the Bureau in charge of an officer 
designated at the time the Department of Commerce and Labor was 
organized to perform the duties theretofore devolving upon collectors 
of internal revenue throughout the country with respect to the 
issuance of original and duplicate certificates and the verification of 
the certificates presented by laborers leaving the United States with 
the intention to return. Verification was had of the certificates 
presented by the 1,247 Chinese laborers shown by Table 5 to have 
applied for return certificates during the year, and of many others 
desired for use as evidence in cases pending in court or elsewhere, and 
it was necessary to furnish for like purposes a large number of certified 
copies of duplicate certificates or of applications therefor; while under 



144 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

the provisions of rule 42 of the Chinese regulations applications for 
certificates of residence wer# considered and disposed of as follows: 

Cases pending 52 

Cases reopened 5 

Applications 244 

Total 301 

Duplicate certificates of residence issued 127 

Original certificates found 5 

Applications denied 73 

Applications dropped 23 

Applications pending 73 

Total 301 

The total for the fiscal year 1910 was 195; so that the increase of 
this class of work shown for the past year is about 63 per cent.^ 

REPORTS OF COMMISSIONERS AND INSPECTORS IN CHARGE. 

The commissioner of immigration at the port of New York, through 
which port the majority of the aliens enter, is in charge, in addition 
to the Ellis Island Station, of the district comprising the States of 
New York and New Jersey, and all investigations regarding aliens in 
those districts are conducted under his supervision. The Chinese 
business of the district is supervised by a separate official known as 
the Chinese inspector in charge, who is stationed in New York City. 
With this single exception the various commissioners and inspectors 
in charge of districts are engaged in enforcing both the immigration 
and the Chinese-exclusion laws. These officials are required to 
furnish each year a report summarizing the work of their respective 
districts, several of the more important of which are always inserted 
in this report to illustrate the administration of the laws throughout 
the country. 

The report of the commissioner of immigration at New York reads 
as follows: 

I submit herewith my report with reference to Ellis Island affairs for the year ended 
June 30, 1911. During this period 749,642 aliens were inspected under the immigra- 
tion law at the port of New York. Of these, G05,384 were promptly admitted on first 
inspection, the remainder being detained for various causes, about one-half of them 
for what is known as "special inquiry." Deportations from Ellis Island during the 
last fiscal year numbered approximately 14,500, of which about 1,500 related to aliens 
who after entry had been found to be here in violation of law. In some months the 
exclusions were 3 per cent of the arrivals, and such a percentage indicates carelessness 
on the part of steamship agents abroad in accepting immigrants as passengers. But 
deportation figures alone do not furnish a complete index of the work of this office in 
preventing ineligil)le immigrants from entering the United States. It is far more 
imi)ortant to know that every effort is made to maintain a correct and efficient standard 
of inspection, which fact b(!Comes known abroad and deters many immigrants who 
could not secure admission from starting on their journey only to encounter the hard- 
ships of deportation. 

ADDITION.S ANO IMPROVEMKNTS TO PLANT. 

Many of these have been made during the last twelve months, affecting more par- 
ticularly the main building, whic-h has thus been rendered much more appropriate 
than it waa for the work therein carried on. 



' For further intarestinK parlionlars rcpinlinf,' llio onforooiiioiit of ttio ("liinosp-oxplusion liuvs, .soe the 
report of the United Stales coinuiissioiier of iinniigratiou for Cunachi aiul the report of tlie siipervi.sinR 
inspector of the Immigration Service on the Mexican border, both of which are quoted under the ne.\t 
heading (pp. 159, 161). 



KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 145 

1. A fine new story has been erected on the west wing of the main building through 
a special appropriation granted in 1910, so that we now have adequate day quarters 
for those held for special inquiry, as well as a fine room for the large corps of stenog- 
raphers serving on boards of special inquiry. Through a simple readjustment of 
space on the main floor there now exist eight appropriate board rooms and two addi- 
tional witness rooms. Special inquiry business in all its branches is now transacted 
in quarters which are adequate, and thus one of the serious defects of the building to 
which two years ago I directed attention has been completely remedied. 

2. The information ofiice, to which thousands come every year from New York 
City and elsewhere to inquire concerning immigrants, has been guadrupled in size by 
throwing a number of small rooms into one. The present area is adequate, has been 
tiled and wainscoted, and presents an attractive appearance. 

3. The medical offices have been moved from the main floor to the floor below in the 
east wing of the main building. The new quarters are larger and more sanitary than 
the old ones, for they are tiled and wainscoted, and immigrants who must be sent to 
hospital are no longer required to climb any stairs. But though larger, they are still 
inadequate for a proper execution of the law relating to the detection of the physically 
and mentally defective. Congress failed last year to appropriate the amount requested 
for this purpose, and we have done the best we could out of our general allotment. 

4. The removal of the medical offices from the main floor left the whole of the 
latter available for the inspection of immigrants. The old stairway, which created a 
large opening in the middle of this floor and failed to land the immigrants at the proper 
point, has been eliminated and a new one constructed beneath the gallery. The 
capacity of the main floor for inspection purposes is now double what it was in the 
past. 

5. A new stairway has been constructed from the information office to the immi- 
grants' dining room, thereby reducing the distance between these two points to one- 
fifth of what it formerly was. The saving in time and effort effected will be appre- 
ciated when it is remembered that several hundred immigrants use this stairway 
three times a day in both directions, as well as numerous friends of detained immi- 
grants who may see the latter only in the "interview corridor" upstairs. 

6. The wooden barracks on the north side of the island, together with much debris, 
have been removed and the ground graded. This portion of the island no longer 
presents an unsightly appearance. 

7. The new contagious-disease hospitals were opened for use at the end of last June. 

KECOMMENDATIONS FOR ADDITIONAL SPACE AND IMPROVEMENTS. 

While the special inquiry day detention quarters have now been rendered entirely 
adequate, yet this is not the case with some of the other detention quarters, particularly 
those on the upper floor of what is known as the new baggage and dormitory building, 
in most respects an excellent one, constructed under the previous administration. 
The law requires all immigrants who are not "clearly and beyond a doubt entitled 
to land" to be held, and during months when 75,000 to 100,000 arrive, many of an 
inferior class, it will readily be seen how we may come to have a large number of 
night guests. Frequently there are as many as 1,800 or 2,000, and yet there are on 
Ellis Island not over 1,800 beds, almost all in tiers of three each. In the largest men's 
dormitory the beds number 432, and the width of the passageway between each line of 
tiers is only 2 feet. WTien all of the beds are occupied, as frequently they are, the 
congestion in this room is very great, and since it has only an easterly exposure the 
temperature on summer nights may be 100°. In addition, the ventilation is very 
imperfect. Unfortunately it is necessary to use it also as a day room, though being 
encumbered with beds it is obviously inappropriate for this purpose. It is often 
necessary to detain occupants of this room a week, especially those who are excluded, 
since the lines bringing them usually send out their steamers only once a week. The 
conditions in the other large dormitories are not unlike those just described. It is 
also to be remembered that the habits of some immigrants are cleanly, of others 
filthy. The two kinds object seriously to detention in the same room, and those of 
cleanly habits often say unpleasant things of the other; yet we are unable for lack 
of space to separate them, as they should be separated. 

I recommend that an adequate number of well- ventilated dormitories be created with 
beds in tiers of two instead of three, and that separate day rooms be installed. In my 
request for appropriations already submitted I have pointed out a simple means of 
doing this through the erection on the dormitory building, at an expense of about 
$375,000, of a new story, with out-of-door porches or verandas for each floor, on the 
northerly side. There is no reason why this story should not in its way prove as 

17581°— 12 10 



146 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

advantageous as the new story erected last year on the west wing of the main building. 
The responsibility for the continuance of the bad conditions described in the dormi- 
tories must rest with Congress. The executive authorities can not rem.edy Ihem 
until Congress furnishes the means. 

Our quarters for the care of cabin passengers are just as inadequate and inappro- 
priate as when I last wrote on this subject. Since that time I appeared before the 
Appropriations Committee, with technical experts, and urged the creation of proper 
quarters for this purpose, and it was explained why it was often necessary to detain 
for special inquiry considerable numbers of those traveling as cabin passengers. 
Congress failed to act, and such passengers are still usually detained in quarters simi- 
lar to those furnished steerage immigrants with (as I said last year) "resulting unpleas- 
ant but often just criticism." The condition complained of can be easily remedied 
through the expenditure of about $80,000 in the erection of another story on what 
is known as the restaurant building. I have already submitted a request that this 
amount be appropriated at the next session of Congress. 

Further requests for appropriations have been made as follows: 

(a) Seventy thousand dollars for a new story on easterly wing of main building to 
accommodate the statistical division, the ground-floor space now occupied by it to 
be turned over to the medical division. 

(6) Forty thousand dollars for the renovation of the interior of the old hospital on 
No. 2 island, which has had hard usage at the hands of immigrants, many of them 
with filthy habits, for a period of eleven years. It is not now in use, for its present 
interior fittings would be condemned by the New York board of health. Here, again, 
Congress refused last year to appropriate money for these repairs, although experts 
appeared before the Appropriations Committee and explained the necessity therefor. 
The two other hospitals on No. 2 island are in perfect condition, and models of what 
an immigrant hospital should be. 

(c) Sixty thousand dollars for a fireproof covered way between the two hospital 
islands, so that sick immigrants may be taken from one to the other in all kinds of 
weather. 

(d) Sundry sums aggregating $93,000 for improvements at the contagious disease 
hospital, such as installation of a garbage crematory and a proper disinfecting plant, 
inclosing corridors in glass, and enlarging the kitchen. 

(e) One hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars for a second ferryboat. 
(/) Twenty-five thousand dollars for dredging. 

OFFICIAL FORCE. 

The Ellis Island officials, exclusive of the surgeons and others attached to the Marine- 
Hospital Service, now number 523. As a body they are conscientious, intelligent, 
and industrious; also, they are very patient, often under rather trying circumstances. 
Those occupying the grade of immigrant inspector have an unusually difficult task to 
perform, for they are constantly called upon to work rapidly, and yet to exercise sound 
judgment in applying indefinite tests to human beings. They must hold for special 
inquiry all who are not "clearly and beyond a doubt entitled to land," i. e., who may 
belong to any of the excluded classes, and there is no set formula to aid them. Those 
serving on boards of special inquiry must, among other things, determine who are 
likely to become public charges and who are suffering from physical defects which 
may affect their ability to earn a living. The magnitude and difficulty of the. work 
of these boarcls are often overlooked by those who find fault with the decisions in 
isolated cases. Last year they decided 70,829 cases, rendering admitting decisions 
in a great majority of them, but excluding from admission a great deal of the riffraff 
and scum which is constantly seeking to enter. To form an intelligent opinion of 
their work, it must be considered as a whole, and when so considered it will be found 
to compare favorably with that of other similar bodies, whether executive or judicial. 
It is not their function to hold judicial trials but executive hearings; this fact and the 
wide distinction between the two having been recently pointed out by Judge Lacombe 
in the case of Buccino v. Williams. Their errors are probably no more serious or 
numerous than those committed by magistrates or trial judges, and an investigation 
would show that most of them are on the side of leniency. 

A favorite charge made by hostile critics is that their excluding decisions are fre- 
quently overruled on appeal to Washington. If account is taken, as it should be, of 
all of their decisions, both those of admission and exclusion, it will be found that the 
proportion in which thoy are overruled is very small indeed. But to return to the 
reversal of some of their excluding decisions on appeal. The discretion which it ia 
appropriate for the boards to exercise is less than that of the commissioner, and his, in 
turn, is less than that of his superiors in Washington. Boards are not called upon to 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 147 

"take chances," and if admission is to occur through mercy shown in cases close to 
the line it is proper that this be done by the highest authorities. In practice the 
Department sees fit to admit in many cases in which it would be highly improper for 
boards to admit in the first instance. Reversal of their decisions on appeal occurs 
usually upon the recommendation of the commissioner or assistant commissioner, who 
are familiar with the papers on appeal, and yet the occasions on which these officials 
have felt that the boards should have taken the responsibility of admitting instead of 
excluding are relatively few. It follows that a reversal of a board's decision on appeal 
does not necessarily show that the board erred in the sense that a trial judge errs 
when he is reversed by an appellate court. We should, and do, make unceasing effort 
to improve the character of board work, and we need as many good board members as 
we can get; but nothing is gained by subjecting it to unfair criticism or seeking to test 
it by standards of perfection which are not applied to other work of a similar character. 

FEEBLE-MINDEDNESS IN CERTAIN IMMIGRANTS. 

In my last annual report I dwelt at some length on the important legislation of 1907, 
which added to the excluded classes all persons suffering from any physical or mental 
defect which may affect their ability to earn a living, pointing out that this was wise, 
progressive legislation, but often difficult to execute under existing conditions. I am 
of the opinion that means should be found to give full effect to this excellent provision 
of law, which may be made to mean so much to the welfare of our country. I desire 
to add a few words on the subject of "feeble-minded" immigrants. Our attention 
is from time to time called to the number of feeble-minded alien children in the public 
schools of New York, many of whom have passed through Ellis Island. One reason 
why some are not excluded is, as pointed out in my last annual report, lack of time 
and facilities for thorough examination as to mental condition. Another is that 
while idiocy and imbecility can usually be recognized even in infancy, yet feeble- 
mindedness can rarely be discovered so early, and is usually recognized only as the 
child approaches the school age. As to children under 5 (and a great many such alien 
children come here), it is probably correct to say that nothing short of an inquiry into 
their heredity wall enable the Government to determine whether or not they are 
feeble-minded, and since no such inquiry is now made the law as to the exclusion 
of young feeble-minded children is virtually a dead letter, and the Ellis Island author- 
ities have not the means at their command to vitalize it. Not only is a feeble-minded 
person likely to become a charge upon the community, but such an individual may 
leave feeble-minded descendants, and so start a vicious strain that will lead to misery 
and loss in future generations and influence unfavorably the characters and lives of 
hundreds of persons. A great majority of feeble-minded children are born of parents 
who have suffered from feeble-mindedness, insanity, or epilepsy. A large proportion 
of the inmates of the Elmira reformatory are feeble-minded. The feeble-minded 
contribute largely to the criminal class and are often the cause of incendiary fires. 
At a time when the subject of feeble-mindedness is becoming more and more important 
in civilized countries and the nature and bearings of this taint are being carefully 
studied by scientists, the Government would seem called upon to make far greater 
efforts than it does to prevent the landing of feeble-minded immigrants. 

"separation of families." 

In the administration of any law which calls for the application of drastic remedies, 
the blame for the ensuing hardship is quite often placed where it does not belong, 
namely, on the executive authorities, and it would be too much to expect that execu- 
tive authorities called upon to apply such unpleasant remedies as deportation would 
escape their share of such unmerited censure. It is quite impossible to deal exhaus- 
tively with this subject here, and I shall confine myself to saying a few words on one 
phase of hardship which is often spoken of as "separation of families," a phrase which 
has come to be used against the Government without regard to the facts. For instance, 
in almost all cases to which it is pretended that i t applies the ' ' separation ' ' was voluntary 
and occurred in Europe. Frequently, in addition, it was to enable the well members 
to secure a footing in this country and later plead for the admission of diseased members 
on the ground that the family should be together. 'WTien in such cases we deny land- 
ing to diseased members we are merely preventing the imion of the family in this 
country in violation of law; we are not standing in the way of its becoming reunited 
elsewhere. Of course, even this action causes misery, but it is misery for which the 
executive officials are no more responsible than they are for that which exists in 
abundance in every large city of the United States. 



148 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

The case of the Wulfovich family is a typical instance in which we prevented union 
here because it could not occur except in violation of law. A mother arrived recently 
from Russia with four young children, each of whom was suffering from a loathsome 
disease found by three of our surgeons to be "not easily curable. ' The father had 
preceded them. Under the law we were obliged to deport the children, and the 
mother was sent back because the children required her care. Of course, the case was 
a sad one, but the responsibility rested elsewhere than upon the immigration author- 
ities. Yet a Member of Congress recently took this office to task for doing in this case 
its plain duty under the law, though there was no word of condemnation for the trans- 
portation company which, for the sake of the passage money, received these diseased 
children on board. (See record of hearings before the Rules Committee, hereinafter 
more fully referred to, pp. 89, 108.) I have cited this case because it illustrates 
another difficulty with which the immigration authorities have to contend — the 
readiness of some persons in authority to see the law set aside in particular cases in 
which they may be interested and to look to executive officers for relief which the 
lawmakers alone can give, but which they do not care to ask the lawmakers to give. 

I cite a few more instances commonly referred to as "separations of families," but 
where in fact we merely prevented the union of members of a family here in violation 
of law: 

Carroll Dworczek, an Austrian of 38, arrived in March, 1911, suffering from a large 
goiter, jaundice, and flat feet, which defects were found to affect his ability to earn a 
living. His wife had preceded him, leaving three young children abroad who had for 
some time been supported by other relatives. We did not think that the mere pres- 
ence of his wife here furnished a reason why this ineligible immigrant should be 
admitted, and he was deported. Had he been admitted, it is likely that his three 
children, whom he was unable to support abroad, would later have applied for admis- 
sion, and if admitted become public charges. 

Schmuel Grossman, a Russian of 66, arrived in December, 1910, and was found to 
be senile and suffering from a bad case of psoriasis, a chronic skin disease. He was a 
tailor, came without money, and desired to join his wife, fi'om whom he had been 
separated for nine years. \Vhen asked why he did not come earlier he said that his 
wife did not want him. He was returned to his sister, with whom he had been living. 

Angela Esposito, an Italian of 26, arrived in May, 1911, with her 3-year-old idiot 
eon. Her husband lived in New Haven, and she wanted to join him, but the child 
was ineligible to land, and we thought he required his mother's care and attention, and 
eo sent her back with him, though she was willing to be separated from him. 

Sure Ross, a Hebrew woman of 40, arrived March 28, 1911, by steamship Amerilca 
with three children, one of them, Mirel, aged 11, an imbecile whose condition was so 
apparent that the steamship company was fined $100 for bringing the child. She had 
to go back under the law. Here, again, the mother was willing to desert her afflicted 
child, and as there were other children already here and Mirel was no longer of tender 
years she was sent back with an attendant and the mother landed. 

A number of similar cases were recently cited to the House Rules Committee and 
will be found at pages 72-75 of the record of hearings before that committee. 

Thoughtful persons will at once appreciate the ignorance or malice displayed by 
those who in such cases charge the immigration authorities with improperly "sepa- 
rating families." There is little or no danger that the Government will ever do this. 
On the other hand, there is real danger of its attaching too much importance to offers of 
relatives here to assist the immigrant, and of admitting questionable cases on grounds 
of sympathy. Our records contain many instances in which the Government has thus 
erred on the side of leniency, often as a result of deceit practiced upon it, and some of 
these instances are cited at pages 57, 75, and 76 of the report just referred to. The 
immigration authorities have no misgivings as to the hardship of deportation, but 
apart from the fact that the law imposes it in certain cases it should be remembered 
that there are in Europe thousands of diseased relatives of resident aliens in the United 
States whom a correct execution of the law defers from attempting to come here. 
There would be less occasion to exclude and deport such relatives if Congress were to 
make it worth the while of all of the steamship companies to inspect abroad still more 
carefully than many of them now do intending immigrants in respect of physical and 
mental defects. Experience has shown that fines alone will reach some of the steam- 
ship owners and agents who reside abroad and who there receive these people. This 
was proved by the law of 1903, which empowered the Department to impose an admin- 
istrative fine of $100 (payable before clearance papers are granted) when cases of 
loathsome or dangerous contagious disease or when imbeciles or idiots are brought here. 
This law resulted immediately in reducing the number of such cases taken on board. 
Last year, howe\er, it was still nccess;iry to levy such fines in the amount of $12,300, 
which goes to show that the fine is too low. It should bo increased to $200. It should 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 149 

be possible also to impose it where insane immigrants are brought here. The statutes 
have omitted to provide for a fine in such cases. It should be further possible to 
impose an administrative fine of |25 or $50 where immigrants are brought here with 
physical or mental defects (other than those referred to) which will obviously affect 
their ability to earn a living. 

ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGES REQUIRED IN THE LAW. 

There are yet other changes which should be made in the machinery of the law to 
facilitate and render more effective the administration of the present immigration 
statutes. Most of them are indicated in the draft of a proposed new law attached to the 
Commissioner General's report, and I urge that Congress adopt them. I emphasized 
several of them in my last annual report. I will merely say here that our machinery for 
detecting alien criminals is entirely inadequate and that many such are entering the 
country every year; also, that the lawregarding seamen is in such condition as to permit 
of the ships' articles being used by unscrupulous persons as a means of evading the 
immigration law and introducing into the country aliens ineligible thereunder. 
Officers of the Hellenic Transatlantic Steam Navigation Co. were recently found 
engaged in thus landing diseased Greeks, but they went about their work in so crude 
a manner and the evidence was so strong that it was possible to punish them under 
existing law. Fifteen of them were sent to jail and §41,920 was collected through fines 
or forfeiture of bail, while the former New York agent of this line is to-day serving a 
year's sentence in Atlanta prison for his participation in these offenses. The atten- 
tion of Congress has already been called many times to the necessity for a proper law 
governing the admission of alien seamen into the United States, and last winter the 
House Immigration Committee, at the instance of the immigration authorities, reported 
favorably a bill on this subject, but it has not become a law. 

MISSIONARIES AND IMMIGRANT AID SOCIETIES. 

In my last two annual reports I wrote at some length concerning abuses perpetrated 
by persons and organizations pretending to be what they were not, and stated that 
it was "difficult to find words adequately to express the contempt one must have for 
persons who would knowingly do such things or allow them to be done." I further 
pointed out and now repeat that there are at Ellis Island a number of societies "which 
are conducted in a model way" and of missionaries "whose work is disinterested and 
excellent." It is unnecessary to add that the Government appreciates highly such 
work and does whatever it can in reason to further its purposes. 

I did not suppose that it would again be necessary to call an Ellis Island missionary 
to account, but, unfortunately, I was mistaken. Young immigrant servant girls who 
arrive without relatives are frequently turned over to missionaries conducting proper 
homes with the understanding that situations shall be promptly found for them where 
they will be surrounded by good influences. The services of such girls are usually in 
great demand, and the homes receive many applications for them. The missionary 
here in question was upon investigation found to have detained such gMs at his home 
an unnecessary length of time, charging them for board and lodging at rates in excess 
of a dollar a day and placing them eventually at their own expense through an employ- 
ment agency with persons concerning whom he knew nothing, and he was further 
found to have made false oral and written reports to the Government concerning all of 
these matters, including the amount of revenue obtained from these sources. After 
giving him a full hearing we determined that his presence at Ellis Island was detri- 
mental to the best interests of the immigrants and that it tended to bring into disre- 
pute missionary work in general. We therefore withdrew his privileges. 

HOUSE RESOLUTION NO. 166, TO INVESTIGATE ELLIS ISLAND. 

The introduction of this resolution was accompanied with statements condemning 
in unmeasured terms the administration at Ellis Island on grounds, among others, of 
"cruelty to helpless and unprotected immigrants" and "arbitrary and unnecessarily 
harsh methods," including improper separation of families (a topic already dealt with 
in this report). On May 29 a hearing was had at which there appeared some 12 wit- 
nesses in support of the resolution, including Mr. Schweppendick, an editor of the 
Morgen Journal, described by him as "Mr. Hearst's German newspaper" (record of 
hearings, p. 126); Mr. A. W. Levy, representing the Federation of Jewish Organiza- 
tions of New York; Messrs. Hoffman, Stahl, Koelble, and Propping, representing 
certain German-American societies; Mr. Karl Hauser, representing "old American 
citizenship;" Mr. Joseph Barondess, and two Congressmen from New York City. 



150 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

This office was afforded an opportunity to reply on July 10 and 11. Every specific 
complaint (of which there were but few) was then met and shown of record to be 
without foundation or based on a false or misleading statement of facts (see, for instance, 
ibid., pp. 58, 59, 76-79, 84-94, 178, and 179). As illustrating the carelessness with 
which complaints were made, the Schenker case may be cited, where we were charged 
with improi^erly deporting a woman and her three young children; but the Rules 
Committee was not informed that her husband had deserted her and that one of her 
children was an imbecile (ibid., p. 58). The improper use made before the committee 
of certain court decisions is dealt with separately m the next section of this report. 
With such general statements as that of the Trenton editor, who said that an immi- 
grant at Ellis Island "goes through hell; that is the only expression I know of " (ibid., 
p. 15), it seemed best to deal by explaining to the committee how the work oi Ellis 
Island is really conducted, the care and patience with which cases are heard (many 
of them presenting questions of great difficulty), the kindly treatment immigrants 
receive, and the clean condition in which their quarters are kept, notwithstanding so 
many of them bring filth with them; also, how vigilant the authorities must be to 
guard against the fraudulent schemes and devices through which it is often sought to 
introduce immigrants in violation of law. 

The charges and complaints were based principally on newspaper articles published 
in certain German newspapers of the city of New York which for some time past have 
made it their business to misrepresent and misconstrue the action of the authorities 
in their difficult and delicate task of administering the laws at Ellis Island. The 
unreliability of these articles was pointed out to the committee through reference to a 
number of specific cases concerning which false and sensational reports had been 
recently published (ibid., pp. 84-94). It was also shown that one of these newspapers 
had been doing the same thing for two years prior to 1904, when its stories were pub- 
licly branded as false (ibid., p. 87). They are still displaying the same kind of " enter- 
prise;" witness, for instance, the recent reports that two immigrants, named Stolten- 
berg and Oser, were deported for stuttering, the facts being that one was feeble-minded 
and the other suffering from an organic disease of the spinal cord. 

It is perhaps not surprising that the Congressman who introduced the resolution 
should have been misled by these newspaper articles upon which the record shows 
that he placed great reliance, and at the end of the second hearing he appeared before 
the committee and in effect withdrew his charges of maladministration, explaining 
that Ellis Island required larger appropriations for improvements and a larger force of 
employees (ibid., pp. 156, 157) — matters to which this office has frequently directed 
attention. Although the resolution was introduced in May, yet Congress adjourned 
without its adoption by the committee, and at the time of this writing it is not known 
what will be done with it. Meanwhile this office is prepared, as it has repeatedly 
informed the Rules Commictee, both orally and in writing, to submit to the most 
searching investigation and will welcome any that will assist it in its efforts correctly 
and effectively to execute the law. It is glad also at any time to m_eet any criticism 
that is specific and made in good faith with a view to the improvement of the service. 

COURT DECISIONS IN THE RAFILOWICH AND BOSNY CASES. 

In advocating the passage of the resolution referred to, various branches of the 
German-American Alliance located in many cities of the United States commented on 
these decisions as follows: 

"We regard the recent decisions and opinions of the United States district judges in 
reversing the commissioner's ruling and impeaching his interpretation of the immi- 
gration act as evidence of the intolerant and narrow spirit in which the commissioner 
views the immigration problem." 

These false comments appear to have originated in New York City, to have been sent 
broadcast throughout the country, and to have been adopted by a number of persons 
who were entirely ignorant of the true purport of the decisions and of the fact that they 
related the one to an alien prostitute, the other to a man and his wife who lived in New 
York City on the proceeds of the prosti tution of others and were thus engaged in a cla,ss 
of "white slavery," the wife, in addition, being herself a prostitute. These three 
aliens having secured admission in violation of law, the Department arrested them and 
ordered them deported. 

The Rafilowich case concerned a clever alien public prostitute who had been residing 
in the United States and Canada for seven years anrl understood English. She was 
arrested at Buffalo and ordered deported before she was brought to Ellis Island. 
While awaiting deportation here her attorney raised some question as to the evidence, 
and to avoid even the remote possibility of error an Ellis Island inspector was by order 
of the Department sent to Buffalo to make further investigation. Thereafter the 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 151 

evidence was again carefully reviawed and the case against the girl found to be clearly 
established. It may be mentioned, incidentally, that she had frequently perjured 
herself, as where she said "I do not know where Canada is," immediately afterwards 
admitting that she had worked in Toronto; and where she denied that she was a 
prostitute, adding shortly thereafter of her own accord, " If you will release me now, I 
swear by everything that is holy that I will never support myself by prostitution 
again. ' ' Deportation having been again duly ordered , a writ of habeas corpus was then 
sued out and came on for a hearing before Judge Holt, who in the course of his opinion 
said: 

" In my opinion the entire system under the immigration acts for the investigation of 
charges against aliens who have been admitted into and have resided for some time in 
this country is entirely inadequate as a means of ascertaining the truth and preventing 
injustice, but so long as that system is followed in the proceedings taken the courts 
under the authorities have no jurisdiction to interfere." 

This criticism relates to an act of Congress and does not in the least concern the Ellis 
Island office. Judge Holt ssems to be impatient at the power Congress has seen fit to 
confer ui^on the executive authorities rather than upon the courts. His views as to 
the efficiency of the system to ascertain the truth are contrary to those of the executive 
authorities, who, to say the least, have experience in these cases and who deport 
annually over 2,000 persons found in the country in violation of law without any error 
being called to their attention; nor do his views appear to be shared by the Supreme 
Court, which has described the executive hearing to be given an alien arrested under 
this act in these words: 

" It is not necessarily an opportunity upon a regular set occasion and according to 
the form of judicial procedure, but one that will secure the prompt, vigorous action 
contemplated by Congress and at the same time be appropriate to the nature of the 
case upon which such officers are required to act." (Japanese Immigrant Case, 189 
U.S., 86.) 

Judge Holt, while conceding that he was without jurisdiction, nevertheless criticised 
also the methods adopted in the conduct of some of the examinations at Buffalo, and 
he also said that upon the record "it is inipossib'le to say whether the woman was 
guilty or not," although the executive authorities, who were alone competent to 
decide the case, had found for deportation. Out of deference to the views of the 
court, though in no way bound by them, the Department before deporting this girl 
again reviewed the whole case and carefully questioned each inspector concerned in 
taking the evidence, only to be more fully convinced than before that she was subject 
to deportation and that the hearing had been conducted within the rules laid down by 
the Supreme Court. She was thereafter deported, and the correctness of this executive 
action has not been further questioned. 

The Bosny case concerned an alien man and his wife whose actions were so notorious 
that the police department of New York City twice requested their deportation. 
Both were engaged in the unlawful and detestable business of receiving the proceeds 
of prostitution of others, and the Government has in its possession the books showing 
exactly how such proceeds were divided. In Belgium this couple had been support- 
ing themselves in the same way. In addition the woman was herself a prostitute. 
Our law says that such aliens shall not remain in the country, and after a hearing the 
Department ordered their deportation. But they were released by Judge Holt upon a 
writ of habeas corpus. In his opinion he criticises at length the procedure which the 
Department after careful consideration and much experience has lawfully adopted in 
such cases with the object of securing, in the language of the Supreme Court, " the 
prompt, vigorous action contemplated by Congress," but states that the sole question 
in the case was whether a certain inspector had " prevented these aliens by undue 
influence and by intimidation from retaining counsel. " The court concluded that he 
had, and released them. The Department, however, being still satisfied that they 
were here in flagrant violation of law, soon thereafter rearrested and deported them to 
Belgium on proof which was overwhelming, and the propriety of this action is not 
known to have been questioned except by the same German newspaper which sup- 
ported the charges of cruelty to immigrants and arbitrary methods hereinbefore 
discussed. This office, as well as the Washington authorities, were of course very 
much interested to know whether any official had "intimidated" this shrewd, calcu- 
lating woman who with her husband had been living in New York for several years off 
the vice of others and who concededly had been duly advised of her right to counsel 
and stated that she desired none. The court found this couple to be " aliens in humble 
circumstances who knew nothing of American law or of the practice in deportation 
cases," but as to these and other questions of fact, including the actions of the inspec- 
tor, the immigration authorities were after most careful investigation unable to agree 
with the court, as is more fully ehown in a separate memorandum on file, and the 
inspector remains in the service. 



152 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Thus, neither of these court decisions supports in any way the proposition for which 
they have been cited, and it is to be supposed that the members of the organizations 
which have expressed false views as to their meaning did so in ignorance of the facts 

IMMIGRATION IN GENERAL. 

There are many who do not appreciate the fact that the law excludes only mani- 
festly objectionable classes of immigrants, such as idiots, imbeciles, the insane, pau- 
pers, persona likely to become public charges, persons with loathsome or dangerous 
contagious diseases, persons whose physical or mental defects prevent them from earn- 
ing a living, criminals, procurers, and prostitutes, so that even under a strict execution 
of the law we can keep out only persons whose presence would be detrimental to any 
community. Between these on the one hand and the class of immigrants on the other 
hand who are a real benefit to the country, as so large a number are, there are many 
who, though able to earn a living, can not in any sense be termed desirable. They 
are nevertheless admissible under the low requirements of existing law, which makes 
no provision whatever for selecting desirable immigrants, though there are many 
reasons why following the example of at least one other country we should take early 
steps to do this. The new immigration, unlike that of earlier years, proceeds in part 
from the poorer elements of the countries of southern and eastern Europe and from 
backward races with customs and institutions widely different from ours and without 
the capacity of assimilating with our people as did the early immigrants. Many of 
those coming from these sources have very low standards of living, possess filthy 
habits, and are of an ignorance which passes belief. Types of the classes referred to 
representing various alien races and nationalities may be observed in some of the tene- 
ment districts of Elizabeth, Orchard, Rivington, and East Houston Streets, New York 
City. Such immigrants differ widely also from the earlier ones in respect of their 
occupations and the localities to which they go. Contrary to what was formerly the 
case, a large proportion are unskilled laborers who go to the manufacturing and mining 
centers, where the Immigration Commission recently found that there existed an 
oversupply of unskilled foreign labor. Over three-fifths remain in fiA^e Eastern 
States, while an undue proportion are pouring into the congested areas of our large 
cities, where they begin their American life among unfavorable surroundings and 
exposed to many evil influences. They often herd together, forming in effect foreign 
colonies in which the English language is almost unknown. Miserable economic 
and sanitary conditions exist in many of these colonies; witness, for instance, in New 
York City the frequency with which the State factory inspectors are compelled to 
attach the red "unclean" tag to articles made in shops and factories where aliens are 
employed, the threatened use of this tag constituting often the best means at their 
disposal of compelling the maintenance of even a semblance of cleanliness in such 
places. 

Repeatedly the new immigrant obtains his job at the expense of an older employee, 
who loses his. Certain employers seek new immigrant labor in preference to other 
and more efficient labor, of which there may be an abundance, because of the willing- 
ness of the new immigrants (or "greenies," as they are termed) to work at the outset 
unduly long hours or at unduly low wages, or both, and perhaps also to pay the foreman 
or padrone a bonus. Later as they become more proficient and demand higher wages 
they are discharged and their places filled with immigrants who have arrived more, 
recently. Experiences of this sort are frequent among immigrant tailors, cap makers, 
carpenters, painters, bakers, and others. These are matters which have a direct 
bearing upon the unsanitary conditions that surround the work and lives of so many 
immigrants of certain classes, especially in the large cities. 

Many now come without the intention of settling and send back to Europe annually 
tnillions earned here. It is true they give value for what they receive, but the immi- 
grant who in addition remains to help build up the country permanently and invests 
his savings here is a better type. A large proportion of the insane in the States of 
New York and Massachusetts are of foreign birth, and in New York City and elsewhere 
the foreign element is a heavy burden upon the public charities institutions as well 
as upon many private institutions. In view of the trend of immigration toward the 
cities, these burdens are more likely to increase than diminish unless our laws are 
made more stringent in relation both to original admission and to deportation of those 
who prove to be unfit within a given period after landing. 

In the estimation of most impartial observers a certain minority of the new immi- 
gration is undesirable from the point of view of the interests of the United States, and 
this question can not properly be considered from any other point of view. The real 
issue to-day is whether or not means shoidd be found to keep out this undesirable 
minority, yet this issue is often successfully confused by interested persons who seek 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 153 

to make it appear that those who merely advocate further reasonable restrictions are 
exclusionists and hostile to immigration as a whole. The desirable immigrant will 
always be welcome, and one of the best ways to secure him is to take stringent meas- 
ures to keep out those who are undesirable. That enormous benefits have accrued 
to this country through immigration is a fact which requires no emphasis and which 
none deny whose views are entitled to any weight, but this is irrelevant upon the point 
whether to-day we should not curtail somewhat that portion of the immigration which 
is imdesirable. Those opposing all further restriction will usually be found doing so 
in the interest, not of the United States or of immigration in general, but of some par- 
ticular class. 

It is well for the American people to realize that there are agencies at work to intro- 
duce some immigrants for mercenary or humanitarian reasons regardless of whether 
or not the best interests of the United States demand their presence here. If this 
country is to open its doors to certain classes of unfortunates, it is difficult to see why 
we should not do so as to the unfortunates of the world, including those among the 
Africans and Hindoos. The very suggestion of any such course answers itself. The 
time has come when it is necessary to put aside false sentimentality in dealing with 
the question of immigration and to give more consideration to its racial and economic 
aspects, and in determining what additional immigrants we shall receive to remember 
that our first duty is to our own country. 

The United States commissioner of immigration for Canada, whose 
headquarters are located at Montreal, has charge of enforcing the im- 
migration and Chinese-exclusion laws along the Canadian border and 
at Canadian seaports. That there may be no undue interference with 
free commercial intercourse, it is necessary that, so far as possible, 
this work shall be performed at the seaports and in the interior towns 
and cities of Canada rather than at Canadian border points of in- 
gress. This is accomplished by an agi'eement with the various 
Canadian railway and steamship lines, under which aliens who are 
proceeding toward the border with the intention of crossing into the 
United States are required to obtain at a seaport or at a convenient 
interior town a permit issued by United States immigration officials 
after an examination of the applicant. Any alien holding such a per- 
mit is promptly passed by the train inspectors at the border. Thus, 
the detention of trains is avoided. 

In its last report the Bureau expressed the belief that the arrange- 
ment under which Chinese were then coming to the United States 
through Canada, viz, across the continent from Vancouver to Halifax 
and thence to Boston, would be unsatisfactory to all concerned. It 
will be recalled that this situation was produced by the Bureau's 
determination to close the Canadian border detention stations, which 
had been maintained since 1903 by agreement between it and the 
Canadian Pacific Co. ; also that it had offered the Canadian 
Pacific Co. in lieu of the old arrangement a plan which it regarded 
as the ideal one for handling the business, under which the Chinese 
might be examined and detained in quarters to be provided by the 
company at Vancouver, those found admissible to be permitted to 
proceed to final destination in the United States, entering through 
one of the border points of ingress allowed under the old agreement. 
This offer was declined, the company preferring to try the experiment 
of bringing its Chinese passengers to Boston via Halifax. The ex- 
periment did prove unsatisfactory, as anticipated ; and, in April last, 
a new agreement was signed by the Canadian Pacific Co. and the 
Commissioner General and approved by the Secretary, whereunder 
all Chinese coming from the Orient through Canada to the United 



154 BEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

States will be examined at Vancouver. This agreement is in most 
respects what was offered by the Bureau at the time the old arrange- 
ment was abolislied. In several important particulars, however, the 
company has granted concessions to the Government which were not 
at that time demanded. From the Bureau's point of view this is the 
best way of handling this vexatious business. In fact it is satis- 
fied that this new arrangement will eventually be found to be of 
distinct advantage to all concerned, and particularly to the Govern- 
ment. The general supervision of this matter will, of course, rest 
with the United States commissioner for Canada; but, in order to 
expedite the handling of cases, appeals taken by Chinese rejected at 
Vancouver will be forwarded to the Department direct. 

The following extracts are given from the report of the commis- 
sioner of immigration for Canada : 

I beg to submit my annual report for the year ended June 30, 1911. 

During the above period a total of 104,227 aliens was examined in this 
district, and as in previous reports classitieation of those examined seems 
necessary, so that an intelligent conception of the work done may be had. 

EXAMINATIONS AT CANADIAN SEAPORTS. 

Class A. Aliens manifested on board steamships and examined at ports of 
arrival under the Immigration laws of the United States : 

Number examined at Canadian Atlantic seaports 25,842 

Number examined at Canadian Pacific seaports 1, 301 

Total 27, 203 

Number debarred and causes therefor — 

Imbeciles 1 

Feeble-minded 4 

Epileptics 2 

Insane 2 

Tuberculosis 4 

Trachoma 124 

Favus 1 

Other dangerous contagious diseases 1 

Paupers 3 

Likely to become public charges 183 

Surgeon's certificate «. 18 

Contract laborers 9 

Accompanying aliens (sec. 11) 9 

Under 16 years 17 

Assisted aliens 4 

Criminals 14 

Polygamists 1 

Prostitutes 4 

Procurers 3 

Total 404 

Percentage debarred at Atlantic seaports 1. 50 

Percentage debarred at Pacific seaports 

EXAMINATIONS AT CANADIAN BORDER STATIONS. 

Class B. Aliens coming originally to Canada, and who sought entry to 
the ITnite<l States within one year from date of arrival : 

Total number examined 9,761 

Total number debarred 491 

Percentage debarred 5. 03 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 155 

Class C. Aliens who entered Canada via United States ports, and aliens . 
from the United States who sought reentry thereto within one year : 

Total number examined 8,577 

Number debarred 518 

Percentage debarred 6. 04 

Class CC. Aliens claiming residence of more than one year in Canada, 
but who were unable to give satisfactory proof thereof: 

Total number examined 2, 148 

Number debarred 125 

Percentage debarred 5. 82 

Class D. Aliens who applied for admission to the United States after a 
residence of more than one year in Canada, the transportation com- 
panies being exempt from payment of head tax as to this class: 

Total number examined 9,155 

Number debarred 492 

Percentage debarred 5. 37 

Class E. Citizens of Canada entering the United States for permanent 
residence : 

Total number examined 44, 439 

Number debarred 2, 586 

Percentage debarred 5. 82 

Total number examined at border stations 74, 080 

Number debarred and causes therefor : 

Idiots 4 

Imbeciles 3 

Feeble-minded 23 

Epileptics 16 

Insane 24 

Tuberculosis 56 

Trachoma 395 

Favus 3 

Other dangerous contagious diseases 1 116 

Beggars 3 

Paupers 6 

Likely to become public charges 2, 232 

Surgeon's certificate 133 

Contract laborers 371 

Accompanying aliens (sec. 11) 39 

Under 16 years 90 

Assisted aliens 49 

Criminals 405 

Polygamists 7 

Prostitutes 142 

Procurers 75 

Passport provision (sec. 1) 14 

Receiving proceeds of prostitution 6 

Total 4,212 

Percentage debarred of border classes 5.68 

Chinese in transit 530 

Number debarred 2 

For the year covered by this report a total of 1.249 aliens was refused exami- 
nation owing to nonreceipt of guaranty of payment of head tax. There were 
also 1,165 aliens returned from the border for board of special inquiry hearing, 

who failed to present themselves for such examination, and these two classes 
may very properly be added to the number debarred. 

Grand total examined 104,227 

Grand total debarred 7,032 

Percentage debarred 6. 74 

Number of United States citizens returning after residence in Canada— 31, 432 



156 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Regarding the number admitted from the grand total of immigrant aliens, 
division as to occupations, is as follows : 



Occupation. 


Atlan- 
tic sea- 
ports. 


Pacific 
sea- 
ports. 


Border 

stations 
and 
Chi- 
nese. 


Total. 


Occupation. 


Atlan- 
tic sea- 
ports. 


Pacific 
sea- 
ports. 


Border 
stations 
and 
Chi- 
nese. 


Total. 


Professional 

Skilled 


229 
4,095 
2,164 

309 
.5,340 
3,307 


58 
88 
8 
14 
13 
13 


1,281 
13,753 

2,209 

2,706 
12,979 

4,427 


1,568 
17,936 

4,381 

3,029 
18,332 

7,747 


Other miscella- ! 
neous ' 83 


8 

178 


772 
18,977 


■ 
8G3 


Farm laborers... 


No occupation. . . 


7,145 


26,300 










Laborers 


Total 22,672 


380 


57,104 


80,156 











For handy comparison of immigration to Canada with the foregoing record, 
the following table is appended through the courtesy of the superintendent of 
the Dominion immigration service, Ottawa, Canada : 

Immigration into Canada from all Sources, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911, 

BY Months. 



Month. 



July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December. . 

January 

February. . 

March 

April 



June. 



Total 140, 498 



British. 



Conti- 
nental, 
etc. 



4.725 
4,687 
5,004 
4,659 
3,560 
2,654 
1,715 
2,020 
6,435 
14,743 
15, 162 
8,235 



73,599 



United 
States. 



9,199 
10, 490 
10,256 
9,801 
7,207 
5,249 
4,315 
4,889 
14,545 
16, 397 
15,370 
12,035 



119,753 



Total. 



25,218 
24,777 
24,034 
23.393 
15.296 
10. 155 
7,461 
10,705 
39,692 
51,680 
61,430 
40,009 



333,850 



Occupations of Immigrants Admitted into Canada from the United States, 
Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1911, by Months. 



Month. 


Farming 
class. 


Common 
laborers. 


Skilled 
laborers. 


Female 
servants. 


Not clas- 
sified. 


Total. 


July 


4,269 
4,307 
4,226 
4,373 
3,533 
2, 196 
1,449 
1,995 
9,254 
9,980 
6,068 
4,760 


2,116 
3,287 
3,615 
3,105 
1,759 
1,109 
1,137 
1,106 
2,498 
4,509 
5,229 
6,153 


1,940 
1,655 
1,722 
1,616 
1,338 
1,320 
1,169 

425 
1,132 

701 
1,539 

639 


188 
136 
144 
131 
111 
131 
126 
67 
84 
112 
315 
137 


686 

1,105 

549 

576 

466 

493 

434 

1,296 

1,577 

1,095 

2,219 

346 


9,199 




10,490 




10,256 




9,801 




7,207 




5,249 




4,315 




4,889 




14,545 




16,397 


May 


15,370 


June 


12,035 


Total 


56,410 


35,623 


15, 196 


1,682 


10,842 


1119,753 







1 Composed of 75,625 adult males, 23,363 adult females, and 20,765 children, including both sexes. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAli OF IMMIGRATION. 



157 



For convenient comparison of immigration and emigration from Canada to 
the United States, and from the latter country to Canada, the following table 
shows the movement for the last two fiscal years: 



Month. 



From Canada to the United States. i 



United 

States 

citizens. 



Canadian 
citizens. 



Other 
aliens. 



Total. 



From the United States to Canada.' 



United 

States 

citizens. 



Canadian 
citizens. 



Other 
aliens. 



Total. 



1909-10. 
Pending from pre- 
vious year 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 



Total. 



1910-11. 
Pending from pre- 
vious year 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 



Total. 



1,369 
1,352 
1,521 
984 
1,499 
1,418 
1,121 
1,705 
2,065 
2,646 
3,276 
3,876 



22,832 



3,727 
3,295 
3,306 
3,119 
3,224 
2,382 
1,100 
1,618 
1,962 
1,827 
2,836 
3,036 



31,432 



12 
2,582 
2,799 
3,666 
4,279 
4,445 
3,219 
2,328 
2,713 
3,997 
5,790 
4,617 
3,893 



20 
1,836 
2,248 
2,474 
2,641 
3,535 
3,611 
1,582 
1,487 
1,597 
1,924 
2,142 
2.259 



32 

5,787 
6,399 
7,661 
7,904 
9,479 
8,248 
5,031 
5,905 
7,659 
10, 360 
10,035 
10,028 



4,406 
4,858 
5,511 
6,023 
3,626 
2,464 
2,519 
3,506 
13,371 
15,266 
9,803 
7,344 



1.028 

1,123 

881 

1,130 

892 

944 

647 

805 

1,898 

2,469 

1,856 

1,530 



1,909 
2,035 
1,790 
2,075 
1,777 
1,502 
898 
1,215 
2,041 
2,628 
2,538 
2,069 



44,340 



27,356 



94,528 



78,697 



15,203 



22, 477 



28 
3,395 
3,151 
4,203 
4,716 
4,595 
3,266 
2,892 
2,616 
3,240 
4,747 
4,280 
3,310 



40 
2,204 
2,795 
2,950 
3,086 
3,964 
3,518 
1,759 
1,533 
1,746 
2,071 
1,937 
2,038 



44, 439 



29,641 



9,326 
9,241 
10,459 
10,921 
11,783 
9,166 
5,751 
5,767 
6,948 
8,645 
9,053 
8,384 



5,803 
5,466 
4,940 
5,839 
4,226 
2,965 
2,263 
2,784 
10,614 
11,947 
9,450 
7,900 



105,512 



74, 197 



17,078 



1,271 


2,125 


1,470 


3,554 


1,263 


4,053 


1,074 


2,888 


1,007 


1,974 


962 


1,322 


871 


1,181 


1,003 


1,102 


1,791 


2,140 


1,967 


2,483 


2, .528 


3,392 


1,871 


2,264 



28, 478 



7,343 
8,016 
8,182 
9,228 
6,295 
4,910 
4,064 
5,526 
17,310 
20, 363 
14, 197 
10,943 



116,377 



9,199 
10,490 
10,256 
9,801 
7,207 
5,249 
4,315 
4,889 
14,54,5 
16, 397 
15,370 
12,035 



119,753 



1 Figures show appUcations for admission to the United States, but do not include aliens arriving at 
Canadian seaports having United States destinations. 

2 Figures show admissions to Canada. 



While in the aggregate the number of aliens entering the United States from 
Canada during the j'ear covered by this report practically duplicates the record 
for the preceding year, yet considering by classes those manifested, the 
duplication does not hold good. 

Compared with the record for the preceding year, the fiscal year 1911 shows 
a falling off in the number of immigrants entering the United States via 
Canadian ocean ports. This condition seems explainable as follows : 

The majority of the immigrants who land at Canadian ports en route to the 
United States are naturally bound for States forming the Northwestern section 
of our country. Industinal conditions, particularly in the copper ranges of 
Michigan and Minnesota, especially since the commencement of the present 
calendar year, have been anything but inviting, and there has not been the 
demand for farm laborers usually existing in the large farming sections of our 
own Northwest. Then, again, the Canadian steamship lines have had a record- 
breaking business resulting from immigration to Canada for permanent settle- 
ment, thus removing these lines, for several months in the year at least, from 
the field of competition for immigration business to the United States. 

The number of aliens seeking entry to the United States at border ports, 
shows an increase over the year 1010 which is somewhat remarkable in view of 
the fact that a comparison of the industrial conditions now prevailing on both 
sides of the boundai'y would show little incentive for the movement of any 
great number of workers from Canada to the United States. By consulting the 
foregoing tables it will be noted that there was a decided increase in the number 
of United States citizens formerly resident in Canada who returned to resume 
residence in the United States, 



158 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

As to quality of the aliens hniullerl in this district, based upon the per- 
centage excluded, iniprovement is shown at the seaports, whereas at the border 
stations, where by reason of some residence in Canada improvement as to 
quality might reasonably be looked for, the number of undesirables shows an 
increase. 

Ilegarding exclusions shown in the above tables, where the medical certificate 
was the controlling factor, the various medical officers in this district also 
report 3,431 cases where the applicant was certified for some minor physical 
defect, which in many instances was a contributing cause for exclusion. 

Proceedings under departmental wan-ants of arrest and deportation continued 
to demand no small portion of the time of inspectors employed in this dis- 
trict. The unusual number of 1,012 such warrants required the attention of 
this office during the past year. At the close of the fiscal year 1910 there were 
pending in this district the ca3es of 92 aliens who had been arrested under 
departmental warrant. During the fiscal year 1911, 920 such cases arose, mak- 
ing the unusually large total above mentioned of 1,012, disposed of as follows: 
Deported to Canada, 335; deported to Europe, 383; warrants canceled, 179; 
pending at close of year, 115. 

In addition to the foregoing but involving a similar character of work, I 
have to report a total of 245 cases of United States citizens, resident in Canada, 
who became subjects' for deportation under Canadian law. Of this number 164 
were criminals, 53 were public charges through lack of funds and on account 
of disease, and 28 suffered from insanity. 

As these cases are reported by the Dominion immigration authorities, it is not 
only necessary to verify claim to citizenship in the United States, but in the 
case of insane patients and public-charge cases of the physically helpless type 
the precise place of former citizenship and residence in the United States must 
be found and arrangements made for commitment of the patient to a proper 
institution before deportation from Canada can be accomplished. The investi- 
gation work and correspondence involved in providing for the above class of 
cases, in many of which it is found that the patient has had no fixed place of 
abode in the United States for many years prior to coming to Canada, can 
better be imagined than described. 

Numerous violations of the immigi-ation laws have taken place along the 
Canadian border during the past year, but* I believe that in substantially every 
case where the United States district attorney advised such action the offenders 
have been apprehended and punishment undertaken. 

The number of passengers carried into the United States from Canada by 
the various transportation lines operating between the two countries repre- 
sents a gigantic proposition, for during the year ended .Tune 30 more than 
9,000,000 people entered the TTnited States over the northern border. No doubt 
the number crossing from the United States to Canada was equally great. 
Among the nations of the world Canada is our third best customer. Canadian 
transoceanic immigration last year was the heaviest in that country's history. 
Commercial relations between Canada and the Unitetl States are sure to expand, 
and we may reasonably look for continued growth in passenger travel between 
the two countries. 

It is, of course, the special function of the Department of Commerce and 
Labor to foster and encourage this larger commercial intercoui'se. The class 
of ti'avel with which our border inspectors have to deal is overwhelmingly the 
same as goes to make up the social and business life of the Dominion and our 
own country, and it would therefore seem of the utmost importance that the 
inspection work in this district be of the highest possible standard, to the end 
that friction and complaint may be reduced to a mininnun. * * * 

A crying need of the service in this district is an amendment to our immi- 
gration act making it obligatory upon transi)ortation lines doing a passenger 
business between Canada and the United Stales to provide proper <letention 
quarters for those of their alien passengers who may be excluded, an<l whose 
return to Canada becomes necessary. For an alien who has committed no 
greater offense than to seek entry to the TTnited States at one of the border 
ports it seems a great injustice to detain such a passenger m a common jail 
pending decision in his case, yet frequently such course is a necessity through 
lack of quarters of a proper kind. Stmie of the transiiortation lines have yielded 
to a request for proper quarters in which to examine and detain their i)assen- 
gers, but there are others whose actions lead to the conviction that they will 



BEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL, OF IMMIGRATION. 159 

provide the quarters we need only when commanded so to do by Congressional 
enactment. By virtue of authority contained in the Canadian immigration act 
the Dominion officials compel the transportation lines to provide, equip, and 
maintain suitable buildings at border ports of entry where incoming pas- 
sengers may be examined and detained when necessary, and I can see no good 
reason M'hy the transportation lines should not provide similar quarters for the 
accommodation of our own service. 

INSPECTION OF CHINESE. 

During the past year it has devolved upon the officers under the control of 
this office to enforce the Chinese-exclusion laws along the northern boundary. 
The officers are to be complimented upon the success of their efforts to cope 
with the operations of the various gangs of smugglers who infest the Canadian 
border. 

At the close of the previous year 7 prosecutions were pending against persons 
charged with smuggling Chinese; during the year 12 more such prosecutions 
were undertaken, indictments being secured in 11 instances. Convictions were 
secured in 4 of these cases and in 14 the prosecutions are still pending. At the 
close of the previous year 20 cases of Chinese arrested under the exclusion laws 
along the Canadian border were pending; during the past year 61 additional 
such arrests were made, making a total of 81. These were disposed of as 
follows: Discharged by United States commissioners, 22; by district courts, 5; 
forfeited bail, 3; deported, 24, the balance being still pending before United 
States commissioners or district courts or circuit courts of appeals at the close 
of the year. In 6 instances Chinese aliens were arrested on departmental war- 
rant for surreptitious entry, all of whom were ordered deported by the Depart- 
ment; they then sued out writs of habeas corpus, but were remanded by the 
district court, from which decision the cases are now on appeal to the circuit 
court of appeals. 

For the 12 months ended June 30, 1911, 6,083 Chinese were admitted to 
Canada for residence purposes, 5,330 having paid the $500 per capita tax re- 
quired by the Canadian law and 753 having been admitted as merchants and 
merchants' sous. This steady influx of Chinese to Canada affords a most 
inviting field for the smugglers with whom our own officers have to deal, and 
should nothing be done by the Dominion Government to put a check upon such 
immigration to Canada, our own Department seems confronted with a situation 
which should give cause for deep concern if our Chinese-exclusion laws are to 
have anything like effectual enforcement. Reports submitted to the Bureau 
from time to time during the past year portray the cunning and daring dis- 
played by Chinese smugglers, and in view of the steady increase in the number 
of Chinese finding admittance to Canada we can not minimize the responsibility 
imposed upon our border inspection force. 

There is a notable cessation in the number of Chinese walking across the 
boundary, offering themselves for arrest, and then laying claim to citizenship 
in the United States — a scheme by which many a new arrival from China has 
found himself suddenly accorded all the rights and privileges belonging to a full- 
fledged citizen of our own country. Our Government is much indebted to the 
fearless and upright judge in the northern district of New York, who has given 
a careful study to the frauds perpetrated upon the Government by the un- 
scrupulous gangs who thrive off the smuggling of Chinese, and his attitude In 
dealing with such lawbreakers has filled them with a fear much calculated to 
be of assistance to officers charged with the duty of enforcing the Chinese- 
exclusion laws. The decisions to be rendered by the circuit court of appeals 
for the second circuit, New York, and the Supreme Court of the United States, 
in cases now pending before those tribunals will determine very largely 
whether the Government's efforts to check the unlawful introduction of Chinese 
across the northern border are to be of value, or whether the smugglers are to 
resume those tactics which for so many years have enabled them to set at 
defiance the enactments of Congress for the control of Chinese immigration 
to the United States. 

In conclusion, it is most gratifying to be able to report continuance of the 
very cordial relations which for so many years have been maintained between 
the Dominion officials and the members of our own service regarding matters 
pertaining to immigration. Particularly as regards transoceanic immigration, 
and the return of those persons who become subjects for deportation after 
admission, the interests of the two Governments are identical, and the reason- 



160 BEPOBT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

ableness, forbearance, and cooperation which have always characterized the 
bearing of the service of each Government for the service of the other are an 
invaluable help to the oflBcials charged with the responsibility of enforcing the 
immigration laws of the two countries. * * * 

The supervising inspector of the Mexican border, whose head- 
quarters are located at El Paso, now has charge of the enforcement 
of both the immigration and Chinese-exclusion laws along the entire 
southern frontier, the southern district of California having been 
added to his district, comprising, in addition, Texas (except a small 
section thereof immediately contiguous to the port of Galveston), 
New Mexico, and Arizona. Conditions are practically the same 
throughout this large territory, and very satisfactory'^ results are 
attained by the present arrangement. The following extracts from 
the supervising inspector's report will be f oimd interesting : 

The following report is submitted covering the administration of the immi- 
gration laws and the enforcement of the provisions of the Chinese-exclusion 
act in the Mexican border district during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1911. 
* * * 

With the exception of a small influx of East Indians, there is nothing out of 
the ordinary to report, as what has been previously termed illegitimate immi- 
gration has been about the same as during the previous year, and it is believed 
that this class of immigration has been reduced to a minimum along the 
border. * * * 

Because of the fact that all statistics are now prepared in the Bureau, the 
usual tables are eliminated from this report, and a table marked "A" * is sub- 
mitted in lieu thereof showing statistical and nonstatistical arrivals by ports 
as distinguished from immigrant and nonimmigrant. 

There were 24,'527 statistical aliens admitted during the year, or an increase 
of 4.978 over the preceding year. These figures include arrivals at southern 
California ports, which ports were not included in this district in the fiscal 
year 1910. There is, however, an actual increase in the number of arrivals of 
4,085 in former district No. 23, such increase being due to the revolution in 
Mexico. Unquestionably, a great many aliens of the Mexican race migrated 
to the United States in order to avoid the hardships incident to the unsettled 
conditions in Mexico. The total number of statistical aliens debarred was 
1,478, a decrease as compared with the previous year. This decrease is due to 
the fact that the quality of immigration was better than in the preceding 3'ear. 
In previous reports no reference has been made to the number of arrivals of 
this class for the reason that no accurate record was kept, such data not being 
required by the regulations. It is known, however, that there has been a de- 
crease of approximately 2.5 per cent in the number of nonstatistical arrivals, 
due also to the revolution in Mexico. This class consists almost entirely of 
aliens of the Mexican race who are coming to the United States to work for 
the different railway lines as track laborers. The number of debarred aliens 
of this class has decreased because a high degree of physical fitness is required, 
and the aged and younger aliens have not applied for admission in as large 
numbers as in former years. It will be seen that there were 32,000 nonstatistical 
alien arrivals during the year, while in normal j'ears the number will reach 
at least 50,000. The work incident to the examination of these aliens is the 
same as in the cases of those who are coming for permanent residence in this 
country, yet no account is taken of them in a resume of a year's work, so far 
as statistics are concerned. This class has been the subject of rather extended 
correspondence with the Bureau during the year with the view of regulating 
it through agreement with the different railway lines, and a tentative agree- 
ment was entered into. With the elimination of certain objectional)le features, 
it is hoped that during the present year a satisfactory solution of the question 
will be had, thereby relieving the service on the Mexican border of the problem 
involved in a proper regulation of this class of aliens. 

There were considered during the year 111 Japanese cases, of which num- 
ber 50 were admitted, 5 debarred, and 56 were departmental warrant cases. 
•Japanese innnigration in this district has ceased to be a problem, except 
in the southern California jurisdiction, where there is reason to believe that 

1 Not printed. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 161 

a considerable number effect surreptitious entry over the land boundary. In- 
vestigation has demonstrated that there is a constant movement of Japanese 
from interior points of Mexico to Ensenada, Lower California, from which place 
they undoubtedly proceed overland to the United States. Unlike the eastern 
portion of the district, southern California has a large Japanese population 
residing in close proximity to the international boundary, which makes it pos- 
sible for the new coolie, when once over the border, to become lost among his 
countrymen, as there is no means of establishing his identity or his illegal 
residence in the United States. As a further protection to him, his fellow 
countrymen, who are lawfully domiciled in the country, have been known to 
provide him with a passport upon which another had been admitted to this 
country, together with letters of recommendation from reputable citizens, in- 
dicating that the holder had performed several years' satisfactory service in 
the United States, which passport and letters perforce I'elate to an entirely 
different person, yet it is often impossible to prove the fraud that is known to 
exist. Plans are being devised, however, to meet the situation, and it is be- 
lieve<l that the illegal entx'y of the Japanese coolie via this border will soon be 
reduced to a minimum. 

****** t 

During the year appeals were taken in 78 cases, of which number 28 cases 
were admitted on appeal, 49 cases finally excluded, and there is 1 case pending 
at the close of the year. 

Of departmental warrant cases 535 were handled, including 48 cases pending 
from the preceding year, of which number 456 were actually deported, 33 war- 
rants canceled, 7 escapes, and 39 cases pending at the close of the year. There 
is a decrease in the number of Mexicans arrested under departmental warrant, 
while there is a decided increase in the number of Chinese cases handled 
through that medium. During the year there were 53 East Indians arrested, 
which was unusual for this district, as this class of aliens never appeared on 
this border in pi-evious years. This influx, however, was temporary and due 
to the fact that practically all of this class were debarred at seaports and on 
that account such immigration was diverted to Mexican border ports as a last 
resort in their attempt to enter the country. Practically all East Indians 
applying for admission were debarred and subsequently arrested after sur- 
reptitious entry. The immediate and prompt action taken, which resulted, in 
most instances, in deportation to their native land, had the effect of breaking 
up this unnatural immigration over the border. 

****** * 

During the year 21 cases were taken up for prosecution, of which number 9 
resulted in conviction, 2 in acquittal, 2 in dismissal, in 2 no bill was returned 
by the grand jury, 1 suit was discontinued, and 5 remain pending. It was 
pointed out in last year's report that in the western and southern judicial dis- 
tricts of Texas the decisions rendered by the courts had practically nullified 
the penal provisions of the immigration laws, rendering it virtually impossible 
to enforce violations of sections 3, 4, and 8. It is pleasing to note that the 
attitude of the courts mentioned has undergone a change, and that a conviction 
was had in the western district of Texas for a violation of section 8, while 
the court for the southern district of Texas severely punished violators of 
section 3. Special mention was made in last year's report of the judgment in 
the sum of $45,000 rendered against Grant Bros. Construction Co. for a viola- 
tion of sections 4 and 5 of the act approved February 20, 1907, in importing 45 
Mexican aliens under contract. This case was appealed to the supreme court 
of the Territory of Arizona, and during the year said court sustained the action 
of the lower court and assessed the costs against the defendant company in 
addition to the fine already imposed. The case has been appealed to the United 
States circuit court of appeals, where it is now pending. 

There has been no extended or concerted action put forth to rigidly enforce 
the provision of the white-slave traffic act, for the reason that the district has 
not had officers available for assignment to that class of work. There have been 
a few prosecutions instituted, in which very satisfactory results have been 
accomplished. 

CHINESE. 

The fiscal year just ended has been a remarkably successful one in the enforce- 
ment of the provisions of the Chinese-exclusion act, and the results accomplished 
are most gratifying. * * * 

17581°— 12 11 



162 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

As pointed out in previous years' reports, it is iu the detection and arrest of 
Chinese and the prosecution of those persons responsible for their unlawful 
entry into the United States that the burden of the enforcement of the Chinese- 
exclusion laws along the Mexican border rests, and along these lines unusual 
progress has been made over preceding years ; and the prediction made in last 
year's report that we had reached a point in the enforcement of such laws 
where we were no longer acting on the defensive has been demonstrated to be 
correct — in fact, the perfection of plans has continued to such a degree that it is 
confidently4)elieved that the smugglers of the " raw " coolie have been routed 
from what was formerly district No. 23, especially in the vicinity of El Paso, 
Tex. * * * The total number of arrests during the year amounted to 483, 
to which should properly be added, for the purpose of comparison, the oases of 
115 Chinese persons who wei-e arrested under the provisions of departmental 
warrant, making a total of 598, as against a total of 738 cases for the fiscal 
year ended June 30. 1910. 

The decrease in the number of arrests upon complaint before United States 
commissioners is unquestionably due to the fact that in former years a con- 
siderable number of Chinese intentionally crossed into the United States for the 
purpose of being arrested and returned to their native land at the Government's 
expense. During the fiscal year 1910 there were 1S5 Chinese arrested at 
Nogales. Ariz., on complaints filed before the United States commissioner, all of 
whom were sent to China, while this year there have been but 2 arrested upon 
warrants issued by the commissioner at that place. This remarkable decrease is 
directly due to the fact that alien Chinese who entered the country surrepti- 
tiously were handled under the provisions of the immigration law and, in most 
instances, deported to Mexico through the medium of departmental warrants ; 
and it may be positively stated that this procedure has broken up a pernicious 
practice and resulted in the saving of thousands of dollars to the Government, 
which, iu former years, was obliged to furnish transportation to Chinese resi- 
dents of ^lexico who wished to return to their homes. There were 686 cases, 
including those pending from the previous year, considered during the past 
fiscal year, of which number 455 were actually deported, 67 discharged, 11 died, 
escaped, or forfeited bail, 27 were awaiting deportation or appeal, and 126 were 
pending at the close of the year. It is indeetl pleasing to note that great prog- 
ress has been made in the disposition of pending cases, particularly at El Paso. 
There were 331 cases pending at the close of last year as against 85 cases at 
the close of the year just ended. Especial attention is directed to the arrests 
in southern California, which aggregate 173 as compared with 19 for the pre- 
ceding year, the last figures being taken from the annual report of the Com- 
missioner General for the fiscal year 1910. These figures certainly demonstrate 
that there has been imusual activity displayed in southern California during 
the past year. 

Attention was especially called, in last year's report, to the number of bond 
forfeitures in Chinese arrest cases at El Paso and the action taken by the dis- 
trict court to prevent same. It is gratifying to report that the increase in the 
amount of bond from $500 to $750 has materially reduced the number of for- 
feitures, and it will probably be unnecessary to increase the amount of bond 
to $1,000. 

As mentioned in last year's report. Information from various sources Indi- 
cated that the smuggling of " raw " Chinese had been practically discontinued, 
particularly in the vicinity of El Paso, and that this class of Chinese had turned 
toward easier avenues for entering the United States. This statement still 
applies, and it is believed that there are fewer new Chinese reaching the inte- 
rior of the country through El Paso and vicinity than at any time within the 
history of the station. The weakest point along fhe border at present is 
southern California, which will be discussed under a separate heading. We 
have failed in our efforts to stem the tide against i>ersons holding valid certifi- 
cates of residence and who effect a surreptitious entry at El Paso. There have 
been 840 Chinese "checked out" of El Paso during the year just ended as 
against 827 for the preceding year; and the only reason that the number is 
not greater is because of the fact that from February to May. inclusive, the 
railway lines from the interior of Mexico were out of commission. It is con- 
fidently believed that were it not for the revenue derive<l from the snuiggling 
of this class of Chinese many persons engagetl in the traffic would be forced to 
leave this locality. In each report for the last several years the obvious neces- 
sity for changing the provisions of the exclusion laws in such manner as to 
permit Chinese laborers holding valid certificates to visit their native land 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 163 

and return on identification has been pointed out, and I can only reiterate what 
was said in previous recommendation in this respect. 

During the year 94 criminal cases arising under the exclusion laws were con- 
sidered, including those pending from the previous year. Of this number of 
defendants 23 were convicted, 20 are fugitives from justice, 6 acquitted, 9 
dismissed, the grand jury failed to indict in 1 case, and 35 cases are pending. 
As predicted at the time this district was formed, it has required the infliction 
of punishment upon offenders to break up the smuggling traffic, and the satis- 
factory condition existing at this time is unquestionably due to the large num- 
ber of convictions of importance secured. The conviction of such smugglers as 
Mar Been Kee, Yee Kim Yoke. Charley Soo, Oliver M. Elliott, Victor H. Tobin, 
Oliver Carr, R. E. Nix, C. E. Crawford, Ng Fun, and "Wong Wing Hing, each of 
whom was engaged almost exclusively in the nefarious practice, is striking at 
the very foundation of the smuggling organization ; and it Is gratifying to 
know that at last sufficient evidence was secured to enable this service to mete 
out to them their just dues. In connection with the criminal prosecutions, it 
is proper to remark that this service had the hearty cooperation and support of 
the officials of the courts and the Department of Justice, and especial com- 
mendation is due the United States attorneys for the western district of Texas 
and the southern district of California, who were untiring in their efforts. 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. 

The southern California district was made a part of district No. 23 on July 1, 
1910. Considerable time was spent in determining the needs of that section, 
and it may briefly be stated that incompetency, inefficiency, and a lack of 
system and organization was rife in that territory. Steps, of course, had to 
be taken to bring order out of chaos, and this condition was brought about by 
making a number of changes in the personnel, the assignment of additional 
officers, and changing the procedure. It may be said that a satisfactory organi- 
zation has not been in existence for more than six months, and when this fact 
is considered the results accomplished seem phenomenal. There is no doubt 
that smuggling through southern California assumed great proportions, but it is 
believed that important convictions which have been had in that jurisdiction 
during the past year will have a beneficial effect, though there are so many 
engaged in the traffic that it will be some time before the various organizations 
can be broken up entirely. An unusual obstacle to the enforcement of the 
Chinese-exclusion act in southern California is found in smuggling by water, 
which is carried on by means of small, high-power gasoline launches. This 
office is firmly convinced, as pointed out during the year, that the smuggling 
by water is by far the most difficult problem it has to contend with in this 
district. A launch was chartered for patrol service, which was used to good 
advantage notwithstanding the fact that it was foimd it had insufficient speed 
to cope with the vessels employed by the smugglers, and, while the revenue 
cutter McCulloch was assigned to the work with the beginning of the present 
year, there is considerable doubt as to whether it is suitable and has sufficient 
speed to control the situation. It is believed that entirely satisfactory results 
will not be accomplished until a boat of at least 20 knots speed has been secured. 

PERSONNEL. 

The same high standard in the personnel as mentioned in the report of last 
year is still maintained on this border, and as a whole there has been a notice- 
able increase in the general efficiency and the service has had the loyal support 
of its employees, which has made possible the splendid results accomplished. 
In maintaining this high degree of efficiency, however, it is obviously necessary 
that the employees be given some assurance that meritorious service will 
eventually receive its reward in a financial way. It is to be regretted that 
the state of the appropriation for the curi'ent year made it necessai'y for the 
Bureau to disapprove recommendations for the advancement of a number of 
deserving employees in this district, and in view of the prevailing low salary 
schedule on this border it will be more diflicult to maintain the high degree 
of interest and efficiency heretofore existing. It is hoped that some provision 
may yet be secured whereby deserving promotions can be made, as a proper 
salary schedule can not be worked out on this boi'der without some assistance 
from the Bureau in other than the small savings made through readjustments. 



164 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION. 

In treating of the above subject, it is desired to discuss under subheadings 
certain improvements made during the year, though there are other less im- 
portant features which might be touched upon but which will be covered by 
the general statement that, from an administrative point of view, there has 
been a decided improvement in all lines of our work. 

It is felt that the allotment system has afforded the greatest improvement in 
general administration of any advance step heretofore inaugurated. Under this 
system a vast amount of useless correspondence both with and by the Bureau 
and Department has been eliminated and the time of officers and employees 
heretofore consumed in the preparation of such corresiwndence is now devoted 
to matters pertaining more directly to affairs tending to pi-omote the successful 
administration of the laws. In addition, tlie advantages derived from dealing 
with the business public under the allotment system has become very noticeable. 
Heretofore it was diflficult to interest business men in proposed purchases 
because of delay in the settlement of accounts ; while under the present system 
it is possible to pay accounts within a comparatively short time, with the result 
that there is a growing tendency upon the part of the business public to compete 
for Government business. Many instances have occurred whereby the Govern- 
ment has financially profited by anxious competitors — in fact, business men 
generally are beginning to look upon this branch of the Government service as 
an up-to-date business institution, especially in this section, and it is believed 
the Bureau will readily appreciate the advantage to the service of this im- 
portant fact. Of still greater importance is the allotment system, because each 
officer in charge of a district is at all times fully cognizant of the financial 
ability of his district, and being also aware of the requirements of his district, 
which is necessary to a successful administration, is in position to plan and 
economize to the end desired ; whereas, under the old system, the Bureau 
assumed all financial obligations, and its officers in the field were not made to 
feel the responsibilities now more forcibly realized under the new accounting 
system. 

In this connection, for the purpose of showing the advantages to be gained 
by the employment of advanced business methods, attention is invited to the 
fact that the miscellaneous exi>enditures in districts Xos. 19 and 23 for the 
fiscal year 1910 were $74,654.13, whereas for the past year the expenditures 
were $54,987.22, the two districts having been combined July 1, 1910. It will 
be seen that there has been a saving of $19,666.91 in the cost of the adminis- 
tration for the latter over the former year, and at the same time the results 
accomplished during the past year have been more satisfactory than they were 
during the year previous. It is not intended to convey the idea, however, that 
the saving shown is entirely due to the allotment system, although it has been 
an important factor in connection therewith. 

MOUNTED INSPECTORS. 

Difficulty has been experienced in past years in securing officers suitable and 
willing to undergo the hardships incident to a considerable number of assign- 
ments in this district in connection, especially, with the enforcement of the 
Chinese-exclusion laws, and for that reason there has been a lack of per- 
manency in the i^ersonnel on this border, which of necessity seriously impaired 
the general efficiency. To overcome this disadvantage, a recommendation was 
submitted to the Bureau for the establishment of a third-grade civil-service 
register from which to make selections of eligibles for appointment to the posi- 
tion of mounted inspector, it being contemplated that a class of officers suitable 
for the specific service in mind would be secured through such examination. 
The Bureau pi'omptly indorsed the reconnnendatlon, the examination was held, 
and a register secured from which a number of selections have already been 
made; and it is believed that the new appointees, with possil)ly a few excep- 
tions, will meet the peculiar needs of this district and thus prove the creation 
of the new position to be another advance step in general administration. 

ORGANIZATION. 

Having constantly in mind the fact that tangible results proceed in great 
measure from i)orfect organization, considerable thought and experimentation 



REPORT 0¥ COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 165 

have been applied to this iniportaut feature of the work during the year. Many 
reforms and innovations have been adopted, resulting in the elimination of 
waste on the one hand and superfluous work on the other and in effecting 
economies in all branches of the work, and perhaps in this particular the 
greatest advancement has been made. 

It may be stated, in conclusion, that any proposition submitted to the Bureau 
looking to improvement in general administration has invariably been indorsed 
by it, with the result that the Mexican border district is advancing- along all 
lines. 

There have been many occurrences of interest and importance at 
the port of San Francisco during the past year. The new station 
on Angel Island was occupied late in the preceding fiscal year; the 
commissioner of immigration at that port was suspended early in 
October, 1910, and subsequently resigned; and during a great part 
of the fiscal year an officer detailed as acting commissioner has been 
in charge of an investigation and reorganization of the San Francisco 
office. A new commissioner assumed control at that station near the 
close of the year. He has submitted a report covering the details 
of the business transacted at San Francisco during the period in 
question, which is a very interesting and valuable document. If 
space permitted, a considerable portion of it would be quoted. Other 
parts of it deal with matters growing more or less directly out of 
the investigation above mentioned, and it could serve no useful pur- 
pose to restate them here. It should be said, however, that the report 
discloses a remarkable improvement in each and every phase of the 
enforcement of the immigration and Chinese-exclusion laws at San 
Francisco and in the general administration of the office. This is 
very gratifying and causes the Bureau to hope and believe that the 
good work will rapidly progress and that this large and important 
port of entry may soon be an ideal one in every respect. 

The commissioners of immigration at Boston, Philadelphia, Balti- 
more, Seattle, New Orleans, and San Juan have also submitted re- 
ports of interest and value which ought to be published for the 
information of persons interested in the important subject covered 
thereby. They show, without exception, concerted efforts in har- 
mony with the Bureau's views concerning the enforcement of the 
statutes and indicate good and improved administration at every 
point. The same may be said regarding reports submitted by in- 
spectors in charge at the several smaller seaports and by those in 
charge of the interior stations. They furnish many reasons for 
gratulation and encouragement, and demonstrate the wisdom of the 
plan adopted some time since under which the country is divided into 
districts with conveniently located headquarters, the supervision of 
all being centered in the Bureau at Washington. 

NEW IMMIGRANT STATIONS. 

After provision had been made by Congress, in an act approved 
February 23, 1909, for the erection of a Government immigration 
building at Boston, a great deal of delay was occasioned by the diffi- 
culty of securing a site conveniently located and satisfactory to all 
concerned. Eventually a harbor-front site was selected, buit by an 
act approved February 13, 1911, authority was given for the exchange 
of said property for one conforming accurately to the new harbor 



166 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

lines and in other ways more suitable for the purpose. Such an ex- 
change has been effected, the newly acquired site being situated in 
east Boston. As soon as the deed is recorded, the Supervising Archi- 
tect will be requested to proceed with the preparation of the plans 
for the building. 

The erection of an immigration building at Philadelphia was 
authorized by an act approved February 6, 1908. Delay in perfect- 
ing the plans resulted from the difficulty, amounting almost to im- 
practicability, of obtaining a suitable location. Finally it was 
decided to purchase ground in Gloucester City, N. J., on which there 
was standing a building which could be remodeled and used to 
advantage in connection with other buildings to be erected on the 
same site. This building has already been occupied, and the con- 
struction of additional buildings will be proceeded with promptly. 

Negotiations for the acquirement of a site on which to erect a 
station at Baltimore, in accordance with authority therefor given 
in an act approved June 25, 1910, have proceeded to a point where 
the title papers of the property, located at Locust Point, are in the 
hands of the Department of Justice for examination. 

Bids are being solicited for the construction of a wharf and build- 
ing at Charleston. The wharf will be built first so that it may be 
used in connection with the transportation of material for the erec- 
tion of the building, thus reducing the expense of transportation. 
The construction of this station was authorized in an act approved 
March 4, 1907. 

Congress on March 4 last made additional appropriations of 
$15,000 for land and $50,000 for buildings in connection with the 
project of erecting a station at New Orleans. It has been necessary, 
therefore, to endeavor to secure land immediately adjacent to that 
heretofore purchased, in accordance with the act approved March 
4, 1907, in doing which the Government may have to institute con- 
demnation proceedings. This change regarding the land on which 
the buildings are to be erected will also necessitate some change in 
the plans. 

The work on the new immigration building at Galveston, Tex., 
is under way and the installation of the pile foundations is being 
completed as rapidly as possible. The erection of this station was 
also authorized by the act approved March 4, 1907. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

Following is a brief statement of the cost for the year of enforc- 
ing the immigration and Chinese-exclusion laws, and of the several 
objects to which the $2,277,311.78 expended were devoted. The 
immigrant fund is now a thing of the past, for under the sundry 
civil appropriation act of March 4, 1909, it was directed that after 
July 1, 1909, all head tax collected should be deposited in the Treas- 
ury as miscellaneous receipts, and that the expenses of regulating 
immigration and of enforcing the Chinese-exclusion laws, resjiec- 
tively, be paid from an annual appropriation. As the appropriation 
acts stipulate that no more than $500,000 of the full amount appro- 
priated shall be expended for the enforcement of the Chinese- 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 167 

exclusion laws, it is necessary to keep separate accounts for suck 
expenditures : 

Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1911. 

Expenses of regulating immigration, 1911 : 

Enforcing immigration laws $1, 949, 474. 18 

Enforcing Chinese-exclusion laws 327, 837. 60 

$2, 277, 311. 78 

Expenses of regulating immigration, 1909, and prior years 11, 678. 18 

Salaries, Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization (not in- 
cluding Division of Naturalization) 77,099.98 

Immigrant station, Ellis Island, N. Y., 1911 : 

Remodeling main building, etc $4. 243. 14 

Further remodeling of main building 54, 477. 71 

Mechanical equipment of contagious-disease hos- 
pital, etc 2,472.07 

Addition to old hospital building 1, 359. 50 

Temporary building upon wharf adjacent to barge 

office 5, 329. 50 

Rental of wharf adjacent to barge office 1, 025. 00 

New crematory 33.75 

Reconstruction of ferry rack 4, 552. 75 

Hot-water circulating system on main and hos- 
pital islands 4,812.00 

Automatic oiling system in power house on main 

island 2, 229. 00 

Passenger elevator in southwest tower of main 

building 6, 959. 65 

Dredging channels and construction of break- 
water 30, 035. 70 

Freight elevator in kitchen and laundry building. 38. 70 

118, 168. 47 



Immigrant station, Ellis Island, N. Y., 1910: 

Medical and surgical equipment of contagious- 
disease hospital 12, 544. 14 

Additional engines, generators, etc 9, 415. 22 



21, 959. 36 

Immigrant station, Boston, Mass 58. 00 

Immigrant station, Charleston, S. C 2,089.90 

Immigrant station, Galveston, Tex 5, 047. 82 

Immigrant station, Philadelphia, Pa 19,847.48 

Immigrant station, San Francisco, Cal 42,032.25 

Ferry steamer, immigrant service, San Francisco, Cal 66, 523. 12 

Payment to John J. Cannon and Benjamin Smith 1, 250. 00 

Payment of attorney's fees to R. L. Reid 150.00 

Payment of fees to Austrian seamen detained at Ellis Island 

as witnesses 260. 00 

Payment of fees to Rafael Chapa and others as witnesses 663. 00 

Total 2, 644, 139. 34 

GENERAL ADMINISTRATION. 

While necessarily the conduct of the affairs of the service in their 
minute practical details is left to the immediate supervision of com- 
missioners and inspectors in charge, the general administration cen- 
ters in the Bureau at Washington. It must supervise the service as 
a whole and see that the immigration, the contract-labor, the " white- 
slave," and the Chinese-exclusion laws are enforced in an efficient and 
uniform manner. This is no small task. It can not be claimed, of 
course, that an ideal plan of operation is maintained, but the con- 
stant effort is in that direction, and many of the inherent difficulties 
are successfully overcome. Methods of administration must be 



168 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

molded, modified, and changed to meet varying conditions; a differ- 
ent modus operandi must be adopted at the Atlantic ports from that 
found necessary and sufficient at Pacific ports; the Mexican border 
situation must be handled through means in many respects distinct 
from those availed of to control immigration on the Canadian border; 
and even at the several ports on the two coasts, respectively, and at 
different stations on the boundaries, as contrasted, must the adminis- 
tration be accurately fitted to the conditions peculiar to each. Yet 
the laws to be enforced are the same for each port and each section, 
and there must be a general uniformity of administration. 

On the Atlantic coast, particularly at the large northern ports, of 
which New York is typical, the service is chiefly concerned with the 
inspection of European and western Asiatic immigrants. At the 
southern Atlantic and Gulf ports some of this same class are encoun- 
tered, but another quite different class has to be handled, consisting 
of natives of the West Indies and of Central American countries, 
many of whom come to the United- States for purposes more or less 
temporary in nature. On the Pacific coast the problem consists prin- 
cipally in the examination of Chinese, Japanese, and Hindus, and 
presents numerous difficulties of a type wholly distinct from those 
met on the Atlantic coast. At Canadian seaports the United States 
immigration officials perform duties on the respective coasts quite 
similar to those of the officers at the American ports, but along the 
Canadian border the field of operation is so broad and intricate and 
affords so many opportunities for entry through unauthorized chan- 
nels that the task of giving reasonable effect to the law becomes 
exceedingly onerous. This is also true of the Mexican border, but 
there the difficulties are further accentuated by the fact that it has 
never been possible to enter into an arrangement with the interna- 
tional transportation lines by which any part of the inspection can 
be made elsewhere than at the boundary crossing, while in Canada 
a considerable part of the work is performed by officers located at 
interior and coastal points, relieving the train and boat inspectoi's of 
the burden of many minor details. On both borders the smuggling 
of Chinese is a regular business and a very lucrative one. The intri- 
cacies of the task, in its entirety, can better be imagined than 
described. 

During the past year the Bureau has continued the special efforts 
which were inaugurated in the preceding year to improve the gen- 
eral administration of the law by changing or modifying the methods, 
and by enforcing a more strict supervision centralized at Washington. 
Much still remains to be done in this direction; but if space permitted 
of a detailed description of the many difficulties and obstacles, above 
alluded to, which have to be met and overcome, it would be easy to 
demonstrate that the progress has been little short of wonderful. All 
that can be done in a report of this nature is to meagerly indicate 
some of the more important of these improvements. 

Of prime necessity to the success of any project dependent upon 
human intelligence, zeal, and industry is the engagement in the enter- 
prise of a personnel each individual unit of which is dependable and 
efficient, so that as a whole the body of employees may be capable of 
the maximum attainment possible to an organization of human beings. 
Therefore, a great deal of thought and effort has been directed to 
raising the general efficiency of the service by improving the per- 
sonnel. This has been attempted in these ways : (1) By training and 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 169 

encouraging the old employees, and carefully selecting all new addi- 
tions to the force; (2) by reorganizing the force, as to its distribution 
among and its supervision within the various districts, as to its com- 
ponent elements and the particular place into which each such ele- 
ment fits, and as to the organization of those elements into a mobile 
and economically handled whole; and (3) by obtaining with respect 
to each individual employee a concrete statement, indicating as well 
as such matters can be shown on paper his ability or lack of ability 
in the position occupied and his capacity or lack of capacity for as- 
signment to more difficult work, this latter method being supplemental 
or subsidiary to the accomplishment of the former two. 

Some of the details that have been carried out in the attain- 
ment of the general purposes above described are the following : Prior 
to October, 1909, the enforcement of the immigration and Chinese- 
exclusion laws was separate to a considerable extent. This produced 
a lack of uniformity of methods and a considerable waste of energy. 
In that month the country was divided into 23 districts, each of which 
was placed under the supervision of an officer in charge and the 
division theretofore existing between the Chinese work and the gen- 
eral immigration work has gradually been abolished, so that now 
each inspector is engaged generally in the enforcement of all the laws, 
and it is only at places where economy is subserved by having certain 
officers specialize on either branch that specialization is permitted. 
In line with this was the consolidation under the commissioner at 
Montreal of the enforcement of both sets of laws along the entire 
Canadian border, and the consolidation under the supervising in- 
spector at El Paso of the enforcement of such laws along the entire 
Mexican border. It is impossible to estimate even approximately the 
advantage in efficiency and in economy of administration, the latter 
term being used in the sense both of saving money and energy and of 
directing the expenditure thereof along channels which produce far 
greater results than formerly. Another allied improvement was the 
closing of the several Canadian border ports of entry for Chinese, 
and the consolidation at Vancouver, commencing with the next fiscal 
year, of the examination of all Chinese seeking admission from the 
Orient through Canada, described in more detail hereinbefore (p. 153) . 

Gradually during the past two years the salary schedules of the 
service have been rearranged. Formerly there was no well-defined 
salary plan, but in the spring of 1909 the schedule of the Committee 
on Department Methods (the Keep Commission) was adopted. This 
contemplates small but fairly frequent promotions as the needs of the 
service and the funds available for its conduct justify, which neces- 
sarily raises the morale of the employees by encouraging them. 
Under the old arrangement, with no fixed rate of pay nor general 
scheme of promotion, there necessarily w^as more or less feeling 
that advancement sometimes resulted otherwise than from efficiency 
alone. It has required time, of course, to inaugurate so extensive 
a change, and some of its details yet remain to be perfected. 

The direct means of testing the individual elements of the personnel 
consisted of efficiency ratings. The entire service was subjected to 
such a rating in June, 1909, on the basis of which many changes have 
gradually been made in the assignment of the officers to stations and 
to work where their peculiar abilities would produce the most telling 



170 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

effect. Some dismissals and a considerable number of demotions have 
necessarily occurred, for it would be unreasonable to expect that in 
a service emi^loying over 1,600 officers, clerks, etc., there would not be 
great variation as to the qualificati(ms of the individual employees. 
A similar efficiency rating has recently been completed, and, as it has 
been even more detailed and thoroughgoing than the former one, 
further improvements in the personnel will result with promptness 
and certainty. 

The cost of administering the Immigration Service in the fiscal 
year 1910 was $2,031,538. In May, 1910, it became apparent that a 
more improved system of regulating expenditures must be adopted, 
in order to avoid the creation of deficiencies, which had arisen in 
both 1909 and 1910, the first two years in which the Immigration 
Service had been operating under a limited annual appropriation in- 
stead of an unlimited permanent one. A system was therefore de- 
vised whereby the needs of every district w^ere closely estimated and a 
definite sum was set aside for the expense of each district, the officer 
in charge thereof being held to a strict accountability for the man- 
ner in which those funds were expended. Coupled with this allot- 
ment was a " liability account " system and a limited authority to in- 
cur expenses without prior authorization by the Department, 
although a plan requiring strict reporting of every item of expense 
incurred prevented this decentralization from going too far. The 
entire system is simple, yet effective. Periodical analyses have been 
made during the course of the year, and, although all the needs of the 
service have been promptly and adequately met and the official force 
has been considerably increased during the past year, it is believed 
that the Bureau will be well within the limits of its appropriation; 
this notwithstanding the fact that costly repairs and alterations 
have been made at Ellis Island, N. Y., and Angel Island, Cal., and 
that there has been met, without resort to Congress, the expense of 
repairing the results of a disastrous explosion near Ellis Island, 
amounting to about $27,000 in all. This plan of devolving upon offi- 
cers in charge of districts a high degree of resi^onsibility for their 
allotments has accomplished even more than was anticipated, pro- 
ducing a helpful spirit of emulation and causing the various officials 
to take a deep personal interest in the accomplishment of maximum 
results with minimum expenditure of energy, time, and money. The 
cost of conducting the service for the fiscal year 1911 was $2,644,139.34. 

CONCLUSION. 

In the light of the foregoing very meager presentation of the work, 
is it too much to say that the past year has been the best that the 
Bureau has yet experienced or unduly presumptuous to express the 
confident hope that such constant progress in the accomplishment of 
the purposes of the laws intrusted to its charge must eventually 
result in a very high degree of efficiency and economy of enforce- 
ment? I think not. In this connection, due acknowledgment must 
be made of the faithful and zealous manner in which the Bureau's 
wishes and labors generally have been observed and seconded by the 
various officials and employees of the service and the Public Health 
and Marine-Hospital surgeons detailed to conduct the medical in- 
spection. It is the earnest, intelligent work of the individual officer 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 171 

that makes up in the aggregate the successful work of the service. 
On behalf of these individuals, who are stationed throughout the 
mainland and Canada and in the islands of Hawaii and Porto Rico, 
and who have heretofore so enthusiastically performed the arduous 
tasks assigned them, I believe I may give positive assurance that 
just so far as painstaking, unremitting effort can be expected to 
produce telling effects, constant progress toward the ideal may be 
counted upon in the ensuing year. 

One other thing is demonstrated, however, by the foregoing review 
of the year's work, viz, that, if all the purposes of the laws are to 
be ideally accomplished, the hands of the administrative officers must 
be strengthened and upheld by the legislative branch ; the laws must 
be amended and extended in such ways as to render them capable 
of enforcement at least to the extent and with the intent originally 
contemplated. How I believe this can be done has been outlined 
in previous reports and is again described in Appendix I of this 
report. 

Respectfully, Danl. J. Keefe, 

Commissioner General. 

To Hon. Charles Nagel, 

Secretary of Commerce and Labor. 



APPENDIX I 



DRAFT OF PROPOSED NEW IMMIGRATION ACT AND 
MEMORANDUM IN EXPLANATION THEREOF 



173 



DRAFT OF PROPOSED NEW IMMIGRATION ACT. 



AN ACT To regulate the immigration of aliens to and the residence of aliens 
within the United States. 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled^ That the word 
" alien " wherever used in this Act shall include any person not a 
native-born or naturalized citizen of the United States; the word 
" seaman " wherever used in this Act shall include every alien signed 
on a ship's articles and employed in any capacity on board any ves- 
sel arrivin<T in the United States from any foreign port or place; 
and the term "United States" wherever used in this Act shall in- 
clude any waters, territory, or other place under the jurisdiction 
thereof, except the Isthmian Canal Zone. This Act shall be enforced 
in the Philippine Islands by officers of the general government thereof 
designated by appropriate legislation of said government: Provided, 
That nothing in this Act shall be construed to apply to accredited 
officials of foreign governments nor to their suites, families, or guests : 
Provided further, That if any alien shall lea^e the Canal Zone or 
an}' insular possession of the United States and attempt to enter 
any other place under the jurisdiction of the United States, he shall 
become subject to the provisions of this Act at such other place. 

Sec. 2. That there shall be levied, collected, and paid a tax of four 
dollars on account of every alien who shall come to the United States, 
The said tax shall be paid to the collector of customs of the port 
or customs district to which said alien shall come, or, if there be 
no collector at such port or district, then to the collector nearest 
thereto, by the transportation line or by the master, agent, owner, 
or consignee of the vessel, vehicle, or other conveyance bringing 
such alien to the United States, or by the alien himself if he does 
not come by a transportation line, vessel, vehicle, or other convey- 
ance. The said tax shall be a lien upon the vessel, vehicle, or other 
conveyance bringing the alien to the United States, and shall be a 
debt in favor of the United States against the owner of such vessel, 
vehicle, or other conveyance, and the payment of such tax may be 
enforced by any legal or equitable remedy: Provided, That the said 
tax shall not be levied on account of aliens who are citizens of the 
Dominion of Canada, Newfoundland, the Bermudas, the Republic of 
Cuba, or the Republic of Mexico, nor on account of otherwise admis- 
sible residents of any possessions of the United States, nor on account 
of aliens in transit through the United States, nor on account of 
aliens visiting the United States as tourists or temporarily for busi- 
ness or pleasure, nor on account of aliens who have been lawfully 
admitted to the United States and who later shall go in transit from 

175 



176 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

one part of the United States to another through foreign contiguous 
territory; but to insure against evasion of said tax under these ex- 
ceptions, the Commissioner General of Immigration may require the 
deposit of such tax, to be refunded only upon proof of departure of 
the aliens affected: Provided further^ That said tax shall not be 
levied upon aliens arriving in Guam, Porto Rico, or Hawaii; but if 
any such alien shall later arrive at any port or place of the United 
States on the North American continent the provisions of this sec- 
tion shall apply: Prooided further^ That said tax when levied upon 
aliens entering the Philippine Islands shall be paid into the treasury 
of said islands, to be expended for the benefit of such islands : Pro- 
vided further^ That the Commissioner General of Immigration may 
by agreement with transportation lines bringing aliens from foreign 
contiguous territory arrange in some other manner for the payment 
of said tax: Provided further^ That in the cases of aliens applying 
for admission from foreign contiguous territory'' and rejected the 
head tax collected shall upon application be refunded to the alien: 
Provided further^ That said head tax shall be collected in the cases 
of alien seamen only on account of those who are regularly admitted 
to the United States. 

Sec. 3. That the Commissioner General of Immigration, as chief 
administrative officer of the Bureau of Immigration and Naturaliza- 
tion and of the Immigration Service, shall perform his duties and 
issue rules and regidations for the enforcement of this Act under the 
direction or with the approval of the Secretary of Commerce and 
Labor. In addition to such other duties as may now or hereafter de- 
voh^e upon him by law, or by virtue of his office, he shall have charge 
of the administration of all the provisions of this Act and of all laws 
relating to the immigration of aliens into, their residence within, and 
their deportation from the United States, and shall have the control, 
direction, and supervision of all officers, clerks, and employees ap- 
pointed thereunder. He shall establish such rules and regulations, 
prescribe such certificates, bonds, reports, entries, and other papers, 
designate such districts, ports of entry, and stations, and enter into 
such contracts as may be necessary to carry out any provision of this 
Act and to control the entry by sea or across the land boundaries 
of aliens to, their residence within, their transit across, and their 
deportation from the United States, and shall issue from time to 
time such instructions, not inconsistent with law, as he shall deem 
best calculated for carrying out the provisions of this Act and for 
protecting the United States and aliens migrating thereto from 
fraud and loss. He shall have authority to enter into contract for 
the support and relief of such aliens within the United States as may 
fall into distress or need public aid, and to remove to their native 
country, at the expense of the appropriation for the enforcement of 
this Act, such as fall into distress or need public aid from causes 
arising subsequent to their entry and are desirous of being so removed. 
It shall be the duty of the Commissioner General of Immigration 
to detail officials of the Immigration Service from time to time, as 
may be necessary in his judgment, to secure information as to the 
number of aliens detained in penal, reformatory, and charitable 
institutions (public and private) within the United States and to 
inform the officers of such institutions of the law in relation to the 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 177 

deportation of aliens subsequent to their admission; and he may., 
whenever necessary to accomplish the purposes of this Act, detail 
immigration officials, and also Public Health and Marine-Hospital 
Service surgeons employed under this Act for service in foreign 
countries. The duties of commissioners of immigration and of other 
immigration officials in charge of districts, ports, or stations, shall 
include the administration of the provisions of this xVct in the dis- 
tricts or at the ports or stations to which they are appointed or 
assigned, which duties shall be performed subject to such regidations 
as the Commissioner General of Immigration may prescribe in regard 
thereto. 

Sec. 4. That the inspection, other than the physical and mental 
examination, of aliens, including those seeking admission or readmis- 
sion to or the privilege of passing through or residing in the United 
States, and the examination of aliens arrested within the United 
States, under this Act, shall be conducted by immigrant inspectors. 
Immigrant inspectors are hereby authorized and empowered to board 
and search any vessel, railway car, conveyance, or vehicle in which 
they may suspect aliens are being brought into the United States. 
Such inspectors shall have authority to demand of any person within 
the distance of three miles that such person shall assist in making 
any search or arrest authorized by this Act. Such inspectors shall 
have power to administer oaths and to take and consider evidence 
touching the right of any alien to enter, reenter, reside in, or pass 
through the United States, and to make a written record of such 
evidence where such action may be necessarj^. Said inspectors shall 
also have power to require the attendance and testimony of wit- 
nesses and the production of books, papers, and documents touching 
the right of any alien to enter, reenter, reside in or pass through the 
United States, and to that end may invoke the aid of any court of 
the United States; and any Federal court within the jurisdiction 
of which investigations are being conducted by an immigrant in- 
spector shall, in event of neglect or refusal to respond to a subpcena 
issued b}^ such inspector or refusal to testify before such inspector, 
issue an order requiring such person to appear before said inspector, 
produce books, papers, and documents if demanded, and testify, and 
any failure to obey such order of the court shall be punished by 
the court as a contempt thereof. The physical and mental exami- 
nation of all arriving aliens shall be made by medical officers of the 
United States Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service, who shall 
have had at least two years' experience in the practice of their 
profession since receiving the degTee of doctor of medicine and who 
shall certify for the information of the immigration officials and the 
boards of special inquiry any and all physical and mental defects or 
diseases observed by them. Should medical officers of the United 
States Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service not be available, 
civil surgeons of not less than four years' professional experience 
may be employed in such emergency for such service, upon such 
terms as may be prescribed by the Surgeon General of the Public 
Health and Marine-Hospital Service. 

Sec. 5. That it shall be the duty of the master or commanding 
officer of any vessel bringing aliens'^to any port of the United States 
on the North American continent from a foreign port or a port of the 
17581°— 12 12 



178 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Philippine Islands, Guam, Porto Rico, or Hawaii, or to any port of 
the Philippine Islands, Guam, Porto Rico, or Hawaii from any foreign 
port, from a port of the United States on the North American con- 
tinent, or from a port of another insular possession of the United 
States to deliver to the immigration officials at the port of arrival 
a manifest made at the time and place of embarkation of aliens on 
board such steamer or vessel, with the names arranged in convenient 
groups, the names of those belonging to one family or coming from 
the same locality to be assembled so far as practicable. The mani- 
ifest shall contain full and accurate infonnation as to each alien as 
follows : Name, age, and sex ; whether married or single ; calling or 
occupation; personal description (including height, complexion, color 
of hair and eyes, and marks of identification); place of birth; 
whether able to^ read or write; country of which a citizen or subject; 
race ; last permanent residence ; name and address of nearest relatiye 
or friend in country from which alien came ; seaport for landing in 
United States; intended future permanent residence; whether having 
a ticket through to final destination ; by whom passage_ was paid ; 
amount of money possessed by alien; whether going to join a rela- 
tive or friend, and if so, what relative or friend, with name and com- 
plete address; whether ever before in the United States, and if so, 
when and where; whether ever in a prison or an almshouse, or an 
institution or hospital for the care and treatment of the insane, or 
supported by charity; whether a polj^gamist; whether an anarchist; 
whether coming by reason of any offer, solicitation, promise, or 
agreement, express or implied, to j^erform labor in the United States; 
condition of health, mental and physical ; vrhether deformed or crip- 
pled, and if so, for how long and from what cause. To each alien 
or head of a family shall be given a ticket on which shall be written 
his name, and a number,' letter, or other data designating the place 
on the manifest at which he is listed. It shall also be the duty of 
every such master to furnish to the immigration officials information 
in relation to the sex, age, class of travel, and foreign port of em- 
barkation of arriving passengers who are United States citizens. 

Sec. 6. Each manifest shall be verified by the signature and the 
oath or affirmation of the master or commanding officer or the first 
or second below him in command, taken before an immigration 
official at the port of arrival, to the effect that he has caused the 
surgeon sailing with said vessel to make a ph3'sical and mental 
examination of each of said aliens, and that from the report of said 
surgeon and from his own investigation he believes that no one of 
said aliens belongs to any of the excluded classes named in this Act, 
and that also, according to the best of his knowledge and belief, the 
information in the manifest is correct and true in every respect. The 
surgeon sailing with the vessel shall also sign the manifest and 
make oath or affirmation in like manner, stating his professional 
experience and qualifications, and that he has made a personal exami- 
nation of each of the aliens named therein, and that the manifest, 
according to the best of his knowledge and belief, is full, correct, and 
true in all particulars relative to the mental and physical condition of 
the aliens. If no surgeon sails with a vessel bringing aliens the 
mental and physical examination shall be made by some competent 
surgeon employed at the port of departure by the owners of the 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 179 

vessel, and the manifests shall be verified by such surgeon before a 
United States consular officer. 

Sec. 7. That it shall be the duty of the master or commanding 
officer of any vessel taking passengers from any port of the United 
States on the North American continent to a foreig-n port or a port of 
the Philipi)ine Islands, Guam, Porto Eico, or Hawaii or from an}' port 
of the Philipioine Islands, Guam, Porto Rico, or Hawaii to any foreign 
port, to a port of the United States on the North American continent, 
or to a port of another island possession of the United States to file 
with the immigration officials before departure accurate and full 
information in relation to the following matters regarding all alien 
passengers and all citizens of the United States or insular possessions 
of the United States departing with the stated intent to reside per- 
manently in a foreign country taken on board: Name, age, and sex; 
whether married or single; calling or occujDation; whether able to 
read or write; country of which citizen or subject; race; last perma- 
nent residence ; intended future permanent residence ; amount of 
money possessed ; if a citizen of the United States or insular posses- 
sions of the United States whether native-born or naturalized; and 
time and port of last arrival in the United States, or insular posses- 
sions thereof. It shall also be the duty of every such master to fur- 
nish to the immigration officials information in relation to the sex, 
age, class of travel, and port of debarkation of United States citi- 
zens departing who do not intend to reside permanently in a foreign 
country. No such master shall be granted clearance papers for his 
vessel until he has duly furnished such information and statement 
and made oath that they are accurate and full as to all matters 
herein required: Provkled^ That in the case of vessels making regu- 
lar trips to ports of the United States, the Commissioner General of 
Immigration ma^^, when deemed by him expedient, arrange for the 
delivery of such information at a later date. It shall be the duty of 
immigration officials to record the following information regarding 
every alien and citizen leaving the United. States by way of the 
Canadian and INIexican borders for permanent residence in a foreign 
country: Name, age, and sex; whether married or single; calling or 
occupation; whether able to read or write; country of which subject 
or citizen ; race ; last permanent residence ; intended future perma- 
nent residence ; amount of money possessed ; and if a United States 
citizen whether native-born or naturalized. 

Sec. 8. That upon the arrival of any vessel bringing aliens, it 
shall be the duty of the appropriate immigration officials to go or to 
send competent inspectors to the vessel and there inspect such aliens, 
or said immigration officials may order a temporary removal of 
such aliens for examination at a designated time and place, but such 
temporary removal shall not be considered a landing, nor shall it 
relieve the transportation lines bringing such aliens nor the owners, 
masters, agents, or consignees of the vessel upon which they arrive 
from any of the obligations which in case such aliens remained on 
board would bind them or any of them : Provided^ That where re- 
moval is made to premises owned or controlled by the United States 
they and each of them shall, so long as detention there lasts, be 
relieved of responsibility for the safe-keeping of such aliens. When- 
ever a temporary removal of aliens is made the transportation lines 
which brought them and the masters, owners, agents, and consignees 



180 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

of the vessel upon which they arrive shall pay all expenses of such 
removal and all expenses arising during subsequent detention pend- 
ing decision on the aliens' eligibility to enter the United States and 
until they are either allowed to land or returned to the care of the 
line or to the vessel which brought them, such expenses to include 
those of maintenance, medical treatment in hospital or elsewhere, 
burial in the event of death, and transfer to the vessel in the event 
of deportation, excepting only where they arise under the terms of 
any of the provisos of section twenty hereof. 

Sec. 9. That every alien who may not appear to the examining 
immigrant inspector to be clearly and beyond a doubt entitled to 
land shall be detained for examination by a board of special inquiry. 
The decision of an immigrant inspector, if favorable to the admis- 
sion of an alien, shall be subject to challenge by any other immigrant 
inspector, and such challenge shall operate to take the alien before 
a board of special inquiry for examination. Such boards of special 
inquiry shall be created by the commissioner of immigration, or other 
immigration official, in charge at the various sea or land-border ports 
as may be necessary for the determination of the cases of all aliens 
there detained for examination. Each board shall consist of three 
members^ wdio shall be selected from such of the immigration officials 
as the Commissioner General of Immigration shall from time to time 
appoint to serve on such boards. At ports where there are fewer than 
three immigration officials, the Commissioner General of Immigra- 
tion may appoint other Ignited States officials or employees for 
such service. Such boards shall have authority to determine 
whether an alien who has been detained for examination shall be 
allowed to land or shall be deported. All hearings before boards 
shall be separate and apart from the public, but boards shall keep 
a complete permanent record of their proceedings, including all 
testimony given before them. The decision of any two members of 
a board shall prevail, but either the alien or any dissenting member 
may appeal through the immigration official in charge at the port of 
arrival and the Commissioner General of Immigration to the Secretaiy 
of Commerce and Labor, and the taking of such appeal shall operate 
to stay further action until the receipt by such immigration official 
of the decision of said Secretary, wdiich shall be rendered solely upon 
the record of the board. In every case where an alien is excluded 
from admission into the United States, under the provisions of this 
Act or of any law or treaty now existing or hereafter made, the 
decision of the board of special inquiry if adverse to the admission 
of such alien shall be final, unless reversed on appeal to the Sec- 
retary of Commerce and Labor; but the decision of a board of special 
inquiry, based upon the certificate of the examining medical officer, 
shall be final as to the rejection of aliens affected with tuberculosis 
in any form or with a loathsome or with a dangerous contagious 
disease, or with any mental disability which would bring such aliens 
within any of the excluded classes. 

Sec. 10. That the following classes of aliens shall be excluded 
from admission into the United States: All idiots, imbeciles, feeble- 
minded persons, epileptics, insane persons, and persons who have 
been insane within five years previous; persons who have had two or 
more attacks of insanity at any time previously; paupers; persons 
likely to become a public charge; professional beggars; stowaways; 



EEPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 181 

persons afflicted with tuberculosis in any form, or with a loathsome 
or with a dangerous contagious disease; persons not comprehended 
within any of the foregoing excluded classes who are found to be and 
are certified by the examining surgeon as mentall}^ or physically de- 
fective, such mental or physical defect being found by a board of 
special inquiry to be of a nature which may affect their ability to earn 
a living; male persons between the ages of sixteen and fifty coming to 
perform skilled or unskilled manual labor, who are found to be and 
are certified by a board of three surgeons as below the physical stand- 
ard now observed for recruits for the United States naval service; 
persons who have committed a felony or crime, or an offense or mis- 
demeanor involving moral turpitude; citizens or subjects of any 
country that issues penal certificates or certificates of character who 
do not produce to the immigration officials such a certificate ; polyga- 
mists, or persons who admit their belief in the practice of polygamy; 
anarchists, or persons who believe in or advocate the overthrow by 
force or violence of the Government of the United States, or of all 
government, or of all forms of law, or the assassination of public 
officials, or who are members of or affiliated with any organization 
entertaining and teaching such disbelief in or opposition to all gov- 
ernment, or persons who advocate or teach the duty, necessity, or 
propriety of the unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer or 
officers, either of specific individuals or of officers generally, of the 
Government of the United States or of any other organized govern- 
ment, because of his or their official character; prostitutes, or persons 
coming into the United States for the purpose of prostitution or for 
any other immoral purpose ; persons who procure or attempt to bring 
in prostitutes or persons for the purpose of prostitution or for any 
other immoral purpose ; persons who are supported by or receive, in 
whole or in part, the proceeds of prostitution; persons, hereinafter 
called " contract laborers," who have been induced, assisted, en- 
couraged, or solicited to come to this country by offers or promises of 
employment, whether such offers or promises are true or false, or in 
consequence of agi-eements, oral, written, or printed, express or im- 
plied, to perform manual labor in this country of any kind, skilled 
or unskilled, or in consequence of advertisements printed, published, 
or distributed in a foreign country ; persons whose ticket or passage is 
paid for, directly or indirectly, by any corporation, association, 
society, municipality, or foreign government; persons whose ticket 
or passage is paid for with the money of another, or who are assisted 
by others to come, unless it is affirmatively and satisfactorily shown 
that they do not belong to one of the foregoing excluded classes; 
children under sixteen years of age, unaccompanied by a parent, at 
the discretion of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor or under such 
regulations as he may from time to time prescribe; persons who, by 
reason of industrial, social, or other conditions existing in the locality 
for which bound, are deemed to be economically unfit, at the dis- 
cretion of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor; Chinese persons 
or persons of Chinese descent, whether subjects of China or subjects 
or citizens of any other country foreign to the United States, unless 
they belong to the classes enumerated in section thirteen of this Act; 
and, for a period of one year from date of deportation, persons who 
have been deported under any of the provisions of this Act, unless 
prior to their reembarkation the Secretary of Commerce and Labor 



182 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

shall have consented to their reapplying for admission: Provided^ 
That stowaways may be admitted in the discretion of the Secretary 
of Commerce and Labor : Provided further^ That nothing in this act 
shall exclude, if otherwise admissible, persons who have committed 
an offense purely political, not involving moral turpitude: Provided 
fitrther^ That no provision of this section relating to the payment for 
tickets or passage shall apply to aliens in immediate and continuous 
transit through the United States to foreign contiguous territory : 
Provided further^ That skilled labor may be imported with the per- 
mission of and under regulations to be prescribed by the Commis- 
sioner General of Immigration, such permission to be granted only 
if labor of like kind unemployed can not be found in this country : 
Provided further^ That the provisions of this law concerning con- 
tract laborers shall not apply to persons employed strictly as personal 
or domestic servants: Provided further^ That nothing in this Act 
shall be construed to prevent, hinder, or restrict any alien exhibitor, 
or holder of a concession or privilege for any fair or exposition au- 
thorized by Act of Congress from bringing into the United States, 
nnder contract, such alien mechanics, artisans, agents, or other em- 
ployees, natives of his country, as may be necessary for installing or 
conducting his exhibit or for preparing for installing or conducting 
any business authorized or permitted under any concession or priv- 
ilege which may have been or may be granted by any such fair or ex- 
position in connection therewith, under such rules and regulations as 
the Commissioner General of Immigration may prescribe both as to 
the admission and return of such persons. 

Sec. 11. Where a rejected alien, certified by a medical officer to be 
unable to travel alone by reason of sickness or mental or physical 
disability, or certified by a medical officer or found by a board of 
special inquiry to be unable to travel alone by reason of infancy, is 
accompanied by another alien such accompanying alien may also be 
excluded by a board of special inquiry and shall be deported in the 
manner in which other excluded aliens are required to be deported. 

Sec. 12. That whenever the President shall be satisfied that pass- 
ports issued by an}'^ foreign government to its citizens to go to any 
country other than the United States or to any insular possession of 
the United States or to the Canal Zone are being used to enable the 
holders to come to the continental territory of the United States to 
the detriment of labor conditions therein, the President may refuse to 
permit such citizens of the country issuing such passports to enter the 
continental territory of the United States from such other country or 
from such insular possessions or from the Canal Zone. 

Sec. 13. That for the purpose of exclusion and expulsion contem- 
plated by sections ten and twenty-seven hereof and of admission 
under section fourteen hereof, the exce})ted classes of Chinese aliens 
or aliens of Chinese descent shall C(msist of those who, in their 
personal capacity, are of the following status or occupations: (tov- 
ernment officers, ministers of the Gospel, missionaries, lawyers, phy- 
sicians, chemists, engineers, teachers, students, authors, editors, 
journalists, merchants, bankers, capitalists, and travelers for curiosity 
or pleasure. 

Sec. 14. That every Chinese alien or alien of Chinese descent who 
is entitled by this Act to enter and who is about to come to the Ignited 
States, except such as are covered by sections fifteen and twenty-five 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 183 

hereof, shall obtain the permission of and be identified as so entitled 
by the Chinese Government, or other foreign government of which 
a subject or citizen, such permission and identification in each case 
to be evidenced by a certificate issued by such government, which 
certificate shall be in the English language, shall show that the 
person to whom issued is entitled to come to the United States 
under the terms of this Act, and shall contain a photograph of and 
the following data regarding the person to whom issued : Family 
and individual name or names in full, title or official rank, if any, 
age, height, physical peculiarities, former and present occupation or 
profession, and when and where and how long pursued, and place 
of residence. If the alien applying for the certificate is a mer- 
chant or a banker, said certificate shall, in addition, state the nature, 
character, and estimated value of the business carried on by him 
prior to and at the time of his application therefor. The term 
'" merchant " wherever used in this Act shall mean a person engaged 
in buying and selling merchandise at a fixed place of business 
and who performs no manual labor other than that necessarily 
incident to the conduct of such business. If the person applying 
is a student, such certificate shall, in addition, state the nature of the 
studies theretofore pursued, the nature of the studies to be pursued in 
the United States, and where they will be pursued, and that provision 
has been made for the care and maintenance of the student, as such, 
in this country. If the certificate be sought for the purpose of travel 
for curiosity, it shall also state whether the applicant intends to pass 
through or travel within the United States, and his financial standing 
in the country issuing such certificate. The certificate and the iden- 
tity of the person named therein and whose photograph is attached 
thereto shall, before such person goes on board any vessel to proceed 
to the United States, be viseed by the indorsement of the diplomatic 
representative of the United States in the foreign country from which 
such certificate issues, or of the consular representative of the United 
States at the port or place from which the person named in the certifi- 
cate is about to depart, or of an official of the Immigration Service 
detailed for that purpose ; and it shall be the duty of such diplomatic 
representative or consular representative or immigTation official 
before indorsing such certificate to examine into the truth of the 
statements set forth therein, and if he shall find upon examina- 
tion that any statement therein contained is untrue it shall be his 
duty to refuse to indorse the certificate. The said certificate, viseed 
as aforesaid, shall be prima facie evidence of the facts set forth 
therein, and shall be produced to the immigration official in charge 
at the port of the United vStates at which the alien named therein 
shall arrive, and shall be the sole evidence permissible on the part 
of such person to establish a right of entry into the United States; 
but said certificate may be controverted and the facts therein stated 
disproved by the United States authorities. The said certificate shall 
be taken up by the immigration official by wdiom the person present- 
ing same is admitted to the United States and there shall be issued 
in lieu thereof a certificate of identity, containing a complete personal 
description and a photograph of the admitted person, which certifi- 
cate of identity shall be retained by him as evidence of his lawful 
entry to the country and of his right to reside therein so long as he 



184 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

maintains a status or occupation placing him within the excepted 
classes enumerated in section thirteen hereof. 

Sec. 15. That the legal ^vi^•es and natural-born children under six- 
teen years of age of members of the excepted classes of Chinese 
aliens enumerated in section thirteen hereof shall be regarded as par- 
taking of the status of the husband and father, respectively, so long as 
coverture continues or they remain under the age stated and shall, 
if in all other respects admissible, be admitted to the United States 
and supplied with a certificate of identity of the character men- 
tioned in section fourteen hereof upon satisfactorily establishing 
that they sustain the claimed relationship to a person of the said 
excepted classes residing within the United States or seeking admis- 
sion thereto in company with them and that coverture exists or 
they are of the age hereinbefore stated at the time of applica- 
tion : Provided, That no such wife or child shall be admitted to the 
United States as of that status unless accompanied by, or coming to 
join, the husband or father, and, if the husband or father is already 
in the United States, unless it is satisfactorily shown that such hus- 
band or father is lawfully entitled to be and remain in the United 
States, and shown by the testimony of at least two witnesses other 
than Chinese that such husband or father is and has been for at least 
three years a l)onci-fide member of an exempt class: Provided further, 
That Chinese aliens or aliens of Chinese descent admitted to the 
United States as the natural-born children of members of the said 
exempted classes shall not at any time establish and maintain them- 
selves in any other status or occupation than one which will consti- 
tute them members themselves of the said excepted classes, otherwise 
they shall be subject to deportation in accordance with the provisions 
of section twenty-seven hereof. 

Sec. 16. That no alien excluded from admission into the United 
States by this Act and employed on any vessel arriving in the United 
States from any foreign port or place shall be permitted to land in 
the United States, except temporarily for medical treatment, or pur- 
suant to regulations prescribed by the Commissioner General of Im- 
migration providing for the ultimate removal or deportation of such 
alien from the United States. No owner, master, officer, agent, or 
consignee of any vessel arriving in the United States shall pay off or 
discharge any alien seaman, or permit the removal of any such sea- 
man's personal effects, unless such seaman is duly admitted pursuant 
to the provisions of this Act: Provided, That in case any such sea- 
man intends to reship on board any other vessel bound to any 
foreign port or place, he shall be allowed to land for the purpose of 
so reshipping, and may be paid off, discharged, and permitted to 
remove his effects, anj'thing in this Act to the contrar}^ notwithstand- 
ing, if due notice of such proposed action first be given to the innni- 
gration official in charge at the port of arrival, and if the applicable 
provisions of this section are complied Avith. 

Upon the arrival of any vessel in the United States from any 
foreign port or place it shall be the duty of the owner, master, officer, 
agent, or consignee to deliver to the innnigration official in charge at 
the port of arrival lists containing the names of all alien seamen em- 
ployed on such vessel, stating the positions they respectively hold in 
the ship's company, when and where they were respectively shipped 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 185 

or engaged, and specifying those to be paid off and discharged in the 
port of arrival; or lists containing so much of such information as 
the Commissioner General of Immigration shall by regulation pre- 
scribe ; and after the arrival of any such vessel it shall be the duty of 
such owner, master, officer, agent, or consignee to report to such im- 
migration official, in writing, as soon as discovered, all cases in which 
any such seaman has deserted the vessel, giving a description of such 
seaman, together with any information likely to lead to his apprehen- 
sion ; and before the departure of any such vessel it shall be the duty 
of such owaier, master, officer, agent, or consignee to deliver to such 
immigration official a further list containing the names of all alien 
seamen who were not employed thereon at the time of the arrival, but 
who will leave port thereon at the time of the dej^arture of such ves- 
sel, and also the names of those, if any, who have been paid off and 
discharged, and of those, if an}', who have deserted or landed or been 
duly admitted. 

Sec. 17. That no Chinese alien or alien of Chinese descent employed 
on board vessels entering the ports of the United States not entitled 
to enter under the various provisions of this Act shall be permitted 
to land in the United States, unless satisfactory bond is furnished 
conditioned for the departure of such alien from the United States 
with the vessel on which employed, in accordance w ith proper regula- 
tions requiring names, description, and photograph, to insure the 
identity of such departing Chinese alien. 

Sec. 18. That no alien certified, as provided in section seven of this 
Act, to be suffering from tuberculosis in any form or from a loatli- 
some or a dangerous contagious disease other than one of a quarantin- 
able nature shall be permitted to land for medical treatment in any 
hospital in the United States unless it is shown that the disease did 
not develop until after embarkation on the voyage from which seek- 
ing to land and in the opinion of the Secretary of Commerce and 
Labor such treatment is imperatively required as a measure of 
humanity, in which event authority therefor may be granted, the 
expense, however, not to be borne by the Government. 

Sec 19. That any alien excluded because likely to become a public 
charge or because of being certified by a board of surgeons to be below 
the naval-service physical standard or because of physical disability 
other than tuberculosis in any form or a loathsome or a dangerous 
contagious disease may, if otherwise admissible and if in the opinion 
of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor peculiar individual hardship 
or suffering would result from deportation^ nevertheless be admitted 
by said Secretary upon the giving of a suitable bond, approved by said 
Secretary, in such amount and containing such conditions as he may 
prescribe, to the United States, and to all States, Territories, counties, 
municipalities, and districts thereof, holding the United States and 
all States, Territories, counties, municipalities, and districts thereof 
harmless against such alien becoming a public charge. The admission 
of such alien shall be a consideration for the giving of such bond or 
undertaking. Suit may be brought thereon in the name of and by 
the appropriate law officers either of the L'nited States or of any 
State, Territoiy, district, county, or municipality in which such alien 
becomes a public charge. 



186 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Sec. 20. That all aliens brought to this country in violation of law 
shall be sent back to the country whence they respectively came as 
soon as practicable, on the vessels bringing them, or. if that is not 
practicable, on other vessels of the same line, or otherwise at the 
expense of the owners of the vessels bringing them: Provided^ That 
the Commissioner General of Immigration may suspend, upon con- 
ditions to be prescribed by him, the deportation of any alien found 
to have come in violation of any provision of this Act if, in hisjudg- 
ment, the testimony of such alien is necessary on behalf of the United 
States Government in the prosecution of oifenders against any pro- 
vision of this Act, and the cost of maintenance of any person so 
detained resulting from such suspension of deportation and a witness 
fee in the sum of one dollar per day for each day such person is so 
detained may be paid from the appropriation for the enforcement of 
this Act, or "such alien may be released under bond, in the penalty of 
not less than five hundred ^dollars, with security approved by the Sec- 
retary of Commerce and Labor, conditioned that such alien shall be 
produced when required as a witness and for deportation: Provided 
further^ That upon the certificate of a medical officer of the United 
States Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service to the effect that 
the health or safety of any rejected alien would be unduly imperiled 
by immediate deportation, such alien may be held and treated at the 
expense of the owner of the vessel by which brought until such time 
as he may, in the opinion of such medical officer, be safely deported. 

Sec. 2i. That whenever an alien shall have taken up his perma- 
nent residence in this country, and shall have filed his declaration 
of intention to become a citizen, and thereafter shall send for his 
wife or minor children to join him, if said wife or any of said children 
shall be found to be affected with any contagious disorder, and if it 
is certified by the examining surgeon at the port of arrival that said 
disorder was contracted on board the ship in which they came, such 
wife or children shall be held, under such regulations as the Com- 
missioner General of Immigration shall prescribe, until it shall be 
determined whether the disorder will be easily curable or whether 
they can be permitted to land without danger to other persons ; and 
they shall not be either admitted or deported until such facts have 
been ascertained; and if it shall be determined that the disorder is 
easily curable and the husband or father is able and willing to bear 
the expense of treatment, they may be accorded treatment in hospital 
until cured and then be admitted, or if it shall be determined that they 
can be permitted to land without danger to other persons they may, 
if otherwise admissible, thereupon be admitted. 

Sec. 22. That it shall be the duty of each and every Chinese alien 
and alien of Chinese descent within the limits of the United States 
at the time of the passage hereof to apply within one year after the 
taking effect hereof to the immigration official of the United States 
whose office is most conveniently located to the })lace of residence of 
such alien for a certificate of residence; and any such alien found 
within the United States after the expiration of said period without 
such certificate shall be subject to deportation, as provided in section 
twenty-seven hereof, unless it shall be made to appear affirmatively 
and satisfactorily that his failure to procure such certificate within 
the time limited was due to unavoidable causes. Persons of Chinese 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 187 

descent who claim to be American citizens by reason of birth in this 
country or under the act of Congress annexing the Hawaiian Islands 
shall be accorded the privilege of registering under the terms of this 
Act upon proving their claims to the satisfaction of the Commissioner 
General of Immigration or of an immigration official designated by 
him to hear the evidence in such cases; and whenever the Secretary 
of Commerce and Labor, or the Commissioner General of Immigra- 
tion, or immigration official designated by them shall determine 
under proceedings connected with the application of a person of 
Chinese descent for admission to the United States or under pro- 
ceedings connected with the issuance of warrants in accordance with 
section twenty-seven hereof that such person of Chinese descent is 
an American citizen, or whenever it shall be made to appear to the 
satisfaction of the Commissioner General of Immigration that a 
child of Chinese descent has been born within the United States, 
there shall be issued to such person of Chinese descent of proven 
American nativity a certificate of residence of the character herein 
described : Provided^ That in all questions of citizenship arising under 
this Act evidence other than record evidence shall not be regarded as 
sufficient or satisfactory unless it includes the testimony of at least 
one credible white witness. 

Sec. 23, That the registration prescribed in the preceding section 
shall be enforced in the insular territory as well as in the continental 
territory'' of the United States. Chinese aliens and aliens of Chinese 
descent, not members of the excepted classes enumerated in section 
thirteen hereof, shall not be permitted to enter the continental terri- 
tory from the insular territory of the United States nor to enter one 
group of islands from another group, and members of the said excepted 
classes shall be permitted to enter the continental territory from the 
insular possessions only upon compliance with the terms of section 
fourteen hereof by obtaining from officers to be designated for that 
purpose by the governors of the respective insular possessions a 
certificate of the character prescribed in said section : Provided^ That 
said laws shall not apply to the transit of Chinese aliens from one 
island to another island of the same group, and any islands within 
the jurisdiction of any State or the Territory of Alaska shall be con- 
sidered a part of the mainland under this section. 

Sec. 24. That the certificate of residence mentioned in section 
twenty-two hereof shall be prepared on secret-process paper in a form 
to be prescribed by the Commissioner General of Immigration ; shall 
contain a complete personal description and a photograph of the 
person to whom issued; and shall be issued by immigration officials 
under regulations prescribed by the Commissioner General of Immi- 
gration, a complete duplicate in each instance to be retained for the 
files of the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization. The cost of 
the preparation and issuance of said certificate shall be paid from 
the appropriation for the enforcement of this Act. Should such 
certificate be lost or destroyed, a certificate in lieu thereof shall be 
furnished by the Commissioner General of Immigration upon proof 
of the identity of the applicant therefor, and of the loss or destruc- 
tion of the original, and in the cases of children born in the United 
States certificates may be issued, from time to time, upon the sur- 
render of any previously granted and the establishment of the iden- 
tity of the applicant, as the appearance of such children changes with 



188 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

growth and development. Xo Chinese alien or alien of Chinese 
descent heretofore convicted in any court of the United States or of 
the States or Territories thereof of a felon}' shall be permitted to 
register under the provisions of this Act. unless such pers(m was 
registered under the provisions of the Act of May fifth, eighteen 
hundred and ninety-two, or the Act of November third, eighteen 
liundred and ninet3^-three ; but such alien shall immediately or at 
the expiration of his sentence, be removed from the United States in 
jiccordance with section twenty-seven hereof. Certificates of resi- 
dence granted under the provisions of the Acts of May fifth, eighteen 
hundred and ninety-two, and of November third, eighteen hundred 
and ninety-three, shall be surrendered by applicants for registration 
hereunder to the immigration officials to whom application is sub- 
mitted. 

Sec. 25. That any Chinese alien or alien of Chinese descent, whether 
a member of the excepted classes enumerated in section thirteen hereof 
or not, who obtains a certificate of residence in accordance with the 
provisions of this Act, and any Chinese alien admitted to the United 
States as a member of the excepted classes in accordance with section 
fourteen hereof, or who is admitted in accordance with and continues 
to observe the provisions of section fifteen hereof, shall be permitted 
to leave the United States at any time and through any seaport, or 
through any land border port designated by the Commissioner General 
of Immigration as a port of entry for aliens under this Act, and, if 
admissible under the general provisions of this Act, to return to and 
reenter the United States at any future time upon the following con- 
ditions : He shall at the time of departure deposit with the immigra- 
tion official in charge at the port through which he departs his certifi- 
cate of residence or certificate of identity, obtaining in lieu thereof a 
return certificate of a character and form to be prescribed by the Com- 
missioner General, and shall reenter through such port of departure, 
and satisfactorily identify himself at the time of return as the person 
to whom the certificate of residence or certificate of identity so de- 
posited relates. Upon the readmission of such an applicant the 
deposited certificate shall be returned to him and the return certifi- 
cate issued in lieu thereof shall be retained by the innnigration offi- 
cial in charge at the port. 

Sec. 2G. That, at any time within five years after entry, any alien 
who shall become a public charge; any alien who shall after arrival 
be convicted of or admit having committed a felony or crime or an 
offense or misdemeanor involving moral turpitude; any alien who 
shall enter the United States by water at any time or place other than 
as designated by immigration officials, or by land at any place other 
than one designated as a port of entry for aliens by the Commissioner 
General of luunigration, or at any time not designated by immigra- 
tion officials; any alien seaman who shall desert his vessel in a port 
of the United States or who shall land therein contrary to the pro- 
visions of this Act; and any alien who shall enter the United States 
in violation of this Act otherwise than as hereinafter specified; and 
that, at any time after entry, any alien who at the time of entrv was 
a prostitute or Avas coming or being brought into the United iStates 
for the purpose of prostitution or for any other immoral purpose; 
any alien who shall be found an inmate of or connected with the 
management of a house of prostitution or practicing prostitution, or 



KEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 189 

who shall receive, share in, or derive benefit from any part of the 
earnino^s of an^^ prostitute, or who is employed by, in, or in connec- 
tion with any house of prostitution or music or dance hall or other 
place of amusement or resort habitually frequented by prostitutes, or 
where prostitutes gather, or who in any way assists, protects, or 
promises to protect from arrest any prostitute; any alien who shall 
import or attempt to import any person for the purpose of prosti- 
tution or for any other immoral purpose; any alien who, after being 
excluded and deported or arrested and deported as a prostitute, or as 
a procurer, or as having been connected with the business of prosti- 
tution or importation for prostitution or other immoral purposes in 
any of the ways hereinbefore specified, shall return to and enter the 
United States ; any alien convicted and imprisoned for a violation of 
any of the provisions of section thirty-nine hereof ; any alien wdio was 
an anarchist at the time of entry ; and any alien who was convicted 
or who admits the commission prior to entry of a felony or crime or 
an offense or misdemeanor involving moral turpitude, shall, upon the 
warrant of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, be taken into cus- 
tody and deported: Provided, That, at the option of the Secretary of 
Commerce and Labor, any alien seaman arrested under the provi- 
sions of this section may be delivered into the custody of a consular 
representative of the country to which his vessel belongs upon assur- 
ances that he will be removed from the United States. The provi- 
sions of this section shall be applicable to the classes of aliens therein 
mentioned irrespective of the time of their entry to the United 
States. In every case where any person is ordered deported from the 
United States under the provisions of this Act or of any law or treaty 
now existing or hereafter made, the decision of the Secretary of 
Commerce and Labor shall be final. 

Sec. 27. That any Chinese alien or alien of Chinese descent now 
residing in the United States who shall fail, neglect, or refuse to pro- 
cure for himself, in the manner and within the time prescribed by 
section twenty-two hereof, a certificate of residence, or any Chinese 
alien or alien of Chinese descent who, not being a member of the 
excepted classes described in section thirteen hereof, shall enter the 
United States, or any Chinese alien or alien of Chinese descent who 
shall secure admission to the United States by claiming membership 
in such excepted classes and after entry engage in any occupation not 
contemplated in the description of such classes; or any seaman of 
Chinese race or descent who shall desert his vessel in a port of the 
United States or who shall land therein contrary to the provisions of 
this Act ; or any Chinese alien or alien of Chinese descent who shall 
in any other manner enter or reside in the United States in violation 
of this Act, or who is subject to deportation under the provisions of 
section twenty-six hereof, shall, upon the warrant of the Secretary 
of Commerce and Labor, whenever and wherever found, be taken 
into custody and deported. 

Sec. 28. That the deportation provided for in the two next preced- 
ing sections, including the cost of removal to the port of deportation, 
shall, if the warrant of arrest is served at any time within five years 
after the entry of the alien, be at the expense of the contractor, pro- 
curer, or other person by whom the alien was unlawfully induced to 
enter the United States, or, if in the opinion of the Commissioner 
General of Immigration no such person exists or it is not practicable 



190 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

to recover such expense from any of said persons, then the cost of 
removal to the port of deportation shall be at the expense of the 
appropriation for the enforcement of this Act and the deportation 
from such port shall be at the expense of the owner, master, person 
in charge, agent, or consignee of the vessel or transportation line by 
which the alien came, or, if that is not practicable, at the expense of 
the appropriation for the enforcement of this Act. If the warrant 
of arrest is served later than five years after the entr}'^ of the alien, 
or, if the deportation is solely upon the ground that the alien is a 
Chinese who has failed to register, the expense thereof shall be pay- 
able from the appropriation for the enforcement of this Act. When 
in the opinion of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor the mental 
or physical condition of any alien rejected or arrested and ordered 
deported is such as to require personal care and attendance, he may 
employ a suitable person for that purpose, who shall accompany such 
alien to final destination, and the expenses incident to such service 
shall be defrayed in like manner as expenses incident to the deporta- 
tion, or he may require special reports from the transportation com- 
pany regarding the disposition made of the alien. 

Sec. 29. That pending the final disposal of the case of any alien 
arrested under the provisions of this Act, or of any suit or proceeding 
in which such alien's testimony may be required, he may be detained, 
and if used as a witness be paid a witness fee of one dollar per day 
during such detention, at the expense of the appropriation for the 
enforcement of this Act, or may be released under a bond in the pen- 
alty of not less than five hundred dollars with security approved by 
the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, conditioned that such alien 
shall be produced when required for a hearing or hearings in regard 
to the charge upon which he has been taken into custody, or as a 
witness in a pending suit or proceeding, and for deportation if he 
shall be found to be unlawfully within the LTnited States. 

Sec. 30. That the deportation of aliens arrested within the United 
States after entry and found to be illegally therein shall, at the op- 
tion of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, be to the country 
whence they came or to the foreign port at which such aliens em- 
barked for the United States; or, if such embarkation was for foreign 
contiguous territory, to the foreign port at which they embarked for 
such territory; or, if such aliens entered foreign contiguous territory 
from the United States and later entered the United States, or if 
such aliens are held by the country from which they entered the 
UnitM States not to be'subjects or citizens of such country, and such 
country refuses to permit their reentry, or imposes any condition 
upon permitting reentry, then to the country of which such aliens are 
subjects or citizens, or to the country in which they resided i)rior to 
entering the country from which they entered the ITnited States. 

Sec. 81. That it shall be unlawful for the master or commanding- 
officer of any vessel bringing aliens into or carrying aliens out of the 
United States to refuse or fail to deliver to the inunigration ollicials 
the manifests or statements or infornuition regarding all aliens on 
board or taken on board such vessels required by this Act, and if it 
shall appear to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Commerce and 
Labor that there has been such a refusal or failure, such nuister or 
commanding officer shall pay to the collector of customs at the port of 
arrival or departure the sum of ten dollars for each alien concerning 



KEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 191 

whom such manifest or statement or information is not furnished, 
or concerning whom the manifest or statement or information is 
not prepared and sworn to as prescribed by this Act. No vessel 
shall be granted clearance pending the determination of the ques- 
tion of the liabilit}^ to the payment of such fine, and, in the event 
that such fine is imposed, while it remains unpaid, nor shall such fine 
be remitted or refunded: Provided^ That clearance nlay be granted 
prior to the determination of such question upon the deposit with the 
collector of customs of a sum sufficient to cover such fine. Any per- 
son who shall knowingly or willfully furnish in any sworn manifest, 
statement, or information required by this Act regarding aliens 
brought into or carried out of the United States any false data shall 
be deemed guilty of perjury and be punished as provided by section 
fifty-three hundred and ninety-two, United States Revised Statutes. 

Sec. 32. That any person, including the master, agent, owner, or 
consignee of any vessel, who shall bring into or land in the United 
States, by vessel or otherwise, or who shall attempt, by himself or 
through another, to bring into or land in the United States, by vessel 
or otherwise, or who shall conceal or harbor, or attempt to conceal 
or harbor, or assist or abet another to conceal or harbor, in any place, 
including any building, vessel, railway car, conveyance, or vehicle, 
any alien not duly admitted by an immigrant inspector or not law- 
fully entitled to enter or to reside within the United States under the 
terms of this Act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall, 
on conviction, be punished by a fine of not less than five hundred nor 
more than three thousand dollars, or by imprisonment for a term of 
not less than one year nor more than three years, or by both such 
fine and imprisonment, for each and every alien to whom this section 
is applicable. Every vessel, boat, railway car, or other vehicle or 
conveyance of whatever description, the master, owner, lessee, or 
bailee of which shall use the same in violating any of the provisions 
of this xVct shall be deemed forfeited to the United States, and shall 
be liable to seizure and condemnation in any district of the United 
States into which such vessel, boat, railway car, or other vehicle may 
enter or in which it may be found. 

Sec. 33. That it shall be unlawful for any person, including any 
transportation company other than railway lines entering the United 
States from foreign contiguous territory, or the owner, master, agent, 
or consignee of any vessel, to bring to any port of the United States, 
with or without intent to land, any alien belonging to any of the fol- 
lowing classes : Idiots, imbeciles, epileptics, insane persons, or persons 
afflicted with tuberculosis in any form, or with a loathsome or with a 
dangerous contagious disease. And if it shall appear to the satisfac- 
tion of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor that any alien so 
brought to the United States was afflicted with any of the said dis- 
eases or disabilities at the time of foreign embarkation, and that the 
existence of such disease or disability might have been detected by 
means of a competent medical examination at such time, such person, 
or transportation company, or the master, owner, agent, or consignee 
of any such vessel, shall pay to the collector of customs of the customs 
district in which the port of arrival is located the sum of two hundred 
dollars for each and every violation of this provision. And it shall 
also be unlawful for any such person to bring to any port of the 
United States, with or without intent to land, any alien seamen be- 
longing to any of the aforementioned classes, or any alien afflicted 



192 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL, OF IMMIGRATION. 

with any mental or physical defect of a less degree than hereinbefore 
specified but of a nature which may affect ability to earn a living, 
and if it shall appear to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Com- 
merce and Labor that any alien seaman, or alien, respectively, so 
brought to the United States was so afflicted at the time of foreign 
embarkation, and that the existence of such mental or physical defect 
might have been detected by means of a competent medical examina- 
tion at such time, such person shall pay to the collector of customs of 
the customs district in which the port of arrival is located the sum of 
twenty-five dollars for each and every violation of this provision. Xo 
vessel shall be granted clearance pending the determination of the 
question of the liability to the payment of either of such fines, and in 
the event that a fine is imposed, while it remains unpaid, nor shall 
such fine be remitted or refunded: Provided^ That clearance may be 
granted prior to the determination of such question upon the deposit 
with the collector of customs of a sum sufficient to cover such fine: 
Provided further^ That in respect to a seaman such fine may, in the 
discretion of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, be mitigated or 
remitted. 

Sec. 34. That it shall be the mandatory and unqualified duty of 
every person, including owners, masters, officers, and agents of ves- 
sels or transportation lines, other than those railway lines which may 
enter into a contract as provided in section three of this Act, bringing 
an alien to any seaport or land border port of the United States to 
insure absolutely that such alien shall not land in the United States 
at any time or place not designated by the immigration officials, 
and the failure of any such person to comply with the foregoing 
requirements shall be deemed a misdemeanor and be punished by a 
fine in the case of each alien so landed of not less than two hundred 
nor more than two thousand dollars or by imprisonment for a term 
of not less than six months nor more than two years, or by both such 
fine and imprisonment ; or, if in the opinion of the Commissioner 
General of Immigration it is impracticable or inconvenient to prose- 
cute the owner, master, officer, or agent of any such vessel, a pecu- 
niary penalty of one thousand dollars shall be a lien upon the vessel 
whose owner, master, officer, or agent violates the provisions of this 
section, and such vessel shall be libeled therefor in the approj^riate 
United States court. 

Sec. 35. That it shall be unlawful for any person, including owners, 
masters, officers, and agents of vessels bringing aliens to ports of the 
United States to fail or refuse to present ever}^ such alien for inspec- 
tion by the immigration officials at such time and place as may by 
them be designated ; and if it shall appear to the satisfaction of the 
Secretary of Commerce and Labor that there has been such a failure 
or refusal the person so failing or refusing shall pay to the collector 
of customs of the customs district in which the port of arrival is 
located the sum of two hundred dollars on account of each and every 
alien with regard to whom such failure or refusal has occurred, and 
no vessel shall be granted clearance pending the determination of the 
question of the liability to the payment of such fine, and in the event 
that such fine is imposed, while it remains unpaid, nor shall such 
fine be remitted or refunded: Provided^ That clearance may be 
granted prior to the determination of such question upon the deposit 
with the collector of customs of a sum sufficient to cover such fine: 
And provided further ^ That such fine shall not be imposed in any case 



KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 193 

in which prosecution is had under the provisions of section thirtj'-four 
hereof. 

Sec. 36. That any person, including the owner, master, officer, 
agent, or consignee of any vessel arriving in the United States from 
any foreign port or place, who shall knowingly sign on the ship's 
articles, or bring to the United States as one of the crew of such ves- 
sel, any alien, with intent to permit such alien to land in the United 
States in violation of this Act, or who shall falsely and knowingly 
represent to the immigration authorities at the port of arrival that 
any such alien is a bona fide member of the crew, shall be liable to a 
penalty not exceeding five thousand dollars, for which sum the said 
vessel shall be liable and may be seized and proceeded against by way 
of libel in anj^ court of the United State having jurisdiction of the 
offense. The negligent failure of the owner, master, officer, agent, or 
consignee of any vessel arriving in the United States from any for- 
eign port or place to detain on board any seaman after notice in 
writing by the immigration official in charge at the port of arrival 
that such seaman is not admissible, and to deport such seaman if 
required by such immigration official or by the Secretary of Com- 
merce and Labor, shall render such owner, master, officer, agent, or 
consignee liable to a penalty not exceeding five hundred dollars, for 
which sum the said vessel shall be liable and may be seized and pro- 
ceeded against by way of libel in any court oi the United States 
having jurisdiction of the offense; and it shall be unlawful and be 
deemed a violation hereof to pay off or discharge any alien employed 
on board any vessel arriving in the United States from any foreign 
port or place, unless duly admitted pursuant to the provisions of this 
Act, unless due notice of such proposed action is first given to the 
immigration official in charge at the port of arrival, and unless the 
provisions of section sixteen hereof are complied with. 

In case of the failure of the owner, master, officer, agent, or con- 
signee of any vessel arriving in the United States from any foreign 
port or place to deliver either of the lists of seamen arriving and 
departing, respectively, prescribed by section sixteen hereof, or to 
report cases of desertion or landing as required by said section, such 
owner, master, officer, agent, or consignee shall, if required by the 
Secretary of Commerce and Labor, pay to the collector of customs 
of the customs district in which the port of arrival is located the sum 
of ten dollars for each alien concerning whom correct lists are not 
delivered or a true report is not made as required in said section; 
and no such vessel shall be granted clearance pending the determina- 
tion of the question of the liability to the payment of such fine and, in 
the event such fine is imposed, while it remains unpaid, nor shall such 
fine be remitted or refunded: Provided, That clearance may be 
granted prior to the determination of such question upon deposit of a 
sum sufficient to cover such fine. 

It shall be the mandatory and unqualified duty of every person, 
including owners, masters, officers, agents, and consignees of vessels 
arriving in the United States from any foreign port or place to 
insure absolutely that no Chinese alien or alien of Chinese descent 
emploj^ed on board such vessel shall land in the United States for any 
purpose unless satisfactory bond is furnished in accordance with the 
provisions of section seventeen hereof; and the failure of any such 
person to comply with the foregoing requirements shall be deemed a 

17581°— 12 1.3 



194 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

misdemeanor and be punished by a fine in the case of each alien so 
landed of not less than five hundred nor more than two thousand 
dollars or by imprisonment for a term of not less than six months nor 
more than two ^'■ears, or by both such fine and imprisonment ; or if, in 
the opinion of the Commissioner General of Immigration, it is im- 
practicable or incouA'enient to prosecute the owner, master, officer, 
agent, or consignee of any such vessel, a pecuniary penaltj^ of one 
thousand dollars shall be a lien upon the vessel whose owner, master, 
officer, agent, or consignee violates the provisions of this section, and 
such vessel shall be libeled therefor in the appropriate United States 
court. 

Sec. 37. That it shall be unlawful for any owner, master, purser, 
person in charge, agent, or consignee of any vessel to refuse or fail to 
pay any of the expenses incident to the detention of aliens as required 
by section eight hereof ; or to refuse or fail to pay any of the expenses 
incident to the deportation of aliens arrested and ordered deported as 
required by section twenty-eight hereof; or to refuse or fail to receive 
on board the vessel by which brought or a vessel owned or operated 
by the same interests any alien rejected, or arrested, and ordered 
deported under any provision of this Act, or to fail to safely guard and 
detain any such alien thereon, or to refuse or fail to return any such 
alien to the foreign port whence he came or to which ordered deported 
under any provision of this Act ; or to make any charge to cover the 
expense of deporting any alien brought or to be brought to the United 
States, or to take any security for the payment of such charge, or to 
take any consideration to be returned in case the alien is landed ; or to 
bring to the United States at any time within one year from the date 
of deportation any alien rejected, or arrested, and deported under any 
provision of this Act, unless prior to reembarkation the Secretary of 
Commerce and Labor has consented that such alien shall reapply for 
admission, as required by section ten hereof; and if it shall appear to 
the satisfaction of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor that any 
owner, master, purser, person in charge, agent, or consignee has 
violated any of the foregoing provisions, such owner, master, purser, 
person in charge, agent, or consignee shall pay to the collector of cus- 
toms of the customs district in which the port of arrival is located or 
in which any vessel of the line may be found the sum of four hunclred 
dollars for each and every violation of any provision of this section; 
and no vessel shall be granted clearance pending the determination of 
the question of the liability to the payment of such fine, and in the 
event such fine is imposed, while it remains unpaid, nor shall such fine 
be remitted or refunded: Provided^ That clearance may be granted 
prior to the determination of such question upon the deposit with the 
collector of customs of a sum sufficient to cover such fine. If the vessel 
by which any alien ordered deported came has left the LTnited States 
and it is impracticable for any reason to deport the alien within a 
reasonable time by another vessel owned by the same interests, the 
cost of deportation may be paid by the Government and recovered 
by civil suit from any agent or consignee of the vessel. 

Sec. 38. That any person who aids or assists any anarchist, as 
described in section ten hereof, to enter the United States, or who 
connives or conspires with any person or persons to allow, procure, 
or permit any such anarchist to unlawfully enter therein, shall be 
deemed guilty of a felony, and on conviction thereof be imprisoned 



REPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 195 

not less than one nor more than five j^ears and pay a fine of not less 
than one thousand nor more than five thousand dollars. 

Sec. 39. That the miportation into the United States of any 
alien for the purpose of prostitution, or for any other immoral pur- 
pose, is hereby forbidden; and whoever shall, directly or indirectly, 
import, or attempt to import, into the United States any alien for 
the purpose of prostitution, or for any other immoral purpose, or 
whoever shall hold or attempt to hold any alien for any such purpose 
in pursuance of such illegal importation, or whoever shall keep, main- 
tain, control, supjDort, employ, or harbor in any house or other place 
for the purpose of prostitution or for any other immoral purpose, in 
pursuance of such illegal importation, any alien shall, in every such 
case, be deemed guilty of a felony, and on conviction thereof be 
imprisoned not less than one nor more than ten years and pay a fine 
of not less than one thousand nor more than five thousand dollars. 
Any alien Avho shall, after being excluded and deported or arrested 
and deported, under the provisions of section ten or section 
twentj^-six hereof which relate to prostitutes, procurers, or other like 
immoral persons, reenter or attempt to reenter the United States, 
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction shall be 
punished by imprisonment for a term of not less than six months nor 
more than two years. In prosecutions under this section the testi- 
mony of a husband or wife shall be admissible and competent evidence 
against a wife or husband. 

Sec. 40. That it shall be unlawful for any person, including any 
company, partnership, or corporation, in any manner whatsoever, 
to prepay the transportation or in any way to induce, assist, encour- 
age, or solicit, or to attempt to induce, assist, encourage, or solicit, 
any alien to come into the United States, by means of any offer or 
promise of employment, whether true or false, or by means of any 
agreement, oral, written, or printed, express or implied, to perform 
manual labor in this country of any kind, skilled or unskilled, unless 
with the permission of the Commissioner General of Immigration, in 
accordance with section ten of this Act; and for every violation of 
any of the provisions of this section the person, partnership, com- 
pany, or corporation violating the same, shall forfeit and pay for 
every such offense the sum of one thousand dollars, which may be 
sued for and recovered by the United States, or by any person who 
shall first bring his action therefor in his own name and for his own 
benefit, including any such contract laborer thus offered or promised 
employment as aforesaid, as debts of like amount are now recovered 
in the courts of the United States ; or for every violation of the pro- 
visions hereof the person violating the same may be prosecuted in a 
criminal action for a misdemeanor, and on conviction shall be pun- 
ished by a fine of one thousand dollars, or by imprisonment for a 
term of not less than six months nor more than two years, and under 
either the civil or the criminal procedure mentioned separate suits or 
prosecutions may be brought for each alien thus offered or promised 
employment as aforesaid. 

Sec. 41. That it shall be unlawful and be deemed a violation of 
section forty of this Act to induce, assist, encourage, or solicit, or 
to attempt to induce, assist, encourage, or solicit any alien to come 
into the United States by promise of employment through advertise- 
ments printed, published, or distributed in any foreign country, 
whether such promise is true or false, and either the civil or the 



196 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

criminal penalty imposed by said section shall be applicable to such a 
case : Provided^ That this section shall not apply to States or Terri- 
tories, the District of Columbia, or places subject to the jurisdiction 
of the United States advertising the inducements the}" offer for im- 
migration thereto, respectively ; but they shall be permitted to adver- 
tise such inducements and to make their advertisements effective by 
written or oral communication with prospective alien settlers and by 
paying out of the ordinary State or Territorial funds regidarly ap- 
propriated for that purpose the transportation of such alien settlers, 
provided always that the exception hereby made is not used as a 
means of evading the provisions of this and the preceding section. 

Sec. 42. That it shall be unlawful for any person, association, 
society, company, partnership, or corporation, including owners, mas- 
ters, officers, and agents of vessels and others engaged in transporting 
aliens to the United States, to, directly, or indirectly, by writing, 
printing, or oral representation, solicit, invite, or encourage, or to so 
attempt to solicit, invite, or encourage any alien to come into the 
United States, and anyone violating any provision hereof shall be 
subject to either the civil or the criminal prosecution prescribed by 
section forty of this Act; or if it shall appear to the satisfaction of 
the Secretary of Commerce and Labor that any owner, master, officer, 
or agent of a vessel has brought or caused to he brought to a port of 
the United States any alien so solicited, invited, or encouraged to 
come by such owner, master, officer or agent, such owner, master, 
officer, or agent shall pay to the collector of customs of the customs 
district in which the port of arrival is located or in which any vessel 
of the line may be found the sum of four hundred dollars for each 
and every such violation; and no vessel shall be granted clearance 
pending the determination of the question of the liability to the pay- 
ment of such fine, and in the event such fine is imposed, while it 
remains unpaid, nor shall such fine be remitted or refunded: Pi'o- 
rided, That clearance may be granted prior to the determination of 
such question upon the deposit with the collector of customs of a 
sum sufficient to cover such fine: Provided further^ That this section 
shall not be held to prohibit transportation companies from issuing 
letters, circulars, or advertisements confined strictly to stating the 
sailing schedules of and the terms and facilities of transportation 
upon their vessels. 

Sec. 43. That any person, including employees, officials, or agents 
of transportation companies, who shall assault, resist, prevent, im- 
pede or interfere with any immigration official or employee in the per- 
formance of his duty under this Act, shall be deemed guilty of a mis- 
demeanor, and on conviction thereof be imprisoned not less than six 
months nor more than two years and fined not less than two hundred 
nor more than two thousand dollars; and any person who shall use 
any deadly or dangerous weapon in resisting any immigration official 
or employee in the performance of his duty shall be deemed guilty of 
a felony and shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than one 
nor more than ten years. Any person whose assistance in making a 
search or arrest is demanded by an immigrant inspector, as provided 
by section four hereof, who shall, without reasouiible excuse, neglect 
or refuse to render such assistance shall be deemed guilty of a misde- 
meanor and on conviction thereof be fined not less than ten nor more 
than two hundred dollars. Any person to whom an oath has been 



EEPOET OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 197 

administered by an immigration official under tlie provisions of this 
Act who shall knowingly or willfully give false evidence or swear to 
any false statement in relation to or in any way affecting the right of 
any alien to admission or readmission to or to residence within or to 
pass in transit through the United States shall be deemed guilty of 
perjury and be punished as j^rovided by section fifty- three hundred 
and ninety-two. United States Revised Statutes. 

Sec. 44. That any person who shall substitute any name for the 
name written in any certificate herein required, or any photograph 
for the photograph attached to any such certificate, or shall in any 
manner alter any such certificate, or forge any such certificate, or 
falsely personate any person named in any such certificate, or issue 
or utter any forged or fraudulent certificate, or present to an immi- 
grant inspector or other Government official any forged or fraudulent 
certificate, and any person other than the one to whom there has been 
duly issued any certificate prescribed by this Act w^ho shall present to 
an immigrant inspector or other Government official any such certifi- 
cate, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction 
thereof shall be fined in a sum not exceeding one thousand dollars and 
be imprisoned for a term of not less than one nor more than five years. 

Sec. 45. That the district courts of the United States are hereby in- 
vested with full jurisdiction of all causes, civil and criminal, arising 
under any of the provisions of this Act. It shall be the duty of the 
United States attorneys to conduct every suit or prosecution brought 
in court by the United States under this Act. Such prosecutions or 
suits may be instituted at any place in the United States at which the 
violation may occur or at which the person charged with such viola- 
tion may be found. No suit or proceeding for a violation of the 
provisions of this Act shall be settled, compromised, or discontinued 
without the consent of the court in which it is pending, entered of 
record, with the reasons therefor. 

Sec. 46. That immigrant inspectors and other immigration officials, 
clerks, and employees shall be appointed and their compensation fixed 
and raised or decreased from time to time by the Secretary of Com- 
merce and Labor, upon the recommendation of the Commissioner 
General of Immigration and in accordance w^ith the provisions of the 
civil service Act of January sixteenth, eighteen hundred and eighty- 
three : Provided^ That said Secretary in the enforcement of that por- 
tion of this Act which excludes contract laborers, may employ, with- 
out reference to the provisions of the said civil service Act, or to the 
various Acts relative to the compilation of the Official Register, such 
persons as he may deem advisable and from time to time fix, raise, 
or decrease their compensation. He may draw annually from the 
appropriation for the enforcement of this Act fifty thousand dollars, 
or as much thereof as may be necessary, to be expended for the sal- 
aries and expenses of persons so employed and for expenses incident 
to such employment ; and the accounting officers of the Treasury shall 
pass to the credit of the proper disbursing officer expenditures from 
said sum without itemized account whenever the Secretary of Com- 
merce and Labor certifies that an itemized account would not be for 
the best interests of the Government : Provided furtliei\ That nothing 
herein contained shall be construed to alter the mode of appointing 
commissioners of immigration at the several ports of the United 
States as provided by the sundry civil appropriation Act approved 



198 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

August eighteenth, eighteen hundred and ninetj'-four, or the official 
status of such commissioners heretofore appointed. 

Sec. 47. That all exclusive privileges of exchanging money, trans- 
jwrting passengers or baggage, or keeping eating houses, and all other 
like privileges in connection vs'ith any United States immigrant sta- 
tion, shall be disposed of after public competition, subject to such 
conditions and limitations as the Commissioner General of Immigra- 
tion may prescribe; but nothing herein contained shall prevent the 
Commissioner General in his discretion from permitting these things 
to be done by Government agencies. All receipts accruing from the 
disposal of such exclusive privileges shall be paid into the Treasury 
of the United States. No intoxicating liquors shall be sold in any 
such immigrant station. 

Sec. 48. That for the preservation of the peace and in order that 
arrests may be made for crimes under the laws of the States and 
Territories of the United States where the various immigrant sta- 
tions are located, the officials in charge of such stations, as occasion 
may require, shall admit therein the proper State and municipal 
officers charged with the enforcement of such laws, and for the pur- 
pose of this section the jurisdiction of such officers and of the local 
courts shall extend over such stations. 

Sec. 49. That the President of the United States is authorized, in 
the name of the Government of the United States, to call, in his dis- 
cretion, an international conference, to assemble at such point as maj'^ 
be agreed upon, or to send special commissioners to any foreign 
country, for the purpose of regulating by international agreement, 
subject to the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States, 
the immigration of aliens to the United States ; of providing for the 
mental, moral, and physical examination of such aliens by American 
consuls or other officers of the United States Government at the ports 
of embarkation, or elsewhere; of securing the assistance of foreign 
governments in their own territories to prevent the evasion of the 
laws of the United States governing immigration to the United States ; 
of entering into such international agreements as may be proper to 
prevent the immigration of aliens who, under the laws of the United 
States, are or may be excluded from entering the United States, and 
of regulating any matters pertaining to such immigration. 

Sec. 50. That this Act shall take etl'ect and be enforced from and 
after July first, nineteen hundred and twelve. The Act of ^larch 
twenty-sixth, nineteen hundred and ten, amending the Act of Febru- 
ary twentieth, nineteen hundred and seven, to regulate the immigra- 
tion of aliens into the United States, the Act of February twentieth, 
nineteen hundred and seven, to regulate the immigration of aliens 
into the United States, except sections thirty-four and forty thereof, 
the Act of ]\Iarch third, nineteen hundred and three, to regidate the 
immigration of aliens into the United States, except section thirty- 
four thereof, and all other Acts and parts of Acts inconsistent with 
this Act, are hereby repealed on and after the taking effect of this Act: 
Provided^ That nothing contained in this Act shall be construed to 
affect any prosecution, suit, action, or proceeding brought, or any act, 
thing, or matter, civil or criminal, done or existing at the time of the 
taking effect of this Act, except as stated in section twenty-six hereof; 
but as to all such prosecutions, suits, actions, proceedings, acts, things, 
or matters, the laws or parts of laws rejiealed or amended by this 
Act are hereby continued in force and effect. 



MEMORANDUm EXPLAINING DRAFT OF PROPOSED 
NEW IIWMIGRATION ACT. 



The draft of a proposed new law on the subject of immigration 
which formed Appendix I of the report for 1909 consisted mainly of 
a codification of already existing law concerning the regulation of 
immigration and the exclusion of Chinese, with only such changes 
in its arrangement as would place the various provisions in logical 
order and such changes in its language as would make possible the 
attainment of what was conceived to be the intent of the several 
statutes heretofore passed. In reinserting the said draft in the re- 
port for 1010 a few further changes of the same character, which the 
experience of another year had suggested, were made in its text ; and, 
with the object of giving concrete expression to the Bureau's recom- 
mendations for immigration legislation of a more restrictive char- 
acter, and for legislation regarding Chinese of a more exact and in 
some respects more liberal nature, than had heretofore been at- 
tempted, language adopting such recommendations was incorporated 
in the appropriate sections and commented upon in the body of the 
report as well as in a memorandum. As now inserted in this report, 
the draft is in most respects a repetition of the one which appeared 
in the report for 1910, the experience of still another year having 
suggested only a few modifications. 

The various subjects of the proposed bill are arranged in the fol- 
lowing order: (1) Definitions of terms; (2) Collection of head tax; 
(3) Immigration officials — their functions and their control; (4) Col- 
lection of statistics; (5) Admission and exclusion of aliens; (6) 
Residence of aliens in the United States; (7) Arrest and deportation 
of aliens; (8) Penalties for violation of various provisions; (9) Mis- 
cellaneous items; and (10) Repealing and saving provisions. 

In explaining the origin of the text and the reasons for the various 
amendments, the sections of the draft are taken up in numerical 
order. Throughout the draft the language has been simplified and 
made more succinct than that of existing law. 

Section 1. 

The definition given for the term " alien " is what it is confidently 
believed was intended when Congress abandoned in the acts of 1903 
and 1907 the term " alien immigrant." It is absolutely necessary 
that some clear definition shall be adopted, as conflicting decisions 
in the courts have placed the matter in doubt (143 "Fed., 922, and 148 
Fed., 1022; 141 Fed., 221, and 152 Fed., 346; 160 Fed., 842; 186 Fed., 
150; also 128 Fed., 656; 152 Fed., 1; IM Fed., 152; 165 Fed., 830; 

199 



200 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

IGG Fed., 536 and 1007; 173 Fed., 500; 179 Fed., 839; 185 Fed., 401; 
18G Fed., 354; 187 Fed., 903; and 158 U. S., 538). The word 
" seaman " is also defined in the interest of clearness. 

The remaining provisions of this section are taken out of sections 
41 and 33 of tlie immigration act of 1907, and section G of the act of 
February 6, 1905, providing for the government of the Philippines, 
that taken from section 33 being so changed as to apply also to the 
insular possessions. 

Section 2. 

This is section 1 of the act of 1907, so changed as to make the head 
tax i3a3'able on account, not merely of all aliens entering the United 
States, but of all brought to United States ports — a return to the 
language of the act of 1903. The present wording results, usually, in 
reducing by four dollars the penalty against a transportation com- 
pany for bringing an inadmissible alien, which penalty consists in the 
return of the alien at the company's cost. 

As there is a great deal of travel between the Bermuda Islands and 
the United States, that colony has been classed with Canada, Xew- 
foundland, etc., in the exemption from the head tax. The language 
of the act of 1903 has also been reinstated, in naming the countries 
exempted from head tax, as experience has shown it is both more 
convenient and more satisfactory to exempt citizens of such coun- 
tries than conditional residents thereof. A provision is inserted also 
for the refund of head tax exacted on account of aliens applying at 
the land boundaries; this to avoid complaints which arose under 
the act of 1903 from the collection of head tax on aliens who were 
rejected at the land boundaries, where the tax is often collected 
directly from the alien and thereby given prominence. 

While it is desirable that the head tax shall not be collected on 
aliens in transit, it is quite as desirable that there shall be no evasion 
of the law as to others, and that any refunds made shall go to the 
alien (by whom actually paid) and not into the coffers of the trans- 
portation companies, as now often happens. It is also quite as 
good policy not to asse&s the head tax on tourists and temporary 
visitors. Provisions are accordingly inserted to accomplish these 
several objects. On the same theory alien seamen, except those regu- 
larly admitted to the United States, are exempted. Ilie third pro- 
viso to this section, requiring that head tax collected in the Philip- 
i:)ines shall go into the treasury of said islands, is taken from section 
6 of the act of Februar}^ 6, 1905. 

Section 3, 

consisting of a combination of the provisions of sections 22, 23. and 
32 of the act of 1907, states that the duties of the Commissioner 
General of Immigration shall be performed " under the direction or 
with the approval of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor," and 
thus avoids the necessity for the awkward repetition of the phrase, 
as in the act of 1907, and at the same time preserves the present 
practice. The duties of the Commissioner General are specified in 
some detail, but purposely not in an exclusive manner, which is also 
true of the duties of commissioners of immigration and other immi- 
grati(^n officials in charge. There is one addition of especial inipor- 



EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 201 

tance, viz, the insertion of a clause permitting the removal from the 
United States of aliens who fall into distress from causes arising sub- 
sequent to entry and are anxious to return to their foreign home — 
which object is now partially accomplished by a regulation (rule 24). 

Section 4. 

• 

It has been deemed advisable to state definitely by whom the 
inspection of aliens shall be made (viz, by " inspectors "), and thereby 
give statutory force to the existing custom; and to directly empower 
such officials to board and search vessels, etc., a duty that now 
constantly devolves upon them, especially in localities where smug- 
gling is common. For the same reason there has been adapted from 
R. S. 3071 a provision empowering the inspectors to call for the 
assistance of near-by persons when needed. In this section also has 
been placed so much of section 21 of the act of 1907 as confers upon 
immigration officials the power to administer oaths. It is highly 
essential to good administration and the rendering of just decisions 
that the officials empowered by the law to decide questions arising 
under the immigration act shall be authorized to subpoena witnesses, 
and that means shall be provided to compel witnesses to appear and 
testify. There is accordingly inserted a provision adapted from the 
mterstate-commerce act (21 Stat., 383), under which the aid of the 
courts may be invoked to the end desired. There are also incorporated 
the provisions of section 17 of the act of 1907, regarding the physical 
and mental examination of aliens, with the provision for the reim- 
bursement of the Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service for 
expenses connected therewith eliminated, as a separate appropriation 
is now made for that purpose. 

Section 5. 

This is so much of section 12 of the act of 1907 as relates to the 
collection of data regarding incoming aliens, with certain changes in 
the items of statistical data required, shown by experience in keeping 
the figures to be essential. One very important change is made, 
viz, that requiring that the data furnished be accurate as well as full. 
Obviously inaccurate information for economic and scientific pur- 
poses is worse than none at all. Yet a district court has held (162 
Fed., 803) that all the present law requires is full information, no 
matter how inaccurate, which decision has been affirmed by the 
circuit court of appeals, fifth circuit. To meet this it is necessary to 
change this section and also section 15 of the act of 1907, which 
becomes section 31, hereinafter explained. An addition is made to 
insure the collection of accurate and properly segregated data con- 
cerning and as between the mainland and insular possessions, respec- 
tively. An addition is also made calling for sex, age, class of travel, 
and foreign port of embarkation of arriving passengers Avho are 
United States citizens. Information of a similar character is now 
being secured with regard to departing passengers only. There is 
also incorporated in this section so much of section 13 as relates to 
incoming manifests, the language being simplified and so modified as 
to require the assembling on manifests of names of members of single 



202 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAIi OF IMMIGRATION. 

families or of aliens coming from the same locality (because by some 
steamship lines there is apparently a studied effort to separate names 
and avoid detection of violations of the contract-labor provisions). 

Section 6 

is a combination of part of section 13 and section 14 of the act of 
1907, the latter slightly modified so as to specify that the certificate 
of a surgeon specially employed to verify manifests shall be made 
before a consular officer. 

Section 7. 

The provisions with regard to furnishing data covering passengers 
leaving the United States are separated from tho.-e regarding pas- 
sengers entering, and extended so as to cover citizens (native born 
and naturalized) departing with the intent to settle abroad, and to 
empower immigTation officials to obtain information regarding aliens 
and permanently departing citizens leaving the country over the 
land boundaries similar to that furnished by transportation com- 
panies concerning those leaving by vessels. Information regarding 
sex, age, class of travel, and foreign port of debarkation of departing 
United States citizens who do not intend to reside permanently in 
a foreign country is also required. This information is now secured 
by indirect, nonstatutory means regarding all departing passengers. 
These modifications of the statistical requirements arc essential to 
the compilation of accurate figures on this very important subject. 
Instead of requiring manifests of outvrard-bound passengers, '" infor- 
mation " only is required, and provision is made for the adoption of 
regulations as to the form and manner in Avhich it shall be collected 
and supplied. Here also an addition is made to insure the collection 
of accurate and properly segregated data concerning and as between 
the mainland and insular possessions, respectively. 

Section 8. 

The changes made in section IG of the act of 1907 in redrafting it 
into this section are to render perfectly clear the requirement that 
steamsliip companies permitted to place aliens temporarih^ in immi- 
gration stations or elsewhere pending inspection are to bear all the 
expenses incident to such detention until the aliens are actually 
landed. Although that is undoubtedly the present intent, four 
steamship companies have compelled the Government to bring suit 
for hospital treatment rendered aliens suifering from ailments from 
which they recovered (whereui^on admission followed). 

Section 9 

embodies the provisions relating to the inspection and exclusion of 
aliens contained in sections 24, 25, and 10 of the act of 1907. Sev- 
eral changes in language are made in the interest of clearness and 
comprehensibility, those regarding the appointment of boards of 
special inquiry being occasioned by a recent judicial decision to the 



BEPORT OF COMMISSIONER. GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 203 

effect that a board appointed by an " inspector in charge " is not a 
legal body, but the appointment must be made by a " commissioner 
of immigration." 

Section 10 

consists of a compilation of all the provisions of the immigration act, 
the amendatory act of March 26, 1910, and the Chinese-exclusion 
laws regarding cla&ses of aliens not to be admitted. The term 
" tuberculosis " is defined by adding thereto " in any form." This is 
thought to have been the intent of the act of 1907,' but said act has 
been regarded by some as covering only contagious forms of the dis- 
ease. The provision regarding anarchists has been so extended as to 
include the terms of section 38 of the 1907 act. The clause relating 
to criminals has been broadened to include all persons who have com- 
mitted a felony or crime, or an offense or misdemeanor involving 
moral turpitude, irrespective of whether they have been convicted or 
admit the commission thereof. The clause defining and excluding 
" contract laborers " has been brought into textual agreement with 
the penal provisions on the same subject (sections 4—7 becoming sec- 
tions 40-42. hereinafter explained) ; also to require rejection of the 
laborers irrespective of whether the offers or promises inducing them 
to come to the United States are true or false, so as to reach a large 
class of induced immigration not covered with sufficient clearness by 
the present law ; and further by modifying the term " labor " with the 
word " manual "to bring the law into textual agreement with its con- 
struction by the Attorney General (27 Op., 383), which makes it 
possible to eliminate the proviso (meaningless under the construction 
mentioned) exempting from the classification of contract laborers 
professional men, artists, and others whose pursuits are strictly men- 
tal, now and for many years encumbering the statute. Whether or not 
this produces too narrow a field of operation for the alien contract- 
labor law is a matter for careful consideration by the legislative 
branch. Another very essential modification is made, viz, the pro- 
viso allowing the importation of skilled laborers if labor of like kind 
unemployed is not available, is conditioned upon the permission of 
the Department first being obtained. This is the only reasonable 
and fair method of handling the matter. It has been demonstrated 
that the present bare exception is not fair to either the importer or 
those interested to prevent importations. There have been specifi- 
cally enumerated in the list of excluded classes " persons whose ticket 
or passage is paid_ for by any corporation, associatiouj society, mu- 
nicipality, or foreign government." Such persons are excluded by 
the present law; but placing them in the list makes the language 
plainer. There have been added to the said list the two new classes 
suggested in the report for 1909, and again in that for 1910, viz, 
" male persons between the ages of 16 and 50 coming to perform 
skilled or unskilled manual laljor who are found to be and are certi- 
fied by a board of three surgeons as below the physical standard now 
observed for recruits for the United States naval service," and " per- 
sons who by reason of industrial, social, or other conditions existing 
in the locality for which bound are deemed to be economically unfit at 
the discretion of the Secretary of Commerce ancl Labor." With 
respect to the former, however, provision is made for their inclusion 



204 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

in the bonding provisions of section 19, to avoid any peculiar indi- 
vidual hardship or suffering. Concerning the latter, placing exclu- 
sion in the discretion of the Secretary is merely adopting the arrange- 
ment now followed so successfully in the cases of unaccompanied 
children under the age of IG. Two other new classes are added to 
aliens excluded. One classification is intended to strengthen- the 
chances for detecting at the ports aliens with criminal records and 
the other has in view the breaking up of an extensive practice under 
which aliens rejected at one port are returned by the steamship com- 
panies to another port, where they often, as the result of arrange- 
ments made meantime to give their application a new aspect, effect 
entry, which practice is penalized in section 37 of the draft. " Stow- 
aways " have also been added to the excluded classes, such persons 
as a rule being undesirable; but provision is made for the admission 
of rare cases of merit, " in the discretion of the Secretary." 

Seciton 11 

is merely the section of the same number of the act of 1907, modified 
in the interest of clearness, and 

Section 12 

the proviso which was attached to section 1 of said act to enable the 
President and Department to deal with the Japanese-laborer situa- 
tion as it existed at the time of the passage of such act. 

Section 13 

contains a list of exempt classes of aliens of the Chinese race. Every 
status or occuj^ation that has been encountered or suggested in prac- 
tical administration as properly falling in this category has been 
named. This results in a very material broadening of the present 
law and treaty (Art. II), which regard as "laborers" all who are not 
officials, merchants, teachers, students, or travelers. To thus name 
the exempt classes is the safer — in fact, it is believed, the only fairly 
safe — method of handling the matter in a statute. The term "engi- 
neer" is here used of course, in the professional sense. 

Section 14. 

This is section 6 of the act of July 5, 1884, slightly changed to make 
it consistent with the other sections of the draft, and to render its 
language exact and comprehensive. The added provision requiring 
a photograph to be attached to the exempt's certificate is merely 
making statutory a requirement long existing by custom. The term 
"merchant" is defined in accordance Avith section 2 of the act of 
November 3, 1893. as construed judicially and administratively; and 
certain useful data i-egarding "students" are required to be inserted 
in the certificate. The term "student" is, of course, used in the same 
sense as it has been construed under the previous law, which con- 
struction is set forth in rule 8 of the Chinese regulations in force for 
several years. The provision regarding the vise, or approval, of the 
certificate has been so modified as to permit of the employment of 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENEEAL OF IMMIGRATION. 205 

immigration officials for that purpose when necessary or expedient; 
and there is added a provision for the issuance of a noncounterfeit- 
able certificate of identity to each Chinese admitted to the United 
States — which is ah-eady done by reguLation, but which ought to be 
specifically authorized by law, as it is essential that admitted Chinese 
shall have in their possession permanent, incontrovertible evidence of 
their lawful entry. 

Section 15, 

covering the admission of the legal wives and natural-born (not 
adopted) children of members of the exempt classes, is new in the 
statutory law, but is a correct statement, from an administrative 
point of view, of the judicial exception to the law made in the case 
of Mrs. Gue Lim (176 U. S., 459), and the cases approved in that 
decision (42 Fed., 398; 83 Fed., 13G; 85 Fed., 6-35). This judicial 
exception has constituted one of the greatest difficulties in enforcing 
the law, and unless it is defined and limited in some such manner as 
here proposed will continue to give trouble. Sixteen years is fixed 
as the maximum age at which a child may be admitted under the 
status of an exempt father, because that is the age which by Chinese 
custom corresponds most nearly to 21 years in this country. 

Section 16 

is designed to close a wide and continually widening breach in the 
immigration law. It has never been easy to prevent violations of 
the law by aliens employed on vessels, and since the decision of the 
Supreme Court in the Taylor case (207 U. S., 120) it has been prac- 
tically impossible to do so. Violations of the law in this connection 
will never be prevented to any appreciable extent until the immigra- 
tion officials are given direct authority to control the masters of 
vessels carrying foreign crews. The proposed provision is an adap- 
tation, by slight modification, of the applicable temis of the bill 
(H. E. 32441) which was introduced at the last session of Congress, 
with the concurrence of the Department and various steamship lines. 
It has been worked out with great care and it is believed will afford 
a remedy for the serious evil, and 3^et not impose any undue hardship 
on vessels engaged in the foreign trade. See also explanation of 
section 36. 

Section 17 

specifies additional requirements regarding alien seamen of Chinese 
race or descent, and is intended to effect a purpose similar to that of 
section 16, by preventing serious violations of the Chinese-exclusion 
laws. A district court has ruled in a criminal case that the exclu- 
sion laws do not apply to Chinese laborers employed as seamen. 
If this ruling obtains, ithe exclusion laws will to a considerable ex- 
tent become inoperative. The requirement of bond in the cases 
of Chinese seamen has had the sanction of -the courts (101 Fed., 989; 
185 Fed., 907), but has never been made absolutely by statute, nor has 
there been any thorough method of identifying those bonded to 
prevent substitutions, which are constantly occurring. This situa- 
tion is met, it is believed^ by the proposed section. See also explana- 
tion of section 36. 



206 report of commissioner general of immigration. 

Section 18. 

So much of section 19 of the act of 1907 as relates to admission for 
hospital treatment is drawn into this separate section and so modi- 
fied as to prevent diseased aliens being brought to United States 
ports for the very puipose of being treated, as is done under the pres- 
ent law, although contrary to its spirit. That the expense of so treat- 
ing those who contract disease on the voyage shall not be borne by 
the Government is also specified. 

Section 19. 

Section 2G of the act of 1907, regarding the admission of aliens 
under bond, is too loosely drawn to be administratively satisfactory, 
and therefore encourages transportation companies to accept alien 
passengers who ought never to be peiTiiitted to embark for or enter 
this country. This defect is remedied by a slight modification of 
the text as here reproduced. There is some doubt whether, not 
being parties to the bond, a State or Territory can recover under it. 
This is made certain by requiring that the bond shall nm to all 
States, Territories, etc., as well as to the United States. Slight 
changes are also made to bring about agreement with other sections 
of the draft. The bonding provision is extended to cover the new 
class, persons below the naval-service physical standard, with the 
same limitations as attach to the other classes named therein. 

Section 20 

is so much of section 19 of the act of 1907 as relates to the return of 
rejected aliens and a delay in deportation for certain reasons. A 
provision permitting the release under bond of those whose depor- 
tation is delayed, or the payment of a witness fee in case they are 
held in detention, is incorporated, so that prosecutions of importers 
may be made more easy and effective and the holding of aliens in 
confinement without remuneration avoided. 

Section 21. 

Section 37 as it appeared in the act of 1903 was at least a reason- 
able measure. As it was worded (inadvertently, it is thought) 
in the act of 1907, however, it has become a source of trouble and 
embarrassment. Language calculated to meet the spirit of the for- 
mer provision is therefore adopted, conforming substantially to that 
of the act of 1903, but making it plain that expenses growing out of 
the privilege granted are to be borne by the beneficiary. 

Sections 22, 23, and 24. 

It is essential if the Chinese-exclusion laws are to be placed upon 
a reasonable and efficient plane of administration that a registration 
shall be had of all Chinese now in the United States. These three 
sections, based in a general way upon the registration acts of 1892 
and 1893, and the acts of Aprir30, 1900, and April 29, 1902, regard- 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 207 

ing Hawaii and the Philippines, respectively, and in particular 
upon the experience of many years with the defects of the said 
registration acts, provide for a registration that will be fair to all, 
will not lend itself to the perpetration of fraud, and will be of a 
continuing character. This provision for a complete registration, 
taken in conjunction with the provisions in sections 14 and 15 of the 
draft for furnishing all legally admitted Chinese with a certificate of 
identity, will make it possible for each and every person of that race 
rightfully located in the country to always have at hand absolute 
evidence of his status, and all confusion and embarrassment will thus 
be avoided. Those who refuse or fail to register, without good cause, 
will be deported under the regular immigration plan — which has been 
shown to be the best plan for removing aliens from the country. 

Section 22 is also found to be a convenient location for a proviso 
requiring that in all questions of citizenship arising under the act 
evidence, other than records, that does not include the testimony of 
at least one credible white witness will not be regarded as sufficient 
or satisfactory. Such a provision Avill be useful in all classes of cases 
and is absolutely required in the cases of Chinese, as Avas shown in the 
report for 1909. The legality of such a requirement, as well as the 
necessity therefor, is clearly shown by the decision of the Supreme 
Court m the Fong Yue Ting case (149 U. S., 698, 729-730). 

Section 25. 

There are in the existing exclusion laws a number of harsh and use- 
less restrictions on the departure and return of lawfully resident 
Chinese. A Chinese alien legally in the country should be allowed 
to leave and return as freely as aliens of other races, his identification 
being the only important requirement. Under this section that will 
be possible, and all of the restrictions that are productive of no good 
but of much harm Avill be removed. 

Section 26 

is a combination of all the sections of the act of 1907 that deal with 
deportation in the sense of expulsion (20, 21, and 36, and parts of 
3 and 18), and of the similar provisions of section 2 of the act of 
March 26, 1910. An effort is exerted to make it inclusive of every 
class covered in whole or in part by existing law. The provisions 
dealing with criminals, anarchists, prostitutes, and procurers have 
been modified to a considerable extent so as effectively to rid the 
country of these particularly undesirable aliens, and the three-year 
limit has been eliminated, leaving the Government possessed of its 
inherent right to remove at any time aliens objectionable on these 
grounds. This has already been done in the act of March 26, 1910, 
with regard to sexually immoral aliens, and there seems to be no good 
reason why it should not be done w^ith respect to other specially unde- 
sirable classes. With regard to the other classes of aliens subject 
to deportation, the period within which deportation may be effected 
has been fixed at five instead of three years. Concerning " public 
charges," the restriction that the cause must have existed prior to 
entry has been removed. If the law is thus broadened, it will be 



208 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

strengthened almost incalculabl3\ In order to avoid any confusion 
on the question whether aliens already in the United States when the 
I^roposed new law takes effect are subject to the provisions thereof 
relating to deportation, the terms of this section are made applicable 
to aliens Avithout regard to time of entry. There is inserted here, 
for the sake of reguhirity and clearness, a provision making the 
decision of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor final in cases of 
deportation, which is the construction now usually given the law 
by the courts. 

Section 27 

is devoted to the deportation (expulsion) of Chinese aliens wrong- 
fully in or who illegally enter the country. It has been so worded as 
to make the deportation of Chinese on any and all of the statutory 
grounds a process in every respect similar to the deportation of 
aliens of other races; but, of course, no limit has been placed upon 
the time within which they may be deported. 

Section 28 

contains, Avith appropriate modifications, such of the provisions of 
sections 20 and 21 of the act of 1007 as relate to the manner in which 
the expense of deportation shall be borne. It is not thought that 
the deportation of such aliens as, under the proposed broadened 
tenns of section 26 of the draft, may be removed from the country 
later than five years after entry should be charged to the transpor- 
tation companies, but there is nothing unreasonable in requiring 
the responsible companies to bear the expense when deportation is 
effected within five years, and this is true of Chinese as of all other 
aliens. The clause added to the end of this section is an incorpora- 
tion into the statute of direct authority for the observance of rule 37 
of the immigration regulations — adopted at the request of the largest 
steamship lines to avoid any interference with the control and disci- 
pline of their employees, and found to work in a satisfactory manner. 

Section 29. 

The act of 1907 contains no provision for the detention as witnesses 
of arrested aliens. In this section such provision is made, and, in 
order to keep such witnesses in a "willing" frame of mind, the pay- 
ment of a fee during their detention, or their release under bond, is 
authorized, the bond being made to cover not only their production 
for a hearing on the charge on which arrested and their deportation 
(as in sec. 20, act of 1907), but also for their production as witnesses. 
Thus the law regarding detention of arrested aliens is lirought into 
accord with that concerning excluded aliens (sec. 20 of this draft). 

Section 30 

is section 35 of the act of 1907, modified to meet every difficulty so 
far encountered with respect to the country to which aliens (includ- 
ing Chinese) shall be deported. It now often happens tliat the Cana- 
dian officials refuse to allow an alien who has entered the United 
States from Canada to be put back into that country, even though it 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OP IMMIGRATION. 209 

is clearly shown that such alien was a citizen of Canada, holding that 
by removal to the United States and a residence, however short, in 
this country he has expatriated himself, and in tlie case of Chinese 
return is conditioned upon the payment of $500 head tax. 

Section 31 

is section 15 of the act of 1907, changed to agree with sections 5, 6, 
and 7 of the draft (12, 13, and 14 of the act), and to make the assess- 
ment of the $10 fine for failure to furnish statistical data an admin- 
istrative instead of a judicial process, thus adopting in this con- 
nection the method which has in the case of Oceanic Navigation 
Co. L\ United States (214 U. S., 320) received the unqualified 
approval of the Supreme Court as applied to the collection of the 
$100 fine assessed under section 9 of the act of 1907 (sec. 33 of this 
draft). There has been incorporated a provision for the punishment 
for perjury of anyone who shall furnish any false data in a manifest, 
statement, or list or information required by the act. This is neces- 
sary in view of the decision of the circuit court of appeals in the case 
United States v. Four Hundred and Twenty Dollars, mentioned in 
commenting on section 5 of this draft. 

Section 32. 

In this, which is a modification of section 8 of the act of 1907, as 
in the other penal provisions of the draft, an effort has been made 
to fix upon a reasonable, and yet sufficient, miniiwum and muxinium 
penalty. In some localities there is so little sympathy with the 
laws dealing with aliens that violators sometimes receive sentences 
altogether inadequate to the offense. This should be prevented, and 
the best way is to fix the minimum as well as the maximum limit of 
the penalty. The attempt has also been made to so word this and 
all the penal provisions as to make them operative despite the tend- 
ency of the courts to adhere to perhaps unduly strict rules of con- 
struction in criminal and penal matters. That is very important in 
this section, as it covers the smuggling of Chinese as well as of other 
aliens, and the smuggling of Chinese is an exceedingly lucrative busi- 
ness, affording great temptation to those criminally disposed. Hence, 
also, the provision for the confiscation of vessels and vehicles used in 
smuggling. 

Section 33 

is section 9 of the present act, which has had the unanimous ap- 
proval of the Supreme Court in Oceanic Navigation Co. v. United 
States (214 U. S., 320), so modified as to have it apply specifi- 
cally to alien seamen as well as other aliens, and to make it unlawful 
to bring to ports of this country aliens afflicted at the time of foreign 
embarkation with physical or mental defects of a nature which may 
affect ability to earn a living; also, to make the fine assessable, 
whether or not there is an intent to land the afflicted alien. It is 
suggested, however, that the amount of the fine be doubled — i. e., 
be made $200 — in cases of mental defects, tuberculosis, and loath- 
some and dangerous contagious diseases; this in order to encourage 

17581°— 12 14 



210 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

the steamship companies to observe greater precaution in the physi- 
cal and mental examination of aliens embarking at foreign ports 
for the United States, the object of the measure not being the col- 
lection of revenue but the practical proliibition of the taking on board 
of certain classes of afflicted aliens. In the cases of aliens less seri- 
ously afflicted and in the cases of seamen the amount of the fine is 
fixed at $25. 

Section 34 

is section 18 of the act of 1907 materially strengthened. And it 
needs to be so strengthened, for various decisions by the courts, 
especially one by the Supreme Court (107 U. S., 442), under the rules 
of strict construction observed in criminal and penal matters, have 
almost destroyed tliis important requirement, particularly in the 
cases of Chinese seamen and other alien seamen diseased, or criminal, 
or otherwise disqualified, whose cases are also covered in an alterna- 
tive way by the succeeding two sections. The duty to prevent the 
landing^ of aliens at any time or place other than as designated by 
immigration officials is therefore made absolute (" mandatory and 
unqualified") — the owners, masters, etc., are made insurers that the 
alien shall not land. The alternative method of punishment provided 
for in the latter part of the section, viz, by libeling the vessel where 
impracticable or inconvenient to fine or imprison a responsible person, 
is a suggestion made by United States Attorney Youngs, of Brooklyn, 
who has had a large experience in endeavoring to attain results under 
the present terms of the immigration and Chinese-exclusion laws 
dealmg with this subject. It is necessary for two reasons to have a 
provision of this kind in the law, although the same offenses are men- 
tioned in section 35 hereof providing for an administrative fine: 
(1) Flagrant cases should be punished by imprisonment as well as 
fine; (2) the effectiveness of an administrative fine is dependent upon 
ability to refuse clearance — not always possible, especially at points 
other than seaports. 

Section 35 

is an adaptation of the plan, found to work so satisfactorily with 
regard to diseased aliens, contained in section 9 of the act of 1907 
(sec. 33 hereof), to the very important matter of compelling trans- 
portation companies and others to present for inspection every alien 
brought to the United States. Flagrant cases of this kind — cases in 
which evidence sufficient to convict criminally might be obtained — 
can be handled under section 34. (It is not intended that both sec- 
tions shall be used in any one case.) But less flagrant cases, or those 
in which the technical proofs required under criminal procedure might 
not be available, can and ought to be covered by an administrative 
fine. This proposal seems to fall within the broad and comprehen- 
sive language of the Supreme Court in Oceanic Navigation Co. 
V. Stranahan (214 U. S., 320, 342-343). 

Section 36 

covers the cases of all alien seamen and also contains some special 
additional requirements in the cases of seamen of Chinese race or 
descent. Such of its provisions as relate to all alien seamen are, like 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONEE GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 211 

those of section 16, adapted from a biU introduced at the last session 
of Congress (H. E. 32441), while the additional provisions regarding 
Chinese seamen are incorporated to make section 17 eifective. The 
rigid exclusion of Chinese laborers has become a fixed policy, the 
continuance of which is contemplated by this proposed law; hence 
the necessity for the additional requirements concerning seamen of 
that race. 

Section 37. 

A very important element in the control of immigration consists in 
controlling the transportation companies, whose agents, in their 
eagerness to build up the passenger-carrying business, often indulge 
in questionable j)ractices. To bring the wrong kind of aliens, or to 
refuse or fail to carry such aliens back or to bear the expense brought 
upon their lines by their own careless or inadvisable selling of tickets, 
ought to be severely punished. That is one of the purposes of this 
section. Another is to make eifective the new provision placed in 
section 10 requiring the exclusion of aliens who have once been 
deported and who return within a year without the consent of the 
Department. 

Section 38 

corresponds with the penal portion of section 38 of the act of 1907, 
except that the minimum penalty is made definite. 

Section 39. 

Modified in several respects, section 3 of the act of 1907, as amended 
by section 2 of the act of March 26. 1910, is proposed for reenactment, 
it being considered that the decision of the Supreme Court in Keller 
V. United States (213 U. S., 138) is overcome by the change of lan- 
guage made in the last-mentioned act from that contained in the 
first mentioned. There is also incorporated a provision similar to 
one in the act of March 26, 1910, making it a misdemeanor for an 
alien who has been excluded or arrested and deported under the pro- 
visions of sections 10 or 26 relating to prostitutes, procurers, or other 
like immoral persons, to reenter or attempt to reenter the United 
States after once having been deported; also the provision of the 
same act making the testimony of a husband or wife admissible and 
competent evidence against a wife or husband, which is required 
because the practice has become common for procurers to marry the 
immoral women they bring in, and often the couple are the only 
parties having knowledge of the transaction. 

Section 40 

is a combination of sections 4 and 5 of the act of 1907, regarding con- 
tract labor, modified to agree with changes made in section 2 of the 
act (sec. 10 of the draft), and so as to punish in clear terms the 
attempt to import, etc. The word " unlawful " has been readopted 
from the act of 1903, as its use has been held to constitute the proceed- 
ing a civil one (213 U. S., 103). An alternative method of punishment 
is provided, viz, a criminal prosecution for a misdemeanor to be used 



212 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

in cases (of frequent occurrence) in which the violator of the law is 
pecuniarily irresponsible, or in cases in which it is desired to lay the 
foundation for a prosecution for conspiracy (215 U. S., 190). 

Section 41 

modifies section 6 of the act of 1907 to agree in text with sections 
4 and 5 (preceding), and to the proviso allowing States and Terri- 
tories to advertise their inducements to immigration is added a 
specification of exactly what they may do to make their advertise- 
ments effective. This is in the interest of clearness, and is only fair 
to those States that really desire and need a good class of immigra- 
tion. 

Section 42 

changes section 7 of the act of 1907 to agree in text with sections 
4, 5, and 6 (40 and 41 preceding), and so extends its provisions as 
to penalize soliciting, inviting, or encouraging immigration (or the 
attempt) by persons, associations, societies, companies, partnerships, 
or corporations of all kinds, as well as by owners, masters, officers, or 
agents of vessels. Violations are made punishable by either the 
criminal or civil process prescribed by section 40, and in the case of 
owners, masters, etc., of vessels an alternative punishment is pro- 
vided, viz, administrative fine enforced by refusal of clearance, as 
this is a very important part of the control of immigration by con- 
trolling the activities of the transportation lines. 

Section 43. 

It is essential that immigration officials shall be protected in the 
performance of their duties. The present law is deficient in this 
respect, and this section is designed to effect that purpose. It is also 
important that they shall be able to demand the assistance of near-by 
persons in making searches and arrests, especially in sparsely settled 
sections. Hence the provision here (adapted from sec. 3071, Rev. 
Stat.), sujDporting the authority given in section 4. This section also 
contains so much of section 24 of the act of 1907 as describes perjury 
before immigration officers, so modified as to cover in a clear manner 
swearing before such officers with regard to an alien's admission, or 
readmission to, residence within, or transit through the United States. 
This is an absolutely necessary provision. The present law on this 
point with regard both to Chinese and other aliens is inadequate and 
unsatisfactory. 

Section 44. 

This section has been so drawn as to cover, it is believed, every 
phase of the improper making or use of any of the certificates required 
under the proposed act. In this respect the present Chinese-exclusion 
laws (sec. 7, act of 1884; sec. 11, act of 1888; and sec. 8, act of 1892) 
are very deficient. 

Section 4.5 

is sections 29 and 27. act of 1907, with slight unimportant modifica- 
tions; also a clause taken from section 5 of said act. And there is 



EEPORT or COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 213 

added a provision that suits may be instituted under the various 
provisions of the law wherever the parties may be located, a juris- 
dictional question having arisen on that point. 

Section 46 

is a proposed reenactment of so much of section 24 of the act of 1907 
as relates to the appointment of immigration officials, the latter part 
of said section being carried into section 9 of the draft. 

Section 47 

is section 30 of the said act, so changed as to make it perfectly clear 
that the exchanging of aliens' money, the feeding of detained aliens, 
etc., may, if deemed necessary, be done by the Government, rather 
than by contractors. It may at any time become desirable that the 
Government should do at least some of these things itself. 

Section 48 

is section 31 of the act of 1907, while 

Section 49 

is so much of section 39 of said act as gives the President authority to 
call a world convention on immigration questions. 

Section 50 

fixes the date the proposed measure shall take effect, names the laws 
repealed thereby, and adds a proviso (consisting of a modification of 
sec. 28 of the act of 1907) showing to what extent only the act shall 
be given a retroactive effect and avoiding any hiatus between the 
operation of the old and the new statute. 



APPENDIX II 



ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

CHIEF OF THE DIVISION OF NATURALIZATION 

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1911 



215 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF THE DIVISION OF 
NATURALIZATION. 



Department of Commerce and Labor, 
Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization, 

Division of Naturalization, 

Washington, July 1, 1911. 
Sir: With the termination of the last fiscal year the present system 
of conferring citizenship had been in operation for approximately five 
years. It may be assumed, therefore, that certain features shown in 
the following report are permanent, and we may judge intelligently 
whether the law is fully accomplishing the purpose intended or 
whether there is occasion for remedial or amendatory action, either 
by Congress or by administrative methods. So far as the latter is 
cpncerned, as has been stated in each of the former reports, there has 
never been a time when it was possible to stop and take account, so to 
speak, and consider the feasibility and desirability of a redistribution 
of the work in the Division, or a reduction in the time devoted to some 
classes of clerical work and an enlargement of that bestowed on other 
classes of that work. At aU times the clerical force has been insuffi- 
cient, even with the aid of temporary assignments from other offices 
in the Department, to keep abreast of current work. Tliis has re- 
sulted in large undisposed accumulations of official papers; mortify- 
ing delays in making responses to letters from private individuals 
and public officials; the continuous exaction of labor from the clerks 
for long periods after the conclusion of the ordinaiy official hours, 
on holidays, and even on Sundays; and, consequently, impaired the 
accuracy and the quality of the work actually accomplished. Al- 
though the Division in its brief existence has been compelled to move 
into offices in three different buildings, it has at no time during that 
period had quarters that were sufficiently adequate in space or suita- 
ble in arrangement to admit of a disposal of the files, clerks, and su- 
pervising officers in a manner that would secure an economical han- 
dhng of the work. 

^ It may be said, although with a less intimate knowledge of condi- 
tions, that to a greater or lesser degree other offices are laboring under 
like disadvantages. No other administrative office, however, is 
attempting — and must succeed in its attempt in order to justify its 
existence — to adjust its labors to the requirements of a wholly dif- 
ferent branch of the Government (the judicial). When there is a 
hearing of petitions for citizenship in any one of more than two thou- 
sand courts exercising jurisdiction over naturalization proceedings, 
an examiner representing the Division must either be there in person 
or place the Government's case before the court by correspondence, 
and he must be fuller prepared to report upon the character of each 
petitioner and his witnesses as the result of his own investigations, 

217 



218 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

and upon the clerical defects or legal insufficiency, if any, of the papers 
filed, as the result of examinations made in the Division. That the 
Government has not had time to prepare itself is no answer to a peti- 
tioner's demand for judicial action upon his case when he appears 
before the court with his witnesses on the date set. The Govern- 
ment has undertaken to be prepared, and it must at all hazards be 
ready at the appointed time, or the court, unless a defect be disclosed, 
will, upon prima facie case, admit the petitioner with that same ab- 
sence of actual knowledge which prevailed among the courts in 
admitting aliens prior to tlie operation of the act of June 29, 1906. 

Thus the Division must have its examination and report ready upon 
the more than five thousand cases per month, at whatever cost of 
labor or of delay to other correspondence, the examination of declara- 
tions of intention and certificates of naturalization, card indexing, 
filing, examining accounts, supervision of examiners' work in the 
field, and numerous other details of official work in the Department. 
Here, then, is disclosed a definite and pressing need for more clerks 
and more and better arranged office space for a service that has passed 
beyond the experimental stage and may be assumed now to be a per- 
manent part of the executive branch of the Government. Without 
the additional clerks much necessary work must be hurriedly and im- 
perfectly done, delayed, or left absolutely undone, while without the 
other facilities it is not possible to secure the greatest amount of effi- 
ciency at the lowest cost of labor and of money. 

From what has been said as to the clerical force of the office in 
Washington it may easUy be seen that an increase is also necessary 
in the number of examiners in the field. This matter will be discussed 
further on, as will also the need for additional assistants to clerks of 
courts. They are referred to here, however, as needs that have been 
demonstrated, like that of additional clerks in the Division in Wash- 
ington, to make the administrative methods and macliinery in any 
adequate measure equal to the discharge of the duties imposed in the 
enforcement of the present naturaHzation law. These needs are 
reported upon first in order, because they are first in importance and 
should be first provided for. 

Experience has likewise disclosed the desirability of legislative 
action the nature of and reason for which will be discussed under the 
appropriate heading further on. 

WORK OF THE COURTS. 

There have been some few changes during the year in the courts 
engaging in the exercise of jurisdiction to admit to citizenship. A 
few State courts have declined to continue the work already assumed, 
and some have been added to those so engaged. At the close of the 
year the number of State and Federal courts exercising naturalization 
jurisdiction were as shown in the last column of the following table: 



Courts. 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


State 


1,678 
201 


2,016 
228 


2,177 
217 


2,247 
227 


2,270 


Federal - 


229 








Total 


1,879 


2,244 


2,394 


2,474 


2,499 







RBPOBT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 219 

For the purpose of ascertaining the actual work of the courts — 
the judiciarwork — as distinguished from the work done by the clerks 
as ministerial officers, it is necessary to consider only the petitions 
heard. The number of these is represented by the certificates of 
citizenship issued and the denials or petitions. As appears from an 
accompan3dng table, there were issued during the year 55,329 cer- 
tificates of naturalization and 9,017 petitions were dismissed, thus 
showing that 64,346 naturalization cases were disposed of by the 
courts. How these figures compare with the corresponding figures 
for previous years is shown below: 



Certificates. 


1909 


1910 


1911 


Granted 


37,337 
6,341 


39,206 
7,781 


55,329 
9,017 


Denied 




Total 


43,678 


46,987 


64 346 







Thus, whUe the business of the courts increased in 1910 to the 
extent of 3,309 cases over that of 1909, the last year showed an 
increase of 17,359 cases over the number in 1910 and 20,668 over 1909. 
In other words, while the increase from 1909 to 1910 was less than 
8 per cent, the growth from the latter year to 1911 was nearly 38 per 
cent. 

This greatly enlarged business of the courts is the most significant 
fact developed during the past year. It bears directly upon the 
requirements as to the examining and clerical forces, and indicates 
the present need of such additions thereto as will obviate the danger 
of the administrative and investigating work falling still further in 
arrears. The special reformatory feature of the new law is to be 
found, not in additional requirements as to the qualifications of the 
petitioners, which are substantially the same that have been pre- 
scribed for a century past, but in the means devised by executive 
investigation to insure the proof of qualifications. Just so far as 
these means are inadequate the present law will prove inadequate 
to accomplish the purpose for wiiich it was enacted, and to that 
extent the conditions which prevailed before its passage wiU continue. 

While it is not possible, with the clerical force at its disposal, for 
the Division to make such a study of the data in its files as wiU 
enable it satisfactorily to show how far the reported increase is due to 
each of several probable causes, it is safe to assume that the principal 
occasion for the greater amount of business is the seven-year limita- 
tion on the validity of the declaration of intention. In each of the 
preceding annual reports of the Division this feature of the law has 
been adverted to, and it has been pointed out that the business of the 
courts hereafter must be estimated from the number of declarations 
filed and the necessity for their use as a basis for petitions before the 
expiration of seven years from the date of such filing. As the 
declarations filed prior to September 27, 1906, are not limited as to 
the time of their use, there appears to be no reason to believe that 
the great increase referred to is due to the activity of others than those 
who have filed declarations since that date, and who are stimulated 
by the consciousness that delay beyond the seven-year limit will 



220 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

impose upon them the necessity of filing new declarations of intention 
and waitmg two years thereafter. 

That the supply of additional assistants to clerks of courts has 
had little effect on the general result, and has therefore had no 
appreciable effect upon the growth of business, will appear from a 
consideration of the data below: 

Cases Disposed op by Courts in Certain States, 1910 and 1911. 



State. 


1910 


1911 


Increase , 

(+)or 
decrease 


State. 


1910 


1911 


Increase 
(+)or 
decrease 




2,173 
3,385 
3,238 
10, 196 


3,349 
5,985 
3,137 
13,076 


Per cent. 
+54 
+76 
- 3 
+2S 


Ohio 


1,462 
4,906 
1,463 
1,997 


1,975 
7,746 
1,786 
2,963 


Per cent. 
+35 


Illinois 

Massachusetts 

New York 


Pennsylvania 

Washington 

Wisconsin 


+57 
+22 
+49 



Practically all of the clerical aid supplied to the clerks of courts 
was in New York City and Brooldyn, and yet, as the above table of 
returns from States on the Pacific coast, in the ]\Iiddle West, and on 
the Atlantic coast shows, in each of the several States named, except 
Wasliington and Massachusetts, the ratio of increase was greater 
than in New York, although to none of them was such aid extended. 

If it be considered that since the law became operative there have 
been filed more than 710,000 declarations of intention and only 
236,000 petitions, it is not possible to avoid the conclusion that the busi- 
ness of the courts and of the administrative ofiicers wall continue to 
increase for some years to come. Many of the petitions filed have 
been supported by declarations filed under the former law, so that 
there are probably not less than half a million cases to be (Usposed 
of in the next seven years if no declaration is allowed to lapse by 
operation of law. Tliis is enough to keep the courts occupied for 
more than the next seven years with about the same amount of work 
that was transacted last year, even though not a single petition 
should be made upon a declaration filed hereafter. 

In the following table is set forth the action taken by the courts 
upon each of the 64,346 petitions disposed of by them during the 
year, and the reasons therefor, arranged by States and Territories. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



221 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



223 



Besides the work of hearing petitions, the courts have disposed of 
certain certificates of naturahzation under the provisions of section 
15 of the act of June 26, 1906, which had been illegally procured, as 
follows : 

Peoceedings under Section 15. 



Reported by cliief naturalization examiner 
at— 



Referred 

to U. S. 

attorneys. 



Certificates 
canceled. 



Dismissed. 



Discontin- 
ued. 



Pending. 



Boston 

New York 

Philadelphia 

Pittsburg 

Detroit 

Chicago 

St. Louis 

St. Paul 

Denver 

San Francisco 

Seattle 

Washington, D. C 

Total 



225 



474 
8 
1 



494 



32 



28 
55 
45 
118 
7 



318 



Prosecutions for Violations of the Naturalization Laws. 



Reported by chief 
naturalization ex- 
aminer atr— 


Prosecu- 
tions. 


Nolle 
pressed. 


Acquit- 
tals. 


Convictions. 




Fines. 


Jail 
sentences. 


Both fines 

and Jail 

sentences. 


Sentences 

sus- 
pended. 


Pending. 




27 

33 

13 

1 

14 
2 
9 

4 
4 

1 


2 
14 




1 
5 
11 


4 




4 
1 


16 




2 


5 


6 






2 








1 

1 














2 






11 












2 


St Paul 


1 


2 






6 














4 






1 










3 














1 


















Total 


108 


17 


5 


19 


6 


11 


5 


45 







Fines amounting to $3,338 were levied and collected in the following 
courts : 

United States district court, Indianapolis, Ind $200. 00 

United States district court, Trenton, N.J 250. 00 

United States circuit court, New York, N. Y 50. 00 

United States district court, Minot, N. Dak 2,400.00 

United States district court, Pittsburg, Pa 325. 00 

United States district court, Scranton, Pa 113. 00 

Total 3, 338. 00 



224 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
WORK OF CLERKS OF COURTS. 

The number of clerks of courts and assistants engaged in naturali- 
zation work during the past year has been in excess of 2,500. It is 
not possible to give the exact number, as some of the clerks have one 
or more regular assistants. Under the provisions of the appropria- 
tion act the Department has furnished 25 assistants to clerks oi cer- 
tain courts, at aggregate salaries of $18,448.29. 

The subjoined tables show that during the past year there have 
been prepared and filed, or issued, by these clerks of courts 186,157 
declarations of intention, 73,644 petitions, and 55,329 certificates of 
naturalization. As the declarations are executed in tripHcate — one 
for the court record, one for the division record, and one for the 
declarant — and the other papers in duplicate, the actual number of 
papers prepared was 816,417. 



^ 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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EEPOET OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



229 



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230 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

As compared with the corresponding figures for the fiscal year 1910, 
there has oeen an increase of 18,931, about 11 per cent, in the decla- 
rations; 18,606, or 33.81 per cent, in the petitions; and 16,123, or 41 
per cent, in the certificates issued. 

The preparation of a petition involves much more labor than the 
filling out of both a declaration and a certificate, not only in simple 
clerical work but in the exercise of judgment to ascertain whether 
the applicant can file a petition lawfully, and whether his witnesses 
are competent to verify his petition. It involves, moreover, the 
preparation of the notice and posting of the names of the petitioner 
and his witnesses, with the date set for hearing in open court. The 
significant feature of the above shown increase is therefore the 32 
per cent growth in the number of petitions filed, since it indicates so 
much greater enlargement of the actual work than would a much 
larger percentage of increase in the number of declarations and 
certificates. 

The inference to be drawn from the enlargement of naturalization 
business in the clerks' offices is directly the opposite of that arising 
from that same condition in relation to the work of the Division. 
The fees retained under the terms of the law by the cleric of courts 
are so small that they are compensatory only in the relatively small 
number of courts where there is enough of such work to keep at least 
one clerk steadily occupied. In most instances the amount of natu- 
ralization work is so small that it does not suffice to famiharize the 
person engaged upon it with the details of a correctly prepared 
paper, nor does it justify the use of sufficient time to learn the require- 
ments of the law and regulations. It, moreover, interrupts the 
routine business of the clerk's office, and is consequently somewhat 
hurriedly and superficially disposed of. 

In view of the embarrassments referred to, it is, therefore, not an 
unusual thing for a court doing a very small amount of naturaliza- 
tion business to relinquish jurisdiction altogether, as burdensome and 
unprofitable to the clerk and disappointing to the applicants. This 
condition will be changed by an increase in the business, and the 
situation now reported is, therefore, an encouragement to the hope 
that the methods of handling this work will improve so far as the 
increase shown exists in the courts receiving relatively few applica- 
tions to file naturalization papers. 

So far as the growth in the larger courts is concerned, the only 
difficulty to be overcome is the supply of a sufficient number of 
assistants for the clerks. In other words, it is, as in the case of the 
Division and its officers in the field, merely a question of securing an 
appropriation from Congress to pay for the work which the Govern- 
ment has assumed under the terms of the naturalization law. 

WORK OF THE EXAMINERS. 

The Division can not, at the expiration of the second year of its 
control of the field service, refrain from expressing its satisfaction 
with the merit and effectiveness of the work of the examiners as far 
as that work has gone. To claim that the work of 55 men is ade- 
quate to investigate effectively and report upon tlie 64,346 cases 
heard in 2,499 courts scattered throughout the continental portion 



KEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENEBAL OF IMMIGRATION. 231 

of the United States and in Hawaii and Alaska would be incredible 
upon its face. On the contraiy, as is said elsewhere, the number of 
examiners is entirely inadequate to cope \vith the entire naturaliza- 
tion business of the country. It is confidently asserted, however, 
that the actual results accomplished by these officers, not alone as 
regards the effectiveness of what they have done but also as to the 
actual amount done — the cases investigated, the distances traveled, 
the hearings attended — is phenomenal. 

Fortunately for the Government, the offi.cers, in the main, have shown 
themselves oi the sort whose zeal is stimulated by difficulties. It has 
been impossible to pay them adequate compensation. They have 
been held do^\^l strictly to an observance of the rules of the Depart- 
ment in regard to incurring expenses. The area of the districts to 
which they have been assigned, and the consequent continuous travel, 
which all except those in the large cities are required to do to attend to 
the hearings of petitions on the dates set by the courts, precludes 
anything like the enjoyment of holidays or Sundays, or even rest 
at night elsewhere than on trains or at hotels. They have virtually 
none of the advantages of periodical rest in short intervals between 
working days, as most Government officers have. Wlien the day of 
hearing comes they must appear before the court where the petitions 
are to be heard, and be prej)ared with the necessary knowledge of each 
case called to satisfy the judge either that they have no reason in 
law or in fact to oppose the granting of a petition in a particular case 
or that the specific reason or reasons they have discovered for recom- 
mending the dismissal of a petition is sufficient. 

Such a scheme, or arrangement, for work, with such a few men, 
takes no account of the human side of the agency employed. It 
can not. There is the work which is to be done and there is the amount 
which is allowed to be expended for the purpose. That branch of 
the Government which imposes the duties also provides the amount 
it deems sufficient to pay for the performance of such duties. The 
administrative office must do the best it can, with the funds furnished 
it, to have those duties — or some of them, if it is not possible to per- 
form aU — discharged effectively. 

The country is divided into eleven districts, with headquarters, 
respectively, at Seattle, San Francisco, Denver, St. Paul, St. Louis, 
Chicago, Pittsburg, Philadelphia, New York City, Boston, and 
Washington, D. C. 

At each of the cities named there is maintained an office, or offices, 
with a clerk, files, correspondence, etc. As soon as a petition is filed 
in any of the courts in these cities, the practice adopted generally is 
for the clerk of the court to advise the petitioner and his witnesses 
to caU at the office of the chief examiner for interrogation. By this 
means a great mass of investigation is rapidly and effectively dis- 
posed of immediately without the necessity of domiciliary visits, 
except in doubtful cases. This practice, of course, can be resorted 
to only in those cities where a naturalization office is maintained. 

Besides the offices mentioned, one examiner is located at Los 
Angeles, under the supervision of the San Francisco office, and one at 
Duluth, under the St. Paul office. As it is shown to be practicable, 
examiners will be detached from the offices of the chief examiners 
and will be located at other points, so as to save the expense and loss 



232 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAE OF IMMIGRATION. 

of time occasioned by travel for long distances. Delay in carrying out 
this policy is occasioned by the lack of sufficient men to handle the 
business at the headquarters of the chief examiners. 

One of the most exacting duties of the examiners is that of calling 
upon the clerks of courts to give them instructions, to urge the neces- 
sity of prompt reports to the Division, to examine their records, to 
correct errors in their remittances, and to make collections of bal- 
ances due the Government. This work is especially required in 
rural districts, where the naturalization business is comparatively 
small in amount and the occurrence of mistakes frequent as a result of 
the inexperience of the clerks of courts. 

The Washington, D. C, district was established during the past 
year, and covers the large area of the States bordering the Atlantic 
Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico from Virginia to Texas, inclusive; 
also Tennessee and Kentucky. One examiner is located at New 
Orleans, and one at Houston, Tex. The chief examiner and a clerk 
are located in Washington, and besides attending to the business 
in the Southern States he attends the courts in Baltimore and in the 
State of Maryland, except the four western counties. While this 
arrangement is palpably inadequate, much has been accomplished 
by it, and the Division has now the means of exercising some super- 
vision over the business in the Southern States. 

It will be easily understood that besides energy, intelligence, and an 
intimate acquaintance with the law, the duties of an examiner exact 
the use of courtesy, firmness, good nature, and tact. The clerks of 
courts are in all other matters supreme, and are not accustomed to 
the interference, even in a helpful way, of Government officers. 
As the clerks usually possess the entire sympathy and confidence of 
the judges of their courts, it is plain that the usefulness of the examiner 
depends upon his power to secure good will and inspire respect and 
confidence in both the clerks and the judges. It is in this way the 
Division believes that these officers have shown their value. They 
have succeeded in impressing the clerks of courts, and the judges as 
well, with the fact that the object of their employment is cooperation, 
for a common end, between the judicial and executive machinery by 
which jointly the naturalization law is now enforced. The best 
evidence of this is found not alone in the general absence of discord, 
but in the voluntary expressions by the judges of commendation of 
the methods employed and of the men by whom the Government is 
represented. Numerous letters to this effect are of record in the 
Division. 

A prominent Federal judge, in commendino^ the work of the exam- 
iners, stated that for the first time it has made it possible for a judge 
to intelligently become "satisfied/' as the law requires, that a peti- 
tioner is, or is not, "in every way qualified to become a citizen or the 
United States," because for the first time other evidence than the mere 
ex parte statements of a petitioner is submitted for consideration. 

If consideration is given to the area of the districts and to the cliar- 
acter of the services performed, it must be evident that more exam- 
iners are required, and that the compensation of those already 
engaged should bo increased, if not adequately at least enough to be 
more nearly commensurate with the value of the service rendered. 



EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



233 



The following sample form shows the method that has been adopted 
by the examiners in making a handy record for use at the hearings 
upon petitions: 



(Pittsburgh.) 
No. 63-29. Common Pleas Court. 

Date filed: June 5, 1911. 

Decl-vration made at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, on 4/S/07. Prior 
petition: No. 



Petitioner: 
Name — John .Jones. 
Residence— 121 Falls St., Cleve- 
land. 
Nationality — German. 
Business— Laborer. 



Witnesses: 

Name — Simeon Smith. 
Residence— 119 2nd St., Cleve- 
land. 
Business— Saloon keeper. 



Name-WUllam Williams. 
Residence— 2311 I St., Cleve- 

land. 
Business— Bartend cr. 



ADJOURNMENTS 



From — 



To— 



Reasons 



Exam- 
iner 



FINAL HEARING 



Admitted or 
denied 

Date 191 

Grounds 

Examiner 



RESULT OF EXAMINATION. 

In the declaration of Intention of this petitioner 
he states that he arrived in this country at the port 
of New York on July 3, 1907, while in his petition 
he claims to have arrived at the port of Boston, 
Mass., on November 4.1903. Further attention is 
directed to t!ie fact that his wife and three children 
now reside at Bremen, Germany, one of the chil- 
dren, Gustav, having, it appears, been born in 
Bremen, Germany, on June 10, 1907. As stated 
above the alien claims to have arrived in this coun- 
try on November 3, 1903, and to have resided here 
continuously since this date. 



As the cases are called, the examiner turns to the slip containing 
the information secured by investigation, the data furmshed by the 
Division, and memoranda of any previous action by the court, and is 
thus prepared to properly represent the interests of the Government. 



WORK OF THE DIVISION. 

As pointed out in the last annual report, there is no part of the 
actual administration of the natura,lization law in wliich the Division 
does not have a share. It must pass upon the evidence upon which 
any court bases its claim of jurisdiction; it must supply the clerks of 
courts with the proper quantity of blank forms, bound and unbound, 
and suitable forms for reports of work done each month and for quar- 
terly reports of collections; must compare each requisition for addi- 
tional supplies with the amounts already furnished, and the amounts 
consumed in transacting the business reported, so as to prevent 
extravagance or wastefulness; it must receive, date, appropriately 
number, card index, examine, and file every letter, account, report, 
declaration, petition, and certificate received; it must complete its 
examination of all petitions in time to report discovered defects before 
the dates set for hearing; it must aid the two thousand five hundred 
clerks of courts; it must direct the movements to some extent of its 
field force, and instruct them as to the attitude to be taken before 
the courts in emergencies; it must make provisional constructions 
of the law for the guidance of the examiners; it must require and 
examine property returns, and scan the issuance of stationery and 
supplies of all kinds, both in Washington and in the field outside of 



234 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Washington; it must pass upon all requests for authorization for 
service, such as telephones, offices, etc., and make suitable recom- 
mendations; it must consider and pass upon the necessity for noting 
exceptions to judicial rulings as a basis for reviews, as well as upon 
the institution of cancelation proceedings under section 15 of the 
naturalization act. Tliis is a mere outline of its functions, and is 
apart from the ordinary duties of maintaining the efficiency of the 
official personnel of the Division and of the field force by appropriate 
distribution of work, by promotions, or selections to fill vacancies, 
and the countless details associated therewith. 

The mail disposed of by the Division in the past year is shown in 
the accompanying table: 

Volume op Mail Handled by the Division of Naturalization, 1910 and 1911. 





1910, 
total. 


1911 




First 
quarter. 


Second 
quarter. 


Third 
quarter. 


Fourth 
quarter. 


Total. 


Incoming mail: 

Unregistered pieces 


50,826 
13,599 


9,999 
2,949 


10,360 
3,783 


11,971 
4,071 


13,861 
3,736 


46, 191 


Registered pieces 


14,539 






Total 


64,425 
210+ 


12,948 
169+ 


14,143 
185- 


16,042 
210- 


17,597 
230+ 


60, 730 


Average per working day 


198+ 






Outgoing mail: 

Letters 


37,414 
34, 157 
12,004 


8,180 

7,129 

983 


11,536 

8,854 

326 


12,329 

11,292 

491 


11,339 

14,910 

431 

2,061 


43,384 


Form letters 


42,185 


Documents 


2,231 




2,001 






' 






Total. 


83,575 


16,292 


20,716 


24,112 


28,741 


89,861 






Average per working day: 

Letters 


122+ 
111 + 
39+ 


107- 
93+ 
13- 


151- 
116- 

4+ 


161 + 

148- 

6+ 


148+ 

195- 

6- 

45- 


142- 


Form letters 


138- 


Documents 


7+ 


Petition notices • 


45- 














Total 


273+ 


213- 


271- 


315+ 


394- 


332- 







• Petition notices were put in use on May 8, 1911, and are used instead of letters advising chief naturaliza- 
tion examiners of defects in petitions and dates of final hearings. It will be noted that the record of out- 
going letters for the fourth (quarter shows a decrease as compared with the previous quarters. This decrea,?e 
In the number of outgoing letters in the fourth quarter is more than offset by the number of outgoing petition 
notices. 

Herewith is given a sample of forms used, and described in the 
footnote to the foregoing table as "petition notices." These forms 
are made up in the Division, after examination of the declaration 
and petition, in any case, to notify the examiner in whose district 
the petition has been filed of any defect appearing of record, and 
have been substituted for formal letters containing the same infor- 
mation. 



September 28, 1911. 
30-2621. (Philadelphia.) 
Michele Marino. 

Petitioner claims to have resided in Pennsylvania continuously since 
May 10, 1904, and the subscribing witnesses make affidavit to knowledge 
of his residence in the State and United States since June 1, 1905. The 
alien, however, declared his intention in the United States district court 
at Cleveland, Ohio, on December 5, 1906, and filed a petition in the 
same court on December 31, 1908, the petition having been denied 
because the alien was opposed to organized government. 



KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



235 



It should be noted that the incoming mail is reported in the above 
table as "pieces." Many of such pieces consist of packages containing 
varying numbers of declarations, petitions, and certificates, each one 
of which involves the expenditure of more work than an ordinary 
letter. Thus, while the total number of pieces received during the 
year, as appears in the above table, was 60,730, those pieces included 
186,157 declarations of intention, 73,644 petitions for naturalization, 
55,329 certificates, probably 10,000 accounts, and an uncalculated 
number of letters requiring replies. 

By the annexed statement is shown the number of accounts han- 
dled during the first three quarters only of the year, as at the time of 
preparing this report the accounts for the last quarter had not been 
received. It should not be inferred that the accounts marked 
*'no transactions" involve no work and are therefore improperly 
included in a list of accounts examined. All accounts must be com- 
pared with the papers on file, transmitted by the clerks of courts, 
to ascertain whether the amounts reported are correct, and whether 
there were or were not transactions, regardless of the report of ''no 
transactions." Errors are made not only in the amount of transac- 
tions accounted for but as well with regard to actual transaction of 
any business. 

Number of Accounts Handled, Fiscal Years 1907-1911. 





1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


11911 


Total. 


Transactions 


3 
14 


27 
56 


1,704 
656 


6,324 
2,685 


4,980 
2,117 


13,038 
5,528 


No transactions 




Total 


17 


S3 


2,360 


9,009 


7,097 


18,566 





' First three quarters only. 



During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1911, the Division passed 
on accounts for which expenditures were chargeable against the 
appropriation for the field service as follows : 



Salary rolls 315 

Field vouchers 582 

Suspensions 130 

Telephone 88 

Eent 20 



Additional clerks Ill 

Miscellaneous 489 



Total 1,735 



The number of petitions for naturalization disposed of by the 
courts and the final action thereon has been discussed under the 
heading "Work of the courts." There it is stated that 64,346 peti- 
tions for naturahzation were heard during the past fiscal year. This 
number, however, is only a portion of the petitions filed in the various 
ofiices of clerks of courts throughout the United States and received 
in this office, where the administrative examination as to their form, 
execution, and compliance with the law was given to them. 

During the year covered by this report the number of naturali- 
zation paper filed throughout the United States and received in this 
office was unprecedented. Exclusive of the various reports from 
clerks of courts and abstracts of remittances of fees collected in 
naturahzation proceedings, there were 315,130, as against 261,470 
for 1910 and 222,727 for 1909. These figures show an increase of 
92,403 papers, or 41.49 per cent in the annual volume of work thrown 



236 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAT. OF IMMIGRATION. 



upon this office since 1909. The division of these papers is shown 
in the following table : 



Papers. 


1909 


1910 


1911 


Increase, 
1910 over 1909 


Increase, 
1911 over 1910. 


Increase, 
1911 over 1909. 


Declarations 


143,212 
42,178 
37,337 


167,226 
55,038 
39,206 


186,157 
73,644 
55,329 


Num- 
ber. 
24,014 
12,800 
1,809 


Per 
cent. 
16.77 
30.49 
5.00 


Num- 
ber. 
18,931 
18,006 
16, 123 


Per 

cent. 
11.32 
33.81 
41.12 


Num- 
ber. 
42,945 
31,406 
17,992 


Per 
cent. 
29 99 


Petitions 


74.60 


Certificates 


48.00 






Total 


222,727 


261,470 


315,130 38.743 


17.39 


53,600 


20.52 


92,403 


41.49 











Particular attention is directed to the growth in the number of 
petitions as indicative of the present burden of the work of a most 
exacting character which this office performs. The first annual 
report of this office showed the filing of 20,802 petitions for naturali- 
zation in the nine months covered by the fiscal year 1907. The 
annual report for 1908 showed an increase to 43,878. The report for 
the fiscal year 1909 showed a falling off to 42,178. Since that year, 
however, there has been such a tremendous increase as to have 
reached 73,644 petitions for naturahzation ffied and received during 
the past fiscal year, making a growth of 74.60 per cent, or 31,466 
more petitions during the fiscal year 1911 than in 1909. 

The examination of these petitions and the attention to other 
work in this office has been accompUshed only by receiving from the 
Department details of clerks and messengers from its other branches. 
A total of 18 clerks and 2 messengers have been obtained from the 
Department at various times. In addition a requirement of one 
hour overtime daily was placed upon the entire force, commencing 
with October 19, 1910, and continuing \vithout cessation until the 
heated term compelled the discontinuance of compulsory overtime 
work on June 1, 1911. Prior to this requirement of extra time there 
had been a general unanimous performance of voluntary overtime 
work by the members of the force, which was continued subsequently 
to the discontinuance of the compulsory overtime, so that there has 
been no month in the fiscal year in wliich hundreds of hours of volun- 
tary and compulsory overtime work has not been performed. This 
overtime work has equaled the time of approximately 7 additional 
clerks. 

Notwithstanding this it has not been possible to prevent the work 
from falling constantly and steadily in arrears. These conditions 
were made known to the Department regularly in the monthly reports 
called for by the act of Congress approved March 15, 1898, and as the 
result Congress appropriated for 12 additional clerks and 2 additional 
messengers. These positions were filled as promptly as possible, but 
notwithstanding this no headway has been made against the arrear- 
ages and it has been only by the utmost effort that the examination 
of the approximately 73,600 petitions, together with the thousands of 
old petitions to which they related, has been accomplished. 

Tne declarations of intention have increased from 143,212 in 1909 
to 186,157 in 1911, or a total of 42,947 in actual numbers and approxi- 
mately 30 per cent. 

The relation between declarations of intention and petitions for 
naturalization should here be pointed out. Undoubtedly the increase 



KEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 237 

in the number of petitions \\dll not cease until it has approximated 
the volume of declarations annually filed and received. As evidence 
that this is a fact wliich will be borne out by experience it need only 
be stated that approximately 50 per cent of the current petitions for 
naturalization are filed on current law declarations. The number of 
petitions filed during the past year exceeded the number of declara- 
tions filed during the fiscal year 1907. The declarations which were 
used as a basis for the current law petitions were all filed during 
1907, 1908, and 1909, and were at least two years old. 

The last year of the first seven-year period will expire on Septem- 
ber 26, 1913. Under the law all declarants who fail to utilize their 
declarations for filing petitions for naturaHzation witlnn seven j^ears 
must declare their intention anew and wait a further period of two 
years. This penal t}^ is going to be avoided undoubtedly in nearly 
all cases. In order to do so, however, all declarations of intention 
must be acted upon, and in their use it is plain that as each year 
thereafter ^\dll witness the expiration of a seven-year period the 
number of petitions filed will approximately equal the number of 
declarations filed. 

Attention is also directed to the number of certificates of naturali- 
zation received. The annual report for the fiscal year 1907 showed 
7,735 certificates issued. The report for 1908 showed 25,517 certifi- 
cates issued. Since then the number of certificates granted has 
increased from year to year, the greatest increase taking place between 
1910 and 1911, when 55,329 certificates were issued, or 16,123 more 
than in 1910, an increase of 41 per cent. 

During the year under discussion no systematic examination of 
certificates of naturaHzation was possible, and no declarations of 
intention filed during the last six months of the year, except a small 
portion of those filed in January, have been examined. This leaves 
approximately 90,000 declarations of intention not examined at the 
close of the fiscal year and approximately 100,000 certificates of 
naturalization not acted upon. The difference in the volume of 
certificates not examined is due to the fact that a-t no time has the 
personnel of this office been numerically sufficient to admit of the 
systematic examination of certificates of naturalization. 

As already stated, the quarters of this office have been changed 
and enlarged t^^dce to provide in some measure space in which to 
carry on its work. While it is beheved that the present arrange- 
ment is the best that circumstances admitted of making, it is wholly 
unsuited to the requirements of either the work or the personnel. 
The administrative officers are on the second floor and in a part of 
the builchng far removed from and not connected in any way with 
the operating force. Some of the clerks are located on the second 
floor, while the remainder are on the sixth floor. Those on the 
sixth floor are located in eight different rooms. This scattered dis- 
tribution of the force results in a most extravagant use of the time 
of the clerks and of the administrative officers in the conduct of the 
work, prevents satisfactory supervision, and precludes the maximum 
efficiency which otherwise would be attained. 

^ It is due only to the fact that the personnel of this force, both indi- 
vidually and collectively, possesses the highest standard of loyalty 
and interest that the gi'eat volume of work is moved. It is not 
beheved that in a.nj other branch of the Government or in any cor- 



238 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



porate service there can be found as high a standard of efficiency in 
a given number of men as is found in the employees in the Division 
of NaturaUzation. When the relation between the large volume of 
incoming and outgoing mail received and dispatched and the small 
personnel is understood, no slight evidence of the justice of this 
assertion is found. 

On June 30, 1909, the personnel of this office comprised 26 clerks, 
2 messengers, and 2 officers. By the act of March 4, 1911, 12 clerks 
and 2 messengers were added. This was an increase of 46.66 per 
cent. The number of petitions received during the fiscal year 1909, 
as shown by the report for that year, was 42,178; during the fiscal 
year 1911 the number was 73,644, an increase of 74.60 per cent. The 
next estimates which will be submitted to the Department will call 
for an addition of 7 new positions. This will make a total of 70 per 
cent increase in the personnel since June 30, 1909. The appropria- 
tion for this office for the fiscal year 1910 was $41,160. The amount 
to be submitted in the estimates will aggregate $68,310, an increase 
of $27,150, or 65.96 per cent, as against an increase of 74.60 per cent 
in the work. 



Receipts op Naturalization Fees, Arranged by Quarters, Fiscal Yeabs 
ENDED June 30, 1907-1911. 



Fiscal years. 


First 
quarter. 


Second 
quarter. 


Third 
quarter. 


Fourth 
quarter. 


Total. 


1907 1 










$65,129.00 


1908 


$26,307.00 
42, 285. 03 
38,098.91 
55,497.20 


S32, 753. 50 
45, 945. 85 
42, 710. 94 
69, 645. 12 


S49, 554. 00 
40,091.00 
00, 852. 90 
81,481.95 


$58, 259. 40 
43,880.25 
80, 103. 63 
83,927.25 


166,873.90 


1909 


172,202.13 


1910 


221,766.38 


1911 


290,551.52 






Grand total . . 








916, 522. 93 













1 For nine months only. 

The total expenditures from all appropriations for the enforcement 
of the naturalization law, including appropriations under the Depart- 
ment of Justice as well as under this Department, up to June 30, 1911, 
was $857,384.58. The total receipts from naturalization fees since 
September 26, 1906, was $916,522.93, or $59,138.35 in excess of all 
expenditures. The total receipts from naturahzation fees, exclusive 
of fines and forfeitures of various kinds which are not received and 
accounted for through this Division, was $290,551.52 in the fiscal year 
1911. The appropriations for 1912 aggregate $233,660, while the 
fees for that year indicate a total which will be greater than the 
appropriations. The amount of $293,310, which will be requested 
in the estimates for the fiscal year 1913, \Ndll be $225,000 for the 
field service and $68,310 for the office. Thus it will be seen that 
with the appropriation of the amount requested in the estimates the 
administration of the naturalization law by the Federal Government 
will be at no expense to the Government of the United States. On the 
other hand, there will be a balance returnable to the Treasury of the 
United States as a result of the wise legislation b}^ Congress contained 
in the act of June 29, 1906, to establish a uniform rule of naturali- 
zation of aliens. 



EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



239 



As illustrative of the extent to which supervision of the clerks of 
courts has been necessary to obtain any reports from them of the 
business transacted, the subjoined table is presented. 

Number of Courts in Each State which are Exercising Naturalization Juris- 
diction AND Number in each State which are Habitually Delinquent in 
Accounting for Naturalization Business Transacted. 



state or Territory. 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California , 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 



Exercising 


Habitually 


jurisdiction. 


delinquent. 


31 


17 


8 





14 


2 


56 


35 


62 


5 


63 


4 


13 





4 


1 


1 





31 


11 


48 


28 


9 





30 


3 


114 


12 


92 


25 


109 


10 


107 


16 


60 


26 


40 


15 


15 





24 


7 


18 





91 


8 


99 


7 


57 


27 


107 


44 


31 






State or Territory. 



Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina . , 
North Dakota.. 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania... 
Rhode Island . . . 
South Carolina . . 
South Dakota.. 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia.. 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Total 



Exercising 
jurisdiction, 



94 
16 
12 
22 
26 
67 
47 
53 
89 
66 
37 
68 
3 
21 
60 
29 
173 
28 
15 
65 
41 
44 
74 
15 



2,499 



Habitually 
delinquent. 



18 






25 
3 

18 

18 
1 
5 


10 
4 

10 

65 
7 
3 

30 
1 
8 
1 
1 



531 



In consequence of the arrearages in the work, Congress made pro- 
vision during the last regular session for 12 additional clerks and 2 
messengers. At the time this action was taken the Department had 
already been compelled to supply the Division, by temporary assign- 
ments from other offices, with the clerical assistance equivalent to the 
allowance made by Congress, it having been shown that the assign- 
ments hampered and delayed the work of the offices from which they 
were made. The allowance was made to meet a situation then exist- 
ing and not to provide for any subsec[uent increase of naturalization 
work. The situation now confronting the Division is shown in 
another part of the report, where, under the heading "Work of the 
courts," figures are given which disclose the fact that during the past 
year there has been an increase of 36 per cent in the court work as 
compared with the business for the preceding year. It is plain, in 
view of tliis, that it will be indispensable to an adequate service by 
the Division that provision be made at the coming session of Congress 
for a further increase in the number of clerks allowed to it. 

There is in section 4 of the act of June 29, 1906, a requirement that 
to the petition of every alien who has arrived in the United States 
since that date there shall be attached a certificate from the Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Labor stating the date, place, and manner of 
his arrival. As it is now five years since the date of that act, ahens 
will soon begin to apply for these certificates. Suitable blank forms 
have been prepared for the use of persons applying for such certifi- 
cates, and those forms have been furnished to the clerks of courts, so 



240 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

as to expedite the identification of each applicant with the appropri- 
ate entry in the record of arriving ahens required by section 1 of the 
said act to be kept at the ports of entry. The magnitude of this 
undertaking will sufficiently appear when it is considered that nearly 
73,700 petitions were filed dunng the past year, and that as the years 
pass the number of such certificates wul more closely aj^proximate the 
total number of petitions filed. The task besides will in actual prac- 
tice prove more onerous than appears from its mere bulk as shown in 
figures, because of clerical errors in the records, such as misspelled 
names, erroneous dates, and measurements, the fact that it is not 
unusual for ahens to enter under assumed names, the failure of 
applicants to recall the name of the port of entry, or the date of their 
arrival, or the name of the vessel on which they came. Any mistake 
in regard to such means of identification will make it next to impos- 
sible, in many instances, to discover, among the hundreds of thou- 
sands of such records made annually, the particular entry upon which 
alone a certificate may be issued. Apart from the purpose of what 
is here said, which is to show one of the many urgent reasons for an 
increase in the Division's clerical force, it may not be amiss to express 
a doubt whether the cost and labor involved and the uncertainty in 
many cases of achieving the result sought should not justify the aban- 
donment of the requirement of the certificate of arrival, at least as 
indispensable to the admission to citizenship. Such a recommenda- 
tion IS not, however, made now, but with the acquisition of experi- 
ence it may be necessary to do so. 

During the past year fire destroyed the naturalization records in 
Decatur, Miss. Records were partially destroyed in Fairbanks, 
Alaska; Bad Axe, Mich.; Winner, S. Dak.; Guymon, Okla.; and 
Estancia, N. Mex. These fires required the restoration of 3 records 
of declarations of intention, 1 record of petition for naturalization, 
and 1 certificate of naturalization. There were fires m the court- 
houses at Aztec, N. Mex., and Genoa, Nev., during the fiscal year 
1910, but were not reported untU after the close of the fiscal year, 
and therefore were not included in the last report of the Division. 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

From what has been shown it is obvious that the most pressing 
need of the service now is a suflicient appropriation to employ the 
requisite number of clerks in tlie Division and examiners in the field. 
Hardly less an exigency is the lack of suitably spacious and well 
arranged quarters for the official and clerical force of the Division at 
the seat of Government. It is realized, however, that this is not a 
requirement of economical and efficient service that is peculiar to the 
Naturalization Service, as is the inadequacy of funds, since many 
other offices of the Government are in a like situation. 

It is not easy to comprehend the principle upon which the esti- 
mated cost of this service has been reduced in Congress. Economy, 
in the correct sense of that word, cannot be urged as a reason for 
reducing estimates made with a care that almost amounts to parsi- 
mony, for the service is more than self-supporting. The purpose of 
requiring one-half of the fees collected to oe returned to tne United 
States Treasury and deposited in the miscellaneous fund was plainly 
to relieve the Government of a charge that should be borne oy the 



EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



241 



beneficiaries, and not to constitute the naturalization law a revenue 
measure. The Government assumes no burden, therefore, unless the 
appropriations exceed the amount collected annually and turned 
into the Treasury, and in that event only to the extent of such excess. 
If the figures presented in this report are at all reliable as indicative 
of future receipts, there seems to be no reasonable ground to appre- 
hend that the Government will ever have to exceed the fund com- 
posed of these collections. There would seem, therefore, to be no 
sufficient reason, from the usual point of view, for a failure to appro- 
priate a sufficient amount, at least within the limits of the actual 
collections, to insure an efficient administration of the law. 

The appropriation for the current year is $25,000 less than the 
$200,000 estimated as necessary. 

In support of the recommendation of the Department, there was 
submitted the accompanying statement of receipts and disburse- 
ments since the operation of the act : 

Receipts and Disbursements, Fiscal Years ended June 30, 1907-1911. 

[UptoDec. 31, 1910.] 





Receipts. 


Disburse- 
ments. 


Fiscal years. 


First 
quarter. 


Second 
quarter. 


Third 
quarter. 


Fourth 
quarter. 


Total. 


1907 1 










$65, 129. 00 
166,873.90 
172,202.13 
221,766.38 
117,534.29 


$29,243.18 


1908. 


$26,307.00 
42,285.03 
38,098.91 
65,497.20 


$32, 753. 50 
45,945.85 
42,710.94 

2 62, 037. 09 


$49, 554. 00 
40,091.00 
60, 852. 90 


$58,259.40 
43, 880. 25 
80,103.63 


39,728.05 


1909 


44, 428. 45 


1910 


176,415.98 


1911. 


92,403.27 












Total 










743,505.70 


382, 218. 93 















1 For nine months only. 



' Incomplete. 



Balance in this Department of receipts over disbursements $361 , 286. 77 

Appropriations of $100,000, $93,000, and $150,000 under Department of Justice 343, 000. 00 

Net balance to the Government considering aU sources of receipts and expenditures in 
both Departments since the organization of the Naturalization Service 18, 286. 77 

In the fiscal year 1908 there were available under the Department of Justice an original appropriation 
of $100,000 and a general deflciency appropriation of $93,000. The total appropriation of $200,000 
requested for the Naturalization Field Service and for the clerks of the courts is only $7,000 in excess of 
the amount appropriated for the field service under the Department of Justice, and of the $200,000 
between $35,000 and $'0,000 will be for clerks of courts, $5,000 for contingent expenses, and the remamder, 
$155,000 to $160,000, is for the field examiners. 

The net balance was computed upon the assumption that the 
Department of Justice expended the full amount of the $343,000 
appropriated for the field service in the two years that the latter was 
under its control. 

As a practical measure of reform that would greatly diminish the 
labor involved, and the embarrassment and cost to applicants, the 
aboHtion of the declaration of intention is again recommended. This 
has been partially done by the amendatory act of June 25, 1910, but 
the language of that act has proven so obscure to the courts and to 
administrative officers that it has been impossible to secure any con- 
sensus of opinion as to how far the exemption for which it provides is 
intended to go. An effective method of solvmg the problem would be 
to dispense entirely with the declaration of intention. 

175S1°— 12 16 



242 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Legislation is urged also to confer, in express terms, such authority 
upon the Secretary of Commerce and Labor as will enable him without 
question to order, with the consent of a declarant or a petitioner, 
corrections of errors in papers filed in the clerks' oflices which are 
discovered before the courts' jurisdiction to hear and determine 
attaches, and to forbid the issuance of copies of such papers without 
express authority from him. 

The first of these recommendations is suggested for the reason that 
unless the Department, representing on one side the Government and 
the alien on the other, can by agreement amend defects in the papers 
before the latter's petition matures for hearing one of two objection- 
able results will ensue — either the alien will be denied citizenship, 
though he may be fully qualified for it, because of some error or 
omission by the clerk of court, or the judge will disregard the 
defect because of the merits of the case, and thus the requirements 
of the law will be gradually dispensed with. 

The second recommendation is made to still any question as to 
the power of the Department to forbid the indiscriminate supply of 
certified copies, by the use of which false impersonation mignt be 
resorted to by those who are not, and perhaps could not be, naturaUzed. 

Again it is urged that legislation be enacted to provide for review 
of the rulings by courts of original jurisdiction upon petitions. As 
the law now stands views are various and conflicting upon questions 
involving the construction of the statutes, and the application of the 
rule of naturalization is lacking in that uniformity which the Con- 
stitution and the title of the act require. In some instances it is held 
that orders of naturalization are not reviewable hj any tribunal and 
that section 15, which provides for cancellation of illegally issued 
or fraudulently obtained certificates, furnishes a complete remedy 
for errors in original decisions. In others the United States circuit 
court of appeals and the appellate courts of the States have reviewed 
decisions or the Federal and State courts, respectively. The result 
is confusion, uncertainty, and conflict. What is held to be law in 
one part of the country is denied to be such in another. The holders 
of certificates, obtained in good faith, are thus left in a position of 
insecurity, and the administrative officers remain in doubt and 
uncertainty as to the position they should take. It is inconceivable, 
however careful and able they may be, that 2,500 judges will aU agree. 
As an illustration of this, a judge in one State has held that a peti-; 
tioner who does not speak the English tongue is not "qualified in 
every way" to be a citizen of the United States, and refused to admit 
him, although the law exempts from this general requirement any 
petitioner who "prior to the passage of tliis act declared his intention 
to become a citizen of the United States," etc. On the other hand, 
another judge has held that conviction and service of imprisonment 
under sentence, within twelve months prior to seeking naturalization, 
for violation of the antigambling laws of the State of residence do 
not disqualify a petitioner either upon the score of lack of good moral 
character or because he is not "well disposed to the good order and 
happiness of the United States." - 

Again the courts variously construe the requirement that in every 
case the judge shall be satisfied that a petitioner has, "immediately 
preceding the date of his application, resided continuously Nvithin 



EEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 243 

the United States, and tlie State, for tlie prescribed period of time." 
Some hold that constructive residence is a sufficient comphance with 
the law; some that physical presence is indispensable. 

There is also a divergence of view as to the age a petitioner must 
have attained before making liis appUcation, and before being 
admitted a citizen. 

These are only some of the instances which show that the review 
of a court of final resort is essential to a uniform appUcation of the 
rule of naturalization. 

As there was pending at the close of the last regular session of the 
Congress a bill in relation to those classes who enjoy certain exemp- 
tions from the general law because of their service to the United 
States Government, it will be unnecessary to repeat the recommenda- 
tions heretofore made upon that subject; but the Division can not 
forbear referring to the subject merely to urge the speedy enactment 
of the measure. 

Respectfully, Richd. K. Campbell, 

Chief, Division of Naturalization. 

To Hon. Danl. J. Keefe, 

GoTnmjissioner General of Immigration. 



APPENDIX III 



ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

CHIEF OF THE DIVISION OF INFORMATION 

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1911 



245 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF THE DIVISION OF 
INFORMATION. 



Department of Commerce and Labor, 
BiiKEAU OF Immigration and Naturalization, 

Division of Information, 

Washington, June 30, 1911. 

Sir : Herewith is submitted the report of the Division of Informa- 
tion for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1911. 

As heretofore, the Division presents tables illustrative of a part of 
its activities. 

Table I shows the number, races or peoples, and occupations of 
appHcants for information. 

Table II gives the occupations of those distributed to the various 
States. 

Table III shows what races or peoples contributed to the number 
distributed. 

By consulting these tables it will be seen that 30,657 applicants 
received information during the year, as against 18,239 for 1910, or 
an increase of 12,418. In accordance with the practice of the 
Division, no one was registered more than once, no matter how often 
he applied; further, many of those who apphed represented groups 
of persons who could not call in person, and it is therefore reasonable 
to suppose that over 100,000 persons were benefited by information 
given by the Division. 

The number of persons giving their occupation as farm laborer was 
7,134, an increase of 1,932 over last year, while 8,028 day laborers 
received information, an increase of 3,171 over 1910. 

The fact that large numbers of skilled workers applied does not 
indicate that they sought information concerning their particular 
trades alone, for it has been noted that nearly all these inquire con- 
cerning opportunities on the land either as renters on shares or as 
prospective purchasers. As a matter of fact the Division directs no 
skilled craftsmen nor miners or other underground workers. The car- 
penters, machinists, painters, pipe fitters, tailors, weavers, and other 
skilled workmen directed went principally to villages and towns where 
they could follow other lines of activity and avail themselves of the 
use of garden plats and low house rent. 

Of the number applying for information 5,176 went direct to places 
where they were employed. It should be noted that the Division 
does not undertake to arrange contracts for employment. When 
employing farmers or others give notice that they can furnish employ- 
ment to those in need of it, they at the same time refer the Division 
to some well-known persons or institutions as to their standing, 
financial and otherwise. All of the information gathered by the 

247 



248 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Division is subject to inspection by applicants for emplojrment, who, 
without being influenced by anyone representing the Division, make 
their own selections and terms. That being done, officers of the 
Division direct them fully and carefully, so that they may reach des- 
tination without delay or unnecessary mconvenience, by the cheapest 
and most direct route. 

It is gratifymg to report that only five of those who were directed to 
employment by the Division failed of arrival at destination. These 
did not report to the individuals they made arrangements to go to, 
but secured employment either in the same locality or in close prox- 
imity to it. The need for agricultural help is so great that some 
farmers do not hesitate to intercept men en route to a neighbor and 
by offering greater inducements persuade the workmen to accept 
employment with them. The wonder therefore is not that so few 
fail to reach destination, but that a greater number do not turn 
aside from the path originally chosen by them. 

No means has been or can be devised to insure arrival of men 
directed by the Division. It does not guarantee, or undertake to 
guarantee, the arrival at destination of anyone directed by it; neither 
does it guarantee that those it serves with information will remain in 
the locality to which they are directed. A case in point is that of 
John Schaub, who, durmg the month of March, macle arrangements 
to accept service with the Eastern Arkansas Demonstration Farm at 
Blackton, Ark., and in June left Blackton to take up his residence 
in Connecticut, notwithstandmg the fact that the firm operating said 
farm had engaged him with the express understanding that he was 
to have superintendency of a large dairy plant then in course of con- 
struction. Neither the Division nor the management of the Eastern 
Arkansas Demonstration Farm was responsible for the failure of Mr. 
Schaub to remain in Blackton. 

Referrmg to Table III, it will be seen that 1,127 Germans and 1,044 
Poles made use of the mformation given them by the Division, as 
against the 939 Germans and 700 Poles shown in the 1910 report. 
Of the 19 Germans who went to Texas, 2 are now engaged hi secur- 
ing land for a colony of Germans they mtend to bring to the South 
from some of the eastern cities. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 249 



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256 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
VISITS TO CERTAIN STATES. 

During the year the Assistant Chief of the Division visited the 
capitals of the States of Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Nebraska, 
Wisconsin, and Michigan to confer with the governors and other 
State officials with a view to securmg their cooperation in the work 
of promoting a beneficial distribution of aliens and others. As a 
result of his efforts, the State of Ohio established a Bureau of Farm 
Labor, and is arranging to cooperate with the Division in its work. 
From correspondence had with the officials of the States he visited 
it is evident that great interest was awakened in the work of dis- 
tribution, and if facilities could be afforded at Ellis Island, there is 
little doubt that each State would have a representative stationed 
there. 

The Southern Commercial Congress, an organization representing 
the commercial interests of the 16 Southern States, held its last 
annual session in Atlanta, Ga. That congress arranged for the 
holdmg of section meetings on March 12, 1911, and invited the 
Chief of the Division of Information to preside over and address 
the section dealing with immigration. The invitation was accepted; 
he attended the congress and presided over and addressed the immi- 
gration section, which unanimously adopted the following resolu- 
tions : 

Whereas a marvelous progress and development of the new and greater South along 
the lines of agriculture, manufactiu'e, and mining pursuits has steadily and solidly 
advanced to a point where the need for additional hands to till the soil, man the 
workshops, and bring forth the treasures of the mine is apparent to all who love the 
South and value her future, and 

Whereas the vast acreage in the South, fertile, productive, well watered, admir- 
ably located, and in close proximity to avenues of transportation, affords opportu- 
nity unexcelled for the success of colonies of enterprising, law-abiding people: Be it 

Resolved, That we favor immigration to the South of earnest, temperate, honest, 
industrious, and law-abiding workers. Especially do we favor the coming of heads 
of families whose object it shall be to carve out and own homes in the South; and be 
it further 

Resolved, That we urge upon the governments of the various States represented in 
this great commercial congress to establish bureaus or boards of publicity and infor- 
mation, the purpose of which shall be to acquire reliable useful information concern- 
ing the resources, products, and physical characteristics of the several States and be 
ready at all times to supply accurate information to all who seek employment as home 
builders on the land, or as workers in the mine or factory, and to the end that only 
respectable, thrifty, and law-abiding people may be directed to the South these 
various boards should be in constant touch and harmony with the Di\-ision of Infor- 
mation of the Department of Commerce and Labor. 

The National Board of Trade, which met in Wasliington, D. C, on 
January 17, 18, and 19, 1911, requested the attendance of the Chief 
of the Division at the meetings of the committee on resolutions. 
In the resolutions which received the unanimous approval of the 
national body appear the following: 

Resolved, That the National Board of Trade commends the work done by the 
Immigration Bureau, through its Division of Information, in placing at the disposal 
of immigrants information which enables them to obtain employment at interior 
points, and especially on our farms, and thus tending to prevent a further increase 
in the overcrowded slums of our cities; and recommends the providing by Cong:re88 
of a larger ai)propriation to make possible the opening of branch offices of this Division 
at the various seaports of our country; and 

Resolved, That as a means of more equitably distributing our immigrant popula- 
tion, and as a means of relieving the congestion of our eastern coast cities, the National 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 257 

Board of Trade approves the suggestion of President Taft that additional stations 
for the reception of immigrants be established at one or more South Atlantic or Gulf 
ports. 

LETTER TO GOVERNORS. 

On May 16, 1911, the Division addressed a note to the "Governors 
of every State and Territory of the United States." The text of 
said note, which follows, indicates its purpose: 

The Division of Information, Bureau of Immigration and Natm-alization, Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Labor, contemplates the publication of a pamphlet for dis- 
tribution among aliens and others in industrial centers in the United States, setting 
forth briefly and in a general way the opportunities offered to agricultural settlers 
in the several States and Territories. 

In order that a fair and accurate description of the conditions in each State may 
be presented, the Division is forwarding this identical note to each governor. 

The Division would be pleased to have you refer this communication to the prof)er 
official, with instructions to prepare a concise statement describing the opportunities 
offered settlers in your State. The principal points to be covered are as follows: 
Are there any public lands, such as Government, State, or school lands open to 
settlement; if so, their extent and how they may be prociu-ed; are there lands in 
private ownership for sale; if so, the general range of prices per acre and terms of 
payment; are there lands for rent; if so, the usual terms; the principal products and 
resources; the physical characteristics; the climate; whether rainfall is sufficient, or 
if irrigation is necessary; whether local societies exist which by advice and example 
tend to assist and encourage newcomers. Each statement should also include the 
name and address of the official with whom prospective settlers should communicate, 
and such other general information as may be deemed helpful to one who is seeking 
a home on the land. 

It is desired that all statements be mailed in time to reach the Division not later 
than June 15. 

The replies received prior to the close of the fiscal year were very 
encouraging and evidenced the keenest interest in the subject. The 
Division is warranted in predicting that each State and Territory 
will be fully represented in the forthcoming publication. 

PUBLICITY. 

The Division believes that through the medium of the press the 
widest publicity should be given of its existence, effort, and purpose. 
Thousands of unemployed could be directed to places as farm work- 
ers where, in addition to the monthly wage, house rent, garden plat, 
fuel, and, in most cases, milk, are offered free. 

The best evidence that such offers are genuine lies in the fact that 
many who have availed themselves of them write in confirmation of 
the statements made by employing farmers to them before employing 
them. 

WhUe it is true that over 100,000 persons were, directly and 
indirectly, provided with information by the Division, there is no 
known way of determining to what extent their expectations were 
realized, for it is only when somethmg goes wrong or they are dis- 
satisfied that they write to the Division. With 5,176 men directed 
by the Division to where they found work and over 100,000 others 
who may have profited by the effort of the Division, it is reasonable 
to assume that more than treble that number can be served by open- 
ing a branch of the Division in Chicago. The Division therefore 
renews its recommendation that a branch office be established in 
that city. 

37581°— 12 17 



258 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

The effort of the Division to secure the active cooperation of all 
the States is meeting with success, for a majority of State depart- 
ments of agriculture and State boards and bureaus of immigration 
have accepted an invitation to meet with representatives of the 
Division for the purpose of formulating a S3^stem of cooperation be- 
tween the States and the Division in the work of promoting a bene- 
ficial distribution of admitted aliens and other residents of the United 
States. 

It is hoped that when this conference assembles a plan will be 
mapped out whereby the thousands of American farmers who emi- 
grate each year to the Canadian Northwest may become informed of 
the greater advantages and opportunities to which they may turn in 
this country. It is estimated that the emigration for the last fiscal 
year from the United States to British North America of American 
citizens who follow farming for a living will exceed 75,000. There 
is no reason why the information gathered by the Division concern- 
ing the splendid opportunities for agriculturists in the various States 
should not be made available to Americans who contemplate emi- 
grating to take up land in other countries. This can and should be 
done by concerted effort on the part of the Division and the immigra- 
tion officials of the various States. It should be patent to all that 
every farmer induced to remain in this country, through presenta- 
tion of accurate information properly vouched for, is a gain in the 
way of promoting a beneficial distribution of aliens and other resi- 
dents of the United States. The greater the number of farmers we 
can induce to remain in this country, the greater will be the number 
of opportunities for all who would follow agriculture for a living, 
either as farm owners, renters, or farm laborers. The fact should be 
emphasized and pressed home that it is not necessary for a single 
farmer to leave the United States for want of good land, cheap land, 
good markets, or transportation facilities to get to market, while cli- 
matic conditions are more varied and better than the}^ can possibly 
be in British Columbia. 

The Division has had the cooperation of the National Societies of 
the Sons and Daughters of the American Kevolution as in preceding 
years. It is proposed during the coming year to publish the Con- 
stitution of the United States in convenient form, the same as 
''Information for immigrants" and "Naturalization of aliens in the 
United States" and place it at the disposal of the Division for 
distribution. 

In conclusion, the Division directs attention to the suggestions 
contained in its report for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1910. 
Respectfully, 

T. V. POWDERLY, 

Chief, Division of Information. 
To Hon. Danl. J. Keefe, 

Commissioner General of Immigration. 



INDEX. 



Page. 
Accommodations, steamship, of outward 

■bound passengers 8S-105 

Accounts handled, Division of Naturaliza- 
tion 235 

Act, proposed new immigration 173-198 

explanation 199-213 

Administrative changes required in the law.. 149 

Administrative work, Bureau 4, 167-170 

Division of Information 4 

Admitted. See Aliens admitted. 

Ages, aliens admitted 20,21,24,25 

emigrating aliens 22 

nonemigrant aliens departing 66 

nonimmigrant aliens admitted 64 

outward-bound passengers 88-105 

Agreement, Japanese, passports under 108- 

111, 132, 133 
Agriculture. See Farms. 

Agriculturists, settled, admission of Japanese. 107- 

109, 133 
Alien contract laborers. See Contract labor- 
ers. 

Alien seamen deserting 10, 86 

Aliens, agreement between arrivals and head- 
tax settlements 87 

arrivals of immigrant and nonimmigrant, 
and departures of emigrant and non- 
emigrant, by coimtries 14 

by months 13 

by occupations 18-19 

by ports 12 

by races or peoples 16 

by States 17 

emigrating, by countries and races or 

peoples 29-31 

by occupations and races or peoples 44-49 

by races or peoples and sex 63 

by races or peoples and sex, age, and 

' period of residence 22 

by States and occupations 56-61 

by States and races or peoples 35-37 

during specified periods, 1910-11 63 

inward and outward movement 12-19,88-105 

nonemigrant, departures by countries 70-73 

sex, ages, and length of residence of de- 
parting, by races or peoples 66 

nonstatistical, arrivals from Mexico 160 

See also Aliens admitted, etc.; Chinese; 
Japanese. 
Aliens admitted, ages, sex, literacy, financial 

condition, etc., by races or peoples 20, 21 

bonded 10 

by countries and races or peoples 26, 27, 28 

by occupations and races or peoples 38-43 

by races or peoples and sex 62 

by States and occupations 50-55 

conjugal condition 24 



Page. 
Aliens admitted, during specified periods, 

1910-11 62 

immigrant and nonimmigrant, by coun- 
tries, months, occupations, ports, races 

or peoples, and States 12-19, 32-34 

nonimmigrant, sex, age, literacy, financial 

condition, etc., by races or peoples 64 

nonimmigrant, sources and destinations... 67-69 

via Canada, by occupations 156 

Aliens debarred, by localities and causes 

(citizens of foreign contiguous territory) 79 

by ports 12 

by races or peoples and causes 76-77 

mental, moral, and physical defects, dis- 
cussion 123-126 

number and causes, 1892-1911 78, 155 

percentage of increased vigilance 124 

test of ability to earn a living 124 

See also Chinese; Japanese. 

Aliens deported, 1892-1911 78 

by ports 12 

by races or peoples and causes 9, 80-83 

See also Aliens; Chinese; Japanese. 
Aliens returned after landing. See Aliens 
deported. 

Analysis of immigration statistics 7-11 

Anarchists. See Aliens debarred. 

Angel Island, immigrant station 165 

Appeals from decisions, under immigration 

laws, by causes 84 

by ports 85 

under Chinese exclusion laws 114,134,141,142 

under immigration laws 10 

Applications lor admission under bond 84, 85 

Applications for entry under bond 10 

Arrests, Chinese 115-117, 140, 142 

Arrests and deportations, Canadian border. . 158 

Chinese, by judicial districts 117 

discussion 10 

Arrivals. See Aliens; Passenger movement. 

Aschaflenburg, L., case 127 

Asiatics. See Chinese; Hindus; Japanese. 

Assimilation of aliens 118 

Assistance to aliens admitted 21,64-65 

Assisted immigration. See Passage of immi- 
grants, by whom paid. 

Baltimore, immigrant station 165 

Beggars. See Aliens debarred. 

Boards of special inquiry, appeals of aliens 

rejected by 10 

Bodek, case 120 

Bonded admissions 84,85,135 

Border. See Canada; Mexico. 

Bosny, case 150-152 

Boston, immigrant station 165 

Bureau, administrative work 167-170 

259 



260 



INDEX. 



Page. 

California, southern, inspection district 103 

Canada, Chinese immigration 143 

immigration from all sources 156 

Japanese arrivals via 108-109 

Japanese Government, supervision over emi- 
gration of laborers 133 

report of commissioner 153-160 

Causes for appeals. See Appeals from de- 
cisions. 
Causes for debarring and deporting aliens. 
See Aliens debarred; Aliens deported. 

Celtic origin of immigration 118 

Certificates of identification, Chinese... 114,143,144 
Certificates of naturalization, cancellation 

proceedings 223 

filed 236 

illegal issues 223 

number denied, and reasons 219, 221, 222 

number issued 219, 221, 222, 228-229, 237 

Charleston, immigrant station 166 

Children, admissions of Chinese 112,113,114,140 

arrivals of Japanese 108-111, 134 

Chinese arrivals, by classes or ports 113 

by ports 114 

Chinese, cases before United States commis- 
sioners 115, 116, 142 

employment as seamen 11 

exclusion, discussion 134-144 

Mexican border 161-163 

exempt classes, regulation for prompt ad- 
mission 135 

inspection 159 

laborers debarred 123 

seamen, proposed legislation against deser- 
tions 11 

seeking admission, summary by classes 112, 

135, 137 

slave women and girls 139 

specific cases of fraud 135-140 

statistical tables 112-117 

summary of action taken in arrest cases 116 

United States citizenship 140 

See also Aliens debarred, etc. 

Citizens, admissions of Chinese 112-114 

arrivals and departures. See Passenger 
movement. 

Citizenship of Chinese, qualifications 140 

Classification, Chinese arrivals 112, 113 

Clerks of courts, naturalization fees 230 

naturalization work 220, 224 

Colonies, racial, tendency of immigrants to 

form 118 

Commissioners of immigration, reports 144-165 

Congestion in cities 5-7 

Conjugal condition of aliens admitted 24, 25 

Contagious diseases. See Aliens debarred. 
Contiguous territory. See Canada; Mexico. 

"Contract labor, " alien, prohibition 119, 123 

Contract laborers, alien, arrests and deporta- 
tions 126 

specific cases 119, 120, 126-132 

Coolies, Chinese, imported by "stcerers" 137 

Countries contributing immigrants and 
receiving emigrants. See Aliens; Aliens 
admitted; Charts. 

Courts, naturalizat ion work 218-220, 239 

Criminals. See Aliens; .Vliens debarred. 



Page. 
Debarred. See Aliens debarred. 
Decisions, appeals under immigration laws, 

by causes 84 

by ports 85 

court, in Rafilowich and Bosny cases 150-152 

Declarations of intention, filed 220, 225-227, 236 

seven-year limitation on validity 219 

Decrease in immigration, 1911, analysis 7 

Departures of aliens. See Aliens; Japanese; 
Passenger movement. 

Desertions of alien seamen 10, 86 

Destinations of arriving and departing aliens. 
See Aliens; Aliens admitted. 

Discussion, immigration in general 152 

Diseases. See Aliens debarred. 
Disposition of appeals. See Appeals. 
Distribution, manner of promotion Congress 

intended 4 

schemes, practical objections 5,6 

Districts, naturalization 231 

Division of Information, report of Chief 247-258 

applications for information, by races or 

peoples and occupations 249-251 

distribution of aliens by States and by 

races or peoples 254-255 

by States and occupations 252-253 

letter to governors 257 

publicity 257, 258 

visits to certain States 256 

Division of Naturalization, report of Chief.. 215-243 

administrative work 233-240 

Dormitories, Ellis Island, recommendation 

for better 145 

Draft of proposed new immigration act 173-198 

discussion 199-213 

Ehret. See Hamilton-Ehret, case. 

El Paso, control of Mexican immigration 122 

report of supervising inspector 160-165 

Ellis Island, proposed investigation 149 

Emigration. See Aliens; Passenger move- 
ment. 

Epileptics. See Aliens debarred. 

Ethnic character of alien arrivals. See Aliens 
admitted; Charts. 

Europe, immigration from eastern and south- 
ern 118-120 

to Hawaii 123 

Japanese arrivals via 108 

Examinations, Canadian border stations 154 

Canadian seaports 154 

Examiners, work of naturalization 230-233 

Exclusion. See Aliens debarred; Chinese. 

Exempt classes, Chinese, regulation for 

prompt admission 135 

Expenditures. See Financial statement. 

Exploitation of immigrants 118, 120, 121 

Expulsions. See Aliens deported. 

Families, separation 147-149 

Farm labor, demand and conditions 6 

Favus. See Aliens debarred. 
Feeble-minded. See Aliens debarred; also 
Mental condition of arriving aliens. 

Foes, naturalization, receipts 238 

Felony. See .\licns debarred; Criminals. 
Financial condition of arriving aliens. . . 20, 21 , 64-65 



INDEX. 



261 



Page. 
Financial statement, Bureau 166,167 

Naturalization Division 241 

Fines, contract-labor importations 127, 

128, 129, 131, 132 

naturalization 223 

steamship 123 

Firth Carpet Co., case 132 

Fong Goon Hin, case 138 

Foreign contiguous territory. See Canada; 

Mexico. 
Form, adopted by naturalization examiners. . 233 

Fraud, Chinese, specific cases of 135-140 

Friends, admitted aliens joining 21,05 

passage of immigrants paid by 21, 64-65 

Oalveston, immigrant station 106 

General administration 3 

Graber, Chris and Peter Schrag, case 127 

Grant Bros. Construction Co., case 131,161 

Grounds for debarring aliens. See Aliens de- 
barred. 

Habeas corpus, writs, in Chinese eases 135 

HamOton-Ehret, case 128 

Hawaii, Americanization of islands discour- 
aged 122 

discussion of immigration problems 122 

Japanese arrivals 106-111, 134 

Japanese passports to laborers proceed- 
ing 133, 134 

statistics of Japanese admitted and de- 
parted 106-111, 133, 134 

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association 122 

contract-labor case 127 

Hayes, Lewis, case 131 

Head tax, a source of revenue 11 

Head-tax settlements, agreement with alien 

arrivals S7 

Hellenic Transatlantic Steam Navigation Co., 

violations of law in case of 11 

Honolulu. See Hawaii. 

House resolution No. 166, to investigate 

EJlis Island 149 

Iberic immigration problem 118 

Idiocy. See AUens debarred. 
Imbeciles. See Aliens debarred. 

Immigrant aid societies at Ellis Island 149 

Immigrant stations, new 165 

Immigrants, nativities, destinations, distri- 
bution, occupations, sex, etc. See 
Aliens; Aliens admitted. 

Immigration, analysis of statistics 7-11 

artificially stimulated 118,119,121,122 

discussion of restriction 119 

of sources and inducements 117-123 

1900-1911, by races or peoples 74 

total each year, 1820-1911 75 

by countries, destinations, occupations, 
ports, races or peoples, sex, etc. See 
Aliens; AUens admitted. 
Immoral females, activity against.. 76,125,126,139 

Increase in population from immigration 8, 

13,14,15,16,106 

Inducements to immigration 117, 121, 122 

Information Division. See Division of In- 
formation. 
Insanity. See Aliens debarred. 



Page. 
Inspection of Chinese 159 

Inspectors in charge, reports 144-165 

Insular Affairs, Bureau, cooperation 7 

Intention. See Declarations of intention. 
Inward aUen movement. See Passenger 

movement. 
Ivanoff, case ng 

Japanese, arrivals in Hawaii, various details 

bearing on Japanese agreement 110-111 

passports 108-111, 132, 133 

statistical tables. 106-111 

Japanese Government, statistics reported, 
compared with those reported by 

United States 107, 133 

Japanese immigration, discussion 132-134 

Jew Quan Look, case 137 

Judicial districts, Chinese arrested and de- 
ported 117 

Kaplanis brothers, case 129 

Keep Commission igg 

Koreans. See Japanese. 

Krikaroff, case 120 

liabor agencies, exploitation of immigrants. 119, 121 
Laborers, Chinese, certificates of reentry 141 

exclusion of Japanese 123, 132, 133, 134 

returning Cliinese, admitted and deported. 112, 113 

Lace-Makers, case 132 

Lambropulos brothers, case 130 

Laws, draft of proposed immigration 173-198 

discussion 199-213 

Legislation, proposed new immigration, sug- 
gestions 3^4 

Literacy, ahens admitted 8, 20, 21 

nonimmigrant ahens admitted 64 

Loans, to immigrants at usurious rates. 118, 119, 120 
Loathsome diseases. See Ahens bebarred. 

Man, volume handled by Division of Natural- 
ization 234 

Males. See Sex. 

Mandatorily excludable classes 10 

Manistee Watch Co., case 131 

Marriage, resort of sexually immoral 126 

Mental condition of arriving ahens 76, 124, 147 

See also Aliens debarred. 
Merchants, admissions of Chinese, and their 

famUies 112, 113 

Mexico, Chinese arrivals via 113, 161-163 

contract-labor importations 121, 122 

Japanese arrivals via 108, 109, 100, 161 

Japanese Government supervision over emi- 
gration of laborers 133 

report of supervising inspector at El Paso. 100-105 

Missionaries and immigrant aid societies 149 

Mitroudis, case 120 

Money brought by ahens admitted. . 9, 20, 21,64-65 
Money loaned to immigrants at usurious 

rates 118, 119, 120 

Mounted Inspectors, Mexican border 164 

Mustapha, case 120 

Nativity of ahens admitted, debarred, and 
deported. See Aliens admitted, etc. 

Naturalization. See Certificates of naturaU- 
zation; Declarations; Di\ision of Natu- 
ralization; Petitions. 



262 



INDEX. 



Page. 

New Orleans, immigrant station 165 

New York. See Ellis Island; States. 

Nieolaou, Vassilios, case 126-127 

Nonstatistical aliens, arrivals from Mexico. . . 160 
Northern border. See Canada. 

Occupations, aliens admitted and departed. 8, 18-19 

applicants for information 249-253 

distributed immigrants 252, 253 

emigrating aliens 44-49, 50-^1 

immigrants 38-43,50-55 

immigrants in to Canada from United States. 156 
Japanese admitted and departed 107-111, 133 

Official force, Ellis Island 146 

Opinions. See Attorney-General; Supreme 
Court. 

Outward passenger movement. See Passen- 
ger movement. 

Passage of immigrants, by whom paid 9, 

20,21,64-fi5 
Passenger movement, arrivals and depar- 
tures, by ports, months, countries, races 
or peoples. States, and occupations — 12-19 
outward, by ages, sex, lines of vessels, ports 
of departure and destination, and 

classes of accommodation 88-105 

over Canadian border 158 

Passports, Japanese, to whom issued 132, 133 

statistics of Japanese 108-111, 133 

Penalties. See Fines. 

Peon labor, Mexican 5,6, 120-122 

Peonage, Chinese 137 

Peoples. See Races. 

Petitions for naturalization filed 219, 

220,225,236,240 

Petition notices, form of 234 

Philadelphia, immigrant station 165 

Philippine Islands, source of statistics 7 

Pirrie, George, case 128 

Polychronopoulos brothers, case 130 

Population, increase of alien 7,8,13,14,15,16 

increase or decrease in Japanese 106 

Ports, Chinese seeking admission 113, 114 

deserting alien seamen 86 

disposition of appeals of aliens at various . . 85 
passenger movement through and to various 12, 

88-105 

stoways on arriving vessels 86 

President's proclamation of Mar. 14, 1907 132 

Procurers, activity against 76, 125, 126, 139 

Professions. See Occupations. 
Proportion of immigration from various coun- 
tries and to various States. See Aliens 
admitted. 
Prosecutions. See P'ines. 

Prostitutes, activity against 76, 125, 126, 139 

Public charges, potential 123 

Publicity, Division of Information 257, 258 

Races or peoples, aliens admitted 16, 

20,21,24,25,20,27,28,32-34,38-43,62 

aliens debarred 70-77 

aliens deported 80-83 

applicants for information 249-251 

distribution of aliens 254,255 

emigrating aliens 16,29-31,35-37, 44-49,63 



Page. 

Racesor peoples, immigration, 1900-1911 74 

nonemigrant aliens departing 16, 66 

nonimmigrant aliens admitted 64 

significant changes in immigration 117-118 

Radefl, case 119 

Rafilowich, case 150-152 

Railway lines, agreement with Canadian 153 

Receipts. See Financial statement. 

Recommendations, additional space and im- 

pro\ ements 145 

Division of Naturalization 240-243 

Rejections to admissions, ratio 7 

Rejections. See also Aliens debarred. 

Relatives, aliens going to join 21,64-65 

assistance to aliens admitted 21 

Residence, length of, emigrating aliens 22-23 

nonemigrant aliens departing 06 

Residents, admissions of Japanese former. . 108-110 

Restriction of immigration, discussion 1 19 

Returned. See Aliens deported. 

Rich, N. J., Knitting Co. and Standard Knit- 
ting Co., case 131 

Sailors. See Seamen. 

San Benito Land and Water Co., case 127 

San Francisco, immigrant station 165 

Japanese arrivals 109 

San Juan, immigrant station 165 

Schlemmer, Max, case 128 

Schrag, Peter. See Graber, Chris. 

Seamen, desertions of alien 10, 86 

Seattle, Chinese arrivals 113, 135 

immigrant station 165 

Japanese arrivals 109 

Separation of families 147-149 

Seven-year limitation on declarations of inten- 
tion 219 

Sex, aliens admitted 20, 21, 24, 25, 62 

emigrating aliens 22, 63 

Japanese arrivals 108-111, 134 

nonemigrant aliens departing 66 

nonimmigrant aliens admitted 64 

outward-bound passengers 88-105 

Slavonic immigration problem 118 

Sons. See Children. 

Sources of immigration 117 

Standard of living and wages, affected by im- 
migration 6, 118, 122 

Standard Knitting Co. See Rich, N. J., Knit- 
ting Co., case. 

States, aliens emigrating, by 35-37,56,61 

destinations of immigrants by 32-34, 50-55 

future and last residence of aliens admitted 

and departed by 17 

immigrants directed to various 252-255 

Statistics of immigration, analysis 7-11 

Chinese 112-117 

General 12-105 

Japanese 106-111 

Steamship lines, activity in stimulating im- 
migration 6, 118, 119 

fines 123 

outward-bound passenger movement over 

various 8S- 105 

Stowaways on arriving vessels 1 1 ,86 

proposed legislation against 1 1 

Students, admissions of Chinese 112,113 

I Summary of Chinese seeking admission 112 



/r 



INDEX. 



263 



Page. 
Tables. See Statistical tables. 

Taylor case, effect of decision 10-11 

Teachers, admissions of Chinese 112, 113 

Territorial board of immigration, Hawaii 122 

Territories. See States. 

Teutonic origin of immigration 118 

Theodoropulos brothers, case 130 

Three-year limitation, abolishment in white- 
slave act 10, 125, 126 

Trachoma. See Aliens debarred. 

Trades. See Occupations. 

Transits. See Aliens; Aliens admitted. 

Transportation companies. See Steamship 

lines. 
Transportation of immigrants, by whom paid 9, 

20,21,6J-65 

Travelers, admissions of Chinese 112, 113 

Tropenas Steel Co., case 128 

Tuberculosis. See Aliens debarred. 



Page. 
Unskilled labor, demand for and conditions. 6 

Vancouver, detention station for Chinese 

arrivals via Canada 153-154 

Vessels. See Steamship lines. 

Visits to certain States, Assistant Chief of Di- 
vision of Information 256 

Wage problem in Hawaii 122 

Wage standard, affected by immigration 6, 

118,122 
White-slave act, abolishment of three-year 

limitation 10, 125, 126 

Wives, Chinese, admissions 112, 113, 139, 140 

Japanese, admissions 108-111, 134 

Wong Kim Ark, case 140 

Wong You, case 143 

Yearly immigration. See Aliens admitted. 



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