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Full text of "Annual report of the Cochituate Water Board"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportofco1851bost 



■rSfee^S^^^^ 



. — Wo. 6, 



COGHITUATE WATER BOARD, 



CITY COUNCIL OF BOSTON. 




BOS TON: 

18 52. 

J. H. EASTBUUN, CITY PRINTEE. 



/^^-^u 



Office of the Cochituate Water Board. 

January 15, 1852. 

To the City Council of the City of Boston. 

The Cochituate Water Board, in compliance with the 
provisions of the City Ordinance, respectfully submit 
their annual 

EEPORT. 

The Board, having been duly organized by the election 
of a President, from its own members, and a Clerk, pro- 
ceeded to the appointment of the necessary subordinate 
officers, and to the adoption of rules and regulations for 
its own government and in relation to all persons employ- 
ed. And having in view the great importance of the trust 
confided to them, it was their endeavor, to establish 
such a general system for the observance of all, that the 
great object of the Water Works, the supplying a suffi- 
cient quantity of pure water for the great variety of 
uses to which it might be applied, should be most effec- 
tually accomplished, with due regard to the safety and 
permanence of the works — a proper economy in their 
management — and the securing an adequate income from 
them to the City. 

In the performance of this duty, however, they met 
with some embarrassment at the outset, arising out of the 
want of any authentic description of the works them- 
selves — no official statements of the situation or mode 
of construction of all the different portions ever having 
been made. The periodical reports of the Water Com- 
missioners contain ample descriptions of many parts, as 



4 WATEE. [Jan. 

they were from time to time completed, and also many 
statements as to the intended construction of others — 
there are however entire omissions as to some portions, 
and the intended mode of construction of others was some- 
times altered, without reporting the fact. And the late 
CocJiituate Water Board merely reported its own doings. 
The reports of both these Boards were not always print- 
ed, and many of those which were, cannot now be found. 
It has been therefore, in the first place deemed import- 
ant, that a description of all the works, as they have been 
completed, should be prepared for the use of the Water 
Board, and, as such a description may be convenient and 
useful for the City Council in reference to any action 
on their part hereafter on the subject of the Water 
Works, that it should be made a component part of the 
first Annual Eeport of the present Water Board. The 
description will however be as condensed as is practicable, 
consistently with the great variety of details which it 
must include. It is intended only to supply a want 
which is now felt to be serious, and which it may be 
found more difiicult to provide for hereafter. 

The attention of the City had, for many years, been 
attracted to Lake Cochituate^ or Long Pond, as it was 
formerly called, as the proper source from which a sup- 
ply of pure water adequate to the prospective wants of 
the inhabitants might be obtained.* The great cost of 
the undertaking however, and differences of opinion 
which existed as to its relative advantages, compared 
with some other sources, particularly those of Charles 
Eiver and Spot and Mystic Ponds, prevented any effect- 
ual measures being taken for its adoption until the year 
1844. In that year, (Aug. 26) « Board of Commission- 
ers was appointed by the City Council, " to Beport the 

* See Appendix A. 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 5 

hest 9node, and the e/rjwnse, of hinging the Water of Long 
Pond into the City of Boston." Their report was made 
in November following, and the subject submitted to the 
legal voters at the ensuing Municipal election, for their 
decision, and they by a large majority voted to instruct 
the City Council to apply to the Legislature for an act, 
giving to the City the necessary power to carry the 
object into effect. An Act was accordingly passed, 
March 25, 1845, which provided also that the City 
Council might determine whether the water should be 
brought from Long Pond or Charles River. There were 
however, several provisions in the Act, which rendered 
it objectionable, and it was not accepted by the citizens. 
The Act now in force, was passed the following year, 
and was duly accepted. By it, the City was authorized, 
in the mode provided in the Act, To talce^ hold and con- 
vey into and through the said City, the water of Long Pond 
so called, and the ivaters ivhich may flow into and from 
the same, and any other "ponds and streams tvithin the dis- 
tance of four miles from the said Long Pond, and any 
water rights connected thereivith ; and may also take and 
hold hy purchase or otherwise, any lands or real estate ne- 
cessary for laying and maintaining aqueducts for conduct- 
ing, discharging, disposing of, and distributing ivater, and 
for forming reservoirs ; ajid may also taJce and hold any 
land around the margin of said Long Pond, not exceeding 
five rods in width, measuring from the verge of said Pond, 
when the same shall be raised to the level of eight feet 
above the floor of the flume at the outlet thereof, and on 
and around the said other ponds and streams so far as 
may be necessary for the preservation and purity of the 
same, for the purpose of furnishing a supply of ptire ivater 
for the said City of Boston. 



6 WATER. [Jan. 

Lakt Cochitiiate. 

Lake Cochituate, thus selected as the source of supply 
of water for the City, is situate within the limits of the 
towns of Framingham, Wayland and Natick in the Coun- 
ty of Middlesex. It may be considered, a chain of natural, 
subsiding reservoirs of water, three in number, having 
a general direction nearly north and south ; its extreme 
length in a direct line being nearly three and one half 
miles, and its greatest breadth about eighteen hundred 
feet. The Lake is crossed by the Boston and Worces- 
ter and the Saxonville Railroads, and by two County 
roads, one of which was formerly the Worcester Turnpike, 
and the other a road leading from Framingham to 
Newton, and as the two last indicate the natural divis- 
ions of the Lake, and separate it into three nearly equal 
parts, it is, for matter of reference, found convenient to 
consider the Lake as divided by them, into the Northern, 
Central and Southern Divisions. 

The water of the Lake gradually increases in depth 
from the shore, in each division ; at high water, or when 
raised eight feet above the flume, mentioned in the Act, 
its greatest depth is about 70 feet in the Southern, 50 
feet in the Centre, and 62 feet in the Northern Divisions. 
When the water is at this elevation, the superficial area 
of the Lake is estimated to contain six hundred and 
eighty-four acres — at 6.5 feet above the flume, the area 
is six hundred and fifty-nine acres — at 3 feet above the 
flume, the area is five hundred and fifty-nine acres — at 
1.5 feet above the area is five hundred and four acres, — 
and at low water, or the level of the flume, the area is 
four hundred and eighty-nine acres. 

The shore of the Lake, is generally a bold sand and 
gravel bank, and the increase of surface which is produced 
by raising the water, takes place mostly in a great meadow 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT— No. 6. 7 

in the Southern division, South of the Boston and Wor- 
cester Raiboad ; also on another meadow at the southerly 
end of the same division ; on some low grounds near the 
northerly end of the Central Division, (at the mouth of 
Snakebrook,) and lastly in some small bays which occur 
in other places. When the water is raised eight feet 
above the flume, there are one hundred and twenty-five 
acres not covered with more than five feet depth of 
water ; at 6.5 feet above, there are one hundred acres 
covered with a depth of water not exceeding five feet ; — 
at 3 feet above, the peat meadow in the southern divis- 
ion is to a great extent covered, but the other meadow 
in the same division, and that in the Central, are mostly 
bare. The whole circuit of the Lake, including the 
meadows, is about 16 miles ; and excluding those, about 
12 miles, measured at the verge of the Lake, when the 
water is eight feet above the flume. 

The tract of country which drains into the Lake 
is bounded by the ranges of hills which divide the 
streams running into the Merrimack from those which 
run into the Charles Eiver, and as surveyed covers an 
area of 12,077 acres, including the Lake ; deducting 
from this amount 677 acres as the area of several ponds 
included in it, which are estimated to lose by evapora- 
tion from their surfaces, a large proportion of the rain 
which falls upon them, there remain 11,400 acres or 
496,584,000 square feet as the water-shed from which 
the Lake derives its supply. By comparing the quan- 
tity of water which was ascertained to have been dis- 
charged from the outlet of the Lake, for two years com- 
mencing in July and November, 1837, with the quan- 
tity of rain which fell during those periods, it was 
estimated that more than four-tenths of the rain-fall 
had been received into the Lake ; and it being ascertain-f 
ed that the minimum fall of rain at Boston, for a series 



8 WATER. [Jan. 

of 27 years had been nearly thirty inches, (29.98) it 
was assumed that four-tenths of that quantity might be 
realized, as the ratio of the total rain-fall, which would 
be collected, from the district which drains into the 
Lake. This would give 496,845,000 cubic feet as 
the annual supply, or 1,360,504 cubic feet equal to 
10,176,570 wine gallons per day. In calculating the 
future wants of the City the conclusion had been adopt- 
ed that seven and one quarter million gallons a day 
would be an ample supply for all the public, domestic 
and manufacturing uses of the inhabitants when their 
number should amount to two hundred and fifty thou- 
sand. This calculation was based on the supposition 
that a supply of 28/^ gallons a day to each individual, 
would be sufficient — a supposition which the experience 
of other cities at the time fully justified, and which our 
own experience would confi.rm were the water only ap- 
plied to the legitimate and useful purposes for which it 
was intended, without the excessive waste which now 
takes place. It was concluded therefore that this 
source might be relied on to aiFord the necessary sup- 
ply of water to the City, or at least ten millions of 
wine gallons per day, throughout the year. In order 
to effect this however, it was necessary that proper 
means should be adopted to reserve in store the excess 
which will collect during the winter and spring, for use 
during those months, which have been found to be the 
season of a low state of water in the streams. A dam at 
the outlet of the Lake to raise the water eis:ht feet 
above the flume as authorized by the act, was deemed 
to be all that was necessary for this purpose. 

At the time of the passage of the act, the waters of the 
Lake were in the possession of Mr. William H. Knight, 
who owned the outlet and had several mill privileges and 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 9 

manufacturing establisliments connected with it, be- 
tween the Lake and Sudbury Eiver into which it natur- 
ally discharges its waters. All Mr. Knighf's interest 
was accordingly purchased and vested in the City and 
the City thereby acquired the right of exclusive use of 
the water and of diverting it from its natural channel ; 
subject however to any damages which might be sus- 
tained, by proprietors of water rights, situated below 
Mr. Knight, by reason of the diminution of their sup- 
ply of water. The Sudhury river joins the Assahet about 
14 miles below Mr. Knight's mill privilege and the two 
form the Concord river, which after flowing through an 
almost perfectly level country about 10 miles to Bil- 
lerica, thence continues on for about 4>2 miles and 
finally empties into the Merrimack at Lowell. All 
the water of Concord river, including that from the 
Lake, was subject to the use of the Middlesex Canal in 
the fijst instance to supply the canal, and afterwards 
the surplus belonged to the Proprietors of the Mills at 
Billerica and to those of three other privileges on Con- 
cord river. 

Dug or Wonsemog Pond. 

In addition to the supply of water contained in the 
Lake, Mr. Knight also conveyed to the City, that of 
Dug or Wonsemog pond, lying to the south of it. The 
pond is about eighty rods from the southern shore of the 
Lake and separated from the peat meadow, on the 
Southern division, by the county road ; a culvert is laid 
beneath the road by which the waters are discharged 
into the meadow and thence pass into the Lake. It con- 
tains about forty-four and one half acres, is elevated 
about seven feet above the level of the Lake and dis- 
charges into it. The shore all around is a steep gravelly 



10 WATER. [Jan. 

bank eight or ten feet high, and the pond naturally 
derives its water wholly from springs. The City has 
also acquired a right to divert the waters of a brook on 
the east side into it, and thereby to ensure the filling 
up of the pond every winter. The water is quite deep 
and remarkably pure and soft, and forms a highly im- 
portant tributary to the Lake. 

Marginal Lands. 

In order to enable the City to exercise a proper con- 
trol over the waters thus acquired, and for the purpose 
of preventing any acts which might tend to impair 
their purity, as well as for regulating the right to over- 
flow the adjoining lands, it was authorized to take and 
hold a strip of land, not exceeding five rods in width 
on the margin of the Lake. It was soon ascertained 
however that in cases where land was to be taken for 
these purposes, or for the construction of the Aqueduct, 
or Reservoirs, where material injury would be occasion- 
ed to the adjoining lands, it would in many instances 
be the most advantageous mode of adjusting the dama- 
ges, to purchase the entire lot of land so injured and 
to make re-sale of such part thereof as might be deemed 
advisable, after the works should be completed. That 
system was accordingly adopted. And in consequence, 
the border, thus purchased, is of very different widths 
according to the character of the border, and the 
terms of the contracts which could be made with 
the proprietors. The whole area which has been pur- 
chased around the margin or immediately adjoining 
is sice hundred and thirty-five and one half acres, and of 
this the City has the fee simple. It completes the en- 
tire circuit of the Lake with the exception of a piece 
on the western side of the Southern division about 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 11 

2200 feet in length, five rods in width, and containing 
about seven and one half acres, which the City being 
unable to purchase, took and now holds possession of 
under the power given in the act. The precise nature 
of the tenure which the City has acquired in this and 
similar cases, is at present not definitely settled, but has 
been made a question for the adjudication of the Su- 
preme Court, in a case which arose out of the taking of 
a piece of land for the Aqueduct in Newton. To the 
above quantity being added the amount purchased of 
Mr. Knight and others, in connection with the outlet 
and mill privileges, which was about thirty-nine acres, 
it appears that the whole area purchased and taken in 
the neighborhood of the Lake and outlet was siaj hun^ 
dred and eighty-two acres, all of which is still in posses- 
sion of the City, no sale of any part having been yet 
effected. 

Dudley Pond. 

The City also purchased the outlet to Dudley Pond, con- 
taining one acre and thirty rods, and took possession of its 
waters. This Pond lies in a North Eastern direction from 
the northern division of the lake, and contains about nine- 
ty acres, at an elevation of about seventeen feet above it. 
The water is very pure and soft, and there is no other 
outlet than that owned by the City, through which it 
flows into Sudbury river. There is at present no con- 
nection between this pond and the lake ; if one should 
be made hereafter, it could probably be effected most 
easily, by a tunnel through the hill which occupies 
part of the intervening land and rises to a height of 
about sixty feet above the level of the pond. The land 
lying between the pond and the City's land on the mar- 
gin of the lake, is not at present owned by the City. 



12 WATER. [Jan. 

The distance between the lake and pond is about seven 
hundred feet. 

Dam and Gate House. 

Having obtained possession of all the waters of the 
Lake, and of all the land which was required, a new 
DAM was constructed at the outlet, on the West side of 
the Northern division, in the town of Framingham, and 
the GATE HOUSE, for the commencement of the aqueduct 
built on the opposite or Eastern side of the same divis- 
ion in Wayland. The dam is of solid masonry, of gran- 
ite, and raised to a height sufficient to retain the water 
to a point eight feet above the floor of the flume. This 
corresponds with an elevation of 132.36 feet above tide 
marsh level, the floor of the flume being 12436 feet 
above the same level. 

The GATE HOUSE w^as carried a sufficient distance 
into the lake to procure the water from the necessary 
depth, and the bottom of the aqueduct placed in it, 
at an elevation of 3 feet 4 inches below the floor 
of the flume, and 3 feet 10 inches below the as- 
sumed low water line, so that when the Lake is raised 
to the high water line, it will stand 11 feet 4 inches 
above the bottom of the aqueduct. The low water 
line is therefore six inches above the floor of the 
flume, and seven feet six inches below the high water 
line, and 124.86 feet above tide marsh level. There are 
four gates for regulating the admission of water into the 
Aqueduct. They are made of cast iron with composi- 
tion or gun metal facings, and a frame of the same ma- 
terials, set in hammered stone, and are worked by 
iron screws in composition nuts. The whole is enclosed 
in a building of hammered granite, with a metal roof, 
secured eftectually from intrusion. 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— Ko. 6. 13 

A CULVERT is also constructed beneatti the road, which 
divides the Northern from the Central divisions, in which 
provision has been made for placing stop-planks so 
that the water can be shut off from the Northern, and 
thereby about two-thirds retained, in case it should be 
necessary to repair the gate-house or dam. 

The Aqueduct. 

The aqueduct may be conveniently divided into two 
parts. The First Part extends from the Lake to the 
E-eceiving Eeservoir in Brookline. It comprises a con- 
duit of brick masonry for the greater part of the distance, 
a line of iron mains over the valley of Charles River and 
two tunnel excavations in Newton and Brookline. The 
Second Part comprises the iron mains from Brookline to 
the City, and the distribution in the City. 

First Part of the Aqueduct. The BricJc Conduit. 

The Brick Conduit is accommodated to the elevation of 
the different parts of the line, by winding in a series of 
irregular curves, care being taken, where it was possi- 
ble to adopt such a route as would permit its being 
buried entirely beneath the natural surface of the ground. 
Its general direction after leaving the Lake, is South 
Easterly for about four and one half miles, to near the 
village of West Needham. It then turns and runs North 
Easterly about two miles. Thence Easterly, crossing 
Charles River, about three and one quarter miles. 
Thence North Easterly through the long tunnel, about 
two and one half miles to the Ventilator. Thence 
South Easterly about two and one quarter miles, through 
the short tunnel, to the Peceiving Reservoir, passing 
through parts of the towns of Wayland^ Naticlc, Need- 
ham, Newton, Brighton, and Brookline. 



14 WATER. [Jan. 

It was the original intention to carry the Aqueduct, 
after passing the road leading from the village of Newton 
Centre to Newton Corner, in a Northerly direction and 
North of Nonantum Hill, to the then proposed site for a 
lleservoir on the North side of Corey's hill, in Brighton ; 
but a further survey of the locality offered sufficient in- 
ducements to vary that route, and thereby obviate the 
necessity of carrying iron mains over Brighton valley, and 
of being subjected to the heavy damages which would 
have been incurred in passing through much valuable 
cultivated land. By adopting the new route, the distance 
was also materially shortened, and a site obtained which 
admits of the construction of a much more capacious 
reservoir than could be built at Corey's hill, except at a 
very heavy cost. The Aqueduct was therefore laid 
South of Nonantum Hill, through a more secluded 
tract of country and lands of inferior value, to the site of 
the present reservoir in Brookline. In order to effect 
this however, it became necessary to excavate by tunnel- 
ling a passage through two rocky elevations in Newton 
and Brookline. This work was rendered eventually more 
tedious and costly than had been anticipated, by reason 
of the great difficulty of the excavation, and also on ac- 
count of the irruption of large quantities of water into 
the works from fissures in the rock through which it 
was carried. 

The Aqueduct, from the Lake to the left bank of 
Charles river, and from the right bank of the same 
to Brookline reservoir, is built of brick masonry, eight 
inches thick, laid in hydraulic cement; it is in sec- 
tion an egg-shaped oval, the largest end down; the 
greatest width is five feet, and the extreme height six 
feet four inches, in the interior. It is covered with a 
plastering of hydraulic cement, on the outside, from the 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 15 

top down to the chord line of the lower or inverted 
arch, more effectually to prevent the percolation of sur- 
face water into it. It is supported on a puddled em- 
bankment, built up above the chord line of the inverted 
arch, in all cases where the Aqueduct passes over ground 
whose level falls below the grade line, and also where 
the ground was found to be marshy, or from any cause 
not sufficiently solid to support the superstructure. In 
the latter case the mud and loose soil were previously re- 
moved until a firm bearing could be had. The whole 
is covered with an embankment eight feet wide on the 
top, with side slopes of two feet horizontal to one foot 
vertical, and raised four feet above the top of the aque- 
duct. The Aqueduct through the whole distance thus 
rests upon, and is covered with, earth to a depth of at 
least four feet, and it is no where raised, so as to admit 
a passage beneath it, excepting at the culverts ; at the 
crossing of Charles river, which it passes by two iron 
pipes ; and also over a valley in Needham, near the west 
bank of the river. In the latter place it is carried over 
the road-way by a granite bridge of one arch of twenty 
feet span, and fourteen feet high, and supported over the 
rest of the valley on a puddled embankment, in some 
places forty feet high. 

In preparing the foundation and laying the reversed 
arch of the Aqueduct, much delay was occasioned, and 
additional labor required in the 2d, 5th, 10th, and some 
other sections, on account of the large quantities of water, 
and in some cases quicksands which were found near 
the bottom of the cut. 

The first brick of the Aqueduct was laid, October 19, 
1846. 

The bottom was all united, September 17, 1848. 

The top closed up, the interior cleansed, and water 
let in, Oct. 12. 1848. 



16 WATER. [Jan. 

The Mains over Charles River, Pipe Chambers and Charles 
River Bridge. 

The remainder of this part of the Aqueduct com- 
prises the Mains over the valley of Charles river, and the 
tunnels in Brookline and Newton. The former consist of 
two iron pipes, thirty inches in diameter, which descend 
fifty-eight feet below the level of the water in the 
Aqueduct on the west bank of the river, when three 
feet and ten inches deep, to a stone bridge built over 
the river, and thence are continued over the interval at a 
rather lower level and then rise to the Aqueduct on the 
eastern side. The Charles River Bridge is constructed 
of hammered granite, of three elliptical arches of thirty 
feet span and seven and one half feet rise, and twenty- 
one feet long. The mains are each nine hundred and 
seventy-nine feet in length. The horizontal distance 
between their termini is nine hundred and fifty-six feet. 
The Pij^e chambers, constructed at each end of the mains, 
are of granite, with iron doors and stone roofs. The 
admission of water is regulated by stop-planks, provis- 
ion is made however for placing gates hereafter. 

The bottom of the west pipe chamber is 118.97 feet 
above tide level. 

The bottom of the east pipe chamber is 118.52 feet 
above tide level. 

The water in the river at its lowest state is 71 feet 
below the water in the Aqueduct. 

Provision is also made in the pipe chambers for 
another pipe to be carried across the river when neces- 
sary, the wall being pierced and a pipe laid through it. 

The Tunnels. 

There are two tunnels, excavated through porphyritic 
rock of extreme hardness, in the towns of Newton 
and Brookline. The former is twenty-four hundred and 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 17 

ten feet and the latter eleven hundred and fifty feet in 
lenofth. A course of concrete is laid in it of variable 
thickness to form a bottom of uniform inclination, coin- 
ciding with the level of the aqueduct. Those portions 
■which showed signs of perishable rock were lined with 
brick masonry; and brick arches of extra thickness, 
were turned over the water course, at all the shafts 
which had been sunk during the progress of the exca- 
vation, for the purpose of supporting the filling of 
earth which was put into them. 

For expediting the work on the tunnels seven shafts 
were sunk through the rock in the Newton tunnel 
and four in the Brookline. The rock to be excavated 
proved much harder than was anticipated, and the 
work was also much impeded by, as has been stated, 
the large quantity of water which was encountered, 
although seven steam engines were kept in constant 
operation for the purpose of removing it. Three sets 
of men were employed at each face of the several 
drifts between the shafts, relieving each other at inter- 
vals of eight hours, and thus continuing the work 
through the day and night. 

In the JSeivton tunnel the shafts were commenced at 
the west end about November 15, 1846. 

The first drift was commenced, at the west end, De- 
cember 30, 1846. 

The last drift was completed April 28, 1848. 

The brick lining Avas completed August 27, 1848. 

In the Brookline tunnel, 

The shafts were commenced December 17, 1846. 

The first drift was commenced about January 30, 
1847. 

The last drift was completed June 20, 1848. 

The brick lining was completed August 30, 1848. 



18 WATEE. [Jan. 

The top closed up, the interior cleaned out, and water 
let in October 12, 1848. 

The Waste Weirs. 

There are four tvaste weirs constructed for the pur- 
pose of letting off the water and also of ventilation ; 
they are built entirely of stone, with iron doors and 
stone roofs, the walls being carried up to a sufficient 
height to form an enclosure over the works. The 
overfall or weir is of stone, through the breast of which 
two gates are fixed to draw the water off when required. 
The gates and gate frames are of composition metal set 
in cut stone, the gates being worked by iron screws in 
composition nuts. 

The first waste weir is in Section No. 3 at Dedman's 
brook, about three miles distant from the gate house at 
the Lake. This is the nearest point where, from the 
level of the ground the water could be discharged. 
The second is at the end of Section No. 5, about one 
mile west of Charles river in East Needham. The third 
is in Section No. 10 at the outlet oi Baptist pond in 
Newton Centre about three miles east of Charles river. 
And the fourth is in Section No. 13, in Brookline about 
a mile from the reservoir. 

By means of the waste weirs, the ventilation has been 
well regulated, and no inconvenience has been experi- 
enced from there having been but one ventilator ex- 
pressly built for that purpose along the whole line. 

Ventilator and Man-holes. 

The only ventilator, strictly so called, on the aque- 
duct, is placed near the easterly end of the tunnel in 
Newton. It is built of hammered granite, square with 
a coping on the top, and gradually diminishing in size 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 19 

from the base, and is 14 feet 6K inches high, 8 feet 
wide at the base, and the coping is 7 feet 3 inches. 
The passage inside is 4 feet IH inches. A great benefit 
derived from it consists in the means which it affords of 
an entrance into the Aqueduct, for the purpose of cleans- 
ing and examining. Man-holes are also placed along 
the Aqueduct at distances of about a quarter of a mile, 
for the same purpose. They are covered with stone 
slabs. A plug-hole 12 inches in diameter is also made 
near the ventilator, to let off the water from the Aque- 
duct when necessary. 

Culverts and Drains, 

There are ten Culvei'ts and thirteen Barrel Drains, for 
the purpose of draining off, beneath the Aqueduct, the 
water in its neighborhood. 

The Culverts are all of granite, with hammer dressed 
joints, and laid in hydraulic cement. Their openings 
are from 2 to 8 feet wide, the smallest being square in 
form, and the largest having upper and inverted arches. 
The Barrel Drains have stone ends and brick centres, 
and are laid in hydraulic cement. They are from 1>^ to 
2 feet in diameter and circular in form of opening. 

The first part of the Aqueduct is, for the greater por- 
tion of its length, laid entirely beneath the natural sur- 
face of the ground ; appearing above only for short dis- 
tances at irregular intervals. The greatest depth of 
any part is at the tunnels in Newton and Brookline, at 
the former of which the bottom is about eighty feet, and 
at the latter about sixty feet. The deepest excavations 
made for the brick aqueduct, were, — at a short distance 
from the Gate house, at the Lake ; — near the waste 
weir at Dedman's brook ; — near the waste weir in East 



20 WATER. [Jan. 

Needham ;- — and near the Cold spring in Section 9, in 
Newton. It was laid at those places about thirty feet 
deep. The longest interval that it remains beneath the 
surface entirely, is from its junction with the Lake, for 
a distance of about two and a half miles. The bottom 
of the Aqueduct is not raised above the level of the 
natural surface, for more than three-fourths of a mile 
through its whole extent. 

The rate of descent in the brick portion, is three and 
one sixth inches per mile. The fall for the whole dis- 
tance, including the pipe section over the valley of 
Charles River, is nearly three and one half inches per 
mile. The whole descent or fall is 3.81 feet in the 
brick Aqueduct, which is 14.446 miles long. In the 
pipe section, 956 feet long, it is 0.45 feet. Making 
in the whole distance 14.627 miles, a descent of 4.26 
feet. 

With this descent, and a depth of three feet and ten 
inches of water, the Aqueduct is found to be sufficient 
to convey more than ten million gallons in twenty four 
hours, being considerably more than its originally esti- 
mated capacity, with that depth. 

The whole quantity of land purchased and taken pos- 
session of by the City along the line of the Aqueduct, 
from the Lake to Brookline Reservoir, is three hundred 
and five acres and eight rods ; it has the fee in two 
hundred and seventy six acres, and ninety five rods, and 
holds by possession, taken under the act, twenty eight 
acres and seventy three rods. 

The Receiving Reservoir. 

The Receiving Reservoir is situate in Brookline, at 
the Eastern termination of the brick portion of the 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT— No. 6. 21 

Aqueduct. It is formed out of a natural basin enclosed 
almost entirely by banks rising to considerable height 
above. On the side which was not protected by the 
natural embankment, the earth was removed, and a pud- 
dled embankment built up to a height of about twenty 
six feet ; the lower part, to the height of eight feet be- 
ing supported by a retaining wall. For the purpose of 
relieving the banks from the action of the water, the 
inner slope of the Keservoir was lined with a slope wall 
of granite rubble, eighteen inches thick and eleven feet 
broad, the lining commencing four feet below the top of 
the bank. The lining has been lately increased to four- 
teen feet, by adding three feet to the top of the former. 
The greatest depth of water is near the principal gate 
house, twenty-four feet. The least depth is near the upper 
gate house, where it is about 14 feet. The embankment 
is 20 feet wide at the top, with a gravel walk all around. 
The surface of the Reservoir contains at a depth of 6 feet 
below the top of the dam, 22.31 acres, and its capacity is 
89,909,730 wine gallons, the contour of the water line 
being 4696 feet long ; at 2 feet below the top of the dam, 
it contains an area of 22.95 acres, and the capacity is 
119,583,960 gallons. The Eeservoir in shape is an 
irregular oval. 

The top of the dam is, 126.60, above tide marsh level. 
The upper floor of the 

principal Gate House, 126.76, 
Low water mark, - - 120.60, 
The bottom of the interior 

of the Aqueduct, - - 116.77, 
The bottom of the Reser- 
voir, 100.60, 

A cylindrical brick conduit is laid, at a depth of 8 feet, 
within the northern embankment, to conduct the water 



22 WATEE. [Jan. 

to the pipe chambers, by means of which the supply of 
the mains can be kept up, when the water is let off from 
the reservoir for cleansing it, or for any other purpose. 

There are two Gate Houses for receiving the termina- 
tion of the brick portion of the Aqueduct, and the com- 
mencement of the conduit leading to the City, with the 
regulating gates, gauges, &c. 

The Principal or lower Gate House has its front on the 
street where it is 26 feet 4 inches wide by 36 feet 8 
inches high, including the basement which is 16 feet 4 
inches. It is set in the embankment and projects about 
4 feet in front of the retaining wall. The height in the 
rear is 20 feet. The length of the building is 44 feet 4 in. 
An iron stairway ascends from the basement to the 
main floor. The building is of hammered granite with 
an iron roof, and no wood is used in the construction of 
any part except the doors and sashes. The main floor 
is on a level with the top of the embankment ; and the 
bottom of the gates which regulate the admission of 
water into the pipe chambers is 26 feet below the floor. 
The gates and gate frames are of iron plated with com- 
position metal, set in hammered granite; they are worked 
by iron screws in composition nuts. There are three pipe 
chambers-, into two of which the mains now laid are in- 
troduced, and a thirty-six inch pipe is also laid through 
the bulkhead into the third chamber, to be connected 
with another main if necessary hereafter. 

The Upper Gate House contains the termination of the 
brick aqueduct, and the stop planks for regulating the 
flow of water into the reservoir. The building is of 
granite with a stone roof The front is 1 IK feet by 11 
feet 4 inches high and the length 12 feet. 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 23 

The Second Part of the Aqueduct. 
The second part of the Aqueduct consists of the con- 
duit from Brookline receiving reservoir to the City and 
the distribution in the City; and comprises the Iron 
Mains, the Distributing pipes and the Service pipes. 

The Mains. 
From the Reservoir to the City the conduit consists 
of two iron mains, one thirty-six inches and the other 
thirty inches in diameter. They are laid side by 
side, beneath the public highway which was formerly 
the Worcester Turnpike, to Brookline village, and 
thence by the public streets, through Brookline and 
Roxbury to Tremont street, in Boston, and through 
that street to Dover street, a distance of about three 
and two third miles from the Reservoir. At this place 
the thirty-six inch pipe is reduced to one of thirty inches 
and the two mains pass together, through Tremont 
street to Boylston street. From this point the main 
originally thirty inches is laid across the Common, 
through Joy and Mt. Vernon streets to Hancock street 
to supply the Reservoir on Beacon hill, it then passes 
by the side of the Reservoir through Hancock and Cam- 
bridge street to the corner of Chardon street in Bowdoin 
square. The originally thirty-six inch Main which had 
been reduced to thirty inches, passes down Boylston 
street to Washington street — it is there again reduced 
to one of twenty-four inches, and passes through Wash- 
ington street. Dock square. Union, Merrimack, Ivors, 
and Chardon streets to Bowdoin square where it joins 
the other thirty inch main. The two Mains are laid at 
a sufficient depth to be secure from frost, and are car- 
ried across the Boston and Worcester Railroad in Tre- 
mont street in a box of boiler iron of sufficient dimen- 



24 WATER. [Jan. 

sions and strength to receive and support the mains, 
from one abutment to the other, under the westerly side- 
walk of the Railroad bridge, the whole being inclosed 
in wood. 

Distrihiding Pipes. 

By the side of the Mains and connected with them 
is laid a side pipe, six inches in diameter, the object 
of which is to prevent the necessity of ever inter- 
rupting the flow of water through the mains, when it 
should be required to supply a new tenant, which 
otherwise, could only be done by drawing off the water 
from the main for several hundred feet while the work 
was doing. 

From the mains as they pass by the several streets in 
their route the distributing pipes of four, six, twelve and 
sixteen inches in diameter branch off. Those of six inches 
in diameter, generally, and all under, are connected with 
the attending side pipe, and those of a greater diameter 
enter directly into the mains. At Dover street a pipe of 
twenty inches is connected with the thirty-six inch main 
and passes through Dover street over South Bostonbridge, 
through Fourth and Atlantic streets, to Telegraph hill, 
where it enters and supplies the South Boston Reservoir ; 
and branch distributing pipes are connected with it as 
it passes along the route. And at the junction of Union 
and Merrimack streets a pipe of twenty inches diame- 
ter is connected with the twenty-four inch main (the 
continuation of the thirty-six inch main) and passes 
through Union and Beverly streets on the lower side of 
Warren bridge to Charlestown, and through Cliarles- 
town by Chelsea street and on the uper side of Chelsea 
bridge to Chelsea, thence by the road near the shore to 
what was formerly Ober's wharf, now belonging to the 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT— No. 6. 25 

City, and thence it passes across the water to East Bos- 
ton and is laid directly to, and supplies the Reservoir. 

The length of the Mains and Distributing pipes laid 
up to Jan. 1, 1852, is one hundred miles and four hun- 
dred and fifty six feet, exclusive of hydrant branches. 

Stop cocks are placed on the line wherever required ; 
their present number is eight hundred and ninety 
seven. 

Hydrants for extinguishing fires and other purposes 
are also placed at intervals of 300 feet, the whole num- 
ber in the City is eleven hundred and ten, of which 
there are in Boston proper, - - - - 811 
East Boston, - - - - 124 
South Boston, _ - - - 175 
Twenty three hydrants have also been placed along 
the mains in other towns where the City has made use 
of the streets and highways, of these there are 
In Brookline, ------ 1 

" Eoxbury, 4 

" Chaiiestown, - 11 

" Chelsea, 7 

The pipe across South Boston Bridge is laid on a 
foundation of earth supported at the sides by piles and 
planks, as far as the harbor line. It is thence support- 
ed across the public waters, as far as the draw and chan- 
nel, in a wooden box, resting on piles. It was originally 
intended that it should be protected from frost, by a filling 
of non-conducting materials, this was however afterwards 
abandoned. The pipe is carried in an inverted syphon 
20 inches in diameter, with perpendicular ends, under the 
water, and embedded in the hard bottom of the channel. 
It is enclosed in a box or frame of timber, and completely 
enveloped with a covering of hydraulic cement. The 
distance from the top of the pipe to the bottom of the 



26 WATER. [Jan. 

syphon, including the box, is 32 feet 6 inches. The 
space in the clear for passage of vessels is 40 feet. The 
pipes across Charles and Mystic E-ivers, are carried in a 
similar manner. There are two inverted syphons 30 
inches in diameter, in the pipe across Mystic Eiver, placed 
opposite the draws in Chelsea Bridge. In one the height 
from the bottom to the top of the box or casing is 42 
feet 5 inches, and the space in the clear 50 feet, being 
considerably more than the present width of the draw. 
In the other, the height is 29 feet 6^ inches, and the 
space 39 feet. In the pipe across Charles Hiver the 
height is about 36 feet, and the space about 39 feet. 
The pipe across Chelsea creek to East Boston, is laid 
to the channel, from both sides of the creek, in a box 
filled with marsh mud or clay, and carried across the 
channel in a flexible pipe of nearly double the ordinary 
thickness, with swivel joints. The flexible portion of 
the pipe is about 461 feet long, laid in a trench dredged 
out about 6 feet deep, and covered with clay and gravel, 
to protect it from anchors. 

^Service Pijjes. 

The service pipes are connected with the distributing 
pipes, and are carried through the outer walls of the 
buildings, at the expense of the City, provided the dis- 
tance from the line of the street is not more than thirty 
feet. They are almost all of lead, and very generally 
five eighths of an inch in diameter. There are some how- 
ever of iron of an inch and a half and two inches in 
diameter, which were laid only in compliance with the 
wishes of individuals. The objections to that metal, 
arising from their filling up with accretions, discoloring 
the water with rust, and being easily fractured, have 
been found quite serious. Some objection also was 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 27 

made to the employment of lead for this purpose, on 
the supposition that it might communicate a deleterious 
influence to the water. The subject was submitted to 
the consideration of the consulting physicians, and in- 
vestigated with great care by Professor Horsford of 
Harvard College ; and the result at which they arrived, 
seems to be sufficiently decisive to relieve the anxiety 
which had been expressed. The whole number of ser- 
vice pipes laid to Jan. 1852, is 16,049, of which 13,549 
are lead. 

Distributing Reservoirs. 

There are three Distributing Reservoirs^ constructed 
for the purpose of receiving the water from the mains 
leading from the Brookline Eeservoir, during the latter 
part of the day and the night, when it was presumed but 
little would be drawn from the service pipes ; and of sup- 
plying it to the service pipes in the morning, when the 
greater portion for domestic purposes is required. By 
this means a continuous supply could be kept up to a 
more uniform height. 

Beacon Hill Distributing Reservoir. 

The most costly distributing Eeservoir, belonging to 
the Water Works, is erected on the site where Beacon 
Hill formerly stood. The foundation of the Reservoir 
is more than 70 feet below the former elevation of 
the hill. It is built with great labor and care, of the 
most massive description of stone masonry. The whole 
structure is of granite laid in hydraulic cement, with 
hammered beds and builds and an undressed external 
surface, surmounted with a deep cornice. It is situate 
and bounded 190 feet 3 inches on Derne street, 206 feet 
5 inches on the rear of Mt. Vernon street, 191 feet and 



28 WATEE. [Jan. 

7 inches on Hancock street, and 182 feet 11 inches on 
Temple street. The outer walls are 3 feet thick, and 
that on Derne street is pierced with five arches, and ele- 
vated 58 feet and 9 inches including the coping, above 
the level of the street ; those on the other sides are solid. 
The walls on Temple and Hancock streets gradually di- 
minish in height with the ascent of the hill ; at their 
junction with the wall on the rear of Mt. Vernon street, 
they are 40 ft. 8 in. high. The basin containing the water 
is raised to such a height from the natural surface, that 
the floor or bottom of the interior of it is 15 ft. 8 inches 
below the level of the coping. The lateral walls of the 
basin are built 12 feet within the exterior walls of the 
reservoir. They are of granite, 5 feet thick at the lower 
part, and 3 feet at the top. The bottom of the reservoir is 
covered \^ith concrete to a depth of 3 feet, and afterwards 
paved with two courses of bricks. The basin is supported 
on arches of granite. Of these arches, seven extend paral- 
lel, from Hancock street towards Temple street, from wall 
to wall. They are from 11 feet 9 inches, to 15 ft. 6 inches 
between the piers, and, varying in height with the decliv- 
ity of the foundation, are from 23 feet to 34 feet high ; they 
give support to about two thirds of the superstructure ; 
extending from the rear of Mt. Vernon street towards 
Derne street, until they meet the arches running from 
Derne street at right angles to them. Those arches 
seven in number, extend back from Derne street, 57 feet 
and six inches, they are 20 feet 3 inches wide, and vary 
in height, with the declivity of the land, from 37 to 39 
feet, the piers supporting the arches being 3 feet through. 
Five of them open on the street, their entrance varying 
in height from 36 feet to 38 feet, and being 14 feet 9 in. 
wide. The lateral walls of the basin rest on the course of 
concrete ; and tliere is a space of 4 feet 9 inches between 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 29 

them and the outer walls. It was estimated that 17,000 
cubic yards of hydraulic masonry and concrete were used 
in the construction. The influent main is introduced in 
the South Western corner of the structure, and a stair 
case in the same corner contains a flight of stone steps 
leading to the top, and is protected on the top by a lan- 
tern of cast-iron 9 feet 1 inch high, by 10 feet 6 inches 
wide in the interior. The effluent main 30 inches in 
diameter, passes out at the North Western corner. 

The contents of the basin are equal to 2,678,961 gal- 
lons, its mean horizontal section being 28,014 square feet. 
The maximum or high water level of the water in Brook- 
line reservoir, which now is 124.60 feet above tide marsh 
level, is 1 1 inches above the coping of the inside of the 
Beacon hill reservoir, or 16 feet 7 inches above the bot- 
tom of the basin, the minimum level of the Brookline 
is 4 feet below this line. The bottom of the Reservoir is 
above tide marsh level, . - - 108.03 feet. 
The top of the coping outside, - - 124.03 " 
The bottom of the waste weir, - - 121.53 " 

South Boston Distributing Reservoir. 

The South Boston Reservoir is placed on the East 
side of Telegraph hill. South Boston. The w^alls are 
formed of a puddled embankment, lined inside with 
granite rubble, and the bottom paved with pebble stones. 
It resembles in shape a segment of an ellipse measur- 
ing across the widest part about three hundred and 
seventy feet, and about two hundred and sixty across 
the narrowest part. It contains 7,508,246 gallons. The 
top of the dam is 125.86 feet above tide marsh level 
and the bottom of the reservoir 105.35 feet. High 
water mark in the reservoir is 17 feet 9 inches above 



30 WATEE. [Jan. 

the bottom, and 1 foot 9 inches below low water mark 
at the Lake. 

East Boston Distributing Reservoir. 

The East Boston Eeservoir is placed on Eagle hill 
East Boston. The walls are formed by a puddled em- 
bankment, lined with stone in the interior ; the bottom 
paved and covered with concrete. It is rectangular in 
shape measuring three hundred and twenty-five feet by 
one hundred and fifty and contains at a level 3 feet be- 
low its top 5,591,816 wine gallons. The top of the 
dam is 110.60 feet and the bottom of the Eeservoir 
80.60 above tide marsh level. High water mark is 
twenty seven feet above the bottom of the Eeservoir 
and seventeen feet three inches below low water mark at 
the Lake. The outside slope of the embankment on 
the west side is 93K feet, on the east 70>^ feet on the 
south 67 feet and on the north 56 feet. The top walk 
is 7 feet wide. 

Public Fountains, 

There are at present ten public fountains supplied 
with the Cochituate Water, and situate in the follow- 
ing public squares and places. The principal is in the 
pond or fountain basin on the Common, the coping of 
which is 24.60 feet above tide level and 96 feet below 
the minimum level of Brookline reservoir. 

One is placed in the public garden and receives the 
waste water from that on the Common. 

Two are in front of the State house. 

Tivo in Franklin and Blackstone squares. 

One in Chester square. 

One in the square in front of the West church. 

One in Haymarket square. 

One in Maverick square, East Boston. 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 31 

All the fixtures connected with the several fountains 
belong to the City, excepting those of the fountains in 
front of the State house, which were erected at the ex- 
pense of the State. As it is important, in reference to a 
proper economy in the use of the water, that the quan- 
tity consumed in the several fountains should be known, 
an estimate of the hourly consumption has been prepared. 
It is however to be considered as giving the theoretical 
discharge only, as calculated from the area of the ori- 
j&ce and the height to which the water is thrown, but 
the resistance, from the air and from the water being 
thrown back upon itself, not being taken into the ac- 
count. It is nevertheless believed to be a sufficient ap- 
proximation, for all practical purposes, and the error, 
if there be any, consists in underrating the quantity used. 
The fountain on the Common consists of twelve differ- 
ent jets, by v/hich the water is thrown into a variety of 
forms, as it rises from a pipe on a level with the basin, 
without any ornamental fixtures connected with it. 
Five of these jets are solid cylinders of water, one of 
which is 3 inches, two are 4, and two 6 inches in diame- 
ter, rising to a height of from 75 to 98 feet. The quan- 
tity of water used by them severally, is from 103,380 to 
392,280 gallons, the 3 inch jet using the former, and 
one of the 6 inch jets using the latter quantity. Four of 
the jets are hollow cylinders, rising from 3 feet to 88 feet, 
and consuming from 25,620 to 118,020 gallons. In 
the three remaining jets another variety of figure is pro- 
duced, by the shape of the aperture. They rise from 30 
feet to 80 feet, and use respectively 214,560—220,380, 
and 314,040 gallons. The least consumption of water 
from any of these jets is therefore that from a hollow 
cylindrical jet, which rises from 15 feet to 20 feet, and 
is 25,620 gallons. The greatest consumption is from 



32 WATER. [Jan. 

the solid jet, from a tube 3 feet long and 6 inches in 
diameter, which is 392,280 gallons an hour. 

The fixtures of the fountains at the State house, and 
in Franklin and Blackstone squares are of cast iron, in 
shape of an ornamental vase supported on a fluted 
column. Those at the State house are about 12 feet 
high, above the receiving basins, and those in the squares 
7 feet nine inches. The water rises above the respec- 
tive vases from 3 feet to 7 feet. The quantity discharg- 
ed from two jets at the State house, is 9,420 and 12,360 
gallons, and that from three jets in the squares is 12,840, 
18,300 and 32,700 gallons. At the Public garden, the 
water rises from 6 feet to 8 feet, and there is used 
91,800 gallons. At the fountain in Cambridge street, 
it rises 4 feet and there are two jets using 8,100 and 
9,240 gallons. At Chester square, there are two jets, 
one rising from 25 to 30 feet and using 24,900 gallons, 
the other rising from 8 to 10 feet and using 31,320 
gallons. 

The Com2oetisating Reservoirs. 

It has been stated that the right which the City ac- 
quired, by purchase of Mr. Knight, to use the waters of 
the Lake, is subject to the claims of the proprietors of 
the mill privileges below, and also of the Middlesex 
Canal, for any diminution of their supply of water. In 
reference to these claims therefore, and for the purpose 
of affording to those proprietors, during the dry season 
(when alone they feel any inconvenience) a quantity of 
water equal to that which they had formerly received 
from the Lake, — the City has purchased and holds two 
compensating reservoirs in the towns of Hopkinton and 
Marlborough. 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 33 

The HopUnton Reservoir. 

The Hopkinton or Whitehall Reservoir is situate in 
the town of Hopkinton in the County of Middlesex. 
Following the very circuitous course of Sudbury river 
into which it discharges, it is about eighteen miles dis- 
tant from the outlet of the Lake. The reservoir ex- 
tends over an area of five hundred and seventy-six 
acres, the height of the dam is ten feet ten and one- 
half inches, and w^hen full the water is nine feet ten 
and two-thirds inches deep. Its capacity is estimated 
at 125,403,290 cubic feet or 940,524,675 wine gallons. 

The Marlborough Reservoir. 

The Marlborough, or Fort Meadow, Reservoir is situ- 
ate in the town of Marlborough in the County of Mid- 
dlesex ; about twelve miles distant from the Lake. The 
Reservoir has a water shed of twenty-two hundred and 
fifty-seven acres ; and covers an area of two hundred 
and ninety-nine acres. The height of the dam is 
thirty feet ; and, when full, the water is twenty-five feet 
deep ; it discharges into the Assabet river, and following 
its course, is about fourteen miles distant from its union 
with Sudbury river, by which the Concord river is form- 
ed. The capacity of the Reservoir is estimated at 
185,932,787 cubic feet or 1,394,495,902 gallons. 

Ramshorn and Boon Ponds, lying about two miles 
distant, were included in the purchase of the Reservoir. 

Assuming five cubic feet a second, to be the natu- 
ral discharge from the Lake, during one hundred and 
twenty days of the dry season, which was the quantity 
calculated from the observations made in 1844-5, the 
estimated capacity of the two compensating reservoirs is 
far more than sufficient to supply the loss of water, by 



34 WATEE. [Jan. 

its diversion from the Lake into the Aqueduct. In fact 
it is believed, that, after making a large deduction for 
evaporation and absorption, which must take place in 
the passage of the water, from Hopkinton reservoir to 
the outlet of the Lake, and from Marlboro reservoir to 
Concord river, enough is received from each of them 
at the particular season when it is required, to make 
good the loss of water formerly flowing from the Lake, 
at this season of the year. 



Newton Aqueduct. 

Among the claims which were made on the City for 
damages arising out of the construction of the Aqueduct, 
were several for large amounts, occasioned by draining 
of the springs in the neighborhood of the Newton Tun- 
nel. For the purpose of meeting these demands, and of 
obtaining the means of compensation for them, an aque- 
duct was constructed in Newton, by means of the forma- 
tion of a company under the provisions of the law of 
the Commonwealth, called the Newton Aqueduct Com- 
pany^ the stock of which is all held in trust for the 
City. And the water can be appropriated in such man- 
ner as the interests of the City may require. A large 
well was dug ; and a reservoir formed beneath the surface 
on a sufficient elevation, and a large quantity of water 
was obtained, adequate for the supply of a number of 
families. Pipes were also laid through the streets con- 
formably to law, and by their means together with per- 
manent cisterns laid in cement masonry, a substitute has 
been obtained for five wells in the vicinity of the tunnel 
which had failed ; and there is apparently a sufficiency 
for many more. 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 35 

Jamaica Pond. 

During the past year, the City has also become pos- 
sessed of the waters of Jamaica Pond, the Water Board 
having purchased in its behalf, the franchise and prop- 
erties of the '•'- Aqueduct Corporation.'' The pond is situ- 
ate in the town of Roxbury in the county of Norfolk. 
The surface of the water at its minimum level, or when 
one foot above the lower side of the effluent pipe, is, ac- 
cording to a survey of the pond made by Col. Loammi 
Baldwin, in 1833, — 45.27 feet above the coping of the 
dry dock at the Navy Yard in Charlestown, or 50.36 feet 
above tide level. At the time of the survey, the water 
was 4.43 feet above the minimum level, and covered an 
area of 67.22 acres, or 2,928,103 sq. ft. 

At 1.43 feet above that level, the area as estimated, is 
62,688 acres, or 2,730,684 square feet : 
At 7.43 feet above that level, 71,445, or 3,1 12,144 sq. ft. 
"10.43 " " - 73,668, " 3,208,978. " 

" 13.43 " '^ - 76,443, " 3,329,857. " 

" 1.57 below, " - 58,90, " 2,565,684. « 

'^ 4.57 '^ « - 54,915, '' 2,392,097. « 

« 7.57 « « - 50.316, « 2,191,764. " 

From observations of the height of water for 11 years 
ending Dec. 1833, it appeared that the highest year was 
1831. The greatest height being 9 feet, 4/^ inches, and 
the least, 6 feet, 2^4 inches, and the mean for twelve 
months being 7.795 feet. 

The lowest year was 1823, when the greatest height 
was 4 feet 10 inches, and the least 0.4 inches, the mean 
being 2.759 feet. 

In 1822, October, the water fell below the minimum 
level, and continued very low, until Feb. 1823, when it 
was 4 inches above. 



36 WATER. [Jan. 

At 1.43 feet above the minimum level, the 

estimated capacity of the pond is, 28,844,183 galls. 
« 4.43 feet above, - - - 92,505,525 '' 
« 7.43 « « . - . 160,458,315 " 

" 10.43 « « - . - 231,570,938 « 

" 13.43 ^^ « ... 305,132,820 " 

An iron main 10 inches in diameter was laid in 1840. 
It passed from the pond to the street, by Mr. "Ward's 
farm house, and thence partly beneath the street and 
partly through land of Ebenezer Francis and others, to 
Tremont street, and by that street to Bowdoin square, 
in Boston. 

The foregoing statement is believed to contain a de- 
scription of all the property belonging to the City in the 
Water Works. It has been compiled, as far as was 
possible, from the reports of former Boards, under whose 
direction the several portions were completed, and the 
language of those reports has been followed in describ- 
ing, both the principles on which those portions were 
planned, and their modes of construction And the 
Water Board would congratulate the City Council, that 
after a lapse of time sufficient to aiford some test of the 
adaptation of the works to the great purposes for which 
they were designed, as well as of the durability of their 
construction, there is so little cause for fear or anxiety 
on either of these subjects hereafter : and that notwith- 
standing the inherent difficulties of the undertaking, 
the variety and number of persons employed, and the 
great rapidity with which the whole was completed, the 
water works continue to bear the most unquestionable 
testimony to the science, skill and faithfulness with which 
they were planned and executed. 

The following are the dates of the principal events 
which occurred in the construction of the water works. 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT— No. 6. 37 

1846, March 30^A. The act was passed, authorizing 
the City to supply the City proper and South Boston 
with water from Long Pond. 

1846, April l^th. It was accepted by the legal voters 
of the City. 

1846, August 20th. Ground was broken at the lake 
and the excavation for the Aqueduct commenced, and 
the name of Long Pond changed to Lake Cochituate. 

1846, October 19 th. The first brick of the Aqueduct 
was laid on the 1st division. 

1846, November 15th. The shafts commenced on 
Newton Tunnel, and 

1846, December 11th. On Brookline Tunnel. 

1846, December SOth. The first drift began on New- 
ton Tunnel, at the west end, and 

1847, January SOth. On Brookline Tunnel. 

1847, November 20th. Corner Stone of Beacon Hill 
Eeservoir, laid with appropriate ceremonies. 

1848, April 28th. Last drift completed at Newton 
Tunnel, and 

1848, June 26th. On Brookline Tunnel. 

1848, August 21th. Brick lining completed on New- 
ton Tunnel, and 

1848, August SOth. On Brookline Tunnel. 

1848, September 11th. Bottom of the brick work in 
the Aqueduct all united. 

1848, October 12th. Top of the Aqueduct closed up 
and the water let in at about 10 o'clock, and it arrived 
at the reservoir in about 11 hours. 

1848, October Uth. Water let into the 30 inch 
main, laid from Brookline Reservoir to Beacon Hill 
Reservoir ; by means of the conduit in the embankment 
of the Reservoir from the Aqueduct to the pipe cham- 
bers, and reached the Common in about three hours. 



38 WATEH. [Jan. 

1848, October 25 th. The great celebration took 
place in Boston, on the introduction of the water, and 
the fountains on the Common played for the first time, 
in presence of the City Authorities and an immense 
concourse of persons. 

1848, November 16th. The Brookline Reservoir was 
finished and water let in for the first time. 

1849, Ma^ 1st. The additional act was passed by 
which the City was authorized to supply East Boston. 

1849, November 23d. Water let into Beacon Hill 
Eeservoir, and 

1849, November 2Sth. Into South^ Boston Eeservoir. 

1849, December. The works for supplying East Bos- 
ton commenced, by excavating for the Eeservoir at 
Eagle Hill, East Boston. 

1851, January 1. Water let into East Boston Eeser- 
voir. 

The Water Board, on entering upon the duties of 
their office, were fully aware how much the usefulness 
of the water-works must depend on the system to be 
adopted for their care and management ; they have en- 
deavored, therefore, to carry out such an arrangement 
of the different agencies employed, that the great inter- 
ests of the City might be best subserved. For the pur- 
pose of showing their course of action on this subject, 
they beg leave to annex to their report, the rules and 
regulations which they have adopted.* 

It seemed to them in the first place important, that 
the general superintendence, and all the practical details 
connected with the preservation of any of the existing 
portions, or construction of any new ones ; and also all 
those relating to the maintaining, and distributing a 
due supply of water ; should be confided to the exclu- 

* See AppendiX) B. 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 39 

sive care of some one individual, subject only to the 
control of the Water Board, and the supervision of its 
President, as provided for in the ordinance. They accord- 
ingly, by virtue of the authority especially given them, 
" to define the powers and prescribe the duties of the 
City Engineer relating to the subject," vested this 
charge in that ofhcer. His intimate acquaintance with 
the different parts of the works, from their commence- 
ment ; and his peculiar qualifications in other respects, 
in the opinion of the Board, eminently entitled him to 
the trust. 

He was therefore appointed the General Superin- 
tendent of the water-works. 

It it his duty to exercise a general control over all 
subordinate officers, and other persons employed : 

To attend to the construction of new works, and to 
all repairs which may be requisite at any time : 

To inspect the Aqueduct personally : 

To direct the discharge of water from Lake Cochitu- 
ate and the Beservoirs : 
, To prepare all plans of construction : 

To certify all bills for materials or labor : 

And to receive returns from the several Superintend- 
ents and to communicate them to the Board. 

Superintendents were also appointed on the various 
portions of the works ; and their powers and duties de- 
fined. They receive their orders directly from the City 
Engineer, and are answerable to him, and made respon- 
sible for the faithful performance of their several duties. 
The Superintendents of the Lake, — of the several reser- 
voirs, — and of the pipe chambers at Charles river, are re- 
quired to keep accurate records of the water levels at 
these places ; and to transmit them regularly to the City 
Engineer. And as it is important, in reference to 



40 WATER. [Jan. 

claims made on the City by the proprietors of the mills at 
Billerica and other persons, that the amount of rain-fall 
each year should be determined, as accurately as is pos- 
sible, the Superintendents of the Lake and the compen- 
sating reservoirs at Hopkinton and Marlborough are 
required to keep proper rain gauges for that purpose ; 
and with the same view, the Superintendent of Concord 
river keeps a record of the height of the water, at the 
mills in Billerica. The mains and distributing pipes 
are also placed in charge of a Superintendent, whose 
duty it is to attend to the laying and repairing of them ; 
- — to keep a record of all the labor performed, and mate- 
rials used ; and return the same weekly to the City Engi- 
neer ; and also to report the quantity of materials on hand 
at the pipe yard. And an officer was also appointed to 
give immediate attention to shutting off water, in case 
of leakage and to letting it on after due repairs are 
made ; and to receive and pay over, to the City Trea- 
surer, the fees provided in the ordinances to be paid 
therefor. 

By means of the regulations thus adopted, due in- 
formation has been received of the general condition of 
the works, and of every occurrence relating to them 
which required special attention. And the several re- 
turns of the Superintendents of the Lake and of the re- 
servoirs at Brookline and in the City have shown the 
quantity of water at those places, three times a day dur- 
ing the year; of the Compensating reservoirs, at Marl- 
borough daily; and at Hopkinton once a week; and 
also the height of the water in relation to the crest of 
the dam at Billerica mills daily, together with the 
waste of water weekly at the Lake. 

The Board are required by the ordinance to state, in 
their Annual Eeport, the condition of all the water 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT— No. 6. 41 

works, and of the lands and other property connected 
therewith, an account of all receipts and expenditures, 
together with any information and suggestions which 
they may deem important, and to transmit at the same 
time the reports of the City Engineer and Water Regis- 
trar. 

With regard to the present condition of the works ; 
the Board beg leave to refer the City Council to the re- 
port of the City Engineer, who is also directed by the 
ordinance to give to the Council the necessary informa- 
tion on that subject. His report is herewith trans- 
mitted and it contains a full and detailed statement 
in relation to the several portions of the works. The 
Water Board have also personally, from time to time, 
visited all the different parts (including the interior of 
the brick aqueduct, which has been carefully exam- 
ined by a committee) and the result of their observa- 
tion fully confirms the statements of the City Engineer 
on the subject. 

The brick aqueduct continues firm and no apprehen- 
sion is felt of its settling. The puddled embankments, 
particularly those of sand and gravel, are believed to af- 
ford a sufficient, and perhaps in many cases the best, foun- 
dation for the superstructure. That in Needham over 
Ware valley, which might have occasioned some anxiety 
on account of the height, of upwards of forty feet, to 
which it was necessary to raise it, has not yielded in any 
part, and the aqueduct rests upon it as immovably as if 
it were supported on any foundation of masonry. The 
leaks in the aqueduct, which existed from the beginning, 
do not appear to have increased any where ; and in some 
places, when they were examined, appeared to be stop- 
ped or much diminished. One new crack has been dis- 
covered, about a hundred and fifty feet in length ; it is 



42 WATER. [Jan. 

not however at present considered a matter of much 
importance. 

The state of the Mains and Distributing pipes is 
equally satisfactory. The pipes and inverted syphons for 
conducting the water to South and East Boston, which 
were considered the most vulnerable parts of the distri- 
bution, have not been affected by frost, as it was feared 
they might be ; indeed experience seems to show, that 
by keeping a constant current passing through them, 
that danger will in all probability be entirely obviated ; 
and the Board are not at present aware of any other 
which is likely to threaten them. A trifling settling of 
one of them on Chelsea bridge was attended with no 
serious consequences. The long extent of the mains, 
and other pipes, renders them liable to leakage from the 
expansion or contraction of their material, by the varia- 
tion of temperature ; this can never be prevented ; as it 
generally consists however in only slightly opening the 
joints it is easily remedied. 

The alterations which have been made in the Brook- 
line Reservoir, as before mentioned, will it is believed, 
add considerably to its usefulness. By raising the 
slope wall two feet perpendicularly, its capacity has 
been increased nearly twelve millions of gallons. 

Eor the purpose of ascertaining the exact quantity of 
water which passes from the Reservoir into the mains, 
and thereby determining the amount used in the City, 
it has long been deemed very desirable to obtain a met- 
er, which could measure that quantity with precision, 
to be placed in the pipe chambers. But little confidence 
however could be placed in any of the inventions previous 
to one recently made by Mr. Samuel Huse. And the 
Board having witnessed the accuracy of those made on a 
smaller scale, have agreed w^ith him for the construction 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 43 

of two sufficiently large for the Reservoir, similar in 
principle to those already made by him of smaller di- 
mensions, for the City. The Board feel assured that if 
the larger ones perform their work with the accuracy 
and steadiness, which those now in use have exhibited, 
they will leave nothing further to desire. And it is pre- 
sumed that hereafter, the very important knowledge of 
the actual consumption of water in the City, will be 
attainable at any time, without involving the necessity 
of shutting off the water from the Aqueduct, which it is 
now necessary to do. 

It has been found also necessary to replace two of the 
largest stop cocks on the thirty-six inch main, the past 
year, they having got so much out of repair as to be use- 
less. The new ones have been constructed on an improved 
principle, as it is believed, in having the movement of the 
valve made horizontal instead of vertical. By it a more 
complete control can be had over the valve, and the 
danger of a sudden shutting down of the valve, by the 
breaking of the screw, or any other part, is obviated. 

The report of the City Engineer also shows the num- 
ber of feet, size and location of the distributing pipes, 
the number and length of the service pipes, and the 
number of Jire hydrants, which have been added the 
past year ; also the number of repairs and the reasons 
for which they were made. It likewise contains a 
schedule of the quantity of hydrants, pipes, and other 
stock on hand ; an estimate of the consumption of water 
for the three past years ; and tables of the rain-fall at 
Boston and several other places for a series of years, 
and, which is of most importance, of the rain-fall during 
the dry seasons from 1818 to 1851. 

During the year sixty-nine new hydrants have been 
established in the city, making the number in the city 



4:4: WATER. [Jan. 

1110, and the whole number 1133. Every endeavor 
has been made to prevent the hydrants freezing, by due 
attention to their mode of construction, and by carefully 
packing around them during the cold season ; and gen- 
erally the efforts have been successful. Some instances, 
however, have occurred which it was impossible to pre- 
vent. They have been kept under strict observation, 
and have been at once thawed out when discovered to 
be frozen. 

There have been 11,692 feet of distributing pipe laid 
down, of 12, 6, and 4 inches diameter — making the 
whole length of pipe now laid, including the hydrant 
branches, a small fraction over 103)^ miles. 

The number of service pipes laid during the year was 
nine hundred and nine, and their length 31,203 feet. 
The whole number of these pipes now laid amounts to 
16,049. 

There have been sixty-four cases of repairs made on 
the distributing pipes, and one hundred and seventy-three 
cases of repairs on the service pipes. The repairs on the 
distributing pipes have averaged nearly one case to every 
mile and a half of the whole length, and those on the 
service pipes to nearly one case to every ninety-five 
pipes. The necessity for the repairs on the pipes has 
been owing in a great measure to their expansion or 
contraction from change of temperature — by which the 
lead run into the joints has been caused gradually to 
work out and leakage occasioned. The amount of these 
repairs has been increasing from year to year, so as to 
threaten to be hereafter a cause of very serious expense, 
in all the pipes which have been laid until very recent- 
ly. An improvement has, however, been lately adopted, 
(suggested by similar ones used in Scotland,) in the 
mode of casting, by which a groove is sunk in the 



I 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 45 

interior of the hubs, into which the lead runs, and 
thereby is formed into a bead, by which it is prevented 
working backwards and forwards with the expansion or 
contraction of the pipes, and it is presumed will, to a 
great extent obviate the difficulty in all those which 
shall hereafter be laid. 

The average daily consumption of water for the last 
three years is estimated to have been as follows : 
For 1849, . - - - 3,680,000 gallons. 
" 1850, -' ■■ - - 5,837,883 " 
" 1851, - . . . 6,883,782 « 
Being for the last year over forty-nine gallons daily to 
every individual in a population of 140,000. The 
greatest monthly consumption took place in June, and 
amounted to 7,924,971 gallons daily average, or more 
than fifty-six gallons to every individual. The least 
consumption was in April, and amounted to 4,950,000 
gallons daily, or over thirty-five gallons to each indi- 
vidual. The number of water-takers at the beginning 
of the year 1849 was 5,200 ; at the end of the same 
year, 12,108; in 1850 it was 13,463, and in 1851, 
16,076. Supposing each to represent a family of seven 
individuals, and taking the mean number between those 
who took it at the beginning and those at the termina- 
tion of the several years, the quantity to each individual, 
daily. 

In 1849 was 60.91 gallons. 

In 1850 "--.-- 63.23 " 

In 1851 " 66.58 " 

The consumption on some days also far exceeded the 
averages before stated. July 4th it was estimated to be 
10,537,000. And for several days in September it 
was more than 11,000,000.* 

* Since this report has been in the press, the daily average of one week, in 
January, was 10,850,563 gallons, and on one day it was 12,044,062 gallons. 



46 WATER. [Jan. 

The average for the year is more than double the 
quantity what was originally estimated to be a sufficient 
supply, for all the wants of the present number of in- 
habitants in the city. Indeed, it is nearly equal to the 
quantity which it w^as supposed would be required for 
a population of two hundred and fifty thousand, and on 
some days it has far exceeded even that amount. 

Were this large quantity, wanted or used for any 
necessary or useful purpose, it would not be essential, 
perhaps, to call the particular attention of the City 
Council to it, but the Water Board are convinced that 
much of the consumption is to be attributed to waste- 
fulness, which might be easily prevented by a little 
caution on the part of those who are chargeable with it. 
It was stated in a Report made to the City Council, in 
1838, as a reason for considering twenty-eight and one 
half gallons as sufficient; that it apeared to be "the 
largest quantity furnished to any city which is sub- 
ject, for any portion of the year, to the influence of a 
cold climate, or where the habits of life are of ' British 
origin.' " How far the peculiar habits of life have af- 
fected the result, it is impossible to say ; it has become 
very obvious, however, that the influence of climate has 
been vastly underrated, if indeed it has not been entirely 
mistaken ; for it is somewhat uncertain whether it was 
meant to be intimated that the consumption would be 
increased or diminished by the cold weather. In fact 
one great, and perhaps the principal, cause of waste, 
which has come to the knowledge of the Board, arises 
from the custom which is presumed to prevail very 
generally, of letting the water run at night, and some- 
times during the day likewise, to prevent its freezing 
in the pipes. Now, the waste from this source may be 
more or less, without reference at all to the object to be 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 47 

attained, the frost can be as effectually prevented by the 
continuous circulation of a small quantity of water in the 
pipe, as by a large one ; the loss, however, may be a matter 
of small importance in one case, but becomes in the 
other a very serious evil, calling upon the City Council 
to adopt some measures for its prevention. At the re- 
quest of the Water Registrar, the Police were directed 
by the late Mayor, to report the places where they 
should discover that the taps had been left running at 
night, and they have accordingly reported upwards of 
four hundred cases as coming within their knowledge, 
in the course of two or three nights. They were all 
cases where the gush of water was heard in the street. 
The pipes had therefore probably been left open to the 
full extent of their orifice, with reckless disregard of the 
entirely unnecessary waste occasioned by it. 

There are other sources of waste arising from an im- 
provident use of the water for necessary purposes. 
Many who pay a certain sum a year for the use of the 
hand hose, for a certain portion of the day, appear to 
be quite regardless of the extent to which they go, in 
the exercise of their privilege. Livery stables, water 
closets, and urinals, are also known sources of waste; 
the stream in the latter being in many cases permitted to 
run continually. It is easier indeed to detect these cases, 
than to provide a remedy for them. "With regard, how- 
ever, to cases where the taps are left running at night, we 
think that the fact of their being heard in the street, is 
sufficient evidence that the evil is of sufficient magni- 
tude to justify the shutting off the water from the 
premises. And, in regard to livery stables and other 
places, where large quantities of water are habitually 
used, it may be be necessary to attach meters, at the 
expense of the occupants ; or so to alter the water rate 



48 WATEE. [Jan. 

now paid, as to compensate for the whole quantity of 
water wasted. 

The whole subject is one which the Board would 
submit to the serious attention of the City Council. 
They fully believe that the quantity which was origi- 
nally calculated to be sufficient, is most ample for all 
the necessary wants of the inhabitants ; and that about 
two thirds of all that is now used, is absolutely wasted. 
If, however, this waste continues to increase as it has 
heretofore done, it is apparent that our present means 
of supply will be insufficient, and it may be necessary 
to add still more to the water debt, by laying an addi- 
tional main to the Receiving Reservoir in Brookline. 

The Supply of water in the Lake, the past year, has 
much exceeded the quantity anticipated at the com- 
mencement of the works. This has been partly owing 
to the greater fall of rain, than that which formed the 
basis of the calculation originally, and partly to the 
Lake having received a greater proportion of the rain- 
fall, than the ratio which had been assumed. The an- 
nual rain-fall was estimated at thirty inches, and four 
tenths of that quantity assumed as the ratio which 
would be realized, which (the area of drainage being 
496,584,000 square feet) would give 496,584,000 cu- 
bic feet. The largest estimate of the rain-fall this 
year, is that returned by the Superintendent of Hopkin- 
ton Reservoir, viz., very nearly forty-four inches, (43.97) 
four tenths of which would be nearly 728,323,200 cu- 
bic feet, or 5,462,424,000 gallons. 

But the quantity absolutely wasted at the Lake and 
which never entered the Aqueduct, was (as estimated by 
measurements taken on the 14 feet gauge below the outlet 
dam) 4,891,312,480 gallons, which, added to 2,512,580,- 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 49 

430, the quantity used in the city, during the year, will 
make 7,403,892,910 gallons. The proportion this year 
collected, must, therefore, have been equal to -fifty-four 
per cent, of the whole rain-fall on the water shed. The 
probability however is, that any assumed ratio of the 
rain-fall, to the quantity collected, must be, in all cases, 
extremely arbitrary and uncertain, and that the propor- 
tion may depend, not only on the soil and sub-soil 
of the area of drainage, by which a greater or less" 
quantity is saved from evaporation and percolation, 
but also on the quantity falling, the state of the 
atmosphere, with regard to moisture or dryness, the 
prevalent winds, or currents of air, and, perhaps, other 
circumstances with which we are unacquainted. 

The lowest point to which the water fell in the Lake, 
the present year, was 4 feet 1 inch above the flume, or 
3 feet 1 1 inches below high water mark, which was on 
the 18th October. The quantity of water then left in 
the Lake, above low water mark, was estimated at 
632,164,500 gallons. From that time it has continued 
rising, and on the 31st December, it was within 7K 
inches of high water mark. The quantity wasted 
from the Lake, during the year, was 4,892,472,480, or 
nearly twice the quantity estimated to have been used 
in the city. 

By the returns from the Hopkinton and Marlboro 
Reservoirs, it appears that the water at the former was 
at its lo^^'est point, on the 6th October ; when there 
were left 4 feet 2K inches. The quantity previously 
stored up, which was discharged from that Reservoir, 
from the 17th of June to 24th October, was 1,023,904,- 
600 gallons. The Marlboro Reservoir was exhausted 
about the 2d October. The discharge from it from 



50 WATER. [Jan. 

June 1st to October 1st, was 1,100,554,650 gallons. 
Making a total from the two, of 2,124,459,250 gallons 
contributed to the supply of Concord river, during the 
same period that it is estimated 975,028,771 gallons 
were consumed in the city. 

The natural flow from the Lake, during the dry season, 
the past year, is estimated by the City Engineer, at 555,- 
763,771 gallons, obtained by deducting from the quantity 
consumed in the city during that period, the depression 
at the Lake, viz., 28 inches, which is equal to 419,265,- 
000 gallons. It is obvious that this estimate is quite 
large enough, and that perhaps something might be de- 
ducted from it, from the fact that the water used in the 
city, did not, all of it, come from the Lake, a part, 
although the quantity is entirely uncertain, having 
leaked into the aqueduct. According to this estimate, 
however, it appears that the natural supply from the 
Lake, during the past year, is only a little more than 
one fourth the quantity discharged from the Compen- 
sating Eeservoirs, and a little more than one half of 
what was discharged from the Marlboro. 

To this time, therefore, we think there can be no 
pretence that the Middlesex Canal, or Mill privileges 
on Concord river, have been injured by diverting the 
water of the Lake ; we' believe, on the contrary, they 
have been thus far greatly benefited ; and that the 
supply which they have received during the past dry 
season from the Marlboro Reservoir alone, is an ample 
compensation for all they have lost from the Lake. 

The water on Concord river, was below the crest of 
the Dam, at Billerica Mills, from the 1st of July, to the 
24th of October. 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 51 

It has been stated previously, that the whole quantity 
of land, purchased and held by the city, round the mar- 
gin of the lake, and adjoining the same, was 

643 acres, 2 qrs. 2.61 rods. 
Near Saxonville, connected 

with the Mill privileges of 

Mr. Knight, - - 38 " 3 " 29 " 

Along the line of aqueduct, 305 " *' 08 " 

Near Brookline Reservoir, 34 '* 3 " 17 " 



Making a total of 1022 1 16.61 



In 1850, (Oct. 15) the late Water Board reported to 
the City Council a schedule of lands, which might be 
disposed of by the city around the Lake, — -in and near 
Saxonville, — and along the line of the Aqueduct, begin- 
ning at Lake Cochituate, and ending at the Brookline 
Heservoir. They did not, however, recommend a public 
sale of these lands, but thought it would be much bet- 
ter to keep them a few years longer ; unless they could 
be disposed of at private sale to the abutters, who could 
afford to give, in most cases, much higher prices for 
them than could be obtained, if they were forced into 
the market. The late Water Board also reported an 
estimate of the value of these lands, they stated, how- 
ever, that if sold at auction, they might not bring 
^3 0,000. The aggregates of the schedules is as fol- 
lows, viz : — 

1. Around the Lake, 36 parcels, containing 208| acres. Value, 8,660 

2. In and near Saxonyille, 5 " " 35 " " 5,000 

3. Along the Aqueduct, 48 " « 133| " " 24,350 



Whole amount, 89 " " 377| " " $38,010 



In the above estimate of land along the Aqueduct, 



52 WATER. [Jan, 

is included a small quantity near the Eeservoir, viz., 
5 parcels, containing about 2 acres, valued at ^1,800. 

The Board consider the foregoing schedule, as far as 
it describes the particular parcels of land which may 
be disposed of without injury to the works, as judicious, 
and a sufficient guide for their action. They are afraid, 
however, that the valuation attached to them is more 
than there is any immediate prospect of having real- 
ized. They have received but very few applications for 
any of them, and the prices offered have invariably 
been much less than the value stated in the schedule. 
It has been, and will continue to be, however, the wish 
and intention of the Board, to dispose of all the lands 
and other property of the city, connected with the water 
works, which their prudential management does not 
require them to retain. A portion of these estates are 
rented, generally for small amounts, to tenants at will. 
The income which the city derives from this source, is 
therefore but small. The whole amount of rent receiv- 
able from all this property, including that in Hopkin- 
ton and Marlboro, is twelve hundred and ninety-two 
dollars -^J^^. 



100" 



The Board also transmit to the City Council, the re- 
port of the Water Registrar, prepared according to the 
provisions of the ordinance.* 

The whole number of water takers during the year, 
has been sixteen thousand and seventy-six. The num- 
ber of cases where the water has been cut oif, is eigh- 
teen hundred and thirteen. There have been no abate- 
ments. And the expenditures in his department have 
been eighteen hundred and eighty dollars and twelve 
cents, 

* See Appendix D. 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 53 

There has been an increase in the number of water 
takers over last year, of 2,613. 

The total amount received for water rates has been. 

For water used during 1850, - $353,33 

" " " '^ 1851, - 160,946,39 



1161,299.72 
Received for letting on water, . _ - 1 019.00 



162,317.72 



The whole amount received to Jan., 1851, - |97,943.14 
Being a gain in the rates for the year, - - 63,003.25 



$160,946.39 



The report of the "Water Registrar likewise contains 
a list of the different water tenants, and the amount of 
water rate paid by each respectively, from which a con- 
densed statement has been prepared, and it appears 
that the amount received from the different classes of 
water tenants, has been as follows : ■ — 

12,343 Dwelling houses, including boarding 

houses, ---_-. 106,067.35 

2,345 Stores, shops, offices, cellars, - - 12,187.17 

263 Hotels, restorators, saloons, - - 6,528.29 

298 Stables, -..-.- 5,905.09 

8 Railroads, . - - . , 4,903.11 

13 Steam boats, - - - - - 1,690.02 

Manufacturing purposes, - - - 11,068.83 

53 Sugar refineries, breweries, distilleries, 

and bakeries, „ - - - 3,458.35 
Public buildings, charitable institu- 
tions, &.C., „ - „ - - 1,261.33 
1 Motive power, - . . » 546.79 



54 WATEK. [Jan. 

Shipping contract with watermen, - 1,84437 

1036 Hose, 3,121.00 

Other purposes, _ - - _ 2,364.74 



1160,946.39 



The Board annex to this report an account of all the 
receipts and expenditures of the past year.* 

The whole amount expended was - - $144,814.87 

From which, deducting payments for unfin- 
ished work of 1850, unsettled claims for land 
and other damages, by statement an- 
nexed, - . _ - 37,587.01 

Amount paid for Jamaica pond, 45,217.50 82,804.51 



Balance charged to current expenses, - - $62,010.36 

The whole amount of receipts was. 

For rents, ----- 980.86 

For old materials, &c., - - 6,318.78 7,299.64 



$54,710.72 



By the 14th sec. of the Act of 1846, the City Coun- 
cil were authorised to issue scrip, or certificates of debt, 
to meet all payments of interest^ which may accrue upon 
any scrip by them issued; provided^ however, that no 
scrip or certificates should be thus issued after the ex- 
piration of two years from the completion of the aque- 
ducts and other works. It seemed to be the duty of 
the Water Board, therefore, to ascertain the time of the 
completion of the works, and to give due information 
to the City Council, for its guidance in reference to any 
action on the subject. An examination was accordingly 

* See Appendix, E. 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 55 

had of the progress which had been made, and the 
Board being convinced that the whole would be com- 
pleted by the 30th of April following, an order was 
passed (March 26th,) that the construction account of 
the water works be closed on the 30th of April, (then 
next ensuing,) and the works be then considered as 
finished, and all expenditures, made after that time, be 
charged to the current expenses of the year. In ac- 
cordance with the foregoing order therefore, the account 
before stated includes, among the current expenses, all 
that has been paid during the year, for the extension of 
the works ; and also for the alterations made in the 
Brookline and East Boston Reservoirs, and which may 
be in fact considered as the completion of those works ; 
and deducting those payments, the amount would be as 
follows : — 



Amount charged to current expenses 


J 


162,010.36 


Paid on account of extension of works, during 




the year, viz : 






Distributing pipes, - - -, 


9,450.01 




Service pipes, - _ - - 


9,227.75 




Hydrants, . - ^ . 


2,406.30 




Stop-cocks, _ _ _ _ 


1,833.84 




Meters, 


405.56 




Air-cocks, _ _ _ _ 


81.00 




Labor on the above, in the black- 






smith and plumbing shop, and 






proving yard,- _ - _ 


2,613.63 




Brookline Reservoir, 


5,760.87 




East Boston Reservoir, 


1,459.99 


33,237.95 



Leaving a balance of - - $28,772.41 

As the current expenses of the works for the past year, 
including repairs. 



56 WATER. [Jan. 

The valuation of the pipes and other Stock on hand, in 
and connected with the pipe yard, 

January 1, 1851, was, - - • - - - $29,703.79 

January 1, 1852, --_.-. 22,249.76 



Making a difference of - - - - |7,454.03 



Which is to be charged, partly to extension and repairs of 
the works, during the year and partly to old materials sold 
and accounted for, in the previous statement, and to depreci- 
ation in value. 

A description has already been given of Jamaica 
Pond, and the property connected with it. 

By the 20th sec. of the Water Act of 1846, the city 
was authorised to purchase and hold all the property 
of the Aqueduct Corporation, and to connect the same 
with their other works. And by the ordinance estab- 
lishing this Board, this power was expressly and uncon- 
ditionally vested in it. It became its duty, therefore, to 
judge of the necessity of exercising the power; and it 
was made responsible for not making the purchase, if, 
upon a careful examination of the subject, it thought 
that the public interest required it. Nor was there 
any thing in the ordinance, which required that the 
Board should refer its action to the sanction of the 
City Council. With a view to what the Board believed 
to be the interest of the city, and after due consideration, 
and every effort to obtain a just estimate of the value 
of the property, it was decided to purchase, and to offer 
the sum of forty-five thousand dollars for it. The offer 
was accepted by the corporation, and the property con- 
veyed to the city. 

The reasons which influenced the Board, were fully 
stated in a communication made to the City Council at 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 57 

the time. They consisted, — in the actual gain which 
would be made, of a large number of takers of Cochit- 
uate water in this city and in Koxbury, — in relieving 
the city from all claims for which it was held liable by 
the Aqueduct Corporation — in the annulling the privi- 
lege which they possessed, of breaking up and injuring 
the streets, whenever and wherever they saw fit, — 
in the securing to the city the entire control of the sup- 
ply of water to the inhabitants, relieved from the mis- 
chief which might arise from competition with a rival 
corporation, — and in the intrinsic value of the property. 
The present number of water takers in Eoxbury is 
35, paying, by virtue of agreements made with the late 
Aqueduct Corporation, ^1,111.60 a year. The num- 
ber of takers of Cochituate water, who formerly took 
that from Jamaica pond, and who would have continued 
to take it, if the city had not purchased it, is, as re- 
turned by the Water Registrar, 500, paying an average 
water rate of at least eight dollars each. Since the 
purchase by the city, the water has been shut off in 
Tremont street, near the city line. There have been 
many applications for the water in Eoxbury, which at 
present it does not seem expedient to grant. Under 
their act of incorporation, the late corporation were au- 
thorised to sell the water to parties in Roxbury ; but 
were not authorised to take up the streets, except for 
the purpose of bringing fresh water into Boston. No 
new line of mains can therefore now be laid, for appli- 
cants off the present route. The Board have caused 
some inquiries to be made of owners and tenants, in 
the low portion of Roxbury, in relation to their desire 
to take the water, and it is believed an income of ^4000 
a year might be derived from that source. The cost of 
supplying the inhabitants of that part of Roxbury, 



58 WATER. [Jan. 

cannot be accurately stated, without a survey and care- 
ful estimates, which have not yet been made. The 
Board would, however, suggest respectfully to the City 
Council, that it will be necessary to apply to the Leg- 
islature for power to undertake the measure, if the 
Council should hereafter consider it proper and advisa- 
ble. 

The Board are happy to state, in concluding their 
report; that the large amount of claims for land taken 
for purposes of the Aqueduct, and for damage to land 
and water rights, which were left unsettled by the form- 
er Board, are nearly all adjusted. By reference to the 
statement of expenditures, it will be seen, that the 
amount paid during the year past has been $24,960.57. 
The demands made, in many of these cases, appeared so 
extravagant to those who were authorized to settle 
them, that no amicable arrangement could be effected; 
and in some, it was deemed advisable to appeal from the 
award of the Court's Commissioners, for the purpose of 
having the questions decided by the verdict of juries. 
We fear however that but little has been gained to the 
City by this course. The damages awarded by those 
tribunals having been, in all the cases, still more exces- 
sive. The case of Charlotte Harbach and others, in 
which the Water Commissioners reported that " they 
had ordered an appeal from the award of the Court's 
Commissioners, on the ground that, the amount award- 
ed of $7,700, is far greater than the actual damage 
sustained," has, during the past year been determined, 
and the jury have increased those damages to $10,479.94 
and costs, and even their being still further increased 
$3291.00 depends on the Supreme Court's decision of a . 
question of law which has been reserved. The dam- 
age in this case and others, in the vicinity of the New- 



1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 59 

ton Tunnel, some of which have been settled by the 
Board, as also the expenditure involved in the estab- 
lishment of the Newton Aqueduct, have been the remote 
consequences of the construction of the Tunnel, not 
anticipated at the time. It was not calculated that the 
City would be held liable in damages, exceeding twenty 
thousand dollars, as has been the case, for injuries done 
to four or five estates, by being exhausted of their 
springs of water, even to a great distance from the 
tunnel, which was sunk more than seventy feet be- 
neath the surface of the ground. The demands now 
unsettled are comparatively of much less consequence, 
and it is hoped that the whole will be closed during the 
year. The claim of the Proprietors of Mill privileges 
on Concord Hiver, arising out of the diminution of their 
supply of water from the Lake, now in course of litiga- 
tion, is of the most importance. All the latter claims 
have hitherto been, as we think, amply provided for, 
by the supply which the City has afforded from other 
sources ; and we trust that an arrangement, mutually 
acceptable to all parties, may soon be made, by which 
that supply may be made permanent, and all the ques- 
tions now at issue be finally disposed of. 

The Water Board annex to their report a map of the 
whole line of the aqueduct ; and a general map showing 
the relative positions of the compensating reservoirs, 
and the course of the Concord River to the Merrimac. 
Also, plans of the high service in the city, and of the 
elevation of the door sills, cisterns and points of deliv- 
ery of the several dwellings in it. The latter have 
been taken, from a survey which has recently been 
made, with reference to alterations which have been 
proposed in the Beacon Hill Reservoir ; for the purpose 
of remedying, if possible, the deficiency which has been 



60 WATER. [Jan. 

experienced in the supply of water to the most elevated 
portions of the city — none of which alterations, however, 
have hitherto been adopted. 

The foregoing report is respectfully submitted. 

THOMAS WETMORE, President 
HENRY B. ROGERS, 
JAMES W. SEVER, 
SAMUEL A. ELIOT, 
JOHN H. WILKINS, 
JONATHAN PRESTON, 
JOHN T. HEARD, 

Cochituate Water Board. 



Co O'^ 




APPENDIX. 



A. 

It has been thought that a record of the past proceedings of the 
Citj government on the subject of the introduction of water for the 
use of the citizens, might be interesting and useful ; it has there- 
fore been prepared and is here annexed to the Report of the 
Water Board. 

The first act of the Municipal government of Boston, in relation 
to the subject, took place in 1825. Professor Daniel Treadwell^ 
was then commissioned by the Mayor to ascertain the practicabili- 
ty of supplying the City with water for domestic uses, extinguishing 
fires and general purposes. Professor Treadwell estimated the 
population of the City to be 60,000, collected into 8,000 families, 
and that 1,180,000 gallons would be the maximum for daily con- 
sumption ; but making the necessary allowance for the increase of 
the City, within a few years, that the supply ought not to be less than 
1,600,000 gallons. He did not take into this account, however, 
the supply required for extinguishing fires ; but recommended " that 
in such an emergency, the use of the water for most other purposes 
should be forbidden." With regard to the source, in the neighbor- 
hood, from which 1,600,000 gallons or more, daily, could be obtain- 
ed, he recommended Charles River, above the falls at Watertown, 
and Spot Pond in Stoneham, as possessing advantages over all others. 
And he estimated the cost of bringing the water from Charles 
River, at $252,777, and from Spot Pond, at from $296,288 to 
$363,404, according to which of two routes, which he designates, 
should be taken. The cost of reservoirs and distribution, he esti- 
mated at $262,066, supposing that the pipes should be carried 
through all the streets mentioned in Hale's map ; which would be 
116,190 feet, or nearly 22 miles. 

In March, 1833, the Mayor was directed by the City Council, 
to apply to the Legislature for a grant of the necessary power to 



62 APPENDIX. 

bring in water. The application was made however so late in the 
session, that notliing could then be done, and it was therefore re- 
ferred to the next General Court. 

In 1834, a new commission was appointed by the City govern- 
ment, and Col. Loammi Baldwin was selected to make a further 
survey and examination of all the sources, from which water 
could be obtained. Col. Baldwin made a minute examination of 
the subject, and presented his report in October, 1834. After de- 
scribing the ancient and modern aqueducts, pumps and artesian 
wells in Europe, and the aqueducts in this country, and the num- 
ber of wells and character of the water taken from them in the 
City, he described the Ponds in the neighborhood, and finally re- 
commended, as most eligible, Farm and Shahum Ponds in Fram- 
ingham, together with incidental sources dependent upon them, 
and Long Pond in Natick. He considered the capacity of the 
former as equal to 555,794 gallons daily, and the latter to be 
equal to 16,156,800 gallons daily, at the time of the measure- 
ments ; and estimated that the cost of the former would not exceed 
^750,000, by which a copious supply of 5,000,000 gallons might 
be brought in, but did not include in it the cost of distribution. He 
thought also, the supply from Long Pond to be quite practicable, 
but more expensive than the other, and that it would cost 20 or 
30,000 doUars more. And he described the line of an aqueduct 
from Farm Pond, which he considered to be the best upon the 
whole, that he had been able to discover. Col. Baldwin also annexed 
to his report, a statement of the capacity of Jamaica Pond, which 
has been referred to in this report, and gave it as his opinion, that 
more than ten times the quantity of water might be distributed in 
the town of Boston from this source, than had hitherto been used. 

In 1836, Mr, R. H. Eddy, Civil Engineer, at the request of 
the Mayor, examined the subject and recommended Spot and 
Mystic ponds as sources of supply. He estimated the capacity of 
the former at from 2| to 3 million gallons daily, and that of the 
latter at 12,960,000 gallons daily ; and that the cost of the former 
would be $388,747.76, and of the latter, including a conduit of 
masonry and steam engines, at $218,130.00. To which latter 
sum was to be added from $58,400 to $175,200, as the expense 
of supplying from 1 million to 3 million gallons a day by pumping, 
which would be necessary, as the pond is about on the level of 
high water mark. 

August 16, 1836, a general meeting was held at Faneuil Hall, 
and a vote was passed to introduce water at the expense of the 
City, to appoint a permanent board of Commissioners for the pur- 
pose, and to apply to the Legislature for the necessary power. 

In 1837, a new Commission was appointed, consisting oiPa^iiel 
Treadwell, James F. Baldwin, and Nathan Hale, to examine the 



APPENDIX. 63 

sources, and the best means of introducing and distributing a sup- 
ply of water. The subject was carefully attended to, and they 
made their report in November following. In estimating the 
quantity which would be necessary, they referred to the consump- 
tion of other places as a guide. They state that in 1833, in Lon- 
don, the quantity supplied was 187 imperial gallons to each tenant 
daily ; and in Philadelphia, 160 beer gallons to each tenant, includ- 
ing water used for fires, watering streets, and all other purposes. 
In 1831, the actual supply to an inhabitant in London, was 27| 
wine gallons ; and in Philadelphia, in 1836, it was 28|- wine gallons. 
They considered 28|- gallons, therefore, as sufficient for each inhab- 
itant — 'That in five years there would be a population of 87,000, 
requiring therefore 2| millions daily. And that there would be at 
the end of ten years 105,000, requiring 3 million gallons daily. 
They thought it expedient therefore, to provide accordingly in 
their designs for the works. A majority of the Commission recom- 
mended that the supply should be drawn from Spot and Mystic 
Ponds, which in their opinion would be ample not only for the 
present, but " for an extended period in the future." Mr. Bald- 
win, however, dissented and recommended Long Pond, which the 
Commissioners had carefully measured, and thought might be made 
to supply 8,743,680 gallons daily through the year. The cost of 
delivering the supply upon Beacon Hill, without distribution, was 

From Mystic Pond, $869,860 

Spot and Mystic Ponds, ... - 850,006 

Long Pond, - - - - - _ - 1,118,294 

And the cost of distribution including reservoirs on Beacon Hill 

and Fort Hill, and the pipes laid for distribution in the streets, 

nearly 67^ miles, $657,554. 

The same year, Messrs. Treadwell and Sale, at the request of 
the City Council, revised their report, and again reported an adher- 
ence to their former opinion, and Mr. Baldwin also adhered to his. 

The same year, a public meeting of the citizens was held and a 
vote was passed, that it was expedient for the City to provide a 
supply of water at the pubUc expense. Yeas, 2541, Nays, 1621, 
and that it was expedient to begin the work " next year," if leave 
be granted, Yeas, 2507, Nays, 1652. 

April 6, 1838, the City Council ordered an application to be 
made to the Legislature for leave to bring the supply either from 
Long Pond or Mystic and Spot Ponds, This application was ac- 
cordingly made, but it was so late in the session, that nothing 
could be done and it was referred to the next year. 

In 1839, (January 10,) the Mayor presented the petition 
again, and a bill conformable thereto was reported ; but sundry in- 
habitants of Boston, together with the proprietors of the Middle- 
sex canal and several towns, having remonstrated against it, the 



64 APPENDIX. 

bill was recommitted, and underwent a long hearing before a joint 
special Committee, who finally reported, in April, a resolve author- 
izing the Governor to appoint three Commissioners to report all the 
facts and information relating to the subject. 

In August^ 1844, the City Council appointed another Board of 
Commissioners, " to report the best mode and the expense of bring- 
ing the water of Long Pond into the City." The Board consisted 
of Patrick T. Jackson, Nathan Sale, and James F, Baldwin. 
They made their report November 9th, following. They assumed 
that the quantity to be brought in, should be a sufficient supply 
for a population of 250,000, which they expected would be double 
the population which would be in the City, when the works would 
be completed. They also agreed with the former Commissioners, 
that 28|- wine gallons for each inhabitant would be sufficient, and 
therefore that a population of 250,000 would require 7,125,000 
gallons a day, which would be equal, very nearly, to a regular flow 
of eleven cubic feet a second. A measurement was accordingly 
made at the Pond ; and combining their own observations with 
those of the Board of 1837, they stated it to be their opinion, that 
it might be relied on, by means of a dam and gates, for retaining 
such a quantity of water as would ensure the requisite supply 
during the year. For the purpose of conducting the water, they 
recommended the construction of a brick aqueduct, similar in every 
respect to the one since built, and a reservoir at Corey's HiU in 
Brighton ; and they calculated that the aqueduct with an inclina- 
tion of 3 inches in a mile, and filled to a depth of 3 feet 10 inches, 
would be sufficient for a flow of eleven cubic feet a second, or a 
little more than 7 millions gallons every 24 hours. It has since 
been proved by experience that the aqueduct is sufficient to ad- 
mit the flow of more than 10 million gallons. They also recom- 
mended the construction of three or four reservoirs of moderate 
dimensions, on Beacon Sill, Fort Sill, Copp's Sill and Dorchester 
Seights ; and they estimated that the cost of the whole would be 
$2,118,535.83. 

In the same year, Se2)t. Zd, a general meeting was held at 
Faneuil Hall, and continued by adjournment to the evenings of 
Sept. 4th, Oct. 1st, Nov. 14th— 26th, and Dec. 3d ; and after the 
whole subject had been fully discussed, a resolution was adopted, 
instructing the Mayor and Aldermen to submit the propositions, for 
introducing water from Long Pond at the expense of the City, and 
for an application to the Legislature, — to the legal voters at the en- 
suing municipal election. This was accordingly done, and a vote 
was passed at that election in favor of the project — Yeas, 6260, 
Nays, 2204, and in favor of applying to the Legislature for the 
requisite poAvers ; Yeas, 1252 ; Nays, 2207. An application was 
accordingly made in behalf of the City Council at the ensuing 
session, and in 1845, the act was passed (Mar. 25.) It likewise 



APPENDIX. 65 

authorized the City Council to adopt Charles River as tlie source 
if it saw fit. It contained some provisions, particularly those re- 
lating to the powers to be given to the Board of Commissioners, 
which caused it to be rejected by the people, when submitted to 
them for their assent, on the 19th of May, by a vote of 3670 
yeas, to 3999 nays. 

In the same year, an application was made by the proprietors 
of Spot Pond, to sell that pond to the City. It was thereupon 
deemed expedient by the City Council, that a Board of Commis- 
sioners should be appointed, whose opinions should be entirely un- 
biassed by any of the preceding transactions, who should be able to 
take up the whole subject apart, and examine it by themselves. 
Messrs. John B. Jervis, of New York, and Walter R. Johnson, of 
Philadelphia, were a<3cordingly appointed Commissioners, to exam- 
ine the sources from which a supply of pure water could be ob- 
tained. Their report was dated Nov. 25th. They made a careful 
survey anew of Spot Pond, Charles River, and Long Pond, and 
reported the result very much in detail, giving the preference 
to the latter. They estimated the cost, including land and water 
rights, 1,846,599 dollars, exclusive of distribution. 

The plan of the aqueduct proposed by them, did not vary essen- 
tially from that of the former Board of Commissioners. 

In 1846, March 30, the Act now in force, was passed, and ac- 
cepted by the legal voters, April 13, by a vote of 4637 yeas, to 
348 nays. 

1846, May 4. Nathan Sale, James F. Baldwin, and Thomas 
B. Curtis, were elected by the City Council, Water Commission- 
ers, under the provisions of the Act. These Commissioners held 
their first meeting, May 5th, and appointed John B. Jervis, of 
New York, consulting engineer. They afterwards divided the 
works into the Western and Eastern Departments, and appointed 
B. Sylvester Cheshrough, Chief Engineer of the former, and 
William S. Whitivell, of the latter. The works were immediately 
commenced and finished under the same direction ; excepting the 
part connected with East Boston, which was not finished until 
1851. 

August 20, 1846. The ground was first broken for the Aque- 
duct at the Lake, in presence of the City Council and others. 
The first shovel-full of earth was thrown by Josiah Qiiincy, Jr., 
the Mayor of the City, and the second by John Quincy Adams, 
late President of' the United States ; and on the same day, the 
name of the Long Pond was changed to Lake Cochituate. 

The term of office of the Water Commissioners being limited to 
three years, by the Act, it accordingly expired May 4, 1849. 
And the City Council, by virtue of powers contained in the Act, 



66 APPENDIX. 

extended the time eight months longer. They made their final 
report, Jan. 4, 1860. 

In 1850, all the " rights, power and authority," given to the 
City by the Act, were vested in the CocJiituate Water Board, 
consisting of a Commissioner, an Engineer, and a Water Regis- 
trar ; subject to the direction of a Joint Standing Committee of 
the City Council, by an ordinance passed Dec. 31, 1849, which 
was limited to continue m force one year. 

The same year, the supply of water to East Boston was com- 
pleted. 

In 1851, the present CocJiituate Water Board was estabhshed, 
and all the powers which the City Council derived from the Acts 
of the Legislature on the subject, as far as the same could be 
delegated, were vested in it, by ordinance, Oct. 30, 1850 ; sub- 
ject to the ordinances of the Council. 



APPENDIX. 67 



B. 

Rules and Regulations of the Cochituate Water Board. 

There shall be a stated meeting of the Board every Wednesday 
at 11 o'clock, A. M., for the transaction of such business as maj 
come before it. 

A majority of the Board shall constitute a quorum. 

All meetings shall be notified by the Clerk, by leaving a •vyritten 
or printed notification at the place of abode of the several mem- 
bers. 

There shall be a meeting on a day subsequent to the 20th of 
every month, for the examination of such bills and accounts, as it 
may be necessary to report to the City Auditor. 

All bills and accounts against the City, authorized by this Board, 
shall be entered by the Clerk in a monthly draft, which shall be 
presented to the Board at the said monthly meetings, and vfhich 
after being signed by the President, shall be delivered to the 
Auditor ; — and no bill or account, shall be approved by the Board 
unless it is so entered. 

If however the Clerk shall doubt as to the correctness of any 
bill or account, he shall not enter the same in the said draft, until 
he shall have exhibited the same to the Beard, with his objections, 
at their next monthly meeting, for their final decision. 

And no bill or account shall be entered in the monthly draft un- 
less it be dehvered to the Clerk before the 20th day of that month. 

Clerh. 

The Clerk of the Board shall be chosen by ballot, and hold his 
office during the pleasure of the Board. He shall give his whole 
time to the service of the Board, attend all its meetings, and keep 
fair records of all its proceedings. He shall be entrusted with all 
the books, plans, papers, and documents, and be responsible for 
their safety. 

It shall be his duty to keep in a neat and methodical style, a . 
complete set of books, wherein shall be entered a full and accurate 
statement of all the receipts and expenditures of the Board ; to re- 
ceive all bills and accounts against the City, for work or labor done, 
or materials furnished pursuant to orders of the Board, examine 
them in detail and cast them up, and enter the same in the books. 

He shall prepare a monthly draft and enter in the same a cor- 



05 APPENDIX. 

rect schedule of all bills and accounts to be presented at the 
monthly meetings of the Board. And shall be duly sworn to the 
faithful performance of the duties of his office. 

He shall notify the meetings of the Board, and perform such 
further services as may be required by the Board, or the Presi- 
dent of the same. 

City JEngineer. 

The City Engineer shall, mider this Board, be the General 
Superintendent of the Water Works. He shall take charge of 
Lake Cochituate, of the Reservoirs, Aqueducts and Pipes, of all 
the lands, and of all the machinery, structures and property con- 
nected with the Water Works, subject always however to the 
supervision of the President, and to such regulations, directions 
and restrictions as this Board may from time to time prescribe. 

He shall exercise a general control and oversight over all the 
superintendents, agents and other subordinate officers. 

He shall diligently attend to the execution of all works to be 
hereafter constructed ; and take immediate measures for the repair 
of any damage which may happen to the aqueduct, pipes, reser- 
voirs, dams, gate-houses, and all other structures or property be- 
longing to the Water Works. He shall attend to the sufficiency 
of supply in the pipe yard, to meet every casualty. 

He shall carefully inspect the aqueduct and other works, from 
time to time, in person, with a view to such repairs as may be 
necessary. 

He shall direct the discharge of water from all the Reservoirs 
and from the Lake ; and shall keep in his office the returns of the 
several superintendents in relation to the water levels at the Lake, 
and all the Reservoirs, and of Concord River, and of the pipe cham- 
bers in Charles River ; and make a report to this Board of all the 
said returns, as often as he shall receive the same. 

He shall use due dihgence in the preservation and protection 
of Lake Cochituate, and of the water in the Lake ; of the reser- 
voirs, aqueducts and other property of every description belong- 
ing to the Water Works, from injuries and nuisances. 

He shall prepare all plans of construction, make all necessary 
estimates connected with the works, whether for construction or 
repairs, certify all accounts, bills and contracts for materials pur- 
chased or labor performed, under his direction ; shall notify the 
Board of all the breaches of contract ; shall personally, under the 
direction of this Board, supervise and arrange all contracts for 
labor to be performed or materials to be purchased ; and be intrust- 
ed with the construction of such new works ; and the purchase and 
laying down of such mains and pipes, as the Water Board may 
from time to time direct. 



APPENDIX. 69 

He shall forthwitL. report to this Board, all cases of unexpected 
casualties or damages to the lake, aqueduct or other property ; 
and all matters and things which may in any way affect injuriously, 
the supply of water in the lake, aqueduct or pipes, which may 
come to his knowledge. 

Subordinate Officers. 

The following subordinate officers shall he appointed by the 
Water Board ; who shall hold their offices during the pleasure of 
the Board, and receive such compensation as the Board may from 
time to time deem expedient. 

A Superintendent of Lake Cochituate. 
" " Brookline Keservoir. 

" " Marlboro' Reservoir. 

" " Hopkinton Reservoir. 

" " Pipe Chambers at Charles River. 

" " Concord River. 

" " City Reservoirs and Fountains. 

" " Iron Aqueducts and Pipe Yard. 

A Draughtsman. 

A Service Clerk. And such other Clerks as may from time 
to time be necessary. 

And it shall be the duty of the several subordinate officers, 
strictly to observe and to use their best endeavors to enforce all 
the rules and regulations of the Water Board, and the orders of 
the President of the Board, and of the City Engineer, relating to 
the several subjects confided to them respectively. 

Lake Coehituate. 

The Superintendent of Lake Cochituate, shall have the special 
charge of the said Lake, and of the lands and property of the City 
on the margin of the same, and of the exterior of the aqueduct, 
from the lake to the waste-weir at Bedman's Brook in Needham, 
including the said waste-weir. It shall be his duty diligently 
to attend to the protection of the said aqueduct, waste-weir, and 
other property ; to the prevention of all nuisances and trespasses 
upon the said lands or the water of the lake, and forthwith to re- 
port to the City Engineer, all cases of damage or unexpected 
casualties which may happen to the lake, aqueduct, or other pro- 
perty. 

And it shall be his further duty to keep an accurate record of 
the water levels at the lake daily, in the morning, at noon, and in 
the afternoon ; specifying therein the depth of the water in the 
aqueduct, the height of the surface of the lake above Knight's 



70 APPENDIX. 

flume, in the north and south divisions ; the temperature of the 
water in the gate house, and of the air in the shade ; the height of 
the water on the 14 feet guage below the outlet dam ; and to make 
a correct return of the said records to the City Engineer weekly, 
and as much offcener as the said Engineer may direct. 

And he shall shut down the gate at the lake, upon receiving 
notice from the Superintendent of the Brookline Reservoir. 

BrooMine Reservoir. 

The Superintendent of the Brookhne Reservoir, shall have the 
special charge of the same, and of all the structures and other 
property of the City connected therewith, — of the interior of the 
aqueduct from the reservoir to the lake ; and of the exterior from 
the reservoir to the waste-weir at Dedman's Brook, — of the waste- 
weir at Wehber's Barn in Brookline, and also of those at Newton 
Centre and East Needham. 

And it shall be his duty diligently to attend to the protection of 
the reservoir, aqueduct, waste-weirs and other structures and 
property confided to his charge ; and to the prevention of all 
nuisances and trespasses upon the same ; to keep the grounds and 
walks around the reservoir in good order, and forthwith report to 
the City Engineer all cases of damage or unexpected casualties 
upon the said aqueduct, reservoir, or other property. 

And it shall be his further duty to keep a correct record of the 
water levels at the reservoir daily, in the morning, at noon and 
afternoon, specifying therein the depth of the surface of the water 
below the top of the dam in the reservoir, also the depth in the 
upper gate-house, and the temperature of the water in the gate- 
house at eight feet below the surface, and of the air in the shade. 
And to return to the City Engineer weekly, and as much oftener 
as he may require, a correct copy of the said record. 

Marlboro^ Reservoir. 

The Superintendent of the Marlboro' Reservoir, shall have the 
special charge of the Compensating Reservoir in Marlboro' and of 
all the lands, structures and other property of the City immedi- 
ately connected therewith ; and it shall be his duty diligently to 
attend to the preservation of the same, and to the prevention of 
all trespasses upon the lands and other property, or upon the 
waters of the reservoir ; and forthwith to report to the Engineer 
all cases of damage or unexpected casualties, which may happen 
to the same. 

And also, to attend to the Cunningham roads, to examine them 
personally, as often as once in each week, and to make such re- 
pairs upon the same as may, from time to time be necessary. 



APPENDIX. Tl 

And lie shall keep daily, a true record of tlie height of water in 
the reservoir, and return a correct statement of the same to the 
City Engineer weekly, and as much oftener as he may require. 

He shall also, whenever required, take the guage of the water 
below the dam, and report the height of the same to the Engineer. 

HopTcinton Reservoir. 

The superintendent of the Compensation Reservoir in Hopkin- 
ton, shaU have the special charge of the said reservoir, and of all 
the lands, structures and other property of the City connected 
therewith ; and it shall be his duty diligently to attend to the care 
and preservation of the same, and to the prevention of all tres- 
passes. 

He shall keep a correct record of the height of water in the 
reservoir ; taking the measurement of the same every day at noon, 
and shall transmit a true copy of the same to the Engineer weekly, 
and as often as he may require. 

And he shall forthwith report to the Engineer, all cases of dam- 
ages and unexpected casualties. 

Pvpe Ohamhers, Charles River. 

The Superintendent of the Charles River Pipe Chambers, at 
Newton Lower Falls, shall have the special charge of the same 
and of the waste-cocks, and of all the fixtures and property of 
the City connected therewith ; it shall be his duty dihgently to 
attend to the same, to remove all obstructions therefrom, and 
to ascertain the quantity of water by measuring the depth of 
water above the bottom of the aqueduct in the said chambers daily, 
and he shall report the same to the City Engineer weekly, and as 
often as he may require. 

Concord River. 

It shall be the duty of the Superintendent of Concord River, to 
make and keep a true record of the height of water in Concord 
River, by taking daily an accurate measurement of the same at 
Billerica Mills, above the crest of the dam ; and he shall transmit 
the same to the City Engineer weekly, and as often as he may 
require, together with a statement as to whether the Mills are in 
operation or not. 

City Reservoirs and Fountains. 

The Superintendent of the City Reservoirs, and Fountains, shall 
have the special charge of the Beacon Hill, South Boston and 



72 APPENDIX. 

East Boston Reservoirs, and of all the Public Fountains in the 
City ; and it shall be his duty diligently to attend to the same, 
and to protect the same from all trespasses and nuisances. And 
he shall measure the quantity of water in the said reservoirs daily, 
in the morning, and in the afternoon, and as much oftener as the 
City Engineer shall require ; and make a record of the same, and 
return the same to the City Engineer daily. 

Iron Aqueducts 

The Superintendent of the Iron Aqueducts, shall have the 
charge of all the mains and pipes from Brookline Reservoir to the 
City ; and in the streets of the City, including South and East Bos- 
ton ; and of the pipe yard. And he shall dihgently attend to the 
same, and to all the fixtures and machinery, and other matters and 
things belonging to the Water Works in the pipe yard ; and he 
shall forthwith in case of accident to the said mains or other pipes, 
proceed to repair the same. And it shall be his duty to put in 
such service pipes, and lay down such mains and other pipes as 
may from time to time be directed ; and to repair all injuries to 
the streets and sewers caused by the water works. 

He shall keep a true account of the pipes, machinery and other 
matters and things in the pipe yard, and give immediate notice to 
the City Engineer, of all accidents which may happen to the mains 
or pipes, or to any thing connected therewith. 

And it shall be the further duty of said Superintendent, when- 
ever any part of the streets or highways in the City, or in any 
other town or place where any of the pipes or other parts of the 
said water works under his care are laid, are in any way obstructed 
thereby or rendered dangerous to the public travel, by reason of 
any repairs thereon, or for any other cause, to cause a sufficient 
fence to be placed where the said obstruction exists, and to keep 
the same sufficiently lighted ; and to station a person to guard the 
same during the night ; 9.nd to take care that aE the provisions of 
the 9th section of the " Ordinance of the City in relation to 
streets " are duly observed. 

He shall make a full report, weekly, to the City Engineer, of 
the work and labor performed, and materials used in his depart- 
ment ; and he shall duly return to the said Engineer once in each 
quarter, and as much oftener as he may require, a correct state- 
ment of the quantity of pipes and other materials in the pipe yard. 

Service Pipes 

It shall be the duty of the Service Clerk to receive all applica- 
tions for water to be admitted into, or shut off from, the service 
pipes, — and he shall observe all the directions of the President, the 



APPENDIX. 73 

City Engineer or of the Water Eegistrar, in relation to the said ap- 
phcations ; and forthwith cause the water to be let on, or shut off 
from, any of the service pipes, when so directed by either of them. 
He shall keep a true record of all places where the water shall be 
shut off. or let on, specifying the time and the reasons therefor, 
and shall return a true copy of the said record every week to the 
office of the "Water Board. 

He shall forthwith pay over to the City Treasurer, all. moneys 
which he shall receive for letting on or shutting off the water. 



10 



APPENDIX. 



c. 

Thomas Wetmore, Esq., President CoeMtuate Water Board; 

Sir : — The following report, relating to the general condition 
of the Water Works, and other matters of interest connected there- 
with, has been prepared in comphance with the 13th Sec. of the 
Water Ordinance of Oct. 31st, 1850. 

Lake CoeMtuate. 

The roads, culverts, walls, and grounds around the Lake are all 
in good order, except the culvert at the outlet of Dug Pond, which 
has proved defective and needs renewal in part. 

The examination of the interior of the aqueduct between Lake 
Cochituate and Charles River, which was made in company with 
the President and another member of the board, (Mr. Wilkins,) 
showed that it was all in good order. No defects different from 
those known to exist before, were discovered, except a fine longi- 
tudinal crack, along the top of the arch, under the road in East 
Needham or Grantville, about 150 feet long. 

Between Charles River and the Brookline Reservoir, no new 
defects have been discovered during the year. (This part of the 
aqueduct was also examined in company with the President of the 
Board.) The same difficulties with regard to the clay puddled 
embankments, mentioned in the annual report of last year, still 
exist. An attempt has been made to repair the aqueduct on the 
most troublesome one, at Webber's Barn, by putting in concrete 
foundation and backing, for 43 feet, on the east side of the Waste 
Weir, and 30 feet on the west side. A very great improvement 
has been effected, but as a good deal of water has been allowed 
to waste at this point, it is not yet decided whether the aqueduct 
has been made perfectly tight or not. 

The other defects alluded to, consist of cracks that were dis- 
covered before and about the time the aqueduct was completed, 
and numerous leaks into the aqueduct. These cracks have been 
watched carefully ever since, and are the chief points to which 
attention is directed, when the usual semi-annual examinations of 
the works are made. Most, if not all of them, have ceased to en- 
large, and are generally so fine that a person seeking for them, 



APPENDIX. 75 

but unacquainted with their localities might easily fail to discover 
them. The only troublesome ones are those already described as 
existing on the clayey embankments. 

The leaks into the aqueduct, through the brick-work, were not 
near so strong as they were at the examinations in 1850, especially 
on the part near Lake Cochituate, where by far the greatest num- 
ber exists. This difference was probably owing to the dryness of 
the season, which influences very much the amount of leakage into 
the aqueduct, especially into the tunnels. As no evil has yet re- 
sulted from these leaks, farther than the large sums the City has 
had to pay in the form of damages, for draining neighboring wells, 
and as the water they bring into the aqueduct is pure and cool, 
and 'paidfor, they may be looked upon as a benefit ; for other 
cities have built and are proposing to build aqueducts to collect 
water in the same way, in order to get it purer than they could 
in any other manner. The high puddled embankment at Ware's 
Valley just west of Charles River, stands remarkably well, and in 
common with all others made of gravel and sand, will probably 
never give any trouble from settling. 

The Cochituate Dam, the Grate Mouse at the LaTce, and all the 
structures along the line, are in good order. They were built in 
a very permanent manner, and promise to answer the purpose for 
which they were intended. 

The Broohline Reservoir, 

This reservoir has received considerable attention, as being of 
great importance in the particular management of the Water 
Works, and of considerable attraction to the public generally. 
The grounds around the reservoir, are believed to be in better 
order than they ever were before. The inside slope wall has been 
raised about two feet higher, perpendicularly, by a single course 
of granite flagging, which has added not only very much to its 
appearance, but allows the reservoir to be filled with safety about 
two feet deeper. 

Originally the top-water line of this reservoir was considered as 
six feet below the top of the dam, but the inside slope wall was 
built so as to admit of the water being raised two and one-half 
feet higher. Now it may be raised 4^ feet higher ; but it is not 
thought advisable, on account of high winds, to raise it more 
than 4 feet ; that is, to 2 feet below the top of the dam. The 
importance of raising the wall, is not confined to the appearance 
or preservation of the banks of the reservoir ; but, besides sup- 
plying water at a higher level in the City, it will be felt in case 
of a sudden and serious accident to any part of the brick aque- 
duct ; as the City would then have two days more supply on 
hand. 



76 APPENDIX. 

Beacon Sill Reservoir. 

The pointing of this reservoir last year, seems to have put an 
effectual stop to all external signs of leakage. Beneath the inte- 
rior arches, under the basin, an occasional drop falls, producing 
on pebbles, fragments of stone and chips, the effect observed by 
all who have noticed the droppings from the roofs of limestone 
caverns. The former dampness of these interior arches, has very 
much diminished. 

In consequence of the very large consumption of water during 
very cold as well as in warm weather, it has been found impossible 
to keep up the level of the Beacon Hill reservoir, unless a portion 
of the service around it was shut off from the rest of the City. To 
a limited extent, this has been done, and most of the time the high 
service has been well supplied, and no inconvenience has resulted 
to other parts of the City. It is impossible to prevent at all 
times however, a loss of water from the highest cisterns that are 
generally supplied, on Beacon Hill ; for whenever it is necessary 
to examine or repair the brick aqueduct or the large iron pipes, 
the surface of the water in this reservoir must fall below its usual 
level. 

South Boston Reservoir. 

The water in this reservoir has not stood so high, by from 1 to 
4 feet usually, as it has in the Beacon HiE Reservoir. As no 
practical evil results from this difference of level, which is owing 
to the heavy draft upon the 36 inch main, no means have been 
used to prevent it, nor could they be without producing posi- 
tive evils elsewhere ; unless a separate line of pipes were laid 
down from the Brookline to this reservoir. A small leak from 
this reservoir has existed ever since it was completed. In conse- 
quence of grading the street around Telegraph Hill last autumn, 
this leak has appeared to increase, but in amount, it is of no im- 
portance ; in looks however, it is quite objectionable, and may 
easily be remedied next spring. 

East Boston Reservoir. 

Water was let into this reservoir for the first time on the first 
day of Jan. 1851 ; and after it was filled to a depth of more than 
14 feet, it began to leak. At first it was feared that the bank 
might give way and the water was drained off ; but after several 
cautious trials of refilling and emptjnng again, it was found that the 
rate of leakage continued about the same, and appeared to be ow- 
ing, in a great measure, to the undisturbed natural soil, in the 



APPENDIX. 77 

bottom and sides of the reservoir, not being as impervious as was 
supposed. 

Late in the autumn, the inside slope walls of this reservoir were 
pointed, and the bottom plastered with cement ; but it was too 
late in the season to make a perfect job of it. As soon as the 
frost leaves the ground in the spring, we expect to make it tight. 
In the meantime it answers fuUj the purpose for which it was 
intended, and no apprehension of difficulty from it is felt. 

Iron Pipes. 

The iron pipes leading from the Brookline Reservoir to the 
reservoirs in the City proper. South Boston, and East Boston, to- 
gether with the distributing pipes through every part of the 
City are, it is believed, in good condition. 

The boxing and pile work across Charles and Mystic rivers, 
have received no injury, except in two instances from the shocks 
of vessels which have broken two or three of the guard timbers. 
The inverted syphon nearest Chelsea, has settled a little, and 
caused two leaks in a joint near by, but the cost of repairing it 
was only a few dollars. 

The 20 inch flexible pipe across the channel of Chelsea creek 
after a trial of one year, during which it has been exposed to set- 
tling, and the changes of temperature in the water, appears to be 
perfect. This pipe is different in the construction of its joints, 
and larger in size, it is believed, than any other flexible pipe in the 
world. 

The whole amount of pipes laid up to the present time will be 
found in the following statement, 



78 



APPENDIX. 



Statement of the length of different sizes of pipes laid, and stop 
cocks imt in, to Jan. 1st, 1852. 



DIAMETERS IN INCHES. 




36 


30 


24 


20 


16 


12 


6 


4 


Agg's. 


Eeet of pipes 1 
laid in Brook- 
line, Eoxbury }- 
and Boston 


19,355 


30,332 


5,773 




5,714^ 


t6,666 


194,578 


65,887 




proper. J 




















No. of stop ^ 
cocks in the > 


4 


7 


10 




12 


95 


405 


163 




same. ) 




















Eeet of pipes ^ 
laid in and > 
for S. Boston ) 








8,155 




10,875 


46,508 


16,512 




No. of stop 1^ 
cocks in do, J 








3 




25 


64 


20 




Eeet of pipes ') 
laid in and for > 
East Boston. ) 








15,972 


1,523 


8,593 


48,356 


1,699 




No. of stop \ 
cocks in do. ) 








4 


3 


13 


63 


6 




Eeet of pipe in ') 
Newton and > 
Needham. ) 




1,958 
















Totals. > 

Lengtli of ( 

pipe. ^ 


1 




5,772 


24,127 








84,098 




19,355 


32,29C 


7,237 


66,134 


289,442 


528,456 ft. 

or 100 miles 

and 456 ft. 


Number of \ 
stop cocks. ) 


4 


7 


10 


7 


15 


133 


532 


189 


897 



To the above aggregate lengtli of pipes, should be added the 
hydrant branches and bends. As there are 1133 of these, and 
they average 16 feet in length, their total length would be 18,128 
feet, or 3 miles 2288 feet, making the whole length of pipes 4 in. 
and upwards in diameter, laid down in and for all parts of the 
City of Boston, a small fraction over 1031 miles. 



APPENDIX. 



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80 



APPENDIX. 



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APPENDIX. 



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82 



APPENDIX. 



Service Pipes. 

The whole number of Service Pipes is 16,049, and they are 
mostly of lead f inch in diameter, a few of the same metal are | 
inch, and fewer still 1 inch : these are introduced only when large 
quantities of water are used. About 2500 of the service pipes 
are of cast iron, 1| and 2 inches diameter ; but it is a source 
of regret that any have ever been laid, as they are much more 
troublesome to keep in repair, and discolor the water more than 
lead pipes. 





Statement 


of Service Pipes laid in 1851. 




Diameter 
in inches. 


Boston. 


South Boston. 


East Boston. 


Total. 




Number. 


Length 
in feet. 


Number. 


Length 
in feet. 


Number. 


Length 
in feet. 


Number. 


Length 
in feet. 


2 

1 

3 


2 

1 

7 

18 

545 


146 

36 

574 

1,372 

16,622 


5 

2 

114 


931 

369 
3,843 


1 

5 

4 
205 


60 

821 

472 

5,957 


3 

1 

17 

24 

864 


=*206 

36 

2,326 

2,213 

26,422 




Aggregate, - 


909 


31,203 



Each service pipe, laid in 1851, is famished with a stop-cock, of corresponding 
size, at the junction with the distributing pipe. 

Stop Cocks. 

These are all in good order, as far as can be ascertained. They 
require much attention to keep them in good working condition, 
and are of great importance in allowing repairs to be made in 
small districts, without interfering with general supply of the 
whole city. The large stop-cocks, the 36 and 30 inch ones in 
particular, are sources of peculiar anxiety, as they are so heavy, 
and subjected to such enormous strains, that they are very Hable 
to get out of repair, unless managed with great care. The two 36 
inch stop-cocks on Tremont street, at the head of Dover street, 
have been taken out to be repaired, and new ones put in their 
places. This work was dreaded for a long time, and put off for 
more than a year, in consequence of a supposed necessity of keep- 
ing the 36 inch main closed for two and perhaps three days. In 
order to shorten this time as much as possible, the 20 inch main 
through Dover street, was connected with the 12 inch pipe in 
Harrison avenue, and this again was laid across the Worcester rail- 
road bridge, to connect with the 12 inch pipe on the north side, 
thus allowing, by means of two additional stop-cocks and a short 

*■ Fuunlaia.i. 



APPENDIX. «d 

extra 12 incli side pipe at tlie intersection of Dover street and 
Harrison avenue, the City proper, to be connected at pleasure 
with the South Boston Reservoir, even if the connection with the 
36 inch main in Tremont street should be cut off. After taking 
this precaution, and filling up the Beacon Hill and South Boston 
Reservoirs as much as possible, the work was commenced. By 
taking out one stop-cock at a time, and by the repairers working 
four days with only twelve hours rest in the whole time, the old 
stop-cocks were both taken out, and the new ones put in. After 
the first one was put in, the water was let on and the reservoirs 
filled before the second was commenced, so that scarcely any in- 
convenience was felt by the tenants on the high service, though 
they were notified before the first stop-cock was commenced, to 
expect a temporary loss of water. 

When these stop-cocks were renewed, they were put in horizon- 
tally and fitted with bevel-geer to adapt them to this purpose. 
The horizontal position is found to be the only safe one in New 
York, and experience here teaches that whenever the old large 
stop-cocks have to be taken out for repairs, they had better be 
altered so as to fit them for the horizontal position. 

The taking out of the stop-cocks at Dover street, led to the 
discovery of an unusual amount of accretion on the inside of the 
large pipes, much more than has been discovered as yet in any of 
the smaller distributing pipes. Prof. Horsford of Cambridge, was 
requested to examine the interior of the pipes and stop-cocks at 
the time, and was so much interested, as to make very minute in- 
vestigations of the substance collected in them, the results of which 
will no doubt be communicated to you. 

Mre Hydrants. 

During the year, 11 new hydrants were established in the City 
proper, 11 in South Boston, and 47 in East Boston. Altogether 
there have been established up to the present time-"^ 
In Boston proper, _______ 811 

" South Boston, - 175 

" East Boston, -_.--,_ 124 
" Brookline, _______ \ 

" Roxbury, -------- 4 

" Charlestown, ------- 11 

" Chelsea, -------- 7 



Total, 1,133 

Ten of these arc at the public institutions at South Boston. 
By comparing this statement, with the one made in the Annual 
Report of the Cochituate Water Board for 1850, it will be seen 



84 



APPENDIX. 



that tlie number of hydrants was then stated at 1,005, too small 
by 59. The discrepancy is owing partly to those at the public in- 
stitutions at South Boston not being included then, and partly to 
the assistant who took off the number from the plans, not knowiag 
all the alterations and omissions that had been made. The pres- 
ent enumeration has been made with a great deal of care by two 
persons, one of whom has a particular knowledge of about every 
hydrant in the City. A similar observation should be made rela- 
tive to the length of pipes laid. 

The great importance of these hydrants in cases of fire, now 
that so much dependence is placed upon them, renders it absolutely 
necessary to spare no pains to keep them constantly in order. 
Though some of them, which have been estabhshed more than 
three years, have never been used in extinguishing fires, they are 
all examined at least twice a year. After every fire, all the hy- 
drants used are examined and put in order, if at all injured. 
Before very cold weather sets in, they are packed around with 
salt meadow hay, which is removed in the spring. This precau- 
tion, together with that of providing wastes to prevent any water 
from standing in the hydrants above the valves, when they are 
not in use, has proved sufficient to prevent freezing in almost 
every case. 

In a few instances, where hydrants are peculiarly exposed, they 
have been known to freeze, and as far as practicable, such changes 
have been made as to remedy this difficulty, but where this could 
not be done, they are frequently examined during very cold weather 
and ice kept from forming in them. Notwithstanding every pre- 
caution hitherto taken, however, a hydrant will occasionally be 
found out of order, when most needed. In most cases this has 
been owing to the street watermen, putting them out of order, and 
failing to report having done so. As the hydrants are generally 
but from 250 to 300 feet apart all over the city, it is seldom a 
serious matter, if one should be out of order when a fire occurs. 

Repairs of Pipes. 
During the year 1851, the following leaks occurred, and were 
repaired. 











Diameter of Pipes in inches. 








Where. 


















36 


30 


24 


20 


16 


12 


6 


4 


2 


u 


1 


3 

4 


5 

8 


Boston proper, 
South Boston, 
East Boston, 


6 


7 


1 


3 


1 


11 
2 

1 


11 

5 


15 
1 


2 


40 


4 


3 

1 


110 
9 

4 


Total, 


6 


7 


1 


3 


1 


14 


16 


16 


2 


40 


4 


4 


123 



APPENDIX. 85 

Of the leaks that occurred in pipes 4 inches and upwards in di- 
ameter, 2 were caused bj flaws in the castings ; 2, (one 30 
inch, and one 20 inch,) were cracked, probably by carelessness in 
unloading, after they had been proved ; 4 by freezing ; 8 by set- 
tling of earth, and 48 by expansion and contraction, produced by 
change of temperature, which caused the lead in the joints to 
work out. Total, 64, or 1 in every li miles nearly. 

Of the leaks that occurred in service pipes, 79 were caused by 
fl.aws or defects, (43 in the pipes, 14 in the stop-cocks, and 22 in 
the connections,) 3 by rats gnawing the lead, 10 by injuries pro- 
duced by the tenants, 4 by freezing, and 77 by the settling of 
earth producing fractures, in most cases where the service pipes 
enter the walls of houses. Total, 173, or 1 to every 95 service 
pipes nearly. 

Complaints have sometimes been made, that sufficient notice of 
intention to shut oflf the water to make repairs, was not given. It 
should be remembered, that it is not always practicable to give 
notice, especially in the case of sudden and serious accidents, 
which require the water to be shut off immediately. Whenever the 
nature of the case admits of a little delay, if it should be in the day 
time, printed notices are left at all the houses to be shut off, so that 
the occupants may have time to draw as much as they may wish 
to use, till the water is let on again, and for no other purpose. 
For this reason, whenever it is necessary to draw off the water for 
two or three hours at night, from any portion of the city, no no- 
tice is given, as it is presumed that no serious inconvenience will 
result from the omission. In some instances, boilers in private 
houses have been known to collapse, in consequence of the water 
being shut off, and suddenly let on. This could easily be prevent- 
ed, either by having a cistern in the house, or a safety valve in 
the boiler, and as everything inside of the houses, in the arrange- 
ment and construction of the water apparatus, is done without any 
reference whatever to the City, the owners or tenants alone, should 
be responsible for any defects in their own work. 

Stock on hand and Tools. 

An account of stock on hand Jan. 1, 1852, will be found in the 
statement below. The rule is, not to have less on hand than one 
spare pipe, branch or stop-cock, of every size and pattern ; and as 
far as practicable to keep two. Some patterns are very rarely 
needed, and it is not necessary to keep more than one to spare ; 
of others that are used quite often, a much larger number is kept 
on hand. 

The accommodations and conveniences of the Pipe Yard, are 
sufficient for the storage of as many pipes, branches, stop-cocks 



86 



APPENDIX. 



and hydrants as are likely to be needed ordinarily, and to do all the 
mechanical work indispensable to the immediate laying down and 
repairing of the pipes, &c. ; but the manufacture of all articles 
used, is done elsewhere. In consequence of the limited size of 
the yard, most of the large pipes and branches are kept under the 
Beacon Hill Reservoir and in South Boston. 

If some alterations were made at the pipe yard, and a turning 
lathe purchased, at an expense for the whole not exceeding $1000, 
the repairing and fitting up of many articles which have now to be 
sent to machine shops in South Boston, or other parts of the City, 
might be done at the pipe yard for less money, and the expense 
of sending back and forth, saved. 

Statement of Pipes and other stock on hand, exclusive of Ey- 
drants and Tools, January 1st, 1852. 





Diameters in inches. 




36 


30 


24 


20 


16 


12 


6 


4 


2 


H 


1 


3 

4 


f 


No. of pipes, 


8* 


66 


2 


40 


22 


58 


51 


115 


506 


96 








Y Branches, 




1 


. 


. 


1 


1 
















3 Way Branches, 


2 


3 


. 


1 


4 


7 


9 


6 


50 










4 Way Branches, 


- 


2 


1 


2 


1 


4 


2 














Flange pipes, 


8 


7 


2 


2 


- 


- 
















Sleeves, 


10 


8 


8 


6 


8 


4 


11 


9 


20 










Caps, 


. 


- 


- 


- 


- 


11 


6 


12 












Keducers, 


• 


1 


1 


. 


1 


2 


5 


4 












Bevel pipes, 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


. 


4 


4 












Curved pipes. 


4 


9 


1 


. 


2 


4 
















Quarter turns, 


. 


- 


- 


- 


. 


3 


4 


4 












Double hubs. 


- 


- 


. 


7 


9 


. 


1 














Stop cocks. 


4 


1 


2 


2 


3 


2 


10 


10 


- 


- 


124 


86 


418 



Lead pipe— 84 feet, of 2 inch ; 228 feet, of 1 inch ; 33 feet, of Ij inch ; 50 feet, 
of J inch; 86 feet, of f inch. 

Block tin pipe — 74 feet, of f inch. 

For service pipes — 561 square boxes ; 26 T boxes ; 51 long boxes ; 65 tubes ; 
3 flanges, with tubes : 144 1 inch couplings ; 42 | inch couplings ; 224 f inch 
flange cocks; 23 finch flange cocks; 25 1 inch flange couplings; 175 |inch 
flange couplings. 

Pig lead, 29,640 lbs.— Gasket, 350 lbs. 



Hydrants. 



in order. 



10 Wilmarth pattern, 

4 Ballard Vale pattern, 
19 Lowell pattern, 

1 Hooper pattern, J 

34 

1 6 Kingston pattern, to be altered. 
For Hydrants, W bends — 20 pieces for lengthening, rendered necessary by rais- 
ing grades of streets; 16 nipples, 3 frames and covers; 30 self-acting wastes; 15 
spare screws, for Lowell patterns ; 23 of 1^ inch cocks, for wharf hydrants. 



APPENDIX. 



87 



Besides the foregoing stock, there is at the pipe yard a seven 
horse steam engine used at the Newton tunnel. Also two proving 
presses, and as large a number of tools, of various sorts, valued 
at about $500, as are suflficient to carry on the operations essen- 
tial to extending and repairing pipes. 

Consumption of Water hy the City. 

As there is no division in the Brookline Reservoir, and no water- 
metre there yet, it is impossible to tell with a great degree of ac- 
curacy, what the daily consumption of water by the City has been. 
Quite frequently however, opportunities have been afforded of 
measuring the consumption with sufficient accuracy ; that is, 
when no water was let into the reservoir from the aqueduct, and 
the City was supplied from the Brookline Reservoir. The results 
obtained in this way, have been used as checks upon the estimates 
in the following table : 

Daily average number of wine gallons, drawn from the Brookline 

Reservoir. 





1849. 


1850. 


1851. 


January, 


1,700,000 


5,181,716 


7,233,729 


February, 


- 


5,214,010 


7,221,119 


March, 


1,550,000 


4,841,185 


6,137,913 


April, 


- 


4,960,993 


5,365,202 


May, 


3,600,000 


5,346,066 


6,238,364 


June, 


4,300,000 


6,906,454 


7,924,971 


July, 


4,800,000 


8,514,194 


7,180,169 


August, 


4,100,000 


8,004,558 


7,235,020 


September, 


4,800,000 


6,585,496 


7,230,610 


October, 


4,550,000 


4,504,309 


6,716,619 


November, 


3,800,000 


4,960,518 


6,473,514 


December, 


3,600,000 


5,037,015 


7,663,363 


Average for the y< 


3ar, 3,680,000 


5,837,883 


6,883,782 



Note. The observations for February and April, 1849, were too imperfect to 
base an estimate upon. The month of August was very wet. In the summers of 
1849 and 1850, a great deal of water was used in flushing out the common sewers, 
and for the public fountains. In June, 1851, unusual waste was made in the city 
to keep the Brookline Keservoir down. In December, the same year, the exces- 
sive cold caused a great deal of water to be wasted to prevent pipes in houses 
from freezing. 



OO APPENDIX. 

The standard of measure adopted on the Boston Water Works, 
is not precisely the wine gallon, but is exactly tivo fifteenths of a 
cubic foot, so that in order to reduce the gallons in the foregoing 
statement to cubic feet, it is only necessary to divide by 1\. It 
is to be regretted that there is not some common unit of measure 
on all the Water Works throughout our country ; as it is. New 
York has adopted the Imperial gallon, Philadelphia, the Ale gal- 
lon, and Boston, the Wine gallon. 

The foregoing table has been prepared with a great deal of 
labor, and although not to be considered as perfectly accurate, is 
believed to approximate very closely to the truth. If it were not 
for the irregularity in the aqueduct, caused by the Newton and 
Brookline tunnels, and the varying quantity of water which pours 
into the tunnels, from their tops and sides, it would be possible to 
make a very close estimate of the amount consumed, a record of 
the daily observed depths of water in the aqueduct, at the east end 
of the pipes across the Charles River, and at the Brookline Res^ 
ervoir having been kept. 

The rapid increase in the rate of consumption suggests that it 
will not be many years in reaching the extent of the estimated re- 
liable capacity of the Lake ; and the experience of the past year, 
is a warning not to expect more from Lake Cochituate, with the 
present means of storage, than an average of 10,000,000 gallons 
daily throughout the year. If the enormous waste which now takes 
place could be prevented, all thoughts of adding to the present 
capacity of the Lake, might be suffered to rest for many years to 
come. As it is, however, such a question is likely to be forced 
upon your consideration in a short time. 

Compensating Reservoirs. 

The Hopkinton and the Marlboro' reservoirs are both in good 
order, so far as regards the dams and fixtures for regulating the 
discharge of water from them. The buildings that were purchas- 
ed with the former, especially the IMiEs, are fast going to decay in 
consequence of being unoccupied. 

The Cunningham roads, which cross the Marlboro' Reservoir, 
have been complained of by the town as not being wide enough, 
and not built of suitable materials. They have been kept in a 
safe condition however, and are to be made conformable to the 
understanding with the town in other respects, in the spring, in 
accordance with the instructions of the Board. 

The estimated quantity discharged from the Hopkinton Reser- 
voir between the 17th of June, and the 31st of October, 1851, is 
1,023,904,600 wine gallons, and the discharge from the Marlboro' 



APPENDIX. 89 

Eeservoir from the 30th of June to the 31st of October, 1851, 
was 1,100,554,650 gaUons ; making a total of 2,124,459,250 
gallons. 

During the longest period mentioned, the estimated consump- 
tion bj the City, was 975,028,771 ; but this consumption lowered 
the surface of Lake Cochituate 28 inches, which for an area of 
550 acres, would equal 419,265,000 gallons ; leaving as the 
natural supply of the Lake during this period only 555,763,771 
gallons, in addition to what was actually allowed to flow through 
the natural outlet ; or but little more than one fourth of what was 
discharged from the Compensating reservoirs for the benefit of the 
Middlesex Canal, and Mill owners on the Concord River. 

Rain Gfauges. 

Observations with rain gauges have been made at three differ- 
ent points for the Board, viz. : for one year at the Hopkinton 
Reservoir, and a few months at the Marlboro' Reservoir, and at 
Lake Cochituate. 

As the quantity of rain that may be expected to fall, is so im- 
portant an element in all calculations of future probable supply, it 
has been thought advisable to take considerable trouble to collect 
and preserve for future reference the following statistics. They 
are the result of many years observations, and have been kindly 
furnished, mostly by the gentlemen who have made them, and 
whose names are mentioned over the heads of each set of obser- 
vations. ^ Jk^/4.^ 

The annual quantities^or 34 years in Boston, 27 years in 
Waltham and Lowell, 20 years in Providence, and 10 years in 
Cambridge are given ; and the monthly quantities are given for 
10 years in Boston, Cambridge, Waltham and Lowell, and 1 year 
in Hopkinton. The importance of the monthly gaugings will 
appear, when it is considered that the quantity of water which 
Lake Cochituate may supply to the City, with the present means 
of storage, wiU depend, not so much upon the annual depth of 
rain, as upon the quantity falling during the months of June, 
July, August, September and October. For this reason a table 
has been prepared, showing the amount of rain during those 
months for a number of years, and at several points in this 
vicinity. The gaugings for the warm season are much more re- 
liable than those made in the winter, as will be evident from a 
careful inspection of the tables of the monthly quantities. 

12 



90 



APPENDIX. 



Annual Fall of Rain at , 


^veral places, in Boston and Vicinity. 




Boston, 


Boston, 


Cambridge, 


Waltham, 


Lowell, 


Providence, 


YUAB. 


Enoch Hale. 


J. P. Hall. 


Prof. Bond. 


B. M. Co. 
Dr. Hobbs. 


Merrimack 
Man. Co. 


Prof.CaswelI. 


1818 


42.99 


_ 


„ 


_ 


_ 


. 


1819 


35.48 


. 


. 


. 


. 


* 


1820 


44.18 


. 


. 


. 


. 


. 


1821 


36.89 


- 


. 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1822 


27.20 


- 


i. 


- 


. 


_ 


1823 


46.43 


47.30 


. 


. 


. 


- 


1824 


35.98 


36.02 


- 


- 


- 


. 


1825 


32.41 


35.34 


. 


34.59 


28.46 


- 


1826 


41.68 


41.14 


- 


37.44 


32.49 


- 


1827 


44.39 


48.91 


- 


50.65 


51.86 


- 


1828 


34.98 


32.41 


- 


41.71 


37.67 


- 


1829 


47.99 


46.85 


- 


42.09 


36.94 


- 


1830 


44.62 


42.95 


- 


47.00 


42.59 


. 


1831 


50.86 


51.61 


<. 


45.77 


51.73 


- 


1832 


46.68 


46.69 


- 


47.21 


52.90 


38.83 


1833 


39.71 


37.86 




39.11 


43.87 


34.51 


1834 


38.03 


39.60 


. 


38.91 


31.78 


41.84 


1835 


35.48 


37.86 


- 


39.30 


32.42 


30.06 


1836 


35.71 


40.86 


- 


35.10 


35.53 


37.77 


1837 


29.98 


33.52 


. 


37.98 


30.86 


31.62 


1838 


37.57 


42.52 


- 


40.75 


37.52 


86 38 


1839 


34.82 


41.10 


- 


38.80 


38.21 


36.63 


1840 


42.87 


49.16 


- 


42.00 


38.70 


41.59 


1841 


38.28 


47.05 


- 


41.70 


40.38 


47.86 


1842 


35.68 


39.11 


40.13 


38.24 


38.61 


37.71 


1843 


43.79 


46.69 


50.81 


40.46 


39.47 


42.40 


1844 


36.15 


37.54 


35.98 


34.09 


35.71 


35.00 


1845 


_ 


46.32 


47.56 


43.04 


39.00 


43.56 


1846 


_ 


29.95 


30.37 


26.90 


28.03 


29.51 


1847 


. 


46.93 


48.22 


43.90 


46.26 


47.60 


1848 


. 


40.98 


43.04 


36.23 


42.29 


40.48 


1849 


- 


40.30 


40.97 


40.74 


41.90 


34.69 


1850 


_ 


53.98 


54.07 


62.13 


51.09 


51.48 


1851 


, 


44.31 


41.97 


41.00 


45.68 


43.30 



APPENDIX. 



91 



Amount of Rain during the months of June, July, Augusty 

September and October, from 1818 to 1851 inclusive, It^ i^^^^C^ 







. 


^ 


M 








.o 


i^ 






_a3 




t 






a5 


'^ 

w 


o 


§ 6 


2 




w 


P^ 








w 


^ 


•A 


"C be 

53 .5 






H 


Hi 


>^ 


g 3 




H 


1-3 


fe» 


% 3 


-"S 




>;. 


t>> 


rO 


>T.O 




t^ 


t-, 




>^ " 








rQ 


g 


^^ 




rQ 


-Q 


s 


^^ 


Year. 


S 
O 

o 


o 
o 




— r 3 


Year. 


s 
o 

o 


O 


s 
.g 

-^ 

^ 




•SO 

1^ 




pq 


M 


Kl 




M 


W 


i-:i 


o 


1818 


17.93 


. 


. 


. 


1835 


16.69 


17.88 


20.41 


14.31 


. 


1819 


16.65 


- 


- 


. 


1836 


10.44 


12.56 


11.71 


17.56 




1820 


20.58 


. 


. 


. 


1837 


8.79 


8.59 


10.84 


11.49 


. 


1821 


13.74 


- 


. 


. 


1838 


19.07 


22.90 


23.17 


20.53 


- 


1822 


13.74 


- 


- 


. 


1839 


12.55 


15.77 


15.49 


17.53 


. 


1823 


1^.32 


14.55 


. 


. 


1840 


14.33 


16.31 


16.26 


16.81 


. 


1824 


13.36 


13.60 


- 


- 


1841 


12.26 


14.91 


16.42 


16.94 


16.82 


1825 


14.82 


17.50 


17.65 


18.61 


1842 


14.54 


15.61 


16.62 


17.32 


17.46 


1826 


24.22 


25.68 


21.645 


18.21 


1843 


19.19 


19.44 


21.66 


20.08 


23.92 


1827 


17.34 


20.03 


23.87 


24.12 


1844 


15.29 


15.52 


16.61 


21.00 


15.79 


1828 


13.23 


13.15 


18.44 


15.14 


1845 


. 


13.38 


16,12 


15.07 


16.61 


1829 


17.56 


17.84 


16.67 


9.04 


1846 


. 


9.21 


8.91 


11.03 


11.89 


1830 


20.05 


19.03 


21.67 


19.84 


1847 


. 


20.88 


21.08 


21.43 


21.21 


1831 


21.39 


23.67 


22.47 


21.67 


1848 


. 


14.83 


15.22 


18.38 


20.38 


1832 


13.41 


14.58 


14.51 


21.78 


1849 


. 


17.90 


19.46 


19.28 


18.74 


1833 


14.66 


14.94 


19.36 


22.16 


1850 


. 


20.02 


29.40 


21.48 


2556 


1834 


18.18 


21.60 


19.74 


15.94 


1851 


- 


14.09 


14.35 


18.92 


14.68 



Monthly Fall of Rain at Camhridge. 

BY PROF. W, C. BOND. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


ApriL 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Total. 


1842 


0.78 


3.18 


2.24 


3.36 


2.33 


5.84 


1.42 


5.60 


3.34 


1.26 


4.14 


6.64 


40.13 


1843 


1.60 


5.64 


5.77 


4.17 


2.17 


5.38 


2.47 


8.74 


1.52 


5.81 


4.20 


3.34 


50.81 


1844 


4.29 


2.03 


5.84 


0.34 


1.96 


1.77 


2.90 


3.35 


4.50 


3.27 


1.50 


4.23 


35.98 


1845 


1.97 


2.73 


3.67 


1.48 


2.63 


3.15 


4.07 


2.53 


2.58 


4.28 


10.43 


8.04 


47.56 


1846 


2.60 


1.50 


1.56 


1.50 


3.59 


2.68 


3.19 


2.37 


2.01 


1.63 


2.55 


5.19 


30.37 


1847 


3.67 


3.34 


5.91 


2.83 


1.94 


5.49 


2.53 


5.22 


6.54 


1.44 


4.94 


4.37 


48.22 


1848 


2.89 


4.00 


2.50 


1.20 


7.68 


2.81 


2.58 


3.50 


5.18 


6.31 


1.16 


3.23 


43.04 


1849 


0.72 


1.46 


6.90 


1.18 


2.75 


1.37 


1.17 


6.52 


2.13 


7.56 


5.43 


3.78 


40.97 


1850 


3.86 


2.51 


3.27 


4.79 


7.22 


2.97 


2.62 


7.64 


9.82 


2.51 


3.52 


3.34 


54.07 


1851 


1.03 


4.22 


2.01 


9.16 


3.92 


1.62 


3.21 


1.20 


3.98 


4.67 


4.96 


1.99 


41.97 


Average, 


2.34 


3.06 


3.97 


2.99 


3.62 


3.31 


2.62 


4.67 


4.16 


3.87 


4.28 


4.41 


43.30 



92 



APPENDIX. 



Monthly Fall of Rain at Waltham^ ^^^ ^^ 



luoA^^- 



BT DR. EBENEZER HOBBS. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Total. 


1842 


1.04 


3.38 


2.51 


3.16 


2.54 


5.90 


2.20 


4.70 


2.86 


0.96 


3.67 


5.32 


38.24 


1843 


2.76 


1.64 


5.78 


4.30 


0.82 


3.73 


2.77 


8.60 


1.02 


5..54 


3.50 




40.46 


1844 


4.14 




4.20 


0.24 


3.30 


1.26 


2.44 


2.85 


4.20 


5.86 


3.14 


2.46 


34.09 


1845 


344 


1.70 


2.84 


1.76 


2.62 


2.63 


3.84 


3.30 


2.55 


3.80 


10.28 


4.28 


43,04 


1846 


2.58 




438 


1.57 


3.66 


2.44 


2.38 


2.18 


0.82 


1.09 


2.04 


3.76 


26.90 


1847 


3.08 


3.84 


3.26 


3.10 


2 36 


5.94 


2.36 


4.18 


6.88 


1.72 


4.16 


3.02 


43.90 


1848 


3.24 


1.56 


4.08 


1.56 


5.96 


3.10 


1.92 


2.28 


3.32 


4.60 


1.68 


2.93 


36.23 


1849 


1.36 


0.40 


6.66 


1.32 


3.62 


2.00 


2.16 


5.36 


1.94 


8.00 


4.60 


3.32 


40.74 


1850 


4.96 


2.96 


4.12 


5.45 


7.56 


3.72 


3.48 


9.64 


9.92 


2.64 


3.36 


4.32 


62.13 


1851 


1.36 


3.92 


1.20 


8.98 


3.60 


1.64 


3.23 


0.99 


3.64 


4.85 


5.34 


2.25 


41.00 


Average, 


2.80 


1.92 


3.90 


3.14 


3.60 


3.24 


2.68 


4.41 


3.71 


3.91 


4.18 


3.17 


40.66 



Boston. 











BY 


JONATHAN P. 


HALL. 










1842 


0.80 


3.20 


3.35 


3.50 


2.90 


5.30 


1.82 


4.44 


3.25 


0.80 


4.45 


5.30 


39.11 


1843 


2.20 


6.08 


6.17 


3.88 


1.60 


4.61 


2.15 


6.88 


0.98 


4.82 


3.40 


3.92 


46.69 


1844 


3.68 


2.42 


6.00 


0.20 


2.72 


1.40 


2.17 


2.62 


3.53 


5.80 


3.15 


3.85 


37..54 


1845 


4.58 


4.25 


3.83 


1.23 


2.82 


2.05 


3.28 


1.82 


2.23 


4.00 


10.25 


5.98 


46.32 


1846 


3.12 


2.95 


2.73 


1.23 


2.02 


2.25 


2.51 


1.80 


1.30 


1.35 


4.17 


4.52 


29.95 


1847 


3.28 


4.70 


4.77 


2.20 


2.03 


4.09 


2.65 


6.45 


6.64 


1.05 


5.12 


3.95 


46.93 


1848 


2 30 


3.90 


4.05 


1.40 


6.30 


1.73 


1.35 


3.10 


3.55 


5.10 


2.25 


5.95 


40.98 


1849 


0.35 


1.15 


7.35 


0.90 


3.10 


1.45 


0.85 


6.25 


1.25 


8.10 


5.50 


4.05 


40.30 


1850 


4.59 


2.52 


5.32 


4.82 


6.63 


2.77 


2.70 


5.30 


7.15 


2.10 


3.32 


6.76 


53.98 


1851 


1.30 


4.20 


3.88 


9.37 


3.31 


1.80 


3.09 


1.27 


3.50 


4.43 


5.51 


2.65 


44.31 


Average, 


2.62 


3.54 


4.74 


2.87 


3.34 


2.75 


2.26 


3.99 


3.34 


3.75 


4.71 


4.69 


42.60 



1851 1. 



Hopkinton. 

BY ALBERT WOOD. 

I 3.851 2.08| 7.60 I 4.18| 2.46| 2.47| I.61I 2.55| 7.021 5.65 I 2.64| 43.97 



Lowell. 



1842 


.97 


3.99 


2.89 


2.87 


1843 


2.14 


2.04 


5.44 


3.14 


1844 


.93 


1.07 


3.45 


.29 


1845 


1.20 


1.80 


3.64 


1.68 


1846 


2.44 


1.82 


3.27 


1.31 


1847 


5.42 


3.14 


3.46 


2.26 


1848 


2.83 


2.10 


3.54 


1.60 


1849 


1.13 


,83 


5.07 


2.06 


1850 


3.32 


4.38 


2 75 


4 22 


1851 


2.07 


4.43 


1.76 


7.88 


Average, 


2.24 


2.56 


3.53 


2.73 



2.38 


5.19 


1.03 


5.43 


4.31 


1.36 


4.95 


3.24 


38.61 


2.10 


4.49 


2.39 8.16 


1.36 


3.68 


3.28 


1.25 39.47 


3.64 


1.87 


3.50! 6.90 


3.55 


.5.18 


2 25 


3.08| 35.71 


2.75 


2.68 


3.40 


2.58 


3.05 


3.36 


7.97 


4.89' 39.00 


4.21 


2.40 


3.59 


2.79 


.64 


1.61 


2.70 


1.25 


28.03 


2.15 


6.75 


3.01 


3.81 


4.85 


3.01 


3.70 


4.70 


46.26 


7.41 


4.01 


2.16 


3.15 


4.06 


5.00 


2.68 


3.75 


42.29 


4.04 


1.70 


2.20 


5.53 


2.51 


7.34 


5.70 


3 80 


41.91 


7.12 


2.23 


2.78 


7.65 


6.21 


2.61 


2.92 


4.90 


51.09 


3.29 


2.00 


4.26 


3.29 


2.86 


6.51 


5.30 


2.03 


45.68 


13.91 


3.33 


2.83 


4.93 


3.34 


3.97 


4.14 


3.29 


40.80 



APPENDIX. 93 

Complaints of Bad Water. 

Last Spring, principallj in the months of April and May, there 
was a very general complaint of the water tasting badly ; and in 
many instances, though not so generally, the smell was considered 
had. This subject received immediate attention, and every thing 
was done that was thought judicious, to discover and remedy the 
evil. The principal measure that was resorted to, was a thorough 
flushing of the pipes all over the city, by passing through them as 
rapid a current as it was possible to produce by opening hydrants 
and waste cocks. In some particular cases, after every thing had 
been done that could be thought of with the main and distributing 
pipes, the evil complained of was not removed. In almost every 
instance of this kind, the trouble was at last traced to filters that 
had become filled with decayed animal matter. 

The probability is that one great cause of complaint in the 
spring is owing to the change of temperature in the water, caus- 
ing it to have a flatter taste. During the winter the temperature 
of the water in the pipes is seldom more than 4 or 5 degrees above 
the freezing point, and the change which takes place in this respect 
in the spring is very great. Lest, however, the difficulty should 
be owing to collections of offensive matter in the pipes during the 
whiter, it is intended to commence the general flushing, or " blow- 
ing off," a month earlier this year than the last, that is, the last of 
March instead of the last of April. 

At the ends of courts and of some streets, where the pipes termi- 
nate without being connected in both directions with the general 
circulation and form "dead ends," the "blowing off" system 
has to be practised frequently, about once in ten days throughout 
the year, otherwise complaints of bad water are made. Small 
fish have sometimes got into the service pipes and died there, giv- 
ing to the water of the houses to which the pipes belonged, a bad 
taste and smell. This was more frequently the case in the spring, 
just after the strainers in the Brookline Gate House had got out 
of order. Great pains are taken to prevent this, and only two in- 
stances of fish getting into service pipes are known to have taken 
place since last spring. 

Surveys. 

During the year 1851, the following surveys were made by 
order of the Board, viz : 

1st. Of that portion of the City, included in the " High Service " 
on Beacon Hill. The object of this survey was to aid in deter- 
mining upon some permanent plan by which, if possible, to pre- 
vent the level of the water in the Beacon Hill Reservoir from 



94 APPENDIX. 

being drawn down so much as it frequently is, when a large quan- 
tity is consumed by the City, and at the same time, not to confine 
the use of the 30 inch main to the high service alone. 

2d. Of the line of the proposed pipe for supplying the public 
institutions on Deer Island. 

3d. Of the property of the City, connected with the Hopkinton 
Reservoir. The results of this survey are not quite ready to be 
reported yet. 

The surveys ordered by the Board for the purpose of ascertain- 
ing the probable cost of supplying a portion of Roxbury, and the 
houses on the Mill Dam, with Jamaica Pond water, have not been 
commenced yet ; but are to be shortly, 

Visit to other Water Works. 

A visit was made in company with the President and another 
member of the Board to the Water Works of New York, Phila- 
delphia and Baltimore, with the hope of obtaining information 
that might lead to greater economy in the extension and repairs 
of the Boston Water Works. The result of this visit was very 
satisfactory, as showing that no very important improvements in 
those cities had been overlooked here. In the matter of stop- 
cocks and stop-cock and hydrant boxes, some hints were obtained 
which may prove valuable. 

Lands belonging to the Water Works. 

These with a few buildings upon them, are in as good condition 
as could be expected, considering that there are in almost every 
town mischievous persons who take pleasure in destroying the 
property of a city or large corporation. But few depredations 
have been committed; and in one case, the offenders have been 
traced out already. 

Expenditures. 

As all the expenditures connected with the Water Works, for 
which the City Engineer, who is not a disbursing agent, is in any 
way responsible, have been minutely kept account of by the Clerk 
of the Board, any statement of these expenditures, from the for- 
mer, could not add to the information already in your possession. 

Which is respectfully submitted, 

E. S. CHESBBOUGH, Cit^ Engineer. 
Boston, Jan. 1852. 



APPEl^DIX. 95 



D. 

WATER registrar's OFFICE, BOSTON, JANUARY IST, 1852. 

Thomas Wetmore, Esq., 

President of the Cochituate Water Board. 
Sir: — 

In accordance with the 16th Section of the Ordinance 
providing for the care and management of the Boston Water 
Works, passed October 31st, 1850, the following Report is 
made. 

The number of Cochituate Water takers at the present 
time, is 16,076, being an increase since December 5th, 1850, 
of 2,613. 

The total number of cases where the water has been shut 
off during the year 1851, is 1813. Of these, 1029 were for 
repairs ; 784 were for non-payment of water rates. 

The whole number of cases where the water has been let 
on during the year, is 3,540. Of these, 922 were cases which 
had been previously shut off for repairs ; 558 were those 
which had been shut off for non-payment of water rates, and 
2,060 were let on for the first time. 

Repairs have been made upon the service-pipes, streets, 
sidewalks, dc-c, in 396 instances. 

There have been no abatemefits made during the year. 

The total amount received from December 
31st, 1850, to January 1st, 1852, for water 
rates, is $161,299.72 

Of the above, there was received for water 
used during the year 1850, the sum of f 353.33 

Leaving the receipts for water used 
during the year 1851, - - 160,946.39 



Total amount, - - - - 161,299.72 



96 APPENDIX. 

In addition to the above, there has been re- 
ceived, for letting on water, in cases where it 
had been shut off for non-payment of water 

rates, - - -- - - - - 1,018.00 

A detailed statement of the receipts for the year 1851, is 
included in this report. 

The amount of assessments already made, for 
the year 1852, is . - . _ _ |156,479.30 

This amount during the year, will probably 
be increased to at least - ^ - ^ 175,000.00 

The expenditures in my department during 

the year 1851, have been, - - _ _ 1,880.12 

The items of this expenditure are as follows, viz : 

Paid Wm. F. Davis, for services as clerk, - 631.75 

Chas. L. Bancroft, " « » . _ 567.75 

John H. Eastburn, for printing - - 209.34 

Samuel Huse, for work on meters, &c., - 185.13 

Eayrs & Fairbanks, books and stationery, 100.62 

George W. Hunkins, distributing bills, - 36.00 

Francis A. Bacon, " " - 36.00 

John H. Colby, " " - 24.00 

Edwin Fish, " " - 16.25 

Wm. B. Rowland, for services, - - 28.00 

J. A. Richards, for travelling expenses, - 21.00 

Healey &> Spaulding, for horse hire, - 20.00 

Stephen Smith, for desks for office, * 10.00 

Stephen Maddox, for washing towels, - 3.28 
Tyler & Blanchard, for advertising in East 

Boston Ledger, ----- 1.00 



Amount, - - . - $1,880.12 

By the purchase of the Jamaica Pond Aqueduct in April 
last, the City secured 35 water takers in Roxbury, exclusive 
of those given in the foregoing statements. About this time 
the main pipe of this Aqueduct burst near the Roxbury line, 
and has not since been repaired. This circumstance, has in- 
creased the number of Cochituate Water takers in the City, 
about 500. These are included in the 2613, above enumer- 
ated. 



APPENDIX. 



97 



Statement shoiving the numler of Mouses, Stores, Steam En- 
gines, ^e., in the City of Boston, supplied ivith Gochituate Water 
to the first of January, 1852, loith the amount of Water Rates 
paid for 1851. 



990 Dwelling Houses, 



1448 




1476 




1455 




1528 


• 


1231 




784 




507 




302 




243 




91 




100 




77 




64 




54 




38 




31 




39 




1 




19 




34 




170 




1 




1 




1 




1658 




12,343 




1430 


Stores, 


4 




165 




2 




5 




1 




1 





$5.00 

6.00 

7.00 

8.00 

9.00 

10.00 

11.00 

12.00 

le.oo 

14.00 
15.00 
16.00 
17.00 
18.00 
19.00 
20.00 
21.00 
22.00 
22.50 
23.00 
24.00 
25.00 
25.50 
30.00 
75.00 



$4,950.00 

8,688.00 

10,332.00 

11,640.00 

13,752.00 

12,310.00 

8,624.00 

6,084.00 

3,926.00 

3,402.00 

1,365.00 

1,600.00 

1,309.00 

1,152.00 

1,026.00 

760.00 

651.00 

858.00 

22.50 

437.00 

816.00 

4,250.00 

25.50 

30.00 

75.00 

7,982.30 



5.00 


7,150.00 


6.00 


24.00 


8.00 


1,320.00 


9.00 


18.00 


10.00 


50.00 


12.00 


12.00 


13.00 


13.00 



106,067.30 



1608 Amounts carried forward, 8,587.00 106,067.30 



98 APPENDIX. 

1608 Amounts brought forward, $8,587.00 106,067.30 

4 Stores, 15.00 60.00 

177 " 671.45 



1,789 




294 


Shops, 


2 


<( 


2 


it 


34 


K 


8 


a 


5 


(( 


1 


(( 


80 


(( 


426 




61 


Offices, 


3 


u 


8 


li 


4 


(I 


2 


11 


9 


li 


87 




1 


Building, 


4 


a 


2 


a 


4 


a 


1 


i( 


12 




1 


Bank, 


6 


a 


3 


a 


1 


a 


2 


li 


13 









9,318.45 


5.00 


1,470.00 




6.00 


12.00 




700 


14.00 




800 


272.00 




10.00 


80.00 




15.00 


75.00 




11.00 


11.00 
230.98 








2,164.98 


5.00 


305.00 




6,00 


18.00 




8.00 


64.00 




10.00 


40.00 




13.00 


26.00 
22.50 








475.50 


20.00 


20.00 




25.00 


100.00 




30.00 


60.00 




40.00 


160.00 




50.00 


50.00 








390.00 


1.33 


1.33 




5.00 


30.00 




8.00 


24.00 




15.00 


15.00 




25.0Q 


50.00 








120.33 


5.00 


290.00 




8.00 


8.00 





58 Market Stalls, 
J li ii 

59 Amounts carried forward, 298.00 118,536.56 



APPENDIX. 

69 Amounts brought forward, 


$298.00 118,536.56 


5 Market, 10.00 


50.00 


1 " 75.00 


75.00 


1 Packing House, 8.00 


8.00 


66 


431.00 


31 Cellars, 5.00 


155.00 


1 " 6.00 


6.00 


6 " 8.00 


48.00 


5 " 


19.24 


43 


228.24 


1 Hotel, 338.50 


338.50 


1 " 330.46 


330.46 


1 '' 351.00 


351.00 


1 " 192.00 


192.00 


1 '' 187.50 


187.50 


1 " 163.50 


163.50 


1 " 162.00 


162.00 


1 " 151.50 


151.50 


1 " 139.50 


139.50 


1 " 138.00 


138.00 


1 " 135.00 


135.00 


1 « 127.50 


127,50 


1 " 123.00 


123.00 


1 " 120.00 


120.00 


1 " 97.50 


97.50 


1 " 90.00 


90.00 


1 " 85.50 


85.50 


1 " 79.50 


79.50 


1 " 78.00 • 


78.00 


2 " 73.50 


147.00 


2 " 72.00 


144.00 


1 « 69.00 


69.00 


1 " 67.50 


67.50 


2 '^ 66.00 


132.00 


1 " 64.50 


64.50 


I '• 61.50 


61.50 


4 " 60.00 


240.00 


1 " 58.50 


58.50 


1 " 52.00 


52.00 


1 " 42.00 


42.00 



36 Amounts carried forward, 4,167.96 119,195.80 



100 



36 

1 

1 

2 

1 

2 

1 

1 

4 

1 

3 

3 

3 

1 

4 

64 



Hotel J 



1 RestoratoFy 


1 




12 




1 




5 




8 




58 




1 




2 




9 





98 

1 Saloon, 

1 

1 

3 

1 
10 
66 

2 

3 
13 

101 



APPENDIX. 






jht forward, 


$4,167.96 119,195.80 


39.00 


39.00 




37.50 


37.50 




33,00 


66.00 




31.50 


31.50 




30.00 


60.00 




27.00 


27.00 




25.50 


25.50 




25.00 


100.00 




24.00 


24.00 




21.00 


63.00 




18.00 


54.00 




15.00 


45.00 




13.00 


13.00 




12.00 


48.00 








4,801.46 


40.00 


40,00 




24.00 


24.00 




15.00 


180.00 




13.00 


13.00 




12.00 


60.00 




10.00 


80.00 




8.00 


464.00 




6.00 


6.00 




5.00 


10.00 
43.83 








920.83 


30.00 


30.00 




20.00 


20.00 




18.00 


18.00 




15.00 


45.00 




12.00 


12.00 




10.00 


100.00 




8.00 


528.00 




6.00 


12.00 




5.00 


15.00 
26.00 








806.00 



Amount carried forward, 



125,724.09 



Ai'PENDlX. 101 

Amount brought forward, $125,724.09 

1 Custom House, 150.00 150.00 

1 Mass. Gen. Hospital, 125.00 125.00 

275.00 



2 






1 Institution for Blind, 


35.00 


35.00 


1 Medical College, 


30.00 


30.00 


1 State House, 


20.00 


20.00 


1 Asylum, 


30.00 


30.00 


1 « 


25.00 


25.00 


1 « 


15.00 


15.00 


1 Eye and Ear Infirmary, 20.00 


20.00 


1 Nat. Hist. Soc. Rooms 


, 10.00 


10.00 


8 

.3 Churches, 


5.00 


65.00 


2 


20.00 


40.00 


4 Halls, 


5.00 


20.00 


2 " 


15.00 


30.00 


3 Schools, 


5.00 


15.00 


54 
1 Theatre, 


10.00 


10.00 


1 " 


18.00 


18.00 


1 Gymnasium, 


15.00 


15.00 


1 Museum, 


12.00 


12.00 


1 Tremont Temple, 


20.00 


20.00 


1 Masonic Temple 


5.00 


5.00 


6 

1 Stable, 


160.00 


160.00 


1 " 


144.00 


144,00 


1 " 


118.00 


118.00 


1 « 


114.00 


114.00 


1 « 


110.00 


110.00 


3 " 


100.00 


300.00 


1 " 


96.00 


96.00 



185.00 



170.00 



80.00 



Amounts carried forward, 1,042.00 126,434.09 



102 



ht forward, 


$1,042.00 126,434.09 


90.00 


90.00 


86.00 


86.00 


84.00 


84.00 


72.00 


144.00 


70.00 


280.00 


68.00 


68.00 


61.67 


61,67 


60.00 


180.00 


56.00 


112.00 


50.00 


150.00 


48.00 


192.00 


46.67 


46.67 


46.00 


46.00 


45.00 


45.00 


44.00 


88.00 


41.00 


41.00 


40.00 


240.00 


36.00 


180.00 


35.50 


35.50 


33.00 


33.00 


32.00 


32.00 


30.00 


120.00 


29.00 


29.00 


28.00 


56.00 


27.50 


27.50 


26.00 


26.00 


25.00 


25.00 


24.25 


24.25 


24.00 


24.00 


23.34 


23.34 


22.50 


45.00 


21.25 


21.25 


20.00 


120.00 


19.79 


19.79 


18.75 


18.75 


18.00 


108.00 


17.50 


35.00 


16.75 


16.75 


16.25 


16.25 


16.04 


16.04 



1 Stable, 

1 

1 

2 

4 

1 

1 

3 

2 

3 

4 

1 

1 

1 

2 

1 

6 

5 

1 

1 

1 

4 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

1 

6 

1 

1 

6 

2 

1 

1 

1 



87 Araonnts carried forward, 4,048.76 126,434.09 



87 




1 S 


)tafc 


6 


a 


1 


11 


2 


iC 


9 


u 


8 


(( 


2 


li 


1 


a 


1 


cc 


8 


a 


1 


a 


1 


u 


1 


i( 


21 


li 


1 


cc 


1 


a 


10 


iC 


1 


u 


9 


(C 


18 


cc 


1 


cc 


1 


cc 


26 


cc 


8 


li 


1 


11 


1 


11 


3 


(I 


34 


11 


133 


11 



398 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



APPENDIX. 


lua 


Drought forward, 


|4,048.76 126,434.09 


16.00 


16.00 


15.00 


90.00 


14.06 


14.06 


14.00 


28.00 


13.75 


123.75 


12.50 


100.00 


12.00 


24.00 


11.72 


11.72 


11.33 


11.33 


11.25 


90.00 


11.12 


11.12 


11.00 


11.00 


10.50 


10.50 


10.00 


210.00 


9.82 


9.82 


9.00 


9.00 


8.75 


87.50 


8.12 


8.12 


8.00 


72.00 


7.50 


135.00 


6.88 


6.88 


6.57 


6.57 


6.25 


162.50 


6.00 


48.00 


5.75 


5.75 


5.62 


5.62 


5.50 


16.50 


5.00 


170.00 




361.59 




5,905.09 


igine, 339.72 


339.72 


" 209.04 


209.04 


« 195.78 


195.78 


" 183.60 


183.60 


« 153.30 


153.30 


« 140.70 


140.70 


" 129.48 


129.48 


" ' 121.88 


121.88 



Amounts carried forward, 1,473.50 132,339.18 



104 





APPENDIX. 






8 Amounts brought forward, 


$1,473.50 


132,339.18 


1 Shop and Engine, 120-00 


120.00 






" 114.00 


114.00 






113.52 


113.52 






" 111,29 


111.29 






" 109.00 


109.00 






" lOS.OO 


108.00 






" 107.76 


107.76 






« 99.60 


99.60 






« 97.40 


97.40 






'' 96.48 


96.48 






89.10 


89.10 






« 86-40 


86.40 






" 83.24 


83.24 






" 80.00 


80.00 






78.00 


78.00 






75.00 


75.00 






73.62 


73.62 






73.00 


73.00 






« 68.22 


68.22 






'' 64.76 


64.76 






« 61.50 


61.50 






'•' 61.08 


61.08 






" 60.00 


60.00 






« 55.00 


55.00 






" 54.54 


54.54 






" 54.24 


54.24 






52.62 


52.62 






<' 51.90 


51.90 






" 49.80 


49.80 




2 " 


'•' 48.00 


96.00 






« 46.62 


46.62 






« 45.00 


45.00 






" 41.92 


41.92 






" 40.50 


40.50 






« 40.00 


40.00 






" 38.00 


38.00 






" 37.65 


37.65 






" 36.00 


36.00 






" 32.64 


32.64 






" 31.80 


31.80 





49 Amounts carried forward 4,308.70 132,339.18 









APPENDIX. 




105 


49 


Amounts broug 


ht forward, 


14,308.70 


132,339.18 


1 


Shop 


and Engine 


, 30.74 


30.74 




2 


(( 


ii 


30.00 


60.00 






cc 


a 


26.20 


26.20 






a 


u 


25.95 


25.95 






iC 


a 


25.71 


25.71 






iC 


a 


25.00 


25.00 






u 


u 


24.00 


72.00 






a 


a 


22.84 


22.84 






u 


a 


22.68 


22.68 






a 


a 


22.26 


22.26 






a 


li 


21.00 


21.00 






a 


a 


18.86 


18.86 






u 


ii 


20.00 


20.00 






li 


u 


18.28 


18.28 






u 


a 


18.00 


18.00 






IC 


li 


17.70 


17.70 






a 


li 


15.00 


15.00 






a 


li 


14.67 


14.67 






u 


11 


14.24 


14.24 






li 


ii 


13.32 


13.32 






u 


a 


13.16 


13.16 






'.i 


li 


13.15 


13.15 






11 


(( 


10.56 


10.56 






a 


ii 


10.53 


10.53 






a 


a 


9.75 


9.75 






a 


11 


9.15 


9.15 






a 


u 


7.76 


7.76 






u 


ii 


7.65 


7.65 






a 


ii 


7.08 


7.08 




81 




4,901.94 


1 Fac'y 


and Engine, 


1,587.60 


1,587.60 








11 


1,145,85 


1,145.85 








u 


512.55 


512.55 








u 


174.66 


174.66 








ii 


126.00 


126.00 








a 


78.00 


78.00 








u 


69.84 


69.84 








li 


51.42 


51.42 





Amounts carried forward, 

14 



3,745.92 137,241.12 



106 



APPENDIX. 



8 Amounts brought forward, 


$3,745.92 


137,241.12 


1 Fac'y and Engine, 


37.50 


37.50 




9 




3,783.42 


1 Foun'y and Engine 


, 461.74 


461.74 




1 U (( 


107.40 


107.40 




\ 11 u 


94.32 


94.32 




1 " « 


65.28 


65.28 




4 




728.74 


1 Factory, 


172.33 


172.33 




2 " 


30.00 


60.00 




2 « 


22.50 


45.00 




1 « 


18.00 


18.00 




6 " 


15.00 


90.00 




1 « 


12.50 


12.50 




2 " 


12.00 


24.00 




3 « 


10.00 


30.00 




5 " 


8.00 


40.00 




1 " 


7.50 


7.50 




1 " 


6.70 


6.70 




1 " 


5.00 


5.00 




1 « 

57 


4.00 


4.00 


515.03 


1 Sugar Refinery, 


1,542.36 


1,542.36 




J (< u 


824.88 


824.88 




2 




2,367.24 


1 Bathing House, 


135.00 


135.00 




r-l 


55.00 


55.00 




2 " " 


50.00 


100.00 




]^ li (( 


40.00 


40.00 




;]^ a u 


35.00 


35.00 




2 " « 


15.00 


30.00 




8 






395.00 



Amount carried forward, 



145,030.55 



APPENDIX. 



lOT 



1 Printing Office, 
4 " 



2 
1 
6 
1 
13 
1 



Amount brought forward, 

24.00 
12.00 
10.00 
9.00 
8.00 
7.50 
6.00 
3.75 



$145,030.55 



24.00 
48.00 
20.00 

9.00 
48.00 

7.50 
78.00 

3.75 



29 



238.25 



1 Distillery, 
1 « 
1 « 
1 « 
1 " 
1 Brewery, 
1 " 
7 « 
1 " 



250.00 

191.36 

110.00 

90.00 

60.00 

45.00 

25.00 

15.00 

6.25 



250.00 

191.36 

110.00 

90.00 

60.00 

45.00 

25.00 

105.00 

6.25 



[5 

2 Bleacheries, 


10.00 


20.00 


4 « 


8.00 


32.00 


1 " 


5.00 


5.00 


1 Dye House, 


60.00 


60.00 


1 Laboratory, 


7.50 


7.50 


9 




1 Laundry, 


30.00 


30.00 


1 « 


15.00 


15.00 


2 




1 Cooperage, 


25.80 




1 Bakery, 


15.00 


15.00 


2 " 


10.00 


20.00 


2 " 


8.00 


16.00 


1 " 


7.50 


7.50 



882.61 



124.50 



45.00 



25.80 



6 Amounts carried forward, 



58.50 146,346,71 



108 



APPENDIX. 



6 Amounts brought forward, 
30 Bakery, 5.00 



36 








1 Ship 


Yard, 


15.00 


15.00 


1 " 


cc 


13.75 


13.75 


1 " 


l( 


12.50 


12.50 


1 " 


u 


11.25 


11.25 


1 « 


a 


7.50 


7.50 


5 




1034 Hose, 




3.00 


3,102.00 


1 " 




9.00 


9.00 


1 " 




10.00 


10.00 


1036 




1 Fountain, 


25.00 


25.00 


2 " 




15.00 


30.00 


1 " 




12.45 


12.45 


3 " 




12.00 


36.00 


2 " 




9.00 


18.00 


1 " 




8.00 


8.00 


8 " 




6.00 


48.00 


1 " 




3.00 


3.00 



19 

1 Rail Road Co. 

][ a u 

\ ic ic 

1 ii a 

\ ii a 

1 Freight House, 
8 



1,286.42 

1,005.00 

864.42 

585.00 

583.80 

408,25 

155.22 

15.00 



1 E. Boston Ferry Co. 509.04 
Amounts carried forward. 



$ 58.50 146,346.71 
150.00 

208.50 



1,286.42 
1,005.00 
864.42 
585.00 
583.80 
408.25 
155.22 
15.00 



509.04 



60.00 



3,121.00 



180.45 



4,903.1! 



509.04 154,819.77 





APPENDIX. 




1 


1 Amounts broug 


;ht forward. 


$509.04 


154,819.77 


1 Chelsea Ferry, 


347.64 


347.64 




1 Steamboat, 


160.00 


160.00 




r-l 


110.00 


110.00 




1 " 


92.00 


92.00 




1 " 


90.00 


90.00 




1 " 


80.00 


80.00 




1 *' 


76.00 


76.00 




1 " 


72.00 


72.00 




1 " 


68.00 


68.00 




1 ■ " 


33.34 


33.34 




1 " 


32.00 


32.00 




1 " 


20.00 


20.00 




3 




1,690.02 


Contractors for sup- 








plying shipping, 


1,844.37 




1,844.37 


1 Rolling Mill, 


1,015.20 




1,015.20 


Prop's Bost. Trav. 


546.79 




546.79 


Street Waterers, 


380.00 




380.00 


Bost. Gas Light Co. 


, 300.00 




300.00 


Watering Ships, (fcc 


;. 192.25 




192.25 


Build'g Purposes, 


157.99 

3r Rates, 


■ $ 


157.99 


Amount of Wat< 


;160,946.39 



Which is respectfully submitted, 

J. AYERY RICHARDS, 

Water Registrar. 



110 APPENDIX. 



E. 



Statement of all Expenditures made hy the OocMtuate Water 
Board, from January \st, 1851, to January Ist, 1852. 



Blacksmith Shop, for Stock, 


&c., 


- 


1^191.85 


Plumbing " " 


u 


(( 


- 


77.36 


Proving Yard, '* 


« 


(( 


- 


303.68 


Carting, Boston,- 


- 


- 


- 


666.46 


" S. Boston, 


- 


- 


«« 


135.36 


« E. " 


- 


- 


- 


128.80 


Wagon hire, for Superintendent, 


- 


690.75 


Travelling Expenses, 


- 


- 


- 


620.12 


Salaries and Wages, 


- 


- 


- 


8,844.61 


Office Expenses, for rent, furniture, &c., 


1,869.93 


Postages, 


- 


- 


- 


24.19 


Expresses, 


- 


- 


- 


23.07 


Stationery, 


- 


- 


- 


143.91 


Printing, 


- 


- 


- 


470.47 


Advertising, - 


- 


- 


- 


78.70 


Recording Deeds, &c.. 


- 


- 


- 


23.12 


Miscellaneous Expenses 


> 


- 


- 


517.69 


Taxes, - - - 




- 


- 


1,737.62 


Fuel, - 


- 


- 


- 


17.37 


Lanterns, 


» 


- 


- 


25.72 


Oil and Wicking, - 


- 


- 


- 


82.01 


Tools, - 


- 


- 


- 


229.89 


Fountains, 


- 


- 


- 


528.35 


Beacon Hill Reservoir, 


- 


- 


- 


2,055.77 


South Boston " 


- 


- 


. 


289.80 


East « « 


- 


- 


- 


2,045.23 


Brookline " 


- 


- 


- 


5,995.37 


Brick Aqueduct Repairs 


) 


- 


- 


1,045.91 


Lake Cochituate, - 


- 


- 


- 


294.08 


Tolls and Ferriages, 


- 


- 


- 


140.80 


Service Pipe, 


- 


- 


- 


3L16 


" " Boston, 


- 


- 


- 


3,341.48 



Amount carried forward, $32,570.63 



Amount brought forward. 


> 


J.JLJL 

132,570.63 


Service Pipe, S. Boston, 


_ 


' - 


1,179.75 


a a ^ a 


- 


- 


1,183.34 


Water Pipes, 


- 


- 


2,499.94 


" " Boston, - 


- 


- 


1,925.25 


a ii g_ a 


- 


- 


2,121.28 


a li J]^ a 


- 


- 


732.15 


Hydrants, _ . - 


- 


- 


2,117.88 


Hydrant Boxes, 


- 


- 


30.32 


« *' Boston, 


- 


- 


17.81 


•' " S. " 


- 


- 


16.35 


CC ii J] ii 


- 


. 


24.07 


Stop Cocks, 


- 


- 


1,668.14 


" « Boston, 


- 


- 


242.22 


a E. '< 


- 


. 


7.00 


" Cock Boxes, 


. 


. 


136.33 


" « « Boston, 


- 


m 


11.72 


" " South " 


- 


- 


3.98 


Laying Water Pipes, Boston, 




- 


275.47 


(( ti ii g (( 




. 


6.25 


" Service " " 


- 


- 


3.50 


Packing, - . - 


. 


- 


36.14 


Water Meters 


. 


- 


404.56 


Union Stop Cocks, 


- 


- 


85 00 


Air Cocks, 


. 


. 


81.00 


Engine Hose, 


. 


- 


158.40 


Repairing Streets, Boston, 


. 


- 


139.36 


a a g_ (( 


m 


_ 


5.33 


H ii E. " 


- 


- 


14.00 


" Water Pipes, 


- 


- 


10T.34 


" Stop Cocks, 


- 


- 


100.37 


« " Cock Boxes, 


. 


116.19 


" Hydrants, 


- 


- 


142.13 


" Hydrant Boxes, 


- 


- 


122.12 


Engine, Boilers, &c., 


- 


- 


98.81 


Marlboro' Reservoir, 


. 


- 


388.06 


Whitehall « 


- 


- 


137.39 


Rents, - - - - 


- 


. 


246.45 


Mason Work, 


. 


. 


16.00 


Covering Water Pipes, E. Boston, 


- 


4,015.49 


Land Damages, 


- 


. 


7,876.04 


Land and Water Rights, 


- 


- 


17,442.75 45,935.68 



Amounts carried forward. 



^78,506.31 



112 



APPENDIX. 



Amount brought forward, 

Water Works, W. Division, - - 945.00 

Water Works, E. Boston, - - 3,421.88 

" " Boston, - - 761.10 

Damages, Boston, _ - _ 1,339.33 

" E. " - - - - 810.00 

Jamaica Pond Aqueduct, - - 45,237.50 

Sam'l Holbrook, (to pay small bills,) 300.00 

Gash paid to City Treasurer, - 172.30 



178,506.31 



52,987.11 



131,493.42 



Amount paid for Labor, viz : — 
Letting on and shut'g off Water, Boston, 1,769. 



u ii u a (( (.' 


E. 


a 


214.98 


Blowing off Hydrants, Boston, 


- 


733.00 


a u a J7J. " 




- 


20.87 


Laying Water Pipes, " 




- 


617.00 


ii a a g^ a 




- 


814.43 


U CC ii E. " 




- 


322.10 


" Service " " 




- 


2,074.91 


li ii ii g_ i( 




- 


546.74 


a a a J]. " 




- 


866.87 


Blacksmith Shop, 


- 


- 


723.14 


Plumbing, " - - 


- 


- 


508.74 


Proving Yard, 


- 


- 


1,546.14 


Repairing Streets, Boston, 


- 


- 


184.94 


li a E^ a 


- 


. 


59.12 


" Water Pipes, 


- 


- 


348.43 


" Service " 


- 


- 


711,73 


" Hydrants, 


- 


- 


429.09 


" Hydrant Boxes, 


- 


- 


1.75 


" Stop Cocks, 


- 


- 


240.87 


" Stop Cock Boxes, 


- 


- 


15.75 


Miscellaneous, 


- 


- 


123.00 


Watchmen, - - - 


- 


- 


76.00 


Hydrants, Boston, - 


- 


- 


149.75 


a E. " 


- 


- 


108.67 


Blowing off Water Pipes, 


- 


- 


85.00 


Stop Cocks, - - - 






29.37 13,321.45 




$144,814.87 



APPENDIX. 113 

Amount brought forward, $144,814.87 

Or. 

Marlboro' Reservoir, Rent of Mill, - 150.00 
Whitehall, " " " Buildings, 151.79 

Rents of house, pasture, &c., in Wayland, 249.33 
" '^ houses, land, &c., in Saxonville, 147.94 
Land and Water Rights, for stone & bricks, 30.00 
Old Materials sold, - - - 2,776.58 3,505.64 



Amount drawn for on Oity Treasurer, $141,309.23 

Cash paid City Treasurer, viz : 

For an old shed and lead pipe, - 50.00 

" 6 Oarts and 12 bodies, - - 400.00 

" Iron Service pipes, - - 2,000.00 

" Rent of house, land, &c., - 181.80 

" Iron Service pipes, and old rope, 714.04 
" An old building at Saxonville jand 

Water tank at E. Boston, - 230.00 

" Water Oistern, an old building 

and rent of a water privilege 

at Saxonville, and for sundry 

other articles, - - - 218.16 3,794.00 



$137,515.23 

Statement of Payments made hy tlie Cochituate Water Board, 
for completing workleft unfinished in 1850 ; for unsettled claims 
for land and other damages, and for Jamaica Pond Aqueduct. 

Taxes, for 1850, - - - 303.86 

Covering Water Pipes, at E. Boston, 4,015.49 



4.319.35 



Land Damages, viz : 

John Jennings, Execution, - 3,779.42 

John W. Harbach, - - - 1,039.67 

Aaron D. Weld, - - - 2,578.05 

T. W. Slack, . - - - 125.00 

Samuel Chandler, Sheriff, costs, 16.00 

James Brown, - _ - 100.00 



.$7,638.14 



Amount carried forward, $11,957.49 

15 



114 APPENDIX. 

Amount brought forward, $11,957.49 

Land and Water Rights, viz : 

Charlotte Harbach and others, - 9,520.81 

Doct. E. Morse, - - - 455.47 

Edward Bradbury, - - - 749.00 

Francis Skinner, - . - 6,500.00 

Samuel Chandler, Sheriff, costs, 35.45 

Henry Richardson, for costs, - 61.70 



$17,322.43 



Water Works, W. Division, 

Two Executions, for bricks, &c., 905.00 

Water Works, Boston, 

John Dorr and others, damages, 200.00 
Jamaica Pond Aqueduct, - 45,217.50 

Damages, Water Works, E. Boston, 

Paid J. D. Turner, for damages, 800.00 

Water Works, East Boston, 

T. M. Cutter's bill of nails, cord- 
age, &c., . - - - 118.78 

C. Wooley's bill, for filling over 

pipes, - - _ - 543.46 

B. Bixby & Co.'s bill, for finish- 
ing work over Chelsea creek, 2,186.79 

S. Borden, the State Commissioner, 250.00 

Damages, Boston, 

B. Bradley, for damages, - - 271.80 

'' Costs, - - 21.86 

Stephen M. Allen, for damages, 500.00 
Sundry persons in Brookline, 

for damages in 1848, - - 457.34 



1,722.00 



Beacon Hill Reservoir, 
For Lantern, 
" Painting, &c., 
" Iron Door, 
" Stone Work, 

Marlboro' Reservoir, 

Land of A. Maynard, 
" '« W. Cox, 


1,463.00 

47.62 

40.40 

170.98 

180.06 
150.00 



330.06 



53,524.59 

^82,804.51 



APPENDIX. 



115 



Statement of the wliole Expenditures of the Water Commission- 
ers and the Water Boards of 1850 and 1851, to Jan. 1, 1852. 



Lake Cochituate, - - - _ _ 
Factories, &.C., on the outlet, _ - _ 
Lake roads, bridges, swamps, (fcc. 
Cochituate Dam, at the outlet, - - - 
" Gate House, _ _ _ _ 
Bridges, Culverts and Waste Weirs on the line 
of Aqueduct, _____ 
Newton Tunnel, (2,410| feet long,) 
Brookline " (1,150 " " ) - 
Construction of Brick Aqueduct, 
Land and land damages, _ - - _ 
Brookline Gate House, _ _ _ » 

" Reservoir, (including land,) 

B.Hill " " - - 

S. Boston, '' "■ - - 

E. " " " - - 

Hopkinton '' (Compensating,) - 
Marlboro' " " 

Boon and Ram's Horn Pond Reservoir, (com- 
pensating,) _ _ _ _ _ 
Engineering expenses on Western Division, - 

" " " Eastern " 

Water Commissioners' salaries, - - _ 
Office expenses, including Clerk hire, to Jan. 

5, 1850, 

Distribution, repairs, &c., - - _ - 
Miscellaneous expenses, - - - _ 
Travelling expenses, since Jan. 4, 1850, 
Salaries, " " " 

Office expenses, rent, furniture, &c. since Jan, 

4, 1850, - - 
Stationery, - - - - - 

Printing, --____ 
Taxes, - - - 

Brick Aqueduct, repairs, _ _ _ 
Damages, other than land, - _ - 
Jamaica Pond Aqueduct, _ _ _ 



100,000.00 
50,000.00 
38,332.48 

8,458.20 
29,907.12 

74,499.54 
102,297.36 

47,378.26 

817,717.73 

212,679.79 

33,356.36 

164,120.85 

509,610.21 

90,908.10 

65,368.14 

29,534.36 

39,169.05 

4,001.54 
67,570.56 
30,303.02 
38,500.00 

10,480.22 

1,884,512.92 

11,492.73 

1,796.10 

27,007.10 

2,443.86 
236.88 
822.63 

3,613.11 

3,854.42 

6,081.19 

45,237.50 

P,551, 191.33 



116 APPENDIX. 

Statement of the Expenditures and Ileceipts on account of the 
Water Works, to Jan^y Is^, 1852. 

The whole amount drawn for by the 

Commissioners, - - - - 4,043,718.21 

The whole amount drawn for by the 

Water Board of 1850, - - 366,163.89 

The whole amount drawn for bv the 

Water Board of 1851, -' - 141,309.33 



$4,551,191.33 



Amount paid into City Treasury, by 

the Commissioners, - - 47,648.38 

Amount paid into City Treasury, by 

the Water Board of 1850, - 8,153.52 

Amount paid into City Treasury, by 
the Water Board of 1851, [in- 
cluding $1,438.38, received by 
the service clerk, for sundries, 
and paid into the City Treas- 
ury), - - _ - 5,232.38 61,034.28 



$4,490,157.05 
Sundry payments made by the 

City, - - - . 28,813.64 

Discount and interest on loans, - 999,805.64 1,028,619.28 



5,518,776.33 

Sundry credits by the City, - 549.11 

Amount received for Water rents 

&c., . . - . 332,516.09 333,065.20 



Making the whole cost of the 

Water Works to Jan. 1, 1852, $5,185,711.13 

SAMUEL HOLBROOK, 

Clerk Cochituate Water Board. 



APPENDIX. 117 



TABLE OF DISTANCES AND LEVELS. 

Distances. 

From the Gate House at the Lake to the Waste 
Weir at Dedman's Brook — Sec. 3, 

Thence to the Waste Weir, in Sec. 6, 

Thence, to the Pipe Chamber, West side of 
Charles River, - - - - - 

Thence, across Charles River, to East Pipe- 
Chamber, - - . - 

Thence, to the Waste Weir, in Sec. 10, - 

Thence, through Newton Tunnel, 2410 feet, to 
the Ventilator, - - - - - 

Thence, to the Waste Weir, in Sec. 13, - 

Thence, through Brookline Tunnel, 1150 feet, 
to Brookline Reservoir, _ _ _ 

Thence, to the Gate House, at the East end of 
the Reservoir, ----- 

Thence, to Dover Street, - - _ 

Thence, to the Fountain on the Common, 

Thence, to Beacon Hill Reservoir, 

Thence, to East Boston Reservoir, 

From Dover Street to South Boston Reservoir, 



From the Lake to E. end of Brookline Reservoir, 15.005 miles. 

From Brookline Reservoir, to Fountain on the 
Common, - _ _ _ _ 

From Brookline Reservoir, to Beacon Hill Re- 
servoir, ------ 

From Brookline Reservoir to East Boston Re- 
servoir, ------ 

From Brookline Reservoir, to South Boston 
Reservoir, - _ _ _ - 

From Hopkinton Reservoir, along Sudhury 
River, to the outlet of the Lake, about 

Thence, to the junction of Sudbury River with 
the Assahet, about _ - - - 

From Marlboro' Reservoir, along the Assahet, 
to its junction with the Sudbury, about 

Thence, along Cojicord River, to the Mills, at 
Billerica, _ _ - _ _ 

Thence to the Merrimack at Lowell, 



15,870 feet, 
19,011 " 


6,306 


IC 


956 


li 


15,025 


ii 


7,308 


li 


8,650 


11 


4,103 


cc 


2,000 


ii 


19,625 
4,073 


ii 
ii 


1,200 


ii 


20,129 

8,570 


ii 
ii 


15.005 miles. 


4.488 


ii 


5.094 


ii 


8.528 


ii 


5.350 


ii 


18 


ii 


14 


ii 


14 


ii 


10 


ii 


Ji 


m'ls. 



118 



APPENDIX. 



Heights of important points above Tide Marsh Level. 



Floor of Knight's Flume, . _ - 

Low Water Mark, Lake Cochituate, - 
High " » " " - . 

Bottom of interior of Aqueduct, at Lake Co- 
chituate, ---_-- 
Bottom of interior of Aqueduct at West Pipe 
Chamber, _----- 
Bottom of interior of Aqueduct at East Pipe 

Chamber, - - . - 
Bottom of interior of Aqueduct at Brookline 
Reservoir, -_---- 
Bottom Brookline Reservoir, - . _ 
Upper floor of Brookline Gate House, 
Low Water Mark, Brookline Reservoir, 
Top of Dam of " " - - 

Bottom of Beacon Hill Reservoir, 



Top " " 

Bottom " " 

" South Boston 
Top " " 

Bottom of East Boston 
Top " " 

State House Floor - - - 
Coping of Charlestown Dry Dock, 



Coping (outside) 
Waste Weir, - 

Dam, 

Dam, 



124.36 
124.86 
132.36 

121.03 

118.97 

118.52 

116.77 
100.60 
126.76 
120.60 
126.60 
108.03 
124.03 
121.53 
105.35 
125.86 
80.60 
110.60 
106.94 
5.09 



feet. 



ERRATA. 

Page 8, line 5, " 496,845," should be " 496,584." 
" 57, " 2, dele " Cochituate.'" 
" 64, " 3, fivm the bottom, " 1252," should be " 6,252." 






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