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. — Wo. 6,
COGHITUATE WATER BOARD,
CITY COUNCIL OF BOSTON.
J. H. EASTBUUN, CITY PRINTEE.
Office of the Cochituate Water Board.
January 15, 1852.
To the City Council of the City of Boston.
The Cochituate Water Board, in compliance with the
provisions of the City Ordinance, respectfully submit
The Board, having been duly organized by the election
of a President, from its own members, and a Clerk, pro-
ceeded to the appointment of the necessary subordinate
officers, and to the adoption of rules and regulations for
its own government and in relation to all persons employ-
ed. And having in view the great importance of the trust
confided to them, it was their endeavor, to establish
such a general system for the observance of all, that the
great object of the Water Works, the supplying a suffi-
cient quantity of pure water for the great variety of
uses to which it might be applied, should be most effec-
tually accomplished, with due regard to the safety and
permanence of the works — a proper economy in their
management — and the securing an adequate income from
them to the City.
In the performance of this duty, however, they met
with some embarrassment at the outset, arising out of the
want of any authentic description of the works them-
selves — no official statements of the situation or mode
of construction of all the different portions ever having
been made. The periodical reports of the Water Com-
missioners contain ample descriptions of many parts, as
4 WATEE. [Jan.
they were from time to time completed, and also many
statements as to the intended construction of others —
there are however entire omissions as to some portions,
and the intended mode of construction of others was some-
times altered, without reporting the fact. And the late
CocJiituate Water Board merely reported its own doings.
The reports of both these Boards were not always print-
ed, and many of those which were, cannot now be found.
It has been therefore, in the first place deemed import-
ant, that a description of all the works, as they have been
completed, should be prepared for the use of the Water
Board, and, as such a description may be convenient and
useful for the City Council in reference to any action
on their part hereafter on the subject of the Water
Works, that it should be made a component part of the
first Annual Eeport of the present Water Board. The
description will however be as condensed as is practicable,
consistently with the great variety of details which it
must include. It is intended only to supply a want
which is now felt to be serious, and which it may be
found more difiicult to provide for hereafter.
The attention of the City had, for many years, been
attracted to Lake Cochituate^ or Long Pond, as it was
formerly called, as the proper source from which a sup-
ply of pure water adequate to the prospective wants of
the inhabitants might be obtained.* The great cost of
the undertaking however, and differences of opinion
which existed as to its relative advantages, compared
with some other sources, particularly those of Charles
Eiver and Spot and Mystic Ponds, prevented any effect-
ual measures being taken for its adoption until the year
1844. In that year, (Aug. 26) « Board of Commission-
ers was appointed by the City Council, " to Beport the
* See Appendix A.
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 5
hest 9node, and the e/rjwnse, of hinging the Water of Long
Pond into the City of Boston." Their report was made
in November following, and the subject submitted to the
legal voters at the ensuing Municipal election, for their
decision, and they by a large majority voted to instruct
the City Council to apply to the Legislature for an act,
giving to the City the necessary power to carry the
object into effect. An Act was accordingly passed,
March 25, 1845, which provided also that the City
Council might determine whether the water should be
brought from Long Pond or Charles River. There were
however, several provisions in the Act, which rendered
it objectionable, and it was not accepted by the citizens.
The Act now in force, was passed the following year,
and was duly accepted. By it, the City was authorized,
in the mode provided in the Act, To talce^ hold and con-
vey into and through the said City, the water of Long Pond
so called, and the ivaters ivhich may flow into and from
the same, and any other "ponds and streams tvithin the dis-
tance of four miles from the said Long Pond, and any
water rights connected thereivith ; and may also take and
hold hy purchase or otherwise, any lands or real estate ne-
cessary for laying and maintaining aqueducts for conduct-
ing, discharging, disposing of, and distributing ivater, and
for forming reservoirs ; ajid may also taJce and hold any
land around the margin of said Long Pond, not exceeding
five rods in width, measuring from the verge of said Pond,
when the same shall be raised to the level of eight feet
above the floor of the flume at the outlet thereof, and on
and around the said other ponds and streams so far as
may be necessary for the preservation and purity of the
same, for the purpose of furnishing a supply of ptire ivater
for the said City of Boston.
6 WATER. [Jan.
Lake Cochituate, thus selected as the source of supply
of water for the City, is situate within the limits of the
towns of Framingham, Wayland and Natick in the Coun-
ty of Middlesex. It may be considered, a chain of natural,
subsiding reservoirs of water, three in number, having
a general direction nearly north and south ; its extreme
length in a direct line being nearly three and one half
miles, and its greatest breadth about eighteen hundred
feet. The Lake is crossed by the Boston and Worces-
ter and the Saxonville Railroads, and by two County
roads, one of which was formerly the Worcester Turnpike,
and the other a road leading from Framingham to
Newton, and as the two last indicate the natural divis-
ions of the Lake, and separate it into three nearly equal
parts, it is, for matter of reference, found convenient to
consider the Lake as divided by them, into the Northern,
Central and Southern Divisions.
The water of the Lake gradually increases in depth
from the shore, in each division ; at high water, or when
raised eight feet above the flume, mentioned in the Act,
its greatest depth is about 70 feet in the Southern, 50
feet in the Centre, and 62 feet in the Northern Divisions.
When the water is at this elevation, the superficial area
of the Lake is estimated to contain six hundred and
eighty-four acres — at 6.5 feet above the flume, the area
is six hundred and fifty-nine acres — at 3 feet above the
flume, the area is five hundred and fifty-nine acres — at
1.5 feet above the area is five hundred and four acres, —
and at low water, or the level of the flume, the area is
four hundred and eighty-nine acres.
The shore of the Lake, is generally a bold sand and
gravel bank, and the increase of surface which is produced
by raising the water, takes place mostly in a great meadow
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT— No. 6. 7
in the Southern division, South of the Boston and Wor-
cester Raiboad ; also on another meadow at the southerly
end of the same division ; on some low grounds near the
northerly end of the Central Division, (at the mouth of
Snakebrook,) and lastly in some small bays which occur
in other places. When the water is raised eight feet
above the flume, there are one hundred and twenty-five
acres not covered with more than five feet depth of
water ; at 6.5 feet above, there are one hundred acres
covered with a depth of water not exceeding five feet ; —
at 3 feet above, the peat meadow in the southern divis-
ion is to a great extent covered, but the other meadow
in the same division, and that in the Central, are mostly
bare. The whole circuit of the Lake, including the
meadows, is about 16 miles ; and excluding those, about
12 miles, measured at the verge of the Lake, when the
water is eight feet above the flume.
The tract of country which drains into the Lake
is bounded by the ranges of hills which divide the
streams running into the Merrimack from those which
run into the Charles Eiver, and as surveyed covers an
area of 12,077 acres, including the Lake ; deducting
from this amount 677 acres as the area of several ponds
included in it, which are estimated to lose by evapora-
tion from their surfaces, a large proportion of the rain
which falls upon them, there remain 11,400 acres or
496,584,000 square feet as the water-shed from which
the Lake derives its supply. By comparing the quan-
tity of water which was ascertained to have been dis-
charged from the outlet of the Lake, for two years com-
mencing in July and November, 1837, with the quan-
tity of rain which fell during those periods, it was
estimated that more than four-tenths of the rain-fall
had been received into the Lake ; and it being ascertain-f
ed that the minimum fall of rain at Boston, for a series
8 WATER. [Jan.
of 27 years had been nearly thirty inches, (29.98) it
was assumed that four-tenths of that quantity might be
realized, as the ratio of the total rain-fall, which would
be collected, from the district which drains into the
Lake. This would give 496,845,000 cubic feet as
the annual supply, or 1,360,504 cubic feet equal to
10,176,570 wine gallons per day. In calculating the
future wants of the City the conclusion had been adopt-
ed that seven and one quarter million gallons a day
would be an ample supply for all the public, domestic
and manufacturing uses of the inhabitants when their
number should amount to two hundred and fifty thou-
sand. This calculation was based on the supposition
that a supply of 28/^ gallons a day to each individual,
would be sufficient — a supposition which the experience
of other cities at the time fully justified, and which our
own experience would confi.rm were the water only ap-
plied to the legitimate and useful purposes for which it
was intended, without the excessive waste which now
takes place. It was concluded therefore that this
source might be relied on to aiFord the necessary sup-
ply of water to the City, or at least ten millions of
wine gallons per day, throughout the year. In order
to effect this however, it was necessary that proper
means should be adopted to reserve in store the excess
which will collect during the winter and spring, for use
during those months, which have been found to be the
season of a low state of water in the streams. A dam at
the outlet of the Lake to raise the water eis:ht feet
above the flume as authorized by the act, was deemed
to be all that was necessary for this purpose.
At the time of the passage of the act, the waters of the
Lake were in the possession of Mr. William H. Knight,
who owned the outlet and had several mill privileges and
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 9
manufacturing establisliments connected with it, be-
tween the Lake and Sudbury Eiver into which it natur-
ally discharges its waters. All Mr. Knighf's interest
was accordingly purchased and vested in the City and
the City thereby acquired the right of exclusive use of
the water and of diverting it from its natural channel ;
subject however to any damages which might be sus-
tained, by proprietors of water rights, situated below
Mr. Knight, by reason of the diminution of their sup-
ply of water. The Sudhury river joins the Assahet about
14 miles below Mr. Knight's mill privilege and the two
form the Concord river, which after flowing through an
almost perfectly level country about 10 miles to Bil-
lerica, thence continues on for about 4>2 miles and
finally empties into the Merrimack at Lowell. All
the water of Concord river, including that from the
Lake, was subject to the use of the Middlesex Canal in
the fijst instance to supply the canal, and afterwards
the surplus belonged to the Proprietors of the Mills at
Billerica and to those of three other privileges on Con-
Dug or Wonsemog Pond.
In addition to the supply of water contained in the
Lake, Mr. Knight also conveyed to the City, that of
Dug or Wonsemog pond, lying to the south of it. The
pond is about eighty rods from the southern shore of the
Lake and separated from the peat meadow, on the
Southern division, by the county road ; a culvert is laid
beneath the road by which the waters are discharged
into the meadow and thence pass into the Lake. It con-
tains about forty-four and one half acres, is elevated
about seven feet above the level of the Lake and dis-
charges into it. The shore all around is a steep gravelly
10 WATER. [Jan.
bank eight or ten feet high, and the pond naturally
derives its water wholly from springs. The City has
also acquired a right to divert the waters of a brook on
the east side into it, and thereby to ensure the filling
up of the pond every winter. The water is quite deep
and remarkably pure and soft, and forms a highly im-
portant tributary to the Lake.
In order to enable the City to exercise a proper con-
trol over the waters thus acquired, and for the purpose
of preventing any acts which might tend to impair
their purity, as well as for regulating the right to over-
flow the adjoining lands, it was authorized to take and
hold a strip of land, not exceeding five rods in width
on the margin of the Lake. It was soon ascertained
however that in cases where land was to be taken for
these purposes, or for the construction of the Aqueduct,
or Reservoirs, where material injury would be occasion-
ed to the adjoining lands, it would in many instances
be the most advantageous mode of adjusting the dama-
ges, to purchase the entire lot of land so injured and
to make re-sale of such part thereof as might be deemed
advisable, after the works should be completed. That
system was accordingly adopted. And in consequence,
the border, thus purchased, is of very different widths
according to the character of the border, and the
terms of the contracts which could be made with
the proprietors. The whole area which has been pur-
chased around the margin or immediately adjoining
is sice hundred and thirty-five and one half acres, and of
this the City has the fee simple. It completes the en-
tire circuit of the Lake with the exception of a piece
on the western side of the Southern division about
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 11
2200 feet in length, five rods in width, and containing
about seven and one half acres, which the City being
unable to purchase, took and now holds possession of
under the power given in the act. The precise nature
of the tenure which the City has acquired in this and
similar cases, is at present not definitely settled, but has
been made a question for the adjudication of the Su-
preme Court, in a case which arose out of the taking of
a piece of land for the Aqueduct in Newton. To the
above quantity being added the amount purchased of
Mr. Knight and others, in connection with the outlet
and mill privileges, which was about thirty-nine acres,
it appears that the whole area purchased and taken in
the neighborhood of the Lake and outlet was siaj hun^
dred and eighty-two acres, all of which is still in posses-
sion of the City, no sale of any part having been yet
The City also purchased the outlet to Dudley Pond, con-
taining one acre and thirty rods, and took possession of its
waters. This Pond lies in a North Eastern direction from
the northern division of the lake, and contains about nine-
ty acres, at an elevation of about seventeen feet above it.
The water is very pure and soft, and there is no other
outlet than that owned by the City, through which it
flows into Sudbury river. There is at present no con-
nection between this pond and the lake ; if one should
be made hereafter, it could probably be effected most
easily, by a tunnel through the hill which occupies
part of the intervening land and rises to a height of
about sixty feet above the level of the pond. The land
lying between the pond and the City's land on the mar-
gin of the lake, is not at present owned by the City.
12 WATER. [Jan.
The distance between the lake and pond is about seven
Dam and Gate House.
Having obtained possession of all the waters of the
Lake, and of all the land which was required, a new
DAM was constructed at the outlet, on the West side of
the Northern division, in the town of Framingham, and
the GATE HOUSE, for the commencement of the aqueduct
built on the opposite or Eastern side of the same divis-
ion in Wayland. The dam is of solid masonry, of gran-
ite, and raised to a height sufficient to retain the water
to a point eight feet above the floor of the flume. This
corresponds with an elevation of 132.36 feet above tide
marsh level, the floor of the flume being 12436 feet
above the same level.
The GATE HOUSE w^as carried a sufficient distance
into the lake to procure the water from the necessary
depth, and the bottom of the aqueduct placed in it,
at an elevation of 3 feet 4 inches below the floor
of the flume, and 3 feet 10 inches below the as-
sumed low water line, so that when the Lake is raised
to the high water line, it will stand 11 feet 4 inches
above the bottom of the aqueduct. The low water
line is therefore six inches above the floor of the
flume, and seven feet six inches below the high water
line, and 124.86 feet above tide marsh level. There are
four gates for regulating the admission of water into the
Aqueduct. They are made of cast iron with composi-
tion or gun metal facings, and a frame of the same ma-
terials, set in hammered stone, and are worked by
iron screws in composition nuts. The whole is enclosed
in a building of hammered granite, with a metal roof,
secured eftectually from intrusion.
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— Ko. 6. 13
A CULVERT is also constructed beneatti the road, which
divides the Northern from the Central divisions, in which
provision has been made for placing stop-planks so
that the water can be shut off from the Northern, and
thereby about two-thirds retained, in case it should be
necessary to repair the gate-house or dam.
The aqueduct may be conveniently divided into two
parts. The First Part extends from the Lake to the
E-eceiving Eeservoir in Brookline. It comprises a con-
duit of brick masonry for the greater part of the distance,
a line of iron mains over the valley of Charles River and
two tunnel excavations in Newton and Brookline. The
Second Part comprises the iron mains from Brookline to
the City, and the distribution in the City.
First Part of the Aqueduct. The BricJc Conduit.
The Brick Conduit is accommodated to the elevation of
the different parts of the line, by winding in a series of
irregular curves, care being taken, where it was possi-
ble to adopt such a route as would permit its being
buried entirely beneath the natural surface of the ground.
Its general direction after leaving the Lake, is South
Easterly for about four and one half miles, to near the
village of West Needham. It then turns and runs North
Easterly about two miles. Thence Easterly, crossing
Charles River, about three and one quarter miles.
Thence North Easterly through the long tunnel, about
two and one half miles to the Ventilator. Thence
South Easterly about two and one quarter miles, through
the short tunnel, to the Peceiving Reservoir, passing
through parts of the towns of Wayland^ Naticlc, Need-
ham, Newton, Brighton, and Brookline.
14 WATER. [Jan.
It was the original intention to carry the Aqueduct,
after passing the road leading from the village of Newton
Centre to Newton Corner, in a Northerly direction and
North of Nonantum Hill, to the then proposed site for a
lleservoir on the North side of Corey's hill, in Brighton ;
but a further survey of the locality offered sufficient in-
ducements to vary that route, and thereby obviate the
necessity of carrying iron mains over Brighton valley, and
of being subjected to the heavy damages which would
have been incurred in passing through much valuable
cultivated land. By adopting the new route, the distance
was also materially shortened, and a site obtained which
admits of the construction of a much more capacious
reservoir than could be built at Corey's hill, except at a
very heavy cost. The Aqueduct was therefore laid
South of Nonantum Hill, through a more secluded
tract of country and lands of inferior value, to the site of
the present reservoir in Brookline. In order to effect
this however, it became necessary to excavate by tunnel-
ling a passage through two rocky elevations in Newton
and Brookline. This work was rendered eventually more
tedious and costly than had been anticipated, by reason
of the great difficulty of the excavation, and also on ac-
count of the irruption of large quantities of water into
the works from fissures in the rock through which it
The Aqueduct, from the Lake to the left bank of
Charles river, and from the right bank of the same
to Brookline reservoir, is built of brick masonry, eight
inches thick, laid in hydraulic cement; it is in sec-
tion an egg-shaped oval, the largest end down; the
greatest width is five feet, and the extreme height six
feet four inches, in the interior. It is covered with a
plastering of hydraulic cement, on the outside, from the
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 15
top down to the chord line of the lower or inverted
arch, more effectually to prevent the percolation of sur-
face water into it. It is supported on a puddled em-
bankment, built up above the chord line of the inverted
arch, in all cases where the Aqueduct passes over ground
whose level falls below the grade line, and also where
the ground was found to be marshy, or from any cause
not sufficiently solid to support the superstructure. In
the latter case the mud and loose soil were previously re-
moved until a firm bearing could be had. The whole
is covered with an embankment eight feet wide on the
top, with side slopes of two feet horizontal to one foot
vertical, and raised four feet above the top of the aque-
duct. The Aqueduct through the whole distance thus
rests upon, and is covered with, earth to a depth of at
least four feet, and it is no where raised, so as to admit
a passage beneath it, excepting at the culverts ; at the
crossing of Charles river, which it passes by two iron
pipes ; and also over a valley in Needham, near the west
bank of the river. In the latter place it is carried over
the road-way by a granite bridge of one arch of twenty
feet span, and fourteen feet high, and supported over the
rest of the valley on a puddled embankment, in some
places forty feet high.
In preparing the foundation and laying the reversed
arch of the Aqueduct, much delay was occasioned, and
additional labor required in the 2d, 5th, 10th, and some
other sections, on account of the large quantities of water,
and in some cases quicksands which were found near
the bottom of the cut.
The first brick of the Aqueduct was laid, October 19,
The bottom was all united, September 17, 1848.
The top closed up, the interior cleansed, and water
let in, Oct. 12. 1848.
16 WATER. [Jan.
The Mains over Charles River, Pipe Chambers and Charles
The remainder of this part of the Aqueduct com-
prises the Mains over the valley of Charles river, and the
tunnels in Brookline and Newton. The former consist of
two iron pipes, thirty inches in diameter, which descend
fifty-eight feet below the level of the water in the
Aqueduct on the west bank of the river, when three
feet and ten inches deep, to a stone bridge built over
the river, and thence are continued over the interval at a
rather lower level and then rise to the Aqueduct on the
eastern side. The Charles River Bridge is constructed
of hammered granite, of three elliptical arches of thirty
feet span and seven and one half feet rise, and twenty-
one feet long. The mains are each nine hundred and
seventy-nine feet in length. The horizontal distance
between their termini is nine hundred and fifty-six feet.
The Pij^e chambers, constructed at each end of the mains,
are of granite, with iron doors and stone roofs. The
admission of water is regulated by stop-planks, provis-
ion is made however for placing gates hereafter.
The bottom of the west pipe chamber is 118.97 feet
above tide level.
The bottom of the east pipe chamber is 118.52 feet
above tide level.
The water in the river at its lowest state is 71 feet
below the water in the Aqueduct.
Provision is also made in the pipe chambers for
another pipe to be carried across the river when neces-
sary, the wall being pierced and a pipe laid through it.
There are two tunnels, excavated through porphyritic
rock of extreme hardness, in the towns of Newton
and Brookline. The former is twenty-four hundred and
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 17
ten feet and the latter eleven hundred and fifty feet in
lenofth. A course of concrete is laid in it of variable
thickness to form a bottom of uniform inclination, coin-
ciding with the level of the aqueduct. Those portions
■which showed signs of perishable rock were lined with
brick masonry; and brick arches of extra thickness,
were turned over the water course, at all the shafts
which had been sunk during the progress of the exca-
vation, for the purpose of supporting the filling of
earth which was put into them.
For expediting the work on the tunnels seven shafts
were sunk through the rock in the Newton tunnel
and four in the Brookline. The rock to be excavated
proved much harder than was anticipated, and the
work was also much impeded by, as has been stated,
the large quantity of water which was encountered,
although seven steam engines were kept in constant
operation for the purpose of removing it. Three sets
of men were employed at each face of the several
drifts between the shafts, relieving each other at inter-
vals of eight hours, and thus continuing the work
through the day and night.
In the JSeivton tunnel the shafts were commenced at
the west end about November 15, 1846.
The first drift was commenced, at the west end, De-
cember 30, 1846.
The last drift was completed April 28, 1848.
The brick lining Avas completed August 27, 1848.
In the Brookline tunnel,
The shafts were commenced December 17, 1846.
The first drift was commenced about January 30,
The last drift was completed June 20, 1848.
The brick lining was completed August 30, 1848.
18 WATEE. [Jan.
The top closed up, the interior cleaned out, and water
let in October 12, 1848.
The Waste Weirs.
There are four tvaste weirs constructed for the pur-
pose of letting off the water and also of ventilation ;
they are built entirely of stone, with iron doors and
stone roofs, the walls being carried up to a sufficient
height to form an enclosure over the works. The
overfall or weir is of stone, through the breast of which
two gates are fixed to draw the water off when required.
The gates and gate frames are of composition metal set
in cut stone, the gates being worked by iron screws in
The first waste weir is in Section No. 3 at Dedman's
brook, about three miles distant from the gate house at
the Lake. This is the nearest point where, from the
level of the ground the water could be discharged.
The second is at the end of Section No. 5, about one
mile west of Charles river in East Needham. The third
is in Section No. 10 at the outlet oi Baptist pond in
Newton Centre about three miles east of Charles river.
And the fourth is in Section No. 13, in Brookline about
a mile from the reservoir.
By means of the waste weirs, the ventilation has been
well regulated, and no inconvenience has been experi-
enced from there having been but one ventilator ex-
pressly built for that purpose along the whole line.
Ventilator and Man-holes.
The only ventilator, strictly so called, on the aque-
duct, is placed near the easterly end of the tunnel in
Newton. It is built of hammered granite, square with
a coping on the top, and gradually diminishing in size
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 19
from the base, and is 14 feet 6K inches high, 8 feet
wide at the base, and the coping is 7 feet 3 inches.
The passage inside is 4 feet IH inches. A great benefit
derived from it consists in the means which it affords of
an entrance into the Aqueduct, for the purpose of cleans-
ing and examining. Man-holes are also placed along
the Aqueduct at distances of about a quarter of a mile,
for the same purpose. They are covered with stone
slabs. A plug-hole 12 inches in diameter is also made
near the ventilator, to let off the water from the Aque-
duct when necessary.
Culverts and Drains,
There are ten Culvei'ts and thirteen Barrel Drains, for
the purpose of draining off, beneath the Aqueduct, the
water in its neighborhood.
The Culverts are all of granite, with hammer dressed
joints, and laid in hydraulic cement. Their openings
are from 2 to 8 feet wide, the smallest being square in
form, and the largest having upper and inverted arches.
The Barrel Drains have stone ends and brick centres,
and are laid in hydraulic cement. They are from 1>^ to
2 feet in diameter and circular in form of opening.
The first part of the Aqueduct is, for the greater por-
tion of its length, laid entirely beneath the natural sur-
face of the ground ; appearing above only for short dis-
tances at irregular intervals. The greatest depth of
any part is at the tunnels in Newton and Brookline, at
the former of which the bottom is about eighty feet, and
at the latter about sixty feet. The deepest excavations
made for the brick aqueduct, were, — at a short distance
from the Gate house, at the Lake ; — near the waste
weir at Dedman's brook ; — near the waste weir in East
20 WATER. [Jan.
Needham ;- — and near the Cold spring in Section 9, in
Newton. It was laid at those places about thirty feet
deep. The longest interval that it remains beneath the
surface entirely, is from its junction with the Lake, for
a distance of about two and a half miles. The bottom
of the Aqueduct is not raised above the level of the
natural surface, for more than three-fourths of a mile
through its whole extent.
The rate of descent in the brick portion, is three and
one sixth inches per mile. The fall for the whole dis-
tance, including the pipe section over the valley of
Charles River, is nearly three and one half inches per
mile. The whole descent or fall is 3.81 feet in the
brick Aqueduct, which is 14.446 miles long. In the
pipe section, 956 feet long, it is 0.45 feet. Making
in the whole distance 14.627 miles, a descent of 4.26
With this descent, and a depth of three feet and ten
inches of water, the Aqueduct is found to be sufficient
to convey more than ten million gallons in twenty four
hours, being considerably more than its originally esti-
mated capacity, with that depth.
The whole quantity of land purchased and taken pos-
session of by the City along the line of the Aqueduct,
from the Lake to Brookline Reservoir, is three hundred
and five acres and eight rods ; it has the fee in two
hundred and seventy six acres, and ninety five rods, and
holds by possession, taken under the act, twenty eight
acres and seventy three rods.
The Receiving Reservoir.
The Receiving Reservoir is situate in Brookline, at
the Eastern termination of the brick portion of the
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT— No. 6. 21
Aqueduct. It is formed out of a natural basin enclosed
almost entirely by banks rising to considerable height
above. On the side which was not protected by the
natural embankment, the earth was removed, and a pud-
dled embankment built up to a height of about twenty
six feet ; the lower part, to the height of eight feet be-
ing supported by a retaining wall. For the purpose of
relieving the banks from the action of the water, the
inner slope of the Keservoir was lined with a slope wall
of granite rubble, eighteen inches thick and eleven feet
broad, the lining commencing four feet below the top of
the bank. The lining has been lately increased to four-
teen feet, by adding three feet to the top of the former.
The greatest depth of water is near the principal gate
house, twenty-four feet. The least depth is near the upper
gate house, where it is about 14 feet. The embankment
is 20 feet wide at the top, with a gravel walk all around.
The surface of the Reservoir contains at a depth of 6 feet
below the top of the dam, 22.31 acres, and its capacity is
89,909,730 wine gallons, the contour of the water line
being 4696 feet long ; at 2 feet below the top of the dam,
it contains an area of 22.95 acres, and the capacity is
119,583,960 gallons. The Eeservoir in shape is an
The top of the dam is, 126.60, above tide marsh level.
The upper floor of the
principal Gate House, 126.76,
Low water mark, - - 120.60,
The bottom of the interior
of the Aqueduct, - - 116.77,
The bottom of the Reser-
A cylindrical brick conduit is laid, at a depth of 8 feet,
within the northern embankment, to conduct the water
22 WATEE. [Jan.
to the pipe chambers, by means of which the supply of
the mains can be kept up, when the water is let off from
the reservoir for cleansing it, or for any other purpose.
There are two Gate Houses for receiving the termina-
tion of the brick portion of the Aqueduct, and the com-
mencement of the conduit leading to the City, with the
regulating gates, gauges, &c.
The Principal or lower Gate House has its front on the
street where it is 26 feet 4 inches wide by 36 feet 8
inches high, including the basement which is 16 feet 4
inches. It is set in the embankment and projects about
4 feet in front of the retaining wall. The height in the
rear is 20 feet. The length of the building is 44 feet 4 in.
An iron stairway ascends from the basement to the
main floor. The building is of hammered granite with
an iron roof, and no wood is used in the construction of
any part except the doors and sashes. The main floor
is on a level with the top of the embankment ; and the
bottom of the gates which regulate the admission of
water into the pipe chambers is 26 feet below the floor.
The gates and gate frames are of iron plated with com-
position metal, set in hammered granite; they are worked
by iron screws in composition nuts. There are three pipe
chambers-, into two of which the mains now laid are in-
troduced, and a thirty-six inch pipe is also laid through
the bulkhead into the third chamber, to be connected
with another main if necessary hereafter.
The Upper Gate House contains the termination of the
brick aqueduct, and the stop planks for regulating the
flow of water into the reservoir. The building is of
granite with a stone roof The front is 1 IK feet by 11
feet 4 inches high and the length 12 feet.
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 23
The Second Part of the Aqueduct.
The second part of the Aqueduct consists of the con-
duit from Brookline receiving reservoir to the City and
the distribution in the City; and comprises the Iron
Mains, the Distributing pipes and the Service pipes.
From the Reservoir to the City the conduit consists
of two iron mains, one thirty-six inches and the other
thirty inches in diameter. They are laid side by
side, beneath the public highway which was formerly
the Worcester Turnpike, to Brookline village, and
thence by the public streets, through Brookline and
Roxbury to Tremont street, in Boston, and through
that street to Dover street, a distance of about three
and two third miles from the Reservoir. At this place
the thirty-six inch pipe is reduced to one of thirty inches
and the two mains pass together, through Tremont
street to Boylston street. From this point the main
originally thirty inches is laid across the Common,
through Joy and Mt. Vernon streets to Hancock street
to supply the Reservoir on Beacon hill, it then passes
by the side of the Reservoir through Hancock and Cam-
bridge street to the corner of Chardon street in Bowdoin
square. The originally thirty-six inch Main which had
been reduced to thirty inches, passes down Boylston
street to Washington street — it is there again reduced
to one of twenty-four inches, and passes through Wash-
ington street. Dock square. Union, Merrimack, Ivors,
and Chardon streets to Bowdoin square where it joins
the other thirty inch main. The two Mains are laid at
a sufficient depth to be secure from frost, and are car-
ried across the Boston and Worcester Railroad in Tre-
mont street in a box of boiler iron of sufficient dimen-
24 WATER. [Jan.
sions and strength to receive and support the mains,
from one abutment to the other, under the westerly side-
walk of the Railroad bridge, the whole being inclosed
By the side of the Mains and connected with them
is laid a side pipe, six inches in diameter, the object
of which is to prevent the necessity of ever inter-
rupting the flow of water through the mains, when it
should be required to supply a new tenant, which
otherwise, could only be done by drawing off the water
from the main for several hundred feet while the work
From the mains as they pass by the several streets in
their route the distributing pipes of four, six, twelve and
sixteen inches in diameter branch off. Those of six inches
in diameter, generally, and all under, are connected with
the attending side pipe, and those of a greater diameter
enter directly into the mains. At Dover street a pipe of
twenty inches is connected with the thirty-six inch main
and passes through Dover street over South Bostonbridge,
through Fourth and Atlantic streets, to Telegraph hill,
where it enters and supplies the South Boston Reservoir ;
and branch distributing pipes are connected with it as
it passes along the route. And at the junction of Union
and Merrimack streets a pipe of twenty inches diame-
ter is connected with the twenty-four inch main (the
continuation of the thirty-six inch main) and passes
through Union and Beverly streets on the lower side of
Warren bridge to Charlestown, and through Cliarles-
town by Chelsea street and on the uper side of Chelsea
bridge to Chelsea, thence by the road near the shore to
what was formerly Ober's wharf, now belonging to the
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT— No. 6. 25
City, and thence it passes across the water to East Bos-
ton and is laid directly to, and supplies the Reservoir.
The length of the Mains and Distributing pipes laid
up to Jan. 1, 1852, is one hundred miles and four hun-
dred and fifty six feet, exclusive of hydrant branches.
Stop cocks are placed on the line wherever required ;
their present number is eight hundred and ninety
Hydrants for extinguishing fires and other purposes
are also placed at intervals of 300 feet, the whole num-
ber in the City is eleven hundred and ten, of which
there are in Boston proper, - - - - 811
East Boston, - - - - 124
South Boston, _ - - - 175
Twenty three hydrants have also been placed along
the mains in other towns where the City has made use
of the streets and highways, of these there are
In Brookline, ------ 1
" Eoxbury, 4
" Chaiiestown, - 11
" Chelsea, 7
The pipe across South Boston Bridge is laid on a
foundation of earth supported at the sides by piles and
planks, as far as the harbor line. It is thence support-
ed across the public waters, as far as the draw and chan-
nel, in a wooden box, resting on piles. It was originally
intended that it should be protected from frost, by a filling
of non-conducting materials, this was however afterwards
abandoned. The pipe is carried in an inverted syphon
20 inches in diameter, with perpendicular ends, under the
water, and embedded in the hard bottom of the channel.
It is enclosed in a box or frame of timber, and completely
enveloped with a covering of hydraulic cement. The
distance from the top of the pipe to the bottom of the
26 WATER. [Jan.
syphon, including the box, is 32 feet 6 inches. The
space in the clear for passage of vessels is 40 feet. The
pipes across Charles and Mystic E-ivers, are carried in a
similar manner. There are two inverted syphons 30
inches in diameter, in the pipe across Mystic Eiver, placed
opposite the draws in Chelsea Bridge. In one the height
from the bottom to the top of the box or casing is 42
feet 5 inches, and the space in the clear 50 feet, being
considerably more than the present width of the draw.
In the other, the height is 29 feet 6^ inches, and the
space 39 feet. In the pipe across Charles Hiver the
height is about 36 feet, and the space about 39 feet.
The pipe across Chelsea creek to East Boston, is laid
to the channel, from both sides of the creek, in a box
filled with marsh mud or clay, and carried across the
channel in a flexible pipe of nearly double the ordinary
thickness, with swivel joints. The flexible portion of
the pipe is about 461 feet long, laid in a trench dredged
out about 6 feet deep, and covered with clay and gravel,
to protect it from anchors.
The service pipes are connected with the distributing
pipes, and are carried through the outer walls of the
buildings, at the expense of the City, provided the dis-
tance from the line of the street is not more than thirty
feet. They are almost all of lead, and very generally
five eighths of an inch in diameter. There are some how-
ever of iron of an inch and a half and two inches in
diameter, which were laid only in compliance with the
wishes of individuals. The objections to that metal,
arising from their filling up with accretions, discoloring
the water with rust, and being easily fractured, have
been found quite serious. Some objection also was
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 27
made to the employment of lead for this purpose, on
the supposition that it might communicate a deleterious
influence to the water. The subject was submitted to
the consideration of the consulting physicians, and in-
vestigated with great care by Professor Horsford of
Harvard College ; and the result at which they arrived,
seems to be sufficiently decisive to relieve the anxiety
which had been expressed. The whole number of ser-
vice pipes laid to Jan. 1852, is 16,049, of which 13,549
There are three Distributing Reservoirs^ constructed
for the purpose of receiving the water from the mains
leading from the Brookline Eeservoir, during the latter
part of the day and the night, when it was presumed but
little would be drawn from the service pipes ; and of sup-
plying it to the service pipes in the morning, when the
greater portion for domestic purposes is required. By
this means a continuous supply could be kept up to a
more uniform height.
Beacon Hill Distributing Reservoir.
The most costly distributing Eeservoir, belonging to
the Water Works, is erected on the site where Beacon
Hill formerly stood. The foundation of the Reservoir
is more than 70 feet below the former elevation of
the hill. It is built with great labor and care, of the
most massive description of stone masonry. The whole
structure is of granite laid in hydraulic cement, with
hammered beds and builds and an undressed external
surface, surmounted with a deep cornice. It is situate
and bounded 190 feet 3 inches on Derne street, 206 feet
5 inches on the rear of Mt. Vernon street, 191 feet and
28 WATEE. [Jan.
7 inches on Hancock street, and 182 feet 11 inches on
Temple street. The outer walls are 3 feet thick, and
that on Derne street is pierced with five arches, and ele-
vated 58 feet and 9 inches including the coping, above
the level of the street ; those on the other sides are solid.
The walls on Temple and Hancock streets gradually di-
minish in height with the ascent of the hill ; at their
junction with the wall on the rear of Mt. Vernon street,
they are 40 ft. 8 in. high. The basin containing the water
is raised to such a height from the natural surface, that
the floor or bottom of the interior of it is 15 ft. 8 inches
below the level of the coping. The lateral walls of the
basin are built 12 feet within the exterior walls of the
reservoir. They are of granite, 5 feet thick at the lower
part, and 3 feet at the top. The bottom of the reservoir is
covered \^ith concrete to a depth of 3 feet, and afterwards
paved with two courses of bricks. The basin is supported
on arches of granite. Of these arches, seven extend paral-
lel, from Hancock street towards Temple street, from wall
to wall. They are from 11 feet 9 inches, to 15 ft. 6 inches
between the piers, and, varying in height with the decliv-
ity of the foundation, are from 23 feet to 34 feet high ; they
give support to about two thirds of the superstructure ;
extending from the rear of Mt. Vernon street towards
Derne street, until they meet the arches running from
Derne street at right angles to them. Those arches
seven in number, extend back from Derne street, 57 feet
and six inches, they are 20 feet 3 inches wide, and vary
in height, with the declivity of the land, from 37 to 39
feet, the piers supporting the arches being 3 feet through.
Five of them open on the street, their entrance varying
in height from 36 feet to 38 feet, and being 14 feet 9 in.
wide. The lateral walls of the basin rest on the course of
concrete ; and tliere is a space of 4 feet 9 inches between
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 29
them and the outer walls. It was estimated that 17,000
cubic yards of hydraulic masonry and concrete were used
in the construction. The influent main is introduced in
the South Western corner of the structure, and a stair
case in the same corner contains a flight of stone steps
leading to the top, and is protected on the top by a lan-
tern of cast-iron 9 feet 1 inch high, by 10 feet 6 inches
wide in the interior. The effluent main 30 inches in
diameter, passes out at the North Western corner.
The contents of the basin are equal to 2,678,961 gal-
lons, its mean horizontal section being 28,014 square feet.
The maximum or high water level of the water in Brook-
line reservoir, which now is 124.60 feet above tide marsh
level, is 1 1 inches above the coping of the inside of the
Beacon hill reservoir, or 16 feet 7 inches above the bot-
tom of the basin, the minimum level of the Brookline
is 4 feet below this line. The bottom of the Reservoir is
above tide marsh level, . - - 108.03 feet.
The top of the coping outside, - - 124.03 "
The bottom of the waste weir, - - 121.53 "
South Boston Distributing Reservoir.
The South Boston Reservoir is placed on the East
side of Telegraph hill. South Boston. The w^alls are
formed of a puddled embankment, lined inside with
granite rubble, and the bottom paved with pebble stones.
It resembles in shape a segment of an ellipse measur-
ing across the widest part about three hundred and
seventy feet, and about two hundred and sixty across
the narrowest part. It contains 7,508,246 gallons. The
top of the dam is 125.86 feet above tide marsh level
and the bottom of the reservoir 105.35 feet. High
water mark in the reservoir is 17 feet 9 inches above
30 WATEE. [Jan.
the bottom, and 1 foot 9 inches below low water mark
at the Lake.
East Boston Distributing Reservoir.
The East Boston Eeservoir is placed on Eagle hill
East Boston. The walls are formed by a puddled em-
bankment, lined with stone in the interior ; the bottom
paved and covered with concrete. It is rectangular in
shape measuring three hundred and twenty-five feet by
one hundred and fifty and contains at a level 3 feet be-
low its top 5,591,816 wine gallons. The top of the
dam is 110.60 feet and the bottom of the Eeservoir
80.60 above tide marsh level. High water mark is
twenty seven feet above the bottom of the Eeservoir
and seventeen feet three inches below low water mark at
the Lake. The outside slope of the embankment on
the west side is 93K feet, on the east 70>^ feet on the
south 67 feet and on the north 56 feet. The top walk
is 7 feet wide.
There are at present ten public fountains supplied
with the Cochituate Water, and situate in the follow-
ing public squares and places. The principal is in the
pond or fountain basin on the Common, the coping of
which is 24.60 feet above tide level and 96 feet below
the minimum level of Brookline reservoir.
One is placed in the public garden and receives the
waste water from that on the Common.
Two are in front of the State house.
Tivo in Franklin and Blackstone squares.
One in Chester square.
One in the square in front of the West church.
One in Haymarket square.
One in Maverick square, East Boston.
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 31
All the fixtures connected with the several fountains
belong to the City, excepting those of the fountains in
front of the State house, which were erected at the ex-
pense of the State. As it is important, in reference to a
proper economy in the use of the water, that the quan-
tity consumed in the several fountains should be known,
an estimate of the hourly consumption has been prepared.
It is however to be considered as giving the theoretical
discharge only, as calculated from the area of the ori-
j&ce and the height to which the water is thrown, but
the resistance, from the air and from the water being
thrown back upon itself, not being taken into the ac-
count. It is nevertheless believed to be a sufficient ap-
proximation, for all practical purposes, and the error,
if there be any, consists in underrating the quantity used.
The fountain on the Common consists of twelve differ-
ent jets, by v/hich the water is thrown into a variety of
forms, as it rises from a pipe on a level with the basin,
without any ornamental fixtures connected with it.
Five of these jets are solid cylinders of water, one of
which is 3 inches, two are 4, and two 6 inches in diame-
ter, rising to a height of from 75 to 98 feet. The quan-
tity of water used by them severally, is from 103,380 to
392,280 gallons, the 3 inch jet using the former, and
one of the 6 inch jets using the latter quantity. Four of
the jets are hollow cylinders, rising from 3 feet to 88 feet,
and consuming from 25,620 to 118,020 gallons. In
the three remaining jets another variety of figure is pro-
duced, by the shape of the aperture. They rise from 30
feet to 80 feet, and use respectively 214,560—220,380,
and 314,040 gallons. The least consumption of water
from any of these jets is therefore that from a hollow
cylindrical jet, which rises from 15 feet to 20 feet, and
is 25,620 gallons. The greatest consumption is from
32 WATER. [Jan.
the solid jet, from a tube 3 feet long and 6 inches in
diameter, which is 392,280 gallons an hour.
The fixtures of the fountains at the State house, and
in Franklin and Blackstone squares are of cast iron, in
shape of an ornamental vase supported on a fluted
column. Those at the State house are about 12 feet
high, above the receiving basins, and those in the squares
7 feet nine inches. The water rises above the respec-
tive vases from 3 feet to 7 feet. The quantity discharg-
ed from two jets at the State house, is 9,420 and 12,360
gallons, and that from three jets in the squares is 12,840,
18,300 and 32,700 gallons. At the Public garden, the
water rises from 6 feet to 8 feet, and there is used
91,800 gallons. At the fountain in Cambridge street,
it rises 4 feet and there are two jets using 8,100 and
9,240 gallons. At Chester square, there are two jets,
one rising from 25 to 30 feet and using 24,900 gallons,
the other rising from 8 to 10 feet and using 31,320
The Com2oetisating Reservoirs.
It has been stated that the right which the City ac-
quired, by purchase of Mr. Knight, to use the waters of
the Lake, is subject to the claims of the proprietors of
the mill privileges below, and also of the Middlesex
Canal, for any diminution of their supply of water. In
reference to these claims therefore, and for the purpose
of affording to those proprietors, during the dry season
(when alone they feel any inconvenience) a quantity of
water equal to that which they had formerly received
from the Lake, — the City has purchased and holds two
compensating reservoirs in the towns of Hopkinton and
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 33
The HopUnton Reservoir.
The Hopkinton or Whitehall Reservoir is situate in
the town of Hopkinton in the County of Middlesex.
Following the very circuitous course of Sudbury river
into which it discharges, it is about eighteen miles dis-
tant from the outlet of the Lake. The reservoir ex-
tends over an area of five hundred and seventy-six
acres, the height of the dam is ten feet ten and one-
half inches, and w^hen full the water is nine feet ten
and two-thirds inches deep. Its capacity is estimated
at 125,403,290 cubic feet or 940,524,675 wine gallons.
The Marlborough Reservoir.
The Marlborough, or Fort Meadow, Reservoir is situ-
ate in the town of Marlborough in the County of Mid-
dlesex ; about twelve miles distant from the Lake. The
Reservoir has a water shed of twenty-two hundred and
fifty-seven acres ; and covers an area of two hundred
and ninety-nine acres. The height of the dam is
thirty feet ; and, when full, the water is twenty-five feet
deep ; it discharges into the Assabet river, and following
its course, is about fourteen miles distant from its union
with Sudbury river, by which the Concord river is form-
ed. The capacity of the Reservoir is estimated at
185,932,787 cubic feet or 1,394,495,902 gallons.
Ramshorn and Boon Ponds, lying about two miles
distant, were included in the purchase of the Reservoir.
Assuming five cubic feet a second, to be the natu-
ral discharge from the Lake, during one hundred and
twenty days of the dry season, which was the quantity
calculated from the observations made in 1844-5, the
estimated capacity of the two compensating reservoirs is
far more than sufficient to supply the loss of water, by
34 WATEE. [Jan.
its diversion from the Lake into the Aqueduct. In fact
it is believed, that, after making a large deduction for
evaporation and absorption, which must take place in
the passage of the water, from Hopkinton reservoir to
the outlet of the Lake, and from Marlboro reservoir to
Concord river, enough is received from each of them
at the particular season when it is required, to make
good the loss of water formerly flowing from the Lake,
at this season of the year.
Among the claims which were made on the City for
damages arising out of the construction of the Aqueduct,
were several for large amounts, occasioned by draining
of the springs in the neighborhood of the Newton Tun-
nel. For the purpose of meeting these demands, and of
obtaining the means of compensation for them, an aque-
duct was constructed in Newton, by means of the forma-
tion of a company under the provisions of the law of
the Commonwealth, called the Newton Aqueduct Com-
pany^ the stock of which is all held in trust for the
City. And the water can be appropriated in such man-
ner as the interests of the City may require. A large
well was dug ; and a reservoir formed beneath the surface
on a sufficient elevation, and a large quantity of water
was obtained, adequate for the supply of a number of
families. Pipes were also laid through the streets con-
formably to law, and by their means together with per-
manent cisterns laid in cement masonry, a substitute has
been obtained for five wells in the vicinity of the tunnel
which had failed ; and there is apparently a sufficiency
for many more.
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 35
During the past year, the City has also become pos-
sessed of the waters of Jamaica Pond, the Water Board
having purchased in its behalf, the franchise and prop-
erties of the '•'- Aqueduct Corporation.'' The pond is situ-
ate in the town of Roxbury in the county of Norfolk.
The surface of the water at its minimum level, or when
one foot above the lower side of the effluent pipe, is, ac-
cording to a survey of the pond made by Col. Loammi
Baldwin, in 1833, — 45.27 feet above the coping of the
dry dock at the Navy Yard in Charlestown, or 50.36 feet
above tide level. At the time of the survey, the water
was 4.43 feet above the minimum level, and covered an
area of 67.22 acres, or 2,928,103 sq. ft.
At 1.43 feet above that level, the area as estimated, is
62,688 acres, or 2,730,684 square feet :
At 7.43 feet above that level, 71,445, or 3,1 12,144 sq. ft.
"10.43 " " - 73,668, " 3,208,978. "
" 13.43 " '^ - 76,443, " 3,329,857. "
" 1.57 below, " - 58,90, " 2,565,684. «
'^ 4.57 '^ « - 54,915, '' 2,392,097. «
« 7.57 « « - 50.316, « 2,191,764. "
From observations of the height of water for 11 years
ending Dec. 1833, it appeared that the highest year was
1831. The greatest height being 9 feet, 4/^ inches, and
the least, 6 feet, 2^4 inches, and the mean for twelve
months being 7.795 feet.
The lowest year was 1823, when the greatest height
was 4 feet 10 inches, and the least 0.4 inches, the mean
being 2.759 feet.
In 1822, October, the water fell below the minimum
level, and continued very low, until Feb. 1823, when it
was 4 inches above.
36 WATER. [Jan.
At 1.43 feet above the minimum level, the
estimated capacity of the pond is, 28,844,183 galls.
« 4.43 feet above, - - - 92,505,525 ''
« 7.43 « « . - . 160,458,315 "
" 10.43 « « - . - 231,570,938 «
" 13.43 ^^ « ... 305,132,820 "
An iron main 10 inches in diameter was laid in 1840.
It passed from the pond to the street, by Mr. "Ward's
farm house, and thence partly beneath the street and
partly through land of Ebenezer Francis and others, to
Tremont street, and by that street to Bowdoin square,
The foregoing statement is believed to contain a de-
scription of all the property belonging to the City in the
Water Works. It has been compiled, as far as was
possible, from the reports of former Boards, under whose
direction the several portions were completed, and the
language of those reports has been followed in describ-
ing, both the principles on which those portions were
planned, and their modes of construction And the
Water Board would congratulate the City Council, that
after a lapse of time sufficient to aiford some test of the
adaptation of the works to the great purposes for which
they were designed, as well as of the durability of their
construction, there is so little cause for fear or anxiety
on either of these subjects hereafter : and that notwith-
standing the inherent difficulties of the undertaking,
the variety and number of persons employed, and the
great rapidity with which the whole was completed, the
water works continue to bear the most unquestionable
testimony to the science, skill and faithfulness with which
they were planned and executed.
The following are the dates of the principal events
which occurred in the construction of the water works.
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT— No. 6. 37
1846, March 30^A. The act was passed, authorizing
the City to supply the City proper and South Boston
with water from Long Pond.
1846, April l^th. It was accepted by the legal voters
of the City.
1846, August 20th. Ground was broken at the lake
and the excavation for the Aqueduct commenced, and
the name of Long Pond changed to Lake Cochituate.
1846, October 19 th. The first brick of the Aqueduct
was laid on the 1st division.
1846, November 15th. The shafts commenced on
Newton Tunnel, and
1846, December 11th. On Brookline Tunnel.
1846, December SOth. The first drift began on New-
ton Tunnel, at the west end, and
1847, January SOth. On Brookline Tunnel.
1847, November 20th. Corner Stone of Beacon Hill
Eeservoir, laid with appropriate ceremonies.
1848, April 28th. Last drift completed at Newton
1848, June 26th. On Brookline Tunnel.
1848, August 21th. Brick lining completed on New-
ton Tunnel, and
1848, August SOth. On Brookline Tunnel.
1848, September 11th. Bottom of the brick work in
the Aqueduct all united.
1848, October 12th. Top of the Aqueduct closed up
and the water let in at about 10 o'clock, and it arrived
at the reservoir in about 11 hours.
1848, October Uth. Water let into the 30 inch
main, laid from Brookline Reservoir to Beacon Hill
Reservoir ; by means of the conduit in the embankment
of the Reservoir from the Aqueduct to the pipe cham-
bers, and reached the Common in about three hours.
38 WATEH. [Jan.
1848, October 25 th. The great celebration took
place in Boston, on the introduction of the water, and
the fountains on the Common played for the first time,
in presence of the City Authorities and an immense
concourse of persons.
1848, November 16th. The Brookline Reservoir was
finished and water let in for the first time.
1849, Ma^ 1st. The additional act was passed by
which the City was authorized to supply East Boston.
1849, November 23d. Water let into Beacon Hill
1849, November 2Sth. Into South^ Boston Eeservoir.
1849, December. The works for supplying East Bos-
ton commenced, by excavating for the Eeservoir at
Eagle Hill, East Boston.
1851, January 1. Water let into East Boston Eeser-
The Water Board, on entering upon the duties of
their office, were fully aware how much the usefulness
of the water-works must depend on the system to be
adopted for their care and management ; they have en-
deavored, therefore, to carry out such an arrangement
of the different agencies employed, that the great inter-
ests of the City might be best subserved. For the pur-
pose of showing their course of action on this subject,
they beg leave to annex to their report, the rules and
regulations which they have adopted.*
It seemed to them in the first place important, that
the general superintendence, and all the practical details
connected with the preservation of any of the existing
portions, or construction of any new ones ; and also all
those relating to the maintaining, and distributing a
due supply of water ; should be confided to the exclu-
* See AppendiX) B.
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 39
sive care of some one individual, subject only to the
control of the Water Board, and the supervision of its
President, as provided for in the ordinance. They accord-
ingly, by virtue of the authority especially given them,
" to define the powers and prescribe the duties of the
City Engineer relating to the subject," vested this
charge in that ofhcer. His intimate acquaintance with
the different parts of the works, from their commence-
ment ; and his peculiar qualifications in other respects,
in the opinion of the Board, eminently entitled him to
He was therefore appointed the General Superin-
tendent of the water-works.
It it his duty to exercise a general control over all
subordinate officers, and other persons employed :
To attend to the construction of new works, and to
all repairs which may be requisite at any time :
To inspect the Aqueduct personally :
To direct the discharge of water from Lake Cochitu-
ate and the Beservoirs :
, To prepare all plans of construction :
To certify all bills for materials or labor :
And to receive returns from the several Superintend-
ents and to communicate them to the Board.
Superintendents were also appointed on the various
portions of the works ; and their powers and duties de-
fined. They receive their orders directly from the City
Engineer, and are answerable to him, and made respon-
sible for the faithful performance of their several duties.
The Superintendents of the Lake, — of the several reser-
voirs, — and of the pipe chambers at Charles river, are re-
quired to keep accurate records of the water levels at
these places ; and to transmit them regularly to the City
Engineer. And as it is important, in reference to
40 WATER. [Jan.
claims made on the City by the proprietors of the mills at
Billerica and other persons, that the amount of rain-fall
each year should be determined, as accurately as is pos-
sible, the Superintendents of the Lake and the compen-
sating reservoirs at Hopkinton and Marlborough are
required to keep proper rain gauges for that purpose ;
and with the same view, the Superintendent of Concord
river keeps a record of the height of the water, at the
mills in Billerica. The mains and distributing pipes
are also placed in charge of a Superintendent, whose
duty it is to attend to the laying and repairing of them ;
- — to keep a record of all the labor performed, and mate-
rials used ; and return the same weekly to the City Engi-
neer ; and also to report the quantity of materials on hand
at the pipe yard. And an officer was also appointed to
give immediate attention to shutting off water, in case
of leakage and to letting it on after due repairs are
made ; and to receive and pay over, to the City Trea-
surer, the fees provided in the ordinances to be paid
By means of the regulations thus adopted, due in-
formation has been received of the general condition of
the works, and of every occurrence relating to them
which required special attention. And the several re-
turns of the Superintendents of the Lake and of the re-
servoirs at Brookline and in the City have shown the
quantity of water at those places, three times a day dur-
ing the year; of the Compensating reservoirs, at Marl-
borough daily; and at Hopkinton once a week; and
also the height of the water in relation to the crest of
the dam at Billerica mills daily, together with the
waste of water weekly at the Lake.
The Board are required by the ordinance to state, in
their Annual Eeport, the condition of all the water
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT— No. 6. 41
works, and of the lands and other property connected
therewith, an account of all receipts and expenditures,
together with any information and suggestions which
they may deem important, and to transmit at the same
time the reports of the City Engineer and Water Regis-
With regard to the present condition of the works ;
the Board beg leave to refer the City Council to the re-
port of the City Engineer, who is also directed by the
ordinance to give to the Council the necessary informa-
tion on that subject. His report is herewith trans-
mitted and it contains a full and detailed statement
in relation to the several portions of the works. The
Water Board have also personally, from time to time,
visited all the different parts (including the interior of
the brick aqueduct, which has been carefully exam-
ined by a committee) and the result of their observa-
tion fully confirms the statements of the City Engineer
on the subject.
The brick aqueduct continues firm and no apprehen-
sion is felt of its settling. The puddled embankments,
particularly those of sand and gravel, are believed to af-
ford a sufficient, and perhaps in many cases the best, foun-
dation for the superstructure. That in Needham over
Ware valley, which might have occasioned some anxiety
on account of the height, of upwards of forty feet, to
which it was necessary to raise it, has not yielded in any
part, and the aqueduct rests upon it as immovably as if
it were supported on any foundation of masonry. The
leaks in the aqueduct, which existed from the beginning,
do not appear to have increased any where ; and in some
places, when they were examined, appeared to be stop-
ped or much diminished. One new crack has been dis-
covered, about a hundred and fifty feet in length ; it is
42 WATER. [Jan.
not however at present considered a matter of much
The state of the Mains and Distributing pipes is
equally satisfactory. The pipes and inverted syphons for
conducting the water to South and East Boston, which
were considered the most vulnerable parts of the distri-
bution, have not been affected by frost, as it was feared
they might be ; indeed experience seems to show, that
by keeping a constant current passing through them,
that danger will in all probability be entirely obviated ;
and the Board are not at present aware of any other
which is likely to threaten them. A trifling settling of
one of them on Chelsea bridge was attended with no
serious consequences. The long extent of the mains,
and other pipes, renders them liable to leakage from the
expansion or contraction of their material, by the varia-
tion of temperature ; this can never be prevented ; as it
generally consists however in only slightly opening the
joints it is easily remedied.
The alterations which have been made in the Brook-
line Reservoir, as before mentioned, will it is believed,
add considerably to its usefulness. By raising the
slope wall two feet perpendicularly, its capacity has
been increased nearly twelve millions of gallons.
Eor the purpose of ascertaining the exact quantity of
water which passes from the Reservoir into the mains,
and thereby determining the amount used in the City,
it has long been deemed very desirable to obtain a met-
er, which could measure that quantity with precision,
to be placed in the pipe chambers. But little confidence
however could be placed in any of the inventions previous
to one recently made by Mr. Samuel Huse. And the
Board having witnessed the accuracy of those made on a
smaller scale, have agreed w^ith him for the construction
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 43
of two sufficiently large for the Reservoir, similar in
principle to those already made by him of smaller di-
mensions, for the City. The Board feel assured that if
the larger ones perform their work with the accuracy
and steadiness, which those now in use have exhibited,
they will leave nothing further to desire. And it is pre-
sumed that hereafter, the very important knowledge of
the actual consumption of water in the City, will be
attainable at any time, without involving the necessity
of shutting off the water from the Aqueduct, which it is
now necessary to do.
It has been found also necessary to replace two of the
largest stop cocks on the thirty-six inch main, the past
year, they having got so much out of repair as to be use-
less. The new ones have been constructed on an improved
principle, as it is believed, in having the movement of the
valve made horizontal instead of vertical. By it a more
complete control can be had over the valve, and the
danger of a sudden shutting down of the valve, by the
breaking of the screw, or any other part, is obviated.
The report of the City Engineer also shows the num-
ber of feet, size and location of the distributing pipes,
the number and length of the service pipes, and the
number of Jire hydrants, which have been added the
past year ; also the number of repairs and the reasons
for which they were made. It likewise contains a
schedule of the quantity of hydrants, pipes, and other
stock on hand ; an estimate of the consumption of water
for the three past years ; and tables of the rain-fall at
Boston and several other places for a series of years,
and, which is of most importance, of the rain-fall during
the dry seasons from 1818 to 1851.
During the year sixty-nine new hydrants have been
established in the city, making the number in the city
4:4: WATER. [Jan.
1110, and the whole number 1133. Every endeavor
has been made to prevent the hydrants freezing, by due
attention to their mode of construction, and by carefully
packing around them during the cold season ; and gen-
erally the efforts have been successful. Some instances,
however, have occurred which it was impossible to pre-
vent. They have been kept under strict observation,
and have been at once thawed out when discovered to
There have been 11,692 feet of distributing pipe laid
down, of 12, 6, and 4 inches diameter — making the
whole length of pipe now laid, including the hydrant
branches, a small fraction over 103)^ miles.
The number of service pipes laid during the year was
nine hundred and nine, and their length 31,203 feet.
The whole number of these pipes now laid amounts to
There have been sixty-four cases of repairs made on
the distributing pipes, and one hundred and seventy-three
cases of repairs on the service pipes. The repairs on the
distributing pipes have averaged nearly one case to every
mile and a half of the whole length, and those on the
service pipes to nearly one case to every ninety-five
pipes. The necessity for the repairs on the pipes has
been owing in a great measure to their expansion or
contraction from change of temperature — by which the
lead run into the joints has been caused gradually to
work out and leakage occasioned. The amount of these
repairs has been increasing from year to year, so as to
threaten to be hereafter a cause of very serious expense,
in all the pipes which have been laid until very recent-
ly. An improvement has, however, been lately adopted,
(suggested by similar ones used in Scotland,) in the
mode of casting, by which a groove is sunk in the
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 45
interior of the hubs, into which the lead runs, and
thereby is formed into a bead, by which it is prevented
working backwards and forwards with the expansion or
contraction of the pipes, and it is presumed will, to a
great extent obviate the difficulty in all those which
shall hereafter be laid.
The average daily consumption of water for the last
three years is estimated to have been as follows :
For 1849, . - - - 3,680,000 gallons.
" 1850, -' ■■ - - 5,837,883 "
" 1851, - . . . 6,883,782 «
Being for the last year over forty-nine gallons daily to
every individual in a population of 140,000. The
greatest monthly consumption took place in June, and
amounted to 7,924,971 gallons daily average, or more
than fifty-six gallons to every individual. The least
consumption was in April, and amounted to 4,950,000
gallons daily, or over thirty-five gallons to each indi-
vidual. The number of water-takers at the beginning
of the year 1849 was 5,200 ; at the end of the same
year, 12,108; in 1850 it was 13,463, and in 1851,
16,076. Supposing each to represent a family of seven
individuals, and taking the mean number between those
who took it at the beginning and those at the termina-
tion of the several years, the quantity to each individual,
In 1849 was 60.91 gallons.
In 1850 "--.-- 63.23 "
In 1851 " 66.58 "
The consumption on some days also far exceeded the
averages before stated. July 4th it was estimated to be
10,537,000. And for several days in September it
was more than 11,000,000.*
* Since this report has been in the press, the daily average of one week, in
January, was 10,850,563 gallons, and on one day it was 12,044,062 gallons.
46 WATER. [Jan.
The average for the year is more than double the
quantity what was originally estimated to be a sufficient
supply, for all the wants of the present number of in-
habitants in the city. Indeed, it is nearly equal to the
quantity which it w^as supposed would be required for
a population of two hundred and fifty thousand, and on
some days it has far exceeded even that amount.
Were this large quantity, wanted or used for any
necessary or useful purpose, it would not be essential,
perhaps, to call the particular attention of the City
Council to it, but the Water Board are convinced that
much of the consumption is to be attributed to waste-
fulness, which might be easily prevented by a little
caution on the part of those who are chargeable with it.
It was stated in a Report made to the City Council, in
1838, as a reason for considering twenty-eight and one
half gallons as sufficient; that it apeared to be "the
largest quantity furnished to any city which is sub-
ject, for any portion of the year, to the influence of a
cold climate, or where the habits of life are of ' British
origin.' " How far the peculiar habits of life have af-
fected the result, it is impossible to say ; it has become
very obvious, however, that the influence of climate has
been vastly underrated, if indeed it has not been entirely
mistaken ; for it is somewhat uncertain whether it was
meant to be intimated that the consumption would be
increased or diminished by the cold weather. In fact
one great, and perhaps the principal, cause of waste,
which has come to the knowledge of the Board, arises
from the custom which is presumed to prevail very
generally, of letting the water run at night, and some-
times during the day likewise, to prevent its freezing
in the pipes. Now, the waste from this source may be
more or less, without reference at all to the object to be
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 47
attained, the frost can be as effectually prevented by the
continuous circulation of a small quantity of water in the
pipe, as by a large one ; the loss, however, may be a matter
of small importance in one case, but becomes in the
other a very serious evil, calling upon the City Council
to adopt some measures for its prevention. At the re-
quest of the Water Registrar, the Police were directed
by the late Mayor, to report the places where they
should discover that the taps had been left running at
night, and they have accordingly reported upwards of
four hundred cases as coming within their knowledge,
in the course of two or three nights. They were all
cases where the gush of water was heard in the street.
The pipes had therefore probably been left open to the
full extent of their orifice, with reckless disregard of the
entirely unnecessary waste occasioned by it.
There are other sources of waste arising from an im-
provident use of the water for necessary purposes.
Many who pay a certain sum a year for the use of the
hand hose, for a certain portion of the day, appear to
be quite regardless of the extent to which they go, in
the exercise of their privilege. Livery stables, water
closets, and urinals, are also known sources of waste;
the stream in the latter being in many cases permitted to
run continually. It is easier indeed to detect these cases,
than to provide a remedy for them. "With regard, how-
ever, to cases where the taps are left running at night, we
think that the fact of their being heard in the street, is
sufficient evidence that the evil is of sufficient magni-
tude to justify the shutting off the water from the
premises. And, in regard to livery stables and other
places, where large quantities of water are habitually
used, it may be be necessary to attach meters, at the
expense of the occupants ; or so to alter the water rate
48 WATEE. [Jan.
now paid, as to compensate for the whole quantity of
The whole subject is one which the Board would
submit to the serious attention of the City Council.
They fully believe that the quantity which was origi-
nally calculated to be sufficient, is most ample for all
the necessary wants of the inhabitants ; and that about
two thirds of all that is now used, is absolutely wasted.
If, however, this waste continues to increase as it has
heretofore done, it is apparent that our present means
of supply will be insufficient, and it may be necessary
to add still more to the water debt, by laying an addi-
tional main to the Receiving Reservoir in Brookline.
The Supply of water in the Lake, the past year, has
much exceeded the quantity anticipated at the com-
mencement of the works. This has been partly owing
to the greater fall of rain, than that which formed the
basis of the calculation originally, and partly to the
Lake having received a greater proportion of the rain-
fall, than the ratio which had been assumed. The an-
nual rain-fall was estimated at thirty inches, and four
tenths of that quantity assumed as the ratio which
would be realized, which (the area of drainage being
496,584,000 square feet) would give 496,584,000 cu-
bic feet. The largest estimate of the rain-fall this
year, is that returned by the Superintendent of Hopkin-
ton Reservoir, viz., very nearly forty-four inches, (43.97)
four tenths of which would be nearly 728,323,200 cu-
bic feet, or 5,462,424,000 gallons.
But the quantity absolutely wasted at the Lake and
which never entered the Aqueduct, was (as estimated by
measurements taken on the 14 feet gauge below the outlet
dam) 4,891,312,480 gallons, which, added to 2,512,580,-
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 49
430, the quantity used in the city, during the year, will
make 7,403,892,910 gallons. The proportion this year
collected, must, therefore, have been equal to -fifty-four
per cent, of the whole rain-fall on the water shed. The
probability however is, that any assumed ratio of the
rain-fall, to the quantity collected, must be, in all cases,
extremely arbitrary and uncertain, and that the propor-
tion may depend, not only on the soil and sub-soil
of the area of drainage, by which a greater or less"
quantity is saved from evaporation and percolation,
but also on the quantity falling, the state of the
atmosphere, with regard to moisture or dryness, the
prevalent winds, or currents of air, and, perhaps, other
circumstances with which we are unacquainted.
The lowest point to which the water fell in the Lake,
the present year, was 4 feet 1 inch above the flume, or
3 feet 1 1 inches below high water mark, which was on
the 18th October. The quantity of water then left in
the Lake, above low water mark, was estimated at
632,164,500 gallons. From that time it has continued
rising, and on the 31st December, it was within 7K
inches of high water mark. The quantity wasted
from the Lake, during the year, was 4,892,472,480, or
nearly twice the quantity estimated to have been used
in the city.
By the returns from the Hopkinton and Marlboro
Reservoirs, it appears that the water at the former was
at its lo^^'est point, on the 6th October ; when there
were left 4 feet 2K inches. The quantity previously
stored up, which was discharged from that Reservoir,
from the 17th of June to 24th October, was 1,023,904,-
600 gallons. The Marlboro Reservoir was exhausted
about the 2d October. The discharge from it from
50 WATER. [Jan.
June 1st to October 1st, was 1,100,554,650 gallons.
Making a total from the two, of 2,124,459,250 gallons
contributed to the supply of Concord river, during the
same period that it is estimated 975,028,771 gallons
were consumed in the city.
The natural flow from the Lake, during the dry season,
the past year, is estimated by the City Engineer, at 555,-
763,771 gallons, obtained by deducting from the quantity
consumed in the city during that period, the depression
at the Lake, viz., 28 inches, which is equal to 419,265,-
000 gallons. It is obvious that this estimate is quite
large enough, and that perhaps something might be de-
ducted from it, from the fact that the water used in the
city, did not, all of it, come from the Lake, a part,
although the quantity is entirely uncertain, having
leaked into the aqueduct. According to this estimate,
however, it appears that the natural supply from the
Lake, during the past year, is only a little more than
one fourth the quantity discharged from the Compen-
sating Eeservoirs, and a little more than one half of
what was discharged from the Marlboro.
To this time, therefore, we think there can be no
pretence that the Middlesex Canal, or Mill privileges
on Concord river, have been injured by diverting the
water of the Lake ; we' believe, on the contrary, they
have been thus far greatly benefited ; and that the
supply which they have received during the past dry
season from the Marlboro Reservoir alone, is an ample
compensation for all they have lost from the Lake.
The water on Concord river, was below the crest of
the Dam, at Billerica Mills, from the 1st of July, to the
24th of October.
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 51
It has been stated previously, that the whole quantity
of land, purchased and held by the city, round the mar-
gin of the lake, and adjoining the same, was
643 acres, 2 qrs. 2.61 rods.
Near Saxonville, connected
with the Mill privileges of
Mr. Knight, - - 38 " 3 " 29 "
Along the line of aqueduct, 305 " *' 08 "
Near Brookline Reservoir, 34 '* 3 " 17 "
Making a total of 1022 1 16.61
In 1850, (Oct. 15) the late Water Board reported to
the City Council a schedule of lands, which might be
disposed of by the city around the Lake, — -in and near
Saxonville, — and along the line of the Aqueduct, begin-
ning at Lake Cochituate, and ending at the Brookline
Heservoir. They did not, however, recommend a public
sale of these lands, but thought it would be much bet-
ter to keep them a few years longer ; unless they could
be disposed of at private sale to the abutters, who could
afford to give, in most cases, much higher prices for
them than could be obtained, if they were forced into
the market. The late Water Board also reported an
estimate of the value of these lands, they stated, how-
ever, that if sold at auction, they might not bring
^3 0,000. The aggregates of the schedules is as fol-
lows, viz : —
1. Around the Lake, 36 parcels, containing 208| acres. Value, 8,660
2. In and near Saxonyille, 5 " " 35 " " 5,000
3. Along the Aqueduct, 48 " « 133| " " 24,350
Whole amount, 89 " " 377| " " $38,010
In the above estimate of land along the Aqueduct,
52 WATER. [Jan,
is included a small quantity near the Eeservoir, viz.,
5 parcels, containing about 2 acres, valued at ^1,800.
The Board consider the foregoing schedule, as far as
it describes the particular parcels of land which may
be disposed of without injury to the works, as judicious,
and a sufficient guide for their action. They are afraid,
however, that the valuation attached to them is more
than there is any immediate prospect of having real-
ized. They have received but very few applications for
any of them, and the prices offered have invariably
been much less than the value stated in the schedule.
It has been, and will continue to be, however, the wish
and intention of the Board, to dispose of all the lands
and other property of the city, connected with the water
works, which their prudential management does not
require them to retain. A portion of these estates are
rented, generally for small amounts, to tenants at will.
The income which the city derives from this source, is
therefore but small. The whole amount of rent receiv-
able from all this property, including that in Hopkin-
ton and Marlboro, is twelve hundred and ninety-two
The Board also transmit to the City Council, the re-
port of the Water Registrar, prepared according to the
provisions of the ordinance.*
The whole number of water takers during the year,
has been sixteen thousand and seventy-six. The num-
ber of cases where the water has been cut oif, is eigh-
teen hundred and thirteen. There have been no abate-
ments. And the expenditures in his department have
been eighteen hundred and eighty dollars and twelve
* See Appendix D.
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 53
There has been an increase in the number of water
takers over last year, of 2,613.
The total amount received for water rates has been.
For water used during 1850, - $353,33
" " " '^ 1851, - 160,946,39
Received for letting on water, . _ - 1 019.00
The whole amount received to Jan., 1851, - |97,943.14
Being a gain in the rates for the year, - - 63,003.25
The report of the "Water Registrar likewise contains
a list of the different water tenants, and the amount of
water rate paid by each respectively, from which a con-
densed statement has been prepared, and it appears
that the amount received from the different classes of
water tenants, has been as follows : ■ —
12,343 Dwelling houses, including boarding
houses, ---_-. 106,067.35
2,345 Stores, shops, offices, cellars, - - 12,187.17
263 Hotels, restorators, saloons, - - 6,528.29
298 Stables, -..-.- 5,905.09
8 Railroads, . - - . , 4,903.11
13 Steam boats, - - - - - 1,690.02
Manufacturing purposes, - - - 11,068.83
53 Sugar refineries, breweries, distilleries,
and bakeries, „ - - - 3,458.35
Public buildings, charitable institu-
tions, &.C., „ - „ - - 1,261.33
1 Motive power, - . . » 546.79
54 WATEK. [Jan.
Shipping contract with watermen, - 1,84437
1036 Hose, 3,121.00
Other purposes, _ - - _ 2,364.74
The Board annex to this report an account of all the
receipts and expenditures of the past year.*
The whole amount expended was - - $144,814.87
From which, deducting payments for unfin-
ished work of 1850, unsettled claims for land
and other damages, by statement an-
nexed, - . _ - 37,587.01
Amount paid for Jamaica pond, 45,217.50 82,804.51
Balance charged to current expenses, - - $62,010.36
The whole amount of receipts was.
For rents, ----- 980.86
For old materials, &c., - - 6,318.78 7,299.64
By the 14th sec. of the Act of 1846, the City Coun-
cil were authorised to issue scrip, or certificates of debt,
to meet all payments of interest^ which may accrue upon
any scrip by them issued; provided^ however, that no
scrip or certificates should be thus issued after the ex-
piration of two years from the completion of the aque-
ducts and other works. It seemed to be the duty of
the Water Board, therefore, to ascertain the time of the
completion of the works, and to give due information
to the City Council, for its guidance in reference to any
action on the subject. An examination was accordingly
* See Appendix, E.
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 55
had of the progress which had been made, and the
Board being convinced that the whole would be com-
pleted by the 30th of April following, an order was
passed (March 26th,) that the construction account of
the water works be closed on the 30th of April, (then
next ensuing,) and the works be then considered as
finished, and all expenditures, made after that time, be
charged to the current expenses of the year. In ac-
cordance with the foregoing order therefore, the account
before stated includes, among the current expenses, all
that has been paid during the year, for the extension of
the works ; and also for the alterations made in the
Brookline and East Boston Reservoirs, and which may
be in fact considered as the completion of those works ;
and deducting those payments, the amount would be as
follows : —
Amount charged to current expenses
Paid on account of extension of works, during
the year, viz :
Distributing pipes, - - -,
Service pipes, - _ - -
Hydrants, . - ^ .
Stop-cocks, _ _ _ _
Air-cocks, _ _ _ _
Labor on the above, in the black-
smith and plumbing shop, and
proving yard,- _ - _
East Boston Reservoir,
Leaving a balance of - - $28,772.41
As the current expenses of the works for the past year,
56 WATER. [Jan.
The valuation of the pipes and other Stock on hand, in
and connected with the pipe yard,
January 1, 1851, was, - - • - - - $29,703.79
January 1, 1852, --_.-. 22,249.76
Making a difference of - - - - |7,454.03
Which is to be charged, partly to extension and repairs of
the works, during the year and partly to old materials sold
and accounted for, in the previous statement, and to depreci-
ation in value.
A description has already been given of Jamaica
Pond, and the property connected with it.
By the 20th sec. of the Water Act of 1846, the city
was authorised to purchase and hold all the property
of the Aqueduct Corporation, and to connect the same
with their other works. And by the ordinance estab-
lishing this Board, this power was expressly and uncon-
ditionally vested in it. It became its duty, therefore, to
judge of the necessity of exercising the power; and it
was made responsible for not making the purchase, if,
upon a careful examination of the subject, it thought
that the public interest required it. Nor was there
any thing in the ordinance, which required that the
Board should refer its action to the sanction of the
City Council. With a view to what the Board believed
to be the interest of the city, and after due consideration,
and every effort to obtain a just estimate of the value
of the property, it was decided to purchase, and to offer
the sum of forty-five thousand dollars for it. The offer
was accepted by the corporation, and the property con-
veyed to the city.
The reasons which influenced the Board, were fully
stated in a communication made to the City Council at
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 57
the time. They consisted, — in the actual gain which
would be made, of a large number of takers of Cochit-
uate water in this city and in Koxbury, — in relieving
the city from all claims for which it was held liable by
the Aqueduct Corporation — in the annulling the privi-
lege which they possessed, of breaking up and injuring
the streets, whenever and wherever they saw fit, —
in the securing to the city the entire control of the sup-
ply of water to the inhabitants, relieved from the mis-
chief which might arise from competition with a rival
corporation, — and in the intrinsic value of the property.
The present number of water takers in Eoxbury is
35, paying, by virtue of agreements made with the late
Aqueduct Corporation, ^1,111.60 a year. The num-
ber of takers of Cochituate water, who formerly took
that from Jamaica pond, and who would have continued
to take it, if the city had not purchased it, is, as re-
turned by the Water Registrar, 500, paying an average
water rate of at least eight dollars each. Since the
purchase by the city, the water has been shut off in
Tremont street, near the city line. There have been
many applications for the water in Eoxbury, which at
present it does not seem expedient to grant. Under
their act of incorporation, the late corporation were au-
thorised to sell the water to parties in Roxbury ; but
were not authorised to take up the streets, except for
the purpose of bringing fresh water into Boston. No
new line of mains can therefore now be laid, for appli-
cants off the present route. The Board have caused
some inquiries to be made of owners and tenants, in
the low portion of Roxbury, in relation to their desire
to take the water, and it is believed an income of ^4000
a year might be derived from that source. The cost of
supplying the inhabitants of that part of Roxbury,
58 WATER. [Jan.
cannot be accurately stated, without a survey and care-
ful estimates, which have not yet been made. The
Board would, however, suggest respectfully to the City
Council, that it will be necessary to apply to the Leg-
islature for power to undertake the measure, if the
Council should hereafter consider it proper and advisa-
The Board are happy to state, in concluding their
report; that the large amount of claims for land taken
for purposes of the Aqueduct, and for damage to land
and water rights, which were left unsettled by the form-
er Board, are nearly all adjusted. By reference to the
statement of expenditures, it will be seen, that the
amount paid during the year past has been $24,960.57.
The demands made, in many of these cases, appeared so
extravagant to those who were authorized to settle
them, that no amicable arrangement could be effected;
and in some, it was deemed advisable to appeal from the
award of the Court's Commissioners, for the purpose of
having the questions decided by the verdict of juries.
We fear however that but little has been gained to the
City by this course. The damages awarded by those
tribunals having been, in all the cases, still more exces-
sive. The case of Charlotte Harbach and others, in
which the Water Commissioners reported that " they
had ordered an appeal from the award of the Court's
Commissioners, on the ground that, the amount award-
ed of $7,700, is far greater than the actual damage
sustained," has, during the past year been determined,
and the jury have increased those damages to $10,479.94
and costs, and even their being still further increased
$3291.00 depends on the Supreme Court's decision of a .
question of law which has been reserved. The dam-
age in this case and others, in the vicinity of the New-
1852.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 6. 59
ton Tunnel, some of which have been settled by the
Board, as also the expenditure involved in the estab-
lishment of the Newton Aqueduct, have been the remote
consequences of the construction of the Tunnel, not
anticipated at the time. It was not calculated that the
City would be held liable in damages, exceeding twenty
thousand dollars, as has been the case, for injuries done
to four or five estates, by being exhausted of their
springs of water, even to a great distance from the
tunnel, which was sunk more than seventy feet be-
neath the surface of the ground. The demands now
unsettled are comparatively of much less consequence,
and it is hoped that the whole will be closed during the
year. The claim of the Proprietors of Mill privileges
on Concord Hiver, arising out of the diminution of their
supply of water from the Lake, now in course of litiga-
tion, is of the most importance. All the latter claims
have hitherto been, as we think, amply provided for,
by the supply which the City has afforded from other
sources ; and we trust that an arrangement, mutually
acceptable to all parties, may soon be made, by which
that supply may be made permanent, and all the ques-
tions now at issue be finally disposed of.
The Water Board annex to their report a map of the
whole line of the aqueduct ; and a general map showing
the relative positions of the compensating reservoirs,
and the course of the Concord River to the Merrimac.
Also, plans of the high service in the city, and of the
elevation of the door sills, cisterns and points of deliv-
ery of the several dwellings in it. The latter have
been taken, from a survey which has recently been
made, with reference to alterations which have been
proposed in the Beacon Hill Reservoir ; for the purpose
of remedying, if possible, the deficiency which has been
60 WATER. [Jan.
experienced in the supply of water to the most elevated
portions of the city — none of which alterations, however,
have hitherto been adopted.
The foregoing report is respectfully submitted.
THOMAS WETMORE, President
HENRY B. ROGERS,
JAMES W. SEVER,
SAMUEL A. ELIOT,
JOHN H. WILKINS,
JOHN T. HEARD,
Cochituate Water Board.
It has been thought that a record of the past proceedings of the
Citj government on the subject of the introduction of water for the
use of the citizens, might be interesting and useful ; it has there-
fore been prepared and is here annexed to the Report of the
The first act of the Municipal government of Boston, in relation
to the subject, took place in 1825. Professor Daniel Treadwell^
was then commissioned by the Mayor to ascertain the practicabili-
ty of supplying the City with water for domestic uses, extinguishing
fires and general purposes. Professor Treadwell estimated the
population of the City to be 60,000, collected into 8,000 families,
and that 1,180,000 gallons would be the maximum for daily con-
sumption ; but making the necessary allowance for the increase of
the City, within a few years, that the supply ought not to be less than
1,600,000 gallons. He did not take into this account, however,
the supply required for extinguishing fires ; but recommended " that
in such an emergency, the use of the water for most other purposes
should be forbidden." With regard to the source, in the neighbor-
hood, from which 1,600,000 gallons or more, daily, could be obtain-
ed, he recommended Charles River, above the falls at Watertown,
and Spot Pond in Stoneham, as possessing advantages over all others.
And he estimated the cost of bringing the water from Charles
River, at $252,777, and from Spot Pond, at from $296,288 to
$363,404, according to which of two routes, which he designates,
should be taken. The cost of reservoirs and distribution, he esti-
mated at $262,066, supposing that the pipes should be carried
through all the streets mentioned in Hale's map ; which would be
116,190 feet, or nearly 22 miles.
In March, 1833, the Mayor was directed by the City Council,
to apply to the Legislature for a grant of the necessary power to
bring in water. The application was made however so late in the
session, that notliing could then be done, and it was therefore re-
ferred to the next General Court.
In 1834, a new commission was appointed by the City govern-
ment, and Col. Loammi Baldwin was selected to make a further
survey and examination of all the sources, from which water
could be obtained. Col. Baldwin made a minute examination of
the subject, and presented his report in October, 1834. After de-
scribing the ancient and modern aqueducts, pumps and artesian
wells in Europe, and the aqueducts in this country, and the num-
ber of wells and character of the water taken from them in the
City, he described the Ponds in the neighborhood, and finally re-
commended, as most eligible, Farm and Shahum Ponds in Fram-
ingham, together with incidental sources dependent upon them,
and Long Pond in Natick. He considered the capacity of the
former as equal to 555,794 gallons daily, and the latter to be
equal to 16,156,800 gallons daily, at the time of the measure-
ments ; and estimated that the cost of the former would not exceed
^750,000, by which a copious supply of 5,000,000 gallons might
be brought in, but did not include in it the cost of distribution. He
thought also, the supply from Long Pond to be quite practicable,
but more expensive than the other, and that it would cost 20 or
30,000 doUars more. And he described the line of an aqueduct
from Farm Pond, which he considered to be the best upon the
whole, that he had been able to discover. Col. Baldwin also annexed
to his report, a statement of the capacity of Jamaica Pond, which
has been referred to in this report, and gave it as his opinion, that
more than ten times the quantity of water might be distributed in
the town of Boston from this source, than had hitherto been used.
In 1836, Mr, R. H. Eddy, Civil Engineer, at the request of
the Mayor, examined the subject and recommended Spot and
Mystic ponds as sources of supply. He estimated the capacity of
the former at from 2| to 3 million gallons daily, and that of the
latter at 12,960,000 gallons daily ; and that the cost of the former
would be $388,747.76, and of the latter, including a conduit of
masonry and steam engines, at $218,130.00. To which latter
sum was to be added from $58,400 to $175,200, as the expense
of supplying from 1 million to 3 million gallons a day by pumping,
which would be necessary, as the pond is about on the level of
high water mark.
August 16, 1836, a general meeting was held at Faneuil Hall,
and a vote was passed to introduce water at the expense of the
City, to appoint a permanent board of Commissioners for the pur-
pose, and to apply to the Legislature for the necessary power.
In 1837, a new Commission was appointed, consisting oiPa^iiel
Treadwell, James F. Baldwin, and Nathan Hale, to examine the
sources, and the best means of introducing and distributing a sup-
ply of water. The subject was carefully attended to, and they
made their report in November following. In estimating the
quantity which would be necessary, they referred to the consump-
tion of other places as a guide. They state that in 1833, in Lon-
don, the quantity supplied was 187 imperial gallons to each tenant
daily ; and in Philadelphia, 160 beer gallons to each tenant, includ-
ing water used for fires, watering streets, and all other purposes.
In 1831, the actual supply to an inhabitant in London, was 27|
wine gallons ; and in Philadelphia, in 1836, it was 28|- wine gallons.
They considered 28|- gallons, therefore, as sufficient for each inhab-
itant — 'That in five years there would be a population of 87,000,
requiring therefore 2| millions daily. And that there would be at
the end of ten years 105,000, requiring 3 million gallons daily.
They thought it expedient therefore, to provide accordingly in
their designs for the works. A majority of the Commission recom-
mended that the supply should be drawn from Spot and Mystic
Ponds, which in their opinion would be ample not only for the
present, but " for an extended period in the future." Mr. Bald-
win, however, dissented and recommended Long Pond, which the
Commissioners had carefully measured, and thought might be made
to supply 8,743,680 gallons daily through the year. The cost of
delivering the supply upon Beacon Hill, without distribution, was
From Mystic Pond, $869,860
Spot and Mystic Ponds, ... - 850,006
Long Pond, - - - - - _ - 1,118,294
And the cost of distribution including reservoirs on Beacon Hill
and Fort Hill, and the pipes laid for distribution in the streets,
nearly 67^ miles, $657,554.
The same year, Messrs. Treadwell and Sale, at the request of
the City Council, revised their report, and again reported an adher-
ence to their former opinion, and Mr. Baldwin also adhered to his.
The same year, a public meeting of the citizens was held and a
vote was passed, that it was expedient for the City to provide a
supply of water at the pubUc expense. Yeas, 2541, Nays, 1621,
and that it was expedient to begin the work " next year," if leave
be granted, Yeas, 2507, Nays, 1652.
April 6, 1838, the City Council ordered an application to be
made to the Legislature for leave to bring the supply either from
Long Pond or Mystic and Spot Ponds, This application was ac-
cordingly made, but it was so late in the session, that nothing
could be done and it was referred to the next year.
In 1839, (January 10,) the Mayor presented the petition
again, and a bill conformable thereto was reported ; but sundry in-
habitants of Boston, together with the proprietors of the Middle-
sex canal and several towns, having remonstrated against it, the
bill was recommitted, and underwent a long hearing before a joint
special Committee, who finally reported, in April, a resolve author-
izing the Governor to appoint three Commissioners to report all the
facts and information relating to the subject.
In August^ 1844, the City Council appointed another Board of
Commissioners, " to report the best mode and the expense of bring-
ing the water of Long Pond into the City." The Board consisted
of Patrick T. Jackson, Nathan Sale, and James F, Baldwin.
They made their report November 9th, following. They assumed
that the quantity to be brought in, should be a sufficient supply
for a population of 250,000, which they expected would be double
the population which would be in the City, when the works would
be completed. They also agreed with the former Commissioners,
that 28|- wine gallons for each inhabitant would be sufficient, and
therefore that a population of 250,000 would require 7,125,000
gallons a day, which would be equal, very nearly, to a regular flow
of eleven cubic feet a second. A measurement was accordingly
made at the Pond ; and combining their own observations with
those of the Board of 1837, they stated it to be their opinion, that
it might be relied on, by means of a dam and gates, for retaining
such a quantity of water as would ensure the requisite supply
during the year. For the purpose of conducting the water, they
recommended the construction of a brick aqueduct, similar in every
respect to the one since built, and a reservoir at Corey's HiU in
Brighton ; and they calculated that the aqueduct with an inclina-
tion of 3 inches in a mile, and filled to a depth of 3 feet 10 inches,
would be sufficient for a flow of eleven cubic feet a second, or a
little more than 7 millions gallons every 24 hours. It has since
been proved by experience that the aqueduct is sufficient to ad-
mit the flow of more than 10 million gallons. They also recom-
mended the construction of three or four reservoirs of moderate
dimensions, on Beacon Sill, Fort Sill, Copp's Sill and Dorchester
Seights ; and they estimated that the cost of the whole would be
In the same year, Se2)t. Zd, a general meeting was held at
Faneuil Hall, and continued by adjournment to the evenings of
Sept. 4th, Oct. 1st, Nov. 14th— 26th, and Dec. 3d ; and after the
whole subject had been fully discussed, a resolution was adopted,
instructing the Mayor and Aldermen to submit the propositions, for
introducing water from Long Pond at the expense of the City, and
for an application to the Legislature, — to the legal voters at the en-
suing municipal election. This was accordingly done, and a vote
was passed at that election in favor of the project — Yeas, 6260,
Nays, 2204, and in favor of applying to the Legislature for the
requisite poAvers ; Yeas, 1252 ; Nays, 2207. An application was
accordingly made in behalf of the City Council at the ensuing
session, and in 1845, the act was passed (Mar. 25.) It likewise
authorized the City Council to adopt Charles River as tlie source
if it saw fit. It contained some provisions, particularly those re-
lating to the powers to be given to the Board of Commissioners,
which caused it to be rejected by the people, when submitted to
them for their assent, on the 19th of May, by a vote of 3670
yeas, to 3999 nays.
In the same year, an application was made by the proprietors
of Spot Pond, to sell that pond to the City. It was thereupon
deemed expedient by the City Council, that a Board of Commis-
sioners should be appointed, whose opinions should be entirely un-
biassed by any of the preceding transactions, who should be able to
take up the whole subject apart, and examine it by themselves.
Messrs. John B. Jervis, of New York, and Walter R. Johnson, of
Philadelphia, were a<3cordingly appointed Commissioners, to exam-
ine the sources from which a supply of pure water could be ob-
tained. Their report was dated Nov. 25th. They made a careful
survey anew of Spot Pond, Charles River, and Long Pond, and
reported the result very much in detail, giving the preference
to the latter. They estimated the cost, including land and water
rights, 1,846,599 dollars, exclusive of distribution.
The plan of the aqueduct proposed by them, did not vary essen-
tially from that of the former Board of Commissioners.
In 1846, March 30, the Act now in force, was passed, and ac-
cepted by the legal voters, April 13, by a vote of 4637 yeas, to
1846, May 4. Nathan Sale, James F. Baldwin, and Thomas
B. Curtis, were elected by the City Council, Water Commission-
ers, under the provisions of the Act. These Commissioners held
their first meeting, May 5th, and appointed John B. Jervis, of
New York, consulting engineer. They afterwards divided the
works into the Western and Eastern Departments, and appointed
B. Sylvester Cheshrough, Chief Engineer of the former, and
William S. Whitivell, of the latter. The works were immediately
commenced and finished under the same direction ; excepting the
part connected with East Boston, which was not finished until
August 20, 1846. The ground was first broken for the Aque-
duct at the Lake, in presence of the City Council and others.
The first shovel-full of earth was thrown by Josiah Qiiincy, Jr.,
the Mayor of the City, and the second by John Quincy Adams,
late President of' the United States ; and on the same day, the
name of the Long Pond was changed to Lake Cochituate.
The term of office of the Water Commissioners being limited to
three years, by the Act, it accordingly expired May 4, 1849.
And the City Council, by virtue of powers contained in the Act,
extended the time eight months longer. They made their final
report, Jan. 4, 1860.
In 1850, all the " rights, power and authority," given to the
City by the Act, were vested in the CocJiituate Water Board,
consisting of a Commissioner, an Engineer, and a Water Regis-
trar ; subject to the direction of a Joint Standing Committee of
the City Council, by an ordinance passed Dec. 31, 1849, which
was limited to continue m force one year.
The same year, the supply of water to East Boston was com-
In 1851, the present CocJiituate Water Board was estabhshed,
and all the powers which the City Council derived from the Acts
of the Legislature on the subject, as far as the same could be
delegated, were vested in it, by ordinance, Oct. 30, 1850 ; sub-
ject to the ordinances of the Council.
Rules and Regulations of the Cochituate Water Board.
There shall be a stated meeting of the Board every Wednesday
at 11 o'clock, A. M., for the transaction of such business as maj
come before it.
A majority of the Board shall constitute a quorum.
All meetings shall be notified by the Clerk, by leaving a •vyritten
or printed notification at the place of abode of the several mem-
There shall be a meeting on a day subsequent to the 20th of
every month, for the examination of such bills and accounts, as it
may be necessary to report to the City Auditor.
All bills and accounts against the City, authorized by this Board,
shall be entered by the Clerk in a monthly draft, which shall be
presented to the Board at the said monthly meetings, and vfhich
after being signed by the President, shall be delivered to the
Auditor ; — and no bill or account, shall be approved by the Board
unless it is so entered.
If however the Clerk shall doubt as to the correctness of any
bill or account, he shall not enter the same in the said draft, until
he shall have exhibited the same to the Beard, with his objections,
at their next monthly meeting, for their final decision.
And no bill or account shall be entered in the monthly draft un-
less it be dehvered to the Clerk before the 20th day of that month.
The Clerk of the Board shall be chosen by ballot, and hold his
office during the pleasure of the Board. He shall give his whole
time to the service of the Board, attend all its meetings, and keep
fair records of all its proceedings. He shall be entrusted with all
the books, plans, papers, and documents, and be responsible for
It shall be his duty to keep in a neat and methodical style, a .
complete set of books, wherein shall be entered a full and accurate
statement of all the receipts and expenditures of the Board ; to re-
ceive all bills and accounts against the City, for work or labor done,
or materials furnished pursuant to orders of the Board, examine
them in detail and cast them up, and enter the same in the books.
He shall prepare a monthly draft and enter in the same a cor-
rect schedule of all bills and accounts to be presented at the
monthly meetings of the Board. And shall be duly sworn to the
faithful performance of the duties of his office.
He shall notify the meetings of the Board, and perform such
further services as may be required by the Board, or the Presi-
dent of the same.
The City Engineer shall, mider this Board, be the General
Superintendent of the Water Works. He shall take charge of
Lake Cochituate, of the Reservoirs, Aqueducts and Pipes, of all
the lands, and of all the machinery, structures and property con-
nected with the Water Works, subject always however to the
supervision of the President, and to such regulations, directions
and restrictions as this Board may from time to time prescribe.
He shall exercise a general control and oversight over all the
superintendents, agents and other subordinate officers.
He shall diligently attend to the execution of all works to be
hereafter constructed ; and take immediate measures for the repair
of any damage which may happen to the aqueduct, pipes, reser-
voirs, dams, gate-houses, and all other structures or property be-
longing to the Water Works. He shall attend to the sufficiency
of supply in the pipe yard, to meet every casualty.
He shall carefully inspect the aqueduct and other works, from
time to time, in person, with a view to such repairs as may be
He shall direct the discharge of water from all the Reservoirs
and from the Lake ; and shall keep in his office the returns of the
several superintendents in relation to the water levels at the Lake,
and all the Reservoirs, and of Concord River, and of the pipe cham-
bers in Charles River ; and make a report to this Board of all the
said returns, as often as he shall receive the same.
He shall use due dihgence in the preservation and protection
of Lake Cochituate, and of the water in the Lake ; of the reser-
voirs, aqueducts and other property of every description belong-
ing to the Water Works, from injuries and nuisances.
He shall prepare all plans of construction, make all necessary
estimates connected with the works, whether for construction or
repairs, certify all accounts, bills and contracts for materials pur-
chased or labor performed, under his direction ; shall notify the
Board of all the breaches of contract ; shall personally, under the
direction of this Board, supervise and arrange all contracts for
labor to be performed or materials to be purchased ; and be intrust-
ed with the construction of such new works ; and the purchase and
laying down of such mains and pipes, as the Water Board may
from time to time direct.
He shall forthwitL. report to this Board, all cases of unexpected
casualties or damages to the lake, aqueduct or other property ;
and all matters and things which may in any way affect injuriously,
the supply of water in the lake, aqueduct or pipes, which may
come to his knowledge.
The following subordinate officers shall he appointed by the
Water Board ; who shall hold their offices during the pleasure of
the Board, and receive such compensation as the Board may from
time to time deem expedient.
A Superintendent of Lake Cochituate.
" " Brookline Keservoir.
" " Marlboro' Reservoir.
" " Hopkinton Reservoir.
" " Pipe Chambers at Charles River.
" " Concord River.
" " City Reservoirs and Fountains.
" " Iron Aqueducts and Pipe Yard.
A Service Clerk. And such other Clerks as may from time
to time be necessary.
And it shall be the duty of the several subordinate officers,
strictly to observe and to use their best endeavors to enforce all
the rules and regulations of the Water Board, and the orders of
the President of the Board, and of the City Engineer, relating to
the several subjects confided to them respectively.
The Superintendent of Lake Cochituate, shall have the special
charge of the said Lake, and of the lands and property of the City
on the margin of the same, and of the exterior of the aqueduct,
from the lake to the waste-weir at Bedman's Brook in Needham,
including the said waste-weir. It shall be his duty diligently
to attend to the protection of the said aqueduct, waste-weir, and
other property ; to the prevention of all nuisances and trespasses
upon the said lands or the water of the lake, and forthwith to re-
port to the City Engineer, all cases of damage or unexpected
casualties which may happen to the lake, aqueduct, or other pro-
And it shall be his further duty to keep an accurate record of
the water levels at the lake daily, in the morning, at noon, and in
the afternoon ; specifying therein the depth of the water in the
aqueduct, the height of the surface of the lake above Knight's
flume, in the north and south divisions ; the temperature of the
water in the gate house, and of the air in the shade ; the height of
the water on the 14 feet guage below the outlet dam ; and to make
a correct return of the said records to the City Engineer weekly,
and as much offcener as the said Engineer may direct.
And he shall shut down the gate at the lake, upon receiving
notice from the Superintendent of the Brookline Reservoir.
The Superintendent of the Brookhne Reservoir, shall have the
special charge of the same, and of all the structures and other
property of the City connected therewith, — of the interior of the
aqueduct from the reservoir to the lake ; and of the exterior from
the reservoir to the waste-weir at Dedman's Brook, — of the waste-
weir at Wehber's Barn in Brookline, and also of those at Newton
Centre and East Needham.
And it shall be his duty diligently to attend to the protection of
the reservoir, aqueduct, waste-weirs and other structures and
property confided to his charge ; and to the prevention of all
nuisances and trespasses upon the same ; to keep the grounds and
walks around the reservoir in good order, and forthwith report to
the City Engineer all cases of damage or unexpected casualties
upon the said aqueduct, reservoir, or other property.
And it shall be his further duty to keep a correct record of the
water levels at the reservoir daily, in the morning, at noon and
afternoon, specifying therein the depth of the surface of the water
below the top of the dam in the reservoir, also the depth in the
upper gate-house, and the temperature of the water in the gate-
house at eight feet below the surface, and of the air in the shade.
And to return to the City Engineer weekly, and as much oftener
as he may require, a correct copy of the said record.
The Superintendent of the Marlboro' Reservoir, shall have the
special charge of the Compensating Reservoir in Marlboro' and of
all the lands, structures and other property of the City immedi-
ately connected therewith ; and it shall be his duty diligently to
attend to the preservation of the same, and to the prevention of
all trespasses upon the lands and other property, or upon the
waters of the reservoir ; and forthwith to report to the Engineer
all cases of damage or unexpected casualties, which may happen
to the same.
And also, to attend to the Cunningham roads, to examine them
personally, as often as once in each week, and to make such re-
pairs upon the same as may, from time to time be necessary.
And lie shall keep daily, a true record of tlie height of water in
the reservoir, and return a correct statement of the same to the
City Engineer weekly, and as much oftener as he may require.
He shall also, whenever required, take the guage of the water
below the dam, and report the height of the same to the Engineer.
The superintendent of the Compensation Reservoir in Hopkin-
ton, shaU have the special charge of the said reservoir, and of all
the lands, structures and other property of the City connected
therewith ; and it shall be his duty diligently to attend to the care
and preservation of the same, and to the prevention of all tres-
He shall keep a correct record of the height of water in the
reservoir ; taking the measurement of the same every day at noon,
and shall transmit a true copy of the same to the Engineer weekly,
and as often as he may require.
And he shall forthwith report to the Engineer, all cases of dam-
ages and unexpected casualties.
Pvpe Ohamhers, Charles River.
The Superintendent of the Charles River Pipe Chambers, at
Newton Lower Falls, shall have the special charge of the same
and of the waste-cocks, and of all the fixtures and property of
the City connected therewith ; it shall be his duty dihgently to
attend to the same, to remove all obstructions therefrom, and
to ascertain the quantity of water by measuring the depth of
water above the bottom of the aqueduct in the said chambers daily,
and he shall report the same to the City Engineer weekly, and as
often as he may require.
It shall be the duty of the Superintendent of Concord River, to
make and keep a true record of the height of water in Concord
River, by taking daily an accurate measurement of the same at
Billerica Mills, above the crest of the dam ; and he shall transmit
the same to the City Engineer weekly, and as often as he may
require, together with a statement as to whether the Mills are in
operation or not.
City Reservoirs and Fountains.
The Superintendent of the City Reservoirs, and Fountains, shall
have the special charge of the Beacon Hill, South Boston and
East Boston Reservoirs, and of all the Public Fountains in the
City ; and it shall be his duty diligently to attend to the same,
and to protect the same from all trespasses and nuisances. And
he shall measure the quantity of water in the said reservoirs daily,
in the morning, and in the afternoon, and as much oftener as the
City Engineer shall require ; and make a record of the same, and
return the same to the City Engineer daily.
The Superintendent of the Iron Aqueducts, shall have the
charge of all the mains and pipes from Brookline Reservoir to the
City ; and in the streets of the City, including South and East Bos-
ton ; and of the pipe yard. And he shall dihgently attend to the
same, and to all the fixtures and machinery, and other matters and
things belonging to the Water Works in the pipe yard ; and he
shall forthwith in case of accident to the said mains or other pipes,
proceed to repair the same. And it shall be his duty to put in
such service pipes, and lay down such mains and other pipes as
may from time to time be directed ; and to repair all injuries to
the streets and sewers caused by the water works.
He shall keep a true account of the pipes, machinery and other
matters and things in the pipe yard, and give immediate notice to
the City Engineer, of all accidents which may happen to the mains
or pipes, or to any thing connected therewith.
And it shall be the further duty of said Superintendent, when-
ever any part of the streets or highways in the City, or in any
other town or place where any of the pipes or other parts of the
said water works under his care are laid, are in any way obstructed
thereby or rendered dangerous to the public travel, by reason of
any repairs thereon, or for any other cause, to cause a sufficient
fence to be placed where the said obstruction exists, and to keep
the same sufficiently lighted ; and to station a person to guard the
same during the night ; 9.nd to take care that aE the provisions of
the 9th section of the " Ordinance of the City in relation to
streets " are duly observed.
He shall make a full report, weekly, to the City Engineer, of
the work and labor performed, and materials used in his depart-
ment ; and he shall duly return to the said Engineer once in each
quarter, and as much oftener as he may require, a correct state-
ment of the quantity of pipes and other materials in the pipe yard.
It shall be the duty of the Service Clerk to receive all applica-
tions for water to be admitted into, or shut off from, the service
pipes, — and he shall observe all the directions of the President, the
City Engineer or of the Water Eegistrar, in relation to the said ap-
phcations ; and forthwith cause the water to be let on, or shut off
from, any of the service pipes, when so directed by either of them.
He shall keep a true record of all places where the water shall be
shut off. or let on, specifying the time and the reasons therefor,
and shall return a true copy of the said record every week to the
office of the "Water Board.
He shall forthwith pay over to the City Treasurer, all. moneys
which he shall receive for letting on or shutting off the water.
Thomas Wetmore, Esq., President CoeMtuate Water Board;
Sir : — The following report, relating to the general condition
of the Water Works, and other matters of interest connected there-
with, has been prepared in comphance with the 13th Sec. of the
Water Ordinance of Oct. 31st, 1850.
The roads, culverts, walls, and grounds around the Lake are all
in good order, except the culvert at the outlet of Dug Pond, which
has proved defective and needs renewal in part.
The examination of the interior of the aqueduct between Lake
Cochituate and Charles River, which was made in company with
the President and another member of the board, (Mr. Wilkins,)
showed that it was all in good order. No defects different from
those known to exist before, were discovered, except a fine longi-
tudinal crack, along the top of the arch, under the road in East
Needham or Grantville, about 150 feet long.
Between Charles River and the Brookline Reservoir, no new
defects have been discovered during the year. (This part of the
aqueduct was also examined in company with the President of the
Board.) The same difficulties with regard to the clay puddled
embankments, mentioned in the annual report of last year, still
exist. An attempt has been made to repair the aqueduct on the
most troublesome one, at Webber's Barn, by putting in concrete
foundation and backing, for 43 feet, on the east side of the Waste
Weir, and 30 feet on the west side. A very great improvement
has been effected, but as a good deal of water has been allowed
to waste at this point, it is not yet decided whether the aqueduct
has been made perfectly tight or not.
The other defects alluded to, consist of cracks that were dis-
covered before and about the time the aqueduct was completed,
and numerous leaks into the aqueduct. These cracks have been
watched carefully ever since, and are the chief points to which
attention is directed, when the usual semi-annual examinations of
the works are made. Most, if not all of them, have ceased to en-
large, and are generally so fine that a person seeking for them,
but unacquainted with their localities might easily fail to discover
them. The only troublesome ones are those already described as
existing on the clayey embankments.
The leaks into the aqueduct, through the brick-work, were not
near so strong as they were at the examinations in 1850, especially
on the part near Lake Cochituate, where by far the greatest num-
ber exists. This difference was probably owing to the dryness of
the season, which influences very much the amount of leakage into
the aqueduct, especially into the tunnels. As no evil has yet re-
sulted from these leaks, farther than the large sums the City has
had to pay in the form of damages, for draining neighboring wells,
and as the water they bring into the aqueduct is pure and cool,
and 'paidfor, they may be looked upon as a benefit ; for other
cities have built and are proposing to build aqueducts to collect
water in the same way, in order to get it purer than they could
in any other manner. The high puddled embankment at Ware's
Valley just west of Charles River, stands remarkably well, and in
common with all others made of gravel and sand, will probably
never give any trouble from settling.
The Cochituate Dam, the Grate Mouse at the LaTce, and all the
structures along the line, are in good order. They were built in
a very permanent manner, and promise to answer the purpose for
which they were intended.
The Broohline Reservoir,
This reservoir has received considerable attention, as being of
great importance in the particular management of the Water
Works, and of considerable attraction to the public generally.
The grounds around the reservoir, are believed to be in better
order than they ever were before. The inside slope wall has been
raised about two feet higher, perpendicularly, by a single course
of granite flagging, which has added not only very much to its
appearance, but allows the reservoir to be filled with safety about
two feet deeper.
Originally the top-water line of this reservoir was considered as
six feet below the top of the dam, but the inside slope wall was
built so as to admit of the water being raised two and one-half
feet higher. Now it may be raised 4^ feet higher ; but it is not
thought advisable, on account of high winds, to raise it more
than 4 feet ; that is, to 2 feet below the top of the dam. The
importance of raising the wall, is not confined to the appearance
or preservation of the banks of the reservoir ; but, besides sup-
plying water at a higher level in the City, it will be felt in case
of a sudden and serious accident to any part of the brick aque-
duct ; as the City would then have two days more supply on
Beacon Sill Reservoir.
The pointing of this reservoir last year, seems to have put an
effectual stop to all external signs of leakage. Beneath the inte-
rior arches, under the basin, an occasional drop falls, producing
on pebbles, fragments of stone and chips, the effect observed by
all who have noticed the droppings from the roofs of limestone
caverns. The former dampness of these interior arches, has very
In consequence of the very large consumption of water during
very cold as well as in warm weather, it has been found impossible
to keep up the level of the Beacon Hill reservoir, unless a portion
of the service around it was shut off from the rest of the City. To
a limited extent, this has been done, and most of the time the high
service has been well supplied, and no inconvenience has resulted
to other parts of the City. It is impossible to prevent at all
times however, a loss of water from the highest cisterns that are
generally supplied, on Beacon Hill ; for whenever it is necessary
to examine or repair the brick aqueduct or the large iron pipes,
the surface of the water in this reservoir must fall below its usual
South Boston Reservoir.
The water in this reservoir has not stood so high, by from 1 to
4 feet usually, as it has in the Beacon HiE Reservoir. As no
practical evil results from this difference of level, which is owing
to the heavy draft upon the 36 inch main, no means have been
used to prevent it, nor could they be without producing posi-
tive evils elsewhere ; unless a separate line of pipes were laid
down from the Brookline to this reservoir. A small leak from
this reservoir has existed ever since it was completed. In conse-
quence of grading the street around Telegraph Hill last autumn,
this leak has appeared to increase, but in amount, it is of no im-
portance ; in looks however, it is quite objectionable, and may
easily be remedied next spring.
East Boston Reservoir.
Water was let into this reservoir for the first time on the first
day of Jan. 1851 ; and after it was filled to a depth of more than
14 feet, it began to leak. At first it was feared that the bank
might give way and the water was drained off ; but after several
cautious trials of refilling and emptjnng again, it was found that the
rate of leakage continued about the same, and appeared to be ow-
ing, in a great measure, to the undisturbed natural soil, in the
bottom and sides of the reservoir, not being as impervious as was
Late in the autumn, the inside slope walls of this reservoir were
pointed, and the bottom plastered with cement ; but it was too
late in the season to make a perfect job of it. As soon as the
frost leaves the ground in the spring, we expect to make it tight.
In the meantime it answers fuUj the purpose for which it was
intended, and no apprehension of difficulty from it is felt.
The iron pipes leading from the Brookline Reservoir to the
reservoirs in the City proper. South Boston, and East Boston, to-
gether with the distributing pipes through every part of the
City are, it is believed, in good condition.
The boxing and pile work across Charles and Mystic rivers,
have received no injury, except in two instances from the shocks
of vessels which have broken two or three of the guard timbers.
The inverted syphon nearest Chelsea, has settled a little, and
caused two leaks in a joint near by, but the cost of repairing it
was only a few dollars.
The 20 inch flexible pipe across the channel of Chelsea creek
after a trial of one year, during which it has been exposed to set-
tling, and the changes of temperature in the water, appears to be
perfect. This pipe is different in the construction of its joints,
and larger in size, it is believed, than any other flexible pipe in the
The whole amount of pipes laid up to the present time will be
found in the following statement,
Statement of the length of different sizes of pipes laid, and stop
cocks imt in, to Jan. 1st, 1852.
DIAMETERS IN INCHES.
Eeet of pipes 1
laid in Brook-
line, Eoxbury }-
No. of stop ^
cocks in the >
Eeet of pipes ^
laid in and >
for S. Boston )
No. of stop 1^
cocks in do, J
Eeet of pipes ')
laid in and for >
East Boston. )
No. of stop \
cocks in do. )
Eeet of pipe in ')
Newton and >
Lengtli of (
or 100 miles
and 456 ft.
Number of \
stop cocks. )
To the above aggregate lengtli of pipes, should be added the
hydrant branches and bends. As there are 1133 of these, and
they average 16 feet in length, their total length would be 18,128
feet, or 3 miles 2288 feet, making the whole length of pipes 4 in.
and upwards in diameter, laid down in and for all parts of the
City of Boston, a small fraction over 1031 miles.
200 feet from
ft.fr. Centre St.
oj c3 -
c3 - -
03 •^ O
O O -1
■^ in to (N c>j
O r-) O tH (M
00 CO (M
o r^ CO
CO to »n
XI 00 CTi O 1^
i-i to «o
(M Cq (N (N (N
. ■ • -w
. . . . ^
■ fc ^ o
■2 .-"» a
CO o) & a
r3 O ^ ^ O
^ a g^^^
' ^ o
^ - s
"^^ s g g
53 § O .cS
■.^ S rf .- ;-!
tic and H
t^E" ^0 ^
c; Ji^os ti tu
P S-i -w
3 ^J3^ a
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d a a SfLo
M tn pq fq fL^
■*^ . o
o ^ ^^ £ - s s
,• in to o -3
jJ . <^
. side of Sixt
at Fourth streei
t Dorchester sti
t 20 ft. from A
at Dorchester s
r waste pipe
^ -t^ « «cc ■=*
eS cS o3 OS ^ in
« - - .s .s - - -
in C5 in CO 00 t^
00 -< ^
i-H GO <N r^ in »n
in in 05 1~~* ^ o^ >— 1 1~~*
in CO th
05 i-l (N 00 r-l rt
■^1-1 o in r-i CO o
O to CD O O O
^ TT ^ Tr ^ ^ ^i* ^
I I t I I s>a I I
' ' ' ■ "^ ' ' '
and Seventh, -
Dorchester to Ei
B., - ■
aurth and L. -
orchester and F,
, and B,
. and Dorchester,
orchester and G.,
orchester and F.,
elegraph and Eighth,
ates and Dorchester,
ction of New,
ck and Decatur,
m a •.-<
g g S pR h O
Pq P <! H P P Eh O
1 I 1 I 1 • I ■
. . .
I I I • • •
■ I I
o p <; o CO CO H
to t^ Tit
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o o eo
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■* »n in
CO ■* l-H
O o OS
The whole number of Service Pipes is 16,049, and they are
mostly of lead f inch in diameter, a few of the same metal are |
inch, and fewer still 1 inch : these are introduced only when large
quantities of water are used. About 2500 of the service pipes
are of cast iron, 1| and 2 inches diameter ; but it is a source
of regret that any have ever been laid, as they are much more
troublesome to keep in repair, and discolor the water more than
of Service Pipes laid in 1851.
Each service pipe, laid in 1851, is famished with a stop-cock, of corresponding
size, at the junction with the distributing pipe.
These are all in good order, as far as can be ascertained. They
require much attention to keep them in good working condition,
and are of great importance in allowing repairs to be made in
small districts, without interfering with general supply of the
whole city. The large stop-cocks, the 36 and 30 inch ones in
particular, are sources of peculiar anxiety, as they are so heavy,
and subjected to such enormous strains, that they are very Hable
to get out of repair, unless managed with great care. The two 36
inch stop-cocks on Tremont street, at the head of Dover street,
have been taken out to be repaired, and new ones put in their
places. This work was dreaded for a long time, and put off for
more than a year, in consequence of a supposed necessity of keep-
ing the 36 inch main closed for two and perhaps three days. In
order to shorten this time as much as possible, the 20 inch main
through Dover street, was connected with the 12 inch pipe in
Harrison avenue, and this again was laid across the Worcester rail-
road bridge, to connect with the 12 inch pipe on the north side,
thus allowing, by means of two additional stop-cocks and a short
extra 12 incli side pipe at tlie intersection of Dover street and
Harrison avenue, the City proper, to be connected at pleasure
with the South Boston Reservoir, even if the connection with the
36 inch main in Tremont street should be cut off. After taking
this precaution, and filling up the Beacon Hill and South Boston
Reservoirs as much as possible, the work was commenced. By
taking out one stop-cock at a time, and by the repairers working
four days with only twelve hours rest in the whole time, the old
stop-cocks were both taken out, and the new ones put in. After
the first one was put in, the water was let on and the reservoirs
filled before the second was commenced, so that scarcely any in-
convenience was felt by the tenants on the high service, though
they were notified before the first stop-cock was commenced, to
expect a temporary loss of water.
When these stop-cocks were renewed, they were put in horizon-
tally and fitted with bevel-geer to adapt them to this purpose.
The horizontal position is found to be the only safe one in New
York, and experience here teaches that whenever the old large
stop-cocks have to be taken out for repairs, they had better be
altered so as to fit them for the horizontal position.
The taking out of the stop-cocks at Dover street, led to the
discovery of an unusual amount of accretion on the inside of the
large pipes, much more than has been discovered as yet in any of
the smaller distributing pipes. Prof. Horsford of Cambridge, was
requested to examine the interior of the pipes and stop-cocks at
the time, and was so much interested, as to make very minute in-
vestigations of the substance collected in them, the results of which
will no doubt be communicated to you.
During the year, 11 new hydrants were established in the City
proper, 11 in South Boston, and 47 in East Boston. Altogether
there have been established up to the present time-"^
In Boston proper, _______ 811
" South Boston, - 175
" East Boston, -_.--,_ 124
" Brookline, _______ \
" Roxbury, -------- 4
" Charlestown, ------- 11
" Chelsea, -------- 7
Ten of these arc at the public institutions at South Boston.
By comparing this statement, with the one made in the Annual
Report of the Cochituate Water Board for 1850, it will be seen
that tlie number of hydrants was then stated at 1,005, too small
by 59. The discrepancy is owing partly to those at the public in-
stitutions at South Boston not being included then, and partly to
the assistant who took off the number from the plans, not knowiag
all the alterations and omissions that had been made. The pres-
ent enumeration has been made with a great deal of care by two
persons, one of whom has a particular knowledge of about every
hydrant in the City. A similar observation should be made rela-
tive to the length of pipes laid.
The great importance of these hydrants in cases of fire, now
that so much dependence is placed upon them, renders it absolutely
necessary to spare no pains to keep them constantly in order.
Though some of them, which have been estabhshed more than
three years, have never been used in extinguishing fires, they are
all examined at least twice a year. After every fire, all the hy-
drants used are examined and put in order, if at all injured.
Before very cold weather sets in, they are packed around with
salt meadow hay, which is removed in the spring. This precau-
tion, together with that of providing wastes to prevent any water
from standing in the hydrants above the valves, when they are
not in use, has proved sufficient to prevent freezing in almost
In a few instances, where hydrants are peculiarly exposed, they
have been known to freeze, and as far as practicable, such changes
have been made as to remedy this difficulty, but where this could
not be done, they are frequently examined during very cold weather
and ice kept from forming in them. Notwithstanding every pre-
caution hitherto taken, however, a hydrant will occasionally be
found out of order, when most needed. In most cases this has
been owing to the street watermen, putting them out of order, and
failing to report having done so. As the hydrants are generally
but from 250 to 300 feet apart all over the city, it is seldom a
serious matter, if one should be out of order when a fire occurs.
Repairs of Pipes.
During the year 1851, the following leaks occurred, and were
Diameter of Pipes in inches.
Of the leaks that occurred in pipes 4 inches and upwards in di-
ameter, 2 were caused bj flaws in the castings ; 2, (one 30
inch, and one 20 inch,) were cracked, probably by carelessness in
unloading, after they had been proved ; 4 by freezing ; 8 by set-
tling of earth, and 48 by expansion and contraction, produced by
change of temperature, which caused the lead in the joints to
work out. Total, 64, or 1 in every li miles nearly.
Of the leaks that occurred in service pipes, 79 were caused by
fl.aws or defects, (43 in the pipes, 14 in the stop-cocks, and 22 in
the connections,) 3 by rats gnawing the lead, 10 by injuries pro-
duced by the tenants, 4 by freezing, and 77 by the settling of
earth producing fractures, in most cases where the service pipes
enter the walls of houses. Total, 173, or 1 to every 95 service
Complaints have sometimes been made, that sufficient notice of
intention to shut oflf the water to make repairs, was not given. It
should be remembered, that it is not always practicable to give
notice, especially in the case of sudden and serious accidents,
which require the water to be shut off immediately. Whenever the
nature of the case admits of a little delay, if it should be in the day
time, printed notices are left at all the houses to be shut off, so that
the occupants may have time to draw as much as they may wish
to use, till the water is let on again, and for no other purpose.
For this reason, whenever it is necessary to draw off the water for
two or three hours at night, from any portion of the city, no no-
tice is given, as it is presumed that no serious inconvenience will
result from the omission. In some instances, boilers in private
houses have been known to collapse, in consequence of the water
being shut off, and suddenly let on. This could easily be prevent-
ed, either by having a cistern in the house, or a safety valve in
the boiler, and as everything inside of the houses, in the arrange-
ment and construction of the water apparatus, is done without any
reference whatever to the City, the owners or tenants alone, should
be responsible for any defects in their own work.
Stock on hand and Tools.
An account of stock on hand Jan. 1, 1852, will be found in the
statement below. The rule is, not to have less on hand than one
spare pipe, branch or stop-cock, of every size and pattern ; and as
far as practicable to keep two. Some patterns are very rarely
needed, and it is not necessary to keep more than one to spare ;
of others that are used quite often, a much larger number is kept
The accommodations and conveniences of the Pipe Yard, are
sufficient for the storage of as many pipes, branches, stop-cocks
and hydrants as are likely to be needed ordinarily, and to do all the
mechanical work indispensable to the immediate laying down and
repairing of the pipes, &c. ; but the manufacture of all articles
used, is done elsewhere. In consequence of the limited size of
the yard, most of the large pipes and branches are kept under the
Beacon Hill Reservoir and in South Boston.
If some alterations were made at the pipe yard, and a turning
lathe purchased, at an expense for the whole not exceeding $1000,
the repairing and fitting up of many articles which have now to be
sent to machine shops in South Boston, or other parts of the City,
might be done at the pipe yard for less money, and the expense
of sending back and forth, saved.
Statement of Pipes and other stock on hand, exclusive of Ey-
drants and Tools, January 1st, 1852.
Diameters in inches.
No. of pipes,
3 Way Branches,
4 Way Branches,
Lead pipe— 84 feet, of 2 inch ; 228 feet, of 1 inch ; 33 feet, of Ij inch ; 50 feet,
of J inch; 86 feet, of f inch.
Block tin pipe — 74 feet, of f inch.
For service pipes — 561 square boxes ; 26 T boxes ; 51 long boxes ; 65 tubes ;
3 flanges, with tubes : 144 1 inch couplings ; 42 | inch couplings ; 224 f inch
flange cocks; 23 finch flange cocks; 25 1 inch flange couplings; 175 |inch
Pig lead, 29,640 lbs.— Gasket, 350 lbs.
10 Wilmarth pattern,
4 Ballard Vale pattern,
19 Lowell pattern,
1 Hooper pattern, J
1 6 Kingston pattern, to be altered.
For Hydrants, W bends — 20 pieces for lengthening, rendered necessary by rais-
ing grades of streets; 16 nipples, 3 frames and covers; 30 self-acting wastes; 15
spare screws, for Lowell patterns ; 23 of 1^ inch cocks, for wharf hydrants.
Besides the foregoing stock, there is at the pipe yard a seven
horse steam engine used at the Newton tunnel. Also two proving
presses, and as large a number of tools, of various sorts, valued
at about $500, as are suflficient to carry on the operations essen-
tial to extending and repairing pipes.
Consumption of Water hy the City.
As there is no division in the Brookline Reservoir, and no water-
metre there yet, it is impossible to tell with a great degree of ac-
curacy, what the daily consumption of water by the City has been.
Quite frequently however, opportunities have been afforded of
measuring the consumption with sufficient accuracy ; that is,
when no water was let into the reservoir from the aqueduct, and
the City was supplied from the Brookline Reservoir. The results
obtained in this way, have been used as checks upon the estimates
in the following table :
Daily average number of wine gallons, drawn from the Brookline
Average for the y<
Note. The observations for February and April, 1849, were too imperfect to
base an estimate upon. The month of August was very wet. In the summers of
1849 and 1850, a great deal of water was used in flushing out the common sewers,
and for the public fountains. In June, 1851, unusual waste was made in the city
to keep the Brookline Keservoir down. In December, the same year, the exces-
sive cold caused a great deal of water to be wasted to prevent pipes in houses
The standard of measure adopted on the Boston Water Works,
is not precisely the wine gallon, but is exactly tivo fifteenths of a
cubic foot, so that in order to reduce the gallons in the foregoing
statement to cubic feet, it is only necessary to divide by 1\. It
is to be regretted that there is not some common unit of measure
on all the Water Works throughout our country ; as it is. New
York has adopted the Imperial gallon, Philadelphia, the Ale gal-
lon, and Boston, the Wine gallon.
The foregoing table has been prepared with a great deal of
labor, and although not to be considered as perfectly accurate, is
believed to approximate very closely to the truth. If it were not
for the irregularity in the aqueduct, caused by the Newton and
Brookline tunnels, and the varying quantity of water which pours
into the tunnels, from their tops and sides, it would be possible to
make a very close estimate of the amount consumed, a record of
the daily observed depths of water in the aqueduct, at the east end
of the pipes across the Charles River, and at the Brookline Res^
ervoir having been kept.
The rapid increase in the rate of consumption suggests that it
will not be many years in reaching the extent of the estimated re-
liable capacity of the Lake ; and the experience of the past year,
is a warning not to expect more from Lake Cochituate, with the
present means of storage, than an average of 10,000,000 gallons
daily throughout the year. If the enormous waste which now takes
place could be prevented, all thoughts of adding to the present
capacity of the Lake, might be suffered to rest for many years to
come. As it is, however, such a question is likely to be forced
upon your consideration in a short time.
The Hopkinton and the Marlboro' reservoirs are both in good
order, so far as regards the dams and fixtures for regulating the
discharge of water from them. The buildings that were purchas-
ed with the former, especially the IMiEs, are fast going to decay in
consequence of being unoccupied.
The Cunningham roads, which cross the Marlboro' Reservoir,
have been complained of by the town as not being wide enough,
and not built of suitable materials. They have been kept in a
safe condition however, and are to be made conformable to the
understanding with the town in other respects, in the spring, in
accordance with the instructions of the Board.
The estimated quantity discharged from the Hopkinton Reser-
voir between the 17th of June, and the 31st of October, 1851, is
1,023,904,600 wine gallons, and the discharge from the Marlboro'
Eeservoir from the 30th of June to the 31st of October, 1851,
was 1,100,554,650 gaUons ; making a total of 2,124,459,250
During the longest period mentioned, the estimated consump-
tion bj the City, was 975,028,771 ; but this consumption lowered
the surface of Lake Cochituate 28 inches, which for an area of
550 acres, would equal 419,265,000 gallons ; leaving as the
natural supply of the Lake during this period only 555,763,771
gallons, in addition to what was actually allowed to flow through
the natural outlet ; or but little more than one fourth of what was
discharged from the Compensating reservoirs for the benefit of the
Middlesex Canal, and Mill owners on the Concord River.
Observations with rain gauges have been made at three differ-
ent points for the Board, viz. : for one year at the Hopkinton
Reservoir, and a few months at the Marlboro' Reservoir, and at
As the quantity of rain that may be expected to fall, is so im-
portant an element in all calculations of future probable supply, it
has been thought advisable to take considerable trouble to collect
and preserve for future reference the following statistics. They
are the result of many years observations, and have been kindly
furnished, mostly by the gentlemen who have made them, and
whose names are mentioned over the heads of each set of obser-
vations. ^ Jk^/4.^
The annual quantities^or 34 years in Boston, 27 years in
Waltham and Lowell, 20 years in Providence, and 10 years in
Cambridge are given ; and the monthly quantities are given for
10 years in Boston, Cambridge, Waltham and Lowell, and 1 year
in Hopkinton. The importance of the monthly gaugings will
appear, when it is considered that the quantity of water which
Lake Cochituate may supply to the City, with the present means
of storage, wiU depend, not so much upon the annual depth of
rain, as upon the quantity falling during the months of June,
July, August, September and October. For this reason a table
has been prepared, showing the amount of rain during those
months for a number of years, and at several points in this
vicinity. The gaugings for the warm season are much more re-
liable than those made in the winter, as will be evident from a
careful inspection of the tables of the monthly quantities.
Annual Fall of Rain at ,
^veral places, in Boston and Vicinity.
J. P. Hall.
B. M. Co.
Amount of Rain during the months of June, July, Augusty
September and October, from 1818 to 1851 inclusive, It^ i^^^^C^
— r 3
Monthly Fall of Rain at Camhridge.
BY PROF. W, C. BOND.
Monthly Fall of Rain at Waltham^ ^^^ ^^
BT DR. EBENEZER HOBBS.
BY ALBERT WOOD.
I 3.851 2.08| 7.60 I 4.18| 2.46| 2.47| I.61I 2.55| 7.021 5.65 I 2.64| 43.97
Complaints of Bad Water.
Last Spring, principallj in the months of April and May, there
was a very general complaint of the water tasting badly ; and in
many instances, though not so generally, the smell was considered
had. This subject received immediate attention, and every thing
was done that was thought judicious, to discover and remedy the
evil. The principal measure that was resorted to, was a thorough
flushing of the pipes all over the city, by passing through them as
rapid a current as it was possible to produce by opening hydrants
and waste cocks. In some particular cases, after every thing had
been done that could be thought of with the main and distributing
pipes, the evil complained of was not removed. In almost every
instance of this kind, the trouble was at last traced to filters that
had become filled with decayed animal matter.
The probability is that one great cause of complaint in the
spring is owing to the change of temperature in the water, caus-
ing it to have a flatter taste. During the winter the temperature
of the water in the pipes is seldom more than 4 or 5 degrees above
the freezing point, and the change which takes place in this respect
in the spring is very great. Lest, however, the difficulty should
be owing to collections of offensive matter in the pipes during the
whiter, it is intended to commence the general flushing, or " blow-
ing off," a month earlier this year than the last, that is, the last of
March instead of the last of April.
At the ends of courts and of some streets, where the pipes termi-
nate without being connected in both directions with the general
circulation and form "dead ends," the "blowing off" system
has to be practised frequently, about once in ten days throughout
the year, otherwise complaints of bad water are made. Small
fish have sometimes got into the service pipes and died there, giv-
ing to the water of the houses to which the pipes belonged, a bad
taste and smell. This was more frequently the case in the spring,
just after the strainers in the Brookline Gate House had got out
of order. Great pains are taken to prevent this, and only two in-
stances of fish getting into service pipes are known to have taken
place since last spring.
During the year 1851, the following surveys were made by
order of the Board, viz :
1st. Of that portion of the City, included in the " High Service "
on Beacon Hill. The object of this survey was to aid in deter-
mining upon some permanent plan by which, if possible, to pre-
vent the level of the water in the Beacon Hill Reservoir from
being drawn down so much as it frequently is, when a large quan-
tity is consumed by the City, and at the same time, not to confine
the use of the 30 inch main to the high service alone.
2d. Of the line of the proposed pipe for supplying the public
institutions on Deer Island.
3d. Of the property of the City, connected with the Hopkinton
Reservoir. The results of this survey are not quite ready to be
The surveys ordered by the Board for the purpose of ascertain-
ing the probable cost of supplying a portion of Roxbury, and the
houses on the Mill Dam, with Jamaica Pond water, have not been
commenced yet ; but are to be shortly,
Visit to other Water Works.
A visit was made in company with the President and another
member of the Board to the Water Works of New York, Phila-
delphia and Baltimore, with the hope of obtaining information
that might lead to greater economy in the extension and repairs
of the Boston Water Works. The result of this visit was very
satisfactory, as showing that no very important improvements in
those cities had been overlooked here. In the matter of stop-
cocks and stop-cock and hydrant boxes, some hints were obtained
which may prove valuable.
Lands belonging to the Water Works.
These with a few buildings upon them, are in as good condition
as could be expected, considering that there are in almost every
town mischievous persons who take pleasure in destroying the
property of a city or large corporation. But few depredations
have been committed; and in one case, the offenders have been
traced out already.
As all the expenditures connected with the Water Works, for
which the City Engineer, who is not a disbursing agent, is in any
way responsible, have been minutely kept account of by the Clerk
of the Board, any statement of these expenditures, from the for-
mer, could not add to the information already in your possession.
Which is respectfully submitted,
E. S. CHESBBOUGH, Cit^ Engineer.
Boston, Jan. 1852.
WATER registrar's OFFICE, BOSTON, JANUARY IST, 1852.
Thomas Wetmore, Esq.,
President of the Cochituate Water Board.
In accordance with the 16th Section of the Ordinance
providing for the care and management of the Boston Water
Works, passed October 31st, 1850, the following Report is
The number of Cochituate Water takers at the present
time, is 16,076, being an increase since December 5th, 1850,
The total number of cases where the water has been shut
off during the year 1851, is 1813. Of these, 1029 were for
repairs ; 784 were for non-payment of water rates.
The whole number of cases where the water has been let
on during the year, is 3,540. Of these, 922 were cases which
had been previously shut off for repairs ; 558 were those
which had been shut off for non-payment of water rates, and
2,060 were let on for the first time.
Repairs have been made upon the service-pipes, streets,
sidewalks, dc-c, in 396 instances.
There have been no abatemefits made during the year.
The total amount received from December
31st, 1850, to January 1st, 1852, for water
rates, is $161,299.72
Of the above, there was received for water
used during the year 1850, the sum of f 353.33
Leaving the receipts for water used
during the year 1851, - - 160,946.39
Total amount, - - - - 161,299.72
In addition to the above, there has been re-
ceived, for letting on water, in cases where it
had been shut off for non-payment of water
rates, - - -- - - - - 1,018.00
A detailed statement of the receipts for the year 1851, is
included in this report.
The amount of assessments already made, for
the year 1852, is . - . _ _ |156,479.30
This amount during the year, will probably
be increased to at least - ^ - ^ 175,000.00
The expenditures in my department during
the year 1851, have been, - - _ _ 1,880.12
The items of this expenditure are as follows, viz :
Paid Wm. F. Davis, for services as clerk, - 631.75
Chas. L. Bancroft, " « » . _ 567.75
John H. Eastburn, for printing - - 209.34
Samuel Huse, for work on meters, &c., - 185.13
Eayrs & Fairbanks, books and stationery, 100.62
George W. Hunkins, distributing bills, - 36.00
Francis A. Bacon, " " - 36.00
John H. Colby, " " - 24.00
Edwin Fish, " " - 16.25
Wm. B. Rowland, for services, - - 28.00
J. A. Richards, for travelling expenses, - 21.00
Healey &> Spaulding, for horse hire, - 20.00
Stephen Smith, for desks for office, * 10.00
Stephen Maddox, for washing towels, - 3.28
Tyler & Blanchard, for advertising in East
Boston Ledger, ----- 1.00
Amount, - - . - $1,880.12
By the purchase of the Jamaica Pond Aqueduct in April
last, the City secured 35 water takers in Roxbury, exclusive
of those given in the foregoing statements. About this time
the main pipe of this Aqueduct burst near the Roxbury line,
and has not since been repaired. This circumstance, has in-
creased the number of Cochituate Water takers in the City,
about 500. These are included in the 2613, above enumer-
Statement shoiving the numler of Mouses, Stores, Steam En-
gines, ^e., in the City of Boston, supplied ivith Gochituate Water
to the first of January, 1852, loith the amount of Water Rates
paid for 1851.
990 Dwelling Houses,
1608 Amounts carried forward, 8,587.00 106,067.30
1608 Amounts brought forward, $8,587.00 106,067.30
4 Stores, 15.00 60.00
177 " 671.45
58 Market Stalls,
J li ii
59 Amounts carried forward, 298.00 118,536.56
69 Amounts brought forward,
5 Market, 10.00
1 " 75.00
1 Packing House, 8.00
31 Cellars, 5.00
1 " 6.00
6 " 8.00
1 Hotel, 338.50
1 " 330.46
1 '' 351.00
1 " 192.00
1 '' 187.50
1 " 163.50
1 " 162.00
1 " 151.50
1 " 139.50
1 " 138.00
1 " 135.00
1 « 127.50
1 " 123.00
1 " 120.00
1 " 97.50
1 " 90.00
1 " 85.50
1 " 79.50
1 " 78.00 •
2 " 73.50
2 " 72.00
1 « 69.00
1 " 67.50
2 '^ 66.00
1 " 64.50
I '• 61.50
4 " 60.00
1 " 58.50
1 " 52.00
1 " 42.00
36 Amounts carried forward, 4,167.96 119,195.80
Amount carried forward,
Amount brought forward, $125,724.09
1 Custom House, 150.00 150.00
1 Mass. Gen. Hospital, 125.00 125.00
1 Institution for Blind,
1 Medical College,
1 State House,
1 Eye and Ear Infirmary, 20.00
1 Nat. Hist. Soc. Rooms
1 Tremont Temple,
1 Masonic Temple
Amounts carried forward, 1,042.00 126,434.09
87 Araonnts carried forward, 4,048.76 126,434.09
" ' 121.88
Amounts carried forward, 1,473.50 132,339.18
8 Amounts brought forward,
1 Shop and Engine, 120-00
49 Amounts carried forward 4,308.70 132,339.18
Amounts carried forward,
8 Amounts brought forward,
1 Fac'y and Engine,
1 Foun'y and Engine
1 U ((
\ 11 u
1 " «
1 Sugar Refinery,
J (< u
1 Bathing House,
2 " "
]^ li ((
;]^ a u
2 " «
Amount carried forward,
1 Printing Office,
Amount brought forward,
1 Dye House,
6 Amounts carried forward,
6 Amounts brought forward,
30 Bakery, 5.00
1 Rail Road Co.
][ a u
\ ic ic
1 ii a
\ ii a
1 Freight House,
1 E. Boston Ferry Co. 509.04
Amounts carried forward.
$ 58.50 146,346.71
1 Amounts broug
1 Chelsea Ferry,
1 ■ "
Contractors for sup-
1 Rolling Mill,
Prop's Bost. Trav.
Bost. Gas Light Co.
Watering Ships, (fcc
Amount of Wat<
Which is respectfully submitted,
J. AYERY RICHARDS,
Statement of all Expenditures made hy the OocMtuate Water
Board, from January \st, 1851, to January Ist, 1852.
Blacksmith Shop, for Stock,
Plumbing " "
Proving Yard, '*
" S. Boston,
« E. "
Wagon hire, for Superintendent,
Salaries and Wages,
Office Expenses, for rent, furniture, &c.,
Recording Deeds, &c..
Taxes, - - -
Oil and Wicking, -
Beacon Hill Reservoir,
South Boston "
East « «
Brick Aqueduct Repairs
Lake Cochituate, -
Tolls and Ferriages,
" " Boston,
Amount carried forward, $32,570.63
Amount brought forward.
Service Pipe, S. Boston,
a a ^ a
" " Boston, -
a ii g_ a
a li J]^ a
Hydrants, _ . -
« *' Boston,
•' " S. "
CC ii J] ii
" « Boston,
a E. '<
" Cock Boxes,
" « « Boston,
" " South "
Laying Water Pipes, Boston,
(( ti ii g ((
" Service " "
Packing, - . -
Union Stop Cocks,
Repairing Streets, Boston,
a a g_ ((
H ii E. "
" Water Pipes,
" Stop Cocks,
« " Cock Boxes,
" Hydrant Boxes,
Engine, Boilers, &c.,
Rents, - - - -
Covering Water Pipes, E. Boston,
Land and Water Rights,
Amounts carried forward.
Amount brought forward,
Water Works, W. Division, - - 945.00
Water Works, E. Boston, - - 3,421.88
" " Boston, - - 761.10
Damages, Boston, _ - _ 1,339.33
" E. " - - - - 810.00
Jamaica Pond Aqueduct, - - 45,237.50
Sam'l Holbrook, (to pay small bills,) 300.00
Gash paid to City Treasurer, - 172.30
Amount paid for Labor, viz : —
Letting on and shut'g off Water, Boston, 1,769.
u ii u a (( (.'
Blowing off Hydrants, Boston,
a u a J7J. "
Laying Water Pipes, "
ii a a g^ a
U CC ii E. "
" Service " "
li ii ii g_ i(
a a a J]. "
Plumbing, " - -
Repairing Streets, Boston,
li a E^ a
" Water Pipes,
" Service "
" Hydrant Boxes,
" Stop Cocks,
" Stop Cock Boxes,
Watchmen, - - -
Hydrants, Boston, -
a E. "
Blowing off Water Pipes,
Stop Cocks, - - -
Amount brought forward, $144,814.87
Marlboro' Reservoir, Rent of Mill, - 150.00
Whitehall, " " " Buildings, 151.79
Rents of house, pasture, &c., in Wayland, 249.33
" '^ houses, land, &c., in Saxonville, 147.94
Land and Water Rights, for stone & bricks, 30.00
Old Materials sold, - - - 2,776.58 3,505.64
Amount drawn for on Oity Treasurer, $141,309.23
Cash paid City Treasurer, viz :
For an old shed and lead pipe, - 50.00
" 6 Oarts and 12 bodies, - - 400.00
" Iron Service pipes, - - 2,000.00
" Rent of house, land, &c., - 181.80
" Iron Service pipes, and old rope, 714.04
" An old building at Saxonville jand
Water tank at E. Boston, - 230.00
" Water Oistern, an old building
and rent of a water privilege
at Saxonville, and for sundry
other articles, - - - 218.16 3,794.00
Statement of Payments made hy tlie Cochituate Water Board,
for completing workleft unfinished in 1850 ; for unsettled claims
for land and other damages, and for Jamaica Pond Aqueduct.
Taxes, for 1850, - - - 303.86
Covering Water Pipes, at E. Boston, 4,015.49
Land Damages, viz :
John Jennings, Execution, - 3,779.42
John W. Harbach, - - - 1,039.67
Aaron D. Weld, - - - 2,578.05
T. W. Slack, . - - - 125.00
Samuel Chandler, Sheriff, costs, 16.00
James Brown, - _ - 100.00
Amount carried forward, $11,957.49
Amount brought forward, $11,957.49
Land and Water Rights, viz :
Charlotte Harbach and others, - 9,520.81
Doct. E. Morse, - - - 455.47
Edward Bradbury, - - - 749.00
Francis Skinner, - . - 6,500.00
Samuel Chandler, Sheriff, costs, 35.45
Henry Richardson, for costs, - 61.70
Water Works, W. Division,
Two Executions, for bricks, &c., 905.00
Water Works, Boston,
John Dorr and others, damages, 200.00
Jamaica Pond Aqueduct, - 45,217.50
Damages, Water Works, E. Boston,
Paid J. D. Turner, for damages, 800.00
Water Works, East Boston,
T. M. Cutter's bill of nails, cord-
age, &c., . - - - 118.78
C. Wooley's bill, for filling over
pipes, - - _ - 543.46
B. Bixby & Co.'s bill, for finish-
ing work over Chelsea creek, 2,186.79
S. Borden, the State Commissioner, 250.00
B. Bradley, for damages, - - 271.80
'' Costs, - - 21.86
Stephen M. Allen, for damages, 500.00
Sundry persons in Brookline,
for damages in 1848, - - 457.34
Beacon Hill Reservoir,
" Painting, &c.,
" Iron Door,
" Stone Work,
Land of A. Maynard,
" '« W. Cox,
Statement of the wliole Expenditures of the Water Commission-
ers and the Water Boards of 1850 and 1851, to Jan. 1, 1852.
Lake Cochituate, - - - _ _
Factories, &.C., on the outlet, _ - _
Lake roads, bridges, swamps, (fcc.
Cochituate Dam, at the outlet, - - -
" Gate House, _ _ _ _
Bridges, Culverts and Waste Weirs on the line
of Aqueduct, _____
Newton Tunnel, (2,410| feet long,)
Brookline " (1,150 " " ) -
Construction of Brick Aqueduct,
Land and land damages, _ - - _
Brookline Gate House, _ _ _ »
" Reservoir, (including land,)
B.Hill " " - -
S. Boston, '' "■ - -
E. " " " - -
Hopkinton '' (Compensating,) -
Marlboro' " "
Boon and Ram's Horn Pond Reservoir, (com-
pensating,) _ _ _ _ _
Engineering expenses on Western Division, -
" " " Eastern "
Water Commissioners' salaries, - - _
Office expenses, including Clerk hire, to Jan.
Distribution, repairs, &c., - - _ -
Miscellaneous expenses, - - - _
Travelling expenses, since Jan. 4, 1850,
Salaries, " " "
Office expenses, rent, furniture, &c. since Jan,
4, 1850, - -
Stationery, - - - - -
Taxes, - - -
Brick Aqueduct, repairs, _ _ _
Damages, other than land, - _ -
Jamaica Pond Aqueduct, _ _ _
Statement of the Expenditures and Ileceipts on account of the
Water Works, to Jan^y Is^, 1852.
The whole amount drawn for by the
Commissioners, - - - - 4,043,718.21
The whole amount drawn for by the
Water Board of 1850, - - 366,163.89
The whole amount drawn for bv the
Water Board of 1851, -' - 141,309.33
Amount paid into City Treasury, by
the Commissioners, - - 47,648.38
Amount paid into City Treasury, by
the Water Board of 1850, - 8,153.52
Amount paid into City Treasury, by
the Water Board of 1851, [in-
cluding $1,438.38, received by
the service clerk, for sundries,
and paid into the City Treas-
ury), - - _ - 5,232.38 61,034.28
Sundry payments made by the
City, - - - . 28,813.64
Discount and interest on loans, - 999,805.64 1,028,619.28
Sundry credits by the City, - 549.11
Amount received for Water rents
&c., . . - . 332,516.09 333,065.20
Making the whole cost of the
Water Works to Jan. 1, 1852, $5,185,711.13
Clerk Cochituate Water Board.
TABLE OF DISTANCES AND LEVELS.
From the Gate House at the Lake to the Waste
Weir at Dedman's Brook — Sec. 3,
Thence to the Waste Weir, in Sec. 6,
Thence, to the Pipe Chamber, West side of
Charles River, - - - - -
Thence, across Charles River, to East Pipe-
Chamber, - - . -
Thence, to the Waste Weir, in Sec. 10, -
Thence, through Newton Tunnel, 2410 feet, to
the Ventilator, - - - - -
Thence, to the Waste Weir, in Sec. 13, -
Thence, through Brookline Tunnel, 1150 feet,
to Brookline Reservoir, _ _ _
Thence, to the Gate House, at the East end of
the Reservoir, -----
Thence, to Dover Street, - - _
Thence, to the Fountain on the Common,
Thence, to Beacon Hill Reservoir,
Thence, to East Boston Reservoir,
From Dover Street to South Boston Reservoir,
From the Lake to E. end of Brookline Reservoir, 15.005 miles.
From Brookline Reservoir, to Fountain on the
Common, - _ _ _ _
From Brookline Reservoir, to Beacon Hill Re-
From Brookline Reservoir to East Boston Re-
From Brookline Reservoir, to South Boston
Reservoir, - _ _ _ -
From Hopkinton Reservoir, along Sudhury
River, to the outlet of the Lake, about
Thence, to the junction of Sudbury River with
the Assahet, about _ - - -
From Marlboro' Reservoir, along the Assahet,
to its junction with the Sudbury, about
Thence, along Cojicord River, to the Mills, at
Billerica, _ _ - _ _
Thence to the Merrimack at Lowell,
Heights of important points above Tide Marsh Level.
Floor of Knight's Flume, . _ -
Low Water Mark, Lake Cochituate, -
High " » " " - .
Bottom of interior of Aqueduct, at Lake Co-
Bottom of interior of Aqueduct at West Pipe
Bottom of interior of Aqueduct at East Pipe
Chamber, - - . -
Bottom of interior of Aqueduct at Brookline
Bottom Brookline Reservoir, - . _
Upper floor of Brookline Gate House,
Low Water Mark, Brookline Reservoir,
Top of Dam of " " - -
Bottom of Beacon Hill Reservoir,
Top " "
Bottom " "
" South Boston
Top " "
Bottom of East Boston
Top " "
State House Floor - - -
Coping of Charlestown Dry Dock,
Waste Weir, -
Page 8, line 5, " 496,845," should be " 496,584."
" 57, " 2, dele " Cochituate.'"
" 64, " 3, fivm the bottom, " 1252," should be " 6,252."
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^ ^ ® I?' t % f
fUxn of B'l^inhtlutn
\| rf.l-fil li^ ai-iln- of llii'
Thr doltfd hjtrs u
frntfri/ to i/hlAtraie thi plan priipvsed fii/
]EiLK"«':ATa(ii)H-s ajf BaixDiR. SiiLiiiia ,
vA Vn^tV nmT^ a -wTMiiar IPtDUBriPS id! B)ElLi3'VS!iBY Ere wver TllIdD itcet
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ahim IPlUDm SHaIRJSIEI iljT/S'JEIi .