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Full text of "Annual report of the Cochituate Water Board"






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J4 16 17 18 

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City Document*— No. 7. 



EEPOET 



COCHITUATE WATER BOARD, 



€ITY COUNCIL OF BOSTON, 



FOR THE YEAH 1852. 




BOSTON: 
18 5 3, 

J. H. EASTBURN, CITY PRINTER. 



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REPORT. 



Office of the Cochituate Water Board, 

Boston, Jan. 15, 1853. 

To the City Council of Boston. 

The Cochituate Water Board respectfully pre- 
sent to the City Council, pursuant to the provisions of 
the Ordinance, their Annual Report for the year 1852, 
containing a statement of the condition of all the 
Water Works, and of the land and other property con- 
nected therewith, and an account of all the Receipts 
and Expenditures during the year. They also transmit 
the Annual Reports of the City Engineer and Water 
Registrar, which have been duly made by those officers 
respectively to the Water Board. They would again 
congratulate the City Council that the general condi- 
tion of the Water Works, and their efficiency in accom- 
plishing the great objects for which they were de- 
signed and executed, have continued to answer the 
most favorable anticipations ; and that the great Reser- 
voir, in Lake Cochituate, has afforded a supply of 
water during the year, amply sufficient for all the 



4 WATER. [Jan. 

wants of the City, and far exceeding the quantity 
originally calculated on. 

The gates at the outlet dam of the Lake were kept 
open until the 31st of March; they were then closed, 
and the water retained for the consumption of the City 
during the remainder of the year. At the time of the 
shutting off there was a depth of 7 feet 4 inches above 
the flume. The water then began to fall and continued 
to do so until the 7th of October, when it was at its 
lowest point, being 4 feet 4 inches above the flume. 
After that it rose gradually till the end of the year. 
On the 31st December it was 5 feet 11 inches deep, or 
130.28 above tide marsh level. 

The rain-fall, as measured by the gauge at the Lake, 
for the year has been 47.93 inches. 

With regard to the particular condition of the vari- 
ous parts of the works, the Water Board would beg 
leave to refer the City Council to the more circumstan- 
tial Report of the City Engineer, herewith transmitted, 
for the most satisfactory information. 

The Brick Aqueduct has been, during the year, 
thoroughly cleansed, and a large quantity of deposit, 
which had been accumulating for some time, has been 
removed; and a thorough repair of the bottom has 
been commenced, and is now going on, for the pur- 
pose of entirely stopping the leaks which have always 
existed, more particularly in parts near the Lake, 
where the conduit, having been laid over quicksands 
and places where the water could not be kept out 
when it was originally constructed, was not therefore, 
after every effort, made tight. The leakage in those 
places has hitherto been deemed a matter of little im- 
portance ; its tendency, however, to impair the founda- 
tion, by forcing the sand into the aqueduct, and also to 
loosen the brick work, and thereby seriously affect the 



1853.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 7. 5 

safety of the structure, make it imperative to delay 
no longer an attempt to permanently and effectually 
prevent it. 

It is proposed in doing this, to make use of Roman 
cement for stopping the fissures, and lining the interior 
as far as the inverted arch, instead of the American 
hydraulic cement which has been used, and so far as 
the work has advanced, the attempt has been quite 
successful. The operation must, however, be a slow 
one, as it will be impossible to shut off the water from 
the Aqueduct except for a few days at a time, and 
even then the quantity in Brookline Reservoir will be 
so much diminished that the loss of head will be, as it 
is now, seriously felt in many parts of the high sendee 
of the City. We regret that the necessity of using the 
foreign hydraulic cement, instead of the American 
which has been hitherto ineffectually tried, will some- 
what increase the cost of the work. 

The several Reservoirs in the City are in a highly 
satisfactory condition. The importance of being able 
to measure accurately the draught of water from the 
Brookline Reservoir, without shutting off the flow into 
it from the brick Aqueduct, has caused some solicitude 
as to the working of the two large metres, placed for 
that purpose, in the pipe chambers of that Reservoir. 
The necessity of making some alterations, and other 
difficulties which were not anticipated, have protracted 
their completion to the present time. They are now, 
however, nearly finished; and it is hoped and expected 
that they will fully answer all the purposes for which 
they have been constructed. The Beacon Hill Reser- 
voir is now completed by the erection of appropriate 
doors to the arches on Derne Street, which are re- 
quired not only for the proper appearance of the struc- 
ture, but also to prevent the recesses of the arches be- 



6 WATER [J 



an. 



coming a nuisance to the neighborhood. Two of the 
arches are now occupied by the Fire Department, and 
that of Sewers and Drains ; and it is hoped that the 
others may be rented, for some of the various uses for 
which they seem to be appropriate. A table showing 
the average monthly depths in that Reservoir the last 
three years, will be found in the City Engineer's Report. 
It will be seen that, owing principally to increased con- 
sumption, the monthly average has been much less for 
each month this year, than it was the last ; and that 
the average for the year has been 2.79 feet less. The 
effect of this has been felt generally over the high 
service. 

The Compensating Reservoirs, at Hopkinton and 
Marlborough, which were purchased and improved for 
the purpose of supplying Concord River with the water 
which had been withdrawn by retaining the natural 
flow of Lake Cochituate, are in good order. The quan- 
tity discharged from the Hopkinton Reservoir, from 
June 13 to November 14, was 912,796,300 gallons; 
and from the Marlborough, between July 14th and 
October 21st, it was 1,052,081,000 gallons — from both, 
1,964,877,300 gallons. By calculation the natural flow 
from the Lake was 735,229,294 gallons during the 
abovementioned periods, being less than one half what 
was discharged from the Reservoirs. And the quantity 
thus discharged during the months of July and August, 
the only months when any scarcity is felt at the Mills 
on the River, was about three and a half times the 
natural supply of the Lake. The Rain-fall during the 
year, at the Marlborough was 46.81 inches, and at the 
Hopkinton, 44.42 inches, as ascertained by rain gauges, 
kept by the Superintendents of each. 

The amount of Distributing Pipes laid during the 
year, of four, six, and twelve inches diameter, is 25,025 
feet ; and 21 Stopcocks have been put in. The whole 



1853.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No 7. 7 

amount of pipes laid, including hydrant branches and 
bends, is nearly 106)4 miles. The whole number of 
Stopcocks, 921. 

The number of Service pipes laid during the year is 
604, or 20,119 feet, the whole number to the present 
time being 16,653. 

The number of Fire Hydrants established during the 
year is 27, and 2 have been discontinued. The whole 
number is now 1158. 

The cases where leaks have occurred and been re- 
paired, were : — In the iron pipes, of 4 inches diameter 
and upwards, 82; the last year, 64. In the service 
and 2 inch pipes, 226 ; the last year, 173. Showing 
an increase in the whole number, of 71. The causes 
of these leaks are stated in the Engineer's Report. 
The most serious leakage which happened was occa- 
sioned by the bursting of the 30 inch main, on the 
Common, in November. We can assign no probable 
cause for that accident, except the injury done to the 
main by the shock which was given by the too quick 
shutting down the gate, when the fountains were first 
played at the inaugural celebration, and which burst 
the same main in several places at the time. The in- 
jury was, however, soon repaired, and little or no 
damage done. 

The amount of Land and other property purchased 
by the late Commissioners for the City, but not requir- 
ed to be held for the use of the water works, continues 
the same as at the time of the last annual Report ; ex- 
cepting, however, two estates in Newton which have 
been sold, the one for five thousand seven hundred dol- 
lars, and the other for two thousand dollars. On both 
there was paid twelve hundred and thirty-five dollars, 
and the balance secured by notes of the purchasers and 
mortgages of each, which are deposited with the City 
Treasurer. An agreement has also been made for the 



8 WATER. [Jan. 

sale of a small lot in Framingham, near the Lake, for 
one thousand dollars, on which one hundred dollars 
has been paid. 

A further progress has been made in adjusting the 
claims for land taken for the purposes of the aqueduct, 
and also for damages to land and water rights ; none 
of those claims of any consequence now remain un- 
settled, except those made by the Proprietors of Mills 
on Concord River and by the Middlesex Canal Cor- 
poration, and those are now in a fair way of being at 
last adjusted. The Supreme Court having decided on 
a question of law raised in the case of Charlotte Har- 
bach and others against the City, as mentioned in 
the last Eeport, that the City took merely an ease- 
ment and not the fee of the land, no farther damages 
are to be paid in that case. 

The Committee on Public Lands of the City Council 
having determined that it was not expedient that any 
part of the Arsenal Estate, on Pleasant Street, should 
be retained for the purposes of the Water Works, the 
Water Board, under special authority given them by 
the Council, proceeded to purchase a piece of land on 
Sea Street, for a Pipe ijard and Repair shop. The lot 
is so peculiarly adapted to these objects, that the Board 
believe the City to be extremely fortunate hi being 
able to obtain it, at the price given. It contains 
about 9,192,^ square feet and cost $1-50 per foot. It 
is as central as any place which could possibly be ob- 
tained, except at a very high cost, and derives great 
advantages from its proximity to the wharves and also 
to South Boston, where much of our castings are 
made. And it is likewise sufficiently large for the 
erection of proper workshops for doing a great deal of 
work which we have been obliged to have done at pri- 
vate shops, at considerable additional expense to the 
City. 



1853.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 7. 9 

The average consumption of water during the year 
has been at the rate of 8,125,060 gallons daily, being 
1,242,060 gallons more than the year previous, and 
about 58 gallons to each inhabitant of the City. 

The quantity thus used and wasted is more than 
double what was originally anticipated to be sufficient 
for our present population, and more, by a million of 
gallons a day, than the quantity supposed to be re- 
quired for a population of 250,000 inhabitants. 

Although the Water Board are apprehensive it may 
be useless to add any thing to what they have fre- 
quently said, on the subject of the unjustifiable waste- 
fulness which such an increasing consumption indi- 
cates, they feel, nevertheless, that their duty requires 
them not to pass it over in silence, in their Annual 
Report ; nor to omit any effort to impress upon the 
public mind, the untoward consequences which must 
inevitably ensue, at no very distant day, unless it can 
be prevented. 

Those consequences were lately stated by the Mayor, 
in his address to the City Council ; and it is of the 
highest importance, to every water taker and tax payer 
in the City, that their truth and certainty should be 
duly appreciated. They will produce the necessity of 
either laying an additional main, to the Brookline 
reservoir, or of stopping the supply which is now af- 
forded to some of the most profitable classes of water 
takers. Each of these alternatives will add no small 
amount to the present taxes of the City, unless indeed 
the present Avater rates should be essentially increased, 
and also by postponing indefinitely the time when we 
can anticipate that the income from the Water Works 
will be sufficient to meet the annual interest and cur- 
rent expenses, will make the cost of the works an ever 
increasing burthen to the City. The Water Board are 



10 WATER. [Jan. 

still of the opinion that the quantity originally con- 
templated is ample for all the necessary or useful 
purposes, for which it could be required ; and that the 
rest of what is now consumed, being more than one 
half, is uselessly wasted. "We would refer to the Report 
of the City Engineer, for some of the sources of this 
waste. They have been stated generally before, and 
indeed we presume them to be obvious to all. There 
can be no doubt that a little care and discretion woidd 
prevent them entirely ; and on that discretion, after all, 
must the principal reliance be placed for remedying 
the evil. 

A recent Ordinance authorizes the Water Board, to 
ascertain, by metres or otherwise, the quantity used in 
any case ; and to establish a proper water rate there- 
for. It is hoped that the exercise of this power will 
enable the Board, to impose some check, on some 
classes of water takers, who as they pay for large 
quantities of water, seem to think that they are not 
obliged to be particularly careful as to their mode of 
using it. It is the intention of the Water Board to 
adopt this system, as soon as is practicable, and to en- 
deavor to fix such a price for the water as to hold out 
an inducement for an economical use of it. An attempt 
will also be made to ascertain specifically the places 
and modes in which the waste now takes place, and to 
apply every means in its power, to prevent or check it. 

The Annual Report of the Water Registrar shows 
that the number of water takers has been 16,862, being 
an increase of 786 over the last Annual Report. 

The number of cases where the water has been cut 
off for repair is 1316, of which 1235 were subsequently 
let on. And the number cut off for non-payment of 
rates was 766, of which 596 were subsequently let on. 

The number of cases let on for the first time, was 771. 
There have been no abatements during the year. The 



1853.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 7. 11 

assessments for the year 1853, already made, are 
$162,993.94. And the Water Registrar estimates that 
the whole amount assessed during the year will be at 
least $190,000. We believe that the whole receipts, 
not including sales of land or other property, will ex- 
ceed $200,000. 

The total amount received for water rates has been : 



For water used during 1850 and 1851, $2,473.84 
" " " " « " 1852, 177,012.41 



$179,486.25 



Received for letting on water, - 991.00 



180.477 25 



13,065 Dwelling houses, including boarding houses, 115,047.55 

2,497 Stores, shops, offices, cellars, &c. - - 13,760.55 

269 Hotels, restaurants, saloons, - 6,554.25 

459 Stables, - - 6,077.15 

8 Railroads, 6,023.57 

15 Steamboats, ------ 11,471.60 

60 Sugar refineries, distilleries, breweries and 

bakeries, - 5,353.86 

1 Motive power, 607.13 

921 Hose, 2,777.00 

2 Ferry Companies, 856.68 

Manufacturing purposes, - 13,004.94 

Shipping contract with watermen, - - 2,507.35 

Public buildings, charitable institutions, &c, - 871.00 

Other purposes, 2,099.78 



177,012.41 
Amount received for water used 1851, - - 160,946.39 






Increase, ____--- 16,066.02 



The amount of assessments for the Jamaica Pond 
water was, 

Amount deducted for various causes, - - 14.42 

" remaining unpaid, - 30.41 

" received, 1375.15 



1415.98 



12 WATER. [Jan. 

The above is included in the general account of the 
"Water Registrar. 

Since the last report, the contract made with the 
Watermen, for the supply of the shipping, has expired 
by its own limitation, and a new one has been made. 

By the former contract, they were to pay 2025 dol- 
lars, annually, for all the water used, and they charged 
from 25 cents to 37^ cents a hogshead. By the new 
agreement the charge is to be 37^ cents for every hun- 
dred gallons and they pay to the City one-third of all 
the gross receipts. Judging from the amount already 
received since the new contract went into operation, 
which was in August last, the City will receive from this 
source upwards of three thousand dollars for the year. 
The new contract was made for the term of one year. 

By the Account of Receipts and Expenditures for 
the year herewith presented, the same appear to have 
been as follows, viz. 

Whole Amount expended - - $91,172.46 
From which deducting — 

Paid for unfinished work of 1850 5,513.20 
" Land and Water rights 7,486.40 
" Extension account - 32,170.45 
" New Pipe yard and Re- 
pair shops - - 15,497.18 
" Work done for the City 799.08 

61,466.31 



Amount of Current expenses 29,706.15 

The whole Amount of Receipts (excepting receipts for 

Water rates) were as follows, viz. 

Received for rents and sundries paid to City Treasurer 

by Amount annexed - - 15,869.12 

" Rents and sundries charged in 

various accounts - - 1,518.26 

17,387.38 

Balance $12,318.77 



1853.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 7. 13 

There is also added a Statement of all the receipts 
and expenditures to January 1, 1853, by which it 
appears that the whole cost of the works to that time 
is #5,370,818.00. 

Among the variety of topics noticed in the Report of 
the Engineer which are well deserving the considera- 
tion of the City Council, there is one, in particular, 
to which we would now call its attention, which we 
consider to be eminently so. We allude to the effects 
which are found to be produced, on the inner surface, 
of all the iron mains and pipes, by the action of the 
water. The attention of the Water Board was attracted 
to the subject, soon after its appointment ; for although 
the pipes had then been in use less than three years, 
those effects are already quite obvious and striking, and 
in fact had been noticed some time previous. They 
have since then been carefully watched, and the valua- 
ble assistance of Professor Horsford has been engaged, 
for the purpose of ascertaining as far as is practicable, 
their origin, their probable progress for the future, and 
the means which might be relied upon, for the purpose 
of preventing, arresting, or retarding them, and thus 
obviating the consequences, which were likely to be 
the result. The two communications of Professor 
Horsford, on the subject, which we beg leave to annex 
to this report, have described with so much minuteness 
and clearness the present appearance and state of the 
interior of the mains and pipes, as does also the report 
of the City Engineer, that it is rendered entirely un- 
necessary for the Board, to repeat the description, and 
they would therefore refer the Council to those commu- 
nications. It is presumed also that the members of the 
Council are generally acquainted with those facts. 
The effects to which we now allude, are the peculiar 



14 WATER. [Jan. 

changes which have been produced on the iron itself; 
and they consist in 

1. The absorption of the iron hi certain places, and 
the formation in its stead of a substance resembling 
plumbago. 

2. The gradual development of local accretions or 
tubercles, in the interior of the pipes, by which the 
flow of water is impeded, and their capacity dimin- 
ished, so that the object for which they were laid be- 
comes imperfectly accomplished, and an apprehension 
is excited that they may be so far closed up as to be 
useless hereafter. 

This subject has received but little scientific investi- 
gation, till within a few years, notwithstanding its very 
obvious importance, and although the evils must have 
existed ever since cast iron has been used for such pur- 
poses. It is one however of no little importance to the 
City, as there is involved in it the question of the 
present and future capacity of all the iron pipes which 
have been or are to be laid, at no small expense, and 
of their consequent adaptation to the purpose for which 
they are used, and also of their ultimate durability. 
The Water Board have therefore thought that it would 
be interesting and useful to lay before the council some- 
what in detail, not only the present condition of the 
pipes belonging to the Water Works of this City, in 
relation to the subject ; but also the result of such in- 
quiries, as they have been able to make, into the extent 
of the same evils in other places, and the efforts which 
have been made to ascertain their nature and origin, 
and to provide a remedy for them, and the success of 
those efforts. 

The first notice taken of this subject which we have 
seen, appears in the transactions of the French Acade- 
my of Sciences, for the year 1836 ( Comptes Rendus, 
v. 3, p. 131. ) It is a note by Mr. Vicat on the sub- 



1853.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 7. 15 

ject of a coating to prevent the development of Tubercu- 
lous accretions, in cast iron pipes for conducting water. 
He states that a report printed at Grenoble, November 
22, 1833, by order of the Municipal Council, called the 
attention of the public, to the rapid, as well as unfore- 
seen, filling up of the large cast iron main, of the 
Chateau & Eau, in that town. The formation of nu- 
merous tubercles, of hydroxide of iron, began to show 
itself shortly after the water was let on, by a percepti- 
ble though slight, diminution of the discharge. The 
development of the accretions however, as was proved 
by many accurate measurements, soon increased so 
much, that the supply of the Chateau, which had been 
in 1826 about 1400 litres (about 370 wine gallons) a 
minute was gradually reduced in 1833 to 720 litres 
(about 190 wine gallons) showing a loss of nearly one 
half. A good deal of alarm was excited by it, and an 
attempt was immediately made, by eminent chemists, 
to ascertain the cause, and reconcile the phenomenon 
with various theories. A commission, consisting of 
Engineers and others, was also appointed which dis- 
cussed at Grenoble, the means of destroying this kind 
of ferruginous vegetation, (as it is called in the report) 
or of arresting its progress. In the meantime new 
measurements indicated, that in less than five years the 
pipes would probably be so obstructed that the water 
would cease to flow through them. Two members of 
the Commission, Messrs. Guemard and Vicat, Engineers 
in chief, being pursuaded that the tubercles were formed 
at the expense of the castings, applied themselves to 
the discovery of some coating, which would be at the 
same time, cheap, indestructible, and capable of pre- 
venting oxydation. After two years of experiments, 
they considered it sufficiently proved, that hydraulic 
cement applied about 2>2 millemetres thick (0.0984 in.) 



16 WATER. [Jan. 

is of all compositions combining facility of application 
and cheapness, that which adheres the best to the cast- 
ing, is the most indestructible, and prevents most effect- 
ually all oxydation, and consequent formation of the 
tubercles. With this composition they recommended 
that the interior of the mains should be washed over, 
by means of a sponge, proportioned in size to the diam- 
eter of the pipe. 

Mr. Vicat also states that, owing to unforeseen 
causes, the tubercles on the grand conduit for supply- 
ing the fountains, appeared to have reached their limit 
of development, as several exact and careful measure- 
ments which had been made in May 1836 left no doubt 
of the fact. He says therefore that it might be affirmed 
they were then stationary. He raises a question how- 
ever as to their continuing so, for the future. 

In the same volume (p. 462) there is an extract of a 
letter from M. Prunelle to M. Arago on the subject of 
the tubercles which had formed in the pipes of the con- 
duit at Vichy. Those pipes, which were gray castings, 
had been laid twenty-six years previous. The quantity 
of water from them had diminished from day to day, and 
among other obstacles to its passage, they at last dis- 
covered tubercles as large as hens' eggs, The water 
passing through them was found not to contain a trace 
of iron. 

And there is also one from Sir John Herschell to 31. 
Arago (p. 506,) which mentions, that pipes for conduct- 
ing water, at the Cape of Good Hope, were affected in 
the same way as those at Grenoble, and that the diffi- 
culty had been remedied by a coating of Roman cement. 

In the transactions of the same Academy for the 
next year, (Comptes Rendus, 1837, v. 4, p. 190,) there 
is a Report from a Committee on a memorial offer- 
ed by M. Ray en, on the subject of local concretions 



1853.] GITY DOCUMENT.— No. 7. 17 

or tubercles, in iron water pipes. The following is the 
result of M. Payen's experiments and reasoning: — 
Waters which have a feeble alkaline reaction, possess 
the property in presence of air and sea salt, of produc- 
ing on wrought or cast iron which they moisten, local 
concretions, which preserve the remainder of the sur- 
face free from all change. And these effects vary ac- 
cording to the proportion of the different salts, the 
breaks of continuity, and the foreign bodies adhering 
to the surface of the metal. That to this cause may be 
attributed the concretions in the pipes at Grenoble, the 
waters at that place having a feeble alkaline reaction, 
owing to the presence of carbonate of lime, and being 
slightly alkaline. And that it may be concluded, that 
wherever there is a want of homogeneity in cast iron 
pipes, which convey water slightly alkaline and saline, 
tubercles will be found at the points where heterogene- 
ity exists. 

An analysis of the accretions gave the following re- 
sults : — 

Protoxide of iron, - - - 0.210 

Peroxide of iron, - 0.582 

Carbonic acid, - - - - 0.050 

Water, 0.145 

Silica, - - - - - 0.013 



1.000 

In 1837 the subject attracted the attention of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science, and 
under its auspices a very elaborate investigation of the 
action of air and water, whether fresh or salt, clear or 
foul, and at various temperatures, upon cast iron, 
wrought iron and steel, was made by Mr. Robert Mal- 
let. Mr. Mallet commenced in 1838, and continued 



18 WATER. [Jan. 

until the year 1843, a very complete course of experi- 
ments on the subject. They were made on eighty-two 
different sorts of iron, (chiefly cast iron,) immersed in 
clear and foul sea water and clear and foul fresh river 
water, for two different periods, the first period occu- 
pying 387 days, and the last 732 days ; and at the end 
of each period the specimens were taken up, carefully 
examined, and weighed. The results of the experi- 
ments, and Mr. Mallet's deductions therefrom, were 
communicated, from time to time, to the association, in 
three reports made by him, which were published in 
the Reports of the Association, for the years 1838, 
1840 and 1843. 

In his first Report, which is devoted to the considera- 
tion of the then existing state of chemical knowledge of 
the subject at large, he remarks, that notwithstanding 
the innumerable uses to which iron had been applied, 
for the purpose of supplying the social wants of man, 
during the preceding half century, yet our information 
on the subject of its durability, and the causes likely 
to impair or promote it, was scarcely more advanced 
than it had been twenty years previously, and that 
while the chemist was not precisely informed as to the 
changes which air and water produce on it, the engi- 
neer was without data to determine what limits the 
corroding action sets to its durability. Nor was it 
known, with certainty, what properties should be 
chosen in wrought or cast iron, that its corrosion might 
be the least possible, under given circumstances. 
Neither was our actual knowledge more advanced as to 
the variable effects of corrosive action, on the same 
iron, of different waters, such as are commonly met 
with, containing their usual mineral ingredients in so- 
lution, (exclusive of the better understood cases of 
mine-waters.) 



1853.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 7. 19 

The investigation was therefore undertaken for the 
purpose of throwing light on these topics, and there 
was of course involved in it a great extent of inquiry 
into the durability of the metal, the forces which were 
likely to impair it, the mode in which these forces 
would act, what would be their results^ and the means 
of arresting their progress. 

The Board can merely state some of the general 
laws regulating the action of fresh water on iron 
pipes which Mr. Mallet considers as previously known 
or established or confirmed by his experiments. 

He found that any sort of iron, cast or wrought, cor- 
rodes, when exposed to the action of water holding air 
in combination, in one or other or some combination of 
the following forms, viz. : 1. Uniformly, or when the 
whole surface of the iron is covered uniformly with a 
coat of rust, requiring to be scraped off, and leaving a 
smooth red surface after it. 2. Uniformly with plum- 
bago, where the surface as before uniformly corroded, 
is found in some places covered with plumbagenous 
matter, leaving a piebald surface of red and black after 
it. 3. Locally, or only rusted in some places and free 
from rust in others, 4. Locally pitted, where the sur- 
face is left as in the last case, but the metal is found 
unequally removed to a greater or less depth. 5. Tu- 
bercular, when the whole of the rust which has taken 
place at every point of the specimen has been trans- 
ferred to one or more particular points of its: surface, 
and has there formed large projecting tubercles leaving 
the rest bare. 

The great elements of difference of corrosion as re- 
spects the iron itself appears to be : 

1. The degree of homogeneity of substance of the 
metal, and especially of its surface. 



20 WATER. [Jan. 

2. The degree of density of the metal, and state of 
its crystalline arrangement. 

3. The amount of uncombined carbon or suspended 
graphite contained in the iron. 

And therefore that the more homogeneous, — the 
denser, harder, and closer grained — and the less graph- 
itic, — the smaller is the index of corrosion. 

In fresh water combined with air corrosion proceeds 
fastest in water from 175° to 190° Farhr. 

And it is in direct ratio with the volume of air, — 

And ceases entirely in water deprived of air. 

Fresh water may hold so much combined air, (not to 
speak of carbonic acid), as to act more rapidly than 
sea water. Carbon as it is known exists in iron as 
diffused graphite in a crystalline form, and as combined 
carbon ; the dark gray and softer irons contain more 
of the former ; the lighter and harder irons more of 
the latter. Now the latter kind have the property of 
being much less uniform or homogeneous, of surface, 
when cast under similar conditions, than the former ; 
while the highly graphitic irons, though more uniform, 
in large specimens, are the least dense and softest hi tex- 
ture ; — hence the bright gray irons of high commercial 
marks, the Nos. 1 and 2, while they are the most valua- 
ble for construction, are also the most durable. And 
in general the result of the experiments show that cast 
iron with low commercial marks, the Nos. 3 and 4, &c, 
corrode locally and generally become pitted, while the 
high marks, 1 and 2, &c, corrode with considerable 
uniformity over the whole surface. 

The rate of corrosion is a decreasing one, at least 
when the plumbago and rust first formed has been 
removed. When however this coating remains un- 
touched, the rate is much more nearly uniform, and is 
nearly proportional to the time of reaction, in given 



1853.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 7. 21 

conditions. In some cases even where the coating had 
been removed, an increment in the rate had taken 
place. And it is observable that this almost uniformly 
occurred in those specimens which had the smallest 
amount of corrosion at their first immersion. Thus 
there was a tendency to a greater equality in the index 
of corrosion in all the varieties of iron at the second 
than the first immersion. 

Homogeneity of surface and texture, or the contrary, 
are by far the most important circumstances which 
vary the amount of corrosion of cast iron by air and 
water. 

And the rapidity of this corrosion is not so much 
dependent upon the chemical constitution of the metal, 
as it occurs in commerce, as it is upon the state of 
molicular arrangement and the condition of its con- 
stituent carbon. 

It is certain that the blackest cast irons, viz., those 
which contain the largest quantities of uncombined 
carbon or graphite in a mere state of mixture, are 
acted upon by water and air the most rapidly. The 
gray or mottled iron as containing a less quantity of 
uncombined carbon, and having a denser structure is 
less acted upon. And the varieties of iron which pre- 
sent scarcely any symptoms of a crystalline texture at 
all, but still are grained or mottled, are those which 
are the least susceptible of alteration or decay. 

Chilled cast iron, of every sort, upon the whole, cor- 
rodes faster than the same sort of iron cast in green 
sand. And this is owing to the greater want of homo- 
geneity, in its surface, than that of any other sort of 
casting, by which the voltaic action produced at its 
surface, increases the corrosion to a greater extent, 
than its great density and hardness, and small amount 
of uncombined carbon are capable of retarding it, com- 



22 WATER. [Jan. 

pared with other sorts of cast iron. When 5 however, 
iron moulded in sand, is exposed to corrosion, this takes 
place with considerable uniformity over the whole sur- 
face. But in chilled castings, the largest portion of the 
surface remains unchanged, and the corrosion is nearly 
or wholly confined to certain spots, and gradually pro- 
duces large tubercular concretions. 

The size, and perhaps the form of iron casting, forms 
one element, in the rate of its corrosion in water. Be- 
cause the thinner castings having cooled much faster 
and more irregularly than the thicker, are much less 
homogeneous, and contain veins and patches, harder 
than the rest of their substance ; hence the formation 
of voltaic couples and accelerated corrosion. 

He estimates that from three-tenths to four-tenths 
of an inch in depth, of cast iron one inch thick, and 
about six-tenths of an inch of wrought iron, will be 
destroyed in a century, in clear water. 

He also states that the ofiicers of the French artil- 
lery, after a number of experiments, found that the 
corrosion of iron by air and water, is greater in pro- 
portion to the purity and goodness of the coke, with 
which the iron is made, and that it is altered less, when 
made with charcoal, than with coke ; and that iron 
cast in dry sand, or in loam moulds faced with char- 
coal, oxidates much less speedily than when cast in 
green sand ; and that chilled cast iron, or that cast in 
iron moulds, is least of all susceptible of the change. 

As to the nature and origin of the peculiar change 
which takes place in the conversion of part of the 
metal into an entirely different substance, but little 
information, beyond what was already known, can be 
obtained from these reports. It is stated in the intro- 
ductory one, before the result of the experiments was 
ascertained, as a fact, first observed by Dr. Priestley, 



1853.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. T. 23 

that cast iron being immersed in sea water for a length 
of time, has its metal wholly removed, and becomes 
changed into a substance analogous to plumbago, 
mixed with oxide of iron ; which frequently though 
not invariably possesses the property of heating and in- 
flaming spontaneously, on exposure to air; but that it 
is yet by no means clear, how it is produced, what is 
its precise composition, and to what is owing its rise of 
temperature on exposure to air — that malleable iron, 
under circumstances but little understood, is also sub- 
ject to this change ; and also from various statements of 
others, it would seem that both malleable and cast 
iron are affected in the same way, when immersed in 
water holding in solution alkaline or earthy salts or 
acids. 

The subsequent experiments throw no new light on 
the cause and nature of this singular phenomenon. 
They show, however, that the same effect is produced 
by the action of air and fresh water; and this is too well 
corroborated by our own experience. 

In regard to the opinion expressed by M. Vicat, that 
the tubercles at Grenoble were stationary, he remarks, 
that it must be obvious, that the rate of increment of 
these must be a decreasing one ; but that he does not 
perceive anything to set a limit to their accretion, ex- 
cept the stoppage of corrosive action. Mr. Mallet con- 
siders that in tubercular corrosion, the whole of the rust 
which has taken place, at every point, is transferred to 
one or more particular points, and thus forms the pro- 
jecting tubercles, leaving the rest of the surface bare. 
The sole essential circumstance to tubercular corrosion, 
he states to be the want of homogeneity, in the metal 
corroded— and he therefore controverts the opinion of 
M. Payen, before cited, that the cause of the phenom- 
enon is partly to be attributed to a slight alkaline re- 



24 WATER. [Jan. 

action of the corroding water. This peculiar effect, too, 
is confined to chilled or unequally cooled cast iron, to 
mottled iron, and to damasked wrought iron, or that of 
mixed constitution ; and in all it appears to result from 
heterogeneity of composition, and that it is therefore 
unnecessary to call in aid of the explanation, the pre- 
servative action of alkaline solutions. 

The important problem of preventing the corrosive 
action of the water, by coating the interior surface of 
the pipe, was a principal object of Mr. Mallet's experi- 
ments. He did not, however, discover any thing which 
would have the desired effect. Of ten kinds of paints 
and varnishes, laid on with great care, not one would 
completely prevent corrosion for a single year — or re- 
main perfectly adherent or undecomposed for that time. 
With regard to Mr. Vicat's proposition, previously stat- 
ed, (in the Comptes Rendus, v. 3d, p. 181,) of coating 
the pipes with hydraulic cement, he thinks that though 
this would no doubt for a time diminish corrosive ac- 
tion, it is much to be feared it could have but little 
permanence, when the current was rapid, and should 
the water contain much earthy matter, the tendency of 
this to deposit and adhere to the pipes, must be fatally 
increased. 

The various results of Mr. Mallet's experiments are 
exhibited in a full series of tables, which present to the 
Engineer, as he thinks, " sufficient data to enable him 
to predict the term of durability, and allow for the loss 
by corrosion of iron in all conditions, when entering 
into his structures." 

The last information to which we shall refer on this 
subject, is contained in a paper on Tubercles in Iron 
Pipes, by M. Gandin, Engineer of Bridges and Roads, 
published in the Annates des Fonts et Chaussees, for 
November and December, 1851. He states that the 



1853.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 7. 25 

iron conduit at Cherbourg, constructed between the 
years 1836 and 1838, of white casting, about 2460 me- 
tres (nearly \ X A miles) long, had become everywhere 
coated with tubercles, which in some places had an ele- 
vation of from 4 to 5 centimetres, (1.575 to 1.968 
inches,) so that the orifice of the pipe which was, when 
laid, 18 centimetres (about 7 inches) in diameter, had 
been reduced to less than one-third its original section. 
The consequence of the diminution of the orifice, join- 
ed to the enormous loss of head occasioned by the ad- 
ditional friction, had deprived many of the work-shops 
at the end of the conduit of a supply, prevented the 
simultaneous playing of the fountains, and made the 
supply of the grand reservoir impossible, or very 
feeble. 

The tubercles were very broad at their base, and 
very strongly adhering to the surface of the pipe, and 
could not be removed, except by heating the pipe to a 
red heat, or by a forcible action of an instrument. 
They were of a greenish brown color, and testaceous 
structure, and on exposure to the air, assumed the color 
of yellow ochre, a sure sign of the oxidation of part of 
the iron which entered into their composition. Their 
density was almost 3.362. A chemical analysis gave 
the following results : — 

Peroxide of iron, 96 to 98. 

Silex and Alumine (argel) 4 to 2. 

Chloride of Sodium — traces. 

Sulphate of Iron — traces. 

They were therefore almost entirely free from (at 
least as far as regards the iron which they contained) 
the elementary matters contained in the water in solu- 
tion — and indeed they were not derived from substances 
which it could hold in solution. The water was free 
from color, taste or smell, and its specific gravity nearly 

4 



26 WATEE. [Jan. 

that of pure water. It showed on analysis hy chemical 
tests, 

A very small quantity of carbonic acid. 

A small quantity of calcareous earth. 

A small quantity of sulphate of soda. 

A positive quantity of chloride of soda. 

Little or none of the metallic salts. 

And little or no iron. 

A more recent analysis of the water, taken before 
its passage through the conduit, showed its density to 
be scarcely different from distilled water ; to reagents it 
only showed chlorides, and those, chlorides of sodium ; 
there was no trace of lime, nor , sulphates, nor iron. 

He considered it certain, that the iron in the tuber- 
cles was to be attributed, exclusively to an alteration 
which had taken place in the pipes themselves, no 
matter what the casting might be, whether white or 
gray. And as notwithstanding this alteration, there 
could not be seen in the pipe, even with a glass, after it 
had been well rubbed, any difference between its tex- 
ture and that of new casting, he concludes, that the de- 
terioration must have taken place over the whole sur- 
face indiscriminately, in the same way. He calculates, 
that the greatest thickness of the layer which could 
have been thus removed in thirteen years was 0.0025 
metre (0.0098 inch) or 0.0002 (0.00075 inch) annu- 
ally. 

In reference to the obtaining some remedy for the 
evil, he observes, that waters the most pure and most 
proper for the ordinary necessities of life afford no ex- 
emption, since it appears invariable, that the tubercles 
are in an especial manner developed by the presence of 
very small quantities of sea salt, which almost all wa- 
ters contain. And that chemists and engineers have 
therefore recommended the forcing of linseed oil by 



1853.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 7. 27 

great pressure into the metal, and also coatings of mor- 
tars and hydraulic cements and bituminous coverings. 
There was a great limit however to the efficacy of all 
of them. At Cherbourg, pipes which had been laid 
down not more than three years previous, and which 
had had linseed oil forced into them by hydraulic press- 
ure, already showed traces of tubercles, some of which 
had attained an elevation of 4 and 5 millemetres (0.157 
to 0.197 inch.) Coatings of mortars and hydraulic 
cements cannot be applied without great difficulty, 
and must be in very thin layers ; and the whole surface 
is therefore not covered, leaving points where the tu- 
bercles are developed. Bituminous coatings could in- 
deed be applied, by immersion in hot baths composed 
of those substances, but these means if efficacious for a 
time, must have their limit, when the friction of the 
water shall have worn away the thin covering — and 
then the same difficulty would be felt as before. He 
thinks therefore that the only means on which could 
be placed a hope of certain preservation of the iron 
would consist, in the discovery of some compensating 
agent against the magnetic or chemical action which 
causes the formation or development of the tubercles, 
and that the agent employed should not affect the qual- 
ity of the water, and that its application should be 
simple and not expensive. Such an agent, however, 
had not been discovered. Mr. Gaudin then proceeds to 
describe his mode of removing the accretions, by me- 
chanical means, from time to time when it should be 
necessary. A description of the process will be found 
in the report of the City Engineer. 

The foregoing statement contains a very brief analy- 
sis of the investigations which have been made, in other 
places, of the nature, origin and mode of remedying the 



28 WATER. [J 



an. 



evils now under consideration, as far as they have come 
to our knowledge. We annex to it the able and inter- 
esting communications of Professor Horsford and refer 
to the report of the City Engineer, to show the extent 
of our own experience in relation to them. It has 
been hoped that by bringing to the notice of the Coun- 
cil all the facts which we have been able to accumulate, 
and offering even an imperfect sketch of the researches 
hitherto made on the subject, we might enlist the atten- 
tion not only of those who are similarly interested with 
ourselves, but also of men of science, and of those who 
are engaged in the production of the metal itself, or in 
the great variety of manufactures and constructions in 
which iron is employed. And that, if this object could 
be effected, it might be the means of ascertaining here- 
after some mode, either of preventing the evil in its 
origin by improvements in the castings ; or, of arresting 
or retarding its further progress, by the intervention of 
some preparation for covering and protecting the sur- 
face ; or, of obtaining a temporary remedy by providing 
a mode of removing the obstructions as they from time 
to time appear. 

Undoubtedly the most important change which takes 
place on the inner surface of the pipes, as far as relates 
to any immediate results, is the production of the accre- 
tions. The formation of plumbago or something like it, 
in the place of the iron which has been absorbed, does 
not indeed protect the metal beneath it, and the action 
continues, perhaps even, with a slightly accelerated 
force; but, according to the French and English au- 
thorities, its progress is so slow that many years must 
elapse before any serious consequences from it alone, 
would be likely to happen. It is probable that the 
only way to prevent this action will be found, in coat- 



1853.] CITY DOCUMENT— No. 7. 29 

ing the surface with some composition which will 
shield it. We cannot anticipate what success may at- 
tend future attempts to discover such a composition, 
but to the present time we believe they have all been 
quite fruitless. 

But with regard to the accretions, their growth 
has been more rapid and important, so much so that 
our 36 inch and 30 inch mains have become already, 
in consequence of the actual diminution of their area 
and also of the additional friction which has been 
occasioned, scarcely superior in capacity to those of 34 
and 28 inches having a clean surface; and we have 
had sufficient experience on the subject to convince us 
of the impolicy of making use of wrought iron service 
pipes at allj or of cast iron ones of less than 4 inches in 
diameter. 

We cannot indeed, at present feel any certainty as 
to the extent to which the tubercles will ultimately in- 
crease, and think there is some prospect that they may 
become stationary or at least have their progress much 
retarded. As their origin is however, attributed by the 
English authorities solely to the constitution of the 
iron itself, and by the French, and to some extent by 
Professor Horsford, partially to the same cause, it is 
possible that improvements may be made in the 
manufacture of the metal, or the casting, by which it 
may be rendered more homogeneous, and their forma- 
tion be thus prevented ; and in the meantime reference 
may be had to this quality of the metal in selecting the 
castings, whenever it shall be possible. 

It is the intention of Professor Horsford, if he can 
do it consistently with the performance of his other du- 
ties, shortly to obtain an analysis of the iron, from our 
own pipes, where an unlike tendency to accretions is 



30 WATER [Jan. 

noticed ; which may throw some light on the point of 
homogeneity. 

The Water Board will continue to give their due at- 
tention to the subject. 

The foregoing Report is respectfully submitted. 

Thomas Wetmore, President. 
Sampson Reed, 
Ezra Lincoln, 
Henry B. Rogers, 
John H. Wilkins, 
Jonathan Preston, 
Adam W. Thaxter, Jr., 

Cochituate Water Board. 



APPENDIX: 






Cambridge, Jan. 14th, 1852. 
Thos. Wetmobe, Esq. 

President of the Cochituate Water Board. 

Deab Sib, — In reply to your favor of the 5th instant, in 
relation to the accretions in the Cochituate iron mains, I 
have to regret that my investigations thus far have thrown 
but little light upon the question of most importance ; to wit, 
How far will these accretions extend ? 

A brief statement of the present condition of the pipes 
will show the bearing of this inquiry. 

At the two points near Dover street, where one of the main 
iron pipes was taken up for repairs in the last autumn, there 
were found upon the interior surface of the pipe, nodules 
varying from half an inch to three inches in diameter at the 
base, and having a height of from one quarter to a little more 
than half an inch. Some of them were of a reddish, others 
of a dirty yellow color, and those of each color invariably in 
a group by themselves. They presented concentric struc- 
ture within, and rested in many cases upon slightly elevated 
portions of the surface of the pipe. These elevated portions 
were co-extensive with the inferior surface of the nodules, 
were of a dark brown color, and crumbled at once to powder 
Upon being scratched with a knife. 

Portions of the surface of some sections of pipe were quite 
free from accretions. In some areas, the accretions were all 
small ; in others most were large. There seemed to be no 
tendency among them to gather upon the bottom rather than 
upon the top and sides. 

Upon placing one of these nodules in warm hydrochloric 
acid, the reddish and yellow part dissolved to a dark red solu- 
tion, leaving a white jelly-like residue, which under the micro- 



32 APPENDIX. 

scope appeared an amorphous inorganic mass. Chemically 
examined, the latter proved to be silica, and the red solution, 
iron. A quantitative analysis of the whole, gave 
Peroxide of iron, -.■"-.- = 91.74 per cent. 

Silica, = 1.28 " " 

Water, trace of organic matter, and loss, = 6.98 " " 



100.00 

The yellow nodules upon being heated became red. As all 
the nodules had been subjected to heat in melting out the 
lead connections between the sections of pipe, it was evident 
that the difference in color was to be ascribed solely to the 
unequal heat to which the red and yellow nodules had been 
exposed. This explained the occurrence in such well defined 
groups, of the nodules of either color. 

The suggestion that the accretions might be due to the 
growth of some kind of vegetation in which were lodged 
particles of the ochreous matter in suspension in small quan- 
tity in the Cochituate water, and which gives to it its occa- 
sional faint wine color, which is found on the bottom of the 
tunnel, and which accumulates in the niters — was not sus- 
tained by microscopic examination. The ochry deposit is 
composed of organisms of which the accompanying card con- 
tains several of the best defined and more remarkable forms.* 
Of these only an occasional one is found in the accretions. 

There are reasons for believing the slight elevations of 
surface observed immediately beneath the accretions, to be 
due to changes in the texture of the iron arising from the 
growth of the accretion, and not to an original irregularity of 
the casting ; and further for believing that the accretions are 
indebted for their iron to the surface upon which they rest, 
and not at all, or but very slightly to the water which flows 
over them. 

I have wrought iron pipes of 1 1-2 inches calibre, which 
are coated with accretions interiorly, and which in 12 months 

* The numbers refer to the eye pieces and objective of the microscope employ- 
ed, — an Oberhauser in the possession of my friend and pupil Mr. John Dean, to 
whom I am indebted for these figures. 



2-5 






I 

- ! 



2-S 



,3®/ 

ist 






.,>'< 






'■ 1 












>J 






^ 




3HZHH3 ) 



':'■■:( 2-2 



2-2 _ .y 






1-5 A. 



1-5 



Tappan 8c Bradford's Lifll.. 

Microscopic delmeations of organisms foand in the ochreous deposit 
on. the interior surface of the Iron Pipes. 



APPENDIX. 33 

have been eaten through from within outward, by the circu- 
lation of cold Cochituate water. I have others of the same 
diameter, which in 3 months have been eaten through by 
the circulation of hot Cochituate water. 

I have another pipe, 1 inch in diameter, which in 12 
months was so nearly closed by accretions throughout its 
entire length, that it was removed because it ceased to serve 
water. 

I now return to the inquiry, How far these accretions 
extend ? 

The inquiries and personal inspection of the Engineer and 
President of the Water Board, made in New York, Philadel- 
phia and Baltimore, the fruits of which have been kindly 
placed at my disposal, have shown : — 

1st. That similar accretions occur in the iron mains of all 
the above named cities. 

2d. That in Philadelphia, the accretions, now after a lapse 
of 37 years, are too inconsiderable to be the occasion of any 
present or future solicitude. 

3d. That those in Baltimore and New York, though some- 
what more extensive than in Philadelphia, are still so much 
inferior in size and number, especially when we compare the 
three years service of the Cochituate water with the ten of 
New York, and the still longer period of Baltimore, that the 
indefinitely long prospect of unobstructed distribution in 
New York and Baltimore, based upon their experience so 
far, does not throw the desired light upon the future of the 
Cochituate iron mains. 

One fact of particular moment in this connection, has come 
to my knowledge. A gentleman of my acquaintance, accus- 
tomed to careful observation, remarked on a visit to Ver- 
sailles, sections of iron mains of a foot in diameter, more 
than half filled with this kind of accretion. I hope soon to 
hear more particularly in regard to the attendant circum- 
stances of this case, and also to learn more of the experience 
of the old world in the use of iron mains. 

The solicitude lies in two directions. In the first place, 
the accretions diminish the serving capacity. Taking the 






34 



APPENDIX. 



present average thickness of the incrustation at 3-8 of an 
inch, the serving capacity of a pipe 36 inches in diameter is 
reduced by the amount of an area of 42 3-8 square inches, 
which is equal to a cylindrical pipe 7.3 inches in diameter. 
If we conceive the accretion to go uniformly forward at this 
rate of 14 1-8 square inches per annum, it would become a 
matter of immediate grave consideration. In the second 
place : the accretions are formed at the expense of the iron 
upon which they rest. With their increased thickness will 
come at a remote period, diminished strength of the iron. 

I understand there are but few cast iron pipes in the city 
distribution, of less than six inches calibre. It may be that 
the more rapid flow in these generally, will impede the 
growth of the accretions. It may be that after the accretions 
shall have coated the whole interior of the pipes, and attain- 
ed a certain moderate thickness, their further growth will be 
much slower, if not altogether arrested. 

With my present knowledge, I do not feel prepared to say 
that there is any substantial ground of alarm in view of the 
incrustations upon the iron mains. At the same time I can- 
not affirm that there may not be some reasonable solicitude, 
and I shall not fail to make myself acquainted with the sub- 
ject, as the illustration goes daily forward before us, as well 
as with what has been elsewhere observed in the same field. 

I am very respectfully, 

Your ob't servt., 

E. N. HORSFORD. 



APPENDIX. 



35 



Cambridge, January 10th, 1853. 

Thomas Wetmore, Esq., 

President of the Cochituate Water Board. 

Dear Sir, — Since the date of my former letter to you, I 
have been enabled through the co-operation of the City En- 
gineer, to assure myself of the steady growth of the accre- 
tions, in the Cochituate iron mains. Plaster casts, taken in 
various localities and after unequal times, from the laying 
down of the pipes, exhibit, in the relative sizes of the 
nodules, satisfactory evidence upon this point. 

Some consideration has been bestowed, upon the various 
agencies that have been suggested, as operating to promote 
the growth of the accretions. Of these a prominent one has 
been, the presence of inorganic alts in the water. 

It might be presumed, that the surface-water of a region of 
country, which is from time to time visited by rains, during 
the prevalence of a strong wind from the sea, would contain 
more or less of the ingredients of sea-water. The rain-water 
falling at Paris and at all points to the eastward as far as Frank- 
fort on the Maine, gives the reactions of common salt. Far- 
ther east, at Munich, rain-water does not show these reac- 
tions. The chloride of sodium and the other saline matters 
of the ocean, brought by east winds over the basin drained 
by Cochituate lake, would, on being precipitated by rain- 
falls, confer on the water, it is conceived, power to act upon 
the iron pipes. But if we unite, what comes from this source 
with what is supplied from the soil, both together leave the 
Cochituate so remarkably pure, that rain-water is scarcely to 
be preferred for any purpose whatever ; and its effect on iron 
pipes from this cause must be quite inappreciable. When we 
compare its action with that of the Croton and Schuylkill 
waters, we ought to find the accretions in number and size 
proportionate in some degree to the amount of salts, the 
waters severally contain. These are as follows : — 



36 



APPENDIX. 



In one hundred thousand parts. 

Croton. Schuylkill. Cochituate. 

' Solid residue, 18.71 9.42 5.35 

Inorganic, 11.34 7.29 2.90 

Organic, 7.37 2.13 2.45 

According to this table and the view above expressed, we 
should find the accretions, in magnitude and number, in the 
order of Croton, Schuylkill and Cochituate. 

In reality, no regard is paid to this succession. Facts give 
Cochituate the first rank and Schuylkill the last. 

The above quantities do not however represent the relative 
amounts of Chlorides, which are the more efficient salts in 
promoting the accretions. These are contained in the fol- 
lowing proportions : — (Silliman's Report to Water Commis- 
sioners.) 





Croton. 


Schuylkill. 


Cochituate. 


Chloride of Sodium, 


0.167 


0.147 


0.032 


" " Potassium, 


trace 




0.038 


" " Calcium, 


0.153 




0.031 


" " Magnesium 




0.009 


0.076 


" " Aluminium, 


0.372 







Total, 0.692 0.156 0.177 

According to this table, the Croton should stand first and 
the Cochituate occupy an intermediate rank. 

The most striking peculiarity of the Cochituate water is, 
as already mentioned, its remarkable purity and of course its 
superior capacity for holding air in solution. From the well 
known joint action of air and water in rusting iron, this 
characteristic may fairly be entitled to a share of influence in 
promoting the accretions. That it is not the only or the 
most prominent cause, will be apparent from the following 
considerations. 

1. Among the results of experiments by Meyer (J. Tech. 
Chem. X. 833) are the following : — The rusting is impaired 
by the smoothness of the surface, by hardness, by the contact 
of zinc and by the presence of carbon as in cast iron. It is 



APPENDIX. 



37 



promoted by roughness, by purity of the metal and by the 
presence of sulphur. Pa yen (Ann, Chem. Phys. L. 305,) 
confirmed by experiments the observations of Wetzlar, that 
alkaline waters protect the iron. (By neutralizing any acid 
the waters might contain, and thus preventing the first coat 
of oxide from going into solution, it leaves the iron protected 
by a shield of its own rust.) This author also found, that 
the gray variety of cast iron oxidated more readily than the 
white. (Ann. Chim. Phys. LXIII. 405.) These observations 
have been confirmed by researches undertaken by the British 
Association, which have, I know, fallen under your notice. 

2. It was observed in taking casts of the nodules, that 
areas of many square inches and in some instances, of sev- 
eral square feet, were free from accretions, while immediately 
around they were found in great profusion. In some sections 
of pipe, only large nodules had taken root, and these were 
quite uniformly distributed. In others, those only of lesser 
size were found, and they were quite closely arranged. 

3. In situations where other metals could exercise influence, 
the nodules had been most manifestly governed in their posi- 
tion and number by the proximity of the other metals. This 
was especially apparent, in the well defined disk of accretions 
on the plain iron surface, opposite the large composition cir- 
cular valves of the mains, which were taken out for repairs 
in the course of last year and the year previous. 

It is manifest from the above considerations, that there has 
been galvanic action, arising in one class of cases, from the 
contact of metals of unlike affinity for oxygen, and generally 
from a want of homogeneity of the iron, and I feel strongly 
induced to coincide in the opinion, that to this, more than to 
any other agency is to be ascribed the rapid formation of 
accretions in the Cochituate iron mains. It might be worth 
while to see how far this view, which has been arrived at, 
as well from observations in the old world, as with us, will 
be sustained by a comparison of analyses of fair sample speci- 
mens of the iron from the mains of Philadelphia, New York 
and Boston, and this I hope to lay before you in the course 
of the coming summer. 



38 



APPENDIX. 



I regret that my health has been such during the last 
twelve month, as to prevent the more extended investigation 
of this whole subject of accretions upon iron mains for the 
service of water, which I had projected last year. I regret 
this the less, however, since learning that you have become 
possessed of the ablest researches that have been made in 
this field, for I feel that, however industriously I might have 
pursued the matter in developing the influence of local pe- 
culiarities, I could scarcely have hoped, to add to the practi- 
cal information already in possession of your office. 

I am, very respectfully. 

Your ob't servant, 

E. N. HORSFORD. 



APPENDIX. 



39 



Statement of all Expenditures made by the Cochttu- 
ate Water Board, prom December 31st, 1851, to Janu- 
ary 1st, 1853. 



Blacksmith Shop, for Stock, 


&c, 


- 


$189.02 


Plumbing " " " 


a 


- 


62.88 


Proving Yard, " " 


tt 


- 


108.58 


Cartage, Boston, 


- 


- 


453.02 


" S. Boston, 


- 


- 


226.75 


" E. " 


- 


- 


224.76 


Wagon hire, for Sup't of Iron Aqueducts, 513.00 


Travelling Expenses, 


- 


- 


565.59 


Salaries and Wages, 


- 


- 


7,136.35 


Office Expenses, for rent, fixtures, 


&c, 


1,737.57 


Postages, - 


- 


- 


22.51 


Expresses, - 


- 


- 


5.86 


Stationery, - 


- 


- 


99.15 


Printing, - 


- 


- 


867.58 


Advertising, - 


- 


- 


10.00 


Recording Deeds, &c, 


- 


- 


7.39 


Miscellaneous Expenses, 


- 


- 


334.91 


Taxes, - . - - - 


- 


- 


1,475.73 


Fuel, - 


- 


- 


44.50 


Lanterns, - 


- 


- 


13.50 


Oil and Wicking, 


- 


- 


90.75 


Tools, - 


- 


- 


396.83 


Fountains, - - - 


- 


- 


425.20 


Beacon Hill Reservoir, 


- 


- 


4,266.59 


South Boston " 


- 


- 


210.44 


East " " 


- 


- 


674.81 



Brookline Reservoir, for labor &> materials, 700.35 
Brick Aqueduct Repairs, for labor and ma- 
terials, - 1,087.01 
Lake Cochituate, for labor and materials, 684.29 
Tolls and Ferriages, - 109.41 



Amount carried forward, $22,744.3* 



40 



APPENDIX. 



Amount brought forward, 
Service Pipes, - 

" " Boston, - 

" " S. Boston, 

" " E. " 

Water Pipes, ------ 

" " Boston, 

Hydrants, ----'- 
" Boston, _ - - 

" S. " - 

" E. " - 

Hydrant Boxes, - - - - 

" " Boston, - 

" " S. " 

a " E. " 

Stop Cocks, - 

" " Boston, - 

« » s. " - 

u u E. " - 

" Cock Boxes, - 

" " " Boston, 

It tt It g_ u _ 

tt a a E. " - 

Laying Water Pipes, Boston, - 
Laying Service " " for materials, 
Packing, ----- 



$22,744.33 



463.25 

1,424.27 

996.94 

955.48 

10,589.41 

3,299.90 

688.17 

67.35 

2.25 

4.00 

17.83 

63.68 

54.00 

50.00 

1,330.10 

818.33 

1.25 

1.25 

24.59 

71.49 

54.32 

50.00 

41.01 

27.25 

139.20 



Water Metres, for labor and materials, 6,484.85 

Repairing Streets, Boston, - - 140.89 

» " E. " - 26.90 

" Water Pipes, - - 417.56 

Stop Cocks, - - 785.93 

" " Cock Boxes, - - 208.85 

" Hydrants, - - - 182.15 

« Hydrant Boxes, - - 172.22 

Engines, Boilers, &c, for labor and freight, 130.67 

Marlboro' Reservoir, for repairing roads, 1,293,45 

Whitehall " for surveying res'r, &c. 339.49 



Amount carried forward, 



$54,162.61 



APPENDIX. 



41 



Amount brought forward, $54,162.61 

Rents, for labor and repairs, - - 22.75 

Land damages, - 506.00 

Land and Water Rights, - - 6,980.40 

Water Works, W. Division, - - 50.50 

" " E. Boston, - - 524.68 

" " Boston, - - 75.00 

Damages, Boston, - 202.50 

Jamaica Pond Aqueduct, - - 127.25 

Cash, for sums received and paid to City 

Treasurer, - 141.75 

Henry Richardson, for cash to pay wit- 
nesses, ----- 30.00 
City of Boston, for materials and labor, 799.08 
New Pipe Yard, for land, - - 13,997.18 
Greenleaf &. Adams, on ac't of repair 

shop, 1,000.00 

Charles Dupee, on ac't of repair shop, 500.00 24,957.09 







$79,119.70 


Amount paid for Labor, 


viz : — 


Letting on and Shutting off Water, 




1,554.25 


Blowing off Hydrants, 


- 


722.00 


Laying Water Pipes, Boston, - 


- 


753.74 


" " " S. Boston, - 


- 


652.88 


" « " E. Boston, - 


- 


650.01 


" Service Pipes, Boston, 


- 


1,209.18 


" " " S.Boston, - 


- 


372.25 


" " " E. Boston, - 


- 


415.62 


Blacksmith Shop, - 


- 


617.12 


Plumbing " 


- 


478.48 


Proving Yard, - 


- 


965.87 


Repairing Streets, Boston, 


- 


245.62 


" " S. Boston, - 


- 


10.25 


" « E. Boston, - 


- 


5.00 


" Water Pipes, - 


- 


601.35 


" Service Pipes, 


- 


708.62 



Amounts carried forward, $9,962.24 $79,119.70 



42 



APPENDIX. 



Amounts brought forward, $9,962.24 $79,119.70 

Repairing Hydrants, - 718.62 

" StopCocks, - - - 1,108.93 

Miscellaneous, - 140.98 

Jamaica Pond Aqueduct, - - 121.99 12,052.76 



Amount expended, $91,172.46 

Cr. 

Whitehall Reservoir, Rent of Buildings, 168.26 
Rents of houses, lands, &c. in Saxonville, 255.35 
Old Materials, - 1,088.65 

Miscellaneous, - 6.00 1,518.26 



For Rents, 


&c. at Marlboro', 


<( it 


" Saxonville, 


a it 


" Wayland, 


it a 


" Needham, 


it it 


" Newton, 


it it 


" Brookline, 


" Engines, Boilers, &c, 


" Old Materials, 


" Labor and Materials, 


" Iron Pj 


pes, 


" Broken Stone, 



Amount drawn for, $89,654.20 

Cash paid City Treasurer, viz : 

171.00 
502.30 
191.00 
8.00 
231.87 
98.50 

- 1,294.88 
138.78 

- 1,063.27 
493.83 
250.00 

" Abatements and Discount on Taxes, 246.85 
" Aqueduct Logs, - 14.25 

" Sundries, - 14.50 

" Payment towards the Trott Farm, 835.00 
" Notes with Mortgage for balance, 4,865.00 
" Payment towards Hyde Place, 400.00 

" Notes with Mortgage for balance, 1,600.00 

Amount paid by S. N. Dyer, the Service 
Clerk, viz : 

For Filling Cisterns, - 51.00 

" Service Pipe and laying, 1,420.59 
" Shutting off and letting 

on water, - - 1,978.50 3,450.09 $15,869.12 

Balance, $73,785.08 



APPENDIX. 



43 



Amount expended, brought forward, $91,172.46 

Payments made by the Cochituate Water 
Board, for completing- work left unfinished in 
1850 ; for damages and unsettled claims, and 
for extension of the work, viz : 

Unfinished Work. 
Beacon Hill Reservoir, - 3,923.00 
East Boston " - 434.95 

Marlboro' " - 1,155.25 5,513.20 



Unsettled Claims. 






Land and Water Rights, 6,980.40 






Land Damages, - - 506.00 


7,486.40 




Extension of the Work. 




Main Pipes, - - - 13,889.32 






Service Pipes, - - 3,839.94 






Water Meters, - - 6,484.85 






Hydrants, - - - 761.77 






StopCocks, - - - 2,175.02 






Labor laying Main Pipes, 2,056.63 






Labor laying Service Pipes, 1,997.05 






Labor at Proving Yard, - 965.87 






New Pipe Yard and Repair 






Shop, - - - 15,497.18 






City of Boston, - - 799.08 


48,466.71 


61,466.31 


Amount of current expenses, 


- 


$29,706.15 



Statement of the Expenditures and Receipts, on account 

of the Water Works, to January 1st, 1853. 

Amount drawn for, by the Commissioners, $4,043,718.21 
" " « " Water Board of 1850, 366,163.89 

" " « " C. W. Board of 1851, 141,309.23 

" " " " C. W. Board of 1852, 89,654.20 



Amount carried forward, - - $4,640,845.53 



44 



APPENDIX. 



Amount brought forward, $4,640,845.53 

Amount paid into City Treasury by 

Commissioners, - 47,648.38 

Amount paid into City Treasury by 

Water Board 1850, - - 8,153.52 

Amount paid into City Treasury by 

Cochituate Water Board 1S51, 5,232.38 

Amount paid into City Treasury by 

Cochituate Water Board 1852, 15,869.12 76,903.40 



$4,563,942.13 

Sundry payments made by the City, 32,441.64 

Discount and interest on loans, 1,288,124.82 1,320,566.46 



$5,884,508.59 
Sundry credits by the City, - 621.11 

Amount rec'd for Water Rents, &c, 513,069.48 513,690.59 



Whole Cost of Water Works to Jan. 1, 1853, $5,370,818.00 

SAMUEL HOLBROOK, 

Clerk Cochituate Water Board. 



APPENDIX. 



45 



CITY ENGINEER'S REPORT. 

Thomas Wetmore, Esq., 

President of the Cochituate, Water Board. 

Sir : — In compliance with the 13th Section of the City 
Ordinance of October 31st, 1850, the following Report rela- 
tive to the general condition of the Water Works, and to other 
matters of interest connected therewith, has been prepared. 

During the year just past, the attention and labors of the 
City Engineer and others acting with him, under the Water 
Board, have been directed to a number of objects, the extent 
and importance of which will appear under their respective 
heads, following very nearly the order observed in the last 
annual report. 

Lake Cochituate. 

The waste weir, with the culvert, at the outlet of Dug 
Pond, has been thoroughly repaired, and, it is believed, will 
regulate the height of water now in this pond, without injury 
to the road by overflowing, and without special attention 
from the Superintendent of the Lake. The Gate-house, 
Outlet-dam, roads, culverts and other structures, with the 
grounds around the Lake, are all in good order. 

During the warm and dry season it was necessary, in order 
to supply the City, to draw down the surface of the Lake to 
an average of three feet and eight inches below high water 
mark. As it was feared by some, that uncovering the 
marshes at the south end of the Lake, and exposing their 
surfaces to the action of the sun, might cause sickness in 
that vicinity, the City was supplied from the northern divis- 
ion, which was drawn down to seven feet two inches below 
high water, or to within four inches of low water mark ; 
while the middle and southern divisions were kept five feet 
nine inches above this level, — sufficiently high to cover the 
marshes, till after the first frosts. 



46 



APPENDIX. 



Brick Aqueduct and Structures between the Lake and the 
Brookline Reservoir. 

Last Spring the interior of the aqueduct received a thor- 
ough cleansing throughout its whole extent, which it needed 
very much. A. peculiar substance, like very fine dark mud, 
is deposited upon the surface of the brick work, and adheres 
for a time, but in consequence l of changes in the depth and 
velocity of the current through the aqueduct, this substance 
sometimes comes off in sufficient quantities to give to the 
water the appearance of being filled with sawdust. In order 
to prevent troublesome accumulations in. the aqueduct, and 
particularly in the tunnels, where the irregularity of the sides 
causes an unusual amount of deposit, it is necessary to 
cleanse it out, partially at least, twice a year. Last spring a 
number of bunches of extremely attenuated and delicate 
roots were discovered hanging from the top and sides of the 
aqueduct between the Newton and the Brookline Tunnels. 
In some instances they were three or four feet long, but so 
tender as to break with the slightest force, and of course, 
very easy to remove. 

In the autumn, a great many patches, in some cases larger 
than the crown of a man's hat, of a vegetable substance like 
sponge in color and texture, and frequently with coral shaped 
branches several inches in length, were discovered in the 
first mile of the aqueduct, being most numerous near the 
Lake. They were very tender, and easy to remove. It is a 
little singular that this should be the first instance of discov- 
ering them in the aqueduct, as precisely the same species of 
plants, apparently, was discovered in the large stop-cocks that 
were taken out of Tremont street at the head of Dover street, 
to be repaired, more than a year ago. 

Two or three short cracks have been newly discovered in 
the aqueduct during the year, near the Lake, where the leak- 
age through the bottom, mentioned in the last annual report, 
(page 75,) let in a sufficient amount of sand to cause a slight 
settlement or displacement of the masonry. These springs 
have been watched carefully since the completion of the 
work, and whenever they have appeared to threaten injury 



APPENDIX. 



47 



to the aqueduct, have been stopped. The time has come, 
however, when this portion of the aqueduct should be made 
permanently tight, as the cracks discovered the past season 
show, that in some instances at least, it would not be safe to 
let the leaks continue much longer. This work, as you are 
aware, has already been commenced, and the progress made 
thus far, though little, shows that it can be done thoroughly, 
and for a much less sum than it would have cost when the 
masonry was first laid, to say nothing of the delay it would 
have caused in the completion of the aqueduct. 

The crack mentioned in the last annual report as existing 
near Grantville, appears to have enlarged a little, and is to be 
thoroughly repaired. No other troublesome ones are known 
to exist. 

The bridges, culverts, waste-weirs and embankments, be- 
tween the Lake and the Brookline reservoir, are all in good 
order. 

The Brookline Reservoir. 

All the grounds and structures around this reservoir are in 
a very good condition. The beneficial effects of raising the 
inside slope wall in 1851, have been very sensibly felt the 
past season, allowing the surface of the water in this, and 
consequently in the Beacon Hill reservoir, to be kept higher 
than it could otherwise have been. 

Two large meters have been placed in the gate house, at 
the commencement of the large mains leading to the city. 
In consequence of unexpected difficulties and delays in the 
construction of these machines, they will cost nearly three 
times the original estimate. They have scarcely been in 
operation yet, but, from what has been seen of their working, 
and what is known of other meters constructed on the same 
general plan by the inventor, Mr. Huse, there is every reason 
to believe that they will give satisfactory measurements of 
the quantity of water drawn daily, (and hourly, if observed,) 
from this reservoir. Owing to difficulties mentioned in the 
last annual report, (p. 88,) it is not possible to obtain at all 
times, a close estimate of this quantity, without a meter of 



48 



APPENDIX. 



some kind ; other modes of computation being affected by 
the variable amount of water which pours in from the bottom 
and sides of the tunnels. 

City Reservoirs. 

The front of the Beacon Hill Reservoir on Derne street 
has been very much improved within the last year, by the 
substitution of handsome doors and wrought iron gates in the 
entrances of the archways, for the unsightly rough boarding 
that existed there before. The slight leakage from this res- 
ervoir, that used to be so annoying, has ceased to give any 
trouble. The exterior is free from lime marks, and the inte- 
rior arches, below the basin, are free from dampness, except 
that which is owing to condensation upon the surface of the 
stone. 

The height of water in this reservoir has varied considera- 
bly, not only at different seasons, but daily. These varia- 
tions were owing generally to the change in the rate of con- 
sumption, which, it is well known, is much greater during 
the forenoon than during any other portion of the day ; they 
are also greater in very warm and in very cold weather, than 
in moderate weather. The daily variations were often less 
than one foot in January and February, and more than four 
feet in July and August. In April there was frequently a 
depth of twelve feet in the reservoir, while during the ex- 
treme cold about January 21st, the depth was only six feet, 
and during the heat of July, August and September, it aver- 
aged but little over seven feet. In several instances, when it 
was necessary to make repairs or additions to the large pipes, 
all the water was drawn from the reservoir, sometimes de- 
priving a portion of the citizens on this hill of their supply. 

The following statement of the average depth for each 
month during most of the last three years, may be of in- 
terest : — 



APPENDIX. 



49 



Average monthly depths of water in the Beacon Hill Reser- 
voir for the years 1850, 1851 and 1852. 



Month. 


1850. 


1851. 


1852. 


January, - 




9.88 


9.70 


February, 




10.56 


10.20 


March, - 




12.64 


10.93 


April, ... 


12.31 


12.08 


11.29 


May, 


11.67 


10.69 


8.82 


June, - 


10.80 


10.99 


8.61 


July, ... 


10.68 


12.25 


7.82 


August, 


11.17 


10.67 


7.82 


September, - 


11.15 


11.70 


6.30 


October, - 


11.06 


11.72 


8.05 


November, 


10.62 


11.87 


8.11 


December, - 


9.61 


11.33 


5.24 


Average for the year, 


11.01 


11.^6 


8.57 



By comparing this statement with that of the average con- 
sumption, it will be perceived that other causes than changes 
in the amount of consumption must sometimes have produced 
the variations noticed in the average depths for each month. 
In the early part of 1851, the depth was greater, in conse- 
quence of the high service being partially cut off from the 
rest of the city. This cannot be practised at present, how- 
ever, without inconvenience, and sometimes injury, to other 
portions of the city. In the latter part of 1851, the depth 
was greater than it was in the latter part of 1S50, because 
the surface of the Brookline reservoir was kept higher, after 
the slope wall was raised there ; and greater than it was in 
the latter part of 1852, in consequence partly of increased 
consumption, but more, on account of repairs and changes in 
different parts of the works, which caused the Brookline res- 
ervoir to be frequently below its usual level, and, sometimes, 
one of the principal mains to be shut off. 

The grounds around the South Boston Reservoir, especial- 
ly on the west side, have been very much improved by the 
City Council, during the last two years ; and, as a conse- 



50 APPENDIX. 

quence, the old wooden fence is very much out of keeping 
with Ihe altered state of things. The depth of water there 
has been generally two to four feet less than it was the year 
before last, owing to the increased consumption, and to the 
necessity of making changes and repairs on other parts of the 
works. 

The East Boston Reservoir still leaks. As no serious in- 
jury arises from the leakage, only one partial attempt to stop 
it has been made during the year. The amount of labor re- 
quired on other parts of the works rendered it expedient to 
delay making further attempts till another season. This res- 
ervoir has proved not only absolutely essential to East Bos- 
ton, but has been very useful to the city proper twice during 
the last year, although its top water level is fourteen feet 
below that of the Beacon Hill reservoir. It caused the water 
to rise thirty to forty feet higher each time, than it would 
otherwise have done, on Beacon Hill, when the main pipes 
were shut off on account of repairs. 

Iron Pipes. 

These, so far as is known, are all in good order. Under 
the head of repairs will be found a statement of injuries and 
defects discovered during the year. No defect has been dis- 
covered in the flexible pipe across Chelsea Creek, and none 
is believed to exist. 

The following tables show the whole amount of pipes 
laid, up to the present time, and the amount laid during the 
last year, except a small number of two inch distributing 
pipes laid several years ago in courts, but they will be found 
marked on the plan. 



APPENDIX. 



51 



Statement of the length of different sizes of pipes laid, and 
stop-cocks put in, to Jan. 1st, 1853. 







DIAMETER OF PIPES IN 


INCHES. 








36 
19,355 


30 


24 


20 


16 


12 


6 


4 


Aggre'te. 


Feet of pipe "] 
laid in Brook- 
line, Roxbury \ 


30,332 


5,773 




5,714 


47,151 


199,602 


68,146 




proper, J 




















No. of stop } 
cocks in the > 
same, ) 


4 


7 


10 




12 


95 


407 


170 




Feet of pipe ~| 
laid in and 
for South \ 
Boston and 
Dorchester, J 








8,155 




10,905 


49,661 


16,750 




No. of stop \ 
cocks in same, \ 








3 




25 


67 


22 




Feet of pipe j) 
laid in and for > 
East Boston, ) 








15,972 


1,523 


8,663 


52,070 


1,784 




No. of stop ) 
cocks in same, ) 








4 


3 


14* 


70 


6 




Feetofpipein ~i 
Newton and > 
Needham, ) 




1,958 
















No. of stop ) 
cocks in same, ) 












1 


1 






Totals. .. 


19,355 










66,719 






543,514 ft. 
or 102 miles 
and 4954 ft. 


Length of ( 
pipe laid, i 


32,290 


5,773 


24,127 


7,237 


301,333 


86,680 


Number of } 
stop cocks > 
put in, ) 


4 


7 


10 


7 


15 


135 


545 


198 


921 



* Including one in branch for State Prison pipe. 

If to the above aggregate length of pipes, be added the 
length of the hydrant branches and bends, about 18,560 feet, 
or a little more than 3 1-2 miles, the whole length of pipes, 
4 •inches and upwards in diameter, laid down in and for all 
parts of the City of Boston, will be a small fraction less 
than 106 1-2 miles. 



52 



APPENDIX. 



Statement of the location, size and number of feet of dis- 
tributing pipes laid in the year 1852. 

Boston proper. 



In what Streets. 


Between what Streets. 


Dia. of pipe 
in inches. 


Feet 
laid. 


Remarks. 


Waltham, 
Tremont, 


Ringgold and Tremont, 
Waltham and Union Park, 

Total, 12 in. in Boston proper, 


12 
12 


192 

293 

485 




Mill Dam, 
Union Park, 
Shawmut Avenue, 
Indiana Place, 


Tremont and Shawmut Avenue, 
Northampton and Worcester, 
Washington and Tremont, 

Total, 6 in. in Boston proper, 


6 
6 
6 
6 


4,173 

178 
596 

77 

5,024 




Mill Dam, 
T wharf, 
Lincoln's wharf, 

Wall, 
Chester, 


Stop Cock Chamher,Tremont Eoad, 

Causeway and Cotting, 

Shawmut Avenue and Washington, 

Total, 4 in. in Boston proper, 

South Boston. 


4 

4 
4 
4 
4 
4 


635 
675 
300 
29 
326 
294 

2,259 




D, 


Second and Eirst, 

Total, 12 in. in South Boston, 


12 


30 
30 




K, 

Eighth, 

Seventh, 

.Fifth, 


Fourth and Ninth, 

West of K, - - - 

B and C, 

K and L, .... 

Total, 6 in. in South Boston, 


6 
6 
6 
6 


1,601 
600 
476 
476 

3,153 




Athens, 


A and B, .... 

Total, 4 in. in South Boston, 
East Boston. 


4 


238 
238 




Bennington, 


Under the Eastern Eailroad, 

Total, 12 in. in East Boston, 


12 


70 
70 




Marginal, 

Cunard wharf, 

Bennington, 

Princeton, 

Saratoga, 

Brooks, 

White, 

Border, 

Condor, 


Orleans and Cottage, 
From Marginal Street, - 
Bremen and Frankfort, 
Brooks and Putnam, 
Brooks and Putnam, 
Bennington and Bremen, 
Border and Marion, 
White and Condor, 
Brooks and Putnam, 

Total, 6 in. in East Boston, 


6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 


17S 
807 
715 
128 
119 
780 
300 
330 
357 

3,714 





Bennington, 


Bremen and Frankfort, 

Total, 4 in. ill East Bostuu, 


4 


85 
85 





APPENDIX. 



53 



Recapitulation. 





1852. 


Diameter in inches. 




12 


6 

5,024 

2 
3,153 

3 

3,714 

7 


4 


Boston proper, 
Stop cocks in same, 
South Boston, 
Stop cocks in same, 
East Boston, 
Stop cocks in same, 


Total number of feet laid. 

(C IC (( (t 

« {( (1 (( 

Sums of Pipes, - 
" " Stop cocks, - 


485 
30 
70 

585 


2,259 

7 

238 

2 
85 




11,891 
12 


2,582 
9 



Service Pipes. 

The whole number of service pipes put in, up to the pres- 
ent time, is 16,653, of which 604 were laid during 1852. 

Statement of Service Pipes laid in 1852. 



Diameter 
in inches. 


Boston proper. 


South Boston. 


East Boston. 


Total. 




Number. 


Length 
in feet. 


Number. 


Length 
in feet. 


Number. 


Length 
in feet. 


Number. 


Length 
in feet. 


2 

*i 
1 

3 

i 

8 


2 

5 

5 

360 


130 

484 

354 

10,165 


2 

1 

130 


140 
122 

4,398 


2 

8 
91 


177 
1,224 
3,055 


9 
14 

581 


801 

1,700 

17,618 




1 

Aggregate, - - - 


604 


20,119 



Repairs of Pipes. 

During the year 1852, the following leaks occurred, and 
were repaired. 



Where. 


Diameter of Pipes in inches. 




36 


30 


24 


20 


16 


12 


6 


4 


2 
6 


58 


1 
10 


3 
4 

1 


8 

141 




Boston proper, 


4 


5 


2 


1 


1 


11 


26 


13 




South Boston, 








4 






4 












11 




East Boston, 




2 








5 


3 


1 


1 






5 


8 






4 


7 


2 


5 


1 


16 


33 


14 


7 


58 


10 


6 


160 


323 



54 



APPENDIX. 



Of the leaks that occurred in pipes 4 inches and upwards 
in diameter, 3 were caused by flaws in the castings, not dis- 
covered in the proving press, 5 by freezing, 2 by settling of 
the earth, and 72 apparently by expansion and contraction, 
causing the lead in the joints to move. Total 82 or 1 in 
every 1.30 mile. 

Of the leaks that occurred in the service and 2 inch pipes, 
102 were caused by flaws or defects (40 in the pipes, 24 in 
the stop cocks, and 38 in the connections,) 7 by rats gnawing 
lead pipes, 10 by tenants, 8 by freezing, 8 by digging for 
sewers and gas pipes, and 91 by settling of earth mostly. 
Total, 226 or 1 to every 74 service pipes, nearly. 

The above includes 14 service pipes that were opened to 
take out fish, and 1 to remove rust, — not strictly leaks, but 
causing as much trouble and expense. 

By referring to the last Annual Report, p. 85, it will be 
seen that the totals corresponding to the above for 1851, 
were respectively 64 and 173, showing an increase in the 
number of leaks the last year of about 36 per cent, over 
those of the year before. The number in 1851 was about 
128 per cent, greater than that which occurred in 1850. 
If the rate of increase should continue to diminish, in a few 
years the annual number of leaks will become very nearly 
stationary. The Boston Gas Light Company have one leak 
per annunTin about every 0.78 mile of pipe, or about 67 per 
cent, more than the Water Works. The gas pipes, however, 
have been laid much longer than the Cochituate, and are 
much nearer the surface of the ground. 

The rapidity with which the interior surfaces of some of 
the pipes have become covered with tubercles or rust, has ex- 
cited a great deal of interest, and has been the subject of 
much observation ; but the cause of such, a wide difference 
in the growth of these tubercles in different pipes, and in dif- 
ferent places, does not appear to be clearly understood. All 
the large pipes that have been opened have been partially or 
entirely covered on their inner surfaces, some with detached 
tubercles, varying from a half to two and a half inches base, 
with a depth or thickness in the middle of from one quarter 



APPENDIX. 



55 



to three quarters of an inch ; and some entirely, to an aver- 
age depth of half an inch, with a rough coating, as if the 
bases of the tubercles had crowded together. The smaller 
pipes all exhibit some action of this kind, but generally to a 
less extent, as regards thickness, than the larger ones. In 
one case, however, a four inch pipe was found covered to a 
thickness of about one inch. This was in that part of Myr- 
tle street which was formerly called Zone street, where the 
entrance to a service pipe was entirely stopped by rust. 
Wrought iron pipes fill much more rapidly than cast iron 
ones, and in several instances, service pipes made of that 
metal, have, during the last year, become so obstructed as to 
be almost or quite useless. 

The Jamaica Aqueduct pipe, which was originally ten 
inches in diameter, has been, in some cases, reduced to eight 
by tubercles, which however, are different in form from those 
in the Cochituate pipes. They appear to lap over each other 
in the direction of the current ; this is very strikingly the 
case at the commencement of the pipe, as if their form was 
owing in some measure to the mechanical action of the cur- 
rent. 

Knowing that this subject has occupied much of your 
attention, that you have consulted articles from various 
foreign journals that treat upon it, and that Prof. Horsford 
has it under consideration, no discussion upon the cause or 
causes of these tubercles will be attempted here. Further 
observations appear to be necessary, fully to develop these 
causes. It is very gratifying to know, however, that these 
tubercles may be removed by mechanical means, and at an ex- 
pense much less than would at first be supposed. This has 
been fully proved at Cherbourg, where a most ingenious con- 
trivance, described in the Annales des Ponts et Chaussees 
for November and December, 1851, was used by M. Gaudin, 
Engineer of the Cherbourg Water Works, to clean out 

3,117 feet of 9 in. Pipe. 
1,549 " " 1\ in. " 
3,294 « « 7 in. " 



56 APPENDIX. 

which was done at a total cost of 7,853. 18 francs, or an aver- 
age of about 18i cents a running foot. M. Gaudin thinks 
that the same apparatus might have been used for a much 
greater length of pipe, and that the average cost of cleaning 
others with it would have been only about 111 cents a foot. 

In order to go through this process, the pipes were opened 
once in about every ISO feet, which it was thought might have 
been increased to 200 feet in many cases. The machine, 
which was attached to two cables, one of them being passed 
through the pipe by means of iron rods, was formed of me- 
tallic rasps, attached to flexible arms, and so arranged that 
with one operation they would act upon the whole circum- 
ference of the pipe. By means of a sliding ring around the 
arms, and small cords, the rasps could be made to fit a larger 
or smaller diameter, which was necessary, in order that the 
machine might pass irregularities in the castings and parti- 
cularly the joints, which sometimes had protuberances of lead 
upon them. It was pulled backwards and forwards by men 
who had hold of the cables, and who soon learned to tell 
when a new adjustment of the rasps was necessary, which 
was easily made by pulling one of the small cords. Its 
operation was so perfect, that the pipes were actually smoother 
after being cleaned than when first laid, as the projecting 
lead at the joints was removed. Whether the pipes, after 
being cleaned by this process, will fill up in a longer or 
shorter time than before, has not yet been ascertained. 

Whenever tubercles in the Cochituate pipes have been re- 
moved, there has always been found under each isolated one 
a central spot of soft metal, easily cut with a knife, often a 
sixteenth of an inch deep, and from an eighth to a quarter of 
an inch across. Under the whole base of each tubercle there 
appears to be a slight action upon the solid metal of the pipe, 
but nothing in comparison with that at the central portion. 
The Jamaica pipe, which has been laid about 15 years, shows 
a much greater amount of action of this kind ; but it does 
not appear to be confined to central spots, being more uni- 
formly spread over the surface, as the oxidated coating itself 
is. A specimen of this pipe, taken from a point where it was 



APPENDIX. 



57 



I 
scarcely an eighth of an inch thick, and where it burst, 

showed considerable action from a salt marsh on the outside, 
and also about the same amount from some cause within, 
both of which had reduced its specific gravity, as ascertained 
at Dr. Jackson's office, to 5.129, showing a loss of about 29 
per cent, of the original weight of the metal. 

The custom of giving notice of intention to shut off water 
for making repairs continues to be observed whenever practi- 
cable, which is almost always the case. It is very desirable, 
therefore, that those who find themselves deprived of water 
without having received any previous warning, should give 
notice of the fact at the Water office, or to the Superintend- 
ent of pipes, or to some of the police officers ; as oversights 
may occur with regard to shutting stop-cocks, especially when 
two or three important leaks, requiring immediate attention, 
take place in different parts of the city at the same time. In 
view of the danger, at such a time, of the explosion of steam 
boilers, greater precautions should be taken by the owners of 
them than are now taken. In many instances, steam engines 
are unprovided with a reservoir of any kind, and sometimes 
have no pump, but depend upon the force of the Cochituate 
to fill the boilers; so that in case of the water being shut 
from the pipe, the engine must stop, no matter at what incon- 
venience to the establishment in which it is located. If the 
accident to the pipe should happen to be of such a nature as 
not to allow of notice being given before shutting off the 
water, serious damage might result, especially if the man in 
charge of the engine should be a little negligent. 

Stop Codes. 

With one or two unimportant exceptions, these, so far as 
can be known, are all in good order. One man is employed 
almost constantly in examining them, which is necessary on 
account of their number, and their great importance where 
repairs are needed, or serious leaks occur. 

A very important change was made, by removing the five 
large stop-cocks on Tremont street from near the Roxbury 



58 APPENDIX. 

line to the line of Chester street, where, after having been 
thoroughly repaired and fitted with bevel gear, they were 
placed horizontally, and enclosed in a substantial stone 
chamber. 

The necessity and importance of this change proved to be 
greater than was at first supposed ; as two of the stop-cocks, 
when taken out, were entirely unfit for service, and two 
others could not have been used twice more, in consequence 
of the composition facings of the valves getting loose. Their 
original location was such, that the settling and vibration of 
that part of Tremont road caused them to get out of repair 
quite often, and there is every reason to believe that, without 
the change made, they would have given serious trouble the 
present winter. It was very gratifying to know that these 
stop-cocks were in perfect order, when the 30 inch main burst 
on the Common last November. 

Fire Hydrants. 

During the year 6 new hydrants were established in the 
City proper, 9 in South Boston, and 12 in East Boston. Al- 
together there have been established up to the present time — 

In Boston proper, - - - - - - - 817 

" South Boston, 184 

" East Boston, ------- 136 

" Brookline, ------- 1 

" Roxbury, _______ 4 

" Charlestown, ------- 11 

" Chelsea, 7 






Total, 1160 

The same precautions to keep these hydrants constantly in 
order, that were mentioned in the last annual report, have 
been taken since ; and the Chief Engineer of the Fire De- 
partment reports that in one or two cases only have they 
failed during the year.* After the great fire which destroyed 

* Owing to the hydrants having been put out of order by the street water- 
men. 



APPENDIX. 



59 



Chickering's building, it was mentioned in some of the papers, 
and currently reported, that the hydrants had failed to supply 
water in as great a quantity and at as high a level as was ex- 
pected. No one familiar with the laws of the flow of water 
through pipes could be at all surprised at such a result. 
This matter was understood, not only theoretically, but prac- 
tically, before the Boston Water Works were commenced, as 
will be seen by the following statement from the first report 
of the Commissioners appointed for inquiry into the state of 
the large towns and populous districts (in England), part 1st, 
page 316 : — 

" Result of Experiments made on the 31st of January, 
1844, to ascertain the Height that a Jet of Water will rise 
from the Mains and Services belonging to the Southwark 
Water Company, under a Fixed Pressure of 120 feet. 

" The first trial was made in Union street, between High 
street and Gravel lane, Borough, over an extent of 800 yards 
of 7 inch main, and through the fire brigade stand-pipes, hose 
and jets. 

" This 7 in. main is connected to the 9 in. main in High 
street, Borough, which, after a run of 500 yards, is joined to 
200 yards of 12 in. main, and then continued by 550 yards 
of 15 in. main to the great main leading from the Company's 
works at Battersea, making a total distance of 5,500 yards 
from the place where the experiment is made. 

" One 2J inch stand-pipe, with 40 feet hose and 7-8 inch jet, rose 50 feet. 
Two 2^ " " " 40 " " 7-8 " " 45 " 

Three 2^ " " " 40 " " 7-8 " " 40 " 

Pour 1\ " " " 40 " " 7-8 " " 35 " 

Five 2\ " " " 40 " " 7-8 " " 30 " 

Six 2J- " " " 40 " " 7-8 " " 27 " 

" Then all the fire plugs on the main were closed except 
the first, and one 2 1-2 inch stand-pipe, with 160 feet of hose, 
and a 7-8 in. jet, rose 40 feet. 

" The second trial was in Tooley street, off a 9 inch main, 
1,400 yards in length, connected to 1,000 yards of 15 inch, 
and 6,650 yards from the works. 



60 



APPENDIX. 



" One 2|- inch stand-pipe, 40 feet hose, 7-8 inch jet, rose 60 feet. 
Two 2| " " 40 " 7-8 " difference not perceptible. 

Four 2h " " 40 " 7-8 " rose 45 feet. 

Six 2J- " " 40 " 7-8 " " 40 " 

" Four inch service in Tooley Street, 200 yards long, sup- 
plied through 200 yards of 5 inch pipe, from 9 inch main ; one 
2 1-2 inch stand-pipe, fixed on the 4 inch service near the 5 
inch pipe, with 40 feet of hose 7-8 inch jet, rose 40 feet ; two 
2 1-2 inch stand-pipes, 7-8 inch jet, rose 31 feet. 

" One 2 1-2 inch stand-pipe fixed at end of service. 

" 200 yards from 5 inch pipe, 40 feet of hose, 7-8 inch jet, rose 34 feet. 
Two 2J inch stand-pipe, 40 " 7-8 " " 23 feet." 

Seventy years ago, Dubuat's experiments showed how 
greatly the lengthening of a small pipe would diminish the 
force, and consequently the amount of discharge through it. 
An ordinary fire hose may be considered the same as a small 
pipe, and as all but one or two hydrants are necessarily 
several hundred feet from any single building, the loss of 
velocity experienced by the water passing through the hose 
must be considerable. The Chief Engineer says that he can 
throw from the hydrants alone, without any engine, a stream 
over any private dwelling on Harrison avenue ; but this 
cannot be done in higher parts of the city and on higher 
buildings, nor could it ever have reasonably been expected. 
The very tall buildings recently erected in comparatively low 
parts of the city, can never have their highest stories pro- 
tected from fire, by the simple pressure of the Cochituate 
water through hose : it must be forced up by means of 
engines. 

Stock on hand. 

An account of stock on hand January 1st, 1853, will be 
found below. 

As soon as the new pipe yard and repair shop shall be 
ready for use, it is fully expected that important improve- 
ments will be introduced into the department of repairs, re- 
quiring changes which it has not been deemed expedient to 
make at the present pipe yard. 



APPENDIX. 



61 



Statement of Pipes and other stock on hand, exclusive of 
Tools, January 1st, 1S53. 



Diameters in inches. 





36 

7 


30 


24 


20 


16 


12 


6 


4 


2 


1* 


No. of Pipes, 


68 


8 


40 


22 


55 


32 


41 


375 


90 


Y Branches, 


. 


1 


. 


. 


1 


1 


. 


. 






3 Way Branches, 


5 


6 


. 


2 


13 


9 


5 


4 


32 




4 Way Branches, 


. 


2 


1 


. 


1 


5 


2 


- 






Flange Pipes, 


4 


3 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






Sleeves, 


6 


4 


9 


4 


2 


5 


9 


13 






Caps, 


. 


3 


- 


- 


1 


10 


5 


7 






Reducers, 


- 


1 


1 


. 


- 


2 


. 


6 






Bevel Pipes, 














7 


3 






Curved " 


4 


3 


1 


2 


2 


4 


5 


2 






Quarter Turns, 


. 


. 


. 


- 


. 


1 


4 


5 


9 




Double Hubs, 


- 


. 


. 


5 


. 


. 


. 


. 






Stop Cocks, 


4 


2 


2 


2 


3 


4 


4 


2 







Lead Pipe. 78 ft. of 2 in., 32 ft. of li in., 100 ft. of 1 
in., 1125 of | in., 1673 ft. of f in. 

Block Tin Pipe. 25 feet. 

For Service Pipes. 525 square Boxes, 16 T Boxes, 3 
long Boxes, 17 Y Boxes, 3 Tubes, 1 2 in. Coupling, 39 1 in. 
Couplings, 42 | in. Couplings, 58 f in. Couplings, 200 fin. 
Flange Connections, 8 inch T Cocks, 43 § do., 16 f do, 11 f 
in. Y Cocks, 50 f in. straight Cocks, 2 2 in. Cocks, 7 in. Air 
Cocks, 79 in. Main Cocks, 52 f in. do., 422 f in. do., 64 f in. 
Flange Cocks. 

Pig Lead, 4800 lbs. Sheet Lead, 400 lbs. Gasket, 
1530 lbs. 

Hydrants. 
5 Ballard Vale, 
2 Wilmarth's, 
26 Lowell, 
1 Hooper. 

For Hydrants. 8 bends, 24 lengtheners, 42 nipples, 6 
frames and covers, 29 screws for Lowell patterns, 10 caps, 
21 inch and 7 3- way inch Cocks for Wharf Hydrants. 



62 



APPENDIX. 



Besides the foregoing stock, there is at the pipe yard a 
seven horse steam engine used at Newton tunnel. Also two 
proving presses and as large a number of tools, of various 
sorts, valued at about $500, as are sufficient to carry on the 
operations essential to extending and repairing pipes. 

Consumption of Water by the City. 

For the sake of comparison, the average daily consumption 
each month, as published in the last annual report, is repeat- 
ed here with that of each month for the last year. By re- 
ferring to that report, some explanation Avill be found of the 
manner in which the estimates were made, and some difficul- 
ties which attended them. The same observations apply to 
these estimates for 1852, in the following statement of the 



Daily average number of wine gallons^ drawn from the 
Brookline Reservoir. 



Month. 


1849. 


1850. 


1851. 


1852. 


January, - 


1,700,000 


5,181,716 


7,233,729 


8,280,906 


February, - 




5,214,010 


7.221,119 


8,790.295 


March, 


1,550,000 


4,841,185 


6,137,913 


8.521.129 


April, ... 




4,960,993 


5.365,202 


8,048,700 


May, 


3,600 000 


5,346,066 


6,238.364 


8.350,000 


June, ... 


4,300,000 


6,906,454 


7,924.971 


8.033,083 


July, 


4,800,000 


8,514,194 


7,180,169 


9,60s,noo 


August, - - - 


4,100,000 


8.004,558 


7,235,020 


9,409,258 


September, 


4,800,000 


6,585,496 


7,230,610 


7,919.966 


October, - 


4,550,000 


4,504,309 


6,716.619 


6,929,984 


November, 


3,800.000 


4,960,518 


6,473,514 


6,637,866 


December, 


3,600,000 


5,037,015 


7,663,363 


7,195,816 


Average for the year, 


3,680,000 


5,837,883 


6,883,782 


8,125,842 



Note. The observations for February and April, 1849, were too imperfect to 
base an estimate upon. The month of August was very wet. In the summers 
of 1849 and 1850, a great deal of water was used in flushing out the common 
sewers, and for the public fountains. In June, 1851, unusual waste was made in 
the city to keep the Brookline Reservoir down. In December, the same year, the 
excessive cold caused a great deal of water to be wasted, to prevent pipes in houses 
from freezing. In December, 1852, the weather was very mild. 

The rapid increase in the consumption, or rather waste 
of water, has been and continues to be, a matter of most 
serious importance. It seems difficult to express any reason- 



APPENDIX. 



63 



able fears with regard to it, that are not more than realized. 
When the works were projected, it was thought that the 
average daily allowance of 28? gallons to each inhabitant was 
very extravagant. For a population of 140,000, this would 
fall a little short of 4,000,000 gallons, whereas the actual 
average daily consumption throughout the last year, exceeded 
8,000,000 gallons. That the original estimate of 2Sh gallons 
to each person, for every legitimate purpose, was exceedingly 
liberal, no one could then doubt ; but now twice that quan- 
tity does not suffice ; and, unless something can be done to 
check the growing evil, the original estimate will be trebled 
in a very few years, provided Lake Cochituate can be made 
to furnish so much. 

A great deal of water is occasionally wasted in very cold 
weather, by letting taps run to keep pipes from freezing. In 
warm weather, large quantities are worse than uselessly 
wasted, by deluging the streets and sidewalks, when a mere 
sprinkling would, in most cases, lay the dust quite as weljl. 
Windows, shutters and sidewalks, which could formerly be 
kept sufficiently clean with a few gallons of well water a 
month, now require barrels of Cochituate in the same time. 
A horse or a carriage which could once be washed with a 
bucket of water and a little labor, now requires a barrel 
without the labor, and it is said that trucks are much more 
frequently washed than formerly. 

A more constant, and perhaps greater waste, in the aggre- 
gate, than any other, is no doubt caused by allowing a con- 
stant stream to run at urinals, to keep them from being offen- 
sive. Some kinds of water closets consume a great deal. 
The convenient arrangements which are now introduced into 
most houses, for receiving and getting rid of water, are no 
doubt causes of much waste ; for through an ordinary filter, 
a very smooth and noiseless, but considerable stream may 
and often does run, when of no use whatever, because ser- 
vants and others are frequently too careless or- forgetful to 
stop it. Other sources of waste might be mentioned, but 
these are more than sufficient to account for the original esti- 
mates having been exceeded so much. 



64 APPENDIX. 

If this wastefulness should continue at the same rate a few- 
years longer, it will be absolutely necessary, as it is beginning 
to be desirable already, to lay down another large main from 
the Brookline Reservoir ; for without it, the Beacon Hill and 
South Boston Reservoirs will not only be rendered useless, 
but a considerable number of the inhabitants of the highest 
portions of the city will be deprived of water several hours 
in the day, and the fire hydrants there be rendered almost 
useless during the same time. 

If the city reservoirs were empty, and a serious accident 
should happen, requiring either or both of the large mains to 
be shut off for a number of hours or a day, much inconveni- 
ence, and in case of fire, great damage would probably be 
the result. 

It has been a matter of much interest to know the con- 
sumption of the City, at different hours in the night, as well 
as in the day. One experiment, made with the meters dur- 
ing the fifteen hours ending at 11 A. M. December 23d last ; 
and another during the forty-eight hours ending at 3 P. M. 
January 1st, without the meters, show that the consumption 
and waste at all hours of the night are very great. On the 
night of the first experiment it was quite cold, and the obser- 
vations showed a consumption which was never at a smaller 
rate than 5,000,000 gallons for twenty-four hours. Between 
10 P. M. and 4 A. M., it was 1,493,215 gallons, or at the rate 
of 5,972,860 gallons in twenty-four hours. The other exper- 
iment showed a smaller consumption ; but not much less. 
Owing to the leakage into the tunnels, which there was no 
means of keeping out of the reservoir, a nice degree of accu- 
racy could not be obtained. 

Compensating Reservoirs. 

The Hopkinton Reservoir is in good order ; but some of 
the buildings which were purchased with it, are rapidly de- 
teriorating in value, in consequence of being unoccupied. 

The Marlboro' Reservoir is also in good order. The Cun- 
ningham roads have been raised, widened, and protected by 
slope walls, in such a manner, that it is believed there will be 
no more complaints with regard to them. 



APPENDIX. 65 

The estimated discharge from the Hopkinton- Reservoir, 
between June 13th and November 14th, was 912,796,300 
gallons; and from the Marlboro' Reservoir, between July 14th 
and October 21st, it was 1,052,081,000 gallons; making from 
both the sum of 1,964,877,300 gallons. 

From June 13th to November 14th, the estimated con- 
sumption by the City was 1,283,105,194 gallons, but during 
this time the quantity in Lake Cochituate was diminished 
547,875,900 gallons, showing that the natural supply of the 
Lake was but 735,229,294 gallons, besides the leakage 
through the natural outlet. This shows that during the 
period last mentioned, the quantity let down from the com- 
pensating reservoirs for the benefit of the mill owners on 
Concord River, was more than twice and a half the natural 
supply of Lake Cochituate. During July and August, the 
only months in which there * was any scarcity at Billerica 
Mills, the amount let down from the compensating reservoirs 
was about three and a half times as much as the natural sup- 
ply of Lake Cochituate. 

Rain Gauges. 
Observations with rain gauges were made at the Hopkin- 
ton Reservoir, the Marlboro' Reservoir and Lake Cochitu- 
ate, during the year, by persons in the employ of the Water 
Board : and the results of these are embodied in the follow- 
ing table, with others, made in Boston, Cambridge, Waltham, 
Lowell and Providence. 



66 



APPENDIX. 



Monthly fall of Rain, in inches, in 1S52. 









Places and Overseers 








Month. 




Cam- 


| 


Lake Co- 


"\Iavl- 




Provi- 


Lowell, 




Boston, 


bridge, 


Waltham 


chituate, 


boro', 


Hopkin- 


dence, 


by 




by 


by W. C. 


by 


by 


by 


ton, bv 


by 


Lowell 




[. P. Hall 


Bond. 


E. Hubbs 


J. Yan- 


J. H. 


A. Wood 


A. Cas- 


Man. Co. 










nevar. 


Maynard. 




well. 




January, 


4 85 


2 223 


1.83 


5.S0 


3.59 


2.52 


2 70 


144 


February, 


285 


0.61S 


2.27 


1.76 


328 


2 74 


2.00 


296 


March, 


445 


2.104 


4.04 


4.42 


4.16 


3 63 


3 55 


3.06 


April, 


10.18 


7.942 


7.70 


9 60 


8 33 


7.90 


6 65 


8.S6 


May, 


1 95 


2299 


1.68 


2 60 


233 


2.55 


2 00 


1.22 


June, 


2.35 


4.028 


3.26 


2 00 


234 


2 44 


1.00 


3.33 


July, 


3.28 


1.862 


2 11 


2.16 


2 95 


2 86 


1.68 


2 31 


August, 


7.63 


7.505 


7.69 


8.27 


6 94 


7.00 


8 00 


S07 


September, 


1 65 


2.009 


2.0S 


2 04 


2 06 


2.42 


1.40 


1 64 


October, 


2.19 


2.916 


2.10 


3.40 


4.21 


3.08 


1.30 


2.14 


November, 


3.47 


3 82S 


415 


2 76 


3 52 


4.24 


4.60 


4 78 


December, 


3.09 


3.173 


3.33 


3.12 


3.10 


3 04 


3.70 


297 


Total, 


47.94 


40.507 


42 24 


47.93 


46.81 


44.42 


| 38.58 


42.7 S 



Complaints of bad Water. 
Every ordinary and some extraordinary efforts were made 
in the Spring, to prevent the usual complaints of bad water, 
and with most satisfactory success. !Xo complaints whatever 
were made, except in one or two instances, which were 
clearly owing to fish having got into the pipes ; as they were 
discharged into the houses where the complaints were made. 
It is hoped that the screens at the Brookline gate-house are 
so perfect now, that they will prevent fish from getting 
through them. 

Surveys and Plans. 

During the year, a very complete plan, embodying all the 
results of the survey of the City's land and water rights in 
Hopkinton, has been prepared ; and the falls on the Concord 
River, between the Middlesex Canal and Lowell, have been 
measured. 

Some examinations relative to the supply of a part of the 
City of Roxbury from the Jamaica Aqueduct, have been 
made, but the survey and estimates, in consequence of more 
pressing engagements elsewhere for the City, have not been 
completed yet. 



APPENDIX. 



67 



A plan showing the distributing pipes, hydrants and stop 
cocks throughout all parts of the City, has been prepared, 
and is presented with this report. 

Lands belonging to the Water Works. 
These, with a few buildings on them, are in as good con- 
dition as could be expected, which is not as good, however, 
as if they were owned and occupied by private individuals. 
It will be quite a relief to all connected with the works, 
when every building and lot not likely to be needed here- 
after, shall be disposed of; as it is impossible, without a use- 
less expenditure of money, to keep them in such order as 
private owners would. 

Jamaica Aqueduct. 

In consequence of the greatly diminished supply from this 
Aqueduct, all the takers in Boston having been cut off from 
it, the Jamaica Pond rose so high last spring, as to be very 
troublesome to the owners of some estates on its borders. 
To prevent a recurrence of this, two waste-cocks have been 
put in, one near the Pond, and the other at the junction of 
Tremont and Cabot streets. 

Several leaks occurred in the main pipe, which gave an 
opportunity of making the examinations already mentioned. 
For several months it has given very little trouble, and con- 
tinues to supply, not only the original takers in Roxbury, but 
a number of new ones. 

Expenditures. 
An account of all expenditures made under the direction 
of the Water Board, by the City Engineer, being kept by the 
Clerk of the Board, his statement is referred to for the items. 
In consequence of the impracticability this year, of getting 
all the returns necessary, it has been impossible to comply 
strictly with the Water Ordinance, which requires this re- 
port to be made on or before the 5th of January. 
Which is respectfully submitted. 

E. S. CHESBRQUCH, 

City Engineer. 
Boston, January 11th, 1853. 



6S 



APPENDIX. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE WATER REGISTRAR 

FOR 1852. 

Water Registrar's Office, 
Boston, Jan. 1st, 1853. 

Thomas Wetmore, Esq,., 

President of the Cochituate Water Board. 
Sir : — 

In compliance with the 16th Section of the Ordinance 
providing for the care and. management of the Boston Wa- 
ter Works, passed October 3 1st, 1850, the following Report 
is made. 

The number of Water Takers now entered for the year 
1853, is 16,862, being an increase since January 1st, 1852, 
of 786. 

The total number of cases where the water has been shut 
off during the year 1852, is 2,082. Of these, 1,316 were for 
repairs ; 766 were for non-payment of water rates. 

The whole number of cases where the water has been 
let on during the year, is 2,602. Of these, 1,235 were cases 
which had been previously shut off for repairs ; 596 were 
those which had been shut off for non-payment of water 
rates, and 771 were let on for the first time. 

Repairs have been made upon the service-pipes, streets, 
side-walks, &c, in 290 instances. 

There have been no abatements made during the year. 

The total amount received from December 
31st, 1851, to January 1st, 1853, for water 
rates, is, $179,486.25 

Of the above, there was received for water 
used during the years 1850, and 1851, the 
sum of, - - - - - $2,473.84 

Leaving the receipts for water used 
during the year 1852, - - 177,012.41 



Total Amount, - - - 179,486.25 



APPENDIX. 69 

In addition to the above, there has been re- 
ceived, for letting on water, in cases where 
it had been shut off for non-payment of wa- 
ter rates, $991.00 

A detailed statement of the receipts for the 
year 1852, is included in this Report. 

The amount of assessments already made, 
for the year 1853, is, - - ' - - 162,993.94 

This amount during the year, will probably 
be increased to at least, - 190,000.00 

The expenditures in my department during 

the year 1852, have been, - 1,716.96 

The items of this expenditure are as fol- 
lows, viz : — 

Paid Wm. P. Davis, for services as clerk, - - 644.87 

Chas. L. Bancroft, 580.75 

Samuel Huse, for work on meters, - - 148.59 

Francis A. Bacon, for distributing bills, &c, 94.00 

John H. Eastburn, for printing, - - 92.00 

Eayrs &> Fairbanks, for books and stationery, 78.56 

John H. Colby, for distributing bills, - - 27.00 

James W. Turner, for " " - 25.00 

Edwin Fish, for " " 10.50 

Stephen Maddox, for washing towels, &c, - 5.69 

Dripps & Ide, for map of Boston, - - 5.00 

East Boston Ferry Co., for tickets, - - 5.00 



Amount, - $ 1,716.96 



70 APPENDIX. 



Statement, showing the number of Houses, Stores, Steam 
Engines, &c, in the City of Boston, supplied with Co- 
chituate Water to the first of January, 1853, with 
the Amount of Water Rates paid for 1852. 



1248 Dwelling 


Houses, 


$5.00 


$6,240.00 


1618 


a 


a 


6.00 


9,708.00 


1778 


(( 


n 


7.00 


12,446.00 


1754 


a 


u 


8.00 


14,032.00 


1808 


it 


u 


9.00 


16,272.00 


1432 


tl 


u 


10.00 


14,320.00 


899 


ii 


n 


11.00 


9,889.00 


569 


it 


il 


12.00 


6,828.00 


338 


a 


ii 


13.00 


4,394.00 


218 


a 


n 


14.00 


3,052.00 


125 


a 


u 


15.00 


1,875.00 


109 


a 


a 


16.00 


1,744.00 


74 


n 


u 


17.00 


1,258.00 


65 


ii 


ii 


18.00 


1,170.00 


60 


ii 


u 


19.00 


1,140.00 


42 


u 


u 


20.00 


840.00 


32 


u 


a 


21.00 


672.00 


40 


n 


it 


22.00 


880.00 


21 


a 


a 


23.00 


4S3.00 


37 


n 


it 


24.00 


888.00 


176 


ii 


a 


25.00 


4.400.00 


1 


u 


it 


30.00 


30.00 


1 


a 


it 


75.00 


75.00 


620 


ii 
Stores, 


a 


5.00 


2,411.55 


13065 




1432 


7,160.00 


3 


n 




6.00 


18.00 


187 


n 




8.00 


1,496.00 


1 


a 




9.00 


9.00 



115,047.55 



1623 Amounts carried forward, 8,6S3.00 115,047.55 



APPENDIX. 



71 



1623 


Amounts br 


Dught forward, 


$8,683.00 


$115,047.55 


7 


Stores, 


10.00 


70.00 




2 




11.00 


22.00 




6 




13.00 


7S.00 




1 




14.00 


14.00 




2 




15.00 


30.00 




136 


Shops, 


5.00 


415.58 




1777 


1,645.00 


9,312.58 


329 




4 




6.00 


24.00 




59 




8.00 


472.00 




6 




10.00 


60.00 




1 




11.00 


11.00 




6 




15.00 


90.00 




62 






204.46 




467 




2,506.46 


72 


Offices, 


5.00 


360.00 




13 


u 


8.00 


104.00 




4 


tt 


10.00 


40.00 




1 


a 


13.00 


13.00 




1 


a 


15.00 


15.00 




12 


a 




35.26 




103 




567.26 


1 


Building, 


50.00 


50.00 




2 


it 


40.00 


80.00 


«. 


1 


tt 


35.00 


35.00 




3 


a 


30.00 


90.00 




5 


tt 


25.00 


125.00 




1 


it 


20.00 


20.00 




1 


a 


17.25 


17.25 




3 


u 


15.00 


45.00 





17 Amounts carried forward, 462.25 127,433.85 



72 





APPENDIX. 






17 Amounts broug 


it forward, 


$462.25 


$127,433.85 


4 Buildings, 


10.00 


40.00 




1 » 


8.00 


8.00 




22 






510.25 


1 Bank, 


25.00 


25.00 




4 « 


8.00 


32.00 




2 " 


5.00 


10.00 




7 




67.00 


64 Market Stalls, 


5.00 


320.00 




5 " " 


10.00 


50.00 




2 " " 


2.50 


5.00 




1 Market, 


75.00 


75.00 




1 " 


50.00 


50.00 




1 " 


37.50 


37.50 




2 Packing Houses, 


8.00 


16.00 




76 






553.50 


34 Cellars, 


5.00 


170.00 




6 " 


8.00 


48.00 




1 " 


10.00 


10.00 




4 " 




15.50 




45 






243.50 


1 Hotel, 


375.50 


375.50 




1 


360.00 


360.00 




1 « 


338.50 


338.50 




L « 


192.00 


192.00 




1 » 


187.50 


187.50 




1 


163.50 


163.50 




1 " 


162.00 


162.00 




1 « 


151.50 


151.50 




1 " 


139.50 


139.50 




1 " 


138.00 


138.00 




1 " 


124.50 


124.50 





11 Amounts carried forward, 2,332.50 128,S08.10 





APPENDIX. 


ta 


11 


Amounts brought forward, 


$2,332.50 $128,803.10 


1 


Hotel, 123.00 


123.00 


2 


" 97.50 


195.00 


2 


" 90.00 


180.00 


1 


" 85.50 


85.50 


1 


« 81.00 


81.00 


1 


" 78.00 


78.00 


2 


" 73.50 


147.00 


1 


" 72.00 


72.00 


1 


" 67.50 


67.50 


1 


" 66.00 


66.00 


1 


" 64.50 


64.50 


2 


" 60.00 


120.00 


1 


" 5S.50 


58.50 


1 


" 57.00 


57.00 


1 


" 52.50 


52.50 


1 


" 50.00 


50.00 


1 


" 48.00 


48.00 


2 


" 45.00 


90.00 


1 


" 37.50 


37.50 


1 


" 34.50 


34.50 


2 


" 33.00 


66.00 


2 


" 30.00 


60.00 


1 


" 25.50 


25.50 


2 


" 25.00 


50.00 


3 


" 21.00 


63.00 


1 


" 20.75 


20.75 


1 


" 20.00 


20.00 


4 


" 18.00 


72.00 


2 


" 17.00 


34.00 


3 


" 15.00 


45.00 


1 


" 14.00 


14.00 


1 


" 13.00 


13.00 


3 


" 12.00 


36.00 


62 


Amount carried forward, 


4,559.25 




133,367.35 



10 



74 



APPENDIX. 

Amount brought forward, $133,367.35 

1 Restaurant, 40.00 $40.00 

1 " 25.00 25.00 

1 " 24.00 24.00 

1 " 20.00 20.00 

11 " 15.00 165.00 

6 « 12.00 72.00 

8 « 10.00 80.00 

59 " 8.00 472.00 

3 " 5.00 15.00 

' 2 " 9.33 



93 






922.33 


1 Saloon, 


30.00 


30.00 




1 " 


20.00 


20.00 




fH 


18.00 


18.00 




1 « 


17.00 


17.00 




6 " 


15.00 


90.00 




14 « 


10.00 


140.00 




89 « 


8.00 


712.00 




1 « 


6.00 


6.00 




4 " 


5.00 


20.00 




6 " 




19.67 




24 




1,072.67 


1 Custom House, 


150.00 


150.00 




1 Hospital, 


125.00 


125.00 




1 Institution for Blinc 


, 35.00 


35.00 




1 Medical College, 


30.00 


30.00 




1 State House, 


20.00 


20.00 




1 Asylum, 


83.33 


83.33 




1 " 


30.00 


30.00 




1 » 


25.00 


25.00 




1 " 


20.00 


20.00 




i-H 


15.00 


15.00 




1 " 


12.00 


12.00 








11 Amounts carried forward, 545.33 135,362.35 








APPENDIX. 




ii> 


11 Amounts brought forward, 


$545.33 


$135,362.35 


1 Eye & Ear Infirmary, 20.00 


20.00 




1 Soc. Nat. History, 


10.00 


10.00 




13 




575.33 


15 Churches, 


5.00 


75.00 




2 " 


20.00 


40.00 




4 « 




6.67 




2 Halls, 


5.00 


10.00 




2 " 


8.00 


16.00 


- 


2 " 


10.00 


20.00 




2 " 


15.00 


30.00 




3 Schools, 


5.00 


15.00 


v 


32 




212.67 


1 Theatre, 


10.00 


10.00 




1 " 


18.00 


18.00 




1 Gymnasium, 


15.00 


15.00 




1 Museum, 


15.00 


15.00 




1 Tremont Temple, 


20.00 


20.00 




1 Masonic " 


5.00 


5.00 




6 




83.00 


1 Stable, 


144.00 


144.00 




1 " 


140.00 


140.00 




1 " 


118.00 


118.00 




1 » 


110.00 


110.00 




2 " 


100.00 


200.00 




1 « 


90.00 


90.00 




1 " 


86.00 


86.00 




1 » 


84.00 


84.00 




1 » 


80.00 


80.00 




2 " 


72.00 


144.00 




5 " 


70.00 


350.00 




1 " 


68.00 


68.00 




2 " 


60.00 
forward, 


120.00 




20 Amounts carried 


1,734.00 


136,233.35 



76 



1 Stable, 

1 " 

1 « 

1 " 

1 » 
4 " 

2 " 
1 " 
1 

1 " 

6 " 

3 « 

1 " 

1 " 

1 " 

4 " 
1 " 

6 " 
8 " 

1 " 

2 " 
2 " 
1 " 
1 " 

1 " 

7 « 

2 " 
1 " 

3 « 

4 «« 
1 " 
1 « 
7 " 

1 " 

2 " 
4 " 



APPENDIX. 




t forward, 


$1,734.00 $136,233.35 


56.33 


56.33 


56.00 


56.00 


53.00 


53.00 


52.00 


52.00 


51.00 


51.00 


50.00 


200.00 


48.00 


96.00 


47.50 


47.50 


46.67 


46.67 


41.00 


41.00 


40.00 


24000 


36.00 


108.00 


34.00 


34.00 


33.33 


33.33 


32.50 


32.50 


32.00 


128.00 


31.00 


31.00 


30.00 


180.00 


28.00 


224.00 


26.00 


26.00 


25.00 


50.00 


24.00 


4S.00 


23.75 


23.75 


22.50 


22.50 


22.00 


22.00 


20.00 


140.00 


18.75 


37.50 


18.50 


18.50 


18.00 


54.00 


17.50 


70.00 


16.50 


16.50 


16.25 


16.25 


15.00 


105.00 


14.25 


14.25 


14.00 


28.00 


13.75 


55.00 



106 Amounts carried forward, 4,191.58 136,233.35 



APPENDIX. 



77 



106 Amounts brought forward, 

1 Stable, 13.00 
11 " 12.50 

2 " 12.00 
1 " 11.87 
7 » 11.25 
1 " 11.00 
1 " 10.40 

19 " 10.00 

1 " 9.00 

17 " 8.75 

1 " 8.50 

9 " 8.00 

21 " 7.50 

26 " 6.25 

15 « 6.00 

1 " 5A2 

1 " 5.20 

49 " 5.00 

1 " 4.69 

1 " 4.50 

1 " 4.37 

2 " 4.17 
4 « 4.00 

49 " 3.75 

1 " 3.42 

2 " 3.33 
74 " 3.00 
34 " 

459 



Shop and Engine, 195.78 

" " 129.48 

" " 125.76 

" " 120.00 

" " 109.00 



1,191.58 $136,233.35 

13.00 

137.50 

24.00 

11.87 

78.75 

11.00 

10.40 

190.00 

9.00 

148.75 

8.50 

72.00 

157.50 

162.50 

90.00 

5.42 

5.20 

245.00 

4.69 

4.50 

4.37 

8.34 

16.00 

183.75 

3.42 

6.66 

222.00 

51.45 



195.78 
129.48 
125.76 
120.00 
109.00 



6,077.15 



5 Amounts carried forward, 680.02 142,310.50 



78 APPENDIX. 

5 Amounts brought forward, $680.02 $142,310.50 

1 Shop and Engine, 99.60 99.60 

1 « <•' 89.00 89.00 

1 « " 80.00 80.00 

1 « « 78.00 78.00 

1 « « 73.00 73.00 

1 « « 68.22 68.22 

1 " " 61.08 61.08 

1 « ft 54.54 54.54 

1 « « 54.24 54.24 

1 « * 49.80 49.80 

1 « « 46.62 46.62 

1 « » 44.20 44.20 

1 « " 42.62 42.62 

1 « ft 38.58 38.58 

1 « « 32.64 32.64 

1 « » 29.28 29.28 

2 « " 24.00 48.00 
1 « ft 22.84 22.84 

1 « «« 20.33 20.33 

2 " «. 20.00 40.00 
1 « « 18.28 18.28 
1 " » 16.00 16.00 
1 it » 15.56 15.56 
1 « " 14.96 14.96 
1 « » 13.46 13.46 
1 « " 10.00 10.00 



33 1,840.87 

1 Fac'y and Engine, 796.91 796.91 

» 559.14 559.14 

u 339.72 339.72 

« 174.66 174.66 

ft 132.96 132.96 

ft 118.02 118.02 

" 110.40 110.40 



1 


a 


1 


it 


1 


a 


1 


a 


1 


« 


1 


u 



7 Amounts carried forward, 2,231.81 144,151.37 



APPENDIX. 



79 



7 Amounts brought forward, 

1 Fac'y and Engine, 86.40 

1 

1 

1 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

18 



81.60 
69.84 
66.00 
51.90 
40.50 
37.50 
31.50 
30.00 
22.26 
10.67 



1 Printing Office and 



En< 



ine, 103.86 

" 83.24 

» 64.76 

" 40.00 

" 35.74 

" 26.20 

" 25.00 

" 22.68 

" - 18.00 



#,231.81 

86.40 
81.60 
69.84 
66.00 
51.90 
40.50 
37.50 
31.50 
30.00 
22.26 
10.67 



;144,151.37 



agine, 461.74 


461.74 


« 209.04 


209.04 


" 121.40 


121.40 


» 109.50 


109.50 


« 108.00 


108.00 


" 107.40 


107.40 


" 94.32 


94.32 


" 65.28 


65.28 



103.86 
83.24 
64.76 
40.00 
35.74 
26.20 
25.00 
22.68 
18.00 



2,759.98 



1,276.68 



419.48 



Amount carried forward, 



148,607.51 



so 





APPENDIX. 




Amount br 


DUght forward, 


$148,607.51 


1 Engine, 


1,587.60 


$1,587.60 


1 « 


1S3.60 


183.60 


1 " 


153.30 


153.30 


1 « 


140.70 


140.70 


1 " 


114.00 


114.00 


1 " 


113.52 


113.52 


1 « 


100.74 


100.74 


1 « 


79.02 


79.02 


1 " 


73.62 


73.62 


1 « 


70.00 


70.00 


1 « 


60.00 


60.00 


1 " 


57.33 


57.33 


2 " 


48.00 


96.00 


1 « 


44.50 


44.50 


1 « 


42.00 


42.00 


I " 


36.00 


36.00 


1 " 


31.80 


31.80 


1 « 


31.12 


31.12 


i— i 


28.50 


28.50 


1 « 


25.00 


25.00 


1 " 


24.00 


24.00 


tH 


22.80 


22.80 


1 " 


21.36 


21.36 


1 « 


19.85 


19.85 


1 » 


18.S6 


18.86 


2 « 


15.00 


30.00 


1 " 


14.76 


14.76 


1 " 


10.20 


10.20 


1 « 


10.00 


10.00 


1 " 


9.48 


9.48 


1 " 


9.00 


9.00 


5 " 




25.31 


38 


3,283.97 


1 Factory, 


300.00 


300.00 


1 " 


18S.00 


188.00 



2 Amounts carried forward, 488.00 151,8°1.48 



APPENDIX 



81 



2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 
3 

15 
1 
3 
5 
1 
1 

46 



Amounts brought forward. 



Factory, 



1 Bathing House. 



1 


<( 


u 


2 


(C 


it 


1 


a 


it 


1 


It 


a 


2 


It 


n 


1 


a 


it 



150.00 

140.00 

110.00 

104.22 

78.00 

71.00 

70.00 

52.08 

50.00 

33.33 

30.00 

25.00 

22.50 

15.00 

12.00 

11.25 

10.00 

8.00 

6.67 

6.25 



$488.00 

150.00 

140.00 

110.00 

104.22 

78.00 

71.00 

70.00 

52.08 

50.00 

33.33 

60.00 

25.00 

45.00 

45.00 

180.00 

11.25 

30.00 

40.00 

6.67 

6.25 



$151,891.48 



2,177.58 


2,177.58 


1,531.80 


1,531.80 


135.00 


135.00 


55.00 


55.00 


50.00 


100.00 


40.00 


40.00 


35.00 


35.00 


15.00 


30.00 


7.50 


7.50 



1,795.80 



3,709.38 



Amount carried forward, 



402.50 
157,799.16 



ii 



82 



APPENDIX. 



Amount brought forward, 



$157,799.16 



1 Printing Office, 24.00 


$24.00 




2 « 


12.00 


24.00 




5 " " 


10.00 


50.00 




1 « « 


9.17 


9.17 




1 « f 


6.67 


6.67 




3 " < 


! 8.00 


24.00 




13 " < 


6.00 


78.00 




1 « < 


5.00 


5.00 




1 « < 


4.50 


4.50 




1 « < 


2.50 


2.50 




2 " ' 


' 2.00 


4.00 




31 




231.84 


1 Distillery, 


358.62 


358.62 




1 " 


331.62 


331.62 




1 " 


237.68 


237.68 




1 " 


130.56 


130.56 




1 " 


90.00 


90.00 




1 » 


60.00 


60.00 




1 " 


30.00 


30.00 




1 Brewery, 


45.00 


45.00 




1 « 


25.00 


25.00 




6 « 


15.00 


90.00 




1 » 


10.00 


10.00 









_ 




16 






1,408.48 


2 Bleacheries, 


10.00 


20.00 




4 » 


8.00 


32.00 




1 » 


5.00 


5.00 




1 Dye House, 


25.00 


25.00 




1 Laboratory, 


10.00 


10.00 




1 Chemical "V 


forks, 7.50 


7.50 




ID 






99.50 



Amount carried forward, 



159,538.98 



APPENDIX. 



83 



Amount brought forward, $ 159,538.98 

2 Laundries, 30.00 $60.00 

1 " 7.00 7.00 



1 Bakery, 15.00 15.00 

2 " 10.00 20.00 
2 " 8.00 16.00 

37 " 5.00 185.00 



42 






1 Club House, 


53.00 


53.00 


1 it a 


25.00 


25.00 


\ a u 


10.00 


10.00 


3 




2 Ship Yards, 


15.00 * 


30.00 


1-1 1 


7.50 


7.50 


3 




919 Hose, 


3.00 


2,757.00 


2 " 


10.00 


20.00 


921 

1 Fountain, 


26.00 


26.00 


2 < k 


25.00 


50.00 


1 " 


15.00 


15.00 


1 " 


12.00 


12.00 


1 " 


9.00 


9.00 


1 " 


8.00 


8.00 


1 li 


7.00 


7.00 


8 » 


6.00 


48.00 


1 " 


5.00 


5.00 


1 " 


3.00 


3.00 



67.00 



236.00 



88.00 



37.50 



2,777.00 



18 183.00 

Amount carried forward, 162,927.48 



84 



APPENDIX. 



Amount brought forward, 



1 Bacon Works, 



15.00 
10.00 



2 

1 Ra 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 Fre 

8 



Iroad Co. 



ght House, 



$15.00 
10.00 



2,066.72 


2,066.72 


1,005.00 


1,005.00 


783.20 


783.20 


868.00 


868.00 


759.30 


759.30 


431.35 


431.35 


95.00 


95.00^ 


15.00 


15.00 


)., 509.04 


509.04 


• 347.64 


347.64 



$162,927.48 



25.00 



1 E. Boston Ferry Co 
1 Chelsea " " 



2 

1 Cunard Steamship 

Co., 275.00 275.00 

1 Steamboat, 229.50 229.50 

1 « 160.00 160.00 

1 » 120.00 120.00 

1 " 90.00 90.00 

1 " 86.64 86.64 

1 « 77.72 77.72 

1 " 76.00 76.00 

1 » 72.00 72.00 

1 " 70.00 70.00 

1 " 68.00 68.00 

1 « 51.00 51.00 

1 « 40.00 40.00 

1 « 36.54 36.54 

1 « 19.20 19.20 

15 



6,023.57 



856.68 



1,471.60 



Amount brought forward. 



171,304.33 



APPENDIX. 



85 



Amount brought forward, 




$171,304.33 


Contractors for supplying 






shipping, - 


$2,507.35 




Glendon Rolling Mill, 


1,150.62 




Prop'rs Boston Traveller, 


607.13 




Street Waterers, 


485.59 




Boston Gas Light Co. - 


300.00 




Watering Ships, &c, 


225.00 




Mass. Iron Co., - 


167.54 




Mill Dam Co., 


150.00 




Building Purposes, 


104.85 




E. Boston Gas Light Co., 


10.00 








5,708.08 


Amount of Water Rates, 


- 


177,012.41 



Which is respectfully submitted. 

J. AYERY RICHARDS, 

Water Registrar. 








1 








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