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Full text of "Annual report of the Cochituate Water Board"

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City Document. — No. 16. 



COCHITUATE WATER BOARD, 



CITY COUNCIL OF BOSTON, 



FOR THE YEAR 1853. 




BOSTON: 
.1854. 

J. H. EASTBUEN, CITY PRINTEE. 



7 



5 . o - '&'i-tJt^i^"fw^^^fi%- 



REPORT. 



Office of the Cochituate Water Board. 
» 

Boston, January 15, 1854. 

To the City Council of Boston. 

The Cochituate Water Board respectfully submit, 
in compliance with an Ordinance of the City Council, 
their Annual Report for the year 1853. 

Supply of Water. 

The experience of the past year fully agrees with 
that of previous ones, in confirming the anticipations 
originally formed, of the entire sufficiency of the Water 
Works for affording an ample supply of water, for " all 
the public, domestic and manufacturing uses of the in- 
habitants." The supply in Lake Cochituate was quite 
abundant, the quantity wasted at the outlet dam 
having been more, by upwards of a hundred million 
of gallons, than what was drawn from the Brookline 
Reservoir for the consumption of the city. 

A comparison of the total rain-fall during the year, 
as estimated from observations made at the Lake, and 
at the Marlborough, and Hopkinton Reservoirs, under 
the direction of the Water Board, with the quantity of 



4 WATER. [Jan. 

water received into tlie Lake, as stated in the returns of 
the several Superintendents, shows a near conformity 
with the original calculations of the Water Commis- 
sioners, that we might rely on receiving four-tenths of 
the whole yearly rain-fall on the water-shed. 

The rain-fall over the whole water-shed is estimated 
to have been 50 inches, which would be equal to 
2,069,100,000 cubic feet, or 15,528,250,000 wine gal- 
lons. The tables of the consumption of water in the 
city show that 3,117,939,500 gallons were drawn from 
the Brookline Eeservoir, and the amount wasted at 
the Lake was 3,436,817,500 gallons, to which adding 
172,000,000 as the quantity indicated by the difference 
of level of the water in the Lake at the beginning and 
end of the year, the whole number of gallons received 
into the Lake from the rain-fall appears to have been 
6,726,757,000, or about 43 per cent. The quantity 
which leaked into the brick aqueduct is presumed to 
have been about equal to that discharged at the waste 
weirs, in the process of making the repairs on the 
aqueduct. 

The gates at the outlet dam were closed on the 17th 
of June for the purpose of retaining, for consumption 
during the dry season, the water which had been pre- 
viously collected. The height of the water was then 
7 feet 2M inches above the flume, and 9K inches below 
the point of high water to which the city is authorized 
to raise it. The gates were kept closed until the twenty- 
first of November, when the fall rains had again raised 
it to 7 feet 4M inches. The lowest point to which it 
fell during the summer was 3 feet 2)t inches below the 
high water level, on the 24th of October. There then 
remained in the Lake 3 feet 11^ inches, or more than 
one-half of the quantity which had been retained. 

From the 17th of June to the 24th of October, the 



1854.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 16. 5 

rain-fall was twenty inches, being equal to 6,207,300,- 
000 gallons on the water-shed. Duringlthe same peri- 
od there was drawn from Brookline Eeservoir 1,128,- 
228,840 gallons, and wasted from the Lake 119,600,- 
000, from which sums deducting 321,650,000, the 
quantity indicated by the difference of level at the two 
periods, the amount received from the rain-fall appears 
to have been 926,178,840 gallons, or about 15 per 
cent, of the rain-fall. 

While the quantity drawn from the Brookline Receiv- 
ing Reservoir annually has been constantly increasing, it 
will be seen, by reference to the tables in the Report of 
the City Engineer of the average monthly depths in the 
Beacon Hill and South Boston Distribution Reservoirs, 
that the average depths for the year have been gradu- 
ally diminishing. The former having fallen from 11.01 
feet in 1850 to 6.80 in 1853, and the latter from about 
14 feet in 1850 to 8X feet in 1853 ; and during the pre- 
sent month, since these tables were formed, the depth at 
the latter has for several days been but about 3 feet and 
under. 

Tlie great and principal cause of this is undoubt- 
edly to be looked for in the continually increasing 
consumption. There are other causes, however, some 
of which are temporary and others permanent, and 
becoming more and more efficient, to which it must 
be in some measure attributed. 

In the first place, the necessity of completing the 
repairs in the brick aqueduct, which were commenc- 
ed in 1853, as stated in the last annual report, has 
required that the water should be drawn off for three 
and sometimes four days every week, by which the 
height at the Brookline Reservoir was lessened about 
four feet on an average, and in the city it has been 
about two feet less than it would otherwise have been 



6 WATER. [Jan. 

These repairs are now nearly completed, and it is hop- 
ed that the whole work will be done in May next. 

The other cause is found, in the reduced capacity 
of all the iron mains and pipes, occasioned by the 
accumulation of accretions, which permanently adhere 
to their interior surface. The Water Board, in their 
report of last year, gave a somewhat detailed account 
of the state of the pipes in relation to this subject, 
and also of all the facts which they could learn in 
regard to the existence of the same trouble in other 
places, and of the efforts which had been made to ascer- 
tain their origin, and to prevent or remove them. 
During the year they have been carefully watched, and 
Professor Horsford has continued to give his very valu- 
able services to the subject. His communication the 
Committee beg leave to annex and make part of their 
report. The extent to which these accretions have 
affected the discharge of water from the pipes, by di- 
minishing their area and increasing the friction, has 
been satisfactorily ascertained by observations made by 
the City Engineer with great care on one of the thirty- 
inch mains across Charles River ; and is found to be 
much greater than was anticipated. The loss of dis- 
charge under the common head of six inches was found 
to be upwards of twenty per cent, of the known dis- 
charge of a new main of like diameter. Similar obser- 
vations made on the thirty-inch main from the Brook- 
line Reservoir, under the ordinary head of eight feet, 
gave the same result. The level in the city has been 
accordingly reduced from this cause, usually not less 
than three feet. 

Consumption of Water. 

The quantity drawn from the Brooklme Reservoir 
and used in the City during the year was, as has been 
stated, 3,117,939,500 wine gallons, being a daily aver- 



1854.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No 16. 7 

age for the year of 8,542,300 gallons, and affording a 
supply to every inhabitant, of the present population, 
of fifty-five gallons daily. The quantity thus used ex- 
ceeds that of the last year by more than 152,000,000 
gallons. This excess seems to have been confined to 
the month of June and the four last months of the 
year, as in the other months the consumption was less 
than that of the corresponding months of the previous 
year. The difference in the consumption of the two 
years is probably to be attributed to the fact that dur- 
ing all the early months of the year the weather was 
much milder than the year before, and thus one great 
and usual source of waste of water caused by letting it 
run to prevent freezing in the pipes, was in a degree 
obviated ; and during the other months, when the con- 
sumption was less than the year previous, the de- 
ficiency was probably entirely owing to the unusual 
amount of rain-fall, which rendered the customary use 
of the water for many purposes unnecessary. There is 
an evidence of this in the comparative consumption of 
the months of June and August. In the former there 
was hardly any rain, (0.30 in.) and the daily consump- 
tion then exceeded that of the last year by 912,817 
gallons; but in the latter month, when the rain-fall 
amounted to the large amount of 9.40 in., the daily 
consumption was less than that of the previous year by 
947,358 gallons. 

Since the month of September the excess of con- 
sumption over the last year has been continually in- 
creasing, so that during the month of December it 
. amounted to 2,032,582 gallons daily — the daily aver- 
age for the month being 9,228,400 gallons.* 

* An unavoidable delay in finishing this report at the time fixed by the Ordi- 
nance enables us to state a more inordinate excess of consumption which took 
place the latter part of January. The daily average continued about the same as 
in December until the 25th, when the cold became more intense ; on that day, for 



8 WATER. [Jan. 

It has been deemed important to the Board to ascer- 
tain the time and places where any excess of consump- 
tion generally takes place, and more particularly to 
measure, with as much precision as possible, the 
draught at times when there would probably be the 
smallest quantity used, and in places where the use 
might be presumed to be unusually large. 

In reference to the first point, the Report of the City 
Engineer describes an elaborate course of observations 
made by him. Their result will, we think, excite the 
surprise of the City Council, as it has that of the Water 
Board. The time taken was between midnight and four 
o'clock in the morning, October 19th. It was found that 
the consumption at that time amounted to 885,000 wine 
gallons, which was at the rate of 5,310,000 gallons in 
twenty-four hours ; and these results were confirmed by 
subsequent observations. That is to say, at a period of 
time when the vast majority of water takers are pre- 
sumed to have ceased entirely to draw any water, and 
when the consumption every where must have been 
quite a small fraction compared with that of any other 
part of the day, and at a season of the year when it could 
not have been run to waste to prevent freezing, the con- 
sumption was at a greater rate, by nearly a million of 
gallons a day, than was originally anticipated to be 
necessary for all the wants of the present population, 
supposing it to be 155,000. A result so extraordinary, 
at first led to the suspicion that there might be one 
or more leaks in some of the mains. A farther course 

24 hours, the consumption was 11,600,000. On the 26th, it was 13,100,000. On 
the 28th and also the 29th, it was upwards of 14,000,000, And the average for 
the month has been 10,800,000. The consequence has been that the EeseiToirs 
on Beacon Hill and at South Boston, were drained, and that at East Boston re- 
duced at one time to 3 feet 6 inches. There was an entire failure of supply to 
many houses on Mount Vernon, and also on Tort Hill, and the higher parts of 
Broadway, South Boston. 



1854] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 16. 9 

of experiments, however, proved that this could not be 
the case, and that there could not be any important 
leak in any of the mains or distributing pipes in the 
streets, or in those which cross the channels to South 
and East Boston. An attempt was also made to ascer- 
tain the quantity discharged from the different sewers, 
during the same hours, and though it could not be 
done with entire completeness, it appeared sufficiently 
proved, that the consumption was more than equalled 
by that discharge. 

In order to ascertain the quantity actually used 
in certain places where it was supposed to be unusu- 
ally large, the Board have, during the summer of the 
past year, caused water meters to be placed in some of 
the principal hotels and livery stables, for measuring 
the quantity actually drawn. They have found that in 
one hotel there was an average daily consumption of 
25,539 gallons, for 58 days — and in another, an average 
daily consumption of 17,441 gallons, for 70 days. By 
the present tariff the former paid at the rate of aboht 
one cent for 4/^ hogsheads of water. In one livery 
stable there was a daily average consumption of 5,540 
gallons for 35 horses, or about 158 gallons to each 
horse; in another, a daily average of 5,019 gallons for 
55 horses, about 90 gallons for each horse ; in another, 
a daily average of 2,818 gallons for 45 horses, about 
62 gallons for each horse. In all these stables the 
hand hose was used for washing carriages, &c., and it 
was obvious that much of the waste could be attributed 
to that fact, by comparing the consumption with that 
in stables where no hose was used, in one of which 
there was a daily average of 1,666 gallons for 50 
horses, about 32 gallons for each horse, and in another 
it was 558 gallons for 36 horses, or 15 gallons for each 
horse. 



10 WATER. [Jan. 

Waste of Water. 

The Water Board regret that they have no evidence, 
on which they can attribute the diminished consump- 
tion, which appears to have taken place at certain pe- 
riods of the year, to a more prudent use of the water 
than has heretofore prevailed ; and they continue to be 
duly sensible of the necessity of repressing the wasteful- 
ness which so great a consumption during the year indi- 
cates. The quantity used has been about double what 
was originally, and is now, believed to be sufficient, for 
all the " public, manufacturing and domestic" uses of 
the present population; and more, by 1,300,000 gal- 
lons than was deemed ample for 250,000 inhabitants. 
Nearly one half of the consumption may fairly be con- 
sidered as absolutely wasted. They cannot help believ- 
ing that one cause of it may be found in the fact that, 
to a vast majority of the water takers, it has hitherto 
been of no injury, and that probably by them its future 
consequences are little appreciated, or indeed known. 
There is, however, even at this early period in the his- 
tory of the water works, a large and increasing number 
on the higher part of the city who already at times 
feel no small inconvenience from a deficiency of supply, 
whose complaints are becoming more grave and well 
founded daily ; and for which some remedy must ere 
long be found. The Board have efiected this to some 
extent heretofore, by causing the effluent main of the 
Beacon Hill Reservoir to be closed from 7 o'clock in 
the evening to 6 o'clock in the morning, for the pur- 
pose of accumulating, if possible, a quantity sufficient 
to supply the reservoirs in the houses of those tenants, 
in the early part of the day. The draught, however, has 
been recently so great, and the quantity accumulated so 
comparatively small, that the supply has been entirely 



1854.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 16. 11 

insufficient, even for many houses which were provided 
with reservoirs ; and for those which had none the re- 
lief was still less effectual. There is but a foot or two 
of water frequently left in the Beacon Hill lieservoir, 
and it sometimes stands four and even ten feet below 
the bottom of it ; of course at those times there are but 
few houses in the neighborhood, where the water rises 
above the first floor ; in many it flows but imperfectly 
and interruptedly even into the lowest rooms ; and in 
some it has failed altogether.* 

But far more serious consequences may be appre- 
hended if a greater head of water cannot be kept up 
on the high service, and in the Beacon Hill and South 
Boston Reservoirs. 

The whole district of South Boston is supplied by a 
single main of twenty inches diameter, carried under 
the bridge, having an inverted syphon beneath the 
draw. The main has hitherto continued perfectly 
tight and uninjured; it is however liable to accidents, 
and should any happen, by which the flow through it 
should be interrupted, that district would be entirely 
deprived of water, not only for extinguishing fire, but 
also for the ordinary purposes of life, unless a greater 
quantity can be retained in the reservoir than we now 

"* The recent extremely cold weather, and consequently inordinate consumption, 
has made it necessary to supply the high service by a very essential change in the 
mode of operating the works. It has been effected by separating a part of the 
City from the rest for the high service, and devoting the 30-inch main to it. This 
removes the difficulty on the high service. As by it, however, the low service is 
supplied at a level ordinarily twenty-five feet lower than the high, or about twelve 
feet lower than the bottom of the South Boston Reservoir, and the same distance 
below the level of top water in the East Boston Reservoir, it is impossible, while 
the separation continues, to fill the latter or get any water into the former, and it 
becomes necessary again to connect the two services for this purpose from time to 
time ; but the connection cannot be continued long, lest serious inconvenience 
should again be felt on the high service. This mode of operating requires constant 
attention and labor, and also involves some risk of injuring the gates by con- 
tinually moving them. 



12 WATER. fJan. 

can do. And there is apprehension of similar difficul- 
ties in the high service, if the head of water cannot be 
kept up in the Beacon Hill Reservoir. 

For the purpose of obtaining all the information 
which it was possible might throw any light on the 
subject of the waste of water, the Water Registrar was 
requested, in the early part of the year, to make an 
examination of all the water-fixtures in the several 
dwelling houses and other places, where the Cochituate 
Water is used ; and to report the same to the Board. A 
very careful and thorough inspection was accordingly 
made, and the result submitted by the Water Board to 
the City Council. 

The Water Registrar stated in his report, that he 
caused the premises of every water taker to be visited, 
the fixtures to be examined, and the various ways of 
using the water to be ascertained ; and also an account 
to be taken of the places where the fixtures were out 
of order and the water found running to waste. He 
returned " a full statement of the number and kind of 
water-fixtures contained within the premises of all the 
water takers in the city " a copy of which is annexed to 
his report, herewith transmitted. 

He also reported some prevalent modes of using the 
water, particularly in urinals and certain descriptions 
of water closets, as very objectionable, in being the 
cause of a great waste without any proportionate bene- 
fit to any one. That the present use of it at all in 
urinals very imperfectly accomplishes the purposes of 
cleanliness, and that the hojjper closet and self-acting 
closet, require, when properly used, about nine times 
the quantity of water that the pan closet does; and 
that by substituting the latter for the two former de- 
scriptions, there would be a saving of 239,960 gal- 
lons daily, even supposing there were no unnecessary 



1854] CITY DOCUMENT— No. 16. 13 

waste in either. He therefore recommended that the 
use of the water in urinals and in the hopper and self- 
acting water closets^ and also of the hose in stables, 
should hereafter be prohibited. 

The Water Board, after due consideration of the 
facts communicated by the Water Registrar, fully 
agreed with him in the alterations proposed, and sub- 
mitted the same to the City Council. An ordinance 
was accordingly passed proscribing the use of the hose 
in stables for the future, and increasing the water rate 
in boarding-houses (of a certain value) and hotels ; 
with permission, however, for those having charge of 
them to place meters in them, and have the water rate 
assessed according to the quantity actually used ; and 
also authorizing the Board to regulate the subject of 
water closets. The Board was also subsequently di- 
rected " to revise the present Tariff of Water E-ates, and 
to report the same, at an early day during the ensuing 
Municipal year, to the City Council of Boston." 

The Water Board have used and will continue to use 
all the means in their power to prevent the waste 
which prevails, by enforcing the provisions of the ordi- 
nances on the subject. It is their intention to this 
end, to appoint proper persons, whose special duty it 
shall be to ascertain, as far as possible, all places where 
the water is suffered to run to waste, and forthwith to 
report the same ; and the Water Registrar will be di- 
rected at once to cut off the supply from such places, 
without waiting to give notice to any parties interested. 
And the Board have also renewed their appeals to their 
fellow-citizens to attend to the use of the water in their 
own households. 



U WATER. [Jan. 

Additional WorJcs. 

If, however, their endeavors should continue to be, 
as heretofore, fruitless, they think that it will be neces- 
sary to supply the high service by some means which 
we do not now possess. Not only because common 
justice requires that that portion of our fellow-citizens 
who have been subjected, and will continue to be so, to 
no small share of the burdens which the introduction 
of the water has imposed, should enjoy all its bene- 
fits equally with the others, but for reasons in which 
those living on the highest part of the city are not 
alone interested. The danger of fire makes it an ob- 
ject of the deepest concern to all parts of the city.* 

It is for the City Council to determine the necessi- 
ty of such further supply, and also of the mode of 
effecting it. Three different ways have suggested 
themselves to the "Water Board. 

The first is, the laying another main to the Brook- 
line Reservoir, by which the quantity brought into the 
city will be actually increased and devoted to the high 
service. 

The second is, the employment of steam, to raise a 
sufficient quantity into the Beacon Hill Reservoir, 
which may be brought in by the present mains. 

And the third is, the requiring the use of water 
meters by the water takers, and charging a water-rate 
in some proportion to the quantity of water used ; by 
which it is thought that the waste will be prevented, 
and the quantity now brought in be found amply suffi- 
cient for all parts of the city. The City Engineer has 
been requested to report on the practicability and the 
cost of each of the above modes, which will be the sub- 

* It would have been difficult to foresee the extent of the calamity had a fire 
occurred, on several nights recently, when Mt. Vernon, part of Fort Hill and of 
South Boston were entirely deprived of a supply of water. 



1854.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 16. 15 

ject of a special communication hereafter, if the Water 
Board, find it necessary. 

General Condition of the Works. 

The general condition of the various structures at the 
Lake and Reservoirs, and of the brick aqueduct, mains 
and distributing pipes, continues to be highly satisfac- 
tory. The repairs on the aqueduct have been contin- 
ued successfully during the year. The work has been 
exceedingly arduous, and is found to be of the most 
vital importance to the security of the structure. By 
using the English hydraulic cement, the stoppage of 
the leaks has been, it is believed, fully effected, though 
the cost has been much increased. We have every 
reason to believe that these highly important defects in 
the original construction, which had been a source of 
anxiety from the beginning, will be now effectually and 
permanently remedied. About three thousand feet, out 
of the fourteen thousand originally deemed necessary to 
be repaired, now remain unfinished. The vegetable 
substance which is mentioned in the City Engineer's 
E-eport as having made its appearance lately in the 
aqueduct, is stated by botanists to be a species of 
spongilla or fresh water sponge. There is probably no 
way of preventing its growth ; it is however easily 
removed. The only injury it is known to do, is the 
clogging up the screens at the reservoirs ; and on this 
account it has become quite troublesome. 

On the subject of the accretions in the iron mains and 
pipes, Professor Hosford is of opinion, from his own ob- 
servations from time to time, that their growth is less 
rapid than at first. Our experience would therefore go 
to confirm the opinion expressed by Mr. Mallet, in his 
report to the " British Association," that the rate of 
increment must be a decreasing one. An analysis has 



16 .WATER. [Jan. 

been made of specimens of iron, from various pipes of 
the Boston Water Works, which had been more or less 
covered with tubercles; and also from pipes used in 
the Croton Aqueduct ; and that at Baltimore ; but there 
could be discovered no principle of correspondence, be- 
tween the rapidity of the formation of the accretions 
and the relative proportion of carbon, or the propor- 
tion of graphite on the one hand, and silica and other 
insoluble matters on the other ; or the appearance of 
the grain and lustre. There was, however, a striking 
coincidence between the specific gravities of the differ- 
ent specimens and the scale of accretion — the rapidity 
of formation of the tubercles appearing to be in a direct 
ratio with the specific gravity. This has thrown some 
light on the subject, which will be the subject of future 
observation. Professor Horsford is disposed to recom- 
mend a coating of hydraulic cement to protect the 
pipes, if, on the trial which is now making, it is found 
to adhere ; and he states, that after the result of the 
experiments now in progress is known, he has no doubt 
that the cause of the accretions and the mode of pre- 
venting them will be ascertained. 

For information more in detail of the state of the 
various parts of the works, the Board would respectfully 
refer the City Council to the full Report of the City 
Engineer, hereto annexed. 

Extension of the Worhs. 

The amount of Distributing Pipes, of 12, 6, 8, and 4 
inches diameter, laid during the year, is 13,090 feet, 
and 19 Stopcocks were affixed to the same. The whole 
length of all the pipes, of 4 inches and upwards in 
diameter, including hydrant branches and bends, is 
now a little more than 109 miles. 

The whole number of Stopcocks, 941. 



1854.] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 16. 17 

The number of Service Pipes laid during the year, is 
687, or 19,588 feet. The whole number, is 17,340 pipes. 

The number of Hydrants established during the year 
is 25. The whole number is 1,185. 

The whole number of leaks, which occurred and 
were repaired, in pipes of 4 inches and upwards, was 
85 ; the last year, 82 ; in those of less than 4 inches, 
260; the last year, it was 241. 

Compensating Reservoirs. 

The Compensating Reservoirs, at Hopkinton and 
Marlborough, are also in a satisfactory condition, and 
have fully answered the purpose for which they were 
designed, viz., the supplying Concord River with a 
quantity of water for the use of the Mills at Billerica, 
and also the Middlesex Canal, sufficient to compensate 
for supposed loss which they might sustain, by reason 
of our having diverted the water of Lake Cochituate 
from the same. The estimated amount discharged from 
both Reservoirs, from June 1 to October 1, was 1,413,- 
712,000 gallons. 

The natural supply of the Lake, during the same 
period, was 548,908,600 gallons, besides what was 
wasted at the natural outlet, which also continued to 
supply the River. 

The quantity discharged from the Reservoirs was 
more than two and a half times greater than what 
would have been the natural supply of the Lake. In 
fact the amount actually wasted from the latter, during 
the months of July and August, is believed to have 
been nearly or quite as much as would have flowed 
from the Lake, during the same period, if the dam had 
not been built. 



18 WATER. [Jan. 

Lands helonging to the Water Works. 

The lands and other property purchased for the City, 
at the time of the construction of the works, continue 
in the same state as at the last annual report, with the 
exception of a small lot which has been sold for ^100 
and the amount paid into the Treasury. 

Heceipts and Expenditures. 

By the account of Receipts and Expenditures for the 
year, hereto annexed, the same appear to have been as 
follows : — 

The whole amount drawn from City 

Treasury, . - . . ^89,854.03 

From which deducting. 
Paid for Land and Water 

Eights, - - - ^ 1,005.00 
Paid for extension of the 

Works, - - - 51,327.48 



52,332.48 



Amount of current expenses, - ;^37,521.55 

The whole amount of receipts, (ex-? 
cepting receipts for water rates,) 
was' as follows: 
For rents and sundries paid 
to City Treasurer, by ac- 
count annexed, - - ^4,621.40 
For rents and sundries, 
charged in various , ac- 
counts, - - - 708.29 

— » — - 5,329.69 

Balance, - , - ^32,191.86 



1851] CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 16. 19 

The whole cost of the Water Works to January 1, 
1854, has been #5,574,323.15. 

It is calculated by the Water Eegistrar, that the 
amount saved to the city the past year in the cost of 
maintaining the Fire Department, by the use of the 
Cochituate Water, has been ^51,705 ; which added to 
the receipts for water-rates, &c., and from other sources, 
will now fully equal the interest payable on the total 
cost of the Water Works 

Water Tenants and Water Rents. 

By the Annual Report of the Water Registrar, it ap- 
pears that the whole number of water takers, now en- 
tered for the present yep,r, is 17,911, being an increase 
for the past year of 1,049, to which must be added 
259, being' for Public Buildings which have been assess- 
ed, pursuant to an order of the City Council. 

The number of cases where the water has been shut 
off for repairs on the pipes has been 1,238, of these 
1,126 have been afterwards let on. 

The number shut off for non-payment of water rates 
was 532, and of these 459 were afterwards let on. 

The number let on for the first time was 804. No 
abatements have been made. 

The whole amount received for the year was $1^6,- 
352.32, of which #2,363.88 was due for previous years. 

And there has been received for letting on water pre- • 
viously shut off for non-payment of rates, #838 ; mak- 
ing the whole amount received #197,190.32. Of this 
amount #2,010.61 was received on account of Jamaica 
Pond. 

The assessments for 1854 already amount to #180,- 
144.31. 

The estimate of receipts for the present year is 
#215,000. 

The expenses of the office have been #2,295.17. 



20 WATER. [Jan. 

The Report also contains a detailed statement of the 
number and kind of water takers to whom the water 
has been supplied, and the several amounts paid ; of 
which the following abstract has been prepared : 
13,632 Dwelling-houses, - - - ^119^891.18 



1,845 Stores, shops, offices, cellars, &c., 


16,006.93 


283 Hotels, restaurants, and saloons, 


6,459.57 


480 Stables, - - - - , - 


6,515.38 


8 Railroads, _ _ _ - 


6,527.20 


2 Ferry Companies, - - - 


1,006.53 


16 Steamboats, - - - - 


3,055.81 


932 Hose, - - - - - 


2,829.00 


1 Motive-power, - - - - 


535.51 


63 Sugar Refineries, distilleries, brew- 




eries, and bakeries. 


6,635.93 


3 Gas Companies, - - . 


514.47 


Other manufacturing purposes, - 


16,247.23 


Public buildings, charitable insti- 




tutions, &c., - - - - 


1,053.83 


Shipping contract with watermen, 


3,900.06 


Street Waterers, - - - 


655.88 


Building purposes, - - - 


609.93 


Other purposes, - - - 


1,544.00 



;§fl93,988.44 
The Board also transmit to the City Council, pursu- 
ant to the provisions of the ordinance, the Annual Re- 
ports of the City Engineer and Water Registrar. 
Respectfully submitted. 

Thomas Wetmore> President. 
John H. Wilkins, 
Henry B. Rogers, 
Jonathan Preston, 
Adam W. Thaxter, 
Sampson Reed, 
Thomas Sprague, 
• Cochituate Water Board. 



APPENDIX. 



EXPENDITURES. 



Statement of all expenditures made hy the Cochituate 
Water Board, from December 3lst, 1852, to January 1st, 

1854. 



Blacksmith Shop, for stock, &c,, 


- 


222.07 


Plumbing " " « " 


- 


56.65 


Proving yard " " " 


- 


91.63 


Cartage, Boston, - - - 


- 


292.73 


'' S. " . ^ - 


- 


50.62 


" E. « 


- 


255.12 


Wagon hire, for Sup't of Iron 






Aqueducts, - - - 


- 


269.75 


Travelling Expenses, 


- 


633.56 


Salaries, - _ - - 


- 


7,835.99 


Office expenses, for rent, fixtures. 






&c., _ _ . - 


- 


1,591.85 


Postages, - _ _ - 


- 


30.94 


Expresses, - - - - 


- 


25.42 


Stationery", - _ - _ 


- 


133.89 


Printing, _ _ - - 


- 


646.35 


Advertising, _ _ - 


- 


11.38 


Recording Deeds, &c.. 


- 


1.00 


Miscellaneous Expenses, 


- 


279.25 


Taxes, _ _ - - 




1,371.11 


Amount carried forward, 


$13,799.31 



APPENDIX. 



Amount brought forward, 




$13,79,9.31 


Lanterns, - _ . 


- 


48.75 


Oil and Wicking, 


- 


86.73 


Tools, - - - - 


- 


2,211.11 


Fountains, - _ _ 


- 


352.91 


Beacon Hill Reservoir, for labor, &c., 


480.16 


South Boston " " " 


cc 


322.51 


East Boston " " " 


li 


327.83 


Brookline " " " 


11 


497.65 


Aqueduct Repairs, for labor and 




Materials, 


- 


9,304.28 


Lake Cochituate, for labor, «fec 


'•; 


213.53 


Tolls and Ferriages, 


- 


163.24 


Service Pipes, 


- 


804.78 


" " Boston, 


" 


1,485.52 


li li g^ a 


- 


805.33 


a u ^_ u 


- 


1,392.77 


Water Pipes, - - 


- 


18,373.67 


" " Boston, 


- 


82.24 


li li E u 


- 


1,642.65 


Hydrants, _ - - 


- 


538.93 


" Boston, 


- 


398.56 


S. " - 


- 


3.58 


a E. " 


- 


9.59 


Hydrant Boxes, 


- 


268.49 


" " Boston, 


- 


46.20 


Stop Cocks, 


- 


345.49 


" " Boston, 


- 


496.26 


" " S. " 


- 


169.48 


" " E. " 


- 


166.48 


Stop Cock Boxes, - 


- 


268.48 


« " " Boston, 


- 


30.45 


" " " S. " 


- 


7.65 


11 li li g_ a 


- 


9.40 


Air Cocks, - - - 


- 


7.87 


Union Stop Cocks, 


- 


130.00 41,492.57 



Amount carried forward, $55,291.88 



APPENDIX. 




6 


Amount hrovght forward, 






$55,291.88 


Laying Water Pipes, Bostc 


3n, 


- 


413.34 


" " " S. " 


- 


- 


136.07 


£i (t ii J]_ U 


- 


- 


624.37 


Laying Service Pipes, 


- 


- 


109.55 


Water Meters, 


- 


- 


3,810.43 


Repairing Streets, Boston, 


- 


- 


552.54 


" " S. " 


- 


- 


40.33 


«£ " E. " 


- 


- 


78.75 


," Water Pipes, - 


- 


- 


20.66 


" Stop Cocks, - 


- 


- 


916.03 


" Stop Cock Boxes, 


- 


- 


30.10 


" Hydrants, 


- 


- 


41.22 


" Hydrant Boxes, 


- 


- 


42.76 


Marlboro' Reservoir, 


- 


- 


25.25 


Whitehall " 


- 


- 


23.05 


Rents, - - 


- 


- 


92.00 


Land Damages, 


- 


- 


15.00 


Land and Water Rights, 


- 


- 


1,005.00 


Water Works, East Boston, 


- 


- 


882.28 


" " Boston, 


- 


- 


1.25 


Damages, Boston, - 


- 


- 


15.00 


Jamaica Pond Aqueduct, 


- 


- 


13.50 


Cash, for sums received and 


paid 


to 




City Treasurer, 


- 


- 


472.73 


New Pipe Yard and Repair Shop, 


- 


9,969.33 


Stable for horses, vehicles, &c.. 


- 


1,154.«)3 


Chas. R. Train, Esq., 


- 


- 


1,000.00 21,485.47 



Amount carried forward, $76,777.35 

Amount Paid for Labor, viz : 

Letting on and shutting off Water, - 1,394.66 

Blowing off Hydrants, - - - 651.87 

Laying Water Pipes, Boston, - 982.17 

" " " S. " - - 541.08 

" « " E. " - - 2,113.94 



Amount carried forward, $5,683.72 



4 APPENDIX. 




Amounts brought forward^ 




$5,683.72 176,777.35 


Laying Service Pipes, Boston, 


- 1,102.65 


u u a g^ (( 


- 


453.60 


li a (( J]^ u 


- 


630.85 


Blacksmith Shop, - 


- 


659.17 


Plumbing " - - 


- 


529. 12 


Proving Yard, 


- 


- 2,033.95 


Repairing Streets, Boston, 


- 


198.47 


" " S. " - 


- 


12.17 


(( u E. " - 


- 


17.88 


" Water Pipes, 


- 


558.41 


" Service " 


1 ~ 


748.81 


" Hydrants, 


- 


796.66 


" Stop Cocks, 


- 


113.68 


Miscellaneous, 


- 


195.70 


Jamaica Pond Aqueduct, - 


" 


50.13 13,784.97 




190,562.32 


Cr. 






Marlboro' Reservoir, 


- 


150.00 


Whitehall " 


- 


167.81 


Rents, - - - - 


- 


352.18 


Old Materials, 


- 


8.30 


Henry Richardson, 


- 


30.00 708.29 



Amount drawn for, - - $89,854.03 

* Cash paid City Treasurer. 

For Rents, &.c., at Saxonville, - 244.93 

" at Wayland, - - 196.00 

" at Marlboro', - - 100.00 

" at Needham, - - 13.50 

" at Brookline, - - 39.37 

" at East Boston, - 10.00 

" an old box used for water pipes, 75.00 

« Iron Pipes, &c., - - - 131.29 

« Old Pipes, - . - - 231.04 

" Engineering Instruments, - - 28.00 



Amount carried forward^ . 1,069.13 



APPENDIX. a 

Amounts brought forward, $1,069.13 $89,854.03 

For Land sold in Needham, - - 100.00 
'' Sundries sold, - - - - 106.38 

Amount paid by the Service Clerk. 

For filling cisterns, - - 51.00 

" Service Pipe and laying, 1,730.14 
" Shutting off and letting 

on water, - - - 1,564.75 3,345.S9 4,621.40 



Balance, - - - - - $85,232.63 

Payments made by the Cochituate Water Board, 
for unsettled claims and extension of the 
Works, viz : 

Unsettled Claims. 
Land and Water rights, - - 1,005.00 

Extension of the Work. 

Main Pipes, . . . _ 20,098.56 

Service Pipes, - - - - 4,448.40 

Water Meters, - - - - 3,810.43 

Hydrants, - - - - - 950.66 

Stop Cocks, . . - . 1,307.71 

Labor laying Main Pipes, - - 3,637.19 

" " Service Pipes, - - 2,187.10 

" at Proving Yard, - - 2,033.95 

New Pipe Yard and Repair Shop, 9,969.33 

Tools, 2,046.39 

Horses, Vehicles, &c., - - - 797.76 52,332.48 



Amount of current expenses, $37,521.55 



APPENDIX. 



Statement of the Expenditures a7id Receipts, on account of 
the Water Works, to January 1st, 1854. 

Amount drawn by the Commissioners, - 4,043,718.21 

« " " Vv^ater Board, of 1850, 366,163.89 

" " " C. W. Board of 1851, 141,309.23 

" " " C. W. Board of 1852, 89,654.20 

" " " C. W. Board of 1853, 89,854.03 



$4,730,699.56 

Amount paid into the City Treasury by the 
Commissioners, - - - 47,648.38 

Amount paid into the City Treas- 
ury by the Water Board of 1850, 8,153.53 

Amount paid into the City Treas- 
ury by C. W. Board of 1851, 5,232.38 

Amount paid into the City Treas- 
ury by C. W. Board of 1852, 15,869.12 

Amount paid into the City Treas- 
ury by C. W. Board of 1853, 4,621.40 81,524.80 

$4,649,174.76 
Sundry payments by the City, 38,403.00 

Discount and interest on loans, 1,596,570.42 1,634,973.42 

$6,284,148.18 
Sundry credits by the City, 884.23 

Am't received for Water Rents, &c., 708,940.80 709,825.03 

Whole cost of Water Works, to Jan. 1, 1854, $5,574,323.15 

SAMUEL HOLBROOK, 

Clerk of Cochiluate Water Board. 



CITY ENGINEER'S REPOET. 

City Engineer's Office, 
Boston^ Jan. 5, 1854. 

Thomas Wetmore, Esq,., 

President of the Cochituate Water Board : 

Sir, — Pursuant to the 13th section of the City Ordinances 
of Oct. 31st, 1850, the following Report is made, relative 
to " the general condition of the Water Works," and to 
other matters of interest connected therewith. The same 
order that was followed in the last Annual Report will be 
observed in this. 

Lake Cochituate. 

The gate house, outlet dam, roads, culverts, and other 
structures, together with the grounds around the Lake, are 
all in good order. 

The same precautions that were taken in 1852, to avoid 
having the marshes at the south end of the Lake uncovered 
during the warm season, were taken in 1853 ; and no cases 
of sickness, supposed to have been caused by malaria arising 
from these marshes, have come to the knowledge of any one 
connected with the Water Works. 

The least average depth of water, in both divisions of the 
Lake, above the level of low water, (or 3 feet 10 inches 
above the bottom of the Aqueduct,) was that of Oct. 24th, 
when it was 4 feet 3 1-2 inches, or only 3 feet 2 1-2 inches 
below high water level, as established by the Water Act. 



Brick Aqueduct aiid Structures between the Lake and the 
Brookline Reservoir. 

The interior of the Aqueduct has not been cleansed dur- 
ing the past year, for two reasons. First, it has not been 



8 APPENDIX. 

convenient to do so, on account of the repairs that have 
been making in it ; which are still going on, and which it is 
very desirable should be completed before the next warm 
season. Next, it was not thought to be so necessary as 
usual, on account of the frequent flushings it has received, 
by drawing off and letting on water in very large quantities 
every week. A very recent examination, however, shows 
that the deposit mentioned in the last Annual Report has 
again taken place, and must be removed within a short 
time. 

The peculiar vegetable substance, occurring in patches of 
from one inch to one foot in diameter, and first discovered 
in the Aqueduct last year, when it was confined to the mile 
nearest the Lake, is now found in every part of the Aque- 
duct, from the Lake to the Brookline Reservoir. It is so 
tender, however, that the ordinary cleansing of the Aque- 
duct is sufficient to remove it. There is reason to believe 
that it grows very luxuriantly in comparatively still water, 
as will be mentioned under the head of Iro?i Pipes. 

No new cracks have been discovered in the Aqueduct, 
except one about fifty feet long, on the side hill near Morse's 
Pond, where several others have taken place in former years. 
None of the old ones have given any trouble, except that at 
Webber's barn, where repairs were made in 1851, and men- 
tioned in the Report for that year. This point will require 
a slight going over during the coming season. 

The bridges, culverts, waste-weirs, and embankments, 
along the line of the aqueduct, and the iron pipe across Charles 
river, are all in good order. 

The work of repairing the interior of the Aqueduct, men- 
tioned in the last Annual Report, has been prosecuted unre- 
mittingly ever since, whenever it could be carried on; so 
that of the fourteen thousand feet which it was then thought 
advisable to go over, only three thousand remain to be done ; 
and there is good reason to believe that this will be com- 
pleted in May next. 

That portion of it which has been done the longest gives 
all the satisfaction that was at first expected of it ; and 



APPENDIX. y 

there is every probability that it will prove permanently 
effectual, wherever the coating of English cement has been 
applied. At one time, when there was no English cement 
on hand, and when it was thought by one of the foremen 
that good American cement would answer the purpose, a 
trial was made. The usual precautions were taken, of wash- 
ing the surface of the brick work with diluted nitro-sulphuric 
acid, of temporarily stopping even the smallest leaks with 
pieces of shingle, and of applying the cement immediately 
after being mixed ; but the result was a failure, compared 
with the far superior effect of the English cement used in 
the same way. Our experience proves that the best Ameri- 
can cement we have been able to procure will not, when 
newly laid, withstand the effect of pressure and percolation 
of water through it, in consequence of the solubility of some 
of its particles. 

In no case has the water been shut off from the Aqueduct 
more than four days, on account of these repairs ; and very 
rarely more than three days ; as a longer period has been 
found to affect sensibly the high service in the City. 

The Brookline Reservoir. 

All the grounds and structures around this Reservoir have 
been kept in the same good condition they were in at the 
date of the last Annual Report. 

The two large Meters there have not yet given that 
satisfaction in determining the consumption of water by the 
City, that was expected of them. Owing to their size and 
the position in which they are necessarily placed, it has been 
found quite difficult to make the valves lift, at the proper 
point to prevent the passage of water through them without 
being measured. The Air Chambers which have been re- 
sorted to, to remove this difficulty, and which promised to 
be so successful at first, have repeatedly failed and let in 
water. Still, one of these meters has run very smoothly for 
upwards of six months, and although it did not measure 



10 APPENDIX. 

accurately, according to the register, its error was uniform 
under the same head, and being once ascertained, could be 
used in correcting the registered quantities. In October, 
both the meters ran unusually well, and it was then that 
the measurements for every hour in the day were made, 
which will be found under the head of " Consumption of 
Water." 

Mr. Huse, who has been so successful with his smaller 
meters, in this and in other cities, still thinks he can make 
them do all tliat was promised ; and that he will be able to 
overcome the difficulty of making the Air Chambers suffi- 
ciently strong, and at the same time sufficiently light, to 
answer the purpose. 

City Reservoirs. 

These are all in the same condition that they were in at 
the date of the last Annual Report. The one on Beacon 
Hill is in perfect order ; the one at South Boston has the 
same shabby fence between it and the grounds on Telegraph 
Hill ; and the one at East Boston still leaks, but no more 
than it did formerly. Nothing has been done during the 
past year to stop this leak, because it was thought best to 
keep the repair force employed in the interior of the brick 
aqueduct. 

The following tabular statements of the average depths 
of water in the Beacon Hill and South Boston Reservoirs 
for each month, as far as any records exist, in 1S50, '51, '52, 
and '53, will be found very interesting, as showing the con- 
stant decline, from year to year, in the height at which the 
water stands in the City. 



APPENDIX. 



11 



Average monthly depths of Water in Beacon Hill Reservoir, 
for the years 1850, 1851, 1852, and 1S53. 



January, 
February, 
March, 
April, 
May, - 
June, • 
July, - 
August, 
September, 
October, 
November, ■ 
December, • 



Month. 



Average for the year, 



1850. 



12.31 
11.67 
10.80 
10.68 
11.17 
11.15 
11.06 
10 62 
9.61 



11.01 



1851. 



■9.8S 
10.56 
12.64 
12.08 
10.69 
10.99 
12.25 
1067 
11 70 
11.72 
11.87 
11.33 



1852. 



9.70 
10 20 
10 93 
11.29 

8.82 
8.61 
7.82 
7.82 
6.30 
8.05 
811 
5 24 



11.36 8.57 



1853. 



7.05 
5.84 
7.59 
8.61 
6.39 
6 05 
6.43 
7.05 
6.13 
7.29 
7.16 
6.76 



6.86 



The apparent anomalies in this statement will be found 
explained in the last annual report. 

Statement of the average depths of Water in the South 
Boston Reservoir. 



Month. 



January, 
February, - 
March, 
April, 
May, - 
June, - 
July, - 
August, 
September, - 
October, 
November, - 
December, - 



Average, 



1850. 



15 07 
15 27 

14.88 
* 14.05 



1851. 



1 13.04 

14 80 

14 00 

13 25 

6.68 

8.34 

9.77 

12.3."; 

13 15 

13 78 

11.90 



11 91 



1852. 

926 
10.30 
11.31 
11 80 

9.08 

8.52 
10.87 
12.11 

8.38 
10.89 
11 30 
1000 



1032 



1858. 

9.44 
9.17 
10.35 
11.27 
9.51 
7.31 
7.33 
7.68 
6.61 
6.84 
7.61 
6.67 



8.31 



* For 17 days in April, 1850, 
t " 21 " in February, 1851. 

The average depths of water in the South Boston Reser- 
voir give a more correct idea of the constant decline going 
on in the height to which it ordinarily rises in the city, than 
those of the Beacon Hill Reservoir ; but it should he remem- 
bered, that, during the past year, the height of water in the 
city has been about two feet less than it would have been, 
if no repairs had been made in the interior of the aqueduct. 



12 



APPENDIX. 



These required the water to be drawn off, generally, for three 
days in each week, during which time the Brookline Reser- 
voir fell, on an average, four feet. 

The causes of the general decline, from year to year, 
in the surfaces of these reservoirs, will be explained under 
the head of ^^ Iron Pipes''^ and ^^Consumption of Water" 

Iron Pipes. 
The following statements of the whole amount of Pipes 
laid, up to the present time, and of the localities of those laid 
during the past year, have been prepared in the same form as 
those in the Annual Reports of 1851 and 1852. 

Statement of the length of different sizes of pipes laid, and 
stopcocks put in, to Jan. 1st, 1854. 







DIAMETER 


OF PIPE IN INCHES. 










36 


30 


24 


20 


16 


12 


6 


4 


Aggregate. 


Feet of pipe ] 
laid in Brook- 
line, Roxbury, ■ 
and Boston 


19,355 


30,332 


5,773 




5,714 


47,885 


201,936 


68,860 




proper, 




















No. of stop- ) 
cocks in the > 


4 


7 


10 




12 


95 


410 


172 




same, ) 




















Feet of pipe ' 
laid in and 
for South 
Boston and 
Dorchester, 








8,155 




10,922 


50,660 


17,435 




No. of stop- } 
cocks in same, ) 








3 




25 


68 


24 




Feet of pipe ) 
laid in and for > 
East Boston, ; 








15,972 


1,523 


10,9Q7 


57,046 


2,171 




No. of stop- \ 
cocks in same, ) 








5 


3 


17* 


78 


6 




Feet of pipe in ) 
Newton and > 
Needham, ) 




1,958 
















No. of stop- ) 
cocks in same, ) 












I 


1 






Totals. 


















556,604 ft 
or JOS miles 
and 2204 ft. 


Length of ) 
pipe laid, ) 


19,355 


32,290 


5,773 


24,127 


7,237 


69,714^309,642 


88,466 


Number of J 
stopcocks [ 
put in, ) 


4 


7 


10 


8 


15 


138 557 


202 


941 



* Including one in branch for State Prison pipe. 



APPENDIX. 



13 



If to the above aggregate length of pipes, be added the 
length of the hydrant branches and bends, about 18,960 feet, 
or a little more than 3 1-2 miles, the whole length of pipes, 
4 inches and upwards in diameter, laid down in and for all 
parts of the City of Boston, will be a small fraction over 109 
miles. 



Statement of the location^ size, and number of feet of dis- 
tributing pipes laid in the year 1853. 



In what Streets. 



Waltham, - 
Leverett, 

Tremont, - 

Tremont, • 



Lenox, 
Hanson, 
Union Pai'k, 
Union Park, 
Chester Square, 
Chapman, - 
Troy, - - 
Concord, - 
Tremont, - 
City Wharf, 



Sea, - 

Bumstead Court 
Eowe's Wharf, 
Constitution Wh'f, 



Turnpike, - 



Third, 

F, - 

Seventh, 

Sixth, 

Boston Wharf, 

Sixth, 



Between what Streets. 



Boston proper. 

Einggold and Tremont, 
At Cragie's Bridge, ... 
Northampton and Camden, - 
Waltham and Hanson, 

Total, 12 inch in Boston proper, 

Trainer Court and Tremont, 

Ringgold and Tremont, 

South side, .... 

North side, 

South side, 

Washington and Shawmut Avenue, 
Harrison Avenue and Albany, 
Tremont and Shawmut Avenue, - 
Camden and Lenox, ... 



Total, 6 inch in Boston proper, 
New Pipe Yard, . . . . 



Total, 4 inch in Boston proper, 

South Boston. 

Sixth and Seventh, . - . 
Total, 12 inch in South Boston, 



I and K, - - 

Sixth and Seventh, 
F and Dorchester, 
I and K, 



B and C, 

Total, 6 inch in South Boston, 



Diameter 

of pipe in 

inches. 



12 
12 
12 
12 



Feet 
laid. 



275 

76 

276 

107 



- 


734 


6 


55 


6 


300 


6 


244 


6 


340 


6 


475 


6 


235 


6 


262 


6 


34 


6 


270 


6 


119 


- 


2,334 


4 


76 


4 


100 


4 


303 


4 


235 


- 


714 


2 


17 


- 


17 


6 


105 


6 


100 


6 


265 


6 


200 


6 


235 


6 


94 


- 


999 





Remarks. 



14 



APPENDIX. 

Statement continued. 







Diameter 






In what Streets. 


Between what Streets. 


of pipe in 


Feet 


Remarks. 






inches. 


laid. 




Athens, 


A and B, 


4 


84 




Boston '\yharf, - 




4 


264 




Gold, - 


D and E, . 
Total, 4 inch in South Boston, 

East Boston. 


4 


337 






685 










Condor, 


Brooks and Meridian, ... 


12 


830 




Meridian, - 


Condor and White, ... 


12 


776 




AVliite, 


Meridian and Brooks, - - . 


12 


372 




Chelsea, 


Putnam and Brooks, ... 


12 


180 




Chelsea, 


Marion and Brooks, . 

Total, 12 inch in East Boston, 
Chelsea and Bennington, 


12 
6 


66 






2,244 




Putnam, 


347 




Jeffries, 




6 


259 




Marginal, - 


Jeffries and Cottage, - 


6 


295 




Princeton, - 


Eagle and Putnam, ... 


6 


400 




White, 


Eutaw and Putnam, ... 


6 


200 




Putnam, 


White and Eagle, ... 


6 


150 




Chelsea, 


Eagle and Glendon, ... 


6 


525 




White, 


Brooks and Eutaw, ... 


6 


138 




Marion, 


Bennington and Chelsea, 


6 


850 




Border, 


White and Eutaw, ... 


6 


162 




Lexington, - 


Brooks and Eagle, ... 
Total, 6 inch in East Boston, • 


6 

4 


1,650 






4,976 




Cunard Wharf, - 


28 




White, 


Junction of White and Eutaw, - 


4 


20 




Glendon, 


Chelsea and Bremen, . . - 


4 


177 




Lombard's Wharf, 


Total, 4 inch in East Boston, . 


4 


162 






387 





R ecap itu la tio n . 



Section. 


1853. 


Diameter in inches. 












12 


6 


4 


Boston proper. 


Total number of feet laid. 


734 


2,334 


714 


Stopcocks in same, 
South Boston, 


t( II II II 


17 


3 

999 


2 

685 


Stopcocks in same, 
East Boston, 


II II 11 II 


2,244 


1 
4,976 


2 

•387 


Stopcocks in same. 


Sums of Pipes, ... - 


3 


8 






2,995 


8,309 


1,786 




" " Stopcocks, 


3 


12 


4 



APPENDIX. 



15 



Service Pipes. 

The whole number of service pipes put in, up to the pres- 
ent time, is 17,340 ; of which 687 were laid during 1853, 



Statement of Service Pipes laid in 1853. 



Diameter 
in inches. 


Boston proper. 


South Boston. 


East Boston. 


Total. 




Number. 


Length 
in feet. 


Number. 


Length 
in feet. 


Number. 


Length 
in feet. 


Number. 

18 

16 

653 

687 


Length 
in feet. 


2 

1 

3 


1 

G 

6 

389 


23 

218 

232 

9,222 


6 

6 

120 


483 

234 

3,779 


6 

4 

144 

rgregate, 


788 

173 

4,459 


1,489 

639 

17,460 

19,588 



During a part of last year, the price of lead rose so high, 
that tin pipes of equal strength, (nat of equal weight,) could 
be purchased for a cent less per running foot. As an unusual 
effort was made, about that time, to spread before the public, 
particularly in New York, objections against the use of lead 
for service pipes, quite a number of tin pipes were inserted 
when applications were made for the introduction of water 
into houses. It is, and has been for several years, the cus- 
tom, according to your instructions, to lay tin or cast-iron 
service pipes, when objection is made to lead before the pipe 
is laid. There has always been a doubt, however, with re- 
gard to the durability of tin; and facts recently ascertained 
show, that in other places, pipes of this metal have not lasted 
two years. In one case, the metal was supposed to be im- 
pure ; in another, the soil in which the pipe was laid acted 
injuriously upon it ; so that these trials may not be fair 
ones. It should be remembered, however, that, as a metal, 
tin was known to the ancients ; and yet there appear to be 
no cases of pipes made of it mentioned, in any published ac- 
counts of the Roman or other ancient Water Works. 

The cast-iron service pipes, about 2500 of which were 
laid five or six years ago, will probably all have to be taken 
up, as they are rapidly fiUijig with rust. A few days since, 



16 



APPENDIX. 



one had to be taken out of Park Street on this account. As 
to unlined wrought iron pipes, they fill up more rapidly than 
the unlined cast-iron ones ; but none of them have ever beeij 
laid by the City. Private individuals, however, who had ob- 
jections to the use of lead, have laid them in their houses ; and 
will, in every instance, sooner or later, be obliged to take 
them out. 



Repairs of Pipes. 

During the year 1853, the following leaks occurred, and 
were repaired. 



Where. 




Diameter of Pipe in inches. 






36 


30 


24 


20 


16 


12 


6 


4 


2 


n 


1 


3 

4 


f 


Tot. 


Boston proper, 


6 


4 


1 


1 


1 


6 


21 


19 


5 


48 


10 


5 


159 


286 


South Boston, 








3 




2 


2 


2 






1 




14 


24 


East Boston, 








5 




3 


6 


3 


2 




4 




12 


35 


Total, 


6 


4 


1 


9 


1 


11 


29 


24 


7 


48 


15 


.5 


185 


345 



Of the leaks that occurred in pipes 4 inches and upwards 
in diameter, 10 were caused by flaws or defects, (6 in the 
pipes, and 4 in the stopcocks,) not discovered in the proving 
press, 3 by settling of the earth, 1 by being drilled into 
by the Gas Company's workmen, by mistake, and 71 by loos- 
ening of the lead in the joints, as more fully explained below. 
Total, 85, or one in every 1.28 miles. 

Of the leaks that occurred in the service and two-inch pipes, 
112 were caused by flaws or defects, (65 in the pipes, 3 in the 
stopcocks, and 34 in the connections,) 5 by rats gnawing lead 
pipes, 15 by tenants, 15 by digging for sewers and gas, 11 
by being accidentally struck by picks, and 83 mostly by set- 
tling of earth. Total, 241, or 1 to every 72 service pipes, 
nearly. 

The table includes 17 service pipes that were opened to 
take out fish, and 2 to remove rust. 



APPENDIX. IT 

Statement of the 7iumber of Leaks, 1850-53. 





Leaks in pipes of a diameter of 




Year. 


4 inches and upwards. 


Less than 4 inches. 


Total. 


1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 


32 
64 
82 
85 


72 
173 
241 
260 


104 
237 
323 
345 



The foregoing statement shows that the annual rate of in- 
crease in the number of leaks is becoming very small, and it 
is hoped that it will before long change to a decrease. It is a 
gratifying fact, that of all the leaks that occurred in 1853, 
from defective lead joints, in pipes four inches and upwards 
in diameter, not one took place in any of the pipes laid dur- 
ing the last three years. Whether this is owing to the groove 
adopted to prevent the lead from working out, or to more 
faithful workmanship, more time is needed to decide. 

As the statement shows that much the greater number of 
leaks occur in the service pipes, which other cities do not 
put in, and do not have to take care of, at their own expense, 
it may be asked, " what has Boston gained by incurring 
this expense ? " The following statement will show that 
Boston has a larger water revenue in proportion to the popula- 
tion, than any of the other cities mentioned ; and there is every 
reason to suppose that one great cause of this has been, the 
policy adopted by the City of inducing as many persons as 
possible to take the water, by laying the service pipes with- 
out charge to tenants. It should be remembered, however, 
that the average chai'ge to each tenant in Boston is greater 
than it is in some other cities, particularly Philadelphia ; but 
the quantity consumed is also greater here for each tenant, 
than in any other city except New York. 



18 



APPENDIX. 





Gross income, in dollars. 


Population. 




18 5 0. 


18 5 1. 


18 5 2. 


18 5 0. 


New York, - . - 
=^Philadelphia, - - 
Boston, . . . - 
Cincinnati, - - - 
Eichmond, - - - 


449,733.90 

132,592 31 

97,943 14 

74,381.41 


451,665 00 

140,313 50 

162,31772 

80,448.37 

19,153.51 


519 572 56 

151,323.12 

177,012.41 

91,442 44 


515,507 
187,195 
136,871 
115,436 

27,482 



* Including only the districts supplied by the Fairmount Water Works, 

The gross income of the nme Water Companies of London, 
in 1848, was about $2,125,000 (£425,000.) The population 
of that city, in that year, was about 2,200,000. 

The deeply interesting and important subject of accretions 
or rust in the interior of the iron pipes has received much 
attention during the past year, and a personal inspection has 
been made, in company with Prof. Horsford, of the whole 
length of each of those across the Valley of Charles River. 
That examination, together with one made at the East Boston 
Reservoir, has led to farther suggestions as to the causes, and 
the rate and mode of growth, of these accretions, which will 
no doubt be communicated to you by Prof. Horsford him- 
self. 

The mechanical effect of these accretions, in retarding and 
diminishing the flow of water through the pipes, has become 
very sensible ; and much pains has been taken to ascertain its 
amount. By repeated observations on one of the pipes across 
the Charles River Valley, under different heads, of from two 
inches to two feet, it was found, that the loss of discharge^ 
under the common head of six inches, was upwards of twenty 
per cent, of the known discharge of a new pipe of the same 
diameter. This pipe was then cleaned or scraped out, and 
the observations on its discharge repeated ; when it was found 
that its effective diameter was restored to thirty inches. 

Similar observations on the quantity discharged by the 30- 
inch pipe, between the Brookline and Beacon Hill Reservoirs, 
show that it experiences, under the ordinary head of S feet, 
a loss of twenty per cent. But as, in reality, no less water 
is used on account of these accretions, it has to be delivered 



APPENDIX. 19 

at a level usually not less than three feet lower than a new 
and clean pipe would deliver it. [For an account of the de- 
tails of these observations see Note at the end of this report.] 
The cost of clearing out, rather imperfectly, the Charles 
River Valley pipe, which is 956 feet long, was $138.50, or 
about 141-2 cents afoot. Unfortunately, the pipe between 
the Brookline and Beacon Hill Reservoirs cannot be cleaned 
out in the same way at present ; as the inconvenience to the 
city during the process would be intolerable, and the present 
diminished depth in the Beacon Hill and South Boston Res- 
ervoirs would be as nothing in comparison with it. It would 
be possible to do it, however, if man-holes were placed in 
this pipe every thousand feet ; and if the tenants on the high 
service could be induced to depend for six or eight weeks 
upon the supply they might be able to retain in their cisterns 
or other vessels, for three days together in each week. 

Stopcocks. 

These, with one or two unimportant exceptions, are all 
believed to be in good order. 

The wooden boxes that were first put around them are 
rapidly decaying, and many have had to be renewed. For 
the last two years all the new ones put in have been of Bur- 
nettized lumber, prepared in Lowell. It is too soon to make 
any comparison of their durability with that of the old ones ; 
but there is very satisfactory ground for believing, that it 
will be fully sufficient to justify the additional expense of 
preparing the timber. 

Hydrants. 

During the year, 7 new hydrants were established in the 
City proper, 8 in South Boston, and 10 in East Boston. Al- 
together there have been established, up to the present time — 

In Boston proper, ------ 824 

" South Boston, 192 



20 APPENDIX. 

In East Boston, __---_ 146 

" Brookline, ______ i 

" Roxbury, -_.___ 4 

" Charlestown, - - - --- H 

" Chelsea, -__-__ 7 



Total, 1185 

The precautions mentioned in the report for the year 1851 
for keeping these hydrants constantly in order, continue to 
be taken ; and the Chief Engineer of the Fire Department 
states, that in no case, during the year, were they found out 
of order when opened for use at fires. 

New Pipe Yard. 

During the past year, the new repair shop and pipe yard 
on Sea Street have been completed, and fitted up with almost 
every desirable convenience for carrying on the operations of 
the Pipe Department. It is not expected or believed that a 
mechanic will do any more work in a given time at the yard, 
than he would elsewhere ; but the expense and loss of time 
in sending small jobs to and from other shops may be saved ,• 
and the work often more satisfactorily done. And as men 
must be kept winter and summer, to repair leaks, they can 
be usefully employed at the shop when there are no leaks to 
repair. 

The long experience of Philadelphia, the economical man- 
agement of whose Water Works has been and still is a model 
for other cities, confirms the propriety of the system adopted 
by the Board in this respect. 



APPENDIX. 



21 



Statement of Pipes and other stock on hand, exclusive of 
Tools, January \st, 1854. 





Diameters in inches. 




36 


30 


24 


20 


16 


12 


6 


4 


2 


i| 


Jamaica 

Aqueduct. 

10 


No. of Pipes, - - 
Blow off Branches, 
Y Branches, - - - 

3 Way Branches, • 

4 Way Branches, - 
Flange Pipes, - - 
Sleeves, - . - - 

Pnna ..... 


9 
2 

6 

10 

7 


72 
4 
1 
2 
2 
13 
10 
2 
1 

9 
2 


9 

1 
2 
6 

1 
2 


40 

2 
5 

2 
1 

7 
1 


23 

1 
4 

1 

8 

2 

9 
3 


65 

. 

1 

16 
4 

5 

1 

3 
3 

2 


210 

2 

10 
5 

14 
13 

7 
2 

12 

2 


127 

3 

20 

44 

4 

6 

3 


37 

34 
4 

2 


64 
20 

- 


7 
6 








Bevelled Pipes, - - 
Curved Pipes, - - 
Quarter Turns, ■ - 
Double Hubs, - - 
Stop Cocks, - - - 


4 
4 


2 

2 






^ Hydrants. 
60 Old Kingston, 










2 Wilmarth's, 










10 Lowell, 










3 Ballard Yale, 












4L( 


>ng, 


(Nt 


;wl 


loxk 


pal 


tern 








/^or Hydrants. 8 Bends, 10 Lengtheners, 36 Nipples, 27 
Wharf Nipples, 47 Composition Nipples, 5 Frames and 6 
Covers, 49 Lowell Screws, 44 Kingston Screws, 5 Spare 
Screws, 82 Caps, 7 Bend Rings, 14 Straps for Bend Rings, 
29 Sets of Straps, 37 Straps, 33 Wastes, 7B Rings, 33 Wharf 
Cocks, 13 3- Way Cocks, 13 Wharf Couplings, 37 Valve Rods, 
22 Bolts and Nuts, 12 Bottoms, 17 Seats, 10 Connections, 
Castings for 25 Hydrants, Lowell pattern. 

For Stopcocks. Castings for 6 4-inch Stopcocks, 2 12- 
inch Valves, and 1 Screw, 1 6-inch Valve, 1 4-inch Valve, 1 
Frame and Cover, 32 Cross Bars for large Stopcocks, 8 Gate 
Stands, 9 Rings, 1 Set Bolts, 600 Bolts for small Stopcocks, 
4 large Composition Nuts, 65 brass Screws for Stopcock 
Flanges. 



23 



APPENDIX. 



For Service Pipes. 474 Square Boxes, 13 T Boxes, 32 
long Boxes, 1 Y Box, 5 flanges, Caps and Tabes, 34 2-inch 
Uprights, 180 Caps for 2-inch Uprights, 30 1-inch Air Cocks, 
11 1-inch Flange Cocks, 63 3-4-inch Flange Cocks, 352 5-8- 
inch Flange Cocks, 19 5-8-inch Y Cocks, 19 5-8 T Cocks, 33 
3-4-inch T Cocks, 13 1-inch T Cocks, 57 1-inch Main Cocks, 
47 3-4-inch Main Cocks, 39 5-8-inch Main Cocks, 43 5-8-inch 
Straight Cocks, 23 5-8-inch Cocks, large size, for repairs, 17 
1-inch Couplings, 39 3-4-inch Couplings, 31 5-8-inch Coup- 
lings. 

Water Meters. 4 large size, (new,) 10 small size, (new,) 
24 large size, (second hand,) 15 small size, (second hand,) I 
large size Power Meter. 

Lead Pipe. 288 feet of 1-inch, 275 feet of 3-4-inch, 738 
feet of 5-8-inch. 

Block Tin Pipe. 297 feet of 3-4-inch, 75 feet of 5-8-inch. 

Pig Lead, 936 lbs. Sheet Lead, 150 lbs. Gasket, 750 lbs. 



Consumption of Water. 

Daily average number of wine gallons, drawn from, the 
Brookline Reservoir. 



Month. 


1849. 


1850. 


1851. 


1852. 


1853. 


January, 


1,700,000 


5,181,700 


7,233,700 


8,280,900 


8,050,500 


February, 


- 


5,214,000 


7,221,100 


8,790,300 


8,643,600 


March, - 


1,550,000 


4 841,200 


6,137.900 


8,521,100 


8,202 200 


April, . . . 


- 


4,961,000 


5,365,200 


8,048,700 


7,903,600 


May, 


3,600,000 


5346,100 


6,238,400 


8,350.000 


8,123,400 


June, . . - 


4,300,000 


6,906,500 


7,925000 


8,033,100 


8,945,900 


July, 


4,800,000 


8,514,200 


7,180,200 


9,608,000 


8,809,200 


August, ... 


4,100,000 


8,004,600 


7,235,000 


9,409,300 


8,461,900 


September, 


4,800,000 


6,585,500 


7,230,600 


7,920,000 


8,640,700 


October, 


4,550,000 


4,504,300 


6,716,600 


6,930,000 


8,871,100 


November, 


3,800,000 


4,960.500 


6,473,500 


6,637,900 


8,624,700 


December, 


3,600,000 


5,037,000 


7,663,400 


7,195,800 


9,228,400 


Average for the year, 


3,680,000 


5,837,900 


6,883 800 


8125,800 


8,542,300 



* The observations for February and April, 1849, were too imperfect to base 
an estimate upon. The month of August was very wet. In the summers of 
1849 and 1850, a great deal of water was used in flushing out the common sewers, 
and for the public fountains. In JunC; 1851, unusual waste was made in the City, 



APPENDIX. 



23 



In addition to the explanations made in the note at the foot 
of the foregoing table, it might be mentioned, that the use of 
the hand-hose was far less frequent, last summer, than formerly. 
They were, in most instances, felt to be nuisances ; and, hav- 
ing lost their novelty as playthings, will probably be confined 
much more, hereafter, to purposes of actual utility. 

The consumption or waste of water, so far beyond what is 
known to be sufficient to meet all the wants of the City for 
every legitimate purpose, has received, since the date of the 
last annual report, more than usual attention. By the aid of 
the meters at the Brookline reservoir, the consumption all 
over our city, for each hour of the twenty-four, was obtained 
for two consecutive days, and that in the City proper only, 
for two days. The following statement shows the result 
during twenty-four hours for the whole City, and during an 
equal length of time for the City proper only. 





Consumption, iu gallons, iij the 




Consumption, in gallons, in the 


Time, from 






Time, from 








Whole City. 


City proper. 




Whole City. 


City proper. 


P. M. 




Oct. 20. 


A. M. 


Oct. 19. 


Oct. 21. 


7 to 8 


. 


252,000 


10 to 11 


461,000 


434.000 


8 to 9 


- 


240.000 


11 to 12 


463,000 


427,000 


9 to 10 


- 


234,000 


p. M. 






10 to 11 


- 


214,000 


12 to 1 


461,000 


422 000 


11 to 12 


• 


197,000 


1 to 2 


421.000 


391,000 


A.M. 


Oct. 19. 


Oct. 21. 


2 to 3 


465,000 


379,000 


12 10 1 


234,000 


194,000 


3 to 4 


5-22,000 


395,000 


1 to 2 


2-J8,000 


194,000 


4 to 5 


554,000 


465.000 


2 to 3 


212,000 


190,000 


5 to 6 


427,000 


398,000 


3 to 4 


211,000 


193.000 


6 to 7 


360,000 


310,000 


4 to 5 


212,000 


201,000 


7 to 8 


327.000 




5 to 6 


270.000 


226,000 


8 to 9 


295,000 




6 to 7 


423.000 


366.000 


9 to 10 


266000 




7 to 8 


463 000 


407.000 


10 to 11 


248,000 




8 to 9 

9 to 10 


49i,oro 

488,000 


458 000 
424,000 


11 to 12 


234,000 






8,736,000 


7,611,000 



to keep the Brookline Reservoir down. In December, the same year, the exces- 
sive cold caused a great deal of water to be wasted, to prevent pipes in houses 
from freezing. In December, 1852, the weather was very mild. The winter 
months in the early part of 1853 were much milder than the corresponding ones 
of 1852. In the spring and summer the pipes were flushed and " blown off" less 
frequently than usual. The months of July and August were wetter than ordi- 
nary. 



24 APPENDIX. 

The foregoing statement shows, that between midnight 
and 4 A. M., October 19th, the consumption in all parts of the 
City was 885,000 wine gallons, or at the rate of 5,310,000 gal- 
Ions in 24 hours. It is utterly impossible that the half of this 
quantity could have been legitimately used at such a time ; 
and yet four sets of observations, for as many nights, show that 
in the month of October, this rate of consumption or waste 
was without material variation. Trials made in other months, 
but with less care, give substantially the same result, except 
in very cold weather, when the consumption at night is very 
much increased, by letting the water run to prevent service 
pipes from freezing. 

The enormous and unnecessary consumption at night, led 
to the supposition that there might be one or more large leaks, 
in the main pipes, near the wharves, and on this account un- 
discovered. In order to ascertain the truth of this, the City 
proper was divided into nine districts, and by means of the 
Beacon Hill Reservoir, the consumption in each district, be- 
tween midnight and 4 A. M., was ascertained. These ob- 
servations gave a result agreeing with those made at the 
Brookline Reservoir, as to the aggregate consumption or 
waste ; and showed that it was not confined to any single 
district of the City proper, but was diffused all over it ; and 
that there could be no very important undiscovered leaks in 
any of the mains or distributing pipes. They proved also, 
that no important leaks existed in the fiexihle or other pipes 
which cross the channels to South and East Boston. 

The next step was, to examine the sewers during the same 
hours of the night. As most of these have their outlets near 
low water, favorable tides occurred only once a fortnight ; and 
consequently these examinations were rapidly made, around 
the City proper. They showed that the waste was far less 
from the districts occupied by the best class of houses, than 
from those occupied by the poorest. For instance, the Bea- 
con Street sewer was found to be entirely dry, and the Chest- 
nut Street, and one or two other street drains, almost dry ; 
while large quantities of water were discharged from several 
others in the northern and western portions of the City, es- 



APPENDIX. , 25 

pecially from those in Cambridge and Canal Streets ; and 
considerable amounts from nearly every one that was exam- 
ined. It was not practicable to determine the quantities ac- 
curately then ; but at a more favorable season it may be, ex- 
cept where spring water enters the sewers. Enough, how- 
ever, was ascertained, to show that all the consumption of 
water was more than equalled by the discharge from the 
sewers. 

Examinations of the kind already made, if followed up, 
together with those the Board have instructed the Water 
Registrar to make on the premises of water-takers, promise 
results of great importance, though much time and patience 
may be required to bring them about. It is very certain, that 
the steady nicrease of average daily consumption each year, 
will soon render it necessary, in a season of unusual drought, 
to resort to means not now under the control of the Board, 
to meet the demands of the City, unless something can be 
done to check the enormous waste now going on. 

Compensating Reservoirs. 

The Hopkinton and the Marlborough Reservoirs are in the 
same good condition they were in a year ago. 

The estimated amount discharged from the Hopkinton 
Reservoir, between June 1st, and October I9th, was 704,937,- 
000 gallons ; and from the Marlborough Reservoir, during the 
same period, it was 708,775,000 gallons, being from both 
1,413,712,000 gallons. 

The estimated consumption by the City, during the same 
time, was 1,241,370,000 gallons, which caused a depression 
in the Lake of 38 1-2 inches, equivalent, for an average of 
660 acres surface, to 692,462,000 gallons; leaving as the nat- 
ural supply of the Lake 548,908,000 gallons, besides .what 
was wasted through the natural outlet. 

In consequence of the great amount of rain last year, to- 
gether with the abandonment of the Middlesex canal, there 
was but little scarcity of water at the Billerica Mills, as 
shown by the report of the agent of the Board there. 



26 



APPENDIX. 



Raiji Ganges^ 

Observations with rain gauges were made by persons in the 
employ of the Water Board, and by others, the last year, in 
the same manner as the year before, as will be seen by the 
following table. The great differences in the quantity for 
December, at different places, show the difficulties experienced 
by the observers in measuring the equivalent of rain for the 
amount of snow that fell. 



Monthly fall of Rain, in inches, in 1S53. 





Places and Observers. 


Month. 




Cam- 




Lake Co- 


Marl- 




Provi- 


Lowell, 




Boston, 


bridge, 


Waltham. 


chituate, 


borough, 


Hopkin- 


dence, 


by 




by 


by W. (;. 


by 


by 


by J. H. 


ton, by 


by 


Lowell 




J. P. Hall. 


Bond. 


E. Hobbs. 


J. Van- 


.\laynard. 


A. Wood. 


A. Cas- 


Man. Uo. 










nevar. 






well. 




January, - 


2.44 


3.88 


2.18 


3.68 


3.77 


2.23 


4.27 


1.52 


February, - 


5.30 


5.70 


5.36 


6.56 


5.20 


6.67 


5.75 


6.06 


March, - - 


2.27 


3.31 


2.33 


2.92 


2.4 S 


1.89 


1.35 


2.05 


April, - - 


3.78 


3.69 


3.34 


3.80 


3.42 


3.54 


5.05 


3.45 


May, - - - 


5.63 


6.45 


6.29 


6.32 


4.98 


5.89 


4.95 


5.40 


June, - - - 


0.30 


0.55 


0.95 


0.56 


1.35 


1.02 


0.90 


0.60 


July, • - - 


3.64 


3.02 


2.72 


2.84 


2.87 


3.12 


6.37 


2.36 


August, - - 


9.40 


8.59 


7.78 


7.20 


8.52 


6.53 


8.38 


8.37 


September, 


3.80 


5.95 


4.50 


5.44 


4.59 


4.76 


3.80 


4.32 


October, - 


3.92 


3.49 


2.30 


4.56 


4.64 


5.00 


4.15 


4. .30 


November, 


4.43 


4.91 


5.43 


5.26 


4.63 


4.26 


4.40 


3.79 


December, 


3.95 


4.29 


1.86 


6.59 


4.82 


2.96 


3.90 


1.70 


Total,- - 


48.86 


53.83 


45.04 


55.86 


51.27 


47.87 


53.27 


43.92 



Complaints of had Water. 

Very few complaints on this account have been made dur- 
ing the year ; although there was no general flushing of the 
pipes, and much less "blowing off" at "dead ends" than 
usual. The enormous quantity of water passing through 
the pipes daily, it was thought, was quite sufficient to pre- 
vent stagnation, except at the ends of courts. 



Surveys and Plans. 
None of importance made during the year. 



APPENDIX. 27 

Lands belonging to the Water Works. 

No change in them worthy of note since the date of the 
last Annual Report. 

Jamaica Aqueduct. 

This has received no special attention, nor has it given 
much trouble during the year ; and it continues to supply all 
who depend on it, in Roxbury. 

Jamaica Pond has been kept low enough to prevent com- 
plaints from those Avho live on its borders. 

Expenditures. 

For these reference is made to the statement of the Clerk 
of the Water Board. 

Which is respectfully submitted. 

E. S. CHESBROUGH, 

City Engineer. 
Boston^ January 5th, 1854. 



(For note referred to on page 19, see end of Appendix.) 



28 APPENDIX. 



WATEU EEGISTRAH'S EEPORT. 

Water Office, ^ 

Boston, Jan. 2<i, 1854. \ 

Thomas Wetmore, Esq,., 

President of the Cochituate Water Board. 
Sir:— 

The Water Registrar," in compliance with the provisions of 
the Ordinance, providing for the care and management of the 
Boston Water Works, passed October 31st, 1850, respectfully 
presents to the Cochituate Water Board, his Annual Report 
for the year 1853. 

The total number of Water-Takers now entered for the 
year 1854, is 18,170, being an increase since January 1st, 
1853, of 1308. Of this number, 259 are Public Buildings, 
&-C., in which the water is used, but on which no assessments 
were made until the year 1853, 

The total number of cases where the water has been shut 
off during the past year, is 1770. Of these, 1238 were for 
repairs ; 532 were for non-payment of water rates. 

The whole number of cases where the water has been let 
on during the year, is 2389. Of these, 1 126 were cases 
which had been previously shut off for repairs ; 459 were 
those which had been shut off for non-payment of water 
rates ; and 804 were let on for the first time. 

Repairs have been made upon the service-pipes, streets, 
sidewalks, &c., in 437 instances. 

There have been no abatements made during the year. 

The total amount received from December 
31st, 1852, to January 2d, 1854, for water 
rates, is, #196,352,33 



APPENDIX. 29 



Of the above, there was received for water 
used during the years 1851, and 1852, the 
sum of $2,363.88 

Leaving the receipts for water used 
during the year 1853, the sum of 193,988.44 



Total Amount, $196,352.33 

In addition to the above, there has been re- 
ceived, for letting on water, in cases where it 
had been shut off for non-payment of water 
rates, -------- 838.00 

A detailed statement of the receipts for the 
year 1853, is included in this Report. 

The total amount received during the year 
for the use of Jamaica Pond Water, is - - 2,010.61 

This amount is included in the general ac- 
count. 

The amount of assessments already made, 
for the year 1854, is 180,144.31 

The estimated amount of income from the 
sales of water, during the year 1854, is - - 215,000.00 

The expenditures in my department during 

the year 1853, have been, - - - - 2,292.17 

The items of this expenditure are as fol- 
lows, viz : — 

Paid Wm. F. Davis, for services as clerk, - - 705.00 

Chas. L. Bancroft, for " " " - - 705.00 

Benjamin Heath, for services, - - - 152.00 

John H. Eastbiirn, for printmg, - - 109.08 

Eayrs & Fairbanks, for books and stationery, 106.85 

Freeman Lane, for services, - - - 82.00 

Francis A. Bacon," " - - - 76.00 

G. J. Stevens, «' « . . - 76.00 

D. W. Child, " " _ - - 74.00 

Amount carried forward, - - 2,085.93 



30 APPENDIX. 

Amount brought forward, _ _ _ 2,085.93 

Paid F. S. Kettelle, for services, - - - 72.00 

" H.N.Whittlesey," " . _ - 64.00 

" Samuel Huse, " work on meters, - 53.99 

" J. A. Richards, " books and postage, - 12.25 

" Stephen Maddox," washing towels, - 4.00 



Amount, - - - - - $2,292.17 



By a vote of the City Council, passed January 13th, 1853, 
" The Water Registrar was directed, under the direction and 
control of the Cochituate Water Board, to assess the City of 
Boston, for the quantity of water used in the various Public 
Buildings belonging to said City, according to such tariff as 
the said Water Board might determine." 

Subsequently, the Water Registrar was directed by the 
Water Board, to assess the City for the water used for all 
Public Purposes, in accordance with the tariff of the City 
Council, passed November 17th, 1850. 

In compliance with the above orders, the City was assessed 
for the quantity of water used in all the Public Buildings, 
and for all Public Purposes, with the exception of that used 
for extinguishing fires, flushing sewers, and for the fountains 
and hydrants, on the Common and Public Squares. The use 
of water for the above named purposes, is undoubtedly of 
great value to the City, but in consequence of the irregular 
demand for water in these cases, it is impossible to make a 
correct estimate of the quantity required. 

The total amount of assessments upon the City for the use 
of Cochituate Water during the year 1853, is |4,058.32. 

These assessments were regularly entered on the books, 
the bills made out, and distributed, but were subsequently 
withdrawn by order of the Mayor, as no appropriation had 
been made to pay them. 

A detailed statement of the Public Buildings supplied 
with Cochituate Water, with the amount assessed to each, is 
annexed to this Report. 



APPENDIX. 



31 



Although it is impossible to make a correct estimate of the 
quantity of water required for extinguishing fires, yet it is 
not difficult to estimate the amount annually saved to the 
City, by the use of Cochituate Water, in the cost of main- 
taining its Fire Department. 

In order to show this amount, I have prepared the follow- 
ing estimate of the relative cost of supporting a Fire De- 
partment, with and without the aid of Cochituate Water. 

In 1847, the year previous to the introduction of Cochitu- 
ate Water, the Boston Fire Department consisted of a Board 
of Engineers of 8 members, of eighteen engine companies, 
each company having 40 officers and members, of one hook 
and ladder company, having 24 officers and members, and one 
hose company having 18 officers and members, in all, 770 
persons. 

Capt. Wm. Barnicoat, the present efficient Chief Engineer 
of the Fire Department, informs me that in consequence of 
the growth of the City, and the increased size of buildings, 
which require protection, there would have been demanded 
at the present time, without the aid of Cochituate Water, a 
great addition to the above mentioned force. This addition 
to have made the Department equal to its present power, or 
at least, to have met the emergencies which now arise in case 
of fire, must have consisted of six engine companies, each 
company having 40 officers and members, of two hook and 
ladder companies, having 18 and 12 officers and members 
respectively, of one hose company having 18 officers and 
members, and at least, one additional Engineer. With this 
increase, the department would now consist of 1059 officers 
and members. 

The Fire Department, at the present time, with the aid of 
Cochituate Water, consists of a Board of Engineers, of 9 
members, of twelve engine companies, having 36 officers 
and members each, of three hook and ladder companies, 
having 24, 18, and 12 officers and members respectively, 
each, and of five hydrant companies, having 16 officers and 
members each, in all, 575 officers and members. 

It may be well to state, that it was the custom of the City, 
previous to the introduction of Cochituate Water, to build at 



82 APPENDIX. 

least three reservoirs, annually, for the use of the Fire De- 
partment, at an average expense of $1500 per year. 

Pay of the Department. 
Engineers, $250 each per annum. 



BOSTON. 

Foreman, $150. ea. p'r an, 

As't Foreman, 125, " " " 

Clerks, 125, " " " 

Stewards, 125, " " " 

Members, 100, " " '' 



EAST BOSTON. 

Foreman, $75, ea. p'r an. 
As't Foreman, 60, " " " 
Clerks, 60, " " " 

Stewards, 60, " " " 

Members, 50, " " " 



Estimated cost of maintaining the Boston Fire Department, 
during the year 1854, with and without the aid of Cochitu- 
ate Water. 

Without Cochituate Water. 
9 Engineers, a $250, per annum, $2,250.00 
24 Foremen, al50, " " 3,600.00 

5 " a 75, " « 375.00 

24 As'tForemea,al25, " " 3,000.00 

5 " "a 60, " " 300.00 

24 Clerks, a 125, " " 3,000.00 

5 " a 60, " " 300.00 

24 Stewards, al25, '^ " 3,000.00 

5 " a 60, " " 300.00 

804 Members «$100 p'r an $80,400.00 
130 " a 50 " " 6,500.00 



Amount, - - - 86,900.00 
From which deduct 10 per 
cent, for vacancies, - 8,690.00 



Pay of Members, - - 78,210.00 



Pay of Officers and Members, 94,335.00 

Three Reservoirs, - - - 1,500.00 
Repairs and Contingencies, - 20,000.00 



Estimated cost without Cochituate Water, $115,835,00 



APPENDIX. 33 

Amount hrotight forward, ^ 1 15,835.00 

With Cochituate Water. 

9 Engineers, 0^^250, per annum, $2,250.00 
16 Foremen, al50, '' " 2,400.00 

4 " a 75, " " 300.00 

16 As't Foremen, al25, " " 2,000.00 

4 « " a 60, " « 240.00 

16 Clerks, al25, " " 2,000.00 

4 " a 60, " " 240.00 

16 Stewards, al25, " " 2,000.00 

4 " a 60, " " 240.00 

402 Members, a$ 100, p'r an. $40,200.00 
84 " a50, " " 4,200.00 



Amount, - - - 44,400.00 
From which deduct 10 per 
cent, for vacancies, - 4,440.00 



Pay of Members, - - - 39,960.00 



Pay of Officers and Members, - 51,630.00 
Repairs and Contingencies, - 12,500.00 



Estimated cost with Cochituate Water, 64,130.00 



Balance in favor of Cochituate Water, - $51,705.00 



By the foregoing estimate, it will be perceived that the use 
of Cochituate Water, for extinguishing fires, has made an 
annual saving to the City, in the cost of maintaining its Fire 
Department, of $51,705,00. This estimate, however, con- 
tains only such of the regular current expenses of the de- 
partment, as are usually charged on the City books under the 
head of " Fire Department." The salaries of the Chief 
Engineer and Clerk of the Board of Engineers, are not in- 
cluded in the estimate, as they are charged under the head 
of " Salaries." As these however, would probably be the 



34 APPENDIX. 

same in either case, their omission does not effect the result. 
Tlie interest on the cost of the additional land, buildings, 
and apparatus, which would have been required for the use 
of the department, if the Cochituate Water had not been 
introduced, should properly be added to the above amount, 
but as it is not known where the buildings would have been 
located, it is impossible to make a correct estimate of their 
cost. Sufficient, however, is shown in the estimate, to prove 
that the sum annually saved to the City in the cost of main- 
taining its Fire Department, together with the receipts for 
the use of water, and from other sources, will now fully 
equal the interest on the total cost of the Water Works. 

By a vote of the Cochituate Water Board, passed January 
26th, 1853, " The Water Registrar was directed to report to 
the Board, a plan of operation by which the places of waste 
of water in the City could be ascertained, and the waste pre- 
vented." 

In compliance with the above order, a plan of operation 
was presented to the Board at its next meeting, February 
2d. This plan was adopted, and men were employed to 
visit the premises of each water-taker, to examine, and 
report the number and kind of water fixtures in use. Sub- 
sequently, a report was made to the Board, containing a de- 
tailed statement of the number,- and kind of water fixtures 
contained within the premises of water takers ; also giving 
reasons why the consumption of water in the City is larger 
than the original estimate of the quantity required to meet 
the wants of the citizens, and making some suggestions rel- 
ative to the means to be employed to reduce this consump- 
tion. The above mentioned report was sent by the Board to 
the City Council, and is now in the possession of the Joint 
Standing Committee on Water. 

A detailed statement of the number, and kind of loater 
fixtures contairied within the premises of water-takers, is in- 
cluded in this Report. 



APPENDIX. 



35 



Statement, showing the number of Houses, Stores, Steam 
Engines, &c., in the City of Boston, supplied with 
CocHiTUATE Water, to the first of January, 1S54, with 
THE Amount of Water Rates paid for 1853. 



1489 Dwelling Houses, 



1678 


U ii 


1848 


ii il 


1881 


li ii 


1818 


U ii 


1509 


ii ii 


901 


ii ii 


596 


ii ii 


345 


ii ii 


220 


ii li 


145 


ii ii 


109 


ii ii 


67 


ii ii 


74 


il [( 


61 


U li 


51 


ii 11 


34 


li li 


38 


li 11 


19 


il il 


40 


li li 


188 


ii 11 


1 


11 11 


1 


li it 


519 


11 il 


13632 




1492 


Stores, 


4 


a 


236 


a 



5.00 
6.00 

r.oo 

8.00 

9.00 

10.00 

11.00 

12.00 
13.00 

14.00 
15.00 
16.00 
17.00 
18.00 
19.00 
20.00 
21.00 
22.00 
23.00 
24.00 
25.00 
30.00 
32.00 



$7,445.00 

10,068.00 

12,936.00 

15,048.00 

16,362.00 

15,090.00 

9,911.00 

7,152.00 

4,485.00 

3,080.00 

2,175.00 

1,744.00 

1,139.00 

1,332.00 

1,159.00 

1,020.00 

714.00 

836.00 

437.00 

960.00 

4,700.00 

30.00 

32.00 

2,036.18 



5.00 


7,460.00 


6.00 


24.00 


8.00 


1,888.00 



119,891.18 



1732 Amounts carried forward, 9,372.00 $119,891.18 



36 APPENDIX. 

1732 Amounts brought forward, 9,372.00 ^119,891.18 

4 Stores, 10.00 40.00 

8 " 13.00 104.00 

4 " 15.00 60.00 

180 « 542.06 



1928 








10,118.06 


398 I 


Shops, 


5.00 


1,990.00 




6 


li 


.6.00 


36.00 




83 


a 


8.00 


664.00 




6 


u 


10.00 


60.00 




1 


ii 


11.00 


11.00 




7 


11 


15.00 


105.00 




1 


ii 


25.00 


25.00 




89 


11 

OfficeSj 


5.00 


306.99 




591 


450.00 


3,197.99 


90 




4 


(( 


6.00 


24.00 




18 


(< 


8.00 


144.00 




8 


11 


10.00 


80.00 




1 


li 


13.00 


13.00 




1 


(( 


15.00 


15.00 




15 


11 




48.18 




137 








774.18 


4 Banks, 


5.00 


20.00 




7 




8.00 


56.00 




1 




10.00 


10.00 




1 




13.00 


13.00 




1 




15.00 


15.00 




1 




20.00 


20.00 




3 




25.00 


75.00 





18 Amounts carried forward, 209.00 $133,981.41 









APPENDIX. 




6( 


18 


Amounts 


brought forward, 


209.00 $133,981.41 


1 


Bank, 




30.00 


30.00 




1 


a 




40.00 


40.00 




20 




279.00 


2 


Buildings, 




13.00 


26.00 




1 


a 




14.58 


14.58 




3 


a 




15.00 


45.00 




1 


ii 




15.75 


15.75 




3 


a 




20.00 


60.00 




1 


11 




23.00 


23.00 




3 


a 




25.00 


75.00 




3 


li 




30.00 


90.00 




1 


a 




35.00 


35.00 




1 


u 




37.00 


37.00 




1 


u 




40.00 


40.00 




1 


a 


- 


50.00 


50.00 




1 


u 




95.63 


95.63 




22 










606.96 


18 


Churches, 




5.00 


90.00 




2 


li 




20.00 


40.00 




8 


Halls, 




5.00 


14.16 

10.00 




28 


144.16 


2 




1 


a 




6.00 


6.00 




1 


(( 




8.00 


8.00 




1 


u 




10.00 


10.00 




4 


a 




15.00 


60.00 




1 


Private S 


chool, 


1.67 


1.67 




2 


a 


(( 


5.00 


10.00 




1 


(( 


u 


15.00 


15.00 




13 


Amount carried 


forward, 




120.67 




$135,132.20 



38 APPENDIX. 



Amount brought forward, 


$135,132.20 


1 Theatre, 


10.00 


10.00 




1 


35.00 


35.00 




1 Gymnasium, 


15.00 


15.00 




1 Museum, 


12.00 


12.00 




1 Custom House, 


150.00 


150.00 




1 Hospital, 


125.00 


125.00 




1 Institution for Blind, 


35.00 


35.00 




1 Medical College, 


30.00 


30.00 




1 Post Office, 


25.00 


25.00 




1 State House, 


20.00 


20.00 




1 Eye & Ear Infirmary, 


20.00 


20.00 




1 Natural History Room, 


, 10.00 


10.00 




1 Asylum, 


12.00 


12.00 




1 


15.00 


15.00 




1 " 


20.00 


20.00 




1 " 


25.00 


25.00 




1 « 


30.00 


30.00 




1 " 


200.00 


200.00 




18 




789.00 


55 Market Stalls, 


5.00 


275.00 




5 "^ " 


10.00 


50.00 




1 Market, 


15.00 


15.00 




1 " 


50.00 


50.00 




1 " 


65.00 


65.00 




1 " 


75.00 


75.00 




1 " 


107.00 


107.00 




65 






637.00 


60 Cellars, 


5.00 


300.00 




8 " 


8.00 


64.00 




14 « 


vard, 


29.74 




82 




393.74 


Amount carried fori 


|136 


,951.94 



3 Hotels, 

1 " 

1 " 
3 " 
4 

2 « 

3 « 
1 « 
1 " 
3 " 
3 " 

1 « 
5 '- 

2 « 
2 « 
2 " 
2 " 



APPENDIX. 


dy 


forward, 


$136,951.94 


12.00 


36.00 


13.00 


13.00 


14.62 


14.62 


15.00 


45.00 


18.00 


72.00 


20.00 


40.00 


21.00 


63.00 


21.62 


21.62 


22.50 


22.50 


24.00 


48.00 


25.00 


75.00 


28.50 


28.50 


30.00 


150.00 


31.50 


63.00 


33.00 


66.00 


37.50 


75.00 


45.00 


■ 90.00 


46.50 


46.50 


52.50 


52.50 


57.00 


57.00 


60.00 


240.00 


64.50 


64.50 


67.50 


67.50 


73.50 


73.50 


78.00 


78.00 


^ 85.50 


85.50 


90.00 


90.00 


97.50 


97.50 


99.75 


99.75 


107.50 


107.50 


118.50 


118.50 


123.00 


123.00 


124.50 


124.50 


136.25 


136.25 


138.00 


138.00 



59 Amounts carried forward^ 2,723.24 |136,951. 94 



40 



APPENDIX. 



59 Amounts 


brought forward, 


2,723.24 $ 


136,951.94 


I Hotel, 


139.50 


139.50 




1 " 


151.50 


151.50 




1 " 


165.00 


165.00 




1 " 


182.50 


182.50 




1 " 


187.50 


187.50 




1 " 


320.50 


320.50 




1 " 


360.00 


360.00 




1 " 


360.50 


360.50 




67 




4,590.24 


7 Restaurants, 5.00 


35.00 




49 


8.00 


392.00 




8 " 


10.00 


80.00 




6 " 


12.00 


72.00 




9 


15.00 


135.00 




1 


20.00 


20.00 




1 " 


24.00 


24.00 




1 « 


40.00 


40.00 




10 " 




39.59 




92 




837.59 


4 Saloons, 


5.00 


20.00 




68 


8.00 


544.00 




18 " 


10.00 


180.00 




1 " 


11.00 


11.00 




1 " 


13.00 


13.00 




1 " 


14.00 


14.00 




6 " 


15.00 


90.00 




1 " 


17.00 


17.00 




1 " 


18.00 


18.00 




1 " 


20.00 


20.00 




1 " 


30.00 


30.00 




21 




74.74 




L24 




1,031.74 



Amount carried forward, 



:143,411.51 



APPENDIX. 



41 



Amount hrought forward, 
1 Club House, 10.00 

1 " " 25.00 

1 " " 50.00 



103 Stables, 

1 

2 

1 

1 
45 

5 

1 

1 
48 

1 

1 

1 

9 
28 

1 
23 
11 

1 

1 
16 

1 

1 

1 
20* 

1 

1 

7 

2 



$143,411.51 



10.00 
25.00 
50.00 



3.00 


309.00 


3.12 


3.12 


3.33 


-6.66 


3.42 


3.42 


3.67 


3.67 


3.75 


168.75 


4.00 


20.00 


4.50 


4.50 


4.69 


4.69 


5.00 


240.00 


5.42 


5.42 


5.62 


5.62 


5.75 


5.75 


6.00 


54.00 


6.25 


175.00 


6.67 


6.67 


7.50 


172.50 


8.00 


88.00 


8.33 


8.33 


8.36 


8.36 


8.75 


140.00 


9.00 


9.00 


9.33 


9.33 


9.50 


9.50 


10.00 


200.00 


10.50 


10.50 


11.00 


11.00 


11.25 


78.75 


12.00 


24.00 



85.00 



335 Amounts carried forward^ 



1,785.54 $143,496.51 



42 
35 Amounts brought forward, 1,785.54 143,496.51 



12 


Stables 


3 


u 


3 


ii 


9 


u 


1 


a 


6 


u 


1 


it 


1 


a 


I 


li 


1 


a 


9 


li 


1 


a 


4 


a 


4 


li 


1 


li 


1 


11 


5 


u 


1 


ti 


5 


u 


3 


it 


2 


11 


4 


It 


1 


tl 


6 


11 




li 




tl 




It 




tt 




u 




(( 




(( 




it 


2 


(( 


1 


a 


7 


(( 



APPENDIX. 




'orward, 


1,785.54 


12.50 


150.00 


13.75 


41.25 


14.00 


42.00 


15.00 


135.00 


16.25 


16.25 


17.50 


105.00 


18.00 


18.00 


18.67 


18.67 


18.75 


18.75 


19.33 


19.33 


20.00 


180.00 


22.50 


22.50 


24.00 


96.00 


25.00 


100.00 


26.00 


26.00 


27.50 


27.50 


28.00 


140.00 


29.58 


29.58 


30.00 


150.00 


32.00 


90.00 


32.50 


65.00 


36.00 


144.00 


37.50 


37.50 


40.00 


240.00 


41.17 


41.17 


45.00 


45.00 


46.67 


46.67 


47.50 


47.50 


48.00 


48.00 


50.00 


150.00 


55.00 


55.00 


56.00 


56.00 


60.00 


120 00 


64.12 


64.12 


70.00 


490.00 



X40 Amounts carried forward, 4,867.33 $143,496.51 





APPENDIX. 


• 


4d 


Amounts brought 


forward, 


4,867.33 $ 


143,496.51 


2 Stables, 


72.00 


144.00 




1 


76.00 


76.00 




2 " 


80.00 


160.00 




1 " 


86.00 


86.00 




1 " 


90.00 


90.00 




4 " 


100.00 


400.00 




1 " 


118.00 


118.00 




1 " 


120.00 


120.00 




1 " 


130.00 


130.00 




1 " 


140.00 


140.00 




1 " 
4 


144.00 


144.00 
40.05 









6,515.38 


1 Bathing House, 


10.00 


10.00 




2 


15.00 


30.00 




1 " " 


30.00 


30.00 




1 


40.00 


40.00 




2 « " 


50.00 


100.00 




1 


55.00 


55.00 




1 " « 


135.00 


135.00 




9 




400.00 


3 Shops and Engines 


10.00 


30.00 




]^ u u 


10.20 


10.20 




1 U (( 


11.40 


11.40 




\ 11 u 


11.75 


11.75 




-j^ ii a 


11.87 


11.87 




]^ <( (C 


12.50 


12.50 




]^ It (( 


12.75 


12.75 




J (( u 


13.75 


13.75 




1 (( (( 


14.67 


14.67 




]^ (( a 


14.96 


14.98 





12 Amounts candied forward, 



143.85 $150,411.89 



44 



t 


APPENDIX. 




2 Amounts 


hrovght forward., 


143.85 1150,411.89 


1 Shop and Engine, 


14.98 


14.98 


2 


u 


15.00 


30.00 


1 " 


(( 


17.50 


17.50 


1 " 


u 


18.86 


18.86 


1 " 


<( 


19.34 


19.34 


2 « 


(t 


20.00 


40.00 


1 " 


<c 


21.36 


21.36 


1 " 


(( 


22.80 


22.80 


2 « 


(( 


24.00 


48.00 


2 « 


11 


25.00 


50.00 


1 " 


(( 


26.20 


26.20 


2 *' 


({ 


' 27.00 


54.00 


1 " 


(( 


28.50 


28.50 


1 " 


(( 


28.66 


28.66 


1 " 


(( 


29.78 


29.78 


1 " 


u 


31.28 


31.28 


1 " 


(C 


34.13 


34.13 


1 " 


« 


36.50 


36.50 


1 " 


(( 


40.38 


40.38 


1 " 


(( 


42.00 


42.00 


1 " 


tl 


43.92 • 


43.92 


1 " 


<( 


44.20 


44.20 


1 " 


u 


44.50 


44.50 


1 " 


(( 


46.62 


46.62 


1 *' 


({ 


46.68 


46.68 


1 " 


(i 


46.90 


46.90 


2 " 


(( 


48.00 


96.00 


1 " 


(C 


48.36 


48.36 


1 " 


(( 


49.14 


49.14 


2 " 


(( 


49.80 


99.60 


1 " 


(( 


51.90 


51.90 


1 " 


(( 


55.67 


55.67 


1 " 


(( 


57.33 


57.33 


1 " 


<{ 


58.50 


58.50 


1 " 


(( 


60.00 


60.00 



54 Amounts carried forward, 1,627.44 |150,411.89 







APPENDIX, 


4£> 


54 


Amou7i 


ts brought forward^ 


1,627.44 1150,411.89 




Shop and Engine, 


61.08 


61.08 




u 


a 


64.68 


64.68 




a 


li 


68.22 


68.22 




11 


li 


70.00 


70.00 




a 


a 


71.10 


71.10 




11 


a 


78.00 


78.00 




it 


a 


80.00 


80.00 




a 


ii 


87.60 


87.60 




(( 


a 


89.10 


_89.10 




a 


li 


91.25 


91.25 




(( 


11 


94.00 


94.00 




(< 


li 


99.60 


99.60 




cc 


ii 


100.74 


100.74 




li 


11 


102.00 


102.00 




li 


ii 


104.50 


104.50 




li 


ii 


107.40 


107.40 




i( 


a 


109.00 


109.00 




<( 


li 


114.00 


114.00 




(( 


a 


120.00 


240.00 




(C 


li 


129.48 


129.48 




(( 


a 


135.76 


13.5.76 




(( 


li 


136.50 


136.50 




a 


ii 


140.70 


140.70 




(( 


li 


150.60 


150.60 




<( 


li 


153.30 


153.30 




(( 


11 


174.66 


174.66 




(( 


ii 


183.60 


183.60 




ii 


ii 


187.23 


187.23 




11 


11 


195.75 


195.75 




11 


li 


303.60 


303.60 


10 


a 


ii 




62.63 


95 


5,413.52 


1 


Factory 


and Engine, 


17.50 


17.50 


1 


(( 


ii 


22.26 


22.26 



2 Amounts carried forward, 39.76 $155,825.41 



46 



) 




APPENDIX. 






2 Amoun 


ts brought forward, 


39.76 


1155,825.41 


1 Factory 


and Engine, 22.40 


22.40 




1 " 


u 


32.00 


32.00 




1 " 


(C 


40.50 


40.50 




1 " 


(( 


47.50 


47.50 




1 " 


(( 


■ . 54.24 


54.24 




1 " 


u 


69.84 


69.84 




1 " 


(< 


72.00 


72.00 




1 " 


(( 


78.00 


78.00 




1 " 


(( 


86.40 


86.40 




1 " 


a 


89.02 


89.02 




1 " 


(( 


111.60 


111.60 




1 •'' 


(( 


104.22 


104.22 




1 " 


u 


113.10 


113.10 




1 " 


u 


125.00 


125.00 




1 " 


i( 


132.96 


132.96 




1 " 


(( 


133.84 


133.84 




1 " 


(( 


160.00 


160.00 




1 *' 


{£ 


288.00 


288.00 




1 " 


(( 


300.00 


300.00 




1 " 


(( 


308.40 


308.40 




1 " 


<< 


339.72 


339.72 




1 " 


(( 


557.70 


557.70 




1 " 


(( 


1,587.60 


1,587.60 




5 




4,893.80 


1 Foundry 


and Engine, 11.00 


11.00 




1 " 




48.00 


48.00 




1 " 




65.28 


65.28 




1 




80.40 


80.40 




1 




121.40 


121.40 




1 


« 461.74 
•^^ carried forward, 


461.74 




6 


< 


787.82 


Amoiii 


^161,507.03 



APPENDIX. 



47 



Amount brought forward, 
1 Printing Office and 

Engine, 12.19 
16.00 

18.28 
18.74 
20.00 
22.68 
25.00 
29.28 
35.74 
40.80 
42.62 
73.76 
83.24 
103.86 



$161,507.03 



12.19 

16.00 
18.28 
18.74 
20.00 
22.68 
25.00 
^9.28 
35.74 
40.80 
42.62 
73.76 
83.24 
103.86 



14 



542.19 



1 Factory, 



2 




2 












2 

































5.00 

8.00 

10.00 

12.00 

15.00 

22.50 

30.00 

30.14 

45.00 

50.00 

71.04 

110.00 

142.67 

343.76 



5.00 

8.00 

20.00 

24.00 

165.00 

22.50 

60.00 

30.14 

45.00 

50.00 

71.04 

110.00 

142.67 

343.76 



27 



1,097.11 



Amount carried forward, 



$163,146.33 



48 



1 Sugar Refinery, 

1 a u 



1 Rolling Mill, 
1 " " 
1 Forge, 



23 Printing Offices, 



2 " 

1 " 

35 

1 Distillery, 

1 '• 
1 

1 " 

] " 

1 " 

1 " 

1 " 

1 " 
1 Brewery, 

1 " 

1 « 

12 



APPENDIX. 

brward, 




$163,146.33 


1,966.56 


1,966 56 




1,736.16 


1,736.16 








3,702.72 


1,921.50 


1,921.50 




625.44 


625.44 




362.85 


362.85 








2,909.79 


6.00 


132.00 




8.00 


16.00 


* 


10.00 


80.00 




12.00 


24.00 




24.00 


24.00 








276.00 


60.00 


60.00 




80.00 


80.00 




90.00 


90.00 




126.67 


126.67 




169.74 


169.74 




177.16 


177.16 




480.84 


480.84 




546.72 


546.72 




720.00 


720.00 




15.00 


15.00 


'. 


25.00 


25.00 




169.00 


169.00 








2,660.13 


5.00 


5.00 




8.00 


8.00 





1 Bleachery, 

1 " 

2 Amounts carried forward, 13.00 $172,694.97 



APPENDIX. 



49 



2 Amount brought forward, 13.00 1172,694.97 

2 Bleacheries, 10.00 20.00 

1 Laundry, 10.00 10.00 

1 " 60.00 60.00 

1 Pottery, 30.00 30.00 

1 Dye House, 60.00 60.00 

193.00 



8 






1 Bakery, 


2.08 


2.08 


42 " 


5.00» 


210.00 


2 " 


8.00 


16.00 


3 « 


10.00 


30.00 


1 « 


15.00 


15.00 


49 


- 




2 Bacon Works, 


10.00 


20.00 


]^ (( (( 


15.00 


15.00 


3 




3 Ship Yards, 


15.00 


45.00 


2 " " 


20.00 


40.00 


1 Sectional Dock, 


14.00 


14.00 


6 






928 Hose, 


3.00 


2,784.00 


3 « 


10.00 


30.00 


I " 


15.00 


15.00 


932 




5 Fountains, 


3.00 


15.00 


3 " 


5.00 


15.00 


8 « 


6.00 


48.00 



273.08 



35.00 



99.00 



2,829.00 



16 Amounts carried forward^ 78.00 $176,124.05 



(50 APPENDIX. 

16 Amoimts brought forward, 78.00 |176,124.05 

2 Fountains, 8.00 16.00 

2 « 9.00 • 18.00 

1 " 12.00 12.00 

2 « 13.00 26.00 

3 " 15.00 45.00 
2 " 25.00 50.00 



28 245.00 



Railroad Company, 2,245.88 2,245.88 

" 1,188.14 1,188.14 

'' " 918.57 918.57 

" " 783.20 783.20 

" « 697,56 697.56 

" '• 583.85 583.85 

" " 95.00 95.00 

Freight House, 15.00 15.00 



8 6,527.20 

1 East Boston Ferry Co., 570.84 570.84 

1 Chelsea " " 435.69 435.69 



2 1,006.53 

1 Cunard Steamship Co., 600.00 600.00 

1 Steamboat, 404.95 404.95 

1 " • 285.18 285.18 

1 " 190.48 190.48 

1 " 184.20 184.20 

2 " 185.63 371.26 
2 " 168.75 337.50 
1 " 176.85 176.85 
1 « 12.333 123.33 
1 " 123.20 123.20 



12 Amounts carried forward, 2,796.95 |183,902.78 



APPENDIX. 



Hi 



12 
1 
1 
1 
1 

16 



Amounis brought forward, 
Steamboat, 100.38 

" 94.32 

" 59.16 

" 5.00 



Contractors for supplying 




shipping, 


3,9_00.06 


Street Waterers, 


655.88 


Building Purposes, 


609.93 


Proprietors of Boston Traveller, 


535.51 


Sewall Day & Co., 


500.00 


Mill Dam Co., 


300.00 


Boston Gas Light Co., 


300.00 


East Boston Gas Co., 


109.37 


South Boston " " 


105.10 


Mechanics Fair, 


14.00 



2,796.95 $183,902.78 

100.38 

94.32 

59.16 

5.00 



3,055.81 



7,029.85 



Amount of Water Rates, 



$193,988.44 



52 APPENDIX. 



Statement, showing the number of City Buildings, and 
OTHER Public Places, supplied with Cochituate Water, 
to the riRST of January, 1854, with the amount of 
Water Rates assessed to each, for 1853. 



1 Latin School, 




15.00 


15.00 


1 English High School, 




15.00 


15.00 


1 Normal School, 




15.00 


15.00 


19 Grammar Schools, 




15.00 


285.00 


3 Primary Schools, 




10.00 


30.00 


179 " 




5.Q0 


895.00 


3 « « (6 months,) 


2.50 


7.50 


4 « " (3 


" ) 


1.25 


5.00 


12 Engine Houses, 




15.00 


180.00 


5 Hose Carriage Houses, 




15.00 


75.00 


3 Hook and Ladder Houses, 




15.00 


45.00 


2 Watch Houses, 




15.00 


30.00 


5 " '' 




10.00 


50.00 


1 City Stable, (Harrison Avenue,) 


70.00 


70.00 


1 « " (Commercial St.,) 


30.00 


30.00 


3 Fire Alarm Motors, (6 months,) 


2.50 


7.50 


Court House, 


- 


- 


95.00 


City Hall, - - 


- 


- 


50.00 


Faneuil Hall, 


- 


- 


40.00 


City Building, - 


- 


- 


37.50 


Probate Office, - 


- 


- 


10.00 


Office at City Scales, - 


- 


- 


8.00 


Dead House, 


_ 


- 


8.00 


Public Library, - 


- 


- 


5.00 


House of Correction, - 


- 


- 


500.00 


House of Industry, - 


- 


- 


225.00 


Lunatic Hospital, 


- 


- 


225.00 


Jail for Suffolk County, 


- 


- 


225.00 


House of Reformation, 


- 


- 


50.00 



Amount carried forward, 



APPENDIX. 53 

Amouvt brought forward, f 3, 233. 50 

Fanenil Hall Market, (for Urinals, &c.,) - 70.00 

Street Sprinkling, 400.00 

Oifal Station, - - - - - - 150.00 

Watering Tremont Road, - - - . 129.82 

Common Sewers, (for Making Mortar, &c.,) 75.00 



Amount, -,---- $4,058.32 



Statement, showing the number and kfnd of water fix- 
tures, CONTAINED WITHIN THE PREMISES OF WaTER TaKERS, 

IN THE City of Boston, to the first of March, 1853. 

3968 Taps. These have no connection with any drain or 
sewer. 
19287 Sinks. 
3149 Wash Hand Basins. 

1838 Bathing Tubs. Most of these have shower baths at- 
tached. 
1622 Pan Water Closets. 
698 Hopper " " 

159 Self-acting" " 

218 Urinals. 

476 Wash Tubs. These are permanently attached to the 
biiildijig. 
14 Shower Baths. These are in houses where there is 

no tub. 
9 Hydraulic Rams. 
312 Private Hydrants. 
1123 Places having hot water fixtures. 
All of the above, with the exception of the 3968 Taps, are 
cotmected by drains, with the common sewers. 

The foregoing Report is respectfully submitted. 

J. AVERY RICHARDS, 

Water Registrar. 



54 APPENDIX. 



PROFESSOR HORSFORD'S COMMUNICATION. 



Thomas Wetmore, Esq,., 

President of the Cochituate Water Board. 

SiRj — 

The incrustation of the water pipes has con- 
tinued to occupy my attention during the past year. 

It is a satisfaction to be able to state, after a comparison of 
the casts of the tubercles taken three years since, with the 
tubercles observed but a few weeks ago, that the growth is 
less rapid than at first. 

The persuasion that galvanic action is prominent among 
the agencies in the production of tubercles, has been strength- 
ened by the observations of the last year. 

In November last the City Engineer enabled me to pass 
through the pipes at Newton, Lower Falls — a length of 
about two thousand feet in all. A better opportunity than I 
have before enjoyed, was thus afforded of seeing and com- 
paring extensive surfaces of pipe. Of the interesting things 
observed in the excursion, and which may throw light on 
the occult agencies producing the accretions, several may be 
worthy of mention. 

In a few instances the sections of pipe were covered 
throughout with tubercles. In the majority, they were 
nearly covered. In a very few instances, there were pipes 
covered to the extent of from about one-eighth to one-fourth. 

In one section of pipe, for the most part covered with ac- 
cretions, there were two strips of vacant space, about an inch 
in width, extending parallel to the axis, from end to end. 

In several there were similar strips, of less length. 

In several others there were rings of tubercles, us if, the 



APPENDIX. 55 

pipes being cast upright, there had been a difference in the 
casting material of the upper and lower parts, or in the fash- 
ioning of the core. 

Some sections had patches of large tubercles, and then 
patches of exceedingly small ones. 

The joints of pipes, where closely fitting, were entirely 
filled with tubercles, which projected above the surrounding 
level of accretions, and was, beside, uniformly soft, and in 
some places porous and cavernous. In some instances there 
had been shrinking of the incrustations over the lead joints, 
displaying a continuous crack. 

This observed superior development of the tubercles at the 
junction of lead and iron, is in keeping with the facts noticed 
last year at Dover Street, and earlier elsewhere, that the 
contact of a metal of inferior susceptibility to oxidation, pro- 
motes the growth of the accretions. 

Two sections of pipe in the East Boston Reservoir have 
so few and such small accretions, that, compared with other 
sections, of the same diameter, as at Chelsea Bridge, they 
may be considered as quite free. One of them is in contact 
with another pipe which is severely corroded. The connec- 
tion of the other is not visible. 

These sections and all the others of the 20-inch pipe em- 
ployed to conduct the water to the East Boston Reservoir, 
were, I understand, cast at Alger's South Boston Foundry. 
On inquiry at the foundry, I found there was a peculiarity in 
the construction of the cores, around which these sections 
were cast. 

Ordinarily the core is a hollow, cast-iron cylinder, per- 
forated with numerous holes, and wound with hay-rope, over 
which there is a coat of loam. With the exception of the 
sections in question, all the 20-inch pipe cast at Alger's 
foundry were made upon such a core. The particular sec- 
tions were cast around what is called a brick core ; that is, 
a core having within the loam, instead of a hay-rope and hol- 
low cylinder, a brick base for the coating of loam. 

The significance of this contrast in modes of casting, and 



56 APPENDIX. 

corresponding difference in the susceptibility to oxidation and 
accretion, would be more obvious, were it not that of the 36- 
inch pipes made at the West Point Foundry, all of them cast 
on hay cores, some are free, or nearly so, from accretions. 

Ordinary cast-iron contains, beside carbon, silicon, sul- 
phur, phosphorus, sometimes magnesium, aluminum, arse- 
nic, zinc, titanium, and manganese ; and more seldom other 
substances. The chief foreign ingredient is carbon, which 
in the white cast iron is all chemically combined with the 
iron. In the grey irou a part of it is in the form of graphite. 
The maximum of carbon is less than 6 per cent. The range 
in white iron is from 3 1-2 to 5 3-4 per cent. ; that in the 
grey iron, from 3 1-5 to 4 3-5 per cent. Various circum- 
stances conspire to produce the white iron, such as sudden 
cooling, by moist sand or iron moulds, large proportions of 
sulphur, phosphorus, or manganese, which tend to prevent 
the separation of graphite, — reduced quantity of carbon, and 
too low a temperature. (Scheerer.) 

Now the separation of graphite will give an iron wanting 
in homogeneity. Such an iron will give rise to galvanic 
action, and such action is known to favor the growth of 
tubercles. 

There seem to be no means of ascertaining, with any de- 
gree of precision, where the iron was derived from, of which 
the separate sections are composed. At the time they were 
produced the market furnished pig iron from Pennsylvania, 
Salisbury, Stockbridge, Scotland, England, and various other 
sources. There remained the analytical examination of the 
pipes only. It was thought there might be some indication 
in the amount of carbon and other foreign substances, each as 
compared with the other or the whole, which might shed the 
desired light. Analyses were accordingly made of specimens 
of incrusted iron derived from various sources. For speci- 
mens, some years employed in the distribution of Croton 
water, and for others, similarly employed in Baltimore, both 
of which bore tubercles, the latter more than the former, but 
both much inferior to the average of Cochituate iron pipes, 
I am indebted to the President of the Water Board, Beside 



APPENDIX. $7 

these, specimens were taken of the pipe not acted on in the 
East Boston Reservoir, and also of the section in immediate 
connection, acted on, and also of pipe in Boston displaying 
great severity of action. 

ANALYSIS OF IRON PIPES. 

SPECIFIC GRAVITY. 

The specific gravity was determined by weighing the iron 
accurately in the air, and then plunging it in water, at 9° C, 
and weighing again. The loss it sustained in the water 
compared with the absolute weight of the substance gave 
the specific gravity. 

BOSTON PIPE. 

Weight of iron = 43.3166 grammes. 

Loss in water = 6.1878 " 

Specific gravity = 7.000 

NEW YORK PIPE. 

Weight of iron = 26.5762 gr. 

Loss in water = 3.9405 " 

Specific gravity = 6.728 



♦ 



BALTIMORE PIPE. 

Weight of iron =21.1661 gr. 

Loss of water = 3.0560 " 

Specific gravity = 6.926 

EAST BOSTON, Hot acted on. 
Weight of iron = 6.0885 gr. 
Loss in water = 0.9000 " 
Specific gravity = 6.7660 

EAST BOSTON, acted on. 
Weight of iron = 2.9439 gr. 
Loss in water = 0.4240 '• 
Specific gravity = 6.943. 

The iron was dissolved in hydrochloric acid, with addition 
of a little nitric acid. The insoluble residue was washed 



5S 



APPENDIX. 



out, dried, weighed, a part of it examined with a microscope, 
and another part burned with chromate of lead to determine 
the carbon. 

Boston Pipe, having large incrustations, and coarse grain- 
ed. 5.2925 gr., substance gave 7.183 gr. oxide of iron = 95. 
per cent, of metallic iron. It left a residue of 0.3990 gr. = 
7.54 per cent. Of this residue 0.3562 gr. gave by combus- 
tion 0.585 gr. carbonic acid = 0.1595 gr. =3.39 per cent, 
of carbon in the whole. 

New York Pipe, having small incrustations. 6.3367 sub- 
stance gave 8.493 gr. oxide of iron = 93.82 per cent, metallic 
iron. It left a residue of 0.5305 gr. = 8.37 per cent. Of 
this residue 0.4917 gr. gave, by combustion with chromate of 
lead, 0.697 gr. carbonic acid, corresponding to 0.1901 gr. or 
3.23 per cent, of carbon in the whole. 

Baltimore Pipe, having larger incrustations than New 
York, but less than Boston. 7.8945 gr. substance gave 10.479 
gr. oxide of iron = 92.92 per cent, of metallic iron. It left 
a residue of 0.9145 gr. = 11.58 per cent. Of this residue 
0.483^ gr. gave by combustion 0.461 gr. carbonic acid = 
0. 1257 gr. or 3.02 per cent, carbon in the whole. 

East Boston Pipe, No. I, tiot acted on, or having very 
small incrustations. 5.3262 gr. substance gave 7.222 gr. 
oxide of iron = 94.91 per cent, of metallic iron. It left 
0.4000 gr. residue = 7.51 per cent. Of this residue 0.3635 
gr. gave by combustion 0.5945 gr. carbonic acid = 0.1623 
gr. = 3.34 per cent, of carbon in the whole. 

East Boston Pipe, No. II, acted on, only less than the 
Boston sample above. 5.321 gr. substance gave 7.218 gr. 
oxide of iron = 94.96 per cent, of metallic iron. It left a 
residue of 0.3975 gr. = T.48 per cent. Of this residue 0.3668 
gr. gave by combustion 0.584 gr. carbonic acid = 0.1593 gr. 
or 3.24 per cent, of carbon in the whole. 



APPENDIX. 69 

I. Placing the results in one hundred parts, we have : 

Metallic Iron. Inorganic Residue. Carbon, 



Boston pipe, 


- 


- 95.00 


4.15 


3.39 


New York pipe, - 


- 


- 93.82 


5.14 


3.23 


Baltimore pipe, - 


- 


- 92.92 


8.56 


3.02 


East Boston pipe. No. 


I, 


- 94.91 


4.17 


3.34 


East Boston pipe. No. 


n, 


- 94.96 


4.24 


3,.24 



The excess over one hundred parts is due to the oxidation 
of the silicon, aluminum, and other ingredients, in the iron, 
not including the carbon. 

The percentage of carbon in all is below the quantity re- 
quired for a homogeneous carburet, but the difference does 
not seem to obey any law connected with the prevalence of 
accretions. 

II. On microscopic examination of the residues, the pro- 
portion of graphite on the one hand, and of silica and other 
insoluble matters on the other, was estimated by the eye 
to be about as follows : — 

East Boston, No. II, 

Boston, - - - - . 

East Boston, No. I, - - 

Baltimore, _ _ - . 

New York, . _ - . 

III. On microscopic examination of the different samples 
before dissolving, the grain and lustre appeared as follows : — 

East Boston, No. II, Small grain, dull lead glance. 

Boston, - - Large grain, lamellar texture, strong, re- 
sinous lustre, lead glance. 

East Boston, No. I, Small grain, dull lead glance. 

Baltimore, - - Small grain, lead glance, brighter than 
the preceding. 

New York, - - Small grain, greyish, lustre of plumbago. 

IV. After keeping the samples of iron under water for 
thirty-six hours, they were exposed, still moist, to the air. 



Graphite. 


Silica, etc. 


3-4 


1-4 


1-2 


1-2 


1-3 


2-3 


1-4 


3-4 


1-4 


3-4 



m 



APPENDIX. 



and the rapidity of oxidation estimated from the change in 
color, in given times. This estimate gave the following 
relations : — • 

Boston, - - Most rapidily. 
New York, - - Next " 
East Boston, No. II, " " 

* Baltimore, - - " " 

East Boston, No. I, " " 

On comparing the scale of accretion, or rapidity of forma- 
tion of tubercles, with any of the foregoing tables, there will 
be found no principle of correspondence. 

V. The case is different, however, with the scale of spe- 
cific gravities, which is as follows : — 

Boston pipe, - - . 

East Boston, No. I, - 

Baltimore, _ _ _ 

East Boston, No. II, - 

New York, - _ - 

This coincidence is sufficiently striking to afford ground 
for a new suite of observations in the direction which it indi- 
cates, and which I shall hope to be able to carry forward in 
the course of the coming year. 

What can be done to arrest the Accretions ? 

In the past year, I have examined sheet iron pipes coated 
exteriorly and interiorly with hydraulic cement, which had 
been seven years in use for distributing water. It was in all 
respects entirely free from corrosion. I have been informed 
that at Saratoga such pipes have been in use fourteen years. 
It is obvious that the protection must be perfect, or such 
slender pipe would have been speedily consumed. It is not 
so obvious, however, that adhesion to cast-iron pipes might 
be as easily secured. In September last, a small space of 
iron pipe in use was freed of tubercles and coated with hydrau- 
lic cement. At the end of November there was no indication 



cific Gravity. 


Scale of Accretion. 


7.000 " 


5. 


6.943 


4. 


6.926 


3. 


6.766 


2. 


6.728 


1. 



APPKNDIX. 61 

that the protection had been imperfect. Though this result 
may not be entitled to much weight by itself, taken in con- 
nection with the experiments with sheet iron pipe coated 
elsewhere with cement, it would at least justify a repetition 
of the experiment upon a more extended scale. 

The fears entertained, by Mallet, in regard to the use of 
hydraulic cement, whose observations are cited in the last 
year's report of the President, could not have been based 
upon experiment. We have abundant evidence that the 
current in Cochituate pipes is utterly inadequate to the re- 
moval of compact hydraulic cement. It does not even re- 
move the friable and much less firm tubercles. As to the 
durability of the protection, Mallet had probably before him 
results of a mere wash of the cement. The point of solici- 
tude would seem to be, the successful attachment of the 
cement to the rough surface. Whether this will be deter- 
mined favorably will doubtless be shown in the course of the 
coming year. 

Arrangements have been made to prepare, in the coming 
year, cast iron, for experiment in Cochituate water, under 
such a variety of well defined conditions, that I cannot doubt, 
the true cause of accretions will be developed, and the mode 
of preventing their occurrence ultimately ascertained. 

Respectfully submitted. 

E. N. HORSFORD. 
Cambridge, Feb. 7, 1854. 



62 



APPENDIX. 



Note referred to on page 19 q/ Appendix. 

In order to ascertain the effect of the accretions in the 30-inch 
pipes across the Charles River Valley, a weir, 4.38 feet long and 3 
feet high, was placed in the aqueduct, 50 feet below the East or 
Effluent Pipe-Chamber. The channel above the weir, for 12 feet, 
was 4.38 feet wide, thus avoiding contraction. 

The length of the pipe experimented upon (the most southerly 
of the two) was 979 feet. In order to avoid errors in the meas- 
urement of the head, arising from the effect of eddies in the West or 
Influent Pipe- Chamber, gauges were connected with the pipe outside 
of the Chambers. These connections were made at similar bends 
in each end of the pipes, and it was consequently supposed that what- 
ever errors, due to the effect of a rapid current in the main pipe, 
there might be in the heights, as shown by the gauge at one end, 
would be counterbalanced by equal errors at the other end ; but, at 
the time, there apj^eared to be no way of proving this. 

By means of a 12-inch branch from the lowest part of the main 
pipe not experimented upon, the height of water in the "West Pipe- 
Chamber was regulated so as to remain stationary at different levels. 

The following observations were made before the pipe was cleaned 
out : 



Head as shown by the 

height of water in the Pipe 

Chambers. 


Head as shown by the 

gauges at each end" of the 

Pipes. 


Height of water on the 
Weir. 


0.225 

0.700 
2.780 


0.225 ft. 
0.643 " 
2.340 " 


0.440 ft. 

0.620 « 
0.965 « 


The following were made after the pipe was cleaned out : 


0.155 
0.575 
1.625 


0.155 
0.525 
1.450 


0.455 
0.695 
1.000 



The unexpectedly great difference, at the higher velocities, be- 
tween the heads as shown by the heights of water in the Pipe-Cham- 
bers, and by the gauges at the ends of the pipes, prove that eddies 
formed in the West Pipe-Chamber extend their influence for some 
distance into the pipes. 



APPENDIX. 63 

Although we were thus disappointed in obtaining the exact heads 
requii-ed to overcome friction in the pipe, under different velocities, 
before and after it was cleaned out, the heads actually observed justify 
aU that is said in the report relative to the effect of accretions in di- 
minishing the amount of discharge. 

The loss in the discharge through the 30-inch pipe between the 
Brookline and Beacon Hill Reservoirs was determined by measuring 
the actual discharge, and comparing it with what Prony's exact for- 
mula would give for a clean pipe of the same diameter and length, 
with the same head. Unfortunately, no record can be found of the 
actual discharge through this pipe when it was first laid.