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Full text of "Annual report of the Cochituate Water Board"

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E E P O R T 



COCHITUATE WATER BOARD 

"^^ 3 s-f.y 



eiTY COUNCIL OF BOSTON, 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING 



APRIL 30, 1874. 



BOSTON: 

ROCKWELL & CHURCHILL, CITY PRINTERS, 

122 Washington Street. 



'V 



CITY OF BOSTON. 



In Board of Aldermen, May 5, 1874. 

Ordered, That the Cochituate Water Board be and hereby 
are authorized to submit their annual report in print ; the ex- 
pense thereof to be charged to the appropriation for Printing. 

Passed in Common Council. 

Came up for concurrence. 

Read and concurred. 

Approved by the Mayor May 6, 1874. 

A true copy. S. F. McCLEARY, City Clerk. 



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CITY OF BOSTO]^. 



CocHiTUATE Water Board Office, May 20, 1874. 

To THE City Council of the City of Boston : — 

The Cochituate Water Board, in compliance with the pro- 
visions of the City Ordinance, respectfully submits its annual 
report for the year ending April 30, 1874, together with the 
report of the Clerk of the Board, the City Engineer, the 
Water Registrar, and the Superintendents of the Eastern and 
Western Divisions of the Water Works. The detailed state- 
ments made by each of these officers give much valuable in- 
formation in relation to the condition and progress of the 
works. 

With the exception of the conduit, the Board has the pleas- 
ure of reporting that the condition of the works, in all depart- 
ments, is entirely satisfactory. Recent examinations however, 
show conclusively that no valuable time ought to be wasted 
in providing means for a permanent and ample water supply, 
independent of the present conduit. It was supposed that 
definite means to secure the required supply had been taken 
by the City Council of 1873, which, in the early months of 
that year, not only formally approved the Sudbury river plan, 
presented by the Water Board, but appropriated $500,000 
for the prosecution of the work, and ordered the Board to 
proceed forthwith in its execution, — which it did, with what 
was thought a commendable degree of alacrity and energy. 
A final location of the line was made, plans and specifica- 
tions of the whole work prepared, and a contract was let for 



vi City Document. — No. 55. 

excavating the long tunnel through the Chestnut Hill ridge, 
which work is now progressing favorably. In October last, 
when it became necessary to take certain lands in the valley, 
of the Sudbury river for storage basins, it was found b}" the 
City Solicitor that the authority to seize these lands had been 
inadvertently omitted by the City Council when the appro- 
priation was made. The Water Board then applied for the 
requisite authority, but up to this time no authority has been 
given. The causes which have led to this delay may be 
briefly stated. 

The moderate rainfall of 1871 and 1872 necessitated the 
use of pumps at the lake to supply the city, and public at- 
tention was at once directed to the best means for preventing 
any such threatened water famine in the future. The universal 
demand from the press, the people, and the City Government, 
was for an ample and generous supply, a supply large enough 
to meet every possible emergency, for the next fifty years at 
least. There was nothing said in favor of piecing out the 
present supply by procuring a few million of gallons from 
elsewhere, on the score of economy, and this Board has never 
been asked or ordered to report upon a partial supply to re- 
inforce the present system. Acting under the stimulus, as the 
Board still thinks, of a wise public opinion, the City Council 
applied to the Legislature for a new source of supply, and the 
Sudbur}' river was granted. As soon as the Act was signed, 
and accepted by the City Government, the Board proceeded 
to turn the water from the river into Lake Cochituate, thus 
relieving the immediate necessities of the city. While the 
surveys and plans for a permanent supply from the Sudbury 
were being perfected, the great conflagration of November 
1872 occurred, and in May, 1873, the city suffered from an- 
other disastrous fire. The great losses from these fires 
caused no change in the policy of the City Council, and the 
Sudbury river scheme of permanent works was adopted with 
great unanimity. Within a few months, however, the ques- 



Repokt of the Water Board. ^ii 

tion of the annexation of Charlestown began to be discussed, 
and it was favored upon the ground, mainly, that the large 
water supply of the Mystic river could be utilized for the 
needs of Boston. The large losses by the two great fires, 
the dread of heavy taxation, and the financial panic of Septem- 
ber,1873, produced finally the natural reaction in favor of great 
economy in public expenditure ; and, if a large saving could 
be made by the control of the Mystic Works, it was certainly 
the duty of the citizens of Boston to avail themselves of it. 
The annexation of Charlestown was consummated, and the 
Mystic Water supply passed into the possession of the city. 

The application of the Water Board to the City Council for 
the authority to take land and water rights in the Sudbury, 
in October, 1873, was laid upon the table, where it still re- 
mains ; and an investigation was ordered and made of the 
capabilities of the Mystic basin, to meet the needs of this 
city. The results of this investigation, not proving as satis- 
factory as was hoped, other sources of supply have since 
been examined, including the Shawshine, the Concord, the 
Merrimac and the Charles rivers, with no definite results as 
yet. 

These examinations and consequent protracted discussions 
have practically deferred any movement for relief for a 
twelvemonth, while the needs and the population of the city 
are rapidly increasing ; and the precarious condition of the 
conduit renders it a matter of some doubt whether even the 
present supply can be depended upon without interruption 
for any given time. In connection with this subject the 
Board desires to call particular attention to the remarks of 
the City Engineer upon the facts developed by recent ex- 
aminations of the conduit. 

During 1873 the supply of water at the lake was ample, 
the average height above the bottom of the conduit having 
been 10 j^q^q feet. This year, up to the present date, May 20, 
the supply is large, now standing at high-water mark. The 



viii City Document. — No. 55. 

amount wasted over the dam in 1873 was 2,917,977,000 gal- 
lons, or about thirty-two per cent, of the rainfall received into 
the lake. Had the conduit been originally constructed with the 
requisite capacity and strength, a large portion of this over- 
flow could have been utilized, and the necessity for building 
a new conduit deferred for some years hence perhaps. The con- 
duit was not designed to be operated under pressure, but was 
calculated to bring to the city only some seven or eight million 
gallons per day, — that amount being supposed to be sufficient 
for the needs of the city for the next fifty years. The con- 
duit, however, now at the end of only twenty-seven years, is 
at times required to bring nearly three times that amount 
daily, and still the supply does not keep pace with the imme- 
diate and pressing needs of the citizens. The same error in 
judgment was made with regard to the capacity of the 
Brookline reservoir. It was seriously argued, by some in 
authority, that ten acres were sufficient for storage purposes ; 
but, finally, twenty-two acres were taken, and since then the 
Chestnut Hill reservoir of one hundred and twenty-three acres 
has been added to the storage capacity, making, it will be 
confessed by our careful citizens, not too large a provision 
for the safety of the city, in case of large conflagrations, or a 
serious break in the conduit. 

Reference is made to the above facts, with the design of show- 
ing the importance of taking the proper steps for securing an 
adequate supply for the future, whenever the City Council de- 
termines to proceed to the construction of the new works. 
New uses are being constantly found for water for business 
purposes, the demand for which the Board is compelled either 
to refuse, or to grant with extreme reluctance, since the re- 
port upon the condition of the conduit has been made, limit- 
ing its safe capacity to 17,000,000 gallons daily. The free 
use of hand-hose and ornamental fountains should be en- 
couraged for sanitary reasons rather than checked ; but dur- 
ing the hot summer mouths our citizens cannot safely indulge 



Eeport of the Water Board. ix 

in either, although a handsome revenue could be gained for 
both uses if there were plenty of water to supply the demand. 
The large increase of buildings in the Eoxbury and Dorches- 
ter districts now demands a considerable extension of main 
pipe in those sections, which, if granted, will lead to a corre- 
sponding consumption of water. Numerous petitioners in West 
Eoxbury and Brighton have indicated their wishes for an 
early supply for domestic pm^poses and protection from fire. 
The Board has no doubt but that the rights and needs of 
these rapidly growing sections of the city will be properly 
appreciated and cared for, in the provision which it is hoped 
will be early made for an adequate supply for the enlarged 
city limits. 

The Water Board has no hesitation in reaffirming its 
opinion, fully expressed in former reports, in favor of that 
plan of supply adopted by the City Council of 1873. The 
Act passed by the Legislature, granting the Sudbury river 
to the city, is a very favorable and valuable one ; the water- 
shed is singularly free from sources of pollution, and, if any 
are found to exist, can be easily controlled ; the water is 
excellent, and the storage facilities very favorable, while the 
cost — predicated upon actual and intelligent surveys — is 
not large, considering that our citizens will, with it, beyond 
all question, secure what they all desire, — an adequate sup- 
ply of pure water for the next fifty years. 

It is computed by the Auditor and Sinking Fund Commis- 
sioners, that the Funded Water Debt, amounting to $6,912,- 
711.11, under the operation of the sinking fund established 
for its redemption, will be retired and paid in full in 1903. 
The income from water is increasing constantly from year to 
year ; and during the past year has been sufficient to pay 
the current expenses, including the cost of relaying the 
"burnt district," and considerable other exceptional expenses, 
which ought to be charged to construction, together with the 
interest on the entire debt, and the premium paid for re- 



X City Document. — No. 55. 

placing a portion of the funded debt, leaving a deficiency of 
only some $14,600, as will be seen by the following brief 
statement, made up in the form heretofore used in the reports 
of this department : — 

The income for the past year, as appears from 

the report of the Water Eegistrar, has been $906,430 48 
Being a gain over the previous year, of . . 57,846 21 

The estimated income from water-rates, for the 

year 1874, is 950,000 00 

The expenses have been as follows : — 
For current expenses ..... 506,888 20 
Interest and premium on water debt . . 497,016 79 



.,003,904 99 



The Treasurer has credited the Water Works, 

for the same year 989,266 86 



Excess of expenditures over income . . $14,638 13 
Add amounts expended in Wards 13, 14, 15 

and 16 . 119,886 01 

Add amounts expended on Parker Hill reser- 
voir 32,690 78 

Add amounts expended on additional supply . 114,102 77 
Add cost of works to May, 1873 . . . 9,860,956 24 



Showing a net cost to May 1st, 1874 , $10,142,273 93 

A more strict classification of the expenditures of the past 
year, as adopted by the City Auditor, discriminating more 
carefully between " current expenses " and " construction or 
extension expenses," shows the following result : — 

Aggregate expenditures . . . $1,270,584 55 

Current expenses . . . $364,662 74 

Interest and premium on debt 497,016 79 

Construction expenses , . 408,905 02 

$1,270,584 55 



Report of the Water Board. xi 

Income as per City Treasurer's credits . . $989,266 86 

Current expenses . . . $364,662 74 

Interest and premium on debt 497,016 79 

861,679 53 



Balance of net earnings .... $127,587 33 



It will be seen, from this statement, that tlie water-works 
have, for the first time, fairly earned a profit upon the entire 
cost of construction. Extensions of main pipe are now only 
made when the yearly income is estimated to pay six per 
cent, upon the cost ; and if this safe rule is enforced here- 
after, our citizens may rest assured that the present system 
of works will not only be self-sustaining, but a source of 
yearly increasing and handsome profit to the city treasury. 

eastern division. 

This division is in charge of Mr. E. R. Jones, and em- 
braces all that portion of the works lying east of the Brook- 
line reservoir. During the past year some twenty-four and 
one-half miles of pipe have been laid, of which 31 feet were 
20-inch, 9,229 feet were 16-inch, 49,384 were 12-inch, 456 
feet were 9-inch, 20,323 were 8-inch, 47,210 were 6-inch, 
and 2,617 feet were 4-inch ; and 356 stopcocks have been 
put in during the same time. 

The total length of pipe laid from the commencement of 
the works up to May 1st, 1874, amounts to 262 miles 1,056 
feet; the total number of stopcocks is 2,767, and the total 
number of hydrants is 2,982, put in up to the same date. 

During the past year a new blacksmith shop has been 
built, and the machine shop has been furnished with some 
much-needed new tools and machinery, adding very much to 
the efiectiveness and economy of the work. Many articles 



xii City Document. — No. 55. 

hitherto largely consumed or used in this department are now 
manufactured at a very considerable saving over the prices 
charged by manufacturers. A large amount of work has 
been done on this division during the past year, under some- 
what adverse circumstances, and the results reflect great 
credit wpon the Superintendent and his faithful assistants. 
A detailed statement of the pipes laid, and other interesting 
particulars, accompany the report of the Superintendent. 

THE CITY RESERVOIRS. 

The three reservoirs, the East Boston, the South Boston 
and Beacon Hill, remain about in the same condition as they 
were reported a year since ; they have been kept partially 
filled, but are still disconnected with the pipe system. Upon 
the completion of the Parker Hill reservoir and the con- 
nection of the high-service pipe across Dover street bridge, 
the 20-inch main from Dorchester to South Boston, which is 
now used to supply the high-service, will be turned upon the 
low-service there, thus giving two very effective low-service 
lines, and one high-service line, reinforced by the Parker 
Hill reservoir, for that locality. Under these circumstances, 
it becomes a question whether there is a necessity for the 
continued maintenance of the South Boston reservoir, espe- 
cially as it is in a leaky condition, and requiring extensive 
repairs to make it fully effective. 

The Beacon Hill reservoir, which, when filled to its maxi- 
mum capacity, holds less than a sixth of a day's ordinary 
supply for the city, will, upon the completion of Parker Hill 
reservoir, become practically useless. The land is quite val- 
uable for the erection of dwelling-houses or other purposes, 
and if sold the proceeds might be judiciously applied, either 
to a reduction of the present water debt, or for laying a new 
main from Chestnut Hill reservoir to the city. 

The East Boston reservoir is in good condition, having 



Report of the Water Board. xiii 

undergone thorough repair within a few years. As East 
Boston has but a single line of supply, and should any acci- 
dent happen to that, it would prove a serious disaster, unless, 
as a matter of precaution, the reservoir should be retained, 
kept full, and the water, some 5,600,000 gallons, held in 
reserve to meet the emergency. 



PARKER HILL RESERVOIR. 

This new work, which was put under contract in July last, 
is designed to reinforce the high-service system of Beacon 
Hill, South Boston, and the Roxbury and Dorchester dis- 
tricts. Its capacity, when full, will be some 7,000,000 gal- 
lons, or nearly seven times as great as the average amount 
now pumped daily through the stand-pipe; and, in case of a 
large conflagration in the high-service districts, or accident 
to the pumping works, it must be of great value to meet such 
an emergency. It is hoped that the reservoir will be fin- 
ished, filled and fully connected with the high-service system 
during the present season. 

During the past year a large number of stand-pipes, from 
three to six inches in diameter, connected directly with the 
street mains, have been put into manufactories, warehouses, 
hotels and other large and high buildings. These pipes are 
used for fire purposes only, being independent of the ordinary 
supply. As most of these high and costly structures are 
located in the low-service district, the water will only rise to 
a height governed by the street pressure ; and these pipes, 
though quite efiective against a fire in the building, are not 
of much value against a fire in the upper portion of very high 
adjoining buildings, except when steam power with a proper 
pump is connected with them ; they then become a very effi- 
cient protection. As the use of these stand-pipes is becom- 
ing almost universal, it may be thought judicious, upon the 



xiv City Document. — No. 55. 

completion of the Parker Hill reservoir, to extend a high- 
service pipe through such streets as need this extra protec- 
tion, and have all these stand-pipes connected with it. The 
expense fairly divided among the insurance companies, real 
estate owners and others directly interested, would not be 
large, while the protection from tire would be very great. 

THE WESTERN DIVISION. 

Mr. Albert Stan wood, the efficient and faithful Superin- 
tendent of this division, resigned that office in July last, and 
Mr. Desmond Fitzgerald was elected in his place. Mr. 
Stanwood, however, is still retained in the service of the city 
in an important and responsible position on the proposed new- 
supply. The Western Division embraces the lake and ail 
that portion of the works lying between the lal^e and the 
gate-house of the Brookline reservoir. Everything is in 
good condition at the lake, except that the dwelling-house 
occupied by the Attendant is very old and very much out of 
repair ; it is likewise very ill-designed and inconvenient for 
the purposes for which it is needed. When it becomes neces- 
sary to employ a number of mechanics at the lake for construc- 
tion or repairs, a great deal of valuable time is wasted by the 
men being compelled to go several miles away to their board- 
ing-houses. It would be substantial economy to build an ap- 
propriate and convenient house, where these occasional em- 
ployes can be fed and lodged. The fences around the city 
property require some considerable repairs, which will be 
attended to during the present season. 

.THE DISTRIBUTING RESERVOIRS. 

Chestnut Hill and Brookline reservoirs remain in their 
usual satisfactory condition. The levels of both reservoirs 
are some two feet below high-water mark, although the con- 



Eeport of the Water Board. xv 

cliiit has been operated at considerable pressure during the 
moderate spring weather, in the endeavor to fill them to meet 
the usual large consumption of the hot summer months. The 
diJfficulty of keeping a full supply in the reservoirs dmnng 
the fdture will be largely increased by the additional pres- 
sure given in the street mains, caused by the substitution of 
larger pipes in many streets, and, therefore, a more free cir- 
culation of water throughout the entire low-service districts. 
The more care exercised by consumers, to prevent this and 
all other extra waste, the more valuable will the system be- 
come as a j)rotection from fire. The most rigorous measures 
ought to be taken to prevent waste, until a large additional 
supply is brought to the city. 



WATER REGISTRAR S DEPARTMENT. 

The number of water-takers for the year is 42,345, an 
increase of 1,657 over the previous year. The number of 
cases in which the water has been turned ofi" for non-payment 
of rates during the year 1873, is 1,098 ; of this number, 918 
have been again turned on upon payment of dues, and a bal- 
ance of 180 still remains off. 

Meters. — The number of meters in use is 977. 

The report of the Registrar contains a classification of the 
buildings in which water is measured for consumption, with 
the usual details of business in that department. In the 
Appendix to the Water Registrar's Report will be found 
some account of the results of a rigorous system of inspec- 
tion in a foreign city, upon the consumption of water per 
capita of population. These details are interesting and im- 
portant for consideration at a moment like the present, when 
the population of this city is increasing, and the water supply 
— caused by fear of accident to the overburdened conduit — 
is decreasing. 



xvi City Document. — No. 55. 

The number of the various kinds of water fixtures on the 
premises of water-takers, January 1st, 1874, was 170,281, 
showing an increase of 10,627 during the year. 

JOHN A. HAVEN, President. 

EDWARD A. WHITE. 
THOMAS GOGIN. 
CHAELES R. McLEAN. 
LEONARD R. CUTTER. 
WILLIAM G. THACHER. 
EDWARD P. WILBUR. 



REPORT OF THE CLERK. 



Office of the CocinTUATE Water Board, 

Boston, May 1st, 1874. 
John A. Haven, Esq., 

President of the CocMtuate Water Board: — 
Sir, — The following is a statement of the Expenditures 
and Receipts of this department for the year commencing 
May 1, 1873, and ending April 30, 1874 : — 



EXPENDITURES. 

Carting 

Damage 

Advertising 

Stable . 

Taxes . 

Tools . 

Travelling expenses of the Board . 

Fountains . . . 

Postage and express .... 

Aqueduct repairs, including cost of "Flume 
Printing for all departments . . . 

Eastern avenue wharf (rent and salary of agent) 
Telegraph, repairing instruments and ware 
Stationery for all departments 
Salaries ...... 

Shutting off and letting on water for repairs 
Inspectors ...... 

Amount carried forward, 



$3,273 75 

1,287 93 

20^ 63 

7,777 QQ 

1,292 98 

9,987 79 

166 00 

3,629 30 

56 51 

5,851 36 

1,452 87 

2,999 99 

166 36 

408 00 

21,866 59 

10,545 47 

9,457 50 

,422 69 



City Document. — No. 55. 



Amount hrougJd forward,. 
Upper yard (Albany street) . . . . 

Miscellaneous expenses, including $5,822.50 

for negotiating loan 
Lake Cochituate 
Maintaining meters 
Meters 

Hydrant and stopcock boxes 
Blacksmith shop . 
Main pipe 
Laying main pipe . 
Service pipe 
Proving yard 
High-service 
Chestnut Hill reservoir 
Beacon " " 

East Boston " 
South " " 

Brookline " 

Repairing stopcocks 
Stopcocks 
Repairing hydrants 
Hydrants 
Repairing main pipe 

" service pipe 

" streets . 

Wages, laying main pipe 

" " service pipe 

" blacksmith shop 

" proving yard 

" high-service 
Laying service pipe 
Blasting, etc., in Avards 13 to 16 



$80,422 69 
11,472 69 

11,748 79 

2,233 17 

2,864 ^^ 

2,416 30 

4,870 09 

148 78 

147,384 83 

16,468 71 

16,612 67 

3,178 65 

6,368 94 

21.393 36 
594 20 

1,472 11 

354 75 

1,105 27 

1,959 31 

21,383 21 

7,281 14 

25,070 47 

5,603 08 

11.394 88 
14,864 76 
36,981 92 
16,524 30 

1,543 50 

8,336 70 

4,570 75 

2,897 27 

9,810 96 



Amount carried forward^ 



$499,332 93 



Eepokt of the Water Board. 



Amount brought forward, 
Detection of leaks 
Chestnut Hill driveway 
Wards 13, 14, 15 and 16 
Parker Hill reservoir 
Additional supply water 



$499,332 93 

4,775 77 

5,000 00 

119,886 01 

32,690 78 

114,102 77 



Total amount drawn for by Water Board $775,788 26 



And which is charjied as follows : — 



To Water Works 


$504,108 


70 






" Chestnut Hill driveway 


5,000 


00 






" Wards 13, 14, 15 and 16 


119,886 


01 






" additional supply . 


114,102 


77 






" Parker Hill reservoir 


32,690 


78 








$775,788 


26 




Amount charged to Water 

RE( 


Works . 

3EIPTS. 




$770,788 


26 


Fire department for use ol 


hy- 








drants .... 


. $32,256 


00 






Kent of land 


133 


00 






Off and on water 


■. 2,356 


75 




>!, 


Fines .... 


586 


00 






Fire and elevator pipes, re\ 


)airs, 








etc., etc. 


. 32,178 


96 






Rent of part of E. ave. wharj 


300 


00 






Old material' . 


393 


96 






Hay at reservoirs 


349 


50 






Use of engines loaned to toT\ 


ais of 








Waltham and Woburn . 


948 


00 







Amounts carried forward, $69,502 17 $770,788 26 



8 City Document. — No. 55. 

Amounts hrovghtforioard, $69,502 17 $770,788 26 
City of Charlestovvii, lepairs on 

Warren bridge . . . 60 41 

69,562 58 



Net amount to Water Works •. . $701,225 68 

Amount drawn for the Water Works, not in- 
cluding Ctiestnut Hill driveway, additional 
supply of water, Parker Hill reservoir, or 
Wards 13, 14, 15, and 16 . . . $504,108 70 

EXTENSION OF THE WORKS. 

Main pipe, laying, etc. . . $200,835 46 

Service " " " . . 36,034 24 

$236,869 70 

Amount of expenses from April 

30, 1873, to May 1, 1874 . . . $267,239 00 

Exijendilures and Receipts on account of the Water WorTcs, 
to May 1, 1874. 

Amount drawn by Commissioners . . $4,043,718 21 

" '' Water Board in 1850 . 366,163 89 
" " " Cocbituate Water Board, 

from January 1, 1851, to May 1, 1873 . 7,103,639 &Q 
Amount drawn from April 30, 1873, to May 

1, 1874, for Water Works . . . 770,788 26 



$12,284,310 02 



Amount paid the City Treas- 
urer by Commissioners . $47,648 38 

Amount paid by Water Board, 

1850 8,153 52 



Amounts carried forward, $55,801 90 $12,284,310 02 



Eeport or THE Water Board. 9 

Amounts brought forward, $55,801 90 $12,284,310 02 

Amount paid by Cochituate 

Water Board to May 1, 1873 364,768 29 

Amount paid April 30, 1873, 

to May 1, 1874 . . . 69,562 58 

490,132 77 



Net amount drawn from Treasurer . $11,794,177 25 

Gross payments (including interest, pre- 
miums, etc.) for account of the Water 
Works $22,743,169 99 

Gross receipts . . . . . . 12,600,896 06 



Net cost to May 1, 1874 . . . $10,142,273 93 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. A. WIGGIN, 

Clerh of the Cochituate Water Board. 



10 City Document. — No. 55. 



COST OF THE WOEKS TO MAY 1, 1874. 

WESTERN DIVISION. 

Amount paid Wm. H. Knight, for the Lake $100,000 00 
'< " " " fac- 

tories, 150,000,00, less amount on account 
of the sale of land and machinery, and in- 
surance at the time of the fire . . . 20,818 22 

Expense of raising the lake two feet, includ- 
ing damages 28,002 18 

Cost of roads, bridges and swamps . . 38,332 48 

Gate-house at the lake . . . . 29,907 12 

Dam at the ontlet of the lake . . . 8,458 20 

Dudley pond, lower dam, and making^ con- 
nections with the lake .... 18,982 23 

New dams, and improvements at the lake . 19,610 90 



Total cost of lake dep't, not including land $264,111 33 

Land and land damages, less 

credit for land sold . . $225,523 15 
Constructing brick conduit . 817,717 73 
Brookline reservoir, 

laud . . .$58,418 92 
Construction . . 108,301 92 

Gate-house . . 33,356 37 

200,077 21 

Compensating reservoirs, less 

amount received when sold . 66,859 80 
Engineering expenses on the 

Western Division . . . 69,900 31 
Miscellaneous expenses on the 

Western Division . . 149,464 74 



Am' ts carried forward, $1,529,542 94 $264,111 33 



Report of the Water Board. 11 

A.mHs brought forward i 

Chestnut Hill reservoir, land $1,529,542 94 $264,111 33 

and construction . . 2,449,982 07 

Payments on account of the 

" new supply of water " 177,684 41 

4,157,209 42 



Total cost of Western Division . . . $4,421,320 75 



EASTERN DIVISION. 



Main and service pipes . $3,349,667 99 
Beacon Hill res- 
ervoir, land . $145,107 10 
Construction . 368,426 11 



South Boston res- 
ervoir, land . $55,103 23 
Construction . 35,804 87 



East Boston res- 
ervoir, land . $23,862 50 
Construction . 46,328 59 



513,533 21 



90,908 10 



70,191 09 



Engineering expenses on the 

Eastern Division . . . 31,403 02 
Machine shop and pipe yard . 110,264 09 
Hydrants and stopcocks . . 183,862 81 
Proving pipes .... 35,983 96 

Meters 132,039 92 

Miscellaneous expenses on the 

Eastern Division . . . 713,455 06 
Payment on account of Wards 

13, 14, 15 and 16 . . 1,495,868 18 



Am'ts carried forward, $6,727,177 43 $4,421,320 75 



12 City Document. — No. 55. 

AmHs brought forward, $6,727,177 43 $4,421,320 75 

Payment on account of new pipe 

in East Boston . . . $45,877 51 

Payment on account of high- 
service. South Boston . . 26,832 25 

Payment on account of Parker 

Hill reservoir . . . 32,690 78 



Total cost of Eastern Division . . .$6,832,577 97 



Cost ot Eastern Division . . . . $6,832,577 97 
Western Division .... 4,421,320 75 



a (( 



$11,253,898 72 



REPOET OF CITy ENGINEER. 



Office of City Engineek, City Hall, 

Boston, May 1st, 1874. 

John A. Haven, Esq., 

President of the Gochituate Water Board: — 

Sir, — In compliance with the requirements of the ordinance 
on Engineer's Department, the following report, upon matters 
pertaining to water supply, is respectfully submitted : — 

SUDBURY river AND LAKE GOCHITUATE. 

No water has been drawn from the Sudbury river or Farm 
pond during the past year, the supply from the lake alone 
having proved sufficient for all purposes. 

In fact, as matters now are, no relief can be had from the 
river, even in case of a deficiency in the Cochituate supply. 

The monthly average heights of the water surface of the 
lake, above the bottom of the conduit, will be found in the 
table on page 38. 

On Jan. 1st, 1873, the water in Lake Cochituate stood at 
12 feet 1 inch above the bottom of the conduit. At the 
beginning of the previous year there was no water in store, 
the conduit being then supplied by pumping from a level 
below its flow line. 

To maintain the supply, about 1,676,600,000 gallons were 
turned into the lake from Sudbury river ; this, combined 
with the copious rains of the latter part of the year, brought 
the water level within about 15 inches of high-water mark at 
the beginning of 1873. From this date it rose gradually till 



14 City Document. — No. 55. 



Jan. 17th, when waste over the dam commenced, and con- 
tinued till April 23d, the water then standing at 12 feet 11| 
inches. 

On May 4th, the stop planks were again removed, and 
the water allowed to waste, Mil May 20fch. From this time 
till Aug. 14th it gradually fell, and at the latter date stood 
at 8 feet 7 inches ; on Aug. 27th it stood at 8 feet 9| inches ; 
Oct. 4th, 6 feet 8|- inches; Oct. 10th, 7 feet 6 inches; Oct. 
19th, 7 feet 3 inches ; and on Dec. 31st, 9 feet 9 inches. 

To secure a flow that will supply the city with the rate of 
consumption of the past year, there are required from 6 to 
71- feet of water above the bottom of the conduit ; and, as 
in September there were less than 7 feet, fears were enter- 
tained that a resort to pumping would again be required, but 
fortunately heavy rains furnished the needed relief. 

The total waste over the dam for the year has been 
2,917,977,000 gallons, equal to an average daily supply of 
7,994,460 gallons. Had there been no aid from the Sudbury 
river the previous year, the waste in 1873 would have been 
equal to an average daily supply of about 3,400,000 gallons. 
This waste is due to the want of storage room. The lake is 
now (May 1st) full, and wasting largely. 

The town of Natick has obtained an act to take water for 
a domestic supply from Dug pond, and has recently decided 
to build works for elevating and distributing it. This will 
tend to diminish, somewhat, the supply for Boston, though 
a portion of the water will be received again by the lake 
in the form of sewage-water ; but should a system of 
sewerage be carried out by the town, it may become 
necessary to divert even this portion, that the purity of the 
lake may be maintained. 

A table will be found on pages 36 and 37, giving, as has been 
customary, the rainfall on the lake water-shed, amount of water 
consumed and wasted, rise or fall of the lake-surface, and 
quantity of water and percentage of fall received into the 
lake. 



Eeport of the Watee Boaed. 15 

As has been stated in previous reports, the figures of this 
table are only approximate. 

Similar tables have been printed in the annual reports for 
a number of years past ; and as the figures of these tables 
have lately acquired considerable importance from being 
quoted and used as a basis of computation in estimating the 
probable yield of other sources of supply, it is necessary to 
again call attention to the fact that they are not accurate, and 
unless used with a knowledge of the nature of their inac- 
curacy, will lead to fallacious conclusions. 

In the report of 1863, Mr. Crafts shows that for a number of 
years previous, the consumption (and consequently the yield 
of the lake) had been overestimated by a large percentage ; 
and also states his belief, that even the method now used for 
computing the consumption gives a result considerably in 
excess. 

As was said in the last annual report : " Although it 
would cost a considerable sum to provide the means for 
properly measuring the flow in the conduit, the water at the 
dam, the average rainfall for the entire water-shed, etc, yet 
the value of the results to be obtained from reliable measure- 
ments would fully warrant the necessary expenditure ; " and 
the experience of the last twelve months is strongly confirma- 
tory of this opinion. 

Conduit. — On Nov. 19th and 20th, a thorough examina- 
tion of the interior of the conduit was made by Mr. Wiggin, 
Clerk of the Water Board, and others, who passed through 
its entire length from the lake to Chestnut Hill reservoir. 

A detailed report of this examination, made by Mr. 
D. W. Cunningham, will be found in City Doc. No. 134, 
1873. 

A number of new and dangerous cracks were discovered ; 
those on the embankment to the west of Charles river were 
of such alarming character that it was considered imperative 
they should be repaired at once ; accordingly, the water was 



16 City Document. — No. 55. 

kept shut off, and a force of masons put at work night and 
day, until temporary security was ensured. 

At this point there was found a crack in the bottom, vary- 
ing in width from | to 1^ inch, and 200 feet long, through 
which an iron rod readily passed and penetrated the gravel 
filling below. The leakage here must have been considerable, 
but it did not make its appearance at the surface of the bank, 
owing to the very porous nature of the material forming it. 

The repairs made in no way add to the strength of the 
conduit ; the best that could be done was to stop the leakage, 
and thus remove for a while the danger of undermining the 
masonry. 

A new examination has been made this spring (April 
14th), which shows that changes in the form of the conduit 
continue to take place. 

The crack on the embankment to the west of Charles river, 
mentioned above, has again opened nearly its whole length, 
to a width of from | to |^ inch. The water in the conduit 
was drawn down to a less depth than for the examinations 
of the past two or three years ; and the upper reach near the 
lake was more carefully examined. A number of large springs 
were found coming up through the masonry of the bottom, 
and in a number of places the cement was entirely washed 
from the joints, and the bricks were loose. 

These springs bring in large quantities of sand ; and it is 
reasonable to suppose that the masonry is slowly under- 
mined and allowed to settle and break up. The bottom, 
judging from the depth of water at different points, is quite 
uneven, and the unevenness is probably due to settlements. 

In former years, when the consumption in the city was 
much less than now, it was the custom to draw the water 
out of the conduit a number of times in each year, and to 
patch up the cracks with cemeut, or by driving in pine 
wedges where springs prevented the use of cement. In 



Report of the Water Board. 17 

this way it was kept in a tolerably safe condition for use 
under pressure. For want of such constant attention and 
repairs during late years, it has deteriorated considerably, 
and is not now so safe for such use as formerly. 

Each time that it is drawn off, several hours are required 
to empty it and several more to fill it again ; also a large 
volume of water is wasted. If it could be drawn ofi* in 
sections, much time and water would be saved, as many 
portions of its length do not require frequent examinations. 
A gate at Grantville waste-weir would be of great service 
in this respect, and, besides, would afford a ready means of 
stopping the flow should any accident happen near Charles 
river, the point where the chief danger exists. I therefore 
recommend that such a gate be provided. 

When the volume of flow is large there is a loss of head 
or fall, in passing it through the syphon pipes, of one foot and 
upwards, and as the entire fall from the lake to Chestnut 
Hill reservoir is only about 4 feet, this loss at Charles river 
materially diminishes the capacity of the conduit. This loss 
is not of much consequence when the volume of flow is not 
greater than 15 or 16 million gallons per day, but I have 
estimated that when the conduit is under a 4-feet head a 
gain of about 11- million gallons per day would be made by 
the addition of a new siphon pipe 36 inches in diameter. 
The cost of the pipe (if of cast iron) and labor of laying, 
etc., would be from $20,000 to $25,000, and in case the 
city take possession of the Sudbury river and use it for the 
next few years as a supplement to the Cochituate supply, 
by turning a portion of its waters into the lake, it will be 
advisable to have such a pipe laid. 

•As a purely precautionary measure, material for about 
500 feet of wooden flume has been bought and fitted, and is 
stored at Chestnut Hill, ready for use in case of an accident 
to the conduit that shall destroy the masonry. It is hoped 



18 City Document. — No. 55. 

and expected, however, that it will never be used for the 
purpose for which it is kept. 

New gauges (float) for giving the height of water in the 
conduit have been put in along its line during the past 
season, and observations can now be taken much more 
readily and accurately than formerly. The record of these 
gauges is used in computing the daily consumption of 
water. 

LOW SERVICE RESERVOIRS. 

The tables on pages 31-33 give the monthly and yearly 
average heights above tide marsh level, of the water in the 
several reservoirs. 

The average height, for the year, of the Chestnut Hill 
reservoir, has been 120.40 feet, or 1.06 feet less than in 
1872.* This is due to the increase of consumption. The 
top of the conduit where it enters the reservoir is at eleva- 
tion 123.50, and high water-mark of the reservoir is 124; 
hence, as the water in the latter is drawn down, the delivery 
of the conduit is increased. Within certain limits this 
fluctuation of the water surface acts as a regulator to 
equalize the delivery of the conduit with the city consump- 
tion. 

Two new sluice-gates, made at the works of the Boston 
Machine Co., have been put in place at the lower or effluent 
gate-house, to shut off or regulate the flow in the distribut- 
ing main. 

The need of gates at this point, that can be quickly 
operated, has been felt ever since the reservoir was first 
put into use ; in fact, in building the gate chambers pro- 
vision for sluice-gates was made. These have been designed 
with special reference to easy and rapid movement. One 
man can fully open either of them in less than four minutes, 

* The zero of the new gauge is .18 of a foot higher than that of the old 
gauge. 



Report of the Water Board. 19 

and they close by their own weight in rather less than 
twenty seconds, settling to their seats quietly and without 
shock. 

The openings are 48 inches square and the movement is 
vertical. When in motion they are each carried on three 
pairs of wheels, twelve inches in diameter ; thus changing the 
sliding friction of gates, made in the usual manner, into roll- 
ing friction. The seats are not exactly parallel to the gate 
frame, being inclined slightly from the vertical, so that when 
the gate is closed, the gate face and seat are in contact and 
the wheels are lifted a fraction of an inch from their tracks. 

Vertically over each gate is a water-cylinder fitted with a 
piston 8 inches diameter and 4-feet stroke. The pistons are 
moved by a force pump fastened to the floor of the house. 
The gates can be held in any position by means of a friction 
clutch applied to the gate rods and operated by a hand wheel. 

If it should be thought desirable, they may be made to 
close themselves, by the tripping of a weight, in case of an 
accident to the distributing main which shall materially in- 
crease the rate of flow in the pipe ; such an accident, for in- 
stance, as happened March 15, 1872. 

A float gauge, to denote the height of water in the reser- 
voir, has been set in this gate-house. 

The average height of water in the Brookline reservoir has 
been 119.91 feet during 1873, or 1.64feetless than in 1872* 
and 0.49 feet less than in the Chestnut Hill reservoir. 

Afloat gauge has been set at the Brookline gate-house, 
thus making a complete set of float gauges, referred to a 
common base (tiJo marsh level), from the lake to the reser- 
voirs. 

The Beacon Hill, South Boston and East Boston reser- 
voirs, though kept partially filled with water to be used in 
case of necessity, have been almost constantly shut off from 
the street pipes for the past year. 

* The zero of the new gauge is .08 of a foot higher than that of the old gauge. 



20 City Document. — No. 55. 



DISTRIBUTING SYSTEM. 



Cousiderable work has been done during the past year in 
extending the street pipes, more particularly in the Highland 
and Dorchester Districts, and important changes have been 
made in the old system of distribution, especially in the city 
proper. Many of these changes "were recommended in the 
last annual report ; others have been marked out in special 
reports made in response to orders of the City Council or of 
the Water Board, and others still have been suggested by 
the experience of an inadequate supply at certain points, 
either for fire or other purposes. 

In all 129,520 feet, or about 24| miles, of pipes, of various 
sizes, were laid in 1873. 

Early in the season plans and estimates were made for re- 
piping the "burnt district," and an aj)propriation of $85,000 
for this purpose was made by the City Council. This work 
is now finished. Nearly all the streets in this district were 
re-piped with 12 and 8-inch pipes in place of 6-inch, and the 
plan required all the old tuberculated pipes of small diameter 
to be taken up, to make room for new pipes coated with coal- 
tar. 

The new system has a capacity of delivery several times 
greater than the old, even if, for the latter, no deduction for 
tuberculation be made, and is provided with Lo wry hydrants 
placed at distances apart never exceeding 260 feet, and gen- 
erally falling much below this. In place of 80 of the old 3- 
inch hydrants, 113 Lowry hydrants with 9-inch barrels have 
been substituted. The former accommodated but one 
steamer ; the latter will accommodate four ; hence it will be 
seen the facilities for extinguishing fires have been very 
largely increased. The changes made have given an im- 
proved head or pressure throughout the district. 

Aug. 16, 1873, a report (City Doc. No. 112) was made 
in response to an order requiring the Water Board " to con- 



Eeport of the "Water Board. 21 

sider and report to the City Council, as soon as practicable, 
what alterations in, and additions to, the preseiit system of 
water pipes and hydrants would be required to render them 
of such capacity as would afford an adequate supply of water 
for all necessary purposes," etc. 

In the report it was recommended that certain changes be 
made in the old system, by laying new and enlarged sub- 
mains and feeders to the smaller pipes, by uniting the 
smaller pipes at many of the points where they cross, and by 
setting Lowry hydrants at the intersections. 

The estimated cost of this work was $389,000. 

The City Council authorized the Board, last fall to con- 
tract for 200,000 dollars' worth of pipes, to be delivered in 
the spring and used for the purposes recommended, and 
accordingly contracts for about 3,500 tons were made. The 
pipes are now being rapidly delivered and laid, and the old 
hydrants, of small calibre, removed in laying them, are re- 
placed with those of the Lowry pattern. 

During last year and to May 1st of this year, the following 
lengths of 16, 12 and 8-inch pipes have been laid in place of 
smaller sizes removed. 

4,848 lineal feet of 16-inch in place of 6-inch. 

7,054 " " <« 12 " *' ** *' 6-inch. 
15,861 <' " *' 8 " ** '* *' 6 and 4-inch. 

In all, 5^ miles. 

186 Lowry hydrants have been set in the city proper. 

A report was made, by order of the City Government, 
upon the cost and expediency of building street reservoirs, 
and the Water Board was subsequently authorized to build 
these reservoirs at such points as should be selected by it and 
the Fire Department. 

In July plans were prepared for a syphon at the Dover- 
street draw, for the South Boston high-service main. The 
pipes for this work were not received till late in the fall. 
The syphon was successfully lowered into its place Dec. 24. 



22 City Document. — No. 55. 

It consists of a strong box, made of 12 by 14-inch hard-pine 
timber, well bolted together and held by iron straps and knee 
timbers at the angles (where the horizontal portion joins the 
vertical arms), in which is laid a 16-inch water-pipe, the 
space between the box and pipe being filled solid with con- 
crete. The syphon box is 48 feet in length, with vertical 
arms of 28| and 25| feet in height, and the grade of the bot- 
tom of the box is 17 feet below mean low water. 

HIGH-SERVICE RESERVOIR AND PUMPING WORKS. 

Parher Hill Reservoir. — On March 4, a report upon 
various methods of increasing the efi'ective capacity of the 
high-service system of supply was made to the Water 
Board, and the building of a reservoir with a capacity of 
about 7,000,000 gallons, upon Parker Hill, in the Highland 
District, was recommended. 

An act of the Leojislature granting the right to take lands 
for the purpose of building this reservoir was obtained May 
14, 1873, and an appropriation of $161,000 was passed by 
the City Council, June 6, 1873. 

Contract and specifications were drawn up, and proposals 
or doing the work, to be received till July 29, were adver- 
ftised for. Three bids were received, of which that of 
Stephen H. Tarbell and Martin Hayes, both of Boston, was 
the successful one, being the lowest. The contract was 
awarded July 30, and the work on the ground commenced 
August 11, and continued till frost interfered. On Jan. 1st, 
1874, about 20,000 cubic yards of earth had been excavated 
and 600 cubic yards of stone collected. 

Pumping Engines. — The following table shows the total 
and monthly work done by the high-service engines during 
the past year, and the quantity of coal consumed in doing 
it: — 



Report of the Water Board. 



23 





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City Document. — No. 55. 



The cost of pumping for 1873 has been as follows : — 



Salaries . 
Fuel 

Eepairs . 
Gas . 

Small supplies 
Painting . 

Total 



Approximate cost per million gallons raised one foot high 



H,614 50 

3,178 88 

397 41 

352 80 

192 32 

270 23 

^9,006 14 



28 j3^ cents. 



Approximate duty per pound of coal, 260,175 lbs. -ft. 

The pumps now operate much more quietlj'^ at a high speed 
than formerly, owing, chiefly, to the use of stronger and 
stiflfer springs on the valves. 



CONSUMPTION OF W^ATER. 

The table on pages 34 and 35 gives the average daily con- 
sumption of water for each month since 1849. The daily 
average for 1873 was 17,842,700 gallons, which is in excess 
of the average for 1872 by 2,779,300 gallons, or 18^ per 
cent. The greatest consumption was for July, when the 
daily average was very nearly 21,000,000. 

On July 20 observations were made at the Beacon Hill 
reservoir, to determine the rate of night consumption, or, 
more properly speaking, the rate of waste, in a certain dis- 
trict of the city. 

This district comprises what is called the west end, north 
end and burnt district, and contains not far from 60,000 
inhabitants. In it are located many of the manufacturing 
houses, principal hotels, newspaper offices, printing-houses, 
etc., of the city ; but at the time selected for the experiment, 
between twelve and three o'clock, Sunday morning, the legiti- 
mate use of water must have been very small. 



Eeport of the "Water Board. 25 

This section was shut oflF from all communication with the 
Brookline and Chestnut Hill reservoirs, by gates on Bed- 
ford, Washington, Tremont, Charles and other streets, and 
fed exclusively from the Beacon Hill reservoir. The leak- 
age through the gates, if any, must have been inappreciable, 
as the pressures on opposite sides could have differed but 
slightly. 

Observations were commenced at midnight, and readings 
of the gauge taken every jSfteen minutes. At the first of the 
experiment the consumption was found to be somewhat irreg- 
ular, but between one and three o'clock it was remarkably 
uniform, showing that the draft was not due to irregular 
opening and shutting of cocks, but to a continuous flow at 
almost unvarying outlets. 

There were drawn from the reservoir during these two 
hours, 386,857 gallons, equal to a rate of 4,642,284 gallons 
in 24 hours. This enormous rate of night consumption in- 
dicated either a heavy leakage or great waste. A party of 
inspectors was at once organized, under the direction of Mr. 
Joseph Whitney, of Cambridge, who, from experience gained 
on the Cambridge works, was particularly qualified for this 
work, and a careful inspection of all the fittings in the dis- 
trict was made, and the street mains were tested for leaks in 
various ways. No leaks were discovered in the mains, but 
many hundreds of defective fittings were found and repaired, 
and some leaks in the house service-pipes detected and 
stopped. Before the examination was concluded, however, 
it became manifest that much the greater portion of the night 
consumption was caused by waste, that is, by flow through 
open fittings. All the leaks that could be discovered having 
been stopped, a second observation was made on Sunday 
morning, October 5, between the hours of twelve and three, 
as before. The water in the reservoir at the commencement 
of the trial stood at the same height as on the morning of 
July 20. 



26 City Document. — No. 55. 

There was a slight wind blowing at the time of the latter 
trial, which caused an oscillation in the gauge-tube, and the 
readings were not so satisfactory as those of July. During 
the three hours of observation the water fell 2 feet 4| inches, 
showing a consumption of 506,182 gallons, which is at the 
rate of 4,049,456 gallons in 24 hours. The consumption be- 
tween one and three o'clock was 336,294 gallons, or at the 
rate of 4,035,528 gallons in 24 hours, showing a small saving, 
about 13 per cent., caused by the repairs made. 

That everything to stop waste Avithin the power of the 
Board to do might be done, the inspection from house to 
house was continued throughout nearly the whole city. Mr. 
Whitney, in his final report of Dec. 1st, says : " The work 
has proceeded without interruption until the present time 
(the number of inspectors employed averaging about 6), and 
the entire city has been canvassed with the exception of East 
Boston, part of the Highland District, and a part of Dor- 
chester. 

"The result of the investigation, to the first day of Decem- 
ber, has been the discovery of four thousand one hundred and 
eleven leaks, as follows : — 

" 347 bursted service-pipes. 

"491 ball cocks. 

" 1,173 hopper cocks. 

"1,754 taps. 

" 169 water-closets. 

"50 stop and waste cocks. 

" 127 hydrants. 

"At the time when these leaks were discovered, a notice 
was left on the premises requiring that the same should be 
repaired within three days, and with very few exceptions the 
repairs have been promptly made." 

Although a considerable saving must have resulted from 
the stoppage of so many leaks, yet the quantity thus saved 



Report of the Water Board. 27 

was so small in comparison to the immense waste through 
fittings left open wilfully or carelessly, that it proved of no 
appreciable value in diminishing the daily consumption. 

additionaIj supply. 

A report of the City Engineer, bearing date Jan. 27, 1873, 
together with plans and estimates relating to the various 
sources, within fifty miles of the city, available for the supply 
of Boston, and giving in detail the proposed scheme of works 
for a supply from the Sudbury river, was presented to the 
Water Board in that month. 

This report, together with one from Mr. Chesbrough, 
City Engineer of Chicago, and another from the Water 
Board upon the same subject, was presented to the City 
Council early in the year. 

The plan proposed received the approval of the City Gov- 
ernment, and an appropriation of $500,000 was made to 
cover the estimated expenses of the past year. 

A number of engineering assistants were engaged early in 
May, and placed under the direction of Mr. A. Fteley, who 
was appointed Resident Engineer in charge of the whole 
work, and the final location of the conduit line, dams, etc., 
and plans of structure, and forms of contracts and specifica- 
tions were commenced. 

The line is now located, and cross sections of the ground 
have been taken, and a large number of plans, profiles, etc., 
have been prepared. 

A contract, amounting to about $340,000, for excavating a 
tunnel and building a portion of the conduit, was let early in 
August, and considerable work has been done under it. 

Other portions of the work were made ready for contract, 
and advertisements for proposals would have been made last 
fall, had not subsequent events rendered such course unwar- 
rantable. 



28 Crrr Document. — No. 55. 

In October surveys and plans of certain lands in the valley 
of the Sudbury were made, for the purpose of preparing pa- 
pers for the taking of such lands. It was, however, decided 
by the City Solicitor that the City Council had not authorized 
the Water Board to take lands or water-rights ; and accord- 
ingly the Board made application, October 20, for the need- 
ful authority. 

Charlestown, with its water supply, had recently been an- 
nexed by vote of the people, and the strong argument urged 
in favor of annexation had been the use of the Mystic water 
for the partial supply of Boston, and the consequent post- 
ponement for a number of years of the large expenditure re- 
quired for the building of the Sudbury river works, as pro- 
jected. Under the circumstances, it was thought best by the 
City Council, before granting the power asked for, to have 
made a more thorough investigation of the capacity and pu- 
rity of the water of the Mystic valley, and accordingly an 
order was passed requiring the Water Board to enter into 
further examination on these points. For this purpose the 
Board engaged the services of Mr. J. P. Kirkwood, of Brook- 
lyn, Mr. J. B. Francis, of Lowell, and Professor E. N. Hors- 
ford, of Cambridge. 

The reports of these gentlemen, together with one from 
the Water Board and another by Mr. W. F. Davis, Water 
Registrar, on the question of waste of water, were presented 
in January of this year. 

In January and February, orders were passed requiring 
the Joint Standing Committee on Water to report upon 
various sources of supply and schemes of works, and in the 
latter part of April the committee presented majority and 
minority reports, together with one from the City Engineer. 
No action has since been taken. 

Work upon the Beacon-street tunnel in Newton is pro- 
gressing favorably, and at a much faster rate than was antici- 
pated. At the date of this report 622 lin. feet of tunnel 
have been excavated. 



Eepoet of the Water Boaed. 29 

It is now worked from four faces, and the rate of progress 
since the four headings were all commenced, has been about 
7 1 feet per day, and for the month of April it has been 8^-q 
feet per day. 

The west heading and the two headings of the shaft are 
worked with hand drills ; the east heading is worked with 
compressed-air drills, and arrangements are making for 
working all the headings in the latter manner. When these 
are completed the rate of progress, judging from that at the 
east heading, will be fully 15 feet per day. 

PIPE PLANS, ETC. 

A large amount of work has been done during the past year 
in the preparation of plans showing the sizes, location, etc., 
of pipes, hydrants, and other appurtenances to the street 
system of distribution, as is shown by the following extracts 
from the report of Assistant Dexter Brackett : " A large 
portion of my time has been spent in preparing plans to 
show more fully the pipe distribution of the city, and under 
this head the following has been accomplished : The sec- 
tional plans of Boston and the Highland District, spoken of 
in my last report, have been finished, together with a dupli- 
cate set of those of the Highland District, for the use of the 
Cochituate Water Board." 

"Early in the year, sectional plans of Dorchester, thirty- 
four in number, similar to those of the Highland District, 
showing, on a scale of 100 feet to an inch, the location of 
the water-pipes, gates and hydrants, were commenced, and 
these with duplicates of the same for the Water Board are 
practically completed. 

" A plan is now in progress which will show, on one sheet 
sixty by seventy-two inches, the entire pipe system of the 
City proper. South Boston, and Roxbury Highlands, with a 
portion of Dorchester. 



30 City Document. — No. 55. 

" When the system is extended through the recently an- 
nexed territory, a similar plan will be required for West 
Eoxbury and the remaining portion of Dorchester. 

"During the year, plans of the City proper, South and 
East Boston have been made, showing the changes proposed, 
with estimates of the lengths of pipe required to make the 
system more effective ; others, showing the pipes as re-laid 
in the burnt district, and the plans belonging to the Water 
Board and the Superintendent of the Eastern Division, which, 
together with our own, number 160, have been corrected, as 
the system has been extended. 

" Sectional plans in duplicate, showing the property 
owned by the city on the line of the Cochituate aqueduct, 
and the lots which have from time to time been sold there- 
from, are in preparation, and will be completed early in the 
year." 

A set of finished drawings, showing the gate-houses and 
other structures at the Chestnut Hill reservoir, as they were 
actually built, has been completed. 

RAINFALL. 

The usual tables, giving the rainfall at various points for 
the year 1873, will be found appended. 

JOS. p. DAVIS, 

City Engineer. 



Eeport of the Water Board. 



31 



Average Monthly and Yearly Heights., in feet and decimals, of the 
several Reservoirs above " tide marsh level" 1862-73. 



BROOKLINE. 
Maximum high-water line, 124.60. 



Month. 1863. 1864. 1865. 1866. 1867. 1868. 1869. 1870. 1871. 1872. 1873. 



January . 
February . 
March . . 
April . . , 
May . . . 
June . . . 
July . . . 
August . , 
September 
October . , 
November 
December 



123.64 
123.23 
123.23 
123.85 
123.52 
123.17 
122.76 
123.11 
123.36 
122.26 
123.63 
122.53 



122.37 
122.61 
123.62 
123.82 
123.62 
122.66 
122.87 
122.64 
122.03 
123.19 
122.78 
122.29 



123.31 
122.82 
123.26 
123.38 
122.65 
123.23 
123.33 
123.39 
123.29 
123.29 
123.38 
123.24 



122.28 
122.47 
123.19 
123.45 
123.04 
123.29 
122.97 
122.80 
122.81 
123.03 
122.75 
122.64 



122.00 
123.12 
123.05 
123.00 
123.07 
122.34 
122.98 
122.23 
122.52 
122.65 
122.89 
122.37 



Yearly Average . . 123.19 122.87 123.21 122.89 122.69 122.65 122.48 122.58 121.02 121.63 119.91 



123.29 
122.79 
122.33 
123.04 
123.04 
122.77 
122.77 
122.75 
122.12 
122.31 
122,56 
122.00 



122.58 
122.64 
122.48 
122.60 
122.77 
121.85 
122.10 
122.19 
122.50 
122.58 
122.46 
122.92 



122.83 
122.60 
122.77 
122.56 
122.75 
122.64 
122.50 
122.23 
122.35 
122.64 
122.60 
122.50 



121.89 
122.54 
122.08 
122.00 
121.79 
121.98 
122.19 
122.06 
121.50 
119.54 
116.94 
117.71 



118.64 

120.48 

122^04 

122.10 

122.29 

122.25 

121.25 

122.14 

123.44 

122.' 

120.98 

121. 



120.46 
119.86 
119.71 
121.36 
121.84 
120.90 
118.79 
118.48 
119.04 
119.09 
119.69 
119.71 



BEACON HILL. 
Maximum high-water line, 121.53. 



Month. 



January . . 
February . . 
March . . . 
April . . . , 
May . . . . 
June . . . , 
July . . . . 
August . . 
September . 
October . . 
November . 
December . 



1863. 1864, 1865, 1866, 1867. 1868. 1869, 1870. 1871. 1872, 1873 



118.36 
118.18 
118.03 
117.27 
116.33 
115.40 
116.34 
116.05 
116.12 
115.87 
116.85 
118.30 



117.72 
117.54 
116.38 
117.21 
116.53 
115.31 
115.32 
115.19 
115.91 
118.17 
118.55 
117.35 



119.18 
118.91 
120.58 
121.28 
120.31 
120.56 
121.23 
119.83 
119.03 
118.43 
120.14 
120.50 



Yearly Average . . 



116.92 



116.77 



119.20 
119.65 
120.72 
120.70 
119.53 
118.53 
119.51 
119.17 
119.39 
119.50 
119.78 
119.37 



119.11 
118.59 
119.45 
119.86 
118.50 
118.34 
119.00 
117.70 
120.46 
120.46 
120.84 
120.02 



119.59 119.36 



120.20 
120.11 
120.57 
120.57 
118.65 
118.45 
120.24 
117.11 
118.20 
118.61 
119.03 
117.78 

119.11 



118.51 
118.72 
118.30 
118.82 
119.68 
117.13 
117.20 
117.63 
117.45 
118.36 
118.45 
118.36 



118.63 

117.78 

118.07 

118.34 

118.63 

118.03 

119.30 

119.59 

117.72 

117 

118.61 

119.38 



119.26 
118.95 
119.38 
119.59 
119.09 

109.63 
109.68 



116.20 
116.38 
116.49 
116.72 
116.70 
116.99 
116.95 
117.11 
117.65 
118.20 
118.36 
118.51 

117.19 



119.01 
119.32 
119.63 
119.01 
120.28 
119.99 
118.05 
115.93 
116.20 
118.11 
120.59 
120.68 



32 CiTT Document. — No. 55. 

Average Monthly and Yearly Heights, etc. — Continued. 

SOUTH BOSTON. 
Maximum high-water line, 122.86. 



Month. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


1867. 


1868. 


1869. 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


January 
Februari 
March 
April . 
May . 
June • 
July . 
August 
Septemb* 
October • 
Novembe 
Decembe 


;r . 

r . 
r . . 






115.73 
115.54 
115.36 
114.73 
112.71 
111.39 
109.75 
109.80 
109.64 
109.90 
111.25 
109.90 


110.63 
110.94 
111.13 
112.07 
111.64 
109.06 
108.57 
109.53 
110.21 
112.49 
112.49 
113.89 


114.21 
113.42 
113.64 
114.82 
115.44 
114.91 
114.33 
113.80 
113.69 
112.89 
112.74 
113.78 


114.38 
114.44 
113.51 
114.99 
114.90 
114.32 
113.96 
114.07 
113.41 
112.74 
112.03 
112.62 


112.46 
111.36 
111.74 
111.88 
111.63 
111.19 
111.53 
111.90 
111.70 
111.29 
111.26 
111.08 


111.15 
111.15 
111.11 
111.55 
111.61 
112.15 
111.53 
111.53 
111.44 
111.44 
111.44 
111.11 


111.15 
111.34 
111.63 
111.96 
111.78 
111.51 
111.19 
110.65 
108.76 
113.15 
113.76 
113.88 


114.46 
114.80 
114.51 
113.57 
113.53 
113.36 
112.21 
110.78 
110.15 
110.01 
111.86 
112.61 


112.51 
112.61 
112.74 
112.63 
112.71 
112.44 
115.32 
114.03 
113.13 
112.80 
112.76 
109.26 


109.34 
109.42 
109.38 
109.67 
109.32 
109.24 
109.05 
108,82 
106.49 
109.34 
110.61 
110.71 


111.30 
111.69 
112.01 
112.74 
113.40 
110.69 
109.40 
110.21 
110.84 
111.21 
111.30 
114.40 


Yearly Average . . 


112.14 


111.05 


113.97 


113.78 


111.59 


111.44 


111.74 


112.65 


112.74 


109.28 


111.60 



EAST BOSTON. 
Maximum high-water line, 107.1 



Month. 



January 
February 
March 
April . 
May . 
June . 
July . 
August 
September 
October . . 
November 
December . 



Yearly average , 



1863. 1864. 1865. 1866. 1867. 1868, 1869. 1870. 1871. 1872. 1873 



95.64 
93.86 
94.29 
95.65 
93.0 
91.10 
90.43 
91.23 
91.96 
95.02 
93.36 
89.79 



90.22 
92.88 
93.50 
96.16 
97.68 
94.22 
92.34 
92.84 
95.00 
97.55 
98.14 
97.27 

94.83 



96.12 
97.00 
94.83 
96.52 
96.04 
93.91 
96.82 
95.78 
94.52 
93.38 
92.23 
94.34 

95.12 



93.61 
96.61 
94.22 
96.47 
95.85 
93.71 
95.35 
93.85 



92.29 



94.63 



91.89 
92.06 
91.69 
90.91 
89.63 
91.82 
94.60 
94.16 
99.40 
96.85 
93.47 
92.57 



93.25 



92.81 
92.10 
91.14 



92.02 



99.72 
100.56 
100.60 



100.60 
95.08 
94.87 
96.97 
101.12 
102.06 



104.45 
104.20 
100.89 
104.93 
105.91 
106.00 
103.87 
104.25 
102.77 
105.20 
104.75 
105.18 



101.18 
104.83 
106.12 
107.14 
106.50 
106.43 
106.47 
105.22 
104.91 
104.81 
104.56 
104.58 



105.18 



103.47 
102.56 
100.41 
100.10 
101.54 
106.83 



Eeport of the Water Board. 



33 



Average Monthly and Yearly Heights, etc. — Continued. 



CHESTNUT HILL. 
Maximum liigli--water line, 125.00. 



Month. 



1871. 



1872. 



1873. 



January , 

February 

Marcli 

April . , 

May , 

June 

July 

August 

September .... 

October 

November 

December , 

Yearly Average 



100.80 
101.29 



102.00 
102.81 
105.19 
110.48 
116.21 
121.46 
122.40 
122.02 
121.44 
119.67 
117.08 
115.35 



116.90 
120.46 
122.29 
122.52 
122.54 
122.35 
121.77 
122.15 
122.77 
122.08 
122.42 
121.40 



120.76 
120.26 
120.11 
121.55 
122.03 
121.24 
119.65 
119.32 
119.74 
119.70 
120.21 
120.21 



114.67 



121.64 



120.40 



34 



City Document. — No. 55. 



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36 



City Document. — No. 55. 



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'J 
o 

to 


iH 


IM_ 


IN 


to 




1 


CO 


oS 


o 


• 


• 




^. 


to 


^ 


'^ 






CO^ 


S" 


<N 

3" 


■^ 




5 3^=^ 


tH 




c^ 






-^ 


i-H 


CO 


iH 


c-i 


(M 


(^^ 


IH 




rH 


tH 








































'S'S 




lO 


o 


o 






o 


O 


o 


O 


^ 


o 


o 


o 


-* 










o S «a 

a '"^ 




00 










o 


O 


o 


O 




o 




o 










s 




o 


co" 








>o" 


o 


O 


co_ 


o" 


OS 

oo" 




tH 

co" 


''i. 


S" 






CO 










oo 




-^ 


en 


o 


•^ 




OS 


IN 






rS 


IM_ 


°i. 


rH 






lO^ 


o^ 


o 


CO 


co^ 




o^ 


■^ 


°v 


■^ 


■^ 






CO 




TjT 






co" 


cT 




co" 






in' 




cf 










« 




<M 








o 


00 


to 


00 


in 






<N 






CO 




03 


<o~ 


to" 


^ 






CO 


to~ 


to 

9 


to" 


in^ 
oo" 


00 


S" 


in" 


o 


10 


to 








































<D M^ 




o 




Q 


o 






o 






o 






o 











-si 

o c 01 
'35 




o 






o 






o 






o 






o 






g 




8 


C3_ 


• 


o" 




• 




o 


• 


• 


o 


• 


• 






• 


0^ 




CJ 


CO 






o 






E- 






to 
















e 




• 


^^ 




■ 




"V 








• 




S" 


• 




°^ 




<iJ 


to 




rH 








5! 






in 






'^ 






ss 




<N 




(N 








I-l 






^„ 












to 




fc-^ 




























ih" 
















(-J 






"o 


o 




o 


o 




o 


o 




o 









Q> ,^ 
















o 


o 






o 


o 








o 






o 









M 2 








o 








o_ 


o 






o 


o^ 






o_ 


o_ 






in 


in 






a-^ 








cT 








o" 


o" 






o" 


o 








cT 






ef 








W J3 
























^ 


^ 






o 


o 






s; 








1 






CO 










to 






gf 








00_ 

o 


co^ 
c-f 
to 






IN 


^ 










(N 








o 








IM 


iH 






CO 


t- 






t- 


t>- 






S^ 






























r4 
















'otal amount 

onsumed and 

wasted. 






O 


O 






o 


o 


o 


O 


to 


o 


o 


o 


^ 





^ 








o 


(N 






o 




o 


O 


to 


o 




p 












s 


to 


o^ 


co" 






o" 


o^ 


o^ 


00 


oo 


co" 


°i. 




to 


0^ 


to" 


















i6 




o 




o 


•* 




in 


00 






.3 
1 


to^ 


CO 


o^ 






o" 


to^ 

CO 


°°, 




to^ 


c^ 


<n" 


o 


5" 


co" 


co" 






o 








c-i 






rH 




OS 




S 




CO 




CD 

to 


to 








in 


to^ 
to" 


co^ 
c-f 


to 


O 

o" 


o 
to" 


o^ 




co^ 
to" 




■^ 




c-i 5 














T~i 








'^. 






















o 




"& 


ft 


o 


o 


o 




to 


o 


o 


o 


^ 









^ -*-* GJ 




CO 


o 




o 


o 


o 




to 


o 




o 










r S 'S 
















o 


o^ 




o 


o 


"^ 


o^ 











g 


to' 


1^ 


CO 


ri^ 


M 


^ 


o 


trT 


6 




o" 


tcT 




s" 





,_r 




o 






CO 


+3 






o 


o 


fl 


in 


o 




^ 


IN 


s 






in 

o" 


to 


t^ 


Si 


"h 


05_ 


■* 


o 


o 


in 


CO 


to 


oo" 


oo" 





0^ 




<i 


(M 




00 


rt 


C3 




CO 






CO 




to 


OO 






O 


CO 


-^ 


^ 


ll 


to^ 
o" 

tH 


r-T 


in^ 




CO 




c4" 


co^ 

ih" 


•o 




in" 




a 
^11 




o 


o 


o 


^ 


o 


^ 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


8 


o 


o 




















o 




o 


o 


o 


o 


8 


o 


o 


























o_ 


o 


o>^ 


in^ 




o 









s 


c-i^ 


oT 


o 


OS 


J^ 


cT 


in" 




oo" 




c^ 


of 


CO 


o" 


in 


in" 




B'^y^ 


o 


-* 


CO 


CO 


OV 




05 






o 


o> 


s„ 






CO 




£3 






o 


Oi 


(M 


CO 




ai 




00 




o^ 


o^ 








(N 




° J! a 


e 


•^ 


t-T 


■^ 


to" 


(3^ 


2 


oT 


oo"" 


oT 


oT 


OS 


t-^ 


in 


l-f 


co" 


J-^ 




ti 


't- 










CO 






CO 


in 


IN 


■ O 


(N 


to 


lO 




s 




<£> 








to 






to__ 


o_ 


OS 


r-i^ 


to^ 


^__ 


OB 






cf 


CO 


ca" 


eo" 


"^ 


^ 


-* 


Tlf 


to" 


to" 


to" 


in" 


to" 


-*" 


^ 


TiT 




^ i 




o 


o 


^ 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 










•S =" s . 




o 


o 






o 


o 


o 




o 


o 


o 




o 












C3 -grid O 




o_ 


o 


o 


o^ 


o^ 


o^ 


o^ 




o 


o 






o 


o 










>H « 03 -^ 

ol>'-' 3 












































cf 


c^ 


Cl~ 




(n" 


IM 


1-5" 


CO 


o 


to 


to 


CO 


in 






s 




CO 


CO 




Gi 






o 




o 


OS 




IM 






OS 




o 


CI 


iTD^ 


o 




00 


o^ 


(M_ 


to 


'^. 


CO 


CO_^ 


in^ 




IN 


-^ 












































O °3 




c^ 






•^" 






a> 






oT 








IN 





S! 




w 


ira 










-* 






(M 


to 


CO 


00 


O 


CO 


S 


S 




|3 O-c " 
O o o 


(§ 


t' 


2" 


■^ 


^ 


co" 


o" 


in' 


r-i 


<N_ 


IN 


CO 

to" 


ei 


O 


IN 
CO 


•* 


00 






i-H 


tH 




IH 


iH 


(N 


I-H 


tH 


r-i 


rH 




(N 


TH 




IN 


iH 




<=2 " 












































































"S 


S 


CO 


CO 


im 


to 


O 


O 


to 


(N 


^ 


^ 


o> 


o 


O 


2 


S3 


in 




tS 


< 


a> 






05 




tH 


to 


O 


to 


CO 


to 


■«^ 


CO 


IN 




.s 


t^ 


o 


CO 


-* 


C> 


■ CO 


od 


OJ 


in 


in 


OS 


95 


oi 


2 


'^ 


^ 




*3 


lS 


^ 


lO 


•^ 


CO 


Tii 


to 


•^ 


•* 


in 


■* 


•* 


to 


■* 


•^ 


to 


in 




Pi 


S 




































K 




1 


CO 


Tt* 


^ 


CO 


I- 


00 


CR 


o 


^ 


(M 


CO 


m 


in 


to 


«~ 




1 <! 
1 ^ 








lO 










in 




to 


to 


. to 


CO 






to 






00 


CO 


00 


oo 


00 


00 




00 




oo 


00 


00 


00 




00 










"^ 






"" 


F-t 


l-H 


r-> 




"* 


T-l 


i-i 




H 


iH 


IH 




H 


'"'^ 


iH 


IH 



Eeport of the Water Board. 



37 



P *3 


. 






. 






a 


a 


a 


a 


a 














o o 


o 














^ 


b 


















2< P( 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 


p- 






M 


iO 


o 


id 






«l 


CO 




^ 





^ 


o 


o 


o 


o 






























































o 








-* 






















CO 










(N 














^ 


o 


o 


















o 






<?■ 














































































































00 


t- 




•* 






















^ 


X 




o 


, 






s 


. 


<N 
























































cq 




U5 






f- 









a) 

13 o f' 

«;:::=! 

"S "^ to 

J^ O CO 

n^ '°- 

0) ^ to 



Bo .S 



o;5 -S 














CO 




CO 






^ 


m 




















'^ 


Til 


-* 








IH 


IM 


CO 


























tH 


r-t 






I-l 


tH 



38 



City Document. — No. 55. 



s 

'« 






't^ 






"^ 



5^ 






'^ 



^ 



CO 

l>- 

00 


CO 


rH 


CD 


(. 


t. 




irt 




















l-H 




o 


IN 




tD 


IN 


tD 


o 




IN 


e^ 


<N 


CO 


CO 


oq 






1^ 


t— 


^ 




o 




























c5 

03 
l-H 


CO 


cq 


Oi 


cn 












to 


^, 


















CO 


o 


O 


■<ll 


to 




Oi 


Tf 


IM 


1-1 


■* 


«5 


>n 


tD 




o 


f-1 


IN 


IN 


to 




















iH 


"^ 


r-l 




r-H 
00 


Ol 


o 


to 


f_i 


t^ 


^^ 




^- 




^ 












Oi 


CO 


CO 


(N 




IN 


o 


00 


to 






lO 


xa 


t- 


o> 


o 

rH 


Oi 


l- 


to 


la 


CO 


CO 


CO 


to 


iH 


























O 




Oi 


r- 


CO 


CI 


IN 


tN 


t^ 


^^ 


o 




o 


to 






OO 






O 




CO 


to 




7-i 


T)< 




CO 


CO 


IM 


CO 


CO 


CO 


(N 


o 


00 


00 


t~ 


to 


o 


r-H 
















' ' 










CO 
CO 
i-l 


t^ 


(O 


r-< 




o 


CO 










rH 


t~ 


»o 








TJ1 


to 


(N 


CO 


o 








t- 


rH 


o 


C<I 


CO 


CO 


CO 










o 


^ 


rH 


IN 














l-H 






r-l 


'"' 


"^ 




- 








Oi 


t- 


t^ 


CD 










CO 


IN 








a> 


(M 


CO 


CO 


Tt< 




CD 










00 
l-H 








CO 








1— 1 


T~i 


j-( 


r-l 


e<i 


r^ 
















l-H 


I-H 


r^ 


i-^ 


I-H 






























. 
















^^ 




O 


CO 


,— ( 


CO 










iO 






IH 
















« 


CO 


eg 


M 


CO 


CO 


IN 


IN 


(N 


rH 


rH 


O 


IN 


rH 


' ' 




' 




^~' 


'"' 


' ' 


' 












. 


f^ 










(N 


■* 


Oi 


Ol 


IN 


1—1 


00 


s 




CO 






Oi 


o 




















00 


00 




^ 








J-^ 




tH 


r-i 


1—1 


r-t 
















T-l 






rH 








i-t 




























- 


J_, 




OO 






^ 


CCi 


00 




IN 


Tti 


00 


to 




■* 


C-l 


(N 


o 


o 




















1^ 








■* 


CO 


IN 


1—1 


O 


Oi 


00 


00 


o 


l-H 








l-H 


iH 


l-H 


rH 














_ 


00 










,_, 




m 


f— ( 




CO 


J-t 


■^ 


^^ 


OO 




CO 


CO 


0<1 


o 














CO 












-Ttl 




rH 


Oi 


t- 


tD 


>o 


xO 


o 


r-H 


I-H 




IH 


IH 
























la 


O 




y-f 


Oi 


IN 


CO 


co 


^ 


to 


tD 


IN 


CO 


CO 


00 


cn 




o 










Oi 


















tH 


CO 


CJ 




CO 


IN 


CO 


^ 




r-H 


r^ 




l-H 






"^ 




tH 




■^ 




l-H 
















CO 


ira 




CO 


O 




O 


o 


cq 


o 


i» 


CD 


<* 


-* 


■* 


o 


Oi 




03 




t- 




CO 














-tfi 




rH 




o 


r- ( 


1— ( 














T-i 












rH 




r-H 






























CO 


^^ 


^_, 










t- 


1—1 


Oi 




00 


■* 


r-H 


o> 


t— 


(N 






Ci 






t— 


1:- 




00 




CD 










CO 


<N 


f.^ 


o 


00 


t- 


^ 


CO 


o 












l-H 






rH 












I-H 




























. 






j^ 


IN 


IN 


CO 


C) 


IN 


IN 


^O 


^ 


t- 


CO 








CD 










Ttl 






I— 1 




CO 




: 








o 


o 


Oi 


Oi 


o 


o 


IH 


r-{ 












rH 




r-i 














r-H 




























* 


— _ 


j^ 






CD 


to 


CI 


■* 


-* 


li^ 


00 


•<JI 


tf 




1— I 




O 


o 


Oi 


IN 










lO 




lO 


o 






(N 


<N 


1—1 


O 


O 


Ol 


o 


Oi 


o 


rH 


00 
























rH 


l-H 




























— 






»0 


CD 


1^ 




-* 


o 


o 


cq 


T-I 


>n 


d! 


00 




o 


CO 


CO 


to 






CO 








CO 




in 

CO 


d 


o 


o> 


C» 


o 


iH 


rH 


r-t 


o 


00 


Oi 


Oi 


O 


l-H 


























C^ 


CO 






o 

CO 


o 


•« 


^ 


o 


d 


o 


to 


o 


to 

IN 


lO 

CO 
r-H 


05 


o 
1-i 


s 


53 


N 


(N 

l-H 


^ 


rH 


l-H 
rH 


^ 


T-< 




^ 


CO 


to 


a> 


to 


^ 


o 


t- 


5 


"2 
1C5 


<N 


s 


o 


Ol 


-tP 


in 

00 


00 


t- 


CD 


o 


<N 


rH 


S 


S 


S 


o 


o 


rH 




r-H 




























in 


ro 




to 


UO 


CO 


Oi 

to 


g 


O 


IN 


IN 


s 


IN 


IN 


in 








^ 


^ 


O 


Oi 


Oi 


t~ 


to 


CO 


t- 


Ol 


00 






rH 






















r-H 




























■>*! 


•* 


J5 


CO 


to 

CO 


00 


CO 


o 
o 


to 


-5*1 
to 


o 


§ 


co 


C3 


in 










o 


o 


o> 


CD 


CD 
















l-H 






















r-H 




























CO 




OO 


5 


CD 


Oi 


(N 

CD 


s 


^ 


OO 


■H* 
CO 


CO 


5 


t-; 


in 






O 


O 


o 


o 


Oi 


00 


t- 


t- 


































r-4 




























' is 
o 


3 


u 

a 

3 

t-r 


C5 






1-3 




1 


a 

0) 


o 
O 


l4 

i 

> 


a 
ft 


i 
>> 



Eeport of the Water Board. 



39 



Table showing the height of water in the conduit at the gate-house, 
Lake Cochituate, the number of days it was running at those 
depths, and the average depth for each month. 



1873. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


T'l 
Ds. 


0-10 






















2 
1 
1 


. . . 


2 


0-iii 






















1 


l-lOi 






















1 


5-10 








8 


9 
1 












17 


5-11 








13 
1 
3 






13 


31 


2 




60 

1 

153 


5-lli 














6-0 


29 


28 


31 


22 


1 
1 










8 


31 


6-0| 










1 


6-1 


1 
1 






















1 


6-2 










13 


22 
1 












36 


6-31 




















1 


6^ 










19 














19 


6-5 




















1 




1 


6-7 














2 








2 


6-8| 
















1 








1 


6-9 














1 
1 
4 










1 


6-11 
























1 


7-0 














31 


2 
2 
1 
11 




15 




52 
2 


7-2 














7-4i 
























I 


7-6 
























n 




















• • • 1 ■ ■ ■ 















Average Monthly Depth 


S. 








Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 
5-11 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Aver, for 
year. 


6-0 


6-0 


6-0 


5-11^ 


6-l| 


6-01 


6-4J 


7-0 


6-8J 


6-7 


6-0 


6-2| 



40 



City Document. — No. 55. 



Annual Amount of Rainfall, in Inches, at hake. Cochituate, Boston 
and vicinity, 1849 to 1873, inclusive. 









Places 


AND Observers. 






YEAR. 


1 

O0q3 

Hi 


5J 

^& 

SI 
P-i g 

ft 


1 

% 

2 a, 

o 


. 
° ^ 
H 1 

II 

11 


g 

si- 

so 

■°.9 

f 


■0.2 

OCfl 


! 
a 

.& 

a 

> 
S 


1849 


, . 


40.30 


40.97 


40.74 


51.09 




34.69 


1850 




53.98 


64.07 


62.13 


45.68 




61.48 


1851 


. . 


44.31 


41.97 


41.00 


41.00 




43.30 


1852 


*47.93 


47.94 


40.51 


42.24 


42.78 


. . 


38.58 


1853 


*55.73 


48.86 


53.83 


45.04 


43.92 




53.27 


1854 


43.15 


45.71 


45.17 


41.29 


42.08 


. . 


46.25 


1855 


34.96 


44.19 


47.59 


40.63 


44.89 


48.41 


39.05 


1856 


40.80 


52.18 


53.79 


42.33 


42.49 


45.97 


40.97 


1857 


63.10 


56.87 


57.92 


44.04 


49.38 


62.02 


44.74 


1858 


48.66 


52.67 


45.46 


37.40 


37.73 


35.80 


44.51 


1859 


49.02 


56.70 


. . 


48.49 


47.51 


48.41 


45.29 


1860 


55.44 


51.46 


46.95 


45.97 


46.91 


46.67 


38.24 


1861 


45.44 


50.07 


50.14 


36.51 


43.32 


42.95 


44.25 


1862 


49.69 


61.06 


67.21 


46.42 


44.26 


44.61 


50.09 


1863 


69.30 


67.72 


56.42 


53.66 


52.37 


57.81 


64.17 


1864 


42.60 


49.30 


39.46 


36.56 


38.11 


40.64 


36.83 


1865 


49.46 


47.83 


43.59 


35.84 


37.38 


38.82 


44.69 


1866 


62.32 


50.70 


. . 


43.46 


38.18 


41.36 


46.04 


1867 • 


56.25 


55.64 


41.71 


41.40 


45.54 


45.87 


47.04 


1868 


49.71 


64.11 


39.89 


44.65 


47.96 


49.58 


53.52 


1869 


64.34 


66.28 


47.98 


47.30 


47.30 


48.96 


47.70 


1870 


55.89 


59.73 


41.53 


39.40 


46.30 


48.71 


49.02 


1871 


45.39 


48.33 


40.56 


36.82 


44.45 


44.17 


47.91 


1872 


48.47 


58.04 


52.73 


45.80 


44.32 


48.67 


48.71 


1873 


45.43 


54.94 


46.81 


42.58 


39.86 


45.05 


52.56 



* By J. Vannevar. 



Report or the Water Board. 



41 



Table sJiowing the Rainfall in Boston for the year 1873., and the 
days on which it occurred, from observations by Wm. H. Bradley^ 
Esq., Superintendent of Sewers. 



Day of 
Month. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1. . . . 






. . • 


... 


. . . 




.20 




.17 


. . . 


.02 


. . . 


2. . . . 








.24 


.32 
1.07 


• • • 


.04 


.54 




. . . 






3. . . . 


.69 




. . . 


.16 


4 . . . 




.04 


.48 


.05 


1.09 


.02 




.04 


,50 








5. . . . 


1.90 


.15 




. . . 


6 . . . . 


























7. . . . 


. . . 




. . . 


.09 




.03 




. . . 




1.84 




. . . 


8. . . . 


. . . 


.71 


. . . 


. . . 


. . . 


.08 




. . . 


.03 


.34 


1,91 




9. . . . 


.44 




. . . 


. . . 


.47 






. . . 








.12 


10 ... . 






.34 
.46 


.06 


.73 
.61 
















11 ... . 






.03 














12 ... . 


.11 








,54 


.64 


13 ... . 








1.77 
.70 


.18 












1.43 


14. . . . 


.08 










2.51 


,08 








15 . . . . 

16 ... . 




1.62 


.12 




■ '»■ 


.05 




1.20 


,01 








17 ... . 


.90 








.04 


.01 






,52 


. . . 


18. . . . 


.79 






.72 


.03 




1.18 


,92 






2.80 




19 ... . 




,03 


.04 








1.34 


,18 


1,05 
.14 


.29 
2.00 






20 ... . 




12 








.66 


21. . . . 


.02 




1.59 










. . . 




22. . . . 


.27 


1.20 




. . . 


.42 






.74 


. . . 








23 ... . 
















24 










24. . . . 


.96 
















.63 




1.50 


. . . 


25 ... . 






















.02 




26 ... . 






.47 


.02 
















1.02 


27. . . . 


. . . 








.34 




. . . 


,77 


. . . 




28 ... . 


.64 


.14 








37 










.03 


1,30 


29 ... . 


1.02 


.04 




07 












30 ... . 












.08 


,17 








31 ... . 






.02 










.04 






Totals . 


6.69 


3.74 


4.54 


3.81 


4.92 


0,65 


3.25 


6.46 


2.78 


5.43 


7.34 


6,33 



Total for the year 54,94 inches, 

6 



42 City Document. — No. 55. 

SCHEDULE OF PEOPERTY AT CHESTNUT HILL 
EESERVOIR. 

1 two-liorse express-wagon, 1 single ditto, 1 water cart, 2 
two-horse water carts, 2 iron road rollers, 1 single horse 
pung, 1 two-horse ditto, 1 horse truck, 1 horse power, 1 
horse cart, 1 hay wagon, 2 hand carts, 1 pair large wheels, 

3 clay mills and shafting, 1 tank, 6 gravel screens, 25 ox-tie 
chains, 2 7-inch rotary pumps, 2 4-inch ditto, 1 18-inch ditto, 
1 house force-pump, 1 stone-crushing machme and castings, 
1 blacksmith's forge and tools, 1 derrick and rigging, 4 clay 
knives, 1 man head, 4 grub axes, 30 picks, 26 shovels, 14 
spades, 4 hoes, 26 iron bars, 7 stone hammers, 3 striking 
hammers, 8 iron rakes, 23 wooden rakes, 4 border knives, 
1 root-puller, 5 snaiths, 14 scythes, 3 doz. scythe stones and 
rifles, 3 lawn-mowers, 1 garden engine, 1 Johnson's pump, 

4 hay forks, 8 lanterns, 6 oil cans, 3 reflectors, 8 peat knives, 
8 tin dippers, 22 tin candlesticks, 2 bushels grass seed, 18 
barrels cement, 64 drills, 14 pai^s, 18 fire buckets, 13 rattan 
brooms, 5 wooden rammers, 5 wheelbarrows, 10 ladders, 2 
grindstones, 2 jack screws, 1 window brush, 3 paint brushes, 
1 whitewash brush, 3 telegraph batteries, 7 rubber coats and 
caps, 25 pairs rubber boots, 2 horses, 1 Concord wagon, 1 
covered ditto, 1 carryall, 3 harnesses, 1 rain gauge, 1 set 
scales, 1 safe, 12 feet 18-inch Scotch pipe, 42 feet 15-inch 
ditto, 12 feet 30-inch cement pipe, 1 25 h. p. engine, 1 20 
h. p. ditto, 1 12 h. p. ditto, 1 6 h. p. ditto, and pung. 



PROPERTY AT LAKE COCHITUATE. 

1 extension dining-room table, 1 parlor table, 18 dining- 
room chairs, 1 oil-cloth carpet, 1 marble wash-bowl, 1 cooking 
range, 1 air-tight stove, 1 mirror, 1 map, 1 horse, 1 beach 
wagon, 1 express- wagon, 1 pung, 1 tip-cart, 2 single har- 



Eepoet of the Water Board. 43 . 

nesses, 1 cart, 1 buffalo robe, 3 ps. 18-inch copper pipes, 1 
18-inch pump, 2 12-inch pumps, 1 7-iuch pump, 2 ps. 12-inch 
copper pipes, 10 picks, 2 grub hoes, 2 iron rakes, 6 hoes, 4 
hay rakes, 2 coal shovels, 2 spades, 2 square pointed shovels, 
5 long-handle shovels, 4 stop plank hooks, 2 ice hooks, 16 
buckets, 12 lanterns, 9 brooms, 8 wheelbarrows, 2 grass 
hooks, 2 gravel screens, 2 sand sieves, 9 pairs rubber boots, 
2 pairs rubber hose, 1 boat, 2 pump frames, 6 hand drills, 1 
stone hammer, 2 hand hammers, 1 double pulley, 3 ox chains, 
1 engine, 25 h. p., 1 steelyards, 1 rain gauge, 6 iron bars, 1 
1 telegraph battery, 1 hand saw, 1 manure fork, 2 hay 
forks. 



PEOPERTY AT BROOKLINE RESERVOIR. 

1 desk, 2 settees, 1 large stove, 4 stop plank hooks, 1 
stove brush, 1 screen brush, 1 coal hod, 1 dust pan and brush, 
2 scrubbing brushes, 2 shovels, 1 pick, 1 spade, 1 hay rake, 1 
iron rake, 1 border knife, 1 scuffle hoe, 2 corn brooms, 2 
floor mats, 2 ladders, 1 water pail, 1 iron bar, 1 oil can, 
1 bushelbasket, 1 wheelbarrow, 1 sponge, 1 scythe. 



Note. — The foregoing Scliedule of Property (pp. 42 and 43) should have 
been appended to the Eeport of the Superintendent of Western Division, 
following. 



EEPOET OF SUPERINTENDENT OF WESTERN DIYISION. 



Westeen Division Boston Water Works, 

May 1st, 1874. 
Hon. John A. Haven, 

President Gochituate Water Board : — 

Sir, — I submit the following report for the past year, in 

compliance with the rules of the Board : — 

lake gochituate. 

My appointment as Superintendent of the Western Di- 
vision did not take effect until the 1st of July, 1873. At 
this date the water in the lake stood at 11 feet 1\ inches 
above the bottom of the conduit. From this time, the water 
gradually fell to 6 feet 81^ inches on the 5th of October, 
leaving only 41- inches above the top of the conduit. Dug 
and Dudley ponds were both called upon, for a few days, for 
a portion of their supply, but a heavy rain between the 6th 
and 8th rendered their further assistance unnecessary and 
the stop-planks were put in. 

From October 5th the lake gained steadily until February 
1, 1874, at which time it stood at 12 feet 6| inches. The 
water was now allowed to waste until the 14th of February ; 
and on the 22d the lake had risen to 13 feet 1 inch. 
Water was again allowed to waste until March 3d, the lake 
at that time standing at 12 feet 8 inches. The stop-planks 
were put in, and the water rose to 13 feet 1\ inches. On 
the 13th of April, when the second examination of the 
conduit took place, the first being in November, and referred 



Eepoet of the Water Board. 45 

to under the head of conduit. During the twenty-four hours 
that the water was shut off in April, the lake rose to about 
high-water mark, or 13 feet 4 inches, at which point it has 
been kept ever since, a very large amount of water running 
to waste over the dam during the recent storms. 

The grounds and buildings at the lake have been kept in 
the usual condition. 

Some of the fences require to be rebuilt during the 
present year ; and it would be advisable to build a new house 
for the attendant. While the water was shut off the past 
month, I had the gates at the gate-house taken out and ex- 
amined, at the City Engineer's suggestion. Repairs were 
made upon them as far as we were able, in the short time 
allowed. A piece of the brass facing was broken from one of 
the gates, which could not be remedied without sending the 
valve to the shop. The other gate was made tight. A new 
water-gauge, consisting of a 12-inch iron pipe and a hun- 
dred feet of lead pipe running into the conduit, was secured 
in position while the water was shut off. The rods are grad- 
uated to read from tide marsh level. By this arrangement, 
we are enabled to gauge the gates to a nicety, and the 
correct level of the water in the conduit is obtained. 

THE CONDUIT. 

Owing to the low state of the reservoirs, arising from 
increased consumption in the citjs the conduit has been 
severely taxed during the past year. From the 28th of 
July, 1873, until the 17th of September, it has been run 
under a head of from 7 to 14 inches. The same occurred 
in November, and again in April, 1874. 

Twice during the year the water has been drawn off for 
examination and repairs. Once in November, for about four 
days, and again in April, for one day and a half. The 
dangerous condition of the conduit in certain places has been 



46 City Document. — No. 55. 

thoroughly explained by others, and I will not repeat here 
what is now so well known. By order of the Committee on 
the Western Division, a flume has been prepared, to use in 
case of emergency. It has been stored at Chestnut Hill 
reservoir. 

The waste weirs and culverts are all in good condition. 
A new set of locks has been placed upon them the whole 
length of the line. Gauges, to read by floats, and recording 
the absolute heights of the water above tide, have been 
placed at the east and west pipe chambers at Charles River. 
I would recommend that all the timber growing upon the 
line of the conduit be cut. 



CHESTNUT HILL RESERVOIR. 

This reservoir is. in good condition. The banks late last 
fall were covered with a heavy coating of manure, and will, 
I hope, show the eflects of it this year. The paved slopes 
have been kept in good order. The most important im- 
provement that has been made in connection with this 
reservoir is the increased facility provided for shutting off 
the water from the 48-inch main in case of accident. Two 
new gates, mounted on wheels, and worked by an hydrostatic 
press, were ordered by your Board last year, and are now in 
place in the efliuent gate-house. These gates can be closed 
by one man in less than half a minute, and one man can raise 
one gate in three minutes. It has formerly taken three men 
nearly an hour to perform the same service. The size of the 
opening is four feet square. We had some difficulty in 
getting the frames in position, having a head of some 
twenty-one feet to contend with ; but it was accomplished 
without shutting off the water. A dam of stop-planks, filled 
with clay, was placed on the reservoir side, and the chambers 
pumped out and kept dry by a large pump. The gates were 
built by the Boston Machine Co. 



Eeport of the Water Board. 47 

The driveway during the last season was covered with a 
layer of gravel for over a thousand feet of its length, but 
there was so much clay in the gravel that it proved unsatis- 
factory during the winter, and we are now crushing stone to 
place upon the driveway, intending to use as little gravel as 
possible. A liberal appropriation has been made by the City 
Council to put this favorite driveway in good condition this 
year. 

I would recommend that a chimney be built for the effluent 
gate-house. A fire is required there for more than half the 
year, and there is at present no place for a smoke-pipe. 

BROOKLINE RESERVOIR. 

No arrangements can be made for cleaning out this reser- 
voir in the present scarcity of water. New fences are 
required on Boylston street, and on two sides of the reservoir. 
New stop-planks have been prepared for this reservoir, and 
the iron work painted. The town of Brookline last fall 
raised the grade of Boylston street, rendering the extension 
of the iron fence upon the wall necessary. This they have 
partly completed, and have left in an unfinished state ever 
since. The sidewalk, too, has been unnecessarily obstructed 
for a long time, and so continues. 

Our reservoirs are all at the present time about three feet 
below high water, and we are trying to fill them by running 
the conduit under a head. 

Annexed is a schedule of property. 

Very respectfully yours, 

DESMOND FITZGERALD, 

Superintendent Western Div. B. W. W. 



WATEE EEGISTEAR'S EEPOET FOE 1873. 



Water Registrar's Office, Boston, May 1, 1874. 

John A. Haven, Esq., 

President of the Cochituate Water Board : — 

Sir, — The following report is made in conformity with 
the requirements of the ordinance providing for the care and 
management of the Cochituate Water Works. 

The total number of water-takers now entered for the year 
1874 is 42,345, being an increase since January 1, 1873, of 
1,657. 

The total number of cases where the water has been turned 
off for non-payment of rates during the year is 1,098. Of 
this number, 918 have been turned on, leaving a balance of 
180 still remaining off. 
The total amount of water-rates received from 

April 30, 1873, to May 1, 1874, is . . $961,658 88 
Less amount paid to the city of Charlestown, 

as per contract ' . . . . . 57,194 40 



Of this amount there was re- 
ceived for water used in pre- 
vious years the sum of . . $61,207 00 

Leaving the receipts for water 
furnished during the financial 
year 1873 and 1874, the sum 
of $843,257 48 



$904,464 48 



Amount earned forward, $904,464 48 



Report of the Water Board. 49 

Amount brought forward, $904,464 48 

In addition to the above there has been re- 
ceived for turning on water in cases where 
it had been turned off for non-payment of 
rates, the sum of .... . 1,966 00 



$906,430 48 



The increased amount of income for the finan- 
cial year ending April 30, 1874, over the 
previous year is .... . $57,846 21 

The total amount of assessments now made 

for the present year is ... . $682,000 00 

The estimated amount of income from the 

sales of water during the year 1874 is . $950,000 00 

The expenditures of my office during the year 

1873 have been $22,009 62 

The total number of meters now applied to the premises of 
water-takers is 977. Of this number 637 are |-inch, 290 
1-inch, 39 2-inch, 9 3-inch, 2 4-inch. 

The total amount of revenue derived from meters is 

$240,638.77. 



50 



City Document. — No. 55. 



The following table exhibits the class of premises to which 
meters are attached, together with the amount of revenue 
received during the year 1873 : — 



TABLE SHOWING CLASS OF PREMISES TO WHICH METERS 
ARE ATTACHED, ETC. 



Name. 



Revere House . . 
American House. 
Parker House , . 
U. S. Hotel . . . 
Tremont House . 
Young's Hotel . . 
Adams House . . 
Hotel Berkeley . 
Marlboro House . 
Albion Building . 
W.D.Park. . . 
Hotel Pelham . . 

Hotel Boylston. . 

La Grange House 

Bt. Cloud .... 

Hotel Clarendon. 

Seaver House . . 

Evans House . . 

Wm. Pfaff . . . 

Hotel Kempton . 

Hotel Hamilton . 

Hotel Vendome . 

Coolidge House . 

City Hotel . . . 



Class. 



Revenue. 



$3,000 30 

2,621 67 

3,297 91 

1,962 71 

2.190 63 

1,089 44 

952 41 

1,415 48 

826 59 

266 87 

81 99 

647 01 

286 42 

124 84 

131 14 

340 94 

97 24 

320 72 

103 51 

385 97 

203 86 

377 56 

355 56 

284 10 



Eepokt of the Water Board. 

TABLE SHOWING CLASS OF PBEillSES, E TO. — Continued. 



61 



Name. 



Hancock House . . . 
Merrimac House . . 
Sheridan House . . . 
Derby House .... 
WMte, Frame & Co . 
Merchants Hotel . . 
M. J. Flatley . . . . 
New England House 
Winthrop House . . 
Dooley's House • . . 
Commercial House . 
Job A. Turner . . . 
Milliken House . . . 
Sherman House . . . 
Everett House . . . 
Metropolitan House . 
Commonwealth Hotel 
Thomas L. Robinson 
St. James Hotel . . . 
Massachusetts House 
Webster House . . . 
Mariner's House . . 
Robertson House . . 
Boston Hotel .... 
Creighton House . . 
Van Rensselaer . . . 
"Wilde's Hotel .... 
Quincy House .... 
Marston House . . . 
Stumcke & Goodwin 
Pavilion House . . . 
Norfolk House . . . 
National House . . . 



Class. 



Revenue. 



43 75 
113 48 
71 07 
238 59 
98 50 
62 13 
65 93 

165 22 
178 64 

41 21 

166 36 
164 90 

134 93 
390 21 

135 95 
357 35 
997 16 

13 40 
1,611 67 

32 44 
162 07 

74 96 

95 31 
268 94 
210 83 
233 39 
157 15 
788 28 
238 39 
539 91 

136 92 
237 70 

92 70 



52 



City Document. — No. 55. 



TABLE SHOWING CLASS OF PREMISES, ETC.— Continued. 



Name. 



Phillips House 

Hotel Marion 

Dio Lewis 

Old Colony & Newport R. R. Co. 
Boston & Albany R. R. Co. . . . 

Eastern Railroad Co 

New York & New Eng. R. R. Co. 
Boston & Providence R. R. Co. . 

Boston & Maine R. R. Co 

Boston & Lowell R. R. Co. . . . 

Fitchburg R. R. Co 

Boston Q-as Light Co 

South Boston Q-as Light Co. . . . 
Bast Boston Gas Light Co. . . . 

Roxbury Gas Light Co 

Dorchester Gas Light Co 

Stand. Sugar Refinery, Granite st. 
Stand. Sugar Refinery, Eastern av. 
Continental Sugar Refinery . . . 
Bay State Sugar Refinery .... 

Oxnard Sugar Refinery 

Boston Sugar Refinery 

Bay State RoUing Mill 

Norway Iron Works 

Highland Spring Brewery .... 

Augustus Richardson 

"Wheat & Carberry 

H. & J. Pfafi' 

A. J. Houghton & Co 

Gottlieb Burkhardt 

John Roessle 

Christian Jutz 

Henry Souther & Co 



Class. 



Hotel 



Brewery 



Revenue. 



28 32 

3 91 

339 86 

6,048 77 

10,040 01 

3,474 19 

3,004 82 

3,219 18 

1,225 33 

1,384 97 

1,021 71 

14,127 88 

326 72 
447 72 
274 21 

79 39 

11,695 53 

3,801 07 

1,085 22 

2,307 76 

1,451 57 

7,393 58 

4,982 02 

6,561 03 

2,763 90 

1,312 34 

1,009 16 

774 97 

732 51 

635 31 

327 76 
165 44 
255 91 



Report of the Water Board. 53 

TABLE SHOWING GLASS OF PREMISES, ETC. — Continued. 



Name. 



Conrad Decker 

Mt. "Washington Brewery Co. • 

Burton Brewery 

Standard Brewery 

Vincent & Hathaway 

Moses Fairbanks 85 Co 

Cobum, Lang & Co 

Comstock, Gove & Co 

Leonard & Co 

Wesleyan Association 

Tremont Temple 

S. S. Houghton Sc Co 

P. McAleer 

Smith 85 Porter 

T. H. Carter 

Boston Journal 

John L. Gardner 

Joseph Byers 

"Western Union Telegraph Co. . 

N. E. Mut. Life Ins. Co., 39 State st. 

" " 70 State St. 

Horticultural Hall 

Suffolk National Bank 

Benj. Leeds 

Stone, Bier 85 "Weiss 

John Rayner, heirs 

Otis T. Ruggles 

B. B. Appleton, heirs ..... 

J. "W. Merriam 

R. H. Spaulding - , 

Mrs. Ellen Brooks 

Oriental Tea Co 

S. D. Hicks , 



Class. 



Brewery . . 



Beer Factory 



Building 



Revende. 



149 82 

1,353 51 

363 07 

180 97 

245 87 

235 87 

141 59 

95 08 

324 29 

240 40 

265 00 

104 61 

185 24 

358 42 

225 52 

603 74 

125 66 

223 88 

102 19 

285 36 

74 92 

78 44 

89 49 

124 28 

108 87 

156 57 

83 87 

177 73 

138 32 

137 27 

83 96 

93 66 

329 25 



54 



City Document. — No. 55. 



TABLE SHOWING GLASS OF PREMISES, ETC.— Continued. 



A. Wentworth 

William Ropes, heirs 

A. D. Puffer 

Eastern Express Co 

Grand Lodge of Masons 

James W. Rollins . . , 

Haley, Morse & Co., 411 Wash. st. 
Mass. Institute of Technology . . 

S. N. Brown, Jr 

A. H. Vinton 

J. W. Pierce 

H. A. Choate 

Shepard, Norwell & Co 

D. J. Hastings 

C. U. Getting, 456 Washington st. 

Parsons & Stoddard 

W. H. Mann 

Hallett 8s Davis 

Galvin 85 Currie 

P. Donahoe 

Jonas Fitch 

Samuel A. Way, heirs 

H. C. Stephens 

Jordan, Marsh Sc Co 

Or. T. Burnham 

G. D. Dows & Co 

Stephen H. Bennett, heirs .... 

J. P. Dimond 

Taylor Page 

Eranklin Evans 

Thomas T. Crowell 

J. Zane 8c Co 

Metropolitan Railroad Co 



CliASS. 



Building 





Revenue. 







3 


277 82 


. 5 


894 87 


1 


110 21 


1 


142 62 


2 


77 26 


1 


131 06 


2 


19 15 


1 


294 74 


1 


106 71 


1 


61 98 


1 


133 51 


1 


106 44 


4 


190 29 


1 


88 75 


5 


144 22 


2 


88 66 


2 


79 18 


1 


37 59 


1 


206 63 


1 


85 74 


1 


138 27 


2 


70 04 


1 


152 48 


4 


240 11 


1 


148 95 


1 


48 31 


2 


360 81 


1 


103 43 


1 


85 36 


2 


62 63 


2 


151 26 


2 


182 00 


1 


46 05 



Report of the Water Board. 



55 



TABLE SHOWING CLASS OF PREMISES, ETC.— Continued. 



Name. 



Allen & Woodworth . 
Merchants Exchange 
C. U. Cotting, 7 Court sq 
J. J. Stevens 
J. T. Brown & Co 
J. C. Gray . . 
C. F. Hovey . . 
John Foster . . 
R. B. Brigham 
M. M. Ballou . 
J. M. Smith & Co 
Charles Rollins 
Adams Express Co 
Jordan, Marsh & Co. 
H. S. Lawrence • 

J. M. Beehe . . . 
F. Tudor .... 

Studio Building . 

Boston Post Building 

Traveller Building 

Union Building . . 

Wentworth Building 

Rice Building . . . 

Carter Building . . 

Edmands Building 

"Washington Building 

Niles Building . . . 

Palmer's Building . 

Joy's Building . . . 

Sears' Building . . 

Advertiser Building 

Charity Building . 

Massachusetts General Hospital 



Class. 



Building 



Revenue. 



44 62 
489 90 
106 95 

58 28 
102 85 
262 80 
322 92 
134 86 

13 12 
161 81 

18 62 
189 66 
393 78 
152 25 
108 58 
129 99 
133 46 
278 04 
297 96 
187 09 
285 91 

64 64 
280 01 
115 11 

96 00 
208 51 
321 84 
119 93 

99 11 
303 42 
168 26 

69 54 
1,136 05 



56 



City Document. — No. 55. 



TABLE SHOWING CLASS OF PREMISES, ETC. — Continued. 



Name. 


Class. 


a 
=? 


1 inch. 

2 inch. 

3 inch. 


4 inch. 
Indicator. 

Total. 


Revenue. 


City Hospital 




3 


4 . . 
4 . . 


. . 2 
. . 3 
. . 3 
. . 1 
. . 5 
. . 3 
. . 5 
. . 2 
. . 4 
. . 1 
. . 3 
. . 1 
. . 1 
. . 1 
. . 1 
. . 2 
. . 2 
. . 1 
. . 1 
. . 2 
. . 2 


2,482 69 
964 63 


Lunatic Hospital 




New England Hospital 




226 95 


Notre Dame Academy 




1 
2 
1 


67 06 


St. Mary's Institute 




15 37 


House of the Angel Guardian . . 




HO 30 


Home for Catholic Children . . . 




277 86 


Church Home 




1 

1 
2 
1 


202 08 


Temporary Home 




144 84 


Somerset Club House 




395 10 


Union Club House 




193 66 


Temple Club 








83 38 


Boston Music Hall 




2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
5 
1 
4 


• • 


264 22 


City Hall 




397 67 


State of Massachusetts 

Howard Athenaeum 


State House . . 


220 06 
45 56 


Boston Theatre 




217 55 


Globe Theatre 




71 76 


Boylston Market 




310 35 


Washington Market 




302 21 


Suffolk Market 




237 99 


Franklin Market 




147 59 


Williams Market 




3 


103 79 


Tremont Market 




88 47 


Union Market 




1 

1 

1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 


31 70 






106 39 






132 36 




Boarding .... 


108 46 


Mrs. J. R. Hill 


198 30 


Mrs. R. W. Prescott 

J. H. Baker 


86 81 
85 92 


Mrs. W. A. Colson 

F. E. Ruggles 


65 58 
96 80 



Report of the Water Board. 

TABLE SHOWING CLASS OF PREMISES, ETG. — Continued. 



57 



Name. 



A. Carr 

W. A. Prescott 

Geo. Odin, heirs 

James F. Goodwin 

Mrs. A. P. Cleverly 

D. C. Knowlton 

Mrs. C. Farley 

Mrs. C. Cummings 

James Knowlton 

Ruel PMlbrick 

E. B. Osgood 

S. V. Loring 

D. L. Morse 

William Evans 

E. Cutler, 147 Kneeland st. . . . 

" 146 " . . . 

Michael Doherty 

Joh A. Turner, 17 Webster av. 
" 6 Melrose pi. . 

Peter McFarland 

J. Collins 

D.L.Webster 

Thomas Cantlon 

W. B. Mendum 

Brown & Wilcox 

Jacob J. Storcr 

Joseph Nickerson Ss Co 

J. Morrill, Jr. & Co 

Pearson Bros. & Co 

J. Morse 

L. Whittaker 

C. Wright 86 Co 

Howard Watch and Clock Co. . 



Class. 



Boarding 



Model 



Factory 



4 

a 


,a 


.d 


rC 


M 


o 




Revenue. 


IXi 


fl 


a 


R 


a 


13 


O 




kO 


i-i 


<N 


CO 


•* 


M 


H 




1 












1 


$43 70 


2 












2 


124 00 


1 












1 


48 21 


2 












2 


98 88 


2 












2 


76 70 


1 












1 


99 30 


1 












1 


69 23 


1 












1 


93 59 


1 


1 










2 


279 36 


2 


1 










2 
1 


83 21 
163 21 


1 












1 


58 32 


1 












1 


81 27 


3 












3 


235 07 


2 












2 


68 33 


2 












2 


118 45 


5 












5 


197 16 


1 












1 


67 24 


1 












1 


46 70 


1 












1 


79 85 


2 












2 


179 97 


1 










1 


2 


167 68 


1 












1 


167 30 


2 












2 


86 06 


3 












3 


804 03 


1 


1 










1 
1 


14 79 

386 25 


1 


1 










1 
1 


49 35 

385 48 


1 












1 


46 86 


1 












1 


62 04 


1 


2 










1 

2 


95 41 

501 98 



58 City Document. — No. 55. 

TABLE SHOWING CLASS OF PREMISES, ETG.— Continued. 



Name. 



Haley, Morse & Co 

Roxbury Carpet Co 

W. G. Train 

Back Bay Co. ........ 

S. 8. Putnam 

John Preston 

Union Elastic Goods Co. . . 
Thomas H. Dunham . . . . 

Mason & Hamlin 

William Carleton 

Boston Star Collar Co. . . . 

Murphy, Leavens & Co. . . 
H. M. Richards ...... 

Charles E. Kershaw . . . . 

B. Strain & Co 

Hasse & Pratt 

D. R. Whitney 

H. F. Miller 

Stephen Smith & Co. . . . 

Chickering & Sons 

Mace & Keyes 

Bagnall & Loud 

Boston Car Spring Co. . . . 
Wassineus & Whittle*. . . 

A. Folsom & Sons 

Dwinell & Co 

Standard Vinegar Works . 

J. M. Cook, estate 

Hallett & Davis 

S. G. Taylor & Co 

S. D. & H. W. Smith . . . 
James W.Vose & Co. • . . 
Daniels, Harrison & Co. . . 



Class. 



Factory 



Revenue. 



EXPORT OF THE WaTER BoARD. 59 

TABLE SHOWINa CLASS OF PREMISES, ETC.— Continued. 



S. & A. R. Whittier 

W. P. Emerson Piano Forte Co 

Hallett & Cumston 

P. Lally 

J. Hertkorn 

S. D. & H. W. Smith 

S. Q-. Underhill 

Am. Moulded Collar Co 

Kittredge & Co 

John Clark 

Christopher Blake 

G. H. Dickerman 

J. L. Boss 

Vance 8s Co 

J. W. Lowe 

F. King & Co 

Nesmith & Chapin 

Peet Valve Co 

G. F. "Waldron 

A. K. Toung 

Harrison Loring 

8. A. Woods & Co 

Holmes & Blanchard 

Geo. F. Blake & Co 

E. H. Ashcroft 

L. M. Ham 

Eyelet Tool Co 

ghorey&Co 

L. A. Bigelow 

William Evans 

Smith & Lovett ". . 

Am. Tool and Machine Co. . . 
J. Souther & Co 



Class. 



Factory 



Machinist 






Revenue. 



$U1 80 

141 73 

123 11 

367 69 

5 67 

180 37 
155 20 
189 46 

26 14 
122 40 
168 20 
121 92 
104 70 

99 54 

52 13 
141 65 

25 32 
388 23 

30 71 
159 82 
112' 95 
230 86 
153 34 
528 28 

181 14 
281 89 

58 61 
250 97 
257 28 
255 09 

95 50 
224 38 



60 CiTT Document. — No. 55. 

TABLE SHOWING GLASS OF PREMISES, ETC— Continued. 



Name. 



Boston Machine Co 

Hersey Brothers 

Hinckley, Williams & Co 

Boston Screw Co 

U.S.Manuf. Co 

J. A. Maynard 

Atlantic Works 

Geo. T. McLaughlin 

So. Boston Iron Co 

Boston Iron Co 

Holmes & Blanchard 

Dyer & Gurney 

William Blake & Co 

Whiting Foundry Co 

Tremont Foundry Co 

Fulton Iron Foundry Co 

John Lally 

Downer's Kerosene Oil Co. . . , 

F. H. Jenney 

Wilkinson, Carter & Co 

Farrar, Pierce & Canterbury . . , 

Kidder, Vaughan & Co 

Bowker, Torrey & Co.,Bowker st. 
Bowker, Torrey & Co., Foundry st, 

Torreys & Co 

C. E. Hall & Co 

W. C. Taylor & Co 

A. Wentworth & Co 

Richard Power 85 Son 

Carew & Walsh 

E. F. Meaney 

Geo. F. Chapin & Co 

C. D. Brooks 



Class. 



Machinist 



Foundry 



Boilermaker 
Oil Works 



Marble Works 



Stone Yard . . 
Vinegar Work* 
Pickle Factory 



Revenoe. 



Report of the Water Board. 

TABLE SHOWING CLASS OF PREMISES, ETC. — Continued. 



61 



Name. 



W. K. Lewis & Bros., 211 Broad St. 

W. K. Lewis & Bros 

B.M. Clark . . . .' 

E. T. Cowdey 85 Co 

Francis Baker 

Fobes, Hayward & Co 

Chase & Co 

Charles Copeland 

Messenger Bros 

Mrs. G. F. Harrington 

Marston & Cumo 

Jldward B. Pierce 

Alex. Crawford 

J. Brown & Co 

Egerton & Kendall 

S. E. Kendall & Co 

Geo. Fera 

D. T. Copeland 

F. E. "Weber 

K. B. Brigham 

"W. S. Mathews 

Pearson, Tibbetts & Co 

B. R. & J. S. Higgins 

Atwood & Bacon 

B. 8. Wright & Co 

Felton & Stone 

Jonas H. French 

C. H. Graves 

Band, Avery & Frye 

J. A. Whipple 

James Edmand & Co 

E. L. Perkins 

A. Hale Ss Co. . .■ 



CliASS. 



Pickle Factory 



Salt Works . . 
Confectionary 

Restaurant . • 



Saloon 



Distillery , 



Printing . . . 
Photographer 
Fire Brick . • 



Rubber Works , 



Revenoe. 



76 13 

70 75 
205 24 

84 81 
166 28 
248 96 
483 94 
126 90 
170 16 
151 29 
363 26 

51 34 
115 10 

89 98 
6 31 
243 46 
354 48 
113 23 
480 95 
122 35 
148 64 
326 25 

75 61 
178 68 
850 91 
388 92 
113 95 
273 78 
113 50 

88 03 

76 27 
47 65 



62 



City Document. — No. 55. 



TABLE SHOWING CLASS OF PREMISES, ETO. — Continued. 



Name. 



Suffolk Wood Preserving Co. . . 

W.'H. Swift & Co 

W. T. Bradley 

B. Eandall •. • . . 

Committee on Bathing 

C. W. Blodgett 

W. A. Holland 

Boston Dye Wood & Chemical Co. 

Hodges, Coolidge & Co 

M. Crocker & Co . 

Q. W. & F. Appleton 

Preston & Merrill 

Geo. S. Gill & Co 

F. S.Merritt 

Guild, White & Co 

R. W. Ames & Son 

Schayer Bros 

Boston Forge Co 

Boston Lead Co 

National Bridge Co 

Am. Steam Safe Co 

Suffolk Glass Co 

Washington Pipe Works . . . . 

East Boston Pottery 

Curtis, Knowles & Co.. 

Simpson's Dry Dock Co 

Cunard Steamship Co 

Munson & Co 

Union Freight Railway 

J. B. Croshy 

Farrar, Follett & Co 

Metropolitan Railroad Co 

So. Boston Railroad Co 



Class. 



Fertilizers 



Baths 



Chemicals 



Extracts 
Tannery 



Bacon Works 



Sup. Locomotives 



Carving . 
Wire Work 

Stahles . . 



Revenue. 



Eepoet of the Water Board. 



63 



TABLE SHOWING CLASS OF PREMISES, ETC.— Continued. 



Name. 



Draper & Hall 

Martin Hayes 

Draper Bros 

"Wilbur & Locke 

J. Austin Rogers 

Norfolk House Stable 

Nathend Sc Foster 

Jennings & Noyes 

Robert H. Douglas 

A. L. Wright 

C. & J. P. Baker 

W. P. Pierce 

J. Pratt . . • 

L. E. Hartshorn 

A. Garcelon, 108 Chestnut street . 
A. Garcelon, 87 Chestnut street . 
J. P. Barnard, Chestnut street . . 
J. P. Barnard, Joy street . . . . 

C. 8. Godfrey 

G. W. Sherburn 

Highland Railway Co 

I. H. Ayers 

A. Goss 

Adams Express Co 

John Baton, Jr 

F. H. Merritt 

L. W. Porter & Co. 

"Warner & Richardson 

George M. King 

Milo "Whitney 

Daniel "Wood .- 

T. D. Sullivan 

Ham & Co 



Class. 



Stables , 



3 


$579 83 


2 


132 32 


1 


31 17 


2 


7 01 




90 81 




85 37 




148 13 




194 20 




98 59 




65 96 




51 33 




29 33 




71 29 




29 02 




139 93 




40 68 




216 14 




287 60 




50 81 




52 08 




429 39 




64 82 




66 85 




149 42 




76 73 




11 66 




106 38 




239 77 




144 76 




73 34 




118 13 




38 51 


2 


78 12 



64 



City Document. — No. 55. 



TABLE SHOWING CLASS OF PREMISES, ETC.— Gontinued. 



Name. 



F. E. Russell 

Blanchard & Snow 

Or. D. Pattee, Fleet street .... 
Or. D. Pattee, Hanover street . . . 

James Jellison 

John Miller 

J. N. Harwood 

H. C. Nims, Mason court .... 

Geo. F. Bonney & Co 

J. A. Riedell & Co 

H. "W. Fames & Co., Berkeley st . 
H. W. Fames 85 Co., Stanhope st. 

A. B. Atherton & Co 

Geo. S. Johnson Ss Co., 680 Wash. 
Geo. S. Johnson & Co., 774 Wash. 

T. Thaxter 

James Monroe 

Miller & Robinson 

L. L. Howland 

P. E. Murray 

J. E. Maynard 

John Bice 

Geo. S. Fogg & Co 

Dean & Brown 

John F. Bowers 

Moses Coleman & Son 

Boston Hotel Coach Co 

U. 8. & Canada Express 

Eastern Express Co 

J. O. Barnard 

Riverside Club Stable 

Club Stable, Chardon street . . . 
Beacon Club Stable 



Class. 



Stables . 



Revenue. 



Eeport of the Water Board. 



65 



TABLE SHOWING CLASS OF PREMISES, ETC.— Continued. 



Name. 



Club Stable, 75 Chestnut street . 

B. F. Wrightington 

Clark & Brown 

H. C. Nima, 8 Lime street .... 

John Sawyer 

Cilley & Stimson 

Club Stable, 44 Joy street .... 

Gray, Bell & Bailey 

Joel Gray ' . . 

Asa Critchett 

Patrick Morrison 

L. A. Noyes 

Met. R. R. Co., Meridian street . . 
A. 8. Eaton 

A. Thompson 

J. H. Hathome 

Henry K. "Wing 

National Tube Works 

Globe Nail "Works 

Grover & Baker S. M. Co., Alb'y st. 
Grover & Baker S. M. Co., Wash st. 

Tarrington & Hunnewell 

Boston "Wheat & Bread Co. . . . 

B. M. Cunningham 

S. H. Sanborn 

Byam, Carleton & Co 

Knowles, Freeman & Co 

Manley Howe 

L. Prang & Co 

Cook, Jordan & Morse 

Briggs 85 Robinson 

Carpenter, Woodward & Morton 
B. B. Stebbins 

9 



Class. 



Stable 



Silver Smith 



Laundry . . . , 
Bindery • . . . 
Watch Factory 
Fish House . . 
Chemist . . . , 
Chromes . . . , 
Engine . . . . < 
MiU 



Revenue. 



74 41 
100 41 
13 37 
64 94 
66 85 
46 37 
72 70 
96 16 
42 61 
30 34 

89 54 
33 62 
57 22 
28 47 

227 66 
175 08 
2,750 89 
528 36 
268 53 
664 59 
79 93 
172 14 
300 69 

90 50 
25 50 

287 71 
76 76 
130 49 
95 88 
202 66 
438 28 
227 74 



QQ City Document. — No. 55. 

TABLE SHOWING CLASS OF PBUillSES, ETC.— Continued. 



Name. 



Boston City Flour Mills 

D. Dyer 

J. J. McNult 

Jewett & Pitcher . , . . 
Manson & Peterson . . . 
W. W. Bennett . . . . 
W. L. Sturtevant . . . 
McQuesten & Fogg . . . 

J. F. Paul & Co 

Bugbee & Spooner . . . 
J. A. Robertson . . . . 

J. M. Lincoln 

Cbaunoey, Page & Co. . 
8. H. L. Pierce 

A. J. Stearns & Son . . 
H. Parker & Son . . . . 

J. F. Keating 

8. C. Calef 

Watson & Bisbee . . . , 

D. A. Reed 

Boston Drug Mill . . . 
Laming & Drisco . . . 
Cressey&Noyes . . . . 
Smith & Jacobs .... 

B. D. Whitcomb . . . • 

F. B. Jenkins 

A. C. Hopkins 

R. S. Gilmore 

Clapp & Co 

Glover and Jones . . . 
Boston Dye Wood Mill 
H. T. Litchfield, Agt . . 
David Snow, Jr., & Co. 



Class. 



Steamboats , 
Fish House , 





Revenue. 


o 






$932 31 




28 26 




911 15 




425 06 




324 45 




291 01 




194 38 




83 02 




428 02 




295 10 




258 51 




■ 109 89 




339 52 




303 13 




21 29 




231 85 




31 39 




147 93 




111 34 




261 08 




75 44 




339 61 




548 88 




272 06 




450 30 




134 40 




22 54 




37 68 




1 39 




103 18 




114 02 




196 24 


2 


38 61 



Report of the Water Board. 67 

TABLE SHOWING CLASS OF PREMISES, ETC. — Continued. 



Name. 



J. H. Cliadwick 

Horatio Harris 

W. V. Hutchings 

J.C.Nichols 

John Dyer 

J. E. Taylor . 

House of Correction 

Suffolk County Court House • . 

Suffolk County Jail 

Directors of Public Institutions 

South Ferry 

North Ferry 

Police Station No. 1 

'< No. 2 

« No. 3 

« No. 4 

« No. 5 

" No. 6 

" No. 7 

" No. 8 

'• No. 9 

« No. 10 

Cedar Grove Cemetery . . . , 

First Church 

King's Chapel . . , 

St. Mary's Church 

Tremont-street M. E. Church , 

South Cong'l Church 

Church of the Advent 

First Universalist Church . . , 
Columbus-av. Universalist Church 
Shawmut Cong'l Society ... 
Church of the Holy Redeemer 



Class. 



House 85 Fountain 

Fountain .... 
Wharf purposes 



Ship Building 



Organ 



Revenue. 



$78 84 

145 18 

75 33 

30 34 

4 70 

12 97 

3,753 89 

1,306 75 

470 47 

943 32 

2,776 98 

2,020 26 

183 51 

92 53 

140 30 

160 17 

128 06 

99 82 

150 52 

50 73 
57 25 
69 74 

142 12 
62 10 
79 00 

51 68 
49 75 
23 15 

156 88 
30 85 
23 65 
38 46 
30 8 6 



68 City Document. — No. 55. 

TABLE SHOWING GLASS OF PREMISES, ETC.— Continued. 



Name. 


Class. 




a 
1-1 


i i 


O 

.5 ^ 

c 


1 

o 


Revenue. 


St. James Church 


Organ . 










$102 29 


Brattle-street Church Society . . 


" 














13 84 


Bancroft & Boyden 


Elevator 






1 








215 53 




" 






1 


1 . 






22 60 


Job F. Bailey 


171 68 


George 0. Hovey 


'• 








1 . 






9 44 




II 






1 








134 50 




,, 














48 18 


J. C. Tucker & Co 


42 36 


E. Williams 


If 














3 60 


A. "W". Clapp 


5 01 




11 














2 73 


James Tucker & Co 


10 32 


Boston Rubher Shoe Co 


" 














5 88 


Henry Q-. Denney 


" 














2 09 


William Claflin 


" 








1 . 






25 74 


Goldthwait, Snow & Knight . . . 


" 














9 82 


Mrs. S. S. Dunn 


<< 






1 








10 55 


Thomas Richardson, heirs .... 


" . 








1 . 








Barker Bros. & Gardner 


Shop . . . 




1 













Eepoet of the Water Boaed. 69 

The following table exhibits the yearly revenue from the 
sale of Cochituate water since its introduction into the city 
October 25th, 1848 :— • 

Eeceived by Water Commissioners, as per 

Auditor'sEeport, inl848, . '. . . $972 81 

From January 1, 1849, to January 1, 1850, . 71,657 79 

1850, '* 1851, . 99,025 45 

1851, *« 1852, . 161,052 85 
" " 1852, " 1853, . 179,567 39 

1853, '' 1854, . 196,352 32 

1854, " 1855, . 217,007 51 
«« " 1855, «« 1856, . 266,302 77 

1856, " 1857, . 282,651 84 

" " 1857, " 1858, . 289,328 83 

1858, " 1859, . 302,409 73 

" " 1859, " 1860, . 314,808 97 

" " 1860, " 1861, . 834,544 86 

1861, " 1862, . 365,323 96 

1862, " 1863, . 373,922 33 
" 1863, " 1864, . 394,506 25 

1864, " 1865, . 430,710 76 

" 1865, " 1866, . 450,341 48 

1866, " 1867, . 486,538 25 

1867, " 1868, . 522,130 93 

1868, " 1869, . 553,744 88 

1869, " 1870, . 597,328 55 

1870, " 1871, . 708,783 68 

1871, '« 1872, . 774,445 70 . 

1872, " 1873, . 806,102 51 

1873, " 1874, . 859,436 55 
" " 1874, to May 1, 1874, . 666,217 67 



$10,705,216 62 



70 



City Document. — No. 55. 



Statement sJiowing the mimber of houses, stores, steam engines, etc., 
in the City of Boston, supplied with Cochituate water to the 1st of 
January, 1874, with the amount of water-rates paid for 1873 : — 



27,738 


Dwelling-houses 


29 


Boarding-houses 


836 


Model-houses , 


14 


Lodging-houses 


15 


Hotels 


5,221 


Stores and Shops 


411 


Buildings 


514 


OflSces 


43 


Printing-offices 


24 Banks 


32 


Halls 


1 


Museum . 


29 


Private Schools 


16 


Asylums 


4 Hospitals . 


40 


Greenhouses 


95 


Churches 


5 


Markets . 


117 


Cellars 


681 


Restaurants and >. 


8 


Club-houses 


1 


Bath-house 


35 


Photographers . 


13 


Packing-houses . 


1,607 


Stables 


42 Factories . 


6 Bleacheries 


.1 


Brewery . 



Saloo 



ns 



Amount carried forward, 



1436,854 98 

1,462 50 

23,862 97 

525 67 

1,055 00 

51,118 38 

18,745 26 

4,442 08 

759 42 

361 50 

581 17 

41 00 

546 00 

980 00 

220 00 

566 25 

1,340 51 

1,030 00 

764 67 

14,330 54 

235 13 

26 00 

1,059 22 

560 59 

12,836 74 

1,274 50 

134 50 

109 00 

$575,823 58 



Report of the Water Boahd. 



71 



Amount brought forward ^ 


$575,823 58 


4 Beer Factories . . . . 


243 14 


109 Bakeries . . . . . 


922 91 


1 Boat-house . . . . . 


49 00 


12 Freight-houses . . . . . 


209 17 


5 Gasometers . < . . . 


48 00 


5 Ship-yards .... 


68 33 


2 Dry docks and engines 


50 00 


- 47 Shops and engines . 


2,671 63 


28 Stores and " . . . , 


1,210 75 


15 Factories " 


945 50 


5 Printing " 


317 65 


4 Bakeries '* 


193 50 


5 Ship-yards " 


75 00 


5 Buildings " 


709 00 


1 Mill. 


110 00 


11 Stationary " 


772 22 


96 Hoisting and pile-driving engines 


1,095 50 


17 Armories . . . . . 


275 00 


1,302 Hand-hose 


7,725 00 


14 Fountains 


190 00 


58 Tumbler-washers 


870 00 


57 Water-pressures . . 


285 00 


3 Laundries 


70 00 


1 Commercial College 


26 00 


.1 Laboratory 


50 00 


1 Milk Company 


50 00 


Boston Sc Albany E. R. Co, Grave 


a 


Train 


115 08 


Custom-house 


150 00 


Post Office 


80 00 


Branch Post Offices 


39 00 


Filling Cisterns ., 


28 00 



Amount carried forward^ 



,467 96 



72 



City Document. — No. 55. 



Amount brougJd forward ^ 
2 Steam-dredging Machines 
1 Steam Scow 

1 Ice Company (washing ice) 
Pumping Machine 

78 Steamboats . . . 

1 Lock-up 

Office (City scales) 

Police Court (Adams street) 

Probate building . 

House of Reception 
33 Fire-engines, hose and hook 
houses 
2,606 Fire hydrants 
96 Reservoirs . 

Insurance Brigade 

Fire boat " Wm. Flanders 
369 Public Schools 

City Stables . 

"Washing-carts 

Offal station 

Faneuil Hall 

Public Library 

2 Branch Libraries 
Paving Department 

" " shop and 

Common Sewer Department 



Deer Park . 
Public Urinals 
Street Sprinkling . 
Public Garden 
Drinking-fountains 

Amount brought forward, 



and-ladder 



stable 



Office 



$595,467 


96 


72 


88 


22 


67 


30 


00 


10 


00 


. 13,995 


15 


6 


00 


11 


00 


6 


00 


75 


00 


10 


00 


r 

730 


00 


. 46,908 


00 


. 1,728 


00 


26 


00 


200 


00 


. 3,238 


00 


203 


75 


125 


00 


225 


00 


40 


00 


50 


00 


28 


00 


150 


00 


52 


00 


250 


00 


6 


00 


10 


00 


120 


00 


500 


00 


25 


00 


920 


00 


$665,241 41 



Eeport of the Water Board. 



73 



Amount carried forward, 

Steamer " Henry Morrison " 
Steamer " Samuel Little " 

2 Small-pox Hospitals 

1 Cemetery 

1 Depot . . 

4 Eailroad Stations . 
Building purposes 
Metered Water (9 months) 



,241 41 

200 00 

100 00 

100 00 

5 42 

34 00 

44 50 

10,151 38 

183,559 84 

$859,436 55 



jStatement showing the number and kind of Water Fixtures contained 
within the premises of Water-takers in the City of Boston to Jan- 
uary i, 1874, as compared with previous years. 



1871. 


1872. 


1873. 




6,041 


6,452 


6,768 


Taps. These have no connection with any drain 
sewer. 


or 


58,946 


64,454 


67,089 


Sinks. 




27,856 


30,632 


32,690 


Wash-hand basins. 




9,130 


10,289 


11,580 


Bathing-tuhs. 




13,077 


14,863 


16,222 


Pan water-closets. 




14,104 


14,891 


17,081 


Hopper water-closets. 




241 


278 


248 


" « " pull. 




258 


213 


223 


'» " " self-acting. 




434 


503 


589 


«' " " waste. 




619 


602 


590 


" " " door. 




2,470 


2,755 


2,445 


Urinals. 




10,743 


11,825 


12,779 


Wash-tubs. These are permanently attached 
the building. 


to 


741 


714 


734 


Shower-baths. 




468 


445 


419 


Private hydrants. 




578 


641 


712 


Slop-hoppers. 




79 


96 


112 


Foot-baths. 




145,786 


159,654 


170,281 





10 



74 City Document. — No. 55. 

WATER SUPPLY AND PREVENTION OF WASTE OF WATER. 

The city ordinance for the care and management of 
Cochituate water imposes npon the Registrar, in addition to 
other duties, a constant supervision over its use. 

The sources for a supply of water are in the province and 
power of the City Council, but when provision for this is 
made, its distribution, its remuneration for it under the 
rules, with its economy of use, including the saving of 
waste, paid or unpaid for, is regarded as necessarily within 
the province of this department. The most serious and 
embarrassing of these duties arise from the enormous amount 
of waste water. It is serious from the fact that it threatens 
at no distant day to interfere with the absolute prime 
necessities of this community ; it is enormous from the fact 
that waste shows in figures an amount equal to one third of 
the total supply, and it is embarrassing because efficient and 
adequate means for preventing this waste are withheld from 
the proper department which should deal directly with its 
causes. Other cities have been imperatively compelled to 
deal with this subject, and have effectually reduced this loss 
from waste to a minimum by simple and reasonable meas- 
ures, producing no complaint from consumers, because 
unobjectionable in character, and incurring trifling cost. 

From the nature of the case, the city itself is the party 
who can enforce economy in the use of water, without in the 
least effecting its free and generous use by the citizens for 
domestic purposes, and as a matter of course for sanitary, 
ornamental and all proper requirements. 

The domestic consumer, drawing from twenty-five to fifty 
gallons a person daily, and the larger consumer in any of the 
varied calls for water, heeds not, nor can they be expected 
to heed the fact, that, in the aggregate, one third of the 
supply drawn is positively wasted, not at all necessary, 
but simply a waste, which can be prevented without being 



Eeport of the Water Board. 75 

felt by consumers ; indeed, without the knowledge of any- 
body, and this aggregate is from five to six millions of 
gallons daily. 

This question is not only a matter of profit and loss in 
money, but the question of a short supply of water, a real 
famine in this prime article, enforcing the terrible necessity 
of cutting off its employment in the manifold industries it 
promotes, in order to supply the household. 

The constant reiteration upon this subject for twenty 
years in water reports, it is feared, may have dulled appre- 
hensions ; also it is to be feared that unworthy motives 
among real-estate owners, such as an unwillingness to make 
small renewals and changes in objectionable fixtures, have 
prevented attention to this subject ; be this as it may, this 
department, with its full knowledge and absolute convictions 
of its importance, cannot acquit itself of due responsibility 
without presenting, again and again, the contingency which 
threatens our water supply. 

CAUSES OF WASTE WATER AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES. 

In City Document No. 134, under date of January 7th, 
1874, the Registrar had the honor to report for the depart- 
ment on the "causes of waste, and the changes needed to 
remedy it." In that report, with its titles and statistics, to 
which a reference is now respectfully asked, the permanent, 
serious, and continual causes of the waste of Cochituate 
water were placed under the following heads : — 
r The use of .hopper closets ; the so-called " self-acting clos- 
ets ; " the use of hand hose for the purpose of irrigation ; bad 
plumbing material and bad plumbing work ; and the steady 
run of water, which is suffered in winter, to prevent freezing ; 
much of the waste under this last-named head is chargeable 
to cheap and indifferent plumbing. 

The remedy for these main causes was then urged, and is 



/ 
76 City Document. — No. 55. 

again urged to be solely from additional ordinances, stringent 
in their action, and carefully considered, whereby the Water 
Board shall be enabled by law to so supervise all the means 
of use of Cochituate water that waste shall be the rare excep- 
tion, and not as now the general rule. 

Next to this a revision of the water tariff is urged, together 
with an adjustment of the present inequalities in rates. 

The advantage of meter measurements, so fully illustrated 
in my late report, will enter largely into any proper consid- 
eration of a change in rates. The manifest justice as well as 
essential importance of at once acting upon this subject can- 
not be more forcibly put, than by simply stating that this 
enormous waste of Cochituate water resolves itself, after all, 
into two items, namely, waste owing to design, and waste 
owing to carelessness. 

INSPECTION AND RENEWALS IN LIVERPOOL, WITH RESULTS. 

Since making my report in January, I have been kindly 
furnished by Mr. James P. Kirkwood with a manuscript copy 
of a report (see Appendix) of the Water Engineers of Liver- 
pool, England, on the prevention of waste in water in that 
city. 

It is highly interesting and valuable, because it treats of a 
state of circumstances on this important matter precisely 
analogous to those existing in Boston. That city, unlike this, 
is divided into districts, each of which can be isolated in its 
water service from every other. 

This plan is not feasible with us, but in Liverpool it has 
enabled their Water Board, under suitable legal authoriza- 
tion, to test in single districts, containing a population of 5,000 
and upwards, through remedial agency of close inspection, 
repairs and renewals of all fittings, and also of introducing 
approved ones. 

A system of late-at-night inspection is also organized for 



Eeport of the Water Board. 77 

the purpose of discovering leaks in hou se-pipes and fixtures 
and supply pipes. 

It is stated that the leakage from street pipes, although old 
and needing extensive renewals, bears a very small propor- 
tion to the total waste, which is attributed to exactly the 
same class of causes which occur in Boston. 

It is refreshing to note, in this Liverpool report, the oppor- 
tunity provided by ordinance for thorough examinations for 
waste, and its causes, and its perfect results. Among num- 
bers of cases which are reported, I take one as an example of 
thousands, probably, in Boston, which we are powerless to 
reach. 

The case is this : A house in Great Crosshead street was 
found to be using 46 gallons a day for each person ; the fix- 
tures were inspected, and it was found that a valve in the 
water-closet was out of order, allowing a small and unob- 
served stream to flow ; on this being repaired, the consump- 
tion was reduced to nine gallons a day for each person. 

Under the head of " Test Districts," the Liverpool engineer 
gives a table showing the quantity used per head, under the 
old intermittent system of 8 to 10 hours' daily supply. 
Second, the quantity used when the districts were first 
placed on constant service. Third, the present consumption 
with constant source, after means to prevent waste had been 
instituted. 



78 



City Document. — No. 55. 



No. OF District. 


Population. 


Former inter- 
mittent supply. 


Former con- 
stant supply. 


Present con- 
stant supply. 
Average per 
week. 


1. Henry Edwards st. 


2,184 


18 


35 


6.6 


2, Charters st. ... 


2,285 


Ui 


24 


13.66 


3. Hatton Garden st. 


2,574 


23 


40 


19.19 


4. Bispham et. ... 


1,540 


11^ 


19 


13.37 


5. Cockspur st. . . . 


967 


22^ 


38| 


14.39 


6. Gascoyne st. . . . 


1,534 


18i 


33 


11.46 


7. Plumte st 


2.570 


31 


55 


17.28 


8. Leeds st 


827 


17i 


45 


13.51 


9. Barrastre st. . . . 


1,824 


14i 


26 


10.27 


10. Midghallst. . . . 


1,826 


20^ 


29 


10.77 


H. Burlington st. . • 


5,798 


18^ 


28 


12.85 


12. St. Paul st 


899 


24J 


37 


17.54 


13. Harrison st. ... 


3,399 


m 


33 


12.77 


14. Paulst 


838 


24 


41 


10.74 


Average .... 




19.59 


33.55 


13.32 



The results of these tests in 14 districts of Liverpool was 
a saving, wholly due to inspection, repairs, and renewals, of 
627,251 gallons daily, or 229,000,400 gallons yearly, which, 
estimated at the rate of the cost of water, say nine pence a 
thousand gallons, amounted to £8,587 sterling per annum. 

It must be borne in mind that the above table shows the 
saving in only 14 districts of that city, and including a popu- 
lation of less than 30,000 out of 500,000, the latest popula- 
tion of Liverpool. Now, the analogy is good for Boston, 
and is as conclusive an argument as could be presented in 
favor of a similar course of measures to prevent waste in this 
city. 

It is striking to observe in this valuable report, how the 
various causes of waste, from precisely the same defects, 
etc., etc., are detailed in the same way and manner as have 
been set forth from time to time in our own documents, and, 
of course, the remedies are similar. 



Eeport of the "Water Board. 79 

One remark upon the above table is made by the engineer, 
•which should be especially noted ; he says that the first dis- 
trict, Henry Edwards street, was more thoroughly dealt with 
than any other ; 219 taps were changed, and the result was 
a low and steady rate of consumption. As will be seen in 
the table, 35 gallons a day per head was reduced to a trifle 
over six gallons. 

In conclusion, the engineer says "that the average domes- 
tic consumption of water in Liverpool, under the intermittent 
system, is 24 gallons per head, per day ; and now that in 14 
districts a constant supply is given, since inspection and re- 
newals, etc., etc., the average is reduced to 13 gallons. This 
average does not include water sold by meter measurement 
for trade purposes. 

The close of the report is in these words : " The results have 
been eminently satisfactory ; and there is every indication that, 
as different classes of property are reached, they will become 
more so ; although, until the proposed Parliamentary powers 
are obtained, there must always be a large amount of 
waste." 

We are certainly at liberty to draw from the foregoing, 
that our British brethren are alive to the subject of waste 
water ; that they cannot aflbrd it, and, moreover, that it can 
be prevented. 

Furthermore, so essential has econohiy in the use of water 
become, that powers even beyond those which have produced 
the astonishing saving which has been shown, are now sought 
in Parliament. In view of all this, can we in Boston afford 
further delay, and is it not of pressing consequence that we 
should move at once, and to the point, in the face of a wicked 
waste of water, which imperils so many interests ? 



80 CiTT Document. — No. 55. 



INCEEASING USE FOR WATER AS A MOTIVE POWER, AND 
FOR FIRE PROTECTION. 

Stand-pipes as a means of instantly combating fire by 
the help at hand are getting to be regarded as indispensable 
fixtures in large warehouses and other structures ; and al- 
though they are not to be considered as an additional drain 
upon the supply, yet their efficiency is to the last degree de- 
pendent upon a good pressure in the street mains, and this 
cannot be depended upon in the face of thousands of petty 
wasting flows of water from the mains. 

The introduction of these stand-pipes should be encour- 
aged ; they save insurance, a private gain, but nevertheless 
a public one. Again, in preventing great conflagrations, the 
benefit cannot be estimated. 

Now, one of the strongest encouragements to their general 
use is, that they can be depended upon for instant pressure. 

Next as a motive power in the arts and trade purposes. 

If water can be supplied abundantly, and with certainty, 
it is almost incalculable the advantages which this use will 
promote in the future, and it should be borne in mind 
that the gain in the water revenues must keep pace and be 
commensurate with such increased use. 

The use of water power for elevators is now largely intro- 
duced ; it is more economical, less objectionable and ofien- 
sive in working than steam power, and diminishes greatly 
the risk from fire. 

Inventions now in progress propose still further to en- 
large the capacities of water as a motive power in cities ; 
besides this, the calls for its supply in various sorts of handi- 
craft is constantly increasing. 

This sale of water is and promises to become a large 
source of revenue to the city ; but in fear of any doubt of a 



Eepoet of the Watee Board. 81 

constant supply for these objects, and in the knowledge that 
these interests must sufier on behalf of domestic call, must 
prevent a full development in this direction. 

Boston as a centre of manufactures, representing also a 
large and varied production within her own corporate boun- 
daries, cannot afford to imperil any opportunity from an un- 
pardonable and needless waste of so simple a resource of 
wealth as water. 

It is beyond the province of this report to amplify on this 
topic, but I cannot be unmindful of the great possibilities 
which the sale of water for other than domestic uses more 
and more opens to view, and the manifest prosperity to the 
city suggested thereby. 

HAND-HOSE. 

Extra use of water by hand-hose cannot be depended upon 
the coming season, as must appear from the conditions of our 
supply. 

Siuce the large territorial augmentation of the city, nu- 
merous and extensive gardens have been brought within 
reach of the Cochituate ; also considerable sections of farming 
land, and, as detailed in my report of January 7th, City 
Document 134, hand-hose were used to water acres of gar- 
den and tillage land, at the same rates of charge that the 
down-town citizen paid for washing his sidewalk. This is 
but another inequality of the present water tariff, but hardly . 
more glaring than will be found to exist under common cir- 
cumstances in the use of water. 

CONDITIONS OF THE DEMAND AND OF THE SUPPLY OF 

WATEE. 

The average daily consumption of Cochituate water for 
the past year has been 18,000,000 of gallons daily, a quantity 
equal to the full capacity of the present conduit. If subjected 
11 



82 City Document. — No. 55. 

to pressure, this amount might be increased to 20,000,000 or 
22,000,000 daily ; but it would not be prudent so to do. 

The annual increase of consumption is at the rate of 8 per 
cent. Should mains be laid in the West Roxbury and 
Brighton districts, additional supply must be furnished un- 
less authority is given to stop the present waste, in which 
case, five to six millions of gallons can be spared from exist- 
ing sources. 

The time estimated to realize increased resources of water 
from Sudbury river is four to five years. To the cost of this 
must be added (if this waste is continued) the sum of $500,- 
000 to $1,000,000 for new mains from the Chestnut Hill 
reservoir for distribution in the city. 

In view, then, of the natural increase of the demand for 
water, together with the new uses to which it is being put as 
a. motive power, for stand-pipes and manifold requirements 
in the arts and trades, as before stated, it will not be pru- 
dent for the city to rest content with its present resources for 
water. 

Any extension of water source outside the old districts of 
the city, of course, will demand new resources; but, consid- 
ering the water question as it stands, without regard to any 
extension of service to new districts, that is to say, dealing 
with the city, as it was of old territorially, the natural increas- 
ing demand must be supplied, and it can be so from only 
one of two sources : — 

First : a reinforcement from Sudbury river or elsewhere. 

Secondly : by saving the present waste. 

The necessity of economy, which has above been shown to 
have overtaken the city of Liverpool, must, sooner or later, 
be forced upon Boston ; and as the former city has wisely 
met it efiectually, and at trifling cost, without inconvenience 
to any, so may we, and the department would be derelict of 
duty not to state it. 



Keport of the Water Board. 83 

The fear is that Boston will not begin the practice of an 
economy of waste, which must be inevitable, until vast sums 
of money shall have been spent, loss of trade endured, and 
in other ";vays more or less suffering. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WM. F. DAVIS, 

Water Registi'ar. 



Borough of Liverpoool. 



EEPOET OF THE BOEOUGH AND WATEE ENGINEEE, 

AS TO 

PREVENTION OF WASTE OE WATEE, RESTORATION OE CON- 
STANT SERVICE, AND WASTE WATER-METERS. 



The Engineer has the honor to submit the following state- 
ment of the measures which have been adopted for the pre- 
vention of waste, and the restoration of constant service in 
fourteen districts, selected for experimental purposes. 

The districts in question extend from Byrom St. and Scot- 
land Koad to Hatton Garden, Key St. and Old Hall St., and 
from Dale St. to Burlington St. They comprise 5,403 houses 
and a population of 31,000 persons. 

The first step taken in each district was to attach a meter 
to the main pipe, in order to measure the quantity of water 
used ; reading's of the indexes were and are still taken at 6 
A. M. and 6 p. m. daily, occasionally during the night, and in 
some cases hourly. These readings form a useful and inter- 
esting record of the varying demands upon the water, the 
extent of waste, and the influence of operations for its pre- 
vention. After connecting a meter to a district the condi- 
tions of supply were left unchanged until a fair average had 
been obtained of the consumption under the intermittent sys- 
tem : constant service was then introduced and continued with- 
out interruption for some time ; these preliminary facts hav- 
ing been placed on record, measures for the prevention of 
waste were commenced, and the efiect of each operation upon 
the consumption noted. Waste Water Inspectors were sent 



Report of the Water Board. 85 

to examine carefully and describe in detail all the pipes and 
fittings in every house, and to ascertain the number of inhab- 
itants ; Night Inspectors were employed to examine for exter- 
nal indications of waste, and by sounding stopcocks to dis- 
cover defects in pipes ; the defects reported were vigorously 
followed up, and notices served where repairs devolving upon 
the owners or occupiers were required. In several of the 
streets special examinations of the sewers were made, and 
contributed materially to the detection of leakages. 

The first efforts to diminish waste by external plumbing 
work were made in connection with the fixing of stand-pipes 
in courts, where the taps were inside of the houses ; a meas- 
ure participated in by the Health Committee on sanitary 
grounds. The separate taps were disconnected, the old and 
generally light and defective pipes supplying the taps were 
taken up, and new piping was laid from the mains. In dis- 
tricts such as Henry Edwards st. and Charters st, where 
courts are numerous, the action produced material results ; 
but it was found that branch pipes to trough closets, and to 
front houses adjoining the courts, which had not been inter- 
fered with, were constantly bursting, and it became necessary, 
in order to make the work in the courts effectual, to renew all 
those branches so as to clear away as much as possible of the 
old piping. This course has since been pursued systemati- 
cally wherever stand-pipes have been laid. In districts where 
courts are comparatively few, the alterations in connection 
with the erection of stand-pipes had very little influence in 
reducing the consumption. 

During the progress of these works frequent leakages were 
discovered in the street pipes, both of lead and iron, which, 
throughout the districts were known to be for the most part 
old and shallow ; it was obviously important to place the cor- 
poration pipes in a sound condition, while calling upon own- 
ers and occupiers to repair defects upon private property ; an 
examination was therefore made of all the lead communica- 



86 City Document. — No. 55. 

tion pipes, and where necessary they have been taken up, and 
strong, new pipes laid at a proper depth from the surface, 
while in several streets the iron pipes have been entirely re- 
newed ; at the same time stopcocks have been attached to each 
lead pipe, so that the supply can be controlled from the street, 
and the water at once shut off in the event of a breakage with 
very little inconvenience. 

The renewal of street pipes has merely been the concentra- 
tion at a particular time, and the systematic performance of 
works which must, in any event, have been carried out in a 
short time. 

The following statement shows the length of piping taken 
up and laid in connection with the work already described : — 

Old Pipe New Pipe 

In connection with stand-pipes in courts ^^p^e'^t!^' Feet 

within the 14 districts . . . 39,267 49,384 
In connection with stand-pipes in courts 

outside the 14 districts . . . 10,851 15,041 
In streets, relaying service-pipes . 14,934 16,156 

Total lead pipe .... 65,052 80,581 
The first item includes piping to trough closets and branch- 
es to front houses, referred to above. The defects in the 
pipes taken up were numerous ; their character, and the gen- 
eral condition of the piping, may be judged from the speci- 
mens which have been preserved, and may be seen at the En- 
gineer's office.* 

NIGHT INSPECTIONS. 

Shortly after the fixing of the first district meter, a system 
of night inspections was commenced, and proved to be so 
productive in the discovery of leakages that it has been con- 
tinued until the present time. There are two inspectors en- 

* Full particulars of the cost of these operations were given in the Engi- 
neer's report of 21st Oct., 1873, on the expenditure in connection with the 
erection of stand-pipes, and the prevention of waste water. 



Eepoet of the Water Board. 



87 



gaged upon the night duty, and they report an average of 
15 cases per night. By means of the stopcocks they are en- 
abled to hear even a slight trickling of water from a pipe or 
tap at a considerable distance. One inspector and two labor- 
ers are fully employed in following up and tracing during 
the day the cases thus brought under notice. So far, the 
Night Inspectors have been confined entirely to the test dis- 
tricts. The folio vying is an analysis of the reports received from 
them up to^the 31st ultimo. The nature of the defects is 
given as ascertained by the subsequent day examinations : — 



Cocks . 

Ball cocks 

Water-closets 

Pipes . 

Trough water-closets 

Taps left open 

Stopcocks 

Stand-pipes . 

Hydrants, ferrules, plugs 

Meters . 

Total . 



etc 



345 
103 
223 

465 
56 
85 
65 

100 

61 

4 

1507 



SEWER EXAMINATIONS. 

In four of the districts where considerable waste from the 
street pipes was believed to take place, useful results have 
been obtained by night examinations of the sewers. When the 
ventilation and cleansing of the sewers has been completed, 
systematic and periodical examinations may be made, and 
there is no doubt such a course will lead to the discovery of 
a great deal of waste which now takes place unperceived. 



City Document. — No. 55. 



HOUSE-TO-HOUSE INSPECTION. 



Until recently two inspectors have been employed, with 
the occasional assistance of others, in house-to-house visits 
for the examination of fittings in these districts. Returns 
have been prepared which show the number and character of 
the various kinds of taps and fittings in every house. 
Where slight defects have been met with, the inspectors have 
themselves efiected the necessary repairs, but where the de- 
fects have been of a more serious description the usual no- 
tices have been served on the persons responsible. 

A source of waste deserving of special mention is an arrange- 
ment which is, unfortunately, very common in these districts, 
of flushing water-closets by means of a simple tap, and a pipe 
laid direct from the main or from a supply cistern ; scarcely 
less objectional are cisterns containing only single valves. 
The taps or valves are frequently left open, and large vol- 
umes of water flow to waste. Although the tenants are 
usually careful to close the taps or valves when the inspec- 
tors are near, no fewer than 88 such taps have been found 
open. The course adopted has been to cut ofi" the supply, 
and serve a notice upon the landlord or tenant to provide a 
double- valve cistern of aproved pattern. 



Eepoet of the Watee Board. 



89 



Tlie following Table is a summary of the defects discovered by the 
Waste-Water Inspectors^ in each of the Districts^ from the time of 
fixing the metres until the end of October : — 





JSTOTICES ISSUED FOR DEFECTS. 


Repairs effected bv 


Inspectors. 


Title of 
District. 


Cocks 


Ball 
Cocks 


Wat'r 
Closet 


Pipes. 


Total. 


o 
O 


Ball 
Cocks 


Wat'r 
Closet 




o 


Total. 
Noticed 
and re- 
paired. 


Henry Edward st. 


31 


5 


9 


118 


163 


2 




5 




7 


170 


Charters st. . . . 


55 


12 


25 


95 


187 


8 


3 






11 


198 


Hatton Garden . 


72 


30 


91 


131 


324 


30 


20 


7 


3 


60 


384 


Bispliam st. . . . 


26 




6 


66 


98 


6 


2 


1 


2 


11 


109 


Cockspur St. . . 


47 


30 


64 


126 


267 


45 


10 


11 


5 


71 


338 


Gasooyne st. . . 


82 


8 


30 


63 


183 


9 


4 


5 


1 


19 


202 


Plumbe St. ... 


75 


19 


81 


106 


281 


32 


5 


7 




44 


325 


Leeds st 


25 


3 


16 


41 


85 


6 




1 




7 


92 


Banastre st. . . 


33 


7 


24 


58 


122 


10 


2 


5 


1 


18 


140 


Midghallst. . . . 


33 


4 


30 


46 


103 


21 


1 


1 




23 


135 


Burlington st. 


96 


11 


101 


189 


397 


37 


4 


3 




44 


441 


St. Paul's sq. . . 


43 


20 


12 


30 


105 


4 




2 




6 


111 


Harrison st. . . 


89 


21 


61 


117 


288 


33 


10 


11 


12 


66 


354 


Paul st 


16 




4 


49 


69 


6 


• • 


• • 


2 


8 


77 


Total .... 


713 


5 


555 


1232 


12665 


253 


68 


55 


28 


394 


3,076 



HOUSE METERS. 

In order to ascertain the consumption under various 
circumstances, special meters have been attached to houses 
of different classes, and the results have been tabulated. 
The following instances will illustrate the value of the 
proceeding : — 

A meter was fixed at a house in Great Crosshall street, 
assessed at £25. The consumption was found to be at the 
rate of 46 gallons per head per day. An inspection of the 
fittings was made, and all appeared to be satisfactory, but a 
closer examination resulted in the discovery that the valve 



12 



90 City Document. — No. 55. 

of the water-closet cistern (one of the old form) was out of 
order, and that water was flowing almost noiselessly down 
the overflow pipe into the drain. The leak was stopped ; a 
new cistern obtained, and the consumption reduced to 7|- 
gallons per head per day. 

In Johnson street, at a lodging-house assessed at £10, the 
consumption was found to be very variable, ranging from 
70 to 7 gallons per head per day. This variation and 
excess were attributed to the fact that the water-closet was 
supplied from a common tap, although it was never found to 
be actually open. The landlord was requested to erect a 
proper cistern, did so, and the consumption at once became 
steady at a rate of about 12 gallons per head per day. 

orncE SUPPLIES. 

In connection with this subject reference may be made to 
metres recently attached to three blocks of ofiices, outside of 
the test district, viz., the Queen's Insurance Buildings, 
Walmer Buildinsfs and Brown's Buildings. 

The first readings of the meters showed that water was 
being used at the following rate : — 

Queen's Insurance Buildings, about 80 gallons per head 
per day. Walmer Buildings, about 23 gallons per head per 
day. Brown's Buildings about 32 gallons per head per 
day. 

The undue consumption appears to arise chiefly from the 
urinals and water-closets. On examination the fitti,ngs were 
found to be generally in good order, but of a very wasteful 
character. 

The presence of the inspectors exercised a wholesome in- 
fluence, and the consumption has been considerably reduced, 
but continues to be far more than it ought to be. The 
average extending over 41 days has been, — 
In Queen's Insurance Building, 21| per head per day. 

In Walmer Buildings, 13 " " " " 

In Brown's Buildings, 201 ^t '* *' '^ 



Report of the Water Board. 



91 



It must be remembered that most of the persons included 
in this calculation are only day tenants, and consume water 
at their residences in addition to what is used in their 
offices. 

RESULTS obtained IN TEST DISTRICTS. 

Having given an outline of the measures adopted for the 
prevention of waste, it now remains to show their effect on 
the consumption of water. The following statement gives, — 

1st. The quantity used per head, per day, under the old 
intermitted system of eight to ten hours' daily supply. 

2d. The quantity used when the districts were first placed 
on constant service. 
' 3d. The present consumption with constant service. 

The figures are averages of several. days. 



No. District. 


Population. 


Former inter- 
mittent supply. 


Former • con- 
stant supply. 


Present con- 
stant supply. 
Average for 
■week ending 
iug 17th Nov. 


1. Henry Edward st. 


2,134 


18 


35 


6.6 


2. Charters St. . . . 


2,2S5 


14i 


24 


13.66 


3. Hatton Garden . . 


2,574 


23 


40 


19.19 


4. Bispham st. ... 


1,540 


llj 


19 


13.37 


5. Cockspur st. . . . 


967 


22J 


38J 


14.39 


6. Gascoyne st. . . . 


1,534 


m 


33 


11.46 


7. Plumbe st 


2,570 


31 


55 


17.28 


8. Leeds st 


827 


m 


45 


13.51 


9. Banastre St.. . . . 


1,824 


Ui 


26 


10.27 


10. Midghallst. . . . 


1,826 


20^ 


29 


10.77 


11. Burlington st. . . 


5,798 


18^ 


28 


12.85 


12. St. Paul sq. . . . 


899 


24J 


37 


17.54 


13, Harrison st. . . . 


_ 3,399 


18^ 


33 


12.77 


14. Paulst 


838 


24 


41 


10.74 


Average . . . 




19.59 


33.55 


13.32 



92 City Document. — No. 55. 

The average saving in the districts, as they at present 
stand, is, therefore 

Gallons per head per day. 

From former intermittent service . . . 6.27 

= 194,407 gals, per day, and to 71,000,000 gals, per annum. 

From former constant service . . . .20.23* 

= 627,251 gals, per day, and to 229,000,000 gals, per annum. 

CONDITION OF THE STREET PIPES. 

By closing the stopcocks on the lead service-pipes, and 
preventing all use of water in the district, it is evident that 
any water passing through the meter must be flowing to 
waste under the streets. This test has been applied in 
twelve of the districts, with the results stated below : — 

* The value at 9d. a thousand gals, of water, saved between former inter- 
mittent and present constant service, is £2,662 per annum, and between for- 
mer constant service and present constant service, £8,587 per annum. 



Report of the Water Board. 



93 



District. 



Henry Edward st. 



Charters st. 



Hatton Garden 



Bisphamst 

Cockspur St., reduced district , 
Gascoyne st 



Plumbe St. 
Leeds st. . 



Banastre st. , 
St. Paul's sg. 



half district , 



Harrison st. 
Paul St. . . 



3d February. 
25th April. 
13th February. 
2Sth October. 
2d April. 
29th May. 
7th November. 



17th June. 

28th October. 

14th October. 
16th April. 
14th October. 
2d July. 
11th June. 
28th October. 
27th August. 
17th June. 



Stopcocks shut 
and Taps tied. 

Lowest reading 
Rate per hour. 

Gallons. 



1,140 

750 

411 

22 

Meter stopped. 

240 



Rate per 

head per 

day. 



2.0 

.9 

2.7 

5.0 

12.5 

7.0 

3.83 

0.34 

All tight. 

3.75 



Experim en ts repeated, but 
interrupted, and results 
not satisfactory. 



405 
146 

55 

96 
340 

48 
360 

42 



3.8 

4.35 

1.6 

L26 

9.0 

2.3 

2.5 

1.2 



NIGHT READINGS. 

Readings of the meters are taken by the night inspectors 
in the districts where they are engaged, and give excellent 
indications of the extent of waste by showing what quantity 
of water is being used at a time when cisterns ought to be 
full and the inhabitants at rest. Subjoined is a statement of 
readings at various dates : — 



94 



City Document. — No. 55. 



Water passing through the District Meters between the hours of 
1 and 4 o'clock, A. M. 





Former 
Night Readings. 


Lowest 
Night Readings. 


Latest 
Night Readings. 

(Special.) 


District. 


Date. 


Rate 
per head 
per day. 

Gallons. 


Date. 


Rate 
per head 
per day. 

Gallons. 


Date. 


Rate 
per head 
per day. 

Gallons. 


1. Henry Edward St. 


February 


23.0 


July 


0.75 


Oct. 27 


2.7 


2. Charters st. . . 


" 


18.0 




. . . 


" 25 


8.6 


3. Hatton Garden . 


April 3 


28.0 


July 5 


11.0 


" 29 


10.0 


4. Bispham st. . . . 


May 16 


17.2 


" 26 


4.5 


" 27 


6.7 


5. Cockspur st. . . 


June 2 


.23.7 


Aug. 25 


4.0 


" 23 


7.1 


6. Gascoynest. . . 


" 14 


21.7 


July 8 


3.0 


Nov. 25 


7.5 


7. Plumbe st. ... 


May 13 


20.0 


Oct. 22 


10.3 


" 20 


7.0 


8. Leeds st 


June 27 


11.6 


Aug. 1 


3.4 


Oct. 28 


5.2 


9. Banastre st. . . 


" 17 


10.5 


July 4 


3.1 


«' 27 


5.2 


10. Midghall st. . . . 


July 7 


4.0 


Oct. 16 


4.7 


Nov. 26 


2.8 


11. Burlington st. . . 


" 16 


18.2 


" 10 


5.96 


Oct. 10 


5.9 


12. St. Paul's sq. . . 


June 20 


18.7 


Aug. 15 


11.0 


Nov. 19 


10.7 


13. Harrison st. . , . 


" 18 


14.5 


Sept. 11 


3.3 


" 25 


5.8 


14. Paul st 


May 21 


17.1 


" 10 


2.9 


Oct. 28 


3.7 



The " rate per head per day " shows what the consumption 
would be in 24 hours, assuming it to continue at the same 
rate as when the observations were made. 



PRINCIPAL SOURCES OF WASTE. 

The several operations described have afforded valuable 
evidence of the causes of waste, and the most effectual means 
of preventing it. From the daily records which have been 
kept of the consumption, the results obtained under various 
conditions and circumstances can be compared, and any in- 
crease or decrease in the quantity used during the day or 



Eeport of the Water Board. 95 

night may be immediately seen. It has been found that the 
leakages from street pipes bear only a small proportion to 
the total waste. Although many of the distributing mains 
are very old, worn and corroded, and break at the least dis- 
turbance, the number of actual defects discovered in them 
has been few. 

The chief sources of waste have proved to be private pipes 
and 'fittings. Nearly all the private piping hitherto exam- 
ined has been found too light for the ordinary pressure, and 
often in a very bad condition. Unskilful attempts have 
been made to repair defects, while joints of imperfect and 
unsound character, cisterns and taps of faulty construction, 
and water-closets without proper regulating apparatus, have 
been very general. After the alterations that have been 
made in compliance with waste- water notices, there are still 
in these 14 districts 852 water-closets, and about 2,000 taps 
which are contrary to the present regulations. There are 
275 water-closets supplied by common taps, 239 water- 
closets supplied by single valves, and 338 by old regulating 
cisterns. The corporation have at present no power to 
order the removal of such objectionable fittings except when 
they are seen to be actually wasting water. In such cases, 
care is taken that the regulations are strictly complied with. 

By vigilant inspection a greaj; deal has been done in this 
direction, and it is mainly to these eflibrts that the reduction 
in consumption is due. In the districts where the greatest 
number of alterations in private pipes and fittings have been 
made, the minimum consumption has been reached. Henry 
Edward street district has been more thoroughly dealt with 
than any others. 219 taps have been taken out of the cellars 
of courts and adjoining front houses in favor of self-closing 
stand-pipes. The result is that the consumption is very low 
and very steady. For the past three months the average 
daily quality used has been at the rate of 8.47 gallons per 
head, and for the last month the average consumption has 



96 City Document. — No. 55. 

been 6| gallons per head per day. As a contrast to Henry 
Edward street, the district known as Plumbe street shows 
the increased difficulty of overcoming waste where the same 
sweeping changes cannot be made. The courts being much 
fewer, the proportion of renewals effected by the Corporation 
men on private property has been correspondingly smaller. 
The number of objectionable, water-closets here, is 139. 

It is also to be observed that, in districts containing 
houses of a better class, and where there are many business 
premises, as in Plumbe street, and Hatton Garden, the con- 
sumption is invariably higher than in a low-class district. A 
considerable quantity of water is used for trade purposes and 
for horses, which is included in the consumption per head 
given in the table, and must be allowed for when a compar- 
ison is made. 

The stand-pipes do not of themselves appear to have had 
much influence in diminishing waste. In a district (Paul 
street) where the courts were supplied by means of common 
taps, the average consumption was about the same as in dis- 
tricts where stand-pipes had been erected. The Paul-street 
district has, within the last month, been similarly treated, 
and no marked change in the consumption produced, except- 
ing that the variations from day to day are less, which is 
doubtless owing to the stand-pipe being self-closing, and the 
waste consequent on a tap being occasionally left open 
stopped. 

WASTE-WATElJ METERS. 

About eighteen months ago a plan was prepared, showing 
the division of the Borough of Liverpool into 300 districts, 
the whole of the water fittings in each of which were com- 
manded by a single service-main. 

It was at that time suggested, that if the water in each such 
main were caused to pass through a meter, the various steps 
for the systematic reduction of waste might be proceeded 



Keport of the Water Board. 97 

with m the most economical and efficient manner. It was 
believed that when once the districts had been reduced to a 
proper rate of consumption, that rate could without difficulty 
be maintained by systematic reading of the meters, and by 
sending into the districts in which the consumption had un- 
duly risen, the Waste-Water Inspectors, who formerly spent 
their time equally on good and bad grounds. The cost of 
the meters would, however, have been very great ; and the 
actual saving capable of being effected by them was not at 
that time understood. 

It was, therefore, decided to try the experiment at first 
with 14 districts. 

The value of the results has far sui-passed the most san- 
guine expectations, as the figures already quoted show ; and 
it may be safely stated that such results could not have been 
obtained without the meters. 

The great cost of the ordinary piston meters, and the fact 
that, although they register the total quantities between any 
two observations, they do not register the quantities passing 
through the mains at any required time when an observation 
is not being made, induced the engineer to give his attention 
to the design of a meter which could be constructed at a 
small cost, and which would fulfil the special objects of a 
waste-water meter. 

The four-inch meter designed for this purpose has the fol- 
lowing properties : — 

1. It can be constructed for less than one-fifth the price 
of the piston meters at present in use. 

2. It can be fixed, including the cover, for less than one 
seventh the cost of chambers and fixing for tlie ordinary 
meter. 

3. It is absolutely self-registering ; that is, it registers on 
a diagram the quantity of water flowing through the main at 
every moment, instead of the total quantity between any two 
observations. The minimum night reading is such, a dia- 
ls 



98 City Document. — No. 55. 

gram is especially useful, as it indicates almost exactly the 
quantity of waste. Such information can only be obtained 
from an ordinary meter — and then but indifferently — by 
watching and counting the strokes during the night. 

4. It distinguishes the variable waste due to taps and 
other water-fittings left running from the comparatively con- 
stant waste due to leaks in pipes. 

5. A single diagram may be taken for any required length 
of time up to seven days, and when applied to a district of 
1,000 to 2,000 persons, it indicates distinctly the closing and 
opening of every separate tap. It is, moreover, equally sen- 
sitive at high and low velocities. 

6. It may be safely stated that its accuracy is much less 
liable to change than that of a meter constructed on the prin- 
ciple of direct quantitative measurements, because it depends 
chiefly upon the accuracy of the dimensions of certain fixed 
parts, and not upon the maintenance of the accuracy of the 
oints of moving parts, or upon the condition of cup-leathers, 
or other packing, as is usually the case. 

7. The meter does not present the usual and objectionable 
obstruction to the motion of the water, the reduction of pres- 
sure probably never exceeding four or five ounces per square 
inch. 

ADDITIONAL DISTRICTS UNDER TEST. 

Two districts have been commanded by waste-water 
meters for a sufficient time to show the value of their indica- 
tions in practice. One of these includes the greater part of 
the Exchange Buildings, Hackings Hey, Williams street. 
Tempest Hey, and Tithebarn street, between Moorfields and 
Exchange street. The district consists principally of offices, 
and contains a population of 263 residents, and 1,110 non-res- 
idents, who consume water elsewhere. Total, 1,373. 

The diagram being left on for three days before any inti- 



Eeport of the Water Board. 99 

mation had been given to the consumers gave the foUowhig 
results : — 



Oct. 4th and 5th, 
" 5th and 6th, 
" 7th and Sth, 


Gallons per head per 
day (Constant service.) 

58.4 
59.5 
59.7 

59 


Average rate during the 
night. 

50.4 

62.44 

50 


Average, 


50.95 



After the census of the district had been taken, and some 
superficial repairs made, the day reading came down to 26, 
and the night reading to 15 gals, per head. It is not for a 
moment to be supposed that this great change was brought 
about by the few repairs made ; on the contrary, there is every 
reason to believe that it was due chiefly to the greater care 
exercised by keepers and others in closing taps at night, after 
the visits of the Waste- Water Inspectors. Indeed, the de- 
tails of the diagrams confirm this view. The saving in this 
case would probably not continue long, unless regulating 
cisterns were substituted for the present apparatus. 

OPERATIONS OUTSIDE THE TEST DISTRICTS. 

When the re-piping work had been completed in the 14 
districts mentioned, it was necessary, in order to avoid break- 
ing up the staff, to employ the men in a similar manner in 
districts unprovided with meters. This course is by no 
means satisfactory, as the result of the operation cannot be 
tested. The Engineer, therefore, strongly recommends that 
meters be applied at once to a suflicient number more of the 
service mains to avoid going over the grounds twice. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

The average domestic consumption of water in Liverpool 
under the intermittent system is about 24 gals, per head per 
day.* In the first 14 districts of low-class property that 

* This includes all water used from the service mains, except that sold by 
meter measurement for trade purposes. • 



100 City Document. — No. 55. 

average was 19.59, and yet constant supply has been given, 
and the consumption reduced to 13.32, or more than ten 
below the o:eneral averasre. 

On the other hand the tests on office property have shown that 
the consumption is much above the average, notwithstanding 
the fact that more than three-fourths of the people use water 
elsewhere. In the Exchange district already mentioned, the 
average intermittent consumption was about 6 gallons above 
the general average, and was easily converted to constant 
service, and reduced to only one above that average. 

Isolated meter tests, conducted in districts containing a 
better class of dwelling-houses, have indicated that the 
consumption is equal to about the general average, and this 
might reasonably be expected from the averages in the two 
first classes. 

Hitherto, then, the results have been eminently satisfactory, 
and there is every indication that as difterent classes of prop- 
erty are reached, they will become even more so, although, 
until the proposed Parliamentary powers are obtained, there 
must always be a very large amount of waste, and a great 
expenditure in only partially successful efforts to keep it 
down. 

(Signed) GEORGE F. DEACON, 

Borough and Water Engineer, 

Water Ekgineer's Department. 
November 11, 1873. 



Keport of the Water Board. 101 

WATER SUPPLY. 



WASTE AND CONSTANT SERVICE. 

The following paper was read by Mr. Deacon, Liverpool 
Boroueh Engineer, to the Lancashire and Cheshire Com- 
mittee of the Association of Municipal and Sanitary 
Engineers, in the Council Chamber, on the 3d instant : — 

In the following paper I propose to state, first, what appear 
to me to be the inducements to undertake systematically the 
prevention of waste, next, my experience as to the working 
of the district waste-water meter system, and I will begin 
by submitting to you the three following propositions, which 
have failed in gaining universal acceptance, owing princi- 
pally, as I believe, to the superficial manner in which the 
subject has been considered : — 

Proposition 1. The prevention of waste of water, or, in 
other words, the conservation of all water not actually 
required for domestic or manufacturing purposes is, or may 
be, accompanied by vast sanitary benefits arising from the 
more efficient action of existing drains, as well as from the 
dryness of the sub-soil of dwellings. 

Proposition 2. The prevention of waste by the system 
hereafter described is practicable, and, apart from all 
sanitary considerations, it is by far the most economical 
mode that can be resorted to for increasing the available 
water supply, while it will always diminish the working 
expenses in cases of supply by pumping from wells. 

Corollary. — Towns and districts at present supplied on 
the intermittent system, when the total supply is more than 
sufficient to meet the necessities of the people, which is the 
case when more than ten to fifteen gallons per head per day 
are taken for domestic purposes, may obtain constant supply, 



102 City Document. — No. 55. 

accompanied by a surplus of water or by corresponding 
reduction in the working expenses of the supply. 

With respect to the first proposition, that the prevention 
of waste is or may be accompanied by vast sanitary benefits, 
arising from the more efficient action of existing drains, as 
well as from the dryness of the subsoil of dwellings, I 
would call attention to the very prevalent notion that a town 
cannot have too much water, and that all the water which 
can be passed into the mains should, if possible, be given to 
it, as it is conducive to cleanliness, and as the sewers require 
it. The prevention of waste is assumed to be equivalent to 
stinting the supply, when in reality it may have the contrary 
effect. Take the common case of a town demanding twenty- 
five gallons per head per day for domestic purposes. Now, 
ten gallons per head per day is probably the maximum 
quantity actually used for such purposes. Of the remaining 
fifteen gallons a large proportion is lost by defective fittings 
and misuse, and flows down a few isolated drains to the 
sewers. But the maximum waste due to this cause consid- 
erably exceeds the average, and it exists where the pressure 
on the mains is greatest, viz., in the lower parts of the town, 
so that the greater part of such waste water enters the 
sewers near their outfalls, where it is useless ; while at their 
upper ends, where water is most required, the supply to the 
sewers from this cause is trifling. Among the sewers of a 
town many are, or ought to be, permanently se!f-cleansing, 
and without entering upon the consideration of the various 
circumstances which conduce to so desirable a condition, I 
may say that all sewers which are not self-cleansing, with 
the reasons why they are not self-cleansing, should be 
systematically tabulated, and if want of water be the cause, 
— which is certainly not always, and, I think, not usually 
so, — the cure is very simple when you have a surplus of 
water, formerly wasted, to use for this most beneficial 
purpose. 



Eeport of the Water Board. 103 

Imagine the influence on a single system of sewers, if only 
a quarter of a gallon per head per day of the population 
whose drains fall into it were used for flushing that system. 

I will give, as an example, a single existing case, and in 
most towns there are many cases more striking. The sewer 
system to which 1 refer carries away the refuse of 52,000 
persons. There are in it about 250 dead ends of branch 
se\rers, of which probably 100 require artificial flushing to 
keep them absolutely free from deposit. A quarter of a 
gallon per head per day will give 4,000 gallons for each of 
tliose sewer ends every month, a quantity which — whether 
flushing direct from the mains, or the tank system, which is 
by far the best, be adopted — is more than ought ever to be 
used. It would in short fill a 3-foot by 1 foot 10 inch sewer 
to the crown for 145 feet of its length. 

But the private drains also require flushing. It is certain 
that the dribble of waste water will never flush them ; the 
small pipes of ordinary water-closets kept running all night 
will never do it ; but the regulating cistern, delivering its 
two gallons through a l|-inch pipe, will do it most effectually, 
and that cistern will help you greatly in your work. 

Of course there are other private drains, but the dribble 
of waste water, if it exists, is no advantage to them. 

I have spoken of the proportion of the lost 15 gallons due 
to defective fittings and misuse, and I now come to the 
remainder of that quantity which leaks from innumerable 
defects in public and private service pipes. This water 
sinks into the subsoil ; it renders healthy soils unhealthy ; it 
makes the houses damp, and certainly militates against the 
cleanliness of the lower orders ; but its influence for harm 
does not end here ; part of it reaches the sewers, and even 
though it may get into them it can only do so by damaging 
the brick-work and mortar. The second proposition and its 
corollary is to the effect that the prevention of waste by the 
system hereafter described is practicable, and that it is, apart 



104 CiTr Document. — No. 55. 

from all sanitary considerations, by far the most economical 
mode that can be resorted to for increasing available water 
supply, while it will always diminish the working expenses 
in case of supply by pumping from wells ; while towns and 
districts at present supplied on the intermittent system, 
when the total supply is more than sufficient to meet the 
necessities of the people, which is the case when more than 
ten to fifteen gallons per head per day is taken for domestic 
purposes, may obtain constant supply, accompanied by a 
surplus of water, or by a corresponding reduction in the 
working expenses of the supply. I think I may satisfy you 
as to the truth of this statement by giving an example of the 
cost of the work in a district of Liverpool where the con- 
sumption was 20 per cent, below the average before the 
prevention of waste under the new system was commenced, 
and the pipes in which, being very old, required in a great 
number of instances to be entirely renewed. Add to this 
the fact that the corporation relaid at their own cost all 
defective private service pipes not within the dwellings, and 
you can understand that I have good grounds for saying 
that while the saving was a minimum, the cost was a maxi- 
mum. The district in question contains 31,000 persons; 
the saving of water between former constant and present 
constant supply was 21.38 gallons per head per day, and 
between former intermittent and present constant 7.42 
gallons per head per day ; and the saving of water between 
former and present constant service was obtained at a cost to 
the corporation of less than a farthing per 1,000 gallons. 
In districts containing a better class of property the saving 
is often greater while the work to be performed in obtaining 
that saving is far less. When we consider this in connec- 
tion with the fact that water obtained from new works 
usually costs 5d. or 6d. per 1,000 gallons, we must admit 
the last proposition as an established fact. 

The inducements to undertake systematically the preven- 



Report of the Water Board. 105 

tion of waste have been laid before you in what appear to 
me their most striking aspects ; but to those who have taken 
up the subject in practice many other important features, 
which I am unable to consider in a short paper, suggest 
themselves. I will, therefore, at once describe to you the 
method by which the prevention of waste and restoration of 
constant service is being rapidly carried on in Liverpool. 

I believe a suggestion to place meters upon water mains 
has been made in former times ; but it remained for 
Mr. J. H. Wilson, the chairman of the Liverpool Water 
Committee, to propose the systematic adoption of the plan, 
and to see it carried out with the most complete success, and 
with results far surpassing anything that could be antici- 
pated. 

The system I now practise, and the reasons for it, may be 
better explained if I premise that the piston meters at first 
used, and which were placed upon the 3 and 4 inch service 
mains, indicated the necessity for obtaining not merely the 
total consumption for the twenty-four hours, but the mini- 
mum consumption during the night, and, if possible, the 
consumption at short intervals during the whole twenty-four 
hours. It is evident that such results could only be obtained 
from the ordinary meters by constantly watching and even 
counting the strokes. A short experience of the system, 
notwithstanding its great success, showed the enormous 
advantages which would accrue from the use of a meter so 
arranged as to draw a diagram representing graphically the 
exacc quantity of water flowing through any main at every 
instant during the twenty-four hours. The great cost and 
wear and tear of all meters which I have tried was an 
additional incentive in my endeavors to produce such an 
instrument. 

The best form of the waste-water meter may be described 
as follows : — 

It consists essentially of a vertical tube lined with brass, 



106 City Document. — No. 55. 

and equal in diameter at the upper end, where it is connected 
with the inlet from the main to the diameter of that main, 
but larger at its lower end. In the tube is a horizontal disc 
of the same diameter as the main, with a vertical spindle on 
the centre of its upper face, from the end of which the disc 
is hung by a fine wire passing out at the top of the tube 
through a brass gland ; this wire is connected above with a 
counter balance weight which, when the water is at rest, 
retains the disc at the top of the tube, which it completely 
fills. 

It is obvious, then, that if water is caused to flow through 
the instrument, the disc will find somewhere in the tube a 
position which it will retain until the velocity of the water 
changes. The lower end of the conical tube being about 
double the area of the main, no obstruction to the flow can 
take place, such as must necessarily be the case in all piston 
meters, while the motion for any given increment of velocity 
near the top, or place of minimum flow, can be made equal 
to or even greater than that due to an equal increment at the 
bottom or point of maximum flow, so that its senitiveness it 
not diminished at low velocities, — a feature which is unat- 
tainable in any meters constructed on the turbine or 
analogous principles. 

In order to insure the absence of any friction sufficiently 
great to prevent the disc and wire from reaching the exact 
point at which they would stand if perfectly free during the 
continuance of each particular velocity, I found it desirable 
to abandon the use of a stuffing-box, properly so called, and 
to substitute a single brass gland, the hole in which fits the 
wire accurately, but not tightly. This wire, being an alloy 
of iridium and platinum, maintains its condition for any 
length of time, and the small quantity of water which oozes 
past it is allowed to drain away. 

The absolute accuracy and freedom with which the meter 
acts has been proved by the strictest tests. The vertical 



Eeport of the Water Board. 107 

motions of the wire are reg'istered by a pencil connected with 
it, on a drum revolving once in 24 hours, the paper on which 
can easily be removed at any time and replaced by a sheet 
with horizontal lines, each of which corresponds with the 
height at which the pencil stands when the number of gallons 
per hour marked upon the line is equal to the quantity pass- 
ing through the meter. The essential peculiarity, then, of the 
waste-water meter is that it registers on paper the exact 
quantity of water passing at every instant, and the exact 
time and rate at which that quantity changes. The meter is 
fixed close to the curb, just beneath the foot-path. A single 
length of the main is removed, and a loop formed to it by 
two double elbow pipes. Access to the drum and clock is 
easily obtained by simply lifting the parapet cover and 
opening the inner lid. 

I will now, as shortly as possible, describe the process of 
detecting the various kinds of waste, and the system to be 
ultimately adopted in order to prevent its recurrence : — 

A district (of about 1,300 persons) supplied by a 3 or 4- 
inch main having been chosen, a waste-water meter is placed 
upon that main, and diagrams are taken for a few days before 
the condition of the supply is disturbed. If stopcocks out'- 
side all premises do not exist, they are at once fixed under 
the footway on every service-pipe ; and at the same time a 
day inspector calls at each tenement and fills up a suitable 
form ; besides giving much information with respect to the 
fittings the forms afibrd, in connection with the diagrams 
already taken, the means of tabulating the normal condition 
of the supply, as in the three first lines of the following 
form : — 

Example of form used to record information contained on waste- 
meter diagram. 

Street. District No 

Population. — Day Occupants 263 

Day and Night Occupants .... 1,110 

Total 1,373 



108 



City Document. — No. 55. 







Rate of Consumption in Gals, per 


Head pek 




Total 




Day. 






Consumption 

for the 24 hrs. 

IN Gals. 










Date. 


Average for 
the 24 brs. 


Lowest 

point 
reached. 


Time of reach- 
ing lowest 
point. 


Average 
from 1 to 5 

A. M. 


* Octo. 4-5, 1873, 


80,183.2 


58.4 


27 


8 A.M. 


50.4 


t 5-6, " 


81,693.5 


59.5 


39 


7 " 


52.44 


t 7-8, " 


81,418.9 


59.7 


44.5 


7 " 


50.0 


t 10-11, " 


69,479.3 


54.1 


33.2 


9 '« 


49.0 


§ 29-30, " 


35,698.0 


26.0 


15.0 


6-30 " 


21.0 


II Dec. 10-11, " 


28,252.0 


20.5 


f 12.7 
(12.2 


9-45 P.M. J 
5 A. M. ) 


15.0 



* Saturday afternoon and Sunday morning, 
t Normal condition of district. 

X Taking census, inspecting and making sundry small repairs. 
§ Fixing stopcocks. 
II Stopcocks fixed. 

Note. — The figures are those of an office district in Liv- 
erpool, in connection with which the operations for the pre- 
vention of waste are incomplete, the next step being to serve 
general notice and proceed with the detail examination. 

In this form the 3d, 4th, 5th and 6th columns contain in- 
formation peculiar to the waste-water metre of the greatest 
value. The result of deducting any one of the ligures in 
the fourth column from the corresponding one in the 3d is 
generally found to be about equal to the actual quantity of 
water used. Thus, from the 4th to the 5th of October, nine 
gallons per head per day was about the actual quantity used, 
while fifty gallons per head jDer day was about the waste from 
all sources. The figures in the fourth column, being the 
lowest rates of consumption, are reached at times when the 
intermittent waste due to carelessness is accidentally at its 
minimum, and the constant waste due to leakages in the 
pipes is nearly equal to these figures ; when it appears that 
they are quite or nearly reached more than once on the same 



Eepoet of the "Watee Board. 109 

diagram, as happened on the 11th of December, where the 
constant waste is shown to be about twelve gallons per head 
per day. The use of column four in the detection of waste is 
further shown by the following table, the figures in which are 
those which actually occurred in the district : — 

Night readings of Meters bettveen 1 and 4 A.M.^ at various dates, 
in No. 1 District. 

January 22, 1873, 30.0 gallons per head per day. 
April 19, " 9.4 " " " 

June 27, " .74 " " " 

The moral influence of the Waste- Water Inspectors' pres- 
ence in briuo-ina: down the fissures in column four to those in 
column five is sometimes very curious. By referring to the 
actual diagrams, it will be seen that figures in column four 
are only maintained for very short periods, often only a few 
seconds. 

After stopcocks have been fixed, it is desirable to issue 
official notices to all tenants and owners of property in the 
district under test, embodying the full powers of the corpora- 
tion or company with respect to fittings, and explaining the 
steps which will be taken upon the discovery of the waste 
of water within any premises. 

At this stage the work of discovery is commenced in 
earnest. At twelve, on the first fine night, a Waste- Water In- 
spector sounds each stopcock, partly closing it, if necessary, 
in order to contract the passage and increase the noise. If 
the inmates have retired, and a flow of water is heard, the 
stopcock is closed, its number and the time being accurately 
noted. At the same instant the metre registers the reduction 
in the flow of water, and the time at which it takes place. It 
is sometimes found desirable to arouse the inmates and enter 
the house, in order to obtain the necessary evidence of waste, 
especially when the running of water from taps is heard. In 
other cases the house is visited by the inspector early on the 



110 



City Document. — No. 55. 



following morning, and, if while he is within, another inspec- 
tor outside turns on. the stopcock, there is generally no diffi- 
culty in detecting the source of waste at once. If, however, 
the waste is not superficial, sounding with the teeth at the 
taps and other fittings will generallj'^ discover a leak in the 
buried pipes. 

Each source of internal waste having been discovered by 
these means, the greatest care must be exercised by the in- 
spectors to ensure its remedy in the best possible manner. 

In most districts the whole of the stopcocks may be sounded 
6y one inspector in a single night; but a large number of 
such night inspections, followed by day inspections and re- 
pairs, are always necessary before the internal waste is nearly 
removed. A test for the condition of pipes is conducted as 
follows, and generally with most valuable results : — 

Any convenient section, say One-fourth of the district, is 
isolated from the remainder by a valve, and commanded by 
the metre. In this sub-district all the fittings are closed and 
tied with string, a number of men being employed for the 
purpose, and each having several houses to watch. The stop- 
cocks are then closed one by one, the time being noted, waste 
in the pipes of any premises is thus discovered and measured. 
The following statement shows the various classes of defects 
in fourteen waste-water districts in Liverpool, containing an 
aggregate of 3,000 persons : — 





Notices Issued for Defects. 


Simple Repairs 


BY Inspectors. 








. 










. 






Ji 






j^ 


o 








M 








•j^ -^ 








O 










o 






'^t 




03 


O 




• 


1 . 


tn 


O 




CO 


* 


~t 




























O 

o 




P 


ft 


o 
^1 


o 
O 








o 




Total for 14 ) 
Districts. ( . . 


713 


5 


655 


1,232 


2,665 


253 


58 


55 


28 


394 


3,076 





Eeport of the Water Board. Ill 

Tests for lealjs in public pipes are conducted as follows : 
The condition of the main and branches to the stopcocks may 
be ascertained by closing those stopcocks entirely when any 
flow must be due to leakage. By sounding closed stopcocks, 
and all other exposed meter work connected with the pipes, 
that leakage may often be localized. An internal examina- 
tion of the neighboring sewer on a dry night may lead to 
many important discoveries, especially if large isolated leak- 
ages exist. . 

If, however, the pipes are old, and the metre indicates a 
considerable flow, it is well worth while to strip them en- 
tirely, having at hand new pipes with which to replace the 
old ones, iif thought desirable. 

It only remains for me to point out the means by which I 
propose to maintain the condition of comparative freedom 
from waste in those districts in which a fair normal consump- 
tion has been attained. Taking, for example, a town of the 
size of the borough of Liverpool, containing 500,000 persons, 
there will be about 300 waste-water districts and 300 waste- 
water meters. Unless the consumption of a district has sud- 
denly become abnormal, it is not objectionable to leave each 
diagram on for a week, and to allow the seven diagrams to 
be superimposed upon each other. Each day fifty diagrams 
will be removed and replaced by blank sheets and brought to 
the office. 

The work can easily be performed by two meter inspectors 
and two boys, with the reserve of one inspector and one boy, 
who, in addition, will wind up the clock and do any other 
necessary work-in connection with the meters. 

Any district, the consumption in which the diagrams 
brought in shows to have increased unduly, will be excluded 
from the general, and omitted by the ordinary meter inspec- 
tor. Two or three special inspectors will at once be sent 
into it, and there is no doubt that a few days' work, or even 



112 City Document. — No. 55. 

less, will generally bring it back to its normal condition. 
The advantage of such a system is manifest. 

Without it, waste-water inspectors discover only super- 
ficial defects, and spend their time equally on good and bad 
ground ; but the best evidence of its value is the unprece- 
dented success which is attending its adoption in Liverpool. 

I do not now propose to speak of what I really think we 
shall be able to do here, but the result up to the present time 
is, that out of a population within the borough of about 500,- 
000 persons with eight to ten hours' supply, and without the 
borough of about 125,000 persons with constant supply, 
taking each case about 24 gallons a head (excluding only 
water used for trade purposes), we commenced work in a 
district within the borough of 31,000 persons, who were tak- 
ing only 191 gallons a head in the eight or ten hours, and 
33^ gallons per head per day when on constant service, and 
that we have given and continued the constant service, and 
reduced the consumption to 12.17 gallons per head per day, 
which is maintained without the slightest difficulty. 



EEPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF EASTERN DIVISION. 



Boston, May 1st, 1874. 
John A. Haven, Esq., 

President of the Cochiluate Wetter Board: — 

Sir, — Following is my report for the year ending with 
April 30th, which I respectfully submit. 

The whole length of main pipe laid during the year is 
twenty-four and one-half miles ; the tables beyond show the 
sizes and localities. The number of service pipes put in is 
1,678, length, 47,171 feet. 

The relaying of mains of enlarged sizes, with Lowry hy- 
drants connected throughout the burnt district, is just com- 
pleted. 

The foUowins: table shows the chano;es in the sizes : — 



Summer 


street 


Size Now. 

12 inch. 


Size Formerly 

6 inch. 


Federal 


(( 


... 12 " 


6 " 


Congress 


<< 


8 and 6 " 


6 " 


Washington " 


8 " 


6 " 


Hawley 




8 " 


6 " 


Arch 




8 " 


G " 


Devonshir 


e " 


8 " 


6 " 


High 




. . 8 " 


6 " 


Purchase 




. 8 " 


6 " 


Franklin 




12 " 


6 " 


Kilby 

Grid ley *' 

Federal court 


8 " 
6 " 
6 " 


6 " 
4 " 
4 " 


Milton place 


6 " 


4 " 



15 



Size Now. 


Size 


Formerly 


6 


inch. 


4 inch. 


12 









G and 8 




4 




12 




6 




6 




4 




8 




6 





114 City Document. — No. 55. 



Sullivan place 
Matthews street 
Leather square 
Water street 
Hawes " 

Otis " 



NEW BUENT DISTRICT. 

Size JSTow. Size Formerly. 

Washington street, from Bedford to Essex, 12 in. 6 in. 
Essex street, from Washington to Oxford, 8 " 6 " 

Work was commenced early in the month of March of 
this year, laying main pipes of larger sizes, and locating 
h^'drants of the Lowry pattern at suitable distances (not 
over 250 feet apart), for the better supply for fire purposes, 
and thus far has been prosecuted as vigorously as the 
weather would admit, and will be through the entire sea- 
son. 

The new line of pipe which the Board ordered to be laid 
from the 24-inch main on Heath street to Beacon Hill and 
Telegraph Hill, South Boston, was commenced last year by 
laying a 16-inch main on the Common from opposite Mason 
street to Mount Vernon street, and I have just completed 
the remainder to the connection at Berkeley street of the 
12-inch line to Telegraph Hill. This 12-inch line is also 
completed, beginning at Columbus avenue, and running 
thnnigh Berkeley, Dover, Fourth, Fitth, Old Harbor, and 
Thomas streets to the connection opposite the reservoir, with 
the high-service pipes already laid, making this line ready 
for use, with the exception of a short piece on Dover-street 
bridge, which I am waiting for suitable weather to complete. 
The syphon for this line under the draw of the bridge was 
successfully built and lowered last December, by Boyutou 
Bros, and Freeman. 



Keport of the Water Board. 115 

By the sectioning off the high-service portion of South 
Boston from the low, tlie inhabitants on Broadway, in the . 
neighborhood of Independence square, were deprived of a 
portion of their accustomed supply, so much so as to create 
a genefTal complaint. 

A 6-inch main was laid from the high service on Atlantic 
street, through Broadway, to N street, a distance of 4,321 
feet, which has remedied effectually this trouble. 

A line of 12-inch pipe was laid in the Dorchester district 
through portions of Mi not and Adams streets to Milton 
Lower Mills, and smaller pipes through the principal streets 
in that vicinity. I call your attention to the importance of 
continuing the 12-inch line on Dorchester aveiuie to, and , 
connecting with, the mains at the Lower Mills, thus making a 
second supply. In case of a break, or an alteration, or the 
connection of another pipe with the main as now laid, the 
whole supply from Park street, on Adams street, comprising 
the territories known as Neponset and Milton Lower Mills, 
mny be deprived of water. The line of pipes that was laid 
over Winthrop bridge (double boxed), in place of the first 
line that gave so much trouble, has passed through two 
winters with no trouble whatever. There has been, up to 
date, 21 drinking-fountains, with stone troughs attached, 
established; and, as far as I know, give general satisfaction. 
There are now on hand 6 troughs, which I can set as soon as 
suitable localities are selected. At the Albany-street yard a 
new blacksmith shop has been built, and now nearly all of 
our wrought-iron work and horse-shoeing is done by our 
own workmen. A new engine of 20-horse power has been 
set up in place of the old one, and additional machinery put 
in at our works on Federal street, so that I am able now to 
make all of our 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12-inch stop-valves. 



116 



City Document. — No. 55. 



TAKEN UP OR ABANDONED. 



12-in 


ch pipe 






. 




Numlier of Feet 

18 


9 


( (( 


. 


. 


. 


. 


19 


8 


( (< 










^586 


6 


i n 










17,274 " 


4 


i a 










9,870 


2 
1 


' lead pipe 










19 
26,2 


1 


( (( 










242 . 


1 


' iron 










30 
1,074 


H 


( (( 










. - . 20 



EESERVOIRS CONNECTED. 



1 corner Boston and Cottage street. 

1 Kuggles street, between Halleck and Avon place. 



Report of the Water Board. 



117 



Statement of Location, Size and Number of Feet of Pipe laid in 

1873. 



In what Street. 



Between what Streets. 



a & 



N. Charles 

N. Chai-lcs 

N. Charles 

Boston Common and Joy st, 

Columbus av 

Tremont 

Summer 

Columbus av 

Columbus av 

Brighton av 

Atlantic av 

Berkeley 

Berkeley 

Milk 

Albany 

High 

Dover 

Federal 

Franklin 

Washington 

Water 

Matthews 

Federal 



BOSTON PROPER. 
Pinckney and Cambridge . . . . . 

Leverett and Poplar 

Livingston and Cambridge , . . . 

Tremont and Mt. Vernon 

Berkeley and Boston Common . . 
Mason and School 



Total 16-inch 



Church Green and Washington , 
Berkeley and Albany R. R. . . . 
Berkeley and Clarendon . . . , 

Beacon and St. Mary's 

Fleet and Lewis Wharf 

Columbus av. and St. James av. 
Columbus av. and Tremont • . . 
Pearl and Batterymarch . . . , 
Newton and E. Chester Park . . 

Hartford and Pearl 

Tremont and Albany 

Franklin and Purchase 

Washington and Pearl 

Bedford and Essex 

Congress and Washington . . . 

Congress and Federal 

Purchase and Summer . . . . . 



16 


858 


16 


576 


16 


1,564 


16 


1,688 


16 


2,693 


16 


1,850 



12 


1,114 


12 


420 


12 


344 


12 


2,500 


12 


165 


12 


363 


12 


1,416 


12 


424 


12 


1,236 


12 


192 


12 


2,450 


12 


850 


12 


1,500 


12 


800 


12 


440 


12 


376 


12 


122 



Total 12-inch 



14,712 



118 City Document. — No. 55. 

Statement of Location^ Size^ etc. — Continued. 



In -what Street. 



Charles 

Central wharf . . 
Lewis wharf . . 
"Washington . . . 
Newbury .... 
Montgomery . . 
West Springfield 
East Springfield . 
Worcester . , . 
Purchase .... 
Chauncey . . . 
Tremont .... 
East Chester park 
Hawkins .... 
Central court . . 

Devonshire . . . 
Devonshire . . . 
Devonshire . . . 
Central court . . 

Niles av 

Lewis wharf . . 
Berkeley .... 

High 

Congress .... 
Congress .... 
Washington . . ; 

Otis . 

Arch 



Between what Streets. 



Cambridge and Leverett 

From India 

From Commercial 

Opposite 312 

Clarendon and Dartmouth ... 
Clarendon and Dartmouth . . . , 
Shawmut avenue and Tremont . . 
Harrison avenue and Washington 
Shawmut avenue and Tremont . 

Congress and Federal 

Bedford and Essex , 

School and Boylston 

Harrison av. and Albany .... 

Corner Chardon , 

From Washington 



Total 9-inch 



Milk and State 

Washington and State .... 

Milk and Summer 

From Washington 

From School 

From Atlantic av 

Beacon and Commonwealth av. 

Pearl and Federal 

Milk and Franklin 

Milk and State 

Milk and Summer 

Winthrop sq. and Summer . . 
Franklin and Summer 



Carried forward 



Report of thb Water Board. 



119 



Statement of Location^ Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



Between what Streets. 



S3 



Federal . 

Hawley 

Norfolk place 

Arch 

Essex 

Central wharf 

Water 

Purchase 

Kllby 

Chapman place 

Batterymarch 

Central 

Chauncy 

Hawkins 

Mt. Washington av. . . . . 

Pearl place 

Wendall 

Wharf 

Union Freight R. R 

School 

Hinkley Locomotive Works 

South Market st 

Commonwealth av 

Williams ct 

Lewis wharf 

High 



Brought forward . 
Franklin and Milk . . . 
Summer and Milk . . . 
From Washington . . . 
Milk and Franklin . • . 
Washington and Oxford 

From India 

Kilhy and Congress . . . 
Pearl and Federal . . . 

Milk and State 

From School 

Kilby and Milk 

Kilby and India .... 
Essex and Summer . . . 
Chardon and Sudbury . 



Total 8-iuch , 



Federal and the Bridge . . . 

Pearl and Oliver 

Broad and Oliver 

Broad and India 

Mercantile and Atlantic av. . 
Tremont and Province . . . 
Albany and Harrison av. . . 
Commercial and Atlantic av. 
Exeter and Dartmouth . . . 
Court sq. Washington . . . 

From. Atlantic av 

Summer and Federal . . . . 



Carried forward 



7,547 
489 
800 
280 
495 
515 

2,700 
315 
844 
677 
244 
77 
490 
844 
468 

16,785 

179 
336 
460 
240 
384 
268 
480 
750 
60 
100 
523 
241 

4,021 



120 



City Document. — No. 55. 



Statement of Location^ Size. etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



T wharf 

Sullivan place 

Randolph 

Newbury 

Congress 

Franklin 

Exchange place ...... 

Leather square 

East Brookline 

Gridley 

Oliver 

Hawes 

Union wharf 

Federal and Milton place . 

St. Charles 

State 

For City Hall 

N. Ferry av. Boston side . 
Hinckley Locomotive Wks 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward . , . . 

From Atlantic av 

From Federal 

Albany and Harrison av. . . . 
Clarendon and Dartmouth . . 

Broad and Fi^unkliu 

Hawley and Devonshire . . . 

Congress and Kilby 

Chauning and Matthews . . . 
Harrison av. and Washington 

High and Purchase 

Milk and Franklin 

Congress and Kilby 

From Commercial 

Federal and Federal 



Total 6-inch , 



Chandler and B. & A. R. R. . . 
Devonshire and Cornhill court 
School St. and City Hall . • . 

From Commercial 

From Albany 






Total 4-inch , 



4,021 
779 
150 
84 
320 
806 
136 
295 
275 
428 
270 
100 
100 
612 
550 

8,926 

70 
106 
105 

68 
188 

537 



Eeport of the Water Board. 



121 



Statment of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In -vFnAT Street. 



Between what Streets, 






SOUTH BOSTON. 



Fourth 

M 

M 

H 

Fourth 

Foundry 

Swan 

Fifth 

Thomas 

Thomas 

Third 

Thomas 

First 

Third 

Fourth 

Fifth 

Sixth 

Eighth 

C 

G 

P 

16 



A and B 

Total 20.inch 



Fourth and Broadway 

Third and Broadway . • . . 

Second and Third 

Foundry and Bridge 

Fourth and Swan 

Foundry and Dorchester av 

Dorchester av. through Old Harbor to Thomas 

Telegraph and Atlantic 

Junction of Atlantic 



Total 12-inch 



KandO 

Old Harbor and Atlantic 



Total 9-inch , 



B and C 

O and P 

A and B 

A and B 

O and P 

M and N 

First and Second . . 
Third and Broadway 
Fifth and Sixth . . . 



Carried forward 



31 
31 

328 
296 
150 
400 
300 
637 
3,454 
685 
50 

6,300 

8 
20 

28 

164 
100 
118 
204 
420 
216 
112 
116 
106 

1,556 



122 City Document. — No. 55. 

Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



K 

Dorchester and Broadway- 
Jay 

Knowlton 

Baxter 

Bay State Iron Co. Block 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward 
First and the water . , 

Fourth and N 

Fourth and Fifth . . . 
Eighth and Telegraph 

C and D 

Second and Third . . 



Total 6-inch 



o — 

.is 



1,556 
450 

4,321 
160 
350 
233 
302 

7,3V2 



Eeport of the Water Board. 



123 



Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In avhat Street. 



Between what Streets. 



ft 



Princeton . . . 

Eagle 

Paris 

Paris ..... 

Putnam . . . . 
Putnam . . . . 
Putnam . . . . 
Princeton . . . 
Eagle . . .■ . . 

Paris 

Paris 

North Perry av. 



EAST BOBTOK. 

Prescott and Chelsea 

Knox and Putnam 

Brooks and Marion 

Porter . 



Total 9-inch , 



Trenton and Saratoga . . . 

Bennington and Saratoga , 

Eagle and Trenton . . . . 

Eagle and Prescott . . . . 

Knos and Putnam . . . . 

Brooks and Marion . . . , 

Porter and Marion . . . , 



Total 6-inch , 



Sumner and the Ferry 
Total 4-inch . . . 



212 
280 
315 
280 
150 
580 
780 

2,797 

287 
287 



124 



City Document. — No. 55. 



Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



New Heath .... 

Pynchon 

Centre 

Tremont 

Ruggles 

Norfolk av 

azine 

Brookline av. . . . 
Blue Hill av. . . . 
Ruggles 

Kockland 

Hammond Park . . 



Centre 



■Woodville square 
Alleghany . . . . 

Vale 

Marcella . . . . 
Tremont . . . . 
Wyman place . . 
Highland . . . . 
Halleck 



Between what Streets. 



BOSTON HIGHLANDS. 

Tremont and Day 

New Heath and Centre 

Old Heath and Lamartine 

Francis and Brookline av 

Tremont and Halleck 

Magazine and N. T. and N. E. R. R. Bridge , 

Norfolk av. and George 

Burlington and Beacon 

Stafford and Woodbine 

Tremont and Roger av 



Total 12-inch 



"Warren and Rockland av. . 
Shawmut av. and Warwick 



Total 9-inch , 



Highland and New Heath 
Total 8-inch . . . . , 



Dennis and Blue Hill av 

From Parker 

Marcella and Marcella 

Highland and Centre 

Providence R. R. crossing and Parker 

From Centre 

Marcella and Centre 

Prentiss and Station 



Carried forward 





o 


12 


678 


12 


774 


12 


488 


12 


2,354 


12 


528 


12 


1,019 


12 


274 


12 


33 


12 


815 


12 


529 



7,490 



25 



475 
693 
29 
701 
600 
157 
813 
499 

3,967 



Eeport of the Water Eoard. 



125 



Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Stkeet. 



Regent 

Rockland . . . . 
Rockland court . 
Woodward av. . 
Clarence . . . . 

Rand 

"Wigglesworth . 
Columbus . . . . 

New 

Dennis 

Blckford . . . . 
Faxon place . . . 
Bhawmut av. . . 

Taber 

Sumner place . . 
Greenwich . . . 
King street court 

Gerard 

Gerard . . . . , 

Howard 

Tupelo 

Alpine 

Bromley . . . . 

Albert 

Fountain . . . . 
Woodbine . . . 

Court 

Phoenix place . . 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward . . . . 

Circuit and Akron 

Warren and Walnut av. . . . 

From Rockland 

Dudley and George 

Dudley and George 

Blue Hill av. and Blue Hill av. 
Tremont and Longwood av. . 
Tremont and Longwood av. . 

From Norfolk av 

Dudley and Stafford 

Bromley park and Centime . . . 

From Tremont 

Washington and Dudley . . . 

From Winslow 

From Cabot 

Westminster and Warwick • . 

From King 

Norfolk av. and Howard . . , 

Swett and Island 

Gerard and Magazine 

Savin andQuincy 

Regent and Akron 

Old Heath and Bromley park . 
Old Heath and Bromley park . 

Regent and Circuit 

Blue Hill av. and Warren . . . 

From Copeland 

From Hampden 



Total 6-inch , 



.25 



3,967 



6 


559 


6 


145 


6 


192 


6 


710 


6 


169 


6 


740 


6 


663 


6 


308 


6 


696 


6 


90 


6 


258 


6 


203 


6 


168 


6 


221 


6 


136 


6 


125 


6 


184 


6 


26 


6 


97 


6 


175 


6 


686 


6 


246 


6 


294 


6 


478 


6 


239 


6 


201 


6 


170 



12,757 



126 



City Document. — No. 55. 



Statement of Location^ Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



Codman park . . 
Hunneman court 
Tremont . . . . 
Norfolk av. . . . 
G-rosvenor place . 
Burlington av. . 
Tremont place . 

Ruggles 

Prescott 



Between what Streets. 



From Townsend 

From Harrison av 

Brookline line and Downer 
Magazine and Franklin . . 

From Cliff 

From Brookline av 

From Tremont 

Avon pi. and Halleck . . . 
Eustis and Hampden . . . 



Total 4-incli , 



.£P4 
R 


CD 


4 


381 


4 


23 


4 


67 


4 


25 


4 


68 


4 


345 


4 


331 


4 


15 


4 


25 



1,280 



Report of the Water Board. 

Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



127 



In what Stkeet. 



Harvard . . 
Ashmont . . 
Dorchester av. 
Codmaa . , . 
Columbia . . 
Washington 
Minot . . . 
Adams . . . 
Cottage . • . 
Cottage . . . 
River .... 
Dorchester av. 
"Washington . 
Adams . . . 

Thornley . . 
Forest Hill av. 
Temple . . . 
Richmond pi. 
Ceylon . . . 
Glenway av. 
Washington . 
Cottage . . . 

Richmond . . 
Banford . . . 
Washington . 



Between what Streets. 



DORCHESTER. 
Washington and School .... 
Dorchester av. and Carruth . . 

Centre and Codman 

Washington and Adams . . . 
Washington and Stanwood av. 
Norfolk and Welles ave. . . . 

Glide and Adams 

Minot and Dorchester av. . . . 
Boston and Humphrey .... 
Franklin and Humphrey . . . 
Washington and Cedar .... 
Washington and Richmond . . 
Dorchester av. and Codman . . 
King and Oak av 



Total 12-inoh 



Dorchester av. and Pleasant . . . . 

From River , 

River and Sanford 

From Washington , 

Bird and Quinoy , 

From Savin Hill av 

Dorchester av. and Milton Bridge . 
Franklin and Stoughton 



Total 9-inch , 



Dorchester av. and Adams . 
Washington and Cedar ... 
Dorchester av. Milton Bridge . 

Total 8-inch 



MM 






12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
11 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 



242 
632 

5,080 
96 

1,109 
308 
945 

5,901 

1,124 
131 

1,026 
70 

1,998 

2,220 

20,882 

12 

22 

8 

7 

10 

9 

11 

41 

120 

1,662 

1,425 

341 

3,428 



128 



City Document. — No. 55. 



Statement of Location^ Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



Exchange . . 
Buttonwood 
School . . . 
Park .... 
King .... 
Wood ct. . . 
Alexander av. 
Bailey . . . 
Fuller. . . . 
Argyle . . . 
Beal .... 
Van Winkle . 
Milton . . . 
Carruth . . . 
Humphrey . 
Baker pi. . . 
Green .... 
Thornley . . 
Butter . . . 
Glenwayav. . 
Richmond . . 
Grant pi. . . 
Forest Hill av, 
Temple . . . 
Merrill . . . 
Richmond pi. 
Everett av. . 
Taylor . . . 
Tileston pi. . 



Between what Streets. 



From Elm 

Slielburn and Garden 

Washington and Harvard . . . . 

Adams and Clayton 

Adams and Dorchester av. . . . 

Walnut and Wood 

From Stoughton ... • . • . . 
Dorchester av. and Washington 
Dorchester av. and Washington 
Dorchester av. and Ashmont . . 
Dorchester av. and Carruth . . . 
Dorchester av. and Carruth . . . 

Adams and Granite 

Ashmont and Van Winkle . . . 
Cottage and Humphrey pi. . . . 

From Bird 

Bowdoin and Geneva • 

Dorchester av. and Pleasant . . 

Richmond and Adams 

From Savin Hill av 

Dorchester av. and Washington . 

From Washington 

From River 

From River , 

Erie av. and New Seaver . . . . 

From Washington 

From Stoughton 

Franklin and Oakman pi 

From Neponset av 



ft 



Carried forward 



Eeport of the Water Board. 129 

Statement of Locating Size^ etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



New 

Ceylon 

Cottage 

Doi'chester av. . . . . 

Adams 

Cottage 

Cedar Grove Cemetery 



Between what Streets, 



Brought forward . 
From Tileston pi. ... . 
Bird and Quincy . . . , 
Franklin and Stougbton , 



Total 6-inch , 



King and Welles av. . 
Minot and Granite . . 
Boston and Humphrey 
From Milton 



Total 4-inch , 






12,991 

348 

265 

1,736 



15,340 



4 


15 


4 


50 


4 


32 


4 


416 



17 



130 



City Document. — No. 55. 





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Report of the Water Board. 



133 



Repairs of Pipes during the Year 1873. 





Diameter of Pipes in Inches. 


Wheke. 


40 
2 


36 
5 


30 
4 


24 
1 


20 

1 
11 

12 


16 

1 

12 
13 


12 

15 
2 

5 

1 
1 

24 


10 

2 
2 


6 

27 
6 
4 
3 
2 

42 


4 

35 
1 

2 
8 

4fi 


3 

2 

3 




2 
5 

5 


1| 
82 

82 


1| 
5 

5 


1 

27 
3 
1 
1 

32 


1 
5 
1 

6 


B 

639 
151 

39 

77 

3 

909 


24 

1 
1 
6 

32 


Totals. 




879 


South Boston 


165 
66 


Boston Highlands 

Dorchester 


2 


5 


4 


2 
3 


113 
6 


Totals 


1 229 




1 







Of the leaks that have occurred in pipes of 4 inches 
and upwards, joints, 119 ; settling of earth, 13 ; de- 
fective pipe, 13 ; defective gate, 3 ; blasting, 1 ; 
concussion of fulling walls, 2. Total, . . . 151 

Stoppages by frost, 1 ; fish, 1. "... 2 

Of 3 inch and on service pipes, joints, 9 ; settling 
of earth, 184 ; settling of wall, 5 ; settling of 
drain, 1 ; defective pipe, 57; defective packing, 
15; defective coupling, 10; defective faucet, 11; 
stiff connections, 82; faucet loose at main, 2; 
struck by pick, 40 ; faucet pulled out, 8; gnawed 
by rats, 7 ; frost, 4 ; blasting, 26 ; burnt by parties 
trying to thaw, 1 ; pipes not in use, 5 ; cut by par- 
ties unknown, 1, . . . . . . 468 

Stoppages by fish, 394 ; rust, 150 ; gasket, 15 ; solder, 

1 ; dirt, 6 ; frost from inside house, 42, . . 608 

Total, . . . 1,229 



134 



City Document. — No 55. 



Statement of Number of Leaks, 1850-1873. 



Year. 



1850 
1851 

1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 



Diameter of. 



Four Inches and 
upwards. 



85 
74 
75 
75 
85 
77 
82 
134 
109 
117 
97 
95 
111 
139 
122 
82 
82 
157 
185 
188 
153 



Less than Four 
Inches. 



72 
173 
241 
260 
280 
219 
232 
278 
324 
449 
458 
399 
373 
397 
394 
496 
536 
487 
449 
407 
769 
1,380 
1,459 
1,076 



104 
237 
323 
345 
354 
294 
307 
383 
401 
531 
592 
508 
490 
494 
489 
607 
675 
609 
531 
489 
926 
1,565 
1,647 
1,229 



Kepokt of the Water Board. 



135 



HYDRANTS. 
During the year 426 hydrants have been established and 
93 abandoned, as follows : — 





Lowry. Boston. 


Abandoned. 
Lowry. Boston. 






In Boston proper 


178+ 3=181 


1+82=83 


98 


South Bostou 


16+ 1= 17 


— 5 


12 


East Boston 


11+ 1= 12 


— 2 


10 


Boston Hisfhlands 


73+ 9= 82 


1+ 1= 2 


80 


Dorchester 


133+ 1 = 


134 


— 1 

— 93= 


133 




426 


= 333 


Total Wamher of Hydrants ujp to 


May 1, 1874. 




Boston Proper, . 




. 


1,191 


South Boston, 












405 


East Boston, 












243 


Boston Highlands, 












648 


Dorchester, 












453 


Brookline, . 












9 


Charlestowu, 












11 


Chelsea, 












8 


Deer Island , 


• 










14 



2,982 

62 hydrants have been taken out and replaced by new, or 
repaired ones, and 174 boxes have been taken out and re- 
placed by new ones. The hydrants have had the usual 
attention paid them. 

STOPCOCKS. 

356 new stockcocks have been established this year. 31 
boxes have been taken out and replaced by new ones. All 
the stopcocks have had the attention of former years paid them. 



136 



City Document. — No. 55. 



Statement of Pipes and other stock on hand, exclusive of Tools, 
May 1st, 1874. 





Diameter in Inches. 




48 


40 
14 

2 
6 
1 
4 
2 
2 
3 

1 

2 

2 
1 

1 


36 

13 
3 

2 
4 
1 
15 
4 
5 
3 

3 

2 

4 
2 

1 


30 

76 

1 
2 
8 
2 
12 
14 
2 

17 
10 

1 

10 
2 

3 


24 

277 
4 
1 

12 
9 
3 

11 

2 
2 

■4 
3 

4 
3 

s 


20 1 
19 

4 . 
11 . 

5 

4 

1 
8 
3 

4 
11 

5 


3 16 
3 277 

1 

17 
10 

2 
12 

5 
1 2 

3 

5 
5 

8 

1 
1 

3 


12 

376 
19 

26 
79 

2 
15 

1 
38 
20 

9 
8 

1 

5 

39 
4 

6 
10 


10 
51 

4 

16 

2 
6 


9 
111 

127 
15 


8 


6 


4 
358 

1 

4 
32 
23 
11 
37 

8 

2 
56 

2 

10 
4 

6 
12 

9 
28 
17 


3 
41 

8 

6 
9 

4 
16 


2 




416 

23 
28 

31 

18 
39 

18 
5 

26 
4 

2 
40 


3,566 

1 

14 
44 

26 
19 
17 
27 

4 
17 

7 

11 
12 

3 

26 

1 

16 
35 




Blow-off' Branches . . 

y Branches 

4 Way Branches . . . 
3 Way Branches . . . 

Flange Pipe 

Sleeves 

Clamp Sleeves .... 


5 


10 


Reducers 

Bevel Hubs 

Curve Pipes 

Quarter Turns .... 

Double Hubs 

Offset Pipes 

Yoke Pipe 

Manhole Pipes .... 
One-eighth Turns . . . 
Pieces of Pipes .... 
Blow-offs and Manholes 

Plugs 

Thawing Clamps . . . 




4 













Eeport of the Water Board. 137 

Hydrants. — 249 Lowry, 24 Lowry extensions, 8 Lowry 
chucks, 141 Lowry frame and covers, 23 Lowry caps, 12 
round covers, 15 Wilmarth, 6 wharf hydrants. 

For Hydrants. — 15 bends, 48 lengtheners, 37 wastes, 
44 nipples, 13 socl^et nuts, 71 rods, 15 wharf hydrant cocks, 
24 nuts, 39 stuffing boxes, 30 rubber valves, 19 screws, 174 
frames, 190 covers, 8,558 lbs. iron castings, 20 pairs straps, 
10 lbs. Babbitt metal. 

For Stopcocks. — 1 16-iuch check valve, 55 valves for 12- 
inch gates, 3 6-inch do., 5 3-inch do., 39 12-inch screws, 
9 8-inch do., 3 6-inch do., 5 4-inch do., 9 3-inch do., 55 
rings for 12-inch gates, 14 do. for 8-inch, 23 do. for 6-inch, 
7 do. for 4-inch, 12,524 lbs. iron castings for 12-inch, 8-inch, 
6-inch and 4-inch gates, 80 frames, 75 covers, 100 lbs. mai- 
lable iron nuts, 1,200 lbs. bolts, 1 36-inch screw, 1 30-inch 
do., 1 24-inch do. 

Meters in Shop. — 5 3-inch, 4 2-inch, 2 1-inch, 130| inch. 

Stock for Meters. — 14 2-inch nipples, 56| inch do., 4 
2-inch connection pieces, 7 1-inch do., 17|-inch do., 31 1-inch 
cocks, 18 |-inch do., 1 4-inch clock, 3 3-inch do., 2 2-inch 
do., 4 1-inch do., 20 -|-inch do., 90 brass spindles, 30 rubber 
nipples, 9 fish-boxes, 30 covers, 20 glasses, 50 composition 
nipples unfinished. 

For Service Pipe. — 51 1-inch union cocks, 71 ^-inch do., 
259 |-inch ditto, 101 ^-inch do., 18 1-inch air cocks, 27 
-|-inch do., 48 li-inch T cocks, 20 |-inch do., 15 |-inch Y 
do., 60 |-inch thawing cocks, 18 1^-inch tubes, 105 1-inch 
do., 452 f-inch do., 98 f-inch do., 21 l-inch do., 79 1^-inch 
nuts, 112 1-inch do., 12 2-inch couplings, 117 1-inch do., 
90 |-inch do., 1,285 |-inch do., 158 |-inch do., 40 |-inch 
thawing tubes, 500 boxes, 25 T do., 24 Y do., 90 extension 
tubes, 800 tubes, 800 caps, 674 lbs. unfinished composition 
castings, 2 4x2 composition reducers, 5 3x2 do., 4 4x3 
do., 3 3X2| do., 2. 4X2 2 way do., 42 2x|-inch do., 6 

18 



138 City Document. — No. 55. 

2-inch hose nozzles, 3 4-inch tunnel pipe, 150 1-inch plugs, 70 
|-inch do., 112 |-inch do. 

Lead Pi;pe. — 280 lbs. 3-inch pipe, 2,434 lbs. 2-inch do., 
2,640 lbs. l|-inch do., 3,290 lbs. l^-inch do., 1,512 lbs. 
1-inch do., 1,749 lbs. f-inch do., 7,184 lbs. |-inch do., 7,918 
lbs. 1-inch, 1,466 lbs. 1-inch tin lined do., 995 lbs. ^-inch 
do., 198 lbs. finch block tin pipe, 25 lbs. solder, 25 lbs. 
sheet lead, 1 pig banca tin. 

Blacksmith Shop. — 917 pounds round iron, 479 lbs. flat 
iron, 322 lbs. square iron, 400 lbs. working pieces, 1,423 
lbs. cast-steel, 115 pick blanks, 5,000 lbs. Cumberland coal. 

Gaiyenter's Shop. — 108 Lowry hydrant boxes, 30 do. 
unfinished, 253 stopcock boxes, 23 unfinished do., 48 hydrant 
boxes, 6 unfinished do., 1,050 lbs. spikes and nails, 34,500 
feet 2-inch spruce plank, 1,250 feet ll-inch spruce batting, 
40 1-inch pieces for raising boxes, 40 1 foot pieces, 20 1 foot 
do. for stopcock boxes, 32 do, for Lowry hydrant boxes, 
40 feet hard wood plank, 160 feet hard pine floor boards, 
400 feet pine boards. 

Tools. — 1 steam engine, 1 large hoisting crane, 3 boom 
derricks, 7 hand-geared derricks, 5 set shears and rigging 
for same, 7 tool houses, 3 tool boxes, 2 platform scales, 1 
portable blacksmith shop, 1 portable covering for Brewer 
fountain, 1 hand roller, 1 horse do., tools for laying main 
and service pipes, 2 engine lathes, 1 foot do., 1 hand do., 1 
Pratt and Whitney taper do., 1 planer, 1 boring mill, 1 chain- 
hoisting gear, 1 upright drilling machine, 3 grindstones, 1 
trip hammer, the necessary tools for carrying on the machine, 
blacksmith, carpenter and plumbing shop, 1 circular saw, 1 
fan-blower, 1 40-inch proving press, 1 36-inch inch do., 1 
small do., 5 wheelbarrows, 1,200 feet hose, also a lot of 
patterns where we obtain castings. 

Stable. — 14 horses, 10 wagons, 3 buggies, 6 pungs, 1 
sled, 1 cart, 16 sets harness, 23 blankets, 2 bufijilo robes, 2 
sleighs, 3 tons English hay, 125 bushels grain, 3 tons straw. 



J 



Eeport of the Water Board. 139 

Beacon Hill Reservoir. — 1 large composition cylinder 16- 
inch jet, 1 6-inch composition jet, 3 composition plates, 9 
cast-iron plates, 2 4-inch composition jets, 5 swivel pipe 
patterns, 1 2-inch copper straight jet, 6 composition jets for 
small fountains. 

Miscellaneous. — 9 tons pig lead, 25 gallons linseed oil, 1^ 
barrels kerosene oil, 28 tons furnace coal, 3 freights gravel, 
2,000 paving brick, 325 lbs. lead washers, lot of paving 
stones, 44 reservoir covers, 62 cords wood, 11 manholes, 6 
plates, lot of old lumber, 1 iron fountain basin, 7 stone 
troughs for drinking fountains, 1 drinking fountain, 7 lbs. 
sheet copper, 46 bales gasket. 

E. R. JONES, 

Sup't Eastern Division » 



CIYIL OEGANIZATION OF THE WATEE WOEKS EEOM 
THEIE COMMENCEMENT, TO MAY 1, 1874. 



Water Commissioners. 

Nathan Hale, James F. Baldwin, Thomas B. Curtis. From 

May 4, 1846, to January 4, 1850. 



Engineers for Construction. 

John B. Jervis, of New York, Consulting Engineer, From May, 
1846, to November, 1848. 

E. S. Chesbrough, Chief Engineer of tlie Western Division. From 
May, 1846, to January 4, 1850. 

William S. Whitwell, Chief Engineer of the Eastern Division. 
From May, 1846, to Januaryj4, 1850. 



City Engineers having charge of the Works. 

E. S. Chesbrough, Engineer. From November 18, 1850, to Octo- 
ber 1, 1855. 

George H. Bailey, Assistant Engineer. From January 27, 1851, to 

July 19, 1852. 

H. S. MoKean, Assistant Engineer. From July 19, 1852, to October 
1, 1855. 

James Slade, Engineer. From October 1, 1855, to April 1, 1863. 

N. Henry Crafts, Assistant Engineer. From October 1, 1855, to 
April 1, 1863. 

N. Henry Crafts, City Engineer. From April 1, 1863, to Novem- 
ber 25, 1872. 



Report of the Water Board. 141 

Thomas W. Davis, Assistant Engineer. From April 1, 1863, to De- 
cember 8, 1866. 

Henry M. Wightman, Resident Engineer at C. H. Reservoir. From 
February 14, 1866, to November, 1870. 

Joseph P. Davis, City Engineer. From November 25, 1872, to 
present time. 

After January 4, 1850, Messrs. E. S. Chesbeough, W. S. Whit- 
well, and J. AvEEY Richards, were elected a Water Board, subject 
to the direction of a Joint Standing Committee of the City Council, by 
an ordinance passed December 31, 1849, which was limited to keep in 
force one year ; and in 1851 the Cochituate Water Board was estab- 
lished. 



COCHITUATE WATER BOARD. 



Presidents of the Board. 

Thomas Wetmore, elected in 1851, and resigned April 

7, 1856 * * Five years. 

John H. Wilkins, elected in 1856, and resigned June 

5, 1860 * * Four years. 

Ebenezer Johnson, elected in 1860, term expired April 

3, 1865 Five years. 

Otis Noeicross, elected in 1865, and resigned January 

15, 1867 One year and nine months. 

John H. Thorndike elected in 1867, term expired April 

6, 1868 One year and three months. 

Nathaniel J. Bradlee, elected April 6, 1868, and re- 
signed January 4, 1871 . . Two years and nine months. 

Charles H. Allen, elected from January 4, 1871, to 

May 4, 1873 .... Two years and four months. 

John A. Haven, elected from May 4, 1873, to present time. 



142 



CiTT Document. — No 55. 



Members of tlie Board. 

Thomas Wetmore, 1851, 52, 53, 54 and 55 * * 

John H. Wilkins, 1851, 52, 53, * 56, 57, 58 and 59 * * 

Henry B. Rogers, 1851, 52, 53, * 54 and 55 

Jonathan Preston, 1851, 52, 53 and 56 

James W. Sever, 1851 * * . 

Samuel A. Eliot, 1851 * * 

John T. Heard, 1851 . . . , 

Adam W. Thaxter, Jr., 1852, 53, 54 and 55 

Sampson Reed, 1852 and 1853 

Ezra Lincoln, 1852 * * . 

Thomas Sprague, 1853, 54 and 55 * * . 

Samuel Hatch, 1854, 55, 56, 57, 58 and 61 

Charles Stoddard, 1854, 55, 56 and 57 * 

William Washburn, 1854 and 55 

TiSDALE Drake, 1856, 57, 58 and 59 * * 

Thomas P. Rich, 1856, 57 and 58 

John T. Dinglet, 1856 and 59 

Joseph Smith, 1856 .... 

Ebenezer Johnson, 1857, 58, 69, 60, 61, 62, 63 and 64 

Samuel Hall, 1857, 58, 69, 60 and 61 * * 

George P. French, 1859, 60, 61, 62 and 63 

Ebenezer Atkins, 1859 * * , 

George Dennie, 1860, 61, 62, 63, 64 and 66 

Clement Willis, 1860 * * 

G. E. Pierce, 1860 * * 

Jabez Frederick, 1861, 62 and 63 * * 

George Hinman, 1862 and 63 

John F. Pray, 1862 

J. C. J. Brown, 1862 

Jonas Fitch, 1864, 66 and 66 

Otis Norcross, * 1865 and 66 

L. Miles Standish, 1860, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66 and 67 

John H. Thorndike, 1864, 65, 66 and 67 

Benjamin F. Stevens, 1866, 67 and 68 

William S. Hills, 1867 

Charles R. Train, 1868 

Joseph M, Wightman, 1868 and 69 

Benjamin James,* 1858, 68 and 69 , 

Francis A. Osborn, 1869 

Walter E. Hawes, 1870 



Five years. 
Eight j'ears. 

Five years. 

Four years. 

One year. 

One year. 

Four years. 

Two years. 

One year. 

Tliree years. 

Six years. 

Four years. 

Two years. 

Four years. 

Tliree years. 

Two years. 

Two months. 

Eight years. 

Five years. 

Five years. 

One yeai. 

Six years. 

One year. 

One .year. 

Three years. 

Two years. 

One year. 

One year. 

Three years. 

Two years. 

Seven years. 

Four years. 

Three years. 

One year. 

One year. 

Two years. 

Three years. 

One year. 

One year. 



Report or the Watee Board. ^ 143 

John O. Poor, 1870 . • One year. 

HoLLis R. Gray, 1870 One year. 

Nathaniel J. Bradlee, 1863, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 

70 and 71 Nine years. 

George Lewis, 1868, 69, 70 and 71 .... Four years. 

Sidney Squires, 1871 One year. 

Amos L. Noyes, 1871, 72 Two years. 

Charles H. Hersey, 1872 One year. 

Charles H. Allen, 1869, 70, 71 and 72 . . . . Four years. 
Alexander Wadsworth* 1864,65, 66, 67, 68, 69 and 72, Seven years. 

Jno. a. Haven, 1870, 71, 72, 73 and 74 . 
Edward A. White, 1872, 73 and 74 . 
Charles R. McLean, 1867, 73 and 74 . 

Thomas Gogin, 1873 and 74 \- Present Board. 

Leonard R. Cutter, 1871, 72, 73 and 74 

Edward P. Wilbur, 1873 and 74 . . . . \ 

Wm. G. Thacher, 1873 and 74 . . . . j 

*Mr. John H. Wilkins resigned Nov. 15, 1854, and Charles Stoddard was 
elected to fill the vacancy. * Mr. Henry B. Rogers resigned Oct. 22, 1865. 
Mr. Wilkins was re-elected Feb., 1856, and chosen President of the Board, 
which office he held until his resignation on June 5, 1860, when Mr. Ebenezer 
Johnson was elected President, and on July 2, Mr.L. Miles Standish was elected 
to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Mr. Wilkins. Otis Nor- 
cross resigned Jan. 15, 1867, having been elected Mayor of the city. Ben- 
jamin James served one year, in 1858, and was re-elected in 1868. Alexander 
Wadsworth served six years, 1864-69, and was re-elected in 1872. 

* * Deceased. 



COCHITUATE water board, 1874. 



John A. Haven, President. 

Leonard R. Cutter, of the Board of Aldermen. 

Edward P. Wilbur, ^ 

> Of the Common Council. 
Wm. G. Thacher, S 



144 City Document. — No. 55. 

AT LARGE. 

For One Year. 

* John A. Haven, Charles R. McLean, 

* Edward A. White, Thomas Gogin. 

Clerk. 
Ezra Perkins. 

Superiiitendent of the Eastern Division. 
Ezekiel R. Jones. 

Superintendent of the Western Division. 
Desmond Fitzgerald. 

Water Registrar. 
William F. Davis. 

City Engineer. 
Joseph P. Davis, 

* Holding over according to city ordinance, no election having taken place. 



STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE BOARD. 



Eastern Division. 

Edward A. White, Chairrafin, 

Edward P. Wilbur, Thos. Gogin. 

Western Division. 

Chas. R. McLean, Chairman. 

Leonard R. Cutter, Wm. G. Thacher. 

Water Registrar''s Department. 

Thomas Gogin, Chairman. 

Wm. G. Thacher, Edward P. Wilbur. 

On Neto Sup>ply. 

John A. Haven, Chairman. 

Edward A. White, Chas. R. McLean, 



1 



B^ P. L, Binde, 



SHELF No. 



t., 1882, 

OST( 

e volun 
; to be 1 
uvenile 
be re 
, who w 
ding 8u 
Dwer's 
ned at t 
rrowers 
ed, are 
n the de 
^No clai 
notice, t 

e record 


20,000,] 

m PUBLIC LIBRAET, 

le allowed at a time, and obtained only by 
jept 14 days (or seven days in the case of fiction 
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aewed; to be reclaimed by messenger after 21 
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ndays and holidays; not to be lent out of the 
liousehold, and not to be transferred; to be 
his Hall. 

finding this book mutilated or unwarrantably 
expected to report it; and also any undue de- 
ivery of books. 

m can be established because of the failure of 
J or from the Library, through the mail. 


Mm must not De made or altered Dy Borrower. 

















































































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